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A Ri 'Il ITECTI" 11 E 



"There it stands, 
And thr will stand, till the slow to«th of Time 
Nibble it all away."--Tot^s 
"Thott ma'st behold, 
Outside and insid both, pillars and roofs, 
Carved work, the hand of famed artilicers."--M[Lrox 


[Ail riqhts reserved.] 

TO TllE 


To narratc concisely whatevcr is at present kllOWll of the history of 
Jedburgh Abbey and its inmatcs, to asccrtain the successive stages 
of its architccturd growth, to trace its decay, and to describc its 
ruins, is thc purl,ose of thc following pages. 
Coml,ared with thc sister establishments of Mclrose, Kelso, 
and l)ryburgh, thc materials for a history of Jcdburgh Abbey are 
1,eculiarly scanty. The chartularies of the three first-nalned abbeys 
are still extant, but evel'ythilg that the monks of Jedburgi may 
bave recordcd, whethcr relating to the private attidrs of their con- 
vent, thc rich domailm attached to it, or the nlaly public events in 
which it was concerned, has unfortunately perished. This being the 
case, the facts necessary for a history of this mtmastery had to be 
gathered from a great variety of sources, and were therefore of a 
discolmected character. The first important contribution was from 
the pcn of the Ilcv. James Morton, ].D., thc result of whose indc- 
fatigablc labours is contained in his valuable and well-known work, 
The .l[otastic Aanals of Tcciotd«Ic, which appearcd in 18.32 ; and it 
may safely be said that the subject stands very much where he left 
it, little of iluportance having been added since his rime. 
Every effort has been ruade to tender the historical portion of 
the present work as complete as circumstances would permit, and 
much valuable information bas been procured from unpublished 
records, including many in the General ltegister House, Edinburgh, 
private charters, and the Records of the Presbytery, Heritors, and 


To narrate conciscly whatcvcr is at present known of the history of 
Jcdburgh Abbey and its inmates, to asccrtain the successive stagcs 
of its architectural growth, to trace its decay, and to descrilc its 
ruins, is thc l»urpose of thc following pages. 
(Jomprcd with thc sistcr estallishments of hlclrose, Kclso, 
ami Ir)'burgh, thc matcri«ls for a history of Jcdburgh Al»boy arc 
l»eculiarly scmty. Thc chartularics of the thrce first-named abbeys 
rc still ext;mt, but cverything that the monks of Jcdburgh may 
have rccordcd, whcthcr relating to the private atlitirs of their ctn- 
vent, thc rich domains attached to it, or the many public events in 
which it was concerncd, bas unfortunately perished. This being thc 
case, thc facts nccessary for a history of this m,nastery had to be 
gathcred from a great variety of sources, and were thereforc of a 
disctmmcted character. The first important contribution was from 
the pcn of the IIcv..lames 5iorton, ]i.]., thc resu]t of whose inde- 
fatigablc labours is contained in his wduable and well-known work, 
1'hc Monastic Anals oJ" Tce'iotheh', which apIoearcd in 1832; and it 
may safely be said that the subject stands very much where he left 
it, little of importance havilg bcen added since lais time. 
Eve'y eflba't has been ruade to render the historical pot'tion of 
thc present work as complete as circumstances would pernait, and 
much valuable information has bcen procured from unpublished 
ecords, includiug many in the General Register House, Edinburgh, 
larivate charters, and the 1-ecords of the Presbytery, Heritors, and 



Town (çouncil of Jedburgh. The statements of previous writers 
havc been carefully tested, and exception bas been taken to these 
only whcre they were at variance with documentary cvidcnce. Au 
attempt is here inade for the first time to give a connected account 
of the various changes of ownership of the abbey lands from the 
Icformation to their finally becoming, by Crown charter, the 
propcrty of the Lothian family. Ïhe task is hot without dilliculty, 
as pcrl,lexities and a]Tarent contradictions occur, which it is hot 
casy altogethcr to remove or to reconcilc; but the account here 
prescnted may be accel,ted as substantially accumte so far as it 
gocs, and may t.ei'haps lighten the labours of other investigators. 
While treating on this par of the subject I bave gladly availcd 
myself of certain notes with which I was favoured by William 
]:'raser, Esq., S.S.[_'., Edinburgh. 
The architectural description will be round to be nmch more 
minute than an)- hitherto giron; and it nmy be stated that whilc 
fixing the al,proximate dates of the various portions of the ruins, 
hot only have the architectural styles been considered, but also 
the social condition of the district at the different times. 
In acknowledging the assistance and encouragement received 
from scvêral gentlcmelt in the preparation of this work, I have 
mueh pleasure in eXl.,ressing iny obligations to I)avid Laing, Esq., 
Signet Library, Edinburgh, whose naine has so long been eonneeted 
with the elueidation of the early history and literature of Scotland, 
and to whom I ara indebted also for the two old views of the 
abbey, 17 7 5 and 17 ï 7. 
The gentleman to whom I have been most largely indebted, 
however, is Archibald (_'arl3-1e Mounsey, Esq., Queen Mary's House, 



Jedburgh, and I shall evcr gratefully remember the véry valuablc 
services rendcred by him. Xot only did he in the rtlOSt llartdstmle 
manner place at my disposal a large collection of M.':;_'.';., and a 
number of rare books from his own library, many of the former 
being original charters and others copied from our alational archives, 
but he also nlost unreservcdly gave me the advantage of his assist- 
ance in dealing with difliculties, raid of his advice gencrally. 
I have also much 1,1easure in acknowledging the facilifies 
aflbrded 1,y Thomas Dickson, Esq., H.3I. (;elleral Iegdstcr ]Iou.e, 
for consulting various docmaeaats undcr lais charge. 

.lAMES WAT.-;[ tN. 

JEDBURGtl, 18th June 1877. 


TtlE first edition of this work, which bas long been out «,f print, 
was well received both by tbe 1,ress and thc 1,ublic, and in I, rc- 
paring thc present cdition no l,ains have been sI,ared to make it 
evcn more worthy of accel,tance. Though it was stated in the 
f«rmer preface that the ehartulary of .Iedburgh Abbey had perished, 
there were those who still fondly eherished the hol,e thal il migbt 
be discovered; but all such hope may i,e abandoned, as it is now 
proved, on incontrovertible evidence, that tire «harters and niuni- 
ments of this reli,dous h,mse were hJst and destroyed 1, 3- wtr and 
other fortuitous causes. This being the case, all chances are gonc 
of ever baving a eonsecutive and continuous history of the Abbey 
such as might otherwise have been. However, a considerable 
amount of additional historical information has been gleaned from 
different quarters and embodied here, mueh of it now Imblished 
for the first time. Every eflbrt bas becn ruade to ensure accurac3- , 
and reference is ruade to the sources whence most of the itfor- 
mation has been derived. 
I the present edition sevcral new feattu'es lmve been intro- 
duced, ineluding the Temporality and Spiritua]ity of the Abbey, 
an Accounl of the Notable l'ersons ]luried in the Abbey, and 
several Charters relative to the Monastery. A few names bave 
been added to out previous List of Abbots, which was by far the 
fullest and most accurate ever before published, and the collection 
of Masons' Marks has also been considerably added to. 



Thc numbcr of illustrations has becn increased from four to 
lifteeu, ineluding an interesting plan drawn in 1760. The modcrn 
vievs ,f the Abbey give a fair idea of its architecture, while the 
old views will be found to be of value to the antiquary. The 
sketeh of the ancient cross whieh faces page 128, and whieh has 
n,t been previously tigured, I owe to thc kindness of Mr .klexander 
[;,lletly, .f the Museum «f Science and Art, Edinburgh. 
To Ir IIardie, the indefatigable Seeretary of the Berwiekshire 
Naturalists' ('lub, and to Mr W. 1. ('ook, Stirling, who bas devoted 
much rime to antiquarian researeh, I ara indebted for some valuable 
notes. I bave also pleasure in again aeknowledging my obligations 
t, my ohl and valued friend, Mr A. (L Mounsey, Jedburgh, for his 
learned assistance, more espeeially in deeiphering old doeumelts, 
which eould tmly bave been donc by an expert. To thcse and 
,thcr gentlelnen who have given me assistance in any way I wish 
to make due aeknowledgment. 
Considering the growing intcrest in out grand eeclesiastical 
ruins, the aeeount of the Abbc)'s of Teviotdale at thc end of this 
book will, I trust, bc thought a llOt unfitting conclusion to a work 
devotcd to «me of the most important of the group. The sketeh 
originally appeared as two articles in the S«otsman newspapcr some 
years ago, and hot a few people have expressed a wish to see it in 
a more accessible form. 

JEDBURGH, 27th October 1893. 

Trie Io.ASTF.R" AS Fo.).) Y 
EVENTS BETWEEN 15)0 .',,'D 150, 


A lit'il ITEC'r t'ltF,, lt;9 



, 95 
., 114 
» 11.3 
,, 124 
» 127 

,, 128 
l,aqe 128 


ONACIIIS.M, as is well kn«,wn, had its (,rigin in the East at a very 
early l,eri«d. The Essenes and other .lewish fraternities WCl'e 
aseeties; but it was n,»t until the seeou, l «'entm'y of out era that 
any of thc Christians betook thems.lves t,» a life of solitude, and 
that more by accident thall ehoiee. In eonscquenee of the 1,al'- 
barous peseeution instituted by the Ioman emperor Iêeius against 
those who 1,rofessed to be followers of the meek and 1,wly .lesu.s, 
multitudes of I_'hristians tled from their ho,mes, amoug whom was 
Paul, a native of Thebes, who tl'alle,1 far into the desert aud t,»k 
up his abode in a cave in Olle of the l)untains, l'aul, 11o was a 
noble and learned youth, was the tirst ('hristian hermit. In that 
Ionely spot he lived ninety years, with the cave as his only shelter, 
tle fruit of the palm-tree his only food, the leaves ,f the palm-tree 
his only railnent, and the water of the f,mntain his only dl'ink. 
His time was spent in meditation and 1,rayer, and he died, it is 
said, in the 130th year of his age. Ilnmediately before that event 
oeeurred he was visited by St Anthony, who had lived in a similar 
way in a different part of the country. The visitor arrived just 
in rime to witness l'aul's imaortal part, " hllninous and shining," 
aseend towards heaven, amidst a host of angels and apostlcs, while 
his body was in the attitude of prayer. At least so says the 
St Anthony, who in his solitary home had many wrestlings 
with the Evil One, was believed to have the power of working 
miracles, and his faine was sueh that numbers of people floeked to 
him, hot only to reeeive spiritual adviee, but also to be eured of 
bodily or mental disease. He brought together a large lmmber of 
hermits, who ruade dwellings near eaeh other--fi)rming a sort of 


village, or lara, as it was called--and they combined together in 
prayer and in procuring the necessaries of lire. They became what 
are known as cenobites, living in commou and obeyiug St Anthony 
as their superior, being thus distinguished from anchorites or 
e.remites, wbo lived alone and owned no superior. St Anth«,ny, 
who is rêgarded as the founder of monachism, and of whom nlany 
wonderful stories are told, died on M«,unt Coltzim, ou thc 1)orders 
«,f the Ited Sea, when 104 years ohl. 
One of his disciples, nalned Pacholnius, whom ])r Zimmerman 
considered to be incolnparal,ly lnore sensil)le and a far greater man 
than his toaster, founded the first regular cbdster about :-]25. This 
was at Tabenlm, a village on an island of the Nile. He had only 
fourteen nlonks under hiln at that place, but before he died there 
were many thousands living under his rule. They had to work at 
"«arious kinds of handicrafts, tbe principal of which was the making 
of mats. He also founded a nunnery at Tabenna, and those who 
ente»d it were required to cut off their hair and cover their faces 
with the sacred veil. The rage for the monastic life became so oTeat 
that in Egg-l,t alone in 346the year of the death of l'achomius-- 
ne, fewer than 76,000 men and 27,000 women are said to have 
embraced it. "All the girls in the world," says Zimmerman, 
" wholn stupidity, superstition, and inhuman nmdness have locked 
up in cloisters, that they may there al,andon and despise the world, 
do violence to nature, stifle th«ir best affections: and bave their 
most innocent and sweetest emotions condemned by a wrinkled 
domina--all these poor and pious lambs lead this lire of constant 
martyrdom only for a whiln of the ga-eat Pachomius." 
How various have been the means adopted by human beings to 
wean themselves from this world in the hope of gaining everlasting 
felicity ! :Not content to live in seclusion far away from their fellow- 
creatures; not contellt with emaciating their bodies by privations, 
or lacerating them 1,y self-inflicted tortures, some ancho'ites, both 
men and WOlaen, so debased themselves as to live in little holes in 
the earth, and, like the lower animals, to walk on all fours and eat 
-ass and herbs, in imitation of the beasts of the fie]d, and to scamper 


off to their holes on the approach of a stranger Some of the 
grazing anchorites were foolish enough to venture into districts 
where neither grass nor water was to be had, and they would bave 
died there had they not been rescued by travellers. 
When, in the fourth century, Athanasius took some Egyptian 
raonks to Rome--a city afterwards so much i,lentified with m,,nks 
and monkery--they were looked upon with feelings somewhat akin 
to conteml,t and disgust, in consequeuce of the uncç, uthness of thcir 
dress and unclealmeSS of their bodies. But these feelings soou gave 
1,lace to those of respect and reverence. The shirts of goats' hair 
were now looked npon as a token of sanctity, and the want of clean- 
liness on the part of the monks as a sign of hulnility. Ail classes 
applauded them. They became respected by noble ladies, who were 
drawn to them by a strange fascination: reverenccd by men who 
were venerable in years and great in lcarning; and praised by tho 
populace for the mystery that surrounded them. 
Western mOlmchism holds the saine relationship to St P, enedict 
as that of the East did to St Anthony. Benedict was born iii 
Umbria, Italy, in 480. When quite a youth he was sent to be 
educated in Rome, but so dissatisfied was he with the state of 
society there that at the age of fourteen he went to Sabiaco, to 
spend a spiritual life in solitude. Here in a cave--afterwards 
called the Holy trotto--he passed three years, and his faine having 
spread abroad, multitudes came to his retreat. He was appointed 
abbot of a neighbouring monastery, which, however, he soon left, 
the loose morals of the monks being grievous to a mind so pure as 
his. After founding twelve cloisters near that place, he founded his 
famous monastery on Monte Cassino, near Naples, and there in 515 
he drew up his .Regula Monachoru»G which ultimately became the 
common rule of nearly ail Western monachism. The order increased 
rapidly, and the Benedictines bave with truth been regarded as the 
chier agents in the spread of Christianity, civilisation, and learning 
in this part of the worl& It is said that the Benedictines had at 
one time as many as 37,000 monasteries. The rule of St Benedict 
was based on the principles of obedience and industry. The periods 


of meditation and religious service, as well as those of secular em- 
1,1oymênt, wt«'e strictly regulated, and when llot otherwise employed 
t]le ronks passed no inconsiderable portion of their time in the 
scriptorim, copying manuscril»tS for the library, and in consequence 
«,f this many of the literary 'emaius of antiquity have been pre- 
Sevcli ceutm-ies later, vllen the older ordr of monks had 
I,ocome rich and worldly, St Francis of Assisi, one of the most 
l'markahle iBell of his age, and who, according to l)ean Mih,mn, 
was the most I,lamclêss and geutle of a]l thc saints, illstituted a 
further change in monachis, by folllldillg ail order of friars which 
I,ore his lmme. The tw,» .great eharacteristics of this order were 
1,overty and humility. He and his followcrs were to bave no pro- 
perty, individually or collcctively ; and to fulfil literally the 1,recepts 
of the (;reat Teac],er, they were to go fort]l to the world without 
scrip, or purse, and preach the gospel to every creature. 
The twelfth centuly was one of great importallce to Scotland. 
Great social, political, and religious reforms were carried out, and 
one of the most i,,pol'tant factors in this work was the founding of 
Ienedictine aud othêr monasteries. These supp|anted the establish- 
ments of the old ['ul,lee «lcrgy--the pi«,neers of Christianity in the 
country--nany of whom had now lapsed fl'olll their rule, and had 
hot Oli]y married, |,ut had appropriated the possessions ,,f the Church 
te_, their own familles. T|le i¢êformêd Church could reck«,n among its 
members llOt O11])" lll,'ll of lêarning, |,ut also architects, sculptors, 
painters, all«l «,ther ski|lcd artificers. Iii architectural beauty and 
gorgeousness of furnishing, their churches f,'tr excelled the castles of 
the barons or the palaces of t]le king. Even now, on looking on 
their ruins, hoary ith age, one cannot but wonder at the genius 
that conceived the, alld the ski]l of the cunning hands that 
fashic)ned them. The conlm«,ll people of those ea-ly times, who 
dwelt in |mini,le houses built of wood, or in mud hovels, must have 
been spellboul,d on entering those splendid churches; and the 
haughty but unlettered bar«»ns could hot but compare the refine- 
ment of the ecclesiastics with the rude manners of their own courts 



Tl,e chief uonasteries were abbeys and priories. They Wcle 1,1aces 
of considerable extent and surrouuded by high walls. 13esides the 
church, with its vestry and sacristy, there were the conventual 
buihlings, including the chapter-house, the refectory with kitchen, 
brewhouse, bakehouse, and various stores; a hospitium or guest 
hall, the library, scril,torim,, and treasury. These were generally 
011 the q'ound flo-r, and ab¢,ve were the d,_,rmitories and the 
infirmary. In tl,e centre was the eloister court with its alleys, 
and a passage--or slype, as it was ealled--lêd to the cemetery 
close by. Therê were oh'ieers over the various departments. In 
abbeys the abbot was, of course, the head, with the 1,rior and sub- 
l»ri«r: the ah»oner, who distributed tl,e altos, whieh, by ancient 
GttllOll ]aw, at,lounted t«J a tenth of the whole incon,e off the estab- 
lishment; the sacristan, who looked after the vestments; the 
cêllarer, wh,, besicles attending to the stores, sometimes acted as 
casl,ier; the toaster ,,f the novices, &c. Their religious services 
were perfonned seven times a ,la)-, c,mmeneing at an early h,ur, 
and the remainder ,f theh" time was devoted to useful work. The 
churchmen held the highest ottices in the state, and as a rule werc 
more loyal than the n,bles. Not o,ly did they give their services 
it civil aflb.irs, but when duty called they hesitated hot to follow 
their sovereign to the fiel& We kn,,w how tl,e abbot of Inchafli-ay 
encouraged the Scottish army at Iannockburn, and how the arch- 
bishop of St Andrews and others of the higher clergy fell with their 
king at Flodden. 
The monasteries were generally richly endowed, hot o,ly witl, 
the teinds or tithes of parishes, called the spirituality, but also with 
large territories, called the temporality. The land owned by the 
clergy was the best cultivated in the ki,gdom. *n everv barony 
was a grange, generally mauaged by a la)" 1,rother, and the work 
was d,me by the ehurch vassals, who were of several grades. These 
were the serfs, wh,» could be transferred with the soil on which tht.y 
wrought; the cottars, each of whom had a piece of land al,mg with 
his cottage; the hnsbandmen, who lived on their own farm stead- 
ings; also those wl,o held their land by charter and seisin: and 


above thcm again were the great vassals, who held a position only 
inferior to that of the freeholders of the Crown. Wheat, oats, and 
barley were grown on the lower grounds, and the pasture land 
atlbrded an abundant supply of hay. The rearing of sheep also 
engaged the attention of the churchmen, and the wool from their 
large and numerous flocks added considerably to the revenues of 
their establishments. They had heir mills, orchards, salmon-iishings, 
salt-pans, and town houses; in short, everything that could give 
wealth and influence. Such was the development of monachism. 
From a small beginning it became a ,q'eat power. The moasteries 
in their best days were the centres of religious light and learning, the 
great civilising agents, the promoters of arts and sciences, and to 
their last they wcre the repositories of works of inestimable value. 
Their chartularies throw much light on the early history of our 
country, but, unfortmmtely, many of them have been lost. 
Jcdburgh Abbey, like all the others, was of considerable extent. 
It hcld all the groun,1 south of the royal burgh, ]»etween the head 
o[ Abbey ('lose and the foot of (_'anongate to the river. The con- 
vcntual buihlings occupied the space between the Abbey (2hurch and 
tbe river. What is still known as the Abbey 5iill was the mill of 
thc c«mvent, and it possessed other mills besidcs. Between Lady's 
Yards aml the abbey buildings "«'as the original burying gq'ouud 
«,f the monastcry--afterwards callcd the leigh kirkyardthrough 
whieh thc 1,ublie road now runs. The prineil,al entranee to the 
abbey was by thc Abbey (_'lose, and this was defended by Dabie's 
T,wer. The entranee by the present ehurehyard was defended by 
a tower near to the south corner of the market 1,lace, and a third 
towcr defcnded the entranee by Dean's Close. The extent of this 
ground was hot greatly less than that oecupied ],y the burgh. 
l;esides, ahnost close by, the canons had their in,portant barony of 
Ulston, t, say nothing of the numerous other properties elsewhere. 
It will now be our purpose to gdve, as far as possible, an aeeount of 
this institution from its fise to its dissolution, and of subsequent 
events relating thereto. 


"Where in ages dira the sacred hymn 
Was chaunted holilie. » 

A LITTLE before the middle of the ninth century, while the lordçr 
districts still formed par of the ancient kingd«,m of ç'umbia, the 
two Gedworths, and all that belonged to them, were, we are told by 
Simeon of Durha,, gifted to the see ¢»f Lindisfarne by Ecgq'ed, who 
was bishop of that diocese from 8:-0 till 845. )ne of the ;ed- 
worths is uow rel,resented by .[edburgh, a royal burgh pleasantly 
situated on the left bank of the Jed, two toiles al»ove its junctiou 
with the Teviot. The other is represented only by a modern far,l 
teading and a few gq'assy mounds of an ancient burying ground 
some four mlles further up the valley, where n,» sound is now heard 
save the voice of the peasaut, the ril,pling of the river, or the cooing 
of the cushat. 
In the O»'igia«s P(_.rochiales eighty-two ways of spellig the 
naine are given, and even that list does hot exhaust ail the known 
forlnS. (2halmers and others have thought that ;edworth means 
the hamlet or village on the Jed ; while For&m, whç» calls the towu 
Jedwood, was of opinion that it g«»t its naine from the wood or forcst 
,»n the Jed. The editor of the work refelaed to says that perhaps 
the oldest form of the name--Geddewerde--,my suggest another 
derivation. The Itev. Thomas Somerville, D.1)., who wrote the 
Jedburgh portion of the old S!atisti«al A«co«n! of ,s_;'otlaad, .says tha 
the naine is said to be derived from the Gadeni, a Bl'itish tribe which 
anciently inhabited the whole tract of country that lies between 
Xorthumberland and the river Teviot. It was, perhaps, he adds, 
the capital city bel,»nging to the tribe, and hence obtained the naine 


of Gadburgh or JedbuI'gh. The modern spelling does hOt appear, 8o 
far as we are aware, till the fifteenth century, although Dr Somer- 
ville says that "in a eharter granted by William the Lion of 
Scotland to tbe abbot and monks of Jedbm\gh in the year 1165, 
thc naine Jcdworth and Jedburgh are pr,gmiscuously used." A copy 
«,If the clmrter alluded tois given towards thc end of this book, and a 
refcrence toit will show how far the rev. doctor is correct. Similar 
statements are ruade in ,'Scott's 13o'dcc .4ntioEuities in almost the 
8alll words. 
There tan be little doubt that a church existed here in Ecga'ed's 
time. t'halmers in his Caled:,ni«, Vol. II., p. 132, says that Ecgred 
1,uilt a church for Iris village of l}ld tedworth, and on page 163 
he states that "amid the darkuess which preceded the dawn of 
record a manor was hdd out lower down the Jed by one of the 
Èarls of N,rthumbcrland, aml there he built a castle, a church, and 
a mill, which all distinctly alq»ear in the charters of ]avid l." 
According to l)mpster's lz;'cl,'siastical Hi.tvrp--a work, however, 
upon which too much reliance should hot be placeda monastic 
institution flourished at Jedburgh at the end of the tenth century, 
and one of the SUl,eriors, named Kennoeh, was afterwards regarded 
as a saint, leml,ster says that this holy man, by virtue of his un- 
ceasing prayel'S and entreaties, prevailed upou the kings of Scotland 
and England, when their minds were strongly inclined 'or war, to 
maintail, 1,eace for a pcriod of ten years! We catmot know to a 
ccrtait.y wl,at kind of structure the earliest church at Jedburgh 
was, but in all prohability it was built of wood and covered with reeds, 
that being the u.sual charaeter of churehes in this country at that 
period. The only incident we know in connection with itis re- 
cordcd ly Simcon «»f l)urham, who informs us tbat about the end of 
thc clcventh ce,tury, Eadulf, one of the assassins of lIishop Walcher, 
was buricd in the cburch of l leddewerde, and that his body was 
afterwards cast out from thenee as execrable by Turgot, the prior 
atd archdeaeon of lurham. 
About the middle of the tenth century, Cumbria, which up to 
this rime had been ruled by its owa kings, lost its independence 


when it became a tributary i,rincipality held of the King of the 
English by the heir «»f the King of the Scots.  Iht the accession 
of Alexander I. to the Scottish throne in 1107, his I,rother l lavid 
becarne l'rince of Cumbria, and he was the last who held the title. 
The Scotland over which Alexan«ler ruled was north of the firths 
Forth anti Clyde; and llavi, l's possessi,»ns in Cumbria, says Skene, 
consisted of the counties of Lanark, Ayr, Ienfrew, I tumfries, and 
l'eebles, and his rule extended also over Lothian and Teviot,_lale, in 
the counties of Berwick, Itoxburgh, and Selkirk. While yet a 
youth, David accompanied his sister Matilda to the English court 
«,u ber marriage with Henry I., which took place i 1100, and 
there he was trained in ail the feudal usages and othe" aecomplish- 
ments of the English nobility, tte married t|,e rich wi, low of the 
Earl of Northampton, an«l by this union he acquire«l that earldom, 
together with the houour of Huntington. In 9.q.-, the episc,pal 
seal had been removed from Lindisfarne to Durham, and in 1100 
this dioeese was stripped of l'arlisle and Teviotdale. "l'he tirsl 
publie act of l'rince David was to rest,,r, the fallen bish,_,l«'ic ,,f 
l;lasgow, whieh was committed to the tare of his «_,hl precept«,r 
John, called also Achaius, a prelate of great worth an,1 learning. 
It was through David's instrumentality that the southern part ,,f 
Tcvi«»t,_lale was anuexe«l to the sec of Ilasgow. He was, as we bave 
said, an acc«,mplished 1,rince, his residece al the courl ç,f Euglad 
having, according to William of Mahnesbury, an Eglish annalist, 

 The Sa.con Chronicle says that in !145 King Eadlnon,l harried over ail 
ç'umberlatd, and gave it up to Malcolm, King of Scots, on COldition that he 
should be his co-operato both on sea and land. It haz I.een usually azsumel, 
says kene in his Celtic Scotht«d, that this refers to the district in England 
called Curnberland alone, but the l,eople termed hy the sarne Cttro,ff«lc the 
Strathclyde Welsh had now COl-.e fo be known under the Latin appellation of 
"Cumbri," and their tera'itory as the ]and of the f'umbrialts, of which Cumber- 
Imd is simply the ,Saxon equivalent. The'e eau be little question, he a,lds, that 
the lenure by which the Cumbrian kingdom was held by 3lalcolm was one of 
fealty towards the Kig of Englaud, and this seems to be the first occasion on 
which this relation was established with any reality between them, so far at 
leasl as this grant was eoncelned. 



freed him from the rust of Scottish barbarity. In 1124, on the 
death of his brother Alexander, he succeeded to the Scottish throne 
as David I., and proved himself in every way worthy of his high 
position. The Church had never a better friend nor a more liberal 


I't:EVIOUS to his accession to the throne David had done much to 
carry on the reform of the Church which had been commenccd 
by his father, Malcolm Canmore, and his saintly nother, (ueen 
Margaret. About l118, by the advice of his ol,l friend, John 
Achaius, he established at ,ledburgh a body ,ff Canons Regular, who 
followed the rule of St Augustine, and who were brought from the 
abbey of St (Juentin, at l;eauvais, in France. These canons, who 
difihred from monks only in naine, wore a long black cassock, with 
a white linen rochet over it, and a black open cope, with a square 
black cap opcn, instead of a cowl, ad they alhwed theh" beards to 
grow. Lynwood says that some can[-ms wore boots, like monks, 
and some shoes, like seculars. The Cauons Rcgular were sometimes 
called Black ('anons, from the colore" of their dress. 
The establishment, it seems, was at first a priory, though Wynton 
takes no notice of this, but calls it an abbey : 
"A thousand ad a hundyre zhere, 
And awchtene to rekyne clere, 
Gedward and Kelsowe Abbayis twa, 
Or Davy was king he founded tha. » 
Fordun states that the monastery was founded in 1147. The t-uth 
appears to be that at the first-mentioncd date a l,riory wts built, 
and that at about the latter date it was raised to the dignity of an 
abbey. Sir James Dalrymple, who says that he had seen "a copy 
of the charter of foundation by ]avid," adds, "All that I can sa)" of 
this abbacy is that it is probable if was anciently a religious bouse 
or monastery, and some rime in the possession of the (_'hurch of 
Durham, and so more of the nature of a Dunelmian than Culdeau 
monastery. I was governed ai firs by a prior. I hink the priol')" 



has been ehanged to an abbacy about the end of the reign of King 
lavid." David died in 1153. In 1139, one Daniel was styled 
" l'rior «le ed,lwrda;" and Osbert, who was also called pl'ior in 
11 50, is alluded t» in charters of Maleolm IV. as ablot of ;ed- 
worth. The death of Osbert, which took place in 117, is noticed 
in the Mel,'ose Uh'oM,'lc, where he is styled "primus abbas de 
We think that the extcnt ,,f the church of the priory may with 
s,,me ertainy 1,e aseertained by an examination of the present 
ruins. Taking the Early Nn'man work for ,ur gttide, we would say 
that it consiste,1 ,t' a choir of two l_,ays in lcngth and three storeys 
in height, having an al,si,lai termination towards the east; a chapel 
,m each side of the choir, and two transepts, with a tower over the 
interse('çi, m. At this early l,,riod the choir or (.hancel was generally 
,mly al,out ,,ne s, lual'e i length, and Nmman towers seldom rose 
m-re than a square ,1,,ve Lhe ,ther wall-hea, ls. Thm'e is no indi- 
cation of a nave having beett built aç this l,eriod. I was quite a 
cust,miary thing for on13" a portion of the more important ehurches 
to le ereeted and fitted up for wovship befure the other l,arçs werv 
emmneneed; and in a few instances iit this eountl-ysueh as 
t2ollegiate l'huleh at llolin, and the Çhurch of tire ]]oly Trinity, 
Edinlmrghthe buihlings were never compleed. The apse and 
Nol'man clerestory w,mld be removed when the ehaneel was abouç 
to be enlarged, shorLly after he erection of the nave, o which 
refel-nee is ma,le a ]ittle further on. & sma]l portion of 
,rigin,1 elerestorv wall, with pieces of two string-eourses, and a frag- 
ment t»f eorbelling, may still be seen in a portion of t]le old wall at 
the north-easb corner of the tower. 
In the earlv work the lower ardtes, whieh are squtue-edged, are 
very peeuliar, springing as they d, n,; from capials but from 
cmbels in the si,les of the round pillars; and hence it bas been 
suggesed that those arehes were an afçer-thought, and iuserted 
after the eomp]etion o çhe zig-zag moulded arehes above. 
regard, at leas, o some of the arehes there are indieat.ions that 
wvuld supp,»r this idea, notably in that to the right aç the entranee 


[e   /hClr[h l ] [  "'l II IS]  COl Z'd. 



to the north transept, where it is quite evident that the pillars haro. 
been ciit for the insertion of the corbels and arch mouldings. A 
similar plan was followed Iy Al»bot Thomas Cranst,m more tban 
three eenturies afterwards, when the east areh c,f the s«,uth aish. 
the nave was built. ,V]mn he rebuilt the great south-west pier, 
provision was ruade for the SUl,port of one end of the areh, but the 
Norman pillar opposite had to Ie eut into so that a eorbcl migbt 
be inserted to sui,port the other end. An arlangclncnt s«,mewbat 
similar is foimd in Crist Chureh Cthedral, Oxf-rd, and also at 
l[onlse3-, in Halnpshirc. The arehes, when seen fr[»m the int,.rieur 
of the choir, apl,ear as if of a singlc ordcr, but t[wards the aish:s 
they are triply reeessed. Those in the triforium are subdivi«led. 
The original subdividing arehes, with roumled voussoirs, are seen in 
one of the bays on the south side, and are semieireular in f,_,rm, 
while those on the m)rth side bave been rcplaeed by pointed oto.s, 
and the putting in of additi[,nal shafts bas further ehanged the 
eharaeter and lnal-red the simplieity of the erly style. These 
alterations seem to bave 1,een ruade so as to give support to the 
great north-east pier of the t,-,wer. 
The original work ean Ie easily distinguished by its heavy 
roimd pillars and semieireular arehes. S,mm of the arehes are 
plain and square-edged, Mile in others the S«lUal'e edge has given 
place to the I,wtell lllOllldillg or tO the zig-zag OIllalnent. The 
bases «_,f the pillars are p|ain, with a Slnall chamfer at the upper 
edge, and the eapitals are eithçr eushi«m-shaped or siml,ly notehed 
down towards the neek-lnould. A capital, with stifl; rudely-fi»rmed 
volutes--apparently ail atteml,t to imitate the Ionie--may be seen 
supporting a snlall arch in the south transept, where the stair 
aseends to the tower. The abaeus is always square, vith a holhw 
ehamfer at the upl,er edge, and some of the hood-lnoulds and string- 
courses partake nlueh of the saine eharaeter. The other mouldings 
are mostly round, like the bowtell--or, as it is sometilnes ealled, 
the Nornmn edge roll--along with shallow hollows. None of the 
windows of this early period remain, though the jamh of one of 
them is seen lmilt up in the east wall (,f the south ehapel, and the 



jambs of two others are seen on the remaining fragment of the east 
wall of the north chapel. The spring of the arch of the lowest of 
these still exists. Norman windows were but a subordinate feature 
in the buildings. It may be mentioned that the strength of the 
massive round 1,iers is more al,parent than real, as some of them 
at lcast--those of the tower--eonsist of an outer course of ashlar 
and a core of loose material that had never been prol,erly gTouted. 
orne towers of the Norman peïiod in England bave giveu way 
in consequence of thcir having heen built in this manner, and iu 
Jedburgh it bas beeu round necessary ta shore up the Norman 
piers of the tower to prevent a collapse. The roofs of the choir 
Chal,els w,re of stone, and were intersected 1,y groin rihs, but the 
larger spaces were eovered with wood. Thê ehurch was dedieated 
te, the Virgin 3l,qry. 


Faot the foundati«,n cf the first church to tho complet/on of /he 
work above descrilJed a period of three hundred years had clapsed, 
and though tho history of that period i. very obscure, it is certain 
that during that time important changes had taken place in this 
district. An independent kingdom, long ruled by its own kings, 
had disappeared, and its territory, which was of considerable extent, 
had been taken by two powerful neighbours. The boundarics 
lJetween Scotland and England, something like what they are at 
present, had been defined, and strong cales had bcen erected to 
defend them. -)ne of these was at Jedburgh. A more learnc,1 
priesthood had taken the place of thc earlier teachers of Christianity. 
Thc Church itself was receiving more marks of royal favour, and a 
hrighter era seemed apl»roaching. The newly-established body of 
canons at Jedburgh had their house richly endowed by the saintly 
lavid, who frequently resided in the castle, 1,,th before and after 
his accession to the throne. These gifts were confirmed by his son, 
l'rince Henry, and were added to by 3Ialc«,lm IV., William the 
Lion, Robert I., and other liberal donors. 
It is reasonable to suppose that soon after tbis rcligious estal» 
lishment was raised to the higher position of an abbey, the church 
wonld receive important additions, as became its difity. It is 
extremely probable, therefore, that tbe whole of the nave and thc 
pointed part of the choir would be built between 1150 and 1230, 
so that at the time of the marriage of Alexander III., which took 
place here in 1285, the chlrrch of Jedburgh Abbey would be one of 
the finest buildings in the country. The style of the architecture 
of these portions agrees witb the pe'iod mentioned, aflbrding exqui- 


site examples of the transition between Norman and Early English. 
In the nave the transition is shown in a very marked degree. There 
arc on each side three tiers of pillars and arches, possessing a graee 
an,1 lightness, and a beanty of general outline, much and deservedly 
a, lmired. Tlle basement storey consists of clustered 1,illars which 
SUl-»p«,rt deel,ly-moulded pointed arehes; in the triforimn are semi- 
«,ilcular arches subdivided by pointed ones; while the clerestory is 
a dt.t:tched arcade of thirty-six arches, also pointed, the wall behiad 
ov«:'y alternate two being l,ierced for windows. In the lower storeys 
the abacus, with only one exception, is square, as in ail the ,,1,1er 
w,rk, but iii the clerest,y the square e«lges are eut off, indicating 
the desire that had set in for new forms. The except, i,m referred 
is in the triforium, near the centre, c,n the n,rth side. I e«,nsists 
«,f a series of rounds, like many in Early English work, while the 
capital in this partieular instance is hot uulike the capitals in the 
s«mth d,9orway, to whieh we shall afterwards refer. In the nave tbe 
other eal,itals , whieh are all more or less f«,liated, exhibit great 
diversity «f outline. This diversity may be aecounted for by the 
fact that in those early times the toaster mason, or arehitect, 1,1anned 
the general design, and left the workmen, who were all highly skilled, 
t,» work out the details. "The toast,us, who worked from the archi- 
teet's design," says a recent writer «,n the snbject, " were n«t the 
mere human machines that modern workmen too generally are, but 
m-n wh,,, in carrying ,,ut an idîa imparted to them, eouhl stamp ait 
individuality of their own ou every stone." A curious circumstance 
is, that while in the east part of the nave the subdividing arches are 
supported on four shafts, they are in the western p.qrt supported on 
two. The change tttkes place just about the middle. The tympanum 
is, in almost eve D- instance, piereed with a eireular opening (square, 
however, m the outside); the only exeeptionstwo quatrefoils and 
two elliptical or oval-shaped openings--being on the south side. 
These f, ur are further distinguished by being ornamented with small 
balls ail rc, und the openings. We may here incidentally mention, 
as showing the great diversity of workmattship visil,le throughout 
the building, that on eaeh side of the nave the westermost arch on 



the basement storey has two more mouldings than any of the others. 
The semicircular arch second from the tower on the north side 
seems never to have been subdivided, the sifSt mouldings being 
carried round unbroken. Why thcre shouhl bave been this dcparturc 
from the general plan it is not easy to deternfine, but as the place 
is opposite to the doorway through which the canons cntered the 
church, may hot this have been the position of the organ ? It is 
worthy of remark that, in the nave, not only are most of the archcs 
pointed, but the mouMings in the lower storeys, as also thc clustered 
pillars on the ground floor, are of the saine character. It will also 
be observed that the bases of the pillars here bave, like thc capitals, 
sumed a more advanced form than those in the choir. The mould- 
ings in the clerestory, however, are round, likc those in the choir. 
The original north aisle wall, of which only a fragment remains 
attached to the north transept, was pierced with a number of one- 
light windows. The jamb of one of them still remains, and they 
seela to have been similar to those at the sides of the west doorway. 
The south aisle was lighted with a kind of dormer windows which 
rose from ncar the top of the wall, and pierced the lay-to roof of 
the triforium. The sills of three of them are still seen. As 
dormers are understood not to have been known until about the 
furteenth century, this would suggest that the present was hot the 
original south aisle wall, but one built 1,robably at the time of the 
restoration of the conventual buildings some time after the year 
1300. There is evidently a break in the masonry near the old 
cloister doorway. A considerable portion of this wall, as well as 
that on the north side, has recently been restored. It is quite 
evident, from various considerations, that neither the nave nor the 
choir was ever covered with a stone-vaulted roof, as was the case in 
most of the later buildings. The groined vaults required to be 
poised with great skill, due regard being observed in the counter- 
acting of their outward thrust, and hence it was that the builders 
contented themselves with the vaulting of side aisles, and the like, 
until they gained more confidence, when they threw the vaults over 
places of much greater extent. The south transept had 1,een covered 


with the cylindrical ,,r barrel vaulting of stone, while g'roined vault- 
ing was thrown over the side aislés of the nave, as well as over the 
side chal,els of the choir. The cloister doorway (at the east end 
of the south aisle wall), which is of transition Norman character, 
l,OSSéSSeS features of interest of no ordilmry kind. tlillings, in his 
L;«conial and «clesiasti«al Aatiqtities f ,S'«otload, while referring to 
this, renmrks that few doorways, even of the fifteenth centUl T, are 
more lelicately, although they lnay ]»e more profusely, decorated ; 
and Sir I lilbert II. ,qcott says that this and thc great western door- 
way " are two of the most exquisité geins of architectural art in 
this island." The cloister doorway is less deeply recessed and less 
elaborate in detail than that in the western gable, but it possesses a 
chasteness of design and a délicacy of éxecution altogether unique. 
This doorway having become very much deeayed, the present Mar- 
q uess ff Lothian, thé noble proprietor of the al»bey, or,lered a facsimile 
of this beautiful piece of architectural art to be ruade, so that a 
faithful copy might be preservéd, and the work was, under the 
,lirection of lr I:obert t[owaml Anderson, architect, E,linburgh, 
eompleted in a manner that cannot fail to satisfy the most severe 
eritic. The new doorway has béen put up on the saine side of the 
lmve, to thé west of the old one. The mouldings generally are 
extremely bold and beautiful, and the foliated capitals, which are 
deeply undercut and show the foliage in high relief, are protected by 
a circular abacus. In the arch the first order inside the label 
lnouhl is entirely composed of the chevron ornament, while the 
second is covéréd with representations of human figures, grotesque 
animais, birds, and foliage, alternately arrange& There are repre- 
sentations of David slaying the bear, and of Samson tearing asunder 
the jaws of the lion. On the left side are two nondescript animais 
with human heads and bodies like birds, the tails terminating with 
foliage, as is common in work of the saine period. There are other 
nondcscript animais of diftrent forms. The third order consists of 
a pointed bowtell, and the fourth is a kind of zig-zag moulding, 
highly decorated with carved foliage. The western doorway, as has 
already been stated, is more deeply recessed and more elaborate in 

.rro,n a th,t .ratlt b) | 




detail than the «,ther, 1,ut it has also been much «h-faced. Like that 
already noticed, this doorway is semicircular in form, and the chicf 
mouldings are thc chain, the fish-bonc, and the chevron, with an 
al,undance of foliage, rel,resentations of human heads, and of 
oTotesque birds. In one of the holl«»w mouldings in the aa'ch 
the undeveloped dog-tooth and the star are alternately arrangcd; 
while clown the jambs the nail-head is seen in conjunction with the 
chevron. Hcre are the square al,acus and f«liated capitals, but the 
shafts which formerly supporte,1 these are now gone. Over the 
dorway are three cmpty niches, with tref,il arches. Arehes of 
this character are hot of frequent occurrence in work of so early a 
period. Above thesc is a large one-light window, 18 feet 10 iuches 
in height, and 5 feet 8 inchcs in breadth, with semicircular ,qrch, 
there being an attached arcade of a few pointed arehes on each side. 
Near the top of the gai)le is a beautiful St ('atherine's wheel ,»f a 
later period. At each side of the doorway is a one-light window, 
with semicircular arch. These windows have ,iginally had jamb 
shafts, but they, like six othcrs in the attaehed arcade alluded to, 
bave di.appeared. At the north-west corner of the gahle are two 
Norman buttresses, which, like all those in very early work, project 
little from the face of the wall, and hence they have sometimes been 
not inaccurately called "strip pilasters." 
Some bave thought that the lower part of this gable, with its 
Norman doorway, its zNorman windows, and its h*orman buttresses, 
must be older than the nave, and that therefore an earlier nave 
must have existed. Such, however, is an erroneous supposition. 
In the first place, in not a few instances the Norman doorway is 
round even in Early English buildings, as if the architects of that 
time were loath to leave what they could hot expect to improve; 
and, in the second place, the nave of Jedburgh Abbey, as we have 
already shown, is wholly of transition Norman character. It is no 
less ctrious than instructive to observe how gradually the one style 
runs into the other. Rickman, who did more, perhaps, than any 
other man for the classification of the various styles of Gothic 
architecture, says : "Ma-ny pure Norman works have pointed arches. 


