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^■e-^ Ta.v-5oAi ^° 



\ ::3 ^. 

I ,nTT- fT^'.r yOPK 

2H. (^0:^yyi/ih-^i^J± M.^, /f/j- 







of Brookville, Pa. 

Author of "My First Recollections of Brookville, Pennsylvania," "Recol- 
lections of Ridgway, Pennsylvania," "Pioneer History of Jefferson 
County, Pennsylvania," "A Pioneer Sketch of the Cities 
of Allegheny, Beaver, DuBois and Towanda," "A 
Pioneer Outline Historv of Northwestern 
Pennsylvania, 1780-1850." 









In presenting "Jefferson County, Her Pioneers and People" to its patrons, the 
publishers have to acknowledge, with gratitude, the encouragement and support 
their enterprise has received, and the willing assistance rendered in enabling them 
to surmount the many unforeseen obstacles to be met with in the production of a 
work of such magnitude. He who expect to find the work entirely free from 
errors or defects has little knowledge of the difficulties attending the preparation 
of a publication of this kind, and should indulgently bear in mind that "it is 
much easier to be critical than to be correct." It is, therefore, trusted that this 
history will be received by the public in that generous spirit which is gratified at 
honest and conscientious effort. 

The work has been divided into two parts. History and Biography. Volume 
I, containing the general history of the county, and of the townships and bor- 
oughs, has been compiled, prepared and edited by Dr. W. J. McKnight. Volume 
II is devoted to local genealogy and biography, whose importance has had grow- 
ing recognition among individuals as well as historians throughout Pennsylvania, 
with an appreciation of their value in a convenient and permanent form. In 
nearly every instance the data for the biographies were submitted to those imme- 
diately interested for revision and correction. 

The work, which is one of generous amplitude, is placed in the hands of the 
public with the belief that it will be found a valuable addition to the library, as 
well as invaluable contribution to the historical and genealogical literature of 
Pennsylvania. The Publishers. 


These notes are a compilation of what I have seen, heard and experienced, 
as a son of pioneer parents in this wilderness. I was to the manner born, and 
in my time have met, known and doctored all or nearly all the original settlers. 
The truths and facts to be related here in these notes have been gathered night 
after night, day after day, and year after year, from a retentive memory of those 
times and events. My birth, associations, education, avocations, printer activities, 
political speech making and the practice of medicine have all been pioneer, tlius 
fitting me peculiarly for this task. I revere my ancestry and the pioneers. I 
delight in recounting their courage and virtues. My only ambition and desire 
here is to leave a truthful narrative of the pioneer men and women and events 
of Jefferson county, so that some future citizen can continue the history of the 
county. To do this, labor and research have been enthusiastically pursued with 
expense, patience and perseverance. I assisted Caldwell in 1878 in the com- 
pilation of his atlas, assisted Miss Kate M. Scott in 1886 in the compilation of 
her history of the county and wrote my pioneer history in 1898. As you see, 
I have been at this work for years, and now I will correct any error and false 
tradition whenever and wherever I find it. I am greatly indebted to the early 
newspapers of the county, especially to Joel Spyker and to the files of the Jeffer- 
son Star and r.rookville Republican, and also lo Miss Kate M. Scott's history 
for much data that T have u.sed. W. J. McKnight. 














































'bench AND BAR 

































































































JR 501 














Abolition of Slavery 147,148 

Academies ....214, 290, 382, 499 
Acts of Assembly Relating 

to Eoads 91 

to Streams 67 

Adams, Rev. Dr. J. T 305 

Adrian 422 

Hospital 429 

Advocate, Reynoldsville 279 

Agricultural Associations.... 332 

Implements 70 

Lands in County 220 

Pennsylvania Dept. of 27 

Pioneer 69 

Products in County, 1840.. 219 

Society, First 71 

Alder Creek 62 

Algerines 371 

Allegheny Valley Railroad, 

Low Grade Division 102 

Presidents 103 

Allen's Mill 483 

Aliens Mills Post Office. .233, 239 

Almanac, Ancient 55 

Althause, Rev. Mr 514, 515 

Alvan 233 

American Bison, or Buffalo 

113, 124 

Elk and Habits.. 11(5, 124, 125 

National Party 335 

Party 335 

Republican Party 335 

Amusements, Pioneer 81 

Anatomy, Study of 255 

Human Bodies for 263 

Anderson, Charles 107 

Anecdotes 463 

Animals and Fire 126 

Natural Life of 124, 142 

(See also Snakes and Other 
Reptiles, 136-142) 

Pioneer Ill 

Anita 233, 2.39, 512 

Anthracite Coal 106 

Anti-Slavery Society, Ameri- 
can 149 

.\pprentiees, Indentured. 149, 373 
Archie Campbell and Jimmy 

Kyle 463 

Area, of Jefferson County. . . 207 

Pennsylvania 21 

United States 34, 349 

Armstrong and Clearfield 

Turnpike 9(5 

Jefferson and Clearfield 
Turnpike Co 97 

Assembly, Colonial 24 

Assemblymen from Jefferson 

County 223, 224 

Assessment, First County. . . . 217 

Lists, Early 217, 218, 219 

See Also Township Chap- 

Assessors, County 227 

Associate Judges ... 228, 240, 243 

Reformed Seceders 477 

Attorneys, Jefferson County. 244 

District 228 

Auditors, County 

210, 222, 224, 225 

A.xes 70 

Backwoodsman, Brookville. . 277 

Bands, Early 377 

Bank, First in United States. 24 

Note Detectors 345 

Notes, Early 345 

Banking Laws 346 

Banks and Banking 346 

in Jefferson County 347 

Savings 346 

State 345, 346 

Baptist Association, Clarion. 317 

Churches and Pastors 

316, 323, 516 

Church Mission, Brookville, 

1837 317 

Bar, Jefferson County 240 

Admissions to, 1830-1887.. 245 

Admitted Since 18SS. 248 

Examiners of Applicants, 

1916 249 

Law Library Committee, 

1916 ." 249 

Present Members 249 

Barber Surgeons 255 

Barbers First in Brookville. . 377 

Barclay, Rev. David 424 

Harnett, Andrew 58, 153, 414 

John 497 

Joseph 57, 58, 64, 153, 414 

(See also Volume II, 
Page 1) 

Township 447 

Elections 215, 224, 447 

Retailers, 1860 220 

State Aid for Schools. . 

284, 285, 288 

Barr, Robert P 66 

Judge W. W 242 

Barrens, The 481 

Barton M. E. Chapel 312 


Baxter 233, 239, 477 

(Beaver Run) U. P. Church 305 

Bear 115, 124 

Habits 116, 124, 136 

Stories 491, 510 

Traps 115 

Beaver 14, 112, 124 

Dam 113 

Run (Baxter) U. P. Church 305 

Township 499 

Retailers, 1860 220 

Bee, Wild 143 

Food 144 

Hunting 143 

Trees 80, 143 

Beech Bottom 433 

Beechtree 233, 465 

Branch, B. R, & P. R. R.. . 104 
M. E. Church 313 

Beeehwoods Baptist Church. . 318 
District, Pioneer Days in . . 464 
Presbyterian Church 299 

Beers, Jacob 459 

Bell, Frederick 109 

James H 508 

John, Esf| 57, 419 

John (Warsaw Tp.) 482 

Lewis and Yates 109 

Township 508 

Belleview (Stanton) 446 

Select School 290 

M. E. Circuit 311 

Bellport 506 

Bell's Mills (Brown's Mills) 

233, 508 

Bench and Bar 240 

Bennett's Branch Railroad.. 61 

Berdan 's Sharpshooters 187 

(See also Vol. IJ, page 425.) 

Bethel Baptist Church .. .319, 490 
Presbyterian Church.. 294, 363 

Bey Lynx or Catamount 

114, 122, 124 

Big Mahoning Creek 64, 68 

Mill Creek 62 

Run Borough. 233, 239, 514, 515 

Churches 313, 516 

Newspapers 280 

Sandy Lick Creek 61 

Toby' Creek 62, 67, 448 

Billy Boo 373 

Birds 139 

Migration of 142 

Natural Life of 142 

Varieties in Pioneer Times 142 


Bishop, Rev. Gara, M. D 

295, 298, :iS,S, 454, 

Bison or Buffalo, American . . 


Bituminous Coal 106, 

Output in United States. . 


"Black Charlie" 

Biacksnake 136, 

Blood, Cyrus 


Blosp, Prof. George A 

Boar, Wild 

Boatbuilding-, Pioneer 

Bobcat (or Wildcat) 


Boot Jack (Hazen or Mays- 

ville) 482, 

Boroughs and Towns in Jef- 
ferson County 209, 


Population of Boroughs. . 

Boundary Lines, Jefferson 

County 60, 

Township — See Township 
Bounties, Civil War 

Wild Animal 114, 124, 

134, 211, 213, 416, 

Bowers Settlement 

Gaskill Settlement, School 

Bowersville 233, 239, 

Brady, Capt. Evans R 

Breweries 3S7, 

Bridge, Pioneer County 

Bridges and Roails, Eaily 
Court Records 

over Clarion 432, 

Brockways, The 

431, 450, 451, 452, 

Brockwayville Borough. .434, 


Pioneer School 

Post Office... 2.32, 233, 239, 

Presbyterian Church 

Brookvi'lle Borough. 212, 213, 

Academy 214, 290, 

Boundaries 210, 351, 


Business Development 


Churches — See Chapter 


Distances From Other 

County Points 

Drinking Fountain .... 395, 
Earlv Conditions, 1835.... 

Elections 214, 




Settlers * . 


354, 360, 370, 3S7, 

Elections and Polling Places 

214, 356, 

Erection of Borough 

Female Seminary 214, 

Fiftv Years Ago 
















39 fi 

First Borough Oflicials.356, 

Common School 

Railroad Train 391, 

Store 353, 

Fraternal and Social Or- 
ganizations — See Chapter 


Historic Spring 14, 16, 



Mail Service, 1835 

Main Street, 1840, Descrip- 


Officials, 1840 

Old Graveyard 295, 



Parochial School 

Pickering Deed 

Pioneer Assessment 

Pioneer Business Men.... 


School Directors 

Population 221, 



Post Office 232, 233, 

Public Institutions 

Schools and Buildings.. 

Recollections, 1840 to 1843 

Retailers, 1860 219, 

Soldiers ' Homo 



Ta.xables and Property .... 

Town Council, Pioneer Ses- 

Village Improvement Asso- 
ciation 395, 

Water Company 378, 

Brown's Jlills (Bell's Mills) 

Post Office 233, 

Buffalo, American Bison. 113, 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pitts- 
burgh Railroad 

103, 428, 429, 

Officers, 1915 

Biiffiugton, Judge Joseph. . . . 

Burnside, Hon. Thomas 

Burrowes, Tliomas H 

Bury Me With My Grand 
Army Badge (Poem) . . . 

Eutler, Cvrus 

..305.' 307, 354, 364, 365, 
Butler's Gravevard 














Campaign of 1860 408 

1864 ^ 337 

Campbell, Archie 463 

Judge James 242 

Campmectings, Pioneer and 

Earlv . : 316 

Camp Run 2.33 

Canal, Pennsvlvania 40, 41 

r.-indles " 376 

Carrier 233 

Carroll, Rev. William 306 

Catamount, or Bev Lynx. . . . 

.'..114, 122, 124 

Catholic Cemetery, Punxsu- 


Churches, Greek 320, 

Roman 319, 

Cattle in County, 1840.. 219, 
Celebrations, Fourth of Julv 

366, 375, 

Memorial Day, 1884... 455, 
Cemeteries, Early and Pres- 
ent — See Brookville and 
Township Chapters. 

Law for Protection 

Centenarians 459, 

Central Presbyterian Church. 

Ceres Road 

Chamber of Commerce, Rey- 


Chestnut Grove M. P. Church 


Chinklacamoose Path 16, 

Christian Church, First 

Christianity of Pioneer Times 
Church, First Protestant in 


Churches '". 209, 294, 

See Township Chapters. 
Notes, Union Township. . . . 
of God (Winebrennerian) . . 

Property in County 


CMrcle Hill Cemetery 

Circular Hunts 

Civil War, Pennsylvania's 

Part in 

Relief Fund of Jefferson 


Soldiers from Jefferson 

County 154, 156 


Baptist Association 

Mines, Snyder Township. . 

Methodist Church 

River and Bridges 

61, 64, 6.5, 67, 68, 110, 432, 
Summerville & Pittsburgh 

Railroad Co 

Clark, Judge Eliiah H 

(See also Vol. II, Page 170) 

Jesse G 

Clarke, Dr. A. M 269, 

Joel, Sr 153, 4.50, 


Clay ville 423, 


(Lindsey) Post Office 

Clearfield and Jefferson Turn- 

Clearing Land 

Cloe 234, 239, 

Clothing, 1840 



Clover, Harry 

Gen. Levi G 

277, 364, 366, 



Elections 215, 

First Schools 

Retailers, 1860 

Clyde. Capt. Wm. J 100, 


















Coal 2, 39, -to, 

Beds 110, 


(ilen 2-M, 239, 

Mining 106, 107, 

. ..488,498, 503, 506, 514, 


Production 107, 110, 


Some Interesting Data... 


and Iron Companies 

Coinage and Paper Money. . 

Coke '40, 

Collectors, County 

Colored Population, Jefferson 

Kldred Township 

Residents, Brookville. .372, 

Soldiers 149, 

Troops, United States 

Commissioners, Countv 

210, 213, 222, 224, 

Clerks to 

Common Schools, First in 

First Teachers in County. . 

Improvement, 1854.' 

System, Early Organization 
Under '. 286, 


Conditions in 1800 

Conestoga Wagons 

Congregational Churches. . . . 
Congress, Ratio of Represen- 
tation in 

Congressional District, Jeffer- 
son County 213, 

Representation, 1840 

Congressmen, Salaries of . . . . 

Conifer 234, 239, 

Conser, Maj. John C....167, 

G. A. R. Post 

Constables, County, 1811-1830 

1831 " 

Constitutional Convention, 

Delegates from Jefferson 

Election of 1873, vote in 

Jefferson County 

Constitutions, State 


Continental Congress 

Convention, First Jefferson 

County Republican 

Conventions, Delegates to 

Early Political 

Pioneer School 


Convict Labor, Early 

Cook, John 

Cook 's Sawmill 


Coolspring 234, 239, 

Copper Coinage in United 


Copperhead 136, 

60 Corbet, Judge Charles 243 

487 James 353 

110 Judge Wm. L 242 

46.') Cork Pine Trees 487, 513 

Cornplanter 17 

515 Indians, Family of 441 

409 Cornstalk Militia 478 

506 Coroners, County 226 

105 Corsica Borough 496,498 

110 Academy 499 

104 M. E. Church 313 

427 Post Office 234, 239 

343 Retailers, 1860 220 

110 Cortez 234 

227 Country Club, Punxsutawney 429 

Counties and County Seats, 

57 Pennsylvania 35, 36 

459 Area of Counties 35, 36 

384 Map " 37 

153 Population by Counties. .34, 35 
188 County Formation in Penn- 
sylvania 23, 36 

226 Home and Farm.. 282, 418, 503 

227 Jefferson, Formation and 

Government 207, 211 

286 Map of Pennsylvania 37 

286 Court Records, Roads and 

288 Bridge, 1808-1840 86 

Sessions 382 

381 Pioneer 243, 244 

288 Terms of 241 

1 Courthouse and Jail, Jeffer- 

■.go son Countv 215,217 

323 Old .' 369 

Covenanter Church 322 

Craig, Col. C. A 

162, 164, 166, 167, 179 

Crenshaw 234, 239, 451 


47, 99, 451, 468, 470, 485, 506 

Olden Time Penalties 47 

Crow 140, 142 

Bounties 124 

Cumberland Presbyterian 

Churches ..303, 480, 504, 510 

Currency, Pioneer 345 

Amount in Circulation in 

United States 344 

Customs, Pioneer 81 

Daily Newspapers, First.... 280 

Dams 65, 67-69, 69 

Legislation Relating to... 68 

Darling, Paul 397 

Will 398 

Daughters of Liberty 334 

Days, Origin of Names of . . . . 50 

Debt, Imprisonment for 150 

Decoration Day 47, 48 

Celebrations 455, 465 

Origin of 49 

Deer 116, 124 

Habits 118, 125 

Licks 117, 119, 411 

Paths 56 

DeLancey 234, 239, 422 

Delaware Indians 22 

Names of Streams 62 

344 Democrat, Brookville 278 

138 Democratic Party 334, 335 










Dennisou School Reunion, 

1906 466,467 

Desire 234, 239, 514 

Disciples of Christ 323 

Distances Between Brookville 

and Other County Points 386 

Distillery, First 59 

Distinctive Conditions in 

Pennsylvania 33 

District Attorneys 228 

Dixon, Ezekiel. .". 502 

John Jr 107, 503 

John, Sr 59, 282, 380, 482 

William 132 

Doctor, The Old Fashioned 

(Poem) 251 

The Pioneer Wilderness... 250 
Doctor 's Story, The Modern 

(Poem) .' 267 

Dogtown 483 

Dolls Used for War Dis- 
patches 155 

Domestic Animals, Natural 

Life of 124 

Fowls 142, 143 

Dora 234, 239, 493 

Dowling, Capt. John C 172 

Dowlingville 234, 353 

Drafts, Civil War 196,198 

Exemption from 196 

Drainage 61 

Dress, 1840 382 

of Men, Pioneer 77 

of Women, Pioneer 78 

Druggists, Brookville 

353, 377, 391 

Drummers, Early 377 

Dull, Henry 131 

Dunkle 234, 485 

Eagle 139, 142 

Early. Convict Labor 151 

Court Records, Roads and 

Bridges 86 

Food Prices 81 

Sawmills 64, 66 

(See also Township Chap- 

Settlers in County 59 

(See also Township Ch;i|i- 

Taverns 420 

(See also Township Cliap- 

Vehicles 72, 370 

Earthquakes 43, 44 

Eason, John 353,387 

Ebenezer M. E. Church 312 

Echo, Big Run 280 

Education, Items of Interest 293 
Pioneer Compulsory Act, 

1895 ". 289 

Pioneer Legislation. . .281, 283 

Value of 294 

Educational Progress 281 

Eighteenth U. S. Infantry. . . 188 
Eighth Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment 156 

Eighty-second Pennsylvania 

Volunteers 198 

Eighty Years' Changes 409 




Eldred, Judge Nathaniel B.. 


Elections 215, 

First Common School. . . 

Eetaileis, 1860 

State Aid for Schools. . . 
Eleanor (Elenora) . .234, 239, 

Election Laws 

Precincts in County 

Returns in County, 1832-60 

1837 " 


Elections and Polling Places, 
County ...210, 211, 221, 
First Presidential and Gu- 
bernatorial in County... 

Township !213, 

See also Brookville and 
Township Chapters. 
Electric Railroads. .428, 4SS, 


Elevations in Jefferson 

County 60, 

Eleventh Pennsylvania Cav- 
alry ". 186, 

Pennsvlvania Reserves. 157, 

Elk, American 116, 124, 




County Guards 

Ella Post Office 

Emergency Men, 1863-64 

■ 189, 190, 


Emeriekville 234, 

M. E. Church 

English Lutheran Church, 


Enlisted Civil War Soldiers, 

Ages of 

Enterprise, Big Run 

Episcopal Deiiomination^prot- 


Erdice 234, 239, 

Ettewein, Rev. < John, 
Extracts from Diarv. . . . 

lo, 16, 

Evangelical Association. 322, 

Church, Brookville 

Evans, .ludge Jared B 

353, 388, 409, 417, 

Old Account Book 

Execution, Old Writ of 

Executioner's Price List.... 

Explorers, Pioneers 

Express Business 

Eye, The (Reynoldsville) 



















Fall, Townsend 

Falls Creek Borough 

M. E. Church 


Famous Hunters in tliis 

Region 126, 


Female Suffrage in United 


Fence Law 24, 

Fifty Years Ago 






Fifty-seventh Regiment, 
Emergency Volunteers. . 

189, 194 

Financial 220, 343 

Conditions in U. S. Today 34S 

Panics 41 

Fires in County 400, 489, 499 

Fire Protection. ..-. .400, 428, 429 

Fireclay 481 

I'irst County Assessment.... 217 

Fiscus Catholic Church 320 

Fishing 80, 448 

Five Mile Run 65, 352 

Flatboats 64, 65, 66, 106 

Flax 79 

Floods 44, 67, 371, 439 

Florenza (Florence) .234, 239, 512 

Fogle, Rev. Christopher 149 

Food, Laws of State 27 

Pioneer 77, 79, 404 

Pioneer Prices. 58, 81, 403, 410 

Fordham 234,421 

Forests of Jefferson County. . 63 

Formation of County 207 

Fortunes, of Presidents 51 

Foundations of Great 350 

Forty Years ' Progress in 

Pennsylvania, 1875-1915 41 
I'oundries, First in County.. 

387, 423 

Punxsutawney 428 

Fourteenth Pennsylvania 

Cavalry " 187 

Fourth of July Celebrations. . 

■ 366, 375, 455 

Fowls, Domestic 142, 143 

Fox 122, 124 

Bounties 211, 213 

Trap 116 

Franklin, Benjamin 23, 53 

I'raternal and Social Organi- 
zations 324, 456, 489 

Fredericksburg (Sprankle 

Mills) 504 

Free Methodist Churches and 

Pastors 314 

Press, Brockwavville 280 

Schools .' 380, 382 

Freighting, Early 92, 362 

French and Indian War.... 23 

Frosthurg 61, 234, 239, 421 

M. E. Church 312 

Fuller 235, 237, 507 

John 107 

Si-hoolhouse 286, 486 

I'ulling Cloth 78 

Furs, Prices in 1804 136 

Game and Fish 79 

Games, Social 82 

Indian 8, 15 

Gar-var-nese (Big Run) 515 

Gas,' Natural 41, 42, 409, 

41 S, 458, 481, 484, 502, 506 

Gaskill, Charles C 74, 479 

Township 479 

Elections 215 

Bowers Settlement 479 

School 286 

(iazetto, Brookville 276 

Geer, Luther 64, 443 

(See also Vol. II, page 151.) 

Geistown 420 

Geography and Topography, 

Jefferson County 60, 479 

German Evangelical Lutheran 

Church, Punxsutawney.. 321 

Settlement near Kno.x Dale 506 
Gettysburg Address, Lincoln 's 46 

Battle of. Casualties 45 

Giles, Reuben 99 

Gillis, James L.325, 366, 431, 436 

William B 441 

Gold, Coinage in United 

States 344, 346 

Price During Civil War... 346 
Gordon, Hon. Isaac Grantham 24'; 
Government, Jefferson County 207 
Governors of Pennsylvania.. 25 

Popular Vote for 25 

Vote in County, 1832-34. . 337 

Grace M. E. Church 314 

Graham, Elijah 153 

Elijah M 45s 

Grains 79 

Grand Army of the Republic 328 

Present Posts in County.. 329 

Auxiliary Societies 329 

Jurors, 1831 244 

Grange 2.35, 239, 421 

Granges in County 332 

Grant's (General) Wagon 

Train 155 

Graveyards, Indian 438, 482 

Pioneer — See Brookville 
and Township Chap- 
Greek Catholic Churches.... 

320, 490 

Greenback Labor Party 336 

Party 336 

Greenbrier (Schoffner's Cor- 
ners) 502 

Greenwood Cemetery 430 

Gristmills 64, 66 

See also Township Chap- 

Grove Summit 235 

Guam 235 

Habits and Customs, Pioneer 81 
Habits of Our Wild Animals. . 

116, 124, 136 

Haggerty 458 

Hall, Thomas 370 

Hamilton (Perrysville) 421 

Post Office (Hay) 235, 2.39 

Handy 235 

Hanging, First in County. . . . 470 

Hard Times of 1857. . . ." 345 

Harvesting, Early 70 

Hastings (Original name of 

Ringgold Townshi]i) .... 491 

John : 277 


. . .276, 277, 353, 354, 388, 491 

Haugh Family Reunion 496 

Hawks " 140, 142 

Hay (Hamilton) 235 

Hiiving in the Ol.leii Time. , 71 



Hazen (Boot Jack) or Mavs- 

viUe 235, 239, 482, 

Heath, Judge Elijah 

149, 370, 


Heathville (Packer) 

235, 236, 239. 499, 

Heating and Lighting Facili- 
ties. 1840 367, 376, 

Heiehhold, A. P., M. D 

Henderson, Hon. Joseph. .366, 
(See also Vol. II, page 4) 

Township .- 

First School 

Herald, Brookville 

Falls Creek 280, 


and Star, Reynoldsville... 

Hermits 373, 

Hessian Soldiers in Pennsj'l- 


Hickox, Reuben 115,420, 

High Schools in County 

Hill, Ralph " 

Historical Facts Relating to 

Postal Service 



Hoffman, Dr. Ferd 

Hogback Hill, Pioneer Road 


Holland Land Company 

Holliday, Rev. S. H..." 

Homes, Pioneer 




Honey, Wild 80, 

Hood, Hon. George W 

Hoover, .Jacob 

Hopewell M. E. Church 


Horatio 235, 239, 

Horse Racing 

Horses in County, 1840.. 219. 


Hospitals 395, 

Hotelkeepers, Early 


See also Township Chaj)- 
Hotels, Early 387, 

See also Townshij) Cha]>- 
Householil Utensils, Pioneer 


Howe 235, 

Hudson 235, 

Hughes, Prof. .Tohn 11 

Hunt, Captain 16, 

Jim 16, 350, 

His Cave 350, 

R. S., M. D 

Hunter, Andrew 

Hunters, Famous in tliis 

Region 126, 133, 

Hunting Incidents 

Hunts, Circular 


Hutchison, Joseph 

Hyde, J. S 431, 















Implements, Pioneer 70 

Imprisonment for Debt, 1705. 150 

Incidents and Anecdotes.... 463 
Hunting 491 

Indebtedness, Public, United 

States 349 

Indentured Apprentices. . 149, 373 

Independent Greens 477 

Order of Odd Fellows 324 

Present Lodges in County 325 
Party 336 

Indian Amusements 8, 15 

Arrowheads 11 

Burials 6, 15 

Canoes 8, 12 

Customs 5 

Dances 8, 10 

Doctors and Remedies.... 8 

Dress 14 

Festivals 15 

Food 6, 8, 14, 16 

Graveyards 438, 482 

Hostilities 23, 24 

Houses and Huts 7, 14 

Intemperance 7, 13 

Marriage Customs 7, 15 

Manufactures 11 

Moccasins 12 

Money, Wampum 13 

Nature 6, 10, 13 

Origin of Local Names. . 

16, 62, 422, 515 

Paint and Feathers 15 

Relics 373 

Religious Beliefs 6, 8, 15 

Rulers 5, 9, 10 

Runners 12, 56 

Trails 13, 56 

Treaties. 13, 15, 17, 18, 23, 24 

Villages 14, 15 

Warfare 9 

Weapons 9, 11 

Iiidiana and Jefferson Greens 205 
and Port Barnett Road 86 

Indians, Delawares 22 

Iroquois or Si.x Nations.5, 6, 22 
Seneca 6, 7, 12, 448 

Industrial Activities, Cliro- 

nology of 39 

Early and Present — See 
Brookville an<l Township 

Items 42, 43, 44, 47, 110 

Statistics, 1840 218 

Statistics 213 

Inns, Pioneer 98 

See also Brookville and 
Township Chapters. 

Insane, Care and Treatment 

of 27 

Institutes, County Teachers'. 290 
Township . . .". 290 

Instruction, Superintendents 

of 285, 288, 290, 441 

Inventions 3, 53 

List of Ancient and Mod- 
ern 54 

Inventors, Famous 53 

Iowa 507 

Iron 39, 40, 41, 60 

Iroquois Indians 5, 6, 22 






Jack, Judge William 

354, 364, 

Jacobs, Jim 

Jail, Jefferson County 

21.5, 217, 


Jameson, Camp 160, 

Jefferson and Indiana Greens 


Blues 205, 

County Agricultural So- 
ciety and Grounds. 332, 



Coal Comi)anies 

First Store 353, 



Home 282, 418, 

Honor Roll, Civil War.. 
Lands and Early Owners 

220, 352, 374, 433, 445 

Laws, Pioneer 210 

Lawyers 244 

Location and Extent. . . . 

207, 212, 213 

Map xxviii 

Medical Practitioners. . . 269 

Societies 273 

Militia, Civil War 196 

Newspapers, Present .... 280 
Officials ...210, 211, 221, 224 

First 222 

Present 228 

Organization 207, 211 

Pioneer Taxables 413 

Post Offices, 1832, List.. 232 

Complete List 233-239 

Present 239 

Races 445 

Seat of Justice 

211, 212, 215, 351 

Soldiers in Civil War... 156 

Rangers 205 

gt;a^ 277 

Street M. E. Church .307-308 

Pastors 308 

U. I. Church 305 

Jeffersonian, Brookville 

276, 277, 278 

Democrat, Brookville 278 

Democrat and Elk County 

Advertiser 277 

Jenks, Dr. John W. .269, 303, 424 

Township 460 

Elections 215 

Judge William P 242 

Jericho (Warsaw P. O.) 483 

Jerk, Elk and Venison 132 

Jewish Synagogue 322, 32.3 

Jones, Prof. L. Mayne 291 

Jordan, Samuel 506 

Judges, County 228 

Associate 240 

President 240 

.Tr.dicial Districts 

...210, 211, 212, 240, 241, 242 
Organization. Jefferson. . . . 

County 240, 241 

Pennsylvania 240 

Judiciary, State 243 


Jurors, Grand, 1S31 244 

Jury Commissioners 228 

Justices of the Peace. . . .210, 249 
Elected Nov. 2, 1915 250 

liahle, Frederick 457 

Jack and John 115, 133 

Keelboating 65, 66 

Kelly, Prof. William A 291 

Keystone State 21, 24 

Kirkman 235 

Ki:ai)p, Moses 57, 

58, 59, 64, 353, 372, 377, 477 
(See also Vol. IT, page 3.) 
Knights of the Golden Circle 45 

Of the Macabbees 489 

Of Pythias 327 

Present Castle Halls in 

County 328 

Knopsnyder, Samuel 485 

Know-Nothing Party 335 

Knox, Judge James B 242 

Judge John C 242, 506 

Township 506 

Knox Dale 235, 239, 507 

Kuhns, Frederick 513 

Kyle, Jimmy 463 

Labor, Pioneer Prices for. 80, 403 

Day 47^ 48 

Parties 336 

Lake Erie, Franklin & Clarion 

Railroad Co 105 

Officers - 106 

Land, How the Pioneer 

Bought 73 

Sales 73, 210 

Warrants 73 

Lands, Jefferson County.... 

220, 352, 433, 445 

Early Owners 374 

Lane 's Grove 61 

Mills 235, 239, 451 

Langville 235, 239, 500 

Lark, Meadow 142 

Laws, Anatomical. . .252, 254, 261 

Banking 346 

Election 222, 355 

T''o"d 27,' 404 

Militia 364 

Pioneer County 210 

Postal 229 230 

lioad 91 

School, Common, 1834 283 

Op[ioHition to 284, 285 

Proclamation in County. 284 

1 855 ". . 288 

Iiawyers, Jefferson County.. 244 
Lcason, Rev. Dr. T. S. ...... 30l' 

Legal Holidays in the Various 

States 47 

In Pennsylvania 48 

Rights of Women 378 

Status of Women in Pio- 
neer Times 84 

Weights of Produce 81 

Legislative (State) District, 

Jefferson County. 210, 213, 223 
Leprosy in United States 268 

Liberty, Sons and Daughters 

of 334 

Bell 51 

Library, Punxsutawney Free 429 
Licenses, Pioneer, 1812-1830. 218 

• Lighting Facilities 

. . 76, 367, 376, 409,, 428, 456 

Limestone 481 

Lincoln, Abraham — 

Assassinators, Trial of.... 46 

Gettysburg Address 46 

A Lincoln Story 201 

Lindsey (Clayville) 

236, 423, 426, 427 

Press 279 

Litch, Thomas K 66 

Litchtown 66, 354 

Literary Society, Mount 

Pleasant 477 

Little, Capt. Edwin H 159 

6. A. R. Post 329 

Little Brier Creek 62, 352 

Mahoning Creek 68 

Sandy Lick Creek... 61, 64, 65 

Toby Creek 62, 65, 68, 448 

Toby Valley 61 

Lobseouse 153 

Local Option in Pennsylvania 26 

Log House Raising 75 

Logging, 1840 370 

Long, Andrew Jackson 

114, 133, 135 

Daniel 360, 485 

John 127 

Ludwig (Louis) 

.. 59, 11.5, 126, 414, 415, 417 
Michael 114, 119, 121, 131, 513 

William (Bill) 114, 

115, 116, 121, 126, 441, 513 

Longevity 459, 462 

Lottery Warrants 73 

Low Grade Division (Alle- 
gheny Valley Railroad) 102 

Agents 103 

Assistant Superintendents. 103 

Lowry, Prof. James A 291 

Lucas Band 477 

Thomas, Esq 415 

Lullaby, Dr. Watts' Cradle 

Hymn 84 

Lumber Trade 445 

Lumbering, 1840 370 

and Rafting 64 

Lumberville 458 

Luther, Lebbeus 436, 441 

Lutheran Churches and Pas- 
tors 320, 323 

Church, Evangelical 321 

Luthersburg and Punxsutaw- 
ney Road 95 

Lynx, Bey (or Catamount).. 

n I, 122, 124 

McCalmont, Judge Alexander 242 

Judge John S 242 

Township 510 

Taxables and Property.. 220 

McCJrea, John 274 

McCreight, Andrew 486 

McCurdy, Joseph 299 

Family 72 - 

Farm, Washington Town- 
ship 464 

McDonald, Mrs. Betty, Mur- 
der of ■ 468 

McElhose, Samuel 290 

McGarraugh, Rev. Robert... 294 
McKnight, Col. Alexander, 224, 

315, 326, 354, 357, 363, 381 

Col. A. A 156, 

160, 163, 164, 169, 179, 259 
W. J., M. D..269, 339. 391, 442 
Golden Wedding Celebra- 
tion 411 

& Son, Drug Store 391 

McLain, Col. Charles 184 

Camp, S. V 456 

Maccabees, Knights of the.. 489 

JIagiffin, Joseph 444, 477 

Mahoning Argus, Punxsutaw- 
ney 279 

Creek 61, 65, 68, 422, 479 

Mouth Bridge Company... 97 

Navigation Company 

64,' 66, 68, 422 

Register, Punxsutawney... 278 
Valley Spirit, Punxsutaw- 
ney 279 

Mail Arrivals and Depart- 
ures, 1835 356 

City Delivery in County.. 239 
Contractors for Delivery of 231 

Delivery 229, 230, 231 

Routes,' Pioneer 231, 232 

Service, Early 376, 434, 440 

Mailable Matter, Schedule 

of 231 

Mails and Stages, Brookville 390 
Manufacturing in County, 

1840 .'. 219 

Brookville, 1840 374 

Maple Beer 72 

Sugar Making 71, 461 

Markton 236, 239, 504 

Mary Annsville 236, 237, 502 

Mason and Dixon Line 23 

JLTSonie Fraternity 325 

Present Lodges in County. 326 

Matches, Friction 43 

Matson, Dr. Charles M 270, 273 

Uriah 64 

Matthews, Charles 67 

Maysville (or Hazen) . . .482, 483 

Presbvterian Church 301 

Meade Chapel, M. E 313 

David and John 56 

Meadow Lark 142 

Means, Capt. Robert R 158 

Medical 250 

Inspectors of Schools, 1915 274 

Legislation 254, 261, 266 

Practitioners, Jefferson 

County 269 

Science, Advance In 267 

Societies, Jefferson County 273 

Melzer ." . 236 

Jlemorial Day 47, 48 

Celebrations, I8S4 455,465 

Origin of 49 


Merata 2o6 

Mercantile Appraisers 228 

Merrimau, Charles P 377 

Methodist Church, First in 

County 306 

Episcopal Churches and 

Pastors 305, 

323, 357, 447, 490, 503, 516 
Free Churches and Pastors 314 
Ministers iu County, Pio- 
neer 306 

Pioneer Presiding Elders. . 306 
Protestant Churches and 

Pastors 314, 323 

Mexican War 154 

Milesburg and Smethport 

Turnpike 94, 432 

and Waterford State Road 57 

Milestones on Turnpike 92 

Military Matters 152 


205, 356, 369, 422, 

440, 477, 493, 496, 501, 505 

Militia Cornstalk 478 

Jefferson County 196, 205 

Laws, Early 364 

Mill Creek 64, 65, 352 

Creek Railway 106 

Mills, Early " 209 

See also Brookville and 
Township Chapters. 
Mineral Springs, Pennsyl- 
vania 22 

Mines 427 

Mineweaser, Jacob. 110, 498, 503 

Mink 122 

Mint, National 343 

Modern Doctor's Story, The 

(Poem) 267 

Money 403 

At Interest in County 220 

Paper 343, 345 

18.50-1860 345 

Monks, James 99 

Montmorency 232, 236, 325 

Moore M. E. Church 311 

Moose 116 

Morgan, John Hunt 193 

Morgan 's Raid 190 

Morris, Robert 375 

Morrow, Joseph 92 

Stage 361, 362 

Mother's Day, Origin of.... 49 
Mount Pleasant, Lyceum 

Building '. 477 

Baptist Church 319 

Cumberland Presbyterian 

Church 480 

Presbyterian Church 301 

Mount Tabor Presbyterian 

Church ." 301 

Moving Pictures 41 

Munderf 236, 239, 502 

Murder, First in County 485 

Others in County 

99, 4.51, 468, 506 

Music Schools, Pioneer 83 

Musicians, Early 373, 377 

Muster Days 478 

Brookvillie 364 

Names of Streams, Indian 

and Pioneer 

Indian Origin of 

.16, 62, 423, 

National Bank Law 


Republican Party 

Union Association 

Native American Party 

Natural Gas 41, 42, 409, 

418, 458, 481, 484, 502, 

Life of Animals 124, 

See also Snakes and 

Birds 136 

Phenomena 43 

Navigation Companies 

64, 65, 66, 68, 

Negro Slavery in Pennsyl- 
vania 22, 

Slaves, Value of 



New Era, Brookville 


New Petersburg 236, 

News, Punxsutawney 

Service, Pioneer 274, 


First Dailies 

First Pennsylvania 

Record of in County to 

Present Time 276 

New York, Lake Erie & 

Western Railroad 

Nichols, Rev. Dr. Jonathan 

269, 316, 


l^icknames of States 

Niver, Dr. William Cyrus. 270, 

Nolf, Henry 

Normal Schools, State, List of 

North Fork 

...61, 64, 65, 67, 68, 352, 

North Freedom 

Northwestern Mining & Ex- 
change Co 

Pennsylvania, Pioneer Set- 
tlement in 

Notable Occurrences 

Odd Fellows 

Present Lodges in County 
Officials, Jefferson County... 




Brookville, Early — See 

Brookville Chapter 

Brookville, 1915 

Township — See Township 

Ohiotown 487, 

Ohl 236, 239, 

Oil 39, 

40, 41, 42, 409, 458, 481, 
First in .Jefferson County. . 

Output !41, 

Old Fashioned Doctor, The 


"Saltwell Derrick" 

Graveyard, Brookville . . 295, 





"Grimes" 84 

62 Home Week, Punxsutawney 430 

Oiean State Road 93, 432 

515 Olive Cumberland Presbyte- 

346 rian Church 304 

336 Oliveburg 61, 236, 239, 504 

334 Cum. Presbyterian Church 304 

456 Oliver, Hon. George Tencr. . 39 

336 Township .504 

Retailers, 1860 220 

506 Olney 488 

142 One Hundred and Fifth Penn- 
sylvania Regiment — 

•142 Casualties 168, 199 

, 44 History 160, 178 

Reunions 179 

422 Roster 17.". 

One Hundred and Forty- 

146 Eighth Pennsylvania Vol- 

147 unteers 181,200 

188 One Hundred and Thirty- 
149 fifth Pennsylvania Vol- 

278 unteers ' 180, 200 

149 Opossum 123 

493 Organizations, Fraternal and 

279 Social 324 

277 Oriole, Baltimore 142 

274 Otter 116, 122 

280 Our Reynoldsville Paper 280 

39 Oyster " 236 

280 Packer (HeathviUe) 499, .500 Office 235, 2.36, 239 

105 I'aeksaddle 59 

Paucoast 236, 487 

453 Panic 236,512 

41 Panics, Financial 41 

50 Pansy 236, 2.39, .500 

435 Panther 114, 124 

491 Bounties 114, 213, 436 

293 Fight with Bear 125 

Habits 125, 136 

501 Hunt 440 

236 Story 447 

Pants ' 77 

lOS Paper Money 343, 345, 403 

Paradise M. E. Church 312 

56 Settlement 61, 63, 513 

43 Township 473 

Parcel Post 229, 231 

Pardus 236, 239, 487 

Parochial School, Brookville. 397 

Patents, Inventions, etc 53 

Patriotic Order Sons of 


Camps in County 

Patrons of Husbandry 

Granges in County 

Patton 's Station . .'. 236, 

Pay Schedule, tJ. S. Army. . . 

4g() Pearsall, Arad 149, 

500 Pekin 2.36, 

Penalties for Crime, Olden 

484 Time 47 

484 Penn, John and Thomas 23 

484 William 21, 23 

Pennsylvania, Area of 21 

251 Canal 40, 41 

297 Capital of 24 

399 Charter, 1701 23 



Chronological History of 
State " 

Civil War 45, 

Constitutions 24, 

Counties 23, 34, 35, 

County Map 

Founcling of Province 

General History 

German Poiiulafiou 

Government of 

Lands -3, 24, 

Laws, Some 

Legal Holidays 

Location and Area 


Northern Railroad Company 

& Northwestern Uailroad.. 

Origin of Name 

Population 24, 34, 35, 

Post Ollice, First 

Public Works, Purchase of 


Rebellion, Part in 

Slavery in 

Southern Railroad Com- 

Swedish Settlers 


Penrose, Hon. Boies 

Pensions, Military 

Pens and Traps, Animal.... 
People's Party (Populists).. 
Perrv Presbyterian Church.. 

Township 87, 214, 

Elections 214,, 

Pioneer Common Schools 

Pioneer School Directors 

Retailers, 1860 

State Aid for Sdiools 


Perrysville (Hamilton) 

Karly Schoolhouse 

Select School 


Petroleum :!!), 40, 41, 

Hiiladelidiia 23, 

Photographers, Karly 

Pliysicians and Surgeons. . . . 
Pickering Deed to County 


Pifcr, John 

Pigeon 141, 

I'ilots, River 

I'ine Creek 

I'inecrcek Township. 87, 214, 

Early History 

Elections 224, 

First Common School.'i.286, 

Pioneer School Directors. . 

Retailers, 1860 

State Aid for Schools. .285, 
Pioneer Agriculture 



(.'abin. How Built 


Coal Mining in County... 


County Laws 










































Court Sessions 


Doctor, Northwestern Penn- 

Elections 221, 222, 224, 336, 

See also Brookville and 
Township Chapters. 

Evening Frolics 


Food and Clothing 77, 

Food Prices 

Gra\'eyard in County 

Habits and Customs 



Mail Routes 

Militia Legislation 

Mining in County 

Names of Streams 


News Service 274, 

Notes, Brookville 

Post Offices 231, 


I'rices for Labor 80, 


School Directors 

Schools, Schoolmasters and 


281, 357, 381, 420, 

Settlement in Northwest. . 


See also Brookville and 
Township Chapters. 

Square Timber Raft 

Steam Railways 

Surgical Operations 


Uniformed Military (Vim- 


Wagons 72, 


Pisgah Church 

Pittsburgh, Clarion & Frank- 
lin Railroad Co 

Franklin Sz Clarion Rail- 
road Comiiauy 

& State Line Railroad Co. . 

Sumnu'rville & Clarion 

Railroad Co 

Plaindealer, Punxsutawney . . 



Political Campaigns 

Celebration, 1840 

(-lonventions. Early 

Districts 210, 213, 


Party System First Used.. 

Politics in County, 1840 

Polk, Rev. David'. 

295, 296, 29S, 


Poll-Evil, Old Time (Jure 

Polling Places, County 

Township I...213, 

Townshiji and Borough, 


Pontiac's War 




























1 05 




Population — 
Brookville, 1840-1917. .385, 


Jefferson County 

1830 209, 

1840 366, 

By Decades 

By Townships (See also 
Township Chapters) . . 

Pennsylvania 24, 

By Counties 


Distribution of 

United States 

By Decades 


Populists (People's Party).. 


Port Barnett 

16, 57, 68, 232, 


Porter 61, 236, 239, 



First Common Schools.. 

Portland Mills 

I'ost Dispatch, Sykesville. . . 

i'ost Routes ". . .229, 230, 

Postage, Rates of... 230, 376, 

i'ostal Employees 

Laws .' 229, 


Service, Early 

Historical Facts 


Stamps 229,, 

Postmaster General 

I'ostniasters, Jefferson Coun- 
ty 233 


Salary of 

Post Otfices, Jefferson Coun- 
ty, 1832 

Jefferson County, First. 233 

United States.." 229, 


Powell, Jerome 436, 

I'resbyterian Churches and 


294, 303, 323, 495, 

Preseottville ..236, 465, 487, 
President Judges. . .228, 240, 
Presidential Campaigu of 


Elections, Early 

Vote in Jefferson County 


Presidents of the United 


Ages at Death anrl Cause. . 

Ages at Inauguration 

Fortunes of 

Odd Facts About 

Religious Affili.-ifions 

I'ress. The 



Prices of Foods 40."., 

Gold, Civil War 


Produce, Legal Weights of. . 



































Progressive Party 336 

Prohibition 331 

in Pennsylvania 24, 26 

Party 330 

Property, Jefferson Countv — 

Church, Value of ". . . 323 

School, Value of 380 

Taxable, 1829 218 

1915 220 

Prospect Hill (Revnoldsville) 

236, 237, 239, 465, 488 

Protestant Episcopal Denomi- 
nation 315, 323 

Prothonotaries, Registers and 

Recorders 213, 225 

State Tax on Fees 212 

Public Debt,- United States.. 349 
Institutions, Brook ville. . . 394 

Schools and Buildings 396 

Schools 281-294 

Puekerty 477 

Pueblo 237, 483 

Pugilists, Brookville's Early 385 

Puma 114 

Punxsutawney ...1.3,14,16,422 
Agricultural Association... 334 
Business and Development. 427 
Churches, See Chapter 

XVII 294 

Country Club 429 

Electioias 426 

First Comnion School.... 286 
Formation of Borough .... 425 
Fraternal and Social Or- 
ganizations 324 

Hospital 429 

Newspapers 278 

Original Site 423 

Population 426 

Post Office... 232, 237, 239, 427 

Retailers, 1860 219, 220 

Sanitarium 429 

Schools 282, 286, 290 

Taxables and Property, 

1915 '.. 220 

Pythianism in Jefferson 

County 327 

Raft, First Board in Jeffer- 
son County 

Rafting an<l Lumbering 

64, 370, 371, 417, 

Raftsmen 64, 371, 

Railroads 1, 40, 

41, 44, 45, 100, 428, 433, 



Sleeping and Chair Cars 



Wrecks 45, 

Ramsaytown 237, 239, 

Rates of Postage. . .230, 376, 

Eathmel 237, 2.39, 

Rattlesnake 12.5, 136, 

137, 138, 411, 420, 449, 




Kaven 139, 






Rebellion, 1861-65 

Pennsylvania's Part in. 45, 

Record, Broekway ville 

Red Bank Creek. 

...61, 64, 6.5, 67, 68, 351, 

Navigation Co 64, 


Red Lion Hotel 

Red Men 


Reed, Judge John W 

Reed, J. S 

Reformed, Associate Seeeders 
Churches and Pastors. .315, 

Register, Broekway ville 

Registers and Recorders, 

County 213, 

State Tax on Fees 

Religious Denominations in 

County 294, 

Reminiscences, Mrs. Thomas 

B. Adams 

Representation in Congress, 

Ratio of 

Representatives in Congress 

from Jefferson County . . 

Republican, Brookville. .276, 


Party " 24, 334, 

Organization ...33.5, 337, 


Retailers, Lists of 

1831, Rose Township 



Revenue Stamps 

Revolutionary War 

Colored Soldiers in 

Reynolds, David and Albert. 

Reyuoldsville Borough 

237, 239, 465, 

Churches — See Chapter 



Select School 

Taxables and Property.... 

& Falls Creek Railroad 

Richardsville ..237, 2.39, 482, 

Churches 30], 310, 

First Common School 

Ridgway & Clearfield Rail- 

Early History, 1852-1856.. 

Summer School 


Township 211, 

Elections 214, 

Pioneer School Directors 
State Aid for Schools. 


Riggs, Rev. Cyrus 

295^ 298, 299, 464, 

Ringgold 237, 2.39, 

M. E. Charge 

M. E. Church 


First School 

Retailers, 1860 

Roads and Bridges, Early 
Court Records 











40 -S 










Roads, Acts of Assembly Re- 
lating to 91 

County 414 

Early 414, 417, 432 

Expenses 97 

Taxes 95, 210, 213 

Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal 

& Iron Co 109 

& Pittsburgh Railroad 104 

& State Line Road 103 

Rockaway Coaches 361 

Rockdale Mills 237, 465 

Rocky Bend 235, 237 

Rodgers, Dr. Mark 269, 273 

Major William 353, 372 

Roman Catholic Churches.319, 323 

Rose Township 211, 443 

Boundaries 214 

Elections 214, 224 

First Common Schools 287 

Pioneer School 283 

I'ioneer School Directors.. 284 

Polling Place 356 

Retailers. 1860 220 

School Assessment 357 

State Aid for Schools. .285, 288 

Roseville 496 

First Schoolhouse 495 

Grays 496 

Race Ground 445 

Roster of Jefferson County 

Civil War Soldiers. . .156-201 

Round Top School 467 

Rural Delivery Service 229 

Carriers ' Salary 229 

Cost " 229 

In Jefferson County 239 

Salem M. E. Church...- 

Sales of Land 73, 

Salt 40 

Licks 62, 117, 119, 


Sand Spring, Brookville 

14, 16, 350, 

Sandy Lick Creek 

.'.61, 64, 65, 67, 87, 351, 

First Bridge Across 

Sandy Valley 237, 239, 

Sanitarium, Punxsutawney. . 

Savings Banks 

Sawmills, Early 

Schoffner, Henry 

Schoffner's Corners. 236, 237, 
School and Church Notes, 

Union Town.sliip 

Sehoolbooks, Earlv 

281, 282, 2S6, 381, 

Schoolhouses, Early 282, 

Schoolmasters, Pioneer 

281, 357, 

Contract, 1836 

Old-Time Punishnients Used 

Bv 281, 

Schools 214, 379, 

Attendance in County 

Dennison — Reunion ...466- 
Directors, Brookville. .357 

Directors, Pioneer 

See also Township Chap 
' ters. 


, 42 







Directors' Association Pro- 

Domestic Science 

Early, Brookville 

See also Township Chap- 


Free 380, 

Graded, in Couutv 

High ■ 

John A. Weber Manual 


Medical Inspectors, 1915. . 


Present, in County 

Property, Value of 

Riilgvvav Summer 

Select ." 


State Aid for 

285, 288, 380, 

State Normal in Pennsyl- 

Subscription 281, 


285, 288, 290, 

Taxes 213, 

Waite 286, 299, 

Scofiehl, Judge Gleni W 

Scott, John 

Samuel 57, 58, 

Sebeck .^ 

Seceder Church 

Second Regiment U. S. Sharp- 

(See also Vol. H, page 425.) 

Select Schools 

Senatorial District, Jefferson 

County 210, 213, 

Struggle Between Indiana 
and Jefferson Counties. . 








Indians 6, 7, 12, 22, 

Names of Streams 

Settlers in Jefferson County, 


Seven Wonders of the World, 


Seventy-Sixth Pennsylvania 


Sewing Machine, First in 


Shadagee (Knox Dale) 

Shaffer's Burving Ground 

■ 450, 


Shar|)Hhooters, U. S. Second 


(See also Vol. 1 1, page 425.) 

Sheriffs 213, 


Shingle Weavers 

Shooting Stars, 1833 

Sibley, Ami 

Sigel 02, 237, 239, 

M. E. Church 

Silver Coinage in United 

States 344, 

Singing Masters 


















Six Nations (Iroquois In- 
dians) 5, 6, 22 

Sixty - Second Pennsylvania 

Volunteers 158, 200 

Sixty - seventh Pennsylvania 

Volunteers "...180, 200 

Slavery in Pennsylvania.... 

. .■ 22, 146, 383, 407 

Negro 146 

Origin of 140 

White 146, 149 

Slaves, Auction of 407 

Fugitive 147 

Trade in 407 

Value of 146, 147, 153, 407 

Smith, George 134, 135 

Prof. Sylvanus W 291 

Schoolh'ouse 467 

Snake Bites 136, 138, 139 

Dens 136 

Snakes and Other Reptiles.. 136 

Habits of Snakes 137, 139 

Snake Charming 137, 138 

Snvder Township 450 

Elections 215, 224 

Retailers, i860 219 

State Aid for Schools 285 

Social and Fraternal Or- 
ganizations 324,456,489 

Social Democratic Party 336 

Democratic Workingmen 's 

Party 336 

Habits of the Pioneers. ... 3 

Labor Party 336 

Pleasures, Pioneer 81 

Socialist Party 336 

Labor Party 336 

Soil in Jefferson County.. 60, 69 

Soldier 238," 2.39, 487 

Soldiers, Duties 203 

Home, Brookville 394 

Jefferson Countv in Civil 

War '. 156-201 

Marching Equipment 155 

Monument 400 

Pay of 205 

Reunions 502 

Sons of Liberty 334 

Veterans ..." 330, 450 

Camps in County 330 

Hnutherland, Charles 128, 384 


Spanish-American War 204 

Sparrow 142 

Spewed of Animals 124 

Spelling Bees 358 

Spinning 78 

Spirit, Punxsutawney 279 

Sprankle Mills 2.38, 239, 504 

Spyker, Hon. Joel 446 

S(|'uirrel 123, 124 

Hunt 505 

St. John 'a Lutheran Churches 

320, 321 

St. Peter's Reformed Church 315 

Stages 98, 437 

Drivers, 1832-1840 362 

and Mails, Brookville 390 

Morrow's 361, 302 

Stamps, Postage 229, 230 

Revenue 348 

War, 1802 348 

Stanton (Belleview) 238, 446 

Select School 290 

Stanton, Edwin M 338 

State Aid for Schools 285, 288 

Anatomical Law — 

True Story of Inception 

and Enactment 

252, 254, 261 

Banks 345, 346 

Capitol 24 

Constitutions 24, 240 

Food Laws 27 

IIighw-.ay Department 24 

Insane Asylums 27 

Judiciary 243 

Laws, Some 26 

Nicknames of States 50 

Normal Schools, List of.. 293 
Representatives from Jef- 
ferson Countv 223 

Roads . .57, 93,"98, 209, 350, 432 

Senators 223 

Taxes or Fees 212 

Taxes Paid by County 218 

States, Samuel ." 423 

Statistical Record of the 

United States 349 

Statistics, Church 323 

Steam Navigation 

40, 41, 43, 44, 65, 66 

Stone Coal 106 

Streams 61, 432 

Acts of Assembly Relating 

to 67 

Indian and Pioneer Names 

of 62 

Stump Creek 67, 68, 448 

Subscription Schools 281, 282 

Sugar Hill 23S, 451 

Presbyterian Church 303 

Summerville Borough (Troy) 

238, 239, 478 

Cliurches — • See Chapter 

XVII 294 

Sunbury & Erie Railroad 433 

Sunday, Observance of. .416, 438 

Schools 454, 474 

First in World 305 

Forest Union 508 

See also Chapter XVII, 

Churches 294 

Superintendents of Schools.. 

285, 288, 290, 441 

Surgery, Old-Time and Mod- 
ern " 251, 268 

Surveyors, County 226 

Susquehanna Circuit, M. P. .. 314 
& Waterford Turnpike. .91, 361 
Swedish Settlers in Pennsyl- 
vania 22 

Svkesville Borough 

2.38, 239, 487, 490 

M. E. Church 313 

Tabernacle Baptist Church.. 318 


,.354, 442, 483, 487, 488, 515 
Tar Burning 72, 73, 444 


Taverns, Pioneer 98 

See also Brookville and 
Township Chapters. 
Taxahles, First County. . .217, 413 

1820 413 

1837 218 

1915 220 

See also Brookville and 
Township Chapters. 

Taxes, County 213 

Flour 213 

Road 95 

Teachers in County 380 

Contract 420 

Earlv 282, 286, .'157 

Institutes 290 

Number in Countv 291, 293 

Pioneer 467, 468 

and Pupils, Ridgway Sum- 
mer School 441 

Teaming, Early 92 

Teamsters, Earlv 432 

Teitrick, Prof. Reed B 291 

Telegraph Service in Countv 

390, 488 

Telephones in Countv 

...55, 390, 428, 456, 478, 489 
Temperance Societies. .. .305, 330 

In Jefferson County 330 

Templeton, Jesse J 178 

Tcmpleton, Mrs. Mary (Mc- 

Knight) ". 363 

Templeton, Thomas L 393, 394 

Textbooks Used in Early 


...281, 282, 286, 381, 444 

Thanksgiving Day 48 

Days, Pioneer 49 

Thirty - third Independent 

Regiment 158 

Thompson, John J. T 

. .2.58, 276, 389, 390, 498, 506 

Thomson, John Edgar 101, 102 

Threshing, Earlv 70 

Thundergust Mills 370 

Tidings, Big Run 280 

Timber Pirates 371 

Prices 370, 371 

Raft. Pioneer Square 417 

Timberlands in Countv 220 

Timblin 2.38, 239, 493 

Tionesta Township 460 

Elections 215 

Tipples 66 

Toads 139 

Toby's Creek 61,67, 68 

Token, Communion 296 

Tollgate, The 98 

Tolls on Streams 66 

Topography, Jefferson 

County ..." 60, 209 

Tornado, An Early 405 

Tornadoes 43 

Towns and Boroughs in Jef- 
ferson County 209 

Location 209 

Townships in County 221 

Officials (See also Town- 
ship Chapters). 
Population (See also Town- 
ship Chapters) 221 


Trail, Meade's Packhorse... 
Traps and Pen, Animal.... 

Travelers' Home Hotel 

Treasurers, County 

Treasury Notes, Civil "War.. 
Treatv 'of 1683 



1784 17 

1795 17 


Cork Pine 487, 

Tribune, Big Run 


Trolley Service 489, 

Trousers 78, 

Troy (Summerville).238, 239, 

Churches — See Chapter 


Turkey Pens 

Turkeys, Wild 

Turnpike Charters 


First Stone 


Two Hundred and Eleventh 
Pennsylvania Volunteers 


Two Hundred and Sixth 
Pennsylvania Volunteers 









, 24 
, 18 




Volunteer, Reynoldsville 280 

Rifle Association 356 

Rifle Company, Brookville. 369 
Vote, Popular, for Governor, 

1790-1914 25 

Jefferson Countv, 1832- 

1S,54 ". 337 

for President, 1832-1860... 337 

1864 339 

for U. S. Senator, 1914 38 

Ugly Run 479 

Underground Railroad in 
Pennsylvania and Jeffer- 
son County 147 

Union Guards 501 

Union Township 494 

First Common School 287 

Pioneer School 283 

Uniforms, Railroad 101 

TTnited Brethren in Christ.. 

322, 323, 447, 477, 510 

United Evangelical Church.. 323 

United Presbyterians 305 

United States, Area of... 34, 349 

Population 34, 349, 374 

Presidents 51 

Senators ' and Representa- 
tives ' Salaries 52 

Statistical Record 349 

Valier 2.38, 2.39, 421 

M. E. Church 312 

Value of Church Property in 

Countv 323 

School Property 380 

Taxable Propertv in 

Countv, 1829 218 

1915 220 

of Timber 65, 219 

Van Camp, Fudge 

57, 59, 153, 414, 415 

Vantassel 238 

"V astbinder, Andrew 121 

Jacob 114 

Peter 114, 115 

William 116 

Vehicles, Early.. 72, 361, 362, 370 

Venison Jerk 132 

\ ocational High School 293 


Wagons, Early 72,362, 

Waite Schoolhouse.. .286, 299, 

Walston 238, 239, 

Warren and Jefferson County 

and Ridgway Turnpike. . . . 
Wars of the United States . . 

Cost 152, 153, 

War Stamps, 1862 

Warsaw (Jericho) 238, 

Baptist Church 

M. E. Church 


Taxables and Property.. 


Retailers, 1860 

Washington Party 



Pioneer School 

Retailers, 1860 

W ashingtonians 

Watches, Early 

Water Companies . . . 395, 428, 

Waterworks, Brookville 

Wealth of the United States, 

1800-1914 349, 


Weaving 78, 

Weber, John A., Manual 
Training & Domestic Sci- 
ence School 

Weddings, Pioneer 

Welsh B<^ptist Church 

Wesley M. E. Church 

West Clarion 

Revnoldsville 465, 

West'ville 238, 239, 

Whig Party 


White' Slavery 146, 

White Slaves, Value of 

Whitesville 238, 290, 

"Who Skinned the Nigger!" 
Wild Animals 

Bounties 114, 124, 

134, 211, 213, 416, 

Fear of Fire 

Habits 124, 

Natural Life of . .124, 136, 

Pens and Traps 


Speed of 

Value of Fur 

Wild Bee 


Cat (or Bobcat) 

Bounties 211, 

Wildcat Currency 







Wild Cat Regiment 160 

Wiliiwood Cemetery 456 

Wilson, .luiige Tlieophihis S. 242 
Wincbrennerian Denomina- 
tion (Church of Goa)... 323 

Winslow (Hudson) 

235, 238, 239, 480 

Winslow Township 486 

Retailers 219 

Taxablcs and Property.... 220 

Wishaw 238', 239, 487 

Wolf 114, 116, 124 

Bounties 114, 134, 213, 436 

Habits 125, 136 

Pen 116 

Wolverines 113 

Woman 's Relief Corps. . .329, 394 

Present Corps in County.. 330 

Women, Higher Eilucation.. 378 

Legal Rights an<l Status. 84, 378 

in Newspaper Work 280 

Suffrage 50, 379 

Vocations, Past and Present 

307, 379 

Wonders, Modern 54 

Woodland Cemetery 455 

Worth ville Borough 

239, 420, 491, 492, 493 

(-'ircuit 322 

Presbyterian Churcli 302 

Wrav, Rev. John 

" 300, 301, 436, 454 

Yates, Arthur G 109 

"Yellow Charley" 107 

Young Men 's Christian Asso- 
ciation, Brookville 395 

Young Township 211, 421 

Earlv Elections 

..' 214, 215, 224, 422 

Pioneer School Directors.. 285 

State Aid for Schools. 285, 288 

Taxables ami Property 220 

Zion Cemetery 510 

M. E. Church 312 


McKnight, Dr. W. J. Frontispiece 
Map of Jefferson County, 

Double Page xxviii 

Jefferson County in 1800.... 2 
Captain George Smoke and 

His Cousin John Smoke.. 8 
Indian Stockade (Bark 

Houses) 8 

Cornplanter 17 

Pennsylvania's Coat of Arms 21 
Old State Capitol, Harrisburg, 

Pa 21 

Outline Map of Counties and 

State, 1800 34 

County Map of Pennsylvania 37 

V. S. Senator Boies Penrose. . 38 
U. S. Senator George T. 

Oliver 39 

Liberty Bell 51 

Raising tlie First Sawmill, 

1797 58 

Skidding Logs 64 

Rafting Timber, Clarion 

River 65 

Turning Boat 65 

Rafting on Allegheny River. 65 
Building Boat on Clarion 

River 65 

Ox Yoke and Tin Lantern.. 70 

Taking Out a Timber Stick. . 72 

Making Maple Sugar 72 

Early Barn 75 

Fat Lamp and Snuffers 76 

Spinning-Wheel, .Reel and 

Bed-Warmer 78 

Large Spinning-Wheel 78 

Fla.Y Brake 78 

Old Marriage Certificates.... 85 

Conestoga Wagon 92 

Bennett's Stage and Mor- 
row 's Team 92 

Stage Coach, 1824-1850 99 

Port Barnett 99 

Pioneer Railroad Train in 

United States 100 

Squirrel 113 

Beaver 113 

Buffalo 113 

Bear Trap — Common Brown 

Bear 113 

Male Panther (Pennsylva- 
nia), Three Years Old, 

Full Grown Bet. 114-115 

Wolf Bet. 114-115 

Female Panther (Pennsylva- 
nia), Two Years Old,' Not 

Full Grown Bet. 114-115 

American Elk 116 

Jim Jacobs 121 

Fox 122 

Pennsylvania Bear 122 

Opossum 1 23 

Bill Long 126 

George Smith 134 

A Rattler and Blacksnake 

Fight Bet. 136-137 

Blacksnake Bet. 136-137 

Banded Rattlesnake. .Bet. 136-137 

Copperhead Bet. 136-137 

Dr. Ferd Hoffman, of Brook- 

ville 137 

Rattlesnake 137 

Crow 139 

Raven 139 

Bald Eagle 139 

(irouse or Pheasant 139 

Wild Turkey 139 

American Goshawk 140 

Hawk 140 

Red-Shouldered Hawk 140 

Sharp-Shinned Hawk 140 

Wild Pigeon 141 

Hawks 141 

Passenger Pigeon, Mature 

and Young 141 

Blue Jay 142 

Straw Bee-scap 143 

Charles Brown Handcuffed 
and Shackled in Brook- 

ville, 1834 148 

Blacksnake Whip 148 

Branding Slaves 148 

Writ of Execution, 1833 151 

Jesse Jamison Templetou. . . . 178 

Army Pass 203 

Map of Jefferson County, 

1850 208 

Pioneer Courthouse and Jail, 

1831 216 

Courthouse and Jail, 1915... 216 
Map of Jefferson County, 1905 221 

Hon. E. Heath Clark 242 

Cabin Barn 250 

Pioneer Cabin 250 

View of Brookville in 1857.. 252 
Templeton, Mrs. Mary (Mc- 
Knight) 257 

John J. Y'psilanti Thompson. 258 

A. A. McKnight, Esq 259 

Residence of A. M. Clarke, 

M. D 260 

Pioneer Sclioolhouse 282 

Abraham Lincoln 338 

Gen. George B. McClellan... 338 

Edwin M. Stanton 338 

Old Paper Monev 345 

Plot, Town of Brookville 352 

Western Entrance to Brook- 
ville, 1840 ;!60 

Brookville Kitchen, 1840 360 

Paul Darling 397 

Fathers of the Brookville 

Cemetery Bet. 400-401 

Paul Darling Memorial, 

Brookville Cemetery 

Bet. 400-401 

Soldiers' Monument, Brook- 
ville Cemetery Bet. 400-401 

View of the Borough of 

Punxsutawney in 1876.... 426 
Jacob Ridgway, Merchant 

Prince 431 

Map of Elk County, 1905 432 

Map of Forest County, 1905. 449 

Andrew Hunter 462 

The Original Homestead of 
Andrew Bowers in Gaskill 
Township, Jefferson Countv. 
Built in 1825 .' . 480 


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A J. r^ n o D 

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T",' "orK 


History of 

Jefferson County, Pennsylvania 



At this time all the pioneers have passed 
away. Every true citizen now and in the 
future of Jefferson county must ever possess 
a feeling of deep veneration for the brave men 
and courageous women who penetrated this 
wilderness and inaugurated civilization where 
savages and wild beasts reigned supreme. 
These heroic men and women migrated to this 
forest and endured all the hardships incidental 
to that day and life, and through their labors 
and tribulations they have transmitted to us 
all the comforts and conveniences of a high 
civilization. The graves have closed over all 
of them, and I have been deprived of the great 
personal assistance they could have lieen to 
me in writing this history. 

In 1800 railroads were unknown. The first 
line was fourteen miles long — the Baltimore 
& Ohio, in 1830. The next was the South 
Carolina railway line, one hundred and thirty- 
six miles long, and at the time the longest rail- 
road in the world. In 1833 there were but 
sixteen passenger locomotives in the United 
States. In 191 5 there are in the United States 
two hundred and fifty-seven thousand miles 
of line and a total of over three hundred and 
eighty thousand miles of track of all kinds. 
This great system of steel highways represents 
a capitalization of sixteen billions of dollars 
and an actual property investment much in ex- 
cess of that sum. Two million men and 
women are emplo^'ed in the service of our 
railroads, and, counting their families, upward 
of seven millions of people are supported by 
these employes, whose compensation amounted 

to more than one and a Cjuarter billions of dol- 
lars in 1915. 


In the year 1800 men were imprisoned for 
debt and kept in prison until the last farthing 
was paid. The jails of that day were but little 
better than dungeons. There was no Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, no Woman's 
Relief Corps, no Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals or Children. 

In 1800 domestic comforts were few. No 
stove had been invented. Large, deep fire- 
places with cranes, andirons and bake-ovens 
were the only means of heating and cooking. 
Friction-matches were unknown. If the fire 
of the house went out. you had to rekindle 
with a flint or borrow of your neighbor. I 
have borrowed fire. House furniture was 
then meagre and rough. There were no 
window blinds or carpets. Rich people white- 
washed their ceilings and rooms, and covered 
their parlor floors with white sand. Hence 
the old couplet : 

Oh. dear mother, my toe.s are sore, 
A dancing over your sanded floor. 

In 1800 training day was a great event. All 
men were required by law to participate in a 
day of general military drill. No uniforms 
were worn, save the homespun dress of each 
soldier. The companies were armed with 
sticks, pikes, muskets or guns, and were pre- 


ceded in iheir marches by a fife or drum. An 
odd and comic sight it was. I have seen it in 

Rural amusements in 1800 were shoolinj); 
matches, rollings, huskings, scutchings. flax 
breakings, apple parings and quiltings. Danc- 
ing was not entirely overlooked. Books were 
few and but little schooling to be had. Wom- 
an's exiravagancc in dress was then and is 
now a juicy topic for grumblers. 

When ("leorgc W'ashington was president, 
our territory was small, only thirteen States, 
and our population but three millions. In 1800 
the population was 5,305,925. Now otir nation 
has grown to forty-eight .States, and our peo- 
ple increased to over a hundred millions, and 
our country advanced from extreme poverty 
to the richest on earth. Our territory has be- 
come as large as Russia in Europe. Norway, 
Sweden, Denmark. Holland. Belgium, Ger- 
many, Austria-Hungary, Switzerland, Italy. 
Spain, Portgual, France, Great Britain and 
Ireland, fronting on two great oceans, and 
populated, too, with a people only eight per 
cent, of whom are unable to read and write. 

In iSoo Philadelphia and New York were 
but overgrown villages, and Chicago was un- 
known. There were only five large cities in 
the United States. Philadelphia was the 
largest with 66,000 population. New York 
was next with 60.000, Baltimore was third 
with 26,000, Boston fourth with 25,000, 
Charleston, South Carolina, fifth with 10,000 
people. Now we have a dozen cities any one 
of which would represent the urban population 
of the country a century ago. 

In 1800 Jefferson county was unknown, with 
only two w'hite men living within her borders. 
Nature reigned supreme. The shade of the 
forest was heavy the whole day through. Now 
our county contains a population of over 
63,090. We have schools, churches, tele- 
graphs, telephones and court all the time. 

The great coal deposits that underlie forty- 
two of our counties were known to exist at 
that early date, but the use of coal was not 
understood. .Some hard coal was mined anfl 
shipped to Philadelphia for a market, but not 
knowing what to do with it. it was finally used 
to repair the roads. Our people are alive to- 
day to the use of coke, coal, hard and soft, 
as yearly the mining exhibits show. 

In 1800 there was no terra cotta, no eleva- 
tors, steam heating, electric lighting, concrete, 
asbestos, hoisting machines, sanitary plumb- 
ing, tile; no coke, no commercial bread baking, 
no skyscrapers, no wireless telegraphy, no 
stump machines, no talking ninchincs, no 

dictographs, no adding machines, no cash 
registers, no addressographs, no free mail de- 
livery, no ready-made clothing, no Fairbanks' 
scales, no ice houses, no linotype (only nine 
inventions, including the "old gray goose quill 
and pokeberry ink," both of which I have usefl 
in my schooldays, ) no aeroplanes. I have lived 
to see an aeroplane fly in fifteen minutes from 
Brookville to Punxsutawney. There- were no 
aniline dyes, no an:esthetics and painless sur- 
gery, no hypodermic syringe, no guncotton, no 
nitroglycerine, no dynamite, no sjiant powder, 


no audiphones, [jneumatic tubes or type- 
writers, no cotton gin, no planting machine, 
no mower or reaper, no hayrak'e, no hayfork, 
no corn sheller, no rotary ])rinting press, no 
sewing machine, no knitting ni;ichine, no en- 
\elopes for letters, no India rubber goods for 
syringes, coats, shoes or cloaks, no grain 
elevator except man. no artificial ice, no steel 
l)ens. no telegraph or telephone, no street cars, 
no steam mills, no daguerreotypes or photo- 
graphs, no steam ]ilouf,dis, no steam thresher 
(only the old hand flail), no windmill, and no 
millionaire in the whole cf)untry. George 
Washington was the richest man, and he wa« 



only worth eight hundred thousand dollars. 
Now to-day we have hundreds of millionaires. 
The nation that was poor in 1800 is now worth 
two hundred and twenty-eight billion dollars. 
Our great wealth is due to oil, mines, gas, pre- 
cious metals and agriculture. 

Pine-knots, tallow-dipped candles burned 
in iron or brass candlesticks, and whale oil 
burned in iron lamps, were the means for 
light in stores, dwellings, etc. ; gas was un- 
heard of for stoves, streets or lights; no 
furnaces or steam heat. Food was scarce, 
coarse, and of the most common kind, with no 
canned goods or evaporated fruits. In addi- 
tion to cooking in the open fireplace, women 
had to spin, knit, dye and weave all domestic 
cloths, there being no mills run by machinery 
to make woolen or cotton goods. Mrs. Wins- 
low's Soothing Syrup and baby carriages were 
unknown. The bride of 1800 took her wed- 
ding trip on foot or on horseback behind the 
bridegroom on a "pillion." To-day she can 
take it in an airship. The pioneer mother 
spun the wool and flax, knit the yarn into 
socks, comforts and mittens, made the blue 
drilling and other clothes for the family, made 
the soap and tallow-candles, preserved the 
meat, milked the cows and made the butter, 
carried the water from the spring. In short. 
her lot was terribly severe. 

In -1800 men wore no beatds, whiskers or 
moustaches, their faces being clean-shaven 
and as smooth as a girl's. A beard was looked 
upon as an abomination, and fit only for Hes- 
sians, heathen or Turks. In 1800 not a single 
cigar had ever been smoked in the United 
States. I wish I could say that of to-day. 

Previous to 1800, or the settlement of Jef- 
ferson county, there were about nine inven- 
tions in the world, to-wit : The screw, lever, 
wheel, windlass, compass, gunpowder, mov- 
able type, microscopes and telescopes. About 
everything else has been invented since. To- 
day France averages about nine thousand, 
and the United States twelve thousand in- 
ventions a year. 

In 1800 no steamboats had ever navigated 
the water, nothing but sail craft being used. 
Emigrants to America came in sailing vessels. 
Each emigrant had to provide his own food, 
as the vessel supplied only air and water. 
The trip required a period of from thirty 
days to three months. Now this voyage can 
be made by the use of Jefferson county coal 
in less than six days in palace steamships 
reading wireless telegraphic news on the boat. 
Now ocean travel is a delight. Then canals 

for the passage of great ships and transatlantic 
steamers were unknown. 

In 1800 the use of electricity was in its in- 
fancy, and traveling was done by sail, on 
foot or horseback, and by coach. Now we 
have steamers, street cars, railroads, bicycles 
and horseless carriages; modern tunnels were 
unknown. Then there was no submarine 
cable ; now the earth is girdled with telegraph 
wires, and we can speak face to face through 
the telephone over four thousand miles apart, 
and millions of messages are sent every year 
under the waters of the globe. Today in the 
United States an average of more than one 
to twelve telegraphic messages is sent every 
minute, day and night, the year through. 

In 1800 human slavery was universal, and 
irreligion was the order of the day. Nine 
out of every ten workingmen neither pos- 
sessed nor ever opened a Bible. Hymn books 
were unknown, and musical science had no 
system. Medicine was an illiterate theory, 
surgery a crude art, and dentistry unknown. 
Books were few and costly, ignorance the 
rule, and authors famed the world over now 
were then unborn ; now we spend annually 
one hundred and forty million dollars for 
schools. In 1800 there were but few daily 
papers in the world, no illustrated ones, 
no humorous ones, and no correspondents. 
No snapshots were thotight of. Photography 
was not heard of. Now this science has re- 
vealed "stars invisible" and microscopic life 
beyond computation. Plate glass was a lux- 
ury undreamed of. Envelopes had not been 
invented, and postage stamps had not been 
introduced. Vulcanized rubber and celluloid 
had not begun to appear in a hundred dainty 
forms. Stationary washtubs, and even wash- 
boards, were unknown. Carpets, furniture 
and household accessories were expensive. 
.Sewing machines had not yet supplanted the 
needle. Aniline colors and coal-tar proditcts 
were things of the future. Stemwinding 
watches had not appeared ; there were no 
cheap watches of any kind. So it was with 
hundreds of the rfecessities of our present 


In the social customs of our day, many 
minds entertain doubts whether we have made 
improvements upon those of our ancestors. 
In those days friends and neighbors could 
meet together and enjoy themselves, and 
enter into the spirit of social amusement with 
a hearty goodwill, a geniality of manners, a 


corresponding deptli of soul, among both the 
old and young, to which modern societ)' is un- 
accustomed. CJur ancestors did not make a 
special invitation the only pass to their dwell- 
ings, and they entertained those who visited 
them with a hospitality that is not generally 
practiced at the present time. Guests did not 
assemble then to criticize the decorations, 
furniture, dress, manners and surroundings 
of those by whom they were invited. They 
were sensible people, with clear heads and 
warm hearts ; they visited each other to pro- 
mote mutual enjoyment, and believed in gen- 
uine earnestness in all things. We may ignore 
obligations to the pioneer race, and congratu- 
late ourselves that our lot has been cast in 
a more achanced era of mental and moral 
culture ; we may pride ourselves upon the de- 
velopments which have been made in science 
and art; but, while viewing our standard of 
elevation as immeasurably in advance of that 
of our forefathers, it would be well to emu- 
late their great characteristics of hospitality, 
lionor and integrity. 


The type of Christianity of that period will 
not suffer by comparison with that of the 
present day. If the people of olden times had 
less for costly apparel and ostentatious dis- 
])lay, they had also more for offices of charity 
and benexolence ; if they did not ha\e the 
splendor and luxuries of wealth, they at least 
had no infirmaries or paupers, very few law- 
yers, and but little use for jails. The vain and 
thoughtless may jeer at their unpretending 
manners and customs, but in all the elements 
of true manhood and true womanhood it may 
be safely averred that they were more than 
the peers of the generation that now occupy 

their places. That race has left its impress 
upon our times, whatever patriotism the pres- 
ent generation boasts has descended from 
them. Rude and illiterate, sectarian and con- 
tentious, they may have been, but they pos- 
sessed strong minds in strong bodies, made 
so by their compulsory self-denials, their 
privations and toil. It was the mission of 
many of them to aid and participate in the 
formation of this great Commonwealth, and 
wisely and well was the mission performed. 
Had their descendants been more faithful to 
their noble teachings, harmony would reign 
supreme where violence and discord now hold 
sway in the land. 

The pioneer times are the greenest spot in 
the memories of those who lived in them ; the 
privations and hardships then endured are 
consecrated things in the recollection of the 
survivors. I am glad to have lived in them. 

Our fathers established the first Christian, 
non-sectarian government in the world, and 
declared as the chief cornerstone of that gov- 
eriunent under which all men are "born free 
and equal" Christ's teaching, love your 
neighbor as yourself. Since this thought has 
been carried into effect by our non-sectarian 
government, it has done more to elevate and 
civilize mankind in the last one hundred years 
than had ever been accomplished in all time 
before. Cinder the humane and inspiring in- 
fluence of this grand idea put into practice, 
the wheels of progress, science, religion and 
civilization have made gigantic. strides, and our 
nation especially, from ocean to ocean, from 
Arctic ice to tropic sun, is filled with smiling, 
happy homes, rich fields, blooming gardens 
and bright firesides, made such by Christian 
charity carried into national and State con- 
stitutional enactment. 



Aquanuschiono, or "united people," is what 
they called themselves. The French called 
them the Iroquois ; the English, the Si.x Na- 
tions. They formed a confederate nation, and 
as such were the most celebrated and power- 
ful of all the Indian nations in North America. 
The confederacy consisted of the Mohawks, 
the fire-striking people ; the Oneidas, the pipe- 
makers ; the Onondagas, the hilltop people ; 
the Cayugas, the people from the lake; the 
Tuscaroras, unwilling to be with other people ; 
and the .Senecas, the mountaineers, or our 

The aborigines were called Indians because 
Columbus thought he had discovered India, 
and they were called Red Men because they 
daubed their faces and bodies with red paint. 
The American Indian had no universal lan- 
guage. In North .America, there were over one 
thousand Indian dialects. 

The Iroquois (E-ro-quau), or Six Nations, 
were divided into eight families, viz.j the 
Wolf, Bear, Beaver, Turtle, Deer, Snipe. 
Heron and Hawk. Each nation had one of 
each of the families in their tribe, and all the 
members of that family, no matter how wide 
apart or of what other tribe, were considered 
as brothers and sisters, and were forbidden 
to marry in their own family. Then a Wolf 
was a brother to all other Wolves in each of 
the nations. This family bond was taught 
from infancy and enforced by public opinion. 

If at any time there appeared a tendency 
toward conflict between the different tribes, 
it was instantly checked by the thought that, 
if persisted in. the hand of the Turtle 
be lifted against his l)rother, the tomahawk 
of the Beaver might be buried in the brain of 
his kinsman Beaver. And so potent was the 
feeling that, for at least two hundred years, 
and until the power of the league was broken 
by the overwhelming outside force of the 
whites, there was no serious dissension be- 
tween the tribes of the Iroquois. 

In peace, all power was confined to "sach- 

ems," in war, to "chiefs." The sachems of 
each tribe acted as its rulers in the few mat- 
ters which required the e.xercise of civil au- 
thority. The same rulers also met in council 
to direct the affairs of the confederacy. There 
were fifty in all, of whom the Mohawks had 
nine, the Oneidas nine, the Onondagas four- 
teen, the Cayugas ten and the Senecas eight. 
These numbers, however, did not give pro- 
portionate power in the council of the league, 
for all the nations were equal there. There 
was in each tribe, too, the same number of 
war chiefs as sachems, and these had absolute 
authority in time of war. When a council 
assembled, each sachem had a war chief near 
him to execute his orders. But in the war 
party the war chief commanded and the 
sachem took his place in the ranks. This was 
the system in its simplicity. 

The right of heirship, as among many other 
of the North American tribes of Indians, was 
in the female line. , A man's heirs were his 
brother, that is to say, his mother's son and 
his sister's son, never his own son, nor his 
brother's son. The few articles which con- 
stituted an Indian's personal property — even 
his bow and tomahawk — never descended to 
the son of him who had wielded them. Titles, 
so far as they were hereditary at all, followed 
the same law of descent. The child also fol- 
lowed the clan and tribe of the mother. The 
object was evidently to secure greater cer- 
tainty that the heir would be of the blood of 
his deceased kinsman. The result of the ap- 
plication of this rule to the Iroquois system of 
clans was that if a particular sachemship or 
chieftaincy was once established in a certain 
clan of a certain tribe, in that clan and tribe it 
was e.xpected to remain forever. Exactly 
how it was filled when it became vacant is a 
matter of some doubt; but, as near as can be 
learned, the new official was elected by the 
warriors of the clan, and was then inaugurated 
by the council of the sachems. 

