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BL1411.J3 A13 v.l 

J/ataka : or stories 
of the Buddha's former 




aoniJon; C. J. CLAY AND SONS, 



Olassoto: 263, ARGYLE STREET. 

ILtijjjio: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 
i^eto gorfe: MACMILLAN AND CO. 

(from Cunningham, PI. xlv, 5.) 














[.■1// Bi(ihts reserved.] 




It was an almost isolated incident in Greek literary history \ 
when Pythagoras claimed to remember his previous lives. Heracleides 
Ponticus relates that he professed to have been once born as ^tha- 
lides, the son of Hermes, and to have then obtained as a boon from 
his father ^covra koI reXevrcopTa /u,v7]fir]v e^€Lv twv av/^^aivovrcov^. 
Consequently he remembered the Trojan war, where, as Euphorbus, 
he was wounded by Menelaus, and, as Pythagoras, he could still 
recognise the shield which Menelaus had hung up in the temple of 
Apollo at Branchidse ; and similarly he remembered his subsequent 
birth as Hermotimus, and then as Pyrrhus, a fisherman of Delos. 
But in India this recollection of previous lives is a common feature 
in the histories of the saints and heroes of sacred tradition ; and it is 
especially mentioned by Manu^ as the effect of a self-denying and 
pious life. The doctrine of Metempsychosis, since the later Vedic 
period, has played such an important part in the history of the 
national character and religious ideas that we need not be surprised 
to find that Buddhist literature from the earliest times (although 
giving a theory of its own to explain the transmigration) has always 
included the ages of the past as an authentic background to the 
founder's historical life as Gautama. Jataka legends occur even in 
the Canonical Pitakas; thus the Sukha-vihari Jataka and the 
Tittira Jataka, which are respectively the 10th and the 37th in this 
volume, are found in the CuUa Vagga, vii. 1 and vi. 6, and similarly 
the Khandhavatta Jataka, which will be given in the next volume, is 
found in the CuUa Vagga v. 6 ; and there are several other examples. 
So too one of the minor books of the Sutta Pitaka (the Cariya 
Pitaka) consists of 35 Jatakas told in verse; and ten at least 

1 But compare the account of Aristeas of Proconnesus in Hdt. iv. 14, 15. 
" Diogenes Laert. viii. 1. 
» iv. 118. 

vi Preface. 

of these can be identified in the volumes of our present collection 
already published ; and probably several of the others will be traced 
when it is all printed. The Sutta and Vinaya Pitakas are generally 
accepted as at least older than the Council of Vesali (380 B.C. ?); 
and thus Jataka legends must have been always recognised in 
Buddhist literature. 

This conclusion is confirmed by the fact that Jataka scenes are 
found sculptured in the carvings on the railings round the relic 
shrines of Sanchi and Amaravati and especially those of Bharhut^ 
where the titles of several Jatakas are clearly inscribed over 
some of the carvings. These bas-reliefs prove that the birth- 
legends were widely known in the third century B.C. and were then 
cousidered as part of the sacred history of the religion. Fah-hian, 
when he visited Ceylon, (400 A.D.), saw at Abhayagiri " representa- 
tions of the 500 bodily forms which the Bodhisatta assumed during 
his successive births'V' and he particularly mentions his births as 
Sou-ta-nou, a bright flash of light, the king of the elephants, and an 
antelope*. These legends were also continually introduced into the 
religious discourses* which were delivered by the various teachers in 
the course of their wanderings, whether to magnify the glory of the 
Buddha or to illustrate Buddhist doctrines and precepts by appropriate 
examples, somewhat in the same way as mediaeval preachers in 
Europe used to enliven their sermons by introducing fables and 
popular tales to rouse the flagging attention of their hearers ^ 

It is quite uncertain when these various birth-stories were put 
together in a systematic form such as we find in our present Jataka 
collection. At first they were probably handed down orally, but 
their growing popularity would ensure that their kernel, at any rate, 
would ere long be committed to some more permanent form. In 
fact there is a singular parallel to this in the ' Gesta Romanorum ', 
which was compiled by an uncertain author in the 14th century and 
contains nearly 200 fables and stories told to illustrate various 
virtues and vices, many of them winding up with a religious 

^ One of these is given as the frontispiece to this volume, see No. 46. 

- Beal's tiausl. p. 157. 

^ Hiouen-thsang twice refers to Jatakas, Julien, i. 137, 197. 

■• See Prof. M. M. Kunte's paper, Journ. R. A. S. Ceylon, viii. 123. 

5 In the curious description of the Buddhist grove in the Harsha-carita, viii., 
Bana mentions owls "which repeated the Bodhisattva's Jatakas, having gained 
illumination by continually hearing them recited." 

Preface. vii 

Some of the birth-stories are evidently Buddhistic and entirely 
depend for their point on some custom or idea peculiar to Buddhism ; 
but many are pieces of folk-lore which have floated about the world 
for ages as the stray waifs of literature and are liable everywhere to 
be appropriated by any casual claimant. The same stories may thus, 
in the course of their long wanderings, come to be recognised under 
widely different aspects, as when they are used by Boccaccio or Poggio 
merely as merry tales, or by some Welsh bard to embellish king 
Arthur's legendary glories, or by some Buddhist samana or mediaeval 
friar to add point to his discourse. Chaucer unwittingly puts a 
Jataka story into the mouth of his Pardonere when he tells his tale 
of ' the ryotoures three ' ; and another appears in Herodotus as the 
popular explanation of the sudden rise of the Alcmajonidge through 
Megacles' marriage with Cleisthenes' daughter and the rejection of 
his rival Hippocleides. 

The Pali work, entitled ' the Jataka ', the first volume of which 
is now presented to the reader in an English form, contains 550 
.fatakas or Birth-stories, which are arranged in 22 nipatas or books. 
This division is roughly founded on the number of verses (gathas) 
which are quoted in each story ; thus the first book contains 
150 stories, each of which only quotes one verse, the second 100, each 
of which quotes two, the third and fourth 50 each, which respectively 
quote 3 and 4, and so on to the twenty-first with 5 stories, each of 
which quotes 80 verses, and the twenty-second with 10 stories, each 
quoting a still larger number. Each story opens with a preface 
called the pacciippannavatthu or 'story of the present', which relates 
the particular circumstances in the Buddha's life which led him to 
tell the birth-story and thus reveal some event in the long series 
of his previous existences as a bodhisatta or a being destined to attain 
Buddha-ship. At the end there is always given a short summary, 
where the Buddha identifies the different actors in the story in their 
present births at the time of his discourse, — it being an essential 
condition of the book that the Buddha possesses the same power as 
that which Pythagoras claimed but with a far more extensive range, 
since he could remember all the past events in every being's previous 
existences as well as in his own. Every story is also illustrated by 
one or more gathas which are uttered by the Buddha while still a 
Bodhisatta and so playing his part in the narrative ; but sometimes 
the verses are put into his mouth as the Buddha, when they are 
called abhisamhuddha-gatha. 

viii Preface. 

Some of these stanzas are found in the canonical book called the 
Dhammapada ; and many of the Jataka stories are given in the old 
Commentary on that book but with varying details, and sometimes 
associated with verses which are not given in our present Jataka 
text. Tliis might seem to imply that there is not necessarily a strict 
connexion between any particular story and the verses which may 
be quoted as its moral ; but in most cases an apposite stanza would 
of course soon assert a prescriptive right to any narrative which 
it seemed specially to illustrate. The language of the gathas is 
much more archaic than that of the stories ; and it certainly seems 
more probable to suppose that they are the older kernel of the work, 
and that thus in its original form the Jataka, like the Cariya-pitaka, 
consisted only of these verses. It is quite true that they are 
generally unintelligible without the story, but such is continually the 
case with proverbial sayings ; the traditional commentary passes by 
word of mouth in a varying form along with the adage, as in the 
well-known ov (ppovrU 'WTroKXeiSj} or our own ' Hobson's choice', 
until some author writes it down in a crystallised form\ Occasionally 
the same birth-story is repeated elsewhere in a somewhat varied 
form and with different verses attached to it ; and we sometimes find 
the phrase iti vitthdretabbam^, which seems to imply that the narrator 
is to amplify the details at his discretion. 

The native tradition in Ceylon is that the original Jataka Book 
consisted of the gdthds alone, and that a commentary on these, 
containing the stories which they were intended to illustrate, was 
written in very early times in Singhalese. This was translated 
into Pali about 430 A.u. by Buddhaghosa, who translated so many 
of the early Singhalese commentaries into Pali; and after this the 
Singhalese original was lost. The accuracy of this tradition has 
been discussed by Professor Rhys Davids in the Introduction to 
the first volume of his 'Buddhist Birth Stories ''; and we may 
safely adopt his conclusion, that if the prose commentary was 
not composed by Buddhaghosa, it was composed not long after- 
wards ; and as in any case it was merely a redaction of materials 

1 We have an interesting illustration of the proverbial character of some of the 
Jataka stories in the Saiikhya Aphorisms, iv. 11, "he who is without hoiie is happy 
like Pingala," which finds its explanation in Jat. 330. It is also referred to in the 
Mahabh. xii. 6520. 

- As e.g. Fausboll, iii. p. 495. Cf. DivijCivad. p. 377, 1. 

' See also several papers in the eighth volume of the Journal of the Ceylon 
Blanch of the R. A, Society, 

Preface. ix 

handed down from very early times in the Buddhist community, it is 
not a question of much importance except for Pali literary history. 
The gathas are undoubtedly old, and they necessarily imply the 
previous existence of the stories, though not perhaps in the exact 
words in which we now possess them. 

The Jatakas are preceded in the Pali text by a long Introduction, 
the Nidana-katha, which gives the Buddha's previous history both 
before his last birth, and also during his last existence until he 
attained the state of a Buddha\ This has been translated by Professor 
Rhys Davids, but as it has no direct connexion with the rest of the 
work, we have omitted it in our translation, which commences with 
the first Birth-story. 

We have translated the quasi-historical introductions which 
always precede the different birth-stories, as they are an essential 
part of the plan of the original woik, — since they link each tale with 
some special incident in the Buddha's life, which tradition venerates 
as the occasion when he is supposed to have recalled the forgotten 
scene of a long past existence to his contemporaries. But it is an 
interesting question for future investigation how far they contain any 
historical data. They appear at first sight to harmonise with the 
framework of the Pitakas ; but I confess that I have no confidence in 
their historical credibility, — they seem to me rather the laboured 
invention of a later age, like the legendary history of the early 
centuries of ancient Rome. But this question will be more easily 
settled, when we have made further progress in the translation. 

The Jatakas themselves are of course interesting as specimens 
of Buddhist literature ; but their foremost interest to us consists in 
their relation to folk-lore and the light which they often throw on 
those popular stories which illustrate so vividly the ideas and 
superstitions of the early times of civilisation. In this respect they 
possess a special value, as, although much of their matter is peculiar 
to Buddhism, they contain embedded with it an unrivalled collection 
of Folk-lore. They are also full of interest as giving a vivid picture 
of the social life and customs of ancient India. Such books as 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sleeman's 'Rambles' or Mr Grierson's 'Bihar 
Peasant Life' illustrate them at every turn. They form in fact an 
ever-shifting panorama of the village life such as Fah-hian and 
Hiouen-thsang saw it in the old days before the Muhammadan 

1 This latter portion partly corresponds to the well-known Lalitn-vistara of the 
Northern Buddhists, 

X Preface. 

conquest, when Hindu institutions and native rule prevailed in every 
province throughout the land. Like all collections of early popular 
tales they are full of violence and craft, and betray a low opinion of 
woman ; but outbursts of nobler feeling are not wanting, to relieve 
the darker colours. 

Professor Rhys Davids first commenced a translation of the 
Jataka in 1880, but other engagements obliged him to discontinue it 
after one volume had appeared, containing the Nidanakatha and 
40 stories. The present translation has been undertaken by a band 
of friends who hope, by each being responsible for a definite portion, 
to complete the whole within a reasonable time. We are in fact 
a guild of Jataka translators, ^reshthi-purva vayam grenili ; but, 
although we have adopted some common principles of translation 
and aim at a certain general uniformity in our technical terms and 
in transliteration, we have agreed to leave each individual translator, 
within certain limits, a free hand in his own work. The Editor only 
exercises a general superintendence, in consultation with the two 
resident translators, Mr Francis and Mr Neil. 

Mr R. Chalmers of Oriel College, Oxford, has translated in the 
present volume the first volume of Prof. Fausboll's edition of the 
Pali text (five volumes of which have already appeared). The 
second volume will be translated by Mr W. H. D. Rouse, late fellow 
of Christ's College, Cambridge, who will also be responsible for the 
fourth ; the third will be translated by Mr H. T. Francis, Under- 
Librarian of the University Library at Cambridge, and late fellow of 
Gonville and Caius College, and Mr R. A. Neil, fellow and assistant- 
tutor of Pembroke College, who hope also to undertake the fifth*. 


' A complete index will be given at the end of the last volume. 







C, J. 




(Two merchants travel with caravans across a desert. One, be- 
guiled by goblins, throws away his drinking-water in the desert and 
is devoured with all his people and cattle; the other completes his 
journey safely.) 


(Travelling across a desert, a caravan through mistake throws 
away its water, &c. In their despair the leader has a well dug, till 
far down water is found, and perseverance saves the caravan from 
death. ) 


(Two hawkers are successively offered by its unwitting owners a 
golden bowl. The greedy hawker over-reaches himself, whilst the 
honest one is richly rewarded.) 


(A young man picks up a dead mouse which he sells, and works 
up this capital till he becomes rich.) 


(An incompetent valuer declares 500 horses worth a measure of 
rice, which measure of rice in turn he is led to declare worth all 


(Two princes going down to a haunted pool are seized by an ogre ; 
the third, by correctly defining 'godlike,' saves his brothers.) 


(A king refuses to recognize his son by a chance amour; the 
mother throws the child into the air, praying that, if he be not the 
king's son, he may be killed by his fall. The child rests in mid-air, 
and the king recognizes him as his son.) 







(A king, finding a grey hair in his head, renounces his throne to 
prepare as a hermit for death. ) 


(A king who becomes a Brother proclaims the happiness he has 


(Two stags ; one through stupidity loses all his following, whilst 
the other brings his herd home in safety.) 


(Deer in a royal park, to avoid being hunted, decide that lots 
shall be cast to select a daily victim. The lot having fallen on a doe 
big with young, the king of the deer offers himself as a substitute at 
the block and saves not only his own life but also the lives of all 
living creatures.) 


(A mountain-stag, enamoured of a doe, is by her allowed to fall a 
prey to a hunter ; the doe escapes.) 


(By a bait of honeyed grass a wild antelope is lured by slow degrees 
into a palace.) 


(A deer which would not come to be taught the ruses of deer, is 
caught in a trap.) 


(A deer which had learnt the ruses of deer, being caught in a 
snare, effects its escape.) 


(A tiger and a lion dispute whether it is the dark or the light 
half of the month which is cold.) 


(A goat, which was to be sacrificed by a brahmin, shows signs of 
great joy and of great sorrow. It explains the reason for each emotion.) 


(Offering sacrifice to get release from a vow, is not true 'Release.') 


(Thirsty monkeys came to a pool haunted by an ogre. Their 
leader miraculously blows the knots out of canes and with these the 
monkeys safely slake their thirst.) 

Contents. xv 



(A hunter up a tree throws down fruits to lure a deer within aim. 
The deer detects the artifice and escapes.) 


(Carriage-straps having been gnawed by palace dogs, a king orders 
all other dogs to be killed. The leader of a pack of dogs reveals the 
truth by causing an emetic to be applied to the royal dogs of the 


(A charger falls wounded when his rider has captured six out of 
seven kings. Seeing that a hack is being saddled in his place, the 
charger asks to be saddled again, makes a last effort and dies in the 
hour of victory.) 

24. AJANNA-JATAKA . . " 63 

(A story similar to the above about two chariot horses, one of 
whom is wounded and is about to be replaced by a sorry beast.) 


(A royal charger refuses to take his bath because a hack had 
bathed at the spot.) 


(An elephant listening to robbers' talk, kills his mahout ; by 
listening to virtuous converse he becomes good again.) 


(An elephant, missing his playmate, the dog, refuses to eat until 
the dog is i-estored to him.) 


(How by incivil words to his bull a brahmin lost a bet, which by 
civility to the animal he afterwards won.) 

29. KANHA-JATAKA . . . • • • • • *^^ 

(How a bull drew 500 carts in order to earn money for his poor 


(A hard-worked ox is discontented with his own hard fare, when 
he sees a lazy pig being fattened up. Another ox explains tliat the 
pig is being fattened to be eaten ; and the discontented ox accepts 
his position.) 


(Through the practice of goodness tending to the diminution of 
crime in his village, a man is falsely accused by the headman and 
sentenced to be trampled to death by elephants. The elephants 


xvi Contents. 

refuse to harm him. Being released, he builds a caravansery, in 
which good work (against his wish) three out of four of his wives 
take part. At death he is reborn as Sakka. His three good wives 
are reborn in heaven. He seeks out the fourth and exhorts her to 
goodness. As a crane she refuses to eat a fish which shewed signs 
of life ; reborn a woman, she is eventually born a Titan and espoused 
by Sakka.) 


(The animals choose kings. The daughter of the king of the 
birds (the Golden Mallard) chooses the peacock for her husband. In 
dancing for joy the peacock exposes himself and is rejected.) 


(Quails caught in a net, rise up in a body with the net and escape 
several times. After a time they quarrel and are caught.) 


(An uxorious fish being caught, fears his wife may misconstrue 
his absence. A brahmin sets him free.) 


(A baby-quail is about to be engulfed in a jungle-fire, when by an 
• Act of Truth ' he quenches the flames round him.) 

36. SAKUNA-JATAKA ....".... 91 

(A tree in which birds dwell is grinding its boughs together and 
beginning to smoke. The wise birds fly away ; the foolish ones are 


(A partridge, a monkey and an elephant living together, decide to 
obey the senior. To prove seniority each gives his earliest recollection.) 


(A crane by pretending that he was taking them to a big lake, 
devours all the fish of a pond. A wise crab nips the bird's head off. ) 


(How a slave was made to tell where his master's father had 
buried his hoard.) 


(In order to stop a Treasurer from giving alms to a Pacceka 
Buddha, Mara interposes a yawning gulf of fire. Undaunted, the 
Treasurer steps forward, to be borne up by a lotus from which he 
tenders his alms to Mara's discomfiture.) 

Contents. xvii 



(How a Brother through jealous greed was condemned to rebirths 
entailing misery and hunger. Finally, when reborn a man, he is 
deserted by his parents and brings suffering on those around him. 
On board ship, he has to be cast overboard ; on a raft he comes to 
successive island palaces of goddesses, and eventually to an cgre- 
island where he seizes the leg of an ogress in form of a goat. She 
kicks him over the sea to Benares, and he falls among the king's 
goats. Hoping to get back to the goddesses, he seizes a goat by the 
leg, only to be seized as a thief and to be condemned to death.) 


(A pigeon lives in a kitchen. A greedy crow makes friends with 
him, and, being also housed in the kitchen, plans an attack on the 
victuals. The crow is tortured to death, and the pigeon ilies away.) 


(A man rears a viper, which in the end kills its benefactor. ) 


(A mosquito settles on a man's head. To kill it, his foolish son 
strikes the man's head with an axe with fatal effect.) 


(Like the last ; a pestle takes the place of the axe.) 


(Monkeys employed to water a pleasaunce pull up the trees in 
order to judge by the size of the roots how much water to give. The 
trees die.) 


(Seeing customers whet their thirst with salt, a young potman 
mixes salt in the spirits for sale.) 


(Captured by robbers, a brahmin makes treasure rain from the 
sky ; a second band kills him because he cannot repeat the miracle. 
Mutual slaughter leaves only two robbers with the treasure. One 
poisons the other's food and is himself slain by his fellow.) 


(A chaplain thwarts a marriage on the ground that the day fixed 
is unlucky. The bride is given to another.) 


(To put a stop to sacrifices of living creatures, a king vows to 
offer a holocaust of such as take life, &c. Sacrifices cease.) 

xviii Contents. 



(A good king meets evil with good. Refusing to sanction war, he 
is captured and buried alive in a charnel-grove. How he escapes the 
jackals, acts as umpire for ogres, and regains his sovereignty.) 



(Rascals drug spirits for purposes of robbery. Their intended 
victim discovers the plot because they do not drink the liquor them- 
selves. ) 


(How in defiance of warnings greedy fellows ate a poisonous fruit. 
How their leader knew it must be poisonous though it looked exactly 
like a mango.) 


(How Prince Five-weapons fought the ogre Hairy-grip, and, though 
defeated, subdued the ogre by fearlessness.) 


(A farmer finds a heavy nugget of gold. By cutting it up into 
four pieces, he is able to carry it away.) 


(How the crocodile lay on a rock to catch the monkey, and how 
the latter outwitted the crocodile.) 


(A monkey gelds all his male offspring. One escapes ; the father, 
seeking to kill him, sends his son to an ogre-haunted pool. By 
cleverness the son escapes death.) 


(A drummer by too much drumming is plundered by robbers in a 


(A similar story about a conch blower. ) 


(The wickedness of women shewn by the endeavour of a hag to 
kill her good son in order to facilitate an intrigue with a youth.) 


(Another story of the innate \vickedness of women. A girl is 
bred up from infancy among women only, without ever seeing any 
man but her husband. The story of her intrigue with a lover and of 
her deceits toward her husband.) 

Contents. xix 


6^,. TAKKA-JATAKA 155 

(A wicked princess seduces a hermit who devotes himself to her. 
Being carried off by a robber chief, she lures the hermit to her new 
home in order that he may be killed. His goodness saves him and 
her ingratitude destroys her.) 


(Wives a bar to the higher life.) 


(Women common to all.) 


(How a hermit fell in love and was cured.) 


(A woman's husband, son and brother are condemned to death. 
Being offered a choice which she will save, she chooses her brother 
and gives the reason.) 


(Why a brahmin and his wife claimed the Buddha as their son. ) 


(A viper bites a man and refuses under threat of death to suck 
out the poison.) 


(Private property a bar to the higher life. Conquest over self the 
highest conquest. Sakka builds a monastery for a sage and a con- 
verted people.) 


(How a lazy fellow, who picked green boughs for firewood, hurt 
himself and inconvenienced others.) 


(The story of the good elephant and the ungrateful man.) 


(The ingratitude of a prince, and the gratitude of a snake, a rat 
and a parrot.) 


(Union is strength, among trees as among men.) 


(How the good fish ended a drought and saved his kinsfolk.) 


(A caravan is saved by a wakeful hermit from being looted.) 

XX Contents. 



(Sixteen wonderful dreams and their interpretation.) 

78. ILLiSA-JATAKA 195 

(How a miser was cured by his father reappearing on earth and 
distributing the son's wealth in the exact semblance of the son.) 


(A village headman privily incites robbers to carry off the taxes 
collected for the king.) 


(A valiant dwarf and a cowardly giant. The dwarf does the work, 
and the giant gets the credit. The giant's growing pride is brought 
low in the face of danger ; the dwarf is honoured.) 


(The effects of strong drink on hermits.) 


(See No. 41.) • 


(Not the name but the heart within makes the man.) 


(The paths to spiritual welfare.) 


(Like No. 54.) 


(The brahmin who stole in order to see whether he was esteemed 
for goodness or otherwise. The good cobra.) 


(The folly of superstitious belief in omens and the like.) 


(Like No. 28.) 


(The hypocritical hermit who stole the gold, but punctiliously 
returned a straw which was not his.) 


(A merchant is befriended by a merchant in another country, but 
refuses to return the service. The revenge taken by the good mer- 
chant's servants.) 





(A sharper swallows dice which had been poisoned in order to 
teach him a lesson.) 


(A queen's jewels are stolen by monkeys. Certain innocent per- 
sons confess to the theft. How the monkeys are proved to be the real 
culprits, and how the jewels are recovered.) 


(A lion's fatal passion for a doe.) 


(The futility of ascetic self-mortification.) 


(How King Sudassana died.) 


(A prince wins a kingdom by resisting the fascinations of lovely 
ogresses. A king who yields, is eaten, with all his household. ) 


(Discontented with his name, a youth travels till he learns that 
the name does not make the man.) 


(A rogue is hidden in a hollow tree, to feign to be the Tree-sprite 
who is to act as umpire in a dispute. A fire lighted at the bottom 
of the tree exposes the cheat.) 


(A brahmin dies and states his spiritual attainments in a formula 
which only one of his pupils understands.) 


(A beleaguered city is captured by cutting off supplies of water 
and firewood.) 


(=:No. 99.) 


(To test his daughter's virtue, a man makes love to her.) 

103. VERI-JATAKA 245 

(A merchant rejoices that he has outstripped robbers and reached 
his home in safety.) 

xxii Contents. 



(An additioaal fragment of No. 41.) 


(An elephant, having escaped from the trainer's goad, lives in 
constant dread.) 


(A young hermit, seduced by a girl, is disenchanted by the number 
of errands she makes him run.) 


(A skilful marksman reduces a talkative brahmin to silence by 
flicking pellets of goat's dung down the latter 's throat.) 


(Occasional decency a passport to greatness.) 


(A Tree-sprite, whose worshipper feared his gift was too mean, 
asks for the gift and rewards the poor man by revealing the site of a 
buried hoard of money.) 





(Being belated in a city, a jackal, by a lying promise to reveal 
buried treasure, induces a brahmin to carry him safely out of the 
city. The greedy brahmin reaps only indignities from the ungrateful 


(Of three fishes, two through folly are caught in a net ; the third 
and wiser fish rescues them.) 


(A greedy bird, after cunningly warning other birds against the 
dangers of the high road on which she found food, is herself crushed 
to death by a carriage on that road.) 


(Being in liquor, an acrobat undertakes to jump more javelins 
than he can manage, and is killed.) 


(A busybody is killed for his chatter by a jaundiced man ; and 
the piping of a partridge attracts the hunter who kills it.) 

Contents. xxiii 


1 1 8. VATTAKA-JATAKA 261 

(A quail, being caught by a fowler, starves itself till no one will 
buy it, and in the end escapes.) 


(A cock which crowed in and out of season has its neck wrung. ) 


(A queen, who had committed adultery with sixty-four footmen 
and failed in her overtures to the chaplain, accuses the latter of rape. 
He reveals her guilt and his own innocence.) 


(A grass-sprite and a tree-sprite are friends. The former saves 
the latter's tree from the axe by assuming the shape of a chameleon 
and making the tree look full of holes. ) 


(Being jealous of his elephant, a king seeks to make it fall over a 
precipice. The elephant flies through the air with its mahout to 
another and more appreciative master.) 


(A stupid youth, being devoted to his teacher, props up the 
latter's bed with his own leg all night long. The grateful teacher 
yearns to instruct the dullard and tries to make him compare things 
together. The youth sees a likeness to the shaft of a plough in a 
snake, an elephant, sugar-cane and curds. The teacher abandons 
all hope.) 

124. AMBA-JATAKA 273 

(In time of drought, a hermit provides water for the animals, 
who in gratitude bring him fruit enough for himself and 500 others. ) 


(A slave, educated beyond his station, manages by forging his 
master's name to marry a rich wife in another city. He gives him- 
self airs till his old master comes, who, while not betraying the slave, 
teaches the wife verses whereby to restrain her husband's arrogance.) 


(Effects of two sneezes. One lost a sword-tester his nose, whilst 
the other won a princess for her lover. ) 


(A slave like the one in No. 125 is rebuked for arrogance to his 
wife by a parrot who knew him at home. The slave is recaptured.) 

xxiv Contents. 



(A jackal, under guise of saintliness, eats rats belonging to a 
troop with which he consorts. His treachery is discovered and 


(A similar story about rats and a jackal whose hair had all been 
burnt off except a top-knot which suggested holiness.) 


(The alternative of the stick or a draught of nauseous filth cures 
a wife of feigned illness. ) 


(A benefactor is repulsed by the man he had befriended. Hearing 
of this ingratitude, the king gives all the ingrate's wealth to the 
benefactor, who refuses to take back more than his own.) 


(Like No. 96. The king is thankful to have passed through great 
perils to great dominion.) 


(Because the waters of his lake were befouled by birds roosting in 
an overhanging tree, a Naga darts flames among the boughs. The 
wise birds fly away ; the foolish stay and are killed. ) 


(Like No. 99.) 


(Like No. 99.) 


(The father of a family dies, leaving his family destitute. Being 
reborn a bird with golden plumage, and discovering the condition of 
his family, the father gives them a feather at a time to sell. The 
widow in her greed plucks all his feathers out, only to find that they 
are gold no more.) 

137. BABBU-JATAKA 294 

(A mouse caught by successive cats buys them off by daily rations 
of meat. In the end, the mouse, ensconced in crystal, defies the 
cats, who dash themselves to pieces against the unseen crystal.) 

138. GODHA JATAKA 297 

(A hermit tries in vain to catch a lizard to eat. ) 

Contents. xxv 



(A fisherman, having hooked a snag, and thinking it a monster 
fish, wishes to keep it all to himself. How he lost his clothes and 
his eyes, and how his wife was beaten and fined.) 

140. KAKA-JATAKA 300 

(A wanton crow having befouled the king's chaplain, the latter 
prescribes crows' fat for the burns of the king's elephants. The 
leader of the crows explains to the king that crows have no fat and 
that revenge alone prompted the chaplain's prescription.) 

141. GODHA-JATAKA 302 

(A chameleon betrays a tribe of iguanas to a hunter.) 


(In order to catch a jackal, a man pretends to be dead. To try 
him, the jackal tugs at the man's stick and finds his grip tighten.) 


(A jackal, after attending a lion in the chase, imagines he can kill 
a quarry as well as the lion. In essaying to kill an elephant, the 
jackal is killed.) 


(A votary of the God of Fire, having a cow to sacrifice to his 
deity, finds that robbers have driven it off. If the god, he reflects, 
cannot look after his own sacrifice, how shall he protect his votary ?) 

145. RADHA-JATAKA 309 

(A brahmin asks two parrots to keep an eye on his wife during 
his absence. They observe her misconduct and report it to the 
brahmin, without essaying the hopeless task of restraining her.) 

146. KAKA-JATAKA 310 

(A hen crow having been drowned in the sea, other crows try to 
bale the sea out with their beaks.) 


(In order to have smart holiday attire, a wife makes her husband 
break into the royal conservatories. Being caught and impaled, he 
has only the one grief that his wife will not have her flowers to wear.) 


(A jackal eats his way into a dead elephant's carcass and cannot 
get out.) 

xxvi Contents. 



(By the analogy of a poisonous seedling, a wicked prince is re- 

150. SANjiVA-JATAKA 319 

(A youth, who has learnt the charm for restoring the dead to life, 
tries it on a tiger, with fatal effects to himself.) 



p. 30, 1. 36, read ' He who has trodden..." 

P. 113, last 1., read Cf. Vol. n. p. 362 (Pali text). 

I'raised be the Blessed One, the Ar-ahat, the per/ect Buddha. 


No. 1. 


[95.] This 2 discoiu'se regarding Truth was delivered by the Blessed One, while 
he was dwelling in the Great Monastery at Jetavana near Savatthi. 

But who, you ask, was it that led up to this tale ? 

Well ; it was the Treasurer's five hundred friends, disciples of the sophists". 

For, one day Anatha-pindika'* the Treasurer, took his friends the five hundred 
disciples of other schools, and went off with them to Jetavana, whither also he 
had a great store brought of garlands, perfumes, and unguents, together with 
oil, honey, molasses, cloths, and cloaks. After due salutation to the Blessed 
One, he made his offering to him of the garlands and the like, and handed over 
to the Order of the Brethren the medicinal oil and so forth together with the 
cloths ; and, this done, he took his seat on one aide eschewing the six faults in 

1 The canonical text of the Jiltaka book, which consists exclusively of gdthds or 
stanzas, is divided into ' books,' or nipdtas, according to the number of gdthds. The 
present volume contains the 150 stories which illustrate, and form the commentary of, 
a single gdthd in each case, and compose the first book. The later books contain an 
increasing number of gdthds and a decreasing number of stories : e.g. the second book 
contains 100 two-gatha stories, the third book 50 three-giithil stories, and so on. The 
total number of the books or ni'inltas is 22, 21 of which form the text of the five 
published volumes of the Pali text. The nipdtas are subdivided into vaggas, or sets of 
about 10 stories, named as a rule after their first story. It has not been thought 
desirable to cumber the translation with these subdivisions. 

2 The Introductory Story usually begins by quoting, as a catchword, the first words 
of the subsequent gdthd. 

3 Literally 'sectaries'; but usually translated 'heretics,' a term which has come to 
have too theological a connotation to be applicable to philosophers. The six rivals 
with whom Gotama had chiefiy to compete were Purana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, 
Ajita Kesa-kambali, Pakudha Kaccayana, Sanjaya Belatthi-putta, and Nigantha 
Nata-putta (see, e.g., the Sdmannaphala Sutta in the D'igha Nikdya, Vol. i. p. 47). 

■* This is a surname, meaning literally 'feeder of the poor.' His ordinary name 
was Sudatta. See the account in the Vinaya (CuUavagga, vi. 4, 9) of how be bought 
from Prince Jeta the latter's grove for as much money as would pave the ground, and 
how he built thereon the Great Monastery for the Buddha. 

L -. C J. 1 

The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

sitting down. Likewise, those disciples of other schools saluted the Buddha, and 
took their seats close by the side of Anatha-pindika,— gazing upon the Master's 
countenance, glorious as the full moon, upon his excellent presence endowed with 
the signs and marks of Buddhahood and encompassed to a fathom's length with 
light, "and upon the rich glory that marks a Buddha, a glory which issued as it 
were in paired garlands, pair upon pair. 

Then, though in thunderous tones as of a young lion roaring in the Red 
Valley or as of a storm-cloud in the rainy season, bringing down as it were the 
Ganges of the Heavens ^ [96] and seeming to weave a chaplet of jewels, — yet in a 
voice of eightfold perfection, the charm of which ravished the ear, he preached 
to them the Truth in a discourse full of sweetness and bright with varied 

They, after hearing the Master's discourse, rose up with hearts converted, 
and with due salutation to the Lord of Knowledge, burst asunder the other 
doctrines in which they had taken refuge, and betook themselves to the Buddha as 
their refuge. Thenceforth without ceasing they used to go with Anatha-pindika, 
carrying in their hands perfumes and garlands and the like, to hear the Truth in 
the Monastery ; and they abounded in charity, kept the Commandments, and kept 
the weekly fast-day. 

Now the Blessed One went from Savatthi back to Rajagaha again. As soon 
as the Buddha had gone, they burst asunder their new faith, and returning to 
the other doctrines as their refuge, reverted to their original state. 

After some seven or eight months' stay, the Blessed One came back to 
Jetavana. Once again too did Anatha-pindika come with those friends of his to 
the Master, make his salutation and offering of perfumes and the like, and take 
his seat on one side. And the friends also saluted the Blessed One and took 
their seats in like manner. Then did Anatha-pindika tell the Blessed One how, 
when the Buddha had departed on his alms-pilgrimage, his friends had forsaken 
their refuge for the old doctrines again, and had reverted to their original 

Opening the lotus of his mouth, as though it were a casket of jewels, scented 
with scents divine and filled with divers perfumes by virtue of his having ever 
spoken aright throiighoiit myriad feons, the Blessed One made his sweet voice 
come forth, as he enquired : — "Is the report true that you, disciples, have forsaken 
the Three Refuges ^ for the refuge of other doctrines?" 

And when they, unable to conceal the fact, had confessed, saying, "It is true. 
Blessed One," then said the Master, "Disciples, not between the bounds of helP 
below and the highest heaven above, not in all the infinite worlds that stretch 
right and left, is there the equal, much less the superior, of a Buddha in the 
excellences which spring from obeying the Commandments and from other 
virtuous conduct." 

Then he declared to them the excellences of the Three Gems as they are 
revealed in the sacred texts, the following amongst the number, — "Of all creatures, 
Brethren, whether footless &c., of these the Buddha is the chief"; "Whatsoever 
riches there be in this or in other worlds &c."; and "Verily the chief of the 
faithful &c." Thence he went on to say: — "No disciples, male or female, who 
seek refuge in the Three Gems that are endowed with such peerless excellences, 
are ever reborn into hell and the like states ; but, released from all rebirth 
into states of suffering, they pass to the Realm of Devas and there receive great 
glory. Therefore, in forsaking such a refuge for that offered by other doctrines, 
you have gone astray." 

' i.e. the Milky Way. 

2 i.e. the Buddha, the Truth he preached, and the Brotherhood he founded. Infra 
this triad is spoken of as the 'Three Gems.' 

* Strictly speaking Buddhism knows no hells, only purgatories, which — though 
places of torment — are temporary and educational. 

No. 1. 3 

(And here the following sacred texts should be cited to make it clear that 
none who, to find release and the supreme good, have sought refuge in the Three 
Gems, shcxU be reborn into states of suffering: — 

[97] Those who have refuge in the Buddha found. 

Shall not pass hence to states of suftering; 
Straightway, when they shall quit their human frame, 
A Deva-form these faithful ones shall fiUi. 

Those who have refuge in the Doctrine found 
&c., &c. 

Those who have refuge in the Order found 

&c., &c. 

They're manifold the refuges men seek, 
— The mountain peak, the forest's solitude, 

{caul so on down to) 

When he this refuge shall have sought and found, 
Entire release is his from every pain.)'- 

But the Master did not end his teaching to them at this point ; for he went 
on to say: — "Disciples, meditation on the thought of the Buddha, meditation on 
the thought of the Truth, meditation on the thought of the Brotherhood, this it 
is that gives Entry to and Fruition of the First, the Second, the Third, and the 
Fourth Paths to Bliss ^." And when he had preached the Truth to them in these 
and other ways, he said, "In forsaking such a refuge as this, you have gone 

(And here the gift of the several Paths to those who meditate on the thought 
of the Buddha and so foi-tli, should be made clear by such scriptures as the 
following: — "One thing there is. Brethren, w4iich, if practised and developed, 
conduces to utter loathing of the world's vanities, to the cessation of passion, to 
the end of being, to peace, to insight, to enlightenment, to Nirvana. What is 
this one thing ? — The meditation on the thought of the Buddha.") 

When he had thus exhorted the disciples, the Blessed One said, — "So too in 
times past, disciples, the men who jimiped to the fatuous conclusion that what 
was no refuge was a real refuge, fell a prey to goblins in a demon-haunted wilder- 
ness and were utterly destroyed ; whilst the men who clave to the absolute 
and indisputable truth, prospered in the selfsame wilderness." And when he 
had said this, he became silent. 

Then, rising up from his seat and saluting the Blessed One, the layman 
Anatha-pindika burst into praises, and with clasped hands raised in reverence to 
his forehead, spoke thus: — "It is clear to us, Sir, that in these present days 
these disciples were led by error into forsaking the supreme refuge. But the 
bygone destruction of those opinionated ones in tlie demon-haiuited wilderness, 
and the prospering of the men who clave to the trvith, are hidden from us and 
known only to you. [98] May it please the Blessed One, as though causing the 
full moon to rise in the sky, to make this thing clear to us." 

1 The word deva, which I have retained in its Pali form, means an ' anf;el,' rather 
than a 'god,' in the god-less creed of the Buddhist. See hereon Rhys Davids in his 
'Buddhist Suttas,' page 162. 

'■^ Dhammapada, v. 188 — 192. ^ See note on p. 8. 


Tlie Jdtaha. Booh I. 

Then said the Blessed One: — "It was solely to brush away the world's 
difficulties that by the display of the Ten Perfections ^ through myriad aeons 
I won omniscience. Give ear and hearken, as closely as if you were filling a tube 
of gold with lion's marrow." 

"Having thus excited the Treasurer's attention, he made clear the thing that 
re-birth had concealed from them, as though he were releasing the full moon 
from the upper air, the birthplace of the snows. 

Once on a time in the city of Benares in the Kasi country there was 
a king named Brahmadatta. In those days the Bodhisatta was born into 
a merchant's family, and growing up in due course, used to journey about 
trading with five hundred carts, travelling now from east to west and 
now from west to east. There was also at Benai-es another young mer- 
chant, a stupid blockhead, lacking resource. 

Now at the time of our story the Bodhisatta had loaded five hundred 
carts with costly wares of Benares and had got them all ready to start. 
And so had the foolish young merchant too. Thought the Bodhisatta, 
"If this foolish young merchant keeps me company all along, and the 
thousand carts travel along together, it will be too much for the road ; it 
will be a hard matter to get wood, watei*, and so forth for the men, or 
grass for the oxen. Either he or I must go on first." So he sent for the 
other and laid his view before him, saying, "The two of us can't travel 
together; would you rather go first or lasf?" Thought the other, "There 
will be many advantages if I go on first. I shall have a road which is not 
yet cut up ; my oxen will have the pick of the grass ; my men will have 
the pick of the herbs for curry ; the water will be undisturbed ; and, 
lastly, I shall fix my own price for the barter of my goods." Accordingly 
he replied, " I will go first, my dear sir." [99] 

The Bodhisatta, on the other hand, saw many advantages in going last, 
for he argued thus to himself: — "Those who go first will level the road 
where it is rough, whilst I shall travel along the road they have already 
travelled; their oxen will have grazed off the coarse old grass, whilst 
mine will pasture on the sweet young growth which will spring up in its 
place ; my men will find a fresh growth of sweet herbs for curry where the 
old ones have been picked ; whei'e there is no water, the first caravan will 
have to dig to supply themselves, and we shall drink at the wells they 
dug. Haggling over prices is killing work ; whereas I, following later, 
shall barter my wares at the prices they have already fixed." Accordingly, 
seeing all these advantages, he said to the other, " Then go you first, my 
dear sir." 

1 i.e. almsgiving, goodness, renunciation, wisdom, energy, patience, truth, resolution, 
loving-kindness, and equanimity. (See the Cariyd Pitaka, pp. 45 — 7 of the Pali text 
edited by Dr ]\rorris for the Pali Text Society) ; see also Jivtaka No. 35 &c. 

No. 1. 5 

"Very well, I will," said the foolish merchant. Ami he yoked his 
carts and set out. Journeying along, he left human habitations behind 
him and came to the outskirts of the wilderness. (Now wildernesses are of 
the five following kinds: — robber wildernesses, wild-beast wildernesses, 
drought wildernesses, demon wildernesses, and famine wildernesses. The 
first is when the way is beset by robbers ; the second is when the way is 
beset by lions and other wild beasts ; the third is when there is no bathing 
or water to be got ; the fourth is when the road is beset by demons ; and 
the fifth is when no roots or other food are to be found. And in this 
fivefold category the wilderness in question was both a drought, and a 
demon, wilderness.) Accordingly this young merchant took great big 
water-jars on his carts, and filling them with water, set out to cross 
the sixty leagues of desert which lay before him. Now when he had 
reached the middle of the wilderness, the goblin who haunted it said 
to himself, " I will make these men throw away their stock of water, and 
devour them all when they are faint." So he [100] framed by his magic 
power a delightful carriage drawn by pure white young bulls. With a 
retinue of some ten or twelve goblins bearing bows and quivers, swords 
and shields, he rode along to meet them like a mighty lord in this carriage, 
with blue lotuses and white water-lilies wreathed round his head, with wet 
hair and wet clothes, and with muddy carriage- wheels. His attendants, 
too, in front and rear of him went along with their hair and clothes wet, 
with garlands of blue lotuses and white water-lilies on their heads, and 
with bunches of white lotuses in their hands, chewing the esculent stalks, 
and dripping with water and mire. Now the leaders of caravans have the 
following custom : whenever the wind blows in their teeth, they ride on 
in front in their carriage with their attendants round them, in order to 
escape the dust ; but when the wind blows from behind them, then they 
ride in like fashion in the rear of the column. And, as on this occasion 
the wind was blowing against them, the young merchant was riding in 
front. When the goblin became aware of the merchant's approach, he 
drew his carriage aside from the track and greeted him kindly, asking him 
whither he was going. The leader of the caravan too caused his carriage to 
be drawn aside from the track so as to let the carts pass by, whilst he 
stayed by the way and thus addressed the goblin : "We are just on our 
way from Benares, sir. But I observe that you have lotuses and water- 
lilies on your heads and in your hands, and that your people are chewing 
the esculent stalks, and that you are all muddy and dripping with wet. 
Pray did it rain while you were on the road, and did you come on pools 
covered with lotuses and water-lilies?" 

Hereon the goblin exclaimed, "What did you say? Why, yonder 
appears the dark-green streak of the forest, and thence onward there is 
nothing but water all through the forest. It is always raining there ; the 

The Jataka. Booh I. 

pools are full ; and on every side are lakes covered with lotuses and water- 
lilies." Then as the line of carts [101] passed by, he asked where they 
were bound fox-. "To such and such a place," was the reply. "And what 
wares have you got in this cart and in this V "So and so." "And what 
might you have in this last cart which seems to move as if it were heavilj' 
laden?" "Oh, there's water in that." "You did well to carry water with 
you from the other side. But there is no need for it now, as water is 
abundant on ahead. So break the jars and throw the water away, that 
you may travel easier." And he added, " Now continue on your way, as 
we have stopped too long already." Then he went a little way further on, 
till he was out of sight, when he made his way back to the goblin-city 
where he dwelt. 

Such was the folly of that foolish merchant that he did the goblin's 
bidding, and had his jars broken and the water all thrown away, — without 
saving so much even as would go in the palm of a man's hand. Then he 
ordered the carts to drive on. Not a drop of water did they find on 
ahead, and thirst exhausted the men. All day long till the sun went 
down they kept on the march ; but at sunset they unyoked their carts 
and made a laager, tethering the oxen to the wheels. The oxen had no 
water to drink, and the men none to cook their rice with ; and the tii'ed- 
out band sank to the ground to slumber. But as soon as night fell, 
the goblins came out from their city, and slew every single one of those 
men and oxen; and when they had devoured their flesh, leaving only 
the bare bones, the goblins departed. Thus was the foolish young mer- 
chant the sole cause of the destruction of that whole band, whose skeletons 
were strewn in every conceivable direction, whilst the five hundred carts 
stood there with their loads untouched. 

Now the Bodhisatta allowed some six weeks to pass by after the 
starting of the foolish young mei'chant, before he set out. Then he pro- 
ceeded from the city with his five hundred carts, and in due course 
came to the outskirts of the wilderness. Here he had his water-jars 
tilled and laid in an ample stock of water ; and by beat of drum he had 
his men assembled in camp [102], and thus addressed them : — "Let not so 
much as a palmful of water be used without my sanction. There are 
poison trees in this wilderness; so let no man among you eat any leaf, 
flower, or fruit which he has not eaten before, without first asking me." 
With this exhortation to his men, he jjushed on into the wilderness with 
his 500 carts. When he had reached the middle of the wilderness, the 
goblin made his appearance on the Bodhisatta's path as in the former case. 
But, as soon as he became aware of the goblin, the Bodhisatta saw through 
him; for he thought to himself, "There's no water here, in this 'Waterless 
Desert.' This person with his red eyes and aggressive bearing, casts no 
shadow. Very likely he has induced the foolish young merchant who 

No. 1. 7 

preceded me, to throw away all liis water, and then, waiting till they were 
worn out, has eaten up the merchant with all his men. But he doesn't 
know my cleverness and ready wit." Then he shouted to the goblin, 
" Begone ! We're men of business, and do not throw away what water we 
have got, before we see where more is to come from. But, when we do see 
more, we may be trusted to throw this water away and lighten our carts." 

The goblin rode on a bit further till he was out of sight, and then 
betook himself back to his home in the demon city. But when the goblin 
had gone, the Bodhisatta's men said to him, "Sir, we heard from those 
men that yonder is the dark-green streak of the forest appearing, where 
they said it was always raining. They had got lotuses on their heads and 
water-lilies in their hands and were eating the stalks, whilst their clothes 
and hair were wringing wet, with water streaming off them. Let us throw 
away our water and get on a bit quicker with lightened carts." On hearing 
these words, the Bodhisatta ordered a halt and had the men all mustered. 
"Tell me," said he; "did any man among you ever hear before today that 
there was a lake or a pool in this wilderness'?" "No, sir," was the 
answer, "why it's known as 'the Waterless Desert'." 

" We have just been told by some people that it is raining just on ahead, 
in the belt of forest; now how far does a rain-wind carry / " [103] "A 
league, sir." " And has this rain-wind reached any one man here 1 " " No, 
sir." " How far off can you see the crest of a storm-cloud ? " "A 
league, sir." "And has any one man here seen the top of even a single 
storm-cloud?" "No, sir." "How far off can you see a Hash of light- 
ning?" "Four or five leagues, sir." "And has any one man here seen 
a Hash of lightning?" "No, sir." "How far off can a man hear a peal 
of thunder?" "Two or three leagues, sir." "And has any man here 
heard a peal of thunder?" "No, sir." "These are not men but goblins. 
They will return in the hope of devom-ing us when we are weak and faint 
after throwing away our water at their bidding. As the young merchant 
who went on before us was not a man of resource, most likely he has been 
fooled into throwing his water away and has been devoured when exhaus- 
tion ensued. We may expect to find his five hundred carts standing just 
as they were loaded for the start ; we shall come on them today. Press on 
with all possible speed, without throwing away a drop of water." 

Urging his men forward with these words, he proceeded on his way till 
he came upon the 500 carts standing just as they had been loaded and the 
skeletons of the men and oxen lying strewn in every direction. He had 
his carts unyoked and ranged in a circle so as to form a strong laager ; he 
saw that his men and oxen had their supper early, and that the oxen were 
made to lie down in the middle with the men round them ; and he himself 
with the leading men of his baud stood on guard, sword in hand, through 
the three watches of the night, waiting for the day to dawn. On the 

Tlie Jataha. Booh I. 

morrow at daybreak when he had had his oxen fed and everything needful 
done, he discarded his own weak carts for stronger ones, and his own 
common goods for the most costly of the derelict goods. Then he went on 
to his destination, where he bai-tered his stock for wares of twice or three 
times their value, and came back to his own city without losing a single 
man out of all his company. 

[104] This story ended, the Master said, "Thus it was, layman, that in 
times past the fatuous came to utter destruction, whilst those who clave to the 
truth, escaping from the demons' hands, reached their goal in safety and came 
back to their homes again." And when he had thus linked the two stories 
together, he, as the Buddha, spoke the following stanza for the purposes of this 
lesson on the Tinith : — 

Then some declared the sole, the peerless truth; 
But otherwise the false logicians spake. 
Let him that 's wise from this a lesson take, 
And firmly grasp the sole, the peerless truth. 

[105] Thus did the Blessed One teach this lesson respecting Truth. And 
he went on to say: "What is called walking by truth, not only bestows the 
three happy endowments, the six heavens of the realms of sense, and the endow- 
ments of the higher Realm of Brahma, but finally is the giver of Arahatship 
[106]; whilst what is called walking by untruth entails re-birth in the four 
states of punishment or in the lowest castes of mankind." Further, the Master 
went on to expound in sixteen ways the Four Truths i, at the close of which all 
those five hundred disciples were established in the Fruit of the First Path 2. 

Having deUvered his lesson and his teaching, and having told the two stories 
and established the connexion linking them together, the Master concluded by 
identifying the Birth as follows: — "Devadatta was the foolish young merchant 
of those days ; his followers were the followers of that merchant ; the followers of 
the Buddha were the followers of the wise merchant, who was myself." 

^ These four cardinal truths of Buddhism are as follows : — (i) individual existence 
is paiu; (ii) cravings cause the continuance of individual existence; (iii) with the 
disappearance of cravings, individual existence also would disappear; and (iv) cravings 
disappear by following the Noble Eightfold Path pointed out by the Buddha. (See 
hereon Rhys Davids' Hibbert Lecture for 1881.) 

" The normal road to the Buddhist ideal after conversion is divided into four 
successive stages, called the cattdro maggd or 'four paths.' The first of these is that 
trodden by the sotdpanno (one 'who has entered the stream' which flows down to the 
ocean of Nirvana), who is assured of ultimately reaching his goal but has first to 
undergo seven more existences none of which can be in a state of suffering ; the second 
path is that trodden by the sakaddgdmi, the disciple whose imperfections have been 
so far eradicated that he has only to 'return' to a human-form once more before 
attaining Nirvana ; the third path is that of the anagdnu, the disciple who will ' not 
return ' to earth, but will attain the goal from a Brahma realm ; whilst the fourth and 
last is Arahatshiji, which is Nirvana. Each of these four stages is further subdivided 
into two sub-stages, the lower called 'the path,' and the higher 'the fruit.' (See 
Maha-parinibbana Sutta aud the commentary thereon of the Sumangala Vilasini.) 

Ko. 2. 9 

[iVote. See Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 1847, 
where Gogerly has given a translation of this Jataka, as also of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 
6th, and 38th, with a brief introduction to the Jataka-book. See also page 108 
of Hardy's Manual of Budkism., and Gogerly in the Ceylon Friend for August 
1838. This Jataka is quoted in the ]\Iilinda-panho, p. 289 of Rhys Davids' 
translation in Vol. 35 of Sacred Books of the East. There is an Apannaka-Sutta 
in the Majjhima-Nikaya (No. 60), but it does not appear to be connected with 
this, the Apannaka-Jataka.] 

No. 2. 


" Untiring, deep they o?;/^."— This discourse was delivered by the Blessed One 
whilst he was dwelling at Savatthi. 

About wliom, you ask ? 

About a Brother who gave up persevering. 

Tradition says that, whilst the Buddha was dwelling at Savatthi, there came 
to Jetavana a scion of a Savatthi family, who, on hearing a discourse by the 
IMaster, realised that Lusts breed suftering, and was admitted to the first stage 
of the Brotherhood. After five years passed in preparing for admission to full 
Brotherhood 1, when he had learnt two summaries and had trained himself in 
the methods of Insight, he obtained from the Master a theme for meditation 
which commended itself to him. Retiring to a forest, he passed there the 
rainy season ; but for all his striving during the three months, he could not 
develope a glimmer or an inkling of Insight. So the thought came to him, 
"The Master said there were four types of men, and I must belong to the 
lowest of all; in this birth, methinks, there is neither Path nor Fruit for me. 
What good shall I do by living in the forest ? Back to the Master I will go, and 
live my life beholding the glories of the Buddha's presence and listening to his 
sweet teachings." And back again to Jetavana he came. 

Now his friends and intimates said, "Sir, it was you who obtained from the 
Master a theme for meditation and departed to live the solitary life of a sage. 
Yet here you are back again, going about enjoying fellowship. Can it be that 
you have won the crown of the Brotlier's vocation and that you will never know 
re-birth'?" "Sirs, as I won neither Path nor Fruit, I felt myself doomed to 
futility, and so gave up persevering and came back." "You have done wrong. 
Sir, in shewing a faint heart when you had devoted yourself to the doctrine of the 
dauntless Master. [107] Come, let us bring you to the Buddha's notice." And 
they took him with them to the Master. 

^ The terms pabhajjd and upasampadd, which denote the two stages of initiation 
for a Brother of the Buddhist Order, and are comparable with the successive degrees 
of Bachelor and Master in a Faculty, suggest the successive ordinations of Deacon and 
Priest. But, as it is misleading to use Christian phraseology in speaking of the 
Buddhist philosophy, these convenient terms have been eschewed in the translation. 
As will be seen from the Vinaya (Mahavagga i. 49 — 51), fifteen was the normal age for 
pabhajjd and twenty for upasampadd, the interval being that of five years mentioned in 
the text. 

10 The Jataha. Book I. 

When the Master became aware of their coming, he said, "Jirethren, you 
bring with you this Brother against his will. AVhat has he done ?" 

"Sir, after devoting himself to so absolutely true a doctrine, this Brother has 
given \\\) persevering in the solitary life of a sage, and is come back." 

Then said the Master to him, "Is it true, as they say, that you. Brother, 
have given up persevering?" "It is true. Blessed One." "But how comes it 
that, after devoting yourself to such a doctrine, you, Brother, should be the one to 
show yourself not a man desiring little, contented, solitary, and determined, but 
a man lacking perseverance '( Was it not you who were so stout-hearted in 
bygone days ( Was it not by you single-handed, thanks to your perseverance, 
tliat in a sandy desert the men and the oxen belonging to a caravan of five 
hiuidred carts got water and were cheered ? And how is it that, now, you are 
giving in ?" These woi'ds sufficed to give heart to that Brother. 

Hearing this talk, the Bi-ethren asked the Blessed One, saying, "Sir, the 
present faintheartedness of this Brother is clear to us ; but hidden from us is the 
knowledge of how, by the perseverance of this single man, the men and oxen got 
water in a sandy desert and were cheered. This is known only to you who are 
omniscient ; pray tell us about it." 

"Hearken, then, Bi'ethren," said the Blessed One; and, having excited their 
attention, he made clear the thing that re-birth had concealed from them. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was king in Benares in Kasi the 
Bodhisatta was born into a trader's family. When he was grown u}), he 
used to travel about trading with 500 carts. On one occasion he came 
to a sandy wilderness sixty leagues across, the sand of which was so fine 
that, when graspctl, it slipped through the fingers of the closed fist. As soon 
as the sun got up, it grew as hot as a bed of charcoal-embers and nobody 
could walk upon it. Accordingly, those traversing it used to take fire- 
wood, water, oil, rice and so forth on their carts, and only travelled by 
night. At dawn they used to range their carts in a circle to form a 
laager, with an awning spread overhead, and after an early meal used to 
sit in the shade all the day long. When the sun went down, they had 
their evening meal ; and, so soon as the ground became cool, they used to 
yoke their carts and move forward. Travelling on this desert was like 
voyaging over the sea; a 'desert-pilot,' as he was called, had to convoy 
them over by knowledge of the stars [108]. And this was the way in 
which our merchant was now travelling that wilderness. 

When he had only some seven more miles before him, he thought to 
himself, " To-night will see us out of this sandy wilderness." So, after 
they had had their supper, he ordered the wood and water to be thrown 
away, and yoking his carts, set out on the road. In the front cart sat the 
pilot upon a couch looking up to the stars in the heavens and directing 
the course thereby. But so long had he been without sleep that he was 
tired out and fell asleep, with tJie result that he did not mark that the 
oxen had turned round and were retracing their stejjs. All night the 
oxen kept on their way, but at dawn the pilot woke up, and, observing the 
disposition of the stars overhead, shouted out, " Turn the carts round ! 

No. 2. 11 

turu the carts round ! " And as they turned the carts round and were 
forming them into line, the day broke. "Why this is where we camped 
yesterday," cried the people of the caravan. " All our wood and water is 
gone, and we are lost." So saying, they unyoked their carts and made a 
laager and spread the awning overhead ; then each man flung himself 
down in despair beneath his own cart. Thought the Bodhisatta to himself, 
"If I give in, every single one will perish." So he ranged to and fro 
while it was still early and cool, until he came on a clump of kusa-grass. 
"This grass," thought he, "can only have grown up here thanks to the 
2>resence of water underneath." So he ordered a spade to be brought and 
a hole to be dug at that spot. Sixty cubits down they dug, till at that 
depth the spade struck on a rock, and everybody lost heart. But the 
Bodhisatta, feeling sure there must be water under that rock, de- 
scended into the hole and took his stand upon the rock. Stooping down, he 
applied his ear to it, and listened. Catching the sound of water flowing 
beneath, he came out and said to a serving-lad, " My boy, if you give in, 
we shall all perish. So take heart and courage. Go down into the hole 
with this iron sledge-hammer, and strike the rock." 

Obedient to his master's bidding, [109] the lad, resolute where all 
others had lost heart, went down and struck the rock. The rock which 
had dammed the stream, split 'asunder and fell in. Up rose the water in 
the hole till it was as high as a palm-tree ; and everybody drank and 
bathed. Then they chopped up their spare axles and yokes and other 
surplus gear, cooked their rice and ate it, and fed their oxen. And as 
soon as the sun set, they hoisted a flag by the side of the well and 
travelled on to their destination. There they bartered away their goods 
for twice and four times their value. With the proceeds they returned to 
their own home, where they lived out their term of life and in the end 
passed away to fare thereafter according to their deserts. The Bodhisatta 
too after a life spent in charity and other good works, passed away likewise 
to fare according to his deserts. 

When the Supreme Buddha had delivered this discourse, he, the All-Knowing 
One himself, uttered this stanza : — 

Untiring, deep they dug that sandy ti-ack 
Till, in the trodden way, they water found. 
So let the sage, iu perseverance strong. 
Flag not nor tire, until his heart find Peace. 

[110] This discourse ended, he preached the Four Truths, at the close 
v-'hereof the fainthearted Brother was established in the highest Fruit of all, 
which is Arahatship. 

Having told these two stories, the Master established the connexion linking 
them both together, and identified the Birth by saying: — "This fainthearted 
Brother of to-day was in those days the serving-lad who, persevering, broke the 
rock and gave water to all the people ; the Buddha's followers were the rest of 
the people of the caravan; and I myself was their leader." 

12 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

No. 3. 


"//" in this faith." This lesson too was taught by the Blessed One while 
at Siivatthi, also about a Brother who gave up persevering. 

For, when the man was brought by the Brethren exactly as in the foregoing 
case, the Master said, " You, Brother, who after devoting yourself to this glorious 
doctrine which bestows Path and Fruit, [111] are giving ujj persevering, will suffer 
long, like the hawker of Seri who lost a golden bowl worth a hundred thousand 

The Brethren asked the Blessed One to explain this to them. The Blessed 
One made clear a thing concealed from them by re-birth. 

Once on a time in the kingdom of Seri, five aeons ago, the Bodhisatta 
dealt in pots and pans, and was called ' the Serivan.' In the company of 
another dealer in the same wares, a gi-eedy fellow who was also known 
as ' the Serivan,' he came across the river Telavaha and entered the city 
of Andhapura. Apportioning the streets between the two of them, he 
set about hawking his wares round the streets of his district, and the 
other did tlie same in his district. 

Now in that city there was a decayed family. Once they had been 
rich merchants, but by the time of our story they had lost all the sons and 
brothers and all their wealth. The sole survivors were a girl and her 
grandmother, and they got their living by working for hire. Nevertheless, 
they had got in their house the golden bowl out of which in the old days 
the great merchant, the head of the family, used to eat ; but it had been 
thrown among the pots and pans, and having been long out of use, was 
grimed over with dirt, so that the two women did not know that it was 
gold. To the door of their house came the greedy hawker on his round, 
crying, " Waterpots to sell ! Waterpots to sell ! " And the damsel, when 
she knew he was there, said to her grandmother, " Oh, do buy me a 
ti'inket, grandmother." 

"We're very poor, dear; what can we offer in exchange for it?" 

"Why here's this bow^l which is no good to us. Let ns change that 
for it." 

The old woman had the hawker bi'ought in and seated, and gave him 
the bowl, saying, " Take this, sir, and be so good as to give your sister 
something or other in exchange." 

The hawker took the bowl in his hand, turned it ovei', and, suspecting 
it was gold , scratched a line on the back of it with a needle, whereby he 

No. 3. 13 

knew for certain that it was real gold. Then, thinking that he would get 
the pot without giving anything whatever for it to the women, he cried, 
"What's the value of this, pray 1 Why it isn't worth half a farthing !" [1 1 2] 
And therewithal he threw the bowl on the ground, rose up from his seat, 
and left the house. Now, as it had been agreed between the two hawkers 
that the one might ti-y the streets which the other had already been into, 
the Bodhisatta came into that same street and appeared at the door of the 
house, crying, " Waterpots to sell ! " Once again the damsel made the same 
request of her grandmother ; and the old woman replied, " My dear, the 
first hawker threw our bowl on the ground and flung out of the house. 
What have we got left to offer now 1 " 

" Oh, but that hawker was a harsh-spoken man, grandmother dear ; 
whilst this one looks a nice man and speaks kindly. Very likely he would 
take it." " Call him in then." So he came into the house, and they gave 
him a seat and put the bowl into his hands. Seeing that the bowl was 
gold, he said, " Mother, this bowl is worth a hundred thousand pieces ; I 
haven't its value with me." 

" Sir, the first hawker who came here said that it was not worth half a 
farthing ; so he threw it to the ground and went away. It must have been 
the efficacy of your own goodness which has turned the bowl into gold. 
Take it ; give us something or other for it ; and go your way." At the 
time the Bodhisatta had 500 pieces of money and a stock worth as nnich 
more. The whole of this he gave to them, saying, " Let me retain my 
scales, my bag, and eight pieces of money." And with their consent he 
took these with him, and departed with all speed to the river-side where he 
gave his eight coins to the boatman and jumped into the boat. Sub- 
sequently that greedy hawker had come back to the house, and had asked 
them to bring out their bow], saying he would give them something or 
other for it. But the old woman flew out at him with these words, 
"You made out that our golden bowl which is worth a hundred thousand 
pieces was not worth even a half-farthing. But there came an upright 
hawker (your master, I take it), who gave us a thousand pieces for it and 
took the bowl away." 

Hereupon he exclaimed, " He has robbed me of a golden bowl worth 
a full hundred thousand pieces; he has caused me a terrible loss." And 
intense soitow came upon him, so that he lost command over himself and 
became like one distraught. [113] His money and goods he flung away at 
the door of the house ; he threw off his upper and under cloths ; and, 
armed with the beam of his scales as a club, he ti'acked the Bodhisatta 
down to the river-side. Finding the latter already crossing, he shouted to 
the boatman to put back, but the Bodhisatta told him not to do so. As 
the other stood there gazing and gazing at the retreating Bodhisatta, intense 
sorrow seized upon him. His heart grew hot; blood gushed from his lips; 

14 The Jataka. Book I. 

and his heart cracked like the mud at the bottom of a tank, which the sun 
has dried up. Through the hatred which lie had contracted against the 
Bodhisatta, lie perished theu and there. (This was the first time Devadatta 
conceived a grudge against the Bodhisatta.) The Bodhisatta, after a life 
spent in charity and other good woi'ks, passed away to fare accoi'ding to 
his deserts. 

When the Suj^reme Buddha had ended thi.s lesson, he, the All-Knowing One 
himself, uttered this stanza : — 

If in this faith you prove remiss, and fail 
To win the goal whereto its teachings lead, 
— Then, like the hawker called 'the Serivan^,' 
Full long you'll rue the prize your folly lost. 

After having thus delivered his discourse in such a way as to lead up to 
Arahatship, the Master expounded the Four Truths, at the close whereof the 
fainthearted Brother was established in that highest Fruit of all, which is 

And, after telling the two stories, the Master made the connexion linking 
them both together, and identified the Birth by saying in conclusion, "In those 
days Devadatta was the foolish hawker; and I myself was the wise and good 

No. 4. 


[114] '■'•With humblest start.'" This story was told by the Master about the 
Elder named Little Wayman, while in Jivaka's Mango-grove^ near Rajagaha. 
And here an account of Little Wayman's birth must be given. Tradition tells 
us that the daughter of a rich merchant's family in Rajagaha actually stooped to 
intimacy with a slave. Becoming alarmed lest her misconduct should get known, 
she said to the slave, " We can't live on here ; for if my mother and father come 
to know of this sin of ours, they will tear us limb from limb. Let us go and live 
afar oft"." So with their belongings in their hands they stole together out by the 
hardly-o})ened door, and fled away, they cared not whither, to find a shelter 
beyond the ken of her family. Then they went and lived together in a certain 
place, with the result that she conceived. And when her full time was nearly 
come, she told her husband and said, "If I am taken in labour away from kith 
and kin, that will be a trouble to both of us. So let us go home." First he 

^ The scholium here gives the rascal's name as 'Seriva,' not recognising that the 
gatha-word 'Serivaycnh^ represents the ' saiidhi ' of Serivo (not Seriva) with ay am, just 
as dukkhdyam on p. 168 of Vol. i. of the text represents dukklio aymh. 

^ Jivaka, a prominent lay-follower of the Buddha, was physician to the Magadha 
King Seniya Bimbisara. See, for his history, the account in the Vinaya (Mahavagga 
VIII. 1). 

No. 4. 15 

agreed to start to-day, and then he put it off till the morrow ; and so he let the 
days slip by, till she thought to herself, "This fool is so conscious of his great 
offence that he dares not go. One's parents are one's best friends ; so whether 
he goes or stays, I must go." So, when he went out, she put all her household 
matters in order and set off home, telling her next-door neighbour where she was 
going. Returning home, and not finding his wife, but discovering from the 
neighbours that she had started off home, he hurried after her and came up with 
her on the road ; and then and there she was taken in labour. 

"What's this, my dearl" said he. 

"I have given birth to a son, my husband," said she. 

Accordingly, as the very thing had now happened which was the only reason 
for the journey, they both agreed that it was no good going on now, and so 
turned back again. And as their child had been born by the way, they called 
him 'Wayman.' 

[115] Not long after, she became with child again, and everything fell out 
as before. And as this second child too was born by the way, they called him 
'Wayman' too, distinguishing the elder as 'Great Wayman' and the younger as 
'Little Wayman.' Then, with both their children, they again went back to their 
own home. 

Now, as they were living there, their way-child heard other boys talking of 
their uncles and grandfathers and grandmothers ; so he asked his mother whether 
he hadn't got relations like the other boys. "Oh yes, my dear," said his mother ; 
"but they don't live here. Your grandfather is a wealthy merchant in the city 
of Rajagaha, and you have plenty of relations there." "Why don't we go there, 
mother?" She told the boy the reason why they stayed away; but, as the 
children kept on speaking about these relations, she said to her husband, "The 
children are always plaguing me. Are my parents going to eat us at sight? 
Come, let us shew the children their grandfather's family." "Well, I don't mind 
taking them there ; but I really could not face your parents." "All right; — so 
long as, some way or other, the children come to see their grandfather's family," 
said she. 

So those two took their children and coming in due course to Rajagaha put 
up in a public rest-house by the city gate. Then, taking with them the two 
children, the woman caused their coming to be made known to her parents. 
The latter, on hearing the message, returned this answer, "True, it is strange to 
be without children unless one has renounced the world in quest of Arahatship. 
Still, so great is the guilt of the pair towards us that they may not stand in our 
sight. Here is a sum of money for them : let them take this and retire to live 
where they will. But the children they may send here." Then the merchant's 
daughter took the money so sent her, and despatched the children by the 
messengers. So the children grew up in their grandfather's house, — Little 
Wayman being of tender years, while Great Wayman used to go with his grand- 
father to hear the Buddha preach the Truth. And by constant hearing of the 
Truth from the Master's own lips, the lad's heart yearned to renounce the world 
for the life of a Brother. 

"With your permission," said he to his grandfather, "I should like to join the 
Brotherhood." "What do I hear?" cried the old man. "Why, it would give me 
greater joy to see you join the Order than to see the whole world join. Become 
a Brother, if you feel able." And he took him to the Master. 

"Well, merchant," said the Master, "have you brought your boy with you?" 
"Yes, sir; this is my grandson, who wishes to join your Brotherhood." [116] 
Then the Master sent for a Mendicant, and told him to admit the lad to the 
Order; and the Mendicant repeated the Formida of the Perishable Body ^ and 

1 Buddhism teaches the impermanence of things, and chief of the trains of thought 
for realising this doctrine is the meditation on the body and its 32 impurities (see 
Sutta Nipata i. 11, and the 12th Jataka infra). At the present day every novice in 
Ceylon, when invested with the yellow robe of the Order, repeats the verses which 
enumerate the 32 impurities. 

16 The Jataha. Booh I. 

admitted the lad as a novice. When the latter had learned by heart many words 
of the Bviddha, and was old enough, he was admitted a full Brother. He now 
gave himself uj) to earnest thought till he won Arahatship ; and as he passed his 
days in the enjoyment of Insight and the Paths, he thought whether he could 
not impart the like happiness to Little Wayman. So he went to his grandfather 
the merchant, and said, "Great merchant, with your consent, I will admit Little 
Wayman to the Order." "Pray do so, reverend sir," was the reply. 

Then the Elder admitted the lad Little Wayman and established him in the 
Ten Commandments. But Little Wayman proved a dullard : with four months' 
study he failed to get by heart this single stanza : — 

Lo ! like a fragrant lotus at the dawn 
Of day, full-blown, with virgin wealth of scent, 
Behold the Buddha's glory shining forth, 
As in the vaulted heaven beams the sun ! 

For, we are told, in the Buddhahood of Kassapa this Little Wayman, having 
himself attained to knowledge as a Brother, laughed to scorn a dull Brother who 
was learning a passage by heart. His scorn so confused his butt, that the latter 
could not learn or recite the passage. And now, in consequence, on joining the 
Brotherhood he himself proved a dullard. Each new line he learned drove the 
last out of his memory ; and four months slipped away while he was struggling 
with this single stanza. Said his elder brother to him, "Wayman, you are not 
equal to receiving this doctrine. Li four whole months you have been unable to 
learn a single stanza. How then can you hope to crown your vocation with 
sui)reme success ? Leave the monastery." But, though thus expelled by his 
brother. Little Wayman was so attached to the Buddha's creed that he did not 
want to become a layman. 

Now at that time Great Wayman was acting as steward. And Jivaka 
Komarabhacca, going to his mango-grove with a large present of perfumes and 
flowers for the Master, had presented his oftering and listened to a discourse; 
then, rising from his seat and bowing to the Buddha, he went up to Great 
Wayman and asked, "How many Brethren are there, reverend sir, with the 
Master?" "Just 500, sir." "Will you bring the 500 Brethren, with the Buddha 
at their head, to take their meal at my house to-morrow?" "Lay-disciple, one 
of them named Little Wayman is a dullard and makes no progress in the Faith," 
said the Elder ; " I accept the invitation for everyone but him." 

[117] Hearing this. Little Wayman thought to himself, "In accepting the 
invitation for all these Brethren, the Elder carefully accepts so as to exclude me. 
This proves that my brother's affection for me is dead. What have I to do with 
this Faith 'I I will become a layman and live in the exercise of charity and other 
good works of a lay character." And on the morrow early he went forth, 
avowedly to become a layman again. 

Now at the first break of day, as he was surveying the world, the Master 
became aware of this; and going forth even earlier than Little Wayman, he 
paced to and fro by the porch on Little Wayman's road. As the latter came out 
of the house, he observed the Master, and with a salutation went up to him. 
"Whither away at this hour, Little Wayman ?" said the Master. 

"My brother has expelled me from the Order, sir ; and I am going to wander 

"Little Wayman, as it was under me that you took the vows, why did you 
not, when expelled by your brother, come to me ? Come, what have you to do 
with a layman's life I You shall stop with me." So saying, he took Little 
Wayman and seated him at the door of his own perfumed chamber. Then 
giving him a perfectly clean cloth which he had supernaturally created, the 
Master said, "Face towards the East, and as you handle this cloth, repeat these 
words — 'Removal of Imj^urity; Removal of Impuritj'.'" Then at the time 
appointed the Master, attended by the Brotherhood, went to Jivaka's house and 
sat down on the seat set for him, 

No. 4. 17 

Now Little Wayman, with his gaze fixed on the sun, sat handling the cloth 
and repeating the words, "Removal of Impurity; Removal of Impurity." And 
as he kept handling the piece of cloth, it grew soiled. Then he thought, "Just 
now this piece of cloth was quite clean ; but my personality has destroyed its 
original state and made it dirty. Impermanent indeed are all compounded 
things ! " And even as he realised Death and Decay, he won the Arahat's 
Illumination. Knowing that Little Wayman's mind had won Illumination, the 
Master sent forth an apparition and in this semblance of himself appeared before 
him, as if seated in front of him and saying, "Heed it not, Little Wayman, that 
this mere piece of cloth has become dirty and stained with impurity ; within 
thee are the impurities of lust and other evil things. Remove them." And the 
apparition uttered these stanzas : — 

Impurity in Lust consists, not dirt; 

And Lust we term the real Impurity. 

Yea, Brethren, whoso drives it from his breast, 

He lives the gospel of the Pui'ified. 

[118] Impurity in Wrath consists, not dirt; 

And Wrath we term the real Impurity. 
Yea, Brethren, whoso drives it from his breast, 
ITe lives the gospel of the Purified. 

Delusion is Impurity, not dirt ; 

We term Delusion real Impurity. 

Yea, Brethren, whoso drives it from his breast, 

ffe lives the gospel of the Purified. 

At the close of these stanzas Little Wayman attained to Arahatship with the 
four branches of knowledge i, whereby he straightway came to have knowledge of 
all the sacred texts. Tradition has it that, in ages past, when he was a king and 
was making a solemn procession round his city, he wiped the sweat from his 
brow with a spotless cloth which he was wearing; and the cloth was stained. 
Thought he, " It is this body of mine which has destroyed the original i>urity and 
whiteness of the cloth, and dirtied it. Impermanent indeed are all composite 
things." Thus he grasped the idea of impermanence ; and hence it came to pass 
that it was the removal of impurity which worked his salvation. 

Meantime, Jivaka Komarabhacca ofi'ered the Water of Donation'-; but the 
Master put his hand over the vessel, saying, "Are there no Brethren, Jivaka, in 
the monastery?" 

Said Great Wayman, "There are no Brethren there, reverend sir." "Oh yes, 
there are, Jivaka," said the Master. "Hi, there !" said Jivaka to a servant ; "just 
you go and see whether or not there are any Brethren in the monastery." 

At that moment Little Wayman, conscious as he was that his brother was 
declaring there were no Brethren in the monastery, determined to shew him 
there were, and so filled the whole mango-gi'ove with nothing but Brothers. 
Some were making robes, others dyeing, whilst others again were repeating the 
sacred texts : — each of a thousand Brethren he made unlike all the others. 
Finding this host of Brethren in the monastery, the man returned and said 
that the whole mango-grove was full of Brethren. 

But as regards the Elder up in the monastery — 

Wayman, a thousand-fold self-multiplied. 
Sat on, till bidden, in that pleasant grove. 

^ These four branches were (i) understanding of the sense of the sacred books, 
(ii) understanding of their ethical truth, (iii) ability to justify an interpretation 
grammatically, logically, etc., and (iv) the power of public exposition. 

- When a gift was made, the donor poured water over the hand of the donee. The 
gift that was here made by Jivaka was the food bestowed on the Brotherhood, as the 
Milinda-panho explains (p. 118) in its version of this story. 

c. J. 2 

18 The Jdfaka. Book I. 

"Now go back," said the Master to the man, "and say 'The Master sends for 
him whose name is Little Wayman.' " 

But when the man went and delivered his message, a thousand mouths 
answered, "I am Little Wayman ! 1 am Little Wayman !" 

Back came the man with the report, "They all say they are 'Little Wayman,' 
reverend sir." 

"Well now go back," said the Master, "and take by the hand the first one of 
them who says he is Little Wayman. [119] and the others will all vanish." The 
man did as he was bidden, and straightway the thousand Brethren vanished from 
sight. The Elder came back with the man. 

When the meal was over, the Master said, "Jivaka, take Little Wayman's 
bowl ; he will return thanks." Jivaka did so. Then like a young lion roaring 
defiance, the Elder ranged the whole of the sacred texts through in his address 
of thanks. Lastly, the Master rose from his seat and attended by the Order 
returned to the monastery, and there, after the assignment of tasks by the 
Brotherhood, he rose from his seat and, standing in the doorway of his perfumed 
chamber, delivered a Buddha-discourse to the Brotherhood. Ending with a 
theme which he gave out for meditation, and dismissing the Brotherhood, he 
retired into his perfumed chamber, and lay down lion-like on his right side to 

At even, the orange-robed Brethren assembled together from all sides in the 
Hall of Truth and sang the Master's praises, even as though they were spreading 
a curtain of orange cloth round him as they sat. 

"Brethren," it was said, "Great Wayman failed to recognise the bent of 
Little Wayman, and expelled him from the monastery as a dullard who could 
not even learn a single stanza in four whole months. But the All-Knowing 
Buddha by his supremacy in the Truth bestowed on him Arahatship with all its 
supernatural knowledge, even while a single meal was in progress. And by that 
knowledge he grasped the whole of the sacred texts. Oh ! how great is a Buddha's 
power ! " 

Now the Blessed One, knowing full well the talk that was going on in the 
Hall of Truth, thought it meet to go there. So, rising from his Buddha-couch, 
he donned his two orange under-cloths, girded himself as with lightning, arrayed 
himself in his orange-coloured robe, the ample robe of a Buddha, and came forth 
to the Hall of Truth with the infinite grace of a Buddha, moving with the royal 
gait of an elephant in the plenitude of his vigour. Ascending the glorious 
Buddha- throne set in the midst of the resplendent hall, he seated himself upon 
the middle of the throne emitting those six-coloiired rays which mark a Buddha, 
— like the newly-arisen sun, when from the peaks of the Yugandhara Mountains 
he illumines the depths of the ocean. Immediately the All-Knowing One came 
into the Hall, the Brotherhood broke oflT their talk and were silent. Gazing 
round on the company with gentle loving-kindness, the Master thought within 
himself, "This company is perfect! Not a man is guilty of moving hand or foot 
improperly ; not a sound, not a cough or sneeze is to be heard ! In their 
reverence and awe of the majesty and glory of the Buddha, not a man would 
dare to speak before I did, even if I sat here in silence all my life long. But it is 
ray part to begin ; and I will open the conversation." Then in his sweet divine 
tones he addressed the Brethren and said, [120] "What, pray, is the theme of 
this conclave? And what was the talk which was broken off?" 

"Sir," said they, "it was no profitless theme, but your own praises that we 
were telling here in conclave." 

And when they had told him word for word what they had been saying, the 
Master said, "Brethren, through me Little Wayman has just now risen to gi-eat 
things in the Faith ; in times past it was to great things in the way of wealth 
that he rose, — Viut equally through me." 

The Brethren asked the Master to explain this ; and the Blessed One made 
clear in these words a thing which succeeding existences had hidden from 
them : — 

No. 4. 19 

Once on a time when Bralimadatta was reigning in Benares in Kasi, 
the Bodhisatta was born into the Treasurer's family, and growing up, was 
made Treasurer, being called Treasurer Little. A wise and clever man 
was he, with a keen eye for signs and omens. One day on his way to wait 
upon the king, he came on a dead mouse lying on the road ; and, taking 
note of the position of the stars at that moment, he said, "Any decent 
young fellow with his wits about him has only to pick that mouse up, and 
he might start a business and keep a wife." 

His words were overheard by a young man of good family but reduced 
circumstances, who said to himself, "That's a man who has always got a 
reason for what he says." And accordingly he picked up the mouse, 
which he sold for a farthing at a tavern for their cat. 

With the farthing he got molasses and took drinking water in a water- 
pot. Coming on flower-gatherers returning from the forest, he gave each 
a tiny quantity of the molasses and ladled the water out to them. Each of 
them gave him a handful of flowers, with the proceeds of which, next day, 
he came back again to the flower grounds provided with more molasses 
and a pot of water. That day the flower-gatherers, before they went, gave 
him flowering plants with half the flowers left on them ; and thus in a 
little while he obtained eight pennies. 

Later, one rainy and windy day, the wind blew down a quantity of 
rotten branches and boughs and leaves in the king's pleasaunce, and the 
gardener did not see liow to clear them away. [121] Then up came the 
young man with an oflfer to remove the lot, if the wood and leaves might 
be his. The gardener closed with the ofier on the spot. Then this apt 
pupil of Treasurer Little repaired to the children's playground and in a 
very little while had got them by bribes of molasses to collect every stick 
and leaf in the place into a heap at the entrance to the pleasaunce. Just 
then the king's potter was on the look out for fuel to fire bowls for the 
palace, and coming on this heap, took the lot off his hands. The sale of 
his wood brought in sixteen pennies to this pupil of Treasurer Little, as 
well as five bowls and other vessels. Having now twenty-four pennies in 
all, a plan occurred to him. He went to the vicinity of tlie city-gate with 
a jar full of water and supplied 500 mowers with water to drink. Said 
they, "You've done us a good turn, friend. What can we do for youT' 
"Oh, I'll tell you when I want your aid," said he; and as he went about, 
he struck up an intimacy with a land-trader and a sea-trader. Said the 
former to him, "To-morrow there will come to town a horse-dealer with 
500 horses to sell." On hearing this piece of news, he said to the mowers, 
" I want each of you to-day to give me a bundle of grass and not to sell 
your own grass till mine is sold." "Certainly," said they, and delivered 
the 500 bundles of grass at his house. Unable to get grass for his horses 
elsewhere, the dealer purchased our friend's grass for a thousand pieces. 


20 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

Only a few days later his sea-trading friend brought him news of the 
arrival of a large ship in port; and another plan struck him. He hired 
for eight pence a well appointed carriage which plied for hire by the hour, 
and went in great style down to the port. Having bought the ship on 
credit and deposited his signet-ring as secui'ity, he had a pavilion pitched 
hard by and said to his people as he took his seat inside, "When merchants 
are being shewn in, let them be passed on by tln-ee successive ushers into 
my presence." [122] Hearing that a ship had arrived in port, about a 
hundred merchants came down to buy the cargo; only to be told that they 
could not have it as a great merchant had already made a payment on 
account. So away they all went to the young man ; and the footmen duly 
announced them by three successive ushei-s, as had been arranged before- 
hand. Each man of the hundred severally gave him a thousand ])ieces 
to buy a share in the shij) and then a further thousand each t(j l)uy him out 
altogether. So it was with 200,000 pieces that this pupil of Treasurer 
Little returned to Benares. 

Actuated by a desire to shew his gratitude, he went with one hundred 
thousand pieces to call on Treasurer Little. " How did you come by all 
this wealth?" asked the Treasui-er. "In four short months, simply by 
following your advice," replied the young man ; and he told him the whole 
story, starting with the dead mouse. Thought Lord High Treasurer Little, 
on hearing all this, " I must see that a young fellow of these parts does not 
fall into anybody else's hands." So he married him to his own grown-up 
daughter and settled all the family estates on the young man. And at 
the Treasurer's death, he became Treasurer in that city. And the 
Bodhisatta passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

[123] His lesson ended, the Supreme Buddha, the All-Knowing One him- 
self, repeated this stanza : — 

With humblest start and trifling capital 
A shrewd and able man will rise to wealth. 
E'en as his breath can nurse a tiny flame. 

Also the Blessed One said, "It is through me. Brethren, that Little 
Wayman has just now risen to great things in the Faith, as in times past to 
great things in the way of wealth." His lesson thus finished, the IMaster made 
the connexion between the two stories he had told and identified the Birth in 
these concluding words, "Little Wayman was in those days the pupil of Treasurer 
Little, and I myself Lord High Treasurer Little." 

{Note. The 'Introductory Story' occurs in Chapter vi. of Capt. T. Rogers' 
Duddhaghosha's Parables, but the 'Story of the Past' there given is quite different. 
See Mrs Bode's ' Women Leaders of the Buddhist Reformation ' in the J. R. A. S. 
1893, p. 55(i. See also Dhammapada., p. 181, and compare Chajiter xxxv. 
of the Dicifavadana, edited by Cowell and Neil, 1886. The whole Jataka, in an 
abbreviated form, forms the story of 'The Mouse Merchant' at pages 33, 34 of 
the first volume of Tawney's translation of the Katha Sarit Sagara. See also 
Kalilah and Dimnah, Chapter xvnr. ( r<'natchbull, page 3.58).] 

No. 5. 21 

No. 5. 


"Dost ask how much a peck of rice is xvorthV — This was told by the Master, 
whilst at Jetavana, about the Elder Udayi, called the Dullard. 

At that time the reverend Dabba, the Mallian, was manciple to the Brother- 
hood ^ When in the early morning Dabba was allotting the checks for rice, 
sometimes it was choice rice and sometimes it was an inferior qucxlity which fell 
to the share of the Elder Udayi. On days when he received the inferior quality, 
he used to make a commotion in the check-room, by demanding, " Is Dabba the 
only one who knows how to give out checks 1 Don't we know ?" One day when 
he was making a commotion, they handed him the check-basket, saying, "Here! 
you give the checks out yourself to-day I" Thenceforth, it was Udayi who gave 
out the checks to the Brotherhood. But, in his distribution, he could not tell the 
best from the inferior rice; nor did he know what seniority^ was entitled to the 
best rice and what to the inferior. So too, when he was making out the roster, 
he had not an idea of the seniority of the Brethren thereon. Consequently, when 
the Brethi-en took up their places, he made a mark on the ground or on the wall 
to shew that one detachment stood here, and another there. Next day there 
were fewer Brethren of one grade and more of another in the check-room ; where 
there were fewer, the mark was too low down ; where the number was greater, it 
was too high up. But Udilyi, quite ignorant of detachments, gave out the checks 
simply according to his old marks. 

Hence, the Brethren said to him, "Friend Udayi, the mark is too high up 
or too low down ; the best i-ice is for those of such and such seniority, and the 
inferior quality for such and such others." But he put them back with the 
argument, " If this mark is where it is, what are you standing here for ? Why am 
I to trust you ? It's my mark I trust." 

Then, the boys and novices [124] thrust him from the check-room, crying, 
"Friend Udayi the Dullard, when you give out the checks, the Brethren are 
docked of what they ought to get ; you're not fit to give them out ; get you gone 
from here." Hereupon, a great uproar arose in the check-room. 

Hearing the noise, the Master asked the Elder Ananda, saying, "Ananda, 
there is a great uproar in the check-room. What is the noise about ?" 

The Elder explained it all to the Buddha. "Ananda," said he, "this is not 
the only time when Udilyi by his stupidity has robbed others of their profit ; he 
did just the same thing in bygone times too." 

The Elder asked the Blessed One for an explanation, and the Blessed One 
made clear what had been concealed by re- birth. 

Once on a time Brahmadatta was i*eigning in Benares in Kasi. In 
those days our Bodhisatta was his valuer. He used to vahie horses, 
elephants, and the like ; and jewels, gold, and the like \ and he used to 
pay over to the owners of the goods the proper price, as he fixed it. 

1 See Vinaxja, Vol. iii. p. 158. 

^ Compare Vinaya, Vol. ii. p. 167, and commentary thereon {Sd7na7ita-pdsddika) 
for the right of seniors, according to the roster, to be served first. The manciple was 
to call out the roster. 

22 The Jataha. Booh I. 

But the king was greedy and his greed suggested to him this thought : 
"This vahier witli his style of valuing will soon exhaust all the riches in 
njy house; I must get another valuer." Opening his window and looking 
out into his courtyard, he espied walking across a stupid, greedy hind in 
whom he saw a likely candidate for the post. So the king had the man 
sent for, and asked him whether he could do the work. "Oh yes," said 
the man ; and so, to safeguard the royal treasure, this stupid fellow was 
appointed valuer. After this the fool, in valuing elephants and horses and 
the like, used to fix a price dictated by his own fancy, neglecting their 
true worth ; but, as he was valuer, the price was what he said and no 

At that time tliere arrived from the north country^ a horse-dealer with 
500 horses. The king sent for his new valuer and bade him value the horses. 
And the price he set on the whole 500 horses was just one measure of 
rice, which he ordered to be paid over to the dealer, directing the horses 
to be led off to the stable [125]. Away went the horse-dealer to the old 
valuer, to whom he told what had happened, and asked what was to be 
done. "Give him a bribe," said the ex-valuer, "and put this point to him: 
' Knowing as we do that our horses are worth just a single measure of 
rice, we are curious to learn from you what the precise value of a measure 
of rice is ; could you state its value in the king's presence V If he says 
he can, then take him before the king; and I too will be there." 

Readily following the Bodhisatta's advice, the horse-dealer bribed the 
man and put the question to him. The other, having expressed his ability 
to value a measure of rice, was promptly taken to the palace, whither also 
went the Bodhisatta and many other ministers. With due obeisance the 
horse-dealer said, "8ire, I do not dispute it that the price of 500 horses is 
a single measure of rice ; but I would ask your majesty to question your 
valuer as to the value of that measure of rice." Ignorant of what had 
passed, the king said to the fellow, "Valuer, what are 500 horses worth?" 
"A measure of rice, sire," was the reply. "Very good, my friend ; if 500 
horses then are worth one measure of rice, what is that measure of rice 
worth?" "It is worth all Benares and its suburbs," was the fool's 

(Thus we learn that, having first valued the horses at a measure of 
hill-paddy to please the king, he was bribed by the horse-dealer to estimate 
that measure of I'ice at the worth of all Benares and its suburbs. And 
that though the walls of Benares were twelve leagues round by themselves, 
while the city and suburbs together were three hundred leagues round ! 

1 In the Ceylon R. A. S. J. 188i, p. 127, it is argued from the indefinite use of 
uttarii-patha for all countries north of Benares that the date of writing must be before 
the 3rd century B.C., when Buddhistic embassies were sent to Mysore and North Canara 
and when the Dakshinapatha was familiar. 

No. 6. 23 

Yet tlie fool priced all this vast city and its suburbs at a single measure 
of rice !) 

[126J Hereupon the ministers clapped their hands and laughed merrily. 
"We used to think," they said in scorn, " that the earth and the realm 
were beyond price ; but now we learn that the kingdom of Benares 
together with its king is only worth a single measure of rice ! What 
talents the valuer has ! How has he retained his post so long? But truly 
the valuer suits our king admirably." 

Then the Bodhisatta repeated this stanza': 

Dost ask how much a peck of rice is worth I 
— Why, all Benares, both within and out. 
Yet, strange to tell, five hundred horses too 
Are worth precisely this same peck of rice ! 

Thus put to open shame, the king sent the fool packing, and gave the 
Bodhisatta the office again. And when his life closed, the Bodhisatta 
passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

His lesson ended and the two stories told, the Master made the connexion 
linking both together, and identified the Birth by saying in conclusion, — "Udayi 
the Dullard was the stupid rustic valuer of those days, and I myself the wise 

No. 6. 


" Those only ^ godlike^ call." — This story was told by the Blessed One while at 
Jetavana, about a wealthy Brother. 

Tradition tells us that, on the death of his wife, a squire of Savatthi joined 
the Brotherhood. When he was joining, he caused to be built for himself a 
chamber to live in, a room for the fire, and a store-room ; and not till he 
had stocked his store-room with ghee, rice, and the like, did he finally join. 
Even after he had become a brother, he used to send for his servants and 
make them cook him what he liked to eat. He was richly provided with the 
requisites', — having an entire change of clothing for night and another for day ; 
and he dwelt aloof on the outskirts of the monastery. 

1 The text of this stanza does not occur in Fausboll's Pali text, but is given by L6ou 
Feer at page 520 of the Journal Asiatique for 1876 and is embodied in the 'Corrections 
and Additions' of FausboU. That the stanza originally formed part of the Sinhalese 
recension is shewn by the quotation of the opening words as the 'catchword' at the 
commencement of the Jataka. See also Dickson in Ceylon J. R. A. S. 1884, p. 185. 

■-* I.e. an alms-bowl, three cloths, a girdle, a razor, a needle and a water-strainer. 

24 The Jataka. Book I. 

One day when he had taken out his cloths and bedding and had spread 
them out to dry in his chamber, a number of Brethren from the comitry, 
who were on a pilgrimage from monastery to monastery i, came in their journeying 
to his cell and found all these belongings. 

"Whose are these?" they asked. "Mine, sirs," he replied. "What, sir?" 
they cried ; " this upper-cloth and that as well ; this under-cloth as well as 
that; and that bedding too, — is it all yours?" "Yes, nobody's but mine." 
" Sir," said they, " the Blessed One has only sanctioned three cloths ; and 
yet, though the Buddha, to whose doctrine you hav^e devoted yourself, is so simple 
in his wants, you forsooth have amassed all this stock of requisites. Come ! 
we must take you before the Lord of AVisdom." And, so saying, they went 
off with him to the Master. 

Becoming aware of their presence, the Master said, [127] " Wherefore is it, 
Brethren, that you have brought the Brother against his will?" "Sir, this 
Brother is well-oft' and has quite a stock of requisites." "Is it true, Brother, as 
they say, that you are so well-oft'?" "Yes, Blessed One." "But why, Brother, 
have you amassed these belongings ? Do not 1 extol the virtues of wanting 
little, contentment, and so forth, solitude, and determined resolve?" 

Angered by the Master's words, he cried, — "Then I'll go about like this!" 
And, flinging off" his outer clothing, he stood in their midst clad only in his 

Then, as a moral support to him, the Master said, " Was it not you. Brother, 
who in bygone days were a seeker after the shamefacedness that fears to sin, and 
even when you were a water-demon lived for twelve years seeking after that 
shamefacedness ? How then comes it that, after vowing to follow the weighty 
doctrine of the Buddha, you have flung oft" your outer robes and stand here devoid 
of shame?" 

At the ]\Iaster's word, his sense of shame was restored ; he donned his robes 
again, and, saluting the Master, seated himself at the side. 

The Brethren having asked the Blessed One to explain to them the matter he 
had mentioned, the Blessed One made clear what had been concealed from them 
by re-birth. 

Once on a time Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares in Kasi. The 
Bodhisatta, having come to birth in those days as the king's son by the 
queen, was duly named Prince Maliimsasa. By the time he could run 
about, a second son was born to the king, and the name they gave this 
child was Prince Moon ; but by the time he could run about, the 
Bodhisatta's mother died. Then the king took another queen, who was his 
joy and delight; and their love was crowned with the birth of yet another 
prince, whom they named Prince Sun. In his joy at the birth of the boy, 
the king promised to grant her any boon she might ask on the child's 
behalf. But the queen treasured up the promise to be fulfilled at her own 
good time hei-eafter. Later, when her son had grown up, she said to the 
king, "Sire, when my boy was born, you granted me a boon to ask for 
him. Let him be kinar." 

* I take this to be the meaning of sendsana-cdrihu, in contradistinction to the 
ordinary cdrikd in which the destination was uncertain and in which alms were received 
from the laity. 

No. 6. 25 

"Nay," said the king; "two sons have I, radiant as flaming fii'es ; I 
cannot give the kingdom to your son."' But when he saw that, undaunted 
by this refusal, the queen kept plaguing liim time after time, to grant her 
request, [128] the king, fearing lest the woman should plot evil against 
his sons, sent for them and said, " My children, when Prince Sun was born, 
I granted a boon ; and now his mother wants the kingdom for him. I 
have no to give him the kingdom ; but women are naturally wicked, and 
she will be plotting evil against you. You had better retire to the forest, 
to return at my death to rule in the city which belongs by right to our 
house." So saying, with tears and lamentations, the king kissed his two 
sons on the head and sent them forth. 

As the 2)riuces were leaving the palace after their adieux to their 
father, who should see them but Prince Sun himself, who was playing in 
the courtyard ? And no sooner did he learn what was the matter than he 
made up his mind to go with his brothers. So he too went off in their 

The three came to the region of the Himalayas ; and here the 
Bodhisatta, who had turned aside from the road and was sitting at the foot 
of a tree, said to Prince Sun, "Run down to the pool yonder. Sun dear; 
diink and bathe there ; and then bring us too some water back in a lotus- 

(Now that pool had been delivered OA'er to a certain water-sprite by 
Vessavana\ who said to him, "With the exception of such as know what is 
truly god-like, all that go down into this pool are yours to devour. Over 
those that do not enter the waters, you have no power granted to you." 
And thenceforth the water-sprite used to ask ail who went down into the 
pool what was truly godlike, devouring everyone who did not know.) 

Now it was into this pool that Prince Sun went down, quite un- 
suspiciously, with the result that he was seized by the water-sprite, who 
said to him, "Do you know what is truly godlikel" "O yes," said he; 
"the sun and moon." "You dont know," said the monster, and hauling 
the prince down into the depths of the water, imprisoned him there in his 
own abode. Finding that his brother was a long time gone, the Bodhisatta 
sent Prince Moon. He too was seized by the water-s2)rite and asked 
whether he knew what was truly godlike. "Oh yes, I know," said he; 
"the four quarters of heaven are." " Vou don't know," said the water- 
sprite as he hauled this second victim off to the same prison-house. 

Finding that this second brother too tarried long, the Bodhisatta felt 
sure that something had happened to them. So away he went after them 
and tracked their footsteps down into the water. [129] Realising at once 

1 This is another name for Kuvera, the Hindu Plutus, half-brother of Ravana, 
the demon-king of Ceylon in the Ramayana. As appears from Jataka No. 74, Vessa- 
vana had rule over Tree-sprites as well as Water-spvites, holding his office from Sakka. 