The square abacus, however, may be taken as the best mark. The 
pointed arch, in its incipiênt state, exhibited a change of fonn only, 
whilst the accessories and dêtails remained the saine as before ; and 
although this change gradually led to the early pointed style in its 
l,ure state, with mouldings and features altogether distinct from 
those of the NOlzuan, and to the general disuse, in the thirteenth 
ccntury, of thê semicircular arch, it was for a while so intermixed 
as, from its first appearance to the close of the twelfth century, to 
constitute that state of transition called the semi-.Norman." Had 
there been an earlier nave in Jedburgh Abbey some portion of it 
would doui,tless have remained. The early builders were hot 
strictly careful as to uniformity, and hence we final that, when a 
chapel or aisle was partially destroyed, it was rebuilt, hot in its 
,,riginal style, but. in that 1,revalent at the time ,-,f the restoration ; 
and the new parts are easilv discernible by their diflrent character. 
Itis also worthy of remark that the fragment of the original side 
aisle wall of the nave adjoining the north transept has a base 
simflar to that of the west gable. The whole of the base and the 
lower part of the wall were restored in 18î6. ..nother considera- 
tion which bears on the 1,robability of there haàg been no earlier 
nave is that, froln the time of David I.--ir, deed, we nmy say from 
that of Malcohn the death of Alexander iii., there had 
been a 1,eriod of q'eat prosperity, such as Scotland had ne er belote 
witnessed; the arts of peace and industry flourished in a manner 
never bef,,re experieced. In .hç,rt, it was a time of building up 
rather than of throing down. 
The composition of the pointed part of the choir diflrs con- 
siderably from that of the nave, and seems in some respects a 
nearer approach to Early English. The clerestory, only part of 
which now remains, had consisted of a detached arcade, each alter- 
nate arch being larger than the others for the insertion of the 
windows. Under this, to the east of the side chapels, was another 
arcade of a similar kind, but the arches and lights were much 
larger; and under this again was an attached arcade. In the upper 
storey on each side are what are called stilted arches, the spring 


of the arch being considerably above the capital. This part of the 
building is, unfortunately, much dilapi,lated, bu sutficient remains 
to show its beautiful arrangement, an,1 to give somc idea to the 
initiated of its grand eflct when entire. S..mething like the saine 
arrangement wouhl, we doubt hot, be continued round the east en,l. 
On the north side some of the higher capitals are severely plain, 
while most of those on the south side are f,)liated. The windows 
in this part, which are all pointed lights, bave on the outside 
the round howtell nmul(ling rising to the top of the arches with,»ut 
ci break, and over this is a label mtulding. The windows, mould- 
ings, aad the upright chamfered buttresses which support the walls, 
partake largcly of the Early English charactcr; but some of the 
other details, such as the cal,itals ami al»acus, rcpresent ol, ler 


IESIDES attending to the internal aflhirs of their convent, the abbots 
had to attend to many other matters. In 1208 there was a final 
aeement ruade in the King's Court at Carlisle on the morrow of 
St Andrew, before Adam de Port and other Justices, between Duncan 
de Lasceles and ç'hristina, his wife, complainants, and Hugh, abbot 
of Geddeworthe, def,»rciant, regarding the advowson of the church 
of Bastencthwait. The recognizance of the last presentation was 
produced bctween them in court, viz., that the said complainants 
admitted the advowson of the church to be the right of the abbot 
and his church of (eddeworthe, by the gift of Waldef, son of Gos- 
patric, father of ç'hristina, to be hcld by the abbot and his successors 
and the church of Geddeworthe in ptu-e and perpetual altos; and 
the said abbot granted to Duncan and Christina, and their heirs, 
participation f,»r ever in all the benefits and prayers of the church 
of Geddeworthe (C(dend«r of Doctmenls th'lalDj to Scolland, Vol. I.). 
A dispute having occurred between the bi.ho 1, of Glasgow and 
the canons of Jedburgh regarding certain churches and other matters, 
the questions i dispute were referrcd to rive arbiters, who met in 
the church of Nisbet in 1220, and, after full deliberation, decided 
in favour of the bishop. The decision was to the efict that the 
abbot and canons were to obey the bishop, or his oflïcial, in ail 
canonical mattcrs; that the chat, lain of the church of Jedburgh was 
to yield fit obedietce to them when they should corne to perform 
cpiscopal offices in that church; that the abbot was, according to 
ancicnt custom, to attend in person at the festival of the dedication 
of the church of Glasgow, or, if prcvented by reasonable excuse, to 
send a suitable 1,rocurator; and that he should attend synod when 
summoned. It was resolved in regard to the church of Longnewton 

EVEqTS BETWEE  1220 AND 1285. 

that the vicarage should be a benefice of eight merks, or the altarages, 
with the lands and all other pertinénts, in the option of the 'icar 
when the charge should be vacant, he paying yearly hall a stone of 
wax in recognitio at the Feast of St .Iames ; that the residue should 
go to the use of the canons, and that until the charge should be 
vacant thc canons should be responsible to the extent of one-half 
fol' the eiJiscopal dues, and for the sustentation of the t, riest, whom 
they should prescrit to the 1,ishop or his otficial. It was ordaincd 
tha in this, as in other l,ari.hes, the canons were to have one acre 
of lad for storing their corn, in a prol,er place, saving only the 
messuage of the vicar. I was determined that the vicar of Hobkirk 
should have, in naine of vicarage, ten merks, or the whole altarage, 
with its lands and pertinents, and that as an acknowledgment he 
should pay to the canons half a stone of wax at the Feast of St 
James, and that the hole of the residue should go to the canons, 
saving the vight of Master Atla vidius. In regard to the church 
of Itule Abbatis (Abbotrule), it was ameed that its fruits shoultl 
belong to the vicar, who should l,ay to the canons yearly in recog- 
nition the sure of 5s. at the Feast of  .lames. The corn tithes of 
the church of H,,wnam wee to be given up for the use of the 
canotls, but the vicar was to get £10, or the wh,le ,,f the altarage, at 
his option, on his giving annually at the Feast of st .lames a stone 
of wax to the monastery, reserving the right of Master Hugh de 
l'ottcn, archdeacon of Glasgow. It was agreed that the taxation 
of the churches of Oxnam, Eckf,rd, and that of 5t Martin of Lidel 
should renmin as it had becn fixed bv the bishol;s charter 
t,da'y of Glasgow. ee Chalmers' C,h'donia, Vol. Il.). In 1237 
certain rights of the canons in Hovnam were disputed by the monks 
of Mclrose, but the dispute was brought to a clse on the canons 
allowing the monks' lands of Huneduue and I:aschawe, in the paish 
of Ht,wnam, to l_,e tithe-free, and ,ga'eeing to find a chaplain to l,r,y 
for the souls of William, the son of John of Hovnam, and Donancia, 
his wife, and ail the faithful departed, in whatever 1,lace the bishop 
of Glasgow shotdd appoint. 
On 2nd September 1255 King Alexander III. wrote to his 

O4 EVENTS BETWEEN 12'2.0 A..'qD 1285. 

father-in-law, Hem T III. of England, then at Sprouston, that at the 
instance of thê council of his own magnates, including the abbots 
of Jêdburgh and Kêlso, &c., he had removêd the bishops of Glasgow 
and Dunblalm and othêrs froln his council and their offices in 
consequence of their delnêrits; and that by the saine advice he 
had ordered others to his council, and to be regents of lais kingdom, 
and guardians of himself and his queen (Cal. of Doc. Rel. to S«ot.). 
Alêxander had succeedêd to the throne in 1249, when he was only 
eight yêars of age, and the tender age of the Scottish sovereign 
ênabled Henry to prosecute successfully for solne rime his schemes 
for obtaining control over the Scottish kingdoln. The Sl-,irited 
conduct of the youthful monarch, however, was hot long in con- 
vincing his wily relative that his anabitious designs would prove of 
little avail. On 9th ])ecember of that year Henry granted to the 
abbot of Jedburgh that till after the expiry of tbree years from the 
Feast of ,_'hristmas be and his "familiar men " should hot be dis- 
trainêd within the king's dominions fol" the trans'essions of another 
in which thêy were hot culpable, nor for any debt for which they 
wêre neither sureties nor 1,rincipals (ibid.). 
In the following year, King Alexander, by his envoys, the abbot 
of Jedburgh alll XVilliam de Hay, COlivened a parliament at ,qtirling, 
and asked Henry to send some of his "provident and disereet men" 
thereto. HenD', f,r reasons given, declined to send an)" to that 
l»«tl'liamelit, and asked that another should be held at a more con- 
veulent time and place (ibid.). 
A regency |mving been al,l,ointed which included only those of 
the English party, some uni, leasantness arose from an atteml»t to 
rttle ,cotland ],y the nominees of the English kilg. The Comyns 
and their ace,nl,lices di,1 their best to oppose them, and Bishc,p 
{,alnelllm, who had bêen removêd from his see, induced the l'ope to 

t Gameline vas eleeted bishop of St Andrews in 1£55, and eonseerated on 
St Stephen's Da 3" b.v he Pope. He was a man of good repute, but became 
disagreeable to the court because he would hot relax a soldier of the kiug 
whom he had excommunicated withott previots satisfaction. It is also related 
how this bishop was banished from the kins councillors beeause he would 

EVENTS BETWEEN 1220 AND 1285. -05 

excommunicate the couneillors of the youthful king. The ceremony 
was performed 1,y Clement, bishop of Dunblane, and thc abbots of 
Jedburgh and 5Ielrose, in the abbey of Cambuskenneth, and repeated 
in every church and chal,el in the kingdom, by bell, b,ok, and candle 
(Mclrose Chronicle). None 1,ut the most resolute could at that 
time brave the anathenla of t]le Curch of Rome, and few there 
were who would boldly exclaim-- 
«' Bell, book, and candle shall hot drive me back, 
When gold and silver becks me to corne on." 
It was a bold step this of the abbot of .lcdburgh, with his I,rothel 
«,f Melrose, to assist the bishop in excommunicating and accursing 
those councill«rs; te» give u l, thcir bodics and souls te» the devil: 
to curse thcm in all thcir relati«,nshil,s, whether civil «1' sacred; to 
ask Ilod to l,ut their names out of the II«ok of Lire, as t]ley (the 
priests) put out the candle, and to pray that as the candle was put 
crut of the sight of men, so might the souls of those wll, were 
anathematized be cast from the sight ,f I;od into the deepest 1,it 
of hcll. As a fit conclusion to all this the bell was rungas fu 
the dead. 
fh 22nd 5Iay 1265 King Henry wrote t ail bailiffs, &c., 
say that as thc abbot of Jedburgh and other envoys of the King 
Seotlund were on their way, he willed that t]ley eome to him at 
Hcreford, where he then was, and bn'anted them safe eonduet 
that Day of l'entecost till the quinzaine of the H,ly Trinity next 
(6'«I. of Doc. L','l. fo N'ot., Vol. I.). 
Between 1264-66, Hugh de Abernethy, viseount or sheriff of l[,x- 
burgh, gave in an aeeount, from whieh was deducted xix lb. vijs. jd., 
renlitted as surety of a certain man of t]le abbot of Jedworth for 
war done on the Border (Lœee«chcqter l;olls of S«otl««ml, Vol. i., p. 29). 
At the Cumberland assize, on 12th November 1266, inquiries 

hot give consent to their bad adçice, and because he would hot advance a 
sure of money for the purchase of the bishopric .... He went to Ilome 
pleaded his cause belote the Pope, and the Pe,pe ga'e sentence in his bel,ail 
(Keith's Catalog,ee of Scottish Bishops). 



were ruade as to who presented the last parson deceased to the 
church of Arturet, vacant, which Johauna de Estotevillc claimed 
against thc abbot of Jcdburgh. The abbot, by his attorney, said 
that the church was hOt vacant, but full, and that he and his con- 
vent had hcld it pro»rios usus for twcnty years past and more as 
their own l,atronage (Cal. of Doc. I,'cl. to Scot., Vol. l.). 
Thc abl_,ey possessed considcrabl lands in Northumbcrland, and 
it appears from the Item" of ll't-t»'l that the abbot had certain law 
1,1cas with William of lcllingham. At a court hcl,l at Wark, in 
Tyn,lalc, in the thirty-first ycar «,f thc rcign of .X_lexander, King of 
Scotland (1280), bcf,_,r Thomas ltand«M, Symon Fraser, l[ugh de 
l'ersby, and David Thorwahl, justiciars, there appeaed for the 
settlemcnt of mutual griewtnces the abbot of J:dburgh and William 
de tellingham, the f,»rmer complaining of thc conduct of William 
de ]ellingham--who al,pears to bave been the ro)'al forester in 
Tyn,]ale, holding two parts of the manor of l;llingham by service 
of the King of the ,";cots thr,ughout his whole f,Jrest of Tydale 
in the right of c,mm»n l,asturage, besides a certain place of his called 
Hcsleysi, le, and claiming £14 of damage; and the latter claiming 
that the abbot shouhl be ruade to return te him a certain cirograph 
charter which he lmd delivercd up t him fr inspection at the 
abbot's court at the Leye, and xvhich he had noyer returned, and 
claiming £20 f damages. The result was that William undcrtook, 
fir himseff and his heirs, t_» tel,air and maintain his ditches and 
hcdges (çfossis et hayes) of Heslyside, and granted to the abbt)t and 
Iris successors, an.1 their temmts Jf Evelingham, the right of common 
pasturage of Hesleyside. He also remitted and upgave all right 

 Cosmo Innes, in his Seothtnd it tac Middle A./es, states that after t|le death 
of Alexa.nder III., which took place in 128t3, J«,|m Cummin rendered his account 
as bailiff of the kings manor of Jedw«rtlt, which inc]uded " Item» for 9 
perches ,,f ditclt an,l hedge (.fo«se et Ira!le) constructed about l,,,th the wood and 
mead,ws of Jedworth, 116 6'1-» Ilmes says, "I thlnk I cannot be mistaken in 
translating these words ditc] and hedge; and if so, you have by far the earliest 
instance .,f such a fence on record." The reader will observe that the instance 
given above is several years earlier. 



and claire to the annual payment of thirteen bolls of meal and 4s. 
silver, and the pasturage of two mates with their following of two 
years, the ciroraphs between Nicholas, quondam abbot of Jedc- 
worthe, predecessor of the tben abbot, remaining, nevertheless, in 
full force. The abbot, on his side, ul,gave to William and his heirs 
the right of common pasturage which he had for forty mares with 
their follow]ng of two years in t',ellingham, Wardlaw, and Green- 
acres, without prejudice to the abbot's right of conmmn 1,asture i 
the said towns for forty cows and ther following of one year, 
accordng to the tenor of the chartcr of Alan, son of V,»ltnus, 
grandfather of the aforesaid William, drawn up in the church of 
St Mary of Jedeworth. 


WHE Alexander III. was married to .lolande, daughter of the 
I_'omt de Dreux, .Jedburg|l was chosen, on account of the beauty of 
the district, as thc place m,,st fitting f,,r the celebration of the 
nuptials. Thcre was rcjc, ieing throughout all Seotland on that 
,)eeasion, as the king was ,leservedly one of the most bel«ved 
lnOllarchs who had ever sat i.ipoll the throne. he day iii October 
1285, as the noonday sun sh,.,ne brightly on thé f,rêst trees, whieh 
had assumcd se,InC of the fainter tints of atltUlim, therê might bave 
been seeu approaching .!edburgh from the north a long train of 
horsemen, numberilg several hundreds, with l»almers fluttering in 
the gentle breeze. M,»st of these horsemen are clad in bright 
armour, partially hid by their loosely-worn riding eloaks, and 
the h,rses are riehly eaparisoned. In that train are the chier 
nobles of France and Seotland, besides knights and other persons 
,)f distinction. A few ladies are ara,mg them. The tallest horseman 
near the front is the king; the fairest of the ladies is the beautiful 
.Iolande. They are hourly expeeted in the burgh. The soldiers 
from the battlemênts of the eastle wateh their approaeh, and the 
can,ms are on the 1,)okout from the top of the abbey tower. The 
cavalcade has reachcd the northern port, and as the king appears 
within the gate lin is greeted with a hearty cheer, and the bells ring 
f,,rtl mcrry peals. Never belote was there sueh a sight on the 
Borders as when the nobles rode u I) the steep street on their 
l,raneing steeds to the eastle at the top of the town. The streets 
are thronged, and every pieee of vantage otmd is erowded vith 
.pêetators eager to witness this display of pomp and mafifieenee, 
and to get a glimpse of the youthN1 bride. Again and again is 


heard the ringing cheer; the gates of the castle are thrown open, 
and soon the gay cavalcade is within the walls. For a while there 
is no further sigm of the presence of royalty, but the town still pre- 
sents an Ulmsual aspect. People go to and fro with cyes ever and 
anon turned towards the castle. The abbey bell begins to peal, and 
now there issues from the castle a more sl,lèndid procession than had 
entered it but two hours ago. A few minutes more and the abbot 
is doing obeisance to his king at the door of the abbey church, and 
the grand procession moves slowly up the nave, with its long tiers of 
t.lustered 1,illars and graceful arches. A subdued light enters through 
the long lancet windows at the furthcr end of the chancel, and falls 
softly Oll the high altar. A few figures are nmving silently along 
the detached arcade above, and several are looking from the galleries 
over the choir chapels. The deep tones of the organ which have 
l»een resounding through the aisles die away; the r«yal bride and 
hridegroom stand hefore the altar, and the «tbbot proceeds with the 
nmrriage ceremony. The scene is an imposing one. Y«,nder, near 
the king, are the gq'eat oflicers of state, with robes and insignia 
alnazing splendour. The king himself wears a jewelled girdle and 
r«»bes of purple velvet, hooded with erlnine and embroidered with 
gold. Many of thc nobles are somewhat similarly attired; others 
are clad in mail. The ladies are dressed in the most costlv silks, 
profusely decorated. The head of the i,ride is graced with a g«,hlen 
circlet, set with pearls and precious stones. The abhot and other 
chureh dignitaries have d,mned their richest vestlnents, and the 
church itself has been gaily decorated for this auspicious occasion. 
But while we gaze with wonder and adnliration on so imposinz a 
spectacle, the interesting cerenmny is over, and the august assembly 
returns to the castle. 
A grand evening banquet was held in the great hall of the 
abbey, but the mirth and hilarity of the company were suddenly 
l_,rought to a close by the appearance of a spectre, which was looked 
upon as an evil omen, and after events tended rather to confirm than 
to remove the prevailing opinion. One version of the story, as ven 
by Fordun, is as follows :'" In the midst of the royal banquet a sort 


ç,f theatrical masque, which had been previously arranged, entered 
the hall, and proceeded through the middlc of it, between the parties 
,f gucsts that sat on cither side. First came a band of revcllers, 
l,laying up,n various musical instruments, and accompanicd with 
splcndid pageants; and aftcr them a part)" vho exhibitcd their skill 
and agility in a military dance, with a variety of m,,vements and 
gcsticu]ati«ns. The procession was c]oscd by an unexpected fiqu'c, 
whose mystcrious and singultr appearance startlcd the beho]ders, 
who wcre in doubt whether thcy sav« a human being or a phantom, 
5r, like a shad«w, it seemed to glide rather than walk. While the 
whole company gazed ,n this ill-omened visitor with increasing 
disgust, it suddenly vanished, leaving them impressed with a gloomy 
auxiety, which ill disposed them to renew the itterrupted sports 
and revelry." 
]Icywood, in his I[iera,'chie of the Blessed Atgels, while alluding 
to the saine evcnt, says : 
" In the raid revels, the first ominous night 
Of t]leir espousals, w|leti the mooti shone bright, 
With lighted tapers, the king and queen leading 
The eurious measures, lords and ladies treading 
The self-saine strains, the king looks baek by chance 
And spies a strange intruder fill the danee, 
Namely, a mere anatomy, quite bare, 
Itis naked limbs both without flesh and hair 
(As we deeipher Death), who stalks about, 
Keeping true measure till the danee be out.. 
The king with all the rest, affrighted stand, 
The spectre vanished, and then strict eommand 
Was given to break up revels ; eaeh 'gan fear 
The other, and presage disaster near." 
Thus ended the rejoieings whieh had been eommeneed with so 
mueh joy and pageantry, and the sudden death of the king, whieh 
oeeurred shortly afterwards, more than fulfilled the worst fears whieh 
had arisen in eonsequenee of the appearanee of the ill-omened visitor. 
Alexander's death proved most disastrous to Seotland. Immediately 
after eame the disputed succession, whieh was followed elosely by 


the War of Illdcpcndcnce, and the lmti,_,nal 1,r«»sl,el'ity with which 
Scotland had been so long blessed was f»l" a cmsidcl'al,le time com- 
pletcly ehceked-- 
"So swift trod sr, rrow on th,. heels «,f joy." 
In the following lines, one of thc oldest fragments r,f Seottih 
poetry, 1,reserved in ylltOllS .lrot«[c, l'efcrenee is malle to thc 
altel¢.d condition of Scotland aftcr the death of Alexandcr :-- 
" Quhen Alysander oure kyng was dede 
That Scotland held in luwe and lé 
Away wes s«»ns of aie and brede, 
Of wyne and wax, of gamyn and glé ; 
Onre gold wes chang)'d ito lede, 
Cryst borne into virgynite, 
Succour Scotland and remede, 
That stad is in perplexyte." 
Fodun, alluding to Alexander III., says that in his time " the 
CI,urch flourished, its luinisters Wele treated with rcverence, vice 
was openly diseouraged, eunning and treaehery werc traml,lcd tmder 
f,)ot, injury eeased, and the reign of virtue, truth, and justice was 
lnaintained throughout the land." 


ALEXAXDER having lcft no family of his OWII, thc rival claires of 
l:ruce and Bali,,1 to the inheritance of the throne ere set up, and 
when th«, ,";cottish l'arliamett had agreed to refcr the matter to the 
arl,itration of Edward I. of Egland, the abbot of Jedburgh was 
«cm of three commissioners sent hy l'arliament to the English king. 
An earlv chronicler 1,laces this embassy iii 1:286, but Tytler thinks 
it might be alittle later. 
A meeting of the Estates of the realm having been held in 1284 
t, settle the succession, in the event of the king having no direct 
heir, a resolution was eonm to, by Alexandcr's request, that 5iargaret 
of Xorway, his anddaughter, should be recognised as heir to the 
crown. After the king's untinmly death, Margaret was accordingly 
chosen, and E, lward lost no time in projeeting a marriage between 
his own son, the l'rince of Wales, and the " Maid of Xorway." The 
c)untry was 1,1eased with the 1,r«,l,osal, and in 1289 a meeting of 
the Estates of 8eotland was held at I;righam, at which the abbot of 
Jt.,lburgh was present, when a letter was ,lrawn up and sent to 
Edward approving of the marriage. A similar letter was sent to 
Eric, King of Norway. In the following year the abbot attended 
another meeting of the Etates at the saine place, when a treaty was 
entered into with six plenipotentiaries from England in regard to 
the marrer. H,wever, the sudden death of the young queenshe 
was only in the eighth year of ber age--frustrated the scheme. 
The disputed succession, which resulted in Baliol being awarded the 
crown by Eward I., who now openly declared himself to be Lord 
Paramount «,f Scotland, is too well known to ail readers of Scottish 


history to require repetition here. For some rime afterwards there 
seems to have been reason to fcar that the English king would, as 
he threatened, bring undcr lfis dominion the rcalm of Scotland 
the saine way as ho had subdued the kingdom of Wales. On the 
6th of July 1292--the year in which he placed P, aliol on the 
Scottish throne--K[ng Edward directed William Çomyn, Keeper 
Selkirk Forest, to send in his naine six fat bucks to the abbot 
Jedburgh (Rotuli Scot-hr); and in December of the saine year thc 
abbot was, with other dignitaries, present at Newcastle whcn lali,,1 
acknowledged Edward to bc his feudal supcrior, and did homage to 
him as Lord l'aramount. 
Within the diocese of Durham, in the saine year, the followhg 
sums, am«,ng others, were taxed in order to give thc tithcs to 
Edward :--Abbot of .lcdworth, 2:16; abbot of Kelso, in Iolkeol,es, 
£7, ls. 4d. ; and abbots of Melrose and Thohq,es, £8, 19s. (Hodge- 
son's I[istoy of _hvrH«umberland, Part III., Vol. II., p. 354). 
At this early period it was hot unusual for valuable documents 
to be dcposited in monasteries for thch • safc kecping, and it 
teresting to notc that, among othcr parchments round in Edinburgh 
Castle in 1292, and ordered by Edward I. to be dcfivered to King 
Jçhn Bali,»l, was one entitled "A Letter of William de Fentone, 
Andrew «le Iosco, and David de (;raham, acknowledging receil,t 
from Mastcr William Wyscard, archdcacon of St Andrews and 
chancell«»r to the king, of certain documents deposited in the abbey 
of Geddeworth by umquhile John P, iset, the son of Sir Jç, hn ]iset" 
(Acts of the S«ottish Parlia»ent, Vol. I.). 
In the extraets ri'oto the aeeount of the keeper of the royal 
wardrt,be there is an entry, of date 2nd N'ovember 1295, to the 
5»llowing effeet : "eexix 1. vjs. iij '" from the abbot of Geddeworth 
of the penee of the papal tenth eolleeted in the dioeese of Glasgow, 
and deposited in the aforesaid abbey" (Hist. Doe. l:el. to Seot., Vol. II.). 
The principal fortresses in Seotland having in 1291 bêen plaeed 
in Edward's hand by his own request, so that he might be the better 
able to give effeet to his deeision in respect to the rival claires, these 
were restored when ,lohn P, ali,1 was plaêed on the throne in the 


following year. In 1295, however, Edward demanded, as a pledgc 
«,f security, that the cots shuld lire at 1)eace with Englund hilc 
he was at war with France, that the towns and castles of ]Icrwick, 
loxburgh, and Jedburgh should be under English contr,,1. ]aliol, 
ha'ing by this rime ft, uud out lhat his sovereignty was merely 
n[»minal, and that the wily Edward wished simply to use him 
as a tool, refuse,1 to c[»mply with the denmnd. ]te renounced his 
nllcgiance, and entred i,to a treaty with France that saine year, 
and this lcd to a war between England and Scotland which resulted 
in the overthrow ,ff ]uliol, and the resignation of his kingdom 
in July 1296 int,: the hands of Edward, who then attempted to 
gcvern in his own al)solute right. 
On 2îth Al, fil 1296 a writ was issue,1 ordering that no Seots- 
man rmain on the lands of Seotsmen in England, and among these 
ure menti,,ne,1 the lan,_ls bel,,nng to the abbey of Jedburgh (ibid.). 
In August of the saine year the abbots of Jedburgh, hIelrose, and 
Kelso swore fealty to Edward at ]3erwiek, after whieh they had 
restored to them their proprties, whieh had beeu forfeited. These 
writs were addressed to the sherifl:s of seven eounties in Seotland, 
and to the sheriffs of Northumberland and çumberland. At this 
time all Seotltn,1 may be said to have been under the power of the 
English king. In the saine year Edward requested by letter that 
Thomas de t;yrdelye, clerk, who had been reeently mutilated by the 
Scots in N,rthumberland, should be admitted into the abbey of 
,ledlmrgh for life. Morton suggests, and hot without reason, that 
he had been sent as a spy upon the canons. In June of the following 
year Edward issued a writ to the sheriff of Northumberland for 
levying del,ts eonneeted with Seotland, and for reeovering arrears 
drawn by certain ecelesiastical bouses due to the English exchequer, 
and among others the abbot of Jedburgh was due viijl, for arrears 
of the moiety granted to the king by the clergy (ibid.). 
In 1297 Edward instructed Brian Fitz-Allan, Governor of Seot- 
land, that when ny ecelesiastical vacancy should oecur of no higher 
value than forty nerks yearly he should present it to some member 
of the Chureh of England; but Edward reserved the higher oiïiees 


for his own presentation, and we know that he had already presented 
Wflliam de Jarum to the olfiee of abbot of Jedburgh (see Superiors 
of the Abbey). Ail this, of course, was to seeure more influence to 
England. The abbot and eonvent, along with Sir Ire de Aldeburge, 
oftred, in 1298, to undrtake the eustody and repair of the eastle 
of Jedburgh, as they understood that the Constal,le had told the 
king that he eould not keep it without having the f,)rest of Jcdburgh. 
The abbot and Sir Ire petitioned the king to the efhct that as he 
had awarded them by word of mouth at Ioxhurgh that the 5»rest 
should continue in their keeping, who were farmers of their 
the king, and as the Constable had disturbed them in the saine, they 
hoped he would pr«wide a remedy (In Publie Record [-)ffiee, and 
printed in I[ist. D«c. I:,el. to S«ot., Vol. I I.). 
The eruelty with whieh Edward enf«reed his unjust claire was 
so great that it naturally aroused the indiqaation of all classes iii 
Seotland, with the exception of the higher nobility, who belonge,l to 
the Norman race, and who were too much nder the influe, nec of 
the usurper. It only required a leader to arise, and that leader was 
found in Sir William Wallaee--a naine that will be for ever dear to 
the Seottish heart. 
In 1297 the insurrection beeame general. The ,qeots under 
Wallaee defeated the English forces under the Earl of Surrey, and 
immediately afterwards the Scottish army ravaged Cumberland 
and h'orthumbêrland. Some of the Scottish soldiery pillaged and 
burned the priory of Hexham, and in retaliation Jcdburgh Abbey 
was wreeked and plundered by the English under Sir Ifiehard 
Hastings. The lead was stripped from the roof of the ehureh, and 
the eonventual buildings were so mueh destroyed that in 1300 
the canons had to take rehge in other religdous bouses until their 
own was repaire& A writ is still extant ordering that Ingelram 
de Colonia be sent to the eonvent of ]3ridlington, in Yorkshire 
(Beauties of Scotland). On the King of England being petitioned 
by the abbot, the lead was ordered to be delivered up to him, but 
Sir Richard Hastings detained it for some rime after that. It must 
bave taken a eonsiderable time to rebufld what had been east down, 


and repair what was only partially destroyed ; but as no portion of 
the conventual buildiugs has corne down to our day, save a small 
picce of wall containing two arches near the south-west end of the 
church, we can form no idea of the character of the work. However, 
we may be sure that the chapter-house, refectory, scriptorium, aud 
library, to say nothing of the other places requisite for a great 
al,bey, would be in a style worthy of the abbey church. 
The abbot of Jedburgh was one of the Scottish ambassadors to 
France in 1299, and while he and the others were returning, the King 
of England ruade arrangements to intercept them at sea. A sloop 
called O,r L«dy of I:ye was manned and despatched, and letters 
were sent to the (;oodman of Yarmouth and others enjoining them 
hot to interfere with the toaster of the sl«op, but to assist him in 
this aftir (Hist. Doc. Ilcl. to Scot., Vol. II.). Iç does hot appear 
whether this attcmpç to intercept them was successful or not. 
In vain did Edward I. attempt to crush the independence of 
Scotland as a nation, and to rule the country by means of his own 
ollicers. Mere force of arms could hot accomplish this; nor had 
the execution of the heroic lVallace as a traitor on the scaflbld at 
Smithfield atty better effect. No sooner had the blood of this m»ble 
1,atriot been shed than it seems to bave begun to flow in the veins 
of Bruce, by whose hand the banner of Scottish independence was 
again raised; and many were the xvrits issued by Edward II., 'ho 
pursued the saine policy as his father did regarding this country, 
ordering all churchmen, nobles, and others to obey the king's 
"eustos" of Scotland, and to resist to the uttermost " ]lobertus de 
P, ruce" and his aeeomplices (P«rli«»tentary lI3oEt.s). 1Ve learn 
front a writ, tested at Westminster on 13th Deeember 1307, that 
Edward I I., being on the point of setting out for the parts of 
France as far as Bologna for the settling of several speeial and 
arduous aflhirs touching his kingdom, eaused a letter to be sent to 
the abbot of Jedburgh, atletionately requesting the said abbot that 
for the preservation of the peaee of Scotland, and for the repelling 
of the hostile incursions of his rebels and enemies, he should exer- 
cise the same tare and diligence that he had done hitherto, and for 


this service the king promised his special thanks on his -eturn. 
Similar letters were sent to six .qcottish bishops, nine Seotti.h 
abbots, and one pri«,r (P«rl. lJrits, Vol. II., Div. II., 1'- 371). 
In 1312-13 the Good Sir James Iouglas, the staunch fricnd 
of I:ruce, expelled the English ri-oto m,Jst of the strongholds 
the Scottish I;ordcr; but even after Iannockl,tu'u Jedburgh Cstlc 
remaiued in the possession of the cnemy, and contiuued to do so 
till after the battle of Lintalee, which took 1,lace about 1317. 
William of Tynedalc and other can«,ns of the house of Ged- 
worth, by their petition, having supplicated King Edward III. tiret 
since they and their abbot, exiled lately from Scotland and fr«m 
the lands ami tencments, &c., after the conflict at Stirling, because 
they were of English origin, he should grant a competent sus- 
tentation for themselves from lands, &c., the king committed to 
William of Ufton the custody of the lods and tcncmcnts, namely, 
of the mauor of Lcne (la Lene ) in Tynedale, and Torquen in 
Rydesdale, with their pertiuents. Accordingly, from the proceeds of 
these lands he fouud twenty merks to each of these canons f,r their 
sustentation ([toted from the O'igi,alia in Hodgeson, Part III., 
Vol. II., p. 300). 
The ambitious Edward Baliol, son of thc late King John, 
had, in 1332, by the assistance of some interested English nobles, 
gained the crown of Scotland--which, however, he lost in a few 
months afterwards--and when he ruade a formal concession of the 
kingdom of Scotland and of his own private estates to Edward III. 
at Roxburgh, the abbot of .ledburgh, along with the abbots of 
Mclrose, Dryburgh, and Kcl.o, was present. At the general peace 
in lo8, it was providcd that the estates and revenues in England 
belonging to the abbeys of Jedburgh, 3[clrose, and Kelso shouhl be 
restored to them. The orders given by the English king for this 
puqose in behalf of the monastcry of Jedburgh were addressed to 
the "abbes de l'ratis, near No'thampton; the parson of Abbotslce, 

a If Leam is meant, it lies on the Reed, near its junction with the Tyne 
below ]3ellingham. In the Testa de ,Ver, iii, Nicholas de Aketon held the greater 
Lem in Redesdale. 


in Ituutingdonshire; John de Bolynbroke, his own escheator; and 
Thomas de Featherstonhalgh" (Rymer, (luoted hy Morton). 
Among tlm docunmuts in the possession of Balliol College, 
()xford, and noticed in the Fourth Report of the Ioyal Commission 
on Historical Mauuscripts, is a confirmation in Latin, on parchment, 
by John, abbot of ,leddeworth, and the conveut, in 1340, to Sir 
William «le Felton, of a yearly paymcnt of three merks, which he 
had been wont to reccivc from the church of Alb«,tley (Abl»otsley). 
From the saine source we learn that the ahove William de 'elton, 
knight, had the saine year received from King Edward III. a grant 
of the advowson of the church of Abbotslcy, which had corne into 
the king's hands by the forfciture of the abbot of Jeddeworth, with 
permission t.» thc said Willi:Lm (le Fclton to give the saine to the 
mastcrs and scholars of Balliol, the st;ttute of mortmain notwith- 
stan,lingwhich was by sevcral othcr dceds accordingly donc. The 
predeccssors of J,,hn Rydel gave the advowson of the church of 
A,lboldeslc to thc abb,»t of Geddcwvrth, with the tenth of the 
wh,lc fiel,l of A,11,oldesle, of which land thc foresaid church had 
hitherto been seized (Tcmp. E,l. I., Z'otdi HMredorum). Gervas 
Iy,lel, who afterwar,ls bccam" a canon of Jedl,urgh, and his bother, 
had given this church to the abbey. The hospital of St Mary 
Magdalene at llutherford was q'anted to the monastery by Ilobert I., 
ami aftr va'ious changes the .rant was confirmed by Robert III. 
in 13î7. l;y the conditions of the grant the canons were obliged 
to maintain a 1,r, Terly qualificd chaplain to cclebrate divine service 
regularly in the chapel of the hospital, an,| who should pray for the 
king's soul, an,1 for the souls of lais anccstors and successors. In 
the event of thc place bcing dcstroyed by war, thc saine services 
werc to be perf,_wmed in the monastery of Jedburgh by a chaplain 
till thc hospital should be rebuilt (Great 5'ced). About 1444 this 
hosldtal secms to bave becn granted to onc Alexander Brown. 


I)AVID II. of .Scotlalld having refused to hold his kingdom in vassal- 
agc under Edward III. of England (the old claire having bccn 
revived), Scotland was subjected to another war, and at the battle 
of Neville's Cross, near I)urham, in 1346, lavid was taken prisoner 
and carricd to the T,)wer of London, and was hot finally released 
from cal,tivity for eleven years. A period of considerable prosperity 
for Scotland occurred between the liberation and death of David 
(1357 and 1371); and it may be that about that rime, or sh,)rtly 
afterwards, the 1,reseut north transept would bc built. We know 
that in 1373 the canons were prosperous enough to be able to 
exp«rt wool, the produce of their own fiocks; and the King 
England in that year issued an order forbidding the collect,rs of 
lais customs at Berwick to exact more than hall a ,el'k ,f duty on 
each sack of wool of the owth of cotland, to the number of four- 
score sacks, which should be exported by the abbots of .ledburgh, 
Melrose, Kelso, and Dryburgh. Ho also gave letters ,f protection, 
to continue for three years, in behalf of the abbots, m,nks, servants, 
and property of these monasteries (l:tMi »b'co«'). N«twithstanding 
these letters of protection, however, soue of the canons who took a 
.iourney to England to sue for the restoration of property bel,nging 
to the churches annexed to their monasteries were 1,arbarously 
The style of the architecture of this par would quite aee wi/h 
the period indicated, but there are other things to consider whil 
attempting to fix the approximate date. The original transept was 
much shorter than the present one--all N*orman transepts being 
short--and had there simply been a wish to lengthen it while entire, 


we should have expeeted that thc end gal)le only would lmve been 
takcn down and the new work added. Instead of this, wc lind that 
thc west wall of thc original transept bas wholly disal,peared, as 
wcll as a round pillar which stood at the end of the north aislc wall 
of the torve, and ,»f two arches which it supportcd only a small 
portion of each remains at the side ucxt the tower. The whole of 
this space is now oCCUlied by an ugly dcad wall. (_)n the Ol,posite 
si,le are seen the corresl,on,ling pillar and arches still elltil'e, alld 
immediately to the north of these are a nook-shaft a}d fragllmnts 
of two arches, ail upper and a l,wer, which Seeln tO have ]eCli 
similar to those, still cntirc, in thc south transept, where the stair 
lcads up to the tower. _)u thc outside is seeu an eutrauce iii thc 
cast wall which led from thc tl'iforiun o[ the north chapel of the 
ch,ir to a passage which no d[mbt went right round the original 
Wl'th transcl»t, and a little furthcr along, but higher up iii the saine 
wall, is what SCelaS t[» have beel the jalnb of a window, with the 
si,ring «,f thc arch still attached. The consideration of thcse facts 
would lead us fo sui,pose lhat the old transept had 1)eeu dcstroyed 
either l,y accident or as the rcsult of waL We know of no accident 
that befell the abbcy at that time to account for this destruction, 
and if it was brought about by war we must fix the date of the 
present transept a little later. 
lIistory records that Jedburgh (_'astle, haviug fallen into the 
},an,ls of the English aftcr thc ],attle ,_,f Ncville's br,ss, l'cmained 
in their possession for sixty-thrce ycars, until it was rcgained iii 
1409 by the peoplc of Teviotdale, who razed it to the gq',und to 
prevcnt its ever again fallilig into the possession of the enelll)'. 1 hl 
the foll¢»'iug ycar Jedl»urgh was burned by the English undcr ir 
I«lert Umfravillc, and agaiu in 1416, the saine being rcpeated iii 
1464 by thc Earl of Wal'wick, but what injury was susailmd ly 
the abbey at these rimes we are hot told. It is possible that the 

 The fact that it was ],rol,osed to levy a tax of "two pennies" on every hearth 
in .qcotland for the carrying out of its demolition, is utticient to give some idea 
«,f the magnitude of the ]»uildings. The laaoney was, however, pai,l out of the 
uational exchequer. 


transept may have been destroyed by Umfraville in 1410 or 1416, 
and that the xN%rman tower and south chapel wcre thrown down by 
Warwick in 1464, and this would satisfactorily account for the res- 
torations. As has been statcd, however, there is no historical 1,roof 
that this was the case. That ail these portions of the abbcy wcrc 
hot rebuilt by the saine workmcn is ail but certain, cvcn by mi 
examination of the masons' marks, those on the transel,t being ,luire 
diIIierent from those on the tower (see page of Masons' Marks). 
The north transci,t is a fine speeimen of Deeorated w)rk. Thc 
west wall is piereed with two pointed windows, eaeh of which is 
dividcd 1,y a mullim with a quatrefoil at the top. The sidcs of 
thcse windows are simply ehamïered, or splayed, and the mullions 
also are 1,1aih. The great m»rth window is divided by three mullims, 
whieh support beautiful tracer)" of a somewhat flowing eharaetcr. 
The mullions hcre are moulded, and the sides of the windows are 
filled with mouldings mueh flattened and running into eaeh other. 
A groove ft, llowing the line of the gable-head is fillcd with the ball- 
fl«»wcr and other ornaments, and at the apex, inlmediately under thc 
eross, is a beautiful representati,m of a human head. Thcse, h)w- 
ever, are modern, having been earved during the present eentury. 
Thcre has evidently been some further alteration ruade at the saine 
1,eriod near the toi» of this gable, as the wall reeedes somewhat 
al,ove the buttresses. It will also be observed that the t»l» of the 
window arch does hot exaetly agree with the position of the shiehl 
above it. .Ieffrey, in his ttistory of Ro.ïburgh.shire, says that the 
shiehl referred t.o original]y bore the arms of the Kers. This state- 
ment is evidently incorrect. The stone is mueh defaeed, but we 
ean deteet on the uppcr part of the shield the representation of a 
ldshop's mitre, and in the l)wer part that of a fish similar to the 
one on the tomb of Arehbishop Blaekader in (llasgow (çathedral. 
The arms in ail probabilit 3" wcre those of one of the 1,ishops ,ï 
(llas,,ow Jedhurgh bcing in that diocese. The al)bots of .Icdburgh 
were hot mitred al,bots. This stone is 1)robably hot in its original 
place, and may have been built in there when the alterations alludcd 
to were being ruade. No such stone appears in our old illustrations 


of 1775 and 1777. The transept is SUl,ported by buttresses placed 
at right angles, each of which is broken into stages, and terminates 
at the top of the wall with a slope longer than the other projections. 
On the face of one of the buttresses is a niche with a decorated 
corbel and canopy, but no statue now renmins. Walcot, in his 
.][otasticoz, marks this as the sacristy, but on what authority we do 
m)t know. 
In the north transep are inerred many of the Kers of Ferni- 
herse, valian men, "wha keepit the marches in the days of auld." We 
lcarn from the .lcdburgh Towa Couucil Records, of date 1st February 
1693, that Rolert, Lord Je,lburgh, ,me of the noble mcmbers of that 
house, by his testament, (lated 4th November 1688, mortified a 
thousand pouuds Scots, the intcrest of which was te» be divided 
equally between the Ih'ammar School and the poor of the parish; 
and he also by the saine testament m,rtifi,.d the sure of a thousand 
mcrks " flr uph«hlilg the yllc [aisle] «,f l'herniherst." These two 
sums he ordaiuc,1 his nephew an,l executor, John Carre of Cavers, to 
l»ay and put int, the hamls of the Magistrates and T«wn Council 
for the purposes aforesaid. The minutes of Town ('ouncil of 2ml 
Match 1796 set f,)rth that " the said day it was represented by 
Walter cot, provest, that my Lord .ledlrughes Ile, which the towne 
is oblcidged to uphald wes lyke to become ruinous in severall places, 
and that necessar it is workmen 1,e imployed to sight and rcpair the 
samyn. The Cotmsell al,l»oynts ]lailzie l)lipher, ]Iailzie Elliot, the 
dein «,f hl, and thcsaurer, to call trdesmen and view the said Ile, 
ami wlçrein it is defcctive to caus repair the samyn immediatelie, 
ami il the meintyme tiret the thesaurer provyd lyme." On the 
1 l th of the saine m,mth the Town ('otmeil resolved to al,pOint the 
"COmlnitie as bef,,r to aggrie with workmen to tel,air my Lord Jed- 
brughes Ile, and to report that Ul,on Wednesday nixt ;" and on the 
160 the committee rep,)rte,1 that they had agreed with Deacon 
Newt«m to repair the aisle f,r twenty merks, and that he "referes 
himselfc in the counsells will what more they will aHow." The 
Çotmcil d« hot seem to have repaired the aisle or transept at any 
subsequent rime, as the records are silent on the subjcct. 


The south chapcl of the choir is exceedingly iatercsting, as it 
shows a combination of two very diflrênt styles--the Early Norman 
and Second l'ointed or I)ccorated. The window, vhich has two 
mullions with traccry--a quatrefoil and two pear-shal,ed openings 
--and nearly the whole of the wall, belong to the latter pcriod. 
IIêre are two pretty corbels, one a representation of f«Jliage, and the 
other of a hmnan figure crushed down as if by carrying the wcight 
of the groin. From these spring mouhlcd ribs, which mcet at the 
bosses the plain round ribs of the earlier period. At two of the 
bosses the diftbrent styles racer, and go no ïarther, bu in ont 
instance the round ib passes right across thc groined roof ff'oto one 
ohl pillar to another, while the moulded rib which sl, rings from the 
foliated corbel passes over to a pier of its own period. In this is 
seen an excellent exaIal,le of how the work of restoration proceeded. 
As we bave already remarked, whatever was lêït after the w.n'k of 
partial destruction was allowed to remain, if at all practicablê, and 
hence it is that the new tan always be distinguished from the old. 
The broken string-course in this chal,el, the four arches (all imper- 
fect in form) attached to the south-east pier of the tower, and other 
parts easily noticed throughout the building, suIIiciently illustrate 
this. It is probable that this chapel and the south-east pier were 
restored by ,h»hn Hall, who was al,pointed abbot on 10th Decembcr 
1478,1 and whose naine is seen on thê l,ier and on one of the bosses 
in the chapel. [)n another of the l»osses is seen the lion rampant; 
and on the third one, from which a light seem.s to have been sus- 
pended, is seen the rcpresentation of four small human faces at the 
corners. The chapel is supported by two shelving buttresses, one 

' Carta Johannis Hall, abbatis moimsterii de Jedworth. Jacobus Dei grati, 
Rex Scotorum, oruuibus probis h,»minibus suis, salutem. Sciatis nos venera- 
bilera in Christo patrem Johaimem Hall, in abbatem m,,nasterii nostri de 
Jedworthe promotunt, ad temporalitatem dicti ruonasterii ac onmium et singul- 
arum terrarum, redituum, ac possessionum, recel,to 1,rius ab eodem fidelitatis 
juramento, admisisse et eundem admittin,us per presentes.--Apud Edinburgh, 
loth December 1478 (Register of rb« (Ireat ,S'ol, General Register House, Edil- 


l,laced at right angles, and the other diagonally, a position frequently 
ad,,pted in the later styles wheu buttresses were required at the 
quoins. On the former is a shield bearing a bull's head caboshed 
It bas been stated that William Turnbull, bishop of (;lasgow, 
"assisted in repairing the abbey of ,ledburgh." Although we are 
hot aware of the authority upon which this statement bas been 
ruade, itis hot unlikcly to be correct, as Turnbull was a native of 
this district, and, as previously mentioned, Jedburgh was within the 
sec of (;lasgow. If it were truc that he cont'ibuted towards the 
repair of the abbey, this would account for the presence of the bull's crest of the Turnbulls--upou the buttress, but it must 
bc stated that Bishop Turnbull died in 1454, at least t,«enty-four 
years before this chapel was rebuilt) .Ieffrey, in his l:o.,:buï'gh&i'c 
Vol. l., 1'- 288, says that it is ver)" 1,robable that Hall held the oce 
fol" twcnty-five years; but the following interesting entry, which we 
find in the Acte Dodnoïw 6'ncilii, of date :]rd February 1484, 
sh,»ws this statement to be far h'om correct : 

"The lordis o-dainis that lettres of our souuerain lor(lis be writin to 
c,»mmand and charge Johne Rutherfurde, son to the lard of Iutherfurde, 
ge,,rge of Newtoun, Adam ker, J,k Rutherfurde, ]tob of Rutherfurde, 
John fwla, and ail vther temporale men, our souuerain lordis liegis, 
being within t.he abbay and place of Jedworth, that thai in cotinent 
dev«,i,le and 1Red thaim furth of the said abhay, and suffre dene thomas 
cranstoun, ai»bot of the samyn, to enter therin errer the forme of the 
ordinaris lettres and out souuerain lordis admissioub under the pain of 
Rebellioun and putti of thaim to the horn, because their was generale 
comand diuerse t.ymes gevin of before be out souuerain lordis lettres that 
n;t temporale men suld remin in the said abbay nor hald the said dene 

 Turnbu|l belonged to the Bedrule fami|y. He was first a prebend of 
Ghtsgow, and afterwards At-chdeacon «,f St Aldrews, a Privy Coulcillor, ald 
Keeper -f the Pt'ivy Seal. I/t. became Bish, 1, of Glasgow il 1448, and after- 
wards he procured a ]3ail from the Pope for the erection of a college in that 
city. He died in Rome on 3rd 8eptember 1454 (Keith's C«talo$tue of Scottish 
Bi.shops). In Mrs Gordon's Lire of ,b'ir Dtwid Brewster, Turbull is said to bave 
founded and endowed the Grammar School of Jedbmh. 


thomas furth «,f the samyn. And also that It be comandit of 'ew be 
our said souuerain lordis lettres that zit as of before that na temporale 
men, our souueraine lordis liegis, in tyme te, cure enter in the said abbay 
nor place of Jedw,,rth, nor Remain therin, nor mak st«,ppin to the said 
dene thomas, abbot, to enter in the samyn as sai,1 Is, vnder the pain of 
Rebe]lioun forsayde, with Intimacion that quha sa dois in the contrar «,f 
this comand in tyme to cure that our souuerain 1,»rd wil in continent 
declare thaim his Rebells and put thaim to his horn, without ony vther 
processe or calling, bot alanerly that it be knawin that thai enter an,1 
Remain in the said abbay and place, And att«,ure because it is schewin 
and complenzeit to our souuerain lord that Adam ker, and certane vther 
temporale men, and also certane Religious men, put violent handis in his 
herrald and pursewand and wald hafe tane ther armes fra thaim, the 
lordis ordanis that the said Adam anti the temporale men be summond til 
a certane day to ansuere to out souuerain lord apoun the said crime and 
offence, and a]so that lettres be writin to the bishop of glasgow ordinare 
charging him to call the Religious men that committit the said «,ffence 
before him and punys thaim according to Justice." 
The editor of The I,'therf«rds of that Ilk ««d their 
(Edinburgh, 1884) points out that a this time the whole of the 
choir was already divided among the Itutherfm'ds for burying their 
dead, and he thinks a family quarrel had probably arisen in conse- 
qucnce of the abbot interfering to We some of the Çranstons place 
thcre. We do hot know that there are any grounds f,»r such a 
It is evident that Canston rebuilt the south-west pier of the 
tower, and part of the tower itself. The two north pers bclong to 
the twelfth century, and the arch above, which is of the saine date, 
is square-edged, while the arches of Çranston's time are chamfered. 
Cranston's initiais, along with a representation of three cranes and 
two pastoral staves (sometimes, though êrroneously, called crosiers), 
are seen on a shield on the pier built by him. His initials are seen 
also on the norh side of the west arch, just where the chamfer 
be,dns ; and the full name, "Abbas Thomas ('ranstoun," appears at 
the spring of the south arch, immediately above the south-east pier. 
So anxious do¢s (:ranston seem to havc been that posterity shoul,l 


have 11o difticulty in determining what work was dr, ne by him, that 
oven a pOlti»n of the l)wel" part of the north-west pier, whieh 
evidently he had repaired, bears his initiais. The moulded base, 
whieh no «loubt was put in by him, is quite diflirent from the 
Norman base whieh adj«,ins it, and gives anot]ler of the many 
examl,lcs of the curious way in vhieh the work of repairing or 
rêstoring was can'ied on. When tlall rcbuilt the south-east pier he 
seems to have inteuded to throw an al'eh over to the south-west pier 
about half-way from the te,p, and the springêr still remains to têll its 
story ; t,ut this idea hot having round favour with Cranston, it was 
hot earried into ellieet. Even the mouldings of Canston's pier are 
di|liîl'ent ft'»m those «,lt that built by IIall. Fragments of the stone 
l,aVelnent are still seen at the bases of these piêrs. The tower, whieh 
uould bû restored a little belote or about 1500, is very iml, osing, 
,ein. .'?,: feet square and 86 feet high. There had 1,een two floors. 
The upper storey, whieh, no doubt, was intended f«)r a 1,eal of bells, 
was lighted by narrow eusped windows on the east and west sides, 
while on the north and south sides there are openings for the 
emission of sound, and the top of the tower was arehed over with 
stone. Ail around the top, immediately under the balustrade (whieh 
was restored in the eal'ly 1,art of the pl'esent eentury), are numerous 
ornanlents, nlany of whieh are grotesque representations of human 
heads. Near to the north-west corner is what has been represented 
to 1,e the royal arms of, but whieh, upon examination 
through a glass, we found to be a shield surmounted by a eross, and 
1,earing a chevron and three roses. On one side of the cross is the 
letter II, raid on the other the letter B. We have ascertained the 
arms to be those of Rohert Blackader,  bishop (afterwards areh- 

a Robert ]31ackader, son of Sir Patrick 131ackader of Tulliallan, was ninth 
bishop of Glasgow, and was translated to that see from Aberdeen i 1484. In 
addition to founding several altarages, he built some portions of Glasgow 
Cathedral. Blaekader stood high in the confidence and f.votr of James IV. 
and was one of those who negotiated the marriage between that prince and the 
Lady lIargaret of England, daughter of Henry VIL Spotiswood says that 
Blaekader was sccee(led by James Beaton in 15o0 ; but this is an error» as he 


bishop) of Glasgow, who was apl,ointed to that see in 1484, and 
there is thus good reason to believe that this prelate had cont-il,uted 
towards the rebuihling of the tower. About half-way down the 
north side of the tower, and immediately under thc centre Ol,ening, 
there is another shield with a chevron, and likewise surmounted by 
a cross. The arms and initials of the archbishop are seen also on a 
stone (hot in ifs original 1,lace) |,uilt into the vall inside the north 
transept, under the gq'eat window. 

held the see until his death iii 1.3o8. Cosmo hmes, in his Lewtures on ,_'«otcl, 
Ley«l A ntiquit[es, p. 176, says that  ;lgow beeame the see of an ar,:hbishop ],y 
pal»al gran in 1491 ; tlill Burton says that Glasgow was raised to an al'ch- 
bishopric in 14.9:2 ; while Gordon stages that Blackader was still bish«,p 
and died archbish«, i in 15tg. ]Je hml shortly before hii death un,lertake a 
pilgiimage to the Holy Land, and he died duiig the I,i]grimage. 