If, for instance, a sachemship belonging to 


the Wolf clan of the Seneca tribe became 
vacant, it could only be filled by some one of 
the Wolf clan of the Seneca tribe. A clan 
council was called, and, as a general rule, the 
heir of the deceased was chosen to his place, 
to wit: One of his brothers, reckoning only 
on the mother's side, or one of his sister's 
sons, or even some more distant male relative 
in the female line. But there was no positive 
law, and the warriors might discard all these 
and elect some one entirely unconnected with 
the deceased, though, as before stated, he 
must be one of the same clan and tribe. While 
there was no unchangeable custom' compelling 
the clan council to select one of the heirs of 
the deceased as his successor, yet the tendency 
was so strong in that direction that an infant 
was frequently chosen, a guardian being ap- 
pointed to perform the functions of the office 
till the youth should reach the proper age to 
do so. .\I1 offices were held for life, unless 
the incumbent was solemnly deposed by a 
council, an e\ent which very seldom occurred. 
Notwithstanding the modified system of hered- 
itary power in vogue, the constitution of 
every tribe was essentially republican. W'ar- 
riors, old men, and women attended the various 
councils and made their influence felt. Xeither 
in the government of the confederacy nor of 
the tribes was there any such thing as tyrannv 
over the jieoiile. though there was a great deal 
of tyranny by the league over conquered na- 
tions. In fact, there was very little govern- 
ment of any kind, and very little need of any. 
There were substantially no projierty interests 
to guard, all land being in common, and each 
man's personal property being limited to a 
bow, a tomahawk, and a few deerskins. Liquor 
had not yet lent its disturbing influence, and 
few quarrels were to be traced to the influence 
of women, for the .Vnicrican Indian is singu- 
larly free from the warmer passions. I lis 
j)rincipal \ice is an easily aroused and un- 
limited hatred : but the tribes were so small 
and enemies so convenient that there was no 
difficulty in gratifying this feeling (and at- 
taining to the rank of a warrior) outside of his 
own nation. The consequence was that al- 
though the war parties of the Iroquois were 
continually shedding the Ijlood of foes, there 
was \ery little quarrelling at home. 

Their religious creed was limited to a some- 
what vague lielief in the existence of a Great 
Spirit and several inferior but very potent 
evil s|)irits. They had ceremonies, consisting 
largely of dances, one called the "green-corn 
dance," and others at other seasons of the 
vear. I'Vom a verv early date their most im- 

portant religious ceremony has been the "burn- 
ing of the white dog.'' To this day the 
pagans among them still perform this rite. 

In common with their fellow savages on 
this continent, the Iroquois have been termed 
"fast friends and bitter enemies," but they 
were a great deal stronger enemies than 
friends. Revenge was the ruling passion of 
their nature, and cruelty was their abiding 
characteristic. Revenge and cruelty are the 
worst attributes of human nature, and it is 
idle to talk of the goodness of men who roasted 
their ca[)tives at the stake. All Indians were 
faithful to their own tribes, and the Iroquois 
were faithful to their confederacy; but out- 
side of these limits their friendship could not 
be counted on, and treachen,- was always to 
be apprehended in dealing with them. 

In their family relations they were not 
harsh to their children and not wantonly so to 
their wives; but the men were invariably 
indolent, and all labor was contemptuously 
abandoned to their weaker sex. They had 
no cows, horses or chickens. They raised 
tobacco, corn, beans and pumpkins. 

Polygamy was practiced. Chiefs and emi- 
nent warriors usually had two or three wives, 
who could be discarded at will by their hus- 

Hur nation, the Senecas, was the most 
numerous and comprised the greatest war- 
riors of the Iroquois confederacy. Their 
great chiefs. Cornplanter and (aiyasutha, are 
jirominently connected with the traditions of 
the headwaters of the Allegheny, western New 
York, and northwestern Pennsylvania. In 
person the Senecas were slender, middle-sized, 
handsome and straight The squaws were 
short, not handsome, and clumsy. The skin 
was reddish brown, hair straight and jet-black. 

When a .Seneca died, the corpse was dressed 
in a new blanket or petticoat, with the face 
and clothes painted red. The body was then 
laid on a skin in the middle of the hut. The 
war and hunting implements of the deceased 
were then piled up around the body. In the 
evening after sunset, and in the morning be- 
fore daylight, the squaws and relations as- 
sembled around the corpse to mourn. This 
was daily repeated until interment. The 
graves were dug by old squaws, as the young 
squaxys abhorred this kind of Jalior. P)efore 
they had hatchets and other tools, they used 
to line the inside of the gra\e with the bark 
of trees, and when the corpse was let down 
they placed some pieces of wood across, which 
were again covererl with bark, and then the 
earth thrown in. to till up the grave. At an 


early period they used to put a tobacco pouch, 
knife, tinder-box, tobacco and pipe, bow and 
arrows, gunpowder and shot, skins and cloth 
for clothes, paint, a small bag of Indian corn 
or dried bilberries, sometimes the kettle, 
hatchet, and other furniture of the deceased, 
into the grave, supposing that the departed 
spirits would have the same wants and occu- 
pation in the land of souls. But this custom 
was nearly wholly abolished among the Dela- 
vvares and Iroquois about the middle of the 
last century. At the burial not a man shed 
a tear ; they deemed it a shame for a man to 
weep. But on the other hand, the women set 
up a dreadful howl. They carried their dead 
a long- way sometimes for burial. 

An Indian hut was built in this manner : 
Trees abounding in sap were [)eeled, usually 
the linn. When the trees were cut down the 
bark was peeled with the tomahawk and its 
handle. They peeled from the top of the tree 
to the butt. The bark for hut building was cut 
into pieces of six or eight feet, which were then 
dried and flattened by laying heavy stones 
upon them. The frame of a bark hut was 
made by driving poles into the ground, and 
the poles were strengthened bv crossbeams. 
This frame was then covered inside and out- 
side with the prepared linnwood bark, fas- 
tened with leatherwood bark or hickory withes. 
The roof ran upon a ridge, and was covered 
in the same manner as the frame ; and an 
opening was left in it for the smoke to escape, 
and one on the side of the frame for a door. 

They cut logs fifteen feet long and laid 
these logs upon each other. At each end they 
drove posts in the ground, and tied these posts 
together at the top with hickory withes or 
moose bark. In this way they erected a wall 
of logs fifteen feet long to the height of four 
feet. In the s.ame way they raised a wall 
opposite to this one, about twelve feet away. 
In the centre of each end of this log frame 
they drove forks into the ground. A strong 
pole was then laid upon these forks, extend- 
ing from end to end, and from these log walls 
they set up poles for sheeting, and the hut was 
then covered or shingled with linnwood bark. 
As above related, this bark was peeled from 
the tree, commencing at the top, with a toma- 
hawk, and the strips were soriietimes thirty 
feet long, and usually six inches wide. These 
strips were cut as desired for roofing. 

At each end of the hut they set up split 
lumber, leaving an open space at each end for 
a doorway, at which a bearskin hung. A 
stick leaning against the outside of this skin 
meant that the "door was locked." At the 

top of the hut, in lieu of a chimney, they left 
an open place. The fires were made in the 
inside of the hut, and the smokes escapetl 
through this opening. There were no doors 
or windows. For bedding they had linnwood 
bark covered with bearskins. Open places be- 
tween logs the squaws stopped with moss 
gathered from old logs. Several families ■occu- 
pied a hut, hence they built them long. The 
men wore a blanket and went bareheaded. 
The women wore a petticoat, fastened about 
the hips, extending a little below the knees. 

Our nation, the Senecas, produced the great- 
est orators, and more of them than any other. 
Cornplanter, Red Jacket and Farmer's Brother 
were all Senecas. Red Jacket once, in 
enumerating the woes of the Senecas, ex- 
claimed : "We stand on a small island in the 
bosom of the great waters. We are encircled, 
we are encompassed. The evil spirit rides 
on the blast, and the waters are disturbed. 
They rise, they press upon us, and the waters 
once settled over us, we disappear forever. 
Who then lives to mourn us ? None. What 
marks our extinction? Nothing. We are 
mingled with the common elements." 

Drunkenness, after the whites had dealings 
with the red men, was a common vice, and 
the Indian female, as well as the male, was 
infatuated with the love of strong drink. 
Neither of them knew bounds to their desire; 
they drank while they had whisky or could 
swallow it down. Drunkenness was a vice, 
though attended with many serious conse- 
quences, even murder and death, that was not 
punishable among them. It was a fashionable 
vice. However, fornication, adultery, stealing, 
lying and cheating, principally the ofifspring 
of drunkenness, v/ere considered as heinous 
and scandalous offenses, and were punished 
in various ways. 

The Iroquois married early in life, the men 
usually at eighteen and the women at four- 
teen. If an Indian man wished to marry he 
sent a present, consisting of blankets, cloth, 
linen, and occasionally a few belts of wam- 
pum, to the nearest relations of the person he 
had fixed upon. If he that made the present, 
and the present itself, pleased, the matter was 
formally proposed to the girl, and if the 
answer was affirmatively given the bride was 
conducted to the bridegroom's dwelling with- 
out any further ceremony; but if the other 
party chose to decline the proposal, the pres- 
ent was returned by way of a friendly nega- 
tive. After the marriage, the present made by 
the suitor was divided among the friends of 
the young wife. These returned the civility 



by a j^ift of Indian corn, beans, kctlk-<, bas- 
kets, hatchets, etc., brought in solemn proces- 
sion into the hut of the newly married couple. 
The latter commonly lodged in a friend's house 
till they could erect a dwelling of their own. 

When a young squaw was ready to marry 
she wore something on her head as a notice. 

As soon as a child was born, it was laid 
ujwn a broad or straight piece of bark covered 
with moss and wrap])ed up in a skin or piece 
of cloth, and when the mother was engaged in 
her housework this rude cradle or bed was 
hung to a peg or the branch of a tree. The 
children were educated to fit them to get 
through the world as did their fathers. Tliey 
were instructed in religion, etc. They believed 
that Manitou. their (iod, "the good s])irit," 
could be propitiated by sacrifices ; hence they 
observed a great many sujjerstitious and idola- 
trous ceremonies. At their general and sol- 
emn sacrifices the oldest men performed the 
offices of priests, but in private parties each 
man brought a sacrifice, and offered it him- 
self as priest. Instead of a temple they fitted 
up a large dwelling house for the jnirpose. 

\\'hen they traxeled or went on a journey 
they manifested much carelessness about the 
weather; yet. in their jirayers, they usually 
begged for "a clear and pleasant sky." Thev 
generally provided themselves with Indian 
meal, which they either ate dry, mixed with 
maple sugar and water, or boiled into a kind 
of mush. .-\s to meat, that they took as they 
went. If in their travels they had occasion 
to pass a deep river, they set immediately 
about building a canoe, taking long pieces of 
bark of i)ro])ortionate breadth, to which they 
gave the proper form by fastening it to ribs 
of light wood, bent so as to suit the occasion. 
If a large canoe was required, several pieces 
of bark were carefully sewed together. If 
the voyage was expected to be long, many 
Indians carried everything they wanted for 
their night's lodging witii them — namely, some 
slender j)oles and rushmats, or bircbbarlc, 
which they used for candles. 

They had their amusements. Their favorite 
one was dancing. The common dance was 
held either in a large house or in an open field 
around a fire. In dancing they formed a 
circle, and always had a leader, to whom the 
whole com])any attended. The men went be- 
fore, and the women closed the circle. The 
latter danced with great decency and as if 
they were engaged in the most serious busi- 
ness ; while thus engaged they never spoke a 
word to the men, much less joked with them, 
which would have injured their character. 

Another kind of dance was attended only 
by men. Each rose in his turn, and danced 
with great agility and boldness, extolling his 
own or his forefathers' great deeds in a song, 
to which all beat time, by a monotonous, rough 
note, which was given out with great vehem- 
ence at the commencement of each bar. 

The war dance, which was always held 
either before or after a campaign, was dread- 
ful to behold. None took part in it but the 
warriors themselves. They appeared armed, 
as if going to battle. One carried his gun or 
hatchet, another a long knife, the third a toma- 
hawk, the fourth a large club, or they all ap- 
peared armed with tomahawks. These they 
brandished in the air, to show how they in- 
tended to treat their enemies. They affected 
such an air of anger and fury on this occasion 
that it made a spectator shudder to beholfl 
them. A chief led the dance, and sang the 
warlike deeds of himself or his ancestors. At 
the end of every celebrated feat of valor he 
wielded his tomahawk with all his might 
against a post fixed in the ground. He was 
then followed by the rest : each finished bis 
round by a blow against the [)Ost. Then they 
danced all together; and this was the most 
frightful scene. They affected the most hor- 
rible and dreadful gestures; threatened to 
beat, cut and stab each other. They were, 
however, amazingly dexterous in avoiding the 
threatened danger. To complete the horror 
of the scene, they howled as dreadfully as if 
in actual fight, so that they appeared as rav- 
ing madmen. During the dance they some- 
times sounded a kind of fife, made of reed, 
which had a shrill and disagreeable note. The 
Iroquois used the war dance even in times of 
peace, with a view to celebrate the deeds of 
their heroic chiefs in a solemn manner. 

The Indians, as well as "all human flesh," 
were heirs of disease. The most common 
complaints were pleurisy, weakness and pains 
in the stomach and breast, consumption, diar- 
rhoea, rheumatism, dysentery, inflammatory 
fevers, and occasionally the smallpox made 
dreadful ravages among them. The general 
remedy for all disorders, small or great, was a 
sweat. For this purpose they had in every 
town an oven, situated at some distance from 
the dwellings, built of stakes and boards, 
covered with sods, or dug in the side of a hill, 
and heated with some red-hot stones. Into 
this the patient crept naked, and in a short 
time was thrown into ])rofuse pers])iration. 
.\s soon as the ])atient felt himself too hot 
he crept out, and immediately i^lunged himself 
in a river or other cold water, where he con- 


Tiitcrinr View, Sliowiiig Loiisr House aivl (ia-no-botf within 


\ THE !-;r.\V YORK 






tinned about thirty seconds, and then went 
again into the oven. After having performed 
this operation three times successively, he 
smoked his pipe with composure, and in many 
cases a cure was completely effected. In some 
places they had ovens constnicted large 
enough to receive several persons. Some 
chose to pour water now and then upon the 
heated stones, to increase the steam and pro- 
mote more profuse perspiration. Many In- 
di ns in perfect health made it a practice of 
going into the oven once or twice a week to 
renew their strength and spirits. Some pre- 
tended by this operation to prepare themselves 
for business which requires mature delibera- 
tion and artifice. 

If the sweating did not remove the disorder, 
other means were applied. Many of the In- 
dians believed that medicines had no efficacy 
unless administered by a professed physician ; 
enough of professed doctors could be found, 
many of both sexes. Indian doctors never 
applied medicines without accompanying them 
with mysterious ceremonies, to make their ef- 
fect appear supernatural. The ceremonies 
were various. Many breathed upon the sick ; 
they averred their breath was wholesome. In 
addition to this, they spurted a certain liquor, 
made of herbs, out of their mouth ov^r the 
patient's whole body, distorting their f 
and roaring dreadfully. In some 
physicians crept into the oven, where tt^ y 
sweat, howled, roared, and now and then 
grinned horribly at their patients, who had 
been laid before the opening, anfl frequently 
felt the pulse of the patient. Then sentence 
was pronounced, foretelling either recovery 
or death. On one occasion, a Moravian mis- 
sionary, who was present, says : "An Indian 
])hysician had put on a large bearskin, so that 
his arms were covered with the forelegs, his 
feet with the hind legs, and his head was en- 
tirely concealed in the bear's head, with the 
addition of glass eyes. He -ame in this at- 
tire, with a calabash in his l.ind, accompanied 
by a great crowd of people, -nto the patient's 
hut, singing and dancing, when he grasped a 
handful of hot ashes, and scattering them into 
the air, with a horrid noise, approached the 
patient, and began to play several legerdemain 
tricks with small bits of wood, by which he 
pretended to be able to restore him to health." 

The common people believe J that by rattling 
the calabash the physician had power to make 
the spirits discover the cause of the disease, 
and even evade the malice of the evil spirit 
who occasioned it. 

Their materia medica, used in curing dis- 

eases, were rattlesnake-root, skins of rattle- 
snakes dried and pulverized, thorny ash, tooth- 
achetree, tulip tree, dogwood, wild laurel, 
sassafras, poison-ash, wintergreen, liverwort, 
\'irginia poke, jalap, sarsaparilla, ginseng, and 
a few others. 

Wars among the Indians were always car- 
ried on with the greatest fury, and lasted 
much longer than they do now among them. 
The offensive weapons were, before the 
whites came among them, bows, arrows and 
clubs. The latter were made of the hardest 
kind of wood, from two to three feet long 
and very heavy, with a large round knob at 
one end. Their weapon of defense was a 
shield, made of the tough hide of a buffalo, 
on the convex side of which they received the 
arrows and darts of the enemy. But about 
the middle of the last century this was laid 
aside by the Dela wares and Iroquois, though 
they continued to use to a later period bows. 
arrows and clubs of war, the clubs pointed 
with nails and pieces of iron, when used at 
all. Gims were measurably substituted for all 
these. The hatchet and longknife were used, 
as well as the guns. The army of these na- 
tions consisted of all their young men, includ- 
ing the boys of fifteen years. They had their 
captains and subordinate officers. Their cap- 
tains would be c;dled among them command- 
ers or generals. The requisite qualifications 
for this station were prudence, cunning, reso- 
lution, bravery, undauntedness, and previous 
good fortune in some fight or battle. 

"To lift the hatchet" or to begin a war, was 
always, as they declared, not till just and im- 
portant causes prompted them to it. Then 
they assigned as motives that it was necessary 
to avenge the injuries done to the nation. 
Perhaps the honor of being distinguished as 
great warriors may have been an "ingredient 
in the cup." But before they entered upon 
so hazardous an undertaking they carefully 
weighed all the proposals made, compared the 
])roI)al;le advantages or disadvantages that 
might accrue. A chief could not begin a war 
without the consent of his captains, nor could 
he accept a war-belt only on the condition of 
its being considered by the captains. The 
chief was bound to preserve peace to the ut- 
most of his power. But if several captains 
were unanimous in declaring r, the chief 
was then obliged to deliver the care of his 
people, for a time, into the hands of the cap- 
tains, and to lay down his office. Yet his in- 
fluence tended greatly either to prevent or 
encourage the commencement of war, for the 
Indians believed that a war could not be sue- 



cessful without the consent of the chief, aiul 
the captains, on that accoiuit, strove to be in 
harmony with him. .\fter war was agreed 
on, and they wished lo secure the assistance 
of a nation in league with them, they notified 
that nation by sending a piece of tobacco, or 
by an embassy. I'.y the first, they intended 
that the captains were to smoke pipes and 
consider seriously whether they would take 
part in the war or not. The embassy was in- 
trusted to a captain, who carried a belt of 
wampum, upon which the object of the em- 
bassy was described by certain figures, and a 
hatchet with a red handle. After the chief 
had been informed of his commission, it was 
laid before a council. The hatchet ha\ing 
lieen laid on the ground, he delivered a long 
si)eech, while holding the war-belt in his hand, 
always closing the address with the request to 
take up the hatchet, and then delivering the 
war-belt. If this was complied with, no more 
was said, and this act was considered as a 
solemn ]jromise to lend every assistance ; but if 
neither the hatchet was taken u]) nor the belt 
accepted, the ambassador drew the just con- 
clusion that the nation preferred to remain 
neutral, and without any further ceremony 
returned home. 

The Iroquois were very informal in declar- 
ing war. They often sent out small parties, 
and having seized the first man they met be- 
longing to the nation they had intended to 
engage, killed and scaljjcd him, then cleaved 
his head with a hatchet, which they left stick- 
ing in it, or laid a war-club, painted red, upon 
the body of the victim. This was a formal 
challenge, in consequence of which a captain 
of an insulted party would take up the weapons 
of the murderers and hasten into their coun- 
try, lo be revenged upon them. If he re- 
turned with a scalp, he lluiugiit iu- iiad a\enged 
the rights of his own nation. 

Among the Iroquois it re(iuired but little 
time to make prejjarations for war. One of 
their most necessary preparations was to painl 
themselves red and black, for. they held it 
that the most horrid appearance of war was 
the greatest armament. .Some cajMains fasted 
and attended to their dreams, with the view 
to gain intelligence of the issue of the war. 
'l"he nigiil jirex-ious to the march of the army 
was sijent in feasting, at which the chiefs 
were jiresent, and a hog or some dogs were 
killed. Dog's flesh, said they, inspired them 
with the genuine martial spirit. Rven women, 
in some instances, ])arlook of this feast, and 
ate dog's flesh greedily. Now and then, when 
a warrior was induced to make a solemn 

declaration of his war inclination, he held up 
a piece of dog's flesh in sight of all present 
and de\oured it, pronouncing these words, 
"Thus will 1 devour my enemies!" After the 
feast the captain and all his people began the 
war dance, and continued till daybreak, till 
they had jjecome quite hoarse and weary. 
They generally danced all together, and each 
in his turn took the head of a hog in his hand. 
.-\s both their friends and the women generally 
accompanied them to the first night's encamp- 
ment, they halted about two or three miles 
from the town, danced the war dance once 
more, and the day following began their 
march. Before they made an attack they rec- 
onnoitred every part of the country. To 
this end they dug holes in the ground; if 
practicable, in a hillock, covered with wood, 
in which they kept a small charcoal fire, from 
which they discovered the motions of the 
enemy undiscovered. When they sought a 
prisoner or a scalp, they ventured, in many 
instances even in daytime, to execute their 
designs. Effectually to accomplish this, they 
skulked behind a bulky tree, and crept slyly 
around the trunk, so as not to be observed by 
the person or persons for whom they lay in 
ambush. In this way they slew many. But 
if they had a family or town in view, they al- 
ways preferred the night, when their enemies 
were wrapped in profound sleep, and in this 
way killed, scalped, or made prisoners of many 
of the enemies, set fire to the houses, and re- 
tired with all possible haste to the woods or 
some other place of safe retreat. To avoid 
pursuit, they disguised their footmarks as 
much as possible. They depended much on 
stratagem for their success. Even in war 
they thought it more honorable to distress 
their enemy rather by stratagem than combat. 
The ICnglish. not aware of the artifice of the 
Indi.nns. lost an army when Braddock was de- 

The Indians' cruelty, when victorious, was 
without bounds ; their thirst for blood was al- 
most unquenchable. They never made peace 
till compelled by necessity. No sooner were 
terms of peace proposed tban the captains laid 
down their office and delivered the govern- 
luent of the state into the hands of the chiefs. 
.\ cai)tain had no more right to conclude a 
])eace than a chief to begin war. When peace 
liad been offered to a captain he could give 
no other answer than to mention the proposal 
to the chief, for as a warrior he cotdd not 
make ])eate. I f the chief inclined to peace, 
lie used his influence to efTect that entl, and 
all boslilitv ceased, and, in conclusion, the calu- 



met, or peace-pipe, was smoked and belts of 
wampum exchanged, and a concluding speech 
made with the assurance "that their friend- 
ship should last as long as the sun and moon 
give light, rise and set ; as long as the stars 
shine in the firmament, and the rivers flow 
with water." 

The weapons employed by our Indians two 
hundred years ago were axes, arrows and 
knives of stone. Shells were sometimes used 
to make knives. 

The Indian bow was made as follows : The 
hickory limb was cut with a stone axe, and 
the v^-ood heated on both sides near a fire 
until it was soft enough to scrape down to 
the proper size and shape. A good bow meas- 
ured forty-six inches in length, three-fourths 
of an inch thick in the center, and one and a 
quarter inches in width, narrowing down to 
the points to five-eighths of an inch. The ends 
were thinner than the middle. Bowmaking 
was tedious work. 

The bowstring was made of the ligaments 
obtained from the vertebrae of the elk. The 
ligaments were split, scraped and twisted into 
a cord by rolling the fibres between the palm 
of the hand and the thigh. One end of the 
string was knotted to the bow, but the other 
end was looped, in order that the bow could 
be quickly strung. 

Quivers to carry the arrows were made of 
dressed buckskin, with or without the fur. 
The squaws did all the tanning. The arrow- 
heads were made of flint or other hard stone 
or bone ; they were fastened to the ash or 
hickory arrows with the sinews of the deer. 
The arrow was about two feet and a half in 
length, and a feather was fastened to the butt 
end to give it a rotary motion in its flight. 
Poisoned arrows were made by dipping them 
into decoiuposed liver, to which had been 
added the poison of the rattlesnake. The 
venom or decomposed animal matter no doubt 
caused blood poisoning and death. 

Bows and arrows were long used by the red 
men after the introduction of firearms, be- 
cause the Indian could be more sure of his 
game without revealing his presence. For a 
long time after the introduction of firearms 
the Indians were more expert with the bow 
and arrow than with the rifle. 

It was originally the practice of our In- 
dians, as of all other savage people, to cut 
ofT in war the heads of their enemies for 
trophies, but for convenience in retreat this 
was changed to scalping. 

The stone hatchets, or tomahawks, were in 
the shape of a wedge ; they were of no use in 

felling trees, which was accomplished by 
building a fire around the roots. Their stone 
I)estles were about twelve inches long and five 
inches thick. Their knives were made of flint 
and hornstone. They used bird claws for 
"fishhooks," or made them of bone. 

All the stone implements of our Indians 
except the arrows were ground and polished. 
How this was done the reader must imagine. 
Indians had their mechanics and their work- 
shops or "spots" where implements were made. 
You must remember that the Indian had no 
iron or steel tools, only bone, stone and wood 
to work with. The flint arrows were made 
from a stone of uniform density. Large chips 
were flaked or broken from the rock. These 
chips were again deftly chipped with bone 
chisels into arrows, and made straight by 
pressure. A lever was used on the rock to 
separate chips — a bone tied to a heavy stick. 

They had a limited variety of copper imple- 
ments, which were of rare occurrence, and 
which were too soft to be of use in working 
so hard a material as flint or quartzite. Hence 
it is believed that they fashioned their spear 
and arrow heads with other implements than 
those of iron or steel. They must have ac- 
((uired, by their observation and numerous 
experiments, a thorough and practical knowl- 
edge of cleavage, that is, "the tendency to split 
in certain directions, which is characteristic 
of most of the crystallizable minerals." Capt. 
John Smith, speaking of the Virginia Indians 
in his si.xtli voyage, says, ''His arrow-head he 
quickly maketh with a little bone, which he 
weareth at his bracelet, of a splint of a stone 
or glasse, in the form of a heart, and these 
they glue to the ends of the arrows. With 
the sinews of the deer and the tops of deer's 
horns boiled to a jelly they make a glue which 
will not dissolve in cold water." Schoolcraft 
says : "The skill displayed in this art, as it 
is exhibited ])y the tribes of the entire con- 
tinent, has e-xcited admiration. The material 
employed is generally some form of hornstone, 
sometimes passing into flint. No specimens 
have, however, been observed where the sub- 
stance is gunflint. The hornstone is less hard 
than common quartz, and can be readily 
broken by contact with the latter." Catlin, in 
his "last ramble among the Indians," says : 
"Every tribe^ has its factory in which these 
arrowheads are made, and in these only cer- 
tain adepts are able or allowed to make them 
for the use of the tribe. Erratic boulders of 
flint are collected and sometimes brought an 
immense distance, and broken with a sort of 
sledge hammer made of a rounded pebble or 



hornstone set in a twisted withe, holdinj^ tlie 
stone and forming a handle. The flint, at the 
indiscriminate blows of the sledge, is broken 
into a hundred pieces, and such flakes selected 
as from the angles of their fracture and thick- 
ness will answer as the basis of an arrow-head. 
The master-workman, seated on the ground, 
lays one of these flakes on the palm of his 
hand, holding it firmly down with two or more 
fingers of the same hand, and with his right 
hand, between the thumb and two forefingers, 
places his chisel or punch on the point that is 
to be broken off, and a co-operator, a striker, 
in front of him. with a mallet of very hard 
wood, strikes the chisel or ])unch on the upi)er 
end, fl.'iking the flint otf on the under side Ije- 
low each j)rojecting point that is struck. The 
flint is then turned and chipped in the same 
manner from the opposite side, and that is 
chipped until required shape and dimensions 
;ire obtained, all the fractures being made on 
the palm of the hand. In selecting the flake 
for the arrowhead a nice judgment must be 
used or the attempt will fail. .\ flake with 
two opposite parallel, or nearly parallel. ])lanes 
of cleavage is found, and of the thickness re- 
quired for the center of the arrowpoint. The 
first chipping reaches nearly to the center of 
these planes, but without quite breaking it 
away, and each clip])ing is shorter and shorter, 
until the shai)e and edge of the arrowhead are 
formed. The yielding elasticity of the jialm 
of the hand enables the chip to come ofl" with- 
out breaking the body of the flint, which 
would be the case if it were broken on a hard 
substance. These people have no metallic 
instruments to work with, and the punch 
which they use. I was told, was .-i ])icce of 
bone, but on examining it. ! found it to be <if 
substances much h.inler. ni;ide of the tooth, 
incisor, of the s])erni wh;de. which cetaceans 
are often stranded on the coast of tlie Pacific.'' 
They made ropes, bridles, nets, etc., out of 
a wild weed called Indian hemp. The twine 
or cords were manufactured by the squaws, 
who did all the work — they were more a])t 
than the braves. They gathered stalks of this 
hem]), separated them into filaments, and then, 
taking .i nmnber of filaments in one h.and. 
rolled ilicm r;ipidly upon their bare thighs 
until twisted, locking, from time to time, the 
ends with fresh fibres. The cofd thus made 
was finished by dressing with a mixture of 
grease and wax, and drawn o\er a smooth 
groove in a stone. For ro])es and stnips. r;iw- 
liide and barks were used, the b.irk making 
the best ropes. The in>idc b;irk (if the elm 

or basswood was boiled in ashes, separated 
into filainents, and then braided into rope. 

The kettles were made of clay, or what was 
called "pot stone."' These cooking vessels 
could not be exposed to fire, hence they used 
large upright vessels made of birch bark, in 
which to boil food, repeatedly putting stones 
red hot into the water in these vessels, forc- 
ing them to boil. 

Canoes were made of birch or linnwoodbark, 
and many wigwam utensils of that bark. This 
bark was peeled in early spring. The bark 
c.-moe was the American Indian's invention. 
Their tobacco pipes were made of stone bowls 
,ind ash stems. 

The moccasin was an Indian invention, and 
one of great antiquity. The needle was 
made from a bone taken from the ankle-joint 
of the deer, and the thread was from the 
sinews. The deerskin was tanned by the use 
of the Ijrains of the deer. The brains were 
ilried in cakes for future use. P.earskins were 
not tamicd. but were used for cloaks and 

From Penn's arrival in 1682 the Delawares 
were subject to the Iroquois, or the confed- 
eracy of the Six Nations, wdio were the most 
war-like savages in America. The Iroquois 
were usually known among the English peo- 
ple as the Five Nations. The nations were 
divided, and one famous tribe known as the 
Mohawks, the fire-striking ])eo[)le. they having 
been the first to procure firearms. The Sen- 
ecas. mountaineers, occupied western New 
\'ork and northwestern Pemisylvania. They 
were found in great numbers along the Alle- 
gheny and its tributaries. Their great chiefs 
were (."ornpl.-niter and Guyasutha. This tribe 
\\,is tlic most numerous, powerful and war- 
like cif the Iroquois nation. ;ind comprised 
the Indians of Jefi'erson county. 

These were Indians pure and uncorrupted. 
liefore many a log fire, at night, old settlers 
have (iften recited how clear, distinct and im- 
niut.ihlc were their laws ;ind customs; that 
when fully understood a white man could 
transact the most im|>ortant business among 
them with as nnich safety ;is he can to-day in 
.iny commercial center. 

In this day and age of jirogress we |)ride 
ourselves upon our railroads anfl telegraph as 
means of rapid communication, and yet. while 
it was well known to the (■;ir!y settlers tliat 
news and light freight would travel with in- 
com])rehensible s]X'ed from tribe to tribe, peo- 
))!(■ of the ])rcsent day fail to understand the 
complete svslem bv which it \v;is done. 



When runners were sent with messages to 
other tribes the courier took an easy running 
gait, which he kept up for hours at a time. 
It was a "dog trot,"' an easy, jogging gait. Of 
course lie had no clothes en except a breech- 
clout and moccasins. He always carried both 
arms up beside the chest with the fists clinched 
and held in front of the breast. He ate but 
little the day before his departure. A courier 
could make a huiulred miles from sunrise to 

More than eighteen hundred years ago the 
Iroquois held a lodge in Punxsutawney (this 
town still bears its Indian name, which was 
their sobriquet for "gnat town"'), to which 
point they could ascend with their canoes, and 
go still higher up the ]Mahoning to within a 
few hours' travel of the summit of the Alle- 
gheny mountains. There were various Indian 
trails traversing the forests, one of which en- 
tered Punxsutawney near where Judge Mitch- 
ell now ( 1916) resides. The trails were 
the thoroughfares or roadway of the Indians, 
over which they journeyed when on the chase 
or the warpath, just as the people of the pres- 
ent age travel over their graded roads. An 
erroneous impression obtains among many at 
the present day that the Indian, in traveling 
the interminable forests which once covered 
our towns and fields, roamed at random, like 
a modern afternoon hunter, by no fixed paths, 
or that he was guided in his long journeyings 
solely by the sim and stars, or by the courses 
of the streams, and mountains ; and true it 
is that these untutored sons of the woods were 
astronomers and geographers, and relied much 
upon these unerring guide-marks of nature. 
Even in the most starless nights they could 
determine their course by feeling the bark of 
the oak trees, which is always smoothest on 
the south side and roughest on the north. But 
still they had their trails or paths as distincti}' 
marked as are our county and State roads, 
and often better located. The white traders 
adopted them, and often stole their names, 
to be in turn surrendered to the leader of some 
Anglo-Saxon army, and, finally, obliterated 
by some costly highway of travel and com- 
merce. Th&y are now alnjost wholly effaced 
or forgotten. Hundreds travel along, or 
plough over them, unconscious that they are 
in the foot-steps of the red men. It has not 
taken long to obliterate all these Indian land- 
marks from our land ; little more than a cen- 
tury ago the Indians roamed over all this west- 
ern country, and now scarce a vestige of their 
presence remains. Much has been written and 
said about their deeds of butchery and cruelty. 

True, they were cruel, and in many instances 
fiendish, in their inhuman practices, but they 
did not meet the first settlers in this spirit. 
Honest, hospitable, religious in their belief, 
reverencing their Manitou, or Great Spirit, 
and willing to do anything to please their white 
brother — this is how they met their first white 
visitors ; but when they had seen nearly all 
their vast domain appropriated by the invaders, 
when wicked white men had introduced into 
their midst the "wicked fire-water," which is 
to-day the cause of many an act of fiendish- 
ness perpetrated by those who are not un- 
tutored savages, then the Indian rebelled, all 
the savage in his breast was aroused, and he 
became pitiless and cruel in the extreme. 

It is true that our broad domains were pur- 
chased and secured by treaty, but the odds 
were always on the side of the whites. The 
Colonial records give an account of the treaty 
(jf 1686, by which a deed for walking purchase 
was executed, by which the Indians sold as 
far as a man could walk in a day. But when 
the walk was to be made the most active white 
man available was obtained, and he ran from 
daylight until dark, as fast as he was able, 
without stopping to eat or drink. This much 
dissatisfied the Indians, who expected to walk 
leisurely, resting at noon to eat and shoot game, 
and one old chief expressed his dissatisfaction 
as follows : "Lun, lun, km ; no lay down to 
drink; no stop to shoot squirrel, but lun, lun. 
lun all day ; me no keep up ; lun, lun for land." 
That deed, it is said, does not now exist, but 
was confirmed in 1737. 

When the white man came the Indians were 
a temperate people, anfl their chiefs tried hard 
to prohibit the sale of intoxicating drinks 
among their tribes. When one Sylvester Gar- 
land, in 1701, introduced them to drink, at a 
council held in Philadelphia, .Shemekenwhol, 
chief of the Shawnese, complained to Gover- 
nor William Penn, and at a council held on the 
13th of October, 1701, this man was held in 
the sum of one hundred pounds never to deal 
rum to the Indians again ; and the bond and 
sentence were approved by Judge Shippen, of. 
Philadelphia. At the chief's suggestion the 
council enacted a law prohibiting the trade in 
rum with the Indians. Still later the ruling 
chiefs of the Six Nations opposed the use of 
rum, and Red Jacket, in a speech at Buffalo, 
wished that whisky would never be less than 
"a dollar a quart." He answered the mis- 
sionary's remarks on drunkenness thus : "Go 
to the white man with that." A council, held 
on the Allegheny river, deplored the murder 
of the Wigden family in Butler county by a 



Seneca Indian while under ihu influence of 
whisky, approved the sentence of our law, 
and again passed prohibitory resolutions, and 
implored the white man not to give rum to 
the Indian. 

In the legend of Noshaken, the white ca])tive 
of the Dela wares, in 1753, who was kept at a 
village supposed to have been I'unxsutawney, 
occurs the following: "The scouts were on the 
track of the Indians, tlie time of burning of the 
captives was extended, and the whole band 
prepared to depart for Fort Venango with the 
prisoners. They continued on for twenty 
miles, and encamped by a beautiful spring. 
where the sand boiled up from the bottom near 
where two creeks unite. Here they passed 
the night, and the next morning again headed 
for Fort \'enango." This spring was our sand 
s]jring at Brookville. 

The Indian wampum, or money, was of two 
kinds, white and purple ; the white is worked 
out of the inside of the great shells into the 
form of a bead, and perforated, to string on 
leather; the purple is taken out of the inside 
of the mussel shell. They are woven into 
strips as broad as one's hand and about two 
feet long; these they call belts, which they 
give and receive at their treaties as the seals 
of friendship; for lesser matters a single 
string is given. Every bead is of known value, 
and a belt of a less number is made to ecpial 
one of a greater by fastening as many as are 
wanting to the belt by a string. 

I'unxsutawney was an Indian town for cen- 
turies, and, like all other towns of the Indian 
before the white man reached this continent 
with firearms, was stockaded. The entrances 
to the stockade were anciently contrived so 
that they could be defended from assault by a 
very few men. 

The word "punxsu" means gnat. The land 
was a swamp, and alive with gnats, mosquitoes, 
turtles and other rejrtiles. 1^'or protection 
against the gnats the Indians anointed them- 
selves with oil and ointments made of fat and 
poisons. Centuries ago the Indians of Punx- 
sutawney dressed themselves in winter with 
a cloak made of buffalo, bear or beaver skins, 
with a leather girdle, and stockings or moc- 
casins of buckskin. It might be well to state 
here that the beavers were of all colors, white, 
\ellow. s])otted. gray, but mostly l)lack. 

Indians subsisted mostly on game, but when 
pressed for food ate acorns, nuts and the inside 
bark of the birchtree. As agriculturists each 
was apportioned a piece of land outside of the 
stockade, which was planted by the squaws in 
corn, squashes and tobacco. A hole was made 

in the ground with a stick and a grain of corn 
]Hit in each hole. Our first settlers found 
small jjatches of corn, one of which was 
planted where the lirookville fair grounds are 
now located, and another in the flat at Port 
Harnett. Indian corn, or maize as it was 
sometimes called, is an .American product, be- 
ing tirst discovered on this continent in 1600. 
The Indians taught the pioneer settlers how 
to grow this grain, which is now one of the 
most important of our cereals. Early travel- 
ers all speak of it as an absolute necessity in 
the growing of live stock. Potatoes and 
tobacco also were unknown in the Old ^^'orld 
until the discovery of America. 

Indian corn was red and white flint. They 
ground it in mortars and sifted it in a basket, 
and then baked it in loaves an inch thick and 
about six inches in diameter. They had a way 
of charring corn so it would keep for years. 
They would pick ears while green, roast it, 
dry it in the sun, mix with about a third of 
maple sugar, and pound it into flour. This 
they carried with them on long trips. 

Not knowing how to dig wells, they located 
their ga-no-sote and villages on the banks of 
runs and creeks, or in the vicinity of springs. 
About the period of the formation of the 
league, when they were exposed to the inroads 
of hostile nations, and the warfare of migra- 
tory bands, their villages were compact and 
stockaded. Having run a trench several feet 
deep around fi\'e or ten acres of land, and 
thrown up the ground on the inside, they set 
a continuous row of stakes, burned at the ends, 
in this bank of earth, fixing them at such an 
angle that they inclined over the trench. Some- 
times a village was surrounded by a double or 
even triple row of stakes. Within this inclos- 
ure they constructed their bark houses and 
secured their stores. Around it was the village 
field, consisting oftentimes of several hundred 
acres of cultivated land, which was subdivided 
into planting lots, those belonging to dift'erent 
families being bounded by uncultivated ridges. 

The Iroquois were accustomed to live largely 
in villages, and the stockades built about these 
villages protected them from sudden assaults 
and rendered it possible for the houses within 
to be built according to a method of construc- 
tion such that they might last for a long time. 
.\t the two ends of the houses were doors, 
either of bark hung on hinges of wood, or of 
deer or bear skins suspended before the open- 
ing, and however long the house, or whatever 
the number of fires, these were the only 
entrances. Over one of these doors was cut 
tlT,e tribal device of the head of the family. 



Within, upon the two sides, were arranged 
wide seats, also of bark boards, about two feet 
from the ground, well supported underneath, 
and reaching the entire length of the house. 
Upon these they spread their mats of skins, 
and also their blankets, using them as seats by 
day and couches at night. Similar berths 
were constructed on each side, about five feet 
above these, and secured to the frame of the 
house, thus furnishing accommodations for 
the family. Upon crosspoles near the roof 
were hung in bunches, braided together by the 
husks, the winter supply of corn. Charred 
and dried corn and beans were generally stored 
in bark barrels and laid away in corners. The 
implements for the chase, domestic utensils, 
weapons, articles of apparel and miscellane- 
ous notions were stored away and hung up 
wherever an unoccupied place made it pos- 
sible. A house of this description would 
accommodate a family of eight, with the 
limited wants of the Indian, and afford shelter 
for their necessary stores, making a not un- 
comfortable residence. After they had learned 
the use of the axe they began to substitute 
houses of logs, but they constructed them after 
the ancient model. 

The Senecas had six yearly festivals, the 
maple, the planting, the strawberry, the green 
corn, the harvesting, and New Year or white 
dog sacrifice. These festivals consisted of 
dancing, singing and thanksgiving to the Great 
Spirit for his gifts. The New Year was an 
acknowledgment for the whole year, and the 
white dog was sent to the Great Spirit to take 
to him their messages. The dog was the only 
animal they could trust to carry their mes- 

The Indians had no Sunday. Our Indians 
called themselves Nun-ga-wah-gah, "The 
Great Hill People," and their legend was that 
they sprang from the ground. The civil chiefs 
wore horns as an emblem of power. 

The Indian was a great ball player and 
fond of games, swift in races ; in truth, the 
Indian was built for fleetness and not for 
strength; his life of pursuit educated him that 
way. Their feathers and warpaint were 
nothing else than crude heraldry. Paint spread 
upon the face and body indicated the tribe, 
prowess, honor, etc., of the individual and 
family, and the arbitrary methods employed 
by the squaws made their heraldry hard to 
understand. The facial heraldry was unique 
both in representation and subject. Every 
picture had its significance. If a squaw was 
in love she daubed a ring around one of her 
eyes. This meant, I am ready for a proposal. 

This symbol worn by a buck indicated he was 
in the market, too. When love matters were 
running smoothly with a squaw she painted 
her cheeks a cherry-red, and a straight mark 
on her forehead, which meant a happy road. 
A zig-zag mark on the forehead meant light- 
ning. In case of a death in the family the 
squaw painted her cheeks black. Before a 
battle each warrior had smeared on the upper 
part of his body a wolf, heron, snipe, etc., to 
indicate his tribe, so that if he was killed his 
tribe could recognize his bodv and come for 

There was a village of Indians at Summer- 
ville. one at Brookville, at Port Barnett, at 
Reynoldsville. at Big Run, and a big one at 
Punxsutawney. The county was thickly 
inhabited, especially what is now Warsaw. 
Their hominy mills can be seen yet about a 
mile north of the late Samuel Temple's barn, 
in Warsaw township. Their graveyards or 
Inirial places were always some distance from 
huts or villages. There was one on the Temple 
farm, in what is now Warsaw ; one on Mill 
creek, at its junction with the Big Toby creek, 
in what was afterwards Ridgway township. 

Population among the Indians did not in- 
crease rapidly. Mothers often nursed their 
papooses until they were five, six or seven 
years old. 

In 1/68, the six Indian nations having by 
treaty sold the land from "under the feet" of 
the Wyalusing converts, the Rev. Mr. Zeis- 
berger was obliged to take measures for the 
removal of these Christian Indians, with their 
horses and cattle, to some other field. After 
many councils and much consideration, he 
determined to remove the entire body to a 
mission he had established on the Big Beaver, 
in what is now I-awrence county. Pa. Ac- 
cordingly, "on the nth of June, 1772, every- 
thing being in readiness, the congregation 
assembled for the last time in their church 
and took up their march toward the setting 
sun." They were divided into two companies, 
and each of these was subdivided. One of 
these companies went overland by the Wya- 
lusing path, up Sugar run, and down the Loyal 
Sock, via Dushore. This company was in 
charge of Ettwein, who had the care of the 
horses and cattle. 

The other company was in charge of Rothe, 
and went by canoe down the Susquehanna 
and up the west branch. The place for the 
divisions to unite was the Great Island, now 
Lock Haven, and from there, under the lead 
of Rev. John Ettwein, they were to proceed 
up the west branch of the Susquehanna, and 



then cross the mountains over the Chinklaca- 
moose path, through what is now Clearfield 
and I'unxsutawney, and from there to pro- 
ceed, via Kittanning, to the Big Reaver, now 
in Lawrence county, Pa. Reader, just think of 
two hundred and fifty people of all ages, with 
seventy head of oxen and a great number of 
horses, traversing these deep forests, over 
a small path sometimes scarcely discernible. 
under drenching rains, and through 
swam])s, and all this exposure continued for 
days and weeks, wild beasts to the right and 
to the left of them, and the path alive with 
rattlesnakes in front of them, wading streams 
and overtaken by sickness, and then, dear 
reader, you will conclude with me that nothing 
but "])raying all night" in the wilderness ever 
carried them successfully to their destination. 
This story of Rev. Mr. Ettwein is full of 
interest. 1 reprint a paragraph or two that 
applies to what is now Jefferson county, viz. : 

"Tuesday, July 14. 1772. — Reached Clear- 
field creek, where the buffaloes formerly 
cleared large tracts of undergrowth, so as to 
give them the appearance of cleared fields. 
Hence the Indians called the creek "Clear- 
field.' Here we shot nine deer. On the route 
we shot one hundred and fifty deer and three 
bears." These peoi)le on their route lived on 
lish. venison, etc. 

"Friday, July 17. — .\dvanced only four 
miles to a creek that comes down from the 
northwest.'' This was and is .Anderson creek, 
near Curwensville, Pa. 

■■July 18. — Moved on. 

■'Sunday, July 19. — As yesterday, but two 
families kept up with me, becatise of the rain, 
we had a quiet Sunday, but enough to do dr)'- 
ing our eft'ects. In the evening all joined me. 
but we could hold no service as the ponkies 
were so excessively aimoying that the cattle 
])ressed toward and into our cam]) to escape 
their persecutors in the smoke of the fire. 
This vermin is a jjlague to man and beast by 
day and night, but hi the swamp through 
which we are now passing, their name is 
legion. Hence the Indians call it the Ponse- 
tunik, i. e., the town of the ponkies."' This 
swam]) was in what we now call Punxsu- 
law ney. 

We ha\(' mentioned that our first settlers 
found sm.-dl patches of corn, one planted 
where the i'.rookville fair grounds are now 
located, ami another in the flat at Port Bar- 

The Lulians also came here to make maple 
sugar in the spring. They would cut notches 
in the trees, and collect the saj) in troughs hol- 

lowed out of small logs, which was then col- 
lected into a large trough, when it was boiled 
down into molasses and sugar by dipping hot 
stones into it, a process that must have called 
for a great deal of patience. 

Then Indians would take the skins and 
iiams of the game killed during the winter to 
Pittsburgh in the s]}ring, where they would 
exchange them for tobacco, whisk}-, blankets, 
trinkets, etc. They generally made these trips 
on rafts constructed of dry poles withed to- 

An old Indian called Ca{>tain Hunt was the 
last Indian who resided in this county, having 
had his camp on what is yet known as "Plunt's 
Point," in the present Ijorough limits of P>rook- 
ville, and designated on the borough plot as 
lot No. 22, on what is Water street, south side 
of street and east of the foundry. It is said 
of him that he was a fugitive from his tribe, 
having killed a fellow Indian. Grandmother 
( iraham, at whose house I visited in my child- 
hood for weeks at a time, gave a statement of 
her recollections of these Indians, and those 
of the tribes who were here after her familv 
settled at Port Barnett, and it appears that it 
was a cousin of Captain Hunt who was the 
banished Indian. I give Mrs. Graham's ac- 
count of these Indians as nearly as possible 
in her own language : 

■'\Mien we came to Port Barnett, in the 
spring of 1707, there were two Indian families 
there. One was Twenty Canoes, and Caturah, 
which means Tomahawk. The two Hunts 
were here, but they were alone. Jim Hunt 
was on banishment for killing his cousin. 
Captain Hunt and Jim Hunt were cousins. 
Captain Hunt was an under-chief of the Mun- 
sey tribe. The Munseys were slaves to our 
.Senecas, and 'ca]5tain' was the highest mili- 
tary title known to the Indians. In the fall 
other Indians came here to hunt. Caturah and 
Twenty Canoes stayed here for several years 
after we came. The Hunts were here most 
of the time until the commencement of the war 
in 1S12. Jim dare not go back to his tribe 
until the year 180S or i8og, when his friends 
stole a white boy in Westmoreland county and 
bad him ado])ted into the tribe in ])lace of the 
warrior Jim had slain. A great many per- 
sons think they know all about the hiding 
])laces of Hunt. One of them was a cave in 
the bank of Sandy Lick, at what is called the 
'deep hole,' opposite the sand spring. The 
other was on the headwaters of Little Sandy 
creek. When danger threatened Hunt a run- 
ner from the reservation would warn him by 
a peculiar whoop from a certain ])lace on the 



hill northwest from the port. At the com- 
mencement of the war of 1812 the Munsey 
tribe were banished from the Six Nations, and 
Jim Hunt never returned. Captain Hunt was 
back once or twice. Twenty Canoes and 
Sassy John were back once to see Joe Blan- 
net ; they could not pronounce the name of 
Barnett. The last visit of Caturah was in 
1833, he being then over ninety years of age." 

While it was known that Hunt had the hid- 
ing places mentioned by Mrs. Graham, they 
were never discovered until the year 1843, 
when the one at Sand Spring, in the borough 
of Brookville, was discovered by Mr. Thomas 
Crraham, a son of the old lady whose narra- 
tive I have just given. It showed signs of 
having been used as a human habitation and 
was without doubt Jim Hunt's place of refuge. 
Jim Hunt was a great hunter, and in one 
winter is said to have killed seventy-eight 
bears, besides other smaller game. He was 
inordinately fond of whisky, and nearly all 
the skins of his game went for his favorite 
lieverage. After he had traded these seventy- 
eight skins to Samuel Scott, receiving a pint 
of whisky for each skin, he was found crying 
in a maudlin way over his bankruptcy. When 
asked what was the matter, he replied : 
"Bearskins all gone; whisky all gone. No 
skins, no whisky, ugh !" 

This story was told elsewhere of Captain 

Of two who came about 1800, I might men- 
tion John Jamison (Sassy John), who had 
seven sons, all named John ; the other was 
Crow; he was an Indian in name and in nature. 
He was feared by both the whites and Indians. 
He was a Mohawk, and a perfect savage. 

Before the white man came to settle in this 
country a part of Warsaw, near Hazen, was "a 
barren" and thickly settled with Indians, and 
what is now called Seneca II ill, on the M. 
Hofifman farm, is where they met for their 
orgies. The late S. W. Temple has found a 
number of curious Indian relics from time to 
time on this farm. 


In the year 1784 the treaty to which Corn- 
pianter (or Beautiful Lake) was a party was 
made at Fort Stanwix, ceding the whole of 
northwestern Pennsylvania to the Common- 
wealth, with the exception of a small individ- 
ual reserve to Cornplanter. The frontier, how- 
ever, was not at peace for some years after 
that, nor, indeed, until Wayne's treaty of 



Notwithstanding his bitter hostility, while 
the war continued, he became the fast friend 
of the United States when once the hatchet 
was buried. His sagacious intellect compre- 
hended at a glance the growing power of the 
United States, and the abandonment with 
which Great Britain had requited the fidelity 
of the Senecas. He therefore threw all his 


influence at the treaty of Fort Stanwix (now 
Rome, N. Y.) and Fort Harmar in favor of 
peace. And notwithstanding the large con- 
cessions which he saw his people were neces- 
sitated to make, still, by his energy and 
prudence in the negotiation, he retained for 
them an ample and beautiful reservation. For 
the course which he took on those occasions 
the .State of Pennsylvania granted him the fine 



rescnation upon which he resided on the 
Allegheny. The Senecas, however, were never 
satisfied with his course in relation to those 
treaties, and Red Jacket, more artful and 
eloqitent than his elder rival, but less frank and 
honest, seized upon this circumstance to pro- 
mote his own popularity at the expense of 

Having buried the hatchet. Cornplanter 
sought to make his talents useful to his people 
by conciliating the goodwill of the whites and 
securing from furtlier encroachment the little 
remnant of his national domain. On more 
than one occasion, when some reckless and 
bloodthirsty whites on the frontier had massa- 
cred unoffending Indians in cold blood, did 
Cornplanter interfere to restrain the vengeance 
of his people. During all the Indian wars 
from 1 79 1 to 1794, which terminated with 
Wayne's treaty, Cornplanter pledged himself 
that the Senecas should remain friendly to the 
United States. He often gave notice to the 
garrison at Fort Franklin of intended attacks 
from hostile parties, and even hazarded his 
life on a mediatorial mission to the western 

In 1821-22 the commissioners of W'arren 
county assumed the right to tax the private 
property of Cornplanter, and proceeded to 
enforce the collection of the tax. The old 
chief resisted it, conceiving it not only unlaw- 
ful, but a personal indignity. The sheriff 
appeared, with a small posse of armed men. ' 
Cornplanter took the deputation to a room 
around which were ranged about a hundred 
rifles, and, with the sententious brevity of an 
Indian, intimated that for each rifle a warrior 
would appear at his call. The sheriff and his 
men speedily withdrew, determined, however, 
to call out the militia. Several prudent citizens, 
fearing a sanguinary collision, sent for the old 
chief in a friendly way to come to Warren 
and compromise the matter. He caine, and 
after some persuasion gave his note for the 
tax, amounting to forty-three dollars and 
seventy-nine cents. He addressed, however, a 
remonstrance to the governor of Pennsylvania, 
soliciting a return of his money and an exemp- 
tion from such demands against lands which 
the State itself had ]iresented to him. The 
Legislature aniuilled the tax. and sent two 
commissioners to explain the affair to him. 
He met them at the courthouse in Warren, on 
which occasion he delivered the following 
speech, eminently characteristic of himself and 
his race: 

"Brothers, yesterday was appointed for us 
all to meet here. The talk which the governor 

sent us pleased us very much. I think that the 
Great Spirit is very much pleased that the 
white people have been induced so to assist 
the Indians as they have done, and that he is 
pleased also to see the great men of this State 
and of the United States so friendly to us. We 
are much pleased with what has been done. 

'"The Great Spirit first made the world, and 
next the flying animals, and found all things 
good and prosperous. He is immortal and 
everlasting. After finishing the flying animals, 
he came down on earth and there stood. Then 
he made different kinds of trees and weeds of 
all sort, and people of every kind. He made 
the spring and other seasons and the weather 
suitable for planting. These he did make. 
But stills to make whisky to be given to the 
Indians he did not make. The Great Spirit 
bids me tell the white people not to give In- 
dians this kind of liquor. When the Great 
Spirit had made the earth and its animals, he 
went into the great lakes, where he breathed 
as easily as anywhere else, and then made all 
the different kinds of fish. The Great Spirit 
looked back on all that he had made. The 
different kinds he had made to be separate and 
not to mix with or disturb each other. But the 
white people have broken his command by 
mixing their color with the Indians. The 
Indians have done better by not doing so. The 
Great Spirit wishes that all wars and fighting 
should cease. 

"He next told us that there were three 
things for our people to attend to. First, we 
ought to take care of our wives and children. 
Secondly, the white people ought to attend to 
their farms and cattle. Thirdly, the Great 
Spirit has given the bears and deers to the 
Indians. He is the cause of all things that 
exist, and it is very wicked to go against his 
will. The Great Spirit wishes me to inform 
the people that they should quit drinking intox- 
icating drink, as being the cause of disease and 
death. He told us not to sell any more of our 
lands, for he never sold lands to any one. 
.Some of us now keep the seventh day, Init I 
wish to quit it, for the Great Spirit made it for 
others, but not for the Indians, who ought 
even,- day to attend to their business. He has 
ordered me to quit drinking intoxicating drink, 
antl not to lust after any woman but my own, 
and informs me that by doing so I should live 
the longer. He made known to me that it is 
very wicked to tell lies. Let no one suppose 
that what I have said now is not true. 

'T have now to thank the governor for what 
he has done. I have informed him what the 
Great Spirit has ordered me to cease from, 



and 1 wish the governor to inform others what 
I have communicated. This is all I have at 
present to say." 

The old chief appears after this again to 
have fallen into entire seclusion, taking no part 
even in the politics of his people. He died at 
his residence on the 7th of March, 1S36, at 
the age of one hundred and four years. 
"Whether at the time of his death he expected 
to go to the fair hunting-grounds of his own 
people or to the heaven of the Christian is not 

Notwithstanding his profession of Chris- 
tianity, Cornplanter was very superstitious. 
"Not long since," says Mr. Foote, of Chautau- 
qua county, "he said the Good Spirit had told 
him not to have anything to do with the white 
people, or even to preserve any mementoes or 
relici that had been given to him from time to 
time by the palefaces, whereupon, among other 
things, he burnt up his belt and broke his 
elegant sword." 

In reference to the personal appearance of 
Cornplanter at the close of his life, a writer 

"I once saw the aged and venerable chief, 
and had an interesting interview with him 
about a year and a half before his death. T 
thought of many things when seated near him, 
beneath the wide-spreading shade of an old 
sycamore on the banks of the Allegheny, many 
things to ask him, the scenes of the Revolution, 
the generals that fought its battles and con- 
quered, the Indians, his tribe, the Six Nations, 
and himself. Fie was constitutionally sedate, 
was never obser\-ed to smile, much less to 
indulge in the luxury of a laugh. When I saw 
him he estimated his age to be over one hun- 
dred ; I think one hundred and three was about 
his reckoning of it. This would make him near 
one hundred and five years old at the time of 
his decease. His person was stooped, and his 
stature was far short of what it once had been, 
not being over five feet, six inches at the time 
I speak of. Mr. John Struthers, of Ohio, told 
me, some years since, that he had seen him 
near fifty years ago, and at that period he was 
at his height, viz., six feet, one inch. Time 
and hardship had made dreadful impressions 
upon that ancient form. The chest was sunken 
and his shoulders were drawn forward, making 
the upper part of his body resemble a trough. 
His limbs had lost size and become crooked. 
Flis feet (for he had taken ofi" his moccasins) 
were deformed and haggard by injury. T 
would say that most of , the fingers on one hand 
were useless ; the sinews had been severed by 
the blow of a tomahawk or scalping knife. 

How I longed to ask him what scene of blood 
and strife had 'thus stamped the enduring 
evidence of its existence upon his person ! But 
to have done so would, in all probability, have 
put an end to all further conversation on any 
subject. The information desired would cer- 
tainly not have been received, and I had to 
forego my curiosity. He had but one eye, and 
even the socket of the lost organ was hid by 
the overhanging brow resting upon the high 
cheekbone. His remaining eye was of the 
brightest and blackest hue. Never have I seen 
one, ift young or old, that equaled it in bril- 
liancy. Perhaps it had borrowed lustre from 
the eternal darkness that rested on its 
neighboring orbit. His ears had been dressed 
in the Indian mode, all but the outside ring 
had been cut away. On the one ear this ring 
had been torn asunder near the top, and hung 
down his neck like a useless rag. He had a 
full head of hair, white as the driven snow, 
which covered a head of ample dimensions and 
admirable shape. Flis face was not swarthy, 
but this may be accounted for from the fact, 
also, that he was but half Indian. He told me 
he had been at Franklin more than eighty 
years before the period of our conversation, 
on his passage down the Ohio and Mississippi 
with the warriors of his tribe, in some expedi- 
tion against the Creeks or Osages. He had 
long been a man of peace, and I believe his 
great characteristics were humanity and truth. 
It is said that Brant and Cornplanter were 
never friends after the massacre of Cherry 
\'alley. Some have alleged, because the 
Wyoming massacre was perpetrated by Sene- 
cas, that Cornjjlanter was there. Of the justice 
of this suspicion there are many reasons for 
doubt. It is certain that lie was not the chief 
of the Senecas at that time. The name of the 
chief in that expedition was Ge-en-quah-tnh, 
or He-goes-in-the-smoke. 

".As he stood before me, the ancient chief in 
ruins, how forcibly was I struck with the truth 
of that beautiful figure of the old aboriginal 
chieftain, who, in describing himself, said he 
was 'like an aged hemlock, dead at the top, 
and whose branches alone were green !' After 
more than one hundred years of most varied 
life, of strife, of danger, of peace, he at last 
slumbers in deep repose on the banks of his 
own beloved Allegheny. , 

"Cornplanter was born at Conewongus, on 
the Genesee river, in 1732, being a half-breed, 
the son of a white man named John O'Bail 
(Abeel), a trader from the Mohawk Valley. 
In a letter written in later years to the gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania he thus spoke of his 



early youth : 'When I was a child I played with 
the butterfly, the grasshopper, and the frogs ; 
and as I grew up I lx-),Mn to i)ay some atten- 
tion and play with the Indian Ijoys in the 
nciijhborhood, and they took notice of my skin 
lieing of a different color from theirs, and 
s])oke about it. I inquired from my mother 
the cause, and she told me my father was a 
resident of Albany. I still ate my victuals out 
of a bark dish. 1 j^rew up to be a younjj man 
and married a wife, and T had no kettle or gun. 
I then knew where my father li\ed, and weiU 
to see him, and found he was a white man and 
spoke the English language. He gave me vic- 
tuals while 1 was at his house, but when 1 
started to return home he gave me no provi- 
sions to eat on the way. He gave me neither 
kettle or gun.' 

"Little further is known of his early life 
beyond the fact that he was allied with the 
French in the engageijient against (Jeneral 
Braddock in July, 1755. He was prol)ably at 
that time at least twenty years old. During the 
Revolution he was a war chief of high rank, 
in the full vigor of manhood, active, sagacious, 
brave, and he most |)robahly jjarticipated in 
the principal Indian engagements against the 
United .States during the war. He is sui)i)ose(l 
to have been present at the cruelties of 
Wyoming and Cherry \'alley, in which the 
Senecas took a prominent part. He was on 
the warpath with Brant during General .Sul- 
livan's campaign in 1779, and in the following 
year, under Brant and Sir John Johnson, he 
led the Senecas in sweeping through the 
Schoharie and Mohawk Valleys. On this 
occasion he took his father a prisoner, but with 
such caution as to avoid an immediate 
recognition. .\fter marching the old man 
some ten fir twelve miles, he stepped before 
him, faced about, and addressed him in the 
following terms : 

" 'My name is John O'Bail, commonly called 
Cornplanter. I am your son. You are my 
father. You are now my jirisoner, and sub- 

ject to the custom of Indian warfare, but you 
siiall not be harnied. You need not fear. I am 
a warrior. Many are the scalps which I have 
taken. Many prisoners have I tortured to 
death. I am your son. I was anxious to see 
you and greet you in friendship. I went to 
your cabin and took you by force, but your 
life shall be spared. Indians love their friends 
and their kindred, and treat them with kind- 
ness. If you now choose to follow the 
fortunes of your yellow son and to live with 
our ]ieople, I will cherish your old age with 
plenty of venison, and you shall live easy. But 
if it is your choice to return to your fields and 
live with your white children, I will send a 
party of trusty young men to conduct you 
liack in safety. I respect you, my father. You 
ha\c been friendly to Indians, and they are 
your friends.' The elder O'Bail preferred his 
white children and green fields to his yellow 
offspring and the wild woods, and chose to 

"Cornplanter was the greatest warrior the 
.Senecas, the untamable people of the hills, ever 
had, an<l it was his wish that when he died his 
grave would remain unmarked, but the Legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania willed otherwise, and 
erected a monument tci him with this beautiful 
inscription : 

■' 'Ciy-ant-wachia. the CornplaiUer, John 
0'l*>ail, alias Cornijlanter. died at Cornplanter 
Town, February iX, .\. D. 1836, aged about 
one hundred years.' 

"Upon the west side is the following 
inscription : 

" 'Chief of the Seneca tribe, and a ])rincipal 
chief of the Six Nations from the period of 
the Revolutionary war to the time of his death. 
Distinguished for talent, courage, eloquence, 
sobriety, and love for tribe and race, to whose 
welfare he devoted his time, his energy, and 
his means during a long and eventful life.' " 

Cornplanter had two sons, Charles and 
Henry, both of whom survived him. 


TIL DIN re, L' .-JO A ■ IONS 

Pennsylvania's Coat o£ Arms. Engraved by Caleb Lovrnes, 1778. 


STATK CAITini,, I l.\i;i;lslUi;( ;. l'.\. 
liiiilt l^l'.i:.'!. |)i~trii\iil li\ Kirc |M-Iirii;nv :.', lsi)7 





I was born in Pennsylvania, and I state the fact with 

I am proud of all her mountains and her fertile 

valleys wide ; 
Proud of her majestic forests, of her placid rivers 

Proud of all her wealth of blossoms, of her sons and 

daughters true. 

1 was born in Pennsylvania — in the greatest, grand- 

est State — 

In the Keystone of the Union — best of all the forty- 
eight : 

For the gift the King of England gave to good old 
Father Penn 

Was the finest gift e'er given to the worthiest of 

And proud and happy is the man or woman who 
can say, 

"I was born in Pennsylvania, tho' I've wandered 
far away." 

Keystone State is an appellation bestowed 
on Pennsylvania, because she was the seventh 
or central of the original thirteen States. 

Pennsylvania, one of the L'nited States of 
America, lies between 39 degrees 42 minutes 
and 42 degrees 15 minutes north latitude; and 

2 degrees 18 minutes east, and 3 degrees 32 
minutes west, longitude from Washington. 

It is bounded on the east by New Jersey and 
New York ; north by New York ; west by Lake 
Erie (touching the State for about fifty 
miles). Ohio and Virginia; and south by Vir- 
ginia, Maryland and Delaware. 

Its shape is a regular oblong; length, three 
hundred and ten miles; breadth, one hundred 
and sixty miles ; and entire area over forty- 
five thousand square miles, or thirty million 
acres of land. 

The seat of government is Harrisburg, and 
its chief commercial cities are Philadelphia and 


The word Pennsylvania is composed of the 
name of Penn, the founder of the State, and 
the Latin word syh'a, which means a wood or 
forest, to which are added the letters nia. a 
termination used in Latin to show that the 
word of which it forms part is the name of 
land, or country. The whole, therefore, means 
Penn's forest country, a term quite applicable 
to its appearance when granted to William 
Penn, in 1681, by King Charles II of England. 

The chief mountains of Pennsylvania are 
the Appalachian, more commonly called the 
Alleghenies, whose parallel ranges run north- 
east to southwest. Their height varies from 
fifteen hundred to twenty-five hundred feet 
above the level of the .Atlantic. The moun- 
tainous portion of Pennsylvania forms fullv 
one-third of its whole area, or sixteen thousand 
square miles. One-half of the remainder is 
of a hilly or broken character, and the other 
has a gently rolling surface. Little of the 
State is perfectly level land. 

However, it is not to be understood that the 
whole of the mountainous portion of Pennsyl- 
vania is unfit for cultivation. On the contrary, 
some of our finest valleys and most productive 
lands are embraced in this region. Probably, 
therefore, not more than one-sixth of the State, 
if so much, is wholly unfit for the purposes of 

The soil of Pennsylvania varies with the 
rocks which compose its surface, the greater 
portion of the substance of all soil being 
formed of pulverized rock. 

The chief rivers of Pennsylvania all rise in 
the Allegheny mountains, and therefore pos- 
sess the qualities of mountain 'streams, being 
rapid in their descent, liable to sudden changes 
of high and low water, and only permanently 



navigable for a short distance near their 
mouths. The Delaware river breaks through 
a gorge twelve hundred feet deep and forms 
the bounilary between this State and New 

The year is usually divided into four 
seasons : March, April and May are called 
spring; June, July and August, summer; Sep- 
tember, October, and November, autumn or 
fall ; and December, January and February, 

Sometimes the storms of winter begin with 
November, or endure till March ; other years 
delightful spring weather commences in 
February, and autumn runs into December. 

The climate, generally speaking, is very 
healthful. In the north winter is severe and 
summer is delightfully cool. The east is sub- 
ject to extremes and sudden changes; and in 
the west the changes are even more abrupt. 
In the river valleys there is a good deal of 
malaria. Average temperature, 54 degrees ; 
annual precipitation at Philadelphia, 40 inches. 

There are many mineral springs in the 
mountains. Those near Bedford are famous: 
the waters are saline-chalybeate, sulphur and 
limestone. Others are Carlisle Springs, 
Doubling Gap Springs, Perry Warm Springs, 
Crcsson Springs, Gettysburg Springs, Kiskim- 
inetas Springs, Minnequa Springs and Val- 
lonia Springs. 


Before it was taken possession of by Euro- 
peans, the territory now called Pennsylvania 
was occupied by various tribes of Indians, of 
which the chief were the Delawares, Six 
Nations and .Shawnese. 

The Delawares, so called by the whites from 
the river on who^se banks they were first met, 
and where they chiefly resided, were the most 
numerous nation in the Province. They called 
themselves Lenni Lenape, or the original 
people. They were also sometimes known by 
the name of Algonquins. They were divided 
into three chief tribes: The Unamis. or 
turtles, the Unalachtgos, or turkeys, and the 
Monseys, or wolves. The first two occupied 
the country southeast of the Kiltalinny, and the 
last the region north of that mountain, on the 
upper waters of the Delaware and Susque- 
hanna. The various bands of Delawares re- 
ceived difi'erent names from the whites, 
according to their location, as the Susque- 
hannas, the Conestogas, the Neshaminies. the 
Nanticokes, etc. 

The .Shawnese, a portion of a difl'ercnt 

nation, were settled near Wyoming, and some 
of them on the Ohio, below Pittsburgh. 

The celebrated Five Nations seem originally 
to have owned northwestern Pennsylvania. 
The Onondagas,''' Cayugas, Oneidas, Senecas 
and Mohawks first composed this remarkable 
and powerful confederacy. To these were 
subsequently added the Tuscaroras, after 
which they were called the Six Nations. 

By the Delawares they were called Mingos 
and Maquas, by the French Iroquois,! and by 
the luiglish the Five or Six Nations. 

Their chief residence or council house was 
at Onondaga, in New York, the greater part 
of which State belonged to them. 

Sometime previous to the landing of the 
Europeans, the Six Nations are said to have 
conquered the Delawares. It is at least cer- 
tain that they exercised authority over them, 
and that this subjection often rendered the 
dealings of the colonists with the Delawares 
complicated and difficult. In 1756 Teedyus- 
cund, the noted Delaware chief, seems to have 
compelled the Six Nations to acknowledge the 
independence of his tribe; but the claim of 
superiority was often afterwards revived. 

In 1638 the Swedes purchased from the 
Indians the land from Cape Henlopen to the 
Falls at Trenton, along the western shore of 
the Delaware. They were the first purchasers 
of the land from the Indians, and called it 
New Sweden. In 1643 they established the 
first colony of whites within the present bounds 
of Pennsylvania, under their governor, John 
Printz, settling along the western bank of the 
Delaware, principally near the mouth of the 
.Schuylkill. Governor Printz erected a fort, 
which he called New Gottenburg, and after- 
wards a church and a spacious house for him- 
self, on Tinicum island, in the Delaware, below 
the mouth of the Schuylkill. Until 1655 the 
-Swedish settlements regularly increased. In 
that year they were taken by Peter Stuyvesant, 
governor of the Dutch colony of New Nether- 
lands, now New York, but all the Swedish 
settlers were permitted to remain. 

Nine years afterwards, or in 1664, the ter- 
ritory now called Pennsylvania, with all the 
other Dutch possessions in North America, 
was conquered by the English. 

In this year, 1664, we read of negro slaves 
in Delaware, which afterwards became a part 
of Pennsylvania. 

Being tlius possessed of (he territory by con- 
r|ucst from those who had rightfully acquired 




the Indian title to at least a part of it, King 
Charles II, by charter dated March 4, 1681, 
granted it to William Penn, a member of the 
Society of Friends, in discharge of certain 
large claims due by the crown to his father, 
Admiral Sir William Penn, and gave it the 
present name. 

On the 24th of October, 1682, William Penn 
arrived at his new province in the ship 
"Welcome." He first landed at New Castle, 
in the present State of Delaware. At this time 
Delaware also belonged to Penn, by grant from 
the Duke of York, the King's brother, but did 
not long continue connected with Pennsyl- 

The same year he regularly founded the 
Province ; laid out Philadelphia, on land pur- 
chased from three Swedish settlers ; divided 
the Province into the three counties of Phila- 
delphia, Chester and Bucks ; and convened the 
first legislature, which met on the 4th of 
December, at the town of Chester, and com- 
pleted their session in three days. 

Early in 1683 Penn entered into treaties with 
the Indians for the purchase of large tracts of 
land west and north of Philadelphia, it being 
his honest rule to acquire the Indian title, as 
well as that of the English king. 

In 1684 Penn sailed for England. 

In 1691 a dispute arose between the 
Provinces of Pennsylvania and Delaware, 
which resulted in the formation of separate 
legislatures, and the final separation of the 

In 1699 Penn returned to the Province with 
his family, and found it much increased in 
population, prosperity and wealth. 

In 1701 a new charter, or frame of govern- 
ment, more fully adapted to the wants of the 
people, was adopted, and Penn finally returned 
to England. 

In 1 7 18 he died at Rushcomb, in Bucking- 
hamshire, aged seventy-four years. His last 
days were embittered by persecution and 
pecuniary distresses at home, and dissensions 
in his colonies. On his death Pennsylvania 
became the property of his sons, John, Thomas 
and Richard, by whom, or their deputies, it 
was governed till the Revolution. 

In 1723 Benjamin Franklin, then in his 
seventeenth year, arrived in Philadelphia from 
Boston, and soon acquired an influence which 
he exercised to the benefit of the Province and 
his own honor during a long life. 

The same year the first paper money was 
issued in the Province. 

In 1732 Thomas Penn, and in 1734 John 

Penn, arrived in the Province, where Thomas 
remained till 1741. 

In 1739, on the breaking out of a war with 
Spain, the Assembly refused supplies for the 
defense of the Province, on the ground of 
religious scruples. This was the beginning of 
a long controversy between the legislature and 
the governors. 

In 1744, the war between England and 
France put an end to the peace that had 
previously existed without any interruption 
between the colonists and Indians. Before that 
melancholy era, the prudent counsels of the 
Friends had completely saved the Province 
from those Indian ravages that afterwards 
devastated the frontiers. 

By the treaty of Albany, in 1754, the Six 
Nations conveyed to the Province a large tract 
of land, lying beyond the Susquehanna river 
and Kittatinny mountain, and southwest of the 
mouth of Penn's creek. Being done without 
the consent of the Delawares and Shawnese, 
who occupied the territory, those tribes became 
justly incensed, and joined the French. 

In 1755 General Braddock, while marching, 
in a manner opposed to the advice of Colonel 
Washington, with a large force against Fort 
Duquesne (now Pittsburgh) was attacked by 
the Indians and French, and defeated with 
great slaughter. He himself was mortally 
wounded, and died shortly after, during the 

In 1758 Gen. John Forbes led a strong force 
from Carlisle against Fort Duquesne, at Pitts- 
burgh, which he found abandoned. The 
French never afterwards regained any footing 
in the Province. 

In 1763, the Indian war called Pontiac's war 
raged. Forts Presquile, Venango and Le Boeuf 
were taken, and Forts Pitt, Ligonier and Bed- 
ford were attacked on the same day, by 
stratagem. The exposed settlers suffered 
many hardships. The same year the Manor 
Indians were killed at Lancaster jail by the 
Paxton boys. 

In 1767 the southern line of the State was 
finally run and settled by Mason and Dixon. 

In 1768 all the remaining lands in the 
Province, except those beyond the Allegheny 
river, were purchased from the Indians at 
Fort Stanwix, now Rome, in Oneida county. 
New York. 

In 1769 the civil war between the Connecti- 
cut settlers and the Pennsylvania claimants 
began in Wyoming. 

In 1769 the right of taxing the colonies, 
without their own consent, some years before 
asserted by the British Parliament, was boldly 



denied by the Colonial Assembly, who took 
strong ground against that odious doctrine. 

In 1774 Lord Dunniore, governor of Vir- 
ginia, took possession of Fort I'itt as being 
within the limits of his Province; Init his gar- 
rison was soon expelled. 

On the icSth of June, 1774. a meeting of 
eight thousand persons took place in Philadel- 
phia, and recommended a Continental Con- 
gress for the vindication of the rights of the 
Colonies and the relief of Boston. 

On the 15th of July. 1774, dejnities from 
all the counties met at Philadeljjhia, and passed 
strong resolutions in favor of the rights of 
the colonies and the holding of a General 
Colonial Congress. Accordingly the Assembly 
appointed seven delegates to the Congress. 

In September, 1774, the first Congress met 
at Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia. 

On the 15th of July, 1776, independence 
having been declared, a State convention, in 
Philadelphia, met and framed a Constitution 
for Pennsylvania as a Freed and Sovereign 
State. At that time the jKipulation was about 
three hundred thousand. 

In 1777, after the battle of Tirandywine, 
Congress adjourned to Lancaster, and thence 
to York ; and Philadel[)hia fell into the hands 
of the British, who retained it till June, 1778. 
In the last named year Congress returned to 
Philadelphia, where it remained till 1800, when 
it removed to Washington. 

In 1778 the Tories and Indians destroyed 
the Wyoming settlements. 

In 1779 Sullivan's expedition against the 
northern Indians occurred. 

In 1780 an act of the General Assembly of 
Pennsylvania was passed which jjrovided for 
the gradual abolition of negro slavery. 

In 1781, by the advice of Robert Morris, 
Congress incorporated the Bank of North 
America, which was the first bank in the 

In 1782, the controversy with Connecticut 
about the Luzerne lands was decided in favor 
of Pennsylvania, by commissioners of Con- 
gress at Trenton, after full argument and in- 

In 1784 all the remaining lands owned by 
the Indians in the !-itate were purchased from 
the Six Nations by treaty at Fort .Stanwix. 

In 1789 Harmar's expedition against the 
western Indians took place. 

In 1790 the second State Omstitution was 

In 1791 General St. Clair, most of whose 
troops were from Pennsylvania, was defeated 
by the Indians. 

In 1792 Pennsylvania purchased the Erie 
triangle of land from the United States gov- 

Between 1792 and 1795 Wayne's operations 
against the western Indians put an end to 
their ravages. 

In 1803 the name Keystone was first applied 
to the State. This was in a printed political 
address to the people. Pennsylvania was the 
central State of the original thirteen. 

In 1834 the common school law was passed. 

In 1838 the third State Constitution was 
adopted. It put an end to the life tenure of 

In 1845 the great fire at Pittsburgh occurred. 

In February, 1856, a number of self- 
appointed delegates from all parts of the 
country assembled at Pittsburgh and organized 
the National Republican party, whose first con- 
vention met at Philadelphia in June of that 
year, nominating John C. Fremont for presi- 
dent and William L. Dayton for vice president. 

On March 27, 1872. Peimsylvania enacted a 
local option law, and repealed it .Xpril 12. 


On the second Tuesday of October, 1873, 
the fourth and present State Constitution was 

In May, 1876, the Centennial exhibition 
opened at Philadelphia. 

In 1885 the fence law was repealed. 

On June 18. 1889, an election was held in 
the State to adopt prohibition. It was lost bv 
a majority of 188,026, thirty-six counties 
against, twenty-three for it. 

In June, 1900, the Republicans met in Phil- 
adel]ihia and renominated McKinley for 
])resident, with Theodore Roosevelt for vice 

In 1903 the State Highway Department was 

Until 1799 Philadelphia was the capital of 
Pennsylvania. By the act of April 3, 1799, 
Lancaster became the capital on the first Mon- 
day of November, 1799. On February 21, 
1810, an act w^as approved requiring that the 
offices of the .State government, during the 
month of October, 1812, be moved to Harris- 
burg, which, by said act, was fixed and de- 
clared to be the seat of government. On 
February 7, 181 2, a supplement was passed to 
this act providing that the removal should be 
made in A])ril. 1812, and, accordingly, the 
offices were removed about .April I, 1812. and 
Ilarrisburg from that time has continued to 
be the capital of the State. The old capitol, 
built in 1819-20, burned February 2, 1897. 





Under the Constitution of 1790 

Thomas Mifflin 

Thomas McKean 

Simon Snyder 

William Findlay 

Joseph Hiester 

John Andrew Schulze 

George Wolf 

Joseph Ritner 

Under the Constitution of 1838 

David Rittenhouse Porter 

Francis Rawn Shunk 

William Freame Johnston* 

William Bigler 

James Pollock 

William Fisher Packer 

Andrew Gregg Curtin 

John White Geary 

John Frederick Hartranft 

Under the Constitution of 1873 

John Frederick Hartranft 

Henry Martyn Hoyt 

Robert Emory Pattison 

James Addams Beaver 

Robert Emory Pattison 

Daniel Hartman Hastings 

William A. Stone 

Samuel W. Pennypacker 

Edwin S. Stuart 

John K. Tener 

Martin G. Brumbaugh 

* There was an interregnum from 
till July 26, 1848. 



