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JEANNE D'ARC 




Deputed Portrait of 

Jeanne d\* 



ffi-om the original, jbrmerlyin th*^/iurch<;>fS*J4a.urice,Oi'leans. 

(UUSEEU U IRQ O^DSR O, PARTS.) 



HBi'i 




JEANNE D'ARC 

MAID OF ORLEANS 
DELIVERER OF FRANCE 



Being the Story of her Life, her Achievements, 

and her Death, as attested on Oath and 

Set forth in the Original Documents 



EDITED BY 



T. DOUGLAS MURRAY 



/*? 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND A MAP 



NEW YORK 
M C CLURE, PHILLIPS & CO. 

1902 



PRINTED IN ENGLAND. 



This Edition is for Sale in the United 
States of America only, and is 
not to be imported into Countries 
signatory to the Berne Treaty. 



PREFACE 

THE following Document concerning the story of the 
life and death of Jeanne d'Arc, Maid of Orleans, is 
probably the only known instance in which a complete 
biographical record, of historical importance, has been 
elicited by evidence taken on oath. These depositions 
cover the childhood of the Maid ; the series of her 
military exploits as Commander-in-Chief of the armies 
of France ; her capture, imprisonment, and death at the 
stake in the market-place of Rouen. 

The official Latin text of the Trial and Rehabili- 
tation of Jeanne ^d'Arc, rescued from oblivion among 
the archives of France, and published in the forties by 
Quicherat, has been faithfully, and now for the first time, 
rendered into English. This account, given by numerous 
contemporary witnesses, of an episode which profoundly 
affected the history of Europe and determined the 
destinies of England and France must appeal to the 
general reader no less than to the student. 



INTRODUCTION 



BY the order of Pope Calixtus in 1455, tne Trial 
of Jeanne d'Arc at Rouen, which had taken place 
twenty-four years before, was reconsidered by a great 
court of lawyers and churchmen, and the condemnation 
of Jeanne was solemnly annulled and declared wicked 
and unjust. By this re-trial posterity has been allowed 
to see the whole life of the village maiden of Domremy, 
as she was known first to her kinsfolk and her neigh- 
bours, and afterwards to warriors, nobles and church- 
men who followed her extraordinary career. The 
evidence so given is unique in its minute and faith- 
worthy narration of a great and noble life ; as indeed 
that life is itself unique in all human history. After 
all that can be done by the rationalising process, the 
mystery remains of an untutored and unlettered girl 
of eighteen years old, not only imposing her will upon 
captains and courtiers, but showing a /skill and judgment 
worthy, as General Dragomiroff Hays, of the greatest 
dbmmanders, indeed of Napoleon himself. While we 
must give due weight and consideration to the age in 
which this marvel showed itself on the stage of history, 
an age of portents and prophecies, of thaumaturgists and 
saints, yet when all allowance is made there remains this 
sane, strong, solid girl leaving her humble home, and in 



viii INTRODUCTION 

two short months accomplishing more than Caesar or 
Alexander accomplished in so much time, and at an age 
when even Alexander had as yet achieved nothing. 

The story is best given by the witnesses, and only 
indications or, so to speak, sign-posts are needed to 
point out the way. Before the work of Jeanne can be 
even vaguely apprehended something must be known 
of how France stood at her coming. A century of mis- 
fortune and sorrow, broken only by a parenthesis of 
comparative prosperity from 1380 to 1407, had left 
her an easy prey to the hereditary enemy. Torn 
asunder by factions which distracted Church and State 
alike, she was in no condition of health and courage 
to recover from the shock of the crushing disaster of 
Agincourt. For although the English were unable at 
the moment to follow up the victory they had gained, 
and Henry V. returned to England the bearer of barren 
glory, still the breathing time was not put to good 
account by the French, whose domestic jars made com- 
bined national action impossible. At Henry's second 
coming, regular resistance was hardly offered. His 
fleets and armies held the Channel and the ports and 
fortresses on both sides. The King of France was 
insane. His wife, Isabel of Bavaria, came to terms 
with the English King, and by the treaty of Troyes 
(1420) the Crown of France was to pass away from 
the Dauphin, whom his wretched mother would fain 
bastardise, to the issue of Henry and the Princess 
Catherine, the ready instrument of her mother's purpose. 
When Henry V. died the son born of this unhallowed 
marriage was declared King of France and England 
under the title of Henry VI. The poor child was 
less than a year old. His able and resolute uncle John, 



INTRODUCTION 



IX 



>uke of Bedford, ruled France as Regent, and carried 
the arms of England in triumph against all who dared 
to dispute his nephew's title. The Dauphin fled to the 
south, and abandoned to Bedford all territory north of 
the Loire. Paris was occupied and held by the English. 
The braver members of the Parliament and the Univer- 
sity joined the Dauphin at Poitiers, but the accommo- 
dating and timid members did homage to Bedford and 
duly attorned to Henry VI. as to their lawful King. 
Orleans alone remained, of the strong places of France, 
in the hands of the patriot party. If Orleans fell, 
all organised opposition to Bedford would melt away. 

As Orleans was the key of the military, so was Rheims 
the key of the political, situation. Rheims was the old 
city where for many centuries the Kings of France had 
been crowned and consecrated. Such a ceremony brought 
with it in an especial manner the sacrosanct divinity 
which in the middle ages hedged a King. 

It is noteworthy that Jeanne's mission, as now defined 
and traced by French scholars, was the double one of 
rescuing beleaguered Orleans and crowning the Dauphin 
at Rheims. 

Orleans had withstood a stubborn siege of many 
months, but its fate seemed sealed. The Dauphin had 
almost given up the struggle. He had made futile appeals 
for help to the King of Scotland, whose infant daughter 
was betrothed to young Louis, 'afterwards the terrible 
Louis XI. To Naples also he made appeals, but no 
succour or hope came, and in despair he shut himself 
up at Chinon, giving up the cause of France as lost 
unless aid came from on high. Jeanne came as the 
messenger of glad tidings, and announced herself as one 
sent by God to aid France in her extreme need. 



x INTRODUCTION 

She came from Lorraine, out of which no good thing 
could come, as proverbs taught ; for Lorraine had ever 
been branded as false to God and false to man. Am- 
biguous in its relations to France and to the Empire, it 
had, like most borderlands, the unstableness of character 
which comes of social and political insecurity. Jeanne's 
native town of Domremy was one of a cluster of hamlets 
on the verge of France, in the smiling valley through 
which a winding river made its way. Her father and 
mother were in a very humble station, having a little 
patch of land with rights of commonage on the village 
pastures, and were, from the evidence of their neigh- 
bours, frugal, hard-working, and " well thought of." 

Jeanne herself was in no way marked out from her 
girl friends by any special accomplishments or ambition. 
She prided herself solely on her domestic usefulness and 
her skill in household work. She was intensely pious, 
but in no way introspective or morbid. God and His 
angels and saints were as real to her, more real indeed, 
than the men and women of her native village. The 
thoughts of sacred things subdued her soul to an 
unconsciousness of self, which marks her off even from 
such beautiful spiritual natures as Teresa and Bridget 
of Sweden and Catherine of Sienna, whose habit of 
mind was less simple and less humble than hers. She 
seems to have grieved long and deeply on the mis- 
fortunes of France, which was to her the only country 
claiming her allegiance. For, although geographically 
in Lorraine, Domremy was part of the French King- 
dom, and its people were devotedly on the side of 
the Dauphin and the national party. The Duke of 
Burgundy, who had sided with the English, had only 
one adherent in Domremy,. and he was treated, after 






INTRODUCTION 



XI 



ic manner of good-natured peasants, with a certain 
lumorous toleration by the patriots of the village. 

Growing up in this atmosphere, Jeanne, who was born 
>n the feast of the Epiphany 1412, heard in her earlier 
girlhood of the sad state of her country torn asunder by 
faction and treason, and presenting a very broken front 
to the redoubtable armies of England, which had in the 
course of a century carried the banner of St. George 
over all the lands from Calais to Cadiz without once 
meeting an enemy strong enough to look them in the 
face on a pitched field of battle. 

Agincourt, and the carnage after Agincourt, revived in 
French minds the humiliation of Poitiers and the horrors 
of Limoges, so that dread and hatred of the English 
were the burden of every household story. Nor must 
we forget that in Europe then, as in Asia and Africa 
now, news spread apace, and unlettered folk got to know 
in some strange way the doings of camps and courts. 

Old prophecies too were on every lip. That weird 
unrest which Shakespeare shadows forth in Peter of 
Pomfret and his sayings, shaking the throne of Richard 
II. by their very vagueness, was nowhere felt more 
intensely than in Lorraine, with its blending of old 
Celtic myths, German romances, and tales of Provencal 
minstrelsy in all hearts and memories. 

Sublime above all these loomed the Church and its 
tremendous message. And so, from current history and 
fable and folk-lore, Jeanne's imagination was fed, while 
her soul was ready to receive any mandate which the 
Lord of all things might deign to signify. She was 
thirteen years old when the first message came to her. 
The Archangel Michael, as she states, appeared, and she 
was struck with great fear ; but afterwards she longed 



xii INTRODUCTION 

for his coming and his words. He admonished her to 
be pure and holy and religious, and she determined to 
be so. Later on St. Catherine (the Virgin) and St. 
Margaret appeared to her, and told her that the Lord 
ordered her to go into France and relieve Orleans. In 
her examination she tells these things with great 
particularity, meeting all questions as to age, size, 
voice, dress, language, and surroundings of the angels, 
with a simple directness which carries conviction of her 
absolute truthfulness. 

Her doubts and misgivings as to her own unfitness 
she put aside as impertinences, when assured of her 
divine mission. No shadow of spiritual inflation or 
egotism is to be seen in all these things. Rather she 
held by the belief that her very unworthiness in the 
world's eye was the cause of her being chosen as a 
simple instrument in the hands of the Lord. 

Her uncle led her to Vaucouleurs in 1428 ; Robert de 
Baudricourt, whom she believed she was told to see, 
declined to give ear to her stories; but Jean de Metz, 
whose evidence is of absorbing interest, tells us how he 
was overcome and won over to her by her compelling 
earnestness and faith. She came to Chinon with a 
small escort, and she and her guard had to travel mostly 
by night to avoid the Burgundians. " At Chinon," says 
Jean de Metz, "she had to submit to long inquiries." 

The Dauphin was naturally loath to take a step so 
full of peril, and indeed so fraught with the danger of 
ridiculous failure, without grave, anxious, and searching 
investigation. He wished Jeanne to appear at Poitiers 
before the prelates and lawyers of Parliament. At 
Poitiers she was subjected to the closest examination, 
and in the end convinced the lawyers and churchmen 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

of her good faith and the reality of her visions and 
voices. The Archbishop of Rheims, following " Gamaliel 
in the Council of the Jews," advised the Dauphin not 
to spurn the proffered help ; and Charles, who had 
been already impressed by the "revelations," took the 
Archbishop's advice, and placed his forces and his 
fortune in her hands, trusting to divine help and 
succour. The armies of France were in marked contrasf 
to those of England. French nobles had quasi-regal 
power in their dominions, and only fitfully followed the 
royal arms. In England, from the Conquest, the King 
was supreme lord of all, and every one owed direct and 
immediate allegiance to him. The English armies, 
unlike the French feudal array, were made up of 
peasants and artisans and adventurous young men 
seeking a career, and, in the last resort, as we know 
from Falstaff, of losels and waifs and ne'er-do-wells. 
Whether Lord Melville's famous saying that "the worst 
men make the best soldiers " be or be not accepted, it 
seems true enough that for aggressive wars at any 
rate the reckless bravery of adventurers goes very far. 
And Henry's army, composed as it was of English, 
Welsh, and Irish, was in truth an army of intrepid con- 
do Uteri y intrepid to a fault, but lacking the chivalrous 
feelings which with all their drawbacks the feudal system 
and the knightly organisations tended to evolve. 

Hardened and seasoned by years of warfare, the 
English in 1429 were without serious opposition or 
check in their movements and attacks. No French 
army kept the field. The King's authority was flouted. 
The Duke of Burgundy was openly for the English 
cause. The Duke of Brittany and Lorraine wavered 
from side to side. Money had run out, and the last 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

chance of success was staked in a bold throw on the 
strange promises of the young country girl. 

The evidence given by competent witnesses shows us 
clearly the magnitude of her achievements during the 
months of May, June, and July, 1429: the relief of 
Orleans ; the victory of Patay ; the capture of Troyes ; 
and the triumphal march to Rheims, completing her work 
by the consecration of Charles in the old Cathedral, 
which had seen so many of his predecessors anointed 
and crowned within its walls. 

But the marvel is that these stupendous achievements 
were not the results of mere enthusiasm, great and 
potent though that was, but of settled, farseeing skill and 
prudence on the part of Jeanne, joined to a strength of 
soul and purpose which multiplied the strength of the 
army tenfold. 

~ Like Cromwell she " new-modelled " the army. The 
licentious gaiety of the feudal warrior had to give way 
to the sobriety and seemliness which became a Christian 
camp. The voluptuary and the blasphemer had to 
amend their lives. To revels succeeded prayers and 
fasts and vigils. Yet never for a moment did this great 
amendment degenerate into formalism or hypocrisy. 
Like all great souls she awakened latent good and drove 
vice abashed from her presence without any conscious 
spiritual superiority in herself. Men were ashamed to 
be base in such a presence. Nor did she ever become a 
law unto herself, as the "illuminated" are so apt to be ; 
rather she was more than ever observant of all the duties 
and claims and observances of ordinary religious obliga- 
tion, being ever in heart the simple maid whom the Lord 
for His own mysterious purpose, and without any merit 
of hers, had chosen for a mighty task. 



INTRODUCTION xv 

These great qualities won for her the ready submission 
>f the soldiers, while her name and fame brought levies 
of ardent volunteers, from all sides, eagerly contending 
for the glory of serving under such a leader. Her frame 
was hardy and enduring. She wore armour night and 
day for a week at a time. She ate sparingly and drank 
hardly at all, moistening a crust in wine, or, greatly 
fatigued, tasting a little as a restorative. While her 
woman's nature showed itself in her burst of tears when 
dishonouring names were flung at her by some brutal 
English soldiers, or when she screamed at the sharp and 
sudden pain of the wound she received, still there always 
came a quick moral reinforcement which restored her 
serene fortitude in the midst of indignities and perils. 

Writers have differed and must go on differing with 
regard to the scope of her mission and the waning of her 
powers after the coronation of Rheims. If she dictated 
the letter to Henry VI. in which the words occur, " body 
for body you will be driven out of France," we may, by 
connecting this saying with her famous letter to the 
Hussites in which she threatened to chastise them, 
" Saracens" that they were, when her work was done and 
France cleared of her enemies and from other scattered 
phrases as well, come to the conclusion that in her belief 
France was to be wholly freed, and freed by her as agent 
of the Lord. But the letter to Henry VI. is of doubtful 
authority, and her appeal to Charles after the corona- 
tion to be allowed to return to her father and mother, 
supported by contemporary authority, seems to show 
that she looked upon her work as done, and the great 
outburst of weeping in the Cathedral was in all likelihood 
the sob of satisfied piety and patriotism, whose cares were 
at an end and whose task was fulfilled even to fruition. 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

This seems the true view, with which also the latest 
French students agree. Yielding to entreaty she threw 
herself further into the national struggle. She was still 
brave, still magnetic and inspiring, but no longer to 
herself or to others the sword in the hand of God. 

But if in the campaign of May and June she showed 
the wonderful military genius to which so many com- 
petent witnesses bear testimony, in the weary winter 
of the same year she shows a clearness and depth of 
statesmanship scarcely less astonishing. In moments of 
national peril there are always " wise ^ men who think 
that further resistance is foolish and even criminal. 
Alfred had to deal with such time-servers. So had 
Bruce, and so later on had Washington. Jeanne with 
a sore heart found herself clogged and impeded by 
these prudent men. Foremost amongst them was the 
Archbishop of Rheims, Regnault de Chartres. His 
programme was one of reconciliation. The Duke of 
Burgundy was to become the ally of France, and as such 
was to act as negotiator and intermediary for a lasting 
peace between Henry VI. and Charles VII. Poor 
Charles was weary of the war, and lent a ready ear to 
the accommodator. In vain Jeanne warned him of the 
folly of these plans. To strike, and strike quickly, at 
Paris was her advice. Halting and hesitating, Charles 
consented. An army was placed at her disposal, but, just 
as victory seemed sure, she was ordered to desist, and 
Burgundy so duped the French King that he was allowed 
to go through the French lines into Paris, ostensibly to 
treat for peace, but in reality, as the event proved, to 
put himself under Bedford's orders, and to hold Paris as 
lieutenant for the Regent and ally of the King of Eng- 
land. Had Jeanne's advice been followed this shame- 



INTRODUCTION xvii 

ful treason could never have come about. She had 
known and felt that the hatred of the Duke of Burgundy 
and his house against Charles VII. was too deep and too 
rooted to be pulled up in a moment. For twenty years 
France had been distracted by the factions of Burgundy 
and Orleans struggling for control. Fire and water 
were not more opposed. Burgundy looked to England, 
and Orleans to France. We must not too hastily 
condemn these factions. Nations in the modern sense 
had not fully arisen. The State was everything. 
Whether a great Anglo-French monarchy sitting in 
Paris ruled over France, England, Ireland, and Wales, 
or a more domestic French line only ruled over France 
itself, was a question on which upright men might well 
take opposite sides. Jeanne's special merit was that she"* 
saw the possibility of a great French nation, self-centred, 
self-sufficient, and she so stamped this message on 
the French heart that its characters have never faded. 
Ecclesiastics, on the other hand, with their conception of 
a Universal Empire and a Universal Church, thought 
little of National aspirations or claims. To them, any- 
thing which would allay the bitter rivalries of France and 
England naturally appealed, seeing, as they did, in such 
a change the promise of a return to the days before 
the Babylonian captivity at Avignon, and the bringing 
of all peoples into ready submission to Peter's chair. 
Jeanne's greatness is nowhere more manifest than in 
her willing loyalty to the Church and "our lord the 
Pope," while claiming for France absolute national 
independence. Herein she stands alone. Dante's two 
swords (wielded by Pope and Emperor) were lethal to 
national life. To the spiritual sword Jeanne bowed, 
but to no Emperor or King other than the anointed 

I 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

King of France could the loyalty of a French heart 
be due. 

The winter of 1429 was spent in controversies of 
which the opposing principles of imperialism and 
nationality are the true keys. In the early spring, 
Jeanne, who had bravely stood by the national cause, 
and heartened all who withstood the party of com- 
promise and surrender, saw only too clearly that for 
the time the French hopes of success had given way. 
That brave night ride to relieve Compiegne was in 
many respects a meeting of fate half way. No doubt, 
she defied augury, but signs of impending disaster 
multiplied ; and when she fell into the hands of the 
' Burgundians, she must have felt that while her own 
agony began, the cause of France might well gather 
more strength from her example as a sufferer, than 
from her futile struggle against cowardice and treason. 
Into one short year her whole astounding public 
career is crowded ; Orleans, Patay, Troyes, Rheims, 
jjarjs, Compiegne; glory, exaltation, wreckage, and 
captivity. But France was at the end of it a conscious 
nation with an anointed King, and the work of deliverance 
was assured. 

The Trial and Rehabilitation. 

The English had felt sorely the humiliations of the 
year 1429. In Bedford's report to the King's Council 
in London he told of those who were struck with fear by 
the incantations of this " limb of the fiend " who had 
startled them from their security ; and proclamations 
were issued against those who in terror of the Maid 
deserted the army. Now that she, who had worked 
such mischief to them, was in their hands, betrayed by 



INTRODUCTION xix 

ier own countrymen, 1 they wreaked vengeance upon 
her without stint. 

The story of her prison life is a record of shame to her 
gaolers. Chained, mocked at, threatened, and insulted, 
her serenity never failed. She was in God's hand, and 
she bowed to His will. 

Months of suffering and anxiety passed over her be- 
fore her captors made up their minds as to the course 
they would take to bring about her death under the 
semblance of legal execution. If she could be convicted 
by an ecclesiastical court of crimes against the faith, her 
condemnation would redound to the fair fame of England 
and the pious 2 House of Lancaster, while covering the 
French and their sovereign with confusion as the allies 
and associates of a minister of hell. 

1 Had there been any desire on the part of the French King to rescue 
Jeanne from captivity, a 'King's ransom,' which was later paid for her 
by Cauchon, could scarcely have been refused in those days for a pris oner 
of war, however renowned. Unhappily for the memory of Charles, she was 
left to the tender mercies of the English without any offer being made for 
her release, or any attempt at rescue. There existed a bitter feeling of 
jealousy towards Jeanne in consequence of her great successes in the field. 
This was notably shown during her attack upon Paris, where she was thwarted 
in every direction, and all possibility of victory was taken from her by the con- 
duct of the King. Whether or not Flavy, the Governor of Compiegne, who 
was completely underthe control of the King, betrayed Jeanne at Compiegne, 
by shutting the gates and closing the drawbridge at her approach, will never 
be known, but suspicion has always pointed to his betrayal of the Maid. 

Alain Bouchard states that, in the year 1488, he heard from two aged men 
of Compiegne, who had themselves been present, that a few days before her 
capture, the Maid was attending Mass in the Church of St. Jacques. After 
communicating and spending some time in devotion, she turned to the 
assembled congregation, and, leaning against a pillar, uttered this prediction : 
" My good friends, my dear little children, I am sold and betrayed. Soon 
I shall be given up to death. Pray to God for me, for I can no longer serve 
the King and the Kingdom of France." Grandes Annales de Bretagne, also 
Miroir des Femmes Vertueuses. 

2 The House of Lancaster was fervidly orthodox. Persecution of heretics 
begins with Henry IV. The " Cardinal of England " (Beaufort Bishop of 
Winchester) was the malleus hereticorum at home and abroad. He spoke 
against the Hussites at the Council of Basle, and he planned Crusades 
against both heretics and " Saracens." 

b 2 



xx INTRODUCTION 

Pliant churchmen were at hand to give countenance 
and help in this undertaking bishops full of zeal and 
loyalty for our sovereign lord Henry VI., by the grace 
of God King of France and England. 

The worst of these servile churchmen was the wretched 
Bishop of Beauvais, Pierre Cauchon. Many other pre- 
lates were Caesar's friends, but he sits exalted in solitary 
infamy. He came to the Burgundian camp and claimed 
his victim in the name of Bedford, Regent of France for 
the English King. Had Jeanne been detained by the 
Burgundians, it is impossible to believe that Charles VII. 
would not have procured her release. Had she been 
held as a prisoner of war by the English, it is very 
likely that the shame of holding a woman captive 
in their hands would have made it possible to arrange 
for her ransom. But once charged with heresy and 
taken out of the hands of the Burgundians such hopes 
and chances were closed. Still, as an ecclesiastical 
prisoner she would have been entitled to counsel and 
guidance by religious persons, the Church offering ad- 
monition before preferring grave charges of rebellion 
against any of her children. But this would render 
her punishment uncertain. Grave doctors of the law and 
eminent churchmen had at Poitiers, after long inquiry, de- 
clared her worthy of trust and they might do so again. 

Therefore it was determined that she should be held 
in a lay prison though charged with an ecclesiastical 
offence. Cut off in this way from all spiritual help and 
instruction, she was to be brought, when the process was 
ripe, before a well-chosen court bent on her destruction, 
and ready to entangle her in questions which might 
entrap her into erroneous or heretical statements. 

And once more we are confronted, if we try to 



INTRODUCTION xxi 

rationalise her life and put away all belief in inspiration, $ 
with the amazing problem as to where and how this un- 
tutored girl drew her stores of logic, law, and theology. 

The trial took place in Rouen Castle, 1 the seat of 
Bedford's government in France. The choosing of 
her judges was committed to Cauchon, who selected the 
most sturdy adherents of the English. No formal charge 
was preferred, but Jeanne was interrogated. This course 
was severely condemned by a distinguished lawyer named 
Lohier, who puts clearly before us the procedure and 
principles that should govern such a hearing. 

There should be in the first place in all such trials a 
definite indictment of the charges advanced against the 
accused, who in turn ought to have due time to answer 
all the allegations with the assistance of counsel. 

In Jeanne's particular case, seeing that she had been\ 
already practically tried and acquitted at Poitiers at a / 
trial presided over by the Archbishop of Rheims, the 
metropolitan of the Bishop of Beauvais, it was putting 
her twice in peril for the same offence, and on the second 
occasion before an inferior court, a thing contrary to law 
and reason. Moreover the venue was wrong. She had 
been captured in one diocese as an ecclesiastical prisoner, 
and she was to be tried in another, and no assent of the 
chapter of Rouen could give jurisdiction in such a case. 

1 The court before which Jeanne was brought to trial at Rouen was not a 
court of the Holy Office or Inquisition, neither was it, as the English courts 
for the trial of heresy were in Lancastrian times, a statutable court of ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction on whose decision, certified by the bishop, the sheriff was 
bound to act. It was a composite tribunal. The Bishop of Beauvais claimed 
and exercised jurisdiction as Ordinary. But the Deputy Inquisitor was 
joined with him as co-ordinate judge with officers of his own. 

The Inquisition arose out of the troubles in Spain and South France, 
where heresy was to some extent necessarily a kind of treason to the polity 
of Christian Europe. Men were punished for heretical opinions, but these 
heretical opinions were in most cases lapses from allegiance at a time of 
national peril. The later Inquisition has no such excuse. 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

Finally she was in a lay prison, held there by her 
political enemies, which made it impossible for her to 
have the liberty and spiritual assistance necessary to 
meet ecclesiastical charges. The trial ought to have 
been held in an ordinary court and not in the Castle. 

All these objections are of great substance and go 
to the very root of the inquiry. But more vital than 
all was Jeanne's own expostulation against trial before^ 
Cauchorvwho was her declared and bitter enemy, and 
the mere instrument of her foes and gaolers. 

Gross however as the injustice was, there were certain 
barriers within which even Cauchon and his accomplices 
had to work their wicked wills. As there were fearless 
canonists like Lohier, who, as members of a great 
international Bar, were independent of any King or 
bishop, so the notaries, being apostolic and imperial 
officers, were in no way amenable to Cauchon or his 
crew. Every word spoken in court is duly and faithfully 
recorded, and this record formed the basis for the 
petition subsequently presented to the Pope by Jeanne's 
mother and brother when seeking amendment of 
Cauchon's judgment. 

The trial is one of the most enthralling dramas in all 
history. The caution, the skill, the simplicity withal, 
shown by Jeanne in her answers to bewildering and 
entrapping questions, well earned the praise bestowed 
twenty years later by the accomplished lawyers who wrote 
on the case, sustaining the appeal for a new hearing. 

The report gives all the details of the inquiry with 
fulness and accuracy, and when we carefully examine its 
course, we must agree with the canonists who said that 
the forms of law were indeed adhered to, but its spirit 
was grossly violated. The judges in Jeanne's case 



INTRODUCTION 



xxin 



fortified themselves with the decision of the University 
of Paris, but that decision was procured by laying before 
the University what purported to be the statements of 
Jeanne, but what were in truth selected passages from 
her statements torn from qualifying contexts and often 
with the suppression of governing words. 

Still this precis was also part of the record of the 
Court, although attempts were made to suppress it, and 
at the re-hearing Cauchon and his fellow hirelings were 
vehemently condemned for this nefarious proceeding. 

By a sentence, so obtained and so buttressed, Jeanne 
d'Arc was done to death. The story of the execution n 
is one of the most heart-rending incidents in history. I 
No comment can deepen or add to the pathos of the 
narrative given by the bystanders. 

In 1450 King Charles VII. empowered Guillaume 
Bouille", Rector of the University of Paris, to inquire into 
the circumstances of Jeanne's trial, condemnation, and 
death, and to report the result of his investigation. 

Great lawyers gave their opinions, and declared the t 
trial void, as having been bad in substance as well as in 
form. But no regular judgment was pronounced. 

Again in 1452 Pope Nicholas V., on appeal by Jeanne's 
mother, Isabel d'Arc, ordered inquiry, which duly took 
place, but without formal issue. 

It is fortunate for truth and human interest that these 
inquiries were abortive. Had they on general grounds 
annulled the proceedings under Cauchon, how much 
would have been lost to us ! 

We should never have had that delightful picture of 
Domremy given by the simple people of the place. Nor 
should we have, as we have now, a sworn narrative of 
Jeanne's private and public life laying bare her very 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

When Pope Calixtus ordered a full inquiry, he 
seemed to think, as Newman thought when writing the 
"Apologia," that the less argument and the more 
narrative and evidence that could be given the better ; 
and so, instead of discussing the nature of angels, the 
limits of Catholic obedience, the Great Schism, 1 and the 
assurances of salvation of the just, he and his deputies 
put aside such questions with patient contempt until 
they first made sure of the human side of the story. 
How Jeanne impressed her neighbours, her priest, and 
her kin ; what kind of girl she was ; what were her 
employments ; was she restive and ambitious or quiet 
and satisfied ; was her life pure ; was she given to 
foolish imaginings, or was she a sane, modest, unpretend- 
ing country maiden ? Into all these things Cauchon had 
made inquiries, but as the answers were all favourable 
to the accused he suppressed the evidence. 

The decree of Pope Calixtus has added a true romance 
to human story. In all that we know of the world's 
great ones we can find no parallel for the Maid of 
Domremy. Perhaps only in Catholic France was such 
a heroine possible. Certainly Teutonic Protestantism 
has as yet given to the world none of the exalted types 
of radiant and holy women such as those that illuminate 
Latin Christianity. Whether as a saint or a nation- 
maker, Jeanne's place in world-history is assured, 

1 The Great Schism arose out of the Babylonian captivity at Avignon 
(1306-1376). Popes and anti-Popes contended for 40 years (1378-1418). 
France was on the side of the Avignon Popes, while the Empire and England 
supported the Popes in Rome. Philip the Fair, by arrangement with the 
Pope, changed the Papal chair to Avignon. During the seventy years of 
the captivity, when the Church was ruled by French Popes, France under- 
went the disasters of Crecy and Poitiers, and became almost a province 
of England. 



CONTENTS 



PART I THE TRIAL 



FIRST PROCESS : THE LAPSE 



PAGE 

I 



TRIAL EX OFFICIO 

Six PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS i 

NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 55 

THE TRIAL IN ORDINARY 98 

EXHORTATIONS AND ADMONITIONS 106 

FINAL SESSION AND SENTENCE. RECANTATION ... 121 

THE SENTENCE '. . 129 



II 



SECOND PROCESS: THE RELAPSE 



SENTENCE OF DEATH 142 

SUBSEQUENT EXAMINATIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 

AFTER THE RELAPSE 14? 

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES 147 



xxvi CONTENTS 



PART II THE REHABILITATION 



PAGE 



THE FIRST ENQUIRY: 1449 157 

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES 157 

THE SECOND ENQUIRY : 1452 ; AND THIRD ENQUIRY : 

1455-6 178 

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES 178 

DEPOSITIONS AT DOMREMY : 1455 213 

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES 213 

DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS : 1455 232 

DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS : 1455-6 252 

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES 252 

DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN : 1455-6 298 

SENTENCE OF REHABILITATION 321 

APPENDIX 331 

NOTE ON ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS OF THE PROCESS OF CON- 
DEMNATION - 331 

NOTE ON THE DOCUMENTS CONNECTED WITH THE TRIAL OF 

REHABILITATION 332 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE TO THE TRIAL 332 

ACT OF ACCUSATION PREPARED BY THE PROMOTER : THE 

SEVENTY ARTICLES 341 

THE TWELVE ARTICLES OF ACCUSATION 366 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE TO THE REHABILITATION 371 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN THE LIFE 

OF JEANNE D'ARC - 377 

INDEX 385 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



REPUTED PORTRAIT OF JEANNE D'ARC Frontispiece. 

JEANNE D'ARC'S HOUSE AT DOMREMY Tofacepa^e 

RHEIMS CATHEDRAL 

CHURCH OF SAINT REMY 

THE BATTLE OF " HERRINGS." From a French Manu- 
script of the XVth Century 

THE MAID TAKEN PRISONER. From a XVth Century 



MS. 



GATE TO THE PALACE OF CAUCHON, BISHOP OF 
BEAUVAIS 

SOUTH DOOR OF ST. OUEN AT ROUEN 

COURT OF JUSTICE. From a Miniature by Jean 
Fouquet 

SAINT LUCIEN TOWER, BEAUVAIS. Jeanne is said to 
have passed a night in this tower on August 20, 
1429 

FACSIMILE OF A PAGE OF THE PROCESS OF JEANNE 
D'ARC 

CHATEAU DE VAUCOULEURS, CALLED THE " PORTE DE 
FRANCE" 

COUNT DE DUNOIS, BASTARD OF ORLEANS 

RHEIMS CATHEDRAL 

CHINON 

ORLEANS CATHEDRAL 

THE COUNT DE B.ICHEMONT, CONSTABLE OF FRANCE 
CHARLES VII. (Gallery of the Louvre.) 



6 
50 
50 

58 

58 

76 
128 

142 
178 

2IO 

222 
232 
240 
260 
268 
280 
282 



xxviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

VIEW OF BLOIS Between pages 284-285 

THE BRIDGE OF ORLEANS Tofacepa%e 288 

1. On the last day of the English Siege, Sunday, 

May 8, 1429. 

2. Shortly before its demolition in 1760. 

TOMB OF PIERRE CAUCHON, BISHOP OF BEAUVAIS . . 300 

JEANNE D'ARC. From a Miniature of the XVth 

Century 306 

THE BATTLE OF PATAY 308 

LA HIRE AND XANTRAILLES. From a XVth Century 

MS 308 

IN THE TEXT. 

THE OLD CASTLE OF ROUEN 3 

BATTLE OUTSIDE ORLEANS 135 

PORTE ST. HONOR 157 

THE H6TEL DE VILLE : COMPIEGNE 328 

MAP. 
FRANCE: 1429-1431 At end of volume. 



PART I 



THE TRIAL 



Information as to the Original 
Documents of the Trial will 
be found in the Appendix, 

/ 331- 

An Introductory Note on the 
Maids Capture at Compiegne 
and on the Procedure of her 
Trial is given in the Appen- 
dix on p. 332. 




THE OLD CASTLE OF ROUEN. 



I 

FIRST PROCESS: THE LAPSE 

TRIAL EX OFFICIO 
Six PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 

On Wednesday, February 2ist, at 8 o'clock in the 
morning, in the Chapel Royal of the Castle of Rouen. 
The Bishop and 42 Assessors present. 

We did first of all command to be read the Royal 
letters conveying surrender and deliverance of the said 
woman into Our hands ; afterwards the letters of the 
Chapter of Rouen, making concession of territory for 
Our benefit. This reading ended, M* 6 * Jean d'Estivet, 
nominated by Us as Promoter of the Case, did, in Our 
presence, shew that the aforesaid woman of the name 
of Jeanne hath been, by the Executor of Our Mandate, 
cited to appear in this place at this hour and day, here 
to answer, according to law, to the questions to be put 
to her. 

B 2 



4 JEANNE D'ARC 

The said Promoter did then produce Our Mandate, to 
which is attached the document confirming its execution, 
and did read them all. Our said Promoter did then 
require that the said woman should be placed before us, 
and, in terms of the citation, questioned by Us on divers 
Articles concerning the Faith, to the which We did 
agree. But as a preliminary, because the said woman 
had asked to hear Mass beforehand, We did shew to the 
Assessors that, by the advice of well-known Doctors and 
Masters consulted by Us, it hath been decided, con- 
sidering the crimes of which she is accused, and the 
impropriety of the dress which she is wearing, that it is 
right to postpone permission to hear Mass and to assist 
in Divine Service. 

In the meantime, the said woman was brought by the 
Executor of Our Mandate, and set before Us. 

We did then shew that the said Jeanne hath been 
lately taken l in the territory of Beauvais ; that many acts 
contrary to the Orthodox Faith have been committed by 
her, not only in Our Diocese, but in many others ; that 
the public report, which imputes these misdeeds to her, 
hath spread in all estates of Christendom ; that, in the 
last place, the most Serene and most Christian our lord 
the King hath sent and given her up to Us in order that, 
according to law and right, an action may be brought 
against her in the matter of the Faith ; that, acting upon 
this common report, upon public rumour, and also on 
certain information obtained by Us, of which mention 
hath already been often enough made, by the advice 
of men versed in sacred and secular Law, We have 
officially given commandment to cite the said Jeanne to 
appear before Us, in order through her to obtain truthful 

1 It is agreed by all authorities that Jeanne was not captured in the Diocese 
of Beauvais, which ended at the Bridge of Compiegne. Jeanne was taken 
north of the Bridge, on the right bank of the river, and either in the Diocese 
of Noyon or Soissons, which of the two has not been determined. The 
Bishop's assertion is distinctly untrue. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 5 

answers to the questions to be put to her in matters of 
the Faith, and in order to act towards her according to 
law and right ; which doth so appear in the letters that 
the Promoter hath shewn. 

Then, desiring in this particular the blessed succour 
of Jesus Christ, Who is concerned in this, and wishing 
only to fulfil the duties of Our office for the exaltation 
and preservation of the Catholic Faith, We did first 
charitably warn and require the said Jeanne, seated in Our 
presence, for the more prompt resolution of the Action 
and the relief of her own conscience, to speak the whole 
truth upon all questions which should be addressed to 
her touching the Faith ; and We did exhort her to avoid 
all subterfuges and shufflings of such a nature as should 
turn her aside from a sincere and true avowal. 

And in the first instance we did require her, in the 
appointed form, her hand on the Holy Gospels, to 
swear to speak truth on the questions to be addressed 
to her. 

To which she did reply : 

11 1 know not upon what you wish to question me : 
perhaps you may ask me of things which I ought not to 
tell you." 

" Swear," We did thea say to her, " to speak truth on 
the things which shall be asked you concerning the Faith, 
and of which you know." 

" Of my father and my mother and of what I did after 
taking the road to France, willingly will I swear ; but of 
the revelations which have come to me from God, to no 
one will I speak or reveal them, save only to Charles 
my King ; and to you I will not reveal them, even if it 
cost me my head ; because I have received them in 
visions and by secret counsel, and am forbidden to 
reveal them. Before eight days are gone, I shall know 
if I may reveal them to you." 

Again did We several times warn and require her to 



6 JEANNE D'ARC 

be willing, on whatsoever should touch on the Faith, to 
swear to speak truly. And the said Jeanne, on her 
knees, her two hands resting on the Missal, did swear 
to speak truth on that which should be asked her and 
which she knew in the matter of the Faith, keeping 
silence under the condition above stated, that is to say, 
neither to tell nor to reveal to any one the revelations 
made to her. 

After this oath, Jeanne was interrogated by Us as to 
her name, and surname, her place of birth, the names of 
her father and mother, the place of her baptism, her 
godfathers and godmothers, the Priest who baptized 
her, etc., etc. 

"In my own country they call me Jeannette ; since I 
came into France I have been called Jeanne. Of my 
surname I know nothing. I was born l in the village 
of Domremy, which is really one with the village of 
Greux. The principal Church is at Greux. My father 
is called Jacques d'Arc ; my mother, Ysabelle. 
was baptized in the village of Domremy. 2 One of my 
godmothers 3 is called Agnes, another Jeanne, a third 
Sibylle. One of my godfathers is called Jean Lingue, 
another Jean Barrey. I had many other godmothers, or 
so I have heard from my mother. I was, I believe, 
baptized by Messire Jean Minet ; he still lives, so far as 
I know. I am, I should say, about nineteen years of 
age. From my mother I learned my Pater, my Ave 
Maria, and my Credo. I believe I learned all this 
from my mother." 

1 On January 6th, 1412. " In node Epiphiniarum Domini" (Letter 
from Boulainvilliers to the Duke of Milan. Quicherat, vol. v., 1 16.) 

2 The Font and Holy water stoup in the old Church at Domremy are said 
to be those in use in the 15th century. 

3 Jeanne appears to have had a great many godparents. In the Enquiry 
made at Domremy in 1455, eight are mentioned, viz. : Jean Morel, Jean 
Barrey, Jean de Laxart, and Jean Raiguesson, as godfathers ; and Jeannette 
TheVenin, Jeannette Thiesselin, Beatrix Estellin, and Edith Barrey, as 
godmothers. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 7 

" Say your Pater." 

" Hear me in confession, and I will say it willingly." 

To this same question, which was many times put to 
her, she always answered : " No, I will not say my Pater 
to you, unless you will hear me in confession." 

" Willingly," We said to her, " We will give you two 
well-known men, of the French language, and before 
them you shall say your Pater." 

" I will not say it to them, unless it be in confession." 

And then did We forbid Jeanne to go out of the 
prison which hath been assigned to her in the Castle 
without Our permission, under pain of the crime of 
heresy. 

" I do not accept such a prohibition," she answered ; 
" if ever I do escape, no one shall reproach me with 
having broken or violated my faith, not having given my 
word to any one, whosoever it may be." 

And as she complained that she had been fastened 
with chains and fetters of iron, We said to her : 

" You have before, and many times, sought, We are 
told, to get out of the prison, where you are detained ; 
and it is to keep you more surely that it has been ordered 
to put you in irons." 

" It is true I wished to escape ; and so I wish still : is 
not this lawful for all prisoners ? " 

We then commissioned as her guard the noble man 
John Gris, 1 Squire, one of the Body Guard of our Lord 
the King, and, with him, John Berwoist aad William 
Talbot, whom We enjoined well and faithfully to guard 
the said Jeanne, and to permit no person to have dealings 
with her without Our order. Which the aforenamed, 
with their hands on the Gospels, did solemnly swear. 

1 John Gris, or Grey, a gentleman in the Household of the Duke of 
Bedford, afterwards knighted. He was appointed chief guardian to the 
Maid, with two assistants, all members of the King's Body Guard. They 
appear to have left her entirely in the hands of the common soldiers five 
of whom kept constant watch over her. 



8 JEANNE D'ARC 

Finally, having accomplished all the preceding, We 
appointed the said Jeanne to appear the next day, at 
8 o'clock in the morning, before Us in the Ornament 
Room, at the end of the Great Hall of the Castle of 
Rouen. 



Thursday, February 22nd, in the Ornament Room at 
the end of the Great Hall of the Castle of Rouen. The 
Bishop and 48 Assessors present. 

In their presence, We shewed that Jean Lemaftre, 
Deputy of the Chief Inquisitor, had been summoned and 
required by Us to join himself to the present Action, 
with Our offer of communicating to him all that hath 
been done hitherto or shall be done in the future ; but 
that the said Deputy had replied, that, having been 
commissioned by the Chief Inquisitor for the City and 
Diocese of Rouen only, and the actual Process being 
deduced by Us in a territory which hath been ceded 
to Us by the Metropolitan Chapter, by reason of 
Our Ordinary Jurisdiction, as Bishop of Beauvais, he 
had thought it right to avoid all nullity and also for the 
peace of his own conscience, to refuse to join himself 
with Us, in the quality of Judge, until he should receive 
from the Chief Inquisitor a Commission and more 
extended powers : that, nevertheless, he would have no 
objection to see the trial continue without interruption. 

After having heard Us make this narration, the said 
Deputy, being present, declared, addressing himself to 
Us, " That which you have just said is true. It has 
been, as much as in me lies, and still is, agreeable to me 
that you should continue the Trial." 

Then the said Jeanne was brought before Us. 

We warned and required her, on pain of law, to 
make oath as she had done the day before and to 
swear simply and absolutely to speak truth on all things 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 



9 



in respect of which she should be asked ; to which she 
answered : 

" I swore yesterday : that should be enough." 

Again We required her to swear : we said to her, not 
even a prince, required to swear in a matter of faith, can 
refuse. 

" I made oath to you yesterday," she answered, " that 
should be quite enough for you : you burden me over- 
much ! " 

Finally she made oath to speak truth on that which 
touches the Faith. 

Then Maftre Jean Beaupere, a well-known Professor 
of Theology, did, by Our order, question the said 
Jeanne. This he did as follows : 

" First of all, I exhort you, as you have so sworn, to 
tell the truth on that which I am about to ask you." 

" You may well ask me some things on which I shall 
tell you the truth and some on which I shall not tell 
it you. If you were well informed about me, you would 
wish to have me out of your hands. I have done 
nothing except by revelation." 

" How old were you when you left your father's 
house ? " 

"On the subject of my age I cannot vouch." 

" In your youth, did you learn any trade?" 

"Yes, I learnt to spin and to sew; in sewing and 
spinning I fear no woman in Rouen. For dread of 
the Burgundians, I left my father's house - and went 
to the town of Neufchateau, 1 in Lorraine, to the house 
of a woman named La Rousse, where I sojourned about 
fifteen days. When I was at home with my father, I 
employed myself with the ordinary cares of the house. 
I did not go to the fields with the sheep and the other 

1 There is no certain date for this event. By some it is placed between 
the first and second visits to Vaucouleurs, in 1428'; by others, earlier, at the 
time of the Picard ravages of the neighbourhood in the September of 1426. 



io JEANNE D'ARC 

animals. Every year I confessed myself to my own 
Cure, and, when he was prevented, to another Priest 
with his permission. Sometimes, also, two or three 
times, I confessed to the Mendicant Friars ; this was 
at Neufchateau. At Easter I received the Sacrament 
of the Eucharist." 

<e Have you received the Sacrament of the Eucharist 
at any other Feast but Easter ? " 

" Pass that by [Passes outre]. I was thirteen when 
I had a Voice from God for my help and guidance. 
The first time that I heard this Voice, I was very 
much frightened ; it was mid-day, in the summer, in 
my father's garden. I had not fasted the day before. 
I heard this Voice to my right, towards the Church ; 
rarely do I hear it without its being accompanied also 
by a light. This light comes from the same side as the 
Voice. Generally it is a great light. Since I came into 
France I have often heard this Voice." 

" But how could you see this light that you speak of, 
when the light was at the side ? " 

To this question she answered nothing, but went on 
to something else. "If I were in a wood, I could 
easily hear the Voice which came to me. It seemed 
to me to come from lips I should reverence. I believe 
it was sent me from God. When I heard it for the 
third time, I recognized that it was the Voice of an 
Angel. This Voice has always guarded me well, and 
I have always understood it ; it instructed me to be good 
and to go often to Church ; it told me it was neces- 
sary for me to come into France. You ask me under 
what form this Voice appeared to me ? You will hear 
no more of it from me this time. It said to me two or 
three times a week : ' You must go into France/ My 
father knew nothing of my going. The Voice said to 
me : ' Go into France ! ' I could stay no longer. It 
said to me : ' Go, raise the siege which is being made 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS n 

before the City of Orleans. Go ! ' it added, ' to Robert 
de Baudricourt, 1 Captain of Vaucouleurs : he will furnish 
you with an escort to accompany you/ And I replied 
that I was but a poor girl, who knew nothing of riding 
or fighting. I went to my uncle and said that I wished 
to stay near him for a time. I remained there eight 
days. I said to him, * I must go to Vaucouleurs.' 2 He 
took me there. When I arrived, I recognized Robert 
de Baudricourt, although I had never seen him. I 
knew him, thanks to my Voice, which ^ade me recog- 
nize him. I said to Robert, ' I must go into France ! ' 
Twice Robert refused to hear me, and repulsed me. The 
third time, he received me, and furnished me with men ; 3 
the Voice had told me it would be thus. The Duke of 
Lorraine 4 gave orders that I should be taken to him. I 
went there. I told him that I wished to go into France. 
The Duke asked me questions about his health ; but 
I said of that I knew nothing. I spoke to him little of 
my journey. I told him he was to send his son with 
me, together with some people to conduct me to 
France, and that I would pray to God for his health. 
I had gone to him with a safe-conduct : from thence 

1 Robert de Baudricourt, Squire, Captain of Vaucouleurs in 1428 ; after- 
wards knighted and made Councillor and Chamberlain to the King and 
Bailly of Chaumont, 1454. 

2 Of the ancient chateau the " Porte de France " alone survives. From this 
gate Jeanne rode out with her escort to visit the King at Chinon. The crypt 
of the chapel remains, where Jeanne constantly prayed. 

3 This is said to have been on account of the impression produced on 
him by Jeanne's prediction, on February I2th : " To-day the gentle Dauphin 
hath had great hurt near the town of Orleans, and yet greater will he have if 
you do not soon send me to him." This " great hurt " proved to be the 
Battle of Rouvray, in which the French and Scottish troops were defeated 
by the English under Sir John Fastolf. 

4 Charles 1., the reigning Duke de Lorraine in 1428, was in very bad 
health, and, having no son, the succession was a matter of some anxiety. 
He died in 1431, and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Rend of Anjou, who 
had married his only daughter, Isabella. This Rdne was a brother of Queen 
Mary, wife of Charles VII., and father of our own Queen Margaret, married 
in 1441 to Henry VI. 



12 JEANNE D'ARC 

I returned to Vaucouleurs. From Vaucouleurs I de- 
parted, dressed as a man, armed with a sword given 
me by Robert de Baudricourt, but without other arms. 
I had with me a Knight, 1 a Squire, and four servants, 
with whom I reached the town of Saint Urbain, where 
I slept in an Abbey. On the way, I passed through 
Auxerre, where I heard Mass in the principal Church. 
Thenceforward I often heard my Voices." 

" Who counselled you to take a man's dress ? " 

To this question she several times refused to answer. 
In the end, she said : " With that I charge no one." 
Many times she varied in her answers to this question. 
Then she said : 

" Robert de Baudricourt made those who went with 
me swear to conduct me well and safely. * Go/ said 
Robert de Baudricourt to me, ' Go ! and let come what 
may ! ' I know well that God loves the Duke of 
Orleans ; I have had more revelations about the Duke 
of Orleans than about any man alive, except my King. 
It was necessary for me to change my woman's garments 
for a man's dress. My counsel thereon said well. I 
sent a letter to the English before Orleans, 2 to make 
them leave, as may be seen in a copy of my letter which 
has been read to me in this City of Rouen ; there are, 
nevertheless, two or three words in this copy which were 
not in my letter. Thus, ' Surrender to the Maid/ should 
be replaced by ' Surrender to the King/ The words, 
' body for body ' and ' chieftain in war ' were not in rny 
letter at all. 3 

" I went without hindrance to the King. Having 
arrived at the village of Saint Catherine de Fierbois, I 

1 Jean de Novelomport, called de Metz, Bertrand de Poulengey, Colet de 
Vienne, the King's Messenger, and three servants. 

2 March 22nd, 1428. 

3 This letter appears later, p. 36. Jeanne may have forgotten its con- 
tents, as both these expressions occur; or the Clerics who acted as her 
amanuenses may have inserted them without her knowledge. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 13 

sent for the first time to the Castle of Chinon, 1 where 
the King was. I got there towards mid-day, and lodged 
first at an inn. After dinner, I went to the King, who 
was at the Castle. When I entered the room where he 
was I recognized him among many others by the counsel 
of my Voice, which revealed him to me. I told him 
that I wished to go and make war on the English." 

" When the Voice shewed you the King, was there 
any light ? " 

" Pass on." 

" Did you see an Angel over the King ? " 

" Spare me. Pass on. Before the King set me to 
work, he had many apparitions and beautiful revela- 



tions." 



" What revelations and apparitions had the King ?" 
" I will not tell you ; it is not yet time to answer you 
about them ; but send to the King, and he will tell you. 
The Voice had promised me that, as soon I came to the 
King, he would receive me. Those of my party knew 
well that the Voice had been sent me from God ; they 
have seen and known this Voice, I am sure of it. My 
King and many others have also heard and seen the 
Voices which came to me : there were there Charles de 
Bourbon 2 and two or three others. There is not a day 
when I do not hear this Voice ; and I have much need of 
it. But never have I asked of it any recompense but 
the salvation of my soul. The Voice told me to remain 
at Saint- Denis, in France ; I wished to do so, but, 
against my will, the Lords made me leave. If I had 

1 Jeanne was entertained by command of the King in a small room on 
the first floor of the Tour de Coudray, within the Castle walls. Her room 
was approached by a staircase outside the tower. The vaulted roof of the 
room has fallen in and the fireplace is in ruins, but the room could easily be 
restored. Jeanne stayed here from March 8th to April 2oth, 1429. She 
was two days at Chinon before she obtained access to the King. 

2 Charles de Bourbon, Count de Clermont, Governor of the Duchy of the 
Bourbonnais and the Comte of Auvergne, during the captivity of his father 
in England. 



14 JEANNE D'ARC 

not been wounded, I should never have left. After 
having quitted Saint- Denis, I was wounded in the 
trenches before Paris j 1 but I was cured in five days. 
It is true that I caused an assault to be made before 
Paris." 

" Was it a Festival that day ? " 

" I think it was certainly a Festival/' 

" Is it a good thing to make an assault on a 
Festival?" 

"Pass on." 

And as it appeared that enough had been done for 
to-day, We have postponed the affair to Saturday next, 
at 8 o'clock in the morning. 



Saturday, 2^tk February, in the same place. The 
Bishop and 62 Assessors present. 

In their presence We did require the aforenamed 
Jeanne to swear to speak the truth simply and absolutely 
on the questions to be addressed to her, without adding 
any restriction to her oath. We did three times thus 
admonish her. She answered : 

"Give me leave to speak. By my faith! you may 
well ask me such things as I will not tell you. Per- 
haps on many of the things you may ask me I shall 
not tell you truly, especially on those that touch on my 
revelations ; for you may constrain me to say things 
that I have sworn not to say ; then I should be per- 
jured, which you ought not to wish/' [Addressing the 
Bishop :] " I tell you, take good heed of what you say, 
you, who are my Judge f you take a great responsibility 
in thus charging me. I should say that it is enough 
to have sworn twice." 

1 On September 8th, 1429. 

2 Up to the end of her life, Jeanne spoke of the Bishop as the person 
responsible for her trial and death. " Bishop, I die through you," was her 
last speech to him, on May 3oth, the day of her martyrdom. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 15 

" Will you swear, simply and absolutely ? " 

" You may surely do without this. I have sworn 
:nough already twice. All the clergy of Rouen and 
Paris cannot condemn me if it be not law. Of my 
coming into France I will speak the truth willingly ; 
but I will not say all : the space of eight days would 
not suffice." 

" Take the advice of the Assessors, whether you 
should swear or not." 

" Of my coming I will* willingly speak truth, but not 
of the rest ; speak no more of it to me." 

" You render yourself liable to suspicion in not being 
willing to swear to speak the truth absolutely." 

" Speak to me no more of it. Pass on." 

"We again require you to swear, precisely and 
absolutely." 

" I will say willingly what I know, and yet not all. I 
am come in God's name ; I have nothing to do here ; 
let me be sent back to God, whence I came." 

" Again we summon and require you to swear, under 
pain of going forth charged with that which is imputed 
to you." 

"Pass on." 

" A last time we require you to swear, and urgently 
admonish you to speak the truth on all that concerns 
your trial ; you expose yourself to a great peril by such 
a refusal." 

" I am ready to speak truth on what I know touching 
the trial." 

And in this manner was she sworn. 

Then, by Our order, she was questioned by Maitre 
Jean Beaupere, a well-known Doctor, as follows : 

" How long is it since you have had food and drink?" 1 

1 This, and a subsequent enquiry, on February 27th, as to Jeanne's habit 
of fasting, would seem to suggest a desire on the part of the questioner to 
prove that her visions had a more or less physical cause in a weak bodily 



1 6 JEANNE D'ARC 

"Since yesterday afternoon/ 7 

u How long is it since you heard your Voices ? " 

" I heard them yesterday and to-day." 

" At what hour yesterday did you hear them ? " 

" Yesterday I heard them three times, once in the 
morning, once at Vespers, and again when the Ave 
Maria rang in the evening. I have even heard them 
oftener than that." 

" What were you doing yesterday morning when the 
Voice came to you ? " 

" I was asleep : the Voice awoke me." 

" Was it by touching you on the arm ? " 

"It awoke me without touching me." 

" Was it in your room ? " 

" Not so far as I know, but in the Castle." 

" Did you thank it ? and did you go on your knees ? " 

" I did thank it. I was sitting on the bed ; I joined 
my hands ; I implored its help. The Voice said to me : 
' Answer boldly.' I asked advice as to how I should 
answer, begging it to entreat for this the counsel of the 
Lord. The Voice said to me : ' Answer boldly ; God 
will help thee.' Before I had prayed it to give me 
counsel, it said to me several words I could not readily 
understand. After I was awake, it said to me : ' Answer 
boldly.' " [Addressing herself to Us, the said Bishop :] 
"You say you are my judge. Take care what you are 
doing ; for in truth I am sent by God, and you place 
yourself in great danger." 

Maitre Beaupere, continuing, said : 

" Has this Voice sometimes varied in its counsel ? " 

" I have never found it give two contrary opinions. 
. . . This night again I heard it say : ' Answer boldly.' ' 

state resulting from abstinence. As Jeanne's usual food consisted of a 
little bread dipped in wine and water, and as she is reported to have 
had when at home (not in war) but one meal a day, it need hardly be 
supposed that she suffered much from the results of a Lenten Fast. 



(SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 17 

" Has your Voice forbidden you to say everything on 
at you are asked ? " 
" I will not answer you about that. I have revelations 
iching the King that I will not tell you." 
" Has it forbidden you to tell those revelations ?" 
" I have not been advised about these things. Give 
i a delay of fifteen days, 1 and I will answer you. If 
r Voice has forbidden me, what would you say about 
it ? Believe me, it is not men who have forbidden 
me. To-day I will not answer : I do not know if I 
ought, or not ; it has not been revealed to me. But 
as firmly as I believe in the Christian Faith and that 
God hath redeemed us from the pains of Hell, that 
Voice hath come to me from God and by His 
Command." 

" The Voice that you say appears to you, does it come 
directly from an Angel, or directly from God ; or does it 
come from one of the Saints ? " 

" The Voice comes to me from God ; and I do not 
tell you all I know about it : I have far greater fear of 
doing wrong in saying to you things that would dis- 
please it, than I have of answering you. As to this 
question, I beg you to grant me delay." 

" Is it displeasing to God to speak the truth ?" 
" My Voices have entrusted to me certain things to 
tell to the King, not to you. This very night they told 
me many things for the welfare of my King, which I 
would he might know at once, even if I should drink 
no wine until Easter, . . . the King would be the more 
joyful at his dinner ! " 

<c Can you not so deal with your Voices that they will 
convey this news to your King ? " 

" I know not if the Voice would obey, and if it be 

1 The fifteen days' respite would coincide with the first Examination held 
in the Prison, May loth, the first day on which the Allegory of the Sign was 
given. 

C 



1 8 JEANNE D'ARC 

God's Will. If it please God, He will know how to 
reveal it to the King, and I shall be well content." 

" Why does not this Voice speak any more to your 
King, as it did when you were in his presence ? " 

" I do not know if it be the Will of God. Without 
the grace of God I should not know how to do any- 
thing." 

"Has your counsel revealed to you that you will 
escape from prison ? " 

" I have nothing to tell you about that." 

" This night, did your Voice give you counsel and 
advice as to what you should answer ? " 

" If it did give me advice and counsel thereon, I did 
not understand." 

" The last two occasions on which you have heard this 
Voice, did a brightness come ? " 

" The brightness comes at the same time as the Voice." 

" Besides the Voice, do you see anything ? " 

" I will not tell you all ; I have not leave ; my oath 
does not touch on that. My Voice is good and to be 
honoured. I am not bound to answer you about it. I 
request that the points on which I do not now answer 
may be given me in writing." 

" The Voice from whom you ask counsel, has it a face 
and eyes ? " 

"You shall not know yet. There is a saying among 
children, that ' Sometimes one is hanged for speaking 
the truth."' 

" Do you know if you are in the grace of God ? " 

" If I am not, may God place me there ; if I am, may 
God so keep me. I should be the saddest in all the 
world if I knew that I were not in the grace of God. 
But if I were in a state of sin, do you think the Voice 
would come to me ? I would that every one could hear 
the Voice as I hear it. I think I was about thirteen 
when it came to me for the first time." 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 19 

"In your youth, did you play in the fields with the 
>ther children ? " 
" I certainly went sometimes, I do not know at what 

" Do the Domremy people side with the Burgundians 
or with the opposite party ? " 

" I knew only one Burgundian 1 at Domremy : I 
should have been quite willing for them to cut off his 
head always had it pleased God." 

"The Maxey people, were they Burgundians, or 
opposed to the Burgundians ? " 

" They were Burgundians. As soon as I knew that 
my Voices were for the King of France, I loved the 
Burgundians no more. The Burgundians will have war 
unless they do what they ought ; I know it by my Voice. 
The English were already in France when my Voices 
began to come to me. I do not remember being with 
the children of Domremy when they went to fight 
against those of Maxey for the French side : but I 
certainly saw the Domremy children who had fought 
with those of Maxey coming back many times, wounded 
and bleeding." 

" Had you in your youth any intention of fighting the 
Burgundians ? " 

" I had a great will and desire that my King should 
have his own Kingdom." 

" When you had to come into France, did you wish 
to be a man ? " 

" I have answered this elsewhere." 

" Did you not take the animals to the fields ? " 

" I have already answered this also. When I was 
bigger and had come to years of discretion, I did not 
look after them generally ; but I helped to take them to 

1 Ge'rardin of Epinal, to whose child Jeanne was godmother, is probably 
the person alluded to ; he gave witness in 1455 that Jeanne had called him 
" Burgundian." 

C 2 






20 JEANNE D'ARC 

the meadows and to a Castle called the Island, 1 for fear 
of the soldiers. I do not remember if I led them in my 
childhood or no." 

"What have you to say about a certain tree which 
is near to your village ? " 

" Not far from Domremy there is a tree 2 that they 
call ' The Ladies' Tree ' others call it ' The Fairies' 
Tree ' ; near by, there is a spring where people sick 
of the fever come to drink, as I have heard, and to 
seek water to restore their health. I have seen them 
myself come thus ; but I do not know if they were 
healed. I have heard that the sick, once cured, come 
to this tree 3 to walk about. It is a beautiful tree, a 
beech, from which comes the ' beau may ' it belongs 
to the Seigneur Pierre de Bourlement, 4 Knight. I 
have sometimes been to play with the young girls, to 
make garlands for Our Lady of Domremy. Often I 
have heard the old folk they are not of my lineage say 
that the fairies haunt this tree. I have also heard one of 
my Godmothers, named Jeanne, wife of the Maire Aubery 
of Domremy, say that she has seen fairies there ; whether 

1 A small fortress in an island formed by two arms of the Meuse, nearly 
opposite the village of Domremy. 

2 According to local tradition, this tree stood to within the last 50 years, 
and was struck by lightning ; another has been planted in its place. The 
house, in which Jeanne was born, remained in the possession of the De 
Lys family till the i6th Century, when it passed into the hands of the 
Count de Salm, Seigneur of Domremy. In the i8th Century it became 
the property of Jean Gerardin, whose grandson, Nicolas, gave it up in 
1818 to the Department of Vosges ; so that it is now preserved as National 
property. 

3 This is probably a survival of the Fontinalia, an old Latin festival. The 
custom of decorating the wells and springs was kept up in England until the 
last century, and still exists in a few remote villages. The name 'Well 
Sunday ' survives, though the processions of youths and maidens have long 
passed away. The ' fontaine aux Groseilliers ' is still in existence. It is 
an oblong tank of water, with the original spring flowing through it. The 
great beech tree stood close by. 

4 Pierre de Bourlement, Head of the ancient house of Bassigny, and Lord 
of the Manor of Bourlement. He was the last of his race. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 



21 



it be true, I do not know. As for me, I never saw 
;hem that I know of. If I saw them anywhere else, I 
do not know. I have seen the young girls putting gar- 
lands on the branches of this tree, and I myself have some- 
times put them there with my companions ; sometimes 
we took these garlands away, sometimes we left them. 
Ever since I knew that it was necessary for me to come 
into France, I have given myself up as little as possible 
to these games and distractions. Since I was grown up, 
I do not remember to have danced there. I may have 
danced there formerly, with the other children. I have 
sung there more than danced. There is also a wood 
called the Oak-wood, which can be seen from my father's 
door ; it is not more than half-a-league away. I do not 
know, and have never heard if the fairies appear there ; 
but my brother told me that it is said in the neighbour- 
hood : ' Jeannette received her mission at the Fairies' 
Tree.' It is not the case ; and I told him the contrary. 
When I came before the King, several people asked me 
if there were not in my country a wood, called the Oak- 
wood, because there were prophecies l which said that 
from the neighbourhood of this wood would come a 
maid who should do marvellous things. I put no faith 
in that." 

" Would you like to have a woman's dress ? " 

" Give me one, and I will take it and begone ; other- 

1 Merlin had foretold the coming of a maiden out of an Oak-wood 
from Lorraine ; and a paper containing a prophecy to this effect had 
been sent, at the beginning of Jeanne's career, to the English Commander, 
the Earl of Suffolk. There was also an old prophecy (quoted by Jeanne 
herself to Catharine Leroyer) that France, which had been "lost by a 
woman, should be saved by a Maid." The conduct of Isabeau of Bavaria, 
wife of Charles VI., might certainly be said to have fulfilled the first half of 
this prophecy; and a tradition in the eastern counties that "deliverance 
should come from a maid of the Marches of Lorraine " must have directed 
many hopes to the mission of the Maiden from Domremy, though she 
herself does not seem to have known of the last prediction until some time 
later. The Oak-wood covers the hills above Domremy to this day. 






22 JEANNE D'ARC 

wise, no. I am content with what I have, since it 
pleases God that I wear it." 

This done, We stayed the interrogation, and put off 
the remainder to Tuesday next, on which day We have 
convoked all the Assessors, at the same place and hour. 



Tuesday, February i*jth, in the same place. The 
Bishop and 54 Assessors present. 

In their presence, We required the said Jeanne to 
swear to tell the truth on everything touching her 
Trial. 

" Willingly will I swear," she answered, "to tell the 
truth on everything touching the trial, but not upon all 
that I know." 

We required her again to speak the truth on all which 
should be asked of her. 

"You ought to be satisfied," she answered. " I have 
sworn enough." 

Then, by Our order, Maitre Beaupere began to ques- 
tion her. And first he inquired of her, how she had 
been since the Saturday before ? 

"You can see for yourself how I am. I am as well 
as can be." 

" Do you fast every day this Lent ? " 

"Is that in the Case ? Well, yes ! I have fasted 
every day during this Lent." 

" Have you heard your Voices since Saturday ? " 

"Yes, truly, many times." 

" Did you hear them on Saturday in this hall, where 
you were being examined ? " 

" That is not in your Case. Very well, then yes ! I 
did hear them." 

" What did your Voice say to you last Saturday ? " 

" I did not quite understand it ; and up to the moment 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 23 

when I returned to my room, I heard nothing that I may 
repeat to you." 

" What did it say to you in your room, on your 
return ? " 

" It said to me, 'Answer them boldly.' I take 
counsel with my Voice about what you ask me. I will 
tell willingly whatever I shall have permission from God 
to reveal ; as to the revelations concerning the King of 
France, I will not tell them without the permission of 
my Voice. " 

"Has your Voice forbidden you to tell everything ?" 

" I did not quite understand it." 

" What did your Voice last say to you ? " 

" I asked counsel about certain things that you had 
asked me." 

" Did it give you counsel ? " 

" On some points, yes ; on others you may ask me for 
an answer that I shall not give, not having had leave. 
For, if I answered without leave, I should no longer 
have my Voices as warrant. When I have permission 
from Our Saviour, I shall not fear to speak, because I 
shall have warrant." 

" This Voice that speaks to you, is it that of an Angel, 
or of a Saint, or from God direct ? " 

"It is the Voice of Saint Catherine and of Saint 
Margaret. 1 Their faces are adorned with beautiful 
crowns, very rich and precious. To tell you this I have 
leave from Our Lord. If you doubt this, send to 
Poitiers, where I was examined before." 

" How do you know if these were the two Saints ? 
How do you distinguish one from the other ? " 

" I know quite well it is they ; and I can easily 
distinguish one from the other." 

" How do you distinguish them ? " 

1 This is the first identification of the " revelations " with any name ; 
Jeanne had always spoken of her " Voices " or her " Counsel." 



24 JEANNE D'ARC 

" By the greeting they give me. It is seven years 
now since they have undertaken to guide me. I know 
them well because they were named to me." 

" Are these two Saints dressed in the same stuff? " 

" I will tell you no more just now ; I have not 
permission to reveal it. If you do not believe me, go to 
Poitiers. There are some revelations which come to 
the King of France, and not to you, who are questioning 
me." 

" Are they of the same age ? " 

" I have not leave to say." 

" Do they speak at the same time, or one after the 
other ? " 

" I have not leave to say ; nevertheless, I have always 
had counsel from them both." 

" Which of them appeared to you first ? " 

" I did not distinguish them at first. I knew well 
enough once, but I have forgotten. If I had leave, I 
would tell you willingly : it is written in the Register at 
Poitiers. 1 I have also received comfort from Saint 
Michael." 

1 This Examination at Poitiers had taken place in the Chapel attached to 
the Palace of the Counts of Poitou, which still exists and adjoins the ' Salle 
des Pas Perdus,' now the Great Hall of the Palais de Justice. It was 
conducted under the direction of the Archbishop of Rheims during the 
months of March and ; April, 1429, and extended over three weeks. At 
the conclusion, the assembly sent, as the result of their inquiries, a resolution 
to the King to the effect that he should follow the Maid's guidance, and 
seek for the sign she promised him in the relief of Orleans, as a proof of 
the Divine origin of her mission, " for," they added, " to doubt or forsake her 
without any appearance of evil would be to vex the Holy Spirit, and to make 
himself unworthy of the help of God : so saith Gamaliel in the Council of 
the Jews with regard to the Apostles." 

Unfortunately, no trace of this Examination has been found : the f Book 
of Poitiers ' is referred to several times in the Trial ; but it was not forth- 
coming at the time of the Rehabilitation. It was probably lost or destroyed 
by Jeanne's enemies among her own party. The Archbishop of Rheims 
would have had it in his charge : and he was consistently opposed to Jeanne 
throughout. 

During her stay at Poitiers the Maid lodged in the house of Jean Rabatier. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 25 

" Which of these two appearances came to you 
first ? " 

" Saint Michael." 

"Is it a long time since you first heard the voice of 
Saint Michael ? " 

" I did not say anything to you about the voice of 
Saint Michael ; I say I have had great comfort from 
him." 

" What was the first Voice that came to you when you 
were about thirteen ? " 

" It was Saint Michael : I saw him before my eyes ; 
he was not alone, but quite surrounded by the Angels 
of Heaven. I came into France only by the order of 
God." 

"Did you see Saint Michael and these Angels bodily 
and in reality ? " 

" I saw them with my bodily eyes as well as I see 
you ; when they went from me, I wept. I should have 
liked to be taken away with them." 

" And what was Saint Michael like ? " 

" You will have no more answer from me ; and I am 
not yet free to tell you." 

" What did Saint Michael say to you this first time ? " 

" You will have no more answer about it from me to- 
day. My Voices said to me, ' Reply boldly.' Once I 
told the King all that had been revealed to me, because 
it concerned him ; but I am no longer free to reveal 
to you all that Saint Michael said to me." [To Maftre 
Beaupere :] " I wish you could get a copy of this book 
at Poitiers, if it please God." 

" Have your Voices forbidden you to make known 
your revelations without leave from them ? " 

(( I will answer you no more about it. On all that 
I have leave, I will answer willingly. I have not quite 
understood if my Voices have forbidden me to answer." 

" What sign do you give that you have this revelation 



26 JEANNE D'ARC 

from God, and that it is Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret that talk with you ? " 

" I have told you that it is they ; believe me if you 
will." 

" Are you forbidden to say ?" 

" I have not quite understood if this is forbidden or 
not." 

" How can you make sure of distinguishing such 
things as you are free to tell, from those which are 
forbidden ? " 

"On some points I have asked leave, and on 
others I have obtained it. I would rather have been 
torn asunder by four horses than have come into France 
without God's leave." 

" Was it God who prescribed to you the dress of a 
man?" 

" What concerns this dress is a small thing less than 
nothing. I did not take it by the advice of any man in 
the world. I did not take this dress or do anything but 
by the command of Our Lord and of the Angels." 

" Did it appear to you that this command to take 
man's dress was lawful ? " 

" All I have done is by Our Lord's command. If I 
had been told to take some other, I should have done 
it ; because it would have been His command." 

" Did you not take this garment by order of Robert 
de Baudricourt ?" 

" No." 

" Do you think it was well to take a man's dress ? " 

"All that I have done by the order of Our Lord I 
think has been well done ; I look for good surety and 
good help in it." 

"In this particular case, this taking of man's dress, 
do you think you did well ? " 

" I have done nothing in the world but by the order 
of God." 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 27 

" When you saw this Voice coming to you, was there 

light?" 

" There was plenty of light everywhere, as was 
seemly." [Addressing herself to Maitre Beaupere :] j 
" It does not all come to you ! " 

Was there an angel over the head of your King 
you saw him for the first time ? " 

" By Our Lady ! if there were, I know nothing of it ; 
I did not see it." 

" Was there a light ?" 

" There were more than three hundred Knights and 
more than fifty torches, without counting the spiritual 

light.- 

" Why was your King able to put faith in your 
words ? " 

" He had good signs, and the clergy bore me witness." 

" What revelations has your King had ? " 

" You will not have them from me this year. During 
three weeks I was questioned by the clergy at Chinon 
and at Poitiers. Before he was willing to believe me, "j 
the King had a sign of my mission ; and the clergy of j 
my party were of opinion that there was nothing but 
good in my mission." 

" Have you been to Saint Catherine de Fierbois P" 1 

1 According to local tradition, this Church was originally founded by 
Charles Martel in 732, after his victory over the Saracens, whom he here 
ceased to pursue, and deposited his sword as an offering. This is by some 
supposed to have been the sword which later Jeanne sent for; but the 
legend is not of an early date, and there is no suggestion % of the kind in 
contemporary writings. 

According to one authority, the Greffier de la Rochelle, the sword 
was found in a reliquary, which had not been opened for twenty years 
or more. The Chronique de la Pucelle and the Journal of the Siege of 
Orleans state that it was one of many votive offerings, and was recognized 
by Jeanne's description of the five crosses on the blade, possibly a Jerusalem 
Cross. Some of the old Chronicles say that Jeanne told the King she 
had never been at Fierbois : but this statement is disproved by her own 
words in this answer. The suggestion that, having been to three Masses 
in the Church, she might easily have seen the sword, is to some extent 



28 JEANNE D'ARC 

11 Yes, and I heard there three Masses in one day. 
Afterwards, I went to the Castle of Chinon, whence I 
sent letters to the King, to know if I should be allowed 
to see him ; saying, that I had travelled a hundred 
and fifty leagues to come to his help, and that I knew 
many things good for him. I think I remember there 
was in my letter the remark that I should recognize 
him among all others. I had a sword I had taken at 
Vaucouleurs. Whilst I was at Tours, or at Chinon, I 
sent to seek for a sword which was in the Church 
of Saint Catherine de Fierbois, behind the altar ; it was 
found there at once ; the sword was in the ground, and 
T rusty ; upon it were five crosses ; I knew by my Voice 
[ where it was. I had never seen the man who went to 
seek for it. I wrote to the Priests of the place, that it 
might please them to let me have this sword, and they 
sent it to me. It was under the earth, not very deeply 
buried, behind the altar, so it seemed to me : I do not 
know exactly if it were before or behind the altar, but I 
believe I wrote saying that it was at the back. As soon as 
it was found, the Priests of the Church rubbed it, and the 
rust fell off at once without effort. It was an armourer 
of Tours who went to look for it. The Priests of 
Fierbois made me a present of a scabbard ; those of Tours, 
of another ; one was of crimson velvet, the other of 
cloth-of-gold. I had a third made of leather, very strong. 
When I was taken prisoner I had not got this sword. 
I always bore the sword of Fierbois from the time I had 

answered by the alleged difficulty of the Priests to find, among the many 
swords there, the one she had specially described. 

Of the ultimate fate of this sword there are many versions, and no two 
agree exactly as to date. It was certainly broken in striking a camp-follower, 
/ one of a class the Maid had forbidden to enter the Camp ; but whether this 
was just after the retreat from Paris or earlier, it does not seem possible to 
decide. Jeanne herself says she "had it up to Saint-Denis" and "Lagny," 
both of which dates would imply the autumn of 1429 : but most witnesses 
tell the story of its being broken in the July preceding, though several 
different places are mentioned as the scene of the incident. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 29 

up to my departure from Saint-Denis, 1 after the attack 
m Paris." 

" What blessing did you invoke, or have invoked, on 
this sword ? " 

" I neither blessed it, nor had it blessed : I should not 
/-have known how to set about it. I cared very much for 
this sword, because it had been found in the Church of 
Saint Catherine, whom I love so much." 

4< Have you been at Coulange-les-Vineuses ?" 

" I do not know." 

" Have you sometimes placed your sword upon an 
altar ; and, in so placing it, was it that your sword might 
be more fortunate ? " 

" Not that I know of." 

" Have you sometimes prayed that it might be more 
fortunate ? " 

" It is good to know that I wished my armour might 
have good fortune ! " 

" Had you your sword when you were taken prisoner ? " 

"No, I had one which had been taken on a Bur- 
gundian." 

"Where was the sword of Fierbois left ? " 

" I offered at Saint-Denis a sword and armour ; 8 but 
it was not this sword. I had that at Lagny ; from 
Lagny to Compiegne, I bore the sword of this Bur- 
gundian ; it was a good sword for fighting very good 
for giving stout buffets and hard clouts. To tell what 
became of the other sword does not concern this Case, 
and I will not answer about it now. My brothers have 

1 On September i3th, 1429. 

2 A small town near Auxerre. In this neighbourhood some of the 
chronicles place the incident referred to of the breaking of the sword. 
The question may, therefore, have been intended to elicit the story. 

3 The armour offered at Saint-Denis was the " blanc harnois " she wore 
during the earlier part of her career. When the church was pillaged by the 
English troops shortly after, this armour was sent to the King of England ; 
but no further trace of it is known to exist. 



30 JEANNE D'ARC 

all my goods my horses, 1 my sword, so far as I know, 
and the rest, which are worth more than twelve thousand 
crowns." 

" When you were at Orleans, had you a standard, or 
banner ; 2 and of what colour was it ? " 

1 Jeanne appears to have been a good horse-woman ; she rode " horses 
so ill-tempered that no one would dare to ride them." The Duke de 
Lorraine, on her first visit to him, and the Duke d'Alengon, Rafter seeing 
her skill in riding a course, each gave her a horse ; and we read also of a 
gift of a war-horse from the town of Orleans, and " many horses of value " 
sent from the Duke of Brittany. She had entered Orleans on a white horse, 
according to the Journal du Siege dOrUans; but seems to have been in the 
habit of riding black chargers in war ; and mention is also made by 
Chatelain of a " lyart " or grey. A story, repeated in a letter from Guy de 
Laval, relates that, on one occasion (June 6th, 1428), when her horse, " a fine 
black war-horse " was brought to the door, he was so restive that he would 
not stand still. " Take him to the Cross," she said ; and there he stood, " as 
though he were tied," while she mounted. This was at Selles ; and local 
tradition says that, from her lodging (a Dominican Monastery now the Lion 
d'Or hotel) the old iron town-cross was visible. It stood until about a 
century ago some fifteen paces in front of the north door of the Church, and 
was removed when the cemetery was converted into a market place. The 
Monastery was the property of the monks of Glatigny. 

The writers of the letter referred to above, Guy and Andre de Laval, were 
grandsons of Bertrand du Guesclin : the letter was dated Selles, June, 1429. 
The following are extracts : 

". . . On Monday (June 6th) I left the King to go to Selles en Berry, four 
leagues from Saint Aignan. The King had summoned the Maid to come 
before him from Selles, where she then was, and many said this was much in 
my favour, so that I might see her. The said Maid treated my brother and 
me with great kindness : she was armed at all points, save the head, and 
bore lance in hand. After we had arrived at Selles, I went to her lodging to 
see her, and she called for wine for me and said she would soon have me 
drink it in Paris. She seemed to me a thing divine, in all she did and all I 
saw and heard. 

" On Monday evening she left Selles to go to Romorantin. ... I saw her 
mounting her horse armed all in white, save the head, a little axe in her 
hand. . . . And then, turning to the door of the Church, which was quite 
near, she said in a gentle woman's voice, ' You priests and clergy, make 
processions and prayers to God.' Then she turned again on her way saying, 
' Draw on, draw on ! 3 her standard flying, borne by a gracious page, and 
her little axe in her hand. One of her brothers who arrived eight days 
since, left also with her, armed all in white." 

2 The banner was painted at Tours, while Jeanne was staying there, before 
her march to the relief of Orleans. The account for payment, in the 
" Comptes " of the Treasurer of War, gives : " A Hauvres Poulnoir, paintre, 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 31 

" I had a banner of which the field was sprinkled with 
lilies ; the world was painted there, with an angel at 
ich side ; it was white, of the white cloth called 
boccassin ' ; there was written above, I believe, ' Jhesus 

iaria ' ; it was fringed with silk." 

11 The words 'Jhesus Maria' were they written above, 
below, or on the side ? " 

"At the side, I believe." 

" Which did you care for most, your banner or your 
sword ? " 

" Better, forty times better, my banner than my 
sword ! " 

"Who made you get this painting done upon your 
banner ? " 

" I have told you often enough, that I had nothing 
done but by the command of God. It was I, myself, 
who bore this banner, when I attacked the enemy, to 
save killing any one, for I have never killed any one." 

" What force did your King give you when he set you 
to work ? " 

" He gave me ten or twelve thousand men. First, I 
went to Orleans, to the fortress of Saint Loup, and 
afterwards to that of the Bridge." 

demourant a Tours, pour avoir paint et baill estoffes pour une grand 
estandart et ung petit pour la Pucelle ... 25 livres tournois." 

The description of this banner varies in different authors. The following 
account is compiled from them. " A white banner, sprinkled with fleur-de- 
lys ; on the one side, the figure of Our Lord in Glory, holding the world, 
and giving His benediction to a lily, held by one of two Angels who are 
kneeling on each side : the words ' Jhesus Maria ' at the side ; on the other 
side the figure of Our Lady and a shield with the arms of France supported 
by two Angels " (de Cagny). This banner was blessed at the Church of 
Saint-Sauveur at Tours (Chronique de la Pucelle and de Cagny}. 

The small banner or pennon had a representation of the Annunciation. 

There was also a third banner round which the priests assembled daily 
for service, and on this was depicted the Crucifixion (Pasqueret). 

Another banner is mentioned by the Grefner de la Rochelle, which 
Jeanne is said to have adopted as her own private pennon. It was made at 
Poitiers ; and represented on a blue ground a white dove, holding in its 
beak a scroll, with the words, " De par le Roy du Ciel." 



32 JEANNE D'ARC 

"Which fortress was being attacked when you made 
your men retire ? " 

" I do not remember. I was quite certain of raising 
the siege of Orleans ; I had revelation of it. I told this 
to the King before going there." 

" Before the assault, did you not tell your followers 
that you alone would receive the arrows, cross-bolts, and 
stones, thrown by the machines and cannons ? " 

" No ; a hundred and even more of my people were 
wounded. I had said to them : * Be fearless, and you 
will raise the siege.' Then, in the attack on the Bridge 
fortress, I was wounded in the neck by an arrow or 
cross-bolt ; * but I had great comfort from Saint Catherine, 
and was cured in less than a fortnight. I did not inter- 
rupt for this either my riding or work. I knew quite well 
that I should be wounded ; I had told the King so, 
but that, notwithstanding, I should go on with my 
work. This had been revealed to me by the Voices of 
my two Saints, 2 the blessed Catherine and the blessed 
Margaret. It was I who first planted a ladder against 
the fortress of the Bridge, and it was in raising this 
ladder that I was wounded in the neck by this cross- 
bolt." 

' ' Why did you nbt accept the treaty with the Captain 
of Jargeau ? " 3 

"It was the Lords of my party who answered the 
English that they should not have the fortnight's delay 
which they asked, telling them that they were to retire 
at once, they and their horses. As for me, I told them 
of Jargeau to retire if they wished, with their doublets, 4 

1 May yth, 1429. 

2 This prophecy is recorded in a letter written, April 22nd, 1429, a 
fortnight before the event, by a Flemish diplomatist, De Rotslaer, then at 
Lyons. Her chaplain, Pasquerel, also states, in his evidence given in 1455, 
that she had told him of the coming injury on the previous day. 

3 June nth, 1429. 

4 Gallic^ : "en leur petite cotte" i.e.) with only the light clothing worn 
under their armour. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 33 



td their lives safe ; if not, they would be taken by 
sault." 
" Had you any revelation from your counsel, that is 
say from your Voices, to know whether it was right 
_ not to give this fortnight's respite ? " 
" I do not remember." 

At this point, the rest of the enquiry hath been post- 
poned to another day. We have fixed for Thursday the 
next Meeting, at the same place. 



Thursday, March \st, in the same place, the Bishop 
and 58 Assessors present. 

In their presence, We summoned and required Jeanne 
simply and absolutely to take her oath to speak the truth 
on that which should be asked her. 

" I am ready," she replied, "as I have already declared 
to you, to speak the truth on all I know touching this 
Case ; but I know many things which do not touch 
on this Case, and of which there is no need to speak 
to you. I will speak willingly and in all truth on all 
which touches this Case." 

We again summoned and required her ; and she re- 
plied : 

" What I know in truth touching the Case, I will tell 
willingly." 

And in thiswise did she swear, her hands on the Holy 
Gospels. Then she said : 

" On what I know touching the Case, I will speak the 
truth willingly ; I will tell you as much as I would to 
the Pope of Rome, if I were before him." 

Then she was examined as follows : 

" What do you say of our Lord the Pope ? and whom 
do you believe to be the true Pope ? " 

" Are there two of them ? " 

" Did you not receive a letter from the Count 



34 JEANNE D'ARC 

d'Armagnac, asking you which of the three Pontiffs l he 
ought to obey ? " 

" The Count did in fact write to me on this subject. 
I replied, among other things, that when I should be at 
rest, in Paris or elsewhere, I would give him an answer. 
I was just at that moment mounting my horse when I 
sent this reply." 

At this juncture, We ordered to be read the copy of 
the Count's letter and of Jeanne's reply, which are thus 
expressed : 

" My very dear Lady I humbly commend myself to 
you, and pray, for God's sake, that, considering the 
divisions which are at this present time in the Holy 
Church Universal on the question of the Popes, for 
there are now three contending for the Papacy one 
residing at Rome, calling himself Martin V., whom all 
Christian Kings obey ; another, living at Paniscole, in 
the Kingdom of Valence, who calls himself Clement VII. ; 
the third, no one knows where he lives, unless it be the 
Cardinal Saint Etienne and some few people with him, 
but he calls himself Pope Benedict XIV. The first, 
who styles himself Pope Martin, was elected at Con- 
stance with the consent of all Christian nations ; he who 
is called Clement was elected at Paniscole, after the 
death of Pope Benedict XIII., by three of his Cardinals ; 
the third, who dubs himself Benedict XIV., was elected 
secretly at Paniscole, even by the Cardinal Saint Etienne. 
You will have the goodness to pray Our Saviour Jesus 
Christ that by His infinite Mercy He may by you 
declare to us which of the three named is Pope in truth, 
and whom it pleases Him that we should obey, now and 

1 The "three Pontiffs" referred to are Martin V. (Colonna), the real and 
acknowledged Pope ; the schismatic, Clement VIII. ; and a mere pretender, 
Benedict XIV., who was supported only by one Cardinal. The Schism was 
practically at an end at the time of this letter, as Clement had abdicated a 
month earlier (July 26th). Clement VIII. is the true title, though called 
Clement VII. in Count d'Armagnac's letter. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 35 

henceforward, whether he who is called Martin, he who 
is called Clement, or he who is called Benedict ; and in 
whom we are to believe, if secretly, or by any dis- 
sembling, or publicly ; for we are all ready to do the 
will and pleasure of Our Lord Jesus Christ. 

"Yours in all things, 

" COUNT D'ARMAGNAC." 

Jeanne's Reply. 
" J he sus Maria. 

" Count d'Armagnac, my very good and dear friend, 
I, Jeanne, the Maid, acquaint you that your message 
has come before me, which tells me that you have sent 
at once to know from me which of the three Popes, 
mentioned in your memorial, you should believe. This 
thing I cannot tell you truly at present;, until I am 
at rest in Paris or elsewhere ; for I am now too much 
hindered by affairs of war ; but when you hear that 
I am in Paris, send a message to me and I will inform 
you in truth whom you should believe, and what I shall 
know by the counsel of my Righteous and Sovereign 
Lord, the King of all the World, and of what you should 
do to the extent of my power. I commend you to 
God. May God have you in His keeping ! Written 
at Compiegne, August 22nd." 

Then the Enquiry proceeded thus : 

" Is this really the reply that you made ? " . 

" I deem that I might have made this answer in part, 
but not all." 

" Did you say that you might know, by the counsel of 
the King of Kings, what the Count should hold on this 
subject ?" 

" I know nothing about it." 

<( Had you any doubt about whom the Count should 
obey ? " 

D 2 



\ 



36 JEANNE D'ARC 

(< I did not know how to inform him on this question, 
as to whom he should obey, because the Count himself 
Basked to know whom God wished him to obey. But for 
myself, I hold and believe that we should obey our Lord 
the Pope who is in Rome. I told the messenger of 
the Count some things which are not in this copy ; and, 
if the messenger had not gone off immediately, he would 
have been thrown into the water not by me, however. 
As to the Count's enquiry, desiring to know whom God 
wished him to obey, I answered that I did not know ; 
but I sent him messages on several things which have 
not been put in writing. As for me, I believe in our 
Lord the Pope who is at Rome." 