AFTEI: the hurning of the town hy the Earl of \Varwick in 1464, 
• h.dburzh does hot appear to bave again suflircd at the hands of the 
en«qay for fifty-nine years; but in 152:--ten ycars after the battle 
of Fl,,ddcn--both town and al,bey suflred very sevérely 1,y thc 
Enulish uader the Earl of Surrey. (n the evcning of thc 22nd 
«»f S.l»tcmber , the enemy, to the numbcr of 6000 fighting men, 
encaml»ed on the south side of the .led, and early next monling 
thc town was storme(l. The burghers, who coul,1 command no 
m»re than 1500 or 2000 men, ruade, nevérthcless, a me»st deter- 
mined resistance, and the English b»und it a hard task to become 
mastcrs «»f the ilace. The abbey was also bravely dêfended, and 
ahhough SuTey brought his cmmon to bear upon it, it did hot 
cal»itulate till two hours after nightfall. The monastery was then 
1,illaged and committed to the flames, the effects of which are still 
visil,le on various parts of the ruins. Surrey's testimony to the 
valour of the Scottish Bordcrers at this rime was, that he found 
t],.m the ]»oh]est mea and the hottest he ever saw in any nation. 
It appears from a charter gïanted by John, abbot of Jedburgh, 
and thc convent, on 23rd l)ecember 1541, and afterwards confirmed 
ml,ler the Great Seal, that \Villiam Douglas of ]h»njedward hnd 
c«,ntrihuted towards the reparation of the monastery after this 
struction, and that in return the said abbot and convent gave 
in feu-farm the lands of Toftylaws and l'addohugh, in the barony of 
Houst(,un {Ulston), which I)ouglas had held for nineteen years. 
Itobert Ker, son of Andrew Ker of Ferniherst, also contributed 
towards thc restoration of the abbey about the saine rime, f[»r which 



he received a charter from the abbot and convent on ïth June 1542 
--confirmed under the Great eal on 7th July--ldving him in feu- 
farm the lands of Ancrum-Woodhead, &c., in Over Ancrum. 1 
Twenty years after Surrcy's visit, .ledburh seêms to bave 
recovercd from the injuries it sustained under him, and Sir I,'alph 
Eure, writing to the :Earl of Hertford in March 1544, sl»eaks of it 
as "the strength of Teviotdale, vhich, once destroyed, a small poiler 
would be suIIicient to keep the B«rders of Scotl«nd in subjecti«,n." 
Hcrtford, writing to the King of England immediatcly afterwards on 
the saine subject, said that he doubted hot but « with t,e 'ace «f God 
it should be feasible enough to win tl,e town, and also the c),urch or 
abbey, which was thought a house of some strcngth, ami might bc 
ruade a good fortress." The English L«,rds of Council having ordcrcd 
Jcdburgh te» be taken if possible, and garrisoned if it could i-,e ruade 
tenable, Lord Eure and his son, Sir I¢alph Eure, Wardens of the East 
and Middle Marches, with all their f«rces, stormed the town on the 
morning of the 12th of June the saine year, on which occasion the 
abbey was again pillaged and committed to the flames. Hcrtford, 

1 Apud Edinburgh, 7 Jul.--Rex confirmavit cartam Johannis Abbatis 
monasterii de Jedbm'gh, et ejusdem conventus, [qua pro nonnullis pecuniarum 
summis sibi persolutis, ac pro restauratione dicti monasterii per Anglos com- 
busti et destructi, ml feodifirman dimiserunt Roberto Ker, filio secundo genito 
Andree K. de Farnyhirst, terraa de Vodheid cure pendiculis, viz., lfe Skaw-ward 
et Brai(llaw in dominio de Ovir Ancrome, vic. 1Roxburgh, extenden, in r¢ntali 
suo ad 2 :Tenend. dicto Rob. et heredibus masculis ejus de corl)ore 
legit, procreatis, quibus deficientibus, Joh. K. ejus fratri seniori et heredibus, 
&c. (ut supra) quibus deL, legitimis et l»ropinquioribus heredibus masc. dicti 
Rob. quibuscumque, arma et cognomen de Ker gerentibus, de dicto mon,st. 
lleddend, annuatim 27 nmrcas, necnon astrictas multuras molendino dicti mon- 
asterii de Ovir Ancrome consuet. ; et libertatem ad glebas effodiend, in l'e mos. 
de Wodheid dictis abbati, &c, et lfe œeleuc graft in silva de W. aratris dicti 
monast, occupat, necessaria cure dictus Robertus et heredes ad hoc legitime 
requisiti forent.» et heredes duplicando dict. firman at introitum suum; Test. 
Patricio Hepburn de ]oltom» Adam Kirktoun de Stewartfield, Georo :SIoscrop 
burgen, de Jedburgh» Dominis Johanne Ker, Wil. Renkis, Jac. Jelien, Jacobo 
Simsorin M. Waltero Pile, capellanis.--Apud dictum monasterium, 7 
154!.I--Re.q. Mag. 8rg., Ve»l. III. 


writing after this, says that Jedburgh was "well brent," and that after 
the assault it was " put to the lyre, and left hot past two bouses 
unbreut iu thc saine; the abbey likewise they burned as nmch as 
they might for the stoue work" (Ha»dlton Papers, Vol. lI.). In the 
spring ,,f 1545 Sir I[alph Eure occupied Jedburgh -ith au army of 
alove 5000 mon, xvith the intention of making it his headquarters 
until Tevi«tdalc should be reduced to subjection to the King of 
Engluud, l,ut being that year defeated at Ancrum Moor, rive mlles 
fr«m Jedlurgh, where their leaders wcre slaiu, the English were 
«»nce more compcllcd to cross the t:order. The Earl of Hertford, 
with 12,000 men, eutered Scotland in September that saine year to 
avengc the defeat, aud the etlbctive way in which it was done may 
be learned from the ïact that in this inroad were destroyed seven 
m,nasteries and friaries, sixteen castles, towers, and peels, rive mar- 
ket towns, tw« hundred and forty-three villages, thirteen mills, and 
three hospitals. Jedbmgh Abbey is in the list of places destroyed 
at this rime. While this was being done on the Scottish P, order, the 
Lords Ifome and Bothwell, with the abbots of Jedburgh and ])ry- 
1,urgh, assisted by a number of Fremhmen, ruade an iucursion into 
N,»rthumberland. In 154î, after the battle of l'ikie, the English 
placed several companies of Spanish soldiers at Jedburgh. Two 
ycars aftcr this, the Scottish Government, afraid that it was intended 
to f,rtify the towu, sent a body of French troops to retake it, aud 
this was doue without dittàculty, as the Spaniards fled at the apl»roach 
of thc Frechmen. Jedburgh was visited shortly afterwards by the 
Earl of ltutland, with 8000 men, at whose approach the French 
troe, ps withdrew ; but as the district was at that rime quite destitute 
vf provisions, the English soon rcturncd to their own country. 


THERE were st«,len froIn the kirk of 3edburgh in 1502 certain 
" eusheis of silk," sheets, linen clothes, " fustiane," scarfs, and other 
clothes, and at the .Justice aire in tl,at year l,Aer lutherfurde in 
Todlaw produced a remission for art and 1,arl of the theft (l'itcairn's 
Cri,ial Trials). 
A respire, dated at i}umfries on 28th August 1504, was anted 
by James IV. under the Privy Seal, to a considerable nunber of 
persons, " lnen, kin, and tenants " of Archl_,ishop Blackader of 
gow, for the slaughter of Thomas l:uther[urd, COlnlnitted in the 
mr, nastery of Jedburgh (l'itcairn's 6'ri,ni«l 2'rials, Vol. II.). For 
the saine slaughter, a remission, dated ai Edinburgh, 28th February 
1506, was also granted by the king to the saine parties, including 
",lvhn Foreman of I}awane, Baldred Blacater, knights ; John Twedy 
of Drumelzear, Alan Stewart, Robert l:laeater, son and apparent 
heir of Andrew Blacater of that Ilk; Adam Blacater, Charles 
Blacater, John Hergott, Adam Turnbull of l'hillophaueh, William 
Turnbull, his son and apparent heir; {3eorge Douglas of Bonjed- 
burgh, ,lohn Douglas, his brother ; Andrew Douglas in Tympanedene, 
l:obert Dougl, his brother," and others (J'd/erslot l'tricots ). The 
respite, published by Pitcairn, alludes to Archbishop Blackader as 
being « commendator" of the abbey. We have no particulars as to 
the cause or circumstances of this occurrence. 
Some rime after this Wflliam I'utherfurd of Longnewton was 
slaughtered in the abbey by I:ober Ker of xN'ewhall, but whether 
this was in any way connected with the other we are not aware. 
It is satisfactory, however, to know that this feud had a happy 
termination. In 1560 Ker of h'ewhall and the representative of 
the slaughtered man met a the -ldrk of Ancrum and there de- 
livered up their swords as a token of amity, it being a further 


EVENTS ]ETWEEN 1500 AND 15g0. 

con,lition that one of the Kers should marry a Rutherfurd, and 
that another of the l:utherfurds should man'y a Ker (E,l:l«rston 
Such inter-man'iages were frequently resorted to with a view t» 
sêttle family quarrels. An indenture was signêd at Ancrum ab«mt 
the saine time, designed to reconcile the Scotts and the Kers after 
the long feud between these two familles, which had its rise at the 
skirmish near Melrose whên Buceleueh attempted to rescue the 
youthful James V. from the Earl of Angus in 1526. One of the 
conditions of the indenture was that the heir of Buccleuch was to 
marry the sister of Ker of ç'essïord (Craig-Br«wn's Histor!t oJ" 
»bç'll«i'rksh ire, Vol. I., l'P. 150, 151). 
In 1511, two years before the battle of Flodden, King James IV. 
granted extract from the register of a charter of King Ilobert the 
llruce, under the hand of llavin Dunbar, archdeacon of St Andrews, 
I_'lerk of the I'olls, in whieh charter King Robert confirmed to the 
abl»t and convent of Jedburgh, the prior and canons of the saine 
place abiding at I/estennot., and serving God, keeping hospitality 
there, and their successors, the land of Itestenot on which the 
church oï llestennot was fonndêd, ]unynad, JOissarth, and other 
lands in the county of Forfar in which they had been ilffef; by the 
king's predecessors, and in whose possession they were in the days 
of Alexander III., the king last deceased, as was manifest from an 
inqnisition returned to the king's chapel. The charter then states 
that the charters and muniments o the said religious bouses were 
lost and destroyed by wars and other fortuitous causes. This char- 
ter confirms, among other things, theh" right to 100 eels from the 
loch of Forfar; and also on the arrival o the king at Forfar, on 
any day whatever, two loaves of Sunday bread, four loaves of second 
bread, and six loaves of the kind called hugman's; also two stoups 
of the best ale; and two stoups o the small ale, called the kitchen 
ale (Great ,geal Be9ister, Vol. II.). 
In 1516, when Lord Home and his brother William were con- 
demned to death on a charge o intriguing against the Duke o 
Albany, then Regent, their brother, John ttome, abbot of Jedburgh, 

EVENTS BETWEEN 1500 AND 1560. 53 

was banished beyond the Tay, being believed to be iml,licatcd in 
their designs. 
John Home, al»bot of Jedburgh, was appointed clerk of expcnses 
to the king in ()ctober 1526, as we learn from the following cntry 
in the l'rivy Seal Regdster :--" Ane letter to Johne, abbot of Jed- 
burgh, makand him clerk of exl»enses to our ,q[ouereign] L[ord] for 
all the dais of his lyfe, and gevand him all ries and dcwiteis aucht 
thairof.--At Edinburgh, the last day of October 1526." 
In October 1 528 King James V. placed Lord tI,me and his 
brother, the abbot of Jedburgh, in Coldingham l'riory, to kecp it 
against the Earl of Angus ; but Angus turned thcm out, and ruade it 
his residcnce for some time (Douglas L'ool,', Vol. II., p. 173). 
()l 17th August 1539 a charter was gn'anted in favour of the 
albey of the lands of Aurchsook--alias Little ('ossywnyn--in the 
county of Forfar, which lands had been held by John Lyoun, for- 
mcrly Lord (;lammys, and which fell to the king by the forfeiture of 
the said nobleman. This charter, along with others, was confirmcd 
at Edinburgh under the (;reat Seal on 4th August 1542. 
l'itcairn, in his Crininal Trials, gives an extract fro, the 
L,,r(1 Hi.qh Trcasurer's Accounts, of date 26th May 1541, sl,owing 
that there was "gevin to the Gray Freris in Jedburcht, to the hlp 
of the reparatione of thair place, ,'( lbs;" and a parentheticd 
clause is insel'ted to explain that the place here meant was the 
monastery of Jedburgh. This, however, is incorrect. The place 
alluded to must be the convent of Grey Friars ([ II,servantines) whk.h 
was f,unded by the magdstrates and inhal,itants of ,ledlmrgh in 
1513. ()f this convent nothing now rêmains. 
In 1542 Andrew Ker of Ferniherst, Warden of the Middlc 
Marches, received from King James V. a grant to himself and his 
heirs of the bailiary of the lands and lordship of Jedl.,urgh F,l'eS  

 Precel,tum carte Andreœe Ker de farnyhirst, supra officio ballivatus 
totarum et integrarum terrarum et dominii de Jedburgh forest unacum advo- 
catione dol,atione et jurepatronatus rectorke ecclesie de Sowdean, ilafra limites 
ejusdem quascunque, reddendo &c.--I)ated 2,d November 15-t2 (Pri«y ,çeal 
tleglst«, Vol. XVI., folio 89). 



(which iucludcd the bailiary of the abbcy); couut, reckouing, and 
paymeut of the duties, &c., of the said lands to be Inade unnually to the king and his exchequer. The office thus conferred remained iu 
the fami]y of Ferniherst for four generations. 
Ten years after this there took place in the abbey what must 
bave been ont of the most imposing spectacles ever witnessed within 
its walls. David Fanter, successively vicar of Carstairs, prior of 
St Mary's Isle in Galloway, and commendator of the abbey of 
(_ambuskenlmth, and who had been secretary to King James V. and 
the llegent Arran, was elected bishop of :loss in 1545. In 155 `) 
on his return from France, where he had beeu residing as Scots 
ambassador for seven years, and "after he had rendered an account 
of his negotiations, and had received great thanks and apl»lause for 
his goo, l and wise management," he was consecrated with great 
s«demnit.y in the abbey church of ,ledburgh. In noticing this 
eveut, the splcmlour and dignity of which wets enhemced by the 
presence of the Lord (,oxernor, the flower of the Scottish nobility, 
and the leading ]order chiefs, ]ishoi» Lesly says that it was accom- 
1,nied with grcat triuml,h and banqucting, and that the lairds of 
('essford, Fcrniherst, Cowdenknowes, Greenhead, Buccleuch, Little- 
dean, and others rcceived the honour of knighthood. If Buchanan's 
character of Bishop l'anter, that he lived as if le had been traiued 
n,,t in the scho(,1 of 1,iety but «,f 1,rofligacy, or Knox's, that he died 
" eating and drinking, whi(:h, together with what thereui,on depends, 
was the l»astime of his lire," be correct, the "banqueting" was pro- 
bably ,-,f a kind not unworth)" of record (Lesly's History of ,Sc,tland; 
Keith's ,S'«otlish L'i.&ops, by Russell, p. 192; urohn liSiox's IIorks, 
edited by David Laing, Vol. I., p. 263). 


"Ail things have their end ; 
Churches and cities, which have diseases like men, 
Must bave like death that we bave." 

TIIE abbey seems to have suftbred so severely in 1544-45 that it 
ncver recovered, and in 1559, like other monastic establishments 
throughout the country, it was suppressed. Various were the causes 
that lcd to the Ileformation. Things might perhaps have gone «in 
as they were for some time longer, had not the open trattic iii in- 
dulgences aroused the wrath of Luther, who raised the spirit of the 
storm that salTed lnany of the bulwarks of l'opery to their foundations. 
The springs were deep-seated; the waters struggled long to get to 
the surface; but when once fairly up, the flood of l'rotestant trutl, 
swept over Germany and the neighbouring eountries of 1 enlnark and 
Sweden, dashed along the mountain slopes of Switzerland, inundated 
Holland, and reaehed the sh«,res of England and Scotland with sueh 
force that no hulnan power eould bave stemmed the rushing tide. 
At the rime of the I[eformation there were absout 260 eonventual 
estal-dishlnents in Seotland, and 4600 men and women are said to 
bave been ottieially eonneeted with theln. Of these 13 were bishops, 
60 abbots and priors, 500 parsons, 2000 viears, and 1100 lnonks, 
friars, and nuns. Their wealth was en«,rmous. Their lands, which 
were of great extent, were the riehest and faircst iii the country. 
It was therefore no wonder that there was a general seramble for 
possession when the crash came. The Refolmed ministers wished 
to seeure the property for the support of their ehureh and the 
endowment of sehools; but they had not sutlieient influence tu earry 
their wishes into effeet. Previous to the suppression of the monas- 


teries many of the uobility were made commendators of the great 
abbeys, and in not a few cases they were successful in retaining 
the property, though it was formally annexed to the Crown. The 
spirituality--that is, the teinds or tithes-of the Church were divided 
into thir(ls ; one-third was taken by the king, one-third was allowed 
to the old clergy, and the other third was given to the Peformed 
ministers. If the ministers got less than the third, as in nlany 
cases they did hot get perhaps hall of the third, the difference 
between the just third and what they actually got was called the 
superplus, aad belonged to the king. 
Not only was the Pope's jurisdiction and authority abolished in 
Scotland, and the temporalities of the kirk annexed to the Crown, 
but it was ordercd that none say, hear, or be present at mass, under 
pain of confiscation of all their goods, and their persons to be in will 
for the first fault, banishment for the second, and death for the third. 
Another Act decreed that none go in pilgrimage to kirks, cbapels, 
crosses, or the like, keel, saints' days, sing carols, or observe any 
other superstitious papistical rite, under pain of "an hundred lbs. 
the landed man, an hundred nterks the unlauded nmn, and 40 lbs. 
tbe yeoman; and oflmlers hot responsal to be impl'isoned for the 
first fault, and for the second that the oflhnders be punished by 
death as idolaters" (James VI., l'arl. 7, cap. 104=). But though 
therc was this hatred to l',pery and all that belonged to it, meet 
provision, as we have seen, was ruade for the SUpl_ort of the clergy 
who had belonged to the old faith. 
l'opery, however, was hot easily put down, though abolished by 
the laws of the land, and the {;eneral Assembly was for a long timc 
sorcly exercised as to how it could be best extirl,ated. The Assembly 
supplieated the Lords of Secret Council for the due execution of the 
Acts of l'arliament and 'uncil against the Papists, and craved that 
the Exchequer might be the intromitters with the rents of those who 
were excommuicated, and that from the Exchequer the presbytery 
might receive the p-»rtion of the confiscated goods -hich the law 
,pi,2inted o be employed ad pios us«s. Every prcsbytery was 
required to convene all known Papists within their bounds, and 


,'cquire the,n to put out of their company all friends and servants 
who werc known to be Popish ; also to give their children, sous and 
daughters, who were above seven years old, to be educated at their 
charges, by such of their Protestant friends as the presbytery should 
approve, and find caution for bringing home such of their children 
as werc without the kilgdom, to be educated in schools and collcges 
at thc prcsbytery's sight. The presbyteries were further rcquested 
to see that these people f«»und caution for their abstincnce from 
mass, and that all, of whatevcr tank or dcgq'ce, who refused to give 
satisfaction were to be procceded against without delay. The com- 
missioncrs of every l,resbyte,'y werc required to give in to thc 
Assembly a list of the excommunicated l'apists within their bounds, 
an«l of l'apists' children out of the country, that the saine lnight l,e 
[,I'eseted by the Cmmissioners of Aksembly to the Council; and 
all provincial synods, presbyteries, and kirk-sessions weI'e to take 
particular notice of tratIicking priests, and a list of their names to 
be gdven to the Privy ('OUlcil. MiuisteI's wcre to be at pains to 
dehort 1,eople froln lnarrying with Papists, and h,hl forth the 
dangerous cfiicts thcreof (A«ts of A.scmbly). " lIut still," says Hill 
lhu'tou, "it [l'ol,ery ] rcmained, lifting itself up in Ulmxpected places, 
and frighteuiug zealous Protestants, who felt like a settlI" in thc 
wihlerness when he believes that he has extirpated his venoln«,us 
neighi»)uI's, yct I,ch,lds a vipcr gliding through thc 5q'ass where his 
chih]ren are at play " (Hist. ,s}vt.). 
In 1562 the revenues of .ledbulgh and those of Restelmot 
Cuonby, dependencies of the abbey, were estimated at £1274, 10s. 
Scots lnmey, two chalders and two bolls of wheat, twenty-three 
chalders of barlcy, and thirty-six chaldeI'S, thil'tecl bolls, onu fivlot, 
and :,ne peck of meal, besides cai,rs and customs (Keith's Hi.toc!/, 
Ap. 185). The temporal possessions of the molmstery at that time 
were the baronies of Ulston, Windingt_,n, Ancruln, l;elses, I:epcI'law, 
and AbbotI'ulc. Its spirituality consisted il thc kirks of Jcdburgh, 
Eckford, t[OWllanl, Oxnanl, L,ngnewtou, Dalmeny, Selbie, Wauchope, 
Castleton, Crailing, Nisbet, Spittal, l'leladerleith, and Hopekirk. 
these, Selbie, Wauchope, and Castleton belonged properly to Callonby. 


"Fo llestennot belonged the kirks of Forfar, Dounyvald, Aberlemno, 
and others. The priory of Itestennot, which was situated in Forfar- 
sbire, was surrounded by a loch, and was accessible only by means 
of a causeway and drawbridge. The nmniments and treasures belong- 
ing to Jcdburgh Abbey were conveyed thither for safety in times 
of war with England. Walcott says its income was £275,10s. Bd. 
During the sixteenth century the priory of Canonby was valued at 
£3, Ss. l'rior to 1560, when certain sums were required for ecclesias- 
tical 1,urposes, it was taxed rive diftirent times. In the ,S'cotichronicon 
Abbrcviatio it is said that the priory of tlantyre, in Clydesdale, was a 
d«'pendelcy of .lcdburgh Abbey; but Spotiswood says it was a cell 
dcpcnding on Holyrood. It appears from a charter of confirmation 
grantcd by the kilg in 1575 that the abbot and couvent of Jedburgh 
wcre at least patrons of l;lantyrc (tireur Seul). Iu 1576 the third 
the abbacy of Jcdburgh was set down as oo., 6s. Bd.; wheat, eleven 
],ol]s, one firlot, and three pecks ; heur, seven chalders, tcn bo]ls, three 
fir]ots, an, l two pecks ; and meal, twelve chalders, four bolls, one firlot, 
aud three pecks; besides the third of the altarage of St Ninian. 
Vhcu a new order was issued in 1587 to co]lect the king's thirds of 
the beuefices, ,Icdburgh was to puy £200, and Restennot £100. 
Andrew ]|orne, commendator of Jedburgh, sat in the Reforma- 
tion Convention lu 1560 (Acla P,«rl.). 
(ueen Mary appoilted the 5th of Novemher 1561 for the al»hot 
to ,l,l,ear before ber aud the l'rivy ['ouncil fi)r his interests in profit 
in ('al,,uby (Armstroug's Liddesdale, p. 117). 
In the queeu's instructions to Lord James Murray, to be used 
by him in the Justice Court at Jedburgh ou 15th November 1561, 
Amlrcw, comlnemlator of Jedburgh, along with Sir Andrew Ker of 
llirsel, David Turubull of Wau.hope, and others, were to appear 
at that court an,1 auswer for their diligeuce in apprehending "the 
faltours gevin in valentines  t,» thame" ( Pvivy Cm«n«il Records, 12th 
November 1561). Andrew, the commendator, was the second son 

 In Scotland, sealed letters sent by royal authority to chieftains, land- 
owers, &c., for the purpose of apl)rehendiag disorderly persons (Jamieson's 
5'cottish Dictionarff ). 


of (;eorge, fourth Lord Home, and brother of Alexander, the fifth 
lord, who was father of the first earl. Sir 5iorton, on the authority 
of Wood's P«er«uje, says that Andrew was son of George, fourth Earl 
of Home; and N'isbet says he was son of the thh'd Lord Home. In 
a charter in favour of William Scott of Haughhead, dated 30th June 
1588, and also in a precept of clare constat, dated 20th Auost 1594, 
in favour of 5Iark Scott, son of the said William Scott, deceased, 
Andrew, the commendator, styles himself " frater germanus quondam 
Alcxandri D»mini Home." This umquhile lord must have becn 
Alexander, fifth baron, son and heir of George, fourth baron, who 
died in 1575. Foreseeing that the abolition of his abbey was 
imminent, the commendator, like the abbots and commendators of 
shnilar establishments, ruade over the lands, &c., belongdng to the 
monastery to his chief, or rather to his own mother, who was the 
widow of Geolge, fourth Lord Home, and on the de,ath of Lad) ' 
H»me he ruade a new grant of the lands of the abbey in favour 
of his ncphew Alexander, Lord Home, who was infeft in thcln in 
1564. On the death of Lord Home in 1575, his son Alexander, 
the sixth lord, obtained a precept from the commendator for infeft- 
ing him as heir to his father in 1587. 
)n 23rd March 1579-80, Andrew, "permissiole divina com- 
mendatarius perl,etuus monasterii de Jedburgh," and the convent, 
goEanted a charter of feu-farm to Alexander Hume of lt/utt,nhall 
of the three corn-mills and the waulk-mill belonng to the 
m,,nastery, he 1,aying for the saine annually, fol" the three corn- 
mills the sure of £90, 10s. Scots, and fr the waulk or fulling 
mill the sure of £5, 10s. Scots, being the old rent in use to 
paid for the saine. This was confirmed by Crown charter of date 
26th May 1587. 
On 30th June 1588 the commendator granted letters of tack 
and assedation, dated at tlm abbey of Jedbttrgh, to Vïlliam Scott 
in Haughhead of the teind sheaves of the town and lands of ttaugh- 
head with thcir pertinents, lying within the barony of Eckford, for 
ten years from that date, " payand thairfoh" zeirlie the said William 
Scott, Iris and assigaayis, to ws and our successors, commen- 


dators of the said abbcy, our factoris and chalmerlainis in our naine 
the sowme of thrie bollis beir, and fywe bollis straikkit mcill, gud 
and sufficient mercat stuff, betuix the feistis of Sanctandrois day 
and candilmes allanerlie, and delyuering the samen within our 
girnell in the said abbey as vse is, or to sik personis as we sall 
assigne to uplyft the saine." To this document was appendcd the 
common seal of the chaptcr, and Andrew Clayhills, minister of Jed- 
burgh, was one of the witnesses. 
A dispute having arisen with regard to the right of certain 
parties to the monks' portion, supeq»lus, and temporalities of the 
abbacy, the question was brought before the Lords of Session: who 
f,mnd that the matter arose out o the multitude of Acts ruade 
ahurit thc saine, and anncxing the saine to the Crowu ; and in 1593 
the Scottish l'arliament passed an Act reponing to Andrew, the 
commendator, his own right of the temporalities during his own 
liftime, as if the saine had never been taken from 
By the Act of (;neral Ilevocation, 29th .luly 1587, the bailiary 
«»f the abbey lauds, an office which had been held by the Kers of 
Furniherst since 1542, was, alon: with the temporalities of the 
abbuy, annexed to the Crown : but in the following year Sir Andrew 
Ker of Frniherst was by a Urown charter confirmed in his "native 
possession " of the bailiary of all the lands, lordships, and baronies 
belonging to the abbey, whercver lying within the county of Iox- 
burgh, to be held by hiln and his heirs on payment of a bleneh 
duty of one penny yearly.  

1 Sciatis nos intelligentes per aut_ntica documenta quod quondam Amlreas 
Ker «le l,harnyhirst, [quondam Johannes Ker dé pharnyhirst], et quondam 
Thomas Ker de pbarnyhirst, lnilites, proavus, avus, et pater dilecti nostri 
Andreoe Ker, lnmC de l»harnyhit, legitime constituti fuerat ba]lià omnium 
terrarum, d,mini¢»rum, et baroniarum monasterio nostro de Jedburgh pertinen- 
titm, tMcunqm jaceltimn infra vicecomitatm nostrum de P«)XbulNh .... 
vo|entes dictum Andream et ]neredes minime l:edi aut proejudicari in sua nativa 
p,»eui«,ne officii dedisse, COlcessisse hereditarie et bac l»nesenti carter nostra 
colafirmasse dicto Andl'eœe KeI', heredibus suis, &c.Dated at Holyrood House, 
15th Match 1587-88 (Great 5"eal Register» Lib. 37, No. 11/5). 
The words in brackets, which are hot round in the charter as recorded, 


In 1600 an Act was passed in favour of Alexander Lord 1-Ionle 
anent the thirds of C-ldingham and Jedburgh. The Act sets forth 
that " 1,ecause the tyme of the first ul,giving [»f the rcnts, the saine 
were in the auhl integritie, and were able to l,ay the auhl assurait 
third thereof, whilk they are hot n«,w able to beir, his provision 
thereof l»eing nae f,,rder extemled but the spirituality of the saine, 
whilk for the maist 1,airt is set in lang takis, great l»ensions gevin 
furth of the samyn, mony monk's portions evictit furth thereof, and 
the hall temporalities annexed to the I?rown, wherethrough Lord 
tlome and the ministrie are defl'audit of the payment of the sure 
third which the rents are hot able to beir." A new "just third" 
was therefore ordered to 1,e ruade. 
About the rime that Lord Ho, me w,qs created an earl he resi.,.,,ned 
into the hands of the king the lands of the abbey, and ohtained a 
re-grant ,,f them by Crown charter of date 10th May 1606. In 
that year the abbacy, abmg with the priories of Calmnby and 
ingham, was erected into a barony, called the Barony of Coldillgham, 
and granted to the Earl of Home, whose minor diglfities were Lord 
• ledburgh and Dunglas; and the priory of Restenn«,t was also 
erected into a barony in favour of Viscount Fentoun. From the 
grant to the Earl of Home were excepted the kirk of Dalmeny, 
which belonged to Jedburgh, and the right of patronage of that 
kirk, which had been given to Sir Thomas Hamilton of Binning; 
and the kirk of Lavertoune, and certain lands, &c., which had 
belonged to Coldillgham, and were now given to the Earl of Dunbar. 
There was granted the saine year to l'feston of Pelmycuik a pension 
of £300 from the abbacy of Jedburgh, which was ratified by Act 
of l'arliament in 1641. 
On 26th February 1606 Sir John Ker of Hirsel obtained a 

,axe here supplied from the precept of the charter in the Privy Seal Register 
(Lib. 57, folio 52B). Further on in the charter and also in the precept, the lands 
are described as lying "infra dictum nostrum vicecomitatum de Jedb«rgh." 
As no profit was derived from the office of bailie of the monastery, the 
lIarquess of Lothian did not put in any claim at the abolition of the heritaDl 
jurisdiction (Chalmers' Caledonia). 


Crown cha-te- giving him the mills of ,ledhurgh whieh had belonged 
to the abbey. 
Ii 1610 anoth,.r chartcr of the lands and lordship of Jedburgh 
was granted undcr the [reat Seal in favour of the Earl of Home, 
and in the following year there was a contract of excam]don, dated 
" At Edinburgh, and Coldingknows, Jedburgh, the sext, twenty, and 
twçnty h-ie days of Junii, Julii, respective, 1611, (by which) it is 
al»pOilitit, agreit, and finallie contractit betwix ane nobill and potellt 
Erll Alexandre Earl of Home, Lord Jedburgh and Dunglas, and Sir 
John Ker of Hirsell, kng t., heritable feuar of the Landis, mylnes, 
fishings, &c., and utheris aftermentionit, with express avyse and 
e«,nsent of Dame Margaret Quhitlawe, his spous, for all 'icht, titill, 
eltress, ,qnd clame of richt quhilkis sche had, hes, or ony wayis may 
clame or have to the samin lan,lis, teyndis, mylnes, and utheris 
efter-specifet, with thare pertineutis, 1)e conjunct fie, lyfrent, terce, 
or be quhatsumever either manner of way; and siclyke the saide 
Schir Johne takand the burden upone him, and his airies fur ]tir, 
(sells and dispones) to the saide Nobill Erle and his airis maill, and 
assignees quhatsumever, heritablie and irredimable, ail and sindri 
the Lands of Hirsell, with towere, fortalice, nmnor-place, mylnes, &c. 
And to that efIict the saide Sehir Johne be thir i,resentis, binds and 
oblissies him and his airis, &c., to infeft dewlie and su/iicientlie be 
charter, and seasing, the said Xobill Earle and his airis nmle and 
ssiguais forsaidis (in the above Lndis), and to mak seil, subscr)-ve, 
and deliver to thame cha'ter contening preceit of Seasing, and pro- 
curatorie of Iesignatione zerupone in sic due and competent forme 
as effeiris." The only burdens affecting the lands were  wadset of 
the "Est manis of Hirsel" to Sir John of Huttonhall, and Samuel 
Home, lais l»rother, the right of a'edemption of which v-as assigned to 
the earl, and localities in favour of the dowagers of the fanfily, 
which were specially exempted. In exchange the earl disponed the 
lands of Jedburgh to Sir John Ker, which he immediately after- 
wards possessed, and thereby was designated. 
The Kers of Hirsel were a younger br,qnch of the Cessford 
fam]ly. Iark Ker of Littledean, second son of Walter Ker of 


Cessford. obtained the lands of Dolphingston by marriage with 
Marjory Ainslie, Lady of Dolphin.,_.,ston, and iii 1542 their son, Sir 
Andrew Ker, afterwards designed of l«,ll,hingston, of Littledçan, 
and of Hirsel, received from .lames V. a grant of " the kiug's lamls 
of Hirsel." It was by the grandson of this Sir Andrew that these 
lands were excambed for those of Jcdburgh, as stated above. Hume 
of (;odscroft says that Ker got the Hir.sel o account of his beiug 
the first to bring t, the king tidings of the vict,ry wou by the 
Lords Home and Huntlcy over the English at Hadd,mridge. 
After obtaining possession of the lands and 1,rdship of ,le,l- 
burgh, Sir .lohn Ker, as above mcnti,_,nd, assumed the territorial 
designation "of Jedburgh." In an instrument of sasine dated 1st 
April 1613, two years after the excambiou, and proceeding on a 
feu-charter granted by Sir John iii favour of Walter Turnbull 
Rawflat, in the lauds of Rawflat and Iyknowe in the barony 
Belses, and of Nçther Bonchester and lraidhaugh in thc bar, my of 
Ai»botrule, he is designed as " de Jedburh "--" nunc hereditavius 
feudifirmarius terrarum et dominii de ,ledburgh." 
In consequence o ditticulties having occurred as to Sir ,l,,hn's 
right to the territorial lordship of Jdbur.h, including the abi.ey, 
several transactions were entered into between him and the Home 
family for the puïpose of having his feudal title completed, and iii 
1619 he obtained a eharter from the Crown. The saine year, 
Walter, first Earl of Buccleueh, purehased from Sir .lohn the 
of Boxtonleys, Chiefthope, Over and Nether Whitkirk, Whiland, 
(h'miseleueh, Abbotsyke, and Abbotshaws, all of whieh lands had in 
former days belonged to the abbey of Jedbuïgh. He also at the 
sanie tilne purehased the teinds of Castleton and Erkleton, and all 
other lands belonging to the oM cell of Canonby (,S'cotts of tlucclet«h,, 
VoL I., p. 252). As part of the excambion arrangement, the Eall 
of Home promised to obtain an Act of Parliament dissolving the 
abbey from the Crown, and to resigm the abbey for a re-ooTant by 
the Crown to Sir John Ker; but Lord Home having died belote 
these promises were fulfilled, a new contraet was entered into with 
his suceessor in 1621 to earry out the arrangement of 1Gll. Sir 


lavid l[,mm of Wedderburn was provided to the al»bacy, which was 
held to bc vacant Jy the decease of Earl Alexander. In 1621 Sit" 
I avid, with consent of the convent, ruade rcsignation and demission 
«,f the saine to the king in order that il might bc gq':tnted to James, 
Earl of Home, which was accordingly donc the saine year by Act 
«f l'arliament, followed by a ('rown charter, erecting the lands of 
the abbîy and those of Canonby into a free barony, called the 
larony of Jedburgh, in favour of Lord Home. The saine year 
l'arliament ordained that no ratification of the abbacy, or any part 
thereof, be expede in favour of Sir John Ker until he found caution 
to settle the Lail'd of Ferniherst in his I;eimls of Ferliherst, xnaln, 
Hobkirk, Fewrev,ll [ledrnle ?], Over and Nether Wells, I )ver Crailing, 
,winsidc, the said laird having to pay to Sir John some reasolable 
duty, and to the ministers serving kirks where these lands were 
situate, and likewise SOlne reasonable duty 19"o rata according to the 
laJ»dification that was already ruade or shouh_l be lnade for stipends 

to the saine. ()n a nev resignation 
title to the barony of Jedburgh was 
In 1622 Sir Amlrcw Ker of 
Jedburgh. Some have stated that 
the lands and barony of Jedbu:gh ; 
were still in possession of Sir ,lohn 

by the Earl of tlome, Sir John's 
completed by a Crown charter. 
Ferniherst was ereated Baron 
along with the title lac received 
but this is hot correct, as they 

Some tirne after Sir John got possession of the lands of the 
abbey he appears to htve become embarrassed in his pecuniary 
affairs, and Sir Thomas Hamilton, king's advocatefamiliarly 
known as "Tare o' the Cowgate "----who had been created Earl of 
Mt;lrose,t a title afterwards changed for that of Haddington, apprised 
thc lands end lordship of ,ledburgh from Sir ,lohn Ker for payment 
of £5837, 10s. Scots; and in 1623 the Earl of Melrose obtained a 
Crown charter of the lordship of Jedburgh. He afterwards assigned 
his right to Jedburgh in favour of his son Thonms, Lord Binning, 

 "A title which, after bearing it eight years, he relinquished for that of 
IIaddington, thinking, it is said, a title derived from a county more honourable 
than one from an abl»ey » (IHstorical Icco,nt of the £_'enators o.f the ('olle.9 o.f 
,laaice p. 223). 


who led a new apprising against Sir John Ker for £17,333, 6s. 8d. 
Scots, and ort that al,prising obtained a charter from the Crown iu 
1624. In 1632 John Ker of Langnewton and Littledean, as son 
and heir of Sir John Ker of Jedburgh, then deceased, ratifie,1 in 
favour of Thomas, Lord Binning, his al»prising of the lands, lordship, 
and barony of Jedburgh. Lord Binning held the property till the 
year 1637, when, after succeeding his father as second Earl of Hd- 
dington, he sold and disponcd to William, the third Earl of Lothian, 
the lands, lordship, and barony of Jedburgh, a transaction which was 
ratified by Act of l'arliament in 1641. It would seem that l[obert, 
second Earl of Lothian, who was father-in-law of William, thir,1 Earl 
--the latter having married the second earl's eldest daughter Anna, 
(2otntess of Lothian---had also acquired a certain interest in the 
lordship and barony of Jedbtu-gh as a creditor of Sir J0»hn Ker of 
• ledburgh. The second Earl of Lothian's two daughters, the Ladies 
Anne and Joanna, were served heiresses to him, each in one-half 
of the lordship of Jedburgh. These retours were expede in 1642, 
and on the resignations made by Thomas, Earl of Haddington, and 
the two co-heiresses of Robert, second Earl of Lothian, William, the 
third earl, obtained a Crown charter on 5th March 1642, which 
completed his title; and from that date to the present rime the 
lordship of Jedburgh has continued the property of the Lothian 
family. William, the third Earl of Lothian, was third in descent 
from L'obert, third son of Sir Andrew Ker of Ferniherst, and this 
Robert was uncle to Sir Thomas Ker of Ferniherst, the zealous 
champion of Queen MaD,. 
We have now completed our survey of the rise and fall of this 
monastic establishment. From the time of David I., who founded 
the abbey, till the Reformation, when it was suppressed, four hundred 
years had elapsed, and that period had proved an eventful one for 
Scotland. The national prosperity, as we have seen, received a 
severe check after the death of Alexander III., from which it did 
not fully recover for several centuries. The independence of the 
country, which had been endangered by the ambition o the English 
kings, was, after being gallantly defended by Wallace, permanently 


established by Bruce on the field of Bannockburn. :But the two 
countries waged war with each other for centuries with only brief 
intervals of peace; and Scotland suflbred severely fronl this cause, 
as well as from the almost constant feuds of her own nobles. 
It was, as we have previously said, only in the seclusion of the 
cloister or cell that, at the period when these buildings were erected, 
religion found ber home, and that the arts and sciences flourished 
under the fostering care of the monks, so that the monasteries, raised 
I,y pious hands for the most worthy of all objects, and endowed by 
a wonderful liberality, long exercised a beneficial and powerful 
influence upon society. ]lut those great and once potent institu- 
tions were hot exempt fronl the nfighty law of change; and though 
they had, during a certain period of their existence, proved of import- 
ance in preserving something like a living ç'hristianity, they vere in 
time supl,ressed, and the rcmains of their once extensive buildings--- 
now silent witnesses of the pastserve only as interesting objects 
to the student of architecture or to the ordinary tourist. 
"The sacred tapers' lights are gone, 
Grey moss has clad the altar stoppe, 
The holy image is o'erthrown : 
The bell bas ceased to toll." 


OF the altarages in the abbey very little is known. The earliest 
notice we have met with is in a charter granted to tire chaplains in 
thc church «,f Jedworth, dated st ,Iedw«,rth on 30th August 147!, 
and confirmed un«ler the Great Seal on 21st November of the saine 
year (Otc'al ,'eal l:«gister, Lib. 9, :No. 13). 
In the chartcr referred to, Mr James de Newton, "rector 
eccleske parochialis (le Bothroule" (ledrule), gr«mts t«,n mcrks 
yearly from two tenements 1)clonging to him in ,ledwrrth to Walter 
H«.nrison and his suceessors, chaplains st the altar of St Kentigern 
(St Mungo), l in the church of .ledworth.  After the death of the 
gTanter, the patronage of the said chaplainry and altar was to 
devolvc upon James utherford of that Ilk and his heirs, and 
presentation to be ruade within twenty days, failing which the 
provost, bailies, and community of .Iedworth were to 1,resent within 
eight days. The chaplain was to perform daily service st the altar 
in praise of the omnipotent God and His Mother the Virgdn Mary, 
and for the salvation of the souls of James I I., King of Scots, 
James III., Kiug of Scots, and Margaret, Queeu of Seots, his 
spouse; and for the salvation of the souls of the donor, of his 
father, of his mother, and of all his predecessors and successors, 
and of all the departed faithful, s 

1 St Kentigern was called in the language of the ancient Britons Munghee, 
or Mungho, « one dearly beloved » (Alban :Bufler's Lices qf te Sdnts). 
 This charter la referred to by David Laing in his edition of Robert 
Henryson's Poems, p. xxxix., Ediuburgh, 1865. 
•  In « A Perfect Inventor of ail the Donations since the days of King Ja : 
the flïrst to the reigne of King James the 6th inclusive as also thereafter" 
(M,ç.'. Folume  Stirling's and Glasgoe Zfbrary), there is mention of a "C. of cou- 



We find reference to two other altamges in  charter granted by 
James V|. to the provost, bailies, council, and community of Jed- 
]Jurgh, ,lated at E, iinburgh, 24th November 1569 (ibid., Lib. :2, 
No. 87). The elmrter sets forth that, with a view to provide for 
lhe preaching of the Word of ;od, and fi»r the hospitality and 
assistance of the poor, the maimed, the wretehed, the impotent, 
and orphans within the burgh, the king gave all lands, tenements, 
:mnual rents, aeres, cr,»fts, profits, dues, and eluoluments whatsoever 
that lelmgel to the chaplainries or altarages of the l;lessed Mary 
ami -f the l l,,ly lood, situated and founded in the parochial chureh 
of Jcdburgh, and which were possessed and uplifted by the last 
chapb, in and possessors of the saine respectively, namely, umquhile 
Dominus J,»hn Wood, last chaplain of the altarage of the Blessed 
Mary, and umquhile Master Walter l'yle, last chaplain of the 
altarage of the tf,»ly l,o3d, within the church aforesaid, and then 
vacant by their decease; likewise all other ehaplainries, altarages, 
or chapels, in whatever ehurch founded within the liberty and 
parish of the said burgh of Jedburgh, and then vacant, or that 
might in future happen to beeome vacant, by whatsoever patron 
founded. After reeiting that great fraud had been practised by no 
small number of the chaplains and prebcndaries, who after the re- 
formation of religion disl,oned, alienated, and away gave the lands, 
tenements, and annual rents, mortified to their altarages and chap- 
lainries, int the hands of private persons, the charter rescinds and 
annuls all such transactions by which the firs will and intention 
of the founder was ehanged. Nevertheless, the will of the king was 
that whatever chaplains, possessors of the said altarages or ehap- 
lainries were remaining and had provision from the saine before the 
leformation, should by no means be prejudiced by this infeftment, 
but shouh! enjoy the said fruits and dues during their life only. 

firmatiou of a mortification nmid be 11r James Newtoun, parsoue of Bothweli, to 
a chaplane at St 51ungoes altar in Jedburgh of ten merks of annual rent zeirely 
out of his two tenementz in Jedburgh particularly described therein dated 
4 Novr-, 1479." The " Bothwell " here is evidently  mistake for "]5othroule " 



In 1498, Robert Ker of Sonderlandhall sold his lands of Esselie- 
band to Sir William Douglas for 240 merks Scots, to be paid "on 
one day between sunrise and sunset in the parish church of Jed- 
worcht, upon the altar of St Mary the Virn " (I[istory o.f ,%llirk- 
shi'e, by Mr Craig-Brown, Vol. II.). 
The Town Council, on 30th January 1664, appointed James 
M'Cubbie and William ]Irown, bailies, to speak with the late 1,rovost 
anent the "alterag" contained in the town's charter. On 13th 
February following, a committee was appointed to take one of the 
ohl registers to rcvise the saine anent anything that could be found 
eoncerning the altarage. 
In addition to the altarages we have named there was an altar 
in the abbey dcdicated to St Ninian. ç_)n llth (_)ctober 1503, at 
the altar of St Ninian, there was drawn up a notarial instrument on 
the consimtion of Mr ;awin Douglas, provost of St Giles Collcge 
(_'hurch, Edinburgh, as procurator for George, Mastcr of Angus, Lord 
of Jcdworth Forest, into the hands of ])avid Douglas, burgess of .Ied- 
worth, of the sure ,f 100 merks Scots, to be kept for the profit of 
Ralph Ker of l'rimsydloch, to whom the said Gawin had ofired it 
for the redemption of the lands of Langlee and l;illistungis, in the 
lordship of Jedworth Forest, but who wouh[ hOt resign the said 
lands, in respect that, as he thought, the seven years' tack o the 
lands which he offered him, in terres of the letters of rvision, was 
uot sut5cient. Among others prcsent were Valter Scot of Buc- 
cleuch, knight, William Ker of Zare, and Gorge Iouglas of Bon- 
jedworth (D,,«glas JS'ook, Vol. III., pp. 180, 181). In 1576, when 
an account was taken of the thirds of beneficcs, the third of the 
aharage of St h'inian in Jedburgh was .£3, 4s. 5d. 