Term of Service 

Dec. 21, 1790-Dec. 17, 1799 

Dec. 17, 1799-Dec. 20, 1808 

Dec. 20, i8o8-Dec. 16, 1817 

Dec. 16, 1817-Dec. 19, 1820 

Dec. 19, 1820-Dec. 16, 1823 

Dec. 16, 1823-Dec. 15, 1829 

Dec. 15, 1829-Dec. 15, i83.i 

Dec. 15. 1835-Jan. 15, 1839 

Jan. 15, 1839-Jan. 21, 1845 
Jan. 21, 1845-July 9. 1848 

(Resigned July 9, 1848) 
July 26, 1848-Jan. 20, 1852 

(Vice Shunk, resigned) 
Jan. 20, 1852-Jan. 16, 1855 
Jan. 16, 1855-Jan. 19, 1858 
Jan. 19, 1858-Jan. 15, 1861 
Jan. IS, i86i-Jan. 15, 1867 
Jan. IS, 1867-Jan. 21, 1873 
Jan. 21, 1873-Jan. 18, 1876 

Jan. 18, 1876-Jan. 21. 1870 

Jan. 21, 1879-Jan. 16, 1883 

Jan. 16, 1883-Jan. 18, 1887 

Jan. 18, 1887-Jan. 20, 1891 

Jan. 20, 1891-Jan. 15, 189s 

Jan. 15, l8oS-Jan. 17, 1899 

Jan. 17, 1899-Jan. 20, 1903 

Jan. 20, 1903-Jan. 15, 1907 

Jan. IS, 1907-Jan. 17, 1911 

Jan. 17, 1911-Jan. ig, 191S 

Jan. 19, 1915 

July 9, 1848, to July 26, 1848. Johnston did not take the oath of office 










































































1 1, 











































1 8^0 












1 8 so 
































Year Candidate and Party No. of Votes 

1790 Thomas Mifflin, Democrat 27,72s 

Arthur St. Clair, Federal 2,802 

1793 Thomas Mifflin, Democrat 18,590 1817 

F. A. Muhlenberg, Federal 10,706 

1796 Thomas Mifflin, E)emocrat 30,020 

F. A. Muhlenberg, Federal 1,011 1820 

1799 Thomas McKean, Democrat 38,036 

James Ross, Federal 32,641 

1802 Thomas McKean, Democrat 47,879 1823 

James Ross, of Pittsburgh, Federal. 9,499 

Tames Ross. Federal 7,5,38 

Scattering 94 1826 

1805 Thomas McKean, Independent 

Democrat 43,644 

Simon Snyder, Democrat 38,438 1829 

Simon Snyder 395 

1808 Simon Snyder, Democrat 67,975 

James Ross. Federal 39,,=;7.=; 1832 

John Spayd, Federal 4,006 

Scattering 8 1835 

181 1 Simon Snyder, Democrat 52,319 

William Tilghman, Federal 3,609 

Scattering 1.67S 

Candidate and Party No. of Votes 

Simon Snyder, Democrat 51,099 

Isaac Wayne, Federal 29,566 

George Lattimer, Independent.... 910 

Scattering 18 

William Findlay, Democrat 66,331 

Joseph Hiester, Federal 59.272 

Scattering II 

Joseph Hiester, Federal 67,905 

William Findlay, Democrat 66,300 

Scattering 21 

J. Andrew Schulze, Democrat 89,928 

Andrew Gregg, Federal 64,21 1 

Scattering ■ 8 

J. .'\ndrew Schulze, Democrat 72,710 

John Sergeant, Federal I.I75 

Scattering I.I74 

George Wolf. Democrat 78,219 

Joseph Ritner, Anti-Mason 61,776 

Scattering 12 

George Wolf, Democrat 9I.33S 

Joseph Ritner, Anti-Mason 88,165 

Joseph Ritner, Anti-Mason 94,023 

George Wolf, Independent Demo- 
crat 65,804 

Henry A. Muhlenberg, Democrat. . 40,586 



Year Candidate and Party No. of Votes 

1838 David R. Porter, Democrat 127,825 

Joseph Kitner, Anti-Mason 122,321 

1841 David K. Porter, Democrat 136,504 

John Banks, Whig "3.473 

F. J. Lamoyne, Abolition 763 

Scattering 23 

1844 Francis K. Shunk, Democrat 160,323 

Joseph Markle, Whig 156,040 

F. J. Lamoyne, Abolition 2,566 

1847 Francis k. Shnnk, Democrat 146,081 

James Irvin, Whig 128,148 

E. G. Reigart, Native American. . . 11,247 

F. J. Lamoyne, Abolition 1,861 

Scattering 6 

1848 William K. Johnston, Whig 168,522 

Morris Longstreth, Democrat 168,225 

E. B. Gazzam, Free-soil 48 

Scattering 24 

1851 William Bigler, Democrat 186,489 

\\'illiam F. Johnston, Whig 178,034 

Kimber Cleaver, Native American. 1,850 

Scattering 67 

1854 James Pollock, Whig and Ameri- 
can 203,822 

William Bigler, Democrat 166,991 

B. Rush Bradford, Free-soil 2,194 

Scattering 33 

1857 William F. Packer. Democrat 188,846 

David Wilmot, Free-soil 146,139 

Isaac Hazelhurst, American 28,168 

Scattering 12 

i860 Andrew G. Curtin, Republican 262,346 

Henry D. Foster, Democrat 230,230 

1863 Andrew G. Curtin, Republican.... 269,506 

George W. Woodward, Democrat. 254,171 

Scattering 2 

1866 John W. Geary, Republican 307,274 

Hiester Clymer, Democrat 290,096 

1869 John W. Geary, Republican 290,552 

Asa Packer, Democrat 285,956 

1872 John F. Hartranft, Republican 353,287 

Charles R.Buckalew, Democrat.... 317,760 

S. B. Chase, Prohibition 1,259 

187s John F. Hartranft, Republican 304,175 

Cyrus L. Pershing, Democrat 292,145 

R. Audley Brown, Prohibition.... 13,244 

1878 Henry M. Hoyt, Republican 319,567 

.'Kndrew H. Dill, Democrat 297,060 

Samuel R. Mason, National Green- 
back 81,758 

Franklin H. Lane, Prohibition..... 3.653 

1882 Robert E. Pattison, Democrat 355,791 

James A. Beaver, Republican 315,589 

John Stewart, Independent Repub- 
lican 43,743 

Thomas A. Armstrong, Greenback- 
Labor 23,484 

Alfred C. Pettit, Temperance.... 5.T96 

1886 James A. Beaver, Republican 412.285 

Chauncey F. Black, Democrat.... 369,634 

Charles S. Wolf, Prohibition 32,458 

Robert J. Houston, Greenback.... 4.835 

1890 Robert E. Pattison, Democrat.... 464,209 

George W. Delamater, Repul)lican. 447,655 

John D. Gill, Prohibition 16.108 

T. P. Rynder, Labor 224 

1894 Daniel 11. Hastings, Republican... 574,801 

William M. Singerly, Democrat... 333,404 

Charles L. Hawley, Prohibition... 23,433 

Jerome T. Ailman, People's 19,464 

Year Candidate and Party No. of Votes 

Thomas H. Grundy, Socialist 

. Labor 1,733 

Scattering 182 

1898 William A. Stone, Republican 476,206 

George A. Jenks, Democrat 358,300 

Silas C. Swallow, Prohi- 
bition 125,746 

People's 2,058 

Liberty 632 

Honest Government. . 4,495 
J. Mahlon Barnes, Socialist Labor. 


1902 Samuel W. Pennypacker, 1 

Republican 592,867 \ 

Citizens' 461 | 

Robert E. Pattison, 1 

Democrat 436,451 

Anti-Machine 9,550 [ 

Ballot Reform 4,977 J 

Silas C. Swallow, Prohibition 23,327 















William Adams, Socialist Labor. . 

J. W. Slayton, Socialist 


1906 Edwin S. Stuart, Repub- 
lican 501,818 

Citizens' 4,600 

Lewis Emery, Jr., Demo- 
cratic 301,747 

Commonwealth 6,194 

Lincoln 145,657 

Referendum 781 

Union Labor 3,67s 

Homer L. Castle, Prohibition 

James A. Maurer, Socialist 

John Desmond, Socialist Labor... 


1910 John K. Tener, Republican.412,658 ] 
Workingmen's League.. 2,956 f 

Webster Grim, Democratic 129,395 

Madison F. Larkin, Prohibition... 17,445 

John W. Slayton, Socialist 53,055 

George Anton, Industrialist 802 

William H. Berrj-, Keystone 382,127 

Scattering 10 

1914 Martin G. Brumbaugh, ] 

Republican 532,902 I 

Keystone 37,847 ^ 

Personal Liberty 17,956 

Vance C. McCormick, 

Democratic 3'3,553 } 

Washington 140,327 J 

Joseph B. Allen, Socialist 40,115 

Charles N. Brumm, Bull Moose. . 
William Draper Lewis, Roosevelt 


Matthew H. Stevenson, Prohibi- 

Caleb Harrison, Industrialist 

Scattering . . . 







— Smull's Handbook. 


Local option 

In 1872 the Pennsylvania legislature enacted 
a county local option law, and in 1873, under 
its provisions, thirty-nine counties adopted it 
and banished liquor licenses. Ail but two of 



the cities vviiich voted as separate units went 
wet, viz., Atoona and Williamsport. Mead- 
ville, Titusville, Lock Haven and Chester 
voted wet, but the counties in which they are 
located voted dry. In 1875 the Legislature re- 
pealed this law and enacted the Brooks high 
license law. Only nine counties in the State 
have no license now, in 1915. 

Food Laws 

The general food law of 1895, which defined 
food adulteration and misbranding, and made 
their commission a misdemeanor, was replaced 
in 1907 by an act making the commission of 
these wrongs a civil offense and, on the plea of 
the need for legislative uniformity, included, 
by reference, all corresponding acts of Con- 
gress and the regulations thereunder, then in 
force or later to be enacted or promulgated. 
On May 13, 1909, the Legislature repealed 
the act of 1907, and returned to the original 
form of general food laws. A large number 
of the more common, added adulterants were 
specifically prohibited. 

Prior to 1907, a number of special food laws 
and a general food law had been enacted. The 
former included the vinegar act of 1897, as 
amended May 21, 1901 ; the cheese act of 
1897. ^s amended May 2, 1901 ; the act of June 
10, 1897, prohibiting the addition of preserva- 
tives or coloring matter to milk and cream, as 
amended April 19, 1901 ; the oleomargarine 
and renovated butter acts of 1901 ; the fruit 
syrup act, May 2, 1901, as amended April 26, 
1905; and the act of March 28, 1905, prohibit- 
ing the addition of coloring matter and pre- 
servatives to fresh meat, poultry, game, fish, 
or shellfish. 

The milk and cream law was amended in 
1909, so as to fix a standard of composition for 
cream; and again, in 1911, so as to establish 
such standard for both milk and cream. In 
1909, also, were enacted special laws regulat- 
ing the sale of ice cream, eggs, lard and non- 
alcoholic drinks; in 191 1, an additional act 
relative to the adulteration of sausage by the 
addition of cereals and water; and in I9r3, 
an act regulating the management of cold 
storage warehouses and the sale of cold storage 
foods, and an amendment to the oleomargarine 
act of 1901, fixing a standard color limit 
capable of exact physical measurement. 

The Pennsylvania Department of Agricul- 
ture was organized in 1895. 


Insane Asylums 

The first attempt made in Pennsylvania to 
classify the insane by legal enactment was 
made in 1881, by a bill introduced in the 
State Senate by Senator W. J. McKnight, 
known as Senate Bill No. 207, to regulate 
the commitment of insane criminals. 

This generation is and must be ignorant of 
the wonderful improvement made in the last 
fifty years in the care and treatment of the 
insane. When I was a boy a menagerie of 
wild beasts was a paradise in comparison with 
a lunatic asylum. About the year 1800 a Dr. 
Pinel, a Frenchman with a heart alive to pity 
like the old-style doctor had, undertook the 
work of reform in these "madhouses." Fa- 
miliar with this historical fact, and being a 
medical man, I was interested in this subject. 
In 1 88 1, when I wjis sworn in as one of 
Pennsylvania's fifty State senators, I looked 
around for some useful legislative work to 
do, and, after I received my "railroad passes," 
I traveled to and from our asylums looking 
through them and supping and dining with the 
officials. During these associations, and from 
other sources, I conceived the idea that classi- 
fication of the insane was greatly needed, and 
to insure the enactment of such a law I intro- 
duced one in the Senate modest and moderate 
in its requirements. This I did to save expense 
and prevent opposition. But in this act I met 
the fate of all who antagonize ignorance and 
prejudice, for 

Trutli would you teach to save a sinking land 
M\ sliun, none aid, and few understand. 

On the 23(1 day of March, 1881, I intro- 
duced the bill for the classification of the 
insane as follows (see page 691, Legislative 
Journal) : "An Act entitled. An Act to regulate 
the commitment of the criminal insane, insane 
convicts and other dangerous lunatics to one of 
the Insane Hospitals of the State, and the 
management thereof of said hospitals. 

"Section i. Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly 
met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority 
of the same, That the Board of Public Qiari- 
lies shall have the power, and are hereby 
required immediately after the passage of this 
Act to prepare a wing of, or to organize, a 
ward, or a sufficient number of wards, in one 
of the insane hospitals of the State (supported 



by the State), for the accommodation of the 
criminal insane, insane convicts and other 
dangerous lunatics sentenced to said hospital, 
as well for those who may hereafter be 
arraigned before court and acquitted on the 
ground of insanity, and the said ward or wards 
so set apart are to be under the same manage- 
ment and superintendence as the other wards 
of said institution." 

When the bill came before the Senate on 
the third reading, I made the following 
remarks : 

"Mr. President, 1 desire to say a few words 
in favor of the important measure now before 
this honorable Senate. I beg leave to state that 
the bill was conceived in the interest of un- 
fortunate humanity, and if its provisions are 
inadequate to the proposed relief intended, no 
senator will deplore such an unfortunate result 
more than myself. Further, I desire the bill 
to be criticized, and amended if need be. by 
senators abler than myself; aye, if possible, 
perfected so that it may accomplish, in full, 
its humanitarian objects. And, senators, if in 
your criticisms you should deem it necessary to 
be severe upon the phraseology, even to per- 
sonal reflections. I will now assure vou in the 
language of Shakespeare, by way of invoca- 

"O let mc not be mad. not mad, sweet Heaven ; 
Keep me in temper ; I would not be mad. 

"Senators, I well recognize the fact that only 
through investigation, criticism and agitation ; 
that only through jiositive enthusiasm on the 
one side, and the hostile lens of opposition on 
the other, can a real solid knowledge be ob- 
tained by which to erect a truthful, perfect 
structure. There should be no haste in 

"Every wise observer knows, 
Every watchful f^azer sees, 
Nothing grand or beautiful grows 

Save by gradual slow degrees. 
Steadily, steadily, step by step, 
Up the venturous builders go, 
^ Carefully placing stone on stone, 
Thus the loftiest temples grow. 

"In this law we want a solid base, we want 
truth; we want the wisdom of ages; we want 
everything that will tend to perfection, because 
it is designed to protect, care for and, if pos- 
sible, to rescue helpless men and helpless 
women from indignities now suffered, em- 
blematic of a barbarous age. 

"Mr. President, the dark ages are past ; we 
live in an age of light ; we live when steam 

and the iron horse ha\e annihilated space and 
time ; we live when the lightning from heaven 
has been chained by a Franklin and forced by 
a Morse and a F'ield to carry our greetings of 
business and love, not only upon the land but 
underneath the seas also. Indeed, we look 
around us in wonder at the progress of me- 
chanics, agriculture, science and art. There 
appears to be no end to our achievements in 
intellectual advancement. We live in the very 
light of 'God's face bending low down' and 
guiding us in the solving of difficult intellectual 
problems. And under this bright light let us 
pause for a short time to examine and see 
what we have done, what we are doing, and 
what we can do for the insane — the insane 
convict and the criminal insane. I would say, 
in candor, little has been done in the past. But 
we are doing a great work now, and as much 
as I admire the progress of the present, yet I 
confidently expect in the future greater 
progress, more gigantic achievements in the 
restoration to reason, and in the elevation to 
manhood and womanhood, of fallen and 
depraved humanity, than the most hopeful 
could anticipate or the greatest enthusiast 
could imagine. For ages the insane were 
believed to be pos.sessed of the devil, and their 
management by Christian civilization was in 
conformity to this belief. You may imagine 
the treatment. I cannot describe it. It is only 
within the memory of our own lives that the 
results of this belief have been entirely erad- 
icated. And who among us since the attain- 
ment of that result is ignorant of the wonder- 
ful improvements made in the last quarter of 
a century ' I assure you from an examination 
of history that Pjarnum's menagerie of wild 
beasts is to-day a paradise compared to a 
lunatic prison of two hundred years ago. If 
we portray to ourselves low, damp and infected 
dungeons, without light or air, fitly designated 
cells, alive with human beings, naked or 
covered with rags, always furious or nearly so. 
enclosed in living tombs until death came as a 
relief; believed to be incurable, abandoned by 
their relatives, deprived of medical care, reek- 
ing in their own filth, attended by hmtal 
keepers, horrifiefl beyond expression in their 
sane moments at these surroundings, sufferings 
and inhumanities, with no voice of brotherhood 
or love ever greeting them, with no music but 
the rattling of their ow-n chains ; and I might 
enumerate to you a thousand more inhuman- 
ities, had I time and cajiacity, and then indeed 
you would have but an imjierfectly photo- 
graphed view of an insane prison of the 
seventeenth century. But in 1752, a number 



of Pennsylvanians residing in the city of 
Philadelphia, with hearts aHve to pity, hke 
angels of mercy, petitioned the legislature of 
this State, then in session, for an act to incor- 
porate 'a small provincial hospital,' for the 
suitable care and treatment of the insane, and 
other sick persons. Said act was duly passed, 
and two thousand pounds appropriated to 
assist in, as they declared, 'a good work 
acceptable to God and all the good people they 
represented.' Under this charter a private 
house was secured until a suitable structure 
could be erected, and on the nth day of 
February, A. D. 1752. the first patients were 
adiTiitted for treatment. On the 28th day of 
May, A. D. 1755, the cornerstone of the 
hospital proper was laid, and Benjamin Frank- 
lin prepared the inscription for it, which read 
as follows : 

"In the year of Christ 


George the Second liappily reigning, 

(For he sought the happiness of his people), 

Philadelphia flourishing, 

(For its inhabitants were public spirited). 

This building. 

By the bounty of the Government 

And of many private persons, 

Was piously founded 

For the relief of the sick and miserable. 

'May the God f Mercies 

Bless the Undertaking.' 

"Thus Pennsylvania Hospital had its origin. 
The 'God of Mercies' has blessed the under- 
taking. It stands to-day a monument of 
Pennsylvania pride and is a home, a real home 
in every sense, to hundreds of 'the wildest, the 
tamest, the happiest and the gloomiest of un- 
fortunate mortals.' It is an unrestrained, 
unfettered, carpeted, pictured, sofaed, con- 
certed, libraried home, where intellect and love 
command obedience. 

"Senators, will you permit a digression ? 
Will you permit a little State pride to well up 
at this point in my argument? 

"It was on the soil of Pennsylvania that the 
first Continental Congress met. It was on the 
soil of Pennsylvania that the great Magna 
Charta of our liberties was written, signed, 
sealed and delivered to the world. It was on 
the soil of Pennsylvania that the fathers 
declared 'that all men are born free and equal, 
and are alike entitled to life, liberty and the 
pursuit of happiness.' It was on the soil of 
Pennsylvania that the grand old Republican 
IKirty was organized, and the declarations of 
our fathers reaffirmed and proclaimed anew 
to the world. It was on the soil of Peimsvl- 

vania that Congress created our national 
emblem, the Stars and Stripes ; and it was 
upon the soil of Pennsylvania that fair women 
made that flag in accordance with the resolu- 
tion of Congress. It was upon the soil of 
Pennsylvania that our flag was first unfurled 
to the breeze, and from that day to this that 
grand old flag has never been disgraced nor 
defeated. It was upon the Delaware river of 
Pennsylvania that the first steamer was 
launched. It was in Philadelphia that the first 
national bank opened its vaults to commerce. 
It was upon the soil of Pennsylvania that 
Colonel Dr4ke first drilled into the bowels of 
the earth and obtained the oil that now makes 
the 'bright light' of every fireside 'from Green- 
land's icy mountains to India's coral strand.' 
It was on the soil of Pennsylvania that the first 
Christian Bible society in the New World was 
organized. It was on the soil of Pennsylvania 
that the first school for the education and 
maintenance of soldiers' orphans was erected. 
It was on the soil of Pennsylvania that the first 
medical college for the New World was 
established. And now, Mr. President, I say 
to you that it was permitted to Pennsylvania 
intelligence, to Pennsylvania charity, to Penn- 
sylvania people, to erect on Pennsylvania soil, 
with Pennsylvania money, the first insane in- 
stitution, aided and encouraged by a state, in 
the history of the world. 

"In the bill which is now before us Pennsyl- 
vania is simply expected to take another 
advance step in the march of civilization. It 
is not a hasty step. It has been well considered, 
and is heartily approved by all those in the 
State having in charge insane convicts and the 
criminal insane. In truth, I have letters from 
nearly every experienced person in the Com- 
monwealth urging the passage of this law. 
What, then, you ask, will we accomplish by 
this enactment? To this I reply: A reason- 
able, a necessary^ classification of the insane. 
Not a perfect classification, but a better one 
than we have at present. Indeed, in the opin- 
ion of those most capable of judging and 
advising on the subject, the insane should be 
sub-divided into three great classes, as follows : 

"First. The epileptics. 

"Second. The ordinary insane. 

"Third. The convict, criminal and other 
dangerous lunatics. Each class to have a sep- 
arate hospital and each hospital to have a 
separate mangement. But as the world luoves 
in cycles, and 'step by step the builders go,' 
this bill looking to the future only asks at this 
time the separation of the convict and criminal 
from the other classes of the insane. 



"And why is this separation asked, you 
inquire. I will better reason with you on this 
subject by reading one of many letters ad- 
dressed and received 1 y me since the introduc- 
tion of this bill. The letter I present is from 
Dr. J- A. Reed, of Dixmont hospital, dated 
March 24, 18S1 : 

" 'This subject is one of vast importance to 
all of the insane, and I hope that you will be 
able through this bill to accomplish such legis- 
lation as will not on^y ameliorate the condition 
of the innocent insane, but will place the 
"insane convict" in a position where judicious 
care and treatment will result in' a greater 
amount of good to him. In considering this 
subject it must be remembered that there are 
two classes of insane persons, either of which 
it is manifestly imoroper to place in an ordi- 
nary hospital for the insane. I allude to 
the insane convict who has become in- 
sane while undergoing punishment for crime, 
or who, from any extraordinary cause may 
have been deemed by the courts unfit for ad- 
mission to a hospital, and is now confined in 
the penitentiaries and jails of the Common- 
wealth, as well as to that other class who have 
been accjuitted or not prosecuted on criminal 
charges for violent acts on the ground of 
insanity, such as homicide, arson. Inirglary. etc. 

" 'It is a common feeling that a compulsory 
association with criminals is neither pleasant 
nor desirable. The insane are as sensitive as 
other persons, and when compelled to mingle 
with those convicted of crimes of greater or 
less degree feel themselves degraded, and 
there is engendered such a feeling of discontent 
that recoveries are thereby retarded if not 
wholly prevented. Convicts are bad by nature 
and are made worse by disease ; they are con- 
stantly seeking opportunities to escajje, annoy- 
ing the other more (|uict and innocent patients, 
and frequently, by their violence, endanger- 
ing the lives of others with whom they may 
be associated. They are victims to the worst 
forms of delusions. ;in<l are con.stantly en- 
deavoring to create a general discotitent, and 
teach those, who. by misfortune, have been 
sent to the asylums for treatment, profanity, 
mean tricks and petty misdemeanors. 

" 'To a'sociate any considerable number of 
criminals with others is in a limited sense to 
make an institution designed for the safe 
keeping and cure nf unfortunate persons a 
school of crime, and t(] mingle those whose 
lives have Ijeen stained with theft, liurglary, 
arson and murder with those whose lives have 
ever been pure, is a gross injustice. There 
are ver' few of the insane convicts who do 

not attempt to escape, and those who attempt 
it usually succeed; often their previous edu- 
cation has been in this direction, and this also 
makes their recajjture, when once at large, 
nidrc difficult. 

" 'Tiie rogue, even when insane, if confined 
in a hospital, recognizes in every enlargement 
of his liberty, intended to promote his com- 
fort and his cure, an additional facility to 
escape. The danger to the coinmunity and 
the trouble to the hospital that are the direct 
result of the escape of convicts is undoubt- 
edly the real basis of many minor inconven- 
iences and greater restriction of liberty which 
their presence occasions in the ordinary hos- 
pitals for the insane. 

" 'The association of the convict insane 
with those drawn from the community at large 
is not only an inconvenience and leads to dif- 
liculty in the management of the ordinary hos- 
|)ital, but it is a gross wrong, and the State has 
no right to compel its honest citizens, sane or 
insane, to associate with criminals. Vet under 
the laws that now exist, and as the hospitals 
are now constructed and conducted, this unde- 
sirable association of patients must exist. 

'' 'If these two dangerous classes were re- 
moved from the hospitals, or confined in wards 
especially adapted for their care and custody, 
the ordinary insane would in all respects be 
better ofif ; much more freedom cotild be 
granted to them, and there would lie less 
danger of violence than there is at present. 
Associated as these classes necessarily are in 
some of the halls and airing courts, constantly 
watched and guarded as they are by attend- 
ants, the danger of violence is not so great as 
it might be, but it woulfl be wrong to say that 
there is no risk. 

"'What I wish t<i impress on you is the 
fact that the restrictions now ])laced upon the 
movements of the insane patients, which 
grows out of a necessity of safely providing 
for these dangerous classes, could be at once 
modified, and, in a great measure, removed, 
if the separation which you [iropose could be 
accoiriplishcd. .Such a sep;iration need not 
affect unfavorably the condition of those 
dangerous classes ; for it is contemplated that 
such special provisions would be made for 
them ;is would insure kind care and treatment, 
within restricted limits, with probably more 
freedom than it would be safe to give them 
under other circimistances. The hospitals, as 
they are now constructed, are not intended for 
the custody of the insane convict, and the 
result is they frequently escape, and expose 
the community to a repetition of the crimes 



for which they were convicted and imprisoned. 
The community, then, is entitled to protection 
by the transfer of all such dangerous insane 
persons to strong and secure wards in some 
hospital from which escape is impossible. 

■' 'As the State seems unwilling to con- 
struct a hospital separate and distinct for the 
custody of the convict and dangerous classes 
of the insane, your suggestion is made that 
several wards in one of the hospitals now in 
process of construction shall be so modified, 
arranged and equipped for the reception, 
custody and proper medical treatment of all' 
such insane persons as may be sent to the 
hospital, so provided by orders of court or 
transferred from other hospitals to it by the 
Board of Public Charities. 

" 'The reasons for so doing may be sum- 
marized, as follows : 

" 'First. The character of such insane 
persons requires greater safeguards both as 
to the construction of the buildings and the 
administration of the institution, in order to 
secure them from escape and from injuring 
other inmates, and such safeguards when ap- 
plied to patients who do not need them are 

" 'Second. Inmates not belonging to these 
classes, and whose insanity may be limited to 
melancholy or some mild form of disease, and 
by whom external relations are so fully appre- 
ciated, find the association with such classes 

" 'Third. There seems to be no good rea- 
son for providing one receptacle for insane 
convicts and another for insane persons who 
in a state of insanity have committed or who 
arc predisposed to violent acts, such as homi- 
cide, arson, burglary, etc. 

" 'Fourth. The same safeguards as to con- 
struction and administration are required for 
both classes. 

" 'Fifth. The insane patients of homicidal 
propensities, who are not convicts, have a 
form of insanity in which they would not in 
many cases be oflfended or rendered uncom- 
fortable by the association with the insane 

" 'Sixth. The two classes are often not sep- 
arated by any principle of moral responsibility, 
as the insane convict is frequently one who 
was suffering at the time of the criminal act 
under a disability which the courts failed to 
detect at the trial, for want of a proper de- 
fense, or because the mental disorder was still 

" 'Seventh. Insanity suspends punishment 
based upon previous conduct, and there is, 

therefore, no reason for the separation based 
on moral grounds, or for any separation except 
such as is founded upon the actual aversion of 
other inmates to such association. 

" 'This aversion is sufficiently considered by 
not having the wards in which they are con- 
fined with a penal institution, but in or near 
to one of the hospitals for the insane. 

" 'Eighth. For these reasons it is better 
that proper provision should be made for the 
convict insane, as well as for those who have 
committed or are predisposed to homicide or 
other violent acts, in buildings or apartments 
properly arranged and made secure for their 
custody and treatment in or near to some one 
of the hospitals for the insane. 

" 'The association of convict insane with 
other insane persons in the \vards is admitted, 
on all hands, to be a great injurs' to the well- 
being of' the patients. The reports of sup- 
erintendents throughout the country are full 
of observations to this effect which we need 
not here quote.' 

"I also read from the report of the commis- 
sioners of the Illinois State penitentiary at 
Joliet. for the year 1880. Page 24: 

" 'The commingling of the two classes in one 
common asylum calls forth frequent protests 
from the superintendents of these institutions, 
as well as from the friends of the citizen 
insane, for whose benefit these asylums were 
originally intended. It seems to me that the 
authorities should not turn a deaf ear to 
these complaints, for they are well grovmded, 
and address themselves with unusual force 
to those who are brought in constant contact 
with the criminal insane.' 

"I might further tax the patience of this 
body by reading extracts from other reports 
and letters. I might read from Dr. Diller; 
from Drs. Gerhart and Cleaves ; from Drs. 
Case and Bennett ; from the doctor in charge 
of Blockley hospital; from Warden Wright, 
of the Western, and from Warden Townsend, 
of the Eastern Penitentiary, all of whom have 
written to me, and are enthusiastic in favor 
of this bill, and to all of whom, in this con- 
nection. I offer my sincere thanks for their 
sympathy and cooperation. 

"And now. Mr. President, although I again 
acknowledge that wonders are being accom- 
plished through the present management of 
the insane, yet I do claim that if a proper 
classification be made, as is contemplated by 
this bill, then a better treatment and manage- 
ment will follow as a rational result, and I 
confidently predict a new era to arise in the 
treatment and the management of the insane. 



honorable alike to Christianity, civilization. 
]ihilosophy and humanity. 

"We must take tliis step ; we must enact 
this law. 1 am i>roiKl to say that we have done 
well; that we are now doing better; but I say 
earnestly we must still improve. 

"Those of you who visited a few days ago, 
in connection with the members of the house, 
the Norristown hospital, must have observed 
its admirable construction and management, 
and those of you who heard the remarks there 
made by distinguished men, men of exfx'rience 
in what they said, cannot help but be insj)ired 
with the same inspiration that there seized 
me, viz., to try, in my humble way, to accom- 
])lish something good, something tangible for 
this unfortunate class. 

"Mr. President, we must be liberal-minded, 
we must uproot and destroy our prejudices by 
inquiry and examination. Conservatism must 
give way. I was deeply impressed, while at 
Norristown, with fer\or that grayhaired 
orators used in advocacy of liberal advance- 
ment in the management of the insane. I was 
pleased to hear the universal approval and 
testimony in favor of the admission of female 
physicians to the care of female wards in our 
State institutions. Managers and superin- 
tendents gave eager testimony to the happy 
changes and great benefits from the employ- 
ment of said physicians. Those who had been 
most bitter in their op]>osition had now, from 
experience and observation, changed into the 
warmest advocates of the propriety, expedi- 
ency and justice of what to them had seemed 
to be a silly experiment, but what now had 
proved to be just the one tiling desired. How 
appropriate at that time, and in that jilace, 
it would have been to proclaim anew and 
keep the fact before the iniblic, that to America 
1)elongs the distinguished honor of appointing 
the first female physician to an insane asylum. 
Said appointment was made by Massachusetts 
in 1869, followed by Iowa, appointing Dr. 
]\Targaret A. Cleaves, in iH/,^, and Pennsyl- 
vania joined hands with Massachusetts in the 
Fast and Iowa in the West in the year 1880, 
by two appointments, one for Norristown and 
one for Ilarrisburg. Dr. Cleaves, of our 
.State hosjjital, says : 

" 'Who can be better litted for this office 
than the womanly jjliysician ? Who brings, 
in addition to her special knowledge of their 
disease, a woman's quick insight, clear intui- 
tions, kind and symp.-ithetic nature, she being 
like with them, and c,ipal>]e. therefore, of 
entering into and appreciating many of their 
tiioughts and feelings. "The grief that does 

not speak," whether real or fancied, "that 
whispers the o'er-fraught heart and bids it 
break," is not less true in many cases of dis- 
ease than in health, and the individual who 
can invite the fullest, freest confidence, will 
be the one best calculated to do the patient 
good. The suj)erintendent's hands are full — 
hot always with the medical and moral care 
of his patients, but with the duties of steward, 
farmer, civil engineer, architect, and general 
executive officer. 

" 'The mental and moral fitness of woman 
for the management of insane women is be- 
yond cavil. Their fidelity and devotion to 
their profession cannot be questioned. Their 
ability to successfully manage and control 
similar institutions in all their departments 
has been proved. We may instance the 
woman's prison at Sherborn, Mas.sachusetts, 
and the woman's prison and girl's reforma- 
tory in Indiana, both successfully managed by 
women. This special field is not without its 
pioneers. In the Worcester hospital, Massa- 
chusetts, a woman was long and successfully 
employed as assistant physician. In March 
of this year (1879) a lady was appointed, by 
competitive examination, assistant physician 
at the Cook county hospital for the insane, 

"Thus far but seven hospitals are employ- 
ing female physicians ; and at present but ten 
])rofessional women are thus engaged, all of 
whom are in American institutions. 

"We have ample facilities, Mr. President, 
for our insane. I read from the report of the 
Board of Public Charities, for the year 1880, 
page 2 : 

" 'Hospitals for the care and treatment of 
this unfortunate class have been provided to 
a large extent. When the Warren and South- 
eastern hos])itals shall be fully ready for the 
reception of patients, sufficient accommoda- 
tions will have been provided for thirty-two 
hundred and fifty patients. The present num- 
ber maintained in the State asylums, including 
Dixmont, is about fifteen hundred. Six hun- 
dred of the inmates of the insane department 
of the I'iiiladelphia almshouse will probably 
be transferred to State institutions, making 
the entire insane population to be supported 
in the State hospitals twenty-one hundred, 
and leaving unoccupied wards for eleven hun- 
dred and fifty of such as may be transferred 
from other almshouses, and those retained by 
friends. The provision for the indigent class 
of the insane by the State is, therefore, not 
only sufficient, but in e.xcess of present wants.' 

"Classification is what we now need, .'^ena- 



tors, enact this law ; it is in the interest of 
economy. It will not create any new board. 
It will better classify ; it will lessen attendants ; 
and even if it should not. we have no right to 
contaminate the wards of the State. Bear in 
mind that the insane are not all raving maniacs, 
that many of them are rational for hours, days, 
weeks and months at a time. I appeal to you, 
then, what must be their humiliation to find 
themsel\-es forced to associate and companion 
with criminals of every dye. Remember they 
are helpless, they are weak, they are children ; 
we are strong; and remember that we have 
the assurance from one who is all wise and 
all powerful that when we — 

■"Are weak and wretched, b\- our sins weighed down, 

Then it is that God's great mercy liolds us closest, 

loves us best. 

"Fellow Senators, as the representatives of 
o\er four million two hundred and eighty-two 
thousand people, as the representatives of the 
great State of Pennsylvania, let us rise on 
this occasion to the dignity of duty ; to the 
greatness of opjwrtunity, and to the justness 
of responsibility. Let us prove by our legis- 
lative acts that we. in recognition of God's 
mercy to us, will hold sacred and will in the 
future better care for, protect and defend the 
rights, the sensibilities and the interests of 
Pennsylvania's defenseless and distressed 

The bill passed finally in the Senate on 
Wednesday, .April 2oth ; yeas thirty-three. 
nays none {see page 1.225, Legislative Jour- 
nal) : was referred to committee on Judiciary 
General in the house on April 21st (see page 
1327, Legislative Journal) : when reported to 
the House the bill became House No. (n)^. 
On Wednesday, June S, i88r, it was read 
before the House the third time, and on final 
])assage it was defeated, the vote being yeas 
sixty-four, nays fifty-four fsee page 2482, 
Legislative Journal). 

The reason I did not reintroduce the act in 
1883 was this, I confidently expected by my 
record to be returned to the Senate for a sec- 
ond term. In this I was disappointed, but T 
bad the above speech printed in large num- 
bers and mailecl copies to each governor, to 
the lioard of Public Charities, and to the 
speakers and officers of the legislature, ho]iing 
some one would take it u]), as Speaker Wallton 
did ten or fifteen years after I had incepted, 
originated and endeavored by law to make 
the classification. In reviewing the origin of 
and the classification of Penn'svKania's insane. 

the Sunday North American of January 10, 
1915, endeavors to give the entire credit of 
the present classification of the insane to Cad- 
walader Biddle. This paper of that issue 
says: "In the late eighties Cadwalader Bid- 
die, a retired business man of some means, 
began urging the State t6 build an asylum 
which would harbor the criminal insane. He 
said that it was not right to keep these vicious 
prisoners in association with harmless pat- 
ients." I commenced it as stated above, in 
1881, never having met or talked with Biddle. 
Biddle had seen my speech, for I sent every 
two years to him copies of it, to the North 
American and to every speaker of the House 
and president of the Senate, and to the officials 
of each asylum and penitentiary, until the 
complete and final passage of the present class- 
ification in an enlarged shape by Speaker Wall- 
ton in 1905, twenty-four years after I had 
incepted, conceived and made an effort to enact 
this classification. We have now Werners- 
ville for the chronic insane, authorized by 
legislature on June 22, i8gi, the first inmates 
received July 21, 1894; Polk, for the epileptics, 
authorized by legislature June 3, 1893, first 
inmates received April 27. 1897; and Farview. 
for the criminal insane, authorized by legis- 
lature May iith, 1905, and the first inmates 
received Dec. 17, 1912. Praise for much of 
this is due to Hon. John M. Wallton, who 
was speaker of the House. 

In conclusion, Pennsylvania is to-day the 
best governed State in the Union. In addi- 
tion to her great legislation for labor she 
repealed her personal tax law in 1867. Since 
that date no farmer, laborer or person, except- 
ing those having money at interest or stock 
in a corporation, has jiaid a cent of State tax. 
and with all her great and present generous 
care of the insane, large apj^ropriations for 
education, roads, health and charity, is clear 
of debt since 191 3 and has to-day a nice sur- 
plus in the treasury. Truly, great the -State 
and great her sons ! 


Pciinsxlvania has the lowest per capita tax 
on property in the United States — therefore 
its people have homes. 

It excels every other .State in nn'neral prod- 
ucts, and leads in the production of rye. iron, 
steel, petroleum and coal. 

It is the only State in the Union out of debt. 

In 19 1 5 it won the highest award at San 
Francisco for its health exhibit, and boasts 
the best .State Board of Health in the Union. 



It "has the best Mothers' Pension Act in 
the United States," and 

The best Workmen's Compensation laws 
in the United States. 

This was the first commonweaUh in the 
world to grant married women separate prop- 
erty rights; this was in 1848. 

Pennsylvania was the first State in the 
Union to have the State Mounted Police or 
Constabulary. It was organized in 1905, and 
is considered the best State police system in 
the world. 

Pennsylvania had the first volunteer fire 
company in this country. It was organized 
at Philadelphia in 1736. 


By Decades, 1790 to 1910 

1790 Pennsylvania . 

United States, 
1800 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
1810 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
1820 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
1830 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
1840 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
1850 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
i860 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
1870 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
1880 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
1890 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
1900 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
1910 Pennsylvania . 

United States 
♦198,000 in 191 5, 


.. 3,929.827 


• .';,30S,94l 

. 7,239.814 
. 1,049,458 
. 9,638,191 

• 1.348,233 
. 12,866,020 
. l,7-'4.033 
. 2.311.7'% 
. 2,906,215 
. 3.521,951 
. 4,282,981 
. 5,258,113 


. 7,665,111 


S. uS. 

> too 

> u 

424,099 6,537 3,737 

586,098 14,561 


786,704 22,492 


1,017,094 32,153 


1,309,900 37,9.30 


1,676,115 47,854 



Colored Foreigners 
193,908* 1,438,152 

in Philadelphia and 

In 19T0 the total population of the United 
States, with all its ]wssessions. was about 
101,100,000. This number includes the inhab- 
itants of all the States of the Union,. Alaska, 
Hawaii, Porto Rico, the Philippine Islands, 
persons in the military service abroad, the 
estimated population of the Island of Guam, 
the .American possessions in Samoa, and per- 
sons in tlic Panama Canal zone. .According 
to the official figures, the population of the 
United States, including Alaska, Hawaii and 

Porto Rico, is 93,402,151. These figures do 
not include the population of the Philippines, 
which in 1903, when the last enumeration in 
the islands was made, showed a ])opulation of 

When the census of 1790 was taken the 
country had an area of 827,844 square miles ; 
in 1800, the same; 1810, 1,999,775 square 
miles; 1820, the same; 1830 and 1840, 2,059,- 
043; 1850, 2,980,959; at present the area is 
3,025,640 square miles, not including Alaska 
and Hawaii. 


According to the United States census of 
1910, there are sixty-three cities and boroughs 
in the State of Pennsylvania having a popula- 
tion of ten thousand or over. 

No migration the world has ever known has 
equaled that which started in 1832, and still 
continues, into America. Previous to the year 
named the number of immigrants to the 
United States annually had not exceeded 
twenty-seven thousand. In 1830 and 183 1 
the number each year was below twenty-four 
thousand. In 1832 it rose to sixty thousand. 
It rose and fell from this on un, until in 1854, 
it passed the four hundred thousand mark. 
In the early years of the Civil war it fell to 
less than ninety thousand, but from this on 
its general tendency was upward until it 
reached six hundred twenty-three thousand 
in 1892. After that there was some decline, 
but in 1900 it began to climb again and the 
number of foreigners arriving in 1907 was 
1,285,349. The total from the year first named 
to that year was more than twenty-eight mil- 
lion five hundred thousand for the United 
States. There have been thirt\- million arrivals 
since 1820. 

Our latchstring is never drawn in 
-Against the poorest child of Adam's kin. 

One-seventh of the pojiulation of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1900 was foreign-born. 

I'opiilation by Counties 

The ]Mpulation of Pennsylvania for 1840 
given by counties totals a little less than the 
figure given in the table above, viz. : 


-Adams 23,044 

-Allegheny 81,235 

-Armstrong 28,365 

Beaver 29,368 


lA^ere cyec/efz-et^ h/^hways [//z-To6ys Creek 
/]//eg/?er?y, R<3dB3nM . 3/g 3^aver, frer?ch Cr. 
Coneiwando, Cusayvag/^r,0/V{^r, dcBroAen Strain/ 





^. "^ >i 

W ^ rv > 

^ 5 


ASTOr?, LF'^'OX 




Bedford 29,335 

Berks 64,569 

Bradford 32,769 

Bucks 48,107 

Butler 22,378 

Cambria 11,256 

Centre 20.492 

Chester 57i5i5 

Clarion 9,500 

Clearfield 1 7,834 

Clinton 8,323 

Columbia 24,267 

Crawford 31.724 

Cumberland 30,953 

Dauphin 30,1 18 

Delaware I9,79l 

Erie 3>4I2 

Fayette 33.574 

Franklin 37.793 

Greene 19. '47 

Huntingdon 35.484 

Indiana 20,782 

Jefferson 7.253 

Juniata 11,080 

Lancaster 84,203 

I Lebanon 2i ,872 

Lehigh 25,787 

Luzerne 35,9o6 

Lycoming 22,649 

McKean 2,975 

Mercer 32.873 

Mifflin 13.092 

Monroe 9.879 

Montgomery 47.241 

Northampton 40,996 

Northumberland 20,027 

Perry 17.096 

F'hiladelphia 258,037 

Pike 3.832 

Potter 3.371 

Schuylkill 29,053 

Somerset 19,650 

Susquehanna 21,195 

Tioga 15.498 

Union 22,787 

Venango 17,900 

Warren 9.278 

Washington 41.279 

Wayne 1 1,848 

Westmoreland ' 42,699 

Wyoming 8,100 

York 47.010 


In 1910 the total population of 7,665,111 
was distributed as follows : 

Area Sq. 
County and County Seat Miles Pop. 

Adams, Gettysburg 537 34,319 

Allegheny, Pittsburgh 758 1,018,463 

Armstrong, Kittanning 640 67,880 

Beaver, Beaver 426 78,353 

Bedford. Bedford 1,070 38,879 

Berks, Reading 874 183,222 

Blair, Hollidaysburg 530 108,858 

Bradford. Towanda 1.140 54,526 

Area Sq. 
County and County Seat Miles 

Bucks, Doylestown 620 

Butler, Butler 765 

Cambria, Ebensburg 680 

Cameron, Emporium 375 

Carbon, Mauch Chunk 400 

Center, Bellefonte 1,130 

Chester, Westchester 760 

Clarion, Clarion , 566 

Clearfield, Clearfield 1,141 

Clinton, Lock Haven 892 

Columbia, Bloomsburg 480 

Crawford, Meadville 1,020 

Cumberland, Carlisle 536 

Dauphin, Harrisburg 514 

Delaware, Media 178 

Elk, Ridgway 760 

Erie, Erie 782 

Fayette, Uniontown 824 

Forest, Tionesta 420 

Franklin. Chambersburg 731 

Fulton, McConnellsburg 416 

Greene, Wayncsburg 588 

Huntingdon, Huntingdon 940 

Indiana, Indiana 820 

Jefferson, Brookville 620 

Juniata, Mififlintown 398 

Lackawanna. Scranton 470 

Lancaster. Lancaster 960 

Lawrence. Newcastle 360 

Lebanon, Lebanon 370 

Lehigh. Allentown 328 

Luzerne, Wilkes-Barre 910 

Lycoming, 1.240 

McKean, Smethport 976 

Mercer, Mercer 680 

Mifflin. Lewistown 411 

Monroe, Stroudsburg 6,30 

Montgomery. Norristown 501 

Montour. Danvillt 142 

Northampton, Easton 370 

Northumberland, Sunbury' 469 

Perry. New Bloomfield 561 

Philadelphia, Philadelphia 130 i 

Pike, Mil ford 620 

Potter, Coudersport 1,049 

Schuylkill, Pottsville 789 

Snyder, Middleburg : . 320 

Somerset. Somerset 1,040 

.Sullivan, Laporte 470 

Susquehanna, Montrose 823 

Tioga, Wellsboro 1,180 

Union. Lewisburg 316 

Venango, Franklin 671 

Warren, Warren 860 

Washington, Washington 830 

Wayne, Honesdale _ 834 

Westmoreland. Greensburg . . .' 1.060 

Wyoming, Tunkhannock 409 

York, York 875 





























































Pennsylvania now has sixty-seven counties. 
The following table sets foith the order of 
formation, with other interesting information : 



No. Name Date of Forma- 


1 Philadelphia . . March lo, 1682 

2 Chester " 10, 1682 

3 Bucks " 10, 1O82 

4 Lancaster May 10,1729 

5 York Aug. ly, i749 

6 Cumberland ..Jan. 27, 1750 

7 Berks March 11, 1752 

8 Northampton . " 11. 1752 

9 Bedford " 9. "771 

10 Northuniher- 

laiid " 27. 1772 

Acres County Scat Laid Out 

1 1 Westmoreland Feb. 

12 Washington . . Marcli 

13 Fayette Sept. 

14 Franklin 

15 Montgomery . . 

K) Dauphin Marcli 

17 Luzerne Sept. 

18 Huntingdon . . 

19 Allegheny 

20 Mifflin 

21 Delaware 

22 Somerset April 

23 Greene Feb. 

24 Wayne March 

25 Lycoming .... ."Kpril 

26 Adams Jan. 

27 Centre Feb. 

28 .*\rmslrong ...March 












26, 1773 

28, 1 78 1 

26, 1783 

9, 1784 

1(1, 1784 

4. 1785 

2,:;, 1786 

20, 1787 

24, 1788 

19. 1789 

26, 1789 














Butler ■■ 

Crawford .... 







Clearfield March 


Potter " 



Bradford * ... Feb. 

Susquehanna . 
Schuylkill ....March 



12, 1800 

12, 1800 

12, 1800 

12. 1800 

12, 1800 

l.i, 1800 

12. ISOO 

30, 1803 

20, 1804 
26, 1804 

26, 1804 

26, 1804 

26, 1804 

26, 1804 

21, 181O 

21, 1810 

I, 181I 

6, 1812 

One of Pemi's original counties.... 80,840 


" 387,200 

From a part of Chester 608,000 

Lancaster 576,000 

Lancaster 348,160 

f^hiladelphia, Ches- 
ter and Lancas- 
ter 588,800 

P,ucks 240.000 

" " Cumberland 036.160 

" " Cumberland, Berks, 

Bedford and 
Northampton ...292,480 
" " Bedford, and in 

1785 part of the 
Indian purchase 
of 1784 was 

added 672,000 

" ■■ Westmoreland ....573,440 

" '■ Westmoreland .... 527,360 

'■ Cumberland 480,000 

". " Philadelphia 303,080 

" " Lancaster 357,76o 

" " Northumberland ..89(1,000 

" " Bedford 537.6oo 

Westmoreland and 

Washington ....482,560 
Cumberland and 

Northumberland 286,800 

Chester 113,280 

Bedford 682,240 

Washington 389,120 

" " Northampton 460,800 

N'orthumberland ..691,200 

^ ork 337,920 

Mifflin, Northum- 
berland. I-ycn- 
ming and Hunt- 
ingdon 68S,ooo 

Allegheny. West- 
moreland and 

Lycoming 408,960 

" " .Mlegheny and 

Washingtnii ....298,240 

" " Allegheny 502,400 

" " Allegheny 629,760 

" " Allegheny 480.000 

.-Vllegheny 416.OOO 

" .Allegheny and Ly- 
coming 330,240 

" " Allegheny and Ly- 
coming 551,0411 

" " Westmoreland and 

Lycoming 492,800 

" " Lycoming 716,800 

From a part of Lycoming and 

Northumberland .761,600 

" ■' Lycoming 412,800 

" " Lycoming 384,000 

" Huntingdon, Som- 

erset and Bedford428,8oo 

" Lycoming 714,240 

" " Luzerne and Ly- 
coming 751,300 

" " Luzerne 510,080 

" " Berks and North- 
ampton 485,400 

" " Northampton 232,960 

Philadelphia 1682 

Westchester 178O 

Doylestown 1788 

Lancaster 1730 

York 1741 

Carlisle 1751 

Reading 1748 

Easton 1738 

Bedford 1766 

Sunbury 1772 

Greensburg 1782 

Washington 1782 

Uniuntown 1767 

Chambersburg 1764 

Norristown 1784 

Harrisburg 1785 

Wilkes-Barre 1783 

Huntingdon 1767 

Pittsburgh 1765 

Lewistown 1790 

Media 1849 

Somerset 1795 

Waynesburg 1790 

Honesdale 1826 

Williamsport 1796 

Gettysburg 1787 

Bellelontc i7y5 

Kittanning 1804 

Beaver . . 
Butler . . . 


Mercer . . 

. I79t 

Franklin j 

\\ arrcii 


■"(liana 180s 

Smethport -.1807 

ClearfieUl 1805 

Brookville 1830 

Coiidersport 1807 

Ebcnsburg 1805 

Wellsboro 1806 

Towanda 1812 

Montrose 181 1 

Pottsville 1816 

.Mleiitovvn 1751 


No. Name Date of Forma- 

47 Lebanon Feb. i6, 1813 

48 Columbia Marcli 22. 1813 

49 Union " 22. 1813 

50 Pike " 26, 1814 

51 Perry " 22. 1820 

52 Juniata " 2, 1831 

53 Monroe April I, 1836 

54 Clarion Marcli 11, 1839 

55 Clinton June 21, 1839 

56 Wyoming .... April 4. 1842 

57 Carbon March 13. 1S43 

58 Elk April 18. 1843 

59 Blair 

60 Sullivan . . . 

61 Forest 

62 Fulton 

63 Lawrence . . 

64 Montour . . . 

65 Snyder .... 

66 Cameron . . . 

67 Lackawanna 



Dauphin and Lan- 
caster 195,840 

Northumberland ..275,840 
Northumberland ..165,120 

Wayne 384,000 

Cumberland 344,960 

Mifflin 224,640 

Northampton and 

Pike 384,000 

Venango and Arm- 
strong 384,000 

Lycoming and Cen- 
tre 39i,,?6o 


and Luzerne 261,760 

Northampton and 

Monroe 256,000 

JefJerson, Clearfield 
and McKean ...446,720 


County Seat Laid Out 

Lebanon 1750 

Bloomsburg 1802 

Lewisburg 1785 

Milford 1800 

New Bloomfield .... 1822 
Miffliiitown 1791 

-StriiudsburH: 1806 

Clarion 1840 

Lock Haven 1833 

Tunkhannock 1790 

Maucli Chunk 1815 

Kidgway 1843 

Hollidaysburg 1820 

Laporte 1850 

Tionesta 1852 

McConnellsburg . . . 1796 

Newcastle 1802 

Danville 1790 

M iddleburg r8oo 

Emporium 1861 

.Scranton 1S40 

* Previous to March 24, 1812, this county was called Ontario. 






Apropos of population, we present the ratio 
in which it has been represented in 'the 
United States House of Representatives : 

From 1789 to 1793 as provided by the 
United States Cmistitution, 30.000; from 1793 
to 1803, based on the United States census of 
1790, 33,000; from 1803 to 18 13, based on the 
United States census of 1800, 33.000; from 
18 1 3 to 1823, based on the United States cen- 
sus of 1810. 35,000; from 1823 to 1833, based 
on the United States census of 1820, 40.000; 
from 1833 to 1S43, based on the United States 
census of 1830, 47,700; from 1843 to 1853, 
based on the United States census of 1840. 
70,680; from 1853 to 1863, based on the 
United States census of 1850, 93,420; from 
1863 to 1873, based on the United States cen- 
sus of i860. 127,381 ; from 1873 to 1S83. liased 
on the United States census of 1870, 131.425; 
from 1883 to 1893, hased on the United States 
census of 1880. 152,960; from 1893 to 1903. 
based on the United States census of 1890, 

In i860 the Southern States had twenty-six 
Congressmen more than their white ratio 
entitled them to. This was property repre- 
sentation for slavery. Five slaves counted as 
three white men, although these slaves, white 
or black, were not allowed to vote. 

The United States Constitution provides 
that '"The Senate of the United States shall be 
composed of two senators from each State, 
elected l)y the ])eople thereof, for six years ; 
and each senator shall have' one vote. The 
electors in each State shall have the qualifica- 
tion requisite for electors of the most numer- 
ous branch of the Stale T.egislature. ' 
No person shall be a senator who shall not 
have attained the age of thirty years, and been 
nine years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not. when elected, be an inhabitant 
of that State for which ho shall be chosen.'' the pco]:)le rule. Xine Western States 
having less jiopulation than Pennsyhania have 
eighteen United .States Senators. 

The returns of the popular vote for United 
States senator in Pennsylvania in 1914 showed 
the following: 

I(ji4 Boifs Poiirosc. 

Republican 499.33<5 

Personal Liberty 20,465 — 519,801 

.\. Mitcbell Palmer, Demo- 
cratic 266,415 

Gifford Piiicbot, 

WasliiiiKton 202,54; 

Hull Moose 48,875 

Roosevelt Proprressive 17.845 — 269,265 

Frederick W. Whiteside, So- 
cialist 37,950 

Madison F. Larkin, Prohibition 17,685 

A. S. Landis, Industrialist 680 

Scattering 136 

Pennsylvania is now represented in the 
United .States Senate by Boies Penrose and 
George Tener Olixer. 

l!oii:s Pic.NKosi';, of Philadelphia, was born in 
Phila(lel])hia X'^ovember i. 1800; was prepared 
for college by j)rivate tutors and in the schools 
of Philadelphia ; was graduated from Harvard 


f S PENRO'^ - 

SC S aTO« 

I'ollegc in 18S1 ; rc,-i<l law with Wayne Mac- 
V'eagh and Ceorge Tucker Hispham. and was 
admitted to the bar in 18S3 ; practiced his pro- 
fession in Pliiladel[)hia for sexeral years; was 
elected to the Pennsyhania House of Repre- 
sentatives from the Eighth Philadeli)hia dis- 
trict in 1884: was elected to the Pennsylvania 
State Senate from the Sixth Philadelphia dis- 
trict in 1S86; reelected in 1890. .and again in 
1S94: was elected [)resident ])ro tempore of 
the Senate in i88(). and reelected in 1891 ; was 
a delegate to the Rejiublican Xational conven- 
tions of iijoo. i'j04 and i<pS: was chairman 
of the Re]niblican .State committee in 1903- 
i()05 : was elected a member of the Republican 
Xational coniniitu-r from Pennsylvania in 



1904 and 1908; was elected by the Legislature 
to the United States Senate to succeed J. 
Donald Cameron, and took his seat March 4, 
1897 ; was reelected by the Legislature in 1903 
and 1909; was reelected at the general election 
on November 3, 1914, having been the first 
United States Senator elected by direct vote 
in Pennsylvania. His term of service will 
expire March 3. 1921. 

Gkori.k Tenek Oliver, of Pittsburcrh, was 
born in County Tyrone, Ireland, during a visit 
of his ]iarents. January 26. 1848, and is the 


son of Henry W. and Margaret Brown Oliver, 
who were of English and Scotch ancestry; was 
graduated from P>ethany College, West Vir- 
ginia, in iSfiS; admitted to the Allegheny 
count\- ( I 'a. J bar in 1871. and was engaged in 
active ijractic^ ten years. Tn 1881 engaged in 
mainifacUiring. becoming vice president and 
subsequently president of the Oliver Wire 
Company, with which he remained until 1899, 
when that company sold its plant ; also, from 
1889. president of the Hainsworth .Steel Com- 
pany until its merger in 1897 with Oliver & 
Snyder Steel Company, of which he was presi- 
dent until he disposed of his manufacturing 
interests in 1901. Since igoo engaged in 

newspaper business as principal owner of 
Pittsburgh Gazette Times and Pittsburgh 
Chronicle Telegraph. President Pittsburgh 
Central Board of Education from 1881 to 
1884, and a Presidential elector in 1884. In 
1904 was tendered appointment to the United 
States Senate to succeed Matthew Stanley 
Quay, deceased, but declined for personal rea- 
sons. He was elected Senator, March 17, 
1909, to fill out the unexpired term of Hon. 
P. C. Knox, who resigned to accept thp office 
of Secretary of State in President Taft's 
cabinet ; and was reelected for a full term in 
January, 191 1. He received the degree of 
LL.D. from Lafayette College in 1912. His 
term of service will expire March 3, 1917. 


1627. — Petroleum was first noticed this 
year in New York; in Pennsylvania, in 1721. 

1645. — A small iron pot, holding about a 
quart, which is still preserved at Lynn, was 
cast at the Lynn foundry in 1645. It was the 
first iron article made in America. 

1683. — The first sea-going vessel built in 
Pennsylvania was the "Amity," built by Wil-. 
liam Penn at Philadelphia in this year for the 
Free Society of Traders. Tn the same year 
Penn wrote: "Some vessels have been built 
here and many boats." 

1683. — In this year the first glass factory 
in Pennsylvania was established at Phila- 
delphia. In August, 1683, Penn wrotq that "the 
sawmill for timber and the place of the glass- 
house are conveniently posted for water-car- 
riage." In March, 1684, Pastorius wrote that 
"a mill and glass factory are built" at 
"Franckfurt," now a part of Philadelphia. 
Both writers probably referred to the same 
glass factory. 

1690. — The first paper mill in the colonies 
was established before this year on a tribu- 
tary of the Wissahickon. 

1692. — We find the first mention of iron 
having been made- in Pennsylvania. 

1716. — Pool forge, on Manatawny creek, 
in Berks county. Pa., was built in 1716 by 
Thomas Rutter, and was the first iron enter- 
prise in Peimsylvania of which any record 
has been preserved. 

1719. — In this year the first newspaper in 
Pennsylvania was established at Philadelphia 
by Andrew Bradford. It was entitled The 
American Weekly Mercury. 

1766. — Anthracite coal was discovered in 
the Wyoming valley as early as 1766. 

1800. — The first permanent bridge over the 



Schuylkill at rhiliuk-lphia, at Market street, 
was conimenced in iXoo and ()|)ene(l to traffic 
in January, i<So5. 

1801. — The first chain hridf^e in the United 
States was built this year over Jacob's creek 
in western Pennsylvania by Judge James Fin- 
ley, of Fayette county. 

1806. — Lancaster ]3ikc finished to Pitts- 

1807. — The first railroads in the L'nited 
States, beginning with this year, were built to 
haul gravel, stone, coal, and other hea\y ma- 
terials, and were all short roads. 

1808. — Anthracite coal was first used in a 
grate by Judge Jesse Fell, at Wilkes-Barre, 
J'a., in this year. 

181 1. — The first steamboat ''on the western 
waters" was built at Pittsburgh and called 
"New Orleans." 

1812. — The first rolling mill ;it Pittsburgh 
was built in 181 1 and 1812 liy Christopher 
Cowan, a .Scotch-Irishman, and called the 
Pittsburgh rolling mill. This mill had no 
])uddling furnaces. Its products were sheet 
iron, nail and spike rods, sho\els. chains, 
hatchets, hammers, etc. 

1812. — Salt was first discovered on the 
Conemaugh in western Pennsylvania in this 
year or 181 3. 

1816. — Wire fences were in limited use in 
the neighborhood of Philadelphia as far back 
as 1816. The wire used was manufactured 
by White & Hazard at their wire works at 
the falls of the Schuylkill. 

1819-21. — Old -State capitol built, burned 
February 2, 1897. 

1820. — The anthracite 
established about 1S20. 

1825. — The first iron 
this country was the 
York. Pa., in 1823. This year also marked 
the great era of turnpike building. 

1829. — Steampower was not used on :ui\- 
.American railroad until 1829. Horsejiower 
had jjreviously been em])loyed ;md was usi'd 
for many years afterwards. 

1830. — In 1830 only twenty-three miles of 
r.ailroad were in operation in the United 
States; in 1840 there were 2.818 miles; 1850, 
9,021 miles; i860, 30,626 miles; 1870, 52,922 
miles; 1880, 93,262 miles; 1890, 166.703 
miles: 1900, 194,262 miles; 1907, 228,128 
miles. These figures do not include double 
tracks, sidings, etc.. only the length of the main 
track. (See 1900.) 

1832. — In Prown's "History of the b'irst 
Locomotives in America" it is stated that "the 
first charter for what are termed city ]5assen- 


husmess was 

steamboat built 
'Codorus," built 



ger or horse railroads was obtained in the city 
of New York and known as the New York 
and Ilarletn, and this was the first road of the 
kind ever constructed, and was opened in 
1832. No other road of the kind was com- 
pleted till 1852, when the Sixth Avenue was 
opened to the public." 

1833. — The first railroad tunnel in the 
United States, four miles east of Johnstown, 
Pa., forming part of the Portage railroad, 
was completed in 1833 and was first used on 
November 26th, of that year. 

In this year the F'hiladelphia & Reading 
Railway Company was chartered. It was 
opened to Blount Carbon, one mile below 
Pottsville, on Jan. 13, 1842. 

1834. — In this year the main line of the 
Pennsvlvania canal, connecting Philadelphia 
with Pittsburgh, was opened for traffic 
throughout its entire length. The building of 
the canal was commenced in 1826. 

1838. — luddwin Locomotive Works ex- 
ported one locomotive to Cuba, their first ship- 
ment to a foreign country. 

1841. — In the winter of this year and [842 
Connellsville coke was first made in com- 
mercial quantities, a few miles below Coimells- 
ville on the Youghiogheny river. 

1842. — Wire cable sus])ension bridge over 
the Schuvlkill at Philadelphia was built bv 
Charles Kllet, Jr. 

1846. — The Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
l)any was chartered to build a railroad from 
llarrisburg to Pittsburgh. 

1850. — The first shipment of iron ore from 
the Lake Superior region was made in 1850 
and consisted of about ten tons, "which was 
taken away by Mr. .\. L. Crawford, of New 
Castle, Pennsylvania." 

Petroleum was first refined in this year by 
.Samuel M. Kier, of Pittsburgh. 

1852. — On December lOth the Pennsylvania 
railroad was completed from Philadelphia to 
Pittsl)urgh, connections being made with 
.State railroads. 

1853. — The first use of Lake Superior ore 
in a blast furnace occurred in Pennsylvania 
in 1853. when about seventy tons, brought 
from Erie by canal, were used in the .Sharps- 
ville and Clay furnaces, in Mercer county. 

1855. — On March 6th the .American Iron 
Association, now the .\merican Iron and Steel 
.Association, was organized at Philadelphia. 
In 1864 the ])resent name was a(lo])teti. 

1855. — The first thirty-foot iron rails rolled 
in this country were rf)lled at the Cambria 
iron works, at Johnstown, in 18;:;. There 
was no demand for them. The first thirtv- 



foot iron rails rolled in this country on order 
were rolled at the Montour rolling mill, at 
Danville, Pa., in January, 1859, for the Sun- 
bury and Erie Railroad Company. 

1857. — The main line of the Pennsylvania 
canal, from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, was 
sold this year to the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company for $7,500,000. 

1859. — Drake struck oil near Titusville. 

1870. — On February 5, 1870, Henry Heyl, 
of Philadelphia, invented moving pictures. 

1873. — The first transatlantic iron steam- 
ships to attract attention which were built in 
this country were the four vessels of the 
American Steamshi]3 Company's line, the 
"Pennsylvania," "Ohio." "Indiana," and "Illi- 
nois," built of Pennsylvania iron at Phila- 
delphia in 1871, 1872 and 1873, by W. Cramp 
& Sons. They were each three hundred and 
fifty-five feet long and their carrying capacity 
was three thousand one hundred tons each. 

1875. — The first sixty-foot rails rolled in 
this country were rolled by the Edgar Thom- 
son Steel Company, at its works near Pitts- 
burgh, in 1875, and were of steel. 

1876. — Malleable nickel was first made in 
the world in this year by Joseph Wharton 
from Pennsylvania nickel ore. 

1880. — The first elevated railroad con- 
structed in this country in connection with a 
regular freight and passenger road was 
undertaken by the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company in 1S80 and finished in 1881. It 
constitutes an extension of the main line of 
the Pennsylvania railroad to the heart of the 
city of Philadelphia and is about a mile long. 
It was opened for freight purposes on April 
2t;, 1 88 1, and for passengers on December 5. 

1890. — The tinplate industry estalilished in 
this country. 

1890. — First chartered natural gas company 
started at Leechburg. 

1897. — First pressed steel car was built by 
the .Schoen Pressed Steel Company, at .Mle- 
gheny. Pa., in this year. 

igoo. — Poor's Manual reports that in i()oo 
there were 257,853 miles of steam railroad 
track in the United .States, including second, 
third and fourth tracks, sidings, etc., and not 
including elevated railroads or electric roads. 
The same authority reports that in 1907 there 
were 324,033.38 miles, of which 224,382.19 
miles were single track and 99.651.19 miles 
were second, third and fourth tracks, sidings. 
etc. Of the total 314.713.50 miles were laid 
with steel rails and 9,319.88 miles were laid 
with iron. rails. ( l^ee 1830.) 

In 1910 the petroleum <nU]Hit for the .State 
was 8,794,662 barrels, valued at $11,908,914, 
or an average of $1,354 a barrel. The output 
of the United States is valued at $140,000,000 
annually. (See below.) 

The natural gas production of Pennsyl- 
vania in 19 10 amounted to 126,866,729,000 
cubic feet, valued at $21,057,211, or an aver- 
age price of 16.60 cents a thousand cubic feet. 
The production in the United States amounts 
to $78,000,000 annually. (See below.) 


There were great fin;uicial |)anics in 1836. 
1857, 1873, 1893-95, a'lfl T907, which affected 
Pennsylvania with the rest of the United 


In 1875 Pennsylvania had a population of 
only three million five hundred thousand. 
There were in the State about thirty-five hun- 
dred miles of railroad ; now there are eleven 
thousand fi\e hundred miles. The Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company, with a capital stock 
of $68,719,400, operated eight hundred twenty- 
eight miles of road; in 1915 its cajjital stock 
is $500,000,000. and it operates thirty-five 
hundred miles and earns more than one mil- 
lion dollars a day. .\ large freight train in 
1875 had a total carrying capacity of six hun- 
dred tons; in 1915 a train may have one hun- 
dred huge cars, and transport four thousand 

In 1875 the iron and steel industry was in 
its infancy. The yearly |)roduction of pig iron 
was less than the monthly output now. The 
Bessemer ])rocess was discovered in 1867. 
The Edgar Thomson works, nucleus of the 
\ast Carnegie enterprise, were opened in 1874. 
In 19 1 5 the steel trust has a capitalization of 
$1,500,000,000, employs two hundred twenty- 
nine thousand men, and its annual output is 
twelve million five hundrefl thousand tons. 

In 1875 there was no telephone; tiie modern 
instrument was not invcntefl until 1876. There 
were no trolley cars ; the first permanent pas- 
senger line was opened in 1884, in 
City. There was no electric light. There 
was no commercial or manufacturing use> of 
electric i)Ower ; that de\elopnient did not begin 
until 1880. The wireless was unknown. 

In 1875 the largest ocean steamship had a 
tonnage of eighty-five hundred. In 1915 the 
"Olympic" displaces sixty-six thousand tons 
and the "Vaterland" eighty thousand tons, and 



a vessel of less than twenty thousand tons is 
considered small. Industrial corporations 
were then almost unknown. Business, even 
big business, was carried on by partnerships, 
and competition, not combination, was the 
ruling policy. In 191 5 there are hundreds 
of corporations in the .State, their total capi- 
talization running into billions of dollars. 

In 1875 Pennsylvania was another State. 
Its population, its laws, its material develop- 
ment, its public opinion, its conception of 
social rights and wrongs, were as different 
from those of to-day as if it had been on 
another planet. 

In 1S75 the workers in industr}' were almost 
e.xclusively men ; the economic conditions 
which forced women into industrial life in 
large numbers had not yet exerted their full 
pressure. Child labor was used, but not to so 
great an extent as now. Moreover, no sense 
of public resiwnsibility was felt for the well- 
being of women and children in industrv ; nor 
was it considered any part of the State's duty 
to see that injured workers or the dependents 
of those killed in industrial accidents should 
be compensated. 

Oil and Natural Gas 

Everything in this world is evolution. 
Before i860 evolution was slow, since then it 
has been rapid. Petroleum was known to 
exist in New York in 1627, in Pennsylvania 
in 1721, in Ohio in 1814, in Kentucky in i82q, 
but it was never utilized to any extent. 

In 1859 E. L. Drake concluded to bore for 
oil near Titusville, Crawford Co., Pa., and 
at a depth of sixty-five feet struck a twenty- 
five barrel pumjiing well. This was the first 
well drilled e.xclusively for oil in Pennsyl- 
vania, if not in the world. 

The first record of oil is of seepages of it, 
in Egypt. The Book Of Job says, "The rock 
poured me out rivers of oil." In the United 
States in the year 1814 the business of boring 
salt wells was quite an industry. .Salt was 
in good dcm.-nid and sold high, as late as 1830 
in Brookvillc selling at five dollars a barrel. 
In one of these salt wells in western Penn- 
sylvania, oil, salt and natural gas were struck, 
and the well flowed periodically. This oil was 
gathered and sold for medicine as rock oil. 
I bought a bottle of this medicine in 1849. It 
was advertised as a "cure all," and especially 
of rheumatism. 

Gunpowder was first used to torpedo oil 

The out|)Ul of oil in these United States is 

now worth in cash about one hundred and 
forty million dollars a year. The first oil 
struck in Jefferson county was found about 
Oct. 22. 1895. The well was located on 
I.athrop's land, on Callen run, in Heath town- 
ship, and was drilled by the Standard 1,609 
feet. A flowing well of twenty-five barrels 
a day was struck ; it now flows about eight 
barrels a day. 

In 1866 Michael Best, Captain Steck, Jacob 
Sheasley, myself and others drilled a well for 
oil nine hundred feet deep. At this depth 
we struck gas and salt water, but no oil. 
This well is in W'inslow township, on Sandy 
Lick. The gas was never utilized and is 
burning to-day. 

.\rtificial gas was first used in the United 
States Nov. 13, 1813, and in 1816 the 
first company was chartered to make gas 
from coal. The evolution in the production 
of coal gas as a light was slow, and the gas 

The first practical use of natural gas in 
the oil regions was made by operators who 
jiiped the gas found with their wells into 
boilers used for operating the wells, pumping, 
as early as 1862. At that time no means had 
been discovered for regulating the pressure, 
which came irregularly from the wells, so 
that the use of the gas was regarded of little 
value — none for light and heat in dwellings. 
Later, means were found for regulating the 
flow in pipe lines, and when this was accom- 
plished it was not long until the volatile sub- 
stance began to be regarded as of equal value 
with oil. 

The first well drilled exclusively for natural 
.gas was in Westmoreland county. Pa., in 
1878. The output was so enormous that the 
well could not be controlled, and the gas went 
to waste for five years. About 1880 natural 
gas was used in western Pennsylvania for 
both light and heat. 

Among the first gas wells to be commer- 
cially useil ill Ibis section was the celebrated 
Harvey well, near Lardin's Mills, in Clinton 
township, Rutler county. This well tapped 
the sand in Noxember, 1874, at a depth of 
1.145 feet. The gas was piped a distance of 
seventeen miles, where it was used in a manu- 
facturing plant. It was not long after this 
until manufacturers began to search for the 
cheap fuel, with the result that in the early 
eighties it was in general use in mills and 

The natural g.'is (iut]nit in (he United States 
is now valued at about se\-cnty-eight million 
dollars a year. 



The earliest use of natural gas of which 
there is any record is in China, where for 
centuries it has been conveyed from fissures 
in salt mines to the surface through hollow 
bamboo and used for burning purposes. 
There are also places in Asia, near the Cas- 
pian sea. where it is seen to issue from the 
earth. The first discovery of- natural gas 
made in America was in the neighborhood of 
Fredonia, Chautauqua Co., N. Y. In 182 1 
a small well was bored in the village and the 
gas was conducted through pipes to the houses 
and used for illuminating purposes, and on 
the occasion of General La Fayette's visit 
there in 1824 it is said that the village was 
illuminated with this gas. Although this dis- 
covery was widely known it did not lead to 
any further experiments, either in that neigh- 
borhood or in other places, until fully twenty 
years after. In the early days of boring for 
salt in the Kanawha valley large quantities of 
gas were found, but it was not utilized as fuel 
until 1 84 1, and then only locally. 

In 1865 a well which was sunk for petroleum 
at Bloomfield. N. Y., struck a flow of natural 
gas. An cflFort was made to utilize this, and 
it was carried in a wooden main to the city 
of Rochester. N. Y., a distance of twenty-four 
miles, in 1870, for the purpose of illuminating 
the city, but the experiment was a failure. 
In 1873 "^ well in .\rmstrong county. Pa., was 
so arranged that the gas could be separated 
from the water with which it was discharged 
and conveyed through pipes to mills in that 
vicinity, where it was extensively used for 
manufacturing purposes for the first time. 
From that date to the present day the use of 
natural gas, both for fuel and illuminating, has 
increased rapidly. The latest discovery in the 
natural gas business, one which was perfected 
six years ago, is the extraction of gasoline, two 
or three gallons from each one thousand cubic 
feet of the gas, without in any way lessening 
the commercial value of the volatile substance 
or decreasing its volume. This system is now 
in general use throughout the oil and gas 
producing regions. To-day the once despised 
gas well takes rank with the oil well as a 
source of wealth and as an important factor 
in the manufacturing industries, in which it 
is extensively used in place of coal. It has 
also proved a no less important factor in 
domestic economy, supplying a cleanly, con- 
venient and economical fuel. 


The earliest recorded tornado in the LTnited 
States was in 1794. It passed north of Brook- 

ville. in what is now Heath and other town- 
ships, and extended to Northford, Connecti- 

The pioneer strike in America was that of 
the journeyman bootmakers of Philadelphia 
in 1796. The men struck, or "turned out," 
as they phrased it, for an increase of wages. 
After two weeks' suspension of trade their 
demands were granted, and this success gained 
them greater strength and popularity, so that 
when they "turned out" in 1798, and again in 
1799, for further increases, they were still 
successful and escaped indictment. . 

On June 6, 1806, there was a total eclipse 
of the sun. Fowls went to roost and bees 
hastened to their hives. The pioneers and 
Indians were greatly alarmed. 

In 181 1 a furious tornado swept across this 

Between the hours of three and seven o'clock 
in the morning of December 16, 181 1, two 
distinct shocks of earthquake startled the 
pioneers of northwestern Pennsylvania. The 
violence was such as to shake their log cabins. 

In 1816, or the year without a summer, 
frost occurred in every month. Ice formed 
half an inch thick in May. Snow fell to the 
depth of three inches in June. Ice was formed 
to the thickness of a common window-glass 
on July 5th. Indian corn was so frozen that 
the greater part was cut in August and dried 
for fodder ; and the pioneers supplied from 
the corn of 1815 for the seeding of the spring 
of 18:7. It sold at from four dollars to five 
dollars a bushel. The sun seemed to be desti- 
tute of heat through the year, and all nature 
was clad in somber hue. 

In June, about the year 1818, a terrible 
hailstorm swept through this region and ex- 
tended its ravages several miles, killing and 
destroying the largest pine trees, leaving them 
standing as dead. The width of the path of 
this storm was about half a mile. 

The pioneer steamer to cross the Atlantic, a 
vessel called the "Savannah," made the voy- 
age in 181 8. In the trip she carried seventy- 
five tons of coal and twenty-five cords of 
wood. She left Savannah, Ga., in May, 1819, 
and arrived at Liverpool in June, 1819. .She 
used steam eighteen of the twenty-six days. 

On October 23, 1819, was the "dark day." 
Between nine and ten o'clock in the morning 
the darkness was so great (hat the pioneer had 
to light his old lamp or blaze his pitch-pine 

"The first practical friction matches were 
made in 1827, by an English apothecary 
named Walker, who coated splints of card- 



board with sulphur and tipped them with a 
mixture of sulphate of antimony, chlorate of 
potash, and f^um. A box of eighty-four 
matches sold for one cent, a piece of ghiss- 
paper being furnished with it for obtaining 
ignition. In 1830 a London man named Jones 
devised a species of match wdiich was a little 
roll of paper soaked in chlorate of potash 
and sugar, with a thin glass globule fdled with 
suli)huric ;icid attached to one end. Tlu- 
glolnile being broken, the acid acted upon the 
potash ^nd sugar, producing fire. Phosjihorus 
matches were first introduced on a commercial 
scale in 1S33, and after lliat ini])rovenents 
were rapid. 

"The modern lucifer match combines in one 
instrument arrangements for creating a spark. 
catching it on tinder, and starting a blaze — 
steps requiring separate operations in primi- 
tive contrivances. It was in 1836 that the 
first United .States ])atent for friction matches 
was issued. Splints for them were made by 
sawing or splitting blocks of wood into slivers 
slightly attached at the base. These were 
known as 'slab' or "block' matches, and they 
are in use in parts of this country to-day." 

In January, 1828, there was a great flood; 
and also a great one on Feb. 10, 1832. 

On JMarch y, 1828, an earthquake shock 
was felt in northwestern Pennsylvania. 

The pioneer steam vessels that made regu- 
lar trips across the Atlantic ocean were the 
"Sirius" and "Great Western," in the vear 

In 1840 the tolls received for that year on 
the pike were $4,; costs of repairs and 
improvements, $3,338.17: amount paid gate- 
keejjcrs, $784.33. 

The winter of 1842-43 was severe and bit- 
terly cold, with snow three feet deep all 
winter. In the fall thousands and thousands 
of lilack squirrels migrated through this wil- 

In September. 1844, a foot of snow fell, 
followed by a warm rain, which caused a 
great flood. 

Dysentery pre\ailcd as an ei^ideinic in the 
suinmiT iif 1850. Ii was very fatal in tiic 

June 4, 1859, was the date of the big frost. 

The Johnstown flood, caused by the bursting 
of a reservoir, occurred May 31, 1889. Three 
thousand lives were lost. 

In i8<So the streets of New "S'ork were 
lighted by electricity, and other cities and 
towns followed in its wake. In 1882 polygann- 
was prohibited in Utah In 188-? was opened 
the Northern Pacific railinad. The vear 1886 

chronicles the date of the Charleston earth- 
quake; 1888 the date of the exclusion of the 
Chinese, also the first electric street car line, 
which was built in Richmond. \ a. In i88g the 
Johnstown flood occurred. 

In 1890 occurred the first electrocution ; 
1893 ^^''1-'' '^''"^ y^'^"" o^ the first World's Fair lo 
be held in the United States. It was held at 
Chicago and practically brought the world to 

In i8(J5 an express train ran from Chicago 
to Iluffalo, fi\e hundred and ten miles, in eight 
hours, one minute and se\en seconds. The 
same year the Wright brothers first {)roved 
that they had conquered the air and could fly 
in a motor-driven aeroplane. This year 
saw the establishment of the first electric 
suburban railway. 

i8<j7 is the date of Hawaii's annexatidu 
to the United States. 

The blowing up of the Maine in Ha\ana 
harbor precipitated the Cuban war in 189S, 
which was followed later by the war in the 
Philippines. In 1899 Spain ceded to the 
United States Porto Rico, Guam and the 
Philippines for twenty million dollars. 

In 1901 the United States Steel Corporation 
was organized with a capital of one billion, 
one hundred million dollars, and the first 
wireless telegraph message was received 
at .Siasconset, Nantucket. In 1902 Marconi 
sent a wireless across the ocean. Now we can 
telephone five thousand miles. 

In 1902 there was a great strike aniont,' tin- 
anthracite coal workers. 

Record of Big Floods 

In 1806, the year of the big flood. Red Rank 
had a rise of twenty-one feet; on September 
jy, 1 86 1, twenty-two feet. 

We had big floods on November 10, 1810; 
January, 1828; February 10, 1832; February 
I, [840; in the spring of 1847. The greatest 
floofl was .September 2/. 1S61. We had a big 
fli)n(l M.ircli Id. iSri5, one in June. 1884. 

ShootiiKj Stars in 1833 — A Sliozccr of l-ivc 
"Tlu' lu'avcns (li'cl.-irc tl]y .ylory. O Lord," 

The thcor)- of meteorites is tlial tlu-v are 
parts of comets. The greatest fall of meteo- 
rites in the history of the world took place in 
1833. ( )n Wednesday, .Xoveniber 13. 1833, 
about \'\\i: o'clock a. m.. the heavens jjresented 
a s])ectacle in this wilderness such as has 
■icMom l)ceii >een in the world. It struck 



terror to the hearts of those who saw it. and 
many ran away from home to their neiglibors, 
declaring that the "day of judgment had 
arrived."' The duration of the display was 
about an hour. 

This shower was the result of the disappear- 
ance of a comet of which the meteorites were 
parts, and they are still falling. Though that 
was eighty years ago, stars still continue to 
shoot down the path, and astronomers say that 
they are the remaining pieces of the same 
vanished comet. 

.1 Railroad Collision of 1837 
''Fatal Railroad Accident" 

'■ Steamboat 'Columlms,' August u. 1837. 
"The most serious accident that has occurred 
ill Eastern \ irginia since my recollection 
happened on the Portsmouth and Roanoke 
Railroad, one and a half miles from Suffolk, 
yesterday, between nine and ten o'clock. .\ 
company, consisting of about one hundred 
and fifty ladies and gentlemen, from the 
counties of the Isle of Wight. Xansemond and 
.'Southampton, came down on the railroad on 
Thursday, the loth inst.. with the view of 
visiting Portsmouth, Norfolk, Fortress Mon- 
roe, and returning the next day. On their 
return, at the time and place above mentioned, 
they met a locomotive and train of l)urden- 
cars. and horrible to relate, the two ran 
together while going at the rate of ten or 
twelve miles an hour." — BrookviUc Rrpithli- 
caii, August 31. 1837. 


Pennsylvania contributed two of the five 
commanders of the Army of the F^otomac — 
(ieneral McClellan and General Meade, the 
latter the hero of ( lettysburg. as well as four- 
teen army and corps commanders and forty- 
eight general officers. 

Gettysburg stemmed the Confederate tide 
northward, and brushed it back. The battle 
occurred during the high tide of the war. and 
it was the greatest battle of that struggle, 
although the battle of Antietam the year before 
Gettysburg has been called the bloodiest 
engagement of the, great conflict. However, at 
Gettysburg, the Union army in the three days, 
July I, 2. and 3. 1S63. lost in killed, wounded 
and missing no fewer than twenty-three 
thousand men. and the Confederate loss in like 
classes has been placed at twenty thousand. 
four hundred and forty-eight. Nearly a quar- 
ter of a million men were engaged in the 

three days' fight, one of the most tremendous 
in history. Cjettysburg. although there were 
other battles almost as bloody and terrific, 
really foretold the end of the Confederacy, 
and that the cause of the South was a lost one. 

The Union losses in death alone amounted 
during the four years of the Ci\il war to three 
hundred and fifty-nine thousand, five hundred 
and twenty-eight. The Confederate deaths, so 
far as reported, are known to have been in 
the same period one hundred and thirty-nine 
thousand, eight hundred and twenty-one. 
Countless thousands on both sides died of 
the effects of wounds received in the war. Of 
these numbers, Pennsylvania's share is a noble 
one. It has been declared, and nowhere dis- 
l)uted. that the percentage of Pennsylvania 
troops killed in battle is higher than that of 
any other State. 

Pennsylvania was well represented in the 
Union column. All told this Commonwealth 
furnished : 

United States men 361,939 

State Emergency and Service 90.000 

Enlisted in other States 28,000 

Colored 2,500 

There were twenty-eight regiments, three 
battalions and twenty-two companies of 
cavalry ; five regiments and two battalions of 
heavy artillery ; one battalion and twenty-nine 
batteries of light artillery ; one company of 
engineers ; one com|)any of signal service ; and 
two hundred and fifty-eight regiments, five 
battalions and twenty-fi\e companies of 

The exi)ense of the Ci\-il war to the Union 
is placed as follows: War expenses, $1,500,- 
000.000 : pensions, $3,000,000,000; losses of 
men killed in battle or died subsequently, 
359,528. To the South : War expenses 
(estimated), $[,000,000,000; jjroperty and 
other losses (estimated), $500,000,000; losses 
of men killed in battle or diefl subsequently, 

Pennsyhania's Contribution: Military or- 
ganizations. 383; men. nearly 480,000 in round 
numbers ; paid for raising and equipping 
troops (estimated), $25,000,000. 