"Why did you write that you would give an answer 
elsewhere if you believed in the Pope who is at 
Rome?" 

" That answer had reference to other things than the 
matter of the sovereign Pontiffs." 

" Did you say that on the matter of the three sovereign 
Pontiffs you would have counsel ? " 

" I never wrote nor gave command to write on the 
matter of the three sovereign Pontiffs." And this 
answer she supported by oath. 

" Are you in the habit of putting the Names ' Jhesus 
Maria/ with a cross, at the top of your letters ?" 

" On some I put it, on others not ; sometimes I put a 
cross as a sign for those of my party to whom I wrote 
so that they should not do as the letters said." 

Here a letter was read from Jeanne to our Lord the 
King, to the Duke of Bedford, and others, of the 
following tenour : 

"Jhesus Maria. 

" King of England ; and you, Duke of Bedford, who 
call yourself Regent of the Kingdom of France ; you, 
William de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk ; John, Lord Talbot ; 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 37 

and you, Thomas, Lord Scales, who call yourselves 
Lieutenants to the said Duke of Bedford : give satisfac- 
tion to the King of Heaven : give up to the Maid, who 
is sent hither by God, the King of Heaven, the keys of 
all the good towns in France which you have taken, 
and broken into. She is come here by the order of God 
to reclaim the Blood Royal. She is quite ready to make 
peace, if you are willing to give her satisfaction, by 
giving and paying back to France what you have taken. 
And as for you, archers, companions-in-arms, gentlemen 
and others who are before the town of Orleans, return 
to your own countries, by God's order ; and if this be 
not done, then hear the message of the Maid, who 
will shortly come upon you, to your very great hurt. 
King of England, I am a Chieftain of war and, if this be 
not done, wheresoever I find your followers in France, 
I will make them leave, willingly or unwillingly ; if they 
will not obey, I will have them put to death. I am sent 
here by God, the King of Heaven, body for body, to 
drive them all out of the whole of France. And if they 
will obey, I will have mercy on them. And do not 
think in yourselves that you will get possession of the 
realm of France from God the King of Heaven, Son of 
the Blessed Mary ; for King Charles will gain it, the 
true heir : for God, the King of Heaven, so wills it, and 
it is revealed to him [the King] by the Maid, and he will 
enter Paris with a good company. If you will not 
believe the message of God and of the Maid and act 
aright, in whatsoever place we find you we will enter 
therein and make so great a disturbance that for a 
thousand years none in France will be so great. And 
believe surely that the King of Heaven will send greater 
power to the Maid, to her and her good men-at-arms, 
than you can bring to the attack ; and, when it comes to 
blows, we shall see who has the better right from the 
God of Heaven. You, Duke of Bedford, the Maid 



3 8 JEANNE D'ARC 

prays and enjoins you, that you do not come to grievous 
hurt. If you will give her satisfactory pledges, you may 
yet join with her, so that the French may do the fairest 
deed that has ever yet been done for Christendom. And 
answer, if you wish to make peace in the City of Orleans ; 
if this be not done, you may be shortly reminded of 
it, to your very great hurt. Written this Tuesday in 
Holy Week, March 22nd, 1428." 

" Do you know this letter ? " 

" Yes, excepting three words. In place of ' give up 
to the Maid/ it should be 'give up to the King/ The 
T words ' Chieftain of war ' and 6 body for body ' were not 
Mn the letter I sent. None of the Lords ever dictated 
these letters to me ; it was I myself alone who dictated 
them before sending them. Nevertheless, I always 
shewed them to some of my party. Before seven years 
are passed, the English will lose a greater wager 
than they have already done at Orleans ; they will lose 
everything in France. 1 The English will have in 
France a greater loss than they have ever had, and 
that by a great victory which God will send to the 
French." 

" How do you know this ? " 

" I know it well by revelation, which has been made 
to me, and that this will happen within seven years ; and 
I am sore vexed that it is deferred so long. I know it 
by revelation, as clearly as I know that you are before 
me at this moment." 

" When will this happen ? " 

" I know neither the day nor the hour." 

"In what year will it happen ? " 

" You will not have any more. Nevertheless, I 
heartily wish it might be before Saint John's Day." 

" Did you not say that this would happen before 
Martinmas, in winter ?" 

1 The English lost Paris in 1436. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 39 

" I said that before Martinmas many things would be 
seen, and that the English might perhaps be over- 
thrown." l 

" What did you say to John Gris, your keeper, on the 
subject of the Feast of Saint Martin ? " 

" I have told you." 

" Through whom did you know that this would 
happen ? " 

" Through Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret." 

"Was Saint Gabriel with Saint Michael when he 
came to you ? " 

" I do not remember." 

" Since last Tuesday, have you had any converse 
with Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret ? " 

"Yes, but I do not know at what time.' 

" What day ?" 

" Yesterday and to-day ; there is never a day that I 
do not hear them." 

" Do you always see them in the same dress ? " 

" I see them always under the same form, and their 
heads are richly crowned. I do not speak of the rest 
of their clothing : I know nothing of their dresses." 

" How do you know whether the object that appears 
to you is male or female ? " 

" I know well enough. I recognize them by their 
voices, as they revealed themselves to me ; I know 
nothing but by the revelation and order of God." 

"What part of their heads do you see ? " 

" The face." 

" These saints who shew themselves to you, have they 
any hair ? " ' 

" It is well to know they have." 

"Is there anything between their crowns and their 
hair ? " 

1 Compiegne was relieved early in November ; Saint Martin's Day is 
November nth. 



L 



40 JEANNE D'ARC 

"No." 

" Is their hair long and hanging down ? " 

" I know nothing about it. I do not know if they 
have arms or other members. They speak very well 
and- in very good language ; I hear them very well." 

" How do they speak if they have no members ? " 

" I refer me to God. The voice is beautiful, sweet, 
and low ; it speaks in the French tongue." 

" Does not Saint Margaret speak English ? " 

" Why should she speak English, when she is not on 
the English side?" 

" On these crowned heads, were there rings ? in the 
ears or elsewhere ? " 

" I know nothing about it." 

" Have you any rings yourself ? " 

[Addressing herself to Us, the Bishop :] " You have 
one of mine ; give it back to me. The Burgundians 
have another of them. I pray you, if you have my ring, 
shew it to me." 

"Who gave you the ring which the Burgundians 
[now] have ? " 

" My father or my mother. I think the Names ' Jhesus 
Maria ' are engraved on it. I do not know who had 
them written there ; there is not, I should say, any stone 
in the ring; it was given to me at Domremy. It was 
my brother who gave me the other the one you have." 
[Continuing to address herself to Us, the Bishop :] " I 
charge you to give it to the Church. I never cured 
any one with any of my rings." 

" Did Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret speak to 
you under the tree of which mention has been made ? " 

" I know nothing of it." 

" Did they speak to you at the spring, which is near 
the tree ? " 

" Yes, I have heard them there ; but what they said 
then, I do not know." 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 41 

" What did they promise you, there or elsewhere ? " 

" They have never promised me anything, except by 
God's leave." 

<f But still, what promises have they made to you ? " 

" That is not in your Case : not at all. Upon other 
subjects, they told me that my King would be re- 
established in his Kingdom, whether his enemies willed 
it or no ; they told me also that they would lead me to 
Paradise : I begged it of them, indeed." 

" Did you have any other promise from them ? " 

" There was another, but I will not tell it ; that does 
not touch on the Case. In three months I will tell you 
the other promise." 

" Have your Voices said that before three months you 
will be delivered from prison ? " 

" That is not in your Case. Nevertheless I do not 
know when I shall be delivered. But those who wish to 
send me out of the world may well go before me." 

"Has not your counsel told you that you will be 
delivered from your actual prison ? " 

" Speak to me in three months, and I will answer. 
Moreover, ask of those present, upon oath, if this touches 
on the Trial." 

We, the said Bishop, did then take the opinion of 
those present : and all considered that this did touch on 
the Trial. 

" I have already told you, you shall not know all. 
One day I must be delivered. But I wish to Jiave leave 
to tell you the day : it is for this I ask delay." 

" Have your Voices forbidden you to speak the 
truth ? " 

" Do you want me to tell you what concerns the King 
of France ? There are a number of things that do not 
touch on the Case. I know well that my King will 
regain the Kingdom of France. I know it as well as I 
know that you are before me, seated in judgment. I 



42 JEANNE D'ARC 

should die if this revelation did not comfort me every 
day." 

" What have you done with your mandrake ? " 

"I never have had one. But I have heard that 
there is one near our home, though I have never seen it. 
I have heard it is a dangerous and evil thing to keep. 
I do not know for what it is [used]." 

" Where is this mandrake of which you have heard ? " 

" I have heard that it is in the earth, near the tree of 
which I spoke before ; but I do not know the place. 
Above this mandrake, there was, it is said, a hazel 
tree." 

"What have you heard said was the use of this 
mandrake ? " 

" To make money come ; but I do not believe it. 
My Voice never spoke to me of that." 

" In what likeness did Saint Michael appear to you ? " 

" I did not see a crown : I know nothing of his 
dress." 

"Was he naked?" 

" Do you think God has not wherewithal to clothe 
\ him?" 

" Had he hair ? " 

"Why should it have been cut off? I have not seen 
Saint Michael since I left the Castle of Crotoy. I do 
not see him often. I do not know if he has hair." 

" Has he a balance?" 2 

1 The mandrake was a part of the accepted paraphernalia of a sorcerer. 
It was kept wrapped in a silk or linen cloth, and was supposed to preserve 
its owner from poverty. Brother Richard had recently preached a sermon 
against them (April, 1429) ; and many had been burned in consequence. 

2 The balance was a frequent accessory to Saint Michael in the French 
stained glass windows of the i3th and I4th centuries. A noted example in 
the Cathedral at Aries represents him weighing the souls of the departed in 
a balance as big as himself. One of the earliest examples in England is 
that in a fresco-painting at Preston Manor, Sussex, said to be of the reign 
of Edward I., in which Saint Michael appears weighing the souls of the faith- 
ful, accompanied by Jeanne's saints, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 43 

" I know nothing about it. It was a great joy to see 
him ; it seemed to me, when I saw him, that I was not 
in mortal sin. Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret 
were pleased from time to time to receive my confession, 
each in turn. If I am in mortal sin, it is without my 
knowing it." 

" When you confessed, did you think you were in 
mortal sin ? " 

" I do not know if I am in mortal sin, and I do not 
believe I have done its works ; and, if it please God, I 
will never so be ; nor, please God, have I ever done or 
ever will do deeds which charge my soul ! " 

" What sign did you give your King that you came ^ 
from God ? " 

" I have always answered that you will not drag this 
from my lips. Go and ask it of him." 

" Have you sworn not to reveal what shall be asked 
of you touching the Trial ? " 

" I have already told you that I will tell you nothing 
of what concerns my King. Thereon I will not 
speak." 

" Do you not know the sign that you gave to the ^ 
King ? " 

" You will not know it from me." 

" But this touches on the Trial." 

" Of what I have promised to keep secret, I will tell 
you nothing. I have already said, even here, that I 
could not tell you without perjury." -. 

" To whom have you promised this ? " 

" To Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret ; and this 
hath been shewn to the King. I promised them, 
without their asking it of me, of my own free-will, of / 
myself, because too many people might have questioned 
me had I not promised it to my Saints." 

" When you shewed your sign to the King, were you 
alone with him ? " 



44 JEANNE D'ARC 

" I do not take account of any one else, although there 
were many people near." 

"When you shewed this sign to the King, did you see 
a crown on his head ? " 

" I cannot tell you without perjury." 

" Had your King a crown at Rheims ? " 

" I think my King took with joy the crown that he 
had at Rheims ; but another, much richer, would have 
been given him later. He acted thus to hurry on his 
work, at the request of the people of the town of Rheims, 
to avoid too long a charge upon them of the soldiers. If 
he had waited, he would have had a crown a thousand 
times more rich." 

" Have you seen this richer crown ? " 

" I cannot tell you without incurring perjury ; and, 
though I have not seen it, I have heard that it is rich 
and valuable to a degree." 

This done, we put an end to the interrogation and 
postponed the remainder to Saturday next, 8 o'clock 
in the morning, in the same place, summoning all the 
Assessors to be present. 



Saturday, March $rd, in the same place, the Bishop 
and 4 1 Assessors present. 

In their presence, We required the said Jeanne simply 
and absolutely to swear to speak the truth on what 
should be asked of her. She replied : 

" I am ready to swear as I have already done." 

And thus did she swear, her hands on the Holy 
Gospels. 

Afterwards, because she had said, in previous En- 
quiries, that Saint Michael had wings, but had said 
nothing of the body and members of Saint Catherine 
and Saint Margaret, We asked her what she wished 
to say thereon. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 45 

" I have told you what I know ; I will answer you 
nothing more. I saw Saint Michael and these two Saints 
so well that I know they are Saints of Paradise." 

" Did you see anything else of them but the face ? " 

" I have told you what I know ; but to tell you all I 
know, I would rather that you made me cut my throat. 
All that I know touching the Trial I will tell you 
willingly." 

" Do you think that Saint Michael and Saint Gabriel 
have human heads ? " 

" I saw them with my eyes ; and I believe it was they 
as firmly as I believe there is a God." 

" Do you think that God made them in the form and 
fashion that you saw ? " 

"Yes." 

" Do you think that God did from the first create them 
in this form and fashion ? " 

" You will have no more at present than what I have 
answered." 

" Do you know by revelation if you will escape ? " 

" That does not touch on your Case. Do you wish 
me to speak against myself ? " 

" Have your Voices told you anything ? " 

" That is not in your Case. I refer me to the Case. 
If all concerned you, I would tell you all. By my 
faith, I know neither the day nor the hour that I shall 
escape ! " 

" Have your Voices told you anything in a general 
way ? " 

"Yes, truly, they have told me that I shall be de- 
livered, but I know neither the day nor the hour. They 
said to me : ' Be of good courage and keep a cheerful 
countenance.' ' 

" When you first came to the King, did he ask you 
if you had any revelation about your change of 
dress ? " 



46 JEANNE D'ARC 

" I have answered you about that. I do not remember 
if I was asked. It is written at Poitiers." 

" Do you not remember if the Masters who questioned 
you in the other Consistory, some during a month, others 
during three weeks, questioned you about your change 
of dress ? " 

" I do not remember. But they asked me where I 
had assumed this man's dress ; and I told them it was 
at Vaucouleurs." 

" Did the aforesaid Masters ask you if it were by order 
of your Voice that you took this dress ? " 

" I do not remember." 

"Did not your Queen 1 ask you, the first time you 
went to visit her ? " 

" I do not remember." 

" Did not your King, your Queen, or some of your 
party, tell you to take off this man's dress ? " 

" That is not in your Case." 

" Were you not so told at the Castle of Beaurevoir ?" 5 

[Here commences the French Version, or Minute, which 
is collated with the Latin Text.] 

" Yes, truly ; and I answered that I would not take 
it off without leave from God. The Demoiselle de 
Luxembourg 3 and the Lady de Beaurevoir 4 offered 
me a woman's dress, or cloth to make one, telling me to 
wear it. I answered them that I had not leave from 
Our Lord, and that it was not yet time." 

1 Mary of Anjou, wife of Charles VII., daughter of Louis, Duke of Anjou 
and Yolande of Arragon. 

2 Jeanne was taken from Beaurevoir early in August, and removed from 
there, when the negotiations for selling her were complete, about the middle 
of November. 

3 Jeanne, Countess de Saint-Pol et Ligny, sister to Count Waleran de 
Luxembourg and aunt to Jean de Luxembourg. 

4 Jeanne de Bethune, Viscountess de Meaux, wife of Jean de Luxembourg. 
Both these ladies were at Beaurevoir during Jeanne's captivity, and shewed 
her great kindness, even interceding for her that she should not be sold to 
the English. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 4 7 

" Did Messire Jean de Pressy l and others at Arras 
never offer you a woman's dress ? " 

" He and many others have oftentimes offered it to 
me." 

" Do you think that you would have done wrong or 
committed mortal sin by taking a woman's dress ? " 

" I did better to obey and serve my Sovereign Lord, 
who is God. Had I dared to do it, I would sooner have 
done it at the request of these ladies than of any other 
ladies in France, excepting my Queen." 

" When God revealed it to you that you should change 
your dress, was it by the voice of Saint Michael, Saint 
Catherine, or Saint Margaret ? " 

" You shall not have anything more at present." 

" When your King first set you to work, and when 
you had your banner made, did not the men-at-arms 
and others have their pennons made in the style of 
yours ? " 

"It is well to know that the Lords retained their own 
arms. Some of my companions-in-arms had them made 
at their pleasure ; others not." 

" Of what material did they have them made ? Of 
linen or of cloth ? " 

"It was of white satin ; and on some there were 
fleur-de-lys. In my company I had only two or three 
lances. But my companions-in-arms now and then had 
them made like mine. They only did this to know their 
men from others." 

" Did they often renew these pennons ? " 

" I do not know. When the lances were broken, they 
had new ones made." 

" Have you sometimes said that the pennons which 
were like yours would be fortunate ? " 

1 The Sieur de Pressy, in Artois. Present in the Burgundian camp when 
Jeanne was taken prisoner, and afterwards at Arras, where she was imprisoned 
on her way from Beaurevoir to Rouen. The questions seem to suggest that 
Beaupere had before him some information which has not come down to us. 



48 JEANNE D'ARC 

" I sometimes said to my followers : * Go in boldly 
among the English ! ' and I myself did likewise." 

" Did you tell them to carry themselves boldly, and 
they would be fortunate ? " 

" I have certainly told them what has happened and 
what will yet happen." 

" Did you put, or did you ever cause to be put, Holy 
Water on the pennons when they were carried for the 
first time ? " 

" I know nothing of it ; and if that were done, it was 
not by my order." 

" Did you never see any sprinkled ? " 

" That is not in your Case. If I ever did see any 
sprinkled, I am advised not to answer about it." 

" Did your companions-in-arms never put on their 
pennons ' Jhesus Maria ' ? " 

" By my faith ! I do not know." 

" Have you not yourself carried cloth, or caused it 
to be carried, in procession round an altar or a church, 
and afterwards employed this cloth for pennons ? " 

" No ; and I never saw it done." 

" When you were before Jargeau, what did you bear 
at the back of your helmet ? Was it not something 
round?" 1 

" By my faith ! there was nothing." 

" Did you ever know Brother Richard ? " 

" I had not seen him when I came before Troyes." 

" What countenance did Brother Richard give you ? " 

1 This may perhaps refer to a popular belief in a halo, as of a Saint, 
surrounding the Maid's head. 

2 Brother Richard, a Mendicant Friar ; some say, Augustan ; some, 
Cordelier. He was preaching in Paris and the neighbourhood in 1428-9 ; 
and said, amongst other things, in a sermon at Sainte Genevieve, April i6th, 
1419, that "strange things would happen in 1430." He professed to have 
been in Jerusalem ; and his sermons were so popular that congregations 
were found to listen to him for 10 or n hours, from 5 o'clock in the 
morning ! He was driven out of Paris by the English and went to Troyes, 
where he joined the Maid. 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 49 

" I suppose after the fashion of the town of Troyes 
who sent him to me, saying that they feared Jeanne 
was not a thing that came to them from God. 
When he approached me, Brother Richard made the 
sign of the Cross and sprinkled Holy Water ; and 
I said to him : ' Approach boldly, I shall not fly / 
away ! ' " 

" Have you never seen, nor had made, any images or 
picture of yourself and in your likeness ? " 

" I saw at Arras a painting 1 in the hands of a Scot : it 
was like me. I was represented fully armed, presenting 
a letter to my King, one knee on the ground. I have 
never seen, nor had made, any other image or painting 
in my likeness." 

" In the house of your host at Orleans, was there not 
a picture in which was painted three women, with the< 
words : ' Justice, Peace, Union ' ? " 

" I know nothing about it." 

" Do you not know that the people of your party ha 
services, masses, and prayers offered for you ? " 

" I know nothing of it ; if they had any service, it was 
not by my order ; but if they prayed for me, my opinion 
is they did not do ill." 

" Did those of your party firmly believe that you were 
sent from God ? " 

" I do not know if they believed it, and in this I 
refer to their own feeling in this matter. But even 
though they do not believe, yet am I sent from God." 

1 No absolutely authentic portraits of Jeanne are known. A head of fine 
work, the portrait of a young girl wearing a casque and of Jeanne's time, 
is at the Musee Historique at Orleans. Tradition asserts that when Jeanne 
entered Orleans in triumph with the relieving force a sculptor modelled 
the head of his statue of St. Maurice from Jeanne herself. This head is a 
portion of the statue which formerly stood in the church at Orleans dedi- 
cated to St. Maurice. The church was demolished in 1850. A photograph 
from the head is given as the frontispiece to this book, and an admirable 
copy may be seen at the Musee du Trocadero in Paris. It should have been 
stated on the frontispiece that the original is at Orleans, the copy in Paris. 

E 



5 o JEANNE D'ARC 

" Do you not think they have a good belief, if they 
believe this ? " 

" If they think that I am sent from God, they will not 
be deceived." 

" In what spirit did the people of your party kiss your 
hands and your garments ? " 

" Many came to see me willingly, but they kissed my 
hands as little as I could help. The poorjolk came to 
me readily, because I never did them any unkindness : 
on the contrary, I loved to help them." 

" What honour did the people of Troyes do you on 
your entry ? " 

" None at all. Brother Richard, so far as I remember, 
entered at the same time as I and our people ; I do 
not recall seeing him at the entry. 

" Did he not preach a sermon on your arrival in the 
town ? " 

" I did not stop there at all, and did not even sleep 
there : I know nothing of his sermon." 

" Were you many days at Rheims ? " 

" We were there, I believe, five or six days." 

" Did you not act there as Godmother ? " [" lever 
fenfant"] 

"At Troyes I did, to one child. At Rheims, I do not 
remember it, nor at Chateau-Thierry. I was Godmother 
twice at Saint-Denis, in France. Usually, I gave to the 
boys the name of Charles, in honour of my King ; and 
to the girls, Jeanne. At other times, I gave such names 
as pleased the mothers." 

"Did not the good women of the town touch with 
their rings that which you wore on your finger ? " 

" Many women touched my hands and my rings ; 
but I know nothing of their feelings nor their in- 



tention." 



"Who of your people, before Chateau- Thierry, caught 
butterflies in your standard ? " 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 51 

" My people never did such a thing : it is your side 
who have invented it." 

" What did you do at Rheims with the gloves with 
which your King was consecrated ? " 

" There were favours of gloves for the knights and 
nobles at Rheims. There was one who lost his gloves ; 
I did not say he would find them again. My 
standard has been in the Church of Rheims ; and it 
seems to me it was near the altar. 1 I myself bore it 
for a space there. I do not know if Brother Richard 
held it." 

" When you were going through the country, did you 
often receive the Sacraments of Penance and the 
Eucharist in the good towns ? " 

"Yes, from time to time." 

" Did you receive the said Sacraments in man's 
dress ? " 

" Yes ; but I do not remember ever to have received 
them armed." 

" Why did you take the horse of the Bishop of 
Senlis?" 

" It was bought for 200 saluts. 2 If he received these 
200 saluts, I do not know. There was a place fixed 
at which they were to be paid. I wrote to him that 
he might have his horse back if he wished ; as for me, 

1 Latin text adds : u dum rex suus consecraretur? Tradition asserts that 
at the Coronation Jeanne stood on the left and slightly in front of the altar, 
coming direct from the sacristy of the cathedral. The coronation throne 
stood in front of the high altar. The cathedral and its painted glass exist 
as at the Coronation, with the exception of some comparatively recent stone 
work surrounding the choir. The Coronation of the Kings of France has 
taken place at Rheims Cathedral since the twelfth century. The King was 
not to all intents King of France until he had been anointed by the Holy Oil, 
brought in great state to the cathedral from the more ancient church of 
St. Remy. 

An inscription on the front of the Hotel Maison Rouge, situated near the 
west entrance of the cathedral, states that the town entertained Jeanne's 
father and mother in that house during the Coronation. 

2 About ^200. 

E 2 



5 2 



JEANNE D'ARC 



I did not wish it, because it was worth nothing for 
weight-carrying. " 

" How old was the child you visited at Lagny ? " 

"The child was three days old. It was brought 
before the image of Our Lady. They told me that the 
young girls of the village were before this image, and 
that I might wish to go also and pray God and Our 
Lady to give life to this infant. I went and prayed 
with them. At last, life returned to the child, who 
yawned three times, and was then baptized ; soon 
after, it died, and was buried in consecrated ground. 
It was three days, they said, since life had departed 
from the child ; it was as black as my coat ; when it 
yawned, the colour began to return to it. I was with 
the other young girls, praying and kneeling before 
Our Lady." 

" Did they not say in the village that it was done 
through you, and at your prayer ? " 

" I did not enquire about it." 

" Have you ever seen or known Catherine de La 
Rochelle ? " 

" Yes, at Jargeau and at Montfaucon in Berry." 

" Did not Catherine shew you a lady, robed in white, 
who, she said, sometimes appeared to her ? " 

" No." 

" What did this Catherine say to you ? " 

" That a white lady came to her, dressed in cloth-of- 
gold, who told her to go through the good cities with 
heralds and trumpets which the King would give to her, 
and proclaim that any one who had gold, silver, or any 
concealed treasure should bring it immediately : that 
those who did not do so, and who had anything hidden, 
she would know, and would be able to discover the 
treasure. With these treasures, she told me, she would 
pay my men-at-arms. I told Catherine that she should 
return to her husband, look after her home, and bring 



SIX PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS 53 

up her children. And in order to have some cer- 
tainty as to her mission, I spoke of it, either to Saint 
Catherine or to Saint Margaret, who told me that the 
mission of this Catherine was mere folly and nothing 
else. I wrote to the King as to what he should do 
about it ; and, when I afterwards went to him, I told him 
that this mission of Catherine was only folly and nothing 
more. Nevertheless, Brother Richard wished to set her 
to work ; therefore were they both displeased with me, 
Brother Richard and she." 

" Did you never speak with the said Catherine on the 
project of going to La Charite-sur- Loire ? " 

" She did not advise me to go there : it was too cold, 
and she would not go. She told me she wished to visit 
the Duke of Burgundy in order to make peace. I told 
her it seemed to me that peace would be found only 
{ at the end of the lance. I asked her if this white lady 
who appeared to her came to her every night ? and I 
said that, to see her, I would sleep one night with her 
in the same bed. I went to bed ; I watched till mid- 
night ; I saw nothing, and then went to sleep. When 
morning came, I asked her if the White Lady had come. 
' Yes, Jeanne,' she answered me, ' while you were asleep 
she came ; and I could not awaken you.' Then I asked 
her if she would come again the following night. ' Yes/ 
she told me. For this reason I slept by day that I 
might be able to watch the night following. I went to 
bed with Catherine ; watched all the night following : 
but saw nothing, although I asked her often, ' Will she 
never come ? ' and she always answered me, ' Yes, in a 



moment/ 



" What did you do in the trenches of La Charite ? " 1 
" I made an assault there ; but I neither threw, nor 
caused to be thrown, Holy Water by way of aspersion." 
1 November Qth, 1429. 



54 JEANNE D'ARC 

" Why did you not enter La Charite, if you had 
command from God to do so ? " 

" Who told you I had God's command for it ? " 

" Did you not have counsel of your Voice ? " 

" I wished to go into France. The men-at-arms told 
me it was better to go first to La ChariteV' 

" Were you a long time in the Tower at Beaure- 
voir ? " 

" About four months. When I knew that the English 
were come to take me, I was very angry ; nevertheless, 
my Voices forbade me many times to leap, In the end, 
for fear of the English, I leaped, and commended myself 
to God and Our Lady. I was wounded. When I had 
leaped, the Voice of Saint Catherine said to me I was 
to be of good cheer, 1 for those at Compiegne would 
have succour. I prayed always for those at Compiegne, 
with my Counsel." 

" What did you say when you had leaped ?" 

" Some said I was dead. As soon as the Burgundians 
saw I was alive, they reproached me with having 
leapt." 

" Did you not say then, that you would rather die than 
be in the hands of the English ? " 

" I said I would rather give up my soul to God than 
be in the hands of the English." 

" Were you not then very angry, to the extent of 
blaspheming the Name of God ?" 

" Never have I cursed any of the Saints ; and it is not 
my habit to swear." 

" On the subject of Soissons 2 and the Captain who 
surrendered the town, did you not blaspheme God, and 
say, if you got hold of this Captain you would have 
him cut in quarters ? " 

1 The Minute adds : " and I should be cured." 

2 Surrendered July 22nd. 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 55 

" I have never blasphemed any of the Saints ; those 
who say so have misunderstood." 

This done, Jeanne was conducted back to the place 
which had been assigned as her prison. 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS. 

The Bishop decrees that the Enquiries, if any are 
thought necessary, shall henceforth be made in private. 

Afterwards, We, the Bishop, did say that, in pursuing 
this Process and without in any way discontinuing it, We 
would call before Us some Doctors and Masters, experts 
in law, religious and civil, in order, by them, to gather 
up and collect what shall seem to them of a nature to be 
gathered up and collected, in Jeanne's Declarations, as 
these have already been established by her own answers 
set down in writing. Their labour ended, if there should 
remain any points, on the which it would seem Jeanne 
should submit to more full enquiry, We will make, for 
this supplementary examination, choice of certain Doc- 
tors ; and in this manner We shall not fatigue all and 
each of the Masters, who, at this moment, assist Us in 
such great numbers. These new enquiries shall also be 
put into writing, in order that the above-named Doctors 
and other approved men of science may deliberate and 
furnish their opinion and advice at the right moment. 
In the meantime, We invite all the Assessors to study 
at home the Process, and what they have already gathered 
from it ; to search out the consequences of which the 
affair is susceptible ; and to submit the result of their 
deliberations either to Us, or to the Doctors who shall 
be appointed by Us if they do not prefer rather to 
reserve themselves for the time and place when they 
shall have deliberated in full maturity ; and to give their 
opinion on full knowledge of the Process. 



5 6 JEANNE D'ARC 

In the meantime, We expressly forbid all and each 
to leave Rouen without Our permission before the full 
completion of the Process. 



Meeting at the Bishop's House of several Doctors. 

Sunday, March 4th, and the Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 
and Qth of the same month, We, the Bishop, assembled 
in Our dwelling, many grave Doctors- and Masters-in- 
law, sacred and civil, who were charged by Us to collect 
all that has been confessed or answered by Jeanne in 
these Enquiries, and to extract therefrom the points on 
which she answered in an incomplete manner, and which 
seem to these Doctors susceptible of further examina- 
tion. This double work having been effected by them, 
We, the said Bishop, by the advice of the said Doctors, 
decide that there is occasion to proceed to further 
enquiries. But because Our numerous occupations do 
not permit Us to attend ourselves, 1 we appoint, to pro- 
ceed therein, the venerable and discreet person, Jean 
Delafontaine, Master of Arts and Licentiate in Canon 
Law, who will interrogate the said Jeanne in Our name. 
We have for this appointed the Qth March, in presence 
of the Doctors and Masters, Jean Beaupere, Jacques de 
Touraine, Nicolas Midi, Pierre Maurice, Thomas de 
Courcelles, Nicolas Loyseleur, and Guillaume Manchon. 
Saturday, March loth, We, the Bishop, repaired to 
the part of the Castle of Rouen given to Jeanne as a 
prison, where, being assisted by Maitre Jean Delafon- 
taine, the Commissary appointed by Us, and by the 
venerable Doctors and Masters in Theology, Nicolas 
Midi, and Gerard Feuillet (witnesses, Jean Fecard, 
Advocate ; and Maitre Jean Massieu, Priest), We sum- 

1 In spite of this assertion, the Bishop was present at four out of the 
nine Examinations. 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 



57 



moned Jeanne to make and take oath to speak the truth 
on what should be asked of her. She replied : 

" I promise to speak truth on what touches your Case ; 
but the more you constrain me to swear, the later will I 
tell you." 

Afterwards, the examination of Jeanne by Maitre Jean 
Delafontaine took place as follows : 

" On the faith of the oath you have just taken, from 
whence had you started when you went the last time to 
Compiegne ? " 

" From Crespy, in Valois." 

" When you were at Compiegne, were you several 
days before you made your sally or attack ? " 

11 1 arrived there secretly early in the morning, 1 and 
entered the town without the enemy knowing anything 
of it ; and that same day, in the evening, I made the 
sally in which I was taken." 

" When you made your sally, did they ring the bells ? " 

"If they did ring them it was not by my order or 
knowledge ; I do not think it was so, and I do not 
remember to have said they rang." 

" Did you make this sally by command of your Voice ? " 

"During the Easter week of last year, being in the 
trenches of Melun, it was told me by my Voices that 
is to say, by Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret ' Thou 
wilt be taken before Saint John's Day ; and so it must 
be : do not torment thyself about it : be resigned ; God 
will help thee.' " 

" Before this occasion at Melun, had not your Voices 
ever told you that you would be taken ? " 

" Yes, many times and nearly every day. And I asked 
of my Voices that, when I should be taken, I might die 
soon, without long suffering in. prison.; and they said to 
me : * Be resigned to all thus it must be.' But they 
did not tell me the time ; and if I had known it, I should 

1 On May 23rd, 1430. 



58 JEANNE D'ARC 

not have gone. Often I asked to know the hour : they 
never told me." 

" Did your Voices command you to make this sally 
from Compiegne, and signify that you would be taken if 
you went ? " 

" If I had known the hour when I should be taken, I 
should never have gone of mine own free-will ; I should 
always have obeyed their commands in the end, what- 
ever might happen to me." 

" When you made this sally from Compiegne had you 
any Voice or revelation about making it ? " 

" That day I did not know at all that I should be 
taken, and I had no other command to go forth ; but 
they had always told me it was necessary for me to 
be taken prisoner." 

"When you made this sally, did you pass by the 
Bridge of Compiegne ? " 

" I passed by the bridge and the boulevard, and went 
with the ^company of followers of my side against the 
followers of my Lord of Luxembourg. I drove them 
back twice against the camp of the Burgundians, and 
the third time, to the middle of the highway. The 
English who were there then cut off the road from 
me and my people, between us and the boulevard. 
For this reason, my followers retreated, and, in re- 
treating towards the fields, on the Picardy side, near 
the boulevard, I was taken. Between Compiegne and 
the place where I was taken there is nothing but the 
stream and the boulevard with its ditch." 

" Did you not have on :he banner you carried a 
representation of the world, painted with two angels, 
etc.?" 

" Yes ; and I had no other." 

"What did this signify, to paint God holding the 
world, and these angels ? " 

" Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret told me that 




THE BATTLE OF HERRINGS. 

From a French Manuscript of the XVth Century. 




THE MAID TAKEN PRISONER. 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 59 

I was to take my banner and to carry it boldly, and to 
have painted on it the King of Heaven. I told my 
King, much against my will : that is all I can tell of 
the signification of this painting." 

" Have you not a shield and arms ? " 

" I never had one ; but my King has granted arms to 
my brothers, that is to say, a shield azure, two fleurs- 
de-lys of gold, and a sword betwixt. These arms I 
described in this town to a painter, because he asked what 
arms I bore. The King gave them to my brothers, 
[to please * them,] without request from me and without 
revelation." 

" Had you, when you were taken, a horse, charger, 
or hackney ? " 

" I was on horseback ; the one which I was riding 
when I was taken was a demi-charger." 

" Who had given you this horse ? " 

" My King, or his people, from the King's money. 
I had five chargers from the King's money, without 
counting my hacks, of which I had more than seven." 

"Had you any other riches from your King besides 
these horses ? " . 

" I asked nothing from my King, except good arms, 
good horses, and money to pay my household." 

" Had you no treasure ? " 

"The ten or twelve thousand I was worth is not much 
treasure to carry on war, very little indeed ; and such 
goods are my brothers', in my opinion ; what I have 
is my King's own money." 

" What was the sign 2 that came to your King when 
you went to him ? " J 

" It was beautiful, honourable, and most credible ; the 
best and richest in the world." 

1 In the Minute only. 

2 Not in the Minute. Latin text reads : " quod dedit regi suo dum venit 
ad eum" 



60 JEANNE D'ARC 

" Then why will you not tell it and shew it, since you 
wished to have the sign J of Catherine de la Rochelle ? " 

" I might not have asked to know the sign of the said 
Catherine, had that sign been as well shewn before 
notable people of the Church and others, Archbishops 
and Bishops, as mine was before the Archbishop of 
Rheims and other Bishops whose names I know not. 
There were there also Charles de Bourbon, the Sire de 
la Tremouille, the Duke d'Alen^on, 2 and many other 
knights, who saw and heard it as well as I see those 
who speak to me to-day ; and, besides, I knew already, 
through Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret, that the 
doings of this Catherine were as nothing." 

" Does this sign still last ? " 

" It is well to know it ; it will last a thousand years 
and more. My sign is with the King's treasure." 

" Is it gold, silver, precious stones, or a crown ? " 

" I will tell you nothing more about it. No man in 
the world could devise so rich a thing as this sign ; but 
the sign that you need is that God may deliver me from 
your hands ; that is the most sure sign He could send 
you. When I was about to start to see my King, my 
Voices told me : ' Go boldly ; when thou art before the 
King, he shall have a sure sign to receive thee and 
believe in thee/ ' 

"When the sign came to your King, what reverence 
did you make to it ? Did it come from God ? " 

" I thanked Our Lord for having delivered me from 
the trouble that I had with the clergy of my party, who 
were arguing against me ; and I knelt down several 
times. An Angel from God, and from none other, sent 
the sign to my King ; and for this I have many times 

1 The " sign," i.e. the appearance of " the White Lady." 

2 Jean, Duke d'Alen^on : son of the Duke killed at Agincourt. He was 
of the blood-royal of France, and had married a daughter of the Duke 
d' Orleans. Jeanne was on very friendly terms with him, and always called 
him her " Beau Due." 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 61 

thanked Our Lord. The priests of that party ceased to . . 
attack me when they had recognized the sign." 

" The Clergy of that party then saw the sign ? " 

" When my King and those who were with him had 
seen the sign and also the Angel 1 that brought it, I asked 
my King if he were satisfied. He answered, Yes. 
Then I left, and went to a little chapel close by. I have 
since heard that, after I left, more than three hundred 
persons saw the said sign. For love of me and that I 
should not be questioned about it, God permitted certain 
men of my party to see the sign in reality." 

" Your King and you, did you do reverence to the 
Angel who brought the sign ? " 

" Yes ; I made a salutation, knelt down, and took off 
my cap." 



Monday, March \zth, in the morning; in Jeanne s 

prison. Present : The Bishop, assisted by Jean Delafon- 

taine, Commissary ; Nicholas Midi and Gerard Feuillet ; 

and as their witnesses : Thomas Fiefvet, Pasquier de 

Vaux, and Nicolas de Houbent. 

In presence of all the above-named, We required the 
said Jeanne to swear to speak truth on what should be 
asked her. 

She replied : " On what touches your Case, as I have 
said already, I will willingly speak truth." And thus did 
she make oath. 

Then, by Our order, she was questioned by Maitre 
Jean Delafontaine : 

" Did not the Angel who bore the sign to your King 
speak to him ? " 

" Yes, he spoke to him ; and he told my King it 

1 The allegory of the Angel sent with a crown, here first given to avoid 
"perjury," i.e., breaking her promise to preserve the King's secret, is 
explained by Jeanne herself, on the last day of her life, to mean her own 
mission from Heaven to lead Charles to his crowning. 



62 JEANNE D'ARC 

was necessary that I should be set to work, so that the 
country might be soon relieved." 

" Was the Angel who bore the sign to your King the 
same Angel who had before appeared to you ? " 

" It is all one ; and he has never failed me." 

" Has not the Angel, then, failed you with regard to 
the good things of this life, in that you have been taken 
prisoner ? " 

" I think, as it has pleased Our Lord, that it is for my 
well-being that I was taken prisoner." 

" Has your Angel never failed you in the good things 
of grace ? " 

" How can he fail me, when he comforts me every 
day ? My comfort comes from Saint Catherine and 
Saint Margaret." 

" Do you call them, or do they come without being 
called ? " 

" They often come without being called ; and other 
times, if they do not come soon, I pray Our Lord to 
send them." 

" Have you sometimes called them without their 
coming ? " 

" I have never had need of them without having 
them." 

" Has Saint Denis appeared to you sometimes ? " 

" Not that I know." 

" When you promised Our Saviour to preserve your 
virginity, was it to Him that you spoke ?" 

"It would quite suffice that I give my promise to 
those who were sent by Him that is to say, to Saint 
Catherine and Saint Margaret." 

" Who induced you to have cited a man of the town 
of Toul on the question of marriage ? " 

' I did not have him cited ; it was he, on the contrary, 
who had me cited ; and then I swore before the Judge 
\to speak the truth. And besides, I had promised 

<r 



V w 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 63 

nothing to this man. From the first time I heard my 
Voices, I dedicated my virginity for so long as it should "]' 
please God ; and I was then about thirteen years of age. 
My Voices told me I should win my case in this town of 
Toul." 

" As to your visions, did you speak of them to your 
Cure or to any other Churchman ? " 

" No ; only to Robert de Baudricourt and to my King. 
It was not my Voices who compelled me to keep them 
secret ; but I feared to reveal them, in dread that the 
Burgundians might put some hindrance in the way of 
my journey ; and, in particular, I was afraid that my 
father would hinder it." 

" Do you think that you did right to go without leave 
from your father or mother, when you should 'honour 
your father and mother ' ? " 

" In all things I obeyed them well, except in that of 
the journey : but afterwards I wrote to them, and they 
forgave me." 

" When you left your father and mother, do you think 
you sinned ? " 

"If God commanded, it was right to obey. If God 
commanded it, had I had a hundred fathers and mothers, 1 
and had I been a king's daughter, I should have gone." J 

" Did you ask your Voices if you should announce 
your departure to your father and mother ? " 

" As to my father and mother, my Voices would have 
been quite willing I should tell them, had it not been for 
the trouble I should have caused them in speaking of this. 
As for myself, I would not have told them at any price. 
My Voices agreed that I might either speak to my 
father and mother or be silent." 

" Did you do reverence to Saint Michael and the 
Angels when you saw them ? " 

" Yes ; and, after they were gone I kissed the earth 
where they had been." 



64 JEANNE D'ARC 

" Were they long with you ? " 

"Very often they came among the faithful [i.e., in 
church] without being seen ; and often I saw them 
among the faithful." 

" Had you had any letters from Saint Michael or 
from your Voices ? " 

" I have not permission to tell you. Eight days from 
this, I will tell you willingly what I know." 

" Did not your Voices call you ' Daughter of God, 
daughter of the Church, great-hearted daughter ? ' ' 

" Before the raising of the Siege of Orleans and 
every day since, when they speak to me, they call me 
often, ' Jeanne the Maid, Daughter of God.* ' 

" Since you call yourself a daughter of God, why do 
you not willingly say ' Our Father ' ? " 

" I do say it willingly. Last time, when I refused, it 
was because I meant that my Lord of Beauvais should 
hear me in confession." 



The same day, Monday, in the afternoon, in the same 
place. Present : Jean Delafontaine, Commissary ; Nico- 
las Midi ; Gerard Feuillet ; Thomas Fief vet ; Pasquier 
de Vaux ; and Nicolas de Houbent. 

The said Jeanne was interrogated as follows by Our 
order by the said Jean Delafontaine : 

" Did not your father have dreams about you before 
your departure ? " 

" When I was still with my father and mother, my 
mother told me many times that my father had spoken 
of having dreamed that I, Jeannette, his daughter, went 
away with the men-at-arms. My father and mother 
took great care to keep me safe, and held me much in 
subjection. I obeyed them in everything, except in the 
case at Toul the action for marriage. I have heard 
my mother say that my father told my brothers : ' Truly, 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 65 

I thought this thing would happen that I have 

;amed about my daughter, I would wish you to drown 
ter ; and, if you would not do it, I would drown her J 
tyself!' He nearly lost his senses when I went to 
r aucouleurs." 

" Did these thoughts and dreams come to your father ^^ v 
after you had your visions ? " 

" Yes, more than two years after I had had my first 
Voice." 

" Was it at the request of Robert de Baudricourt or 
of yourself that you took man's dress ? " 

"It was of myself, and at the request of no living 
man." 

''Did your Voices command you to take man's dress ?" 

" All that I have done of good, I have done by the 
command of my Voices. As to the dress, I will answer 
about it another time : at present I am not advised, but 
to-morrow I will answer/' 

" In taking man's dress, did you think you were doing 
wrong ? " 

" No ; even now if I were with those of my own side 
and in this man's dress, it seems to me it would be 
a great good for France to do as I did before I was 
taken." 

" How would you have delivered the Duke d'Or- 
leans ? " 

" I should have taken enough English prisoners in 
France to have exchanged him back ; if I had not taken 
enough in France, I should have crossed the sea to seek 
him in England, by force." 

" Did Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret tell you 
absolutely and without condition that you would take 
enough English to get the Duke d'Orleans, who is in 
England, or that otherwise you would cross the sea to 
seek him ? " l 

1 In the Minute : " et Padmener en trois ans " : not in the Latin Text 

F 



66 JEANNE D'ARC 

" Yes, and I said so to my King : and he allowed me 
to treat with the English lords who were then prisoners. 1 
If I had continued three years without hindrance, I 
should have delivered him. To do this, it needed less 
time than three years and more than one. But I do 
not remember about it." 

" What was the sign you gave to the King ? " 
"I shall take counsel regarding that from Saint 
Catherine." 

Monday, March \2th, assembled in Our dwelling, 
summoned by Us, the religious and discreet person, 
Brother Jean Lemaitre, of the Order of Saint Dominic, 
Deputy of the Inquisitor of the Evil of Heresy in the 
Kingdom of France, in presence of the Venerable and 
discreet persons the Lords and Masters, Thomas Fiefvet, 
Pasquier de Vaux, Nicolas de Houbent, Brother 
Ysambard de la Pierre. 

We, the Bishop, did shew to the said Deputy, that, 
at the outset of the Action for Heresy brought by us 
against the woman, commonly called Jeanne the Maid, 
We had summoned and required him, the said Deputy, 
to join with us ; and that we had offered to communicate 
to him the acts, documents and, in one word, all we 
possess bearing on the matter of the Process. He had 
then made a difficulty, not being, he told Us, com- 
missioned except for the City and Diocese of Rouen ; 
and the Action in question being deduced by Us ; by 
right of our jurisdiction of Beauvais, on territory con- 
ceded to Us for this purpose. For this cause, in order 
to give all security to this matter and by an excess of 
precaution, We have, by the advice of the Masters, 
decided to write about it to the Chief Inquisitor, request- 
ing him to come himself without delay to Rouen, or 
specially to appoint a Deputy to whom, for the deduction 

1 The Minute reads : "la laissant faire de prisonniers." 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 



67 



and completion of the Process, he might wish to give full 
powers. The said Inquisitor hath received Our letter, 
and acceding with kindness to Our request, for the 
honour and exaltation of the Orthodox Faith, he hath 
specially commissioned and appointed for this Action 
the said Brother Jean Lemaitre, as doth appear in the 
letters patent furnished and attested with the seal of the 
Inquisition. 

In consequence of this letter, We, the Bishop, summon 
and require the said Brother Jean Lemaitre, here present, 
in the terms of the said letter, to join with us in this said 
Action. 

To which the said Brother answered : that he would 
examine the Commission addressed to him, the Process 
signed by the registrars, and all that it should please Us 
to communicate to him ; and that, all being seen and 
examined by him, he will give Us an answer and will do 
for the Holy Inquisition that which is right. 

We, the Bishop, added : that the said Deputy had 
been present at a great part of the Process ; that he 
had, in consequence, been able to hear a great part of 
Jeanne's answers ; that nevertheless We held ourselves 
satisfied by what he had just said, and would certainly 
communicate to him the Process and all that had already 
been done, that he may take fuller cognizance of every- 
thing. 

The Deputy Inquisitor joins the Court. 
Tuesday, March i$tk, in the prison. Present : 
The Bishop and Brother Jean Lemaitre, assisted by 
Jean Delafontaine, Nicolas Midi, and Gerard Feuillet ; 
witnesses, Nicolas de Houbent and Ysambard de la 
Pierre. 

The said Brother Jean Lemaitre declared to Us that 
seeing the letter addressed to him which we had yester- 
day communicated, together with the other circumstances 

F 2 



68 JEANNE D'ARC 

of the Process, and all being well considered, he joins 
himself to Us and is ready to proceed with Us according 
to law and right. 

We, the Bishop, then made known with gentleness to 
Jeanne this intervention, exhorting and warning her, for 
the salvation of her soul, to speak the truth on all which 
should be asked of her. 

The Deputy Inquisitor appoints his Officers. 

And then, the Deputy of the Chief Inquisitor, wishing 
to proceed regularly in the Process, hath declared his 
choice of the Officers whose names follow : 

1. As Promoter from the Holy Inquisition, Messire 
Jean d'Estivet, Canon of the Churches of Bayeux and 
Beauvais. 

2. As Registrar of his office, Messire Nicolas Taquel, 
Priest of the Diocese of Rouen, Notary Public and 
Registrar of the Archiepiscopal Court of Rouen. 

3. As Executor of his Orders and Citations, Messire 
Jean Massieu, Priest. 

4. As keepers of the prison, the noble man, John 
Gris, Squire of the Body Guard of Our Lord the King, 
and John Berwoit. These, We, the Bishop, had, with 
the exception of Messire Nicolas Taquel, but only in 
that which concerns Our office, already appointed to the 
same functions, as confirmed for Our part in the letters 
above quoted, and as confirmed by the said Inquisitor 
by his letters, of which mention follows. The said 
officers did then take oath, between the hands of the 
said Deputy, to faithfully fulfil their functions. 

[Here follow the three letters of Nomination of the 
Promoter, d'Estivet ; the Registrar, Taquel ; and the 
Usher, Massieu: dated Tuesday, March I3th : signed 
Boisguillaume, Manchon : the nomination of Taquel, 
Registrar, is dated March i4th.] 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 69 

All which precedes having already taken place, as has 
been said up to the present time, We, the Bishop, and 
Brother Jean Lemaitre, Deputy of the Inquisitor, have 
from this moment proceeded together to all the remainder 
of the Process, and have questioned or caused questions 
to be made as it had begun. 



Tuesday, March i^th. Present: The Bishop, and 
Brother Jean Lemaztre, Jean Delafontaine, Nicolas 
Midi, Gerard Feuillet ; in the presence of Nicolas de 
Houbent and of Brother Ysambard de la Pierre. 

By Our order, Jeanne was asked as follows : 
" What was the sign you gave your King ? " 
" Will you be satisfied that I should perjure myself ? " 
" Have you promised and sworn to Saint Catherine 
that you will not tell this sign ? " 

" I promised and swore not to tell this sign, and for 
my own sake, because I was pressed too much to tell it, 
and then I said to myself : ' I promise not to speak of 
it to any one in the world.' The sign was that an Angel 
assured my King, in bringing him the crown, that he 
should have the whole realm of France, by the means 
of God's help and my labours ; that he was to start me 
on the work that is to say, to give me men-at-arms ; 
and that otherwise he would not be so soon crowned 
and consecrated." 

' Have you spoken to Saint Catherine since yester- 
day ? " 

" I have heard her since yesterday, and she has several 
times told me to reply boldly to the Judges on what they 
shall ask me touching my Case." 

" How did the Angel carry the crown ? and did he 
place it himself on your King's head ? " 

' The crown was given to an Archbishop that is, 
to the Archbishop of Rheims so it seems to me, in the 



yo JEANNE D'ARC 

presence of my King. The Archbishop received it, and 
gave it to the King. I was myself present. The crown 
was afterwards put among my King's treasures." 

" To what place was the crown brought ? " 

" To the King's Chamber, in the Castle of Chinon." 

" What day and what time ? " 

" The day, I do not know ; of the time, it was full 
day. I have no further recollection of it. Of the month 
it was March or April, it seems to me. In this present 
month of March or next April it will be two years since. 
It was after Easter." 1 

" Was it the first day that you saw the sign when the 
King saw it ? " 

" Yes, he had it the same day." 

" Of what material was the said crown ? " 

"It is well to know it was of fine gold ; it was so 
rich that I do not know how to count its riches or to 
appreciate its beauty. The crown signified that my 
King should possess the Kingdom of France." 

" Were there stones in it ? " 

" I have told you what I know about it." 

" Did you touch or kiss it ? " 

"No." 

" Did the Angel who brought this crown come from 
Heaven or earth ? " 

" He came from above, and I presume that he came 
by Our Lord's command ; he came in by the door of the 
room. When he came before my King, he did him 
reverence by bowing before him, and pronouncing the 
words I have already said ; and at the same time the 
Angel put him in mind of the great patience he had had 
in presence of so many tribulations. From the door, 
the Angel walked, and touched the earth, in coming 
to the King." 

1 March 8th, 1428 ; it was before Easter, which in that year fell on March 
7th. 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 71 

"What space was there between the door and the King?" 

" My opinion is that there was quite the space of 

a lance-length [about 10 feet] ; and he returned the 

way he came. When the Angel came, I accompanied 

him and went with him by the staircase to the King's 

Chamber. The Angel went in first, then myself, and I 

said to the King : ' Sire, there is your sign ; take it.' ' 

" Where did the Angel appear to you ? " 

" I was nearly always at prayer that God might send 

the sign to the King ; and I was at my lodging, at the 

house of a worthy woman, 1 near the Castle of Chinon, 

when he came ; afterwards, we went together to the 

King. He was accompanied by other Angels whom no 

one saw. Had it not been for love of me, and to 

free me of trouble from those that accused me, I think 

that many who saw the Angel would not have seen him." 

"Did all those who were with the King see the Angel?" 

" I believe that the Archbishop of Rheims saw him, 

and so did the Lords d'Alengon, la Tremouille, and 

Charles de Bourbon. As to the crown, many Clergy 

and others saw it who did not see the Angel." 

" Of what appearance, what height, was this Angel ? " 
" I have not permission to say ; to-morrow I will 
answer about it." 

" All the Angels who accompanied him, had they the 
same appearance ? " 

" Some resembled him well enough, others not : at 
least, so far as I saw. Some had wings, others were 
crowned. In company with them were Saint Catherine 
and Saint Margaret, who were with the Angel aforesaid, 

1 The house in which Jeanne lodged at Chinon is said to have belonged 
to a certain Regnier de la Barrier, whose widow or daughter is the " worthy 
woman" referred to. Jeanne was afterwards lodged in the Tower of Coudray, 
where her room may still be seen. It is approached by a staircase outside 
the tower. The -vaulted roof has fallen in, and the fireplace is damaged, 
but the walls are intact, and the room could easily be restored. Jeanne 
stayed in this tower from March 8th to April 2oth, 1429. 



: 



72 JEANNE D'ARC 

and the other Angels also, right up to the King's 
Chamber." 

" How did the Angel leave you ? " 

" He left me in that little Chapel. I was much vexed 
at his going ; I wept ; willingly would I have gone with 
him that is to say, my soul." 

" After the departure of the Angel, did you remain 
happy [or * were you in great fear ? "] 

" He did not leave me in either fear or terror ; but I 
was grieved at his going." 

" Is it for any merit of yours that God sent you this 
Angel?" 

"He came for a great purpose : I was in hopes that 
the King would believe the sign, and that they would 
cease to argue with me, and would aid the good people 
of Orleans. The Angel came for the merits of the King 
and of the good Duke d'Orleans." 2 

" Why to you rather than to another ? " 

" It has pleased God so to do by a simple maiden, in 
order to drive back the enemies of the King." 

" Was it told you whence the Angel had taken this 
crown ? " 

"It was brought from God ; no goldsmith in the 
world would know how to fashion it so rich and fair." 

" Whence did he take it ? " 

" I refer me to God ; and know nothing more of 
whence it was taken." 

"This crown, did it smell well and had it a good 
odour ? did it glitter ? " 

" I do not remember about it ; I will think it over." 
[Remembering :] " Yes, it smelt good, and will smell 
good always, if it be well guarded, as it should be. It 
was in the form of a crown." 

1 In the Minute only. 

2 Charles, Duke d'Orle"ans, then a prisoner in England : one of the five 
princes of the blood taken at Agincourt. 




GATE TO THE PALACE OF CAUCHON, BISHOP OF BEAUVAIS. 






NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 73 

" Did the Angel write you a letter ?" 

"No." 

" What sign had your King and the people who were 
with him and yourself, to believe that it was an Angel ? " 

" The King believed it by the teaching of the Clergy 
who were there, and by the sign of the crown." 

" But how did the Clergy know it was an Angel ? " 

" By their knowledge and because they were clerks." 

" What have you to say about a married priest and a 
lost cup that you were to have pointed out ? " * 

" Of all this I know nothing, nor have I ever heard of it." 

" When you came before Paris, had you revelations 
from your Voices to go there ? " 

" No, I went at the request of the gentlemen who 
wished to make an attack or assault-at-arms ; I intended 
to go there and break through the trenches." 

"Had you any revelation to attack La Charite ?" 

" No, I went there at the request of the men-at-arms, 
as I said elsewhere." 

" Did you have any revelation to go to Pont 
1'Eveque?" 2 

" After I had had, in the trenches of Melun, 3 reve- 
lation that I should be taken, I consulted more often 
with the Captains of the army ; but I did not tell them 
I had had any revelation that I should be taken." 

" Was it well to attack the town of Paris on the day 
of the Festival of the Nativity of Our Lady ? " 

" It is well done to observe the Festival of the Blessed 
Mary, and on my conscience it seems to me that it was, 
and ever will be, well to observe these festivals, from 
one end to the other." 

" Did you not say before Paris, ' Surrender this town 
by order of Jesus ' ? " 

" No, but I said, ' Surrender it to the King of France.' " 

1 There is no allusion to either of these in any evidence of the time. 

2 May, 1430. 3 Easter week, April i6th-23rd, 1430. 



74 JEANNE D'ARC 



Wednesday, March i^t/i. -Jean Delafontaine, Com- 
missary, assisted by Nicolas Midi and Gerard Feuillet. 
Witnesses : Nicolas de Houbent and Ysambard de la 
Pierre. 

Jeanne was interrogated as follows : 

"Why did you throw yourself from the top of the 
Tower at Beaurevoir ? " 

" I had heard that the people of Compiegne, all, 
to the age of seven years, were to be put to fire and 
sword ; and I would rather have died than live after 
such a destruction of good people. That was one of the 
reasons. The other was that I knew I was sold to the 
English ; and I had rather die than be in the hands of 
my enemies, the English." 

" Did your Saints counsel you about it ? " 

" Saint Catherine told me almost every day not to 
leap, that God would help me, and also those at Com- 
piegne. I said to Saint Catherine : ' Since God will 
help those at Compiegne, I wish to be there.' Saint 
Catherine said to me, ' Be resigned, and do not falter : 
you will not be delivered before seeing the King of 
England.' I answered her : * Truly I do not wish to 
see him ; I would rather die than fall into the hands of 
the English.' " 

"Is it true that you said to Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret : ' Will God leave these good people of Com- 
piegne to die so horribly ' ? " 

" I did not say 'so horribly,' but, ' How can God leave 
these good people of Compiegne, who have been, and 
are, so loyal to their lord, to die ? ' After having fallen, 
I was two or three days without eating. 1 By the leap I 

1 Jeanne says that her leap from the tower was " towards the end," and as 
the town of Compiegne was in great straits in October, she probably made 
her attempt at escape towards the end of that month. The army of relief 
under the Count de Vend&me started on October 25th, and the siege was 
raised early in November. 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 75 

was so injured that I could neither eat nor drink ; and 
all the time I was consoled by Saint Catherine, who 
told me to confess, and to beg pardon of God ; and 1 
without fail, those at Compiegne would have help before 
Saint Martin's Day in the winter. Then I began to 
recover and to eat, and was soon cured.'' 

"When you made this leap, did you think you would 
kill yourself ? " 

"No; but, in leaping, I commended myself to God. 
I hoped by means of this leap to escape, and to avoid 
being delivered up to the English." 

41 When speech returned to you, did you not blaspheme 
and curse God and His Saints ? This is proved by 
allegation." 

" I have no memory of having ever blasphemed and 
cursed God and His Saints, in that place or elsewhere." 

"Will you refer this to the enquiry made or to be 
made?" ' 

" I refer me to God and not to any other, and to a 
good confession." 

"Do your Voices ask delay to answer you ?" 

" Sometimes Saint Catherine answers me, but I fail to 
understand because of the great disturbance in the prison 
and the noise made by my guards. When I make a 
request to Saint Catherine, both my Saints make 
request to Our Lord ; then, by order of Our Lord, they 
give answer to me." 

" When your Saints come to you, have they a light 
with them ? Did you not see the light on a certain 
occasion when you heard the Voices in the Castle, 
without knowing if the Voice were in your room?" 

" There is never a day that my Saints do not come to 
the Castle ; and they never come without light. And 
as to this Voice of which you speak, I do not remember 
if on that occasion I saw the light or even Saint 
Catherine. I asked three things of my Voices : i. My 



i 



76 JEANNE D'ARC 

deliverance ; 2. That God would come to the help of 
the French, and protect the towns under their control ; 
3. The salvation of my soul. [Addressing herself to 
the Judges :] If it should be that I am taken to Paris, 
grant, I pray you, that I may have a copy of my ques- 
tions and answers, so that I may lend them to those at 
Paris, and that I may be able to say to them : * Thus was 
I questioned at Rouen ; and here are my answers ' : 
in this way, I shall not have to trouble again over so 
many questions." 

" You said that my Lord of Beauvais puts himself in 
great danger by bringing you to trial ; of what danger 
were you speaking ? In what peril or danger do we 
place ourselves, your Judges and the others ? " 

" I said to my Lord of Beauvais, * You say that you 
are my Judge ; I do not know if you are, but take heed 
not to judge wrongly, because you would put yourself 
in great danger ; and I warn you of it, so that, if Our 
Lord should punish you for it, I shall have done my 
duty in telling you.' ' 

i( But what is this peril or danger ? " 

" Saint Catherine has told me that I shall have help ; 
I do not know if this will be to be delivered from prison, 
or if, whilst I am being tried, some disturbance may 
happen, by which I shall be delivered. The help 
will come to me, I think, in one way or the other. 
Besides this, my Voices have told me that I shall be 
delivered by a great victory ; and they add : ' Be re- 
-signed ; have no care for thy martyrdom; thou wilt 
come in the end to the Kingdom of Paradise.' They 
have told me this simply, absolutely, and without fail. 
What is meant by my martyrdom is the pain and adver- 
sity that I suffer in prison ; I do not know if I shall 
have still greater suffering to bear ; for that I refer me 
to God." 

" Since your Voices told you that you would come in 




Our Hope 
MARY IMMACULATE QUEEN 



PRAYER 

O Mary Immaculate Queen, look down upon this po 
distressed and suffering world. Thou knowest our mis. 
and our weakness. O Thou who art our Mother, savi 
is in the hour of peril, have compassion on us in th, 
days of great and heavy trial. 

Jesus has given Thee entire power over all humanil 

le has confided to Thee the treasures of His grace, a 

through Thee He wills to grant us pardon and men 

In these hours of anguish, therefore, thy children come 

Ihee as to their only hope. 

We recognize thy universal royalty and ardently desi 
thy triumph. 

We need a Mother and Mother's Heart. Be for us t 
luminous dawn which dissipates our darkness and poin 
out the way to life. Be thou the everflowing Source fro 
which we draw courage, confidence and love, the Boi 
uniting all men and the Sign of peace 

Most Holy and Adorable Trinity, You Who have crown- 
with glory in Heaven, the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother] 
the Saviour, grant that all her children on earth, in the! 
turn may acknowledge her as their sovereign Mistress thl 
all hearts, homes and nations may recognize her rights <] 
Mother and as Queen, so that the Sovereign Pontiff, rej 
ponding to the desires of all men, may proclaim her sweJ 
Kule under the royal title MARY IMMACULATE QUEEN. Amei 

Invocation. 

MARY IMMACULATE QUEEN 
sy triumph and reign! 

^^^^0*t^*ncS fy?*v/^4,/f( 

t/ 

t:H. Frandscm Davis, 5. T. D. Censor deputatus 
Imprimatur : f Joseph Archiepiscopus Birmingamiensis. 
Birmingamiae, die 26a Martii 1949. 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 77 

the end to the Kingdom of Paradise, have you felt 
assured of being saved and of not being damned in 
Hell ? " 

" I believe firmly what my Voices have told me, that 
I shall be saved ; I believe it as firmly as if I were 
already there." 

" After this revelation, do you believe that you cannot 
commit mortal sin ? " 

" I do not know, and in all things I wait on Our 
Lord." 

" That is an answer of great weight ! " 

" Yes, and one which I hold for a great treasure." 



The same day, Wednesday, March \\th, in the after- 
noon. Present : Jean Delafontaine, Commissary, assisted 
by Nicolas Midi and Gerard Feuillet. Witnesses : 
Brother Ysambard de la Pierre and Jean Manchon. 

And in the first place, Jeanne expressed herself thus : 

" On the subject of the answer that I made to you 
this morning on the certainty of my salvation, I mean 
the answer thus : provided that I keep the promise 
made to Our Lord, to keep safe the virginity of my 
body and soul." 

" Have you any need to confess, as you believe by 
the revelations of your Voices that you will be saved ? " 

" I do not know of having committed mortal sin ; but, 
if I were in mortal sin, I think that Saint Catherine and 
Saint Margaret would abandon me at once. I do not 
think one can cleanse one's conscience too much." 

" Since you have been in the prison, have you never 
blasphemed or cursed God ? " 

" No ; sometimes I said : ' bon gre Dieu,' or ' Saint 
Jean/ or ' Notre Dame ' : those who have reported 
otherwise may have misunderstood." 

1 The Minute inverts the order of this and the following question and 



answer. 



78 JEANNE D'ARC 

" To take a man at ransom, and to put him to death, 
while a prisoner, is not that mortal sin ? " 

" I never did it." 

" What did you do to Franquet d' Arras, who was put 
to death, at Lagny ? " 

" I consented that he should die if he had merited it, 
because he had confessed to being a murderer, thief, and 
traitor; his trial lasted fifteen days; he had for Judge 
the Bailly of Senlis and the people of the Court at 
Lagny. I had given orders to exchange this Franquet 
against a man of Paris, landlord of the Hotel de 1'Ours. 
When I learnt the death of the latter, and the Bailly told 
me that I should do great wrong to justice by giving up j 
Franquet, I said to the Bailly, ' As my man is dead, do 
with the other what you should do, for justice."' 

" Did you give, or cause to be given, money to him 
who took Franquet ? " 

" I am not Master of the Mint or Treasurer of France 
to pay out money so." 

" We recall to you: i. That you attacked Paris on 
a Feast Day ; 2. That you had the horse of my Lord 
the Bishop of Senlis ; 3. That you threw yourself down 
from the Tower of Beaurevoir ; 4. That you wear a I 
man's dress ; 5. That you consented to the death of I 
Franquet d' Arras : do you not think you have committed 
mortal sin in these ? " 

" For what concerns the attack on Paris, I do not 
think myself to be in mortal sin ; if I have so done, it is ! 
for God to know it, and the Priest in confession. As to j 
the horse of my Lord the Bishop of Senlis, I firmly 
believe I have not sinned against Our Lord : the horse ! 
was valued at 200 gold crowns, of which he received 
assignment ; nevertheless, this horse was sent back to j 
the Sire de la Tremouille, to restore it to my Lord of i 
Senlis ; it was no good for me to ride ; besides, it was j 
not I who took it ; and, moreover, I did not wish to 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 79 

:eep it, having heard that the Bishop was displeased 
iat it had been taken from him, and, beyond all this, 
ie horse was of no use for warfare. I do not know if 
the Bishop was paid, nor if his horse was restored to 
him ; I think not. As to my fall from the Tower at 
Beaurevoir, I did not do it in despair, but thinking to 
save myself and to go to the help of all those brave folk 
who were in danger. After my fall, I confessed myself 
and asked pardon. God has forgiven me, not for any 
good in me : I did wrong, but I know by revelation 
from Saint Catherine that, after the confession I made, 
I was forgiven. It was by the counsel of Saint Catherine 
that I confessed myself." 

" Did you do penance for it ? " 

"Yes, and my penance came to me in great part I ^^ 
from the harm I did myself in falling. You ask mej 
if I believe this wrong which I did in leaping to be 
mortal sin ? I know nothing about it, but refer me to 
God. As to my dress, since I bear it by command of 
God and for His service, I do not think I have done 
wrong at all ; so soon as it shall please God to prescribe 
it, I will take it off." 



The following Thursday, March \$th, in the morning. 
Present: Jean Delafontaine, Commissary, assisted by 
Nicolas Midi and Gerard Feuillet. Witnesses : Nicolas 
de Houbent and Brother Ysambard de la Pierre. 

First of all, Jeanne was charitably exhorted, warned, 
and required, if she had done anything which might be 
against our Faith, that she should refer it to the decision 
of Holy Mother Church. 

" Let my answers," she said, "be seen and examined 
by the Clergy : then let them tell me if there be anything 
against the Christian Faith. I shall know surely by my 
counsel what it is, and will say afterwards what shall be 



80 JEANNE D'ARC 

judged and decided. And, moreover, if there be any- 
thing wrong against the Christian Faith which Our Lord 
commanded, I should not wish to maintain it, and should 
be very sorry to be in opposition." 

Then we explained to her about the Church Trium- 
phant and the Church Militant, and the difference 
between them. Required to submit to the decision of 
the Church Militant what she had said or done, whether 
of good or ill : 

" I will not answer you anything more about it now/' 
she said. 

" Upon the oath that you have taken, tell us, how did 
you think to escape from the Castle of Beaulieu between 
two planks of wood ? " l 

" Never was I prisoner in such a place that I would 
not willingly have escaped. Being in that Castle, I 
should have shut my keepers in the tower, if it had not 
been that the porter espied me and encountered me, It 
did not please God that I should escape this time : it 
was necessary for me to see the English King, 2 as my 
Voices had told me, as has been already said." 

" Have you had permission from God or your Voices 
to leave prison when it shall please you ? " 

" I have asked it many times, but I have not yet 
had it." 

" Would you go now, if you saw your starting-point ? " 

" If I saw the door open, I should go : that would be 
leave from Our Lord. If I saw the door open, and my 

1 There is no fuller account of this attempt. It probably took place 
during the month of July, and may have been the reason for her removal 
to the stronger prison of Beaurevoir, early in August. 

2 Henry VI. arrived in Rouen first on July 29th, 1430, when Jeanne was 
at Beaulieu ; he was crowned at Paris in the following November, and 
returned to Rouen for Christmas, remaining there about six weeks, for 
the date of his landing at Dover is given as February nth. It is not 
improbable that the prisoner may have seen the King, as they were both 
residing in the same Castle, and her windows looked on the fields, where he 
would probably take exercise. 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 81 

keepers and the other English beyond power of resist- 
ance, truly I should see in it my leave and help sent 
me by Our Lord. But without this leave, I shall 
not go, unless I make a forcible attempt to go, 1 and so 
learn if Our Lord would be pleased : this on the strength 
of the proverb, ' Help thyself, and God will help thee' : 
I say this in order that, if I do escape, no one may say 
I did so without God's leave." 

" When you asked to hear Mass, did it not seem to 
you that it would be more proper to be in female dress ? 
Which would you like best, to have a woman's dress to 
hear Mass, or to remain in a man's dress and not 
hear it?" 

" Give me assurance beforehand that I shall hear 
Mass if I am in female attire, and I will answer you this." 

" Very well, I give you assurance of it : you shall hear 
Mass if you put on female attire." 

" And what say you, if I have sworn and promised to 
our King my Master, not to put off this dress ? Well, 
I will answer you this : Have made for me a long dress 
down to the ground, without a train ; give it to me to go 
to Mass, and then on my return I will put on again the 
dress I have." 

" I say it to you once again, do you consent to wear 
female attire to go and hear Mass ? " 

" I will take counsel on this, and then I will answer 
you : but I beseech you, for the honour of God and 
Our Lady permit me to hear Mass in this good 
town." 

" You consent simply and absolutely to take female 
attire ? " 

" Send me a dress like a daughter of your citizens 
that is to say, a long 'houppeland.' 2 I will wear it 
to go and hear Mass. I beseech you as earnestly as I 

1 " Facer et unam aggressionem; " Gallic^, " une entreprise" 

2 In the Minute : " mesme le chaperon de femme. n 

Q 



82 JEANNE D'ARC 

can, permit me to hear it in the dress I wear at this 
moment and without changing anything ! " 

"Will you submit your actions and words to the 
decision of the Church ? " 

" My words and deeds are all in God's Hands : in all, 
I wait upon Him. I assure you, I would say or do 
nothing against the Christian Faith : in case I have 
done or said anything which might be on my soul and 
which the clergy could say was contrary to the Christian 
Faith established by Our Lord, I would not maintain it, 
and would put it away." 

"Are you not willing to submit yourself in this to the 
order of the Church ? " 

" I will not answer you anything more about it now. 
Send me a cleric on Saturday ; and, if you do not wish 
to come yourself, I will answer him on this, with God's 
help ; and it shall be put in writing/' 

" When your Voices come, do you make obeisance to 
them as to a Saint ? " 

" Yes ; and if perchance I have not done so, I have 
afterwards asked of them grace and pardon. I should 
not know how to do them such great reverence as 
belongs to them, for I believe firmly they are Saint 
Catherine and Saint Margaret. I believe the same of 
Saint Michael." 

" For those who are Saints of Paradise, offerings are 
voluntarily made of candles, etc. : have you never made 
an offering of lighted candles, or other things, to the 
Saints who come to you, in the Church or elsewhere, or 
had Masses said ? " 

" No, unless it be in the offering of the Mass, in the 
hands of the Priest, in honour of Saint Catherine, one 
of the Saints who appeared to me. I have never lighted 
as many candles as I wish to Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret, who are in Paradise ; and I firmly believe it 
is they who come to me." 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 83 

" When you place lights before the image of Saint 

itherine, do you place them in honour of the one who 
)pears to you ? " 

I do it in honour of God, of Our Lady, and of 
>aint Catherine who is in Heaven, and of her who 
appears to me." 

" Do you place these lights in honour of Saint 
Catherine, who has shewn herself to you, who has 
appeared to you ? " 

" Yes, I make no difference between the one who has 
appeared to me, and the one who is in heaven." 1 

" Do you always do, always accomplish, what your 
Voices command you ? " 

"With all my power I accomplish the command that 
Our Lord sends me through my Voices, in so far as 
I understand them. My Voices command nothing but 
by the good pleasure of Our Lord." 

" In warfare, have you done nothing without counsel 
of your Voices ? " 

u I have already answered you thereon : read your 
book again well, and you will find it. At the request 
of the men-at-arms, there was an assault made before 
Paris, and, at the request of the King himself, one also 
before La Charite. These were neither against nor by 
the order of my Voices." 

" Have you never done anything against their com- 
mand and will ? " 

" All that I could and knew how to do, I have done 
and accomplished to the best of my power. As to the 
matter of the fall from the keep of Beaurevoir, I did it 
against their command ; but I could not control myself. 
When my Voices saw my need, and that I neither knew 
how, nor was able, to control myself, they saved my life 
and kept me from killing myself. Whatever things I 

1 In the Minute : " et ne fait point de difference de celle qui est au del et 
celle qui se appert a moi" 

G 2 



84 JEANNE D'ARC 

did in my greatest undertakings, they always helped me ; 
and that is a sign they are good spirits." 

" Have you no other sign that they are good spirits ?" 
"Saint Michael assured me of it before the Voices 
came to me." 

" How did you know it was Saint Michael ?" 

" By the speech and language of the Angels. I 
believe firmly that they were Angels." 

" But how did you know it was the language of 
Angels?" 

" I believed it at once, and I had the will to believe 
it. When Saint Michael came to me, he said to mev 
4 Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret will come to thee ; 
follow their counsel ; they have been chosen to guide 
thee and counsel thee in all that thou hast to do : believe 
what they shall tell thee, it is the order of Our Lord.' ' 

" If the devil were to put himself in the form or 
likeness of an angel, how would you know if it were a 
good or an evil angel ? " 

" I should know quite well if it were Saint Michael or 
a counterfeit. The first time I was in great doubt if it 
were Saint Michael ; and I was much afraid. I had 
seen him many times before I knew it was Saint 
Michael." 

" Why did you recognize him sooner that time, when 
you say you believed it was he, than the first time he 
appeared to you ? " 

"The first time I was a young child, and I was much 
afraid ; afterwards, he had taught me so well, and it was 
so clear to me, that I believed firmly it was he." 

" What doctrine did he teach you ? " 

" Above all things he told me to be a good child, and 
that God would help me, to come to the help of the 

1 "Le vrai office de Monseigneur Saint-Michel est de faire grandes 
revelations aux hommes en has, en leur donnant moult sainct conseils." 
(" Le Livre des Angeles de Dteu."MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale, 
Paris.) 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 85 

King of France, among other things. The greater part 
of what he taught me is already in the book in which 
you are writing : he told me of the great misery there 
was in the Kingdom of France." 

" What was the height and stature of this Angel ? " 

" On Saturday I will reply, with other things which I 
should answer, as it shall please God." 

" Do you not think it a great sin, and one which 
offends Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret who 
appeared to you, to act against their commands ? " 

" Yes, certainly ; and the greatest I have ever com- 
mitted, in my opinion, has been the leap from the Tower 
of Beaurevoir ; for the which I have besought their 
mercy, and for all other offences I may have done 
against them." 

" Will Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret take bodily 
vengeance for this offence ? " 

" I do not know, and did not ask them." 

" You have asserted that, for speaking the truth, men 
were sometimes hanged : do you, then, know any crime 
or fault in yourself for which you should die, if you 
confessed it ? " 

" I know of none." 

The following Saturday, March ijtk : Present : Jean 
Delafontaine, Commissary, assisted by Nicolas Midi, 
and Gerard Feuillet, in the presence of Ysambard de la 
Pierre and of Jean Massieu. 

The said Jeanne was required to take the oath already 
made by her. Afterwards, she was again interrogated : 

" In what form, kind, size, and dress did Saint 
Michael come to you ? " 

"In the form of a true honest man [' prud homme '] ; 
of his dress and the rest I will say nothing more. As to 
the Angels, I saw them with my eyes ; you will hear 
naught else about it. I believe the deeds and words of 



86 



JEANNE D'ARC 



Saint Michael, who appeared to me, as firmly as I 
believe that Our Saviour Jesus Christ suffered Death 
and Passion for us. And that which makes me believe 
it, is the good counsel, comfort, and good doctrine which 
he has given me." 

"Will you, in respect of all your words and deeds, 
whether good or bad, submit yourself to the decision of 
our Holy Mother the Church ? " 

" The Church ! I love it, and would wish to maintain 
it with all my power, for our Christian Faith ; it is not I 
who should be prevented from going to Church and 
hearing Mass ! As to the good deeds I have done and 
my coming to the King, I must wait on the King of 
Heaven, who sent me to Charles, King of France, son 
of Charles, who was King of France. You will see 
that the French will soon gain a great victory, that God 
will send such great doings that nearly all the Kingdom 
of France will be shaken by them. I say it, so that, 
when it shall come to pass, it may be remembered that 
I said it." 

" When will this happen ? " 

"I wait on Our Lord." 

" Will you refer yourself to the decision of the 
Church ? " 

" I refer myself to God Who sent me, to Our Lady, 
and to all the Saints in Paradise. And in my opinion 
it is all one, God and the Church ; and one should 
make no difficulty about it. Why do you make a 
difficulty ? " 

" There is a Church Triumphant in which are God 
and the Saints, the Angels, and the Souls of the Saved. 
There is another Church, the Church Militant, in which 
are the Pope, the Vicar of God on earth, the Cardinals, 
Prelates of the Church, the Clergy and all good Christians 
and Catholics : this Church, regularly assembled, cannot 
err, being ruled by the Holy Spirit. Will you refer 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 87 

yourself to this Church which we have thus just defined 
to you ? " 

" I came to the King of France from God, from the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, from all the Saints of Paradise, 
and the Church Victorious above, and by their command. 
To this Church I submit all my good deeds, all that I 
have done or will do. As to saying whether I will 
submit myself to the Church Militant, I will not now 
answer anything more." 

"What do you say on the subject of the female attire 
which is offered to you, to go and hear Mass ? " 

" I will not take it yet, until it shall please Our Lord. 
And if it should happen that I should be brought to 
judgment, [and that I have to divest myself in Court,] 1 I 
beseech the lords of the Church to do me the grace to 
allow me a woman's smock and a hood for my head ; I 
would rather die than revoke what God has made me 
do ; and I believe firmly that God will not allow it to 
come to pass that I should be brought so low that I may 
not soon have succour from Him, and by miracle." 

11 As you say that you bear a man's dress by the 
command of God, why do you ask for a woman's smock 
at the point of death ? " 

"It will be enough for me if it be long." 

" Did your Godmother who saw the fairies pass as a 
wise woman ? " 

" She was held and considered a good and honest 
woman, neither divineress nor sorceress." 

" You said you would take a woman's dress, that you 
might be let go : would this please God ? " 

" If I had leave to go in woman's dress, I should soon 
put myself back in man's dress and do what God has 
commanded me : I have already told you so. For nothing 
in the world will I swear not to arm myself and put on 
a man's dress ; I must obey the orders of Our Lord." 

1 In the Minute. 



88 JEANNE D'ARC 

" What age and what dress had Saint Catherine and 
Saint Margaret ?" 

"You have had such answers as you will have from 
me, and none others shall you have : I have told you 
what I know of it for certain." 

" Before to-day, did you believe fairies were evil 
spirits ? " 

" I know nothing about it." 

" Do you know if Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret 
hate the English ? " 

" They love what God loves : they hate what God 
hates." 

11 Does God hate the English ? " 

" Of the love or hate God may have for the English, 
or of what He will do for their souls, I know nothing ; 
but I know quite well that they will be put out of 
France, except those who shall die there, and that 
God will send victory to the French against the 
English." 

" Was God for the English when they were prospering 
in France ? " 

" I do not know if God hated the French ; but I 
believe that He wished them to be defeated for their 
sins, if they were in sin." 

" What warrant and what help do you expect to have 
from Our Lord for wearing this man's dress ? " 

" For this dress and for other things that I have done, 
I wish to have no other recompense than the salvation 
of my soul." 

" What arms did you offer at Saint Denis ? " 

"My whole suit of white armour ['album harnesium 
suum ; ' Gallic e, ' un blanc karnoys'~\ as beseems a soldier, 
with a sword I had won before Paris." 

11 Why did you make this offering ? " 
" In devotion, and as is the custom of soldiers when 
they have been wounded. Having been wounded before 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 89 

Paris, I offered them at Saint Denis, because that is 
the war-cry of France." 

"Did you do it that these arms might be wor- 
shipped ? " 

" No." 

" What was the purpose of these five crosses which 
were on the sword that you found at Saint Catherine 
of Fierbois ? " 

" I know nothing about it." 

" Who prompted you to have painted on your 
standard Angels with arms, feet, legs, and clothing ? " 

" I have already answered you/' 

" Did you have them painted as they came to see you?" 

" No, I had them painted in the way they are painted 
in the Churches." 

" Did you ever see them in the manner they are 
painted ? " 

" I will tell you nothing more." 

" Why did you not have painted the brightness that 
comes to you with the Angels and the Voices ? " 

" It was not commanded me." 



The same day, March i jtk t afternoon. Present : The 
Bishop and the Deputy Inquisitor, assisted by Jean 
Beaupere, Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi, Pierre 
Maurice, Gerard Feuillet, Thomas de Courcelles, Jean 
Delafontaine ; in presence of Brother Ysambard de la 
Pierre and John Gris. 

We interrogated the said Jeanne, as follows : 
" Did the two Angels painted on your standard re- 
present Saint Michael and Saint Gabriel ?" 

" They were there only for the honour of Our Lord, 
Who was painted on the standard. I only had these 
two Angels represented to honour Our Lord, Who was 
there represented holding the world." 



9 o JEANNE D'ARC 

" Were the two Angels represented on your standard 
those who guard the world ? Why were there not 
more of them, seeing that you had been commanded by 
God to take this standard ? " 

" The standard was commanded by Our Lord, by the 
Voices of Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret, which 
said to me : ' Take the standard in the name of the King 
of Heaven '; and because they had said to me ' Take the 
standard in the name of the King of Heaven,' I had this 
figure of God and of two Angels done ; I did all by their 
command." 

" Did you ask them if, by virtue of this standard, you 
would gain all the battles wherever you might find 
yourself, and if you would be victorious ? " 

" They told me to take it boldly, and that God would 
help me." 

" Which gave most help, you to your standard, or your 
standard to you ? " 

" The victory either to my standard or myself, it was 
all from Our Lord." 

" The hope of being victorious, was it founded on your 
standard or on yourself ? " 

"It was founded on Our Lord and nought else." 

"If any one but you had borne this standard, 
would he have been as fortunate as you in bearing 
it?" 

" I know nothing about it : I wait on Our Lord." 

"If one of the people of your party had sent you his 
standard to carry, would you have had as much con- 
fidence in it as in that which had been sent to you by 
God ? Even the standard of your King, if it had been 
sent to you, would you have had as much confidence in 
it as in your own ? " 

" I bore most willingly that which had been ordained 
for me by Our Lord ; and, meanwhile, in all I waited 
upon Our Lord." 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 91 

" For what purpose was the sign you put on your 
letters and these words : ' Jhesus Maria ' ? " 

"The clerks who wrote my letters put it; some told 
me that it was suitable for me to put these two words : 
'Jhesus Maria."' 

"Was it never revealed to you that if you lost your 
virginity, you would lose your happiness, and that your 
Voices would come to you no more ? " 

" That has never been revealed to me." : 

"If you were married, do you think your Voices would 
come ? " 

" I do not know ; I wait on Our Lord." 

" Do you think, and do you firmly believe, that your 
King did right in killing, or causing to be killed, my 
Lord the Duke of Burgundy ? " 

"It was a great injury to the Kingdom of France ; 
and, whatever there may have been between them, God 
sent me to the help of the King of France." 

" As you have declared to my lord of Beauvais that 
you will reply to him and his Commissioners as you 
would before our most holy Lord the Pope, and as there 
are many questions which you will not answer, would 
you reply before the Pope more fully than before us ? " 

" I have answered you all the truth that I know ; and 
if I know anything which comes to my memory that I 
have left unsaid, I will tell it willingly." 

" Does it not seem to you that you are bound to reply 
more fully to our Lord the Pope, the Vicar of God, on all 
that might be asked you touching the Faith and the 
matter of your conscience, than you should to us ? " 

"Very well; let me be taken before him, and I will 
answer before him all I ought to answer." 

" Of what material was one of your rings, on which 
was written 'Jhesus Maria ' ? " 

1 In the Minute : " et toute voyes de tout^ je trien attendaye d Notre 
Seigneur? 



9 2 JEANNE D'ARC 

" I do not exactly know ; if it were of gold, it was not 
fine gold ; I do not know if it were of gold or of brass ; 
there were three crosses on it, and no other mark that I 
know of, except ' Jhesus Maria." 

" Why was it that you generally looked at this ring 
when you were going into battle ? " 

" For pleasure, and in honour of my father and 
mother ; I had that ring in my hand and on my finger 
when I touched Saint Catherine as she appeared to me." 

" What part of Saint Catherine ? " 

" You will have no more about it." 

" Did you ever kiss or embrace Saint Catherine or 
Saint Margaret ? " 

" I have embraced them both." 

" Did they smell good ? " 

" It is well to know, they smelled good." 

"In embracing them, did you feel any heat or any- 
thing else ? " 

" I could not have embraced them without feeling and 
touching them." 

11 What part did you kiss face or feet ? " 

" It is more proper and respectful to kiss their feet." 

" Did you not give them crowns ? " 

"In their honour, I often put crowns on their images 
in the Churches. As to those who appeared to me, I 
never gave any to them that I can remember." 

"When you placed crowns of flowers on the tree of 
which you spoke before, did you put them in honour of 
those who appeared to you ? " 

" No." 

"When these Saints came to you, did you do them no 
reverence ? did you bend the knee before them ? did 
you bow ? " 

"Yes: and, so far as I could do them reverence, I 
did ; I know it is they who are in the Kingdom of 
Paradise." 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 93 



Meeting at the Bishop's house of the Doctors and 
Assessors to consider the Case. Sunday of the Passion 
of our Saviour, \%th day of the month of March. The 
Bishop and Jean Lemattre, assisted by twelve Assessors, 
present. 

We, the said Bishop, shewed that Jeanne had lately 
been questioned during eight days, and that a great 
number of her replies had been put in writing ; to-day 
we have need of the opinion of the Assessors as to the 
mode of procedure. 

Then We caused to be read a great number of asser- 
tions which, by Our order, have been extracted by 
several Masters from the answers of Jeanne : so that, by 
means of these assertions, they, the said Assessors, will 
be able the better to take up the Process as a whole, and 
thus decide more certainly on what remains to be done. 

After this shewing, the said Lords and Masters did 
deliberate with great solemnity and maturity ; and each 
of them did give us his opinion. 

We, the Judges, did then conclude and give order as 
follows : 

Each of the Doctors and Masters shall have the matter 
to examine and study for his own part in all diligence, 



94 JEANNE D'ARC 

and to make research in authentic books for the opinion 
of the Doctors on each of the said assertions. On Thurs- 
day next, We will re-assemble anew to confer upon them. 
On that day, each one shall submit to Us his opinion. 

Besides this, we have given orders that between this 
and then shall be extracted from the questions and 
answers of Jeanne certain Articles, which shall be moved 
against her in the Court before Us, the Judges. 