26 7%e Jatuka. Book I. 

that the pool must be the domain of a water-sprite, he girded on his sword, 
and took his bow in his hand, and waited. Now when the demon found 
that the Bodhisatta had no intention of entering the water, he assumed the 
shape of a forester, and in this guise addressed the Bodhisatta thus : "You're 
tired with your journey, mate ; why don't you go in and have a bathe and 
a drink, and deck yourself with lotuses 1 You would travel on comfortably 
afterwards." Recognising him at once for a demon, the Bodhisatta said, 
"It is you who have seized my brothers." "Yes, it was," was the reply. 
" Why ■? " " Because all who go down into this pool belong to me." "What, 
all?" "Not those who know what is truly godlike ; all save these are 
mine." "And do you want to know the godlike?" "I do." "If this be 
so, I will tell you what is truly godlike." " Do so, and I will listen." 

" I should like to begin," said the Bodhisatta, " but I am travel -stained 
with my journey." Then the water-sprite bathed the Bodhisatta, and 
gave him food to eat and water to drink, decked him with flowers, 
sprinkled him with scents, and laid out a couch for him in the midst of a 
gorgeous pavilion. Seating himself on this couch, and making the water- 
sprite sit at his feet, the Bodhisatta said, " Listen then and you shall hear 
what the truly godlike is." And he repeated this stanza : — 

Those only 'godlike' call who shrink from sin. 
The white-souled tranquil votaries of Good. 

[132] And when the demon heard this, he was pleased, and said to the 
Bodhisatta, " Man of wisdom, I am pleased with you, and give you up one 
of your brothers. Which shall I bring?" "The youngest." "Man of 
wisdom, though you know so well what the truly godlike is, you don't act 
on your knowledge." " How so ? " " Why, you take the younger in 
preference to the elder, without regard to his seniority." " Demon, I not 
only know but practise the godlike. It was on this boy's account that we 
sought refuge in the forest ; it was for him that his mother asked the 
kingdom from our father, and our father, refusing to fulfil her demand, 
consented to our flight to the refuge of the forest. With us came this boy, 
jior ever thought of turuinfj back again. Not a soul would believe me if I 
were to give out that he had been devoured by a demon in the forest ; and 
it is the fear of odium that impels me to demand /dm at your hands." 

"Excellent! excellent! O man of wisdom," cried the demon in approval; 
"you not only know but practise the godlike." [133] And in token of his 
pleasure and approval he brought forth the tivo brothers and gave them 
both to the Bodhisatta. 

Then said the latter to the water-sprite, " Friend, it is in consequence 
of your own evil deeds in times past that you have now been born a 
demon subsisting on the flesh and blood of other living creatures ; and in 
this present birth too you are continuing to do evil. This evil conduct 

No. 7. 27 

will for ever bar you from escaping re-birth in hell and the other 
evil states. Wherefore, from this time forth renounce evil and live 

Having worked the demon's conversion, the Bodhisatta continued to 
dwell at that spot under his protection, until one day he read in the star.i 
that his father was dead. Then taking the water-sprite with him, he 
returned to Benares and took possession of the kingdom, making Prince 
Moon his viceroy and Prince Sun his generalissimo. For the water-sprite 
he made a home in a pleasant spot and took measures to ensure his being 
provided with the choicest garlands, flowers, and food. He himself ruled 
in i-ighteousness until he passed away to fare according to his deeds. 

His lesson ended, the Master preached the Truths, at the close whereof that 
Brother won the Fruit of the First Path. And the All-knowing Buddha, having 
told the two stories, made the connexion linking the two together, and identified 
the Birth, by saying, " The well-to-do Brother was the water-demon of those 
days ; Ananda was Prince Sun, Sariputta Prince Moon, and I myself the eldest 
brother, Prince Mahimsasa." 

[N'ote. See FausboU's Dhammapada, p. 302, and Ten Jdtahis, p. 88.] 

No. 7. 


" Vou7' son am /." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana 
about the story of Vasabha-Khattiya, which will be found in the Twelfth 
Book in the Bhaddasala-jataka^. Tradition tells us that she was the daughter of 
Mahanama Sakka by a slave-girl named Nagamunda, and that she afterwards 
became the consort of the king of Kosala. She conceived a son by the king ; 
but the king, coming to know of her servile origin, degraded her from her rank, 
and also degraded her son Vidudabha. Mother and son never came outside 
the palace. 

Hearing of this, the Master at early dawn came to the palace attended 
by live hundred Brethren [134], and, sitting down on the seat prepared for 
him, said, "Sire, where is Vasabha-Khattiya?" 

Then the king told him what had happened. 

"Sire, whose daughter is Vasabha-Khattiya?" "Mahanama's daughter, sir." 
"When she came away, to whom did she come as wifeT' "To me, sir." "Sire, 
she is a king's daughter; to a king she is wed; and to a king she bore her 

1 No. 465. 

28 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

sou. Wherefore is that sou uot in authority over the realm which owns his 
father's sway ? In bygone days, a monarch who had a son by a casual ' faggot- 
gatherer gave that sou his sovereignty." 

The king asked the Blessed One to explain this. The Blessed One made 
clear what had been concealed from him by re-birth. 

Once on a time in Benares Brahmadatta the king, having gone in great 
state to his jdeasaunce, was roaming about looking for fruits and flowers 
when he came on a woman who was merrily singing away as she picked 
up sticks in the grove. Falling in love at first sight, the king became 
intimate with her, and the Bodhisatta was conceived then and there. 
Feeling as heavy within as though weighed down with the bolt of Indra, 
the woman knew that she would become a mothei", and told the king so. 
He gave her the signet-ring from his finger and dismissed her with 
these words :— "If it be a girl, spend this ring on her nurture ; but if it 
be a boy, bring ring and child to me." 

When the woman's time was come, she bore the Bodhisatta. And 
when he could run about and was playing in the playground, a cry 
would arise, "No-father has hit me!" Hearing tliis, the Bodhisatta ran 
away to his mother and asked who his father was. 

"You are the son of the King of Benares, my boy." "What proof 
of this is there, mother?" "My son, the king on leaving me gave me 
this signet-ring and said, ' If it be a girl, spend this ring on her nurture ; 
but if it be a boy, bring ring and child to me.'" "Why then don't 
you take me to my father, mother ? " 

[135] Seeing that the boy's mind was made up, she took him to the 
gate of the palace, and bade their coming be announced to the king. 
Being summoned in, she entered and bowing before his majesty said, 
" This is your son, sire." 

The king knew well enough that this was the truth, but shame before 
all his court made him reply, " He is no son of mine." " But here is your 
signet-ring, sire ; you will recognise that." " Nor is this my signet-ring." 
Then said the woman, " Sire, I have now no witness to prove my words, 
except to appeal to truth. Wherefore, if you be the father of my child, 
I pray that he may stay in mid-air ; but if not, may he fall to earth 
and be killed." So saying, she seized the Bodhisatta by the foot and 
threw him up into the air. 

^ The word muhuttikdya means, Hterally, "momentary," or perhaps may be trans- 
lated "with whom he consorted but a little while." Professor Kiinte (Ceylon R. A. S. 
Journal, 1884, p. 128) sees in the word a reference to the Muhurta (mobotura) form of 
marriage, which "obtains amoni^ the Mahratbas other than the Brabmanas," and 
which he compares with the familiar Gandharva form, i.e. (legal) union by mutual 
consent, on the spur of the moment, without any preliminary formalities. 

No. 8. 29 

Seated cross-legged in mid-air, the Bodhisatta in sweet tones repeated 
this stanza to his fathex", declaring the truth : — 

Your son am I, great monarch ; rear me, Sire ! 
The king rears others, but much more his child. 

Hearing the Bodhisatta thus teach the truth to him from mid-air, tlie 
king stretched out his hands and cried, " Come to me, my boy ! None, 
none but me shall rear and nurture you ! " A thousand hands were 
stretched out to receive the Bodhisatta ; [136] but it was into the arms of 
the king and of no other that he descended, seating himself in the king's 
lap. The king made him viceroy, and made his mother queen -consort. 
At the death of the king his father, he came to the throne by the title 
of King Katthavahana — the faggot-bearer — , and after ruling his realm 
righteously, passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

His lesson to the king of Kosala ended, and his two stories told, the Master 
made the connexion linking them both together, and identified the Birth by 
saying : — " Mahamaya was the mother of those days. King Suddhodana was 
the father, and I myself King Katthavahana." 

[Note. Cf Dhammapada, p. 218, Jataka No. 465, and Rogers' Buddhaqkosha's 
Parables, p. 146. See also an endeavour, in the Ceylon R.A.S. Journal, 1884, 
to trace this Jataka back to the story of Dushyanta and Cakuntala in the 
Mahdhhdrata and to Kalidasa's drama of the Lost Ring.] 

No. 8. 


" Their heart's desire." — This story was told by the Master wiiile at Jetavana 
about a Brother who ga\e up persevering. In this Jataka both the Introductory 
Story and the Story of the Past will be given in the Eleventh Book in connexion 
with the Samvara-jataka^ ; — the incidents are the same both for that Jataka 
and for this, but the stanzas are different. 

Abiding stedfast in the counsels of the Bodhisatta, Prince Gamani, finding 
himself^ though the youngest of a hundred brothers — surrounded by those 
hundred l)rothers as a retinue and .seated beneath the white cano]iy of kingship, 

» No. 462. 

30 The Jataka. Booh 1. 

contemplated his glory and thought — "All this glory I owe to my teacher." 
And, in his joy, he burst into this heartfelt utterance : — 

Their heart's desire ^ they reap, who hurry not; 
Know, Gamani, ripe excellence is thine. 

[137] Seven or eight days after he had become king, all his brothers 
departed to their own homes. King Gamani, after ruling his kingdom in 
righteousness, passed away to fare according to his deserts. The Bodhisatta also 
passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master preached the Truths, at the close whereof 
the faint-hearted Brother won Arahatship. Having told the two stories, the 
Master shewed the connexion linking them both together and identified the 

No. 9. 


'■'• Lo ! these grey hairsP — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana about the Great Renunciation, which has already been related in 
the Nidana-Katha^. 

On this occasion the Brethren sat praising the Renunciation of the Lord 
of Wisdom. Entering the Hall of Truth and seating himself on the Buddha- 
seat, the Master thus addressed the Brethren : — "What is your theme. Brethren, 
as you sit here in conclave ?" 

"It is naught else, sir, than the praise of your own Renunciation." "Brethren," 
rejoined the Master, "not only in these latter days has the Tathagata^ made a 
Renunciation ; in bygone days too he similarly renounced the world." 

The Brethren asked the Blessed One for an explanation of this. The Blessed 
One made clear what had been concealed from them by re-birth. 

1 As to the alternative of the gloss ("phalasa ti asaphalam," i.e. " 'the desire of the 
fruit' means 'the fruit of the desire'") Professor Kiinte (Ceylon R. A. S. J. 1884) 
says — "the inversion requires a knowledge of metaphysical grammar such as was not 
cultivated in India before the 6th century A.D....The gloss was written about the Brah- 
minical and Jain revival." 

* See p. 61 et seqq. of Vol. i. of Fausboll's text for this account of how Prince 
Siddhattha, the future Buddha, renounced tlie world for the Truth. 

' The meaning of this frequently recurring title of the Buddha is far from clear, 
and the obscurity is deepened by the elaborate gloss of Buddliaghosa at pp. 59 — 68 of 
tlie Sinnahfinld-iuldsinl, where eight different interpretations are given. Perhaps the 
word may mean ' He who has trod the path which the earlier Buddhas trod ' ; but there 
is much to be said for the view put forward on p. 8'2 of Vol. xiii. of the Sacred Books of 
the East, that the meaning,' is 'He who has arrived there,' i.e. at emancipation. 

No. 9. 31 

Once on a time in Mithila in the realm of Videlia there was a 
king named Makhadeva, who was righteous and ruled righteously. For 
successive periods of eighty-four thousand yeai's he had respectively 
amused himself as prince, ruled as viceroy, aud reigned as king. All 
these long years had he lived, when one day he said to his barber, — 
" Tell me, friend barber, when you see any grey hairs in my head." 
So one day, years and years after, [138] the barber did find among the 
raven locks of the king a single grey hair, and he told the king so. 
"Pull it out, my friend," said the king; "and lay it in my palm." The 
barber accordingly plucked the hair out with his golden tongs, and laid it 
in the king's hand. The king had at that time still eighty-four thousand 
years more to live ; but nevertheless at the sight of that one grey hair 
he was filled with deep emotion. He seemed to see the King of Death 
standing over him, or to be cooped within a blazing hut of leaves. " Foolish 
Makhadeva ! " he cried ; " grey hairs have come upon you before you 
have been able to rid yourself of depravities." And as he thought 
and thought about the appearance of his grey hair, he grew aflame within ; 
the sweat rolled down from his body ; whilst his raiment oppressed him 
and seemed intolei-able. "This very day," thought he, "will I renounce 
the world for the Brother's life." 

To his barber he gave the grant of a village, which yielded a hundred 
thousand jneces of money. He sent for his eldest son and said to him, 
"My son, grey hairs are come upon me, and I am become old. I have 
had my fill of human joys, and fain would taste the joys divine ; the 
time for my renunciation has come. Take the sovereignty upon yourself ; 
as for me, I will take u]i my abode in the pleasaunce called Makhadeva's 
Mango-grove, and there tread the ascetic's path." 

As he was thus bent on leading the Brother's life, his ministers drew 
near and said, " What is the reason, sire, why you adopt the Brother's 

Taking the grey hair in his hand, the king repeated this stanza to his 
ministers : — 

Lo, these grey hairs that on my head appear 
Are Death's own messengers that come to rob 
My life. 'Tis time T turned from worldly things. 
And in the hermit's path sought saving peace. 

[139j And after these words, he renounced his sovereignty that self-.same 
day and became a recluse. Dwelling in that very Mango-grove of 
Makhadeva, he there during eighty-four thousand years fostered the 
Four Perfect States within himself, and, dying with insight full and 
unbroken, was reborn in the Realm of Brahma. Passing thence, he 
became a king again in Mithila, under the name of Nimi, and after 
uniting his scattered family, once more became a hermit in that same 

32 The, JdtaJca. Bool I. 

Mango-grove, winniug the Four Perfect States and passing thence once 
more to the Realm of Brahma. 

After repeating his statement that he had similarly renounced the world 
in bygone days, the Master at the end of his lesson preached the Four Truths. 
Some entered the First Path, some the Second, and some the Third. Having 
told the two stories, the Master shewed the connexion between them and 
identified the Birth, by saying: — "In those days Ananda was the barber, 
Eahula the son, and I myself King Makhadeva." 

[JVote. See Majjhima-Nikaya, Sutta No. 83 of which is entitled the Makha- 
deva Sutta. According to Leon Feer (J. As. 1876, p. 516) the Bigandet ms. 
calls this the Devaduta-jataka. Bigandet in his Life or Legend of Oaudama 
(p. 408) gives a version of this Jiltaka, in which the king is named Minggadewa, 
and in which the doings of King Nemi ( = Nimi above) are given in great 
detail. See Upham's Mahdvcmsi, voh i. p. 14, and the 'Nemy' Jataka referred 
to by him as the 544th Jataka. See also Cariyd-Pitaha, p. 76, and Plate 
XLViii. (2) of the Stiipa of Bharhwt, where the name is cai'ved Magha-deva, 
a spelling which is retained in modern Burmese manuscripts of the Majjhima 
Sutta from which this Jataka was manifestly compiled.] 

No. 10. 


[140] " The man who gvwds not." — This story was told by the Master 
while in the Anupiya Mango-grove near the town of Anupiya, about the Elder 
Bhaddiya (the Happy), who joined the Brothei-hood in the company of the 
six young nobles with whom was Upali^. Of these the Elders Bhaddiya, Kimbila, 
Bhagu, and Upali attained to Arahatship ; the Elder Ananda entered the First 
Path ; the Elder Anuruddha gained all-seeing vision ; and Devadatta obtained 
the power of ecstatic self-abstraction. The story of the six young nobles, up to 
the events at Anupiya, will be related in the Khandahala-jataka^. 

The venerable Bhaddiya, who used in the days of his royalty to guard 
himself as though he were appointed his own tutelary deity, bethought him 
of the state of fear in which he then lived when he was being guarded by 
ninnerous guards and when he used to toss about even on his royal couch 
in his private apartments high up in the palace ; and with this he compared 
the absence of fear in which, now that he M'as an Arahat, he roamed hither 
and thither in forests and desert places. And at the thought he burst into 
this heartfelt utterance — " Oh, happiness ! Oh, happiness !" 

1 Cf. Oldenberg's Vinaya, Vol. ii. pp. 180—4 (translated at p. 232 of Vol. xx. of 
the Sacred Books of the Enat), for an account of the conversion of the six Silkyan 
princes and the barber Upiili. 

* No. 534 in Westerpaavd 's list ; not yet edited by Fansboll. 

No. 10. 33 

This the Brethren reported to the Blessed One, saying, "The venerable 
Bhaddiya is declaring the bliss he has won." 

"Brethren," said the Blessed One, "this is not the first time that Bhaddiya's 
life has been happy ; his life was no less happy in bygone days." 

The Brethren asked the Blessed One to explain this. The Blessed One 
made clear what had been concealed from them by re-birth. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a wealthy northern brahmin. Realising the evil of 
lusts and the blessings that flow from renouncing the world, he abjured 
lusts, and retiring to the Himalayas there became a hermit and won 
the eight Endowments. His following waxed great, amounting to five 
hundred ascetics. Once when the rains set in, he quitted the Himalayas 
and travelling along on an alms-pilgrimage with his attendant ascetics 
through village and town came at last to Benares, where he took up 
his abode in the royal pleasaunce as the pensioner of the king's bounty. 
After dwelling here for the four rainy months, he came to the king 
to take his leave. But the king said to him, "You are old, reverend sir. 
Wherefore should you go back to t]ie Himalayas 1 Send your pupils back 
thither [141] and stop here yourself." 

The Bodhisatta entrusted his five hundred ascetics to the care of 
his oldest disciple, saying, " Go you with these to the Himalayas ; I 
will stop on here." 

Now that oldest disciple had once been a king, but had given up 
a mighty kingdom to become a Brother; by the due performance of the 
rites appertaining to concentrated thought he had mastered the eight 
Endowments. As he dwelt with the ascetics in the Himalayas, one day a 
longing came upon him to see the master, and he said to his fellows, 
" Live on contentedly here ; I will come back as soon as I have paid 
my respects to the master." So away he went to the master, paid his 
respects to him, and greeted him lovingly. Then he lay down by the side 
of his master on a mat which he spread there. 

At this point appeared the king, who had come to the pleasaunce 
to see the ascetic ; and with a salutation he took his seat on one side. 
But though he was aware of the king's presence, that oldest disciple 
forbore to rise, but still lay there, crying with passionate earnestness, 
" Oh, happiness ! Oh, happiness ! " 

Displeased that the ascetic, though he had seen him, had not risen, 
the king said to the Bodhisatta, "Reverend sir, this ascetic must have had 
his fill to eat, seeing that he continues to lie there so happily, exclaiming 
with such earnestness." 

" Sire," said the Bodhisatta, " of old this ascetic was a king as you 
are. He is thinking how in the old days when he was a layman and 

c. J, 3 

34 77^6 Jdtaka. Booh I. 

lived in regal pomp with many a man-at-arms to guard him, he never 
knew such happiness as now is his. It is the happiness of the Brother's 
life, and the happiness that Insight brings, which move him to this 
heartfelt utterance." And the Bodhisatta further repeated this stanza 
to teach the king the Truth : — 

The man who guards not, nor is guarded, sire, 
Lives happy, freed from slavery to lusts. 

[142] Appeased by the lesson thus taught him, the king made his salu- 
tation and returned to his palace. The disci])le also took his leave of his 
master and returned to the Himalayas. But the Bodhisatta continued to 
dwell on there, and, dying with Insight full and unbroken, was re-born in 
the Realm of Brahma. 

His lesson ended, and the two stories told, the Master shewed the connexion 
linking them both together, and identified the Birth by saying, —"The Elder 
Bhaddiya was the disciple of those days, and I myself the master of the company 
of ascetics." 

\^Note. For the Introductory Story compare CvUavagga, vii. 1. 5 — .] 

No. 11. 


"77ie upright many — This story was told by the Master in the Bamboo- 
grove near Rajagaha about Devadatta. The story of Devadatta^ will be 
related, u]i to the date of the Abhimara-employment, in the Khandahfda-jataka-; 
up to the date of his dismissal from the otfice of Treasurer, in the CuUahainsa- 
jataka^; and, up to the date of his being swallowed up by the earth, in" the 
Sixteenth Book in the Samudda-vanija-jataka*. 

For, on the occasion now in question, Devadatta, through failing to carry the 
Five Points which he had pressed for, had made a schism in the Brotherhood 
and had gone off with five hundred Brethren to dwell at Gaya-sisa. Now, these 
Brethren came to a riper knowledge ; and the Master, knowing this, called the 

1 See Cullavagga, vii. 1 — et seqq. The "Five Points" of Devadatta are there 
given (vii. 3. 14) as follows:— "The Brethren shall live all their life long in the forest, 
subsist solely on doles collected out of doors, dress solely in rags picked out of dust- 
heaps, dwell under trees and never under a roof, never eat fish or flesh." These five 
points were all more rigid in their asceticism than the Buddha's rule, and were 
formulated by Devadatta in order to outbid his cousin and master. 

2 Cf. p. 32, note 2. 
s No. 533, 

•» No. 406. 

No. 11. 35 

two chief disciples 1 and said, "Sariputta, your five hundi-ed pupils who were 
perverted by Devadatta's teaching and went off with him, have now come to a 
riper knowledge. Go thither with a number of Brethren, preach the Truth to 
them, enligliten these wanderers resiiectiug the Paths and the Fruits, and bring 
them back with you." 

They went thither, preached the Truth, enlightened them respecting the 
Paths and the Fruits, and next day [143] at dawn came back again with those 
Brethren to the Bamboo-grove. And whilst Sariputta was standing there after 
saluting the Blessed One on his return, the Brethren spoke thus to him in praise 
of the Elder Sariputta, "Sir, very bright was the glory of our elder brother, the 
Captain of the Truth, as he returned with a following of fi\'e hundred Brethren ; 
whereas Devadatta has lost all his following." 

"This is not the only time. Brethren, when glory has been Sariputta's on his 
return with a following of his kinsfolk ; like glory was his too in bygone days. 
So too this is not the only time when Devadatta has lost his following ; he lost 
it also in bygone days." 

The Brethren asked the Blessed One to explain this to them. The Blessed 
One made clear what had been concealed by re-birth. 

Once on a time in the city of Rajagaha in the kingdom of Magadlia 
there ruled a certain king of Magadha, in whose days the Bodhisatta came 
to life as a stag. Growing up, he dwelt in the forest as the leader of a 
herd of a thousand deer. He had two young ones named Luckie and 
Blackie. When he grew old, he handed his charge over to his two sons, 
placing five hundred deer under the care of each of them. And so now 
these two young stags were in charge of the herd. 

Towards harvest-time in Magadha, when the crops stand thick in the 
fields, it is dangerous for the deer in the forests round. Anxious to kill the 
creatures that devour their crops, the peasants dig pitfalls, fix stakes, set 
stone- traps, and plant snares and other gins ; so that many deer are slain. 

Accordingly, when the Bodhisatta marked that it was crop-time, he 
sent for his two sons and said to them, " My children, it is now the time 
when crops stand thick in the fields, and many deer meet their death at 
this season. We who are old will make shift to stay in one spot ; but you 
will retire each with your herd to the mountainous tracts in the forest and 
come back when the crops have been carried." " Very good," said his 
two sons, and departed with their herds, as their father bade. 

Now the men who live along the route, know quite well the times at 
which deer take to the hills and return thence. And [144] lying in wait 
in hiding-i)laces here and there along the route, they shoot and kill numbers 
of them. The dullard Blackie, ignorant of the times to travel and the 

1 The two chief disciples, of whom only one is named in the text, were Sariputta 
(surnamed 'the Captain of the Faith') and Moggallana, two Brahmin friends, originaUy 
followers of a wandering ascetic, whose conversion to Buddhism is related in the 
Maluivagoa, i. 23—. Unlike this Jataka, the Vincuja account (CuUavag(ja, vii. 4) of 
the re-conversion of the backsliders gives a share of the credit to Moggallana. 


36 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

times to halt, kept his deer on the march early and late, both at dawn and 
in the gloaming, approaching the very confines of the villages. And the 
peasants, in ambush or in the open, destroyed numbers of his herd. Hav- 
ing thus by his crass folly worked the destruction of all these, it was with 
a very few survivors that he reached the forest. 

Luckie on the other hand, being wise and astute and full of resource, 
never so much as approached the confines of a village. He did not travel 
by day, or even in the dawn or gloaming. Only in the dead of night did 
he move ; and the result was that he reached the forest without losing a 
single head of his deer. 

Four months they stayed in the foi-est, not leaving the hills till the 

crojis were carried. On the homeward way Blackie by repeating his former 

folly lost the rest of his herd and returned solitary and alone ; whereas 

Luckie had not lost one of his herd, but had brought l)ack the whole five 

hundred deer, when he appeared before his parents. As he saw his two 

sons returning, the Bodhisatta framed this stanza in concert with the herd 

of deer : — 

The upright kindly man hath his reward. 
Mark Luckie leading back his troop of kin. 
While here comes Blackie shorn of all his herd. 

[145] Such was the Bodhisatta's welcome to his son; and after living 
to a good old age, he passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

At the close of his lesson, when the Master had repeated that Sariputta's 
glory and Devadatta's loss had both had a parallel in bygone days, he shewed 
the connexion linking the two stories together and identified the Birth, by 
saying, " Devadatta was the Blackie of those days ; his followers were Blackie's 
following ; Sariputta was the Luckie of those days, and his following the 
Buddha's followers ; Rahula's mother was the mother of those days ; and I 
myself was the father." 

\_Note. See Bhammapada, p. 146, for the above verse and for a parallel to the 
Introductory Story of this Jataka.] 

No. 12. 


^^Keep only ivith the Banyan Deer." — This story was told by the Master while 
at Jetavana about the mother of the Elder named Prince Kassapa. The 
daughter, we learn, of a wealthy merchant of Rajagaha was deeply rooted in 
goodness and scoi-ned all temporal things ; she had reached her final existence, 
and within her breast, like a lamp in a pitcher, glowed her sure hope of winning 

No. 12. 37 

Arahatship. As soon as she reached knowledge of herself, she took no joy in a 
worldly life but yearned to renounce the world. With this aim, she said to her 
mother and father, " My dear parents, my heart takes no joy in a worldly life ; 
fain would I embrace the saving doctrine of the Buddha. Suffer me to take 
the vows." 

"What, my dear 1 Ours is a very wealthy family, and you are our only 
daughter. You cannot take the vows." 

Having failed to win her parents' consent, though she asked them again anei 
again, she thought to herself, "Be it so then; when I am married into another 
family, I will gain my husband's consent and take the vows." And when, being 
grown up, she entered another family, she proved a devoted wife and lived a life 
of goodness and virtue ^ in her new home. Now it came to pass that she con- 
ceived, though she knew it not. 

There was a festival proclaimed in that city, [146] and everybody kept 
holiday, the city being decked like a city of the gods. But she, even at the 
height of the festival, neither anointed herself nor put on any finery, going about 
in her every-day attire. So her husband said to her, "My dear wife, everybody 
is holiday-making ; but you do not put on your bravery." 

" My lord and master," she replied, " the body is filled with two-and-thirty 
component parts. Wherefore should it be adorned "? This bodily frame is not 
of angelic or archangelic mould ; it is not made of gold, jewels, or yellow sandal- 
wood ; it takes not its birth from the womb of lotus-flowers, white or red or 
blue ; it is not filled with any immortal balsam. Nay, it is bred of corruption, 
and born of mortal parents ; the qualities that mark it are the wearing and 
wasting away, the decay and destruction of the merely transient ; it is fated to 
swell a graveyard, and is devoted to lusts ; it is the source of sorrow, and 
the occasion of lamentation; it is the abode of all diseases, and the repository 
of the workings of Karma. Foul within, — it is always excreting. Yea, as 
all the world can see, its end is death, passing to the charnel-house, there to be 
the dwelling-place of worms- [147]. What should I achieve, my bi'idegroom, by 
tricking out this body ? Would not its adornment be like decorating the outside 
of a close-.stool?" 

"My dear wife," rejoined the young merchant, "if you regard this body as so 
sinful, why don't you become a Sister V 

" If I am accepted, my husband, I will take the vows this very day." "Very 
good," said he, " I will get you admitted to the Order." And after he had shewn 
lavish bounty and hospitality to the Order, he escorted her with a large following 
to the nunnery and had her admitted a Sister, — but of the following of 
Devadatta. Great was her joy at the fulfilment of her desire to become a 

As her time drew near, the Sisters, noticing the change in her person, the 
swelling in her hands and feet and her increased size, said, "Lady, you seem 
about to become a mother ; what does it mean ? " 

" I cannot tell, ladies ; I only know I have led a virtuous life." 

So the Sisters brought her before Devadatta, saying, "Lord, this young gentle- 
woman, who was admitted a Sister with the reluctant consent of her husband, 
has now proved to be with child ; but whether this dates from before hei- 
admission to the Order or not, we cannot say. What are we to do now ?" 

Not being a Buddha, and not having any charity, love or pity, Devadatta 
thought thus : — " It will be a damaging report to get abroad that one of my 
Sisters is with child, and that I condone the olfence. My course is clear ; — I 
must expel this woman from the Order." Without any enquiry, starting forward 
as if to thrust aside a mass of stone, he said, "Away, and expel this woman !" 

Receiving this answer, they arose and with reverent salutation withdrew to 
their own nunnery. But the girl said to those Sisters, " Ladies, Devadatta the 
Elder is not the Buddha. My vows were taken not under Devadatta, but under 

^ Or, perhaps, " was beautiful." 

'' A long string of repulsive stanzas as to the anatomy of the body is here omitted. 

38 The Jataka. Book I. 

the Buddha, the Foremost of the world. Rob me not of the vocation I won so 
hardly ; but take me before the Master at Jetavaiia." So they set out with her 
for Jetavana, and joiu-neying over the forty-five leagues thither from Rajagaha, 
came in due course to their destination, where with reverent salutation to the 
Master, they laid the matter before him. 

Thought the Master, "Albeit the child was conceived while she was still of 
the laity, yet it will give the heretics an occasion to say that the ascetic Gotama 
[148] has taken a Sister expelled by Devadatta. Therefore, to cut short such 
talk, this case must be heard in the presence of the king and his court." So on 
the morrow he sent for Pasenadi king of Kosala, the elder and the younger 
Anatha-pindika, the lady Visakha the great lay-disciple, aixl other well-known 
personages ; and in the evening when the four classes of the faithful were all 
assembled — Brothers, Sisters, and lay-disciples, both male and female — he said 
to the Elder Upali, "Go, and clear up this matter of the young Sister in the 
presence of the four classes of my disciples." 

" It shall be done, reverend sir," said the Elder, and forth to the assembly he 
went ; and there, seating himself in his place, he called up Visakha the lay- 
disciple in sight of the king, and placed the conduct of the enquiry in her hands, 
saying, "First ascertain the precise day of the precise month on which this girl 
joined the Order, Visakha ; and thence compute whether she conceived before 
or since that date." Accordingly the lady had a curtain put up as a screen, 
behind which she retired with the girl. Spectatis manibus, pedibus, umbilico, 
ipso ventre puellaj, the lady found, on comparing the days and months, that the 
conception had taken place before the girl had become a Sister. This she 
reported to the Elder, who proclaimed the Sister innocent before all the 
assembly. And she, now that her innocence was established, reverently saluted 
the Order and the Master, and with the Sisters returned to her own nunnery. 

When her time was come, she bore the son strong in spirit, for whom she 
had prayed at the feet of the Buddha Padumuttara ages ago. One day, when 
the king was passing by the nunnery, he heard the cry of an infant aiid asked 
his courtiers what it meant. They, knowing the facts, told his majesty that the 
cry came from the child to which the young Sister had given birth. " Sirs," 
said the king, "the care of children is a clog on Sisters in their religious life ; 
let us take chai'ge of him." So the infant was handed over by the Icing's 
connnand to the ladies of his family, and brought up as a prince. When the day 
came for him to be named, he was called Kassapa, but was known as Pi-ince 
Kassapa Ijecause he was brought up like a prince. 

At the age of seven he was admitted a novice under the Master, and a full 
Brother when he was old enough. As time went on, he waxed famous among 
the expounders of the Truth. So the Master gave him precedence, saying, 
"Brethren, the first in eloquence among my disciples is Prince Kassapa." 
Afterwards, by virtue of the Vammika Sutta^, he won Arahatship. So too his 
mother, the Sister, grew to clear vision and won the Supreme Fruit. Prince 
Kassapa the Elder shone in the faith of the Buddha [149] even as the full-moon 
in the mid-heaven. Now one day in the afternoon when the Tathagata on 
I'etiu'ii from his alms-round hail addressed the Brethren, he passed into his 
peifumed chamber. At the close of his address the Brethi-en spent the daytime 
either in their night-quarters or in their day-quarters till it was evening, when 
they assembled in the hall of Truth and spoke as follows : — " Brethren, 
Devadatta, because he was not a Buddha and because he had no charity, love or 
pity, was nigh being the ruin of the Elder Prince Kassapa and his reverend 
mother. But the All-enlightened Buddha, being the Lord of Truth and being 
perfect in charity, love and pity, has proved their salvation." And as they sat 
there telling the praises of the Buddha, he entered the hall with all the grace of 
a Buddha, and asked, as he took his seat, what they were talking of as they sat 

" Of your own virtues, sir," said they, and told him all. 

' The 28rd Sutta of the Majjiiima-Nikaya. 

No. 12. ;vj 

"This is not the first time, Brethren," said lie, "that the Tathagata lias 
proved the salvation and refuge of these two : he was the same to them in the 
past also." 

Then, on the Brethren asking him to explain this to them, he revealed what 
re-birth had hidden from them. 

Once on a time, when Brahmadatta was reigning iu Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born a deer. At his birth he was golden of hue ; his eyes were 
like round jewels ; the sheen of his liorns was as of silver ; his mouth was 
red as a bunch of scarlet cloth ; his four hoofs were as though lacquered ; 
his tail was like the yak's ; and he was as big as a young foal. Attended 
by five hundred deer, he dwelt in the forest under the name of King Banyan 
Deer. And hard by him dwelt another deer also wdth an attendant herd of 
live hundred deei*, who was named Branch Deer, and was as golden of hue 
as the Bodhisatta. 

In those days the king of Benares was passionately fond of hunting 
and always had meat at every meal. Every day he mustered the whole of 
his subjects, townsfolk and countryfolk alike, to the detriment of their 
business, and went hunting. Thought his people, " This king of ours stops 
all our work. Suppose we were [150] to sow food and supply water for 
the deer in his own pleasaunce, and, having driven in a number of deer, to 
bar them in and deliver them over to the king ! " So they sowed in the 
pleasaunce grass for the deer to eat and supplied water for them to 
drink, and opened the gate wide. Then they called out the townsfolk and 
set out into the forest armed with sticks and all manner of weapons to find 
the deer. They surrounded about a league of forest in order to catch 
the deer within their circle, and in so doing sun-ounded the haunt of the 
Banyan and Branch deer. As soon as they perceived the deer, they pro- 
ceeded to beat the trees, bushes and ground with their sticks till they 
drove the herds out of their lairs; then they rattled their swords and spears 
and bows with so great a din that they drove all the deer into the 
pleasaunce, and shut the gate. Then they went to the king and said, 
" Sire, you put a stop to our work by always going a-hunting ; so we have 
driven deer enough from the forest to fill your pleasaunce. Henceforth 
feed on tJiem." 

Hereupon the king betook himself to the pleasaunce, and in looking 
over the herd saw among them two golden deer, to whom he granted 
immunity. Sometimes he would go of his own accord and shoot a deer to 
bring home ; sometimes his cook would go and shoot one. At first sight 
of the bow, the deer would dash off trembling for their lives, but after 
receiving two or three wounds they grew weary and faint and were slain. 
The herd of deer told this to the Bodhisatta, who sent for Branch and said, 
" Friend, the deer are being destroyed in great numbers ; and, though they 

40 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

cannot escape death, at least let them not be needlessly wounded. Let the 
deer go to the block' by turns, one day one from my herd, and next day one 
fi'om yours, — the deer on whom the lot falls to go to the place of execution 
and lie down with its head on the block. In this wise the deer will escape 
wounding." The other agreed ; and thenceforth the deer whose turn it 
was, used to go [151] and lie down with its neck ready on the block. The 
cook used to go and carry off only the victim which awaited him. 

Now one day the lot fell on a pi'egnant doe of the herd of Branch, and 
she went to Branch and said, " Lord, I am with young. When I have 
brought forth my little one, there will be two of us to take our tui*n. 
Order me to be passed over this turn." "No, I cannot make your turn 
another's," said he; "you must bear the consequences of your own fortune. 
Begone ! " Finding no favour with him, the doe went on to the Bodhisatta 
and told him her story. And he answered, " Very well; you go away, 
and I will see that the turn passes over you." And therewithal he went 
himself to the place of execution and lay down with his head on the block. 
Cried the cook on seeing him, "Why hei'e's the king of the deer who was 
granted immunity ! What does this mean 1 " And off he ran to tell the 
king. The moment he heard of it, the king mounted his chariot and 
arrived with a- large following. "My friend the king of the deer," he said 
on beholding the Bodhisatta, "did I not promise you your life^ How 
comes it that you are lying here 1 '' 

" Sire, there came to me a doe big with young, who prayed me to let 
her turn fall on another ; and, as I could not pass the doom of one on to 
another, I, laying down my life for her and taking her doom on myself, 
have laid me down here. Think not that there is anything behind this, 
your majesty." 

" My lord the golden king of the deer," said the king, " never yet saw 
I, even among men, one so abounding in charity, love and pity as you. 
Thei-efore am I pleased with you. Arise ! I spare the lives both of you 
and of her." 

" Though two be spared, what shall the rest do, king of men V "I 
spare their lives too, my lord." " Sire, only the deer in your pleasaunce 
will thus have gained immunity; what shall all the rest do?" "Their 
lives too I spare, my lord." "Sire, deer will thu.s be safe; but what will 
the rest of four-footed creatures do ? " [152]. " I spare their lives too, my 
lord." "Sire, four-footed creatures will thus be safe; but what will the 
flocks of birds dol" "They too shall be spared, my lord," "Sire, birds 
will thus be safe ; but what will the fishes do, who live in the water 1 " 
"I spare their lives also, my lord." 

After thus interceding with the king for the lives of all creatures, the 

^ For dhammagandika see Jiit. ii. 124; iii. 41. 

No. 12. 41 

Great Being arose, established the king in the Five Commandments, 
saying, " Walk in righteousness, great king. Walk in righteousness 
and justice towards parents, children, townsmen, and countryfolk, so that 
when this earthly body is dissolved, you may enter the bliss of heaven." 
Thus, with the grace and charm that marks a Buddha, did he teach the 
Truth to the king. A few days he tarried in the pleasaunce for the king's 
instruction, and then with his attendant herd he passed into the forest 

And that doe brought forth a fawn fair as the opening bud of the 
lotus, who Tised to play about with the Branch deer. Seeing this his 
mother said to him, "My child, don't go about with him, only go about 
with the herd of the Banyan deer." And by way of exhortation, she 
repeated this stanza : — 

Keep only with the Banyan deer, and shun 
The Branch deer's herd; more welcome far 
Is death, my child, in Banyan's company. 
Than e'en the amplest term of life with Branch. 

Thenceforth, the deer, now in the enjoyment of immunity, used to eat 
men's crops, and the men, remembering the immunity granted to them, 
did not dare to hit the deer or drive them away. So they assembled in 
the king's courtyard and laid the matter before the king. Said he, " When 
the Banyan deer won my favoui-, [153] I promised him a boon. I will 
forego my kingdom rather than my promise. Begone 1 Not a man in my 
kingdom may harm the deer." 

But when this came to the eai's of the Banyan deer, he called his herd 
together and said, " Henceforth you shall not eat the crops of others." 
And having thus forbidden them, he sent a message to the men, saying, 
" From this day forward, let no husbandman fence his field, but merely 
indicate it with leaves tied up round it." And so, we hear, began a ])lan 
of tying up leaves to indicate the fields; and never was a deer known to 
trespass on a field so marked. For thus they had been instructed by the 

Thus did the Bodhisatta exhort the deer of his herd, and thus did he 
act all his life long, and at the close of a long life passed away with them 
to fare according to his deserts. The king too abode by tlie Bodhisatta's 
teachings, and after a life spent in good works passed away to fare 
accordinsr to his deserts. 

At the close of this lesson, when the Master had repeated that, as now, so in 
bygone days also he had been the salvation of the pair, he preached the Four 
Truths. He then shewed the connexion, linking together the two stories he had 
told, and identified the Birth by saying, — "Devadatta was the Branch Deer of 

42 The Jataka. Book I. 

those days, and his followers were that deer's herd ; the mm was the doe, and 
Prince Kassapa was her offspring; Ananda was the king; and I myself was King 
Banyan Deer." 

l^Note. This Jataka is referred to in Milindapanho (page 289 of Rhys Davids' 
translation), and is figured in Plates xxv. (1) and xliii. (2) of Cunningham's 
Stfipa of BharJnU and in the frontispiece to this Volume. See also Julien's 
Hiren Thsang, ii. 361. For the stanza and the Introductory Story see 

Dhammapada, pp. 327 — 330.] 

No. 13. 


^''Cursed he the dart of love." — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana about the temptation caused to Brethren by the wives of their mundane 
life. This will be related in the Indriya-jatakai in the Eighth Book. Said the 
Blessed One to the Brother, " Brother, it was because of this very woman that in 
bygone days you met your death and were roasted over glowing embers." The 
Brethren asked the Blessed One to explain this. The Blessed One made clear 
what had been concealed from them by re-birth. 

[154] (Henceforth we shall omit the words respecting the Brethren's request 
for an explanation and the making clear what had been concealed by re-birth ; 
and we shall only say "told this story of the past." When only this is said, all 
the rest is to be supplied and repeated as above, — the request, the simile of setting 
free the moon from the clouds, and the making clear what had been concealed by 
re- birth.) 

Once on a time in the kingdom of Magadha the king was reigning in 
Rajagaha, and when the crops were grown the doer were exposed to great 
perils, so that they retired to the forest. Now a certain mountain-stag of 
the forest, having become attached to a doe who came from near a village, 
was moved by his love for her to accompany her when the deer returned 
home from the forest. Said she, " You, sir, are but a sim])le stag of the 
forest, and the neighbourhood of villages is beset with peril and danger. 
So don't come down with us." But he because of his great love for her 
would not stay, but came with hei\ 

1 No. 423. 

No. 13. 43 

VVlieu they knew that it was the time for the deer to come down from 
the hills, the Magadha folk posted themselves in ambush by the road ; and 
a hunter was lying in wait just by the road along which the pair were 
travelling. Scenting a man, the young doe suspected that a hunter was in 
ambush, and let the stag go on first, following herself at some distance. 
With a single arrow the hunter laid the stag low, and the doe seeing him 
struck was off like the wind. Then that hunter came forth from his 
hiding-place and skinned the stag and lighting a fire cooked the sweet 
flesh over the embers. Having eaten and drunk, he took off home the 
remainder of the bleeding carcass on his carry in g-i)ole to regale his children. 

Now in those days the Bodhisatta was a faiiy dwelling in that very 
grove of trees, and he marked what had come to pass. " 'Twas not father 
or mother, but passion alone that destroyed this foolish deer [1.55]. The 
dawn of jtassion is bliss, but its end is sorrow and suffering, — the painful 
loss of hands, and the misery of the five forms of bonds and blows. To 
cause another's death is accounted infamy in this world ; infamous too is 
the land which owns a woman's sway and rule ; and infamous are the men 
who yield themselves to women's dominion." And therewithal, while the 
other fairies of the wood applauded and offered perfumes and fiowers and 
the like in homage, the Bodhisatta wove the three infamies into a single 
stanza, and made the wood re-echo with his sweet tones as he taught the 
truth in these lines : — ■ 

Cursed be the dart of love that works men pain I 
Cursed be the land where women rule supreme ! 
And cursed the fool that bows to woman's sway ! 

Thus in a single stanza were the three infamies comprised by the 
Bodhisatta, and the woods re-echoed as he taught the Truth with all the 
mastery and grace of a Buddha [156]. 

His lesson ended, the Master preached the Four Truths, at the close whereof 
the love-sick Brother was established in the Fruit of the First Path. Having 
told the two stories, the Master shewed the connexion linking the two together, 
and identified the Birth. 

(Henceforward, we shall omit the words 'Having told the two stories,' 
and simply say 'shewed the connexion... ;' the words omitted are to be sup[)lied 
as before.) 

"In those days," said the Master, "the love-sick Brother was the mountain- 
stag ; his mundane wife was the young doe, and I was myself the fairy who 
preached the Truth shewing the sin of passion." 

[jVote. See page 330 of Benfey's Fahca-Tantra.] 

44 The Jatcika. Book I. 

No. 14. 


" There! s nothing xcorse." This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about the Elder Tissa, called Direct-alms the Less. Tradition says that, while the 
Master was dwelling at the Bamboo-grove near Rajagaha, the scion of a wealthy 
house, Prince Tissa by name, coming one day to the Bamboo-grove and there 
hearing a discourse from the Master, wished to join the Brotherhood, but, being 
refused because his parents would not give their consent, obtained their consent 
by following Eattha-pjila's ^ example and refusing food for seven days, and finally 
took the vows with the Master. 

About a fortnight after admitting this young man, the Master repaired from 
the Bamboo-grove to Jetavana, where the young nobleman undertook the Thirteen 
Obligations ^ and passed his time in going his round for alms from house to 
house, omitting none. Under the name of the Elder Tissa Direct-alms the 
Less, he became as bright and shining a light in Buddhism as the moon in 
the vault of heaven. 

A festival having been proclaimed at this time at Rajagaha, the Elder's 
mother and father laid in a silver casket the trinkets he used to wear as a 
layman, and took it to heart, bewailing thus, — " At other festivals our son used 
to wear this or that bravery as he kept the festival ; and he, our only son, 
has been taken away by the sage Gotama to the town of Savatthi. Where 
is our son sitting now or standing?" Now a slave-girl who came to the house, 
noticed the lady of the house weeping, and asked her why she was weeping ; and 
the lady told her all. 

"What, madam, was your son fond of?" "Of such and such a thing," 
replied the lady. "Well, if you will give me authority in this house, I'll fetch 
your son back." "Very good," said the lady in assent, and gave the girl her 
expenses and despatched her with a large following, saying, " Go, and manage to 
fetch my son back." 

So away the girl rode in a palanquin to Savatthi, where she took up her 
residence in the street which the Elder used to frequent for alms. [157] 
Surrounding herself with servants of her own, and never allowing the Elder 
to see his father's people about, she watched the moment when the Elder 
entered the street and at once bestowed on him an alms of victual and drink. 
And when she had bound him in the bonds of the craving of taste, she got 
him eventually to seat himself in the house, till she knew that her gifts of food 
as alms had put him in her power. Then she feigned sickness and lay down in 
an inner chamber. 

In the due course of his round for alms at the proper time, the Elder came to 
the door of her house; and her people took the Elder's bowl and made him 
sit dowia in the house. 

When he had seated himself, he said, "Where is the lay-sister?" "She's 
ill, sir; she would be glad to see you." 

Bound as he was by the bonds of the cra\'ing of taste, he bi'oke his vow 
and obligation, and went to where the woman was lying. 

^ See liatthapdla-sutta in the Majjhima-Nikdya (No. 83), translated in the Ceylon 
E. A. S. Journal, 1847. See also Vinaija, Vol. iii. pages 13 and 148. 

- These are meritorious ascetic practices for quelling the passions, of which the 
third is an undertaking to eat no food except alms received direct from the giver in the 
Brother's alms-bowl. Hence "ticket-food" (Jataka No. 5) was inadmissible. 

No. 14. 45 

Then she told him the reason of her coming, and so wrought on him that, all 
because of his being bovmd by the bonds of the craving of taste, she made him 
forsake the Brotherhood ; when he was in her power, she put him in the 
palanquin and came back with a large following to Rajagaha again. 

All this WAH noised abroad. Sitting in the Hall of Truth, the Brethren 
discussed the matter, saying, "Sirs, it is reported that a slave-girl has bound 
in the bonds of the craving of taste, and has carried oft", the Elder Tissa the 
Less, called Direct-alms." Entering the Hall the Master sat down on his 
jewelled seat, and said, "What, Brethren, is the subject of discussion in this 
conclave?" They told him the incident. 

"Brethren," said he, "this is not the first time that, in bondage to the 
craving of taste, he has follen into her power ; in bygone days too he fell into her 
power in like manner." -i\.nd so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares he had a 
gardener named Safijaya. Now there came into the king's pleasaunce a 
Wind-antelope, which fled away at the sight of Safijaya, but the latter let 
it go without terrifying the timid creature. After several visits the 
antelope used to roam about in the pleasaunce. Now the gardener was 
in the habit of gathering flowers and fruits and taking them day by day to 
the king. Said tlie king to him one day, " Have you noticed anything 
strange, friend gardener, in the pleasaunce 1 " " Only, sir, that a Wind- 
antelope has come about the grounds." "Could you catch it, do you 
think 1 " " Oh, yes ; if I had a little honey, I'd bring it right into your 
majesty's palace.'' 

The king ordered the honey to be given to the man and he went oflT 
with it to the pleasaunce, where he first anointed with the honey the grass 
at tlie spots frequented by the antelope, [158] and then hid himself. 
When the antelope came and tasted the honied grass it was so snared by 
the lust of taste that it would go nowhere else but only to the pleasaunce. 
Marking the success of his snare, the gardener began gradually to show 
himself. The appearance of the man made the antelope take to flight for 
the first day or two, but growing familiar with the sight of him, it 
gathered confidence and gradually came to eat grass from the man's hand. 
He, noting that the creature's confidence had been won, first strewed the 
path as thick as a carpet with broken boughs; then tying a gourd full 
of honey on his shoulder and sticking a bunch of grass in his waist-cloth, 
he kept dropping wisps of the honied grass in front of the antelope till at 
last he got it right inside the palace. No sooner was the antelope inside 
than they shut the door. At sight of men the antelope, in fear and 
trembling for its life, dashed to and fro about the hall; and the king 
coming down fi'om his chamber above, and seeing the trembling creature, 
said, "So timid is the Wind-antelope that for a whole week it will not 
i-evisit a spot where it has so much as seen a man ; and if it has once been 
frightened anywhere, it never goes back there again all its life long. Yet, 

46 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

ensnared by the lust of taste, this wild thing from the jungle has actually 
come to a place like this. Truly, my friends, there is nothing viler in the 
world tlian this lust of taste." And he put his teaching into this stanza : — 

There's nothing worse, men say, than taste to snare, 
At home or with one's friends. Lo ! taste it was 
Tliat unto Saiijaya deliver'd up 
The jungle-haunting antelope so wild. 

And with thase words he let the antelope go back to its forest again. 

[159] When the Master had ended his lesson, and had repeated what he had 
said as to that Brother's having fallen into that woman's power in l>ygone 
days as well as in the present time, he shewed the connexion and identified 
the Birth, by saying, "In tliose days this slave-girl was Sanjaya, Direct-alms the 
Less was the wind-antelope, and I myself was the King of Benares." 

No. 15. 


" For when a deer." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana 
about an unruly Brother. Tradition Siiys that this Brother was unruly and 
would not heed admonition. Accordingly, the Master asked laim, saying, " Is it 
true, as they say, that you are unruly and will not heed admonition?" 

" It is true. Blessed One,'' was the reply. 

" So too in bygone days," said the Master, " you were unruly and would 
not heed the admonition of the wise and good, — with the result that you were 
caught in a gin and met your death." And so saying, lie told this story of the 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was in Benares the Bodhisatta was 
born a deer and dwelt in the forest at the head of a herd of deer. His 
sister brought her son to him, saying, " Brother, this is your nephew ; 
teach him deer's ruses," And thus she placed her son under the Bodhisatta's 
care. Said the latter to his nephew, " Come at such and such a time and 
I will give you a lesson." But the nephew made no appearance at the 
time appointed. And, as on that day, so on seven days did he skip his 
lesson and fail to learn the ruses of deer; and at last, as he was roaming 
about, he was caught in a gin. His mother came and said to the 
Bodhisatta, " Brother, was not your nephew taught deer's ruses?" 

No. 15. 47 

" Take no thought for the unteachable rascal," said the Bodhisatta ; 

[IGO] "your son failed to leai-n the ruses of deer." And so saying, having 

lost all desire to advise the scapegrace even in his deadly peril, he re])eated 

this stanza : — 

For when a deer has twice four hoofs to run 
And branching antlers armed with countless tines. 
And when by seven tricks he's saved himself, 
1 teach him then, Kharadiya, no more. 

But the hunter killed the self-willed deer that was caught in the snare, 
and departed with its flesh. 

When the Master had ended this lesson in support of what he had said as to 
the unruliness of the Brother in bygone days as well as in the present, he shewed 
the connexion, and identified the Birth, by saying "In those days this unruly 
Brother was the nei:)hew-deer, Uppala-vanna ^ was the sister, and I myself the 
deer who gave the admonition." 

[Note. In the gdt/id I have translated not the meaningless Mlahi of Fausboll's 
text, nor the easy variant krdelii, which is substituted in the gloss, but hdftM, 
the more difficult reading which occurs in some Sinhalese mss, and which is 
read by Fausboll in the analogous story No. 16. This reading is also given 
by Dickson in J. R. A. S. Ceylon, 1884, p. 188, from the Jataka Pela Sanne. 
If h'dehi be read, the translation becomes, " I do not try to teach one who 
has played truant seven times." In the J. R. A. S. Ceylon, 1884, p. 125, 
Kiinte says, " I have little doubt that Ixddhi is the original form of the popular 
sing-song, and h'deJu a mistake for it, and that on this mistake the grammarian 
compiler has built up his silly little story about the deer who would not go 
to school."] 

No. 16. 


" In all three postures." — This story was told by the Master while dwelling 
in the Badarika Monastery in Kosambi, about the Elder Raliula whose heart 
was set on observing the rules of the Brotherhood. 

Once when the Master was dwelling in the Aggalava Temple hard by the 
town of Ajavl, many female lay-disciples and Sisters used to flock thither 
to hear the Truth preached. The preaching w^as in the daytime, l)ut as time 

1 See the interesting Life of this therl in Mrs Bode's 'Women Leaders of the 
Buddhist Reformation' (.J. R. A. S. 1893, pp. 540—552), where it is explained that 
Uppala-vanua "came by that name because she had a skin like the colour in the heart 
of the dark-bhie lotus." 

48 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

wore on, the women did not attend, and there were only Brethren and men 
disciples present. Then the preaching took place in the evening ; and at 
the close the Elder Brethren retired each to his own chamber. But the younger 
ones with the lay-disciples lay down to rest in the Service-hall. When they 
fell asleep, loud was the snoring and snorting and gnashing of teeth as they 
lay. [161] After a short slumber some got up, and reported to the Blessed 
One the impropriety which they had witnessed. Said he, " If a Brother sleeps 
in the company of Novices, it is a Pacittiya offence (requiring confession and 
absolution)." And after delivering this precejjt he went away to Kosambi. 

Thereon the Brethren said to the Reverend Bahula, "Sir, the Blessed One has 
laid down this precept, and now you will please find quarters of your own." Now, 
before this, the Brethren, out of respect for the father and because of the anxious 
desire of the son to observe the rules of the Brotherhood, had welcomed the youth 
as if the place were his ; — they had fitted up a little bed for him, and had given 
him a cloth to make a pillow with. But on the day of our story they would not 
even give him house-room, so fearful were they of transgressing. The excellent 
Rahula went neither to the Buddha as being his father, nor to Sariputta, Captain 
of the Faith, as being his preceptor, nor to the Great Moggallana as being his 
teacher, nor to the Elder Ananda as being his uncle ; but betook himself to the 
Buddha's jakes and took up his abode there as though in a heavenly mansion. 
Now in a Buddha's jakes the door is always closely shut : the levelled floor is of 
perfumed earth ; flowers and garlands are festooned round the walls ; and all 
night long a lamp burns there. But it was not this splendour which prompted 
Rahula to take up his residence here. Nay, it was simply because the Brethren 
had told him to find quarters for himself, and because he reverenced instruction 
and yearned to observe the rules of the Order. Indeed, from time to time the 
Brethren, to test him, when they saw him coming from quite a distance, used to 
throw down a hand- broom or a little dust-sweepings, and then ask who had 
thrown it down, after Rahula had come in. "Well, Rahula came that way," 
would be the i-emark, but never did the future Elder say he knew nothing about 
it. On the contrary, he used to remove the litter and humbly ask pardon of the 
Brother, nor go away till he was assured that he was pardoned; — so anxious was 
he to observe the rules. And it was solely this anxiety which made him take up 
his dwelling in the jakes. 

Now, though day had not yet dawned, the Master halted at the door of 
the jakes and coughed 'Ahem.' 'Ahem,' responded the Reverend Rahula. "Who 
is there?" said the Buddha. "It is I, Rahula," was the reply; and out came 
the young man and bowed low. " Why have you been sleeping here, Rahula ? " 
" Because I had nowhere to go to. Up till now, sir, the Brethren have been 
very kind to me ; but such is their present fear of erring [162] that they won't 
give me shelter any more. Consequently, I took up my abode here, because 
I thought it a spot where I should not come into contact with anybody else." 

Then thought the Master to himself, "If they treat even Rahula like this, 
what will they not do to other youths whom they admit to the Orderl" And 
his heart was moved within him for the Truth. So, at an early hour he had the 
Brethren assembled, and questioned the Captain of the Faith thus, "I suppose 
you at all events, Sariputta, know where Rahula is now quartered? ' 

"No, sir, I do not." 

"Sariputta, Rahula was living this day in the jakes. Sariputta, if you treat 
Rahula like this, what will not be your treatment of other youths whom you 
admit to the Order? Such treatment will not retain those who join us. In 
future, keep your Novices in your own quarters for a day or two, and only 
on the third day let them lodge out, taking care to acquaint yourself with their 
lodging." With this rider, the Master laid down the precept. 

Gathering together in the Hall of Truth, the Brethren spoke of the goodness 
of Rahula. " See, sirs, how anxious was Rahula to observe the rules. When 
told to find his own lodging, he did not say, 'I am the son of the Buddha; 
what have you to do with quarters ? Yoio turn out ! ' No ; not a single Brother 
did he oust, but quartered himself in the jakes." 

No. 16. 49 

As they were talking thus, the Master came to the Hall and took his seat on 
his throne of state, saying, "What is the subject of your talk, Brethren?" 

"Sir," was the reply, "we were talking of the anxiety of Rahula to keep 
the rules, nothing else." 

Then said the Master, "This anxiety Rahula has shewn not only now, 
but also in the past, when he had been born an animal." And so saying, he told 
this story of the past. 

Once on a time a certain king of Magadha was reigning in Rajagaha; 
and in those days the Bodhisatta, liaving been born a stag, was living in 
the forest at the head of a herd of deer. Now his sister brought her son 
to him, saying, " Brother, teach your nephew here the ruses of deer." 
"Certainly," said the Bodhisatta; "go away now, my boy, and come back 
at such and such a time to be taught." Punctually at the time his uncle 
mentioned, the young stag was there and received instruction in the ruses 
of deer. 

One day as he was ranging the woods he was caught in a snare and 
littered the plaintive cry of a captive. Away fled the herd and told the 
mother of her son's capture. She came to her brother and asked him 
whether his nephew had been taught the ruses of deer. " Fear not; [163] 
your son is not at fault," said the Bodhisatta. " He has learnt thoroughly 
deer's ruses, and will come back straightway to your great rejoicing." 
And so saying, he repeated this stanza : — 

In all three postures — on his back or sides — 

Your son is versed ; he's trained to use eight hoofs*, 

And save at midnight never slakes his thirst; 

As he lies couched on earth, he lifeless seems. 

And only with his under-nostril breathes. 

Six tricks 2 my nephew knows to cheat his foes. 

[1G4] Thus did the Bodhisatta console his sister by shewing her how 
thoroughly her son had mastered the ruses of deer. Meantime the young 
stag on being caught in the snare did not struggle, but lay down at full 
length^ on his side, with his legs stretched out taut and rigid. He pawed 
up the ground round his hoofs so as to shower the grass and earth about ; 
relieved nature ; let his head fall ; lolled out his tongue ; beslavered his 
body all over; swelled himself out by drawing in the wind ; turned up his 
eyes ; breathed only with the lower nostril, holding his breath with the 
upper one ; and made himself generally so rigid and so stiff" as to look like 
a corpse. Even the blue-bottles swarmed round him ; and here and there 
crows settled. 

' This the commentator explains as having two hoofs on each foot, referring to 
the cloven hoof of the deer. 

- I.e. the three mentioned in line 1, and the three mentioned in lines 2, 3, and 5, 

3 See infra p. 62, 1. 10. 

C. J. 4 

50 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

The hunter came up and smacked the stag on the belly with his hand, 
remarking, " He must have been caught early this morning ; he's going 
l)ad already." So saying, the man loosed the stag from his bonds, saying 
to himself, " I'll cut him up here where he lies, and take the flesh home 
with me." But as the man guilelessly set to work to gather sticks and 
leaves (to make a fire with), the young stag rose to his feet, shook himself, 
stretched out his neck, and, like a little cloud scudding before a mighty 
wind, sped swiftly back to his mother. 

After repeating what he had said as to Rahula's having shewn no less anxiety 
in time past to keep rules than in the present, the Master made the connexion 
and identified the Birth by saying, "Rilhula was the young stag of those days, 
Uppala-vanna his mother, and I the stag his uncle." 

[^Note. According to Feer (J. As. 1876, p. 516) this Jataka is also called 
SiH'hcikdmu in the Bigandet ms. The substance of the Introductory Story 
occurs in the Vinaya, Vol. iv. page 16.] 

No. 17. 


" In light or dark." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana 
about two Brethren who had joined the Brotherhood in their old age. Tradition 
says [165] that they were living in a forest-dwelling in the Kosala country, and 
that one was named the Elder Dark and the other the Elder Light. Now one 
day Light said to Dark, "Sir, at what time does what is called cold appear?" 
"It appears in the dark half of the month." And one day Dark said to Light, 
"Sir, at what time does what is called cold appear?" "It appears in the liglit 
half of the month." 

As the pair of them together could not solve the question, they went to the 
Master and with due salutation asked, saying, "Sir, at what time does what is 
called cold appear ?" 

After the Master had heard what they had to say, he said, "Brethren, in 
bygone days also, I answered for you this same cpiestion ; but your previous 
existences have become confused in your minds ^." And so saying, he told this 
story of the past. 

1 The compound bhavasaihkhepagatattd occurs here and in the next Jataka, and 
also Vol. I. p. 463 and Vol. ii. p. 137. The meaning of the word appears to be that 
by re-birth events in previous existences have become jumbled up together so that no 
distinct memory remains. A Buddha has the power of remembering the whole of his 
past existences. 

No. 18. 51 

Once on a time at the foot of a certain mountain there were living 
together in one and the same cave two friends, a lion and a tiger. The 
Bodhisatta too was living at the foot of the same hill, as a hermit. 

Now one day a dispute arose between the two friends about the cold. 
The tiger said it was cold in the dark half of the month, whilst the lion 
maintained that it was cold in the light half. As the two of them 
together could not settle the question, they put it to the Bodhisatta. He 
repeated this stanza : — 

In light or dark half, whensoe'er the wind 

Doth blow, 'tis cold. For cold is caused by wind. 

And, therefore, I decide you both are right. 

Thus did the Bodhisatta make peace between those friends. 

[166] When the Master had ended his lesson in support of what he had said 
as to his having answered the same question in bygone days, he preached the 
Four Truths, at the close whereof both of the Elders won the Fruit of the First 
Path. The Master shewed tlie connexion and identified the Birth, by saying, 
"Dark was the tiger of those days, Light the lion, and I njyself the ascetic who 
answered the question." 

No. 18. 


"If folk Imt kneiv."—'Vh.m story was told by the Master while at Jetavana 
about Feasts for the Dead. For at this time the folk were jiutting to death 
goats, sheep, and other animals, and offering them up as what is called a Feast 
for the Dead, for the sake of their departed kinsmen. Finding them thus 
engaged, the Brethren asked the Master, saying, "Just now, sir, the folk are 
taking the lives of many living creatures and oftering them up as what is called 
a Feast for the Dead. Can it be, sir, that there is any good in this ?" 

" No, Brethren," replied the Master ; " not even when life is taken with the 
object of providing a Feast for the Dead, diies any good arise therefrom. In 
bygone days the wise, preaching the Truth from mid-air, and shewing the evil 
consequences of the practice, made the whole continent renounce it. But now, 
when their previous existences have become confused in their minds, the practice 
has sprung up afresh." And, so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, a brahmin, 
who was versed in the Three Vedas and world-famed as a teacher, being 
minded to offer a Feast for the Dead, had a goat fetched and said to his 


52 The Jataha. Booh I. 

pupils, " My sons, take this goat clown to the river and bathe it ; then 
hang a garland round its neck, give it a pottle of grain to eat, groom it a 
bit, and bring it back." 

"Very good," said they, and down to the river they took the goat, 
where they bathed and groomed the creature and set it on the bank. 
The goat, becoming conscious of the deeds of its past lives, was overjoyed 
at the thought that on this very day it would be freed from all its misery, 
and laughed aloud like the smashing of a pot. Then at the thought that 
the brahmin by slaying it would bear the misery which it had borne, the 
goat felt a great compassion for the brahmin, and wept with a loud voice. 
" Friend goat," said the young brahmins [167], "your voice has been loud 
both in laughter and in weeping ; what made you laugh and what made 
you weep 1 " 

" Ask me your question before your master." 

So with the goat they came to their master and told him of the matter. 
After hearing their story, the master asked the goat why it laughed and 
why it wept. Hereupon the animal, recalling its past deeds by its power 
of remembering its former existences, spoke thus to the brahmin : — " In 
times past, brahmin, I, like you, was a brahmin versed in the mystic texts 
of the Vedas, and I, to offer a Feast for the Dead, killed a goat for my 
offering. All through killing that single goat, I have had my head cut off 
five hundred times all but one. This is my five hundredth and last birth ; 
and I laughed aloud when I thought that this very day I should be freed 
from my misery. On the other hand, I wept when I thought how, whilst 
T, who for killing a goat had been doomed to lose my head five hundred 
times, was to-day being freed from my misery, you, as a penalty for 
killing me, would be doomed to lose your head, like me, five hundred 
times. Thus it was out of compassion for you that I wept." "Fear not, 
goat," said the brahmin ; " I will not kill you." " What is this you say, 
brahmin ? " said the goat. " Whether you kill me or not, I cannot escape 
death to-day." " Fear not, goat; I will go about with you to guard you." 
" Weak is your protection, brahmin, and strong is the force of my 

Setting the goat at liberty, the brahmin said to his disciples, " Let us 
not allow anyone to kill this goat;" and, accompanied by the young men, 
he followed the animal closely about. The moment the goat was set free, 
it reached out its neck to browse on the leaves of a bush growing near 
the top of a rock. And that very instant a thunderbolt struck the rock, 
rending off a mass which hit the goat on the outstretched neck and tore 
off its head. And people came crowding round. 

[168] In those days the Bodhisatta had been born a Tree-Fairy in that 
selfsame spot. By his supernatural powers he now seated himself cross- 
legged in mid-air while all the crowd looked on. Thinking to himself, ' If 

No. 19. 53 

these creatures only knew the fruit of evil-doing, perhaps they would 
desist from killing,' in his sweet voice he taught them the Truth in this 
stanza :— 

If folk but knew the penalty would be 
Birth unto sorrow, living things would cease 
From taking life. Stern is the slayer's doom. 

Thus did the Great Being preach the Truth, scaring his hearers with 
the fear of hell; and the people, hearing him, were so terrified at 
the fear of hell that they left ofi" taking life. And the Bodhisatta after 
establishing the multitude in the Commandments by preaching the Truth 
to them, passed away to fare according to his deserts. The people, too, 
remained steadfast in the teaching of the Bodhisatta and spent their lives 
in charity and other good works, so that in the end they thronged the City 
of the Devas. 

His lesson ended, the Master shewed the connexion, and identified the Birth 
by saying, "In those days I was the Tree-fairy." 

No. 19. 


[169] ^'Take thought of life hereafter." This story was told by the 
]\Iaster while at Jetavana about the offering of a sacrifice imder vow to gods. 
Tradition says that in those days folk when going a journey on business, used to 
slay living creatures and ofter them as a sacrifice to gods, and set out on their 
way, after making this vow, — "If we come stifely back with a profit, we will give 
you another sacrifice." And when they did come safely back with a profit, the 
idea that this was all due to gods made them slay a number of living creatm-es 
and ofter them up as a sacrifice to obtain a release from their vow. 

When the Brethi^en became aware of this, they asked the Blessed One, saying, 
"Can there be any good in this, sir /" 

The Blessed One told this story of the past. 

Once on a time in the Kasi country the squire of a certain little village 
had promised a sacrifice to the Fairy of a banyan-tree which stood at the 
entrance to the village. Afterwards when he returned, he slew a number 

54 The Jataka. Book I. 

of creatures and betook himself to the tree to get released from his vow. 
But the Tree-Fairy, standing in the fork of its tree, repeated this stanza : — 

Take thought of life hereafter when you seek 
'Release'; for this release is bondage strict. 
Not thus the wise and good release themselves ; 
For this, the fool's release, in bondage ends. 

Thenceforth, men refrained from such taking of life, and by walking in 
righteousness thronged thereafter the city of the Devas. 

His lesson ended, the Master shewed the connexion and ideutihed the Birtli, 
by saying, " I was the Tree-fairy of those days." 

[Note. Feer mentions a second title, PCmavadha- Jataka (J. As. 1876, p. 

No. 20. 


[170] ^^ I found the footprints." This story was told by the Master whilst 
journeying on an alms-pilgrimage through Kosala, when he had come to the 
village of Nalaka-jmna (Cane-drink) and was dwelling at Ketaka-vana near the 
Pool of Nalaka-pana, about cane-sticks. In those days the Brethren, after 
bathing in the Pool of Nalaka-pana, made the novices get them cane-sticks for 
needle-cases \ but, tincbng them hollow throughout, went to the Master and said, 
" Sir, we had cane-sticks got in order to pi'ovide needle-cases ; and from top to 
bottom they are quite hollow. Now how can that be?" 

" Bretln-en," said the Master, "such was my ordinance in times gone by." 
And, so saying, he told this story of the past. 

h\ past times, we are told, there was a thick forest on this spot. And 
in the lake here dwelt a water-ogre who used to devour everyone who went 
down into the water. In those days the Bodhisatta had come to life as the 
king of the monkeys, and was as big as the fawn of a red deer ; he lived in 
that forest at the head of a troop of no less than eighty thousand monkeys 

1 In the Vinaya, (CuUai\ v. 11), the Buddha is made to allow "the use of a needle- 
case made of bamboo." 

No. 20. 55 

whom he shielded from harm. Thus did he counsel his siibjects :— " My 
friends, in this forest there are trees that are poisonous and lakes that are 
haunted by ogres. Mind to ask me first before you either eat any fruit 
which you have not eaten before, or drink of any water where you have 
not drunk before." " Certainly," said they readily. 

One day they came to a spot they had never visited before. As they 
were searching for water to drink after their day's wanderings, they came 
on this lake. But they did not drink ; on the contrary they sat down 
watching for the coming of the Bodhisatta. 

When he came up, he said, " Well, my friends, why don't you drink 1 " 

" We waited for you to come." 

" Quite right, my friends/' said the Bodhisatta. Then he made a cir- 
cuit of the lake, and scrutinized the footprints round, with the result that 
he found that all the footsteps led down into the water and none came up 
again. " Without doubt," thought he to himself, " this is the haunt of an 
ogre." So he said to his followers, "You are quite right, my friends, in 
not drinking of this vi^ater ; for the lake is haunted by an ogre." 

When the water-ogre realised that they were not entering his domain, 
[171] he assumed the shape of a horrible monster with a blue belly, a 
white face, and bright- red hands and feet ; in this shape he came out from 
the water, and said, "Why are you seated here'? Go down into the lake 
and drink." But the Bodhisatta said to him, " Are not you the ogre of 
this water 1" "Yes, I am," was the answer. " Do you take as your prey 
all those who go down into this water?" "Yes, I do; from small birds 
upwards, I never let anything go which comes down into my water. I 
will eat the lot of you too." "But we shall not let you eat us," "Just 
drink the water." " Yes, we will drink the water, and yet not fall into 
your power." "How do you propose to drink the water, then?" "Ah, 
you think we shall have to go down into the water to drink ; whereas we 
shall not enter the water at all, but the whole eighty thousand of us will 
take a cane each and drink therewith from your lake as easily as we could 
through the hollow stalk of a lotus. And so you will not be able to eat 
us." And he repeated the latter half of the following stanza (the first 
half being added by the Master when, as Buddha, he recalled the inci- 
dent) : — 

I found the footprints all lead down, none back. 
With canes we'll drink ; you shall not take my life. 

8o saying, the Bodhisatta had a cane brought to him. Then, calling to 
mind the Ten Perfections displayed by him, he recited them in a solemn 
asseveration', and blew down the cane. [172] Straightway the cane became 

1 Literally "made a truth-act." If this is done with intention, a miracle instantly 
follows. Cf. No. 35 &G. 

56 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

hollow throughout, without a single knot being left in all its length. In this 
fashion he had another and another brought and blew down them. (But 
if this were so, he could never have finished ; and accordingly the forego- 
ing sentence must not be understood in this — literal — sense.) Next the 
Bodhisatta made the tour of the lake, and commanded, saying, "Let all 
canes growing here become hollow throughout." Now, thanks to the 
great virtues of the saving goodness of Bodhisattas, their commands are 
always fulfilled. And thenceforth every single cane that grew round tliat 
lake became hollow throughout. 

(In this Kaj)jm, or Era, there are four miracles which endure through 
the whole Era. What are the fourl Well, they are — first, the sign of the 
hare in the moon', which will last through the whole Era ; secondly, the 
spot where the fire was put out as told in the Vattaka Jataka*, which 
shall remain untouched by fire throughout the Era ; thirdly, on the site 
of Ghatikara's house^ no rain shall ever fall while this Era lasts ; and 
lastly, the canes that grow round this lake shall be hollow throughout 
during the whole of the Era. Such are the four Era-mii-acles, as they are 

After giving this command, the Bodhisatta seated himself with a cane in 
his hands. All the other eighty thousand monkeys too seated themselves 
round the lake, each with a cane in his hands. And at the same moment 
when the Bodhisatta sucked the water up through his cane, they all drank 
too in the same manner, as they sat on the bank. This was the way they 
drank, and not one of them could the water-ogre get ; so he went off' in a 
rage to his own habitation. The Bodhisatta, too, with his following went 
back into the forest. 

When the Master had ended his lesson and had rei)eated what he had said as 
to the hollowness of the canes being the result of a former ordinance of his 
own, he shewed the connexion, and identified the Birth by saying, "Devadatta 
was the water-ogre of those days; my disciples were the eighty thousand 
monkeys ; and I was the monkey-king, so fertile in resource." 

' See Jataka No. 316, and Tawney's Kathu-Sarit-Sdgara, Vol. ii. p. 66, where a 
number of i^assages bearing on this symbol are referred to, and Benfey's Pahca- 
Tantra, i. 349. See also Cariyd-Pitaka, p. 82. 

2 No. 35. 

3 See the (unpublished) Gbatlkara Sutta (No. 81 of the Majjhima Nik.nya), Dhamma- 
pada, p. 349, and Milinda-paiiha, p. 222. 

No. 21. 57 

No. 21. 


[173] " The antelope knoics well"— This story was told by the Master while at 
the Bamboo-gi-ove about Devadatta. For once when the Brethren were gathered 
together in the Hall of Truth, they sat talking reproachfully of Devadatta, saying, 
" Sirs, with a view to destroy the Buddha Devadatta hired bowmen, hurled down 
a rock, and let loose the elephant Dhana-palaka ; in every way he goes about to 
slay the Lord of ^^'isdoml." Entering and seating himself on the seat prepared 
for him, the Master asked, saying, "Sirs, what is the theme you are discussing 
here in conclave?" "Sir," was the reply, "we were discussing the wickedness of 
Devadatta, saying that he was always going about to slay you." Said the 
Master, "It is not only in these present days, Bretliren, that Devadatta goes 
about seeking to slay me ; he went about with the like intent in bygone days 
also,— but was unable to slay me." And so saying, he told this story of the 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as an antelope, and used to live on fruits in his 
haunts in the forest. 

At one period he was subsisting on the fruit of a sepamii-tree. 
And there was a village liunter, whose method was to build a platform 
in trees at the foot of which he found the track of deer, and to watch 
aloft for their coming to eat the fruits of the trees. When the deer came, 
he brought them down with a javelin, and sold the flesh for a living. 
This hunter one day marked the tracks of the Bodhisatta at the foot of the 
tree, and made himself a platform up in the boughs. Having breakfasted 
early, he went with his javelin into the forest and seated himself on his 
platform. The Bodhisatta, too, came abroad early to eat the fruit of that 
tree ; but he was not in too great a hurry to approach it. " For," thought 
he to himself, "sometimes these platform-building hunters build themselves 
platforms in the boughs. Can it be that this can have happened here 1 " 
And he halted some way off to reconnoitre. Finding that the Bodhisatta 
did not approach, the hunter, still seated aloft on his platform, [174] threw 
fruit down in front of the antelope. Said the latter to himself, " Here's 
the fruit coming to meet me; I wonder if there is a hunter up there." 
So he looked, and looked, till he caught sight of the hunter in the tree ; 
but, feigning not to have seen the man, he shouted, "My worthy tree, 
hitherto you have been in the habit of letting your fruit fall straight to 

1 See Vinmja, Cullavagga, vii. 3, for details of Devadatta's attempt to kill Gotama. 
In the Vivnya, the elephant is named Nalagiri. 

58 'The Jataka. Book I. 

the ground like a pendant creeper; but to-day you have ceased to act like 
a tree. And therefore, as you have ceased to behave as becomes a tree, I 
too must change, and look for food beneath another tree." And so saying, 
he repeated this stanza : — 

The antelope knows well the fruit you drop. 
I like it not; some other tree I'll seek*. 

Then the hunter from his platform hurled his javelin at the Bodhisatta, 
crying, " Begone ! I've missed you this time." Wheeling round, the 
Bodhisatta halted and said, '• You may have missed lae^ my good man ; 
but depend upon it, you have not missed the reward of your conduct, 
namely, the eight Large and the sixteen Lesser hells and all the live forms 
of bonds and torture." With these words the antelope bounded off on its 
way ; and the hunter, too, climbed down and went his way. 

When the Master had ended this discourse and had repeated what ho had 
said about Devadatta's going about to slay him in bygone days also, he shewed 
the connexion and identified the Birth, by saying, "Devadatta was the platform- 
hunter of those days, and I myself the antelope." 

No. 22. 


[ITS] '■'■The dogs that in the royal palace grow." — This story was told by the 
Master while at Jetavana, about acting for the good of kinsfolk, as will be 
related in the Twelfth Book in the Bhaddasala-jataka''^. It was to drive home 
that lesson that he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the result 
of a past act of the Bodhisatta was that he came to life as a dog, and dwelt 
in a great cemetery at the head of several hundred dogs. 

Now one daj% the king set out for his pleasaunce in his chariot of 
state drawn by milk-white horses, and after amusing himself all the day 
in the grounds came back to the city after sunset. The carriage-hai-ness 

^ See Dhammapada, pp. 147, 331. 
- No. 46/5. 

No. 22. 59 

they left in the courtyard, still hitched on to the chariot. In the night 
it rained and the harness got wet. Moreover, the king's dogs came down 
from the upper chambers and gnawed the leather work and straps. Next 
day they told the king, saying, " Sire, dogs have got in through the mouth 
of the sewer and have gnawed the leather work and straps of your 
majesty's carriage." Enraged at the dogs, the king said, " Kill every dog 
you see." Then began a great slaughter of dogs ; and the creatures, 
finding that they were being slain whenever they were seen, repaired to 
the cemetery to the Bodhisatta. "What is the meaning," asked he, "of your 
assembling in such numbers'?" They said, "The king is so enraged at the 
report that the leather work and straps of his carriage have been gnawed 
by dogs within the royal precincts, that he has ordered all dogs to be 
killed. Dogs are being destroyed wholesale, and great peril has arisen." 

Thought the Bodhisatta to himself, "No dogs from without can get 
into a place so closely watched ; it must be the thoroughbred dogs inside 
the palace who have done it. At i)resent nothing ha{)pens to the real 
culprits, while the guiltless are being put to death. What if I were to 
discover the culprits to the king and so save the lives of my kith and kin?" 
He comforted his kinsfolk by saying, " Have no fear ; I will save you. 
[176] Only wait here till I see the king." 

Then, guided by the thoughts of love, and calling to mind the Ten 
Perfections, he made his way alone and unattended into the city, com- 
manding thus, "Let no hand be lifted to throw stick or stone at me." 
Accordingly, when he made his appearance, not a man grew angry at the 
sight of him. 

The king meantime, after ordering the dogs' destruction, had taken 
his seat in the hall of justice. And straight to him ran the Bodhisatta, 
leaping under the king's throne. The king's servants tried to get him 
out ; but his majesty stojjped them. Taking heart a little, the Bodhisatta 
came forth from under the throne, and bowing to the king, said, " Is 
it you who are having the dogs destroyed?" "Yes, it is I." "What 
is their otfence, king of menl" "They have been gnawing the straps 
and the leather covering my carriage." "Do you know the dogs who 
actually did the mischief?" "No, I do not." "But, your majesty, if 
you do not know for certain the real culprits, it is not right to order the 
destruction of every dog that is seen." " It was because dogs had gnawed 
the leather of my carriage that I ordered them all to be killed." " Do 
your people kill all dogs without exception ; or are there some dogs who 
are spared 1 " " Some are spared, — the thorough-bred dogs of my own 
palace." " Sire, just now you were saying that you had ordered the 
universal slaughter of all dogs wherever found, because dogs had gnawed 
the leather of your carriage ; whereas, now, you say that the thorough- 
bred dogs of your own palace escape death. Therefoi-e you are following 

60 The Jataka. Book I. 

the four Evil Courses of partiality, dislike, ignorance and fear. Such 
courses are wrong, and not kinglike. For kings in trying cases should 
be as unbiassed as the beam of a balance. But in this instance, since 
the royal dogs go scot-free, whilst poor dogs are killed, this is not the 
impartial doom of all dogs alike, but only the slaughter of poor dogs." 
And moreover, the Great Being, lifting up his sweet voice, said, " Sire, it 
is not justice that you are performing," and he taught the Truth to the 
king in this stanza : — [177] 

Tlie dogs that in the royal palace grow. 

The well-bred dogs, so strong and fair of foi'm, — 

Not these, but only we, are doomed to die. 

Here's no impartial sentence meted out 

To all alike ; 'tis slaughter of the poor. 

After listening to the Bodhisatta's words, the king said, " Do you in 
your wisdom know who it actually was that gnawed the leather of my 
carriage]" "Yes, sire." "Who was it?" "The thorough-bred dogs 
that live in your own palace." " How can it be shewn that it was they 
who gnawed the leather?" "I will prove it to you," "Do so, sage." 
"Then send for your dogs, and have a little butter-milk and kusa-grass 
brought in." The king did so. 

Then said the Great Being, " Let this grass be mashed up in the butter- 
milk, and make the dogs drink it." 

The king did so ; — with the result that each several dog, as he drank, 
vomited. And they all brought up bits of leather ! " Why it is like a 
judgment of a Perfect Buddha himself," cried the king overjoyed, and 
he did homage to the Bodhisatta by oflfering him the royal umbrella. But 
the Bodhisatta taught the Truth in the ten stanzas on righteousness in the 
Te-sakuna Jataka^, beginning with the words : — 

Walk righteously, great king of princely race. 

Then having established the king in the Five Commandments, and 
having exhorted his majesty to be steadfast, the Bodhisatta handed back to 
the king the white umbrella of kingship. 

At the close of the Great Being's words, [178] the king commanded 
that the lives of all creatures should be safe from harm. He oi-dered that 
all dogs from the Bodhisatta downwards, should have a constant supply of 
food such as he himself ate; and, abiding by the teachings of the Bodhi- 
satta, he spent his life long in charity and other good deeds, so that when 
he died he was re-born in the Deva Heaven. The * Do^'s Teachins:' 
endured for ten thousand years. The Bodhisatta also lived to a ripe old 
age, and then passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

1 No. 521. 

No. 23. 61 

When the Master had ended this lesson, and had said, "Not only now, 
Brethren, does the Buddha do what profits his kindred ; in former times also he 
did the like," — he shewed the connexion, and identified the Birth by saying, 
" Ananda was the king of those days, the Buddha's followers were the others, and 
I myself was the dog." 

No. 23. 


" Though prostrate jiow." — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana about a Brother who gave up persevering. For it was then that 
the Master addressed that Brother and said, " Brethren, in bygone days the wise 
and good persevered even amid hostile surroundings, and, even when they were 
woimded, still did not give in." And, so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta came to life as a thoroughbred Sindh horse and was made the king's 
destrier, surrounded by all pomp and state. He was fed on exquisite 
three-year old rice, which was always served up to him in a golden dish 
worth a hundred thousand pieces of money ; and the ground of his stall 
was [lerfumed with the four odours. Round his stall were hung crimson 
curtains, while overhead was a canopy studded with stars of gold. On the 
walls were festooned wreaths and garlands of fragrant flowers; and a lamp 
fed with scented oil was always burning thez'e. 

Now all the kings round coveted the kingdom of Benares. Once seven 
kings encompassed Benares, and sent a missive to the king, saying, "Either 
yield up your kingdom to us or give battle." Assembling his ministers, 
the king of Benares laid the matter before them, and asked them what he 
was to do. Said they, " You ought not to go out to do battle in person, 
sire, in the first instance. [179] Despatch such and such a knight out first 
to fight them ; and later on, if he fails, we will decide what to do." 

Then the king sent for that knight and said to him, "Can you fight the 
seven kings, my dear knight? " Said he, "Give me but your noble destrier, 
and then I could fight not seven kings only, but all the kings in India." 
" My dear knight, take my destrier or any other horse you please, and do 
battle." "Very good, my sovereign lord," said the knight; and with a bow 
he passed down from the upper chambers of the palace. Then he had the 
noble destrier led out and sheathed in mail, arming himself too cnp-a-yiie. 

62 The Jdtaha. Book I. 

and girding on his sword. Mounted on his noble steed he passed out of the 
city-gate, and with a lightning charge broke down the first camp, taking 
one king alive and bringing him back a prisoner to the soldiers' custody. 
Returning to the field, he broke down the second and the third camps, 
and so on until he captured alive five kings. The sixth camp he had 
just broken down, and had captured the sixth king, when his destrier 
received a wound, which streamed with blood and caused the noble animal 
sharp pain. Perceiving that the horse was wounded, the knight made it 
lie down at the king's gate, loosened its mail, and set about arming another 
horse. As the Bodhisatta lay at full length on his side, he opened his eyes, 
and gathered what the knight was doing. "My rider," thought he to 
himself, " is arming another horse. That other horse will never be able to 
break down the seventh camp and capture the seventh king ; he will lose 
all that I have accomplished. This peerless knight will be slain ; and the 
king, too, will fall into the hands of the foe. I alone, and no other horse, 
can break down that seventh camp and capture the seventh king." So, as 
he lay there, he called to the knight, and said, "Sir knight, there is no 
horse but I who can break down the seventh camp and capture the 
seventh king. I will not throw away what I have already done ; only 
have me set upon my feet and clad again in my armour." And so saying, 
he repeated this stanza: — [180] 

Though prostrate now, and pierced with darts, I lie, 
Yet still no hack can match the destrier. 
So harness none but me, charioteer. 

The knight had the Bodhisatta set upon his feet, bound up his wound, 
and armed him again in proof. Mounted on the destrier, he broke down 
the seventh camp, and brought back alive the seventh king, whom he 
handed over to the custody of the soldiers. They led the Bodhisatta too 
up to the king's gate, and the king came out to look upon him. Then 
said the Great Being to the king, " Great king, slay not these seven 
kings ; bind them by an oath, and let them go. Let the knight enjoy all 
the honour due to us both, for it is not right that a warrior who has 
presented you with seven captive kings should be brought low. And 
as for yourself, exercise cliarity, keep the Commandments, and rule your 
kingdom in righteousness and justice." When the Bodhisatta had thus 
exhorted the king, they took off his mail ; but when they were taking it 
off piecemeal, he passed away. 

The king had the body burned with all respect, and bestowed great 
honour on the knight, and sent the seven kings to their homes after 
exacting ivonx each an oath never to war against him any more. And he 
ruled his kingdom in righteousness and justice, passing away when his 
lite closed to fare thereafter according to his deserts. 

No. 24. 63 

Then the Master said, "Thus, Brethren, in bygone days the wise and good 
persevered even amid hostile surroundings, and, even when wounded so grievously, 
still did not give in. Whereas you who have devoted yourself to so saving 
a doctrine, — how comes it that you give up persevering?" After which, he 
preached the Four Truths, at the close whereof the faint-heai-ted Brother 
won Arahatship. His lesson ended, the Master [181] shewed the connexion, 
and identified the Birth by saying, "Ananda was the king of those days, 
Sariputta the knight, and I myself the thorough-bred Sindh horse." 

No. 24. 


"^Yo matter when or whereT — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana about another Brother who gave up persevering. But, in this case, he 
addressed that Brother and said, " Brethren, in bygone days the wise and good 
still persevered even when wounded." And, so saying, he tolil this story of the 

Once on a time when Brahniadatta was reigning in Benares, there 
were seven kings who encompassed the city, just as in the foregoing story. 

So a wai'rior who fought from a chai-iot harnessed two Sindh horses (a 
pair of brothers), and, sallying from the city, broke down six camps and 
captured six kings. Just at this juncture the elder horse was wounded. 
On drove the charioteer till he reached the king's gate, where he took the 
elder brother out of the chariot, and, after unfastening the horse's mail as 
he lay upon one side, set to work to arm another horse. Realising tlie 
warrior's intent, the Bodhisatta had tlie same thoughts pass through his 
head as in the foregoing story, and sending for the charioteer, repeated 
this stanza, as he lay : — 

No matter when or where, in weal or woe, 
The thorough-bred fights on ; the hack gives in. 

The charioteer had the Bodhisatta set on his feet and harnessed. Then 
he broke down the seventh camp and took prisoner the seventh king, with 
whom he drove away [182] to the king's gate, and there took out the 
noble horse. As he lay upon one side, the Bodhisatta gave the same coun- 
sels to the king as in the foregoing story, and then expired. The king had 
the body biirned with all respect, lavished honours on the charioteer, and 

64 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

after ruling his kingdom in righteousness passed away to fare thereafter 
according to his deeds. 

His lesson ended, the Master preached the Truths (at the close whereof 
that Brother won Arahatship) ; and identified the Birth by saying, " The Elder 
Ananda was the king, and the Perfect Buddha was the horse of those days." 

No. 25. 


" Change thou the spot." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about an ex-goldsmith, who had become a Brother and was co-resident with the 
Captain of the Faith (Sariputta). 

Now, it is only a Buddha who has knowledge of the hearts and can read 
the thoughts of men; and therefore through lack of this power, the Captain 
of the Faith had so little knowledge of the heart and thoughts of his co-resident, 
as to prescribe impurity as the theme for meditation. This was no good 
to that Brother. The reason why it was no good to him was that, according 
to tradition, he had invariably been born, throughout five hundred successive 
births, as a goldsmith; and, consequently, the cumulative effect of seeing 
absolutely pure gold for so long a time had made the theme of impurity useless. 
He spent four months without being able to get so much as the first inkling 
of the idea. Finding himself unable to confer Arahatship on his co-resident, 
the Captain of the Faith thought to himself, "This must certainly be one whom 
none but a Buddha can convert ; I will take him to the Buddha." So at 
early dawn he came with the Brother to the Master. 

"What can it be, Sariputta," said the Master, "that has brought you here 
with this Brother?" "Sir, I gave him a theme for meditation, and after four 
months he has not attained to so much as the first inkling of the idea; so 
I brought him to you, thinking that here was one whom none but a Buddha can 
convert." "What meditation, Sariputta, did you prescribe for him?" "The 
meditation on impurity. Blessed One." "Sariputta, it is not yours to have 
knowledge of the hearts and to read the thoughts of men. Depart now alone, 
and in the evening come back to fetch your co-resident." 

After thus dismissing the Elder, the Master had that Brother clad in a nice 
under-cloth and a robe, kept him constantly at his side when he went into 
town for alms, and saw that he received choice food of all kinds. Returning to 
the Monastery once more, surrounded by the Brethren, the Master retired during 
the daytime [183] to his perfumed chamber, and at evening, as he walked about 
the Monastery with that Brother by his side, he made a pond appear and in it 
a great clump of lotuses out of which grew a great lotus-flower. "Sit here, 
Brother," he said, " and gaze at this flower." And, leaving the Brother seated 
thus, he retired to his perfumed chamber. 

That Brother gazed and gazed at that flower. The Blessed One made it 
decay. As the Brother looked at it, the flower in its docay farled; the petals 

No. 25. 65 

fell off, beginning at the rim, till in a little while all were gone; then the 
stamens fell away, and only the pericarp was left. As he looked, that Brother 
thought within himself, "Even now, this lotus-flower was lovely and fair; yet its 
colour is departed, its petals and stamens have fallen away, and only the 
pericarp is left standing. Decay has c(mie upon this beautiful lotus; what may 
not befall my body? Transitory are all compounded things!" And with the 
thought he won Insight. 

Knowing that the Brother's mind had I'isen to Insight, the blaster, seated as 
he was in his perfumed chamber, emitted a radiant semblance of himself, 
and uttered this stanza : — 

Pluck out self-love, as with the hand you pluck 
The autumn water-lily. Set your heart 
On naught but this, the perfect Path of Peace, 
And that Extinction which the Buddha taught. 

At the close of this stanza, that Brother won Arahatship. At the thought 
that he would never be born again, never be troul)led with existence in any 
shajje hereafter, he liurst into a heartfelt utterance beginning with these 
stanzas : — 

He who has lived his life, whose thought is ripe ; 
He who, from all defilements purged and free. 
Wears his last body; he whose life is pure. 
Whose subject senses own him sovereign lord; — 
He, like the moon that wins her way at last 
From Rahu's jaws^, has won supreme release. 

The foulness which enveloped me, which wrought 
Delusion's utter darkness, I dispelled ; 
— As, tricked with thousand rays, the beaming sun 
Illumines heaven with a flood of light. 

After this and renewed utterances of joy, he went to the Blessed One and 
saluted him. The Elder, too, came, and after due salutation to the Master, went 
away with his co-resident. 

When news of all this spread among the Brethren, [184] they gathered 
together in the Hall of Truth and there sat praising the virtues of the Lord 
of Wisdom, and saying, " Sirs, through not knowing the hearts and thoughts 
of men, the Elder Sariputta was ignorant of his co-resident's disposition. But 
the Master knew, and in a single day bestowed on him Arahatship together 
with perfected scholarship. Oh, how great are the marvellous powers of a 

Entering and taking the seat set ready for him, the Master asked, saying, 
"What is the theme of your discourse here in conclave, Brethren ?" 

"Naught else. Blessed One, than this, — that you alone had knowledge of the 
heart, and could read the thoughts, of the co-resident of the Captain of the 

"This is no marvel. Brethren; that I, as Buddha, should now know that 
Brother's disposition. Even in bygone days I knew it equally well." And, so 
saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares. In tliose days 
the Bodhisatta used to be the king's director in things temporal and 

1 Rahu was a kind of Titan who was thought to cause eclipses by temporarily 
swallowing the sun and moon. 

c. J. 5 

66 Tlie Jdtaha. Bool I. 

At this time folk had washed another horse, a sorry beast, at the bath- 
ing-place of the king's state-charger. And when the groom was for 
leading tlie state-charger down into the same water, the animal was so 
affronted that he would not go in. So the groom went off to the king 
and said, " Please your Majesty, your state-charger won't take his 

Then the king sent the Bodhisatta, saying, " Do yon go, sage, and find 
out why the animal will not go into the water when they lead him down." 
" Very good, sire," said the Bodhisatta, and went his way to the waterside. 
Here he examined the horse; and, finding it was not ailing in any way, he 
tried to divine what the reason could be. At last he came to the conclu- 
sion that some other horse must have been washed at that place, and that 
the chai'ger had taken such umbrage thereat that he would not go into the 
water. So he asked the grooms what animal they had washed first in the 
water. "Another horse, my lord, — an ordinary animal." "Ah, it's his 
self-love that has been offended so deeply that he will not go into the 
water," said the Bodhisatta to himself; "the thing to do is to wash 
him elsewhere." So he said to the gi-oom, "A man will tire, my friend, of 
even the daintiest fare, if he has it always. And that's how it is with this 
horse. He has been washed here times without number. Take him to 
other waters [185], and there bathe and water him." And so saying, he 
repeated this stanza : — 

Change thou the spot, and let the charger drink 
Now here, now there, with constant change of scene. 
For even milk-rice cloys a man at last. 

After listening to his words, they led the horse off elsewhere, and there 
watered and bathed him all-right. And while they were washing the 
animal down after watering him, the Bodhisatta went back to the king. 
"Well," said the king; "has my horse taken his drink and bath, my friend?" 
" He has, sire." " Why would he not do so at first?" " For the follow- 
ing reason," said the Bodhisatta, and told the king the whole .story. 
"What a clever fellow he is," said the king; " he can read the mind even 
of an animal like this." And he gave great honour to the Bodhisatta, and 
when his life closed passed away to fare according to his deserts. The 
Bodhisatta also passed away to fare likewise according to his deserts. 

When the Master had ended his lesson and had repeated wliat he had said as 
to his knowledge, in the past as well as the present, of that Brother's disposi- 
tion, he shewed the connexion, and identified the Birth by saying, "This Brother 
was the state-charger of those days; Ananda was the king ; and I myself the 
wise minister." 

No. 26. G7 

No. 26. 


" Through hearing first." — This story was told by the Master while at the 
Bamboo-grove, about Devadatta, who, having secured the adherence of Prince 
Ajata-sattu, had attained both gain and honour. Prince Ajata-sattu had a 
Monastery built for Devadatta at Gaya-sisa, and every day brought to him [186] 
five hundred kettles of perfumed three-year-old rice flavoured with all the choicest 
flavourings. All this gain and honour brought Devadatta a great following, 
with whom Devadatta lived on, without ever stirring out of his Monastery. 

At that time there were living in Rajagaha two friends, of whom one 
had taken the vows iinder the Master, whilst the other had taken them under 
Devadatta. And these continued to see one another, either casually or by 
visiting the Monasteries. Now one day the disciple of Devadatta said to the other, 
"Sir, why do you daily go round for alms with the sweat streaming oft' you? 
Devadatta sits quietly at Gaya-slsa and feeds on the best of fare, flavoured 
with all the choicest flavourings. There's no way like his. Why breed misery 
for yourself? Why should it not be a good thing for you to come the first 
thing in the morning to the Monastery at Gaya-sisa and there drink our rice- 
gruel with a relish after it, try our eighteen kinds of solid victual, and enjoy our 
excellent soft food, flavoured with all the choicest flavourings?" 

Being pressed time after time to accept the invitation, the other began to want 
to go, and thenceforth used to go to Gaya-sTsa and there eat and eat, not forget- 
ting however to return to the Bamboo-grove at the projjer hour. Nevertheless 
he could not keep it secret always ; and in a little while it came out that 
he used to hie oft' to Gaya-sisa and there regale himself with the food provided 
for Devadatta. Accordingly, his friends asked him, saying. " Is it true, as they 
say, that you regale yourself on the food provided for Devadatta?" "Who said 
that?" said he. "So-and-so said it." "It is true, sirs, that I go to Gaya-sisa 
and eat there. But it is not Devadatta who gives me food ; others do that." 
"Sir, Devadatta is the foe of the Buddhas; in his wickedness, he has secured 
the adherence of Ajilta-sattu and by unrighteousness got gain and honour 
for himself. Yet you who have taken the vows according to this faith which 
leads to salvation, eat the food which Devadatta gets by unrighteousness. 
Come; let us bring you before the Master." And, taking with them the 
Brother, they went to the Hall of Truth. 