SEVERAL impressions of the common seal of the abbey, as well as 
of the office of abbot of Jedburgh, are still in existence. 
Mr Henry Laing, in his volume of the AncieTt Seals of ,%otland, 
figures and describes two seals which had belonged to the abbot's 
oce, as also the common seal of the chapter. The first is appended 
to a convention bctwecn thc al,bots of Melrose and Kelso rcgarding 
the lands of ]ouldin, Eldon, and ])ernewick, .D. 1220. This 
probably the first seal that belongcd to the oIfice--is described as 
representing a fcmalc figure sitting belote a lectern, on which is a 
book, which she holds open with her left hand; ber right hand 
holds a crosier, and ber head is inclined upwards, as if enged in 
singing praises. The lcgend is: [S]tGLLV : CO : hB[aTS : ] : 
Another of the seals is appended to a gift to Alexander Lyon, 
chauter of Moray, of the non-entry of the lands of Çossin or Ardqu- 
h.rk, in Forfar, par of he ancien parimony of I:estenno, 1532. 
It reprsents, beneath a (;oc canopy, the flight of the Holy Family 
into Egyp ; and in the lower par is the figure of a monk kneeling a 
1,rayer, with the legend : s : OFFICII : ABBATIS : MON : DE : JEDWORT. 
The common sl of the chapter, as appended to the sasine of 
thc lands of Cossins, 1534, is described  the saine work as repre- 
senting the Fathcr crowning Mary within a niche, while on the 
counter seal is a representation of the salutation of the Virdn. 
Thc impressiou, the author states, is in bad preservation, which no 
doubt accounts for the reading he ves of the legend. The saine 
seal, but without the reverse, is attached to the grant by the abbot 
and convent to William de Felton, noticed on page 38 as being 
among the documents in Balliol CoHege, Oxford; but this is also 


much defaced. We have had in our possession, the lroperty of 
the late Mr John Crosby, ;lasgow, a beautiful and ahnost perfect 
impression of this seal, which shows that the lgnd on the obverse 
on the courter seal which Henr)- Laing has decil»hereà as .I,trEn : 
CASO .... SERVIS .... ANIA : should be -4- MATER : CASTA : 
[PI]A : SERVIS : SVCCVRRE : MARIA. It is al,pended to letturs of tack 
and assedation, dated 30th June 1588, from Andrew, commendator 
of Jedburgh, to William Scott, of the teind shcaves of the town and 
lands of Haughhead, afterwards noticed. 
The two illegible letters are supplied as above on the suggestion 
of Thomas ])icksoa, LL.]., Curator of the Historierai Departmet, 
Ieneral Ilegister House, Edinburgh. His reading is ail the more 
probable from its giving a rhyming hexametcr, and nmy be fortificd 
by the closing words of the " Salve legina " in the Itosary or Virgin's 
l'salter ordcred by l'ope Pius V. : " O clemens, O pia, O dulcis Virgo 
Maria;" or, in the English version :-- 
" O merciful, ) piius hIaid, 
O gracious Mary, lend thine aid." 
Thc abbots' l»ersonal seals, so far as they are known, will 1,e 
described i, treating of the Superi, rs of the Mnastery. 


(v the SUl, eriors of the monastery very little is known ; even a few 
of tle names may bc lost. We have hcre attempted to make a list 
of them, and bave noted what eould be gathered eoneerning eaeh. 
It will be found that our list is by far the most complete that has 
hitherto been published. 
DA.XIEL was prior in 1139, as al,pears from a charter of that 
ycar b)" David I. to tle monastery of Coldingham, 
().|:ERT, .,-ho WaS first a prioi, and afterwards raised to the 
dignity of an abbot, is said to bave been a man of singular piety, 
and to bave written a treatise to the king concerning the founding 
of the m)nastery. I{e composed the rules and registered the acts 
f the chaptcr. As prior he witnessed a grant by David I. to St 
Mary's Church, ,Stirling, in 1147, and as abbot he witnessed a 
charter of confirmation to the abbey of Kelso by Malcohu IV. in 
1159. In 1160 and 1163 Osbcrt vitnessed grants to Cambus- 
kcmteth Abbey, which is only another naine for St 3iary's ('hurch, 
Stirling. He died in 1174. and is alluded to in the Mdrose 6'hronicle 
as "primus abbas de Jeddeworthe." 
ltiCrlARD, the cellarcr of the abbey, next succeeded to the office, 
and died in 1192. 
ItALI'II, one of tbe canons, who succeeded on 29th May the saine 
)ear, was relmtcd to be a seer. He died on 7th August 1205, much 
regrctted by his brethren. 
HuGtt, who was previously prior of Restennot, was next abbot 
,_,f Jedburgh. This abbot attested a document defining the boundaries 
between the grounds of Eildon and Bowden, to prevent quatTels in 



future between the monks of Melrose and Kelso (6',.o'L M,.1. and II«,'l. 
MS., 3960, fol. 41I.). Laing gives a seal of Hugh, bearing a tigure 
of the abbot, in cowl, holding his statt: seated on a carved chair in 
profile to the right, reading a book upon a carved lectern. Legend: 
[S]IGILL : HVGOlq[I8] : ABB[ATIS : D]E : GEDEW .... (circa 1220). 
I'ETER held otiice from 1220 till at lcast 1226. Mr ]Iruce 
Armstrong, in his I[i.tory of Liddeschde, &c., pp. 107-10, refcrs to 
a dispute between Walter, bishop of Glasgow, and l'ctcr, abbot of 
,]edburgh, in 1220, regarding the priory of (_'anonby and the church. 
Ho is mentioned in the chartulary of Dryburgh Abbcy as abbot in 
Hi',', . All that is knowu of this abbo is thut he resigned his 
c|mrge on account of his great age and infirmities in 12::9. Ho 
was succeeded by 
I'ttILIP, 1,reviously one of the canons, who was abbot ten years. 
He sat with the king in council in 1244 (.4«ta l',cH. ,c,_,l., Vol. I.) 
He died in 1249 (E,tra«la os Ch,'onicis S«otia" and M,_i,',_,se Chr,,nir'l,'). 
I-OBERI" DE {gYSBORNE, another of the canons, was next elcted 
to the office of abl,ot, but died the saine year. We are told that 
the very appearance of this abbot inspired dcvotioll. Ho was suc- 
ceeded by 
'IC.HOLAS DE I»ItENDERLAT|tE, anothcr of the canons, the Salue 
year. At lox|,urgh, on 20th Scptember 1255, he was, along 
with many others, admitted into ttm King's {_'ouncil for the lnan- 
agemcnt of certain matters on the Borders. In the saine year 
he, along with other magnates of the king, recommendcd the re- 
moval of the bishops of l;lasgow and Dunblane and othêrs from 
the King's Council and their office, in consequcnce of theia" demerits, 
and recommended that others should be al,pointed of his council, 
and regents of the kingdom, and guardians of the king and queen 
(Cci. of Doc. 1:«1. t,_, Scot., Vol. I.). 51 1256 the king, Oll the rc- 
comlnendation of his cnvoys, including Abbot Nicholas, convencd 
a larh_'ament to be held in Stirling (ibid., Vol. I.). This abbot, 



along with the bishop of Dunblane and the abbot of Melrose. 
performed the ceremony of excommunication against the councillors 
of the king in the abbey of Cambuskenneth in 1257 (Melrose 
(7ronicle, p. 182). In 1265 he was, along with three other persons, 
sent on a mission from King Alexander III. to Henry III. of Eng- 
land, at tbat rime in custody of the Earl of Leicester, whose prisoner 
he had ],een since the battle of Lewes the preceding year. He 
retired in 1275 in consequence of old age. He was a man of 
wisd«,m and prudence. 

• IOHN IOP, EL, who was also chosen from anlong the canons, was 
abbot when Alexawler III. was married in the abbey in 1285. He 
was one of the three comnlissioners sent by the Scottish Parliament 
to the English king anent the rival claires of l;ruce and Baliol to 
the throne of Scotland. fie sat lu the convention at Brigham on 
14th Mal'ch 1289-90. In 1290 he COllCmTed in a letter of the 
Comlnonweahh of Scotland to the King of England al:,proving of 
the proposed nlarriage of the king's son with Margaret of Norway, 
the heiress of the Scottish croxvn. In December 1292 he was 
present at Xewcastle when ];aliol aeknowledged King Edward to 
be his feudal SUl,erior. He swore fealty to King Edward at 
Berwick on 2nd Septêmber 1296. His retirement was reported 
to the king the saine month. Mr Henry Laing, in his Catalog«e of 
Scottish Seals, describes this abbot's seal as a very neat one, having 
the device of a horse, an,l, in the upper part, a small figure having 
the appearance of a gauntlet, ail surrounded by a border of plain 
tracery. Legend: S : FRATt:IS : JOHh,,\'SIS : IOIEL. A,D. 1292.-- 
Chapter House, "Westminster. 

WILLIAM DE JARU)I, the prior, vas next elected abbot. The 
clcction took place by permission of Edward I. of England, as 
appears from the following writ entered on the Patent I,'olls of the 
year m. 6. 1296 :-- 

"Fratres Willelmus de Jarum, l)etrus Gernoun, et Johannes de 
Tyttyntone, canonici de Jeddeworthe, nunciantes regi cessionem fratris 



Johannis nuper abbatis eiusdem ,loci, habent litteras regis de licentia 
« Teste rege apud Berewyke super Twedam, xiij die Septembris." 

" Rex venerabili in Christo patri eadem gratia (;lasguensi episcop-, 
salutem. Sciatis tluod electioni nuper factœe in ecclesia conventuali de 
Jddeworthe de fratre Villemo «le J«trum, priore ejusdum domus, in 
abbatem illius loci, regium assensum adhibuimus et fav«,rem. Et 
v.bis tenore proesentium significamus, ut «tu,,d vestrum est in hac parte 
exequamini. In cujus, &c. 
"Teste rege apud Alnewyke, xxiij (lie Septembris." 
"Pro priore de Jedduworth de temporalil»us abbati«u pr:udict per 
J,»hannem de V'arrena, &c., custodem regni et terrœe Scotie, eidem 
' i,ri,»ri ' nomine regis deliberandis. 
"Iex dilecto et fideli su,», Johanni deWarenna, c,»miti Surri:% custodi 
su,» regni et terroe Scotie, salutem. Cure nos electi«,ni nuper factoe in 
ecclesia conventuali de Jeddeworthe du fratre Villlm,» de Jarum, pri,»re 
ejusdcm d«mus, in abbatem illius l,»ci, regium assensum adhibuerimus et 
fart»rem, et velimus eidem elect«» ista vice gratiam facere in hac parte, 
vobis mandamus quod si c«mtingat electionem illam per loci di, ecesanum 
cauonice contirmari, et vobis per litteras paente-s ejusdem (li, ecesani inde 
c,mstiterit evidenter, tunc, accepta nomine ne,stro al» e,,lcm elect,» fideli- 
tate nobis debita in hoc casu temporalia abbatioe ejusdem sibi deliberari 
faciatis. Receptis tamen prius ab eodem elect,» litteris patentibus sigillo 
suo, ne,non et sigilh» capituli sui signatis, quod hec gratia nostra non 
cedat in prœejudicium seu trahatur in consequenciam temporibus futuris. 
In cujus, &c. 
"Teste, ut supra" (Hist. Doc. Rel. to Scot., Vol. II., pp. 106-7). 

The brethren of the monastery met in their chaptcr on Friday, 
the Fcast of St Matthew the Apostle, the saine year, and sent 
certain o[ their fellow-canons to present Friar William o[ Jarum, 
the unanimously elected abbot, to the king, for the royal confirma- 
tion of the election, and they described him as "a man in every 
way fitted as abbot and pastor." 
He witnessed a charter granted to Meh'ose Abbey. ïhe saine 



al»bot attended a meeting of Parliament at Ayr on 26th April 1315. 
Tbe original ordinance is in the British Museum (tIarl. MS., 4694), 
and Sir James Balfour gives a list of the seals attached, one of them 
being that of the abbot of Jedburgh. That seal, however, along 
with others, had become broken, and has since entirely disappeared. 

IOIERT. This abbot's naine appears in the chartulary of Arbroath 
in 1322 and 1325, in the chartulary of Dryburgh in 1326, and in 
the chartulary of Kelso in 1329. 

,lox was abbot in 1338. Ho witnessed a grant to Dryburgh 
Abbey by William de Felton, the English Governor of loxburgh 
Castlç and Sherifi" of Teviotdale. On 3rd April 1342 he witnessed 
a charter of David II., wbich was confirmed by Robert II. (Ilobert- 
son's Charters). In 1343 ho witnessed a confirmatory charter of 
King ]avid }ruce to Kelso Abbey. In 1346 there was a treaty 
ruade at Roxburgh between Englishmen and the abl,ot of Jedburgh 
and other Scotsmen for settling the Scotch lorders (Acta Pari., 
Vol. I., p. 180). He witnessed a charter of Edward III. to the 
church of St James at Roxburgh in 1354, and also one by Rogcr 
of Auldton to the chantry of St ,lames, l[oxburb. It was probably 
this abbot who was present at Roxburgh in 1356 when ]aliol ruade 
a formal corcession of the kingdom of Scotland to Edward lII. 

I,'OEP, T. This abbot went to England on the a[thirs of David II. 
in 1:58, the year of that ki,g's release from eaptivity, and was pro- 
bably the abbot wbo was present at a meeting of Parliament held 
at S'cone on 27th Match 137l. The original instrument is in the 
(;enerul ttegister H,mse, Edinburgh. The seals of those loresent, 
ineluding that of the abbot of Jedburgh, were appended to the 
instrument, but unfortunately this abbot's seal is not now attached 
to the label or tag. 

JoIN, who probably succeeded Abbot tobert, witnessed a charter 
of Robert III., confirming a charter of David II. in favour of Kelso 
Abbey, and dated at Scone 10th March 1390 (Great ,Seal egister, 
Vol. I.). 



WALTER is the naine of the next abbot of whom we find any 
notice, lte, along with the al,bots of Kelso, Melrose, and lryburgh, 
was concerned in an agreement anent the corn tithes of Lessudden 
in 1444. 
ANDREW, who was al»bot in 1464. granted a right of burial in 
the «.hoir in favour of Rol,ert Iuthel'furd of 'l,att«Jw and his wife 
on 12th ,luly that year. 
IOBERT. [11 September 1477, Al,bot Robert was, with several 
others, commissioned by .lames l I I. to meet with commissioners from 
the King of England, at Alnwick, f«,r the redress of grievances and 
settling the conditions of truce. He attended the Parliaments hld 
in Edinburgh in November 1469, May and August 1471, and March 
1478. He still held the office in .lune 1478, as appears from the 
A,'ta DoM,o,'«m A«dito,',»«, where reference is ruade to an action 
in which Sir William Steuart, knight, sued "l:obert, abbot of ,led- 
wert, anentis the wranguis withaldin fra him of the some of xv 
marcis of the malis of the lands of Stewartfeld, acht to the said 
• IOHN HALL was appointed I,y the king in l)ecember 1478, and 
attended the Parliament held in Edinburgh in (ct«,l,er 1479. He 
assisted in restoring the abbey (sec p. 43) 
TflOM.S CRA.NSTO.N" WaS abbot in February 1484, and attended 
the Parliament held in Edinburgh in March that year. He also 
helped to restore the abbey (sec pp. 45, 46). 
IOBERT witnessed a charter by Walter Ker of Cessford on 20th 
October 1488, which, with the express consent of Robert, abbot of 
Kelso, and his convent, founded and constituted a perpetual chaplain 
to the altar of St Katherine the Virn in the church of the monastery 
of Kelso on the north side of the saine. James IV. confirmed this 
charter on 20th l'ovembcr the saine year (C-reat Seal t:egister, 
Vol. II.). 
TI-IOmS, abbot of Jedworth, was one of the Scottish commis- 
sioners at a meeting for a truce and redress of g-rievances held at 


f'ol,lstream on 25th Mareh 1494 (6'ottonian M,., C«ligula, B. vii.). 
]le is mentioned in the indenture of Canonby, dated 26th ]Iarch of 
the saine year (Armstrong's Liddesdale, ,kpp. No. X.). 

L)OBERT ÏILACKADER, archbishop of (;lasgow, was commendator 
in 1504 (I'itcairn's Criin«d T»'ials). 

HENRY was appointed in April 1506 as one of the king's com- 
missioners to let Kintyre, with all the isles south of the l'oint of 
Ardnamurchan, for money and grain rents, only for terres of three 
,,r rive years. The commissioners had also extesive powers for the 
re-establishment of trauquillity in the Western Isles (Ea:chelter I:olls, 
V,ls. XII. and XIII.). This abbot's naine appears as witness to 
charters dated 1st December 1508, and 18th and 25th January 
1512 ((,re««t ,S'«al ttegister, Vol. II.). 

JOtlN ]tOME, next abbot, was brother to the third Lord Home, 
(:reat Chamberlaiu of Scotland, ho commanded the van of the 
Scottish army at the battle of Flodden. tte was one of the wit- 
nesses to a confirmi»g charter gq'anted in Edinburgh on 16th August 
1513 ('eat ,Si'al, Vol. II.). He sat in the l'arliament held at l'erth 
iu November 1513, and in several held in Edinburgh afterwards. 
In 1516, when Lord Home and his 1,rother William were treacher- 
«,usly put to death in Edinburgh, their brother, the abbot of Jed- 
burgh, was banished beyond the Tay. Ile was elected Clerk of 
Expenses to the king in October 1526. In 1528, when Archibald 
1 ouglas, sixth Earl of Angus, was ordered by King James V. to be 
driven out of Scotland, the earl fortified himself in Tantallon Castle, 
from which he afterwards went to Coldingham Priory, of which his 
brother William had been prior. James, with 500 men, went thither 
to beard the lion in his den, and the king was accompanied by Lord 
Home and his brother, the abbot of Jedburgh, so that the latter 
might be placed in possession of the monastery. James placed Lord 
Ilome and his brother in possession, as was expected, but on the 
departure of the king Angus returned and expelled the intruders 
(1)o«glas Boo£', Vol. II., pp. 244, 245). In 1530 John Home sat 



as one of the Lords of Council (Red 13ook of Moteith). On 17th 
November 1537 this ahbot m'anted a charter (confirmed by James V. 
on 26th January 1539-40) disposing in fcu-farm to Andrew Gray 
and Janet Hume, his wife, the lands of Dunnynad, in thc county of 
Forfar. This was done, as the charter bears, to meet the payment 
made by the abbot of the tax imposed by the l'ope on the clcrgy 
and due to the king, and also for the rebuilding of the abbey, which 
had been burnt by the English (Great Seal I:cgister, Vol. III.). In 
1544 he was elccted one of the Lords of the Articlcs. He, along 
with his brother, Lord H»me, Lord Bothwell, and the abbot of 
lryburgh, assisted by a number of Frenchmen, ruade an incursion 
into Northumberland on 15th August 1545. In the following year 
he protests for his teind penny of the composition of an escheat 
(,4«ta Parl., Vol. II., 465,,,). On 26th March 1549 a charter of 
legitimation under the Great ,qeal was ,manted to Master John 
Ho»me, Master Alexander Ho»me, and Master Mathew Home, "bastar- 
dis tiliis naturalibus reverendi in Christo patris Johannis de Jcd- 
burgh abbatis;" and on 20th April 1572 a similar charter was 
anted to John Home, " bastardo filio naturali quondam Johannis 
commendatarii de Jedburgh." 

ANDREW HOME, nephew of the last abbot, and son of (;eorge, 
fourth Lord Home, was abbot commendator from 1560 till his death. 
He attended the Reformation Convention in 1560, and sat in the 
Parliament at Edinburgh in August 1567, and in several others 
held afterwards. He was present at a convention held in H,lyrood 
House in March 1574, when delivery was lnade hy Colin, Earl of 
Aro-yle, Dame Agnes Keith, his spouse, and others, of certain jewels 
which belonged to the king. In 1576 the L'egent and l'rivy 
Council directed this abbot and others to meet at Canonby to take 
trial and inquisition, who were the "auld kindly tenants" and pos- 
sessors of the saine (Bruce Armstrong's Liddesd«de, p. 117). The 
same year he was charged with intercommuning with traitors and 
rebels. This abbot must have died between 1593 and 1606. He 
was a commissioner for holding Parliament in 1593, and in the 



s,me yeal. he was reponed to his right in the abl»ey, notvithstanding 
oTants from the saine; and in 1606 he is alluded to in an Act of 
Parliament as "umquhile Andrew, commendator of ,]edburg." Ho 
had for his seal, says Ir H. Laing, a representation of the Vir£dn 
and Iufunt .lesus standiug within a ¢ :otlic niche. In the base of the 
seal is a shield, qtmrterly; first :md fourth, a lion rampant for 
Ho»me; sec«nd and third, three papin.goes for l'epdie of Dunglas. 
(From a lead matrix in I r Rawlinson's Collection, Bodleian Library, 
_)xf«»rd.) Another seal of this al»l»ot bears a full-length figure of the 
Virzin and _'hild, standing within a (othic niche. In the lower 
part of the seal is a shield quarterly with arms as abo'e, and o'er 
ail on a surtout au orle f,r Landels. Above the shiel,1 appears the 
head of a crosier. Legend as above. This is appended to a precept 
in favour of John, Lord  ;lammis, of the land of Little ossms, 1551. 
Nisbet says he had seen a seal of this abbot having his arms cut, 
adorned onl)" with a croser (pastoral stafl') erected in pale, placed 
at the back of the middle of the shield, the hooked head thereof 
appearing above the saine turned inwards. Andrew's seal, as attached 
to the chrter to Wi]liam Scott of Haughhead, and to the precept of 
clare cotst««t in favour of lark Scott, already referred to, is simply 
a shield quarterly" the first and fourth a lion rampant, and the 
second and third three papingoes. 


ALTIlOUGH several of the monasteries in Scotland suffered severely 
by the frantic enthusiasm of the populace in thc Reformati«,n against 
I'«»pcry--a few having been entirely dcmolished--it was the ex- 
pressed desire of the leaders of the reforming party that the churches 
should be preserved. Ont good and suh'icient reason for this was 
that they required them for the carrying o of their own worship. 
Not only wouhl the throwing down of the churches have becn a 
piece of wanton destruction, but the erection of new ones wouhl 
have incurred a vast amount of unnecessary expense. The wrath of 
the Reformers, as has been truly remarked, was " against the warm, 
luxurious nests of monks aud friars, atd the deploral,le cloistcrs «»f 
the miserable nuns, rather than against the fabrics at,propriated only 
for divine worship." Jedburgh Abbey, s bas been show, suflbred 
from other causes; and we may safcly afiïrm that it sustained little 
or no injury at the time of the ]eformation. The following ordcr 
to the magistrates of burghs, issued on 12th August 1560, by the 
Lords of the Congregation, shows that, though it was recommeuded 
that the kirks should be freed from all monuments of idolatry, the 
kirks themselves were to be strictly preserved : 
'Our traist friendis, after maist hearty commendacion, we pray ze 
fail not to pass incontinent to the kirk, and tak down the haill images 
thereof, and bring furth fo the kirkzyard, and burn tl)aym oi)enly. And 
sicklyke cast down the alteris, and purge the kirk of all kynd «»f monu- 
ments of idolatrye. And this ze fail not fo do as ze will do us singu|ar 
emplesur ; and so committis you fo the protection of God. Fail not, bot 
ze tak guid heyd that neither the dasks, windocks, nor durris, be ony 
ways hurt or broken, either glassin work or iroa xvork." 
On 19th July 1560 Paul Methven, formerly of Iundee, was 


nominate,1 ministcr of Jedburgh by the Lords of the Congregation, 
and the church to which this minister came was undcr the tower of 
thc alJbey. It had probably been temporarily erected for the carry- 
ing o1 c,f w,,rshi l, by the canons after the destructive injuries sus- 
taine,l by the abbey in 1544-45. 
[)n 1;th Sel»tember 1563 the Lords of the Privy Council, con- 
.i,lcring that kirks, partly by the sloth and negligence of parishioners, 
:nd partly by oversight of the parsons, are daily decaying and 
becoming auinous, and paa't of them are already fallen down, the 
parishioners nowttys causing the saine to be men,led, nor )'et the 
l»arson doing what appertains to him for uph,»hling thereof, "quhair- 
throw the peching of the word of God, ministmtioun of the sacra- 
ments, and rciding of the commone prayeris  ceissis and the people 
thairthrow becumis altogid, lcr without knawlege and feir of (;od," 
or, laincd parish kirks that are decayed and fallen down be repaired 
and upbiggit, and where ruinons and faulty to be mended, two parts 
of the expense of future maintenance to be borne by the parishioners, 
and the third by the parson. 
The tirst particular notice we have round o[ the state of the abbey 
church after the leformation is in an Act of the :Privy Council of 
date 9th ]:'eb'uary 1574-75, which shows that the Town Council and 
community of Jedl)urgh had raised letters setting forth that the roof 
and tituber of the kirk were in so decayed u state as to call for 
immediate stels to prevent tbe falling down of the saine. The 
complainers stated that, although it was the duty of the abbot to 
keep the kirk in proper repair, he had failed to do so, and they 
suggested that the tituber of the refectory of the abbey should be 
taken down and used for that purpose. The Regent and Lords of 
Secret Council, after hearing Thomas Henderson on behalf of the 
burgh, and the abbot commendator for himself, complied with the 
request of the community, on condition that the commendator be 
asked to make no further refait on the kirk or « queir" at any 

 Frobably The Book of Geneva, drawn up by Knox and others in 1555. See 
Sprott and Leishmar's Introduction to Te Bool¢ of Com»o-t Order. 



future time, unless the saine were destroyed by the English, or by 
"sic vther accident maid ruinois." We give a copy of the Act of 
Council, as it is exceedingly interesting in many particulars : 
"Anent oure souerane lordis letters rasit at the instance of the 
prouest baillies counsall and comunitie of the burgh of Jedburgh makand 
mentioun That quhair thair paroche kirk quhilk aucht to be interteneit 
and vphaldiu be the Abbot of Jedburgh persoun of the saine is presentlie 
consumit and decayit in the rufe and tymmer thair¢,f and within schort 
proces of tyme will all utirlie decay and fall doun gif tymous remeid bc not 
prouidit thairto, And becaus the saine is the saidis complenaris paroche 
kirk and becumis thame to se the reparatioun thairof for thair ressonabill 
case at goddis seruice thairin, thay can find na better means to the help 
thairof than that the tymmer of the frater [or refectory] of the said Abbay, 
quhilk consumis and spillis and the place altogidder soliter, be tane doune 
and set -p and bestowit to the reparatioun and amendment of the ruif 
and tymmer werk of thair said paroche kirk, quhilk the abbot of the said 
abbay, albeit he sould interteny the saine, he allwayis refuissis to 
expres aganis all ressoun and equitie, takand na regaird to the saidis 
complenaris quha myndis dalie g«xl willing to assembill in the kirk to heir 
goddis word and call vpoun his holy naine : And anent the charge gevin to 
the said Andro commendatare of Jedburgh to compeir befoir my lord 
Regentis grace and lordis of secreit counsall at ane certane day bipast, to 
heir and se gift and licence gevin to the saidis complenaris to tak doun 
and intromit with the tymmer of the said frater To the effect the saine 
may be bestowit vpoun the reparatioun of the said paroche kirk for vphal«l 
th;tir,»f, or ellis to allege ane reassonabill caus quhy the samyn souhl not be 
donc, Vith certification to him and he failzeit my 10rd regentis grace and 
lordis foirsaidis wald decerne heirintill as accordis, Lyk as at mair lenth 
is contenir in the saidis lettres executioun and indorsatioun thairof: 
(uhilkis being callit, Thomas Hcndersoun burges of the said burgh of 
Jedburgh comperand personallie in name and behalf of the inhabitantis 
of the said burgh and parochynnaris of the parochin of Jedburgh havand 
thair full power and commissioun, And the said commendatare being alsua 
personallie present, My Lord regentis grace with auise of the lordis of 
secreit counsale (_)rdanis, with consent of baith the saidis partiis, the 
tymmer of the said frater to be tarte doun and to be apprysit be twa 
personis to be nominat and chosin be the saidis prouest baillies counsale 



and communitie of the said burgh, and vther twa personis to be n«,minat 
an«l chosin he the sai, l commendatare, And that cautioun be fundin be 
tle saidis prouest baillies counsale and communitie that the samyn 
tymmer, «,r the avale thairof as it sal be a,prysit, with twa pairt 
alsmekill of expensis t« he vpliftit «,f the iuhabitantis of the said toun 
ud paroche, sui he applyit to the reparati«,un of the croce kirk within 
the suid hurgh f,,r the ease and commoditie of the people res«oEand 
thairt at I, reching and l,rayer and na vtherwayis: Pr«,uiding alwayis 
that the said c«,mmendatare be hot chargeit to mak ony ferder ex,enssis 
vpoun the reparatioun ,f the said kirk or ¢lueir at this present or at ony 
tyme beireftir, Èxcept t},e sane be dimolissit and cassin doun be England, 
«,r be sic vther accident maid rwinois That thairthr,w he be subject to 
repair the saine for his pairt Conf,,rme to the Act of parliament maid 
thairunent a]lanerlie."--Dated at Edinburgh, 9th February 1574-75 
( Priry ,al R91ster ). 
It is impossible to ascertain the form or extent of the church 
which was thus repaired, atd any conjecture as to these is attended 
with great difliculty. This church was never undêrstood to have 
ineluded any lart of the choir of the abbey, and the idea that it 
might haxe iacluded part of the nave seems discoutenanced by the 
fact that in 1642, as will be seen by John Mill's report which is 
afterwar¢ls given, there was a gl'eat wall "under the steipill on the 
west syde." 
I;y an ..ct of General Assembly in 1588 it was ordered that in 
future no burials should take lace in the churches ; but this seems 
not to bave beea enforced for SOlne time, as we find that an overture 
for putting the .kct into execution was, by the Assembly of 1638, 
referred to the care of presbyteries, and, on 29th July 1640, the 
presbytcry of Jedburgh ordained that «in tymes coming ther sall 
be no corps buried in the kirks, and that conform to sundrie .kcts 
of the Kirk." 
Another order anent armorial bearings seems to bave for some 
little time been disregarded, so that, on the llth of August 1643, 
the Assembly, besides ratifying the Acts against burials in the kirks, 
inhibitcd and discharged all persons from hanng "pensils or 
boards," or affixing honours or arms, or making "any such like 



monuments, to the honour or remembrance of any deceased person, 
upon walls or other places within the kirk," where the publie 
worhip of God was exereised. In eonsequence of this, [r William 
Jamieson, minister of Jedburgh, on 24th Jalmary 1644, "regq'ates 
to the presbytrie the aftixing of honours and arlns within the kirk 
of Jedburgh that is suft?red to remane," notwithstanding the Aet of 
Assembly against the saine. The presl_,ytery "ordeanes the samine 
to be takin doune, and referrs it to the minister and session to 
aequaint my lord I Ialhnirrino or any other having interess therewith 
and lrimo OE«o,l«e leml,ore to report ther dilligenee heerin." 
In 1636 one of the "pryme pillars" whieh SUl,ported the tower 
was rcported to be in a dangerous state, but no immediate steps 
seem to bave becn taken to ilnprove its condition. In February 
1642 the 1,resbytery lnet for visitation of the kirk. {lll that 
oeeasioll the lninister, William .Iamieson, " being demandit what 
he had to say against his paroehiners," thanked (lod that lllal|}- o[ 
his parishi«»ners loved the word, and " wer revel'end hearers thairof 
and frequented God's bouse. 3 thiugs wer regraitted by him. 
First, that discipline had neid to be helpi: in respect of former 
negligenee of the vse thairof quhairthrow many vyees had aboundit ; 
.':,eeondlie, that his peot,le durst not eonveene without danger; 
ïhirdly, that the kirk is too little for eontaining the vhole l'arochin." 
The heritors aeed to al,prove of whatever was ordered by the 
presbytcry, and John Mill, a " maister of work," havin.g been brought 
froln Edinbur::h for the purpose of getting his "advyce t,» sie with 
masons quhat wer the dangers of the bouse, and quhat way it nlieht 
be repairit," reported that " the mending of the piller will eost a 
thousand merks, and thrie seoir singill tries, threttie dou|,le tries, 
two hundreth daills to be scattblding and eenttries." [1" Mill's 
report proeeeds as follows :-- 
"For enlarging ,_,f the kirk t arehes--three pillers--the building up 
of the west gawell so high as convenientlie may serve the height of the 
syde walls of the said kirk with ane window to the west on the said 
gawell, and ane fair doore for entrie in good and sufficient stone work. 
Secondlie, so far of the said kirk as is to be advancit, the hcight of the 



walls thairof takil down fo the erowtt of the great arches and the walls 
of that place levellit f,,r the roofe. Lykwyse the syd flankers of the 
said kirk wpon the south and n«,rth syde takin down so far that ane 
roofe to-f. wayis may theik vn&.r the eising of the body «»f the kirk, and 
lykwayis the saine t« be levellit st that place, and the wi(lows thair-f 
sloppit d,uue and archit again so far as convenientlie they might serve 
the kirk with light. Thirdlic, the great wal| that standeth vnder the 
.steipill on the wcst sydc to ]»e taken doun, ane fait arch to ]»e betwixt 
the 2 pil]ars on thc south and north thairof and thon }»uilt wp «,f s,»li(1 
st«me work t,, the greit heich arch ,f the steippill, for the quhi|k d,)eing 
and repairing the s,wme of ane 10(J0 libs. Itw f,,r 700 dal|Ils, 700 merks ; 
Item f«»r making ,,f tire roofe and sarking of it, and setting ,,f if up, 
300 mks. ; Item f,r sklaittis and sklaitting, 500 mks. ; Item f,r nail]s, 
200 mks. ; Item for glasse, 300 mks. ; Item for iron work, 100 libs. ; Item 
for Lymc, 500 libs. The insister of work reports he thiuks it is a wondcr 
how either the ,inister dar be bold to preach or the people to heir" 
( Presbytery Ifecor, ls). 
In his examination of the kirk 5Iill was assisted b)" Iobert 
5Iein, mason, Newstead; Thomas ];er, mason, Jcdburgh; Gcorge 
lhtsbie, wright, Kelso ; William Robson and Andrew Robsou, wrights, 
Kclso; and ,h»hn Williamson, glazier-wright ; and they all declared 
thc g'eat "necessitie of hell,ing and repairiug the kirk, and for 
l,revcntiug thc ruin and fall thairof," and that it was dangerous for 
thc pcoplc to mect there "without speidie and tymous help for 
1,rov)'ding remedie." The presbyter)" having approved of the saine, 
cxhorted the parishioncrs most earnestly to meet, and cause a stent 
r,ll to be ruade u l, for the purpose of raising the necessary funds, and 
advised them to use ll possible diligence to bave the work speedily 
carried out; and o the 2îth July 1643 they recommended to the 
cote of thc (lencral Assembly "anent quhat way sall l»c thought fit 
for collecting of a SUl,ply for repairing of the kirk of Jedburgh." 
(n 15th July 1646 the presbytery approved of the act of 
session of ,led»urgh about the communion tables standing as they 
stood st the communion till "a way be round for enlarging the 
The alteations and additions Iroposed b hlill would have cost 


£o5o, 6s. Bd. sterling, and when we take into account that moncy 
then was at least six times more value than at present--which 
would be equal to £2300 at this time--it will be seen that the 
expense was considerable, and ought to have improved the kirk very 
materially. It is certain, however, notwithstanding the apparent 
anxiety of those interested to have the work done, that Mill's 
was never carried out. Thcre can be no doubt that some rel,airs 
were eflcted shortly after 3Iill's report, and towards the paymcnt 
of these 1:100 merks wcre b«»rrowed from John Ker of Vest N'isbet. 
On 14th 3Iay 1653 the T,Jwn Council assessed for the burgh's slmre 
of the sure borrowed, and it was resolved that" troopers be qmtrtercd 
upon those who refuse to pay the stent in the burgh." ïhe town 
olIicers, it appears, collected the "ki.k molmy," and in .lune thc 
council resolved to imprison "deficients of the stent r,ll for kirk 
It is evident that n,» allocation of the church had taken place 
1,revious to 1640, and that the "localities" were about this time 
assigned by the minister and session, subject to appeal to thc pres- 
bytery, as appears from the fact that in that ycar the Laird of 
Edgerston (yr.) supplicated the brethren of the presbytery " for a 
place in the kirk of .ledburgh quhair he is a parochiner. The 
b'ether gif warrant to him to keip the place ,luhair he vscd to sitt 
vntill a minister be settled in .ledburgh." The 1,resl_,yteay having 
rcmitted the arrangement of this saine matte" afterwards to Thomas 
Abernethy, ministcr of Hownam, thc Laird or' Edgerstt, n COml,ltined 
that Mr Abct'nethy had infringed the acts fol'lmly ruade by the 
minister and session anent the seat, and that he had gone beyond 
his commission, and had meddled with things that did hot acc(,rd 
therewith. The presbytcry declated what he had d,Jne to be null 
and void, and the acts lnade by the sessiol, and minister of .led- 
burgh " before his going to the almy" to ]Je of the saine vigour, 
t'orce, and strength as before. In the saine year the Laird of 
Hunthill gave into the presbytery " ane bill compleaning hc was 
wronged in his seat in the kirk, and desyring he micht not be 
wronged." This is -eferl'ed to 3Ii" Jamieson, the minister, " who is 


now at the armie." The question having not been so speedily or so 
satisfaetorily settled as thc complainer w5ld have wished, he seems 
to have taken the somewhat },old step of bringing it to an end by a 
lock-out, as may 1,e inferred from the preslytery records of date 29th 
 ctober 1642, where it is statcd tlmt the Laird of ttunthill delivered 
thc key of the door between the kirk and thc " queir," that free entry 
might 1,ema,le to the i, eople to convene iu the service of God. 
The Town ('ouncil having resolved to build a council house, 
they appointed a comlnittee in Match 1664 to speak with certain 
parties anent the "redding of the ground, and houking out of SOlne 
stains at fraters' gawell," and to agree with them for the saine. The 
treasureï was afteïwards authorised to 1,ay the workmen tf groat 
a day for their meat. n the 4th of the following lltOllth the 
cotmcil al,pointed the magistïates to speak with the heritoïs allent 
the downtakig of any ruinous part about the kirk, and '" especia]ly 
the ïinks, wt,ich are most dangerous, a,d to desire the stones thereof 
to help t build the council house." 
In 1{)6{) the kirk was again in need of repaiï, and the minister, 
l'eter Blair (who had been presented 1,y çharles Il., and had con- 
forlued to El,iscopacy ), advised the magistrates hot to "reluis to send 
t'or mesones t sight the kirk, if the heritors put it upon them, quilk 
being voyced about, the Counsell condischendi before the work be 
retardit that they sould condischend thairto." J,»hn Fall, mason, 
appeaïs to have been ordered to inspect the kirk, and extensive 
alterations seem to have 1,een resoh'ed upon. The Town Council 
ïesolved voluntarily to give 2.500 merks as their shaïe, and ap- 
l,uinted a commis.ion to proceed to Glasgow to ask the arehbisl,op 
ami synod for a contribution towaïds the work. They applied also 
to the synod of lumfl'ies for a contïibutiol. On 14th Selotember 
1667 thé council appointed William Young to go with the minister 
t,» ;lasgow to briug home the money vhich had been contïibuted 
for the kirk: but the minister iufoïmed thê provost that the contri- 
bution couhl not be had until caution was found that it be employed 
f,»r repairing of " the whole fabric," and the provost gave caution to 
that eflct. The presbytery contl'ibuted " 3ô', lbs." towards the 



work. In 16th November the council "ordains .lames Fall to be 
satisfied of the sure of £200 fol- tituber bought by him fl,_m, 
Lord Xewbattle f«»r the rebuilding of the kirk. (hdains l;eorge 
Rutherfurd, treasurer, to satisfy Iavid Sehairif and IIall»h 
in I)xnam, the lêaders of the wood f,r the use of the kirk, the sunl 
of £19 Scots money." In January 1668 it was resolved by the 
eouneil to write to the archbishop of Glasgow to desire a visitatim 
of the kirk. William Haswell, late bailie, was apl,ointed to 
with the letter, and the magistrates and 11" Simson and .lames 
('ubie were to give the ex-bailie his instructions. He afterwards 
rCl,orted that his " voyadge" to the arehbishup had eost " :38 Il»s." 
Thus far the work of repairing the kirk under the tower seemed 
likcly te» be aeeolnplished on a somewhat extensive 1,1an--niay it 
n,,t have been that reeommended by Mill twenty-six years bef«,le 
--but still it never was efleted. The bm'gh records of date 28th 
May 1668 bear that "'the l»rovost signified that he had lllet with 
my Lord Ker and 8if Thunms Ker, and that my lol'd desired the 
I,urgh would couseut to give fol" ,'cbuil,ling tac ol, l Jab,'ic o," 
for their proportion "a00 merks, by and altour the 1000 merks for 
the emitribution, and to bring home the third part of the lime aud 
tilnber." This was smnethilig altogether diflrent froln what had 
I,een previously 1,mposed ; it was, in short, a suggestion to leave the 
ehureh under the tower, ald to build one in the nave. The l,rovost 
and Andlew Ainslie were autlmrised by the town and hevit«,rs to meet 
with his lordship and Sir Thomas anent the repairing or rebuilding 
«,f " ane eal,aei«,us church." The eouneil ail in one voiee cansented 
tt, the 1,r«,posal of lais lordship, and during the 5_,llowilig month the 
provost rel._,rted that ai ag'eement had beeu ruade with James Fall 
anent the kirk. On the 18th of ,luly " the couneil eon,leseends that 
there be a voluntary contril,ution for the building «,f the kirk, and 
to that ettct the minister, with an elder alid the bailie of his quai'ter, 
to go through the town do»ialim upon Wednesday next. The 

1 Popularly ealled "lillks." The derivatim «,f the w,,rd as hel-e al,i,lied is 
very obscure. 


couucil condescends f,»r furuishing forty bags of lime; that the 
council 1)eing twcnty-four in number, they, with sixteen to l»e 
addcd, shall furnish, either of them, one bag of lime, and that there 
l»e no less than f«»ur fulls in every bag, at least what the heritors 
l»ring, and that they briug in the saine within four days after adver- 
tiscment, under pain of half-a-crown every bag." The sixteen 
persons addcd to the council for this good work were Daniel 
l'orteous, A,lan Wilson, Jeunet Champnay, Andrew ,le'don, Issobel 
l:ol-,son, .lohn Wilsr,n, .lohn Yong, Iichard Dick, Stephen llobson, 
William ]hown, Th[_mlas l'orteous, Alexander Cunningham, Christian 
Ihtherfurd, .lames Roi)son, V'i]liam Iirown, and Wil]iam Putherfurd 
of the Hall. The council seem to have becn afraid that the new 
church might even prove too small, for we find that on 12th 
epteml»er, just three months after they had arranged as to the 
l»ringing in of the lime for the building, they "ail in ane voice 
condesced to take in another pillar to the church for enlarging 
thereof." The new church at the west end of the nave al,pears to 
have been completed and allocated or "divided " in 1671. The Ton 
Uormandlnents and (_'reed vere painted on the plaster on the east 
gal»lc, where, no doubt, the alta" was, and above each of the large 
pillars was painted a text of Scripture. Portions of these were seen 
up to the time when the church was removed from the abbey. This 
1-ew and capacious church extended to the fifth pillar from the est 
end, nd included north and south aisles. Besides the principal 
cntrance at the west end, there were two doorways on the north 
side, and one on the south by which the minister elltered. In 1691 
Lady 5Iangerto built a ]oft in a place claimed by Edgerston. 
In 1692 Ilobert, Lord Jedburgh, presented a new béll to the 
[)n 31st Octobe" 1702 the Town Council discharged all inhabit- 
ants, msons, or others within the burgh from meddling with, or 
ny way making use of any of the kirk stones, under pain of £10, 
"and other 1,unishment besicles." 
l)n 14th N'ovenbe" of the saine year the council 'ecommended 
that a committee represent tu the kirk-session that there should be 



"ane collection for the casting of the little kirk bell." On 3rd 
April 1703 the eouncil al,l»ointed a eommittee to speak with the 
session, and to show them that the eouneil " desires that intimation 
be lnade from the pulpit for a collection at the kirk door for 
payment of the little kirk bell's easting, stoeking, and other expenses 
relating thereto, and also to overture the session that what it may 
extend to in all may be borrowed by the burgh and session, 
regard the saine is lying ready at Edinburgh." A committee was 
al,l,ointed by the eouncil on 2n,l Match 1706 to iilSl,eet the bells, 
and "sic they be sound in their hanging upon the stocks." 
1726-27 the church was reI,ailed, and at this rime the pillars wel'c 
eut for the purpose of laying joists. In 1727 l'rovosts Iiehar, lson 
and louglts obtained "liberty to build lofts" over the localities of 
the Mar¢tuess of Lothian, Sir J. I,'utherfurd, and ]lonjedward, on 
condition that they surrender them when required on payment of 
eost of ereetion. 
A eommittee of the Town Council met on 10th January 1729 
anent the kirk bells, and Bailie Martin, in naine of the kirk-sessiob 
produced an extraet from the records of the session, wherein it was 
set forth that the session had in the year 1694 expended the sure 
of £:333, 6s. 4d. Scots out of the poors' money in maintaining and 
hanging the great bell mortified to the kirk by the late Lord .Icd- 
bttrgh, and the Town Council had !» 3" an act appropriated the bells 
to their own use, and had for about thirteen years past ul,lifted the 
emoluments of the said bell "gotten at the funerals of the dead," 
notwithstanding that they had been at no exl,ense regarding it. 
The session therefore required a reimbursement of the said sure 
expended, and a rcnunciation of any pretcnsions the town might 
bave to the emoluments of the said bel], and that for the future 
the emoluments might belong to the poor. The committee, after 
considering the matter, were of opinion that the town was lmt 
obliged to pay the sure "wared out" in a work which concerned the 
whole parish; and as the ringing of the bells iii all royal burghs 
was at the direction of the lnastrates, they thought this point 
ought hot to be given up without further consideration. 