[The Seventy Articles prepared by the Promoter, 
which form the Act of Accusation for the Trial in Ordi- 
nary, were read to Jeanne by Thomas de Courcelles, on 
Tuesday, March 27th. These Articles will be found, 
with Jeanne's replies to them, in the Appendix. The 
Seventy Articles were afterwards reduced to Twelve by 
Maitre Nicolas Midi. These are given in the Appendix, 
P. 34i.] 

Another Meeting in the Bishop's house, in which it is 
decided to compile Articles from the said Extracts. 

And the following Thursday, 22nd March, under the 
presidence of Us, the Bishop, and Maitre Jean Lemaitre, 
assisted by 23 Assessors. 

In presence of the above, have been reported sundry 
assertions gathered and considered in the matter, in a 
notable and scientific manner, by many Doctors and 
Masters. In view of these assertions, after having the 
opinions conferred thereon at length with each of the 
Assessors, We, the Judges, did conclude and give order 
that the assertions thus extracted from the register of 
the declarations of Jeanne shall be drawn up in a very 
small number of Articles under the form of propositions ; 
that the Articles thus prepared shall be communicated 
at once to all and each of the Doctors and Masters, who 
can thus the more easily pronounce their opinion. 

On the question of whether Jeanne ought to be 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 95 

igain interrogated and examined later on, We will pro- 
reed in such sort, with the help of Our Lord, that Our 
:ase may be conducted to the praise of God and the 
exaltation of the Faith, being affected by no blemish. 



The questions are read to Jeanne in prison. 

On the following Saturday, March 24^, in the prison 

of Jeanne ; Maitre Jean Delafontaine, Commissioner for 

Us, the Bishop, and Brother Jean Lemaitre ; assisted by 

J. Beaupere, N. Midi, P. Maurice, G. Feuillet, Thomas 

de Coiircelles, Enguerrand de Champrond. 

In presence of the above-named, We caused to be read 
to Jeanne the Register which contained the questions 
made to her and her answers. This reading was made 
in the presence of the said Jeanne by G. Manchon, 
Registrar, and in the French language. 

But before proceeding to this reading, Our Promoter, 
Messired'Estivet, offered to prove, in case Jeanne should 
not recognize some of her answers, that all the contents 
of the said Register, questions and answers, had been 
pronounced as they were there written. And on her 
side, Jeanne made oath that, during the reading, which 
was about to be made, she would add or change nothing 
in her answers that was not the truth. 

The Register was then read. In one place during the 
reading, Jeanne said : 

' I have as surname d' Arc or Rommee : in my country 
the girls take the name of their mother." 

Further on, she said : 

" Let the questions and answers, all that has to be 
read, be read without stopping : if I do not contradict at 
all, I hold it true and acknowledged." 

On the subject of the passage relative to her dress, she 
said in addition : 

" Give me a woman's dress to go and rejoin my mother ; 



96 JEANNE D'ARC 

I will take it that I may get out of prison, because when 
I am outside I will consider as to what I should do." 

The reading of the contents of the said Register being 
finished, she said : 

" I believe certainly to have so spoken as it is written 
in the Register, and as has been read ; I do not contra- 
dict on any point." 

Exhortation to Jeanne. 

Palm Sunday \ 2$th day of March, in the morning, 
in the prison of Jeanne, in the Castle of Rouen, We, 
the Bishop, did make an address to Jeanne, in the 
presence of the venerable Lords and Masters, J. Beaupere, 
N. Midi, P. Maurice, Thomas de Courcelles. 

We told her, that many times already and notably 
yesterday, she had requested, because of the solemnity of 
these days and the time, that she might be permitted to 
hear Mass to-day, Palm Sunday ; in consequence, We 
were come to ask her if, supposing this favour were 
accorded to her, she would consent to put off her man's 
dress, and to take the dress of a woman, as formerly she 
had been accustomed to wear it in her birth-place, and as 
worn by all the women of her country ? 

The said Jeanne answered by again asking of Us 
permission to hear Mass in the dress she now wears, and 
in the same dress to receive the Eucharist on Easter 
Day. 

" Reply," We said to her, " to what we ask you ; tell 
us, in the event of your being permitted to hear Mass, 
if you will consent to abandon the dress you wear." 

" I have not consulted thereon," she said, "and cannot 
yet take a woman's dress." 

" Do you wish to have counsel of your Saints to know 
if you ought to take woman's garments ? " 

" May I not then," she said, " be permitted to hear 



NINE PRIVATE EXAMINATIONS 97 

Mass in the state in which I am ? I desire it ardently ! 
As to changing my dress, I cannot : it is not in my 
power." 

All the Assessors then joined themselves with Us, 
and each exhorted her, for so great a benefit, and to 
satisfy the feeling of devotion with which she seemed 
animated, to consent to take the only garment which was 
suitable to her sex. 

" That," she declared, " is not in my power : if it were, 
it would soon be done ! " 

" Speak of it to your Voices," said the Assessors, " to 
know if you may again take your woman's dress, in order 
that at Easter you may receive the Viaticum." 

" I cannot change my dress : I cannot therefore re- 
ceive the Viaticum. I beg of you, my Lords, permit me 
to hear Mass in man's dress ; this dress does not weigh 
upon my soul, and is not contrary to the laws of the 
Church." 

Of all the preceding, Master Jean d'Estivet, Promoter, 
hath asked that there may be delivered to him a Public 
Instrument, in the presence of the Lords and Masters, 
Adam Hillet, William Brolbster, and Pierre Orient, of 
the Clergy of Rouen, London and Chcllons, respectively. 



H 



THE TRIAL IN ORDINARY 



Here begins the Trial in Ordinary, after the Trial 
Ex-Officio. 

Monday after Palm Sunday, 26th day of March, in 
the Bishop's House. Present : The Bishop and Brother 
fean Lemaitre, assisted by 12 Assessors. 

In presence of the above, We caused to be read 
certain Articles comprising that one which the Promoter 
intendeth to produce against Jeanne. 

After the reading of these Articles, it was decided 
that, following the preliminary trial until now conducted 
from our Office, as We, the Bishop, and subsequently 
We, the Deputy, have decreed and concluded, it will be 
expedient to proceed henceforward by an action in 
Ordinary. 

It was also decided that the Articles just read 
have been well put together; that Jeanne should be 
questioned and heard upon each of them ; that these 
Articles shall be proposed, in the name of the Pro- 
moter, by some grave advocate, or by the Promoter 
himself; that if Jeanne should refuse to answer after 
a Canonical monition shall have been addressed to her, 
as a preliminary, the said Articles shall be held as 
acknowledged. 

Following on this decision, We, the Judges, gave order 
that the Articles of which we treat shall, from to-morrow 



THE TRIAL IN ORDINARY 



99 



be proposed by our Promoter ; and that Jeanne should 
be, in like manner, interrogated upon each of them and 
heard in answer. 



The Promoter presents his petition. 

The next day, Tuesday after Palm Sunday, 2 *jth day 
of March, in the room near the Great Hall of the Castle 
of Rouen. The Promoter opened the case. Present : The 
Bishop and Brother Jean Lemaitre, assisted by 38 
Assessors. 

He then shewed the text of the accusation drawn up 
by him against Jeanne, in the which are found stated the 
Articles just spoken of, and of which the tenour shall be 
written below. 

This done, We, the Judges, did request the Lords and 
Masters here present to deliberate and to give Us their 
opinion. 

This deliberation T took place in presence of Jeanne, 
as follows : 

And first, Maitre Nicolas de Venderes said : that 
Jeanne should in the first place be compelled to swear 
what the Promoter hath rightly demanded ; that should 
Jeanne refuse to swear, she be accounted contumacious 
and excommunicate, and be proceeded against according 
to law. 

Maitre Jean Pinchon : That the Articles should first 
be read to her. 

Maitre Jean Basset : That the Articles should be read 
to her before she be excommunicated. 

Mattre Jean Guerin : Agrees with preceding. 

Maitre Jean Delafontaine : Of the same opinion as 
M. Venderes. 

Mattre Geoffrey de Crotay : That she should be given 
at least three days before being declared excommunicate 



Given only in the Minute. 



II 2 



ioo JEANNE D'ARC 

and convicted ; in civil matters there is always a three 
days' delay for taking the oath. 

Maitre Jean Ledoux : Agrees with preceding. 

Maitre Gilles Deschamps : That the Articles should 
be read to her, and that a day should be assigned for her 
to answer. 

Maitre Robert Bar bier : Agrees with preceding. 

The Lord Abbot of Fecamp : She is bound to speak 
the truth on what touches the Case ; that, if she has not 
already been summoned to that effect, she be so sum- 
moned with the due legal interval. 

Maitre Jean de Chatillon : She is bound to speak the 
truth, her own affairs being in question. 

Maitre Erard Ermengard : Agrees with the Abbot of 
Fecamp. 

Maitre Guillaume Lebouchier : Agrees with the pre- 
ceding. 

The Lord Prior of Longueville : For those things to 
which she does not know how to answer, it seems to be 
exacting too much to wish her to reply by " I believe " 
or " I do not believe." 

Maitre Jean Beaupere : To questions of fact on which 
she has certain knowledge she should reply at once ; to 
others, on which she has not certain knowledge or which 
relate to law, delay should be granted if she asks for it. 

Maitre Jacques de Touraine : Agrees with the pre- 
ceding. 

Maitre Nicolas Midi : The same, with this addition : 
That the Jurists should be consulted in order to decide 
if she should be constrained to swear from the present 
time. 

Maitre Maurice Duguesnay : The same as the Abbot 
of Fecamp. 

Maitre Jean de Nib at : As to the Articles he would 
refer to the Jurists ; as to the oath, she is bound to swear 
regarding such things as touch on the Trial or the 



THE TRIAL IN ORDINARY 101 

Faith ; if on other subjects she should ask delay, let it 
be granted to her. 

Maitre Jean Lefevre : Refers to the Jurists. 

Maitre Pierre Maurice : She should answer to what 
she knows. 

Maitre Gerard: She is bound to reply on oath. 

Maitre Jacques Guesdon : Agrees with preceding. 

Maitre Thomas de Courcelles : She should answer ; 
each Article should be read to her, and she should 
answer them in order. As to delay, it should be 
granted to her on such points of the subject as she 
should request it. 

Maitre Andre 1 Marguerie : She ought to swear on 
what touches the Case : as to doubtful points she should 
be allowed delay. 

Maitre Denis Gastinel: She ought to swear; the 
Promoter is right to demand her oath ; as to what action 
should be taken in case she should refuse, it would be 
necessary for him to consult his books. 

Maitre Aubert Morel, and Maitre Jean Duchemin : 
She ought to swear. 

The opinion of the others is lacking. 

Then We, the Judges, considering the request of the 
Promoter, by the advice of each of the Assessors, 
gave order, and do give order, that the Articles just 
produced by the Promoter shall at once be read and 
shewn in French to the said Jeanne, who, *on each of 
them, shall answer according to knowledge ; and if there 
are any points on which she asks delay, delay of right 
shall be granted to her. 

Then the Promoter did abjure all calumny that is to 
say, affirmed upon oath, that he was not led to bring 
these Articles against the said Jeanne by favour, rancour, 
hate or fear, but was solely animated by zeal for the Faith. 

These preliminaries being completed, We, the Bishop 



102 JEANNE D'ARC 

did address to Jeanne a Canonical Admonition. We 
told her that all the Assessors were ecclesiastical persons 
of consummate knowledge, experts in law, human and 
divine, who desired and intended to proceed against her, 
as they had already done up to this time, with kindness 
and piety, and that, far from seeking vengeance or 
punishment, they desired, on the contrary, only her 
instruction and return into the way of truth and salvation. 
" But because you are neither well enough taught nor 
instructed in these arduous matters, by yourself, to 
provide what you should do or say, We offer you to 
choose for counsel such of the Assessors as you shall be 
pleased to point out ; if you do not of yourself know 
how to make this choice, We offer to do it for you, and to 
point out to you some who will counsel you on what you 
have to answer or do, on the condition always, that in 
matters of pure faith you will answer yourself, and 
charging you to swear to speak the truth on those things 
which are personal to yourself." 

To Our exhortation, Jeanne replied in these terms : 

" First, as to that on which you admonish me for my 
good and for our Faith, I thank you and all the company 
also ; as to the counsel which you offer me, also I 
thank you ; but I have no intention of desisting from the 
counsel of Our Lord. As to the oath that you wish 
me to make, I am ready to speak the truth on all that 
touches the Case." 

And thus did she swear, her hands on the Holy 
Gospels. 

After thiJ, by Our order were read the Articles 
contained in the document which the Promoter hath just 
deposited. Each of these Articles was read to Jeanne 
in the French language by Thomas de Courcelles ; and 
she was called upon to reply in succession to each of 
these Articles : which she did. The completion of this 



THE TRIAL IN ORDINARY 103 

formality hath filled up the end of the Sitting for this 
day, and all the Sitting of the next day. 



Jeanne is interrogated in Prison on submission to the 
Church. 

And the following Saturday, the last day of the month 
of March, Easter Eve, under the presidency of Us, the 
aforesaid J^ldges, in Jeanne s prison, being assisted by 
the Lords and Masters, Jean Beaupere, J. de Touraine, 
N. Midi, P. Maurice, G. Feuillet, G. Haiton, and T. de 
.. Courcelles ; Guillaume Muton and John Gris, witnesses : 

Jeanne hath been questioned as follows, touching 
sundry points on which she did, as hath been seen, 
ask delay for reply : 

" Will you refer yourself to the judgment of the 
Church on earth for all you have said or done, be it 
good or bad ? Especially will you refer to the Church 
the cases, crimes, and offences which are imputed to you 
and everything which touches on this Trial ? " 

" On all that I am asked I will refer to the Church 
Militant, provided they do not command anything 
impossible. And I hold as a thing impossible to declare 
that my actions and my words and all that I have 
answered on the subject of my visions and revelations I 
have not done and said by the order of God : this, I will 
not declare for anything in the world. And that which 
God hath made me do, hath commanded or shall 
command, I will not fail to do for any man alive. It 
would be impossible for me to revoke it. And in case 
the Church should wish me to do anything contrary to 
the command which has been given me of God, I will 
not consent to it, whatever it may be." 

" If the Church Militant tells you that your revela- 
tions are illusions, or diabolical things, will you defer to 
the Church ? " 



io 4 JEANNE D'ARC 

" I will defer to God, Whose Commandment I 
always do. I know well that that which is contained in 
my Case has come to me by the Commandment of God ; 
what I affirm in the Case is, that I have acted by the 
order of God : it is impossible for me to say otherwise. 
In case the Church should prescribe the contrary, I 
should not refer to any one in the world, but to God 
alone, Whose Commandment I always follow." 

" Do you not then believe you are subject to the 
Church of God which is on earth, that is to say to 
our Lord the Pope, to the Cardinals, the Archbishops, 
Bishops, and other prelates of the Church ? " 

" Yes, I believe myself to be subject to them ; but 
God must be served first." 

" Have you then command from your Voices not to 
submit yourself to the Church Militant, which is on 
earth, nor to its decision ? " 

" I answer nothing from my own head ; what I answer 
is by command of my Voices ; they do not order me to 
disobey the Church, but God must be served first." 

" At the Castle of Beaurevoir, at Arras or elsewhere, 
had you any files ? " 

" If any were found upon me, I have nothing to say." 

This done we did retire, postponing to another day 
the continuation of this present Trial for Belief. 



Choice is made of assertions on which the delibera- 
tion should bear, and these assertions are drawn ui> in 
Twelve Articles. 

The Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday after Easter, 
the 2nd, $rd, and ^th of April, in the year of Our Lord, 



We, the Judges, have convoked sundry Doctors and 
Masters with whom we have carefully examined the 
Seventy Articles which have been recently transcribed, 



THE TRIAL IN ORDINARY 



105 



together with the questions and answers of Jeanne, 
attached to each of these Seventy Articles. 

This examination carried out, We did decide that it is 
expedient to extract from this collection certain assertions 
and propositions, and to embody these assertions and 
propositions in Twelve Articles only, which shall thus 
comprehend, in a summary and succinct manner, the 
greater part of the sayings of the Accused. 

These Twelve Articles having been prepared, We, the 
Judges, did decree that it is expedient to transmit these 
Articles to the Doctors, and others, expert in laws Divine 
and human, in order to have from them, for the benefit 
of the Faith, advice and counsel on the character of the 
assertions therein contained. [The Twelve Articles of 
Accusation will be found in the Appendix, p. 366.] 



The Twelve Articles are sent to the Committee. 

The following Thursday, April $th, We, the Judges, 
sent the Articles in question to each of the Doctors and 
Masters having knowledge thereof, whom we knew were 
to be found in this town. We accompanied our missive 
with a letter of requisition for each of them, couched in 
these terms : 

" We, Pierre, by the Divine mercy Bishop of 
Beauvais, and Brother Jean Lemaitre, Vicar of the 
Inquisition, To you, such an one [here followeth the 
name, surname, and quality of the Doctor or Master], 
we pray you, and for the good of the Faith, require you, 
that before Tuesday next you will give us in writing and 
under your seal wholesome counsel on the subject of the 
assertions borne in the Twelve Articles hereto annexed, 
in order to know if, the said assertions being by you 
maturely weighed, considered, and compared, all or any 
of them seem to you contrary to the Orthodox Faith, or, 
on any point contrary to Holy Writ, to the decisions 



io6 JEANNE D'ARC 

of the Holy Roman Church, to the decisions of Doctors 
approved by the Church, or to the Canonical sanction ; 
and if all or any seem to you scandalous, audacious, 
disturbing to the Commonwealth, injurious, criminal, 
contrary to good manners, or culpable in any other 
manner whatsoever ; and in effect for you to say what 
appears to you should be enacted with regard to them 
in a matter of Faith. Written at Rouen, Thursday 
after Easter, April 5th, the year of our Lord, 1431." 



EXHORTATIONS AND ADMONITIONS. 

Private Exhortation by the Bishop. 

Wednesday, \%th day of April, We, the Judges, having 
cognizance already by the deliberations and opinions of 
a great number of Doctors in Theology and in Canon 
Law, of Licentiates and other Graduates, of the many 
and considerable errors brought out in the replies and 
assertions of the said Jeanne, and knowing that she doth 
expose herself, if she doth not correct herself, to serious 
dangers : 

For this reason, We did decide to exhort her charitably, 
to admonish her gently, and to cause her to be gently 
admonished by many men of knowledge and probity, 
Doctors and others, in order to lead her back into the 
way of truth and to a sincere profession of our Faith. 

To this end, We did to-day repair to the place of her 
prison, having with us Guillaume Lebouchier, Jacques 
de Touraine, Maurice de Quesnay, Nicolas Midi, 
Guillaume Adelie, Gerard Feuillet, and Guillaume 
Haiton. 

In their presence We, the Bishop, did begin to speak 
to Jeanne, who declared herself ill. 1 We told her that 

1 Guillaume Delachambre says that he was sent for by the Cardinal of 
England and the Earl of Warwick to attend Jeanne, with Desjardins and 



EXHORTATIONS AND ADMONITIONS 107 

the Doctors and Masters who accompanied Us were 

come to see her in a friendly and charitable way, to visit 

her in her suffering and to bring her consolation and 

comfort. Then, We recalled to her, that she had been 

during many days, and at divers times, and in presence 

of many ecclesiastics full of wisdom, questioned on 

points, grave and difficult, concerning the Faith ; that 

she had made answers, varied and diverse, which wise 

[ and lettered men have examined with the most scrupu- 

, lous attention ; that they have noted many of her words 

p and avowals which, from the point of view of the Faith, 

I have appeared to them perilous ; but that she is only a 

; poor illiterate woman, who knoweth not the Scriptures. 

We come to her and We offer her learned and wise men, 

watchful and honest, who will give her, as is their duty, 

the knowledge which she hath not. And at the same 

I time We did exhort the Doctors and Masters here 

present to give to Jeanne, counsel profitable to the 

I salvation of her body and soul, and this in virtue of the 

duty which binds them to the doctrine of the true Faith. 

If Jeanne should know others who appear to her more 

apt than the Doctors here present, We offer to send 

i them to her to counsel and instruct her on what she 

should do, maintain, and believe. We added that we 

i are all Clergy, always disposed by vocation, will and 

j inclination, to seek by all means the salvation of body 

and soul, absolutely, as we should do it for our nearest 

i and for ourselves. We shall be happy to furnish her 

; each day with such men to procure her the instruction 

i that We owe her, and to do towards her all that the 

I Church is accustomed to do in such circumstances, she 

who shutteth not the fold against the repentant lamb. 

other Doctors ; he was told by Warwick to give all attention to the patient, 
" as the King would not for anything in the world, that she should die a 
natural death ; she had cost too dear for that ; he had bought her dear, 
and he did not wish her to die except by justice and the fire." 



io8 JEANNE D'ARC 

Finally We told her to take into great consideration this 
admonition which We address to her for her salvation, 
and to follow it up efficiently : for, if she should act in 
opposition to Our words, if she ^should be obstinate in 
her own mind in consulting only her inexperienced brain, 
we must abandon her ; and she can see to what peril she 
doth expose herself in this case. It is this peril which 
We seek to avoid for her with all the power of Our 
affection. 

To which Jeanne hath answered : 

" I thank you for what you say to me for my salvation. 
It seems to me, seeing how ill I am, that I am in 
great danger of death : if it be that God may do His 
pleasure on me, I ask of you that I may have confession, 
and my Saviour also, and that I may be put in holy 
ground." 

" If you will have the rights \droit s\ and Sacraments 
of the Church," We said to her, " you must do as good 
Catholics do, and submit yourself to the Church. If you 
persevere in your intention of not submitting to the 
Church, you cannot have the Sacraments you ask 
administered to you, except the Sacrament of Penance, 
which We are always ready to give you." 

" I have for the moment nothing else to say to you." 

"The more you fear^for your life, on account of the 
illness that you have, the more should you amend ; you 
will not have the rights L of a Catholic if you do not 
submit to the Church." 

" If my body dies in prison, I trust that you will have 
it put in holy ground ; if you do not have it put there, I ; 
place my trust in God ! " 

" You said in your Trial that if you had said or done 
anything against the Christian Faith established by Our 
Lord, you would not maintain it." 

" I refer to the answer that I have made to that, and 
to Our Lord." 



EXHORTATIONS AND ADMONITIONS 109 

" You say you have had many revelations from God by 
Saint Michael, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret : if 
any good person were to come affirming that he had 
revelations from God touching your mission, would you 
believe him ? " 

" There is no Christian in this world who could come 
to me and say he had had a revelation but that I should 
know if he were speaking truly or not ; I should know 
it by Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret." 

" You imagine then that God can reveal nothing to 
any one which is unknown to you ? " 

" I know well that He can ; but for me, I should not 
believe in this case any man or woman if I had not some 
sign." 

" Do you believe that the Holy Scriptures have been 
revealed by God ? " 

" You know it well ; I know it well ! " 

" We summon you, We exhort you, We beseech you 
to take counsel of the Clerks and notable Masters here 
present, and to believe in the counsel that they will give 
you for the salvation of your soul. And once more We 
ask you if you will submit to the Church Militant your 
sayings and your doings ? " 

"Whatever may happen to me, I will do and say 
no other thing than what I have already said in the 
Trial." 

Here the venerable Doctors who were assisting Us did 
exhort her with the most lively instance and did strive 
to obtain from her that she would submit herself and 
her acts to the Church Militant. They cited to her 
a number of authorities taken from Holy Scripture, and 
shewed her numerous examples. They enlarged upon 
these authorities and these examples. One of the 
Doctors, 1 in his exhortation, brought forward this 
passage of Matthew, chapter xviii. : "If thy brother 

1 Nicolas Midi. 



no JEANNE D'ARC 

sin against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee 
and him alone " ; and this other, "If he will not hear 
the Church, let him be unto thee as a heathen-man and 
a publican." He shewed to Jeanne these truths in 
French, and said to her at the end, that if she would not 
submit to the Church and obey it, the Church must 
abandon her as an Infidel [sarrazine]. 

" I am a good Christian," she answered, " I have been 
baptized ; I shall die a good Christian ! " 

" As you ask that the Church should administer the 
Eucharist to you, why will you not submit to the Church ? 
It would be administered to you at once." 

" Of this submission I will say no more than I have 
said : I love God, I serve Him ; I am a good Christian ; 
I wish to help and maintain the Church with all my 
power." 

" Do you not wish that a good and notable procession 
might be ordained to restore you to a good estate if you 
are not therein ? " 

" I desire that the Church and the Catholics should 
pray for rne." 



Public Admonition by the Judges. 

Wednesday, the 2nd day of May, the Judges held a 
sitting in the room of the Castle of Rouen near the Great 
Hall of the same Castle ; assisted by 63 Assessors. 

We, the Bishop, did first address to the above-named 
the following words : 

" After having been thoroughly questioned, this woman 
hath had to reply to the Articles judicially prepared 
against her by the Promoter ; then We have had a 
summary made of her avowals and declarations in a 
succinct and abridged form of assertions in Twelve 
Articles, which We have addressed to the Doctors and 



EXHORTATIONS AND ADMONITIONS in 

other persons consummate in knowledge of Theology, of 
Civil Law and of Canon Law, in order to have their 
advice. By the answers which many amongst them 
have for some time past been sending, We have been able 
to recognize that, in their eyes, this woman hath fallen 
short in many things : but nothing as regards this has as 
yet been decided by Us ; and before We come to a final 
decision, many honest men, conscientious and wise, have 
thought it would be well to seek by all means to instruct 
her on the points in which she seems to be lacking, 
and to reinstate her in the way and knowledge of the 
truth. This result We have always desired, and We 
ardently desire it still. For We ought all to bend our- 
selves thereto, We who live in the Church, and in the 
ministration of holy things ; We ought to strive to shew 
to this woman with all gentleness that she is, by her words 
and by her actions, outside the Faith, the truth, and 
religion, and to warn her charitably to think of her 
salvation. 

" We were indeed penetrated with this idea when We 
attempted to convince her, in sending to her, divers 
times and privately, eminent Doctors, sometimes one, 
sometimes another. These Doctors have responded to 
our call with the greatest zeal, and have occupied 
themselves with her with the greatest gentleness, 
abstaining in every way from coercion. But the cunning 
of the Devil has continued to prevail, and their efforts 
have been able to produce nothing. 

" Now that it has become certain to Us that private 
admonitions are of no effect with her, it appears to Us 
opportune to assemble you together in a solemn manner, 
in order that this woman should be admonished before 
you with gentleness and charity on the necessity of her 
return [to truth]. Perchance your presence and the 
exhortations of some among you will better induce her 
to humility and obedience, and turn her back from 



1 1.2 JEANNE D'ARC 

continuing obstinate in her own ideas ; perchance she 
will believe the counsels of worthy men, of the wise, 
versed in the science of the laws, divine and human ; 
she will cease to expose herself to the gravest dangers 
into which body and soul can fall. 

"In order to address to her this solemn admonition, 
We have chosen an ancient Master in Theology, very 
learned and singularly well versed in these matters, 
Maitre Jean de Chatillon, Archdeacon of Evreux, who, 
if it so please him, will shortly accept this charge of 
demonstrating clearly to this woman sundry points on the 
which her error is evident, according to what we have 
already gathered from the opinions which have reached 
Us, and who will persuade her to leave the criminal path 
where she now is, to return again to that of truth. 

"It is for this purpose that this woman will be brought 
before you presently ; she will, therefore, receive in your 
presence a solemn admonition. Now, if there be any one 
among you who thinketh that he hath anything to say 
or do which may facilitate her return, or instruct her in 
a manner profitable to the salvation of her body and 
soul, we beseech him not to hesitate to open himself to 
Us or to state his views publicly." 

Jeanne was then brought, and placed before the 
assembly. 

We, the Bishop, in our name and in the name of the 
other Judge, did give her counsel to attend to the 
monitions about to be made to her by the aforesaid Lord 
Archdeacon, Professor in Sacred Theology, who was 
about to say many things profitable to the salvation of 
her body and soul, and that she ought to agree, for if she 
did net, she would expose herself to great dangers both 
soul and body. 

Then we, the said Judges, did invite the said Lord 
Archdeacon to proceed with charity to the performance 

1 



EXHORTATIONS AND ADMONITIONS 113 

>f the said monitions. Obeying our order, the said 
,ord Archdeacon did begin to instruct the said Jeanne, 
by shewing her a great number of things contained in 
a schedule whose tenour will be presently transcribed. He 
first shewed her that all the faithful in Christ are bound 
and obliged to believe the Christian Faith, and certain 
Articles of this Faith ; and he did warn and beseech her, 
by means of a general monition, to correct and amend 
both herself and her deeds ; he reminded her that this 
was the advice of the venerable Doctors and Masters of 
consummate experience and skill. 

To this general monition, Jeanne replied : 

" Read your book " [speaking of the writing which 
the Lord Archdeacon held in his hand], " read your book, 
then I will answer. I rely upon God, my Creator, for 
everything. I love Him with all my heart." 

Asked if she had anything more to say to this general 
monition, she replied : 

" I rely on my Judge : He is the King of Heaven 
and earth." 

Afterwards the Lord Archdeacon, proceeding to 
special monitions, did, in conformity with a writing 
which he had under his eyes, speak as follows : 

[Here follows, in the Original Documents, an Exhort- 
ation in Six Articles, addressed to Jeanne in the French 
language by the Archdeacon, on her submission to the 
Church, her dress, her Visions and Revelations.] 



Jeanne replies to the Six Articles. 
On the ist and 2nd Article, she said : 
" Thereupon I answer to-day as I have done before." 
On the subject of the Church Militant, she said : 
" I believe indeed in the Church which is here below ; 
but for my words and deeds, as I have said elsewhere, 
I rely on and refer me to the only God. I believe 

i 



1 1 4 JEANNE D'ARC 

that the Church Militant cannot err or fail ; but as 
to my words and deeds, I submit them and refer all 
to God, Who caused me to do what I have done. I 
submit me to God, my Creator, Who caused me to do 
all these things ; I refer me to God thereupon and to my 
own self." 

" Do you mean by this to say that you have no judge 
on earth ? Is not our Holy Father, the Pope, your 
judge?" 

" I will say nothing else to you. I have a good 
Master, that is God ; it is to Him I look in everything 
and to none other." 

" If you will not believe in the Church, if you will not 
believe that Article of the Creed, ' the Church, One, 
Holy, Catholic,' you will be declared a heretic and, by 
other judges, punished with the pains of fire." 

" I will say no more to you, and, if I saw the fire, 
I should say all that I am saying to you, and naught 
else." 1 

" If a General Council that is to say, our Holy 
Father the Pope, the Cardinals, Bishops and others 
were here, would you not then refer and submit yourself 
to this Holy Council ? " 

" You shall drag nothing else from me upon this." 

" Will you submit to our Holy Father the Pope ? " 

" Take me to him, I will reply to him." [She would 
answer no more.] 

On the subject of the 3rd Article, she replied : 

"As to my garments, I will indeed take a long dress 
and a woman's hood to go to Church and to receive 
there the Sacrament of the Eucharist as I said else- 
where provided that, directly after, I may put off 
that dress and take again what I bear at this moment." 
And when it was suggested to her that she had taken 
this^dress without necessity, especially while in prison, 

1 In the margin is written " Superba responsio? 



EXHORTATIONS AND ADMONITIONS 115 

she said :] "When I have done that for which I am sent 
by God, I will resume woman's dress." 

" Do you think you do well to wear a man's dress ? " 
" I refer me to Our Lord." 

" Will you leave off wearing this dress and the believing 
that you do right in wearing it ? Will you resume a 
woman's dress ? " 

" I will do nothing different." 
On the subject of the 4th Article she replied : 
" I have blasphemed neither God nor His Saints." 
" When Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret came to 
you, did you make the sign of the Cross ? " 
" Sometimes I made it, sometimes not." 
On the subject of the 5th Article she answered : 
" As to my revelations, I refer me to my Judge that 
is to say, to God. My revelations came to me from 
God direct." 

" On the subject of the sign given to your King, will 
you refer to the Archbishop of Rheims, to the Sire de 
Boussac, 1 to Charles de Bourbon, to the Seigneur de la 
Tremouille, and to Etienne, called La Hire, to whom 
or to some of whom you say that you shewed the crown, 
these being present when the Angel brought it to the 
King, who afterwards gave it to the Archbishop ? or 
will you consent to refer to some of your party who may 
write under their seal about it ? " 

" Give me a messenger and I will write to them about 
this Trial." [She would not believe in, or refer other- 
wise to them.] 

On the subject of the 6th Article, she answered : 
" I refer to my Judge that is to say, to Our Lord 
and to what I have before answered, which is written in 
the book." 

;< If three or four Clergy of your party are sent to you, 

1 Jean de la Brosse, Marshal of France, called occasionally Marshal de 
Boussac and de Saint Severe, being lord of both these territories. 

I 2 



n6 JEANNE D'ARC 

coming under a safe conduct, will you refer yourself to 
them on the subject of your apparitions and of all that 
is contained in your trial ? " 

" Let them come ; I will answer." [She would not refer 
nor otherwise submit to them on the subject of the trial.] 
"Will you refer or submit yourself to the Church of 
Poitiers, where you were examined ? " 

' 'Do you think you will take me in that way, and 
draw me to you by it ? " 

Afterwards, to conclude, she was anew and in full, 
generally warned by the Lord Archdeacon to submit to 
the Church under pain of being abandoned by the 
Church. He said, and repeated to her, that, if the 
Church abandoned her, she would be in great peril both 
of body and soul, and would fall into danger of the 
pains of eternal fire as to her soul and, by sentence of 
other Judges, into danger of temporal fire for her body. 

To which she answered : 

" You will not do what you say against me without 
evil overtaking you, body and soul ! " 

" Tell us a reason, one only, why you should refuse to 
refer yourself to the Church." 

[But she would make Us no other answer.] 

Afterwards, many Doctors and competent people of 
divers estates and faculties, set themselves to admonish 
and to counsel her with gentleness. They exhorted her 
to submit to the Church Universal, to our Holy Father 
the Pope, and to the Sacred General Council. They 
explained to her the peril to which she exposed both 
soul and body in refusing to submit herself and her deeds 
to the judgment of the Church Militant. 

[She answered as before.] 

And then We, the Bishop, told Jeanne to think well 
over it, to take good heed to the monitions, counsels, 
and exhortations which had just been made to her, and 
to reflect on them most seriously. 






EXHORTATIONS AND ADMONITIONS 117 

Jeanne expressed herself thus : 
" What time will you give me to think over it ? " 
We told her that she could think over it at once, and 
answer as she wished. But, as she would reply no more, 
we retired, and Jeanne was conducted back to prison. 



Wednesday, May qth, We, the Judges, being in the 
great Tower of the Castle of Rouen, assisted by the 
reverend Fathers, Doctors and Masters whose names 
follow : the Reverend Father Abbot of Corneille de 
Compiegne,Jean de Chatillon, Guillaume Erard, Andre 
Marguerie, Nicolas de Venderes, Guillaume Haiton, 
Aubert Morel, Nicolas Loyseleur, Jean Massieu : did 
cause Jeanne to be brought before us. 

We did require and warn her : 

To speak the truth to Us on divers and numerous 
points on which she hath hitherto refused to reply or 
hath replied untruthfully, the which are established in 
the highest degree by informations, proofs, and grave 
presumptions. A great number of these points were 
read and shewn to her. Then she was told that, if she 
would not tell the truth, she would immediately be put 
to the torture, the instruments of which were here, in 
this same tower, under her eyes. There also were 
present the executioners, who by Our order had made all 
the necessary preparations for torturing her, in order to 
bring her back by this means into the way and know- 
ledge of the truth, and thus to procure for her sal- 
vation both of body and soul, which she doth expose 
to such grave peril by her lying inventions. 

To which Jeanne replied in this manner : 

" Truly if you were to tear me limb from limb, and 
separate soul and body, I will tell you nothing more ; 
and, if I were to say anything else, I should always after- 
wards declare that you made me say it by force. Last 



n8 JEANNE D'ARC 

Thursday l I received comfort from Saint Gabriel ; I 
believe it was Saint Gabriel : I knew by my Voices 
it was he. I asked counsel of my Voices if I ought to 
submit to the Church, because the Clergy were pressing 
me hard to submit, and they said to me: ' If thou 
wiliest that God should come to thy help, wait on Him 
for all thy doings.' I know that Our Lord hath always 
been the Master of all my doings, and that the Devil 
hath never had power over them. I asked of my Voices 
if I should be burned, and my Voices answered me : 
' Wait on Our Lord, He will help thee.' " 

" On the subject of the crown which you say was 
given to the Archbishop of Rheims, will you defer 
to him ? " 

" Make him come here, and I will hear him speak, and 
then I will answer you. Nevertheless, he dare not say 
the contrary to what I have said thereon." 

Seeing the hardness of her heart, and her manner of 
replying, We, the Judges, fearing that the punishment of 
the torture would profit her little, decided that it was 
expedient to delay it, at least for the present, and until 
We have had thereupon more complete advice. 



Saturday, May izth, in the abode of Us, the Bishop? 
We, the Judges, having taken our seats, assisted by the 
venerable Doctors and Masters whose names follow : 
Raoul Roussell, Nicolas de Venderes, Andre 1 Marguerie, 
Guillaume Erard, Robert Barbier, Denis Gastinel, Jean 
Ledoux, Aubert Morel, Thomas de Courcelles, Nicolas 
Coppequesne, Nicolas Loyseleur, Brother Ysambard de la 
Pierre. 

We, the Bishop, did make known to the Assessors 
what had taken place on the previous Wednesday, and 

1 The Day of the Holy Cross, May 3rd. 

2 The Minute adds : " in the evening." 



EXHORTATIONS AND ADMONITIONS 119 

ask their counsel on what should be now done ; We did 
in particular consult them on the question of submitting 
Jeanne to the torture. 

[Here follow the deliberations of the fourteen Assessors 
consulted, only two of whom, Aubert Morel and Thomas 
de Courcelles, recommended recourse to the torture. 
Nicolas Loyseleur considered it " a salutary medicine for 
her soul," but nevertheless agreed that it should not be 
adopted.] 

We, the Judges, after having gathered the opinion of 
each, taking into consideration the answers made by 
Jeanne at the Sitting on Wednesday last, taking into 
consideration also the disposition of her mind, her will 
so energetically manifested, and all the other circum- 
stances of the Case, decide that it is neither profitable 
nor expedient to submit her to the torture ; and for the 
rest, We will proceed later. 

[The Twelve Articles of the Indictment, or Accusation, 
were sent to the University of Paris, for their considera- 
tion and report, by the hands of Maltres Jean Beau- 
pere, Nicolas Midi, Jacques de Touraine, and Gerard 
Feuillet, who left Rouen for this purpose on April igih. 
On April 29th, the University was solemnly convoked 
at Saint-Bernard to consider the question ; on May I4th, 
the deliberation of the Faculty of Theology and the 
Faculty of Decrees was submitted to all the Faculties, 
solemnly assembled for that purpose, and adopted by 
the University as its own. Letters from the University 
of Paris were sent to the Bishop of Beauvais and to 
King Henry VI. on the same day, by the messengers 
then returning to Rouen.] 



The Bishop communicates the Resolutions of the Uni- 
versity of Paris [approving of the Twelve Articles], and 
asks the advice of all the Doctors present. 



i2c JEANNE D'ARC 

Saturday, May 19^, in the Chapel of the Archiepis- 
copal Manor of Rouen. Present : the Judges, assisted 
by 51 Assessors. 

In presence of the above named, We, the Bishop, 
said : 

For a long time, We have been receiving a very con- 
siderable number of Resolutions and opinions, coming 
from notable Doctors and Masters, on the subject of the 
assertions made and confessed by Jeanne. We might 
awhile since have proceeded to the conclusion of the 
Process, basing Ourselves on these Resolutions, because 
these Resolutions were assuredly quite sufficient. But 
in order to testify all honour and all respect towards 
our Mother, the University of Paris ; to have on the 
matter a more full and complete elucidation ; to give to 
consciences more guarantee and surety : We did decide 
to send the assertions in question to Our Mother the 
University of Paris, and principally to the Faculties of 
Theology and of Decrees ; and to beseech the delibera- 
tion of the Doctors and Masters of the said University, 
principally of the said two Faculties of Theology and 
Decrees. The University in particular, the said two 
Faculties being ardently enflamed with zeal for the 
Faith have maturely and solemnly given their opinion 
upon each of the assertions, and have sent them to Us 
in the form of a Public Instrument. 

This statement ended, We gave orders that the Reso- 
lutions contained in the said Instrument should be read. 

Afterwards, upon the reading of the Resolutions of 
the said two Faculties and the said University, each of 
the Doctors and Masters present did give and explain 
his opinion : and this, in addition to the opinion already 
given for the most part in the deliberations reported 
above. 

The opinion of all is in conformity with the Resolutions 



FINAL SESSION. RECANTATION 



121 



)f the University and of the two Faculties ; and it doth 
bear not only on the qualifications to be given to the 
assertions comprised in the Twelve Articles, but also 
on the manner of proceeding which shall be followed 
finally. 

Here follow the deliberations of the Doctors and 
Masters ; [agreeing with the Resolutions of the Uni- 
versity, and advising that Jeanne should be again 
charitably admonished and warned before a final 
sentence be pronounced.] 

For all which, We, the Judges, thanked the reverend 
Fathers, Lords, and Masters. 

We decided that Jeanne should be again warned to 
return into the way of truth and salvation of soul and 
body. 

Besides, and in accordance with the excellent delibera- 
tions which had just taken place, and with the counsels 
full of sense just enunciated, We decided that We will, 
after this last monition, pronounce the closing of the 
Process and give a day for the announcement of the 
sentence. 



FINAL SESSION AND SENTENCE. 
RECANTATION. 

Wednesday, May 2$rd, We, the Judges, assisted by the 
reverend Fathers and Lords the Bishops of ThdrouoiMte TH &c? o a > 
and de Noyon ; and the Doctors and Masters Jean de 
Chdtillon, Jean Beaupere, Nicolas Midi, Guillaume 
Erard, Pierre Maurice, Andre 1 Marguerie and Nicolas 
de Venderes, seated ourselves in tribunal in a room in the 
Castle of Rouen, situated near the place which serves 
Jeanne as prison. 

We did cause the said Jeanne to be brought before Us, 
because We judged it profitable to shew her the points 
on which the Faculties of Theology and Decrees of the 



122 JEANNE D'ARC 

University of Paris have declared that she hath erred 
and fallen short ; We have judged it profitable also to 
make known to her the omissions, crimes and errors 
which, in the terms of the Resolutions of each of these 
Faculties, exist on each of these same points ; and after- 
wards, to warn her, or cause her to be warned, to abandon 
these errors and shortcomings : to correct and submit 
herself, in fine, to the censure and judgment of Our Holy 
Mother the Church. 

Maitre Pierre Maurice, Canon of the Church of 
Rouen, a celebrated Doctor in Theology, hath been 
charged by us with this mission, and he hath fulfilled it 
by addressing to Jeanne the words written by him in 
French in a schedule thus expressed. 

[Here follows a recapitulation of the Twelve Articles, 
with the opinion, adverse to Jeanne, given upon them by 
the Clerics consulted.] 

After these assertions had been thus shewn to her, 
and the decision of the University of Paris upon each 
of them had been made known to her, Jeanne was 
admonished, in the French language, by the said Doctor 
Pierre Maurice to pay great attention to the character 
given to her sayings and deeds by this decision of the 
University of Paris. Above all he did exhort her to 
reflect well on the gravity of the error contained in her 
refusal to submit to the Church Militant. 
And he concluded by thus speaking to her : 
"Jeanne, my very dear friend, it is now time, at the 
end of your Trial, to reflect well on all that has been 
said to you. This is the fourth time 1 that the Lord 
Bishop of Beauvais, the Lord Vicar of the Inquisition, 
and other Doctors who have been thereto appointed, 
have, either in public or in private, in honour and 
reverence for God, for the Faith, and the Law of Jesus 

1 April 1 8th, May 2nd, iQth, and 23rd. 



FINAL SESSION. RECANTATION 123. 



Christ, for the tranquillity of their own consciences and 
for the alleviation of so great a scandal, admonished you 
with the greatest zeal so great is their care for the 
salvation of your soul and body ! Four times have been 
made known to you the perils which endanger your soul 
and body, if you do not at last consent to correct your- 
self and your sayings by submitting to the Church, your- 
self and your deeds, and by accepting her judgment. 

" Up to this time you have obstinately refused. And 
although many others might long since have declared 
the Case heard and have given judgment upon you, 
nevertheless my Lords your Judges, enflamed with zeal 
for the salvation of your soul and body, desired, in order 
to have their advice, to send your sayings and deeds to 
the University, that light of all Science, that extirpator 
of all error. The resolutions of the University of Paris 
have come to your Judges. They have then decided, 
always in the hope of your salvation, to admonish you 
once again, to again call your attention to your errors, 
your scandals and all the faults that you have committed 
in such great number. 

"They exhort you, your Judges, they beseech you, 
they admonish you by the bowels of Our Lord Jesus 
Christ, Who hath suffered a cruel death for the redemp- 
tion of man, they beseech you to correct your words, to 
submit them to the judgment of the Church, as all the 
faithful are bound and obliged to do. Do not allow 
yourself to be separated from Our Lord Jesus Christ, 
Who hath created you to be a sharer in His glory; do 
not choose the way of eternal damnation with the 
enemies of God, who daily set their wits to work to find 
means to trouble mankind, transforming themselves 
often, to this end, into the likeness of Our Lord, of 
Angels and of Saints, as is seen but too often in the 
lives of the Fathers and in the Scriptures. 

" Therefore, if such things have appeared to you, do 



i2 4 JEANNE D'ARC 

not believe them. The belief which you may have had 
in such illusions, put it away from you. Believe rather 
in the words and opinions of the University of Paris and 
other Doctors, who, knowing the law of God and Holy 
Scripture, decide that no faith should be placed in such 
apparitions, nor should faith be placed in any extraordi- 
nary apparitions, in any novelty which is not supported 
by Holy Scripture, by a sign, or by a miracle. 

" You have very lightly believed in such things, you 
who have not turned to God in earnest prayer that He 
would grant you certainty ; you who, to enlighten your- 
self, have not applied to a prelate or a learned 
ecclesiastic. This you ought to have done : it was your 
duty, considering your estate and the simplicity of your 
knowledge. 

" Let us take an example : If your King had given 
you a treasure to guard, forbidding you to receive 
any one, whoever it might be, should you not 
refuse to receive one who presented himself to you, 
saying he came by order of the King, unless he brought 
you a letter or some certain sign ? For the Church 
it is the same thing : when Our Lord Jesus Christ, 
ascending into Heaven, confided the government of 
His Church to the blessed Apostle Peter and his 
successors, He forbade us to accept anything from 
others who might come in His Name, who- should 
have for the support of their mission only their own 
sayings. You ought not to have put faith in those 
whom you say came to you ; and we also, we ought 
not to believe in you, since Our Lord hath expressly 
commanded the contrary. 

" Reflect, Jeanne, upon this : if, when you were in your 
King's realm, a soldier or another, born in his kingdom 
and placed under his dominion, had suddenly risen and 
said, ' I will not obey the King, I will not submit either 
to him or his officers,' would you not have said yourself 



FINAL SESSION. RECANTATION 125 



Kt this man should be condemned ? But what will 
L say of yourself, you, brought up in the Faith of 
Christ, if you do not obey the officers of Christ that 
is to say, the Prelates of the Church ? What judg- 
ment will you give on yourself? Cease, therefore, to 
hold this damnable speech, if you love God, your 
Creator, your Spouse, and your Salvation : obey ^the 
Church, consent to submit to its judgment ; know well 
that, if you do not, if you persevere in your error, 
your soul will be condemned to eternal punishment ; 
and, for your body, I fear much that it will come to 
perdition. \_Anima vestra damnabitur supplicio perpetuo 
crucianda, et de corpore plurimum dubito ne in perdi- 
tionem veniatJ] 

" Let not fear of the world hold you back ; do not give 
way to the fear of losing, by doing as I ask you, the great 
honours you have received. The honour of God and 
the salvation of your body and soul must be preferred 
before all. All is perishable, save only what I tell you 
to do. If you do it not, you separate yourself from the 
Church and from the Faith to which you have sworn in 
Holy Baptism ; you detach yourself from the authority 
of the Church, from the Church which is led, ruled, and 
governed by the authority of the Spirit of God. Did 
not God say to the chiefs of the Church : ' He that 
heareth you heareth Me, he that despiseth you despiseth 
Me ' ? If you will not submit to the Church, you 
separate yourself in deed, and you refuse at. the same 
time to submit yourself to God ; you are in error 
on this article of the Faith, ' the Church, One, Holy, 
and Catholic/ What this Church and herauthority 
is, hath been sufficiently explained to you in former 
monitions. 

" Thus have my Lords the Bishop of Beauvais and 
the Vicar of the Inquisition, your Judges, charged me to 
tell you. 



126 JEANNE D'ARC 

"And now, I admonish, I beseech, I exhort you, in 
the name of your devotion to the Passion of your 
Creator, and of the affection you should bear to 
the salvation of your body and soul, I admonish, j| 
beseech you, amend yourself, return into the way of 
truth, obey the Church, submit to her judgment and 
decision. 

"In thus acting you will save your soul ; you will 
redeem so I believe your body from death. But if 
you do not, if you persist, know that your soul will 
foe overwhelmed by damnation, and I fear for the 
destruction of your body. 

" May Our Saviour Jesus Christ preserve you from 
all these evils ! " 

After being thus admonished and exhorted, Jeanne 
did reply : 

" As to my words and deeds, such as I have declared 
them in the Trial, I refer to them and will maintain 
them." 

" Do you not, then/' We asked her, " think yourself 
bound to submit your words and deeds to the Church 
Militant, or to any other but God ? " 

She replied : " What I have always said in the Trial, 
and held, I wish still to say and maintain. If I were 
condemned, if I saw the fire lighted, the faggots 
prepared, and the executioner ready to kindle the fire, 
and if I myself were in the fire, I would not say 
otherwise, and would maintain to the death all I have 
said." l 

Then, We, the Judges, asked of the Promoter and of 
Jeanne herself if they had anything else to say. They 
replied, No. In consequence, We did proceed to close 
the Process, following the formula contained in a schedule 

1 Against this passage is written, on the margin of the original MS. note 
in the hand of the Registrar Manchon, ' Responsio Johanna superba? 



FINAL SESSION. RECANTATION 127 

which We, the Bishop, held in Our hands, and which 
was thus expressed : 

We, the Judges, competent in this Process, declare 
anew our competence in so far as is necessary ; 

Considering the declaration just made by the Pro- 
moter and the Accused that they have no more to say ; 

We declare the Process concluded;^- and, this con- 
clusion pronounced, We summon you both to-morrow 
to hear the law which will be laid down by Us, and the 
sentence which shall be pronounced by Us, to be after- 
wards carried out and proceeded with according to law 
and right. 



On Thursday after Whitsuntide, the 2\th day of May 
in the morning, We, the Judges, did repair to a solemn 
Assembly, publicly held in the Cemetery of the Abbey 
of Saint-Ouen, at Rouen. 2 We did have with us : 
The most reverend Father in Christ, Henry, by Divine 
Permission Priest of the Holy Roman Church, under the 
title of Saint Eusebius, usually called the Cardinal of 
England ; the reverend Fathers in Christ : , the Lords 
Bishops of Thtromnne, Noyon, and Norwich ; the Lords 
Abbot of Saint Trinite 1 de Fecamp, of Saint Ouen of 
Rouen, of Jumieges, Bee, Cormeilles, Saint- Michel au Peril- 
de-la-Mer, Mortemer, and Preaux ; the Priors of Longue- 
ville-la-Giffard, and Saint Lo of Rouen; and many 
others. 

Jeanne was placed opposite to Us on a scaffold or 
platform prepared for this purpose. 

1 In ipsd Causd concludimus. 

2 In the Square of Saint-Ouen were two platforms on each side of the 
south door of the Church : Jeanne and Maitre rard, the preacher, occupied 
one ; the Bishop of Beauvais, together with a great number of Assessors, 
filled the other. In those days, and up to comparatively recent times, a 
cemetery occupied this site, which is now a garden. There was ample 
space for a large crowd to collect on the gently sloping ground facing the 
south door. 



128 



JEANNE D'ARC 



First of all, We did charge Maltre Guillaume Iirard, 
Doctor in Theology, a preacher of great renown, to 
pronounce a solemn sermon for the salutary admonition 
of Jeanne and the great crowd which surrounded us. 

This Doctor began by taking for text that Word of 
God in St. John, Chapter xv., " A branch cannot bear 
fruit of itself except it abide in the vine." Then he 
explained solemnly that all Catholics should abide in the 
true vine of the Holy Mother Church which Christ had 
planted : he shewed how Jeanne, by many errors and 
grave crimes, had separated herself from Holy Mother 
Church, to the great scandal of Christian people. 
Finally, he admonished and exhorted her and all the 
people by the most edifying teaching. 

In concluding, he spoke to her in these terms : 

" Jeanne, behold my Lords your Judges, who, at 
divers times, have summoned and required you to 
submit yourself, your words and deeds, to Our Holy 
Church, shewing you that there doth exist in your 
words and deeds many things which, as it doth seem to 
the Clergy, are not good either to say or maintain." 

To which Jeanne replied : 

" I will answer you. As to my submission to the 
Church, I have answered the Clergy on this point. I 
have answered them also on the subject of all the things 
I have said and done. Let them be sent to Rome to 
our Holy Father the Pope, to whom after God I refer 
me as to my words and deeds : I did them by God's order ; 
I charge no one with them, neither my King nor any one 
else. If there be any fault found in them, the blame is 
on me, and no one else." 

" Will you revoke all your words and deeds which are 
disapproved by the Clergy ? " 

" I refer me to God and to our Holy Father the 
Pope." 

Then she was told that this answer would not suffice ; 




SOUTH DOOR OF ST. OUEN AT ROUEN, 



THE SENTENCE 129 

that it was not possible to send to seek the Pope from 
such a distance ; that the Ordinaries are Judges, each in 
their own diocese ; that it was necessary she should refer 
to our Holy Mother the Church ; and that she should 
hold as true all that the Clergy and other people 
cognizant thereof have said and decided on the subject 
of her words and deeds. 

She was admonished on this to the third monition. 

But as this woman would say no more, We, the 
Bishop, did then begin the reading of Our sentence as 
follows : 

THE SENTENCE 

In the Name of the Lord, Amen. 

All the pastors of the Church who have it in their 
hearts to watch faithfully over their flock, should, when 
the perfidious Sower of Errors works by his machina- 
tions and deceits to infest the Flock of Christ, strive 
with great care to resist his pernicious efforts with the 
greatest vigilance and the most lively solicitude, and 
above all in these perilous times, when so many 
false prophets are come into the world with their sects 
of error and perdition, according to the prediction 
thereof made by the Apostle. Their diverse and 
strange doctrines might cause the faithful in Christ to 
stray, if Holy Mother Church, with the aid of whole- 
some doctrine and canonical sanction, did^ not study 
with great zeal to refute their inventions and errors. 

Therefore, because that before Us, Pierre by the 
Divine Mercy Bishop of Beauvais, and before Us, 
Brother Jean Lemaitre, Deputy in this City and Diocese 
for Maitre Jean Graverend, renowned Doctor Inquisitor 
in France for the Evil of Heresy, specially appointed 
for this in this Case ; because, before Us, competent 
Judges, thou, Jeanne, commonly called the Maid, hast 

K 



1 30 JEANNE D'ARC 

been indicted and cited in a Case of Faith, on account 
of thy pernicious errors ; after having seen and 
examined with great attention the whole series of thy 
Trial l . . . . 

Our sentence had thus been already read, in great 
part, when Jeanne did begin to speak and said : 

" I will hold 2 all that the Church ordains, all that you, 
the Judges, wish to say and decree in all I will refer 
me to your orders ! " 

Then many times did she say : 

" Inasmuch as the Clergy decide that the apparitions 
and revelations which I have had are not to be maintained 
or believed, I will not believe nor maintain them ; in all 
I refer me to you and to our Holy Mother Church ! " 

Abjuration. 

Then, in the presence of all the aforenamed, in 
presence of an immense number of people and Clergy, 
she did make and utter her recantation and abjuration, 
following a formula written in French, which was read 
to her ; a formula which she did pronounce herself, and 
the schedule of which she did sign with her own hand, 
and of which the tenour follows : 

" All who have erred and been mistaken in the 
Christian Faith and, by the grace of God, have since 
returned into the light of truth and the unity of Our 
Holy Mother Church, should well guard themselves that 
the Evil One doth not drive them back and cause them 
to relapse into error and damnation. For this cause, I, 
Jeanne, commonly called the Maid, a miserable sinner, 

1 There is no note as to when Jeanne interrupted the Bishop. The Latin 
gives no hint. It is probable that, during the reading of the sentence, 
rard and Loiseleur were trying to induce Jeanne to recant and sign the 
schedule, and that her abjuration was the result of their endeavours, not of 
the Bishop's. 

2 The Latin reading is, "'Ante fmern sententise, Johanna, tirnens ignem, 
dixit se velle obedire ecclesiae." 



THE SENTENCE 131 

after that I had recognized the snares of error in the 
which I was held, and [after] that, by the grace of God, 
I had returned to our Holy Mother Church, in order 
that it may be seen that, not feigningly but with a good 
heart and good will, I have returned thereto ; I confess 
that I have most grievously sinned, in pretending untruth- 
fully to have had revelations and apparitions from God, 
from the Angels, and Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret; in seducing others ; in believing foolishly and 
lightly ; in making superstitious divinations ; in bias* 
pheming God and His Saints ; in breaking the Divine 
Law, Holy Scripture, and the lawful Canons ; in wearing 
a dissolute habit, mis-shapen and immodest and against 
the propriety of nature, and hair clipped ' en ronde ' in 
the style of a man, against all the modesty of the 
feminine sex; also, in bearing arms in great presump- 
tion ; in cruelly desiring the effusion of human blood ; 
in saying that all these things I did by the command of 
God, the Angels, and the aforesaid Saints, and that in 
these things I did well and was not mistaken ; in 
despising God and His Sacraments ; in making sedi- 
tions ; and in being idolatrous, by adoring evil spirits 
and invoking them. I confess also that I have been 
schismatic and in many ways have erred from the Faith. 
The which crimes and errors, from my heart and with- 
out lying, I by the grace of Our Lord, returned into 
the way of truth, by the holy doctrine and good counsel 
of you and the Doctors and Masters who have conveyed 
it to me abjure as blasphemy and renounce them 
all, and depart therefrom. And upon all these things 
aforesaid I submit to the correction, disposal, amend- 
ment, and entire decision of our Holy Mother Church 
and of your good justice. Also I swear and promise to 
you, to my Lord Saint Peter, Prince of the Apostles, to 
our Holy Father the Pope of Rome, his Vicar, and his 
successors, and to you, my Lords, the reverend Father 

K 2 



i 3 2 JEANNE D'ARC 

in God my Lord the Bishop of Beauvais, the religious 
person, Brother Jean Lemaltre, Deputy of my Lord the 
Inquisitor of the Faith, as my Judges, that never, by 
any exhortation or other manner, will I return to the 
aforesaid errors, from which it hath pleased Our Lord to 
deliver and take me ; but always I will remain in union 
with our Holy Mother Church and in the obedience of 
our Holy Father the Pope of Rome. And this I say, 
affirm, and swear, by God Almighty and by the Holy 
Gospels. 

" And in sign of this, I have signed this schedule 
with my signature. (Signed thus) : Jehanne +." 

After her revocation and her abjuration had been, as 
has just been said, received by us, the Judges, We, the 
Bishop, did finally deliver our sentence in these terms : 

[The sentence then follows as given above up to the 
words " thy Trial,'' and then proceeds :] 

... all that therein occurred, principally thine answers, 
thine avowals, and thine affirmations ; after having seen 
the most renowned decision of the faculties of Theology 
and Decrees of the University of Paris ; after having also 
seen the decision of the entire University and the numer- 
ous Resolutions of so many Prelates, Doctors, and other 
Masters, who at Rouen or elsewhere have sent in such 
great numbers their assertions as to thy sayings and deeds ; 
after having had, upon this, advice and mature deliber- 
ation of so many Doctors zealous for the Christian Faith ; 
after having weighed and considered all that there is to 
weigh and consider of what is in the nature of enlighten- 
ment ; having before our eyes Christ and the honour of 
the Orthodox Faith, so that our judgment may emanate 
even from the face of Our Lord : we, the Judges, say 
and decree : that thou, Jeanne, hast deeply sinned 
in pretending untruthfully that thy revelations and ap- 



THE SENTENCE 133 

paritions are of God ; in seducing others ; in believing 
lightly and rashly ; in making superstitious divinations ; 
in blaspheming God and the Saints ; in prevaricating as 
to the law, Holy Scripture, and the Canonical sanctions ; 
in despising God in His Sacraments ; in fomenting sedi- 
tions and revolts ; in apostatizing ; in encouraging the 
crime of heresy ; in erring on numerous points in the 
Catholic Faith. 

But because that, after being many times charitably 
admonished and long waited for, thou hast at last, with 
the help of God, returned into the bosom of the Church, 
thy Holy Mother, with contrite heart, and hast openly 
revoked thy errors ; because, having solemnly and 
publicly cast these far from thee, thou hast abjured them 
by the words of thine own mouth, together with the 
heresy with which thou wast charged : We declare 
thee set free by these presents, according to the form 
appointed by Ecclesiastical sanction, from the bonds of 
excommunications which held thee enchained, charging 
thee to return to the Church with a true heart and 
sincere faith, and to observe what hath been already 
enjoined thee and what shall yet be enjoined thee 
by us. 

But because thou hast sinned rashly against God and 
Holy Church, We condemn thee, finally, definitely and 
for salutary penance, saving Our grace and moderation, 
to perpetual imprisonment, with the bread of sorrow and 
the water of affliction, in order that thou mayest bewail 
thy faults, and that thou mayest no more commit [acts] 
which thou shalt have to bewail hereafter. 



Exhortation made to Jeanne by the Deputy Inquisitor, 
in Prison. 

And the same day, Thursday, May 24^, in the after- 
noon, We, Brother Jean Lemaitre, the aforesaid Deputy, 



134 JEANNE D'ARC 

assisted by the Lords and Masters N. Midi, N. Loyseleur, 
Thomas de Courcelles, Brother Ysambard de la Pierre, 
and several others, 

We did repair to the place in the prison where Jeanne 
was to be found. 

We, and the persons assisting us, did set forth before 
her how God had on this day had mercy on her, and how 
the Clergy had shewn themselves merciful in receiving 
her to the Grace and pardon of Holy Mother Church. 
In return, it was right that she, Jeanne, should obey with 
humility the sentence and orders of the Judges and the 
Ecclesiastics ; that she should wholly give up her errors 
and all her inventions, never to return to them : because, 
in case she should return to them, the Church could no 
longer admit her to pardon, and must abandon her alto- 
gether. We told her to leave off her man's dress and to 
take a woman's garments, as the Church had ordered her. 

In all our observations Jeanne did reply that she 
would willingly take woman's garments, and that in all 
things she would obey the Church. 

Woman's garments having been offered to her, she at 
once dressed herself in them, after having taken off the 
man's dress she was wearing ; and her hair, which up to 
this time had been cut " en ronde" above her ears, she 
desired and permitted them to shave and take away. 

Here ends the First Part of the Trial, called 
" The Lapse." 




BATTLE OUTSIDE ORLEANS. 



II 

SECOND PROCESS: THE RELAPSE 

Monday, May 2%th, the day following Trinity Sunday. 

We, the aforesaid Judges, repaired to the place of 
Jeanne's prison, to learn the state and disposition of her 
soul. There were found with us the Lords and Masters 
Nicolas de Venderes, Guillaume Haiton, Thomas de 
Courcelles, Brother Ysambard de la Pierre ; witnesses, 
Jacques Cannes, Nicolas Bertin, Julien Floquet and 
John Gris. 

And because Jeanne was dressed in the dress of a man 
that is to say, a short mantle, a hood, a doublet and other 
effects used by men although, by our orders, she had, 
several days before, consented to give up these garments, 
we asked her when and for what reason she had resumed 
this dress. 1 

1 Several versions of the reasons which caused Jeanne to resume the 
forbidden dress were given in the evidence taken at the Rehabilitation, all 
purporting to have come from her. According to Massieu, her woman's 
dress was taken away while she was asleep, and the English soldiers 
refused to give it back to her, offering in its stead the man's dress she had 



136 JEANNE D'ARC 

She answered us : 

" I have but now resumed the dress of a man and put 
off the woman's dress. " 

"Why did you take it, and who made you take it ?" 

" I took it of my own free will, and with no constraint : 
I prefer a man's dress to a woman's dress." 

" You promised and swore not to resume a man's dress." 

" I never meant to swear that I would not resume it." 

"Why have you resumed it?" 

" Because it is more lawful and suitable for me to 
resume it and to wear man's dress, being with men, than 
to have a woman's dress. I have resumed it because the 
promise made to me has not been kept ; that is to say, 
that I should go to Mass and should receive my Saviour 
and that I should be taken out of irons." 

" Did you not abjure and promise not to resume this 
dress ? " 

" I would rather die than be in irons ! but if I am 
allowed to go to Mass, and am taken out of irons and 
put into a gracious prison, and [may have a woman 
for companion x ] I will be good, and do as the Church 
wills/' 

And as We, the Judges, heard from several persons 
that she had returned to her old illusions on the subject 
of her pretended revelations, We put to her this 
question : 

previously worn, ' which they emptied from a sack.' She refused to wear it, 
reminding them that it was forbidden her ; but at last, at midday, finding 
them deaf to her remonstrance, she was obliged to rise and attire herself in 
the prohibited garments. The Dominican Brothers declared that she had 
been assaulted by an English milord, as she told them, and that she there- 
fore considered it necessary to return to the protection of her old dress ; but 
considering the type of soldier in whose care she was placed, there seems 
no need to seek for any further explanation than v her own, as given in the 
text, and as later corroborated by Manchon and De Courcelles. In the 
Rehabilitation Enquiry, both Jean de Metz and de Poulengey claim to have 
suggested the male attire. At Poitiers, Jeanne herself stated that she had 
adopted it as most suitable to her work and the company she must share. 
1 This request is found only in the Minute. 



THE RELAPSE 137 

Since last Thursday [the day of her abjuration] have 

m heard your Voices at all ? " 

" Yes, I have heard them." 

" What did they say to you ? " 

" They said to me : 1 ' God had sent me word by 
>t. Catherine and St. Margaret of the great pity it is, 
this treason to which I have consented, to abjure and 
recant in order to save my life ! I have damned myself 
to save my life ! ' Before last Thursday, my Voices did 
indeed tell me what I should do and what I did on that 
day. When I was on the scaffold on Thursday, my 
Voices said to me, while the preacher was speaking : 
* Answer him boldly, this preacher ! ' And in truth he is 
a false preacher ; he reproached me with many things I 
never did. If I said that God had not sent me, I 
should damn myself, for it is true that God has sent 
me ; my Voices have said to me since Thursday : ' Thou 
hast done a great evil in declaring that what thou hast 
done was wrong/' All I said and revoked, I said for 
fear of the fire." 

" Do you believe that your Voices are Saint Catherine 
and Saint Margaret ? " 

" Yes, I believe it, and that they come from God." 

" Tell us the truth on the subject of this crown which 
is mentioned in your Trial." 

"In everything, I told you the truth about it in my 
Trial, as well as I know." 

" On the scaffold, at the moment of your abjuration, 
you did admit before us, your Judges, and before many 
others, in presence of all the people, that you had un- 
truthfully boasted your Voices to be Saint Catherine 
and Saint Margaret." 

" I did not intend so to do or say. I did not intend 
to deny my apparitions that is to say, that they were 

1 In the margin, the Registrar has written against this answer : " Responsio 
mortifera." 



138 JEANNE D'ARC 

Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret ; what I said 
was from fear of the fire : I revoked nothing that 
was not against the truth. I would rather do penance 
once for all that is die than endure any longer the 
suffering of a prison. I have done nothing against God 
or the Faith, in spite of all they have made me revoke. 
What was in the schedule of abjuration I did not under- 
stand. I did not intend to revoke anything except accord- 
ing to God's good pleasure. If the Judges wish, I will 
resume a woman's dress ; for the rest, I can do no more." 
After hearing this, We retired from her, to act and 
proceed later according to law and reason. 



Final Adjudication. 

The next day, Tuesday, May 2gtk, in the Chapel of 
the Archiepiscopal Manor of Rouen, the Judges and 40 
Assessors present. 

We, the Bishop, did, in presence of all the above- 
named, set forth that, after the Sitting held by Us in 
this same place, on Saturday, May igth, the Eve of 
Whitsunday, We had, by the advice of the Assessors, 
caused Jeanne to be admonished on the following 
Wednesday, and had made known to her in detail the 
divers points on which, according to the decision of th< 
University of Paris, she must be considered to have 
fallen short and erred ; We caused her to be exhorted in 
the most lively manner to abandon her errors, and tc 
return into the way of truth ; up to the last moment sh< 
refused to agree to these admonitions and these exhorta- 
tions, and would say nothing more ; the Promoter, 01 
his side, asserted that he had nothing more to brinj 
forward against her. We then pronounced the closing 
the Case, and summoned the parties on the following 
day, Thursday, 24th May next, to hear the law pro- 



THE RELAPSE 139 

nounced, all whereof is proved by the documents of the 
Proces Verbal transcribed above. 

Afterwards, We did recall what had passed on 
Thursday, May 24th ; how Jeanne, after having on that 
day received a solemn preachment and numerous 
admonitions, did end by signing with her own hand her 
revocation and abjuration ; the whole whereof is at 
greater length recounted in the preceding document. 
We did add that, in the afternoon of the same day, the 
Deputy Inquisitor, Our Coadjutor, did go to seek 
her in her prison, and did charitably admonish her to 
persist in her good purpose and to guard herself well 
against any relapse. Obeying the orders of the Church, 
Jeanne did then put off the dress she was wearing, and 
take that of a woman ; all whereof hath been likewise 
set forth at greater length as to time and place. 

But since that day, driven by the Devil, behold ! she 
hath, in the presence of many persons, declared anew 
that her Voices and the spirits that appeared to her have 
returned to her, and have said many things to her ; and, 
casting away her woman's dress she hath again taken 
male garments. As soon as We, the Judges, did receive 
information of this lapse, We were eager to return to her 
and to question her. 

And then, in presence of all the above-named, in 
the said Chapel of the Archiepiscopal Manor of Rouen, 
We, the Bishop, did order to be read the declarations 
and affirmations which Jeanne pronounced yesterday 
before us, and which are reproduced above. 

After this reading had been made, We asked advice 
and counsel thereon from the Assessors. Each one 
hath given his opinion, as follows : 

Maitre Nicolas de Vender es : Jeanne should be 
considered a heretic : the sentence declaring her to 
be so, once given by Us, the Judges, she should be 
abandoned to the secular authority, which should be 



1 4 o 



JEANNE D'ARC 



prayed to act towards her with gentleness. [" Rogando 
earn ut cum velit mite agere" the usual formula for 
victims sent to the stake.] 

The Reverend Father in Christ, the Lord Gilles, 
Abbot of the Monastery of the Holy Trinity at Fecamp : 
Jeanne is relapsed. Nevertheless, it would be well that 
the schedule containing her last answers, which hath 
just been read, should be read anew and set forth to her, 
reminding her once more of the Word of God ; after- 
wards, We, the Judges, should declare her a heretic and 
abandon her to the secular authority, praying this 
authority to deal gently with her. 

[The remainder of the Assessors agreed in general 
with this opinion of the Abbot of Fecamp ; some added 
that she should be again charitably admonished, in regard 
to the salvation of her soul, and should be told that she 
had nothing further to expect as to her earthly life.] 

After having gathered this advice, We, the Judges, 
did thank the Assessors, and gave orders that Jeanne 
should be afterwards proceeded against, as relapsed, 
according to law and reason. 

Mandate citing Jeanne to appear on Wednesday, 

May yzth. 

" Pierre, by the Divine Mercy Bishop of Beauvais, and 
Jean Lemaitre, Deputy of Maitre Jean Graverend, 
renowned Doctor, appointed by the Holy See Inquisitor 
of the Evil of Heresy in the Kingdom of France ; to all 
public Priests, to all Cures of this town and of any other 
place wherever it be in the Diocese of Rouen, to each of 
them in particular, according as it shall be required : ; 
Greeting in Our Saviour. For the causes and reasons 
to be elsewhere deduced at greater length, a certain 
woman of the name of Jeanne, commonly called the 
Maid, having fallen into errors against the Orthodox 
Faith errors which she hath publicly abjured before 



THE RELAPSE 14 1 

the Church, and to which she hath returned as is 
established and proved by her avowals and assertions: 
We command to all of you and to each in particular, by 
this requisition, without the one waiting for the other, 
or excusing himself by another, that you cite the said 
Jeanne to appear before Us in person to-morrow, at the 
hour of 8 o'clock in the morning, at Rouen, in the place 
called the Old Market, in order that she may be declared 
by us relapsed, excommunicate, and heretic, with the 
intimation that it shall be done to her as is customary in 
such cases. 

" Given in the Chapel of the Archiepiscopal Manor of 
Rouen, Tuesday, May 2 9th, the year of Our Lord, 

I43 1 -" 



On the following day, Wednesday, $otk of May, Jeanne, 
by virtue of the preceding mandate from Us, was cited for 
the same day, in order to hear the law pronounced, as is 
proved at greater length by the tenour of the following 
relation, done for us by the Executor of our mandates : 

" To the reverend Father and Lord in Christ, the Lord 
Pierre, by the Divine Mercy Bishop of Beauvais, and 
to the venerable and religious person Brother Jean 
Lemaltre, Deputy of Maitre Jean Graverend, renowned 
Doctor, by order of the Holy Apostolic See Inquisitor 
of the Faith and of the Evil of Heresy in the Kingdom 
of France : your humble Jean Massieu, Priest, Dean of 
the Christendom of Rouen 1 sends earnest Greeting, 
with all protestations of obedience and respect. This is 
to inform your Reverend Paternities, that I, Massieu, 
in virtue of your mandate sent to me, to which these 
presents will be annexed, have cited, speaking to her in 
person, this woman, commonly called the Maid, to 
appear before you this day, Wednesday, May 3Oth, at 
the hour of eight in the morning, at Rouen, in the place 

1 An appointment equivalent to a Rural Dean. 



i 4 2 JEANNE D'ARC 

of the Old Market, according to the form and ten our of 
your said mandate, and to that which I have been 
ordered to do. All the which, thus done by me, I 
signify to your Reverend Paternities by these presents, 
signed by my seal. 

" Given in the year of Our Lord 1431, on the aforesaid 
Wednesday, at 7 o'clock in the morning. 

" MASSIEU." 

SENTENCE OF DEATH 

Final Sentence given before the People. 

Wednesday, May 30^, towards 9 o'clock in the 
morning, 

We, the Judges, repaired to the place of the Old 
Market, in Rouen, near the Church of Saint Sauveur. 

We were assisted by the reverend Fathers in Christ 
the Lords Bishops of Throu^hne and Noyon ; and 
by a number of other Lords, Masters, and ecclesiastical 
personages. 

Before Us was brought the said Jeanne, in presence of 
the people, assembled in this place in an immense 
multitude. 

She was placed upon a scaffold or platform. 

For her wholesome admonition and for the edification 
of the whole multitude, a solemn address was made by 
the renowned Doctor, Nicolas Midi, who took for his 
text those words of the Apostle in the first Epistle to 
the Corinthians, Chapter xii., "If one member suffer, 
all the members suffer with it." 

This address ended, We, the Bishop, did once more 
admonish Jeanne to look to her salvation, to reflect on 
her misdeeds, to repent of them, to have a true con- 
trition for them. We exhorted her to believe hereon 
the opinion of the Clergy, of the notable persons who 
have taught and instructed her on all that treats of her 




COURT OF JUSTICE. 
From a Miniature by Jean Fouquet. 



SENTENCE OF DEATH 143 

salvation. We did particularly exhort her to believe the 
rood advice of the two venerable Dominicans l who 
r ere at that moment beside her, and whom we had sent to 
ler to converse with her up to the last moment and to 
furnish her in all surety with wholesome admonitions 
and counsels profitable to her salvation. 

Afterwards, We, the Bishop and Vicar aforesaid, 
having regard to all that has gone before, in which it is 
shewn that this woman hath never truly abandoned her 
errors, her obstinate temerity, nor her unheard-of crimes ; 
that she hath even shewn the malice of her diabolical 
obstinacy in this deceitful semblance of contrition, 
penitence, and amendment ; malice rendered still more 
damnable by perjury of the Holy Name of God and 
blasphemy of His ineffable Majesty ; considering her on 
all these grounds obstinate, incorrigible, heretic, relapsed 
into heresy, and altogether unworthy of the grace and 
of the Communion which, by our former sentence, We 
did mercifully accord to her ; all of which being seen 
and considered, after mature deliberation and counsel of 
a great number of Doctors, We have at last proceeded 
to the Final Sentence in these terms : 

In the Name of the Lord : Amen. 

At all times when the poisoned virus of heresy 
attaches itself with persistence to a member of the 
Church and transforms him into a member of Satan, 
extreme care should be taken to watch that the horrible 
contagion of this pernicious leprosy do not gain other 
parts of the mystic Body of Christ. The decisions of 
the holy Fathers have willed that hardened heretics 
should be separated from the midst of the Just, so that 
to the great peril of others this homicidal viper should 
not be warmed in the bosom of pious Mother Church. 
It is for this that We, Pierre, by the Divine Mercy, 
Bishop of Beauvais, and We, Brother Jean Lemaitre, 

1 Brothers Ysambard de la Pierre and Martin Ladvenu. 



i 4 4 JEANNE D'ARC 

Deputy of the renowned Doctor, Jean Graverend, 

Inquisitor of the Evil of Heresy, specially delegated by 

him for this Process, both Judges competenbin this Trial, 

already, by a just judgment, have declared this woman 

fallen into divers errors and divers crimes of schism, 

idolatry, invocation of demons and many others. But 

because the Church closes not her bosom to the child 

who returns to her, we did think that, with a pure 

spirit and a faith unfeigned, thou hadst put far from thee 

thy errors and thy crimes, considering that on a certain 

day thou didst renounce them and didst publicly swear, 

vow, and promise never to return to thy errors and 

heresies, to resist all temptations, and to remain faithfully 

attached to the unity of the Catholic Church and the 

communion of the Roman Pontiff, as is proved at 

greater length in a writing signed by thine own hand. 

But after this abjuration of thine errors, the Author of 

Schism and Heresy hath arisen in thine heart, which he 

hath once more seduced, and it hath become manifest by 

thy spontaneous confessions and assertions O, shame! 

that, as the dog returns again to his vomit, so hast 

thou returned to thine errors and crimes ; and it hath 

been proved to us in a most certain manner that thou 

hast renounced thy guilty inventions and thy errors only 

in a lying manner, not in a sincere and faithful spirit. 

For these causes, declaring thee fallen again into thine 

old errors, and under the sentence of excommunication 

which thou hast formerly incurred, WE DECREE THAT 

THOU ART A RELAPSED HERETIC, by our present sentence 

which, seated in tribunal, we utter and proaounce in this 

writing ; we denounce thee as a rotten member, and 

that thou mayest not vitiate others, as cast out from the 

unity of the Church, separate from her Body, abandoned 

to the secular power as, indeed, by these presents, we do 

cast thee off, separate and abandon thee ; praying this 

same secular power, so far as concerns death and the 



SENTENCE OF DEATH 

tutilation of the limbs, to moderate its judgment 
>wards thee, and, if true signs of penitence should 
ippear in thee, [to permit] that the Sacrament of 
'enance be administered to thee. 

Here follows the Sentence of Excommunication, [the 
introductory part being word for word the same as the 
previous sentence, read on May 24th, up to the words 
"We, the Judges, say and decree " ; after which follows: ] 

. . . that thou hast been on the subject of thy pretended 
divine revelations and apparitions lying, seducing, per- 
nicious, presumptuous, lightly believing, rash, super- 
stitious, a divineress and blasphemer towards God and 
the Saints, a despiser of God Himself in His Sacra- 
ments ; a prevaricator of the Divine Law, of sacred 
doctrine and of ecclesiastical sanctions ; seditious, cruel, 
apostate, schismatic, erring on many points of our Faith, 
and by all these means rashly guilty towards God and 
Holy Church. And also, because that often, very 
often, not only by Us on Our part but by Doctors and 
Masters learned and expert, full of zeal for the salvation 
of thy soul, thou hast been duly and sufficiently warned 
to amend, to correct thyself and to submit to the 
disposal, decision, and correction of Holy Mother 
Church, which thou hast not willed, and hast always 
obstinately refused to do, having even expressly and 
many times refused to submit thyself to our lord the 
Pope and to the General Council ; for these -causes, as 
hardened and obstinate in thy crimes, excesses and 
errors, WE DECLARE THEE OF RIGHT EXCOMMUNICATE AND 
HERETIC ; and after thine errors have been destroyed 
in a public preaching, We declare that thou must be 
abandoned and that We do abandon thee to the secular 
authority, as a member of Satan, separate from the 
Church, infected with the leprosy of heresy, in order 
that thou mayst not corrupt also the other members of 

L 



i 4 6 JEANNE D'ARC 

Christ ; praying this same power, that, as concerns 
death and the mutilation of the limbs, it may be pleased 
to moderate its judgment ; and if true signs of penitence 
should appear in thee, that the Sacrament of Penance 
may be administered to thee. 



Attestations by the Registrars. 

" I, Boisguillaume, Priest, Registrar above qualified, affirm that I have duly 
collated the foregoing document with the original Minute of the Process ; 
for which reason I have marked this present copy with my sign manual, the 
which will be done after me by the two other Registrars, I signing in this 
place with my own hand. 

(Signed] " BOISGUILLAUME." 

"And I, Guillaume Manchon, Priest, of the Diocese of Rouen, Apostolic 
and Imperial Notary, I affirm that I assisted in the collation made of the 
aforesaid Process, with the Registrars signed above and below ; I affirm 
that this collation of the present copy with the original Minute of the Pro- 
cess hath been duly made. For which, in the same way as the two other 
Registrars, I have subscribed the present copy with my own hand, affixing 
thereto my sign-manual, to this required. 

(Signed) " G. MANCHON." 

"And I, Nicholas Taquel, Priest of the Diocese of Rouen, sworn Imperial 
Public Notary and of the Archiepiscopal Court of Rouen, called as Registrar 
to a part of the foregoing Process, I affirm that I have seen and heard the 
present copy collated with the original register of the said Process ; I affirm 
that this collation hath been duly made. For which, with the two other 
Registrars preceding, I have subscribed with my own hand the present 
Process, affixing thereto, here, my sign-manual, to this required. 

(Signed] "N. TAQUEL." 

[Here follow the seals of the two Judges, marked in 
red wax on the original copies of the Process, prepared 
to the number of five.] 



SUBSEQUENT EXAMINATIONS 1 

AND 

PROCEEDINGS AFTER THE RELAPSE. 



Information given after the Execution on many things 
said by Jeanne, at the end of her life and in articulo 
mortis. 

Thursday, ;th day of June, 1431, We, the Judges, did 
ex-officio take information upon certain things which the 
late Jeanne had said before persons worthy of credit 
when she was still in prison and before being brought 
to judgment. 

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES. 

i. The venerable and circumspect MAITRE NICOLAS DE 
VENDERES, licentiate in Canon Law, Archdeacon of Eu, 
hath declared upon oath as follows : 

Wednesday, 3oth day of May, Eve of the Feast of 
Corpus Christi, Jeanne, being still in the prison of the 
Castle of Rouen where she was detained, did say that 
considering the Voices which came to her had promised 
she should be delivered from prison, and that she now 
saw the contrary, she realized and knew she had been, 
and still was, deceived by them. Jeanne did, besides, 
say and confess that she had seen with her own eyes and 
heard with her own ears the apparitions and Voices 
mentioned in the Case. 

At this were present, you, the Judges aforesaid, and 

1 Not included in the Official Text of the Trial. 

L 2 



148 JEANNE D'ARC 

besides Maitre Pierre Maurice, Thomas de Courcelles, 
Nicolas Loyseleur, Brother Martin Ladvenu, Jean 
Toutmouille, Jacques Lecamus, and several others. 

BROTHER MARTIN LADVENU, Priest of the Order of 
Saint Dominic, did say and depose, upon oath, as 
follows : 

On the morning of the day on which sentence was 
delivered and before she was brought to judgment, 
Jeanne, in presence of Maitre Pierre Maurice, Nicolas 
Loyseleur, and Brother Jean Toutmouille, who were 
with me, did say and confess that she knew and recog- 
nized that the Voices and apparitions which had come 
to her, mentioned in the Case, had deceived her, because 
they had promised she should be delivered and freed 
from prison ; and that she certainly now saw clearly the 
contrary. 

Asked by the Bishop : Who induced Jeanne so to 
speak ? 

Replied : Pierre Maurice, Nicolas Loyseleur, and I 
exhorted her to save her soul, and asked her if it were 
true that she had these Voices and apparitions ? She 
replied that it was indeed true, and she continued so to 
tell us up to the end, but without stating decidedly, at 
least, so far as I understood, under what form the 
apparitions came to her. All I remember is that she said 
they came to her in great multitude and in the small- 
est size \in magna multitudine et quantitate minima\. 
Besides, I did at this time hear Jeanne say and confess 
that, inasmuch as the Clergy held and believed that if 
they were spirits who came to her they proceeded from 
evil spirits, she also held and believed as did the Clergy, 
and would no longer put faith in these spirits. And as 
it appeared to me, Jeanne was then of a sound mind. 

Brother Martin Ladvenu did add this : The same day 



SUBSEQUENT EXAMINATIONS 149 

heard Jeanne say that, although she had stated in her 
avowals and confessions, and had affirmed above in the 
course of the Case, that an Angel from God had brought 
a crown to him whom she called her King, with all 
other details connected with this fact in the interro- 
gatories, nevertheless, of her free-will and without 
being constrained thereto, she did this day confess as 
follows : that in spite of all she had affirmed on the subject 
of this Angel, no Angel had brought the crown ; it was 
she, Jeanne, who had been the Angel, and who said and 
promised to him whom she called her King, that, if he 
would set her to the work, she would have him crowned 
at Rheims. There was no other crown sent from God, 
in spite of all she might have affirmed in the course of 
the Case on the subject of the crown and the sign given 
to him whom she called her King. 

The venerable and discreet MAITRE PIERRE MAURICE, 
Professor in Theology, Canon of Rouen, deposed, upon 
oath, as follows : 

The day of the sentence, Jeanne being still in the 
prison, I repaired to her in the morning to exhort her to 
save her soul. In so exhorting her, I asked her what 
was the Angel mentioned in the Trial, who, according to 
her, had brought a crown to him whom she called her 
King? 

She replied that it was herself who was the Angel. 

Having questioned her afterwards on the subject of 
the crown which she had promised to her King, of the 
multitude of Angels who at that time accompanied her, 
she replied that it was true that Angels appeared to her 
under the form of very minute things. Finally, I asked her 
if this apparition were real ? " Yes," she replied, "the 
spirits did really appear to me be they good or be they 
evil spirits they did appear to me." She also said that 



150 JEANNE D'ARC 

she had in particular heard her Voices at the hour of 
Compline, when the bells rang, and in the morning also, 
when the bells rang. And when I told her that they 
were evil spirits in this, that they had promised her 
deliverance and had deceived her " It is true," she 
replied, " they have deceived me." I also heard her 
declare that to know whether they were good or evil 
spirits, she referred to the Clergy. When she thus 
spoke, Jeanne, so far as it seemed to me, was sound 
in mind and understanding. 

BROTHER JEAN TOUTMOUILLE, Priest, of the Order of 
Saint Dominic, did say and declare upon oath as follows : 

The day that sentence was given upon Jeanne, 
Wednesday, Eve of the Feast of Corpus Christi, I 
accompanied Brother Martin Ladvenu, who, early in the 
morning, repaired to her to exhort her to save her soul. 
I first heard Maitre Pierre Maurice, who had gone 
earlier to her, declare she had confessed that all 
which concerned the crown was fiction : that it was she 
who was the Angel. The said Master reported all this 
to us in Latin. Afterwards, Jeanne was questioned on 
the subject of the Voices and apparitions which had 
come to her. She replied that she had really heard 
voices, chiefly when the bells rang Compline or Matins ; 
and she persisted in saying this, although Maitre Pierre 
Maurice told her that, sometimes when the bells rang, 
one thought one could hear and catch the sounds of 
human voices. Jeanne did also say and confess that 
she had had apparitions which came to her in great 
multitude and in minute quantity that is to say, under 
small forms ; she did not perfectly explain the form, or 
kind, of her apparitions. The same day, after you, the 
Bishop, had come in with the Lord Deputy Inquisitor 
into the room where she was detained, you said to 



SUBSEQUENT EXAMINATIONS 151 

Jeanne in French, " Now then, Jeanne, you always told 
us that your Voices assured you that you would be 
delivered : you see now how they have deceived you ; 
tell us the truth now." " Truly," Jeanne replied to 
you, " I see indeed that they have deceived me ! " I 
did not hear her say more, save only that, early 
in the same day, before you were come to the prison, 
Jeanne, being asked if her Voices and apparitions pro- 
ceeded from good or evil spirits, did reply : " I know 
not I wait on my Mother, the Church," or " I wait 
on you, who are of the Church." And, so far as it 
seemed to me, Jeanne was at this time of sound mind ; 
I heard Jeanne herself then declare that she was of 
jsound mind. 