In the spring and summer of 1863 there was 
a secret organization with the above name. 
There were o\er a million members, and the 
armies of each side contained thousands. Jef- 
ferson county. Pa., contained some lodges. It 
was a treasonable political organization. At 



an initiation, a candidate was first required to 
tai\e the following oath : 

Vou do solemnly swear in the presence of Al- 
mighty God and of this lodge that you will never 
except when properly authorized reveal the secrets 
of the order of the Sons of I^iberty, known as the 
Knights of the Golden Circle, of which you have be- 
come a member, wlietlier these pertain to the signs, 
grips or passwords of the order, or to any of their 
acts; and that you will to the best of your ability 
promote all its objects and interest, so help you God. 

Candidate bowing head in response, four 
f|ucstions were then asked the candidate : 

1st. Are you in favor of resisting by all proper 
means in your power the act called the Draft Act 
according to the oath you have just taken? 

2d. According to the same oath are you in favor 
of abducting, and, if called ui)on for that purpose, 
will you help to abduct Abraham I^incoln, the so- 
called President of the United States, if this becomes 
necessary to stop this unholy war? 

3d. Will you protect deserters from the army, so 
far as lies within your power, and will you also help 
those who if drafted refuse to report to the Lincoln 

4th. Will you help to return all runaway slaves to 
their lawful masters? 

An emphatic YES was re(|uired to each of 
these f|Ucstions. 

Grip of Rccoijiiition: (iive the first finger 
of the right hand and with the second touch 
the wrist of the one challenged ; Response, 
The same given in return, the challenger say- 
ing in a careless way, "R. D.," which meant 
Royal Democrat. The person challenged 
said "H. O.." which meant hands off. 

Sign: The sign of friendship was raising 
the cap with the right hand three times. 

Badge: The badge worn was cut from an 
old copper cent attached to a pin, with the 
word "Liberty" below the hand. 

These lodges flourished also in Schuylkill 
and Clearfield counties. A few of the mem- 
bers were arrested in Jefferson county and 
sent to Fort ATcIlenry. Vallandigham was 
expelled across the Union line. 

"The general accusation brought against all 
that were placed U])on trial was the same. Tt 

charged that the accused, 'a citizen of 

County, Pennsylvania, did unite, confederate 
and combine with -— , and many other dis- 
loyal persons whose names are unknown, and 
form or unite with a society or organization 
called by the name of the Knights of the 
(iolden Circle, the object of which society is to 
resist the execution of the draft, and prevent 
j)ersons who have been drafted under the pro- 
visions of the State and of Congress approved 

March 3, 1863, and the several supplements 
thereto, from entering the military service of 
liic United States.'" 


Lincoln's GiiTTVSGURG address 

.■it the Dedication of the National Cemetery 
at Gettysburg, Pa., November 19, 1863 

"Fourscore and seven years ago, our Fathers 
brought forth upon this continent a new 
Nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to 
the proposition that all men are created equal. 
Now we are engaged in a great Civil War, 
testing whether that Nation, or any Nation, so 
conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. 
We are met on a great battlefield of that war. 
We have come here to dedicate a portion of 
that field as a final resting-place for those 
who here gave their lives that that Nation 
might live. It is altogether fitting and proper 
that we should do this. But in a larger sense, 
we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we 
cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, 
living and dead, who struggled here have con- 
secrated it far above our power to add or 
detract. The World will little note, or long 
renieniljer, what we say here; but it can never 
forget what they did here. It is for us, the 
living, rather to be dedicated here to the un- 
finished work which they who fought here 
have, thus far, so nobly advanced. It is rather 
for us to be here dedicated to the great task 
remaining before us; that from these honored 
(lead we take increased devotion to that cause 
for which they gave the last full measure of 
devotion ; that w^e here highly resolve that 
these dead shall not have died in vain; that 
this Nation, under God, shall have a new birth 
of freedom ; and that Government of the 
Peoi)le, by the People and for the People, 
shall not jjerish from the Earth." 

TULM. OF Lincoln's ass.assinwtors 

The greatest trial in America for murder 
was that of the eight conspirators who had 
planned and carried out the assassination of 
.\braham Lincoln. Booth, the chief actor, was 
shot by Sergeant Boston Corbett, dying about 
four hours later. The co-partners of the 
crime, Atzerodt, Dr. Mudd, Payne, Harold, 
Mrs. Surralt, O'Laugblin, Arnold and Spang- 
ler, were all apprehended before the martyred 
president had been placed in his tomb. 

Atzerodt, Harold, Payne and Mrs. .Surratt 



were found guilty of murder, and were hanged 
on July 7, 1865. Arnold, O'Laughlin and 
Mudd were sent to the Dry Tortugas for hard 
labor during life, and Spangler was given six 
years at the same place. 

Mrs. Priscilla Catherine Dodd, wife of Gen. 
Levi A. Dodd, was the only woman who wit- 
nessed the hanging of Mrs. Mary E. Surratt 
in Washington, D. C, July 7, 1865. General 
Dodd was on duty in Washington at the time 
of the execution, and Mrs. Dodd secretly 
viewed it. She also cared for Mrs. Surratt's 
young daughter for some time after the hang- 
ing. Mrs. Dodd was bom in Brookville, Jef- 
ferson county, where she spent her youth, and 
there she married Dodd. who ran a hardware 


From 1778 to 1855, inclusive, three hundred 
and twenty-eight persons were hanged in 
Pennsylvania. Of these, five suffered the 
penalty of death for high treason, eight for 
robbery, fourteen for burglary, three for 
assault, one for arson, four for counterfeiting, 
and seven for unknown offenses. On April 
22, 1794, the death penalty was abolished 
except for murder in the first degree. Before 
1834 hangings took place in public, and since 
then in jail yards or corridors. 

The scarred and manacled slave, the branded 
runaway apprentice, the "pressed seaman" 
wondering if his wife were yet alive, the in- 
dentured white boy, the wilderness wife whose 
husband's body lay frozen in the snow for lack 
of burial, the broken trader, the ruined manu- 
facturer whose industry his rivals "at home" 
had filched, the carpenter, with his greased 
leathern breeches, taken from his bare home 
and jailed for debt — let none of these be for- 
gotten when the Good Old Times are praised. 

As a sample of justice in 1784, Joe Disbury 
was tried in Sunbury for thievery, etc., found 
guilty, and sentenced to receive thirty nine 
lashes, stand in the pillory one hour, have his 
ears cut off and nailed to the post, and be im- 
prisoned three months and pay a fine of thirty 


The subjoined record, extracted from the 
archives of old Paris, possesses sufficient in- 
terest to warrant its publication. Readers will 
see from it what a terrible thing the capital 
penalty was in former days, and at the same 
time learn that the gentlemen who acted as 

executioners, with their assistants and tor- 
turers, did not labor for glory alone ;_ 



To boiling a malefactor in oil 48 

To quartering him while alive. 30 

To affording a criminal passage from life to death 

by the .sword 20 

To breaking the body on the wheel 10 

To fixing his head upon a pole 10 

To cutting a man into four pieces 36 

To hanging a culprit 20 

To enshrouding the corpse 2 

To impaling a living man 24 

To burning a sorceress alive 28 

To flaying a living man 28 

To drowning a child murderess in a sack 24 

To burying a suicide at crossroads 20 

To applying the torture 4 

To applying the thumbscrew 2 

To applying the buskins 4 

To administering the Gehenna torture 10 

To putting a person in the pillory 2 

To flogging 4 

To branding with a hot iron 10 

To cutting off the nose, the ears or the tongue... 10 

A livre was 19. i cents in our money. 


The United States has no national legal 

January i, Nezv Year's Day: In all the 
States (including the District of Columbia) 
except Massachusetts, Mississippi and New 

February 12, Lincoln's Birthday: In Con- 
necticut, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, New 
York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Washing- 
ton (State) and Wyoming. 

February 22, Jl'ashington's Birthday: In 
all the -States (including the District of 
Columbia) except Mississippi, where it is 
observed by exercises in the public schools 

Good Friday: In Alabama, Louisiana, 
Maryland, Pennsylvania, Tennessee. 

May 30, Decoration Day : In all the States 
and Territories (and District of Columbia) 
except Alabama. Florida, Georgia, Idaho, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Texas. In Virginia, known as "Con- 
federate Memorial Day." 

September, First Monday, Labor Day : In 
all the States and Territories (and District of 
Columbia), except Arizona. Mississippi. Nev- 
ada and North Dakota. In Louisiana, ob- 
served in Orleans Parish. 

November — , General Election. Day : In 
Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Indiana, 



loua. Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland. 
Minnesota, Missouri, Montana. Nevada, New 
Ilanipshire, New Jersey, New York, North 
Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon (vote for 
presidential elections only), Pennsylvania. 
Rhode L-iland, South Carolina. South Dakota, 
Tennessee. Texas, West \'irginia, W ashington. 
Wisconsin and Wyoming, in the years when 
elections are held therein. 

Xovcmhcr — . Thanksgiving Day (usually 
the last Thursday in November) : Is observed 
in all the States and in the District of Colum- 
bia, though in some States it is not a statutory- 

December 25, Christmas Day: In all the 
States and in the District of Columbia. 

Sundays and Fast Days are legal holidays in 
all -the States which designate them as such. 

There is no national holiday, not even the 
Fourth of July; Congress has at various times 
apjwinted sjjccial holidays. In the second 
session of the Fifty-third Congress it passed 
an act making Labor Day a pul>lic holiday in 
the District of Columbia, and it has recognized 
the existence of certain days as holidays for 
commercial purposes, but, with the exception 
named, there is no general statute on the sub- 
ject. The proclamation of the president 
designating a day of Thanksgiving only makes 
it a legal holiday in the District of Columbi;i 
and the Territories, and in those States wliicli 
])rovide by law for it. 

Every Saturday after twelve o'clock noon 
is a legal holiday in .\ew ^V)rk, New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Teimessee, Virginia 
and the city of New r)rleans, and in Newcastle 
county, Del., except in St. Cieorge's Hundred ; 
in Louisiana and .Missouri in cities of one 
hundred thousand or more inhabitants: in 
< )hio. ill cities of fifty thousand or more in- 
habitants; and June 1 to .August t,\ in Denver. 
Colo. In the District of Columbia for all pur- 
])ose.s respecting the presentation for payment 
or acceptance or the ])rotesting of all com- 
mercial paper whatsoever. In Connecticut. 
Maine and West V^rgini.'i hanks close at 
twelve noon on Saturday. 

rennsyhi'oiiia Holidays 

I'ennsyKania has about fourteen legal holi- 
days. l'"rom the act of Assembly approved 
June 23. iS<)7, we quote the following: 

"Section i. lie it enacted, etc.. That the 
following days and half days, namely, the first 
day of January, commonly called New Year's 
day; the twelfth day of February, known as 
Lincoln's liirthdav; third Tuesdav of Feb- 

ruar_\-, election day; the twenty-second day of 
F'ebruary, known as Washington's birthday ; 
Good Friday ; the thirtieth day of May, known 
as Memorial day ; the Fourth of July, called 
Inde])endence day ; the first Monday of Sep- 
tember, known as Labor day; the first Tues- 
day after the the first Monday of November, 
election day; the twenty-fifty day of Decem- 
ber, known as Christmas day ; and every 
.Saturday after twelve o'clock noon until twelve 
o'clock midnight, each of which Saturdays is 
hereby designated a half holiday, and any day 
appointed or recommended by the governor of 
this State or of the president of the United 
States as a day of thanksgiving or other 
religious observance shall, for all ]Jiu-poses 
whatever as regards the presenting for pa_\- 
ment or acceptance, and as regards the 
protesting and giving notice of the dishonor of 
ImUs of exchange, checks, drafts and ])romis- 
sory notes, made after the passage of this act, 
be treated and considered as the first day of the 
week, commonly called Sunday, and as public 
liolidays and half holidays; and all such bills, 
checks, drafts and notes otherwise presentable 
for acceptance or payment on any of the said 
days shall be deemed to be payable and be 
l)resentable for accejjtance or ])ayment on the 
secular or business day next succeeding such 
holiday or half holiday, except checks, drafts, 
bills of exchange and promissory notes, pay- 
able at sight or on demand, which would 
otherwise l)e pa)'able on any half holiday 
)~;aturday, shall be deemed to he payable at or 
before twelve o'clock noon of such half holi- 
day: Provided, however. That for the pur- 
])ose of protesting or otherwise holding liable 
any party to any liill of exchange, check, draft 
or ])romissory note, and which shall not have 
been jwid before twelve o'clock noon of any 
.Saturday designated a half holiday, as afore- 
said, a demand for acce])tance or ])nynient 
thereof shall not be made and notice of jjrotest 
or dishonor thereof shall not be given until the 
next succeeding secular or business day : Aiwl 
provided further. Tliat when any person, linn, 
corporation <ir company, shall, on any Satur- 
day design;ite(l a half holiday, receive for col- 
lection any check, hill or exchange, draft or 
l)romissory note, such ])erson, firm, corporation 
or company shall not be deemed guilty of any 
neglect or omission of duty, nor incm" any 
liability in not ])resenting for payment or 
acceptance or collection such check, bill of 
exchange, draft or promissory note on that 
day : And ])rovided further. That in construing 
this section every Saturday designated a half 
holidav shall, until twelve o'clock noon, he 



deemed a secular or business day ; and the days 
and half days aforesaid, so designated as holi- 
days and half holidays, shall be considered as 
public holidays and half holidays for all pur- 
poses whatsoever as regards the transaction 
of business : And provided further. That 
nothing herein contained shall be construed 
to prevent or invalidate the entry, issuance, 
service or execution of any writ, summons, 
confession of judgment, or other legal process 
whatever on any of the holidays or half holi- 
days herein designated as holidays, nor to 
prevent any bank from keeping its doors open 
or transacting business on any of the said 
Saturday afternoons, if. by a vote of its 
directors, it shall elect to do so. 

"Section 2. Whenever the lirst day of 
January, the twelfth day of February, the 
twenty-second day of February, the thirtieth 
day of May, the Fourth of July, or the twenty- 
fifth day of December, shall any of them occur 
on Sunday, the following day. ^londay. shall 
be deemed and declared a pul)lic holiday. All 
bills of exchange, checks, drafts or promissory 
notes falling due on any of the Mondays so 
observed as holidays, shall be due and payable 
on the next succeeding secular or business day. 
and all Mondays so observed as holidays, shall, 
for all purposes whatever as regards the 
presenting for payment or acceptance, and as 
regards the protesting and giving notice of the 
dishonor of bills of exchange, checks, drafts 
and promissory notes made after the passage 
of this act, be treated and considered as if the 
first day of the week, commonly called 

"Section 3. All bills of exchange, checks, 
drafts and promissory notes made after the 
I)assage of this act. which by the terms there- 
of shall be payable on the first day of the week, 
commonly called Sunday, shall be deemed to 
be and shall be payable on the next succeeding 
secular or business dav. 

"Section 4. That all the days and half days 
herein designated as legal holidays shall i)c 
regarded as secular or I)usiness days for all 
other purposes than those mentioned in this 

Origin of Memorial Dav 

In 1867 Mr. and Mrs. Henry S. Kimball, of 
West Philadelphia, Pa., had been on a visit in 
the South, where they noticed Southern ladies 
scattering flowers on the gra\es of the Con- 
federate dead. Mrs. Kimball was acc|uainted 
uith and a friend of General Logan, then the 
(■ommander in Chief of the Grand .\rmv of 

the Republic, and she kindly wrote to him 
suggesting the scattering of flowers over the 
graves of dead Union soldiers as an appropri- 
ate recognition. General Logan was greatly 
pleased with this suggestion, and after mature 
reflection issued "Order No. 11," appointing 
May 30. 1868, to be observed by the members 
of the Grand Army of the Republic as "Dec- 
oration Day." This day was so observed then 
and has been regularly ever since. Thus it 
was left to a patriotic Pennsylvania woman to 
originate Memorial Day and suggest floral 
decorations for the Union dead. 

Mother's Day 

Miss Anna Jarvis, of Philadelphia, Pa., 
started Mother's Day on Sunday in May, 
1907. "In planning it," she says, "I think I 
had grown people more in mind than the chil- 
dren. The little ones are always close to their 
mother, but the grownup sons and daughters 
drift away from her. They forget the years in 
which she gave them so much love and care. 
Originally. I wanted every one to wear a white 
carnation as a tribute and to make a visit to 
the mother. I wanted it to be a day when all 
the children would either be with the loved one 
or send her a message. For those whose 
mothers have left this earth, there was the 
opportunity to live for that one day just the 
way she would ha\e them live, and to do some 
generous and some fine deed as a memorial to 

It does not fall to the lot of many women to 
see the tiny seed of an idea springing out of 
the love they bore their own mother grow to 
a vast movement over the entire world, in 
which railroads, telegraph companies. State 
officials, churches, schools, shops and the gen- 
eral public join. That, however, has been the 
reward of Miss Jarvis, whose Mother's Day 
Association is now the most widely known 
woman's association in the world. It is now 
(in igi6) the greatest world celebration. 

Pioneer Tlianksgiving Days 

The first recorded Thankseiving was the 
Hebrew feast of the Tabernacles. 

The New England Thanksgivintj dates from 
1633.' when the Massachusetts Bay Colony set 
apart a day for thankseiving. 

The first national Thanksgiving proclama- 
tions were by Congress during the Revolution- 
ary war. 

The first great ,\merican Thanksgix'ing day 
was in 1784. for the declaration of peace. 
There was one more national Thanks!ji\'ing in 
r789. and no other till 1862. when President 


Lincoln issued a national proclamation for a educated, and shall appropriate at least one 

day of thanksgiving. million dollars each year for that purpose. 

The pioneer Thanksgiving day in north- "Section 2. No money raised for the sup- 
western Pennsylvania was on the' last Thurs- port of the public schools of the Common- 
day of November. 1819, by proclamation of wealth, shall be appropriated to, or used for, 
Governor Findlay. ' the support of any sectarian school. 

"Section 3. Women twenty-one years of 

FEMALE SUFFRAGE IN THE UNITED STATES .^^^ .^,^^j upwards shall be eligible to any office 

In 1800 women could not hold office or of control or management under the school 

vote in any Stale of the Union. The following laws of this State." 

table will exhibit the progress in that direction: The first female elected to office in Jefferson 

„. „, ,•• J r c ^ county was Mrs. T. P. Wilson, of Punxsutaw- 

Time Place Kind of Suffrage 1 /^ • t 1 c n i -u tu 

1838 Kentucky School sufifrage to widows "cy, and Carrie Jenks, of Brookville, was the 

with children of school age second. 

1861 Kansas School suffrage I advocated with my voice and pen female 

187s Michigan School suffrage suffrage in 1852. 

Minnesota School suffrage t-i i^ ^ ir ^ • ^u ^ j- i- j 1 

1876 Colorado School suffrage The first eflfort in that direction made by a 

1877 New Zealand School suffrage national organization was the adoption at 

1878 New Hampshire School suffrage Cincinnati, Ohio, ATay 16, 1888, bv the 

o ?/^^°\ .. c''!'""! ■'"2''='S« National Union Labor party, of this plank. 

1870 Massachusetts School suffrage „, ■ 1 , . ^ • • u \ ■ v 1 • 

1880 New York School suffrage The right to vote IS inherent m citizenship, 

Vermont School suffrage irrespective of sex, and is properly within 

1883 Nebraska School suffrage the province of State legislation. 

1887 Kansas School suffrage 

North Dakota School suffrage Nicknames of States 

South Dakota School suffrage •' 

Montana S-hool suffrage Alabama Plantation State 

Arizona School suffrage California Golden State 

New Jersey S-hnol suffrage Colorado Centennial State 

Montana Tax-paymg suffrage Delaware .Diamond State 

1 891 Illinois School suffrage Illinois Prairie State 

1893 Connecticut School suffrage Iowa Hawkeye State 

1894 Ohio School suffrage Indiana Hoosier State 

Iowa Bond suffrage Kansas Sunflower State 

1898 Minnesota Library trustees Kentucky Blue Grass State 

Delaware School suffrage to tax-paying Maryland Old Line State 

women Massachusetts Bay State 

Louisiana Tax-paymg suffrage Michigan Wolverine State 

1000 Wisconsin School suffrage Minnesota North Star State 

T869 Wyoming Full suffrage Missouri Bullion State 

I S93 Colorado Full suffrage Nebraska .-Kntelope State 

1896 Utah Full suffrage New Jersey Garden State 

Idaho Full suffrage New York Empire State 

In ,915 women are in full enjoyment of the ^orth Caronna ................. .OWN^orth |tate 

elective franchise in the following States and Oregon Webfoot State 

countries : Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, Pennsylvania Keystone State 

Washington, California, Arizona, Kansas, South Carolina .Palmetto State 

„ Til' ■ / i i ■ rc Texas Lone Star State 

Oregon, Illinois (except certain offices men- yirgi,,,-^ Old Dominion 

tioned in the State constitution) , New South Wisconsin Badger State 

Wales, New Zealand, Queensland, South Aus- 
tralia, Tasmania, Victoria, West Australia, Origin of Names nf Days 

Norway Iceland and Finland. ^ ,,^ generally known that the 

Article X of he fourth (present) Constitu- ^ -^^^^^ ^^ -,^^ -^ ^^ ^,^^ ^^.^^,^ ^^^ 

tion of Petmsylvania (ratified in 1873. went ^^ ^^^^^^ j,^^ ^i^,^^ of pagan deities, viz.: 

into operation January i. 1874), under the ' ■ 

heading Education has the following para- Sunday Sun's day. 

graphs: Monday Moon's day. 

"Section 1. The General Assembly .shall Tuesday Tyr's (Tin's) day. 

provide for the maintenance and support of Wednesday Woden's day. 

a thorough and efficient system of public Thursday Thor's day. 

schools, wherein all the children of this Com- Friday I'rigga's day. 

monwealth, above the age of six years, may be .Saturday Saturn's day. 



The names of some of our religious festivi- 
ties are also derived from the same source. 
The Easter which is used to express the season 
of the great paschal solemnities comes from 
Eostre, an Anglo-Saxon goddess, whose 
festivities were celebrated at the vernal 

It thus seems that the names of some of the 
idols of our ancestors will be perpetuated as 
long as the English language shall endure. 

Liberty Bell 

This bell was cast in London, received at 
Philadelphia in August, 1752, and hung in the 
tower of the Pennsylvania State House, now 
known as Independence Hall. This bell was 

broken up and recast in April, and again in 
June, 1753. It announced the Declaration of 
Independence, ratified July 4, 1776. It was 
cracked July 8, 1835, while being tolled in 
memory of Chief Justice Marshall. 


Name and Residence Year Age Politics 

1 George Washington, Va 1789 57 Fed. 

2 John Adams, Mass 1797 62 Fed. 

3 Thomas Jefferson, Va iSoi 58 Rep. 

4 James Madison. Va 1809 58 Rep. 

5 James Monroe, Va 1817 59 Rep. 

6 John Quincy Adams, Mass 1825 38 Rep. 

7 Andrew Jackson, Tenn 1829 62' Dem. 

8 Martin Van Biiren, N. Y 1837 55 Dem. 

9 William H. Harrison, Ohio 1841 C8 Whig 

ID John Tyler, Va 1841 51 Dem. 

11 James. iC. Polk, Tenn 1843 50 Dem. 

12 Zachary Taylor, La 1849 63 Whig 

Name and Residence Year Age Politics 

13 Millard Fillmore, N. Y 1830 30 Whig 

14 Franklin Pierce, N. H 1853 49 Dem. 

13 James Buchanan, Pa 1857 66 Dem. 

16 Abraham Lincoln, 111 1861 52 Rep. 

17 Andrew Johnson, Tenn 1863 57 Rep. 

18 Ulysses S. Grant, D. C 1869 47 Rep. 

19 Rutherford B. Hayes, Ohio 1877 54 Rep. 

20 James A. Garfield, Ohio 1881 49 Rep. 

21 Chester A. Arthur, N. Y 1881 51 Rep. 

22 Grover Cleveland, N. Y ..1885 48 Dem. 

23 Benjamin Harrison, Ind 1889 55 Rep. 

24 Grover Cleveland, N. Y ..1893 56 Dem. 

25 William McKinley, Ohio 1897 54 Rep. 

26 Theodore Roosevelt, N. Y igoi 42 Rep. 

27 Wm. H. Taft, Ohio 1909 31 Rep. 

28 Woodrow Wilson, N. J 1913 56 Dem. 

Fortunes of Presidents 

Washington left $800,000 ; John Adams, 
$75,000; Jefferson, $20,000; Madison left 
about $150,000; Monroe died poor — he was 
buried at the expense of his relatives ; John 
Quincy Adams left $55,000; Jackson died 
worth $80,000; \'an Buren left $400,000; 
Polk, $15,000; Taylor, $150,000; Tyler mar- 
ried rich, Fillmore also ; Pierce left $50,000 ; 
Buchanan left $200,000; Lincoln became 
wealthy, but his fortune was lost in the Grant 
& Ward failure ; Hayes added to his fortune, 
while Garfield was only moderately well off; 
Harrison died worth $250,000 ; Cleveland's 
fortune was large; McKinley and Taft were 
not well off ; Roosevelt had a substantial com- 
petence ; Wilson has royalties from his books. 

The religious affiliations of the presidents 
of the L'nited States up to 1916 have been : 

George Washington Episcopalian 

John Adams Unitarian 

Jefferson Liberal 

Madison Episcopalian 

James Monroe Episcopalian 

John Quincy Adams Unitarian 

.Andrew Jackson Presbyterian 

Martin Van Buren Reformed Dutch 

William Henry Harrison Episcopalian 

James K. Polk Presbvterian 

Zachary Taylor Episcopalian 

Millard Fillmore Unitarian 

Franklin Pierce Episcopalian 

Jarhes Buchanan Presbyterian 

.'\braham Lincoln Presbyterian 

.Andrew Johnson Methodist 

L' . S. Grant Methodist 

R. B. Hayes Methodist 

James A. Garfield Disciples 

Chester A. Arthur Episcopalian 

Grover Cleveland Presbyterian 

Bcniamin Harrison Presbyterian 

William McKinley Methodist 

Theodore Roosevelt Reformed Dutch 

William H. Taft Unitarian 

Woodrow Wilson Presbvterian 


Presidents' .Iges and Causes of Death 

Washington's death, at the age of sixty- 
seven, was caused by ocdematous affection of 
the windpipe ; John Adams died of debihty at 
the age of ninety; Jefferson, aged eighty-three, 
of ciironic diarrhea ; Madison, aged eighty- 
five, of debihty ; Monroe, aged seventy-three, 
from the same cause ; John O. Adams, aged 
eighty, of paralysis ; Jackson, aged seventy- 
eight, of coiisum])tion : Van Buren, aged 
seventy-nine, of asthma; Harrison, aged sixty- 
eight, of pleurisy; Tyler, aged seventy-one, of 
indigestion ; Polk, aged fifty-six, of chronic 
diarrhea ; Taylor, aged sixty-five, of cholera 
morbus ; Fillmore, aged seventy-four, of debil- 
ity ; Pierce, aged sixty-four, of dropsy ; I>u- 
chanan, aged seventy-seven, of rheumatism ; 
Lincoln, aged fifty-six, assassinated; Garfield, 
aged forty-nine, assassinated ; McKinley. aged 
fifty-eight, assassinated; Grant, aged sixty- 
three, of cancer of the tongue ; Johnson, aged 
sixty-six. of paralysis ; Hayes, aged seventy, 
of paralysis ; Arthur, aged seventy-one, of 
Hright's disease; Cleveland, aged sixty-seven, 
of debility; Harrison, aged fifty-eight, of 

Odd Presidential Facts 

Here are a lot of "facts" about Presidents of 
the United States ; Grant was christened 
Hiram Ulysses; Cleveland, Stephen Grover; 
and Wilson, Thomas Woodrow, the first name 
being dropped in early college life. W. H. 
Harrison was the oldest man elected to the 
presidency and Roosevelt the youngest, ( irant 
being the next youngest by six months. Cleve- 
land was the only president married in the 
White House, and his second daughter was 
the only president's child born therein. Mon- 
roe's daughter (.Mrs. ( louv erneur), (irant's 
daughter (Mrs. Sartoris) and Roosevelt's 
daughter (Mrs. Longworth) were the only 
children of presidents married therein, till the 
recent weddings of Jessie and Eleanor Wilson. 
The wives of Tyler, llenjamin Harrison and 
Wilson died in the White House. W. H. 
Harrison was father of the largest famil)-, 
six sons and four daughters. Eight presidents 
— Washington. Jefferson. Madison, Monroe. 
W. H. Harrison. Tyler, Taylor and Wilson — 
were \ irginians by birth. I'ive presidents — 
Grant. Hayes, B. Harrison. McKinlev and 
Taft — were Ohioans by biith. 



1. By the act of .September 22, 1789, the 
compensation of Senators and Representatives 
in Congress was fixed at six dollars a day, and 
thirty cents a mile for traveling to and from 
the seat of government. This rate was to con- 
tinue until ]\Iarch 4, 1795. The same act fixed 
the compensation from March 4, 1795, to 
March 4, 1796 (at which last-named date, by 
its terms, it expired), at seven dollars a day, 
and thirty-five cents a mile for tra\-el. 

This act was retroactive, extending back 
six months and eighteen days, viz., to March 

4. 1789- 

2. The act of March lo. 1796, fixed the 
compensation at six dollars a day, and thirty 
cents a mile for travel (this act extended back 
over six days only). 

3. The act of ^ilarch 19, 1816, fixed the 
compensation at fifteen hundred dollars a year, 
"instead of the daily compensation," and left 
the mileage unchanged. 

This act was retroactive, extending back one 
year and fifteen days. viz.. to March 4, 181 5. 
It was repealed by the act of February 6, 1817, 
but it was expressly declared that no former 
act was thereby revived. 

4. The act of January 22, 1818, fixed the 
compensation at eight dollars a day, and forty 
cents a mile for travel. 

This act was retroactive, extending back 
fifty-three days, viz., to the assembling of 
Congress December i, 1817. 

5. The act of August 16, 1856, fixed the 
compensation at three thousaiul dollars a year, 
and left the mileage unchanged. 

This act was retroactive, extending back 
one year, five months and twelve days, viz., to 
.March 4, 1855. 

6. The act of July 28, 1866, fi.xed the com- 
pensation at five thousand dollars a year, and 
twenty cents a mile for travel — not to affect 
mileage accounts already accrued. 

This act was retroactive, extending back 
one vear. four months and twenty-four days. 
viz.. to March 4, 1865. 

7. The act of March 3, 1873, (Ixed the 
compensation at se\en thousand, fi\e hundred 
dollars a year, and actual tni\eling expenses — 
the mileage already paifl for the Forty-second 



Congress to be deducted from the pay of those 
who had received it. 

This act was retroactive, extending back 
two years, viz., to March 4, 1871. 

Note. — Stationery was allowed to senators 
and representatixes, without any special limit, 
until March 3, 1868, when the amount for 
stationery and newspapers for each senator 
and member was limited to one hundred and 
twenty-five dollars a session. This was 
changed by a subsequent act, taking effect 
July I, 1869, to one hundred and twenty-five 
dollars a year. The act of 1873 abolished all 
allowance for stationery and newspapers. 

On and after March 4. 1907, the compensa- 
tion of the speaker of the House of Represen- 
tatives, the vice president of the United States, 
and the heads of the executive departments 
who are members of the President's cabinet, 
shall be at the rate of twelve thousand dollars 
per annum each, and the compensation of 
senators, representatives in Congress, dele- 
gates from Territories, and resident commis- 
sioner from Porto Rico shall be at the rate of 
seven thousand, five hundred dollars per 
annum each. 

Sec. 5. That all laws or parts of laws in- 
consistent with this act are repealed. Approved 
February 26, 1907. 




Before .April 10, 1790, the Colonies had 
issued patents, Connecticut in particular. The 
late Senator Wadleigh, of New Hampshire, 
believed that the first patent ever issued to an 
inventor in America was granted in 1646, by 
the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, to Joseph 
Jencks. for an improvement in scythes ; bvit 
under the constitution our patent system was 
founded and really began in 1790. In that 
year only three patents were issued ; thirty- 
three were issued in 1791 ; eleven in 1792: 
and prior to February 24, 1793 (when a new 
law was enacted), twenty more, making in all 
sixty-seven patents issued under our first 
j)atent law. The government fees on each 
patent amounted to $4.70 ; under the new act 
of 1793, the fee was raised to $30, in all cases, 
and among the total of eleven thousand, three 
hundred and forty-eight patents granted under 
it were some of the most important inventions 
of the age. 

The law practically as it now exists, embody- 
ing the present system of examination of ap- 
plications for patents, was passed July 4, 
1836. The present method of numbering 
patents began on that date with No. i. By 
December, 1890, No. 442,090 had been issued. 
In 1836 only one hundred and nine patents 
were granted; in 1910 the number reached 
thirty-five thousand, one hundred and eighteen. 
And now we have totaled a round million. 

On July I, 1790, the first United States 
patent was issued to one Samuel Hopkins of 
Vermont, for the making of pot and pearl 
ashes ; Commissioner of Patents Moore 
granted to an Akron, Ohio, man patent No. 
1,000,000, for the invention of a puncture- 
proof tire. Within the compass of the one 
hundred and twenty-one years between these 
dates there lies recorded in the Patent Office 
at Washington the triumph of American 
ingenuity and research, upon which, in large 
measure, has depended the material progress 
of the whole world. Inventions and labor- 
saving machines have made more millionaires 
than all other sources combined. Two-thirds 
of the wealth of the United States owes its 
existence to inventions patented by .American 

France comes nearest the United .States in 
the in\entive genius of her people, with some- 
thing like four hundred and twenty-si.x thou- 
sand, less than half the number of patents 
granted in America. b'oUowing France are 
Great Britain, with four hundred and fifteen 
thousand ; Germany, two hundred and thirty- 
six thousand ; Belgium, two hundred and 
twenty-eight thousand; Canada, one. hundred 
and twenty-si.x thousand; Italy and Sardinia, 
ninety-four thousand, and .Austria-Hungary, 
sixty-eight thousand. 

Benjamin Franklin was the first inventor of 
distinction in the United States. He was the 
originator of many contrivances, giving to the 
world the ingenious chair convertible into a 
stejjladder which is in use at the present time 
in thousands of .American households. He was 
followed by Eli Whitney, inventor of the 
cotton gin ; John Fitch and Robert Fulton, in- 
ventors of steam vessels ; Jethro Wood, 
inventor of the modern castiron plow ; Thomas 
Blanchard, inventor of a tack machine ; Ross 
Winans, many inventions relating to railways ; 
Cyrus H. McCormick, inventor of harvesting 
machines ; Charles Goodyear, inventor of 
rubber mixtures ; S. F. B. Morse, inventor of 
the electric telegraph ; Elias Howe, inventor 
of the modern sewing machines; Joseph 
Henry, inventor of the present form of 



electro-maj^net, which laid the foundation of 
practically the entire electrical art ; Alexander 
Graiuim iiell, the inventor of the telephone; 
Thomas A. Edison, inventor of the incandes- 
cent lamp, the talking- machine and many im- 
provements on the moving picture machine, 
and the electric telegraph instruments and 
other devices; John Ericsson, inventor of a hot 
air engine, screw propellers for steamships, 
etc.; Charles F. Bush, prominently identified 
with the development of the dynamo, arc light 
and storage battery; George Westinghouse, 
inventor of air brakes for railway trains, etc. ; 
Ottmar Mergenthaler, inventor of the linotype 

Thomas Jefferson was one of the most re- 
markable in\entors. Not only did he contrive 
a plow which marked an epoch in the develop- 
ment of that indispensable fanning implement, 
but he was the originator of the copying press, 
so familiar to everybody as a modern office 
convenience, and likewise of the equally well 
known revolving chair. Both of these devices 
are to-day substantially what he made them. 

In the early days there was a notable lack 
of all those mechanical conveniences and nice 
little utensils which are considered indis- 
pensable in the kitchen nowadays. There was 
not even an egg-beater or flour-sifter. In the 
dwelling of one hundred years ago the 
windows knew no screens to keep out flies and 
mosquitoes. Perhaps there was a mirror, that 
article of lu.xury being very costly. 

Before "stocks" were invented o.xen had to 
be thrown and tied and the shoes nailed on 
while down. Joseph McCuUough was the first 
to use stocks in Jefferson county. 

The typewriter machine was distinctly an 
epoch-maker. It opened an entirely new field 
for women's work, creating an immense de- 
mand for stenographers by making transcrib- 
ing easier. 

By no means to be forgotten is the improved 
printing press, which, as developed for news- 
pajjcr use, prints several colors at one im- 
pression, folding, stitching and counting in an 
hour twelve thousand supplements of twenty- 
four pages each. One hmidred years ago the 
entire process of making a book or newspaper 
was done by hand — striking enough, though 
less so than the circumstance that in those 
days, and even at a much later period, the 
adhesive stamp and the mailing envelope were 
both unknown. 

The Seven Wonders of the modern world: 
First, wireless communication ; second, tele- 
])hone; third, aeroplane; fourth, radium; fifth, 
antiseptics and antitoxins ; sixth, spectrum 

analysis; seventh, X-rays — all of practical 
utility. Of the ancient wonders only one. the 
Pharos, the four-hundred-foot lighthouse of 
Alexandria, was a practical utility. 


About yo .\. D. the first glass bottle was 
made by the Romans. 

Horseshoes of iron were first made In 481. 

Quill pens were first made in 538. 

Glass windows were first used in 1 180. 

Family names were first adopted in 1190. 

Alcohol was discovered in the thirteenth 

Chimneys in houses were first used in 1236. 

Lead pipes for conveying water, 1252. 

Alexander del Spina made the first pair of 
spectacles in 1285. 

Tallow candles for lights, 1290. 

Paper first made from linen, 1302. 

Woolen cloth first made in England, 133 1. 

First iron wire drawn at Nuremberg, 1351. 

Muskets first used in 1370. 

Side saddles were first used in 1380. Pre- 
vious to that time women rode astride. 

Art of painting in oil colors, 1410. 
• Printing invented about 1440. 

Pistols first used in 1444. 

First printed almanac issued in Hungary, 

Billiards invented in France, 1471. 

Watches made in Germany, 1477. 

The first book containing musical characters 
was issued in 1495. 

Bombshells first luade in Holland, 1495. 

Variations of compass first noticed, 1540. 

Pins first used in England, 1540. 

Steel needles first made in England, 1545. 

Covered carriages first used in England. 

Circulation of blood discovered by Harvey, 

Newspaper first printed. 1630. 

First steam engine in\-ented. 1649. 

First fire engine invented, 1649. 

Advertisements first appeared in news- 
[jajiers, 1652. 

Buckles first made in 1680. 

Under date of November 24, 1605, we find 
the first reference to a thimble in literature, 
when that useful article was mentioned as a 
"thumb-bell." The man who introduced 
lhim])les to England was lolin Lofting, a metal 
worker of Holland, who settled in England in 

* See cliroiiologv of Iiulustrial .Xctivities, 
in this chapter. 



the latter part of the seventeenth century and 
practiced their manufacture in various metals 
with great success. 

The first typewriter was made in 17 14, by 
Henry Mills. 

First cotton planted in the United States, 


Steam engine improved by Watt, 1767. 

The torpedo was first made in 1777. 

Steam cotton mill erected, 1783. 

Stereotype printing invented in Scotland, 

Animal magnetism recognized by Mesmer, 


Sabbath school established in Yorkshire, 
England, 1789. 

The pioneer use of gas for practical illu- 
mination was in 1802. 

In 1807 wooden clocks were made by ma- 

In 1809 Fulton patented the steamboat. 

The pioneer mill to make finished cloth from 
raw cotton was erected in Waltham, Mass., in 


Velocipede invented by Drais, 1817. 

Steel pens were first made in 1820. 

First horse railroad built in 1826. 

Coal oil first used as an illuminant, 1826. 

Electro-magnetic telegraph invented by 
Morse, 1832. 

Vulcanized rubber was patented in 1838. 

In 1840 Daguerre first made his pictures. 

The express business was started about 

The pioneer telegram was sent in 1845. 

Stem-winding watches were the invention 
,of Noel, 1851. 

Roller skates were invented by Pimpton, 

The telephone came into use in 1876, the 
phonograph in 1878. 

Cable and electric roads are new since 1880, 
and so likewise is the bicycle, commercially 

When Mr. Edison was making the experi- 
ments which finally resulted in the develop- 
ment of the electric light, the general opinion 
of scientists and practical mechanicians was 
that he was attempting the impossible. In 
earlier years, however, Morse had had great 
trouble to persuade Congress to appropriate 
the small amount of money required for test- 
ing his telegraph between Baltimore and 
Washington. Nearly everybody thought him 
a crank, and he came very near to literal 

Up to within the last half dozen years ap- 
plicants for patents on frying machines were 

regarded by patent office examiners as in 
much the same class with inventors of con- 
trivances for perpetual motion. 

Archimedes invented the crowbar. 
Arkwright, the spinning frame. 
Bacon (Roger), gunpowder (in England). 
Caxton, first printing press in England. 
Sir Humphrey Davy, the safety lamp. 
Marconi, wireless telegraph. 


. In August, 1891, the Central District and 
Printing Telegraph Company, of Pittsburgh, 
Pa., erected a telephone line through Jeffer- 
son county and into Clarion and Qearfield 
counties. The main line ran from Punxsu- 
tawney to Reynoldsville and to Clarion, with 
a switch and a line to Du Bois. They estab- 
lished pay stations at Punxsutawney, Big 
Run, Reynoldsville, Brookville and Corsica, 
Falls Creek and Du Bois, and now in 191 5 
achievement in communication opens up amaz- 
ing possibilities. The human voice, it seems, 
can be carried wherever wireless waves can 
travel — and that means everywhere — just as 
freely as telegraphic dots and dashes. Presi- 
dent Vail of the American Telegraph and 
Telephone Company, has talked into a tele- 
phone transmitter at New York and been 
heard at San Francisco, over several hundred 
miles of wire and through two thousand miles 
of vacant space. That feat has been quickly 
followed by a telephone conversation wholly 
by wireless across a stretch of land and sea 
four thousand nine hundred miles, from 
Washington to Honolulu. It is now practic- 
able to telephone through the ether from New 
York to London, Paris, Berlin, Petrograd or 
Constantinople, or from San Francisco to 
Pekin or Tokyo. London statesmen might 
communicate directly by word of mouth with 
Egypt. India and South Africa. All that is 
necessary is the installation of apparatus 
already perfected. 


Foniid ill a Tomb, It Is Said to Date Back to 
.-^hout 1200 B. C. 

The first almanacs were of Arabian origin, 
and reflected the local genius of the people in 
a very striking way. They served as models 
in other countries for hundreds of years. The 
oldest known copy of such a work is pre- 
served in the British Museum, and dates back 



to the time of Rameses the Great of Egypt, 
who lived 1,200 years before Christ. It is 
written on papyrus, in red ink, and covers a 
period of six years. The entries rehite to 
religious ceremonies, to the fates of children 
born on given days, and to the regulation of 
business enterprises in accordance with plane- 
tary influences. "Do nothing at all this day," 
is one of the warnings. "If thou seest any- 
thing at all this day it will be fortunate," is 
another entry. "Look not at a rat this day," 
"Wash not with water this day," "Go out not 
before daylight this day," are some of the 
additional cautions. 

Next after this in point of age among the 
existing specimens of ancient almanacs are 
some composed in the fourth century. They 
are Roman Church calendars, giving the 
names of the saints and other religious infor- 
mation. The Baltic nations, who were not 
versed in papyrus-making, had calendars en- 

graved on axe-helves, walking sticks and other 
articles of personal use. The days were 
notched with a broad mark for Sunday, and 
the saints' days were symbolized in various 
devices, such as a harp for St. David's, a 
gridiron for St. Lawrence's, a lover's knot for 
St. Valentine's, and so on. The Saxon 
almanacs are numerous and contain historical 
as well as ecclesiastical entries. 

The first printed almanac was issued in 
Hungary in 1470. 

It is possible to trace in these curious records 
all the changes of popular belief and taste. 
They were prepared to meet the current de- 
mand and to constitute a systematic story of 
what took place in successive periods and how 
knowledge increased with the revolving years. 
We owe to them most that we know of the 
people for whom they were made and by 
whom they were indorsed. 





Previous to the white man's advent here 
this wilderness had public highways, but they 
were for the wild animals and savage Indians. 
These thoroughfares were called "deer paths" 
and "Indian trails." These paths were usually 
well beaten, and crossed each other as civilized 
roads do. The first trail discovered and 
traversed by the white man was the Indian 
Chinklacamoose ("where moose meet") path, 
extending from what was Clearfield town to 
what is now Kittanning. This Inrlian trail 
passed through Punxsutawney, and over it 
and through this Indian town Allegheny In- 
dians carried their white prisoners from the 
eastern part of the .State to what was then 
called Kittany, on the .Allegheny river. Indian 
trails were "bee lines," over hill and dale, from 
j)oint to point. Here and there were open 
spots on the summits, where runn,ers signaled 
their coming by fires when on urgent business, 
and were ])romptly met al slated places by 
fresh men. 


From a most careful and thorough search 
to ascertain when the first jiath or trail of the 

white man was made through or in what is now 
our county, I find it to be in the year 1787. In 
this year of grace two hardy and courageous 
men, David and John Meade, were living in 
what is now Sunbury, Pa., where John was 
keeping an inn or tavern. These two brothers, 
having read Gen. ( leorge Washington's report 
to Governor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, of the 
rich lands and \alleys that were unoccupied 
in what is now called \'enango and Crawford 
counties, Pa., determined to explore that 
region for themselves. To reach this unin- 
habited section they were compelled to open 
a path from east to west, through what is 
now called Jefferson (then Northumberland) 
county, and which path is now called in history 
"Meade's Trail." This trail passed through 
what are now West Reynoldsville, Port Piar- 
nett and P.rookxillc, down near .Mlgeier's 
brewery and across the creek at White Street 


These men, with their goods packed on 
four horses, j)assed through where lirookville 
now is in 1788, and settled in and around 



what is now Meadville, then Allegheny county. 
Meade's trail commenced at the mouth of 
Anderson's creek, near Curwensville, Clear- 
field Co., Pa., and over this trail until 1802 
all transportation had to be carried into or 
through this wilderness on packsaddles by 
packhorses. A packhorse load was from two 
liundred to three hundred pounds. In 1802-03 
the first wagon road, or old Milesburg and 
Waterford State road, was opened for travel. 
The Meade settlers in Crawford county in 
1788 comprised the pioneer permanent set- 
tlement in northwestern Pennsylvania. 

Of the pioneer settlers who came over this 
trail and settled in what is now Jefferson 
county I will give a brief account. In 1800 
Joseph Barnett and Samuel Scott settled forty 
miles west of Curwensville, Clearfield county. 
They were men of great energy and industry, 
and soon made valuable improvements. They 
built a sawmill, which was a great help to the 
people, providing them with boards, etc. They 
settled among the Indians of the Seneca tribe, 
who were, however, civil. Joseph Barnett was 
a very eccentric, high-minded man, and took 
a leading part in all the business transactions 
of the day, a man long to be remembered by 
those who knew him. Shortly after their mill 
was made, perhaps as early as 1802, Henry 
Fir. a German, and a number of other families 
settled on the west of Mill creek, Jacob Mason. 
L. Long, John Dickson, P'reedom Stiles, and 
a very large negro by the name of Fudge \^an 
Camp, whose wool was as white as the wool 
of a sheep and whose face was as black as 
charcoal, and yet he was married to a white 
woman. He was fine-featured and thin-lipped. 

Fudge Van Camp was born a slave, but pur- 
chased his freedom after he served as a 
teamster in the Revolutionary war. He came 
to Port Barnett from Easton. Northampton 
Co., Pa., in the winter of 1801, traveling 
this distance on foot. The thirty-three 
miles were made without food, in a heavy 
snowstorm and in a two-foot fall of snow. 
Van Camp was a large and pow-erful man. but 
gave out ,and had to work his way for the 
last mile or two on his hands and knees to 
Port [tarnett. He arrived there at midnight 
exhausted and almost frozen. He came over 
what was then called the Military or Miles- 
burg & Le Boeuf State road. Being pleased 
with the coimtry, he returned to Easton only 
to migrate here with his four children, bring- 
ing his effects on two horses, and settled on 
what is now the Ray McConnell farm. He 
brought appleseeds with him and planted 
them on his farm, this being the first effort 

to laise fruit in this wilderness. Some of 
the trees are still living. Fudge Van Camp 
married a white woman. She died in Eas- 
«-ton. His family consisted of two sons and 
two daughters. Richard and Enos, Susan and 
Sarah. Susan married Charles Sutherland, 
and Sarah married William Douglass, who 
was a hunter. Richard married Ruth Stiles, 
a white woman, and left the county; he was 
the great-grandfather of Tom and Tobias 
Enty. Fudge Van Camp was the only colored 
person living in the county as late as 1810. 
He was a fiddler and a great fighter, and was 
the orchestra for all the early frolics. 

In about 1802 John Scott came to the county 
and settled on the farm where Corsica now 
stands; about 1805 Peter Jones, John Roll 
Sr., the Vasbinder families and Elijah Gra- 
ham; and in 1806 John Matson and some 
others settled near where Brookville now 
stands. In the southern part of the county, 
near Mahoning, John Bell settled at an early 
day. He was a man of iron will and great 
perseverance, afraid of neither man nor beast, 
and was a mighty hunter. Moses Knapp was 
also an early settler. "Port Barnett," as the 
settlement of Barnett and Scott was called, 
was the only stopping place from Curwensville 
for all those who came in 1801-02 through or 
for the wilderness over the "trail." We 
imagine that these buildings would have a 
very welcome look to those footsore and weary 
travelers — an oasis in the desert, as it were. 

In the year 1801, with a courage nothing 
could daunt, ten men left their old homes and 
all the comforts of the more thickly settled 
and older portions of the eastern part of the 
State for the unsettled wilderness of the more 
western part, leaving behind them the many 
associations which rendered the old homes so 
dear, and going forth, strong in might and 
firm in the faith of the God of their fathers, 
to plant homes and erect new altars around 
which to rear their young families. Brave 
hearts beat in the bosoms of those men and 
women who made so many and great sacri- 
fices in order to develop the resources of a 
portion of country almost unknown at that 
time. When we look abroad to-day and see 
what rapid strides have been made in the 
march of civilization, we say all honor to our 
forefathers who did so great a part of the 
work. It would be difficult for those of the 
present day to imagine how families could 
move upon horseback through an almost un- 
broken wilderness, with no road save an 
"Indian trail." the women mounted upon 
horses, the cooking utensils, farming imple- 



merits, sucli as hoes, axes, ploughs and shovels, 
together with bedding and provision, placed 
on what were called packsaddles, while fol- 
lowing upon foot were the men with guns^ 
upon their shoulders, ready to take down any 
small game that might cross their path, which 
would go toward making up their next meal. 
.'\fter a long and toilsome journey these 
pioneers halted on their course in what was 
then called Armstrong county (now Clarion 
county), and they immediately began the clear- 
ing of their lands, which they had purchased 
from Gen. James Potter, of the far-famed 
"Potter Fort," in Penn's Valley, in Centre 
county, familiar to every one who has ever 
read of the terrible depredations committed 
by the Indians in that part of the country at 
an early period of its history. 

During the first two years after the settle- 
ment the people had to pack their flour upon 
horseback from Centre, Westmoreland and In- 
diana counties ; also their iron and salt, which 
was ten dollars per barrel; iron was fifteen 
cents per pound. Cofifee and tea were but little 
used, tea being four dollars per pound, coffee 
seventy-five cents. Those articles were con- 
sidered great luxuries, both from the high 
price at which they came, and the difficulties 
attending their transportation through the 
woods, following the Indian trail. As to 
vegetables and animal food, there was no 
scarcity, as every one had gardens and the 
forest abounded with wild game. These 
dense forests were the abode of wild animals 
and game in greater numbers than almost any 
other part of the country. Panthers, bears 
and wolves roamed the woods, the deer 
traveled about in droves, and flocks of wild 
turkeys were numerous. There were alw'ays 
some expert huntsmen who kept the settle- 
ment supplied with meat. Those who were 
not sure shots themselves would go to work 
for a hunter, while he would go out and supply 
his less fortunate neighbor. I knew one 
hunter who killed one hundred and fifty deer 
and twenty bears in the first two years of the 
settlement, besides any amount of small game. 
Many, however, got along badly, some having 
nothing but potatoes and salt for substantials. 

When people began to need barns and larger 
houses, one would start out and invite the 
whole country for miles around, often going 
ten or twelve miles, and then it often took two 
or three days to raise a log barn, using horses 
to help to get up the logs. 


In regard to the first settlement and early 
history of the county I have made diligent 
research, and find, what is not unusual, some 
conflicting accounts and statements. These 
I have endeavored to compile, arrange and 
harmonize to the best of my ability. 

From the best information I am enabled to 
gather and obtain, .Andrew Barnett and Sam- 
uel Scott were sent in 1795 by Joseph Barnett, 
who was then living in either Northumberland, 
Lycoming or Dau]ihin county, Pa., to explore 
the famous region then about French creek 
(now Crawford county. Pa.). But when 
these two explorers reached Mill creek, now 
Port Barnett, they were forcibly impressed 
with the great natural advantages of the place 
for a sawmill. They stopped over two or three 
days to examine the creek. They explored 
as far down as to where Summerville now is, 
and after this careful inspection concluded 
that this spot, where "the lofty pine leaned 
gloomily over every hillside," was just the 
ideal home for a lumberman. They went no 
farther west, but returned east, and informed 
Joseph Barnett of their "Eureka." In the 
spring of 1/97 Joseph and Andrew Barnett, 
Samuel Scott and Moses Knapp came from 
their home at the mouth of Pine creek, then 
in Lycoming county, to the ideal millsite of 
Andrew, and so well pleased were they all 
that they commenced the erection of the 
])ioneer cabin and mill in the wilderness, in 
what was then Pinecreek township, Lycoming 
county. The cabin and mill were on the pres- 
ent site of Humphrey's mill and grounds at 
Port Barnett. The Indians assisted, about 
nine in number, to raise these buildings, and 
not a stroke of work would these savages do 
until they had eaten up all the provisions Air. 
Barnett had. This took three days. Then the 
rascals exclaimed, "Me eat, me sleep ; now me 
strong, now me work." In the fall of the same 
year Joseph Barnett returned to his family, 
leaving his brother Andrew and Scott to 
finish some work. In a short time thereafter 
.\ndrew Barnett became ill and died, and was 
buried on the north bank of the creek, at the 
junction of .Sandy Lick and Mill creek, Scott 
and two Indians being the only attendants at 
the funeral. Joseph Barnett was, therefore, 
soon followed by Scott, who was his brother- 
in-law, bringing the melancholy tidings of this 
event, which for a time cast a gloom over the 
future prospects of these sturdy pioneers. 

In 1798, however, Josejib Barnett, Scott 

SKOI iVOiST.OJ M^aiix 
XONJl 'uoxsv 

)iaOA -Vv'i;c aui 



and Knapp returned, a married man by the 
name of Joseph Hutchison coming out with 
them, and renewed their work. Hutchison 
brought his wife, household goods, two cows 
and a calf, and commenced housekeeping, 
and lived here two years before Joseph Bar- 
nett brought his family, who were then living 
in Dauphin county. Hutchison is clearly the 
pioneer settler in what is now Jefferson 
county. He was a sawyer. In that year the 
mill was finished by Knapp and Scott, and in 
1/99 there was some lumber sawed. In the 
fall of 1800 Joseph Barnett brought his wife 
and family to the home prepared for them 
in the wilderness. Barnett brought with him 
two cows and seven horses, five loaded with 
goods as packhorses and two as riding or 
family horses. His route of travel into this 
wilderness was over Meade's trail. 

The packsaddle was made of four pieces of 
wood, two being notched, the notches fitting 
along the horse's back, with the front part 
resting upon the horse's withers. The other 
two were flat pieces, about eighteen by five 
inches. They extended along the sides and 
were fastened to the end of the notched pieces. 
I have ridden on them. 

The first boards were run in 1801 to what 
is now Pittsburgh. About four thousand feet 
were put in a raft, or what would be a two- 
platform piece. Moses Knapp was the pioneer 
pilot. (See biography of Moses Knapp.) 

The first white child born in the county was 
I. P. Barnett. The next person that came 
here was Peter Jones. He settled on the farm 
owned by the late John McCullough, and the 
next was a Mr. Roll, who settled on the farm 
lately owned by John S. Barr. Then came 
Fudge Van Camp (negro), who built his 
cabin on the farm now owned by Ray Mc- 
Connell ; and then .'Kdam Vasbinder, who 
settled on the fami at the present time owned 
by Samuel Bullers. William \'asbinder 
pitched his tent on the Kirkman homestead. 
Ludwick Long put up his wigwam on the 
j)lace now the site of the County Home. Here 
Long erected a distillery, and the great dragon 
first opened his mouth and cast out his flood 
of water in the wilderness. John Dixon came 
next. He was our first schoolmaster. The 
school cabin was built on the County Home 
farm ; built of round logs, and oiled jiaper was 
used for glass. Everything had to be carried 
from the settlements on horseback ; glass was 
too easily broken to try to bring it so far. The 
second school cabin was built on the south 
side of the pike, at the forks of the Ridgway 
road. Here the first graveyard was laicl out. 

and the first person buried in it was a child 
of Samuel Scott. 

I may not be able to give the names of all 
the early settlers and the date of their arrival, 
but John, William and Jacob Vasbinder 
reached here about the year 1802 or 1803, 
John Matson, Sr., about 1806, and the Lucases 
soon after. John and Archibald Bell settled 
in the southern part of the county about 1809 
or 1 8 ID, and that locality was then an un- 
broken wilderness for miles around. Archie 
Hadden came and settled a mile sotitheast of 
them about 1812, and in 1815 Hugh McKee 
settled half a mile east of Perrysville. Jacob 
Hoover came in 1814 and settled at the pres- 
ent site of Clayville. John Postlethwait, Sr., 
came in 1818 from Westmoreland county, and 
located with his family a mile and a half north- 
west of Perrysville. A family by the name of 
Young settled about two miles west of this 
place about the same time. People began to 
settle in the vicinity of Punxsutawney about 
the year 1816, the first being Abram Weaver, 
and Rev. David Barclay, Dr. John W. Jenks 
and Nathaniel Tindle, with their fainilies, and 
Elijah Heath arrived there about 1817 or 
1818. Charles C. Gaskill. Isaac P. Carmalt, 
John B. Henderson and John Hess came some 
time later. About 1818 David, John and 
Henry Milliron settled 'on Little Sandy, and 
Henry Nolf located on the same stream, where 
Langville now stands, and erected a sawmill. 
In 1820 I^wrence Nolf came to Pine run, two 
miles south of Ringg'old, but made no improve- 
ment, and afterwards sold to John Miller, who 
opened up a farm. Hon. James Winslow and 
others were also among the first settlers in 
the neighborhood of Punxsutawney. James 
McClelland and Michael Lantz came into the 
southwestern part of the county, within the 
limits of what is now Porter township, pre- 
vious to the year 1820. William Stewart and 
Benjamin McBride made a settlement in the 
Round Bottom, west of Whitesville, in 182 1, 
and in the same year James Stewart came and 
located three miles northwest of Perrysville. 
The year 1822 brought a number of families to 
the county, among whom were the following: 
David Postlethwait, who purchased Stewart 
and McBride's right of settlement in the 
Round Bottom, and settled with his brother. 
John, on Pine run, who had preceded him 
there ; John McHenry, James Bell, and some 
others who moved into the Round Bottom, 
near Whitesville, and a Mr. Baker, who settled 
across the creek east of Whitesville ; Jesse 
.■\rmstrong and Adam Long, the former locat- 
ing near where Clayville now is, and the latter 



at a place near Piiiixsiitawiiey ; John Fuller, 
who settled near Keyiiolcls\ille ; and Samuel 
New-come, who settled on Pine run, ahout 
a mile above the Postlethwaits. .In 1823 John 
Mcintosh and Henry Keys settled in Beech- 
woods, now Washington township, and the 
year 1824 brought Alexander Osborn. John 
McGee, Matthew and William .McDonald, 

Andrew Smith, John Wilson, William Cooper 
and W'illiam McCullough were also among 
the first settlers in the northeastern part of 
the county. More about these, and other 
names of early settlers, will be found in that 
part of this history devoted to the different 
towns and townships. See also Biography of 
Joseph Barnett. 








Those Pennsylvania forests — slender maple, stately 

Mighty oak and beech and cheslnut, 'round whose 
trunks the wild vines twine ! 

And the scarlet-fruited cherry, and the locust, wliite 
with bloom, 

.^nd the willow, drooping sadly, o'er (perchance) a 
forest tomb. 

Oh, those leafy, silent forests with stra'V sunbeams 
shifting through. 

Where soaring wild birds send their songs far- 
echoing to you ! 


The original boundary lines of Jefferson 
county inclosed an area of more than one 
thousand square miles, embracing much of 
what is now Forest and I'.lk counties, beyond 
I he Clarion river. At what time the present 
boundaries were erected is not certain. There 
arc no mountains in the county, but the sur- 
face is hilly, like the rest of northwestern 
Pennsylvania, uniformly broken; and while 
one valley cannot be said to be the exact 
counterpart of another, nor the streams be 
considered of e(|ual size and importance, yet 
the type of the topograi)hy is the same wher- 
ever we look at it. and any one part of the 
county, therefore, is in this respect a picture 
of the whole. The rocks pertain to the series 
of coal measures lying on the outskirts of the 
Pittsburgh coal basin. Iron and coal are in 
abundance, the latter in every part of the 

county. The soil in the valleys is in many 
places highly fertile, but the great body of the 
county cannot lie rated above second quality. 

The height above tide of the upland sum- 
mits ranges from twelve hundred to eighteen 
hundred and eighty feet. They are lowest at 
the southern end of the county, and highest 
at the northern end. There is one notable 
exception in Jefferson county, however, to the 
prevailing rule in this section : The southeast 
corner borders on the high tableland of the 
Chestnut Ridge anticlinal, whose summits 
frequently attain an elevation of two thousand 
feet ; and some few [loints in Gaskill town- 
ship rise nearly to that height ; but these points 
are related more closely to the topography of 
Indiana and Clearfield counties than to that of 
Jefferson, which is in fact a mere continuation 
of that prevailing throughout Clarion. Arm- 
strong anfl western Indiana counties. 


The following table shows the height above 
sea level or tide of the various points men- 
tioned : 


Port Barnett above sea level, 1,225 

f 'illman above sea level. 1,880 

['errysville above sea level, 1,170 

W'inslow above sea level, 1,6.^6 

Horatio above sea level, 1,21 r 




Falls Creek above tide, 1,405 

Evergreen above tide, 1 ,398 

Magee's (Sandy Valley P. O.) above tide, 1,387 

Panther Run above tide, 1,386 

Reynoldsville above tide, 1,377 

Prior Run above tide, 1,366 

Prindible above tide, 1,360 

McAnnulty's Run above tide, 1,359 

Camp Run above tide, 1,341 

Fuller's above tide, 1,327 

Wolf Run above tide, 1,319 

Iowa Mills above tide, 1,299 

Bell's Mills above tide, 1,268 

Brookville Tunnel, east end above tide, 1,242 

Brookville Station above tide, 1,235 

Coder's Run above tide, 1,223 

Puckerty Point above tide, 1,214 

Rattlesnake Run above tide, 1,207 

Baxter above tide, 1,206 

Troy (Summerville) above tide, 1,186 

Heathville above tide, 1,161 

Patton's above tide, 1,131 

Knox Dale above tide, 1,655 

Panic above tide, 1,800 

P.eechtree above tide, 1,618 

Sugar Hill above tide, 1,598 

Allen's Mills above tide, 1,575 

Rarnsaytown above tide, 1,524 

Belleview above tide, i ,485 

Conifer above tide, 1,309 

From Falls Creek to Ridf/zi-'ay 

\ear Falls Creek Station above tide, 1,406 

Surface of ground, McMinn's Sum- 
mit (McMinn's Summit is the 

Boon Mountain divide) above tide, 1,625 

Hrockwayville above tide, 1,466 

Ordinary low water in Little Toby. above tide, 1,441 

On the main Ridgway Road above tide, 1,451 

Mouth of Little Toby Creek above tide, 1,321 

(Ordinary water level) 

Big Run above tide, 1,287 

Sykesville above tide, 1,350 

Punxsutawney above tide, 1,225 

Alony Clarion Rher* 

Hallton above tide, 1,290 

Millstone (Bell's Mills) above tide, 1,240 

Clarington above tide, 1,220 

Cooksburg above tide, 1,186 

Mill Creek above tide, 1,120 

* These are the elevations of the bridges crossing 
the river at the places given. 


The drainage of Jefferson county is all west- 
ward towards the Ohio river, through ( i ) the 
Clarion river at the north end of the county, 
(2) Red Bank creek in the center, and (3) 
Mahoning creek on the south. Each of these 
streams has its own complex system of tribu- 
taries, each with its own system of small 
branches and branchlets ; and thus the surface 
of the whole county is broken into hills. It is 
abundantly watered, having on the south 
Mahoning creek, on the west Little .Sandy 
Lick creek and Big Sandy Lick creek, whose 

branches stretch across the county. Clarion 
river, or Toby's creek, with its many and 
large ramifications, intersects the northern half 
of the county in every direction. 

The Clarion and Mahoning flow on the 
borders of the county, and are less important 
to it than the Red Bank, which is the principal 
stream. Its water basin is unsytnmetrical on 
the two sides, a much larger part of its drain- 
age coming in from the north than from the 
south. Excepting indeed from the Little Sandy 
branch, its basin on the south side would be 
confined pretty much to the hills which over- 
look the creek ; whereas towards the north its 
far-reaching arms extend to what is now the 
Elk county line. 

Red Bank creek in the original maps and 
drafts of Jefferson county bore the name of 
Sandy Lick, which name is still retained for 
its main branch, coming from Clearfield 
county, along which the Bennett's Branch 
railroad is laid. The creek assumes the name 
of Red Bank at Brookville, where Sandy Lick 
unites with the North Fork, and both branches 
carry enough during floods to float rafts and 

Little Sandy, before alluded to as occupying 
the southwestern part of the county, is a 
rafting stream. 

The volume of water, however, in all the 
streams, large and small, is extremely irregu- 
lar, varying as it does from stages of high 
flood when the larger streams are destructive 
torrents, to stages of almost complete exhaus- 
tion during periods of severe drought. This 
extreme of variability is largely the conse- 
quence of the porous and loose condition of 
the surface rocks, which thus copiously yield 
water so long as they hold it. In exceptional 
years, after a succession of prolonged 
droughts, there is a dearth of water in all parts 
of the county. 

The Red Bank-Mahoning divide in the 
southeast corner of the county crosses from 
Clearfield at a point nearly due east of Rey- 
noldsville. Thence it follows an irregular 
southwest line, around the heads of Elk run, 
and around the heads of Little Sandy. Para- 
dise settlement stands at the top of it ; so do 
Shamoka, Oliveburg and Frostburg. Porter 
post office at the southwest end of the county 
marks the top of the divide in that region. 

The Red Bank-Clarion divide on the north 
enters Jefferson south of Lane's Grove, where 
one branch of Rattlesnake run takes its rise. 
After passing Brockwayville the watershed is 
forced almost to the edge of Little Toby(iralley, 
as will be seen on examination of a county 



map. Along the last-named stream it jasses 
into Elk county, where curving about the heads 
of the North I'^ork (_Red Bank system), it 
returns again to Jefl'erson, whence, closely 
skirting the Clarion river, it runs southwest 
of Sigel. There it turns sharply about and 
next sweeps around the head of Big Mill 
creek, extending thence south to within a few 
miles of the Red liank valley. It therefore 
describes a semicircle in northern Jefferson, 
stretching from one side of the county to the 


Where skimmed the Indian bark. 
And the song of the boatman re-echoed through 
the forest. 

■ Seneca 

Da yon on dah teh go wall (Big Toby or 
Alder) gab yon hah da (creek). Big Toby 

Da yon on dah teh we oh (Little Toby, or 
-Mder) gab yon hah da (creek), Little Toby 

Oh non da (I'ine) gab yon hah da (creek). 
Pine creek. 

Oh twenge ah (red) yob non da (bank) gab 
yon hah da (creek), Red Bank creek. 

Oh ne .sab geh jab geh gab yon hah da. 
Sandy Lick creek. 

Ga de ja hah da gab nos gab yon hah da, 
Mahoning creek. 

Oh to weh geh ne gab yon hah da. North 
Fork creek. 

Oh nab da gon, ,\mong the Pines. 

its original name was changed to Red Bank, 
by which it has been known by the oldest 
inhabitant now living in the region through 
whicli it flows. Perhaps the change ma}' have 
l)een suggested by the red color of the soil of 
its banks many miles up from its mouth." 

Tangawunsch-hanne, North Fork, meant in 
the Indian tongue Little Brier stream, or 
stream whose banks are overgrown with green 

The reason why Toby creek was subse- 
quently called Clarion river was because there 
were no less than three or four Toby creeks 
in Pennsylvania. There was one in Monroe 
county, one in Luzerne, and one in V'enango, 
which is now Clarion. Now, Tobyhanna, or 
Toby creek, is corrupted from Topi-hanna, 
signifying alder stream, that is, a stream 
whose banks are fringed with alders. I find 
also that the Clarion river was called by the 
Delawares (iavvunsch-hanne ; that is, brier 
stream, a stream whose banks are overgrown 
with briers. There seems to be an incongruity, 
but the probabilities are that farther down in 
what is now Clarion county the stream was 
()\ergrown with alder bushes. Mahoning is 
a corruption of Ma-onink, and signifies where 
tliere is a lick, or at the lick ; sometimes a 
stream flowing there or near a lick. This 
name is a very common one for rivers and 
places in the Delaware country, along which 
or where the surface of the ground was 
covered with saline deposits, provisionally 
called "licks," from the fact that deer, elk, 
liuffalo and other animals frequented these 
places and licked the salt earth. Mabonitty 
signifies a small lick, and Ma-oning a stream 
flowing from or near a lick. 



Topi-hannc — Toby creek. 1749, Riviere au 
Fiel — Gall river. 

Ma-onink — Mahoning. 

Tangawunscli-hanne — North b'ork. 

Legamwi-banne — Sandy creek. Riviere au 
\'ermillon. 1740 — Red Bank. 

"Lcgamwi-mahonne means a sandy lick 
creek; that is, Sandy Lick, which was 'the 
name of this stream as late as 1792, from its 
source to its mouth, according to Reading 
Howell's map of that year. It bore that name 
even later. P,y the act of Assembly, March 
21, 1798, 'Sandy Lick or Red Bank Creek' 
was declaretl to be .-i ])ublic stream or high- 
way 'from the mouth up to the second or great 
fork.' The writer has not been able to ascer- 
tain just when, why, or at whose suggestion 

There are many curious trees in the world, 
'i'lie "'cow tree" is a native of Venezuela. It 
reaches a great height, has leaves resembling 
those of the mountain laurel, and can live 
entirely without moisture for six or seven 
months. When incisions are made in the 
trunk a stream of milk gushes ovit. This is 
of a thick, creamy consistency and has a balmy 
fragrance. If let stand a .short time it turns 
thick and yellow and soon liecomes cheese. 

The ''tallow tree." or "candle tree," is found 
on the island of Malabar and the ."^outh Sea 
islands. The fruit is Jieart shaped, and about 
as I.-irge as ;i walnut. The seeds of the fruit 
when boiled ])roducc a tallow. This is used 
by the natives both as food and for candles. 

The "life tree" grows in Jamaica. It gets 



its name from the fact that if the leaves are 
broken from the plant they nevertheless con- 
tinue to grow. Nothing will destroy their life 
except fire. 

A tree in the province of Goa, Malabar 
coast, western India, is called the "sorrowful 
tree." It is so called because it weeps every 
morning. It flourishes only in the dark. At 
sunset no flowers are visible, but as soon as 
darkness falls the whole tree becomes a 
bovver of bloom. With the rising sun the 
flowers dry up or drop oft", and a copious 
shower falls from the branches. 

Our forests were originally covered by a 
heavy growth of magnificent timber trees of 
various kinds. Pine and hemlock predom- 
inated. Chestnut and oak grew in some locali- 
ties. Birch, sugar maple, ash and hickory 
occupied a wide range. Birch and cherry 
trees were numerous, and "linwood," cucum- 
ber and poplar trees grew on many of the hill- 
sides, with butternut, sycamore, black ash and 
elm on the low grounds. We had a cucumber 
tree and a leather tree. 

In all, about one hundred varieties of trees 
grew here. Our forests have become the prey 
of the woodman's ax. There has been no 
voice raised efi'ectively to restrain the destruc- 
tion, wanton as it has been, of the best speci- 
mens of the pine which the eye of man ever 
saw, the growth of hundreds of years felled 
to the ground, scarified, hauled to the streams, 
tumbled in, and floated away to the south and 
east and west for the paltry pittance of ten 
cents a foot. Oh that there could have been 
some power to restrain the grasping, wasteful, 
avaricious cupidity of man, or some voice of 
thunder crying, "Woodman, woodman, spare 
that tree ! That old familiar forest tree, whose 
glory and renown has spread over land and 
sea. and wouldst thou hack it. down?" 

But they are gone, all gone from the moun- 
tain's brow. The hands, also that caused the 
destruction are now moldering into dust, thus 
exemplifying the law of nature, that growth 
is rapidly followed by decay, indicating a 
common destiny and bringing a uniform 
result. And such are we. It is our lot thus 
to die and be forgotten. 

The southern portion of Jefferson county 
was mostly covered with white oak, black oak. 
rock oak, chestnut, sugar, beech and hickory. 
The rock areas of northern Jefferson were 
covered with pine and hemlock, with scarcely 
a trace of white oak. There is still a consid- 
erable quantity of marketable hemlock left. 
White oak, chestnut, sugar, beech and hickory 
were the principal kinds of wood on the cleared 

lands, white oak being found mostly on the 
high uplands. There were four kinds of 
maple, four of ash, five of hickory, eight of 
oak, three of birch, four of willow, four of 
poplar, four of pine, and from one to three 
of each of the other varieties. The following 
arc the names of all of them: Sweet bay, 
cucumber, elkwood, long-leaved cucumber, 
white basswood, toothache tree, wafer ash, 
spindle tree, Indian cherry, feted buckeye, 
sweet buckeye, striped maple, sugar maple, 
white maple, red maple, ash-leaved maple, 
staghorn sumach, dwarf sumach, poison elder, 
locust, coffee nut, honey locust, judas tree, 
wildplum, hog plum, red cherry, black cherry, 
crabapple, cockspur, thorn, scariet haw, black- 
thorn, Washington thorn, service tree, witch- 
hazel, sweet gum, dogwood, boxwood, sour 
gum,'sheepberry, stagbush, sorrel tree, spoon- 
wood, rose bay, southern buckthorn, white 
ash, red ash, green ash, black ash, fringe tree, 
catalpa, sassafras, red elm, white elm, rock 
elm. hackberry, red mulberry, sycamore, but- 
ternut, walnut, bitternut, pignut, kingnut, 
shagbark, white hickory, swamp white oak, 
chestnut oak, yellow oak, red oak, shingle 
oak, chinquapin, chestnut, ironwood, lever- 
wood, beech, gray birch, red birch, black 
birch, black alder, speckled alder, black willow, 
sandbar willow, almond willow, glaucous wil- 
low, aspen, two varieties of soft poplar, two 
varieties of cottonwood, two varieties of neck- 
lace poplar, lirioderidron (incorrectly called 
poplar), white cedar, red cedar, white pine, 
hemlock, balsam, fir, hickory, pine, pitch pine 
or yellow pine, red pine, Virginia date, and 
forest olive. In addition to the above were 
numerous wild berries, vines, etc. 

Many of these trees were lofty, magnificent, 
and valuable, and were not surpassed in any 
State in the Union. The State schoolbook of 
1840 taught that two of our varieties were dis- 
tinctive and peculiar to Pennsylvania, viz., the 
cucumber and umbrella tree, or elkwood. I 
will stop to say here, that the woods then were 
full of sweet singing birds and beautiful 
flowers; hence some old pioneer called the 
settlement "Paradi,se." 

For the last fifty years a great army of 
woodmen have been and are yet, to-day, 
hacking down these "monarchs of the forest," 
and floating or conveying them or their prod- 
uct to market. I need not mentiou our tan- 
neries or sawmills of to-day. But now 

Look abroad: another race has filled these mountain 

forests, wid^ the wood recedes, 
,\nd towns shoot up, and fertile lands are tilled by 

hardy mountaineers. 




The lumber trade of Jefferson county was 
once a great business, and it has now entirely 
disappeared. The first act that Joseph Bar- 
nett did after erecting a cabin home was to 
erect a sawmill on Mill creek. This was in 
1797. His sawmill was primitive, raised by 
nine Indians and five white men. 

The earliest form of a sawmill was a "saw 
pit." In it lumber was sawed in this way: 
Two men at the saw, one man standing above 
the ]jit, the other man in the pit, the two men 
sawing the log on trestles above. Saws are 
prehistoric. The ancients used "bronzed 
saws." Sawmills were first run by "individual 
power," and waterpower was first used in 
Germany about 1322. The primitive water 
sawmill consisted of a wooden pitman attached 
to the shaft of the wheel. The log to be sawed 
was placed on rollers, sustained by a frame- 
work over the wheel, and was fed forward on 
the rollers by means of levers worked by 
hand. The pioneer sawmill erected in the 
United States was near or on the dividing line 
of Maine and New Hampshire, in 1634. 

Our early up-and-down sawmills were built 
of frame timbers mortised, tenoned, and 
pinned together with oak pins. In size these 
mills were from twenty to thirty feet wide and 
from fifty to sixty feet in length, and were 
roofed with clapboards, slabs or boards. The 
running gear was an undershot flutter wheel, 
a gig wheel to run the log carriage back, and a 
bull wheel with a rope or chain attached to 
haul the logs into the mill on and over the 
slide. The capacity of such a mill was about 
four thousand feet of boards in twenty-four 
hours. The total cost of one of these up-and- 
down sawmills when completed was about 
three hundred dollars for iron used and two 
hundred dollars for the work and material. 
Luther Ceer, an old pioneer, built about 
twenty-eight of such mills in Jefferson county. 

Moses Knaj)]) was the pioneer pilot on Red 
l!ank creek. The pi(jneer board raft contained 
about eight thousand feet of boards. Pilots 
received but two dollars per trip and found; 
common hands but one dollar per trip and 
found. In 1833 a common hand for rafting 
on Red Bank creek was paid one dollar and 
fifty cents and cx])eiises. In 1866 a pilot for 
one trip on Red Bank creek received twenty 
dollars and exi)enses, a common hand ten dol- 
lars for a trip and ex])enses. They wore red 
and blue flannel shirts with .-igate shirt but- 
tons decorated in fantastic siia^ies over them. 
The pioneer pilots steered the raft then with 

the front oar. The pioneer oars and stems 
were then hewn out of a single dry pine tree. 
Elijah M. Uraham was the first to saw oar 
blades separate from the stem. 

The first lot of lumber which Barnett and 
Scott sent down the Red Bank was a small 
platform of timber with poles instead of oars 
as the jjropelling power. 

The first flat-boat that descended Red Bank 
was piloted by Samuel Knapp, in full Indian 
costume. In 1832 or 1833 two boats went 
down loaded with sawed lumber owned by 
Uriah Matson, which found a good market in 
Cincinnati, with the proceeds of which Matson 
purchased the goods with which he opened his 
store at Brookville. 

Up to 1840 there were but two or three 
gristmills in the county, but more than four 
times as many sawmills, and the export of the 
county was lumber solely, unless venison hams 
be included. Two million feet of white pine 
boards, etc., were cut in 1830 and rafted down 
the Big Mahoning, Red Bank or Sandy Lick 
creeks, and Clarion river, to the Allegheny 
river, and thence to Pittsburgh and other 
towns on the Ohio. 

Lumbering was carried on very moderately 
until about 1847, when some ex])erienced 
"Yankees'" in that line from Maine and New 
York came into the county and engaged in the 
industry, giving it quite an impetus. In 
1854 the lumber trade of the Red Bank valley 
was estimated at over twenty million feet ; on 
the North Fork there were twenty-two saws 
cutting ten million ; on Sandy Lick and its 
branches, twenty saws, cutting ten millions; 
and on Red Bank and Little Sandy, fifteen 
saws, cutting three million five hundred 
thousand : total estimate, forty-three million 
five hundred thousand feet. To this may be 
added at least five million shingles, and about 
one million two'hundred thousand feet linear 
or square feet of timber, or about three mil- 
lion cubic feet. 

Before the creation of the Red I'ank and 
Mahoning Navigation Comiianies, rafting, 
owing to the obstructions in the channel, etc.. 
was extremely difficult and hazardous, but 
these companies expended large sums to re- 
move obstructions and otherwise improve the 
streams. Before this was done board rafts 
run out of Red Bank contained from twenty 
thousand to twenty-five thousand feet ; the 
stream imiiroved, they contained in many 
instances fifty thousand. 

On the Clarion river and its tributaries there 
was m.arketed annually not less than thirty 
million feet of boards, 'i'his outi)Ut, in con- 



XO\=T 'J0J.3V 

XHOA /Viji.; H.ii 

ir^ >-EV/ YORK 




'' VlfJ/f 



uection with the timber float, made the trade 
on that river worth over four hundred thou- 
sand dollars. You will see from this review 
that the annual trade from these streams 
exceeded one million dollars. In addition, 
millions of shingles were marketed, and five 
or six flat boats were marketed each year. 

At the spring flood of i(S69. seventy-four 
board and three hundred and fifty timber rafts 
were run out of Red Bank, containing over 
two million five hundred thousand feet of 
boards, and six hundred thousand of square 

In 1872 there were run ont of Red Bank, 
from the waters of Sandy Lick, North Fork, 
Little Sandy and Red liank. nine hundred and 
seventeen timber, and five hundred and seventy 
board rafts. The timber rafts from the three 
former streams averaged sixteen thousand 
feet per raft, and those from Little Sandy, one 
thousand feet ; the board rafts ran from 
twenty-five thousand to fifty thousand, mak- 
ing a total nm for the year of one million five 
iiundred thousand feet of square timber, and 
twenty million feet of boards. These com- 
prised the "runs" of one hundred and fifty 
individuals and firms, averaging from one to 
one hundred rafts each. 

In 1873 eight of the principal lumber firms 
on the North Fork, .*>andy Lick and Red Bank 
sent to market four hundred and twenty-eight 
board rafts, containing from thirty thousand 
to fifty thousand feet per raft, and over one 
hundred timber rafts. The largest of these 
rafts came from the mill of .\. Bell & Co., on 
.^andy Lick. To this should be added the 
product of the Mahoning and Little Toby, of 
whicJi no statistics are ol)tainal>ie. 

On March 30. 1877, the output in the .Sandy. 
Xorth h'ork and Red Bank was as follows : 
Sandy — C. M. & J. Mr Garri.son, three mil- 
lion, five thousand feet; Mill Creek — R. J. 
Niciiolson, four million feet ; North Fork — 
Jackson, Moore & Co., three and a half mil- 
lion feet: Five Mile nm — R. D. Taylor, two 
million feet ; Sandy — N. Carrier & Co., ex- 
ceeding two million feet ; -Sandy — Andrews 
& O'Donnel, one million feet ; North Fork — 
T. K. Litch, one and a half million feet ; Sandy 
— A. Bell & Son, three million feet : Mill 
creek — J. Humphrey, one million feet. 

The last square timber raft run on the 
Clarion was taken down in 1900. The raft 
was from Wynkoop's, owned by James O'Har- 
rah and piloted by William Boyd. 

The last great output was in 1903. when 
fort\- million feet were run to market. Of 
this ereat run over thirt\- million feet was 

white oak. This was the last run of white 

Keelboating and steamboating ceased on 
the .Allegheny river in 1868. 