There was au all»cation of Oie church this saule year in cou- 
sequence of the rcpairs on the fitbric, and this was ruade on the 
basis of thc original division by 
Ntcwartfield and the magistrates, al,pointed by the heritors for that 
l,Url,ose (H,ritors' L'ccods). [ )n 1 8th Al,fil a mêeting of thc deacons 
,,f thc trades and the convencr, Andrew Iobson, was held in order 
fur " settling, nominating, and appointing the new h»ft," at which 
was rcsolvcd that the first seat be possessed by the quartermasters 
and boxmastcrs in o[fice f,»r the time, the second seat by the h'ee- 
men, and the third and fom'th by the journeymen md alTrentices; 
and for the bcttcr kecl,ig of thc saine seats the ofliccrs of the 
tla,les wcre al,l,ointed to attend each Sabbath day, to see that the 
sitters in the seats ln'cd no distm'l»ance, nnder the l»enalty of being 
lmlished conform to law (,l[[atl," li,»,lc (f the lcshccs' Trmle). 
Ditculties in regard to sittings sccm to bave bcen somewhat 
frequent. I [)ctol»c' 1732 thc magistrates wcre appointed 
the heritors to settle the Lanton h»calities, and on the origilml 
division having becn read «ver, it was [omd that the Mmquess of 
lh«glas and his tenants were tu sit betwixt the làllar on the west 
side nf the pulpit, according t his valuati(m, and the test (»f that 
place f«,r Lant«m and thc tenants there, " ilk ane of them having 
severd breasts," as als« that tire heritors «,f Lant,,n wcrc ftn'ther 
t,-» have the l»a-t tre,let L,rd llutherfmd's loft f,-»r their locality, 
cxcepling two l»eWS in the f,»re part for his lordship. Madder's 
lands, having bc-n f,»mM t«J exlend lo al»«»tt hall the whole valuation 
,f Lmm,n, hml assigm,d to them two pews imlnediately behind Sir 
.h»lm lluthçfur, l's seat, each seat extending in length from 1,illar to 
pillaL and breadth tw¢ feet two inches, a free entry to be through 
this ocality to Sil..lohn lhttherfurd's seat. The gTound immediately 
behind 3ladder's back seat was given to Alexander Ferguson, " 
thc end that he might erect a hall seat thee." The l)nke of 
Ihmcleuch was lo have a seat extending from the wall on the east 
side of the msikle kirk duor to the entry that lcd into ('avers Cm'r's 
seat, keeping always vithin the general locality of Lanton. 
In 1735 the magistrates were appointed to "take inspection " 


what might be necessary to prevent the church being alJused 
swallows. How differcnt is this sentiment fr,m that expresse,1 ly 
the l'sahnis" Yea, the sparrow hath fouml an h«use, and the 
swallow a nest for herself, whore she may lay ber young, even lhine 
In the early part of February 174: the crown arch of tl:e 
abbey tower fcll. as appears from the Town C,,nnci] Records. A 
spcci,1 meeting of the mastrates and council, wilh several of tho 
principal inhabitants, was held on 3lst .[anuary 1743, to hear an,1 
consider a rcl),»rt of Th-mas Winter, mason, anent the condition ,,f 
the "steeplc-head and pend." Winter reported that at the desire 
of Ihe magistrates he had that day visited the "steeplc-head and 
pend," and found the saine in a "ratcht " ami dangerous comliti«»n, 
and that t« all appearance it wouhl fall clown. ]{e theref»re rec«m- 
mended that the bells and clock shouhl be taken down as soon as 
possible, in order to prcvent their bcing destr«,yed, lecause if the 
rent shouhl become wider it wouhl be dangers»us for w,»rkmen to 
go up and take them down; and he furthcr rec,,mmeded that if it 
was intended to repair the steeple-head and bang up the bells there, 
Ihe pend sh[uld be struck dovn, and the bartizan aml head of thc 
wall should be taken down to the onset of the pend, and a 
raised. The meeting rcsolvcd to bave the bells renmved, and 
acquaint the heritors of what had occurred. On the 14th of Fel,ruary 
the magistrates and council again met, when ]:allie Jcrdon informcd 
them that since thcir last meeting the " pend " had fallen d«wn, and 
that it was the opinion of tradesmcn that nothing couhl be done as 
to the taking clown of the bells withont having "great tituber fr[m 
lcrwick," which could hot be got at that seas«»n of the year. A 
conmlittee was appointed to lay before the heritors the ruinous and 
dangerous state of the steeple," especially the south-east part thercof, 
which lies next to the Grammar School," whereby the said scho,»l 
was in the eatest danger.  Reference to the falling of the tower 

1 It la generally believed that the little chapel south of the choir had been f,,r 
some rime used as the Grammar School, but a number of entries in local records 
in reference to the repairing, &c., of the school previous to this date are such as 



areh is ruade also in a memorial by the Magistrates and Town Council 
of date lï58 to the Convention of Ioyal Burghs on the decayed 
state of the town, and praying for case and relief of their stent. 
The memorial sets forth, i'Mcr olia, that about three years ago their 
county jail was declared ruinous and unfit for the puvposes of a jail, 
which obliged them to take down and rebuild the saine, and as the 
arch of their great steeple was fallen down, wherel,y the bells and 
clock, wl,ich were very vahml,le, were in great danger, the then 
magistrates and couucil very wisely thought proper in rebuilding 
their jail to carry Ul» four pillars in the midst thereof, in order to 
bang the bells and put up the said clock therein. The building 
here rêfêrrêd to developed suhsequently into the present town 
steeple, in which the bells are now hung. 
In 1744 the back door of the church leading into the minister's 
garden was repaired, and the "arch above the scholars' loft" in the 
kirk was ordêred tobe struck down. Six years after this the pulpit 
was ordêred to be fixed. 
The Laird of ionjedward took down some vaults near to Abbots- 
hall in 1748, as appears from the records of a case in the Sheriff 
Court, to which reference is ruade afterwards. 
The church was again in need of repaia" in 1759, and in connec- 
tion with this the hêritors authorised the digging up of and the 
taking of stones from bêlow the tower. 

to ren,ler this more than doubtful. The school is spoken of as having chimneys 
and being thatched with broom, conditions that could hot possibly apply to this 
chapel. Itis certain, however, that at this time the school was in close proximity 
to the chapel, either insi, le or immediately outside of the abbey, and th.xt it was 
removed in 1751 to premises in Çarongate, rented by the magistrates for that 
purpose. It vas to this school in Canongate that the father of Sir David 
]Srewster cxme as rector in 1771, and there he taught for several years, until 
anotler school was erected at the top of the Dean's Close. It is recorded in the 
Jedburgh Town Council Records that, in July 1756, the magistrates applied to 
the heritors for liberty to take the "stones in the old Latin School"--that 
is, the Grammar School at the abbey--for use in the erection of the town 
steeple. [ 1ï64 the heritors ordered the schoolhouse door and gable to be 
built up. 


0 0 20 "! 0  ZOO 120 



F- { -1 


l--The Kick 
z--The Manse 
3--The Garden 
4---Brew-house and stable 
5--The Court in dispute 
6--The Coal House 
7--The Cellar 
8--The Necessary House 
9--1linister's Barri Yard 
Io--The Foundation of Abbot's Hall 
--lIinister's Barri 
z--The Bank in dispute 
( Strazoberry Bank ) 
3--Mitehell's Yard o feet perpendieular 
lower than the Minister's Yard 
14--1litehell's Stable 
5--The Town House 
6Mitchell's House 
7--Andrew Preston's House 
8--John Preston's House 
19--Vault in the Garden 
zo--Part of a range of bouses upon the 
north side of Abbey Close 
2--Abbey Close 
2z--The Wren's Nest 
z3--The Wren's Nest Yard 
z4--Part of Waugh's Yard 
Jedburgh, February 9 x7 6o- 
James Winter, 
Nos 3 t4 and 6 were the Town's 
Property and sold to the Mitchells.- 


From the evidence in a case before the Court of Session in 1760, 
relative to certain alleged encroachments ruade by the minister and 
heritors of .ledburgh on the town's pr, perty, we glean some interest- 
ing particulars, which show that shortly before that time many 
fragmcnts of the albey buildings existed, of which there are now no 
traces; and the better to enable the reader to understand them, -e 
give a c,,py of a plan prepared for the court at the timc (see plan). 
We ma)" mention in this connection that in 16(;9 the magistrates 
purchased from the Lothian family B,-,ngate, I,'ichmond, Abbey Cl,,se, 
and the high and laigh kirkyards--all abbey pr«,perty--and tiret 
the charter (q'anted to the burgh in 1671 by ('harles Il. excepts, 
among other subjects, the Abbey Kirk, the cloisters on the south 
si,le of the kirk, the Old Hall, Wren's Nest, ])abie's T,»wer, and a 
tower near the Coss, at the south-west corner of Market t'lace. 
The magistrates alleged that there had been taken in from Abbey 
Close ail outside the pricked line at No. 5 of plan, and thal; portion 
from 10 to 9 ; and that the strawben'y bank (No. 12) formed n«J 
part of the cloisters, as contended by the othcr parties. The case 
was decided in favour of the minister and heritors. We may also 
lncntion that of all the houses nmrked on the plan the only one 
remaining is the Wren's Nest, and that the old mill wear or cauld 
shown cn the plan is also a thing of the 1,ast. 
Among the documents produced in the al»ove case was a disposi- 
tion by Thomas Ilutherfurd of that Ilk, dated 15th .lune 1714, in 
favour of the Magistmtes and Town Council of "all and haill these 
«,ld vaulted walls and schoolhouse, &c., lying within the abl,acy and 
thc burgh, in the laigh kirkyard thereof, boun,led between the con- 
vent kirkyard on the east, the house pertaining to the Abbey Mill 
and mill dam on the south, the minister's yard on the west, and the 
tcnement pertaining to the heirs of John Wood, wheelwright, on the 
north parts." 
James Winter, formerly a bailie in the burgh, who ruade thc 
plan produced, remembered the minister's corn-stacks being set on 
the pend or arch on the east side of the easter gable of Abbots- 
hall. The eastern gable was tushed in the corners, as if more I,uil,1- 



ings had been joined toit, or intended to be joined toit, on the 
north corner. The south corner was tushed in the saine way, and 
there were the remains of a turnpike stair at the south corner, on 
the east side of the gable. The pricked line at. No. 10 shows the 
site of Abbotshall.  Other witnesses remembered seeing boys climb 
up the l,indwood on the eastern gable to the top of it, and also 
seeing thcm jump from a window on the north side. From the 
evi,len«e of other witnesses we learn that the mastrates bought 
ff, eu .ohu l'reston a vault that stood on the south-west corner of 
his bouse (N,». 18), and that the st«,nes were carried away to r,.pair 
the wauk mill. The vault extended about twelve feet west into the 
garden, and it was about eight feet the other way. There was a 
h,»use between that which belonged to Turner, near the west end of 
No. 13, and lhe millcr's bouse on the data-side {No. 15), and there 
was a vault from the west end of that house with a large arch on 
tbe south gal,le, and this vault was like the building of the old 
a,bey. After Turner's death it was sold to lutherford of Hunthill, 
and ltutherford sold it to the magistrates, who applied the stoues to 
the buihling of the flesh market, h[,st of Turner's house was built 
of asblar. Two pillars stood near the west of Mitchell's stalhe 
(No. 14), rather within the south dyke of .No. 12, which pillars and 
tbe spaces between them were covered with hewn stones. Mr 
Winchester, the minister (lî:;4-55), took up some vaults on the 
n,,rth sid of the strawberry bnk, under the then south wall of the 
garden; and there were pieces of old work at a distance from one 
another on the south mad west sideu The old manse, occupied by 
Mr Semple ( 1690-1706), was spoken of as consisting of a long bouse 
called "the gallery," part of which stood north and south, and a 
jamb that went east and west from the south end of the gallery :part. 
The wester gable of the jamb, which was p,rtly old work built of 
shlar, was at the western gable of the brew-house and stable (No. 4). 
 A portion of the outer wall of the abbey is still seen at the mill lade at the 
foot of Abbey Close and there are two openings at the base which must have 
communi«ted with Abbotshall, probably for sanitary purposes. At that rime 
the base of the wall was wazhed by the river. 


At the west corner of the kirk was a vault, which the minister con- 
verted into a cow-byre. One witness spoke of little peuds or holcs 
which led to a passage under-ound that ran fxom west to east Tlear 
the south walk of the gardcn. The minister's corn was brought 
from the glebe Oll the south side «,f the .led in sleds over t he westeru 
dam bridge, and fr,,m thcnce up to the ]:ow at Abbolshall, and 
there forked up to thc stackyard, thcre bcing no sledge-way along 
the south side of the ruml,ling dyke at thc fo,or «,f the strawberry 
1,ank. We bave heard from rime to rime 
sul»teïanean passages in the course ,f their w««'k, but these have 
always been filled up l,ef,«-e investigation was ruade. 
Some rime after the al,ove action was fiuished the Laird of 
Al,botrule 1,egan to search f«n" vaults at the site of Abhotshall, with 
the intention, as he said, of selling the stones for buildiug purl,oses, 
and he alleged that the minister's baru (No. 11 of plm)had 1,een 
erccted on his (Abbotrule's) 1,roperty. Mr louglas, the minister 
(1758-68), deui,_«l Ahbotrule's right to the property, and hold that 
the charter which gave him "all and haill of the great hall within 
the 1,recincts «,f the t«)w of .ledburgh, called the [ld Hall, with 
vaults, houses, I,iggings," &c., coul,1 give him no claire to Abbotslmll, 
which was within the abbacy, and barony «,f Ulston, and paid no 
st,nt; as well might he commence to search lu the mause garden, 
where it was believed that iu many pl:ces would be found great 
nulal,ers of vaulted cl«)isters and cells, l:esides, the vaults at 
Al,l,otshall had I,eeli removed in 1748 by the Laird of lloujedward, 
to whom they had heen s«,hl. Itegardless of ail remonstranee, 
Abbotrule set several meu to work on the disputed gq'ound, which 
resulted in the brinng dowu of the barn while the minister was in 
church engaged in 1)reparat«)ry services for the sacralnent on the 
following day. This case was also settled in court in favour of the 
Mr Douglas had good cause to suspect that he had been sub- 
jected to this annoyance on the part of the mastrates in revenge 
for his having been presented to the parish instead of the man of 
their choice, Mr Thomas Boston, lninister of Oxnam : and Abbotrule, 


"who had been a protector of the complainer against tbe ill-treatmen 
of the magistrates, now joined them in affronting and distressing 
him," he (Abbotrule) being a y«»ung man and ill advised. Mr 
Douglas stated that, for his own part, if Abbotrule was lêd to t;,ke 
these steps l»y the advicc of others, as an insult upon the complainêr, 
and to throw contempt upon him in the eyes of the parishioners, he 
frccly and heartily forgave him, and humbly hopcd that, by the 
assistance of Iivine l'rovidclme, the nmny unjust rubs which had 
bcea throwt upon him, and the pcrsêcution which he had suflired, 
would one day entitle him to tind favour in the cyes of every well- 
disposed person among the people over whom he had beeu placed as 
pastor, and whosc spiritual imi»rovement and instruction would ever 
be the chie[ wish of his heart and labour of his lire. The alleged 
encroachments were ruade by the prêdccessor of Mr Douglas some 
twelve years previously, apparently without opposition, but this was 
said to have been due to "the negligence of former mana,ers.« " 
The heritors, considcring that the kirk steeple and abbey were 
grcatly damaged by boys and others climbing upon the walls, a 
resolution was passed in June 1761 irohibiting the saine in future, 
parents and masters to be responsible for their children and ser- 
vants; but it seems that this prohibition had hot the dêsired effect, 
for three years afterwards an ordêr was given for the building up of 
the old school-house door and gable, "and every place boys get up to 
the steeple." 
In 1764 it was reported to the heritors that the bells, clock, 
and weather-cock were in hazard, in consequence of the ruinous 
state of the belfry, which was all rent and dangerous. After various 
visitations to the belfry by tradesmen from Kelso, Newstead, and 
Jedburgh, it was reported in June 1771 that «the bells must be 
removed, and the soonêr the better." Bailie Winter estimated the 
cost of taking down the bells from the abbey tower and putting 
them up in the new steeple at £20 sterling, the workmen not to be 
responsible for any damage which might be sustained by the bells. 
The heritors seem not to have been prel0ared to ve this sure, but 
they a,Teed to have the be].ls removed as soon as tradesmen could 



be got to do the work for £10, and to be responsible for anv damage 
through insuflïiciency of naterial or workmanship. In August of the 
same year a contract was entered into with James Ovens and L'obert 
Balmer, who undertook the work for the latter sure, and it was 
agreed that they should have the use of the "town's machinery." 
After the removal of thc 1,ells, the clock, hich still remained in the 
belfry, became silent, and the managers of the town (there were no 
ma,dstrates at this rime), after taking this into consideration, resolved 
that a board be put up so that the clock might be heard. They also 
applied for estimates for taking down the clock, repairing it, and 
putting it up in the new steeple. The old clock was never, however, 
put into the new steeple, as a new clock with four dials and pointers 
was afterwards ordered to be ruade. The removal of the belfry from 
the abbey tower is afterwards referred to. 
One of the bells removed from the abbey--" the little kirk bell " 
referred to on page 91--was sent to the Royal Mines Company, 
London, in exchange for a new one. The bells now hanging in the 
town steeple are three in number, viz.--(1) that presented to the 
kirk by Robert, Lord .[cdburgh, in 1692 ; (2) that popularly called 
the court bell (the one supplied by the Royal Mines ('ompany); and 

(3) the alarm bell. 
XVhile collecting materials for 
18 ï 7 we had occasion to visit the 
examining Lord Jedburgh's bell. 
examination of the alarm bell, and 

the first edition of this work in 
town steeple for the purpose of 
At the saine time we ruade an 
were am'eeably surprised to find, 

what had not been suspected before, that it bore the following inscrip- 
tion in beautiful old characters, "÷ CAIPANA : BEATE : MARGARETE : 
VP,6nm "--the bell of the Blessed Margaret the Virgin. The bell 
is 18 inches in diameter at the mouth and 14 inches high. The 
Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, The Rectory, Clyst St George, Topsham, an 
authority on the subject of old bells, had his attention called to this 
interesting discovery by a communication in Notes al ueries, and 
having had a rubbing of the inscription submitted to him, he gave 
it as his opinion that this was a sanctus bell, and probably belonged 
to the abbey. "The words," he says, "were intended for a leonine 



verse, but the founder has made a blunder, and 1,1aced two words 
out of order. Founders often ruade such blundcrs, frequently 
1,utting letters upside down. The correct line would be thus: 
' CAMPANA. : MARGARETE : VIII, GINIS : BEATE,' or laade so that ' Beate' 
and ' Margarete ' shouhl run in rhyme. The date of the bell is the 
fiftcnth century." It is right to say that other authorities have 
fixcd thc fourteenth cêutury as the probable date. 
On 15th April 1779 "the bartizan" of the steeple, above 
Rutherfurd's aisle, was ordered to be taken down, being la a state, and thc stones were to be ai, plicd to the l,uild- 
ing of the Latin School. 
In 17,9 William Thorburn, mason, reported that eleven of thc 
pillars above "the leads "i.e., the pillars of lhe elercstory above 
roof of the church--xvere wasted and dangerous, and lhat two "],utts," 
one on each side of the great door, werc in the samc state. 
suggested that where the small i,illars were decayed they "might 1,e 
supplied with posts of oak, being less expcnsive than stone;" and 
tlw heritors resolvcd to put wooden 1,illars behid lhe stone l,illars 
whieh wcre w'asted. 
In January 1792, in consequence of a report n the unsatisfac- 
tory condition of the church, and considering the gq'eat expense 
required to put it into a 1,roper state, the heritors thought it would 
],e well to l,uil,1 a new ehurch, and al,pointed a commiltec to 1,,ok 
out for a site, and to procure estimates for the huilding of a church 
o hohl 1500 pcrsons. The report on the state of the church at this 
rime is interesting, ,as it shows that a this late l»eriod the groined 
roofed side aisles still existed. The words of the report are: " All 
orches betwe,'n lhe pillors cmd offside wedls vithi'n the elt.rel seem 
unsafe, and ought to be taken down, and as these a,'ches SV.l;l)ort the 
slated roof on the ,oe'th side, that roof ought to be taken down," &c. 
The estimate for the suggested repairs was £504, 12s. 7d., which 
included £3 for whitewashing and painting the pillars. This plan, 
as we have already stated, did hot mcet with the approval of the 
heritors; but the idea of a new church was also departed from. 
Several other plans were consi,lered, and ultimately one by Mr 



Willianl Elliot, Cavcrs, was approvcd of, the cstimated cost of carrying 
out of which was £774, 16s. 7d. Contracts were cntcrcd into with 
Mr Elliot, Mr Villtcrup, and Mr Bahlmr for executing the rel,airs, 
and the work was to be finished on or bcfore 10th April 1793. 
Il) was al this lime that the south aislc was rclnoved, and tire "«'all 
bl'ought forward to the pillars, so as to make the lightest and lllOSt 
coiufortable ehureh with lcast expense. The lower windows on thc 
south side wcre to be raised to thc top of the arehes, and windows 
Wel'e also insertcd in the archcs «)f the trif,)rium. Thc north aislc 
was fo bc takcn down and rcbuilt, and ill.tcad of two doorways iii 
that wall as f«)l'lncily, thcre was to bc btlt OllC, with two windows 
each side 3 fcct wide by 5 fcet hig]l. In thc arca of thc ehureh 
therc were to bc several square seats 5} fect widc, extending to the 
front of thc north l,illars, and il was arrallgcd that four of t|le seats 
in the nliddle of the ehureh wcre fo bc lnovablc, in ordcr thaL at the 
tinle of thc sacrament a d.)ublc row of tables nli::ht bc set, ont along 
these scaLs, raid one ahmg t]le ai'ca (ppositc, with a l,assage f(r thc 
ehlers along OlIC side of caeh. New galleries were also put in al 
this time. 
Il having bccll rcportcd te) the hcritol's in May 1804 that t]lClC 
was grcat danger in 1,art of thc ovcrllaltging wall of the abbcy, they 
l'es«)lved to take down thc danger,ms parts, 1,r«»bal,ly 1,orti«ms of the 
vauhcd roof of the aisles. In thc hAlowing )'car they 1,assed a 
resolution to 1,revent all pcrsons froln taking StOlleS fronl thc ohl 
hl 1818 the tu 1, «»f the west gablc was reported to bc daugeruus, 
in consequenec of watcr having got in at the skew, and it was 
s(lve,1 to rcmovc 1,art «,f the nlasonry and to eovcr thc top with lca, l, 
till the 1,roi)er rcpairs eould be cxceutcd. Mr Jamcs Gillespie, 
Edinburgh (who built thc eounty prison about this tinle Oll thc site 
of the old eastlc), SUblnittcd a plan in 1822 for thc rebuiMing of the 
uppcr part of the gable, so as to "stand as long as tlly portion of the 
abbey." This was approved of, the Saille to cost about £50 or £60, 
most of which was for scaftblding. Al».ut thc saine time matcrial 
repairs werc carricd out on the grcat towcr; ai1 iron belt was 1.ut 



round the walls, which were further protected by the putting in of 
two strong iron rods. l'lais part of the work was according to plans 
by Mr Archibald Elliot, architcct, London. The heritors and mas- 
trates, together with the owners of propcrty within the county, 
applied to the larons of Exchcquer for an allowance from the fuud 
at their disposal f«.r such pUrl.oses towards the paymcnt of the 
repairs, but the application was hot entertaincd. Thc expense was 
partly, if hot solely, defraye,l by pullic subscription. 
The end walls of llutherfurd's aisle, which had been taken down 
to give a better view of the abbey, wcre, in May 1827, ordered to 
be 'ebuilt, to prcvent trespassers from getting in. In 1831 the 
question of building a new church or rel,airing the old one was 
again revived, and again it was hchl that a new church was inex- 
pedient, lepairs and alterations costing £280 were ordercd, but 
these were round insulticient, and further a]terations were round to 
be necessa W. In 1867 great inconvenience :as experiemed in 
c, msequencc of there n,t being a proper allocation of the seatings, 
and as it was bdicve,l that a re-allocation was impossible under the 
then existing circumstances, it was thought that the erection of a 
lleW church was thc only way to remedy the grievance. 
The late Mar, luess of Lothian, who from his earliest years 
evineed a remarkable love fol' the abbey of Jedburgh, and very 
justly held it to be one of the finest of ail the abl,eys of Scotland, 
1,mg cherished tl,e h,pe of seeing the beautiful ruins eleared of ail 
modern pat:hWol'k. With this view his lordship entered into 
negotiations with the heritors of the parish, and offered to eontribute 
largely towards the erection of a new chureh on condition that the 
old ehnreh should be renmved frum the abbey. There was only one 
opinion regarding the state of the old ehureh, and it was that a ver), 
eonsiderable sure would be required belote it eould be ruade a eom- 
forable place of worship. Instead of aecepting his lordship's liberal 
oflr, however, the heritors resolved to earry out a plan by Mr 
',eorgc ]cll, architeet, Glasgow, for the improvement of the old 
ehureh. This plan, the earrying out of which was estimated to 
eost between £4000 and £5000, provided for the elearing away of 


the rubble walling between the pillars and arches in the first and 
second storeys on the south side, and for the restoring of the south 
aislc. This was to allow the galleries, upper and lower, to be 
removed, and the north wall was to be reduced in height so as to 
open to vicw the second tier of arches on that side. The principal 
roof was to be raised to its original position, so as to restorc to the 
church the clerestory, the west window, and the St Catherine's 
wheel. To open up to vicw the whole lcngth of the interior, it was 
suggested by Sir Bcll to substitute a glass scrcen for the dead wall 
which served as the eastern gable; and it was proposed to inscrt 
glass in the arches of the triforium, as well as in the windows of 
the clcrestory. The carrying out of this plan, however, involved 
thc taking in part of the old building which did hot belong to thc 
hcritors, and thcy were consetluently interdicted by the marquess. 
5Iatters bcing thus brought to a deadlock, L,»rd Lothitn, finding 
that no rcsp,use was ruade to his prcvious liberal oflr, proposed t, 
bear th whole expense «f a new C]lurch, and this was tfltimatcly 
acccptcd by the heritors. But it was hot the lot of his 1,rdship 
to sec any part of the w,rk accolnpli.shcd, as he dicd bcfore thc 
lmgotiations werc complcted. The present martluess , with praise- 
worthy zeal, determined to carry out the wishes of his late lamented 
brother, and they were fulfilled in a highly generous spirit. Thc 
clo.sing services in the abbcy church took place on the 4th of April 
1875, and the new parish church, a very handsolne structure in thc 
Early English style of architecture (Mr T. S. Wyatt, London, archi 
tect), was opened for worship on the f,llowing Sunday. 
Jedburgh Abbcy thus ceased to bc a place of worship, af ter 
having been used as such fo. over seven hundred years; and if we 
rcckon from the rime that Bishop Ec&q'ed built the first church at 
Jcdburgh, probably on thc samc site, we must add three centuries 
more. A thousand ycars t'orm no unimportant portion nf tilue, and 
during that period wonderful changes had taken place both as 
regards the physical aspect of thc country and the social condition 
of its inhabitants. Great forests, in which roamed the w,lf, the 
decr, and ogher wild animals, had disappearcd ; and large tracts of 



marshy ground and 1,_,chs of considerable extent, with which this 
country a,ounded, ha,l given place to fields of waving grain. The 
chase had lon.g since ceasc,1 to be the principal occupation of the 
inhabitants; the feudal system, which fi,r centuries exercised a 
mighty inlhlenee up,»n soeiety, had, as a civil institution, eeased 
to exist; and the unhappy wars between Sc9Lland and England 
had eome tr an end by the union of the two eountries under 
one sovereign. The peol,le had beel raised fmm a state of serf- 
dom to one of freedom, from a e,,ndition of ignorance to «me of 


I'AUL METtlVEN. fmmerly «,f l tundee, wa8 l/,mJimtted miltisLt.r 
• h.dl,m'h 1,y th,. I.«,ldS ,f the  ',,nbqegati«,n in 1560. In 1 
1562 .l«»hn Knox was COlmnissi,,ned t«j O,lUe to .lcdl,urgh b, inw.sti- 
ate into a serious charge of immorality agains Methven, and on its 
I,ein 1,roved he was del,,-,sed and excommunicnLed. ()n his l,,tition 
afterwards the I;eneral Asselnl,ly admitted hiln to l',.l,entan«.e. 
Knox, in his Hi.storff «flh, 1;ç/brm,«lio,t i &',,th,,M, in alluding t,, 
the Methven case, says thtt there were al,p«,inted " Ct.l'taile ¢,f the 
ministers to prescril,e to him the f,,rlne «,f his declmati,,n «,f repent- 
ance, which was thus in etlct : First, ThaL he should l,l'eSent him- 
selle bal-e-foo and bare-héad, alnyed in sack-e/oth, a the l«'incil,«dl 
entl'y of Saint yles Kirk il/ Einlmlgh. ab sevel/ hours in tle 
lllOl'llillg, Ul,,,n the next Ve,lnesday, ,lld there to l'elllf, ill the Sl,aee 
,,f an hour, the whole 1,e,,pl« leh(,1,ling hilu, till the l,rayer 
lmtde, 1,sallneS sung, and [the] text of Selil,tUrc was r,.ad, and then 
to corne int,, thé 1,lace al,pointed for exl,ressi,m of rel,elttanee , and 
tal'l T the rime of sermon; and to do likewise /he next Friday t},l- 
lowing, and also Ul,,,n the Sumlay; and then, in the face ,,f the 
whole ehurch, to deelare his rel)entanee with his owne lnouth. The 
Saille forme and lll;tllllél" he should use in ,Iedwart and l)umlie; 
and that beinR donc, to 1,resen$ himself agailt at the lmxt (;elml'all 
Assembly f,,llowing in winter, where he shoul,l be reeeived to the 
eolniuunion of the Chm'eh. When the said l'aul had reeeived lhe 
said Ordilmnee, he took it very gq'ievously, alleadging they had used 
over-great severity: Neverthelesse, l,eing eounselled and perswaded 
by divers notable personages, he began well iii Edinlurgh to proeeed, 
whereby a gceat number were moved with eolnpassion of his state 


and likewise in .Iedwart; but he left lais duty in I)undie, and 
passing againe into England, the matter, hot without offence to 
llany, ceased." 
Hill Ilurton, alluding to Methven's case, says: " Instead of any 
cttbrt to conceal this reproach to thcir body [the lteforlned clcrgy], 
they proclaimed it aloud as an awful and inscrutable judgmcnt, and 
hunted the accused man until, whether guilty or hot, he fled from 
his pursuers. He had a claire that would have served him well in 
any church disposed to bide the frailties of its zealous champions, 
fol" he had the glory of martyrdom. We find him outlawed in 
1559 f,.,r ' usurping the authority and ministry of the Church,' and 
addressing large assemblies in Dundee and Montrose. The excite- 
ment aroused in a considerable body of men by the revelation 
among them of this one black sheep points to the conclusion that 
such sins wcre rare in thc community to which Methven belonged" 
(Hi.story ,f ,S'cothnd). hl a footnote I/iii Burton adds: "Randolt,h, 
relating the scandal to Cecil as a morsel of important lmWS, calls 
bint 'a preacher brought up under Mr Coverdale'--the translator 
,»f thc ]fible we must supposeand that ' he escapcd into England, 
or was drowned in crossing the water thitherward.'" 

Ag)ltEw FOgE.oEalt, translatcd from Liberton tv .Jedburgh in 
1566, and thence to Tranent in 1568. 

,Jo You(;, Lranslatcd ri'oto JOuns in 1569; Lranslated 
h'vine il l;eltync in 1570. 

I'ETER (FEICH, formcrly o[ North lerwick, translated to Jed- 
burgh in 1572. 

ANDREW C'LAYIlILLIS, translated [l'Olll Monifieth iii 1574; trans- 
lated tv Eckf, rd in 1593. "Andro Clayhillis, minister verbi Dei 
al,Ud ,Icdburgh," witncsses the charter grantcd by Andew, com- 
mendator of Jedburgh, to William Scott, Haughhcad, previously 
referred to. 


JOHN zBERlgETHY, A.M., was elected minister of Jedhurgh in 
1593. He signed the protest against the introduction of Episco- 
pacy on 1st JuIy 1606; solicited the appointment to the arch- 
bishopric of (lasgow in 1615; was ruade D.I)., and afterwards 
promoted to the bishopric of Cithness, retaining at the saine time 
his charge in Jedburgh. In a synod held by him at Dornoch in 
1623 it was decreed that every entering minister should puy thc 
first year's stipend to the reparation and maintenance of that 
cathedral. He demitted his henefice in 1635, and was deposcd 
from his bishopric by the Assembly of 1638. :' By his writings," 
says Keith, « he appears a man of good literature." In a COmldi- 
mentary address by Dr John ,qtrang, prefixed to the hish,,p's book, 
Physic],'cfor the Sode (second edition, London, 1622), he is stylcd 
" virum muhijuga eruditionis supellectile instructissimum." Accord- 
ing to Scott's Ft, sti, he demitted his bcncfice before 15th Scptcml,cr 
1635, but in the articles dven in to the presbytery of Jedburgh 
against Mr James ]:urnett in 16:39, the parishioners " complcanc «,f 
his [l:urnett's] in formall entrie, quho procured a prcscntation to the 
place not bcing vacant, but servcd at the tyme be a w,»rthie man, 
Mr Jhon Abernethie, quho had nathcr dimitted the saine nor was 
deposed thairfrom." 

JAIES ]URNETT, A.M., translated from Lauder in 1636. l're- 
sented by Charles I., and dcposed in April 1639. In the pr, Jcess ld 
against him by the presbytery the parishioners COml,laincd that he 
had intruded himsclf into the place without consent eithcr of thcm 
or of the presbytery, and they stated that on the 4th of February 
1636 Ihgbert Simson, treasurer of the hurgh «»f Jcdburgh, procurttr 
specially constituted in their naine and behalf, passed to the per- 
sonal presence of Mr James Burnett in the kirk of Jedburgh, 
and thcrc protested that thc said Mr James' prcsentation, colla- 
tion, and present intendcd institution given to him thereul,on , 
"suld be no wayes prejudiciall to the parochiners' librtie to oppose 
against any intrant minister to be imposed upon theta without their 


WILLIAI ,IAMESON. {)n 15th April 1640 the heritors, elders, 
and olhers, " paris]fiolacrs of the con'egation of Jedbuvgh," desired 
thc alq»robation and furtherance of thc l»resbytcry for l»kmtig Mr 
Willim ,Iamcs«n, thon mifistcr at Longnewton,  at .Iedltugh. Thc 
brcthrcn received thc SUl»plicati«»n, and rcfcrred thc fll answcr to 
the dctcrmination ot the sym)d to be held thc following wcek at 
lçclso. On thc samc day the Town Cuncil ordained thc magis- 
tratcs, clcrk, treasurer; John ltutherfurd of ]ktnkcnd; John lluther- 
l'urd, u,ttar ; Adam ltutherfuld of thc I[all ; .lolm Ainslic, chirur- 
Re«»li; .lli«h'cw l/uthcrfurd, dcacon; Adam Wilson, and ,lames 
F»rrest, " to ryd o the Assemblie at Kclso tvSUl,ldieat for out 
miAster, undcr paine of tex ptunds ilk pcrsone failzeir." 
• ]Ulie 1640 the lWeS]»ytcr) ", e«»nsidcring that Mr .lames«_m lmd been 
ç'alled hy the hcritors, l»arishioners, and burgh of Jedbttrgh to 
ministcr at the kirk of .ledbulgh, and tha hc had IICVc" acqtaintcd 
th«:m with he saine, or,[ained thcir clerk to vrite l»resetlà, in their 
llale t thc said 3h" William, desiring him, in respect of thc pre- 
mies, and that the foresaid hcritors, parishioncrs, and burgh desircd 
a «iay t,» be al,l«fintcd f,r reeeiving him, that he would be l»leased 
to ('Ollle to the l»resbytery that day eight days, that, knowing his 
mild, they might with his coset appoint a day f«_,r reeeivig him 
at th fiwcsaid kirk. 1]11 17th ,lmm 1640 3h" ,lanmson deelared to 
the l,rebà'tery that the hcrit,rs, parishioncrs, and burgh cA' ,Jed- 
I»urh hml so far prevailed with him that, aftcr thcir supplication to 
thc presbytcT granted, their ae of transplantation obtained t'fore 
the ['rvincial Asscmbly at Kelso in April 1640, and the urgen 
iml»ortUllitics oï the foresaid 1,crsons to bc their minister, and that 
" although he f,»ulid himsêlf f»r so q-eat a charge altogether unable, 
yct t« satisfy their gdly desircs, and to obey and serve God ealling 
him thcl'CUltO, he had eondcseended to embraee the charge of the 
 Maistcr William .lameson w provided to the « personage » o Longnewtou, 
j«rc dc«olato, l»y the archbish,,p t,f Glasgo% in defa(lt of Sir Johl Ker and his 
s,,n, patrous, uot presenting dcbito te«»pore (Tth Deeember 1622). Sir John va8 
at tlat time fttgit,tns et latita«s, being sometimes lu eotland and sometimes in 
Eagland, "for esehewing o oeption" (Haddington's Decions, Vol. II.). 


ministry at the kirk of Jedburgh." The presbytery fixed a day 
receiving him, and on 24th .June 1640 he was receivcd as minister 
of Jedburgh, "in presence of, and with consent and applause of, thc 
heritors, parishioners, and brough of Jedburgh, convencd with 
brethren for that ettct." Mr Jameson was a staunch l'reslJytcrian 
and a stern Covenanter. tic was a member of six Asscmllies 
1649, and of thatof 1651. lIediedin 1661. 

PETER ]ILAIR, A.[., translatcd froltl St ('uthl»:rt's S,-,cc, nd ['hare 
in 1661. l'rescntcd by ('harles II. ('onf[«m[.,l t, El»iscop;tcy, an,I 
contilmed till 7th May 167::. 

WILLIAM I[UME, ..3[., translated fr«,m Tinwald in 1674. Pre- 
sented 1,y ('harles Il. Icprived before 7th lccêmber for r«-fusing 
the Test. 

WILLIA$I (ALI:REATII, A.I., translatcd from 3[c,rel,attle in 1 G,2. 
Presente,l l,y Charles II. Dcl,rived l,y the l'rivy ',-,uncil 29th 
August 1689 f[»r hot reading the l'ro«lamati«,n of the Estates, and 
hot praying for Villiam and Mary, lut f[r .l«tmes VI I. 

 ;AIRIEL ,qEMPLE, .k.l., translated fr«,m Kirkpatrick-I m-ham in 
1690. Hc was the earliest of the ficld lweachors, an,l ha,l nmch 
influence among his brcthren during the days of the porsecuti[»n, 
and after the settlement of ('lmrch government. If, died in Aug.t 
1706. ][e had the character of l,eing a lJr,,ph,t. Sir Waltcr Sc,,tt, 
in one of his notes to Of,1 M,,,.tality, states that Scmple was one ,lav 
passing the bouse of Kennmir, to which workmen were makin.,.., 
some additions, whcn he said to them, " Lads, you arc very bu.y 
enlarging and rcpairing that house, but it will le burned like a 
crow's nest in a misty 3Iay m»rnm,, which acc«wdingly came t« 
pass, the house being burned by the English forces in a cloudv 
morning of 3Iay. 

l }ANIEL M'KAV, formerly of Inveraray Second Charge, was trau.u- 
lated to Jedburgh in 1707. Iied .eptember lî31. 


J),ES I,OWAT, translated from Dunlop in 1732. Presented by 
( ] I. l)ied June 1 " ") 
.IA.xs \VI(_'iISTE,, A.M., translated from Elgin in 1734. In 
17:7 Mr Winchester oflbnded many members o his conegation 
l,)- rea,ling the l'orteous Act from the puIpit on the morning 
of a communion Sabbath. Sevel of them rose and left the 
«.hureh, observing as they did so that their minister had "ccle- 
brated the death of a murderer before the death of the Saviom-" 
( T«o (ç'M«ries qf order Cl«'«h Lf,', by James Tait. Kelso, 1889). 
He died September 1755. 
.Io DOVLAS, translated from Kenmore in 1758. He was a 
kecn loyalist, and it is said that for his services during the rcbellion 
«,f l'rince Charles Stuart he received the new appointment. There 
was much opposition to his settlement in Jedburgh, which gave fise 
to a secession, afterwards called the Relief. He died in 1769. 
JAOES 5[ACKNIGIIT, D.D., translated from Maybole in 1769. 
Presented by George III. Tmnslated to Edinburgh in 1772. He 
was author of Tle tTarmony of the our Gospels ; The T,'«th of the 
5'ospel tIi.tory ; and A A¥w Translati  the Apostvlical £1tles, 
«'ith b'ommet««'y aml tes. One of his hearem, on learning that 
the doctor was la Edinburgh in reference to e arnoey of the 
or Gospels, remarked that he was makg haony among four 
evangelists who had never la,en out. He ed in 1800. 
THO)IAS SOMERXLLE, translated om Minto in 1773. Prented 
by George III. Was ruade D.D. in 1787; historian of the rei 
of Queen Aune; one of His Majesty's Chaplains for Scotland. 
Iied Father of the Church in 1830, in his ninetieth yean He w 
uncle and also father--hw to the celebrated Mary SomerviEe, who 
was born in the manse of Jedburgh. 
JoHn" PURVES, translated from Lady Glenorchy's Chapel, En- 
burgh, in 1830. Psented by William IV. Seceded with the 
Free Church in 1843. Was ruade LL.D. in 1875, and ed in 


(.;EORGE ITCHIE, A.M., translated from St Boswells in 1843. 
Was ruade D.I. in 1870, in which year he was 3Ioderator of the 
General Assembly. Ho was the twêntiêth l'rotestant incumbent 
of the parish of .ledlurgh, and the last who preached in .h,dburg 
At,bey Church. He dêmitted t,is charge in 1,q76, and die,! i 
Edinburgh in 1888. 


No time was lost between the opening of the lew chureh and the 
«.«,mmcneemclit «,f the w«,rk in connection with the rentoval of the 
,,ld chur«.h fr,m thé. al»l»ey, and l.»rd Lothiau. I,ein:3 fully alive to 
t.he iml,,,rtance of this work, very wisely res¢,lve,1 to have it d,ne 
m,h«' the SUl,erinten,h.n¢'e of a skilled architect. It was accordingly 
l,l,eed ,roder thc eare of I tf 1L l/owand .nderson, Edinbm'gh, the 
u,.hit,.e wh,, had so successfully restored the south &.,rway, as 
1,1"cvi,,usly noticd. F,,r the protection of the nave, i was, unfol-- 
tunately, round necessary to l,lace seçeral tic I,eams across at the 
cl,.restory, which 'ealy mat he fine eflet f thc iuterior. The 
l;tl, itg down of the m,,lern las,,tl')" i,rought to ligh many eurious 
au,I vahml»le sl,eeimens ,f the art of the ear'er, and of moulded 
st,«es f,rmed hundreds ,f years ago 1,y the hands of eunning w¢,rk- 
nien. but which 1,y the vandals of the end of the eighteenth century 
were l,),,ke,1 Ul,On as c«tly se, much rul»l»le, and used by them as such. 
'Fh«. iut«'est atta¢hcd to thcir diseovery w;ts s«»mething akin to what 
a g,., ,l, »gist w,»uld bave expcrienced in disintcrrinff a like muul,.r of 
fossils from some ancient formations, each speeimen having a char- 
:u'ter l,eculiarly its own, and the period to which it I»ehmged bt.ig 
,luire easily ascertaine,1. The comparative anatolnist eould with no 
greater eertainty pieee t<,gether the bones of an extinct animal than 
t.«,l«l these stones I,e assignd to their respective places ilt the 
an-ieng l,uilding. 3Iany of them exhibitcd the C}/t/Vl'Oll, the cable, 
i»g-t<,,th, star, nail-head, and othcr ornaments, all belonging to the 
Transitio Norman, whieh, there could be little doubt, h»rmed part 
<,f the d«,orway that was taken dOWl when a portion of the south 
aisle was removed in 1792. Then there were bases, capitals, at 
least one pisciua ; 'oin ribs, and various other mouldings, all of au 


early date. These have been preserved within the precincts of the 
abbey. The pillars and arches were scraped so as to free them 
from the paint and llaster that had disfigured them for nearly a 
century. No attempt was ruade to renew the Calitals and arch 
mouldings that had been knocked away inside the old church, but 
in both of the side aisles the recently discovered groin ribs were 
replaced as far as practicable. The north wall was partially re- 
stored so as to indicate its original character, and the 1,ortion of 
the south wall that was wanting was rebuilt. Sme of the pillars 
of the clerestory were renewed; nearly the whole of the corbelled 
eave course on the north was restored, and, to prevent water perco- 
lating down through the masonry, the wall-heads were covered with 
Caithness pavement. The wall-heads throughout the other parts of 
the building were carefully cleaned and covered with cement. Ou 
clearing away the accumulation of earth under the ltooring of the 
church, the workmen came upon large quantities of human bones, 
all of which had been previously disturbed, and lmles were dug in 
the adjoining groun,ls, where they were carefully deposited. (ne of 
the skulls picked up attracted some attention, as it bore the mark 
of what seemed to have been a wound caused by a sabre--the result 
doubtless of some dint ven in the rough days of Border warfare-- 
but the wound hot being a fatal one had healed up before death gave 
the final stroke. They also came upon a regularly built vault of 
stone with arched roof, in the north aisle, containing two coffins, 
one of lead, the other of oak, and as all remembrance of the exist- 
ence of these had been forgotten, many conjectures were ruade as 
to who were the occupants. The mystery was, however, cleared up. 
Thomas l'hilip Ainslie of Over Wells, in the parish of Jedburgh, 
having died at Newcastle on the 18th of 5Iay 1837, application was 
made to the kirk-session for permission to have his remains laid " in 
the vault within the church," granted by the heritors to his father. 
The kirk-session reetted that permission cotfld not be granted 
first, because the vault was originally formed to hold only the 
remains of " the late Sir Ainslie and his wife, both of whom were 
interred there, which filled up the whole space ;" and sec«,nd, 


" hecause the place in which the vault is situated, which was for- 
merly a passage, now forms part of the place of public worship. 
ha'ing 1)een some time ago taken in and seated" (Miroite of Sessior). 
.everal Scottish copper coins belonging to the rcigns of 5Iary Queen 
of Scots, Carles I., and ('harles I I. were also corne upon, and these 
were claimed by the Crown as treasure-trove. We may mention 
hcre that in 1849, when some repairs were ruade on the abbey, 
there was f,)und a leadcn seal, which had been attached to a papal 
];u]l of I'«pe Gregory IX. (n one side were the words 
" «;IIEG(}I'dVS : IT : VIIII," alld on the othcr "SPASPE," under which 
wcre two heads, believcd to represent those of St l'eter and St Paul. 
This seal is ow in the .Icdl}urgh Museum. A seal of Pope 
Inn«»cent Iii. was round at Friars' Bank some years ago, and is 
now in he l,ossession of the 5larquess of Lothian. These both be- 
long to the first hall of the thirteenth century. The first mentioned 
is somewhat of an oral shape, while the other is round or circular. 
Up till the thirteenth century such seals were suspended by means 
of silk threads or a slip of parchment, but after that date they 
werc gcnerally attached to the document itself. From time to time, 
during excarations in the abbey, several interesting articles bave 
l»een round, including a gold ring that was presented to Sir Valter 
Scott, pieces of molten brass---doubtless the result of one or other 
of the burningsfragments of the old al»bey glass, and an antique 
key figured on the opposite page. 
The appearance of the west front of the abbey bas been some- 
what changed l»y the remr»val of a raullion and transom from the 
centre wiudow. The mullion branched away near the top, and 
f,mned two pointed lights: and the transom, which had rudely- 
formed cusps, crssed it half-wa)' up. There is good reason for 
believing that originally the wind(w was hot so divided, and this 
statement is supported l»y the fact that while the chamfer or splay 
at the sides of- the window is small, that at the top, benning with 
the arch, is much larger. ïhe stones with the large chamfer agreed 
with the mullion, and were in all likelihood put in at the saine 
timo. No doubt lillings gires somehing like what raay be called 



a representation of a restoration uf thc west front of the abbey, and 
in this window he places a mullion and transom. The transom, 
however, as given in his illustration, is much more artistic than that 
which it was intended to represent ; and it must be further observed 
that he places mouldings at the sides of the window where such 
never existed, and makes them run into the cusps of the transom, 
as if the latter naturally formed part of them. Above the window, 
on the north side of the doorway, there was a small window with 
a trcfoil arch, which was removed in consequence of its having been 
inserted there at a late date--probably when the church was fitted 
up in the west end. It seemed to have belonged to the fourteenth 
or fifteenth century, and must bave originally occupied a place in a 
different part of the abbey. An interesting view of the est front of 
the abbey is given in (rose's Antiqdties of ,5'colla'd, Vo I., p. 131, 
published in 1789, and reproduced in the presellt work (see opposite 
page). The great west window seems at that time to bave been 
glazed in the lower hall, with shutters to protect the glass. No 
mullion is seen. The window to the right of the great doorway 
had been converted into an entrance to one of the galleries, and a 
few steps are seen leadiug up to it. At the top of this strange- 
looking entrance are seen a few panes of glass. On examination 
it will be seen that the wall under the window had been cut down 
for some littlc distance bel,»w the string-course, the better to adapt 
it to its new purpose. At the corresponding window on the other 
side of the great doorway the illustration shows a few panes of 
glass at the top, the remainder of this window being built up. 
But there were other parts of the fabric tllat required serious 
attention. The tower, on the north side, was found to be in a very 
unsafe condition, and something required to be dulle for its preser- 
vation. The danger was hot a thing of yesterday, for, as we have 
already seen, one of the "pryme pillars " was in a dangerous state 
as early as 1636. The frailty of this "pryme pillar" had hot a 
little to do with the resolution to leave the church under the tower 
for that at the west end of the nave ; and for the saine reason it was 
round necessary at a later date not to remove the whole of the old 


walls. Lord Lothian atone time seriously considered the propriety 
of renewing the north piers so as to give the tower a further lease 
of stability, but ultimately the idea was departed from, ami means 
were taken to preoerve it as far as possible in its present statc. A 
brick buttress was thrown up against the north-west pier, which 
bulged out c,»nsidera|»ly, and large wooden beams were placed against 
the north-east 1,ier--doubtlss the " pryme pillar" already alluded 
towhich is ahuost wholly encased in rude masonry. To lighten 
the top of the north wall a 1,elfry was taken down, and this lightened 
the weakest part by about 150 tons of masonry. The belfry consisted 
of three distinct parts, uamely, a central octagonal tower, which rose 
twenty feet al,ove the wall-head, and an open bellcot on each side. 
The belfry formed no part of the original design of the tower, as was 
easily determined l,y an examination of the architectural features of 
the different portions. The date of its e,ection cannot, however, be 
ascertained with any degree of certainty. The octagonal part was 
clearly of first Transition character, of about the saine age as the 
pointed part o[ the choi5 and therefore at least two hundred years 
older than the tower on which it stood. The probability is that it 
was one of the turrets of the eastern gable (its measurements were 
such as to support this i(lea), and that it was erected on the tower 
shortly after the abbey sustained the destructive injuries at the 
hands of the English in 1544-45. 
From these injuries, as we bave seen, the monastery never 
recovered, and it would seem that, instead of the whole of the 
church beiug afterwards occupied, only a portion under the tower 
was fitted up for worship, this being used by ]',oman Catholics, 
Presbyterians, and Episcopalians successively until 1671, when the 
last-named body removed to the west end of the nave. If out idea 
is correct, the belfr)- was erected on the top of the towcr for the use 
of the chuœeh under it. The kirk clock was fitted up in the centre 
turret, and the bells were suspeuded in the bellcots at the sides. 
Previous to this, the clock had occupied a position on the north side 
of the tower, where the mark of its dial is still seen at the centre 
opening, and the abbey bells had evidently been hung in the upper 


storey. The lower portion of t|le stair leading to the tower would 
seem to bave bcen put up also for the use of this cburch, and may 
bave becn part of one of the east turret stairs. Il is in the south 
transept, in a position where such a thin,g couhl hot bave originally 
been intended, but quite suitable for this church, as nlay be seen 
fronl the fragments of its walls that still relnain. We bave seeu ail 
old painting of the abbey, showing the s«mth wall of this church 
rising to near the vaulted roof of the transept. T]lcre was a 
window pretty well up. Thc lower p«l'tion of this wall still exists, 
and crosses the transept from the foot of the stair to a pier on thc 
west side. 
l:esides the work we have already mentioned as having beeu 
donc un,ler the ,lirectiou of lr An,lerson, concrete was laid round 
thc foundations of ail the lowcr pillars to prevent a subsidence ; and 
to add to the al,pearallce t,f the north transept a large quantity of 
earththe accumulation of ages--was cleared fronl its base. No 
cost was spared to improve tlle amenity of the abbey, and with this 
view the manse, which was close by, and several other houses, were 
taken down. The whole work, as may well be imagincd, was one of 
great labour and expense; but the result bas been such as to nlake 
.ledburgh Abbey one of the nlost beautiful ecclesiastical ruins in 
Scotland. and f,r this thc 3[arquess of Lothiau deserves the grati- 
tudewhich he will lin ,loubt receive--of ail loyers of architectural 
art. To give some idea of the great w,rk carried out by his 
hz, lship for the improvement of the abbeyillcluding the erec- 
tion of the new church and manse--we may state that the cost 
has been estimated at hot less than £20,000. In addition to ail 
tllis, we have reason to believe that Lord Lothian has in contem- 
plation the restoration of the dilapidated portions of the west 
doorway, as well as of the attached arcade at the sides of the 
great west window. 


same pitch, as may be seen by the mark on the east wall of the 
]ut what about the lower marking? ïhat it cannot be the 
mark of an imler roof, as some have suggested, is clearly proved by 
the fragments of a water-tablet, or drip-stone, whicl still remain in 
some of the cuttings on both sides of the nave, immediately above 
whrc this roof would join thc wall; and also by the marking on 
the south wall of the tower, a little above the stolm-vaulted roof of 
the transept, and which crosses an opening there in the saine way 
as the lower marking on the west. It must therefore bave been an 
outer one; but when could a new roof be rendered necessary ? 
Whcn the ends of the tilnber became decayed, it was hot Ulmsual 
t,) cut oir the decayed parts and lower the roof. In the case of 
Jedburgh Abbey, however, much more was donc than the mere 
lo,'ering, for along the wholc length of the nave two cuttings--one 
for resting the toi» of the side aisle roof, and the othcr for the 
insertion of a drip-st,me to throw off the watêr--have been ruade 
just a the spring of the including arches of the triforium, and this 
would necessitate the tilling up o1 the subdividing arches in some 
way, but whether by windows or otherwise the eflct would ])c any- 
thing but pleasing. 
lIegarding the central roof of the nave matters are no less 
l, uzzling. Thç lower roof had crossed an vpening in the under 
storcy of the tower in the saine way, a portiou of the arch having 
been left outside; and i must also lm'e crossed the St Uatherilm'S 
wheel at the west end, unless by sumc peculiar arrangement it was 
laised ag that part. V'e can tïnd another reason than the deeay of 
the tituber here that neeessitatcd a change. In 1523probably 
within thirty years of the ereetion of the former roof--the abbey 
was bUrlmd by the English uuder the Erl of Surrey, after a whole 
day's cannonading, and at that time, we suspect, the nave and its 
aisles were rendered roofless. 
As there are no double roof-marks on the east and north sides 
of the tower, we may naturally infer that the ehaneel and north 
transept did hot share the saine fate as the nave at the date men- 


tioned. It seems strange that in rcpairing the damage donc by this 
destructive burning, the roofs were hot put up on the old lines, but 
in a position that entailed gl'eater labour, and which must bave 
spoiled ail resthetic effect. 
The next visits of the "auld enemies" were in 1544-45, vhen 
the whole abbey was so sadly wrecked that no attempt was made to 
restore it, the caons contenting themsclves with erecting a place 
under the tower for the carrying on of worship. Thc rcmains of 
this erection, which bave corne down to our day, are rude elmugh to 
show either that the taste of the c,qnols had by that time become 
very much debascd, or, what is m,re likely, that they had then no 
heart to restore thcir church to anything like its forlner beauty, a 
church that had undergone nialy vicissitudes, td vhich was before 
long likely to undergo more. The thunde" notes of the comig Refor- 
mation had been already heard, and wc'e bccoming louder and louder 
at the lmarer approach of the storm. 