MESSIRE JACQUES LECAMUS, Priest, Canon of Rheims, 
did say and declare upon oath as follows : 

Wednesday, Eve of the Feast of Corpus Christi, I 
went with you, the Bishop, into the room of the Castle 
of Rouen where Jeanne was detained, and there I heard 
Jeanne say and confess, publicly and in a voice loud 
enough to be heard by all those present, that she had 
had apparitions and had also heard Voices ; that these 
apparitions and Voices had promised her that she should 
be delivered from prison ; but now she saw in truth 
that they had deceived her, and, for having thus 
deceived her, she believed they could not be good 
Voices nor good things. A little while after, she con- 
fessed her sins to Brother Martin, of the Order of 
Saint Dominic. After the Sacrament of Confession 
and Penitence, when the same Brother was about to 
administer the Sacrament of the Eucharist to her, and 
already held in his hands the Consecrated Host, " Do 
you believe," he asked her, "that this is the Body of 
Christ?" "Yes," she replied, "and I believe that He 



1 52 JEANNE D'ARC 

alone can deliver me ; I ask that It may be administered 
to me." After the Communion, the same Brother said 
to her: " Do you still believe in your Voices?" " I 
believe in God only," she answered, " and will no more 
put faith in my Voices, for having deceived me on this 
point." 

MAITRE THOMAS DE COURCELLES, Master of Arts, 
Bachelor of Theology, did say and depose, upon oath, as 
follows : 

Wednesday, Vigil of the Feast of Corpus Christi, 
being in the presence of you, the Bishop, in the room of 
the Castle of Rouen where Jeanne was detained, I heard 
and understood that you asked Jeanne if it were not 
true that her Voices had promised to deliver her ? She 
replied that her Voices had truly promised this, and had 
told her to keep a good countenance ; and, "as it seems 
to me," she added, " I see indeed that I have been 
deceived." And then you, the Bishop, said to Jeanne, 
that now she could certainly see her Voices to be only 
evil spirits and that they did not come from God ; for, 
had they been of such a nature, they would never have 
said a false thing and thus have lied. 

MAITRE NICOLAS LOYSELEUR, Master of Arts, Canon 
of Rouen and Chartres, said and declared, upon oath, as 
follows : 

Wednesday, the Vigil of the Feast of Corpus Christi, 
I repaired in the morning with the venerable Maitre 
Pierre Maurice, to the place where Jeanne, commonly 
called the Maid, was detained, to exhort and admonish 
her on the subject of the salvation of her soul. She was 
besought to speak truth on the subject of that Angel 
who, she had declared, had brought to him she 



SUBSEQUENT EXAMINATIONS 



153 



:alled her King a crown, very precious, and of the 
mrest gold : she was pledged not to hide the truth, 
inasmuch as nothing more remained to her but to think 
of her own salvation. Then I heard her declare that 
it was she herself who had brought him she called 
her King the crown in question ; that it was she who 
was the Angel of whom she had spoken ; and that there 
had been no other Angel but herself. Asked if she 
had really sent a crown to him whom she called her 
King, she replied that he had no other crown but the 
promise of his coronation a promise she had made in 
giving to her King the assurance that he would be 
crowned. In the presence of Maitre Pierre Maurice, 
of the two Dominicans, of you, the Bishop, and of 
several others, I heard her many times declare that 
" she had really had revelations and apparitions of 
spirits ; that these revelations had deceived her ; that 
she recognized it in this, that they had promised her 
deliverance, and that she now saw the contrary ; that she 
was willing to refer to the Clergy to know if these spirits 
were good or evil ; that she did not put, and would no 
more put, faith in them." I exhorted her, to destroy 
the error that she had sown among the people, to 
declare publicly that she had herself been deceived, and 
that through her fault she had deceived the people by 
putting faith in these revelations and in counselling the 
people to believe in them ; and I told her it was 
necessary that she should humbly ask pardon. She told 
me she would do it willingly, but that she did not think 
she would be able to remember, when the proper 
moment canne that is to say, when she found herself in 
the presence of the people ; she prayed her Confessor to 
remind her of this point and of all else which might tend 
to her salvation. From all this, and from many other 
indications, I conclude that Jeanne was then of sound 
mind. She shewed great penitence and great contrition 



154 JEANNE D'ARC 

for her crimes. I heard her, in the prison, in presence 
of a great number of witnesses, and subsequently after 
sentence, ask, with much contrition of heart, pardon of 
the English and Burgundians for having caused to be 
slain, beaten, and damned, a great number of them, as 
she recognized. 



PART II 
THE REHABILITATION 



In the following Enquiries and 
Depositions, it has been con- 
sidered advisable, in order to 
avoid unnecessary repetitions, 
to give extracts only from 
certain of the Depositions. 
The names of all witnesses are 
given in full, and no evidence 
of importance is omitted. 

In the Original, the whole of the 
tien -is in French 'HE 



JS&a 



An Introductory Note to the 
Rehabilitation will be found 
in the Appendix on p. 371. 




THE FIRST ENQUIRY: 1449. 

\The Kings Rescript, being a Letter of Commission 
to Maitre Guillaume Bouille 1 , was granted by Charles 
VIL, for an Enquiry into the case of Jeanne a" Arc.] 

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES. 

BROTHER JEAN TOUTMOUILLE, of the Order of 
Saint Dominic, (Examined, $th day of March), 1449.* 

As to the feeling of the Judges and those- who con- 
ducted the Trial of the said Jeanne, I neither assisted 
nor was I present at the Trial. I can say nothing, 
therefore, as to what I saw ; but the common report was, 
that they persecuted her from desire of perverse ven- 
geance, and of this they gave sign and appearance. 
For, before her death, the English proposed to lay siege 
to Louviers ; soon, however, they changed their purpose, 

1 * Old style' is adopted throughout : thus 1449 * s given instead of ^|$. 



158 JEANNE D'ARC 

saying they would not besiege the said town until 
the Maid had been examined. What followed was 
evident proof of this ; for, immediately after she was 
burnt, they went to besiege Louviers, considering that 
during her life they could have neither glory nor success 
in deeds of war. 

The day when Jeanne was delivered up to be 
burned, I was in the prison during the morning with 
Brother Martin Ladvenu, whom the Bishop of Beauvais 
had sent to her to announce her approaching death, and 
to induce in her true contrition and penitence, and also 
to hear her in confession. This the said Ladvenu did 
most carefully and charitably ; and when he announced 
to the poor woman the death she must die that day, as 
the Judge had ordained, and she heard of the hard and 
cruel death which was approaching, she began, in a sad 
and pitiful manner, as one distraught, tearing her hair, 
to cry out : "Alas! am I to be so horribly and cruelly 
treated ? Alas ! that my body, whole and entire, which 
has never been corrupted, should to-day be consumed 
and burned to ashes ! Ah ! I would far rather have my 
head cut off, seven times over, than be thus burned ! 
Alas ! had I been in the ecclesiastical prison, to 
which I submitted myself, and guarded by the Clergy 
instead of by my enemies, it would not have fallen 
out so unhappily for me. I appeal to God, the Great 
Judge, for the great evils and injustice done to me ! " 

After these complaints, the aforesaid Bishop arrived, 
to whom she at once said : " Bishop, I die through 
you." And he began to explain to her, saying : " Ah ! 
Jeanne, have patience ; you die because you have 
not kept to what you promised us, and for having re- 
turned to your first evil-doing." And the poor Maid 
answered him : " Alas, if you had put me in the prisons 
of the Church Courts, and given me into the hands 
of competent and suitable ecclesiastical guardians, this 



THE FIRST ENQUIRY: 1449 159 

would not have happened : for this I summon you before 
God." 

This done, I went out, and heard no more. 

BROTHER YSAMBARD DE LA PIERRE, of the Order of 
Saint Dominic, of the Convent at Rouen. 

On one occasion, I, with many others, admonished 
and besought Jeanne to submit to the Church. To 
which she replied that she would willingly submit to the 
Holy Father, requesting to be taken before him, and to 
be no more submitted to the judgment of her enemies. 
And when, at this time, I counselled her to submit to 
the Council of Bale, Jeanne asked what a General 
Council was. I answered her, that it was an assembly 
of the whole Church Universal and of Christendom, 
and that in this Council there were some of her side 
as well as of the English side. Having heard and 
understood this, she began to cry : " Oh ! if in that 
place there are any of our side, I am quite willing to 
give myself up and to submit to the Council of Bale." 
And immediately, in great rage and indignation, the 
Bishop of Beauvais began to call out : " Hold your 
tongue, in the devil's name ! " and told the Notary, 
he was to be careful to make no note of the sub- 
mission she had made to the General Council of Bale. 
On account of these things and many others, the English 
and their officers threatened me terribly, so that, had I 
not kept silence, they would have thrown me into the 
Seine. 

After she had recanted and abjured, and had resumed 
the dress of a man, I and many others were present 
when Jeanne excused herself for having dressed again 
as a man, saying and affirming publicly, that the English 
had done or caused to be done to her great wrong and 
violence, when she was wearing a woman's dress ; and, 
in truth, I saw her weeping, her face covered with tears, 



160 JEANNE D'ARC 

disfigured and outraged in such sort that I was full of 
pity and compassion. 

When Jeanne was proclaimed an obstinate and re- 
lapsed heretic, she replied publicly before all who were 
present : " If you, my Lords of the Church, had placed 
me and kept me in your prisons, perchance I should not 
have been in this way/' 

After the conclusion and end of this session and trial, 
the Lord Bishop of Beauvais said to the English who 
were waiting outside : l< Farewell ! a be of good cheer : 
it is done." 

Such difficult, subtle, and crafty questions were asked 
of and propounded to poor Jeanne, that the great clerics 
and learned people present would have found it hard 
to reply ; and at [these questions] many of those present 
murmured. 

I was there myself with the Bishop of Avranches, 2 
an aged and good ecclesiastic, who, like the others, had 
been requested and prayed to give his opinion on this 
Case. For this, the Bishop summoned me before him, 
and asked me what Saint Thomas said touching sub- 
mission to the Church. I sent the decision of Saint 
Thomas in writing to the Bishop : " In doubtful things, 
touching the Faith, recourse should always be had to 
the Pope or a General Council." The good Bishop was 
of this opinion, and seemed to be far from content 
with the deliberations that had been made on this 
subject. His deliberation was not put into writing: it 
was left out, with bad intent. 

After Jeanne had confessed and partaken of the 
Sacrament of the Altar, sentence was given against her, 
and she was declared heretic and excommunicate. 

1 The word is given in English in the text. Cauchon prided himself on 
his knowledge of this language. 

2 Jean de Saint Avit, formerly Abbot of Saint-Denis, and, about 1390, 
Bishop of Avranches. In 1432, he was imprisoned at Rouen, on suspicion 
of complicity with the French, who wished to get possession of the town. 



THE FIRST ENQUIRY : 1449 



161 



I saw and clearly perceived, because I was there all 

e time, helping at the whole deduction and conclusion 
>f the Case, that the secular Judge did not condemn her, 
iither to death or to burning ; and although the lay and 
secular Judge had appeared and was present in the same 
place where she was last preached to and given over to 
the secular authority, she was, entirely without judgment 
or conclusion of the said Judge, delivered into the hands 
of the executioner, and burnt it being said to the 
executioner, simply and without other sentence : " Do 
thy duty." 

Jeanne had, at the end, so great contrition and such 
beautiful penitence that it was a thing to be admired, 
saying such pitiful, devout, and Catholic words, that 
those who saw her in great numbers wept, and that 
the Cardinal of England and many other English were 
forced to weep and to feel compassion. 

As I was near her at the end, the poor woman 
besought and humbly begged me to go into the Church 
near by and bring her the Cross, to hold it upright 
on high before her eyes until the moment of death, so 
that the Cross on which God was hanging might be ii? 
life continually before her eyes. 

Being in the flames, she ceased not to call in a loud 
voice the Holy Name of Jesus, imploring and invoking 
without ceasing the aid of the Saints in Paradise ; 
again, what is more, in giving up the ghost and bending 
her head, she uttered the Name of Jesus as a. sign that 
she was fervent in the Faith of God, just as we read of 
Saint Ignatius and of many other Martyrs. 

Immediately after the execution, the executioner came 
to me and to my companion, Brother Martin Ladvenu, 
stricken and moved with a marvellous repentance and 
terrible contrition, quite desperate and fearing never to 
obtain pardon and indulgence from God for what he 
had done to this holy woman. And the executioner said 

M 



1 62 JEANNE D'ARC 

and affirmed that, notwithstanding the oil, the sulphur, 
and the charcoal which he had applied to the entrails and 
heart of the said Jeanne, in no way had he been able to 
burn them up, nor reduce to cinders either the entrails 
or the heart, at which he was much astonished, as a most 
evident miracle. 

BROTHER MARTIN LADVENU, of the Order of Saint 
Dominic, and of the Convent of Saint- Jacques at Rouen. 

Many of those who appeared in the Court did so more 
from love of the English and the favour they bore 
them than on account of true zeal for justice and the 
Catholic Faith. In the extreme prejudice of Messire 
Pierre Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais, there were, I 
assert, twp proofs of ill-feeling : the first, when the 
\ Bishop, acting as Judge, commanded Jeanne to be kept 
[_ in the secular prison and in the hands of her mortal 
enemies ; and although he might easily have had her 
detained and guarded in an ecclesiastical prison, yet he 
allowed her, from the beginning of the trial to the end, 
to be tormented and cruelly treated in a secular prison. 
Moreover, at the first session or meeting, the Bishop 
aforesaid asked and required the opinion of all present, 
as to whether it was more suitable to detain her in the 
secular ward or in the prisons of the Church. It was 
decided as more correct that she be kept in ecclesias- 
tical prisons rather than in the secular ; but this the 
Bishop said he would not do for fear of displeasing 
' the English. The second proof was that on the day 
when the Bishop and several others declared her a 
heretic, relapsed, and returned to her evil deeds, because, 
in prison, she had resumed a man's dress, the Bishop, 
coming out of the prison, met the Earl of Warwick 
and a great many English with him, to whom he 
said, laughing, in a loud and clear voice : " Farewell ! 



THE FIRST ENQUIRY : 1449 



163 



iwell ! it is done ; be of good cheer," or such-like 
rords. 

The Maid revealed to me that, after her abjura- 
tion and recantation, she was violently treated in 
the prison, molested, beaten, and illused ; and that an 
English lord had insulted her. She also said, publicly, 
that on this account she had resumed a man's dress ; 
and, towards the end, she said to the Bishop of Beauvais : 
"Alas! I die through you, for had you given me over 
to be kept in the prisons of the Church, I should not ' 
have been here ! " 

When she had been finally preached to in the Old 
Market- Place and abandoned to the secular authority, 
although the secular Judges were seated on the platform, 
in no way was she condemned by any of these Judges ; / 
but, without being condemned, she was forced by two 
sergeants to come down from the platform and was 
taken by the said sergeants to the place where she was 
to be burned, and by them delivered into the hands of 
the executioner. 

And in proof of this, a short time after, one called 
Georges Folenfant was apprehended on account of the 
Faith and for the crime of heresy, and was in the same 
way handed over to the secular justice. In this case, 
the Judges to wit, Messire Louis de Luxembourg, 
Archbishop of Rouen, and Brother Guillaume Duval, 
Deputy of the Inquisitor of the Faith sent me to the 
Bailly of Rouen to warn him that the said Georges 
should not be treated as was the Maid, who, without 
final sentence or definite judgment, had been burned in 
the fire. 

The executioner, about four hours after the burning, 
said that he had never been so afraid in executing any 
criminal as in the burning of the Maid, and for many 
reasons : first, for her great fame and renown ; secondly, 
for the cruel manner of fastening her to the stake for 



M 2 



164 JEANNE D'ARC 

the English had caused a high scaffold to be made of 
plaster, and, as the said executioner reported, he could 
not well or easily hasten matters nor reach her, at which 
he was much vexed and had great compassion for the 
cruel manner in which she was put to death. 

I can testify to her great and admirable contrition, 
repentance, and continual confession, calling always on 
the Name of Jesus, and devoutly invoking the Saints 
in Paradise, as also Brother Ysambard hath already 
deposed, who was with her to the end, and confirmed 
her in the way of salvation. 

BROTHER GUILLAUME DUVAL, of the Order of' Saint 
Dominic , and of the Convent of Saint- Jacques at Rouen. 

When the trial of the said Jeanne took place, I was 
present at one session with Brother Ysambard de la 
Pierre ; and, although we could find no room for our- 
selves in the consistory, we seated ourselves at the 
middle of the table, near to Jeanne. When she was 
questioned or examined, the said Brother Ysambard 
advised her as to what she should say, nudging her or 
making some other sign. After the session was over, I 
and Brother Ysambard, with Maitre Jean Delafontaine, 
were deputed to visit her in prison the same day after 
dinner and give her counsel ; we went together to 
the Castle of Rouen, to visit and admonish her ; and 
there we found the Earl of Warwick, who attacked the 
said Brother Ysambard with great anger and indignation, 
biting insults, and harsh epithets, saying to him : " Why 
didst thou touch that wicked person this morning, 
making so many signs ? Mort Bleu ! villain ! if I see 
thee again taking trouble to deliver her and to advise 
/ her for her good, I will have thee thrown into the 
Seine." At which I and the other companion of the 
said Ysambard fled for fear to the Convent. 

I heard no more, for I was not present at the Trial. 



THE FIRST ENQUIRY: 1449 165 

MAITRE GUILLAUME MANCHON, Canon of the Collegiate 
Church of Notre Dame d Audely ; Curd of the Parish 
Church of Sainte-Nicolas-le-Peinteur at Rouen, and 
Notary of the Ecclesiastical Court ; Notary of the Trial 
of Jeanne, from the beginning up to the end, and with 
him Maitre Guillaume Colles, called Bois- Guillaume. 

In my opinion, not only those who had charge of 
instituting and conducting the Trial to wit, My Lord 
of Beauvais and the Masters sent for from Paris for this 
Case but also the English, at whose instance the Trial 
was undertaken, proceeded rather from hatred and anger 
on account of the quarrel with the King of France, 
than owing to her support of his party, and for the 
following reasons : 

First, one named Maitre Nicolas Loyseleur, a 
familiar of my Lord of Beauvais, who held altogether 
to the English side for, formerly the King being before 
Chartres, he went to fetch the King of England to raise 
the Siege pretended that he belonged to the Maid's 
country ; by this means he found a way to have 
speech and familiar converse with her, telling her 
news of her country that would please her. He asked to 
be her confessor, and of what she told him privately 
he found means to inform the Notaries : indeed, at 
the beginning of the Trial, I and Boisguillaume, with 
witnesses, were put secretly in an adjoining room, where 
there was a hole through which we could hear, in 
order that we might report what she said to Loyseleur. 
As I think, what the Maid said or stated familiarly 
to Loyseleur he reported to the Notaries ; and from this 
were made memoranda for questions in the tTrial, to 
find some way of catching her unawares. 

When the Trial had begun, Maitre Jean Lohier, a 
grave Norman Clerk, came to this Town of Rouen, 
and communication was made to him of what the Bishop 



1 66 JEANNE D'ARC 

of Beauvais had written hereon ; and the said Lohier 
asked for two or three days' delay to look into it. To 
which he received answer that he should give his 
opinion that afternoon ; and this he was obliged to do. 
And Maitre Jean Lohier, when he had seen the Process, 
said it was of no value, for several reasons : first, because 
it had not the form of an ordinary Process ; then, it was 
carried on in an enclosed and shut-up place, where those 
concerned were not in full and perfect liberty to say 
their full will ; then, that this matter dealt with the 
honour of the King of France, whose side she [the 
Maid] supported, and that he had not been called, nor 
any who were for him ; then, neither legal document nor 
articles had been forthcoming, and so there was no guide 
for this simple girl to answer the Masters and Doctors 
on great matters, and especially those, as she said, which 
related to her revelations. For these things, the Process 
was, in his opinion, of no value. At which my Lord of 
Beauvais was very indignant against the said Lohier ; 
and although my Lord of Beauvais told him that he 
might remain to see the carrying out of the Trial, Lohier 
replied that he would not do so. And immediately my 
Lord of Beauvais, then lodging in the house where now 
lives Maitre Jean Bidaut, near Saint Nicolas-le-Peinteur, 
came to the Masters to wit, Maitre Jean Beaupere, 
Maitre Jacques de Touraine, Nicolas Midi, Pierre 
Maurice, Thomas de Courcelles, and Loyseleur and 
said to them : " This Lohier wants to put fine questions 
into our Process : he would find fault with everything, 
and says it is of no value. If we were to believe him, 
everything must be begun again, and all we have done 
would be worth nothing ! " And, after stating the 
grounds on which Lohier found fault, my Lord of 
Beauvais added : "It is clear enough on which foot he 
limps. By Saint John ! we will do nothing in the matter, 
but will go on with our Process as it is begun ! " This 



THE FIRST ENQUIRY : 1449 167 

was on a Saturday afternoon in Lent ; and the next 
morning I spoke with the said Lohier at the Church of 
Notre Dame at Rouen, and asked him what he thought 
of the said Trial and of Jeanne ? He replied : " You 
see the way they are proceeding. They will take her, 
if they can, in her words as in assertions where she 
says, ' / know for certain,' as regards the apparitions ; 
but if she said, ' / think ' instead of the words ' I know ^ 
for certain ' it is my opinion that no man could condemn 
her. It seems they act rather from hate than otherwise ; 
and for that reason, I will not stay here, for I have no desire 
to be in it." And in truth he thenceforward lived always 
at the Court of Rome, where he died Dean of Appeals. 1 

At the beginning of the Trial, because I was 
putting in writing for five or six days the answers and 
excuses of the said Maid, the Judges several times 
wished to compel me, speaking in Latin, to put them in 
other terms, by changing the sense of her words or in 
other ways such as I had not heard. By command of 
the Bishop of Beauvais, two men were placed at a 
window near where the Judges sat, with a curtain 
across the window, so that they could not be seen. 
These two men wrote and reported what there was 
in the charge against Jeanne, keeping silence as to 
her excuses ; and, in my opinion, this was Loyseleur. 
After the sitting was over, in the afternoon, while com- 
paring notes of what had been written, the two others 
reported differently from me, and had put in none of the 
excuses ; at which my Lord of Beauvais was greatly angry / 
with me. 2 Where Nota is written in the Process there 
was disagreement, and questions had to be made upon 
it ; and it was found that what I had written was true. 

In writing the said Process, I was often opposed by 

" Doyen de la Rote " Court of Appeals at Rome. 

2 On the Minute of Manchon, which was in the hands of the Judges of the 
Rehabilitation in 1455. 



1 68 JEANNE D'ARC 

my Lord of Beauvais and the Masters, who wanted to 
compel me to write according to their fancy, and against 
what I had myself heard. And when there was some- 
thing which did not please them, they forbade it to be 
written, saying that it did not serve the Process ; but I 
nevertheless wrote only according to my hearing and 
knowledge. 

Maltre Jean Delafontaine, from the beginning of the 
Trial up to the week after Easter, 1431, took the place 
of my Lord of Beauvais, to interrogate her, in the 
absence of the Bishop ; and was always present with the 
Bishop in the conduct of the said Trial. And when the 
time came that the Maid was summoned to submit her- 
self to the Church by this same Delafontaine, and by 
Brothers Ysambard de la Pierre and Martin Ladvenu, 
they advised her that she should believe in, and rely on, 
our Lord the Pope and those who preside in the Church 
Militant ; and that she should make no question about 
submitting to our Holy Father the Pope and to the Holy 
Council ; for that there were among them as many of her 
own side as of the other, many of them notable Clerics, 
and that if she did not do this, she would put herself in 
great danger. The day after she had been thus advised, 
she said that she wished certainly to submit to our Holy 
Father the Pope and to the Holy Council. When my 
Lord of Beauvais heard this, he asked who had spoken 
with the Maid. The Guard replied that it was Maitre 
Delafontaine, his lieutenant, and the two Friars. And at 
this, in the absence of the said Delafontaine and the 
Friars, the Bishop was much enraged against Maitre 
Jean Lemattre, the Deputy Inquisitor, and threatened to 
do him an injury. And when Delafontaine knew that 
he was threatened for this reason, he departed from 
J Rouen, and did not again return. And as for the Friars, 
they would have been in peril of death, but for the said 
Lemaitre, who excused them and besought for them, 



THE FIRST ENQUIRY :~ 1 449 



169 



saying that if any harm were done to them, he would 
never again come to the Trial. And, from that time, 
the Earl of Warwick forbade any one to visit the Maid, 
except the Bishop of Beauvais or those sent by him ; and 
the Deputy Inquisitor was not allowed to go without him. 

At the end of the sermon at Saint Ouen, after the 
abjuration of the Maid, because Loyseleur said to her, 
" Jeanne, you have done a good day's work, if it please 
God, and have saved your soul/' she demanded, " Now, 
some among you people of the Church, lead me to your 
prisons, that I may no longer be in the hands of the 
English." To which my Lord of Beauvais replied, 
" Lead her back whence she was taken ! " For this 
reason she was taken back to the Castle which she had 
left. The following Sunday, which was Trinity Sunday, 
the Masters, Notaries, and others concerned in this 
Trial were summoned ; and we were told that she had 
resumed her man's dress and had relapsed ; and when 
we came to the Castle, in the absence of my Lord 
of Beauvais, there came upon us eighty or a hundred 
English soldiers, or thereabouts, who spoke to us in the 
courtyard of the Castle, telling us that all of us Clergy 
Were deceitful, traitorous Armagnacs and false counsel- 
lors ; so that we had great trouble to escape and get 
out of the Castle, and did nothing for that day. The 
following day I was summoned ; but I replied that I 
would not go if I had not a surety, on account of the 
fright I had had the day before ; and I would not have 
gone back if one of the followers of my Lord of Warwick 
had not been sent as a surety. And thus I returned, 
and was at the continuation of the Trial, up to the end 
except that I was not at a certain examination made by 
people who had spoken with her privately, 1 as privileged 

1 This was the Examination called the Acta Posterius, which, though 
included by Cauchon in the Process, is not signed by the Official Registrars, 
Manchon, Boisguillaume, and Taquel. 



i yo JEANNE D'ARC 

persons ; nevertheless, the Bishop of Beauvais wanted to 
compel me to sign, and this I would not do. 

I saw Jeanne led to the scaffold ; 1 and there were 
seven or eight hundred soldiers around her, bearing 
swords and staves ; so that no one was so bold as to speak 
to her except Brother Martin Ladvenu and Maitre Jean 
Massieu. 

Patiently did she hear the sermon right through ; 
afterwards she repeated her thanksgiving, prayers, and 
lamentations most notably and devoutly, in such 
manner that the Judges, Prelates, and all present were 
provoked to much weeping, seeing her make these pitiful 
regrets and sad complaints. Never did I weep more 
for anything that happened to me ; and, for a month 
afterwards, I could not feel at peace. For which reason, 
with a part of the money I had for my services I bought 
a little Missal, so that I might have it and might pray 
for her. In regard to final repentance, I never saw 
greater signs of a Christian. 

I remember that at the sermon given at Saint Ouen 
by Maitre Guillaume Erard, among other words were said 
and uttered these : " Ah ! noble House of France, which 
hath always been the protectress of the Faith, hast thou 
been so abused that thou dost adhere to a heretic and 
schismatic ? It is indeed a great misfortune." To which 
the Maid made answer, what I do not remember, except 
that she gave great praise to her King, saying that he 

1 Jeanne was burnt in the Market Place at Rouen, where an inscribed 
stone marks the site. It is stated that the execution took place in front of 
the Church of St. Sauveur, and facing the principal street which leads 
to the Market Place, thus accommodating a larger number of Spectators 
than was possible in any other part of the Place. 

There is still some dispute as to the actual spot ; but as the Cemetery 
was religious ground and the execution was, nominally at least, a secular 
one, the ground chosen must have been on land belonging to the municipality 
of Rouen. Probably this was in the March aux Veaux, as we find an order 
for the burning of a heretic there in 1 522, " lieu accoutumt faire telles 
executions" 



THE FIRST ENQUIRY: 1449 171 

ras the best and wisest Christian in the world. At 
which Erard and my Lord of Beauvais ordered Massieu, 
Make her keep silence." 

MAITRE JEAN MASSIEU, Priest, Cur 6 of one of the 
Divisions of the Parish Church of Saint-Caudres at 
Rouen, formerly Dean of the Christendom of Rouen. 

I was at the Trial of the said Jeanne on every occasion 
when she was present before the Judges and Clerics ; 
and, on account of my office, I was appointed a Clerk to 
Maitre Jean Benedicite, 1 Promoter in this Action. I 
believe, from what I saw, that the proceedings were 
taken out of hatred and in order to abase the honour of 
the King of France whom she served, and to wreak 
vengeance and bring her to death, not according to reason 
and for the honour of God and of the Catholic Faith. 
I say this, because when my Lord of Beauvais, who was \ 
Judge in the Case, accompanied by six Clerics namely, I 
Beaupere, Midi, Maurice, Touraine, Courcelles, and^ 
Feuillet, or some other in his place first questioned 
her, before she had answered one of them, another of 
those present would interpose another question, by 
which she was often hurried and troubled in her answers. 
And, besides, as I was leading Jeanne many times from 
her prison to the Court, and passed before the Chapel of 
the Castle, at Jeanne's request, I suffered her to make 
her devotions in passing ; and I was often reproved by 
the said Benedicite, the Promoter, who said to me : 
" Traitor ! what makes thee so bold as to permit this 
Excommunicate to approach without permission ? I will 
have thee put in a tower where thou shalt see neither 
sun nor moon for a month, if thou dost so again." And 
when the Promoter saw that I did not obey him, the said 
Benedicite placed himself many times before the door of 

1 Cognomen given to the Promoter, d'Estivet. 



172 JEANNE D'ARC 

the Chapel, between me and Jeanne, to prevent her say- 
ing her prayers before the Chapel, and asked expressly 
of Jeanne : " Is this the Body of Christ ? " When I was 
taking her back to prison, the fourth or fifth day, a priest 
named Maitre Eustace Turquetil, asked me : (( What 
dost thou think of her answers ? will she be burned ? 
what will happen ? " and I replied : " Up to this time I 
have seen in her only good and honour ; but I do not 
know what will happen in the end, God knows ! " Which 
answer was reported by the said priest to the King's 
people ; and it was said that I was opposed to the King. 
On this account, I was summoned, in the afternoon, by 
4 the Lord of Beauvais, the Judge, and was spoken to of 
these things and told to be careful to make no mistake, 
or I should be made to drink more than was good for 
me. I think that, unless the Notary Manchon had 
made excuses for me, I should not have escaped. 

When Jeanne was taken to Saint-Ouen to be preached 
to by Maitre Guillaume Iirard, at about the middle of 
the sermon, after she had been admonished by the words 
of the preacher, he began to cry out, in a loud voice, 
saying, " Ah ! France, thou art much abused, thou hast 
always been the most Christian country ; and Charles, 
who calls himself thy King and Governor, hath joined 
himself, as a heretic and schismatic, which he is, to the 
words and deeds of a worthless woman, defamed and 
full of dishonour ; and not only he, but all the Clergy 
within his jurisdiction and lordship, by whom she hath 
been examined and not reproved, as she hath said." 
Two or three times he repeated these words about the 
King ; and, at last, addressing himself to Jeanne he said, 
raising his finger : " It is to thee, Jeanne, that I speak, I 
tell thee that thy King is a heretic and schismatic ! " To 
which she replied : "By my faith ! sir, saving your 
reverence, I dare say and swear, on pain of death, that 
he is the most noble of all Christians, and the one who 



THE FIRST ENQUIRY: 1449 173 

most loves the Faith of the Church, and he is not what 
you say." And then the preacher said to me : " Make 
her keep silence." 

Jeanne never had any Counsel. 1 I remember that 
Loyseleur was one appointed to counsel her. He was 
against her, rather deceiving than helping her. 

The said 6rard, at the end of his sermon, read a 
schedule containing the Articles which he was inciting 
Jeanne to abjure and revoke. To which Jeanne replied, 
that she did not understand what abjuring was, and 
that she asked advice about it. Then Erard told me to 
give her counsel about it. After excusing myself for 
doing this, I told her it meant that, if she opposed any 
of the said Articles, she would be burned. I advised 
her to refer to the Church Universal as to whether she 
should abjure the said Articles or not. And this she did, 
saying in a loud voice to Erard : " I refer me to the 
Church Universal, as to whether I shall abjure or not." 
To this the said Iirard replied : " You shall abjure at 
once, or you shall be burned." And, indeed, before she 
left the Square, she abjured, and made a cross with a pen 
which I handed to her. 

At the end of the sermon, I advised Jeanne to ask 
that she might be taken to the prisons of the Church : 
and it was right she should be taken to the Church 
prisons, because the Church had condemned her. 
And this thing was asked of the Bishop of Beauvais by 
some of those present, whose names I do not know. To 
which the Bishop replied : " Take her to the Castle 
whence she came." And so it was done. That day, 
after dinner, in the presence of the Counsel of the Church, 
she took off her man's dress and put on a woman's dress, 
as she was commanded. This was on the Thursday or 
Friday after Pentecost ; and the man's dress was put in 

1 At the beginning of the Trial, Jeanne had asked for Counsel, and it had 
been refused. 



174 JEANNE D'ARC 

a bag in the same room where she was kept prisoner, 
while she remained guarded in this place, in the hands 
of five of the English, three of whom stayed all night in 
the room, and two outside the door of the room. I know 
of a surety that at night she slept chained by the legs 
with two pairs of iron chains, and fastened closely to a 
chain going across the foot of her bed, held to a great 
piece of wood, five or six feet long, and closed with a 
key, so that she could not move from her place. When 
the following Sunday came, being Trinity Sunday, 
and when it was time to rise, as she reported and 
said to me, she asked the English guards : " Take 
off my irons that I may get up." Then one of the 
English took away from her the woman's garments 
which she had on her, and they emptied the bag in 
which was her man's dress, and threw the said dress at 
her, saying to her : " Get up, and put the woman's dress 
in the bag." And, in accordance with what he said, she 
dressed herself in the man's dress they had given her, 
saying : ' ' Sirs, you know it is forbidden me ; without 
fail, I will not take it again." Nevertheless, they 
would not give her the other, insomuch that the con- 
tention lasted till mid-day, and, finally, she was compelled 
to take the said dress ; afterwards, they would not give 
up the other, whatever supplications or prayers she 
might make. 

This she told me on the Tuesday following, before 
dinner, on which day the Promoter had departed in 
company with the Earl of Warwick, and I was alone 
with her. Immediately I asked her why she had 
resumed a man's dress, and she told me what I have 
just related. 

I was not at the Castle on the Sunday, but I met near 
the Castle those who had been summoned, much over- 
whelmed and affrighted. They said they had been 
furiously driven back by the English with axes and 



THE FIRST ENQUIRY: 1449 175 



I swords, and called traitors, and otherwise insulted. On 
the following Wednesday, the day she was condemned, 
and before she left the Castle, the Body of Christ was 
borne to her irreverently, without stole and lights, at 
which Brother Martin, who had confessed her, was ill- 
:ontent, and so a stole and lights were sent for, and thus 
Brother Martin administered It to her. And this done, 
she was led to the Old Market- Place, and by her side 
were Brother Martin and myself, accompanied by 
more than 800 soldiers, with axes and swords. And 
being in the Old Market-Place, after the sermon, 
during which she showed great patience and listened 
most quietly, she evinced many evidences and clear 
proofs of her contrition, penitence, and fervent faith, if 
only by her pitiful and devout lamentations and invoca- 
tions of the Blessed Trinity and the Blessed and Glorious 
Virgin Mary, and all the Blessed Saints in Paradise 
naming specially certain of these Saints : in which 
devotions, lamentations, and true confession of faith, 
she besought mercy also, most humbly, from all manner 
of people of whatever condition or estate they might be, 
of her own party as well as of the other, begging them 
to pray for her, forgiving them the harm they had done 
her, [and thus] she persevered and continued as long 
a space of time as half-an-hour, and up to the very end. 
When she was given over by the Church, I was still 
with her ; and with great devotion she asked to have a 
Cross : and, hearing this, an Englishman, who was there 
present, made a little cross of wood with the ends of a 
stick, which he gave her, and devoutly she received and 
kissed it, making piteous lamentations and acknowledg- 
ments to God, Our Redeemer, Who had suffered on the 
Cross for our Redemption, of Whose Cross she had the 
sign and symbol ; and she put the said Cross in her 
bosom, between her person and her clothing. And, 
besides, she asked me humbly that I would get for her 



176 JEANNE D'ARC 

the Church Cross, so that she might see it continually 
until death. And I got the Clerk of the Parish of 
Saint-Sauveur to bring it to her ; the which, being 
brought, she embraced closely and long, and kept it till 
she was fastened to the stake. While she was making 
these devotions and pious lamentations, I was much 
hurried by the English and even by some of their 
4 Captains, who wished me to leave her in their hands, 
that she might be put to death the sooner, saying to me, 
when I was trying to console her on the scaffold : 
"What, Priest! will you have us dine here?" And 
immediately, without any form or proof of judgment, 
they sent her to the fire, saying to the executioner : 
" Do thine office ! " And thus she was led and fastened 
j [to the stake], continuing her praises and devout 
lamentations to God and His Saints, and with her last 
word, in dying, she cried, with a loud voice : " Jesus ! " 



MAITRE JEAN BEAUPERE, Master in Theology, Canon 
of Rouen. 

With regard to the apparitions mentioned in the Trial 
of the said Jeanne, I held, and still hold, the opinion 
that they rose more from natural causes and human 
intent than from anything supernatural ; but I would 
refer principally to the Process. 

Before she was taken to Saint-Ouen, to be preached 
to in the morning, I went alone, by permission, into 
Jeanne's prison, and warned her that she would soon be 
led to the scaffold to be preached to, telling her that, if 
she were a good Christian, she would say on the scaffold 
that she placed all her deeds and words in the ordering 
of Our Holy Mother Church, and especially of the 
Ecclesiastical Judges. And this did she say on the 
scaffold, being thereto requested by Maitre Nicolas 
Midi. This being noted and considered, she was for 



THE FIRST ENQUIRY: 1449 



177 



time sent back, after her abjuration ; although some of 
the English accused the Bishop of Beauvais and the 
Delegates from Paris of favouring Jeanne's errors. 

After this abjuration, and after taking her woman's 
dress which she received in prison, it was reported to the 
Judges on the Friday or Saturday following that Jeanne 
had repented of having put off a man's dress and 
had taken a woman's dress. On this account, my Lord 
of Beauvais sent me and Maitre Nicolas Midi to her, 
hoping that we should speak to Jeanne and induce and 
admonish her to persevere in the good intent she had on 
the scaffold, and that she should be careful not to relapse. 
But we could not find the keeper of the prison key, 1 
and, while we were waiting for the prison guard, several 
of the English, who were in the courtyard of the Castle, 
spoke threatening words, as Maitre Nicolas Midi told 
me, to the effect that he who would throw both of us 
into the water would be well employed. And, hearing 
these words, we returned ; and, on the bridge of the 
Castle, Midi heard, as he reported to me, like words 
used by others of the English ; at which we were much 
frightened, and went away without speaking to Jeanne. 

As to her innocence, Jeanne was very subtle with the 
subtlety of a woman, as I consider. I did not under- 
stand from any words of hers that she had been 
violated. 

As to her final penitence, I do not know what to say, 
for, on the Monday after 2 the abjuration, I left Rouen 
to go to Basle, 3 on the part of the University of Paris. 
Through this I knew nothing of her condemnation until 
I heard it spoken of at Lisle in Flanders. 

1 There were three keys to the prison, one being in the possession of 
the Promoter, one of the Inquisitor, and one belonging to the Cardinal. 

2 May 28th. 

3 To the Schismatic Council, then being held at Basle. 



N 



THE SECOND ENQUIRY 1 : 1452, 
AND THIRD ENQUIRY: 1455-6. 

[A Rescript was issued by Pope Calixtus III. ordering 
the Procedure of Revision for the Enquiry of 1455-6.] 

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES. 

MANCHON : Second Examination, 2nd May, 1452. 
\_Additional statements :] 

I have heard that after Jeanne was taken captive by 
one of the company of the Count de Ligny, she was 
taken to the Castle of Beaurevoir and detained there three 
months ; and then, by letters from the King of England 
to my Lord of Beauvais, she was taken to Rouen and 
put in prison. 

The Bishop of Beauvais held with the English ; and, 
before he took cognizance of the Case, Jeanne was 
put in irons : after he had informed himself, Jeanne, 
thus fettered, was given over to the custody of four 
English, although the Bishop and the Inquisitor had 
stated and sworn that they would themselves faithfully 
keep her. Jeanne was treated with cruelty, and, towards 
the end of the Trial, was shown the torture. 

1 Articles for Examination of Witnesses in the Second Enquiry of 1452 
jvere prepared under the direction of Cardinal d'Estouteville and Brother 
Jean Brdhal, Inquisitor. The witnesses were examined on twelve questions. 
Articles were also prepared under the direction of Philippe de Rose, 
Delegate for Cardinal d'Estouteville, the witnesses being examined on 
twenty-seven questions. 




SAINT LUCIEN TOWER, BEAUVAIS. 
Jeanne is said to have passed a night in this tower on August 20, 1429. 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 179 

And thus she put on man's clothing and lamented that 
jhe did not dare to doff these, fearing that at night the 

guards might attempt some violence ; and once or twice 
complaint was made to the Bishop of Beauvais, to the 
Sub- Inquisitor, and to Maitre Nicolas Loyseleur that 
some of these guards had attempted to assault her. The 
Earl of Warwick, at the statement of the Bishop, the 

inquisitor, and Loyseleur, uttered strong threats should 
they again presume to attempt this ; and two other 
guards were appointed. 

I, as notary, wrote Jeanne's answers a.nd defence. 

Two or three writers, who were secretly ensconced near, 

omitted, in their writing, all that was in her favour. 

The Judges desired me to write also in such wise, 

but I refused. 



Third Examination, $>th May, 1452. [Additional 
statements :] 

I acted as notary in the Process, by compulsion of the 
Great Council of the King of England, not daring to 
contradict their order. The Bishop of Beauvais was 
not compelled to take up the Process against Jeanne. 
He did it of free-will. The Inquisitor was summoned 
and dared not refuse. The Process was carried out by 
the English at their expense. The Promoter also 
was not compelled, but came of free-will. The Assessors 
and Doctors were summoned and dared not refuse. 

[With regard to the comparison of the writing of the 
concealed clerks and the notaries, he adds that] the 
comparison of notes was made in the house of the 
Bishop. 

Jeanne answered prudently and with simplicity, as 
might be seen in the Process. She could not have 
defended herself before such great Doctors had she 
not been inspired. The examination lasted for two or 

N 2 



i8o JEANNE D'ARC 

three hours in the morning, and sometimes as long again 
in the afternoon of the same day. She was much 
fatigued by the examination, for the examiners put to 
her the most subtle questions they possibly could. 

The original Process was written by me faithfully, in 
French, after the first session. Later, I believe it was 
faithfully translated into Latin. During the Process, and 
almost up to the close, Jeanne had no Counsel. I do not 
remember if she asked for one ; but, towards the end, 
she had Mattre Pierre Maurice and a Carmelite to 
direct and instruct her. 

On the day of her death, before the sermon and ere 
she left the Castle, she received the Body of the Lord 
by the order of the Judges, at her own request. 

She was taken to the place of execution by a large 
number of soldiers nearly four score. After the eccle- 
siastical sentence had been pronounced, and Jeanne 
given up, she was taken over to the Bailly, there 
present, who, without any consultation or sentence, 
made a sign with his hand, saying : " Take her away ! 
Take her away ! " 

Fourth Examination, \*]tk December, 1455. [Addi- 
tional statements :~\ 

The sum of a thousand pounds, or crowns, was given 
by the King of England for the surrender of the Maid ; 
and an annuity of 300 pounds to the soldier of the Duke 
of Burgundy who had captured her. 

I was appointed notary in the Trial, together with a 
certain Guillaume Boisguillaume. 

The copy of the Process shewn to me is the 
true Copy made. I acknowledge my own and my 
companion's signatures, and that it is the truth. Two 
other copies were made. One was given to the In- 
quisitor, one to the King of England, and one to the 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 181 

Bishop of Beauvais. This Process was made from a 
certain Minute written in French, by my own hand, 
which was given up to the Judges, and was afterwards 
translated from the French into Latin by Monsieur 
Thomas de Courcelles and myself, in the form in which 
it now stands, as well and as faithfully as possible, long 
after the death and execution of Jeanne. As for the 
Act of Accusation and other parts of the Process, 
Maitre Thomas de Courcelles had very little to do with 
these, nor did he greatly interfere with them. 

With regard to the word Nota, written above certain 
Articles in the Minute, there was, on the first day of the 
Enquiry, a great tumult in the Chapel of the Castle at 
Rouen, where, that day, the interrogation was held, so 
that Jeanne was interrupted at almost every word, 
whilst she was speaking of her apparitions : Certain 
secretaries were there two or three of the King of 
England, who registered, as they chose, her words and 
depositions, omitting all her defence and all which 
tended to exonerate her. I complained of this, saying it 
was irregular, and that I would not be responsible, as 
clerk, in this matter : and, therefore, on the morrow, the 
place of meeting was changed and convened in a certain 
hall of the Castle, near the Great Hall, while two 
English were placed to keep^order. When there were 
difficulties as to Jeanne's answers, and some said she 
had not replied as I had written, I wrote Nota at the 
top, in order that the questions might be repeated and 
the difficulties removed. Although it is mentioned in 
the Process that the Judges stated they had received 
preliminary evidence, I do not remember to have seen 
or heard of it ; but I know that, if it had been produced, 
it would have been inserted in the Process. 

Jeanne was brought to Rouen and not to Paris, 
because, as I think, the King of England and the 
principal people of his Council were there. 



1 82 JEANNE D'ARC 

At the beginning of the Process, I was sent for to 
attend a meeting held at a certain house near the 
Castle, at which were present the Bishop of Beauvais, 
the Abbe of Fecamp, Maitre Nicolas Loyseleur, and 
many others. The Bishop told me it was necessary 
that I should serve the King : that they meant to bring 
a fine case against this said Jeanne, and that I was to 
recommend another greffier to assist me. I therefore 
nominated Boisguillaume. 

I met Lohier in the Church, on the day after the 
Bishop had asked him to give an opinion on the 
Process, and enquired what he thought of it. He 
replied, that the Process was of no value, and could not 
be maintained, because it was conducted in the Castle 
and not in a legal court ; that it concerned many who 
were not summoned ; that Jeanne had no Counsel : and 
for many other reasons. He added that, in his opinion, 
it was their intention to put her to death. 

A certain Maitre Nicolas de Houppeville was sum- 
moned to attend the Trial ; and was in great danger, 
because he refused. Maitre Jean Lemaitre, Sub- 
Inquisitor, delayed as long as possible his attendance 
at the Trial, and was much vexed at being compelled 
to attend. 

One day, when Jeanne was being questioned, Jean de 
Chitillon spoke in her favour, saying that she was not 
compelled to reply to the question put to her, or to that 
effect. This much displeased the Bishop of Beauvais 
and his following, and there was a great tumult at his 
words. The Bishop ordered him to be quiet, and to let 
the Judges speak. 

On another occasion, when some one was advising 
and directing Jeanne on the question of submission to 
the Church, the Bishop said, <f Hold your tongue, in the 
devil's name ! " I do not remember the name of him 
who was thus spoken to. 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 183 

One day, some one, whose name I do not remember, 
having spoken of Jeanne in a way which did not please 
the Earl of Stafford, the latter followed him, sword in 
hand, to some place of sanctuary ; and, if they had not 
told Stafford that that place was sacred, he would have 
slain him. 

Those who seemed to me most affected [against Jeanne] 
were Beaupere, Midi, and de Touraine. 

One day, I went with the Bishop of Beauvais and the 
Earl of Warwick to the prison where Jeanne was, and 
we found her in irons. It was said that at night she 
was fastened with iron chains ; but I did not see her so 
fastened. There was, in the prison, neither bed nor any 
kind of couch. There were four or five guards of the 
lowest kind. 

[Manchon supplies a fuller account of the story given 
in 1450 as to the clerks having overheard Jeanne's 
confession to Loyseleur :] 

After I and Boisguillaume had been appointed 
notaries, the Earl of Warwick, the Bishop of Beauvais, 
and Maitre Nicolas Loyseleur told us that Jeanne had 
spoken strange things in regard to her visions, and 
in order the better to know the truth about them, it 
was agreed that Maitre Nicolas Loyseleur should pre- 
tend to be from the Marches of Lorraine Jeanne's own 
country and in the following of the King of France ; 
that he should enter her prison in a layman's habit, and 
that the guards should retire and leave him alone with 
her : there was, in a room adjoining the prison, a hole, 
specially made for the purpose, in order that I and 
my companion might be there, and hear what was said 
by Jeanne. Thither we went, unseen by her. Then 
Loyseleur, pretending to have news, began to question 
Jeanne of the King's estate and of her revelations. 
Jeanne replied, believing him to be in fact of her own 
country and party : and the Bishop and the Earl desired 



184 JEANNE D'ARC 

us to put in writing what we had heard. I replied, that 
this ought not to be, that it was not honest to carry on 
the Trial by such means, but that, if she spoke thus in 
open Court, we would willingly register the words. And, 
ever afterwards, Jeanne had great confidence in this 
Loyseleur, who often heard her in confession, and would 
generally have private speech with her before she was 
taken before the Judges. 

The interrogations sometimes lasted three or four 
hours in the morning ; and sometimes difficult and 
subtle questions arose on the answers, on which she was 
further examined after dinner for two or three hours. 
Often they turned from one question to another, changing 
about, but, notwithstanding this, she answered prudently, 
and evinced a wonderful memory, saying often, " I have 
already answered you on this," and adding, " I refer to 
the clerks." 

Long before the [Seventy] Articles were included in 
the Process, Jeanne had been many times examined, and 
had given many answers ; and from these questions and 
answers the Articles were drawn up, with the advice of 
the Assessors. This was done by the Promoter, in 
order that the material, which was diffuse, might be put 
in order. Afterwards, she was examined on the whole ; 
and it was concluded by the counsellors principally 
those who came from Paris that it would be well, 
and according to custom, to reduce these Articles and 
answers to shorter Articles, bringing together the princi- 
pal points, in order to have the material in brief, for 
better and more prompt discussion. On this, there were 
drawn up the Twelve Articles ; but I had no hand in 
them, nor do I know who composed or extracted 
them. 

[With regard to a Note, dated April 4th, 1431, written 
in French and contained in the Process, concerning these 
Twelve Articles, the other two Notaries Guillaume 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 185 

Colles or Boisguillaume, and Nicolas Taquel were 
summoned and questioned, together with deponent. 
They testified that :] 

The Note is in the handwriting of Manchon, but as 
to who drew up the Twelve Articles we do not know. 
It was said to be customary that such Articles should be 
made and drawn up from the confessions of one accused 
of Heresy, even as in a matter of Faith was usually 
done, in Paris, by the Doctors and Masters in Theology. 
The corrections of these Articles were, we believe, put 
down as appears in the copy before us ; but, whether 
these corrections were added or not to the copy of the 
Articles sent to Paris and to those invited to submit an 
opinion, we do not know. We believe not : for a note, 
in the handwriting of Maitre Guillaume d'Estivet, the 
Promoter, shews that they were sent by him on the 
following day without correction. 

[Manchon was then asked, if he believed the Articles 
to be truthfully composed, and if there were not a great 
difference between them and Jeanne's answers. He 
replied that, what was in his Process was true. The 
Articles were not his doing.] 

I believe that deliberation was not made on the whole 
Process, because it was not then in shape. It was 
brought into its present form only after Jeanne's death. 
Opinions were given on the Twelve Articles. The 
Twelve Articles were not read to Jeanne. [Asked again, 
if he had ever perceived a difference between these 
Articles and Jeanne's confessions, he said he did not 
remember. Those to whom they were shown said, 
that it was the custom to draw up such Articles ; but 
that he had not given his attention to it, and that he 
should not have dared to argue with such great men.] 

During -the Trial I was seated at the feet of the 
Judges with Guillaume Colles and the clerk of Maitre 
Guillaume Beaupere, who was also writing ; but there 



1 86 JEANNE D'ARC 

was a great difference in what we had written, and from 
this arose much contention. 

When the Process was complete, opinions were asked 
for, and from these it was decided that Jeanne should 
be exhorted ; she was left to the counsel of Mattre 
Nicolas Loyseleur, who said to her : " Jeanne, believe 
me: if you will, you may be saved. Take the dress of 
your sex, and do all that you are told ; otherwise you 
are in peril of death. If you do what I tell you, you 
will be saved, and will have much good and not much 
ill, and you will be given up to the Church." And then 
she was taken to a scaffold or platform. Two sentences 
had been prepared, one of abjuration, the other of 
condemnation : both were in the hands of the Bishop, 
and, while he was reading the sentence of condemnation, 
Maitre Nicolas Loyseleur continued to press Jeanne to 
do what he had advised, and to accept the woman's 
dress. There was a short interval, in which an English- 
man addressed the Bishop as a traitor, to which he 
answered that he lied. At this instant, Jeanne declared 
herself ready to obey the Church ; and then the abjura- 
tion was read to her. I do not know if she repeated it, 
or if, after it was read, she said that she agreed. But 
she certainly smiled. The executioner was there, with 
the cart, waiting to take her to the burning. 

On Trinity Sunday, I and the other notaries were 
commanded by the Bishop and Lord Warwick to come to 
the Castle, because it was said that Jeanne had relapsed 
and had resumed her man's dress. 

When we reached the Court, the English, who 
were there to the number of about fifty, assaulted us, 
calling us traitors, and saying that we had mismanaged 
the Trial. We escaped their hands with great difficulty 
and fear. I believe they were angry that, at the first 
preaching and sentence, she had not been burnt. 

What she had said in the abjuration she said she had 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 187 

not understood, and that what she had done was from 
fear of the fire, seeing the executioner ready with his cart. 

[Asked, why they had administered the Sacrament to 
one declared excommunicate and heretic, and if she had 
been absolved by the forms of the Church, Manchon 
answered :] There had been much discussion among 
the Judges and their Counsellors, whether they should 
offer her the Holy Sacrament, and whether she should be 
absolved at the place of execution ; but I did not see any 
absolution granted to her. I was so disturbed that for a 
month I remained terrified. 

She never revoked her revelations, but maintained 
them up to the end. 

BROTHER PIERRE MIGIER, Prior of Longueville, in the 
diocese of Rouen y S.T.P., First examination, May 2nd. 
1452, [evidence of no special value.'} 

Second Examination, May 9^, 1452. \_Additional 
evidence :] 

At the end of the first sermon at Saint-Ouen, when 
Jeanne was admonished to recant and she hesitated, one 
of the English ecclesiastics told the Bishop that he 
was favouring Jeanne, to which the Bishop replied, 
" You lie ! It is my duty, on account of my profession, to ) 
seek the salvation of the soul and body of this Jeanne.' 7 

I was accused before the Cardinal of England as a 
partisan of Jeanne, but I excused myself to the Cardinal, 
being in fear of my life. 

I think the notaries were truthful, and that they 
wrote with fidelity. 

I do not know whether she asked for Counsel, but I 
think no one would have dared to counsel or defend her, ) 
nor would they have been permitted. 

She was taken to execution, with great anger, by the 
English soldiers. When she was given up to the secular 



1 88 JEANNE D'ARC 

authorities by the Church, she began to weep and call 
upon " Jesus." Then I went away, having so great com- 
passion that I could not witness her death. 



Third Examination, December 1 6M, 1 4 5 5 . [A dditional 
evidence /] 

I heard that, during the Trial, there were certain men 
hidden behind curtains, who, it was said, were writing 
down the words and confessions of Jeanne ; but I do not 
know if this is the fact. This I heard from Maitre 
Guillaume Manchon, one of the three Registrars of the 
Case. I complained of it to the Judges, saying that it 
did not seem to me to be a good way of acting. But 
whatever may be the truth of these hidden clerks, I 
believe truly that the Registrars who signed the Process 
were trustworthy, and that they faithfully reported what 
was done in the Trial. 

As to the act of recantation, I know it was performed 
by her ; it was in writing, and was about the length of a 
Pater Noster. 

In an old book, in which are the sayings of Merlin the 
prophet, it is written that a maiden should come from an 
Oak-wood in the country of Lorraine. 

BROTHER YSAMBARD DE LA PIERRE: Second Examina- 
tion^ May yd) 1452. [He makes the following additions :~\ 

The room in which Jeanne was confined was rather 
dark. 

I was at the sermon of Maitre Guillaume 6rard, who 
took as his theme, " A branch cannot bear fruit except it 
abide in the Vine," saying that in France there was no 
monster such as this Jeanne : she was a witch, heretic, 
and schismatic ; and that the King who favoured her was 
of like sort for wishing to recover his kingdom by means 
of such an heretical woman. 



I SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 189 

The Bishop of Beauvais held with the English. I 
believe it was he who, at the beginning of the Process, 
ordered her to be kept in irons, and deputed the English 
as her keepers, forbidding any to speak with her 
unless by leave from him, or from the Promoter, 
Benedicite. 

When I was holding the Cross before her, she begged 
me to descend, as the fire was mounting. 

When she spoke of the kingdom and the war, I 
thought she was moved by the Holy Spirit ; but when ) 
she spoke of herself she feigned many things : never- 
theless, I think she should not have been condemned 
as a heretic. When the Bishop asked if she would sub- 
mit to the Church, she enquired, " What is the Church ? 
So far as it is you, I will not submit to your judgment, 
because you are my deadly enemy." She complained 
that the Bishop would not allow them to write anything 
in her -excuse, but only what was against her. When 
she was asked whether she would submit to the judg- 
ment of the Pope, she replied that, if they would take ) 
her to him, she would be content. 

She was adjudged relapsed because she had resumed 
her man's dress. After she had recanted, she resumed 
a woman's dress, and begged to be taken to the 
ecclesiastical prisons ; but it was not permitted. I 
heard from Jeanne, herself, that she had been assaulted 
by a great lord ; and for that reason she had resumed 
her man's dress, which had been perfidiously left near her. 
After her resumption of this dress, I heard the Bishop, 
with some of the English, exulting, and saying publicly 
to the Earl of Warwick and others : " She is caught 
this time ! " 

Third Examination, May gth, 1452. 

Some of the Assessors, such as the Bishop of Beauvais, 
proceeded of their own pleasure ; some to wit, the 



190 JEANNE D'ARC 

English Doctors out of malicious spite; some, Doctors 
of Paris, from desire of gain ; some were induced by fear, 
as the aforesaid Sub- Inquisitor and others whom I do 
not remember. 

The Process was instituted by the King of England, 
the Cardinal of Winchester, the Earl of Warwick, and 
other English, who paid all the expenses. I remember 
well that Jean, Bishop of Avranches, for having refused 
to give his advice in the Process, was threatened by the 
Promoter d'Estivet ; and Maitre Nicolas de Houppeville, 
who would not attend the Trial nor give an opinion, was 
in danger of exile. After the first sermon, at which 
Jeanne recanted, I, Jean Delafontaine, and Maitre 
Guillaume Vallee, of the Order of Saint Dominic, went 
to the Castle by order of the Judges to counsel Jeanne 
that she should persevere in her good purpose. Seeing 
this, the infuriate English threw themselves upon us, 
with swords and sticks, and violently drove us out 
of the Castle ; on this occasion, Jean Delafontaine 
escaped, and left the town and did not return ; also I 
suffered many reproaches from the Earl of Warwick, 
because I had told Jeanne she should submit to the 
General Council. [On the day that she said she 
would submit] Messire Guillaume Manchon, the notary, 
asked whether he should write down the submission ? 
The Bishop replied, No, it was not necessary. Then 
Jeanne said to the Bishop : " Ah ! you will certainly 
write what is against me, and will write nothing that 
is for me." This submission was not registered, and 
there ensued in the assembly a great murmur. 

The examination of Jeanne sometimes lasted three 
hours in the morning ; and sometimes she was examined 
in the afternoon as well as in the morning ; I heard her 
often complain of over-much questioning. 

During the greater part of the Process, when she was 
asked to submit to the Church, she understood by that 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 191 

:rm the assembly of Judges and Assessors there present, 
't was then expounded to her by Maitre Pierre Maurice ; 
ind, after she knew, she always declared that she wished ) 
to submit to the Pope and to be conducted to him. 

She was brought in a cart to the cemetery of Saint- 
Ouen. After the preaching [at the Old Market] there was 
a long waiting, and then the King's clerks conducted 
her to the stake, I and Brother Martin Ladvenu accom- 
panying her up to the end. 

On this same occasion, the Bishop of Beauvais wept. 
A certain Englishman, a soldier, who hated her greatly, 
had sworn to bring a faggot for the stake. When he 
did so, and heard Jeanne calling on the name of Jesus 
in her last moments, he was stupefied, and, as it were, in 
an ecstasy at the spectacle : his companions took him and 
led him away to a neighbouring tavern. After refresh- 
ment, he revived. In the afternoon, the same English- 
man confessed, in my presence, to a Brother of the 
Order of Saint Dominic, that he had gravely erred, and 
that he repented of what he had done against Jeanne. 
He held her to be a good woman, for he had seen the 
spirit departing from her, as it were a white dove, 
going away from France. 

In the afternoon of the same day, the executioner 
came to the Convent of the Dominicans, saying to 
them and to Brother Martin Ladvenu, that he feared 
he was damned because he had burnt a saint. 



MAfTRE PIERRE CUSQUEL, Citizen of Rouen. First 
Examination, before Cardinal d? Estouteville, May $rd, 
1452. 

I saw Jeanne brought in by the English. 

I did not see her taken to prison, but I saw her two 
or three times in a chamber in the Castle of Rouen, near 
the back entrance. 



192 JEANNE D'ARC 

At the time of the Trial, I was in the habit of enter- 
ing the Castle, thanks to Johnson, master of the masons. 
Twice I entered her prison and saw her, with her legs 
shackled and fastened by a long chain to a beam. In 
my master's house was hung a great cage of iron, in 
which, it was said, she was to be shut up ; but I never 
saw her in this cage. 

I heard that Jeanne was made prisoner in the diocese 
of Beauvais, and on this account the Bishop undertook 
the Process against her. 

Second Examination, May gth, 1452. [He adds to 
his evidence :~\ 

The room [where Jeanne was imprisoned] was situated 
under the stairs, towards the fields. 

Maltre Andre" Marguerie, or another, said he had 
enquired as to Jeanne's change of dress, and by some 
one I know not whom was told that he was to hold 
his tongue, in the devil's name. 

I twice entered Jeanne's prison and spoke with her, 
warning her to speak prudently, and that there was 
question of her death. The iron cage, which I saw, was 
intended to detain her in an upright position. 

I was not present at the last preaching and con- 
demnation and execution of Jeanne, because my 
heart could not bear it, for pity of her ; but I heard 
that she received the Body of the Lord before her 
condemnation. 

Maltre Jean Tressart, when he returned from the 
execution, groaning and weeping sadly, lamented to me 
what he had seen at this place, saying to me : " We are 
all lost ; we have burnt a Saint " ; adding, that he 
believed her soul was in the hands of God because, 
when she was in the midst of the flames, she constantly 
called on the name of the Lord Jesus. 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 193 

Third Examination, May nth, 1456. [Additional 
idence .] 

I had heard of the visitation ordered by the Duchess 
of Bedford, but did not know if it were true. 

After her death, the English had her ashes collected 
and thrown into the Seine, because they feared that 
some might believe she had escaped. 

LADVENU : Second Examination, May $rd, 1452. [He 
adds the following to his earlier testimony :] 

I often saw her in the Castle of Rouen, under the 
custody of the English, ironed and in prison. 

I heard Jeanne, by license of the Judges, in con- 
fession ; I administered to her the Body of Christ ; she 
received it with great devotion and tears which I cannot 
describe. 

The resumption of her man's dress was one of the 
causes of her condemnation. 

Third Examination, May qth, 1452. [Additional 
evidence :] 

I was present at the greater part of the Process, with 
Brother Jean Lemattre, then Sub-Inquisitor. I saw 
Maitre Nicolas de Houppeville he who would not 
assist in the Process taken to prison. I know well that 
Jeanne had no director, Counsel, nor defender, up to 
the end of the Process, and that no one would have 
dared to offer himself as her Counsel, director, or 
defender, for fear of the English. I have heard that 
those who went to the Castle to counsel and direct 
Jeanne, by order of the Judges, were harshly repulsed 
and threatened. 

Directly Jeanne was abandoned by the Church, she 
was seized by the English soldiers, who were present in 

o 



194 JEANNE D'ARC 

large numbers, without any sentence from the secular 
authority, although the Bailly of Rouen and the 
Counsels of the Secular Court were present. I know 
this because I was with her, from the Castle to her 
last breath. 

The executioner, in my presence, gave his testimony 
that she had been unjustly put to death. 

Maitre Guillaume Iirard, at the sermon which he 
pronounced at the Cemetery of Saint-Ouen, exclaimed : 
" Oh, House of France ! thou hast never till now 
nourished a monster in thy bosom ; but now thou art 
disgraced by thy adhesion to this witch, this heretic ! 
this superstitious one ! " 

Fourth Examination, December 19^, 1455, and May 
1456. [A dditional statements :] 



I have heard it said that the Bishop, and others 
concerned in the Process, wished to have letters of 
guarantee from the King of England, and received them ; 
and these are the letters now shewn, signed with the 
sign manual of Maitre Laurence Calot, whose signature 
I know well. Maitre Jean Lemaitre, Sub- Inquisitor, 
who was concerned in the Trial and who often went 
with me, was compelled to attend. Brother Ysambard 
de la Pierre, who was a friend of the Inquisitor, desired 
on one occasion to direct Jeanne, but was told to hold 
his tongue, and that, if he did not henceforward abstain 
from such interference, he would be thrown into the 
Seine. 

On the day of her death I was with her until her 
last breath. One present said he wished his soul 
might be where he believed Jeanne's soul was. 
After the reading of the sentence, she came down 
from the platform on which the preaching had been, 
and was led by the executioner, without any sentence 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 195 

>m the secular Judges, to the place where the pile was 
>repared for her burning. The pile was on a scaffold, 
and the executioner lighted it from below. When 
Jeanne perceived the fire, she told me to descend and 
to hold up the Cross of the Lord on high before her 
that she might see it. 

When I was with her, and exhorting her on her 
salvation, the Bishop of Beauvais and some of the 
Canons of Rouen came over to see her ; and, when 
Jeanne perceived the Bishop, she told him that he was 
the cause of her death ; that he had promised to place 
her in the hands of the Church, and had relinquished 
her to her mortal enemies. 

Up to the end of her life she maintained and asserted 
that her Voices came from God, and that what she 
had done had been by God's command. She did 
not believe that her Voices had deceived her : [but 
that] the revelations which she had received had come 
from God. 



MESSIRE NICOLAS TAQUEL, Priest ^Rector of Basque- 
ville, in the Diocese of Rouen : First Examination, 
May %th, 1452. 

About half-way through the Process I w as called by the 
two notaries to assist them. I saw Jeanne in a prison 
in the Castle of Rouen, in a certain tower near the fields. 
I never perceived any kind of fear, nor did I know of 
prohibitions or coercion by the English. I do not 
remember that she asked to have Counsel, or that they 
were offered to her ; I was not at the opening of the 
Case. I knew well that Jeanne was in prison. I saw 
her there, in irons, notwithstanding her weakness. 
There was an Englishman who had charge of her in 
the room, without whose leave no one, not even the 
Judges, might have access to her. 

o 2 



196 JEANNE D'ARC 

Jeanne was about twenty years of age ; though she was 
as simple as any girl of her age, she could speak well on 
occasion, sometimes varying her answers, and sometimes 
not replying to the questions. I certainly heard in the 
town, that at night, the English, in the absence of the 
Judges, disturbed her much, saying sometimes that she 
would die, sometimes that they would kill her ; but I do 
not know if it was true. I was present when some of the 
Judges put very difficult questions to her, to which she 
answered that it did not concern her to reply to them. 
Some of the Doctors present sometimes said to her, " You 
say well, Jeanne/' Sometimes Jeanne, wearied with so 
many questions, begged for delay till the morrow ; and it 
was granted. Many heard the statement referred to, 
made by Jeanne, that she would say and do nothing 
against the Faith. I believe this is written in the 
Process. I do not remember to have seen any English 
at the Examinations of Jeanne, with the exception of the 
guards ; nor do I remember any restrictions upon what 
was done in the Process, although the Judges said it was 
forbidden to write anything which was not contained in 
the Process. I do not know that the words of the Seventy 
Articles were inserted in the Process, nor do I remember 
that Jeanne, during the whole Trial, said she would 
not submit to the Ecclesiastical authority, although I 
occasionally saw her somewhat disturbed ; then the 
Doctors who were present advised her, and sometimes 
postponed the matter till the morrow, 

I saw nothing in Jeanne contrary to a good Catho- 
lic. She asked, in my presence, whether she might 
receive the Sacrament ; but I was not permitted to 
be present at its reception. It was told me that, 
before she arrived at the place of execution, she made 
many and devout prayers to God, to the Blessed 
Mary and the Saints, so that many present were 
provoked to tears, and, among others, Maitre Nicolas 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 197 

,oyseleur, Promoter 1 to the cause, who, leaving her in 
irs, met certain English in the court of the Castle : 

lese took him to task, calling him traitor, which fright- 
ened him so much that, without more ado, he went to 
the Earl of Warwick to beg his protection ; and, had 
it not been for the said Earl, I think that Loyseleur 
would have been killed. 

After the sentence of the Church had been read, I 
with many other ecclesiastics retired. I was not present 
at the execution; but I heard that Jeanne died piously 
and as a Catholic, calling on the name of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. 

Second Examination, May ntk, 1456. [Additional 
evidence :] 

I was one of the notaries, but not at the commence- 
ment. I was not there during the time when the Process 
was carried on in the Great Hall, but only when the sittings 
were held in the prison. I was first concerned in the 
Process on the i4th of March, 1430, as appears in my 
commission, to which I refer ; and, from this time to the 
end of the Process, I was present as notary at the 
interrogations and answers of Jeanne : I was not per- 
mitted to write, but I listened and referred, for the 
writing, to the other two notaries, Boisguillaume and 
Manchon, both of whom wrote, especially Manchon. 

The said Process was put into its present form a long 
time after the death of Jeanne, but at what time I do 
not know. For my labour and trouble I had ten francs, 
though I had been told I should have twenty ; and 
these ten francs were handed over to me by a certain 
Benedicite [d'Estivet], but whence the money came I 
know not. 

1 Note by Quicherat : This is an error of the witness. [The Promoter was 
d'Estivet.] 



198 JEANNE D'ARC 

I heard it said among the notaries that certain Articles 
were to be made ; but as to who drew them up I know 
not. They were sent to Paris ; but whether they were 
signed or no, I do not remember : I think they were not 
signed, but, yet, I remember that once something was 
signed, which was neither Process nor sentence. 

[A note of April 4th, 1431, was then shewed to Maitre 
Taquel, containing the Twelve Articles in the form in 
which they were sent for correction.] He confirmed the 
handwriting of Manchon, and said he believed he was 
present on the occasion. He thought no corrections 
were made. 

When the preaching was made at the Place Saint- 
Ouen, I was not upon the platform with the other 
notaries. But I was quite close, and could see and hear 
all that was said and done. I remember well seeing a 
schedule of abjuration read to Jeanne by Massieu. It 
was about six lines of large writing ; and Jeanne repeated 
it after Massieu. This letter of abjuration was in 
French, beginning, " Je, Jeanne," etc. After the abjura- 
tion, she was condemned to perpetual imprisonment, and 
reconducted to the Castle ; and after this I was com- 
manded to attend another enquiry ; but a tumult arose, 
and I do not know what happened afterwards. There 
was another sermon : on that day Jeanne died, and on 
the morning of the day Jeanne received the Body of 
Christ. At this last preaching I was present to the end 
of the sermon ; and at its conclusion Jeanne was handed 
over to the secular authorities. This done, I retired. 

MESSIRE PIERRE LEBOUCHIER, Priest, Curt of the 
Parish of Bourgeauville : Examined May %th, 1452. 



An English clerk, Bachelor in Theology, Keeper of 
the Private Seal of the Cardinal of England, being at 
the sermon of Saint-Ouen, said these words, in my 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 199 

esence, to the Bishop of Beauvais : " Have done ! 
r ou favour her overmuch ! " Annoyed at these words, 
ie Bishop threw the Process, which he had in his hand, \ 
to the ground, saying that he would do nothing more 
that day, being unwilling to act except according to his 
conscience. 

Jeanne was alone, seated upon a chair ; I heard her 
reply without Counsel. I do not know whether she 
asked for any or if it were denied her. 

She was in prison in the Castle of Rouen. I do not 
know if she were in irons. No one might speak to her 
without leave from the English who had charge of her. 
I did not see her leave the Castle, There were with her 
certain Englishmen who, I believe, were shut up with 
her in the same room, to which there were three keys 
one kept by the Lord Cardinal or the aforesaid secretary, 
another by the Inquisitor, and another by Messire Jean 
Benedicite, the Promoter : for the English feared greatly 
that she would escape them. 

I was not present at the Process ; but, after the 
preaching at Saint-Ouen, Jeanne, with her hands joined 
together, said in a loud voice that she submitted to 
the judgment of the Church, and prayed to Saint 
Michael that he would direct and counsel her. 

As soon as the sentence had been read by the Eccle- 
siastical Judge, [at the Old Market,] she was conducted 
to the platform of the Bailly by the King's followers, on 
which platform were the Bailly and other lay officers. 
She remained there some time with them ; and what 
they did or said I know not, only that she was taken back 
and given over to the fire after they had departed. 

While they were tying her to the stake she implored 
and specially invoked Saint Michael. She seemed to 
me a good Christian to the end ; the greater number of 
those present, to the number of ten thousand, wept and 
lamented, saying that she was of great piety. 



200 JEANNE D'ARC 

I think the English feared Jeanne more than the 
whole of the rest of the army of the King of France, and 
that this fear it was which moved them, in my opinion, 
to bring the Process against her. 



MA!TRE NICOLAS DE HOUPPEVILLE, Bachelor in Theo- 
logy, of the diocese of Rouen : First Examination, May 
StA, 1452- 

I never thought that zeal of the Faith, nor desire to 
bring her back to the right way, caused the English to 
act thus. 

Jeanne was brought to the town of Rouen by the 
English and imprisoned in the Castle ; and the Process 
was, I believe, instituted by them. As to the question 
of fear and pressure, I do not believe it, so far as it 
affected the Judges. They acted voluntarily, principally 
the Bishop of Beauvais, for I saw him on his return from 
the negotiations about Jeanne speaking of it with the 
Regent and the Earl of Warwick : he was exulting and 
rejoicing in words which I did not understand. He 
went apart thereupon with the Earl of Warwick ; but 
what was said I know not. 

In my judgment, the Judges and Assessors were for 
the most part uncoerced ; for the rest, I believe many 
were afraid. I heard from Maitre Pierre Minier that he 
had tendered his opinion in writing, but it was not 
pleasing to the Bishop of Beauvais, who sent him away, 
telling him that, as a theologian, he was not to meddle 
any more in the matter, but to leave it to the lawyers. 

I was once called at the beginning of the Process. 
I did not come, being prevented. The second day, 
when I came, I was not admitted. I was even driven 
away by the Bishop, because, talking one day with 
Maitre Michel Colles, I had told him that it was 
dangerous for many reasons to take part in this Process. 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 201 

This was repeated to the Bishop ; and for this cause he 
had me shut up in the King's prison at Rouen, whence I 
was delivered only by the prayers of the Lord Abbot 
of Fecamp : and I heard that some, whom the Bishop 
summoned, advised that I should be exiled to England 
or elsewhere beyond the bounds of Rouen, had I not 
been delivered by the Abbot and his friends. 

It was reported in the city of Rouen that some one, 
feigning to be a soldier of the King of France, was 
secretly introduced to her, persuading her not to submit 
to the authority of the Church. There were rumours 
that, on account of this persuasion, Jeanne afterwards 
wavered in her submission to the Church. 

I saw her coming out of the Castle, weeping much, 
and led to the place of execution by a troop of soldiers, 
to the number of 1 20, some with swords and some with 
clubs. Touched with compassion at this sight I could 
go no further. 

Re-examined, May 13^, 1456. 

At the beginning of the Process, I was at several 
consultations, in which I was of opinion that neither 
the Bishop nor those who wished to take part with 
him were in the position to act as Judges ; I could 
not see how they could properly proceed, because 
those opposed to her were acting as Judges, and she 
had already been examined by the Clergy of Poitiers 
and the Archbishop of Rheims, the Metropolitan of 
the Bishop of Beauvais. Owing to this opinion I 
incurred the wrath of the Bishop, who cited me to 
appear before him. When I appeared, I told him 
that I was not his subject, nor was I under his 
jurisdiction, but in that of Rouen : and so I left him. 
But when, for this reason, I wished to appear in the Case 
and presented myself to the authorities of Rouen, I was 



202 ' JEANNE D'ARC 

arrested and taken to the Castle and to the King's 
prisons. When I asked the cause of my arrest, I was 
told it was by order of the Bishop of Beauvais. Maitre 
Jean Delafontaine, my friend, wrote to me that I was 
arrested in consequence of the opinion I had given in this 
Process ; and he warned me, at the same time, of the 
anger of the Bishop. Thanks to the intervention of the 
Abbe of Fecamp, I ended by being set at liberty. 

[He adds, to his previous statement, that the man who 
feigned to be a soldier on the side of the King of France 
was Nicolas Loyseleur.] 

MASSIEU : Second Examination, May %th, 1452. 
[Additional evidence :] 

On one occasion, Maitre Jean de Chatillon, Arch- 
deacon of Evreux and Doctor in Theology, found that 
Jeanne was being asked questions too difficult for her, 
and complained of the mode of procedure, saying that 
they ought not to act in this manner. But the other 
Assessors told him to let them alone ; to which he 
answered : " I must acquit my own conscience.' 7 For 
this cause he was forbidden, by whom I do not 
remember, to attend further unless he was summoned. 

On Trinity Sunday, in the afternoon, Maitre Andre 
Marguerie, hearing that Jeanne had resumed her male 
attire, went to the Castle of Rouen, saying that he must 
find out why she had done so, and that it was not 
enough for him merely to see her in this dress. One 
of the English soldiers, lance in hand, called out to 
him, " Traitor! Armagnac!" and raised his lance 
against him, so that Marguerie fled, fearing to be slain, 
and was in consequence much upset and ill. 

At the first sermon, I was on the platform with 
Jeanne, and read the Schedule of Abjuration to her ; at 
iier request and petition I instructed her, shewing her 






SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 203 

the danger that might arise from abjuration unless the 
Articles were first seen by the Church, to whom she 
should refer as to whether she should abjure or not. 

Seeing this, Mattre Guillaume ftrard, the preacher, 
asked me what I was saying to her, and, when I replied, 
said : " Read her this schedule, and tell her to sign it." 
Jeanne answered that she did not know how to sign ; she 
desired that the Articles might be seen and deliberated 
upon by the Church ; [she said] she ought not to 
abjure this schedule, and requested that she might be 
placed in the custody of the Church, and no longer be 
kept by the English. Erard replied that she had had 
long enough delay, and that, if she did not abjure this 
schedule, she should be immediately burned ; and he 
forbade me to speak further with her or to give her 
more counsel. 

I remember that incomplete questions were often put 
to Jeanne, and many and difficult interrogations were 
made together ; then, before she could answer one, 
another would put a question ; so that she was displeased, 
saying, " Speak one after the other." I marvelled that 
she could so answer the subtle and captious questions 
put to her ; no man of letters could have replied better. 

The examinations lasted generally from eight o'clock 
to eleven. 

I often heard Jeanne say that God would not permit 
her to say or do anything against the Catholic Faith. I 
heard her tell the Judges that, if she had ever said or 
done anything ill, she was willing to correct and amend 
according to their decision. I heard Jeanne saying to 
the Doctors who questioned her : " You ask me of the 
Church Triumphant and Militant. I do not understand \ 
these terms ; but I am willing to submit to the Church 
as a good Christian should." 

I know that the whole Process was written in French. 
I believe it was afterwards translated into Latin. [To 



204 JEANNE D'ARC 

his account of her resumption of the man's dress he 
adds :] On the morrow, after she had been seen in the 
resumed dress, her woman's dress was restored to her. 

At the beginning of the Process, Jeanne asked for 
Counsel in her replies, she said she was too unlearned to 
reply ; but they answered, that she must speak for 
herself as best she could, for she should not have 
Counsel. 

[He adds to his account of her last Communion the 
fact that he was himself present.] 



Further examined, December 17^, 1455, anc ^ 
1456. [Additional evidence:] 



Once, when I was conducting her before the Judges, 
she asked me, if there were not, on her way thither, any 
Chapel or Church in which was the Body of Christ. I 
replied, that there was a certain Chapel in the Castle. 
She then begged me to lead her by this Chapel, that 
she might do reverence to God and pray, which I 
willingly did, permitting her to kneel and pray before the 
Chapel ; this she did with great devotion. The Bishop 
of Beauvais was much displeased at this, and forbade me 
in future to permit her to pray there. 

Many [in the Trial] had a great hate against her, 
principally the English, who feared her greatly : for, 
before she was captured, they did not dare to appear 
where they believed her to be. I heard it said that the 
Bishop of Beauvais did everything at the instigation of 
the King of England and his Council, who were then 
in Rouen. 

Among the Assessors there was complaint that Jeanne 
was in the hands of the English. Some of them said 
that she ought to be in the hands of the Church ; but 
the Bishop did not care, and sent her away to the 
English. 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 205 

Maitre Jean Lefevre, of the Order of the Hermit 
Friars of Saint Augustine, now Bishop of Demetriade, 
seeing Jeanne much fatigued with the questioning 
as to whether she were in a state of grace, and 
considering that, though her answers seemed sufficient, 
she was over-worried by many questioners, remarked 
that she was being too much troubled. Then the ques- 
tioners ordered him to be silent : I do not remember 
who they were. 

She was imprisoned in the Castle of Rouen in a room 
on the second floor, to which one ascended by eight 
steps. There was a bed in which she slept and a great 
piece of wood to which she was fastened by iron chains. 

There were five English of wretched estate \houce- 
pailliers\ who kept guard over her ; they much desired 
her death and often derided her, and with this she 
reproached them. 

I learnt from Etienne Castille, locksmith, that he had 
constructed for her an iron cage in which she was held 
by the neck, hands and feet, and that she was in this 
state from the time she was first brought to the town of 
Rouen until the beginning of the Process. I never saw 
her in this cage, for, when I fetched her, she was always 
out of irons. 

I know that, by the order of the Duchess of Bedford, 
a visitation was made by matrons and midwives, among 
whom were, notably, Anna Bavon and another matron 
whose name I do not remember. She was found to be 
virgin, as I have heard from the said Anna. The 
Duchess of Bedford forbade the guards to offer her any 
violence. 

When Jeanne was questioned, there were with the 
Bishop six Assessors, who also questioned her in such 
wise that, when she was occupied in replying to one, 
another interrupted her answer, so that she often said to 
them : " Fair sirs, speak one after another." 



206 . JEANNE D'ARC 

[To the story of the signing of the abjuration he 
adds :] rard, holding the Schedule of Abjuration, said to 
Jeanne, " Thou shalt abjure and sign this schedule," and 
passed it to me to read, and I read it in her presence. I 
remember well that in this schedule it was said that in 
future she should not bear arms or male attire or short 
hair, and many other things which I do not remember. 
I know that this schedule contained about eight lines 
and no more ; and I know of a certainty that it was not 
that which is mentioned in the Process, for this is quite 
different from what I read and what was signed by 
Jeanne. While they were pressing Jeanne to sign her 
abjuration, there was a great murmur among those 
present. I heard that the Bishop said to one of them, 
" You shall pay me for this," and added, that he would 
not go on unless satisfaction were done him. During this 
time I was constrained to warn Jeanne of the peril which 
threatened her if she signed this schedule. I saw clearly 
that she did not understand it, nor the danger in which 
she stood. Then Jeanne, pressed to sign, said : " Let 
the clerics of the Church examine this schedule. It is 
in their hands I ought to be. If they tell me to sign I 
will do it willingly." Then Maitre Guillaume firard 
said : " Do it now, otherwise you will end in the fire to- 
day." Jeanne replied that she would rather sign than 
burn ; and there arose a great tumult among the people, 
and many stones were thrown, but by whom I know not. 
When the schedule was signed, Jeanne asked the 
Promoter whether she were to be placed in the hands 
of the Church and where she was to be taken. 
Then the Promoter replied, that she was to be re- 
conducted to the Castle of Rouen, which in fact was 
done, and she was put into woman's clothes. 

On the morning of Wednesday, the day on which she 
died, Brother Martin Ladvenu heard her in confession, 
and afterwards sent me to the Bishop to tell him this 



fa 

" 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 207 

fact and that she prayed the Sacrament of the Eucharist 

ight be brought to her. Thereupon, the Bishop con- 
voked some of the Assessors, and at the end of their 
deliberation he told me to inform Brother Martin 
that he might take her the Sacrament and whatsoever 
she desired. Then I returned to the Castle and told 
this to Brother Martin. 

Afterwards, she came out dressed in woman's clothing, 
and Brother Martin and I led her to the place of 
execution. 

At the end of his sermon, Maitre Nicolas Midi said to 
her : " Jeanne, go in peace ; the Church can no longer 
defend thee ; she leaves thee to the secular arm." 

She commended herself to God, to Saint Michael, 
Saint Catherine, and all the Saints. 

I heard it said by Jean Fleury, Clerk to the Bailly, 
that the executioner related how, when her body was 
burnt and reduced to powder, her heart remained whole 
and bleeding. I was told that her ashes and all that 
remained of her were collected and thrown into the 
Seine. 



MAITRE NICOLAS CAVAL, Priest, Licentiate in 
Canon of Rouen: First Examination, May %th, 1452. 
[Agreed with previous statements.^ 

Further examined, December igth, 1455, and May 
I2tk, 1456. [A dditional evidence :] 

Jeanne had a good memory, for sometimes when she 
was asked a question she replied, " I have already an- 
swered in such a form," and she insisted that it should 
be ascertained from the notaries on what day she so 
answered ; on which it was found to be as she said, 
without addition or change : and at this was there much 
marvel, considering her youth. 



208 JEANNE D'ARC 

MAITRE GUILLAUME DU DESERT, Canon of Rouen: 
Examined May %tk, 1452. 

I was present at the first preaching at Saint-Ouen, 
where I saw and heard the recantation made by Jeanne, 
and that she submitted to the decisions, the judgments, 
and the commands of the Church. A certain English 
Doctor who was present, being much displeased that the 
abjuration was received because Jeanne was laughing 
when she pronounced the words said to the Bishop of 
Beauvais, the Judge, that he was doing wrong to admit 
this recantation, since it was a mere farce. The Bishop, 
irritated, told this person that he lied : for, as Judge in 
a cause of faith, he must seek rather her salvation than 
her death. 

At this sermon, I heard Jeanne submit to the judg- 
ment of the Church. 

MAITRE ANDRE MARGUERIE, Archdeacon: First 
Examination, May 9^, 1452. Further examined, 
December igth, 1455, and May I2tk, 1456. 

I heard Jeanne say, that she would believe neither 
Prelate nor Pope nor any other in [contradiction to] 
what she had received from God. I think this was one 
of the reasons why she was proceeded against, so that 
she should recant. 

I was present at the final preaching but not at the 
execution, for very pity of the deed. Many of those 
present wept, among others the Cardinal de Luxem- 
bourg, then Bishop of Theroueuine. 

I know nothing about her devotions ; but she said, 
11 Rouen, Rouen, must I die here ?" 

I can well believe that some of the English acted 
from hate and fear, but of the more notable ecclesiastics 
I do not think this. A chaplain of the Cardinal of 
England, present at the first preaching, said to the 
Bishop of Beauvais, that he was showing too much 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 209 

ivour to Jeanne ; but the Bishop said to him, " You 
ie ! For in such a case I would show favour to no 
ie." The Cardinal of England reproved his chaplain 
told him to be silent. 



MAITRE RICHARD GROUCHET, Priest, Master of Arts, 
Bachelor of Theology, Canon of the Cathedral Church 
of La Saussaye in the diocese of Evreux : Examined, 
May qtk, 1452. 



Maitres Jean Pigache, Pierre Minier, and I myself, 
who was with them, gave our opinion only under 
terror of threats. We stayed to the Trial, but had 
thoughts of flight. I many times heard from Pierre 
Maurice that, after the sermon at Saint-Ouen, he had 
warned Jeanne to hold ta her good purpose ; and the 
English, much displeased, threatened to strike him. 

I think the notaries wrote with fidelity. I saw and 
heard that the Bishop of Beauvais bitterly upbraided 
them when they did not do as he wished : the whole 
affair, so far as I saw and heard, was carried on tumul- 
tuously. So far as I saw, no one was permitted to 
instruct or counsel Jeanne, nor did I see that she either 
asked for or was offered Counsel : but I am not sure of 
this. I do not know whether any one was in danger of 
losing his life by defending her, but I know well that 
when difficult questions were put to Jeanne, whoever 
wished to direct her was harshly reproved and accused 
of partiality, sometimes by the Bishop of Beauvais and 
sometimes by Maitre Jean Beaupere, who said to 
those who wished to advise, that they should leave 
her to speak and that the business of interrogation 
was theirs. 