Rafting a trip from Brookville to the Alle- 
gheny river required less than two days, a 
week was usually spent at the mouth in free- 
ing rafts from the gorge and rearranging them 
for the three days' run from the mouth to 
Pittsburgh, and it was customary to "gorge" 
all rafts at the mouth of Red Bank creek 
instead of running them out into the river 
and there coupling them up for the run to 
Pittsburgh. (Jne who has never seen the ex- 
tensi\e lumbering business of those days or one 
of these gorges at the mouth can form no idea 
of its extent or importance. I cannot describe 
what I have seen there in the way of "jam 
and gorge," and I do not believe any old pilot 
or lumberman can. Flatboats, board and tim- 
ber rafts were jammed so closely in these 
gorges at the mouth that they bridged the 
stream completely frequently for a mile, some 
places two or three rafts deep. In this mael- 
strom rafts were frequently turned upside 
dow-n and others were torn to pieces. When 
a raft and crew reached this point, on the 
creek, the front oar had to be unshijiped and 
the crew run and jump for their lives. Any 
old pilot in Brookville can verify these facts. 
This gorge always caused great loss andangrs' 
dis[)Utes among our lumbermen. .About 1866 
they developed in lumbering so far as to keep 
the channel partly open and "coupled up" all 
rafts in the river. 

The lowest price paid for timber was 2 2-3 
cents ])er cubic foot. This was in 1846. The 
highest price per cubic foot was 27 cents. 
This was paid in 1863. In 1857 good pine 
lumber sold from seven to twelve cents per 
cubic foot. The lowest price paid for boards 
was three dollars per thousand in 1826-1836. 
The highest price per thousand was thirty 
dollars, in 1864. 


The Red Bank Navigation Company was 
incorporated by an act of the Legislature May 
17, 1854, by which Thomas K. Litch, Thomas 
Reynolds, Daniel Smith, Darius Carrier and 
Patrick Keer were appointed commissioners 
to carry out the provisions of said act. 

The third section of the act gave the com- 
pany power to clean and clear the Red Bank, 
Sandy Lick and North Fork from all rocks, 
bars and other obstructions ; to erect dams and 
locks ; to bracket and regulate all dams now 



erected; to regulate the chutes of dams; to 
control the waters for purposes of navigation ; 
to levy tolls not exceeding one and one-fourth 
cents for each and even^ five miles of improved 
creek, per thousand feet of boards or other 
sawed stuff, for every fifty feet, lineal 
measure, of square or other timber. These 
tolls were to be collected at the mouth of Red 
Bank, or at such other points as was deemed 
necessary. This section also provided for the 
appointment of officers and agents to carry the 
provisions of the bill into effect. 

Under the provisions of this act the streams 
were greatly imjiroved, and during the first 
three years the tolls collected amounted to over 
three thousand dollars, the greater part of 
which sum was expended in improving the 

The company was organized August 2, 1856, 
by electing Thomas K. Litch, president ; P. 
Taylor. C. H. Prescott, Michael Best and R. 
J. Nicholson, directors, and Paul Darling, 

The last officers, elected in 1S82, were: T. 
K. Litch, president; S. S. Jackson, N. Carrier, 
Jr., G. B. Carrier and Abel Fuller, directors. 

Thomas K. Utch was continued as president 
from August 2, 1856, until August 18, 1866, 
when I. G. Gordon was elected. He held the 
office until December 27, 1873, when Mr. Litch 
was again elected, and remained the president 
until his death in 1882. 

A. L. Gordon was appointed secretary, 
treasurer and collector, October 27, 1886, and 
served a couple of years, until Qiarles Corbet 
was appointed to perform these duties. 

In 1830 Robert P. Barr came to Brookville, 
and about 1832 bought what is now the Cook 
mill site and two hundred acres of land on the 
North Fork. In 1834-35 he built an up-and- 
down sawmill near where the present mill 
stands, and in 1836 erected a gristmill, on the 
location of the present one. I knew Mr. Barr 
well. He was a good business man for that 
day, and was a useful citizen. In addition to 
running his sawmill and gristmill he manu- 
factured brick. In 1849 he sold out to Thomas 
K. Litch and others, and moved to the State 
of Iowa. 

Mr. Litch moved to Brookville in 1850. His 
sawmill was destroyed by fire in 1S56, but was 
at once replaced by him with a better one. The 
new mill had a circular saw, the first one used 
in Jefferson county. Mr. Litch plotted .some 
of his land lying in the borough, and sold it off 
in lots, in what is now called "Litchtown." 
For the period of three years before the saw- 
mill closed down Mr. Cook in operating the 

property carried some eight hundred men on 
his pa}»roll. 

Good-bye, old mill. I have seen and heard 
you all my life. 

The Mahoning Navigation Company was 
created under an act of Assembly July 31, 
1845. There was no organization, but an act 
of assembly of August 10, 1858, under 
which, an organization was effected and which 
continued until the industry ceased. 


The pioneer keelboat built on these western 
waters was made at Pittsburgh in 1811, the 
"New Orleans." The first river steamboat 
was built in 18 17. 

The pioneer boats in what is now Jeft'erson 
county were built at Port Barnett for the trans- 
portation of Center county pig metal. In 1830 
they were built on the North Fork for the 
same purpose. In after years, about 1840 
when tipples were used, boats were built and 
tipples erected at the following points, viz. : 
At Findley's, on Sandy Lick, by Nieman and 
D. S. Chitister; at Brookville, by John Smith; 
at Troy, by Peter Lobaugh ; at Heathville, by 
A. B. Paine and Arthur O'Donnell; at the 
mouth of Little Sandy, by William Bennett; 
at Robinson's Bend, by Hance Robinson. This 
industry along Red Bank was maintained by 
the charcoal furnaces of Clarion and Arm- 
strong counties. The boats were sold at the 
Olean bridge at Broken Rock, and sold again 
at Pittsburgh for coal barges. Some of the 
boats were sold for the transportation of salt 
to the South from Freeport. The industrj^ on 
Red Bank ceased in the fifties. 

Anthony and Jacob Eshbaugh built scaffolds 
and boats for the dealers on Red Bank. The 
pioneer boat was sixteen feet wide and forty 
feet long. These boats were always built from 
the best lumber that could be made from the 
choicest timber that grew in our forests. Each 
gunwale was hewed out of the straightest 
pine tree that was to be found, viz., twenty- 
eight inches high at the "rake," fourteen 
inches at the stern, ten inches thick, 
and forty feet long, two gunwales to a 
boat. The ties were hewed six inches thick, 
with a six-inch face, mortised, dovetailed and 
keyed into the gimwale six feet apart. The 
six "streamers" for a boat were sawed three 
by twelve inches, sixteen feet long, and 
"pinned" to the ties with one pin'in the middle 
of each steamer. These pins were made of 
white oak one and a half inches square and ten 
inches long. The plank for the "bottoms" was 



first-class white pine one and a half inches 
thick, and pinned to the streamers and gun- 
wales with white oak pins, calked with flax or 
tow. All pioneer boats were built on the 
ground and turned by about ten men — and a 
gallon of whisky — over and on a bed made of 
brush to keep the planks in the bottom from 
springing. All boats were "sided up" with 
white oak studding two and a half by five 
inches and six feet (high) long. Each stud- 
ding was mortised into a gunwale, two feet 
apart. Inside the boat a siding eighteen inches 
high was pinned on. These boats were sold 
in Pittsburgh, to be used as coal barges for 
the transportation of coal to the lower Missis- 
sippi. The boats were manned and run by 
two or three men, the pilot always at the stern. 
The oar, stem and blade wefe made the same 
as for ordinary rafts. The pioneer boats were 
tied and landed with halyards made of twisted 
hickory saplings. The size of these boats in 
1843 was eighteen feet wide and eighty feet 
long, built on tipples similar to the present 
method. The boats are now made from one 
hundred and twenty to one hundred and fifty 
feet long and from twenty to twenty-four feet 
wide, and from spliced gunwales. 

More than sixty years ago boats were built 
on the Big Toby at Maple creek, Cooksburg, 
Clarington, Millstone, Wynkoop. Spring 
creek, Irvine and Ridgway. The pioneer 
boat was probably built at Maple Creek by 
William Reynolds. The pioneer boats were 
gems of the art as compared with those made 
to-day. Now the gunwales are spliced up of 
pieces to make the required length, and the 
•boats are made of hemlock. The industry, 
however, is carried on more extensively on 
the Clarion now than ever for the same market. 

From this time, as has been the case for 
several years past, the boat bottom will be of 
hemlock, patched of many pieces, spiked to- 
gether instead of built with long oak pins, and 
will have to be handled with care to ser\^e the 
purpose. Of this kind of boat bottoms there 
is small danger of scarcity. 


In 1850 the waters of what is now called the 
Clarion river were as clear as crystal, pure as 
life and gurgled into the river from the moun- 
tain springs. In early times this river was 
called Stump creek. It was called Toby's 
creek as early as 1758, and as late as i860. In 
an act of the Legislature of 1822 authorizing 
the erection of a dam, the stream was called 
"Toby's creek, otherwise called Clarion." 

In 1855-56 there was one colored teamster 
in Ridgway, viz., Charles Matthews. He 
also rafted on the Clarion river and a famous 
pilot he was, too. On his return trips he had 
to pass through Jeft'erson county. In 1856 he 
was subpoenaed to our court on a liquor case. 
Charles was put on the stand and asked if the 
defendant ever sold him any liquor. His 
answer was, "Yes sah, I have bought a little 
medicine at times." "Well, what did you do 
with the medicine?" Matthews slowly said, 
"Well sah, up in Ridgway where I comes from 
when we has to take medicine, sah, we gen- 
erally drinks it, and I reckon, sah, I takes dis 
medicine dataway." 

The Red Bank is not the same old stream 
that it used to be when I was a boy. It's not 
the same old bank I strolled along, whistling 
notes of joy. • 

In 1798 Red Bank was designated by legal 
statute as Sandy Lick, but later, by common 
acceptance, the name Sandy Lick was applied 
to that portion above where the North Fork 
unites, and Red Bank from Brookville to the 

There was a flood in this stream in 1806 
which reached eight or ten feet up the trees 
on the flats. 

One thousand dollars was appropriated by 
the act of Assembly "making appropriations 
for certain internal improvements," approved 
March 24, 1817, for the purpose of improving 
this creek, and Levi Gibson and Samuel C. 
Orr were appointed commissioners to superin- 
tend the application of the money. By the 
act of April 4, 1826, "Sandy Lick, or Red Bank 
Creek," was declared a public highway only 
for the passage of boats, rafts, etc., descending 
it. That act also made it lawful for all persons 
owning lands adjoining this stream to erect 
milldams across it, and other waterworks along 
it, to keep them in good repair, and draw off 
enough water to operate them on their own 
land, but required them to make a slope from 
the top, descending fifteen feet for every foot 
the dam is high, and not less than forty feet 
in breadth, so as to afford a good navigation, 
and not to infringe the rights and privileges of 
any owner of private property. 

An act declaring the rivers Ohio and .Alle- 
gheny, and certain branches thereof, public 
highways : 

"Section i. Be it enacted, etc.. That from 
and after the passing of this act, .... Toby's 
Creek, from the mouth up to the second fork 
(now Clarion river, and Johnsonburg was th^ 
second fork), .... Sandy Lick, or Red Bank 
creek, from the mouth up to the second great 



fork, lie, and the same arc lu-ifl)y tleclarcd to 
be, public streams and liighways for tlie ]jas- 
sagc of boats and rafts; and it sh.all and may 
be lawful for the inliabitants or others 
desirous of using the na\igation of the said 
river and branches thereof to remove all 
natural obstructions in the said ri\er and 
branches aforesaid." Passed March 21. 1798. 

The first fork was at ISrookville's site, the 
second great fork, which is the North Fork, 
at Port liamett. 

iiSoS, — l!ig Mahoning declared a public 
highway from its mouth up to the mouth of 
Canoe creek, and ])erniission given and 
regulated to erect dams in said creek. 

1N17. — Two hundred dollars a]Ji)ropriated 
by the .'^tate "for the purpose of im]iroving 
tile na\igation of Toby's creek." 

iSf". — .\ppropriation l)y the Slate of eight 
hundred dollars "for the pur]iose of removing 
obstructions in Big Mahoning creek, and im- 
proving the navigation of the same between 
the mouth of Little Mahoning ;uid the con- 
fluence of said creek with the ri\er .\1- 

1S17. — One tlKJHsand dollars .ipproprialed 
by the Stale "for the ])ur])0se of improving the 
na\igatioii of Red Pinik creek from the mouth 
thereof as far up as it is declared na\igable." 

iSjO. — .Sandy Lick creek declared ;i i)uhlic 
highway up to Henry X'lilf's s,-[\\inill in the 
county of Jefferson. 

1826. — .Sandy Lick or Red iiank creek de- 
clared a ])ublic highway from the eastern 
boundary of Jefferson county to its mouth, for 
the i)assage of descending l)oats. rafts, etc.: 
;uid ])ermission granted, and regulations 
prescribed, for the erection of d.inis in said 

1828. — Little Toby's creek, in llie cnuiities 
of Clearfield and Jefferson, from the mouth of 
John ShafTer's mill run, on the main branch 
of Toby's creek, and from the forks of I'.randv 
Camp for Kersey creek) to the Clarion river, 
declared a public highway for the jiassage of 
rafts, boats and other craft, and permission 
given to erect and regulate dams on s.'iid 

1833. — North Fork creek, in Jefferson 
county, from its mouth to Ridgway, declared a 
I)ublic highway. 

1833. — llig Mahoning creek declared a 
])ublic highway from the mouth of Canoe 
creek to the forks of Stun)]) creek in Jefferson 

1842. — Chutes of dams on the Red 
and .Sandy Lick creek to be twenty feet long 
for every one foot high. 

1845. — fncorporation of the Mahoning 
.Vavigation Company authorized, and J. W. 
Jenks, \\ illiam Campbell and James Torrence 
ajjpointed commissioners to procure books, 
solicit subscriptions and organize the coiupany, 

1846. — An act relating to datiis and ob- 
structions in the Clarion river. 

The act. No. 189, declaring Little Toby's 
creek, Black Lick creek. Little Oil creek, and 
Clark's creek public highways : 

"Section 1. Be it enacted, etc.. That from 
;ind after the passage of this act Little Toby's 
creek, in the counties of Clearfield and Jeffer- 
son, from the mouth of John Shaffer's mill 
run, on the main branch of Toby's creek, and 
from the fork of Brandy Cami) (or Kersey 
creek) to the Clarion river, .... be, and the 
same are hereby declared, public highways for 
ihe passage of rafts, boats, and other craft, 
and it shall and may be lawful for, etc.'' The 
same jjrovisions followed here as in No. 129. 

"Approved — the fourteenth day of .Ajiril, 
A. D. one thousand eight hundred and twenty- 



By the act of .\ssembly of March 21, 1S08, 
Mahoning creek was declared to be a jniblic 
highway for the ])assage of rafts, boats and 
other \essels from its confluence with the .Alle- 
gheny river to the mouth of Canoe creek, in 
Indiana county. That act authorized the 
inh,-d)itants along its banks, and others desirous 
of using it for navigation, to remove all 
natural ,ind artificial obstructions in it, excejjt 
dams for mills and other waterworks, and to 
erect slo])es at the mill- and other dams, which 
luust be so constructed as not to injure the 
works of such d.ims. .\ny person owning or 
possessing lands .along this stream had the 
liberty to construct dams across it, subject, 
however, to the restriction and provisions of 
the general act authorizing the riparian owners 
to erect dams for mills on navigable streaius. 
\\'illi;im Travis and Jose])h ^Llrshall were 
;ipl)ointed to sii])(Tinleiid the ex])endilure of 
eight hundri-il dollars for the improxement of 
ibis stre.ini, ;iuthorized by the act of March 
24, 1817, to whom ail order for their services 
for two hundred and one dollars was issued by 
the commissioners of this countv December 2"?, 

The act of Legislature, No. 129, detlaring 
part of Big M.ahoning creek a public highway, 
ai)])roved .April 13, 1833. reads as follows: 

".Section 2. From and after the passage of 
this act. thai part of Big Mahoning creek in 



Jefferson county, from the mouth of Canoe 
creek, in said county, is hereby declared a 
public highway for the passage of rafts, boats, 
and other crafts ; and it shall and may be law- 
ful for persons desirous of using the navigation 
of said creek between the jjoints aforesaid 
to remove all natural and artificial obstruc- 
■tions from the bed or channel of said 
creek, except dams for mills and other water- 
works, and also to erect such slopes at the 
mill- or jother dams on said creek as may be 
necessary for the passage of rafts, boats, and 
other vessels. Provided, such slopes be so 
constructed as not to injure the works of such 
dams. And ])rovidcd also, that any person or 
persons owning or possessing lands on said 
creek shall have liberty to construct any dam 
or dams across the same, agreeably and sub- 
ject to all the restrictions and ])rovisions of an 
act of the tieneral .\ssembly of this Common- 
wealth, passed the twenty-third day of March, 
one thousand eight hundred and three, entitled 
'.\n Act to authorize any person or persons 
owning lands adjoining navigable streams of 
water declared public highways to erect dams 
on such streams inr mill and other water 
works.' " 

An act, No. 64, declaring the North Fork of 
Sandy Lick creek, in the county of Jefferson 
from the mouth thereof to Ridgway, in said 
county, a public highway, was ajjproved the 
thirteenth day of March, A. D. one thou.sand 
eight hundred and thirtv-three, bv Cov. George 


For many years after its establishment the 
county was largely a hunting ground for 
whites and Indians. But gradually agriculture 
came to have its ])lace among the important 

For convenience in description I may here 
state that the soil of Jefferson county was 
covered in sections with two dift'erent growths 
of timber, viz.: Sections of oaks and other 
hardwood timber, with imderbrush anfl sap- 
lings — some of these sections were called the 
barrens ; and sections covered with a dense 
and hea\y growth of pine, hemlock, poplar, 
cucumber, liass, ash. sugar and beech, with 
saplings, down timlier and underljrush in great 
])rofusion. The mode of clearing in these 
different sections was not the same. In the 
first mentioned or sparsely covered sections 
the preliminary work was grubbing. The 
saplings and underbrush had to be grubbed up 
and out with a mattock and piled in brush 
])iles. One man coulfl usually grub an acre 

in four days, or the work could be let as a job 
for two dollars ])er acre and board. The 
standing timber then was usually girdled or 
deadened, and allowed to fall down in the 
crops from year to year, to be chopped and 
rolled ill hea|)s every spring. In the dense or 
heavy growth timber the preliminary work was 
underbrnshing, cutting the sapling close to the 
ground, piling the brush or not, as the neces- 
sity of the case seemed to require. The second 
step was the cutting of all standing timber, 
which, too, had to be brushed and cut into 
twelve- or fifteen-foot lengths. This latter 
work was always a winter's job for the farmer, 
and the buds of these falling trees made 
excellent browsing feed for his cattle. In the 
spring-time, after the brush had become 
thoroughly dry, and in a dry time, a good 
burn of the brush, if possible, was ob- 
tained. The next part of the process was 
logging, usually after harvest. This required 
the lal)or of fi\e men and a team of oxen — 
one driver for the o.xen and two men at each 
end of the log-heap. Neighbors would 
"morrow" with each other, and on such 
occasions each neighbor usually brought his 
handspike. This was a round pole, made of 
lieech, dog or iron wood, without any iron on 
or in it, about six feet long, and sharpened at 
the large end. Logs were rolled on the spike 
over skids. Sometimes the cattle were made 
to draw or roll the logs on the heap. These 
Ijiles were burned, and the soil was then ready 
for the drag or the triangular harrow. I have 
looked like a negro many a time while working 
at this logging. Then money was scarce, 
labor jjlenty and cheap, and amusements few, 
hence grubbing, chopping, and logging 
"frolics" were frec|uent and popular. For each 
frolic one or more two-gallon jugs of whisky 
would be indispensable. A jolly good time 
was had, as well as a good dinner and supper, 
and every one in the neighborhood expected 
an invitation. 

As there was a fence Ijiw then, act of 1700, 
the ground had to lie fenced, according to this 
law, "horse-high, bull-strong, and hog-tight," 
Efforts were made by the pioneer to enforce 
this law in four ways. viz. : First, by slashing 
tree's and placing brush upon the trees ; second, 
l)v using the logs from the clearing for the 
])urpose of a fence; third, by a post and rail 
fence, built straight, and the end of each rail 
sharjiened and fastened in a mortised ])Ost ; 
fourth, by the common rail or worm fence. 
These rails were made of ash. hickory, chest- 
nut, linn and pine. I have made them by con- 
tract jirice myself. 



The Pennsylvania fence law of 1700 was 
repealed by an act approved June 23, 1885. 


The tools of the pioneer were the ax, six- 
inch auger, drawing knife, shaving knife, 
hroadax and crosscut saw. These were all 
used in the erection of his shelters. The dex- 
terity of the pioneer in the sleight and use of 
the ax was remarkable, indeed marvelous. He 
used it in clearing land, making fences, chop- 
ping firewood, cutting paths and roads, build- 
ing cabins, bridges and corduroy. In fact, in 
all work and hunting, in traveling by land, in 
canoeing and rafting on the water, the ax 
was ever the friend and companion of the 

one solid piece. The plough was all cast iron, 
except the beam and handles. The importance 
of this invention was so great that it attracted 
the attention of ploughmakers and scientific 
men all over the country. Thomas Jefferson 
(afterwards president of the United States) 
wrote a treatise on ploughs, with a particular 
reference to the Newbold plough. He de- 
scribed the requisite form of the moldboard, 
according to scientific principles, and calculated 
the proper form and curvature of the mold- 
board to lessen the friction and lighten the 

The Newbold plough would have been 
Ijerfect had it not been for one serious defect. 
When the point, for instance, was worn out, 
which would soon be accomplished, the plough 
was ruined and had to be thrown aside. This 

ox YUKl-. A\|i 11 \ LAN I 1 I- 

The early axes were called pole-axes. They 
were rude, clumsy and heavy, with a single 
bit. About 1815 an improved Yankee single- 
bit ax was introduced, but it was too clumsy. 
In about 1825 the present doubk>l)itted ax 
came to be occasionally used, and machinery 
began to be used a little in agriculture, but not 
in Jefferson county until after 1840.' 

I have seen wooden ploughs, but I have 
seen them with the iron shoe pointed and 
colted. These were still in use in the late 
thirties. I have driven an ox-team to the drag 
or triangular harrow. This was the ]irinci]ial 
im|)lcnK-nt used in seeding ground, l)oth liefore 
and after the introduction of the shovel-]5lough 
in 1843. 

The greatest improvement ever made on 
j)loughs, in this or any other country, was made 
Ijy Charles Newbohl, of P.urlinglon, N. J., and 
patented in IJV/- 1 he nioki-lioard, share, 
landslide and point were all cast together in 

defect, however, was happily remedied by 
Jethro Wood, who was the first to cast the 
plough in sections, so that the parts most 
exposed to wear could be replaced from the 
same jjattern, by which means the cast-iron 
ploughs became a complete success. His 
plough was patented in 1819, twenty-two years 
after Newbold's patent. It is a wonder that 
so long a time should have elapsed before any 
one thought of this improvement. These two 
men did more for the farmers in relation to 
ploughs than any others before their time. 

In harvest time the grain was first reaped 
with a sickle ; then came the cradle. In my 
boyhood all the lying grain thrown down by 
the storms was still reaped with a sickle. I 
carry the evidence of this on my finger. A 
day's work was about two acres. McCormick 
perfected his reaper in 1848. Grain was 
usually threshed by a flail, though some 
tramped it out with horses. By the flail ten 



bushels of wheat or twenty bushels of oats 
was a good day's work. Men who traveled 
around threshing on shares with the flail 
charged every tenth bushel, including board. 
The tramping was done by horses and by 
farmers who had good or extra bam floors. 
The sheaves were laid in a circle, a man stood 
in the middle of the circle to turn up and over 
the straw as needed, and then, with a boy to 
ride one horse and lead another, the "tramp- 
ing" in this circuit commenced. This was hard 
work for the boy ; it made him tired and sore 
where he sat down. I know this from ex- 
perience. To prevent dizziness, the circuit 
was frequently reversed. One man, a boy and 
two horses could tramp out. in this way, in a 
day about fifteen bushels of wheat or thirty- 
five bushels of oats. Grain was cleaned by 
means of two hand riddles, one coarse and one 
fine. These riddles had no iron or steel about 
them, the bottom of each being made of 
wooden splints woven in. The riddles were 
two and a half feet in diameter and the rings 
about four inches wide. Three men were re- 
, quired to clean the grain — one to shake the 
riddle, while two others, one at each end of a 
tow sheet, doubled swayed the sheet to and 
fro in front of the man shaking the riddle. 
These three men, in this way, could clean 
about ten or fifteen bushels of wheat in a day. 
This process was practiced in the early twen- 
ties. Windmills came into use about 1825. 


Haying in the old days was a much more 
formidable yearly undertaking than it is to 
modern farmers. Before the era of labor- 
•saving haying implements farmers began the 
work early in the day and season, and toiled 
hard until about September. Human muscles 
were trained to exert a force equal to the then 
unused horsepower. On large farms man 
"hands" were required. Haying was an event 
of importance in the farmer's year. It made a 
great demand upon his time, strength, and 
pocketbook. His best helpers were engaged 
long in advance, sometimes a whole season. 
Ability to handle a scythe well entitled a man 
to respect while haying lasted. Experts took 
as much pains with the scythe as with a razor. 
Boys of today have never seen such a sight as 
a dozen stalwart men mowing a dozen-acre 

On the first day of haying, almost before 
the sun was up, the men would be at the field 
ready to begin. The question to be settled at 
the very outset was as to which man should 

cut the double. This was the first swath to be 
cut down and back through the center of the 

The boys brought up the rear in the line of 
the mowers. Their scythes were hung well in, 
to cut a narrow swath. They were told to 
stand up straight when mowing, point in, keep 
the heel of the scythe down and point out 
evenly, so as not to leave hog troughs on the 
meadow when the hay was raked up. Im- 
■ patient of these admonitions, they thought they 
could mow pretty well and looked ambitiously 
forward to a time when they might cut the 
double. I always worked in the rear line. 

Undoubtedly, life on a farm is full of labor 
and solicitude, but so is life in every other vo- 
cation. The farmer has to fight a constant 
battle with insects, the elements, the sharpers, 
the railroads, etc.. but every other man has 
the same sort of battle to fight with just as 
dangerous enemies. 

Thirty-nine out of every forty lawyers, 
sixty-one out of every sixty-two bankers, 
ninety-one out of ever}' ninety-three mer- 
chants, eighty-seven out of every eighty-eight 
manufacturers and capitalists, and ninety-nine 
out of every hundred in all other professions 
and trades, die in poverty and bankruptcy, 
while, on the other hand, one hundred and 
forty-nine out of every one hundred and 
fifty farmers die surrounded with comfort and 

It might be proper to say here that the first 
agricultural society in America was organized 
in Pennsylvania in 1784. 


One of the pioneer industries in Jefferson 
county was maple sugar making. Maple sugar 
was first made in New England in 1752. The 
sugar season commenced either in the last of 
February or the first of March. In any event, 
at this time the manufacturer always visited 
his camp to see or set things in order. The 
camp was a small cabin made of logs, povered 
usually with clapboards, and open at one end. 
The fireplace or crane and hooks were made 
in this way: Before the opening in the cabin 
four wooden forks were set deeply in the 
ground, and on these forks was suspended a 
strong pole. On this pole was hung the hook 
of a limb, with a pin in the lower end to hang 
the kettle on. An average camp had about 
three hundred trees, and it required six kettles, 
averaging about twenty-two gallons each, to 
boil the water from that many trees. The 



trees were ta])pe(l in \arious ways: First, 
with a three-c|uartcr-iiK-h aiifjer, one or two 
inches deep; in this hole was put a round s])ile 
about eighteen inches long, made of sumach 
or whittled pine, two spiles to a tree. The 
later way was by cutting a hollow notch in the 
tree and putting the sjiile below with a gouge. 
This spile was made of pine or some other 
soft wood. When a boy I lived over five years 
with loscpli and James McCurdy, in what is 
now \Vashington township. Indeed, all I say 
here about this industry I learned from and 
while with them. At the camp there were 
always from one to three storage troughs made 
of cucumber or poplar, and each trough held 
from ten barrels uinvard. Three hundred trees 
required a storage of thirty barrels and steady 
boiling with six kettles. The small troughs 
under the trees were made of pine and cucum- 
ber and held from three to six gallons. We 
hauled the water to the storage troughs with 
one horse and a kind of "jjung," the barrel 
being kept in its ]ilace by ])lank just far enough 
apart to hold it tight. In the fireplace there 
was a large backlog and one a little smaller in 
front. The fire was kc])! up late and early with 
smaller wood s])lit in lengths of about three 
feet. We boiled the water into a thick syru]), 
then strained it through a woolen cloth while 
hot into the syru]) barrel. When it had set- 
tled, and Iiefore putting it on to "sugar off," 
we strained it the second time. During this 
sugaring we skimmed the scum ofi with a tin 
skimmer and claril'ied the syrup in the kettle 
with eggs well beaten in sweet milk. 

The "sugaring off'' was always done in 
cloudy or cold days, when the trees wouldn't 
run "sap." (.)ne barrel of sugar water, from 
a sugar tree, in the beginning of the season, 
would make from five to seven pounds of 
sugar. The sugar was always made during 
the first of the sea.son. The sugar was made 
in cakes, or "stirred off" in a granulated con- 
dition, and sold in the market for from six 
.-md a (luarler to twelve and a half cents a 
])0und. In "sugaring off," the syru]) had to be 
fre(|iiently samjiled by dropping some of jt in 
a tin of cold water, and if the molasses formed 
a "thread" that was brittle like glass, it was 
fit to stir. I was good at sampling, and always 
anxious to try the syruj), as James McCurdy 
could substantiate. In truth, I was never very 
lunigry during sugar making, as 1 had a con- 
tiinial feast during this season of hot syruj). 
treacle and sugar. 

Skill and attention were both necessary in 
"sugaring off," for if the syrup was taken off 
too soon the sugar, was wel and tough, and if 

left on too long, the sugar was burnt and 
bitter. With the passage of time this industry 
has died out in our section. In the census 
chapter of 1S40 you will find how many pounds 
of maple sugar were manufactured in each 
township and the sum total in pounds for the 

While ma])le sugar making has passed in 
Jefferson county, it still is quite an important 
industry in many jiarts of the country. 

Maple beer used to be quite common, and 
was a delightful beverage. A little yeast added 
to rich maple-water caused it to ferment 
quickly and by proper handling become a clear, 
sparkling drink, which was often flavored with 
spruce, juniper evergreen and other agreeable 
and health fid herbs, roots or flowers. 


Among the pioneer industries was tar- 
burning. Kilns were formed and split fagots 
of pitchpine knots were arranged in circles and 
burned. The tar was collected by a ditch 
and forced into a chute, and from there 
barreled. John Matson, Sr., marketed on rafts 
as high as forty barrels in one season. Free- 
dom .Stiles was the king "tar-burner." Pioneer 
])rices at I^ittsburgh for tar was ten dollars a 


1^'or many years there were extremely few 
wagons and but ])Oor roads on which to use 
them. The early vehicles were the prongs of a 
tree, a sled made of saplings, called a "pung," 
and oxcart. In fact, about all the work was 
done with oxen, and in driving his cattle the 
old settler would halloo with all his might and 
swear jjrofusely. This profanity and hallooing 
were thought to be necessary. The pioneer 
sled was made with heavy single runners, the 
"bob" sled being a later innovation, viz., about 
I X40. 

The pioneer wheeled vehicle made in what 
is now Jefferson county was a wooden ox- 
cart, constructed by Joseph Barnett in i(Soi. 
The wheels were sawed from a large oak log, 
and a hole was chiseled in the center for the 
hickory axle. Walter 1>mpleton, a very in- 
genious man, and forced to be a "jack-of-all- 
trades" for the ])eoi)le who lived in what is 
now I'^ldred township, made two wooden 
wagons in 1829, one for himself and one for 
his neighbor, Isaac Matson. These wagons 
were all wood excei)t the iron linch-pin to keej) 
llic wheel in place. The wheels were solid. 

takim; oiT A TiMi:i:i: mk k 


Vr.T. ^T'-' YCRK 




and were sawed from round oak logs. The 
hind wheels were sawed from a larger log, and 
a hole was chiseled in the center of each for 
the axle. 

Matson hauled, in 1830, the stone spa wis 
for our pioneer jail in his wagon, with two 
large black oxen, called "Buck" and "Berry." 
Matson's compensation was one dollar and 
fifty cents a day and "find" himself. 

Draying in those days was usually by two 
oxen and a cart ; but Daniel Elgin bought 
these black oxen from Matson, and used one 
of them for some time for a one-ox dray in 

The pioneer tar to grease these axles was 
made in this way ; Pitchpine knots were split 
fine and dropped into an iron kettle; a piece of 
board was then placed over the mouth of the 
kettle, and then the kettle was turned u])side 
down over a little bed of earth prepared for it. 
This bed had a circular drain around it. and 
this circular drain had a straight one. with a 
spout at the end. Everything being completed 
for the burning, the board was taken from 
under the kettle, and the kettle was then 
covered with fagots. The wood was fired and 
the heat from the fire boiled the tar from the 
split knots and forced it into and through these 
drains, from the spout of which it was caught 
in a wooden trough. 


"By an act of the Legislature, passed April 
I, 1784, a sale of lands was authorized. The 
Second section of this law provides that all 
lands west of the Allegheny mountains shall 
not be more than three jiounds ten shillings for 
every one hundred acres. Section Four pro- 
vides that the quantity of land granted to one 
person shall not exceed four hundred acres ; 
section Six provides for the survey and laying 
out of these lands, by the surveyor general or 
his deputies, into tracts of not more than five 
hundred acres and not less than two hundred 
acres, to be sold at public auction at such times 
as the 'Supreme Executive Council may 

"When all claims had been ]xiid. 'in specie. 
or money of the State,' for patenting, survey- 
ing, etc., a title was granted to the purchaser. 
In case he was not ready or able to make full 
payment at the time of purchase, by paying 
all the fees appertaining thereto, he was 
allowed two years to complete the payment, by 
paying lawful interest, and when the last pay- 
ment was made, a comjileted title was given. 

"By the act of April 8, 17S5, lands were sold 

by lottery, in portions not to exceed one thou- 
sand acres to each applicant. Tickets, com- 
mencing with number one, were put on a 
wheel, and the warrants, which were called 
'Lottery Warrants,' issued on the said ap- 
plications, were severally numbered according 
to the decision of the said lottery, and bore 
date from the day on which the drawing was 

"Section Seven of this act allowed persons 
holding these warrants to locate them upon 
any piece or portion of unappropriated lands, 
the land upon each warrant to be embraced 
in one tract, if possible. 

"On the 3d of April, 1792, the Legislature 
passed an act for the sale of lands, which, in 
some respects, difi^ered from the laws of 1784 
and 1785. It offered land only to such persons 
as shall settle on them, and designated the kind 
and duration of settlement. By section Two 
of this act all lands lying north and west of 
the Ohio and Allegheny rivers and Conewango 
creek, except such ]5ortions as had been or 
should be ai)i)ropriated to public or charitable 
uses, were offered to such as would 'cultivate, 
improve, and settle upon them, or cause it to 
be done, for the price of seven pounds ten 
shillings for every hundred acres, with an 
allowance of six per centum for roads and 
highways, to be located, surveyed and secured 
to such purchasers, in the manner hereinafter 
mentioned.' Section Three provided for the 
surx'eying and granting of warrants, by the 
surveyor general, for any quantity of land 
within the said limits, to not exceed four 
hundred acres, to any person who had settled 
upon and improved said land. 

"The surveyor general was obliged to make 
clear and fair entries of all warrants, in a 
book to be pro\ided for the purpose, and any 
applicant should be furnished with a certified 
ropy of any warrant upon the payment of one 
(|uarter of a dollar. 

"In this law the rights of the citizen were so 
well fenced about, and so equitably defined, 
that risk and hazard came only at his own. 
But controversies arising, concerning this 
law. between the judges of the State courts 
and those of the United .States, which the 
Legislature, for a long time, tried in vain to 
settle, impeded for a time the settlement of 
the district. These controversies were not 
settled until 1805, by a decision of Chief 
Justice Marshall, of the Supreme court of the 
United States. 

"At the close of the Revolutionar\- war 
several wealthy Hollanders. William Willink. 
Jan Linklaen, and others, to whom the United 



States was indebted for money loaned to 
assist in carrying on the war, preferring to 
invest the money in this country, they pur- 
chased of Robert Morris, the great financier of 
the country at that time, an immense tract of 
land in the State of New York, and at the same 
time took up, by warrant (under the law above 
cited), large tracts in the State of Pennsjd- 
vania, cast of the Allegheny river. Judge 
Y'eates. on one occasion, said : 'The Holland 
Land Company have paid to the State the 
consideration money of 1,162 warrants, and 
the surveying fees on 1,048 tracts of land 
(generally four hundred acres each), besides 
making very considerable expenditures by their 
exertions, honorable to themselves and useful 
to the community, in order to effect settle- 
ments. Computing the stuns advanced, the 
lost tracts, by prior improvements and inter- 
ferences, and the quantity of one hundred 
acres granted to each individual for making 
an actual settlement on their lands, it is said 
that, averaging the whole, between two 
hundred and thirty dollars and two hundred 
and forty dollars have been expended by the 
company on each tract.' 

"An act was passed by the Legislature, 
March 31, 1823, authorizing Wilhelm Willink, 
and others, residents of Holland, to 'sell and 
convey any lands belonging to them in the 

"Large tracts of lands in Jefferson county 
were owned by the Holland Company, and 
Charles C. Gaskill, of Punxsutawney, was the 
agent of the company for their sale. He was 
appointed by John J. Vandercamp, the general 
agent. He finally sold to Alexander Caldwell, 
and Lee, and Gilpin. Mr. Gaskill conveyed 
much of these lands to actual settlers in this 

"The Timothy Pickering lands were sold by 
Hon. Thomas White, of Indiana, who also 
controlled the Samuel FTodgdon and other 

Sales of unseated lands in this county for 
taxes were authorized December 23, 1822. 

In 1825 Charles C. Gaskill, who lived in 
Punxsutawney and was agent for the Holland 
Land Company, advertised one hundred and 
fifty thousand acres of land for sale, in lots 
to suit the purchasers, and on the following 
terms: All purchasing land for two dollars 
per acre must jiay ten dollars down, the balance 
in eight annual payments, with interest on and 
after the third year; those buying at one dollar 
and seventy-five cents per acre, one-fourth 
in hand, the balance in eight annual payments. 
with interest on and after third payment; those 

]>aying one dollar and fifty cents per acre, one- 
half down, and the balance in payments as 
above stated. ' All land was bought and sold 
on a simple article of agreement. 

In 1840 wild lands sold at from one dollar to 
two dollars per acre. 


This is the land our fathers loved, 
The homestead which they toiled to win. 

This is the ground whereon they moved, 
And here are the graves they slumber in. 

The home of the pioneer was a log cabin, 
one or one and a half stories high, chinked and 
daubed, having a fireplace in one end, with a 
chimney of sticks and mud, and in one corner 
always stood a big wooden poker to turn 
!)acklogs or punch the fires. These cabins were 
usually small, but some were perhaps twenty 
by thirty feet, with a hole in two logs for a 
single window, oiled paper being used for 
glass. Cabins, as a rule, were built one story 
and a half high, and the space between the 
loose floor and roof of the half story was used 
as a sleeping room. I have many a time 
climbed up an outside ladder, fastened to and 
near the chimney, to a half-story in a cabin 
and slept on a bed of straw on the floor. 

For Brussels carpet they had puncheon 
floors. A clapboard roof held down by weight 
poles protected them from the storm. Wooden 
pegs were driven into the logs for the ward- 
robe, the rifle, and the powderhorn. Wooden 
benches and stools were a luxury upon w-hich 
to rest or sit while feasting on mush and milk, 
buckwheat cakes, or hog and hominy. 

Ilospitality in this cabin was simple, hearty 
and unbounded. Whisky was pure, cheap, and 
plentiful, and was lavished bountifully on each 
and all social occasions. Every settler had his 
jug or barrel. It was the drink of drinks at 
all merry-makings, grubbings, loggings, house- 
warmings, and weddings. A drink of whisky 
was always proffered to the visitor or traveler 
who chanced to call or spend a night in these 
log cabins. 


On the first day the material was gathered 
at the point of erection, the clapboards for the 
roof and the puncheons for the floors were 
made. The puncheon boards or |)lanks were 
made from trees eighteen inches in diameter, 
logs of straight grain and clean of knots, and 
of the proper length (one-half that of the 
floor), split into parts, and the face of each 



part smoothed with a broadax. The split 
parts had to be all started at the same time, 
with wedges at the end of the log, each wedge 
being struck alternately with a maul until all 
the parts were separated. 

In the morning of the next day the neighbors 
collected for the raising. The first thing to 
be done was the election of four corner men, 
whose business it was to notch and place the 
logs. The rest of the company furnished them 
with the timbers. A corner man would cry, 
"More wood or whisky. What I call for last, 
I want first." At all these frolics whisky was 

square, two end logs projected a foot or 
eighteen inches beyond the wall, to receive the 
butting poles, as they were called, against 
which the first row of clapboards was sup- 
ported. The roof was formed by making the 
end logs shorter until a single log formed the 
comb of the roof. On these logs the clap- 
boards were placed, the ranges of them lapping 
some distance over the next below them, and 
kept in their places by logs placed at proper 
distances from them, called weight poles. 

The roof, and sometimes the floor, was 
finished on the same day of the raising. A 


served plentifully. In the meantime the boards 
and puncheons were collected for the floor 
and roof, so that by the tiine the cabin was a 
few rounds high, the sleepers and floor began 
to be laid. The door was made by sawing or 
cutting the logs in one side, so as to make an 
opening about three feet wide. This opening 
was secured by upright pieces of timber, about 
three inches thick, through which holes were 
bored into the ends of the logs, for the purpose 
of pinning them fast. A similar opening, Ijut 
wider, was made at the end for the chimney. 
This was built of logs, and made large, to 
admit of a back and jambs of stone. .At the 

third day was commonly spent by a few car- 
penters in leveling off the floor, making a 
clapboard door and a table. This last was 
made of a split slab, and supported by four 
round logs set in auger holes. .Some three- 
legged stools were made in the same manner. 
^Pins stuck in the logs at the back of the house 
supported some clapboards which served for 
shelves for the table furniture. .\ single fork, 
placed with its lower end in a hole in the 
floor, and the upper end fastened to a joist, 
served for a bedstead, by placing a pole in the 
fork, with one end through a crack between 
the logs of the wall. This front pole was 


crossed by a shorter one within tlie fork, with 
its outer end through another crack. From 
the front pole, through a crack between the 
logs of the end of the house, the boards were 
put on which formed the bottom of the bed. 
Sometimes other poles were pinned to the fork 
a little distance above these, for the purpose of 
supporting the front and foot of the bed. 
while the walls were the sujjports of its back 
and head. .A few ])egs around the wall, for 
the display of the coats of the women and 
hunting shirts of the men, and two small forks 
or buck's horns fastened to a joist for the 
rifle and shot ]iouch, completed the carpenter 

In the meantime the masons were at work. 

were still occupied in the forties. I have been 
in many a one in my childhood. In proof of 
the smallness of the early cabin I reproduce 
the testimony on oath of Thomas Lucas. Esq., 
in a celebrated ejectment case: 

"In the court of Common Pleas of Jefferson 
county. I^jectment for sixteen hundred acres 
of land in Pinecreek township. Elijah Heath 
\s. Joshua Knapp, et al. 

"idth .September, 184 [, a jury was called per 
mincts. The plaintiff after ha\'ing opened his 
case in suppmn nf the issue, gave in evidence 
as follows : 

"Thomas Lucas. — Masons have in the sur- 
\ eys alxnit twelve acres of land, a cabin house, 
and stable thereon. Thev live near the line of 


With the heart pieces of the timber of which 
the cla])boar(ls were made, they made billets 
for chunking u]) the cracks between the logs 
of the cabin and chimney. A large bed of 
mortar was made for daubing up these cracks. 
A few stones formed the back and jambs of 
the chimney. 

The furnishings for the table of the pioneer 
log cabin consisted of pewter dishes, plates 
and spoons, or wooden bowls, plates and 
noggins. If noggins were scarce, gourds and 
hard-shelled .squashes answered for drinking 

The iron ]iots, knives and forks, along with 
the salt and iron, were brought to the wilder- 
ness on j)ackhorses over .Meade's trail or over 
tlie Milesburg and LeBoeuf .State road. 

.Some of these log cabins near P>rook\illc 

the town tract, the town tract takes in the 
apple trees ; think they claim on some improve- 
ment. Some of this improvement I think is 
thirty-five years old, — this was the Mason 
claim. The first improvement was made in 
1S02; 1 call it the Pickering survey, only an 
interference. Jacob Mason has been living oft" 
and on since 1802, — two small cabin houses 
on the interference, one fifteen or sixteen feet 
square, the other very small. twcKe or fifteen 
feet, — a log stable." 

.\t this time, and ])re\-iou>ly. many of tlie>e 
cabins were lighted i)\' means of a half window . 
one window sash, containing from four to si.x 
])anes of seven by nine glass. I'p to and even 
at this date (1841) the usual ligiu at night in 
these cabins was the old iron lani]), somethiu',' 
like the miner wears in his bat. or else a dish 


containing refuse grease, with a rag in it. 
Each smoked and gave a dismal light, yet by it 
women cooked, spun and sewed, and men read 
the few books they had as best they could. 
The aroma from this refuse was simply hor- 
rible. The cabin was daily swept with a split 
broom made of hickory. Brooms were first 
made in 1826. The hinges and latches of these 
cabins were made of wood. The latch on the 
door was raised from without by means of a 
buckskin string. At night, as a means of 
safety, the string was "pulled in," and this 
locked the door. As a further mark of refine- 
ment each cabin was generally guarded by 
from two to si.x worthless dogs. 

Of the pests in and around the old cabin, 
the housefly, the bedbug, and the louse were 
the most common on the inside ; the gnat, the 
woodtick, and the horsefly on the outside. The 
horsefly is the most cruel and bloodthirsty of 
the entire family. . Me is armed with a most 
formidable weapon, which consists of four 
lancets, so sharj) and strong that they will 
penetrate leather. 1 te makes his appearance 
in June. The femal(i is armed with si.x lancets, 
with which she bleeds both cattle and horses, 
and even human beings. It was a constant 
fight for life with man, cattle and horses 
.against the gnats, the tick, the lice and the 
horsefly, and if it had not been for the ])ro- 
tection of what were called "gnat-fires" life 
could not have lieen sustained, or at least it 
would have been unendurable. The only thing 
to dispel these outside pests was to clear lanci 
and let in the sunshine. As an all-around pest 
in the cabin and out. day and night, there was 
also the flea. 

The warmuses, breeches and hunting shirts 
of the men. the linsey petticoats, dresses and 
bedgowns of the women, were all luing in some 
corner of the cabin on wooden pegs. To some 
extent this was a display of pioneer wealth. 
Wigs were worn by tnen until about 1800. 
Roots came into use about 1800. 

In the cabins of the more cultivated pioneers 
were usually a few l)ooks. and the long winter 
evenings were spent in poring over these well 
thumbed volumes by the light of the great log 
fires, in knitting, mending, curing furs, or some 
similar occupation. It was not until 1850 that 
rubber goods were introduced and wall j)a|)cr 
was first used in houses in JefYerson county. 


The food and raiment of the first settlers 
made a near approach to that of John the 
Baptist in the wilderness. Instead of locusts 

they had wild turkey, deer and bear meat, and 
their clothing was made of skins' and home- 
sjnm woolen, linen or tow cloth. 

DRESS ,01'" MEN' 

The old pioneer in winter often wore a coon- 
skin cap," coonskin gloves, buckskin breeches, 
leggings, and a wolfskin hunting shirt. Some 
wore cowhide shoes, others moccasins of buck- 
skin, others again were in their bare feet. In 
winter, men wore deerskin pantaloons and a 
long loose robe called a hunting shirt, bound 
round the body with a leather girdle, and 
some a flannel warmus, which was a short 
kind of coat. In those days men appeared at 
church in linen shirts with collars four inches 
wide turned down over the shoulders ; linen 
vest ; no coat in summer. Moccasin shoes, 
buckskin breeches, blue broadcloth and brass 
buttons, fawnskin vests, roundabouts and 
woolen wammuses, leather or woolen galluses, 
coonskin or sealskin cajis for winter, with chij) 
or oat-straw hats for summer, were common 
articles of dress. Every neighborhood had 
then usually one itinerant shoemaker and 
tailor, who periodically visited" cabins and 
made up shoes or clothes as required. All ma- 
terial had to be furnished, and these itinerant 
mechanics worked for 'fifty cents a day and 
board. Corduroy pants and corduroy overalls 
were common. 

The hunting shirt was a kind of loose frock 
reaching half-way down the figure, open 
before, and so wide as to lap over a foot or 
more upon the chest. This generally had a 
cape, which was often fringed with a raveled 
[)iece of cloth of a dift'erent color from that 
which composed the garment. The bosom of 
the hunting shirt answered as a pouch, in 
which could Ije carried the various articles 
which the hunter or woodsman would need. 
It was always worn belted, and made out of 
coarse linen, or linsey. or of dressed deerskin, 
according to the fancy of the wearer. 

Breeches were made of heavy cloth or of 
deerskin, and were often worn with leggings 
of the same material or of some .kind of 
leather. The deerskin breeches or drawers 
were very comfortable when dry, but when 
they became wet were very cold to the limbs, 
and the next time they were put on were almost 
as stiff as if made of wood. The moccasins in 
which the feet were usually encased were 
easily and quickly made, though they needed 
frequent mending. Hats or caps were made 
of the various native furs. 

It is an interesting fact that pants, the dis- 



tinctive feature of men's dress, were worn in 
Egypt for file first time. Both women and 
men had been wearing aprons. Aprons were 
the very first attempt to ornament and deco- 
rate the person. Before they appeared men 
and women wore skins and furs. The aprons 
were a fanciful frill. The women of Egypt 
got to wearing them long, and ihiperious 
fashion required the men to do the same. It 
was difficult for the men to move freely, 
though, wearing these long aprons. A genius 
appeared. He cut holes in the apron, stuck 
his legs through, and he had the rudimentary 
trouser. Little by little something was added 
behind or in front until today we have the 
perfect pattern. 

Trousers in practically their present shape 
were introduced into the British army in 1813, 
and tolerated as a legitimate portion of evening 
dress in 1816. 

One bright spring morning in 181 5 a London 
tailor walked down Bond street clad in odd 
loose breeches that hung to his toes. He was 
a great curiosity. It is hard at this time to 
realize the storm of disapproval that attended 
the transition from knee breeches to trousers. 
The jaunty tailor was assaulted by a mob and 
was arrested for indecency. The Duke of 
Wellington, fresh from his laurels at Water- 
loo, was later impressed with the greater con- 
venience of the new garments and determined 
to popularize long trousers. So he had a i)air 
made, and wore them to a ball. Despite his 
high standing as a popufar hero, he was turned 
away with the ultimatum, "the guests at this 
ball must be dressed." But slowly and surely 
the fashion of long trousers displaced that of 
breeches, stockings, shoes and buckles. 


I have seen "barefoot girls, with check of 
tan," tvalk three or four miles to church, and 
on nearing the church stc]) into the woods to 
put on a pair of shoes they had carried with 
them. I could name some of these who are 
living to-day. A woman who could buy eight 
or ten yards of calico for a dress at a dollar 
a yard put on queenly airs. The women wore 
flannel almost exclusively in the winter. They 
had linsey petticoats, coarse shoes and stock- 
ings, and buckskin gloves or mittens when 
any protection was required for the hands. 
All of their wearing apparel, like that of the 
men, was made with a view to being service- 
able and comfortable, and all was home manu- 
factured. Other articles and finer ones were 
sometimes worn, but they had been brought 

from former homes, and were usually relics 
handed down from parents to children. 
Jewelry was not common, but occasionally 
some ornament was displayed. Every married 
woman of any refinement then wore daycaps 
and nightcaps. The bonnets were of beaver, 
gimp or leghorn, and sunbonnets. For shoes, 
women usually went barefoot in the summer, 
and in the winter covered their feet with 
moccasins, calfskin shoes, buffalo overshoes 
and shoepacks. Hoopskirts were first worn 
by women in 1856. 

Almost every article of clothing, all of the 
cloth in use in the old cabins, was the prod- 
uct of the patient woman weaver's toil. She 
spun the flax and wove the cloth for shirts, 
pantaloons, frocks, sheets and blankets. The 
linen and the wool, the "linsey-woolsey" 
woven by the housewife, formed all of the 
material for the clothing of both men and . 
women, except such articles as were made 
of skins. 

That old, old occupation of spinning and 
weaving, with which woman's name has been 
associated in all history, and of which the 
modern world knows nothing except through 
the stories of those who are great-grand- 
mothers now, that old occupation of spinning 
and weaving which seems surrounded with 
a glamour of romance as we look back to it 
through tradition and poetry, and which 
always conjures up thoughts of the graces 
and virtues of the dames of a generation that 
is gone, that old, old occupation of spinning 
and weaving, was the chief industry of the 
pioneer woman. Every cabin sounded with 
the softly whirring wheel and the rhythmic 
thud of the loom. The woman of pioneer 
times was like Solomon's description : "She 
seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly 
with her hands ; she layeth her hands to the 
spindle, and her hands hold the distaff." 

The wool and flax were all prepared for 
weaving by hand, there being no carding ma- 
chines in the county for many years after its 
first settlement; then women carded by hand. 
When woolen cloth was wanted for men's 
wear, the process of fulling was as follows: 
The required quantity of flannel was laid 
upon the bare floor, and a quantity of soap 
and water thrown over it; then a number of 
men seated upon stools would take hold of a 
rope tied in a circle and begin to kick the 
flannel with their bare feet. When it was 
supposed to be fulled sufficiently, the men 
were released irom their task, which was a 
tiresome one, yet a mirth-provoking one, too, 
for, if it were possible, one or so must come 





ti-t: yy" YORK 

TILP^^ F'-i'.'-.Qi IONS 



from his seat, to be landed in the midst of the 
heap of flannel and soapsuds, much to the 
merriment of the more fortunate ones. 

The linen and tow cloth supplied the place 
of muslin and calico of the present day. They 
were made from flax. The seed was sown in 
the early spring and ripened about August. 
It was harvested by "pulling." This was gen- 
erally done by a "pulling frolic" of young 
people, pulling it out by the root. It was then 
tied in little sheaves and permitted to dry, 
hauied in and threshed for the seed. Then 
me straw was watered and trotted by laying 
it on the ground out of doors. Then the straw 
was again dried, over a fire, and "broken in 
the fla.x break," after which it was again tied 
up in little bundles and then scutched with a 
wooden knife. This scutching was a frolic job, 
too, and a dirty one. Then the rest of the 
'process consisted of spinning, weaving and 
dyeing. That which was for dress goods was 
made striped, either by color or blue through 
the white, which was considered a nice sum- 
mer suit, when made into what was called a 
short gown and petticoat, which matched very 
well with the calfskin slipj^ers of that day. 
The nearest store was at Kittanning, thirty- 
five miles distant, and the road but a pathway 
through the woods, and calico was fifty cents 
per yard. Linen cloth sold for about twenty- 
four cents a yard, tow cloth for about twenty 
cents a yard. Weaving originated with the 
Chinese. It took a thousand years for the art 
to reach Europe. 


In the early cooking everything was boiled 
and baked; this was healthful. There was no 
"rare fad," with its injurious results. The 
common dishes served were wheat and rye 
bread, wheat and rye mush, Indian corn pone, 
corn cakes, corn mush and milk, sweet and 
butter milk boiled and thickened, buckwheat 
cakes, mush and souens, doughnuts and baked 
pot-pies. Then there were potatoes, turnips, 
wild onions or wramps, wild fruits, wild 
meats, birds and fish. 

Buckwheat souens was a great pioneer dish. 
The buckwheat flour and water were mixed 
in the morning, with enough yeast added to 
lighten the batter, which stood until evening, 
or until it was real sour. Then it was stirred 
into boiling water and thorougUy cooked, like 
corn mush, and eaten hot or cold with milk or 

The pioneer Irish settler lived on hog, 
hominy, and Indian pone for breakfast, mush 

and milk, sweetened water, molasses, bear's 
oil or gravy for supper. Our German settlers 
hved on cabbage, sauerkraut and speck, 
Schnitz and Knoft", grumbire soup and noodles, 
roggenbrod and schmierkaese. I have "filled 
up" on elm and birch bark. 

Soda was made by burning corncobs. 

Wheat was brought into Massachusetts by 
the first settlers. Rye was also brought by 
them and cultivated. Corn (maize) and po- 
tatoes are natives of America, and were used 
by our Indians. Our Indian corn was first 
successfully raised in i6oS, on the James 
river, in Virginia. Oats were brought by 
the first settlers and sown in 1602. Buck- 
wheat, a native of Asia, was taken to Europe 
in the twelfth century, and grown in Pennsyl- 
vania in 1702. Barley was introduced by 
permanent settlers and is a native of Egypt. 

We are indebted to the "heathen Chinee" for 
the art of bread-making from wheat, 1998 
B. C. In parts of Europe the wheaten loaf is 
■unknown. Baked loaves are practically un- 
known in many parts of south Austria and 
Italy, as well as the agricultural districts of 
Roumania. In the villages of the Obersteier- 
mark, not verj' many miles from Vienna, bread 
is seldom seen, the staple food of the people 
being sterz, a kind of porridge made from 
ground beechnuts, which is taken at breakfast 
with fresh or curdled milk, at dinner with 
broth or fried in lard, and with milk again at 
supper. This sterz is also known as heiden, 
and takes the place of biead not only in 
Steiermark, but in Carinthia and in many parts 
of the Tyrol. In the north of Italy the 
peasantry live chiefly on polenta, a porridge 
made of boiled maize. The polenta, however, 
is not allowed to granulate like Scotch por- 
ridge, or like the Austrian sterz, but is boiled 
into solid pudding. It is eaten cold as often 
as it is hot. 

For meats the pioneer had the flesh of hogs, 
bears, elks, deer, rabbits, squirrels, wood- 
chucks, porcupines and turkeys. The saddles 
or hams of the deer were salted by the pioneer, 
then smoked and dried. This was a great 
luxury, and could be kept the year through. 

The late Dr. Clarke wrote : "Wild game, 
such as elks, deer, bears, turkeys and part- 
ridges, were numerous, and for many years 
constituted an important part of the animal 
food of the early settlers in this wilderness. 
Wolves and panthers came in for a share of 
this game, until they, too, became game for 
the hunters by the public and legal offer of 
bounties to be paid for their scalps, or rather 
for their ears, for a perfect pair of ears was 



required to secure tlie bounty. All these have 
become nearly extinct. The sturdy elk no 
longer roams over the hills or sips 'salty 
sweetness' from the licks. The peculiar voice 
of the stately strutting wild turkey is heard 
no more. The howl of the wolf and the cr\- 
of the panther no longer alarm the traveler 
as he winds his way over the hills or through 
the valleys, and the flocks are now permitted 
to rest in peace. Even the wild deer are now 
seldom seen, and a nice venison steak rarely 
gives its delicious aroma among the shining 
]ilate of modern well set tables." 

I 'ike. bass, catiish, suckers, sunfish, horn- 
chubs, mountain trout and eels were abundant 
in the streams. The old settler shot, seined. 
hooked with a line, and gigged his fish. Gig- 
ging was done at night by means of a light 
made from burning fagots of pitch pine. It 
usually rc(|uired three to do this gigging, 
whether "wading" or in a canoe, one to carry 
the light ahead, line to gig. and one to care 
for the lish. 

Pheasants were plentiful, .•uid enlivened the 
forest with their drumming. The water and 
woods were full of wild ducks, geese, pigeons, 
and turkeys. The most remarkable bird in 
America was the wild turkey. It is the original 
turkey, and is the stock from which the tame 
turkeys sj)rung. In the wild state it was to 
be found in the wooded land.s east of the 
Rocky Mountains. In pioneer times it was 
called gobbler or Jock by the whites, and Oo- 
coo-coo by the Indians. Our ])ioneer hunters 
could imitate the gobbling of a turkey, and 
this deceptive was greatly jjracticed to 
excite the curiosity of the bird and bring it 
within shooting distance. The last wild turkey 
in Jefferson county was killed in the seventies 
near the town of I'alls Creek. 

The jiioncer in his log cabin was surrounded 
liy turkeys gobbling to each other at earl\- 
dawn. Turkeys were good swimmers. They 
could swim across water a mile wide. The 
wild turkey had no particular home. 1 Ic 
roosted at night anywhere in his range, on the 
topmost twigs of the highest trees. He knew 
how to conceal himself, or shape himself inlo 
a knob on a part of a dead limb. 

To obtain a turkey roast when needed, the 
pioneer sometimes built in the woods a ])en 
of round logs and covered it with brush. 
Whole flocks of turkeys were sometimes 
caught in these pens, built in this wise: "I'^irst 
;i narrow ditch, about six long and two 
feet deej), was dug. Over this trench the pen 
was built, leaving a few feet of the channel 
outside of the enclosure. The end of the part 

of the trench enclosed was usually about the 
middle of the pen. Over the ditch, near the 
wall of the ]jen, boards were laid. The pen 
was made tight enough to h(jld a turkey and 
covered with poles. The corn was scattered 
about on the inside, and the ditch outside 
baited with the same grain. Sometimes straw 
was also scattered about in the pen. Then 
the trap was ready for its victims. The tur- 
keys came to the pen, began to pick up the 
corn, and followed the trench, with their heads 
down within. When they had eaten enough, 
the birds tried to get out by walking around 
the pen, looking up all the time. They would 
cross the ditch on the boards, and never think 
of going to the opening in the ground at the 
Lcnter of the pen. When the hunter found 
his game he had only to crawl into the pen 
through the trench and kill the birds. In the 
fall turkeys became very fat, and gobblers 
weighing o\er twenty pounds were sometimes 
ca])tured for Christmas in this way. 

Apples, crabapiiles, wild, red and yellow 
])lums, haws, blackberries, huckleberries, 
elderberries, wild .strawberries, chokecherries, 
wild grapes and wild gooseberries were found 
here, and there were hickory-nuts, chestnuts, 
beechnuts, hazelnuts, and butternuts. Up to 
1850 gra])es anrl fniits were not culti\ated in 

For sweetening the jnoneer had domestic 
and wild honey, maple sugar, maple molasses, 
and corncob molasses. Bee trees were numer- 
ous, and would frequently yield from eight 
to twelve gallons of excellent honey. These 
trees had to be cut in the night by the light 
of pitch pine fagots. Corncob molasses was 
used by many. 

He drank nietheglin, a drink made from 
honey; whisky, small beer, rye cofl'ee, butter- 
milk, and fern, sassafras, sage and mint teas. 

Cotlee is a native of Arabia and" has been 
used there a thousand years. It was intro- 
duced into England as a beverage in 1750. 
Tea has been used in China and Japan for 
thousands of years. Distilled Ii(|uor was dis- 
cf)vered in India and introducefl inlo Europe 
in 1150. The n.'tme whisky was given to it 
b\ ibe .Scotch, who made it from barley. 


CarM'Irrs p^^ ^^^ 

i8on $0.70 

i8ifi i.oq 

r820 .' I,T3 

iS,!0-i840 1.40 

1850-1860 1,50 

1915 2.50-.3.00 



Day Laborers 

Per daw 

1800 $0.62 

rSio 0.82 

1820 0.9c 

1840-1860 (.about) i.oo 

1915 175-3-00 

Previous to 1840 a day's work was not 
limited by hours. It was by law and custom 
from "sunrise to sunset," or whatever the 
employer exacted. In 1840, however, Presi- 
dent Van Ijuren signed the pioneer executive 
order fixing a day's work in the Washington 
navy yard at ten hours per day. It took a 
great and protracted struggle for years and 
years to secure the general adoption oJ the 
ten-hour system. 


In 1799, when Joseph Hutchinson lived in 
what is now Jefferson county, wheat sold in 
this section of the State at two dollars and 
tifty cents per bushel, flour for eighteen dol- 
lars per barrel, corn two dollars, oats one 
dollar and fifty cents, potatoes one dollar and 
fifty cents per bushel. 

In 1817 the average i^rice of wheat in this 
region was $3.50 per bushel. In 1827 the 
price was $2. The following are the prices 
from that time to 1887, taken every ten vears : 
1837, $3-50; 1847, $3-15; 1857, ^2.7s{iS67. 
S3.25 ; 1877, $2. 

In and before 1830 flour was three dollars 
per barrel; beef, three cents a pound, venison 
ham, one and a half cents a pound ; chickens, 
six cents apiece ; butter, six and eight cents 
a pound; eggs, six cents a dozen. 

Food Prices. iSyJ-iQl^ 

1852 lOI.^ 

Wheat, per bu $0.75 $1.6: 

Rye, ber bu 0.621^ 1.20 

Oats, per bu 0.40 0.62 

Corn, per bu 0.62K: !-0? 

Potatoes, per bu i .25 0.7" 

Hay, per ton 15.00 22.0c 

By act of Assembly of May 11, i<)i5, the 
legal weights of produce were fixed as follows : 

^ bushel 

Wheat 60 lb. 

Corn (in the ear) 70 lb. 

Corn, shelled 56 lb. 

Rye 56 lb. 

Buckwheat 48 lb. 

Barley 48 lb. 

( )ats .12 lb. 

White Beans 60 lb. 

White Potatoes 60 lb. 


Onions 50 lb. 

Turnips 60 lb. 

Dried Peaches 33 lb. 

Dried Apples 35 lb. 

Clover Seed 60 lb. 

Flax Seed 56 lb. 

Timothy Seed 45 lb. 

Hemp Seed 44 lb. 

Corn Meal 50 lb. 


The habits of the pioneers were of a siin- 
plicity and purity in conformance with their 
surroundings and belongings. The men were 
engaged in the herculean labor, day after 
day, of enlarging the little patch of sunshine 
about their homes, cutting away the forest, 
burning ofif the brush and debris, preparing 
the soil, planting, tending, harvesting, caring 
for the few animals which they brought with 
them or soon procured and in hunting. While 
they were engaged in the heavy labor of the 
field and forest, or following the deer or seek- 
ing other game, their helpmates were busied 
with their household duties, providing for the 
day and for the winter coming, cooking, mak- 
ing clothes, spinning and weaving. They were 
fitted by nature and experience to be the con- 
sorts of the brave men who first came into the 
western wilderness. They were heroic in their 
endurance of hardshi]) and privation and lone- 
liness. Their industry was well directed and 
unceasing. Woman's work then, like man's, 
was performed under disadvantages, which 
have, been removed in later years. She had 
not only the household duties to perform, but 
many others. She not only made the clothing, 
but the fabric for it. 

However, as the settlement increased, the 
sense of loneliness and isolation was dispelled, 
the asperities of life were softened and its 
amenities multiplied ; social gatherings became 
more numerous and more enjoyalile. The 
log rollings, harvestings, and husking frolics 
for the men. and apule-lnittermaking and the 
quilting parties for the women, furnished fre- 
cjuent occasions for social intercourse. The 
early settlers took pleasure and pride in rifle 
shooting, and as they were accustomed to the 
use of the gun as a means often of obtaining 
a subsistence, and relied upon it as a weapon 
of defense, they exhibited considerable skill. 

Foot-racing, wrestling and jumping matches 
were common. The jumping matches con- 
sisted of the "single jump," backward jump, 
high jump, three jumps, and the running hop, 
step and jump. 



A wedding was the event of most impor- 
tance in the sparsely settled new country. The 
young peoj)le had every inducement to marry, 
and generally did so as soon as able to provide 
for themselves. When a marriage was to be 
celebrated, all the neighborhood turned out. 
It was customary to have the ceremony per- 
formed before dinner, and in order to be on 
time tiie groom and his attendants usually 
started from his father's house in the morn- 
ing for that of the bride. All went on horse- 
back, riding in single file along the narrow 
trail. Arrived at the cabin of the bride's par- 
ents, the ceremony would be performed, and 
after that diimer was served. This would be 
a substantial backwoods feast, of beef, pork, 
fowls and bear, or deer meat, with such vege- 
tables as could be procured. The greatest 
hilarity prevailed during the meal. After it 
was over, the dancing began, and was usually 
kept up till the next morning, though the 
newly made husband and wife were, as a gen- 
eral thing, put to bed in the most approved 
fashion and with considerable formality in 
the middle of the evening's hilarity. The tall 
young men, when they went on the floor to 
dance, had to take their places with care be- 
tween the logs that supported the loft floor, 
or they were in danger of bumping their heads. 
The figures of the dances were three and four- 
hand reels, or square sets and jigs. The com- 
mencement was always a square four, which 
was followed by "jigging it otif." or what was 
sometimes called a "cut-oft' jig." The "set- 
tlement" of the young couple was thought to 
be thoroughly and generally made when the 
neighbors assembled and raised a cabin for 


In the pioneer days newspapers were few, 
dear, ])rinted on coarse paper, and small. 
I'ooks were scarce, there was only occasional 
preaching, no public lectures, and but few 
public meetings excepting the annual Fourth 
of July celebration, when all the patriots 
assembled to hear the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence read. The pioneer and his family 
had to have fun. The common saying of that 
day was that "all work and no play makes 
Jack a dull boy." 'As a rule, outside of the 
villages, everybody lived in log cabins, and the 
people were bound together by mutual de- 
pendence and acts of neighborly kindness. At 
every cabin the latchstring was always out. 
The young ladies of the "upper ten" learned 
music, but it was the humming of to "knit 

and spin;" their piano was a loom, their sun- 
shade a broom, and their novel a Bible. A 
young gentleman or lady would' then be as 
proud of his or her new suit, woven by a 
sister or mother on her own loom, as proud 
could be, and these new suits or "best clothes" 
were always worn to evening frolics. Social 
parties among the young were called "kissing 
parties." because in all the plays, either as a 
penalty or as part of the play, all the girls 
who joined in the amusement had to be kissed 
by some of the boys. The girls, of course, 
objected to the kissing; but then thev were 
gentle, pretty and witty, and the sweetest and 
best girls the world ever knew. This was 
true, for I attended these parties and kissed 
girls myself. 

The plays were nearly all musical, and the 
boys lived and played them in the "pleasures 
of hope," while usually there sat in the corner 
of the cabin fireplace a grandad or a grandma 
smoking a stone or clay pipe, lighted with a 
live coal from the wood fire, living and smok- 
ing in the "pleasures of memory." 

A popular play was for all the persons to 
join hands and form a circle, with a dude of 
that time, in shirt of check and bear-greased 
hair, in the center. Then they circled round 
and round the center person, singing: 

King WilliaiTi was King James' son, 

And of that royal race he sprung; 

He wore a star upon his breast 

To show that he was royal best. 

Go choose your east, go choose your west. 

Go choose the one that you like best-, 

If he's not here to take your part. 

Go choose another witli all your heart. 

The boy in the center then chose a lady 
from the circle, and she stepped into the ring 
with him. Then the circling was resumed, and 
all sang to the parties inside : 

Down on this carpet 3'ou must kneel, 
Just as the grass grows in the field ; 
Salute your bride with kisses sweet, 
And then rise up upon your feet. 

The play went on in this manner until all 
the girls present had been kissed. There were 
no Iiobgoblin stories then about germs, and 
no sanitation. 

Another popuI;ir jtlay was to form a ring. 
A young lady would step into the circle, and 
all parties would join hands and sing: 

There's a lily in the garden. 

For you, young man ; 
There's a lily in the garden, 

Go pluck it if j'ou can, etc. 



The lady then selected a boy from the circle, 
who walked into the ring with her. He then 
kissed her and she went out, when the rest 

There he stands, that great big booby, 

Who he is I do not know ; 
Who will take him for his beauty? 

Let her answer, yes or no. 

This play went on in this way until all the 
girls had been kissed. 

Other favorite plays were : 

Oats, peas, beans and barley grows. 

None so well as the farmer knows 

How oats, peas, beans and barley grows ; 

Thus the farmer sows his seed. 

Thus he stands to take his ease ; 

He stamps his foot and claps his hands. 

And turns around to view his lands, etc. 

Oh, sister Phoebe, how merry were we. 
That night we sat under the juniper tree. 

The juniper tree, I, Oh. 
Take this hat on your head, keep your head warm, 
And take a sweet kiss, it will do you no harm. 

But a great deal of good, I kno*. 

If I had as many lives 
As Solomon had wives, 

I'd be as old as Adam ; 
So rise to your feet 
And kiss the first you meet. 

Your humble servant, madam. 

It's raining, it's hailing, it's cold, stormy weather ; 
In comes the farmer, drinking of his cider. 
He's going a-reaping, he wants a binder, 
I've lost my true love, where shall I find her ? 

A live play was called "hurly-burly." Two 
went round and gave each one, secretly, some- 
thing to do. One girl was to pull a young 
man's hair; another to tweak an ear or nose, 
or trip someone, etc. When all had been told 
what to do, the master of ceremonies cried 
out, "Hurly-burly." Everyone sprang up and 
hastened to do as instructed. This created a 
mi>;ed scene of a ludicrous character, and was 
most properly named "hurly-burly." 


Oh, tell me the tales I delighted to hear. 

Long, long ago, long, long ago; 
Oh, sing me the old songs so full of cheer, 

Long, long ago, long, long ago. 

The first book containing musical characters 
was issued in 1495. The drum was the first 
musical instrument. 

I. D. Hughes, of Punxsutawney, informs 
me that the first music book he bought was 
Wyeth's "Repository of Sacred Music," sec- 

ond edition. I have seen this book myself, but 
a later edition (the fifth), published in 1820. 
Mr. Hughes says that Joseph Thompson, of 
Dowlingville, was the pioneer "singing mas- 
ter" in Jefferson county, and that he sang 
from Wakefield's "Harp," second edition. He 
used a tuning fork to sound the pitches, and 
accompanied his vocal instruction with violin 

George James was an early "master," and 
used the same book as Thompson. These two 
taught in the early thirties. I. D. Hughes 
taught in 1840 and used the "Missouri Har- 
mony." This was a collection of psalm and 
hymn tunes and anthems, and was published 
by Morgan & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. The first 
tune in this old "Harmony," or "buckwheat" 
notebook, was "Primrose": 

Salvation, oh, the joyful sound, 

'Tis pleasure to our ears, 
A sovereign balm for every wound, 

A cordial for our fears. 

On the second page was "Old Hundred," 
and on the same page "Canaan" : 

On Jordan's stormy banks I stand, 

And cast a wishful eye 
To Canaan's fair and happy land. 

Where my possessions lie. 

The dear old pioneers who used to delight 
in these sweet melodies have nearly all crossed 
this Jordan, and are now doubtless singing 

Hark! ten thousand harps and voices 
Sound the note of praise above ; 

Jesus reigns, and heaven rejoices; 
Jesus reigns, the God of love. 

Rev. George M. Slaysman, of Punxsu- 
tawney, was the pioneer teacher of round 
notes — the do re mis — in the county. Judge 
William P. Jenks was also an early instructor 
in these notes. The first teacher I went to 
was Prof. George W. Huey, in 1847. He 
taught and used the Carmina Sacra, and 
taught the Italian do re mi. 

We talk about progress, rapid transit, and 
electricity, but modern music teachers have 
failed to improve on the melody of those old 
pioneer tunes, "that seemed like echoes from 
a heavenly choir ; echoes that seemed to have 
increased power every time the pearly gates 
opened to admit some sainted father or 

God sent these singers upon earth 
With songs of sadness and of mirth. 
That they might touch the, hearts of men 
And bring them back to Heaven again. 




{Dr. IVattis Cradle liyimi) 

Hush, my babe, lit- still and slumber, 

Holy auRels guard thy bed ; 
Heavenly blessings, without number. 

Gently falling on thy head. 

Sleep, my babe, thy food and raiment, 
House and home thy friends provide. 

All without thy care or payment, 
All thy wants are well supplied. 

How much belter thou'rt attended 
Than the Son of God could be, 

When from heaven He descended 
And became a child like thee. 

Soft and easy is thy cradle. 

Coarse and hard thy Savior lay. 

When His birthplace was a stable'. 
And his softest bed was hay. 

Blessed babe! what glorious features. 
Spotless, fair, divinely bright! 

Must He dwell with brutal creatures? 
How could angels bear the sight? 

Was there nothing but a manger 

Wicked snintrs could afford 
To receive the heavenlv stranger? 

Did they thus affront the Lord? 

Soft, my child, I did not chide thee, 
,_T''°"K'i my song may sound too hard : 
fis thy mother sits beside thee. 
And her arms shall be thy guard. 

Vet, to read the shameful story 
How the Jews abused their King- 

How they served the Lord of Glory 
Makes me angry while I sing. 


Old Grimes is dead, that good old man. 

We necr shall sec him more • 
W'l "sed to wear a long black coat 

-All buttoned down before. 

His heart was open as the day. 

His feelings all were true; 
His hair was some inclined to gray. 

He wore it in a queue. 

Whene'er he heard the voice of pain 

Hi.s breast with pitv burned: 
I lu- large round head upon his cane 
From ivory was turned. 

Kind words he ever had for all; 

He knew no base design : 
His eyes were dark and rather small 

His nose was aquiline. 

He lived in peace with all mankind 

In friendship he was true; 
His coat had pocket-hole- behind, 

His pantaloons were blue. 

Unharmed, the sin which earth pollutes 

He passed securely o'er. 
And never wore a pair of boots 

For thirty years or more. 

But good Old Grimes is now at rest. 

Nor fears misfortune's frown ; 
He wore a double-breasted vest, 

The stripes ran up and down. 

He modest merit sought to find. 

And pay it its desert : 
He had no malice in his mind. 

No ruffles on his shirt. 

His neighbors he did not abuse. 

Was sociable and gay ; 
He wore large buckles on his shoes. 

And changed them every dav. 

His knowledge hid from public gaze 

He did not bring to view, 
Nor make a noise town-meeting days. 

As many people do. 

His worldly goods he never threw 

In trust to fortune's chances. 
But lived (as all his brothers do) 

In easy circumstances. 

Thus undisturbed by anxious cares 

His peaceful moments ran ; 
And everybody said he was 

A fine old gentleman. 

— Albert G. Crcoic. 


111 pioneer day.s men and women were slaves. 
or free, white free people and colored free 
people, and to be legally married they had to 
be free, viz.: U[) to and later than 1834, 
Pennsylvania was under the common law 
system of England. Under this law the wife 
had no legal separate e.xistence. The husband 
had the right to whip her, and only in the 
event of her committing crimes had she a 
separate existence from her husband. But if 
the crime was committed in her husband's 
presence, she was then presumed not guilty. 
Her condition was legally little, if any, better 
than that of a slave. 

Under the common law, husband and wife 
were considered as one person, and on this 
principle all their civil duties and relations 
rested. The wife could not sue in her own 
name, but only through her husband. 1 f she 
suffered wrong in her |)erson or pro|)erty, she 
could, witii her luisliaiid's aid and assistance. 
prosecute, but the luisliand had to be the ])lain 
tiff. For crimes without any ])resumed 
coercion of her husband, the wife could be 
prosecuted and punished, and for these mis- 
demeanors the punishments were severe. 

Tlif wife could make no contract with her 



husband. The husband and she could make 
a contract through the agency of trustees for 
the wife, the wife, though, being still under 
the protection of her husband. All contracts 
made between husband and wife before mar- 
riage were void after the ceremony. The hus- 

was so liable, except for "superfluities and 

If the wife died before the husband and 
left no children, the husband and his heirs 
inherited her estate. But if there were chil- 
dren, the husband remained in possession of 

i^^^/^ ii^^^ Ji^^ ,'.<.' J . i^i.£i^^ 

■/ ' _y 



^^-»^ ^f.^ 


("Free" signifies free to be married) 

band could in no wise convey lands or realty 
to his wife, only and except through a trustee. 
A husband at death could bequeath real estate 
to his wife. Marriage gave the husband all 
right and title to his wife's property, whether 
real or personal, but he then became liable for 
all debts and contracts, even those that were 
made before marriage, and after marriage he 

her land during the lifetime of the wife, and 
at his death the land went to the wife's heirs. 

.All debts due to the wife became after mar- 
riage the property of the husband, who be- 
came invested with power to sue on bond, 
note, or any other obligation, to his own and 
exclusive use. The powers of discharge and 
assignment and change of securities wer6, of 



course, involved in the leading principle. If 
the hushand died before the recovery of the 
money, or any change in the securities, the 
wife became entitled to these debts, etc., in 
her own right. All personal property of the 
wife, such as money, goods, movables and 
stocks, became absolutely the property of the 
husband upon marriage, and at his death went 
to his heirs. 

Property could be settled on the wife by 
deed of marriage settlement. Property could 
be settled on the wife after marriage by the 
husband. pro\'ided he was solvent at the time 
and the transfer not made with a view to de- 

fraud. The wife could not sell her land, but 
any real estate settled upon her through a 
trustee she could bequeath. 

The husband and wife could not be witness 
against each other in civil or criminal cases 
where the testimony could in the least favor 
or criminate either. One exception only ex- 
isted to this rule, and that was that "the per- 
sonal safety of the life of the wife gave her 
permission to testify for her protection." For 
further information, see my "Recollections." 
In 1 800 women could not vote in any State 
in the Union. 







September Sessions, 1808 

The ])ioncer road was the Indiana and Port 
Barnett, for the erection of which the petition 
of a number of citizens of Jefferson county 
and ])arls adjacent was presented to the 
Indiana cf)unty court and read, praying for 
the view of a road from Brady's mill, on Little 
Mahoning creek, to Sandy Lick creek, in Jef- 
ferson county, where the State road crosses 
the same. Whereupon* the court did apijoint 
Samuel Lucas, John Jones, Moses Knapp, 
Samuel Scott (of Jefferson county), John 
Park and John Wier (of Indiana county), to 
view and make report to next court. Report 

There is nf) report of the viewers on record, 
nor is the report in the file with the old ])apers. 

This road was j)robably l)nill in 1810. 

September Sessions, 1S09 

The petition of a number of the inhabitants 
of Jefferson county was presented to court and 
read, praying for a view of a road from a 
bridge at the end of .Xdam \'asbinder's lane 
to Samuel Scott's mills, on Sandy Lick creek. 
Whereupon the court did appoint William 

Vasbinder, Moses Knapp. Ludwig Long. Sam- 
uel Scott, Adam Vasbinder and John Taylor 
to view and make report to next court. Order 
issued. Distance, two and one-half mile§ and 
fifty-three perches. 

March Sessions, 18 11 

The petition of the inhabitants of Jefferson 
county was (presented to court and read, .set- 
ting forth that they labored under great in- 
conveniences from the want of a public road 
from the settlement in Jeft'erson county to 
the settlement in Mahoning township, Indiana 
county, to begin near Moses Knapp's mill, 
mouth of the North Fork, on the State road, 
to Big Mahoning creek, near John Bell's. 
Whereupon the court did appoint John Tay- 
lor, John Bell. Thomas Lucas, Moses Knapp, 
John Matson and John Jones to view and— 
nKU-ce report to next court. Order issued. Dis- 
tance, fifteen miles and ninety-five perches; 
twenty feet wide. 

1 830 

The petition of a number of the inhabitants 
of the county of Indiana and county district 
of Jefferson was jiresented to court and read, 
setting forth that they IaI)or under great in- 
convenience from want of a public road from 



Punxsutawney, to intersect the road leading 
from Brady's mills to the mouth of Ander- 
son's creek, at or near Lucas's camp. Where- 
upon the court appointed John W. Jenks, 
Zephaniah Weakland, John Bell, Esq., Sam- 
uel Bell, Esq., Peter Dilts and Moses Craw- 
ford to view the ground over which the pro- 
posed road is petitioned for and to make re- 
turn next sessions. Approved April 12, 1820. 
Distance, seven and one-half miles and thirty- 
four perches. 