When the Master became aware of their presence, he said, "Brethren, are you 
l)riiiging this Brother here against his will?" "Yes, sir; this Brother, after 
taking the vows under you, eats the food which Devadatta gets by unrighteous- 
ness." "Is it true, as they say, that you eat the food which Devadatta gets by 
unrighteousness?" "It was not Devadatta, sir, that gave it me, but others." 
"Raise no quibbles here. Brother," said the Master. "Devadatta is a man of 
bad conduct and bad principle. Oh, how could you, who have taken the vows 
here, eat Devadatta's food, wliilst adhering to my doctrine ? But you have always 
been prone to being led away, and have followed in turn every one yovi meet." 
And, so saying, he told this story of the past. 


68 The J (It aha. Booh I. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta became his minister. In those days the king had a state- 
elephant [187], named Damsel-face, who was virtuous and good, and never 
hurt anybody. 

Now one day some burglars came close up to the elephant's stall by 
night and sat down to discuss their plans in these words : — " This is the 
way to tunnel into a house ; this is the way to break in through the walls ; 
befoi-e carrying off the plunder, the tunnel or breach in the walls ought 
to be made as clear and open as a road or a ford. In lifting the goods, 
you shouldn't stick at murder; for thus there will be none able to resist. 
A burglar should get rid of all goodness and virtue, and be quite pitiless, 
a man of cruelty and violence." After having schooled one another in 
these counsels, the burglars took themselves off. The next day too they 
came, and many other days besides, and held like converse together, till 
the elephant came to the conclusion that they came expressly to instruct 
him, and that he must turn pitiless, cruel, and violent. And such indeed 
he became. No sooner did his mahout appear in the early morning than 
the elephant took the man in his trunk and dashed him to death on the 
ground. And in the same way he treated a second, and a third, and every 
person in turn who came near him. 

The news was brought to the king that Damsel-face had gone mad and 
was killing everybody that he caught sight of. So the king sent the 
Bodhisatta, saying, "Go, sage, and find out what has perverted him." 

Away went the Bodhisatta, and soon satisfied himself that the 
elephant showed no signs of bodily ailment. As he thought over the 
possible causes of the change, he came to the conclusion that the elephant have heard persons talking near him, and have imagined that they 
were giving him a lesson, and that this was what had perverted the 
animal. Accordingly, he asked the elephant-keepers whether any persons 
had been talking together recently near the stall by night. " Yes, my 
lord," was the answer ; " some burglars came and talked." Then the 
Bodhisatta went and told the king, saying, " There is nothing wrong, sire, 
with the elephant bodily ; he has been perverted by overhearing some 
burglars talk." "Well, what is to be done nowV "Order good men, 
sages and brahmins, to sit in his stall and to talk of goodness." " Do so, 
my friend," said the king. Then the Bodhisatta set good men, sages and 
bi'ahmins, in the stall [188], and bade them talk of goodness. And they, 
taking their seats hard by the elephant, spoke as follows, " Neither mal- 
treat nor kill. The good should be long-suffering, loving, and merciful." 
Hearing this the elephant thought they must mean this as a lesson for 
him, and resolved thenceforth to become good. And good he became. 

"Well, my friend," .said the king to the Bodhisatta; "is he good 
now?" "Yes, your majesty," said the Bodhisatta; "thanks to wise and 

No. 27. G9 

good iiieu tile elepliaut who was so perverted has hecoine himself again." 
And so saying, he repeated this stanza : — 

Through hearing first the burglars' wicked talk 
Damsel-fixce ranged abroad to wound and kill ; 
Through hearing, later, wise men's lofty woixls 
The noble elephant turned good once more. 

Said the king, "He can read the mind even of an animal!" And he 
conferi-ed great honour on the Bodhisatta. After living to a good old 
age, ho, with tlie Bodhisatta, passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

Said the Miister, — "In the past, too, you followed everyone you met, Brother ; 
hearing burglars talk, you followed what they said ; and hearing the wise and 
good talk, you followed what they said." His lessou ended, he shewed the con- 
nexion, and identified the Birth, by saying, "The traitorous Brother was the 
Damsel-face of those days, Ananda the king, and I myself the minister." 

No. 27. 


" jVo morsel can he eat." — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana, about a lay-disciple and an aged Elder. [189] 

Tradition says that there were in Savatthi two friends, of whom one joined 
the Brotherhood but used to go e\'ery day to the other's house, where his 
friend used to give him an alms of food and make a meal himself, and then 
accompany him back to the Monastery, where he sat talking all the livelong day 
till the sun went down, when he went back to town. And his friend the 
Brother used to escort him on his homeward way, going as far as the city-gates 
before turning back. 

The intimacy of these two became known among the Brethren, who were 
sitting one day in the Hall of Truth, talking about the intimacy which existed 
between the pair, when the Master, entering the Hall, asked what was the 
subject of their talk ; and the Brethren told him. 

" Not only now, Bretliren, are these two intimate with one another," said the 
Master; "they were intimate in bygone days as well." And, so saying, he told 
this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta became his minister. In those days there was a dog which 
used to go to the stall of the elephant of state, and eat the gobbets of rice 
which fell where the elephant fed. Haunting the place for the food's sake, 

^0 The Jdtaha. Book I. 

the clog grew very friendly with the elephant, and at last would never eat 
except with him. And neither could get on without the other. The dog 
used to disport himself by swinging backwards and forwards on the 
elephant's trunk. Now one day a villager bought the dog of the mahout 
and took the dog home with him. Thenceforward the elephant, missing 
the dog, refused either to eat or drink or take his bath ; and the king was 
told of it. His majesty despatched the Bodhisatta to find out why the 
elephant behaved like this. Proceeding to the elephant-house, the Bodhisatta, 
seeing how sad the elephant was, said to himself, "He has got no bodily 
ailment ; he must have formed an ardent friendship, and is sorrowing at 
the loss of his friend." So he asked whether the elephant had become 
friends with anyone. 

"Yes, my lord," was the answer; "there's a very warm friendship 
between him and a dog." "Where is that dog now?" "A man took it 
off'." "Do you happen to know where that man lives?" "No, my lord." 
The Bodhisatta went to the king and said, " There is nothing the matter 
with the elephant, sire; but he was very friendly with a dog, [190] and it 
is missing his friend which has made him refuse to eat, I imagine." And 
so saying, he repeated this stanza : — 

No morsel can he eat, no rice or grass ; 
And in the bath he takes no pleasure now. 
IMethinks, the dog had so familiar grown, 
That elephant and dog wei'e closest friends. 

"Well," said the king on hearing this; "what is to be done now, 
sage?" "Let proclamation be made by beat of drum, your majesty, to the 
effect that a man is reported to have carried oflJ" a dog of which the elephant 
of state was fond, and that the man in whose house that dog shall be found, 
shall pay such and such a penalty." The king acted on this advice ; and 
the man, when he came to hear of it, promptly let the dog loose. Away 
ran the dog at once, and made his way to the elephant. The elephant 
took the dog up in his trunk, and placed it on his head, and wept and 
cried, and, again setting the dog on the ground, saw the dog eat first and 
then took his own food. 

"Even the minds of animals are known to him," said the king, and he 
loaded the Bodhisatta with honours. 

Thus the Master ended his lesson to shew that the two were intimate in 
bygone days as well as at that date. This done, he unfolded the Four Truths. 
(This unfolding of the Four Truths forms part of all the other Jatakas ; but we 
shall only mention it where it is expressly mentioned that it was blessed unto 
fruit.) Then he shewed the connexion, and identified the Birth by saying, 
" The lay-disciple was the dog of those days, the aged Elder was the elephant, 
and I myself the wise minister." [191] 

No. 28. 71 

No. 28. 


'■'■ISpeak only words of kindness."^ — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavaiia, about the bitter words spoken by the Six^ For, in those days the 
Six, when they disagreed with respectable Brethren, used to taunt, revile and 
jeer them, and load them with the ten kinds of abuse. This the Brethren 
rc[)orted to the Blessed One, who sent for the Six and asked whether this charge 
was true. On their admitting its truth, he rebuked them, saying, "Brethren, 
hard woi'ds gall even animals : in bygone days an animal made a man who had 
used harsh language to him lose a thousand pieces." And, so saying, he told 
this story of the past. 

Once on a time at 'J akkasila in tlie land of Gandhara there was a kino- 
reigning there, and the Bodhisatta came to life as a bull. When he was 
quite a tiny calf, he was presented by his owners to a brahmin who came 
in — they being known to give away presents of oxen to such-like holy men. 
The brahmin called it Nandi-Visfda (Great- Joy), and treated it like his own 
child, feeding the young creature on rice-gruel and rice. When the 
Bodhisatta gi-ew up, he thought thus to himself, " I have been brought up 
by this brahmin with great pains, and all India cannot show the bull which 
can draw what I can. How if I were to repay the brahmin the cost of my 
nurture by making proof of my strength 1 " Accordingly, one day he said 
to the brahmin, " Go, brahmin, to some merchant rich in herds, and wager 
him a thousand pieces that your bull can draw a hundred loaded carts." 

The brahmin went his way to a merchant and got into a discussion with 
him as to whose oxen in the town were the strong. " Oh, so-and-so's, 
or so-and-so's," said the merchant. "But," added he, "there are no oxen in 
the town which can compare with mine for real strength." Said the 
brahmin, "I have a bull who can pull a hundred loaded carts." "Where's 
such a bull to be found 1" laughed the merchant. "I've got him at home," 
said the brahmin. "Make it a wager." "Certainly," said the brahmin, 
and staked [192] a thousand pieces. Then he loaded a hundred carts with 
sand, gravel, and stones, and leashed the lot together, one behind the other, 
by cords from the axle-tree of the one in front to the trace-bar of its 
successor. This done, he bathed Nandi-Visala, gave him a measure of 
perfumed rice to eat, hung a garland round his neck, and harnessed him all 

1 The ' Six ' were notorious Brethren who are always mentioned as defying the 
rules of the Order. 

72 TJie Jataka. Booh I. 

alone to the leading cart. The brahmin in person took his seat upon the 
pole, and flourished his goad in the air, shouting, " Now then, you rascal ! 
pull them along, you rascal!" 

"I'm not the rascal he calls me," thought the Bodhisatta to himself ; 
and so he planted his four feet like so many posts, and budged not an inch. 

Straightway, the merchant made the brahmin pay over the thousand 
pieces. His money gone, the brahmin took his bull out of the cart and went 
home, where he lay down on his bed in an agony of grief. When Nandi- 
Visala strolled in and found the brahmin a prey to such grief, he went up 
to him and euquii-ed if the brahmiu were taking a nap. "How should I be 
taking a nap, when I have had a thousand pieces won of me "? " " Brahmin, 
all the time I have lived in your house, have I ever broken a pot, or 
squeezed up against anybody, or made messes about 1 " "Never, my child." 
"Then, why did you call me a rascal? It's you who ai'e to blame, not I. 
Go and bet him two thousand this time. Only remember not to miscall me 
rascal again." When he heard this, the brahmin went off to the merchant, 
and laid a wager of two thousand. Just as before, he leashed the hundred 
carts to one another and harnessed Naudi-Visala, very spruce and fine, to 
the leading cart. If you ask how he harnessed him, well, he did it in this 
way : — first, he fastened the cross-yoke on to the pole ; then he put the 
bull in on one side, and made the other fast by fastening a smooth piece 
of wood from the cross-yoke on to the axletree, so that the yoke was 
taut and could not skew round either way. Thus a single bull could draw 
a cart made to be drawn by two. So now seated on the pole, the brahmiu 
stroked Nandi- Visala on the back, and called on him in this style, " Now 
then, my fine fellow ! pull them along, my fine fellow ! " With a single 
pull the Bodhisatta tugged along the whole string of the hundred carts 
[193] till the hindermost stood where the foremost had started. The 
merchant, rich in herds, paid up the two thousand pieces he had lost to 
the brahmin. Other folks, too, gave large sums to the Bodhisatta, and 
the whole passed into the hands of the brahmin. Thus did he gain greatly 
by reason of the Bodhisatta, 

Thus laying down, by way of rebuke to the Six, tlie rule that hard words 
please no one, the Master, as Buddha, uttered this stanza :— 

Speak only words of kindness, never words 
Unkind. For him who spoke him fair, he moved 
A heavy load, and brought him wealth, for love. 

When he had thus ended his lesson as to speaking only words of kindness, 
the Master identified the Birth by saying, "Ananda was the brahmin of those 
days, and I myself Nandi- Visala." 

[^N^ote. The substance of this story occurs in the Vinaya, Vol. iv. page 5.] 

No. 29. 73 

No. 29. 


" With heavy loads." — This story was told hy the Master while at Jetavaua, 
about the Double Mii-acle, which, together with the Descent frcnn Heaven, will 
be related in the Thirteenth Book, in the Sarabhaniiga-jataka'. 

After he Imd i)erfornied the Double Miracle and had made a stay in Heaven, 
the All-knowing Buddha descended at the city of Saihkassa on the day of the 
(Ireat Pavarana- Festival, and thence passed with a large following to Jetavana. 

Gathering together in the Hall of Truth, the Brethren sat praising the virtues 
of the Master, saying, "Sirs, peerless is the Buddha; none may bear the yoke 
borne by the Buddha. The Six teachers, though they protested so often that 
they, and they only, would perform miracles, yet not a single miracle did they 
woi'k. ! how peerless is the Master 1 " 

Entering the Hall and asking the theme which the Bivthrcn were discussing in 
conclave [194], the Master was informed that their theme was no other than his 
own virtues. " Brethren," said the Master, " who shall now bear the yoke borne 
by me? Even in bygone days, when I came to life as an animal, I was un- 
matched." And, so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once un a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as a bull. And while he was still a young calf, his 
owners, who had been lodging with an old woman, made him over to her 
in settlement of their reckoning. She reared him like her own child, 
feeding him on rice-gruel and rice and on other good cheer. The name 
he became known by was "Granny's Blackie." Growing up, he used to 
range about with the other cattle of the village, and was as black as jet. 
The village urchins used to catch hold of his horns and ears and dewlaps, 
and have a ride ; or they would hold on to his tail in play, and mount on 
his back. 

One day he thought to himself, "My mother is very poor; she has 
painfully reared me, as if I were her own child. What if I were to earn 
some money to ease her hard lot?" Thenceforth he was always looking out 
for a job. Now, one day a young merchant at the head of a caravan came 
with five hundred waggons to a ford the bottom of which was so rough 
that his oxen could not pull the waggons through. And even when he 
took out the live hundred pairs of oxen and yoked the lot together to form 
one team, they could not get a single cart by itself across the river. Close 

1 No. 483. 

^ The festival at the eud of the raiuy season (Mahdcagga iv. 1). 

74 The Jataka. Book I. 

by that ford the Bodhisatta was about with the other cattle of the village. 
And the young merchant, being a judge of cattle, ran his eye over the 
hei'd to see whether amoDg them thei'e was a thorough-bred bull who could 
pull the waggons across. When his eye fell on the Bodhisatta, he felt sure 
he would do; and, to find out the Bodhisatta's ownei', he said to the 
herdsmen, "Who owns this animal? If I could yoke him on and get my 
waggons across, I would pay for his services." Said they, "Take him and 
harness him, then ; he has got no master hereabouts." 

But when the young merchant slipped a cord [195] through the 
Bodhisatta's nose and tried to lead him off, the bull would not budge. For, 
we are told, the Bodhisatta would not go till his pay was fixed. Under- 
standing his meaning, the merchant said, " Master, if you will pull these 
five hundred waggons across, I will pay you two coins per cart, or a 
thousand coins in all." 

It now required no force to get the Bodhisatta to come. Away he 
went, and the men harnessed him to the carts. The first he dragged over 
with a single pull, and landed it high and dry; and in like manner he dealt 
with the whole string of waggons. 

The young merchant tied round the Bodhisatta's neck a bundle containing 
five hundred coins, or at the rate of only uiie for each cart. Thouglit the 
Bodhisatta to himself, "This fellow is not paying me according to contract! 
I won't let him move on!" So he stood across the path of the foremost 
waggon and blocked the way. And try as they would, they could not get 
him out of the way. "I suppose he knows I've paid him short," thought 
the merchant; and he wrapped up a thousand coins in a bundle, which he 
tied round the Bodhisatta's neck, saying, "Here's your pay for pulling the 
waggons across." And away went the Bodhisatta with the thousand 
pieces of money to his "mother," 

"What's that round the neck of Granny's Blackie?" cried the children 
of the village, running up to him. But the Bodhisatta made at them from 
afar and made them scamper off, so that he reached his "mother" all right. 
Not but what he appeared fagged out, with his eyes bloodshot, from 
dragging all those five hundred waggons over the river. The pious 
woman, finding a thousand pieces of money round his neck, cried out, 
" Where did you get this, my child ? " Learning from the herdsmen 
what had happened, she exclaimed, "Have I any wish to live on your 
earnings, my child ? Why did you go through all this fatigue % " So 
saying, she washed the Bodhisatta with warm water and rubbed him 
all over with oil ; she gave him drink and regaled him with due victuals. 
And when her life closed, she passed away, with the Bodhisatta, to fare 
according to her deserts. 

No. 30. 75 

When he had ended this lesson to shew that the Buddha was unmatched 
in the past as then, he shewed the connexion by uttering, as Buddha, this 
stanza : — 

[196] With heavy loads to carry, with had roads. 

They harness 'Blackie'; he soon draws the load. 

After his lesson to shew that only 'Blackie' could draw the load, he shewed 
the connexion, and identified the Birth by saying, "Uppala-Vanna was the old 
woman of those days, and I myself ' Granny's Blackie.' " 

No. 30. 


'■'■Then envy not pour MimikaJ' — This story was told l)y tlie Master while at 
Jetavana about being seduced by a plump young woman, as will be related in 
the Thirteenth Book in the Culla-Narada-Kassapa-jataka'. 

Then the Master asked that Brother, saying, "Is it true, Brother, as they 
say, that you are passion-tost T' "It is true, sir," was the reply. "Brother," 
said the Master, "she is your bane; even in bygone days, you met your end and 
wei-e made into a relish for the company on her marriage-day." And so saying, 
he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time, when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as an ox, named Big Red, on the squire's estate in 
a certain hamlet. And he had a younger brother who was known as 
Little Red, There were only these two brothers to do all the draught- 
work of the family. Also, the squire had an only daughter, Avhose hand 
was asked in marriage for his son by a gentleman of the town. And the 
parents of the girl, with a view to furnishing dainty fare [197] for the 
wedding guests, began to fatten up a pig named Muuika. 

Observing this, Little Red said to his brotlier, " All the loads that 
have to be drawn for this household are drawn by you and me, my 
brother; but all they give us for our pains is sorry grass and straw to eat. 
Yet hei'e is the pig being victualled on rice ! What can be the reason why 
he should be treated to such fare 1 " 

1 No. 477. 

76 The Jataka. Booh I. 

Said his brother, " My dear Little Red, envy him not ; for the pig 
eats the food of death. It is but to furnish a relish for the guests at 
their daughter's wedding, that the family are feeding up the pig. Wait 
but a little time and the guests will be coming. Then will you see that 
pig lugged out of his quarters by the legs, killed, and in process of 
conversion into cui'ry." And so saying, he repeated this stanza : — 

Then envy not poor Munika; 'tis death 

He eats. Contented munch your frugal chaft', 

— The pledge and guarantee of length of days. 

Not long afterwards the guests did arrive ; and Munika was killed and 
cooked into all maimer of dishes. Said the Bodhisatta to Little Red, 
"Did you see Munika, dear brother?" "I have indeed seen, brother, the 
outcome of Munika's feasting. Better a hundred, nay a thousand, times 
than such food is ours, though it be but grass, straw, and chafi'; — for our 
fare harms us not, and is a pledge that our lives will not be cut short."' 

When he had ended his lesson to the effect that the Brotlier had thus in by- 
gone days been brought to his doom by that young woman and had been made 
into a relish for the company [198], he pi'eached the Truths, at the close whereof 
the passion-tost Brother reached the First Path of Salvation. Also the Master 
shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, "The passion-tost 
Brother was the pig Munika of those days, the young woman is the same in both 
cases, Anauda was Little Red, and I myself Big Red." 

\^Note. See hereon Benfey's Pahca-Tantra, page 228, where the migrations of 
this popular story are traced. See also Jatakas Nos. 286 and 477.] 

No. 31. 


'■'■Let all the forest's nestlings." — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana, about a brother who drank water without straining it^. 

Tradition says that two young Brothers who were friends went from Savatthi 
into the country, and took up their abode in a pleasant spot. After staying 
here as long as they wanted, they depiirted and set out for Jetavana in order to 
see the Perfect Buddha. 

^ As to the rules foi' fUteiing water, see Viiiaya CuUaragfja v. 13. 

No. 31. 77 

One of them carried a strainer; the other had none; so both of them used 
the same strainer before drinking. One day they fell out. The owner of the 
strainer did not lend it to his companion, but strained and drank alone by 

As the other was not allowed the strainer, and as he could not endure his 
thirst, he drank water without straining it. In due course both reached 
Jetavana and with respectful salutation to the Master took their seats. After 
friendly words of greeting, he asked whence they had come. 

"Sir," said they, "we have been living in a hamlet in the Kosala country, 
whence we have come in order to see you." "I trust you have arrived as good 
friends as you started I" Said the brother without a strainer, "Sir, he fell out with 
me on the road and would not lend me his strainer." Said the other, "Sir, he 
didn't strain his water, but — wittingly — drank it down with all the living things it 
contained." "Is this report true. Brother, that you wittingly drank off water 
with all the living things it contained ?" "Yes, sir, I did drink unstrained water," 
was the reply. "Brother, the wise and good of bygone days, when flying in rout 
along the deep in the days of their sovereignty over the City of the Devas, 
thought scorn to slay living-creatures in order to secure power for themselves. 
Rather, they turned their chariot back, sacrificing great glory in order to save 
the lives of the young of the (larulasi." And, so saying, he told this story of 
the past. 

[199] Once on a time there was a king of Magadlia reigning at 
Rajagaha in the laud of Magadha. And just as lie who is now Sakka 
came to life in his preceding birth in the hamlet of Macala in the land 
of Magadha, even so was it in the selfsame hamlet that the Bodhisatta 
came to life in those days as a young noble. When the day for his naming 
came, he was named 'Prince Magha,' but when he grew^ up, it was as 
* Magha the young Brahmin ' that he was known. His parents took a 
wife for him from a family of equal rank with their own ; and he, with a 
family of sons and daughters growing up round him, excelled in charity, 
and kept the Five Commandments. 

In that village there were just thirty families, and one day the men were 
standing in the middle of the villnge transacting the affairs of the village. 
The Bodhisatta had kicked aside the dust from where he was standing, 
and was standing there in comfort, when up came another and took his 
stand there. Then the Bodhisatta made himself another comfortable 
standing-place, — only to have it taken from him like the first. Again and 
again the Bodhisatta began afresh until he had made comfortable standing- 
places for every man there. Another time he put up a pavilion, — which 
later on he pulled down, building a hall with benches and a jar of water 
inside. Another time these thirty men were led by the Bodhisatta to 

1 Garulas were winged creatures of a supernatural orcler, the inveterate foes of the 
Nagas, whose domain was the water. Of. {^.fi.) Jataka No. 154. 

78 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

become like-ininded with himself; he established them in the Five Com- 
mandments, and thenceforth used to go about with them doing good works. 
And they too doing good works, always in the Bodhisatta's company, used 
to get up early and sally foi'tli, with razors and axes and clubs in their 
hands. With their clubs they used to roll out of the way all stones that 
lay on the four highways and other roads of the village ; the trees that 
woidd strike against the axles of chariots, they cut down ; rough places 
tliey n)ade smooth ; causeways they built, dug water-tanks, and built a 
hall ; they shewed charity and kept the Commandments. In this wise 
did the body of the villagers generally abide by the Bodhisatta's teachings 
and keep the Commandments. 

Thought the village headman to himself, " When these men used to 
get drunk and commit murders and so forth, I used to make a lot of 
money out of them not only on the price of their drinks but also by the 
fines and dues they paid. But now hei-e's this young brahmin Magha 
bent on making them keep the Commandments ; he is putting a stop to 
nmrders and other crime." [200] And in his rage he cried, "I'll make 
them keep the Five Commandments ! " And he repaired to the king, 
saying, " Sire, there is a band of robbers going about sacking villages and 
committing other villanies." When the king heard this, he bade the 
headman go and bring the men before him. And away went the man and 
haided up as prisoners before the king every one of those thirty men, 
representing them to be the i-ascals. Without enquiry into their doings, 
the king commanded offhand that they should be trampled to death by 
the elephant. Forthwith they made them lie down in the king's court- 
yard and sent for the elephant. The Bodhisatta exhorted them, saying, 
" Bear in mind the Commandments ; love the slanderer, the king and the 
elephant as yourselves." And they did so. 

Then the elephant was brought in to trample them to death. Yet 
lead him as they might, he would not approach them, but fled away 
trumpeting loudly. Elephant after elephant was brought up ; — but they 
all fled away like the first. Thinking that the men must have some di-ug 
about their persons, the king ordered them to be searched. Search was 
made accordingly, but nothing was found ; — and so they told the king. 
"Then they nmst be muttering some spell," said the king; "ask them 
whether they have got a spell to mutter." 

The question being put to them, the Bodhisatta said they had got a 
spell. And thi.s the king's people told his majesty. So the king had them 
all summoned to his presence and said, " Tell me your spell." 

The Bodhisatta made answei-, "Sire, we have no other spell than this, 
that not a man among the whole thirty of us destroys life, or takes what 
is not given, or misconducts himself, or lies ; we drink no strong drink ; 
we abound in lovingkindness ; we shew charity ; we level the roads, 

No. 31. 79 

dig tanks, and build a public hall j — this is our spell, our safeguard, and 
our strength." 

Well-pleased with them, the king gave them all the wealth in the 
slandei'er's house and made him their slave ; and he gave them the 
elephant and the village to boot. 

Thenceforward, doing good works to their hearts' content, they sent for 
a carpenter and caused him to put up a large hall at the meeting of the 
four highways; but [201] as they had lost all desire for womankind, they 
would not let any woman share in the good work. 

Now in those clays there were four women in the Bodhisatta's house, 
whose names weie Goodness, Thoughtful, Joy, and Highborn. Of 
these Goodness, finding herself alone with the carpenter, gave him a 
douceur, saying, — " Brother, contrive to make me the ])rincipal person in 
connexion with this hall." 

"Very good," said he. And before doing any other work on the 
building, he had some pinnacle- wood dried, which he fashioned and bored 
and made into a finished pinnacle. This he wraj^ped up in a cloth and 
laid aside. When the hall was finished, and it was time to put on the 
pinnacle, he exclaimed, " Alas, my masters, there's one thing we have not 
made." "What's thaf?" "Why, we ought to have a pinnacle." "All 
right, let one be got." "But it can't be made out of green wood; we ought 
to have a pinnacle which had been cut some time ago, and fashioned, and 
bored, and laid by." "Well, what is to be done now?" "Why, have a 
look round to see if anybody has got such a thing in his house as a ready- 
made pinnacle for sale." As they looked round accordingly, they found 
one in the house of Goodness, but could not buy it of her for any money. 
"If you will make me a partner in the good work," said she, "I will give 
it you for nothing." 

"No," was the reply, " we do not let women have a share in the good 

Then said the carpenter to them, " My masters, what is this you 
say? Save the Realm of Brahma, there is no place from which 
women are excluded. Take the pinnacle, and our work will be 

Consenting, they took the pinnacle and completed their hall. They had 
benches put up, and jars of water set inside, providing also a constant 
supply of boiled rice. Round the hall they built a wall with a gate, strew- 
ing the space inside the wall with sand and planting a row of fan-palms 
outside. Thoughtful too caused a pleasaunce to be laid out at this spot, 
and not a flowering or fruit-bearing tree could be named which did not 
grow there. Joy, too, caused a water-tank to be dug in the same place, 
covered over with the five kinds of lotuses, beautiful to behold. High- 
born did nothing at all. 

80 Tlie Jdtaha. Booh I. 

The Bodhisatta fulfillpd these seven injunctions, — to cherish one's 
mother, to cherish one's fatlier, to honour one's elders, to speak truth, [202] 
to avoid harsh speech, to eschew shmder, and to shun uig,2;ardliness ; — 

Whoso supports his parents, honours age, 
Is gentle, friendly-spoken, slandering not, 
Unchurlish, truthful, lord — not slave — of wrath, 
— Him e'en the Thirty Three i shall hail as Good. 

Such was the praiseworthy state to which lie grew, and at his life's 
close he passed away to be reborn in the Realm of the Tliirty-three as 
Sakka, king of Devas ; and there too were his friends reborn. 

In those days there were Asuras dwelling in the Realm of the Thirty- 
three. Said Sakka, King of Devas, " What good to us is a kingdom 
which others share 1 " So he made the Asuras drink the liquor of the 
Devas, and when they were drunken, he had them hurled by the feet on 
to the steeps of Mount Sineru. They tumbled right down to ' The Asura 
Realm,' as it is called, — a region on the lowest level of Mount Sineru, 
equal in extent to the Realm of the Thirty-three. Here grows a tree, 
resembling the Coral Tree of the Devas, which lasts for an aeon and is 
called the Pied Trumpet-flower. The blossoms of this tree shewed them 
at once that this was not the Realm of Devas, for there the Coral Tree 
blooms. So they cried, " Old Sakka has made us drunk and cast us into 
the great deep, .seizing on our heavenly city." "Come," they shouted, "let 
us win back our own realm from him by force of arms." And up the 
sides of Sineru they climbed, like ants up a pillar. 

Hearing the alarm given that the Asuras were up, Sakka went out 
into the great deep to give them battle, but being woisted in the fight 
turned and fled away along crest after crest of the southern deep in his 
* Chariot of Victory,' which was a hundred and fifty leagues long. 

Now as his chariot sped along the deep, it came to the Forest of the 
Silk-Cotton Trees. Along the track of the chariot these mighty trees 
were mowed down like so many palms, and fell into the deep. And as 
the young of the Garujas hurtled through the deep, loud were their shrieks. 
Said Sakka to Matali, his charioteer, " Matali, my friend, what manner of is this? [203] How heartrending it sounds." "Sire, it is the 
united cry of the young Garulas in the agony of their fear, as their forest 
is uprooted by the rush of your chariot." Said the Great Being, " Let 
them not be troubled because of me, friend Matali. Let us not, for 

1 One of the devalokas, or angelic realms, of Buddhist cosmogony, was the 
Tavatifiisa-hhavanam, or 'Eealm of the Thirty-three,' so called because its denizens 
were subject to thirty-three Devas headed by Sakka, the Indra of the pre-buddhist 
faith. Every world-system, it may here be added, had a Sakka of its own, as is 
indicated infra. 

No. 31. 81 

empire's sake, so act as to destroy life. Eather will I, for their sake, give 
my life as a sacrifice to the Asuras. Turn the car back." And so saying, 
he repeated this stanza : — 

Let all the forest's nestlings, Matali, 

Escape our all-devouring chariot. 

I oSer up, a willing sacrifice, 

My life to yonder Asuras ; these poor birds 

Shall not, through me, from out their nests be torn. 

At the word, Matali, the charioteer, turned the chariot round, and made 
for the Realm of Devas by another route. But the moment the Asuras saw 
him begin to turn his chariot round, they cried out that the Sakkas of other 
worlds were sui-ely coming up; "it must be his reinforcements which make 
him turn his chariot back again." Trembling for their lives, they all ran 
away and never stopped till they came to the Asura Realm. And Sakka 
entering heaven, stood in the midst of his city, girt round by an angelic 
host of his own and of Brahma's angels. And at that moment through 
the riven earth there rose up the 'Palace of Victory,' some thousand 
leagues high, — so-called because it arose in the hour of victory. Then, to 
prevent the Asviras from coming back again, Sakka had guards set in five 
places, — concerning which it has been said : — 

[204] Impregnable both cities stand ! between, 
In fivefold guard, watch Nagas, Garulas, 
Kumbhandas, Goblins, and the Four Great Kings ! 

But when Sakka was enjoying as king of Devas the glory of heaven, 
safely warded by his sentinels at these five posts. Goodness died and was 
reborn as a handmaiden of Sakka once more. And the effect of her gift of 
the pinnacle was that there arose for her a mansion^named 'Goodness' — 
studded with heavenly jewels, five hundred leagues high, where, under a 
white heavenly canopy of royal state, sat Sakka, king of Devas, ruling men 
and Devas. 

Thoughtful, too, died, and was once more born as a handmaiden of 
Sakka ; and the effect of her action in respect of the pleasaunce was such 
that there arose a pleasaunce called 'Thoughtful's Creeper-Grove.' Joy, too, 
died and was reborn once more as one of Sakka's handmaidens ; and the 
fruit of her tank was that there arose a tank called 'Joy ' after her. But 
Highborn, [205] having performed no act of merit, was reborn as a crane 
in a grotto in the forest. 

"There's no sign of Highborn," said Sakka to himself; "I wonder 
where she has been reborn." And as he considered the matter, he dis- 
covered her whereabouts. So he paid her a visit, and bringing her back 
with him to heaven shewed her the delightful city of the Devas, the Hall of 
Goodness, Thoughtful's Creeper-Grove, and the Tank called Joy. " These 
three," said Sakka, " have been reborn as my handmaidens by reason of 

c. J. 6 

82 Tlie Jdtaka. Book I. 

the good works they did ; but you, having done no good work, have been 
reborn in the brute creation. Henceforth keep the Commandments." 
And having exhorted her thus, and confirmed her in the Five Command- 
ments, he took her back and let her go free. And thenceforth she did 
keep the Commandments. 

A short time afterwards, being curious to know whether she really was 
able to keep the Commandments, Sakka went and lay down before her in 
the shajie of a fish. Thinking the fish was dead, the crane seized it by 
the head. The fish wagged its tail. " Why, I do believe it's alive," said 
the crane, and let the fish go. "Very good, very good," said Sakka; 
"you will be able to keep the Commandments." And so saying he went 

Dying as a crane, Highborn was reborn into the family of a potter in 
Benares. Wondering where she had got to, and at last discovering her 
whereabouts, Sakka, disguised as an old man, filled a cart with cucumbers 
of solid gold and sat in the middle of the village, crying, "Buy my 
cucumbers ! buy my cucumbers !" Folk came to him and asked for them. 
"I only part with them to such as keep the Commandments," said he, 
"do you keep them?" "We don't know what you mean by your 'Com- 
mandments'; sell us the cucumbers." "No; I don't want money for 
my cucumbei'S. I give them away, — but only to those that keep the 
Commandments." " Who is this wag 1 " said the folk as they turned 
away. Hearing of this. Highborn thought to herself that the cucumbers 
must have been brought for her, and accordingly went and asked for some. 
" Do you keep the Commandments, madam ] " said he. " Yes, I do," was 
the reply. " It was for you alone that I brought these here," said he, and 
leaving cucumbers, cart and all at her door he departed. 

Continuing all her life long to keep the Commandments, Highborn 
after her death was reborn the daughter of the Asura king Vepacittiya, 
and for her goodness was rewarded with the gift of great beauty. When 
she grew wp, her father mustered the Asuras together to give his daughter 
her pick of them for a husband. [206] And Sakka, who had searched and 
found out her whereabouts, donned the shape of an Asura, and came down, 
saying to himself, " If Highborn chooses a husband really after her own 
heart, I shall be he." 

Highboi-n was arrayed and brought forth to the place of assembly, 
where she was bidden to select a husband after her own heart. Looking 
round and observing Sakka, she was moved by her love for him in a 
bygone existence to choose him for her husband. Sakka carried her oflf to 
the city of the devas and made her the chief of twenty-five millions of 
dancing-girls. And when his term of life ended, he passed away to fare 
according to his deserts. 

No. 32. 83 

His lesson ended, the Master rebuked that Brother in these words, "Thus, 
Brethren, the wise and good of bygone days when they were rulers of the Devas, 
forbore, even at the sacrifice of their own lives, to be guilty of slaughter. And 
can you, who have devoted yourself to so saving a creed, drink unstrained water 
with all the living creatures it contains?" And he shewed the connexion and 
identified the Birth, by saying, "Ananda was then Matali the charioteer, and I 

[Note. Compare the commentary on Dhammapada, pp. 184 et seqq. ; and 
Culla-vagga v. 13 in vol. ii. of Oldenberg's Vinaya (translated at page 100 
of vol. XX. of the Sacred Boohs of the East) for the incidents of the Introductory 
Story. For the incident of Salika and the Asuras in the Story of the Past, see 
Jataka-mCda, No. 11 (J. R. A. S. 1893, page 315).] 

No. 32. 


" A pleasing note." This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a Brother with many belongings. The incident is just the same as in the 
Devadhamma-jiltaka supra ^. 

" Is this report true, Brother," said the blaster, "that you have many be- 
longings?" "Yes, sir." "Why have you come to own so many belongings?" 
Without listening beyond this point, the Brother tore off the whole of his raiment, 
and stood stark naked before the Master, crying, " I'll go about like this ! " 
" Oh, fie ! " exclaimed every one. The man ran away, and reverted to the lower 
state of a layman. Gathering together in the Hall of Truth, the Brethren 
talked of his impropriety in behaving in that manner right before the Master. 
In came the ]\Iaster and asked what was the theme of discussion in the conclave. 
"Sir," was the answer, "we were discussing the impropriety of that Brother, 
and saying that in your presence and right before all the four classes of your 
followers 2 he had so far lost all sense of shame as to stand there stark naked as 
a village-urchin, and that, finding himself loathed by everyone, he relapsed to 
the lower state and lost the faith ." 

Said the Master, "Brethren, this is not the only loss his shamelessness has 
caused him ; for in bygone days he lost a jewel of a wife just as now he has 
lost the jewel of the faith." And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

[207] Once on a time, in the first cycle of the world's history, the 
quadruj)eds chose the Lion as their king, the fishes the monster-fish 
Ananda, and the birds the Golden Mallard ^ Now the King Golden 

1 No. 6. 

'^ i.e. Brethren, Sisters, laj'-brothers, and lay-sisters. 

■^ Cf. No. 270. 


84 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

Mallard had a lovely young daughter, and her royal father granted her 
any boon she might ask. The boon she asked for was to be allowed to 
choose a husband for herself ; and the king in fulfilment of his promise 
mustered all the birds together in the country of the Himalayas. All 
manner of birds came, swans and peacocks and all other birds ; and they 
flocked together on a great plateau of bare rock. Tlien the king sent for 
his daughter and bade her go and choose a husband after her own heart. 
As she reviewed the crowd of birds, her eye lighted on the peacock with 
his neck of jewelled sheen and tail of varied hue; and she chose him, say- 
ing, "Let this be my husband." Then the assembly of the birds went up 
to the peacock and said, " Friend peacock, this princess, in choosing her 
husband from among all these birds, has fixed her choice on you." 

Carried away by his extreme joy, the peacock exclaimed, " Until this 
day you have never seen how active I am ; " and in defiance of all decency 
he spread his wings and began to dance ; — and in dancing he exposed him- 

Filled with shame. King Golden Mallard said, " This fellow has neither 
modesty within his heart nor decency in his outward behaviour; I cer- 
tainly will not give my daughter to one so shameless." And there in the 
midst of all that assembly of the birds, he repeated this stanza : — 

A pleasing note is yours, a lovely back, 

A neck in hue like lapis lazuli ; 

A fathom's length your outstretched feathers reach. 

Withal, yom^ dancing loses you my child. 

Right in the face of the whole gathering King Royal Mallard gave his 
daughter to a young mallard, a nephew of his. Covered with shame at 
the loss of the mallard princess, [208] the peacock rose straight up from 
the place and fled away. And King Golden Mallard too went back to his 

"Thus, Brethren," said the Master, "this is not the only time his breach 
of modesty has caused him loss ; just as it has now caused him to lose the jewel 
of the faith, so in bygone days it lost him a jewel of a wife." When he had 
ended this lesson, he shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, 
"The Brother with the many belongings was the peacock of those days, and 
I myself the Royal Mallard." 

[^Note. See Plate xxvii. (11) of the Stupa of Bharhut (where a fragment of a 
carving of this story is figured), Benfey's Panca-Tantra i. p. 280, and Hahn's 
Sagewiss. Studien, p, 69. Cf. also Herodotus, vi. 129.] 

No. 33. 85 

No. 33. 


" While concord reigns.^' This story was told by the Master while dwelling in 
the Banyan-grove near Ka[)ilavatthu, about a squabble over a porter's head-pad, 
as will be related in the Kunala-jataka^ 

On this occasion, however, the Master spoke thus to his kinsfolk: — "My 
lords, strife among kinsfolk is unseemly. Yes, in bygone times, animals, who 
had defeated their enemies when they lived in concord, came to utter destruction 
when they fell out." And at the request of his royal kinsfolk, he told this story 
of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the Bodhisatta 
was born a quail, and lived in the forest at the head of many thousands of 
quails. In those days a fowler who caught quails came to that place ; and 
he used to imitate the note of a quail till he saw that the birds had been 
drawn together, when he flung his net over them, and whipped the sides 
of the net together, so as to get them all huddled up in a heap. Then 
he crammed them into his basket, and going home sold his prey for a 

Now one day the Bodhisatta said to those quails, " This fowler is making 
havoc among our kinsfolk. I have a device whereby he will be unable to 
catch us. Henceforth, the very moment he throws the net over you, let 
each one put his head through a mesh and then all of you together must 
fly away with the net to such place as you please, and there let it down on 
a thoi-n-brake ; this done, we will all escape from our several meshes." 
" Very good," said they all in ready agreement. 

On the morrow, when the net was cast over them, they did just as the 
Bodhisatta had told them : — they lifted up the net, [209] and let it down 
on a thorn-brake, escaping themselves from underneath. While the fowler 
was still disentangling his net, evening came on ; and he went away 
empty-handed. On the morrow and following days the quails played the 
same trick. So that it became the regular thing for the fowler to be 
engaged till sunset disentangling his net, and then to betake himself home 
empty-handed. Accordingly his wife grew angry and said, " Day by day 
you return empty-handed ; I suppose you'x'e got a second establishment to 
keep up elsewhere." 

1 No. 536. 

86 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

"No, my dear," said the fowler; "I've no second establishment to keep 
lip. The fact is those quails have come to work together now. The mo- 
ment my net is over them, off they fly with it and escape, leaving it on a 
thorn-brake. Still, they won't live in unity always. Don't you bother 
yourself ; as soon as they start bickering among themselves, I shall bag 
the lot, and that will bring a smile to your face to see." And so saying, he 
repeated this stanza to his wife : — 

While concord reigns, the birds bear off the net. 
When quarrels rise, they'll fall a prey to me. 

Not long after this, one of the quails, in alighting on their feeding- 
ground, trod by accident on another's head. " Who trod on my head 1 " 
angrily cried this latter. " I did ; but I didn't mean to. Don't be angry," 
said the first quail. But notwithstanding this answer, the other remained 
as angry as before. Continuing to answer one another, they began to 
bandy taunts, saying, " I suppose it is you single-handed who lift up the 
net," As they wrangled thus with one another, the Bodhisatta thought 
to himself, "There's no safety with one who is quarrelsome. The time 
has come when they will no longer lift up the net, and thereby they will 
come to great destruction. The fowler will get his opportunity. I can 
stay here no longei'." And thereupon he with his following went 

Sure enough the fowler [210] came back again a few days later, and 
first collecting them together by imitating the note of a quail, flung his 
net over them. Then said one quail, " They say when you were at work 
lifting the net, the hair of your head fell off. Now's your time; lift away." 
The other rejoined, "When you were lifting the net, they say both your 
wings moulted. Now's your time ; lift away." 

But whilst they were each inviting the other to lift the net, the fowler 
himself lifted the net for them and crammed them in a heap into his basket 
and bore them off home, so that his wife's face was wreathed with smiles. 

"Thus, sire," said the Master, "such a thing as a quarrel among kinsfolk 
is unseemly ; quarrelling leads only to destruction." His lesson ended, he shewed 
the connexion, and identified the Birth, by saying, "Devadatta was the foolish 
quail of those days, and I myself the wise and good quail." 

\^Note. See for the migrations of this story Benfey's Fahca-Tantra i. 304, 
and FcUisboll in R.A.S. Joimial, 1870. See also JuHen's Avadanas, Vol. i. 
page 155.] 

No. 34. 87 

No. 34. 


"'Tis not the cold." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about being seduced by the wife of one's mundane life before joining the Brother- 
hood. Said the Master on this occasion, " Is it true, as I hear, Brother, that 
you are passion-tost ? " 

" Yes, Blessed One." 

" Because of whom ? " 

" My former wife, sir, is sweet to touch ; I cannot give her up ! " Then said 
the Master, " Brother, this woman is hurtful to you. It was through her that in 
bygone times too you were meeting your end, when you were saved by me." 
And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta became his family-priest. 

In those days some fishermen had cast their net into the river. And a 
great big fish came along amorously toying with his wife. She, scenting 
the net as she swam ahead of him, made a circuit round it and escaped. 
But her amorous spouse, blinded by passion, sailed right into the meshes 
of the net. As soon as the fishermen felt him in their net, they hauled it 
in and took the fish out ; they did not kill him at once, but flung him alive 
on the sands. [211] "We'll cook him in the embei's for our meal," said 
they ; and accordingly they set to work to light a fire and whittle a spit to 
roast him on. The fish lamented, saying to himself, "It's not the torture 
of the embers or the anguish of the spit or any other pain that grieves me ; 
but only the distressing thought that my wife should be unhappy in the 
belief that I have gone off with another." And he repeated this stanza : 

'Tis not the cold, the heat, or wounding net ; 
'Tis but the fear my darling wife should think 
Another's love has lured her spouse away. 

Just then the priest came to the riverside with his attendant slaves 
to bathe. Now he understood the language of all animals. Therefore, 
when he heard the fish's lamentation, he thought to himself, " This fish is 
lamenting the lament of passion. If he should die in this unhealthy state 
of mind, he cannot escape rebirth in hell. I will save him." So he went 
to the fishermen aad said, " My men, don't you supply us with a fish 
every day for our curry 1 " " What do you say, sir 1 " said the fishermen ; 
" pray take away with you any fish you may take a fancy to." " We don't 
need any but this one ; only give us this one." " He's yours, sir." 

88 The Jataha. Booh I. 

Taking the tish in his two hands, the Bodhisatta seated himself on the 
bank and said, " Friend fish, if I had not seen you to-day, you would have 
met your death. Cease for the future to be the slave of passion." And 
with this exhortation he threw the fish into the water, and went into the 

[212] His lesson ended, the Master preached the Truths, at the close whereof 
the passion-tost Brother won the First Path. Also, the Master shewed the 
connexion and identified the Birth by saying, " The former wife was the female 
fish of those days, the passion-tost Brother was the male fish, and I myself the 

\_Note. Compare Jatakas Nos. 216 and 297.] 

No. 35. 


" With wings that fly not." — This story was told by the Master, whilst on 
an alms-pilgrimage through Magadha, about the going-out of a jungle fire. 
Once the Master, whilst on an alms-pilgrimage through Magadha, went on 
his morning round for alms through a certain hamlet in that country; on 
his return, after his meal, he went out again followed by the company of 
the Brethren. Just then a great fire broke out. There were numbers of 
Brethren both in front of the Master and behind him. On came the fire, 
spreading far and wide, till all was one sheet of smoke and flame. Hereupon, 
some unconverted Brethren were seized with the fear of death. "Let us make a 
counter fire," they cried ; " and then the big fire will not sweep over the ground 
we have fired." And, with this view, they set about kindling a fire with their 

But others said, " What is this you do. Brethren ? You are like such as 
mark not the moon in mid-heaven, or the sun's orb rising with myriad rays 
from the east, or the sea on whose shores they stand, or Mount Sineru towering 
before their very eyes, — when, as you journey along in the company of him 
who is peerless among devas and men alike, you give not a thought to the 
All-Enlightened Buddha, but cry out, * Let us make a fire ! ' You know not 
the might of a Buddha ! Come, let us go to the Master." Then, gathering 
together from front and rear alike, the Brethren in a body flocked round 
the Lord of Wisdom. At a certain spot the Master halted, with this mighty 
assembly of the Brethren surrounding him. On rolled the flames, roaring 
as though to devour them. But when they approached the spot where the 
Buddha had taken his stand, they came no nearer than sixteen lengths, but 
there and then went out, — even as a torch plunged into water. It had no 
power to spread over a space thirty-two lengths in diameter. 

No. 35. 89 

The Brethren burst into praises of the Master, saying, " Oh ! how great are 
the virtues of a Buddha! For, even this fire, though lacking sense, could 
not sweep over the spot where a Buddha stood, but went out like a torch in 
water. Oh ! how marvellous are the powers of a Buddha ! " 

[213] Hearing their words, the Master said, " It is no present power of mine, 
Brethren, that makes this fire go out on reaching this spot of ground. It is 
the i^ower of a former 'Act of Truth' of mine. For in this spot no fire will 
burn throughout the whole of this aeon, — the miracle being one which endures 
for an seon ^." _ 

Then the Elder Ananda folded a robe into four and spread it for the Master to 
sit on. The Master took his seat. Bowing to the Buddha as he sat cross- 
legged there, the Brethren too seated themselves around him. Then they asked 
him, saying, " Only the present is known to us, sir ; the past is hidden from 
us. Make it known to us." And, at their request, he told this story of the 

Once upon a time in tliis selfsame spot in Magadha, it was as a quail 
that the Bodhisatta came to life once more. Breaking his way out of the 
shell of the egg in which he was born, he became a young quail, about as 
big as a large ball^. And his parents kept him lying in the nest, while 
they fed him with food which they brought in their beaks. In himself, he 
had not the strength either to spread his wings and fly through the air, or 
to lift his feet and walk upon the ground. Year after year that spot was 
always ravaged by a jungle-fire ; and it was just at this time that the 
flames swept down on it with a mighty roaring. The flocks of birds, dart- 
ing from their several nests, were seized with the fear of death, and flew 
shrieking away. The father and mother of the Bodhisatta were as frightened 
as the others and flew away, forsaking the Bodhisatta. Lying there in the 
nest, the Bodhisatta stretched forth his neck, and seeing the flames spreading 
towards him, he thought to himself, " Had I the power to put forth my 
wings and fly, I would wing my way hence to safety ; or, if I could move 
my legs and walk, I could escape elsewhere afoot. Moreover, my parents, 
seized with the fear of death, are fled away to save themselves, leaving 
me here quite alone in the world. I am without protector or helper. 
What, then, shall I do this day ? " 

Then this thought came to him : — " In this world there exists what is 
termed the ESicacy of Goodness, and what is termed the Eflicacy of Truth. 
There are those who, through their having realised the Perfections in past 
ages, have attained beneath the Bo-tree to be All-Enlightened ; who, having 
won Release by goodness, tranquillity and wisdom, possess also discern- 
ment of the knowledge of such Release; [214] who are filled with truth, 
compassion, mercy, and patience ; whose love embraces all creatures alike ; 
whom men call omniscient Buddhas. There is an efficacy in the attributes 
they have won. And I too grasp one truth ; I hold and believe in a single 

1 See above, page 56. " See Morris, Journal P. T. S. 188i, p. 90. 

90 The Jataka. Booh I. 

principle in Natui-e. Therefore, it behoves me to call to mind the Buddhas 
of the past, and the Efficacy they have won, and to lay hold of the true 
belief that is in me toiiching the principle of Nature ; and by an Act of 
Truth to make the flames go back, to the saving both of myself and of the 
rest of the birds." 

Therefore it has been said : — 

There's saving grace in Goodness in this world ; 
There's truth, compassion, purity of life. 
Thereby, I'll work a matchless Act of Truth. 

Remembering Faith's might, and taking thought 
On those who triumphed in the days gone by, 
Strong in the truth, an Act of Truth I wrought. 

Accordingly, the Bodhisatta, calling to mind the efficacy of the 
Buddhas long since past away, performed an Act of Truth in the name of 
the true faith that was in him, repeating this stanza : — 

With wings that fly not, feet that walk not yet, 
Forsaken by my parents, here I lie ! 
Wherefore I conjure thee, dread Lord of Fire, 
Primaeval Jataveda, turn ! go back ! 

Even as he performed his Act of Truth, Jataveda went back a space of 
sixteen lengths ; and in going back the flames did not pass away to the 
forest devouring everything in their path. No ; they went out there and 
then, like a torch plunged in water. Therefore it has been said : — 

[215] I wrought my Act of Truth, and therewithal 
The sheet of blazing fire left sixteen lengths 
Unscathed, — like flames by water met and quenched. 

And as that spot escaped being wasted by fire throughout a whole aeon, 
the miracle is called an ' seon-miracle.' When his life closed, the Bodhi- 
satta, who had performed this Act of Truth, passed away to fare according 
to his deserts. 

"Thus, Brethren," said the Master, "it is not my present power but the 
efficacy of an Act of Truth performed by me when a young quail, that has 
made the flames pass over this spot in the jungle." His lesson ended, he preached 
the Truths, at the close whereof some won the First, some the Second, some the 
Third Path, while others again became Arahats. Also, the Master shewed 
the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, " My present parents were the 
parents of those days, and I myself the king of the quails." 

{Note. The story and the verses occur in the Cariya-Pitaka, p. 98. See 
reference to this story under Jataka No. 20, supra. 

For the archaic title of Jataveda here given to Fire, compare Jataka, No. 75, 
as to a similar use of the archaic name FaJJunna.] 

No. 36. 91 

No. 36. 


" Fe denizens of air." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a Brother whose cell was burnt down. 

Tradition says that a Brother, having been given a theme for meditation by the 
Master, went from Jetavana to the land of Kosala and there abode in a dwelling 
in a forest hard by a border-village. Now, during the very first month of 
his dwelling there, his cell was burnt down. Tliis he reported to the villagers, 
saying, "My cell has been burnt down; I live in discomfort." Said they, 
"The land is suffering from drought just now; we'll see to it when we have 
irrigated the fields." When the irrigation was over, they said they must do 
their sowing first ; when the sowing was done, they had the fences to put up ; 
when the fences were put up, they had first to do the weeding and the reaping, 
and the threshing; till, what with one job and another which they kept 
mentioning, three whole months passed by. 

After three months spent in the open air in discomfort, that Brother had 
developed his theme for meditation, but could get no further. So, after the 
Pavarana-festival which ends the Rainy Season, he went back again to the 
Master," and, with due salutation, took his seat aside. After kindly words 
of greeting, the Master said, "Well, Brother, have you lived ha[)pily through the 
Rainy Season? Did your theme for meditation end in success?" The Brother 
told him all that had happened, adding, "As I had no lodging to suit me, 
my theme did not end in success." 

Said the Master, "In l^ygone times. Brother, even animals knew what 
suited them and what did not. How is it that you did not know T' And 
so saying, he told this story of the past. 

[216] Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a bird and lived round a giant tree with branching 
boughs, at the head of a company of birds. Now one day, as the boughs 
of this tree were grinding one against the other, dust began to fall, soon 
followed by smoke. When the Bodhisatta became aware of this, he thought 
to himself: — "If these two boughs go on grinding against one another 
like this, they will produce fire ; and the fire will fall and catch hold of 
the old leaves, and so come to set fire to this tree as well. We cannot live 
on hei-e; the proper thing to do is to hasten ofi" elsewhere." And he 
repeated this stanza to the company of birds : — 

Ye denizens of air, that in these boughs 
Have sought a lodging, mark the seeds of fire 
This earthborn tree is breeding ! Safety seek 
In flight ! Our trusted stronghold harbours death ! 

The wiser birds who followed the Bodhisatta's counsels, at once rose up 
in the air and went elsewhere in his company. But the foolish ones said, 

92 The Jdtahi. Booh I. 

"■ It is always like this with him ; he's always seeing crocodiles in a drop of 
water." And they, heeding not the Bodhisatta's words, stopped where they 
were. In a very short time, just as the Bodhisatta had foreseen, flames 
really did break out, and the ti-ee caught fire. When the smoke and flame 
arose, the birds, blinded by the smoke, were unable to get away; one by 
one they dropped into the flames and were destroyed. 

"Thus, Brethren," said the Master, "in bygone times even animals who were 
dwelling in the tree-top, knew what suited them and what did not. How is it 
that you did not know?" [217] His lesson ended, he preached the Truths, at 
the close whereof that Brother won the P'ruit of the First Path. Also, the 
Master shewed the connexion, and identitied the Birth by saying, "The Buddha's 
disciples were then the birds who hearkened to the Bodhisatta, and I myself was 
the wise and good bird." 

No. 37. 


"For they who honour age." — This story was told by the Master whilst on his 
way to Savatthi, about the way in which the Elder Sariputta was kept out 
of a night's lodging. 

For, when Anatha-pindika had built his monastery, and had sent word 
that it was finished, the Master left Rajagaha and came to Vesali, setting out again 
on his journey after stopping at the latter place during his pleasure. It was 
now that the disciples of the Six hurried on ahead, and, before quarters could 
be taken for the Elders, monopolized the whole of the available lodgings, which 
they distributed among their superiors, their teachers, and themselves. When 
the Elders came up later, they could find no quarters at all for the night. E^■en 
Sariputta's disciples, for all their searching, could not find lodgings for the 
Elder. Being without a lodging, the Elder passed the night at the foot of 
a tree near the ^Master's quarters, either walking u]i and down or sitting at the 
foot of a tree. 

At early dawn the Master coughed as he came out. The Elder coughed too. 
"Who is that?" asked the Master. "It is I, Sariputta, sir." "What are you 
doing here at this hour, Sariputta?" Then the Elder told his story, at the 
close of which the Master thought, "Even now, while I am still alive, the 
Brethren lack courtesy and subordination ; what will they not do when I am 
dead and gone?" And the thought filled him with anxiety for the Truth. 
As soon as day had come, he had the assembly of the Brethren called together, 
and asked them, saying, "Is it true, Brethren, as I hear, that the adherents 
of the Six went on ahead and kept the Elders among the Brethren out of 
lodgings for the night?" "That is so. Blessed One," was the reply. Thereupon, 
with a reproof to the adherents of the Six and as a lesson to all, he addressed the 
Brethren, and said, " Tell me, who deserves the best lodging, the best water, and 
the best rice, Brethren?" 

No. 37. 93 

Some answered, " He who was a nobleman before he became a Brother." Others 
said, "He who was originally a brahmin, or a man of means." Others severally 
said, "The man versed in the Eules of the Order; the man who can expound 
the Law; the men who have won the first, second, third, or fourth stage of mystic 
ecstasy." Whilst others again said, "The man in the First, Second, or Third 
Path of Salvation, or an Arahat ; one who knows the Three Great Truths ; one 
who has the Six Higher Knowledges." 

After the Brethren had stated whom they severally thought worthiest of 
precedence in the matter of lodging and the like, the Master said, [218] "In 
the religion which I teach, the standard by which precedence in the matter 
of lodging and the like is to be settled, is not noble birth, or having been a 
brahmin, or having been wealthy before entry into the Order; the standard is not 
familiarity with the Eules of the Order, with the Suttas, or with the Metaphysical 
Books 1; nor is it either the attainment of any of the four stages of mystic 
ecstasy, or the walking in any of the Four Paths of salvation. Brethren, in my 
religion it is seniority which claims respect of word and deed, salutation, and 
all due service ; it is seniors who should enjoy the best lodging, the best water, 
and the best rice. This is the true standard, and therefore the senior Brother 
ought to hnve these things. Yet, Bretliren, here is Sariputta, who is my chief 
disciple, who has set rolling the Wheel of Minor Truth, and who deserves to 
have a lodging next after myself. And Sariimtta has spent this night without a 
lodging at the foot of a tree ! If you lack respect and subordination even now, 
what will be your behaviour as time goes by?" 

And for their further instruction he said, " In times past, Brethren, even 
animals came to the conclusion that it was not proper for them to live without 
respect and subordination one to another, or without the ordering of their 
common life ; even these animals decided to find out which among them was 
the senior, and then to shew him all forms of reverence. So they looked into 
the matter, and having found out which of them was the senior, they shewed 
him all forms of reverence, whereby they passed away at that life's close to 
people heaven." And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time, hard by a great banyan-tree on the slopes of the 
Himalayas, there dwelt three friends, — a partridge, a monkey, and an 
elephant. And they came to lack respect and subordination one to 
another, and had no ordering of their common life. And the thought 
came to them that it was not seemly for them to live in this way, and 
that they ought to find out which of their number was the senior and to 
honour him. 

As they were engaged thinking which was the oldest, one day an idea 
struck them. Said the partridge and the monkey to the elephant as they 
all three sat together at the foot of that banyan-tree, " Friend elephant, 
how big was this banyan when you remember it first?" Said the 
elephant, " When I was a baby, this banyan was a mere bush, over which 
I used to walk ; and as I stood astride of it, its topmost branches used 
just to reach up to my belly. I've known the tree since it was a mere 

' i.e. the three divisions, or 'three baskets,' of the Buddhist scriptures, 

94 The Jataka. Booh I. 

Next the monkey was asked the same question by the other two ; and 
he replied, "My friends, when I was a youngling, [219] I had only to 
streich out my neck as I sat on the ground, and I could eat the topmost 
sprouts of this banyan. So I've known this banyan since it was very 

Then the partridge was asked the same question by the two others; 
and he said, " Friends, of old there was a great banyan-tree at such and 
such a spot ; I ate its seeds, and voided them here ; that was the origin of 
this tree. Therefore, I have knowledge of this tree from before it was 
born, and am older than the pair of you." 

Hereupon the m.onkey and the elephant said to the sage parti'idge, 
" Friend, you are the oldest. Henceforth yovi shall have from us acts of 
honour and veneration, mai'ks of obeisance and homage, respect of word 
and deed, salutation, and all due homage ; and we will follow your counsels. 
You for your part hencefoi-th will please impart such counsel as we need." 

Thenceforth the partridge gave them counsel, and established them in 
the Commandments, which he also undertook himself to keep. Being 
thus established in the Commandments, and becoming respectful and 
subordinate among themselves, with proper ordering of their common 
life, these three made themselves sure of rebirth in heaven at this life's 

" The aims of these three " — continued the Master — " came to be 
known as the ' Holiness of the Partridge,' and if these three animals. 
Brethren, lived together in respect and subordination, how can you, who 
have embraced a Faith the Rules of which are so well-taught, live together 
without due respect and subordination ? Henceforth I ordain, Brethi'en, 
that to seniority shall be paid respect of word and deed, salutation, and all 
due service ; that senioiity shall be the title to the best lodging, the best 
water, and the best rice ; and nevermore let a senior be kept out of 
a lodging by a junior. Whosoever so keeps out his senior commits an 

It was at the close of this lesson that the Master, as Buddha, repeated 
this stanza : — 

For they who honour age, in Truth are versed ; 
Praise now, and bliss hereafter, is their meed. 

[220] When the Master had finished speaking of the virtue of reverencing 
age, he made the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, " Moggallana 
was the elephant of those days, Sariputta the monkey, and I my.self the sage 

No. 38. 95 

[JVote. See this story in the Vinaya, Vol. ii. page 161 (translated at page 193 
of Vol. XX. of the Sacred Booh of the East), and in Julien's Avaddnas, Vol. Ii. 
page 17. Reference is made to this Jataka by name in Buddhaghosa's Sumangala- 
VUdsinl, page 178 ; but his quotation, though it pui'ports to be from the Tittira- 
Jataka, is from the above passage in the Vinui/a. Prof. Cowell has traced its 
history in V Cymmrodor, October 1882.] 

No. 38. 


'■'■Guile profits not." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a tailoring Brother. 

Tradition says that at Jetavana dwelt a Brother who was exceedingly skilful 
in all operations to be performed with a robe, such as cutting, joining, ar- 
ranging, and stitching. Because of this skill, he used to fashion robes and so 
got the name of 'The Robe-tailor.' What, you ask, did he do? — Well, he 
exercised his craft on old bits of cloth and turned out a nice soft robe, which, 
after the dyeing was done, he would enhance in colour with a wash containing 
flour to make a dressing, and rub it with a shell, till he had made it quite smart 
and attractive. Then he would lay his handiwork aside. 

Being ignorant of robe-making, Brethren used to come to him with brand-new 
cloth, saying, "We don't know how to make robes; you make them for us." 

"Sirs," he would reply, "a robe takes a long time making; but I have one 
which is just finished. You can take that, if you will leave these cloths in 
exchange." And, so saying, he would take his out and shew it them. And they, 
marking only its fine colour, and knowing nothing of what it was made ofj 
thought it was a good strong one, and so handed over their brand-new cloth to 
the 'Robe-maker' and went off with the robe he gave them. When it got 
dirty and was being washed in liot water, it revealed its real character, and 
the worn patches were visible here and there. Then the owners regretted their 
bargain. Everywhere that Brother became well-known for cozening in this way 
all who came to him. 

Now, there was a robe-maker in a hamlet who used to cozen everybody just 
as the brother did at Jetavana. [221] This man's friends among the Brethren 
said to him, "Sir, they say that at Jetavana there is a robe-maker who cozens 
everybody just like you." Then the thought struck him, "Come now, let me 
cozen that city man !" So he made out of rags a very fine robe, which he dyed a 
beautiful orange. This he put on and went to Jetavana. The moment the other 
saw it, he coveted it, and said to its owner, "Sir, did you make that robe?" 
"Yes, I did, sir," was the reply. "Let me have that robe, sir; you'll get another 
in its place." "But, sir, we village-Brethren find it hard to get the Requisites; 
if I give you this, what shall I have to wear myself?" "Sir, I have some brand- 
new cloth at my lodging; take it and make yourself a robe." "Reverend sir, 
herein have I shewn my own handiwork ; but, if you speak thus, what can I 
do? Take it." And having cozened the other by exchanging the rag- robe for 
the new cloth, he went his way. 

After wearing the botched robe in his turn, the Jetavana man was washing 
it not long afterwards in warm water, when he became aware that it was made 
out of rags; and he was put to shame. The whole of the Brotherhood heard 
the news that the Jetavana man had been cozened by a robe-tailor from the 

96 The Jataha. Book I. 

Now, one day the Brethren were seated in the Hall of Truth, discussing the 
news, when the Master entered and asked what they were discussing ; and they 
told him all about it. 

Said the Master, "Brethren, this is not the only occasion of the Jetavana 
robe-maker's cozening tricks ; in bygone times also he did just the same, and, as 
he has been cozened now by the man from the country, so was he too in bygone 
times." And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time the Bodhisatta came to life in a certain forest-haunt 
as the Tree-sprite of a tree which stood near a certain lotus-pond. In 
those days the water used every summer to fall very low in a certain 
pond, not very big, — which was plentifully stocked witli fish. Catching 
sight of these fish, a certain crane said to himself, " I must find a way to 
cajole and eat these fish." So he went and sat down in deep thought by 
the side of the water. 

Now when the fishes caught sight of him, they said, "Of what are you 
thinking, my lord, as you sit there"?" "I am thinking about you," was 
the reply. "And what is your lordship thinking about us?" "The 
water in this pool being low, food scarce, and the heat intense, — I was 
wondering to myself, as I sat here, what in the world you fishes would 
do." "And what are we to do, my lord?" "Well, if you'll take my 
advice, [222] I will take you up one by one in my beak, and carry you all 
off to a fine lai'ge pool covered with the five varieties of lotuses, and thei'e 
put you down." " My lord," said they, " no crane ever took the slightest 
thought for fishes since the world began. Your desire is to eat us one by 
one." " No ; I will not eat you while you trust me," said the crane. " If 
you don't take my word that there is such a pond, send one of your 
number to go with me and see for himself." Believing the crane, the fish 
presented to him a great big fish (blind of one eye, by the way), who they 
thought would be a match for the crane whether afloat or ashore ; and 
they said, " Here's the one to go with you." 

The crane took the fish off and put him in the pool, and after shewing 
him the whole extent of it, brought him back again and put him in along 
with the other fish in his old pond. And he held forth to them on the 
chai-ms of the new pool. 

After hearing this report, they grew eager to go there, and said to the 
crane, " Very good, my lord ; please take us across." 

First of all, tlie crane took that big one-eyed fish again and carried 
him off to the edge of tiie pool, so that he could see the watei', but actually 
alighted in a Varana-tree which grew on the bank. Dashing the fish 
down in a fork of the tree, he pecked it to death, — after which he picked 
him clean and let the bones fall at the foot of the tree. Then back he 
went and said, " I've thrown him in ; who's the nextl " And so he took 
the fish one by one, and ate them all, till at last when he came back, he 

No. 88. 97 

could not find another left. But there was still a crab remaining in the 
pond; so the crane, who wanted to eat him up too, said, "Mister crab, I've 
taken all those fishes away and turned them into a fine large pool covered 
all over with lotuses. Come along; I'll take you too." " How will you 
carry me across]" said the crab. "Why, in my beak, to be sure," said 
the crane. "Ah, but you might drop me like that," said the crab; "I 
won't go with you." " Don't be frightened ; I'll keep tight hold of you 
all the way." Thought the crab to himself, " He hasn't put the fish in the 
pool. But, if he would really put me in, that would be capital. If he 
does not, — why, I'll nip his head off and kill him." So he spoke thus to 
the crane, " You'd never be able to hold me tight enough, friend crane ; 
whereas we crabs have got an astonishingly tight grip. [22-3] If I might 
take hold of your neck with my claws, I could hold it tight and then 
would go along with you." 

Not suspecting that the crab wanted to trick him, the crane gave his 
assent. With his claws the crab gripped hold of the crane's neck as with 
the pincers of a smith, and said, " Now you can start." The crane took 
him and shewed him the pool first, and then started off* for the tree. 

"The pool lies this way, nunky," said the crab; "but you're taking 
me the other way." "Very much your nunky dear am I!" said the 
crane ; " and very much my nephew are you ! I suppose you thought me 
your slave to lift you up and carry you about ! Just you cast your eye on 
that heap of bones at the foot of the tree ; as I ate up all those fish, so I 
will eat you too." Said the crab, " It was through their own folly that 
those fish were eaten by you ; but I shan't give you the chance of eating 
me. No ; what I shall do, is to kill i/07i. For you, fool that you were, 
did not see that I was ti-icking you. If we die, we will both die together ; 
I'll chop your head clean off"." And so saying he gripped the crane's 
weazand with his claws, as with pincers. With his mouth wide open, and 
tears streaming from his eyes, the crane, trembling for his life, said, 
" Lord, indeed I will not eat you ! Spare my life ! " 

" Well, then, just step down to the pool and put me in," said the crab. 
Then the crane turned back and stepped down as directed to the pool, and 
placed the crab on the mud, at the water-edge. But the crab, before 
entering the water, nipped off the crane's head as deftly as if he were 
cutting a lotus stalk with a knife. 

The Tree- fairy who dwelt in the tree, marking this wonderful thing, 
made the whole forest ring with applause repeating this stanza in sweet 
tones : — 

Guile profits not your very guileful folk. 

Mark what the guileful crane got from the crab ! 

C. J. 

98 The Jcltaka. Booh I. 

[224] "Brethren," said the Master, "this is not the first time this fellow has 
been cozened by the robe-maker from the country ; in the past he was cozened 
in just the same manner." His lesson ended, he shewed the connexion, and 
identified the Birth, by saying, "The Jetavana robe-maker was [the crane] of 
those days, the robe-maker from the country was the crab, and I myself the 

\_Note. See Benfey's Pa7iea-Tantru fi. 175), Tawney's Kathn-Sarit-SCifiara (ii. 
31), and Rhys Davids' Birth Stories (page 321), for the migrations of this popular 

No. 39. 


"Methinhs the gold.^^ —T\\\s, story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a co-resident pupil of Sariputta. 

Tradition says that this Brother was meek and docile, and was zealous in 
ministering to the Elder. Now, on one occasion the Elder departed with the 
leave of the Master, on an alms-pilgrimage, and came to South Magadha. When 
he got there, that Brother grew so proud-stomached tliat he would not do 
what the Elder told him. Moreover, if he was addressed with, "Sir, do this," he 
quarrelled with the Elder. The Elder could not make out what possessed him. 

After making his j^ilgrimage in those parts, he came back again to Jetavana. 
The moment he got back to the monastery at Jetavana, the Brother became 
again what he had always been. 

The Elder told this to the Buddha, saying, "Sir, a co-resident of mine is in 
one place like a slave bought for a hundred pieces, and in another so proud- 
stomached that an order to do anything makes him quarrel." 

Said the Master, "This is not the first time, Sariputta, that he has shewn this 
disposition ; in the past too, if he went to one place, he was like a slave bought 
for a hundred pieces, whilst, if he went to another place, he would become 
quarrelsome and contentious." And, so saying, by request of the Elder, he told 
this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life again as a squire. Another squire, a friend of his, 
was an old man himself, but had [225] a young wife who had borne him a 
son and heir. Said the old man to himself, "As soon as I am dead, this 
girl, being so young as she is, will marry heaven knows whom, and spend 
all my money, instead of handing it over to my son. Wouldn't it be my 
best course to bury my money safely in the ground?" 

So, in the company of a household slave of his named Nanda, he went 
to the forest and buried his riclies at a certain spot, saying to the shxve, 

No. 39. 99 

"My good Nanda, reveal this treasure to my son after I am gone, and 
don't let the wood be sold." 

After giving this injunction to his slave, the old man died. In due 
course the son grew up, and his mother said to him, " My son, your 
father, in the comi)any of Nanda, buried his money. Get it back and look 
after the property of the family." 80 one day he said to Nanda, " Nunky, 
is there any treasure which my father buried 1 " " Yes, my lord." 
" Where is it buried 1 " " In the forest, my lord." " Well, then, let us go 
there." And he took a spade and a basket, and going to the scene, said to 
Nanda, " Well, nunky, where's the money 1 " But by the time Nanda had 
got up to the treasure and was standing right over it, he was so pufied up 
by the money that he abused his master, saying, " You servant of a slave- 
wench's son ! how should you have any money here?" 

The young gentleman, pretending not to have heard this insolence, 
simply said, " Let us be going then," and took the slave back home with 
him. Two or three days later, he returned to the place ; but again Nanda 
abused him, as before. Without any abusive rejoinder, the young gentle- 
man came back and turned the matter over in his mind. Thought he to 
himself, "At starting, this slave always means to reveal where the money 
is; but no sooner does he get there, than he falls to abusing me. The 
reason of this I do not see; but I could find out, if I were to ask my 
father's old friend, the squire." So he went to the Bodhisatta, and laying 
the whole business before him, asked his friend what was the real i-eason 
of such behaviour. 

Said the Bodhisatta, " The spot at which Nanda stands to abuse you, 
my friend, is the place where your father's money is buried. Therefore, as 
soon as he starts abusing you again, say to him, ' Whom are you talking 
to, you slave?' Pull him from his perch, take the spade, dig down, 
remove your family treasui-e, and make the slave caiTy it home for you." 
And so saying, he repeated this stanza : — [226] 

Methinks the gold and jewels buried lie 
Where Nanda, low-born slave, so loudly bawls! 

Taking a respectful leave of the Bodhisatta, the young gentleman went 
home, and taking Nanda went to the spot where the money was buried. 
Faithfully following the advice he had received, he brought the money 
away and looked after the fanuly property. He remained steadfast in the 
Bodhisatta's counsels, and after a life spent in charity and other good 
works he passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

Said the Master, "In the past too this man was similarly disposed." His 
lesson ended, he shewed the connexion, and identified the Birth, by saying, "Sari- 
putta's co-resident was the Nanda of tliose days, and 1 the wise and good 


100 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

No. 40. 


'■'■Far rather in'll I headlong plunge." — This story was told by the Master 
while at Jetavana, about Anatha- pindika. 

For Aiiatha-pindika, who had lavished fifty-four crores on the Faith of the 
Buddha over the Monastery alone, and who valued naught else save only the Three 
Gems, used to go every day while the Master was at Jetavana to attend the 
Great Services, — once at daybreak, once after breakfast, and once in the 
evening. There were intermediate services too; but he never went empty- 
handed, for fear the Novices and lads should look to see what he had brought 
with him. When he went in the early morning [227], he used to have rice-gruel 
taken up; after breakfast, ghee, butter, honey, molasses, and the like; and in 
the evening, he brought perfumes, garlands and cloths. So much did he expend 
day after day, that his expense knew no bounds. Moreover, many traders 
borrowed money from him on their bonds, — to the amount of eighteen crores ; 
and the great merchant never called the money in. Furthermore, another 
eighteen crores of the family property, which were buried in the river-bank, were 
washed out to sea, when the bank was swept away by a storm ; and down rolled 
the brazen pots, with fastenings and seals unbroken, to the bottom of the ocean. 
In his house, too, there was always rice standing ready for 500 Brethren, — so 
that the merchant's house was to the Brotherhood like a pool dug where four 
roads meet, yea, like mother and father was he to them. Therefore, even the 
All-Enlightened Buddha used to go to his house, and the Eighty Chief Elders 
too ; and the number of other Brethren passing in and out was beyond measure. 

Now his house was seven stories high and had seven portals ; and over the 
fourth gateway dwelt a fairy who was a heretic. When the All- Enlightened 
Buddha came into the house, she could not stay in her abode on high, but came 
down with her children to the ground-floor ; and she had to do the like whenever 
the Eighty Chief Elders or the other Elders came in and out. Thought she, " So 
long as the ascetic Gotama and his disciples keep coming into this house, I can 
have no peace here; I can't be eternally coming downstairs to the ground floor. 
I must contrive to stop them from coming any more to this house." So one day, 
when the business manager had retired to rest, she appeared before him in 
visible shape. 

"Who is that?" said he. 

"It is I," was the reply; "the fairy who lives over the fourth gateway." 
"What brings you here?" "You don't see what the merchant is doing. Heedless 
of his own future, he is drawing upon his resources, only to enrich the ascetic 
Gotama. He engages in no traftic ; he undei-takes no business. Advise the 
merchant to attend to his business, and arrange that the ascetic Gotama with his 
disciples shall come no more into the house." 

Then said he, "Foolish Fairy, if the merchant does spend his money, he 
spends it on the Faith of the Buddha, which leads to Salvation. Even if 
he were to seize me by the hair and sell me for a slave, I will say nothing. 

Another day, she went to the merchant's eldest son and gave him the same 
advice. And he flouted her in just the same manner. But to the merchant 
himself she did not so much as dare to speak on the matter. 

Now by dint of unending munificence [228] and of doing no business, the 
merchant's incomings diminished and his estate grew less and less; so that he 
sank by degrees into poverty, and his table, his dress, and his bed and food were 
no longer what they had once been. Yet, in spite of his altered circumstances, 

No. 40. 101 

he continued to entertain the Brotherhood, though he was no longer able to feast 
them. So one day when he iiad made liis bow and taken his seat, the Master said 
to him, " Householder, are gifts being given at your house"?" " Yes, sir," said he ; 
"but there's only a little sour husk-porridge, left over from yesterday." "Be not 
distressed, householder, at the thought that you can only oflfer what is un- 
palatable. If the heart be good, the food given to Buddhas, Pacceka Buddhas^, 
and their disciples, cannot but be good too. And why ?— Because of the great- 
ness of the fruit thereof. For he who can make his heart acceptable cannot 
give an unacceptable gift,— as is to be testified by the following passage : — 

For, if the heart have faith, no gift is small 
To Buddhas or to their disciples true. 
'Tis said no service can be reckoned small 
That's paid to Buddhas, lords of great renown. 
Mark well what fruit rewarded that poor gift 
Of pottage, — dried-up, sour, and lacking salt^." 

Also, he said this fiu'ther thing, "Householder, in giving this unpalatable 
gift, you are giving it to those who have entered on the Noble Eightfold Path. 
Whereas I, when in Velama's time I stirred up all India by giving the seven 
things of price, and in my largesse poured them forth as though 1 had made 
into one mighty stream the five great rivers, — I yet found none who had reached 
the Three Befuges or kept the Five Commandments; for rare are those who 
are worthy of offerings. Therefore, let not your heart be troubled by the 
thought that your gift is unpalatable." And so saying, he repeated the 
Velamaka Sutta^. 

Now that fairy who had not dared to speak to the merchant in the days of 
his magnificence, thought that now he was poor he would hearken to her, and so, 
entering his chamber at dead of night she appeared before him in visible shape, 
standing in mid-air. "Who's thatf said the merchant, when he became aware 
of her presence. " I am the fairy, great merchant, who dwells over the fourth 
gateway." "What brings you here?" "To give you counsel." "Proceed, then." 
"Great merchant, you take no thought for your own future or for your own 
children. You have expended vast sums on the Faith of the ascetic Gotama; in 
fact, by long-continued [229] expenditure and by not undertaking new business 
you have been brought by the ascetic Gotama to poverty. But even in your 
poverty you do not shake off" the ascetic Gotama ! The ascetics are in and out 
of your house this very day just the same I What they have had of you cannot 
be recovered. That may be taken for certain. But henceforth don't you go 
yourself to the ascetic Gotama and don't let his disciples set foot inside youi- 
house. Do not even turn to look at the ascetic Gotama but attend to your trade 
and traffic in order to restore the family estate." 

Then he said to her, "Was this the counsel you wanted to give me?" 

"Yes, it was." 

Said the merchant, "The mighty Lord of Wisdom has made me proof against 
a hundred, a thousand, yea against a hundred thousand fairies such as you are ! 
My faith is strong and steadfast as Mount Sineru! My substance has been 
expended on the Faith that leads to Salvation. Wicked are your words ; it is a 
blow aimed at the Faith of the Buddhas by you, you wicked and impudent 
witch. I cannot live under the same roof with you ; be oft' at once from my 
house and seek shelter elsewhere !" Hearing these words of that converted man 
and elect disciple, she could not stay, but repairing to her dwelling, took her 

1 All Buddhas have attained to complete illumination ; but a Pacceka Buddha keeps 
his knowledge to himself and, unlike a 'Perfect Buddha,' does not preach the saving 
truth to Ms fellow-men. 

- The first two lines are from the Vimdna-vatthu, page 44. 

^ This Sutta is referred to at page 234 of the Samahgala-Vildsinl, but is otherwise 
unknown as yet to European scholars. 

102 The Jatal-a. Book 1. 

childreu by the hand and weut forth. But though she went, she was minded, if 
she could not find herself a lodging elsewhere, to appease the merchant and 
return to dwell in his house ; and in this mind she repaired to the tutelary deity 
of the city and with due salutation stood before him. Being asked what had 
brought her thither, she said, "My lord, I have been speaking imprudently to 
Anatha-pindika, and he in his anger has turned me out of my home. Take me 
to him and make it up between us, so that he may let me live there again." 
"But what was it you said to the merchant?" "I told him for the future not to 
support the Buddha and the Order, and not to let the ascetic Gotama set foot 
again in his house. This is what I said, my lord." "Wicked were your woi-ds; 
it was a blow aimed at the Faith. I cannot take you with me to the merchant." 
Meeting with no support from him, she went to the Four C4reat Regents of the 
world. And being repulsed by them in the same manner, she went on to Sakka, 
king of Devas, and told him her story, beseeching him still more earnestly, as 
follows, "Deva, finding no shelter, I wander about homeless, leading my children 
by the hand. Grant me of your majesty some place wherein to dwell." 

And he too said to lier, "You have done wickedly; it was a blow aimed at 
the Conqueror's Faith. I cannot speak to the merchant on your behalf. But I 
can tell you one way [230] whereby the merchant may be led to pardon you." 
"Pray tell me, deva." "Alen have had eighteen crores of the merchant on 
bonds. Take the semblance of his agent, and without telling anybody repair to 
their houses with the bonds, in the company of some young goblins. Stand in the 
middle of their houses with the bond in one hand and a receipt in the other, and 
terrify them with your goblin power, saying, 'Here's your acknowledgment of 
the debt. Our merchant did not move in the matter while he was affluent ; but 
now he is poor, and you must pay up the money you owe.' By your goblin 
power obtain all those eighteen crores of gold and fill the merchant's empty 
treasuries. He had another treasure buried in the banks of the river AciravatI, 
but when the bank was washed away, the treasiu'e was swept into the sea. Get 
that back also by your supernatural power and store it in his treasuries. Further, 
there is another sum of eighteen crores lying unowned in such and such a place. 
Bring that too and pour the money into his empty treasuries. When you have 
atoned by the recovery of these fifty-four crores, ask the merchant to forgive 
you." "Very good, deva," said she. And she set to work obediently, and did 
just as she had been bidden. When she had recovered all the money, she went 
into the merchant's chamber at dead of night and appeared before him in visible 
shape standing in the air. 

The merchant asking who was there, she replied, "It is I, great merchant, 
the blind and foolish fairy who lived over your fourth gateway. In the greatness 
of my infixtuate folly I knew not the virtues of a Buddha, and so came to say 
what I said to you some days ago. Pardon me my fault ! At the instance of 
Sakka, king of Devas, I have made atonement by recovering the eighteen crores 
owing to you, the eighteen crores which had been washed down into the sea, and 
another eighteen crores which were lying unowned in such and such a place, — 
making fifty-four crores in all, which I have poured into your empty treasure- 
chambers. The sum you expended on the Monastery at Jetavana is now made 
up again. Whilst I have nowhere to dwell, I am in misery. Bear not in mind 
what I did in my ignorant folly, great merchant, but pardon me." 

Anatha-pindika, hearing what she said, thought to himself, "She is a fairy, 
and she says she has atoned, and confesses her fault. The Master shall consider 
this and make his virtues known to her. I will take her before the All-En- 
lightened Buddha." So he said, "My good fairy, if you want me to pardon you, 
ask me in the presence of the master." "Very good," said she, "1 will. Take me 
along with you to the Master." "Certainly," said he. And early in the morning, 
when night was just passing away, he took her with him to the Master, and told 
the Blessed One all that she had done. 

Hearing this, the Master said, "You see, householder, how the sinful man 
regards sin [231] as excellent before it ripens to its fruit. But when it has 
rii)ened, then he sees sin to be sin. Likewise the good man looks on his goodness 

No. 40. 103 

as sill before it ripens to its fruit; but vvheu it ripens, lie sees it to be goodness." 
And so saying, he repeated these two stanzas from the Dhamniapada: — 

The sinner thinks his sinful deed is good. 
So long as sin has ripened not to fruit. 
But when his sin at last to ripeness grows. 
The sinner surely sees "'twas sin I wrought." 

The good man thinks his goodness is but sin. 

So long as it has ripened not to fruit. 

But when his goodness unto ripeness grows. 

The good man surely sees "'twas good I wrought '." 

At the close of these stanzas that fairy was established in the Fruit of the 
First Path. She fell at the Wheel-marked feet of the Master, crying, "Stained 
as I was with passion, depraved by sin, misled by delusion, and blinded by 
ignorance, I spoke wickedly because I knew not your virtues. Pardon me!" 
Then she received pardon from the JMaster and from the great merchant. 

At this time Anatha-pindika sang his own praises in the Master's presence, 
saying, "Sir, though this fairy did her best to stop me from giving support to 
the Buddha and his following, she could not succeed ; and though she tried to 
stop me from giving gifts, yet I gave them still ! Was not this goodness on my 

Said the Master, "You, householder, are a converted man and an elect 
disciple; your faith is firm and your vision is purified. No marvel then that 
you were not stopped by this impotent fairy. The marvel was that the wise and 
good of a bygone da}', when a Buddha had not appeared, and when knowledge 
had not ripened to its full fruit, should from the heart of a lotus-flower have 
given gifts, although MUra, lord of the Realm of Lusts, appeared in mid-heaven, 
shouting, 'If you give gifts, you shall be roasted in this hell,' — and shewing 
them therewithal a pit eighty cubits deep, filled with red-hot embers." And so 
saying, at the request of Anatha-pindika, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahraadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life in the family of the Lord High Treasurer of 
Benares, and was brought up in the lap of all luxury like a royal prince. 
By the time he was come to years of discretion, being barely sixteen years 
old, he had made himself perfect in all accomplishm(;nts. At his father's 
death he filled the office of Lord High Treasurer, and built six almonries, 
one at each of the four gates of the city, one in the centre of the city, and 
one at the gate of his own mansion. Very bountiful was he [232], and he 
kept the commandments, and observed the fast-day duties. 

Now one day at breakfast-time when dainty fare of exquisite taste and 
variety was being brought in for the Bodhisatta, a Pacceka Buddha rising 
fi'om a seven days' trance of mystic ecstasy, and noticing that it was 
time to go his rounds, bethought him that it would be well to visit the 
Treasurer of Benares that morning. So he cleaned his teeth with a tooth- 
stick made from the betel-vine, washed his mouth with water from Lake 
Anotatta, put on his under-cloth as he stood on the tableland of Manosila, 
fastened on his girdle, donned his outer-cloth ; and, equipped with a bowl 

1 The verses are Nos. 119 and 120 in the Dhammapada. 

104 TIk' Jataha. Booh I. 

which he called into beiug for the purpose, he passed through the air and 
arrived at the gate of the mansion just as the Bodhisatta's breakfast was 
taken in. 

As soon as the Bodhisatta became aware of his presence there, he rose 
at once from his seat and looked at the attendant, indicating that a service 
was required. "What am I to do, my lord?'' "Bring his reverence's 
bowl," said the Bodhisatta. 

At that very instant Mara the Wicked rose up in a state of great 
excitement, saying, " It is seven days since the Pacceka Buddha had food 
given him ; if he gets none to-day, he will perish. I will destroy him and 
stop the Treasurer too from giving." And that very instant he went and 
called into being within the mansion a pit of red-hot embers, eighty cubits 
deep, filled with Acacia-charcoal, all ablaze and aflame like the great hell 
of Avici. When he had created this pit, Mara himself took his stand in 

When the man who was on his way to fetch the bowl became aware of 
this, he was terrified and started back. " What makes you start back, my 
mani" asked the Bodhisatta. "My lord," was the answer, "there's a 
great pit of red-hot enibeis blazing and flaming in the middle of the 
house." And as man after man got to the spot, they all were panic- 
stricken, and ran away as fast as their legs would carry them. 

Thought the Bodhisatta to himself, " Mara, the Enthraller, must have 
been exerting himself to-day to stop me from alms-giving. I have yet to 
learn, however, that I am to be shaken by a hundred, or by a thousand, 
Maras. We will see this day whose strength is the stronger, whose might 
is the mightier, mine or Mara's." So takiug in his own hand the bowl 
which stood ready, he passed out from the house, and, standing on the 
brink of the fiery pit, looked up to the heavens. Seeing Mara, he said, 
" Who are you ] " "I am Mara," was the answer. 

" Did you call into being this pit of red-hot embers 1" " Yes, I did." 
[233] " Why 1 " "To stop you from alms-giving and to destroy the life 
of that Pacceka Buddha." " I will not permit you either to stop me from 
my alms-giving or to destroy the life of the Pacceka Buddha. I am going 
to see to-day whether your strength or mine is the greater." And still 
standing on the brink of that fiery pit, he cried, " Keverend Pacceka 
Buddha, even though I be in act to fall headlong into this pit of red-hot 
embers, I will not tui-n back. Only vouchsafe to take the food I bring." 
And so saying he repeated this stanza : — 

Far rather will I headlong plunge amain 
Full in this gulf of hell, than stoop to shame I 
Vouchsafe, sir, at my hands to take this alms ! 

With these words the Bodhisatta, grasping the bowl of food, strode on 
with undaunted resolution right on to the surface of the pit of fire. But 

No. 41. 1.05 

even as he did bO, there rose up to the surface through all the eighty 
cubits of the pit's depth a large and peerless lotus-flower, which received 
the feet of the Bodhisatta ! And from it there came a measure of pollen 
which fell on the head of the Great Being, so that his whole body was as 
it were sprinkled from head to foot with dust of gold 1 Standing right in 
the heart of the lotus, he poured the dainty food into the bowl of the 
Pacceka Buddha. 

And when the latter had taken the food and returned thanks, he flung 
his bowl aloft into the heavens, and right in the sight of all tlie people he 
himself rose bodily iuto the air likewise, and passed away to the Himalayas 
again, seeming to tread a track formed of clouds fantastically shaped. 

And Mara, too, defeated and dejected, passed away back to his own 

But the Bodhisatti, still standing in the lotus, preached ['234] the 
Truth to the people, extolling alms-giving and the commandments ; after 
which, girt round by the escorting multitude, he passed into his own 
mansion once more. And all his life long he shewed charity and did other 
good works, till in the end he passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

Said the Master, "It was no marvel, layman, that you, with your discern- 
ment of the truth, were not overcome now by the fairy ; the real marvel was 
what the wise and good did in bygone dayss." His lesson ended, the Master 
shewed the connexion, and identified the Birth by saying, "The Pacceka iJuddha 
of those days passed away, never to be born again. 1 was myself the Treasurer 
of Benares who, defeating Mara, and standing in the heart of the lotus, placed 
alms in the bowl of the Piicceka Buddha." 

[iVote. See Giles, 'Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio,' i. 396.] 

No. 41. 


" The headstrong manP — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana, about the Elder Losaka Tissa. 

'Who,' you assk, 'was this Elder Losaka Tissa .^' Well; his father was a 
tisherman in Kosala, and he was the bane of his family ; and, when a Brother, 
never had anything given to him. His previous existence ended, he had been 
conceived by a certain fisherman's wife in a fishing-village of a thousand families 
in Kosala. And on the day he was conceived all those thousand families, net in 
hand, went fishing in river and pool but failed to catch one single fish; and 

106 TIlc Jdtaka. Book 1. 

the like bad fortune dogged them from that day forward. Also, before his birth, 
the village was destroyed seven times by fire, and visited seven times by the 
king's vengeance. So in time it came to pass that the people fell into a wretched 
plight. Reflecting that such had not been their lot in former days, but that now 
they were going to rack and ruin, they concluded that there must be some 
breeder of misfortune among them, and resolved to divide into two bands. This 
they did ; and there were then two bauds of five hundred families each. Thence- 
forward, ruin dogged the band which included the parents of the future Losaka, 
whilst the other five hundred families throve apace. So the former resolved to go 
on halving their numbers, and did so, until this one family was parted from all 
the rest. Then they knew that the breeder of misfortune was in that family, 
and with blows drove them away. [235] With difficulty could his mother get a 
livelihood; but, when her time was come, she gave birth to her son in a 
certain place. (He that is born into his last existence cannot be killed. For 
like a lamp within ajar, even so securely within his breast burns the flame of his 
destiny to become an Arahat.) The mother took care of the child till he could 
run about, and when he could run about then she put a potsherd in his hands, 
and, bidding him go into a house to beg, ran away. Thenceforward, the solitary 
child used to beg his food thereabouts and sleep where he could. He was un- 
washed and unkempt, and made a living after the fashion of a mud-eating 
goblin 1. When he was seven years old, he was picking up and eating, like a 
crow, lump by lump, any rice he could find outside a house door where they 
flung away the rinsings of the rice-pots. 

Sariputta, Captain of the Faith, going into Savatthi on his round for alms, 
noticed the child, and, wondering what village the hapless creature came from, 
was filled with love for him and called out "Come here." The child came, 
bowed to the Elder, and stood before him. Then said Sariputta, "What village 
do you belong to, and where are your parents.'" 

"I am destitute, sir,"' said the child; "for my parents said they were tired 
out, and so forsook me, and went away." 

"Would you like to become a Brother T' "Indeed I should, sir; but who 
would receive a poor wretch like me into the Order?" "I will." "Then, pray 
let me become a Brother." 

The Elder gave the child a meal and took him to the monastery, washed him 
with his own hands, and admitted him a Novice first and a full Brother after- 
wards, when he was old enough. In his old age he was known as Elder Losaka 
Tissa; he was always luilucky^, and but little was given to him. The story goes 
that, no matter how lavish the charity, he never got enough to eat, but only just 
enough to keep himself alive. A single ladle of rice seemed to fill his alms-bowl 
to the brim, so that the charitable thought his bowl was full and bestowed the 
rest of their rice on the next. When rice was being put into his bowl, it is said 
that the rice in the giver's dish used to vanish away. And so with every kind of 
food. Even when, as time went by, he had developed Discernment and so won 
the highest Fruit which is Arahatship, he still got but little. 

In the fullness of time, when the materials which determined his separate 
existence'' were outworn, the day came for him to pass away. And the Captain 

1 On the authority of Subhuti, paiiisu-pisdcakd are said to form the fourth class of 
Petas (pretas) or 'ghosts' (who were cursed at once with cavernous maws and with 
mouths no bigger than a needle's eye, so that their voracity was never satisfied even in 
their customary coprophagic state). But neither Hardy's Manual of Buddhism 
(p. 58) nor the Milinda (p. 294) mentions pamsu-pisdcakd as one of the four classes of 

' Keading nippuiino instead of iiippaiino. See Ceijlon R. A. S. Journal, 1884, p. 158; 
and compare apiiuuo on p. 236, line 20 of the Pali original. 

3 As protoplasm is 'the physical basis of life,' so dytt-saihkhdrd are its moral basis 
according to Buddhist ideas. This Lebensstoff it is the aim of Buddhism to uproot, 
80 that there may be no re-birth. 

No. 41. 107 

of the Faith, as he meditated, had knowledge of this, and thought to himself, 
'Losaka Tissa will pass away to-day ; and to-day at any rate I will see that he 
has enough to cat.' So he took the Elder and came to Savatthi for alms. But, 
because Losaka was with him, it was all in vain that Sariputta held out his 
hand for alms in populous Savatthi ; not so much as a bow was vouchsafed him. 
So he bade the Elder go back and seat himself in the sitting- hall of the Monastery, 
and collected food which he sent with a message [236] that it was to be given to 
Losaka. Those to whom he gave it took the food and went their way, but, 
forgetting all about Losaka, ate it themselves. So when Sariputta rose up, and 
was entering the monastery, Losaka came to him and saluted him. Sariputta 
stopped, and turning round said, "Well, did you get the food, brother?" 

"I shall, no doubt, get it in good time," said the Elder. Sariputta was 
greatly troubled, and looked to see what hour it was. But noon was passed i. 
"Stay here, Brother," said Sariputta; "and do not move"; and he made Losaka 
Tissa sit down in the sitting-hal), and set out for the palace of the king of 
Kosalii. The king bade his bowl be taken, and saying that it was past noon and 
therefore not the time to eat rice, ordered his bowl to be filled with the four 
sweet kinds of food-. With this he returned, and stood before him, bowl in 
hand, bidding the sage eat. But the Elder was ashamed, because of the 
reverence he had towards Sariputta, and would not eat. " Come, brother Tissa," 
said Sariputta, "'tis I must stand with tlie l)owl ; sit you down and eat. If the 
bowl left my hand, everytliing in it would vanish away." 

So the venerai)le Elder Losaka Tissa ate the sweets, whilst the e.\alted 
Cai)tain of the Faith stood holding the bowl ; and thanks to the hitter's merits 
and efficacy the food did not vanish. So the Elder Losaka Tissa ate as much as 
he wanted and was satisfied, and that selfsame day passed away by that death 
whereby existence ceases for ever. 

The All-Enlightened Buddha stood by, and saw the body burned ; and they 
built a shrine for the collected ashes. 

Seated in conclave in the Hall of Truth, the Brethren said, "Brethren, 
Losaka was unlucky, and little was given to him. How came he with his 
unluck and his neediness to win the glory of ArahabshipT' 

Entering the Hall, the Master asked what they were talking about ; and they 
told him. "Brethren," said he, "this Brother's own actions were the cause both 
of his receiving so little, and of his becoming an Arahat. In bygone days he had 
prevented others from receiving, and that is why he received so little himself. 
But it was by his meditating on sorrow, transitoriness, and the absence of an 
abiding principle in things, that he won Arahatship for himself." And so 
saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once iijjon a time, in the days of the Buddha Kassapa, there was a 
Brother who lived the village life and was maintained by a country squire. 
He was regular in his conduct as a Brother^, virtuous in his life, and was 
filled to overflowing with insight. There was also an Elder, an Arahat, 
who lived with his fellows on terms of equality, and at the time of the 
story paid a first visit to the village where lived the squire who supported 

1 i.e. no more rice could be eaten that day. If a shadow of a finger's breadth is 
cast by an upright stick, a strict Brother will not eat rice aud like foods. 