Jeanne was in prison, in the Castle of Rouen, where 
she was guarded and brought backwards and forwards 
by the English ; but as to fetters and chains I know 



210 , JEANNE D'ARC 

nothing, though I have often heard that she was harshly 
and straitly bound. 

I saw and heard at the Trial that when Jeanne was 
asked if she would submit to the Bishop of Beauvais 
and others of the Assessors then named, she replied that 
she would not, but she would submit to the Pope and the 
Catholic Church, praying that she might be conducted 
to the Pope. When she was told that the Process would 
be sent to the Pope for him to judge, she replied that 
she did not wish this, because she did not know what 
might be put in this Process, but that she wished to be 
taken herself and interrogated by the Pope. 

I did not know, nor did I ever hear, that there was 
ever any secular sentence pronounced against Jeanne. 
I was not present, but the public voice and rumour said 
that she had been violently and unjustly done to death. 

MESSIRE JEAN LEFEVRE, Bishop of Dtmttriade, of 
the Order of Saint Augustin in the Convent at Rouen, 
S.T.P. : Examined, May qth, 1452. 

When Jeanne was asked if she were in the Grace of 
God, I, who was present, said it was not a suitable 
question for such a girl. Then the Bishop of Beauvais 
said to me, " It will be better for you if you keep 
silent." 

Jeanne answered with great prudence the questions 
f put to her, with the exception of the subject of her 
revelations from God : for the space of three weeks I 
believed her to be inspired. She was asked very 
profound questions, as to which she showed herself 
quite capable ; sometimes they interrupted the enquiry, 
going from one subject to another, that they might make 
her change her purpose. The Examinations were very 
long, lasting sometimes two or three hours, so that the 
Doctors present were much fatigued. 






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FACSIMILE OF A PAGE OF THE PROCESS OF JEANNE D'ARC. 



SECOND AND THIRD ENQUIRIES 211 

MESSIRE THOMAS MARIE, Priest, Bachelor in Theology, 
Prior of Saint Michael, near Rouen, of the Order of 
Saint Benedict: Examined, May *]th, 1452. 

Jeanne had done marvels in war : and, as the English 
are commonly superstitious, they thought there was a fate 
with her. Therefore, in my opinion, they, in all their 
counsels and elsewhere, desired her death. 

[When asked how he knew the English were super- 
stitious, he answered that it was commonly so reported, 
and was a popular proverb.] 

I heard from a certain locksmith that he had made an 
iron cage high enough to allow her to stand upright. 
[When asked if she were ever put into it :] I believe so ; 
I knew nothing of her keepers. 

I have heard, that after the first preaching, when she 
was taken back to the prison of the Castle, she was the 
victim of so many oppressions that she said she would 
rather die than remain with these English. 

Where the judgment is not free, neither Process nor 
sentence is of value ; but whether in this Case the 
Judges and Assessors were free, I know not beyond 
what I have before stated. 

I heard from many that they saw the name Jesus 
written in the flames of the fire in which she was 
burnt. 

I can well believe that if the English had had such a 
woman, they would have honoured her much and not 
have treated her in this manner. 

MAITRE JEAN DE FAVE, Master of Arts, Licentiate 
in Law; living at Rouen; Commissary: Examined, 
May qtk, 1452. 

After the first preaching, when she was taken back to 
prison, some of the soldiers insulted her, and their chiefs 
allowed them to do so. Some of the leaders of the 

p 2 



212 JEANNE D'ARC 

English as I heard were angry with the Bishop of 
Beauvais, the Doctors, and the other Assessors in the 
Trial, because she had not been convicted and condemned 
and taken to execution ; and I heard it said that some 
of the English, in their indignation against the Bishop 
and the Doctors, would have drawn their swords to 
attack them, if not to slay them, saying that the King 
was wasting his money on such as they. I also heard 
that when the Earl of Warwick, after this first sermon, 
complained to the Bishop and the Doctors, saying that 
the King was in a bad way, for Jeanne had escaped 
them, one of them replied : " Take no heed to it, my 
lord ; we shall soon have her again." 

The English were discontented with Maitre Guillaume 

* Manchon, the notary : they held him in suspicion as 

f favourable to Jeanne, because he had not been willing to 

come to the Trial, and did not conduct himself to their 

liking. 

MAITRE JEAN RICQUIER, Priest, Curt of Hendicourt 
[testimony of no importance]. 



DEPOSITIONS AT DOMREMY: 1455. 

Twelve questions were prepared for information to be 
taken in the country of the late Jeanne, commonly called 
the Maid. 

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES. 

JEAN MOREL, of Greux, labourer. 

Jeanne was born at Domremy and was baptised 
at the Parish Church of Saint Remy, in that place. 
Her father was named Jacques d'Arc, her mother 
Isabelle both labourers living together at Domremy. 
They were, as I saw and knew, good and faithful 
Catholics, labourers of good repute and honest life. I 
lived much with them, I was one of the godfathers 
of Jeannette. She had three godmothers the wife of 
Etienne Th6venin, Beatrix, Widow Estellin, both living 
at Domremy ; and Jeannette, widow of Thiesselin of 
Viteaux, living at Neufchateau. From her early 
youth, Jeannette was brought up with care in the Faith, 
and in good morals ; she was so good that all the 
village of Domremy loved her. Jeannette knew her 
Belief and her Pater and Ave as well as any of her 
companions. She had modest ways, as beseemed one 
whose parents were not rich. Up to the time she 
left her parents she followed the plough and sometimes 
minded the cattle in the fields. Also she did the usual 



2i 4 JEANNE D'ARC 

duties of women, such as spinning, and other things. 
I know she liked to go often to the Hermitage of the 
Blessed Marie of Bermont, near Domremy ; I often saw 
her go there. She was there when her parents thought 
her with the plough or in the fields ; and when she 
heard the Mass-bell, if she were in the fields, she would 
go back to the village and to the Church, in order to 
hear Mass. I have been witness of this many times. 
I have seen her confess at Easter-tide and other 
solemn Feasts. I saw her confess to I Messire Guil- 
laume Fronte, who was then Cure of the Parish of Saint 
Remy. 

On the subject of the Fairies' tree, I have heard that 
the Fairies came there long ago to dance ; but, since 
the Gospel of Saint John has been read under the tree, 
they come no more. At the present day, on the Sunday 
when in the Holy Church of God the Introit to the 
Mass ' Laetare Jerusalem' is sung, called with us 'the 
Sunday of the Wells,' the young maidens and youths of 
Domremy are accustomed to go there, and also in the 
spring and summer and on festival days ; they dance 
there and have a feast. On their return, they go 
dancing and playing to the Well of the Thorn, where 
they drink and amuse themselves, gathering flowers. 
Jeanne the Maid went there, like all the other girls at 
those times, and did as they did ; but I never heard say 
that she went there alone, either to the tree or to the 
well which is nearer to the village than the tree or that 
she went for any other purpose than to walk about and 
play like her companions. When Jeanne left her father's 

(house, she went two or three times to Vaucouleurs to 
speak to the Bailly. I heard it said that the Lord 
Charles, then Duke of Lorraine, wished to see her, and 
gave her a black horse. 

I have no more to say, except that in the month of 
July I was at Chalons, at the time when it was said that 



DEPOSITIONS AT DOMREMY : 1455 215 

the King was going to Rheims to be anointed. 1 I found 
Jeanne at Chalons and she made me a present of a red 
dress she had been wearing. I know nothing of the 
enquiry made at Domremy. When Jeanne went to 
Neufchateau on account of the soldiers, she was always 
in the company of her father and mother, who stayed ) 
there four days, and then returned to Domremy. I am 
sure of what I say, because I went with the rest to 
Neufchateau and I saw Jeannette there with her parents. 

MESSIRE DOMINIQUE JACOB, Curd of the Parish 
Church of Montier-sur-Saulx. 

Jeanne was older than I. I knew her and re- 
member her for the three or four years before her 
departure from home. She was a well-brought-up girl, 
and well-behaved ; and she often attended Church. 
Sometimes, when the village bell rang for service, I saw 
her kneel down and pray with great devotion. 

BEATRIX, widow of Estellin^ labourer ; of Domremy. 

Jeannette was born, at Domremy, of Jacques d'Arc 
and Isabelle, his wife, labourers, good and true 
Catholics, honest folk and worthy, according to their \ 
ability, but not rich. She was baptised at the Church of 
Saint Remy. She had as god-fathers, Jean Morel, Jean 
de Laxart, and the late Jean Raiguesson ; and as 
god-mothers, Jeannette, widow Thiesselin, Jeannette 
Thevenin, and myself. Jeanne was suitably instructed in 
the Catholic Faith, like other young girls of her age. 

1 Jeanne's father went also to Rheims for the coronation. There still 
exists in the old accounts of the town an item for his expenses at the inn ; 
and, in the Compte of the Treasurer Raguier there is also an entry of \ 
60 livres tournois, paid Jeanne to give to her father. On the day after the / 
coronation, Jeanne obtained from the King an exemption from taxes for the 
village of Domremy and Greux : this document, dated July 3ist, 1429, still 
exists in the Archives of France. This exemption from taxes has now lapsed. 






216 JEANNE D'ARC 

Up to her departure, she was properly brought up ; she 
was a chaste maiden, and of modest habits. She 
frequented with great devotion, churches and holy 
places ; and, after the village of Domremy was burned, 
she went on Feast Days to attend Mass at Greux. She 
confessed willingly at festivals, principally at the Feast 
of the most Holy Easter, the Resurrection of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. I do not think there was any one better 
than she in our two villages. She employed herself at 
home with many duties in the house, spinning hemp or 
wool, following the plough, or going to harvest, according 
to the season. When it was her father's turn, she some- 
times kept the cattle and the flocks of the village for 
him. When Jeannette went to Neufchateau, all the 
village had fled. I saw her there, always with her father 
and mother. Up to her going into France, Jeannette 
had never obeyed any one or worked for any one but 
her father. 

JEANNETTE, wife of The"venin y cartwright [gave evidence 
similar to the preceding, as did^ JEAN MOEN, of Domremy, 
cartwright, living at Coussey, near Neufchateau, [and] 
JACQUIER of Saint Amance, near Nancy. 

MESSIRE ETIENNE OF SIONNE, Curt of the Parish 
Church of Roncessey-sous-Neuf chateau. 

Many times I heard Messire Guillaume Fronte, 
in his lifetime Cure of Domremy, say that Jeanne 
the Maid was a simple and good girl, pious, well- 
brought-up, and God-fearing, and without her like 
in the whole village. Often did she confess her sins ; 
and, if she had had money, she would have given it 
to him, he told me, to say Masses. Every day, when 
he celebrated Mass, she was there. I heard it said 
by a great number of persons that Jeannette, when 






DEPOSITIONS AT DOMREMY : 1455 217 

/she went to Neufchateau, lived with a worthy woman 
/ named La Rousse ; and that she always remained in 
^ the company of her father and the other inhabitants 
of Domremy, who had fled there. 

JEANNETTE, widow of Thiesselin of Viteaux, formerly 
clerk at Neufchateau. 

I often saw her confess to Messire Guillaume 
Fronte, the Cure of the parish. She never swore, and, 
to affirm strongly, contented herself with saying, " With- 
out fail ! " She was no dancer ; and, sometimes, when 
the others were singing and dancing, she went to prayer. 
Jeannette was fond of work, spinning, looking after 
the house, and, when necessary, taking her turn at 
minding her father's cattle. There is a tree by us called 
the Ladies' Tree, because, in ancient days, the Sieur 
Pierre Granier, Seigneur de Bourlement, and a lady 
called Fee met under this tree and conversed together : 
I have heard it read in a romance. The Seigneurs 
of Domremy and their ladies at least, the Lady 
Beatrix, wife of Pierre de Bourlement, and the said 
Pierre accompanied by their daughters, came some- 
times to walk round this tree. In the same way, 
every year the young girls and youths of Domremy 
came to walk there, on the Laetare Sunday called ' the 
Sunday of the Wells ' : they ate and danced there, and 
went to drink at the Well of the Thorn. But I do not 
remember if Jeanne were ever under this tree. I never 
heard anything evil said about her on account of this 

tree. 

A 

Louis DE MARTIGNY, Squire, living at Martigny-les- 
Gerbonveaux, near Neufchateau. 

I heard that Jeanne, when she wanted to go into 
France, went first to the Bailly of Chaumont, and after- 






218 JEANNE D'ARC 

wards to the Lord Duke de Lorraine, who gave her a 
horse and some money. Bertrand de Poulengey, Jean de 
Metz, Jean Dieu-le-Ward, and Colet de Vienne after- 
wards conducted her to the King. 

THEVENIN LE ROYER, cartwright, a native of 
Chermisey, near Neuf chateau, residing at Domremy, 
husband of one of Jeanne s God-mothers [evidence similar 
to the preceding}. 

BERTRAND LACLOPPE, t hate her, of Domremy. 

One day, a man 1 of Burey-le- Petit came to seek 
Jeanne at Domremy, and took her to speak with the 
( Bailly of Vaucouleurs : I heard say that it was this Bailly 
who sent her to the King. The soldiers having come 
to Domremy, all the people of the village went to take 
refuge at Neufchateau. Jeannette and her parents did 
as the others did : she stayed there about four days, 
always in their company. 

PERRIN LE DRAPIER, of Domremy, Churchwarden of 
the Parish Church and Bell-ringer. 

From her earliest years till her departure, Jeannette 
the Maid was a good girl, chaste, simple, modest, 
never blaspheming God nor the Saints, fearing God. 
She loved to go to Church and confessed often. I 
can attest what I say, for I was then attached to the 
Church of Saint Remy, and often I saw Jeanne come 
there to Mass and other Offices. When I forgot to ring 
for Service, Jeanne scolded me, saying I had done 
wrong ; and she promised to give me some of the wool 
of her flock if I would ring more diligently. Often she 
went with her sister and others to the Church and 
Hermitage of Bermont. She was very charitable, and 

1 Durand Laxart, her uncle. 



DEPOSITIONS AT DOMREMY : 1455 2I 9< 

very industrious, employed herself in spinning and 
divers other works in her father's house ; sometimes she 
went to the plough, or took care of the flock when it 
was her turn. When Jeanne left her father's house, 
she went with her uncle Durand Laxart to Vaucouleurs, ) 
to seek Robert de Baudricourt, who was then captain 
there. 

GERARD GUILLEMETTE, labourer, of Greux. 

When Jeanne left her father's house, I saw her pass 
before my father's house, with her uncle Durand Laxart. 
" Adieu," she said to my father, " I am going to Vau- 
couleurs." I heard afterwards that she had gone to 
France. I was at Neufchateau with Jeanne and her 
parents. I saw her always with them, excepting that, 
for three or four days, she did, under their eyes, help the \ 
hostess at whose house they were lodging, an honest * 
woman named La Rousse. I know well that they only 
remained at Neufchateau four or five days. When the 
soldiers had gone, Jeanne returned to Domremy with 
her parents. 

HAUVIETTE, wife of Gerard of Syonne, near Neuf- 
chateau. 

She was a good girl, simple and gentle ; she went 
willingly and often to Church, and Holy places. Often 
she was bashful when others reproached her with going 
too devotedly to Church. There was a tree in the 
neighbourhood that, from ancient days, had been called 
the Ladies' Tree. It was said formerly that ladies, 
called Fairies, came under this tree ; but I never heard 
any one say they had been seen there. The young 
people of the village were accustomed to go to this tree, 
taking food with them, and to the Well of the Thorn 1 

1 This is also called the " Fontaine aux Groseilliers " ; the Latin name is 
probably intended for Rhamnus, the Buckthorn. 



220 JEANNE D'ARC 

\Adfontem Rannorum, or, "ad Rannos"~\ on the Sun- 
day of ' Laetare Jerusalem,' 1 called the Sunday of the 
Wells. I often went there with Jeanne, who was my 
friend, and with other young girls on the said Sunday of 
the Wells. We ate there, ran about, and played. Also, 
we took nuts to this tree and well. I did not know of 
Jeanne's departure : I wept much ; I loved her dearly 
for her goodness and because she was my friend. Jeanne 
was always with her father and mother at Neufchateau. 
I also was at Neufchateau, and saw her there all the 
time. 

JEAN WATERIN, labourer, of Greux. 

I saw Jeannette very often. In our childhood, we 
often followed together her father's plough, and we 
went together with the other children of the village to 
the meadows or pastures. Often, when we were all at 
play, Jeannette would retire alone to " talk with God." I 
and the others laughed at her for this. She was simple 
and good, frequenting the Church and Holy places. 
Often, when she was in the fields and heard the bells 
ring, she would drop on her knees. 

GERARDIN, labourer y of EpinaL 

Of her departure for Vaucouleurs I know nothing. 
But, at the time when she was thinking of leaving the 
village, she said to me, one day : " Gossip, if you were 
not a Burgundian, I would tell you something." I 
thought it was on the subject of some marriage which 
she might have in her head. After her departure, I 
saw her at Chalons, I and four other inhabitants 
of this place. She told us she feared nothing but 
treason. 

1 Mid-Lent Sunday, the 4th Sunday in Lent ; so-called, because the introit 
for the day begins, " Laetare Jerusalem? &c. 



DEPOSITIONS AT DOMREMY : 1455 221 

SIMONIN MUSNIER, labourer, of Domremy. 

I was brought up with Jeannette, close to her 



house. I know that she was good, simple and pious, 
and that she feared God and the Saints. She loved 
Church and Holy places ; she was very charitable, and 
liked to take care of the sick. I know this of a surety, 
for, in my childhood, I fell ill, and it was she who nursed 
me. When the Church bells rang, I have seen her 
kneel down and make the sign of the Cross. 

ISABELLETTE, wife of Gerardin, labourer, of Epinal. 

From my childhood I knew the parents of Jeannette ; 
as to Jeannette, herself, I knew her in my youth and 
as long as she remained with her parents. She was 
very hospitable to the poor, and would even sleep on the 
hearth in order that the poor might lie in her bed. She 
was not fond of playing, at which we, her companions, 
complained. She liked work ; and would spin, labour 
with her father, look after the house, and sometimes 
mind the sheep. She was never seen idling in the 
roads ; she was more often in Church at prayer. 

I often saw her at confession, for she was my 
gossip, and god-mother to my son Nicolas. I was often 
with her, and saw her go to confession to Messire 
Guillaume, who was then our Cure. When all was well 
at the chiteau, the Seigneurs and their ladies often 
came to walk beneath the Ladies' Tree, on the Sunday 
of Laetare, which we call ' the Sunday of the Wells ' ; 
and on certain other days, in fine weather, they brought 
with them the village boys and girls. The Seigneur ^ 
Pierre de Bourlement and his lady, who was from j 
France, took me there on the said Sunday of the Wells 
many times in my childhood, with other children. 
It was the custom to go every year, on this Sunday, 
to play and walk round this tree. Jeannette went 



222 ' JEANNE D'ARC 

with us, we each brought provisions, and, the meal 
ended, went to refresh ourselves at the Well. The same 
thing takes place now, with our children. 

MENGETTE, wife of Jean Joy art, labourer. 

My father's house joined the house of Jacques d'Arc : 
so I knew her well. We often spun together, and 
together worked at the ordinary house-duties, whether 
by day or night. She was a good Christian, of 
good manners and well brought up. She loved the 
Church, and went there often, and gave alms from the 
goods of her father. She was a good girl, simple and 
pious so much so that I and her companions told her 
she was too pious. 

MESSIRE JEAN COLIN, Curd of the Parish Church at 
Domremy and Canon of the Collegiate Church of Saint- 
Nicolas de Brixey, near Vaucouleurs. 

While Jeanne was at Vaucouleurs, she confessed 
to me two or three times. It seemed to me, to my 
knowledge, that she was an excellent girl, with all the 
signs of a perfect Christian and of a true Catholic ; 
she was fond of going to Church. I saw her at 
Vaucouleurs, when she wanted to go into France, and 
saw her mount on horseback ; with her were Bertrand 
de Poulengey, Jean de Metz, Colet de Vienne, horse- 
soldiers and servants of Robert de Baudricourt. 

COLIN, son of Jean Colin, labourer. 

I heard Durand Laxart say, that she told him he 
must conduct her to Vaucouleurs, that she wished to go 
into France, and that she would tell her father she 
was going to the house of the said Durand to nurse his 
wife. And this, Durand told me, was done ; and then, 
with the consent of her father, she went to Vaucouleurs 
to seek Robert de Baudricourt. 




CHATEAU DE VAUCOULEURS, 
Porte de France. 



DEPOSITIONS AT DOMREMY : 1455 223 

JEAN DE NOVELEMPORT, Knight, called Jean de Metz. 

When Jeannette was at Vaucouleurs, I saw her 
Iressed in a red dress, poor and worn ; she lived at the 
house of one named Henri Leroyer. " What are you 
doing here, my friend ? " I said to her. " Must the 
jng be driven from the kingdom ; and are we 
be English ? " " I am come here," she answered 
me, "to this royal town, 1 to speak to Robert de Baudri- 
court, to the end that he may conduct me or have me 
conducted to the King : but Robert cares neither for me 
nor for my words. Nevertheless, before the middle of 
Lent, I must be with the King even if I have to wear 
down my feet to the knees ! No one in the world 
neither kings, nor dukes, nor the daughter of the King of 
Scotland, 2 nor any others can recover the kingdom of 
France ; there is no succour to be expected save from / 
me ; but, nevertheless, I would rather spin with my poor 
mother for this is not my proper estate : it is, however, 
necessary that I should go, and do this, because my Lord 
wills that I should do it." And when I asked her who 
this Lord was, she told me it was God. Then I pledged 
my faith to her, touching her hand, and promised that, 
with God's guidance, I would conduct her to the King. 
I asked her when she wished to start. " Sooner at once . 
than to-morrow, and sooner to-morrow than later," she 
said. I asked her if she could make this journey, dressed 
as she was. She replied that she would willingly take a 
man's dress. Then I gave her the dress and equipment 
of one of my men. Afterwards, the inhabitants of Vau- 
couleurs had a man's dress made for her, with all the 
necessary requisites ; I also procured for her a horse at 
the price of about sixteen francs. Thus dressed and 
mounted, and furnished with a safe-conduct from the 

1 " Ad cameram regis" 

2 Margaret, daughter of James. I. of Scotland, who was betrothed to Louis, 
afterwards Louis XI. 



224 ' JEANNE D'ARC 

Sieur Charles, Duke de Lorraine, she went to visit the 
said Lord Duke. I accompanied her as far as Toul. On 
the return to Vaucouleurs, the first Sunday in Lent, 1 
which is called ' Dimanche des Bures ' and it will be, if 
I mistake not, twenty-seven years from that day to the 
coming Lent 2 I and Bertrand de Poulengey, with two of 
my men, Colet de Vienne, the King's Messenger, and 
the Archer Richard, conducted the Maid to the King, 
who was then at Chinon. The journey was made at the 
expense of Bertrand de Poulengey and myself. We 
travelled for the most part at night, for fear of the 
Burgundians and the English, who were masters of the 
roads. We journeyed eleven days, always riding towards 
the said town of Chinon. On the way, I asked her 
many times if she would really do all she said. " Have 
no fear," she answered us, "what I am commanded to 
do, I will do ; my brothers in Paradise have told me how 
to act : it is four or five years since my brothers in 

/* Paradise and my Lord that is, God told me that I 

\must go and fight in order to regain the kingdom of 
France." On the way, Bertrand and I slept every night 
by her Jeanne being at my side, fully dressed. She 

^inspired me with such respect that for nothing in the 
world would I have dared to molest her ; also, never did 

*! feel towards her I say it on oath any carnal desire. 
On the way she always wished to hear Mass. She 
said to us : " If we can, we shall do well to hear Mass." 
But, for fear of being recognized, we were only able to 
hear it twice. I had absolute faith in her. Her words 
and her ardent faith in God inflamed me. I believe 
she was sent from God ; she never swore, she loved to 
attend Mass, she confessed often, and was zealous in 
giving alms. Many times was I obliged to hand out to 
her the money she gave for the love of God. While we 
were with her, we found her always good, simple, pious, 

1 February I3th, 1428. 2 1455. 






DEPOSITIONS AT DOMREMY : 1455 225 

excellent Christian, well-behaved, and God-fearing. 
When we arrived at Chinon, 1 we presented ourselves to 
the King's Court and Council. I know she had there 
submit to long enquiries. 

MICHAEL LEBUIN, labourer, of Domremy. 
I knew Jeannette from my earliest youth. Of 
inne's departure for Vaucouleurs I knew nothing. 
>ut, one day the Eve of Saint John the Baptist 2 
she said to me : " Between Coussy and Vaucouleurs 
there is a young girl, who, before the year is gone, 
will have the King of France consecrated." And, in 
truth, the following year the King was crowned at 
Rheims. 3 When Jeanne was a prisoner I saw Nicolas 
Bailly, Notary of Andelot, coming to Domremy, one 
day, with several other persons. At the request of Jean 
de Torcenay, Bailly of Chaumont for the pretended 
King of France and England, he proceeded to make 
enquiries into the conduct and life of Jeanne. But he 
could not induce the inhabitants of Vaucouleurs to 
depose. I believe that they questioned Jean Begot, at 
whose house they were staying. Their enquiry re- 
vealed nothing against Jeanne. 

GEOFFROY DE FAY. 

I saw Jeanne the Maid when she came to Maxey-sur- 
Vays. 4 When Jeanne came to Maxey, she came sometimes 
to my house. I always thought her a good girl, simple 
and pious. Many times I heard her speak ; she said 
that she wished to go into France. 

DURAND LAXART, of Burey-le-Petit. 

Jeanne was of the family of Jeanne, my wife. I 
knew Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle, his wife, the parents 
of Jeanne the Maid : they were good and faithful 

1 March 6th, 1428. 2 June 23rd, 1428. 

3 July 1 7th, 1429. 4 Near Vaucouleurs. 

0. 



226 , JEANNE D'ARC 

Catholics, and of good repute. She was a girl of good 
disposition, devout, patient, loving the Church, going 
often to confession, and giving to the poor all that she 
could. I can attest this, having been witness thereof, 
both at Domremy and at my own house at Burey, where 
she passed six weeks. 1 I went to fetch her from her 
father's and brought her to my house ; she told me she 
wished to go into France, to the Dauphin, to have him 
crowned. "Was it not foretold formerly," she said to 
me, " that France should be desolated 2 by a woman, and 
should be restored by a maid ? " She told me she 
wished to go, herself, and seek Robert de Baudricourt, 
in order that he might have her conducted to the 
place where the Dauphin was. But many times 
Robert told me to take her back to her father and to 
box her ears. When she saw that Robert would not 
do as she asked, she took some of my garments and 
said she would start. She departed, and I took her 
to Vaucouleurs [i.e. Saint-Nicolas 3 ]. Thence she 
/returned, and went with a safe-conduct to the Sieur 
\Charles de Lorraine. The Duke saw her, spoke to her, 
and gave her four francs, 4 which Jeanne showed to me, 
WA/*} JL ^^ e came back to Vaucouleurs ; and the inhabitants 
bought for her a man's garments and a complete warlike 
4 equipment. Alain de Vaucouleurs and I bought her a 

horse for the price of twelve francs, which we paid, and 
which was repaid to us later by the Sieur Robert de 
Baudricourt. This done, Jean de Metz, Bertrand de 
Poulengey, Colet de Vienne, together with Richard the 
Archer and two men of the suite of Jean de Metz and 

1 This covers the period of several visits, made between May 1428, and 
February 1429. 

2 The mother of Charles VII., who denied the legitimacy of her own 
son, being Burgundian at heart, and ratified the iniquitous Treaty of Troyes, 
so disastrous for France. 

3 In the text Vaucouleurs is an obvious misprint for Saint-Nicolas. 

4 He also gave her a horse ; cf. previous depositions. 



DEPOSITIONS AT DOMREMY : 1455 227 

iertrand, conducted Jeanne to the place where the 

Dauphin was. 

All this, as I now say it, I told to the King. I know 
no more, except that I saw her at Rheims at the King's 
crowning. 

CATHERINE, wife of Leroyer. 

Jeanne, when she had left her parents, was brought to 
our house at Vaucouleurs by Durand Laxart, her uncle ; 
she wished to go to the place where the Dauphin was. 
I had occasion to know her well ; she was an excellent 
girl, simple, gentle, respectful, well-conducted, loving to 
go to Church. 

She lived with us at Vaucouleurs, at different times 
about three weeks. She spoke to the Sieur Robert de 
Baudricourt, that he might have her conducted to the 
Dauphin, but Sieur Robert would not listen to her. One 
day, I saw Robert de Baudricourt then captain of 
Vaucouleurs and Messire Jean Fournier, our Cure", 
come in to our house to visit her. After they were gone, 
she told me that the Priest had his stole, and that, in 
presence of the said captain, he adjured her, saying : 
" If you are an evil spirit, avaunt ! If you are a good 
spirit, approach ! " Then Jeanne drew near the Priest 
and threw herself at his knees : she said he was wrong 
to act so, for he had heard her in confession. When she 
saw that Robert refused to conduct her to the King, she 
said to me that, nevertheless, she would go and seek the 
Dauphin. " Do you not know," she said, " the prophecy 
which says that France, lost by a woman, shall be saved 
by a maiden from the Marches of Lorraine ? " I did 
indeed remember the prophecy, and remained stupefied. 
Jacques Alain and Durand Laxart took her to Saint- 
Nicolas, 1 then came back with her to Vaucouleurs. 

1 Saint-Nicolas-du-Port then a celebrated centre of pilgrimage near 
Nancy. As both Poulengey and Laxart connect this pilgrimage with her 

Q 2 




*- 
|^ 



228 JEANNE D'ARC 

HENRI LEROYER, cartwright, formerly of Vaucouleurs. 

Jeanne, when she came to Vaucouleurs, lodged in our 
house. She said to us, " It is necessary that I should 
goto the noble Dauphin ; my Lord the King of Heaven 
wills that I should go ; I go in the name of the King 
of Heaven ; even if I have to drag myself thither on 
my knees, I shall go ! " When she arrived at our house, 
she was wearing a woman's dress, of a red colour. 
At Vaucouleurs she received the gift of a man's dress 
and a complete equipment ; then, mounted on a horse, 
she was conducted to the place where the Dauphin was, 
by Jean de Metz, Bertrand de Poulengey, and two of 
their servants Colet de Vienne, and Richard the 
Archer. I saw them depart, all six, and Jeanne with 
them. When she spoke of leaving, she was asked how 
she thought she could effect such a journey and escape 
the enemy. " I fear them not," she answered, " I have 
a sure road : if the enemy are on my road, I have God 
with me, Who knows how to prepare the way to the 
Lord Dauphin. I was born to do this." 

ALBERT D'OURCHES, Seigneur of Ourches, near Com- 
merey. 

I saw Jeanne at Vaucouleurs when she arrived 
to be taken to the King. Many times I heard her 
then say that she wished to go to the King, and that 
some one would conduct her to him, for it would be to 
the great benefit of the Dauphin. 

This maiden always seemed to me very well behaved. 
I should have been well pleased to have had a daughter 
as good as she. 

visit to the Duke de Lorraine, whose residence was at Nancy, it is clear 
that Saint-Nicolas-du-Port is meant, and not the Chapel of St. Nicolas 
near Vaucouleurs. 



DEPOSITIONS AT DOMREMY : 1455 229 

NICOLAS BAILLY, Tabellion (Notary) and Deputy 
Royal at Andelot. 

As Tabellion I was appointed by the Sieur Jean de 
Torcenay, Knight, then Bailly of Chaumont, by the 
authority of the pretended King of France and England, 
and, with me, the late Gerard Petit then Provost of 
the said Andelot a to proceed to an enquiry on the 
subject of Jeanne, at that time detained in prison at 
Rouen. Many times, in her youth, I saw Jeanne before 
she left her father's house : she was a good girl, of pure 
life and good manners, a good Catholic who loved the 
Church and went often on pilgrimage to the Church of 
Bermont, and confessed nearly every month as I 
learned from a number of the inhabitants of Domremy, 
whom I had to question on the subject at the time of 
the enquiry that I made with the Provost of Andelot. 
When I and the late Gerard made this enquiry, we 
examined twelve or fifteen witnesses. Afterwards, we 
certified the information before Simon de Thermes, 
Squire, Lieutenant of the Captain of Montclair. 

GUILLOT JACQUIER, of Andelot, Kings Sergeant ; [evi- 
dence similar to the preceding^ 

BERTRAND DE POULENGEY, Squire. 

After her departure from her father's roof, I often saw 
Jeanne at Vaucouleurs and during the war. I remember 
often to have heard this Ladies' Tree spoken of. I have 
even sat beneath it, but that was a dozen years before I 
saw Jeanne. Jeanne came to Vaucouleurs, I think, about 
Ascension Day. 2 I saw her speaking to the Captain, Robert 
de Baudricourt. She told him that " she came to him 

1 The village of Domremy, although in the territory of Lorraine, belonged 
to France, not to Lorraine ; for administrative purposes it was a dependance 
of Champagne. 

2 May 1 3th, 1428. 



230 JEANNE D'ARC 

in the name of her Lord ; that the Dauphin must be 
compelled to persevere and to give battle to his enemies, 
that the Lord would give him succour before the middle 
of Lent ; that the kingdom belonged not to him, 
the Dauphin, but to her Lord ; that her Lord would 
have the Dauphin King and hold the kingdom in trust ; 
that she would make him King, in spite of his enemies, 
and would conduct him to his coronation." " But who 
is this Lord of whom you speak ? " asked Robert of her. 
" The King of Heaven," she replied. That time she 
went back to her father's house, accompanied by one of 
her uncles, named Durand Laxart. Later, towards the 
commencement of Lent, she came back to Vaucouleurs 
to seek companions, so as to go to the Dauphin. Then 
Jean de Metz and I offered to conduct her to the King 
at that time Dauphin. After a pilgrimage to Saint- 
Nicolas, she went to seek the Lord Duke de Lorraine, 
who had sent her a safe-conduct and asked to see her. 
She then returned to Vaucouleurs and lodged in the 
house of Henry Leroyer. Then Jean de Metz and I, 
aided by many others of Vaucouleurs, so wrought that 
she put off her woman's dress, which was of a red colour ; l 
we procured for her a tunic and man's dress spurs, 
leggings, sword, and such-like and a horse. Then we 
started with her to seek the Dauphin, together with 
Julian, my servant, Jean de Honecourt, servant of Jean 
de Metz, Colet de Vienne, and Richard the Archer. 
On starting, the first day, fearing to be taken by the 
Burgundians and the English, we travelled all night. 
Jeanne said to me and to Jean de Metz, while we were 
journeying, that it would be well for us to hear Mass ; 
but while we were in the enemy's country, we could 
not, for fear of being recognized. At night, Jeanne 
slept beside John de Metz and myself, fully dressed 
and armed. I was young then ; nevertheless I never 

1 See Deposition of Jean Morel. 



DEPOSITIONS AT DOMREMY : 1455 231 

felt towards her any desire : I should never have 
dared to molest her, because of the great goodness 
which I saw in her. We were eleven days on the road, 
during which we had 'many anxieties. But Jeanne told 
us always that we had nothing to fear, and that, once 
arrived at Chinon, the noble Dauphin would show us 
good countenance. She entirely abstained from swearing. 
^ I felt myself inspired by her words, for I saw she was in- 
deed a messenger of God ; never did I see in her any evil, 
but always she was as good as if she had been a saint. 
We took our road thus, and, without many obstacles, 
gained Chinon, where the King then Dauphin was 
staying. There the said maid was presented to the 
nobles in the King's suite, to whom I refer for the 
actions of the said Jeanne. 

MESSIRE HENRI ARNOLIN, of Gontrecourt-le-Chdteau, 
near Commercy, Priest ; [testimony of no importance'}. 

MESSIRE JEAN LEFUMEUX, of Vaucouleurs, Canon of 
the Chapel of Saint Mary at Vaucouleurs, and Curt of 
the Parish Church of Ugny. 

I know that Jeanne came to Vaucouleurs, and said 
that she wished to go to the Dauphin. I was then 
young, and attached to the Chapel of the Blessed Mary 
at Vaucouleurs. I often saw Jeanne in this Chapel ; she 
behaved with great piety, attended Mass in the morning, 
and remained a long time in prayer. I have also seen 
her ] in the crypt of the Chapel on her knees before the 
Blessed Mary, her face sometimes bent to the ground, 
sometimes raised to heaven. She was a good and holy 
maiden. 

JEAN JACQUARD, labourer, of Greux ; son of Jean, 
called GUILLEMETTE ; \_evidence similar to the preceding}. 

1 This Chapel in the crypt may still be seen at Vaucouleurs. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS: 1455. 



JEAN/ Bastard of Orleans, Count de Dunois. 

I think that Jeanne was sent by God, and that her 
behaviour in war was a fact divine rather than human. 
Many reasons make me think so. 

I was at Orleans, then besieged by the English, when 
the report spread that a young girl, commonly called the 
Maid, had just passed through Gien, going to the noble 
Dauphin, with the avowed intention of raising the siege of 
Orleans and conducting the Dauphin to Rheims for his 
anointing. I was then entrusted with the care of the 
town of Orleans and was Lieutenant-General of the King 
in affairs of war. In order to be better informed on the 
subject of this young girl, I sent to the King the Sieur 
de Villars, Seneschal of Beaucaire, and Janet de Tilly, 2 
who was afterwards Bailly of Vermandois. 

They returned from the King, and reported to me 
publicly, in presence of all the people of Orleans 
[assembled] to know the truth, that they had seen the 
Maid arrive at Chinon. They said that the King at first 
had no wish to listen to her : she even remained two 

1 Jean, a natural son of Louis, Duke d 3 Orleans, was brought up with the 
family of Orleans, and acknowledged by Valentine, the widowed Duchess, 
after the murder of his father in 1407. At 25 years of age, in company with 
de Gaucourt, he defeated the English under Warwick at Montargis in 1427, 
and afterwards defended Orleans till its relief in 1429. He was created 
Count de Dunois, in 1439. 

Then Captain of Blois. 







COUNT DE DUNOIS, 
Bastard of Orleans. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS : 1455 233 

days, waiting, until she was permitted to present herself 
before him, although she persisted in saying that she 
was come to raise the siege of Orleans, and to con- 
duct the Dauphin to Rheims, in order that he might 
be consecrated ; she at once asked for men, arms and 
horses. 

Three weeks or a month elapsed, during which the 
King had her examined by Clergy, Prelates, and Doctors 
in Theology, as to her words and deeds, in order to know 
if he might receive her with safety. Then the King 
assembled an army to conduct to Orleans a convoy of 
supplies. 

Hearing the opinion of the Clergy and Prelates that' 
there was no evil in this Maid, the King sent her with the 
Lord Archbishop of Rheims, 1 then Chancellor of France, 
and the Sieur de Gaucourt, then Grand Steward, to 
Blois, where those were who had the charge of escorting 
the convoy that is, the Sieurs de Rais 2 and de 
Boussac, Marshals of France ; de Coulent, Admiral of 
France ; La Hire ; and Ambroise de Lore, who was after- 
wards Governor of Paris. All, at the head of the army 
transporting the convoy, came, with Jeanne, in good 
order, by way of the Sologne, to the Loire, facing the 
Church of Saint Loup. But the English were there in 
great number : and the army escorting the convoy did 
not appear to me, nor to the other captains, in sufficient 
force to resist them and to ensure the entrance of the 
convoy on that side. It was necessary to load the 
convoy on boats, which were procured with difficulty. 
But to reach Orleans it was necessary to sail against the 
stream, and the wind was altogether contrary. 

Then Jeanne said to me : " Are you the Bastard of 
Orleans ? " " Yes," I answered ; " and I am very glad 

1 Regnault de Chartres. 

2 Gilles de Laval, Seigneur de Rais, notorious for the horrible excesses 
which brought him to the scaffold in 1440. 



234 ' JEANNE D'ARC 

of your coming ! " <e Is it you who said I was to 
come on this side [of the river], and that I should not go 
direct to the side where Talbot and the English are ? " 
"Yes, and those more wise than I are of the same 
opinion, for our greater success and safety." "In God's 
Name," she then said, " the counsel of My Lord is safer 
and wiser than yours. You thought to deceive me, and 
it is yourselves who are deceived, for I bring you better 
/ succour than has ever come to any general or town 
t whatsoever the succour of the King of Heaven. This 
succour does not come from me, but from God Himself, 
Who, at the prayers of Saint Louis and Saint Charle- 
magne, has had compassion on the town of Orleans, and 
will not suffer the enemy to hold at the same time the 
Duke l and his town ! " 

j At that moment, the wind, being contrary, and 

/ thereby preventing the boats going up the river and 

;-* reaching Orleans, turned all at once and became favour- 

\ able. They stretched the sails ; and I ordered the boats 

to the town, which I entered with Brother Nicolas de 

Geresme, then Grand Prior in France of the Order of 

Rhodes. We passed before the Church of Saint Loup 

in spite of the English. From that time I put good 

hope in her, even more than before. I had begged her 

to cross the river and to enter the town, where many 

were longing for her. She had made a difficulty about 

it, not wishing, she said, to abandon her army or her 

followers who were duly confessed, penitent, and of 

good will ; and on their account she refused to come. 

Thereupon, I went in search of the captains who had 

charge of the convoy and the army, and besought 

them, for the welfare of the King, to allow Jeanne to 

enter Orleans at once, and that they should go up the 

river they and the army to Blois, where they should 

Across the Loire so as to return to Orleans, for there was 

1 The Duke was then a prisoner in England. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS : 1455 2 35 

no nearer place of crossing. They consented ; and 
Jeanne then came with me. She had in her hand a 
banner, white in colour, on which was an image of Our 
Lord holding in His Hand a lily. La Hire crossed the 
Loire at the same time as she, and entered the city 
with her and ourselves. All this was much more the 
work of God than of man : the sudden change of 
wind immediately Jeanne had announced it ; the 
bringing in of the convoy of supplies in spite of the 
English, who were in much greater force than all the 
King's army ; and the statement of Jeanne that she 
had seen Saint Louis and Saint Charles the Great 
praying God for the safety of the King and of the 
City. 

Another circumstance made me think these deeds 
were the work of God. I wished to go towards the 
army which had turned back on Blois and which was 
marching to the relief of Orleans ; Jeanne would not wait 
for them nor consent that I should go to meet them : 
she wished to summon the English to raise the siege at 
once on pain of being themselves attacked. She did, 
in fact, summon them by a letter which she wrote to 
them in French, in which she told them, in very simple 
terms, that they were to retire from the siege and return 
to England, or else she would bring against them a 
great attack, which would force them to retreat. Her 
letter was sent to Lord Talbot. From that hour, the 
English who, up to that time, could, I affirm, with two 
hundred of their men, have put to rout 800 ,or 1,000 of (^ 
ours were unable, with all their power, to resist 400 or 
500 French ; they had to be driven into their forts, 
where they took refuge, and from whence they dared 
not come forth. 

There is another fact which made me believe she was 
from God. The 2/th of May, 1 very early in the morning, 

1 7th of May. 



236 JEANNE D'ARC 

we began the attack on the Boulevard l of the bridge. 
Jeanne was there wounded by an arrow which penetrated 

: half-a-foot between the neck and the shoulder ; but she 
/ continued none the less to fight, taking no remedy for 

\her wound. The attack lasted throughout, from the 

Imorning until 8 o'clock in the evening, without hope 
of success for us : for which reason- I was anxious 
that the army should retire into the town. The 
Maid then came to me, praying me to wait yet a 
little longer. Thereupon she mounted her horse, re- 
tired to a vineyard, all alone by herself, remained in 
prayer about half an hour, then, returning and seizing 
her banner by both hands, she placed herself on the 

ledge of the trench. At sight of her the English 
trembled, and were seized with sudden fear ; our people, 

Ion the contrary, took courage and began to mount 
and assail the Boulevard, not meeting any resist- 
ance. Thus was the Boulevard taken and the English 
therein put to flight : all were killed, among them 
Classidas 2 and the other principal English captains of 
the Bastille, who, thinking to gain the Bridge Tower, fell 
into the river, where they were drowned. This Classidas 
was he who had spoken of the Maid with the greatest 
contempt and insult. 

The Bastille taken, we re-entered the town of 
Orleans the Maid and all the army where we were 
received with enthusiasm. Jeanne was taken to her 
house, to receive the care which her wound required. 
When the surgeon had dressed it, she began to eat, con- 

1 Antiquarians state that the Cafe le Bceuf at Orleans covers the ancient 
"Boulevard" captured by Jeanne d'Arc. This redoubt adjoined the 
" Tourelles " and was close to the bridge of Orleans. Many steps below 
ground, and entered from the Cafe le Bceuf, is a room of carefully constructed 
masonry, being the interior of a tower, with embrasures for cannon, and 
iron rings to which cannons were attached. 

2 *.*., William Glasdale, Bailly of Alengon. He was Captain of the Fort 
of the Tourelles, called here the Bridge Tower. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS : 1455 237 

tenting herself with four or five slices of bread dipped in 
wine and water, without, on that day, having eaten or 
drunk anything else. 

The next day, early in the morning, the English came 
out of their camp and placed themselves in order of 
battle. At this sight, Jeanne got up and put on 
a light coat of mail ; she forbade the English to be 
attacked or in any way molested but [gave orders] 
that they should be allowed to depart, which they did, 
without any pursuit. From that moment the town was 
delivered. 

After the deliverance of Orleans, the Maid, with my- 
self and the other captains, went to seek the King at the 
Castle of Loches, praying him to attack immediately the 
towns and the camps on the Loire, Mehun, Beaugency, 
Jargeau, in order to make his consecration at Rheims 
more free and sure. This she besought the King 
often, in the most urgent manner, to hasten, without 
longer delay. The King used the greatest haste 
possible, and sent, for this purpose, the Duke d'Alengon, 
myself and other captains, as well as Jeanne, to reduce 
these towns and camps. All were reduced in a few days 
thanks alone, as I believe, to the intervention of the 
Maid. 

After the deliverance of Orleans, the English assem- 
bled together a numerous army, to defend the aforesaid 
towns, which they occupied. When we had invested 
the camp and bridge of Beaugency, the English army 
arrived at the camp of Meung-sur- Loire, which was 
still under their control. But this army could not come 
to the help of the English besieged in the camp of 
Beaugency. At the news of the taking of this camp, all 
the English divisions joined together into one complete 
army ; and we thought they would offer us battle : we 
made our dispositions accordingly. In presence of the 
Constable, myself, and the other captains, the Duke 



238 JEANNE D'ARC 

d'Alengon asked Jeanne what was to be done. She 
answered thus, in a loud voice : " Have all of you good 
spurs ? " " What do you mean ? " asked those present 
of her ; " are we, then, to turn our backs ? " " Nay," she 
replied, "it is the English who will not defend them- 
selves, and will be beaten ; and you must have good 
spurs to pursue them." And it fell out thus, as she had 
predicted : the English took to flight, and of killed and 
prisoners there were more than 4,000. 

At Loches, after the raising of the siege of Orleans, I 
remember that, one day, the King, being in his private 
room with the Sieur Christopher d'Harcourt, the Bishop 
of Castres, 1 his Confessor, and the Sieur de Treves, who 
was formerly Chancellor of France, 2 Jeanne and I went 
to seek him. Before entering, she knocked at the door ; 
as soon as she had entered, she knelt before the King, 
and, embracing his knees, said these words : " Noble 
Dauphin ! hold no longer these many and long councils, 
but come quickly to Rheims to take the crown for 
which you are worthy ! " " Is it your Counsel who told 
you this?" said Christopher d'Harcourt. "Yes," she 
answered, "and my Counsel urges me to this most of 
all." "Will you not say, here, in presence of the King," 
added the Bishop, " what manner of Counsel it is which 
thus speaks to you ? " "I think I understand/' she 
said, colouring, " what you want to know ; and I will 
tell you willingly. 7 ' Then said the King : " Jeanne, will 
it please you to say, in presence of the persons who 
are listening to us, what has been asked you ? " " Yes, 
Sire," she answered. And then she said this, or some- 
thing approaching it : " When I am vexed that faith 

1 Gerard Machet, according to the Chronique de la Pucelle ; he was not 
Bishop until after the death of Jeanne. 

2 Robert le Magon, Chancellor, in 1418, was harassed by the opposition of 
the Burgundian faction and the favourites of the Dauphin. He retired in 
1421, and acted henceforward as a simple Councillor. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS: 1455 239 

is not readily placed in what I wish to say in God's 
Name, I retire alone, and pray to God. I complain to 
Him that those whom I address do not believe me more 
readily ; and, my prayer ended, I hear a Voice which 
says to me : ' Daughter of God ! go on ! go on ! go on ! 
I will be thy Help : go on ! ' And when I hear this 
Voice, I have great joy. I would I could always hear / 
it thus." And, in repeating to us this language of her " 
Voice, she was strange to say ! in a marvellous rapture, 
raising her eyes to Heaven. 

After the victories of which I have just spoken, the 
nobles of the Blood Royal and the captains wished the 
King to go into Normandy, and not to Rheims. But the 
Maid was always of opinion that it was necessary to go to \ 
Rheims, that the King should be consecrated, giving as 
a reason that, if once the King were consecrated and 
crowned, the power of his adversaries would decline, and 
that in the end they would be past the power of doing 
any injury, either to him or to his kingdom. And all 
consented to her opinion. The place where the King 
first halted, with his army, was under the town of 
Troyes ; he there took counsel with the nobles of the 
Blood, and the other captains, to decide whether they 
should remain before this town, in order to lay siege to it, 
or whether it would not better avail to pass on and march 
straight to Rheims, leaving Troyes alone. The Council 
were divided in opinion, and no one knew which course 
to pursue, when Jeanne suddenly arrived, and appeared 
in the Council. ''Noble Dauphin," she said, "order 
your people to come [and besiege the town of Troyes, \ 
and lose no more time in such long councils. In God's/ 
Name, before three days are gone, I will bring you into 
this town by favour or force, and greatly will the 
false Burgundy be astounded." Then Jeanne, putting 
herself at the head of the army, had the tents placed 
right against the trenches of the town, and executed 



2 4 o JEANNE D'ARC 

many marvellous manoeuvres which had not been 
thought of by two or three accomplished generals 
I working together. And so well did she work during the 
night, that, the next day, the Bishop * and citizens 
came all trembling and quaking to place their submission 
in the King's hands. Afterwards, it was known that, 
at the moment when she had told the King's Council 
not to pass by the town, the inhabitants had suddenly 
lost heart, and had occupied themselves only in seeking 
refuge in the Churches. The town of Troyes once 
reduced, the King went to Rheims, where he found 
complete submission, and where he was consecrated and 
crowned. 

Jeanne was accustomed to repair daily to Church at 
the time of Vespers, or towards evening ; she had the 
bells rung for half-an-hour, and collected together all 
the Mendicant Friars who were following the army. 
Then she began to pray, and had an anthem in honour 
of the Blessed Mary, Mother of God, sung by the 
Mendicant Friars. 

When the King came to La Ferte and to Crespy- 
en-Valois, the people ran about him, crying "Noel!" 
The Maid was then riding between the Archbishop of 
Rheims and myself : " This is a good people," she said 
to us ; " I have seen none elsewhere who rejoiced 
as much at the coming of so noble a King. How 
happy should I be if, when my days are done, I might 
be buried here ! " "Jeanne," then said the Archbishop 
to her, "in what place do you hope to die ? " "Where 
it shall please God," she answered ; " for I am not 
certain of either the time or the place, any more than 
you are yourself. Would it might please God, my 
Creator, that I might retire now, abandon arms and 
return to serve my father and mother and to take care of 

1 Jean Leguise, ennobled by Charles VII. for his share in the surrender 
of the town. 




RHEIMS CATHEDRAL. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS: 1455 2 4 T 

their sheep with my sister and my brothers, who would 
be so happy to see me again ! " 

There was never any one more sober. I often heard 
it said by the Sieur Jean d'Aulon, Knight, now Sene- 
schal of Beaucaire, who had been appointed by the King 
to watch over her, as being the wisest and most worthy 
in the army, that he did not think there had ever been a 
more chaste woman. Neither I nor others, when we 
were with her, had ever an evil thought : there was in 
her something divine. 

Fifteen days after the Earl of Suffolk 1 had been 
made prisoner at the taking of Jargeau, a writing was 
sent to him containing four lines, in which it was said 
that a Maid should come from the Oak-wood who would 
ride on the backs of the archers and against them. 2 

Although Jeanne sometimes spoke in jest of the 
affairs of war, and although, to encourage the soldiers, 
she may have foretold events which were not realized, 
nevertheless, when she spoke seriously of the war, 
and of her deeds and her mission, she only affirmed 
earnestly that she was sent to raise the siege of Orleans, 
and to succour the oppressed people of that town and 
the neighbouring places, and to conduct the King to 
Rheims that he might be consecrated. 

SlEUR DE GAUCOURT. 3 

I was at the Castle of the town of Chinon when 
Jeanne arrived there, and I saw her when she presented 

1 William de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, Grand Steward of the King of 
England. 

2 The prophecy of Merlin, as it appears in MS. 7301 of the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, runs : " Descendit virgo dorsum sagittari et flores virgineos 
obscultabit." 

3 Raoul, not Jean, de Gaucourt, Grand Steward, born 1370. Fought, in 
1394, under the banner of Jean de Nevers, afterwards Duke of Burgundy, 
for Sigismund, King of Hungary, against Bajazet ; and was knighted on the 
field of Nicopolis, from which only himself, his leader, and twenty-two 

R 



242 JEANNE D'ARC 

herself before the King's Majesty with great lowliness 
and simplicity ; a poor little shepherdess ! I heard her 
say these words : " Most noble Lord Dauphin, I am 
come and am sent to you from God to give succour to 
the kingdom and to you." 

After having seen and heard her, the King, so as to be 
better instructed about her, put her under the protection 
of Guillaume Bellier, his Major-Domo, my Lieutenant 
at Chinon, afterwards Bailly of Troyes, 1 whose wife was 
most devout and of the best reputation. Then he had 
her visited by the Clergy, by Doctors, and by Prelates, 
to know if he could lawfully put faith in her. Her 
deeds and words were examined during three weeks, 
not only at Chinon, but at Poitiers. The Examinations 
finished, the Clergy decided that there was nothing evil 
in her deeds nor in her words. After numerous interro- 
gations, they ended by asking her what sign she could 
furnish, that her words might be believed ? " The sign 
/ I have to shew," she replied, " is to raise the siege of 
( Orleans ! " Afterwards, she took leave of the King, 
and came to Blois, where she armed herself for the first 
time, to conduct a convoy of supplies to Orleans and to 
succour the inhabitants. 

[On the subject of the sudden change of wind and of 
the way in which the convoy of supplies was brought 
into Orleans, the witness deposed as the Sieur de 
Dunois. He added only this : Jeanne had expressly 
predicted that, before long, the weather and the wind 

other French nobles escaped. He defended Harfleur against Henry V., in 
1415, and was a prisoner for ten years, being one of those specially named 
by Henry in his dying commands to Bedford as prisoners "to be kept." In 
1425, he was ransomed for the sum of 20,000 gold crowns ; in 1427, he 
aided Dunois at the victory of Montargis, and afterwards in the defence of 
Orleans. 

1 Quicherat thinks there is an error of copy here ; that Bellier could not 
have been Bailly of Troyes when that town was in the hands of the English, 
nor could he at any time have combined so high an office with the lieutenancy 
of Chinon. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS: 1455 

mid change ; and it happened as she had foretold. 
>he had, in like manner, stated that the convoy would 
enter freely into the town. 

The declaration of the witness agrees equally with 
that of the Sieur de Dunois as to the taking of the 
Bastille, the raising of the siege, and the expulsion of 
the English. 

On all the other points the Sieur de Gaucourt is also 
in perfect agreement, in matter and form, with the said 
Sieur de Dunois, as to all that concerns the setting free 
of Orleans, the taking of the camps and the towns on 
the borders of the Loire. 

He agrees equally on all points with what concerns 
the journey of the King for the ceremony of his con- 
secration at Rheims. 

Jeanne, he adds, was abstemious in food and drink ; 
nothing came from her lips but excellent words, which 
could serve only for edification and good example. No 
one could be more chaste, . . . she had always at night 
a woman in her room. She confessed herself frequently, 
being often in prayer, hearing Mass every day, and 
constantly receiving the Sacrament of the Eucharist ; 
she would not suffer any to use in her presence shameful 
or blasphemous words, and by her speech and actions 
she shewed how much she held such things in horror.] 

MA!TRE FRANCOIS GARIVEL, Councillor-General to the 
King. 

I remember that, at the time of the coming of 
Jeanne the Maid, the King sent her to Poitiers, where 
she lodged with Maitre Jean Rabateau, then King's 
Advocate in Parliament. In this town of Poitiers were 
deputed [to examine Jeanne], by the King's Order, certain 
venerable Doctors and Masters, to wit, Pierre de Ver- 
sailles, then Abbot of Talmont, afterwards Bishop of 

R 2 



2 44 JEANNE D'ARC 

Meaux ; Jean Lambert ; Guillaume Aimery, of the Order 
of Saint Dominic ; Pierre Seguin, of the Carmelite Order, 
Doctors in Theology ; Mathieu Message, and Guillaume 
Le Marie, Bachelors in Theology, with many others of the 
King's Councillors, licentiates in Canon and Civil Laws. 
Many times and often, during the space of three weeks, 
they examined Jeanne, studying and considering her 
deeds and words ; and finally, taking into consideration 
her condition and her answers, they said that she was 
a simple girl, who, when interrogated, persisted in her 
answer, that she was sent from the God of Heaven in 
favour of the noble Dauphin, to replace him in his 
kingdom, to raise the siege of Orleans, and to conduct 
the King to Rheims for his consecration ; and that first 
she must write to the English and command them to 
retire, for such was the Will of God. 

When I asked Jeanne why she called the King 
Dauphin, and not King, she replied that she should 
not call him King till he had been crowned and 
anointed at Rheims, to which city she meant to conduct 
him. 

Afterwards, the Clergy told Jeanne she ought to shew 
them a sign by which it might be believed that she 
was sent from God ; but she replied : " The sign given 
to me from God is to raise the siege of Orleans ; I have 
no fear that it will be done, if the King will give me 
soldiers, as few as he may like." 

She was a simple shepherd-maiden, who confessed 
often ; she was entirely devoted to God, and frequently 
received the Sacrament of the Eucharist. 

At last, after long examinations made at great length by 
clerics of various faculties, all decided and concluded that 
the King might lawfully receive her, and might send a 
body of soldiers to the siege of Orleans, for that there 
was nothing found in her which was not Catholic and 
reasonable. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS : 1455 245 

GUILLAUME DE RiCARViLLE, 1 Seigneur de Ricarville, 
Steward to the King. 

I was in Orleans then besieged by the English with 
the Count de Dunois and many other captains, when 
news came that there had passed through the town of 
Gien a shepherdess, called the Maid, conducted by two 
or three gentlemen of Lorraine, from which country she 
came ; that this Maid said she was come to raise the 
siege of Orleans, and that afterwards she would lead 
the King to his anointing ; for thus had she been com- 
manded by God. 

Notwithstanding this, she was not readily received by 
the King, who desired that she should first be examined, 
and that he should know something of her life and estate, 
and if it were lawful for him to receive her. Therefore, 
the Maid, by the King's order, was examined by many 
Prelates, Doctors, and Clergy, who found evidence in her 
of good life, honest estate, and praiseworthy repute ; nor 
was there aught in her which should cause her to be 
repelled. 

She lived honourably, most soberly as to food and 
drink, was chaste and devout, hearing Mass daily, and 
confessing often, communicating with fervent devotion 
every week. She reproved the soldiers when they blas- 
phemed or took God's Name in vain ; also when they 
did any evil or violence. I never observed in her 
aught deserving reproof, and from her manner of life 
and actions I believe she was inspired by God. 

MA!TRE REGINALD THIERRY, Dean of the Church of 
Meung-sur- Yevre ; Surgeon to the King. 

I saw Jeanne with the King at Chinon, and heard 

1 Master of the Horse, Counsellor and Steward to the Court. He was 
made prisoner in 1437, but ransomed from the English for 500 crowns. 
In 1459, he was sent by Charles VII. to Bordeaux, in order to settle a 
dispute between the municipal authority and some English ships. He was 
living in 1472, and in receipt of a pension from Louis XI. 



246 JEANNE D'ARC 

what she said ; to wit, that she was sent from God to 
the noble Dauphin, to raise the Siege of Orleans, and to 
conduct the King to his anointing and coronation. 

When the town of Saint-Pierre-le-Moustier was 
taken, 1 by assault, Jeanne being there, the soldiers 
wanted to pillage the Church and to seize the sacred 
vessels and other treasure there hidden ; but Jeanne 
prohibited and forbade them with great energy, so that 
nothing was taken away. 

JEAN LUILLIER, Burgher of Orleans. 

Many of the inhabitants of Orleans desired the coming 
of the Maid, for they had heard the current rumour that 
she had told the King how she was sent from God 
to raise the siege then held against the town ; the 
inhabitants were then in such straits, on account of 
the English, that they knew not where to turn, except 
to God. 

I was in the town when Jeanne reached it. She was 
received with as much rejoicing and acclamation from 
old and young, of both sexes, as if she had been an 
Angel of God ; because we hoped through her to be 
delivered from our enemies, which indeed was done 
later. 

When Jeanne was come into the City, she exhorted 
us all to hope in God ; saying that, if we had good hope 
and trust in God, we should escape from our enemies. 
She said, moreover, she would summon the English to 
leave the town, and drive them away before she per- 
mitted any attack to be made ; and this she did, sum- 
moning the English by letter, in which she told them to 
retire from the siege and return to England, or else she 
would make them retreat by force. From that time the 
English were terrified, nor had they power to resist as 

1 In December, 1429. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS: 1455 247 

before ; so that a few of our people might often fight 
with a great number of the English, and in such manner 
that they no longer dared to come out of their forts. 

On the 27th May, 1 1429, I remember well that an 
assault was made on the enemy in the Fort of the Bridge, 
in which Jeanne was wounded by an arrow ; the attack 
lasted from morning till evening, and in such manner 
that our men wished to retreat into the town. Then 
Jeanne appeared, her standard in her hand, and placed 
it on the edge of the trench ; and immediately the 
English began to quake, and were seized with fear. The 
army of the King took courage, and once more began 
to assail the Boulevard ; and thus was the Boulevard 
taken, and the English therein were all put to flight or 
slain. Classidas and the principal English captains, 
thinking to retreat into the Tower of the Bridge, fell 
into the river, and were drowned ; and the fort being 
taken, all the King's army retired into the city. 

On the next day, very early in the morning, the 
English came out of their tents and ranged themselves 
in order of battle, as it seemed. Hearing this, the Maid 
rose from her bed and armed herself; but she would 
not allow any one to attack the English, nor to ask any- 
thing of them, but that they should be permitted to 
depart : and so, indeed, they did, no one pursuing them ; 
and from that hour the town was free from the enemy. 

I believed, like all in the town, that, had the Maid not 
come in God's Name to our help, we should soon have 
been, both town and people, in the hands of the enemy : 
we did not believe it possible for the army then in the 
town to resist the power of the enemy who were in such 
force against us. 

JEAN HILAIRE and GILLES DE SAINT MESNIN, [Evi- 
dence of no importance^. 

1 7th May. 



248 JEANNE D'ARC 

JACQUES L'ESBAHY. 

I remember that two heralds were sent on the part 
of the Maid to Saint-Laurent, one named Ambeville, 
and the other Guienne, to Talbot, the Earl of Suffolk, 
and Lord Scales, telling the English in God's name 
to return to England, or evil would come to them. 
The English detained one of these heralds, named 
Guienne, and sent back the other Ambeville to the 
Maid, who told her that the English were keeping back 
his companion Guienne to burn him. Then Jeanne 
answered Ambeville and assured him in God's Name 
that no harm should happen to Guienne, and told him 
to return boldly to the English, that no evil should 
happen to him, but that he should bring back his com- 
rade safe and sound. And so it was. 

When Jeanne first entered Orleans, she went, before 
all else, to the Great Church, to do reverence to God, 
her Creator. 

GUILLAUME LE CHARRON, Burgher of Orleans [testified 
to the same effect}. 

Cos MA DE COM MY, Burgher of Orleans. 

I heard Maitre Jean Ma9on, a famous Doctor in Civil 
and Canon Law, say that he had many times examined 
Jeanne as to her deeds and words, and he had no doubt 
she was sent from God ; that it was a wondrous thing 
to hear her speak and answer ; and that he had found 
nothing in her life but what was holy and good. 

MARTIN DE MAUBOUDET, JEAN VOLANT, GUILLAUME 
POSTIAU, DENIS ROGER, JACQUES DE Tnou, 1 JEAN 
CARRELIER, AMIAN DE SAiNT-MESMiN, 2 all burghers of 
Orleans, gave witness to the same effect. 

1 Seigneur de Bignon, whose father was distinguished at the siege of 
Orleans. He was great-grandfather of Christopher de Thou, first President 
of the Parliament of Paris. 

2 Head of one of the principal families of Orleans. Amian de Saint- 



DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS : 1455 2 49 

JEAN DE CHAMPEAUX. 

On a certain Sunday I saw those of Orleans preparing 
for a great conflict against the English, who were drawn 
up in order of battle. Seeing this, Jeanne went out to 
the soldiers ; and then she was asked, if it were well to 
fight against the English on that day, being Sunday ; to 
which she answered that she must hear Mass ; and then 
she sent to fetch a table, and had the ornaments of the 
Church brought, and two Masses were celebrated, which 
she and the whole army heard with great devotion. 
Mass being ended, Jeanne asked if the English had 
their faces turned toward us ; she was told no, that their 
faces were turned towards Meung. Hearing this, she 
said : " In God's Name, they are going ; let them 
depart ; and let us give thanks to God and pursue them 
no further, because it is Sunday." 

This story is confirmed by PIERRE JONGAULT, PIERRE 
HUE, JEAN AUBERT, GUILLAUME ROUILLART, GEN- 
TIAN CABU, PIERRE VAILLANT, and JEAN COULON, all 
burghers of Orleans. 

All agreed that they never perceived anything by 
which they could conjecture that Jeanne attributed to 
herself the glory of her wonderful deeds ; but she ascribed 
all to God, and, so far as she could, resisted when the 
people sought to honour her or give her the glory ; she 
preferred to be alone rather than in others' society, except 
when she was engaged in warfare. 

JEAN BEAUHARNAYS. 1 

I often saw Jeanne while in Orleans ; there was nothing 

Mesmin was ennobled in 1460, on account of his services. He died at the 
ripe age of 118 years. 

1 Brother-in-law to Louis de Contes, Jeanne's page, and owner of the 
lordships of la Chausse'e and Miramion. From his younger brother, Guil- 
laume, descended the Beauharnais who was husband to Josephine and 
father of Eugene. 



250 ' JEANNE D'ARC 

in her which could merit reproof ; she was humble, simple, 
chaste, and devoted to God and the Church. I was 
always much comforted in talking with her. 

MAITRE ROBERT DE FARCIAUX, Priest, Licentiate in 
Law, Canon and Sub- Dean of the Church of Saint- 
Aignan at Orleans ; testified to the same effect. 

MA!TRE PIERRE COMPAING, Priest, Licentiate in Law, 
Canon of Saint- Aignan. 

I have seen Jeanne, at the Elevation of the Host, 
weeping many tears. I remember well that she induced 
the soldiers to confess their sins ; and I indeed saw that, 
by her instigation and advice, La Hire and many of his 
company came to confession. 

The SIEURS PIERRE DE LA CENSURE, Priest, Canon 
and Warden of Saint- Aignan ; RAOUL GODART, Priest, 
Licentiate in Decrees, Prior of Saint Samson, and Canon 
of Saint- Aignan at Orleans ; HERVE BONART, Prior of 
Saint-Magloire, of the Order of Saint- Augustine ; The 
SIEUR ANDRE BORDES, Canon of S aint- Aignan ; and 
JEANNE, wife 0/GiLLES DE SAINT-MESMIN. All agreed 
with the preceding as to Jeanne's life and morals. 

JEANNE, wife of GUY BOYLEAUD ; GUILLEMETTE, wife 
of JEAN DE COULONS ; JEANNE, widow of JEAN DE 
MOUCHY, gave similar testimony. 

CHARLOTTE, 1 wife of GuiLLAUME HA VET. 

At night I slept alone with Jeanne ; I never saw any- 
thing evil in her, either in word or deed, but always 
simplicity, humility and chastity. She was in the habit 
of confessing frequently and hearing Mass daily. She 
often told my mother, in whose house she lodged, that 

1 Daughter of Jacques Bourchier, Treasurer of Orleans, at whose house 
Jeanne lodged. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ORLEANS: 1455 251 

she must put trust in God, and that God would help the 
town of Orleans, and drive away the enemy. 

She was accustomed, before going to an assault, to 
take account of her conscience, and to receive the 
Sacrament after hearing Mass. 

REGINALDS, widow of JEAN HURE. 

I remember well to have seen and heard, one day, a 
great lord, walking along the street, begin to swear and 
blaspheme God ; which, when Jeanne saw and heard, 
she was much perturbed, and went up to the lord who 
was swearing, and, taking him by the neck, said, " Ah ! 
master, do you deny Our Lord and Master ? In God's 
Name, you shall unsay your words before I leave you." 
And then, as I saw, the said lord repented and amended 
his ways, at the exhortation of the said Maid. 



PETRONILLE, wife of JEAN BEAUHARNAIS ; 
wife of HENRI FAGONE ; testified to the same effect. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6- 

[No questions for the Examinations at Paris and 
Rouen appear in the Rehabilitation Reports, but, as M. 
Jules Fabre was the first to point out, the numbers 
appended to the answers correspond with the first thirty- 
three of the hundred and one Articles of the Act of 
Accusation.] 

EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES. 

MA!TRE JEAN TIPHAINE, Priest, Master in Arts and 
Medicine, Canon of the Sainte Chapelle, Paris. 

On the first four Articles, I declare that I knew 
nothing of Jeanne until she was brought to the town 
of Rouen for her trial. I was summoned to take part. At 
first I would not go ; but I was commanded a second 
time, and was present and heard the enquiry and her 
answers : she made many beautiful answers. When I 
was present at this Trial, the Judges and the Assessors 
were in the small hall behind the Great Hall of the 
Castle ; and she answered with much prudence and 
wisdom and with great bravery. 

On the occasion when I was present, Maitre Beaupere 
was the principal questioner ; and Jacques de Touraine, 
of the Order of Friars Minor, also questioned her. I 
well remember that this Maitre Jacques once asked her, 
if she was ever in a place in which the English were 
overcome ; to which she answered : " In God's name, 
surely. How mildly you put it ! Why, have many not 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 253 

fled from France and gone back to their own country ? " 
And there was a great lord of England, whose name I 
do not remember, who said, hearing this : " Truly this 
is a brave woman ! Would she were English ! " And 
this he said to me and to Maitre Guillaume Desjardins. 
No Doctor, however great and subtle he might be, had 
he been questioned by so many Doctors and before so 
great an assembly as was this Jeanne, but would have 
been perplexed and upset. With regard to the illness of 
Jeanne during the Trial, I was summoned by the Lords 
Judges to visit her, and was brought to her by one 
named d'Estivet ; in presence of this d'Estivet, Maitre 
Delachambre, and several others, I felt her pulse in 
order to know the cause of the malady, and asked what 
ailed her and from what she suffered. She replied that 
some carp had been sent her by the Bishop of Beauvais, 
and that she doubted this was the cause of her illness. 
Upon this, d'Estivet, who was present, found fault with 
her, saying she had spoken ill, and called her " paillarde," 
saying: " Thou paillarde ! thou hast been eating sprats 
and other unwholesomeness." She answered that she 
had not ; and then they Jeanne and d'Estivet ex- 
changed many abusive words. Afterwards, I wished to 
know further as to the malady of Jeanne, and learnt that 
she had had severe vomiting. Except as to her malady, 
I gave no opinion. 2 

MA}TRE GUILLAUME DELACHAMBRE, Master in Arts 
and Medicine. 

I gave no opinion during the Trial, but allowed 
myself to affix my signature, under compulsion from the 
Bishop of Beauvais. I made excuses to him that in 
these matters it did not belong to my profession to give 

1 See decrees of Henry VI. against fugitives, " terrificatos incautionibus 
puellae" 

2 Nevertheless, his name appears as having agreed with the Abbot of 
Fecamp in his opinion of the Condemnation. 



254 JEANNE D'ARC 

an opinion : however, finally, the Bishop forced me to 
subscribe as others had done, saying that otherwise some 
ill would befall me for having come to Rouen. I say, 
too, that threats were also used against Maitre Jean 
Lohier and Maitre Nicolas de Houppeville, who, not 
wishing to take part in the Trial, were threatened with 
the penalty of drowning. 

Sometimes it was the Abbot of Fecamp who inter- 
rogated Jeanne. Once, I saw the Abbot of Fecamp 
interrogating Jeanne, and Maitre Jean Beaupere inter- 
rupted with many and divers questions. Jeanne would 
not reply to them both at once, saying that they did her 
much harm by thus vexing her, and that she would reply 
presently. As to her illness, one day the Cardinal of 
England and the Earl of Warwick having sent for me, I 
found myself associated with Guillaume Desjardins and 
other doctors. The Earl of Warwick told us that Jeanne 
had been ill and that we had been sent for to give her all 
our attention, for the King would not, for anything, 
that she should die a natural death : he had bought 
her too dear for that, and he intended that she should 
die at the hands of justice, and should be burnt. For 
this, I and Guillaume Desjardins and others visited 
her. Desjardins and I felt her pulse on the right side, 
and found fever, from which we recommended she should 
be bled. "Away with your bleeding!" said Warwick, 
"she is artful, and might kill herself." Nevertheless, we 
did bleed her, and she recovered. One day, after she 
had recovered, there arrived a certain Maitre Guillaume 
d'Estivet, who used evil words against Jeanne, calling 
her . . . and -zpaillarde. This abuse upset her to such 
a point that the fever returned, and she had a relapse. 
And this being brought to the notice of the Earl, he 
forbade d'Estivet to abuse Jeanne from that day forth. 

I was present at a sermon of Maitre Guillaume 
Erard. I do not remember the sermon, but I remember 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS : 1455-6 255 

well the Abjuration made by Jeanne. She was long in 
doing this. Mattre Guillaume Erard decided her by 
saying that, if she did what he advised her, she would be 
delivered from prison. She abjured on this condition 
and no other, and immediately read a small schedule 
containing six or seven lines on a piece of paper folded 
in two. I was so near her that, in all truth, I could see 
the lines and their form. 

For the rest, I can only say that I was present at the 
last discourse made in the Old Market- Place of Rouen by 
Mattre Nicolas Midi. As soon as the sermon was over, 
Jeanne was burnt, the stake being already prepared. 
Her pious lamentations and ejaculations made many 
weep ; only some English were laughing. I heard her 
say these or like words : " Alas ! Rouen, I fear me that 
thou wilt have to suffer for my death/' Shortly after 
she began to cry " Jesus" and to invoke St. Michael; 
and then she perished in the flame. 

The Reverend Father in God, the Lord JEAN DE 
MAILLY, Bishop of Noyon. 

I knew nothing of Jeanne before she came to Rouen ; 
and I saw her only two or three times. I do not 
remember either being present at the Trial or giving 
my opinion. 

I remember that, the day before the discourse at 
St. Ouen, I was present at an Exhortation addressed to 
Jeanne ; but what was said or done I do not remember. 
I was present also on the day after, when a sermon was 
given at St. Ouen by Maltre Guillaume Iirard. There 
were two galleries or scaffolds : on one were the Bishop 
of Beauvais, myself and others ; and on the other the 
preacher, Maitre Guillaume Erard, and Jeanne. The 
words of the preacher I do not remember ; but I 
remember well that, either then or on the preceding day, 



25 6 JEANNE D'ARC 

Jeanne said that, if there had been aught evil in her 
words or deeds, whatever of either good or ill had been 
in her speech or action came from herself alone, and 
not from her King. After the sermon, I perceived 
that Jeanne was ordered to do or say something. I 
believe it was to abjure ; they said to her : " Jeanne, do 
what you are advised. Would you cause your own 
death ? " These words verily moved her to make her 
Abjuration. After this Abjuration, many said that it was 
a mere trick, and that she had acted only in derision. 

I remember to have heard from whom I cannot 
recall that the man's dress was returned to her by the 
window. 

For the rest, I was present at the last sermon on the 
day she was burnt. There were three galleries or 
scaffolds : one where sat the Judges, one where many 
Bishops sat, myself among them, and one where wood 
was prepared for the burning of Jeanne. At the 
end of the sermon the sentence was pronounced which 
delivered Jeanne to secular justice. After this sentence 
was pronounced, Jeanne began to make many pious 
exclamations and lamentations ; and among other things 
she said that nothing she had done, either good or ill 
had been suggested by the King, Thereupon I left, not 
wishing to see the burning of Jeanne. I saw many of 
the bystanders weeping. 

As to certain letters of guarantee which the King of 
England gave to the Bishop of Beauvais and others 
concerned in this Trial, in which I, the Bishop of Noyon, 
am mentioned as having been present, I can well believe 
that it was so, though I do not remember much about it. 



THOMAS DE COURCELLES, S.T.P., Canon of 
Paris. 

I believe that the Bishop of Beauvais undertook the 
Trial brought against Jeanne in the matter of the Faith 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS : 1455-6 257 

because he was a Counsellor of the King of England, 
and also Bishop of Beauvais, in which territory Jeanne 
had been taken captive. 

I have heard it said that money was given to the 
Inquisitor by a certain Surreau, receiver-general, for his 
participation in the said Trial ; but I never heard that 
the Bishop received anything. 

At the time when Jeanne was brought to Rouen, I, 
being in Paris, was summoned by the Bishop of Beauvais 
aforesaid to proceed to Rouen for the Trial. I went in 
the company of Maltres Nicolas Midi, Jacques deTouraine, 
Jean de Rouel, 1 and others whom I do not remember, 
to the town of Rouen, at the expense of those who 
took us, among whom was Maitre Jean de Reynel. 2 

About that time Maitre Jean Lohier came to the town 
of Rouen, and order was given to put him in possession 
of the details of the Action. And when the said Lohier 
had seen the evidence, he told me that evidently they 
ought not to proceed against Jeanne in a matter of Faith 
without previous information as to the charges of guilt, 
and that the law required such information. 

I remember well that in the first deliberation, I never 
held Jeanne to be a heretic, except in that she obstinately 
maintained she ought not to submit to the Church ; 
and finally as my conscience can bear me witness, 
before God it seems to me that my words were : 
" Jeanne is now what she was. If she was heretic then, 
she is so now." Yet I never positively gave an opinion 
that she was a heretic. I may add that in the first 
deliberations there was much discussion and difficulty 
among those consulted as to whether Jeanne should 
be reputed a heretic. I never gave an opinion as to 
her being put to the torture. 8 

1 Not mentioned elsewhere. 2 Secretary to the King of England. 

3 It is, however, stated that, on being consulted, he did advise the extreme 
measure of putting Jeanne to the torture. 

S 



258 JEANNE D'ARC 

Many of the Assessors were of opinion and advised 
that Jeanne should be put in the hands of the Church, 
into an ecclesiastical prison ; but I do not remember that 
this subject formed a part of our discussions. 

Certain Articles, to the number of twelve, were made 
and extracted from the confessions and answers of the 
said Jeanne. They were drawn up, I verily believe, by 
the late Maltre Nicolas Midi. It was on these Twelve 
Articles, thus extracted, that all deliberations and 
opinions were made and given. I do not know if there 
was ever any question of correcting them, or if they 
were corrected. 

I often heard from Maltre Nicolas Loiseleur that he 
many times visited Jeanne in an assumed dress ; but 
what he said I know not : and I always counselled him 
that he should reveal himself to Jeanne, and let her 
know that he was a priest. I believe he heard Jeanne 
in confession. 

After the first preaching came word that Jeanne had 
resumed a man's attire ; and immediately the Bishop 
went to the prison, accompanied by myself, and 
questioned her as to her reasons for resuming this 
dress. She replied that she had resumed it because it 
seemed to her more suitable to wear man's clothing, 
being with men, than a woman's dress. 

I was present at the last preaching made in the 
Old Market- Place, on the day of her death. I did not 
see her burnt, for, after the sermon and the reading of 
the sentence, I went away. 



JEAN MONNET, S.T.P., Canon of Paris. 

Three or four time s I went to the Trial and wrote out 
the questions put to Jeanne and her answers, not as 
notary but as clerk and servant to Maitre Jean Beaupere. 
Among other things, I remember hearing Jeanne say to 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 259 

me and to the other notaries, that we were not writing 
properly ; and often did she correct us. Often, in these 
questions and answers, when questioned on something 
which I could see she ought not to answer, she said 
that she would refer to the conscience of the questioner 
as to whether she ought to answer or not. 

I was present at the preaching at Saint-Ouen, seated 
on the platform at the feet of Maitre Jean Beaupere, my 
master. When the preaching was finished, and while 
the sentence was being read, Jeanne said that if she were 
advised by the clerics and if their consciences approved, 
she would willingly do as they recommended. Hearing 
this, the Bishop of Beauvais asked the Cardinal of Eng- 
land what he ought to do in face of this submission of 
Jeanne. To which the Cardinal answered the Bishop, 
that he should receive Jeanne to penitence. And there- 
fore he laid on one side the sentence which he had begun 
to read, and admitted Jeanne to penitence. I saw the 
Schedule of Abjuration, which was then read ; it was a 
short schedule, hardly six or seven lines in length. I 
remember well that Jeanne referred to the consciences of 
the Judges as to whether she ought to abjure or not. It 
was said that the executioner was already on the spot, 
expecting that she would be handed over to the secular 
power. I left Rouen on the Monday or Sunday before 
the death of Jeanne. 

LOUIS DE CONTES. 1 

The year that Jeanne came to Chinon I was fourteen 
or fifteen years old. I was page to the Sieur de Gaucourt, 
Captain of the Castle. Jeanne arrived at Chinon in the 
company of two gentlemen, who conducted her to the 
King. I saw her many times going and coming to the 

1 Louis de Contes was brother-in-law of Beauharnais, the Bourgeois of 
Orleans. He was a son of Jean de Contes, Captain of Chateaudun, and 
Chamberlain to the Duke d'Orteans. 

S 2 



260 JEANNE D'ARC 

King ; there was given her for residence the Tower 
of Coudray, at Chinon. I resided and lived with her 
all the time that she stayed there, passing all the 
time with her, except at night, when she always had 
women with her. I remember well that while she was 
living at Coudray persons of great estate came many 
days to visit her there. I do not know what they did or 
said, because when I saw them coming I retired ; nor do 
I know who they were. Very often while she lived in 
this town I saw her on her knees praying ; but I did not 
understand what she was saying ; sometimes also I saw 
her weep. 

Shortly afterwards she was taken to Poitiers ; then to 
Tours, where she resided with a woman called Lapau. 
In this place the Duke d'Alengon made her a present of 
a horse, which I saw at the house of the woman Lapau. 
At Tours I became her page ; with me also was one 
named Raymond. From that time I remained with her, 
and was always with her as her page, at Blois, as well as 
at Orleans, and until she reached the walls of Paris. 

While she was at Tours the King gave her a complete 
suit of armour and an entire military household. From 
Tours she went to Blois with the army, who had great 
faith in her. Jeanne remained some time with the 
army at Blois ; how long I do not remember. Then it 
was decided that she should |go to Orleans by the 
Sologne. She started fully armed, accompanied by her 
men-at-arms, to whom she said without ceasing that they 
were to put all their confidence in Our Lord and to 
confess their sins. On the way I saw her during this 
journey receive the Sacrament of the Eucharist. 

Having arrived near Orleans on the side of the 
Sologne, Jeanne with many others and myself were con- 
ducted to the opposite side of the Loire, on which side is 
the city of Orleans ; and from thence we entered the said 
town. In her journey from Blois to Orleans, Jeanne 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 261 

had been all bruised, because on the night of the start 
from Blois she had slept fully armed. At Orleans she 
lived at the house of the Treasurer 1 of the Town, facing 
the Bannier Gate ; and in , this house she received the 
Sacrament. The day after her arrival she went to seek 
the Sieur Bastard of Orleans, with whom she had an 
interview On her return I saw she was quite vexed 
that, as she told me, the captains had decided not to 
attack the English on that day. She went nevertheless to 
a Boulevard which the French were occupying, opposite 
to one garrisoned by the English, and there she spoke 
with them, telling them to retire in God's Name, or 
otherwise she would drive them away. One of them, 
called the Bastard of Granville, assailed her with many 
insults : " Do you wish us," he said, " to surrender to a 
woman ? " At the same time, he called the Frenchmen 
who were with her " maquereaux mescreans." Then 
Jeanne returned to her lodging, and went up into her 
chamber : I thought she was going to sleep : shortly 
afterwards, there she was, coming down from her 
chamber ; " Ah ! bloodthirsty boy," she said to me, 
" you did not tell me that the blood of France was being 
shed ! " And she ordered me to go and look for her 
horse. At the same time she was being armed by the 
lady of the house and her daughter. When I returned 
with her horse I found her already armed : she told me 
to go and seek her banner, which had been left in her 
chamber : I passed it to her through the window. Im- 
mediately she rode hastily towards the Burgundy gate, 
whither the lady with whom she lodged told me to 
follow her, which I did. The attack took place against 
the Fort of Saint Loup ; and in this attack the Boule- 
vard was taken. On the way Jeanne met several of the 

1 Jacques Bouchier. 

2 [" Ha ! sanglant garqon, vous ne me dyriez pas que le sane de France 
feust repandu / "] 



262 JEANNE D'ARC 

French wounded, at which she was much disturbed. 
The English were preparing to resist when Jeanne 
advanced against them in all haste. As soon as the 
French saw her they began to shout aloud ; and thus 
was the Fort of Saint Loup taken. I heard it said that 
the English ecclesiastics had taken their ornaments, and 
had thus come before her ; that Jeanne had received 
them without allowing any harm to be done them, and 
had had them conducted to her lodging ; but that the 
other English had been killed by the people of Orleans. 

In the evening Jeanne returned to supper in her 
lodging. She had always most sober habits : many 
times I saw her eat nothing during a whole day but a 
morsel of bread. I was astonished that she ate so 
little. When she was in her lodging she ate only twice 
a day. 

The next day, towards 3 o'clock, the soldiers of the 
King crossed the Loire to attack the Fort of Saint- Jean- 
le- Blanc, which they took, as also the Fort of the 
Augustins. 1 Jeanne crossed the river with them, and I 
accompanied her : then she re-entered Orleans, and 
went back to sleep at her lodging with some women, 
as she was in the habit of doing : for every night, as 
far as possible, she had a woman to sleep by her, and 
when she could not find one in war, or in camp, she 
slept fully dressed. 

The following day, in spite of many Lords pretending 
that it was exposing the King's followers to too great a 
danger, she had the Burgundy gate opened, and a small 
gate near the great tower : she then crossed the water 
with some of her followers to attack the Fort of the 
Bridge, which the English still held. The King's troops 
remained there from morning to night, and Jeanne was 
wounded : it was necessary to take off her armour to 
dress the wound ; but hardly was it dressed when she 

1 Ccelestinorum^ in the text. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 263 

armed herself afresh and went to rejoin her followers at 
the attack and the assault, which had gone on from 
morning without ceasing. And when the Boulevard was 
taken Jeanne still continued the assault with her men, 
exhorting them to have a good heart and not to retire, 
because the fort would very soon be theirs. " When," 
she told them, " you see the wind drive the banner 
towards the fort, it will be yours ! " But the evening was 
drawing on, and her followers, seeing they made no way, 
despaired of success ; yet Jeanne persisted always, 
assuring them they would take the fort that day. Then 
they prepared to attempt a last assault ; and when the 
English saw this they made no resistance, but were seized 
with panic, and nearly all were drowned ; nor did they 
during this attack even defend themselves. Those who 
survived retreated the next day to Beaugency and 
Meung. The King's army followed them, Jeanne accom- 
panying it. The English offered to surrender Beaugency 
by agreement, or to fight ; but on the day of combat 
they retired again ; and the army began afresh to pursue 
them. On this day La Hire commanded the vanguard, 
at which Jeanne was much vexed, for she liked much to ^ 
have the command of the vanguard. La Hire threw J 
himself on the English, and the King's army was 
victorious : nearly all the English were slain. 

Jeanne, who was very humane, had great compassion at 
such butchery. Seeing a Frenchman, who was charged 
with the convoy of certain English prisoners, strike one 
of them on the head in such manner that he was left 
for dead on the ground, she got down from her horse, 
had him confessed, supporting his head herself, and com- 
forting him to the best of her power. 

Afterwards she went with the army to Jargeau, which 
was taken by assault, with many English, among whom 
were Suffolk and de la Pole 1 . After the deliverance of 

1 John de la Pole, Captain of Avranches, brother of the Earl of Suffolk. 



264 JEANNE D'ARC 

Orleans, and all these victories, Jeanne went with the 
army to Tours, where the King was. There it was 
decided that the King should go to Rheims for his 
consecration. The King left with the army, accom- 
panied by Jeanne, and marched first to Troyes, which 
submitted ; then to Chalons, which did the same ; and 
last to Rheims, where our King was crowned and 
anointed in my presence for I was, as I have already 
said, page to Jeanne, and never left her. I remained 
with her until she arrived before Paris. 

She was a good and modest woman, living as a 
Catholic, very pious, and, when she could, never failing 
to be present at the Mass. To hear blasphemies upon 
the Name of Our Lord vexed her. Many times when 
the Duke d'Alengon swore 1 or blasphemed before her, I 
heard her reprove him. As a rule, no one in the army 
dared swear or blaspheme before her, for fear of 
being reprimanded. 