Ff, o.s1 verv early times it had been the i,ractice of individual masons to 
distingqdsh their work by their own particular marks. These marks 
or symbols are tu be round on the l'yramids of Egypt, on the walls 
of the Temple ai; Jerusalem, ou the altars and othcr works of the 
• "raclent Ilomans, anal on all the medieval ecclesiastical structures in 
this country and on the Continent. They havc been detected also 
in India, on the walls of the fortress of Allahabad, which was crected 
in 1542. " These marks," says the late Dr John Alexander Smith, 
onc of the secretaries of the Society of Antiquaries of ,cotland, in a 
l,ai,er on this subject (see T,.«,sc«ctios, Vol. IV.), " vary much in 
character and shape, but may be all fimluded in two classesthe 
false or blind mark of the apprentice, displaying an equal numbcr of 
points; and the true mark of the fellow-craft or 1,assed mason, 
which always consists of an ttnequal number of points. Two marks 
hot unfrequeutly occur on the saine stone, showing that it had been 
hewn ly the apprentice, and finished or passed as correct by the 
mason, who places on it his own distinctive mark."Considerable 
interest bas becn shown during recent years regarding these marks, 
and rations theories have beên advamed concerning them. In a 
paper " On Certain Marks ])iscoveral,le on the Stones of various 
Buihlings Erected in the Middle .k,es,"o Mr {. ;odwin says: 
" The fact that in these buildings it is only a certain number of 
stones which bear symbols; that the marks round in diflrent 
countries (ahhough the variety is great) are in many cases identica], 
and in all bave a singubr accordance in character, seems to show 
that the nlen who employed them did so by system, and that the 
system, if hot the saine in England, Germany, and France, was 
closely analogous in one country to that of the others." A good 


deal has been written about the symbolic sigqfificance of these marks, 
but to litLlc purpose. They seem to us rather tu havc had a prac- 
tical aire than to have had any mystery attached to them. 
"Masonic tradition informs us," says Mackey, in his L««icon of 
_b'reeasonry," that, at the building of King Solonlon's Temple, every 
mason was provided with a peculiar mark, which he placed upon his 
work to distinmaish it from that of his fellows. By the aid of thcse 
marks the overseers were enabled without difliculty to trace any 
piece of defective work to the faulty workman, and every chance of 
imposition, among so large an assemblage of craftsnlen as were 
engaged at the Temple, was thus effectually prevented." Masonic 
associations or guilds existed in Ronle in the tinle of the Emperors. 
In the tenth century they were established in Lonlbardy, in which 
they reared many churches, and afterwards passed into all the 
countries of Christendom. They received encouragement from popes, 
who granted them privileges peculiar to themselves. A monopoly 
was granted to them for the erection of all religions edifices; they 
were declared independent of the sovereigns in whosc dominions 
they lnight be temporarily residing ; they could regqalate the amount 
of their wages, and were exempt from all kinds of taxation (Lca'ic,., 
of Free»asonry, third edition). 
We may mention as a solnewhat curions incident that on re- 
moving a small portion of the old wall of the south aisle of the nave 
of the abbey there was round a piece of a string-course with the 
markings of the tool still fresh and distinct as when it was chiselled 
six hundred years ago. It had been spoiled in the working, and 
rejected in consequence. The stone had been intended to be a 
corner-piece, but, to use a technical terre, the workman had "cul; its 
throat." The workman and his naine had long since been forgotten, 
but the stone bearing his distinctive mark still bore testilnony 
against hiln. N'ever did fossil taken from the rock tell its story 
more clearly. 
i)r Daniel Wilson, in his learned work on the Archceology a,td 
Prehistoric Anals of ,S'cotlad, while alluding to the saine subject, 
observes on PI'- 640-1 : "Thc observation and collation of these 



marks have aceordingly become oljects of interest, as ealculated to 
aid in the clucidation of the history of the medieval masonic guilds. 
• . . 2[any of the subordinate lines added to regular figures are still 
recognised among the craft as additions given to distinguish the 
symbols of two nmsons when the mark of a member admitted from 
another 1,Jdge was the saine as that already borne by one of their 
own numlcr. If the cntire seics, or the greater numher of the 
marks on otm buildiug, could bc detected on another apparently of 
the saine age, it would bc such a coincidence as could hardly be 
ascribed to an)" other cttuse thau that hoth were the work of thc 
saine mas«nic lodge... The unitcd co-opcrati(u f a very fcw 
zctdous labourers may soon lring such a question to the test, if 
su['dcient care is taken to discrimiuate betwccn thc origimd ork 
;tnd the additious ,r altenttions f subsequcnt luilders." 
As a cntriluti,,n t, the nmterials for the elucidatiÇn .f this 
iteesting suhject, we give u the opposite page a series Çf marks 
f, und on Jcdhurgh Abley, nJting at the saine timc the portions of 
the building on which they «»cour, and the puriods to which they 
belong. Dr Smith gives, among many othcrs, illustrati,ns o[ a 
numlcr of nmrks on Jedbu'gh Abbey, but thc list now giveu -ill 
lc round to be nmch more complete. The marks are here arranged 
under the fǻllowing heads: 1. (-}n Early orman work, in choir, on 
pǻrtions of origimal transepts, and piers of saine date; II. Norman 
TrausitiÇn vork, «)n est gai»le, nave, and original pottion of south 
'all; Il l. Fou'tucnth or Fifteenth Century Decorated, on mrth 
transept; IV. Etd of Fifteenth Century, on the tower and south 
picrs of the tower. 



Feet. In. 
Extreme length over walls, 235 0 
Length of interior of nave, 129 0 
(:rossing of tower, 34 0 
Length of choir, 58 0 
Extreme lcngth inside the walls, 218 0 
Width of navc between centre of piers, 27 6 
Width of north aisle from centre of pier, 15 2 
Width of south aisle from centre of pier, 14 2 
North transept projects from centre of t«Jwer, 68 0 
Width of north transept outside the walls, 32 4 
Height of wall-head of north transept, 39 2 
]Ieight of wall-head of nave from floor, 49 3 
IIeight of tower to wall-head, 86 0 
]'iers of nave from centre to centre, 14 0 
West doorway, height at ingoing, 14 
,, width at ingoing, 6 
,, reeessed, 6 2 
,, height at outermost order, 21 "2 
,, width at outermost order, 20 4 
West window, height, 18 10 
,, width, 5 8 
St Catherine's wheel, diameter within eireular moulded 
order, 9 4 
Windows at side of west doorway, height, 9 2 
...... width, 2 5 
Great window in north transept, height, 28 2 
...... width, 9 8 


Feet. In. 
Side windows in north transept, height, 16 0 
...... width, 5 6 
Windows in clerestory of nave, height, 8 0 
...... width, 1 8 
Windows in clerestory of choir, height, 8 8 
...... width, 2 11 
Windows below clerestory of choir, a jamb of two of 
which only remains, height (probable), 17 0 
.... width, 3 ')  
S,,uth N,,rm:m doorway, height at ingoing, . 10 6 
.... width at ingoing, 4 8 
.... recessed, 3 1  
.... height at outermost ordêr, 13 8 
.... width at outermost order, 11 0 



I. the north transept of the abbey are preserved three very fine 
specimens of eltrly sculpture, but, unfortunately, none of them is 
eutire. Ïhe oue most elabol'ately carved represents a tree, the 
branches of which form circles, and in these are two birds and four 
nondescril,t aninmls, three of them being showu as eating the fruit 
of the tree, aud one of them gnawing a I,ranch. This stone was at 
one time built in as a lintel above the south aisle of the choir, but 
several years ago the present writer œeointed it out to the lier. 
Cnon (reenwell of Iurham, and shortly afterwards it was ]emoved 
to where it now is. 3Ir l;reenwell pronouneed it to be part of 
an Aglo-8axon cross belonging to about the ninth eentury. It 
was afterwards figured in Stuart's ,S'c.ulphtred ,S'loe.s oJ" ,S'c.otland (sec 
Vol. II., plate xxviii., with relative notice), l[egarding the removal 
of this stone from its original place in the abbey, Mr 8tuart says: 
" This stone figured on this plate was recently brought to my notice 
by my friend, the l[ev. William Greenwell of I)urham. It 'as 
lmilt into the south aisle of the chaneel as a lintel of an opening, 
but at my request it was removed from the vall by the kind permis- 
sion of the Marquess of Lothian, for the purpose of obtaining a 
correct draing of it, and it is now placed in the north transept." 
"At the church of Norham, whieh Egred built, there were," says 
3Ir Stuart, " many crosses of Anglo-Saxon charaeter. Ïhe cross at 
• ledburgh seems undoubtedly to be of the saine period, and must be 
elassed with similar remains round at Abercorn, Norham, Coldiug- 
haro, Lindisfarne, ,larrow, and Hexham, all sites of Saxon founda- 
tion." The two other stones in the transept are figured in the saine 
work, and are believed to belong to the saine period. 
Another cross, arehaie lu character, and retaining the typical 
features of the Celtie form, is built in as a lintel in a reeess over the 
south chapel of the choir, and under the stair lcading to the tower. 



The stone has raised border fillets, but, the cross has no ornament by 
which its date can be determined. The wall into which it has been 
built is twelfth-century work, and the cross is probably of about 
the saine date. l'ossibly the stoue may have got broken after it had 
becn worked, and then been built in as a lintel. The dotted lines 
indicate the hidden portion resting on the jaml of the opening. 
There is another stone of much interest, figured below, which was 
hn: a puzzle to archologists, built in as a liatel at thc foot of the 
north-west turret stair. It was known to l»ear a lloman inscriptiob 
and a few contracted words could be ruade out, but it was never 
suecessfully deciphcred till 1885. In that year the Marquess ,f 

L,)thian caused a cast to be taken and forwarded to the ]lev. Dr 
J. 'ollingwood Bruee, Neweastle, who eontributed a paper on the 
su|,jeet to the Ierwiekshire Naturalists' Club. He gives the inscrip- 
tion as it appeared on the east with its three leaf stops, and is of 
opinion that it ought to be expanded as follows: 
[TOVq [vov] [v] 
a[OEaT] IV[IVS] 


"- _T BUR61ff A9B,Y. 



This he translates as follows :---" To Jupiter, the best and greatest, 
the Vexillation of Rhoetian spearmen, under the command of Julius 
Severinus the tribune [dedicate this altar]." Dr Bruce thinks there 
must bave been a line or two more on the inscription, which had 
been chiiped off by the builders of the abbey. At ail events, he 
says, there xvould be the usual termination v. s. ,. _xl. (" votum solvit 
libens merito "). He had always understood a i'e«ilhdiot to be a 
body of men selected from different cohorts, but fighting under one 
common e,,'illum or standard, and sent on some special expedition. 
I'et,,«m he regards as the rustic spelling for Ihetorum. The 
Rhctians came from the Alps, and were named ;œesati, from their 
being armed with the gevsum, a knd of spear or javelin. At 
Risingham, ncar Woodburn, in the north of Northumberland, was 
fouml a stone vith an nscrl,tion which mentions the I,'eli Gesat, 
and as that place is situated upon Watling Street, and Jedburgh 
only two miles from th]s Roman road, it would be an easy rhino, as 
Dr Bruce remarks, for the Ihti esati to find their way from 
Risingham to Jedburgh (Proceedings of tle B«rwir]:slire Nr(lr_«lists' 
67(b, 1884, Al,pendix ). 


IT is nota little relnarkable that of all the abbots, priors, and 
canons of this monastery who must have been buried within its 
sacred precincts, not one of their graves can now be pointed out. 
Nota few of them were great men in their rime, wielding mighty 
influence in the state, as well as within their own ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction • but their power and sacerdotal pomp are things of the 
1,ast, and thev bave gone d,»wn to nnknown graves, like the meanest 
serf or the poorest peasant. Itis literally true of them that the 
place that once knew them knoweth them no more. Their beautiful 
bouse has been cast dovn, not one stone standeth upon another; 
and their ruined church shall no more resound with the matin song 
or the vesper hymn. 
" Thou unrelenting past  
trong are the barriers round thv dark domain, 
And fetters sure aml fast 
Hold ail that enter thv Uld»reathing reigu." 
The first person of hom there is any account as having been 
1,uried in the church of Jedl)urgh is one Edulf, a younger son of the 
Earl of Northulnberland, who was interred here about the end of 
the eleventh century. But he was hot permitted to test undisturbed. 
He had, it seems, been one of the assassins of Bishop Walcher, a 
1,riest of Lorraine, who had received an appointment from Wil]iam 
the Conqueror, and though he had met his own death at the hands 
of a woman, and was laid quietly at rest within the church, his bod3- 
was cast out from thence as execrable--" talis spurcitia " are the 
words of Simeon of Durhamby Tugot, the prior and archdeacon 
of Durham. What afterwards became of the bones of the unfor- 
tunate Eadulf we are hot told. 


Gordon, in his Scotichronicon, says that John Achaius, the pre- 
ceptor, ehaplain, and intimate friend of David I., was buried here. 
It was by his advice that the ,'anons Regular were brought frora 
France to .ledburgh. He was consecrated bishop of Glasgow by 
l'ope Paschal II., v-ith consent of Archbishop Thurstin of York, who, 
as well as some of his successors, claimed metrop,litical jurisdiction 
over S,uthern Scotland. John, who was of a restless and energetic 
character, bol,1 in action and undaunted in spirit, refused submission 
to the sec of York, in defiance of the mandates of three successive 
popes, and rather than yiehl to pope or prelate, he abdicated his see, 
and retired into a c«,nvent of Benedictines in France. He had pre- ruade a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where he l'esi,led for some 
time. In 1138 an asselnbly of clergy and barons was hel, l in 
Carlisle, when it was resolved to send a messenger to France with 
letters from the legate to the effect that if he did not return sentence 
would l,ass against him (If. Hagustald; sec note in Itale's Anials 
of ,%otland). But he cared nothing for the legate, the clergy, or the 
barons--Pope Innocent I I. called him " ipso multum resistente " 
and it was only the mandate of his own king that brought him back. 
He die,l bishop of t;lasgow iii May 1147, according to t;ord,m, 
having been connected with that sec f,,r thirty-two years. 


On 13th July 1464 the abbog of Jedburgh granted a right of 
burial in the abbey to Robert Rutherfurd of Chatto and his wife. 
The grant was in these terres : " Be it kend till almen be thir pre- 
sents letteris, Ws, Andrew, throw the grace off God, Abbot of ye 
Abbay of Jedworth, with consent and assent of out halle convcnt 
till haff ,grantyt, and be thir prescrit letteris grantis til out weyl- 
belufyt Robert off Iudirfurd and Chattow, and Margaret, hys wyff, 
thar laris within the quher of out Abbay of Jedworth, in the mydlis 
of the sain nL,t the utmost ese [steps] quhar ye lectern standis, 
quhen that Goal wesys than to pass off this warlde, and to la thar 
throioch quhen it plessis tham iii ye sayd place. For ye quhylk 


laris in ye said quher we grant ws ïulley content and payit. In 
witnêss of ye quhylk thingis we haff set the common sell of our 
Abbay till thir I)resent letteris at the sayd Abbay of Jedworth, this 
xiii day of ye moneth of July in the zher off God a thousand four 
htm(lreth sixty and four zheris, befoir thir witness, Dene l'help 
Waleyss, superior of our l'loster, Dune Walter Mol, ])cne Walter 
l'yle, Dcne Johne Cant, Dene Alexander Gcddes, Dene Henry off 
Glasgow, Dene Vylliam of Jedworth, and Dcne James of Dryburgh, 
Channonis of out sayd Abbay, and divers vthe's" (The I::the:frds 
of that llk). 
Curiously cnough, the sed appended to this document--a fac- 
simile of which is dven in the l[utherfurd ]ook--is ot the seul of 
the abbey, but that of Cardinal David Ileaton, and may lc seen 
described in t[unry Laing's Cataloguée, Vol. I., No. 884. Ir Iavid 
I)ickson, of the Registcr ]Iouse, Edinburgh, bas an excellent cast 
from a particularly clear impression of this seal. How a seaI which 
could hot have existed belote Deccmbcr 1538--the date wheu 
]eaton was ruade a cardinalbecame connected with a grant of 
July 1464, it would be interesting to know. It is no business of 
ours to attempt to explin ; we simply call attention to the fact. 
The whole of the choir vas a[terwards divided among the 
Ruthcrfurds as thcir resting-place, and allotments assied for 
those of Edgerston, ]tunthill, thmdalee, Fernington, lankend, the 
Hall, the Townhead, to the Lorimer, and to the Bailie and his 
son. The reason given for the ancestors of I'obert Ruthcrfurd of 
Fernilee not being buried in the choir, but in the Bcll House trae 
(north-wes lart of the churchyard), is that when the :English ruade 
one of their raids upon Jedburgh they carried off the largest lell 
bclonng to the abbey, which hung in the tower on the slope above 
referred to, and that Richard P«therfurd, having pursued them 
with a handful of men, ruade a desperate effort to recover it, but 
was overpowered and mortally woundcd, and requested to be buried 
in the ],ell House. Robert ththerfurd of :Fernilee, who was a writer 
in Edinburgh, and Deputy Receiver Gencral of Sut)ply of ,cotland, 
was the last of his family who was buried in the Bell House, where 


his son erected a monument for him, with the coat of arms of 
the falnily (Y'he I:thefrds of tlat Ill«). Tradition says that the 
bell was carried off to Hexham. The Bell House has long since 
been removed, but the oldest falnily of the Jcdburgh Itutherfords 
still bury on the site. 
The Rutherfurds were an ancient and powerful clan, and several 
of them, including the Lairds of Edgerston, tIundalee, and ]Iunthil], 
were 1-,resent at the Itaid of the lteidswire in 1575. ltichard 
Rut]mrfurd of Littleheuch, son of the "Cck of Hunthill," at that 
time provost of Jedburgh, led on the burghers, who came upon the 
scene while the skirmish was going on, and raising their sl,,gan, 
"A Jedworth; A Jedworth:" turned the tide of battle in favour 
of their countrymen. An ohl ballad in reference to this says:-- 
" ]3au]d Rutherfurd he was fu' stout, 
Wi' his nine sons him round about, 
He led the town of Jedward out ; 
Ail bravely fought that day." 
A ttat tombstone of some interest in the north-west part of the 
choir lay for many years in a dilapidated condition, but has now 
been restored. It is believed to be that of John ltutherfurd of 
Bankend, and of his wife, :Barbara Gledstanes, daughter of James 
Gledstanes of Cocklaw and that Ilk. John Rutherfurd was 5heriff- 
Depute of Itoxburghshire and Cmmissioner to l'arliament in 1619. 
The stone bears the initials "). . ." and "B. G." and the date 1636. 
lIound the border of the stone is the following Latin inscription :-- 
)U.-DO : Vt'LSEnAT"--"A firm link binds to Christ the blessed 
wholn black death had torn from the world." 
John Rutherfurd of Mossburnford, who is alluded to by the poet 
Burns in his l?o'der Tmtr, is buried in the north-east of the choir. 
When fifteen years of age he went to America, and after his arrival 
at I)etroit he went 'ith Captain Robson of the 77th Rement on 
an exploring expedition, and was taken captive by the natives, with 
whom he lived for some time till he managed to make his escape. 
tte afterwards served thirty years in the 42nd ttighlanders, in which 


corps he held the rank of ensign, and was engaged in South America. 
He was afterwards appointed major in the Dumfries Militia, and 
died in Jedburgh on 12th July 1830, at the age of eighty-four. 
The major wrote an interesting sketch ¢,f his captivity among the 
North American Indians. 
The last man of mte who was buried in the choir was John 
Rutherfurd of Edgerston, who did much f«Jr the good of his native 
county, au(l in respect for his memory a beautiful (;othic monument 
was erected by public subscription. The inscription upon it gives 
the true character «,f this highly-csteemed county gentleman, and is 
as foll,ws :--" To the memory of .John Rutherfurd, Esq. of Edgerston, 
¥ice-Lieutenant-Colonel of the Local Militia, and for two successive 
par]iaments knight of the sbire for the county of Itoxburgh. 
gentlemau distinguished alike by eminent talents and unshaken 
inteq-ity, who during a l¢,ng and useful lire devoted his exertions 
to the nmintenance of order in the country at large, and to thc pro- 
motion of every local improvement in his native district. Zealous 
in the perf,jrmance of his public duties, just and correct in every 
private relation; a loyal suhject, a considerate landlord, he left 
an example of public spirit and private worth, and of the true 
dignity of an independent Scottish gentleman. Died 6th May 
1834, aged 86." tte was married to Mary Ann Leslie, daughter 
of General thc H,nourable Alexander Leslie, son of the Earl of 
Leven. Gemral Leslie and his wife, the Honourable l:ebecca Leslie, 
are also interred here, on the south side of the choir. 
There is a tombstone on the south side, in the Fernington allot- 
ment, in memory of a daughter of the house of Riddell, with the 
following inscription : 
"Here lyes a religious and virttous gentlewoman, Jean Riddell, daughter 
of Sir Audrew Pdddll of that Ilk, who died in the Lord in the year of God 
MDCLX., and of ber age 
She lived a holy lire, 
To Christ resigued ber breath ; 
Her soul lu now with God 
Triumphing over death." 


At what time the north transept was set apart as the burial- 
place of the Kcrs of Ferniherst wu have hOt the means of ascertain- 
ing. The tombstone which bears the oldest date is that of Sir 
Andrew Kur, but the date--1524--is wrong. Ho was appointed 
Bailie of Jcdburgh Forest in November 1542, at which timc he was 
nota knight, and a writer in thc ¢enealogist says he was hot 
knighted till after January 1543. Sir Andrcw, who was a man of 
courage and ability, was Wardcn of the Middle Marches of Scot- 
]and, and one of thc commissioners appointed to treat for peace 
with England. For his services to the coumry ho was rewarded 
with the barony of Oxnam. When Ferniherst was capturcd by the 
English in 1- 
o .) he was takcn prisoner, but soon regained his liberty, 
and the saine year he commanded 4000 Scots and French at the 
storming of Wark Castle. He died in 1545. 
Sir John Kcr, Wardcn of he Marches, also lies here. He did 
good service against the English. The writer in the Geaealogist says 
that John was knightcd in 1548, but this is inconsistent with the 
statement ruade by lfishop Lesly in his Histo'y that he was, along 
with other Bvrdcr chiefs, knighted by the Lord ;overnor on the 
occasion of the consecration in the abbey of Jedburgh of David 
l'anter as bishop of Ross in 1552. Sir John was fathcr of the 
famous Sir Thomas Ker, Warden of the Marches, Provost of Edin- 
burgh and Jcdburgh, who suffered many trials fol" his zeal in the 
cause of the unfortunatu Queen Mary, and having died in ward in 
Aburdeen in 1586, he was buried before the eommuniol tablu there. 
Sir John died in 1562. On the tombstone the date is 1559. 
Sir Andrew Ker, eldest son of the above Sir Thomas, reeeived a 
eharter under the Great Seal in 1587 eonfirming him in the otfiee 
of Heritable Bailie of Jedburgh Abbey lands, held by his father, 
grandfather, and great-grandfather. He was a Gentleman of the 
lledehalnber to James VI. in 1591. He was provost of Jedburgh 
in 1601, when a fight took place in the burgh between the Kers of 
Ferniherst and the Turnbulls, when Thomas Ker of Crailing, I-tobert 



Turnbull of Bewlie, and John 5Iiddlemast were killed and severtl 
persons woundcd. Sir Andrcw as provost of the l»urgh ar'ested the 
murderers of his brother, one of whom was capitally punished, but 
he, his brother James, Jaunes Ker of Lyntellie, and othcrs of ther 
kinsme and followers, were brought to trial the saine year for the 
slaughter and dcmembration of those who suffered on the other side. 
The Earl of Augus, as lord of the regality of Jedburgh, elaimed the 
right to try Sir Andrew and thc others as dwelling within his 
regality; the king's advocate denied this, but it was proved that 
Ferniherst lay within the regality. He then alleged that Sir 
Audrew, as 1,rovost of a royal burgh, could hot be repledged, and 
eventually Lord Angus withdrew his claire of jmisdiction, except as 
regards Jamcs Ker of L)'ntellie and his son, but under protest; the 
case was delayed and apparently never pursued as against the Kers. 
On 2n,l February 1622 he was raised to the peerage with the title 
of l;aron ,ledburgh, and died in 1631 without any surviving malc 
issue. His tombstone is seen under the great window, and on the 
wall over it are his arms, on a shield a chers-on bearing three mullets, 
the supportêrs being two savages, and the motto, "Forward in the 
naine of God." 
Sir James Ker of Crailing, who married the heiress of James 
IIutherfurd of Hundalee, also lies here. He 'as brother to the first 
L,»rd ,led»urgh. Sir James, then designated of Huudalee, repre- 
sented the county of Roxburgh in ]'arliment in 1630. He died in 
1645, and his son, 
l,ber Kcr of Crailing and IIundalee, having become ]loir malc 
of Ferniherst, had, on l lth July 1670, the title of Baron Jedburgh 
confirlned. 1Ils lordship married Christian, daughter of Sir Alex- 
ander Hamiltou of Innerwick, and, having no family, he got an 
extended patent to include the nearest male line, desccnded from his 
great-grandunclc, I[obert Ker of Ancrum, youngest son of the nilth 
Laird of Ferniherst, and the Ancrum Kers, on colning into possession, 
added a second "'" to the family naine to distinguish them from the 
Cessford family. Lord Rober died in August 1692. The title and 
entailed estate of Ferniherst, and the estate o Hundalee, eventually 


fell to the Lothian family, who holds three peerages, including that 
of Ancram. Both Robert Lord Jdburgh and Lady Christian are 
inteTed here, and their arms are quartered on the tombstone. 
His lordship, perhap thinking that no more burials wou]d takc 
place in the transept, ruade a testament on 4th Novembcr 1688, by 
which be mortified a thousand merks Scots " for upholding the yllc 
[aisle] of l'herniherst." He seems also to have built the dividing 
wall between the Fcrniherst aisle and that of the Turflmll's, whieh 
adjoins it. ver the outrance arc his arms and idtials, with the 
date 168 l. 
There is a stue iu thc transept with the initials " M. .," and 
thc date 1658, but it is hot in its original place. It was round in 
anothcr 1,art of the abbe)- and put u l, here a numl)er of )'ears ago. 
The StOlie is probal»ly that of Mark Ker of D,,lphinston. 
(-)1 the 2th »f July 1870 the remains of William Sch,mberg 
lober Kerr, eighth Marquess of Lothian, were interred here, it 
being, we believe, his ]ordshil;s wish to test within the precincts ,f 
the al)l,ey he loved so well; and in 1879 a suital,lc monument to 
his memoy was erected over his tolnb. This monulnenç, the work- 
manship of Mr (. F. Watts, I:.A., London, is of 'aeu stone, aud 
shows a recumbent figure of the late nmrquess. The likeness is au 
excelleut one, and a fine feeling of repose l»ervades the whole. He 
was a nobleman of very refiued tastes and high litcra T ability, ami 
was author of au able work on the Civil War in Amcrica eutitled 
Thc Co(/kdcrate ,S'ccession. ]Ils lordship was the f,mnder of the 
Lothiau Historical l'rize in the ('niversity of Ox%rd, and with him 
originated the scheme of removing from the abbey the parish chureh 
which for centuries disfigured the beauiful fabric. 


The south aisle of the choir was long used as the burial-place 
of the ministers of the parish, and here lies the Rev. Thonlas 
Somerville, I).D., F.RS.E., senior chal,lain-in-ordinary to the king, 
and author of the History of the t2,eign of çuccn Annc, My Own Life 


and Timcs, and other works. He was ninister of the parish for 
fifty-seven years, and was uncle and father-in-law to the cclebrated 
Mary Somcrvillc. (lu his visit to Jedburgh the poet Burns was 
introduced to Dr Somerville, who, he says, was "a man and a gent]e- 
man, but sadly addicted to punning." On the appearance of this 
passage in Dr Curric's Memoir of the l,oet, Dr Somerville entirely 
aban,l,med the practice. It may be stated that the doctor's daughter 
Margaret, who is also interred here, was the first love of Sir David 
l;rewstcr (see t[,Jmc Lijë of Sir Darid llrcwst,:r, by Mrs Gordou). 
The last who was buried i, this chapel was the 1,'er. Dr John 
l'urves, who was minister of the p,qrish from 1830 till the Disrup- 
tio in 1843, whêu he joined the Free Church. He was a popular 
l,reach,r, and a v.lume of his serinons was published in 1846. He 
died in October 1877. 
In thê railcd enelosure on the south of the ch,,ir, which marks 
thc site of thê south chal,el, lie the remains of Archil_,ald Jerdon, an 
ardent and successful student of ornitlml«,gy and botany, lte was the 
so of Mr A. -Ierdon of Bonjedward, where he was born in ,'-;el,tember 
1819. Some of his notices of birds are contained in the earlier 
volumes of the Zoologist. He devoted much attention to the study 
of cryl,togamic plants, and ruade a collection of ferns, lichens, and 
mosses. He contributed a " List of Fungi observed in the Seigh- 
bourhood of Jedburgh " to the Proceedfigs of the lJerwickshice 
'«tar(dists" Club. h the course of his rambles he discovered 
sevêral species new to science, as well as others which had hot 
beeu previously detected h Britain. Two species were named in 
honour of himself, one of which was Sphccria J«rdoni. He died at 
Allerton House, Jedburgh, in January 1874. 


Under the tower, and near to the north-east pier, lie the remains 
of the Iev. Thomas Boston (son of thc Rev. Thomas Boston, author 
of The Four]bhl State), the first minister of the Ielief Congregation 
in Jedburgh, and one of the founders of that body. Previous to this 


he was minister of the parish of Oxnam, and his becoming a Dissenter 
was, according to some, more the result of pet than of principle. On 
the death of Mr Winchester, minister of Jedburgh in 1755, a pre- 
sentation to the vacancy was obtained by the Marquess of Lothian 
from the Crown in favour of Mr :Bonar, minister of Cockpen; but this 
was resisted successfully by the Jedburgh Te»Wh Council, and Mr 
Douglas, Kenmore, got the living after much opposition. A strong 
party was in favour -f Mr Boston being brought froid. Oxnam.. but 
the Marquess of Lothian, who had the n,minati,m, though the Çrown 
was patron, wou]d hOt hear of t. On the marquess presenting Mr 
loston to Oxuam he promise«| to give him a better whenever it was 
in his power, and when Crailing became vacant Mr Boston reminde«l 
his lordship of his promise. The marquess infornmd him that the 
kirk in question had been promised to a preceptor of the Lothian 
family long previous to his settlement at Oxnam, but assured him 
that his 1,romise would be remembered whenever he had the power 
to fulfil it. Mr loston, in a letter which showed more bitterness 
than good taste, replied that his lordship had "acted in this ail'air 
neither with the honouï of a nobleman nor the faith of a Christian." 
This was why Lord Lothian would hot nominate him for Jedburgh. 
The great majority of the people of Jedburgh had, however, set their 
hearts on Mr Boston, who was a popular preacher, and, says a con- 
temporary writer, " Led away by vanity and popular applause, Mr 
Boston, in-pposition to the advice of his best and truest frields, 
gave up his charge, and threw himself into the arms of the malcon- 
tents." These proceedings were the cause of much rancour in the 
parish (Autobiography of a Scottish JBorderer). 


A little to the west of the foot of the stair leading up to the 
tower lie the remains of John Ainslie, surveyor, who was born in 
Jedburgh in 1745, and died in Edinburgh in 1828. His first essay 
as a draftsman was a plan of the town of Jedburgh on four sheets. 
In 1775 he surveyed the counties of Kinross and File, with the 


rivers Forth and Tay; and in the following year he offered proposais 
for an actual survey of the counties of Stirling and Clacklnannan, 
but the undertaking was abandoned. In 1784-85 he surveyed the 
casa coast of Scotland, and published lais survey on two large sheets, 
which was considered a very good performance. His map of Scot- 
land, which was an excellent piece of work, was laid down on nine 
large sheets. He is said to bave been the first who delineated the 
great valley of Scotland in a straight line from Inverness to Fort- 
William. He was the author of a much-esteemed treatise on land 
Lord ç'ampl»cll and Lady Stratheden, hfs wife, are interred in 
a vault in the south ame of the nave. John Canlpbell, thougll 
descended h-oto a cadet of the ducal bouse of Argyll, was a son of 
the nlanse, lais father bcing miuister of Cupar, in Fifeshire. Young 
l'aulpbêll, who was boni in 1781, afer aking his degree of M.A. 
a the Uuivcrsity of St Andrews, entered himself of Lincohl's Inn, 
aM before bcing called to the bar in 1806 he acted as reporter and 
critic for the 3h»rni# 6'hronicle. In 1830 he was returned to Par- 
liament for the ];orough of StMR, rd, and four years later he was re- 
turned as Olm of the members for the City of Edilburgh, which city 
he coutinued to l'el,rcsent till 1841. He was ruade Solicitor-General 
in 1832, when the honour of klaighthood was confeÏred upon him; 
Attorlmy-{leaeral in 1834; Lord Chancellor of h'eland,with a peerage 
of the l'nitcd Kil,gdom, ila 184 l ; Lord Chief-Justice of England in 
1850 ; and Lord Chanccllor of England iii 1859. Lord Campbell 
was author of Th, e Lires of Lord OEanedlors and Aéqers of lhe Great 
,Scal of ]:;nyland, from thc larliest Times till the Z'eiyn of Georye IV., 
and The Lires er the Chier Jastices of n.qland, front the _Norman 
Comiucst till the D«ath of Lord Mansfield. He died in 1861, after 
"a fortmmte and brilliant career, with an old age of physical and 
iutellectual vigour rarely paralleled." His connection with the dis- 
trict of Jedburgh was as proprietor of the estate of Hartrigge. 
Lady Stratheden was daughter of Sir James Scarlett, afterwards the 


first Lord Abinger. 
and died in 1860. 

She was ruade I}aroness Stratheden in 1836, 

The dead of several centuries lie in the adjoining burying- 
ground, and yet of all the thousands who have there found a 

resting-place, comparatively few bave left their mark behind them. 
Generation after generation passeth away and are remembered no 
more. No one can tell how many "Village Hampdens " ad " mute 
inglorious Miltons " lie there, but there must be hot a few of thèse 
who took part in the defcnce of their town during the rude days of 
B,rdcr warfarc. It is to many a sacred spot, and to ourselves it bas 
hallowed associations. 
Almost close to the north-west gate of the abbey, and on the 
upper side of the road, is a th'«ugh-stone to the memory of James 
V(inter, architect, who died in 1790. It bears the following inscrip- 
tion :---" Vhoever removes this stone, or causes it to be removed, may 
he die the last of all his friends." This was no d,ubt suggested bv 
the well-known lines on Shakespeare's tomb :-- 
In the Atobiogr(q»hy of a Scottish trderer, James Winter is spoken 
of as a man of a mind superior to his contemporaries. 
A little further down, on the saine side of the road, is the grave 
of Robert Shortreed, who was Sheriff-Substitute for Itoxburghshire, 
and the friend and companion of Sir Walter Scott. To him Sir 
Walter was indebted for many of his Border stories ; and they used 
to make rides into Liddesdale together in quest of ballads and other 
material for the works of the then" Great Unknown." hortreed's 
opinion was that William Elliot, fariner, liilburholm, near lier- 
mitage Castle, was the original of Dandie Dinmont ; and Lockhart 
says : "It is certain that the James Davidson, who carried the naine 
of Dandie to his grave with him, whose thoroughbred death-1)ed scene 


is told in the Notes to (uy M««neri-ng, was first pointed out to Scott 
by Shortreed himsclf several years after the novel had established 
the mau's celebrity all over the Border; some accidental report 
al»out his tcrriers and thcir odd names having alone been turned to 
account in the original composition of the talc." Shortreed in 1826 
gave Sir Walter a ring that had been found in Jedburgh Abbey, 
whi¢.h Sir Walter said he would 1,reserve with especial tare. 
Shortreed died in 1829. 
Somewhat higher up, a tall obelisk marks the resting-place of 
;aviu Hils, n, M.It., ,ne of the medical staff of the P, ritish army in 
the l'eninsular War, and long a practitiouer in .Iedl,urgh. He vas 
greatly respected by ail, and was a true friend of the poor. I[e died 
in 184î. 
About a score of yards nearer the ehurchyard gate is a monu- 
mnç to the mem,ry of Mujor John Murray, «»f the 20th Regiment 
of Foot, who died 21st .lune 1818, aged thirty-seven years. He 
was the son of the second daughter of the Hon. George Home, son 
,,f (_'harles, Earl of H,»me. He commenced his military career in 
H,11aml in 1797, shared the dangers and glories of the British 
armies in Egypt, Italy, H,lland, l'ortugal, Si,aih , and France; 
fought in the battles of Maida, Vimiera, Corunna, Vittoria, the 
Pyreuees, Nivelle, and ,thers, and was wounded in four of these 
acti,,ns, tic had the h,nour of commanding the brave volunteers 
of tht 4th Iivision at the storming of St Sebastian. 
Almost adjoining this is a through-stone to the memory of 
Margaret Key, m,ther of Sir David P, rewster. Sir Da id was born 
i .ledburgh, but was buried in Melrose Churehyard, undcr the 
shadow of the abbey. 
Close to the iron railing immediately behind the County Build- 
iugs is çhe gq'ave of Alxauder Jefii'ey, the historian of lIoxburgh- 
shh-e. He was bred for the bar, and had, perhaps, a better knowledge 
of the eriminal law of Scotland than any other lawyer in the county. 
But notwithstanding his arduous professional duties, he found rime 
to cultivate his taste for literature and antiquities, and his crowning 
ettbrt was Tle Histo,'y «,td A.tiluities of t,'o,,bwrgltshire «d Adjacent 


1)istricts, from t.he ost I:,emote Period dow to the Pl'esett Time, in 
four volumes. He died in 1874. 
In the lower part of the churchyard, a littlc bêhind the tall 
monument to Dr Falla, is the t.mbstone of William tIope of H,.,pc- 
bouse (now Tudhope). He was in many respects a remarkal»le man. 
llred originally t« thc trade of a l»lacksmith, he came to Jedburgh, 
and commenced a foundry in Calmngate, in the premises occupied 
Mr Fair. He was the first wh, burned gas in the burgh, having 
ruade it fir his private use, and he was the first who had a steam- 
en,ne iu the burgh. Ho also ruade great improvements on the 
priuting press, for which he took out a patent, and the Hope Presses 
wcre for a long time in ,great repute. He died in 1847. 
Near to this is a plain tombstone of polished Aberdeen gq-anite, 
which marks the resting-place of the "]leauteous Rosel»ud" of 
Burns, Miss Jean Cuickshauks, afterwards Mrs Henderson. 
[ctober 1787, while sufibring from a cold contracted during one 
c»f his journeys, Burns stayed with Mr {'ruickshanks, of the High 
School, Edinburgh. The house was fi James' Square, and the poet's 
rime was chiefly occul.,ied in colnposing songs for the secold volume 
of Johnson's Mtiset«t, and in hearing Miss Cruickshanks play the 
melodies on the pianoforte. It was at this time tbat he composed 
the song, "A Rosebud in my Early Walk," in whieh tender reference 
is ruade to the young lady who could make such strains on "tremb- 
ling string or vocal air." He says: "I wrote this song on Miss 
,lenny Cruickshanks, only daughter to my ohl friend, Mr William 
Cruickshanks, of the High School, Edinburgh." In Fel»ruary 1789 
Burns again visited Edinburgh, and wrote and inscribe«| to 5Iiss 
Crdckshanks the poem beginning with 
" Beauteous rosebud, young and gay, 
Blooming in the early May." 
She became Mrs Henderson on 1st June 1804, and the follow- 
ing announcement appeared in the ,S'cots Mag««:ine at the time 
" 1st June 1804.--At Jedburgh, James Henderson, writer there, to 
Miss Jean Cruickshanks, daughter of the decesed Wil/iam Cndck- 



shanks, High School, Edinburgh." The "Beauteous l',osebud" died 
in the bouse No. 48 Castlegate, presently occupied by 5Ir Alfred 
I Iilson, manufacturer. 
Imme,liately behind this is a small tombstone of some interest. 
It is in memory of ]Iungo Thomson, wh,» dicd on 26th ,eptember 
17::5, and l»ears the foll«»wing lines :-- 
"Here lies a Christian bold and true, 
An antipode to Babel's crew ; 
A friend to truth to vice a terre»r, 
A lamp of zeal opposing error, 
Who fought the battle of the Lamb, 
»f victory now bears the palm." 
S_mcwhat to the lcft of this is a tall granite tombstone of neat 
design, m«rking the restin-place of, among others, ])to|)ert Eastoll, 
land surveyor, a devoted and self-taught studcnt of natural science, 
chiefiy astronomy and matbematics, who ,lie(1 in 1823. 
Fully more than half-way between this and Winter's tombstone, 
already mentioncd, is that of James Veitch of Illchbonny, optician, 
self-taught ldilosopher, astronomer, and nlathematician. He 
the friendship of l'rofessor Playfair, Sir Thomas lirisl-)ane, the Earl 
of Minto, Sir Walter Scott, and other eminent persons. Mr Veitch 
had the rcputatiou of being oue of the best iuakers of telescopes and 
philosophical instruments in his day, and the ouly telescope ever 
possessed l»y the celebrated Iary Somerville (who, by the way, was 
born in the manse of Jcd],urgh which stood in the abbey garden) was 
ruade by him. In the workshop of James Veitch, Sir David Brewster 
when a boy spent luuch of his lcisure time, and there can be no 
doubt that these visits fo Inchbonny had much to do with the form- 
ing of Sir David's tastes for scientific pursuits. ]Ir Veitch was the 
first to discover the q'eat cornet of 1811, as well as several others ; 
and he contributed a number of articles fo the Edinburgh E«yclo- 
perdia, at the request of Sir David Brewster, who was the editor. 
Ahnost side by side with Mr Veitch lies the ev. Alexander 
Shanks, who for nearly forty years was minister of the Associate 
Congregation in Jedhurgh. At hlr Shanks' ordination on 15th 


October 1760 the minister who 1,reached on that occasion took f,,v 
his text, "What will this babbler say ." The question was hot left 
long unanswered. Shanks was a m,qn of e,,lsi,leral,le talents, and 
one of his published serinons on "l'eaee and (rdcr" attraetcd the 
attention of the Government of the time, and he as oflircd a 
pension. He, however, refused to aeeel,t it. "I ara loyal from 
e,_,nseienee," he said; "a seeeder from 1,rineil,le. I ht)ve done nothing 
more than my duty--I take no reward." The stone at the head of 
1 " 
his grave was erected in respect for his memory by lackfrlars United 
l'resbytêrian Con,¢,q'egation in 1877, the former "frail memorial" 
having 1,ecomc much ,lecaved. 



(A bridged fi'om Morton'« "Monastic A nnals of Teviotdale.") 