- Honey, ghee, butter, and sugar. 

3 Pakatatto is explained by Ehys Davids and Oldenberg in the note to page 340 of 
Vol. XVII. of the Sacred Books of the East as meaning a Brother " who has not made 
himself liable to any disciplinary proceeding, has committed no irregularity." 

108 The Jataka. Book I. 

this Brother. So pleased was the squire [237] with the very demeanour of 
the Ekler that, taking his bowl, he led him into the house and with every 
mark of respect invited him to eat. Then he listened to a short discourse 
by the Elder, and at its close said, with a bow, "Sir, pray do not journey 
further than our monastery close by; in the evening I will come and call 
upon you there." So the Elder went to the monastery, saluting the resident 
Brother on his entrance ; and, first courteously asking leave, took a seat by 
his side. The Brother received him with all friendliness, and asked whether 
any food had been given him as alms. 

"Oh yes," replied the Elder. "Where, pray?" "Why, in your village 
close by, at the squire's house." And so saying, the Elder asked to be 
shewn his cell and made it ready. Then laying aside his bowl and robe, 
and seating himself, he became absorbed in blissful Insight and enjoyed 
the bliss of the Fruits of the Paths. 

In the evening came the squire, with servants carrying flowers and 
perfumes and lamjjs and oil. Saluting the resident Brother, he asked 
whether a guest had appeared, an Elder. Being told that he had, the 
squire asked where he was and learned which cell had been given him. 
Then the squire went to the Elder and, fii'st bowing courteously, seated 
himself by the Elder's side and listened to a discourse. In the cool of tiie 
evening the squire made his offerings at the Tope and Bo-Tree, lit his 
lamp, and departed with an invitation to both Elder and Brother to come 
up to his house next day for their meal. 

"I'm lo.sing my hold on the squire," thought the Brother. " If this 
Elder stops, I shall count for nothiug with him." So he was discontented 
and fell a-scheming how to make the Elder see that he must not settle 
down there for good. Accordingly, when the Elder came to pay his 
respects in the early morning, the Brother did not open his lips. The 
Arahat read the other's thoughts and said to himself, "This Brother 
knows not that I shall never stand in his light either with the family that 
supports him or with his Brotherhood." And going back to his cell, he 
became absorbed in the bliss of Insight and in the bliss of the Fruits. 

Next day, the resident Brother, having first knocked gingerly on the 
gong', and having tapped on the gong with the back of his nail, went off 
alone to the squire's house. Taking from him his alms-bowl, the squire 
bade him be seated and asked where the stranger was. 

" I know no news of your friend," said the Brother. " Though I 
knocked on the gong and tapped at his door, I couldn't wake him. I can 

1 For gaiidi meaning ' a gong,' cf. Jut. iv. 306 ; but see note i>. 213 of Vol. xx. of 
S. B. K. It is doubtful what kapitthena can mean. Can the true reading be 
ipumidivase) iiakhapitthena, i.e. 'with the back of his nail'? The resident Brother's 
object was to go through the form of waking the guest without disturbing his 

No. 41. 109 

only presume that his dainty fare [238] here yesterday has disagreed with 
him and that he is still a-bed in consequence. Possibly such doings may 
commend themselves to you." 

(Meantime the Arahat, who had waited till the time came to go his 
round for alms, had washed and dressed and risen with bowl and robe in 
the air and gone elsewhere.) 

The squire gave the Brother rice and milk to eat, with ghee and sugar 
and honey in it. Then he had his bowl scoured with perfumed chunam 
powder and filled afresh, saying, " Sir, the Elder must be fatigued with 
his journey; take him this." Without demur the Brother took the food 
and went his way, thinking to himself, " If our friend once gets a taste of 
this, taking him by the throat and kicking him out of doors won't get rid 
of him. But how can I get rid of it? If I give it away to a human 
being, it will be known. If I throw it into the water, the ghee will float 
on top. And as for throwing it away on the ground, that will only bring 
all the crows of the district flocking to the s])ot." In his perplexity his 
eye fell on a field that had been fired, and, scraping out the embers, he 
flung the contents of his bowl into the hole, filled in the embers on the 
top, and went off" home. Not finding the Elder there, he thought that the 
Arahat had understood his jealousy and departed. " Woe is me," he 
cried, " for my greed has made me to sin." 

And thenceforth sore aflliction befell him and he became like a living 
ghost. Dying soon aftei-, he was re-born in hell and there was tormented 
for hundreds of thousands of years. By reason of his ripening sin, in five 
hundred successive births he was an ogre and never had enough to eat, 
except one day when he enjoyed a surfeit of off"al. Next, for five hundred 
more existences he was a dog, and here too, only on one single day had his 
fill — of a vomit of rice ; on no other occasion did he have enough to eat. 
Even when he ceased to be a dog, he was only born into a beggar family 
in a Kasi village. Fi-om the hour of his birth, that family became still 
more beggared, and he never got half as much water-gruel as he wanted. 
And he was called Mitta-vindaka [239]. 

Unable at last to endure the pangs of hunger' that now beset them, his 
father and mother beat him and drove him away, crying, " Begone, you 
curse ! " 

In the course of his wanderings, the little outcast came to Benares, where 
in those days the Bodhisatta was a teacher of world-wide fame with five 
hundred young Brahmins to teach. In those times the Benares folk used to 
give day by day commons of food to poor lads and had them taught free, 
and so this Mitta-vindaka also became a charity scholar under the Bodhi- 
satta. But he was fierce and intractable, always fighting with his fellows 

' Reading chltahndukliham for ¥siV\f,hi')\V9,jdt(ili<uluhl;haiH. 

no The Jataha. Book I, 

and heedless of his master's reproofs ; and so the Bodhisatta's fees fell off. 
And as he quarrelled so, and would not lirook reproof, the youth ended by 
running away, and came to a border-village where he hired himself out for 
a living, and married a miserably poor woman by whom he had two chil- 
dren. Later, the villagers paid him to teach them what was true doctrine 
and what was false, and gave him a hut to live in at the entrance to their 
village. But, all because of Mitta-vindaka's coming to live among them, 
the king's vengeance fell seven times on those villagers, and seven times 
were their homes burned to the ground ; seven times too did their water- 
tank dry up. 

Then they considered the matter and agreed that it was not so with 
them before Mitta-vindaka's coming, but that ever since he came they had 
been going from bad to worse. So with blows they drove him from their 
village ; and forth he went with his family, and came to a haunted forest. 
And there the demons killed and ate his wife and children. Fleeing 
thence, he came after many wanderings to a village on the coast called 
Gambhira, amving on a day when a ship was putting to sea ; and he 
hired himself for service aboard. For a week the ship held on her way, 
but on the seventh day she came to a complete standstill in mid-ocean, as 
though she had run upon a rock. Then they cast lots, in order to rid 
them of their bane ; and seven times the lot fell on Mitta-vindaka, So 
they gave him a raft of bamboos, and laying hold of him, cast him over- 
board. And forthwith the ship made way again [240]. 

Mitta-vindaka clambered on to his bamboos and floated on the waves. 
Thanks to his having obeyed the commandments in the times of the 
Buddha Kassapa, he found in mid-ocean four daughters of the gods dwell- 
ing in a palace of crystal, with whom he dwelt happily for seven days. 
Now palace-ghosts enjoy happiness only for seven days at a time ; and 
so, when the seventh day came and they had to depart to their j)unish- 
ment, they left him with an injixnction to await their return. But no 
sooner were they departed, than Mitta-vindaka put off on his raft again 
and came to where eight daughters of the gods dwelt in a palace of silver. 
Leaving them in turn, he came to where sixteen daughters of the gods 
dwelt in a palace of jewels, and thereafter to where thirty-two dwelt in a 
palace of gold. Paying no regard to their words, again he sailed away and 
came to a city of ogres, set among islands. And there an ogress was rang- 
ing about in the shape of a goat. Not knowing that she was an ogress, 
Mitta-vindaka thought to make a meal off the goat, and seized hold of the 
creature by the leg. Straightway, by virtue of her demon-nature, she 
hurled him up and away over the ocean, and plump he fell in a thorn- 
brake on the slopes of the dry moat of Benares, and thence rolled to 

Now it chanced that at that time thieves used to fi-equent that moat 

No. 41. Ill 

and kill the King's goats ; and the goatherds had hidden themselves hard 
by to catch the rascals. 

Mitta-vindaka picked himself up and saw the goats. Thought he to 
himself, " Well, it was a goat in an island in the ocean that, being seized 
by the leg, hurled me here over seas. Perhaps, if I do the same by one of 
these goats, I may get hurled back again to where the daughters of the 
gods dwell in their ocean palaces." So, without thinking, he seized one of 
the goats by the leg. At once the goat began to bleat, and the goatherds 
came running up from every side. They laid hold of him at once, crying, 
" This is the thief that has so long lived on the King's goats." And they 
beat him and began to haul him away in bonds to the King. 

Just at that time the Bodhisatta, with his five hundred young Brah- 
mins round him, was coming out of the city to bathe. Seeing and recog- 
nising Mitta-vindaka, he said to the goatherds, " Why, this is a pupil of 
mine, my good men; what have you seized him for?" "Master," said they, 
" we caiight this thief in the act of seizing a goat by the leg, and that's 
why we've got hold of him." "Well," [241] said the Bodhisatta, "sup- 
pose you hand him over to us to live with us as our slave." "All right, 
sir," replied the men, and letting their prisoner go, they went their way. 
Then the Bodhisatta asked Mitta-vindaka where he had been all that long 
time; and Mitta-vindaka told him all that he had done. 

" 'Tis thi'ough not hearkening to those who wished him well," said 
the Bodhisatta, " that he has suffered all these misfortunes." And Ik; 
recited this stanza : — 

The headstrong man who, when exhorted, pays 
No heed to friends who kindly counsel give. 
Shall come to certain harm, — like Mittaka, 
When by the leg he seized the grazing goat. 

And in those times both that Teacher and Mitta-vindaka passed away, 
and their after-lot was accordinf; to their deeds. 

Said the Master, "This Losaka was himself the cause both of his getting little 
and of his getting Arahatship." His lesson ended, he shewed the connexion and 
identified the Birth by saying, "The Elder Losaka Tissa was the Mitta-vindaka 
of those days, and I the Teacher of world-wide fame^" 

1 Compare Nos. 82, 104, 369, 439, Petavatthu No. 43, Avaddna-Sataka No. 50, 
J. As. 1878, and Ind. Antiq. x. 293. A dubious attempt to trace in the wanderings of 
Mittaviuda the germ of part of the wanderings of Ulj'sses, has been made by the 
Bishop of Colombo in the Cci/Ion R. A. S. Journal, 1884. 

112 The Jataka. Book I. 

No. 42. 


" The headstrong man." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a certain greedy Brother. His greediness will be related in the Ninth 
Book in the Kaka- Jataka i. 

But on this occasion the Brethren told the Master, saying, "Sir, this Brother 
is greedy." 

Said the Master, "Is it true [242] as they say, Brother, that you are greedy?" 

"Yes, sir," was the reply. 

"So too in bygone days, Brother, you were greedy, and by reason of your 
greediness lost your life ; also you caused the wise and good to lose their home." 
And so saying he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodlii- 
satta was born a pigeon. Now the Benares folk of those days, as an act of 
goodness, used to hang up straw-baskets in divers places for the shelter 
and comfort of the birds; and the cook of the Lord High Treasurer of 
Benares hung up one of these baskets in his kitchen. In this basket the 
Bodhisatta took up his abode, sallying out at daybreak iu quest of food, 
and returning home in the evening; and so he lived his life. 

But one day a crow, flying over the kitchen, snuffed up the goodly 
savour from the salt and fresh fish and meat there, and was filled with 
longing to taste it. Casting about how to have his will, he perched hai'd 
by, and at evening saw the Bodhisatta come home and go into the kitchen. 
"Ah ! " thought he, "I can manage it through the j)igeon." 

So back he came next day at dawn, and, when the Bodhisatta sallied 
out in quest of food, kept following him about from place to place like his 
shadow. So the Bodhisatta said, " Why do you keep with me, friend?" 

"My lord," answered the crow, "your demeanour has won my admira- 
tion; and henceforth it is my wish to follow you." "But your kind of 
food and mine, friend, is not the same," said the Bodhisatta; "you will 
be hard put to it if you attach yourself to me." " My lord," said the 
crow, " when you are seeking your food, I will feed too, by your side." 
"So be it, then," said the Bodhisatta; "only yon must be earnest." And 
with this admonition to the crow, the Bodhisatta ranged about pecking up 
grass-seeds; whilst the other went about turning over cowdung and pick- 

' This is an inadvertence of the compiler. There is no Kiika-jataka in the 9th book, 
though there is in the 0th (No. 395), where it is stated that 'the Introductory Story has 
already been related.' See Nos. 274 and 375. 

No. 42. 113 

ing out the insects underneath till he had got his fill. Then back he came 
to the Bodhisatta and remarked, " My lord, you give too much time to 
eating; excess therein should be shunned." 

And when the Bodhisatta had fed and reached home again at evening, 
in flew the crow with him into the kitchen [243]. 

"Why, our bird has brought another home with him;" exclaimed the 
cook, and hung up a second basket for the crow. And from that time on- 
ward the two birds dwelt together in the kitchen. 

Now one day the Lord High Treasurer had in a store of fish which the 
cook hung up about the kitchen. Filled with greedy longing at the sight, 
the crow made up his mind to stay at home next day and treat himself to 
this excellent fare. 

So all the night long he lay groaning away ; and next day, when the 
Bodhisatta was starting in search of food, and cried, ''Come along, friend 
crow," the crow replied, "Go without me, my lord; for I have a pain in my 
stomach." " Friend," answered the Bodhisatta, "I never heard of crows 
having pains in their stomachs before. True, crows feel faint in each of 
the three night-watches; but if they eat a lamp-wick, their hunger is 
appeased for the momenta You must be hankering after the fish in the 
kitchen here. Come now, man's food will not agree with you. Do not 
give way like this, but come and seek your food with me." "Indeed, I 
am not able, my lord," said the crow. "Well, your own conduct will 
shew," said the Bodhisatta. "Only fall not a prey to greed, but stand 
steadfast." And with this exhortation, away he flew to find his daily food. 

The cook took several kinds of fish, and dressed some one way, some 
another. Then lifting the lids oft' his saucepans a little to let the steam 
out, he put a colander on the top of one and went outside the door, where 
he stood wiping the sweat from his brow. Just at that moment out 
popped the crow's head from the basket. A glance told him that the cook 
was away, and, "Now or never," thought he, "is my time. The only 
question is shall I choose minced meat or a big lump? " Arguing that it 
takes a long time to make a full meal of minced meat, he resolved to take 
a large piece of fish and sit and eat it in his basket. So out he flew and 
alighted on the colander. " Click " went the colandei*. 

" What can that be? " said the cook, running in on hearing the noise. 
Seeing the crow, he cried, " Oh, there's that rascally crow wanting to eat 
my master's dinner. I have to work for my master, not for that rascal ! 
What's he to me, I should like to know?" So, shutting the door, he 
caught the crow and plucked every feather [244] oft' his body. Then, he 
pounded up ginger with salt and cumin, and mixed in sour butter-milk — 
finally sousing the crow in the pickle and flinging him back into his 

1 Cf. Vol. II. p. 2f,2. 

c. J. 8 

114 Tlie Jataha. Booh I. 

basket. And there the crow lay groaning, overcome by the agony of his 

At evening the Bodhisatta came back, and saw the wretched plight of 
the crow. "Ah! greedy crow," he exclaimed, "you would not heed my 
words, and now your own greed has worked you woe." So saying, he 
repeated this stanza : — 

The headstrong man who, when exhorted, pays 
No heed to friends who kindly counsel give, 
Shall surely perish, like the greedy crow. 
Who laughed to scorn the pigeon's warning words. 

Then, exclaiming "I too can no longer dwell here," the Bodhisatta 
flew away. But the crow died there and then, and the cook flung him, 
basket and all, on the dust-heap. 

Said the Master, "You were greedy, Brother, in bygone times, just as you are 
now ; and all because of your greediness the wise and good of those days had to 
abandon their homes." Having ended this lesson, the Master preached the Four 
Truths, at the close whereof that Brother won the Fruit of the Second Path. 
Then the Master shewed the connexion and identified the Birth as follows: — 
"The greedy Brother was the crow of those times, and I the pigeon." 

No. 43. 


'■'■The headstrong »»«>!-."- -This story was told by the Master while at Jeta- 
vana, about a certain headstrong Brother. For the Blessed One asked him 
whether the report was true that he was headstrong, and the Brother admitted 
that it was. "Brother," said the Master, "this is not the first time you have been 
headstrong: you were just as headstrong in former days also, [245] and, as the 
result of your headstrong refusal to follow the advice of the wise and good, you 
met your end by the bite of a snake." And so saying, he told this story of the 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born into a wealthy family in the Kingdom of Kasi. 
Having come to years of discretion, he saw how from passion springs pain 
and how true bliss comes by the abandonment of passion. So he put lusts 
from him, and going forth to the Himalayas became a hermit, winning by 
fulfilment of the ordained mystic meditations the five orders of the 

No. 43. 115 

Higher Knowledge and the eight Attainments, And as he lived his 
life in the rapture of Insight, he came in after times to have a large 
following of five hundred hermits, whose teacher he was. 

Now one day a young poisonous viper, wandering about as vipers do, 
came to the hut of one of the hermits ; and that Brother grew as fond 
of the creatiTre as if it were his own child, housing it in a joint of hamboo 
and shewing kindness to it. And because it was lodged in a joint of 
bamboo, the viper was known by the name of "Bamboo." Moreover, 
because the hermit was as fond of the viper as if it were his own child, 
they called him "Bamljoo's Father." 

Hearing that one of the Brethren was keeping a viper, the Bodhisatta 
sent for that Brother and asked whether the report was true. When 
told that it was true, the Bodhisatta said, "A viper can never be trusted; 
keep it no longer." 

"But," urged the Brother, "my viper is dear to me as a pupil to 
a teacher; — I could not live without him." "Well then," answered the 
Bodhisatta, "know that this very snake will lose you your life." But 
heedless of the master's warning, that Brother still kept the pet he could 
not bear to part with. Only a very few days later all the Brethren 
went out to gather fruits, and coming to a s})ot where all kinds grew 
in plenty, they stayed there two or three days. With them went 
"Bamboo's Father," leaving his viper behind in its bamboo prison. Two 
or three days afterwards, when he came back, he bethought him of feeding 
the creature, and, opening the cane, stretched out his hand, saying, "Come, 
my son; you must be hungry." But angry with its long fast, the viper 
bit his outstretched hand, killing him on the spot, and made its escape into 
the forest. 

Seeing him lying there dead, the Brethren came and told the Bodhi- 
satta [246], who bade the body be burned. Then, seated in their midst, he 
exhorted the Brethren by repeating this stanza : — 

The headstrong man, who, when exhorted, pays 
No heed to friends who kindly counsel give, — 
Like 'Bamboo's father,' shall be brought to nought. 

Thus did the Bodhisatta exhort his followers; and he developed 
within himself the four Noble States, and at his death was re-born into 
the Brahma Realm. 

Said the Master, "Brother, this is not the first time you have shewn yourself 
headstrong ; you were no less headstrong in times gone by, and thereby met your 
death from a viper's bite." Having ended his lesson, the Master shewed the 
connexion and identified the Birth by saying, "In days, this headstrong 
Brother was 'Bamboo's Father,' my disciples were the band of disciples, and I 
myself their teacher." 


116 The Jataka. Book I. 

No. 44. 


" Sense-lacl'ing friends." — This story was told by the Master whilst on an 
alms-pilgrimage in Magadha, about some stupid villagers in a certain hamlet. 
Tradition says that, after travelling from Savatthi to the kingdom of Magadha, 
he was on his round in that kingdom when he arrived at a certain hamlet, which 
was thronged with fools. In this hamlet these fools met together one day, and 
debated together, saying, "Friends, when we are at work in the jungle, the 
mosquitos devour us; and that hinders our work. Let us, arming ourselves 
with bows and weapons, go to war with the mosquitos and shoot or hew them all 
to death." So oft" to the jungle they went, and shouting, "Shoot down the 
mosquitos," shot and struck one another, till they were in a sad state and 
returned only to sink on the ground in or within the village or at its entrance. 

Surrounded by the Order of the Brethren, the Master came in quest of alms 
to that village. The sensible minority among the inhabitants no sooner saw 
the Blessed One, than they erected a pavilion at the entrance to their village 
and, after bestowing large alms on the [247] Brotherhood with the Buddha at its 
head, bowed to the Master and seated themselves. Observing wounded men 
lying around on this side and on that, the Master asked those lay-brothers, 
saying, "There are numbers of disabled men about ; what has happened to 
them?" "Sir," was the reply, "they went forth to war with the mosquitos, but 
only shot one another and so disabled themselves." Said the Master, "This is 
not the first time that these foolish people have dealt out blows to them.selves 
instead of to the mosquitos they meant to kill ; in former times, also, there were 
those who, meaning to hit a mosquito, hit a fellow-creatm-e instead." And so 
saying, at those villagers' request he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta gained his livelihood as a trader. In those days in a border- 
village in Kasi there dwelt a number of carpenters. And it chanced that 
one of them, a bald grey-haired man, was ]»laning away at some wood, 
with his head glistening like a copper bowl, when a mosquito settled 
on his scalp and stung him with its dart-like sting. 

Said the carpenter to his son, who was seated hard by, — "My boy, 
there's a mosquito stinging me on the head; do drive it away." "Hold 
still then, father," said the son; "one blow will settle it." 

(At that very time the Bodhisatta had reached that village in the way 
of trade, and was sitting in the carpenter's shop.) 

"Rid me of it," cried the father. "All right, fivther," answered the 
son, who was behind the old man's back, and, raising a sharp axe on high 
with intent to kill only the mosquito, he cleft— his father's head in twain. 
So the old man fell dead on the spot. 

Thought the Bodhisatta, who had been an eye-witness of the whole 
scene, — "Better than such a friend is an enemy with sense, whom fear 

No. 45. 117 

of men's vengeance will deter from killing a man." And he recited tliese 
lines : — 

Sense-lacking friends are worse than foes with sense; 

Witness the son that sought the gnat to slay, 

But cleft, poor fool, his father's skull in twain. [248] 

So saying, the Bodhisatta rose up and departed, passing away in after 
days to fare according to his deserts. And as for the carpenter, his body 
was burned by his kinsfolk. 

"Thus, lay brethren," said the Master, "in bygone times also there were those 
who, seeking to hit a mosquito, struck down a fellow-creatiu'e." This lesson 
ended, he shewed the connexion and identitied the Birth by saying, " In those 
days I was myself the wise and good trader who departed after repeating the 

No. 45. 


'■'• Sense-lafhing friends^ — This story was told by the Ma^stcr while at Jeta- 
vana, about a maid-servant of the Lord High Treasurer, Anatha-pindika. For he 
is said to have had a maid-servant named RohinI, whose aged mother came to 
where the girl was pounding rice, and lay down. The flies came round the old 
woman and stung her as with a needle, so she cried to her daughter, " The flies 
are stinging me, my dear; do drive them away." "Oh I I'll drive them away, 
mother," said the girl, lifting her pestle to the flies which had settled on her 
mother. Then, crying, "I'll kill them !", she smote her mother such a blow as to 
kill the old woman outright. Seeing what she had done the girl began to weep 
and cry, " Oh ! mother, mother ! " 

The news was brought to the Lord Higli Treasurer, who, after having the 
body burnt, went his way to the ^Monastery, and told the Master what had 
happened. "This is not the first time, layman," said the Master, "that in 
Rohini's anxiety to kill the flies on her mother, she has struck her mother dead 
with a pestle; she did precisely the same in times past." Then at Anatha- 
pindika's request, he told this story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born the son of the Lord High Treasurer, and came to 
be Lord High Treasurer himself at his father's death. And he, too, had a 
maid-servant whose name was RohinI. And her mother, in like manner, 
went to where the daughter was pounding rice, and lay down, and called 

118 The Jataka. Book I. 

out, 'Do drive these flies off me, my dear,' and in just the same way 
slie struck her mother with a pestle, and killed her, and began to weep. 

Hearing of what had happened, [249] the Bodhisatta reflected: 'Here, 
in this world, even an enemy, with sense, would be preferalile,' and i-ecited 
these lines : — 

Sense-lacking friends are worse than foes with sense, 
Witness the girl whose reckless hand laid low 
Her mother, whom she now laments in vain. 

In these lines in praise of the wise, did the Bodhisatta ])reach the 

"This is not the first time, layman," said the Master, "that in Rohini's 
anxiety to kill flies she has killed her own mother instead." This lesson ended, 
he shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by saying: — "The mother 
and daughter of to-day were also mother and daughter of those bygone times, 
and I myself the Lord High Treasurer." 

No. 46. 


"'Tw knotdedge." — This story was told by the Master in a certain hamlet of 
Kosala about one who spoiled a pleasaunce. 

Tradition says that, in the course of an alms-journey among the \)eople of 
Kosala, the Master came to a certain hamlet. A squire of the place invited the 
Buddha to take the mid-day meal at his house, and had his guest seated in the 
pleasaunce, where he shewed hospitality to the Brotherhood with the Buddha at 
its head, and courteously gave them leave to stroll at will about his grounds. So 
the Brethren rose u[) and walked about the grounds with the gardener. Ob- 
serving in their walk a bare space, they said to the gardener, "Lay-disciple, 
elsewhere in the pleasaiuice there is abundant shade ; but here there's neither 
tree nor shrub. How comes this?" 

" Sirs," replied the man, •' when these grounds were being laid out, a village 
lad, who was doing the watering, pulled up all the young trees hereabouts and 
then gave them much or little [250] water according to the size of their roots. 
So the young trees withered and died oft'; and that is why this space is bare." 

Drawing near to the Master, the Brethren told him this. " Yes, Brethren," 
.said he, "this is not the first time that village lad has spoiled a pleasaunce; he 
did precisely the same in bygone times also." And so saying, he told this story 
of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was king of Benares, a festival 
was proclaimed in the city; and at the flrst summoning notes of the festal 
drum out poured the townsfolk to keep holiday. 

No. 46. 119 

Now in those clays, a tribe of monkeys was living in the king's 
pleasaunce; and the king's gardener thought to himself, "They 're holiday- 
making up in the city. I'll get the monkeys to do the watering for 
me, and be ofi' to enjoy myself with the rest." So saying, he went to the 
king of the monkeys, and, first dwelling on the benefits his majesty and 
his subjects enjoyed from residence in the pleasaunce in the way of flowers 
and fruit and young shoots to eat, ended by saying, "To-day there's 
holiday-making up in the city, and I'm ofi' to enjoy myself. Couldn't you 
water the young trees while I'm away?" 

"Oh! yes," said the monkey. 

"Only mind you do," said the gardener; and off he went, giving the 
monkeys the water-skins and wooden watering-pots to do the work 

Then the monkeys took the water-skins and watering-pots, and fell to 
watering the young trees. "But we must mind not to waste the water," 
observed their king; "as you water, first pull each young tree up and 
look at the size of its roots. Then give plenty of water to those whose 
roots strike deej), but only a little to those with tiny roots. When tliis 
water is all gone, we shall be hard put to it to get more." 

" To be sure," said the other monkeys, and did as he bade them. 

At this juncture a cei'tain wise man, seeing the monkeys thus engaged, 
asked them why they pulled up tree after tree and watered them according 
to the size of their roots. 

"Because such are our king's commands," answered the monkeys. 

Their reply moved the wise man to reflect how, with every desire 
to do good, the ignorant and foolish only succeed in doing harm. And he 
recited this stanza : [251] 

'Tis knowledge crowns endeavour with success. 

For fools are thwarted by their foolislmess, 

— Witness the ape that killed the garden trees. 

With this rebuke to the king of the monkeys, the wise man departed 
with his followers from the pleasaunce. 

Said the Master, "This is not the first time, Bi-etbren, that this village lad 
has spoiled pleasaunces ; he was just the same in bygone times also." His 
lesson ended, he shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, "The 
village lad who spoiled this pleasaunce was the king of the monkeys in those 
days, and I was myself the wise and good man." 

[JVote. Cf. Nos. 268 and 271 ; and see the scene sculptured in the Stupa of 
Bharhut, Plate xlv, 5, as represented in the frontispiece of this volume.] 

120 The Jataka. Book I. 

No. 47. 


'"T^i's knoidedge.'' — Thi« story was told by the Master while at Jetavana 
about one who spoiled spirits. Tradition says that Anatha-pindika had a friend 
who kept a tavern. This friend got ready a supply of strong spirits which he 
sold for gold and for silver i, and his tavern was crowded. He gave orders to his 
apprentice to sell for cash only, and went off himself to bathe. This apprentice, 
while serving out the grog to his customers, observed them sending out for salt 
and jagghery and eating it as a whet. Thought he to himself, "There can't be 
any salt in our liquor ; I'll put some in." So he put a pound of salt in a bowl of 
grog, and served it out to the customers. And they no sooner took a mouthful, 
than they spat it out again, saying, "What have you been up to?" "I saw you 
sending for salt after drinking our liquor, so I mixed some salt in." "And that's 
how you've spoilt good liquor, you booby," cried the customers, and with abuse 
they got up one after another and flung out of the tavern. When the keeper of 
the tavern came home, and did not see [252] a single customer about, he asked 
where they had all got to. So the apprentice told him what had happened. 
Rating him for his folly, the man went oft' and told Anatha-pindika. And the 
latter, thinking the story a good one to tell, repaired to Jetavana, where after due 
obeisance he told the INIaster all about it. 

"This is not the first time, layman," said the Master, "that this apprentice 
has spoiled spirits. He did just the same once before." Then at Anatha- 
pindika's request, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, tlie 
Bodhisatta was the Treasurer of Benai'es, and had a tavern-keeper who 
lived under his protection. This man having got ready a supply of 
strong spirits, which he left his apprentice^ to sell while he himself went 
off to bathe, during his absence his apprentice mixed salt with the liquor, 
and spoiled it just in the same way. When on his return the young man's 
guide and master- came to know what had been done, he told the story 
to the Treasurer. ' Truly,' said the latter, ' the ignorant and foolish, with 
every desire to do good, only succeed in doing harm.' And he recited 
this stanza : 

'Tis knowledge crowns endeavour with success; 
For fools are thwarted by their foolishness, 
— Witness Kondaiina's salted bowl of grog. 

In these lines the Bodhisatta taught the truth. 

1 Apparently regarded as a ' Jewish ' proceeding, as opposed to normal baiter. 
- With a dry humour, the Pali applies to the publican and his apprentice the terms 
normally applied to a religious teacher and his pupil. 

No. 48. 121 

Said the Master, "Layman, this same person spoiled spirits in the past as 
now." Then he shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, " He 
who spoiled the spirits now was also the spoiler of the spirits in those bygone 
days, and I myself was then the Treasurer of Benares." 

No. 48. 


'■'■ MisgvAded effort." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana 
about a self-willed Brother. Said the Master to that Brother, " This is not the 
first time. Brother, that you have been self-willed ; you were of just the same 
disposition in bygone tunes also [253] ; and therefore it was that, as you would 
not follow the advice of the wise and good, you came to be cut in two by a sharp 
sword and were flung on the highway ; and you were the S(jle cause why a 
thousand men met their end." A.nd so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Oncf on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Beuares, there 
was a brahmin in a village who knew the charm called Vedabbha. Now 
this charm, so they say, was precious beyond all price. For, if at a 
certain conjunction of the planets the charm was repeated and the gaze 
bent upwards to the skies, straightway from the heavens there rained the 
Seven Things of Price, — gold, silver, pearl, coral, catseye, ruby, and 

In those days the Bodhisatta was a pupil of this brahmin ; and one 
day his master left the village on some business or other, and came 
with the Bodhisatta to the country of Ceti. 

In a forest by the way dwelt five hundred robbers — known as "the De- 
spatchei's" — who made the way impassable. And these caught the Bodhi- 
satta and the Vedabbha-brahmin. (Why, you ask, were they called the 
Despatchers'? — Well, the story goes that of every two prisoners they 
made they used to despatch one to fetch the ransom ; and that's why 
they were called the Despatchers. If they captured a father and a son, 
they told the father to go for the ransom to free his son ; if they caught a 
mother and her daughter, they sent the mother for the money; if they 
caught two bi'others, they let the elder go ; and so too, if they caught 
a teaclier and his pupil, it was the pupil they set free. In this case, 
therefore, they kept the Vedabbha-brahmin, and sent the Bodhisatta for 

122 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

the ransom.) And the Bodhisatta said with a bow to his master, "In 
a day or two I sliall surely come back ] have no fear ; only fail not to 
do as T shall say. To-day will come to pass the conjunction of the 
planets which brings about the rain of the Things of Price. Take heed 
lest, yielding to this mishap, you repeat the charm and call down the 
precious shower. For, if you do, calamity will certainly befall both you 
and this band of robbers." With this warning to his master, the Bodhi- 
satta went his way in quest of the ransom. 

At sunset the robbers bound the brahmin and laid him by the heels. 
Just at this moment the full moon rose over the eastern horizon, and 
the brahmin, studying the heavens, knew [254] that the great conjunction 
was taking place. "Why," thought he, "should I suffer this misery? 
By repeating the charm I will call down the precious rain, pay the 
robbers the ransom, and go free." So he called out to the robbers, 
"Friends, why do you take me a prisoner?" "To get a ransom, reverend 
sir," said they. "Well, if that is all you want," said the brahmin, "make 
haste and untie me; have my head bathed, and new clothes put on me; 
and let me be perfumed and decked with flowers. Then leave me to 
myself." The robbers did as he bade them. And the brahmin, marking 
the conjunction of the planets, repeated his charm with eyes uplifted 
to the heavens. Forthwith the Things of Price poinded down from the 
skies ! The robbers picked them all up, wrapping their booty into bundles 
with their cloaks. Then with their brethren they marched away; and 
the brahmin followed in the rear. But, as luck would have it, the party 
was captured by a second band of five hundred robbers! "Why do you 
seize us?" said the first to the second band. "For booty," was the answer. 
"If booty is what you want, seize on that brahmin, who by simply gazing 
up at the skies brought down riches as rain. It was he who gave us all 
that we have got." So the second band of robbers let the first band go, 
and seized on the brahmin, crying, "Give us riches too!" "It would 
give me great pleasure," said the brahmin; "but it will be a year before 
the requisite conjunction of the planets takes place again. If you will 
only be so good as to wait till then, I will invoke the precious shower for 

"Rascally brahmin!" cried the angiy robbers, "you made the other 
band rich ofi"-hand, but want xis to wait a whole year ! " And they cut him 
in two with a sharp sword, and flung his body in the middle of the road. 
Then hurrying after the first band of I'obbers, they killed every man of 
them too in hand-to-hand fight, and seized the booty. Next, they divided 
into two companies and fought among themselves, company against com- 
pany, till two hundred and fifty men were slain. And so they went on 
killing one another, till only two were left alive. Thus did those thousand 
men come to destruction. 

No. 48. 123 

Now, when the two sui'vivors had managed to carry off the treasure 
they hid it in the jungle near a village ; and one of them sat there, sword 
in hand, [255] to guard it, whilst the other went into the village to get 
rice and have it cooked for supper. 

" Covetousness is the root of ruin!" mused he' that stopped by the 
treasure. " Wheii my mate comes back, he'll want half of this. Suppose 
I kill him the moment he gets back." So he drew his sword and sat 
waiting for his comrade's return. 

Meanwhile, the other had equally reflected that the booty had to be 
halved, and thought to himself, "Suppose I poison the rice, and give it 
him to eat and so kill him, and have the whole of the treasure to 
myself." Accordingly, when the rice was boiled, he first ate his own share, 
and then put ])oison in the rest, Avhich he carried back with him to the 
jungle. But scarce had he set it down, when the otlier robber cut him 
in two with his sword, and hid the body away in a secluded spot. 
Then he ate the poisoned rice, and died then and thei^e. Thus, by 
reason of the treasure, not only the brahmin but all the robbers came to 

Howbeit, after a day or two the Bodhisatta came back with the ransom. 
Not finding his master where he had left him, but seeing treasure strewn 
all round about, his heart misgave him that, in spite of his advice, his 
master must have called down a shower of treasure from the skies, and 
that all must have perished in consequence ; and he proceeded along the 
road. On his way he came to where his master's body lay cloven in twain 
upon the way. " Alas ! " he cried, " he is dead tlu'ough not heeding my 
warning." Then with gathered sticks he made a pyre and burnt his 
master's body, making an offering of wild flowers. Further along the road, 
he came upon the five hundred " Despatchers," and further still upon the 
two hundred and fifty, and so on by degrees until at last he came to where 
lay only two corpses. Marking how of the thousand all but two had 
perished, and feeling sure that there must be two survivors, and that these 
could not refrain from strife, he pressed on to see where they had gone. So 
on he went till he found the path by which with the treasure they had 
turned into the jungle ; and there he found the heap of bundles of treasure, 
and one robber lying dead with his rice-bowl overturned at his side. 
Realising the whole story at a glance, the Bodhisatta set himself to search 
for the missing man, and at last foimd his body in the secret spot where it 
had been flung [256]. " And thus," mused the Bodhisatta, "through not 
following my counsel my master in his self-will has been the means of 
destroying not himself only but a thousand others also. Truly, they that 

1 Or perhaps a full stop should be inserted after eva ti, the words "Covetousness 
...ruin" being treated as a maxim quoted parenthetically by the author. 

124 The Jataka. Book I. 

seek their own gaiu by mistaken and misguided meaus shall reap ruin, even 
as my master." And he i-epeated this stanza : — 

Misguided effort leads to loss, not gain; 

Thieves killed Vedabbha and themselves were slain. 

Thus spake the Bodhisatta, and he went on to say, — " And even as my 
master's misguided and misplaced effort in causing the rain of treasure 
to fall from heaven wrought both his own death and the destruction of 
others with him. even so shall every other man who by mistaken means 
seeks to compass his own advantage, utterly perish and involve others in 
his destruction." With these words did the Bodhisatta make the forest 
ring ; and in this stanza did he preach the Truth, whilst the Tree-fairies 
shouted applause. The treasure he contrived to carry off to his own home, 
where he lived out his term of life in the exercise of almsgiving and other 
good works. And when his life closed, he departed to the heaven he had 

Said the Master, "This is not the first time. Brother, you were self-willed ; 
you were self-willed in bygone times as well ; and by your selfwill you came 
to utter destruction." His lesson ended, he identified the Birth by saying, 
" The selfwilled Brother was the Vedabbha-brahmin of those days, and I myself 
his pupil." 

[^Note. Dr Richard Morris was the first to trace in this Jataka an early 
form of Chaucer's Pardoner's Tale (see Contemporary Review for May, 1881) ; 
Mr H. T. Francis and Mr C. H. Tawney independently traced the same 
connection in the Academy, Dec. 22, 1883 (subsequently reprinted in an enlarged 
form), and in the Cambridge Journal of Philology, Vol. xii. 1883. See also 
Clouston's Popidar Tales and Fictions.'] 

No. 49. 


[257] " The fool may ^vatch:''—Th\H story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana about a certain Naked-ascetic. Tradition says that a gentleman of 
the country near Savatthi asked in marriage for his son a young Savatthi lady of 
equal rank. Having fixed a day to come and fetch the bride, he subsequently 
consulted a Naked-ascetic who was intimate with his family, as to whether the 
stars were fixvourable for holding the festivities that day. 

"He didn't ask me in the first instance," thought the indignant ascetic, "but 
having already fixed the day, without consulting me, just makes an empty 

No. 49. 125 

reference to me now. Very good ; I'll teach him a lesson." So he made answer 
that the stars were not favourable for that day; that the nuptials ought not to 
be celebrated that day ; and that, if they were, great misfortune would come of 
it. And the country femily in their fixith in their ascetic did not go for the bride 
that day. Now the bride's friends in the town had made all theii- preparations 
for celebrating the nuptials, and when they saw that the other side did not 
come, they said, "It was they who fixed to-day, and yet they have not come; 
and we have gone to great expense about it all. Who are these people, forsooth ? 
Let us marry the girl to someone else." So they found another bridegroom and 
gave the girl to him in marriage with all the festivities they had already pre- 

Next day the country party came to fetch the bride. But the Savatthi 
people rated them as follows: — "You country folk are a bad lot ; you fixed the 
day yourselves, and then insulted us by not coming. We have given the maiden 
to another." The country party started a quarrel, but in the end went home the 
way they came. 

Now the Brethren came to know how tliat Naked-ascetic had thwarted the 
festivity, and they began to talk the matter over in the Hall of Truth. Entering 
the Hall, and learning on enquiry the subject of their conversation, the Master 
said, " Brethren, this is not the first time that this same ascetic has thwarted 
the festivities of that family; out of pique with them, he did just the same thing 
once befoi'e." And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, some 
townsfolk had asked a country-girl in marriage and liad named tlie day. 
Having already made the arrangement, they asked their family ascetic 
whether the .stars were propitious for the ceremony on that day. Piqued 
at their having fixed the day to suit themselves without first taking counsel 
with him, the ascetic made up his mind to thwart their marriage festivities 
for that day; [2.58] and accordingly he made answer that the stars were 
not favourable for that day, and that, if they persisted, grave misfortune 
would be the result. So, in their faith in the ascetic, they stayed at home ! 
When the country folk found that the town party did not come, they said 
among themselves, "It was they who fixed the marriage for to-day, and 
now they have not come. Who are they, forsooth 1 " And they married 
the gii'l to someone else. 

Next day the townsfolk came and asked for the girl ; but the}' of the 
country made this answer : — " You town-people lack common decency. 
You yourselves named the day and yet did not come to fetch the bride. 
As you stopped away, we married her to someone else." "But we asked 
our ascetic, and he told us the stars were unfavourable. That's why we 
did not come yesterday. Give us the girl." " You didn't come at the 
proper time, and now she's another's. How can we marry her twice over?" 
Whilst they wrangled thus with one another, a wise man from the town 
came into the country on business. Hearing the townsfolk explain that 
they had consulted their ascetic and that their absence was due to the 
unfavourable disposition of the stars, he exclaimed, " What, forsooth, do 

126 The Jataka. Booh I. 

the stars matter? Is not the lucky thing to get the girl?" And, so 
saying, he repeated this stanza : — 

The fool may watch for 'lucky days,' 

Yet luck shall always miss ; 
'Tis luck itself is luck's own star. 

What can mere stars achieve ? 

As for the townsfolk, as they did not get the girl for all their wrangling, 
they had to go off home again ! 

Said the Master, "This is not the first time, Brethren, that this Naked- 
ascetic has thwarted that family's festivities ; he did just the same thing in 
bygone times also." His lesson ended, he shewed the connexion and identified 
the Birth hy saying, '• This ascetic [259] was also the ascetic of those days, and 
the families too were the same ; I myself was the wise and good man who uttered 
the stanza." 

No. 50. 


"J thousand evil-doers." — This story was told by the Master while at Jeta- 
vana, about actions done for the world's good, as will be explained in the Twelfth 
Book in the Mahil-Kanha-jataka^ 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was reborn in the womb of the Queen Consort. When he was 
born, he was named Prince Brahmadatta on his name-day. By sixteen 
years of age he had been well educated atTakkasila, had learned the Three 
Vedas by heart, and was versed in the Eighteen Branches of Knowledge. 
And his father made him a Viceroy. 

Now in those days the Benares folk were much given to festivals to 
'gods,' and used to shew honour to 'gods.' It was their wont to massacre 
numbers of sheep, goats, poultry, swine, and other living creatures, and 
perform their rites not merely with flowers and perfumes but with gory 

1 No. 469. 

No. 50. 127 

carcasses. Thought the destined Lord of Mercy to himself, " Led astray 
by superstition, men now wantonly sacrifice life ; the multitude are for 
the most part given up to irreligion : but when at my father's death I 
succeed to my inheritance, I will find means to end such destruction 
of life. I will devise some clever stratagem whereby the evil shall be 
stopped without harming a single human being." In this mood the prince 
one day mounted his chariot and drove out of the city. On the way he 
saw a crowd gathered together at a holy banyan-tree, praying to the fairy 
who had been i-eboi-n in that tree, to grant them sons and daughters, 
honour and wealth, each according to his heart's desire. Alighting from 
his chariot the Bodhisatta drew near to the tree and behaved as a wor- 
shipper so far as to make offerings of perfumes and flowers, sprinkling the 
tree with water, and pacing reverently round its trunk. Then mounting 
his chariot again, he went his way back into the city. 

Thenceforth the prince made like journeys from time to time to the 
tree [260], and worshipped it like a true believer in 'gods.' 

In due course, when his father died, the Bodhisatta ruled in his stead. 
Shunning the four evil courses, and practising the ten royal virtues, he 
ruled his people in righteousness. And now that his desire had come to 
pass and he was king, the Bodhisatta set himself to fulfil his former 
resolve. So he called together his ministers, the brahmins, the gentry, and 
the other orders of the people, and asked the assembly whether they knew 
how he had made himself king. But no man could tell. 

" Have you ever seen me reverently worshipping a banyan-tree with 
perfumes and the like, and bowing down before if?" 

" Sire, we have," said they. 

" Well, I was making a vow ; and the vow was that, if ever I became 
king, I would offer a sacrifice to that tree. And now that by help of the 
god I have come to be king, I will offer my promised sacrifice. So 
prepare it with all speed." 

"But what are we to make it of 1 " 

" My vow," said the king, " was this : — All such as are addicted to the 
Five Sins, to wit the slaughter of living creatures and so forth, and all such 
as walk in the Ten Paths of Unrighteousness, them will I slay, and with 
their flesh and their blood, with their entrails and their vitals, I will make 
my offering. So proclaim by beat of drum that our lord the king in 
the days of his viceroyalty vowed that if ever he became king he would 
slay, and offer up in a sacrifice, all such of his subjects as break the 
Commandments. And now the king wills to slay one thousand of such 
as are addicted to the Five Sins or walk in the Ten Paths of Unrighteous- 
ness ; with the hearts and the flesh of the thousand shall a sacrifice be 
made in the god's honour. Proclaim this that all may know throughout 
the city. Of those that transgress after this date," added the king, " will 

128 The Jcitaha. Booh I. 

I slay a thousand, and offer them as a sacrifice to the god in discharge of 
my vow." And to make his meaning clear the king nttered this stanza : — 

A thousand evil-doers once I vowed 

In pious gratitude to kill; 
And evil-doers form so huge a crowd, 

That I will now my vow fulfil. [261] 

Obedient to tlie king's commands, the ministers had proclamation made 
by beat of drum accordingly throughout the length and breadth of Benares. 
Such was the effect of the proclamation on the townsfolk that not a soul 
persisted in the old wickedness. And throughout the Bodliisatta's reign 
not a man was convicted of transgressing. Thus, without harming a single 
one of his subjects, the Bodhisatta made them observe the Commandments. 
And at the close of a life of alms-giving and other good works he passed 
away with his followers to throng the city of the devas. 

Said the Master, " This is not the first time, Brethren, that the Buddha has 
acted for the world's good ; he acted in like manner in bygone times as well." 
His lesson ended, he shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, 
"The Buddha's disciples were the ministers of those days, and I myself was 
the King of Benares." 

No. 51. 


" Toil on, my brother."— Hh.\s, story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a Brother who had given up all earnest effort. Being asked by the ]\Iaster 
whether the report was true that he was a backslider, the Brother [262] said 
it was true. " How can you, Brother," said the Master, "grow cold in so 
saving a faith? Even when the wise and good of bygone days had lost their 
kingdom, yet so undaunted was their resolution that in the end they won back 
their sovereignty." And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life again as the child of the queen ; and on his name- 
day they gave him the name of Prince Goodness. At the age of sixteen 
his education was complete ; and later he came at his father's death to be 
king, and ruled his ])eople righteously under the title of the great King 

No. 51. 129 

Goodness. At each of the four city-gates he built an almonry, another in 
the heart of the city, and yet another at his own palace-gates, — six in all ; 
and at each he distributed ahiis to poor travellers and the needy. He kept 
the Commandments and observed the fast-days ; he abounded in patience, 
loving-kindness, and mercy ; and in righteousness he ruled the land, 
cherishing all creatures alike with the fond love of a father for his baby 

Now one of the king's ministers had dealt treacherously in the king's 
harem, and this became matter of common talk. The ministers reported it 
to the king. Examining into the matter himself, the king found the 
minister's guilt to be clear. So he sent for the culprit, and said, "O 
blinded by folly ! you have sinned, and are not worthy to dwell in my 
kingdom ; take your substance and your v/ife and family, and go hence." 
Driven thus from the realm, that minister left the Kasi country, and, 
entering the service of the king of Kosala, gradually rose to be that 
monarch's confidential adviser. One day he said to the king of Kosala, 
" Sire, the kingdom of Benares is like a goodly honeycomb untainted by 
flies ; its king is feebleness itself ; and a trifling force would suflice to 
conquer the whole country." 

Hereon, the king of Kosala reflected that the kingdom of Benares was 
large, and, considering this in connexion with the advice that a trifling 
force could conquer it, he gi-ew suspicious that his adviser was a hireling 
suborned to lead him into a trap. " Traitor," he cried, " you are paid to 
say this ! " 

"Indeed I am not," answered the other; "I do but speak the truth. 
If you doubt me, send men to massacre a village over his border, and see 
whether, when they are caught and brought before him, the king does not 
let them oS" scot-free and even load them with gifts." 

" He shows a very bold front in making his assertion," thought the 
king ; " I will test his counsel [2G.3] without delay." And accordingly 
he sent some of his creatures to harry a village across the Benares border. 
The ruffians were captured and brought before the king of Benares, who 
asked them, saying, "My children, why have you killed my villagers?" 

" Because we could not make a living," said they. 

"Then why did you not come to mel" said the king. "See that you 
do not do the like again." 

And he gave them presents and sent them away. Back they went 
and told this to the king of Kosala. But this evidence was not enough to 
nerve him to the expedition ; and a second band was sent to massacre 
another village, this time in the heart of the kingdom. These too were 
likewise sent away with presents by the king of Benares. But even this 
evidence was not deemed strong enough ; and a third party was sent to 
plunder the very streets of Benares ! And these, like their forerunners, 

c. J. 9 

130 Tlie Jataha. Book I. 

were sent away with presents ! Satisfied at last that the king of Benares 
was an entirely good king, the king of Kosala resolved to seize on his 
kingdom, and set out against him with troops and elephants. 

Now in these days the king of Benares had a thousand gallant warriors, 
who would face the charge even of a rut elephant, — whom the launched 
thunderbolt of Indra could not terrify, — a matchless band of invincible 
heroes ready at the king's command to reduce all India to his sway ! 
These, hearing the king of Kosala was coming to take Benares, came to 
their sovereign with the news, and prayed that they might be despatched 
against the invader, " We will defeat and capture him, sire," said they, 
"before he can set foot over the border." 

"Not so, my children," said the king. "None shall suffer because of 
me. Let those who covet kingdoms seize mine, if they will." And he 
refused to allow them to march against the invader. 

Then the king of Kosala- crossed the border and came to the middle- 
country ; and again the ministers went to the king with renewed entreaty. 
But still the king refused. And now the king of Kosala appeared outside 
the city, and sent a message to the king bidding him either yield up the 
kingdom or give battle. "I fight not," was the message of the king of 
Benares in reply ; " let him seize my kingdom." 

Yet a third time the king's ministers came to him and besought him 
not to allow the king of Kosala to enter, but to permit them to overthrow 
and capture him before the city. Still refusing, the king bade the city- 
gates be opened, [264] and seated himself in state aloft upon his royal 
throne with his thousand ministei-s round him. 

Entering the city and finding none to bar his way, the king of Kosala 
passed with his army to the royal })alace. The dooi's stood open wide ; and 
there on his gorgeous throne with his thousand ministers around him sate 
the great King Goodness in state. " Seize them all," cried the king of 
Kosala ; " tie their hands tightly behind their backs, and away with them 
to the cemetery ! There dig holes and bury them alive up to the neck, so 
that they cannot move hand or foot. The jackals will come at night and 
give them sepulchre ! " 

At the l)idding of the rnfiianly king, his followers bound the king of 
Benares and his ministers, and hauled them off. But even in this hour 
not so much as an angry thought did the great King Goodness harbour 
against the rufiians ; and not a man among his ministers, even when they 
were being marched off in bonds, could disobey the king, — so perfect is 
said to have been the discipline among his followers. 

So King Goodness and his ministers were led off and buried up to the 
neck in pits in the cemetery, — the king in the middle and the others on 
either side of him. The ground was trampled in upon them, and there 
they were left. Still meek and free f lom anger against his oppressor, King 

No. 51. 131 

Goodness exhorted his companions, saying, " Let your hearts be filled with 
naught but love and charity, my children." 

Now at midnight the jackals came trooping to the banquet of human 
flesh ; and at sight of the beasts the king and his companions raised a 
mighty shout all together, frightening the jackals away. Halting, the 
pack looked back, and, seeing no one pursuing, again came forward, A 
second shout drove them away again, but only to return as before. But 
the third time, seeing that not a man amongst them all pursued, the jackals 
thought to themselves, "These must be men who are doomed to death." 
They came on boldly ; even when the shout was again being raised, they 
did not turn tail. On they came, each singling out his prey, — the chief 
jackal making for the king, and the other jackals for his companions [265]. 
Fertile in resource, the king marked the beast's approach, and, raising his 
throat as if to receive the bite, fastened his teeth in the jackal's throat 
with a grip like a vice ! Unable to free its throat from the mighty grip of 
the king's jaws, and fearing death, the jackal raised a gi'eat howl. At his 
cry of distress the pack conceived that their leader must have been caught 
by a man. With no heart left to approach their own destined prey, away 
they all scampered for their lives. 

Seeking to free itself from the king's teeth, the trapped jackal plunged 
madly to and fro, and thereby loosened the earth above the king. Here- 
upon the latter, letting the jackal go, put forth his mighty strength, and 
by plunging from side to side got his hands free ! Then, clutching the 
brink of the i)it, he drew himself up, and came forth like a cloud scudding 
before the wind. Bidding his companions be of good cheer, he now set to 
work to loosen the earth round them and to get them out, till with all his 
ministers he stood fi'ee once more in the cemetery. 

Now it chanced that a coi'pse had been exposed in that part of the 
cemetery which lay between the respective domains of two ogres ; and the 
ogres were disputing over the division of the spoil. 

" We can't divide it ourselves," said they ; "but this King Goodness is 
righteous; he will divide it for lis. Let us go to him." So they dragged 
the by the foot to the king, and said, "Sire, divide this man and 
give us each our share." " Certainly I will, my friends," said the king. 
" But, as I am dirty, I must bathe first." 

Straightway, by their magic i)ower, the ogres brought to the king the 
scented water prepared for the usurpei-'s bath. And when the king had 
bathed, they brought him the robes which had been laid out for the 
usurper to wear. When he had put these on, they brought his majesty 
a box containing the four kinds of scent. When he had perfumed himself, 
they brought flowers of divers kinds laid out upon jewelled fans, in a 
casket of gold. When he had decked himself with the flowers, the ogi'es 
asked whether they could be of any further service. And the king gave 


132 The Jataha. Booh I. 

them to iinderstand [266] that he was liungry. So away went the ogves, 
and returned with rice flavoured with all the choicest flavours, which had 
been prepared for the usurper's table. And the king, now bathed and 
scented, dressed and arrayed, ate of the dainty fare. Thereupon the ogres 
brought the usurper's perfumed water for him to drink, in the usurper's 
own golden bowl, not forgetting to bring the golden cup too. When the 
king had drunk and had washed his mouth and was washing his hands, 
they bi'ought him fragrant betel to chew, and asked whether his majesty 
had any further commands. '' Fetch me," said he, " by your magic power 
the sword of state which lies by the usurper's pillow." And straightway 
the sword was brought to the king. Then the king took the corpse, and 
setting it upright, cut it in two down the chine, giving one-half to each 
ogre. This done, the king washed the blade, and girded it on his side. 

Having eaten their fill, the ogres were glad of heart, and in their 
gratitude asked the king what more they could do for him. " Set me by 
your magic power," said he, " in the usurj)er's chamber, and set each of my 
ministers back in his own house." " Certainly, sire," snid the ogres ; and 
forthwith it was done. Now in that hour the usurper was lying asleep on 
the royal bed in his chamber of state. And as he slept in all tranquillity, 
the good king struck him with the flat of the sword upon the belly. 
Waking up in a fright, the usurper saw by the lamp-light that it was the 
great King Goodness. Summoning up all his courage, he rose from his 
couch and said : — "Sire, it is night; a guard is set; the doors are barred ; 
and none may enter. How then came you to my bedside, sword in hand 
and clad in robes of splendour?" Then the king told him in detail all 
the story of his escape. Then the usurper's heart was moved within him, 
and he cried, " O king, I, though blessed with human nature, knew not 
your goodness ; but knowledge thereof was given to the fierce and cruel 
ogres, whose food is flesh and blood. Henceforth, I, sire, [267] will not 
plot against such signal virtue as you possess." So saying, he swore an 
oath of fi'iendship upon his sword and begged the king's forgiveness. And 
he made the king lie down upon the bed of state, while he stretched 
himself upon a little couch. 

On the morrow at daybreak, when the sun had risen, his whole host 
of every rank and degree was mustered by beat of drum at the usurper's 
command ; in their presence he extolled King Goodness, as if raising the 
full-moon on high in the heavens ; and right before them all, he again 
asked the king's forgiveness and gave him back his kingdom, saying, 
" Henceforth, let it be my charge to deal with rebels ; rule thou thy 
kingdom, with me to keep watch and ward." And so saying, he passed 
sentence on the slanderous traitor, and with his troops and elephants went 
back to his own kingdom. 

Seated in majesty and splendour beneath a white canopy of sovereignty 

No. 52. 133 

upou a throne of gold with legs as of a gazelle, the great King Goodness 
contemplated his own glory and thought thus within himself: — "Had I 
not persevered, I should not be in the enjoyment of this magnificence, nor 
would my thousand ministers be still numbered among the living. It was 
by perseverance that I recovered the royal state I had lost, and saved the 
lives of my thousand ministers. Verily, we should strive on unremittingly 
with dauntless hearts, seeing that the fruit of perseverance is so excellent." 
And therewithal the king broke into this heai-tfelt utterance : — 

Toil on, my brother ; still in hope stand fast ; 

Nor let thy courage flag and tire. 
Myself I see, who, all my woes o'erpast, 

Am master of my heart's desire. 

Tlius spoke the Bodhisatta in the fulness of his heart, declaring how 
sure it is that the earnest etfort of the good will come to maturity. After 
a life spent in right-doing he passed away to fare thereafter according to 
his deserts. [2G8] 

His lesson ended, the IMaster preached the Four Truths, at the close whereof 
the backsliding Brother wf)n Arahatship. The Master shewed the connexion 
and identified the Birtla by saying, " Dcvadatta was the traitorous minister of 
those days, the Buddlia's disciples were the thousand ministers, and I myself the 
great King Goodness." 

[Note. Cf. the Volsung-Saga in Hagen's Heldeii Sagen, iii. 23, and Jowni. of 
Philol xii. 120.] 

No. 52. 


" Toil on, my hroLherP — Tliis story was told by the ]\Iastcr while at Jetavaua, 
about another backsliding Brother. All the incidents that are to be related 
here, will be given in the Maha-janaka-Jataka^ 

The king, seated beneath the white canopy of sovereignty, recited this 
stanza : — 

"Toil on, my brother; still in hope stand fast; 
Faint not, nor tire, though harassed sore. 
Myself I see, who, all my woes o'erpast, 
Have fought my stubborn way ashore. 

Here too the backsliding Brother won Arahatship. The All-wise Buddha was 
King Janaka. 

1 One of the last Jatakas, not yet edited. 

134 The Jataka. Book I. 

No. 53. 


" What^ Leave ^mtasted.''^ —Thia story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana, about some drugged liquor. 

Once on a time the ti})i)lers of Savatthi met to take counsel, saying, "We've 
not got the price of a drink left ; how are we to get it?" 

"Cheer up!" said one ruffian; "I've a little plan." 

"What may that be?" cried the others. 

"It's Anatha-pindika's custom," said the fellow, "to wear his rings and 
richest attire, when going to wait upon the king. Let us doctor some liquor 
with a stupefying drug and fit up a di-inking-booth, in which we will all be sitting 
when Anatha-pindika passes by. 'Come and join us. Lord High Treasurer,' 
we'll cry, and ply him with our liquor till he loses his senses. Then let us 
relieve him of his rings and clothes, and get the price of a drink." 

His plan mightily pleased the other rogues, and was duly carried out. As 
Anatha-pindika was returning, they went out to meet him and invited him [269] 
to come along with them ; for they had got some rare liquor, and he must taste 
it before he went. 

"WhatT' thought he, "shall a believer, wlio has found Salvation, touch 
strong drink ? Howbeit, though I have no craving for it, yet will I expose these 
rogues." So into their booth he went, where their proceedings soon shewed him 
that their liquor was drugged ; and he resolved to make the rascals take to their 
heels. So he roundly charged them with doctoring their liquor with a view to 
drugging strangers first and robbing them afterwards. "You sit in the booth 
you have opened, and you praise up the liquor," said he; "but as for drinking 
it, not one of you ventures on that. If it is really undrugged, drink away at 
it yourselves." This sunnnary exposure made the gang take to their heels, and 
Anatha-pindika went off home. Thinking he might as well tell the incident to 
the Buddha, he went to Jetavana and related the story. 

"This time, layman," said the Master, "it is you whom these rogues have 
tried to trick ; so too in the past they tiied to trick the good and wise of those 
days." So saying, at his hearer's request, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Bralimadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was Treasurer of that city. And then too did the same gang 
of tipplers, conspiring together in like manner, drug liquor, and go fortli 
to meet him in just the same way, and made just the same overtures. 
The Treasurer did not want to drink at all, but nevertheless went with 
them, solely to expose them. Marking theii* proceedings and detecting 
their scheme, he was anxious to scare them away and so represented that 
it would be a gross thing for him to drink spirits just before going to the 
king's palace. "Sit you here," said he, "till I've seen the king and am 
on my way back ; then I'll think about it." 

On his return, the rascals called to him, but the Treasurer, fixing his 
eye on the drugged bowls, confounded them by saying, " I like not your 

No. 54. 135 

wa^'s. Here stand the bowls as full iiuvv as wlieu I left you; loudly as 
you vaunt the praises of the liquor, yet not a drop passes your own lips. 
Why, if it had been good liquor, you'd have taken your own share as 
well. This liquor is drugged ! " And he repeated this stanza : — 

What? Leave untasted drink you vaunt so rare? 
Nay, this is proof no honest liquors there. [270] 

After a life of good deeds, the Bodliisatta passed away to fare according 
to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "The rascals of 
to-day were also the rascals of those bygone days; and I myself was then 
Treasiu-er of Benares." 

No. 54. 


" IVken near a village." — Tliis was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a lay brother who was skilled in the knowledge of fruits. It ai)pears that 
a certain squire of Savattlii had invited the Bi'otherhood with the Buddha at 
their head, and had seated them in his pleasaunce, where they were regaled with 
rice-gruel and cakes. Afterwards he bade his gardener go round with the 
Brethren and give mangoes and other kinds of fruits to their Reverences. In 
obedience to orders, the man walked about the grounds with the Brethren, and 
could tell by a single glance up at the tree what fruit was green, what nearly 
ripe, and what quite ripe, and so on. And what he said was always found true. 
So the Brethren came to the Buddha and mentioned how expert the gardener 
was, and how, whilst himself standing on the ground, he could accurately tell the 
condition of the hanging fruit. "Brethren," said the Master, "this gardener is 
not the only one who has had knowledge of fruits. A like knowledge was shewn 
by the wise and good of former days also." And so saying, he told tliis story of 
the past. 

Once on a time when Brahniadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodliisatta was born a merchant. When he grew up, and was trading 
with five hundred waggons, he came one day to where the road led 
through a great forest. [271] Halting at the outskirts, he mustered the 
caravan and addressed them thus: — -"Poison-trees grow in this forest. 
Take heed that you taste no unfamiliar leaf, flower, or fruit without first 
consulting me." All promised to take every care ; and the journey into 

136 The Jataka. Book I. 

the forest began. Now just within the forest-border stands a village, and 
just outside that village grows a What-fruit tree. The What-fruit tree 
exactly resembles a mango alike in trunk, branch, leaf, flower, and fruit. 
And not only in outward semblance, but also in taste and smell, the 
fruit — ripe or unripe — mimics the mango. If eaten, it is a deadly poison, 
and causes instant death. 

Now some greedy fellows, who went on ahead of the caravan, came to 
this tree and, taking it to be a mango, ate of its fruit. But others said, 
"Let us ask our leader before we eat"; and they accordingly halted by 
the tree, fruit in hand, till he came up. Perceiving that it was no mango, 
he said : — " This ' mango ' is a What-fruit tree ; don't touch its fruit." 

Having stopped them from eating, the Bodhisatta turned his attention 
to those who had already eaten. First he dosed them with an emeti(;, 
and then he gave them the four sweet foods to eat ; so that in the end 
they recovered. 

Now on former occasions caravans had halted beneath this same tree, 
and had died from eating the poisonous fruit which they mistook for 
mangoes. On the morrow the villagers woukl come, and seeing them 
lying there dead, would fling them by the heels into a secret place, 
departing with all the belongings of the caravan, waggons and all. 

And on the day too of our story these villagers failed not to hurry at 
daybreak to the tree for their expected spoils. " The oxen must be ours," 
said some. "And we'll have the waggons," sai<l others; — whilst others 
again claimed the wares as their share. But when they came breathless 
to the tree, there was the whole cai-avan alive and well ! 

" How came you to know this was not a mango-tree 1 " demanded the 
disappointed villagers. "We didn't know," said they of the caravan; "it 
was our leader who knew." 

80 the villagers came to the Bodhisatta and said, " Man of wisdom, 
what did you do to find out this tree was not a mango 1" 

" Two things told me," replied the Bodhisatta, and he repeated this 
stanza : — [272] 

When near a village grows a tree 
Not hard to climb, 'tis plain to me. 
Nor need I further proof to know, 
— No wholesome fruit thereon can grow ! 

And having taught the Truth to the assembled multitude, he finished 
his journey in safety. 

"Thus, Brethren," said the Master, "in bygone days the wise and good were 
experts in fruit." His lesson ended, he shewed the connexion and identified the 
Birth by saying, "The Buddha,'s followers were then the people of the caravan, 
and I myself was the caravan leader." 

No. 55. 137 

No. 55. 


" When no Attachment" — This story was told l>y the Master while at Jeta- 
vana, about a Brother who had given up all earnest effort. 

Said the Master to him, "Is the report true, Brother, that 3'ou are a back- 

"Yes, Blessed One." 

"In bygone days, Brother," said the Master, "the wise and good won a throne 
by their dauntless perseverance in the hour of need." 

And so saying, he told this stoi-y of the past. 

Once on a time wlien Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, it was as 
his (jueen's child that the Bodhisatta came to life once more. On the day 
when he was to be named, the jiarents enquired as to their child's destiny 
from eight hundred brahmins, to whom tliey gave their hearts' desire iu 
all pleasures of sense. INtarking the promise which he shewed of a 
glorious destiny, these clever soothsaying brahmins foretold that, coming 
to the throne at the king's death, the child should be a mighty king 
endowed with every virtue ; famed and renowned for his exploits with 
five weapons, he should stand peerless in all Jambudipa'. [273] And 
because of this prophecy of the brahmins, the parents named their son 
Prince Five- Weapons. 

Now, when the prince was come to years of discretion, and was 
sixteen years old, the king bade him go away and study, 

"With whom, sire, am I to study?" asked the prince. 

" With the world-famed teacher in the town of Takkasila in the 
Gandhara country. Here is his fee," said the king, handing his son a 
thousand pieces. 

So the prince went to Takkasila and was taught there. When he was 
leaving, his master gave him a set of five weapons, armed with which, 
after Itidding adieu to his old master, the prince set out from Takkasila for 

On his way he came to a forest haunted by an ogre named Hairy -grip ; 
and, at the entrance to the forest, men who met him tried to stop him, 
saying : — "Young brahmin, do not go through that forest; it is the haunt 

1 This was oue of the four islands, or dipa, of which the earth was supposed to 
consist; it inckided India, and represented the inhabited woild to the Indian mind. 

138 The Jataka. Book I. 

of the ogre Hairy-grip, and he kills every one he meets." But, bold as a 
lion, the self-reliant Bodhisatta pressed on, till in the heart of the forest he 
came on the ogre. The monster made himself appear in stature as tall as 
a palm-tree, with a head as big as an arbour and huge eyes like bowls, 
with two tusks like turnips and the beak of a hawk ; his belly was blotched 
with purple ; and the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet were 
blue-black! "Whither away?" cried the monster. "Halt! you are my 
prey." " Ogre," answered the Bodhisatta, " I knew what I was doing 
when entering this forest. You will be ill-advised to come near me. For 
with a poisoned arrow I will slay you where you stand." And with this 
defiance, he fitted to his bow an arrow dipped in deadliest poison and shot 
it at the ogre. But it only stuck on to the monster's shaggy coat. Then he 
shot another and another, till fifty were spent, all of which merely stuck 
on to the ogre's shaggy coat. Hereon the ogre, shaking the arrows off' so 
that they fell at his feet, came at the Bodhisatta ; and the latter, again 
shouting defiance, drew his sword and struck at the ogre. But, like the 
arrows, his sword, which was thirty-three inches long, merely stuck fast in 
the shaggy hair. Next the Bodhisatta hurled his spear, and that stuck 
fast also. Seeing this, he smote the ogre with his club ; but, like his 
other weapons, that too stuck fast. And thereupon the Bodhisatta 
shouted, " Ogre, you never heard yet of me, [274] Prince Five- Weapons. 
When I ventured into this forest, I put my trust not in my bow and other 
weapons, but in myself ! Now will I strike you a blow which shall crush 
you into dust." So saying, the Bodhisatta smote the ogre with his right 
hand ; but the hand stuck fast upon the hair. Then, in turn, with his 
left hand and with his right and left feet, he struck at the monster, but 
hand and feet alike clave to the hide. Again shouting " I will crush you 
into dust ! " he butted the ogre with his head, and that too stuck fast. 

Yet even when thus caught and snared in fivefold wise, the Bodhisatta, 
as he hung upon the ogre, was still fearless, still undaunted. And the 
monster thought to himself, "This is a very lion among men, a hero 
without a peer, and no mere man. Though he is caught in the clutches of 
an ogre like me, yet not so much as a tremor will he exhibit. Never, 
since I first took to slaying travellers upon this road, have I seen a man 
to equal him. How coines it that he is not frightened ? " Not daring to 
devour the Bodhisatta offliand, he said, " How is it, young brahmin, that 
you have no fear of death ? " 

" Why should I ? " answered the Bodhisatta. " Each life must surely 
have its destined death. Moreover, within my body is a sword of 
adamant, which you will never digest, if you eat me. It will chop your 
inwards into mincemeat, and my death will involve yours too. Therefore 
it is that 1 have no fear." (By this, it is said, the Bodhisatta meant 
the Sword of Knowledge, which was within him.) 

No. 55. 139 

Hereon, the ogre fell a-thinking. " This young brahmin is speaking 
the tx'uth and nothing but the truth," thought he. "Not a morsel so big 
as a pea could I digest of such a hero. I'll let him go." And so, in fear 
of his life, he let the Bodhisatta go free, saying, " Young brahmin, you are 
a lion among men ; I will not eat you. Go forth from my hand, even as 
the moon from the jaws of Rahu, and return to gladden the hearts of 
your kinsfolk, your friends, and your country." 

" As for myself, ogi'e," answered the Bodhisatta, " I will go. As for 
you, it was your sins in bygone days that caused you to be reborn a 
ravening, murderous, flesh-eating ogre ; and, if [275] you continue in sin 
in this existence, 3 on will go on from darkness to darkness. But, having 
seen me, you will be unable thenceforth to sin any more. Know that 
to desti'oy life is to ensure re-birth either in hell or as a brute or as a 
ghost or among the fallen spirits. Or, if the re-birth be into the world 
of men, then such sin cuts short the days of a man's life." 

In this and other ways the Bodhisatta shewed the evil consequences of 
the five bad courses, and the blessing that comes of the five good courses ; 
and so wrought in divers ways u})on that ogre's fears that by his teaching 
he converted the monster, imbuing him with self-denial and establishing 
him in the Five Commandments. Then making the ogre the fairy of that 
forest, with a right to levy dues', and chai'ging him to remain stedfast, 
the Bodhisatta Aveiit his way, making known the change in the ogre's 
mood as he issued from the forest. And in the end he came, armed with 
the five weapons, to the city of Benares, and presented himself before his 
parents. In later days, when king, he was a rigliteous ruler ; and after a 
life spent in chai'ity and other good works he passed away to fare there- 
after accoidinir to his deserts. 

This lesson ended, the Master, as Buddha, recited this stanza : — 

When no attachment hampers heart or mind, 
AVhen righteousness is practised peace to win. 
He who so walks, shall gain the victory 
And all the Fetters utterly destroy''^. 

When he had thus led his teaching up to Arahatship as its crowning point, 
the Master went on to preach the Four Truths, at the close whereof that Brother 
won Arahatship. Also, the Master shewed the connexion, and identified the 
Birth by saying, "Aiigulimala'^ was the ogre of those days, and I myself Prince 

^ Or, perhaps, "to whom sacrifices should be offered." The translation in the text 
suggests a popular theory of the evolution of the tax-collector. See also No. 155. 

2 See Nos. 56 and 156. 

* Aiigulimala, a bandit who wore a necklace of his victims' fingers, was converted 
by the Buddha and became an Arahat. Cf. Majjliima Nikdya No. 86. 

140 lilt Jataka. Book I. 

No. 56. 


" When gladness.''^ — This story was told by the Master while at Savatthi, 
about a certain Brother. Tradition says that through hearing the Master 
preach a young gentleman of Savatthi gave his heart to the precious Faith i and 
became a Brother. His teachers and masters proceeded to instruct him in the 
whole of the Ten Precepts of Morality, one after the other, expounded to him the 
Short, the Medium, and the Long Moralities-, set forth the ^Morality which rests 
on self-restraint according to the Patimokkha', the Morality which rests on self- 
restraint as to the Senses, the Morality which rests on a blameless walk 
of life, the Morality which relates to the wtiy a Brother may use the 
Requisites. Thought the young beginner, "There is a tremendous lot of this 
Morality ; and I shall undoubtedly fail to fulfil all I have vowed. Yet what is 
the good of being a brother at all, if one cannot keep the rules of Morality 1 My course is to go back to the world, take a wife and rear children, living a life 
of almsgiving and other good works." So he told his superiors what he thought, 
saying that he proposed to return to the lower state of a layman, and wished to 
hand back his bowl and robes. "Well, if it be so with you," said they, "at least 
take leave of the Buddha before you go;" and they brought the young man 
before the Master in the Hall of Truth. 

"AVhy, Brethren," said the Master, "are you bringing this Brother to me 
against his will?" 

"Sir, he said that Morality was more than he could observe, and wanted 
to give back his robes and bowl. So we took him and brought him to you." 

"But why, Brethren," asked the Master, "did you burthen him with so 
much \ He can do what he can, but no more. Do not make this mistake again, 
and leave me to decide what should be done in the case." 

Then, turning to the young Brother, the Master said, "Come, Brother; what 
concern have you with Morality in the mass? Do you think you could obey 
just three moral rules?" 

"Oh, yes. Sir." 

"Well now, watch and guard the three avenues of the voice, the mind, and 
the body ; do no evil whether in word, or thought, or act. Cease not to be a 
Brother, but go hence and obey just these three rules." 

"Yes, indeed. Sir, I will keep them," here exclaimed the glad young man, and 
back he went with his teachers again. And as he was keeping his three rules, 
he thought within himself, "I had the whole of Morality toki me by my in- 
structors ; but because they were not the Buddha, they could not make me grasp 
even this nuich. Whereas [277] the All-Enlightened One, by i-eason of his 
Buddhahood, and of his being the Lord of Truth, has expressed so much 
l\Iorality in only three rules concerning the Avenues, and has made me under- 
stand it clearly. Verily, a very present help has the Master been to me." And 

1 Or perhaps ratanasdmnam means 'the creed connected with the (Three) Gems,' 
viz. the Buddha, the Doctrine, and the Order. 

'^ These are translated in llhys Davids' "Buddhist 8uttas," pp. 189 — 200. 

3 The Pfitimokkha is translated and discussed in Pt i. of the translation of the 
Vinaya by Rhys Davids and Oldenberg (S. B. E. Vol. 13). 

No. 56. 141 

he won Insight and in a few days attained Arahatship. When this came to the 
ears of the Brethren, they spoke of it when met together in the Hall of Truth, 
telling how the Brother, who was going back to the world because he could not 
hope to fulfil Morality, had been furnished by the Master with three rules 
embodying the whole of ]\Iorality, and had been made to grasp those three rules, 
and so had been enabled by the Master to win Arahatship. How marvellous, 
they cried, was the Buddha. 

Entering the Hall at this point, and learning on enquiry the subject of their 
talk, the Master said, "Brethren, even a heavy burthen becomes light, if taken 
piecemeal ; and thus the wise and good of past times, on finding a huge mass of 
gold too heavy to lift, first broke it up and then were enabled to bear their 
treasure away piece by piece." So saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as a farmer in a village, and was ploughing one 
day in a field where once stood a village. Now, in bygone days, a wealthy 
merchant had died leaving buried in this field a huge bar of gold, as thick 
round as a man's thigh, and four whole cubits in length. And full on this 
bar struck the Bodhisatta's plough, and thei'e stuck fast. Taking it to be 
a spreading root of a tree, he dug it out ; but discovering its real nature, 
he set to work to clean the dirt off the gold. The day's work done, at 
sunset he laid aside liis plough and gear, and essayed to shoulder his 
treasure-trove and walk ofi' with it. But, as he could not so much as lift 
it, he sat down before it and fell a-thinking what uses he would put it to. 
"I'll have so much to live on, so much to bury as a treasure, so much 
to trade witli, and so much for charity and good works," thought he to 
himself, and accordingly cut the gold into four. Division made his 
burthen easy to carry ; and he bore home the lumps of gold. After a 
life of charity and other good works, he passed away to fare thereafter 
accordinor to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master, as Buddha, recited this stanza : — [278] 

When gladness fills the heart and fills the mind, 
When righteousness is practised Peace to win. 
He who so walks shall gain the victory 
And all the Fetters utterly destroy. 

And when the Master had thus led his teaching up to Arahatship as its 
crowning point, he shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, 
" In those days I myself was the man who got the nugget of gold." 

142 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

No. 57. 


" Whoso, monley-hingP — This story was told by the Master, while at the 
Bamboo-grove, about Devadatta's going about to kill him. Being informed of 
Devadatta's mm-derous intent, the Master said, "This is not the first time. 
Brethren, that Devadatta has gone about seeking to kill me; he did just the 
same in bygone days, but failed to work his wicked will." And so saying, he 
told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Bralimadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life again as a monkey. When full-grown, he was 
as big as a mare's foal and enormously strong. He lived alone on the 
banks of a river, in the middle of which was an island whei'eon grew 
mangoes and bread-fruits, and other fruit-trees. And in mid-stream, half- 
way between the island and the river-bank, a solitaiy rock rose out of the 
watei'. Being as strong as an elephant, the Bodhisatta used to leap from 
the bank on to this rock and thence on to the island. Here he would eat 
his fill of the fruits that grew on the island, returning at evening by the 
way he came. And such was his life from day to day. 

Now there lived in those days in that river a crocodile and liis 
mate ; and she, being with young, was led by the sight of the Bodhisatta 
journeying to and fro to conceive [279] a longing for the monkey's 
heart to eat. So she begged her lord to catch the monkey for her. 
Promising that she should have her f;incy, the crocodile went off and 
took his stand on the rock, meaning to catch the monkey on his evening 
journey home. 

After ranging about the island all day, the Bodhisatta looked out at 
evening towards the rock and wondered why the rock stood so high out 
of the water. For the story goes that the Bodhisatta always marked the 
exact height of the water in the river, and of the rock in the water. So, 
when he saw that, though the water stood at the same level, the rock 
seemed to stand higher out of the water, he suspected that a crocodile 
might be lurking there to catch him. And, in order to find out the facts 
of the case, he shouted, as though addressing the rock, "Hi! rock!" 
And, as no reply came back, he shouted three times, "Hi! rock!" And 

No. 57. 143 

as the rock still kept silence, the monkey called out, "How comes it, 
friend rock, that you won't answer me to-day?" 

"Oh!" thought the crocodile; "so the rock's in the habit of answering 
the monkey. I must answer for the rock to-day." Accordingly, he 
shouted, "Yes, monkey; what is it?" "Who are you?" said the Bodhi- 
satta. "I'm a crocodile." "What are you sitting on that rock for?" 
"To catch you and eat your heart." As there was no other way back, the 
only thing to be done was to outwit the crocodile. So the Bodhisatta 
cried out, "There's no help for it then but to give myself up to you. Open 
your mouth and catch me when I jump." 

Now you must know that when crocodiles open their mouths, their 
eyes shut'. So, when this crocodile unsuspiciously opened his mouth, his 
eyes shut. And there he waited with closed eyes and open jaws ! Seeing 
this, the wily monkey made a jump on to the crocodile's head, and thence, 
with a spring like liglitning, gained the bank. When the cleverness of 
this feat dawned on the crocodile, he said, "Monkey, he that in this 
world [280] possesses the four virtues overcomes his foes. And you, me- 
thinks, possess all four." And, so saying, he repeated this stanza : — 

Whoso, monkey-king, like you, combines 
Truth, foresight, fixed resolve, and fearlessness. 
Shall see his routed foemen turn and flee. 

And with this praise of the Bodhisatta, the ci'ocodile betook himself to 
his own dwelling-place. 

Said the Master, " This is not the first time then, Bretliren, that Devadatta has 
gone about seeking to kill me ; he did just the same in bygone days too." And, 
having ended his lesson, the Master shewed the connexion and identified the 
Birth by saying, "Devadiitta was the crocodile of those days, tlie brahmin-girl 
Cinca^ was the crocodile's wife, and I myself the Monkey-King." 

[JVote. Cf No. 224 (Kumbhlla-Jdkdri). A Chinese version is given by Beal 
in the ' Romantic Legend' p. 231, and a Japanese version in Griflin's 'Fairy Tales 
from Japan.'] 

1 This assertion is not in accord with the facts of natural history. 

2 Her identification here as the crocodile's wicked wife is due to the fact that Cinca, 
who was a "female ascetic of rare beauty," was suborned by Gotaraa's enemies to 
simulate pregnancy and charge him with the paternity. How the deceit was exposed, 
is told in Dhammapada, pp. 338 — 340. 

144 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

No. 58. 


" Whoso, like you." — This story was told by the Master while at tlie Bamboo- 
grove also upon the subject of going about to kill. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, Devadatta 
came to life again as a monkey, and dwelt near the Himalayas as the 
lord of a tribe of monkeys all of his own begetting. Filled with fore- 
bodings that his male offspring might grow up to oust him from his 
lordship, he used to geld [281] them all with his teeth. Now the Bodhi- 
satta had been begotten by this same monkey ; and his mother, in order 
to save her unborn progeny, stole away to a forest at the foot of the 
mountain, where in due season she gave birth to the Bodhisatta. And 
when he was full-grown and had come to years of understanding, he was 
gifted with marvellous strength. 

"Where is my father'?" said he one day to his mother. "He dwells 
at the foot of a certain mountain, my son," she replied; "and is king 
of a tribe of monkeys." " Take me to see him, mother." " Not so, my 
son ; for your father is so afraid of being supplanted by his sons that 
he gelds them all with his teeth." "Never mind; take me there, mother," 
.said the Bodhisatta; "I shall know what to do." So she took him with 
her to the old monkey. At sight of his son, the old monkey, feeling sure 
that the Bodhisatta would grow up to depose him, resolved by a feigned 
embrace to crush the life out of the Bodhisatta. "Ah! my boy!" he 
cried; "where have you been all this long time*?" And, making a show 
of embracing the Bodhisatta, he hugged him like a vice. But the 
Bodhisatta, who was as strong as an elephant, returned the hug so 
mightily that his father's ribs were like to break. 

Then thought the old monkey, " This son of mine, if he grows up, will 
certainly kill me." Casting about how to kill the Bodhisatta first, he 
bethought him of a certain lake hard by, where an ogre lived who might 
eat him. So he said to the Bodhisatta, "I'm old now, my boy, and should 
like to hand over the tribe to you ; to-day you shall be made king. In a 
lake hard by grow two kinds of water-lily, three kinds of blue-lotus, and 
five kinds of white-lotus. Go and pick me some." "Yes, father," answei'ed 

No. 58. 145 

the Bodhisatta ; aud otf he started. Approaching the lake with caution, 
he studied the footprints on its banks and marked how all of them led 
doivn to the water, but none ever came back. Realising that the lake was 
haunted by an ogre, he divined that his father, being unable himself to kill 
him, wished to get him killed [282] by the ogre. "But I'll get the lotuses," 
said he, "without going into the water at all." So he went to a dry 
spot, and taking a run leaped from the bank. In his jump, as he was 
clearing the water, he plucked two flowers which grew up above the 
surface of the water, and alighted with them on the opposite bank. On 
his way back, he plucked two more in like manner, as he jumped ; and 
so made a heap on both sides of the lake, — but always keeping out of 
the ogre's watery domain. When he had picked as many as he thought 
he could carry across, and was gathering together those on one bank, 
the astonished ogre exclaimed, "I've lived a long time in this lake, but 
I never saw even a human being so wonderfully clever ! Here is this 
monkey who has picked all the flowers he wants, and yet has kept safely 
out of range of my jjower." And, parting the waters asunder, the ogre 
came up out of the lake to where the Bodhisatta stood, and addressed 
him thus, "0 king of the monkeys, he that has three qualities shall have 
the mastery over his enemies ; and you, methinks, have all three." And, 
so saying, he repeated this stanza in the Bodhisatta's praise : — 

Whoso, like you, monkey-king, combines 
Dexterity and Valour and Resource, 
Shall see his routed foemen turn and flee. 

His praises ended, the ogre asked the Bodhisatta why he was gathering 
the flowers. 

"My father is minded to make me king of his tribe," said the Bodhi- 
satta, "and that is why I am gathering them." 

"But one .so as you ought not to carry flowers," exclaimed 
the ogre; "I will carry them for you." And so saying, he picked up the 
flowei's and followed with them in the rear of the Bodhisatta. 

Seeing this from afar, the Bodhisatta's father knew that his plot had 
failed. "I sent my son to fall a prey to the ogre, and here he is return- 
ing safe and sound, with the ogre humbly carrying his flowers for him ! 
I am undone!" cried the old monkey, and his heart burst asunder [283] 
into seven pieces, so that he died then and there. And all the other 
monkeys met together and chose the Bodhisatta to be their king. 

His lesson ended, the ]\Iaster shewed the connexion and identified the Birth 
by saying, " Devadatta was then the king of the monkeys, and I his son." 

c. J. 10 

146 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

No. 59. 


"Go not too far." — This storj' was told by the Master while at Jetavaiia, about 
a certain self-willed Brother. Asked by the Master whether the report was true 
that he was self-willed, the Brother said it was true. " This is not the first time, 
Brother," said the Master, " that you have shewn yourself self-willed ; you were 
just the same in bygone times as well." And so saying, he told this story of the 

Once on a time when Brahniadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as a drummer, and dwelt in a village. Hearing 
that there was to be a festival at Benares, and hoping to make money 
by playing his drum to the crowds of holiday-makers, he made his way 
to the city, with his son. And there he played, and made a great deal 
of money. On his way home with his earnings he had to pass through 
a forest which was infested by robbers ; and as the boy kept beating away 
at the drum without ever stopping, the Bodhisatta tried to stop him by 
saying, "Don't behave like that, beat only now and again, — as if some 
great lord were passing by." 

But in defiance of his father's bidding, the boy thought the best way 
to frighten the robbers away was to keep steadily on beating away at 
the drum. 

At the first notes of the drum, away scampered tlie robbers, thinking 
some great lord was passing by. But hearing the noise keep on, they 
saw their mistake and came back to find out who it really was. Finding 
only two persons, they beat and robbed them. "Alas!" cried the Bodlii- 
satta, "by your ceaseless drumming you have lost all our hard-earned 
takings!" And, so saying, he repeated this stanza: — 

Go not too far, but learn excess to shun ; 

For over-drumming lost what drumming won. [284] 

His lesson ended, the Master shewed the connexion and identified the Birth 
by saying, " Thi.s self-willed Brother was the son of those days, and I myself the 

No. 60. 147 

No. 60. 


"6'o 7iot too fa?:" — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, about 
another self-willed person. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodliisatta came to life as a conch-blower, and went up to Benares with his 
father to a public festival. There he earned a great deal of money by 
his conch-blowing, and started foi- home again. On his way through a 
forest which was infe.sted by robljers, he warned his father not to keep ou 
blow^ing his conch ; but the old man tliought he knew lietter how to keep 
the robbers off, and blew away hard without a moment's pause. Accurd- 
ingly, just as in the preceding story, the robbers returned and plundered 
the pair. And, as above, the Bodhisatta repeated this stanza : — 

Go not too fa.r, but learn excess to shun; 
For over-blowins; lost what blowing won. 

His lesson ended, the Master shewed the connexion and identified the Birth 
by saying, " This self-willed Brother was the father of those days, and I myself 
his son." 

No. 61. 


[285] "//i lust unbridled." — This story was told by the Master while at Jeta- 
vana, about a passion-tost Brother. The Introductory Stoi-y will be related in 
the Ummadanti-jatakai. But to this Brother the Master said, " Women, Brother, 
are lustful, profligate, vile, and degi-aded. Why be passion-tost for a vile 
woman ? " And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

No. 527. 


148 The Jataka. Booh I. 

Once on a time when Bralimadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as a brahmin in the city of Takkasila in the 
Gandliara country ; and by the time he liad grown up, such was his 
proficiency in the Three Vedas and all accomplishments, that his fame as 
a teacher spread through all the world. 

In those days there was a brahmin family in Benares, unto whom a 
son was bom ; and on the day of his birth they took fire and kept it 
always bvirning, until the boy was sixteen. Then his parents told him 
how the fire, kindled on the day of his birth, had never been allowed to 
go out ; and they bade their son make his choice. If his heart was set 
on winning enti'ance hereafter into the Realm of Brahma, then let him 
take the fire and retire with it to the forest, there to work out his desire 
by ceaseless worship of the Lord of Fire. But, if he preferred the joys 
of a home, they bade their son go to Takkasila and there study under 
the world-famed teacher with a view to settling down to manage the 
pi'operty. "I should surely fail in the worship of the Fire-God," said 
the young brahmin; "I'll be a squire." So he bade farewell to his father 
and mother, and, with a thousand pieces of money for the teacher's fee, 
set out for Takkasila. There he studied till his education was complete, 
and then betook himself home again. 

Now his parents grew to wish him to forsake the world and to worship 
the Fire-God in the forest. Accordingly his mother, in her desire to 
desjiatch him to the forest by bringing home to him the wickedness of 
women, was confident that his wise and learned teacher would be able 
to lay bare the wickedness of the sex to her son, and so she asked whether 
he had quite finished his education. "Oh yes," said the youth. 

[286] "Then of course you have not omitted the Dolour Texts?" "I 
have not learnt those, mother." "How then can you say your education 
is finished? Go back at once, my son, to your master, and return to 
us when you have learnt them," said his mother. 

"Very good," said the youth, and off he stai-ted for Takkasila once 

Now his master too had a mother,— an old woman of a hundred and 
twenty years of age, — whom with his own hands he used to bathe, feed 
and tend. And for so doing he was scorned by his neighbours, — so much 
so indeed that he resolved to depart to the forest and there dwell with 
his mother. Accordingly, in the solitude of a forest he had a hut built 
in a delightful spot, where water was plentiful, and after laying in a 
stock of ghee and rice and other provisions, he carried his mother to her 
new home, and there lived cherishing her old age. 

Not finding his master at Takkasila, the young brahmin made en- 
quiries, and finding out what had happened, set out for the forest, and 
presented himself respectfully before his master. "What brings you 

No. 61. 149 

back so soon, my bay?" said the latter. "I do not think, sir, 1 learned 
the Dolour Texts when I was with you," said the youth. "But who told 
you that you had to learn the Dolour Texts ? " " My mother, master," was 
the reply. Hereon the Bodhisatta reflected that there were no such texts 
as those, and concluded that his pupil's mother must have wanted her 
son to learn how wicked women were. So he said to the youth that it 
was all right, and that he should in due course be taught the Texts in 
question. "From to-day," said he, "you shall take my place about my 
mother, and with your own hands wash, feed and look after her. As 
you rub her hands, feet, head and back, be careful to exclaim, 'Ah, 
Madam! if you are so lovely now you are so old, what must you not 
have been in the heyday of your youth!' And as you wash and perfume 
her hands and feet, burst into praise of their beauty. Further, tell me 
without shame or reserve every single word my mother says to you. Obey 
me in this, and you shall master the Dolour Texts ; disobey me, and you 
shall remain ignorant of them for ever." 

Obedient to his master's commands, the youth did all he was bidden, 
and so persistently praised the old woman's beauty that she thought he 
had fallen in love with her; and, blind and decrepit though she was, 
passion was kindled within her [287]. So one day she broke in on his com- 
pliments by asking, "Is your desire towards me?" "It is indeed, madam," 
answered the youth; "but my master is so strict." "If you desire me," 
said she, "kill my son!" "But how shall I, that have learned so much 
from him, — how shall I for passion's sake kill my master?" "Well then, 
if you will be faithful to me, I will kill him myself." 

(So lustful, vile, and degraded are women that, giving the rein to lust, 
a hag like this, and old as she was, actually thirsted for the blood of so 
dutiful a son !) 

Now the young brahmin told all this to the Bodhisatta, who, com- 
mending him for reporting the matter, studied how much longer his 
mother was destined to live. Finding that her destiny was to die that 
very day, he said, " Come, young brahmin; I will put her to the test." So 
he cut down a fig-tree and hewed out of it a wooden figure about his own 
size, which he wrapped up, head and all, in a robe and laid upon his own 
bed, — with a string tied to it. "Now go with an axe to my mother," said 
he; "and give her this string as a clue to guide her steps." 

So away went the youth to the old woman, and said, "Madam, the 
master is lying down indoors on his bed; I have tied this string as a clue 
to guide you; take this axe and kill him, if you can." "But you won't 
forsake me, will you?" said she. "Why should 11" was his reply. So 
she took the axe, and, rising up with trembling limbs, groped her way 
along by the string, till she thought she felt her son. Then she bared 
the head of the figure, and— thinking to kill her son at a single blow— 

150 The Jcltaka. Book I. 

brought down the axe right on the figure's throat, — only to learn by the 
thud that it was wood! "What are you doing, mother?" said the Bodhi- 
satta. With a shriek that she was betrayed, the old woman fell dead to 
the ground. For, says tradition, it was fated that she should die at that 
very moment and under her own roof. 

Seeing that she was dead, her son burnt lier body, and, when the 
flames of the pile were quenched, graced her ashes with wild-flowers. 
Then with the young brahmin he sat at the door of the hut and said, 
"My son, there is no such separate passage as the 'Dolour Text.' [28S] 
It is women who are depi'avity incarnate. And when your mother sent 
you back to me to learn the Dolour Texts, her object was that you 
shoidd learn how wicked women are. You have now witnessed with your 
own eyes my mother's wickedness, and therefrom you will see how lustful 
and vile women are." And with this lesson, he bade the youth depart. 

Bidding farewell to his master, the young brahmin went home to his 
parents. Said his mother to him, " Have you now leai-nt the Dolour 
Texts 1" 

" Yes, mother." 

"And what," slie asked, "is your final choice? will you leave the 
woi-ld to worship the Loixl of Fire, or will you choose a family life?" 
"Nay," answered the young bi-ahmin; "with my own eyes have I seen 
the wickedness of womankind ; I will have nothing to do with family life. 
I will renounce the world." And his convictions found vent in this 
stanza : — 

In lust unbridled, like devouring fire, 
Are women, — frantic in their rage. 
The sex renouncing, fain would I retire 
To find peace in a hermitage. 

[289] With this invective against womankind, the young brahmin took 
leave of his pai'ents, and renounced the world for the hermit's life, — 
wherein winning the peace he desired, he assured himself of admittance 
after that life into the Realm of Brahma. 

" So you see. Brother," said the Master, " how lustful, vile, and woe-bringing 
are women." And after declaring the wickedness of women, he preached the 
Four Truths, at the close whereof that Brother won the Fruit of the First Path. 
Lastly, tlie Master shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, 
"Kapilanli was the mother of those days, Maha-Kassapa was the father, Anauda 
the pu))il, and I myself the teacher." 

1 Her history is given iu J. B. A. S. 1893, page 786. 

No. 62. 151 

No. 62. 


" Blindfold, a-lutiuff." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about another passioii-tost person. 

Said the Master, " Is the report true that you are passion-tost, Brother 1" 

" Quite true," was the reply. 

" Brother, women can not be warded ; in days gone by the wise who kept 
watch over a woman from the moment she was born, failed nevertheless to keep 
her safe." And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodliisatta came to life as the child of the Queen-consort. When lie grew 
up, he mastered every accomplishment ; and when, at his father's death, 
he came to be king, ho proved a righteous king. Now he used to play at 
dice with his chaplain, and, as he flung the golden dice upon the silver 
table, he would sing this catch for luck : — 

'Tis natm-e's law that rivers wind ; 
Trees grow of wood by law of kind ; 
And, given opportunity. 
All women work iniquity. 

[290] As these lines always made the king win the game, the chaplain was 
in a fair way to lose every penny he had in the world. And, in order 
to save himself from utter ruin, he resolved to seek out a little maid 
that had never seen another man, and then to keep her under lock and 
key in his own house. "For," thought he, "I couldn't manage to look 
after a girl who has seen another man. So I must take a new-born 
baby girl, and keep her under my thumb as she grows up, with a close 
guard over her, so that none may come near her and that she may be 
true to one man. Then I shall win of the king, and grow rich." Now 
he was skilled in prognostication ; and seeing a poor woman who was 
about to become a mother, and knowing that her child would be a girl, 
he paid the woman to come and be confined in his house, and sent her 
away after her confinement with a ])resent. The infant was brought up 
entirely by women, and no men — other than himself — were ever allowed 
to set eyes on her. When the girl grew up, she was subject to him and 
he was her master. 

Now, while the girl was growing up, the chaplain forbore to play 
with the king; but when she was grown up and under his own control. 

152 21ie Jdtaka. Book I. 

he challenged the king to a game. The king accepted, and play began. 
But, when in throwing the dice the king sang his lucky catch, the 
chaplain added, — "always excepting my girl." And then luck changed, 
and it was now the chaplain who won, while the king lost. 

Thinking the matter over, the Bodhisatta suspected the chaplain had 
a virtuous girl shut up in his house; and enquiry proved his suspicions 
true. Then, in order to work her fall, he sent for a clever scamp, and 
asked whether he thought he could seduce the girl. "Certainly, sire," 
said the fellow. So the king gave him money, and sent him away with 
orders to lose no time. 

With the king's money the fellow bought perfumes and incense and 
aromatics of all sorts, and opened a perfumery shop close to the chaplain's 
house. Now the chaplain's house was seven stories high, and had seven 
gateways, at each of which a guard was set, — ^a guard of women only, — - 
and no man but the brahmin himself was ever allowed to enter. The very 
baskets that contained the dust and sweepings [291] were examined before 
they were passed in. Only the chaplain was allowed to see the girl, and 
she had only a single waiting-woman. This woman had money given her 
to buy flowers and perfumes for her mistress, and on her way she used to 
pass near the shop which the scamp had opened. And he, knowing very 
well that she was the girl's attendant, watched one day fur her coming, 
and, rushing out of his shop, fell at her feet, clasping her knees tightly 
with both hands and blubbering out, " my mother I where have you 
been all this long time?" 