She would have no women in her army. One day, 
near Chateau-Thierry, seeing the mistress of one of her 
followers riding on horseback, she pursued her with her 
sword, without striking her at all ; but with gentleness 
and charity she told her she must no longer be found 
amongst the soldiers, otherwise she would suffer for it. 

I know nothing more, not having seen her after 
Paris. 

GOBERT THIBAUT, Squire to the King of France. 

I was at Chinon when Jeanne came to seek the 
King, who was then residing in that city. Before 
this, I knew nothing of her ; but henceforward I had 

1 Jeanne's hatred of swearing is noticed by many of her followers, and in 
her hearing they endeavoured to abstain from it. La Hire, whose language 
was apparently the most violent, was permitted by her to employ the mild 
expletive * Par mon martin,' ' By my baton,' an expression she herself is 
constantly reported to have used. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 265 

more acquaintance with her, for, when I went with the 
King to the town of Poitiers, Jeanne was also taken 
thither and lodged in the house of Jean Rabateau. 
I know that Jeanne was questioned and examined in 
the town of Poitiers by the late Maitre Pierre de 
Versailles, S.T.P., then Abbot of Talmont and, at the 
time of his death, Bishop of Meaux, and by Maitre 
Jean Erault, S.T.P. I went with them by the command 
of the late Lord Bishop of Castres. As I have said, she 
was living in the house of Rabateau, in which house de 
Versailles and Erault talked with her in my presence. 
When we arrived at her house, Jeanne came to meet us, 
and striking me on the shoulder said to me that she 
would gladly have many men of such good- will as I. 
Then Maitre Pierre de Versailles told Jeanne that he 
had been sent to her from the King. She replied : " I 
well believe that you have been sent to question me," 
adding, " I know neither A nor B." 

Then she was asked by them for what she had come. 
She replied ; " I am come from the King of Heaven to 
raise the siege of Orleans and to conduct the King to 
Rheims for his crowning and anointing." And then she 
asked if they had paper and ink, saying to Maitre Jean 
Erault : " Write what I say to you. You, Suffolk, 
Classidas, and La Poule, I summon you by order of the 
King of Heaven to go back to England." Versailles 
and Erault did nothing more on this occasion, so far as I 
remember. Jeanne remained in the town of Poitiers as 
long as the King did. 

Jeanne said that her Counsel had told her she should 
have gone more quickly to the King. I saw those 
who had brought her Jean de Metz, Jean Coulon, and 
Bertrand Pollichon, 1 with whom I was very friendly and 
familiar. I was present one day when they told the late 
Bishop of Castres then Confessor to the King that 

1 A nickname of Poulengey. 



266 JEANNE D'ARC 

they had travelled through Burgundy and places occu- 
pied by the enemy, yet had they always travelled without 
hindrance, at which they much marvelled. 

I heard the aforesaid Confessor say that he had 
discovered in a writing that there should come a maiden 
who would aid the Kingdom of France. 

I do not know whether Jeanne was examined other- 
wise than as aforesaid. I heard the said Lord Confessor 
and other Doctors say that they believed Jeanne to be 
sent from God, and that they believed it was she of 
whom the prophecies spoke ; because, seeing her actions, 
her simplicity, and conduct, they thought the King 
might be delivered through her ; for they had neither 
found nor perceived aught but good in her, nor could 
they see anything contrary to the Catholic faith. 

On the day that the Lord Talbot, who had been taken 
at Patay, was brought to the town of Beaugency, I 
arrived at that town ; and from thence Jeanne went with 
the men-at-arms to Jargeau, which was taken by assault, 
and the English were put to flight. 

J,eanne assembled an army between Troyes and 
Auxerre, and found large numbers there, for every one 
followed her. The King and his people came without 
hindrance to Rheims. Nowhere was the King turned 
back, for the gates of all cities and towns opened them- 
selves to him. 



SIMON BAUCROIX, Squire. 

It was Jeanne's intention that the army should go 
towards the Fort or Bastille of Saint-Jean-le-Blanc : but 
this was not done ; and they went to a place between 
Orleans and Jargeau, whither the inhabitants of Orleans 
sent boats to receive the provisions and to take them 
into the town ; and the said provisions were put into 
the boats and brought into the town. And because 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS : 1455-6 267 

the army was not able to cross the Loire, it was decided 
to return and cross the river at Blois : for there was no 
bridge nearer within the King's jurisdiction. At this 
Jeanne was very indignant, fearing they would not be 
willing to fall back, and so would leave the work un- 
finished. Neither could she go with them to Blois ; but 
she crossed the river with about 200 lances in boats 
to the other bank, and entered Orleans by land. The 
Marshal de Boussac went that night to seek the King's 
army which had gone to Blois ; and I remember that 
shortly before the arrival of the said Marshal at Orleans, 
Jeanne said to Sieur Jean d'Aulon that the Marshal 
would arrive, and that she knew well he would come 
to no harm. 

When Jeanne was in her lodging, she, being led by 
the Spirit, cried out : " In God's Name ! our people are 
hard pressed." Then she sent for a horse ; and, arming 
herself, she went to the Fort of Saint Loup, where there 
was an assault being made by the King's people on the 
English : and no sooner had Jeanne joined in the attack, 
than the fort was taken. 

The next day the French in company with Jeanne 
went to attack the Fort of Saint- Jean-le- Blanc, and drew 
near to the island ; and when the English saw that the 
King's army had crossed the water, they quitted the 
Fort of Saint-Jean-le-Blanc, and retreated to another fort 
near the Augustins. And there I saw the King's army 
in great peril. " Let us advance boldly in God's Name," 
said Jeanne : and they advanced on the Etiglish, who, 
now in much danger, held their three forts. 1 At once, 
without much difficulty, this fort of the Augustins 
was taken ; and the captains then advised Jeanne to 
re-enter Orleans ; but this she would not do, saying, 
" Shall we leave our men ? " The next day they 

1 These three forts were on the left bank of the Loire ; the fort of the 
Tourelles, of the Augustins, and of Saint-Prive were further west. 



268 JEANNE D'ARC 

attacked the fort at the end of the bridge, which was 
very strong and almost impregnable, so that the King's 
army had much to do ; and the attack lasted the whole 
day, up to nightfall. I saw the Seneschal of Beaucaire 
break up the bridge with a bombard. When evening 
came and they despaired of gaining the fort, orders were 
given that Jeanne's standard should be brought to the 
fort ; and this being done another attack was made on 
the fort, and thereupon without much difficulty the 
King's army entered with the standard ; and the English 
fled, in such manner that when they reached the end of 
the bridge it broke down beneath them, and many were 
drowned. 

The next day the King's army sallied out to give 
battle to the English ; but they, on seeing the French, 
fled. When Jeanne saw them in flight and the French 
following after, she said to the French : " Let the English 
go, and slay them not ; let them go ; it is enough for me 
that they have retreated." On that day, they escaped 
from the city of Orleans and turned back on Blois, which 
they reached the same day. 

Jeanne stayed there two or three days ; and from 
thence she went to Tours, and to Loches, where the 
King's army was preparing to go to Jargeau ; and from 
thence they went to attack that town. 

In war time, she would not permit any of those in her 
company to steal anything ; nor would she ever eat of 
food which she knew to be stolen. Once, a Scot told 
her that he had eaten of a stolen calf : she was very 
angry, and wanted to strike the Scot for so doing. 

She would never permit women of ill-fame to follow 
the army ; none of them dared to come into her presence ; 
but, if any of them appeared, she made them depart 
unless the soldiers were willing to marry them. 

She was good not only to the French, but also to the 
enemy. All this I know of a surety, for I was for 




ORLEANS CATHEDRAL. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 269 

a long time with her, and many times assisted in 
arming her. 

Jeanne lamented much, and was displeased when 
certain good women came to her, wishing to salute her : 
it seemed to her like adoration, at which she was 
angered. 

MAITRE JEAN BARBIN, Doctor of Laws, Kings Advo- 
cate. 

I was sent to Poitiers, where I saw Jeanne for the 
first time. When she arrived at the town she was lodged 
in the house of Maitre Jean Rabateau ; and while there 
I have heard the wife of Rabateau say that every day 
after dinner she was for a long time on her knees, and 
also at night ; and that she often went into a little 
oratory in the house and there prayed for a long time. 
Many clergy came to visit her, to wit, Maitre Pierre 
de Versailles, S.T.P., sometime Bishop of Meaux, and 
Maitre Guillaume Aimery, S.T.P. There were also 
other graduates in theology, whose names I do not 
remember, who questioned her in like manner at 
their will. 

I heard from these said Doctors that they had examined 
her and put many questions, to which she replied with 
much prudence, as if she had been a trained divine ; 
that they marvelled at her answers, and believed that, 
taking into account her life and conversation, there must 
have been in her something divine. 

In the course of these deliberations M'aitre Jean 
Erault stated that he had heard it said by Marie 
d' Avignon, 1 who had formerly come to the King, that she 
had told him that the kingdom of France had much to 
suffer and many calamities to bear : saying moreover 
that she had had many visions touching the desolation 

1 A woman called " la gasque d' Avignon," whose predictions made much 
stir at the beginning of the fifteenth century. 



270 JEANNE D'ARC 

of the kingdom of France, and amongst others that she 
had seen much armour which had been presented to 
her ; and that she was alarmed, greatly fearing that she 
should be forced to take it ; but it had been said to her 
that she need fear nothing, that this armour was not for 
her, but that a maiden who should come afterwards 
should bear these arms and deliver the kingdom ot 
France from the enemy. And he believed firmly that 
Jeanne was the maiden of whom Marie d' Avignon thus 
spoke. 

All the soldiers held her as sacred. So well did she 
bear herself in warfare, in words and in deeds, as a 
follower of God, that no evil could be said of her. I 
heard Maitre Pierre de Versailles say that he was once 
in the town of Loches in company with Jeanne, when 
the people, throwing themselves before the feet of her 
horse, kissed her hands and feet ; and he said to Jeanne 
that she did wrong to allow what was not due to her, 
and that she ought to protect herself from it lest men 
should become idolatrous ; to which she answered : " In 
truth, I know not how to protect myself, if God does not 
protect me." 

DAME MARGUERITE LA TOUROULDE, widow of the late 
de Bouligny, Councillor to the King. 



I was at Bourges when Jeanne arrived at Chinon, 
where the Queen was. In those days there was in the 
kingdom especially in that part still obedient to the 
King such great calamity and penury as was sad to see ; 
so that the followers of the King were almost in despair : 
and this I know, because my husband was then Receiver- 
General, and at that time neither of the King's money 
nor of his own had he four crowns. 

The town of Orleans was in the hands of the King, 
and there was no way of help. And in this calamity 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 271 

came Jeanne, and I firmly believe that she came from 
God and was sent for the relief of the King and his 
faithful subjects, who then were without hope save in 
God. 

I did not see Jeanne until the time when the King 
came from Rheims, where he was consecrated. He 
came to Bourges, where was the Queen, and I with her. 
When the King approached, the Queen went to meet 
him as far as the town of Selles-en-Berry, and I accom- 
panied her. While the Queen was on the way, Jeanne 
encountered and saluted her, and was then taken on to 
Bourges, and by command of my Lord d'Albret lodged 
in my house, although my husband had said that she 
was to be lodged with a certain Jean Duchesne. 

She remained with me for the space of three weeks 
sleeping, drinking, and eating [in the house]. Nearly 
every night I slept with her, nor did I ever perceive 
aught of evil in her, but she comported herself as a 
worthy and Catholic woman, often confessing herself, 
willingly hearing Mass, and many times asking me to 
accompany her to matins, which at her request I often 
did. We often talked together, and I would say to her : 
" If you do not fear to go to the attack, it is because you 
know that you will not be killed " : to which she would 
reply that she had no greater security than other 
soldiers. Sometimes Jeanne would tell me how she had 
been examined by the Clergy, and that she had made 
them the answer : " There are books of Our Lord's) 
besides what you have." 

I heard from those that brought her to the King that 
at first they thought she was mad, and intended to 
put her away in some ditch, but while on the way 
they felt moved to do everything according to her 
good pleasure. They were as impatient to present her 
to the King, as she was to meet him, nor could they 
resist her wishes. 



272 JEANNE D'ARC 

They testified as others did to the purity of her 
conduct and influence. 

Jeanne told me that the Duke de Lorraine who was 
ill, wished to see her, that she talked with him, and told 
him that he was not living well, and that he would never 
be cured unless he amended ; also she exhorted him to 
take back his good wife. 1 

Jeanne had great horror of dice. 

I remember that many women came to my house 
while Jeanne was living there, and brought pater nosters 
and other religious objects that she might touch them ; 
but Jeanne laughed, saying : " Touch them yourselves. 
Your touch will do them as much good as mine." 

Jeanne was very liberal in almsgiving, and willingly 
succoured the poor and indigent, saying that she had 
been sent for their consolation. 

... I have no doubt that she was virgin. Accord- 
ing to my knowledge she was quite innocent, unless it be 
in warfare. She rode on horseback and handled the 
lance like the best of the knights, and the soldiers 
marvelled. 

JEAN MARCEL, Burgess of Paris. 

Maitre Jean Sauvage, of the Order of Saint Dominic, 
who often talked with me of Jeanne, has told me that 
he was engaged in the Process against her ; but it 
was difficult to make him speak of it. He did once say, 
that he had never seen a woman of such years give so 
much trouble to her examiners, and he marvelled much 
at her answers and at her memory. Once the notary 
reporting what he had written, she declared that she had 
not said what they had made her say, and referred it to 
those present, who all recognized that Jeanne was right, 
and the answer was corrected. 

1 The devoted Margaret of Bavaria, who was separated from him on 
account of his evil life. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 273 

I was present at the sermon at Saint-Ouen ; and 
there for the first time I saw Jeanne. I remember that 
Maitre Guillaume Iirard preached in presence of the 
said Jeanne, who was in a man's dress. But what was 
said or done in the sermon I know not. I was at some 
distance from the Preacher. I heard it said that Maitre 
Laurence Calot said to Maitre Pierre Cauchon, that he 
was too slow in pronouncing judgment, and that he was 
not judging rightly ; to which Maitre Pierre Cauchon 
replied that he lied. 

I was also at the second preaching, on the day that 
Jeanne was burnt, and saw her in the flames calling out 
in a loud voice many times " Jesus ! " I believe firmly 
that she died a Catholic and ended her days well in 
good Christian estate ; and this I know from what I 
had from the monks who were with her in her last hours. 
I saw many the greater part of those present weeping 
and bewailing for pity, and saying that Jeanne had been 
unjustly condemned. 



THE DUKE D' 

When Jeanne arrived at Chinon, I was at Saint 
Florent. One day, when I was hunting quails, a 
messenger came to inform me that there had come to 
the King a young girl, who said she was sent from God 
to conquer the English and to raise the siege then 
undertaken by them against Orleans. It was for this 
reason that I went on the following day to Chinon, 
where I found Jeanne talking with the King. Having 
approached them, she asked me who I was. "It is 
the Duke d'Alengon," replied the King. " You are 
welcome," she then said to me, " the more that come 
together of the blood of France the better it will be." 
The next day she went to the King's Mass ; and when 

1 Jean, Duke d'Alengon, son of the Duke killed at Agincourt. He was of 
the Blood Royal, descended from Philip II. 

T 



274 JEANNE D'ARC 

she perceived him she made a profound salutation. 
After Mass the King took her into his private room, 
where he kept me with him, as well as the Sieur de la 
Tremouille, after having sent away all the others. 
Jeanne then made several requests to the King 
amongst others that he would make a gift of his 
kingdom to the King of Heaven, because the King 
of Heaven, after this gift, would do for him as He had 
done for his predecessor, and reinstate him in all his 
rights. Many other things were said, up to the hour oi 
dinner, which I do not remember. After dinnei the 
King went for a walk ; Jeanne coursed before him, 

r lance in hand. Seeing her manage her lance so well I 

J^ gave her a horse. 

Following on this the King caused her to be examined 
by the Clergy. Choice was made of the Bishop of 
Chartres, the King's Confessor ; the Bishop of Senlis l 
Mende and Poitiers ; Maitre Pierre de Versailles, since 
Bishop of Meaux ; Maitre Jourdin Morin, and many 
others whose names I do not recall. They questioned 
her in my presence and asked why she had come, and 
who had caused her to come to the King ? She replied 
that she had come from the King of Heaven, that she 
had voices and a Counsel which told her what she was 
to do ; but I do not remember if she made known what 
those voices told her. 

One day when dining with me she told me that the 

(clergy had examined her well, but that she knew and 
could do more than she had told them. The King 
when he had heard the report of his commissioners, 
wished that she should still go to Poitiers, in order to 
submit to another examination. I did not assist at 
this examination ; I only knew it to be afterwards re- 
ported to the Council, that the examiners at Poitiers 

1 The Bishop referred to is Simon Bonnet, Bishop of Senlis at that time, 
not the partisan of the English who occupied the seat in 1429. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS : 1455-6 275 

held the opinion that there was nothing in her contrary 
to the Faith, and that the King, considering his extreme 
necessity, might make use of her assistance. 

On receiving this news the King sent me to the 
Queen of Sicily 1 to prepare a convoy of supplies 
for the army, which was then being directed against 
Orleans. I found with the Queen the Sieur Ambroise 
de Lore, 2 and the Sieur Louis his other name I do 
not remember who prepared the convoy : but money 
was lacking, and in order to obtain it I returned to the 
King, to whom I made known that the supplies were 
prepared, and that it only remained to procure the 
necessary money to pay for them and for the army. The 
King then sent people who delivered the necessary 
sums ; so that in the end soldiers and supplies were 
ready, and there was nothing more to be done but to 
gain Orleans, and try to raise the siege. 

With this army Jeanne was sent. The King had 
caused armour to be made for her. 3 

The King's army started with Jeanne. What 
happened on the way, and afterwards in Orleans, I 
know only by hearsay for I was not present, not 
having then gone to Orleans but I went there shortly 
after, and saw the works which had been raised by the 
English before the town. I was able to study the 
strength of these works : and I think that, to have made 

1 Yolande, daughter of John I. of Aragon ; wife of Louis XL, Duke 
of Anjou, and titular King of Sicily. She was the mother of Mary, 
wife of Charles VII., and grandmother of Margaret, afterwards wife of 
Henry VI. 

A receipt is recorded, in Quicherat (III. 93), for the carriage of corn, on 
her behalf, from Orleans to Blois. 

2 A captain of some repute, exchanged for Talbot after the Battle of 
Patay. 

3 In the Accounts (formerly kept in the Chambre des Comtes at Paris), of 
Maitre Hemon Raguier, Treasurer of War, there is an item relating to this 
suit of armour : " To the Master Armourer, for a complete harness for the 
said Pucelle, 100 livres tournois." 

T 2 



276 JEANNE D'ARC 

themselves masters of these above all, the Fort of the 
Tourelles at the end of the Bridge, and the Fort of the 
Augustins the French needed a real miracle. If I had 
been in either one or the other, with only a few men, I 
should have ventured to defy the power of a whole army 
for six or seven days : and they would not have been 
able, I think, to have mastered it. For the rest, I heard 
from the captains and soldiers who took part in the siege, 
that what had happened was miraculous ; and that it was 
beyond man's power. 

I did not see Jeanne from the time she left the King 
until after the raising of the siege of Orleans. After 
this siege, we succeeded in assembling as many as 600 
lances, with which we decided to march on Jargeau, 
then occupied by the English. That night we slept in 
a wood. On the following morning we were joined by 
another division, under the guidance of the Sieur Bastard 
of Orleans, the Sieur Florent d'llliers, 1 and many other 
captains. When we were all joined together, we found 
ourselves to number about 1,200 lances. There was then 
contention among the captains : some were of opinion 
that the attack should be made ; and others opposed it, 
seeing the great strength of the English and their large 
numbers. Jeanne, seeing us thus divided, said : " No, do 
not fear their numbers ; do not hesitate to make the 
attack ; God will conduct your enterprise ; if I were not 
sure that it is God Who guides us, I would rather take 
care of the sheep than expose myself to such great 
perils ! " On these words we marched to Jargeau, 
counting on gaining the suburbs that day and passing the 
night there. But on the news of our approach, the 
English came to meet us and at first drove us back. 
Seeing this Jeanne seized her standard and began the 
attack, telling the soldiers to have good courage. We 

1 A street in Orleans is still called after d'llliers, then Captain of 
CMteaudun. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS : 1455-6 277 

succeeded so well that we were able that night to camp 
in the suburbs. I think truly it was God Who was lead- 
ing us ; for, in the night that followed, we kept no 
guard ; so that, had the English made a sally, we must 
have been in great danger. The next morning we pre- 
pared artillery and had the machines and bombards 
placed in position. Then we consulted for some time 
as to what should be done against the English in 
Jargeau in order to take the town. While we were 
deliberating, we were told that La Hire was in confer- 
ence with the English Lord Suffolk. I and the other 
captains were much provoked at this, and sent for La 
Hire, who came at once. The attack being resolved 
upon, the Heralds-at-Arms began to sound, " To the 
Assault!" " Forward, gentle Duke, to the assault!" 
cried Jeanne to me. And when I told her it was pre- 
mature to attack so quickly : " Have no fear," she said 
to me, " it is the right time when it pleases God ; we 
must work when it is His Will : act, and God will 
act ! " " Ah ! gentle Duke," she said to me, later, " art 
thou afraid ? dost thou not know that I promised thy 
wife 1 to bring thee back, safe and sound ? " 

And indeed when I left my wife to come with Jeanne 
to the head-quarters of the army, my wife had told me 
that she feared much for me, that I had but just left 
prison 2 and much had been spent on my ransom, and she 
would gladly have asked that I might remain with her. 
To this Jeanne had replied : " Lady, have no fear ; I 
will give him back to you whole, or even in better case 
than he is now." 

During the assault on Jargeau Jeanne said to me : 
" Go back from this place, or that engine pointing out 

1 Jeanne, daughter of the Duke d' Orleans. 

2 The Duke d'Alengon, at the age of eighteen, had been taken prisoner 
at the battle of Verneuil, in 1424, and kept for five years in the Castle of 
Crotoy, where Jeanne herself was afterwards imprisoned. 



278 JEANNE D'ARC 

an engine of war in the city will kill you." I retired, 
and shortly after that very engine did indeed kill 
the Sieur de Lude in that very place from which she 
told me to go away. On this account I had great fear, 
and wondered much at Jeanne's words and how true 
they came. Afterwards, Jeanne made the attack ; in 
which I followed her. As our men were invading the 
place, the Earl of Suffolk made proclamation that he 
wished to speak with me, but we did not listen, and the 
attack continued. Jeanne was on a ladder, her standard 
in her hand, when her standard was struck and she 
herself was hit on the head by a stone which was partly 
spent, and which struck her calotte. 1 She was thrown 
to the ground ; but, raising herself, she cried : " Friends I 
friends ! come on ! come on ! Our Lord hath doomed 
the English ! They are ours ! keep a good heart." At 
that moment the town was carried ; and the English 
retired to the bridges, where the French pursued them 
and killed more than 1,100 men. 

The town taken, 2 Jeanne 1 ' and the army went to 
Orleans ; then from Orleans to Meung-sur- Loire, where 
were the English under the command of ' the child of 
Warwick ' and Scales. Beneath the walls of Meung, I 
passed the night in a Church with a few soldiers, and 
was in great peril. The day after the taking of Meung, 
we went to Beaugency ; and in the neighbourhood of 
this town we rallied to us a part of the army with which 
we attacked the English who were in Beaugency. In 
consequence of our attack the English abandoned the 
town and retired into a camp which we had watched 
during the night for fear they should beat a retreat. 
We were there when the news reached us that the 
Constable was coming to join us : Jeanne, the other 

1 Head-covering without visor, " chapeline casque leger en forme\ de 
calotte sans masque. " 

2 Jargeau was taken on June nth, 1429. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 279 

Captains, and I myself were much troubled by this 
news, and wished to retire, because we had orders from 
the King not to receive the said Constable into our 
company. I told Jeanne that if the Constable came 
I should retire. The next day, before his arrival, 
we learned that the English were marching upon us 
in great number, under the command of Talbot. 1 Our 
men immediately called " To arms!" and, seeing that 
I wished to retire because of the arrival of the Con- 
stable, Jeanne told me that we must help one another. 
The English surrendered their camp by agreement, and 
retreated by a safe-conduct which I gave them : for I 
was then Lieutenant to the King, and thus in command 
of the army. We thought they had retired, when a man 
of La Hire's company told us they were marching upon 
us, and that in a moment we should have them before 
us, to the number of a thousand men-at-arms. Jeanne 
asked what this messenger had stated ; and when she 
knew what was going on she said to the Lord Constable, 2 
" Ah ! fair Constable, you have not come by my will, but 
now you are here you are welcome." Many were in fear 
and said it would be well to await the arrival of the 
cavalry. "In God's Name!" exclaimed Jeanne, " we 
must fight them at once : even if they were hanging 
from the clouds we should have them, because God has 
sent us to chastise them." She assured us she was 



1 John Talbot, afterwards Earl of Shrewsbury. He was exchanged for 
Ambroise de Lore" and killed while attempting the relief of Chatillon, then 
besieged by Dunois. 

2 Arthur, Count de Richemont, Constable of France, brother of the Duke 
of Britanny. He was one of the Princes of the Blood taken at Agincourt, 
but was released on parole ; and Henry V. dying soon after, he claimed his 
freedom, saying he had given his word to the King alone. He married a 
sister of the Duke of Burgundy and widow of the late Dauphin. Although 
friendly to the French cause, he was distrusted by Charles, and, at this 
time, was in disgrace. He was uncle to the Duke d'Alengon, his sister 
Mary having married the preceding Duke. He succeeded to the Duchy 
of Britanny in 1453, but died childless. 



2 8o , JEANNE D'ARC 

certain of obtaining the victory, saying in French : " The 
gentle King shall have to-day the greatest victory he 
has ever had. My Counsel has told me they are all 
ours." Without great difficulty the English were beaten 
and slain, and Talbot made prisoner. There was a 
great slaughter. Then the army went to Patay, where 
Talbot was brought before me and the Constable in 
the presence of Jeanne. I said to Talbot that in the 
morning I had never expected what had happened. "It 
is the fortune of war," l he replied. Afterwards we 
returned to the King, and it was decided to direct our 
way towards Rheims for his coronation and consecration. 

Many times in my presence Jeanne told the King she 
would last but one year and no more ; and that he 
should consider how best to employ this year. She had, 
she said, four duties to accomplish : to beat the English ; 
to have the King crowned and consecrated at Rheims ; 
to deliver the Duke d'Orleans from the hands of the 
English ; 2 and to raise the siege of Orleans. 

Jeanne was a chaste maiden ; she hated the women 
who follow in the train of armies. I saw her one day 
at Saint Denis on the return from the coronation, 
pursuing one of them sword in hand : her sword was 
broken on this occasion. She was very vexed if she 
heard any of the soldiers swear. She reproved me much 
and strongly when I sometimes swore ; and when I saw 
her I refrained from swearing. 

So far as I could judge, I always held her for an 
excellent Catholic, and a modest woman : she com- 
municated often, and, at sight of the Body of Christ, 

1 It was after this battle of Patay that Sir John Fastolf, one of the English 
captains, was deprived of the Garter, for his conduct in retreating before the 
French army. 

2 Louis, Duke d'Orldans, taken prisoner at Agincourt, in 1415, was 
imprisoned in England until the year 1440, when he was ransomed at the 
price of 54,000 nobles (about ^36,000), the negotiations being carried out on 
the English side by Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais. 




THE COUNT DE RICHEMONT, 
Constable of France. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 281 

shed many tears. In all she did, except in affairs of 
war, she was a very simple young girl ; but for warlike 
things bearing the lance, assembling an army, ordering 
military operations, directing artillery she was most 
skilful. Every one wondered that she could act with as 
much wisdom and foresight as a captain who had fought 
for twenty or thirty years. It was above all in making 1 
use of artillery that she was so wonderful. 

BROTHER JEAN PASQUEREL. 1 

The first time I heard of Jeanne, and that she had 
come to find the King, I was at Anche, 2 in which town 
was her mother 3 and some of those who had accompanied 
her thither. One day, they invited me to go with them 
and see her, and told me they would not leave me till I 
had seen her. I came then with them to Chinon ; then 
to Tours, in which town I was at that time Reader in a 
Convent ; and there we found her lodging in the house 
of a citizen named Jean Dupuy, 4 a burgher of Tours. 
My companions addressed Jeanne in these terms : 
"Jeanne, we bring you this good father; when you 
know him you will love him much." " I am very glad 
to see you," she said to me ; "I have already heard of 
you ; I should like to-morrow to confess myself to you." 

1 Of the Order of Hermit Friars of Saint Augustin, living at their 'Convent 
in Tours in 1429, and at Bayeux in 1456. 

2 There is some doubt as to the identity of this town. The text gives 
" Aniciensis," which would refer to Puy-en-Valais ; but this, Quicherat 
says, is unlikely, owing to the distance, and proposes to substitute 
" Anceinsi," /.0., Anche. Fabre, following Simon de Lune, is in favour of 
the former reading, as the town was one noted for pilgrimages ; and, in the 
Lent of 1429, there was an unusual number of pilgrims, in honour of the 
special feast of La Vierge Noire de Puy, which, in that year, fell on Good 
Friday. This fact might account for the presence of Jeanne's mother 
at Puy, and of the men-at-arms, who had escorted the Maid to Chinon. 

8 Quicherat prefers to read, " brother." 

* Probably the husband of the woman named Lapau, mentioned by Louis 
de Contes. 



282 . JEANNE D'ARC 

The next day, indeed, I heard her in confession, and 
recited Mass before her. From that day onward, I 
always followed her and was always with her as her 
Chaplain, until Compiegne, where she was taken 
prisoner. 

On her arrival at Chinon, I heard that she had been 
visited on two occasions by women. The Lady de Gau- 
court and the Lady de Treves, it is said, were those 
who visited her. 

Afterwards, she was taken to Poitiers, to be examined 
there by the Clergy of that University as to what should 
be done with regard to her. Maitre Jourdin Morin, 
Maitre Pierre de Versailles, since deceased as Bishop of 
Meaux, and many others, after having questioned her, 
came to the conclusion that, in view of the necessity 
which weighed upon the Kingdom, the King might make 
use of her aid, and that they had found nothing in her 
contrary to the Catholic Faith. She then returned to 
Chinon, and thought she would be allowed to speak with 
the King ; but it was not yet to be. At last, by the 
advice of the Council, she was permitted an interview 
with the King. The day on which this interview was to 
take place, just as she entered the Castle, a man, mounted 
on horseback, said, " Is that the Maid ? " He insulted 
her, and swore with horrid blasphemy. " Oh ! in God's 
Name," she said to him, " dost thou blaspheme God, 
thou who art so near thy death ! " And, an hour after, 
this man fell into the water and was drowned. I report 
this fact as I gathered it from Jeanne and from many 
others, who said they had been witnesses of it. 

It was the Sieur Count de Vendome who brought her 
into the King's apartment. When he perceived her, the 
King asked her her name. " Gentle Dauphin," she 
replied, u I am called Jeanne the Maid ; and the King of 
Heaven sends you word by me that you will be conse- 
crated and crowned at Rheims, and that you will be the 




CHARLES VII. 
(Gallery of the Lcuvre.) 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS : 1455-6 283 

lieutenant of the King of Heaven, who is King of 
France." After the King had asked her a number of 
questions, she said to him, " On the part of My Lord, I 
tell thee thou art true heir of France and son of the 
King 1 ; and He sends me to lead thee to Rheims to 
the end thou mayst receive thy crowning and thy con- 
secration, if thou wilt." At the close of this interview, 
the King said that Jeanne had confided to him secrets 
which were not known and could not be known except by 
God, which gave him great confidence in her. All this 
I heard from Jeanne, but without having been witness 
of it. 

She told me she was not pleased at so many ex- 
aminations ; that they prevented her carrying out the 
work for which she was sent, and that it was quite time 
for her to act. She told me she had asked from the 
Messengers of her Lord that is to say, God who 
appeared to her, what she ought to do ; and they 
had told her to take the banner of her Lord. It was 
for this she had her banner made, on which was 
painted the image of Our Saviour seated in judgment 
on the clouds of Heaven, with an Angel holding in 
his hand a fleur-de-lys which Christ was blessing. I 
was at Tours with her when this banner was painted. 2 

A short time after Jeanne departed with the army to 
the succour of the town of Orleans, which was then 
besieged ; I went with her, and did not leave her until 
the day when she was taken at Compiegne. I acted as 
her Chaplain, confessed her, and sang Mass for her. 
She was, indeed, very pious towards God and the Blessed 
Mary, confessing nearly every day and communicating 

1 Doubt had been thrown on the fact here stated, since Charles VII.'s 
mother, Queen Isabeau, had denied her son's legitimacy. 

2 The account for this banner appears in the I3th Compte of Maitre 
Hemon Raguier, Treasurer of War : 25 liv. tour, were paid to " Hauves 
Poulnois, painter, living at Tours, for painting and procuring materials for a 
great standard, and a small one for the Maid." 



284 JEANNE D'ARC 

frequently. When she was in a neighbourhood where 
there was a Convent of Mendicant Friars, she told me 
to remind her of the day when the children of the poor 
received the Eucharist, so that she might receive it 
with them ; and this she did often : when she confessed 
herself she wept. 

When Jeanne left Tours to go to Orleans, she prayed 
me not to forsake her, and to remain always with her 
as her Confessor ; this I promised to do. We were at 
Blois about two or three days, waiting for the supplies 
with which the boats were to be loaded. At Blois she 
told me to have a banner made, round which the Priests 
might assemble, and to have painted thereon the Image 
of Our Saviour crucified. I had it done, as she required 
of me. As soon as this banner was made, Jeanne, twice 
a day, morning and evening, charged me to assemble the 
Priests around this banner : they then sang anthems and 
hymns to the Blessed Mary. Jeanne was with them, 
permitting only the soldiers who had that day confessed 
themselves to join her ; she told her people to make 
confession, if they wished to come to this assemblage. 
There were Priests always ready to confess those in the 
army who wished to apply to them. 

On leaving Blois to march to Orleans, Jeanne made 
all the Priests assemble round this banner ; and in this 
wise they marched at the head of the army. They 
departed, thus assembled, from the side of the Sologne, 
singing the " Veni Creator Spiritus " and many other 
anthems. On that and the two following days, we slept 
in the fields. On the third day, we arrived at Orleans, 
where the English held their siege right up to the bank 
of the Loire : we approached so close to them that 
French and English could almost touch one another. 
The French had with them a convoy of supplies ; but 
the water was so shallow that the boats could not 
move up-stream, nor could they land where the English 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS : 1455-6 285 

were. Suddenly the waters rose, and the boats were 
then able to land on the shore where the [French] 
army was. Jeanne entered the boats, with some of her 
followers, and thus came to Orleans. As for myself I 
returned to Blois, by Jeanne's command, with the Priests 
and the banner. Then, some days after, accompanied 
by the whole army, I came to Orleans by way of the 
Beauce always with this same banner surrounded by 
Priests meeting no obstacle. When Jeanne knew of 
our approach, she came to meet us ; and together we 
entered Orleans without difficulty, bringing in the pro- 
visions in sight of the English. This was a marvellous 
thing ; for the English were in great number and strength, 
all prepared for fight. They had opposite them our 
army, very inferior to theirs : they saw us ; they heard 
our Priests singing ; I was in the midst of the Priests 
bearing the banner. The English remained immovable, 
never attempting to attack either the Priests or the army 
which followed them. 

As soon as we entered Orleans, the French sallied 
from the town at Jeanne's urgent entreaties, and went to 
attack the English, who were shut up in the Fort of Saint 
Loup. After dinner the other Priests went with me to 
seek Jeanne at her residence. When we arrived, we 
heard her calling out : " Where are those who should 
arm me ? The blood of our people is falling to the 
ground ! " And, so soon as she was armed, she sallied 
from the town and made for the Fort of Saint Loup, 
where the attack was taking place. On the road she 
met many wounded soldiers ; the sight of them distressed 
her much. She went to the assault, and did so well, that 
by force and violence the fort was at last taken, and all 
the English who were there were taken prisoners. I 
remember that this took place on the Eve of the Ascension 
of Our Saviour. 

When the Fort of Saint Loup was taken, the English 



286 JEANNE D'ARC 

died there in great numbers. Jeanne was much afflicted 
when she heard that they had died without confession, 
and pitied them much. On the spot she made her con- 
fession. She ordered me to invite the whole army to 
do likewise, and to give thanks to God for the victory 
just gained. Otherwise, she said, she would help 
them no more, but would abandon them. On this day, 
the Eve of the Ascension, she predicted that within five 
days the siege would be raised, and that not a single 
Englishman would be left within the walls of Orleans. 1 
And so it was : for on this Wednesday, as I have already 
said, the Fort of Saint Loup was taken, which formerly 
had been a convent. 2 More than one hundred men 
of distinction were found there, all well armed, not 
one escaping. In the evening, when Jeanne returned 
to her lodging, she told me that on the following 
day, the Ascension of Our Saviour, she would not 
fight, nor even put on her armour ; and that she 
wished, out of respect for the Festival, to confess and 
to receive the Sacrament of the Eucharist. And this 
was done. 

On Ascension Day, she ordered that no one should go 
out of the town to the attack on the same day without 
first making confession, and forbade women of bad 
reputation to follow her, lest, on account of sin, God 
should cause us to lose the battle. All these orders were 
carried out. It was on Ascension Day that she wrote to 
the English, entrenched in their forts, a letter thus 
couched : 

" You, men of England, who have no right in this 
kingdom of France, the King of Heaven orders and 
commands you by me, Jeanne the Maid, that you quit 
your strong places, and return to your own country ; if 
you do not I will cause you such an overthrow as shall 

1 The siege was raised on the 8th of May. 

2 Established on the site of a convent in the previous December. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS : 1455-6 287 

be remembered for all time. I write to you for the 
third l and last time, and shall write to you no more. 

Signed thus 

" Jhdsus Maria, JEHANNE LA PUCELLE." 
And lower : 

" I would have sent you this letter in a more suitable 
manner, but you keep back my heralds : you have kept 
my herald Guyenne ; I pray you to send him back, and I 
will send you some of your people who have been taken 
at the Fort of Saint Loup, for all were not killed 
there." 

As soon as this letter was written, Jeanne took an 
arrow, on the point of which she fastened this letter with 
a thread, and ordered an archer to shoot this arrow to- 
wards the English, crying out, " Read! here is news !" 
The English received the arrow with this letter, which 
they read. After having read it they began to cry out 
with all their power: " It is news sent to us from the 
... of the Armagnacs ! " At these words Jeanne began 
to cry, shedding many tears, and prayed the God of 
Heaven to come to her aid. Soon she appeared to be 
consoled, having had, as she said, news from her Lord. 
In the evening after supper, she ordered me to rise 
earlier than I had done on Ascension Day, because she 
wished to confess very early in the morning : and this 
she did. 

The next day, Friday, I rose very early ; confessed her, 
and sang Mass before her and all her followers : she then 
started with them at once for the attack, which lasted 
from morning to evening. On this day the Fort of the 
Augustins was taken, after a great assault. Jeanne, who 
was accustomed to fast every Friday, could not do so on 
that day because she was too troubled, and she took 

1 The first letter was sent on March 22nd, 1429 : of the second nothing is 
known. 



288 JEANNE D'ARC 

supper. After this supper there came to her a noble 
and valiant captain, whose name I do not remember. 
He told her that all the captains were assembled in 
Council ; that they had taken into consideration the small 
number of their forces in comparison with the large 
forces of the English, and the abundant grace which God 
had granted them in the success already obtained : 
" The town is full of supplies ; we could keep it well 
while we await fresh succour, which the King could send 
us ; it does not seem," he ended by saying, " expedient 
to the Council that the army should go forth to-morrow." 
" You have been to your Counsel," Jeanne answered 
him, " and I have been to mine ; and believe me the 
Counsel of God will be accomplished and will succeed ; 
yours on the contrary will perish." And addressing her- 
self to me who was near her : " Rise to-morrow morning 
even earlier than you did to-day ; do your best ; keep 
always near me ; for to-morrow I shall have yet more to 
do, and much greater things ; to-morrow blood shall flow 
from my body, above the breast." 

On the Saturday, therefore, very early in the morning 
I rose and celebrated Mass ; then Jeanne went to the 
attack of the Bridge Fort, in which was the Englishman, 
Clasdas. 1 The attack lasted from morning to sunset 
without interruption. At this assault, after dinner, 
Jeanne, as she had predicted, was struck by an arrow 
above the breast. When she felt herself wounded, she 
was afraid, and wept ; but she was soon comforted, 
as she said. Some of the soldiers seeing her severely 
wounded wished to " charm " her ; but she would not, say- 
ing : " I would rather die than do a thing which I know 
to be a sin ; I know well that I must die one day, but I 
know not when, nor in what manner, nor on what day ; 
if my wound may be healed without sin, I shall be glad 
enough to be cured." Oil of olive and lard were ap- 

1 /.*., Glasdale. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 



289 



plied to the wound. After the dressing, she confessed 
herself to me, weeping and lamenting. Then she returned 
in all haste to the attack, crying : " Clasdas ! Clasdas ! 
yield thee, yield thee to the King of Heaven ! Thou 
hast called me. . . I have a great pity for thy soul, and 
for thy people." At this moment Clasdas, fully armed 
from head to foot, fell into the Loire, where he was 
drowned. Jeanne, moved to pity at this sight, began to 
weep for the soul of Clasdas, and for all the others who, 
in great number, were drowned, at the same time as he. 
On this day, all the English who were on the other side 
of the bridge were taken and killed. The next day 
which was a Sunday before sunrise all the English who 
were still in the plains around Orleans grouped them- 
selves together, and came to the foot of the trenches of 
the town. From thence they departed for Meung-sur- 
Loire, where they remained for several days. On this 
Sunday l there was in Orleans a solemn procession and a 
sermon. It was then decided to go and seek the King ; 
and Jeanne went thither. The English entrenched 
themselves in Jargeau, which was soon taken by as- 
sault. Finally, they were entirely defeated at Patay. 

I often heard her say of her work that it was her 
mission ; and when people said to her : " Never have 
such things been seen as these deeds of yours. In no 
book can one read of such things," she answered : " My 
Lord has a book in which no Clerk has ever read, how 
perfect soever he may be in clerkship ! " 

In war and in camp, when there was not enough 
provision, she would never eat stolen food. I firmly 
believe she was sent from God on account of her good 
works, and her many virtues ; even on the poor English 

1 8th May. The commemoration of the relief of Orleans was made a 
national festival by Louis XI. and confirmed by Richelieu. This day is still 
kept in the town with great rejoicings and religious processions : it has been 
celebrated, excepting during the Revolution, ever since the relief of the city. 

U 



290 ' JEANNE D'ARC 

soldiers she had so much compassion that, when she saw 
them dying or wounded, she had them confessed. So 
much did she fear God, that for nothing in the world 
would she displease Him. When she was wounded in 
the shoulder by an arrow which went through from one 
side to the other some spoke of "charming" her, 
promising in this manner to cure her on the spot. She 
replied that it would be a sin, and that she would rather 
die than offend God by such enchantments. 

I marvel much that such great Clerks as those who 
caused her death at Rouen should have dared such a crime 
as to put to death so poor and simple a Christian, cruelly 
and without cause sufficient at least for [the penalty 
of] death : they might have kept her in prison or else- 
where ; but she had so displeased them that they were 
her mortal enemies ; and thus, it seems, they assumed 
the responsibility of an unjust court. Her actions and 
her deeds are all perfectly known to our Lord the King 
and to the Duke d'Alen^on, who knew certain secrets 
which they might declare if they would. 

As for me I know no more than what I have said, 
unless it be that many times Jeanne expressed to me a 
desire that, if she were to die, the King would build a 
Chapel, where the souls of those who had died in defence 
of the kingdom might be prayed for. 

MAfTRE JEAN DE LENOZOLLES, Priest, of the Order of 
St. Pierre Celestin. 

At the time when Jeanne was at Rouen, I was in the 
service of Maitre Guillaume Erard, with whom I came 
from Burgundy. After we had arrived, I heard talk of 
this Trial ; but of what was done therein I know nothing, 
for I left Rouen and went to Caen, and stayed there 
until the feast of Pentecost ; at this feast I returned to 
Rouen to meet my master, who told me that he had a 




DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 291 



heavy task to preach a sermon for this Jeanne, which 
much displeased him. He said he would he were in 
Flanders : this business disturbed him much. 

I saw Jeanne at the second sermon ; and in the 
morning before the sermon I saw the Body of Christ 
carried to the said Jeanne with much solemnity, and the 
singing of Litanies and intercession " Orate pro ed" and 
with a great multitude of candles ; but who decided or 
ordered this, I know not. I was not present at the 
reception, but I afterwards heard it said that she 
received It with great devotion and abundance of tears. 



SIMON CHARLES, President of the Council. 

The year in which Jeanne came to seek the King 
was the very year in which the King sent me as 
ambassador to Venice. I returned about the month of 
March, at which time I heard from Jean de Metz, who 
had conducted her, that she had visited the King. 
When Jeanne came to Chinon, there was discussion in 
the Council as to whether the King should hear her or 
not. And first she was questioned as to why and to 
what end she had come ; and she began by replying 
that she would answer nothing except to the King. 
She was compelled, by order of the King, to state the 
cause of her mission. 

She said she had two commands from the King of 
Heaven : the one to raise the siege of Orleans, the other 
to conduct the King to Rheims for his coronation and 
anointing. 

Hearing this, some of the King's Council said that 
the King ought not to put faith in this Jeanne ; others 
said that, as she declared she was sent from God and 
commanded to speak to the King, the King ought at 
least to hear her. The King desired that she should 
first be examined by the Clergy and Ecclesiastics, 

u 2 



292 JEANNE D'ARC 

and this was done ; after many difficulties it was 
arranged that the King should hear her. I have heard 
the Seigneur de Gaucourt relate that, when she was at 
Orleans, the King's people had decided it was not 
well to make the attack. This happened on the day 
when the Fort of the Augustins was taken and he, 
de Gaucourt, had been commissioned to guard the 
gates of the town that none should go out. Jeanne, 
discontented with the orders of the generals, was of 
opinion that the King's soldiers with the people of the 
town should go out and attack the fort ; and many 
of the soldiers and people of the city agreed with 
her. Jeanne told de Gaucourt that he was a bad 
man, saying to him : " Whether you will or no, the 
soldiers shall come ; and they will succeed this time 
as they have succeeded before." And, against the 
will of the said Lord de Gaucourt, the soldiers left 
the city and marched to the assault of the bastille of 
the Augustins, which was taken by force. My Lord de 
Gaucourt added that he had come that day into great 
peril. 

The King made a treaty with the people of Troyes, 
and entered the town of Troyes in great array, Jeanne 
carrying her banner by his side. Shortly after, the 
King left Troyes and went with his army to Chalons, 
and thence to Rheims. When the King feared to find 
resistance at Rheims, Jeanne said to him : " Have no 
fear ! for the burghers of the city will come out to meet 
you ; " and she said that, before he got near the city of 
Rheims, the burgesses would meet him. The King 
feared their resistance because he had no artillery or 
engines for carrying on a siege, in case they should 
prove rebellious. Jeanne told him that he must 
go forward boldly and fear nothing, for if he would 
go forward like a man he would soon obtain all his 
kingdom. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 293 

THIBAULD D'ARMAGNAC, Knight, Seigneur de Termes, 
bailiff of Chartres. 

I knew nothing of Jeanne until she came to Orleans 
to raise the siege made by the English, in the defence 
of which town I was in the company of my lord of 
Dunois. 

I afterwards saw her at the assault of the Forts of 
Saint Loup, the Augustins, Saint- Jean-le- Blanc, and at 
the Bridge. In all these assaults she was so valorous 
and comported herself in such manner as would not 
have been possible to any man, however well versed in 
war ; and all the captains marvelled at her valour and 
activity and at her endurance. 

I believe that she was good and worthy, and that 
the things she did were divine rather than human. 
She often reproved the vices of the soldiers ; and I heard 
from a certain Maitre Robert Baignart, S.T.P., of the 
Order of Saint Dominic, who often heard her in confes- 
sion, that Jeanne was a godly woman, that all she did 
came from God, that she had a good soul and tender 
conscience. 

After the raising of the siege of Orleans, I with many 
others of the army went with Jeanne to Beaugency, 
where the English were. The day that the English lost 
the battle of Patay, I and the late La Hire, knowing 
that the English were assembled and prepared for battle, 
told Jeanne that the English were coming and were 
all ready to fight. She replied, speaking to -the captains: 
" Attack them boldly, and they will fly ; nor will they 
long withstand us." At these words, the captains 
prepared to attack : and the English were overthrown 
and fled. Jeanne had predicted to the French that few 
or none of them should be slain or suffer loss : which 
also befell, for of all our men there perished but one 
gentleman of my company. 



294 JEANNE D'ARC 

Apart from affairs of war, she was simple and 
innocent ; but in the conduct and disposition of troops 
and in actual warfare, in the ordering of battle and in 
animating the soldiers, she behaved as the most skilled 
captain in the world who all his life had been trained in 
the art of war. 

RAIMOND, SIEUR DE MACY, Knight. 

I knew nothing of Jeanne until I saw her in prison, 
in the Castle of Beaurevoir, where she was detained for 
and in the name of the Count de Ligny ; then I saw her 
often and many times talked with her : she would allow 
no familiarity, but repelled such with all her power ; she 
was indeed of modest bearing, both in words and deeds. 

She was taken to the Castle of Rouen, where she was 
placed in a prison facing the fields. Whilst she was 
there, in this prison, came the Count de Ligny, on whom 
I was in attendance. The Count de Ligny desired to 
see Jeanne, and came to visit her, in company of 
the Earls of Warwick and Stafford, the present Chan- 
cellor of England, then Bishop of Therouanne, the 
brother 1 of the Count de Ligny, and myself. He said to 
her : " Jeanne, I have come to ransom you, if you will 
promise never again to bear arms against us." She 
answered : " In God's Name, you mock me, for I know 
well that you have neither the will nor the power ; " this 
she repeated often, because the Count persisted in his 
statement. " I know well," she ended by saying, " that 
the English will do me to death, thinking after my death 
to gain the kingdom of France ; but if they were a 
hundred thousand more ' godons ' 2 than they are at 
present, they would not have the kingdom." Indignant 
at these words, the Earl of Stafford half drew his dagger 

1 Louis de Luxembourg. 

2 " Godon," or " goddam," a common term for the English in the Middle 
Ages and to the present day. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 295 

to kill her, but the Earl of Warwick withheld him. 
After this, while I was still at Rouen, Jeanne was taken 
to the Place St. Ouen, where a sermon was preached to 
her by Maitre Nicolas Midi, 1 who, amongst other things, 
said, in my hearing : " Jeanne, we have great compassion 
for thee ; it behoves thee to revoke what thou hast said, 
or we must give thee up to the secular judges." She 
answered, that she had done no evil, that she believed 
in the Twelve Articles of the Faith and in the Ten 
Commandments of the Decalogue ; adding, that she 
referred herself to the Court of Rome, and that she 
wished to believe all things in which Holy Church 
believed. Notwithstanding this, they pressed her much 
to recant, to which she answered : " You take much 
pains to seduce me ; " and, to escape danger, she said 
at last that she was content to do all they required. 
Then a Secretary of the King of England there present, 
named Laurence Calot, drew from his pocket a little 
written schedule, which he handed to Jeanne to sign. 
She replied that she could neither read nor write. Not- 
withstanding this Laurence Calot, the Secretary, handed 
Jeanne the schedule and a pen to sign it ; and by way of 
derision Jeanne made some sort of round mark. Then 
Laurence Calot took her hand with the pen and caused 
her to make some sort of signature, what, I cannot 
remember. 

I believe her to be in Paradise. 

COLETTE, wife 0/ PIERRE MILET. 

I first knew of Jeanne when she came to Orleans ; she 
was lodged in the house of one Jacques Bouchier, where 
I went to visit her. Jeanne continually spoke of God, 
saying, " My Lord hath sent me to succour the good 
town of Orleans." I often saw her attend Mass with 
great devotion, as a good Christian and Catholic. During 

1 An error ; the first sermon was by 3i!rard. 



296 JEANNE D'ARC 

the time she was at Orleans, for the raising of the siege, 
Jeanne was sleeping in the house of her host, Jacques le 
Bouchier ; on the Vigil of the Ascension, she suddenly 
awoke, and, calling her page, Mugot, 1 said to him : " In 
God's Name ! This is ill done. Why was I not sooner 
awakened ? Our people have much to do." Then she 
asked for her armour, and armed herself, her page 
bringing round her horse ; then, all armed, she 
mounted, lance in rest, and began to ride along the 
main street so rapidly that the stones struck fire. She 
made straight for Saint Loup ; and gave order, by sound 
of trumpet, that nothing should be taken from the Church. 

On the morning of the day that the Fort of the Bridge 
was taken, Jeanne was still in the house of her host 
when a fish was brought to her : on seeing it she said to 
her host, " Take care of it till the evening, because I 
will bring you back a ' godon ' and I shall return by the 
bridge." 

Jeanne was very frugal in eating and drinking. There 
was nothing but modesty in her conduct, in her actions, 
and in all her manner of life. I believe firmly that her 
deeds and actions were rather the works of God than of 
man. 

PIERRE MILET, Clerk to the Electors of Paris. 

Soon after she came to Orleans, she sent to the 
English, who were besieging the town, and summoned 
them in a kind of simple schedule written in her mother- 
tongue, which I read myself, notifying that it was the 
will of God that they should depart : 

[" Messire vous mande que vous en aliez en vostre 
pays, car c'est son plaisir, ou sinon je vous feray ung tel 
hahay. ." 2 ] 

1 Louis de Contes, called " Imerguet " and " Mugot " by his companions. 

2 The phrase is left thus unfinished in all the MSS. It is quoted in the 
Latin texts in the original French, as above. 



DEPOSITIONS IN PARIS: 1455-6 297 

MA!TRE AIGNAN VIOLE, Licentiate in Law, Advocate of 
the Court of Parliament. 

On the Sunday after the taking of the Forts of the 
Bridge and of Saint Loup, the English were drawn up in 
order of battle before the town of Orleans, at which the 
greater part of [our] soldiers wished to give combat, and 
sallied from the town. Jeanne, who was wounded, was 
with the soldiers, dressed in her light surcoat. She put 
the men in array, but forbade them to attack the English, 
because, she said, if it pleased God and it were His will 
that they wished to retire, they should be allowed to go. 
And at that the men-at-arms returned into Orleans. 

It was said that Jeanne was as expert as possible in the 
art of ordering an army in battle, and that even a captain 
bred and instructed in war could not have shown more 
skill ; at this the captains marvelled exceedingly. 

She frequently confessed, often received the Holy 
Sacrament, and, in all her deeds and conversation, bore 
herself most worthily, and in everything save in warfare 
she was marvellously simple. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN: 1455-6. 



GUILLAUME COLLES, or BoiSGUiLLAUME, Priest, Notary 
Public. 

I knew nothing of Jeanne till she was brought 
to Rouen for her trial, at which I was one of the 
notaries. In the copy of the Process shown to me, I 
recognize my own signature at the end. It is the true 
Process made against Jeanne, and is one of five similar 
copies made. In the said Process were associated with 
me Mattre Guillaume Manchon and Maitre Pierre 
Taquel. In the morning we registered the notes and 
answers, and in the afternoon we collected them together. 
For nothing in the world would we have failed in any- 
thing that should have been done. 

I remember well that Jeanne answered more prudently 
when questioned a second time upon a point whereon 
she had been already questioned ; she failed not to 
say that she had elsewhere replied, and she told the 
notaries to read what she had already said. 

Maitre Nicolas Loyseleur, feigning to be a cobbler 
a captive on the part of the King of France, and from 
Lorraine obtained entrance to Jeanne's prison, to 
whom he said that she should not believe the Church- 
:men, "because," he added, " if you believe them, you 
wilHbe destroyed." I believe the Bishop of Beauvais 
.knew this well, otherwise Loyseleur would not have 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN : 1455-6 299 

done as he did. Many of the Assessors in the 
Process murmured against him. It is said that 

t Loyseleur died suddenly at Bale ; and I have heard 
hat, when he saw Jeanne condemned to death, he 
vas seized with compunction and climbed into the cart, 
earnestly desiring her pardon ; at which many of the 
English were indignant ; and that, had it not been for 
he Earl of Warwick, Loyseleur would have been killed ; 
the said Earl enjoined him to leave Rouen as soon 
as he possibly could, if he wished to save his life. 

In the same way, Maltre Guillaume d'Estivet got into 
the prison, feigning to be a prisoner as Loyseleur had 

(done. This d'Estivet was Promoter, and in this matter 
was much affected towards the English, whom he 
desired to please. He was a bad man, and often during 
the Process spoke ill of the notaries and of those who, as 
he saw, wished to act justly ; and he often cruelly insulted 
Jeanne, calling her foul names. I think that, in the end 
of his days, he was punished by God ; for he died 
miserably. He was found dead in a drain outside the 
gates of Rouen. 

Jeanne was often disconcerted by questions which 
were subtle and not pertinent. I remember that, on 
one occasion, she was asked if she were in a state of 
grace. She replied, that it was a serious matter to 
answer such a question, and at last said : " If I am, may 
God so keep me. If I am not, may God so place me. 
I would rather die than not be in the love of God." At 
this reply the questioners were much confounded, and 
broke up the sitting ; nor was she further interrogated 
on that occasion. 

On the Sunday following the first sentence, I was 
summoned to the Castle with the other notaries to see 
Jeanne dressed in man's dress ; we went to the Castle, 
entered the prison, and there saw her. Questioned as 
to why she had resumed it, she made excuses, as appears 



300 JEANNE D'ARC 

in the Process. I think, perhaps, that she was induced 
to act thus, for I saw many of those concerned in the 
Process applauding and rejoicing that she had resumed 
her old dress ; yet some lamented, among whom I saw 
Pierre Maurice grieving much. 

On the following Wednesday, Jeanne was taken to the 
Old Market of Rouen, where a sermon was preached 
by Maitre Nicolas Midi upon the Sentence of Relapse 
pronounced by the Bishop of Beauvais. After this 
sentence was read, she was taken by the civil authorities, 
and, without further trial or sentence, was led to the 
executioner, to be burnt. And I know, of a truth, 
that the Judges and their adherents were hence- 
forward notorious to the population : after Jeanne 
was burnt, they were pointed at by the people and 
hated ; and I have heard it maintained that all who were 
guilty of her death came to a shameful end. Maitre 
Nicolas Midi died of leprosy a few days later ; and 
the Bishop died suddenly while he was being shaved. 

JEAN LEMAIRE, Priest, Curd of the Church of St. 
Vincent at Rouen ; [evidence of no special value.] 

MAUGIER LEPARMENTIER, Clerk, Apparitor of the 
Archiepiscopal Court of Rouen. 

I knew nothing of Jeanne until she came to 
Rouen. I was summoned to the Castle of Rouen, with 
my assistants, to submit Jeanne to torture. On this 
occasion, she was questioned on various subjects and 
answered with such prudence that all present marvelled. 
Then I and my associates retired without doing anything. 

She was a prisoner in the Castle, in a great tower. 
I saw her when I was summoned to the torture, as 
aforesaid. I was present at the first preaching at St. 
Ouen, and also at the last at the Old Market, on the 
day when Jeanne was burnt. Wood was prepared for 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN : 1455-6 301 

the burning before the preaching was finished or the 
sentence pronounced ; and as soon as the sentence was 
read by the Bishop, without any interval, she was taken 
to the fire. I did not notice that any sentence by the 
civil authorities was read. When she was in the fire 
she cried, more than six times, " Jesus!" And with 
the last breath she cried with a loud voice, so that 
all present might hear, " Jesus!" Nearly all wept for 
pity. I have heard it said that, after the burning, her 
ashes were collected and thrown into the Seine. 

LAURENCE GUESDON, Burgher of Rouen, and Advocate 
in the Civil Courts. 

I knew nothing of Jeanne till she was brought to 
Rouen ; but I was so anxious to see her that I went 
to the Castle, and there saw her for the first time. I 
did not see her again until the time of the preaching at 
Saint Ouen. 

I was at the final sermon in the Old Market Place, 
at Rouen ; I went as Bailly, for whom I was then acting 
as deputy. The sentence by which Jeanne was handed 
over to the civil authorities was read ; and, as soon as 
it was pronounced, at once, without any interval of 
handing her over to the Bailly, without more ado, and 
before either the Bailly or myself, whose office it was, 
had given sentence, the executioner seized her and 
took her to the place where the stake was already 
prepared : and she was burned. And this I hold was 
not a right proceeding : for soon after, a malefactor 
named George Folenfont was in like manner handed 
over, by sentence, from the ecclesiastical to the civil 
authorities; and, after the sentence, the said George 
was conducted to the Cohue, 1 and there condemned by 
the secular justice, instead of being immediately con- 
ducted to execution. 

1 The Court of the Bailiff. 



302 JEANNE D'ARC 

I think Jeanne died as a Catholic, for, in dying, she 
cried on the name of the Lord Jesus. She was very 
devout, and nearly all present were moved to tears. 
After she was dead, the ashes that remained were col- 
lected by the executioner and thrown into the Seine. 

JEAN RICQUIER, Priest, Chaplain in the Cathedral of 
Rouen, and Cure 1 of the Church at Hendicourt. 

I first saw Jeanne at the sermon at Saint Ouen, and 
again at the Old Market. I was then about twenty. 

At the time when Jeanne was brought to Rouen, I 
was in the choir of the Cathedral, and sometimes 
heard of the Trial from the Clergy of the Cathedral. 

I was present at the sermon in the Old Market, on 
the day Jeanne died. I know she was handed over by 
the ecclesiastical authorities. I saw the English followers 
and soldiers seize her, and lead her immediately to the 
place of execution ; nor did I see any sentence read by 
the secular authorities. 

On that morning, before the sermon, Maitre Pierre 
Maurice came to visit her ; to whom she said, " Maitre 
Pierre, where shall I be this evening ? " Maitre Pierre 
replied, " Have you not a good hope in God?" She 
answered that she had ; and that, God willing, she would 
be in Paradise. This I heard from the aforesaid Maitre 
Pierre. When Jeanne saw that they were setting fire to 
the pile, she began to say, with a loud voice, " Jesus!" 
and constantly, to the end, she cried, " Jesus ! " 

And after she was dead, because the English feared 
that people would say she had escaped, they ordered the 
executioner to part the flames a little, in order that those 
present might see she was dead. I was near to Maitre 
Jean Alepe, at that time Canon of Rouen, and heard 
him say these words, weeping greatly : " God grant that 
my soul may be in the place where I believe this 
woman's to be ! " 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN : 1455-6 303 
JEAN Mo READ, Visitor in the city of Rouen. 

I live at Rouen ; but I came from Viville, in 
Bassigny, not far from Domremy, where Jeanne was 
born. 

At the time when Jeanne was at Rouen, and during 
the Trial against her, a man of note from Lorraine 
came to the town. We soon made acquaintance, being 
of the same country. He told me that he came from 
the Marches of Lorraine, and that he had been called to 
Rouen, having been commissioned to get information in 
the native country of the said Jeanne, and to hear what 
was said about her. This he had done, and had brought 
it to the Bishop of Beauvais, expecting to have satis- 
faction for his labour and expense. But the Bishop 
blamed him for a traitor and a bad man, and said he had 
not done in this as he had been told. My compatriot 
complained that he could not get any wage from the 
Bishop, who found his information of no use : he 
told me that in this information he had learnt nothing 
of Jeanne which he would not willingly know of his own 
sister, although he had made enquiries in five or six 
parishes near Domremy as well as in the village itself. 
I remember it was said that she had committed the 
crime of lese majeste 1 ? and had led the people away. 

HUSSON LE MA!TRE, of Viville, in Bassigny, Coal 
Merchant. 

I knew nothing of Jeanne until she came to Rheims, 
for the King's coronation, in which town I was then 
living. Thither came also her father and her brother 
Pierre, both of whom were friendly with me and my 
wife, as we were compatriots; and they called my wife 
" neighbour." 

I was in my own neighbourhood when Jeanne went to 

1 " Crimen lessee majestatis." 



304 JEANNE D'ARC 

Vaucouleurs, to Robert de Baudricourt, that she might 
get an escort to go to the King. I then said it was by 
the grace of God, and that Jeanne was led by the Spirit 
of God. Jeanne requested the said Robert to give her 
an escort to conduct her to my lord the Dauphin. 

I heard, at the time when she was taken from 
Vaucouleurs to the King, that some of the soldiers who 
conducted her feigned to be on the other side, and, 
when those who were with her pretended to fly, she 
said to them : " Fly not, in God's Name ! they will do 
us no harm." When she came to the King, she 
recognized him, though she had never seen him before ; 
and afterwards she took the King without hindrance 
to Rheims, where I saw her ; and from Rheims the 
King went to Corbignac, and afterwards to Chateau 
Thierry, which was surrendered to the King. And there 
arrived news that the English were come to fight against 
the King ; but Jeanne told the King's people not to fear, 
for the English would not come. 

PIERRE DARON, Locum Tenens y Deputy to the Bailiff 
of Rouen. 

I knew nothing of Jeanne until she was brought 
to Rouen, where, at that time, I was Procurator of the 
town. Having much curiosity to see the said Jeanne, I 
enquired the best means to accomplish this : and a 
certain Pierre Manuel, Advocate of the King of England, 
who was also anxious to see her, came, and together we 
went to see her. 

We found her in the Castle, in a certain turret, in 
shackles, with a great piece of wood chained to her feet, 
and having many English guards. And Manuel said to 
her, in my presence, jokingly, that she would never have 
come there if she had not been brought : and he asked 
her if she knew, before she was captured, that she 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN : 1455-6 305 

would be taken ; to which she replied that she had 
feared it. When he asked her, afterwards, why, if she 
feared to be taken prisoner, she did not guard herself on 
the day that she was captured, she replied that she did not 
know either the day or hour when she was to be taken. 

I saw her once again during the Trial, when she 
was being brought from the prison to the great hall of 
the Castle. 

I heard from several, during the Trial, that Jeanne was 
quite wonderful in her answers, and that she had a remark- 
able memory ; for, on one occasion, when questioned 
as to a point on which she had answered eight days 
before, she replied : " I was asked about this eight days 
ago, and thus replied." Boisguillaume, the other notary, 
said she had not answered ; and, when some of those 
present declared that what Jeanne said was true, the 
answers of that day were read : and it was found that 
Jeanne had spoken right. At this she rejoiced, saying 
to Boisguillaume that, if he made mistakes again, she 
would pull his ears ! 

I was present at the sermon at the Old Market 
on the day that Jeanne died. Among other things, 
I heard her say : " Ah ! Rouen, Rouen, wilt thou be 
my last dwelling ? " She inspired in all the greatest 
pity, and many were moved to tears ; many, too, were 
much displeased that Jeanne had been executed in 
the town of Rouen. At the close of her life, she 
continually cried "Jesus!" Her flashes and remains 
were afterwards collected and thrown into the Seine. 

BROTHER SEGUIN DE SEGUIN, Dominican, Professor 
of Theology, Dean of the Faculty of Theology of 
Poitiers. 

I saw Jeanne for the first time at Poitiers. The 
King's Council was assembled in the house of the 
Lady La Macee, the Archbishop of Rheims, then 



306 JEANNE D'ARC 

Chancellor of France, being of their number. I was 
summoned, as also were Jean Lombart, Professor of 
Theology of the University of Paris ; Maitre Guillaume 
le Maire, Canon of Poitiers and Bachelor in Theology ; 
Maitre Guillaume Aymerie, Professor of Theology, of 
the Order of Saint Dominic ; Brother Pierre Turrelure ; 
Maitre Jacques Maledon ; and many others whose names 
I do not remember. The Members of the Council told 
us that we were summoned, in the King's name, to 
question Jeanne and to give our opinion upon her. We 
were sent to question her at the house of Maitre Jean 
Rabateau, where she was lodging. We repaired thither 
and interrogated her. 

Among other questions, Maitre Jean Lombart asked 
her why she had come ; that the King wished to know 
what had induced her to come to him. She answered, 
in a grand manner, that (( there had come to her, while 
she was minding the cattle, a Voice, which told her that 
God had great compassion for the people of France, and 
that she must go into France." On hearing this, she 
began to weep ; th*e Voice then told her to go to 
Vaucouleurs, where she would find a Captain who would 
conduct her safely into France and to the King, and that 
she must not be afraid. She had done what the Voice 
had ordered, and had come to the King without meeting 
any obstacle. 

Thereupon, Guillaume Aymerie put to her this 
question : " You assert that a Voice told you, God willed 
to deliver the people of France from the calamity in 
which they now are ; but, if God wills to deliver them, 
it is not necessary to have soldiers." " In God's 
Name ! " Jeanne replied, " the soldiers will fight, and 
God will give the victory." With which answer Maitre 
Guillaume was pleased. 

I, in my turn, asked Jeanne what dialect the Voice 
spoke ? "A better one than yours," she replied. I 




JEANNE D'ARC. 

From a Miniature of the XVth Century. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN: 1455-6 307 

>eak the Limousin dialect. " Do you believe in God ? " 

asked her. " In truth, more than yourself!" she 

iswered. " But God wills that you should not be be- 
ieved unless there appear some sign to prove that you 
mght to be believed ; and we shall not advise the King 
to trust in you, and to risk an army on your simple state- 
ment." " In God's Name!" she replied, "I am not 
come to Poitiers to shew signs : but send me to Orleans, 
where I shall shew you the signs by which I am sent : " 
and she added : " Send me men in such numbers as may 
seem good, and I will go to Orleans." 

And then she foretold to us to me and to all the\ 
others who were with me these four things which should 
happen, and which did afterwards come to pass : first, 
that the English would be destroyed, the siege of S 
Orleans raised, and the town delivered from the Eng- 
lish ; secondly, that the King would be crowned at r 
Rheims ; thirdly, that Paris would be restored to his 
dominion ; and fourthly, that the Duke d'Orleans should 
be brought back from England. And I who speak, I 
have in truth seen these four things accomplished. 

We reported all this to the Council of the King ; and 
we were of opinion that, considering the extreme neces- 
sity and the great peril of the town, the King might 
make use of her help and send her to Orleans. 

Besides this, we enquired into her life and morals ; 
and found that she was a good Christian, living as a 
Catholic, never idle. In order that her manner of living 
might be better known, women were placed- with her 
who were commissioned to report to the Council her 
actions and ways. 

As for me, I believed she was sent from God, bee mse, 
at the time when she appeared, the King and all the 
French people with him had lost hope : no one thought 
of aught but to save himself. 

I remember that Jeanne was asked why she always 

X 2 



308 JEANNE D'ARC 

marched with a banner in her hand ? " Because," she 
answered, " I do not wish to use my sword, nor to kill 
any one." 

When she heard any one taking in vain the Name of 
God, she was very angry ; she held such blasphemies 
in horror : and Jeanne told La Hire, who used many 
oaths and swore by God, that he must swear no 
more, and that, when he wanted to swear by God, he 
should swear by his staff. And afterwards, indeed, when 
he was with her, La Hire never swore but by his staff. 

TESTIMONY OF D'AULON : l 1456. 

And first, Deponent saith that, twenty years ago or 
thereabouts, the King being in the town of Poitiers, he 
[d'Aulon] was told that the said Maid, who was from the 
country of Lorraine, had been brought to the said Lord 
by two gentlemen, the same being of the company of 
Messire Robert de Baudricourt, Knight the one named 
Bertrand ; the other Jean de Metz and presented [to 
the King] ; to see whom (the said Maid) the Deponent 
visited the said town of Poitiers ; 

That, after the presentation, the Maid spoke privately 
to our Lord the King, and told him several secret 
things what, he [the Deponent] knew not : saving that, 
shortly after, the King sent to fetch some of the 
people of his Council, among whom was the Deponent. 
He [the King] then informed them that the Maid 
had told him she was sent from God to help him to 
recover his kingdom, which at that time was for the 
most part occupied by his ancient enemies, the English ; 

That, after these words had been declared to the 
people of his Council by the King, it was agreed 

1 The examination of d'Aulon, who served Jeanne d'Arc as Steward, 
and who, at the time of being examined, was Seneschal of Beaucaire, is 
the only evidence preserved in the original French. 




THE BATTLE OF PATAY. 




LA HIRE AND XANTRAILLES. 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN : 1455-6 309 

to interrogate the Maid who, at that time, was of the 
age of sixteen years or thereabouts upon sundry points 
touching the Faith ; 

That, to do this, the King sent for certain Masters 
in Theology, Jurists, and other expert people, who 
should well and diligently examine her on these points ; 

That he was present at the said Council when 
the Masters made their report on what they had 
found in the Maid ; at which it was publicly said by 
one of them, that they did not see, know, or recognize 
in the Maid anything, excepting only whatever should 
be in a good Christian and true Catholic : and for such 
they held her, and it was their opinion that she was 
very worthy ; 

Also that, the report being made to the said King by 
the Masters, the Maid was then handed over to the 
Queen of Sicily, the mother of our Sovereign Lady 
the Queen, and to certain ladies with her, by whom 
the Maid was seen, visited, and privately looked at and 
examined ; and after examination made by these matrons, 
the lady stated to the King that she and the other 
ladies found most surely that this was indeed a true 
Maid . . ; 

That he was present when the lady made her report ; 

That, these things being heard, and considering the 
great goodness in the Maid, and that God had sent her 
to him, as she had said, it was by the King concluded 
in his Council that henceforward he would make use 
of her help in his wars, inasmuch as for this she had 
been sent ; 

That, it was then decided she should be sent to the 
city of Orleans, at that time besieged by the enemy ; 

That, for this end people were given for her own 
service, and others to conduct her ; 

That, the guard and conduct of the same was 
appointed by our Lord the King ; 



310 JEANNE D'ARC 

Also that, for the safety of her body the King caused 
to be made armour fit for the Maid's body, and, this 
done, appointed a certain number of men-at-arms for 
the same [Maid] and for those of her company, to 
lead and conduct them safely to the City of Orleans ; 

That, immediately afterwards, he [the Deponent] took 
the road with them, following in this direction ; 

That, as soon as it came to the knowledge of my 
Lord Dunois then called the Bastard of Orleans, who 
was in the city of Orleans in order to keep and guard it 
from the enemy that the Maid was coming that way, 
he assembled together a certain number of men of war 
to meet her, such as La Hire and others. And to do 
this, and more safely to lead and conduct her to the city, 
this Lord and his followers placed themselves in a boat, 
and went to meet her by the river Loire, about a 
quarter of a league distant, and there found her ; 

That, the Maid and the Deponent immediately 
entered the boat, while the remainder of her soldiers 
turned back toward Blois. And, with the Lord 
Dunois and his followers, they entered the city sure and 
safe ; in which [city] the Lord Dunois lodged her well 
and comfortably in the house of one of the principal 
burghers of the city, who had married one of the 
principal women thereof ; 

That, after the said Lord Dunois, La Hire, and certain 
other captains of the party of our Lord the King, had 
conferred with the Maid as to what was expedient 
to do for the guardianship, keeping, and defence of the 
city, and also by what means the enemy could be best 
harassed, it was between them agreed and concluded 
to be necessary that a certain number of men-at-arms 
of their party, then near Blois, should be sent for and 
brought. To put this into execution, and to fetch 
them to the city, were appointed the Lord Dunois and 
the Deponent, and certain other captains, with their 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN: 1455-6 311 

followers, who sent to the country of Blois to bring 
the same ; 

That, as soon as they were ready to depart and bring 
those who were in the country of Blois, and that 
this came to the notice of the Maicl, immediately she 
mounted her horse, and, together with La Hire and a 
certain number of her followers, she went out into the 
fields to keep the enemy from doing them injury. 
And, in order to do this, the Maid placed herself with 
her followers between the army of the enemy and the 
city of Orleans ; and so wrought, that, thanks to God ! 
notwithstanding the great power and number of the 
soldiers in the army of the enemy, the Lord Dunois 
and the Deponent, with all their followers, passed 
through, and safely went their way : and in the same 
way returned the Maid and her followers to the city ; 

That, as soon as she knew of the coming of the 
aforesaid, and that they brought with them those whom 
they had gone to fetch for the reinforcement of the 
city, immediately the Maid mounted her horse and, 
with a party of her followers, went to meet them, to 
support and succour them, if there were need of it ; 

That, in the sight and knowledge of the enemies, 
the Maid, Dunois, Marechal La Hire, and the Deponent, 
with their followers, entered the city without any 
opposition whatsoever ; 

Moreover, that, the same day, after dinner, came 
the said Lord Dunois to the lodging of the Maid, 
where she and the Deponent had dined together. And, 
in speaking to her, Dunois told her that he knew, of a 
truth, from people of worth, that one named Fastolf, 
captain of the enemy, would shortly join the enemy at 
the siege, not only to give them help and reinforce 
them, but also to victual them, and that he was then 
at Vinville. At which words the Maid much rejoiced 
so it seemed to the Deponent and said to my Lord 



312 JEANNE D'ARC 

Dunois these or suchlike words : " Bastard, Bastard, in 
the Name of God I command thee that, so soon as thou 
knowest of the coming of the said Fastolf, thou dost 
let me know ; for, if he pass without my knowing, I 
promise thee I will have thy head." To which replied 
the Lord Dunois, that of this he had no fear, for he 
would certainly let her know ; 

That, after these words, the Deponent being tired and 
overdone, placed himself on a couch in the chamber of 
the Maid, to rest himself a little, and also the Maid 
placed herself with her hostess on another bed in the 
same way, to sleep and rest ; but, as the Deponent was 
beginning to take his rest, suddenly the Maid, though 
asleep, arose from her bed and, making a great noise, 
awoke him. And then the Deponent asked of her what 
she wanted ; to which she answered : " En Nom De ! my 
Counsel hath told me that I should attack the English ; 
but I know not if I should attack their bastilles or go 
against Fastolf, who would victual them " ; on which the 
Deponent immediately rose, and, as soon as he could, 
armed the Maid ; 

That, as soon as he had armed her, they heard a great 
noise and cry made by those of the city, saying that 
the enemy were doing much harm to the French. Then 
the Deponent armed himself, and, while he was so doing, 
without his knowledge, the Maid left the room, and 
went forth into the street. Here she found a page, 
on horseback, who at once dismounted from the horse ; 
and immediately she mounted thereon, and, as straight 
and as speedily as she could, she took her way direct to 
the Burgundy Gate, where was the greatest noise ; 

That, the Deponent immediately followed the Maid ; 
but, go as quickly as he might, she was already at the 
gate; 

That, as they were coming to the gate, they saw 
being carried away one of the people of the city, who 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN: 1455-6 313 

was terribly wounded ; and then the Maid asked of 
those carrying him who this man was. They replied 
that he was a Frenchman. Then she said she had 
never seen French blood without feeling her hair stand 
on end ; 

That, at the same time, the Maid, the Deponent, and 
many other men of war of their company, went out from 
the city to help the French, and to harass the enemy to 
the best of their power ; but, as soon as they were 
outside the city, the Deponent was told that never had 
there been seen so many men-at-arms of their side as 
were now there ; 

That, after this passage, they took their road towards 
a very strong fort of the enemy, called the Fort of Saint 
Loup, which was at once attacked by the French, and, 
with very little loss to them, was taken by assault ; and 
all the enemy within were killed or taken : and the fort 
remained in the hands of the French ; 

That, this being done, the Maid and those of her 
company returned into the city of Orleans, where they 
refreshed themselves and rested that day ; 

That, next day, the Maid and her people, considering 
the great victory obtained by them the day before over 
their enemies, sallied from the town in good order, to 
attack another fort in front of the city, called the Fort 
of Saint-Jean-le-Blanc : for which purpose, seeing that 
they could not get there by land because their enemies 
had made another very strong fort, at the foot of the 
bridge of the city, so that it was impossible for them 
to cross [the bridge] it was decided among them to 
pass over to a certain island in the river Loire, and there 
to assemble their entire army : and, in order to take 
the Fort of Saint- Jean-le- Blanc and to cross to the other 
arm of the river Loire, two boats were brought, of which 
a bridge was made, for the attack of the fort ; 

That, this done, they went to the fort, which they 



3 1 4 JEANNE D'ARC 

found quite deserted ; for the English who were therein, 
so soon as they perceived the coming of the French, 
went away, retreating to another stronger and greater 
fort, called the Fort of the Augustins ; 

That, seeing the French were not powerful enough 
to take the fort, it was decided they should return 
without doing anything further ; 

That, in order to return and cross more safely, the 
most notable and valiant of the party of the French 
were ordered to remain behind, in order to keep the 
enemy from troubling them on their return ; and for 
this were appointed Messires de Gaucourt, de Villars, 
then Seneschal of Beaucaire, and the Deponent ; 

That, while the French were returning from the Fort 
of Saint- Jean-le- Blanc to the island, the Maid and La 
Hire both crossed over, each with a horse, in a boat 
from the other side of the island ; and on these horses 
they mounted as soon as they had crossed, each with 
lance in hand. As soon as they saw that the enemy 
was making a sally from the fort to rush upon their 
people, immediately the Maid and La Hire, who were 
always in the front to protect them, couched their lances 
and were the first to attack the enemy ; others then 
followed and began to attack the English, in such wise 
that they forcibly constrained them to retreat and enter 
the Fort of the Augustins ; 

And, while this was going on, the Deponent, being in 
guard of a passage with others appointed and ordered 
thereto among whom was a very valiant man-at-arms 
of the country of Spain, named Alphonse de Partada 
saw passing before them another man-at-arms of their 
company, a tall man, big and well armed, to whom, 
because he was about to pass on, the Deponent remarked 
that he ought to remain there for a time, with the others, 
and make resistance to the enemy, should need arise ; 
and he immediately replied that he would do nothing 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN: 1455-6 315 

[of the kind]. Then Alphonse said he also would 
remain with the others, and that there were many as 
valiant men as he who would remain willingly ; who 
answered Alphonse, that it would not be he. Upon 
which there were between them certain proud words,- 
so much that they decided to go, both of them, the one 
and the other, against the enemy ; and then it would be 
seen which was the more valiant, and which of the two 
would best do his duty. And, taking one another by the 
hand, at the greatest pace they could, they went towards 
the fort of the enemy, and so to the foot of the palisade ; 

That, as they reached the palisade of the fort, the 
Deponent saw within the palisade a tall, strong and 
powerful Englishman, armed at all points, who so 
resisted them that they could not enter. Then the 
Deponent shewed the Englishman to a man named 
Maitre Jean the Cannoneer, telling him to shoot at the 
Englishman ; for he was doing much harm and injury 
to those who wished to approach the fort. This 
Maitre Jean did ; for, as soon as he saw him, he 
aimed a shot at him, so that he fell dead to the ground ; 
then the two men-at-arms won the passage, by which 
all the others of their company crossed, and entered the 
fort, which most fiercely and with great persistence 
they assailed on all sides, so that within a short time 
they won it and took it by assault. There were killed 
or taken the greater part of the enemy ; and those 
who were able to save themselves retreated into the 
Fort of Tourelles, at the foot of the bridge.- Thus, the 
Maid and those who were with her obtained victory 
over the enemy that day. And the great battle was 
won ; and the Lords and their people with the Maid 
remained before the same [fort] all that night ; 

Moreover, that, the next day, in the morning, the 
Maid sent to fetch all the lords and captains before 
the captured fort, to consult as to what more should be 



316 JEANNE D'ARC 

done ; by the advice of whom it was concluded and 
resolved to attack this day a great Boulevard, which the 
English had made, before the Fort of Tourelles, and that 
it was expedient to gain it before doing anything else. 
To do and put this into execution, the Maid, the 
captain, and their people, on this day, very early in 
the morning, went from one place to the other, before 
the Boulevard, and on this they made the assault from 
all sides, making every effort to take it, in such manner 
that they were before the Boulevard from morning till 
sunset without being able to take it or gain it. And the 
lords and captains who were with her, seeing that they 
could not well gain it this day, considering the hour, 
which was late, and that all were very tired and worn 
out, it was agreed amongst them to sound the retreat for 
the army ; which was done ; and, at sound of the trumpet- 
call, each one retreated for that day. In making this 
retreat, because the Deponent, who was carrying the 
standard of the Maid, and holding it upright before the 
Boulevard, became fatigued and worn-out, he gave the 
standard to one named La Basque, who was of the 
following of De Villars ; and because the Deponent 
knew La Basque to be a valiant man, and feared that, 
by reason of the retreat, evil would ensue, and that the 
fort and Boulevard would remain in the hands of the 
enemy, he had an idea that, if the standard were 
pushed to the front, from the great affection which he 
knew the soldiers had for it they might for this reason 
gain the Boulevard. Then the Deponent asked La 
Basque, if he were to enter and go to the foot of the 
Boulevard, would he follow him ; who said and promised 
that he would ; then the Deponent entered the trench, 
and went up to the foot of the sides of the Boulevard, 
covering himself with his shield for fear of the stones, 
and left his companion on the other side, believing he 
would follow him step by step. But when the Maid saw 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN : 1455-6 317 

her standard in the hand of La Basque, and because she 
believed she had lost it, as he who bore it had gone into 
the trench, the Maid came and took the standard by the 
end in such wise that he could not hold it, crying, " Ha ! 
my standard ! my standard ! " and shook the standard in 
such wise that the Deponent thought that, in so doing, 
the others might imagine she was making some sign to 
them ; then the Deponent cried : " La Basque, is this 
what thou didst promise me ? " Then La Basque so 
pulled at the standard that he dragged it from the 
hand of the Maid ; and, this being done, he went to 
the Deponent and brought the standard. On this 
account all the army of the Maid assembled together and 
rallied again, and, with great fierceness, assailed the 
Boulevard, so that, shortly after, the Boulevard and the 
fort were taken by them, and abandoned by the enemy, 
the French [on their return] entering the city of Orleans 
by the bridge ; 

And the Deponent saith that, on this very day, he 
had heard it spoken by the Maid : " In God's Name, we 
shall enter the town this night by the bridge." This 
done, the Maid and her followers returned into the town 
of Orleans, in which the Deponent had her [wound] 
dressed, for she had been wounded by an arrow in the 
assault ; 

Also that, next day, all the English still remaining 
before the town on the other side of the Fort of Tourelles, 
raised the siege and retreated, being discomfited and 
in confusion. Thus, by the help of God and the 
Maid, was the city delivered from the hands of the 
enemy ; 

Moreover, that, some time after the return from 
the consecration of the King, he [the King] was advised 
by his Council then at Mehun-sur-Yevre that it was 
most necessary to recover the town of La Charite", which 
was held by the enemy ; but that first must be taken 



ji8 JEANNE D'ARC 

the town of Saint Pierre le Moustier, which likewise was 
held by the enemy ; 

That, to do this and to collect men, the Maid went to 
the town of Bourges, in which she assembled her forces ; 
and from thence, with a certain number of men-at-arms, 
of whom Lord d'Elbret was the head, she went to 
besiege the town of Saint Pierre le Moustier ; 

That, after the Maid and her followers had made 
siege against the town for some time, an assault was 
ordered to be made against the town ; and so it was 
done, and those who were there did their best to take it ; 
but, on account of the great number of people in the town, 
the great strength thereof and also the great resistance 
made by those within, the French were compelled and 
forced to retreat, for the reasons aforesaid ; and at that 
time, the Deponent was wounded by a shot in the heel, 
so that without crutches he could neither keep up nor 
walk : he noticed that the Maid was left accompanied 
by very few of her own people and others ; and the 
Deponent, fearing that trouble would follow therefrom, 
mounted a horse, and went immediately to her aid, 
asking her what she was doing there alone and why she 
did not retreat like the others. She, after taking her 
helmet [" salade"~\ from her head, replied that she was 
not alone, and that she had yet in her company fifty 
thousand of her people, and that she would not leave 
until she had taken the town ; 

And the Deponent saith that, at that time whatever 
she might say she had not with her more than four 
or five men, and this he knows most certainly, and many 
others also, who in like manner saw her ; for which cause 
he told her again that she must leave that place, and 
retire as the others did. And then she told him to have 
faggots and hurdles brought to make a bridge over the 
trenches of the town, in order that they might ap- 
proach it the better. And as she said these words to him, 



DEPOSITIONS AT ROUEN: 1455-6 319 

she cried in a loud voice : " Every one to the faggots 
and hurdles, to make the bridge!" which was imme- 
diately after done and prepared, at which the Deponent 
did much marvel, for immediately the town was taken 
by assault, without very great resistance ; 

That, all the deeds of the Maid seemed to him 
to be more divine and miraculous than otherwise, 
and that it was not possible for so young a Maid to 
do such things without the Will and Guidance of Our 
Lord ; 

Also that, for the space of a whole year, by command 
of our Lord the King, he remained in the company of 
the Maid, during which time he neither saw nor knew 
of anything in her which should not be in a good 
Christian ; and he has always seen and known her to be 
of very good life and modest conversation in all and 
every one of her acts ; 

Also that, he knew the Maid to be most devout ; that 
she shewed herself very reverent in hearing the Divine 
Service of our Lord, which she would constantly hear, 
that is to say, High Mass, on solemn days, wherever 
she was, with the Hours following ; and on other days 
Low Mass ; and that she was accustomed to hear Mass 
daily if it were possible ; 

That, many times he saw and knew that she con- 
fessed herself and received Our Lord, and did all that 
belongs to a good Christian to do, and that, never when 
he was conversing with her, did he hear her swear, 
blaspheme, or perjure the Name of Our Lord, nor the 
Saints, for whatever cause or occasion it might be ; 

And that, in his opinion, she was a good Christian, 
and must have been inspired ; for she loved everything 
that a good Christian ought to love, and especially she 
loved a good honest man [" bon prudhomme "] whom she 
knew to be of chaste life ; . . . Also that, when the Maid 
had anything to do for the conduct of war, she told 



320 



JEANNE D'ARC 



the Deponent that her Counsel had advised her what she 
ought to do ; 

That, he asked her who was the Counsel, and that 
she replied there were three Counsellors, of whom 
one always remained with her ; another went away, but 
came often, to visit her ; and the third was he with whom 
the two others consulted. And it happened that, one 
time, among others, the Deponent prayed and besought 
her that she would shew him the Counsel ; to whom 
she replied that he was not worthy, nor of sufficient 
virtue to see them : and upon this the Deponent desisted 
from speaking or asking her further about them ; 

And the Deponent firmly believes as aforesaid, that, 
considering the deeds, actions and great leadership 
of the Maid, she was full of all the virtue which might 
or should be in a good Christian ; 

And thus he hath deposed, as is above written, without 
love, favour, hate, or suborning, but for the truth, and 
as he knew it to be in the Maid. 