WE learn from the eonfirmatory eharter of Earl Henry that his 
fathcr, King David I., when he established the abbot and convent 
at Jedburgh, ruade or confirmed to them the following grants of 
property--the monastery of Jedworthe, with everything belonging 
to it, namely, the tithes of the two Jedworths, Langton, Nesbyt, 
and Creling, the town of Earl ' "  
¢,ospatrm, with the consent of his 
chaplain; and, in the saine town, a plc»ughgate and a half and 
three acres of land, with two bouses: also the tithes of the other 
Creling, the town of Orm, the son of Eylav,  and of Scrauesburghe ; 
the chapel situated in the forest opposite Hernwingeslawe;3 also 
Ulfstoun, near Jedworth" Alneclive, near Alncromb, Cnmsethe, 4 

t Gospatric, one of the sons of Gospatric, Earl of Northumberland, being 
deprived of his possessions by William the Conqueror, fled into Scotland, where 
Malcolm ÏIÏ. gave him the territory of Dunbar and other lands in the southern 
counties. He was the founder of the nunne T of Coldstream. He is styled vice- 
cornes, viscount, or sheriff, in Earl Yienr.v's charter, but in general is simply 
stvled earl. l=[is descendants were the E,-trls of Dunbar and hIarch, and the 
present representative is the Earl of Home. 
" Eilav, or Eilaf, was probab]y likewise a Saxon baron, who round an asylum 
in Scotland at the Conquest, and had lands ven him by the ]iberality of the 
king. Elliestoun, in St Boswells parish, appears to derive its naine from him. 
It was anciently writteu Ylifstouu. There are several places and many familles 
in Scotland called Ormiston, probably from his son Orm. A family of that naine 
was long settled at Old Me]rose. 
 In King Wil]iam's charter, Xernwingeslaw. It appears to be the place 
now eatl|ed Mervinslav, on the left bank of the Jed, a little above Old Jedworth. 
a Crumsethe, otherwise Crumshache and Crom.ahie. There is a place called 
Crumhaugh near Hawick. 


and Reperlaw. 1 tic also granted them the tenth part of the 
gaine taken by him in htuating in Teviotdale; the multure of 
the miln at Jedworth, where all the people of the town ground 
their corn; pasture for their cattle in the king's forest, and the 
right of taking wood and tituber for the use o[ the monastery, 
except in the place called Quikhege; the village of ule ]Iervey, e 
which he gave them in exchange for a ten pound land in 
Hardinghestorn ; s and Eadwordisley; 4 also a salt-work near Strive- 
line; a house in the town of Loxburg, and another in Berwic, 
tnd a fishing in the Tweed, ol,posite the isle of Tunsmidhol,. 
They obtained afterwards another bouse in Berwick, with a toft 
adjacent to it. 
Malcolm IV. gave them the churches of Barton and Grendon 
Northamptonshire, a toft and seven acres in the town of Jedwortl, 
a fishing above the bridge at Berwick, and exemption from paying 
duty for their wine imported into that town. 
Berengarius de Engain 6 gave them a merk of silver out of the 
profits of the nfiln of Creling, with two oxgangs of land, one villan, 
or bondservant, and a toft ; and, for the lnaintenance of the chaplain 
of the saine village, he gave two other oxgangs, and two çofts, one of 
whieh was beside the church. 
Iavid Olifard gave the tithe of the miln of ' " 
Richard English gave two oxgangs of land in Scrauesburghe and 
two in Langton. 

 leperlaw is in the parish of Lilliesleaf. 
"-' Now Abbotrule. 
a Probably Hardingstone in Northamptonshire. 
* Edvardly, Jedburgh. 
« A noble Anglo-Norman, one of the followers of Earl David, to whom he 
gave lands in Scotland, after his accession to the throne (Chalmers' Caledonia). 
 David Olifard was King David's grandson, and much attached to him, 
although he served in King Stephen's army, which besieged him in Winchester 
in 1141. When the King of Scots escaped, Olifard concealed him and conducted 
him to Scotland, for which service he had lands givên him in Smailholm and 


(:am«.l, who, iu King William's chater, is styled "clerk," with 
consent «,f his sons, Osulf and Ughtred, gave Caverum.  
Margaret, the ife of Thomas de Londou, with consent of lier 
]msband, and Henry Lovel, lier son, gave Ughtrcdshaghe.  
(_'hristiana, the wife of {;ervas ],t lel, gave the third part of the 
.,-illage of tIernwingeslave.  
[laufrid (le l'erci gave the con'ent, the ehurch of Oxenham, with 
two 1,1oughgates, and two oxgangs of land adjacent thereto, and right 
of 1,astm'e and fuel in the common; also Newl,igging, with eommon 
pasture and fuel, as enjoyed by the other inhabitants of the saine 
Ralph, the son of l_),megal, and his wife lethoe, gave them a 
ldoughgate in Itugheehestre, with common pasture.  
Turgot de Itossedale gave them the religious bouse on the Lidal,  
with all its adjacent lands; and the church of Kirkhanders,  with 
everything thereto ]»elonging. 
Guido de Itossedale, with the conset of his son ]talph, granted 
the eonvent forty-two acres, between the Esk and the Lidal, at the 

 Probably Cavers. There are two places of the naine in Teviotdale, dis- 
tinguished after the names of the l,roprietors--Cavers Douglas and ('avers 
î The lands of Lessudden were granted to Thomas de London by King 
David. /te m,'u'ried Margaret Lovel, a 'idow. 
: Gervas lidel, deseeu(led of an Aglo-Norman family of «listinetio, settled 
at Ryedale in Yorkshire, came iuto Seotland with Earl David, and was sheriff 
of Ioxburgh in 1116. The king gave him the lands in the parish of Lilliesleaf, 
whic], though hot eltailed, continued in the possession of bis posterity, by direct 
maie deseent, unti] the twenty-fifth generation. 
a Gaufrid, or Geoffrey, de Perei inherited the lands of Heton and Oxenham 
from his brother Allan, surnamed "le Mesehin," who obtained them from King 
David, for whom he fought at the Batt]e of the Standard. 
" 12ule Bethoc, now ealled edrule» was named after this lad)'. From her 
descended Randolph, Earl of 3Ioray, the friend of lobert tlm Bruee. Ruge- 
chestre is probably Reweastle, near Jedburgh. 
« This bouse stood on the site of the l»rioT of ('anonl»y. 
: Kirkandrews in Cumberland. 


junction of these rivers, with the right of fishing from the foss of 
Lidal to the church. 
Ranulph de Sulas gave them the church of the Vale of Lidal, 
the church of Dodington near berton," aud hall a ploughgate in 
Gervas Lidal [Rydel ?], who afterwards became a canou 
• leddeworth, and his brother Ralph, gave them the church of 
Abbol,lesle,  with all its rights and dues. 
William de Vetereponte, or Vipont, gave thcm a ploughgate in 
his lordshil of Caredene,  with com,on rights. 
Waltheof, son of Gospatric, gave them the rectorial church of 
Bassenthwaite in Cumberland. » 
The church of Dahnenie in Linlithgowshire was acquired by the 
convent in the reign of King William or Alexandcr II. The canons 
enjoyed the rectorial tithes, and appointed a vicar to serve it. It 
vas valued iu 1275 at £2, 13s. 4d.  
The church of Hownam in Teviotdale was acquired by the 
convent about the end of the twelfth century. 
King Iiobert I., ara,mg other 'ants, and confirmation of former 
grants, to the " priory of I',osinot, and the abbot of ,ledworth byding 
there," confers upon them " the teinds of the king's horses an,1 studs, 
and the third of the hay of the forest of l'latir;" also that thcy 
should get, every day that the king remained at Forfar, two loaves of 
the 1,read callcd Sunday bread, four loaves of the second bread, and 
six of the bread called hagmans; two stoups of the best aie, two 

I Part of this ancielt foss, or aoEificial bak of earth, still exists iii a very 
perfeet state on the lan«ls on Liddal-bank, and is ealled the Railzie. 
" Barton in Northamptonshire was the original seat of the Soulis family, 
who were brought into Seotlalid hv David I. The ehm'eh of Lidal stood near 
the junction of the two rivers. It was ddic,'tted to t Martin, aad valued il 
1275 at £4. 
 Abbotslee in Huntingdonshire. 
 Carriden in Linlithgowshire. 
 Hutchinson's History of Cumberlad. 
« In Ba,dmont's Roll. 


stouI,s of the small aie called second ale, and two pair of dishes of 
each of the three services from the kitchen. 1 
The hospital of St Mary Magdalene at Putherford was given 
to the convent in 137î by Iiobert III., upon the resignation of 
Alexander de Symondton, the last toaster thereof. 
There was an altar in the abbey church dedicated to St Ninian, 
and another to St Mungo. 
The property of the monasteries having been confiscated at thc 
ref(,rmation of religion, an account of it was taken in 1562, when 
the revenues of Jedburgh Abbey, together with those of l,estenot 
and Canonby, were estimated at-- 
£,1274, 10s., Scots money; 2 chalders and 2 bolls of wheat; 
23 chalders of barley; 36 chalders, 13 bolls, 1 firlot, and 1 peck of meal. 
The temporal possessions of the monastery at that time were 
the baronies of Ulston, Windington, Ancrum, Bêlses, I,'eperlaw, and 
Abbotrule. Its spirituality consisted in the kirks of Jedburgh, 
Eckford, Hownam, Oxnam, Langnewton, Dalmeny, Selbie, Wauchope, 
Castleton, Crailing, Nisbet, l'lenderleith, and Hobkirk. Of these, 
Selbie, Wauchope, and Castleton belonged properly to Canonby. To 
llestenot belonged the kirks of Forfar, I)ounyvald, and Aberlemno. 
In "Ane Accompt of the Thirds of the Benefices, taken from the 
Accompts of ,obert Lord Boyd, Collector-General of the said Thirds, 
for thc year 15 76," are the following articles :-- 
"Third of the abbacy of Jedburgh, £333, 6s. Bd.; wheat, 11 bolls, 
1 firlot, 3 pecks ; bear, 7 chalders, 10 bolls, 3 firlots, 2 pecks ; recul, 12 
chalders, 4 bolls, 1 firlot, 3 pecks ; third of the altarage of St Ninian,: 
£3, 4s. 5d." 
A new order was issued in 1587 to collect the king's thirds 
of the benefices, when Jedburgh was to pay £200 and restênneth 

t tarleian MSS. 4134 and 4693. - Ibid. 461"2.  Ibid. 46£3, VoL II. 

(From a MS. in the Harleian Collection, 2:o. _62.3, Vol. L 
" The Monastic Antals of Teviotdale.") 

Published in 


"3rd ,henu«ry 16 .'G.--In a judicial court of the lordship and abbacy 
of Jedburgh, holden within the kirk of the said burgh, be Andrew, 
Master of Jedburgh, baillie prineipall of the said abbacy, eompeared, 
&e., proeurator for the Lord Ifinning, and produeed ane aet of con- 
vention, holden at Edinburgh, the 27th of Oetobir, 1625, where all 
the vsals fewars were ordained to bave eonveened that day, with 
the Lord ]finning, for setting down ane taxt roll fol" his reliell of 
the taxation of the saids lordships, with the extension of the said 
aet, with ane certificat under the lord register's hand, anent the 
taxation of the said lordshil, , extending at every terme of the four 
terln's taxation, to £516, 13s. 4d. ; and upon production thereof, thc 
proeurator took infeftment in the hands of the elerk of court. And 
thereafter the baillie ealled all the vassals, &e., by naine and sur- 
naine, of the whilks only eompeared, &e., after lawful time of day 
bidden. The next day, being oftentimes ealled and hot eolnpearing, 
the said proeurator protested it might 1.,e lawful fol" him, with the 
persons before-written eompearing, to sett down the said txt roll, 
conforme to the warrant granted by the said aet of e,nvention; 
whilk protestation the said baillie admitted ; and thereupon the said 
proeurator, with the persons aforementioned, bave all with one 
consent, sett down the said taxt roll, and ordaining, &e. And for 
the eolleeting of the said tax-ation, there shall be augmented yearly, 
to the said some of 5161ib. 13s. 4d., the sowme of 1831ib. 6s. 8d 

for iubringing the said taxation. In token whereof, the said baillie 
and procurator and persons above mentioned sctt their hands." 

Rutherford of Handelye, his 101ib. land of /}clshes, worth yearly 
30 bolls victuall, at 801lb. per chalder; whereof payes to my 
1,rd 101lb. 
l lavidson of Kaymes, for his 51ib. land in lelshes, and 5 merk land 
in [laperlaw, estinmt worth 50 bolls victuall ; whereof payes to 
my lord 81ib. 13s. 4d. 
Haliburton of Muirhouselaw, his 101lb. land in Be]shes and l'iunacle, 
worth 64 bolls; payes l llib. 
Turnbull of Wylliespeil, for his merk land of Wylliespeil, estimat to 
be worth yearly 1001lb. ; whereof payes 13s. 4d. 
Turnbull, for his 31lb. land of Hassenders-bank, estimat tobe worth 
yearly 10 bçlls victualls ; whereof payes £3. 
Sir John Scott of 'cwburgh, for his 41ib. land of the barony of 
]clshes, estimat to be worth 24 bolls yearly; payes 41ib. 
5cott of Heidshaw, for his £5 in Belshes, estimat to 42 bolls; 
payes £5. 
Sir Robert Ker of Ancrum, for his lands of çlcrum and Woodlmid, 
worth 20 chalder victuall ; payes £32. 
William Midlemess of Lyllslie Chapell, for £11 of the barony of 
Bclshes, worth 60 bolls vict. ; payes £1 1. 
Davidsous iu Belslms, for their 41lb. 10sh. laud in Belshes, worth 
18 bolls vict. ; paye £4, 10sh. 
Turnbull of for his lire merk land of Belshes, worth 30 
bolls : payes 5m. 
Turnbull, for his £5 land of Abbotrule, worth 10 bolls; payes £5. 
Turnbulls, possessors of £12 lands beyond the burn of Abbotrule 
wrth 24 bolls; paye £12. 
Turnbull, for Maksyde, worth yearly 801ibs. ; payes 51lb. 
Turnbulls, for their 42sh. 4d. land of Fodderlye, worth 10 bolls 
vict. ; paye 42sh. 4d. 



Thomas Ker, for Gaithuscott, worth 24 bolls; payes .-q6sh. 
Scott of Todrig, foL- Gralge, worth 32 bolls; payes 5 merks. 
Foulden, for Netherbourten, worth yearly £100; l»«)'es 13sh. 4d. 
Turnbull, for Braidhaugh, worth 5 merks" p;lyes {5sh. Bd. 
Turnbull, for his lands of Hartishauch, worth 5 boll.s; payes 
6sh. Bd. 
Rutherford, for Woole, worth 10 merks; payes 10sh. 
Turnbull, for ,verbonchester, worth 6 bolls; payes 30h. 
Turnbull, for his half lmds of Eister Swansheill, worth 301ib.; 
payes 26sh. Bd. 
.hiclls, for Kirknow and Langrw, 801ib. ; payes 51ib. 
Kirkton, for thc 16 lmds of t|ouston, worth 64 bolls vict.; p«,yes 
301ib. 12sh. 
Kirkton, for Stewartfield and (_:hapmalsyde, worth 60 l»lls; payes 
1 llib. 4sh. 
William Douglas of ]onjedburgh, for his lands of Toftilaw, l',do- 
puill, and Spittlestains, worth 48 bolls vict.; payes £1, 
13sh. 4d. 
.':;_'m;irt, for his 2 lands il Crailling, worth 8 bolls; payes £22. 
Çranston, for l'lewlands, and "-'_0sh. 1;md in Nisbitt, worth o4"  bolls ," 
payes 41ib. 6sh. Bd. 
Lidores, iu Stichcll, foL" his osh. 4d. land in Stichcll, worth 8 l»lls 
vict. ; payes 33sh. 4d. 
t|all, for the hall of Haugh-heid, ,n'th 15 bolls: payes 33.h. 4,1. 
The Countess of Bothwell, foL" the other half, worth 15 bolls; ptyes 
13sh. 4d. 
Taitt in Cessford Mayns, for lais merk land, yearly worth 2 bolls; 
payes 13sh. 4d. 
Rutherford of Hunthill and ,':;_'karsburgh, worth 4 bolls; payes 
13sh. 4d. 
Ainslie in Oxnam, for his 2 merk land, woLth 10 boll. vict. ; payes 
20sh. Bd. 
Robertson in Haden, for his 20sh. land, yearly worth 4 bolls; 
payes 20sh. 
Robertson, for his 20sh. land; payes als much. 



An,lrcw, Master of Jedburgh, for his lands of Newbigng, worth 
200 merks; payes 101ib. 
Item, for his lands of Auld Jedburgh and Httstneley, worth 14 
bolls; payes 20sh. 
Temmnt, for ane ]and worth ;3 bolls; payes 20sh. 
Storie in Rowcastle, for his land, worth 1 boll; payes 5sh. 
Porteus, for anc land worth 4 bolls; payes 20sh. 
Mader, for 2 lands in Langton, worth 8]ib. ; payes 40sh. 
Earl of Ioxburgh, for his 4 merk lattd of Newhall, worth 100 
merks; payes 53sh. 4d. 
E1]ot of Stobs, for his 25 merk land of Windington,  worth 400 
merks; payes 25 mcrks. 
l',ssessors of Hyndhousefield, worth 90 bolls; paye 40 merks. 
l'ossessors of ç'astlcwoodfield, worth 60 bolls; paye 91ib. 
Ainslie, for 6 aikcrs posscsse,l by ber, worth 8 bolls; payes 1 lsh. 
H,nne, possessor of Spittle, worth 8 chalder victuall; free rent. 
Gressoun, for his lands in Sl,ittell, worth 1 chalder vict. ; payes 
Ainslie, for lfis aikers itt Boongate, worth 8 bolls vict. ; payes 4sh. 
Kirkt,m and lutherford, for the possessors of the free milns of 
Jedburgh, worth 4 chald, vict. ; paye 901ib. 
Earl of Buccleugh, for Cannabie, worth 1200 merks; payes l llib. 
6sh. Bd. 
Item, for his lands of Liddisdale, worth 1000 merks; payes 101lb. 
Bennet of Chesters, for aeflatt and yknow, worth 2 chald, vict. ; 
payes 8 merks. 
Putherford, for Steepleside, worth 8 bolls; payes 30sh. 
l'ossessors of Sheilfield, worth £40; paye 2sh. 
Ker, for Hereass, worth 10 merks; payes 6sh. Bd. 
I[obeson, for Cuikes, worth 5 merks; payes 6sh. Bd. 
Andrew, Master of Jedburgh, for Overwoolismilne, worth 20 bolls 
viet. ; payes 40sh. 
Davidson, for Netherwoolis, worth 20 bolls; payes 20sh. 

 Winningtonrig, in Kirktoun parish. 


Buckholm, for Belshes milne, worth 24 bolls; payes £20 for 
money and customs. 
Hamilton, for Kinglass, worth 400 merks; payes 6sh. Bd. 
(;ledstanes, for ('ocklaw, worth 1 chald, vict. ; payes 20sh. 
Turnbull of Bewlie, for 4 aikers in Lanrnewton, worth 3 bolls; 
payes 6sh. Bd. 
Ker of Ancrum, for Knox and Henfield, worth 100 merks: payes 
Master of Jedburgh, for l'riestfield, worth l0 merks ; payes 1 mcrk. 
Trotter, for the Convent Yards, worth 251ib. ; free rent. 
Ainslie, for his part of thê Convent Yards, worth £20 ; payes 20sh. 
Weir, for Seills, worth 500 merks: payes 200 merks. 
Ainslie, f,r the aikers of Boongate, worth £30; payes 10sh. 


Tcynds of U]stounc, eonfest to be 24 bolls victuall; vhcreof payes 
the minister of ,lcdburgh 8 bolls. 
Teynds of Stewartfield, worth 24 bolls; whereof payes the said 
minister 16 bolls. 
Mter of Jedburgh, his teynd sheaves of Woolis, orth 24 l»lls; 
whereof payes the said minister 10 bolls. 
The teynd sheaves of ( vel" Crailling, worth 10 bolls ; whereof pyes 
to the Earl of Lothian, as lord of erecti,n of the abbacy of 
Ncwbattle, 6 bolls. 
The teynds of ()ver Crailling, worth 4 chald, vict.; whereof payes 
to the Earl of Lothian 2 chalders. 
Lord Cranstoun, his teynd sheaves in Nether Crailling, worth 10 
chald. ; payes said earl 48 merks. 
Teynd sheaves of Samiestoun, worth 10 chald.; payes to the 
minister of Jedburgh 16 bolls. 
Teynd sheaves of Renniestoun, worth 4 bolls ; payes to the minister 
of Jedburgh 10 furlots of tack duty. 
Teynd sheaves of Hunthill, worth 2 chald. ; payes Earl of Lothian 
16 bolls. 


Andew, Master of .Iedburgh, for his whole teynds contelmd in his 
tack, w,,rth 1 0 chald.; payes to the minister of Jedburgh 24 
bolls; to the miuister of (xnam 3 chald.; to the minister of 
H,qJkirk 12 1Mls; to the Earl of Lothian 3 chald. 8 bolls. 
Teynd sheaves of Edgarstoun, wvrth 2 chald, i payes minister of 
Jedburgh 1 chald. 
Teynds of Auld ,ledburgh, worth 12 bolls; paie Earl of Lothian 
8 bolls. 
William, Earl of Angus, his tcynd sheaves of Lintalie, worth 6 bvlls ; 
payes to the said earl 4 bolls. 
Rutherfvrd, for his teynd sheaves of Swinnie, worth 16 bolls; payes 
said earl 61ib. 
Teynd sheaves of Hundelie, worth 24 bulls; 1,aie miuister of 
Jedburgh 6 I»Jlls. 
Teynd sheaves of 'astlewuod, wm'th 40 bolls; paid to said e«trle. 
Ker of Ancrum, his teynd sheaves of Jedburghside, wmth 40 bolls; 
payes said earl 121lb. 
Teynd sheaves of Gleneslands, worth 16 bolls; paie minister of 
Jedburgh 14 bolls. 
Teynd sheaves of Langtoun, Wt)ltll g ehald. 
Teynd sheaves of IIonjedl.,urgh, worth 5 ehald.; paie said earl 281il,. 
Teynd sheaves of Hyndhousefield, worth 40 bolls; paie said earl 
The Èarl of Lothian, for the teynd shetves of Nisbitts, worth 
8 ehald, viet. ; payes the minister of Crailling 3 ehald. 
His lordship's teyud sheaves of the Spittel, worth 3 ehald.; free 
His lordship, for the taek duties before and after speeified, paid to 
him, extends to 25 ehald. 3 bolls vict. and £138 of money. 
Erl of Buccleuch, fur the teynd sheaves of Casseltown, worth 
11331ib. 6sh. Bd.; payes to the miuister 4661ib. 13s. 4d. 
Erl of Nithisdaill, for his teynds of Wauehopdaill, worth 400 
merks; payes said earl 40 merks. 
Countess of Bothwell for the teynds of Heikfield, Gremishlaw, and 
Maynes, worth 8 ehald. ; payes Earl of Lothian 2 ehald. 



William Mow of Mowmayns, for the teynd sheaves thereof, worth 
2 chalders ; frce rent. 
The said Countess of Bothwell, for the teynd sheaves of IIaugh-hei,1, 
worth 12 bolls ; payes the minister of Je, lbur::h 8 bolls. 
The Earl of Roxburgh, for the teynd sheaves of ('avertoun and 
[lrmistoun, worth 12 chald, vict. ; payes to the ministe" 
Eckford 5 chald., and to the Eal of Lothian 3 chald. 
12 bolls. 
lutherford, his teynd shcavcs of IIownam, worth 10 bolls; payes 
said earl 4 bolls. 
l:essie Ker, La,ly Mow, for her part of the teynd sheaves of II,wnam, 
10 bolls; payes the minister of I/:,wnam 6 bolls. 
Pringle of Hownam, his teynd sheaves thereof, v,rth 10 bolls; 
payes said minister 4 bolls. 
Teynd shea','es of Nether Chatt, worth 8 bolls; paid said Earl of 
Teynd sheaves of P, eirop and Fillogare, worth l0 b,,lls; paie sai,l 
earl 5 bolls. 
Teynd sheaves of (-)ver Whitsum, wo-th 10 l»olls; paid to the 
minister of Hownam. 
Ker of Chatto, his teynd sheaves of Chatto and Cuish«,p, worth 20 
bolls; payes the minister «,f Hownam 16 bolls. 
Teynd sheaves of Swynsyde, worth 30 bolls; 1,ai,1 to the Earl of 
Teynd sheaves of Newbigging and Shcills, wo'th 12 b«,lls; 1,aye to 
the Earl of Lothian 8 bolls. 
Tcvnd sheaves of Newtoun, Dolphistoun, and Fala, worth 24 l,olls; 
paie said earl 24 bolls. 
Teynd sheaves of Overtoun, worth 16 bolls; paie said ea-I 12 bolls. 
The Earl of Roxburgh, for the teyn«l sheaves of Plcndcrleith and 
Middleknow, worth 8 bolls; payes the Earl «,f Lothian 201lb. 
Stewart of Traquair, for the teynd sheaves of ,Vollis, worth 10 l«,lls ; 
payes the minister of Hopkirk 4 bolls. 
Turnbull, for his teynd sheaves of Bullerwall, worth 12 botl. : payes 
to said earl 8 b«,lls. 



Turnbull, for his teynd sheaves of Gledstanes, worth 5 bolls; payes 
to said earl 2 bolls. 
Lord Cranstoun, for the te)-nd sheaves of Stennalege, Wauchope, 
Langhauch, and Hcrwoodtoun, worth 2 chald, vict. ; payes the 
minister of Hopkirk 22 bolls. 
Teynd sheaves of Harwood, Applesyde, and half of Hawthornside, 
worth 17 bolls; paie to said minister of Hopkirk 16 bolls. 
Teynd sheaves of Over Halthornside, worth 8 bolls; paye the Earl 
of Lotlfian 201ib. 
Teynd sheaves of Unthank, worth 1 boll; paid to said earl. 
])avidSOll, for the te)'nd sheaves of Myre, half-quarter of P, elshes, 
worth 16 bolls; payes said earl 41ib. 
Scott of Hcidhaw, for the teynd S|lCaves of the Pcill halfe-quarter, 
worth 24 bolls; payes the said earle 12 bolls. 
Tcynd sheaves of l'innacle, worth 16 bolls vict. ; paid to said earle. 
Te)-nd sheaves of Ryflatt al](l Ryknow, w,,rth 8 bolls; paie said 
earl 41ib. 
Cairncross, for the teynd sheaves of the Milnerig quarter of lelshes, 
worth 12 bolls; payes said carl 101ib. 
The fcw maills and duties particularly afore-mentioned, payed 
yearly to the said Lord Iinning extends to 4681ib. 12sh.; whereof 
payes of I»lcnsh duty to the king 3801ib_ ; and payes to Andrew, 
5Iaster of Jedburgh, lmreditary baiIlie to the said lordship, for his 
baillie fee, 501ib. ; so tests 381lb. 12sh. free rent. 
The said Thomas Lord Binning, his teynds of the parochin of 
Dummenie, worth 20 chald, of victuall; whercof payes to the 
lninistcr 2 chaldcrs and 400 merks. ](ests of free rent, 81ib. per 
ch«d«lcr, 1 1731lb. 6sh. ,d. Taxt to 411ib. 10sh. 



Ix honorera ,qanctoe et individuoe Trinitatis: Ego Hcnricus cornes 
Northanhuml,riorum canonicis patris mei quos it monasterio Sancte 
Marie de Jedworde constituit, in perpetuam eleenmsinam concedo, et 
hujus cartoe meoe attcstatione confirmo, donatum illis al) eodem 1,atre 
meo, predictum monasterium de Jedworthe, cure omnibus ad illud 
pertilmntibus, riz., decilnaS villarum totius parochioe, scil. duaruln 
Jeddword, et Langton, Nesbyt, Creling, (;ospatricii vicecomitis, ipsius 
Gospatricii capellano ejusdem Crcling prefato monasterio concedente, 
et testibus legitimis confirmante : :Et in eadem villa, unam carucatam 
terre et dimidiam et tres acras, cum duabus maisuris: Necnon et 
decimas alterius Creliug vill«e Orm, filii Eylav ; et de Scrauesburghe : 
Capellum etiam quoe est in saltu nemoris; et decimam totius 
venatiouis partis mei in Thevietdale ; omnes reditus ad supradictum 
monasterium juste pertinentes, l'reterea villas subscriptas; Ulves- 
toun juxta Jedworthe, Alneclive juxta Alncromb, Cromseche, I',aper- 
law, cure rectis divisis ad easdem villas pertinentibus. Unam 
maisuram in burgo ttoxburg, et unam in Berewic, et ibidem unam 
aquam, liberas, solutas, et quietas. Et Edwordisley, sieur eam pater 
meus perambulavit et divisas monstravit. Et animalium pascua ubi 
partis mei. Et ligna silvarum, et materiem ad sua necessaria ubi 
pater meus, proeter illum locum qui vocatur Quikhege. Et multuram 
molendini Jeddworde, ubi castellum est., de omnibus hominibus 

Henry, Earl of F[untinr4on and Northumberland, die(l in 1152, the year 
preceding the death of his father, King David. 


ejusdem Jeddworde. Et unam salinam juxta Strevelin. Volo 
itaque et concedo ut omnia quoecumque modo possident aut deinceps 
juste possessuri sint, ita libere et pure, omni rcmota exactione, 
supradicti cnonici partis mei cure omnibus monasterii sui liberta- 
tibus et liberis consuetudinibus pace pcrpetua possideaut, sicut illis 
pater meus eadem beneficia, ctrta et auctoritate sua, possidenda pre- 
cepit et confirmavit. Testibus presentibus: Herb. Glasg. Episcopo: 
Arnaldo. Al,bate de ('alco; Eng. cancellario; Adam, capellano; 
Hugone de Morcvilla; Thonm de Londoniis; Ianu. de Sola, &c. 

OF JEU, " 1165. 
(Original i qf the I,ke of Buccleuch. A facsimile is 
l, ablished it the "'tStional MSS. of Scotla,d»" I'«»'t L). 
Williemus Dci gratin rex Scottorum, episcopis, abbatibus, prioribus, 
comitibus, baronibus, justiciariis, vicecomitibus, ceêterisque hominibus 
totius terre sine, Francis, Anglis, et Scottis, cunctisque sanctœe Dci 
ecclesioe filiis salutem. Ex suscepto r%dmine r%mai incumbit nobis 
ecclesiam Dei et ecclesiasticos diligere personas, et non solum de 
nostris eis benefacere, sed et beneficia ab aliis Dei fidelibus eis 
collata auctoritate regia confirmare, et cum sua eis inte'itate con- 
servare. Inde est quod nos, consilio proborum hominum nostrorum, 
possessiones et bona quoe, a predecessoribus nostris et al) aliis regni 
nostri principibus et fidelibus, Deo et ecclesiœe Sanctœe Marioe de 
,Ieddçworth et canonicis ibidem ]eo servientibus collata sunt, 
presenti eis privileo confirmanms: Videlicit, ex dono res David 
monasterium de Jeddeworth cure omnibus ad illud pertinentibus; 
capellam quoque quœe fundata est in saltu nemoris contra Xern- 
wingeslawe; decimam totius venationis re,ds in Thevietdale, Ulves- 
tonam, Alneclive, juxta Alnecrumb, Cnmesethe, 12,aperlawe, cum 
rectis divisis ad eas villas pertinentibus, in bosco et plano, pratis, 
pascuis, et cuhuris: unam maisumm in burgo Pochesburg; unam 
maisuram in ]:êrewico ; tertiam quoque maisuram in eodem Berewico 
super Tuedam, cure tofto suo circumjacente; unam aquam quœe est 



contra insulam que vocatur Tonsmidhop; Eadwardesle; pascua 
animalium proprie, ubi et res; ligna nemoris, et materiem ad suas 
necessitates ubi et ipse, proeter in Quikeheg: molturam molendini 
de omnibus hominibus Jeddevorth ubi castellum est ; unam salinam 
juxta Strevelin : Rulam Herevei per suas rectas divisis in nemore et 
plano, pratis, et pascuis, et aquis, et in omnihus rebus ad eandem 
villam juste pertinentibus, datam in escambio decem Iii,ratinera 
terroe quas pr«efati canonici habuerant in Hardinghestorn : ex dono 
dilecti fratris mei egis 2Ialcolmi, ecclesiam de Bartona, et ecclesiam 
de Grendona; et in burgo meo de Jeddeworth unum torture et 
septem acms; et in domihus suis quas habent in burgo meo de 
I;erewico talem libertatem, scilicet, ut nullus ministrorum regis 
tunella vini a mercatoribus illic allata et ibi evacuata exigere 
1,r«esunlat; et unanl piseariam in Tuede, illam, seilieet, quoe est 
supra pontera, quam Williehnus de Lambertona avo meo liberam et 
quietam redditit ; ex dono Gospatrieii vieeeomitis, in Craaling unam 
carrucatam terroe et dimidiam, et tres acras, cure dualms maisuras; 
ex dono Berengarii Engain, unam maream argenti in molendino 
ejusdem Craaling, et duas bovatas terroe eum uno villano et uno 
tofto ; et ad sustentamentum rictus eapellani eapellœe ejusdem vilhe 
servituri alias duas bovatas terroe eum alio tofto et unum aliud 
torture juxta eeelesiam ; ex dono David Olifard deeimam molendini 
ejusdem Craaling; ex dono Oromi filii Eilavi, unam can-ueatam 
terroe in altera Craaling; ex dono Ilieardi Angli duas bovatas terrœe 
in Serauesburg, et duas bovatas terrae in Langetun; ex dono 
Gameli, eleriei, Caverum, Osulfo et Ughtredo finis ejus eoneeden- 
tibus illius donationem; ex dono Margaritœe, uxoris Thomoe de 
London, eoneedentibus eodem Thoma et Henrieo Lovel filio ejusdem 
Margaritœe, Ughtredesxaghe eum suis reetis divisis; ex dono 
Christianoe, uxoris Gervasii Ilidel, tertiam partem villoe de Xern- 
Mngeslawe; ex dono Gaufridi de Perei, eeelesiam de Oxenham, 
eum duabus carueatis terroe et duabus bovatis eidem ecclesie 
adjaeentibus, et eommunem pasturam et eommunem ïoaliam ejusdem 
Oxenham et Niwebigginghe et eommunem pasturam et eommunem 
ïoaliam cure eœeteris hominibus ejusdenl vilhe de Oxenham, quam, 



scilicet,, Henricus de Perci post mortem prædicti 
(. fratris sui, aute dilectum fratlem meure regem Malcolmum, 
concessit canonicis datam; ex dono Rod. filii Duneg. et UXOlis ejus 
Icthoc, unam carrucatam terroe in P, ughechestre, et communem 
ejusdem ville pasturam: ex dono Turg. de I,'ossedale, domum 
relibdonis de Lidel, cure tota terra ei adjacente : ecclesiam quoque de 
Kirchanders, cure omnibus ad illam pertinentibus; ex dono Guid. 
de I',ossedale, assensu et consensu P, ad. filii sui, quadranta duas 
acras inter Esch et Lidel, ubi Esck et Lidel conveniunt, et hbertatêm 
aquoe a fossa de Lidel usque ad ecclesiam de Lidel; ex dono Ran. 
de Sol. ecclesiam de valle Lidel, et ecclesiam de Dodinton, juxta 
/3ertonam, et dimi,liam carrucatam terToe in NTasebith : ex dono (;er. 
Ridel, qui post factus est canonicus Jeddeworth, et Iad. fratris sui, 
ecclesiam de Alboldesle, cure omnibus pertinentibus et rectitudinibus 
suis: ex dono Willielmi de Veteriponte, unam carrucatam terroe de 
dominio suo in Caredene cure communi aisiamento villoe. Hoec 
autem onmia, ita inte,q-e et plenarie, Deo, et Beatee Marioe, et 
supradictis canonicis, concedo et confirmo, sicut in autenticis 
proedecessorum meorum et aliorum proborum virorum, qui bona 
proedicta eis contulerunt, scriptis continetur. Volo, itaque, ac 
firmiter proecipio, ut omnia quoecunque modo possident, vel deinceps 
juste possessuri sint, ita libere et pure, omni remota exactione, 
suprafati canonici mei, pace perpetua, cure omnibus monasterii sui 
libertatibus liberisque consuetudinibus, confirmatione et auctoritate 
mea possideant, sicut aliqui canonici possessiones et libertates 
liberasque consuetudines sui monasterii, sire queehbet ecclesiastica 
jura, liberus, quietius, arque honestius possident. Hujus autem 
concessionis et confirmationis meoe restes bi sunt: l'dc. episcopus 
de Sancto Andrea; Eng. episcopus de Glasg. Job. abbas de Calceo; 
Ever. abbas de Holmcultr..Nïch. cancellarius; Matth. archid, de 
S'to. Andr. 12tic. capellanus; Valterus fil. Alni; l,ic, de Moreville: 
Phil. de Valoniis; Rob. Avenel; ]3ernardus fil. ]3rien; Gilleb. fil. 
Richerii; David Ovieth. ap. Pebles. 


(FIo. " (-REAT SEAL ][EGISTEI¢," TOL. II.). 
.Ap.d Edinbuyh, 1. Jdy 1511.--Rex dedit extraetum de 
registro carte Roberti (I.) regis, sub manu M. Gawini Dunbar 
archidiuconi S. Andree, l:otulorum, &c., clerici [(ttta Rex l',obertus 
divine caritatis intuitu confirnmvit et innovavit abbati et conventui 
de Jedburgh, priori et canonicis ejusdem loci apud L'ostinot com- 
m,»rantibus et ibidem Deo servientibus et hospitalitatem tenentibus, 
et eorum successoribus, terrain de Iostinot super quam ecclesia de 
1[. fundata est. Dunynad, Dissarth, Cragnathrane, :I'etrechin, 
Eglispedris, Ardworkis, unum toftum in villa de Perth, unum toftum 
in villa de Forfare, et unum toftum in villa de Montrose; item 
ammm redditum 20 solidorum 10 denariorum «le thanagio de 
Thanatus, secundas decinms thanagiorum de Veteri Montrose, Duny, 
{lammys, Kingalteny, et Aberleminoch; item tria bonda,da de 
Forfare, scilicet, Trebogis, Walmerschenour, et Ester-Forfare, et 
decimam ville de Montrose, molendini et piscarie ejusdem, &c., ann. 
red. 2 mercarum de villa de Forfare, et 1 merc, de molendino 
ejusdem, 100 anguillarum de lacu ejusdem, 6 merc. de baronia de 
Ketnes, 40 sol. et unam peciam terre de baronia de ]:rechin ; unam 
peciam terre et 1 mec. de parvo Perth, 4 merc. de Inverlunane; 
integram decimam lucrorum, finium et eschœetarium tare curie 
justiciarie quam vicecomitatus infra vic. Forfare; item decimam 
wardarum et releviorum ibidem contingen., decimam equitii domus 
regis in vic. de Forfare, et decimam feui foreste de le Platan ; item 
in quolibet advetu regis apud Forfare quolibet die 2 panes, de 
dominico 4 panes, de secundo pane, et 6 panes qui dicuntur 
"2 laginas de meliore cervisia, et 2 laginas de secunda cervisia, et '2 
paria ferculorum de quolibet trium cursuum de coquina; item 
decimam percipere de predictis terris regis dominicis in manu regis 
retentis, perinde ac si in assedatione essent; in quibus fuerunt 
infeodati per predecessores re,ds, et quarum in possessione fuerunt 
tempore Alexandri (III.)regis ultimo defuncti, sicut constabat per 
inquisitionem ad capellum regis retornatam per fideles homines patrie 
de Angus; et carte et munimenta dict. religiosorum per guerras et 



alios casus fortuitos perdita sunt et distructa.--Apud Dunde 1 3Ial: 
an. reg. 16 (1321-22)]. 

Apld E:linburgh, 6" JMy 15¢;6.--Rex et Rcgina COlffirnmverunt 
cartam factaln per And. commendatarium perpetuuln de Jedburgh, 
et ejusdem conventum [qua pro ingentibus pccuniarum summis 
ad reparationem monastelii sui per Anglos coml,usti, ac pro prmsidio 
et auxilio contra ecclesie hostes et alios quoscun,lue impensis et 
impendêudis, ad feudifirmam dimiserunt (quondam) I omiue Mariote 
Haliburt,un mil triuln heredum domini de I)ialtoun, heredibus e.jus 
et assignatis; terras et villam de Ulstoun, Ovir Mains de U., terras 
«le (;reithillis, l'riourmed[is, Chel,mansyde, cure ealalln silva, Spittel- 
stanis, 3 terras husbandias in Içraling-Nethir, dimidiam ter. husb. 
in Ovir Xysbet, 1 ter. husb. in Xethir Nysbet, tel-ras de l'levlandis, 
terras de Sildawis vocatas Newhall, tel-ras de Haucheid, telTaln in 
Cesfurdbnrne, tel'ras de .lusticeley cure earum decimis, teTas de 
uld Jedl»urgh, lowcastcll, peciam-terre in Lanoaewtouu, terras et 
villam de Abbotisroule, telras de Bowatsyde, Grange, cure molendiuo 
Fodderlie, [vir et N'ethir Bunchestir, cure silvis earundcm, terras 
(le Maxsyde, [;aithouscat cure silvis, Hartishauch, terras de Lanraw 
cure decimis, terras et villam de lIaperlaw, terras de Fyrth CUln 
earuln decimis et silvis, terras de West-Iernis cure decimis, teln'as 
vocat, lrewlandis in Raperlaw, terras de Belches cure molendino, 
terras et villam de Ovir Ancrum cum molendino et cottagiis, terres 
de Hynehousfield (exccptis 15 acris M. Roberto Richertsoun 
thesaurio regine assedatis) Castelwode et Castelhill cure silvis, cure 
acris jacen, apud locum Fratrum Minorum de Jedburgh (exceptis 40 
solidat, de CasteLs-ode t)er M. Joh. Rutherfurde et ejus tenentes 
occupatis, et 40 solidat, vocat. Litle Esehauch olim occupatis per 
quond. 3I. Pat. Achesoun et tunc t)er dictum M. Joh. R.), ac terras 
dominicales de Spittell vocat. Ancrum-spittell et manerium earum- 
dem, cum nmlendinis et decimis, vie. ]:oxburgh; et ordinaverunt 
dictum manerium de Ancrum fore principale messua,dum omnium 
dict. terrarum. .lvend. dicto monast. 2:q0 Iii». 13 sol. 4 den. pro 


antiquis firmis, gressumis, pultreis, devoriis, al'iais, cariadis, canis, 
&e., et 9 mare. in augmentationem rentalis; necnon duplieand« 
feudifirmam in introitu heredum; ae prestando tres seetas ad tria 
plaeita eapitalia apud dietum monasterium; eum 1Jreeepto sasine 
direeto Willelmo Myllare.--Apud dictum monast. 18 Mar. 1559.] 
Neenon aliam eartam dietorum Andree, &e. [qua pro peeuniarum 
summis sibi persolutis, aliisque gratitudinibus, &e., ad feudifirmam 
dilniserunt dicte Mariote, relicte Geordi Domini H,mm, heredibus 
ejus et assig-natis, tenementum terre infra burgum de Jedburgh 
ex parte australi vici rei (inter tenementum quond. Jacobi Iêd- 
dale tune Ioberti Itutherfurde, aquam de .lcdburgh et lie Abbay- 
clois) in baronia de Ulstoun, vie. Itoxburgh. ,Solvend. annuatim 
dieto monast. 4 lib. et duplieando, &e.--.pud dietum monast. 
19 Mail 1562.] 