And his confederates, who stood by his side, cried, "What a likeness ! 
Hand and foot, face and figure, even in style of dress, they are identical !" 
As one and all kept dwelling on the marvellous likeness, the poor woman 
lost her head. Ci'ying out that it must be her boy, she too burst into tears. 
And with weeping and tears the two fell to embracing one another. Then 
said the man, "Where are you living, mother?" 

"Up at the chaplain's, my son. He has a young wife of peerless 
beauty, a very goddess for grace; and I'm her waiting-woman." "And 
whither away now, mother?" "To buy her perfumes and flowers." 
"Why go elsewhere for tlieni ? Come to me for them in future," said 
the fellow. And he gave the woman betel, bdellium, and so forth, and 
all kinds of flowers, refusing all payment. Struck with the quantity of 
flowers and perfumes Avhich the waiting-woman bi'ought home, the girl 
asked why the brahmin was so pleased with her that day. "Why do you 
say that, my dear?" asked the old woman. "Because of the quantity of 
things you have brought home." "No, it isn't that the brahmin was 
free with his money," said the old woman ; "for I got them at my son's." 
And from that day forth she kept the money the brahmin gave her, and 
got her flowers and other things free of charge at the man's shop. 

No. 62. 153 

And he, a few days later, made out to be ill, and took to his bed. 
So when the old woman came to the shop and asked for her son, she was 
told he had been taken ill. Hastening to his side, she fondly stroked 
his shoulders, as she asked what ailed him. But he made no reply. 
"Why don't you tell me, my sou?'' "Not even if I were dying, could I 
tell you, mother." "But, if you don't tell me, [292] whom are you to 
tell]" "Well then, mother, my malady lies solely in this that, hearing the 
praises of your young mistress's beauty, I have fallen in love with her. 
It' I win her, I shall live; if not, this will be my death-bed." "Leave 
that to me, my boy," said the old woman cheerily ; "and don't worry 
yourself on this account." Then — with a heavy load of perfumes and 
flowers to take with her — she went home, and said to the brahmin's young 
wife, "Alas! here's my son in love with you, merely because I told him 
how beautiful you are ! What is to bo done 1 " 

"If you can smuggle him in here," replied the girl, "you have my 

Hereupon the old woman set to work sweeping together all the dust 
she could find in the house from top to bottom ; this dust she put into a 
huge flower-basket, and tried to pass out with it. When the usual search 
was made, she emptied dust over the woman on guard, who fled away 
under such ill-treatment. In like manner she dealt with all the other 
watchers, smothering in dust each one in turn that said anything to her. 
And so it came to pass from that time forward that, no matter what the 
old woman took in or out of the house, there was nobody bold enough to 
search her. Now was the time ! The old woman smuggled the scamp 
into the house in a flower-basket, and brought him to her young mistress. 
He succeeded in wrecking the girl's virtue, and actually stayed a day or 
two in the upper rooms, — -hiding when the chaplain was at home, and 
enjoying the society of his mistress when the chaplain was off the 
premises. A day or two passed and the girl said to her lover, "Sweet- 
heart, you must be going now." "Very well; only I must cuff" the 
brahmin first." "Certainly," said she, and hid the scamp. Then, when 
the brahmin came in again, she exclaimed, "Oh, my dear husband, I 
should so like to dance, if you would play the lute for me." "Dance 
away, my dear," said the chaplain, and struck up forthwiili. "But I 
shall be too ashamed, if you're looking. Let me hide your handsome face 
first with a cloth; and then I will dance." "All right," said he; "if 
you're too modest to dance otherwise." So she took a thick cloth and tied 
it over the brahmin's face so as to blindfold him. And, blindfolded as he 
was, the brahmin began to play the lute. After dancing awhile, she cried, 
"My dear, I should so like to hit you once on the head." "Hit away," 
said the unsuspecting dotard. Then the girl made a sign to her paramour; 
and he softly stole upbehiiul the l)rahmin [293] and smote him on the head. 

154 The Jataka. Book I. 

Sucli was the force of the blow, that the brahmin's eyes were like to start 
out of his head, and a bump rose up on the spot. Smarting with pain, he 
called to the girl to give him her hand; and she placed it in his. "Ah ! 
it's a soft hand," said he; "but it hits hard !" 

Now, as soon as the scamp had struck the brahmin, he hid ; and when 
he was hidden, the girl took the bandage off the chaplain's eyes and 
rubbed his bruised head with oil. The moment the brahmin went out, 
the scamp was .stowed away in his basket again by the old woman, and so 
carried out of the house. Making his way at once to the king, he told 
him the whole adventure. 

Accordingly, when the brahmin was next in attendance, the king 
proposed a game with the dice ; the brahmin was willing ; and the dicing- 
table was brought out. As the king made his throw, he sang his old 
catch, and the brahmin — ignorant of the girl's naughtiness — added his 
"always excepting my girl,"^ — and nevertheless lost ! 

Then the king, who did know what had passed, said to his chaplain, 
"Why except herl Her virtue has given way. Ah, you dreamed that 
by taking a girl in the hour of her birth and by placing a sevenfold guard 
round her, you could be certain of her. Why, you couldn't be certain of 
a woman, even if you had her inside you and always walked about with 
her. No woman is ever faithful to one man alone. As for that girl of 
yours, she told you she should like to dance, and having first blindfolded 
you as you played the lute to her, she let her paramour strike you on the 
head, and then smuggled him out of the house. Where then is your 
exception 1" And so saying, the king repeated this stanza : — 

Blindfold, a-luting, by his wife beguiled. 

The brahmin sits, — who tried to rear 
A paragon of virtue undefiled I 

Learn hence to hold the sex in fear. 

[294] In such wise did the Bodhisatta expound the Truth to the bralnnin. 
And the brahmin went home and taxed the girl with the wickedness of 
which she was acciised. "My dear husband, who can have said such a 
thing about mel" said she. "Indeed I am innocent; indeed it was my 
own hand, and nobody else's, that struck you ; and, if you do not believe 
me, I will brave the ordeal of fire to prove that no man's hand has touched 
me but yours; and so I will make you believe me." "So be it," said the 
brahmin. And he had a quantity of wood brought and set light to it. 
Then the girl was summoned. "Now," said he, "if you believe your own 
story, brave tliese flames ! " 

Now before this the girl had instructed her attendant as follows : — ■ 
"Tell your son, mother, to be there and to seize my hand just as I am 
about to go into the fire." And the old woman did as she was bidden ; 
and the fellow came and took his stand among the crowd. Then, to 

No. 63. 155 

delude the brahmin, the girl, standing there before all the people, 
exclaimed with fervour, "No man's hand but thine, brahmin, has ever 
touched me ; and, by the truth of my asseveration I call on this fire to 
harm me not." So saying, she advanced to the burning pile, — when up 
dashed her paramour, who seized her by the hand, crying shame on the 
brahmin who could force so fair a maid to enter the flames ! Shaking her 
hand free, the girl exclaimed to the brahmin that what she had asserted 
was now undone, and that she could not now brave the ordeal of fire. 
"Why nof?" said the brahmin. "Because," she replied, "my asseveration 
was that no man's hand but thine had ever touched me ; [295] and now 
here is a man who has seized hold of my hand !" But the brahmin, 
knowing that he was tricked, drove her from him with blows. 

Such, we learn, is the wickedness of women. What crime will they 
not commit ; and then, to deceive their husbands, what oaths will they not 
take — aye, in the light of day — that they did it not ! So false-hearted are 
they ! Therefore has it been said : — 

A sex composed of wickedness and guile, 

Unknowable, uncertain as the path 

Of fishes in the water, — womankind 

Hold truth for falsehood, falsehood for the truth ! 

As greedily as cows seek pastures new. 

Women, unsated, yearn for mate on mate. 

As sand unstable, cruel as the snake. 

Women know all things ; naught from them is hid ! 

"Even so impossible is it to ward women," said the Master. His lesson 
ended, he preached the Truths, at the close whereof the passion-tost Brother 
won the Fruit of the First Path. Also the Mastei" shewed the connexion and 
identified the Birth by saying : — " In these days I was the King of Benares." 

l^N^ote. The cuffing of the brahmin is the subject of a Bharhut sculpture, 
Plate 26, 8. For a parallel to the trick by which the girl avoids the ordeal of 
fire, see Folklore 3. 291.] 

No. 63. 


" Wrathful are v;omenP — This story was told liy the Master while at Jetavana, 
about another passion-tost Brother. When on being questioned the Brother 
confessed that he waa passion-tost, the Master said, " Women are ingrates and 
treacherous; why are you passion-tost because of them?" And he told this 
story of the past. 

156 Tlie Jataka. Book I. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta, who had chosen an anchorite's life, built himself a hermitage 
by the banks of the Ganges, and there won the Attainments and the 
Higher Knowledges, and so dwelt in the bliss of Insight. In those days 
the Lord High Treasurer of Benares had a tierce and cruel daughter, 
known as Lady Wicked, who used to revile and beat her servants and 
slaves. And one day they took their young mistress [296] to disport 
herself in the Ganges ; and the girls were playing about in the water, 
when the sun set and a great storm burst upon them. Hereon folks 
scampered away, and the girl's attendants, exclaiming, "Now is the 
time to see the last of this creature ! " threw her right into the river 
and hurried oflf. Down poured the rain in torrents, the sun set, and 
darkness came on. And when the attendants reached home without 
their young mistress, and were asked where she was, they replied that she 
had got out of the Ganges but that they did not know where she had gone. 
Search was made by her family, but not a trace of the missing girl could 
be found. 

Meantime she, screaming loudly, was swept down by the swollen 
stream, and at midnight approached where the Bodhisatta dwelt in liis 
hermitage. Hearing her cries, he thought to himself, "That's a woman's 
voice. I must rescue her from the water." So he took a torch of grass 
and by its light desci'ied her in the stream. " Don't be afraid ; don't 
be afraid ! " he shouted cheerily, and waded in, and, thanks to his vast 
strength, as of an elephant, brought her safe to land. Then he made 
a fire for her in his hermitage and set luscious fruits of divers kinds 
before her. Not till she had eaten did he ask, "Where is your home, and 
how came you to fall in the river?" And the girl told him all that 
had befallen her. "Dwell here for the present," said he, and installed 
her in his hermitage, whilst for the next two or three days he himself 
abode in the open air. At the end of that time he bade her depart, but 
she was set on waiting till she had made the ascetic fall in love with her ; 
and would not go. And as time went by, she so wrought on him by her 
womanly grace and wiles that he lost his Insight. With her he con- 
tinued to dwell in the forest. But she did not like living in that solitude 
and wanted to be taken among people. So yielding to her im^^ortunities 
he took her away with him to a border village, where he supported her by 
selling dates, and so was called the Date-Sage'. And the villagei's paid 

1 There is a play here upon the word takka, which cannot well be rendered in 
English. The word tukka-pandito, which I have rendered 'Date Sage,' would — by 
itself — mean 'Logic Sage,' whilst his living was got takkaih vikkinitvd 'by selling 
dates.' There is the further difficulty that the latter phra'^e may equally well mean 
' by selling buttermilk.'' 

No. 68. 157 

him to teacl) them what wei-e lucky and unlucky seasons, and gave him 
a hut to live in at the entrance to their village. 

Now the border was harried by robbers from the mountains ; and they 
made a I'aid one day [297] on the village where the pair lived, and looted 
it. They made the poor villagers pack up their belongings, and off they 
went — with the Treasurer's daughter among the rest — to their own abodes. 
Arrived there, they let everybody else go free ; but the girl, because of her 
beauty, was taken to wife by the robber chieftain. 

And when the Bodhisatta learned this, he thought to himself, " She will 
not endure to live away from me. She will escape and come back to me." 
And so he lived on, waiting for her to return. She meantime was very 
happy with the robbers, and only feared that the Date-sage would come to 
carry her away again. " I should feel more secure," thought she, " if he 
were dead. I must send a message to him feigning love and so entice him 
here to his death." So she sent a messenger to him with the message 
that she was unhappy, and that she wanted him to take her away. 

And he, in his faith in her, set out forthwith, and came to the 
entrance of the robbers' village, whence he sent a message to her. " To 
fly now, my husband," said she, " would only be to fall into the robber 
chieftain's hands who would kill us both. Let us put off our flight 
till night." So she took him and hid him in a room ; and when the 
robber came home at night and was inflamed with strong drink, she said 
to him, " Tell me, love, what would you do if your rival were in your 
power 1 " 

And he said he would do this and that to him. 

" Perhaps he is not so far away as you think," said she. " He is 
in the next I'oom." 

Seizing a torch, the robber rushed in and seized the Bodhisatta and 
beat him about the head and body to his heart's content. Amid the blows 
the Bodhisatta made no cry, only murmuring, " Cruel ingrates ! slanderous 
traitors ! " And this was all he said. And when he had thus beaten, 
bound, and laid by the heels the Bodhisatta, the robber finished his 
supper, and lay down to sleep. In the morning, when he had sle[)t ofi" his 
over-night's debauch, he fell anew to beating the Bodhisatta, who still made 
no cry but kept repeating the same four words. And the robber was 
struck with this and asked why, even when beaten, he kept saying 
that. [298] 

"Listen," said the Date-Sage, "and you shall heai\ Once I was a 
hermit dwelling in the solitude of the forest, and there I won Insight. 
And I rescued this woman from the Ganges and helped her in her need, 
and by her allurements fell from my high estate. Then I quitted the 
forest and supported her in a village, whence she was carried off by 
robbers. And she sent me a message that she was unhappy, entreating 

158 The Jataka. Book I. 

me to come and take her away. Now she has made me fall into your 
hands. That is why I thus exclaim." 

This set the robber a-thinking again, and he thought, " If she can feel 
so little for one who is so good and has done so much for her, what injury 
would she not do to me 1 She must die." So having reassured the 
Bodhisatta and having awakened the woman, he set out sword in hand, 
pretending to her that he was about to kill him outside the village. Then 
bidding her hold the Date-Sage he drew his sword, and, making as though 
to kill the sage, clove the woman in twain. Then he bathed the Date- 
Sage from head to foot and for several days fed him with dainties to his 
heart's content. 

" Where do you purpose to go now 1 " said the robber at last. 

"The world," answered the sage, "has no pleasures for me. I will 
become a hermit once more and dwell in my former habitation in the 

"And I too will become a hermit," exclaimed the robber. So both 
became hermits together, and dwelt in the hermitage in the forest, where 
they won the Higher Knowledges and the Attainments, and qualified 
themselves when life ended to enter the Realm of Brahma. 

After telling these two stories, the Master shewed the connexion, by reciting, 
as Buddha, this stanza : — 

Wrathful are women, slanderers, ingrates. 
The sowers of dissension and fell strife ! 
Then, Brother, tread the path of holiness, 
And Bliss therein thou shalt not fail to find. 

[299] His lesson ended, the Master preached the Truths, at the close whereof 
the passion-tost Brother won the Fruit of the First Path. Also, the Master 
identified the Birth by saying, "Ananda was the robber-chief of those days, and 
I myself the Date-Sage." 

No. 64. 


"ThinFst thou." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a lay-brother. Tradition says that there dwelt at Savatthi a lay-brother, 
who was stablished in the Three Gems and the Five Commandments, a devout 
lover of the Buddha, the Doctrine and the Brotherhood. But hi« wife was a 
sinful and wicked woman. On days when she did wrong, she was as meek as a 
slave-girl bought for a himdred pieces ; whilst on days when she did not do 

No. 64. 159 

wrong, she played my lady, passionate and tyrannical. The husband could not 
make her out. She worried him so much that he did not go to wait on the 

One day he went with perfumes and flowers, and had taken his seat after due 
salutation, when the Master said to him : — " Pray how comes it, lay-brother, 
that seven or eight days have gone by without your coming to wait upon the 
Buddha]" "My wife, sir, is one day like a slave-girl bought for a hundred 
pieces, while another day finds her like a passionate and tyrannical mistress. I 
cannot make her out ; and it is because she has worried me so that I have not 
been to wait upon the Buddha." 

Now, when he heard these words, the Master said, "Why, lay-brother, you 
have already been told l)y the wise and good of bygone days that it is hard to 
understand the nature of women." And he v/ent on to add "but his previous 
existences have come to be confused in his mind, so that he cannot remember." 
And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to be a teacher of world-wide fame, with five liundred 
young brahmins studying under liira. [300] One of these pupils was 
a young brahmin from a foreign land, who fell in love with a woman 
and made her liis wife. Though he continued to live on in Benares, 
he failed two or three times in his attendance on the master. For, 
you should know, his wife was a sinful and wicked woman, who was 
as meek as a slave on days when she had done wrong, but on days when 
she had not done wrong, played my lady, passionate and tyrannical. Her 
husband could not make her out at all ; and so worried and harassed by 
lier was he that he absented him.self from waiting on the Master. Now, 
some seven or eight days later he renewed his attendances, and was asked 
by the Bodhisatta why he had not been seen of late. 

"Master, my wife is the cause," said he. And he told the Bodhisatta 
how she was meek one day like a slave-girl, and tyrannical the next; how 
he could not make her out at all, and how he had been so worried and 
harassed by her shifting moods that he had stayed away. 

" Precisely so, young brahmin," said the Bodhisatta; "on days when 
they have done wrong, women humble themselves before their husbands 
and become as meek and submissive as a slave-girl ; but on days when 
they have not done wrong, then they become stiff-necked and insubordinate 
to their lords. After this manner are women sinful and wicked ; and their 
nature is hard to know. No heed should be paid either to their likes or 
to their dislikes." And so saying, the Bodhisatta repeated for the edifica- 
tion of his pupil this Stanza : — 

Think'st thou a woman loves thee ? — be not glad. 
Think'st thou she loves thee not ? — forbear to grieve. 
Unknowable, uncertain as the path 
Of fishes in the water, women prove. 

160 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

[301] Such was the Bodhisatta's instruction to his pupil, who thence- 
forward paid no heed to his wife's caprices. And she, hearing that her 
misconduct had come to the ears of the Bodhisatta, ceased from that time 
forward from her naughtiness. 

So too this lay-brother's wife said to herself, " The Perfect Buddha himself 
knows, they tell me, of my misconduct," and thenceforth she sinned no more. 

His lesson ended, the Master preached the Truths, at the close whereof the 
lay-brother won the Fruit of the First Path. Then the Master shewed the con- 
nexion and identified the Birth by saying — " This husband and wife were also 
the husband and wife of those days, and I myself the teacher." 

No. 65. 


"Ziy{-e higliwaysy — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about just such another lay-brother as the last. This man, when on enquiry he 
assured himself of his wife's misconduct, came to words with her, with the result 
that he was so upset that for seven or eight days he failed in his attendance. 
One day he came to the monastery, made his bow to the Blessed One and took 
his seat. Being asked why he had been absent for seven or eight days, he 
replied, " Sir, my wife has misconducted herself, and I have been so upset about 
her that I did not come." 

" Lay-brother," said the Master, " long ago the wise and good told you not to 
be angered at the naughtiness found in women, but to preserve your equanimity ; 
this, however, you have forgotten, because re-birth has hidden it from you." 
And so saying, lie told — at that lay-brother's request — this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was a teacher of world-wide reputation, as in the foregoing 
story. And a pupil of his, finding his wife unfaithful, was so affected by 
the discovery that he stayed away for some days, but being asked one day 
by his teacher what was the reason of his absence, he made a clean breast 
of it. Then .said his teacher, " My son, there is no private property in 
women : they are common to all. [;^02] And therefore men knowing 

No. ^Q. 161 

their frailty, are not excited to anger against them." And so saying, he 
repeated this stanza for his pupil's edification : — 

Like highways, rivers, courtyards, hostelries, 
Or taverns, which to all alike extend 
One universal hospitality, — 
Is womankind ; and wise men never stoop 
To wrath at frailty in a sex so frail. 

Such was the instruction which the Bodhisatta imparted to his pui>il, 
who thenceforward grew iudifierent to what women did. And as for his 
wife, she was so clianged by hearing that the teacher knew what she was, 
that she gave up her naughtiness thenceforth. 

So too that lay-brother's wife, when she heard that the Master knew what 
she was, gave up her naughtiness theuceforth. 

His lesson ended, the Master preached the Truths, at the close whereof the 
lay-brother won the Fruit of the First Path. Also the i\Iaster shewed the con- 
nexion and identified the Birth by saying, " This husband and wife were also 
the husband and wife of those days, and I myself the brahmin teacher." 

No. 66. 


" Till Oentle-heart was mine" — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavaua, about concupiscence. Tradition says that a young gentleman of 
Savatthi, [303] on hearing the Truth preached by the Master, gave his heart to 
the Doctrine of the Three Gems. Renouncing the world for the Brother's life, 
he rose to walk in the Paths, to practise meditation, and never to slacken in his 
pondering over the theme he had chosen for thought. One day, whilst he was 
on his round for alms through Savatthi, he espied a woman in brave attire, and, 
for pleasure's sake, broke through the higher morality and gazed upon her! 
Passion was stirred within him, he became even as a fig-tree felled by the axe. 
From that day forth, imder the sway of passion, the palate of his mind, as of 
his body, lost all its gust; like a brute beast, he took no joy in the Doctrine, and 
suffered his nails and hair to grow long and his robes to grow foul. 

When his friends among the Brethren became aware of his troubled state of 
mind, they said, "Why, sir, is your moral state otherwise than it was?" "My 
joy has gone," said he. Then they took him to the Master, who asked them why 
they had brought that Brother there against his will. " Because, sir, his joy is 
gone." "Is that true, Brother?" "It is, Blessed One." "Who has troubled 
you?" "Sir, I was on my round for alms when, violating the higher morality, 
I gazed on a woman ; and passion was stirred within me. Therefore am I 

C.J. 11 

162 The Jataka. Book I. 

troubled." Then said the Master, " It is little marvel, Brother, that when, 
violating morality, you were gazing for pleasure's sake on an exceptional object, 
you were stirred by j^assion. Why, in bj'gone times, even those who had won 
the five Higher Knowledges and the eight Attainments, those who by the might 
of Insight had quelled their passions, whose hearts were purified and whose feet 
could walk the skies, yea even Bodhisattas, through gazing in violation of 
morality on an exceptional object, lost their insight, were stirred by passion, and 
came to great sorrow. Little recks the wind which could overturn Mount 
Sineru, of a bare hillock no bigger than an elephant ; little recks a wind which 
could uproot a mighty Jambu-tree, of a bush on the face of a cliflf; and little 
recks a wind which could dry up a vast ocean, of a tiny pond. If passion could 
breed follj^ in the supremely-enlightened and pure-minded Bodhisattas, shall 
passion be abashed before 3'ou 1 Why, even piu'ified Ijeings are led astray by 
passion, and those advanced to the highest honoiir, come to shame." And so 
saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born into a rich brahmin family in the Kasi country. 
When he was grown up and had finished his education, he renoimced all 
Lusts, and, forsaking the world for the hermit's life, went to live in the 
solitudes of the Himalayas. There by due fulfilment of all preparatory 
forms of meditation, he won by abstract thought the Higher Knowledges 
and the ecstatic Attainments ; and so lived his life in the bliss of mystic 

[304] Lack of salt and vinegar brought him one day to Benares, where 
he took up his quarters in the king's pleasaunce. Next day, after seeing 
to his bodily needs, he folded up the red suit of bai-k which he commonly 
wore, threw over one shoulder a black antelope's skin, knotted his tangled 
locks in a coil on the top of his head, and with a yoke on his back from 
which hung two baskets, set out on his round in quest of alms. Coming 
to the palace-gates on his way, his demeanour so commended him to the 
king that his majesty had him brought in So the ascetic was seated on a 
couch of great splendour and fed with abundance of the daintiest food. 
And when he thanked the king, he was invited to take up his dwelling 
in the pleasaunce. The ascetic accepted the offer, and for sixteen years 
abode in the pleasaunce, exhorting the king's household and eating of the 
king's meat. 

Now there came a day when the king must go to the borders to put 
down a rising. But, before he started, he charged his queen, whose name 
was Gentle-heart, to minister to the wants of the holy man. So, after 
the king's departure, the Bodhisatta continued to go when he pleased to 
the palace. 

One day Queen Gentle-heart got ready a meal for the Bodhisatta; but 
as he was late in coming, she betook herself to her own toilette. After 
bathing in pei-fumed water, she dressed herself in all her splendour, 

No. 66. 163 

and lay clown, awaiting his coming, on a little couch in the spacious 

Waking from rapture of Insight, and seeing how late it was, the 
Bodhisatta transported himself through the air to the palace. Heai'ing 
the rustling of his bark-robe, the queen started up hurriedly to receive 
him. In her hurry to rise, her tunic slipped down, so that her beauty 
was revealed to the ascetic as he entered the window ; and at the sight, in 
violation of Morality he gazed for pleasure's sake on the marvellous 
beauty of the queen. Lust was kindled within him ; he was as a tree 
felled by the axe. At once all Insight deserted him, and he became 
as a crow with its wings clipped. Clutching his food, still standing, he 
ate not, but took his way, all a-tremble with desire, from the palace to his 
hut in the pleasaunce, set it down beneath his wooden couch and thereon 
lay for seven whole days a prey to hunger and thirst, enslaved by the 
queen's loveliness, his heart aflame with lust. 

On the seventh day, the king came Imck from pacifying the border. 
After passing in solemn procession round the city, he entered his palace. 
[30.'i] Then, wishing to see the ascetic, he took his way to the pleasaunce, 
and there in the cell found the Bodhisatta lyiug on his couch. Thinking 
the holy man had been taken ill, the king, after first having the cell 
cleaned out, asked, as he stroked the sufferer's feet, what ailed him. 
"Sire, my heart is fettered by lust; that is my sole ailment." "Lust for 
whom 1 " " For Gentle-heart, sire." " Then she is yours ; I give her 
to you," said the king. Then he passed with the ascetic to the palace, and 
bidding the queen array herself in all her splendour, gave her to the 
Bodhisatta. But, as he was giving her away, the king privily charged the 
queen to put forth her utmost endeavour to save the holy man. 

" Fear not, sire," said the queen ; " I will save him." So with the 
queen the ascetic went out from the palace. But when he had passed 
through the great gate, the queen cried out that they must have a house 
to live in ; and back he must go to the king to ask for one. So back he 
went to ask the king for a house to live in, and the king gave them a 
tumble-down dwelling which passers-by used as a jakes. To this dwelling 
the ascetic took the queen ; but she flatly refused to enter it, because of 
its filthy state. 

" What am I to do 1 " he cried. " Why, clean it out," she said. And 
she sent him to the king for a spade and a basket, and made him remove 
all the filth and dirt, and plaster the walls with cowdung, which he had to 
fetch. This done, she made him get a bed, and a stool, and a rug, and a 
watei"-pot, and a cup, sending him for only one thing at a time. Next, 
she sent him packing to fetch water and a thousand other things. So off 
he started for the water, and filled up the water-pot, and set out the 
water for the bath, and made the bed. And, as he sat with her upon the 


164 TJie Jdtaka. Booh I. 

bed, she took him by the whiskers and drew him towards her till they 
were face to face, saying, " Hast thou forgotten that thou art a holy man 
and a brahmin ? " 

Hereon he came to himself after his interval of witless folly. 

(And here should be repeated the text beginning, " Thus the hindrances 
of Lust and Longing are called Evils because they spring from Ignorance, 
Brethren ; [306] that which springs from Ignorance creates Darkness.") 

So when he had come to himself, he bethought him how, waxing 
stronger and stronger, this fatal craving would condemn him hereafter to 
the Four States of Punishment'. "This self-same day," he cried, "will I 
restore this woman to the king and fly to the mountains ! " So he stood 
with the queen before the king and said, "Sire, I want your queen no 
longer ; and it was only for her that cravings were awakened within 
me." And so saying, he repeated this Stanza : — 

Till Gentle-heart was mine, one sole desire 
I had, — to win her. When her beaiity owned 
Me lord, desire came crowding on desire. 

Forthwith his lost power of Insight came back to him. Rising from 
the earth and seating himself in the air, he preached the Truth to the 
king; and without touching earth he passed through the air to the 
Himalayas. He nevei- came back to the paths of men ; but grew in love 
and charity till, with Insight unbroken, he passed to a new birth in the 
Realm of Brahma. 

His lesson ended, the Master preached the Truths, at the close whereof that 
Bi'other won Arahatship itself. Also the Master shewed the connexion and 
identified the Birth by saying, " Ananda was the King of those days, Uppala- 
vanna was Gentle-heart, and I the hermit." 

No. 67. 


"A son 's an easy find.'' — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a certain country-woman. 

For it fell out once in Kosala that three men were ploughing on the outskirts 
of a certain forest, and that robbers plundered folk in that forest and made their 
escape. [307] The victims came, in the course of a fruitless search for the 
rascals, to where the three men were ploughing. " Here are the forest robbers, 

' Hell, the brute-creation, ghostdom, devildom. 

No. 67. 165 

disguised as husbandmen," they cried, and hauled the trio off as prisoners to the 
King of Kosala. Now time after time there came to the king's palace a woman 
who with loud lamentations begged for " wherewith to be covered." Hearing her 
cry, the king ordered a shift to be given her ; but she refused it, saying this was 
not wliat she meant. So the king's servants came back to his majesty and said 
that what the woman wanted was not clothes l)ut a husband >. Then the king 
had the woman brought into his presence and asked her whether she really did 
mean a husband. 

" Yes, sire," she answered ; " for a husband is a woman's real covering, and 
she that lacks a husband— even though she be clad in garments costing a 
thousand pieces — goes bare and naked indeed." 

(And to enforce this truth, the following Butta should be recited here : — 

Like kingless kingdoms, like a stream run dry, 

So bare and naked is a woman seen, 

Who, having brothers ten, yet lacks a mate.) 

Pleased with the woman's answer, the king asked what relation the three 
prisoners were to her. And she said that one was her husband, one her brother, 
and one her son. " Well, to mark my favour," said the king, " I give 3'ou one of 
the three. Which will you take ? " " Sire," was her answer, " if I live, I can get 
another husband and another son ; but as my parents are dead, I can never get 
another brother. So give me my brother. Sire." Pleased with the woman, the 
king set all three men at liberty ; and thus tliis one woman was the means of 
saving three persons from peril. 

When the matter came to the knowledge of the Brotherhood, they were 
lauding the woman in the Hall of Truth, when the Master entered. Learning 
on enquiry what was the subject of their talk, he said, " This is not the first 
time. Brethren, that this woman has saved those three from peril ; she did the 
same in days gone by." And, so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, three men 
were ploughing on the outskirts of a forest, and everything came to pass 
as above. 

Being asked by the king which of the three she would take, the woman 
said, '* Cannot your majesty give me all three 1 " " No," said the king, " I 
cannot." [308] " Well, if I cannot have all three, give me my brother." 
" Take your husband or your son," said the king. " What matters a 
brother 1 " " The two former I can readily replace," answered the woman, 
" but a brother never I" And so saying, she repeated this stanza : — 

A son 's an easy find ; of husbands too 

An ample choice throngs public ways. But where 

Will all my pains another brother find I 

"She is quite right," said the king, well-pleased. And he bade all 
three men be fetched from the prison and given over to the woman. She 
took them all three and went her way. 

1 Cf. ' femme couverte. ' 

166 The Jataka. Booh I. 

" So you see, Brethren," said tlie Master, '• that this same woman once before 
saved these same three men from peril." His lesson ended, he made the con- 
nexion and identified the Birth by saying, " The woman and the three men of 
to-day were also the woman and men of those bygone days ; and I was then the 

[^Note. — Cf. for the idea of the verse Herodotus iii. 118 — 120, Sophocles Anti- 
gone 909 — 912 ; and see this passage discussed in the Indian Antiquary for 
December, 1881.] 

No. 68. 


" The man thy mind rests on." — This story was told by the Master, while at 
Anjanavana, about a certain brahmin. Tradition says that when the Blessed 
One with his disciples was entering the city of Sfiketa, an old brahmin of that 
place, who was going out, met him in the gateway. Falling at the Buddha's 
feet, and clasping him by the ankles, the old man cried, " Son, is it not the duty 
of children to cherish the old age of their [)arents ? [309] Why have you not let 
us see you all this long time I At last I have seen you ; come, let your mother 
see you too." So saying, he took the Master with him to his house ; and there 
the Master sat upon the seat prepared for him, with his disciples around him. 
Then came the brahmin's wife, and she too fell at the feet of the Blessed One, 
crying, " My son, where have you been all this time I Is it not tlie duty of 
children to comfort their parents in their old age ? " Hereon, she called to her 
sons and daughters that their brother was come, and made them salute the 
Buddha. And in their joy the aged pair shewed great hospitality to their 
guests. After his meal, the Master recited to the old people the Sutta concern- 
ing old-age 1 ; and, when he had ended, both husband and wife won fruition of the 
Second Path. Then rising up from his seat, the Master went back to Anja- 

Meeting together in the Hall of Truth, the Brethren fell to talking about this 
thing. It was urged that the brahmin must have been well aware that Suddho- 
dana was the father, and Mahamaya the mother, of the Buddha ; yet none the 
less, he and his wife had claimed the Buddha as their own son,— and that with 
the Master's assent. What could it all mean 1 Hearing their talk, the Master 
said, " Brethren, the aged pair were right in claiming me as their son." And so 
saying, he told this story of the past. 

Brethren, in ages past this brahmin was my father in 500 successive 
births, my uncle in a like number, and in 500 more my grandfather. And 

1 The Jara-sutta of the Sutta-nipata, page 152 of FausboU's edition for the Pali 
Text Society. 

No. 69. 167 

in loOU successive births his wife was respectively my mother, my aunt, 
and my grandmother. So I was brought up in 1500 births by this 
brahmin, and in 1500 by his wife. 

And therewithal, having told of these 3000 births, the Master, as 
Buddha, recited this Stanza: — 

The man thy mind rests on, with whom thy heart 
Is pleased at first sight, --place thy trust in him. 

[310] His lesson ended, the Master shewed the connexion and identified the 
Birth by saying, " This brahmin and his wife were the husband and wife in all 
those existences, and I the child." 

[JVote. See also No. 237.] 

No. 69. 


'"'•May shanie.''^ — This story was told by the Master while at .Jetavana about 
Sariputta, the Captain of the Faith. Tradition says that in the days when the 
Elder used to eat meal-cakes, folks came to the monastery with a quantity of such 
cakes for the Brotherhood. After the Brethren had all eaten their fill, much 
remained over ; and the givers said, " Sirs, take some for those too who are away 
in the village." 

Just then a youth who was the Elder's co-resident, was away in the village. 
For him a portion was taken ; but, as he did not return, and it was felt that it 
was getting very late^, this portion was given to the Elder. When this portion 
had been eaten by the Elder, the youth came in. Accordingly, the Elder 
explained the case to him, saying, " Sir, I have eaten the cakes set apart for you." 
" Ah ! " was the rejoinder, " we have all of us got a sweet tooth." The Great 
Elder was much troubled. 

" From this day forward," he exclaimed, " I vow never to eat meal-cakes 
again." And from that dtxy forward, so tradition says, the Elder Sariputta never 
touched meal-cakes again ! This abstention became matter of common know- 
ledge in the Brotherhood, and the Brethren sat talking of it in the Hall of 
Truth. Said the Master, "'Wliat are you talking of, Brethren, as you sit here?" 
When they had told him, he said, " Brethren, when Sariputta has once given 
anything up, he never goes back to it again, even though his life be at stake." 
And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

1 i.e. close on to mid-day, after which the food could not properly be eateu. See 
note, page 107. 

168 The Jataka. Booh I. 

Ouce on a time, wheu BrahaiaJatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born into a family of doctors skilled iu the cure of snake- 
bites, and when he grew up, he practised for a livelihood. 

Now it fell out that a countryman was bitten by a snake ; and without 
delay his relatives quickly fetched the doetoi-. Said the Bodhisatta, 
" Shall I extract the venom with the usual antidotes, or have the snake 
caught and make it suck its own poisou out of the wound ? " " Have the 
snake caught and make it suck the poison out." So he had the snake 
caught, and asked the creature, saying " Did you bite this man?" " Yes, 
I did," was the answer. [311] " Well then, suck your own poison out of 
the wound again." " What ? Take back the poison I have once shed ! " 
cried the snake ; " I never did, and I never will." Then the doctor made 
a fire with wood, and said to the snake, "Either you suck the poison out, 
or into the fire you go." 

"Even though the flames be uiy doom, I will not take back the poison 
I have once shed," said the snake, and repeated the following stanza : — 

May shame be on the poison which, once shed, 

To save my life, I swallow down again ! 

More welcome death than life by weakness bought ! 

With these words, the snake moved towards the fire ! But the doctor 
barred its way, and drew out the poison with simples and charms, so that 
the man was whole again. Then he unfolded the Commandments to the 
snake, and set it free, saying, " Henceforth do harm to none." 

And the Master went on to say,^" Brethren, when Sariputta has once parted 
with anything, he never takes it back again, even though his life be at stake." 
His lesson ended, he shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, 
" Sariputta was the snake of those days, and I the doctor." 

No. 70. 


" The conquest" — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, about 
the Elder named Cittahattha-Sjiriputta. He is said to have been a youth of a 
good family in Savatthi ; and one day, on his way home from ploughing, he 
turned in to the monastery. Here he received from the bowl of a certain Elder 
some dainty fare, rich and sweet, which made him think to himself, —" Day and 
night I am toiUng away with my hands at divers tasks, yet never do I taste food 

No. 70. 169 

so sweet. I must turu Brother myself ! " So he joined the Brotherhood, but 
after six weeks' zealous application to high thinking, fell under the dominion of 
Lusts and oft' lie went. His belly again proving too much for him, [312] back he 
came to join the Brotherhood once more, and studied the Abhidhammai. In 
this way, six times he left and came back again ; but when for the seventh time 
he became a Bi-other, he mastered the whole seven books of the AVjhidhamma, 
and by much chanting of the Doctrine of the Brothers won Discernment and 
attained to Arahatship. Now his friends among the Brethren scoffed at him, 
saying — "Can it be, sir, that Lusts have ceased to spring up within your 

" Sirs," was the reply, " I have now got beyond mundane life henceforth." 
He having thus won Arahatship, talk thereof arose in the Hall of Truth, as 
follows : — " Sirs, thougli all the while he was destined to all the glories of Arahat- 
ship, yet six times did (Jittahattha-Sariputta renounce the Brotherhood ; truly, 
very wrong is the unconverted state." 

Returning to the Hall, the Master asked what they were talking about. 
Being told, he said, " Brethren, the worldling's heart is light and hard to curb ; 
material things attract and hold it fast ; when once it is so held fast, it cannot 
be released in a trice. Excellent is the masteiy of such a heart ; once mastered, 
it brings joy and happiness : — 

'Tis good to tame a headstrong heart and frail. 

By passicm swayed. Once tamed, the heart brings bliss. 

It was by reason of this headstrong quality of the heart, however, that, for the 
sake of a pretty spade which they could not bring themselves to throw away, the 
wise and good of bygone days six times reverted to the world out of sheer 
cupidity ; but on the seventh occasion they won Insight and subdued their 
cupidity." And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life again as a gardener, and grew up. ' Spade Sage ' 
was his name. With his spade he cleared a patch of ground, and grew 
pot-herbs, pumpkins, gourds, cucumbers, and other vegetables, by the sale 
of which he made a sorry living. For, save only that one spade, he had 
nothing in the world ! Resolving one day to forsake the world for the 
religious life, he hid his spade away, and became a recluse. But thoughts 
of that spade rose in his heart and the passion of gi-eed overcame him, so 
that for the sake of his blunt spade he reverted to the world. [313] Again 
and again this happened ; six times did he hide the spade and become a 
recluse, — only to renounce his vows again. But the seventh time he 
bethought him how that blunt spade had caused him again and again to 
backslide ; and he made up his mind to throw it into a great river before 
he became a recluse again. So he carried the spade to the river-side, and, 
fearing lest if he saw where it fell, he should come back and fish it out 
again, he whirled the spade thrice round his head by the handle and flung 

1 The thii\l, and latest, of the Pitakas, — perhaps compiled from the Nikayas of the 

170 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

it with the strength of an elephant I'ight into mid-stream, shutting his eyes 
tight as he did so. Then loud rang his shout of exultation, a shout like a 
lion's I'oai', — " I have conquered ! I have conquered ! " 

Now just at that moment the King of Benares, on his way home from 
quelling disorder on the border, had been bathing in that very rivei", and 
was riding along in all his splendour on the back of his elephant, when he 
heard the Bodhisatta's shout of triumph. " Here's a man," said the king, 
" who is proclaiming that he has conquered. I wonder whom he has 
conquered. Go, bring him before me." 

So the Bodhisatta was brought before the king, who said to him, " My 
good man, I am a conqueror myself; I have just won a battle and am on 
my way home victorious. Tell me whom you have conquered." " Sire," 
said the Bodhisatta, " a thousand, yea, a hundred thousand, such victories 
as yours are vain, if you have not the victory over the Lusts within your- 
self. It is by conquering greed within myself that I have conquered my 
Lusts." And as he spoke, he gazed upon the great river, and by duly 
concentrating all his mind upon the idea of water, won Insight. Then by 
virtue of his newly-won transcendental powers, he rose in the air, and, 
seated there, instructed the King in the Truth in this stanza : — 

The conquest that by further victories 
Must be upheld, or own defeat at last, 
Is vain ! True conquest lasts for evermore ! 

[314] Even as he listened to the Truth, light shone in on the king's 
darkness, and the Lusts of his heart were quenched ; his heart was bent 
on renouncing the world ; then and there the lust for royal dominion 
passed away from him. " And where will you go now 1 " said the king to 
the Bodhisatta. "To the Himalayas, sire; there to live the anchorite's 
life." "Then I, too, will become an anchorite," said the king; and he 
departed with the Bodhisatta. And with the king there departed also the 
whole army, all the brahmins and householders and all the common folk, 
— in a woi'd, all the host that was gathered there. 

Tidings came to Benares that their king, on hearing the Truth preached 
by the Spade Sage, was fain to live the anchorite's life and had gone forth 
with all his host. "And what shall we do here?" cried the folk of Benares. 
And thereupon, from out that city which was twelve leagues about, all the 
inhabitants went forth, a train twelve leagues long, with whom the Bodhi- 
satta passed to the Himalayas. 

Then the throne of Sakka, King of Devas, became hot beneath him '. 
Looking out, he saw that the Spade Sage was engaged upon a Great 

' Only the merits of a good man struggling with adversity could thus appeal to the 
mercy-seat of the Archangel. 

No. 70. 171 

Renunciation'. Marking the numbers of his following, Indra took thought 
how to house them all. And he sent for Vissakamma, the architect of the 
Devas, and spoke thus : — " The Spade Sage is engaged upon a Great 
Renunciation, [315] and quarters must be found for him. Go you to the 
Himalayas, and there on level ground fashion by divine power a hermit's 
demesne thirty leagues long and fifteen broad." 

" It shall be done, sire," said Vissakamma. And away he went, and 
did what he was bidden. 

(What follows is only a summary ; the full details will be given in the 
Hatthipala-jritaka'-, which forms one narrative with this.) Vissakamma 
caused a hermitage to arise in the hermit's demesne ; drove away all the 
noisy beasts and birds and fairies ; and made in each cardinal direction a 
path just broad enough for one person to pass along it at a time. This 
done, he betook himself to his own abode. The Spade Sage with his host 
of people came to the Himalayas and entered the demesne which Indra 
had given and took possession of the house and furniture which Vissa- 
kamma had created for the hermits. First of all, he renounced the world 
himself, and afterwards made the people renounce it. Then he portioned 
out the demesne among them. They abandoned all their sovereignty, which 
rivalled that of Sakka himself; and the whole thirty leagues of the 
demesne were filled. By due performance of all the other^ rites that 
conduce to Insight, the Sj)ade Sage developed perfect good-will within 
himself, and he taught the people how to meditate. Hereby they all 
won the Attainments, and assured their entry thereafter into the Brahma- 
Realm, whilst all who ministered to them qualified for entry thereafter 
into the Realm of Devas. 

"Thus, Brethren," said the Master, "the heart, when passion holds it fast, is 
hard to release. When the attributes of greed spring up within it, they are hard 
to chase away, and even persons so wise and good as the above are thereby 
rendered witless." His lesson ended, he preached the Truths, at the close 
whereof some won the First, some the Second, and some the Third Path, whilst 
others again attained to Arahatship. Further, the Master shewed the con- 
nexion and identified the Birth by saying, "Ananda was the king of those 
days, the Buddha's followers were the followers, and I myself the Spade Sage." 

1 It is only when a future Buddha renounces the world for the religious life, that 
his ' going forth ' is termed a Great Renunciation. Cf. p. 61 of Vol. i. of FausboU's 
text as to Gotama's ' going forth.' 

- No. 509, — where, however, no further details are vouchsafed. 

^ As shewn above, he had already arrived at Insight through the idea of water. 

172 The Jataka. Book I. 

No. 71. 


[316] '■'■Learn thou from him." — This .story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavaiia, about the Elder named Tissa the .Squire's Son. Tradition says that 
one day thirty young gentlemen of Savatthi, who were all friends of one another, 
took perfumes and flowers and robes, and set out with a large retimie to Jeta- 
vana, in order to hear the Master preach. Ai-rivcd at Jetavana, they sat awhile 
in the several enclosures — in the enclosure of the Iron-wood trees, in the 
enclosure of the ISal-trees, and so forth, — till at evening the Master passed from 
his fragrant sweet-smelling perfumed chamber to the Hall of Truth and took his 
seat on the gorgeous Buddha-seat. Then, with their following, these young men 
went to the Hall of Truth, made an ollering of perfumes and flowers, bowed 
down at his feet — ble.ssed feet that were glorious as full-blown lotus-dowers, 
and bore imprinted on the sole the Wheel ! — and, taking their .seats, listened 
to the Truth. Then the thought came into their minds, "Let us take the vows, 
so far as we understand the Truth preached by the Master." Accoixlingly, when 
the Bles.sed One left the Hall, they approtiched him and with due obeLsance 
asked to be admitted to the Brotherhood ; and the Master admitted them to the 
Brotherhood. Winning the favour of their teachers and directors they received 
full Brotherhood, and after hve years' residence with their teachers and directors, 
by which time they had got by heart the two Alistracts, had come to know what 
was proper and what was impi-oper, had learnt the thi'ee modes of expressing 
thanks, and had stitched and tlyed robes. At this stage, wishing to embrace the 
ascetic life, they obtained the consent of their teachers and directors, and 
approached the Master. Bowing before him they took their seats, saying, "Sir, 
we are troubled by the round of existence, dismayed by birth, decay, disease, and 
death ; give us a theme, by thinking on which we may get free from the elements 
which occasion existence." The Master turned over in his mind the eight and 
thirty themes of thought, and therefrom selected a suitable one, which he 
expounded to them. And then, after getting their theme from the Master, they 
bowed and with a ceremonious farewell passed from his presence to their cells, 
and after gazing on their teachers and directors went forth with bowl and robe 
to embrace the ascetic life. 

Now amongst them was a Brother named the Elder Tissa the Squire's Son, 
a weak and irre.solute man, a slave to the pleasures of the taste. Thought he to 
himself, "1 shall never be able to live in the forest, to strive with strenuous 
effort, and subsist on doles of food. What is the good of my going? I will turn 
back." And so he gave up, and after accompanying those Brothers some way he 
turned back. As to the other Brothers, they came in the course of their alms- 
pilgrimage through Kosala to a certain border- village, [317] hard by which in a 
wooded spot they kept the Kainy-season, and by three months' striving and 
wrestling got the geim of Discernment and won Arahatship, making the earth 
shout for joy. At the end of the Kainy-season, after celebi'ating the Pavarana 
festival, they set out thence to announce to the Master the attainments they 
had won, and, coming in due com-se to Jetavana, laid aside their bowls and 
robes, paid a visit to their teachers and directors, and, being anxious to see the 
Blessed One, went to him and with due obeisance took their seats. The Master 
greeted them kindly and they annoimced to the Blessed One the attainments 
they had won, receiving praise from him. Hearing the Master speaking in their 
praise, the Elder Tissa the Squire's Son was filled with a desire to live the life 
of a recluse all by himself. Likewise, those other Brothers asked and received 
the Master's pernii.ssion to retm-n to dwell in that self-same spot in the forest. 
And with due obei.sancc they went to their cells. 

No. 71. 173 

Now the Elder Tissa the Squire's Son that very night was inflated with a 
yearning to begin his austerities at once, and whilst practising with excessive 
zeal and ardour the methods of a recluse and sleeping in an upright posture by 
the side of his plank-bed, soon after the middle watch of the night, round he 
turned and down he fell, breaking his thigh-bone; and severe pains set in, so 
that the other Brothers had to nurse him and were debarred from going. 

Accordingly, when they appeared at the hour for waiting on the Buddha, he 
asked them whether they laad not yesterday asked his leave to start to-day. 

"Yes, sir, we did; but our friend the Elder Tissa the Squire's Son, while 
rehearsing the methods of a recluse with great vigour but out of season, dropped 
ofl' to sleep and fell over, breaking his thigh ; and that is why our departure has 
been thwarted." "This is not the first time, Brethren," said the Master, "that 
this man's backsliding has caused him to strive with unseasonable zeal, and 
thereby to delay your departure; he delayed your departure in the past also." 
And hereupon, at their request, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time at Takkasila in the kingdom of Gandhara the Bodhisatta 
was a teacher of world-wide fame, with 500 young brahmins as pupils. 
One day these pupils set out for the forest to gather firewood for their 
master, and busied themselves in gathering sticks. Amongst them was a 
lazy fellow who came on a huge forest tree, which he imagined to be dry 
and rotten. So he thought that he could safely indulge in a na|) first, and 
at the last moment climb up [318] and break some branches off to carry 
home. Accordingly, he spread out his outer robe and fell asleep, snoring 
loudly. All the other young brahmins were on their way home with their 
wood tied up in faggots, when they came upon the sleeper. Having 
kicked him in the back till he awoke, they left him and went their way. 
He sprang to his feet, and rubbed his eyes for a time. Then, still half 
asleep, he began to climb the tree. But one branch, which he was 
tugging at, snapped off short ; and, as it sprang up, the end struck him in 
the eye. Clapping one hand over his wounded eye, he gathered green 
boughs with the other. Then climbing down, he corded his faggot, and 
after hurrying away home with it, flung his green wood on the top of the 
others' faggots. 

That same day it chanced that a country family invited the master to 
visit them on the morrow, in order that they miglit give liim a brahmin- 
feast. And so the master called liis pupils together, and, telling them of the 
journey they would have to make to the village on the morrow, said they 
could not go fasting. " So have some rice-gruel made early in the 
morning," said he ; " and eat it before starting. There you will have food 
given you for yourselves and a portion for me. Bring it all home with 

So they got up early next moi-ning and roused a maid to get them 
their breakfast ready betimes. And oif she went for wood to light the fire. 
The green wood lay on the top of the stack, and she laid her fire with it. 
And she blew and blew, but could not get her fire to burn, and at last the 

174 The Jataka. Book I. 

sun got up. "It's broad daylight now," said they, "and it's too late to 
start." And they went off to their master. 

" What, not yet on your way, my sons 1 " said he. " No, sir ; we have 
not started." " Why, pray ? " " Because that lazy so-and-so, when he 
went wood-gathering with us, lay down to sleep under a forest-tree ; and, 
to make up for lost time, he climbed uj) the tree in such a hurry that he 
hurt his eye and brought home a lot of green wood, which he threw on the 
top of our faggots. So, when the maid who was to cook our rice-gruel 
went to the stack, she took his wood, thinking it would of course be dry ; 
and no fire could she light before the sun was up. And this is what 
stopped our going." 

Heai-ing what the young brahmin had done, the master exclaimed that 
a fool's doings had caused all the mischief, and repeated this stanza : 

[319] Learn thou from him who tore green branches down, 
That tasks deferred are wrought in tears at last. 

Such was the Bodhisatta's comment on the matter to his [)upils ; and at 
the close of a life of charity and other good works he passed away to fare 
accoi'dinsf to his deserts. 

Said the Master, "This is not the first time. Brethren, that this man has 
thwarted you ; he did the like in the past also." His lesson ended, he shewed 
the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, "The Brother who has broken 
his thigh was the young brahmin of those days who hiu-t his eye ; the Buddha's 
followers were the rest of the young brahmins ; and I myself was the brahmin 
their master." 

No. 72. 


^^Ingratitude lacks more." — This story was told by the Master while at the 
Bamboo-gi'ove about Devadatta. The Brethren sat in the Hall of Truth, saying, 
"Sirs, Devadatta is an ingrate and does not recognise the virtues of the Blessed 
One." Returning to the Hall, the Master asked what topic they were discussing, 
and was told. "This is not the first time, Brethren,'' said he, "that Devadatta 
has proved an ingrate ; he was just the same in bygone days also, and he has 
never known my virtues." And so saying, at their request he told this story of 
the past. 

No. 72. 175 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was conceived by an elephant in the Himalayas. When born, 
he was white all over, like a mighty mass of silver. Like diamond balls 
were his eyes, like a manifestation of the five brightnesses'; red was his 
mouth, like scarlet cloth ; like silver flecked with red gold was his trunk ; 
and his four feet were as if polished with lac. Tluis his person, adorned 
with the ten perfections, was of consumrnate beauty. When he grew up, all 
the elephants of the Himalayas in a body [320] followed him as tlieir 
leader. Whilst he was dwelling in the Himalayas with a following of 
80,000 elephants, he became aware that there was sin in the herd. So, 
detaching himself from the rest, he dwelt in solitude in the forest, and the 
goodness of his life won him the name of Good King Elephant. 

Now a forester of Benares came to the Himalayas, aiul made his way 
into that forest in quest of the implements of his craft. Losing his 
bearings and his way, he roamed to and fro, stretching out his arms in 
despair and weeping, with the fear of deatli before his eyes. Hearing the 
man's cries, the Bodhisatta was moved with compassion and resolved to 
help him in his need. So he approached the man. But at sight of the 
elephant, off ran the forester in great terror^. Seeing him lun away, the 
Bodhisatta stood still, and this brought the man to a standstill too. Then 
the Bodhisatta again advanced, and again the forester ran away, halting 
once more when the Bodhisatta halted. Hereupon the truth dawned on 
the man that the elephant stood still when he himself ran, and only 
advanced when he himself was standing still. Consequently he concluded 
that the creatui'e could not mean to hurt, but to help him. So he valiantly 
stood his ground this time. And the Bodhisatta drew near and said, 
" Why, friend man, are you wandering about here lamenting?" 

"My lord," replied the forester, "I have lost my bearings and my way, 
and fear to perish." 

Then the elephant brought the man to his own dwelling, and there 
entertained him for some days, regaling him with fruits of every kind. 
Then, saying, " Fear not, friend man, T will bring you back to the haunts 
of men," the elephant seated the forester on his back and brought him to 
where men dwelt. But the ingrate thought to himself, that, if questioned, 
he ought to be able to reveal everything. So, as he travelled along on the 
elephant's back, he noted the landmarks of tree and hill. At last the 
elephant brought him out of the forest and set him down on the high road 
to Benares, saying, " There lies yoiir road, friend man : Tell no man, 
whether you are questioned or not, of the place of my abode." And with 
this leave-taking, the Bodhisatta made his way back to his own abode. 

Arrived at Benares, the man came, in the course of his walks through 

1 This is applied to a Bodhisatta's eyes in Jivt. vol. iii. 344. 9. 

2 A solitary elephant, or ' rogue,' being dangerous to meet. 

176 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

the city, to the ivory-workers' bazaar, where he saw ivory being worked 
into clivers forms and shapes. And he asked the craftsmen [321] whether 
they would give anything for the tusk of a living elephant. 

"What makes you ask such a question ?" was the reply. "A living 
elephant's tusk is worth a great deal more than a dead one's." 

" Oh, then, I'll bring you some ivoi'y," said he, and off he set for 
the Bodhisatta's dwelling, with provisions for the joui-ney, and with a 
sharp saw. Being asked what had brought him back, he whined out that 
he was in so sorry and wretched a plight that he could not make a living 
anyhow. Wherefore, he had come to ask for a bit of the kind elephant's 
tusk to sell for a living ! " Certainly ; I will give you a whole tusk," 
said the Bodhisatta, " if you have a bit of a saw to cut it off with." 
"Oh, I brought a saw with me, sir." "Then saw my tusks off, and take 
them away with you," said the Bodhisatta. And he bowed his knees till 
he was couched upon the earth like an ox. Then the forester sawed off 
both of the Bodhisatta's chief tusks ! When they were off, the Bodhisatta 
took them in his trunk and thus addressed the man, " Think not, friend 
man, that it is because I value not nor prize these tusks that 1 give them 
to you. But a thousand times, a hundred-thousand times, dearer to me 
are the tusks of omniscience which can comprehend all things. And 
therefore may my gift of these to you bring me omniscience." With these 
words, he gave the pair of tusks to the forester as the price of omniscience. 

And the man took them off, and sold them. And when he had spent 
the money, back he came to the Bodhisatta, saying that the two tusks had 
only brought him enough to pay his old debts, and begging for the rest of 
the Bodhisatta's ivory. The Bodhisatta consented, and gave up the rest 
of his ivory after having it cut as before. And the forester went away 
and sold this also. Returning again, he said, " It's no use, my lord ; 1 
can't make a living anvhow. So give me the stumps of your tusks." 

" So be it," answei'ed the Bodhisatta ; and he lay down as before. 
Then that vile wretch, trampling upon the trunk of the Bodhisatta, that 
sacred trunk which was like corded silver, and clambering upon the future 
Buddha's temples, which were as the snowy eldest of Mount Kelasa, — kicked 
at the roots of the tusks till he had cleared the flesh away. Then he sawed 
out the stumps and went his way. But scarce had the wretch passed out 
of the sight of the Bodhisatta, when the solid earth, inconceivable in its 
vast extent, [322] which can support the mighty weight of Mount Sineru 
and its encircling peaks, with all the world's unsavoury filth and ordure, 
now burst asunder in a yawning chasm, — as though unable to bear the 
burthen of all that wickedness ! And straightway flames from nethermost 
Hell enveloped the ingrate, wrapping him round as in a shroud of doom, 
and V)oie him awa}'. And as the wretch was swallowed up in the bowels 
of the earth, th(j Tree-fairy that dwelt in that forest made the region echo 

No. 73. 177 

with these words : — " Not even the gift of worldwide empire can satisfy 
the thankless and ungrateful ! " And in the following stanza the Fairy 
taught the Truth : — 

Ingratitude lacks more, the more it gets; 
Not all the world can glut its appetite. 

With such teachings did the Tree-fairy make that forest re-echo. As 
for the Bodhisatta, he lived out his life, passing away at last to fare 
accordiner to his deserts. 

Said the Master, "This is not the first time, Brethren, that Devadatta has 
proved an ingrate; he was just the same in the past also." His lesson ended, he 
identified the Birth by saying, "Devadatta was the ungrateful man of those 
days, Sariputta the Tree-fairy, and I myself Good King Elephant." 

{Note. Of. Milinda-pauho 202, 29.] 

No. 73. 


"TVjey hieiv the zrorM."— This story was told by the Master while at the 
Bamboo-grove, about going about to kill. For, seated in the Hall of Truth, the 
Brotherhood was talking of Devadatta's wickedness, saying, "Sirs, Devadatta 
has no knowledge of the Master's excellence; he actually goes about to kill 
him !" Here the Master entered the Hall and asked what they were discussing. 
[323] Being told, he said, "This is not the finst time, Brethren, that Devadatta 
has gone about to kill me; he did just the same in bygone days also." And so 
saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares. He had a son 
named Prince Wicked. Fierce and cruel was he, like a scotched snake ; 
he spoke to nobody without abuse or blows. Like grit in the eye was this 
prince to all folk both within and without the palace, or like a ravening 
ogre, — so dreaded and fell was he. 

One day, wishing to disport himself in the river, he went with a large 
retinue to the water side. And a great storm came on, and utter darkness 
set in. " Hi there ! " cried he to his servants ; " take me into mid-stream, 

c. J. 12 

178 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

bathe me there, and then bring me back again." So they took him into 
mid-stream and there took counsel together, saying, "What will the king 
do to lis 1 Let us kill this wicked wretch here and now ! So in you go, 
you pest ! " they cried, as they flung him into the water. When they 
made their way ashore, they were asked where the prince was, and replied, 
" We don't see him ; finding the storm come on, he must have come out of 
the river and gone home ahead of us," 

The courtiers went into the king's presence, and the king asked where 
his son was. " We do not know, sire," said they ; " a storm came on, and 
we came away in the belief that he must have gone on ahead." At once 
the king had the gates thrown open ; down to the riverside he went and 
bade diligent search be made up and down for the missing prince. But 
no trace of him could be found. For, in the darkness of the storm, he had 
been swept away by the current, and, coming across a tree-trunk, had 
climbed on to it, and so floated down stream, crying lustily in the agony 
of his fear of drowning. 

Now there had been a rich merchant living in those days at Benares, 
who had died, leaving forty crores buried in the banks of that same river. 
And because of his craving for riches, he was reborn as a snake at the 
spot under which lay his dear treasui'e. And also in the se'lfsame spot 
another man had hidden thirty crores, and because of his craving for 
riches was re-born as a rat at the same spot. In rushed the water into 
their dwelling-place ; and the two creatures, escaping by the way by which 
the water rushed in, were making their way athwart the stream, when 
they chanced upon the tree-trunk to which the prince was clinging. [324] 
The snake climbed up at one end, and the rat at the other ; and so both 
got a footing with the prince on the trunk. 

Also there grew on the river's bank a Silk-cotton tree, in which lived 
a young parrot; and this tree, being uprooted by the swollen waters, fell 
into the river. The heavy rain beat down the parrot when it tried to fly, 
and it alighted in its fall upon this same tree-trunk. And so there were 
now these four floating down stream together upon the tree. 

Now the Bodhisatta had been re-born in those days as a brahmin in 
the North-West country. Renouncing the world for the hermit's life on 
reaching manhood, he had built himself a hermitage by a bend of the 
river ; and there he was now living. As he was pacing to and fro, at 
midnight, he heard the loud cries of the prince, and thought thus within 
himself: — "This fellow-creature must not perish thus before the eyes of 
so merciful and compassionate a hermit as I am. I will rescue him from 
the water, and save his life." So he shouted cheerily, "Be not afraid! Be 
not afraid !" and plunging across stream, seized hold of the tree by one end, 
and, being as strong as an elephant, drew it in to tlie bank with one long 
pull, and set the prince safe and sound upon the shore. Then becoming 

No. 73. 179 

aware of the snake and the rat and the parrot, he carried them to his 
hermitage, and there lighting a fire, warmed the animals first, as being 
the weaker, and afterwards the prince. This done, he brought fruits of 
various kinds and set them before his guests, looking after the animals 
first and the prince afterwards. This enraged the young prince, who said 
within himself, "This rascally hermit pays no respect to my royal birth, 
but actually gives brute beasts precedence over me." And he conceived 
hatred against the Bodhisatta ! 

A few days later, when all four had recovered their strength and the 
waters had subsided, the snake bade farewell to the hermit with these 
words, "Father, you have done me a great service. I am not poor, for I 
have forty crores of gold hidden at a certain spot. Should you ever 
want money, all my hoard shall be yours. You have only to come to the 
spot and call 'Snake.'" Next the rat took his leave with a like promise 
to the hermit as to his treasure, bidding the hermit come and call out 
'Rat.' [325] Then the parrot bade farewell, saying, "Father, silver and gold 
have I none ; but should you ever want for choice rice, come to where 
I dwell and call out 'Parrot;' and I with the aid of my kinsfolk will give 
you many waggon-loads of rice." Last came the prince. His heart was 
filled with base ingratitude and with a determination to put his benefactor 
to death, if the Bodhisatta should come to visit him. But, concealing his 
intent, he said, "Come, father, to me when I am king, and I will bestow 
on you the Four Requisites." So saying, he took his departure, and not 
long after succeeded to the throne. 

The desire came on the Bodhisatta to put their professions to the test ; 
and first of all he went to the snake and standing hard by its abode, called 
out 'Snake.' At the word the snake darted forth and with every mark 
of respect said, "Father, in this place there are forty crores in gold. Dig 
them up and take them all." "It is well," said the Bodhisatta; "when I 
need thejn, I will not forget." Then bidding adieu to the snake, he went 
on to where the rat lived, and called out 'Rat.' And the rat did as the 
snake had done. Going next to the parrot, and calling out 'Parrot,' the 
bird at once flew down at his call from the tree-top, and respectfully asked 
whether it was the Bodhisatta's wish that he with the aid of his kinsfolk 
should gather paddy for the Bodhisatta from the region round the Hima- 
layas. The Bodhisatta dismissed the parrot also with a promise that, if need 
arose, he would not forget the bird's offer. Last of all, being minded to 
test the king in his turn, the Bodhisatta came to the royal pleasaunce, and 
on the day after his arrival made his way, carefully dressed, into the city 
on his round for alms. Just at that moment, the ungrateful king, seated 
in all his royal splendour on his elephant of state, was passing in solemn 
procession round the city followed by a vast retinue. Seeing the Bodhi- 
satta from afar, he thought to himself, "Here's that rascally hermit come 


180 The Jataka. Booh I. 

to quarter himself and his appetite on me. I must have his head off 
before he can publish to the world the service he rendered me." With 
this intent, he signed to his attendants, and, on their asking what was 
his pleasure, said, "Methinks yonder rascally hermit is here to importune 
me. See that the pest does not come near my person, but seize and bind 
him; [326] flog him at every street-corner; and then march him out of 
the city, chop off his head at the place of execution, and impale his 
body on a stake." 

Obedient to their king's command, the attendants laid the innocent 
Great Being in bonds and flogged him at every street-corner on the way 
to the place of execution. But all their floggings failed to move the 
Bodhisatta or to wring from him any cry of "Oh, my mother and father !" 
All he did was to repeat this Stanza : — 

They knew the world, who framed this proverb true — 
'A log pays better salvage than some men.' 

These lines he repeated wherever he was flogged, till at last the wise 
among the bystanders asked the hermit what service he had rendei'ed 
to their king. Then the Bodhisatta told the whole story, ending with 
the words, — "So it comes to pass that by rescuing him from the torrent I 
brought all this woe upon myself. And when I bethink me how I have 
left unheeded the words of the wise of old, I exclaim as you have heard." 

Filled with indignation at the recital, the nobles and brahmins and all 
classes with one accord cried out, "This ungrateful king does not recognise 
even the goodness of this good man who saved his majesty's life. How 
can we have any profit from this king 1 Seize the tyrant ! " And in 
their anger they rushed upon the king from every side, and slew him 
there and then, as he rode on his elephant, with arrows and javelins and 
.stones and clubs and any weapons that came to hand. The corpse they 
dragged by the heels to a ditch and flung it in. Then they anointed the 
Bodhisatta king and set him to rule over them. 

As he was ruling in righteousness, one day [327] the desire came on him 
again to try the snake and the rat and the paiTot ; and followed by a 
large retinue, he came to where the snake dwelt. At the call of 'Snake,' 
out came the snake from his hole and with every mark of respect said, 
"Here, my lord, is your treasure ; take it." Then the king delivered the 
forty crores of gold to his attendants, and proceeding to where the rat 
dwelt, called, 'Rat.' Out came the rat, and saluted the king, and gave up 
its thirty crores. Placing this treasure too in the hands of his attendants, 
the king went on to where the parrot dwelt, and called 'Parrot.' And in 
like manner the bird came, and bowing down at the king's feet asked 
whether it should collect rice for his majesty. "We will not trouble you," 
said the king, "till rice is needed. Now let us be going." So with the 

No. 74. 181 

seventy crores of gold, and with the rat, the snake, and the parrot as well, 
the king journeyed back to the city. Here, in a noble palace, to the state- 
story of which he mounted, he caused the treasure to be lodged and 
guarded ; he had a golden tube made for the snake to dwell in, a crystal 
casket to house the rat, and a cage of gold for the parrot. Every day too 
by the king's command food was served to the three creatures in vessels of 
gold, — sweet parched-corn for the pari'ot and snake, and scented rice for 
the rat. And the king abounded in charity and all good works. Thus in 
harmony and goodwill one with another, these four lived their lives ; and 
when their end came, they passed away to fare according to their deserts. 

Said the Master, "This is not the first time, Brethren, that Devadatta has 
gone about to kill me; he did the hke in the past also." His lesson ended, he 
shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, " De\'adatta was King 
Wicked in those days, Sariputta the snake, Moggallana the rat, Ananda the parrot, 
and I myself the righteous King who won a kingdom." 

No. 74. 


" United, forest-like."— This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a quarrel concerning water which had brought woe upon his kinsfolk. 
Knowing of this, he passed through the air, sat cross-legged above the river 
RohinI, and emitted rays of darkness, startling his kinsfolk. Then descending 
from mid-air, he seated himself on the river-bank and told this story with refer- 
ence to that quarrel. (Only a siimmary is given here ; the full details will be 
related in the Kunala-j.atakai.) But on this occasion the Master addressed his 
kinsfolk, [328] saying, " It is meet, sire, that kinsfolk should dwell together in 
concord and unity. P'or, when kinsfolk are at one, enemies find no opportunity. 
Not to speak of human beings, even sense-lacking trees ought to stand together. 
For in bygone days in the Himalayas a tempest struck a Sal-forest ; yet, 
because the trees, shrubs, bushes, and creepers of that forest were interlaced one 
with another, the tempest could not overthrow even a single tree but passed 
harmlessly over their heads. But alone in a courtyard stood a mighty tree ; and 
though it had many stems and bi'anches, yet, because it was not united with 
other trees, the tempest uprooted it and laid it low. Wherefore, it is meet that 
you too should dwell together in concord and unity." And so saying, at their 
request he told this story of the past. 

1 No. 536. 

182 The Jataka. Book I. 

Once on a time wheu Bralimadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
first King Vessavana^ died, and Sakka sent a new king to reign in his 
stead. After the change, the new King Vessavana sent word to all trees 
and shrubs and bushes and plants, bidding the tree-fairies each choose out 
the abode that liked them best. In those days the Bodhisatta had come 
to life as a tree-foiry in a Sal-forest in the Himalayas. His advice to his 
kinsfolk in choosiug their habitations was to shun trees that stood alone 
in the open, and to take up their abodes all round the abode which he 
had chosen in that Sal-forest. Hereon the wise ti-ee-fairies, following the 
Bodhisatta's advice, took up their quarters round his tree. But the 
foolish ones said, — "Why should we dwell in the forest? let us rather 
seek out the haunts of men, and take up our abodes outside villages, 
towns, or capital cities. For fairies who dwell in such places receive 
the richest offerings and the greatest worship." So they departed to the 
haunts of men, and took up their abode in certain giant trees which grew 
in an open space. 

Now it fell out upon a day that a mighty tempest swept over the 
country. Naught did it avail the solitary trees that years had rooted 
them deep in the soil and that they were the mightiest trees that grew. 
Their bi'anches snapped ; their stems were broken ; and they themselves 
were uprooted and flung to earth by the tempest. But when it broke on 
the Sal-forest of interlacing trees, its fury was in vain ; for, attack where 
it might, not a tree could it overthrow. 

The forlorn fairies whose dwellings were destroyed, took their children 
in their arms and journeyed to the Himalayas. There they told their 
sorrows to the fairies of the Sal-forest, [329] who in turn told the Bodhi- 
satta of their sad return. "It was because they hearkened not to the 
words of wisdom, that they have been brought to this," said be ; and he 
unfolded the truth in this stanza : — 

United, forest-like, should kinsfolk stand ; 
The storm o'erthrows the solitary tree. 

So spake the Bodhisatta ; and when his life was spent, he passed away 
to fare according to his deserts. 

And the Master went on to say, "Thus, sire, reflect how meet it is that 
knisfolk at any rate should be united, and lovingly dwell together in concord and 
unity." His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, " The Buddha's 
followers were the fairies of those days, and I myself the wise fairy." 

^ A name of Kuvera. 

No. 75. 183 

No. 75. 


" Fajjunna, thimder ! " — This story the Master told while at Jetavana, abovit 
the rain he caused to fell. For in those days, so it is said, there fell no rain in 
Kosala ; the crops withered ; and everywhere the ponds, tanks, and lakes dried 
up. Even the pool of Jetavana by the embattled gateway of Jetavana gave out ; 
and the tish and tortoises buried themselves in the mud. Then came the crows 
and hawks with their lance-like beaks, and busily picked them out writhing and 
wriggling, and devoured them. 

As he marked how the hshes and the tortoises were being destroyed, the 
Master's heart was moved with compassion, and he exclaimed, — "This day [330] 
must I cause rain to fall." So, when the night grew day, after attending to his 
bodily needs, he waited till it was the proper hour to go the roimd in quest of 
alms, and then, girt round by a host of the Brethren, and perfect with the 
perfection of a Buddha, he went into Silvattlii for alms. On his way back to the 
monastery in the afternoon from his round for alms in Savatthi, he stoj^ped upon 
the steps leading down to the tank of Jetavana, and thus addressed the Elder 
Ananda : — " Bring me a bathing-dress, Ananda ; for I would bathe in the tank of 
Jetavana." " But surely, sir," replied the Elder, " the water is all dried up, and 
only mud is left." "Great is a Buddha's power, Ananda. Go, bring me the 
bathing-dress," said the Master. So the Elder went and brought the bathing- 
dress, which the Master donned, using one end to go round his waist, and 
covering his body up with the other. So clad, he took his stand upon the tank- 
steps, and exclaimed, — "1 would fain bathe in the tank of Jetavana." 

That instant the yellow-stone throne of Sakka grew hot beneath him, and he 
sought to discover tlie cause. Realising what was the matter, he summoned the 
King of the Storm-Glouds, and said, " The Master is standing on the steps of the 
tank of Jetavana, and wishes to bathe. Make haste and pour down rain in a 
single torrent over all the kingdom of Kosala." Obedient to Sakka's command, 
the King of the Storm-Clouds clad himself in one cloud as an under garment, 
and another cloud as an outer garment, and chaunting the rain-song i, he darted 
forth eastward. And lo ! he appeared in the east as a cloud of the bigness of a 
threshing-floor, which grew and grew till it was as big as a hundred, as a 
thousand, threshing-floors ; and he thundered and lightened, and bending down 
his face and mouth deluged all Kosala with torrents of rain. Unbroken was the 
downpour, quickly hlling the tank of Jetavana, and stopping only when the 
water was level with the topmost step. Then the Master bathed in the tank, 
and coming up out of the water donned his two orange-coloured cloths and his 
girdle, adjusting his Buddha-robe around him so as to leave one shoulder bare. 
In this guise he set forth, surrounded by the Brethren, and passed into his 
Perfumed Chamber, fragrant with sweet-smelling flowers. Here on the Buddha- 
seat he sate, and when the Brethren had performed their duties, he rose and 
exhorted the Brotherhood from the jewelled steps of his throne,, and dismissed 
them from his presence. Passing now within his own sweet-smelling odorous 
chamber, he stretched himself, lion-like, upon his right side. 

At even, the Brethren gathered together in the Hall of Truth, and dwelt on 
the forbearance and loving-kindness of the Master. "When the crops were 
withering, when the pools were drying up, and the hshes and tortoises were in 
grievous plight, then did he in his compassion come forth as a saviour. Donning 
a bathing-dress, he stood on the steps of the tank of Jetavana, and in a little 

1 In the J. R. A. S. (New Series) 12, 286, is given a Megha-sutra. 

184 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

space made the rain to pour down from the heavens till it seemed like to over- 
whelm all Kosala with its torrents. And by the time he returned to the Monastery, 
he had freed all alike from their tribulations both of mind and body." 

[331] So ran their talk when the Master came forth from his Perfumed Cham- 
ber into the Hall of Truth, and asked what was their theme of conversation ; and 
they told him. "This is not the first time, Brethren," said the Master, "that 
the Blessed One has made the rain to fall in the hour of general need. He did 
the like when born into the brute-creation, in the days when he was King of the 
Fish." And so saying, he told this story of the past : — 

Once on a time, in this selfsame kingdom of Kosala and at Savatthi 
too, there was a pond where the tank of Jetavana now is, — a pond fenced 
in by a tangle of climbing plants. Therein dwelt the Bodhisatta, who 
had come to life as a fish in those days. And, then as now, there was a 
drought in the land ; the crops withered ; water gave out in tank and 
pool ; and the fishes and tortoises buried themselves in the mud. Like- 
wise, when the fishes and tortoises of this pond had hidden themselves in 
its mud, the crows and other birds, flocking to the spot, picked them out 
with their beaks and devoured them. Seeing the fate of his kinsfolk, and 
knowing that none but he could save them in their hour of need, the 
Bodhisatta resolved to make a solemn Profession of Goodness, and by its 
efficacy to make rain fall from the heavens so as to save his kinsfolk from 
certain death. So, parting asunder the black mud, he came forth, — a 
mighty fish, blackened with mud as a casket of the finest sandal-wood 
which has been smeared with collyrium. Opening his eyes which were as 
washen rubies, and looking up to the heavens he thus bespoke Pajjunna, 
King of Devas, — "My heart is heavy within me for my kinsfolk's sake, 
my good Pajjunna. How comes it, pray, that, when I who am righteous am 
distressed for my kinsfolk, you send no rain from heaven ? For I, though 
born where it is customary to prey on one's kinsfolk, have never from my 
youth up devoured any fish, even of the size of a grain of rice ; nor have 
I ever robbed a single living creature of its life. By the truth of this my 
Protestation, I call upon you to send rain and succour my kinsfolk." 
Therewithal, he called to Pajjunna, King of Devas, as a master might 
call to a servant, in this stanza : — [332] 

Pajjunna, thunder ! Baffle, thwart, the crow ! 
Breed sorrow's pangs in him ; ease me of woe ! 

In such wise, as a master might call to a servant, did the Bodhisatta 
call to Pajjunna, thereby causing heavy rains to fall and relieving 
numbers from the fear of death. And when his life closed, he passed 
away to fare according to his deserts. 

No. 7G. 185 

"So this is not the first time, Brethren," said the Master, "that the Blessed 
One has caused the rain to fall. He did the like in bygone days, when he was a 
fish." His lesson ended, he identified the Birth by saying, "The Buddha's 
disciples were the fishes of those days, Ananda was Pajjunna, King of Devas, and 
I myself the King of the Fish." 

[Note. Cf. Cariya-pitaka (P. T. S. edition) page 99.] 

No. 76. 


" The village breeds no fear in vie." — This story was told by the Master while 
at Jetavana, about a lay-brother who lived at Savatthi. Tradition says that this 
man, who had entered the Paths and was an earnest believer, was once journey- 
ing along on some business or other in the company of a leader of a caravan ; in 
the jungle the carts were unyoked and a laager was constructed ; and the good 
man began to pace up and down at the foot of a certain tree hard by the 

Now five hundred robbers, who had watched their time, had surrounded the 
spot, armed with bows, clubs, and other weapons, with the object of looting the 
encampment. [333] Still unceasingly that lay-brother paced to and fro. " Surely 
that must be their sentry," said the robbers when they noticed him ; " we will 
wait till he is asleep and then loot them." So, being unable to surpiise the 
camp, they stopped where they were. Still that lay-brother kept pacing to and 
fro, — all through the first watch, all through the middle watch, and all through 
the last watch of the night. When day dawned, the robbers, who had never had 
their chance, thi'ew down the stones and clubs which they had brought, and 

His business done, that lay-brother came back to Savatthi, and, approaching 
the Master, asked him this question, " In guarding themselves. Sir, do men prove 
guardians of others ? " 

" Yes, lay-brother. In guai'ding himself a man guards others ; in guarding 
others, he guards himself." 

" Oh, how well-said, sir, is this utterance of the Blessed One ! When I was 
journeying with a caravan-leader, I resolved to guard myself by pacing to and 
fro at the foot of a tree, and by so doing I guarded the whole caravan." 

Said the Master, " Lay-brother, in bygone days too the wise and good guarded 
others whilst guarding themselves." And, so saying, at the lay-brother's request 
he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as a brahmin. Arriving at years of discretion, 
he became aware of the evils that spring from Lusts, and so forsook the 

186 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

world to live as a recluse in the country round the Himalayas. Need of 
salt and vinegar having led him to make a pilgrimage for alms through 
the countryside, he travelled in the course of his wanderings with a 
merchant's caravan. When the caravan halted at a certain spot in the 
forest, he paced to and fro at the foot of a tree, hard by the caravan, 
enjoying the bliss of Insight. 

Now after supper jfive hundred robbers surrounded the laager to 
plunder it; but, noticing the ascetic, they halted, saying, "If he sees us, 
he'll give the alarm ; wait till he drops off to sleep, and then we'll plunder 
them." But all through the livelong night the ascetic continued to 
pace up and down ; and never a chance did the robbers get ! So they 
flung away their sticks and stones and shouted to the caravan-folk; — "Hi, 
there ! you of the caravan ! If it hadn't been for that ascetic walking about 
under the tree, we'd have plundered the lot of you. Mind and fete him 
tomorrow!" And so saying, they made off. When the night gave place to 
light, the people .saw the clubs and .stones which the robbers had cast away, 
[334] and came in fear and trembling to ask the Bodhisatta with respectful 
salutation whether he had seen the robbers. "Oh, yes, I did, sirs," he 
replied. "And were you not alarmed or afraid at the sight of so many 
robbers]" "No," said the Bodhisatta; "the sight of robbers causes what 
is known as fear only to the rich. As for me, — I am penniless; why 
should I be afraid ] Whether I dwell in village or in forest, I never have 
any fear or dread." And therewithal, to teach them the Truth, he 
repeated tliis stanza : — 

The village breeds no fear in me; 

No forests me dismay. 
I've won by love and charity 

Salvation's perfect way. 

When the Bodhisatta had thus taught the Truth in this stanza to the 
people of the caravan, peace filled their hearts, and they shewed him 
honour and veneration. All his life long he developed the Four Excellences, 
and then was re-born into the Brahma Realm. 

His lesson ended, the Master shewed the connexion and identified the Birth 
by saying, "The Buddha's followers were the caravan-folk of those days, and I 
the ascetic." 

No. 77. 187 

No. 77. 


'■'■ Bulls first, and trees." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavaua 
about sixteen wonderful dreams. For in the last watch of one night (so tra- 
dition says) the King of Kosala, who had been asleep all the night, dreamed 
sixteen great dreams, [335] and woke up in great fright and alarm as to what 
they might portend for him. So strong was the fear of death upon him that he 
could not stir, but lay there huddled up on his bed. Now, when the night grew 
light, his brahmins and chaplains came to him and with due obeisance asked 
whether his majesty had slept well. 

"How could I sleep well, my directors?" answered the king. "For just at 
daybreak I dreamed sixteen wonderful dreams, and I have been in terror ever 
since ! Tell me, my directors, what it all means." 

"We shall be able to judge, on hearing them." 

Then the king told them his dreams, and asked what those visions woidd 
entail upon him. 

The brahmins fell a- wringing their hands! "Why wring your hands, 
brahmins?" asked the king. "Because, sire, these are evil dreams." "What 
will come of them?" said the king. "One of three calamities, — harm to your 
kingdom, to your life, or to your riches." "Is there a remedy, or is there not?" 
"Undoubtedly these dreams in themselves are so threatening as to be without 
remedy ; but none the less we will tind a remedy for them. Otherwise, what 
boots our much study and learning I" "What then do you propose to do to 
avert the evil?" "Wherever four roads meet, we would offer sacrifice, sire." 
"Aly directors," cried the king in his terror, "my life is in your hands; make 
haste and work my safety." "Large sums of money, and large supplies of food 
of every kind will be ours," thought the exultant brahmins; and, bidding the 
king have no feai', they departed from the palace. Outside the town they dug a 
sacrihcial pit and collected a host of fourfooted creatures, perfect and without 
blemish, and a multitude of birds. But still they discovered something lacking, 
and back they kept coming to the king to ask for this that and the other. Now 
their doings were watched by Queen Mallika, who came to the king and asked 
what made these brahmins keep coming to him. 

"I envy you," said the king; "a snake in your ear, and you not to know of 
it!" "What does your majesty mean?" "I have dreamed, oh such unlucky 
dreams ! The brahmins tell me they point to one of three calamities ; and they 
are anxious to offer sacrifices to avert the evil. And this is what brings them 
here so often." "But has your majesty consulted the Chief Brahmin both of this 
world and of the world of devas?" "Who, pray, may he be, my dear?" asked the 
king. "Know you not that chiefest personage of all the world, the all-knowing 
and pure, the spotless master-brahmin ? Surely, he, the Blessed One, will under- 
stand your dreams. Go, ask him." "And so I will, my queen," said the king. 
And away he went to the monastery, saluted the Master, and sat down. "What, 
pray, brings your majesty here so early in the morning?" asked the Master in 
his sweet tones. "Sir," said the king, "just before daybreak [336] I dreamed 
sixteen wonderful dreams, which so terrified me that I told them to the 
brahmins. They told me that my dreams boded evil, and that to avert the 
threatened calamity they must offer sacrifice wherever fom- roads met. And so 
they are busy with their preparations, and many living creatures have the fear 
of death before their eyes. But I pray you, who are the chiefest personage in 
the world of men and devas, you into whose ken comes all possible knowledge of 
things past and present and to be, — I pray you tell me what will come of my 
dreams, Blessed One." 

The Jataka. Booh I. 

"True it is, sire, that there is none other save me, who can tell what your 
dreams signify or what will come of them. 1 will tell you. Only first of all 
relate to me your dreams as they appeared to you." 

" I will, sir," said the king, and at once began this list, following the order of 
the dreams' ajipearance : — 

Bulls first, and trees, and cows, and calves, 

Horse, dish, she-jackal, waterpot, 

A pond, raw rice, and sandal-wood. 

And gourds that sank, and stones that swam^. 

With frogs that gobbled up black snakes, 

A crow with gay-plumed retinue, 

And wolves in panic-fear of goats ! 

"How was it, sir, that I had the following one of my dreams? Methought, 
four black bulls, like collyrium in hvie, came from the four cardinal directions to 
the royal courtyard with avowed intent to fight ; and people flocked together to 
see the bull-fight, till a gi'eat crowd had gathered. But the bulls only made a 
show of fighting, roared and bellowed, and finally went oft" without fighting at all. 
This was my first dream. What will come of it V 

"Sire, that dream shall have no issue in your days or in mine. But here- 
after, when kings shall be niggardly and unrighteous, and when folk shall be un- 
righteous, in days when the world is perverted, when good is waning and evil 
waxing apace, — in those days of the world's backsliding there shall fall no rain 
from the heavens, the feet of the storm shall be lamed, the crojjs shall wither, and 
famine shall be on the land. Then shall the clouds gather as if for rain from the 
four quarters of the heavens ; there shall be haste first to carry indoors the rice 
and crops that the women have spread in the sun to dry, for fear the harvest 
should get wet ; and then with spade and basket in hand the men shall go forth 
to bank up the dykes. As though in sign of coming rain, the thunder shall 
bellow, the lightning shall flash from the clouds, — but even as the bulls in your 
dream, that fought not, so the clouds shall flee away without raining. This is 
what shall come of this dream. But no harm shall come therefrom to you; 
[337] for it was with regard to the futiu-e that you dreamed this dream. What 
the brahmins told you, was said only to get themselves a livelihood." And when 
the Master had thus told the fulfilment of this dream, he said, "Tell me your 
second dream, sire." 

"Sir," said the king, "my second dream was after this manner: — Methought 
little tiny trees and shrubs burst through the soil, and when they had grown 
scarce a span or two high, they flowered and bore fruit ! This was my second 
dream ; what shall come of it ?" 

"Sire," said the Master, "this dream shall have its fulfilment ill days when 
the world has fallen into decay and when men ai'e shortlived. In times to come 
the passions shall be strong ; quite young girls shall go to live with men, and it 
shall be with them after the manner of women, they shall conceive and bear 
children. The flowers typify their issues, and the fruit their ofl^spring. But 
you, sire, have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your third dream, O great 

"Methought, sir, I saw cows sucking the milk of calves which they had borne 
that selfsame day. This was my third dream. What shall come of it?" 

" This dream too shall have its fulfilment only in days to come, when respect 
shall cease to be paid to age. For in the future men, shewing no reverence for 
parents or parents-in-law, shall themselves administer the family estate, and, 
if such be their good pleasure, shall bestow food and clothing on the old folks, 
but shall withhold their gifts, if it be not their pleasure to give. Then shall the 
old folks, destitute and dependent, exist by favour of their own children, like big 
cows suckled by calves a day old. But you have nothing to fear therefrom. 
Tell me your fourth dream." 

1 See Maha-Vlra-Carita, p. 13, Mahabharata ii. 2196. 

No. 77. 189 

"Methought, sir, I saw men unyoking a team of draught-oxen, sturdy and 
strong, and setting young steers to draw the load ; and the steers, proving un- 
equal to the task laid on them, refused and stood stock-still, so that wains moved 
not on their way. This was my fourth dream. What shall come of it?" 

" Here again the dream shall not have its fulfilment until the future, in the 
days of unrighteous kings. For in days to come, unrighteous and niggardly 
kings shall shew no honour to wise lords skilled in precedent, fertile in expedient, 
and able to get through business ; nor shall appoint to the courts of law and 
justice aged councillors of wisdom and of learning in the law. Nay, they shall 
honour the very young and foolish, and appoint such to preside in the courts. 
And these latter, ignorant alike of state-craft and of practical knowledge, shall 
not be able to bear the burthen of their honours or to govern, but because of 
their incompetence shall throw off the yoke of office. Whereon the aged and 
wise lords, albeit right able to cope with all difficulties, shall keep in mind how 
they were passed over, and shall decline to aid, saying: — 'It is no business of 
ours ; we are outsiders ; let the boys of the inner circle see to it.' [338] Hence 
they shall stand aloof, and ruin shall assail those kings on every hand. It shall 
be even as when the yoke was laid on the young steers, who were not strong 
enough for the burthen, and not upon the team of sturdy and strong draught- 
oxen, who alone were able to do the work. Howbeit, you have nothing to fear 
therefrom. Tell me your fifth dream." 

"Methought, sir, I saw a horse with a mouth on either side, to which fodder 
was given on both sides, and it ate with both its mouths. This was my fifth 
dream. What shall come of it ?" 

"This dream too shall have its fulfilment only in the future, in the days of 
unrighteous and foolish kings, who shall appoint unrighteous and covetous men 
to be judges. These base ones, fools, despising the good, shall take bribes from 
both sides as they sit in the seat of judgment, and shall be filled with this two- 
fold corruption, even as the horse that ate fodder with two mouths at once. 
Howbeit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your sixth dream." 

"Methought, sir, I saw people holding out a well-scoured golden bowl worth 
a hundred thousand pieces, and begging an old jackal to stale therein. And I 
saw the beast do so. This was my sixth dream. What shall come of it?" 

"This dream too shall only have its fulfilment in the future. For in the 
days to come, unrighteous kings, though sprung of a race of kings, mistrusting 
the scions of their old nobility, shall not honour them, but exalt in their stead 
the low-born ; whereby the nobles shall be brought low and the low-born raised 
to lordship. Then shall the great families be brouglit by very need to seek to 
live by dependence on the upstarts, and shall offer them their daughters in 
marriage. And the union of the noble maidens with the low-born shall be like 
unto the staling of the old jackal in the golden bowl. Howbeit, you have 
nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your seventh dream." 

"A man was weaving rope, sir, and as he wove, he threw it down at his feet. 
Under his bench lay a hungry she-jackal, which kept eating the rope as he wove, 
but without the man knowing it. This is what I saw. This was my seventh 
dream. What shall come of it?"^ 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the future. For in days to 
come, women shall lust after men and strong drink and finery and gadding 
abroad and after the joys of this world. In their wickedness and profligacy 
these women shall drink strong drink with their paramours ; they shall flaunt in 
garlands and perfumes and unguents ; and heedless of even the most pressing of 
their household duties, they shall keep watching for their paramours, even at 
crevices high up in the outer wall ; aye, they shall pound up the very seed-corn 
that should be sown on the morrow so as to provide good cheer ; — in all 
ways shall they plunder the store won by the hard work of their husbands in 
field and byre, devouring the poor men's substance even as the hungry jackal 
under the bench ate up the rope of the rope-maker as he \v(we it. [339] How- 
beit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your eighth dream." 

^ Cf. the story of Ocnus in Pausanias x. 29. 

190 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

"Methought, sir, I saw at a palace gate a big pitcher which was full to the 
brim and stood amid a nmiiber of empty ones. And from the four cardinal 
points, and from the four intermediate points as well, there kept coming a 
constant stream of })eople of all the four castes, carrying water in pipkins and 
pouring it into the full pitcher. And the water overflowed and ran away. But 
none the less they still kept on pouring more and more water into the over- 
flowing vessel, without a single man giving so much as a glance at the empty 
l^itchers. This was my eighth dream. Wliat shall come of it?" 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment imtil the futiu-e. For in days to 
come the world shall decay; the kingdom shall grow weak, its kings shall grow 
poor and niggardly ; the foremost among them shall have no more than 100,000 
l)ieces of money in his treasury. Then shall these kings in their need set the 
whole of the country-folk to work for them ; — for the kings' sake shall the toiling 
folk, leaving their own work, sow grain and pulse, and keep watch and reap and 
thresh and garner ; for the kings' sake shall they plant sugar-canes, make and drive 
sugar-mills, and boil down the molasses ; for the kings' sake shall they lay out 
flower-gardens and orchards, and gather in the fruits. And as they gather in all 
the divers kinds of produce they shall fill the royal garners to overflowing, not 
giving so much as a glance at their own empty barns at home. Thus it shall be 
like filling up the full pitcher, heedless of the quite-empty ones. Howbeit, you 
have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your ninth dream." 

"Methought, sir, I saw a deep pool with shelving banks all round and over- 
grown with the five kinds of lotuses. From every side two-footed creatures and 
four-footed creatures flocked thither to drink of its waters. The depths in the 
middle were muddy, but the water was clear and sparkling at the margin 
where the various creatures went down into the pool. This was my ninth dream. 
What shall come of it?" 

" This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the future. For in days to 
come kings shall grow imrighteous ; they shall rule after their own will and 
pleasure, and shall not execute judgment according to righteousness. These 
kings shall hunger after riches and wax fat on bribes ; they shall not shew mercy, 
love and compassion towai'd their people, but be fierce and cruel, amassing 
wealth by crushing their subjects like sugar-canes in a mill and by taxing them 
even to the uttermost farthing. Unable to pay the oppressive tax, the people 
shall fly from village and town and the like, and take refuge upon the b(jrders of 
the realm ; the heart of the land shall be a wilderness, while tlie borders shall 
teem with people, — even as the water was muddy in the middle of the pool and 
clear at the margin. Howbeit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. [340] Tell 
me your tenth dream." 

"Methought, sir, I saw rice boiling in a pot without getting done. By not 
getting done, I mean that it looked as though it were sharply marked off and 
kept apart, so that the cooking went on in three distinct stages. For part was 
sodden, part hard and raw, and part just cooked to a nicety. This was my tenth 
dream. What shall come of it?" 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the future. For in days 
to come kings shall grow unrighteous; the people surrounding the kings .shall 
grow unrighteous too, as also shall brahmins and householders, townsmen, and 
countryfolk; yes, all people alike shall grow unrighteous, not excepting even 
sages and brahmins. Next, their very tutelary deities — the spirits to whom they 
oft'er sacrifice, the spirits of the trees, and the spirits of the air — shall become 
unrighteous also. The very winds that blow over the realms of these un- 
righteous kings shall grow cruel and lawless ; they shall shake the mansions of 
the skies and thereby kindle the anger of the spirits that dwell there, so that 
they will not sufter rain to fall^or, if it does rain, it shall not fall on all the 
kingdom at once, nor shall the kindly shower fall on all tilled or sown lands alike 
to help them in their need. And, as in the kingdom at large, so in each several 
district and village and over each separate pool or lake, the rain shall not fall at 
one and the same time on its whole expanse; if it rain on the upper part, it 
shall not rain upon the lower; here the crops shall be spoiled by a heavy down- 

No. 77. 191 

pour, there wither for very drought, and here again thrive apace with kindly 
showers to water them. So the crops sown within the confines of a single 
kingdom — like the rice in the one pot — shall have no uniform character. 
Howbeit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your eleventh dream." 

"Methought, sir, I saw sour buttermilk bartered for precious sandal-wood, 
worth 100,000 pieces of money. This was my eleventh dream. What shall 
come of it?" 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the future — in the days 
when my doctrine is waning. For in days to come many greedy and shameless 
Brethren shall arise, who for their belly's sake shall preach the very words 
in which I inveighed against greed ! Because they have deserted by reason 
of their belly and have taken their stand on the side of the sectaries i, they 
shall fail to make their preaching lead up to Nirvana. Nay, their only 
thought, as they preach, shall be by fine words and sweet voices to induce men 
to give them costly raiment and the like, and to be minded to give such gifts. 
Others again seated in the highways, at the street-corners, at the doors of kings' 
palaces, and so forth, shall stoop to preach for money, yea for mere coined 
kahapanas, half-kahapanas, padas, or mjisakas V^ And as they thus barter away 
for food or raiment or for kahapanas and half-kahapanas my doctrine the worth 
whereof is Nirvana, they shall be even as those who barter-ed away for sour 
buttermilk precious sandal-wood worth 100,000 pieces. [341] Howbeit, you have 
nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your twelfth dream." 

"Methought, sir, I saw empty pumpkins sinking in the water. What shall 
come of it?" 

"This dream also shall not have its fulfilment till the future, in the days of 
unrighteous kings, when the world is perverted. For in those days shall kings 
shew favour not to the scions of the nobility, but to the low-born only ; and 
these latter shall become great lords, whilst the nobles sink into poverty. Alike 
in the i-oyal presence, in the palace gates, in the council chamber, and in the 
courts of justice, the words of the low-born alone (whom the empty pumpkins 
typify) shall be stablished, as though they had sunk down till they rested on the 
bottom. So too in the assemblies of the Brotherhood, in the greater and lesser 
conclaves, and in enquiries regarding bowls, robes, lodging, and the like, — the 
counsel only of the wicked and the vile shall be considered to have saving power, 
not that of the modest Brethren. Thus everywhere it shall be as when the 
empty pumpkins sank. Howbeit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me 
your thirteenth dream." 

Hereupon the king said, "Methought, sir, I saw huge blocks of solid rock, as 
big as houses, floating like ships upon the waters. What shall come of it?" 

"This dream also shall not have its fulfilment before such times as those of 
which I have spoken. For in those days unrighteous kings shall shew honour to 
the low-born, who shall become great lords, whilst the nobles sink into poverty. 
Not to the nobles, but to the upstarts alone shall respect be paid. In the royal 
presence, in the council chambei*, or in the courts <jf justice, the words of the 
nobles learned in the law (and it is they whom the solid rocks typify) shall drift 
idly by, and not sink deep into the hearts of men ; when they speak, the up- 
starts shall merely laugh them to scorn, saying, 'What is this these fellows are 
saying?' So too in the assemblies of the Brethren, as afore said, men shall not 
deem worthy of respect the excellent among the Brethren ; the words of such 
shall not sink deep, but drift idly by, — even as when the rocks floated upon the 
waters. Howbeit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your fourteenth 

"Methought, sir, I saw tiny frogs, no bigger than minute flowerets, swiftlj-- 
pursuing huge black snakes, chopping them up like so many lotus-stalks and 
gobbling them up. What shall come of this?" 

1 Reading titthakardnarh pakkhe, as conjectured by FausboU. 

- See Vinaya ii. 294 for the same list ; and see page 6 of Rhys Davids' " Ancient 
Coins and Measures of Ceylon " in Numismata Orieiitalia (Triibner). 