The petition of the inhabitants of Perry 
township, in Jefferson county, and also of 
Mahoning township, in Indiana county, was 
presented to court and read, setting forth that 
they labor under great inconvenience from a 
want of a public road from the four-mile tree, 
upon a road leading from John Beir,s, Esq., 
in Jefferson county, to David Lawson's, in 
.Armstrong county, from thence to intersect 
the road leading from Jacob Knave's to James 
Ewing's mill, at or near the north end of the 
farm of Joshua Lewis. Whereupon the court 
appointed James Ewing. William Dilts. James 
McComb, William Davis, Samuel Bell, Esq., 
and David Cochran to view the ground over 
which said road is contemplated to be made 
and make report to next court. Distance, 
seven and one-half miles and twenty-six 
perches, twenty-five feet wide. Approved 
March 29, 1820. 

The petition of a number of the inhabitants 
of Pinecreek township, in Jefferson county, 
was presented to court and read, setting forth 
that they labor under great inconveniences 
from the want of a public road from the 
county line of Armstrong county, to which 
place there is a road leading out near William 
King's ; from thence to the town of Troy, 
which is about a mile. Whereupon it is con- 
sidered by the court and ordered that Salmon 
Fuller, John Welch, John Lucas, James 
Shields. James demons and Peter Bartle do 
view the ground over which the proposed road 
is petitioned for and make report to next 
court. Distance, two hundred and fifty-three 
perches. Approved December 28. 1820. 

The petition of a number of inhabitants of 
Pinecreek township was presented to court 
and read, setting forth that they labor under 
great inconvenience for the want of a road 
or cartway from the eighty-mile post, near 
Alexander Power's on the State road, to inter- 
sect the road leading to Indiana at or near 
Little Sandy creek, and praying the court to 
appoint viewers to view and lay out the same. 
Whereupon the court appointed John Bell, 
John Matson, Archibald Hadden, John Bartle, 

Joseph McCullough and Robert Anderson to 
view the ground over which the said road is 
contemplated to be made and make report to 
next court. Distance, nine miles and sixty- 
three perches. December 28, 1820, order of 
view approved. 

The petition of a number of the inhabitants 
of Perry township, in Jefferson county, was 
presented to court and read, setting forth that 
they labor under great inconvenience from 
the want of a public road from Punxsutawney, 
to intersect the road leading from Indiana to 
Barnett's, at or near John Bell's, Esq. Where- 
upon the court appointed John Bell, Esq., 
Archibald Hadden, Michael Lantz, Hugh Mc- 
Kee, Jacob Hoover and William P. Brady to 
view the ground over which the proposed road 
is contemplated to be made and make report 
to next court. Distance, six miles and one 
hundred and twenty perches. Approved De- 
cember 28, 1820. 

Petition was made for a road to Barclay's 
mill, conveniently at the northeast corner of 
Abraham Wilcocks' lots, or near it, to intersect 
the road from Punxsutawney at Leasure's 
camp, at or near where said road crosses 
Canoe creek. Whereupon it is considered and 
ordered by the court that Moses Crawford. 
John Park, Robert Hamilton, John Jamison, 
William Hendricks and James Work do view 
the ground over which the proposed road is 
contemplated to be made, and if they or any 
four of these actual viewers agree that there 
is occasion for said road, they shall make 
re])ort to next court. 

June 25, 1822, report of viewers approved 
and ordered to be opened. 

No distance is given in the return of view- 

The first bridge across Sandy Lick was 
built at Reynoldsville in 1822. 

1830 TO 1840 

December Sessions, 18^0 

Petition No. i. Petition of the commis- 
sioners of Jefferson county for a bridge over 
Sandy Lick creek, where public highway to 
Indiana crosses said creek in the township of 
Pinecreek in said county, etc. 

On December 7, 1830, the court appointed 
Joseph Barnett, William Robinson, David 
JButler, Samuel Jones, John Christy and Joseph 



Potter to view the same and report according 
to law. 

The contract for this bridge was made 
August II, 1829. The commissioners were 
Thomas McKee and Thomas Lucas ; the con- 
tractors, WilHani Morrison and William 
Kelso; witnesses to agreement, Andrew Bar- 
nett and John McGhee ; consideration, $320, 
to be paid as follows : To give them now in 
hand the subscription of seventy-five dollars, 
and a draft on the supervisors of Pinecreek 
township for fifty dollars, and the remainder, 
one hundred and ninety-five dollars, in county 
orders when completed. 

The bridge was sixteen feet wide, with 
stone abutments seventy-five feet apart, suf- 
ficiently strong to support roofing, and to be 
finished in one hundred and thirteen days. 

Petition No. 3. Road from Barclay & 
Jenks' mill to Brookville. 

December 7, 1830. Confirmed September 
sessions, 1831. 

1 8s I 

Petition No. 2. Road from Jacob Hoover's 
mill to intersect the road leading from Bar- 
clay's mill to the JefTerson road through Gib- 
son's clearing, and confirmed and ordered to 
be opened thirty-five feet wide, unless where 
digging and bridging is necessary. December 
13. 1831. 

Petition No. 3. Road from Brookville to 
David Hamilton's on the Indiana county line. 
February 8. 1831. September 7, 1 83 1, read 
and confirmed. 

Petition No. 4. Road from William AIc- 
Kee's on the turnpike to James Linn's im- 
provement on the Glean road. February 8, 

1831. Read and confirmed. December 13, 

1832, ordered to be opened. 

Report No. 5. Of a road from Brookville 
to Matson's inill. Confirmed by the court and 
ordered to be opened twenty-five feet wide. 
May 10, 1831. 

May Sessions, iSjt 

Petition No. i. b^or a road from Aloscs 
Knapp's mill to intersect the Sandy road at 
or near W. Godfrey's. Rejiorted. December 
I3' i''^3i- approved and ordered to be opened. 

Petition No. 4. For a road from the thirty- 
fourth milestone on the Susquehanna and 
Waterford turnpike road to or near the house 
of Joseph McCullough. May 10, 1831. Feb- 
ruary 8, 1832, read and approved. 

Petition No. 5. For a road from Troy to 

intersect the Olean road at John McAnulty's. 
May 9, 1831. Read nisi February 8, 1832. 

May Sessions, j8j2 

Petition No. i. i-'or a road from Squire 
McCullough's shop to David Butler's. De- 
cember 12, 1832. Read and approved nisi. 

Report No. 7. Of a road from Shield's 
lane to the road running along Red Bank 
creek. Viewers report of road January 31, 
1833. Confirmed May 11, 1833. 

May Sessions, iSjj 

Petition No. 2. For a road from Shoe- 
maker's to intersect the road from Hance 
Robinson's to Troy. December 12, 1833, ap- 

December Sessions, i8jj 

Petition No. 2. For a road from Thomas 
Barr's on the Olean road to the Union school- 
house. May 13, 1834, approved. 

Petition No. i. For a road from Port Bar- 
nett on the Indiana road to the Ceres road at 
or near Pun.xsutawney. I'ebruary 12, 1834. 
Se])tember 11, read nisi. January 12, 1847, 
ordered to be opened. 

Petition No. 2. For a road from a public 
road leading from Brookville to Kittanning 
at the county line to McKinstry's sawmill, near 
the mill of John Robinson. February 12, 

1834. December 13, 1843, approved and 
ordered to be opened fifty feet wide. 

May .Sessions, /8j4 

Petition No. i. For a road from Israel 
Gray's fulling mill and carding machine to a 
point at or near where the Olean road crosses 
Little Mill creek. September 11, 1834. June 
II, 1835, ordered to be opened twenty feet 

i'etition No. 2. For a road from the bridge 
o\cr Mill creek to the house of William Mc- 
Cullough in Pinecreek township. September 
I 1 . I S34. Opening order issued October 23, 

1835, to be twenty feet wide. 

Report No. 3. Of a road from Ball's mill 
on Tioncsta to the Hepler Camp road near 
the four-mile tree. \'iewers report in favor 
of road November 15. 1834. Opening order 
issued October 16, 1835. 



May Sessions, iSjfi 

Petition No. i. For a road from Robert P. 
Barr's on the turnpike to Andrew Vasbinder's 
improvement on the North Fork. December 
i6, 1836. Read and ordered to be opened 
fifty feet wide. 

Petition No. 6. For a bridge across Red 
Bank creek, where the Brookville and Hamil- 
ton road crosses. Februar}' 13, 1836. View- 
ers report in favor, March 8, 1836. 

Petition No. 7. For a bridge on Big Mahon- 
ing. February 13, 1836. August 20, 1836, 
report in favor and county to pay one hundred 
and eighty dollars. 

Report No. 10. Of a road from John 
Hoover's mill to intersect the Ceres road at 
or near Daniel Graffius's, Jr. May term ap- 

Petition No. 2. For a road from James 
Ross's to intersect the Brockway road at or 
near St. Tibbetts'. 

Petition No. 3. For a road from the tan- 
yard of John W. Jenks in Punxsutawney to 
the sawmill of William Campbell. Approved 
May 10, 1836. 

Report No. 8. Of a road from the west 
end of Morrison's Lane to the west end of 
John Kennedy's. Viewers report in favor of 
road (^no date) 1835. May 10, 1836, read and 

The pioneer county bridge was ])etitioned 
for January 19, 1836; approved by the court, 
September, 1836. The l^ridge was let by the 
commissioners December 15, 1836, to Messrs. 
Thomas Hall and Richard .\rthurs, contrac- 
tors. The contract called for the completion 
of the bridge by September, 1837. The 
accepted contract bid was seven hundred and 
ninety-five dollars. When finished the bridge 
was a good solid structure, but was a curious 
pile of wood and stones. This pioneer county 
covered bridge was a wooden one, made of 
pine timber. It was erected across Red Bank- 
creek in the borough of Brookville, a few feet 
west of where the present iron structure on 
Pickering street now stands. There were no 
iron nails used in its construction, and only 
a few handmade iron spikes. The timbers 
were mortised and tenoned, and put together 
with wooden pins. This was a single-span 
bridge of one hundred and twenty feet in 
length, with no center pier, and of the burr- 
truss plan. It had two strings of circle arches, 
resting on the stone abutments. Many mem- 
ories clustered around this bridge for the old 
citizens, but time has efTaced the bridge and 
will efiface the memories. On its planks gen- 

erations met, passed and repassed, and from 
its stringers fishers dropped many a hook and 

September Sessions, i8j6 

Petition No. 2. For a road ' from Vas- 
binder's improvement to Frederick Hetrick's. 
May 10, 1836. December 17, 1836, read and 

Petition No. 3. For a road from Mill Creek 
road near John Wilson's to Maize's Gap on 
the Clarion river. September 16, 1836. May 
10, 1837, read and approved. 

Deeembcr Sessions, iSj6 

Petition No. 2. For a road from the house 
of James Smith to intersect the Ceres road 
at or near the farm of William Smith. De- 
cember 16, 1836. October 14, 1837, viewers 
in favor of road. May 16, 1838, confirmed. 

February Sessions. i8j/ 

Petition No. i. For a road from .Arm- 
strong & Reynolds' mill at the mouth of Maple 
creek to Thomas Mechan's farm, on line of 
Jefferson and Venango. Febraary 14; 1837. 
July 24, 1837, viewers report in favor of road. 
-September 15, 1837, read and confirmed nisi. 

May Sessions. jS^j 

Petition No. i. For a road from Daniel 
Elgin's to the turnpike near the Widow Mills's. 
May 10, 1837. Confirmed September is. 

1837. . . 

Petition No. 2. For a road from the road 
from Whitesville to Punxsutawney, one-half 
mile east of Whitesville, to intersect the road 
from Hamilton's to Brookville near Henry 
Philliber's. May 10, 1837. September 25, 
1837, confirmed nisi. Order issued December 
23. 1,837, for opening to John C. Ferguson, 
and to be paid him. 

Petition No. 3. For a road from the Smeth- 
port and Milesburg turnpike, where it crosses 
Clarion river, to the mouth of Spring creek. 
May 10, 1837. September 15, 1837, read and 
confirmed nisi. 

Petition No. 5. For a road from John 
Bowers's to James H. Bell's gristmill. May 
10, 1837. September 15, 1837, read and con- 
firmed nisi. February 10, 1845, on the appli- 
cation of George R. Barrett, deputy attorney- 
general, the court order and direct that the 
road be opened forty feet wide. 



September Sessions, i8j/ 

Petition No. 2. For a road from David 
Dennison's to the seventy-first milestone. Con- 
firmed Alay 1 6, 1838. 

Petition No. 10. For a bridge on Mahoning 
creek near Charles C. Gaskill's. September, 
1837. The connty builds this bridge. John 
Hutchison, foreman. The court approve the 
finding of the grand jury and direct the with- 
in-named Ijridge to be recorded as a county 
bridge. December 13, 1837. 

December Sessions, iSjy 

Petition No. 2. For a road from the forks 
of Jones's run to intersect the Olean road 
about one mile east of Mr. Gorden's near the 
Black Swamp. December 13. December 18, 

1840, confirmed. Order to open, April 24. 

1841. _ 

Petition No. 3. For a road from Thomas 
\\'ilkin's to Ebenezer Carr's. December 12, 

1837. Read and confirmed May 16, 1838. 
Petition No. 6. For a bridge across Red 

Bank creek at or near Carrier's mill. Decem- 
ber 12, 1837. Approved by the grand jury, 
and the county to assist in building the same. 
February 16, 1838. 

February Sessions, iSjS 

Report No. 3. Of a road from Curry's lot 
to John i'ell's in Perry. Viewers report in 
favor of road February 9, 1838. February 16, 

1838, confirmed nisi. May 17, 1838, con- 

' May Sessions, iS_^S 

Petition No. i. For a road from Benjamin 
Shaffer's to David Milliron's. Read and con- 
firmed Fel)ruary 16, 1839. 

Petition No. 2. For a road from Dennison's 
to William McConnell's. May 17, 183S. Con- 
firmed December 14, 1838. Ordered to be 
opened fifty feet wide, December 15, 1843. 

December .Sessions. iSjS 

Petition No. 4. I-"or a road from the twen- 
tieth milestone on the .Susquehanna and Frank- 
lin turnpike to the -Sandy Lick creek at the 
Irish Town path. December 14, 1838. May 
LS. ^^39' read and confirmed. 

May Sessions, /(?_?o 

Petition No. i. b'or a road from Wake- 
field's, in PinecreeJv township, to tJie district 

line near Andrew McCormick, Snyder town- 
ship. Approved nisi December 10, 1839. 

Petition No. 2. For a road from Aaron 
Fuller's to the Brookville and Hamilton road 
near Mr. Holt's. May 14, 1839. Read and 
confirmed nisi December 13, 1839, and ordered 
to be opened February 10, 1840. 

Petition No. 3. For a road from Hance 
Robinson's mill to the Armstrong county line 
near the land of Hulet Smith. May 14, 1839. 
Read and confirmed nisi September 10, 1839. 
Order to open October 7, 1840. 

Petition No. 4. For a road from Daniel 
Elgin's, in Eldred township, to the mouth of 
Spring creek in Ridgway township. May 14, 
18^39. Read and confirmed nisi December 
II, 1839. 

Petition No. 6. For a road from the 
borough of Brookville to the Beech Bottom 
on Clarion river. May 14, 1839. Read and 
confirmed December 13, 1839. 

Petition No. 8. For a road from the upper 
end of the Clearfield and Armstrong turnpike, 
east of Punxsutawney, to intersect the old 
State road at or near John McHenry's. May 
14, 1839. Read and confirmed December i^, 

September Sessions, iSjg 

Petition No. i. For a road from the farm 
of Levi G. Clover to the Olean road at or near 
James Cochran's. September 11, 1839. Read 
ni^i 1839. Ordered to be opened May 22. 

Petition No. 8. b'or a road from the twelfth 
milestone on the turnpike to intersect the road 
half a mile east of John McGhee's. September 
II, 1839. May 12, 1840, confirmed and 
ordered to be opened fifty feet wide. 

Petition No. 9. Of a road from the south- 
east corner of the Graham lot on the Punx- 
sutawney road to intersect the turnpike at the 
northeast corner of .\ndrew Barnett's land. 
\'iewers re])ort in favor of road August 23, 
1839. Petitioned for May 15, 1839. Decem- 
ber 13, 1839, read and confimied. 

Report No. 16. Of a bridge across the Big 
.Mahoning creek at Bell's mills. Viewers in 
favor of bridge November 30, 1837. Petitioned 
for September, 1837. County' appropriated 
two hundred and fifty dollars to build said 
bridge. David McCormick, foreman. Court 
concur Se])tember 11, 1839. 

December .Se.isions, /(??9 

Petition No. i. For a road from Richards' 
mill on the Brookville and Beech Bottom road 



to intersect the Brockvvay road at or near the 
farm of Ahnon Sartwell. December lo, 1839. 
May 12, 1840, confirmed. 

Petition No. 3. For a road from the Hog- 
back road near Frederick Lantz's to intersect 
the Brookville and Indiana road at or near T. 
S. Mitchell's store. Approved by court, 
December 16, 1841. 

Petition No. 4. For a road from T. S. 
Mitchell's on the Indiana and Brookville road 
to intersect the road that leads from Irvin 
Robinson's to the Indiana county line. Decem- 
ber 13, 1839. Confirmed December 18, 1840. 

Petition No. 5. For a road from John 
Quiggles's to the Big Mahoning creek, where 
the line between James Solesby and William 
Campbell crosses said creek. Read and con- 
firmed February term, 1841. 

Petition No. 6. For a road from the road 
that has been of late made from the twentieth 
milestone to Sandy Lick creek to the Beech- 
woods road, one and a quarter miles from the 
twentieth milestone road. December 9, 1839. 
Confirmed May 12, 1840. 

Petition Xo. 7. For a road from the 
Waterford turnpike one half mile east of the 
twenty-fifth milestone to David Losh's grist- 
mill. December 9, 1839. Confirmed May 
12, 1840. 

February Sessions, 1840 

Petition No. i. For a road from the Brock- 
way road at or near S. Tibbetts's to the Beech- 
woods road at or near James Ross's Lane. 
February 11, 1840. Confirmed May 12, 1840. 

Petition for a road to Shaw's from Ross's 
Lane, September, 1836. Confirmed to these 
points May 10, 1837. 

May Sessions, 1S40 

Petition No. 3. For a road from the Brock- 
way road at or near Peter Richards's smith 
shop to the Beechvvoods at or near the top of 
Mill Creek hill. May 13, 1840. February to, 
1841, read and confirmed to be opened fifty 
feet wide. 

September Sessions, 1840 

Petition No. 5. For a road from the Clear- 
field county line near Robert Dixon's to 
Osborne mill. September 11, 1840. Read and 
confirmed February 10, 1841. 

Report No. 9. — Of a road from the road 
leading from Harnett's to Punxsutawney. 
about one mile south of Harnett's, to the old 

Indiana road, near the Five Mile run. Viewers 
report in favor of road. May 12, 1840. Sep- 
tember 17, 1840, read nisi. February 10, 1841, 
read and confirmed. 

(See also chapter on Barnett township, for 



1812. — Incorporation of the Susquehanna 
and Waterford Turnpike Company author- 
ized : governor of Pennsylvania to subscribe 
one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars 
in the stock of said road. 

1814. — Supplement to said act extending the 
time for subscriptions to the stock of said 
company three years from the 22d of 
February, 1815. 

1818. — Supplement extending the time five 
years from March 20, 18 18. 

182 1. — Governor of Pennsylvania, on behalf 
of the State, authorized to subscribe fifteen 
thousand dollars, in addition to the amount 
before subscribed, to the Susquehanna and 
Waterford Turnpike Company. By a report 
made in the Pennsylvania House of Repre- 
sentatives, March 23, 1822, it appears that the 
contemplated length of this road was one 
hundred and twenty-six miles, one hundred 
and seventeen of which were completed at that 
date. About twenty-six miles of this turnpike 
were laid out within the limits of the county 
of Jel?erson. 

April 4, 1831. — An act was enacted and 
approved authorizing the commissioners of 
Jefferson cotmty to alter a certain part of the 
Susquehanna and Waterford Turnpike road : 
"Section i. Be it enacted that the commis- 
sioners of Jefferson county be, and they are 
hereby, authorized and empowered to lay out 
and make one mile and ten perches of turn- 
pike road through the village of Brookville in 
said county, said road not to exceed five 
degrees from a horizontal line, and to be con- 
nected with the Susquehanna and Waterford 
turnpike road at both ends." This law author- 
ized a change in the pike in Brookville from 
Jefferson street to Main street. The Com- 
monwealth awarded the contract for this work 
to Thomas and James Hall, who completed 
the change. 

1838. — Susquehanna and Waterford Turn- 
pike Road Company authorized to open their 
road one hundred feet wide through marshy 
places, "so as to let the light and air upon the 



In 1792 the first stone turnpike in the United 
States was chartered. It was constructed in 
Pennsylvania, in 1794, and ran from l^ancastcr 
to Philadcljihia. It was conii)Ieted through to 
Pittsburgh in icSo4 and was the wonder of 
America. In this year, also, began the agita- 
tion in Pennsylvania for internal improvement, 
an agitation that resulted in a great era of 
State road, canal and turnpike construction, 
encouraged and assisted by the State govern- 
ment. From 1792 until 1832 the Legislature 
granted two hundred and twenty charters for 
turnpikes alone. 

These jiikes were not all made, but there 
were completed within that time, as a result 
of these grants, three thousand miles of 
passable roads. The pioneer turnpike through 
our wilderness was the Susquehanna and 
Waterford turnpike. On February 22, 1812, 
a law was enacted by the Pennsylvania Legis- 
lature enabling the governor to incorporate a 
company to build a turn])ike from the Susque- 
hanna river, near the mouth of Anderson 
creek, in Clearfield county, through Jefferson 
county and wiiat is now Pirookville, and 
through the towns of Franklin and Mead- 
ville, to Waterford, in Erie county. The 
governor was authorized to subscribe twelve 
thousand dollars in shares toward building the 
road. Joseph Barnett and Peter Jones, of 
Jefferson county, and two from each of the 
following counties, Erie, Crawford, Mercer, 
Clearfield, Venango and Philadeli)hia, as well 
as two from the city of Philadelphia, were 
appointed commissioners to receive stock. 
I'Lach of the counties just named was required 
to take a specified number of shares, and the 
shares were ])laced at twenty-five dollars each. 
JeflFersoii county was re(|uirc(I to take fifty 

The war of 1812 so depressed business in 
this part of the .State that all work was delayed 
on this thoroughfare for six years. The 
company commenced work in 1818, and the 
survey was completed in October of that year. 
In November, 1818, the sections were ofYered 
for sale, and in November, 1820, the road was 
completed to Rellcfonte. 

The commissioners em])loyed John Sloan, 
Esq., to make the survey and grade the road. 
The survey was begun in the spring and 
finished in the fall of 1818, a distance of one 
hundred and four miles. The State took one 
third of the stock. James Harriet, of Mead- 
ville. Pa., took the contract to build the road, 
and he gave it out to sub-contractors, .^ome 
took five miles, some ten, and so on. The 
bridge over the Clarion river was built in 1821, 

by Aloore, from .Xorthuniberland county; it 
was built with a single arch. 

In March, 1821, an act was passed by the 
Legislature appropriating two thousand, five 
hundred dollars for improving the road. .\])- 
jjointments were made in each county through 
which the road passed of people whose duty 
it was to receive the money for each county 
and to pay it out. Charles C. Gaskill and 
Carpenter \\'inslow represented Jefiferson 

Andrew Ellicott never surveyed or brushed 
out this turnpike. He was one of the com- 
missioners for the old State road. 

(Jur turnpike was one hundred and twenty- 
six miles long. The individual subscriptions 
to its construction were in total fifty thousand 
dollars, the State aid giving one hundred and 
forty thousand dollars. This, was up to March. 
1822. The finishing of our link in November, 
1824, completed and opened one continuous 
turnpike road from Philadelphia to Erie. Our 
part of this thoroughfare was called a "clav 
turnpike," and in that day was boasted of by 
early settlers as the most convenient and easy- 
traveling road in the United States ; that, in 
fact, anywhere along the route over the moun- 
tain the horses could be treated to the finest 
water, and that anywhere along the route, too. 
the tra\eler, as well as the driver, could regale 
himself "with the choicest Monongaliela 
whisky bitters," clear as amber, sweet as musk,' 
and smooth as oil. 

"Tmmediately after the completion of the 
turnpike milestones were set up. They were 
on the right hand side of the road as one 
traveled east. The stones when first erected 
were white, neat, square, and well finished. 
( )n each stone was inscribed, 'To S. 00 miles. 
To F. 00 miles.' Of course, figures appeared 
on the stones where ci]ihers have been placed 
abfj\e. .S. stood for Susquehanna, which is 
east, and F. for Franklin, which is west." 

ISrookville was thirty-six miles from the 
.Susquehanna river, and Franklin forty-six 

In the early days of the turn])ike. Oliver 
(iregg. with his six horses, and Joseph Mor- 
row, with his outfit of two teams, were 
regularly employed for ni;iiiy years in carr\ing 
freight from IMiiladelphia to this section, h 
took four weeks to reach here from Philadel- 
phia, and the charge for freight was about six 
dollars per hundred pounds. A man by the 
name of Potter in later years drove an outfit 
of five roan horses. Each team had a Cones- 
toga wagon and carried from three to four 
tons of goods. 








1819. — The Olean State road was authorized 
by the following act of Assembly : "An act 
authorizing the governor to appoint commis- 
sioners for the purpose of laying out a State 
road from the town of Kittanning to the State 
line, in direction to the village of Hamilton, in 
the township of Olean, in the State of New 
York, and also from Milesburg in Center 
county to Clarion river in Jefferson county. 

"Section i. Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly 
met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority 
of the same. That the governor be. and is 
hereby authorized and required to appoint 
three commissioners, one of whom shall be a 
practical surveyor, to view, mark, and lay out 
a State road from the town of Kittanning, in 
the county of Armstrong; thence on the 
nearest and best route to the State line, on a 
direction to the village of Hamilton, on the 
Allegheny river, in the township of Olean, in 
the State of New York ; and the commissioners 
so appointed shall ])roceed to perform the 
duties required of them by this act on or before 
the first Monday in June next, and shall make 
out and deposit a copy of the draft of said 
road in the office of the clerk of the court of 
Quarter Sessions in each county through 
which said road shall pass, and the said clerks 
shall enter the same in their respective offices, 
which shall be a record of said road ; and from 
thenceforth the said road shall be, to all intents 
and purposes, a public highway, and shall be 
opened and kept in repair in the same manner 
as roads laid out by order of the court of 
Quarter Sessions of the county through which 
said road passes." 

Section 2 provides for the oath of the com- 
missioners, their pay, and the settlement of 
their accounts. 

Sections 3 and 4 jjertain only to the other 
State road mentioned in the title of the act. 

"Approved — the twenty-third day of March, 
one thousand eight hundred and nineteen." 

1 82 1. — .Appropriation of eight thousand 
dollars to the Olean road by the nineteenth 
section of "An Act for the Improvement of the 
.State," which reads as follows : 

"Section 19. And be it further enacted by 
the authority aforesaid. That the sum of eight 
thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby 
appropriated for the opening and improving a 
State road, recently laid out from the town 
of Kittanning in Armstrong county to the 
State line, on a direction to the village of 
Hamilton, in the State of New York, which 
passes through .Armstrong, Jefferson, and 

McKean counties, to be expended in the said 
counties through which said road passes in 
proportion to the distance it passes through 
the same respectively. And the governor is 
hereby authorized to draw his warrant on the 
State treasurer in favor of the following 
named persons — that is, for that part of the 
said road which lies in Armstrong county in 
favor of David Lawson and James Cochran, 
.Armstrong county ; and for that part of said 
road which lies in Jefferson county in favor 
of John Sloan, Jr., of Armstrong county, John 
Matson, and John Lucas, of Jefferson county ; 
and for that part of said road that lies in 
McKean county in favor of Brewster Freeman 
and Joseph Otto, of McKean county, who are 
hereby appointed commissioners to receive 
and expend the said sum in opening and im- 
proving the said road within the limits of the 
counties to which they are appointed to super- 
intend, etc. 

".Approved — March 26. 1821." 

1819. — State road from Kittanning to the 
mouth of Anderson's creek, in Clearfield 
county, authorized by 

".\n act to authorize the governor to ap- 
point commissioners to lay out a state road 
from the town of Kittanning in a direction to 
the mouth of Anderson's creek. 

".Section i. Re it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the Common- 
wealth of Peimsylvania in General Assembly 
met. and it is hereby enacted by the authoiity 
of the same. That the governor is, and he is 
hereby authorized to appoint three commis- 
sioners, one of which shall be a practical 
surveyor, to view. mark, and lay out a State 
road from the town of Kittanning; thence by 
the nighest and best route on a direction 
towards the mouth of .Anderson's creek, in 
Clearfield county, to intersect a road from 
Bellefonte to Erie. And the commissioners so 
appointed shall proceed to perfomi the duties 
of their appointment at such times as the gov- 
ernor shall direct. And they shall make out 
and deposit a draft of said road in the office 
of the clerk of the court of Quarter Sessions in 
each county through which said road shall 
pass, and the said clerks shall enter the same 
in their resjiective offices, which shall be a 
record of said road, and from thenceforth the 
said road shall be to all intents and purposes 
a public highway, and shall be opened and kept 
in repair in the same manner as roads laid 
by order of tlie courts of Quarter Sessions of 
the counties through which said road passes. 

"Approved — January 27, 1819." 

182 1. — Appropriation of twenty-five hun- 



dred dollars to the State road from Kittan- 
ning to Anderson's creek, Clearfield county, 
by "An Act for the Improvement of the 

'"Section i8. And be it further enacted by 
the authority aforesaid, That the sum of two 
thousand five hundred dollars be, and the 
same is hereby ai)pro])riated for the purpose 
of opening and improving a State road re- 
cently laid out from the mouth of Anderson's 
creek, in Clearfield county, to the town of 
Kittanning, in Armstrong county, which 
passes through the counties of Clearfield, Jef- 
ferson, Indiana, and Armstrong, to be ex- 
pended in the same counties through which 
said road passes in proportion to the distance 
it passes through the same, and the governor 
is hereby authorized to draw his warrant on 
the State treasurer in favor of the following 
named persons, that is, for that part of said 
road which lies in Armstrong county in favor 
of James Hannagan and Joseph Marshall, of 
Armstrong county ; for that part of said road 
which lies in Indiana county in favor of James 
McComb and William Travis, of Indiana 
county ; for that part of said road lying in 
Jefferson county in favor of Charles C. Gaskill 
and Carpenter Winslow, of Jefiferson county ; 
and for that part lying in Clearfield county in 
favor of David Ferguson and Moses Boggs, 
of .said county, who are hereby appointed 
commissioners to receive and expend the said 
sum in opening and improving the said road 
within the limits of the counties to which they 
are a])pointed to superintend, and the said 
commissioners shall each be entitled to receive 
as a full compensation one dollar and fifty 
cents per day for every day they shall be neces- 
sarily employed in performing their respective 

"Approved — March 26, 182 1." 

1824. — State road from ^^^1rren to Brook- 
ville authorized. 

1825, — "'State road from Indiana through 
Punxsutawney, in the county of Jefferson, 
and Smethport, in the county of McKean, to 
the town of Ceres, in said county of McKean," 
authorized, and Meek Kelly, of Indiana county. 
John Sloan, Jr., of Armstrong county, and 
Charles C. Gaskill, of Jefferson county, i\]i- 
pointed commissioners to view, lay out and 
, mark the same. 

1825. — The Milesburg and .Smethport Turn- 
pike Road Company, authorized "for the ])ur- 
pose of making a turn]Mke road from Miles- 
burg in Centre county, past Karthaus in 
Clearfield county, and .Smethjiort in McKean 
county, to the New York line," and Jonathan 

Colgrove, Paul E. Scull, John King and 
Josei>h Otto, of McKean county ; Peter A. 
Karthaus, of Clearfield county; James L. 
(iillis, of Jefferson county; John Mitchell and 
Roland Curtin, of Center county; George 
\'aux and Simon Gratz, of the city of Phila- 
delphia, appointed commissioners to solicit 
subscriptions for said road, which passed 
through Ridgway, then in the county of Jef- • 
ferson. Notice of the time and place when 
and where books to i)e opened to receive sub- 
scriptions of stock to be published in the 
Bellefonte Patriot and the Lycoming Gazette, 
and one paper published in the city of Phila- 
delphia. Upon subscriptions of twenty or 
more persons, representing six himdred or 
more shares of twenty dollars each, the gov- 
ernor to incorporate the company, which was 
to have power to erect and maintain tollgates 
upon and across said turnpike, as will be seen 
by the following section of the act : 

"Section 13. — And be it further enacted by 
the authority aforesaid. That whenever and 
as often as the said company shall have fin- 
ished five miles or more of said road the presi- 
dent thereof may give notice to the governor, 
who shall thereupon forthwith appoint three 
skillful, judicious, and disinterested persons 
to view and examine the same and report on 
oath or affirmation to him whether the road is 
so far executed in a competent and workman- 
like manner, according to the true meaning 
and intent of this act ; and if their report shall 
be in the affirmative, then the governor shall, 
by license under his hand and seal of the 
State, permit and suffer said company to erect 
and fix such and so many gates or turnpikes 
U]Xjn and across the said road as will be neces- 
sary and sufficient to collect from all persons 
traveling the same, otherw'ise than on foot, 
the same tolls which are hereinafter authorized 
and granted : Provided, That all persons at- 
tending funerals, military parades or train- 
ings, or divine worship on the -Sabbath-day. 
shall at all times be exempt from the payment 
of any toll on said road." 

1828. — "A supplement to the Act entitled 
'An Act authorizing the Governor to incor- 
porate the Milesburg and Smethport Turn- 
pike Road Company.' 

"".Section I. I'e it enacted by the Senate 
and Mouse of Representatives of the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania in General As- 
sembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the 
authority of the same, That the governor be 
and is hereby authorized and required to sub- 
scribe twenty thousand dfillars, in shares of 
twenty dollars each, to the stock of the Aliles- 



burg and Smethport Turnpike Road Company ; 
and as soon as any five miles of the road shall 
be completed, it shall be the duty of the gov- 
ernor to draw his warrant on the State treas- 
urer for a sum in proportion to the whole dis- 
tance, and a like sum for every five miles, until 
the whole sum shall be drawn : Provided, 
That previous to any payment from the treas- 
ury satisfactory evidence shall be furnished 
to the governor that sums equal at least in 
amount to the sums drawn from the treasury 
shall have been paid by individual stockhold- 
ers and expended agreeably to the provisions 
of the twelfth section of the act incorporating 
the said turnpike road company, passed the 
eleventh day of April, one thousand eight 
hundred and twenty-five : And Provided 
further. That there shall not be more than 
five thousand dollars of the aforesaid sum of 
twenty thousand dollars drawn from the said 
treasury in any one year. 

"Approved — the second day of February, 
A. D. one thousand eight hundred and twenty- 

"J. Andvv. Schulze." 

183 1. — "A further supplement to the said 
Act incorporating said Turnpike Road Com- 
pany, being the Second Section of the Act of 
the 4th Day of April, A. D. 1831, as follows: 

"Section 2. And be it further enacted by 
the authority aforesaid. That the proceedings 
which are authorized by the thirteenth section 
of the act entitled 'A Further Supplement to 
the Act entitled An Act authorizing the Gov- 
ernor to incorporate the Milesburg and Smeth- 
port Turnpike Road Company,' passed 
eleventh day of April, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and twenty-five, and a supplement to the 
said act, passed the second day of February, 
one thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight, 
in cases when the said company shall have 
finished five miles or more of said road, be and 
the .same are hereby authorized and extended 
to portions less than five miles of said road, 
which are and shall hereafter be finished as 

1836. — A further supplement authorizing 
the State to subscribe five thousand dollars 
additional stock in said turnpike. 

1826. — Warren and Jefferson County Turn- 
pike Road Company authorized "for the pur- 
pose of making a turnpike road from the town 
of Warren, in Warren county, to the Sus- 
quehanna and Waterford Turnpike, at or near 
the bridge over the north fork of Sandy Lick 
creek, in Jefferson county," and Joseph Hack- 
ney, John Andrews, and Archibald Tanner, of 
Warren county; Thomas I^ucas, Charles C. 

Gaskill, and John Matson, of Jefferson 
county, appointed commissioners to solicit 
subscriptions and organize the company. 

1826. — One half of all road taxes received 
by the treasurers of Jefferson and McKean 
counties from unseated lands to be applied 
for seven years to the improvement of the 
"leading roads" in said counties; and C. C. 
Gaskill and James Gillis, of Jefferson county, 
and Jonathan Colgrove and Paul E. Scull, of 
McKean county, appointed commissioners to 
expend said fund in the "making, clearing 
and opening" of said "leading roads." 

1828. — The above act repealed as to Jef- 
ferson county. 

1826. — Cleajrfield and Jefferson Turnpike 
authorized, and Charles C. Gaskill, Dr. John 
W. Jenks, Andrew Barnett, and Thomas 
Lucas, of the county of Jefferson ; and Green- 
wood Bell, John Irvin, David Ferguson, and 
Alexander B. Read, of Clearfield county, ap- 
pointed commissioners to procure books and 
solicit subscriptions for said road, and gen- 
erally to assist in the organization of the com- 
pany, to be known as "The President, Man- 
agers, and Company of the Clearfield and Jef- 
ferson Turnpike Road." 

1831. — Township supervisors of Jefferson 
county authorized and required to expend at 
least two-thirds of the annual road tax in the 
repair and improvement of the public roads 
of their respective townships, on or before 
the 1st day of October in each and every 

1834. — State road from Kittanning to 
Brookville authorized, and John Sloan, Jr., 
Alexander Duncan, and James Corbett ap- 
]5ointed commissioners to view and lay out 
the same. 

1835. — Commissioners appointed to lay out 
State road from Kittanning to Brookville : 
William Jack, John Cribbs, Jr., and Robert 

1838. — Luthersburg and Punxsutawney 
Road Company authorized, "for the purpose 
of making a turnpike from the town of Punx- 
sutawney, in the county of Jefferson, to the 
town of Luthersburg, in Clearfield county." 
and Lebbeus Luther, John Jordan, Benjamin 
Bonsall, David Irvin, Jacob Flick, Benjamin 
Carson, David Hoover, David Henny, and 
Jeremiah Miles, of the county of Clearfield ; 
William Campbell, Charles R. Barclay. Charles 
C. Gaskill, James Winslow, James W. Bell, and 
John Hoover (miller), of the county of Jef- 
ferson, appointed commissioners to solicit sub- 
scriptions for stock, and generally to assist in 
the organization of the company to be known 



as "The Luthersburg and I'linxsutawney Road 

1838. — The governor of Pennsylvania au- 
iliorized and required to suliscrihe four thou- 
sand dollars to the Luthersburg and Punxsu- 
tawney Turnpike Company "if incorporated 
the present session." 

1830. — State road from Warren to Ridg- 
way's settlement, in Jefferson county, author- 
ized, and Robert Falconer, John Andrews 
and Lansing Witmore, of Warren county, 
and Reuben A. .Aylsworth and Enos Gillis, 
of Jefferson county. ap])ointed commissioners 
to lay out the same. 

1831. — Company organized and incorpo- 
rated to build said road, called the Warren 
and Ridgway Turnpike Road Company. "The 
said commissioners are hereby authorized to 
employ one surveyor, whose compensation 
shall not exceed one dollar and fifty cents per 
day, and two chain bearers and one ax man, 
at per diem allowance, not exceeding one dol- 
lar per day, and one packer and packhorse, if 
necessary, for which a reasonable allowance 
shall be made. Further, that the compensa- 
tion of the said commissioners shall be one 
flollar and fifty cents each for every day they 
may be necessarilv employed by \irtue of this 

1836. — Tn consideration of privileges 
granted by the State to the State bank, it was 
authorized and required to pay five thousand 
dollars to this Warren and Ridgway Turnpike 
Road Company. 

1838. — Governor of Pennsylvania author- 
ized to subscribe two thousand dollars stock 
in said Warren and Ridgway Turnpike Road 

1842. — Having com]ilcted forty miles of the 
Warren and Ridgway turnpike road, said 
company was authorized to demand, receive, 
and collect tolls thereon. 

1844. — The managers and stockholders of 
the Warren and Ridgway Turn]iike Road 
Company having abandoned the same, it was 
enacted that one-half of the road tax levied in 
the township of Sheffield, and one-fourth of 
the road tax levied in the township of Kinzua. 
in the county of Warren; one-fourth of the 
road tax levied in the township of Tionesta. 
in the county of Jefferson; one-fourth of the 
road tax levied in the township of Ridgway, 
and one-eighth of the road tax levied in the 
township of Jones, in the county of F.Ik, 
should, for a period of six years, be paid and 
expended by Richard Dunham and I'>astus 
P)arnes, of the county of Warren, and Joseph 
S. Myde, of the county of F.Ik, commissioners, 

to the best advantage, in repairing, mending, 
and improving said turnpike road through the 
counties of Warren, Jefferson, and Elk. 

1831. — Armstrong and Clearfield turnpike 
road authorized to commence at Kittanning. 
pass through Punxsutawney, and to end at 
the mouth of Anderson's creek, in Clearfield 
county. Thomas Blair. Jacob Pontius, and 
Joseph Marshall, of Armstrong county; Chas. 
C. Gaskill, and John W. Jenks, of Jefferson 
county; John Ewing and Henry Kinter, of 
Indiana county ; David Ferguson and John 
Irvin, of Clearfield county; and William .\. 
Thomas and Hardman Phillips, of Centre 
county, were appointed commissioners by said 
act to solicit subscriptions, give notice of 
organization of company, etc. 

1838. — Governor of Pennsylvania author- 
ized and required to subscribe five thousand 
six hundred dollars to said Armstrong and 
Clearfield Turnpike Road Company. 

1844. — Time for the completion of the said 
Armstrong and Clearfield turnpike road ex- 
tended for the term of ten vears from April 
16, 1844. 

1834. — State road from the mouth of Little 
r.ald Eagle creek, in Huntingdon county, 
through Clearfield county, to Punxsutawney, 
in Jefferson county, authorized, and James 
Winslow, of Jefferson county ; Elisha Fenton, 
of Clearfield county ; and llenjamin Johnson, 
of Huntingdon county, appointed commis- 
sioners to lay out the same. 

1835. — Supplement extending time for mak- 
ing out drafts of location of said State road 
from Little Bald Eagle creek to Punxsu- 

1834. — State road authorized from the set- 
tlement on the headwaters of Millstone creek, 
in Jefferson county, to the State road leading 
from the Clarion river bridge, on the Sus- 
quehainia and Waterford turnpike, in the 
county of Venango, at or near the farm of 
Peter Walley, Jr., and James Gillis and Wil- 
liam Armstrong, of Jefferson county; and 
David Reyner, of Venango county, appointed 
commissioners to lay out the same. 

1835. — State road from .Shippensville to 
Ridgway. in Jefferson county, authorized, 
and Daniel Rhyner and James Hasson, of 
Venango county; and William .Armstrong, of 
Jeff'erson county, appointed commissioners to 
view, lay out, and mark the same: 

1838. — State road from ISrookville to Tio- 
nesta authorized, and James Iluling and Rich- 
ard Irvin, of Venango county, and Philip G. 
Clover, of Jefferson county. "ap])ointed com- 



niissioners to view, lay out, locate, and mark 
the same by the nearest and best route.'' 

1840. — Incorporation of the Armstrong, 
Jefferson, and Clearfield Turnpike Company 
authorized, to begin "at the northern termina- 
tion of the Freeport and Kittanning turnpike 
road, on the top of the Mahoning hills, and 
continue by the most practical route, via the 
borough of Brookville, in Jefferson county, 
and the Brandy Camp, to the Alilesburg and 
SmethfMDrt turnpike road, at or near Ridgway, 
in Jefferson county." By same act James Kerr. 
Hance Robinson, Jacob Miller, of the county 
of Armstrong; and Hiram Wilson, William 
Jack, John Dougherty, and Jacob Shaffer, of 
the county of Jefferson; and Isaac Morton, 
Daniel Oyster. Uriah Rodgers, and Jonathan 
Nichols, of the county of Clearfield, were ;ip- 
pointed commissioners to solicit subscriptions 
and organize the company. 

1840. — State road from Ebensburg to Punx- 
sutawney authorized, to begin "at the town of 
Ebensburg, in Cambria county ; thence by the 
nearest and best route to the Cherry Tree ; 
thence by the nearest and best route to the 
town of Punxsutawney, Jefferson county'' ; 
and Stephen Lloyd and James Rhey, of Cam- 
bria county ; James Bard, of Indiana county ; 
David Ferguson, of Clearfield county; and 
James Winslow, of Jefferson county, appointed 
commissioners to view, lay out, and mark the 

.A^pril 2. 1841. — lime for completing the 
survey and location of .State road from Ebens- 
burg to Punxsutawney extended one year from 
April 2, 1841, and Stephen Lloyd, John B. 
Douglass, of Cambria county; Richard Bard, 
of Clearfield county; William Thompson, of 
Indiana county; and James Winslow, of Jef- 
ferson county, appointed conmiissioners in 
place of those named in the act originally 
authorizing the road. 

May 5, 1841. — Original act autliorizing the 
State road from l-',ljensburg "to Punxsutawney 
revived, "and William Thompson, of Indiana 
county ; Richard Bard, of Clearfield county ; 
and .Stephen Lloyd, John B. Douglass, and 
James Rhey. of Cambria county, appointed 
commissioners to carry the provisions of the 
said act into execution." 

1841. — Jefferson comity commissioners au- 
thorized to subscribe stock in the Mahoning 
Mouth Bridge Company "such number of 
shares as they may deem right and proper." 

1842. — Chutes of dams on the Red Bank 
and Sandy Lick creek to be twenty feet long 
for every one foot high. 

1842. — .State road from Cherrv Tree in 

Indiana county to Clarion authorized, and 
David Peelor, Heth F. Camp and John Decker, 
of Indiana county; John Sloan, Jr., Peter 
Clover, Jr.. of Clarion county; and Robert 
Woodward, of Armstrong county, appointed 
commissioners to view and lay out the said 
State road, which was to begin at "Cherry 
Tree in Indiana county, and to intersect the 
Susquehanna and Waterford Turnpike at 01: 
near the town of Clarion, in Clarion county, 
by the nearest and best route between the said 

1843. — Time for executing and returning 
drafts of the survey of this State road from 
Cherry Tree to Clarion extended one year, 
and Henry Freese, of Jefferson county, added 
to the board of commissioners. 

1843. — State road from Brookville to Ridg- 
way by way of the mouth of Little Toby 

1843. — State road from Elderton to Punxsu- 
tawney authorized, and Thomas Armstrong, 
of Elderton ; Peter Dilts, of Mahoning, In- 
diana county; and William Campbell, of Jef- 
ferson county, "appointed commissioners to 
view and lay out the road from Elderton, in 
.Armstrong county, to Punxsutawney, in Jef- 
ferson county, by way of Plumville, in Indiana 
county, by the nearest and best route from 
[Joint to point." 

1844. — The county commissioners of the 
several counties through which the State road 
from Elderton by way of Plumville to Punx- 
sutawney was laid out authorized and required 
to settle the accounts of the commissioners 
\ iewing and laying out said road. 

1844. — State road from the borough of 
Warren, in Warren coimty, to the borough of 
Brookville, in Jefferson county, authorized, 
and Henry G. Sergeant and Orin L. Stanton, 
of Warren county ; and Samuel Findley, of 
Jefferson county, appointed commissioners to 
view and lay out the same; <lrafts of the loca- 
tion of said State road to be made and de- 
posited "in the office of the clerk of the court 
of the respective counties in which said road 
may be laid out." 

1845. — ^^'1 expenses for laying out and 
opening roads in Jefferson county to be paid 
out of the road funds of the several town- 
ships through which the same may pass. 
Supervisors in the county of Jefferson required 
to give bond in double the amount of the stmi 
assessed for road purposes ; and township 
auditors, within ten days after settlement with 
supervisors, to file a copy of said settlement 
with the clerk of the Quarter Sessions. 

1845. — An act authorizing but three road 



and bridge viewers in Jefferson county, and 
requiring all lo view. 

1846. — Act relating to dams and obstruc- 
tions in the Clarion river. 

1846. — State road from Smicksburg, In- 
diana county, to the borough of Brookvillo, 
Jefferson county, authorized, and Hugh 
Brady, Levi G. Clover, of Jefferson county ; 
and George Bernard, of Indiana county, ap- 
pointed commissioners to view and lay out 
the same "on the nearest and best route, to a 
straight line, and in no place to exceed an 
elevation of five degrees." 

Viewers required to make drafts and file 
copy of same in both counties, and courts of 
the respective counties authorized to fill 
vacancies occurring in the board of commis- 


With the completion of the turnpike came 
the tollgate. One was erected every five or 
ten miles. 

It was lawful for the company to appoint 
such and so many toll-gatherers as they 
thought proper, to collect and receive of and 
from each and every person and persons 
using the said road the tolls and rates herein- 
after mentioned ; and to stop any person rid- 
ing, leading or driving any horse or mule, or 
driving any cattle, hogs, sheep, sulky, chair, 
chaise, phaeton, cart, wagon, wain, sleigh, 
sled, or other carriage of burden or pleasure 
from passing through the said gates or turn- 
pikes until they shall have respectively paid 
the same — that is to say, for every space of 
five miles in length of the said road the fol- 
lowing sum of money, and so in proportion 
for any greater or less distance, or for any 
greater or less number of hogs, sheep or cat- 
tle, to wit : For every score of sheep, four 
cents; for every score of hogs, six cents; for 
every .score of cattle, twelve cents ; for every 
horse or mule, laden or unladen, with his 
rider or leader, three cents ; for every sulky, 
chair, chaise, with one horse and two wheels, 
six cents, and with two horses, nine cents ; 
for every chair, coach, phaeton, chaise, stage, 
wagon, coachee, or light wagon, with two 
horses and four wheels, twelve cents; for 
either of the carriages last mentioned, with 
four horses, twenty cents ; for every other 
carriage of pleasure, under whatever name it 
may go, the like sum, according to the tium- 
ber of wheels and of horses drawing the same ; 
for every sleigh or sled, two cents for each 
horse drawing the same; for every cart or 

wagon, or other carriage of burden, the wheels 
(jf which do not in breadth exceed four inches, 
four cents for each horse drawing the same; 
for every cart or wagon, the wheels of which 
shall exceed in breadth four inches, and shall 
not exceed seven inches, three cents for each 
horse drawing the same ; and when any such 
carriages as aforesaid shall be drawn by oxen 
or mules, in the whole or in part, two oxen 
shall be estimated as equal to one horse ; and 
every ass or mule as equal to one horse, in 
charging the aforesaid tolls. 


In November, 1824, the first stage line was 
established over the Waterford and Susque- 
hanna turnpike from Bellefonte to Erie by 
Robert Clark, of Clark's Ferry, Pa. It was 
called a Concord line, and at first was a tri- 
weekly. The first stagecoach passed through 
where Brookville now is about November 6, 
1824. In 1824 the route was completed to 
Philadelphia, through Harrisburg, and was 
a daily line. 

The arrival of the stages in old times was 
a much more important event than that of the 
railroad trains to-day. Crowds invariably 
gathered at the public houses where the 
coaches stopped to obtain the latest news, and 
the passengers were of decided account for 
the time being. Money was so scarce that 
few persons could afford to patronize the 
stages, and those who did were looked upon 
as fortunate beings. A short trip on the stage 
was as formidable an affair as one to Chicago 
or Washington is now by railroad. The stage 
drivers were men of considerable consequence. 
They were intrusted with many delicate mis- 
sives and valuable packages, and seldom be- 
trayed the confidence rejjosed in them. They 
had great skill in handling their horses, and 
were the admiration and envy of the boys. 

The traffic increased gradually until it 
reached enormous proportions. .\ quarter of 
a century after the road had been built it 
arrived at the zenith of its glory. 

Peddlers of all kinds, on foot and in covered 
wagons, traveled the pike. From Crawford 
county came the cheese and whitefish peddler. 
Several people, including the hotel men, would 
each buy a whole cheese. 

The pioneer inns or taverns in Jefferson 
county along this highway were about six in 
number. Five of the six were built of hewed 
logs, viz. : One where Reynoldsville is ; the 
Packer Inn, near Peter Baum's; one near 
Campbell run (Ghost Hollow) ; the William 

TI:E new YORK 

pljdlic library 

T.H D- r. rOL'-JQA (QMS 



I'niri' i;.\i!xi"n' 



Vastbinder inn ; James Winter's tavern, at 
Roseville; and John McAnulty's inn, kept by 
Alexander Powers, where Corsica is now 
located. The Port Bamett Inn at this time 
was a "frame structure," as its picture rep- 

Stage passengers' rights were guarded as 
herein by the act of March 6, 1820 — "An Act 
Relative to the Owners and Drivers of Public 
Stages and Other Carriages for the Convey- 
ance of Passengers, and for Other Purposes. 

"Section i. From and after the ist day of 
July next, if the driver of any public stage, 
mail coach, coachee, or carriage shall leave 
the same with the horses attached thereto, 
without some suitable person to take care of 
such horses, or securely fastening the same, 
such driver, and the owner or owners, or any 
of them, of such stage, mail coach, coachee. 
or carriage shall for every such offense forfeit 
and pay any sum not less than ten nor more 
than fifty dollars, one moiety whereof shall 
go to the person giving information of the 
commission of such offense, and the other 
moiety to the stock of the county where such 
offense shall have been committed : Provided, 
that the party aggrieved shall have a right to 
appeal to the next court of Common Pleas of 
the county wherein the offense was com- 

Robbery and crime were not uncommon oc- 
currences on this wilderness highway. I here 
pause to give a single incident, the murder of 
Reuben Giles by James Monks. This murder 
was committed in November, 181 7. Monks 
was tried in 1818 and hanged at Bellefonte in 
1819. Monks was a bad actor. He had been 
hunting for game and at night lodged at a 
tavern in Bloom township, Clearfield county. 
The night before the shooting Monks had 
been gambling and drinking; had lost about 
all of his money and was in a bad frame of 
mind. He left the hotel in the afternoon and 
started home, coming, in the direction of 
Curwensville. Reuben Giles, his victim, was 
from an eastern county and a drover, carrying 
considerable money. Giles was going west, 
ascending Anderson Creek hill when he met 
Monks. Giles spoke pleasantly to Monks and 
passed on. The rest is told in Monks"s poetic 
confession written by him in the Bellefonte 
jail. Monks was hanged two years later in an 
open field near Bellefonte, and it is said his 
execution was witnessed by more than four 
thousand people. 


Come all ye good people 

Who now have come to view 
This sad and shameful death 

I have brought myself unto ; 
I pray you all take warning 

By my unhappy fate, 
And shun my vice and folly, 

Before it is too late. 

In the county of Centre 

I drew my baby breath ; 
And in that same county 

I meet my shameful death. 
Had I obeyed the counsels 

My parents gave to me, 
I would not have had to suffer 

Upon this shameful tree. 

I hope you will remember 

James Monks — such is my name; 
This day I do confess, 

To my sorrow and my shame, 
That I shot Reuben Giles 

Whom I never saw before, 
And left his body weltering 

In its purple gore. 

I hunted in Clearfield 

In Eighteen Seventeen, 
From the head of Stump creek. 

Where I had often been, 
And while on my way homeward 

On Anderson Creek hill, 
I stopped to drink and gamble, 

.'\s many men do still. 

I left the stone tavern 

In anger at its men 
For cheating me in gambling. 

At least I thought so then ; 
And walked off in the evening 

With evil thoughts astir, 
.^nd soon I met a stranger. 

Who said, "Good evening, sir." 

Just after I had passed him 

The thought occurred to me, 
To kill him for his money; 

There was no one to see ; 
And without further thinking. 

As if from hell inspired, 
I turned — drew up my rifle, 

And in a moment fired. 

I now caught his horse 

And tied it to a tree, 
Then hastened to my victim, 

Who faintly said to me, 
"My friend, why have you killed me?" 

But all I would reply 
Was quickly to go to him, 

Resolved that he must die. 

The devil so possessed me, 

Before he was quite dead, 
With tomahawk I gave him 

Two blows upon the head, 
Then dragged him off a distance, 

And stripped him of his clothes, 
And like a savage left him 

To beasts and brutes exposed. 



111 trying on his shoes 

I loiiiid they were too small, 
1 cut them in the instep, 

And let my penknife fall; 
This knife and an old songbook. 

Left here as by design, 
When with a piece of clothing. 

Betrayed this deed of mine. 

His horse and his saddlebags 

Now became my prey; 
His watch and his pockctbook 

I also took away ; 
Then covered np his body 

With leaves and rotten wood 
Some distance from the roadside. 

Where once a tree had stood. 

I threw his hat away 

Before I'd rode a mile, 
Then went on toward Karthaus, 

Pursuers to beguile. 
And early the ne.\t morning 

1 viewed all my store 
And thought I could conceal 

This my guilt forcvermore. 

I hid his bloody shirt 

In the hollow of a tree. 
But this, too, was found 

And produced against me ; 
To show that private murder 

Would never be concealed 
A dog told the secret. 

And the whole was revealed. 

I tried to plead "not guilty," 

My lawyers did their best, 
But proof on proof appeared, 

Guilt rankled in my breast ; 
His bones, too, were produced. 

Presented at my trial, 
And this shocking proof of guilt 

Admitted no denial. 

One more thing I will mention 

Before I'm done with time. 
Some blamed Andrew Allison 

For this my cruel crime. 
But since I am to suffer, 

I say a lie has come — 
He's as innocent as the infant 

Or child yet unborn. 





I'he pioneer steam railway in the world was 
opened in I'".niJlaiid in September. 1823. and 
was called the .'~itoekdale iK: Darlinfjton road. 
It was thirty-eij,'ht miles lonj^. It is claimed 
that the lialtimore & Ohio is the pioneer steam 
railroad in the United States. It was built 

billed is oxer three million dollars i)er day. 
In iN^o we traveled at high speed, as railroad 
passengers, going si.x to ten miles an hour, 
imt now we glide along at the rate of forty 
or sixty miles an hour as smoothly as our 
fatluTs ilid with their skates on ice or sleds 

it(Ji\'i:i:n k.mi.road traix in riii'; nxnin m \ti 

in 1S30. Ill any event, our railroads are now 
the wonder of the world. 

In 1830 the railway trackage in the United 
States did not exceed sixty miles. To-day we 
have fifty-two railroads, with some two hun- 
dred and fifty-seven thousand miles of track, 
and the gross earnings of our railroads coiti- 

on snow. To-day we telegraph around the 
world in nine niintites. What next? 

In i(S5o we had only seven thousand, three 
hundred miles of railway, owned and oper- 
ated by one hundred and fifty-one companies, 
and with a few exceptions each road was less 
than one htindred miles in length. The New 



York & Erie was the only "trunk line," with 
a trackage of three hundred and one miles. 

The journey from Philadelphia to Pitts- 
burgh in 1834 was made as follows: Over the 
Columbia railroad, eighty-two miles; canal 
from Columbia to Hollidaysburg, one hundred 
and seventy-two miles ; Portage railroad from 
Hollidaysburg to Johnstown, thirty-six miles; 
and on canal from Johnstown to Pittsburgh, 
one hundred and four miles ; total, three hun- 
dred and ninety- four mile's. The frequent 
transfers made the journey long and tedious 
and the cost of freightage high. Summit 
tunnel was used January 2\. 1854. but was not 
completed until l-'ebruary 17. 1835. O" De- 
cember 10. 1852. an all-rail line was opened 
from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh. 

The chair car was introduced on night lines 
in 1847. The pioneer sleeping car (Wood- 
ruff's) was used in 1837-38; the Pullman 
sleeper in 187 1. 

Uniforms were introduced in the Harris- 
burg division about 1856. The uniform was 
a blue coat with brass buttons, buiif vest and 
black trousers. It was so unpopular with the 
employes and the people that it was abandoned, 
but the Civil war popularized it, and the pres- 
ent uniform was adopted in 1876. Up to that 
period the word "conductor" was worn on the 
left lapel of the coat. It is now on the cap. 

On July 6, 1837, two coal-burning locomo- 
tives were tried, but they proved useless. 
Horses were used more or less on the Portage 
road up to 1850. In 1857 this road was aban- 

On June 25, 1847. John Edgar Thomson, 
for seven and a half million dollars, bought 
the public works of Pennsylvania, and on 
August I, 1857. the PeiiTisylvania took posses- 
sion of the main line of [niblic works of Penn- 
sylvania, which embraced the Columbia rail- 
road to Philadelphia. On July 18, 1858, the 
Pennsylvania railroad ran the first passenger 
wide car train into Pittsburgh from Philadel- 
phia without a change of cars. To this train 
was attached a Woodrufif sleeper and a smok- 
ing car, the first smoker ever used. Up to 1843 
the cost of the public works to the State was 
$i4..'^6i, 320.25. 

The amount of monev now invested in rail- 
way jirojierty is over fifteen thousand million 
dollars, and the number of em])loyes about 
two million. 

The service rendered by the railroads of tin- 
United States, and the gigantic extent of their 
business transactions, can only be expressed in 
billions. In 191 5 the service rendered by their 
passenger trains was equivalent to carrying 

one passenger thirty-two billions of miles. The 
freight service was the equivalent of carrying 
one ton two hundred and seventy-seven bil- 
lions of miles. The railroads were paid for 
their various services, including mail and 
express transportation, the great sum of three 
billions of dollars, yet they carried a ton of 
freight one mile to earn three-quarters of a 
cent and a passenger one mile to earn two 
cents. The service given by American rail- 
roads is not only the best in the world, but is 
also the cheapest. 

As facilities for serving the public, the rail- 
roads of this country operate fifty-four thou- 
sand passenger cars, two million four hundred 
thousand freight cars, having a capacity of 
ninety-five million tons, and sixty-five thou- 
sand locomotives, having a combined pulling 
force of more than two billions of pounds. 

The figures of growth in our railroads and 
their business are amazing. In ten years, the 
freight traffic, the total capacity of the freight 
cars and the tractive power of locomotives 
have practically doubled. Taking a twenty- 
year period they have more than trebled. Yet 
the receipts of the railroads for the service 
rendered in 191 5 were not much more than a 
third larger than in 1905, and only one and 
three quarters times as large as in 1895. 

The railroads are great taxpayers. Last 
year they contributed one hundred and thirty- 
nine million dollars in taxes and this item had 
much more than doubled in ten years. In 
twenty years it had grown to three and a half 
times its former amount. 

Now, in 19 1 5, as a Pennsylvanian, I am 
proud to say that our own Pennsylvania rail- 
road, seventy years old in 1915, is the greatest, 
the best, the most perfect in management and 
construction of any railroad in the world. We 
have smoking cars, with bathroom, barber 
shop, writing desks and library ; we have 
dining cars in which are served refreshments 
that a Delmonico cannot surpass ; we have 
parlor cars with bay windows and luxurious 
furnittire ; and we have cars with beds for 
sleeping soft as the "eiderdown." 

The Pennsylvania railroad is a Pennsylvania 
product and has always remained a Pennsyl- 
vania institution, under home management, 
although it has grown to be the largest trans- 
portation system in the world. It is more than 
twelve thousand miles long anrl has altogether 
nearly twenty-seven thousand miles of track, 
or enough to go around the world. It has 
six hundred and thirty-six miles of four-track 
railroad, eight hundred and twenty-eight miles 
of three-track railroad and three thou.sand 



seven hundred and sixty-two miles of double- 
track railroad. It eni[)loys nearly a quarter of 
a million men. It has seven thousand four 
hundred locomotives, six thousand seven hun- 
dred passenger cars and two hundred and 
seventy-six thousand six hundred and nineteen 
freight cars, operates three thousand passenger 
and four thousand freight trains a day, carries 
a half-million passengers and one million tons 
of freight a day. The passenger system is 
operated under block signals, and not a single 
passenger has l)een killed in a train accident 
on any of its lines in nearly two and a half 
years. Meals for ten thousand six hundred 
passengers are served every day in its dining 
cars and restaurants. It buys one hundred 
million dollars' worth of material in a year. It 
pays five hundred thousand dollars per day in 
wages. It is owned by one hundred thousand 
stockholders, of whom forty-six thousand are 
women. It has three thousand all-steel pas- 
senger cars, or a third of all that there are in 
the United States, and was the first to build 
all-steel box cars and install steel passenger 
equipment. It has pensioned nearly ten 
thousand employes in the last sixteen years 
and has spent upward of thirteen million dol- 
lars in pensions. It operates one twenty-fifth 
of the entire railroad mileage of the United 
States and does one-eighth of all the l)usiness. 


''1 '^"^53 Jefferson county subscribed ninety 
thousand dollars to the stock of the Allegheny 
Yalley F^ailroad Company. Tr enable them 
to pay this money the commissioners of the 
county issued bonds of one thousand dollars 
each, for stock in said road, payable in thirtv 
years from date. These bonds read as fol- 
lows : 

Know all im-ii by these i)rescnts, that ihc county 
of JfffcT.soii, in the Conimonvvcalth of rcnnsylvania, 
is indebted to the Alk-Rhcny Valley Railroad Com- 
pany in the full and just sum of one thousand dol- 
lar.s. which sum of money the said county agrees 
and promises to pay, thirty years after the date 
hereof, to the said Allegheny Valley Railroad Com- 
pany, or bearer, with interest, at the rate of six 
per centum per annum, ])ayal)le semi-amiuallv on the 
first Monday of May aiul November, at the office 
of the said railroad company, in the city of New 
York, upon the delivery of the coupons severally, 
hereto annexed, for which payinents of principal and 
interest will, and truly, be made. The faith, credit 
and property of said county of Jefferson are hereby 
solemidy pledged, under the authority of an act of 
Assembly of this Commonwealth, entitled a fur- 
ther su|)plemein to an act enlitU'd an act for the 
incorporation of the Pittsburgh, Kittanning and 

Warren Railroad Company, ai)proved the fourth day 
of April, A. D, eighteen hundred and thirty-seven, 
and the supplement, which became a law on the 
fourteenth (lay of .April, one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-two. 

In testimony whereof and pursuant to said act 
and suiiidement of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, 
and resolutions of the county commissioners, in 
their official capacity, passed the fifteenth day of 
September, 1852, the commissioners of said county 
have signed, and the clerk of said commissioners 
has countersigned, these presents, and have hereto 
caused the seal of said county to be affixed, this 
thirteenth day of June, A. D. one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-three. 

Thomas Hall, 
J. S. Steck, 
(Seal) CoDiuiissidiicrs of Jefferson County. 

John J. 'S'. Thompson. CIrrk of Commissioners. 

To each of these bonds were attached sixty 
coupons, the first one of which, attached to 
l)oiul No. Seven, reads as follows: 


County of Jefferson. 

Warrant No. 60 for thirty dollars. Being for six 
motiths interest on bond No. 7, payable on the first 
Monday of May, 188,^, at the office of the Allegheny 
Railroad Companv, in the city of New York. 


John J. Y. Thompson, Clerk. 

The project lay dormant from 1S37 till in 
the sixties, when J. Edgar Thomson com- 
menced agitation for and brought about 
the construction of the road. He was then 
president of the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 

The road not being fim'shed in the time 
specified, the bonds were not paid, but were 
still held by the railroad company until 1869, 
when a com|)romise was effected between the 
commissioners of the county and the officers 
of the road, whereby the former paid to the 
latter the sum of forty-five thousand dollars, 
in lieu of the aforesaid bonds, the railroad 
eoni]iany agreeing to run their road through 
the limits of the borough of r.rookville. 

"liy an act of the Legislature the commis- 
sioners of JefTerson county were authorized 
to borrow any sum or sums of money not 
exceeding forty-five thousand dollars, and to 
issue the bonds of said county, with or with- 
out coupons, or other evidences of indebted- 
ness therefor, at a rate not exceeding eight 
])er cent. ])er amiuin ; and the said bonds or 
other indebtedness shall be exempted from 
ta.xation, ])rt)vided that the luoney arising 
from the negf)tiation or sale of said or other 
evidences of indelitedness, shall be ap])ro- 
priated to the jiayment of certain articles of 
settlement ;ind compromise made by and be- 
tween the count\- of Tefferson and the Alle- 



gheny \'alley Railroad Company, dated July 
29, 1869, for the redemption of ninety thou- 
sand dollars, bonds of said county issued to 
the said railroad company on the 24th day of 
June, 1853." 

This act was approved February 19, 1870. 

Grading began on the low grade in 1872. 
The division was opened for passenger service 
eastward from Redbank to New Bethlehem, 
a distance of twenty-one miles, on the 6th of 
May, 1873. On the 23d of June trains com- 
menced running regularly to Brookville, a dis- 
tance of forty miles from Redbank, and on 
November 5th a further section of sixteen 
miles was opened, extending to Reynoldsville, 
fifty-six miles from Redbank. On the eastern 
end of the road a section of nineteen miles 
from Driftwood to Barr's Station was thrown 
open for business on August 4th, and on May 
4, 1874, the entire Low Grade Division, from 
Redbank to Driftwood, was open through for 

The Low Grade Division of the .Allegheny 
Valley railroad enters Jefferson county twenty- 
eight miles westward from its junction with 
tiie main line at the mouth of Red Bank 
creek, and continues in the same county for 
a distance of thirty-four and a half miles, leav- 
ing Jefferson county and entering Clearfield 
county at a point immediately westward of 
the station called Falls Creek. The principal 
stations located in this county are Summer- 
ville, Brookville and Reynoldsville. with four- 
teen other stations of minor importance. 

William M. Phillips, E.sq., was the first 
assistant superintendent of the Low Grade 
road. He resigned in 1S75 to accept the ap- 
pointment of supervisor of the Middle Divi- 
sion of the Pennsylvania Central railroad. Mr. 
Phillips was succeeded by Dr. 'A. A. Jackson, 
who continued in charge of the road until 
April, 1887, when he resigned to accept the 
appointment of general superintendent of the 
New York & New England railroad, with his 
headquarters in Boston. 

S. 1!. Rumsey, formerly special agent of 
the .Allegheny X'alley railroad at Oil City, 
succeeded Dr. Jackson as assistant superin- 
tendent of the Low Grade Division. The 
other officers of the road in Jefferson county 
were G. E. .\rmor, dispatcher, and M. D. 
Dean, assistant. The general offices of the 
Low Grade road were moved from Brookville 
to Reynoldsville in May, 1885. The passen- 
ger and freight agents in the county were: 
Patton's Station, Walker Smith ; Heathville, 
L. G. Guthrie ; Summerville, L H. Haven ; 
Brookville, L. S. Hooper; Fuller, J. S. Mc- 

Masters; Reynoldsville, M. D. Farrell; Falls 
Creek, F. E. Dixon. 

The first agent at Brookville was Daniel 
Smith, who was succeeded by H. C. Watson 
in March, 1875. He was in turn succeeded 
by Robert V. McBain in April. 1886, and he 
in June, 1887, by L. S. Hooper. L. C. Smith 
was the baggage agent at the Brookville Sta- 
tion when the road was completed, and re- 
ceived and put on the train the first pieces of 
baggage brought to or dispatched by rail in 
Jeft'erson county. He is now retired, on a 

The first wreck on the Low Grade road 
occurred near Iowa Mills on November 16, 
1873. While going around a curve at high 
speed the engine struck a stone, causing the 
whole gravel train to jump the track. John 
-McHugh, the brakeman, was thrown in the 
air, and when the other employes found him 
he was lying under the wreck, his left arm 
terribly mangled, a deep cut in his head, sever- 
ing an artery, and an ugly gash on the back 
of his head. McHugh was taken to Reynolds- 
ville. where Dr. W. J. McKnight, in the brick 
tavern, assisted by Dr. B. Sweeney, amputated 
the arm and dressed his wounds. This was 
the pioneer major surgical operation on the 
Low Grade division and in what is now Rey- 

On August I, 1900, the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Company leased the entire Allegheny 
Valley railway for twenty years. Charles 
Corbet, Esq., of Brookville, Pa., was attorney 
for this road for thirty-one years, and up to 
1915 the legal representative of the Pennsyl- 
vania system in its thirty-fifth district. When 
he became judge, however, Raymond L. 
Brown was appointed to succeed him. in 1916. 

The presidents of the Allegheny Valley road 
have been : Governor William F. Johnston, in 
1859: F. R. Bruno, i860; R. F. Morley, 1861 ; 
T.\[. Brereton, 1862; F. R. Bruno, 1863-64; 
succeeded by Col. William Phillips, who was 
in turn succeeded in 1874 by John Scott, who 
continued in the presidency until his death, 
March 23, 1889. Mr. Henry D. Welsh suc- 
ceeded him as president, and served until the 
reorganization of the company in 1892. 


To my personal knowledge, agitation by the 
people and the newspapers for this railway 
commenced as early as 1854. For a number 
of years it was known as the Rochester & 
State Line road. It was reorganized in 1881 



as the Rochester & Pittsburgh, the pioneer 
officers of this reorganization being: Presi- 
dent, VValston II. Prown, of New York; 
treasurer, F. A. Brown, of New York ; sec- 
retary, Thomas F. Wentworth, of New York; 
general manager, George F. Merchant. Roch- 
ester, N. Y. ; chief engineer, W'ilHam E. 
Hoyt; counsel, C. H. McCauley, Ridgway, 

On Oct. 24, 1885, the Buffalo. Rochester & 
Pittsburgh Railway Comiuiny was organized 
in New York and acquired the jjroperty in 
that State. The I'ittsburgh iK: State Line Rail- 
road Company was organized and acquired 
the property in Pennsylvania. They were 
finally consolidated March 11, 1887. 

The extension of the line from .Ashford 
to Itufifalo was completed for freight about 
June I, 1883, but regular passenger and mail 
trains were not run into Buft'alo until lune 
'S' '>^^3- I'reight trains carrying coal, with 
a caboose attached for passengers, were run 
from DuBois north about May i, 1883. Reg- 
ular jjassenger and mail trains north from 
DuBois were not run until June 16. 1883. 
The road was completed to Punxsutawney 
and through passenger trains were running, 
one to liuffalo and one from P,uff;ilo to that 
point. Sept. I, 1883. 

About July 25, 1883. there were two jjassen- 
ger trains running on the Beechtree branch, 
one to and one from I'.eechtree. Coal was 
shipped from Beechtree July i, 1883. 

An agreement was entered into on June 6. 
1883, by (leorge E. Merchant, of Rochester, 
and David iMcCargo, of Pittsburgh, superin- 
tendents of their respective roads, that a night 
express should be added by a joint service of 
the two lines, to wit, one from Rochester to 
Pittsliurgh, and vice -irrsa. one from Pitts- 
burtrh to Rochester, this service to contain a 
Pullman and day car on each line ; each road 
to exchange their sleepers at Falls Creek. The 
.schedule for this service went into effect on 
the evening of Dec. 23. 1883, and on that 
evening the ])ioneer car of this service was so 
run. The conductor and engineer of the 
Valley train were M. J. McFnteer and James 
Montgomery, respectively. The concluctor 
and engineer on the Rochester 1 know not. 
The time-table for this joint service was as 
follows : The northbound train for Rochester, 
with sleeper, left Pittsburgh at eight-twenty 
p. m., passed through lirookville. a flag sta- 
tion, at one a. m., arrived at l-"alls Creek at 
two a. m., where the northbound cars were 
shifted to the Rochester road, and this train 
arrived at Rochester at seven-thirtv a. m. The 

.southbound train from Rochester left Roches- 
ter about eight-twenty p. m., and shifted their 
Pullman and day coach at Falls Creek to the 
Allegheny Yalle)' road, which, returning, 
passed through Brookville, a flag station, at 
three-thirty a. m., and arrived at Pittsburgh 
at seven-fifty a. m. 

Sleeping cars were first used in the United 
States in 1856. The first Pullman was lighted 
by candles and heated by oil stoves. There 
was no carpet upon the floor. The back of 
the seat was hinged, and to make up the berth 
the porter simply (lroi)i)ed the back until it 
was level with the seats, anfl ui>on them were 
[jlaced mattress and a blanket ; there were no 
sheets. The upper berth was^ suspended from 
the ceiling by ropes and pulleys and was kept 
raised during the day. On the maiden trip 
between Bloomington and Chicago patrons 
were charged one dollar and fifty cents. 

.Surveys for the extension of the road from 
Punxsutawney to .Allegheny City were made 
in the fall of 1894. The actual construction 
of the railroad did not begin until March, 
1898. The track from Punxsutawney to the 
.Allegheny river bridge was finished in June, 
1889. Track laying commenced at Butler in 
January. 1899. and was extended eastward to 
Mosgrove. The track was joined at Mosgrove 
.Station in .August, 1899, when the last spike, 
a silver one, was driven by Arthur G. A'ates, 
jiresident of the road. 

The first regular train through to .Alleghenv 
City was run Sept. 4, 1899. ^"'^ regular 
through passenger service from Buffalo and 
Rochester to Allegheny began Oct. 9, 1899. 

That the I'uft'alo. Rochester & Pittsburgh 
is a good paying projjosition needs no affirma- 
tion. Its coal territory with productiveness in 
both coal and coke is shown in the average 
daily handling of one thousand cars of coal and 
two hundred cars of coke. The value is also 
shown in the numerous spurs that have been 
built into rich coal regions. The largest of 
these spurs is the twenty-eight-mile extension 
to Ernest. From Ernest through Indiana 
county two lines are constructed, with a com- 
bined mileage of forty-two miles, one running 
to .Slate Lick and the other to Elder's Ridge. 
The .Slate i.ick liranch is operated from Indi- 
ana. Just outside of Ernest on the new line 
a tumiel is constructed. The tunnel and new 
branches are now completed. 

At Ernest a fine steel coal tipple has l)een 
built by the Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal anfl 
Iron Comijany, which is the controlled sub- 
sidiary company. The structural steel for the 
tijiple alone cost rift_\-fi\e thousand dollars. 



The main locomotive works, at DuBois, Pa., 
were opened Nov. 4, 1901. They have 
facilities for making heavy repair.s on twenty 
locomotives per month. 

The traffic having reached the limit of 
economical operation on a single track, the 
construction of a second track was authorized. 
During the fall of 1903 the middle division 
of the main line from DuBois to East Sala- 
manca, a distance of one hundred and twenty- 
eight miles, or over one-third of the total mile- 
age, was double tracked. The Pittsburgh 
division is laid on one-hundred-pound steel 

The officers of the Bufifalo. Rochester & 
Pittsburgh Railway Company for 1915 were: 
William T. Noonan, Rochester, N. Y., presi- 
dent; Adrian Iselin, Jr., New York, vice presi- 
dent ; W. Emlen Roosevelt, New York, vice 
president ; Ernest Iselin, New York, secre- 
tary; John F. Dinkey, Rochester, N. Y., treas- 


Paralleling the Buffalo, Rochester & Pitts- 
burgh railway through Brockwayville is the 
Ridgway & Clearfield road. It is part of the 
Pennsylvania system and was completed about 
October. 1884.' 

The New York, Lake Erie & Western 
(branch) was extended into Jefferson county, 
via Crenshaw, about 1882. The coal freight- 
age is and has been large over this road. 

The Reynoldsville & Falls Creek road, se\en 
miles long, was finished by Bell.. Lewis \- 
Yates in September, 1885. 

The Pennsylvania & Northwestern railroad 
was completed to Punxsutawnev in 1886, and 
regular service inaugurated Dec. i, 1887, 
when John R. Fee took charge of the station 
in the East End. The Berwind- White Coal 
Mining Comjiany had opened extensive coal 
mines at Horatio, and it was to reach this coal 
that the road was built. 




For thirt\' years or more a railioail from 
Summerville, Jefferson Co., Pa., to Clarion, 
Clarion Co., Pa., had been agitated and con- 
templatefl. A survey with this in view was 
made about 1895, and a few years later the 
Allegheny Valley Railroad Company made an 
examination along the route with the view of 
building a road. In 1900 Pittsburgh, Beaver 

Falls and Clarion gentlemen secured a charter 
and organized under the name of the Clarion, 
Summerville & Pittsburgh Railroad Company. 
This company made a permanent survey, 
adopted a route, secured considerable right of 
way, and had graded a little on the line, when 
the president of the company died. Internal 
dissensions followed the death of the presi- 
dent, which resulted in the abandonment of 
the project. In the fall of 1902 Charles F. 
Heiclrick, a young business man of Brookville, 
Pa., conceived the idea of pushing this aban- 
doned project to completion. In September, 
1903, he purchased from the Clarion, Summer- 
ville & Pittsburgh Railroad Company their 
survey, rights of way and other assets, and in 
October, 1903. he let the contract for the con- 
struction of. the road from Summerville to 
Clarion to Col. James A. Bennett, of Creens- 
burg, Pa. The road was completed and opened 
for traffic Aug. 27, 1904. 

The main line of the road is about sixteen 
miles long; one mile south of Corsica, and two 
and a half miles north of fireenville to Strat- 
tonville, and thence to Clarion borough. A 
branch from the main line extends from .Strat- 
tonville up along the Clarion river to the 
mouth of Mill creek. The road along its entire 
line taps a large field of undeveloped coal. 
This coal is now being gradually opened up. 
The road was a paying proposition from the 

On Dec. 31, 1910, the road was leased 
to the Pennsylvania Southern Railroad Com- 
pany, the latter then being controlled by Gen. 
Qiarles Miller, of Franklin, Pa., and G. W. 
Megeath, of Omaha, Nebr., and extended from 
Heidrick on the P. S. & C. railroad to near 
Sutton on the Lake Shore, about a half mile. 

In September, 1912, the P. S. & C. Company 
was reorganized as the Pittsburgh. Franklin 
& Clarion Railroad Company, at which time 
General Miller became princii)al owner, and 
of the Pennsylvania .Southern, as well. 

Between the above dates the Pennsylvania 
Northern Railroad Company was incorporated 
by General Miller and his associates to take 
over the private railroad up Mill creek, ex- 
tending from a point on the Clarion river at 
the mouth of Mill creek, where connection 
was made with the P. S. & C. road. The Penn- 
sylvania Northern also took over the survey 
of line up Clarion river from last mentioned 
point, to or near Hallton. Pa., on the line of 
the Shawmut railroad. The latter line has not 
been built. 

The P. S. & C. (P. C. & F.). the Pennsyl- 
vania Southern and Pennsylvania Northern 



roads, were consolidated under the name of 
the Lake Erie, FrankHn & Clarion railroad, 
and the consolidated comi)anies have been so 
operated since Jan. i, 1914. 

Gen. Charles Miller jmrchased from Charles 
F. Heidrick his equity in the Pittsburgh. Sum- 
merville iV Clarion railroad, and became sole 
owner of that road, twenty-two and a half 
miles, and reorganized under the name of the 
Pittsburgh, Clarion & Franklin Railroad Com- 

General Miller also purchased the Mill 
Creek railway from A. Cook Sons Company, 
ten and a half miles, and on Nov. 10, 
1913. consolidated the Pittsburgh, Clarion & 
Franklin, the Penns\l\ania Southern, and the 
Pennsylvania Xorthern, under the name of 
the Lake Erie. Franklin & Clarion Railroad 
Company. The officers of the consolidated 
road are : Gen. Charles Miller, president ; J. 
T. Odell, vice president; G. F. Proudfoot, as- 
sistant to president and purchasing agent ; 
Theo. L. Wilson, secretary : H. H. Hughes, 
treasurer; fl. M. Phillips, auditor. 

The L. E. F. & C. railroad has been reha- 
bilitated by relaying the entire line with eighty- 
pound rail and putting the property in first- 
class shape. New shops of reinforced con- 
crete construction were built, and one and 
a half miles of new line was constructed west 
from the main line to what is known as the 
Ifarvcy Mine. .Several new locomotives have 
been jjurchased, and one hundred new steel 
fifty-ton gondola cars to take care of the com- 
pany's rapidly increasing coal tonnage. 


It is thought that coal, though not mentionetl 
by the Romans, was. nevertheless, used by 
the ancient liritons. Henry III is said to have 
granted a license to dig coal near Newcastle, 
on the Tync, in 1234 or 1239. I" ^^73 the 
new fuel was prohil)ited in and near London 
as prejudicial to health, and even the smiths 
were obliged to use wood. In 1306 the gentry 
of England petitioned against its In i3(Si 
the traffic in coal was established between 
Newcastle and London, and notwithstanding 
many comjilaints against it, as a public 
nuisance, it was generally burned in London 
in 1400. It was not in common use in P2ngland 
until the reign of Charles I. 1625. 

The first bituminous coal mining on record 
was done at Newcastle, England. This coal 
was on the market in 1281. 