SENTENCE OF REHABILITATION. 



In the name of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, Amen ! 

The Providence of the Eternal Majesty, the Saviour 
Christ, Lord God and Man, hath instituted, for the rule 
of His Church Militant, the Blessed Peter, and his 
Apostolic Successors ; He hath made them His principal 
representatives, and charged them, by the light of truth, 
which He hath manifested to them, to teach men how 
to walk in the paths of justice, protecting the good, 
relieving the oppressed in the whole universe, and, 
by a reasonable judgment, bringing back into the right 
road those who have turned therefrom : 

Invested with this Apostolic authority for the matter 
in question, we Jean of Rheims, Guillaume of Paris, and 
Richard of Coutances, by the Grace of God Archbishop 
and Bishops, and Jean B renal, of the Order of Saint 
Dominic, Professor of Sacred Theology, one of the two 
Inquisitors of the Heretical Evil for the Realm of 
France, all four Judges specially delegated by our most 
Holy Lord the Pope actually reigning : 

Having seen the solemn Process brought before us, 
by virtue of the Apostolic Mandate addressed to us, and 
by us respectfully accepted : 

In the Case concerning the honest woman, Widow 
Isabelle d'Arc, mother, Pierre and Jean d'Arc, brothers 

Y 



322 JEANNE D'ARC 

german, natural and legal, of the deceased Jeanne d'Arc, 
of good memory, commonly called the Maid : 

The said Case brought in their name, 

Against the Sub- Inquisitor of the Heretical Evil for 
the Diocese of Beauvais, the Promoter of the Officiality 
of the said Diocese of Beauvais, and also the Reverend 
Father in Christ and Lord Guillaume de Hellande, 
Bishop of Beauvais, and against all others and each in 
particular who might be thought to be therein interested, 
all together respectively Defendants, as well conjointly as 
separately : 

Having seen, in the first place, the peremptory 
citation and the execution of this citation made against 
the said Defendants, at the request not only of the said 
Plaintiffs but of the Promoter of our Office appointed 
by us, sworn and created, to the end that the said 
Defendants might see the carrying out of the said 
Rescript, hear the conclusions against them, and answer 
themselves ; and to proceed, in one word, according 
to right : 

Having seen the request of the said Plaintiffs, their 
deeds, reasons, and conclusion set down in writing under 
the form of Articles, putting forward a declaration of 
nullity, of iniquity, and of cozenage against a certain 
Process in a pretended Trial for the Faith, formerly 
done and executed in this city against the above-named 
woman, now deceased, by the late Lord Pierre Cauchon, 
then Bishop of Beauvais, Jean Lemaitre, then Vice- 
Inquisitor of the said Diocese of Beauvais, and Jean 
d'Estivet, Promoter, or having at least acted in this 
capacity ; the said request putting forward and inferring 
further the breaking down and annulling of the Process 
in question and of all which followed it, to the justifi- 
cation of the said Deceased, and to all the other ends 
therein enumerated : 

Having seen, read, re-read and examined the 



SENTENCE OF REHABILITATION 323 

original books, instruments, means, acts, notes and 
protocols of the said Process, shewn and sent to us, in 
virtue of the compulsory letters, by the Registrars and 
others whose signatures and writings have been, as a 
preliminary, acknowledged in our presence : 

After having studied at length all these documents, 
not only with the said Registrars and other officials 
appointed in the said Process, but also with those of the 
Counsellors who were called to the same Process, those, 
at least, whom we have been able to bring before us : 

And after having ourselves collated and compared the 
final text, with the Minute itself of the said Process : 

Having considered also the Preparatory Enquiries, 
first, those which were conducted by the Most Reverend 
Father in Christ the Lord Guillaume, Cardinal Priest 
under the title of Saint-Martin-les-Monts, 1 then Legate 
of the Holy Apostolic See in the Kingdom of France, 
assisted by the Inquisitor, after the examination which 
had been made by the said Cardinal- Legate of the books 
and instruments then presented : 

Having afterwards considered the Preparatory Enquiry 
conducted at the beginning of the actual Process by us or 
our Commissaries : 

Having considered also divers treatises 2 which had 
come from the Prelates, Doctors, and men of learning, 
the most celebrated and the most authorized, who, after 
having studied at length the books and instruments of 
the said Process, have separated from these books and 
instruments the doubtful points which they would have 
to elucidate in their said treatises composed afterwards 
and brought to light, whether by the order of the most 
Reverend Father aforesaid or of us : 

Having considered the Articles and Interrogations to 
be submitted to the witnesses, presented to us in the 

1 Guillaume d'Estouteville : Enquiry of 1452. 

2 See Appendix : Note on Documents of Rehabilitation Enquiry : p. 332. 

Y 2 



324 JEANNE D'ARC 

name of the Plaintiffs and of our Promoter, and after 
many citations admitted in proof by us : 

Having considered the depositions and attestations of 
the witnesses heard on the subject of the said Articles 
and Interrogations on the life of the said Deceased in 
the place of her birth ; on her departure ; on her ex- 
amination before several Prelates, Doctors, and others 
having knowledge thereof, in presence notably of the 
Most Reverend Father Reginald, then Archbishop of 
Rheims and Metropolitan of the said Bishop of Beauvais : 
an examination made at Poitiers and elsewhere, on 
several occasions ; on the marvellous deliverance of the 
city of Orleans ; on the journey to the city of Rheims 
and the coronation of the King ; and the divers circum- 
stances of the Trial, the qualifications, the judges, and 
the manner of proceeding : 

Having considered also letters, instruments, and 
measures, besides the letters, depositions and attestations 
just mentioned, sent to us and produced in the course of 
law : 

Having afterwards heard our Promoter, who, con- 
sidering these productions and these sayings, declares 
himself fully joined with the Plaintiffs : 

Having heard the other requests and reserves made 
by our Promoter, in his own name as well as in that of 
the Plaintiffs, the said requests and reserves admitted by 
us and received at the same time as certain reasons of law 
briefly formulated, of a nature also to impress our minds : 

After the Case had been concluded, in the Name of 
Christ, and this day had- been assigned by us to give 
sentence : 

After having, with great matureness, weighed, ex- 
amined, all and each one of the aforesaid things, as well 
as certain Articles beginning with these words " A 
certain Woman, &C.," 1 which the Judges in the first 

1 Viz.) the Twelve Articles. 



SENTENCE OF REHABILITATION 325 

Process did pretend to have extracted from the con- 
fessions of the said Deceased, and which have been 
submitted by us to a great number of staid persons 
for their opinion ; Articles which our Promoter, as well 
as the Plaintiffs aforesaid, attacked as iniquitous, false, 
prepared without reference to the confessions of Jeanne, 
and in a lying manner : 

That our present Judgment may come as from the Face 
of God Himself, Who weigheth the spirits, Who alone 
infallibly knoweth His revelations, and doth hold them 
always at their true value, Who bloweth where He 
listeth, and doth often choose the weak to confound the 
strong, never forsaking those who trust in Him, but being 
their Support in their sorrows and their tribulations : 

After having had ripe deliberation, as much on the 
subject of the Preparatory Enquiries as on the decision 
itself, with persons at the same time expert, authorized, 
and prudent : 

Having considered their solemn decisions, formulated 
in the treatises written out in a compendious manner, 
and in numerous consultations : 

Having considered their opinion, written or verbal, 
furnished and given, not only on the form but also on 
the basis of the Process, and according to which the 
actions of the said Deceased, being worthy of admiration 
rather than of condemnation, the judgment given against 
her should, in form as well as in basis, be reprehended 
and detested : 

And because on the question of revelations -it is most 
difficult to furnish a certain judgment, the Blessed \ 
Paul having, on the subject of his own revelations, said j 
that he knew not if they came to him in body or in 
spirit, and having on this point referred himself to God : 

In the first place, we say, and, because Justice requires 
it, we declare, that the Articles beginning with the words 
" A woman," which are found inserted in the pretended 



326 JEANNE D'ARC 

Process and Instrument of the pretended sentences, 
lodged against the said Deceased, ought to have been, 
have been, and are, extracted from the said pretended 
Process and the said pretended confessions of the said 
Deceased, with corruption, cozenage, calumny, fraud 
and malice : 

We declare, that on certain points the truth of her 
confessions has been passed over in silence ; that on 
other points her confessions have been falsely translated 
a double unfaithfulness, by which, had it been 
prevented, the mind of the Doctors consulted and the 
Judges might have been led to a different opinion : 

We declare, that in these Articles there have been 
added without right many aggravating circumstances, 
which are not in the aforesaid Confessions, and many 
circumstances both relevant and justifying have been 
passed over in silence : 

We declare, that even the form of certain words has 
been altered, in such manner as to change the substance : 

For the which, these same Articles, as falsely, 
calumniously, and deceitfully extracted, and as contrary 
even to the Confessions of the Accused, we break, 
annihilate, and annul ; and, after they shall have been 
detached from the Process we ordain, by this present 
judgment, that they be torn up : 

In the second place, after having examined with great 
care the other parts of the same said Process particularly 
the two sentences which the Process contained, designated 
by the /Judges as "Lapse" and " Relapse" and after 
having also for a long time weighed the qualifications 
of the Judges and of all those under whom and in whose 
keeping the said Jeanne was detained : 

We say, pronounce, decree, and declare, the said 
Processes and Sentences full of cozenage, iniquity, incon- 
sequences, and manifest errors, in fact as well as in law ; 
We say that they have been, are, and shall be as well 



SENTENCE OF REHABILITATION 327 

as the aforesaid Abjuration, their execution, and all that 
followed null, non-existent, without value or effect. 

Nevertheless, in so far as is necessary, and as reason 
doth command us, we break them, annihilate them, 
annul them, and declare them void of effect ; and we 
declare that the said Jeanne and her relatives, Plaintiffs 
in the actual Process, have not, on account of the said 
Trial, contracted nor incurred any mark or stigma of 
infamy ; we declare them quit and purged of all the 
consequences of these same Processes ; we declare them, 
in so far as is necessary, entirely purged thereof by this 
present : 

We ordain that the execution and solemn publication 
of our present Sentence shall take place immediately in 
this city, in two different places, to wit, 

To-day in the Square of Saint Ouen, after a General 
Procession and a public Sermon : 

To-morrow, at the Old Market- Place, in the same place 
where the said Jeanne was suffocated by a cruel and 
horrible fire, also with a General Preaching and with the 
placing of a handsome cross for the perpetual memory 
of the Deceased and for her salvation and that of other 
deceased persons : 

We declare that we reserve to ourselves [the power] 
later on to execute, publish, and for the honour of her 
memory to signify with acclaim, our said sentence in the 
cities and other well-known places of the kingdom wher- 
ever we shall find it well [so to do], under the reserves, 
finally, of all other formalities which may yet remain to 
be done. 

This present Sentence hath been brought out, read 
and promulgated by the Lords Judges, in presence of 
the Reverend Father in Christ the Lord Bishop of 
Demetriade, of Hector de Coquerel, Nicolas du Boys, 
Alain Olivier, Jean du Bee, Jean de Gouys, Guillaume 



328 JEANNE D'ARC 

Roussel, Laurent Surreau, Canons ; of Martin Ladvenu, 
Jean Roussel, and Thomas de Fanouilleres. 

Maitre Simon Chapitault, Promoter ; Jean d'Arc and 
Prevosteau for the other A Plaintiffs. 

Done at Rouen in the 1 Archiepiscopal Palace, in 
the year of our Lord 1456, [ the ;th day of the month 
of June. 

/ 




THE HOTEL DE VILLE : COMPIEGNE. 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX 

NOTE ON ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS OF THE 
PROCESS OF CONDEMNATION 

1. The Minute. 

The original French notes of the Trial, taken down at the 
time by the Registrars, formed the material on which the 
Authentic Document was subsequently based. A part of this 
original MS. is still in existence in the National Library at 
Paris, and is known as the ' MS. D'UrfeV It begins with 
March 3rd, the day of the last Public Examination, and is 
apparently in the handwriting of Manchon, the Registrar, who 
had the whole in his own possession at the time of the Trial of 
Rehabilitation. The Fragment was discovered among the 
MSS. of the D'Urfe Library in the reign of Louis XVI. by 
Laverdy. 

2. The Authentic Document. 

This was the original Latin translation of the Minute, made 
by Thomas de Courcelles, signed by the Registrars, and attested 
by the seals of the two Judges. No trace of this first document 
can be found ; but the Bishop of Beauvais caused five complete 
and legally attested copies to be made, three of these being in the 
writing of Manchon, the Registrar, of which there are still in exist- 
ence, (i) Copy made for the King of England, now in the Library 
of the Corps Le"gislatif in Paris ; (2) Copy for the Bishop of 
Beauvais, formerly in the Colbert Library ; and (3) Copy for the 
Inquisitor, formerly in the Dupuy Library the last two being 
now in the National Library at Paris. The two other copies are 
lost, one having been sent to the Pope, whilst the other was 
the property of Manchon himself. 

Besides these Original Documents, there are also seven copies 
of the Process, of different dates : five in the National Library, 
one in the Vatican, and one at Geneva. 



332 JEANNE D'ARC 

NOTE ON THE DOCUMENTS CONNECTED WITH 
THE TRIAL OF REHABILITATION 

In the Preface to the Authentic Document of the Rehabilita- 
tion, the Notaries, Denis Lecomte and Frangois Ferrebouc, state 
that they have prepared under their seals three copies of the 
Process of Rehabilitation, one containing also the entire Process 
of the Trial of Condemnation : this Copy is unfortunately lost 
The two still in existence, both in the National Library of Paris, 
contain only the text of the Trial of 1455-6. In one of these 
Manuscripts are inserted the Eight Memorials presented to the 
Holy See in favour of Jeanne. 

The Second Manuscript contains only the Memorial of Gerson. 
Other Documents connected with the Enquiries may be found 
in Quicherat, Vol. II., and in Lanery d'Arc's Mtmoires et Con- 
sultations en faveur de Jeanne a" Arc, the most important being 
the Opinions of sundry learned Doctors given in 1452, and the 
Recollectio of Jean Brehal in 1456. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE TO THE TRIAL 

In order to understand more fully the course of events in the 
last year of Jeanne's life, it may be well to give in some detail 
the story of her capture at Compiegne on May 23rd, 1430, and 
of the negotiations and legal preliminaries which preceded the 
opening of the Case in the following February. Strangely 
enough, there is in the Trial of Rehabilitation absolutely no 
witness to this period. It may therefore be more satisfactory 
to quote at some length from the contemporary Chronicles, 
which, as regards the Capture itself, are fortunately very 
explicit. 

In the early dawn of Tuesday, May 23rd, Jeanne started from 
Crespy with about 400 followers to reinforce the garrison of 
Compiegne, then besieged by the combined forces of England 
and Burgundy. Of the events of that day there is no better 
account than that given in the Chronicle of Percival de Cagny, 1 
which reads as follows : 

* The 23rd day of the month of May, the Maid, being in the 
said place of Crespy, learned that the Duke of Burgundy, 2 with 

1 Chronicles of the Dukes of Alengon. 

2 Philip the Good, son of Jean Sans-Peur, the Duke murdered at the 
Bridge of Montereau in 1418 by the Armagnac faction; he was conse- 
quently an ally of England. Anne, his sister, married John, Duke of Bedford. 
Efforts were constantly made by both sides to secure the sympathies of so 
powerful an ally ; but after the death of his sister in 1432, the Duke's attach- 
ment to the English cause waned ; and in 1435, a week after the death of 
Bedford, he made peace with Charles VII., and signed the Treaty of Arras, 
which practically restored France to the King. He died in 1467, and was 
succeeded by his son Charles the Bold. 



APPENDIX 333 

a great number of men-at-arms and others, and the Earl of 
Arundel, had come to besiege the said town of Compiegne. 
About midnight she departed from the said place of Crespy, in 
the company of 300 or 400 fighting men. And although her 
followers said to her, that she had too few people with her 
to pass through the army of the Burgundians and of the 
English, she exclaimed : " By my staff ! [Par mon martin /] 
we are enough ; I am going to see my good friends of 
Compiegne." 

* She arrived at the said place about sunrise, and, without loss 
or disturbance either to herself or to her followers, she entered 
the said town. On the same day the Burgundians and English 
had come to make an assault in the field before the said town. 
There were done many feats of arms on the one side and on the 
other. The Burgundians and English, knowing that the Maid 
was in the town, thought that those within would sally forth in 
great strength, and for this the Burgundians placed a strong 
ambush of their followers under cover of a lofty mountain near 
by, named the Mount of Clairoy. And, about nine in the 
morning, the Maid heard that the assault was hot and fierce in 
the field before the said town. She armed herself and her 
followers, mounted on horseback, and went to join the metie. 
And no sooner was she come than the enemy turned back and 
were put to flight. The Maid charged hard upon the flank of 
the Burgundians. Those in ambush gave warning to their 
followers, who turned back in great disorder, and then, breaking 
up their ambuscade, they spurred on to place themselves 
between the town-bridge and the Maid and her company. And 
the one part of them turned right on the Maid in such force 
that those of her company could not withstand them, and said 
to the Maid, " Strive hard to regain the town, or you and we are 
lost." 

' When the Maid heard them speak thus, she cried to them, 
angrily, " Silence ! It only depends on you to discomfit them. 
Think only of striking them down." But whatsoever she might 
say, these people would not believe it, and forcibly compelled 
her to withdraw to the bridge. And when the Burgundians and 
English saw that she was returning to the town, they, by 
supreme effort, reached the end of the bridge. And great feats 
of arms were done there. The captain of the place, seeing vast 
multitudes of Burgundians and English about to cross the bridge, 
for the fear that he had of the loss of the place, commanded the 
bridge of the town to be raised and the gates closed. And there 
remained the Maid hemmed in without, and few of her 
followers with her. When her enemies saw this, all made 
effort to seize her. She resisted stoutly against them, but in 
the end was taken by five or six acting together, some laying 



334 ' JEANNE D'ARC 

hands on her, others on her horse, and each saying, " Surrender 
to me and give parole." She answered and said, " I have sworn 
and given my parole to Another than you, and to Him will I 
give my oath." And, saying these words, she was taken to the 
lodging of Messire Jehan de Luxembourg. 

1 Messire Jehan de Luxembourg l had her kept in his lodging 
for three or four days ; and, after that, he remained at the siege 
of the said town and had the Maid sent to a castle named 
Beaulieu, in Vermandois. And there was she kept prisoner 
during the space of four months or thereabouts. After this, the 
said de Luxembourg, by means of the Bishop of Therouanne, 2 
his brother, and Chancellor of France for the English King, 
delivered her to the Duke of Bedford, Lieutenant in France for 
the King of England, his nephew, for the price of fifteen or 
sixteen thousand saluts [the salut being worth about i] paid 
to the said de Luxembourg. Thus was the Maid put into the 
hands of the English and taken to the Castle of Rouen, at 
which the said Duke then held his residence. She being in 
prison in the said Castle of Beaulieu, he who had been her 
steward 3 before her capture, and who served her in prison, said 
to her, " That poor town of Compiegne, which you have so much 
loved up to this time, will fall again into the hands and the 
power of the enemies of France ! " 

' And she answered him, "It will not be, for all the places 
which the King of Heaven hath subdued and put into the hands 
and jurisdiction of the gentle King Charles by my means, will 
not be retaken by his enemies, so long as he will take pains to 
keep them." ' 

The following additional details in regard to the Capture of 
the Maid are taken from George Chatellain's Histoire de Philippe 
Le Bon : * The Maid, passing the nature of woman, did bear 

1 Jean de Luxembourg, Sire de Luxembourg and de Cheques, neph ew of 
the Constable Waleran de Luxembourg. A captain of Free-Lances in the 
service of the Duke of Burgundy, afterwards Count de Ligny and Guise, 
and a knight of the Toison d'Or. He remained true to the English, even 
after his chief had made terms with Charles, and died in 1441, still obstinately 
refusing to recognize the Treaty of Arras. 

2 Louis de Luxembourg, Bishop of Therouanne, 1414, and Chancellor of 
France for Henry VI., 1425, surnamed u Le Renard"; afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Rouen, Bishop of Hely, and Cardinal. A warm adherent of the 
English cause, and a consistent supporter of Bedford and Warwick. It was 
he who received information of the capture of Jeanne on May 25th, and 
himself went with the news to the Parliament. When the tide turned, and 
Charles VII. was able to establish himself in his kingdom, the Bishop retired 
to England, and there died, 1443. 

3 Jean D'Aulon. Formerly a squire in the service of the King, appointed 
Chief of Jeanne's Household by Charles VII., in 1428. He remained 
with her from that time till her capture at Compiegne ; was taken prisoner 
with her, and carried to Beaulieu, but was ransomed during the autumn. 
He was afterwards knighted, and made Seneschal of Beaucaire. 



APPENDIX 



335 



jat weight, and took much pains to preserve her company 

>m loss, remaining in the rear as becomes the chief and as the 
lost valiant of the troop, when fortune did so permit, for the 

iding of her glory and for the last time that ever she should 

ir arms. An archer, a hard man and very churlish, having 
great spite that a woman of whom he had heard so much talk 
should drive back so many valiant men as she had done, 
caught her from one side by her surcoat of cloth-of-gold, 
and dragged her from her horse to the ground : she could find 
neither rescue nor help from her followers that she might 
be remounted, notwithstanding the pains they took. But a 
man-at-arms, named the Bastard de Wandonne, 1 who arrived 
just as she fell, pressed her so closely that she gave him her 
parole, for that he said he was a man of noble birth. The which 
man-at-arms, more joyful than if he had gotten a king into 
his hands, took her hastily to Marigny, and there kept her under 
guard till the end of the affair. And there were taken also with 
her, Pouthon the Burgundian, a gentleman-at-arms of the 
French party ; the brother of the Maid ; her steward ; and certain 
others, in small numbers, who were taken to Marigny and held 
in safe keeping.' 

On the same day, the Duke of Burgundy wrote the following 
letter to the people of Saint Quentin : 

' By order of the Duke of Burgundy, Count of Flanders, Artois, 
Burgundy, and Namur. 

* Very dear and well-beloved, knowing that you desire to have 
news of us, we signify to you that this day, the 23rd May, 
towards six o'clock in the afternoon, the adversaries of our Lord 
the King [Henry VI.] and of us, who were assembled together in 
great power, and entrenched in the town of Compiegne, before 
which we and the men of our army were quartered, have made a 
sally from the said town in force on the quarters of our advanced 
guard nearest to them, in the which sally was she whom they call 
the Maid, with many of their principal captains. In the en- 
counter with whom, our fair cousin, Messire Jehan de Luxem- 
bourg, who was there present, and others of our people, and 
some of the people of our Lord the King whom he had sent 
before us to pass over to Paris, made great and bitter resistance. 
And presently we arrived in person and found that the said adver- 
saries were already driven back, and by the pleasure of our 
blessed Creator, it had so happened and such grace had been 
granted to us, that the said Maid had been taken ; and with her 

1 Lionel Bastard de Wandonne ; now Wandomme, a castle in Artois ; a 
captain in the service of Jean de Luxembourg, to whom the Maid finally 
surrendered at Compiegne. For his share of the reward he received 300 
pounds rente. He was afterwards Count de Nesle and Beaulieu, in Ver- 
mandois. 



336 ' JEANNE D'ARC 

many captains, knights, squires and others were taken, drowned, 
and killed, of whom to this hour we yet know not the names, 
only that none of our followers nor the followers of my Lord 
the King are either killed or taken, and that only twenty are 
wounded, thanks to God. The which capture, as we certainly 
hold, will be great news everywhere ; and by it will be recognized 
the error and foolish belief of all those who have shewn them- 
selves well-disposed and favourable to the doings of the said 
woman. And this thing we write for our news, hoping that in it 
you will have joy, comfort, and consolation, and will render 
thanks and praise to our Creator, Who seeth and knoweth all 
things, and Who by His blessed pleasure will conduct the rest of 
our enterprizes to the good of our said Lord the King and his 
kingdom, and to the relief and comfort of his good and loyal 
subjects. 

' Very dear and well-beloved, the Holy Spirit have you in His 
Holy Keeping. 

' Written at Codun, near Compiegne, the 23rd day of May. 
Subscribed : To our very dear and good friends the Clergy, 
citizens and inhabitants of Saint Quentin, in Vermandois.' 

In the Notes of Clement de Fauquembergue, Registrar of the 
Parliament of Paris, occurs the following passage : ' Thursday, 
the 25th day of May, 1430, Messire Louis de Luxembourg, 
Bishop of Therouanne, Chancellor of France, received letters 
from Messire Jean de Luxembourg, Knight, his brother, making 
mention, among other things, that on Tuesday last, in a sally 
made by the captains and men-at-arms of Messire Charles de 
Valois, then in the town of Compiegne, against the people of 
the Duke of Burgundy, encamped and come against the said 
town with the intention of besieging it, the people of the said 
De Valois were in such manner compelled to retreat that many 
of them had no time to enter again into the said town. And 
many of them threw themselves into the river adjacent to the 
walls, to the peril of their lives ; others remained prisoners of 
the said Messire Jean de Luxembourg, and the followers of the 
said Duke of Burgundy, who, among others, seized and held 
prisoner this woman whom the followers of the said Messire 
Charles called the Maid.' l 

The news of the Maid's capture was received in Paris with 
much rejoicing, 2 and Te Deums were ordered to be sung in the 
Churches. The University and the Inquisition at once took up 
the matter, and wrote on the following day, May 26th, to the 

1 The much-vexed question of the date of the Capture seems to be decided 
by these two last contemporary documents. The same date, May 23rd, is 
also given in the Chronicle of William of Worcester. 

2 The news, received in the letter from Jean de Luxembourg, was commu- 
nicated by his brother, the Bishop of Therouanne, to the Parliament. 



APPENDIX 



337 



ike of Burgundy, requesting him to claim the prisoner as a 
Arctic against the Church. Six weeks later, on July Hth, 
itters were sent from the University both to the Duke and to 
Jean de Luxembourg to the same effect. On the same day, 
Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais, acting for the Regent Bedford, 
arrived at the Burgundian camp to negotiate for the purchase of 
the Maid. He claimed her as a prisoner of the Church, but 
nevertheless offered the usual ransom of a king, 10,000 livres 
tournois [about 16,000 of our present value]. 

The arrangements presented, however, matters of long deli- 
beration. The Duke and Jean de Luxembourg, whether from 
scruples of conscience or in hope of still higher ransom from 
the party of the King of France, were in no hurry to part with 
their prisoner. She had been removed to the Castle of Beaulieu 
at the end of May ; and here she remained until August, with 
her faithful follower d'Aulon still in attendance on her. No 
records remain of her sojourn ; but she herself gives evidence 
at the Trial of her attempt to escape, which was all but success- 
ful. Early in August, she was sent to Beaurevoir, where for a 
time she had the society of the wife and the aunt of Jean de 
Luxembourg. Of the latter, the Countess de Ligny, she spoke 
at the Trial in terms of great affection. Whilst at Beaurevoir, 
she heard of the negotiations for her delivery to the English. 
In despair for herself, and overwhelmed with grief for the sorrows 
of her beloved friends of Compiegne, who were then in great 
straits, she threw herself 1 from the top of the Keep, a height of 
sixty feet, hoping, as she afterwards said, at least to escape from 
her enemies. She was taken up, stunned, but not severely injured 
by her fall, and was kept in closer ward until, in the middle of 
November, the arrangements for her purchase were completed. 
From Beaurevoir she was removed to Arras ; thence to Crotoy, 
where she was handed over to the tender mercies of the English, 
who kept her, in comparatively easy confinement, until it should 
be decided where the Trial was to take place the University 
claiming her for Paris, the Regent preferring to keep her more 
strictly within his own power. In December, a decision was 
arrived at. Rouen was fixed upon as the most suitable place, 
both as a stronghold of the English and as the residence of the 
Regent and the Court. To Rouen, accordingly, the Maid was 
brought, and there lodged in a tower of the Castle, under the 
guard of English soldiers. 

The room in which she was confined was situated in a tower 
of the Castle of Rouen, now no longer in existence ; it was on 
the first floor, up eight steps ; 2 not far from the back entrance, 3 

1 Or let herself down, as some state, by a rope that was too short to reach 
the ground. 

2 Massieu. 3 Cusquel. 



338 , JEANNE D'ARC 

and facing the fields. 1 There were three keys to the prison : 
one retained by the Cardinal of England or his Secretary, one 
kept by the Inquisitor, and one by the Promoter. 2 The Maid 
was under the close surveillance of five common soldiers 
(houcepailliers), three of whom remained in the room day and 
night, while two guarded the door. 3 She was heavily ironed, 
and chained to a beam which crossed the end of her bed. 4 It 
is reported also that a cage, in which she could stand upright I 
had been made for her ; but, although this is mentioned by 
several persons, no one can remember to have seen it in I 
use. The Castle being under the control of the Governor, the 
Earl of Warwick, the captive was officially in his hands ; and 
for this reason the guardians appointed later to see to her safe 
custody were members of his household or of the Royal Body- 
guard : John Gris or Grey, Talbot, and Berwoist, whose commis- 
sion is made out by the authority of the Bishop on March I3th. I 

Many of the Assessors considered that Jeanne should have 
been placed in the prisons of the Church, and not left in the 
hands of the English. Lefevre remarks that no one dared say 
this ; and De Courcelles states that it was never brought up as 
a matter for consultation, although Ladvenu refers to a discussion 
at the first Session, during which, in response to a generally 
expressed opinion that Jeanne should be placed under Ecclesi- 
astical ward, the Bishop announced that this could not be done 
"for fear of the English." At this first Session, February 2ist, 
neither Ladvenu nor De Courcelles was present. 

The Trial opened, according to the Official Report, on 
January the pth. It was based on the Procedure of the trials 
of the Holy Office ; and, although the Inquisitor himself was 
not officially present until a month later, the Inquisitorial form 
was punctiliously observed. This form was as follows : 

1. Process ex officio. 

Enquiry as to facts of accusation. 

Examination of the Accused on the results of this enquiry. | 

The Promoter then draws up the case, if any be undertaken. [ 

2. Process in ordinary. 

Trial and examination of the Accused, sometimes by j 

torture. 
Sentence. 

This Procedure was carefully observed in the case of Jeanne, j 
The process ex officio, beginning in January, with the suppressed j 
Domremy Enquiry, comprised the Six Public and Nine Private ! 
Examinations, and ended with the drawing up of the Seventy 
Articles, the Act of Accusation, on March 26th. The Process 
in Ordinary began on March 2/th, with the reading of the j 
Seventy Articles and Jeanne's examination upon them. She 
1 Taquel. 2 Lebouchier. 3 Massieu. 4 Ibid. 



APPENDIX 339 

was brought into the Torture Chamber on May the 9th ; but 
the decision of the greater number of the Assessors being 
against the use of extreme measures, nothing was done. The 
Sentence was read on May 24th, condemning her to perpetual 
imprisonment. 

Of the legality of the Trial there were grave doubts, expressed 
both at the beginning and also later on, when some opportunity 
had been given by the Public Examinations for those not 
absolutely prejudiced against the Accused, to form an opinion 
as regards the impartiality of the Judges. On the first day, 
Houppeville, whose testimony was given in full at the Rehabi- 
litation, was present in Court ; but, having dared to express his 
opinion that the action to be undertaken was fraught with some 
danger, he was afterwards refused admission, and was sent for 
by the Bishop to be reprimanded. As he was not in the Diocese 
of Beauvais he refused submission ; but his appeal to his own 
Chapter at Rouen was disregarded, and he was thrown into 
prison, from which he was only released some days later through 
the intervention of the Abbot of Jumieges. 

Lohier, a celebrated legal authority, who was present in Rouen 
during the earlier part of the Examination, expressed his 
opinions to the Bishop at some length, stating that the whole 
Trial was absolutely worthless: (i) on account of its form, (2) 
that the Assessors were not at liberty to hold their own views, 
the Trial being in the Castle and therefore not in open Court, 
(3) that no opportunity was given to the party of the French 
King to speak for themselves, (4) that Jeanne herself was 
allowed no Counsel, 1 nor had proper documents been prepared 
to support the Accusation. The Bishop, furious at this inter- 
ference, summoned a meeting at his house to discuss the matter, 
and announced his decision to take no notice of the opinions 
thus expressed, but to continue as before. On the following day, 
Lohier left Rouen, remarking to the Registrar of the Trial : " It 
seems to me they act more from hate than aught else : and for 
this reason I will not stay here, for I do not wish to be in it." 

Massieu, the Usher of the Court, afterwards stated that 
Jeanne had asked for Counsel, and had been refused ; but there 
is no reference to any such request in the message he gives 
from her at the time of her citation. 2 

The Bishop's violent resentment at any interference is noted 
by more than one witness ; and, indeed, the whole conduct of 

1 According to the rules of Inquisitorial Trials it was not necessary to grant 
an advocate to the accused. In the " Directorium Inquisitorum " the Decretal 
on the treatment of Heretics empowers the Bishop and the Judge of the 
Inquisition, acting conjointly, to dispense with other assistance, and to act 
alone. 

2 See " Execution of the Mandate," Feb. 2oth. 

Z 2 



340 JEANNE D'ARC 

the Trial may be not inaptly described in the words of one of 
the Assessors, Maitre Grouchet : " all was violence in this 
affair." 

The Trial itself was held in the Castle of Rouen, where Henry 
VI. had just been spending Christmas in state. 

At the First Session, in the Castle Chapel, the noise and 
disturbance were so great that it was decided that future 
Sessions should be held in a smaller room, and from this time 
the Court met in the Ornament Room, opening from the Great 
Hall. Two Englishmen kept the door. 1 

The Meetings of May igth and May 29th, preliminary to the 
closing of the First and Second Processes, respectively were 
held outside the Castle in the Chapel of the Archiepiscopal 
Manor, possibly with a view to giving an air of greater publicity 
to the proceedings. The room in which the instruments of 
torture were exhibited to Jeanne is on the ground-floor of the 
only part of the old Castle now standing, called the Great 
Tower. The smaller tower, in which Jeanne's prison was 
situated, was still in ruins until the beginning of the present 
century, and went by the name of the Tower of La Pucelle ; but 
it has now entirely disappeared. ^ 

The three Registrars, Manchon, Boisguillaume, and Taquel 
(the last only after March I4th), were seated at the feet of the 
Judges. The clerks of Beaupere and Erard, Jean de Monnet 
and Jean de Lenozelles, were sometimes with them ; two 
English clerks, under the direction of Loyseleur, were hidden 
behind a curtain. 2 

Jeanne was seated on a chair, and questioned, generally from 
8 to 1 1 a.m., by the Bishop and the six University Delegates. 
Sometimes they all spoke together, insomuch that Jeanne pro- 
tested : " Beaux Seigneurs, faites Tun apres 1'autre." 3 

In the evidence given at the Rehabilitation, we learn that on 
more than one occasion Jeanne received advice from friendly 
Assessors, notably from Brother Duval and Brother Ysambard 
de la Pierre ; but their well-meant interference seems only to 
have further incensed her Judges against her, and occasionally 
produced a violent altercation. 

On the other hand, Jeanne was cruelly misled by Nicolas 
^Loyseleur, one of the Canons of Rouen, who disguised himself 
as a fellow-countryman of the Marches of Lorraine, and, by false 
messages from her friends, wormed himself into the confidence 
of the Maid, even inducing her to allow him to act as her Con- 
fessor : nor did he scruple to report any admission she might 
make to the Bishop and the Inquisitor. The Registrars, Manchon 
and Boisguillaume, were even required by Cauchon to place 
themselves in a room adjoining the prison, provided with a so- 
1 Manchon. 2 Ibid. 3 Massieu. 



APPENDIX 341 

called " Judas " ear, in order that they might take notes of the 
conversation between the prisoner and Loyseleur : but this, to 
their everlasting honour, they refused to do. 

The Registrars appear to have had their difficulties from the 
very beginning. The notes taken by them at the morning sit- 
tings were read over in the presence of some of the Assessors at 
the Bishop's lodgings in the afternoon, and compared with those 
made by the concealed English clerks. Differences of opinion 
arose very often ; but the officials refused to allow their own 
notes to be overridden, and, whenever any disputed point was 
referred to the Accused, their version was always found to be 
correct. These notes were finally drawn up by Manchon in 
a complete form, and upon them is based the whole account of 
the Trial as it appears in the Latin translation, the subsequent 
work of Thomas de Courcelles. 



ACT OF ACCUSATION PREPARED BY THE 
PROMOTER 

THE SEVENTY ARTICLES 

[The Seventy Articles, prepared by the Promoter, d'Estivet, 
which form the Accusation of the Trial in Ordinary, were 
read to Jeanne by Thomas de Courcelles, on Tuesday, 
March 27th. In her replies, here given, Jeanne refers con- 
stantly to previous answers. The dates of Examinations, in 
which these are said to occur, follow in notes.] 

ARTICLE I. And first, according to Divine Law, as according 
to Canon and Civil Law, it is to you, the Bishop, as Judge 
Ordinary, and to you, the Deputy, as Inquisitor of the Faith, 
that it appertaineth to drive away, destroy, and cut out from the 
roots in your Diocese and in all the kingdom of France, heresies, 
witchcrafts, superstitions, and other crimes of that nature ; it is 
to you that it appertaineth to punish, to correct and to amend 
heretics and all those who publish, say, profess, 'or in any 
other manner act against our Catholic Faith : to wit, sorcerers, 
diviners, invokers of demons, those who think ill of the Faith, 
all criminals of this kind, their abettors and accomplices, appre- 
hended in your Diocese or in your jurisdiction, not only for the 
misdeeds they may have committed there, but even for the part of 
their misdeeds that they may have committed elsewhere, saving, 
in this respect, the power and duty of the other Judges competent 
to pursue them in their respective dioceses, limits, and juris- 
dictions. And your power as to this exists against all lay 



342 JEANNE D'ARC 

persons, whatever be their estate, sex, quality, and pre-eminence : 
in regard to all you are competent Judges. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I believe surely that our Lord the Pope of Rome, the 
Bishops, and other Clergy, are established to guard the Chris- 
tian Faith and punish those who are found wanting therein: 
but as for me, for my doings I submit myself only to the 
Heavenly Church that is to say, to God, to the Virgin Mary, 
and to the Saints in Paradise. I firmly believe I have not 
wavered in the Christian Faith, nor would I waver." 

ARTICLE II. The Accused, not only this year, but from her 
infancy, and not only in your Diocese, Bishop, and your 
jurisdiction, Deputy, but also in many other places of this 
kingdom, hath done, composed, contrived and ordained a number 
of sacrileges and superstitions : she made herself a diviner ; 
she caused herself to be adored and venerated ; she hath 
invoked demons, and evil spirits ; consulted them, associated 
with them, hath made and had with them compacts, treaties, 
and conventions, hath made use of them, hath furnished to 
others, acting in the same manner, aid, succour, and favour, and 
hath, in much, led them on to act like herself; she hath said, 
affirmed, and maintained that to act thus, to use witchcraft, 
divinations, superstitions, was not a sin, was not a forbidden 
thing, but, on the contrary, a thing lawful, to be praised, worthy 
of approval ; also she hath led into these errors and evil doings 
a very great number of persons of divers estates, of both sexes, 
and hath imprinted on their hearts the most fatal errors. 
Jeanne hath been taken and arrested within the limits of your 
diocese of Beauvais, in the very act (flagrante delictd) of per- 
petrating all these misdoings. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I deny ever having used witchcraft, superstitious works, 
or divinations. As to allowing myself to be adored, if any kissed 
my hands and my garments, it was not my doing or by my 
wish; I sought to protect myself from it, and to prevent it 
as much as in me lay. And as for the rest of the Article, I 
deny it." 

ARTICLE III. The Accused hath fallen into many diverse 
and detestable errors which reek of heresy. She hath said, 
vociferated, uttered, published and inculcated within the hearts 
of the simple, false and lying propositions allied to heresy, even 
themselves heretical, contrary to our Catholic Faith and its 
principles, to Gospel rules, and to the Statutes established or 
approved by General Councils ; propositions, contrary not only 
to the Divine Law but also to Canon and Civil Law ; propositions 
scandalous, sacrilegious, contrary to good manners, offensive to 
pious ears : she hath furnished help, counsel and favour to the 



APPENDIX 343 

people who dogmatized, affirmed, or promulgated such pro- 
positions. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I deny it, and on the contrary affirm that I have always 
upheld the Church so far as it lay in my power." 

ARTICLE IV. But it is time to instruct you more fully and 
more directly, my Lords and Judges, on the offences, excesses, 
crimes, and misdemeanours, committed by the Accused in the 
diocese of Beauvais and elsewhere, in many and divers places. 

It is true that the Accused was born in the village of Grus 
[Greux], of Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle, his wife ; that she lived 
until seventeen years old or thereabouts in the village of 
Domremy, on the Meuse, in the diocese of Toul, in the Bailly of 
Chaumont, in Bassigny, in the provosty of Montclere and Andelot. 
In her childhood, she was not instructed in the beliefs and prin- 
ciples of our Faith ; but by certain old women she was initiated 
in the science of witchcraft, divination, superstitious doings, and 
magical arts. Many inhabitants of these villages have been 
known for all time as using these kinds of witchcraft : Jeanne 
hath herself said that she learned from several, notably from 
her godmother, many things touching her visions and the 
apparitions of fairies ; through others also, she hath been pene- 
trated by the detestable and pernicious errors of these evil 
spirits so much so, that, in these interrogations before you, 
she hath confessed that even now she doth not know if these 
fairies were evil spirits or not. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" For the first part it is true, in so far as concerns my 
father, my mother, and the place of my birth. As to the 
fairies, I do not know what they are. On what touches my 
teaching, I learnt to believe, and have been brought up well and 
duly to do what a good child ought to do. For what concerns 
my godmother, I refer to what I have said on another occasion. 
You ask me to say the Creed ? Ask my confessor, to whom I 
said it." 

ARTICLE V. Near the village of Domremy there is a great tree, 
big and ancient ; it is called " the Charmed Tree of the Fairy of 
Bourlement " : near by is a spring ; round this tree and this 
spring live, it is said, evil spirits called fiiries, with whom those 
who use witchcraft are accustomed to come and dance at night. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" For the tree and the spring, I refer to my previous answers. 
The rest, I deny." 1 

1 Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th ; 5th Public Examination, 
March ist ; 8th Private Examination, iyth ; and 9th Private Examination, 
March 



344 JEANNE D'ARC 

ARTICLE VI. Accustomed to frequent this tree and this 
spring, above all by night, sometimes also by day, but at the 
times when the Church celebrates the Divine Office, Jeanne, in 
order to find herself more alone, danced roundelays around this 
tree and this spring ; from time to time she hung from its 
branches garlands of herbs and flowers woven by her own 
hands, accompanying her dances with songs mingled with 
invocations, sorceries, and other witchcrafts : the garlands thus 
left overnight on the following morning were not to be found. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I refer for a part to my previous answers ; the rest I deny." 1 

ARTICLE VII. Jeanne was in the habit of carrying about 
with her a mandrake, hoping thereby to secure fortune and 
riches in this world, she, in fact, believed that the mandrake has 
the virtue of procuring fortune. 

" What have you to say about the mandrake ? " 

"I deny it entirely." 2 

ARTICLE VIII. Towards her twentieth year, Jeanne, of her 
own wish, and without permission of her father and mother, 
went to Neufchateau, in Lorraine, and was in service for some 
time at the house of a woman, an inn-keeper named La Rousse, 
where lived women of evil life, and where soldiers were accus- 
tomed to lodge in great numbers. During her stay in this inn, 
Jeanne sometimes stayed with these evil women, sometimes 
took the sheep into the fields, or led the horses to watering 
in the meadows and pastures : it was there that she learnt to 
ride on horseback and to use arms. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I said elsewhere. I deny the rest." 3 

ARTICLE IX. Whilst she was in service with these women 
Jeanne indicted a young man before the Officials at Toul for 
breach of promise ; many times she repaired to Toul for this 
end, and spent thus nearly all that she had. This young man 
refused to marry her, because he knew she had been connected 
with evil women. He died during the trial. Jeanne then, 
unable to remain longer, quitted the service of this woman. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" On the subject of this trial for marriage I have answered 
elsewhere and refer to my answer. I deny the rest." 4 

ARTICLE X. After having quitted the service of La Rousse, 
Jeanne pretended, and still doth pretend, to have had continually 
during five years, visions and apparitions of Saint Michael 

1 Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th. 

2 Cf. 5th Public Examination, March ist. 

8 Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd, and 3rd Public Examina- 
tion, February 24th. 

4 Cf. 2nd Private Examination, March i2th. 



APPENDIX 345 

Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret. They revealed to her, she 
says, by order of God, that she should raise the siege of Orleans 
and crown Charles, whom she calls her King ; and that after- 
wards she would drive out his enemies from the realm of France. 
In spite of her father and mother, she left home, of her own 
motion, of her sole inspiration, and went to Robert de Baudri- 
court, captain of Vaucouleurs, to whom she communicated, in 
virtue of the order of Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint 
Margaret, the visions and revelations that God had made to her, 
asking of the said Robert to find her the means to accomplish 
what had been revealed to her. Twice repulsed by Robert, she 
returned twice to her parents. Returning a third time to the 
attempt, on a pretended order sent to her by revelation, she was 
then admitted and received by the said Robert. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I said before." 1 

ARTICLE XI. Having become familiar with the said Robert, 
Jeanne boasted that, after having done and accomplished all 
that had been commanded her of God, she would have three 
sons, of whom the first should be Pope, the second 
Emperor, and the third King. Robert de Baudricourt, hearing 
this, said to her, " Would I could be father to one myself, if they 
are to be such great people ! my own value would thereby be 
the greater ! " " Nay, nay, gentle Robert," replied Jeanne, " it is 
net time ; the Holy Spirit will accomplish it." 2 This is the 
tale which the said Robert hath in many places often affirmed, 
told and published, and this in presence of prelates, lords, and 
high personages. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I have already said. 3 I never boasted that 
I should have three children." 4 

ARTICLE XII. In order the more openly and better to 
attain her end, Jeanne asked of Robert de Baudricourt to have 
made for her a man's dress and armour appropriate. This 
captain, with great repugnance, ended by acquiescing in her 
request. These garments and armour made and furnished, 
Jeanne, rejecting and abandoning women's clothing, her hair cut 
a-round like a young coxcomb, took shirt, breeches, doublet, 
with hose joined together and fastened to the said doublet by 
twenty points, long leggings laced on the outside, a short 

1 Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd ; 3rd Public Examination, 
February 24th ; 4th Public Examination, February 27th ; 5th Public Exami- 
nation, March ist ; 2nd Private Examination, March I2th; 3rd Private 
Examination, March I2th. 

2 This answer is given in French in the text. 

3 No previous answer is recorded. 

4 Cf. 2nd Private Examination, March I2th. 



346 JEANNE D'ARC 

mantle [surcoat] to the knees, or thereabouts, close-cut cap, 
tight-fitting boots or buskins, long spurs, sword, dagger, breast- 
plate, lance and other arms in fashion of a man of war, affirming 
that in this she was executing the order of God, as had been 
prescribed to her by revelation. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I said before." 

" Did you then take this costume, these arms, and all this 
war like apparel by the order of God ? " 

" On this also I refer to what I said before." 1 

ARTICLE XIII. Jeanne attributes to God, His Angels and 
His Saints, orders which are against the modesty of the sex, 
and which are prohibited by the Divine Law, things abominable 
to God and man, interdicted on pain of anathema by ecclesias- 
tical censure, such as dressing herself in the garments of a man,, 
short, tight, dissolute, those underneath as well as above. It is 
in virtue of these pretended orders that she hath attired her- 
self in sumptuous and stately raiment, cloth-of-gold and furs ; 
and not only did she wear short tunics, but she dressed herself 
in tabards, and garments open at both sides ; and it is notorious 
that she was taken prisoner in a loose cloak of cloth-of-gold. 
She was always seen with a cap on her head, her hair cut short 
and a-round in the style of a man. In one word, putting aside 
the modesty of her sex, she acted not only against all feminine 
decency, but even against the reserve which beseems men of 
good morals, wearing ornaments and garments which only 
profligate men are accustomed to use, and going so far as to carry 
arms of offence. To attribute all this to the order of God, to 
the order which had been transmitted to her by the Angels and 
even by Virgin Saints, is to blaspheme God and His Saints, to 
destroy the Divine Law and violate the Canonical Rules ; it is 
to libel the sex and its virtue, to overturn all decency, to justify 
all examples of dissolute living, and to drive others thereto. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I have not blasphemed God nor His Saints." 2 

1 Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd ; 4th Public Examination, 
February 27th; 3rd Private Examination, March I2th; and 8th Private 
Examination, March lyth. 

2 The two following questions and answers appear in the Minute only : 
" But, Jeanne, the Holy Canons and Holy Writ declare that women 

who take men's dress or men who take women's dress, do a thing abomi- 
nable to God. How then can you say that you took this dress at God's 
command ? " 

" You have been answered. If you wish that I should answer you further^ 
grant me delay, and I will answer you." 

" Will you not take the dress of a woman to receive your Saviour on 
Easter Day?" 

" Neither for that nor for anything else will I yet put off my dress. I 



APPENDIX 347 

ARTICLE XIV. Jeanne affirms that she has done right in 
attiring herself in garments worn only by dissolute men ; she 
doth profess that she will continue to retain them until she 
shall have received, by revelation, the express order of God : by 
this, she outrages God, the Angels, and the Saints. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I do no wrong in serving God ; to-morrow I will answer you." 

[One of the Assessors] : " Did you have revelation or order 
to wear a man's dress ? " 

" I have already answered that elsewhere. I refer to my 
previous sayings. To-morrow I will answer. I know well who 
made me take a man's dress ; but I do not know how I can 
reveal it" 1 

ARTICLE XV. Jeanne, having many times asked that she 
might be permitted to hear Mass, hath been invited to quit the 
dress she now wears and to take again her woman's dress ; she 
hath been allowed to hope that she will be admitted to hear 
Mass and to receive Communion, if she will renounce entirely 
the dress of a man and take that of a woman, as beseems her 
sex ; she hath refused. In other words, she hath chosen rather 
not to approach the Sacraments nor to assist in Divine Service,, 
than to put aside her habit, pretending that this would displease 
God. In this appears her obstinacy, her hardness of heart, her 
lack of charity, her disobedience to the Church, and her contempt 
of Divine Sacraments. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I would rather die than revoke what I have done by the 
order of Our Lord." 

" Will you, to hear Mass, abandon the dress of a man ? " 

" I will not abandon it yet ; the time is not come. If you 
refuse to let me hear Mass, it is in the power of Our Lord to let 
me hear it, when it shall please Him, without you. I recollect 
being admonished to take again a woman's dress. As to the 
irreverence and such like things, I deny them." 2 

ARTICLE XVI. Previous to, and since her capture, at the 
Castle of Beaurevoir and at Arras, Jeanne hath been many 
times advised with gentleness, by noble persons of both sexes,, 

make no difference between man's dress and woman's dress for receiving 
my Saviour. I ought not to be refused for this question of dress." Cf. 4th 
Public Examination, February 27th, and 6th Public Examination, March 3rd, 

1 Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th ; 3rd Private Examination ; 
March I2th; 8th Private Examination, March I7th. These questions and 
answers come after Article XIII. in the minute. 

2 Cf. 7th Private Examination, March I5th; 8th Private Examination, 
March I7th. 

After Article XV., the following sentence is inserted in the Extracts, but 
is not in the Proces. "She added that the Demoiselle de Luxembourg; 
prayed the Seigneur de Luxembourg not to give her up to the English." 



3 4 8 JEANNE D'ARC 

to give up her man's dress and resume suitable attire. She hath 
absolutely refused, and to this day also she refuses with persist- 
ence ; she disdains also to give herself up to feminine work, 
conducting herself in all things rather as a man than as a 
woman. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" At Arras and Beaurevoir I was invited to take a woman's 
dress ; then I refused, and I refuse still. As to the women's 
work of which you speak, there are plenty of other women to 
do it" 1 

ARTICLE XVII. When Jeanne found herself in the presence 
of Charles, thus attired and armed, she promised him these 
three things among others : that she would raise the siege of 
Orleans ; that she would have him consecrated at Rheims ; that 
she would avenge him on his enemies, who, all of them, English 
or Burgundians, should be, thanks to her, killed or driven out of 
the kingdom. Many times and in many places did she repeat 
publicly the same boasts ; and, to give them greater weight, 
then and often afterwards, she did use divinations, and by these 
means unveiled the morals, the entire life, the most secret acts, 
of persons who came before her, whom she had never before 
seen or known ; she boasted of knowing all by revelation. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

"In the name of God I brought the news to my King that 
Our Lord would restore the kingdom to him, cause him to be 
crowned at Rheims, and drive out all his enemies ; I was a 
messenger from God, when I told the King boldly to set me to 
work and I would raise the siege of Orleans. I mean, in so 
saying, the whole kingdom ; and if my Lord of Burgundy and 
the other subjects of the King do not return to their obedience, 
the King will know how to make them by force. As to the end 
of the Article, of knowing Robert de Baudricourt and my King, 
I hold to what I said before." 2 

ARTICLE XVIII. So long as Jeanne remained with Charles, 
she did dissuade him with all her power, him and those with 
him, from consenting to any treaty of peace, any arrangement 
with his adversaries ; inciting them always to murder and 
effusion of blood ; affirming that they could only have peace by 
sword and lance ; and that God willed it so, because otherwise 
the enemies of the King would not give up that which they held 
in his kingdom ; to fight against them thus, is, she told them, 
one of the greatest benefits that can happen to all Christendom. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

"As to my Lord of Burgundy, I requested him by my 

1 Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd. 

2 Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd ; 4th Private Examination, 
March I3th. 



APPENDIX 349 

ambassadors and my letters that he would make peace between 
my King and himself; but as to the English, the peace they 
need is that they may go away to their own country, to England. 
I have answered on the remainder of the Article ; and I refer to 
this answer." 1 

ARTICLE XIX. It was by consulting demons and using 
divinations, that Jeanne sent to look for a sword hidden in the 
Church of Saint Catherine de Fierbois : (perchance she had 
already maliciously, fraudulently, and deceitfully hidden or caused 
to be hidden this sword in the same church, to seduce the 
princes, nobles, clergy, and people, to induce them to believe 
more easily that she knew by revelation in what place this 
sword was). By this stratagem and others of a like nature she 
succeeded in inspiring an absolute faith in all her words. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I said before ; I deny all the rest." 2 

ARTICLE XX. She hath put faith in her ring, in her banner, 
in certain pieces of linen, and pennons which she carried or 
caused to be carried by her people, and also in the sword found 
by revelation, according to her, at Saint Catherine de Fierbois, 
saying that these things were very fortunate. She made thereon 
many execrations and conjurations, in many and divers places, 
publicly asserting that by them she would do great things and 
would obtain victory over her enemies ; that to those of her 
people who carried pennons of this kind no ill could happen. 
She said all this at Compiegne on the eve of the day when, 
having sallied to attack my lord the Duke of Burgundy, she was 
taken prisoner and many of her followers were wounded, killed, 
or taken. She said as much at Saint Denis, when she incited 
her army to attack Paris. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I have already said. In all I have done 
there was never any sorcery or evil arts. As for the good luck 
of my banner, I refer it to the fortune sent through it by Our 
Lord (de bond fortuna sui estandart se refert ad fortunium quod 
Dominus Noster in es transmissit)" 3 

ARTICLE XXI. Jeanne, by temerity or presumption, hath 
caused to be written certain letters at the head of which she 
placed the names ' Jhesus Maria,' with a cross iri the middle. 
These letters she caused to be addressed in her name to our 
Lord the King, to my Lord of Bedford, Regent of France, to 
the lords and captains who were then at the siege of Orleans, 

1 Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 2yth. 

2 Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 2/th ; 8th Private Examination, 
March I7th. 

3 Cf. 5th Public Examination, March ist ; 6th Public Examination, March 
3rd; Qth Private Examination, March i/th. 



350 , JEANNE D'ARC 

containing a number of things wicked, pernicious, contrary to 
the Catholic Faith, the tenour of which is found in the Article 
which follows : 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I did not send the letters of which you speak in pride or 
in presumption, but by command of Our Lord. I remember 
and acknowledge the contents of these letters, with the exception 
of three words. If the English had believed my letters, they 
would only have been wise ; and before seven years are gone 
they will perceive it well enough ! " l 

ARTICLE XXII. Tenour of the letter : 2 

" What have you to say to this letter ? " 

" I remember having it written except three words, which 
I did not dictate. If the English had believed my words 
they would have acted wisely. Before seven years are gone, 
they will feel the truth of what I wrote to them, and for that, 
I refer to the answer which I made elsewhere." 

ARTICLE XXIII. The tenour of the letter contained in the 
preceding Article proves well that Jeanne hath been the sport 
of evil spirits, and that she often consulted them to know what 
she ought to do ; or, at least, that, to seduce the people, she 
imagined these inventions by lying or wickedness. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I deny ever having done anything under the inspiration of 
evil spirits." 3 

ARTICLE XXIV. Jeanne hath gravely misused the names 
" Jhesus Maria " and the sign of the cross placed beside them ; it 
was understood between her and her people that, when they saw 
on her letters these words and this sign, they were to do the 
contrary of what she wrote : and, in fact, they did do the 
contrary. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I said before." 4 

ARTICLE XXV. Usurping the office of Angels, Jeanne hath 
said and affirmed that she hath been sent by God ; and she hath 
said this even for cases which tend openly to violence and 
effusion of human blood : a proposition the most foreign to all 
holiness, horrible and abominable to all pious souls. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" First, I begged them to make peace ; and it was only in 
case they would not make peace that I was ready to fight." 5 

1 Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd ; 6th Public Examination 
March 3rd. 

2 Vide 5th Public Examination, March 1st : pages 36-38. 

3 Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th. 

4 Cf. Qth Private Examination, March i/th. 

5 Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th ; Qth Private Examination, 
March i7th. 



APPENDIX 351 

ARTICLE XXVI. Jeanne, being at Compiegne in August of 
1429, did receive from the Count d'Armagnac a letter of which 
the tenour forms the article which follows. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I said before." l 

ARTICLE XXVII. Tenour of the said letter. 2 

ARTICLE XXVIII. To this letter Jeanne did send in answer 
the letter signed with her name, found in the Articles which 
follow. 

ARTICLES XXIX. AND XXX. Letter of Jeanne to the Count 
d'Armagnac. 3 

"What have you to say on these Articles, XXVI L, 
XXVI 1 1., XXIX., XXX., which have been read to you with 
great care, from the first word to the last ? ' ' 

" I refer to what I answered on Article XXVI." 4 



Continuation of the Reading of the Articles in Open Court. 

[The next day, Wednesday, March 28th, in the same room, 
near the great Hall of the Castle of Rouen, before the Bishop 
and Brother Jean Lemaitre, assisted by 35 Assessors.] 

Before them hath been resumed the reading, begun the pre- 
ceding day, of the Articles in the document produced by the 
Promoter. Their contents in French, being shewn to Jeanne, 
Article by Article, she hath been questioned on each of these 
Articles and hath continued to reply, as here followeth, after 
having anew sworn to speak truth on everything touching the 
Trial. 5 

ARTICLE XXXI. From the time of her childhood and since, 
Jeanne hath boasted, and every day still doth boast, of having 
had, and of still having, numerous revelations and visions on the 
subject which, although she hath been on this charitably ad- 
monished and legally required to swear, she hath not made, nor 
wished to make, nor is now willing to make, any oath. She will 
not even make known the revelations made to her, by words nor 

1 Cf. 5th Public Examination, March ist. 

2 Vide 5th Public Examination, March ist : pages 34-35. . 

3 Vide ante, page 35. 

4 Cf. 5th Public Examination, March rst. 

6 The following incident occurs in the Minute only : 

The Bishop, referring to the promise given on the previous day by Jeanne 
that she would answer on the subject of her dress, asks that, before proceeding 
with the reading, this answer may be given. To which Jeanne replies : 

" The dress and the arms that I wear, I wear by the permission of God : 
I will not leave them off without the permission of God, even if it cost 
me my head : but, if it should so please Our Lord, I will leave them off: 
I will not take a woman's dress if I have not permission from Our Saviour." 



352 JEANNE D'ARC 

by signs. This she hath postponed, contested, refused, and 
doth now also postpone, contest, and refuse. Many times hath 
she said and affirmed in a formal manner, in Court and 
outside, that she will not make known these revelations and 
visions to you, her Judges, even if her head should be cut off, 
or her body dismembered. " They shall not drag it from my 
mouth," she hath said, " neither the sign that God revealed to 
me, nor the means whereby I knew that this sign came to me 
from God." 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" As to revealing the sign and the other things, of which 
you speak, I may well have said I will not reveal them. I add, 
to what I before acknowledged that I should have said I would 
not reveal it without leave from Our Lord." 1 

ARTICLE XXXII. By this refusal to make known these 
pretended revelations, you may and should presume strongly 
that the revelations and visions of Jeanne, if she had them 
always, came to her from lying and evil spirits rather than from 
good. And all the world may take it for certain, considering 
her cruelty, her pride, her dress, her actions, her lies, the contra- 
dictions here given in various Articles, that all these together 
constitute in this respect the most powerful of presumptions, both 
of law and right. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I did it by revelation, from Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret; and I will maintain it even unto death. If I put on 
my letters the names 'Jhesus Maria/ it was because I was 
advised to do so by certain persons of my party ; sometimes I 
used these names, sometimes not. As to that passage in my 
answer of which you remind me, ' All that I did, I did by the 
counsel of Our Lord,' it should be completed thus : ' All that 
I did well?" 

" Did you do well or ill to advance on La Charit6 ? " 

" If it were ill done, it will be confessed." 

" Did you do well to advance on Paris ? " 

" The gentlemen of France wished to advance on Paris. 
In doing this, it seems to me they did their duty in going against 
their enemies." 

ARTICLE XXXIII. Jeanne hath presumptuously and auda- 
ciously boasted, and doth still boast, of knowing the future and 
of having foreseen the past, of knowing things that are in the 
present, but hidden or unknown ; all which, an attribute of the 
Deity, she claims for herself, a simple and ignorant creature. 

1 Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd ; 3rd Public Examination, 
February 24th ; 4th Public Examination, February 27th ; 5th Public Exami- 
nation, March ist; 7th Private Examination, March i$th; 8th Private 
Examination, March I7th. 



APPENDIX 



353 



" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" It is in Our Lord's power to give revelations to whom He 
pleases ; that which I said of the sword of Fierbois and of 
things to come, I knew by revelation." l 

ARTICLE XXXIV. Obstinate in her temerity and presump- 
tion, Jeanne hath said, proclaimed, and published, that she 
recognized and discerned the voices of Archangels, Angels, and 
Saints ; she hath affirmed and doth still affirm that she knoweth 
how to distinguish their Voices from human voices. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I hold by what I have already said : of my pretended 
temerity, and, of that which has been concluded against me, I 
refer to Our Lord, my Judge." 2 

ARTICLE XXXV. Jeanne hath boasted and affirmed that 
she did know how to discern those whom God loveth and those 
whom He hateth. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I hold by what I have already said elsewhere of the King 
and the Duke d'Orleans ; of the others I know not ; I know 
well that God, for their well-being, 3 (pro edits corporum 
suorutn\ loves my King and the Duke d'Orleans better than 
me. I know it by revelation." 4 

ARTICLE XXXVI. Jeanne hath said, affirmed, and boasted, 
she doth say, affirm, and every day boast, that she hath known, 
and could know exactly and that not only herself, but also 
others through her means recognized and surely knew the 
Voice which came to her, although from its nature a voice must 
be invisible to every human being. 

" What have you to say to this Article ?" 

" I hold by what I have said elsewhere." 5 

ARTICLE XXXVI I. Jeanne doth confess to having frequently 
done the contrary to what hath been commanded her by the 
revelations she doth boast to have had from God ; for example, 
when she retired from St. Denis, after the assault on Paris, and 
when she leaped from the top of the tower of Beaurevoir. By 
this, it is manifest, either that she hath had no revelations from 
God, or that, if she hath had them, she hath despised them. 
And she it is, who, after this, doth dare to affirm that she is in 

1 Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th ; 4th Public Examination, 
February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March ist ; 6th Public Exami- 
nation, March 3rd; ist Private Examination, March loth ; 3rd Private 
Examination, March I2th ; 5th Private Examination, March I4th. 

2 Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th ; 5th Public Examination, 
March ist; 7th Private Examination, March I5th. 

3 Minute reads : "pour Taise de son corps." 

4 Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd ; 3rd Public Examination, 
Feb. 24th ; 8th Private Examination, March I7th. 

5 Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd. 

A A 



354 ' JEANNE D'ARC 

all things guided and governed by commands from on high and 
by revelation ! Besides, she hath said that, when she had had 
the order not to leap from the top of the tower, she was 
compelled to act contrary to this order, without being able to 
resist the constraint put upon her will ; in the which she appears 
to think wrongly on the matters of Free-will and to fall into the 
error of those who believe that man is led by Fate or by some 
other irresistible power. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I hold by what I have said elsewhere. I state in addition that 
when I left St. Denis I had permission from my Voices." 

" In acting against your Voices, do you think you com- 
mitted mortal sin ? " 

" I have answered elsewhere to that ; I refer to that answer. 
On the concluding part of this Article, I refer me to God." 3 

ARTICLE XXXVIII. Jeanne, from the time of her child- 
hood, hath said, done, and committed a great number of crimes, 
sins and evil deeds shameful, cruel, scandalous, dishonouring, 
unworthy of her sex ; now she doth say and affirm that all that 
she hath done hath been with the approbation and by the will 
of God ; that she hath done nothing and now doeth nothing 
which proceedeth not from God, by means of the revelations 
transmitted to her by the Holy Angels and the Holy Virgins, 
Catherine and Margaret. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I have said elsewhere." 2 

ARTICLE XXXIX. Although the Just sin seven times a day, 
Jeanne hath said and published that she hath never committed, 
or, at least, that she doth believe never to have committed, 
mortal sin. Nevertheless, as many Articles of the present 
accusation prove, she hath indeed practised, and on a vast scale, 
acts customary to nations who are at war, and others yet more 
grave. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I have answered it ; I refer to what I have said else- 
where." 3 

ARTICLE XL. Forgetful of her salvation, impelled by the 
devil, she is not and hath not been ashamed several times and 
in many and divers places to receive the Body of Christ, having 
upon her a man's dress of unseemly form, a dress which the 
laws of God and man do forbid her to wear. 

1 Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; ist Private Examination,, 
March loth ; 7th Private Examination, March I5th. 

2 Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th ; 7th Private Examination, ; 
March Kth. 

3 Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th ; 5th Public Examination, 
March ist ; 6th Private Examination, March I4th. 



APPENDIX 355 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I have answered elsewhere. I rely upon what I have said 

fore. I rely upon Our Lord." l 

ARTICLE XLI. Jeanne, as one desperate, for hate and 
mtempt of the English, and foreseeing the destruction of 

>mpiegne, which she believed to be imminent, did attempt to 
:ill herself by throwing herself down from the top of a tower ; 
at the instigation of the devil, she took it into her head to 
commit this action ; she applied herself to commit it ; she did 
commit it in so far as she was able ; on the other hand, in so 
throwing herself down, she was so well impelled and guided by 
a diabolic instinct that she had in view rather the safety of her 
body than that of her soul and of many others. Often indeed, 
hath she boasted that she would kill herself rather than that 
she should be delivered to the English. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I rely upon what I have said before." 2 

ARTICLE XLI I. Jeanne hath said and published that Saint 
Catherine and Saint Margaret and Saint Michael have bodies 
that is to say, head, eyes, face, hair, etc. ; that she hath touched 
them with her hands ; that she hath kissed them and embraced 
them. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I have already answered it, and I rely upon what I have 
said." 3 

ARTICLE XLIII. Jeanne hath said and published that the 
Saints, the Angels, and the Archangels speak the French lan- 
guage and not the English language, because the Saints, the 
Angels, and the Archangels are not on the side of the English, 
but of the French ; she hath outraged the Saints in glory, in 
implying to them a mortal hatred against a Catholic realm and 
a nation devoted, according to the will of the Church, to the 
veneration of all the Saints. 

This Article having been set forth to Jeanne word for word, 
she only answered thus : 

" I rely on Our Lord, and upon what I have replied before." 4 

ARTICLE XLIV. Jeanne hath boasted and doth yet boast, 
she hath published and doth publish, that Saint Catherine and 
Saint Margaret have promised to lead her to Paradise, and have 
assured her that she will obtain heavenly joy if she preserve 
her virginity ; she affirms she is certain of this. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

1 Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd. 

2 Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 5th Private Examination, 
March 28th. 

4 Cf. Qth Private Examination, March I7th. 
Cf. 5th Public Examination, March ist. 

A A 2 



356 JEANNE D'ARC 

" I rely on Our Lord and on what I answered elsewhere." l 

ARTICLE XLV. Although the judgments of God are im- 
penetrable to us, nevertheless Jeanne hath said, uttered, declared, 
and promulgated that she hath known and can know those who 
are Saints, Archangels, Angels, or the elect of God ; she knoweth 
how to discern them. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I have already said." 2 

ARTICLE XLVI. She hath said that, before leaping from the 
tower of Beaurevoir, she did most lovingly entreat Saint Catherine 
and Saint Margaret for the people of Compiegne, saying to these 
Saints in a reproachful manner, " And how can God allow these 
people of Compiegne, who are so loyal, to die thus miserably ? " 
In the which did appear her impatience and her irreverence 
towards God and the Saints. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I have already said." 3 

ARTICLE XLVI I. Provoked with her wound, Jeanne, 7 after 
the leap from the tower of Beaurevoir, seeing she had not attained 
her end, began to blaspheme God and the Saints, abjuring them 
with horrible taunts, insulting them terribly, to the great con- 
fusion of all those present. In the same way, when she was in 
the Castle of Rouen, many times, and on different days, did she 
blaspheme and deny God, the Blessed Virgin, and the Saints : 
in impatience and resentment at being brought for judgment 
before an ecclesiastical tribunal and forced to appear there. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I hold by Our Lord and by what I have already said." 4 

ARTICLE XLVIII. Jeanne hath said that she did and doth 
still believe that the spirits which appear to her are Angels and 
Archangels and the Saints of God, as firmly as she believes in 
the Christian Faith, and in the Articles of that Faith, although 
she can report no sign which can be of a nature to prove that 
she hath in reality had this communication ; she hath consulted 
neither Bishop, Priest, nor Prelate, nor any ecclesiastical person 
whatsoever, to know whether she ought to have faith in such 
spirits ; yet more, she saith that her Voices have forbidden her 
to reveal anything to any one whosoever it may be, save first 
to a captain of soldiers, then to Charles her King, and after- 
wards to other persons purely laic. By this, she admits that 

1 Cf. 5th Private Examination, March I4th ; 6th Private Examination, 
March I4th ; 5th Public Examination, March ist. 

2 Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 2yth ; 5th Public Examination, 
March ist ; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd. 

3 Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd. 

4 Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd ; 6th Private Examination, 
March I4th. 



APPENDIX 357 

her belief on this point is audacious, her faith erroneous, her 
revelations doubtful, having always kept them from the know- 
ledge of the clergy and never having been willing to reveal them 
save to seculars. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I have answered it already. I refer to what is written. 
And as to the signs, if those who asked for them were not 
worthy, I could not help it. Many a time did I pray that it 
might please God to reveal it to some of this party. It is true, 
that to believe in my revelations I asked neither Bishop, Priest, 
nor any one else. I believe it was Saint Michael, from the good 
teaching he shewed me." 

" Did Saint Michael say to you : ' I am Saint Michael ' ? " 

" I have answered before." 

As to the concluding part of the Article, she answered : " I 
refer me to Our Lord. . . As firmly as I believe Our Saviour 
Jesus Christ suffered death to redeem us from the pains of hell, 
so firmly do I believe that it was Saint Michael and Saint 
Gabriel, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret whom Our 
Saviour sent to comfort and to counsel me." 1 

ARTICLE XLIX. On the foundation of this fancy alone 
Jeanne hath venerated spirits of this kind, kissing the ground on 
the which she said they had walked, bending the knee before 
them, embracing them, kissing them, paying all sorts ot 
adoration to them, giving them thanks with clasped hands, 
taking the greatest familiarities with them ; when she did not 
know if they were good or evil spirits, and when, by reason of 
all the circumstances revealed above, these spirits should have 
been rather considered by her as evil. This worship, this 
veneration, is idolatry : it is a compact with demons. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I have already answered ; for the conclusion, I refer me 
to Our Lord." 2 

ARTICLE L. Every day and many times daily Jeanne doth 
invoke these evil spirits and consult them on what she should do, 
notably on the manner in which she should answer in court. 
This seems to constitute, and doth in effect constitute, an 
invocation of demons. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I have already answered it ; I shall call them to my help 
as long as I live." 

" In what way shall you call them ? " 

1 Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th ; 6th Public Examination, 
March 3rd ; 2nd Private Examination, March I2th. 

2 Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th ; ist Private Examination, 
March loth; 2nd Private Examination, March I2th ; 7th Private Exami- 
nation, March I5th ; Qth Private Examination, March 



358 JEANNE D'ARC 

" I beseech Our Lord and Our Lady that they will send 
me counsel and comfort, and then They send it to me." 
" In what words do you beseech this ? " 

" I say * Most sweet Lord, in honour of Thy Holy Passion 
I beseech Thee, if Thou lovest me, that Thou wilt reveal to me 
how I should answer these Clergy. I know well, as regards this 
dress, the command by which I have taken it ; but I do not 
know in what way I should leave it off : for this, may it please 
Thee to teach me.' And soon they come to me. I often by 
my Voices have news of my Lord of Beauvais." 
The Bishop : " What do your Voices say of Us ? " 
" I will tell you apart. . . . To-day they came to me three 
times." 

" In your chamber ? " 

" I have answered you ; I hear them well. Saint Catherine 
and Saint Margaret have told me what I should say on the 
subject of my dress." l 

ARTICLE LI. Jeanne hath not feared to proclaim that Saint 

Michael, the Archangel of God, did come to her with a great 

multitude of Angels in the house of a woman where she had 

stopped at Chinon ; that he walked with her, holding her by the 

hand ; that they together mounted the stairs of the Castle and 

together gained the Chamber of the King ; that the Angel 

did reverence to the King, bowing before him, surrounded by 

this multitude of Angels, of which some had crowns on their 

heads and others had wings. To say such things of Archangels 

and the Holy Angels is presumption, audacity, lying, as in the 

holy books we do not read that they did a like reverence, a like 

demonstration, to any saint not even to the Blessed Virgin, 

Mother of God. Jeanne hath said that the Archangel Saint 

Gabriel hath often come to her with the blessed Michael, and 

sometimes even with thousands of Angels. She hath also 

proclaimed that the same Angel, at her prayer, did bring in this 

company of Angels a crown, the most precious possible, to place 

upon the head of her King a crown which is to-day deposited 

in the treasury of the King ; that the King would have been 

crowned at Rheims with this crown, if he had deferred his 

consecration some days : it was only because of the extreme 

haste of his coronation that he received another. All these are 

lies imagined by Jeanne at the instigation of the devil, or 

suggested by demons in deceitful apparitions, to make sport of 

her curiosity, she who would search secrets beyond her capacity 

and condition. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

1 Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th ; 4th Public Examination, 
February 27th ; 2nd Private Examination, March I2th ; 4th Private Exami- 
nation, March I3th; 5th Private Examination, March I4th. 



APPENDIX 359 

" On the subject of the Angel who brought the sign I have 
already answered. As to what the Promoter suggests on the 
subject of the thousands of Angels, I do not recollect having 
said it that is to say, the number ; I did certainly say that I 
had never been wounded without receiving great comfort and 
help from God and from the Saints Catherine and Margaret. 
As to the crown, on this also I have replied. Of the cgnclusion 
which the Promoter makes against my deeds, I refer me to God, 
Our Lord ; and where the crown was made and forged, I leave 
to Our Lord." l 

ARTICLE LI I. By all these inventions, Jeanne hath so 
seduced Christian people that many have in her presence adored 
her as a Saint, and in her absence do adore her still, composing 
in her honour masses and collects ; yet more, going so far as to 
call her the greatest of all the Saints after the Virgin Mary, 
raising statues and images to her in the Churches of the Saints, 
and bearing about them medals in lead or other metal represent- 
ing her exactly as the Church does to honour the memory and 
the recollection of the canonized Saints publicly proclaiming 
that she is sent from God, and more Angel than woman. Such 
things are pernicious to the Christian religion, scandalous, and 
prejudicial to the salvation of souls. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

"As to the commencement of the Article, I have already 
answered ; as to the conclusion, I refer to Our Lord." 2 

ARTICLE LI 1 1. In contempt of the orders of God and the 
Saints, Jeanne, in her presumption and pride, hath gone so far 
as to take command over men ; she hath made herself com- 
mander-in-chief and hath had under her orders nearly 16,000 
men, among whom were Princes, Barons, and a number of 
Gentlemen : she hath made them all fight, being their principal 
captain. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" As to the fact of being commander-in-chief, I have 
answered before ; if I have been commander-in-chief, it was to 
fight the English. As to the conclusion of the Article I refer 
me to God." 3 

ARTICLE LIV. Jeanne doth behave in an unseemly manner 
with men, refuses the society of women, wishes to live with men 
only, to be waited upon by them, even in her own room and in 
the most private details : a like thing hath never been seen nor 
heard of a chaste and pious woman. 

1 Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th ; 5th Public Examination, 
March ist ; ist Private Examination, March loth ; 2nd Private Examination, 
March I2th ; 4th Private Examination, March I3th. 

2 Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd. 

3 Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th. 



360 JEANNE D'ARC 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" It is true that my command was over men ; but as to my 
quarters and lodging, most often I had a woman with me. 
And when I was engaged in the war I slept fully dressed and 
armed, not being able always to find a woman. As to the 
conclusion of the Article, I refer me to God." 

ARTICLE LV. Jeanne hath abused the revelations and 
prophecies that she saith she hath had from God, to procure 
for herself lucre and temporal profit ; by means of these 
pretended revelations, she hath acquired great riches, a great 
show and great estate in officers, horses, and attire ; she hath 
obtained great revenues for her brothers and relations, imitating 
in this the false prophets, who, to acquire temporal gain or to 
obtain the favour of kings, were accustomed to pretend that 
they had had revelations from God on things which they knew 
would be to the taste of their princes ; abusing the divine 
oracles, she hath thus attributed her lies to God. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I have answered elsewhere. As to the gifts made to my 
brothers, that whicn the King gave to them was of his grace, 
without my asking. As to the charge made by the Promoter 
and the conclusion of the Article, I refer me to Our Lord." 1 

ARTICLE LVI. Jeanne hath many times proclaimed that 
she hath two counsellors whom she calls ' Counsellors of the 
Well,' and who have come to her since she hath been taken 
captive, as appears from the declaration made by Catherine de 
la Rochelle before the Officials in Paris. 2 This Catherine hath 
said that Jeanne, if she be not well guarded, will get out of 
prison, by the help of the Devil. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I hold by what I have already said ; and as to the 
' Counsellors of the Well/ I do not know what it means. I 
certainly believe that I overheard Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret there. The conclusion of the Article I deny." 

[And then she did swear by her oath 3 that she did not wish 
that the Devil should get her out of prison. 4 ] 

ARTICLE LVI I. The day of the Nativity of the Blessed 
Virgin, Jeanne did assemble the whole army of Charles, to 
make an attack on the city of Paris ; she did lead the army 
against the city, affirming that she would enter it on that day 
that she knew it by revelation : she directed all the arrange- 
ments possible for the entry. And, nevertheless, she is not 

1 Cf. ist Private Examination, March loth. 

2 This is the only known reference to this declaration of Catherine de la 
Rochelle. 

3 Her usual oath was ' En nom De ' or ' Par mon martin ' (baton). 

4 Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd. 




APPENDIX 361 

afraid to deny it before us here in court. And at other places 
also, at La Charite-sur-Loire, for example, at Pont L'Eveque, 
at Compiegne, when she attacked the army of the Duke of 
Burgundy, she affirmed and foretold that which, according to 
her, would take place, saying that she knew it by revelation : 
now, not only did the things predicted by her not come to pass, 
but the very contrary happened. Before you she hath denied 
having made these predictions, because they were not realized, 
as she had said ; but many people worthy of trust report l to 
have heard her utter them. At the time of the assault on Paris, 
she said that thousands of angels were around her, ready to 
bear her to Paradise if she should be killed : now, when she was 
asked why, after the promises made to her, not only did she not 
enter Paris but that many of her men and she herself had been 
wounded in a horrible manner and some even killed, she 
answered " It was Jesus, who broke His word to me." 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" As to the beginning, I have answered it already. If I 
think of more later, I will willingly answer then. I never said 
that Jesus had failed me." 2 

ARTICLE LVIII. Jeanne did cause to be painted a standard 
whereon are two Angels, one on each side of God holding the 
world in His hand, with the words " Jhtsus Maria " and other 
designs. She said that she caused this standard to be done by 
the order of God, who had revealed it to her by the agency of 
His Angels and Saints. This standard she did place at Rheims 
near the Altar, during the consecration of Charles, wishing, in 
her pride and vain glory, that it should be peculiarly honoured. 
Also did she cause to be painted arms, in the which she placed 
two golden lilies on a field azure ; between the lilies a sword 
argent, with a hilt and guard gilded, the point of the sword 
pointing upwards and surmounted with a crown, gilded. All 
this is display and vanity, it is not religion nor piety ; to attribute 
such vanities to God and to the Angels, is to be wanting in 
respect to God and the Saints. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I have already answered it ; for the conclusions drawn by 
the Promoter, I refer to Our Lord." 3 

ARTICLE LIX. At St. Denis in France Jeanne did offer and 
cause to be placed in the Church, in the most prominent place, 
the armour she wore when she was wounded while attacking the 

1 These reports do not appear in the official documents. 

2 Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 4th Private Examination, 
arch 1 3th. 

3 4th Public Examination, February 28th ; 6th Public Examination, March 
3rd ; ist Private Examination, March loth ; 8th Private Examination, March 
i7th; Qth Private Examination, March I7th. 



362 JEANNE D'ARC 

town of Paris ; she desired that this armour should be honoured 
as relics. In this same town, she did cause to be lighted candles, 
for the melted wax to fall on the heads of little children, saying 
that this would bring them happiness, and making by such 
witchcrafts many divinations. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" As to my armour, I have answered ; as to the candles 
lighted and melted, I deny it." l 

ARTICLE LX. In contempt of the laws and sanction of the 
Church, Jeanne hath several times before this tribunal refused 
to speak the truth : by this, she doth render suspect all she 
hath said or done in matters of faith and revelation, because she 
dares not reveal them to ecclesiastical judges ; she dreads the 
just punishment she hath merited and of which she appears her- 
self to be conscious, when, on this question, she did in court 
urge this proverb, that " for speaking the truth, one was often 
hanged." Also she hath often said : " You will not know all," 
and again, " I would rather have my head cut off than tell 
you all." 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I never sought delay, except to answer more surely on 
what was asked me. When I am doubtful if I ought to answer, 
I ask delay to know if I ought to speak. As to the counsel of 
my King, because it does not touch on this case, I would not 
reveal it. Of the sign given to the King, I have told it, because 
the clergy did constrain me to do so." 2 

ARTICLE LXI. Admonished of having to submit all her 
words and actions to the Church Militant, after that the distinc- 
tion between the Church Militant and the Church Triumphant 
had been shewn to her, Jeanne declared that she submitted her- 
self to the Church Triumphant and refused to submit to the 
Church Militant, confessing by this that she doth not rightly 
understand the Article of the Faith ' I believe in the Church, 
One, Holy, Catholic, 5 and that she is in error on this point. 
She hath said she would reveal them only to God, and that she 
referred her acts to God and to His Saints and not to the 
judgment of the Church. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I wish with all my power to give honour and reverence to 
the Church Militant. For referring my acts to the Church 
Militant, I must refer to Our Lord Who caused me to do them." 

" Will you refer to the Church Militant as to what you have 
done ? " 

1 Cf. 8th Private Examination, March lyth. 

2 Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th ; 4th Public Examination, 
February 27th ; 5th Public Examination, March ist ; 6th Public Examination, 
March 3rd; 2nd Private Examination, March I2th. 



APPENDIX 363 

" Send me the clerk on Saturday next, and I will answer." l 

ARTICLE LXII. Jeanne hath laboured to scandalize the 
people, to induce them to believe in her talk, taking to herself 
the authority of God and His Angels, presumptuously seeking 
to seduce men from ecclesiastical authority, as do the false 
prophets who establish sects of error and perdition and separate 
themselves from the unity of the Church ; a thing pernicious in 
the Christian religion, which, if the Bishops did not provide 
against it, might destroy ecclesiastical authority ; on all sides, 
in fact, raising up men and women who, pretending to have 
revelations from God and the Angels, will sow untruth and 
error as hath already happened to many since this woman 
hath arisen and hath begun to scandalize Christian people and 
to publish her knaveries." 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I will answer next Saturday." 

ARTICLE LXII I. Jeanne is not afraid to lie in court, and to 
violate her own oath when on the subject of her revelations ; she 
doth affirm a number of contradictory things, and which imply 
contradiction among themselves : she doth not fear to hurl 
malediction against a whole nation, the rulers of that nation and 
its greatest people ; she doth speak of them without respect, 
allowing herself a tone of mockery and derision such as no 
woman in a state of holiness would allow ; which sheweth well 
that she is ruled and guided by evil spirits and not, as she hath 
boasted, by God and the Angels. Christ said of false prophets, 
" Ye shall know them by their fruits." 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I refer to what I have said, and, for the conclusion, to God 
Our Lord." 2 

ARTICLE LXIV. Jeanne doth pretend to know that she hath 
obtained pardon of the sin committed when, in despair, driven 
by the evil spirits, she threw herself from the tower of the Castle 
at Beaurevoir : yet the Scriptures say that no one knoweth if he 
is worthy of love or hate, nor, in consequence, if he is purged of 
sin and justified. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I have answered you, and to that I refer. Of the charge 
and the conclusion, I refer me to Our Lord." 

ARTICLE LXV. Many times Jeanne hath said that she asked 
of God to send her special revelations by the Angels and by the 
Saints Catherine and Margaret upon what she ought to do : for 
example, in the matter of learning if she ought to make known 

1 Cf. 7th Private Examination, March I5th; Qth Private Examination, 
March lyth. 

2 Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th ; 5th Public Examination, 
March ist. 



364 JEANNE D'ARC 

the truth in court on certain points and certain facts which are 
personal to herself. It is to tempt God, to ask Him that which 
ought not to be asked of Him, because there is no need, and man 
may himself suffice for it by his own research. Thus, by the 
leap from the tower of Beaurevoir she doth seem manifestly to 
have tempted God. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I have answered it, and will not, without the leave of Our 
Lord, reveal what has been revealed to me. It is not without 
need that I beseech God. I would He might send me yet more, 
so that it might be discerned that I am come from God and that 
it is He Who hath sent me." 

ARTICLE LXVI. Of many of the deeds and words that 
have just been noticed some are opposed to the Divine Law, to 
Gospel Law, to Canon Law, to Civil Law, and to the rules of 
General Councils ; others are witchcrafts, divinations, or super- 
stitions ; others breathe heresy and errors in faith ; others are 
attempts against peace and tend to the effusion of human blood ; 
others constitute blasphemies against God and the Saints and 
are wounding to pious ears. In all this, the Accused, by her 
audacious temerity, at the instigation of the Devil, hath offended 
God and sinned against Holy Church ; she hath been a cause of 
scandal ; she is on all these points notoriously defamed : she 
should be punished and corrected by you. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

"I am a good Christian ; for all with which you charge me 
I refer to Our Lord." 

ARTICLE LXVII. All and each of these transgressions the 
Accused hath committed, perpetrated, said, uttered, recited, dog- 
matized, promulgated, put in action, as much in your jurisdiction 
as elsewhere, in many and divers places of this realm, not once 
only but many times, in divers times, days and hours. She hath 
fallen again and again into all these errors ; she hath furnished 
counsel, help, and favour to those who have committed them 
with her. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" I deny it" 

ARTICLE LXVI 1 1. Because a persistent clamour hath struck 
your ears not once only, but many times ; because public rumour 
and an information based on what hath gone before hath made 
you recognize that the Accused is vehemently suspect and 
defamed ; you have decreed that there is reason to bring an 
action against her, and to proceed therein, by you or one of you, 
by causing the said woman to be cited, and by setting her to 
answer as hath been done. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" This Article concerns the Judges." 