192 The Jataka. Booh L 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till those days to come such as 
those of which I have sjjoken, when the world is decaying. For then shall 
men's passions be so strong, and their lusts so hot, that they shall be the thralls 
of the very youngest of their wives for the time being, at whose sole disposal shall 
be slaves and hired servants, oxen, buff'alos and all cattle, gold and silver, and 
everything that is in the house. Should the poor husband ask where the money 
(say) or a robe is, at once he shall be told that it is where it is, that he should 
mind his own business, and not be so inquisitive as to what is, or is not, in her 
house. And therewithal in divers ways the wives with abuse and goading taunts 
shall establish their dominion over their husbands, as over slaves and bond- 
servants. [342] Thus shall it be like as when the tiny frogs, no bigger than 
minute flowerets, gobbled up the big black snakes. Howbeit, you have nothing 
to fear therefrom. Tell me your fifteenth dream." 

"Methought, sir, I saw a village crow, in which dwelt the whole of the Ten 
Vices, escorted by a retinue of those birds which, because of their golden sheen, 
are called Royal Golden Mallards. What shall come of it?" 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the future, till the reign of 
weakling kings. In days to come kings shall arise who shall know nothing about 
elephants or other arts, and shall be cowards in the field. Fearing to be deposed 
and cast from their royal estate, they shall raise to power not their peers but 
their footmen, bath-attendants, barbers, and such like. Thus, shut out from 
royal favour and unable to support themselves, the nobles shall be reduced to 
dancing attendance on the upstarts, — as when the crow had Royal Golden Swans 
for a retinue. Howbeit, you have nothing to fear therefrom. Tell me your 
sixteenth dream." 

" Heretofore, sir, it always used to be panthers that preyed on goats ; but 
methought I saw goats chasing panthers and devouring them — munch, munch, 
munch ! — whilst at bare sight of the goats afar off, terror-stricken wolves fled 
quaking with fear and hid themselves in their fastnesses in the thickets Such 
was my dream. What shall come of it?" 

"This dream too shall not have its fulfilment till the future, till the reign of 
unrighteous kings. In those days the low-born shall be raised to lordship and be 
made royal favourites, whilst the nobles shall sink into obscurity and distress. 
Gaining infliience in the courts of law because of their favour with the king, 
these upstarts shall claim perforce the ancestral estates, the raiment, and all the 
property of the old nobility. And when these latter plead their rights before 
the courts, then shall the king's minions have them cudgelled and bastinadoed 
and taken by the throat and cast out with words of scorn, such as : — 'Know your 
place, fools! What? do you dispute with us? The king shall know of your 
insolence, and we will have your hands and feet choi^ped off and other correctives 
applied!' Hereupon the terrified nobles shall affirm that their own belongings 
really belong to the overbearing upstarts, and will tell the favourites to accept 
them. And they shall hie them home and there cower in an agony of fear. 
Likewise, evil Brethren shall harry at pleasure good and worthy Brethren, till 
these latter, finding none to help them, shall flee to the jungle. And this 
oppression of the nobles and of the good Brethren by the low-born and by the 
evil brethren, shall be like the scaring of wolves by goats. Howbeit, you have 
nothing to fear therefrom. For this dream too has reference to future times 
only. [343] It was not truth, it was not love for you, that prompted the 
brahmins to prophesy as they did. No, it was greed of gain, and the insight 
that is bred of covetousness, that shaped all their self-seeking utterances." 

Thus did the Master expound the imjiort of these sixteen great dreams, 
adding, — "You, sire, are not the first to have these dreams; they were dreamed 
by kings of bygone days also ; and, then as now, the brahmins found in them a 
pretext for sacrifices ; whereupon, at the instance of the wise and good, the 
Bodhisatta was consulted, and the dreams were expounded by them of old time 

^ Here the Pali interpolates the irrelevant remark that "the word hi is nothing 
more than a particle." 

No. 77. 193 

in just the same manner as they have now been expounded." And so saying, at 
the king's request, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a bralimin in the North country. When he came 
to years of discretion he renounced the world for a hermit's life ; he won 
the higher Knowledges and the Attainments, and dwelt in the Himalaya 
country in the bliss that comes from Insight. 

In those days, in just the same manner, Brahmadatta dreamed these 
dreams at Benares, and enquired of the brahmins concerning them. And 
the brahmins, then as now, set to work at sacrifices. Amongst them was 
a young brahmin of learning and wisdom, a pupil of the king'.s chaplain, 
who addressed his master thus : — "Master, you have taught me the Three 
Vedas. Is there not therein a text that says 'The slaying of one creature 
giveth not life to another'?" "My son, this means money to us, a great 
deal of money. You only seem anxious to spare the king's treasury !" 
"Do as you will, master," said the young brahmin; "as for me, to what 
end shall I tarry longer here with you 1 " And so saying, he left him, and 
betook himself to the royal pleasaunce. 

That selfsame day the Bodhisatta, knowing all this, thought to 
himself: — "If I visi-it to-day the haunts of men, I shall work the deliver- 
ance of a great multitude from their bondage." So, passing through the 
air, he alighted in the royal pleasaunce and seated himself, radiant as a 
statue of gold, upon the Ceremonial Stone. The young brahmin drew 
near and with due obeisance seated himself by the Bodhisatta in all 
friendliness. Sweet converse passed ; and the Bodhisatta asked whether 
the young brahmin thought the king ruled righteously. " Sir," answered 
the young man, "the king is righteous himself; but the brahmins make 
him side with evil. Being consulted by the king as to sixteen dreams 
which he had dreamed, the brahmins clutched at the opportunity for 
sacrifices [34-1:] and set to work thereon. Oh, sir, would it not be a good 
thing that you should offer to make known to the king the real import of 
his dreams and so deliver great numbers of creatures from their dreadf 
"But, my son, I do not know the king, nor he me. Still, if he should 
come here and ask me, I will tell him." " I will bring the king, sir," said 
the young brahmin ; "if you will only be so good as to wait here a minute 
till I come back." And having gained the Bodhisatta's consent, he went 
before the king, and said that there had alighted in the royal pleasaunce 
an air-travelling ascetic, who said he would expound the king's dreams ; 
would not his majesty relate them to this ascetic ? 

When the king heard this, he repaired at once to the pleasaunce with 
a large retinue. Saluting the ascetic, he sat down by the holy man's 

c. J. 13 

194 The Jataka. Book I. 

side, and asked whether it was true that he knew what would come of his 
dreams. "Certainly, sire," said the Bodhisatta ; "but first let me hear 
the dreams as you dreamed them." "Readily, sir," answered the king; 
and he began as follows : — 

Bulls first, and tree.s, and cows, and calves. 

Horse, dish, she-jackal, waterpot, 

A pond, raw rice, and saiulal-wood. 

And gourds that sank, and stones that swam, — 

and so forth, ending uj) with 

And wolves in panic-fear of goats. 

And his majesty went on to tell his dreams in just the same manner as 
that in which King Pasenadi had desci'ibed them. [345] 

"Enough," said the Great Being; "you have nothing to fear or dread 
from all this." Having thus reassured the king, and having freed a great 
multitude from bondage, the Bodhisatta again took \ip his position in mid- 
air, whence he exhorted the king and established him in the Five 
Commandments, ending with these words: — "Henceforth, O king, join 
not with the bi-ahmins in slaughtering animals for sacrifice." His teach- 
ing ended, the Bodhisatta passed straight through the air to his own 
abode. And the king, remaining stedfast in the teaching he liad heard, 
passed away after a life of alms-giving and other good works to fare 
according to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master said, "You have nothing to fear from these 
di'eams; away with the sacrifice!" Having had the sacrifice removed, and 
having saved the lives of a multitude of creatures, he shewed the connexion and 
identified the Birth by saying, "Ananda was the king of those days, Sariputta 
the young Brahmin, and I the ascetic." 

{Pali note. But after the passing of the Blessed One, the Editors of the 
Great Redaction put the three first lines into the Commentary, and making 
the lines from 'And gourds that sank' into one Stanza (therewith) i, put the 
whole story into the First Book.) 

\^Note. Cf Sacy's Kalilah and Dimnah, chapter 14; Benfey's Paiicatantra 
§ 225; J.R.A.S. for 1893 page 509; and Rouse ('A Jataka in Pausanias') in 
'FoMore' i. 409 (1890).] 

1 I am not at all sure tliat this is the correct translation of this difticult and 
corrupt passage. 

No. 78. 195 

No. 78. 


"Both squint."- -This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, about 
a miserly Lord High Treasurer. Hard by the city of Rajagaha, as we are told, 
was a town named Jagghery, and here dwelt a certain Lord High Treasurer, 
known as the ^Millionaire Miser, who was worth eighty crores! Not so much as 
the tiniest drop of oil that a blade of grass will take up, did he either give away 
or consume for his own enjoyment. Bo he made no use of all his wealth either 
for his family or for sages and brahmins : it remained unenjoyed, — like a pool 
haunted by demons. Now, it fell out on a day that the Master arose at dawn 
moved with a gi'eat compassion, and as he reviewed those ripe for conversion 
throughout the universe, he became aware that this Treasurer with his wife 
some four hundred miles away were destined to tread the Paths of Salvation. 

Now the day before, the Lord High Treasurer had gone his way to the palace 
to wait upon the king, and was on his homeward way when he saw a coimtry- 
bumpkin, who was quite empty within, eating a cake stuffed with gruel. The 
sight awoke a craving within him ! But, arrived at his own house, [346] he 
thought to himself,— "If I say I should like a stuffed cake, a whole host of 
people will want to share my meal ; and that means getting through ever so 
much of my rice and ghee and sugar. I mustn't say a word to a soul." So he 
walked about, wrestling with his craving. As hour after hour passed, he grew 
yellower and yellower, and the veins stood out like cords on his emaciated frame. 
Unable at last to bear it any longer, he went to his own room and lay down 
hugging his bed. But still not a word would he say to a soul for fear of wasting 
his substance ! Well, his wife came to him, and, stroking his back, said : "What 
is the matter, my husband^" 

"Nothing," said he. "Perhaps the king has been cross to you?" "No, he 
has not." "Have your children or .servants done anything to annoy you?" 
"Nothing of that kind, either." "Well, then, have you a craving for anytliing?" 
But still not a word would he say, — all because of his preposterous fear that he 
might waste his substance; but lay there speechless on his bed. "Speak, 
husband," said the wife; "tell me what you have a craving for." "Yes," said he 
with a gulp, "I have got a craving for one thing." "And what is that, my 
husband?" "I should like a stuffed cake to eat!" "Now why not have said so 
at once ? You're rich enough ! I'll cook cakes enough to feast the whole town 
of Jagghery." "Why trouble about them? They must work to earn their own 
meal." "Well then, I'll cook only enough for our street." "How rich you are!" 
"Then, I'll cook just enough for our own household." "How extravagant you 
are I" "Very good, I'll cook only enough for our children." "Why bother about 
them?" "Very good then, I'll only provide for our two selves." "Why should 
you be in it?" "Then, I'll cook just enough for you alone," said the wife. 

"Softly," said the Lord High Treasurer; "there are a lot of people on the 
watch for signs of cooking in this place. Pick out broken rice, — being careful to 
leave the whole grain, — and take a brazier and cooking-pots and just a very little 
milk and ghee and honey and molasses ; then up with you to the seventh story 
of the house and do the cooking up there. There I will sit alone and undis- 
turbed to eat." 

Obedient to his wishes, the wife had all the necessary things carried up, 
climbed all the way up herself, sent the servants away, and despatched word to 
the Treasurer to come. Up he climbed, shutting and bolting door after door as 
he ascended, till at last he came to the seventh floor, the door of which he also 
shut fast. Then he sat down. His wife lit the fire in the bi-azier, put her 
pot on, and set about cooking the cakes. 


196 The Jataka. Booh I. 

Now in the early morning, the ]\Iaster had said to the Elder Great Mog- 
gallana, — " Moggallana, this Miser Millionaire [347] in the town of Jagghery near 
Rajagaha, wanting to eat cakes himself, is so afraid of letting others know, that 
he is having them cooked for him right up on the seventh story. Go thither; 
convert the man to self-denial, and by transcendental power transport husband 
and wife, cakes, milk, ghee and all, here to Jetavana. This day I and the five 
hundred Brethren will stay at home, and I will make the cakes furnish them 
with a meal." 

Obedient to the Master's bidding, the Elder by supernatural power passed to 
the town of Jagghery, and rested in mid-air before the chamber-window, duly 
clad in his under and outer cloths, bright as a jewelled image. The unexpected 
sight of the Elder made the Lord High Treasurer quake with fear. Thought he 
to himself, "It was to escape such visitors that I climbed up here: and now 
there's one of them at the window !" And, failing to realise the comprehension of 
that which he must needs comprehend, he sputtered with rage, like sugar and 
salt thrown on the fire, as he biu'st out with — " What will you get, sage, by your 
simply standing in mid-air? Why, you may pace up and down till you've made 
a path in the pathless air, — and yet you'll still get nothing." 

The Elder began to pace to and fro in his place in the air! "What will you 
get by pacing to and fro?" said the Treasurer! "You may sit cross-legged in 
meditation in the air, — but still you'll get nothing." The Elder sat down with 
legs crossed ! Then said the Treasurer, " What will you get by sitting there ? 
You may come and stand on the window-sill ; but even that won't get you any- 
thing!" The Elder took his stand on the window-sill. "What will you get by 
standing on the window-sill? Why, you may belch smoke, and yet you'll still 
get nothing ! " said the Treasurer. Then the Elder belched forth smoke till the 
whole palace was filled with it. The Treasurer's eyes began to smart as though 
pricked with needles ; and, for fear at last that his house might be set on fire, he 
checked himself from adding — "You won't get anything even if you burst into 
flames." Thought he to himself, "This Elder is most persistent! He simply 
won't go away empty-handed ! I must have just one cake given him." So he 
said to his wife, "My dear, cook one little cake and give it to the sage to get rid 
of him." 

So she mixed quite a little dough in a crock. But the dough swelled and 
swelled till it filled the whole crock, and grew to be a great big cake! "What a 
lot you must have used ! " exclaimed the Treasurer at the sight. And he himself 
with the tip of a spoon took a very little of the dough, and put that in the oven 
to bake. But that tiny piece of dough grew larger than the first lump ; and, one 
after another, every piece of dough he took became ever so big ! Then he lost 
heart and said to his wife, "You give him a cake, dear." But, as soon as she 
took one cake from the basket, at once all the other cakes stuck fast to it. So 
she cried out to her husband that all the cakes had stuck together, and that she 
could not part them. 

"Oh, I'll soon ptirt them," said he, — but found he could not ! 

Then husband and wife both took hold of the mass of cakes at the corner and 
tried to get them apart. But tug as they might, they could make no more 
impression together than they did singly, on the mass. Now as the Treasurer 
was pulling away at the cakes, he burst into a perspiration, and his craving left 
him. Then said he to his wife, "I don't want the cakes ; [348] give them, basket 
and all, to this ascetic." And she approached the Elder with the basket in her 
hand. Then the Elder pi-eached the truth to the pair, and proclaimed the 
excellence of the Three Gems. And, teaching that giving was true sacrifice, he 
made the fruits of charity and other good works to shine forth even as the full- 
moon in the heavens. Won by the Elder's words, the Treasurer said, " Sir, come 
hither and sit on this couch to eat your cakes." 

"Lord High Treasurer," said the Elder, "the All-Wise Buddha with five 
hundred Brethren sits in the monastery waiting a meal of cakes. If such be 
your good pleasure, I would ask you to bring your wife and the cakes with you, 
and let us be going to the Master." "But where, sir, is the Master at the present 

No. 78. 197 

time?" "Five and forty leagues a\Yay, in the monastery at Jetavana." "How- 
are we to get all that way, sir, without losing a long time on the road?" "If it 
be your pleasure, Lord High Treasurer, I will transport you thither by my 
transcendental powers. The head of the staircase in your house shall remain 
where it is, but the bottom shall be at the main-gate of Jetavana. In this wise 
will I transport you to the Master in the time which it takes to go downstairs." 
"So be it, sir," said the Treasurer. 

Then the Elder, keeping the top of the staircase where it was, commanded, 
saying, — "Let the foot of the staircase be at the main-gate of Jetavana." And 
so it came to pass ! In this way did the Elder transport the Treasurer and his 
wife to Jetavana quicker than they could get down the stairs. 

Then husband and wife came before the Master and said meal-time had come. 
And the Master, passing into the Refectory, sat down on the Buddha-seat 
prepared for him, with the Brotherhood gathered round. Then the Lord High 
Treasurer poured the Water of Donation over the hands of the Brotherhood 
with the Buddha at its head, whilst his wife placed a cake in the alms-bowl of 
the Blessed One. Of this he took what sufficed to support life, as also did the five 
hundred Brethren. Next the Treasurer went round ottering milk mixed with ghee 
and honey and jagghery ; and the ]\Iastcr and the Brotherhood brought their meal 
to a close. Lastly the Treasurer and his wife ate tlieir fill, but still there seemed 
no end to the cakes. Even when all the Brethren and the scrap-eaters through- 
out the monastery had all had a share, still there was no sign of the end 
approaching. So they told the Master, saying, " Sir, the supply of cakes gi'ows 
no smaller." 

"Then throw them down by the great gate of the monastery." 

So they threw them away in a cave not far from the gateway ; and to this 
day a spot called 'The Crock-Cake,' is shown at the extremity of that cave. 

The Lord High Treasurer and his wife approached and stood before the 
Blessed One, who returned thanks ; and at the close of his words of thanks, the 
pair attained Fruition of the First Path of Salvation. Then, taking their leave 
of the Master, the two mounted the stairs at the great gate and found themselves 
in their own home once more. [349] Afterwards, the Lord High Treasurer 
lavished eighty crores of money solely on the Faith the Buddha taught. 

Next day the Perfect Buddha, returning to Jetavana after a round for alms 
in Savatthi, delivered a Buddha-discourse to the Brethren before retiring to the 
seclusion of the Perfumed Chamber. At evening, the Brethren gathered together 
in the Hall of Truth, and exclaimed, "How great is the power of the Elder 
Moggallana ! In a moment he converted a miser to charity, brouglit him with 
the cakes to Jetavana, set him before the Master, and stablished him in salva- 
tion. How great is the power of the Elder ! " As they sat talking thus of the 
goodness of the Elder, the Master entered, and, on enquiry, was told of the 
subject of their talk. "Brethren," said he, "a Brother who is the converter of a 
household, should apj^roach that household without causing it annoyance or 
vexation, — even as the bee when it sucks the nectar from the flower; in such 
wise should he draw nigh to declare the excellence of the Buddha." And in 
praise of the Elder Moggallana, he recited this stanza : — 

Like bees, that harm no flower's scent or hue 

But, laden with its honey, fly away, 

So, sage, within thy village walk thy wayi. 

Then, to set forth still more the Elder's goodness, he said, — "This is not the 
first time, Brethren, that the miserly Treasurer has been converted by Moggal- 
lana. In other days too the Elder converted him, and taught him how deeds 
and their effects are linked together." So saying, he told this story of the past. 

1 This is verse 49 of the Dhammaimda. 

198 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, there 
was a Treasurer, lUlsa by name, who was worth eighty crores, and had all 
the defects which fall to the lot of man. He was lame and crook-backed 
and had a squint ; he was an unconverted infidel, and a miser, never giving 
of his store to others, nor enjoying it himself ; his house was like a pool 
haunted by demons. Yet, for seven generations, his ancestors had been 
bountiful, giving freely of their best ; but, when he became Treasurer, he 
broke through the traditions of his house. Burning down the almonry and 
driving the poor with blows from his gates, he hoarded his wealth. 

One day, when he was returning Irom attendance on the king, he saw 
a yokel, who had journeyed far and was a-weary, seated on a bench, and 
filling a mug from a jar of rank spirits, and drinking it off, with a dainty 
moi'sel of stinking dried-fish as a relish. The sight made the Treasurer 
feel a thirst for s^iirits, but he thought to himself, [3.50] " If I drink, 
others will want to drink with me, and that means a ruinous expense." 
So he walked about, keeping his thirst under. But, as time wore oji, he 
could do so no longer ; he grew as yellow as old cotton ; and the veins 
stood out on his sunken frame. On a day, retiring to his chamber, he 
lay down hugging his bed. His wife came to him, and rubbed his back, 
as she asked, " What has gone amiss with my lord 1 " 

(What follows is to be told in the words of the former stoi-y.) But, 
when she in her turn said, "Then I'll only brew liquor enough for 
you," he said, " If you make the brew in the house, there will be many on 
the watch ; and to send out for the spirits and sit and drink it here, 
is out of the question." So he produced one single penny, and sent a 
slave to fetch him a jar of spirits from the tavern. When the slave came 
back, he made him go from the town to the riverside and put the jar 
down in a remote thicket. "Now be off!" said he, and made the slave 
wait some distance off, while he filled his cup and fell to. 

Now the Treasurer's father, who for his charity and other good works 
had been re-born as Sakka in the Realm of Devas, was at that moment 
wondering whether his bounty was still kept up or not, and became aware 
of the stopping of his bounty, and of his son's behaviour. He saw how 
his son, breaking through the traditions of his house, had burnt the 
almonry to the ground, had driven the poor with blows from his gates, 
and how, in his miserliness, fearing to share with others, that son had 
stolen away to a thicket to drink by himself. Moved by the sight, Sakka 
cried, " I will go to him and make my son see that deeds must have their 
consequences; I will work his conversion, and make him charitable and 
worthy of re-birth in the Realm of Devas." So he came down to earth, 
and once more trod the ways of men, putting on the semblance of the 
Treasurer Illlsa, with the latter's lameness, and crookback, and squint. 
In this guise, he entered the city of Rajagaha and made his way to the 

No. 78. 199 

palace-gate, where he bade his coming be announced to the king. " Let 
him approach," said the king ; and he entered and stood with due 
obeisance before his majesty. 

" What brings you here at this unusual hour, Lord High Treasurer ] " 
said the king. " I am come, Sire, because I have in my house eighty crores 
of treasure. Deign to have them carried to fill the royal treasury." 
"Nay, my Lord Treasurer; [351] the treasure within my palace is greater 
than this." " If you, sire, will not have it, I shall give it away to whom I 
will." " Do so by all means, Treasurer," said the king. " So be it, sire," 
said the pretended Illisa, as with due obeisance he departed from the 
presence to the Treasurer's house. The servants all gathered round him, 
but not one could tell that it was not their real master. Entering, he 
stood on the threshold and sent for the porter, to whom he gave orders 
that if anybody resembling himself should appear and claim to be master 
of the house they should soiindly cudgel such a one and throw him out. 
Then, mounting the stairs to the upper story, he sat down on a gorgeous 
couch and sent for lUisa's wife. When she came he said with a smile, 
" My dear, let us be bountiful." 

At these words, wife, children, and servants all thought, " It's a long 
time since he was this way minded. He must have been drinking to be 
so good-natured and generous to-day." And his wife said to him, " Be as 
bountiful as you please, my husband." "Send for the crier," said he, 
"and bid him proclaim by beat of drum all through the city that everyone 
who wants gold, silver, diamonds, peai-ls, and the like, is to come to the 
house of Illisa the Treasurer." His wife did as he bade, and a large 
crowd soon assembled at the door carr3'ing baskets and sacks. Then 
Sakka bade the treasure-chambers be thrown open, and cried, " This is my 
gift to you ; take what you will and go your ways." And the crowd 
seized on the riches there stored, and piled them in heaps on the floor and 
tilled the bags and vessels they had brought, and went off laden with the 
spoils. Among them was a countryman who yoked Illlsa's oxen to IllTsa's 
carriage, filled it with the seven things of price, and journeyed out of the 
city along the highroad. As he went along, he drew near the thicket, 
and sang the Treasurer's praises in these words : — " May you live to be a 
hundred, my good lord IllTsa ! What you have done for me this day will 
enable me to live without doing another sti'oke of work. Whose were 
these oxenl — yours. Whose was this carriage? — yours. Whose the 
wealth in the carriage "? — yours again. It was no father or mother who 
gave me all this ; no, it came solely from you, my lord." 

These words filled the Lord High Treasurer with fear and trembling. 
"Why, the fellow is mentioning my name in his talk," said he to himself. 
"Can the king have been distributing my wealth to the people?" [352] 
At the bai-e thought he bounded from the bush, and, recognizing his own 

200 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

oxen aud cart, seized the oxen by the cord, crying, "Stop, fellow; these 
oxen and this cart belong to nie." Down leaped the man from the cart, 
angrily exclaiming, "You rascal! Illisa, the Lord High Treasurer, is 
giving away his wealth to all the city. What has come to you 1 " And he 
sprang at the Treasurer and struck him on the back like a falling thunder- 
bolt, and went off with the cart. Illisa picked himself up, trembling i» 
every limb, wiped off the mud, and hurrying after his cart, seized hold of 
it. Again the countryman got down, and seizing Illisa by the hair, 
doubled him up and thumped him about the head for some time ; then tak- 
ing him by the throat, he flung him back the way he had come, and drove 
off. Sobered by this rough usage, Illisa hurried off home. There, seeing 
folk making off with the treasure, he fell to laying hands on here a man 
and there a man, shrieking, "Hi! what's this? Is the king despoiling 
me ? " And every man he laid hands on knocked him down. Bruised 
and smarting, he sought to take refuge in his own house, when the porters 
stopped him with, " Holloa, you rascal ! Where inight you be going 1 " 
And first thrashing him soundly with bamboos, they took their master by 
the throat and threw him out of doors. " There is none but the king left 
to see me righted," groaned Illisa, and betook himself to the palace. 
"Why, oh why, sire," he cried, "have you plundered me like this?" 

"Nay, it was not I, my Lord Treasurer," said the king. "Did you 
not yoiirself come and declare your intention of giving your wealth away, 
if I would not accej^t it ? And did you not then send the crier round and 
carry out your threat ? " " Oh sire, indeed it was not I that came to you 
on such an errand. Your majesty knows how near and close I am, and 
how I never give away so much as the tiniest drop of oil which a blade of 
grass will take up. May it please your majesty to send for him who has 
given my substance away, and to question him on the matter." 

Then the king sent for Sakka. And so exactly alike were the two 
that neither the king nor his court could tell which was the real Lord 
High Treasurer. Said the miser Illisa, "Who, and what, sire, is this 
Treasurer? /am the Treasurer." 

"Well, really I can't say which is the real Illisa," said the king. "Is 
there anybody who can distinguish them for certain?" "Yes, sire, my 
wife." So the wife was sent for and asked which of the two was her 
husband. And she said Sakka was her husband and went to his side. 
[353] Then in turn Illlsa's children and servants were brought in and 
asked the same question ; and all with one accord declared Sakka was the 
real Lord High Treasurer. Here it flashed across Illlsa's mind that he 
had a wart on his head, hidden among his hair, the existence of which was 
known only to his barber. So, as a last resource, he asked that his barber 
might be sent for to identify him. Now at this time the Bodhisatta was 
his barber. Accordingly, the barber was sent for and asked if he could 

No. 78. 201 

distinguish the real from the fal^e llHsa. "I could tell, sire," said he, 
"if I might examine their heads." "Then look at both their heads," 
said the king. On the instant Sakka caused a wart to i-ise on his head ! 
After examining the two, the Bodhisatta reported that, as both alike had 
got warts on their heads, he couldn't for the life of him say which was the 
real man. And therewithal he uttered this stanza : — 

Both squint ; both halt ; both men are hunchbacks too ; 
And both have warts alike ! 1 cannot tell 
Which of the two the real lillsa is. 

Hearing his last hope thus fail him, the Lord High Treasurer fell into a 
tremble ; and such was his intolerable anguish at the loss of his beloved 
riches, that down he fell in a swoon. Thereupon Sakka jjut forth his 
transcendental powers, and, rising in the air, addressed the king thence 
in these words: "Not IllTsa am I, O king, but Sakka." Then those 
around wiped Illlsa's face and dashed water over him. Recovering, he 
rose to his feet and bowed to the ground before Sakka, King of Devas. 
Then said Sakka, "IllTsa, mine was the wealth, not thine; I am thy 
father, and thou art my son. In my lifetime I was bountiful toward the 
poor and rejoiced in doing good ; wherefore, I am advanced to this high 
estate and am become Sakka. But thou, walking not iii my footsteps, 
art grown a niggard and a very miser; thou hast burnt my almonry to 
the ground, driven the poor from the gate, and hoarded thy I'iches. Thou 
hast no enjoyment thereof thyself, nor has any other human being; [354] 
but thy stoi-e is become like a pool haunted by demons, whei-eat no man 
may slake his thirst. Albeit, if thou wilt rebuild mine almonry and show 
bounty to the poor, it shall be accounted to thee for righteousness. But, 
if thou wilt not, then will I sti'ip thee of all that thou hast, and cleave thy 
head with the thunderbolt of Indra, and thou shalt die." 

At this threat IllTsa, quaking for his life, cried out, " Henceforth I 
will be bountiful." And Sakka accepted his promise, and, still seated in 
mid-air, established his son in the Commandments and preached the Truth 
to him, departing thereafter to his own abode. And IllTsa was diligent in 
almsgiving and other good works, and so assured his re-birth thereafter in 

"Brethren," said the Master, "this is not the first time that Moggallana has 
converted the miserly Treasurer ; in bygone days too the same man was con- 
verted by him." His lesson ended, he shewed the connexion and identified the 
Birth by saying, "This miserly Treasurer was the lUlsa of those days, Moggallana 
was Sakka, King of Devas, Ananda was the king, and I myself the barber." 

[JVote. Respecting this story, see an article by the translator in the Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society for January 1892, entitled "The Lineage of the 
'Proud King'."] 

202 The Jataha. Booh I. 

No. 79. 


"y/e gaoe the rubbers time." — This story was told liy the Master while at 
Jetavana, about a certain Minister. He, 'tis said, ingratiated himself with the 
king, and, after collecting the royal revenue in a border-village, privily arranged 
with a band of robbers that he would march the men off into the jungle, 
leaving the \illage for the rascals to plunder, — on condition that they gave him 
half the booty. Accordingly, at daybreak when the place was left unprotected, 
down came the robbers, who slew and ate the cattle, looted the village, and were 
off with their booty before he came back at evening with his followers. But it 
was a \'ery short time before his knavery leaked out and came to the ears of the 
king. And the king sent for him, and, as his guilt was manifest, he was 
degraded and another headman put in his place. Then the king went to the 
Master at Jetavana and told him what had happened. "Sire," said the Blessed 
One, "the man has only shewn the same disposition now which he shewed in 
bygone days." Then at the king's request he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta Avas reigning in Benares, he 
api)ointed a certain Minister to be headman of a border-village ; and every- 
thing came to pass as in the above case. Now in those days the Bodhisatta 
was making the round of tlie border- villages in the way of trade, [355] and 
had taken up his abode in that very village. And when the headman was 
marching his men back at evening with drums a-beating, he exclaimed, 
" This scoundrel, who privily egged on the robbers to loot the village, has 
waited till they had made off to the jungle again, and now back he comes 
with drums a-beating, — feigning a happy ignorance of anything wrong 
having happened." And, so saying, he uttered this stanza : — 

He gave the robbers time to drive and slay 
The cattle, burn the houses, captm-e folk ; 
And then with drums a-beating, home he marched, 
— A son no more, for such a son is dead^. 

In such wise did the Bodhisatta condemn the headman. Not long 
after, the villany was detected, and the rascal was punished by the king 
as his wickedness deserved. 

' The scholiast's explanation is, that a son who is so lost to all decency and shame, 
ceases ipso facto to be a son, and that his mother is souless even while her son is still 

No. 80. 203 

"This is not the first time, sire," said the king, "that he has beeu of this 
disposition ; lie was just the same in bygone days also." His lesson ended, the 
Master shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by saying, "The headman 
of to-day was also the headman of those days, and I myself the wise and good 
man who recited the stanza." 

No. 80. 


" Yoa oaiuded your j»/Yj;^;r'.s.s."— This story was told l)y the Master while at 
Jetavana, about a certain braggart among the Brethren. Tradition says that he 
used to gather round him Brethren of all ages, and go al)out deluding everyone 
with lying boasts about his nol)le descent. "Ah, Brethren," he would .say, 
"there's no family so nolile as mine, no lineage so peerless. I am a scion of 
the highest of princely lines; no man is my equal in birth or ancestral e.state; 
there is absolutely no end to the gold and silver and other treasures we possess. 
Our very slaves and menials are fed on rice and meat-stews, and are clad in the 
best Benares cloth, with the choicest Benares perfumes to perfimie themselves 
withal ;— whilst I, because 1 have joined the Brotherhood, [3.36] have to content 
myself with this vile fare and this vile garb." 

But another Brother, aftei- enquiring into his family estate, exposed to the 
Brethren the emptiness of this pretension. So the Brethren met in the Hall 
of Ti'uth, and talk began as to how that Brother, in spite of his vows to leave 
worldly things and cleave only to the saving Truth, was going about deluding 
the Brethren with his lying boasts. A\'hilst the fellow's sinfulness was being dis- 
cussed, the Master entered and enquired what their topic was. And they told 
him. "This is not the first time. Brethren," said the Master, "that he has gone 
about boasting; in bygone days too he went about boasting and deluding 
people." And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a brahmin in a market-to w^n in the North country, 
and when he wa.s grown up he studied under a teacher of world-wide fame 
at Takkasila. There he learnt the Three Vedas and the Eighteen Branches 
of knowledge, and completed his education. And he became known as the 
sage Little Bowman. Leaving Takkasila, he came to the Andhra country 
in search of practical exj^erience. Now, it liap])ened that in this Birth the 
Bodhisatta was somewhat of a crooked little dwarf, and lie thought to 
himself, "If I make my appearance before any king, he's sure to ask what 
a dwarf like me is good for ; why should I not use a tall broad fellow as 
my and earn my living in the .shadow of his more imposing 

204 The Jataka. Book I. 

personality?" So he betook himself to the weavers' quarter, and there 
espying a huge weaver named Bhimasena, saluted him, asking the man's 
name. " Bhimasena' is my name," said the weaver. " And what makes a 
fine big man like you work at so sorry a ti-adel" "Because I can't get a 
living any other way." " Weave no more, friend. The whole continent 
can shew no such archer as I am ; but kings would scorn me because I am 
a dwarf. And so you, friend, must be the man to vaunt your prowess 
with the bow, and the king will take you into his pay [357] and make you 
ply your calling regularly. Meantime I shall be behind you to perform 
the duties that are laid upon yoii, and so shall earn my living in your 
shadow. In this manner we shall both of us thrive and prosper. Only do 
as I tell you." " Done with you," said the other. 

Accordingly, the Bodhisatta took the weaver with him to Benares, 
acting as a little page of the bow, and putting the other in the front ; and 
when they were at the gates of the palace, he made him send word of his 
coming to the king. Being summoned into the royal presence, the pair 
entered together and bowing stood before the king. " What brings you 
here?" said the king. "1 am a mighty archer," said Bhimasena; "there is 
no archer like me in the whole continent." " What pay would you want 
to enter my service?" "A thousand pieces a fortnight, sire." "What is 
this man of yours 1" "He's my little page, sire." " Very well, enter my 

So Bhimasena entered the king's service ; but it was the Bodhisatta who 
did all his work for him. Now in those days there w^as a tiger in a forest 
in Kasi which blocked a frequented high-road and had devoured many 
victims. When this was reported to the king, he sent for Bhimasena and 
asked whether he could catch the tiger. 

"How could I call myself an archer, sire, if I couldn't catch a tiger?" 
The king gave him largesse and sent him on the errand. And home to 
the Bodhisatta came Bhimasena with the news. " All right," said the 
Bodhisatta; "away you go, my friend." "But are you not coming too?" 
"No, I won't go; but I'll tell you a little plan." "Please do, my friend." 
" Well don't you be rash and approach the tiger's lair alone. What you 
will do is to muster a strong band of countryfolk to march to the spot with 
a thousand or two thousand bows ; when you know that the tiger is 
aroused, you bolt into the thicket and lie down flat on your face. The 
countryfolk will beat the tiger to death ; and as soon as he is quite dead, 
you bite off a creeper with your teeth, and draw near to the dead tiger, 
trailing the creeper in your hand. At the sight of the dead body of the 
brute, you will burst out with — ' Who has killed the tiger ? I meant to 
lead it [358] by a creeper, like an ox, to the king, and with this intent had 

^ The name means "one who has or leads a terrible army;" it is the name of the 
second Pandava. 

No. 80. 205 

just stepped into the thicket to get a creeper. I must know who killed the 
tiger before I could get back with my creeper.' Then the countryfolk will 
be very frightened and bribe you heavily not to report them to the king ; 
you will be credited with slaying the tiger ; and the king too will give you 
lots of money." 

"Very good," said Bhimasena ; and off he went and slew the tiger just 
as the Bodhisatta had told him. Having thus made the road safe for 
travellers, back he came with a large following to Benares, and said to the 
king, " I have killed the tiger, sire ; the forest is safe for travellers now." 
Well-pleased, the king loaded him with gifts. 

Another day, tidings came that a certain road was infested with a 
buffalo, and the king sent Bhimasena to kill it. Following the Bodhisatta's 
directions, he killed the buffalo in the same way as the tiger, and returned 
to the king, who once more gave him lots of money. He was a great lord 
now. Intoxicated by his new honours, he treated the Bodhisatta with 
contempt, and scorned to follow his advice, saying, " I can get on without 
you. Do you think there's no man but yourself?" This and many other 
harsh things did he say to the Bodhisatta. 

Now, a few days later, a hostile king marched upon Benares and 
beleaguered it, sending a message to the king summoning him either to 
surrender his kingdom or to do battle. And the king of Benares ordered 
Bhimasena out to fight him. So Bhimasena was armed ca])-a-pie in soldierly 
fashion and mounted on a war-elephant sheathed in complete armour. And 
the Bodhisatta, who was seriously alarmed that Bhimasena might get killed, 
armed himself cap a-pie also and seated himself modestly behind Bhimasena. 
Surrounded by a host, the elephant passed out of the gates of the city and 
arrived in the forefront of the battle. At the first notes of the martial 
drum Bhimasena fell a-quaking with fear. •' If you fall off now, you'll get 
killed, "said the Bodhisatta, and accordingly fastened a cord round him, which 
he held tight, to prevent him from falling off the eleijhant. But the sight 
of the field of battle proved too much for Bhimasena, and the fear of death 
was so strong on him that he fouled the elephant's back. "Ah," said the 
Bodhisatta, " the present does not tally with the past. Then you affected 
the warrior ; now your prowess is confined to befouling the elephant you 
ride on." And so saying, he uttered this stanza : — 

[359] You vaunted your prowess, and loud was your boast ; 
You swore you would vanquish the foe ! 
But is it consistent, when faced with their host. 
To vent your emotion, sir, so? 

When the Bodhisatta had ended these taunts, he said, " But don't you 
be afraid, my friend. Am not I here to protect you 1 " Then he made 
Bhimasena get ofl' the elephant and bade him wash himself and go home. 
"And now to win renown this day," said the Bodhisatta, raising his 

206 The Jataka. Book I. 

battle-cry as he daslied iuto the fight. Breaking through the king's 
camp, he dragged the king out and took him alive to Benares. In great 
joy at his prowess, his royal master loaded him with honours, and from 
that day forward all India was loud with the fame of the Sage Little 
Bowman. To BhTmasena he gave lai'gesse, and sent him back to his own 
home ; whilst he liimself excelled in charity and all good works, and at 
his death passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

"Thus, Brethren," said the Master, "this is not the first time that this 
Brother has been a braggart ; he was just the same in bygone days too." His 
lesson ended, the Master shewed the connexion and identified the Birth by 
saying, "This braggart Brother was the BhTmasena of those days, and I myself 
the Sage Little Bowman." 

No. 81. 


[360] " We dranl:"—Th\H story was told by the Master about the Elder 
Sagata, while he was dwelling in the Ghosita-park near Kosambl. 

For, after spending the rainy season at tSavatthi, the Master had come on an 
alms-pilgrimage to a market-town named Bhaddavatika, where cowherds and 
goatherds and farmers and wayfarers i-espectfully besought him not to go down 
to the Mango Ferry; "for," said they, "in the Mango Ferry, in the demesne of 
the naked ascetics, dwells a poisonous and deadly Naga, known as the Naga of 
the Mango Ferry, who might harm the Blessed One." Feigning not to hear 
them, though they repeated their warning thrice, the Blessed One held on his 
way. Whilst the Blessed One was dwelling near Bhaddavatika in a certain 
grove there, the Elder Sagata, a servant of the Buddha, who had won such 
supernatural powei's as a worldling can possess, went to the demesne, i)iled a 
couch of leaves at the spot where the Naga-king dwelt, and sate himself down 
cross-legged thereon. Being unable to conceal his evil nature, the Naga raised 
a great smoke. So did the Elder. Then the Naga sent forth flames. So too 
did the Elder. But, whilst the Naga's flames did no harm to the Elder, the 
Elder's flames did do harm to the Naga, and so in a short time he mastered the 
Naga-king and established him in the Refuges and the Commandments, after 
which he repaired back to the ]\Iaster. And the Master, after dwelling as long 
as it pleased him at Bhaddavatika, went on to Kosambl. Now the story of the 
Naga's conversion by Sagata, had got noised abroad all over the countryside, 
and the townsfolk of Kosambl went forth to meet the Blessed One and saluted 
him, after which they passed to the Elder Sagata and saluting him, said, "Tell 
us, sir, what you lack and we will furnish it." The Elder himself remained 

No. 81. 207 

silent; but the followers of the Wicked Six* made answer as follows : — "Sirs, to 
those who have renounced the world, white spirits are as rare as they are 
acceptable. Do you think you could get the Elder some clear white spirit?" 
"To be sure we can," said the townsfolk, and invited the Master to take his 
meal with them next day. Then they went back to their own town and 
arranged that each in his own house should offer clear white spirit to the 
Elder, and accordingly they all laid in a store and invited the Elder in and 
plied him with the liquor, house by house. So deep were his potations that, 
on his way out of town, the Elder fell j)rostrate in the gateway and there lay 
hiccoughing nonsense. On his way back from his meal in the town, the Master 
came on the Elder lying in this state, and bidding the Brethren carry Sagata 
home, [361] passed on his way to the pai'k. The Brethren laid the Elder down 
with his head at the Buddha's feet, but he turned round so that he came to lie 
with his feet towards tlie Buddha. Then the Master asked his question, 
"Brethren, does Sagata show that respect towards me now that he formerly did?" 
"No, sir." "Tell me. Brethren, who it was that mastered the Naga-king of the 
Mango Feriiy?" "It was Sagata, sir." "Think you that in his present state 
Sagata could master even a harmless water-snake?" "That he could not, sir." 
"Well now. Brethren, is it proper to drink that which, when drunk, steals away 
a man's senses?" "It is improper, sir." Now, after discoursing with the 
Brethren in dispraise of the Elder, the Blessed One laid it down as a precept 
that the drinking of intoxicants was an offence re(iuiring confession and absolu- 
tion ; after which he rose up and passed into his perfumed chamber. 

Assembling together in the Hall of Truth, the Brethren discussed the sin of 
spirit-drinking, saying, "What a great sin is the drinking of spirits, sirs, seeing 
that it has blinded to the Buddha's excellence even one so wise and so gifted 
as Sagata." Entering the Hall of Truth at this i)oint, the Master asked what 
topic they were discussing ; and they told him. "Brethren," said he, "this is not 
the first time that they who had renounced the world have lost their senses 
through drinking sijirits ; the very same thing took place in bygone days." 
And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahniadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born into a nortliern brahmin-family in Kasi ; and when 
he grew up, he renounced tlio world for tlie lieiinit's life. He won th^ 
Higher Knowledges and tlie Attainments, and dwelt in the enjoy- 
ment of the bliss of Insight in the Himalayas, with five hundred pupils 
around him. Once, when the rainy season had come, his pupils said to 
him, "Master, may we go to the haunts of men and bring back salt 
and vinegar?" "For my own part, .sirs, I shall remain here; but you 
may go for your health's sake, and come back when the rainy season 
is over." 

" V'ery good," said they, and taking a respectful leave of their master, 
came to Benares, where they took up their abode in the royal pleasaunce. 
On the morrow they went in quest of alms to a village just outside the 
city gates, where tliey had plenty to eat ; and next day they made their 
way into the city itself. The kindly citizens gave- alms to them, and the 
king was soon informed that five hundred hermits from the Himalayas had 

^ See note on page 71. 

208 Tlie Jcltaka. Book I. 

taken up their abode iu the royal pleasaunce, and that they were ascetics 
of great austerity, subduing the flesh, and of great virtue. Hearing this 
good character of them, the king went to the pleasaunce and graciously 
made them welcome [362] to stay there for four months. They promised 
that they would, and thenceforth were fed in the royal palace and lodged in 
tlie pleasaunce. But one day a drinking festival was held in the city, and 
the king gave the five hundred hermits a large supply of the best spirits, 
knowing that such things rarely come in the way of those who renounce 
the world and its vanities. The ascetics drank the liquor and went back 
to the pleasaunce. There, in drunken hilarity, some danced, some sang, 
whilst others, wearied of dancing and singing, kicked about their rice-ham- 
pers and other belongings, — after which they lay down to sleep. When 
tliey had slept off their drunkenness and awoke to see the traces of their 
revelry, they wept and lamented, saying, " We have done that which we 
ought not to have done. We have done this evil because we are away 
from our master." Forthwith, they quitted the pleasaunce and returned 
to the Himalayas. Laying aside their bowls and other belongings, they 
saluted their master and took their seats. " Well, my sons," said he, 
"were you comfortable amid the haunts of men, and were you spared 
weary journey ings in quest of alms? Did you dwell in unity one with 
another ? " 

"Yes, master, we were comfortable; but we drank forbidden drink, so 
that, losing our senses and forgetting ourselves, we both danced and 
sang." And by way of setting the matter forth, they composed and 
repeated this stanza : — 

We drank, we danced, we sang, we wept ; 'twas well 
That, when we drank the drink that steals away 
The senses, we were not transformed to apes. 

" This is what is sure to happen to tliose who are not living under 
a master's care," said the Bodhisatta, rebuking those ascetics ; and he 
exhorted them saying, "Henceforth, never do such a thing again." 
Living on with Insight unbroken, he became destined to re birth there- 
after in the Brahma Realm. 

[.363] His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth (and henceforth we 
shall omit the words 'sliewed the connexion'), by saying, — "My disciples were 
the band of hermits of those days, and I their teacher." 

No. 82. 209 

No. 82. 


" JVo more to dwell." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a self-willed Brother. The incidents of this Birth, which took place in the 
days of the Buddha Kassapa, will he related in the Tenth Book in the Maha- 
Mittavindixka Jataka^ 

Then the Bodliisatta uttered this Stanza : — 

No more to dwell in island palaces 

Of crystal, silver, or of sparkling gems, — 

With flinty headgear thou'rt invested now; 

Nor shall its griding torture ever cease 

Till all thy sin be purged and life shall end. 

So saying, the Bodhi.satta passed to his own abode among the Devas. 
And Mittavindaka, having donned that headgear, sufiered gi"ievous torment 
till his sin had been spent and he passed away to fare according to his 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth, by saying, "This self- 
willed Brother was the Mittavindaka of those days, and I myself the King of the 

No. 83. 


"^'1 friend is he." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, about 
a friend of Anatha-pindika's. Tradition says that the two had made mud-pies 
together, and had gone to the same school ; but, as years went by, the friend, 
whose name was 'Curse,' sank into great distress and could not make a living 
anyhow. So he came to the rich man, who was kind to him, and paid him to 
look after all his property ; and the poor friend was employed under Anatha- 
pindika and did all his business for him. After he had gone up to the rich man's 
it was a common thing to hear in the house — "Stand up, Cui'se," or "Sit down, 
Curse," or "Have your dinner, Curse." 

1 No. 439. See No. 41, and Divyiivadana, p. 603, &c. 

c. J. 14 

210 Tlie Jataha. Booh I. 

One day the Treasurer's friends and acquaintances called on him and said, 
"Lord Treasurer, don't let this sort of thing go on in your house. It's enough to 
scare an ogre to hear such ill-omened observations as — ' Stand up, Curse,' or 
'Sit down, Curse,' or 'Have your dinner, Curse.' The man is not your social 
equal ; he's a mi.serable wretch, dogged by misfortune. Why have anything to 
do with him ?" "Not so," replied Anatha-pindika ; "a name only serves to denote 
a man, and the wise do not measure a man by his name ; nor is it proper to wax 
superstitious about mere sounds. Never will I throw over, for his mere name's 
sake, the friend with whom I made mud-pies as a child." And he rejected their 

One day the great man departed to visit a village of which he was headman, 
leaving the other in charge of the house. Hearing of his departure certain 
robbers made up their mind to break into the house ; and, arming themselves to 
the teeth, they surrounded it in the night-time. But 'Curse' had a suspicion that 
burglars might be expected, and was sitting up for them. And when he knew that 
they had come, he ran about as if to rouse his peo2)le, bidding one sound the 
conch, another beat the drum, till he had the whole house full of noise, as though 
be were rousing a whole army of servants. Said the robbers, "The house is not 
so empty as we were told ; the master must be at home." Flinging awaj' their 
stones, clubs and other weapons, away they bolted for their lives. Next day 
great alarm was caused by the sight of all the discarded weapons lying round 
the house ; and Curse was lauded to the skies by such praises as this ; — " If the 
house had not been patrolled by one so wise as this man, the robbers would have 
simply walked in at their own pleasure and have plundered the house. The 
Treasurer owes this stroke of good luck to his staunch friend." And the moment 
the merchant came back from his village they hastened to tell him the whole 
story. "Ah," said he, "this is the trusty guardian of my house whom you 
wanted me to get rid of. If I had taken your advice and got rid of him, I should 
be a beggar to-day. It's not the name but the heart within that makes the 
man." So saying he raised his wages. And thinking that here was a good 
story [365] to tell, off he went to the Master and gave him a complete accoimt of 
it all, right through. "This is not the first time, sir," said the Master, "that 
a friend named Curse has saved his friend's wealth from robbers ; the like hap- 
pened in bygone days as well." Then, at Anatha-pindika's request, he told this 
story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was a Treasurer of great renown ; and he had a friend whose 
name was Cui'se, and so on as in the foregoing story. When on his return 
from his zemindary the Bodhisatta heard wliat had happened he said to 
his friends, " If I had taken your advice and got rid of my trusty friend, I 
should have been a beggar to-day." And he repeated this stanza: — 

A friend is he that seven steps will go 

To help us^; twelve attest the comrade true. 

A fortnight or a month's tried loyalty 

Makes kindred, longer time a second self. 

— Then how shall I, who all these years have known 

My friend, be wise in driving Curse away? 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth b}' saying, "Ananda was the 
Curse of those days, and I myself the Treasurer of Benares." 

1 See Griffith's "Old Indian Poetry," p. 27; and PAnini's rule, v. 2. 22. 

No. 84. 211 

No. 84. 


"Seek health." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, about a 
boy who was sage in matters relating to spiritual welfare. When he was only 
seven years old, the boy, who was the son of a very wealthy Treasurer, manifested 
great intelligence and anxiety for his spiritual welfare; and one day came to his 
father to ask what were the Paths leading to spii'itual welfare. The father could 
not answer, but he thought to himself, — "This is a very difficult question; from 
highest heaven to nethermost hell there is none that can answer it, save only the 
All-knowing Buddha." So he took the child with him to Jetavana, with a 
quantity of perfumes and flowers and unguents. Arrived there, he did reverence 
to the Master, bowed down before him, and seating himself on one side, spoke as 
follows to the Blessed One: — "Sir, this boy of mine, who is intelligent and 
anxious for his spiritual welfare, has asked me what are the Paths leading to 
spiritual welfare ; and as I did not know, I came to you. Vouchsafe, O Blessed 
One, to resolve this question." "Lay-brother," said the Master, "this selfsame 
question was asked me by this very child in former times, and I answered it for 
him. He knew the answer in bygone days, but now he has forgotten because of 
change of birth." Then, at the father's request, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Bralimadatta was reigning in Benai'es, the 
Bodhisatta was a very wealthy Treasurer ; and he had a son who, when 
only seven years old, manifested great intelligence and anxiety for hif, 
spiritual welfare. One day the child can)e to his father to ask what were 
the Paths leading to spiritual welfare. And his father answered him by 
repeating this stanza : — 

Seek Health, the supreme good ; be virtuous ; 
Hearken to elders ; from the scriptiires learn ; 
Conform to Truth ; and burst Attachment's bonds. 
— For chiefly these six Paths to Welfare lead. 

[367] In this wise did the Bodhisatta answer his son's question as to 
the Paths that lead to spiritual welfare ; and the boy from that time 
forward followed those six rules. After a life spent in charity and other 
good works, the Bodhisatta passed away to fare thereafter according to 
his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "This child was 
also the child of those days, and I myself the Lord Treasurer." 


212 The Jataka. Book I. 

No. 85. 


"As they who ate." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a concupiscent Brother. Tradition says there was a scion of a good family 
who gave his heart to the Buddha's doctrine and joined the Brotherhood. But one 
day as he was going his round for alms in Savatthi, he was there stirred to 
concupiscence by the sight of a beautifully dressed woman. Being brought by 
his teachers and directors before the Master, he admitted in answer to the en- 
quiries of the Blessed One that the spirit of concupiscence had entered into him. 
Then said the Master, "Verily the five lusts of the senses are sweet in the hour 
of actual enjoyment, Brother; but this enjoyment of them (in that it entails 
the miseries of re-birth in hell and the other evil states) is like the eating 
of the fruit of the What-fruit tree. Very fair to view is the "What-fruit, very 
fragrant and sweet ; but when eaten, it racks the inwards and brings death. In 
other da^'s, through ignorance [368] of its evil nature, a multitude of men, seduced 
by the beauty, fragrance and sweetness of the fruit, ate thereof so that they died." 
So saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta came to life as the leader of a caravan. Once when journeying 
with five hundred carts from East to West, he came to the outskirts of a 
forest. Assembling his men, he said to them : — " In this forest grow 
trees that bear poisonous fruit. Let no man eat any unfamiliar fruit 
without first asking me." When they had traversed the forest, they came 
at the other border on a What-fruit tree with its boughs bending low with 
their burthen of fruit. In form, smell and taste, its trunk, boughs, leaves 
and fruit resembled a mango. Taking the tree, from its misleading 
appearance and so forth, to be a mango, some plucked the fruit and ate ; 
but others said, " Let us speak to our leader before we eat." And these 
latter, plucking the fruit, waited for him to come up. When he came, he 
ordered them to fling away the fruit they had pkicked, and had an emetic 
administered to those who had already eaten. Of these latter, some 
recovered ; but such as had been the first to eat, died. The Bodhisatta 
reached his destination in safety, and sold his wares at a profit, after 
which he travelled home again. After a life spent in charity and other 
good works, he passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

No. 86. 213 

It was when he had told this story, that the Master, as Buddha, uttered this 
stanza : — 

As they who ate the What-fruit died, so Lusts, 
Wlien ripe, slay him who knowing not the woe 
They breed hereafter, stoops to lustful deeds. 

Having thus shewn that the Lusts, which are so sweet in the hour of fruition, 
end l:>y slaying their votaries, the ^Master preached the Four Truths, at the close 
[369] whereof the concupiscent Brother was converted and won the Fruit of the 
First Path. Of the rest of the Buddha's following some won the First, some 
the Second, and some the Third Path, whilst others again became Arahats. 

His lesson ended, the Master identitied the Birth by saying, "My disciples 
were the people of the caravan in those days, and I their leader." 

No. 86. 


"yaught can co7)ijx(re." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a brahmin who put to the test his reputation for goodness. This Brother, 
who was maintained by the King of Kosala, had sought the Three Refuges ; he 
kept the Five Commandments, and was versed in the Three Vedas. "This is 
a good man," thought the King, and shewed him great honour. But that 
Brother thought to himself, "The King shews honoiu* to me beyond other 
brahmins, and has manifested his great regard by making me his spiritual 
director. But is his fevour due to my goodness or only to my l)irth, lineage, 
family, country and accomplishments? I must clear this up without delay." 
Accordingly, one day when he was leaving the palace, he took unbidden a coin 
from a treasurer's counter, and went his way. Such was the treasurer's venera- 
tion for the brahmin that he sat perfectly still and said not a word. Next day 
the brahmin took two coins ; but still the official made no remonstrance. The 
third day the brahmin took a whole handful of coins. "This is the third day," 
cried the treasurer, "that you have robbed his Majesty;" and he shouted out 
three times, — "I have caught the thief who robs the treasury." In rushed a 
crowd of people from every side, crying, "Ah, you've long been posing as a model 
of goodness." And dealing him two or three blows, they led him before the 
King. In great sorrow the King said to him, "What led you, brahmin, to do so 
wicked a thing?" And he gave orders, saying, "Off with him to punishment." 
"I am no thief, sire," said the brahmin. "Then why did you take money from 
the treasury ? " " Because you shewed me such great honour, sire, and because I 
made up my mind to find out whether that honour was paid to my birth and the 
like or (jnly t<5 my goodness. That was my motive, and now I know for certain 
(inasmuch as you order me off to punishment) that it was my goodness and not 
my birth and other advantages, that won me your majesty's fovour. Goodness I 
know to be the chief and supreme good ; I know too that to goodness [370] I can 

214 The Jataka. Book I. 

never attain in this life, whilst I remain a layman, living in the midst of sinful 
pleasures. Wherefore, this very day I would fain go to the Master at Jetavana 
and renounce the world for the Brotherhood. Grant lue your leave, sire." The 
King consenting, the brahmin set out for Jetavana. His friends and relations in 
a body tried to turn him from his purpose, but, finding their efi'orts of no avail, 
left him alone. He came to the IMaster and asked to be admitted to the Brother- 
hood. After admission to the lower and higher orders, he won by application 
si)iritual insight and became an Arahat, whereon he drew near to the Master, 
saying, "Sir, my joining the Order has borne the Supreme Fruit," — thereby 
signifying that he had won Arahatship. Hearing of this, the Brethren, assembling 
in the Hall of Truth, spoke with one another of the virtues of the King's chaplain 
who tested his own reputation for goodness and who, leaving the King, had now 
risen to be an Arahat. Entering the Hall, the Master asked what the Brethren 
were discussing, and they told him. "Not without a precedent. Brethren," said 
he, "is the action of this brahmin in putting to the test his reputation for 
goodness and in working out his salvation after renouncing the world. The like 
was done by the wise and good of bygone days as well." And so saying, he told 
this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was his chaplain, — a man given to charity and other good 
works, whose mind was set on righteousness, always keeping unbroken 
the Five Commandments. And the King honoured him beyond the other 
brahmins ; and everything came to pass as above. 

But, as the Bodhisatta was being bi'ought in bonds before the King, 
he came where some snake-charmers were exhibiting a snake, which they 
laid hold of by the tail and the throat, and tied round their necks. 
Seeing this, the Bodhisatta begged the men to desist, for the snake might 
bite them and cut their lives short. " Brahmin," replied the snake- 
charmers, " this is a good and well-behaved cobra ; he's not wicked like 
you, who for your wickedness and misconduct are being hauled off in 

Thought the Bodhisatta to himself, " Even cobras, if they do not bite 
or wound, are called 'good.' How much more must this be the case with 
those who have come to be human beings ! Verily it is just this goodness 
which is the most excellent thing in all the world, nor [371] does aught 
surpass it." Then he was brought before the King. "What is this, my 
friends'?" said the King. "Here's a thief who has been robbing your 
majesty's treasury." "Away with him to execution." "Sire," said the 
brahmin, "I am no thief." "Then how came you to take the money?" 
Hereon the Bodhisatta made answer precisely as above, ending as follows: — 
"This then is why I have come to the conclusion that it is goodness which 
is the highest and most excellent thing in all the world. But be that as 
it may, yet, seeing that the cobra, when it does not bite or wound, must 
simply be called 'good' and nothing more, for this reason too it is 

No. 87. 215 

goodness alone which is the highest and most excellent of all things," 
Then in praise of goodness he uttered this stanza : — 

Naught can compare with Goodness; all the world 

Can not its equal show. The cobra fell, 

If men account it 'good,' is saved from death. 

After preaching the truth to the King in this stanza, the Bodhisatta, 
abjuring all Lusts, and renouncing the world for the hermit's life, repaired 
to the Himalayas, where he attained to the five Knowledges and the 
eight Attainments, earning for himself the sure hope of i-e-birth thereafter 
in the Brahma Kealm. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "My disciples 
were the King's following in those days, and I myself the King's chaplain." 

[jVote. Compare Nos. 290, 330, and 362 ; and see Feer's Etudes sur le Jdtaka.'] 

No. 87. 


" Whoso renounces." — This story was told by the I^Iaster while at the Bamboo- 
grove about a brahmin who was skilled in the prognostications [372] which can 
be drawn from pieces of cloth i. Tradition says that at Rajagaha dwelt a brahmin 
who was superstitious and held false views, not believing in the Three Gems. 
This brahmin was very rich and wealthy, abounding in substance ; and a female 
mouse gnawed a suit of clothes of his, which was lying by in a chest. One day 
after bathing himself all over, he called for this suit, and then was told of the 
mischief which the mouse had done. " If these clothes stop in the house," thought 
he to himself, "they'll bring ill-luck; such an ill-omened thing is sure to bring 
a curse. It is out of the question to give them to any of my children or servants ; 
for whosoever has them will bring misfortune on all aroiuid him. I must have 
them thrown away in a charnel-ground- ; but how? I cannot hand them to 
servants ; f(.)r they might covet and keep them, to the ruin of my house. My 
son must take them." So he called his son, and telling him the whole matter 
bade him take his charge on a stick, without touching the clothes with his hand, 
and lling them away in a charnel-ground. Then the son was to bathe himself 
all over and return. Now that morning at dawn of day the Master looking 

^ Cf. Tevijja Sutta translated by Rhys Davids in "Buddhist Suttas," p. 197. 

2 An dmaka-susuiia was an open space or grove in which corpses were exposed 
for wild-beasts to eat, in order that the earth might not be defiled. Cf. the Parsee 
' Towers of Silence.' 

216 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

rouud to see what persons could be led to the truth, became aware that the 
father and son were predestined to attain salvation. So he betook himself in the 
guise of a hunter on his way to hunt, to the charnel-ground, and sate down at the 
entrance, emitting the six-coloured rays that mark a Buddha. Soon there came 
to the spot the young brahmin, carefully carrying the clothes as his father had 
bidden him, on the end of his stick, — ^just as though he had a house-snake to 

"What are you doing, young brahmin?" asked the Master. 

"My good Gotama\" was the reply, "this suit of clothes, having been gnawed 
by mice, is like ill-luck personified, and as deadly as though steeped in venom; 
wherefore my father, fearing that a servant might covet and retain the clothes, 
has sent me with them. I promised that I woidd tlirow them away and bathe 
afterwards; and that's the errand that has brought me here." "Throw the suit 
away, then," said the Master; and the young brahmin did so. "They will just 
suit me," said the ]\Iaster, as he picked up the ftxte-fraught clothes before the 
young man's very eyes, regardless of the latter's earnest warnings and re[)eated 
entreaties to him not to take them; and he departed in the direction of 
the Bamboo-grove. 

Home in all haste ran the young brahmin, to tell his father how the Sage 
Gotama had declared that the clothes would just suit him,' and had persisted, 
in spite of all warnings to the contrary, in taking tlie suit away with him to the 
Bamboo-grove. "Those clothes," thought the ))rahniin to himself, "are bewitched 
and accursed. Even the sage Gotama cannot wear them without destruction 
beftxUing him; and that would bring me into disrepute. I will give the Sage 
abundance of other garments and get him to throw that suit away." So with a 
large number of robes he started in company of his son for the Bamboo-grove. 
When he came upon tlie Master he stood respectfully on one side and spoke thus, 
— "Is it indeed true, as I hear, that you, my good Gotama, [373] picked up a suit 
of clothes in the charnel-ground?" "Quite true, brahmin." "My good Gotama, 
that suit is accursed ; if you make use of them, they will destroy you. If you 
stand in need of clothes, take these and throw away that suit." "Brahmin," 
replied the Master, "by open profession I have renounced the world, and am 
content with the rags that lie by the roadside or bathing-places, or are thrown 
away on dustheaps or in charnel-grounds. Whereas you have held your super- 
stitions in bygone days, as well as at the present time." So saying, at the 
brahmin's request, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time there reigned in the city of Rajagaha, in the kingdom 
of Magadha, a righteous King of Magadha. In those days the Bodhisatta 
came to life again as a biahmin of the North-west. Growing up, he 
renounced the world for the hermit's life, won the Knowledges and the 
Attainments, and went to dwell in the Himalayas. On one occasion, 
returning from the Himalayas, and taking up his abode in the King's 
pleasaunce, he went on the second day into the city to collect alms. 
Seeing hira, the King had him summoned into the palace and there 
provided with a seat and with food, — exacting a promise from him that 
he would take up his abode in the pleasaunce. So the Bodhisatta used to 
receive his food at the palace and dwell in the grounds, 

' In Pali h}io Gotama, — a form of familiar address. Brahmins are always repre- 
sented as presuming to say hho to the Buddha. 

No. 88. 217 

Now in those days there dwelt in that city a brahmin known as 
Cloth-omens. And he had in a chest a suit of clothes which were gnawed 
by mice, and everything came to pass just as in the foregoing story. But 
when the son was on his way to the charnel-ground the Bodhisatta got there 
first and took his seat at the gate; and, picking up the suit which the 
young brahmin threw away, he returned to the pleasannce. When the 
son told this to the old brahmin, the latter exclaimed, "It will be the 
deatli of the King's ascetic " : and entreated the Bodhisatta to throw that 
suit away, lest he should perish. But the ascetic replied, " Good enough 
for us are the rags that are flung away in charnel-grounds. We have 
no belief in superstitions about luck, which are not approved by Buddhas, 
Pacceka Buddhas, or Bodhisattas ; and therefore no wise man ought to 
1)6 a believer in luck." Hearing the truth thus expounded, the brahmin 
forsook his errors and took refuge in the Bodhisatta. And the Bodhisatta, 
preserving his Insight uul)roken, earned re-birth thereafter in the Brahma 
Realm. [374.] 

Having told this story, the Master, as Buddha, taught the Truth to 
the brahmin in this stanza : — • 

Whoso renounces omens, dreams and signs. 
That man, from sui)erstition's errors freed, 
Shall trium})li o'er the paired Depravities 
And o'er Attachments to the end uf time. 

When the Master had thus preached his doctrine to the brahmin in the form 
of this stanza, he proceeded furtlier to preach the Four Truths, at the close 
whereof that brahmin, with iiis son, attained to the First Path. The Master 
identified the Birth by saying, "The ikther and son of to-day were also the father 
and son of those days, and I myself the ascetic." 

No. 88. 


"Speak kindli/."— Thin story was told by the Master while at Savatthi, about 
the precept touching abusive language. The introductory story and the story of 
the past are the same as in the Nandivisfda-jataka above i. 

But in this case [375] there is the difference that the Bodhisatta was an 
ox named Sarambha, and belonged to a brahmin of Takkasilfi in the kingdom 

1 No. 28. 

218 The Jataka. Book I. 

of Gandhara. After telling the story of the past, the Master, as Buddha, uttered 
this stanza : — 

Speak kindly, revile not your fellow; 
Love kindness ; reviling breeds sorrow. 

_ When the Master had ended his lesson he identified the Birth by saying, 
"Ananda was tlie brahmin of those days, Uppalavaiina his wife, and 1 

No. 89. 


" Hoiv plausible." This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana 
about a knave. The details of his knavery will be related in the Uddrda-jataka^. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, there 
lived hard by a certain little village a shifty rascal of an ascetic, of the 
class which wears long, matted hair. The squire of the place had a 
hermitage built in the forest for him to dwell in, and used to provide 
excellent fare for him in his own house. Taking the matted-haired rascal 
to be a model of goodness, and living as he did in fear of robbers, the squire 
brought a hundred pieces of gold to the hermitage and there buried them, 
bidding the ascetic keep watch over them. " No need to say that, sir, to 
a man who has renounced the world ; we hermits never covet other folks' 
goods." "It is well, sir," said the squire, who went off with full confidence 
in the other's protestations. Then the rascally ascetic thought to himself, 
" there's enough here [376] to keep a man all his life long." Allowing a 
few days to elapse first, he removed the gold and buried it by the wayside, 
returning to dwell as before in his hermitage. Next day, after a meal of 
rice at the squire's house, the ascetic said, "It is now a long time, sir, 
since I began to be supported by you ; and to live long in one place 
is like living in the world, — which is forbidden to })rofe8sed ascetics. 
Wherefore I must needs depart." And though the squire pi-essed him to 
stay, nothing could overcome this determination. 

1 No. 487. 

No. 89. 219 

" Well, then, if it must be so, go your way, sir," said the squire ; and 
he escorted the ascetic to the outskirts before he left him. After going a 
little way the ascetic thought that it would be a good thing to cajole the 
squire ; so, putting a straw in his matted hair, back he turned again. 
"What brings you back?" asked the squire. "A straw from your roof, 
sir, had stuck in my hair ; and, as we hermits may not take anything 
which is not bestowed upon us, I have brought it back to you." "Throw it 
down, sir, and go your way," said the squire, who thought to himself, 
" Wliy, he won't take so much as a straw which does not belong to him ! 
What a sensitive nature!" Highly delighted with the ascetic, the squire 
bade him farewell. 

Now at that time it chanced that the Bodhisatta, who was on his way 
to the border-district for trading purposes, had halted for the night at 
that village. Hearing what the ascetic said, the suspicion was aroused in 
his mind that the rascally ascetic must have robbed the squire of some- 
thing ; and he asked the latter whether he had deposited anything in the 
ascetic's care. 

" Yes, — a hundred pieces of gold." 

" Well, just go and see if it's all safe." 

Away went the squire to the hermitage, and looked, and found his 
money gone. Running back to the Bodhisatta, he cried, " It's not there." 
"The thief is none other than that long-haired rascal of an ascetic," said 
the Bodhisatta; "let us pursue and catch him." So away they hastened 
in hot pursuit. When they caught the rascal they kicked and cuffed him, 
till he discovered to them where he had hidden the money. When he 
procured the gold, the Bodhisatta, looking at it, scornfully remarked 
to the ascetic, " So a hundred pieces of gold didn't trouble your conscience 
so much as that straw!" And he rebuked him in this stanza : — 

How plausible the story that the rascal told ! 

How heedful of the straw ! How heedless of the gold ! 

[377] When the Bodhisatta had rebuked the fellow in this wise, he 
added, — " And now take care, you hypocrite, that you don't play such a 
trick again." When his life ended, the Bodhisatta passed away to fare 
thereafter according to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master said, "Thus you .see, Brethren, that this Bi'other 
was as knavish in the past as he is to-day." And he identified the Birth by 
saying, "This knavish Brother was the knavish ascetic of those days, and I the 
wise and srood man." 

220 The Jataka. Book I. 

No. 90. 


" Tlie man ungratefid." — This story was told by the Master while at Jctavana, 
about Aiiatha-pindika. 

On the borders, so the tale goes, there lived a merchaut, who was a corre- 
spondent and a friend of Anatha-pindika's, but they had never met. There 
uaine a time when this merchant loaded live hundred carts with local produce 
and gave orders to tlie men in charge to go to the great merchant Anatha- 
pindika, and barter the wares in his correspondent's shop for their vtilue, and 
bring back the goods received in exchange. So they came to Savatthi, and 
found Anatha-pindika. First making him a present, they told him their 
bu.siness. " You are welcome," said the great man, and ordered them to be 
lodged there and provided with money for tlieir needs. After kindly encjuiries 
after their master's health, he bartered their merchandise and gave them the 
goods in exchange. Then they went back to their own district, and reported 
what had happened. 

Shortly afterwards, Anatha-pindika similarly despatched five hundred carts 
with merchandise to the very district in which they dwelt ; and his people, 
when they had got there, went, present in hand, to call upon the border 
merchant. "Where do you come from'/" said he. "From Sfwatthi," replied 
they; "from your correspondent, Anatha-pindika." "Anyone can call himself 
Anatha-pindika," said he with a sneer; and taking their present, he bade them 
begone, giving them neither lodging nor douceur. So they bartered their goods 
for themselves and brought back the wares in exchange to Savatthi, with the 
story of the reception they had had. 

Now it chanced [378] that this border merchant despatched another caravan 
of live hundred carts to Savatthi ; and his people came with a present in their 
hands to wait upon Anatha-pindika. But, as soon as Anatha-pindika's people 
caught sight of them, they said, "Oh, we'll see, sir, that they are propeiiy lodged, 
fed, and supplied with money foi- their needs." And they took the strangers 
outside the city and bade them imyoke their carts at a suitable spot, adding 
that rice and a douceur would come from Anatha-pindika's house. About the 
middle watch of the night, having collected a band of serving-men and slaves, 
they looted the whole caravan, carried off every garment the men had got, 
drove away their oxen, and took the wheels off the carts, leaving the latter 
but removing the wheels. Without so much as a shirt among the lot of them, 
the terrified stivmgers s})ed away and managed to reach their home on the 
border. Then Anatha-pindika's jjeople told him the whole story. "This capital 
story," said he, "shall be my gift to the Master to-day;" and away he went and 
told it to the Mastei*. 

"This is not the first time, sir," said the Master, "that this border merchant 
has shewn this disposition; he was just the same in days gone by." Then, at 
Anatha-pindika's request, he told the following story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahniadatta was reigning in Benai"es, the 
Bodhisatta was a very wealthy merchant in that city. And he too had as 
a correspondent a border merchant whom he had never seen and all came 
to pass as above. 

No. 91. 221 

Being told by his people what they had done, he said, "This trouble 
is the result of their ingratitude for kindness shewn them." And he went 
on to instruct the assembled crowd in this stanza : — 

The man ungrateful for a kindly deed, 
Thenceforth shall find no helper in his need. 

After this wise did the Bodhisatta teach the truth in this stanza. After 
a life spent in charity and other good works, he passed away to fare 
according to his deserts. 

[379] His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "The border 
merchant of to-day was the border merchant of those days also ; and I was the 
merchant of Benares." 

No. 91. 


"He bolts the die." — This story was told by the IVIaster while at Jetavana, 
about using things thoughtlessly. 

Tradition says that most of the Brethren of that day were in the habit of 
using robes and so forth, which were given them, in a thoughtless manner. And 
their thoughtless use of the Four Requisites as a rule barred their escape from 
the doom of re-birth in hell and the animal world. Knowing this, the Master set 
forth the lessons of virtue and sliewed the danger of such thoughtless use of 
things, exhorting them to be careful in the use of the Four Requisites, and 
laying down this rule, "The thoughtful Brother has a definite object in view 
when he wears a robe, namely,, to keep off the cold." After laying down similar 
rules for the other Requisites, he concluded by saying, "Such is the thoughtful 
use which should Ije made of the Four Requisites. Thoughtlessly to use them 
is like taking deadly poison ; and there were those in bygone days who through 
their thoughtlessness did inadvertently "take poison, to their exceeding hurt in 
due season." So saying he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born into a well-to-do family, and when he grew up, he 
became a dice-player. With him used to play a sharper, who kept on 
playing while he was winning, but, when luck turned, broke up the game 
by putting one of the dice in his mouth and pretending it was lost, — after 
which he would take himself off. ['^'"^O] "Very good," said the Bodhisatta 

222 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

when he realised what was being done; "we'll look into this." So he 
took some dice, anointed them at home with poison, dried them carefully, 
and then carried them with him to the sharper, whom he challenged to a 
game. The other was willing, the dice-board was got ready, and play 
began. No sooner did the sharper begin to lose than he popped one of 
the dice into his mouth. Observing him in the act, the Bodhisatta 
remai'ked, "Swallow away; you will not fail to find out what it really is 
in a little time." And he uttered this stanza of rebuke : 

He bolts the die quite boldly, — knowing not 

What bm'uing poison thereon lurks unseen. 

— Aye, bolt it, sharper! Soon you'll burn within. 

But while the Bodhisatta was talking away, the jjoison began to work on 
the sharper ; he grew faint, rolled his eyes, and bending double with pain 
fell to the ground. "Now," said the Bodhisatta, "I must save the rascal's 
life." So he mixed some simples and administered an emetic until 
vomiting ensued. Then he administered a diaught of ghee with honey 
and sugar and other ingredients, and by this means made the fellow all 
right again. Then he exhorted him not to do such a thing again. After 
a life spent in charity and other good woi'ks, the Bodhisatta passed away 
to fare thereafter according to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master said, "Brethren, the thoughtless use of things 
is like the thoughtless taking of deadly poison." So saying, he identified the 
Birth in these words, "I was myself the wise and good gambler of those days." 

{Pali Note. "No mention is made of the sharper, — the reason being that, 
here as elsewhere, no mention is made of persons who are not spoken of at this 

No. 92. 


" For war men crave." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 

about the venerable Ananda. 

Once the wives of the King of Kosala thought among themselves, as follows, 
" Very rare is the coming of a Buddha ; and very rare is birth in a human form with 
all one's faculties in perfection. Yet, though we have happened on a human 
form in a Paiddha's lifetime, we cannot go at will to the Monastery to hear the 

No. 92. 223 

truth from his own hps, to do obeisance, and to make oflferings to him. We 
live hei'e as in a box. liet us ask the King to send for a fitting Brother to 
come here and teach us the truth. Let us learn what we can from him, and 
be charitable and do good works, to the end that we may profit by our having 
been born at this hai)py juncture." So they all went in a body to the King, and 
told him what was in their minds ; and the King gave his consent. 

Now it fell out on a day that the King was minded to take his pleasure in 
the royal pleasaunce, and gave orders that the grounds should be made ready 
for his coming. As the gardener was working away, he espied the IMaster seated 
at the foot of a tree. So he went to the King and said, "The pleasaunce is 
made ready, sire ; but the Blessed One is sitting there at the foot of a tree." 
"Very good," said the King, "we will go and hear the Master." Mounting his 
chariot of state, he went to the Master in the pleasaunce. 

Now there was then .seated at the Master's feet, listening to his teaching, 
a lay-brother named Chattapani, who had entered the Third Path. On 
cjitching sight of this lay-brother, the King hesitated ; but, on reflection that 
this must be a virtuous man, or he would not be sitting by the Master for 
instruction, he approached and with a bow seated himself on one side of the 
Master. Out of I'everence for the supreme Buddha, the lay-brother neither rose 
in the King's honour nor saluted his majesty; and this made the King very 
angry. Noticing the King's displeasure, the Master proceeded to extol the 
merits of that lay-brother, saying, "Sire, this lay-brother is master of all 
tradition ; he knows by heart the scriptures that have been handed down ; and 
he has set himself free from tlie bondage of passion." "Surely," thought the 
King, "lie whose praises the Master is telling can be no ordinary person." 
And he said to him, "Let me know, lay-brother, if you are in need of anything." 
"Thank you," said the man. Then the King listened to the Master's teaching, 
and at its close rose up and ceremoniously withdrew. 

Another day, meeting that same lay-brother going after breakfast umbrella 
in hand to Jetavana, the King had him summoned to his presence and said, 
"I hear, lay-brother, that you are a man of great learning. Now my wives are 
very anxious to hear and learn the truth ; I should be glad if you would teach 
them." "It is not meet, sire, that a layman [382] should expound or teach the 
truth in the King's harem ; that is the prerogative of the Brethren." 

Recognising the force of this remark, the King, after dismissing the layman, 
called his wives together and announced to them his intention of sending to the 
Master for one of the Brethren to come as their instructor in the doctrine. Which 
of the eighty chief disciples would they have ? After talking it over together, 
the ladies with one accord chose Ananda^ the Elder, surnamed the Treasurer of 
the Faith. So the King went to the Master and with a courteous greeting sat 
down by his side, after which he proceeded to state his wives' wish, and his own 
hope, that Ananda might be their teacher. The Master, having consented to 
send Ananda, the King's wives now began to be regularly taught by the Elder 
and to learn from him. 

One day the jewel out of the King's turban was missing. When the King 
heard of the loss he sent for his ministers and bade them seize everyone who 
had access to the precincts and find the jewel. So the Ministers searched 
everybody, women and all, for the missing jewel, till they had worried everybody 
almost out of their lives ; but no trace of it could they find. That day Ananda 
came to the palace, only to find the King's wives as dejected as they had 
hitherto been delighted when he taught them. "What has made you like this 
to-day]" asked the Elder. "Oh, sir," said they, "the King has lost the jewel 
out of his turban; and by his orders the ministers are worrying everybody, 
women and all, out of their lives, in order to find it. We can't say what may 
not happen to anyone of us ; and that is why we are so sad." " Don't think 

1 Anauda held 'advanced views on the woman question.' It was he who persuaded 
the reluctant Buddha into admitting women to the Order, as recorded in the Vinaya 
(S.B.E. XX, 320 et seqq.). 

224 The JdtaJca. Bool^ I. 

any more about it," said the Elder cheerily, as he went to find the King. 
Taking the seat set for him, the Elder asked whether it was true that his 
majesty had lost his jewel, "(^uite true, sir," said the King. "And can it not 
be found?" "I have had all the inmates of the palaces worried out of their 
lives, and yet I can't find it." "There is one way, sire, to find it, without 
worrying people out of their lives." "What way is that, sir?" "By wisp-giving, 
sire." "Wisp-giving? What may tliat be, pray?" "Call together, sire, all the 
pei'sons you suspect, and privately give each one of them separately a wisp 
of straw, or a lump of clay will do, saying, 'Take this and put it in such and 
such a place to-morrow at daybreak.' The man that took the jewel will put it 
in the straw or clay, and so bring it back. If it be brought l)ack the very first 
day, well and good. If not, the same thing must be done on the second and 
third "days. In this way, a large numbei' of ])ersons will escape worry, and you 
will get yovir jewel back." With these words the Elder departed. 

Following the above counsel, the King caused the straw and clay to be dealt 
out for three successive days; but yet the jewel was not recovered. [383] On 
the third day the Elder came again, and asked whether the jewel had been 
brought back. "No, sir," said the King. "Then, sire, you must have a large 
water-pot set in a retired corner of your courtyard, and you must have the pot 
filled with water and a screen put up before it. Then give orders that all 
who frequent the precincts, men and women alike, are to put oft' their outer- 
garments, and one by one wash their hands behind the screen and then come 
back." With this advice the Elder departed. And the King did as he bade. 

Thought the thief, "Ananda has seriously taken the matter in hand; and, if 
he does not find the jewel, he'll not let things rest here. The time has really 
come to give the jewel up without more ado." So he secreted the jewel about 
his person, and going behind the screen, dropped it in the water before he went 
away. When everyone had gone, the pot was em]>tied, and the jewel found. 
"It's all owing to the Elder," exclaimed the King in his joy, "that I have got my 
jewel back, and that without worrying a host of people out of their lives." And 
all the persons about the precincts were equally grateful to Ananda for the 
trouble he had saved them from. The story how Ananda's marvellous powers 
had found the jewel, spread through all the city, till it reached the Brotherhood. 
Said the Brethren, "The great knowledge, learning, and cleverness of the Elder 
Ananda have been the means at once of recovering the lost jewel and of saving 
many jiersons from being worried out of their lives." And as they sate together 
in the Hall of Truth, singing the praises of Ananda, the Master entered and 
asked the sidjject of their conversation. Being told, he said, "Brethren, this is 
not the first time that what had been stolen has been found, nor is Ananda the 
only one who has brought about such a discovery. In bygone days too the wise 
and good discovered what had been stolen away, and also saved a host of people 
from troulile, shewing that the lost proi)erty had fallen into the hands of 
animals." So saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta, having perfected his education, became one of the King's 
ministers. One day the King with a large following went into his 
]jleasaunce, and, after walking about the woods, felt a desire to disport 
himself in the water. So he went down into the royal tank and sent 
for his harem. The women of the hai'em, removing the jewels from their 
heads and necks and so forth, laid them aside with their upper gai*ments 
in boxes under the charge of female slaves, and then went down into 

No. 92. 225 

the water. 'Now, as the queen was taking off her jewels and ornaments, 
and laying them with her upper I'obe on a box, she was watched by a 
female monkey, whicli was hidden in the branches of a tree hard by. 
Conceiving a longing to wear the queen's pearl necklace, this monkey 
watched for the slave in charge to be off her guard. At first the girl kept 
looking all about her in order to keep the jewels [384] safe ; but as time 
wore on, she began to nod. As soon as the monkey saw this, q\uck as 
the wind she jumped down, and quick as the wind she was up the tree 
again, with the pearls I'ound her own neck. Then, for fear the other 
monkeys should see it, she hid the string of pearls in a hole in the tree 
and sat on guard over her spoils as demurely as though nothing had 
happened. By and by the slave awoke, and, terrified at finding the 
jewels gone, saw nothing else to do but to scream out, "A man has run 
off with the queen's pearl necklace." Up ran the guards from every side, 
and hearing this story told it to the King. "Catch the thief," said his 
majesty ; and away went the guards searching high and low for the thief 
in the pleasaunce. Hearing the din, a poor superstitious rustic' took to 
his heels in alarm. "There he goes," cried the guards, catching sight of 
the runaway; and they followed him up till they caught him, and with 
blows demanded what he meant by stealing such precious jewels. 

Thouglit he, "If I deny the charge, I shall die with the beating I 
shall get from these ruflSans. I'd better say I took it." So he confessed 
to the theft and was hauled off a prisoner to the King. "Did you take 
those precious jewels?" asked the King. "Yes, your majesty." "Where 
are they now?" "Please your majesty, I'm a poor man; I've never in 
my life owned anything, even a bed or a chair, of any value, — much less 
a jewel. It was the Treasurer who made me take that valuable necklace; 
and I took it and gave it to him. He knows all about it." 

Then the King sent for the Treasurer, and asked whether the rustic 
had passed the necklace on to him. "Yes, sire," was the answer. "Where 
is it then?" "I gave it to your majesty's Chaplain." Then the Chaplain 
was sent for, and interrogated in the same way. And he said he had 
given it to the Chief Musician, who in his turn said he had given it to a 
courtesan [385] as a present. But she, being brought before the King, 
utterly denied ever having received it. 

Whilst the five were thus being questioned, the sun set. "It's too 
late now," said the King; "we will look into this to-morrow." So he 
handed the five over to his ministers and went back into the city. Here- 
upon the Bodhisatta fell a-thinking. "These jewels," thought he, "were 
lost inside the grounds, wliilst the rustic was outside. There was a strong 
guard at the gates, and it was impossible for anyone inside to get away 

1 Or perhaps "a taxpaying ryot." 

c J. 15 

226 The Jataha. Book I. 

with the necklace. I do not see how anyone, whether inside or out, conld 
have managed to secure it. The truth is this poor wretched fellow must 
have said he gave it to the Treasurer merely in order to save his own 
skin ; and the Treasurer must have said he gave it to the Chaplain, in 
the hope that he would get oflf if he could mix the Chaplain up in the 
matter. Further, the Chaplain must have said he gave it to the Chief 
Musician, because he thought the latter would make the time pass merrily 
in pi'ison ; whilst the Chief Musician's object in implicating the courtesan, 
was simply to solace himself with her company during imprisonment. 
Not one of the whole five has anything to do with the theft. On the 
other hand, the grounds swarm with monkeys, and the necklace must have 
got into the hands of one of the female monkeys." 

When he had arrived at this conclusion, the Bodhisatta went to the 
King with the request that the suspects might be handed over to him 
and that he might be allowed to examine personally into the matter. 
"By all means, my wise friend," said the King ; " examine into it." 

Then the Bodhisatta sent for his servants and told them where to 
lodge the five prisoners, saying, " Keep strict watch over them ; listen to 
everything they say, and report it all to me " And his servants did as he 
bade them. As the prisoners sat together, the Treasurer said to the rustic, 
"Tell me, you wretch, where you and I ever met before this day ; tell me 
when you gave me that necklace." "Worshipful sir," said the other, "it 
has never been mine to own aught so valuable even as a stool or bedstead 
that wasn't rickety. I thought that with your help I should get out 
of this trouble, and that's why I said what I did. Be not angry with 
me, my lord." Said the Chaplain [386] in his turn to the Ti-easurer, "How 
then came you to pass on to me what this fellow had never given to you?" 
"I only said so because I thought that if you aiid I, both high officers of 
state, stand together, we can soon put the matter right." "Brahmin," 
now said the Chief Musician to the Chaplain, "when, pray, did you give 
the jewel to me?" "I only said I did," answered the Chaplain, "because 
I thought you would help to make the time pass more agreeably." Lastly 
the courtesan said, "Oh, you wretch of a musician, you know you never 
visited me, nor I you. So when could you have given me the necklace, as 
you say?" "Why be angry, my dear?" said the Musician, "we five have 
got to keep house together for a bit; so let us put a cheerful face on it and 
be happy together." 

This conversation being reported to the Bodhisatta by his agents, he felt 
convinced the five were all innocent of the robbery, and that a female 
monkey had taken the necklace. "And I must find a means to make her 
drop it," said he to himself. So he had a number of bead necklaces made. 
Next he had a number of monkeys caught and turned loose again, with 
strings of beads on their necks, wrists and ancles. Meantime, the guilty 

No. 93. 227 

monkey kept sitting in the ti"ees watching her treasure. Then the Bodhi- 
satta ordered a number of men to carefully observe every monkey in the 
grounds, till they saw one wearing the missing pearl necklace, and then 
frighten her into dropping it. 

Tricked out in their new splendour, the other monkeys strutted about 
till they came to the real thief, before whom they flaunted their tinery. 
Jealousy overcoming her prudence, she exclaimed, "They're only beads !" 
and put on her own necklace of real pearls. This was at once seen by 
the watchers, who promptly made her drop the necklace, which they 
picked up and brought to the Bodhisatta. He took it to the King, saying, 
"Here, sire, is tlie necklace. The five prisoners are innocent; it was a 
female monkey in the pleasaunce tliat took it." "How came you to find 
that outl" asked the King; "and how did you manage to get possession 
of it again 1" Then the Bodhisatta told the whole story, and the King 
thanked [387] the Bodhisatta, saying, "You are the right man in the right 
place." And he uttered this stanza in praise of the Bodhisatta : — 

For war men crave the hero's might. 

For counsel sage sobriety. 

Boon comrades for their jollity, 
But judgment when in parlous plight. 

Over and above these words of praise and gratitude, the Kiiag showered 
treasures upon the Bodhisatta like a storm-cloud pouring rain from the 
heavens. After following the Bodhisatta's counsels through a long life 
S[)ent in charity and good works, the King passed away to fare thereafter 
accordincj to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master, after extolling the Elder's merits, identified the 
Birth by saying, "Anauda was the King of those days and I his wise counsellor." 

No. 93. 


''Trust not the trusted." This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana, about taking things on trust. 

Tradition tells us that in those days the Brethren, for the most part, used to 
rest content if anything was given them by their mothers or fathers, brothers or 
sisters, or uncles or aunts, or other kinsfolk. Arguing tliat in their lay state they 
had as a matter of course received things from the same hands, they, as Brethren, 


228 The Jataka. Book I. 

likewise shewed no circumspection or caution before iising food, clothing and other 
requisites which their relations gave them. Observing this the Master felt that he 
must read the Brethren a lesson. So he called them together, and said, "Brethren, 
no matter whether [388] the giver be a relation or not, let circumspection accom- 
pany use. The Brother who without circumspection uses the I'equisites which are 
given to him, may entail on himself a subsequent existence as an ogre or as a 
ghost. Use without circumspection is like unto taking poison ; and poison kills 
just the same, whether it l»e given by a relative or by a stranger. There were 
those who in bygone days actually did take poison because it was offered by those 
near and dear to them, and thereby they met their end." So saying, he told the 
following story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was a very wealthy merchant. He had a herdsman who, when 
the corn was growing thick, drove his cows to the forest and kept them 
there at a shieling, bringing the produce fi'om time to time to the merchant. 
Now hard by the shieling in the forest there dwelt a lion ; and so afraid of 
the lion were the cows that they gave but little milk. So when the herdsman 
brought in his ghee one day, the merchant asked why there was so little of 
it. Then the herdsman told him the reason. "Well, has the lion formed 
an attachment to anything 1" "Yes, master; he's fond of a doe." 
"Could you catch that doe]" "Yes, master." "Well, catch her, and rub 
her all over with poison and sugar, and let her dry. Keep her a day or 
two, and then turn her loose. Because of his affection for her, the lion will 
lick her all over with his tongue, and die. Take his hide witli the claws 
and teeth and fat, and bring them back to me." So saying, he gave deadly 
poison to the herdsman and sent him off". With the aid of a net which he 
made, the herdsman caught the doe and carried out the Bodhisatta's orders. 

As soon as he saw the doe again, the lion, in his great love for her, 
licked her with his tongue so that he died. And the herdsman took the 
lion's hide and the rest, and brought them to the Bodhisatta, who said, 
"Affection for others should be eschewed. Mai-k how, for all his strength, 
the king of beasts, the lion, was led by his sinful love for a doe to poison 
himself by licking her and so to die." So saying, he uttered this stanza for 
the instruction of those gathered around : — 

[389] Trust not the trusted, nor th' untrusted trust; 
Trust kills; through trust the lion bit the dust. 

Such was the lesson which the Bodhisatta taught to those around him. 
After a life spent in charity and other good works, he passed away to 
fare according to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "I was the 
merchant of those days." 

[Note. Cf. BohtHngk's "Indische Spriiche," (1st ed.) Nos. 1465—7 and 4346.] 

No. 94. 229 

No. 94. 


"Now ■st'ort7iea?."— This «tory the Master told while at Patikarama near 
Vesali, about yuiiakkhatta. 

For at that time Sunakkliatta, having become an adherent of the Master, 
was travelling about the country as a Brother with bowl and robes, when he was 
perverted to the tenets of Kora the Kshatriya^. So he returned to the Blessed 
Buddha his bowl and robes and revei'ted to a lay life by reason of Kora the 
Kshatriya, about the time when this latter had been re-born as the offspring 
of the Kiilakaajaka Asura. And he went jibout within the three walls of 
Vesali defoming the Master by attirming that there was nothing superhuman 
about the sage Gotama, who was not distinguished from other men by preaching 
a saving faith ; that the sage Gotama haei simply worked out a system which 
was the outcome of his own individual thought and study ; and that the ideal for 
the attainment of which his doctrine was preached, did not lead to the destruc- 
tion of sorrow in those who followed it'-^. 

Now the reverend Sariputta was on his round for alms when he heard 
Sunakkhatta's blasphemies ; and on his return from his round he reported this 
to the Blessed One. Said the Master, "Sunakkhatta is a hot-headed person, 
Sariputta, and speaks idle words. His hot-headeduess has led him to talk like 
this and to deny the saving grace of my doctrine. Unwittingly, this foolish person 
is extolling me; I say unwittingly, for he has no knowledge [390] of my efficacy. 
In me, Sariputta, dwell the Six Knowledges, and herein am 1 more than human ; 
the Ten Powers are within me, and the Four Grounds of Confidence. 1 know 
the limits of the four types of earthly existence and the five states of possible 
re-birth after earthly death. This too is a superhuman quality in me; and 
whoso denies it must retract his words, change his belief, and renounce his 
heresy, or he will without ado be cast into hell." Having thus magnified the 
sui)ei-human nature and ])ower which existed within him, the Master went on to 
say, "Sunakkhatta, 1 hear, Sariputta, to(jk delight in the misguided self-mortifi- 
cations of the asceticism of Kora the Kshatriya ; and therefore it was that he 
could take no pleasure in me. Ninety-one ;eons ago I lived the higher life in all 
its four forms-', examining into that false asceticism to discover whether the 
truth abode therein. An ascetic was I, the chief of ascetics ; worn and 
emaciated was I, beyond all others ; loathing of comfort had I, a loathing 
surpassing that of all others ; I dwelt apart, and unapproachable was my passion 
for solitude." Then, at the Elder's request, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time, ninety-one jbous ago, the Bodhisatta set himself to 
examine into the false asceticism. So he became a recluse, according to 
the Naked Ascetics (Ajivikas), — unclothed and covered with dust, solitary 
and lonely, fleeing like a deer from the face of men ; his food was small 

1 See Hardy's Manual of Budhisni, p. 330. 

■•^ This is a quotation from the Majjhima Niktlya i. 68. 

* i.e. as a learner, householder, religieux, and recluse. 

230 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

fish, cowdung, and other refuse ; and in order that his vigil might not be 
disturbed, he took up his abode in a dread thicket in the jungle. In the 
snows of winter, he came forth by night from the sheltering thicket to the 
open air, returning with the sun-rise to his thicket again ; and, as he was 
wet with the driving snows by night, so in the day time he was drenched 
by the drizzle from the branches of the thicket. Thus day and night 
alike he endured the extremity of cold. In summer, he abode by day in the 
open air, and by night in the forest — scorched by the blazing sun by day, 
and fanned by no cooling breezes by night, so that the sweat streamed from 
him. And there pi'esented itself to his mind this stanza, which was new 
and never uttered before : — 

Now scorched, now frore, lone in the lonesome woods. 
Beside no fire, but all afire within. 
Naked, the hermit wrestles for the Truth. 

[391] Bxit when after a life spent in the rigours of this asceticism, the 
vision of hell rose before the Bodhisatta as he lay dying, he realised 
the worthlessness of all his austerities, and in that supreme moment broke 
away from his delusions, laid hold of the real truth, and was re-born in the 
Heaven of Devas. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "I was the 
naked ascetic of those days." 

[N^ote. For the 'story of the past' ? cf. Carina Pitairi, p. 102. For the intro- 
ductory story see Sutta No. 12 of the Majjhima Nikaya.] 

No. 95. 


"How transient." — This story was told by the Master as he lay on his death- 
bed, concerning Anauda's words, "O Blessed One, sufter not your end to be in 
this sorry little town." 

"Wlien the Buddha was dwelling at Jetavana," thovight the Master, "the 
Elder Sariputta\ who was born in Nala village, died at Varaka in the month of 
Kattika, when the moon was at the full ; and in the selfsame month, when the 

1 For the death of Sariijutta, see Bigandet's 'Legend of the Burmese Buddha.' 

No. 95. 231 

moon was on the wane, the great Moggallana died^. My two chief disciples being 
dead, I too will pass away, in Kusinara." — So thought the Blessed One ; and 
coming in his alms-pilgrimage to Kusinara, there upon the Northward bench 
between the twin Sal-trees he lay down never to rise again. Then said the 
Elder Ananda, "O Blessed One, suffer not your end to be in this sorry little 
town, this I'ough little town in the jungle, this little suburban town. Shall not 
Rajagaha or some other large city be the death-place of the Buddha?" 

"Nay, Ananda," said the Master; "call not this a sorry little town, a little 
town in the jungle, a little suburban town. In bygone days, in the days of 
Sudassana's universal monarchy, it was in this town that I had my dwelling. It 
was then a mighty city encompassed by jewelled walls [392] twelve leagues 
round." Therewithal, at the Elder's request, he told this story of the past and 
uttered the Maha-Sudassana Sutta'^. 

Then it was that Sudassana's queen Subhadda marked how, after 
coming down from the Palace of Truth, her lord was lying hard by on 
his right side on the couch prepared for him in the Palm-grove^ which 
was all of gold and jewels, — that couch from which he was not to rise 
again. And she said, " Eighty-four thousand cities, chief of which is 
the royal-city of Kusavati, own youi- sovereignty, sire. Set your heart 
on them." 

"Say not so, my queen," said Sudassana ; "rather exhort me, saying, 
' Keep your heart set on this town, and yearn not after those others '." 

" Why so, my lord ? " 

" Because I shall die to-day," answered the king. 

In tears, wiping her streavning eyes, the queen managed to sol) out 
the words the king bade her say. Then she broke into weeping and 
lamentation; and the other women of the harem, to the number of eighty- 
four thousand, also wept and wailed ; nor could any of the courtiers 
forbear, but all alike joined in one universal lament. 

" Peace!" said the Bodhisatta ; and at his word their lamentation was 
stilled. Then, turning to the queen, he said, — " Weep not, my queen, nor 
wail. For, even down to a tiny seed of sesamum, there is no such thing 
as a compound thing which is , permanent ; all are transient, all must 
break up." Then, for the queen's behoof, he uttered this stanza: — 

How transient are all component things! 
Growth is their nature and decay : 
They are produced, they are dissolved again : 
And then is best, — when they have sunk to rest^. 