Anthracite is bituminous c<i;ii coked and 
condensed by nature. 

Stone coal was first discovered in America 
by Father Hennepin, in what is now Illinois, 
on the Illinois river, in 1679. In 1684 William 
Penn granted the privilege to mine the coal 
at Pittsburgh, Pa. In 1728 coal was discov- 
ered in X'irginia. 

Stone coal was first mined and used in 
western Pennsylvania near where Pittsburgh 
now is, by Col. James Burd. in 1759. It was 
dug from the hills of Monongahela. In 1807 
stone coal was mined in central Pennsylvania 
and sold as a fertilizer. I quote the following 
notice from the Bedford Gazette of June, 

"Huntington, June 4. 

"Stone Coal. — Such of the farmers as 
wish to make experiment with stone coal as 
a substitute for plaster, in manuring their 
Indian corn, may be supplied with coal gratis 
upon application to Peter Hughes, at Mr. 
Riddle's mines, on the Raystown Branch. 
The proprietor of the mines offers not only 
to refund the carriage, but to pay the expenses 
of applying the coal, if upon a fair experiment 
it is found to be inferior to plaster, which now 
sells at two dollars per bushel." 

The pioneers to dig coal in Northwestern 
Pennsylvania were mostly blacksmiths. Pre- 
vious to the discovery of coal in this wilder- 
ness, the blacksmiths burned their own char- 
coal, and used it for fuel ; but it appears they 
early searched the runs with bags for coal, and 
])icked up loose pieces, and. occasionally 
stripped the earth and dug bags full of what 
they called "stone coal." They burned this 
in their fires, either alone or with charcoal. 

In 1784, the year in which Pittsburgh was 
surveyed into building lots, the privilege of 
mining coal in the 'great seam' opposite that 
town was sold by the Penns at the rate of 
thirty pounds for each mining lot. extending 
back to the center of the hill. This event may 
be regarded as forming the beginning of the 
coal trade of Pittsburgh. The supply of the 
towns and cities on the Ohio and Mississippi 
ri\ers with Pittsburgh coal becaine an estab- 
lished business at an early day in the last 
century, about 1800. Pittsburgh coal was 
known long before the town liccame noted as 
an iron center. 

Down to 1845 •'" 'he co.-il shipped westward 
from Pitts1)urgh was floated down the Ohio 
in flat-bottomed boats in the spring and fall 
freshets, each boat holding about fifteen thou- 
sand bushels of coal. The boats were usually 
lashed in pairs, and were sold and broken up 
when their deslin.'ition was reached. In 1845 
steam towboats were introduced, which took 



coal barges down the river and brought them 
back empty. 

The first carload of bituminous coal hauled 
east of the Alleghenies came from the West- 
moreland Company's "Shade Grove" mine, or 
what was later called the Northside colliery in 
Irwin. The mine was opened in 1852 by Cole- 
man. Hillman & Co. The coal was taken out 
of tlie mine, hauled to the platform of the 
freight station and loaded into an eighteen- 
thousand-pound box car,' the standard of those 
days. It was sent forward as one of about 
twelve cars of like capacity, hauled by a wood- 
burning locomotive, at about six miles an hour, 
with Philadelphia as its destination. 


Coal is found all tlirough Jefferson county. 

The first person to mine coal in the county 
for manufacturing purposes was John Fuller. 
He was the first person to mine coal in what 
is now Winslow township, and. probably, in 
JefTerson county. Pie mined for his own use 
a few ba^fuls occasionally from the bed of the 
creek near to and above the bridge on the pike, 
in what is now Reynoldsville. He hauled his 
first coal in a pung to his shop with an ox and 
a cow. In what year Mr. Fuller first picked 
from the bed of the creek his little load of 
what was then and in my boyhood days called 
stone coal is not precisely known, but of 
course it was shortly after his settlement, 
probably in 1825. 

The first person to mine coal in the county 
for general use was a colored man named 
Charles Anderson. He lived in Brookville, 
and was called "Yellow Charley." He was 
the first to operate, lease, mine, transport and 
sell coal. He opened his pioneer mine about 
1832. on the Joseph Clements farm, north 
of and close to Brookville. The vein he ex- 
posed was about two feet thick. He stripped 
the earth from the top of the vein, dug tlie 
coal fine and transported it to r)rookville in. 
a little rickety one-horse wagon, retailing the 
stone coal at family doors in quantities of a 
peck, half-bushel, and busliel. The price per 
bushel was twelve and a half cents, or "eleven- 
penny-bit." and a "fippenny-bit" for half a 
bushel, and three cents a peck. It was burned 
in grates. I had a free pass on this coal line, 
and rode on it a great deal. To me it was a 
line of "speed, safety, and comfort." Ander- 
son was a "Soft Coal King." a baron, a robber, 
a close corporationist, a capitalist, and a mon- 
opolist. He managed his works generally so 
as to avoid strikes, etc. Yet he had to assume 

the role of a Pinkerton or a coal policeman 
at one time, for there was some litigation over 
the ownership of this coal bank, and Charley 
took his old Hintlock musket one day and 
swore he would just as soon die in the coal 
bank as any other place. He held the fort, 

Charley was a greatly abusod man. Everv 
theft and nearly all outlawry were blamed on 
him. Public sentiment and public clamor were 
against him. He tried at times to be good, 
attend church, etc., but it availed him nothing, 
for he would be so coldly received as to force 
him into his former condition. As the town 
grew, and other parties became engaged in 
mining coal. Charley changed his business to 
that of water carrier, and hauled in his one- 
horse wagon washing and cooking water in 
barrels for the women of the town. He con- 
tinued in this business until his death, which 
occurred in 1874., In the early days he lived 
on the lot now owned by Dr. Wayne L. Snyder. 
He died in his own home near the new ceme- 

John Dixon, who was living in Polk town- 
ship in 1903 at the advanced age of ninety- 
five years, was one of the pioneer miners, and 
was born in the county. He mined on the 
late Rose township poor farm from 1840 
to 1847. The pioneers to open and operate 
banks in Young township were Obed Morris 
and John Hutchison. Their first operations 
took ()lace about 1834 or 1835. The sales 
were light, the coal being used principally for 
l)lacksmithing purposes and by a few families 
who had grates. Coal was sold at the bank 
for ten cents a bushel, and every bushel was 
measured in a "bushel box." The mining was 
done by the families. The census of 1840 
reports but two points in the county as min- 
ing and using coal. Brookville and Rose town- 
ship. The amount used in Rose township a 
year was five hundred bushels, in Brookville. 
two thousand bushels. Jefferson county coal 
is now shipped to and used from Arctic ice to 
tropic sun. 

Woodward Reynolds commenced to mine 
coal for his own general use the fall of 1838. 
and for about ten years he. John Fuller, and 
their neighbors would mine what they wanted 
for their own use. paying no royalty for the 
coal whatever. A coal miner then received 
ninety cents for a twelve-hour day. 

In the year 1849. about the time Woodward 
and Thomas Reynolds commenced to mine 
coal in what is now Winslow township, the 
whole output of bituminous coal (in that 
year) in the United States was only four mil- 



lion tons; in 1870 it was 36,<So6,5(Jo tons; in 
i8cSo it was 71,481,56c) tons; in 1S90 it was 
i57,77o,</)3 tons. 

About the latter ])art of the year 1863, or 
the beginning of i8()4, Hon. Joseph Hender- 
son, Dr. \V. J. McKnight. Ci W. Andrews, 
Esq., I. C. Fuller, P. \V. Jenks, and James A. 
Gathers, and possibly one or two others, or- 
ganized themselves into a company for the pur- 
pose of taking some measure toward bringing 
the coal lands and f)ther resources of the 
county to the notice of capitalists who were 
seeking investments for their money. During 
the year 1S64 geological sur\eys of the I'.rock- 
wayville, Reynoldsville and Punxsutawney 
regions were made by J. P. Leslie, who has 
since made the geological survey of the State, 
and the chemical analysis of the minerals was 
made l)y Dr. tiuenth. the famous chemist of 
Philadelphia, after which an exhaustive report 
was subnn'tted setting forth the advantages 
of the district. The expenses of this work, 
amounting to over three thousand dollars, 
were paid by the above-named gentlemen, who 
never realized anything from it. They, how- 
ever, purchased some land during their trans- 
actions, and this was afterward disposed of 
at a profit, lessening their net outlay of money. 

In 1865 a number of English ca])italists 
visited this country, and the above-mentioned 
report was laid before them through the offi- 
cers of the Catawissa Railroad Company, as 
will be noticed in the following letter, quoted 
from the I'rookville Jcffersonian, and it had 
its influence in securing the building of a rail- 
road through this section. The road spoken 
of in this letter was never built, but the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company, in order to head 
it ofl, was com])elled to force the building of 
the I^ow (irade division of the Alleghenv 
\'alley road. The tiiovement of the abo\c 
gentlemen was. we believe, the first organized 
effort to bring this county into prominent 
notice as one of the richest parts of the State 
in mineral and lumber, and resulted in bring- 
ing about the de\elopment of the resources 
of the county which have followed. We 
therefore record this as a matter of history, 
to be handed down to future generations : 

Office Catavvi.ssa Railroad Company. 
424 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, December 16. 186.;. 
Messrs. W. J. McKnight. JosKrn Hknokhson. C. W. 
Andrkws, I. C. Fuu.KR : 
Gknts. — I return you herovvitli the copy of Leslie's 
geological report, kindly loaned nie for presentation 
before the Englisli capitalists on their visit to tliis 
country. I feel that it had 'ts influence .-imong other 
things ill deciding the ipiestion of building the new- 

route through the counties lying between Milton and 

Several corjjs of engineers are already making 
surveys to ascertain the most practical route, and 
it will be pushed forward with energy and despatch, 
the capital necessary for the same having all been 
promised. This measure, of course, meets with the 
utmost hostility from the Pennsylvania Railroad, as 
it is opposed to monopoly, and it is to be worked 
upon the principle that railroads are built for the 
accomnuidation of the community — trade and travel 
to be allowed to go and coiuc as the parties may 
wish. We feel that this portion of the State will 
not allow their interests to be crushed out by it. 
P. M. Hutchinson. 
Vive Prcsidriil. Srcrrtary, and Treasurer. 

It was not until April. i''^74. that coal min- 
ing for a foreign market began in Jefferson 
county. In that year the Diamond mine was 
opened just north of Reynoldsville. The 
pioneer to ship coal by rail from that mine 
was H. .S. Belnaj). He hauled his coal in 
wagons to the Reynoldsville depot and there 
from a ])latform shoveled the coal into the 
cars, and it was shi])])ed to Buffalo, N. Y. 
John Coax, Jr., Thomas Jenkins, and others 
were his team drivers. The secbnd drift 
opened in Winslow township was the Pan- 
coast. The third w-as the Washington mine, 
located near I^ancoast flag station. The 
fourth was the Flamilton mine, and the fifth 
the Soldier Run mine. Following these, the 
S])rague mine was ojiened at Rathmel, and the 
Pleasant \''alley mine was opened east of Rey- 
noldsville. The Hamilton and Pleasant Valley 
mines were owned by the Hamilton Coal Coiri- 
pany, and the Soldier Run and Sprague mines 
were owned by Powers, Brown & Co. 

Xortln^'rslcni Mining & Exchange Co., 
Clarion .Mines, Snyder Tmvnsliip 

.Vovember 20. 1886, was the date of the 
first shipment of coal from the East Clarion 
mine. The first shipment from West Clarion 
was made March 16, 1898. This mine was 
opened iin the James Kearney farm. The 
total output of the Clarion mine at one time 
was nearly two thousand tons per day. but 
it has greatly fallen off at present, by reason 
of exhausted territory. The Rattlesnake 
mine commenced shipping coal June i. U)oo. 
D. Robertson was the pioneer superintendent. 
Joseph Bailey succeeded .Mr. Robertson a'; 
superintendent .September 1. 18(^5. 

On June 25. i8()o. Alfred l!ell. George H. 
Lewis and .Arthur G. Yates, known as the firm 
of Bell, Lewis (!<.■ Yates, bouglit out the interest 
of all these companies with considerable ;id- 



joining territory, .\rthur (i. Yates was the 
last sut-V'ivor of this firm, and he was president 
of the great coal road of this region, the 
Buffalo. Rochester & Pittsburgh. Mr. Yates 
was an active, progressive man. His was the 
pioneer railroad to enter Jefferson county for 
the transportation of coal. Before the advent 
in 1883 of Bell. Lewis & Yates, the shipment 
of coal from this county only amounted to a 
few thousand tons a year, but by September i. 
1883, the Hamilton mine employed one 
hundred and twenty- four men ; the Sprague 
mine, eighty-five men ; Powers, Brown & Co.. 
one hundred and thirty men ; Pancoast mine, 
thirty-six men ; Rochester mines, four hundred 
and fifty men; Falls Creek mine, seventy men ; 
Hildrup, eighty-two; I'.eechtree, one hundred 
and eighty-five; an<l Walston, fifty-five. 

I copy here from the I'ittsbiircjii Times of 
May 24, 1890, and as I was well acquainted 
with the Bells and these events, I have taken 
the ]il)erty to correct what I quote. 

".\lfred Bell came to Jefferson county about 
1856 from Xunda, N. Y. He was a dignified 
and stately man, precise in his methods, care- 
ful in his operations, and with Calvin Rogers 
he operated a large tract of timber land vvliich 
they had bought east of Brookvillc. The Bell 
holdings extended for miles from Bell's mills, 
up and around what is now Falls Creek and 
Du Bois. 

"Frederick Bell came to Jeft'erson county 
about 1856. with his father, and the young 
man had his headquarters in Brookville. A 
great deal of his leisure was spent in Mc- 
Knight & Bro.'s drug store. As the lumber 
business developed, he ])erceived the possibili- 
ties in the coal that underlay their vast acreage 
of land. When, in 1873, the Allegheny Valley 
railroad pushed up the Red Bank valley, Fred- 
erick A. Bell interested with him two congen- 
ial spirits, and not long after the firm of Bell, 
Lew-is & Yates was formed, and it speedily be- 
came the foremost power in soft coal circles 
in the Buffalo & Rochester country. Lewis 
was a Canadian who married Bell's sister, 
while Yates was a practical coal merchant of 
Rochester. The firm commenced to mine and 
ship the splendid soft coal of Clearfield county 
ill March, 1877. making its opening on the 
'S'oung tract of seven hundred and forty acres, 
or what is called the Rochester mine at 
DuBois, for which they paid a royalty of ten 
cents per ton. The firm marketed its coal at 
that date by the .Mlegheny Valley and the 
Buffalo, New York and Pennsylvania roads. 

"Putting good coal in the market gave Bell. 
Lewis & Yates the easy control, and presently 

the firm had the largest docks on the lakes, 
and had created an export trade in soft coal, 
sending fully a third of its product to the 
international bridge at I'.lack Rock for the 
Canadian trade. 

"Mr. Yates sold the coal, and put the New 
York Central, the Crand Trunk, and other 
important concerns on his list, and came home 
from his selling tri[) sometimes with single 
contracts for half a million tons. The firm 
grew and prospered and opened new mines 
and bought mines opened by others. But it 
was hampered by the lack of facilities for 
getting coal to rnarket. By May. 1883, when 
the Rochester & Pittsburgh road reached 
DuBois, the company was ready to and did 
give it business, and later on when the Penn- 
sylvania road, Ridgway & Clearfield, reached 
Falls Creek, Bell, Lewis &: Yates afforded the 
roads an enormous traffic. New works were 
established, additional territory was secured, 
and one day Bell, Lewis & Yates commenced 
a tunnel and shaft at .'^ykcsville, se\en miles 
from DuBois." 

The coal output of the Rochester & Pitts- 
burgh Coal & Iron Company and their asso- 
ciate companies for the year 191 5 was in round 
numbers ten million tons. 

The officers of the Rochester & Pittsburgh 
Coal & Iron Company for 191 5 were Lucius 
W. Robinson. Punxsutawney, Pa., president; 
( ieorge L. Eaton, Rochester, N. Y., vice 
])resident ; Lewis Iselin, New York, secretary; 
George H. Clune. Rochester. N. Y., treasurer; 
B. M. Clark, solicitor. 

In 1916 the total production in the Fourth 
district — comjirising Jefferson. Clearfield, Elk, 
Clarion, Clinton and Cameron counties, with a 
total of sixty-nine mines in operation — was 
4,784,817 tons, of which 4,260,239 tons were 
shipped to market, 2,081,496 tons being pro- 
duced in Jefferson county and 1,115,477 tons 
in Clearfield county. Although the year has 
been a busy one for the miner, yet it has been 
a fortunate one as regards the loss of life and 
serious personal injury by accidents inside the 
luine. for in 1916 there were only six fatal acci- 
dents. A greater tonnage of coal was mined 
per life lost for the year than for any other 
period in the history of the district. There 
wei-e no fatal accidents outside of the mines 
during the year. 

The Shawmut Mining Company was the big- 
gest producer of the year, mining 854,113 tons 
of coal. This company's mines are located in 
F.Ik and Jefferson counties. The Buffalo & 
Susquehanna Coal Company was second in 



production, mining 665,352 tons, and the 
Northwestern Mining & Exchange Company 
516,933 tons. 

Jefferson Coal Co 147,298 

Stewart Coal Co 128,569 

McKnight Coal Co 107,016 

McConnell Coal Co 100,562 

Toby Coal Mining Co 68,451 

Falls Creek Coal Co 52,398 

Knox Dale Coal & Coke Co 48,692 

Harvey Coal Co 38.S32 

Samuel Wallwork .36,500 

Pawnee Coal Co 21,297 


]''or the mining towns of Jefferson county, 
the reader will please consuU the Jefferson 
county map of i<p8 in this volume. 

The mining of coal is the greatest industry 
of Jefferson county, and as such has taken the 
place of the lumber trade. Ever since coal 
has been discovered, enough to supply the 
home trade has been mined. 

The upper Freeport coal bed is not a 
reliable seam for mining purposes throtighout 
this county. 

The lower Freeport bed is the most valuable 
one in the Reynoldsville basin and also 
throughout the county. This bed is one of 
the most uncertain beds of the lower series, 
but is workable everywhere in Jefferson 
county. The thickest part of the bed is found 
in the Reynoldsville basin ; this also includes 
the Punxsutawney region. 

The Kittanning upper bed does not exceed 
three feet in thickness and very seldom more 
than one half of 'that. 

The middle Kittanning bed is quite promi- 
nent in Knox and McCalmont township.s ; it 
is best known in Union township. 

The lower Kittanning bed is a regular 
feature throughout the county. 

The Clarion bed is the least important of 
any in the county, because it sometimes proves 
to be nothing but a dark streak in the rocks. 

The Brookville bed is nearly always impure. 
but of workable dimensions. It is developed 
to the greatest extent in Beaxer townshij), at 
the Conifer mines. 


The first instance of the use of wooden rails 
and a car for the removal of coal from a nunc 

was at Newcastle upon Tyne, England, in 
•675. Jacob Meinweiser first introduced that 
method of removal of coal in Jefferson county, 
on the liaugh farm. Union to"wnship, in 1852.' 
All miners previous to that flate in this county 
used wheelbarrows. 

With some pride I state that the first trip 
across the ocean in six days and fifteen hours 
was made by steam from Beechtree coal. 

Coke was first used in Pennsylvania in 1835 
in Huntingdon county; it was then used in a 
furnace. The first coke works of any im- 
portance in the State were erected in i860. 

The pioneer coal strike in Jefferson county 
commenced September i, 1883". The men were 
out about six weeks. To maintain order forty 
or fifty Pinkerton men were imported and kept 
on the ground. 

As a nation we ha\e millions of square 
miles covered with forest trees and empires 
underlaid with coal. 

Coal is found in twenty-seven of our States 
and Territories. The bituminous coalfield in 
Pennsylvania has an area of fifteen thousand 
square miles. 

The first shipment of coal from Pittsburgii 
vyas made in 1803. The first shipment from 
Clearfield was made in 1804, in barges to 
Columbia, Pa. The first outlet for shipment 
from Jefferson county was afforded by the 
completion of the .\Ilegheny \'alley railroad, 
in the year 1873. 

I'Vom 1854 to 1866 coal was on the free list. 
The im]5orts of coal from Canada increased 
during that period from one hundred and 
twenty thousand tons a year to four hundred 
and sixty-five thousand tons. .\ duty of one 
dollar and twenty-five cents a ton was put on 
coal in i8f)6, which was lowered to seventy- 
five cents a ton in 1872. The imports dropped 
to seventy-nine thousand tons in 1879 and 
have since remained at about that figure. 

The bituminous coal output of the country 
lias quadrupled since 1885, and it will only 
require a few years more until the demand of 
the United States will be a million tons for 
each day of the year. One half of the nation's 
output is now used up by the railroads and 





Nature is a story book 

That God has written for you. 

There were originally in this State over 
fifty species of wild, four-footed animals. VVe 
had three hundred and twenty-five species and 
sub-species of birds, and our waters, includ- 
ing Lake Erie, had one hundred and fifty 
species of fish. It may not be amiss to state 
here that all of our wild animals were possessed 
of intelligence, courage, fear, hate and aiifec- 
tion. They reasoned, had memory, and a de- 
sire for revenge. A wolf could be tamed and 
trained to hunt like a dog. A dog dreams. It 
is recorded in history that a pet snake has 
been known to travel one hundred miles home. 
It is undeniable that they could compute time, 
course and distances. Elks, bears and deer 
had their own paths. Bears blazed theirs by 
biting a hemlock tree occasionally. 

Our animals had their feuds, determined to 
exterminate one another. The bear and the 
panther, the beaver and the otter, the red squir- 
rel and the black, etc., each carnivorous ani- 
mal killed and ate those weaker than himself. 
Before 1800 our wolves devoured many buf- 
falo calves. Is it any wonder that what with 
the Indians, and the white man's assistance, 
our big animals have been killed or driven 
from the State? The buffalo, beaver, elk, 
panther, wolf, wolverine, otter and marten 
are now extinct. It is hardly credible that 
less than one hundred and fifty years ago 
the State was alive with droves of buffalo, 
elk, deer, etc., and full of beaver dams. To 
substantiate the fact, I will here mention a 
circular hunt of 1760 in the center of the 
State. These circular hunts were of very fre- 
quent occurrence, very oft'ensive to the Indians, 
and poor records of them were kept. The 
mode of conducting orre of these hunts was 
as follows': Forming a circle of territory 
with a cleared patch in the center, with or 

without captains, the animals were driven into 
the center by all manner of noise, fires, guns, 
boys and men. When the animals reached 
the center the killing commenced. The people 
thus exterminated the animals and exasper- 
ated the Indians. In the hunt of 1760 the 
record of killing is as follows : Panthers, 
forty-one : wolves, one hundred and nine ; 
foxes, one hundred and twelve; wildcats, one 
hundred and fourteen ; bears, eighteen, one 
white; elks, two; deer, eighty-three; martens, 
three ; otter, one ; gluttons, twelve ; beavers, 
three ; and more than five hundred small ani- 
mals. In addition, one hundred and eleven 
buffaloes were killed, while a large herd of 
these animals broke the circle. These circular 
hunts continued all over the State until about 
i860. There were six such drives in Arm- 
strong county in 1828, and we reprint an ac- 
count of one from the Kittanning Gazette: 

Grand Circular Hunt 

(clarion township) 
(March 22 and 29, 1828) 

At a large and highly respectable meeting of 
the citizens of Clarion township, held at the 
house of Henry Riley in said township, on 
Friday the 14th inst. for the purpose of con- 
sulting on preparatory measures for a Grand 
Circular Hunt to be held in Clarion township. 
The meeting was organized by calling Wil- 
liam CuRLL, Esq. to the Chair, and appointing 
John Sloan, jr. Secretary. 

C)n motion of Capt. James Sloan, the fol- 
lowing persons were appointed a committee to 
draft resolutions to be offered to the consid- 
eration of the meeting: Col. James Hasson, 
Captain James Sloan. Wm. Henry,' sen. John 
Cochran," Col. John Sloan, Lieut. John M. 
Fleming, Wm. B. Fetzer, Henry Benn. Philip 
Heck, Robert Henry, Thomas Riley. The 




coinmittee retired, and after some time re- 
turned and reported tlie following, which were 
unanimously adopted : 

I Rcsohrd. That the citizens of Clarion, 
Redhank and Toby townships be invited to 
turn out tjn 'i'uesday the 1st day of April, at 
(S o'clock A. iM. and to form a line or circle 
for the purpose of encompassing the bounds 
herein determined on, viz: — The line to com- 
mence at Reid's mill, on I'ine creek, and con- 
tinue up said creek to Samuel and John Sloan's 
mill, to be under the superintendance of John 
.^loan, jr. Christian Smethers, jr. Capt. John 
R. Clover, Jacob Miller, Capt. Geo. Rynerd, 
W'm. Kirkpatrick, Charles Sawyers, Marshal. 
Capt. James .Sloan. — Thence to continue in ;i 
direct line to \Vm. Carnahan's, on the Water- 
son road, to be under the superintendance of 
John Moorhead, William Maxwell, John B. 
M'Comb. Roljert Lawson, Francis llilliard. 
John jjcnn, marshal, .Matthew Ilosey. Thence 
along the W.aterson road to the j)lace of begin- 
ning, to be under the superintendance of James 
r. Reynolds, ( ieorge Aleans, Ivsq. John Rich- 
ard, Joseph Armstrong. Thomas Magee. John 
.\Iagee, Marshal William 11. Fetzer. 

2 Resolved, That a general invitation be 
given to all who may wish to participate in the 
hunt ; and they are requested to be j)unctual 
in attending at the extreme line at 8 o'clock, 
and not to move off until ordered by the offi- 
cers. No horns to be blown until the line is 
directed to move, which will be precisely at 
half past 8, the signal to be given at the four 
jjoints by a sound of the horn, when all the 
horns in the line are to be sounded ; the line 
will then take a direct course to the centre, or 
a jiiece of ground staked off on Michael 
Trainer's farm, when it will be halted and 
formed into solid body by the general officers, 
i*t marched bv them to the inner circle, when 
it will be again halted, kept in solid body, and 
remain unbroken until all the game is killed 
or taken, counted by the general officers, and 
to be taken into custody and sold by them to 
any person or jjersons who will gi\e the high- price in cash. 

3 Resolved. That the money arising from 
the sale of the game he appropriated to the 
hitUdinti of a bridge on Redhank ereek, ivherc 
the Olean road crosses said creek: The gen- 
eral officers will appoint some person to re- 
ceive the same and to be held by him until 
called on by the county commissioners, when 
the bridge is completed. 

4 Resolved, That all ])ersons bringing dogs 
must have them tied and led. until the lines 
arrive at the inner circle. No dog to be let 

loose until they receive orders to that effect 
from the general officers. All persons resid- 
ing within the boundary lines are requested to 
confine all dogs that are not taken to the lines, 
at home. All who can procure horns will be 
careful to take them along. 

5 Resolved, That Henry Benn, Wm. Curll, 
Esq. Moses Kirkpatrick, Robert Travis, Isaac 
Fetzer, Samuel C. Orr, Esq. Capt. John 
Guthrie, John Mohney, John Ardery, Lewis 
Switzer, John C. Corbett, Esq. John Cribbs, 
David Lawson, E.sq. iS: Michael Trainer, be 
the general officers, and they are hereby re- 
quested to attend at an early hour on the 
morning of the hunt, to stake oft" the lines : 
the outer line to be one fourth of a mile from 
the centre, the inner line wherever the general 
officers may think best. 

6 Resolved, That the suj)erintendants take 
their posts in the order in which their names 
are arranged in the ist resolution; the first 
named to take his post at the place of start- 
ing at the beginning of the line ; the next 
named to join him, and so on in succession 
until the end of the line. The superintendants 
and marshals to appoint as many aids as they 
may think proper; the marshals to be mounted 
to ride the lines. No person to carry fire arms. 

7 Resok'ed. That all spiritous liquors be 
l)rohibited from being brought into the lines. 

8 ,Resoli'ed, That the proceedings of this 
meeting be signed by the chairman and sec- 
retary, and published in the Kittaiming papers. 

WiLLi.\M CuKi.i.. Ch'n. 
John Sloan jn. Secretary. 

The mountainous character of Jefferson 
county and the dense forests that covered al- 
most its whole are;i made the region a favor- 
ite haunt of o\er fifty wild beasts. Many of 
ihem have disappeared, and it is difficult to 
believe that animals now extinct on the con- 
tinent at large were once numerous within the 
boundaries of our territory. Of the six hun- 
dred thousand wild animals in the world, only 
twenty-eight have been domesticated, includ- 
ing the elei)hant. llama, yak. camel and rein- 


The beaver, the buffalo, the elk and the deer 
were probably the most numerous of our ani- 
mals. "Heavers will not live near man, and 
at an early period after the settlement of this 
State these animals withdrew into the secluded 
regions and ultimately entirely disappeared." 
The last of them known in this State made 


ASTon, L'^WOX 

TIL Oi ^ r:'jL'r.Oi lON'? 





I / 




their homes in the great "Flag Swamp,"' or 
Beaver Meadows, of Clearfield county, on 
Salmon creek, now about and above DuBois 
city, in the early thirties. These meadows 
covered about six hundred acres. Furs were 
occasionally brought to Brookville from these 
meadows by trappers. 

Those who have made them a study assert 
that, with the exception of man, no other ani- 
mal now upon the earth has undergone so lit- 
tle change in size and structure as the beaver. 
Fossil deposits show that in its present form 
it is at least contemporaneous with and prob- 
ably antedates the mammoth and the other 
monsters that once roamed the great forests 
of the earth. The skeletons of beavers found 
in this country are the same as those of the 
same species found in the fossil beds of Eu- 
rope. Man is the only other mammal of which 
this is true. How the beaver came to traverse 
the ocean has never been explained. 

Coarse-fibred, cautious in its habits, warmly 
I)rotected by nature against climatic influences, 
simple and hearty in its diet, wise beyond all 
other forms of lower animal life, prolific and 
heedful of its young, the beaver has seen 
changes in the whole function of the world 
and the total disappearance of countless species 
of animal and vegetable life. 

"The beaver mates but once, and then for 
a lifetime. There are no divorces, and, so far 
as has been observed, no matings of beavers 
who have lost their mates by death. Young 
beavers are given a place in the family lodge 
until they are two years old, and are then 
turned out to find m;ites and homes for them- 

"Originally a mere hurrower in tiie earth, 
like his cousin the hedgehog and the ])orcu- 
])ine, he has so improved ujjon natural condi- 
tions that only man is able to reach him in his 
abiding places. . . . The principal engineering 
and stnictural works of the beaver are the dam, 
tiie canal, the meadow, the lodge, the burrow, 
and the slide. These are not always found 
together and some of them are rare." 

Beaver dams have been found which have 
been kept in repair by beavers for centuries. 
It is not unusual to find them more than fifty 
feet long and so solid that they will sujiport 
liorses and wagons. I'^allen trees that have 
been cut down by the sharj) teeth of the beav- 
ers are sometimes the foundation. More often 
branches and a great heap of small stones 
make the beginning. The side toward the 
water is of mud and pebbles smoothlv set by 
the use of the feet and the broad, paddle-like 
tail of the animal. Interlaced branches caj) 

the whole. The dam is built for two reasons 
— to afford a retreat where the home-loving 
beaver may rest safe from his enemies of the 
forest, particularly wolverines, and to give a 
depth of water that will not freeze to the bot- 
tom. A total freeze would effectually lock 
him in his home and be the cause of death by 
starvation. The dam is always located on a 
small stream. 

The beaver's sense of sight is deficient, but 
those of scent and hearing are abnormally de- 
veloped. The work of construction and re- 
pair upon the dams is always done at night, 
the workers occasionally stopping to listen for 
suspicious sounds. The tone who hears any- 
thing to excite alarm dives instantly, and as he 
disappears gives warning to his comrades by 
striking his broad, flat tail upon the surface of 
the water. The sound rivals a pistol shot in 
its alarming loudness. 

"The beaver is really a sort of portable pulp- 
mill, grinding up most any kind of wood that 
comes in his way. A single beaver generally, 
if not always, fells the tree, and when it comes 
down the whole family fall to and have a 
regular frolic with the bark and branches. A 
big beaver will bring down a fair sized sapling, 
say three inches through, in about two minutes, 
and a large tree in about an hour. 

"One of the queerest facts about the beaver 
is the rapidity with which his long, chisel-like 
teeth will recover from an injury." 

^^'ilIiam Dixon killed a beaver in 1840. near 
what is now called Sabula, or Summit Tun- 
nel. Clearfield county. This was ])erhaps the 
last one killed in the State. A beaver was re- 
])orted killed in 1884 on Pine creek, in Clinton 
county. It was said to have been chased 
there from Potter county. 

Beavers have four to eight young at 
a litter, in May, and they are l)orn with their 
eyes open. 


Centuries ago great herds of wild buft'aloes 
fed in our valleys and on our hills. Yes, more, 
the "buffalo, or American bison, roamed in 
countless numbers from the Susquehanna to 
Lake Erie,'' but none north of Lake Erie. 

The peculiar distinction of our buffalo was 
;i hump over his shoulders. He was much 
larger than the Western buffalo. His eye was 
black, his horns black and thick near the head, 
tapering rapidly to a point. His face looked 
ferocious, yet he was not so dangerous as an 
elk or deer. The sexual season of the bison 
was from July to September; after this month 



the cows ransjed in herds hy themselves, calved 
in April, and the calves followed the mother 
from one to three years. The males fouj^ht 
terrible battles among themselves. The At- 
lantic seaboards were exceptionally free from 
them. The flesh of the cow was delicious 
food, and the hump especially was considered 
a great delicacy. 

Twenty-five or thirty years ago these ani- 
mals, whose flesh was an important and much- 
prized article of food, the tail especially, and 
whose pelts were in great demand for robes, 
buffalo overshoes, and garments to protect 
both the civilized and uncivilized races from 
the winter's piercing blasts, were found on 
our Western prairies in countless thousands. 
According to a recently published report, be- 
tween the years i860 and 1882 more than 
fifteen million bufifaloes were killed within the 
limits of the United States. Bufifaloes and 
elks used the same trails and feeding grounds. 
The last buffalo robes were brought to Brook- 
ville in 1882. 

There are now (1915) but one thousand, 
six hundred wild and domesticated buffaloes 
in the United States. The last buffalo killed 
in Pennsylvania of which there is a record 
was dispatched in January, 1801. by Col. John 
Kelly, of Union county. A whole herd had 
been wiped out in the winter of 1800, in Sny- 
der county. 


The largest carnivorous beast was the 
panther. In the early days there were enough 
of them in the forest to keep the settler or 
the hunter ever on his guard. They haunted 
the wildest glens and made their presence 
known by occasional raids on the flocks and 

The puma, popularly called panther by our 
pioneers, is a large animal with a cat head. 
The length of a panther from nose to tip of 
tail is about six to twelve feet, the tail being 
over two feet long, tip black. The color of 
the puma is tawny, dun. or reddish along the 
back and sides, and sometimes grayish-white 
underneath or over the abdomen and chest, 
with a little black patch behind each ear. The 
panther is a powerful animal, as well as dan- 
gerous, but when captured as a cub can be 
easily domesticated and will be good until he 
is about two years old. The pioneers shot and 
captured many in panther and bear traps. 
The pelts sold for from one to twelve dollars. 
The catamount, or bey lynx, was a species of 
the cat, had tufts on the ears, a cat head, was 

long-bodied, three or four feet long, short- 
legged, big-footed, and mottled in color. The 
fur was valuable. The lynx is sometimes 
mistaken for the panther. 

The Longs, Vastbinders, and other noted 
hunters in Jefferson county killed many a 
panther. A law was enacted in 1806 giving 
a bounty of eight dollars for the "head" of 
each grown wolf or panther killed, and the 
"pelts,"' bringing a good price for fur. stimu- 
lated these hunters greatly to do their best in 
trap])ing, hunting, and watching the dens of 
these dangerous animals. The bounty on the 
head of a panther whelp was four dollars. 
The county commissioners would cut the ears 
otT these heads and give an order on the county 
treasurer for the bounty money. A panther's 
pelt sold for about four dollars. In 1850 a 
son of Bill Long, Jackson by name, boldly 
entered a full grown panther's den, creeping 
through the rocks sixty feet, and shot the 
animal by the light of his glowing eyes. In 
1S33 Jacob and Peter Vastbinder found a 
panther's den on Boon's mountain, now Elk 
county. They killed one, the dogs killed two, 
and these hunters caught a cub, which they 
kept a year and then sold to a showman. In 
1 819 the Legislature enacted a law giving' 
twelve dollars for a full-grown panther's head 
and five dollars for the head of a cub. During 
the thirties, when Jefferson county still em- 
braced what is now Forest and Elk counties, 
the bounties paid for panther, wolf and wild- 
cat scalps fell a little short of four hundred 
dollars a year. The last bounties were paid 
for i)anthers and wolves killed in Jefferson 
coimty in 1856. The record is as follows: 
March 18, 1856, Jacob Stahlman. one wolf; 
March 24, 1856, Mike Long, five wolves; May 
17, 1856, Andrew Bowers, Gaskill township, 
one wolf; November 19, 1856, Adam Hetrick, 
one panther, killed on Maxwell run, in Polk 
township. Jack Long killed the last panther 
in the State, in 1872. 


Nothing aiuong the wild beasts strikes such 
terror to the heart of the settlers as the cry 
of the wolf at a lonely spot at night. The 
pioneer knew very well that on a lonely forest 
trail at any hour of the day or night the other 
animals could be frightened by a bluff. No 
other animals go in packs. The wolf would 
not attack were he alone. It is when rein- 
forced that he is a terror, and then the howl 
of the wolf is the most blood-curdling 
of all the noises of the night in the woods. 


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When he is bent upon attacking a traveler he 
announces it by a howl from one quarter. The 
signal is answered from another direction. 
Another piercing howl comes from somewhere 
else. The cry of the wolf echoes and rolls 
from hill to hill in marvelous multiplication 
of sounds. A small pack of half a dozen 
wolves will make the motintain seem alive for 
miles. The cr>' is anything but reassuring 
to the timid soul who is shut in safely by the 
fire of his forest cabin. It is enough to chill 
the marrow of the man who for the first time 
hears it when he is in the unprotected open. 
The wolf is vicious and savage. Hunger gives 
him any courage that he possesses, and that 
sort of courage drives him to desperation. 
That is why the wolf is such a ferocious enemy 
when once he is aroused to attack man. Death 
by starvation is no more alluring to him than 
death by the hand of his possible prey. I have 
listened in my bed to the dismal howl of the 
wolf, and for the benefit of those who never 
heard a wolf's soiree I will state here that one 
wolf leads off in a long tenor, and then the 
whole pack joins in the chorus. 

Wolves were so" numerous that, in the niem- 
or}' of persons still living in Brookville in 
1898, it was unsafe or dangerous to permit 
a girl of ten or twelve years to go a mile in the 
country vmaccompanied. In those days the 
Longs have shot as many as five and six with- 
out moving in their tracks. In 1816 Ludwig 
Long and his son William shot five wolves 
without changing position with single-barreled, 
muzzle-loading rifles. The sure aim and 
steady and courageous hearts of noted hunt- 
ers, made it barely possible for the early set- 
tlers to live in these woods, and even then they 
had to exercise "eternal vigilance." In 1835 
Bill Long, John and Jack Kahle captured 
eight wolves in a den near the present town of 
Sigel. Wolf pelts sold for three dollars. 

Pennsylvania had originally black, brown 
and gray wolves. Each had its own habita- 
tion. The black and brown were exterminated 
about 1840, the gray about 1880. 


The black bear was always common in 
Pennsylvania, and especially was this so in 
Jefferson county. He was a great roadmaker 
and king of the beasts. The early settlers 
killed every year in the aggregate hundreds 
of these bears. Bearskins were worth from 
three to five dollars apiece. Reuben Hickox. 
as late as 1822, killed over fifty bears in three 
months. Captain Hunt, a Afuncy Indian, liv- 

ing in what is now Brookville, killed sixty- 
eight in one winter. In 1831 Mrs. McGhee, 
living in what is now Washington township, 
heard her pigs squealing, and exclaimed, 
"The bears are at the hogs !" A hired man, 
Philip McCafferty, and herself each picked 
up an ax and drove the bears away. Bears 
are very fond of hogs, which they eat alive, in 
this way : They throw the hog, hold him 
down with their paws, tear out his bowels at 
his flank and eat him at leisure. Every fall 
and winter bears are still killed in our forests. 

Peter \''astbinder when a boy shot a bear 
through the window of his father's house, and 
this, too, by moonlight. This bear had a soap 
of bees in his arms, and was walking away 
with them. 

The flesh of the bear was prized by the 
pioneer. He was fond of bear meat. Bears 
weighing four or five hundred pounds ren- 
dered a large amount of oil, which the pioneer 
housewife used in cooking. 


Glutton or sloth wolverines were very rare 
in Jefferson county. Wolverines are about 
the size of a bull dog, fierce, cunning and 
strong. One peculiarity of the wolverine was 
this, when gazing at a man he would shade 
his eyes with his paws. The last one killed 
in the State was shot by Seth I. Nelson in 
Potter county in 1863. 


Trapping and pens were resorted to by the 
pioneer hunters to catch the panther, the bear, 
the wolf, and other game. The bear pen was 
built in a triangular shape of heavy logs. It 
was in shape and built to work just like a 
wooden box rabbit trap. The bear steel trap 
weighed about twenty-five pounds. It had 
double springs and spikes sharpened in the 
jaws. A chain was also attached. This was 
used as a panther trap. too. "The bear was 
always hard to trap. The cautious brute 
would never put his paw into visible danger, 
even when allured by the most tempting bait. 
If the animal was caught, it had to be accom- 
jilished by means of the most cunning strata- 
gem. One successful method of catching this 
cautious beast was to conceal a strong trap 
in the ground covered with leaves or earth, 
and suspend a quarter of a sheep or deer 
from a tree above the hidden steel. The bait 
lieing just beyono the reach of the bear, would 
cause the animal to stand on his hind feet 



anil Iry to get tlie meat. While thus ramixmt, 
the unsuspecting liriUe would sometimes step 
into the trap and throw the spring. The trap 
was not fastened to a stake or tree, but at- 
tached to a long chain, furnished with two 
or three grab hooks, which would catch to 
iirush and logs, and thus prevent the game 
from getting away." 

liy the fall of the \ear bears would become 
very fat from the daily feasts they had on 
beechnuts and chestnuts, and the occasional 
raids they made on the old straw beehives 
and ripe cornfields. In pioneer times the bear 
committed considerable destruction lo I he 
corn. He would seat himself on his haunches 
in a corner of the field next to the woods, and 
then, collecting a sheaf of the cornstalks at a 
time, would enjoy a sumptuous re])ast on the 

Wolves usually bunt in tin- night, so the_\-, 
too, were trap])etl and ])enned. The wolf pen 
was built of small round logs about eight or 
ten feet high and narrowed at the top. Into 
tin's pen the hunter threw bis bait, and the wolf 
could easily juni]) in. but he was unable to 
jump out. The wolf tra]) was on the jjrinciple 
of the rat tra]), only larger, the jaws being a 
foot or two long. Wolves wcmld welcome a 
doniestic dog in their jxick, but a dog that 
clung to man, ibcir enemy, they would tear 
to pieces. 

Trapiiers rated the fox the hardest animal 
to traj), the wolf next, and the otter third. To 
catch a fox they often made a bed of chafT 
.•md got him to lie in it or fool around it, the 
trap being set under the chaff, (^r a trap was 
set at a ])lacc where several foxes seemed to 
sto]) for a certain purpose. Or a fox could 
be caught sometimes by putting a bait a little 
way out in the water, and then putting a pad 
of moss between the bait .md the shore, with 
the tra]) hid undei the moss. The fox. not 
liking to wet his feel, would step on the moss 
.md be caught. 

( )ld William \'astbinder, a noted buiiter. 
of what is now Kirkman. ;i ])ionecr in jefifer- 
son county, was c|uite successful in tra])ping 
wolves on Hunt's run, about the year T819 or 
1820. Rut for some unknown reason his suc- 
cess suddenly sto])])ed, and be could not catch 
a single wolf, lie then sus])ected the 
of robbing his trai)s. So one morning bright 
and early he \isited bis traps and found no 
wolf, but did find an Indian track. He fol- 
lowed the Indian trail and lost it. On look- 
ing around he heard a voice from above, and 
looking u]) he saw an Indian sitting in the 
fork (jf a tree, and the Indian said. "X'nw. 

you old rascal, now go home. Old Bill, or In- 
dian shoot." With the Indian's Hintlock 
jjointed at him, \'astbinder immediately be- 
came quite hungry and started home for an 
early breakfast. 


The mouse is the largest of all the deer 
kind, the .-\merican elk coming next. The last 
moose was killed in this State in 1799. P>ill 
Long and other noted hunters killecl elks in 
these woods seven feet high. The early hunt- 
ers found their range to be frorn Elk Licks 
on Spring creek, which emjities into the Clar- 
ion river at what is now called "Hallton," u]) 
to and around lieecb liottom. In winter these 
heavv- footed animals always "yarded" them- 
selves on the "Beech Bottom" for protection 
from their enemies, the light-footed woKes. 
The elk's trot was hea\}', clumsy and swing- 
ing, and would break through an ordinary 
crust on the snow ; hut in summer time he 
would throw his great antlers back on his 
shoulders and trot through the thickets at a 
Nancy Hanks gait, even o\er fallen timbers 
fi\-e feet high. One of his reasons for locating 
on the Clarion river was that he was ])erson- 
ally a great bather and enjoyed sjjending his 
summer on the banks and the sultry days in 
bathing in that river. In 1S38 Bill Long pre- 
sented a i)air of enormous elk horns to John 
Smith, of I'.rook\ille. who used them as a sign 
for the "Jefferson Inn." Advertisements a])- 
])eared in the ])ioneer ])a])er of Elk county as 
late as 1850-1851. something like this: 

"Ilunters. — Sexeral young fawns are 
wanted, for which a liberal ])rice will be given. 
Enquire at this office. I""or a living male elk, 
one year old, I will give $50; two years old, 
.$75; three \ears old. $100; and for a fawn 
three months old. $25." 

b'lks are easily tamed. They can soon be 
taught to work like oxen, but it takes from 
six months to two years to be able to stand in 
front of an elk and command him. 

The common X'irginia white-tail deer, 
once exceedingly numerous in the northwest, 
is still to be found in limited numbers. This 
deer when lojiinj^ nv running elevates its tail, 
showing the long white hair of the lower 
surface. If the .animal i-^ -truck bv a bullet 
the tail is almost inv;iri;ibly tucked close to the 
liam, concealing the white. 

.All deer kind who ba\e branched horns, 
deer, moose, elk and caribou, with one exce])- 
tion, shed their antlers annually from January 
to March in the wild slate (in captivity a little 


ryv^ TM'.; YORK 




later), and have them completely restored by 
August of the same year. The new growth 
of horn loosens the old honi and in time 
causes it to drop off. These shed horns 
are eaten by wood mice, squirrels, porcupines, 
and by the deer kind themselves. The shed- 
ding of the horns indicates the time when the 
season of selective attachment should close. 
A castrated elk will never shed his horns, they 
crumble away like cheese. 

Deer handle their growing antlers very 
carefully, for it is at this time that deformities 
are apt to occur. The deer seem to realize this, 
and allow themselves to be driven about with 
a stick, for they do not want to run the risk 
of breaking the thick velvety skin that incases 
the antlers by acting on the offensive. Should 
the skin get broken, the deer is apt to bleed to 
death, or if the flexible, pulpy antler gets 
broken or bent it will become ossified when 
the hardening period of its growth arrives and 
retain its crooked shape. 

The horns are built up by the blood. The 
veins pass through the burr of the antlers, and 
as the antlers near their full growth the burr 
gradually tightens on the veins until the flow 
of blood is entirely shut off. Up to this time 
the velvet is very sensitive, even to the slightest 

It requires about thirteen weeks for an elk 
or a deer to grow his horns, and then one 
month more is required for the hardening. 
The horns grow inside a tough skin, which in 
appearance resembles coarse plush of a brown 
color. When in this condition they are said 
to be "in the velvet." 

There is a dispute as to the location of the 
scent that is given out ])y the deer. It is located 
in the foot. If the hoof is separated, a little 
pocket is found containing a pasty substance, 
the odor of which resembles that of rank 
cheese. This substance works out on the hoof 
and leaves its scent on the ground. If a deer 
is hard pressed by hounds he will take to 
water, and running in it for some distance the 
odor will he so thoroughly washed out of the 
hoof that no scent will be left on the ground 
and consequently the dogs will be unable to 

"The American deer, common deer, or joust 
deer, is peculiar to Pennsylvania. It differs 
from the three well-known European species — 
the red deer, the fallow deer and the pretty 
little roe. Of these three, the red deer is the 
only one which can stand comparison with the 

"The bucks have antlers peculiar in many 
cases, double sharp, erect spikes or tines. The 

doe lacks these antlers. The antlers on the 
bucks are shed and renewed annually. Soon 
as the old antlers fall, swellings, like, tumors 
covered with plush, appear; these increase in 
size and assume the shape of the antlers with 
astonishing rapidity, until the new antlers 
iiave attained their full size, when they present 
the appearance of an ordinary pair of antlers 
covered with fine velvet. The covering, or 
'velvet,' is filled with blood vessels, which 
supply material for the new growth. The 
furrows in the complete antler show the 
course of the circulation during its formation, 
and no sooner is the building process complete 
than the 'velvet' begin to wither and dry up. 
Now the buck realizes that he is fully armed 
and equipped for the fierce joustings which 
must decide the possession of the does of his 
favorite range, and he busies himself in test- 
ing his new weapons and in putting a proper 
polish upon every inch of them. He bangs and 
rattles his horn daggers against convenient 
trees and thrusts and swings them into dense, 
strong shrubs, and if observed during this 
honing-up process he frequently seems a dis- 
reputable looking beast, with long streamers 
of blood-stained 'velvet' hanging to what will 
shortly be finely polished antlers with ])oints 
as sharp as knives. When the last rulj has 
been given and every beam and tine is 
furnished thoroughly, our brave goes a-wooing 
with the best of them. He trails the cow does 
through lone covers and along favorite run- 
ways unceasingly ; he is fiery and impetuous 
and full of fight, and asks no fairer chance 
than to meet a rival as big and short-tempered 
as himself. He meets one before long, for 
every grown buck is on the warjjath, and 
when the pair fall foul of each other there is 
frequently a long and desperate combat, in 
which one gladiator must be thoroughly 
whi]iped or killed. All deer fight savagely, 
and occasionally two battling rivals find a 
miserable doom by managing to get their 
antlers securely interlocked, when both must 
[jerish. Two dead bucks thus locked head to 
head have been found lying as they fell in an 
open glade, where the scarred surface of the 
ground and the crushed and riven shrubs aliout 
told an eloquent tale of a wild tourney long 
sustained, and of miserable failing efforts of 
the wearied conqueror to free himself of his 
dead foe." The Vastbinders, Longs, and all 
tiie early hunters, found just such skulls in 
these woods. 

A "deer lick'' is a place where salt rests near 
the surface of the earth. The deer finds these 



spots and works them diiriii;^ the night, gen- 
erally in the early morning. 

Artificial deer-licks were numerous, and 
made in this way : A hunter would take a 
coft'ee sack and ])Ut in it about half a bushel 
of common salt, and then suspend the sack 
high on the branch of a tree. When the rain 
descended the salt water would drip from the 
sack to the ground, making the earth saline 
and damp, and to this spot the deer would 
come, paw and lick the earth. The hunter 
usually made his blind in this way : A piece 
of board had two auger holes bored in each 
end, and with ropes through these holes was 
fastened to a liinlj of a tree. On this board 
the hunter seated himself to await his game. 
Deer usually visit licks from about two a. m. 
until daylight. As a rule, deer feed in the 
morning and evening, and ramble around all 
night seeking a thicket for rest and seclusion 
in the daytime. 

For "ways that were dark and for tricks 
that were vain" the old pioneer was always 
in it. When real hungry for a venison steak 
he would often use a tame deer as decoy in 
this way : Fawns were captured when small, 
tamed, reared and permitted to run at large 
with the cattle. A life insurance was "written" 
on this tame deer by means of a bell or a 
piece of red flannel fastened around the neck. 
Tame deer could be trained to follow masters, 
and when taken to the woods usually fed 
around and attracted to their society wild deer, 
which then could be shot by the secreted 
hunter. At the discharge of a gun the tame 
deer invariably ran up to her master. Some 
of these does were kept for five to six years. 
Deer generally have two fawns at a time, in 
May, and sometimes three. 

Love of home is highly developed in the 
deer. You cannot chase him away from it. 
He will circle around and around, and every 
evening come to where he was born. He lives 
in a square of about eight or ten miles around 
his birthplace. In the wilds of swamp and 
mountains and laurel brakes he has his 
"roads," l)eaten paths, and "crossings," like the 
civilized and cross roads of man. When 
hounded by dogs he invariably strikes for a 
creek or river, and it is his practice to take 
one of these "traveled paths," which he never 
leaves nor forgets, no matter how circuitous 
the path may be. Certain crossings on these 
paths where the deer will pass are called in 
sporting parlance "stands." These "stands" 
never change, unless through the clearing of 
timber or by settlement the old landmarks are 

The deer loves a habitation where he may 
wander over hills, through thick swamps or 
open woods, with silence all around save what 
noise is made by the chirping birds and wild 
creatures like himself. He loves to feed a 
little on the lowlands and then browse on the 
high ground. It takes him a long time to 
make a meal, and no matter how much of good 
there may be in any particular place he will 
not remain there to thoroughly satisfy his 
appetite. He must roam about and eat over 
a great deal of territory. When he has 
browsed and fed till he is content, he loves to 
pose behind a clump of brushes and watch and 
listen. At such times he stands with head up 
as stanch as a setter on point, and if one 
watches him closely not a movement of his 
muscles will be detected. He sweeps the 
country before him with his keen eyes, and his 
sharp ears will be disturbed by the breaking 
of a twig anywhere within gunshot. 

A doe carries a fawn seven months before 
dropping it. Fawns when first dropped are 
for some hours unable to stand. They have 
white spots over the body until six months 
old. The doe docs not remain beside them, 
but paces slowly around at a considerable dis- 
tance. Every now and then she gives a little 
tremulous, bleating call, at sound of which the 
fawn lifts its head and tries to struggle to its 
feet. Should a man or a dog appear mean- 
time the doe runs away in a straight line, but 
laggingly and halting, as though herself hurt 
unto death. When she thinks she has lured 
the enemy far enough away, she gives three 
great flying leaps, which take her at once out 
of sight, and goes back to her baby. But if 
left undisturbed she keeps up the pacing until 
she sees the fawn standing, then paces dain- 
tily away in a straight line, choosing always 
the easiest grade. As she paces she calls 
faintly and every now and then halts, looking 
over Iier shoulder to see if she is followed. 

When the day is still the deer is confident 
he can outwit the enemy who tries to creep 
up on him with shotgun or rifle. But when 
the wind blows, he fears to trust himself in 
those places where he may easily be ap- 
proached by man, so hides in the thickets and 
remains very quiet until night. To kill the 
deer on a still day, when he is difficult to find, 
the hunter must match the deer in cunning 
and must possess a marked degree of patience. 
The deer, conscious of his own craftiness, 
wanders slowly through the woods ; but he 
does not go far before he stops, and like a 
statue he stands, and can only be made out by 



the hunter with a knowledge of his ways and 
a trained eye. 

The deer Hstens for a footfall. Should the 
hunter be anywhere within the range of his 
ear and step on a twig, the deer is off with a 
bound. He does not stop until he has reached 
what he regards as a safe locality in which to 
look and listen again. A man moving cau- 
tiously behind a clump of bushes anywhere 
within the sweep of his vision will start him 
off again on the run, for he is seldom willing 
to take even a small chance against man. 
Should the coast be clear, the deer will break 
his pose, browse and wander about again, and 
finally make his bed under the top of a fallen 
tree or in some little thicket. 

To capture the deer by the still hunting 
methods, the hunter must know his ways and 
outwit him at his own game. First of all, the 
still hunter wears soft shoes, and when he 
puts his foot on the ground he is careful not 
to set it on a twig which will snap and frighten 
any deer that may be in the vicinity. The 
still hunter proceeds at once to put into prac- 
tice the very system which the deer has taught 
him. He strikes a pose. He listens and looks. 
A deer standing like a statue two hundred 
yards away is not likely to be detected by an 
inexperienced hunter, but the expert is not 
deceived. He has learned to look closely into 
the detail of the picture before him, and he 
will note the difference between a set of ant- 
lers and a bush. The brown sides of a deer 
are not very distinct when they have for a 
background a clump of broken bushes. But 
the expert still hunter sits quietly on a log and 
peers into the distance steadily, examining all 
details before him. Occasionally his fancy 
will help him to make a deer's haunch out on 
a hump on a tree, or he will fancy he sees an 
antler mixed with the small branches of a 
bush, but his trained eye finally removes all 
doubt. But he is in no hurry. He is like the 
deer, patient, keen of sight, and quick of hear- 
ing. He knows that if there are any deer on 
their feet in his vicinity he will get his eyes on 
them if he takes the time, or if he waits long- 
enough he is likely to see them on the move. 
At all events, he must see the deer first. Then 
he must get near enough to him to bring him 
down with his rifle. 

Deer will not run in a straight line. They 
keep their roads, and it is this habit they have 
of crossing hills, paths, woods and streams, 
almost invariably within a few yards of the 
same spot, that causes their destruction by the 
hounding and belling methods of farmers, 
lumbermen, and other non-professionals. 

Deerlicks were numerous all over this coun- 
try. One of the methods of our early settlers 
was to sit all night on or near a tree, within 
easy range of a spring or a "salt-lick," and 
pot the unsuspecting deer which might hap- 
pen to come to the lick in search of salt water. 
This required no more skill than an ability to 
tell from which quarter the breeze was blow- 
ing and to post one's self accordingly, and the 
power to hit a deer when the gun is fired from 
a dead rest. 

Belling deer was somewhat common. I 
have tried my hand at it. The mode was this : 
Three men were located at proper distances 
apart along a trail or runway near a cross- 
ing. The poorest marksman was placed so 
as to have the first shot, and the two good 
ones held in reserve for any accidental attack 
of "buck fever" to the persons on the first 
and second stands. An experienced woods- 
man was then sent into a laurel thicket, carry- 
ing with him a cowbell ; and when this woods- 
man found and started a deer, he followed it, 
ringing the bell. The sound of this bell was 
notice to those on the "stand" of the approach 
of a deer. When the animal came on the 
jump within shooting distance of the first 
stand, the hunter there posted would bleat 
like a sheep; the deer would then come to a 
standstill, when the hunter could take a good 
aim at it ; the others had to shoot at the ani- 
mal nmning. The buck or doe rarely escaped 
this gauntlet. 

One of the modes of Mike Long and other 
pioneer hunters on the Clarion river was to 
ride a horse with a cowbell on through the 
woods over the deerpaths. The deer were 
used to cowbells and would allow the horse to 
come in full view. When the deer were look- 
ing at the horse, the hunter usually shot one 
or two. Every pioneer had one or more cow- 
bells ; they were made of copper and iron. 
They were not cast, but were cut, hammered 
and riveted into shape, and were of different 

In the days when guns were rare and am- 
munition very costly, hunters set stakes for 
deer, where the animal had been in the habit 
of jumping into or out of fields. A piece of 
hard timber, two or three inches thick and 
about four feet long, was sharpened into a 
spear-shape, and then driven firmly into the 
ground at the place where the deer were ac- 
customed to leap over the log fence. The 
stake was slanted toward the fence, so as 
to strike the animal in the breast as it leaped 
into or out of the fields. Several of these 
deadly wooden spears were often set at the 



same crossing, so as to increase the peril of 
the game. If the deer were seen in the field, 
a scare would cause them to jump over the 
fence with less caution, and thus often a 
buck would im]jale himself on one of the fatal 
stakes, when hut for the sight of the hunter 
the animal might have escaped unhurt. Thou- 
sands of deer were killed or cri])pled in this 
way fifty years ago. 

The deer was always a co\eted prize among 
hunters. No finer dish than venison ever 
graced the tahle of king or peasant. No more 
beautiful trojihy has ever adorned the halls 
of the royal sportsman or the humble cabin of 
the lowly hunter on the wild frontier than the 
antlers of the fallen buck. The sight of this 
noble animal in his native state thrills with 
admiration alike the heart of the proudest 
aristocrat and the rudest backwoodsman. The 
last time I saw a wild deer in Brookxille lior- 
ough was in the summer of 1864. 

The American elk was widely distributed 
in this section in 1800. The habitat of this 
noble game was the forest extending across 
the northern part of the State. These animals 
were quite numerous in the thirties. A one- 
thousand-pound elk was nothing uncommon 
in Jefferson county, and specimens have been 
killed that weighed twelve hundred pounds. 
These were bucks. The does would weigh 
anywhere from six to eight hundred pounds. 
Elks had a very short and thick neck, with a 
short and upright mane. Their ears were of 
enormous size. The Pennsylvania elk's eyes 
were small, but sparkled like jewels. .Another 
peculiarity of the elk was the great size of 
his nostrils, and the keenness of his scent was 
something bej'ond belief. A set of elk antlers 
of five feet spread, and weighing from forty 
to fifty pounds, was not an infrequent trophy. 

It required more skill to hunt the elk than 
it did to trail the deer, as they were much 
more cautious and alert. For all that, an elk, 
when startled from his bed. did not instantly 
dash away, like the deer, but invariably looked 
to see what had aroused him. Then, if he 
thought the cause boded him no good, away 
he went, not leaping over the l)rush, like the 
deer, but, with his head thrown back, and his 
great horns almost covering his body, plung- 
ing through the thickets, his big hoofs clatter- 
, ing together like castanets as he went. The 
elk did not go at a gallo])ing gait, but lra\eled 
at a swinging trot that carried him along at 
amazing s]ieed. lie never slopjied until he 
had crossed water, when his instinct seemed 
to tell him that the scent of his trail was 
broken before the pursuer or dogs. 

-At the rutting season the elk, both male and 
female, was fearless and fierce, and it be- 
hooved the hunter to be watchful. An elk 
surprised at this season did not wait for any 
overt act on the part of an enemy, but was 
instantly aggressive. One blow from an elk's 
foot would kill a wolf or a dog, and hunters 
have more than once been forced to elude an 
elk by running around trees, jumping from 
one to another before the bulky beast, unable 
to make the turns quick enough, could recover 
himself. To follow an elk forty miles with- 
out running it down was considered nothing 

The whistle of the buck elk, as the hunters 
used to call it, was not a whistle, although there 
were changes in it that gave it something of 
a flute-like sound. The sound was more like 
the notes of a bugle. In making it the buck 
threw back his head, swelled his throat and 
neck to an enormous size, and with that as a 
bellows he blew from his open mouth the 
sound that made at once his challenge or call 
for a mate. The sound was far-reaching, and. 
heard at a distance, was weird and uncanny, 
yet not unmusical. Xear by it was rasping 
and harsh, with the whistling notes prominent. 

The elk's whistle varies much and has dif- 
ferent meanings. They seem to have a lan- 
guage, like all the other animals, big or little. 

There are scattered through our woods, gen- 
erally high on the hills, from the .-Mlegheny 
river down to the West Branch and Clarion 
river, huge rocks, some detached boulders, 
and others projections of ledges. These arc 
known as elk rocks, and every one of them 
has been, in its day, the last resort of some 
elk brongiit to bay after a long and hard 
chase. It wa^ the habit of the hunted elk, 
when it had in vain sought to throw the hun- 
ter and hound from the trail, to make its stand 
at one of these rocks. Mounting it, and facing 
its foes, it fiercely fought off the assaults of 
Ihe dogs by blows of its forefeet or tremen- 
dous kicks from its hind feet, until the hunter 
came up and ended the fight with his rifle. It 
would be strange if one or more of the dogs 
were not stretched ilcad .it the foot of the 
rock by the time the hunter arrived on the 
scene. More than once dead wolves were 
found lying about one of these elk rocks, tell- 
ing mutely, but elo(|uentIy, the tragic story 
of the j)ursuit of the elk by the wolves, his 
coming to bay on the rock, the battle, and the 
elk's \ictory. The elk was not always victor, 
though, in such battles with wolves, and fre- 
(|uently has been found the stripped skeleton 
of one lying among the skeletons of wolves 





llu sIkjI \\Ii:i(, \\a> tlHiiif,'lit tii be tlip last oik in !'ciins\ i\ iiiii.i in NuvruiLiL-r, 

IHliT, tlii>u;;li (apt,. .Idliii 1). Dccki'i'. of Centre Coiintv. clninis to 

have shot one in September, 1877. 



he had killed before being himself vanquished. 

"In the winter time the elks would gather 
in large herds and their range would be ex- 
ceedingly limited. Sometimes they would 
migrate to other regions, and would not be 
seen for months in their haunts, but suddenly 
they would return and be as plentiful as ever. 
They had their regular paths or nmways 
through the woods, and these invariably led 
to saltlicks, of which there were many natural 
ones in our woods. One of the most fre- 
quented of these elk paths started in a dense 
forest, where the town of Ridgway, the county 
seat of Elk county, now stands, led to the 
great lick on the Sinnemahoning portage, and 
thence through the forest to another big lick, 
which to-day is covered by Washington Park, 
in the city of Bradford. Hundreds of elks 
were killed annually at the licks or while 
traveling to^and from them, along their well- 
marked runways.'' (See also Habits of Our 
Wild Animals.) 

The last elk killed in this State was found 
near St. Marys, Elk county, on Elk creek. He 
was pursued for three days by Jim Jacobs, a 
fullblooded Seneca Indian chief, who lived 
near Bradford, Pa., on the Seneca Reserva- 
tion. The elk in despair sought his "rock" 
and was there shot in November, 1867. This 
elk was too old and tough for food. Jacobs 
was a mighty hunter. He was born about 
1800, on the Reservation, and lived to be eighty 
years old, and might have gone on living for 
many years more had he not met with death 
in a tragic manner. -The old man was walk- 
ing home to Red House, N. Y., on the Buffalo, 
New York & Philadelphia railroad (now the 
Pennsylvania), when he was struck and killed 
instantly by a train. It was on a stormy 
winter's night in February, 18S0. Old Jim 
was muffled to the ears. He had gone to 
Bradford to get some provisions, and as it 
was very cold Mr. Frank Webster gave him 
a warm cap to pull down over his ears. The 
intended kindness may have been the cause 
of his death, for he was walking home on the 
track of the Pennsylvania railroad between 
Red House and Cold Spring when a train 
struck and killed him. The snow was blow- 
ing thickly about his head, he did not hear the 
approaching train, and the engineer could not 
see him. 

The last elk taken alive in Pennsylvania 
was caught on the Sinnemahoning in i86o. 

Elks are polygamous. The chief is a tyrant, 
and rules the Jierd like a czar. The does all 
fear him. Does breed at the age of two years, 
having but one fawn, but when older often 

Iwn or three at a time, and these young follow 
their mother all summer, or from the date of 
birth in May or June to fall. A full-grown 
elk never forgets an injury. 

In 1834 ]\Iike, William and John Long and 
Andrew \'astbinder captured a full-grown live 
elk. Their dogs chased the animal on his 
high rock, and while there the hunters lassoed 
him. Sam Vastbinder, of Brookville, killed 
the last elk in Jefferson county and sold the 
horns for ten dollars. I knew Sam v^^ell. Bill 
Long often sold to peddlers fifty deer pelts at 
a single sale. A deerskin sold in the old 
days for seventy-five to ninety cents. 


Of the original wild animals still remaining 
in northwestern Pennsylvania, there are the 
fox, raccoon, porcupine, muskrat, marten, 
otter, mink, skunk, opossum, woodchuck, rab- 
l)it, squirrel, mole and mouse. Fifty years 
ago the woods were full of porcupines. On 
the defensive is the only way the porcupine • 
ever fights. When the enemy approaches he 
rolls up into a little wad, sharp quills out, and 
he is not worried about how many are in the 
besieging party. One prick of his quill will 
satisfy any assailant. 

In fact, when a porcupine curls himself up 
into the shape of a ball he is safe from the 
attack of almost any animal, for his quills arc 
long enough to prevent his enemy from getting 
near enough to bite him. When he sings his 
blood-curdling song, it is interpreted as a sign 
of rain. His food is almost entirely vegetable, 
consisting of the inner bark of trees, tender 
roots and twigs. He is fond, however, of 
the insects and worms found in the bark of 
pines and hemlocks. Provided with powerful 
jaws and long, sharp teeth, the porcupine 
gnaws with great speed, stripping the bark 
from an old tree as though he were provided 
with weapons of steel. Often he seems to 
tear in a spirit of sheer destructiveness, with- 
out pausing to eat the bark or to search for 
insects. This is true with the old males. 

The porcupine is not a wily beast. He estab- 
lishes paths or runways through the forest, 
and from these he never deviates if he can 
help it. What is more, he is exceedingly 
greedy, and stops to investigate every morsel 
in his way. A trap set in the middle of a run- 
way and baited with turnip rarely fails to 
catch him. The hunter liked porcupines 
cooked, especially baked in mud. 

The porcupine has been called the "Lost 
Man's Friend" because in its sluggish habits 



it does not flee from mankind, and is easily 
killed with a stick. It has furnished the sole 
means of sustenance for persons lost in wild 
woods. They copulate in this wise: Two 
climb a tree, opposite each other on a small 
limb, and bring their abdomens together. 

The mink is an expert at swimming and 
diving, and able to remain long under water, 
where it pursues and catches fish, which it 
frequently destroys in large numbers. The 
mink does much damage lo poultry, especially 
chickens and ducks. X'arious kinds of wild 
birds, particularly ground-nesting species, 
crayfish, frogs and reptiles are included in the 
dietary of the mink ; and it is also learned 
from testimony of different writers and ob- 
servers that the eggs of domestic fowls are 
often taken by these nocturnal plunderers. 
The average weight of an adult mink is about 
two pounds, and for an animal so small it is 
astonishing to observ^e its great strength. 

The wildcat, or bobcat, inhabits forests, 
rocky ledges and briery thickets, but its favor- 
ite place is in old slashings and bark peelings, 
where in the impenetrable and tangled recesses 
it is comparatively safe from pursuit, and is 
also able to jjtey upon many varieties of ani- 
mals which have a ])ennanent or temporary 
residence in such unfrequented wilds. 

Wild cats were numerous ; occasionally a 
cat is killed in the county yet, even within the 
borough limits. 

The wildcat subsists entirely on a flesh diet, 
and the damage this species does in destroy- 
ing poultry, lambs and young pigs of farmers 
who reside in the sparsely settled mountain- 
ous regions is not in any degree compensated 
by the destruction of other small wild animals 
which molest the farmer's crops or his poul- 
try. Wildcats hunt both by day and by night. 
A whole family of them will hunt and run 
down a deer, especially on crusted snow. The 
wildcat usually makes its domicile or nest in a 
hollow tree or log. The nest will be well lined 
with leaves, moss and lichens, called com- 
monly "hair moss." The nest is also some- 
times found in rocky ledges and caves. From 
two to four constitute a litter. The young 
are brought forth in the middle of May. 

The catamount or bey lynx is larger than 
the wildcat. Species have been killed in our 
county six to seven feet long from tip of nose 
to end of tail. They have tufts on their ears, 
and are often mistaken for and called panth- 
ers. They are mean-teni])ercd brutes, and 
even yet occasionally one is killed in our 
county. The Canada lynx is extinct here. 

The river otter was about four feet long, as 

I recollect him, very heavy and strong; usually 
weighed about twenty-three pounds, was web- 
footed, a fisher by occupation, and could whip 
or kill any tlog. On land he had his beaten 
paths. Big fish eat little fish, little fish eat 
shrimps, and shrimps eat mtid. Otters ate all 
kinds of fish, but preferred the speckled trout. 
Like other animals, otters had their plays and 
playgrounds. They were fond of strength 
contests, two or more pulling at the end of a 
stick sometimes like our "square pull." They 
made slides, and frolicked by plunging into 
the water, then rumiing up a hill and letting 
the water drip from them to freeze on the 
slide. They lived in excavations on the creek 
or river bank close to the water. They were 
hunted and trapped by men for their pelts. 
John Long, a noted hunter, told me that the 
most terrific contest he ever had with a wild 
animal was with an otter near Brookville. A 
feud existed between the otter and beaver. 
Otters, male and female, will join in a fierce 
fight for their young. 

In pioneer times we had in this wilderness 
the gray, the cross and the red fox. The gray 
is now extinct in the northwest, as he can only 
live in solitude or in a forest. The red fox 
still lingers in our civilization. Six varieties 
of fo.xes are said to be found in the United 
States, and it is claimed they are all cousins 
of the wolf. But notwithstanding this rela- 
tionship, the wolf used to hunt and eat all the 
foxes he could catch. The wolf's persistence 
in hunting, and endurance in the race, enabled 
him at times to overcome the fleetness of the 
fox. The gray and red fox were about three 
and a half feet long. The red fox is most 
daring, cunning and intellectual of all the 
varieties. You cannot tame him. The term 
■'foxy" originated in connection with him. 
The red fox has from four to eight pupjiies 
in April, and these, like little dogs, are born 
blind. The red fox has the astounding faculty 
of creating deeplaid schemes to deceive and 
thwjtrt his enemies. He is the only animal 
that will matcli his intelligence against man, 
and the only way man can best him is by 
poison. It is not unusual for the red fox to 
i)ack-track in such a way while racing for his 
life as to follow the hunter, and turn the 
tables from being hunted to being the hunter. 
He would even feign death — allow himself 
to be kicked or handled, only waiting and 
watching for, an opportunity to escape. His 
tricks to outwit man were many and would 
fill a volume. The fox was very fond of 
groundhog eating. Like the bear he would 
dig one out. His presence in a groundhog 


Pi'iinsvlviiiiiii li;iil two kinds of Ix-ars. rod and black 


puelic library 

AST01, fNOX 


?^!;;:liC libkary 


T': T' r. F0L':D; IONS 



neighborhood created great consternation. All 
animals have a cry of alarm — danger, and if 
a fox were observed by any groundhog the 
latter always gave this cry for his neighbors. 
If there is one animal, aside from the reptiles, 
that seems to sleep longer than any other, it 
is the red fox, but one fox is always awake, 
acting as a sentinel. 

A glance at the physiognomy of the weasels 
would suffice to betray their character; the 
teeth are almost of the highest known raptorial 
character; the jaws are worked by enormous 
masses of muscles covering all the sides of the 
skull ; the forehead is low and the nose is 
sharp; the eyes are small, penetrating, cun- 
ning, and glitter with an angrj- green light. 
There is something peculiar, moreover, in the 
way that this fierce face surmounts a body 
extraordinarily wiry, lithe and muscular. It 
ends a remarkably long and slender neck in 
such a way that it may be held at right angles 
with the axis of the latter. When the animal 
is glancing around with the neck stretched up 
and the flat triangle head bent forward and 
swaying from one side to the other, we catch 
the likeness in a moment — it is the image of 
a serpent. His coat changes with the season 
and while in winter we find it white tinted with . 
sulphur yellow, in summer it is in upper parts 
of a dark brown not unlike the coloring of a 
mink ; on its under parts it is "white almost 
invariably tinged with sulphury yellow" 
(Coues). The tail partakes of the color of the 
upper parts, except the bushy end, whicli, in 
summer and winter alike, is black. The legs 
are short, with slender feet, and are covered 
all over with fur in winter, but in summer the 
pads are generally visible. 

Both sexes have the power to emit a fluid 
nearly as powerful as that of the polecat. 
Their homes are frequently to be found in a 
decayed tree stump and under rocks. They 
can climb trees with ease. The poultry yard 
is frequently visited by weasels, and the ap- 
parently insatiable desire for rapine is almost 
clearly shown while on these visits. One 
chicken will satisfy a weasel's appetite, but 
after that is gratified he does not leave ; he 
kills and slays without mercy all the remainder 
of the poor frightened chickens, tmtil there 
are none left, and not until then does he leave 
the scene of carnage. He sucks the eggs also. 
leaving in some instances the tuilucky farmer 
who has unwillingly and unwittingly been his 
host completely routed as regards his efl^orts 
in the poultry line. He also feeds on rats and 

The opossum is an American animal, about 

the size of a very large cat, eight or ten pounds 
in weight, twenty inches long, with a prehen- 
sile tail, in addition, of fifteen inches. There 
are said to be three varieties, viz., the Mexi- 
can, Florida and Virginia. The last variety 
is the one found in northwestern Pennsyl- 
vania. These animals are very prolific, having 
three litters a year, in March, May and July, 
of twelve to sixteen at a time. At birth they 
are naked, blind and about half an inch long, 
the mother depositing each one with her hands 
in a pouch or pocket in her abdomen, and there 
the little creature sucks the mother and sleeps 
for about eight weeks. \Mien full grown they 
are good tree climbers, making great use of 
the tail in swinging from tree to tree and for 
other purposes. The opossum is a dull crea- 
ture, easily domesticated, and the only intel- 
ligence he exhibits is when, like the spider and 
potato bug, he feigns death. At this he is 
truly adept, suffering great abuse waiting for 
a chance to bite or nm. All carnivorous ani- 
mals eat smaller ones, so the opossum's 
enemies are numerous, and he in turri is omniv- 
orous and carnivorous, eating everything he 
can catch that is smaller than himself. Opos- 
sums are yet found in Knox township. 

The wild carnivorous animals are found in 
all parts of the world except Australia, the 
Dingo dog being imported there. 

The intelligence of some animals is amaz- 
ing. Many of them seem to study us as we 
study them. The squirrel knew that man was 
his most dangerous enemy, and that man killed 
him and his race for food. In pioneer times 
we had several varieties. The principal ones 
were the black, twenty-two inches long; the 
gray, eighteen inches long; the little red. ot- 
Hudson Bay, about eight inches long, a bold 
little beast, who liked to be close to man, full 
of vice and few virtues, industrious in season 
and out. The black and gray were lazy. The 
red or Hudson Bay squirrel was the king of 
all the squirrels in this forest. Although not 
more than eight inches long, he was the com- 
plete master of all the squirrels. The black 
and gray were afraid of him as death. With 
an intellect surprising, he would chase and 
capture the black and gray and castrate them, 
then, in exultation, scold or chickaree to his 
heart's content. 

The flying squirrel is not often seen because 
it is mostly nocturnal in its habits. It gener- 
ally lives in holes of woodpeckers in dead 
trees, stumps and logs. 

Of the true squirrels, we liave in Pennsyl- 
vania the red squirrel, the gray squirrel and 
the Southern fox squirrel, besides a variety 



of the gray squirrel, wliicli is sometimes called 
the black squirrel. 

In i)ioneer times, every seven or eight years, 
at irregular intervals in summer, a great army 
of black, pine and gray squirrels invaded this 
wilderness from the northwest, a host that no 
man could number. They were traveling east 
in search of food. Hundreds of them were 
killed daily by other animals and by man. .At 
first they would be fat and goofl for food, but 
toward the close would be sickly and wormy. 

In pioneer times crows and squirrels w^ere 
such a menace to the crops of the farmer in 
western Pennsylvania that an act was passed 
by the Legislature to encourage the killing of 
squirrels in certain parts of this Common- 
wealth. The pioneer act was passed ^larch 
4. ^^oj. giving a bounty of three cents for 
each crow scalp and a cent and a half for each 
squirrel scalp; these scalps to be received in 
lieu of money for ta.xes, if delivered to the 
county treasurer before the first day of No- 
vember of each year. The first act covered 
Bedford, \\'ashington. Westmoreland. Arm- 
strong, Indiana. Fayette and Greene counties. 
This law was extended in 1811, on the 13th 
of February, to P.utler, Franklin, Mercer. 
Venango, Somerset, Lycoming, Crawford and 
Erie counties. The State one year paid forty 
thousand dollars in said bounties. 

Whenever a squirrel wanted to cross a creek 
or river, and did not want to swim, he sailed 
over on a piece of bark or wood, using his 
bushy tail as a sail and to steer by. The 
skunk (lid likewise. A single pair of squirrels 
would inh.ibit the same tree for years. They 
had three or four young at a litter. 

One of the cutest things that the red squir- 
rel did was to tap sugartrees for the sap. He 
would chisel with his teeth a trough on the 
top of a limb, and as fast as the trough would 
fill with the water he would return and drink 

In ihe fall of the year a sc|uirrel would hide 
acorns and nuts outside of his nest, where 
others of his kind could not easily find the 
fruit. Then in midwinter, when he became 
hungry, he would leave his cozy nest and go 
a long distance through the .snow to the identi- 
cal spot where he had buried his fniii. dig it 
up. and enjoy his meal. 

The mouse came with the Puritans and is a 
native of Asia. 



F.Ik 50 

Beaver 50 


Panther 25 

Catamount 25 

Buffalo 20 

Cow 30 

Horse 40 

Bear 05 

Deer 20 

Hog 20 

Wolf ,5 

Cat 25 

Pox i^ 

^°& 15 

Sheep jc; 

Goat t i:; 

Squirrel 7 

Rabbit 10 

Man matures at twenty-four and should 
therefore live two hundred years, or eight 
times as long as it takes him to mature. 

Manlike apes are four in number, the gib- 
bon, orang, chimpanzee and gorilla. Anatomi- 
cally, they are but little dift'erent from man. 
The most striking difference is the shape of 
the skull. An ape's brain usuallv weighs 
twenty ounces, a man's, thirty-two. Professor 
Garner claims to have learned twenty words 
of the apes' language, 


"Fa,st as a horse," "fleet as a deer," "slow 
as an o.x," are all familiar terms. But few 
know just how fast or fleet or slow these ani- 
mals are. .-\ riding horse covers forty inches 
a second while walking, while at a jog trot he 
covers ele\en feet in a second. The two- 
minute-a-mile horse covers forty-four feet in 
,1 second. The leisurely ox moves over only 
two feet a second when hitched to a wagoti. 
and about twenty inches when attached to a 
plough. The deer are all qiiite .speedy, but in 
certain localities they can travel much more 
rapidly than in others. .A roebuck has been 
known to cover seventy-four feet a second 
when jnirsued by dogs. Tests differ greatly 
as to the speed of the hare. Some claim it 
can_ travel at the rate of sixty feet a second, 
while others claim it cannot travel more than 
half that distance. 


f^nr bears cubl)ed in February, had two 
cubs at a birth, and these cubs were about the 
size of a brown rat, weighing about nine 
ounces, without hair, and blind for nine days. 
They were suckled by the mother for about 
three months, when they reached the size of a 
cat ; then the mother took them out and taught 



tlicni to eat nuts, berries, bugs, little animals, 
green corn, vegetables, hogs, sheep and some- 
times cattle. A full-grown bear would weigh 
four hundred pounds and was exceedingly 
strong. He could carry a heavy burden and 
walk on his hind legs for a long distance. He 
was a good tree climber and was not quarrel- 
some, but if other animals trespassed on his 
rights he became furious and vindictive. He 
frequently gnawed himself out of hunters' 
pens, and when caught in steel traps would 
gnaw the leg off and carry the stump as in- 
jured away. He was a bold, intelligent beast. 
His meat was considered a delicacy by the 

Bears lived in "homes," holes, or dens, and 
sometimes in a rocky place there would be a 
■'community." They, like deer, follow their 
own paths. The bear entered his den about 
Christmas time, according as the weather was 
cold or warm, to hibernate, and remained 
there until about the first of May, when he 
would come out, eat weeds and grass to purge 
himself, and after that would eat anything. 
The bear was and is a wanderer, here to-day 
and away to-morrow. 

Rowe, of Clearfield, says of the hunter Dan 
I'urner: "Once, when going out to a "bear 
wallow,' his attention was attracted by a pan- 
ther acting in a strange manner. He soon 
saw a large bear api)roaching it. With hair 
erect and eyes glaring, the panther gnashed 
his teeth, and, waiting until bruin came up, 
sprang upon him. A mortal struggle ensued. 
Turner watched with much interest the fight. 
which lasted some ten minutes or more. At 
last the growls of the fierce combatants be- 
came faint, and the struggle ceased. The 
panther slowly disengaged himself from his 
dead enemy and took position upon the carcass. 
It was now Turner's time, and, raising his 
rifle, he shot the panther in the head. After 
examining it, he was of the opinion that it 
could have lived but a few minutes longer. 
Nearly every bone in his body was broken, and 
its flesh was almost reduced to a jmlp by the 
blows and hugs of the bear." 