THE abbeys of Teviotdale forma very remarkable ,q'oup of ruins. 
They were all founded during the first ha|f of the twe]ft]l century, 
within a radius of ten toiles, and in a district inhabited by a rude 
and warlike race. The wisdom that pronlpted their erection can no 
more be doubted than the pious motives that led to their êndow- 
ment. l'revious to the above date there had cxisted in the district 
three religious houses of some note--namely, one at Ihyburgh, 
which had its oridn in the sixth century under St Moden: one at 
Old 3Ielrose, founded in the seveuth century by the saintly Aiden : 
and the other at Geddewrd (Jedburgh), founded two centuries later 
by Bishop Ecgred of Lindisfarne. These were, however, but glim- 
mering lights, ill fitted to illume the social darkness, as compared 
with the splendid establishments that afterwards arose. 
About the year 1 118, David, the " sair saunct," founded a 
monastery for Canons llegular of the Order of St Augustine, near to 
the royal castle on the Jcd. S|lortly afterwards a similar establi.h- 
ment was founded at Kelso for Tirouensian monks, one at Meh'ose 
for Cistercians, and another at Drybuh for caons of the l're- 
monstratensian Order. The Churehmen at that time, in addition 
to being file disseminators of religious principles, wêre the only 
persons who were skilled in the 1)eaeeful arts and sciences, so that 
they might well be ealled the leaders in civilisation. For a century 
and a half all went well with them. The convent bell rung fo 
matin and vesper services in tranquil seeurity; pions people 
showered edfts on the already 'ich eeclesiastics, and kings and 
nobles were rega]ed with princely magnificence in the 'eat halls of 
the monasteries. But a change came. 1-)uring the disastrous wars 



between England and Scotland sad havoc was ruade on those places, 
hitherto held sacred. The abbeys were cast down or committcd 
to the flames by the English soldiery, and it is owing, in no small 
de'ee, to the restorations thus rendered necessary that they are now 
so interesting to the architect and antiquary. The student of Gothic 
architecture will fiud in this very limited district all the essentials 
for a somewhat minute knowledge of the art in all the stages of its 
dcvclopment. Distance may, and often does, " lend enchantment to 
the view ;" but we feel sure that the Scottish student will travel far 
without finding better examples than those to be met with here. 
Though itis, of course, the professional architect who alone will be 
able fully to appreciate the intricacies of mouldings and other 
minutioe, there is much in the general character of the diftrent 
styles that ma)" be studied with advantage by others. After the 
leformation, Gothic architecture became entirely neglected in Scot- 
land; but within recent years things bave greatly changed for the 
better in this respect. Not only in the cities, but also in rural 
parishes, many Gothic structures, hot unworthy to be compared with 
some of the olden rime, have been erected within the last quarter of 
a century; while eve T year sees the stream of visitors to the old 
abbeys increasing. The purpose of the following notes, whieh are 
necessarily more of a suggestive than of an exhaustive character, is 
to point out the development of Gothic architecture in the abbeys 
of Teviotdale. 
Gothic architecture is generally diided into three periods or 
styles, each haring its own distinctive features; but as these 
gradually pass into each other, it is sometimes difticult to deter- 
mine where one ends and the other begins. The Norman, which 
was a subdivision of the Itomanesque--just as the latter was a modi- 
fication of oman architecture--is now held to have been the parent 
,ff the Gothic or Pointed styles. In many of the ecclesiastical tains 
throughout the country the transition is very marked, and nowhere 
more so than in the abbeys under notice. 
In the choir and some adjoining parts in Jedburgh Abbey there 
is lorman work dating, it is believed, from the period of the founda- 


tion. Many changes have taken place in tbe older portions, but 
the original work can be easily distinguished by its heavy round 
pillars and semicircular arches. There was very little ornamenta- 
tion on early Nornmn work, the mouldings being few and simple. 
We bave no windows nor doorways belonng to this early period. 
The former were very small and plain, while the latter were gener- 
ally decorated round the arch. Each of the otinal arches here 
are of three orders. The lowest are semicircular, while the others, 
which recede behind, present a stilted al-,pearance, their spring bcing 
somewhat higher up. Most of the arches are sqtmre-edged; in some 
the square edge bas given place to the bowtell moulding, while 
others are furtber decorated with the zigzag ornament; and in the 
subdividing arches in the triforium on the south side the POUSsoirs 
are rounded. Those on the north side are a later insertion. The 
peculiar arrangement of the arches in the basement storey is worth 
noting. They spring from corbels inserted in the sides of the 
pillars, instead of rising from capitals. The bases of the pillars are 
plain, with a small chamfer at the upper edge, and tbe capitals are 
either cushion-shaped or simply notched down towards tbe neck 
mould. The abacus is SÇluare, with a bollow ehamfer at the upper 
edge, and some of the hood-moulds and string-courses are similar in 
character. The other mouldings are mostly round with shallow 
gn coming to the Transition Sorman period, three of the four 
abbeys have to be noticed--namely, Kelso,/)ryburgh, and Jedburgh. 
Kelso is wholly of Transition Norman character; and from thc 
general massiveness of the structure it has been said to resemble a 
Norman castle more than a religious edifice. Like the otber abbeys 
it is cruciform, but differs from them in respect that the head of 
the cross is towards the west instead of towards the east. 
transepts and three sidcs of the tower, a few pillars and arches on 
the south side of the eastern limb, and a portion of the western 
part are all that now remain of what was one of the wealthiest 
abbeys in Scotland. The transepts, as also the west end, are only 
two bays in length" but there is nothing to show bow far the 


building extended eastward. This abbey was founded ill 1128-- 
ten years after Jedburgh--and from the style of the architecture we 
are inelined to think that its ereetion would begin almost im- 
mediately af ter the eompletion of the early Norman work above 
deseribed. Severd lleW features are introdueed here. The pillars 
of the lower storey are short and r,mnd, with additional members 
t, support the sub-arehes, which, lmwever, bave disappeared. The 
great piers of the tower are eomposed of a number of nlembers in a 
clustered f,»rm, many of them eomparatively light, and these picrs 
sui,port pointêd arehes, eaeh of three orders, with ehamfered edges. 
They are the only pointed arches in the building, with the excep- 
tion of some near the top of the tower. The other arehes are ail 
semieircular, some square-edge.d, and others moulded. The eapitals 
are varied in eharacter; many of them are simply notehed, some 
foliated, and others enriehed with different kinds of ornamentation. 
The abaei are invariably square, but hOt always plain. Most of the 
cal,itals in the upper storeys projeet exceptionally far from the 
neek-mouhl of the shafts--a feature more notieeable here than 
perhaps in any other building in the country. The pointed bowtell 
moulding, whieh appeared about the saine time that the pointed 
areh came into general use, is prevalent here, along with the earlier 
round bowtell; while in the areh of the north doorway the bowtell 
is seen with a hollow or &n'oove in it. In addition to the earliest 
ftrm of string-eourse, as seen in Jedburgh, there are examples 
decorated with the zigzag ornament. In the two doorwaà's the 
ornamcntation is profuse. That in the north transept shows, besides 
the more common mouldings, the star, the nail-head, and the single 
billet ; and the label-mould is eomposed of a series of eireles linked 
together. Over this doorway is an interlaced areade, surmounted 
l,y a pediment, the face of which is crossed by mouldings forming 
a kind of lozenge-shaped diaper work. The west doorway, of which 
çnly one side now renmins, has representations of the bone, the 
cable, the chevron of different kinds, the beak-head, &c. The 
windovs are long, uarrow: and undivided, the only exceptions being 
two of circular form near the top of the transept gables (that in 


the south ail but gone), an ornamente,l quatref,,il (only half «,f 
which remains) near the top of the west gable, and other quatrefoils 
of smaller size and plainer form in the upper part ,_,f thc tower. 
The interior is gq'eatly lightened by the open arcades which run 
along the upper storeys; and the interlaced attacl,ed arcade on the 
lower storey of the transepts and western part also forms a very 
pleasing feature. In the end wall of the south transept is a piscina, 
a snmll basin in a niche, in which the ofticiating priest would wash 
his hands and the chalice at the celebration of mass, and near to 
which there would be an altar in former rimes. The nave, chancel, 
and transcpts seem to have l»oen roofed with wood, while the side 
aisles were covered with stone, as in Jedburgh, the groin ribs being 
pointed. A small cell, possibly the sacristy, to the south of the west 
doorway of the church, has a stone roof of barrel vaulting. 
Turning to Dryburgh, the visitor will be pleased to find that 
the enterprise of modern times has hot set dared to encroach on its 
peaceful seclusion. Instead of being, like some of the other abbeys, 
surrounded with buildings out of ail sympathy with such relics of 
the past, Dryburgh is beautifully situated amid grand ohl trees and 
verdant fields. The Austin canons frequently chose to have their 
houses erected near to towns, as at Jedburgh, whilê thê Cistercians 
and l'remonstratensians i,referre,1 a secluded spot, as at Mehose and 
Dryburgh. One is sorl T to fin,l here comparatively little of the 
church relnaining, but the feeling of regret is -eatly lessened by 
the fact that COllsiderable portions of the conventual buildings still 
exist, and that the cloister court is all but entire. With the excep- 
tion of a few later additions and alterations, these, as also St 3Ioden's 
chapel--a small apartment at the north-east corner of the cloister 
court--belong to the Transition Norman. The architecture of the 
eastern elevations--heavy and severe--points unmistakal,ly to about 
the middle of the twelfth century. The mullioned windows, with 
transoms, in what is called the abbot's pal'lour, are, of course, the 
work of later hands, and must hOt be taken ilto account. The 
chapter-house windows, looking eastward, are pointed; a 1,ointed 
oval-shaped light is seen in St Moden's chapel, and ail the others 



in the orinal work have semicircular arches, like the doorways. 
The walls in several places are pierced with small openings, called 
bullet windows. Pilaster-like buttresses support the walls, and the 
mouldings are of the earliest forms. In St Moden's chapel there 
seems to have been an altar, as there is a piscina in one of the side 
walls, and on the floor immediately below is a stone basin, orna- 
mented near the edge with the nail-head, and having a drain 
passin into the ground. Inside the chapter-house are the remains 
of interlaced arcading, and it will be observed that the abaci here 
are circular instead of being square, like those we bave previously 
seen. Over this sl,acious apartment, fifty feet long by twenty broad, 
is a cylindrical or barrel-vaulted roof of stone, and the other exist- 
ing roofs of the saa,e period are of similar character. The abbot's 
1,arlour, the library, and refectory are roofless ; but we are thankful 
that these places, so associated with the domestic life of the monks, 
should bave been even partially preserved from the ravages of 
rime, and the still more cruel hands of man. Sveral vaulted pas- 
sages run through the buildings, and under the refectory, which 
occupied the whole south side of the cloister court, are the almonry 
and wine cellars. Towards the back of the north-west corner of the 
cloisters are three dungeons, in which, it is said, the disobedient 
were kept and punished. In one of them, a hole, large enough to 
adroit a man's hand, bas been eut in the wall, into which the refrac- 
tory prisoners' hands were thrust and fastened with a wedge. The 
1,ole is placed low enough to allow any one so circumstanced to 
kneel, but hot to sit or lie down. The only light admitted into 
this gloomy place of confinement was by an opening two inches 
widO The eloisrs were dedicated in September 1208fifty-skx 

' It was in one of these rniserable dungeons that the unfortunate female 
wanderer mentioned by Sir Walter Scott, in a note to the Eve of,çt John, in the 
Mistrels/ of the Scottish Border, took up ber abode, and 'hich she nevêr 
quitted during the day. Whên night fêll she issued from her habitation, and 
,'ent to the bouse of 5If Haliburton of Newmains, or to that of 5If Erskine 
of Shieldfield, two gentlemen of the neighbourhood, from 'hom she received 
charité'. "At twelve each "o1., says Scott, "she lighted her candle, and returned 


years after the arrival of the monks--and hence we «tre prepared 
to find in them work of a more advanced character than that 
already alluded to. The doorways in the south-east and north-east 
corners of the cloister court, and that at the west end of the chapter- 
house, are good specimens of late Transition. They are ail round- 
headed, with boldly-cut pointed bowtell mouldiugs and deep hollows, 
nook-shafts, and foliated capitals. In the last-named doorway the 
mouldings of the innermost order fise from the base and run round 
the arch without a break. This order consists of the pointêd bowtell, 
with pretty well-developed dog-tooth ornaments in the side hollows. 
The abaci in these doorways are square. At each si,le «,f the 
chapter-house doorway just mentioned is a short two-light window 
of similar character, each being subdivided by a round shaft. It 
is probable that the interlaced arcade iuside may be of the saine 
The nave of Jedburgh Abbey may, without hesitation, be pro- 
nounced to be unrivalled as a specimen of Transition Norman. Grand 
in conception, exquisite in execution, and simple in detail, it is a per- 
fect "thing of l»eauty." It measures 130 feet in length, consists of 
aine bays, and is three storeys in height. Instead of round massive 
piers, as in the choir, we have here graceful clustered pillars. Most 
of the arches are of a light and l,ointed character; the archivolts 
are ail mouhled, and while the pointed bowtell has been adopted in 
the lower and middle storeys, where the capitals are foliated and 
the abaci square, the round bowtell is retained in the clerestory, 
where the capitals are plainer and the abaci have lost their square 
edges. There is one example in the triforium where the abacus 

to her vault, assuring her friendly neighbours that during her absence ber 
habitation was arranged by a spirit, to whom she gave the uncouth naine of 
' Fat Lips,' describing him as a little man, wearing iron shoes, with q6ch he 
trampled the clay floor of the vault to dispel the damps. The cause of her 
adopting this extraordinary mode of life she would never explaiu. It was, how- 
ever, believed to have been occasioned by a vow that, during the absence of her 
loyer, she would never look upon the light of day. tic never returned, as he 
fell during the Civil War of 1745-46, and she never more beheld the light of day." 


shows a series of rounds, and this form has been adopted in the 
cloistêr doorway on the south side. O'er each of the lower arches 
there are in the t'iforium two pointed arches (included in one of 
a semicircular form), and four in the clerestory, while the corbêl- 
course at the wall-head is so arranged as to form eight miniature 
arches within the like space. The subsidiary arches in the tri- 
forium are supported on slêndcr shafts, which gdve a lightness to 
this part, hot surpassed evcn in the latcr styles; zld the arches in 
the clcrestory, every alternate two of u-hich are pierced for windows, 
are so light as to the appearance of SUl,porting themselves 
without 1,essure on those undêr them. The cloister doorway, which 
bas the round arch, is of very dêlicate design, and consists of four 
or, lêrs. The carvin:., represents human tic, res, animais of different 
kin,ls--some of them of a nondescript characterbirds, the chef'ton 
ornament, and abundance «»f foliage, both lêaves and branchlet 
The ga'eat -estern doorway, also semicircular in the arch, is more 
deeply rccêssêd, and in addition to a somewhat similar ornamenta- 
tiou, it has the fish-bone, the chain, the star, small dog-tooth, and 
the nail-head. Both doorways had oridnally jamb shafts, which 
are now gone. Some years ago a facsimile of the cloister doorway 
was ruade from drau-ings 1,y Dr 1:. I'owand Anderson, Edinburgh, 
under instructions from the Marquess of Lothian, the proærietor. 
The new doorvay was erected in the saine wall as the old oue. 
Over the western doorway are three niches with trefoil arches, and 
above these ts a large one-light round-headed window 18 feet 10 
inches in height by 5 feêt 8 inches in breadth. At each side of 
this bas been an attached arcade uith banded shafts and pointed 
arches, but most of the shafts have disappeared. The St Catherine's 
wheel window at the top of the gahle is of later date. The N'orman 
architects paid considerable attentiou to the decoratiou of fiat sur- 
faces, as they had but few mouldings at their command, but this 
was in a great measure discontinued when mouldings became more 
diversified. It bas been pointed out by authorities that-one law 
pervades ail the Xorman mouldings, and that "they are invariably 
arranged on rectangular faces, so that two lines at right angles 


would exactly touch the front face and under portion of the mould- 
ing." Two mouhlings, both string-courses, are worth pointing out 
as an advance on those we have already menti»ned. One of them, 
consisting of a hollow, with round members at the side, crosses the 
west gable immediately above the doorway; and the saine lind of 
moulding is also seen above the centre window. The other, which 
consists of a chamfer, a fillet, and a pointed bowtell, runs under the 
l»wer windows, and had been continued along the noth aisle wall. 
This wall, which had been all but wholly removcl, has been partially 
restored, with portions of the pilaster-like buttresses to show the 
original design. Two of the original l»uttresses are yet seen at the 
north-west corner. The north aisle had been lighted by round- 
headcd one-light windows similar to those at the west end. and the 
south aisle was lighted l,y windows rising from the wall head. The 
side aisles were vaulted with stone in a similar way as the chor 
chapels already 'eferred to, but the mouldings of the intersecting 
ribs were pointcd. We may menti,,n that in this abbey, as in 
many other Roman Catholic churches, the north aislc is a foot 
wider than the south aisle, this 1)eing, it is said, to comemorate 
a tradition to the effect that when the Saviour dicd on the Cross 
tIis head fcll towards the .ight shoulder. 
The pointed part of the chancel would appear to have becn 
built sh«»rtly after the nave, as it is a nearer approach to Early 
English. Windows of the earlier period were but small, and when 
coloured glass came into general use in churches it was found 
necessary to bave them larger, so as to adroit suflicient light to the 
interior. To car D" out the design o enlarging the chancel both in 
height and length, the Early Xorman apse and cleresto)- had to be 
taken down, and on erecting the newer work some new features 
were introduced. Here we observe the stilted arch for the first 
time, and in none of the other abbeys is it to l»e seen. These arches 
are called "stilted " because the sprinngs of the arches are above 
the levels of the imposts, and the mouldings are continued per- 
pendicula'ly down to the capitals. The clerestory, only part of 
which remains, consists of a detached arcade, each alternate arch 


being lal:ger than the others for the insertion of windows. Under 
this, to the east of the side chapels, was another arcade of a similar 
kind but the arches and lights were much larger ; and, again, under 
this was an attached arcade. This part of the building is, unfor- 
tunatêly, much dilapidated, but suflîcient renlains to show a very 
beautiful arrangement. The buttresses project considerably further 
from the face of the wall than those of the nave. The windows 
are ]ancet-shaped, and the outer mouldings fise from the bottom of 
the jambs, and take the arch without a break. The capitals, how- 
ever, of the inside arcades still cling to the earlier form, and the 
square abacus is hem by Iicman to be the best mark of Transition 
It bas been already stated that Kelso Abbey is wholly of Transi- 
tion Norman character. The Early English is, however, represented 
by a small doorway, which waz rebuilt a number of years ago 
with stones found in the abbey ruins, and now forms the entrance 
to the abbey bouse garden close by. It has a very fine trefoil arch. 
The capitals are bell-shaped, and the principal mouldings are the 
roll and fillet, vith deep hollows, in which are good specimens of 
the dog-tooth ornament. This is in the form of a four-leaved 
fiower, projecting in the centre, and is believed to be so named 
from its fancied resemblance to the dog-toothed violet. In the 
fully-developed specimens there are perforations under the leaves. 
There is nothing of a later period. 
The 'eater portion of the abbey church of Dryburgh has been 
of this style, but, as preiously stated, little of it bas been preserved. 
St Mary's aisle and the aisle beyond, forming the north transept, 
are the most perfect portions. The under pillars are clustered, and 
support pointed arches of three orders, the sub-arches being cham- 
fered and the outer ones moulde& The gToined stone roofs are 
intersected with more 'ibs than any we bave yet met with in our 
survey, shoving the gTadual advance that was being ruade at that 
tiret. The windows in the lower storey a lancet-shaped, and 
decorated with the dog-tooth. The triforium is lighted by cusped 
circles of no great dimensions, one of thesea quatrefoil--having 


the cusps open at the points and turned to both sides. The clercs- 
tory is an open arcade of pointed archcs, all moulded, some of which 
are trefoil, and the arches are larger where the wall behind is 
pierced with windows. The buttresses lso show a oTeater d%oTee of 
development, in respect that they project further at the bse, and 
recede in stages towards the wall-head. But a more decided advance 
is seen in the large window of the south transept gable, which is 
divided by four mullions, forming rive lancet-shaped lights, undcr 
ont principal arch. It has, however, no tracery. Of the chancel 
only the lower part of the walls remains, and thc nave, with thc 
exccl,tion of the west gablc, has almost wholly disappcared. 
The west doorway, because of its semici'cular arch, has by 
some writers been err;»neously called Norman, but in reality it be- 
longs to the Iccorated period. The fom of the arch al«,ne deter- 
mines nothing as to its date, as the round arch was nevcr total]y 
abandoned in Scotland. The accessories must also be taken into 
considcration. This doorway consists of three ordcrs, with no jamb 
shafts. From moulded bases of several members the roll and fillet 
mouldings rise and pass unbroken round the arch, and in broad 
hollows l»etween them are rows of square four-leaved flowers. It 
is altogether unlike work of the earlier period. The St Catherine's 
wheel in the west gable of the refectory and the alterations in the 
abbot's parlour may have been executed about the sa,e time. 
In Jedburgh there is a greater vaiety of decorated wort« The 
n,»rth transept with its shelving buttresses--in the face of one of 
which is a finely ornamented niche--and its traceed windows is 
a fair specimen. The two west windows are simply chamfcred at 
the sides, and each is divided by one mullion, also chamfered, with 
trefoils and a qustrefoil at the top; but the great north window has 
at the jambs numerous round and hollow mouldings somewhat fiat- 
tened, which pass right up to the top of the arch. It is divided by 
three rouillons, also moulded, and the whole of the inside of the ach 
is filled with flowing tracery. These windows, as well as all others 
afterwards to be noticed, are pointed. There is a ver)- fine and bold 
roll and fillet moulding inside the transept, under the north window. 



The ,oEeater part of the small chapel on the south side of the choir 
is of the same style, though probably a little later. Here we have 
a window with two moulded rouillons. The principal features of 
tracer)" consist of a large quatrefoil with cusps perforated at the 
surrounding circle, and two pear-shaped lights. There are two 
corbels in the wall--one representing a human figure as if crushed 
dowu by bearing the weight of the -oin, and the other a cluster of 
foliage tied underneath. From these spring ribs with hollow 
mouldings, which meet at the bosses the round ribs of the Norman 
period. The chapel wall is supported by two shelving buttresses-- 
one placed at right angles, with a shield bearing the arms of Bishop 
Turnbull of (lasgow, and the other placed diagonally, a position 
frequently adopted in the later styles, where buttresses were re- 
quired at the quoins. The tower is more massive than ornamental, 
and possesses less architectural beauty than any other portion of the 
fabric. It is pierced towards the top with several narrow openings 
with cusped trefoil heads, some of which are windows, while those 
«,n the north and south sides are so formed as to allow the emis- 
sion of sound, the upper storey haviag evidently been erected for a 
peal of bells. At the wall-head, immediately under the balustrade 
(which, by the way, is modern), are several grotesque rei-,resentations 
of humau heads, some of the faces showing considerable contortion 
in consequence of the mouths being pulled apart by fingers inserted 
at the side The St Catherine's wheel at the to I, of the vest -able, 
similar to that at Dryburgh, also belonœe.,s to the Decorated period. 
It bas been SUl,posed that the circle in the centre of the wheel was 
meant to represent the Saviour, and that the twelve spokes which 
radiate from the centre were emblematical of the Twelve Apostles. 
In the same way, the trefoil in Gothic architecture is said to be 
symbolical of the Trinity ; the quatreoil, of the Four Evangelists, &c. ; 
but it is foreign to our present purpose to go further into this part 
of the subject. 
Melrose Abbey, the tourists' favourite, now claires exclusive 
attention. It was founded in 1136, and completed ten years later; 
but having been destro)ed by Edward II. dumping his invasion in 


1322, nothing of the original fabric remains. King Robert the 
Bruce--whose heart was destined to be deposited before the high 
altar here, instead of in the Holy Seimlchre at Jcrusalcm, as was 
his latest wish--granted a smn of £2000 towards its restoration. 
The work, which was carried on through the liberality of the king, 
was interrupted by the abbey being burned in 1385 by I¢ichard II. 
of England, and most, if hOt all, the present building al,pears to 
have been erected subsequent to that date. In short, the I)ecorated 
style may be said to be taken up here just at the point where it 
leaves off at Jedburgh. ]Iesides the centre allcy and side aisles 
of thc nave, there is a row of ehapels al,_,ng the south side; and in 
eaeh of these ehapels there seems to bave 1,een an altar, as indieated 
by the piseinoe that still remain. The exterior ehapels, as seen hcre, 
are a feature more eommon on thc (2ontinent than in this country. 
Thêy are, however, seen also in St (;iles' Cathedral, Edinburgh, and 
in Elgdn Cathedral. Contrary to the general rule, thê north aisle is 
naTower than that on the south side. Rather more than hall of 
the nave and of the side aisles bas been destroyed; several of the 
ehapels are now rooflcss; and «,f the tower--which was 84 feet in 
height--only the west side remains. The north transept is also 
roofless. There is no trif»rium, but simply a passage along the 
elerestory. In Jedburgh, as we havê seen, the triforium is a 1,rin- 
eipal featurê; in Dryburgh, as bas been pointed out, it is of small 
importance: and in Melrose it disappears alt-gether. All the roofs 
are of stone. Thê earlier builders eontented themselves with arching 
the smaller aisles, but in later times they werê p,_,ssessed «,f m,_»re 
skill and confidence, and vaults were thrown over mueh largcr 
spaees. On the south side of the nave doul,le flying buttresses have 
been thrown over thê ehapêls and aislê to resist the outward thrust 
of the principal roof, while tlle outer walls are SUl,ported by the 
usual shelving buttress, and all the buttresses are surmounted with 
pinnaeles, so that their weight might render the building more stable 
and less likely to be overthrown. Innumerable niches with riehly- 
earved eanopies--many of them still eontaining statues--are seen 
throughout the edifiee, and the numerous pinnaeles, all panelled and 



ornamentcd with crockets and other decorations, add greatly to the 
general eftict. The windows display great variety of design, from 
the plain single light to those of one, two, three, and four mullions 
with elaborate traeery. ,qome of the traeery is geometrical, com- 
bined with that of a somewhat flowing eharacter, all riehly eusped; 
and the pear-shaped openings, like those in the small chapel window 
of Jedburgh, are of frequent occurrence. It may be noted that the 
window fifth from the transept on the south side of the nave is 
similar in design to the great uorth window in Jedburgh, but the 
former is much smaller. The only diflirenee in the traeery is that 
at the top of the lower lights at Melrose there are double eusps, 
while in ,ledburgh they are single. A circnlar window with rich 
tracery, in the north transept, s said to represent the "crown of 
thorns." The carver's art is secn here in perfection--roses, lilies, 
fcrns, oak au,| ash leaves, curly greens, and "a thousand beautifu] 
sbapes besicles, are chisell«d with sueh inimita],le truth and sueh 
gq-ace of nature that the finest botanist in the wor]d eould not desire 
a better horts siccts, as far as they go." A corbel in the north 
transept has been admired as a perfect gem. It represents a human 
ban,1 hohling a buuch of f,,liage, and supports one of the vaulting 
shafts. Lockhart, from whom we have just quoted, gq-ew eloquent 
over this when he thus wrote in his Peter's Letters to his Iïn.olk :-- 
" Were it eut off" and plaeed among the Eln Marbles, it would be 
kissed by the cog,oscenti as one of the finest of them all. Nothing 
could be siml,ler, more genuiuely easy, more full of expression. It 
would shame the whole ,-allery of Boisserées." ]ut it would seem 
that when the Romish clergy of the fifteenth eentury had become 
greatly corrupt, with only a semblance of sanctity, and when they 
were thought to be a fitting theme for the satirieal poets, the 
sculptors connected with the Church did not hesitate to throw a 
little satire into its architecture. Hence we find, almost side by 
side with sacred texts and precepts, and angelic or saintly figures, 
representations of monstrous formsmonkish faces grinning irrever- 
ently, pigs playing on bagpipes, and other things hot at all stfited to 
a religious feeling. 


Some writers have held that Mclrose Abbey shows a mixture of 
all the styles from the Norman to the Perpendicular inclusive; but 
this is judging by English rules (which, even if strictly foIIowed, 
would hot bear out the supposition) a building entircly free ff(ch 
English influence. ]'revious to the War of hdepen«h:nce there was 
considerable intercourse between Eng]and and ScotIand, 1,ut after 
that period everything English was disliked, and wheu aid of any 
kicd was needed it was sought for from abroad rathcr than from the 
"auld enemies." Dr laniel Wilson, the lcarned author of 
Arch«'ology aml l'relist«'ic A-als of ,%olla,l, dcvotes a chaptcr of 
that work to medieval ecclesiology, in which he rcmarks, with 
much truth, that" for neaïly a century the ecclesiastical architecture 
of England and Scotland is in c, ne style, coincidcnt in date and 
uniform in characteï of details;" but that "soon aftcï the introduc- 
tion of the Fiïst Pointed or Early English style a marked diflrence 
is discoverable, and theïcfore the dates and peculiar chaacteristics 
of the ecclcsiastical architecture of the two countries disaq-ee in 
many essential points." Again, whilc alluding to the Second l'ointed 
or Decoïated style, he says: " With the fiïst symptoms of transi- 
tion the ecclesiastical architecture of Scotland begins to assume its 
peculiaï characteristic features, marked 1,y a return to the use of 
the semicirculaï aïch, and a pïeference of ciïcular to angulaï details, 
employed, not indiscïiminately or at rand«Jm, but on a fi.:ed princil,le, 
along with a consistent use of the pointed arch, and of details peculiar 
to the lateï styles." Theïe was a raingling of the features of the 
Fiïst and Second l'ointed, and fïom 1307, when ]ruce ascendcd 
the thïone, "the rules of English ecclesiology can only mislead the 
student of Scottish ecclesiastical architecture." It is well to beaï 
these rcmarks in mind when examining the ruins of Melrose. 
In the noïth transept there are two ïound-headed doorways, 
with the rotmd bowtell moulding running up the jambs and round 
the aïch; but there is no reason for believing that these are ohler 
than that leading fïom the noïth aisle to the cloisteï, which, with 
its chaïacteristic base, roll and fillet moulding, and richly-caïved 
capitals, bears umnistakable pïoofs of belon.ging to the Decorated 

period, thouh if also has the semicircular arch. This, it may be 
remcmbered, was the " steel-clenched postern" through which, 
according fo the L«y of the Zast Minstrel, the aged monk took Sir 
"William l cloraine when on u visit to the grave of Michael Scott 
fox" the wizard's mysterious book. It should be observed that the 
f,liage on the capitals of this doorway, as on all capitals of the 
1),'c«,rated pcriad, bas the appearance of bcing wreathed round the 
i,,.ll, instea,l of sl,ringing as it were from the neck-mould, as seen in 
the earlier styles. The foliage, as we have already said, has been 
col,ic, l frmn nature, and is not of that conventional kind seen in the 
E.'My English and Transition Norman periods. 
Thonh the lmve and transepts may be said all to belollg to the 
1 êeorate,l 1,eriod, we final here and there indications of a transition 
t,» the l'crp««Mieular, whieh is lnore fully developed lu and near to 
the ehallCel. ïhe ogee-shaped eanopy or hood, the counterpart of 
the d,,press'd or four-centre areh, is seen in a reeess in the eloisters, 
als,» »ver the sonth transept doorway and window, and over the 
great east window in the chancel. The arehes underneath ea'e of 
the usual pointed eharaeter; but over the reeess and the doorway 
there is the eharaeteristie square eneasement ever suggestive of the 
latest style, and while the spandrels of the former are plain, those 
of the latter are filled with figures. Itis well known that many of 
the Early l'erpendieular doorways differed but little from those of the 
preeeding perio,l, the square eneasemeng and ornament being all that 
distinguish them. The capitals and m»uldings of the ehancel show 
little or no change from those of the nare; and hough the ault- 
ing in the souh transept has additional ribs. the saine principle is 
observed as in the aisles. In the vau|ring of the chancel, however, 
t new priucipIe is introduceŒE The ribs get more iuto a sort of net- 
wo,'k, but very far ïrom reaching to the fan-tracery vaulting, as seen 
in some parts of Engand, notably in that wonderïul piece of work- 
manship, the roof of Henry VII.'s ChapeI in Westminster Abbey. 
The bosses are elaborately cared; some bave representations of 
fdiage, others hav'e human fig,res. One principa! /igure is seen 
beaHng a crucifix; others with swords and staves. It is the w]n- 


dows specially, with their nmllions going right up to the top, and 
their cusped transoms, that give unmistakable proofs here of the 
l'erpcndicular. The ,q-eat east window is much admirêd, and Scott's 
description of it must be familiar to all :-- 
"The moon on the east oriel shone 
Through slendr shafts of shaply stone, 
Iy foliaged tracery combind ; 
Thou wouldst have thought some fairy hand 
Twixt poplars straight the osier wand 
In many a freakish knot had twined, 
Then formed a spell when the work was done, 
And changed the willow reaths to stone." 
It bas bcen admitted that, takcn at best, no Gothic exterior can 
ever cope with the interior; so that when we see what richness in 
carving and cxuberance of fancy bave done f«r the outside of Mcl- 
rose, we may well believe that the inside effect must have been 
grand indeed when the abbey was in its palmiest days. It must 
have been awe-inspiring to have sto«»] un,ler the high vaulted roof, 
to have looked along the " long-drawn aisles," to have seen the 
monks in the chapels saying mass for the repose of the souls of the 
departed, or to bave gazed through the food screen at the high altar 
with its rich ftunishing at the far east, while the "dira religious 
light" shed its subdued rays on the clustered pillars, delicately- 
wrought capitals, and sacred images of the saints. 
Little is known of the names of those to whose genius we owe 
the buil,]ings of the abbcys of Tcviotdale. They are lost, though 
thcir works partially remain. Theirs was a work of love and devo- 
tion to the Church, and they cared more for erecting temples for the 
worship of the Master than for rearing monuments for themselves. 




fiBER:'ETHI', John, minister of Jedburgh, 
Abbotrule, barony and kirk of, belonged 
to Jedburgh Abbey, 57. 
Al»bots of Jedburgh. The abbot one of 
the king's magnates, .24; assisted in 
excommunieating the king's counsellors 
in ('ambuskenneth Abbey, 25; sale 
conduet granted to the abbot by king 
of England, 0.5 ; law pleas with William 
of Bellingham, .26; the abbot one of 
three commissioners sent to Edwar«l I. 
of England anent the rival claires of 
Bruce and Baliol, 32; attended meet- 
ings of the estates of Scotland, 3.2; 
Edward directs six fat bucks to be sent 
fo the abbot, 33; was present when 
Baliol acknowledged Edard to be his 
feudal superior, 33; swore fealty to 
Edward I., 34 ; was one of the Scottish 
ambassadors to France in 1299, 36; 
attempt by the English king to inter- 
cept them ai ses, 36; the abbots of 
Jedburgh hot mitred abbots, 41. (For 
list of al»bots, and particulars concern- 
iug each, see " 8uperiors of the Monas- 
tery," 72-80}. 
Abbotsley, church and advowson of, 38. 
Aberlemno, kirk of, belonged to Resten- 
hot, 58. 
Aidan,St, formed a church st Old Meh'ose, 
Ainslie, John, 139, 140. 
Alexander iii., married in Jedburgh 
Abbey, "28-30 ; lais deatla, 30 ; disatrous 
effects, 31. 
Ancrum, barony and kirk of, belonged 
to Jedburgh Abbey, 57. 
 interesting proceedings in the kirk 
of, 61, 5"2. 

Ancrum Moor, battle of, 50. 
Andrew, bbot of Jedburgh, 77. 
Anthony, St, the founder of monachism, 
Arturet, patronage of the church of, 0-6. 
Athanasius takes Egyptin monks to 
Rome, 3. 
Aurchsook, lands of, &oEanted to Jedburgh 
Abbey, 53. 

" B:AUTEOUS ROSEBtrD " Of P, UlaaS, 143. 
Bastenethwait, settlement of dispute 
anent advowson of the church of, 
Belses, barony of, belonged to Jedburgh 
Abbey, 57. 
Benedict, St, the founder of Western 
monachism, 3. 
Benedictines, chier agents in spl-eading 
Christianity and civilisation, 3. 
Blackader, archbishop of Glasgow, pro- 
bbly helped to restore Jedburgh 
Abbey, 47. 
 Commendator of Jedburgh, 78. 
Blair, Peter, minister of Jedburgh, 109. 
Blantyre, abbot and convent of Jed- 
burgh, patrons of, 58. 
Boston, Rev. Thomas, 138, 139. 
Bruce, King Robert the, ffanted  chr- 
ter to Jedburgh Abbey, 52 and 163. 
Buccleuch, Earl of, purchased from Sir 
John Ker the lands of Boxtonleys, 
Chiefthope, Over nd Nether qait- 
kirk, and other lands which had be- 
longed to Jedburgh Abbey ; also the 
teinds of Castleton and Erkleton, and 
all other lands belonging to the old 
cell of Canonby, 63. 
Burnett, James, minister of Jedburgh, 



CAIeELL, Lord, 140. 
Canonby, a dependency of Jedburgh 
Abbey, 57. 
and Coldingham, ereeted into a 
barony and gmnted to the Earl of 
Home, 61. 
Castleton, kirk of, belonged to Jedhurgh 
Abbey, 37. 
Charter, by Prince Henry, to the canons 
of Jedburgh, 159, 160. 
-- by William the Lion, fo the canons 
of Jedburgh, 160-1132. 
-- by Robert the Bruee, extraet from 
the register of, granted by James IV., 
163, 164. 
confirming one o[ Andrew, com- 
mendator of Jedburgh, 1G4, 1G3. 
Clayhillis, Andrew, minister of Jedburgh, 
Cranston, Thomas, abbot of Jedburgh, 77. 
Creech, Perer, minister of Jedburgh, 10t;. 
Cross, ancieut, in Jedbul'gh Abbey, 12S. 
-- Anglo-Saxon, 1°_7. 

D.XL.IE};Y, kirk of, belonged to Jedburgh 
Abbey, 57. 
Daniel, prior of Jedburgh, 72. 
David, Prince of Cumbria, founded Jed- 
burgh Abbey and restored the fallen 
bishoprie of Glasgow, 9; afterwards 
he becs, me David I. of Scotlaud, 10; 
he was the "sait saunet," 169. 
Deeorated architecture in Dryburgh 
Abbey, 179. 
iu Jedburgh Abbey, 179, 180. 
in Melrose Abbey, 180-184. 
Diteh and hedge, earliest notice of, 0_6. 
Douglas, John, minister of Jedburgh, 110. 
 William, of Eonjedward, helped in 
the reparation of Jedburgh Abbey after 
its destruction by the English in 1523, 
forwhich he received a grant of land, 48. 
Donnyvald, kixk of, belonged to Resten- 
not, 58. 
Dryburgh, a religious house af, in the 
sixth century, 169. 

Dryburgh Abbey, founded for Premon- 
stratension Canons, in twelfth century, 

EASTON, Robert, 144. 
Early English architecture in Kelso 
Abbey, 178. 
  in Dryburgh Abbey, 178, 179. 
Eckford, kirk of, belonged to Jedburgh 
Abbey, 57. 
Ecgred, Bishop, gifted the two Ged- 
worths to Lindisfarne, 7. 

Forester, Andrew, minister of Jedburgh, 
Forfar, lands, &c., in, conflmned to the 
abbot and convent of Jedhurgh, 52. 
 kirk of, belouged to Restennot, 58. 

GALBREATH, William, minister of Jed- 
burgh, 109. 
{edworth, first notice of, suggested 
meanings of tbe name. {Sec Jedburgh). 
Grammar School of Jedburgh removed 
from the abbey in 1751, 93, 94. 
Gysborne, Robert de, abbot of Jedburgh, 

HALL, John, abbot of Jedburgh, 43. 
Hamilton, Sir Thomas, king's advocate, 
apprised the lands and lordsbip of Jed- 
burgh from Sir John Ker, which was 
afterwards assigaed to his son Thomas, 
Lord Binning, who led a new apprisiug 
against Sir John Ker, 64, 65. 
Henry, abbot of Jedburgh, in 1239, 73. 
in 1506, 78. 
Hertford, Earl of, burned Jedburgh town 
and abbey in 1545, 50. 
Hilson, Gavin, M.D., 142. 
Hobkirk, kirk of, belonged to Jedburgh 
Abhey, 57. 
Home, Andrew, commendator of Jed- 
burgh, 79. 
 Earl of, excambed the lands and 
lordship of Jedhurgh for the Hirsel, 62. 



Home, John, abbot of Jedburgh, 78. 
-- Lord, got lands and lordship of Jed- 
burgh, 59. 
 Sir David, of Wedderburn, provided 
to the abbacy of Jedburgh, 64. 
Hope, William, of Hope House, 143. 
Hownam, kirk of, belonged to Jedburgh 
Abbey, 57. 
Hume, Alexander, of Huttonhall, got the 
four mills of Jedburgh, 59. 
William, minister of Jedburgh, 

JA»Izso:, William, minister of Jedburgh, 
108, 109. 
Jarum, Villiam de, abbot of Jedburgh, 
Jedburgh, a royal burgh on the Jed, 7 ; 
first church af and character of the 
same, 8 ; town burned by the English 
in 1410, 1416, and 1464, 40; and in 
1544 and 1545, 50; the burgàers af 
Reidswire, 133 ; their slogan or war- 
cry, 133. 
-- Abbey, extent of, 6 ; the nonastery 
founded by David in lll8 for Canons 
Regular, l l ; st firsç a priory and 
raised to an abbacy about llt7, 11; 
cxtent of the priory church and de- 
scription of the work, 12-14 ; erection 
of the nave and extension of choir, with 
description of the work, 15-21 ; sertie- 
ment of dispate between the bishop of 
Glasgow and the canons in 1220, .o2, 23 ; 
royal mrriage in, 28 ; a spectre appears 
st the dance, 31 ; documents deposited 
in the abbey ordered by Edward I. to 
be delivered over to Baliol, 33 ; abbey 
wrecked and plundered by the English, 
35; prosperity of the abbey, 39; re- 
building of north transept, choir chapel, 
and tower, 39 ; description of the work, 
39-47 ; abbey burned by tbe English in 
]523, 1544, and 1545, 48, 49 ; suppres- 
sion of the abbey at the Reformation, 
55 ; possessions and revenues of, 146- 

150 ; rent roll, 151-155; spirituality 
of, 155-158. 
Jedburgh Castle,abbot and conventof Jed- 
burgh, along with Sir Ire Aldeburge 
offered to undertake custody and repair 
of, 35; castle in the hauds of English 
st rime of Bannockburn, 37 ; taken by 
Sir James Douglas, 37 ; fell into hands 
of English after Battle of :Neville's 
Cross, 40 : demolished by the Scots in 
1409, 40 ; difficulty of demolition, 40. 
 Robert, Lord, mortified a thousand 
merks for uplmlding the aisle of Ferni- 
herst, 42 ; presented a bell fo the kirk 
of Jedburgh, 90. (heealso pp. 136, 137). 
Jefl'rey, Alexander, historian of Rox- 
burghshire, 142, 143. 
Jerdon, Archibald, 138. 
John, abbot of Jedburgh in 1338, 76. 
in 1390, 76. 

KENNOC, a doubtful personage, said fo 
bave been abbot of Jedburgh in the 
tenth century, 8. 
Ker, Andrew, of Ferniherst, got grants 
for himself and heirs of the bailiary of 
the lands and lordship of Jedburgh 
Forest, 53. {.ee also p. 135). 
 Sir Andrew, of Hirsel, to appear at 
Justice Court st Jedburgh, 58. 
 Sir Andrew, of Ferniherst, confirmed 
in his office of bailiff of th¢ lands 
and lordship of Jedburgh Forest, 60; 
created Baron Jedburgh in 1622, 64. 
(,çee also pp. 135, 136). 
 James, of Crailing and Hundal¢e, 
 Sir John, of Ferniherst, 135. 
 Sir John, of Hirsel, got the mills of 
Jedburgh, which had belonged fo the 
abbey 62; excambed the lands of 
Hirsel for the lordship of Jedburgh, 
62 ; had to find caution to settle the 
Laird of Ferniherst in his teinds in 
several parishes, 64. 
 Robert, of Crailing, 136. 



Ker, Robert, son of Sir Andrew Ker of 
Ferniherst, contributed towards the 
restoration of Jedburgh Abbey, for 
which he got the lnds oi Ancrum- 
Woodhead, 48, 
-- Sir Thomas, 135. 
Kelso, abbey of, built in twelfth century 
for Tironensin monks, 169. 
Kentigern, St, altar in Jedburgh Abbey 
of, 67. 

Lr.SL, General the Hon. Alexant]er, 134. 
Longnewton, kirk of, belonged to Jed- 
burgh Ahbey, 57. 
Lothian, Earl of, purchased land and 
lordship of Jedburgh from the Earl of 
Haddington, 65. 
-- Schomberg Henry, ninth marquis of, 
103, 117 ; repairs Jedburgh Abbey at 
great expense, Il7. 
-- William Schomberg, eighth marquis 
of, 137. 

IAcK,IGHT, Rev. Dr, minster of Jed- 
burgh, 110. 
Magdalene, St Mary, hospital of, 38. 
Margaret, the VU'gin, bell of the Blesscd, 
Mary, the Blesse(l, ltar of, 68. 
Masons' marks on Jedburgh Abbey, 122- 
M'Kay, Daniel, minister of Jedburgh, 109. 
Melrose, Old, church here in seventh 
century, 169. 
-- Abbey, built for Cistercin monks 
in twelfth century, 169. 
Methven, Paul, minister of Jedburgh, 
105, 106. 
Monachism, its erly origin, 1. 
Moden, St, formed church at Dryburgh, 
Monasteries, splendour of the, 3; their 
wealth, 55 ; description of them, and 
list of officers, 5; the vassals who 
worked on the land, 5, 6; number of 
monateries suppressed in Scotlnd at 

Reformation, 55 ; number of persons 
officially connected with them, 55. 
Morel, John, abbot of Jedburgh, 74. 
Murray, Mjor John, 142. 

Ninian, St, altar of, 69. 
Nisbet, kirk of, belonged to Jedburgh 
Abbey, 57. 
Norman, early, work in Jedburgh Abbey, 
13, 14, and 170, 171. 
-- Transition in Kelso Abbey, 172, 173. 
Dryburgh Ahbey, 173-175. 
Jedburgh Abbey, 16-21, and 

OsnrtT, abbot of Jedburgh, 73. 
O.xnam, kirk of, belongeà fo Jeàburgh 
Abbey, 57. 

P.tco.xHvs, formed the fir.t regular 
cloister and nunnery, 2. 
Panter, David, blshop of Ross, conse- 
crated in Jedburgh Abbey Kirk, 54. 
Paul, the first Christian hermit, l. 
Perpendicular work in Melrose Abbey, 
184, ] 85. 
Peter, abbot of Jedburgh, 73. 
Philip, abbot of Jedburgh, 73. 
Plenderleith, kirk of, belonged to Jcd- 
burgh Abbey, 57. 
Popery, acts gainst papists and, 56, 57. 
Prenderlthe, Nicholas de, abbot of Jed- 
burgh, 73. 
Preston of Pennycuik got pcnsiou from 
the abbacy of Jedburgh, 61. 
Purves, Re'. Dr, minister of Jedburgh, 

R.t.eJ, abbot of Jedburgh, 73. 
Reformtion, the, 55; number of con- 
ventual establishments suppressed in 
Scotland at, 55. 
Reformed church in Jedburgh Abbey, at 
first under the tower, 82; decayed 
state of church and proposal to repair 
it with the tituber of the refectory, 
83, 84 ; Presbytery visitation, 85 ; John 



Mill, a "maister of work," makes a 
report, 85, 86 ; removal from the tower 
fo west end of nave, 90 ; removal from 
th¢ abbey, ]]2-]17 ; ministers of the 
reforraed church, ] 05-] ] ]. 
Re]igious reforms in tu elfth century, 4. 
Reperlaw, harony of, belonged to Jed- 
hurgh Ahbey, 57. 
Restcnnot, beloged fo Jedburgh Ahhey, 
57; the priory, how situated, 58; 
erected into a barony in favour of 
Viscount Fentoun, 6]. 
Richard, al)bot of Jedburgh Abbey, 7:2. 
Fdddell, Jean, 134. 
Ritchie, Rev. Dr, minister of Jedburgh, 
Robert, abbot of Jedburgh in 13ff2, 76. 
 abbot in 135., 76. 
] 473, 77. 
148, 77. 
Roman altar, ] 28, ] 29. 
Roof marks, double, on Jedhurgh Ahbcy, 
Rowat, James, minister of Jedburgh, I l 0. 
Rutherfurd, John, of Bankend, 133. 
  of Edgerston, 133. 
of Mossburnford, 133. 
-- of Fernington, 132. 
 of Ferni]ee, 132. 
-- of Hundalee, 133. 
-- of Hunthill, 133. 
 of the Hall, ]32. 
-- the Lorimer, ]32. 
 Richard, of Littleheuch, 133. 
-- Robert., of Todlaw, 51. 
 Robert, of Chatto, 131. 
 Thomaz, slaughtered in monastery of 
Jedburgh, and remission for the saine, 
--- WHliam, of Longïaewton, slaugh- 
tered in monastery of Jedburgh by 
Ker of 1Vewhall» 51 ; happy result of 
the saine, 52. 

SEAL of the chapter of Jedburgh, 70, 71. 
 of Cardinal David Beaton, 132. 

Selbie, kirk of, belovged to Canonby, 57. 
Semple, ;abriel, minister of Jedburgh, 
Slogan or warcry of the men of Jedburgh, 
Shanks, Rev. Alexander, minster of Jed- 
burgh, ]44, 145. 
.hortreed, Robert, ] 4], ] 4- °. 
Somerille, Rev. Dr, minister of Jed- 
burgh, 7, 137, ]38. 
Surrey, Earl, burned Jedburgh n 1523. 
48 ; bears testimony to the bravery of 
the Bordcrers, 48. 

Toas, abbot of Jedburgh, 77. 
Thomson, Mungo, 144. 
Turnbuli, hishop of  ;lasgo, said to bave 
helped to restore Jedburgh Abbey, 44. 
-- David, of Wauchope. to appear at 
Justice Court at Jedburgh, 58. 
T)medale, WiHiam of, and other canons 
of Jedhurgh exiled from Scotland be- 
cause of their English origin, and 
petitions Edrard III. of England for 
sustentation, 37. 

USTOX, barony of, belonged to Jedburgh 
Abbey, 6. 
 lands in, granted to Douglas of 
Bonjedward, for helping to repair 
Jedburgh Abbey, 48. 

VVCH, James, of Inchbonny, 144. 

V.*tLTEI, abbot of Jedburgh, 77. 
Warwick, the Earl of, burned Jedburgh 
in ]464.40. 
Wauchope, kirk of, belonged fo Canon- 
by, 57. 
Winchester, James, minister of Jedburgh, 
Windington barony of, belonged to Jed- 
burgh Abbey, 57. 
Winter, James, 141. 

Yol3xc,, John, minister of Jedburgh, 106. 


"Jedburgh Abbey has had the good fortune to find an historian of the right 
stamp, one who 'takes pleasure in her stones' and who bas carefully and 
lovingly constructed an interesting historical sketch of ber fortunes out of 
scanty materials, patiently and aboriously collected, partly from printed books, 
but principally from unpublished documents ..... 3Ir Watson deserves credit 
for his patient research in the collectiou of materials, aud for the arl'algement 
of these materials into a readable and instructive narrative."--S«otsm«n. 
"This brief account of Jedburgh ma)" be said to contain the most of what we 
are ever likely to know regarding it, either from the historic or descriptive side. 
It is equally suited as a guide for strangers, or a handy reference book for those 
desiring to refresh the memory COlcerning events h:q,pening in or around the 
abbey."--Gl«sgow Ilemld. 
"Mr Watson has gathered much information and many facts from a great 
variety of sources, and these bave been woren into a well--ustainêd, interesting 
narrative. Jedburgh Abbey, without doubt, bas round an historian of the tirst 
order."--I;.lso M«il. 
"This is just what an histoical and descriptive handbook should be, namely, 
brief, clear, and everywhere to the point. The visitor to this interesting monu- 
ment will find in Mr Watson an intelligent and useful guide, never saying more 
than is necessary, but always saying enough."--Xotes and (ueries. 
"This is a work of considerable importance, whether we view it in the light 
of a conh'ibution to CUl-rent literature, or as helping towards a more perfect 
understanding of the most beautiful ecclesiastical ruin in the south of Scotland." 
--Jo]n o' 'roags Jouterai. 
"As set forth in this volume the story is a wondrous and many-sided one, 
and the visitor to the old pile will find combined in Mr Watson's review voices 
from ail ages, revealing, more or less fully, the character and conditions of lire 
on the Jed for more than nine centuries. The work has beên d,_,ne carefully, 
the results are stated concisely but clearly, and without any great break of 
continuity. It is a fine story of Border life, addressed to I3orderers, but also 
to reflective men ail the world over.»---I),tily Review. 
"Visitors will find Mr Watson's little handbook a most useful and instruc- 
tive eoml,anion."--E.caminer. 
"Mr Watson has industriously gleaned from scattered sources the material 
for his book, and his narrative of the vicissitudes of the abbey is deeply inter- 
esting from its close connection with the religious histury of the country."-- 
Edinburgh Courant. 


"Of its kind Sir Vatson's work is a model of arrangement, condensation, 
and extensive information ..... Itis also exceedingly well written, whether in 
thç purely techn[cal detais of the architectural beauties of the venerable ruin, 
or in the description of the eventful and stirring scenes of which it bas for 
centuries been the centre.»--Dundee EceH17 
"Nothing could be better than the way in which the matter bas been 
arranged, and the great difference between Mr Watson and an ordinary compiler 
is nowhere more clearly apl,arent than in the glimpses he gives his rentiers of 
the social life in which thé ecclesiastical element hulked so largely. The entire 
volume affords a treat of no ordinary kind ..... It would be impossible to 
speak in too high terres of Mr Watson's architectural descriptions.»,S'tirli17 
Obser «er. 
"The materials for the work were somewhat scanty ..... Ail the more 
credit, therefore, is due to Mr Watson for having, by labour and research, 
succeeded in collecting so much data on the subect as his book discloses."-- 
Du,ri.f rien Standard. 
"His work has our heartiest recommendation, as one in whieh patient and 
extensive research has thrown ifs results into a very readable form.'3"orth 
British Dil 3lHl. 
" It is a pieee of eonseientious work whieh does the author great eredit. 
Every page affords i,roof of patient invêstigati,n and sueeessful researeh." 
Kelso Chroniele. 
"Altogethêr the work is singularly eomplête ad e.xhaustive."--Border 
A dvertiser. 
« It is but seant justice to this little work to say that any futm-e history of 
our noble abbey of neeessity be founded upon it, the information being 
fuliêr and more aeeurate than it ean else-here be f.nd, and put together in 
the most concise and attractive tortu."--Teviotdule Record. 
"The book is one of rare excellence and mtch value, and -ill do more 
thau any pr«vious contribution of a like nature to give Jedburgh Abbey that 
prorninence among the architectural rcmains of Scotland 'hich it so well 
deserzes.»JedburgA Gazette. 
"A valuable acquisition to ][3order historical and antiquarian literature. 
.... A description and history of the abbey, which, for its completeness and 
originality, is most unique."H«.un'ck Adcertiser. 
"I have to congratulate you on havlng completed your JedburlTh Abbe3 so 
successfully."E.»'tract ri'oto lett«r from the late David Laiff, LL.D., SilTnet 
Zibrary, Edinbugh.