1 For the death of Moggallana, see Fausboll's Dhammapada, p. 298, and Bigandet, 
op. cit. 

2 The 17tli Sutta of the Diglia Nikrvya, translated by Ehys Davids in Vol. xi. of the 
S. B. E. 

* See pp. 267 and 277 of Vol. xr. of the S. B. E. for this ijalm-grove. 

* This translation is borrowed from the Hibhert Lectures of Prof. Ehys Davids (2nd 
edition, p. 212), where a translation is given of the commeutary on these "perhaps the 
most frequently quoted and most popular verses in Pali Buddhist books." 

232 Tlie Jataka. Book L 

[393] Thus did the great Sudassana lead his discourse up to ambrosial 
Nirvaua as its goal. Moreover, to the rest of the multitude he gave the 
exhortation to be charitable, to obey the Commanduients, and to keep 
hallowed the fast days. The destiny he won was to be re-born thei'eafter 
in the Realm of Devas. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "The mother 
of Rahida' was the Queen Subhadda of those days; Rahula was the King's 
eldest son ; the disciples of the Buddha were his courtiers ; and I myself the great 

[JVote. For the evolution of this Jataka, sec the Jfahd-parimbbdna Sutta and 
the Malm- Sudassana Sutta, translated by Prof Rhys Davids in his volume of 
"Buddhist Suttas."] 

No. 96. 


"As one with ra'/-e."'-This story was told by the Master while dwelling in a 
forest near the town of Desaka in the Sumldia country, concerning the Janapada- 
Kalyani Sutta ^. For on that occasion the Blessed One said : — "Just as if, 
Brethren, a great crowd were to gather together, crying 'Hail to the Belle of the 
Land ! Hail to the Belle of the Land ! ' and just as if in like manner a greater 
crowd were to gather together, crying 'The Belle of the Land is singing and 
dancing' ; and then suppose there came a man fond of life, fearful of death, fond 
of pleasure, and averse to i)ain, and suppose such an one were addressed as 
follows, — 'Hi, there ! you are io carry this pot of oil, which is full to the brim, 
betwixt the crowd and the Belle of the Land ; a man with a drawn sword will 
follow in your footsteps ; and if you sjiill a single drop, he will cut oft' your 
head';— what think you. Brethren? Would that man, under these circum- 
stances, be careless, and take no pains in carrying that pot of oil?" "By no 
manner of means, sir." "This is an allegory [394], which I framed to make my 

1 This is the general style in the canon of the wife of Gotania the Buddha. Cf. 
Oldenber^'s Viiuiya, Vol. i. page 82, and the translation in Sacred Books of the East, 
Vol. XIII. p. 208. It is not however correct to say that the V'nuiya passage is "the 
only passage in the Pali Pitakas which mentions this lady." For she is mentioned 
in the Buddhavamsa (P. T. S. edition, page G.5), and her name is there given as 

2 It is not yet known where this Sutta occurs. A Pali summary of it has been left 
untranslated, as adding little or nothing to the above 'Introductory Story.' 

No. 1)6. 233 

meaning clear, Brethren; and here is its meaning: — The brimming pot of oil 
typifies a collected state of mind as regards things concerning the body, and the 
lesson to be learnt is that such mindfulness should be j^i'actised and perfected. 
Fail not in this, Brethren." So saying, the Master gave forth the Sutta con- 
cerning the Belle of the Land, with both text and interpretation. [.39.5] Then, 
l)y way of application, the Blessed One went on to say, — "A Brother desirous 
of practising right mindfulness concerning the body, should be as careful not to 
let his mindfulness drop, as the man in the allegory was not to let drop the pot 
of oil." 

When they had heard the Sutta and its meaning, the Brethren said: — "It 
was a hard task, sir, for the man to pass l)y with the pot of oil without gazing on 
the charms of the Belle of the Land." "Not hard at all, Brethren; it was quite 
an easy task, — easy for the very good I'eason that he was escorted along by one 
who threatened him with a drawn swoi'd. But it was a truly hard task for the 
wise and good of bygone days to pi'eserve right mindfulness and to curl> their 
passions so as not to lo(jk at celestial beauty in all its perfection. Still they 
triumphed, and passing on won a kingdom." So saying, he told this story of 
the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta w^as the youngest of the King's hundred sons, and grew up to manhood. 
Now in those days there were Pacceka Buddhas wlio used to come to take 
their meals at the palace, and the Bodhisatta ministered to them. 

Thinking one day of the great number of brothers he had, the 
Bodhisatta asked himself whether there was any likelihood of his coming 
to the throne of his fathers in that city, and determined to ask the 
Pacceka Buddhas to tell him what should come to pass. Next day the 
Buddhas came, took the water-pot that was consecrated to holy uses, 
filtered the water, washed and dried their feet, and sate down to their 
meal. And as they sat, tlie Bodhisatta came and seating himself by them 
with a courteous salutation, put his question. And they answered and 
said, " Prince, you will never come to be king in this city. But in 
Gandhara, two thousand leagues away, there stands the city of Takkasila. 
If you can reach that city, in seven days you will become king there. 
But there is peril on the road thither, in journeying through a great forest. 
It is double the distance round the foi'est that it is to pass through it. 
Ogres have their dwelling therein, and ogresses make villages and houses 
arise by the wayside. Beneath a goodly canopy embroidered with stars 
ovei'head, their magic sets a costly couch shut in l)y fair curtains of 
wondrous dye. Arranged in celestial splendoui* the ogresses sit within 
their abodes, seducing wayfarers [396] with honied words. ' Weary you 
seem,' they say ; ' come hither, and eat and drink before you journey 
further on your way.' Those that come at their bidding are given seats 
and fired to lust by the charm of their wanton beauty. But scarce have 
they sinned, before the ogresses slay them and eat them while the warm 

234 The Jataka. Book I. 

blood is still flowing. And they ensnare men's senses, — captivating the 
sense of beauty with utter loveliness, the ear with sweet minstrelsy, the 
nostrils with heavenly odours, the taste with heavenly dainties of exquisite 
savour, and the touch with red-cushioned couches divinely soft. But if 
you can subdue your senses, and be strong in your resolve not to look 
upon them, then on the seventh day you will become king of the city of 

" Oh, sirs ; how could I look upon the ogresses after your advice to 
me?" So saying, the Bodhisatta besought the Pacceka Buddhas to give him 
something to keep him safe on his journey. Receiving from thtnn a 
charmed thread and some charmed sand, he first bade farewell to the 
Pacceka Buddhas and to his father and mother ; and then, going to his 
own abode, he addressed his household as follows : — " I am going to 
Takkasila to make myself king there. You will stop behind here." But 
five of them answered, " Let us go too." 

"You may not come with me," answered the Bodhisatta; "for I am 
told that the way is beset by ogresses who captivate men's senses, and 
destroy those who succumb to their charms. Great is the danger, but I 
will rely on myself and go." 

"If we go with you, prince, we should not gaze upon their baleful 
charms. We too will go to Takkasila." " Then shew yourselves steadfast," 
said the Bodhisatta, and took those five with him on his journey. 

The ogresses sat waiting by the way in their villages. And one of the 
five, the lover of beauty, looked upon the ogresses, and being ensnared by 
their beauty, lagged behind the rest. " Why are you dropping behind ] " 
asked the Bodhisatta. " My feet hurt me, prince. I'll just sit down for a 
bit in one of these pavilions, and then catch you up." " My good man, 
these are ogresses ; don't hanker after them." " Be that as it may, prince, 
I can't go any further." " Well, you will soon be shewn in your real 
colours," said the Bodhisatta, as he went on with the other four. 

Yielding to his senses, the lover of beauty drew near to the ogresses, 
who [397] tempted him to sin, and killed him then and there. Thereon 
they departed, and fui-ther along the road raised by magic arts a new 
pavilion, in which they sat singing to the music of divers instruments. 
And now the lover of music dropped behind and was eaten. Then the 
ogresses went on further and sat waiting in a bazaar stocked with all sweet 
scents and perfumes. And here the lover of sweet-smelling things fell 
behind. And when they had eaten him, they went on further and sat in 
a provision-booth where a profusion of heavenly viands of exquisite savour 
was ofiered for sale. And here the gourmet fell behind. And when they 
had eaten him, they went on further, and sat on heavenly couches wrought 
by their magic arts. And here the lover of comfort fell behind. And him 
too they ate. 

No. 96. 235 

Only the Bodhisatta was left now. And one of the ogresses followed 
him, promising herself that for all his stern resolution she would succeed in 
devouring him ere she turned back. Further on in the forest, woodmen 
and others, seeing the ogress, asked her who the man was that walked on 

" He is my husband, good gentlemen." 

"Hi, there !" said they to the Bodhisatta; "when you liave got a sweet 
young wife, fair as the flowers, to leave her home and put her trust in you, 
why don't you walk with her instead of letting her trudge wearily behind 
you 1 " " She is no wife of mine, but an ogress. She has eaten my five 
companions." "Alas! good gentlemen," said she, "anger will drive men 
to say their very wives are ogresses and ghouls." 

Next, she simulated pregnancy and then the look of a woman who has 
borne one child; and child on hi[), she followed after the Bodhisatta. 
Everyone they met asked just the same questions about the pair, and the 
Bodhisatta gave just tlie same answer as he journeyed on. 

At last he came to Takkasila, where the ogress made the child dis- 
appear, and followed alone. At the gates of the city tlie Bodhisatta 
entered a Rest-house and sat down. Because of the Bodhisatta's efficacy 
and power, she could not enter too; so she arrayed liei-self in divine beauty 
and stood on the threshold. 

The King of Takkasila was at that moment passing by on his way to 
his pleasaunce, and was snared by her loveliness. "Go, find out," said he 
to an attendant, "whether she has a husband [.398] with her or not." And 
when the messenger came and asked whether she had a husband with her, 
she said, " Yes, sir ; my husband is sitting witliin in the chamber." 

" She is no wife of mine," said the Bodhisatta. " She is an ogress and 
has eaten my five companions." 

And, as before, she said, "Alas ! good gentlemen, anger will drive men 
to say anything that comes into their heads." 

Then the man went back to the King and told him what each had said. 
" Treasure-trove is a royal perquisite," said the King. And he sent for the 
ogress and had her seated on the back of his elephant. After a solemn 
procession round the city, the King came back to his palace and had the 
ogress lodged in the apartments reserved for a queen-consort. After 
bathing and perfuming himself, the King ate his evening meal and then 
lay down on his royal bed. The ogress too jn-epai'ed herself a meal, and 
donned all her splendour. And as she lay by the side of the delighted 
King, she turned on to her side and burst into tears. Being asked why 
she wept, she said, "Sire, you found nie by the wayside, and the women 
of the harem are many. Dwelling here among enemies I shall feel crushed 
when they say ' Who knows who your father and mother are, or anything 
about your family? You were picked up by the wayside.' But if your 

236 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

majesty would give me power and authority over the whole kingdom, 
nobody would dare to annoy me with such taunts." 

" Sweetheart, I have no power over those that dwell throughout my 
kingdom ; I am not their lord and master. I have only jurisdiction over 
those who revolt or do iniquity'. So I cannot give you power and 
authority over the whole kingdom." 

"Then, sire, if you cannot give me authority over the kingdom or over 
the city, at least give me authority within the palace, that I may have rule 
here over those that dwell in the palace." 

Too deeply smitten with her charms to refuse, the King gave her authority 
over all within the palace and bade her have rule over them [399]. Con- 
tented, she waited till the King was asleep, and then making her way to 
the city of the ogi-es returned with the whole crew of ogres to the [)alace. 
And she herself slew the King and devoured him, skin, tendons and Hesh, 
leaving only the bare bones. And the rest of the ogres entering the gate 
devoured everything as it came in their way, not leaving even a fowl or a 
dog alive. Next day when peo[)le came and found the gate shut, tliey 
beat on it with impatient cries, and effected an entrance, — only to find the 
whole palace strewn with bones. And they exclaimed, " So the man was 
right in saying she was not his wife but an ogress. In his unwisdom the 
King brought her home to be his wife, and doubtless she has assembled the 
other ogres, devoured everybody, and then made off." 

Now on that day the Bodhisatta, with the charmed sand on his head 
and the charmed thread twisted round his brow, was standing in the Rest- 
house, sword in hand, waiting for the dawn. Those others, meantime, 
cleansed the palace, garnished the floors afresh, sprinkled perfumes on 
them, scattered flowers, hanging nosegays from the roof and festooning the 
walls with garlands, and burning incense in the place. Then they took 
counsel together, as follows : — 

"The man that could so master his senses as not so much as to look at 
the ogress as she followed him in her divine beauty, is a noble and stead- 
fast man, filled with wii^dom. With such an one as king, it Avould be well 
with the whole kingdom. Let us make him our king." 

And all the courtiers and all the citizens of the kingdom were one- 
minded in the matter. So the Bodhisatta, being chosen king, was escorted 
into the capital and there decked in jewels and anointed king of Takkasila. 
Shunning the four evil paths, and following the ten paths of kingly duty, 
he ruled his kingdom in righteousness, and after a life spent in charity and 
other good works jjassed away to fare according to his deserts. 

Cf. Milinda-paiiho 359 for an exposition of the limited prerogative of kings. 

No. 97. 237 

His story told, the Master, as Buddha, uttered this stanza :— [400] 

As one with care a pot of oil will bear, 

Full to the brim, that none may overflow, 
So he who forth to foreign lands doth fare 

O'er his own heart like governaunce should shew. 

[401] When the INIaster had thus led up to the highest point of instruction, 
which is Arahatship, he identified the Birth by saying, "The Buddha's disciples 
were in those days the king's courtiers, and I the prince that won a kingdom." 

No. 97. 


'•Seeing Quick c?ea(i."— This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a Brother who thought luck went by names. For we hear tliat a young 
man of good family, named 'Base,' had given his heart to the Faith, and joined 
the Brotherhood. [402] And the Brethren used to call to him, "Here, Brother 
Base !" and "Stay, Brother Base," till he resolved that, as 'Base' gave the idea of 
incarnate wickedness and ill-luck, he would change his name to one of better 
omen. Accordingly he asked his teachers and pi-eceptors to give him a new 
name. But they said that a name only served to denote, and did not impute 
qualities ; and they bade him rest content with the name he bad. Time after 
time he renewed his request, till the whole Brotherhood knew what importance 
he attached to a mere name. And as they sat discussing the matter in the Hall 
of Truth, the Master entered and asked what it was they were speaking about. 
Being told, he said "This is not the first time this Brother has believed luck 
went by names ; he was equally dissatisfied with the name he bore in a former 
age." So saying he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time the Bodhisatta was a teacher of world-wide fame at 
Takkasila, and five hundred young brahmins learnt the Vedas from his 
lips. One of tliese young men was named Base. And from continually 
hearing his fellows say, " Go, Base " and " Come, Base," he longed to get rid 
of his name and to take one that had a less ill-omened ring about it. So 
he went to his master and asked that a new name of a respectable charac- 
ter might be given him. Said his master, " Go, my son, and travel 
through the land till you have found a name you fancy. Tlien come back 
and I will change your name for you." 

The young man did as lie was bidden, and taking provisions for the 

238 The Jataka. Booh I. 

journey wandered from village to village till he canie to a certain town. 
Here a man named Quick had died, and the young brahmin seeing him 
borne to the cemetery asked what his name was. 

"Quick," was the reply. "What, can Quick Ije dead?" "Yes, Quick 
is dead; both Quick and Dead die just the same. A name only .serves to 
mark who's who. You seem a fool." 

Hearing this he went on into the city, feeling neither satisfied nor dis- 
satisfied with his own name. 

Now a .slave-girl had been thi'own down at the door of a house, while 
her master and mistress beat her with rope-ends because she had not 
brought home her wages. And the girl's name was Rich. [403] Seeing 
the girl being beaten, as he walked along the street, he asked the reason, 
and was told in reply that it was because she had no wages to shew. 

" And what is the girl's name ? " 

"Rich," said they. "And cannot Rich make good a paltry day's 
pay ? " " Be she called Rich or Poor, the money's not forthcoming any 
the more. A name only serv^es to mark who's who. Y^ou seem a fool." 

More reconciled to his own name, the young brahmin left the city and 
on the road found a nu^n who had lost his way. Having learnt that he 
had lost his way, the young man asked what his name was. " Guide," 
was the reply. "And has Guide lost his way*?" "Guide or Misguide, 
you can lose your way just the same. A name only serves to mark who's 
who. You seem a fool." 

Quite reconciled now to his name, the young brahmin came back to his 

" Well, what name have you chosen'?" asked the Bodhisatta. "Mastei-," 
said he, "I find that death comes to 'Quick' and 'Dead' alike, that 'Rich' 
and ' Poor ' may be poor together, and that ' Guide ' and ' Misguide ' alike 
miss their way. I know now that a name serves only to tell who is who, 
and does not govern its owner's destiny. So I am satisfied with my own 
name, and do not want to change it for any other." 

Then the Bodhisatta uttered this stanza, combining what the young 
brahmin had done witli the sights he had seen : — 

Seeing Quick dead, Guide lost. Rich poor. 
Base learned content nor travelled more. 

His story told, the Master said " So you see, Brethren, that in former days as 
now this Brother imagined there was a great deal in a name." And he identified 
the Birth by saying, "This Brother who is discontented with his name was the 
discontented young brahmin of those days; the Buddha's disciples were the 
pupils; and I myself their master.' 

No. 98. 239 

No. 98. 


[404] " Wise righth/, Wisest wronglyP — This story was told by the ]\Iaster 
wliile at Jetavana, a1)out a cheating merchant. There were two merchants in 
partnership at Sfivatthi, we are told, who travelled with their merchandise and 
came back with tlie proceeds. And the cheating merchant thought to himself, 
"My 2^artner has been badlj' fed and badly lodged for so many daj's past that he 
will die of indigestion now he has got home again and can feast to his heart's 
content on dainties manifold. My plan is to divide what wo have made into 
three portions, giving one to his orphans and keeping two for myself." And 
with this object he made some excuse day by day for putting oft" the division of 
the profits. 

Finding thAt it was in vain to press for a division, the honest partner went to 
the Master at the monastery, made his salutation, and was received kindly. "It 
is a very long time," said the Buddha, "since you came last to see me." And 
hereupon the merchant told the Master what had befallen him. 

"This is not the first time, lay-follower," said the Master, "that this man 
has been a cheating merchant; he was no less a cheat in times past. As he 
tries to defraud you now, so did he try to defraud the wise and good of other 
days." So saying, at the merchant's request, the Master told this story of the 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born into a merchant'.s family and on name-day was named 
'Wise.' When he grew up he entered into partnership with another 
merchant named 'Wisest,' and traded with him. And these two took five 
hundred waggons of merchandise from Benares to the country-districts, 
where they dispo.sed of their wares, returning afterwards with the proceeds 
to the city. When the time for dividing came, Wisest said, "I must have 
a double share." "Why so?" asked Wise. "Because while you are only 
Wise, I am Wisest. And Wise ought to have only one share to Wisest's 
two." "But we both had an equal interest in the stock-in-trade and in 
the oxen and waggons. Why should you have two shares'?" "Because I 
am Wisest." And so they talked away till they fell to quarrelling. 

"Ah!" thought Wisest, "I have a plan." And he made his father hide 
in [405] a hollo.w tree, enjoining the old man to say, when the two came, 
"Wisest should have a double portion." This arranged, he went to the 
Bodhisatta and proposed to him to refer the claim for a double shai-e to 
the competent decision of the Tree-Sprite. Then he made his appeal in 
these words: "Lord Tree-Sprite, decide our cause!" Hex'eupon the father, 
who was hidden in the tree, in a changed voice asked them to state the 

240 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

case. The cheat addressed the tree as follows: "Lord, here stands Wise, 
and here stand I Wisest. We have been partners in trade. Declare what 
share each should receive." 

"Wise should receive one share, and Wisest two," was the response. 

Hearing this decision, the Bodhisatta resolved to find out whether it 
was indeed a Tree-Sprite or not. So he filled the hollow trunk with straw 
and set it on fire. And Wisest's father was half roasted by the rising 
flames and clambered up by clutching hold of a bough. Falling to the 
ground, he uttered this stanza : — 

Wise rightly, Wisest wrongly got his name ; 
Through Wisest, I'm nigh roasted in the flame. 

Then the two merchants made an equal division and each took half, 
and at their deaths passed away to fare according to their deserts. 

"Thus you see," said the Master, "that your partner was as great a cheat in 
past times as now." Having ended his story, he identified the Birtli by saying, 
"The cheating merchant of to-day was the cheating merchant in the story, and 
I the honest merchant named Wise." 

No. 99. 


'■'■Far better than a thousand fools." — This story was told by the Master when 
at Jetavana, concerning the question of the unconverted. [406] 
(The incidents will be related in the Sarablianga-jatakai.) 
On a certain occasion the Brethren met in the Hall of Trxith and j)raised 
the wisdom of Sariputta, the Captain of the Faith, who had expounded the 
meaning of the Buddha's pithy saying. Entering the hall, the Master asked and 
was told what the Brethren were talking about. "This is not the first time. 
Brethren," said he, "that the meaning of a pithy saying of mine has been brought 
out by Sariputta. He did the like in times gone by." So saying, he told this 
story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born a Northern brahmin and perfected his education at Takkasila. 
Putting Lusts from him and renouncing the world for the hermit's life, he 

1 No. 522. 

No. 99. 241 

won the Five Knowledges and tlie Eight Attainments, and dwelt in the 
Himalayas, where five hundred hermits gathei'ed round him. One rainy 
season, his chief disciple went with half the hermits to the haunts of men 
to get salt and vinegar. And that was the time when the Bodhisatta 
should die. And his disciples, wishing to know his spiritual attainment, 
said to him, " What excellence have you wonl" 

"Won?" said he; "1 have won Notliiyiy^." So saying, he died, but was 
reborn in the Brahma Realm of Radiant Devas. (For Bodhisattas even 
though they may have attained to the highest state are never reborn in 
the Formless World, because they are incapable of passing beyond the Realm 
of Form.) Mistaking his meaning, his disciples concluded that he had 
failed to win any spiritual attainment. So they did not pay the customary 
honours at cremation. 

On his return the chief disciple learnt that the master was dead, and 
asked whether they had asked what he had won. "He said he had won 
nothing," said they. " So we did not pay him the usual honours at 

"You understood not his meaning," said that chief disciple. "Our 
master meant that he had attained to the insight called the insight into 
the Nothingness of Things." But though he explained this again and 
again to the disciples, they believed him not. 

Knowing their unbelief, the Bodhisatta cried, " Fools ! they do not 
believe my chief disciple. I will make this thing plain unto them." And 
he came from the Brahma Realm and by virtue of his mighty powers 
rested in mid-air above the hermitage and uttered this stanza in praise of 
the wisdom of the chief disciple : — [407] 

Far better than a thousand fools, though they 

Cry out a hundred years unceasingly, 

Is one who, hearing, straightway understands. 

Thus did the Great Being from mid-air proclaim the Truth and rebuke 
the band of hermits. Then he passed back to the Brahma Realm, and 
all those hermits too qualified themselves for rebirth in the same Realm. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "Sariputta was 
the chief disciple of those days, and I Maha-Brahma." 

1 One of the highest Attainments was the insight into the nothingness of things ; 
everything being a delusion. 

c. J. IG 

242 The Jataka. Booh I. 

No. 100. 


"/;i guise of joy." — This story was told by the Master while at Kunda- 
dhanavana near the city of Kundiya about Suppavasix, a lay- sister, who was 
daughter to King Koliya. For at that time, she, who had carried a child 
seven years in her womb, was in the seventh day of her throes, and her 
pains were grievous. In spite of all her agony, she thought as follows: — "All- 
Enlightened is the Blessed One who preaches the Truth to the end that such 
suffering may cease; righteous are the Elect of the Blessed One who so walk 
that such suffering may cease; blessed is Nirvana wherein such suffering doth 
cease." These three thoughts were her consolation in her pangs. And she 
sent her husband to the Buddha to tell her state and bear a greeting for her. 

Her message was given to the Blessed One, who said, [408] "May Suppavasa, 
daughter of the king of the Koliyas, grow strong and well again, and bear a 
healthy child." And at the word of the Blessed One, Suppavasa, daughter of 
the king of the Koliyas, became well and strong, and bore a healtliy child. 
Finding on his return tliat his wife had been safely delivered, the husband 
marvelled greatly at the exalted powers of the Buddha. Now that her child 
was born, Suppavasa was eager to shew bounty for seven days to the Brother- 
hood with the Buddha at its head, and sent her husband back to invite them. 
Now it chanced that at that time the Brotherhood with the Buddha at its head 
had received an invitation from the layman who supported the Elder Moggallana 
the Great; but the Master, wishing to gratify Suppavasa's charitable desires, 
sent to the Elder to explain the matter, and with the Brotherhood accepted 
for seven days the hospitality of Suppavasa. On the seventh day she dressed 
up her little boy, whose name was Sivali, and made him bow before the Buddha 
and the Brotherhood. And when he was brought in due course to Sariputta, 
the Elder in all kindness greeted the infant, saying, "Well, Sivali, is all well 
with you?" "How could it be, sir?" said the infant. "Seven long years have 
I had to wallow in blood." 

Then in joy Suppavasa exclaimed, "My child, only seven days old, is actually 
discoursing on religion with the apostle Sariputta, the Captain of the Faith !" 

"Would you like another such a child?" asked the Master. "Yes, sir;" 
said Suppavasa, "seven more, if I could have them like him." In solemn phrase 
the Master gave thanks for Suppavasfi's hospitality and departed. 

At seven years of age the child Sivali gave his heart to the Faith and 
forsook the world to join the Brotherhood ; at twenty he was admitted a full 
Brother. Righteous was he and won the crown of righteousness which is 
Arahatship, and the earth shouted aloud for joy. 

So one day the assembled Brethren talked with one another in the Hall 
of Truth respecting the matter, saying, " The Elder Sivali, who is now so shining 
a light, was the child of many prayers ; seven long years was he in the womb 
and seven days in birth. How great must have been the pains of mother and 
child ! Of what deeds were their pains the fruit?" 

Entering the hall, the Master asked the subject of their discourse. "Brethren," 
said he, "the righteous Sivali [409] was seven years in the womb and seven days 
in birth all because of his own past deeds. And similarly Suppavasa's seven 
years' pregnancy and seven days' travail resulted from her own past deeds." 
So saying, he told this story of the past. 

No. 101. 243 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was the child of the queen consort, and grew up and was educated at 
Takkasila, and at his father's death became king and ruled righteously. 
Now in those days the King of Kosala came up with a great force against 
Benares and slew the king and bore off his queen to be his own wife. 

When the king was slain, his son made his escape through the sewer. 
Afterwards he collected a mighty force and came to Benares. Encamping 
hard by, he sent a message to the king to either surrender the kingdom 
or give battle. And the king sent back the answer that he wotild give 
battle. But the mother of the young prince, hearing of this, sent a 
message to her son, saying, "There is no need to do battle. Let every 
a})proach to the city on every side be invested and barred, till lack of 
firewood and water and food wears out the people. Then the city will 
fall into your hands without any fighting." Following his mother's advice, 
the prince for seven days invested the city with so close a blockade that 
the citizens on the seventh day cut off their king's head and brought it to 
the prince. Then he entered the city and made himself king, and when 
his life ended he pas<sed away to fare according to his deserts. 

The result and consequence of his acts in blockading the city for those seven 
days was that for seven years he abode in the womb and was seven days in 
birth. But, inasmuch as he had fallen at the feet of the Buddha Padumuttara 
and had [)rayed with many gifts that the crown of Arahatship might be his; 
and, inasmuch as, in the days of the Buddha Vipassi, he had ofFei'ed up the 
same prayer, he and his townsfolk, with gifts of great price; — [410] therefore, by 
his merit, he won the ci'own of Arahatship. And because Suppaviisa sent the 
message bidding her son take the city by blockade, she was doomed to a seven 
years' pregnancy and to a seven days' travail. 

His story ended, the Master, as Buddha, repeated these verses : — 

In guise of joy and blessings, sorrow comes 
And trouble, sluggai'ds' hearts to overwhelm. 

And when he had taught this lesson, the Master identified the Birth by 
saying, "Sivali was the prince who in those days blockaded the city, and 
became king ; Suppavasa was his mother, and I his father, the king of Benares." 

No. 101. 


Far better than a hundred fools, though they 

Think hard a hundred years unceasingly, 

Is one who, hearing, straightway understands. 

[411] This story is in all respects analogous to the Parosahassa-Jataka (No. 
99), with the sole difference that 'think hard' is read here. 


244 The Jataka. Book I. 

No. 102. 


"He that should prove." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a lay-brother who was a greengrocer in Savatthi and made a living by the 
sale of various roots and vegetables, and pumpkins and the like. Xow he had a 
pretty daughter who was as good and virtuous as she was pretty, but was always 
laughing. And when she was asked in marriage by a family of his own station 
in life, he thought "She ought to be married, but she's always laughing; and a 
bad girl married into a strange family is her parents' shame. I must find out 
for certain whether she is a good girl or not." 

So one day he made his daughter take a basket and come with him to the 
forest to gather herbs. Then to try her, he took her by the hand with whispered 
words of love. Straightway the girl bm-st into tears and began to cry out 
that such a thing would be as monstrous as fire rising out of water, and she 
besought him to forbear. Then he told her that his only intent was to try her, 
and asked whether she was virtuous. And she declared that she was and that 
she had never looked on any man with eyes of love. Calming her fears and 
taking her back home, he made a feast and gave her in marriage. Then feeling 
that he ought to go and pay his respects to the Master, he took perfumes and 
garlands in his hand and went to Jetavana. His salutations done and offerings 
made, he seated himself near the Master, who observed that it was a long 
time since his last coming. Then the man told the Blessed One the whole 

"She has always been a good girl," said the Master. "You have put her to 
the test now just as you did in days gone by." Then at the greengrocei-'s request 
he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Bralimadatta was reigning in Benares [412], the 
Bodhisatta was a Tree-Sprite in a forest. And a lay-foJlower who was a 
greengrocer of Benares had just the same doubts of his daughter, and all 
fell out as in the introductory story. And as her father took hold of her 
hand the weeping girl repeated these verses : — 

He that should prove my buckler strong, 
My father, worketh me this wrong. 
Forlorn in thickest wood I cry ; 
My helper proves my enemy. 

Then her father calmed her fears, and asked whether she was a virgin. 
And when she declared that she was, he brought her home and made 
a feast and gave the girl in marriasre. 

No. 103. 245 

His story ended, the Master preached the Four Truths, at the close whereof 
the greengi-ocer was established in the Fii-st Path of Salvation. Then the 
Master identified the Birth by saying, "The ftither and daughter of to-day were 
the father and daughter in the story, and I the Tree-Sprite who witnessed 
the scene." 

[JVote. Cf. No. 217.] 

No. 103. 


"1/ wise, thou 'It loiter not^ — This story was told by the Master at Jetavana 
about Anatha-pindika. For we hear that Anatha-pindika was returning from the 
village of which he was headman, when he saw robbers on the road. " It won't 
do to loiter by the way," thought he; "I must hurry on to Savatthi." So he 
urged his oxen to speed [413] and got safely into Savatthi. Next day he went to 
the monastery and told the Master what had befallen him. "Sir," said the Master, 
"in other times too the wise and good espied robbers on the road and hastened 
without delay to their homes." Then at the merchant's request he told this 
story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was a rich merchant, wlio had been to a village to collect his dues 
and was on his homeward way when he saw robbers on the road. At 
once he urged his oxen to their topmost speed and reached home in safety. 
And as he sat on his couch of state after a rich repast, he exclaimed, 
" I have escaped from the robbers' hand to mine own house, where fear 
dwells not." And in his thankfulness he uttered this stanza : — 

If wise, thou 'It loiter not 'mid enemies ; 
A night or two with such brings miseries. 

So, from the fulness of his heart, spake the Bodhisatta, and after a life 
of charity and other good deeds he passed away to fare according to his 

His story ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "I was the 
merchant of Benares of those days." 

246 The Jataka. Book I. 

No. 104. 


^'■From four to aighV^ — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
concerning an unruly Brother. The incidents are the same as those in the 
previous story of Mittavindaka^, but belong to the days of the Buddha 

[414] Now at that time one of the damned who had put on the 
circlet and was suffering the tortures of hell, asked the Bodhisatta — 
"Lord, what sin have I committed T' The Bodhisatta detailed the man's 
evil deeds to hiiu and uttered this stanza : — 

From four to eight, to sixteen thence, and so 

To thirty-two insatiate greed doth go, 

— Still pressing on till insatiety 

Doth win the circlet's griding misery''^. 

So saying he went back to the Realm of Devas, but the other abode in 
hell till his sin had l)eeu purged from hiu). Then lie passed thence to fare 
accord ins: to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "This unruly 
Brother was then Mittavindaka and I the Deva." 

No. 105. 


'■'■Fear'' St thou the wind." — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana, al)out a Brother who lived in a perpetual state of nervous alarm. We 
learn that he came of a good family in Savatthi, and was led to give up the 
world by hearing the Truth preached, and that he was always in fear of his life 

1 No. 41. 

'■^ Part of these lines uccur in the I'iinea Tantni !)8. 

No. 105. 247 

both by night and by day. The sough of the wind, the rustle of a fan, or the 
cry of bird or would inspire him with such abject terror that he would 
shriek and dash away. He never reflected that death was sure to conie upon 
him ; though, had he practised meditation on the certainty of death, he would 
not have feared it. [415] For only they that do not so meditate fear death. 
Now his constant fear of dying became known to the Brethren, and one day 
they met in the Hall of Truth and fell to discussing his fearfulness and the 
propriety of every Brother's taking death as a theme for meditation. Entering 
the Hall, the Master asked, and was told, what they were discussing. So he sent 
for that Brother and asked him whether it was true he lived in fear of death. 
The Brother confessed that he did. "Be not angry. Brethren," said the Master, 
"with this Brother. The fear of death that tills his breast now was no less 
strong in bygone times." So saying he told this story of the past. 

Once on a tiuie when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodlii- 
satta was a Tree- Sprite near the Himalayas. And in those days the king 
put his state elephant in the elepliant-trainers' hands to be broken in to 
stand firm. And they tied the elephant up fast to a post, and with goads 
in their hands set al)Out training the animal. Unable to bear the pain 
whilst he was being made to do their bidding, tlie elephant broke the post 
down, put the trainers to flight, and made off to the Himalayas. And 
the men, being unable to catch it, had to come back empty-handed. The 
elephant lived in the Himalayas in constant fear of death. A breath of 
wind sufficed to fill him with fear and to start him off at full speed, 
shaking his trunk to and fro. And it was with him as though he was 
still tied to the post to be trained. All happiness of mind and body gone, 
he wandered up and down in constant dread. Seeing this, the Ti-ee-Sprite 
stood in the fork of his ti'ee and uttered this stanza : — 

Fear'st thou the wind that ceaselessly 
The i-otteu boughs doth rend alway I 
Such fear will waste thee quite away ! 

[416] Such were the Tree-Sprite's cheering words. And the elephant 
thenceforth feared no more. 

His lesson ended, the Master taught the Four Trutlis (at the close whereof 
tlie Brother entered the Paths), and identified the Birth by saying, "This 
Br(;ther was the elephant of those days and I the Tree-Sprite." 

248 The Jataha. Book I. 

No. 106. 


"^■1 happy life xoas miner — Tliis story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavaua, about a temptation by a fat girl. The incident will be related in the 
Culla-Xarada-Kassapa Jataka i in the Thirteenth Book. 

On asking the Brother, the Master was told that it was true he was in love, 
and in love with the fat girl. "Brother," said the Master, "she is leading you 
astray. So too in times gone by she led you into evil, and you were only restored 
to happiness by the wise and good of those days." So saying, he told this story 
of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, those 
things came to pass wliich will be told in the Cnlla-Narada-Kassapa 
Jataka. But on this occasion the Bodhisatta at evening came with fruits 
to the hermitage, and, opening the door, said to his son, "Every other day 
you brought "wood and victuals, and lit a fire. Why have you not done 
any of these things to-day, but sit sadly here pining away % " 

"Father," said the young man, "while you were away gathering fruits, 
there came a woman who tried to lure me away with blandishments. 
But I would not go with her till I had your leave, and so left her sitting 
waiting for me. And now my wish is to depart." 

Finding that the young man was too much in love to lie able to give 
her up, the Bodhisatta bade him go, saying " But when she wants meat 
[417] or fish or ghee or salt or rice or any sucli thing to eat, and sends you 
liurrying to and fj'o on her errands, then remember tliis hermitage and flee 
away back to me." 

So the other went off with the woman to the haunts of men ; and 
when he was come to her house, she made him run about to fetch every 
single thing she wanted. 

" I might just as well be her slave as this," thought he, and promptly 
ran away back to his father, and saluting him, stood and repeated this 
stanza : — 

A happy life was mine till that fell she, 

— That worrying, tiresome pitcher styled my wife — 

Set me to run the errands of her whims. 

And the Bodhisatta commended the young man, and exhorted him to 
kindliness and mercy, setting forth the four forms of right feeling towards 

1 No. 477. 

No. 107. 249 

men and the modes of ensuring Insight. Nor was it long before the 
young man won the Knowledges and Attainments, and attained to i-ight 
feeling towards his fellow-creatures, and with his father was re-born into 
the Brahma Realm. 

His lesson ended, and the Four Truths preached (at the close whereof that 
Brotlier entered the First Path) the Master identified the Birth by saying, "The 
fat girl of to-day was also the fat girl of those days ; this young Brother was the 
son ; and I the ftither of those days." 

No. 107. 


[418] '■'■Prize skill." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a Brother who threw and hit a swan. We are told that this Brother, wlio 
came of a good family in Savatthi, had acquired great skill in hitting things with 
stones ; and that hearing tlie Truth preached one day he gave his heart to it and, 
giving up the world, was admitted to full Brotherhood. But neither in study nor 
practice did he excel as a Brother. One day, with a youthful Brother, he went 
to the river Aciravatii, and was standing on the bank after bathing, when he saw 
two white swans flying by. Said he to the younger Brother, "I'll hit the hinder 
swan in the eye and bring it down." "Bring it down indeed!" said the other; 
"you can't hit it." "Just you wait a moment. I'll hit it on the eye this side 
through the eye on the other." "Oh, nonsense." "Very well; you wait and 
see." Then he took a three-cornered stone in his hand and flung it after the 
swan. 'Whiz' went the stone through the air and the swan, suspecting danger, 
stopped to listen. At once the Brother seized a smooth round stone and as the 
resting swan was looking in another direction hit it full in the eye, so that the 
stone went in at one eye and came out at the other. And with a loud scream 
the swan fell to the ground at their feet. "That is a highly improper action," 
said the other Brother, and brought him before the Master, with an account of 
what had happened. After rebuking the Brother, the Master said, "The same 
skill was his, Brethren, in past times as now." And he told this story of the 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was one of the King's courtiers. And the royal chaplain of 
those days was so talkative and lougwinded that, when lie once started, no 

' The modern Kapti, iu Oudb. 

250 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

one else could get a word in. So the King cast about for someone to cut 
the chaplain short, and looked high and low for such an one. Now at 
that time there was a cripple in Benares who was a wonderful marksman 
with stones, and the boys used to put him on a little cart and [419] 
draw him to the gates of Benares, where there is a large branching 
banyan-tree covered with leaves. There they would gather round and 
give him half-pence, saying ' Make an elephant,' or ' Make a horse.' 
And the ci'ipple would throw stone after stone till he had cut the 
foliage into the shapes asked for. And the gi-ound was covered with 
fallen leaves. 

On his way to his pleasaunce the King came to the spot, and all the 
boys scampered off in fear of the King, leaving the cripple there helpless. 
At the sight of the litter of leaves the King asked, as he rode by in his 
chariot, who had cut the leaves off. And he was told that the ci'ipple 
had done it. Thinking that here might be a way to stop the chaplain's 
mouth, the King asked where the cripple was, and was shewn him sitting 
at the foot of the tree. Then the King had him brought to him and, 
motioning his retinue to stand apart, said to the cripple, " I have a very 
talkative chaplain. Do you think you could stop his talking? " 

"Yes, sire, — if I had a peashooter full of dry goat's dung," said the 
cripple. Then the King had him taken to the palace and set with a pea- 
shooter full of dry goat's dung behind a curtain with a slit in it, facing the 
chaplain's seat. When the brahmin came to wait upon the King and was 
seated on the seat prepared for him, his majesty started a conversation. 
And the chaplain forthwith monopolized the conversation, and no one else 
could get a word in. Hereon the cripple shot the pellets of goat's dung 
one by one, like flies, through the slit in the curtain right into the chap- 
lain's gullet. And the brahmin swallowed the pellets down as they came, 
like so much oil, till all had disappeared. When the whole peashooter-full 
of pellets was lodged in the chaplain's stomach, they swelled to the size 
of half a peck ; and the King, knowing they were all gone, addressed the 
brahmin in these words: "Reverend sir, so talkative are you, that you 
have swallowed down a peashooter-full of goat's dung without noticing it. 
That's about as much as you will be able to take at a sitting. Now go 
home and take a dose of panick seed and water by way of emetic, and put 
yourself right again." 

From that day [420] the chaplain kept his mouth shut and sat as 
silent during conversation as though his lips were sealed. 

"Well, my ears are indebted to the cripple for this relief," said the 
King, and bestowed on him four villages, one in the North, one in the 
South, one in the W^est, and one in the East, producing a hundred thousand 
a year. 

The Bodhisatta drew neai' to the King and said, " In this world, sire. 

No. 108. 251 

skill should be cultivated by the wise. Mere skill in aiming has brought 
this cripple all this prosperity." So saying he uttered this stanza: — - 

Prize .skill, and note the marksman lame ; 
— Four villages reward his aim. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "This Brother 
was the cripple of those days, Ananda the King, and I the wise courtier." 

No. 108. 


'■'•Learn thou betimes." — This story was told by the Master, while he was 
dwelling in the Gabled Chamber at the Great Grove near Vesali, about a Licchavi, 
a i)ious })riuce who had embraced the Truth. He had invited the Brotherhood 
with the Buddha at their head to his house, and there had shewn great bounty 
towards them. Now his wife was a very fat woman, almost bloated in ap- 
pearance, and she was badly dressed. 

Thanking the King for his hospitality, the Master returned to the monastery 
and, after a discourse to the Brethren, retired to his perfumed chamber. 

Assembled in the Hall of Truth, the Brethren expressed their surprise that a 
man like tliis Licchavi prince should have such a fat l)adly-dressed woman for 
his wife, and l;)e so fond of her. Entering the Hall and hearing what they were 
discussing, the Master said, "Brethren, as now, so in former times he was fond 
of a fat woman." Then, at their request, he told this story of the past. 

[421] Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares 
the Bodhisatta was one of his courtiers. And a fat and badly-dressed 
country woman, who worked for hire, was passing near the courtyard of 
the palace, when pressing need for an occasion came upon hei\ Bendino- 
down with her raiment decently gathered round her, she accomplished 
her purpose, and was erect again in a trice. 

The King chanced to be looking out on to the courtyard through a 
window at the time and saw this. Thought he, "A woman who could 
manage this with so much decency must enjoy good health. She would 
be sure to be cleanly in her house ; and a son born into a cleanly house 
would be sure to grow up cleanly and virtuous. I will make her my 
queen-consort." And accordingly the King, first assuring himself that she 

252 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

was not another's, sent for her and made her his queen. And she became 
very near and dear to him. Not long afterwards a son was born, and this 
son became an Universal Monarch. 

Observing her fortunes, the Bodhisatta took occasion to say to the 
King, "Sire, why should not care be taken duly to fulfil all proper 
observances, when this excellent woman by her modesty and decency in 
relieving nature won your majesty's favour and rose to such fortune?" 
And he went on to utter this stanza : — 

Learn thou betimes, though headstrong folk there be ; 
The rustic pleased the King by modesty. 

Thus did the Great Being commend the virtues of those who devoted 
themselves to the study of proper observances. 

[422] His story ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "The 
husband and wife of to-day were also the husband and wife of those times, and I 
the wise coui'tier." 

No. 109. 


"J^s fares his tocrrshipper." — This story was told by the Master when at 
Savatthi, about a very poor man. 

Now at Savatthi the Ijrotherhood with the Buddha at their head used to be 
entertained now by a single family, now by three or four families together. 
Or a body of people or a whole street would club together, or sometimes the 
whole city entertained them. But on the occasion now in question it was a 
street that was shewing the hospitality. And the inhabitants had arranged to 
provide rice-gruel followed by cakes. 

Now in that sti'eet there lived a very poor man, a hired labourer, who could 
not see how he could give the gruel, but resolved to give cakes. And he 
scraped out the red powder from empty husks and kneaded it with water into a 
round cake. This cake he wrapped in a leaf of swallow-wort, and baked it in 
the eml)ers. When it was done, he made up his mind that none but the Buddha 
should have it, and accordingly took his stand immediately by the Master. No 
sooner had the word been given to offer cakes, than he stepped forward quicker 
tlian anyone else and put his cake in the Master's alms-bowl. And the Master 
declined all otlier cakes offered him and ate the poor man's cake. Forthwith the 
whole city talked of nothing but how the All-Enlightened One had not disdained 
to eat the poor man's bran-cake. And from porters to nobles and King, all 
classes flocked to the spot, saluted the INIaster, and crowded round the poor man, 

No. 109. 253 

oBering him f(jod, or two to five liundred pieces of money if he would make over 
to them the merit of his act. 

Thinking he liad better ask the Master first, he went to him and stated his 
case. "Take what they offer," said the Master, "and impute your righteousness 
to all living creatures." So the man set to work to collect the offerings. Some 
gave twice as much as others, some four times as much, others eight times as 
much, and so on, till nine crores of gold were contributed. 

Returning thanks for the hospitality, the Master went back to the monastery 
and after instructing the Brethren and im[)arting his blessed teaching to them, 
retired to his [)erfumed chamber. 

In the evening the King sent fen- the poor man, and created him Lord 

Assembling in the Hall of Truth the Brethren spoke together of how the 
Master, not disdaining the poor man's bran-cake, had eaten it as though it were 
ambrosia, and liow the poor man had been enriched [423] and made Loi'd 
Treasurer to his great good fortune. And when the Master entered the Hall 
and heard what they were talking of, he said, "Brethren, this is not the first 
time that I have not disdained to eat that poor man's cake of bran. I did the 
same when I was a Tree-sprite, and then too was the means of his being made 
Lord Treasurer." So saying he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was a Tree-sprite dwelling in a castor-oil plant. And the villagers 
of those days were superstitious about gods. A. festival came round and 
the villagers ofiered sacrifices to their respective Tree-sprites. Seeing 
this, a poor man shewed worship to the castor-oil tree. All the others had 
come with garlands, odours, perfumes, and cakes ; but the poor man had 
only a cake of husk-powder and water in a cocoanut shell for his tree. 
Standing before it, he thought within himself, "Tree-sprites are used to 
heavenly food, and my Tree-sprite will not eat this cake of husk-powder. 
Why then should I lose it outright 1 I will eat it myself." And he turned 
to go away, when the Bodhisatta from the fork of liis tree exclaimed, 
"My good man, if you were a great lord you would bring me dainty 
manchets ; but as you are a poor man, what shall I have to eat if not 
that cake 1 Rob me not of my portion." And he uttered this stanza : — 

As fares his worshipper, a Sprite must fare. 
Bring me the. cake, nor rob me of my share. 

Then the man turned again, and, seeing the Bodhisatta, offered up his 
sacrifice. The Bodhisatta fed on the savour and said, "Why do you 
wor.ship me?" "I am a poor man, my lord, and I worship you to be 
eased of my poverty." [424J "Have no more care for that. You have 
sacrificed to one who is grateful and mindful of kindly deeds. Round this 
tree, neck to neck, are buried pots of treasure. Go tell the King, and 
take the treasure away in waggons to the King's courtyard. There pile it 
in a heap, and the King shall be so well-pleased that he will make you 
Lord Treasurer." So saying, the Bodhisatta vanished from sight. The 

254 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

man did as he was bidden, and tlie King made him Lord Treasurer. 
Thus did the poor man by aid of the Bodhisatta come to great fortune ; and 
when he died, he passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "The poor man 
of to-day was also the poor man of those times, and I the Tree-sprite who dwelt 
in the castor-oil tree." 

No. 110. 


" There is no All-embracing." — This All-embracing Question will be set out at 
length in the Ummagga-jatakai. This is the end of the All-embracing Question. 

No. 111. 


" Thou thinlc'st thyself a swan." — This Question as to the Ass will also be set 
out at length in the Ummagga-jataka. This is the end of the Question as to 
the Ass. 

No. 112. 


"Co/'Cf and g7'nel." — This question too will be found in the same Jataka. This 
is the end of the Question of Queen Amara^. 

1 Not yet edited ; it occurs at the end of the collection of Jatakas. 
- Amara was the wife of King Mahosadha; cf. MnindopauJio, page 205. The Bodhi- 
satta was Mahosadha, cf, Jjltaka (text) i. p. 53. 

No. 113. 255 

No. 113. 


" The drunken jackal^ — This story was told by the Master while at the 
Bamboo-grove, about Devadatta. The Brethren had assembled [425] in the Hall 
of Truth and were telling how Devadatta had gone to Gayaslsa with live hundred 
followers, whom he was leading into error by declaring that the Truth was 
manifest in him "and not in the ascetic Gotama" ; and how by his lies he was 
breaking up the Brotherhood ; and how he kept two ftxst-days a week. And 
as they sate there talking of tlie wickedness of Devadatta, the Master entered 
and was told the subject of their conversation. "Bi'ethren," said he, "Devadatta 
was as great a liar in past times as he is now." So saying, he told this story of 
the past. 

Once on a time when Bralimadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born a Tree-sprite in a cemetery grove. In those days a festival 
was proclaimed in Benares, and the people resolved to sacrifice to the 
ogres. So they strewed lish and meat about courtyai-ds, and streets, and 
other places, and set out great pots of strong drink. At midnight a 
jackal came into the town by the sewer, and i*egaled himself on the meat 
and liquor. Crawling into some bushes, he was fast asleep when morning 
dawned. Waking up and seeing it was broad daylight, he knew that he 
could not make his way back at that hour with safety. So he lay down 
quietly near the roadside where he could not be seen, till at last he saw a 
solitary brahmin on his way to rinse his mouth in the tank. Then the 
jackal thought to himself, "Brahmins are a greedy lot. I must so play on 
his greediness as to get him to carry me out of the city in his waist-cloth 
under his outer robe." So, with a human voice, he cried "Brahmin." 

"Who calls me?" said the brahmin, turning round. "I, brahmin." 
"What for*?" "I have two hundred gold j)ieces, brahmin; and if you 
will liide me in your waist-cloth under your outer robe and so get me out 
of the city without my being seen, you shall have them all." 

Closing with the offer, the greedy bi-ahmin hid the jackal and carried 
the beast a little way out of the city. "What place is this, brahmin?" 
said the jackal. "Oh, it's such and such a place," said the brahmin. 
"Go on a bit further," said the jackal and kept urging the brahmin on 
always a little further, till at last the cremation-park was reached. [426] 
"Put me down here," said the jackal; and the brahmin did so. "S])read 
your robe out on the ground, brahmin." And the greedy bi"ahuiin 
did so. 

256 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

"And now dig up this tree by the roots," said he, and while the 
brahmin was at work he walked on to the robe, and dunged aiul staled on 
it in five places, — the four corners and tlie middle. This done, he made 
ofi' into the wood. 

Hereon the Bodhisatta, standing in the fork of the tree, uttered this 
stanza : — 

The drunken jackal, l)rahmin, cheats thy trust ! 
Thou 'It find not here a hundred cowry-shells, 
Far less thy quest, two hundred coins of gold. 

And when he had repeated these verses, the Bodhisatta said to the 
brahmin, "Go now and wash your robe and bathe, and go about your 
business." So saying, he vanished from sight, and the brahmin did as he 
was bidden, and departed very mortified at having been so tricked. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "Devadatta was 
the jackal of those days, and I the Tree-sprite." 

No. 114. 


" They tivain in fisher^s net." — This story was told by the ]\Iaster while at 
Jetavana, about two aged Elders. After a rainy-season spent in a foi-est in the 
country they resolved to seek out the Master, and got together jirovisions for their 
journey. But they kept putting off their departure day by day, till a month 
flew by. Then they provided a fresh supply of provisions, and procrastinated 
till a second month was gone, and a third. When their indolence and sluggish- 
ness had lost them three months, they set out and came to Jetavana. Laying 
aside their bowls and robes in the common-room, they came into the Master's 
presence. The Brethren remarked on the length of the time since the two had 
visited the Master, and asked the reason. Then [427] they told their story and 
all the Brotherhood came to know of the laziness of these indolent Brethren. 

Assembling in the Hall of Truth the Brethren talked together of this thing. 
And the Master entered and was told what they were discussing. Being asked 
whether they were really so indolent, those Brethren admitted their short- 
coming. "Brethren," said he, "in former times, no less than now, they were 
indolent and loth to leave their abode." So saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, there lived 
in the river of Benares three fishes, named Over-thoughtful, Thoughtful, and 

No. 115. 257 

Thoughtless. And they came clown-stream from the wild country to where 
men dwelt. Hereupon Thoughtful said to the other two, "This is a dan- 
gerous and perilous neighbourhood, where fishermen catch fish with nets, 
basket-traps, and such like tackle. Let us be off to the wild country again." 
But so lazy were the other two fishes, and so greedy, that they kept putting 
off their going from day to day, until they had let three months slip by. 
Now fishermen cast their nets into the river; and Over-thoughtful and 
Thoughtless were swimming on ahead in quest of food when in their 
folly they blindly rushed into the net. Thoughtful, who was behind, 
observed the net, and saw the fate of the other two. 

"I must save these lazy fools from death," thought he. So first he 
dodged round the net, and splashed in the water in front of it like a fish 
that has broken through and gone up stream ; and then doubling back, he 
splashed about behind it, like a fish that has broken through and gone down 
stream. Seeing this, the fishermen thought the fish had broken the net 
and all got away ; so they pulled it in by one corner and the two fishes 
escaped from the net into the open water again. In this way they owed 
their lives to Thouixhtful. 

His story told, the Master, as Buddha, recited this stanza : — 

[428] They twain in fisher's nets are ta'en; 
Them Tlioughtful saves and frees again. 

His lesson ended, and the Four Truths expounded (at the close whereof the 
aged Brethren gained fruition of the First Path), the Master identified the Birth 
by saying: "These two Brethren were then Over-thoughtful and Thoughtless, 
and 1 Thouirhtful." 

No. 115. 


" The greed-denouncing bird." — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana, about a Sister who gave a warning to others. For we are told that she 
came of a good Savatthi family, but that from the day of her entrance into the 
Order she failed of her duty and was filled with a gluttonous spirit ; she used to 
seek alms in quarters of the city unvisited by other Sisters. And dainty food 
was given her there. Now her gluttony made her afraid that other Sisters 
might go there too and take away from her part of the food. Casting tibout for 
a device to stop them from going and to keep everything to herself, she warned 

c. J. 17 

258 The Jataka. Book I. 

the other Sisters that it was a dangerous quarter, troubled by a fierce elephant, 
a fierce horse, and a fierce dog. And she besought them not to go there for 
alms. Accordingly not a single Sister gave so much as a look in that direction. 

Now one day on her way through this district for alms, as she was hurrying 
into a house there, a fierce ram butted her with such violence as to break her leg. 
Up ran the people and set her leg and brought her on a litter to the convent of 
the Sisterhood. And all the Sisters tauntingly said her broken leg came of her 
going where she had warned them not to go. 

Not long after the Brotherhood came to hear of this ; and one day in the 
Hall of Truth [429] the Brethren spoke of how this sister had got her leg broken 
by a fierce ram in a quarter of the city against which she had warned the other 
Sisters ; and they condemned her conduct. Entering the Hall at this moment, 
the Master asked, and was told, w^hat they were discussing. "As now. 
Brethren," said he, "so too in a past time she gave warnings which she did not 
follow herself; and then as now she came to harm." So saying, he told this 
story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born a bird, and growing up became king of the birds and came 
to the Himalayas with thousands of birds in his train. During their stay 
in that place, a certain fierce bird used to go in quest of food along a 
highway where she found rice, beans, and other grain dropped by passing 
waggons. Casting about how best to keep the others from coming there 
too, she addressed them as follows: — -"The highway is full of peril. 
Along it go elephants and horses, waggons drawn by fierce oxen, and 
such like dangerous things. And as it is impossible to take wing on the 
instant, don't go there at all," And because of her warning, the other 
birds dubbed her * Warner '. 

Now one day when she was feeding along the highway she heard 
the sound of a carriage coming swiftly along the road, and turned her 
head to look at it, "Oh it's quite a long way off," thought she and went 
on as before. Up swift as the wind came the carriage, and before she 
coiild rise, the wheel had crushed her and whirled on its way. At the 
muster, the King marked her absence and ordered search to be made for 
her. And at last she was found cut in two on the highway and the news 
was brought to the king. "Through not following her own caution to the 
other birds she has been cut in two," said he, and uttered this stanza : — 

The greed-denouncing bird, to greed a prey, 
The chariot wheels leave mangled on the way. 

[430] His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "The 
warning sister was the bird 'Warner ' of those times, and I the King of the 

No. IIG. 259 

No. 116. 


" Too much." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, about an 
unruly Brother whose own story will be given in the Ninth Book in the (jijjha- 

The Master rebuked him in these words:— "As now, so in former days wert 
thou mn-uly, Brotlier, disregarding the counsels of the wise and good. Where- 
fore, by a j;u'elin thou didst die." So saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Braliraadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born into an acrobat's family. Wlien he grew up, he 
was a very wise and clever fellow. From another acrobat he learned the 
javelin dance, and with his master used to travel about exhibiting his 
skill. Now this master of his knew the four javelin dance but not the 
five ; but one day when performing in a certain village, he, being in liquor, 
had five javelins set up in a row and gave out that he would dance 
through the lot. 

Said the Bodhisatta, "You can't manage all five javelins, master. 
Have one taken away. If you try the five, you will be run through by 
the fifth and die." 

"Then you don't know what I can do when I try," said the drunken 
fellow ; and paying no heed to the Bodhisatta's words, he danced through 
four of the javelins only to impale himself on the fifth like the Bassia 
flower on its stalk. And there he lay groaning. Said the Bodhisatta, 
" This calamity comes of your disregarding the counsels of the wise and 
good " ; and he uttered this stanza : — 

[431] Too much— though sore against my will — you tried ; 
Clearing the four, upon the fifth you died. 

So saying, he lifted his master from off" the javelin point and duly 
performed the last offices to his body. 

His story done, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "This unruly 
Brother was the master of those days, and I the pvipil." 

No. 427. 


260 TJw Jataha. Book I. 

No. 117. 


" Js died the partridge." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about Kokfilika, whose story will be found in the Thirteenth Book in the Tak- 
kariya Jataka^. 

Said the Master, " As now, Brethren, so likewise in former times, Kokalika's 
tongue has worked his destruction." 

So saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was boi'n a brahmin in the North country. When he grew 
up, he received a complete education at Takkasila, and, renouncing Lusts, 
gave up the world to become a hermit. He won the Five Knowledges 
and the Eight Attainments, and all the recluses of the Himalayas to the 
number of five hundred assembled together and followed him as their 

Insight was his as he dwelt amid his disciples in the Himalayas. 

In those days there was an ascetic suffering from jaundice who was 
chopping wood with an axe. And a chattering Brother came and sat by 
him, and directed his work, bidding him give here a chop and there a chop, 
[432] till the jaundiced ascetic lost his temper. In a rage he cried, "Who 
are you to teach me how to chop woodi" and lifting up his keen-edged axe 
stretched the other dead with a single blow. And the Bodhisatta had the 
body buried. 

Now on an ant-hill haixl by the hermitage there dwelt a partridge 
which early and late was always piping on the top of the ant-hill. 
Recognising the note of a partridge, a sportsman killed the bird and took 
it ofi' with him. Missing the bird's note, the Bodhisatta asked the hermits 
why they did not hear their neighbour the partridge now. Then they 
told him what had happened, and he linked the two events together in 
this stanza : — 

As died the partridge for her clamorous cry, 
So prate and chatter doomed this fool to die. 

Having developed within himself the four Perfect States, the Bodhisatta 
thus became destined to rebirth in the Brahma Realm. 

' No. 481. Kokivlika was one of Devadatta's schismatics. 

No. 118. 261 

Said the Master, " Brethren, as now, so likewise in former days Kokahka's 
tongue has worked his destruction." And at the close of this lesson he identified 
the Birth by saying, " Kokalika was the meddling ascetic of those days, my 
followers the band of hermits, and I their master." 

No. 118. 


" 7'he thoughtless ?/iart."— This story the IMaster told while at Jetavana, about 
the son of 0\-'er-Treasurer. This Over-Treasurer is said to have been a very rich 
man of Savatthi, and his wife became the mother of a righteous being from the 
realm of Brahma angels, who grew up as lovely as Brahma. [433] Now 
one day when the Kattika festival had been proclaimed in Savatthi, the whole 
city gave itself up to the festivities. His companions, sous of other rich men, 
had all got wives, but Over-Treasurer's son had lived so long in the Brahma 
Realm that he was purged from passion. His companions plotted together to 
get him too a sweetheart and make him keep the feast with them. So going to 
him they said, "Dear friend, it is the great feast of Kattika. Can't we get a sweet- 
heart for you too, and have a good time together f At last his friends picked out 
a charming girl and decked her out, and left her at his house, with directions to 
make her way to his chamber. But when she entered the room, not a look or a 
word did she get from the young merchant. Piqued at this slight to her beauty, 
she put forth all her graces and feminine blandishments, smiling meantime so as 
just to shew her pretty teeth. The sight of her teeth suggested bones, and his 
mind was tilled with the idea of bones, till the girl's whole body seemed to him 
nothing but a chain of bones. Then he gave her money and bade her begone. 
But as she came out of the house a nobleman saw her in the street and gave her 
a present to accompany him home. 

At the end of seven days the festival was over, and the girl's mother, seeing 
her daughter did not come back, went to the young merchant's friends and asked 
where she was, and they in turn asked the young merchant. And he said he had 
paid her and sent her packing as soon as he saw her. 

Then the girl's mother insisted on having her daughter restored to her, and 
brought the young man before the king, who proceeded to examine into the 
matter. In answer to the king's questions, the young man admitted that the 
girl had been passed on to him, but said he had no knowledge of her whereabouts, 
and no means of producing her. Then said the king, " If he fails to produce the 
girl, execute him." So the young man was forthwith hauled off with his hands 
tied behind his back to be executed, and the wh(jle city was in an uproar at the 
news. With hands laid on their breasts the people followed after him with 
lamentations, saying, " What means this, sir 'I You suffer unjustly." 

Then thought the young man [434] " All this sorrow has befallen me because 
I was living a lay life. If I can only escape this danger, I will give up the world 
and join the Brotherhood of the great Gotama, the All-Enlightened One." 

Now the girl herself heard the uproar and asked what it meant. Being told, 
she ran swiftly out, crying, " Stand aside, sirs ! let me pass ! let the king's men 
see me." As soon as she had thus shewn herself, she was handed over to her 
mother by the king's men, who set the young luan free and went their way. 

262 The Jataha. Book I. 

Surrounded by his friends, the son of Over-Treasurer went down to the river 
and bathed. Returning home, he breakfasted and let his parents know his 
resolve to give up the world. Then taking cloth for his ascetic's I'obe, and fol- 
lowed by a great crowd, he sought out the IVIaster and with due salutation asked 
to be admitted to the Brotherhood. A novice first, and afterwards a full Brother, 
he meditated on the idea of Bondage till he gained Insight, and not long after- 
wards won Arahatship. 

Now one day in the Hall of Truth the assembled Brethren talked of his 
virtues, recalling how in the hour of danger he had recognized the excellence of 
the Truth, and, wisely I'esolving to give up the woi'ld for its sake, had won that 
highest fruit which is Arahatship. And as they talked, the Master entered, 
and, on his asking, was told what was the subject of their converse. Whereon 
he declared to them that, like the .son of Over- Treasurer, the wise of former 
times, by taking thought in the hour of peril, had escaped death. So saying, he 
told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahniadatta wa.s reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta by change of existence was born a quail. Now in those days 
there was a quail-catclier who used to catch numbers of these birds in the 
forest and take them home to fatten. When they were fat, he used to 
sell them to people and so make a living. And one day he caught the 
Bodhisatta and brought him home with a number of other quails. Thought 
the Bodhisatta to himself, " If I take the food and drink he gives me, I 
shall be sold ; whilst if 1 don't eat it, I shall get so thin, that people will 
notice it and pass me over, with the result that I shall be safe. This, then, 
is what I must do." So lie fasted and fasted till he got so thin that he was 
nothing but skin and bone, and not a soul would have him at any price. 
Having disposed [435] of eveiy one of his birds except the Bodhisatta, the 
bird-catcher took the Bodhisatta out of the cage and laid him on the palm 
of his hand to see what ailed the bird. Watching when the man was off 
liis guard, the Bodhisatta spread his wings and flew off to the forest. 
Seeing him return, the other quails asked what had become of him so long, 
and where he had been. Then he told them he had been caught by a 
fowler, and, being asked how he had escaped, replied, that it was by a 
device he had thought of, namely, not to take either the food or the drink 
which the fowler supplied. So saying, he uttered this stanza : — 

The thoughtless man no profit I'eaps. — But see 
Thought's fruit in me, from death and bondage free. 

In this manner did the Bodhisatta sjjcak of what he had done. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, " I was the quail 
that escaped death in those days." 

No. 119. 203 

No. 119. 


"JVo parents trained." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a Brother who used to be noisy at wrong seasons. He is said to have come 
of a good Savatthi foniily and to have given up the world for the Truth, but to 
have neglected his tiutics and despised instruction. He never took count of the 
hours for duties, for ministry or for reciting the texts. Throughout the three 
watches of the night, as well as the hours of waking, he was never quiet ; — so 
that the other ]>rethren could not get a wink of sleep. Accordingly, the Brethren 
in the Hall of Truth censvu^ed his conduct. Entering the Hall and learning on 
enquiry what they were talking about, the Master said, " Brethren, as now, so 
in past times, this ]Jrother was noisy out of season, and for his unseasonable 
conduct was strangled." So saying he told this story of the past. 

[436] Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was boru into a northern brahmin family, and when he grew up, 
learned all knowledge and became a teacher of world-wide fame with five 
hundred young brahmins studying under him. Now these young brahmins 
had a cock who crowed betimes and roused them to their studies. And this 
cock died. So they looked all about for another, and one of their number, 
when picking up firewood in the cemetery-grove, saw a cock thei'e which 
he brought home and kept in a coop. But, as this second cock had been 
bred in a cemetery, he had no knowledge of times and .seasons, and used 
to crow casually, — at midnight as well as at daybreak. Roused by his 
crowing at midnight, the young brahmins fell to their studies ; by dawn 
they were tired out and could not for sleepiness keep their attention on 
the subject ; and when he fell a-crowing in broad day they did not get a 
chance of quiet for repeating their lesson. And as it was the cock's 
crowing both at midnight and by day which had brought their studies 
to a standstill, they took the bird and wrung his neck. Then they told 
their teacher that they had killed the cock that crowed in and out of 

Said their teacher, for their edification, " It was his bad bringing 
up that brought this cock to his end." So saying, he uttered this 
stanza : — 

No parents trained, no teacher taught this bird : 
Both in and out of season was he heard. 

264 The Jataha. Book I. 

Such was the Bodhisatta's teacliing on the matter; and when he had 
lived liis allotted time on earth, he passed away to fare according to his 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth as follows,—" This Brother 
was the cock of those times, who did not know when not to crow ; my disciples 
were the young brahmins ; and I their teacher." 

No. 120. 


" Whilst foUj/'s s/jeec/i." — This story was told hy the Master while at Jetavana, 
about the brahmin-girl Ciiica, whose history will be given in the Twelfth Book in 
the Maha[)aduma-jatakai. On this occasion the Master said, "Brethren, this is 
not the first time Ciuca has laid false accusations against me. She did the like 
in other times." So saying he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born into the chaplain's family, and on his father's death 
succeeded to the chaplaincy. 

Now the king promised to grant whatsoever boon his queen should ask 
of liim, and she said, — " The boon I ask is an easy one ; henceforth you 
must not look on any other woman with eyes of love." At first he refused, 
but, wearied by her unceasing importunity, was obliged to give way at last. 
And from that day forward he never cast a glance of love at any one of his 
sixteen thousand nautch-girls. 

Now a disturbance arose on the borders of his kingdom, and after two 
or three engagements with the robbers, the troops there sent a letter to the 
king saying tliat they were unable to carry the matter through. Then the 
kiug was anxious to go in person and assembled a mighty host. And he 
said to his wife, " Dear one, I go to the frontier, where battles will rage 
ending in victory or defeat. The camp is no place for a woman, and you 
must stay behind here." 

"I can't stop if you go, my lord," said she. But finding the king firm 
in his decision she made the following request instead, — " Every league, 

1 No. 472. Cf. note, page 143. 

No. 120. 265 

send a luessenger to enquire how I fare." And the king promised to do so. 
Accordingly, when he marched out with his host, leaving the Bodhisatta 
in the city, the king sent back a messenger at the end of every league to 
let the queen know how he was, and to find out how she fared. Of each 
man as he came she asked what brought him back. And on i-eceiving the 
answer that he was come to learn how she fared, the queen beckoned the 
messenger to her and sinned with him. Now the king jounieyed two and 
thirty leagues and sent two and thirty messengers [438], and the queen 
sinned with them all. And when he had pacified the frontier, to the 
great joy of the inhabitants, he started on his homeward journey, de- 
spatching a second series of thirty-two messengers. And the queen mis- 
behaved with each one of these, as before. Halting his victorious army 
near the city, tlie king sent a letter to the Bodhisatta to prepare the city 
for his entry. The preparations in the city were done, and the Bodhisatta 
was preparing the palace for the king's arrival, when he came to the queen's 
apartments. The sight of his great beauty so moved the queen that she 
called to him to satisfy her lust. But the Bodliisatta pleaded with her, 
urging the kijig's honour, and protesting that he shrank from all sin and 
would not do as she wished. "No thoughts of the king frightened sixty- 
four of the king's messengers," said she; "and will you for the king's 
sake fear to do my will 1 " 

Said the Bodhisatta, " Had these messengers thought with me, they 
would not have acted thus. As for me that know the right, I will not 
commit this sin." 

" Don't talk nonsense," said she. " If you refuse, I will have your 
head chopped off." 

" So be it. Cut off my head in tliis or in a hundred thousand exist- 
ences ; yet will I not do your l)idding." 

" All right ; I will see," said the queen menacingly. And retiring to 
her chamber, she scratched herself, i)ut oil on her limbs, clad herself in 
dirty clothes and feigned to be ill. Then she sent for her slaves and bade 
them tell the king, when he should ask after her, that she was ill. 

Meantime the Bodliisatta had gone to meet the king, who, after 
marching round the city in solemn procession, entered his palace. Not 
seeing the queen, he a.sked where she was, and was told that she was ill. 
Entering the royal bed-chamber, the king caressed the queen and asked 
what ailed her. She was silent ; but when the king asked the third time, 
she looked at him and said, " Though my lord the king still lives, yet 
poor women like me have to own a master." 

" What do you mean ?" 

" The chaplain whom you left to watch over the city came here on 
pretence of seeing after the palace ; and because I would not yield to his 
will, [439] he beat me to his heart's content and went off." 

266 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

Then the king fumed with rage, like the crackling of salt or sugar in 
the fire ; and he rushed from the chamber. Calling his servants, he bade 
them bind the chaplain with his hands behind hixn, like one condemned 
to death, and cut off his head at the place of execution. So away they 
hurried and bound the Bodhisatta. And the drum was beaten to announce 
the execution. 

Thought the Bodhisatta, " Doubtless that wicked queen has already 
poisoned the king's mind against me, and now must I save myself from 
this peril." So he said to his captors, " Bring me into the king's presence 
before you slay me." "Why so?" said they. "Because, as the king's 
servant, I have toiled greatly on the king's business, and know where great 
treasures are hidden which I have discovered. If I am not brought before 
the king, all this wealth will be lost. So lead me to him, and then do 
your duty." 

Accordingly, they brought him before the king, who asked why 
reverence had not restrained him from such wickedness. 

" Sire," answered the Bodhisatta, "I was born a brahmin, and have 
never taken the life so much as of an emmet or ant. I have never taken 
what was not my own, even to a blade of grass. Never have I looked 
with lustful eyes upon another man's wife. Not even in jest have I 
spoken falsely, and not a drop of strong drink have I ever drunk. 
Innocent am I, sire ; but that wicked woman took me lustfully by the 
hand, and, being rebuffed, threatened me, nor did she retire to her 
chamber before she had told me her secret evil-doing. For thei-e wei'e 
sixty-four messengers who came with letters from you to the queen. 
Send for these men and ask each whether he did as the queen bade him 
or not." Then the king had the sixty-four men bound and sent for the 
queen. And she confessed to having had guilty converse with the men. 
Then the king ordered off all the sixty-four to be beheaded. 

But at this point [440] the Bodhisatta cried out, "Nay, sire, the men 
are not to blame ; for they were constrained by the queen. Wherefore 
pardon them. And as for the queen : — she is not to blame, for the 
jjassions of women are insatiate, and she does but act according to her 
inborn nature. Wherefoi-e, pardon her also, O king." 

Upon this entreaty the king was merciful, and so the Bodhisatta saved 
the lives of the queen and the sixty-four men, and he gave them each a 
place to dwell in. Then the Bodhisatta came to the king and said, 
" Sire, the baseless accusations of folly put the wise in unmerited bonds, 
but the words of the wise released the foolish. Thus folly wrongfully 
binds, and wisdom sets free from bonds." So saying, he uttered this 
stanza : — 

"Whilst folly's speech doth bind unrighteously, 

At wisdom's word the justly bound go free. • 

No. 121. 2G7 

When lie had taught the king the Truth in these verses, he exclaimed, 
" All this trouble sprang from my living a lay life. I must change my 
mode of life, and crave your permission, sire, to give up the world." And 
with the king's pel-mission he gave up the world and quitted his tearful 
relations and his great wealth to become a recluse. His dwelling was in 
the Himalayas, and there he won the Higher Knowledges and the Attain- 
ments and became destined to rebirth in the Brahma Realm. 

His teaching ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, " Ciucri was 
the wicked queen of those days, Ananda the king, and I his chaplain." 

No. 121. 


"Let great and .■?yH«^(5."— This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about Anritha-i)iiidika's true friend. For his acquaintances and friends and rela- 
tions came to him and tried lianl to stop his intimacy with a certain man, saying 
that neither in birth nor wealth was he Anatlia-pindika's equal. But the great 
lucrchant replied that friendship .should not depend on equality or inequality of 
externals. And when he went oft' to his zemindary, he put this friend in charge 
of his wealth. Everything came to pass as in the Kalakanni-jataka^ But, 
when in this case Anatha-pindika related the danger his house had been in, the 
Master said, " Layman, a friend rightly so-called is never inferior. The standard 
is ability to befriend. A friend rightly so-called, though only equal or inferior to 
one's self, should be held a superior, for all such friends fail not to grapple with 
trouble which befiills one's self. It is your real friend that has now saved you 
your wealth. So in days gone by a like real friend saved a Sprite's mansion." 
Then at Anatha-pindika's request, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a Sprite in the king's pleasaunce, and dwelt in a 
clump of kusa-grass. Now in the same grounds near the king's seat there 
grew a beautiful Wishing Tree (also called the Mukkhaka) with straight 
stem and sjireading branches, which received great favour from the king. 
Here dwelt one who had been a mighty deva-king and had been reborn a 
Tree-sprite. And the Bodhisatta was on terms of intimate friendship with 
this Tree-sprite. 

Now the king's dwelling had only one pillar to support the roof 

1 No. 83. 

2G8 The Jataka. Book I. 

and that pillar grew sbaky. Being told of this, the king sent for car- 
penters and ordered them to put in a sound pillar and make it secure. 
So the carpenters [442] looked about for a tree that would do and, not 
finding one elsewhere, went to the pleasaunce and saw the Mukkhaka. 
Then away they went back to the king. "Well," said he, "have you 
found a tree that will dol" "Yes, sire," said they ; "but we don't like to 
fell it." "Why not?" said the king. Then they told him how they had 
in vain looked everywhere for a tree and did not dai"e to cut down the 
sacred ti'ee. "Go and cut it down," said he, "and make the roof secure. 
I will look out for another tree." 

So they went away. And they took a sacrifice to the pleasaunce and 
offered it to the tree, saying among themselves that they would come and 
cut it down next day. Hearing their words, the Tree-sprite knew that 
her home would be destroyed on the morrow, and burst into tears as she 
clasped her children to her breast, not knowing whither to fly with them. 
Her friends, the spirits of the forest, came and asked what the matter 
was. But not one of them could devise how to stay the carpenters' hand, 
and all embraced her with tears and lamentations. At this moment up 
came the Bodhisatta to call upon the Tree-sprite and was told the news. 
"Have no fear," said the Bodhisatta cheerfully. "I will see that the tree 
is not cut down. Only wait and see what I will do when the carpenters 
come to-morrow." 

Next day when the men came, the Bodhisatta, assuming the shape of a 
chameleon, was at the tree before they were, and got in at the roots and 
worked his way up till he got out among the branches, making the tree 
look full of holes. Then the Bodhisatta rested among the boughs with 
his head rapidly moving to and fro. Up came the carpenters; and at 
sight of the chameleon their leader struck the tree with his hand, and 
exclaimed that the tree was rotten and that they didn't look carefully 
before making their offerings the day before. And off he went full of 
scorn for the great strong tx"ee. In this way the Bodhisatta saved the 
Tree-sprite's home. And when all her friends [443] and acquaintances 
came to see her, she joyfully sang the praises of the Bodhisatta, as the 
saviour of her home, saying, "Sprites of the Trees, for all our mighty 
power we knew not what to do ; while a humble Kusa-sprite had wit to 
save my home for me. Truly we should choose our friends without con- 
sidering whether they ai-e superiors, equals, or inferiors, making no 
distinction of rank. For each according to his strength can help a friend 
in the hour of need." And she repeated this stanza about friendship and 
its duties : — 

Let great and small and equals, all, 

Do each their best, if harm beftxl. 

And help a friend in evil plight. 

As I was helped by Kusa-sprite. 

No. 122. 269 

Thus did she teach the assembled devas, adding these words, "Where- 
fore, such as would escape from an evil plight must not merely consider 
whether a man is an equal or a superior, but must make friends of tlie 
wise whatsoever their station in life." And she lived her life and with 
the Kusa-sprite finally passed away to fare according to her deserts. 

His lesson ended tlie Master identified the birth by saying, " Ananda was 
then the Tree-sprite, and I the Kusa-sprite." 

No. 122. 


"Exalted station breeds a fool great woe." — Tliis story was told l)y the Master 
while at the Bamboo-grove, about Devadatta. For the Brethren had met together 
in the Hall of Truth, and were talking of how the sight of the Buddha's perfec- 
tions and all the distinctive signs of Buddhahood^ maddened Devadatta. ; and how 
in his jealousy he could not bear to hear the praises of the Buddha's utter 
wisdom. Entering the Hall, the Master asked what was the subject of their 
converse. And when they told him, he said, " Brethren, as now, so in former times 
Devadatta was maddened by hearing my praises." So saying, he told this story 
of the past. 

Once on a time when King Magadha was ruling in Rajagaha in 
Magadha, the Bodhisatta was born an elephant. He was white all over 
and graced with all the beauty of form described above". And because of 
his beauty the king made him his state elephant. 

One festal day the king adorned the city like a city of the devas atid, 
mounted on the elephant in all its trappings, made a solemn jirocession 
round the city attended by a great I'etinue. And all along the route the 
people were moved by the sight of that peerless elephant to exclaim, " Oh 
what a stately gait ! what proportions ! what beauty ! what grace ! such a 
white elephant is worthy of an universal monarch." All this praise of his 

1 See p. 2, aud (e.g.) the Sela Sutta (No. .3.8 of the Sutta Nipata and No. <J2 of the 
Majjhiina Nikfiya). 

' Apparently the reference is to p. 175, 

270 The Jcitala. Book I. 

elephant awoke the king's jealousy and he resolved to have it cast over a 
precipice and killed. So he summoned the mahout and asked whether he 
called that a trained elephant. 

"Indeed he is well trained, sire," said the mahoiit. "No, he is very 
badly trained." "Sire, he is well ti-ained." [445] "If he is so well trained, 
can you get him to climb to the summit of Mount Vepulla?" "Yes, sire." 
"Away with you, then," said the king. And he got down from the 
elephant, making the mahout mount instead, and went himself to the 
foot of the mountain, whilst the mahout rode on the elephant's back up 
to the to2) of Mount Vepulla. The king with his courtiers also climbed 
the mountain, and had the elephant halted at the brink of a preci])ice, 
"Now," said he to the man, "if he is so well trained as you say, make him 
stand on three legs." 

And the mahout on the elephant's back just touched the animal with 
his goad by way of sign and called to him, "Hi! my beauty, stand on 
three legs." "Now make him stand on his two fore-legs," said the king. 
And the Great Being raised his hind-legs and stood on his fore-legs alone. 
"Now on the hind-legs," said the king, and the obedient elephant raised 
his fore-legs till he stood on his hind-legs alone. "Now on one leg," said 
the king, and the elephant stood on one leg. 

Seeing that the elephant did not fall over the precipice, the king cried, 
"Now if you can, make him stand in the air." 

Then thought the mahout to himself, "All India cannot shew the 
match of this elephant for excellence of training. Surely the king must 
want to make him tumble over the precipice and meet his death." So he 
whispered in the elephant's ear, "My son, the king wants you to fall over 
and get killed. He is not worthy of you. If you have power to joiirney 
through the air, rise up with me upon your back and fly through the air 
to Benares." 

And the Great Being, endowed as he was with the marvellous powers 
which flow from Merit, straightway rose uj) into the air. Then said the 
mahout, "Sire, this elephant, possessed as he is with the marvellous jiowers 
which flow from Merit, is too good for such a worthless fool as you : none 
but a wise and good king is wortliy to be his master. When those who 
are so worthless as you get an elephant like this, they don't know his 
value, and so they lose their elephant, and all the rest of their glory and 
splendour." So saying the mahout, seated on the elephant's neck, recited 
this stanza : — 

Exalted station breeds a fool great woe ; 
He proves his own and others' mortal foe. 

[446] "And now, goodbye," said he to the king as he ended this 
rebuke ; and rising in the air, he passed to Benares and halted in mid-air 

No. 123. 271 

over the royal courtyard. And there was a great stir in the city and 
all cried out, "Look at the state-elephant tliat has come through the 
air for our king and is hovering over the royal courtyard." And with all 
haste the news was conveyed to the king too, who came out and said, "If 
your coming is for my behoof", alight on the earth." And the Bodhisatta 
descended from the air. Then the mahout got down and bowed before 
the king, and in answer to the king's enquiries told the whole stoiy of 
tlieir leaving Rajagaha. "It was very good of you," said the king, "to 
come here" ; and in his joy he had the city decorated and the elej)hant 
installed in his state-stable. Then he divided his kingdom into thi-ee 
portions, and made over one to the Bodhisatta, one to the mahout, and one 
he kept himself. And his power grew from the day of the Bodhisatta's 
coming till all India owned his sovereign sway. As Emperor of India, 
he was charitable and did other good works till he passed away to fare 
accordino; to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying " Devadatta was 
in those days the king of Magadha, Sariputta the king of Benares, Ananda the 
mahout, a-nd I the eloi)hant." 

[.Vote. Cf Milinda-panho, 201.] 

No. 123. 


"For universal application." — This story was told Ity the Master while at 
Jetavana, about the Elder Laludayi who is said to have had a knack of always 
saying the wrong thing. He never knew the proper occasion for the several 
teachings. For instance, if it was a festival, he would croak out the gloomy 
text\ "Without the walls they lurk, and where four cross-roads meet." If it 
was a funend, he would burst out with " .Joy filled the hearts of gods and men," 
or with "Oh may you see [447] a hundred, nay a thousand such glad days!" 

Now one day the l^rethren in the Hall of Truth commented on his singular 
infelicity of subject and his knack of always saying the wrong thing. As they .sat 
talking, the Master entered, and, in answer to his question, was told the subject 
of their talk. " Brethren," said he, " this is not the first time that Laludayi's 
folly has made him say the wrong thing. He has always been as inept as now." 
So saying he told this story of the past. 

1 For tliis quotation see the Klmdclaka Patha edited by Childers (J. K. A. S. 1870, 
p. 31U). 

272 Tlie Jdtaka. Book I. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born into a rich brahmin's family, and when he grew up, was 
versed in all knowledge and was a world-renowned professor with five 
hundred young brahmins to instruct. 

At the time of our story there was among the young brahmins one 
who always had foolish notions in his head and always said the wrong 
thing; he was engaged with the rest in learning the scriptures as a pupil, 
but because of his folly could not master them. He was the devoted 
attendant of the Bodhisatta and ministered to him like a slave. 

Now one day after supper the Bodhisatta laid himself on his bed and 
there was washed and perfumed by the young brahmin on hands, feet and 
back. And as the youth turned to go away, the Bodhisatta said to him, 
"Prop up the feet of my bed before you go." And the yoimg brahmin 
propped up the feet of the bed on one side all right, but could not find 
anything to prop it up with on the other side. Accordingly he used his 
leg as a pi'op and passed the night so. When the Bodhisatta got up in 
the morning and saw the young brahmin, he asked why he was sitting 
there. "Master," said the young man, "I could not find one of the l)ed 
supports; so I've got my leg under to prop it up instead." 

Moved at these words, the Bodhisatta thought, "What devotion! 
And to think it should come from the veriest dullard of all my pupils. 
Yet how can I impart learning to him?" And the thought came to him 
that the best way was to question the young brahmin on his return from 
gathering firewood and leaves, as to something he had seen or done that 
day; and then to ask what it was like. [448] "Fox-," thought the master, 
"this will lead him on to making comparisons and giving reasons, and the 
continuous practice of comparing and reasoning on his part will enable me 
to impart learning to him." 

Accordingly he sent for the young man and told him always on his 
return from picking up firewood and leaves to say what he had seen or 
eaten or drunk. And the young man promised he would. So one day 
having seen a snake when out with the other pupils picking up wood in 
the forest, he said, "Master, I saw a snake." "What did it look like?" 
"Oh, like the shaft of a plough." "That is a very good comparison. 
Snakes are like the shafts of ploughs," said the Bodhisatta, who began to 
have hopes that he might at last succeed with his pupil. 

Another day the young brahmin saw an elephant in the forest and 
told his master. "And what is an elephant like?" "Oh, like the shaft of 
a plough." His master said nothing, for he thought that, as the elephant's 
trunk and tusks bore a certain resemblance to the shaft of a plough, 
perhaps his pupil's stupidity made him speak thus generally (though he 
was thinking of the trunk in particular), because of his inability to go 
into accurate detail, 

No. 124. 273 

A third day he was invited to eat sugar-cane, and duly told his master. 
"And what is a sugar-cane like?" "Oh, like the shaft of a plough." 
"That is scarcely a good comparison," thought his master, but said 
nothing. Another day, again, the pupils were invited to eat molasses 
with curds and milk, and this too was duly reported. "And what are 
curds and milk like ?" "Oh, like the shaft of a plough." Then the 
master thought to himself, "This young man was perfectly right in saying 
a snake was like the shaft of a plough, and was more or less right, though 
not accurate, in saying an elephant and a sugar-cane had the same 
similitude. But milk and curds (which are always white in colour) take 
the shape of whatever vessel they are placed in ; [449] and here he missed 
the comparison entirely. This dullard will never learn." So saying he 
uttered this stanza : — 

For universal application he 
Employs a term of limited import. 
Plough-shaft and curds to him alike unknown, 
— The fool asserts the two things are the same. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, " Laludayi was 
the dullard of those days, and I the professor of world-wide renown." 

No. 124. 


" Toil on, my brother." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a good brahmin belonging to a noble Savatthi family who gave his heart 
to the Truth, and, joining the Brotherhood, became constant in all duties. 
Blameless in his attendance on teachers ; scrupulous in the matter of foods and 
drinks ; zealous in the performance of the duties of the chapter-house, bath-house, 
and so forth ; perfectly punctual in the observance of the fourteen major and of the 
eighty minor disciplines ; he used to sweep the monastery, the cells, the cloisters, 
and the path leading to their monastery, and gave water to thirsty folk. And 
because of his great goodness folk gave regularly five hundred meals a day to the 
Brethren ; and great gain and honour accrued to the monastery, the many pros- 
pering for the virtues of one. And one day in the Hall of Truth the Brethren 
fell to talking of how that Brother's goodness had brought them gain and honour, 
and filled many lives with joy. Entering the Hall, [450] the Master asked, and 

c. J. 18 

274 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

was told, what their talk was about. " This is not the first time, Brethren," 
said he, " that this Brother has been regular in the fulfilment of duties. In days 
gone by five hundred hermits going out to gather fruits were supported on the 
fruits that his goodness provided." So saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a brahmin in the North, and, growing iip, gave up 
the world and dwelt at the head of five hundred hermits at the foot of the 
mountains. In those days there came a great drought upon the Himalaya 
country, and everywhere the water was dried up, and sore distress fell 
upon all beasts. Seeing the poor creatures suffering from thirst, one of 
the hermits cut down a tree which he hollowed into a trough ; and this 
trough he filled with all the water he could find. In this way he gave 
the animals to drink. And they came in herds and drank and drank till 
the hermit had no time left to go and gather fruits for himself. Heed- 
less of his own hunger, he worked away to quench the animals' thirst. 
Thought they to themselves, "So wra2)t up is this hermit in ministering 
to our wants that he leaves himself no time to go in quest of fruits. He 
must be very hungry. Let us agree that everyone of us who comes here 
to drink must bring such fruits as he can to the hermit." This they 
agreed to do, every animal that came bringing mangoes or jambus or 
bread-fruits or the like, till their ofierings would have filled two hundred 
and fifty waggons ; and there was food for the whole five hundred hermits 
with abundance to spare. Seeing this, the Bodhisatta exclaimed, " Thus 
has one man's goodness been the means of supplying with food all these 
hermits. Truly, we should always be stedfast in right-doing." So saying, 
he uttered this stanza : — 

Toil on, my brother ; still in hope stand fast ; 

Nor let thy courage flag and tire; 
Forget not him, who by his grievous fast^ 

Reaped fruits beyond his heart's desire. 

[451] Such was the teaching of the Great Being to the band of 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "This Brother 
was the good hermit of those days, and I the hermits' master." 

1 Cf. Vol. iv. 269 (text), and supra page 13.3. 

No. 125. 275 

No. 125. 


"If he 'mid strangers." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a boastful Brother. The introductory story about him is like what has 
been already related ^ 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benai'es, the 
Bodhisatta was a rich Treasurer, and his wife bore him a son. Aiid the 
selfsame day a female slave in his house gave birth to a boy, and the two 
children gi-ew up together. And when the rich man's son was being 
taught to write, the yoimg slave used to go with his young master's 
tablets and so learned at the same time to write himself. Next he learned 
two or three handicrafts, and grew vxp to be a fair-spoken and handsome 
young man ; and his name was Katahaka. Being employed as private 
secretary, he thought to himself, " I shall not always be kept at this 
work. The slightest fault and I shall be beaten, imprisoned, branded, 
and fed on slave's fare. On the border there lives a merchant, a friend of 
my master's. Why should I not go to him with a letter purporting to 
come from my master, and, passing myself off as my master's son, marry 
the merchant's daughter and live happily ever afterwards % " 

So he wrote a letter, [452] saying, "The bearer of this is my son. It 
is meet that our houses should be united in marriage, and I would have 
you give your daughter to this my son and keep the young couple near you 
for the present. As soon as I can conveniently do so, I will come to you." 
This letter he sealed with his master's private seal, and came to the border- 
merchant's with a well-filled purse, handsome dresses, and perfumes and 
the like. And with a bow he stood before the merchant. " Where do 
you come from?" said the merchant. "From Benares." "Who is your 
father]" " The Treasurer of Benares." "And what brings you here?" 
"This letter will tell you," said Katahaka, handing it to him. The 
merchant read the letter and exclaimed, " This gives me new life." And 
in his joy he gave his daughter to Katahaka and set up the young couple, 
who lived in great style. But Katahaka gave himself airs, and used to 
find fault with the victuals and the clothes that were brought him, calling 
them " provincial." " These misguided provincials," he would say, " have 

1 No. 80, probably. 


276 The Jcttaka, Booh I. 

no idea of dressing. And as for taste in scents and garlands, they've got 

Missing his slave, the Bodhisatta said, " I don't see Katahaka. Where 
has he gone 1 Find him." And off went the Bodhisatta's people in quest 
of him, and searched far and wide till they found him. Then back they 
came, without Katahaka recognizing them, and told the Bodhisatta. 

" This will never do," said the Bodhisatta on hearing the news. " I 
will go and bring him back." So he asked the King's permission, and 
departed with a great following. And the tidings spread everywhere that 
the Treasurer was on his way to the borders. Hearing the news Katahaka 
fell to thinking of his course of action. He knew that he was the sole 
reason of the Treasurer's coming, and he saw that to run away now was to 
destroy all chance of returning. So he decided to go to meet the Treasurer, 
and conciliate him by acting as a slave towards him as in the old days. 
Acting on this plan, he made a point of proclaiming in [453] public on all 
occasions his disapprobation of the lamentable decay of respect towards 
parents which shewed itself in children's sitting down to meals with their 
parents, instead of waiting upon them. " "When my parents take their 
meals," said Katahaka, " I hand the plates and dishes, bring the spittoon, 
and fetch their fans for them. Such is my invariable practice." And he 
explained carefully a slave's duty to his master, such as bringing the water 
and ministering to him when he retired. And having already schooled 
folk in general, he had said to his father-in-law shortly before the arrival of 
the Bodhisatta, " I hear that my father is coming to see you. You had better 
make ready to entertain him, while I will go and meet him on the road 
with a present." " Do so, my dear boy," said his father-in-law. 

So Katahaka took a magnificent present and went out with a large 
retinue to meet the Bodhisatta, to whom he handed the present with a low 
obeisance. The Bodhisatta took the present in a kindly way, and at 
breakfast time made his encampment and retired for the purposes of 
nature. Stopping his retinue, Katahaka took water and approached the 
Bodhisatta. Then the young man fell at the Bodhisatta's feet and cried, 
" Oh, sir, I will pay any sum you may require ; but do not expose me." 

" Fear no exposure at my hands," said the Bodhisatta, pleased at his 
dutiful conduct, and entered into the city, where he was feted with great 
magnificence. And Katahaka still acted as his slave. 

As the Treasurer sat at his ease, the border-merchant said, "My Lord, 
upon receipt of your letter I duly gave my daughter in marriage to your 
son." And the Treasurer made a suitable reply about 'his son' in so 
kindly a way that the merchant was delighted beyond measure. But from 
that time forth the Bodhisatta could not bear the sight of Katahaka. 

One day the Great Being sent for the merchant's daughter and said, 
" My dear, please look my head over." She did so, and he thanked her for 

No. 126. 277 

her mucli-needed services, [454] adding, "And now tell me, my dear, 
whether my son is a reasonable man in weal and woe, and whether you 
manage to get on well with him." 

" My husband has only one fault. He will find fault with his food." 
"He has always had his faults, my dear; but I will tell you how to 
stop his tongue. I will tell you a text which you must learn carefully and 
repeat to your husband when he finds fault again with his food." And he 
taught her the lines and shortly afterwards set out for Benares. Katahaka 
accompanied hira part of the way, and took his leave after offering most 
valuable presents to the Treasurer. Dating from the departure of the 
Bodhisatta, Katahaka waxed prouder and prouder. One day his wife 
ordered a nice dinner, and began to help him to it with a spoon, but at 
the first mouthful Katahaka began to grumble. Thereon the merchant's 
daughter i-emembering her lesson, repeated the following stanza : — 

If he 'mid strangers far from home talks big^, 

Back comes his visitor to spoil it all. 

— Come, eat your dinner then, Katahaka^. 

" Dear me," thought Katahaka, " the Treasurer must have informed her 
of my name, and have told her the whole story." And from that day 
forth he gave himself uo more airs, but huDibly ate what was set before 
him, and at his death passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

[4.55] His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "This 
buiuptious Brother was the Katahaka of those days, and I the Treasurer of 

No. 126. 


" Our diverse fates." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a brahmin retained by the King of Kosala because of his power of telling 
whether swords were lucky or not. We are told that when the king's smiths 
had forged a sword, this brahmin could by merely smelling it tell whether it was 

1 Cf. Upham Mahav. 3. 301. 

'^ The scholiast explains that the wife had no understanding of the meaning of the 
verse, but only repeated the words as she was taught them. That is to say, the gathd 
was not in the vernacular, but in a learned tongue intelligible to the educated Katahaka, 
but not to the woman, who repeated it parrot-fashion. 

278 The Jataha. Book I. 

a lucky one or not. And he made it a rule only to commend the work of those 
smiths who gave him presents, while he rejected the work of those who did not 
bribe him. 

Now a certain smith made a sword and put into the sheath with it some 
tinely-ground pepper, and brought it in this state to the King, who at once 
handed it over to the brahmin to test. The brahmin unsheathed the blade and 
sniffed at it. The pepper got up his nose and made him sneeze, and that so 
violently that he slit his nose on the edge of the sword ^ 

This mishap of the brahmin came to the Brethren's ears, and one day they 
were talking about it in the Hall of Truth when the IMaster entered. On learning 
the subject of their talk, he said, " This is not the first time. Brethren, that this 
brahmin has slit his nose sniffing swords. The same fate befell him in former 
days." So saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, he had in his 
service a brahmin who professed to tell whether swords were lucky or not, 
and all came to pass as in the Introductoi'y Story. And the king called 
in the surgeons and had him fitted with a false tip to his nose which was 
cunningly painted for all the world like a real nose ; and then the brahmin 
resumed his duties again about the king. Now Brahmadatta had no son, 
only a daughter and a nephew, whom he had brought up under his own 
eye. And when these two grew up, they fell in love with one another. 
So the king sent for his councillors and said to them, " My nephew is 
heir to the throne. If I give him my daughter to wife, he shall be anointed 

[456] But, on second thoughts, he decided that as in any case his 
nephew was like a son, he had better many him to a foreign princess, and 
give his daughter to a prince of another royal house. For, lie thought, 
this plan would give him more grandchildren and vest in his line the 
sceptres of two several kingdoms. And, after consulting with his coun- 
cillors, he resolved to separate the two, and they were accordingly made to 
dwell apart from one another. Now they were sixteen years old and very 
much in love, and the young prince thought of nothing but liow to carry 
off the princess from her father's palace. At last the plan struck him of 
sending for a wise woman, to whom he gave a pocketful of money. 

"And what's this for?" said she. 

Then he told her of his passion, and besought the wise woman to convey 
him to his dear princess. 

And she promised him success, and said that she would tell the king 
that his daughter was under the influence of witchcraft, but that, as the 
demon had possessed her so long that he was off his guard, she would take 

1 Cf. Kogers' " Buddhaghosha's Parables," p. 149, where this Introductory Story is 

No. 126. 279 

the princess one day in a carriage to the cemetery with a strong escort 
under arms, and there in a magic circle lay the princess on a bed with a dead 
man under it, and with a hundred and eight douches of scented water wash 
the demon out of her. " And when on this pretext I bring the princess to 
the cemetery," continued the wise woman, " mind that you jvist reach the 
cemetery before us in your carriage with an armed escort, taking some 
ground pepper with you. Arrived at the cemetery, you will leave your 
carriage at the entrance, and despatch your men to the cemetery grove, 
while you will yourself go to the top of the mound and lie down as though 
dead. Then I will come and set up a bed over you on which I will lay 
the princess. Then will come the time when you must sniff at the pepper 
till you sneeze two or three times, and [457] when you sneeze we will 
leave the princess and take to our heels. Thereon you and the princess 
must bathe all over, and you must take her home with you." "Capital," 
said the prince ; " a most excellent device." 