APPENDIX 365 

ARTICLE LXIX. By all which precedes, the Accused is 
vehemently suspect, scandalized and as far as possible defamed 
by all honest and serious people. But by all that hath gone 
before she is neither corrected nor amended ; she hath postponed 
and doth still postpone ; she hath refused and doth still refuse to 
correct or amend herself; she hath continued and persevered, 
doth continue and persevere, in her errors, although by you the 
Judges, and by a great number of notable clergy, and other 
honest persons, she hath been charitably and otherwise duly 
and sufficiently warned, summoned and required. 

" What have you to say to this Article ? " 

" The misdeeds brought forward against me by the Promoter, 
I have not done. For the rest, I refer me to God. Of all the 
misdeeds brought forward against me, I do not think I have 
committed any against the Christian faith." 

"If you have done anything against the Christian faith, will 
you submit to the Church and to those to whom correction 
belongs ? " 

" On Saturday, after dinner, I will answer you." 

ARTICLE LXX. All and each of these propositions contained 
in these Articles are true, notorious and manifest ; the public 
voice and rumour hath occupied and doth occupy itself there- 
with ; the Accused hath recognized and acknowledged these 
things as true, many times and sufficiently, before witnesses 
proved and worthy of belief, in and out of court. 

" What have you to say on this Article ? " 

" I deny all that I have not recognized and confessed." 

CONCLUSION. Having attained conviction of the truth of all 
or part of the preceding Articles in a manner to justify the pro- 
posed end, which is that you may be enabled to pronounce in 
recognition of the cause, the Promoter doth conclude that it will be 
ultimately judged by you, upon the whole, according to law 
and right. 

And the said Promoter humbly imploreth your offices on all 
these things, as may be suitable. 



366 JEANNE D'ARC 



The Seventy Articles preceding [p. 341] which form the 
Act of Accusation for the Trial, were reduced to Twelve by 
Maitre Nicolas Midi ; the twelve Articles are here given. 



THE TWELVE ARTICLES OF ACCUSATION. 

ARTICLE I. 

A woman doth say and affirm that when she was of the age 
of thirteen years or thereabouts, she did, with her bodily eyes, 
see Saint Michael come to comfort her, and from time to time 
also Saint Gabriel ; that both the one and the other appeared 
to her in bodily form. Sometimes also she hath seen a great 
multitude of Angels ; since then, Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret have shewn themselves to her in bodily form ; every 
day she sees these two Saints and hears their voices ; she hath 
often kissed and embraced them, and sometimes she hath 
touched them, in a physical and corporeal manner. She hath 
seen the heads of these Angels and these Saints, but of the rest 
of their persons and of their dress she will say nothing. The 
said Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret have also formerly 
spoken to her near a spring which flows at the foot of a great 
tree, called in the neighbourhood " The Fairies' Tree." This 
spring and this tree nevertheless have been, it is said, frequented 
by fairies ; persons ill of fever have repaired there in great 
numbers to recover their health. This spring and this tree are 
nevertheless in a profane place. There and elsewhere she hath 
often venerated these two Saints, and hath done them obeisance. 

Besides this, she doth say that Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret appear and shew themselves to her adorned with most 
beautiful and most precious crowns. At this time and very 
often since, they have announced to her, by the order of God, 
that she was to go in search of a certain secular Prince, 
promising that, by her help and succour, this same Prince 
should, by force of arms, recover a great temporal domain and 
the honour of this world, and should obtain victory over his 
adversaries : this same Prince received her, and furnished her 
with arms and soldiers for the carrying out of what has just been 
said. Further, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret have 
ordered this same woman, by the command of God, to take and 
to wear a man's dress, which she hath borne and doth still bear, 
persisting in obeying this order, to the extent that she saith she 
would rather die than give up this dress, adding that she will 
only abandon it by the express order of God. She hath even 



APPENDIX 367 

preferred not to assist in the Office of the Mass and to deprive 
herself of the Holy Communion of the Eucharist, at the time 
when the Church commands the faithful to receive it, rather than 
to resume female dress and to quit this man's habit. 

The said woman hath gone so far, under the inspiration of 
these two Saints, that without the knowledge and against the 
will of her parents, at the age of seventeen, she did quit the 
paternal roof and joined herself to a great troop of soldiers, with 
whom she lived night and day, having never had, or at least 
very rarely, another woman with her. These two Saints have 
said and prescribed to her many other things for the which she 
declares herself sent by the God of Heaven and the Church 
Victorious, composed of Saints who already enjoy celestial 
blessedness ; it is to them that she submits as right all she hath 
done. As to the Church Militant, she hath deferred and refused 
to submit herself, her deeds, and her words to it, although many 
times required and admonished so to do, saying always that it 
is impossible to her to do contrary to what she hath, in her 
Trial, affirmed to have done by the order of God ; and that for 
these things she will not refer to the decision or the judgment 
of any man alive, but to the judgment of God alone. 

The said Saints have revealed to this woman that she will 
obtain the glory of the blessed and will gain the salvation of her 
soul if she doth preserve the virginity which she vowed to these 
Saints the first time she saw and recognized them. As a result 
of this revelation, she doth affirm that she is as assured of her 
salvation as if, now and in fact, she were already in the Kingdom 

of Heaven. 

f 
ARTICLE II. 

The same woman saith that the sign which was received by 
the Prince to whom she was sent a sign which decided this 
Prince to believe in her and to aid her to carry on the war was, 
that Saint Michael came to the said Prince, accompanied by a 
multitude of Angels, of which some had crowns and others had 
wings ; with them also were Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret. 
She and the Angel proceeded together, their feet touching the 
ground, by the road, the staircase, and the Prince's chamber ; 
the Angel was accompanied by other Angels and 1 by the said 
two Saints ; he gave to the Prince a crown, very precious and 
made of the purest gold, bowing before him and doing him 
reverence. Once she hath said that when her Prince received 
this sign, it seemed to her he was alone, although many other 
persons were close by ; another time she hath said that it seemed 
to her that an Archbishop had received the sign of the crown 
and had given it to the Prince, in the presence of several 
temporal lords. 



368 , JEANNE D'ARC 

ARTICLE III. 

The same woman doth say and affirm that he who visits her 
is Saint Michael ; that which makes her believe in him is the 
good counsel, the comfort, and the good teaching which he doth 
give her, and because he hath named himself to her, and hath 
told her that he was Saint Michael. She hath in the same way 
recognized Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret ; she knoweth 
how to distinguish the one from the other, because they name 
themselves to her and greet her. 

On the subject of the pretended Saint Michael who appeared to 
her, she believes that it is truly Saint Michael ; and the sayings 
and deeds of this Michael she believes to be true and good as 
firmly as she believes that Our Lord Jesus suffered and died for 
our redemption. 

ARTICLE IV. 

The same woman doth say and affirm that she is certain of 
what should happen on the subject of certain future things, as 
surely as she is certain of those which she sees passing under her 
eyes. On the subject of occult things she doth boast to know 
or to have known them by means of the revelations which have 
been made to her by the Voices of Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret : for example, that she will be delivered from her 
captivity, and that the French will do, under her guidance, the 
greatest exploits that they have ever done in all Christendom ; 
for example, again, she saith she hath known by revelation with- 
out any one pointing them out to her, men whom she had never 
seen, and herself revealed and pointed out the existence of a 
sword which was hidden in the earth. 



ARTICLE V. 

The same woman doth say and affirm that, by the command 
and good pleasure of God, she hath taken and borne and con- 
tinueth still to bear a man's dress. Further, she doth say that, 
because she hath had God's command to bear this habit, it was 
necessary that she should have a short tunic, cap, jerkin, breeches, 
hose with many points, hair cut close above her ears, keeping no 
garment which might indicate her sex. She doth say and affirm 
that she hath, in this dress, several times received the Sacrament 
of the Eucharist. She hath not desired and doth still not desire 
to resume woman's dress, although many times required and 
charitably admonished so to do. At times she saith that she 
would rather die than leave off the dress which she bears ; at 
times she saith that she will leave it off only by the command of 
God. She doth also say, that if she again found herself with this 



APPENDIX 369 

dress among those for whom she hath armed herself, 
she would act as she did before her capture ; and this would be, 
she doth add, one of the greatest benefits that could happen to 
the whole kingdom of France. Also, for nothing in the world 
will she swear to wear this dress or to take arms no more. In 
all this she doth say that she hath done and doeth well, obeying 
God and His Commandments. 



ARTICLE VI. 

The same woman doth avow and acknowledge that she hath 
caused to be written many letters and warnings on the which 
were placed these names " Jhesus Maria" with the sign of the 
Cross. Sometimes, she put a cross, and between her and her 
party this signified that she did not wish them to do what in this 
same letter she told them to do. At other times she caused it 
to be written that she would have those who did not obey her 
warnings killed, and "by the blows she would give they would 
see who had the true right from the God of Heaven." She hath 
often said that she hath done nothing but by the revelation and 
order of God. 

ARTICLE VII. 

The same woman doth say and confess that, being of the age of 
seventeen, by revelation, as she saith, and spontaneously, she went 
to seek a Knight whom she had never seen, abandoning for this 
the paternal roof, against the will of her parents. These, when 
they had knowledge of her departure, were wild with grief. This 
same woman ordered the Knight to conduct her, or to have her 
conducted, to the Prince already mentioned. The said Knight, 
or Captain, furnished this woman, on her demand, with a man's 
dress and a sword, and appointed and commanded for her con- 
duct a Knight, a Squire, and four servants. When they had 
come to the Prince, this woman told him that she wished to 
fight against his adversaries. She promised to establish him in 
great sovereignty and to vanquish his enemies ; and for this she 
had been sent by the God of Heaven. She saith she hath acted 
well, having had revelation and the command of God. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

The same woman doth say and affirm that she, of herself, no 
one compelling her, did throw herself down from a very high 
tower, wishing rather to die than to be placed in the hands of her 
enemies and to live after the destruction of the town of Com- 
piegne. She saith also that she was not able to avoid this fall,, 

B B 



370 . JEANNE D'ARC 

although Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret had forbidden it to 
her. To offend them is, she herself saith, a great sin. But she 
knoweth that this sin was remitted to her after she had confessed 
it : she saith she received revelation of this. 



ARTICLE IX. 

The same woman saith that Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret have promised to conduct her to Paradise, if she doth 
preserve with care the virginity of body and soul which she 
vowed to them. Of this she saith she is as assured as if she were 
already in the glory of the blessed. She doth not think she hath 
committed mortal sin ; for, if she were in a state of mortal sin, 
she saith it seemeth to her that Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret would not visit her each day as they do. 

ARTICLE X. 

The same woman doth say and affirm that God doth love 
sundry persons still living, designated by her and named, more 
than He doth this woman : this, she knoweth by revelation from 
Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret, who speak frequently to 
her, but in French and not in English, because these Saints are 
not on the side of the English. Since she hath known by revela- 
tion that their Voices were for the Prince aforesaid she hath ceased 
to love the Burgundians. 

ARTICLE XI. 

The same woman doth say and confess that to the Voices and 
the Spirits now under consideration, whom she calls Michael, 
Gabriel, Catherine and Margaret, she doth often do reverence, 
uncovering, bending the knee, kissing the earth on which they 
walk, vowing to them her virginity, at times kissing and 
embracing Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret ; she hath 
touched them with her own hands, corporeally and physically ; t 
she hath asked of them counsel and help ; at times she doth call 
them, and they even come to her without being called ; she 
accedes to and obeys their counsels and their commands ; she 
hath always obeyed them, without having asked counsel thereon 
from whomsoever it be father, mother, cure", prelate, or any 
ecclesiastic whatsoever. She doth believe no less firmly that the 
Voices and the revelations she receives by the medium of the 
Saints of whom she speaks come from God and by His order : 
she believes it as firmly as she believes the Christian Faith and 
that Our Lord Jesus Christ suffered for us Death and Passion. 
She doth add that, if it were an evil spirit who had come to her 



APPENDIX 371 

under the appearance and mask of Saint Michael she would quite 
well have known how to distinguish that it was not Saint Michael. 
Finally she saith, that of her own wish and without any one 
pressing her thereto, she hath sworn to Saint Catherine and Saint 
Margaret, who appeared to her, to reveal to no one the sign of 
the crown given to the Prince to whom she was sent, until she 
should have permission from God to reveal it. 

ARTICLE XII. 

The same woman doth say and confess that if the Church 
wished that she should do anything contrary to the order she 
doth pretend to have received from God, she would not consent, 
whatsoever it might be. She doth affirm that she knows well, 
that all contained in her Trial has come to her by the order of 
God, and it would be impossible for her to do contrary to what 
she doth. Thereupon she doth not wish to refer to the decision 
of the Church Militant, nor to any one, whoever it be in the 
world, but to God alone, Our Lord, Whose commands she doth 
always execute, above all in what doth concern her revelations, 
and in what she doth in consequence. This answer and all the 
others are not from her own head, she saith, but she hath made 
and given them by order of her Voices and revelations : she doth 
persist [in this], although by the Judges and others of the 
Assessors, the Article of Faith, 'The Church, One, Holy, 
Catholic/ hath often been recalled to her, and it hath often been 
shewn to her that all the faithful are bound to obey the Church 
Militant and to submit to it their words and actions above all 
in matters of faith and in all which concerns sacred Doctrine 
and Ecclesiastical sanction. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE TO THE REHABILITATION. 

It was not until nearly twenty years after the death of Jeanne 
dArc that any attempt was made by those in authority to 
vindicate her memory or even to acknowledge the services she 
had rendered to the kingdom of France. 

In 1450, however, after the occupation of Normandy and the 
submission of the town of Rouen, the idea appeared to have 
occurred to Charles VII. that to suffer the stigma of heresy and 
witchcraft to rest on the name of the Maid of Orleans, who had 
" led him to his anointing," was to throw a doubt upon his own 
orthodoxy, and to justify the taunt of his enemies that he had 
been the mere tool of " a lyme of the Fiend." On February 
1 3th, 1450, therefore, he issued a Declaration empowering one 

B B 2 



372 JEANNE D'ARC 

of his Counsellors, Guillaume Bouille, to enquire into the con- 
duct of the Trial undertaken against Jeanne by " our ancient 
enemies the English," who, " against reason, had cruelly put 
her to death," and to report the result of his investigations to 
the Council. 

Bouille was Rector of the University of Paris, Dean of the 
Theological Faculty, Dean of Noyon, a Member of the Great 
Council, and at one time Ambassador to Rome. It is very 
probable that he was the author of the first memorial issued in 
favour of Jeanne, throwing doubts upon the validity of the 
Rouen sentence a memorial which, according to some, was prior 
to the Enquiry of 1450 with which we are now dealing. 

It was to an able and competent person therefore, that Charles 
committed the Enquiry, which was held at Rouen on March 4th 
and 5th, less than three weeks after the issue of the Royal 
Mandate. 

Seven witnesses were heard ; namely, Toutmouille, de la 
Pierre, Ladvenu, and Duval, all Dominicans of Saint Jacques, 
Rouen ; the Notary Manchon, the Usher Massieu, and Beaupere, 
one of the chief Examiners. But the Court took no further 
interest in the matter ; and, although in the opinion of several 
legal authorities consulted by De Bouille, the Process of Condem- 
nation was held as null and void, the proceedings were carried 
no further : the Enquiry was forwarded to the King and Council, 
and the whole question once more fell into abeyance. 

Two years later, the Cardinal-Bishop of Digne, Guillaume 
d'Estouteville, Legate in France for Pope Nicholas V. took up 
the Enquiry, at the formal request of Isabel d'Arc, mother of the 
Maid, who claimed, on Civil as well as on Ecclesiastical authority, 
the rehabilitation of her daughter, and the restoration of the 
family to the position they had lost by the imputation of heresy 
cast on them in the person of one of their number. 

The failure of the former Enquiry was due, in great part, to 
the -fear of arousing the hostility of the English, and also of 
meeting with opposition from the Ecclesiastical authorities, by 
bringing forward an action instituted by the Sovereign against 
proceedings which had received the unquestioned sanction of 
the Holy Office and the University of Paris, and which were also 
guaranteed by the protection of the English King. The expedient 
of shifting the entire responsibility on to the shoulders of the 
d'Arc family obviated these difficulties, and enabled the Case to 
be taken as a purely private one, an appeal against a judgment 
given on false premisses. The reversal of this verdict could 
offend no one, as the action was brought against Defendants 
none of whom were living to meet the charge, and who could 
therefore be represented only by their titular legal successors. 
Their innocence in the whole matter made the case a perfectly 



APPENDIX 373 

harmless one a legal fiction which might satisfy many and 
could injure none. 

The first act of the Cardinal d'Estouteville was to associate 
with himself the Prior of the Convent of the Jacobins at Paris, 
Jean Brehal, Inquisitor of France ; and, together, they proceeded 
to an Enquiry at Rouen in April, 1452, at which witnesses to the 
number of twenty-one, including some of those heard in 1450, 
gave their evidence. The Cardinal being obliged by his duties 
to leave Rouen, the Enquiry was left in the hands of Bre"hal and 
of Philippe la Rose, the Treasurer of the Cathedral. There were 
still difficulties in the way. The Pope feared to wound English 
susceptibilities; and, in spite of the efforts of the Cardinal and of 
the petition presented to Rome by Isabel dArc and her two 
sons, the proceeding languished ; and three more years passed 
without any definite step being taken. 

In I455> however, the Pope Nicholas V. died, and his successor 
Calixtus III. [Borgia], less timorous, acceded to the request of the 
dArc family, granting a Rescript authorizing the process of re- 
vision, and appointing as delegates for the Trial the Archbishop 
of Rheims (Jean Jouvenal des Ursins), the Bishop of Paris 
(Guillaume Chartier), and the Bishop of Coutances (Richard de 
Longueil), who afterwards associated with themselves the 
Inquisitor, Jean Brdhal. 

The Case was solemnly opened on November 7th, 1455, in 
the Church of Notre Dame at Paris, when the mother and 
brothers of the Maid came before the Court to present their 
humble petition for a revision of her sentence, demanding only 
" the triumph of truth and justice." The Court heard the request 
with some emotion. When Isabel d'Arc threw herself at the feet 
of the Commissioners, shewing the Papal Rescript and weeping 
aloud, while her Advocate, Pierre Maugier, and his assistants 
prayed for justice for her and for the memory of her martyred 
daughter, so many of those present joined aloud in the petition, 
that at last, we are told, it seemed that one great cry for justice 
broke from the multitude. 

The Commissioners formally received the petition, and 
appointed November i/th, ten days later, for its consideration, 
warning the Petitioners of the possible danger of a confirmation 
of the previous Trial, instead of the reversal they looked for, but 
promising careful consideration of the Case should they persist 
in their appeal. 

On November i/th the Court met a second time at Notre 
Dame ; the Papal Rescript was solemnly read, and the Advocate 
for the Petitioners brought his formal accusation against the 
Judges and Promoter of the late Trial none of whom, as has 
been said, were then alive carefully excluding the Assessors 
concerned in the case, who, he said, were led to wrong conclusions 



374 ' JEANNE D'ARC 

by false deductions. At the close of the Advocate's address, 
the Archbishop of Rheims and the Bishop of Paris declared 
themselves ready to act as Judges in the Appeal Case, in con- 
junction with the Inquisitor Brehal, appointing the following 
December I2th for the inaugural sitting, and citing all those 
concerned in this Case to appear before them on that day. 

The Trial opened on December I2th. The family of dArc 
were represented by the Procurator, Guillaume Prevosteau, who 
had formerly been appointed Promoter in the case instituted by 
Cardinal d'Estouteville : but the Plaintiffs alone were represented, 
no one appearing to answer for either of the accused Judges nor 
for the Promoter d'Estivet. The Case was adjourned until 
December I5th, in order that Advocates for the Defendants 
might be summoned to appear. 

The Court met accordingly on the I5th December; but, in 
spite of mandates and citations placed on Church-doors and 
other public places, no one was found to come forward as re- 
presentatives of the accused ; and a further delay of five days 
was therefore granted. At the same time, the Commissioners 
formally constituted the Tribunal and appointed their Officers : 
Simon Chapitault as Promoter or Advocate-General, Ferrebouc 
and Lecomte as Registrars for the Court. The Registrars of 
the former Trial, being present, were asked if they wished in 
any way to defend the Process in which they had been concerned ; 
but, on their replying, in the negative, they were requested to lay 
before the Court any documents relating to the previous Trial 
which they might have in their possession. By this means the 
Commissioners were enabled to have before them the actual 
Minute of the Trial of 1431, written in Manchon's own hand and 
presented by him, and also to obtain his formal attestation of 
the authenticity of the Official Proces-Verbal, upon which their 
further enquiries were to be based. 

The "Preliminary Enquiry" made in 1452, by command of 
the Cardinal d'Estouteville and his delegates, was formally an- 
nexed, by request of the Promoter, to the official documents of 
the Trial of Rehabilitation ; but the earlier Enquiry of 1450, 
having been made under secular authority, was unfortunately 
treated as of no value, and not included in the authorized 
Case. 

On December i8th the Promoter lodged his request on the 
part of the family of dArc, and prayed for a Judgment of Nullity 
on the previous sentence, on the ground that, both in form and 
substantiation, it was null and void, and that it should therefore 
be publicly and legally so declared. 

On December 2oth the last day appointed for the appear- 
ance of any representatives of the accused only the Advocate 
for the family of Cauchon presented himself. He made a 



APPENDIX 



375 



declaration to the effect that the heirs of the late Bishop had no 
desire to maintain the validity of a Trial with which they had 
no concern, and which took place either before they were born 
or when they were very little children ; that Jeanne had been 
the victim of the hatred of the English, and that therefore the 
responsibility fell rather upon them ; finally they begged that 
the Rehabilitation of Jeanne might not be to their prejudice, 
invoking for themselves the benefits of the King's amnesty 
granted after the conquest of Normandy. 

The Procurator having declared his willingness to agree, the 
heirs of Cauchon were put out of the question ; and the other 
Defendants, not having appeared, were declared contumacious, 
and cited once more to appear on February i6th following. On 
the same day [Dec. 2Oth] the Promoter formulated his Accu- 
sation, and brought before the notice of the Court certain special 
points in the previous Trial which tended to vitiate the whole : 
1st, the intervention of the hidden registrars and the alterations, 
additions, and omissions made in the Twelve Articles ; 2nd, the 
suppression of the Preliminary Enquiry, and the obvious pre- 
disposition of the Judges ; 3rd, the incompetence of the Court, 
and the unfairness of the treatment received throughout by the 
Accused, culminating in an illegal sentence and an irregular 
execution. 

The Promoter then asked that enquiries might be instituted 
into the life and conduct of the Maid, and as to the manner in 
which she had undertaken the reconquest of the country. 
Orders were accordingly given, that information should at once 
be taken at Domremy and Vaucouleurs, under the direction of 
Reginald de Chichery, Dean of Vaucouleurs, and of Wautrin 
Thierry, Canon of Toul. 

While these enquiries were being made, a document contain- 
ing 101 Articles was drawn up, 1 setting forth the case of the 
Plaintiffs for the consideration of the still-absent Defendants, 
and stating at great length the grounds, both in fact and reason, 
for the demand of a revision of sentence. 

On the day fixed for the final citation of the Defendants Feb. 
1 6th, 1456, the Court again assembled ; and on this occasion 
the accused were represented by their legal successors : the 
Promoter of the Diocese of Beauvais, Bredouille/as represent- 
ative of the authority of the Bishop, Guillaume de Hellande ; 
and Chaussetier, the Prior of the Convent of Evreux, as re- 
presenting the Dominicans of Beauvais, to whose Order Jean 
Lemaitre, the other Judge of the Maid, belonged. Both of these 
disclaimed any responsibility for the former Trial, but submitted 
themselves to the mandate of the Court ; and, no objection being 

1 Of these 101 Articles, the first thirty-three form the basis of the succeed- 
ing enquiries made at Paris, Orleans, and Rouen. 



376 JEANNE D'ARC 

offered to the 101 Articles, these were accepted by the Judges, 
and the case was proceeded with. 

The Enquiry of 1456 extended over several months. Thirty- 
four witnesses were heard, in January and February, at Domremy 
and Vaucouleurs ; forty-one, in February and March, at Orleans ; 
twenty at Paris, in April and May ; nineteen at Rouen, in Dec- 
ember and May ; and on May 28th, at Lyons, the Vice-Inquisitor 
of the province received the deposition of Jean d'Aulon, whose 
evidence is specially important, as being that of the Steward of 
the Maid's household, and the most devoted of her followers. 

After the close of these Enquiries and their formal reception as 
part of the Process, the Advocate of the d j Arc family petitioned 
the Judges to give their attention to certain Memorials drawn up 
on the Case by learned men, which documents he prayed might 
also be inserted among the formal proceedings of the Trial. 
The request being granted, Eight Memorials were presented and 
formally annexed to the Authentic Documents of the Process. 
The whole case was then admirably summed up, for the guidance 
of the Judges, in the ' Recollectio ' of the Inquisitor, Jean Brehal, 
and on this document the final Sentence of Rehabilitation was 
subsequently based. 

On the 1 8th of June, Jean d'Arc and the Promoter, Chapitault 
in the name of the Plaintiffs, appeared at the Palace of the 
Bishop of Paris, and prayed that a day might be fixed for the 
conclusion of the Case. In answer to this request the following 
1st of July was appointed for the purpose, and an announcement 
to that effect was ordered to be placed on all the doors of the 
Cathedral at Rouen. 

On July 2nd the Pontifical Delegates met and appointed the 
following Wednesday, July 7th, for the pronouncement of the 
final Sentence ; and on that day, at 8 a.m., the Court assembled 
in the Hall of the Archiepiscopal Palace, and the formal 
Sentence of Rehabilitation was solemnly read by the Arch- 
bishop of Rheims. This was followed by a procession and 
sermon on the same day in the Place St. Ouen, and by a 
second sermon on the day following in the Old Market Place, 
where a Cross to perpetuate the memory of the martyrdom was 
then erected, "for the salvation of her soul." This Cross 
remained until the end of the following century, when it was 
replaced by a fountain, with a statue of the Maid under an 
arcade surmounted by a Cross ; the fountain now standing was 
erected in 1756. 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS 
IN THE LIFE OF JEANNE D'ARC. 



1411-12. 

1424 (?). 

1428. 



1428-9. 



1429. 



January 6th ....... Birth at Domremy. 

Summer ........ First visions. 

Sojourn at Neufchateau. 
............. Call to mission in France. 

May .......... Visit to Vaucouleurs (?), May 

Ascension Day. 
February ........ Second visit to Vaucouleurs. 

Visit to Duke of Lorraine. 

Pilgrimage to Saint Nicolas. 
I2th ...... Battle of the Herrings. 



1 3th; 



23rd,Wednesday Departure from Vaucouleurs, 

Jean de Metz and others. 
March 5th, Saturday . . Fierbois. 

6th, Sunday . . . Arrival at Chinon. 

8th, Tuesday . . Interview with the King. 



with 



April 



27th, Easter Day. 



27th, Wednesday (?) 

29th, Friday ... 
May 4th, Wednesday . 

5th, Ascension Day 

6th, Friday ... 

7th, Saturday . . 

,8th, Sunday ... 

io!% Tuesday ... 

1 2th, Thursday . . 

1 3th, Friday ... 

23rd, Monday ... 
June 2nd, Thursday . . 

6th, Monday ... 

9th, Thursday 



[ 



nth-i2th 
i4th 



First letter to the 



Stay at Tours. Household appointed. 

Banner painted. 
Joins the army at Blois. 
Start for Orleans. 
Arrival at Orleans. 
Fort of Saint Loup taken. 
Third letter to the English. 
Fort of the Augustins taken. 
Jeanne wounded. 
Siege of Orleans raised. 
Leaves for Blois. 
Tours. 

Meeting with King Charles. 
Loches. 
Selles : grant of arms to Jeanne and 

her family. 

Selles : Incident of the horse.] 
Return to Orleans. 
Siege of Jargeau. 
Attack on Meung. 



Note, The year, in the fifteenth century, is computed from Easter. 



378 



JEANNE D'ARC 



1429. June 1 6th 

lyth, Friday, .. 
1 8th, Saturday . 
1 9th, Sunday .. 
24th, Friday .. 
29th, Wednesday 



July 



1429-30. 



i st, Friday 
5th, Tuesday 



9th, Saturday 
roth, Sunday . 
1 2th, Tuesday 
1 4th, Thursday 
1 5th, Friday . 
1 6th, Saturday 

1 7th, Sunday . 

2 ist, Thursday 



22nd, Friday .. 

23rd, Saturday . 

29th, Friday .. 

August 4th, Thursday 



1 3th, Saturday 
1 8th, Thursday 




23rd, Tuesday 



26th, Friday 
28th, Sunday 



Siege of Beaugency. 
. Arrival of the Constable of France. 
. Battle of Patay. 
. Return to Orleans. 
. Jeanne encamps at Gien. 
. Start for Rheims. 

Arrival before Auxerre. 
. Arrival before Troyes. 

Meeting with Brother Richard. 
. Surrender of Troyes. 
. Entry into Troyes. 
. Departure from Troyes. 
. Chalons. 

. Departure from Chalons. 
. Charles enters Rheims. 
. Coronation of Charles. 
.Charles touches for "the Evil" at 

Saint Marcoul. 
. Charles receives keys of Soissons and 

Laon at Vailly, 
. and of four other towns. 
. Skirmish at Chateau Thierry. 
. Charles signs fifteen days' truce with 

the Duke of Burgundy. 
. Skirmish at Dammartin. 
. Compiegne entered. 
Senlis and Beauvais surrender ; flight 

of Bishop. 
. Jeanne leaves Compiegne for Saint 

Denis ; letter from the Count of 

Armagnac received when starting. 
. Jeanne at Saint Denis. 
. Secret treaty of Charles VII. with the 

Duke of Burgundy, to Christmas. 



oth, Saturday . Retreat ordered by Charles. 
........ Jeanne's armour hung up in the 

church at Saint Denis. 

1 3th, Tuesday . Charles leaves Saint Denis. 
1 8th, Sunday . Second treaty of Charles VII with 

the Duke of Burgundy. 
October ....... . Jeanne at Bourges. 

November ....... Saint Pierre-le-Moustier assailed and 

taken. 

9th, Wednesday . Siege of La Charitd. 
........ Truce with Burgundy till Easter. 

December ...... \ Passed in visiting the towns she had 

January ....... V freed. Orleans visited for the last 

February ....... ) time on January 1 9th. 

March 3rd ....... At Sully with the King. 

Leaves Sully, accompanied ?lby 
D'Aulon and Pasquerel, and goes to 
Lagny. 
April .......... Franquet d' Arras taken and executed 

at Lagny. 
Alleged miracle. 



APPENDIX 379 

April 1 6th, Easter Day . . 

Eastertide Melun warning of capture. 

23rd, Sunday . . . Henry VI. lands at Calais. 
May 1 3th, Saturday . . . Jeanne at Compiegne (Archbishop of 

Rheims then in the city). During 
this month she visits Senlis, Soissons, 
and other towns. 
Jeanne repulsed on the Oise whilst 



May 



trying to relieve Choisy, then be- 



sieged by the Duke of Burgundy. 
Jeanne in Compiegne ; prediction in 

the church of Saint Jacques. 

22nd, Monday . . . Jeanne goes to Crespy for reinforce- 
ments. 

23rd, Tuesday . . . Jeanne's return to Compiegne, and 
capture. Letter of Duke of Bur- 
gundy to the people of Saint- 
Quentin, announcing the capture. 
25th, Ascension Day. News of capture reaches Paris. 

Jeanne a prisoner for several days at 

Marigny. 

In prison at Beaulieu. 

1430. June 6th At Noyon. 

July 1 4th, Friday .... Cauchon's mission to the Duke of 

Burgundy. 
29th, Saturday . . . Henry VI. arrives at Rouen. 

August In prison at Beaurevoir. 

October Leap from the Tower of Beaurevoir. 

Prophecy of the relief of Compiegne 
" before Martinmas." 

October 2 5th Relief of Compiegne. 

Nov. (about the middle) . Jeanne sold by Jean de Luxembourg. 

Jeanne taken to Arras, then Crotoy. 

December (late) Brought to Rouen. 

1430-1. January 3rd, Wednesday . Order of surrender of Jeanne as "sus- 
pect of heresy," from Henry VI. to 
the Judges. 



I. CAUSE DE LAPSE. 
Trial Ex Officio. 

January 9th, Tuesday . . First day of the Trial. Preliminary 

meeting in the Bishop's house. 
Appointment of officers. 

1 3th, Saturday . . First consultation of trie Bishop with 
the Doctors; the result of the 
Domremy enquiry discussed (?) 
Articles of Accusation to be pre- 
pared. 

23rd, Tuesday . . Second consultation with the six 
Doctors. Articles approved. Dela- 
fontaine appointed to make further 
enquiries. 

February isth-iyth, Tues-j offi make Qath of fidelity . 
day-Saturday/ 



380 



JEANNE D'ARC 



1430-1. February I9th, Monday . , 
2oth, Tuesday . 

2 1 st, Wednesday 
22nd, Thursday 

24th, Saturday 
27th, Tuesday 
March ist, Thursday . . 
3rd, Saturday . . 



4th-Qth, Sunday- 
Friday .... 

a ; '. ; loth, Saturday . 



1 2th, Monday 



1 3th, Tuesday . 



1 4th, Wednesday 



Consultation of the Bishop with 
twelve Doctors. Decision that the 
Case shall be proceeded with, and 
the Inquisitor or his Deputy invited 
to attend. The Deputy Inquisitor, 
being summoned, pleads inability. 

The Deputy Inquisitor again appears, 
but still refuses to act as Judge 
without Commission from his 
Superior. It is decided to write to 
the Chief Inquisitor. Jeanne is 
cited to appear the next day. 

First Public Examination, in the 
Chapel-Royal. Jeanne's guardians 
appointed from the King's Body 
Guard. (42 Assessors.) 

Second Public Examination, in the 
Ornament Room. The Deputy 
Inquisitor declares his assent to the 
Trial. Beaupere charged with the 
examination. (48 Assessors.) 

Third Public Examination, in the 
Ornament Room. (52 Assessors.) 

Fourth Public Examination, in the 
Ornament Room. (54 Assessors.) 

Fifth Public Examination, in the 
Ornament Room. (58 Assessors.) 

Sixth Public Examination, in the 
Ornament Room. (41 Assessors.) 

The Bishop decides to continue the 
Examination privately. 

(The Examinations are considered by 
the Bishop and some of the Doctors, 
and it is decided to question Jeanne 
on sundry doubtful points. 
, First Private Examination, in prison, 
conducted by Delafontaine, assisted 
by two Assessors and two wit- 
nesses. 
, Second Private Examination, in prison, 

in the morning. 

Third Private Examination, in prison, 
in the afternoon, the Bishop not 
present. 

In the Bishop's house, on the same 
day, the letter from the Inquisitor, 
appointing his Vicar to act as his 
Deputy, is read ; and the Vicar is 
appointed to act as Judge. 
The Vicar joins with the Bishop and 

appoints his officers. 
Fourth Private Examination, the 
first at which the Inquisitor is 
present as Judge. 
. Fifth Private Examination, in prison, 

in the morning. 

Sixth Private Examination, in prison, 
in the afternoon. 



APPENDIX 



1430-1. March I5th, Thursday. 
1 7th, Saturday . 



1 8th, Passion Sun- 
day 



22nd, Thursday , 
24th, Saturday . . 

25th, Palm Sunday 
26th, Monday . , 



Seventh Private Examination in 
prison. 

Eighth Private Examination, in prison, 
in the morning. 

Ninth Private Examination, in prison, 
in the afternoon. 

Consultation of the Bishop with twelve 
Assessors, in the Bishop's house. 
They adjourn till March 22nd, to 
deliberate over the examinations 
already held. 

Consultation at the Bishop's house. 
Resume of the answers of Jeanne 
read to twenty-two Assessors. 

The Judges, Delafontaine, and six 
Assessors visit Jeanne in prison, and 
the examinations are read over to 
her in French by Manchon. 

The Bishop and four Assessors visit 
Jeanne in prison. 

The complete papers of the Process ex 
officio are given to the Promoter 
that he may prepare the Articles of 
Accusation for the Trial in Ordinary. 

At a meeting at the Bishop's house, 
twelve Assessors and the two Judges 
being present, it is decided to 
proceed on the following day to the 
Trial in Ordinary, to be conducted 
by the Promoter. 



Trial in Ordinary. 



1430-1 March 27th, Tuesday 






28th, Wednesday 
3 ist, Easter Eve 

1431. April ist, Easter Day. 

2nd-4th, Monday- 
Wednesday . . 

5th, Thursday . . 



Solemn sitting in the Great Hall 
of the Castle ; the two Judges 
'and* 38 Assessors present. The 
Act of Accusation, in Seventy 
Articles, is produced by the Pro- 
moter, and read to Jeanne by Thomas 
de Courcelles. Questions are put 
to her on each Article. 

Tlie same continued 35 Assessors 
present. 

The Judges and 9 Assessors visit 
Jeanne in prison, to question her on 
sundry points upon which she had 
asked for delay. 

'The Judges and certain of the As- 
sessors employ themselves in reduc- 
ing the Seventy Articles to Twelve ; 
these are finally drawn up by 
Nicholas Midi. 

The Twelve Articles are sent to the 
Assessors for their opinion, which 
they are asked to send in by April 
loth. 



382 

1431- 



JEANNE D'ARC 



April 1 2th, Thursday . . . 



1 8th, Wednesday . 

i gth. Thursday . . 
(May I4th) 

May 2nd, Wednesday . 



" Qth, Wednesday . 



loth, Ascension Day. 
1 2th, Saturday . . 



1 9th, Saturday . . 



23rd, Wednesday . 



, 24th, Thursday 



Consultation of 22 Assessors, who 
decide that Jeanne must be con- 
demned. 

During the following week many other 
opinions, all more or less in accord- 
ance with this, are sent in. 

. Jeanne is ill. The two Judges and 
7 Assessors visit her in prison ; 
and the Bishop addresses to her a 
charitable exhortation. 

. The Twelve Articles are sent to the 

University of Paris. 
These are discussed in full assembly 
on April 29th ; then by the Facul- 
ties of Theology and Decrees, 
separately ; and finally, the Resolu- 
tions of these Faculties are adopted 
by the University and forwarded to 
Rouen. 

. Solemn assembly in the Ornament 
Room ; the two Judges and 63 
Assessors present. Jeanne is sum- 
moned and admonished by the 
Bishop ; and a solemn preachment 
is made to her by the Archdeacon 
ofEu. 

. The Judges and 9 Assessors 
summon Jeanne to the Torture 
Chamber in the Great Tower, and 
threaten her with torture. 

. Consultation in the Bishop's house ; 
the Judges and 12 Assessors 
present. It is decided not to torture 
Jeanne. 

. Solemn assembly in the Chapel of 
the Archiepiscopal Manor 51 
Assessors present. The Resolu- 
tions of the University of Paris are 
read, and the opinions of the As- 
sessors taken. 

, Solemn meeting in a room near 
the prison. The Judges and 7 
Assessors are accompanied by the 
Bishops of Noyon and Therouanne. 
Jeanne is summoned, and solemnly 
admonished by Pierre Maurice. 
The Final Sentence is appointed for 
the next day. 

. Public assembly in the Cemetery of 
St. Ouen ; the Cardinal of England 
and the Bishop of Norwich present. 
Exhortation from ferard. Abjura- 
tion of Jeanne. Sentence of per- 
petual imprisonment. In the after- 
noon, the Deputy Inquisitor and 
sundry Assessors visit Jeanne in 
prison. 



APPENDIX 



383 



II. CAUSE DE RELAPSE. 



May 28th, Monday 
29th, Tuesday . 



soth, Wednesday 



June 7th, Wednesday 
8th, Thursday . 

1 2th, Monday . . 
, 28th . 



August 8th 



. The Judges and 4 Assessors visit 
Jeanne in prison, having been 
informed of her relapse. 

. Solemn meeting in the Chapel of the 
Archiepiscopal Manor, 40 As- 
sessors present. Consultation on 
the relapse of Jeanne. Decision of 
the Assessors that she must be 
delivered up to the secular arm as 
a relapsed heretic . 

. Massieu delivers the order of execu- 
tion to Jeanne. Visit of sundry 
Assessors and of the Bishop to the 
prison. 

Jeanne receives the Holy Communion. 
Final Exhortation from Nicholas 
Midi at the public assembly in 
the Old Market Place. Sentence 
pronounced against Jeanne. Her 
Death. 

. Information taken after the death of 
Jeanne by certain persons who 
visited her in prison on May 3oth. 

, (i) Letter from the King, Henry VI., 
to the Emperor, announcing the 
trial, sentence, and execution of 
Jeanne. 

Letter of Guarantee for those con- 
cerned in the Trial, from Henry 
VI. 

, (2) Letter from Henry VI. to the same 
effect as (i), to prelates and nobles. 
Letter of the University of Paris to 
the Pope. 

, Sentence pronounced against a monk 
who had spoken ill of the Judges. 



INDEX 



C C 



INDEX 



ABJURATION of Jeanne, 130-133, 206, 208, 

327 

Adelie, Guillaume, 106 
Agincourt, vi, ix, 72 
Aimery (or Aymerie), Guillaume, 244, 

306 

Alain, Jacques, 227 
d'Albret, Lord, 271 
d'Alen9on, John Duke, 30, 60, 71, 237, 

238, 260, 264, 272-281, 290, Chronicles 

of, 33 2 

Alepee, Maitre Jean, 302 
Alexander, vi 
Alfred the Great, xiv 
Ambeville, herald, 248 
Anche, or Anceinsi, 281 
Apparitions and illusions, 124, 147-153, 

176 
d'Arc, Isabel, mother of Jeanne, 215, 225, 

321, 372, 373 
d'Arc, Jacques, father of Jeanne, 213, 215, 

225 

d'Arc, Jean, brother of Jeanne, 321 
d ; Arc, Jeanne ; see Jeanne 
d'Arc, M. Lanery, 332 
d'Arc, Pierre, brother of Jeanne, 321 
Archangel Michael, x ; see St. Michael 
Aries Cathedral, 42 
d'Armagnac, Thibauld, 293 
d'Armagnac, Count, 34, letters 34-5 
Armagnac faction, 332 
Armour, Account for Jeanne's, 275 
Arras, 49, 104, 348 ; Treaty, 332, 334 
d' Arras, Franquet, 78 
Articles of Jeanne's Accusation, 98, IOI, 

102, 105, 113-117, H9, 184-185, 341- 

366. The twelve, 324,325, 366-371 
Arundel, Earl of, 333 
Assessors at Trial, 55, 97, 119, 179, 189- 

190 

d'Aulon, Sieur Jean, 267, 309-320, 334 
Auxerre, Jeanne at Mass in, 12 
Avignon, xvi 

d' Avignon, Marie, 269, 270 
Avit, Jean de Saint, 160, 190 
Avranches, Bishop, 160, 190 



BAIGNART, Maitre Robert, 293 

Bailly, Nicolas, 225, 229 

Banner, Jeanne's, 30-1, 58-9, 89, 90, 283, 
316-7, 361; of the Crucifixion, 284, 285; 
Account for, 30 

Barbier, Maitre Robert, 100, 118 

Barbin, Jean , 269 

Barrey, Edith, 6 

Barrey, Jean, 6 

Basle, Council of, xvii, 177 

Basset, Jean, 99 

Bastard of Orleans ; see Dunois 

Baudricourt, Robert de, x, II, 12, 26, 65, 
219, 226, 227, 229, 304, 308, 345, 348 

Bavon, Anna, 205 

Beaucaire, 334 

Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, xvii 

Beaugency, 237, 263, 266, 278, 293 

Beaupere, Maitre Jean, 9, 15, 16, 22, 47, 
56, 95, 96, 100, 103, 119, 121, 166, 171, 
176, 177, 183, 209, 252, 254, 340, 372 

Beaurevoir Castle, 46, 54, 74, 104, 178, 
348, 353> 363 5 Jeanne's leap, 78, 85 

Beauvais, Pierre Cauchon, Bishop of, xviii, 
xix, xx, xxii ; Presides at Jeanne d' Arc's 
trial, 3 ; jurisdiction and charge, 4 ; in- 
vites Deputy of the Chief Inquisitor to 
the trial, 8 ; warned of responsibility, 14, 
76, 163 ; decides on private examination 
of Jeanne, 55 ; in Jeanne's prison, 61, 64 ; 
summons Deputy Inquisitor to Bishop's 
residence, 66 ; invokes aid of Chief In- 
quisitor, 66, 67 ; enquiries at Domremy, 
303 ; reviews prior proceedings against 
Jeanne, 93 ; Accusation to be prepared, 
94 ; Canonical Admonition to Jeanne , 
102, 106-108 ; address to Assessors, no- 
112; sends Accusation of Jeanne to 
Paris, 119; states result, 120 ; pronounces 
sentence, 129 ; intolerant and irregular 
proceedings at trial, 159, 166, 167, 173, 
182, 204, 339 ; free agent in Jeanne's 
trial, 179, his final Adjudication, 138-9 ; 
Mandate to produce Jeanne, 140-141 ; 
Jeanne declares him guilty of her death, 
158-9, 195 ; declaration to English, 160, 

C C 2 



388 



INDEX 



162 ; refuses change of prison, 169 ; 
biased action, 171 ; his copy of Process, 
181 ; alleged a traitor by an Englishman, 
186 ; taunted, 187, 199, 208-9, 273 ; 
imprisons an opponent, 201 ; seeks 
opinion in Jeanne s submission, 259 ; 
impartial remark, 209 ; wept at Jeanne's 
execution, 191 ; English anger, 212 ; 
alleged to have sent tainted fish to 
Jeanne, 253; threatens Assessors, 254; 
negotiated ransom of Duke of Orleans, 
280 ; his death, 300 ; his action re 
Jeanne annulled, 322 

Bee, Jean du, 328 

Bee, Abbot of, 127 

Bedford, John Duke of, Regent, vii, xv, 
xvii, xviii, 36, 37, 332, 334, 349 

Bedford, Duchess of, 193, 205 

Begot, Jean, 225 

Bellier, Guillaume, 242 

Benedict XIV, Pope, 34 

Benedicite, Maitre Jean, 171 ; ^<? d'Estivet 

Bernoist, John, 7, 68, 338 

Bertin, Nicolas, 135 

Bethune, Jeanne de, 46 

Blois, 242, 260, 310, 311 

Boisguillaume, 146, 165, 182, 183, 185, 
197, 297-300, 305, 340 

Bonnet, Simon ; see Senlis 

Bouchier, Jacques, 295, 296 

Bouille, Maitre Guillaume, xxi, 157, 372 

Boulainvilliers, 6 

Bouligny, Rene de, 270 

Bourbon, Charles de, Count de Clermont, 
13, 60, 71, 115 

Bourchier, Jacques, 250 

Bourses, 318 

Bourlement, Pierre de, 20, 217, 221 

Boussac, Jean de la, Marshal of France, 
115, 233, 267 

Bredouille, 375 

Brehal, Jean, Inquisitor, 178, 321, 373 

Bridget of Sweden, viii 

Brittany and Lorraine, Duke of, xii, 30, 
279 

Brolbster, William, 97 

Bruce, Robert, xiv 

Burgundians, x, xviii, 9, 19, 54, 230, 333, 

348 
Burgundy, Duke of, ix, xii, xv, 91, 239, 

335, 348, 349 ; letter, 335-6 
Burgundy, Jean de Nevers, Duke of, 241 



CADIZ, ix 

Cagny, Percival de, 332 

Calais, ix 

Calot, Laurence, 295 

Cannes, Jacques, 135 

Cannoneer, Maitre Jean the, 315 

Cardinal of England ; see St. Eusebius 

Cardinal of Winchester, 190 



Cardinal St. Martin-les-Monts ; see 
d'Estouteville 

Castille, Etienne, 205 

Castres, Lord Bishop of, 265 ; see Chartres 

Catherine de la Rochelle, 52, 360 

Catherine of Sienna, viii 

Cauchon, Pierre ; see Beauvais 

Caval, Maitre Nicolas, 207 

Chalons, 214, 215 

Champeaux, Jean de, 249 

Champrond, Enguerrand de, 95 

Chapit, Maitre Simon, 328 

Chapitault, Simon, 374, 376 

Charles VI, 21 

Charles VII. (as Dauphin and King) 
cautious to accept Jeanne's aid, xi ; 
Jeanne's first interview, 45, 238-9, 
242, 274, 282-3 ; directs enquiry by 
clergy, 243, 274 ; advised to accept 
Jeanne's offer, xi, 242, 275, 307, 309 ; 
receives a golden crown at instance of 
an angel, 70-71, 358 ; Jeanne, the 
angel, 149, 153 ; poverty of exchequer, 
270 ; belief in Jeanne, 266 ; consecration 
at Rheims, 51, 271, 361 ; armour for 
Jeanne, 275, 310; before Chartres, 
165 ; his army at Paris, xv, 360 ; grants 
arms to Jeanne's brothers, 59 ; his sign 
and secret through Jeanne, 27, 59, 290; 
peace with Duke of Burgundy, 332 ; directs 
enquiry into verdict, xxi, 371 ; his Queen, 
1 1 ; victories foretold, 37, 225 ; defined 
a heretic, 172, 188 

Charles, Simon, President, 291, 292 

Chartres, Bishop of, 274 ; see Castres 

Chateau-Thierry, 50, 264 

Chatellain's, G., Histoire de Philippe le 
Bon, 334 

Chatillon, Archdeacon Jean de, ioo, 112, 
117, 121, 182, 202 

Chaumont, Bailly of, 217 

Chaussetier, Prior of Evreux, 375 

Chicery, Reginald de, 375 

Chinon fortress, vii, x, II, 13, 28, 71, 
224, 223, 231, 232, 241, 242, 245, 259, 
270, 273, 291 ; see Coudray, Tour de 

Christian Faith, 113 

Chronicle of de Cagny, 332, 333 

Chronological Table, 377-383 

Church, The, ix., 104, 116, 122, 124, 125, 
130, 131, 144, 189 

Church Militant, 321, 362, 367, 371 

Church Triumphant, 362 

Clairoy, Mount of, 333 

Classidas ; see Glasdale 

Clement VIII., Pope, 34 

Clergy and Angel, 73 

Colbert Library, 331 

Colin, Messire Jean, 222 

Colles, Maitre Michel, 200 

Colles Guillaume ; see Bois-Guillaume 

Compaing, Maitre Pierre, 250 



INDEX 



389 



Compiegne, xvi, 4, 39, 54, 57, 5 8 > 74 75 

283, 332, 334, 336, 349, 355, 356, 361 
Constable of France, Arthur, Count de 

Richemont, 279 
Contes, Louis de, ("Imerguet" " Mu- 

got") 249, 259-264, 281, 296 
Coquerel, Hector de, 327 
Corneille de Compiegne, Abbot of, 117 
Cormeilles, Abbot of, 127 
Coudray, Tour de, 13, 71, 260; see 

Chinon 

Coulange-les-Vineuses, 29 
Coulent, Admiral de, 233 
Coulon, Jean, 265 
Council of Bale, 159 
Courcelles, Thomas de, 56, 89, 94, 95, 96, 

101, 102, 118, 119, 134, 136, 152, 166, 

171, 181, 255-8, 338, 341 
Coutances, Richard de Longueil, Bishop 

of, 321, 373 
Crespy-en-Valois, 240 
Crotay, Geoffrey de, 99 
Crotoy, Castle, 42 

Crown of Charles VII, 60, 70, 71, 72 
Cusquel, Maitre Pierre, 191-3 



DANTE, xvi 

Daron, Pierre, 304 

Delachambre, Guillaume, 106, 253 

Delafontaine, Maitre Jean, 56, 57, 6l, 64, 

67, 69, 74, 77, 79, 85, 89, 95, 99, 164, 

1 68, 190, 202 

Demetriade, Lord Bishop of, 327 
De Rotslaer, a Fleming, 32 
Deschamps, Maitre Gilles, loo 
Desert, Maitre Guillaume du, 208 
Desjardins, Maitre Guillaume, 253, 254 
Divineress, 145 
Domremy, v, viii, xxvi, 6, 19, 213, 214, 

215, 216, 229, 303, 375, 376 
Dragomirov, General, v 
Du Boys, Nicolas, 327 
Duchemin, Maitre Jean, IOI 
Duchesne, Jean, 271 
Duguesnay, Maitre Maurice, IOO 
Dunois, Jean Count de, 232-241, 243, 293, 

3io, 3" 

Dupuy Library, 331 
Dupuy, Jean, 281 
D'Urfe Library, 331 
Duval, Brother Guillaume, 163, 164, 340, 

372 



D'ELBRET, Lord, 318 

England's victories, ix 

England, thoughts of invasion, 65 

English and French armies compared, xi- 

xii 
English King, fear of, 372 



English fear of Jeanne, 235, 236 ; and of 
her escape, 199 ; before Orleans, 233 ; 
and flight, 263, 268 

English soldiers intimidate priests, 169, 
170, 174-5, J 90 

English susceptibilities, 373 ; superstitions, 

211 

English expulsion from France, 88 
Erard, Guillaume, 117, n 8, 121, 127, 130, 

170, 172, 173, 1 88, 194, 203, 206, 254, 

255, 290, 340 
Erault, Maitre Jean, 265 
Ermengard, Maitre Erard, 100 
Estellin, Beatrix, 6, 213, 215-6 
d'Estivet, Guillaume, 185, 190, 254, 299, 

d'Estivet, Canon Jean, Promoter of trial, 

3, 68, 95, 97, 179, '97, 253, 322 
d'Estouteville, Cardinal Guillaume, 178, 

Etienne of Sionne, Messire, 216 
Etienne, called La Hire, 115 
Evreux, 112 
Excommunication Sentence, 145-6 



FABRE, M. Jules, 252, 281 

Fairies, 343, 366 

Fairies Tree, 214 

Fanouilleres, Thomas de, 328 

Fastolf, Sir John, u, 280, 311, 312 

Fauquembergue, Clement de, 336 

Fave, Maitre Jean de, 21 1 

Fay, Geoffrey de, 225 

Fecamp, The Lord Abbot of, 100, 127, 
140, 182, 201, 253, 254 

Fecard, Jean, 56 

Ferrebouc, Francis, 332, 374 

Feuillet, Gerard, 56, 61, 64, 67, 69, 74, 
77, 79,85,89,95, 103, 119, 171 

Fiefvet, Thomas, 61, 66 

Fleury, Jean, Clerk to the Bailly, 207 

Floquet, Julien, 135 

Folenfont, Georges, a heretic, 163, 301 

Fournier, Messire Jean, 227 

France, depressed condition on advent of 
Jeanne d'Arc, vi-vii, 270, 307 ; effect of 
English conquests, ix ; contrast of army 
to English, xi ; campaign under Joan of 
Arc, xv ; distracted between rivalries of 
Burgundy and Orleans, xv ; self-centred, 
xv, xvi ; a conscious nation, xvii ; much 
abused, 172 ; Jeanne declares her 
mission to save, 88, 306-7 

French war-cry, 89 

Fronte, Messire Guillaume, 216, 217 



GARIVEL, Maitre Fra^ois, 243 
Gastinel, Maitre Denis, 101, 118 
Gaucourt, Sieur Raoul de, 233, 241-3, 
259, 292, 314 



390 



INDEX 



Gaucourt, Lady de, 282 

Geneva, 331 

Gerard, Maltre, 101 

Gerardin, of Epinal, 19, 220 

Gerardin, Jean, 20 

Gerardin, Nicolas, 20 

Geresme, Brother Nicolas de, 234 

Gien, town of, 245 

Glasdale, William (Clasdas), Bailly of 

Alen9on, 236, 247, 265, 289 
Graverend, Maitre jean, 129, 141 
Great Council of England, 179, 181 
Greux, Village, 6, 216, 219, 
Gris or Grey, Sir John, 7,39,68, 103, 135, 

338 

Grouchet, Maitre Richard, 209, 340 
Guesclin, Bertrand du, 30 
Guesdon, Laurence, 301 
Guesdon, Maitre Jacques, 101 
Guoys, Jean de, 328 



HAITON, Guillaume, 106, 117, 135 

d'Harcourt, Sieur Christopher, 238 

Hauviette, wife of Gerard of Syonne, 219 

Havet, Guillaume, 250 

Hellande, Guillaume de, 375 

Henry IV, of England, xvii 

Henry V, vi, 242 

Henry VI of England, 1.19, 181, 253, 256, 
335, 349 ; declared King of France, vi, 
crowned at Paris, 80, Jeanne's letter, xiii, 
xviii, 36-38, his queen Margaret, 275 

Heresy, 66, 160, 339, 371 ; Decree of, 

H3-4 

Hillet, Adam, 97 

Holy Council, the, 114, 116, 160, 190 
Holy Scripture cited by Jeanne's Judges, 

109, no, 124, 125 
Honecourt, Jean de, 230 
Houbent, Nicolas de, 61, 64, 66, 69,74 
Houppeville, Maitre Nicolas de, 182, 190, 

193, 200-2, 254 
Hure", Reginald, 251 
Hussites, letter to, xiii, and Cardinal 

Beaufort, xvii 



ILLIERS, Sieur Florent d', 276 
Inquisition, xix, 8 

Isabel of Bavaria, Queen, vi, 21, 226, 
283 



ACOB, Messire Dominique, 215 _^ 
acquard, Jean, 231 
acquier, Guillot, 216, 229 
argeau, 237, 263, 266, 276-8 
r argeau, Captain of, 32, 48, 52 
eanne d' Arc, home and parentage, viii, 6, 

213 ; birth on feast of the Epiphany, ix ; 

mother's teaching, 6 ; god-parents, 6, 



213 ; childhood, 19 j occupation of youth, 
9, 214 ; share in village festivals at 
Ladies' Tree, 20, 21, 92, 219, 343, 344 ; 
imagination fired by fable and folk-lore, 
ix, x ; early vision, x, 10, 63 ; religious 
observances, 10, 218 ; mandate from 
Archangel Michael, St. Catherine and 
St. Margaret, x, 23, 39, 41, 137, 353 ; 
domesticated and pious, viii, 213, 215, 
216, 226, 228, 229, 231, 241, 249, 250 ; 
would fall on her knees at sound of 
church bells, 215, 220, 221 ; modesty of 
speech, 231, 243 ; reproved evil speech, 
245, 280, 308 ; divine influence, 224, 
231, 235, 239, 241 ; visits Neufchateau, 
9, 10 ; father's dream, 64 ; action for 
marriage, 62, 64, 344 ; father's anger, 
65 ; Uncle Laxart conducts her to 
Robert de Baudricourt, declares her 
mission to save France, n, 218, 219, 
304 ; Baudricourt incredulous, 227 ; her j 
tone impresses Jean de Metz, x, 223 ; 
begs conduct to the King, 223 ; early 
dress, 223, 228 ; escorted to Duke of 
Lorraine, II, 218, 224; given a horse 
and money, 218, 226; returns to Vau- 
couleurs, 12 ; issues therefrom clad as a 
warrior, 12, 223, 228, 230 ; journey to 
the Dauphin, her escort, 230 ; journey 
to Chinon, x, 224, 231 ; writes for inter- 
view, 28 ; presented to the King the 
Dauphin, 13, 225, 231, 282-3, 308; 
inspired recognition, 13 ; her prophecy, 
225, 226, 227, 228, 230, 280, 282, 307 ; 
sign given to King Charles, 59, 60, 61, 
69, H5> 2 39, 244, 348, 362; accom- 
panied an angel to presence of Charles 
VII, 71, 283, 358, 367 ; angel came for 
a great purpose, 72 ; Jeanne admits 
herself to be the angel, 149 ; applies 
for and discovery of a sword in church 
of St. Catherine de Fierbois, 27, 28, 349 ; 
King refers her to clergy of Chinon, 274 ; 
and Poitiers, xi, 242, 243, 274 ; examined 
at Poitiers by prelates and theologians, 
xv, 242, 243-4, 245, 271, 282, 291, 
306-8 ; Archbishop of Rheims gives 
credence, xi ; King advised to accept 
her aid, 275, 282 ; her confessor, Pas- 
queral, 284 ; King gives her armour, 
260, 275, 310 ; provides page, 260 ; 
steward, 308 ; and military household, 
59, 260, 399 ; method of sleeping in 
war, 360; horse presented by Duke 
d'Alen9on, 30, 260, 274; her horses, 
5i> 59, 78, 218, 226; skilful horse- 
woman, 30 ; King's force entrusted to 
her, 31, 359 ; her banners, 30, 31, 47, 
48, 59, 89, 90, 93, 283, 349 ; entry 
into Orleans and successful sally, 260-3, 
267, 275, 284-5, 3 10 - 1 ? 5 attack on 
bridge fort, 32, 236, 262 ; details of 



INDEX 



39 1 



the relief of Orleans, 233-6, 246-7, 
285-6 ; letter to besiegers of Orleans, 
235, 246-7, 286-7 ; challenges copy, 
12; her wounds, 14, 32, 236, 262, 278, 
288-9, 290, 297 ; martial skill, xii, 272, 
281, 294, 297 ; Count Dunois believed 
her conduct in war more divine than 
human, 233, 235 ; at Loches, 270 ; 
homage of the people, 50, 270 ; denies 
she allowed it, 342, 359 ; celebrates 
Mass with army in sight of English, 249 ; 
leads Dauphin's army with success, xii ; 
urges attack on other towns, 237 ; strikes 
English with terror, xvii, 253 ; advises 
Dauphin, at Loches, to go quickly to 
Rheims, 238 ; tells source of her counsel, 
238-9 ; conduct at assault on Jargeau, 
276-8 ; at Beaugency, 293 ; at Patay, 
2 93 j siege of Troyes, 239-40 ; enters 
Troyes with the King, 49, 50,^292 ; wit- 
nesses consecration of Charles at Rheims, 
xii, 44, 50, 51 ; waives personal reward 
for taxes exemption of Domremy, 215 ; 
at Chateau- Thierry, 50 ; assault on 
Paris, 14, 361 ; deposits her white 
armour in church of St. Denis, 29, 88-9, 
361 ; at Bourses, 318 ; takes Saint 
Pierre-le-Moustier, saves pillage of 
church, 246, 318-19; siege of La 
Charite, 53-4, 378 ; alleged to have re- 
stored life to a child, 52 ; appeal to 
King Charles to permit her return to 
rural life, xiv, 240-1 ; a rival in 
Catherine de la Rochelle, 53 ; continues 
to share national struggle by request, 
xiv ; her statesmanship, xiv ; advice 
neglected, xv ; great French nation self- 
centred her view, xv ; at Crespy, 57, 
332 ; leaves for relief of Compiegne, 
xvi > 57, 333 : ambushed in a sally, 333 ; 
captured with her steward, 58, 334, 335 ; 
by Burgundians, xvi, 4, 178 ; taken to 
Jehan de Luxembourg, 334 ; to Rouen, 
334 ; predicts preservation of Com- 
piegne, 334 ; taken to Marigney, 335 ; 
letters announcing her capture, 335, 336 ; 
rejoicings in Paris, 336; Inquisition 
claims her as a heretic, 337 ; and Uni- 
versity of Paris, 337 ; Cauchon, Bishop 
of Beauvais, acting for the Regent Bed- 
ford, offers a King's ransom, xviii, 337 ; 
removed to Beaulieu Castle, 334, 337 ; 
attempted escape, 81 ; delivered to the 
Duke of Bedford for 15,000, 334, 337 ; 
prison changed to Beaurevoir, 337 ; her 
leap from its tower, 54, 74, 75, 85, 337, 
353, 355> 356, 363, 364, 369 J removed 
to Arras, thence to Crotoy, finally to 
Rouen, 337 ; trial opened in Chapel 
Royal, Rouen Castle, 3, xix ; its In- 
quisitorial form, 338 ; constitution of the 
court, 3, 8, 14, 22, 33, 34, 98, 99, 103 ; 



objections to method of trial, xix-xx ; 
by at least two assessors, 182, 257, 339 ; 
course of trial reviewed, 339-41 ; pro- 
moters or counsel for prosecution, 3, 9 ; 
application to hear Mass prior to open- 
ing of case refused, 4 ; the charge, 4 ; 
applies for counsel, but refused, 173; 
offered but declines counsel from as- 
sessors, 102 ; statements as to counsel, 
180, 182, 187, 193, 195, 204, 209, 339 ; 
urged as to whole truth in matters of 
faith, 5 ; requested to answer on oath, 
5 ; conditionally declines, 5, 9, 15, 22, 
33, 44 ; makes oath in the matter of 
faith, not of revelations, 6, 342 : de- 
clines to say her Pater except in Con- 
fession, 7 ; sworn on second day, after 
remonstrance, 9 ; held in a lay prison on 
an ecclesiastical charge, xviii, 162, 163 ; 
shameful prison treatment, xvii, 7, 174, 
189, 192, 195, 304, 338, her jailer, 
195 ; her male attire, 12 ; done nothing 
in the world but by order of God, even 
to taking male attire, 26, 46, 65, 79, 
114-15, 347, 351 ; if released will wear 
woman's dress, 21, 95 ; desire to hear 
Mass, in what attire not settled, 81 ; in 
war received sacrament in male dress, 
51 ; adherence to male dress, 87, 88, 
189 ; had a Voice from God for help 
and guidance, 10 ; craved no reward 
from the apparition or Voice than her 
soul's salvation, 13 ; the Voice her ad- 
viser, 1 6, 83, 306, 307 ; votive candles 
to St. Catherine and St. Margaret, 
82-3 ; source of her counsel, 320 ; 
believed as firmly as her belief in the 
Christian faith and that God hath re- 
deemed us that the Voice came to her 
from God, 17, 195, 356, 370 ; warned 
that she would be captured, 57 ; the 
Voice heard during her trial, 22, 39 ; 
comforted by her Voices, 62, 67, 118 ; 
her prayer for counsel, 358, 364 ; her 
request to Voices, 75-6 ; advised in 
certain things for the King alone, 17 ; 
faith in her mission from God, 87, 115, 
203, 356 ; the Voice accompanied with 
brightness or light, 10, 18, 27, 75 ; her 
visions, 15, 16, 306 ; faith in the grace 
of God, 18 ; for details of visitation by 
Voices refers judges to examination at 
Poitiers, 24, 46 ; unless with Divine 
authority refuses details, 352 ; subtlety 
of questions put to her, 160, 184, 196, 
202, 203, 215, 299, 305 ; warns judge 
of his responsibility by her trial, 14, 16, 
76 ; comfort from St. Michael, 24, 25, 
84 ; interrogated as to St. Michael and 
St. Gabriel, 45 ; came in God's name, 
send me back to God, 15 ; waits on our 
Lord, 90, 91, 108 ; declared herself a 



392 



INDEX 



messenger from God, 348 ; loves the 
Church and our Christian Faith, 86 ; 
always upheld the Church, 343 ; dedi- 
cated her virginity to God, 62-3 ; 
her virginity, 91, 177, 205, 272, 309 ; 
correspondence and interrogations as to 
"three Pontiffs," 34-6; her letters to 
Henry VI. and his generals to yield 
French towns, 36-8, 286-7 ; doubt as to 
authenticity of letter to Henry VI., xiii- 
xiv ; augurs further loss to English, 38-9 ; 
her rings, 40, 91-2 ; questioned as to a 
mandrake, 42, 344 ; guiltless of mortal 
sin, 43, 77, 78, 354, 370 ; hope of de- 
liverance, 76, 80-81, 147, 148 ; trusts 
for salvation, 77 ; questioned as to 
Brother Richard, 49, 50 ; private ex- 
aminations, 56, 64, 65, 67, 69, 74, 77, 
79. 8 5> 89 ; hoped to deliver the Duke 
of Orleans, 65-6, 280; charges formu- 
lated, 78 ; questioned as to death of 
Franquel d' Arras, 78 ; articles of ac- 
cusation prepared, 94, 119; denies 
witchcraft, 342 ; allegations of witch- 
craft, divination, and evil arts, 342, 343, 
344, 348, 349, 357 ; questions and 
answers read over in prison, 95 ; pro- 
secution describe her early years, allege 
neglect of religious instruction, 343 ; 
charged with living in a house of ill 
fame, 344 ; denies boast that she would 
be mother of three famous children, 345 ; 
adoption of male attire, 345-6 ; pleads 
to hear Mass in male attire, 96-7, 347 ; 
exhortations, 96-7, 106-119 ; replies to 
the six articles of exhortation, 113-117 ; 
trial in ordinary for belief, 98-106 ; 
assessors deliberate, 99-101 ; promoter 
against Jeanne said to act solely through 
zeal for the Faith, 101 ; canonical ad- 
monition, 102 ; interrogated on articles, 
102-3 5 denies alleged misdeeds, 365 ; 
interrogated in prison on submission to 
the Church. If not in conflict with 
visions and revelations will submit to 
Church Militant, 103 ; God first, then 
Church Militant, 104, 108-110, 113-114, 
189 ; her illness, 106-7, 228, 253, 255 ; 
medical men supplied to serve an end, 
107 ; in event of death craves burial in 
holy ground, 108 ; hopes King will 
build a chapel for prayer, 290 ; declares 
herself a good Christian, no; makes 
her devotions in passing to and fro 
Chapel of Castle, 171-2, 204 ; visited 
by enemies in disguise, 258, 298-9, and 
enticed to confess to Loyseleur within 
hearing of others, 165, 183-4 ; biased 
tribunal, 164, 204 ; Bp. of Beauvais' 
agents interview her without effect, in; 
Archdeacon Chatillon attempts instruc- 
tion and admonishes, 113, 116 ; God her 



Creator caused her action, to God she 
refers, 114, 208; exhorted to submit to 
Church Militant, 116, 122-6, 190 ; if 
taken to the Pope will reply, 114, 189, 
210 ; refers her answers to Rome, 128 ; 
willing to submit to Council of Bale, 
159 ; threatened to be treated as a 
heretic, 114, 116, 126 ; alleged intention 
to place her in an iron cage, 192, 205, 
211 ; and tortured if refusing certain 
answers, 117, 119, 257, 300, 339; 
intrepid reply, 126 ; twelve articles of 
charge, approved by Paris University, 
considered and endorsed by judges, 
119-121, 185; charged with frustrating 
peace, 348 ; denies this in case of? 
Burgundy, but would oppose English < 
till out of France, 349 ; her self-defence, 
xx-xxi ; publicly exposed and preached 
to, 127, 172, 173; bishop pronounces 
sentence, 129 ; interrupted by recanta- 
tion of Jeanne, 130-132, 208; will sub- 
mit to the Church, 173, 176, 1 86 ; con- 
demned to perpetual imprisonment, 133 ; 
insulted by soldiers, 21 1 ; in a lay prison, 
xviii ; asks to be taken to an ecclesi- 
astical prison, 169, 173 ; adopts feminine 
attire, 134, 173, 186, 189, 204, 207; 
again in male attire, 135, 174, I77> 
J 79> 1 93 ; ner explanation, 136, 159, 
163, 177 ; abjures her recantation, 137-8 ; 
adjudication of judges, 138-140; to re- 
ceive sentence in old market, Rouen, 
141 ; takes the Sacrament, 151, 160, 
175, 180, 187, 193, 207; sentence of 
death, xxi, 142-5 ; of excommunication, 
brought to the old market place, 142, 

163, 191, 256, 305 ; preached to, 191 ; 
forced from platform to stake without 
sentence of secular judges, 161, 163, 
194, 300, 301 ; English soldiers around 
her, 170, 175 ; asked pardon of the 
English and Burgundians, 1 54 ; lays her 
fate upon Bishop of Beauvais, i5&-9 
195 ; horror on learning proposed mode 
of death, 158 ; her execution, xxi ; 
devout demeanour at the stake, 161, 

164, 170, 175, 199; when in the flames 
begged the Cross to be held before her, 
161, 175, 195 ; Jesus her dying utter- 
ance, 161, 176, 273, 301, 305 ; pity 
excited by her execution, 191, 192, 255 ; 
contrition of her executioner, 161, 163, 
194 ; exact place of execution, 170, 175 ; 
death desired by the English, 186 ; her 
ashes cast into the Seine, 193, 207, 301, 
302, 305 ; her appearance in June, 1429, 
30 ; no authentic portrait known, 49 ; 
her abstemious diet, 237, 243, 296 ; 
prison diet, 15, 16 ; pious and simple 
life, xiii ; physical hardihood, xiii ; her 
presence controlled vice and raised tone 



INDEX 



393 



of French army, xii-xiii, 243, 245, 249, 
250, 251, 264, 268, 270; hospitable to 
poor, 221, 224, 272 ; problem as to her 
knowledge of logic and theology, xix ; 
testimony to virtue and courage, xxvi, 
319 ; eloquent and forensic, yet prudent 
and simple in answers, xxvii, 177, 179 ; 
Charles VII. orders posthumous enquiry 
nearly twenty years later, v, xxi, 371 ; 
abortive, 372 ; enquiry ordered by Pope 
Nicholas V. , xxii, 372 ; no definite re- 
sult, 373 ; Pope Calixtus, on petition of 
Jeanne's mother, Isabella, causes solemn 
enquiry at Paris, xxii, 373-376 ; sworn 
information of events in the last days of 
Jeanne's life, 147-8, 150 ; official Latin 
text of trial and rehabilitation, xxv ; 
sentence of rehabilitation xxiii, 321-328, 
376 

Jeanne d'Arc family, see d'Arc 

fhesus Maria on banner, 31, 91, 361 ; on 
letters, 35, 36, 349, 350, 352, 369 

Josephine, Empress, 249 

Joyart, Mengette, 222 

Junieges, Abbot of, 127 



LA BASQUE, standard-bearer, 316, 317 
La Charite sur Loire, 53, 73, 317, 352, 

Lacloppe, Bertrand, 218 

Ladies' Tree, see Tree 

Ladvenu, Br. Martin, 148, 150, 168, 170, 

I75 I9i, 193-5, 328, 338, 372 
Lagny, 29, 52, 78 
La Hire, Marechal, 233, 235, 250, 263, 

264, 277, 279, 293, 308, 311, 312, 

La Macee, Lady, 305 

Lambert or Lombart, Jean, 306 

Lancaster, House of, xvii 

Lapse, the, 121-134, 326 

Lapau, Mme. , 260 

La Rose, Philippe, 373 

La Rousse, woman, 9, 217, 219, 344 

La Saussaye in diocese of Evreux, 209 

Laval, Guy and Andre de, 30 

Laverdy, M., 331 

Laxart, Durand, 218, 225, 230 

Laxart, Jean de, 6, 215 

Lebouchier, Maitre Guillaume, 100, 106 

Lebouchier, Messire Pierre, 198 

Lebuin, Michael, 225 

Lecamus, Canon Jacques, 151 

Lecomte, Denis, 332, 374 

Ledoux, Maitre Jean, 100, 118 

Le Drapier, Perin, 218 

Lefevre, Maitre Jean, Bishop of Deme- 

triade, 101, 205, 210, 338 
Lefumeux, Messire Jean, 231 
Leguise, Bishop Jean, 240 
Le Marie, Guillaume, 244, 306 



Lemaitre, Maitre, Jean, Vice-Inquisitor of 
Beauvais, 8, 66, 67, 94, 95, 98, 99, 105, 
129, 132, 133, 140, 141, 142, 168, 182, 
193, 194, 322 

Lenozolles, Maitre Jean de, 290, 340 

Leparmentier, Mangier, 300 

Le Renard, see. Therouenne 

Leroyer, Catharine, 21, 227 

Leroyer, Henry, 223, 227, 228 , 

Le Royer, Thevenin, 218 

L'Esbahy, Jacques, 248 

Letters to English, 36-8, 235, 246-7, 286-7 

Letter of Duke of Burgundy, 335 

Letter of Count d'Armagnac, 34-5, 351, 
Jeanne's reply, 35 

Ligny, Count de, 178, 294, see Luxem- 
bourg, Jean 

Limoges, ix 

Linguer, Jean, 6 

Lisle, 177 

Loches, 268, 270 

Lohier, Maitre Jean, xix, xx, 166-7, 2 54> 

257, 339 - 

Loire, camps on the, 237 
Longueville, Lord Prior of, loo 
Lore, Sieur Ambroise de, 275, 279 
Lorraine, its traditions, viii, ix, 9 
Lorraine, Charles, Duke of, II, 30, 214 

218, 226, 272, 230 

Lorraine, Rene of Anjou, Duke of, II 
Louis XL, vii, 245, 275,289 
Louviers, siege proposed, 157, 158 
Loyseleur, Nicolas, 56, 117,118, 130, 134, 

148, 152, 165, 166, 167, 169, 179, 182, 

183, 202, 258, 298-9, 340, 341 
Lude, Sieur de, 278 
Luxembourg, Jean de, 58, 334, 335, 336 ; 

his wife, Jeanne de Bethune, 46 ; see 

also Ligny, Count de 
Luxembourg, Count Waleran de, 46, 334 
Luxembourg, Messire Louis de, Archbp. 

of Rouen, 163, 294; see Therouenne 



MACHET, Gerard, Bishop of Castres, 238 

Ma9on, Maitre Jean, 248 

Macon, Robert le, 238 

Mailly, Jean de, Bishop of Noyon, 255-6 

Manchon, Guillaume, 56, 68, 77, 95, 126, 

136, 146, 165, 172, 178-187, 188, 197, 

212, 298, 331, 340, 372, 374 
Mandrakes, 42 
Manuel, Pierre, 304 
Margaret of Anjou, n, 275 
Margaret of Bavaria, 272 
Margaret of Scotland, 223 
Marguerie, Andre, 101, 117, 118, 121, 192, 

202, 208-9 

Marie, Messire Thomas, 211 
Marigny, 335 
Marriage, action against Jeanne, 62, 64, 

344 



394 



INDEX 



Martel, Charles, 27 

Martin V., Pope, 34 

Mary of Anjou, Queen, 46 

Massieu, Maitre Jean, 56, 68, 85, 117, 135, 

141, 170, 171-176, 198,339, 372 
Maugier, Pierre, 373 
Maurice, Maitre Pierre, 56, 89, 95, 96, 

101, 103, 121, 122, 148, 149, 166, 171, 

1 80, 209, 302 
Maxey-sur-Vays, 19, 225 
Meaux, Bishop of, see Versailles 
Meaux, Viscountess de, 46 
Mehun, 237 
Melun, 57, 73 
Melville, Lord, xi 
Merlin, prophecy, 21, 188, 241 
Message, Mathieu, 244 
Metz, Jean de Novelernport, called Jean 

de, x, 12, 136, 218, 223-5, 226 > 228 

230, 265, 291, 301 
Meung, 249, 263 
Meung-sur- Loire, 237, 278, 289 
Meung-sur-Yevre, 245, 317 
Midi, Maitre Nicolas, 56, 61, 64, 67, 69, 

74, 77, 79, 85, 89, 94, 95, 96, 100, 103, 

106, 109, 119, 121, 134, 142, 166, 171, 

176, 177, 207, 255, 258, 295, 300 
Milan, Duke of, 6 
Milet, Colette, 295 
Milet, Pierre, 295, 296 
Minet, Messire Jean, 6 
Minier, Pierre, 209 
Moen, Jean, 216 

Monnet, Maitre Jean, 258-9, 340 
Montargis, battle, 232, 242 
Moreau, Jean, 303 

Morel, Maitre Aubert, 101, 117, 118, 119 
Morel, Jean, 6, 215 
Morin, Maitre Jourdin, 274, 282 
Mortemer, Abbot of, 127 
Mugot, see Contes, L. de 
Musee de Trocadero, Paris, 49 
Musnier, Simonin, 221 
Muton, Guillaume, 103 



NAPLES, vii 

Napoleon L, v 

Neufchateau, 9, 10, 212, 214, 216, 218, 

220, 344 

Newman, Cardinal, xxii 
Nibat, Jean de, 100 
Nicholas V., Pope, xxi, 372 
Normandy, 371 
Norwich, Bishop of, 127 
Novelomport, Jean de, 12 ; see Metz 
Noyon, Bishop and Diocese of, 4, 121, 

127, 142 



OATH, administration of, 5, 6, 7 
Olivier, Alain, 328 



Orient, Pierre, 97 
Orleans family, xv 
Orleans, Charles, Duke of, 72, 280 
Orleans, Duke of, 12, 65, 307, 353 
Orleans held by patriots, vi ; its siege, vii, 
3 1 * 3 2 > 35 ; relief ordered, x ; siege raised 
by Jeanne d'Arc, 233-237, 242, 245, 
246-7, 249, 260-263, 266-270, 275-6, 
284-289, 292, 293, 296, 297, 307, 
300-317 
Ourches, Albert d', 228 



PARIS, vii, xv, 181, 352 ; its assault, 14, 
28, 73, 78, 353 ; Church of Notre Dame, 
373; National Library, 331, 332 ; Par- 
liament of, 336 ; University of, xxi, 119, 
120, T22, 138, 177, 336 

Paris, Guillaume Chattier, Bishop of, 321, 

373 

Partada, Alphonse de, 314 
Pasquerel, Brother Jean, 32, 281, 282 
Patay, Battle of, xii, 266, 280, 289, 293 
Peter of Pomfret, ix 
Petit, Gerard, 229 
Philip II, 273 
Philip the Fair, xxii 
Picard ravages, 9 
Pigache, Maitre Jean, 209 
Pinchon, Jean, 99 
Poitiers, vii, ix, xi, xviii, xix, 24, 136, 

2 65, 305 ; book at, 25 ; Church of, 116 ; 

Clergy of, 201, 244 
Pole, William de la, Earl of Suffolk, 36, 

241, 248, 263, 265, 277, 278 
Pollichon, see Poulengey 
Pont 1'Eveque, 73, 361 
"Pontiffs, Three," 34 
Pope and Empire, xvi 
Pope Calixtus, v, xxii, 178, 373 
Pope Nicholas V., 372, 373 
Pope of Rome, 33, 36, 91, 114, 116, 128, 

131, 145, 159, 160, 189, 210 
Poulengey, Bertrand de, 12, 136,218, 224, 

226, 228-231, 265, see Pollichon, B. 
Poulnois, Hauves, 283 
Pouthon, the Burgundian, 335 
Preaux, Abbot of, 127 
Pressy, Sieur Jean de, 47 
Preston Manor, Sussex, 42 
Prevosteau, Guillaume, 374 
Process or transcript of trial, 1 80, 181, 187, 

1 88, 196, 197, 200, 210, 325, 326, 327 
Prophecy France lost by a woman, saved 

by a maid, 226, 227 
Prophecy of d' Avignon, 269 



QUEEN OF CHARLES VII, 270, 271 
Quesnay, Maurice de, 106 
Quicherat, xxv, 242 



INDEX 



395 



RABATEAU, Jean, 24, 243, 265, 269, 306 

Raguier, Hemon, Treasurer, 215, 275, 283 

Raiguesson, Jean, 6, 215 

Rais, Gilles de Laval, Seigneur de, 233 

Raymond, 260 

Regnault de Chartres, xiv ; see Rheims 

Rehabilitation Sentence, 321-328, 371 

Relapse, 135-146, 326 

Reynel, Maitre Jean de, 257 

Rheims xii, 215, 237, 239, 244, 245, 264, 
292, 304, 361 ; Jeanne's house, 51 

Rheims Cathedral xii, xiv, 51 

Rheims, Jean Jouvenal des Ursins, Arch- 
bishop of, 321, 373 

Rheims Reginald, Archbp. of 324 

Rheims, Regnault de Chartres, Archbp. of, 
xi, xiv, xix, 24, 115, 118, 201, 233, 240, 

35 

Ricarville, Guillaume de, 245 

Richard II, ix 

Richard, the Archer, 224, 226, 228, 230 

Richard, Brother, 42, 48, 53 

Richelieu, 289 

Ricquier, Jean, 301 

Rosse, Philippe de, 178 

Roucessey-sous-Neufchateau, 216 

Rouel, Jean de, 257 

Rouen, v, xix, 119, 372; Castle, 3, no, 
117, 119, 121, 290; the Ornament 
Room, ;8, 340, 351 ; Archiepiscopal 
Chapel, 120, 138, 139, 328 ; Trial of 
Jeanne d' Arc, 3, 99, 121, 132, 181, 252 ; 
Jeanne's Imprisonment, 96, 106, 192, 
195, 199, 205, 255, 294, 299, 303, 
305 ; Cemetery of Saint Ouen, 127, 132 ; 
Market Place, 170, 327 

Roussel, Guillaume, 328 

Roussel, Jean, 328 

Roussel, Raoul, 118 

Rouvray, Battle, n 

Royal Letters of Jeanne's Surrender, 3 

SAINT BERNARD; 119 

St. Catherine, x, .23, 24, 26, 39, 40, 47, 
60, 62, 65, 69, 71, 74, 75, 77, 79, 84, 
88, 90, 92, 109, 115, 131, 137, 345, 
352, 355, 357, 358, 363, 366, 368, 370 

St. Catherine de Fierbois, village, 12, 27, 
28, 89, 349 

St. Charles, 234, 235 

St. Denis, 13, 14, 29, 62, 88, 349, 353, 
354, 36i ; war cry, 89 

St. Eusebius, Cardinal of England, 127, 
161, 187, 209 

St. Gabriel, 118, 357, 366, 371 

St. Lo of Rouen, Prior of, 127 

St. Louis, 234, 235 

St. Margaret, x, 23, 24, 26, 39, 40, 47, 60, 
62, 65, 71, 74, 77, 84, 88, 90, 92, 109, 
"5, 131, 137, 345, 352, 354, 357, 35, 
363, 366, 368, 370 



Saint Mesmin, Amian de, 248 

St. Michael, 25, 39, 42, 44, 45, 64, 84, 

85, 199, 255, 344, 355, 357, 358, 366, 

368, 370 
St. Michel au Peril-de-la-Mer, Abbot of, 

127 

St. Nicholas du Port, 226, 277-8, 229 
St. Ouen of Rouen, Abbot of, 127 
St. Ouen, Jeanne preached to at, 172, 187, 

191, 255, 259, 295, 376 
St. Peter and his Successors, 124, 131 
St. Pierre-le-Moiistier, 246, 318 
St. Quentin, Burgundy's letter to people, 

335 

St. Thomas, 160 
St. Urbain, town of, 12 
Scales, Lord, 37, 248, 278 
Scotland, King of, vii 
Seguin, Pierre, 244 
Selles- en-Berry, 30, 271 
Senlis, Bishop of, 51, 78 
Shakespeare, ix 

Sicily, Yolande, Queen of, 275, 309 
Soissons, 4, 54 
Sologne, the, 260, 284 
Stafford, Earl of, 183, 294 
Suffolk, Earl of, 21 ; see Pole 
Surname, girls take mother's, 95 
Surreau, Laurent, receiver-general, 257, 

328 

Sword obtained at St. Catherine de Fier- 
bois, 28, 89, 349, 353 



TALBOT, John, Earl of Shrewsbury, 37, 
234, 235, 248, 266, 279, 280 

Talbot, William, 7, 338 

Taquel, Nicolas, 68, 146, 185, 195-198, 
298, 340 

Teresa, viii 

Thermes, Simon de, 229 

Theroufnne, Bishop of (Cardinal de Luxem- 
bourg), 121, 127, 142, 208, 334 

Thevenin, Jeannette, 6, 213, 215, 216 

Thierry, Maitre Reginald, 245 

Thierry, Wautrin, 375 

Thiesselin, Jeannette, 6, 213, 215, 217 

Thou, Jacques de, 248 

Tilly, Janet de, 232 

Torcenay, Jean de, Bailly of Chaumont, 
225, 229 

Toul, 344 

Tourainejacques de, 56, 89, 103, 106, 119, 
166, 171, 183, 252, 257 

Touroulde, Dame Marguerite la, 270-272 

Tours, 28, 268, 283, 284 

Torture, 117, 119, 126, 339 

Toutmouille, Brother Jean, 148, 150, 157, 

Tree at Domremy, Ladies' or Fairies', 20, 

214, 217, 219, 221, 229, 343, 344, 366 
Tremouille, Seigneur de la, 60, 71, 78, 115 



39^ 



INDEX 



Tressart, Maitre Jean, 192 

Treves, Sieur de, 238 

Treves, Lady de, 282 

Trial, see Process 

Troyes, xii, 48, 49, 292 ; treaty of, vi, 

226 

Turquetil, Maitre Eustace, 172 
Turreiure, Pierre, 306 



VALLEE, Maitre Guillaume, 190 

Vatican, 331 

Vaucouleurs, x, 9, 214, 225, 226, 227, 

230; remains of castle, II, 12, 65 
Vaucouleurs, Alain de, 226 
Vaux, Pasquier, de, 61, 64, 66 
Venderes, Nicolas de, 99, 117, 118, 121, 

I35 139, H7 
Vendome, Count de, 74 
Verneuil, battle of, 277 
Versailles, Pierre de, Abbot of Talmont, 

243, 265, 269, 270, 274, 282 



Vienne, Colet de, 12, 218, 224, 226, 228, 

230 

Villars, Sieur de, 232, 314 
Viole, Maitre Aignan, 297 

WANDONNE, Lionel Bastard de, 335 

Ward, Jean Dieu-le-, 218 

Warwick, Earl of, 106, 162, 164, 169, 
174, 179, 183, 1 86, 189, 190, 197, 200, 
212, 232, 254, 294, 299, 335, 338 

Washington, George, xiv 

Waterin, Jean, 220 

Well Sunday, 20, 214, 217, 219 

William of Worcester, 336 

Woman's dress, Jeanne and, 21, 46, 47, 
95, 114-115, 134, 136, 138, 159, 169, 
174, 1 86, 204, 228, 347, 348, 367, 368 

YSAMBARD DE LA PlERRE, 66, 67, 69, 

77, 79, 85, 89, 118, 134, 135, 159-162, 
164, 1 68, 1 88, 190, 194, 340 



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