So away went the wise woman to the king, and he fell in with her 
idea, as did the princess when it was explained to her. When the day 
came, the old woman told the princess their errand, and said to the guards 
on the road in order to frighten them, " Listen. Under the bed that I 
shall set up, there will be a dead man ; and that dead man will sneeze. 
And mark well that, so soon as he has sneezed, he will come out from 
under the bed and seize on the first person he finds. So be prepared, all 
of you," 

Now the prince had already got to the place and got under the bed as 
had been arranged. 

Next the crone led ofi" the princess and laid her upon the bed, 
whispering to her not to be afraid. At once the prince sniffed at the 
pepper and fell a-sneezing. And scarce had he begun to sneeze before the 
wise woman left the princess and with a loud scream was off, quicker than 
any of them. Not a man stood his ground ; — one and all they threw 
away their arms and bolted for dear life. Hereon the prince came forth 
and bore off the princess to his home, as had been before arranged. And 
the old woman made her way to the king and told him what had 

'' Well," thought the king, " I always intended her for him, and 
they've grown up together like ghee in rice-porridge." So he didn't fly 
into a passion, but in course of time made his nephew king of the land, 
with his daughter as queen-consort. 

Now the new king kept on in his service the brahmin who professed 
to tell the temper of swords, and one day as he stood in the sun, the false 
tip to the brahmin's nose got loose and fell oft'. And there he stood, 
hanging his head for very shame. " Never mind, never mind," laughed 
the king. " Sneezing is good for some, but bad for others. One sneeze 

280 The Jdtaha. Book I. 

lost you your nose [458] ; whilst I have to thank a sneeze for both my 
throne and queen." So saying he uttered this stanza : — 

Our diverse fates this moral show, 

— What brings me weal, may work you woe. 

So spake the king, and after a life spent iu charity and other good 
works, he passed away to fare according to his deserts. 

In this wise did the Master teach the lesson that the world was wrong in 
thinking things were definitely and absolutely good or bad in all cases alike. 
Lastly, he identified the Birth by saying, " The same man that now professes to 
understand whether swords are lucky or not, professed the same skill in those 
days ; and I was myself the prince who inherited his uncle's kingdom." 

No. 127. 


" Vou vaunt." — This story was told by the Master once at Jetavana, about a 
boastful Brother. (The introductory story and the story of the past in this 
case are like those of Katahaka related above^.) 

Kalanduka was in this case the name of the slave of the Treasurer of 
Benares. And when he had run away and was living in luxury with the 
daughter of the border-merchant, the Treasurer missed him and could not 
discover his whereabouts. So he sent a young pet parrot to search for the 
runaway. And off flew the parrot in quest of Kalanduka, and searched 
for him far and wide, till at last the bird came to the town where he dwelt. 
And just at that very time Kalanduka was enjoying himself on the river 
with his wife in a boat well-stocked with dainty fare and with flowers and 
perfumes. Now the nobles of that land at their water-pax-ties make a 
point of taking milk with a pungent drug to drink, and so escape suffering 
from cold after their pastime on the water. [459] But when our Kalanduka 
tasted this milk, he hawked and spat it out ; and in so doing spat on the 
head of the merchant's daughter. At this moment up flew the parrot, and 
saw all this from the bough of a fig-tree on the bank. " Come, come, 

1 No. 125. 

No. 128. 281 

slave Kalanduka," cried the bird; "remember who and what you are, and 
don't spit on tlie head of this young gentlewoman. Know your place, 
fellow." So saying, he uttered the following stanza : — 

You vaunt your high descent, youi- high degree. 
With lying tongue. Though but a bird, I know 
The truth. You'll soon be caught, you runaway. 
Scorn not the milk then, slave Kalanduka. 

Recognizing the parrot, Kalanduka grew afraid of being exposed, 
and exclaimed, *' Ah ! good master, when did you arrive 1" 

Thought the parrot, " It is not friendliness, but a wish to wring my 
neck, that prompts this kindly interest." So he replied that he did not 
stand in need of Kalanduka's services, and flew off to Benares, whei-e he 
told the Lord Treasurer OA^ery thing he had seen. 

" The rascal ! " cried the Treasurer, and ordered Kalaiiduka to be 
hauled back to Benares where he bad once more to put up with a slave's 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, " This Brother 
was Kalanduka in the story, and I the Treasurer of Benares." 

[460] No. 128. 


" Where saintliness."— This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a hypocrite. AVhen the Brother's hypocrisy was reported to him, the 
Master said, " This is not the first time he has shewn himself a hypocrite ; he 
was just the same in times gone by." So saying he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a rat, perfect in wisdom, and as big as a young boar. 
He had his dwelling in the forest and many hundreds of other I'ats owned 
his sway. 

282 The JCitaha. Book I. 

Now there was a roving jackal who espied this troop of rats and fell to 
scheming how to beguile and eat them. And he took up his stand near 
their home with his face to the sun, snuffing up the wind, and standing on 
one leg. Seeing this when out on his road in quest of food, the Bodhi- 
satta conceived the jackal to be a saintly being, and went up and asked his 

" 'Godly' is my name," said the jackal. " Why do you stand only on 
one leg?" "Because if I stood on all four at once, the earth could not 
bear my weight. That is why I stand on one leg only." " And why do 
you keep your mouth open ? " " To take the air. I live on air ; it is my 
only food." " And why do you face the sun 1 " " To worship him." 
" What uprightness ! " thought the Bodhisatta, and thenceforward he 
made a point of going, attended by the other rats, to pay his respects morn- 
ing and evening to the saintly jackal. And when the rats were leaving, 
the jackal seized and devoured the hindermost one of them, wiped his lips, 
and looked as though nothing had happened. In consequence of this the 
rats grew fewer and fewer, till they noticed the gaps in their ranks, and 
wondering why this was so, asked the Bodhisatta the reason. He could 
not make it out, but suspecting the jackal, [461] resolved to put him to 
the test. So next day he let the other rats go out first and himself 
brought up the reai*. The jackal made a spring on the Bodhisatta who, 
seeing him coming, faced round and cried, " So this is your saintliness, 
you hypocrite and rascal ! " And he repeated the following stanza : — 

Where saintliness is but a cloak 
Whereby to cozen guileless folk 
And screen a villain's treachery, 
— The cat-like nature thex^e we see^. 

So saying, the king of the rats sprang at the jackal's throat and bit his 
wii)di)ipe asunder just under the jaw, so that he died. Back trooped the 
other rats and gobbled up the body of the jackal with a 'crunch, crunch, 
crunch ' ;- — that is to say, the foremost of them did, for they say there was 
none left for the last-comers. And ever after the rats lived happily in 
peace and quiet. 

His lesson ended, the Master made the connection by saying, " This hypo- 
critical Brother was the jackal of those days, and I the king of the rats." 

' Though the foregoing prose relates to a jackal, the stanza speaks of a cat, as does 
the MaltdUidrata in its version of this story. 

No. 129. 283 

No. 129. 


'■'■'Ticas greed."... Thin story was told by the Master while at Jetavaua, about 
another hypocrite. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was King of the Rats and dwelt in the forest. Now a fire broke out 
in the forest, and a jackal who could not run away put his head against a 
tree [462] and let the flames sweep by him. The tire singed the hair otF 
his body everywhere, and left him perfectly bald, except for a tuft like a 
scalp- knot^ where the crown of his head was pressed against the tree. 
Drinking one day in a rocky pool, he caught sight of this top-knot reflected 
in the water. "At last I've got wherewithal to go to market," thought he. 
Coming in the course of his wanderings in the forest to the rats' cave, he 
said to himself, "I'll hoodwink those rats and devour them;" and with this 
intent he took up his stand hard by, just as in the foregoing story. 

On his way out in quest of food, the Bodhisatta observed the jackal 
and, crediting the beast with virtue and goodness, came to him and asked 
what his name was. 

"Bharadvaja-, Votary of the Fire-God." 

"Why have you come here?" 

"In order to guard you and yours." 

"What will you do to guard us ?" 

"I know how to count on my Angers, and will count your numbers 
both morning and evening, so as to be sure that as many came home at 
night, as went out in the morning. That's how I'll guard you." 

"Then stay, uncle, and watch over us." 

And accordingly, as the rats were starting in the morning he set about 
counting them "One, two, three;" and so again when they came back at 
night. And every time he counted them, he seized and ate the hindmost. 
Everything came to pass as in the foregoing story, except that here the 
King of the Rats turned and said to the jackal, "It is not sanctity, 

1 The Buddhist 'Brother' shaves his crown, exeeiit for a tuft of hair on the toj), 
which is the analogue of the tonsure of Eomau Catholic priests. 

- Bharadvaja was the name of a clan of great Eishis, or religious teachers, to whom 
the sixth book of the Rigveda is ascribed . 

284 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

Bhaiadvaja., Votary of the Fire-God, but gluttony that has decked your 
crowu with that top-knot." So saying, he uttered this stanza : — 

'Twas greed, not virtue, furnished you this crest. 
Oiu- dwindling numbers fail to work out right; 
We've had enough. Fire-votary, of you. 

His lesson ended, the ]\Iaster identified the Birth by saying, "This Brother 
was the jackal of those days, and I the King of the Rats." 

No. 130. 


[463] "Fo24 may ail or eat." — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana, about a woman of Savatthi. She is said to have been the wicked wife 
of a good and virtuous brahmin, who was a lay-brother. Her nights she spent 
in gadding about ; whilst by day she did not a stroke of work, but made out to 
be ill and lay abed groaning. 

"What is the matter with you, my dear?" said her husband. 

"Wind troubles me." 

"What can I get for you ?" 

"Sweets, savouries, rich food, rice-gi'uel, boiled-rice, oil, and so forth." 

The obedient husband did as she wished, and toiled like a slave for her. She 
meantime kept her bed while her husband was about the house ; but no sooner 
saw the door shut on him, than she was in the arms of her paramours. 

"My poor wife doesn't seem to get any better of the wind," thought the brahmin 
at last, and betook himself with offerings of peifumes, flowers, and the like, to 
the Master at Jetavana. His obeisance done, he stood before the Blessed One, 
who asked him why he had been absent so long. 

"Sir," said the brahmin, "I'm told my wife is troubled with the wind, and I 
toil away to keep her supplied with every conceivable dainty. And now she 
is stout and her complexion quite clear, but the wind is as troublesome as ever. 
It is through ministei'ing to my wife that I have not had any time to come here, 
sir. " 

Said the Master, who knew the wife's wickedness, "Ah! brahmin, the wise 
and good of days gone by taught you how to physic a woman suffering like your 
wife from so stubborn an ailment. But re-birth has confused your memory so 
that you forget." So saying, he told the following story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born a brahmin in a very distinguished family. After perfecting 

1 See also No. 226. 

No. 130. 285 

his education at Takkasila, he became a teacher of world-wide fame in 
Benares. To him flocked as pupils the young nobles and brahmins from 
all the princely and wealthy families. Now a country brahmin, who had 
learned from the Bodhisatta the three Vedas, and the eighteen Sciences, 
and who stopped on in Benares to look after his estate, came two or 
three times every day to listen to the Bodhisatta's teachings. [464] And 
this brahmin had a wife who was a bad, wicked woman. And everything 
came to pass as above. When the brahmin explained how it was that he 
could not get away to listen to his master's teachings, the Bodhisatta, who 
knew that the brahmin's wife was only feigning sickness, thought to him- 
self, "I will tell him what physic will cure the creature." So he said to 
the brahmin, "Get her no more dainties, my son, but collect the stalings 
of cows and thei-ein souse five kinds of fruit and so forth, and let the lot 
pickle in a new copper pot till the whole savours of the metal. Then take 
a rope or cord or stick and go to your wife, and tell her plainly she must 
either swallow the safe cure you have brought her, or else work for her 
food. (And here you will I'epeat certain lines which I will tell you.) If 
she refuses the remedy, then threaten to let her have a taste of the rope 
or stick, and to drag her about for a time by the hair, while you pummel 
her with your fists. You will find that at the mere threat she will be up 
and about her work." 

So ofi" went the brahmin and brought his wife a mess prepared as the 
Bodhisatta had directed. 

"Who prescribed this?" said she. 

"The master," said her husband. 

"Take it away, I won't have it." 

"So you won't have it, eh?" said the young brahmin, taking up the 
rope-end ; "well then, you've either got to swallow down that safe cure or 
else to work for honest fare." So saying he littered this stanza : — 

You may ail or eat ; which shall it be ? 
For you can't do both, my Kosiya. 

[465] Terrified by this, the woman Kosiya realised from the moment 
the master interfered how impossible it was to deceive him, and, getting 
up, went about her work. And the consciousness that the master knew 
her wickedness made her repent, and become as good as she had formerly 
been wicked. 

(So ended the story, and the brahmin's wife, feeling that the All-enlightened 
Buddha knew what she was, stood in such awe of him that she sinned no more.) 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "The husband 
and wife of today were the husband and wife of the story, and I was the 

286 The Jdtaka. Booh I. 

No. 131. 


'■'■ If a friendr — This story was told by the Master while at the Bamboo-grove, 
about Devadatta. For at that time the Brethren were discussing in the Hall of 
Truth the ingratitude of Devadatta and his inability to recognise the Master's 
goodness, when the IMaster himself entered and on enquiry was told the subject 
of their talk. "Brethren," said he, "this is not the first time that Devadatta has 
been ungrateful; he was just as ungrateful in bygone days." So saying, he told 
this story of the past. 

[4G6] Once on a time, when a certain king of Magadha was reigning in 
Rfijagaha, the Bodbisatta was his Treasurer, worth eighty ci'ores, and 
known as the 'Millionaire.' In Benares there dwelt a Treasurer also 
worth eighty crores, who was named Piliya, and was a great friend of the 
Millionaire. For some reason or other Piliya of Benares got into difficiilties, 
and lost all his property, and was reduced to beggary. In his need he left 
Benares, and with his wife journeyed on foot to Bajagaha, to see the 
Millionaire, the last hope left him. And the Millionaire embraced his 
friend and treated him as an honoured guest, asking, in due course, the 
reason of the visit. "I am a ruined man," answered Piliya, "I have lost 
everything, and have come to ask you to help me." 

"With all my heart ! Have no fear on that score," said the Millionaire. 
He had his strong-room opened, and gave to Piliya forty crores. Also he 
divided into two equal parts the whole of his property, live stock and all, 
and bestowed on Piliya the just half of his entire fortune. Taking his 
wealth, Piliya went back to Benares, and there dwelt. 

Not long after a like calamity overtook the Millionaire, who, in his 
turn, lost every penny he had. Casting aboiit whither to turn in the hour 
of need, he bethought him how he had befriended Piliya to the half of his 
possessions, and might go to him for assistance without fear of being thi-own 
over. So he set out from Rajagaha with his wife, and came to Benares. 
At the entrance to the city he said to her, "Wife, it is not befitting for 
you to trudge along the streets with me. Wait here a little till I send 
a carriage with a servant to bring you into the city in proper state." So 
saying, he left her under shelter, and went on alone into the town, till 
he came to Piliya's house, where he bade himself be announced as the 
Millionaire from Rajagaha, come to see his friend. 

"Well, show him in," said Piliya; but at sight of the other's condition 
he neither rose to meet him, nor greeted him with words of welcome, but 
only demanded what brought him here. 

No. 131. 287 

"To see you," was the reply. 

[467] "Where are you stopping'?" 

"Nowhere, as yet. I left my wife under shelter and came straight to 

"There's no room here for you. Take a dole of rice, find somewhere to 
cook and eat it, and then begone and never come to visit me again." So 
saying, the rich man despatched a servant with orders to give his un- 
fortunate friend hal fa-quartern of pollard to carry away tied up in the 
corner of his cloth; — and this, though that very day he had had a thousand 
waggon-loads of the best rice threshed out and stored up in his overflowing 
granaries. Yes, the rascal, who had coolly taken four hundred millions, 
now doled out half-a-quartern of pollard to his benefactor ! Accordingly, 
the servant measured out the pollard in a basket, and brought it to the 
Bodhisatta, who argued within himself whether or no he should take it. And 
he thought, "This ingrate breaks off our fi-iendship because I am a ruined 
man. Now, if I refuse his paltry gift, I shall be as bad as he. For the 
ignoble, who scorn a modest gift, outrage the first idea of friendship. Be 
it, therefore, mine to fulfil friendship so far as in me lies, by taking his gift 
of pollard." So he tied up the pollard in the corner of his cloth, and made 
his way 1)ack to where he had housed his wife. 

"What have you got, dearl" said she. 

"Our friend Piliya gives us this pollard, and washes his hands of us." 

"Oh, why did you take if? Is this a fit return for the forty 
crores 1 " 

"Don't cry, dear wife," said the Bodhisatta. "I took it simply because 
I wanted not to violate the principle of friendship. Why these tears?" 
So saying, he uttered this stanza : — 

If a friend plays the niggard's part, 
A simpleton is cut to th' heart; 
[468] His dole of pollard I will take, 
And not for this our friendship break. 

But still the wife kept on crying. 

Now, at that moment a farm-servant whom the Millionaire had given 
to Piliya was passing by and drew near on hearing the weeping of his 
former mistress. Recognising his master and mistress, he fell at their 
feet, and with tears and sobs asked the reason of their coming. And the 
Bodhisatta told him their story. 

"Keep up your spirits," said the man, cheei'ily; and, taking them to 
his own dwelling, there made ready perfumed baths, and a meal for them. 
Then he let the other slaves know that their old master and mistress had 
come, and after a few days marched them in a body to the King's palace, 
where they made quite a commotion. 

The King asked what the matter was, and they told him the whole 

288 The Jataka. Booh I. 

story. So he sent forthwith for the two, and asked the Millionaire whether 
the report was true that he had given four hundred millions to Piliya. 

"Sir," said he, "when in his need my friend confided in me, and came 
to seek my aid, I gave him the half, not only of my money, but of my 
live stock and of everything that I possessed." 

"Is this sol" said the king to Piliya. 

"Yes, sire," said he. 

"And when, in his tui'n, your benefactor confided in you and sought 
you out, did you show him honour and hospitality'?" 

Here Piliya was silent. 

"Did you have a half-quartern of pollard doled out into the corner of 
his cloth?" 

[469] Still Piliya was silent. 

Then the king took counsel with his ministers as to what should be 
done, and finally, as a judgment on Piliya, ordered them to go to Piliya's 
house and give the whole of Piliya's wealth to the Millionaire. 

"Nay, sire," said the Bodhisatta ; "I need not what is another's. Let 
me be given nothing beyond what I formerly gave him." 

Then the king ordered that the Bodhisatta should enjoy his own 
again ; and the Bodhisatta, with a large retinue of servants, came back 
with his regained wealth to Rajagaha, where he put his affairs in order, 
and after a life spent in charity and other good works, passed away to fare 
according to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "Devadatta was 
the Treasurer Piliya of those days, and I myself the Millionaire." 

No. 132. 


" Wise counsels heeding." — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana about the Sutta concerning the Temptation by the Daughters of l\Iara ^ 
at the Goat-herds' Banyan-tree. The Master quoted the Sutta, beginning with 
its opening words — 

In all their dazzling beauty on they came, 

— Craving and Hate and Lust. Like cotton-down 

Before the wind, the Master made them fly. 

^ See pp. 78 and 79 of Volume i. of the text for the temptation. I have not been 
able to trace the Palobhana Sutta referred to. 

No. 132. 289 

After he had recited the Sutta right through to the end, the Brethren met 
together in the Hall of Truth and spoke of how the Daughters of Mara drew 
near in all their myriad charms yet failed to seduce the AU-Eulightened One. 
For he did not as much as open his eyes to look upon them, so marvellous was 
he! Entering the hall, the ^Master asked, and was told, what- they were dis- 
cussing. "Brethren," said he, "it is no marvel that I did not so much as look 
upon the Daughters of Mara in this life when I have put sin from me and have 
won enlightenment. In former days when I was but in quest of Wisdom, 
when sin still dwelt within me, I found strength not to gaze even upon loveliness 
divine by way of lust in violation of virtue ; and by that continence I won a 
kingdom." So saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was the youngest of a hundred brothers, and his adventures 
are to be detailed here, as above [470] in the Takkasila-Jataka'. When 
the kingdom had been offered to the Bodhisatta by the people, and when 
he had accepted it and been anointed king, the people decorated the town 
like a city of the gods and the royal palace like the palace of ludra. 
Entering the city the Bodhisatta passed into the spacious hall of the 
palace and there seated himself in all his godlike beauty on his jewelled 
throne beneath the white umbrella of his Kingship. Bound him in 
glittering splendour stood his ministers and brahmins and nobles, whilst 
sixteen thousand nautch girls, fair as the nymphs of heaven, sang and 
danced and made music, till the palace was loud with sounds like the 
ocean when the storm Inirsts in thunder on its waters^. Gazing round 
on the pomp of his royal state, the Bodhisatta thought how, had he looked 
upon the charms of the ogresses, he would have perished miserably, nor 
ever have lived to see his present magnificence, which he owed to his 
following the counsels of the Pacceka Buddlias. And as these thoughts 
filled his heart, his emotion found vent in these verses : 

Wise counsels heeding, firm in my resolve, 
With dauntless heart still holding on my course, 
I shunned the Sirens' dwellings and their snares. 
And found a great salvation in my need. 

[471] So ended the lesson which these verses taught. And the Great 
Being ruled his kingdom in righteousness, and abounded in charity and 
other good works till in the end he passed away to fare according to his 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "I was the prince 
of those days who went to Takkasila and won a kingdom." 

1 Apparently the reference is to No. 96. For a like confusion of title see note, 
p. 112. 

- Or is the meaning 'like the vault of heaven filled with thunder-clouds'? Cf. arnava 
in the Rigveda. 

c. J. . 19 

290 The Jataka. Booh I. 

No. 133. 


"Lo! in your stronghold." — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana, about a certain Brother who was given by the Master a subject for 
meditation, and, going to the borders, took up his abode in the forest near a 
hamlet. Here he hoped to pass the rainy season, but during the very first 
month his hut was burnt down whilst he was in the village seeking alms. Feeling 
the loss of its sheltering roof, he told his lay friends of his misfortune, and they 
readily undertook to build him another hut. But, in spite of their protestations, 
three months slipped away without its being rebuilt. Having no roof to shelter 
him, the Brother had no success in his meditation. Not even the dawn of the 
Light had been vouchsafed to him when at the close of the rainy season he went 
back to Jetavana and stood respectfully before the Master. In the course of 
talk the Master asked whether the Brother's meditation had been successful. 
Then that Brother related from the beginning the good and ill that had be- 
fallen him. Said the Master, " In days gone by, even brute beasts could discern 
between what was good and what bad for them and so quitted betimes, ere they 
proved dangerous, the habitations that had sheltered them in happier days. 
And if beasts were so discerning, how could you fall so f;ir short of them in 
wisdom ■?" So saying, at that Brother's request, the Master told this story of the 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benai-es, the 
Bodhisatta was born a bird. When he came to years of discretion, good 
fortune attended him and he became king of the birds, taking up his 
abode with his subjects in a giant tree which stretched its leafy branches 
over the waters of a lake. And all these birds, [472] roosting in the 
boughs, dropped their dung into the waters below. Now that lake was 
the abode of Cauda, the Naga King, who was enraged by this fouling 
of his water and resolved to take vengeance on the birds and burn 
them out. So one night when they were all roosting along the branches, 
he set to work, and first he made the waters of the lake to boil, then 
he caused smoke to arise, and thirdly he made flames dart up as high 
as a palm-tree. 

Seeing the flames shooting up from the water, the Bodhisatta cried to 
the birds, "Water is used to quench fire; but here is the water itself on 
fire. This is no place for us; let us seek a home elsewhere." So saying, 
he uttered this stanza : — 

Lo ! in your stronghold stands the foe. 

And fire doth water bimi ; 
So from your tree make haste to go, 

Let trust to trembling turn. 

No. 134. 291 

And hereupon the Bodhisatta flew off with such of the birds as followed 

his advice; but the disobedient birds, who stopped behind, all perished. 

His lesson ended, the IMaster preached the Four Truths (at the close whereof 
that Brother won Arahatship) and identified the Birth by saying, "The loyal 
and obedient birds of those days are now become my disciples, and I myself was 
then the kino; of the birds." 

No. 134. 


" Willi conscious." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about the interpretation by Sariputta, Captain of the Faith, at the gate of 
Sariikassa town, of a problem tei'sely propounded by the Master. And the 
following was the story of the past he then told. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, ...&c. ... 
the Bodhisatta, as lie expired in his forest-home, exclaimed, "Neither 
conscious nor unconscious." And the recluses did not believe the inter- 
pretation which the Bodhisatta's chief disciple gave of the Master's words. 
Back came the Bodhisatta from the Radiant Realm, and from mid-air 
recited this stanza : — 

With conscious, with unconscious, too. 
Dwells sorrow. Either ill eschew. 
Pure bliss, from all corruption free. 
Springs but from Insight's ecstasy. 

His lesson ended, the Bodhisatta pi-aised his disciple and went back to 
the Brahma Realm. Then the rest of the recluses believed the chief 

His lesson taught, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "In those days 
Sariputta was the chief disciple, and I Maha-Brahma." 


292 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

No. 135. 


" Who sagely meditates.''^ — This story too was told by the Master while at Jeta- 
vana about the interpretation of a problem by the Elder Sariputta at the gate of 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta, as he expired in his forest-home, answered his disciples' 
enquiries with the words — "Moonlight and Sunlight." With these words 
he died and passed to the Radiant Realm. 

Now when the chief disciple interpreted the Master's words his fellows 
did not believe him. Then back came the Bodhisatta and from mid-air 
recited this stanza : — 

Who sagely meditates on sun and moon. 

Shall win (when Reason unto Ecstasy 

Gives place) his after-lot in Radiant Realms i. 

Such was the Bodhisatta's teaching, and, first praising his disciple, he 
went his way back to the Brahma Realm. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "Sariputta was 
the chief disciple of those days, and I Maha-Brahma." 

No. 136. 


^^ Contented he." — This story was told by the Master about a Sister named Fat 

A lay-brother at Savatthi had offered the Sisterhood a supply of garlic, and, 
sending for his bailiff, had given orders that, if they should come, each Sister was 
to receive two or three handfuls. After that they made a practice [475] of coming 

^ These technical lines imply that, by taking the Sun and Moon as his kammatthdna, 
or subject for meditation, a Buddhist, by attaining Jhi'ina (or Insight) in the second 
(i.e. supra-rational) degree, can save himself from re-birth in a lower sphere of existence 
than the Abhassaraloka or Eadiant Realm of the corporeal Brahma-world. 

No. 13G. 293 

to his house or field for their garlic. Now one holiday the supply of garlic in the 
house ran out, and the Sister Fat Nanda, coming with others to the house, was 
told, when she said she wanted some garlic, that there was none left in the house, 
it had all been used up out of hand, and that she must go to the field for it. 
So away to the field she went and carried off" an excessive amount of garlic. The 
bailiff' grew angry and remarked what a greedy lot these Sisters were ! This 
piqued the more moderate Sisters ; and the Brethren too were piqued at the 
taunt when the Sisters repeated it to them, and they told the Blessed One. 
Kebuking tlie greed of Fat Nanda, the Master said, "Brethren, a greedy person 
is harsh and unkind even to the mother who bore him ; a greedy person cannot 
convert the unconverted, or make the converted grow in grace, or cause alms to 
come in, or save them when come in ; whereas the moderate person can do all 
these things." In such wise did the Master point the moral, ending by saying, 
"Brethren, as Fat Nanda is greedy now, so she was greedy in times gone by." 
And thereupon he told the following story of the past. 

Once upon a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a brahmin, and growing up was married to a bride 
of his own rank, who bore him three daughters named Nanda, Nanda-vatI 
and Sundari-nauda. The Bodhisatta dying, they were taken in by 
neighbours and friends, whilst he was born again into the world as a 
golden mallard endowed with consciousness of its former existences. 
Growing up, the bird viewed its own magnificent size and golden plumage, 
and remembered that previously it had been a human being. Discovering 
that his wife and daughters were living on the charity of others, the 
mallard bethought him of his plumage like hammered and beaten gold and 
how by giving them a golden feather at a time he could enable his wife 
and daughters to live in comfort. So away he flew to where they dwelt 
and alighted on the tO}) of tlie central beam of the roof. Seeing the 
Bodhisatta, [476] the wife and girls asked where he had come from; and 
he told them that he was their father who had died and been born 
a golden mallard, and that he had come to visit them and put an end 
to their miserable necessity of working for hire. "You shall have my 
feathers," said he, "one by one, and they will sell for enough to keep you 
all in ease and comfort." So saying, he gave them one of his feathers and 
departed. And from time to time he returned to give them another 
feather, and with the proceeds of their sale these brahmin-women grew 
prosperous and quite well-to-do. But one day the mother said to her 
daughters, "There's no trusting animals, my children. Who's to say your 
father might not go away one of these days and never come back again? 
Let us use our time and pluck him clean next time he comes, so as to 
make sure of all his feathers." Thinking this would pain him, the 
daughters refused. The mother in her greed called the golden mallard to 
her one day when he came, and then took him with both hands and 
plucked him. Now the Bodhisatta's feathers had this property that if 

294 The Jdtaha. Booh I. 

they were plucked out against his wish, they ceased to be golden and 
became like a crane's feathers. And now the poor l)ii'd, though he 
stretched his wings, could not fly, and the woman flung him into a barrel 
and gave him food there. As time went on his feathers grew again 
(though they were plain white ones now), and he flew away to his own 
abode and never came back again. 

At the close of this story the Master said, "Thus you see. Brethren, how Fat 
Nanda was as greedy in times past as she is now. And her greed then lost her 
the gold in the same way as her greed now will lose her the garlic. Observe, 
moreover, how her greed has deprived the whole Sistei-hood of their supply of 
garlic, and learn therefrom to be moderate in your desires and to be content with 
what is given you, however small that may be." So saying, he uttered this 
stanza : — ■ 

Contented be, nor itch for fui'ther store. 

They seized the swan — but had its gold no more. 

So saying, the Master soundly rebuked the erring Sister and laid down the 
precept that any Sister who should eat garlic would have to do penance. Then, 
[477] making the connexion, he said, "Fat Nandil was the brahmin's wife of the 
story, her three sisters were the brahmin's three daughters, and I myself the 
golden mallard." 

\_Note. The story occurs at ]ip. 2ri8-9 of Vol. iv. of the Vinaya. Cf. La poule 
aux cenfs d'or in La Fontaine (v. 13) &c.] 

No. 137. 


^^ Give food to one cat."— Thin stoi-y was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about the precept respecting Kaiia's mother. She was a lay-sister at Savatthi 
known only as Kana's mother, who had entered the Paths of Salvation and was 
of the Elect. Her daughter Kana ^ was married to a husband of tlie same caste 
in another village, and some errand or other made her go to see her mother. A 
few days went by, and her husband sent a messenger to say he wished her to 
come back. The girl asked her mother whether she should go, and the mother 
said she could not go back empty-handed after so long an absence, and set 
about making a cake. Just then up came a Brother going his round for alms, 
and the mother sat him down to the cake she had just baked. Away he went 

' The name Kfuia means 'one-eyed'. 

No. 137. 295 

and told another Brother, who came up just in time to get the second cake 
that was baked for the daughter to take home with her. He told a tliird, and 
the tliird told a fourth, and so each fresh cake was taken by a fresh comer. 
The result of this was that the daughter did not start on her way home, and 
the husband sent a second and a third messenger after her. And the message he 
sent by the third was that if his wife did not come back, he should get another 
wife. And each message had exactly the same result. 80 the husband took 
another wife, and at the news his foi-mcr wife fell a-weeping. Knowing all this, 
the Master put on his robes early in the morning and went with his alms-bowl to 
the house of Kana's motlier and sat down on the seat set for him. Then he asked 
why the daughter was crying, and, being told, spoke words of consolation to the 
mother, and arose and went back to the Monastery. 

Now the Bi'ethren came to know how Kana had been stopped three times 
from going back to her husband owing to the action of the four Brothers ; and 
one day they met in the Hall of Truth and began to talk about tlie matter. The 
Miister came into the Hall [478] and asked what they were discussing, and they 
told him. "Brethren," said he, "think not this is the first time those four 
Brothers have brought sorrow on Kana's mother by eating of her store ; they did 
the like in days gone by too." So saying he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a stone-cutter, and growing up became expert in 
working stones. Now in the Kasi country there dwelt a very rich mer- 
chant who had amassed forty crores in gold. And when his wife died, so 
strong was her love of money that she was re-born a mouse and dwelt 
over the treasure. And one by one the whole family died, including the 
mei'chant himself. Likewise the village became deserted and forlorn. At 
the time of our story the Bodhisatta was quarrying and shaping stones 
on the site of this deserted village; and the mouse used often to see him as 
she ran about to find food. At last she fell in love with him; and, 
bethinking her how the secret of all her vast wealth would die with her, she 
conceived the idea of enjoying it with him. So one day she came to the 
Bodhisatta with a coin in her mouth. Seeing this, he spoke to her 
kindly, and said, "Mother, what has brought you here with this coinT' 
"It is for you to lay out for youi-self, and to buy meat with for me as 
well, my sou." Nowise loth, he took the money and spent a halfpenny of 
it on meat which he brought to the mouse, who departed and ate to her 
heart's content. And this went on, the mouse giving the Bodhisatta a 
coin every day, and he in return su})plying her with meat. But it fell 
out one day that the mouse was caught by a cat. 

" Don't kill me," said the mouse. 

" Why not 1 " said the cat. " I'm as hungry as can be, and really must 
kill you to allay the pangs." 

" First, tell me wliether you're always hungry, or only hungry today." 

" Oh, every day finds me hungry again." 

"Well then, if this be so, I will find you always in meat; [479] only 
let me sro," 

296 The Jataka. Book I. 

" Mind you do then," said the cat, and let the mouse go. 

As a consequence of this the mouse had to divide the supplies of meat 
she got fi'om the Bodhisatta into two portions and gave one half to the cat, 
keeping the other for herself. 

Now, as luck would have it, the same mouse was caught another day 
by a second cat and had to purchase her release on the same terms. So 
now the daily food was divided into three portions. And when a third 
cat caught the mouse and a like arrangement had to be made, the supply 
was divided into four portions. And later a fourth cat caught her, and the 
food had to be divided among five, so that the mouse, reduced to such 
short coinmons, grew so thin as to be nothing but skin and bone. 
Remarking how emaciated his friend was getting, the Bodhisatta asked the 
reason. Then the mouse told him all that had befallen her. 

"Why didn't you tell me all this before?" said the Bodhisatta. "Cheer 
lip, I'll help you out of your troubles." So he took a block of the purest 
crystal and scooped out a cavity in it and made the mouse get inside. 
"Now stop there," said he, "and don't fail to fiercely threaten and revile 
all who come near." 

So the mouse crept into the crystal cell and waited. Up came one of 
the cats and demanded his meat. "Away, vile grimalkin," said the mouse; 
"why should I supply you? go home and eat your kittens!" Infuriated 
at these words, and never suspecting the mouse to be inside the crystal, 
the cat sprang at the mouse to eat her up ; and so furious was its spring 
that it broke the walls of its chest and its eyes started from its head. 
So that cat died and its carcase tumbled down out of sight. And the 
like fate in turn befell all four cats. And ever after the grateful mouse 
brought the Bodhisatta two or three coins instead of one as before, and by 
degrees she thus gave him the whole of the hoard. In unbroken friend- 
ship the two lived together, till their lives ended and they passed away 
to fare according to their deserts. 

The story told, the Master, as Buddha, uttered this stanza : — [480] 

Give food to one cat, Number Two appears : 
A third and fourth succeed iu fruitful line; 
— Witness the four that by the crystal died. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "These four 
Brethren were the four cats of those days, Kaiia's mother was the mouse, and I 
the stone-cutter." 

\Note. See Vinaya iv. 79 for the Introductory Story.] 

No. 138. 297 

No. 138. 


" With matted hair." — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
about a hypocrite. The incidents were like those above related^ 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born a lizard; and in a hut bard by a village on the borders 
there lived a rigid ascetic who had attained the Five Knowledges, and was 
treated with great respect by the villagers. In an ant-hill at the end of the 
walk whei-e the recluse paced up and down, dwelt the Bodhisatta, and 
twice or thrice each day he would go to the recluse and hear words of 
edification and holiness. Then with due obeisance to the good man, the 
Bodhisatta would depart to his own abode. After a certain time the 
ascetic bade farewell to the villagers and went away. In his stead there 
came another ascetic, a rascally fellow, to dwell in the hermitage. Assum- 
ing the holiness of the new-comer, the Bodhisatta acted towards him as to 
the first ascetic. One day an unexpected storm in the dry season brought 
out the ants on their hills", and the lizards, coming abroad to eat them, were 
caught in great numbers [481] by the village folk; and some were served up 
with vinegar and sugar for the ascetic to eat. Pleased with so savoury a 
dish, he asked what it was, and learned that it was a dish of lizards. 
Hereon he reflected that he had a remarkably fine lizard as his neighbour, 
and resolved to dine off him. Accordingly he made ready the pot for 
cooking and sauce to serve the lizard in, and sat at the door of his hut 
with a mallet hidden under his yellow robe, awaiting the Bodhisatta's 
coming, with a studied air of perfect peace. At evening the Bodhisatta 
came, and as he drew near, marked that the hermit did not seem quite the 
same, but had a look about him that Ijoded no good. Snuffing up the 
wind which was blowing towards him from the hermit's cell, the Bodhisatta 
smelt the smell of lizard's flesh, and at once realised how the taste of 
lizard had made the ascetic want to kill him with a mallet and eat him 
up. So he retired homeward without calling on the ascetic. Seeing that 
the Bodliisatta did not come, the ascetic judged that the lizard must have 
divined his plot, but marvelled how he could have discovered it. Deter- 
mined that the lizard should not escape, he drew out the mallet and threw 

1 Apparently No. 128. Cf. No. .325. 2 Cf. p. 303. 

298 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

ic, just hitting the tip of the lizard's tail. Quick as thought the Bodhisatta 
dashed into his fastness, and putting his head out by a different hole to 
that by which he had gone in, cried, " Rascally hypocrite, your garb of 
piety led me to trust you, but now I know your villainous nature. What 
has a thief like you to do with hermit's clothing ? " Thus upbraiding the 
false ascetic, the Bodhisatta lecited this stanza : — 

With matted hair and garb of skin 

Why ape tli' ascetic's piety? 
A saint without, thy heart within 

Is choked with foul impurity i. 

[482] In this wise did the Bodhisatta expose the wicked ascetic, after 
which he retired into his ant-hill. And the wicked ascetic departed from 
that place. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "The hypocrite 
was the wicked ascetic of those days, Sfiriputta the good ascetic who lived in the 
hermitage before him, and I myself the lizard." 

No. 139. 


"ZTw hlinding and her heating." — This story the IMaster told while at the 
Bamboo Grove, about Devadatta. We hear that the Brethren, meeting together 
in the Hall of Truth, spoke one with another, saying that even as a torch from a 
pyre, charred at both ends and bedunged in the middle, does not serve as wood 
either in forest-tree or village-hearth, so Devadatta by giving up the world to 
follow this saving faith had only achieved a twofold shortcoming and ftiilure, 
seeing that he had missed the comforts of a lay life yet had fallen short of his 
vocation as a Brother. 

Entering the Hall, the Master asked and was told what the Brethren were 
talking of together. "Yes, Brethren," said he, "and so too in days gone by 
Devadatta came to just such another two-fold failure." So saying, he told this 
story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a Tree-Sprite, and there was a certain village where 

1 Dhammapada v. 394. 

No. 139. 299 

line-fiahermeu dwelt in those days. And one of these fishermen taking 
his tackle went off with liis little boy, and cast his hook into the most 
likely waters known to his fellow-fishermen. Now [483] a snag caught 
his hook and the fisherman could not pnll it np. "What a tine fish!" 
thought he. "I'd better send my boy off home to my wife and tell her to 
get up a quarrel and keep the others at home, so that there'll be none to 
want to go shai-es in my prize." Accordingly he told the lad to run ofi:' 
home and tell his mother what a big fish he had hooked and how she was 
to engage the neighbours' attention. Then, fearing his line might break, 
he flung oft" his coat and dashed into the water to secure his prize. But 
as he groped about for the fish, he struck against the snag and put out 
both his eyes. Moreover a robber stole his clothes from the bank. In 
an agony of pain, with his hands pressed to his blinded eyes, he clambered 
out trembling in every limb and tried to find his clothes. 

Meantime his wife, to occupy the neighbours by a quarrel on purpose, 
had tricked herself out with a palm-leaf behind one ear, and had blacked 
one eye with soot from the saucepan. In this guise, nursing a dog, she 
came out to call on her neighbours. "Bless me, you've gone mad," said 
one woman to her. " Not mad at all," retorted the fisherman's wife ; 
" you abuse me without cause with your slanderous tongue. Come your 
ways with me to the zemindar and I'll have you fined eight pieces' for 

So with angry words they went oflf to the zemindar. But when the 
matter was gone into, it was the fisherman's wife who was fined ; and she 
was tied up and beaten to make her pay the fine. Now when the Tree- 
Sprite saw how misfortune had befallen both the wife in the village and 
the husband in the forest, he stood in the fork of his tree and exclaimed, 
" Ah fisherman, both in the water and on land thy labour is in vain, and 
twofold is thy failure." So saying he uttered this stanza :— 

His blinding, and her beating, clearly show 
A twofold failure and a twofold woe^. 

[484] His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth l)y saying, "Devadatta 
was the fisherman of those days, and I the Tree-Sprite." 

1 The Pali word here, as in No. 137, is kahlpana. But there it is shewu by the 
context to be a golden coin ; whereas here the poverty of the fisber-folk supports the 
view that the coin was of copper, as commonly. The fact seems to be that the word 
kalulpana, like some other names of Indian coins, primarily indicated a weight of any 
coined metal, — whether gold, silver or copper. 

^ Cf. Dhammapada, page 147. 

300 The Jdtaha. Book I. 

No. 140. 


"In ceaseless dread." — This story was t(jld by the Master while at Jetavaua, 
about a sagacious counsellor. The incidents will be related in the twelfth book 
in connection with the Bhaddasala-jatakai. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodliisatta was born a crow. One day the King's chaplain went out 
from the city to the river, bathed there, and having perfumed and 
garlanded himself, donned his bravest array and came back to the city. On 
the archway of the city gate there sat two crows ; and one of them said to 
his mate, "I mean to foul this brahmin's head." "Oh, don't do any such 
thing," said the other; "for this brahmin is a great man, and it is an evil 
thing to incur the hatred of the great. If you anger him, he may destroy 
the whole of our kind." " I really must," said the first. " Very well, 
you're sure to be found out," said the other, and flew quickly away. Just 
when the brahmin was under the battlements, down dropped the filth 
upon him as if the crow were dropping a festoon. The enraged brahmin 
forthwith conceived hatred against all crows. 

Now at this time it chanced that a female slave in charge of a granary 
spread the rice out in the sun at the granary door and was sitting there to 
watch it, when she fell asleep. Just then up came a shaggy goat and fell 
to eating the rice till the girl woke up and drove it away. Twice or three 
times the goat came back, as soon as she fell asleep, and ate the rice. 
[485] So when she had driven the creature away for the third time she 
bethought her that continued visits of the goat would consume half her store 
of rice and that steps must be taken to scare the animal away for good 
and so save her from so great a loss. So she took a lighted torch, and, 
sitting down, pretended to fall asleep as usual. And when the goat was 
eating, she suddenly sprang up and hit its shaggy back with her torch. 
At once the goat's shaggy hide w^as all ablaze, and to ease its pain, it 
dashed into a hay-shed near the elephant's stable and rolled in the hay. 
So the shed caught fire and the flames spread to the stables. As these 
stables caught fire, the elephants began to sufier, and many of them were 
badly burnt beyond the skill of the elephant-doctors to cure. When this 

1 No. 465. 

No. 140. 301 

was reported to the King, he asked his chaplain whether he knew what 
would cure the elephants. "Certainly I do, sire," said the chaplain, and 
being pressed to explain, said his nostrum was crows' fat. Then the King 
ordered crows to be killed and their fat taken. And forthwith there was 
a great slaughter of crows, but never was any fat found on them, and so 
they Avent on killing till dead crows lay in heaps everywhere. And a 
great fear was upon all crows. 

Now in those days the Bodhisatta had his dwelling in a great cemetery, 
at the head of eighty thousand crows. One of these brought tidings to 
him of the fear that was upon the crows. And the Bodhisatta, feeling 
that there was none but him who could essay the task, resolved to free 
his kinsfolk from their great dread. Reviewing the Ten Perfections, 
and selecting therefrom Kindness as his guide, he flew without stopping 
right u}) to the King's palace, and entering in at the open window 
alighted underneath the King's throne. Straightway a servant tried to 
catch the bird, but the King entering the chamber forbade him. 

Recovering himself in a moment, the Great Being, remembering 
Kindness, came forth from beneath the King's throne and spoke thus to 
the King;— "Sire, a king should remember the maxim that kings should 
not walk according to lust and other evil passions in ruling their kingdoms. 
Before taking action, it is meet first to examine and know the whole 
matter, and then only to do that which being done is salutary. If kings 
do that which being done is not salutary, tliey fill tliousands with a 
great fear, even the fear of death. [486] And in prescribing crows' 
fat, your cha})lain was prompted by revenge to lie; for crows have 
no fat." 

By these words the King's heart was won, and he bade the Bodhisatta 
be set on a throne of gold and there anointed beneath the wings with the 
choicest oils and served in vessels of gold with the King's own meats and 
drink. Then when the Great Being was filled and at ease, the King said, 
" Sage, you say that crows have no fat. How comes it that they have 

" In this wise," answered the Bodhisatta with a voice that filled the 
whole palace, and he proclaimed the Truth in this stanza : — 

In ceaseless dread, with all mankind for foes, 
Their life is passed; and hence no fat have crows. 

This explanation given, tlie Great Being taught the King, saying, 
" Sire, kings should never act without examining and knowing the whole 
matter." Well pleased, the King laid his kingdom at the Bodhisatta's feet, 
but the Bodhisatta restored it to the King, whom he established in the 
Five Precepts, beseeching him to shield all living creatures from harm. 
And the King was moved by these words to grant immunity to all living 

302 The Jataka. Book I. 

creatures, and iu particular he was unceasingly bountiful to crows. Every 
clay he had six bushels of rice cooked for them and delicately flavoured, 
and this was given to the crows. But to the Great Being there was 
given food such as the King alone ate. 

Hi.s lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "Ananda was 
King of Benares in those days, and 1 myself the king of the crows.' 

No. 141. 


[487] '■'■Bad company." — This stoi-y was told by the Master while at the 
Bamboo-grove, about a traitorous Brother. The introductory incident is the 
same as that told in the Mahila-mukha-jataka^. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born an iguana. When he grew up he dwelt in a big burrow 
in the river bank with a following of many hundreds of other iguanas. 
Now the Bodhisatta had a son, a young iguana, who Avas great friends 
with a chameleon, whom he iised to clip and embrace. This intimacy being 
reported to the iguana king, he sent for his young son and said that such 
friendship was misplaced, for chameleons were low creatures, and that if the 
intimacy was persisted in, calamity would befall the whole of the tribe of 
iguanas. And he enjoined his son to have no more to do with the 
chameleon. But the son continued in his intimacy. Again and again 
did the Bodhisatta speak with his son, but finding his words of no avail, 
and foreseeing danger to the iguanas from the chameleon, he had an outlet 
cut on one side of their burrow, so that there might be a means of escape 
in time of need. 

Now as time went on, the young iguana gi'ew to a great size, whilst 
the chameleon never grew any bigger. And as these mountainous em- 
braces of the young giant grew painful indeed, the chameleon foresaw 

J No. 2G, 

No. 141. 303 

that they would be the death of him if they went on a few days longer, 
and he resolved to combine with a hunter to destroy the whole tribe of 

One day in the summer the ants came out after a thunder-storm", and 
[488] the iguanas darted hither and thither catching them and eating 
them. Now there came into the forest an iguana trapper with spade and 
dogs to dig out iguanas ; and the chameleon thought what a haul he 
would put in the trappei''s way. So he went up to the man, and, lying 
down before him, asked why he was about in the forest. "To catch 
iguanas," was the reply, " Well, I know where there's a burrow of 
hundreds of them," said the chameleon; "bring fire and brushwood and 
follow me." And he brought the trapper to where the iguanas dwelt. 
"Now," said the chameleon, "put your fuel in there and smoke the 
iguanas out. Meantime let your dogs be all round and take a big stick in 
your hand. Then as the iguanas dash out, strike them down and make a 
pile of the slain." So saying, the treacherous chameleon withdrew to a 
spot hard by, where he lay down, with his head up, saying to himself, — 
" This day I shall see the rout of my enemy." 

The trapper set to work to smoke the iguanas out; and fear for their 
lives drove them helter-skelter from their burrow. As they came out, the 
trapper knocked them on the head, and if he missed them, they fell 
a prey to his dogs. And so there was great slaughter among the iguanas. 
Realising that this was the chameleon's doing, the Bodhisatta cried, " One 
should never make friends of the wicked, for such bring sorrow in their 
train. A single wicked chameleon has proved the bane of all these 
iguanas." So saying, he escaped by the outlet he had provided, uttering 
this stanza: — 

Bad company can never end in good. 
Through friendship with one sole chameleon 
The ti'ibe of iaruanas met their end. 

[489] His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "Devadatta 
was the chameleon of those days; this traitorous Brother was the disobedient 
young iguana, the son of the Bodhisatta; and I myself the king of the iguanas." 

1 Makkhikd may refer to the wings which the ants get in India at the beginning 
of the rainy season ; cf. p. 297. 

304 The Jutaka. Book I. 

No. 142. 


'■'•Thy tightening grip." — This stoiy was told by the Master while at the 
Bamboo-gi'ove, about Devadatta's going about to kill him. For, hearing the 
Brethren talking together as to this in the Hall of Truth, the Master said that, 
as Devadatta acted now, so he acted in times gone by, yet failed — to his own 
grievous hurt — of his wicked purpose. And so saying, he told this story of the 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a jackal, and dwelt in a charnel-grove witli a great 
following of jackals of whom he was king. And at that time tliere was 
a festival held at Eajagaha, and a very wet festival it was, with everybody 
drinking hard. Now a parcel of rogues got hold of victual and drink in 
abundance, and putting on their best clothes sang and made merry over 
their fare. By midnight the meat was all gone, though the liquor still 
held out. Then on one asking for more meat and being told there was 
none left, said the fellow, " Victuals never lack while I am about. I'll off 
to the charnel-grove, kill a jackal prowling about to eat the corpses, and 
bring back some meat." So saying he snatched up a club and made his 
way out of the city by the sewer to the place, where he lay down, club in 
liand, feigning to be dead. Just then, followed by the other jackals, the 
Bodhisatta came up and marked the pretended corpse. Suspecting the 
fraud, he determined to sift the matter. So he went round to the lee side 
and knew by the scent that the man was not really dead. Resolving to 
make the man look foolish before leaving him, the Bodhisatta stole near 
and took hold of the club with his teeth and tugged at it. The rascal 
did not leave go : not perceiving the Bodhisatta's approach, he [490] 
took a tighter grip. Hereon the Bodhisatta step2)ed back a pace or two 
and said, " My good man, if you had been dead, you would not have 
tightened your grip on your club when I was tugging at it, and so have 
betrayed yourself." So saying, he uttered this stanza: — 

Thy tightening grip upon thy club doth show 
Thy rank imposture — thou'rt no corpse, I trow. 

Finding that he was discovered, the rogue sprang to his feet and flung 
his club at the Bodhisatta, but missed his aim. "Be off, you brute," said 

No. 143. 305 

he, " I've missed you this time." Turning round, the Bodhisatta said, 
"True you have missed me, but be assured you will not miss the torments 
of the Great Hell and the sixteen Lesser Hells." 

Empty-handed, the rogue left the cemetery and, after bathing in a 
ditch, went back into the city by the way he had come. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "Devadatta was 
the rogue of those times, and I the kiug of the jackals." 

No. 143. 


" Voiir mangled corpseP — This story was told by the Master while at the 
Bamboo-grove, about Devadatta's efforts to pose as a Buddha at Gayaslsa^. 
For when his spiritual Insight left him and he lost the honour and profit which 
once were his, he in his perplexity asked the Master to concede the Five Points. 
This being refused, he made a schism in the Brotherhood and departed to 
Gayaslsa with five hundred young Brethren, pupils of the Buddha's two chief 
disciples, but as yet unversed in the Law and the Rule. With this following he 
performed the acts of a separate Brotherhood gathered together within the same 
precincts. Knowing well the time when the knowledge of these young Brethren 
should ripen, the Master sent the two Elders to them. Seeing these, [491] 
Devadatta joyfully set to work expounding far into the night with (as he 
flattered himself) the masterly power of a Buddha. Then posing as a Buddha 
he said, "The assembly, reverend Sariputta, is still alert and sleepless. Will you 
be so good as to think of some religious discourse to address to the Brethren % 
My back is aching with my labours, and I must rest it awhile." So saying he 
went away to lie down. Then those two chief disciples taught the Brethren, 
enlightening them as to the Fruitions and the Paths, till in the end they won 
them all over to go back to the Bamboo-grove. 

Finding the Monastery emptied of the Brethren, Kokalika went to Devadatta 
and told him how the two disciples had broken up his following and left the 
Monastery empty ; " and yet here you still lie asleep," said he. So saying he 
stripped oft' Devadatta's outer cloth and kicked him on the chest with as little 
compunction as if he were knocking a roof-peg into a mud- wall. The blood 
gushed out of Devadatta's mouth, and ever after he suffered from the effects of 
the blow 2. 

^ See pp. 34 and 35 supra. 

^ The Vinaya account (Gullavagga vii. 4) omits the kicking, simply stating that 
Kokalika "awoke" Devadatta, and that, at the news of the defection, "warm blood 
gushed out of Devadatta's mouth." In other accounts (Spence Hardy and Bigandet) 
it is stated that Devadatta died then and there. 

c. J. 20 

306 The Jataha. Booh I. 

Said the Master to Sariputta, "What was Devadatta doing when you got 
there 1 " And Sariputta answered that, though posing as a Buddha, evil had 
befallen him. Said the Master, "Even as now, Sariputta, so in former times too 
has Devadatta imitated me to his own hurt." Then, at the Elder's request, he 
told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was a maned lion and dwelt at Gold Den in the Himalayas. 
Bounding forth one day from his lair, he looked North and West, South 
and East, and roared aloud as he went in quest of prey. Slaying a large 
buffalo, he devoured the prime of the carcass, after which he went down to 
a pool, and having drunk his fill of crystal water turned to go towards 
his den. Now a hungry jackal, suddenly meeting the lion, and being 
unable to make his escape, threw himself at the lion's feet. Being asked 
what he wanted, the jackal replied, " Lord, let me be thy servant." 
"Very well," said the lion; "serve me and you shall feed on prime meat." 
So saying, he went with the jackal following to Gold Den. Thenceforth 
the lion's leavings fell to the jackal, and he grew fat. 

Lying one day in his den, the lion told the jackal to scan the valleys 
from the mountain top, to see whether there were any elephants or horses 
or buffalos about, or any other animals [492] of which he, the jackal, was 
fond. If any such were in sight, the jackal was to report and say with due 
obeisance, "Shine forth in thy might, Lord." Then the lion promised to 
kill and eat, giving a part to the jackal. So the jackal used to climb the 
heights, and whenever he espied below beasts to his taste, he would report 
it to the lion, and falling at his feet, say, "Shine forth in thy might, Lord." 
Hereon the lion would nimbly bound forth and slay the beast, even if it 
were a rutting elephant, and share the prime of the cai'cass with the 
jackal. Glutted with his meal, the jackal would then retire to his den and 

Now as time went on, the jackal grew bigger and bigger till he gi-ew 
haughty. "Have not I too four legs'?" he asked himself. "Why am I a 
pensioner day by day on others' bounty? Henceforth / will kill elephants 
and other beasts, for my own eating. The lion, king of beasts, only kills 
them because of the formula, 'Shine forth in thy might, Lord.' I'll make 
the lion call out to me, 'Shine forth in thy might, jackal,' and then I'll kill 
an elephant for myself." Accordingly he went to the lion, and pointing 
out that he had long lived on what the lion had killed, told his desire to 
eat an elephant of his own killing, ending with a request to the lion to let 
him, the jackal, couch in the lion's corner in Gold Den whilst the lion was 
to climb the mountain to look out for an elephant. The quarry found, he 
asked that the lion should come to him in the den and say, 'Shine forth in 

No. 144. 307 

thy might, jackal.' He begged the lion not to grudge him this much. 
Said the lion, "Jackal, only lions can kill elephants, nor has the world 
ever seen a jackal able to cope with them. Give up this fancy, and con- 
tinue to feed on what I kill." But say what the lion could, the jackal 
would not give way, and still pressed his request. So at last the lion 
gave way, and bidding the jackal couch in the den, climbed the peak and 
thence espied an elephant in rut. Eeturning to the mouth of the cave, 
he said, "Shine forth in thy might, jackal." Then from Gold Den the 
jackal [493] nimbly bounded forth, looked around him on all four sides, 
and, thrice raising its howl, sprang at the elephant, meaning to fasten on 
its head. But missing his aim, he alighted at the elephant's feet. The 
infuriated brute raised its right foot and crushed the jackal's head, 
trampling the bones into powder. Then pounding the carcass into a mass, 
and dunging upon it, the elephant dashed trumpeting into the forest. 
Seeing all this, the Bodhisatta observed, "Now shine forth in thy might, 
jackal," and uttered this stanza : — 

Your mangled corpse, your brains mashed into clay, 
Prove how you've shone forth in yoiu* might to-day. 

Thus spake the Bodhisatta, and living to a good old age he passed 
away in the fulness of time to fare according to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "Devadatta was 
the jackal of those days, and I the lion." 

No. 144. 


" Vile Jdtaveda.^'' — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavana, 
touching the false avisterity of the Ajivikas, or naked ascetics. Tradition tells ua 
that behind Jetavana they used to practise false austerities i. A number of the 
Brethren seeing them there painfully squatting on their heels, swinging in the air 
like bats, reclining on thorns, scorching themselves with five fii-es, and so forth in 

1 See {e.g.) Majjhima Nikaya, pp. 77-8, for a catalogue of ascetic austerities, to 
which early Buddhism was strongly opposed. 


308 The Jataka. Book I. 

their various false austerities, — were moved to ask the Blessed One whether any 
good resulted therefrom. "None whatsoever," answered the Master. "In days 
gone by, the wise and good went into the forest with their birth-fire, thinking to 
profit by such austerities ; but, finding themselves no better for all their sacrifices 
to Fire and for all similar practices, straightway doused the birth-fire with water 
till it went out. By an act of Meditation the Knowledges and Attainments were 
gained and a title won to the Brahma Realm." So saying he told this story of 
the past. 

[494] Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born a brahmin in the North country, and on the day of 
his birth his parents lit a birth-fire. 

In his sixteenth year they addressed him thus, "Son, on the day of 
your birth we lit a birth-fire for you. Now therefore choose. If you wish 
to lead a family life, learn the Three Vedas; but if you wish to attain to 
the Brahma Realm, take your fire with you into the forest and there 
tend it, so as to win Maha-Brahma's favour and hereafter to enter into 
the Brahma Realm." 

Telling his parents that a family life had no charms for him, he went 
into the forest and dwelt in a hermitage tending his fire. An ox was 
given him as a fee one day in a border-village, and when he had driven it 
home to his hermitage, the thought came to him to sacrifice a cow to 
the Lord of Fire. But finding that he had no salt, and feeling that the 
Lord of Fire could not eat his meat-ofi"ering without it, he resolved to 
go back and bring a supply from the village for the purpose. So he tied up 
the ox and set oflT again to the village. 

While he was gone, a band of hunters came up and, seeing the ox, 
killed it and cooked themselves a dinner. And what they did not eat they 
carried off, leaving only the tail and hide and the shanks. Finding 
only these sorry remains on his return, the brahmin exclaimed, " As 
this Lord of Fire cannot so much as look after his own, how shall he look 
after me ? It is a waste of time to serve him, bringing neither good nor 
profit." Having thus lost all desire to worship Fire, he said — "My Lord of 
Fire, if you cannot manage to protect yourself, how shall you protect me? 
The meat being gone, you must make shift to fare on this oflfal." So saying, 
he threw on the fire the tail and the rest of the robbers' leavings and 
uttered this stanza : — 

Vile Jataveda^, here's the tail for you; 

And think yourself in luck to get so much ! [495] 

The prime meat's gone; put up with tail to-day. 

1 See No. 35, p. 90. 

No. 145. 309 

So saying the Great Being put the fire ont with water and departed to 
become a recluse. And he won the Knowledges and Attainments, and 
ensured his re-birth in the Brahma Realm. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "I was the ascetic 
who in those days quenched the fire." 

No. 145. 


"ffo2v many moreV — This story was told by the Master while at Jetavaua, 
about hankering after the wife of one's mundane life. The incidents of the 
introductory story will be told in the Indriya-jataka^. 

The Master spoke thus to the Brother, "It is impossible to keep a guard over 
a woman ; no guard can keep a woman in the right path. You yourself found in 
former days that all your safeguards were unavailing ; and how can you now 
expect to have more success?" 

And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born a parrot. A certain brahmin in the Kasi country was as 
a father to him and to his younger brother, treating them like his own 
children. Potthapada was the Bodhisatta's name, and Radha his brother's. 

Now the brahmin had a bold bad wife. And as he was leaving home 
on business, he said to the two brothei'S, "If your mother, my wife, is 
minded to be naughty, stop her." " We will, papa," said the Bodhisatta, " if 
we can; [496] but if we can't, we will hold our peace." 

Having thus entrusted his wife to the parrots' charge, the bi^ahmin set 
out on his business. Every day thenceforth his wife misconducted herself; 
there was no end to the stream of her lovers in and out of the house. 
Moved by the sight, Radha said to the Bodhisatta, "Brother, the parting 
injunction of our father was to stop any misconduct on his wife's part, 
and now she does nothing but misconduct herself. Let us stop her." 

1 No. 423. 

310 The Jataka. Book I. 

" Brother," said the Bodhisatta, "your words are the words of folly. You 
might carry a woman about in your arms and yet she would not be safe. 
So do not essay the impossible." And so saying he uttered this stanza : — 

How many more shall midnight bring? Your plan 
Is idle. Naught but wifely love could cm-b 
Her lust ; and wifely love is lacking quite. 

And for the reasons thus given, the Bodhisatta did not allow his 
brother to speak to the brahmin's wife, who continued to gad about to her 
heart's content during her husband's absence. On his return, the brahmin 
asked Potthapada about his wife's conduct, and the Bodhisatta faithfully 
related all that had taken place. 

"Why, father," he said, "should you have anything more to do with so 
wicked a woman?" And he added these words, — "My father, now that I 
have reported my mother's wickedness, we can dwell here no longer." So 
saying, he bowed at the brahmin's feet and flew away with Radha to the 

His lesson ended, the Master taught the Four Truths, at the close whereof 
the Brother who hankered after the wife of his mundane life was established in 
the fruition of the first Path. 

"This husband and wife," said the Master, "were the brahmin and his wife of 
those days, Ananda was Radha, and I myself Potthapada." 

No. 146. 

[497] KAKA- JATAKA. 

"Oztr throats are tired." — This story was told by the Master while at 
Jetavana, about a number of aged Brethren. Whilst they were still of the world, 
they were rich and wealthy squires of Savatthi, all friends of one another ; and 
tradition tells us that while they were engaged in good works they heard the 
Master preach. At once they cried, "We are old ; what to us are house and 
home 1 Let us join the Brotherhood, and following the Buddha's lovely doctrine 
make an end of sorrow." 

So they shared all their belongings amongst their children and families, and, 
leaving their tearful kindred, they came to ask the Master to receive them into 
the Brotherhood. But when admitted, they did not live the life of Brethren ; 

No. 146. 311 

and because of their age they failed to master the Truth i. As in their life as 
householders, so now too when they were Brethren they lived together, building 
themselves a cluster of neighbouring huts on the skirts of the Monastery. Even 
when they went in quest of alms, they generally made for their wives' and 
children's houses and ate there. In particular, all these old men were maintained 
by the bounty of the wife of one of their number, to whose house each brought 
what he had received and there ate it, with sauces and curries which she 
furnished. An illness having carried her ofl', the aged Brethren went their way 
back to the monastery, and falling on one another's necks walked about be- 
wailing the death of their benefactress, the giver of sauces. The noise of their 
lamentation brought the Brethren to the spot to know what ailed them. And 
the aged men told how their kind benefactress was dead, and that they wept 
because they had lost her and should never see her like again. Shocked at such 
impropriety, the Brethren talked together in the Hall of Truth about the cause 
of the old men's sorrow, and they told the Master too, on his entering the Hall 
and asking what they were discussing. "Ah, Brethren," said he, "in times past, 
also, this same woman's death made them go about weeping and wailing; in 
those days she was a crow and was drowned in the sea, and these were toiling 
hard to empty all the water out of the sea in order to get her out, when the 
wise of those days saved them." 

And so saying he told this stoiy of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was a sea-sprite. Now a crow with his mate came down in quest 
of food to the sea-shore [498] where, just before, certain persons had 
been offering to the Nagas a sacrifice of milk, and rice, and iish, and meat 
and strong drink and the like. Up came the crow and with his mate ate 
freely of the elements of the sacriiice, and drank a great deal of the spirits. 
So they both got vei-y drunk. Tlien they wanted to disport themselves in 
the sea, and were trying to swim on the surf, when a wave swept the hen- 
crow out to sea and a fish came and gobbled her up. 

"Oh, my poor wife is dead," cried the crow, bursting into tears and 
lamentations. Then a crowd of crows were drawn by his wailing to the 
spot to learn what ailed him. And when he told them how his wife 
had been carried out to sea, they all began with one voice to lament. 
Suddenly the thought struck them that they were stronger than the 
sea and that all they had to do was to empty it out and rescue their 
comrade ! So they set to work with their bills to empty the sea 
out by mouthfuls, betaking themselves to dry land to I'est so soon as 
their throats were sore with the salt water. And so they toiled away till 
their mouths and jaws were dry and inflamed and their eyes bloodshot, and 
they were ready to drop for weariness. Then in despair they turned to 
one another and said that it was in vain they laboured to empty the sea, 

^ Buddhism combined reverence for age with mild contempt for aged novices who, 
after a mundane life, vouchsafed the selvage of their days and faculties to a creed 
only to be mastered by hard thinkmg and ardent zeal. 

312 The Jdtaha. Book I. 

for no sooner had they got rid of the water in one place than more flowed 
in, and there was all their work to do over again; they would never 
succeed in baling the water out of the sea. And, so saying, they uttered 
this stanza : — 

Oiu" throats are tired, our mouths are sore; 
The sea refilleth evermore. 

Then all the crows fell to praising the beauty of her beak and eyes, her 
complexion, figure and sweet voice, saying that it was her excellencies 
that had provoked the sea to steal her from them. But [499] as they 
talked this nonsense, the sea-sprite made a bogey appear from the sea and 
so put them all to flight. In this wise they were saved. 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "The aged 
Brother's wife was the hen-crow of those days, and her husband the male crow ; 
the other aged Brethren were the rest of the crows, and I the sea-sprite." 

No. 147. 


^^ I count it not as pain." — This story was told by the Master while at Jeta- 
vana, about a Brother who was passion-tost. Being questioned by the Master, he 
admitted his frailty, explaining that he longed for the wife of his mundane life, 
"For, oh sir!" said he, "she is so sweet a woman that I cannot live without 

"Brother," said the Master, "she is harmful to you. She it was that in former 
days was tlie means whereby you were impaled on a stake ; and it was for 
bewailing her at your death that you were reborn in hell. Why then do you 
now long after her?" And so saying, he told the following story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta was born a Spirit of the Air. Now in Benares there was held the 
night-festival of Kattika ; the city was decorated like a city of the gods, 
and the whole people kept holiday. And a poor man had only a couple 
of coarse cloths which he had washed and pressed till they were in a 
hundred, nay, a thousand creases. But his wife said, "My husband, I want 

No. 147. 313 

a saflQower-coloured cloth to wear outside and one to wear underneath, as 
I go about at the festival hanging round your neck." 

"How are poor people like us to get safflowersi" said he. "Put on 
your nice clean attire and come along." 

"If I can't have them dyed with safflower, I don't want to go at all," 
said his wife. "Get some other woman to go to the festival with you." 

"Now why torment me like this"? How are we to get safflowers]" 

"Where there's a will, there's a way," retorted the woman. "Are 
there no safflowers in the king's conservatories?" [500] 

"Wife," said he, "the king's conservatories are like a pool haunted 
by an ogre. There's no getting in there, with such a strong guard on the 
watch. Give over this fancy, and be content with what you've got." 

" But when it's night-time and dark," said she, " what's to stop a man's 
going where he pleases?" 

As she persisted in her entreaties, his love for her at last made him 
give way and promise she should have her wish. At the hazard of his 
own life, he sallied out of the city by night and got into the conservatories 
by breaking down the fence. The noise he made in breaking the fence 
roused the guard, who turned out to catch the thief. They soon caught 
him and with blows and curses put him in fetters. In the morning he 
was bi-ought before the king, who promptly ordered him to be impaled 
alive. Off he was hauled, with his hands tied behind his back, and led 
out of the city to execution to the sound of the execution-drum, and was 
impaled alive. Intense were his agonies; and, to add to them, the crows 
settled on his head and pecked out his eyes with their dagger-like beaks. 
Yet, heedless of his pain, and thinking only of his wife, the man mur- 
mured to himself, " Alas, I shall miss going to the festival with you arrayed 
in safflower-coloured cloths, with your arms twined round my neck." So 
saying, he uttered this stanza : — 

I count it not as pain that, here impaled, 
By crows I'm torn. My heartfelt pain is this. 
That my dear wife will not keep holiday 
Attired in raiment gay of ruddy dye. 

And as he was babbling thus about his wife, he died and was reborn in 

His lesson ended, the Master identified the Birth by saying, "This husband 
and wife were the husband and wife of those days also, and I was the Spirit of 
the Air who made their story known." 

314 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

No. 148. 


'■'■Once bitten, tioice shy." — This story was told by the Master when at Jetavana, 
about subduing desires. 

We are told that some five hundred rich friends, sons of merchants of Savatthi, 
wei-e led by listening to the Master's teachings to give their hearts to the Truth, 
and that joining the Brotherhood they lived in Jetavana in the part that Anatha- 
piiidika paved with gold pieces laid side by side^ 

Now in the middle of a certain night thoughts of lust took hold of them, and, 
in their distress, they set themselves to lay hold once again of the lusts they had 
renounced. In that hour the Master raised aloft the lamp of his omniscience to 
discover what manner of passion had hold of the Brethren in Jetavana, and, 
reading their hearts, perceived that lust and desire had sprung up within them. 
Like as a mother watches over her only child, or as a one-eyed man is careful of 
the one eye left him, even so watchful is the Master over his disciples ; — at morn 
or even, at whatsoever hour their passions war against them, he will not let his 
faithful be overpowered but in that self-same hour subdues the raging lusts that 
beset them. Wherefore the thought came to him, " This is like as when thieves 
break into the city of an emperor ; I will unfold the Truth straightway to these 
Brethren, to the end that, subduing their lusts, I may raise them to Arahatship." 

So he came forth from his perfumed chamber, and in sweet tones called by 
name for the venerable Elder, Ananda, Treasiu-er of the Faith. And the Elder 
came and with due obeisance stood before the Master to know his pleasure. Then 
the Master bade him assemble together in his perfumed chamber all the Brethren 
who dwelt in that quarter of Jetavana. Tradition says that the Master's thought 
was that if he summoned only those five hundred Brethren, they would conclude 
that he was aware of their lustful mood, and would be debarred by their agitation 
from receiving the Truth ; accordingly he summoned all the Brethren who dwelt 
there. And the Elder took a key and went from cell to cell summoning the 
Brethren till all were assembled in the perfumed chamber. Then he made ready 
the Buddha-seat. In stately dignity like Mount Sineru resting on the solid earth, 
the Master seated himself on the Buddha-seat, making a glory shine round him of 
paired garlands upon garlands of six-coloured light, which divided and divided 
into masses of the size of a platter, of the size of a canopy, and of the size of a 
tower, until, like shafts of lightning, the rays reached to the heavens above. It 
was even as when the sun rises, stirring the ocean to the depths. 

With reverent obeisance and reverent hearts, the Brethren entered and took 
their seats around him, encompassing him as it were within an orange curtain. 
Then in tones as of Maha-Brahma the Master [502] said, "Brethren, a Brother 
should not harboiu- the three evil thoughts, — lust, hatred and cruelty. Never let 
it be imagined that wicked desires are a trivial matter. For such desires are 
like an enemy ; and an enemy is no trivial matter, but, given opportunity, works 
only destruction. Even so a desire, though small at its first arising, has only to 
be allowed to grow, in order to work utter destruction. Desire is like poison in 
food, like the itch in the skin, like a viper, like the thunderbolt of Indra, ever to 
be shunned, ever to be feared. Whensoever desire arises, forthwith, without 

^ Or 'paved with crores.' See Vinaya, Cullav. vi. 4. 9, translated in S. B. E., 
Volume XX., page 188. Cf. also Jdtaka (text) i. 92. 

No. 148. 315 

finding a moment's harbourage in the heart, it should be expelled by thought and 
reflection, — like as a raindroj) rolls at once off the leaf of the lotus. The wise 
of former times so hated even a slight desire that they crushed it out before it 
could grow larger." And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was re-born into life as a jackal and dwelt in the forest by the 
river-side. Now an old elephant died by the banks of the Ganges, and the 
jackal, finding the carcass, congratulated himself on lighting upon such a 
store of meat. First he bit the trunk, but that was like biting a plough- 
handle. "There's no eating here," said the jackal and took a bite at a 
tusk. But that was like biting bones. Then he tried an ear, but that was 
like chewing the rim of a winnowing-basket. So he fell to on the stomach, 
but found it as tough as a grain-basket. The feet were no better, for they 
were like a mortar. Next he tried the tail, but that was like the pestle. 
"That won't do either," said the jackal; and having failed elsewhere to 
find a toothsome part, he tried the rear and found that like eating a soft 
cake. "At last," said he, "I've found the right place," and ate his way 
right into the belly, where he made a plenteous meal off the kidneys, heart 
and the rest, quenching his thirst with the blood. And when night came 
on, he lay down inside. As he lay there, the thought came into the 
jackal's mind, "This carcass is both meat and house to me, and wherefore 
should I leave itl" So there he stopped, and dwelt in the elephant's 
inwards, eating away. Time wore on till the summer sun and the 
summer winds dried and shrank the elephant's hide, [503] until the 
entrance by which the jackal had got in was closed and the interior was in 
utter darkness. Thus the jackal was, as it were, cut off from the world 
and confined in the interspace between the worlds. After the hide, the 
flesh dried up and the blood was exhausted. In a frenzy of despair, he 
rushed to and fro beating against his prison walls in the fruitless endeavour 
to escape. Bu.t as he bobbed up and down inside like a ball of rice in a 
boiling saucepan, soon a tempest broke and the downpour moistened the 
shell of the carcass and restored it to its former state, till light shone like 
a star through the way by which the jackal had got in. "Saved ! saved!" 
cried the jackal, and, backing into the elephant's head made a rush head-first 
at the outlet. He managed to get through, it is true, but only by leaving 
all his hair on the way. And first he ran, then he halted, and then sat 
down and surveyed his hairless body, now smooth as a palm-stem. "Ah !" 
he exclaimed, "this misfortune has befallen me because of my greed and 
my greed alone. Hencefoi'th I will not be gi*eedy nor ever again get into 

316 The Jdtaha. Book I. 

the carcass of an elephant." And his terror found expression in this 
stanza : — 

Once bitten, twice shy. Ah, gi'eat was my fear! 
Of elephants' inwards henceforth I'll steer clear. 

And with these words the jackal made off, nor did he ever again so 
much as look either at that or at any other elephant's carcass. And 
thenceforth lie was never greedy again. 

His lesson ended, the Master said, "Brethren, never let desires take root in 
the heart but pluck them out wheresoever they spring up." [504] Having preached 
the Four Truths (at the close whereof those five hundred Brethren won Arahatship 
and the rest won varying lesser degrees of salvation), the Master identified the 
Birth as follows : — "I was myself the jackal of those days." 

No. 149. 


'■'■If poison lurk." — This story was told about the Licchavi Prince Wicked of 
Vesall by the Master when he was living in the gabled house in the great forest 
near Vesali. In those days Vesali enjoyed marvellous prosperity. A triple wall 
encompassed the city, each wall a league distant from the next, and there were 
three gates with watch-towers. In that city there were always seven thousand 
seven hundred and seven kings to govern the kingdom, and a like number of 
viceroys, generals, and treasurers. Among the kings' sons was one known as 
Wicked Licchavi Prince, a fierce, passionate and cruel young man, always 
punishing, like an enraged viper. Such was his passionate nature that no 
one could say more than two or three words in his presence; and neither 
parents, kindred, nor friends could make him better. So at last his parents 
resolved to bring the imgovernable youth to the All- Wise Buddha, realising that 
none but he could possibly tame their son's fierce spirit. So they brought him 
to the Master, whom, with due obeisance, they besought to read the youth a 

Then the Master addressed the prince and said: — "Prince, human beings 
should not be passionate or cruel or ferocious. The fierce man is one who is 
harsh and vmkind alike to the mother that bore him, to his father and child, to 
his brothers and sisters, and to his wife, friends and kindred ; inspiring terror 
like a viper darting forward to bite, like a robber springing on his victim in the 
forest, like an ogre advancing to devour, — the fierce man straightway will be 
re-born after this life in hell or other place of punishment ; and even in this life, 

No. 149. 317 

however much adorned he is, he looks ugly. Be his face beautiful as the orb of 
the moon at the full, yet is it loathly as a lotus scorched by flames, as a disc of 
gold overworn with filth. It is such rage that drives men to slay themselves with 
the sword, to take poison, to hang themselves, and to throw themselves from 
precipices ; and so it comes to pass that, meeting their death by reason of their 
own rage, they are re-born into torment. So too they who injui-e others, are 
hated even in this life and shall for their sins pass at the body's death to hell 
and punishment ; and when once more they are born as men, [.505] disease and 
sickness of eye and ear and of every kind ever beset them from their birth onward. 
Wherefore let all men shew kindness and be doers of good, and then assuredly 
hell and punishment have no fears for them." 

Such was the power of this one lecture upon the prince that his pride was 
humbled forthwith ; his arrogance and selfishness passed from him, and his heart 
was turned to kindness and love. Nevermore did he revile or strike, but became 
gentle as a snake with drawn fangs, as a crab with broken claws, as a bull with 
broken horns. 

Marking this change of mood, the Brethren talked together in the Hall of 
Truth of how the Licchavi Prince Wicked, whom the ceaseless exhortations of 
his parents could not curb, had been subdued and humbled with a single ex- 
hortation by the All- Wise Buddha, and how this was like taming six rutting 
elephants at once. Well had it been said that, 'The elephant- tamer, Brethren, 
guides the elephant he is breaking in, making it to go to right or left, backwaril 
or forward, according to his will ; in like manner the horse-tamer and the ox- 
tamer with horses and oxen ; and so too the Blessed One, the All-wise Buddha, 
guides the man he would train aright, guides him whithersoever he wills along 
any of the eight directions, and makes his pupil discern shapes external to him- 
self Such is the Buddha and He alone,' — and so forth, down to the words, — 
'He that is hailed as chief of the trainers of men, supreme in bowing men to the 
yoke of Truths' "For, sirs," said the Brethren, "there is no trainer of men like 
unto the Supreme Buddha." 

And here the Master entered the Hall and questioned them as to wliat they 
were discussing. Then they told him, and he said, "Brethren, this is not the 
first time that a single exhortation of mine has conquered the prince ; the like 
happened before." 

And so saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the Bodhi- 
satta came to life again as a brahmin in the Nortli country, and when he 
grew up he first learned the Three Vedas and all learning, at Takkasihi, and 
for some time lived a mundane life. But when his parents died he became 
a recluse, dwelling in the Himalayas, and attained the mystic Attainments 
and Knowledges. There he dwelt a long time, till need of salt and other 
necessaries of life brought him back to the paths of men, and he came to 
Benares, where he took up his quarters in the royal pleasaunce. Next day 
he dressed himself with care and pains, and in the best garb of an ascetic 
went in quest of alms to the city [506] and came to the king's gate. The 
king was sitting down and saw the Bodhisatta from the window and marked 
within himself how the hermit, wise in heart and soul, fixing his gaze 
immediately before him, moved on in lion-like majesty, as though at every 

1 The quotation has not been traced in published texts. 

318 The Jataha. Book I, 

footstep he were depositing a purse of a thousand pieces. "If goodness 
dwell anywhere," thought the king, "it must be in this man's breast." So 
summoning a courtier, he bade him bring the hermit into the presence. 
And the courtier went up to the Bodhisatta and with due obeisance, took 
his alms-bowl from his hand. " How now, your excellency?" said the 
Bodhisatta. "The king sends for your reverence," replied the courtier. 
"My dwelling," said the Bodhisatta, "is in the Himalayas, and I have not 
the king's favour." 

So the courtier went back and reported this to the king. Bethinking 
him that he had no confidential adviser at the time, the king bade the 
Bodhisatta be brought, and the Bodhisatta consented to come. 

The king greeted him on his entrance with great courtesy and bade him 
be seated on a golden throne beneath a royal parasol. And the Bodhisatta 
was fed on dainty food which had been made ready for the king's own 

Then the king asked where the ascetic lived and learned that his home 
was in the Himalayas. 

"And where are you going now ? " 
" In search, sire, of a habitation for the rainy season." 
" Why not take up your abode in my pleasaunce 1 " suggested the king. 
Then, having gained the Bodhisatta's consent, and having eaten food 
himself, he went with his guest to the pleasaunce and there had a hermitage 
built with a cell for the day, and a cell for the night. This dwelling was 
provided with the eight requisites of an ascetic. Having thus installed the 
Bodhisatta, the king put him under the charge of the gardener and went 
back to the palace. So it came to pass that the Bodhisatta dwelt thence- 
forward in the king's pleasaunce, and twice or thrice every day the king 
came to visit him. 

Now the king had a fierce and passionate son who was known as 
Prince Wicked, who was beyond the control of his father and kinsfolk. 
Councillors, brahmins and citizens all pointed out to the young man the 
error of his ways, but in vain. He paid no heed to their counsels. And 
the king felt that the only hope of reclaiming his son lay with the virtuous 
ascetic. So as a last chance [507] he took the prince and handed him 
over to the Bodhisatta to deal with. Then the Bodhisatta^ walked with 
the prince in the pleasaunce till they came to where a seedling Nimb tree 
was growing, on which as yet grew but two leaves, one on one side, one on 
the other. 

"Taste a leaf of this little tree, prince," said the Bodhisatta, "and see 
what it is like." 

The young man did so ; but scarce had he put the leaf in his mouth, 
when he spat it out with an oath, and hawked and spat to get the taste out 
of his mouth. 

No. 150. 319 

"What is the matter, prince?" asked the Bodhisatta. 

"Sir, to-day this tree only suggests a deadly poison; but, if left to 
grow, it will prove the death of many persons," said the prince, and 
forthwith plucked up and crushed in his hands the tiny growth, reciting 
these lines : — 

If poison lurk in the baby tree, 

What will the full growth prove to be? 

Then said the Bodhisatta to him, " Prince, dreading what the poisonous 
seedling might grow to, you have torn it up and rent it asunder. Even as 
you acted to the tree, so the people of this kingdom, dreading what a prince 
so fierce and passionate may become when king, will not place you on the 
throne but uproot you like this Nimb tree and drive you forth to exile. 
Wherefore take warning by the tree and henceforth shew mercy and abound 
in loving-kindness." 

From that hour the prince's mood was changed. He grew humble and 
meek, merciful and overflowing with kindness. Abiding by the Bodhisatta's 
counsel, [508] when at his father's death he came to be king, he abounded 
in charity and other good works, and in the end passed away to fare 
accordins: to his deserts. 

His lesson ended, the Master said, "So, Brethren, this is not the first time 
that I have tamed Prince Wicked ; I did the same in days gone by." Then 
he identified the Birth by saying, "The Licchavi Prince Wicked of to-day was 
the Prince Wicked of the story, Ananda the king, and I the ascetic who exhorted 
the prince to goodness." 

No. 150. 


'■'■Befriend a villain." — This story was told by the Master when at the Bamboo- 
grove, about King Ajatasattu's adherence to false teachers i. For he believed in 
that rancorous foe of the Buddhas, the base and wicked Devadatta, and in his 
infatuation, Avishing to do honour to Devadatta, expended a vast sum in erecting 
a monastery at Gayaslsa. And following Devadatta 's wicked counsels, he slew 

^ See Vinaya, Cullav. vii. 3. 4- (translated in S. B. E. xx. pp. 242 &c.). In the 
Sdmafinaphala Sutta, the Digha Nikaya gives the incidents of this introductory story 
and makes the King confess to having killed his father (Vol. i. p. 85). 

320 Tlie Jataka. Booh I. 

the good and virtuous old King his father, who had entered on the Paths, thereby 
destroying his own chance of winning like goodness and virtue, and bringing great 
woe upon himself. 

Hearing that the earth had swallowed up Devadatta, he feared a like fate for 
himself. And such was the frenzy of his terror that he recked not of his kingdom's 
welfare, slept not upon his bed, but ranged abroad quaking in every limb, like a 
young elei)hant in an agony of pain. In fancy he saw the earth yawning for him, 
and the flames of hell darting forth ; he could see himself fastened down on a bed 
of burning metal with iron lances being thrust into his body. Like a wounded 
cock, not for one instant was he at peace. The desire came on him to see 
the All- Wise Buddha, to be reconciled to him, and to ask guidance of him ; 
but because of the magnitude of his transgressions he shrank from coming into 
the Buddha's presence. When the Kattika festival came round, and by night 
Rajagaha was illuminated and adorned like a city of the gods, the King, as he 
sat on high upon a throne of gold, saw Jivaka Komarabhacca sitting near. 
The idea flashed across his mind to go with Jivaka to the Buddha, but he felt 
he could not say outright that he would not go alone but wanted Jivaka to 
take him. No ; the better course would be, after praising the beauty of the 
night, [509] to propose sitting a1> the feet of some sage or brahmin, and to ask 
the courtiers what teacher can give the heart peace. Of course, they would 
severally praise their own masters ; but Jivaka would be sure to extol the 
All-Enlightened Buddha; and to the Buddha the King with Jivaka wovild go. 
So he burst into fivefold praises of the night, saying — "How fair, sirs, is this 
clear cloudless night ! How beautiful ! How charming ! How delightful ! How 
lovely 1 ! What sage or brahmin shall we seek out, to see if haply he may give 
our hearts peace ? " 

Then one minister recommended Purana Kassapa, another Makkhali Gosala, 
and others again Ajita Kesakambala, Kakudha Kaccayana, Saiijaya Belatthi- 
putta, or Nigantha Nathaputta. All these names the King heard in silence, 
waiting for his chief minister, Jivaka, to speak. But Jivaka, suspecting that 
the King's real object was to make him speak, kept silence in order to make sure. 
At last the King said, " Well, my good Jivaka, why have you nothing to say ? " 
At the word Jivaka arose from his seat, and with hands clasped in adoration 
towards the Blessed One, cried, " Sire, yonder in my mango-grove dwells the 
All-Enlightened Buddha with thirteen hundred and fifty Brethren. This is the 
high fame that has arisen concerning him." And here he proceeded to recite 
the nine titles of honour ascribed to him, beginning with ' Venerable^.' When 
he had further shewn how from his birth onwards the Buddha's powers had 
surpassed all the earlier presages and expectations, Jivaka said, " Unto him, the 
Blessed One, let the King repair, to hear the truth and to put questions." 

His object thus attained, the King asked Jivaka to have the elephants got 
ready and went in royal state to Jivaka's mango-grove, where he found in the 
perfumed pavilion the Buddha amid the Brotherhood which was tranquil as the 
ocean in perfect repose. Look where he would, the King's eye saw only the 
endless ranks of the Brethren, exceeding in numbers any following he had ever 
seen. Pleased with the demeanour of the Brethren, the King bowed low and 
spoke words of praise. Then saluting the Buddha, he seated himself, and 
asked him the question, 'What is the fruit of the religious life?' And the 
Blessed One gave utterance to the Samaiiiiaphala Sutta in two sections^. Glad 
at heart, the King made his peace with the Buddha at the close of the Sutta, 
and rising up departed with solemn obeisance. Soon after the King had gone, 

^ These exclamations are misprinted as verse in the Pali text. It is curious that 
the order is somewhat transposed here, as compared with the opening words of the 
Sdmannaphala Sutta. 

2 See p. 49 of Vol. i. of the Digha Nikilya for the list. 

* In the Digha Nikilya there is no division of the Sutta into two bhanavaras or 

No. 150. 321 

the Master addressed the Brethren and said, " Brethren, this King is uprooted ; 
[510] had not this King slain in hist for dominion that righteous ruler his 
father, he would have won the Arahat's clear vision of the Truth, ere he rose 
from his seat. But for his sinful favouring of Devadatta he has missed the fruit 
of the first path 1." 

Next day the Brethren talked together of all this and said that Ajatasattu's 
crime of imrricide, which was due to that wicked and sinful Devadatta whom he 
had favoured, had lost him salvation ; and that Devadatta had been the King's 
ruin. At this point the Master entered the Hall of Truth and asked the subject 
of their converse. Being told, the Master said, " This is not the first time, 
Brethren, that Ajatasattu has suffered for favouring the sinful ; like conduct in 
the past cost him his life." So saying, he told this story of the past. 

Once on a time when Brahmadatta was reigning in Benares, the 
Bodhisatta was born into the family of a wealthy brahmin. Arriving at 
years of discretion, he went to study at Takkasila, where he received a 
complete education. In Benares as a teacher he enjoyed world-wide fame 
and had five hundred young brahmins as pupils. Among these was one 
named SaiijTva, to whom the Bodhisatta taught the spell for raising the 
dead to life. But though the young man was taught this, he was not 
taught the counter charm. Proud of his new power, he went with his 
fellow-pupils to the forest wood-gathei-ing, and there came on a dead tiger, 

'* Now see me bring the tiger to life again," said he. 

" You can't," said they. 

" You look and you will see me do it." 

" Well, if you can, do so," said they and climbed up a tree forthwith. 

Then SaiijTva repeated his charm and struck the dead tiger with a 
potsherd. Up started the tiger and quick as lightning sprang at Sanjiva 
and bit him on the thi'oat, killing him outright. Dead fell the tiger then 
and there, and dead fell Sanjiva too at the same spot. So there the two 
lay dead side by side. 

The young brahmins took their wood and went back to their master to 
whom they told the story. " My dear pupils," said he, " mark herein how 
by reason of showing favour to the sinful and paying honour where it was 
not due, he has brought all this calamity upon himself." And so saying he 
uttered this stanza : — 

[511] Befriend a villain, aid him in his need, 

And, like that tiger which Sanjiva^ raised 

To life, he straight devours you for your pains. 

^ Unlike the preceding sentence, this last sentence does not occur in the Digha 
Nikaya. The interpolation is interesting as suggesting the license with which words 
were put into the Master's mouth by Buddhist authors. 

- The gloss suggests that sanjlviko ( = 'of or belonging to Sanjiva') is an acrid pun 
on the meaning of Sanjlvo, which means 'alive,' — the tiger having been restored to life 
by Sanjiva, whom it bereft of life by way of reward. 

c. J. 21 

322 The Jdtaka. Book I. 

Such was the Bodhisatta's lesson to the young brahmins, and after a 
life of almsgiving and other good deeds he passed away to fare according to 
his deserts. 

His lesson ended the Master identified the Birth by saying, " Ajatasattu was 
the young brahmin of those days who brought the dead tiger to life, and I the 
world-famed teacher." 



Abhassara, the celestial realm 291 — 2 
AciravatI, the river 102, 249 
Aggalava, the temple 47 
Agni {see also Jataveda) 283, 308 
Ajatasattu, King 67, 319—21 
Alavi, the town 47 
Amara, Queen 254 
Ambatittha 206 
Ambavana 14 

Ananda, the Elder 32, 42, 48, 89, 222, 
230, 314 
a fish 83 
Anatha-pindika 1, 38, 92, 100, 101, 117, 

120, 134, 209, 220, 245, 

267, 314 
,, the younger 38 

Andhapura, a town 12 
Andhra, the country 203 
Ahgulimala, the Elder 139 
Afijanavana 166 
Anotatta, Lake 103 
Anupiya, a town 32 
Arati, Mara's daughter 288 
Asura 80, 82, 229 
Avici, the hell 104 

Badarika, the monastery 47 
Bamboo-grove, the 35, 44, 57, 67, 174, 
177, 215, 255, 269, 286, 298, 302, 304, 
305, 319 
Benares 4, 10, 19, 21, 22 et passim 
Bhaddavatika, a town 206 
Bhaddiya, the Elder 32 
Bhagu, the Elder 32 
Bhimasena, a big weaver 204 
Brahma {see Maha-Brahma) 
Brahmadatta, King passim 

,, Prince 126 

Brahma-realm 8 et passim 
Buddha, Gotama the 103, 172, 229, 230 et 
,, Kassapa the 16, 246 

Padumuttara the 38, 243 
„ Vipassi the 243 
Buddhas, Pacceka 101, 103, 233, 289 
previous 16, 38, 90, 243, 246 

Canda, a Naga 290 
Captain of the Faith {see Sariputta) 
Ceti, the country of 121 
Chattapani, a lay-brother 223 
Cinca, the brahmin-girl 143, 264 
Cittahattha- Sariputta, the Elder 168 
Culla-Panthaka, the Elder 14, 16 
Culla-Pindapatika-Tissa, the Elder 44 

Dabba, the Mallian 21 

Desaka, a town 232 

Devas, wars of 80 — 1 

Devadatta 14, 32, 34, 57, 67, 142, 144, 

174, 255, 269, 286, 298, 304, 305, 319, 

Dhanapalaka, the elephant 57 

Form, realm of 241 
Formless Eealm 241 
Four Eegents, the 81, 102 

Gamani, Prince 29 
Gandhara 173, 218 
Ganges 156, 315 
Garula 80, 81 

Gaya'-slsa 34, 67, 255, 305, 319 
Gotama 44, 100, 216 
Ghatikara, the potter 56 
Ghositarama 206 

Himalayas 25, 93, 171, 207, 215, 241, 258, 
260, 267, 274, 317 

Illlsa, a miser 198 

Indra {see also Sakka) 28, 130, 171, 201, 

Jambudlpa 137 

Janaka, King 133 

Jataveda (=Agni) 90 

Jetavana 1, 9, 38, 172, 183, 314 et passim 

Jivaka-Komarabhacca 14, 16, 320 

Kalakaiijaka, the Asura 229 

Kalanduka, a slave 280 

Kana, a girl 294 

Kana-mata 294 

Kapilani, a Theri 150 

Kapilavatthu 85 

Kasi 4, 10, 19, 21, 24, 114, 129, 162, 204, 

207, 295, 309 
Kassapa, the Buddha 16, 246 

the Elder 36 
Katahaka, a slave 275, 280 
Katthavfihana, King 29 
Kattika, the festival 261, 312 
Ketakavana 54 
Kharadiya, a doe 47 
Kimbila^ the Elder 32 
Kings, the four great 81, 102 
Kokalika 260, 305 
Koliya, King 242 
Kora, the kshatriya 229 
Kosala 27, 38, 50, 91, 118, 129, 164, 172, 

183, 184, 187, 213, 243, 277 



Kosambi 47, 206 

Kosiyji, a brahmin woman 285 

Kumbbanda 81 

Knndadhanavaua 242 

Kundiya, a city 242 

Kusavati, a city 231 

Kusinara, a town 231 

Kutumbiyaputta-Tissa, the Elder 172 

Laludayi, the Elder 271 
Licchavis, the 251, 316 
Losaka-Tissa, the Elder 105, 111 

Macala, a hamlet 77 

Magadha 35, 42, 49, 77, 88, 89, 98, 116, 

216, 269, 286 
Magha, Prince 77 

Maha-Brahma 81, 241, 291, 292, 308, 314 
Mahamaya, Gotama's mother 166 
Mahan:1ma-Sakka, Kiug 27 
Maha-Panthaka, the Elder 15 
Mahavana 251, 316 
Mahirusasa, Prince 24 
Mahosadha, King 254 
Makhiideva, King 31 
Mallika, Queen 187 
Manosila, a region 103 
Maia 103 

,, daughters of 288 
Mithila, a city 31 
Mittavindaka 109, 209, 246 
Moggallana, the Elder 35, 48, 94, 196, 

231, 242, 305 

Naga 81, 206, 290, 311 

Nagamunda, Queen 27 

Nalagamaka, a village 230 

Nalakapana, a village 54 

Naiapana 231 

Nanda, a brahmin woman 293 

Nidanakatha 30 

Nimi, King 31 

North-country, the 193, 203, 207, 240, 

260, 263, 274, 317 
North-west country, the 216 

Pacceka Buddhas 101, 103, 233, 289 
Padumuttara, the Buddha 38, 243 
Pajjunna, the god 184 
Pasenadi, King 38, 194 
Patikarama 229 
Patimokkha, the 140 
Pavarana, the festival 73 
Piliya, a treasurer 286 

Raga, Mara's daughter 288 

Ealju, the Titan 65, 139 

Eahula, the Elder 47 

Rajagaha 2, 14, 34, 35, 36, 38, 42, 44, 49, 

77, 92, 195, 198, 216, 231, 269, 286, 

304, 320 

Eatthapala, the Elder 44 
Eohini, the river 181 

Sagata, the Elder 206 

Saketa, a city 166 

Sakka 77, 80, 81, 102, 171, 182, 198 

Samkassa, a town 73, 291, 292 

Sanikhasetthi, a treasurer 286 

Sai'ijaya, a gardener 45 

Sanjiva, a brahmin 321 

Sarambha, an ox 217 

Sariputta, the Elder 35, 48, 64, 92—4, 98, 
106, 167, 229, 230, 240, 291, 305 

Savatthi 1, 2, 9, 12, 44, 69, 92, 106, 116, 
135, 140, 161, 168, 183, 184, 185, 206, 
212, 217, 239, 244, 246, 249, 257, 261, 
273, 284, 292, 294, 310, 314 

Seri, a country 12 

Sindh 61, 63 

Sineru, Mt. 80, 101, 162, 176, 314 

Sivali, the Elder 242 

Six, the wicked 71, 73, 92, 207 

Subhadda, Queen 231 

Sudassana, King 231 

Sudatta ( = Anathapindika) 1 

Suddhodana, Gotama's father 166 

Sumbha, a country 232 

Sunakkhatta, a pervert 229 

Suppavasa, a lay-sister 242 

Takkasila, a city 71, 126, 137, 148, 173, 203, 
217, 233, 237, 240, 243, 260, 285, 289, 
317, 321 

Tanha, Mara's daughter 288 

Tathagata 30 

Tavatimsa-devaloka 80 

Telavaha, a river 12 

Thullananda, a Sister 292 

Tissa, the Elder Kutumbiyaputta- 172 
Losaka- 105, 111 

Titan {see Asura) 

Udayi, the Elder Lai- 21 
Upfdi, the Elder 32, '38 
Uppalavanna, the Sister 47, 50, 164 
Uttarasetthi, a youth 261 

Varaka, a town 230 
Vasabha-Khattiya, Queen 27 
Velama 101 

Veluvana (see Bamboo-grove) 
Vepacittiya, an Asura 82 
Vesali 92, 229, 251, 316 
Vessavana, a deity 25, 182 
Videha, the country 31 
Vidudabha, Prince 27 
Vipassi, the Buddha 243 
Visakha, the lay-sister 38 
Vissakamma, the deity 171 

Yugandhara Mts. 18 

Cambridge: printed by j. & c. f. clay, at the university press. 


BL1411 .J3A13 1895 

The Jataka; or, Stories of the Buddha s 

Princeton Theological Seminary-Speer Library 

1 1012 00009 7149 

- ■:;i±