Our panther was fully as strong as the bear, 
but rather cowardly, and especially fearful of 
dogs. A single blow from one forefoot or a 
bite from a panther would kill a dog. As a 
[jrecaution the panther hunter always had a 
trained dog with him, for a single bark from 
a dog would often scare a panther up a tree. 
The panther, as a rule, sought and sprang 
upon his victim in the dark. He could throw 
a buck, hog or cow without a struggle. Pan- 
thers attained sometimes a length of ten feet 

from nose to end of tail. They lived in dens 
and had two cubs at a time. Like the wolves, 
they were fierce and shy. 

Our wolves always had their dens in the 
wildest, most hidden part of the wilderness. 
They always managed to get under the rocks 
or ground to shelter themselves and young 
from all storms. The male fed the female 
when the "pups" were small. He would travel 
a great distance in search of food, and if what 
he found was too heavy to carry home he 
would gorge himself with it and go home and 
vomit it up for the family. The wolf and fox 
were very chary and hard to trap. But Long 
and other hunters knew their habits so well 
that they could always outwit them. 

A wolf could carry a sheep for miles by 
seizing it by the throat and throwing it over 
or on his back. Wolves hunted the deer in 
packs; they all hunted together until they 
were tired ; then one wolf would keep up the 
chase at full speed, while the balance of the 
pack watched, and when the deer turned a 
circle, fresh and rested wolves struck in and 
pursued ; thus the deer was pursued alternately 
by fresh wolves and soon tired out, and woidd 
then fly to some stream : the wolves would fol- 
low, and while the deer would remain in the 
stream the wolves would separate, a part of 
the pack forming in line on each side of the 
stream, when the deer would become an easy 
prey to these ravenous creatures. 

Wolves reared in the same paclc lived 
friendly, but strange males always fought. 

The most dangerous animal or reptile wa-s 
the rattlesnake. Millions of them inhabited 
these woods. To escape this danger, each 
jiioneer kept a large herd of hogs, who would 
kill and eat snakes with impunity. Dogs, too, 
were faithful in this direction. But how did 
the woodman and hunter escape? Well, he 
wore woolen stockings, moccasins with anklets, 
and buckskin breeches. A snake could not 
bite through these, and at night he usually 
laid his head on the body of his dog to protect 
his upper extremities. 

Deer killed the rattler in this way: humping 
themselves together, and jumping sideways 
on the snake with all four feet, the hoofs of 
the deer would cut the snake in pieces. FJk 
travel in families or herds ; the does lead and 
the bucks bring up the rear. They browse in 
winter and paw the snow for moss or wild 

The deer, when frightened, circled round 
and round, but never left his haunt. The elk 
would start on a trot, and never stop under 
ten or fifteen miles. 



When it is remembered that the American 
elk ofttimes attains a weight of one thousand 
pounds, a height of sixteen hands, and has 
spiked antlers of five feet in length and four 
feet spread, some idea of the ofl'cnsive capaci- 
ties of one of these rearing, prancing, snorting 
creatures may be conceived, it must also be 
remembered that an elk fights with his sharply 
pointed front hoofs, as well as with his antlers, 
rearing on his hind legs and delivering swift, 
terrific lunges right out from the shoulders. 

The buck becomes dangerous each fall, at 
mating time, and in the spring, before the 
horns drop off, for all male deer shed their 
horns each spring. By .Sei)tember the prongs 
are replaced. Each year the male elk grows 
an extra prong upon his antlers. The exjjert 
may ascertain the age of the creature by count- 
ing the prongs. However, if the antlers should 
be broken off during a fight or through any 
accident, the broken side grows out next sea- 
son as a straight horn, without the usual 

During their season of mating, which is 
about six weeks, the bucks will attack any 
living thing. 

All gregarious animals have some way of 
giving alarm of danger to those of their herds. 
Those animals which hunt singly need no such 
alarm. Some animals and birds detail one or 
more sentinels to out.guard their band or flock 
while they are feeding or traveling. It is 
understood that those on the outskirts of the 
herd will act in such a cajjacity on their own 
intuition, and the hunter's experience, in ap- 
jiroaching wild creatures, acquaints him with 
the cunning manner in which such signalling 
is carried out. .\11 living creatures are gov- 
erned by the instincts — first, to protect them- 
selves; second, to get food; and third, to re- 
produce. Monkeys are the smartest f)f all ani- 

A lion or tiger will eat from IwcKe to fom-- 
teen pounds of meat a day. 

(See also sketch of Andrew Jackson Long, 


Most animals are afraid of fire and will flee 
from it in terror. A horse in a burning stable 
goes mad with fear, but a dog is as cool in a 
fire as at any time. He keeps his nose down 
to the floor, where the air is purest, and sets 
himself calmly to finding his way out. Cats 
in fire howl piteously. They hide their faces 
from the li.ght and crouch in corners. When 
tlieir rescuer lifts them they are as a rule quite 

docile and subdued, never biting or scratching. 
Lirds seem to be hypnotized by fire and kce]) 
perfectly still; even the loquacious parrot in 
•a fire has nothing to say. Cows, like dogs, do 
not show alarm. They are easy to lead forth, 
and often find their way out themselves. 


Hunters are born. I pause here to tell the 
story of three professional hunters, viz.. \\\\- 
liam Long, Jack Long and (ieorge Smith. 

WiLMAM Long, a son of Louis (Ludwig) 
Long, was bom near Reading, Berks Co., Pa., 
in 1794. His father and mother were Ger- 
mans. In the summer of 1803, Louis Long 
with his family moved into this wilderness and 
settled near Port Barnett (now the Cotmty 
Home). Ludwig Long's family consisted ol 
himself, wife and eleven children, nine sons 
and two daughters. \Mlliam. the subject of 
this sketch, being the second child. The Bar- 
netts were the only neighbors of the Long-;. 
Louis Long brought with him a small "still" 
and six flintlock guns, the only kind in use at 
that time. It was not until about the year 
1830 that the percussion-cap rifles were first 
used, and they were not in general use here for 
some years after that. They sold for twenty- 
five and up to forty dollars apiece. Double- 
barreled rifles came into use here about 1850, 
and sold for fifty to sixty dollars. Guns were 
invented by a German named Swartz, about 
1378. As soon as Mr. Long raised some grain 
he commenced to operate his "still" and man- 
ufacture w'hisky. this being the first manu- 
factured west of the mountains and east nf 
the Allegheny river. 

This part of Pennsylvania was the hunting 
grounds of the Seneca Indians — Cornplanter's 
tribe. The stillhouse of Long soon became the 
resort for these Indians. Pittsburgh was the 
nearest market for pelts, furs, etc., and the 
only ])lacc to secure flour and other neces- 
saries. From ilu- niDulli of Kcd I'ank creek 
these goods had to be ])oIed U]) to Barnctt's 
in canoes. By scooping the channel, wading 
.-md ])oling, a round trip to the mouth cnuld 
be made in from one to two weeks. Although 
the woods swarmed with .'>cneca Indians, as 
a rule, they never committed any depreda- 

When A\'illiam was ten years old. in the 
summer of 1804, he killed his first deer. One 
morning his father sent him into the woods for 
the cows. Nature was resplendent with ver- 
dure. William carried with him a flintlock 
gun, and when a short distance from the hou-^c 

Tlu' Kiiij; TriiiitiT (it Xiiitliw rsti'iii I'ciiiisvlviUiia 

THE r.T','.' YORK 

TILCtt, FO'j-iOArlONS 



he found the cows and a deer feeding with 
them. This was WilHam's opportunity. He 
shot and killed this deer, and, as a reward for 
merit, his father gave him a flintlock gun for 
a present. This circumstance determined his 
course in life, for from that day until his 
death it was his delight to roam in the forest 
and pursue wild animals, and hunting was 
his only business. He was a "professional 
hunter," a "still hunter," or a man who 
hunted alone. 

In the summer of 1804 V\'illiam went with 
his mother to Ligonier, in Westmoreland 
county, to get some provisions. The only road 
was an Indian path, the distance sixty miles. 
They rode through the brush on a horse, and 
made the trip in about five days. 

The Indians soon became civilized, so far 
as drinking whisky and getting drunk was an 
evidence. They visited the stillhouse for their 
debauchery and dnmken carnivals. As a 
safeguard to himself and family, Louis Long 
had a strong box made to keep the guns and 
knives of these Indians in while these orgies 
were in progress. The Indians desired him 
to do this. Mr. Long never charged the In- 
dians for this whisky, although they always 
offered pelts and furs when they were sobered 
up. In consideration for this generosity, the 
Indians, in broken English, always called Louis 
Long, "Good man ; give Indian whisky. In- 
dians fight paleface ; Indian come one hun- 
dred miles to give 'good man' warning." 

Ludwig Long kept his boys busy in the sum- 
mer months clearing land, farming, etc. The 
boys had their own time in winter. Then 
William, with his guns and traps, traversed 
the forest, away from the ocean's tide, with 
no inlet or outlet but winding paths used by 
the deer when he wished to slake his thirst 
in the clear, sparkling waters of the North 

The boy hunter, to keep from being lost 
while on the trail, always follow^ed up one 
side of this creek and came down on the oppo- 
site. When he grew older he ventured farther 
and farther into the wn'lderness, but always 
keeping the waters of the North Fork. Mill 
creek, and Sandy Lick within range until he 
became thoroughly educated concerning the 
country and woods. 

In his boyhood he frequently met and 
hunted in company with Indians. The In- 
dians were friendly to him on account of his 
father's relations to them, and it was these 
Indians that gave William his first lessons in 
the art of hunting. Young William learned 
the trick of calling wolves in this way. One 

day his father and he went out for a deer. 
William soon shot a large one, and while 
skinning this deer they heard a pack of wolves 
howl. William told his father to lie down 
and be ready to shoot, and he would try the 
Indian method of "howling" or calling wolves 
up. His father consented, and William 
howled and the wolves answered. William 
kept up the howls and the wolves answered, 
coming closer and closer, until his father be- 
came scared ; but William wouldn't stop until 
the wolves got so close that he and his father 
had to fire on the pack, killing two, when the 
others took fright and ran away. The bounty 
for killing wolves then was eight dollars apiece. 
.\ short time after William and his father 
went up Sandy to watch an elklick, and at 
this point they killed aii elk and started for 
home. On the way home they found where 
a pack of about twenty wolves had crossed 
their path, near where the town of Reynolds- 
ville now is. Looking up- the hill on the right 
side of .Sandy they espied the whole pack, 
and, both father and son firing into the pack, 
they killed two of them. William then com- 
menced to "howl," and one old wolf through 
curiosity came to the top of the hill, looking 
down at the hunters. For this bravery Wil- 
liam shot him through the head. On their re- 
turn home that day Joseph Bamett treated 
them both to whisky and "tansy," "for," said 
he, "the wolves this day have killed one of 
my cows." 

When Long was still a young man. one day 
he went up the North Fork to hunt, .\bout 
sundown he shot a deer, and when he had it 
dressed there came a heavy rain. Being 
forced to stay all night, he took the pelt and 
covered himself with it, and lay down under 
the bank to sleep. After midnight he awoke, 
and found himself covered with sticks and 
leaves. In a minute he knew this was the 
work of a panther hunting food for her cubs, 
and that she would soon reKirn. He there- 
fore prepared a pitch-pine fagot, lit it, and 
hiding the burning fagot under the bank, 
awaited the coming -of the panther. In a short 
time after the preparation was completed the 
animal returned with her cubs, and when she 
was within about thirty feet of him Long 
thrust his torch up and out. When it blazed 
up brightly the panther gave out a yell and 
ran away. 

John Long and William started out one 
morning on Sandy Lick to have a bear hunt, 
taking with them nine dogs. William had 
been sent out the day before with two dogs, 
and had a skirmish with a bear on Sandy Lick, 



near where Fuller's Station is now located. 
The two brothers went to this point and found 
tlie track, and chased the bear across the creek 
at Rocky Hend, the bear making- for a wind- 
fall : but the dogs stoi)ped him before he 
reached the windfall and commenced the 
tight. They soon heard some of the dogs giv- 
ing death yells. They both hurried to the 
scene of conflict, and the sight they beheld was 
three favorite dogs stretched out dead and the 
balance fighting. \Villiani ran in and placed 
the muzzle of his gun against bruin's l)reast 
and fired. The bear tlien backed up to the 
root of a large hemlock, sitting upright and 
grabbing for dogs. John and William then 
fired, and both balls eiUered bruin's head, not 
more than an inch apart. In this melee three 
dogs were killed and the other six wounded. 

When William was still a boy he went up the 
North Fork and killed five deer in one day. 
On his way home about dark he noticed a pole 
sticking in the hollow of a tree, and carelesslv 
gave this pole a jerk, when he heard a noise 
in the hole. The moon being up, he saw a 
bear einerge from this t'^ee some distance up. 
Young Long shot and killed it before it reached 
the earth. In that same fall, William killed 
in one day, on Mill creek, nine deer, the larg- 
est number he ever killed in that space of 
time. At that time he kept nothing but the 
pelts, and carried them home on his back. 

Panthers often came around Ludwig Long's 
home at night, screaming and yelling. So 
one morning, after three had been prowling 
around the house all night, William induced 
his brother John to join him in a hunt for 
them. There was snow on the ground, and 
they took three dogs with them. The dogs 
soon found the tracks. KeejMng the dogs 
back, they soon found three deer killed by the 
brutes, and they let the dogs go. The dogs 
soon caught these three panthers feasting on 
a fourth deer and treed two of the tianthers. 
John shot one and Billy the other. The third 
escaped. The hunters then camped for the 
night, dining on deer and panther meat roasted, 
and each concluded the panther meat was the 
sweetest and the best. In the morning they 
pursued the third lumther, treed it. and killed 
it. These were the first panthers the Long 
boys ever killed. This stimulated young Wil- 
liaiTi. so he took one of the Va.stbinder boys 
and started out again, taking two dogs. They 
soon found a panther, the dogs attacking it. 
Young Vastbinder fired, but missed. The 
panther sprang for Long, Init tlie dogs caught 
him by the hams, and that sa\cd young Long. 
The panther broke loose from the dogs and 

ran up on a high root. Long fired and broke 
tin- l)rute's back. The dogs then rushed in, 
but the jianther whipped them off. Then 
Long, to save the dogs, ran in and toma- 
hawked the creature. Long was not above 
eighteen years of age. At another time a 
panther sprang from a high tree for Long. 
Long fired and killed the panther before it 
reached him, but the animal striking Long on 
the shoulders the weight felled him to the 

In 1820 Ludwig Long moved to Ohio, and 
young Bill went with the family. He remained 
there about twenty months ; but finding little 
game, he concluded to return to the moun- 
tain hills of Jefiferson county, then the para- 
dise of hunters. 

In 1828 William Long married Mrs. 
Nancy Bartlett, formerly Miss Nancy Mason, 
and commenced married life in a log cabin 
on the North Fork, three miles from where 
Brookville now is, and on what is now 
the Albert Horn farm, formerly the Gaup 
place. About this time, game being plenty, 
and the scalps, skins and saddles being hard 
to carry in. Bill induced a colored man named 
Charlie Southerland to build a cabin near him 
on what is known as the Jacob Hoffman farm. 
Long was to provide for Charlie's family. The 
cabin was built and Southerland served Long 
for about five years. Charles never carried 
a gun. I remember both these characters well 
in my childhood, and doctored Long and his 
wife in my early practice and as late as 1862. 

In 1830, taking Charlie, Long started up 
the North Fork for bears ; it was on Siuiday. 
After Long killed the first bear, he called * 
Charlie to come and bring the dogs. When 
Charlie reached him he yelled out, "Good God. 
massa, hab you seed one?" They continued 
the hunt that day, and before dark had killed 
seven bears. Charlie had never seen any bears 
killed before, but after this day was crazy to 
be on a hunt, for, he said, "if dem little niggers 
of mine hab plenty of bear grease and venison, 
they will fatten well enough." A bear weigh- 
ing four hundred pounds would render fifteen 
gallons of oil. 

That fall long killed sixty deer and twenty- 
five bears, all on the North Fork, and the bears 
were all killed near and around where Rich- 
ardsville now is. This locality was a natural 
home for \yild animals, — 

With its woodland dale and dell, 
KipplinR brooks and hillside springs. 
.'\ life in the forest deep. 
Where the winds their revels keep, 
Like an eagle in groves of pine. 
Long hnnted with his mate. 



The day after Long shot the se\en bears 
he took Charhe Southerland and traveled over 
the same ground that he had been over the 
day before. He heard nothing, however, dur- 
ing the day but the sigh of the breeze or the 
speech of the brook until near evening, within 
about a mile of home, he saw a large buck 
coming down the hill. He fired and wounded 
the buck, and then motioned Charlie to come 
up to him while he was loading. Charlie 
came with a pine log on his back. Long asked 
him what he was doing with the log. Charlie 
replied he wanted it for dry wood. Long told 
him to throw the wood away, and made him 
carry the buck home for food. Long then 
voked his two dogs up and tolfl Charlie to lead 
them, but soon discovering bear signs, told 
Charlie to let the dogs go. The dogs took the 
trail, and found two bears heading for the 
laurel on the head of the Xorth Fork. Long 
knew the route they would take, and beat them 
to the laurel path. Soon Long heard them 
coming, the dogs fighting the bears every time 
the bears would cross a log, catching them 
from behind. The bears would then turn 
around and fight the dogs until they could get 
over the log. When the bears came within 
about thirty yards of Long, he shot one 
through the head and killed him. At this 
lime Long only took the pelts, which he always 
carried home, the meat being of no account 
to him. 

This same year Long took Charlie to get 
some venison by watching a lick, and he took 
Charlie up a tree with him. In a short time 
a very large bear came into the lick. Long 
'ihot it while he and Charlie were up the tree. 
Much to Long's amusement, Charlie was so 
scared that he fell from the tree to the ground, 
landing on his back with his face up. He was. 
however, unhurt, and able to carry home to 
his cabin the pelt and bear oil. The next 
morning they saw a bear, and Long fired, hit- 
ting him in the lungs. This same fall, on the 
head of the Xorth Fork, Long saw something 
black in the brush, which, on closer inspection, 
proved to be a large she-bear. On looking up. 
he saw three good-sized cubs. Long climbed 
up, and brought the whole three of them down, 
one at a time. He then handed them to 
Charlie, who tied their legs. Long put them 
in his knapsack and carried them home. Knap- 
sacks were made out of bed ticking or can- 
vas, with shoulder-straps. One of these young 
bears Long sold to Adam George, a butcher in 
lirookville. Even at this late day Long only 
took the skins and what meat he wanted for 
his own use. This fall Long was not feeling 

well, and had to keep out of the wet. He 
therefore made Charlie carry him across the 
streams. He also made Charlie carry a wolf- 
skin for him to sit on at night, when he was 
watching a lick. 

At another time Charlie and Long went out 
on a hunt near the head of the North Fork. 
In a lonely solitude the dog started a bear, and 
Long could not shoot it for fear of hitting 
the dog, so he ran up and made a stroke at the 
bear's head with a tomahawk, wounding it 
but slightly. The bear jumped for Long and 
the dog came to the rescue of his master by 
catching "the tip of the bear's tail end," and, 
with the valor and fidelity of a true knight, 
held it firmly, until Long, who had left his 
gun a short distance, ran for it. Charlie 
thought Long was running from the bear, and 
took to his heels as if the "Old Harry" were 
after him. Long tried to stop him, but Charlie 
only looked back, and at this moment his foot 
caught under a root, throwing him about 
thirty feet down a hill. Charlie landed on a 
rock hard enough to have burst a shingle bolt. 
Long, seeing this, ran to the bear with his gun 
and shot him. He then hurried down the hill 
to see what had become of Charlie, calling to 
him. Charlie came out from under a bunch 
of laurel, saying-, "(iod Almighty, Massa Long, 
I am failed from heben to hell ! Are you 
still living ? I tot that ar bar had gon for you 
when I seed him come for you with his mouth 
open. Bless de good Lord you still live, or 
this nigger would never git out of dese 
woods !" That night Charlie and Long lay 
out in the woods. The wolves came up quite 
close and commenced to howl. Long saw 
there was a chance for a little fun, so he com- 
menced to howl like a wolf. Charlie became 
nervous. "When lo ! he hears on all sides, 
from innumerable tongues, a universal howl, 
and in his fright" said there must be five 
thousand wolves. Long said he thought there 
were, and told Charlie that, if the wolves came 
after them, he must climb a tree. In a few 
minutes Long made a Jump into the woods, 
yelling, "The wolves are coming," and Charlie 
bounded like a deer into the woods, too. The 
night was dark and dreary ; but deep in the 
forest Charlie made out to find and climb a 
majestic oak. Long, therefore, had to look 
Charlie up, and when he got near to our col- 
ored brother, he heard him soliloquizing thus: 
"Charlie, you have to stick tight, for if this 
holt breaks you are a gone nigger." Long then 
stepped up to the tree and told Charlie the 
danger was over ; but coming down the tree 
was harder than going up, for Charlie fell to 



the earth hke a thunderbolt and doubled up 
like a jack-knife. 

In 1833, on his way home one day, Long 
saw a bear at the foot of a large tree. He 
came up close and tried to get a shot at its 
head, but the bear kept moving abotit so that 
he dared not fire. After trying for some time. 
he knew from the action of the bear that there 
were young ones near, so he bawled like a 
cub, when the old bear came on the run for 
him, with mouth open. Long waited until she 
came up close, when he rammed the muzzle 
of the gun in her mouth and ]nilled the trigger 
of the gun with the thumb of his left hand, 
the load knocking her teeth out and breaking 
her jaw. She then went back to the tree and 
commenced walking around in a circle. As 
soon as Long reloaded his gun he bawled 
again, and the bear this time came within six- 
teen feet of him and sat up straight, wiping 
her mouth with her paws. He then took aim 
at the stalking place and killed her. Going 
to the tree she had lieen walking around and 
looking up, he saw two cubs. At the sight of 
Long these cubs commenced to crawl down ; 
one dropped to the ground and ran off. Long 
fired at the other, breaking its back. This 
cub then fell to the ground, and Long toma- 
hawked it. Knowing the other cub would not 
go far away, he reloaded the gun, and espied 
the cub under a log close by. Taking aim at 
its head he fired, and the cub fell dead. 

This same year, on the head of the North 
Fork, "where rippling waters still flow," Long 
espied a cub bear in a treetop. He told his 
attendant, "Black Charlie," that there was an 
old bear near, or soon would be, and if the old 
one did not soon come back he wanted Charlie 
to make the cub bawl. After waiting some time 
for the old bear to come. Long impatiently 
climbed the tree, caught the cub and gave it 
to Charlie, telling him to take it by the hind 
legs and hold it up and shake it, wfiich would 
make it bawl. After some time the cub was 
made to bawl. The bear, hearing this, came 
running with her mouth open. Charlie threw 
the cub to its molhcr, but the bear ran by the 
cub and stopped. looking first at Long and 
then at the cub. Long fired at the bear, hitting 
her in Ihe breast. She then turned and ran 
toward the cub. After loading again he shot 
her through the lungs, when she started and 
ran some distance, and then came back to the 
cub, which sat still. • After firing the second 
shot Long heard Charlie yell, "What tidings?" 
Long answered him, "Good." Charlie starte<l 
for the rear, saying. Long "didn't get dat nig- 
ger back dar again till dat brute am killed." 

As she came up Long shot her in the head, 
killing her. Me then got the cul) and look it 
home alive. 

At one time Long took thirteen wolf scalps 
and live ])anther scalps to Indi.-ma for the 

. Once in this year, when Long was up on the 
North Fork, he shot a deer, and it fell ajij^ar- 
ently dead ; but when he went to cut its throat 
it jumped to its feet and made for him. and 
threw iiiin on the ground, with a horn on each 
side of his breast. The stone and gravel 
stopped the horns from going into the ground 
to any depth. Long then called for Charlie 
and the dogs, but they were slow in coming to 
his aid. Lefore Charlie got to him Long had 
let go of a horn with one hand and had secured 
his knife and made a stroke at the neck of the 
deer, plunging the knife in the throat, and 
again dexterously clinched the loose horn. 
The lilood came down on him until he was 
covered and perfectly wet. When the deer 
commenced to rise Long still held on both 
horns until the deer raised him to his feet. The 
deer then gave a spring and fell dead. By 
this time Charlie and the dogs came up, and 
the negro was crying. Long was angry, and 
.said to Charlie, "You black son of a b — , 
where have you been?" "Oh, massa, am you 
killed ?" "No, damn yoti ; where have you 
been?" "Oh, just came as soon as I could. 
Will I let the dogs go?" Long said, "No. the 
deer is dead." 

Charlie's domestic life was not all peace, ;is 
the following newspaper advertisement will 
explain : 

Caution. — Whereas my wife did on the 26lh day of 
March last leave my bed and board, and took with 
her two of my sons and some property, having no 
other provocation than "that I would not consent 
to my son marryinK a white girl, and bring her home 
to live with us," thereby I hereby caution all persons 
against harboring or trusting her on my account, 
as I will pay no debts of her contracting. 

If she will come home I promise to do all in my 
power to make her comfortable, and give her an 
equal share of all my property. 

Charles Southerland. 

.April 7, 1847. 

In the Jcffcrsoniaii in 185J I find the fol- 

"In this day's paper we record' the death of 
Charles Southerland (colored), who was one 
of the oldest inhabitants of this county. South- 
erland had arrived at the advanced age of 
nearly one hundred years. He came to what 
is now JefTcrson comity upward of forty years 
ago, when the ground upon which I^ookville 



now stands was but a howling wilderness. 
Many there are in this borough who will miss 
the familiar and friendly visits of 'old 
Charley.' who, with hat in hands, and his 
venerable head uncovered, asked alms at their 
hands. No more will they hear from him a 
description of the Father of his Country, 
when he, Charley, held his horse at the laying 
of the cornerstone of the Capitol at Washing- 
ton City. His breath is hushed, his lips are 
sealed, and his body is wrapped in the cold of 
the grave. Rcqidcscat in pace." 

Wheh this wilderness commenced to settle 
up, Long visited Broken Straw creek, in War- 
ren county, on the head of the Allegheny 
river, to see a noted hunter by the name of 
Cotton, and to learn from him his method of 
hunting young wolves. He learned much 
from this man Cotton, and afterwards se- 
cured many yoimg wolves by following the 
instruction given him by Cotton. In the win- 
ter Long went to Boon's mountain to hunt. 
This mountain was a barren region in those 
days, that always looked in wintertime like 

Rivers of ice and a sea of snow, 
A wilderness frigid and white. 

During the season Bill killed one hundred 
and five deer and Mike one hundred and four, 
and together they killed four bears. .\t this 
time there was some local demand in Brook- 
ville and other towns for venison, and in this 
year Long sent loads of venison to Harris- 
burg, making a trip to the capital in seven or 
eight days. In 1839 Long moved into Clear- 
field county, and his history in Jefferson 
county was closed. 

Number of animals killed by Long in his 
lifetime: Bears, four hundred; deer, three 
thousand, five hundred (in 1835 one white 
one); panthers, fifty; wolves, two thousand; 
elks, one hundred and twenty-five ; fo.xes. four 
hundred ; wildcats, two htmdred ; catamounts, 
five hundred ; otters, seventy-five. 

In 1824 Bill Long had a thrilling adventure 
with a huge panther in what is now Warsaw 
township. In a hand-to-hand encounter he 
killed the animal near where Boot Jack 
(Hazen), Jefferson coun'y, now stands. 

Long used to catch fawn, mark their ears, 
turn them loose, and kill them when full- 
grown deer. Elks were easily domesticated, 
and sold as follows : For a living male elk 
one year old, fifty dollars ; two years old, 
.seventy-five dollars ; three years old. one hun- 
dred dollars ; for a fawn three months old, 
twenty-five dollars. In 1835 Long had five 

wolf dens that he visited annually for pups, 
about the first of May. 

In 1834 Bill Long, his brother Mike, and Ami 
Sibley started on a hunt for elk near where 
Portland now is. At the mouth of Bear creek 
these three hunters came across a drove of 
about forty elks. Bill Long fired into the herd 
and broke the leg of one. This wounded elk 
began to squeal, and then the herd commenced 
to run in a circle around the injured one. 
Sibley's gun had the wiping-stick fastened 
in it, and he could not use it. Bill and Mike 
then loaded and fired into the drove as rapidly 
as they could, the elks continuing to make the 
circle, until each had fired about twenty-five 
shots, when the drove became frightened and 
ran away. On examination, the hunters found 
eight large elks killed. They then made a raft, 
ran the load down to where Raught's mill is 
now, and hauled the meat, pelts and horns to 
Brookville. Portland and Bear creek are now 
in Elk county. 

In 1836 Bill Long took Henry Dull and 
started on a hunt for a young elk. On the 
third day Long saw a doe elk and fawn. He 
shot the mother, and his dog caught the fawn 
and held it without hurting it. Long removed 
the udder from the mother, carrying it with 
the "teats" uppermost, and giving the fawn 
milk from it until they reached Ridgway, 
where a jug of milk was secured. By means 
of an artificial teat the fawn was nourished 
until Long reached his North Fork home. 
Dull led the little creature by a rope around 
its neck. Mrs. Long raised this elk with her 
cows, feeding it every milking-time, and when 
the fawn grew to be some size he would drive 
the cows home every evening for his supper 
milk. When this elk was full grown, Long 
and Dull led him to Buffalo, N. Y., via the 
pike westward to the Allegheny river, and up 
through Warren, and sold the animal for two 
hundred dollars — one hundred dollars in cash 
and a note for the other hundred, which was 
never paid. 

In the fall of 1836 Long took Henry Dull 
with him to hunt wolves. The second even- 
ing Long found an old wolf with six half- 
grown pups. He shot two and the rest ran 
away. Long and Dull then climbed a hem- 
lock, and Long began his wolf howl. Hearing 
the howl, two pups and the old wolf came 
back. Long then shot the mother, and after- 
wards got all the pups. Dull became so fright- 
ened that he fell head first, gun and all, 
through the brush, striking his shoulder. 
"Thanks to the human heart, by which we 
live," for Long nursed Dull at his home on 



the Xortli Fork for three months. Scalps 
then brought twelve dollars apiece. In the 
same year Fred. Hetrick and Hill killed an elk 
at the mouth of TJttle Toby which weighed 
six hundred jiounds. 

In the winter of 1834 William Dixon went 
out with dogs to "rope" or catch a live elk. 
They soon started a drove, on the North Fork, 
and the dogs chased the drove over to the Lit- 
tle Toby, a short distance up from the mouth. 
The dogs separated one buck from the drove, 
and this elk. to protect himself from the dogs, 
took refuge on a ledge of rocks. Bill Fong. 
while Mike and Dixon and the dogs attracted 
the attention of the elk from below, scrambled 
in some way to the toji of the rocks and threw 
a rope over the elk's horns, and then cabled the 
elk to a small tree. This infuriated the elk. 
so that he jumped out over the rocks and fell 
on his side. Mike and Dixon now had the 
first ro])e. Bill Long then rushed on the 
fallen elk and threw another in a slip-noose 
around the elk's neck, and fastened this ro]:)e 
as a guy to a tree. Each rope was then fas- 
tened in an opposite direction to a tree, and 
after the buck was choked into submission 
his feet were tied, and he was dragged by 
these three men on the creek ice to where 
Brockwayville now is. Here they secured a 
yoke of oxen and sled from .\mi Sibley, a 
mighty hunter. .\ small tree was then cut. 
the main stem being aljout five feet long and 
the two forks about three feet in length. Each 
prong of the tree was fastened to a horn of 
the buck, and the main stem was permitted to 
hang down in front over the buck's nose, to 
which it was fastened with a rope. A rope 
was then tied around the neck and antlers, 
and the loose end tied around the hind of the 
sled. The ropes around the feet of the elk 
were then cut. and the buck lit on his feet. 
After the animal had made many desperate 
efforts and ])lunges he c|uieted down, and no 
trouble was experienced until within a few 
miles of I'.rookville. when, meeting an ac- 
quaintance. Dixon became so much excited 
over their success in capturing a live elk that 
he ran up and hit the elk on the back, exclaim- 
ing, "Sec. we have done it !" This so scared 
the elk that he made a desperate jump, upset- 
ting the sled into a ditch over a log. The 
oxen took fright, and in the general melee 
the elk had a shoulder knocked out of place 
and the capture was a failure. 

There grew in abundance in those days a 
tree called moose or Icathervvood. The pioneer 
used the bark for ropes, which were very 


This was "venison flesh cut off in a sheet 
or web about half an inch thick and sjiread 
on the tops of pegs driven into the ground, 
whilst underneath a fire was kindled, fed with 
chips of sassafras and other odorous woods 
that gradually dried it." The web would he 
removed and replaced until the jerk was thor- 
oughly dried. The old hunter used to carry 
a little jerk always with him to eat with his 
bread. This jerk was a delicious morsel. Bill 
I^ong gave me many a "cut." I think T can 
taste it now. Mike and Bill Long would bring 
it to Brookville and retail it to the people at 
five cents a cut. 

In the forties, when Long lived above Falls 
Creek, he went through wastes of snow and 
icicled trees to find a buck that he wounded, 
and took his son Jack, who was but a boy. 
along with him. On their way the dog scented 
some animal that was no deer, and Long told 
him to go. The dog soon treed a panther, and 
when the two hunters came to him they found 
two more panthers on the ground. The dog 
seized one of the animals, and Jack stopped to 
shoot the one in the tree, which, after he had 
shot twice, fell dead. At the same time Long 
threw his gun in the snow, as he could not 
shoot for fear of killing the dog which had 
seized the panther. Long then ran to the dog's 
assistance and tomahawked the panther. Long 
then came up to his father and said, pointing. 
"There is the other one looking at us." The 
dogs were urged on and both took hold of 
this panther: Tack ran in and caught the 
panther l)y the hind legs, the dogs having him 
in front. Jack was anxious to take this ani- 
mal home alive and wanted him roped. Long 
got a rope from his knapsack and tied it around 
the hind legs. iVIaking a noose, he put it over 
the panther's head and tied the rope to a sap- 
ling, and Jack pulled back on the other rope, 
thus stretching the i)anther full length. The 
front feet were tied without any danger and 
the panther was soon secured, but when they 
had him tied and ready to move home, they 
discovered the dogs had cut the jugular vein, 
and before they had the other two animals 
skinned, the third one was dead. 

Mike and Bill, with their dogs, started for 
the waters of North Fork, taking a bottle of 
whisky with them. When near the head of 
this stream, the dogs took the scent of wolves 
and folknved them under a large rock. Bill 
crawled under this rock and took from it 
eight young wolves. These scalps brought 
sixty-four dollars. Long went another time 



and took his son Jack, who was quite small, 
with liiin, also his dog. which he called Trim. 
I remember this dog well. He was most thor- 
oughly trained, and I have seen Long on a 
drunken jamboree in Smith's barroom, in 
Brookville. command this dog Trim to smell 
for wolves, when the dog would actively and 
carefully scent every part of the room. In 
man the most de\eloped sense is touch, in 
birds sight, and in dogs smell. While on this 
trip Long crossed over to the waters of Little 
Toby, and at a certain point he knew from 
the actions of Trim that there was game 
somewhere near. Looking in the same direc- 
tion as the dog, he saw a big bear on a tree 
and two large wolves at the foot watch- 
ing the bear. Long told Jack to hold Trim 
and he would crawl up and shoot the 
bear. As he got within shooting distance 
of the bear, Trim broke loose from Jack and 
the bear, seeing the dog, came dow'n the tree 
and ran off. The dog then took after the 
wolves. The slut wolf ran under a rock and 
the dog wolf ran in a different direction. 
Long and Trim pursued the dog wolf, and in 
a short time Trim came back yelping with the 
wolf at his heels. Trim had about one inch 
of white at the end of his tail which the wolf 
iiad bitten off. The wolf paid no attention to 
Long, but went straight on. At shooting dis- 
tance Long shot him through the head. The 
two, father and son. then went to the rocks, 
and Bill crawled under, finding there seven 
young wolve.s — six he caught, but the seventh 
he could not find, though he could hear it bark. 
Long came out and gave his gun to Jack and 
told him that he would howl like a wolf and 
the pup would come out, and then for Jack to 
shoot it. The pu]), hearing Long howl, and 
thinking that he was its mother, came out and 
Jack shot it. The seven pups and the old male 
made eight wolves at this time. Bill Long 
took the pups of that slut every spring for five 
years, finding them some place between the 
mouth of Little Toby and Brandycamp. 

When out on the ridge in Elk county, near 
where Bootjack now is. Long saw signs of a 
panther. He had two dogs with him, and soon 
came on the panther. The dogs were barking 
at the animal as it sat on a rock. Long fired 
at the panther and wounded it. The dogs 
rushed upon the panther. Ijut soon let go. 
though not before one of them was badly 
crippled. Long at that time had a double- 
barreled rifle. He then ran U])on the pantlier. 
and, putting the muzzle of the gun to its head. 
killed it on the spot. In this adventure he 
liad not only the skin of the panther to carry 

home, but tiie crippled dog also, which was too 
badly wounded to walk. 

.About the year 1845 I'iH Long and two of 
the Kahle boys, John and Jacob, caught eight 
young wolves in a den. This den was on Alill 
creek, which empties into Clarion about three 
or four miles from where Sigel now is. 
John Kahle, on going in the ninth time, as he 
had done eight times before, armed with a 
torch, a stick four or five feet long, with a 
hook on it to fasten into the wolves, and a 
rope tied to his foot, to pull him out by, caught 
the old one. Long and Kahle thought she 
was not in. When young Kahle saw the wolf 
he pulled the rope and Long pulled Kahle out, 
but Kahle was not able to bring the wolf with 
him. When he told his story. Long tried to 
hire him for ten dollars to go in again, but 
Kahle would not go. Long then tried to hire 
his brother, and he would not go in. Then 
Long whetted his knife, fixed his gun, and 
started in, Ijut the way being too narrow for 
him, he came back before getting out of sight. 
After the fourth trial by Long, he came out 
and said he had seen the wolf, but could not 
shoot her. 

As I remember Long, he was about five feet 
four inches high, chubby, strong built, active, 
athletic and a great dancer — danced what he 
called the "chipjiers" and the "crack," was 
cheerful, lively, and good-natured. He car- 
ried a heavy single-barreled, muzzle-loading 
rifle. His belief was that he could shoot bet- 
ter with a heavy rifle than with a light one. 
Although there were dozens of professional 
hunters in this wilderness, this man was the 
king. He had an enduring frame, a catlike 
step, a steady nerve, keen eyesight, and a ripe 
knowledge of all the laws governing "still 
iiunts for deer and bears." To reach the great 
skill he attained in mature life required natu- 
ral talents, perseverance, sagacity and habits 
of thought, as well as complete self-poise, self- 
Vontrol and quickness of execution. 

In these woods Long had great opportunities 
for perfecting himself in all that pertained to 
proficiency in a great hunter. Of the other 
hunters that ajiproached him, I only recall his 
brothers, the Knapps, the three \'astbinders, 
the Lucases, the Bells, the Nolfs, Sibley, Fred 
Hetrick, Indian Russell and George Smith. 

The professional hunter was created by the 
law of 1705 under the dynasty of \\'illiam 
Penn. The law- reads as follows: 


CATTLE BY WOLVES. — Section r. That if any 
person within this province siiall kill a dog- 



wolf, he shall have ten shillings, and if a 
bitchwolf, fifteen shillings, to be paid out of 
the county stock. Provided, such person brings 
the wolf's head to one of the justices of llic 
peace of that county, who is to cause the cars 
and tongue of said wolf to be cut off. And 
that the Indians, as well as others, shall be 
paid for killing wolves accordingly. 

"Section 2. That all and every person or 
j)ersons who are willing to make it their busi- 
ness to kill wolves, and shall enter into recog- 
nizance before two or more justices of the 
peace of the respective counties where he or 
they dwell, with sufficient security in the sum 
of five pounds, that he or they shall and will 
make it his or their business, at least three 
days in every week, to catch wolves, shall 
have twenty-five shillings for every wolf, dog 
or bitch, that he or they shall so catch and 
kill within the time mentioned in the said 
recognizance, to be paid out of the county 
levies where the wolves are taken as afore- 

This act was rejiealed by the acts of 17S2 
and 1819. 

Long's early dress was a coonskin cap. moc- 
casin shoes, a hunting shirt, and generally 
buckskin breeches. The hunting shirt was 
worn by all these early hunters, and sometimes 
in militia drill. It was a kind of frock, 
reached down to the thighs, had large sleeves, 
was open before, and lajiped over a foot or so 
when belted. This shirt was made of linsey, 
coarse linen, or dressed buckskin. The deer- 
skin shirt was cold and uncomfortable in wet 
and cold rain. The bosom of the shirt sc)\cil 
as a receptacle for rye bread, wheat cakes, tow 
for cleaning the rifle, jerk. ])unk, flint and 
knocker to strike fire with, etc. (matches were 
first made in 1829. but were not used here for 
many years after that). The belt was tied 
behind: it usually held the mittens, bullet bag. 
tomahawk, and scaljjing knife in its long buck- 
skin sheath. The moccasin in cold weather 
was sometimes stufifed with feathers, wool and 
dry leaves. There were .-ibfjul forty-five bul- 
lets to a ])ound of lead for llic heavv early 

The baiid-lo-band c(jntlicls of thi> noted 
hunter with p.anthers. bears. i-;ilaniounts. 
wohes, elks and bucks, both on the land and in 
the streams, if written out in full would make 
a large volume. Elk and deer frequently took 
to the creek, and a battle royal with knife and 
horns would have to be fought in the water. 
Long was seven times mistaken while in ;i 
thicket for ;i wild animal, and careless hunters 
shot at him. Once his cheek was rubbed with 

a ball. Dozens of Indians and |)alefaced men 
hunted in this wilderness as well as he, ;ind 
the table .giving an exhibit of the aggregate 
number of animals killed by Long during his 
life as a hunter only goes to show what a great 
zoological garden of wild animals this wilder 
ness must have been. 

William Long died in Hickory Kingdom. 
Clearfield Co., Pa., in May, 1880, and was 
buried in the Conway cemetery, leaving two 
sons, "Jack," a mighty hunter, and a younger 
son, William. 

Peace to his ashes. In the haunts of this 
wilderness, scorched by the summer sun, 
[)inched by the winds of winter wailing their 
\oices like woe, separated for weeks at a time 
in his lonely cabins from the society of men 
and women, and then, too, awakened in the 
dark and dreary nights by the howl of the 
wolf, the panther's scream and the owl's to- 
hoo ! to-hoo ! Long steadily, year in and year 
out, for sixty years pursued this wild, romantic 

George Smith, son of James and Alary 
Smjth, was born in King's county, Nova Scotia. 
Canada, in 1827. When he w^as but a lad his 
■parents migrated to Westmoreland county. Pa. 
Not satisfied there, in 1842 his father and 
mother migrated into this wilderness and set- 
tled in what was then Snyder (now Washing- 
ton) township. Jeft'erson county. James Smith 
was a powerful man physically, and while at 
a frolic in 1845 he was struck over the head 
with a handspike. It occurred at the home of 
Hamilton Moody, in W^ashington township. 
.\ dispute arose betw-een Thomas Brown and 
James .Smith, lirown struck Smith v .ih ;i 
handspike, which caused his death in twenty- 
four hours. Too much whisky was the cause 
lif the dispute ;uid blow. Prown was tried at 
l!rook\-ille, convicted, and sentencefl to the 
l)enitentiary for six years, but was afterwards 

Left an orphan by the murder of his father, 
(leorge Smith adopted the profession of 
hunter, which he followed until 1900. In 
1S51) he married .Susan Williams and com- 
menced housekeeping on his father's old 
homestead, in Washington township, where to 
them \yere born fi\e children, three boys and 
two girls. From this old homestead he made 
fre(|ucnt tri])s into the deejier forests after all 
kinds of large game. 

Jefferson county becoming too civilized for 
him. in i8C>2 he mo\ed his family into the 
"Warren \\"oods," or more ])roperly into what 
was then and is now called I lighland townshi(). 



■""the kev; YORK 


ASTon, f Mox 




Elk Co., Pa. While his children were growing 
up he maintained two homes, one for them in 
civilization, Jefferson county, and a cabin for 
himself where "the shades of the forest were 
heavy the whole day through." 

As a hunter he kept a record of all the game 
killed by himself. In 1863, his first year in 
Elk county, he killed one hundred and fifty 
deer, thirteen bears and thirteen wolves. His 
name all through the woods of Elk, Forest and 
Jefferson could in those days be seen on blazed 
trees, like the tree in the picture, and with a. 
record frequently of having "Killed one B'ar," 
wolf or deer as the case might be. He erected 
through the woods several cabins as a neces- 
sity and refuge. The latchstring of these was 
always out to strangers, fishermen and sports- 
men. The camp in this picture was located on 
the headwaters of Pigeon run, nine miles in a 
straight line from Beech Bottom, on the 
Clarion river, and was approached only by 
a path. This residence was built out of round 
logs, twelve by fifteen feet, chunked and 
daubed, clapboards and weightpoles formed 
the roof, and doors took the place of windows, 
with no glass. On this particular cabin he had 
a sign displayed, "Everyone who stops here 
will please register." 

At one time his wife visited liim at this 
cabin. George had been away all day, and as 
he was coming home in the evening I\Irs. 
Smith went to the door to meet him, when, lo 
and behold, she espied a panther that was trail- 
ing George. She immediately sprang for a 
rifle and shot the panther. She and the two 
girls were excellent "marksmen." Smith 
would shoot at mark with them all day long 
and never give up until his oldest daughter 
would make some stray shot. The Winchester 
repeating rifle you see on his knee in the 
picture was presented to him by Maurice 
Schultz, a great tannery man of Wilcox, Elk 
county. This rifle cost seventy dollars, which 
was given Smith for finding .Schultz when lost 
in the woods. 

.-\ complete story of Smith's combats with 
panthers, bears, wolves and elk would be inter- 
esting in the extreme. Although I was a boy- 
hood companion, and afterwards his physician, 
I never could get him to relate his adventures 
in full. He was kind, modest, unassuming 
and not given to extolling his experiences, 
never used tobacco in any form nor much 
liquor, or was ever known to utter an oath. 

In addition to being a professional hunter, 
George Smith was a character, a child of na- 
ture whose life was spent in the pursuit of 
large game, a rude log cabin his home and the 

hemlock boughs his bed. Although he lived 
in the wilds of Elk he occasionally hunted also 
in Michigan, Maine, Manitoba and through 
Canada, where he killed many moqse and other 
large game. 

.-\s I recall George Smith he was about five 
feet, ten inches high, a little stooped in appear- 
ance, active, athletic, with an enduring frame, 
a catlike step, a steady nerve, and a ripe knowl- 
edge of all the law governing still hunts for 
deer, elk and bear. He had keen eyesight until 
June, 1876, when by an accident in the woods 
he came near losing both eyes. By daily care 
and attention for two weeks I succeeded in 
saving his left eye for him. 

To reach the great skill he attained in ma- 
ture life required natural talent, perseverance, 
sagacity and habits of thought as well as com- 
plete self-possession, self-control and quickness 
of execution. He never hunted with dogs or 
a dog. In these woods, the paradise of hunt- 
ers, George Smith had great opportunities for 
perfecting himself in all the art of a great 
hunter, and he surely was a king. He died in 
the wilds of Elk county. Smith killed in this 
wilderness fourteen panthers, five hundred 
bears, thirty elks, three thousand deer, five 
hundred catamounts, five hundred wolves and 
six hundred wildcats. He killed seven deer in 
a day, and as many as five bears in a day. He 
killed two wolves in Elk county in 1874, the 
last wolves he ever slew. Most of these ani- 
mals were killed in what was originally Jeffer- 
son county. 

Andrew Jackson Long, a son of William 
and Nancy Bartlett (Mason) Long, was bom 
in Jefferson county. Pa., in 1829, on what is 
known as and now called the Horn farm. He 
moved with his father to the neighborhood of 
Falls Creek, in Clearfield county, when he was 
about twelve years old. I knew him from boy- 
hood, and visited with him in his home for two 
days in 1899, when he gave ine the following 
facts in regard to his hunting career: 

"I have killed si.x deer in a day. often four 
or five. I have killed four panthers in a day. 
and twenty during my life. The last panther 
I killed was in 1872. It was the largest one, 
and measured eleven feet from tip of nose to 
end of tail. I have killed about three hundred 
and fifty bears. In 1898 I killed nine bears. 
I have killed about fifteen hundred deer. I 
have killed about one hundred and fifty wolves. 
The last wolves — two in number — I killed in 
1881. I have killed foxes, wildcats, cata- 
mount, etc., without number. I caught in traps 
twenty otters and one black fox. 



"When hungry, wolves anil Ijears will eat 
one another. A bear will fight for its cubs 
even to death ; a panther will not. Wolves 
make some fi.ght for their young, but not a 
close one. A* large bear will kill a panther in 
a fight. Rears have wallows, and have paths 
for miles to and from their dens. These 
paths are usually blazed on hemlock trees. 
Each bear, big or little, traveling the same 
path, will bite the blazed trees. Wolves have 
their paths, too. Wolves will kill a deer for 
their yoinig, cut it up, and bur)- it along their 
paths. Panthers usually have from two to 
three cubs in Se])tember of each year. A ])an- 
ther will eat only fresh meat. 

"I have trained j^anthers until they w-ere 
about two years old, when they became vicious 
and had to be killed. I have trained wolves 
and used them for the same purposes as a dog. 
They would follow me as dogs, and hunted 
with me, but at the age of two years I gener- 
ally had to kill them. For beartraps, I used 
venison, groundhog and beef for bait. .\ bear 
w-ill patiently dig a whole day for a groundhog. 
I have found many deer horns in the woods, 
that were locked l)y combat, each deer having 
died from this fight. In 1833 my father and f 
killed five grown panthers .on Medix run. In 
March of the same year Peter Smith and 
]'>asmus Morey killed six full-grown panthers 
in the same neighborhood, making eleven in 

Andrew Jackson Pong died at his home, 
about two miles from DuBois, June 18, irjoo. 

The wholesale prices of fur in 1804 were: 
Otter, one dollar and a half to four dollars; 
bear, one to three and a half dollars; beaver, 
one to two and a half dollars; marten, fifty 
cents to a dollar and a half ; red fox, one dollar 
to one dollar, ten cents ; mink, twenty to forty 
cents; muskrat, twenty-five to thirty cents; 
raccoon, twenty to fifty cents; deer pelts, se\'- 
enty-five cents to one dollar. 

The pioneer hunter carried his furs and 
pelts to the Pittsburgh market, on rafts and in 
canoes, where he sold them to what were called 
Indian traders from the East. In later years 
traders visited the cabins of our hunters and 
bartered for and bought the furs and pelts 
from the hunters or from our merchants. 

A mil nf Skin and Salt 

Nov. 2ist, 1832. 
Rec'd of Mr. John Doutlictt : 

I Bushel of Salt at $i..SO 

1 Bear skin at 75 

2 Deer skins at 75 

3 Does at iSjijc 56 

I Fawn skin at 2.S 

Rec'd bj' me, 

Bkxjn Bonsali.. 

The above Mr. John Douthett lived in 
Young township, Jefiferson county. Benjamin 
P>onsall lived in Clearfield county, two miles 
east of Luthersburg. 


Snakes and reptiles were very numerous. 
The early pioneer had to contend with poison- 
ous snakes. The non-poisonous were the 
spotted adder, blacksnake, green, garter, water 
and house snakes. The blacksnake sometimes 
attained a length of seven to nine feet, and 
lived a natural life of twenty years. The 
natural life of the rattler and copperhead is 
twenty-five years. Dens of vicious rattle- 
snakes existed in every locality. In the vicinity 
of Brookville there was one at Puckety, sev- 
eral on the North fork, one at Iowa Mills, and 
legions of rattlers on Mill creek. The dens 
had to be visited by bold, hardy men annually 
every spring to kill and destroy these reptiles 
as they emerged into the sun from their dens. 
Hundreds had to be destroyed at each den 
ever)' spring. This was necessary as a means 
of safety for both man and beast. Of copper- 
heads there were but few dens in Jefiferson 
county, and these in the extreme south and 
southwest, viz.: In Perry township, in P)eaver 
township (on Beaver run), and two or three 
dens in Porter township, on the headwaters of 
Pine run — Xye's branch and Lost Hill. Occa- 
sionally one was found in Brookville. 

The copperhead is hazel-brown on the back 
and flesh-colored on the belly. On each side 
there are from fifteen to twenty-si.x chestnut 
blotches or bands that somewhat resemble an 
inverted Y. The head is brighter, and almost 
copper-colored on tO]), and everywhere over 
the back are found very fine dark points. The 
sides of the head are cream-colored. The 
dividing line between the flesh of the side 
and the co]5per of the top j)asses through the 
upper edge of the head, in front of the eye, 
involving three-fourths of the orbit. The line 
is very distinct. He cannot climb, and lives 
on lizards, mice, frogs and small birds, sum- 
mers mostly on low, moist ground, but winters 
on ridges. He is commonly found wherever 
the rattler is, but he does not live quite so far 
north. He has a variety of names — upland 
moccasin, chunkhead. deaf-adder and pilf)t- 
snake among the rest. It is agreed that he is 
a much more vicious brute than the rattle- 
snake. He is more easily irritated and is 
quicker in his movements. It is said that he 
will even follow up a \ictim for a second blow. 
On the other hand, his bite is \'ery much less 
dangerous fin- a \ariety of reasons. In the 

_TH]- NEV/ YCPi? 


JiAXDKI) I;AI ri.KSXAKK (Crotaliis ll.uri.hi, i , NAIl IIAI. I.IFK' 2o YKAKS 

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first place, he is no more than three feet long, 
and his fangs are considerably shorter than 
those of a rattler of the same size, while his 
strength is less, and the blow, therefore, less 
effective. So he cannot inflict as deep a wound 
nor inject so much venom. The chances of his 
getting the venom directly into a large vein are 
proportionately less. 

The bigger the reptile, of course, the more 
poison it has. Furthermore, it is to be remem- 
bered that of all American serpents the rattle- 
snake is the most dangerous, the copperhead 
less so, and the water-moccasin least. It is a 
fact that the poisonous snakes are proof 
against their own venom. That this is true 
has been demonstrated repeatedly by inoculat- 
ing such serpents with the poisonous secretion 
from their salivary glands. It is believed 
that there exists in the blood of the venomous 
snake some agent similar to the poison itself, 
and that the presence of this toxic principle is 
accountable for the immunity exhibited. 

Rattlesnakes, copperheads and other snakes 
do most of their traveling in the night. Snakes, 
it appears, are extremely fastidious, every 
species being limited to one or two articles of 
diet, and preferring to starve rather than eat 
anything else apparently quite as toothsome 
and suitable. Individual snakes, too, show 
strange prejudices in the matter of diet, so 
that it is necessary in every case to find out 
what the snake's peculiarities are before feed- 
ing him. Rattlesnakes eat rabbits, birds, mice, 
rats, etc., and live on barren or rocky land, or 
on huckleberry land. They like to bathe, drink 
and live in the sunshine. This, too. makes 
them avoid ridgy, hea^•ily timbered land. They 
can live a year without food. They feed two 
or three times a year, but drink water freely 
and often, and like a horse. 

One safety from the snakes to the ])ioneer 
and his family was the great number of his 
razorback hogs. These animals were great 
snakehunters, being very fond of them. 

The rattlesnake and copperhead are not 
found anywhere but in America. The rat- 
tler belongs to the viper family. There are 
twelve species and thirteen varieties in the 
United States. They vary in size and color, 
varieties being red, white, and green-spotted 
and black. A rattle is formed at each renewal 
of the skin, and as the skin may be renewed 
more than once a year, rattles do not indicate 
the exact age. They live to a ripe old age, 
and have sometimes as manv as thirty rattles. 
In the natural state tlie rattler sjicds his skin 
but once a year, but in confinement he can be 
forced to shed tlie skin two or three times 

annually by giving him warm baths and keep- 
ing him in a warm place. Rattlers are indif- 
ferent climbers of trees, are fond of inusic, 
and do not chase a retreating animal that has 
escaped their strike. 

Our rattlesnake is the Crotalus Horridus, 
and is black and yellow-spotted, called banded 
or timber. They have no feet or legs, but have 
double reproductive organs, both the male and 
female. Their scent is very acute, and by scent 
they find food and their mates. Our snake 
attains the length of five feet, but usually only 
four and a half feet, and inhabits the barren, 
rocky portions, formerly in immense numbers, 
but of late years not so plentiful. They 

Dr. Ferd. Hoffman, of llrookville, cele- 
brated as a snake-charmer, brought a rattle- 
snake into our store one day, in a little box 
covered with wire screen. The snake was 
small, being only thirty inches long and having 
seven rattles. Desiring to see the reptile eat, 
and knowing that snakes will not eat anything 
but what they kill themselves, we conceived the 
idea of furnishing his kingship a repast. Mr. 
Robert Scofield went out and captured a large 
field mouse (not mole) and brought it in, and, 
in the presence of myself, Albert Gooder, 
Squire McLaughlin and brother, and Frank 
Arthurs, dropped it into the box under the 
screen. The box was fourteen inches long 
and seven inches wide. The snake, being 
lively, immediately stmck the mouse back of 
the head. The mouse gave a little squeak of 
terror and ran fourteen inches, then staggered 
fourteen inches, the length of the box, then 
was apparently seized with spinal paralysis, 
for it had to draw its hind limbs with its front 
feet to a corner of the box. It then raised 
up and fell dead on its back. After striking 
the mouse the snake paid no attention to any- 
thing until the mouse dropped over dead. 
Then his snakeship wakened up and apparently 
smelled (examined) the mouse all over. Sat- 
isfied it was healthy and good food, the snake 
caught the mouse by the nose and pulled it 
out of the corner. After this was done, the 
snake commenced the process of swallowing 
in this manner: He opened his jaws and took 
the head of the mouse in one swallow, pulling 
alternately by the hooks in the upper and lower 
jaws, thus forcing the mouse downward, tak- 
ing an occasional rest, swallowing and resting 
six times in the process. He rattled vieor- 
ously three times during this procedure. It is 
said they rattle only when in fear or in danger. 
This rattling of his must have been a notice 
to us that he was dining, and to stand back. 



The rattler is the most inteUigent of all snake 
kind. I am informed by Dr. Hoffman that the 
rattlesnake is possessed of both intelligence 
and a memory ; that he can be domesticated. 
He has his dislikes, also. He also informs me 
that rattlesnakes are unlike in disposition, some 
being cross and ugly, while others are docile 
and pleasant. A rattler matures at the age 
of two years, and at three is full grown and 
has mated or mates. The males are smaller, 
thinner, brighter and more active than the 

.All the different species of rattlesnakes are 
provided with two small sacs, each of which 
contains a minute quantity of poison, and com- 
municates, by means of a short excretory duct, 
with the canal in the fang on each side of the 
upper jaw. It is inclosed by a bony frame- 
work, situated external to the proper jaw, 
and is under the control of appropriate mus- 
cles, the action of which aids materially in 
expelling the sac contents. The fangs, situ- 
ated just at the verge of the mouth, are very 
long, sharp and crooked, like the claws of a 
cat, and are naturally retracted and concealed 
in a fold of integument; but, when the animal 
is irritated, are capable of being instantly 
raised, and darted forward with great force 
into the skin of the object bitten, followed by 
an emission of poison. The snake, then, does 
not bite, but strikes, making a punctured 
wound. The poison of the rattlesnake is a 
thin, semi-transparent, albuminous fluid, of a 
yellowish color, with, occasionally, a tinge of 
green, and is deadly. When a '"bite" is not 
fatal it is because of no poison in sac, broken 
teeth, or failure to puncture the skin or cloth- 
ing. It is fatal in from ten minutes to two 
hours if a vein has been pierced. The quan- 
tity of venom contained in the poison-bag does 
not generally exceed a teaspoonful; but it ac- 
cumulates when the animal is inactive, taking 
fifteen to thirty days for it to fill. A snake 
will eject fifteen drops when its fang is not 
used for several weeks. This poison is pecu- 
liarly acrid and deadly in hot weather and 
during the |)rocrcating season. In winter and 
early spring the reptile is in a torpid condi- 
tion, and the poison is then diminished in quan- 
tity, and unusually thick, although not less 
virulent. .\ rattler can and will bilo without 

Rattlesnakes are sluggish and loath to bite 
when it can be avoided or when they are not 
surprised into a sudden stroke. This disj)0si- 
tion \aries. however, with the weather, their 
hunger, the season (all are irritable when 
sloughing their skin). The effect upon the 

human system of a rattlesnake bite depends 
entirely upon the amount of venom introduced 
into the body. Constitutional symptoms ap- 
pear, as a rule, in less than fifteen minutes, 
prostration, staggering, cold sweats, vomiting, 
feeble and quick pulse, dilatation of the pupil 
and slight mental disturbance. In this state 
the patient may die in about twelve hours. 
The local hemorrhagic extravasation fre- 
([uently suppurates and becomes gangrenous, 
and from this the patient may die even weeks 

There are no complete statistics to show 
how many persons die in the world of snake 
bites each year. The number, however, has 
been placed at thirty thousand. In the United 
-States, so far as known, the annual fatalities 
amount to about fifty. Florida is generally 
looked upon to contribute several of these with 

\'enomous snakes of America are comprised 
in four families — the rattlesnake proper, the 
copperhead and the moccasin, the coral snake 
and the ground rattler. There are several 
varieties of the rattlesnake and two of the 

Nearly every variety of the snake family is 
oviparous. The eggs are oblong. The black- 
snake lays a large number of eggs, about the 
size of the thumb, in July or .August. During 
this breeding season blacksnakes are bold, and 
will attack persons with great courage if their 
nests are approached. The attack is with 
activity and by direct assault. Their bite is 
harmless. When young they are gray or 
spotted. The rattlesnake is viviparous, and 
has from five to twenty young in Jul)' or 
.August, each eight to fourteen inches long and 
as thick as a lead pencil. They are ready to 
fight, and eat a mouse or young squirrel every 
fifth day. The blacksnake is a great tree- 
climber. The copperheads have their young 
alive, and never more than seven at a birth. 
The young are ready to fight from birth. 

The eyes of a rattlesnake are fixed. He 
cannot move them, and must move his head in 
order to change his scope of vision. The skin 
over the eye is in one piece with that of its 
body, and is cast oft' with it when the snake 
sheds its skin. When shedding the skin be- 
comes blurred and finally opaque, leaving the 
reptile blind. .\11 poisonous snakes have round 
eye pupils, non-poisonous have cat eyes or 
elliptical pupils. Snakes have ears, but no 
apparent external opening, the orifice being 
covered with a scale. 

Actually, there is no such thing as a snake 
charmer. \^enomous reptiles are all bluff, and, 

Tl'E K 

EV/ YC! 







FuunOA ' 








GROUSE OK 1'II|;asA\'1' 




when thev learn that you are not afraid of 
them, they no longer try to bite. They are 
the most cowardly of all animals. 

The blacksnake and rattlesnake are mortal 
enemies. They always fight when they meet, 
and the blacksnake usually kills the other, his 
activity enabling him to tear the rattler to 
pieces.' He coils himself around the head and 
tail of the rattler, and then pulls him in two. 
The blacksnake is a mortal enemy to the cop- 
perhead also. 

Snakes have what phrenologists call love of 
home. A rattler will travel forty miles to 
winter in his ancestral den. They usually 
travel in mated pairs; if you kill one there is 
another nearby. Usually when one snake rat- 
tles in a den they all commence. The sicken- 
ing odor of the den is due to urination when 
excited. Rattlesnake oil is in great repute as 
a medicine for external application. 

"Rattlesnake Pete," of Rochester, New 
York, has been bitten by rattlers over eighteen 
times, and, as a result, has passed a good deal 
of his time in hospitals, swathed in bandages, 
and enduring the most agonizing pains. 
"Whenever I am bitten now." he remarked to 
me. 'T never suck the wound. If there were 
any slight superficial wound in the mouth, such 
as a scratch, the venom would thus get into the 
system and would perhaps prove fatal. When 
bitten I cut the flesh around the puncture and 
make another wound between the injured spot 
and the heart with a sharp knife, which I 
always carry with me in case of such an 
emergency. ' Into these two self-inflicted 
wounds I'then inject permanganate of potash, 
which has the effect of nullifying the serpent's 

The snapping-turtle, the mud-turtle and the 
leather-back terrapin existed in countless num- 
bers in our swamps and around our streams, 
and formed a part of the Indian's and pioneer's 
food. The tree-toad, the common toad, com- 
mon frog, lizard and water lizard lived here 
before the pioneers took possession of the land. 
The red-legged or stinkpot turtles lived on the 
land and were poisonous to eat. Turtles live 
to a great age. As a food they were g)-,-:tly 
relished by the pioneers. There are a few 
people living in Brookville yet who gathered 
turtle eggs to eat on what is now our fair 

The natural life of the common toad is 
thirty-six years. 


'Tf a bird's nest chance to be before thee in 
the wav in anv tree, or on the ground, whether 

they be young ones, or eggs, and the daiu sit- 
ting upon the young, or upon the eggs, thou 
shalt not take the dam with the young: but 
thou shalt in anywise let the dam go, and take 
the young to thee; that it may be well with 
thee, and thou mayest prolong thy days." — 
Deut. xxii, 6, 7. 

With the exception of the wild turkey and 
raven, which are now about extinct, we have 
almost the same variety of birds that lived 
and sang in this wilderness when the Barnetts 
settled on Mill creek. Some of these original 
birds are quite scarce, however. The heath 
hen, pigeon, parraket and Labrador duck are 
extinct in Pennsylvania. We have one new- 
bird, the English sparrow. 

Before enumerating our birds it might be 
proper to give a few sketches of some of the 
principal ones. 

The Raven 

A very handsome bird, numerous here in 
pioneer times, now extinct in Jefferson county, 
but still to be found in about twenty counties 
of the State. He belongs to the crow family. 
He built his nest on the tallest pine trees. He 
had a wonderful intellect, could learn to talk 
correctly, and was a very apt scholar. He 
understood firearms and could count five. 
He was easily tamed, and would follow like a 
dog. He lived to an extreme old age, and 
when full grown measured twenty-two or 
twenty-six inches from tip of nose to end of 
tail. In Greenland white ones have been seen, 
but ours was blue-black, like the common 
crow. He made his home in the solitude of 
the forest, preferring the wildest and most 
hilly sections. In such regions, owing to his 
intellect and strength, his supremacy was 
never questioned, unless by the eagle. In the 
fall of the year he would feast on the saddles 
of venison the hunters would hang on the 
trees, and the Longs adopted this method to 
save their meat : Taking a small piece of miis- 
lin. they would wet it, and rub it all over with 
gunpowder, sharpen a stick, and pin this cloth 
to the venison. The raven and crow would 
smell this powder and keep away from the 
venison. The raven was a mischievous bird 
of rare intelligence. He looked inquiringly at 
you, as if he understood you. The eggs were 
from two to seven, colored, and about two 
inches long. 

The "Bald" Eagle, Our Nafional Emblem 

The naiue '-bald" which is given to this spe- 
cies is not applied because the head is bare, but 



because the feathers on the neck of tlie adult 
are pure white. In northern Pennsylvania, as 
well as throun;hout the United States, we had 
but two species of cajjlcs. the bald and the 
golden. The "black," "gray" and "Washing- 
ton" eagles are but the young of the bald eagle. 
Three years, it is stated, are required before 
this species assumes the adult plumage. The 
bald eagle is still found in Pennsylvania at all 
seasons of the year. I have seen some that 
measured eight feet from tip to tip of wing. 

The nest, a bulky affair, built on a large tree, 
mostly near the water, is about four or five 
feet in diameter. It is made up chiefly of 
large sticks, lined inside with grass, leaves, etc. 
The eggs, commonly two, rarely three, are 
white, and they measure about three by two 
and a half inches. A favorite article of food 
with this bird is fish, which he obtains mainly 
by strategy and rapine. Occasionally, how- 
ever, according to different observers, the bald 
eagle will do his own fishing. Brant and other 
geese form their favorite food, and the address 
displayed in their capture is very remarkable. 
The poor victirh has apjiarently not the slight- 
est chance for escape. The eagle's flight, ordi- 
narily slow and somewhat heavy, becomes, in 
the excitement of jnirsuit, exceedingly swift 
and graceful, and the fugitive is quickly over- 
taken. When close upon its quarr}' the eagle 
suddenly swee])s beneath it, and turning back 
downwards thmsts its powerful talons up into 
its breast. .\ brant or duck is carried off 
bodily to the nearest marsh or sandbar. But 
a Canada goose is too heavy to be thus easily 
disposed of ; the two great birds fall together 
to the water beneath, while the eagle literallv 
tows his prize along the surface until the shore 
is reached. In this way one has been known 
to drag a large goose for nearly half a mile. 
The bald eagle occasionally devours young 
pigs, lambs, and fawns. Domestic fowls, wild 
turkeys, hares, etc., are also destroyed by this 
specie.'^. I have knowledge of at least two of 
these birds which have killed poultry (tame 
ducks and turkeys). Sometimes, like the 
golden eagle, this species will attack raccoons 
and skunks. T once found two or three spines* 
of a porcupine in the body of an immature 
bald eagle. The golden eagle occurs in this 
State as a winter visitor. The only species 
with which it is sometimes compared is the 
bald eagle in immature dress. The two birds, 
however, cm be distinguished at a glance, if 
you remember that the golden eagle has the 
tarsus (shin) densely feathered to the toes, 
while, on the other hand, the bald eagle has a 
bare shin. The golden eagle breeds in high 

mountainous regions and the Arctic countries, 
"(iolden" eagles are rare in this region. They 
often devour domestic fowls, ducks and tur- 
keys especially; different species of w^-iter- 
birds, grouse, and wild turkeys suffer chiefiy 
among the game birds. Fawns are sometimes 
attacked and killed ; occasionally young pigs 
are destroyed, and frequently many lambs are 
carried off by this powerful bird. Rabbits are 
preyed upon to a considerable extent. 

The Crozo 

The crow does not belong to the blackliird 
family, but owing to his uniform I will speak 
of him. Much has been said against him, but 
the truth is that he is a most useful bird in 
killing mice, snakes, lizards and frogs, and is 
a s])lendid scavenger. He has been persecuted 
for so many generations that perhaps he is the 
most knowing and wary of birds. He will 
always flee from a man with a gun, though 
paying little attention to the ordinary pedes- 
trian. These birds are gregarious in their 
habits, and make their large, untidy nests at 
the tops of trees. They have regular roosting 
places, and, curious to say, it is not first come. 
tirst served. As each flock reaches the sleep- 
ing grove they sit around on the ground, and 
it is only when the last wanderer returns that 
they all rise simultaneously and scramble for 

Crows, as pets, are intensely funny. A crow 
can be taught to talk. It is said by bird stu- 
dents that crows have a language distinctly 
their own and, further, that some of their 
language can be translated into ours. I have 
often noticed that while a flock of crows are 
feeding on the ground, two sentinels are 
|)Osted to give an alarm of any danger. It is 
said that if these sentinels fail to perform their 
duty, the flock will execute one or both of 
them. Crows mate for life. A crow knows 
when .Sunday comes. 

The red-shouldered hawk, called by farmers 
and hunters the hen-hawk, nests in trees in 
.April or May. The eggs are two to four, 
white and blotched, with shades of brown. 
The nest is built of sticks, liarks, etc. 

The goshawk was a regular breeder in our 
woods and mountains. He is a fierce and 
powerful bird. The hawk feeds upon wild 
turkeys, pheasants, ducks, chickens, robins, 
rabbits and s(|uirrels. The copper hawk, 
known ;is the long-tailed chicken hawk, is an 







XILD' N F I'jr.Q A ION9 










audacious poultry thief, capturing full-grown 
chickens. This hawk also feeds upon pigeons, 
pheasants, turkeys and squirrels. This bird 
nests about May in thick woods, the nest con- 
taining four or five eggs. In about twelve 
weeks the young are able to care for them- 
selves. The sharp-shinned hawk bears a close 
resemblance to the copper, but feeds by choice 
upon chickens and pullets, young turkeys, 
voung rabbits and squirrels. If a pair of these 
birds should nest near a cabin where chickens 
were being raised, in a very few days the\' 
would steal every one. 


When I was a l)oy large nestings of wild 
(passenger) pigeons in what was then Jenks. 
Tionesta and Ridgway townships occurred 
every spring. These big roosts were occupied 
annually early in April each year. Millions 
of pigeons occupied these roosts, and they 
wercvusually four or five miles long and from 
one to three wide. No other bird was ever 
known to migrate in such numbers. The mi- 
gration of the passenger pigeon was caused 
l)y the necessity for food, and noj: to escape 
the severity of a Northern clime. A sufficient 
supply of food in one locality would often 
keep them absent for long periods from others. 
They fed on beechnuts, etc. In this territory 
every tree would be occupied, some with fifty 
nests. These pigeons swept over Brookville 
on their migrating to these roosts, and would 
be three or four days in passing, making the 
day dark at times. The croaking of the 
pigeons in these roosts could be heard for 

To give an iflea of the immensity of these 
pigeon roosts, I f(uote from the Elk Advocate 
as late as iVIay. 1851 : 

"The American Express Company carried 
in one day, over the New York & Erie rail- 
road, over seven tons of pigeons to the New 
York market, and all of these were from the 
west of Corning. This company alone have 
carried over this road from the counties of 
Chemung, Steuben and Allegheny fifty-si.\- 
tons of pigeons." .\s late as March, 1854, 
they came in such clouds for days that I have 
tired looking at them and hearing the noise 
of the shooters. 

Nets were used in the war against the 
pigeons with great effect, one man in Pennsyl- 
vania catching five hundred dozen in one day, 
and this was by no means a solitary case. 
The demand for squabs was responsible for 
much slaughter. The young pigeons were 

shaken from their nests, and those not large 
enough for the table were left on the ground 
for the hogs to fatten upon. 

Michigan exterminated the passenger pig- 
eon. It is a shameful story. In 1869 three 
carloads of dead pigeons a day, for forty 
days, 11,880,000 birds, were shipped from 
Hartford, Alich., to market. 

The last passenger wild pigeon that will 
ever be handled by man was taken near De- 
troit. Mich., September 14, 1908, by a Mr. 
C. Campion. Eleven North American birds 
have been exterminated. 

The copper and the bloody goshawk, the 
great-horned and barred owl, like other night 
wanderers, such as the wild bear, panther, 
wolf, wildcat, lynx, fox, mink and agile weasel, 
all haunted these roosts and feasted upon 
these pigeons. The weasel would climb the 
tree for the pigeons' eggs and the young, or 
to capture the old birds when at rest. The 
fox, lynx, mink, etc., depended on catching 
the squabs that fell from the nests. 

Like the bufl:'aloes of this region, the wild 
pigeon was doomed. The extermination of 
the passenger pigeons has gone on so rapidly 
that they are now extinct, like the dodo and 
the great auk. Thirty years ago wild pigeons 
were found in New York State, and in Elk, 
W'arren. McKean, Pike and Cameron counties. 
Pa., but now they are gone as migrants. 

The wild pigeon lays usually one or two 
eggs, and both birds do their share of the in- 
cubating. The females occupy the nest from 
two p. m. until the next morning, and the 
males from nine or ten a. m. until two p. m. 
The males usually feed twice each day, while 
the females feed only during the forenoon. 
The old pigeons never feed near the nesting 
places, always allowing the beechnuts, buds, 
etc., there for use in feeding their young when 
they come forth. The birds go many miles 
to feed, often a hundred or more. 

The last big flight of wild pigeons occurred 
in 1882. The vast flocks of these birds, which 
a generation ago were the ornithological won- 
der of the world, have entirely disappeared, 
and at two o'clock p. m. on September i, 1914, 
the last individual died in the zoological gar- 
dens at Cincinnati. It was a female and was 
hatched in captivity twenty-nine years ago. 
A standing offer of five thousand dollars for 
another has been unclaimed for years. 

In the spring of 1877 three pairs of pas- 
senger pigeons were procured for the Cin- 
cinnati Zoo at a cost of two dollars and fift\' 
cents per pair. For several years, beginning 
in 1878, these birds continued to breed, until 



ihc usual result of close iu-breeding became 
manifest. \'arious other s]jecies of doves were 
introduced by Mr. Stephans in an effort to 
keep up t'he stock, but without a\ail ; they died 
one by one, until, in lyio, only a single pair 
was left, and in that year the male bird pa.ssed 
away, leaving the female as the 1,'ist living rep- 
resentative of the species. 

Pigeons, do not drink like any other bird. 
They drink like the o.x or cow, and they 
nourish the young pigeon for the first week 
of his life from "pigeon milk," a curd-like 
substance secreted in the crop of both parents 
]jrofusely during the incubating season. We 
liad but two varieties — the "wild" and turtle- 

Of our birds, the eagle is the largest, swiftest 
in flight, and keenest eyed, the humming bird 
the smallest, the coot the slowest, and the owl 
the dullest. 

The spring birds, such as the bluebird, the 
robin, the .sparrow and the martin, were early 
to come and late to leave. 

Migrating birds fly over distances so great 
that they must needs have great strength as 
well as great speed in flight. Bobolinks often 
rear their young on the shore of Lake Win- 
nipeg, and, like true aristocrats, go to Cuba 
and Porto Rico to spend the winter. To do 
this their flight must twice cover a distance of 
more than two thousand, eight hundred miles, 
or more than a fifth of the circumference of 
the earth, each year. 

The little redstart travels three thousand 
miles twice a year, and the tiny humming bird 
two thousand. What wonderful mechanism 
it is, that in a stomach no larger than a pea 
it will manufacture its own fuel from two or 
three slim caterpillars, a fly, a moth or a 
spider, and use it with such economy as to be 
able to propel itself through the air during the 
whole night at a rate of about fifty miles per 
hour, and at the same time keep its own tem- 
perature at about one hunflrcd and four de- 

The lialtimore oriole is one of the most 
beautiful and best-known birds. Its long, 
pendant, woven nest is known to every one, 
and it is wonderful how the bird, with only 
its beak, can build such a' splendid structure. 
Orioles have been known to use wire in the 
structure of their nests. 

The meadow lark, one of the largest of this 
family, is a wonderful singer, sitting on a 
fence rail, caroling forth its quivering silvery 
song. All these birds, except the oriole, walk- 
while hunting food, and do not hop as most 
birds do. 

Our birds migrate every fall to Tennessee, 
the Carolinas, and as far south as Florida. 
Want of winter food is and was the cause 
of that migration, for those that remained 
surely pick up a poor living. Migrating birds 
return year after year to the same locality. 
In migrating northward in the spring, the 
males precede the females several days, but 
on leaving their summer scenes of love and 
joy for the South the sexes act in unison. 

(Jf the other pioneer birds I will only men- 
tion the orchard oriole, pine grosbeak, rose- 
breasted grosbeak, swallow, barn swallow, ruff- 
winged swallow, bank swallow, black and 
white warbler, chestnut-sided warbler, barn- 
owl, .\merican long-eared owl, short-eared 
owl, screech owl, great-horned owl, yellow- 
billed cuckoo, black-billed cuckoo, kingbird, 
crested flycatcher, phoebe bird, woodpewee, 
least flycatcher, ruffed grouse ("jiheasant or 
I)artridge), quail, also known as the bobwhite, 
marsh hawk, sparrow hawk, ])igeon hawk, 
tish hawk, red-tailed hawk, horned grebe, loon, 
hooded merganser, wood duck, bufl'-headed 
duck, red-headed duck, .American bittern, least 
bittern, blue heron, green heron, lilack-crowned 
night heron, Virginia rail, Carolina rail, 
.\merican coot, American woodcock, Wilson's 
snipe, least sandpiper, killdeer ])lover, belted 
kingfisher, turtle dove, turkey buzzard, whip- 
poorwill, nighthawk, ruby-throated humming 
bird, bluejay, bobolink, or reed or rice bird, 
])urple grackle, cowbird (cow bunting), red- 
winged blackbird, .American grosbeak, redpoll, 
American goldfish or yellow-bird, towhee bunt- 
ing, cardinal or redbird, indigo bunting, scar- 
let tanager, cedar or cherry bird, butcher bird 
or great northern scarlet tanager, red-eyed 
vireo. American redstart, cootbird, brown 
thrush, bluebird, housewren, woodwren, white- 
breasted nuthatch, chickadee, golden-crowned 

A pair of F.nglish sparrows were brought 
to nrookville in 1876 l)y C ^^', Vndrews. 

Natitral Life of Some of Our Birds 


Raven 100 

Kaglc 100 

Crow 100 

Goose so 

Sparrowhawk 40 

Crane 24 

Peacock 24 

Lark 16 

Pheasant 15 

Partridfje IS 

Blackbird 10 

Cotninon Fowl 10 


THE :T'.V vork 





Robin 10 

Thrush lo 

Wren 5 

Pigeon, Wild or Passenger 30 

Domestic Fowls 

In 1910, in the United States, there were 
280,340,000 chickens in the land, with a total 
value pf $140,200,000. The turkeys num- 
bered 3,688,000, while there were 2,904,000 
ducks, 4,432,000 geese, 1,765,000 guinea fowls 
and 2,730,000 pigeons. 


Wild Bees — Bee Hunting — Bee Trees — Bee- 
Food — Etc. 

In pioneer times these woods were alive 
with bee trees, and even yet (1915) that con- 
dition prevails in the forest part of this region. 
"Although the natural range of bee pasturage 
in this section is practically unlimited, singu- 
lar to relate, apiculture is not pursued to any 
great extent. With all the apparently favor- 
able conditions, the occupation is too uncer- 
tain and precarious to hazard much capital or 
time on it. At the best, apiculture is an 
arduous occupation, and in the most thickly 
populated farming communities it requires 
constant vigilance to keep track of runaway 
swarms. Rut in this rugged mountain coun- 
try, with its thousands of acres of hemlock 
slashings and hardwood ridges, it is virtually 
impossible to keep an extensive apiary within 
bounds. The rich pasturage of the forests 
and mountain barrens affords too great a 
temptation, and although the honey bee has 
been the purveyor of sweets for the ancients 
as far back as history reaches, she has never 
yet become thoroughly domesticated. .^t 
swarming time the nomadic instinct asserts 
itself. Nature lures and beckons, and the first 
opportunity is embraced to regain her fast- 
nesses and subsist upon her bounty. Never a 
season goes by but what some swarms escape 
to the woods. These take up their habitation 
in hollow trees or some other favorable re- 
treat, and in time throw off other swarms. 
Thus it is that our mountains and forests con- 
tain an untold wealth of sweetness, but little 
of which is ever utilized by man. 

"Here is the opportunity of the bee hunter. 
In the backwoods counties of western Penn- 
sylvania bee hunting is as popular a sport 
with some as deer hunting or trout fishing. It 
does not have nearly so many devotees, per- 

haps, as these latter sports, for the reason 
that a greater degree of woodcraft, skill and 
patience is required to become a proficient bee- 
hunter. Any backwoodsman can search out 
and stand guard at a deer runway, watch a 
lick, or follow a trail ; and his skill with a rifle, 
in the use of which he is familiar from his 
early boyhood, insures him an equal chance 
in the pursuit of game. It does not require 
any nice display of woodcraft to tramp over 
the mountains to the head of the trout stream, 
with a tin spicebox full of worms, cut an ash 
sapling, equip it with the hook and line, and 
fish the stream down to its mouth. But to 
search out a small insect as it sips the nectar 
from the blossoms, trace it to its home, and 
successfully despoil it of its hoarded stores, 
requires a degree of skill and patience that 

"W •% ■" 


comparati\ely few care to attain. Yet in 
every community of this section are some old 
fellows who do not consider life complete 
without a crockful of strained honey in the 
cellar when winter sets in. Then, as they 
sit with their legs under the kitchen table 
while their wives bake smoking-hot buck- 
wheat cakes, the pungent flavor of decayed 
wood which the honey imparts to their palates 
brings back the glory of the chase. When- 
ever a man takes to bee hunting he is an en- 
thusiastic devotee, and with him all other 
sport is relegated to the background. 

"There are many methods employed in hunt- 
ing the wild honey bee. The first essential 
is a knowledge of bees and their habits. This 
can only be acquired by experience and intel- 
ligent obser\'ation. The man who can suc- 
cessfully 'line' bees can also successfully 'keep' 
them in a domestic state, but a successful 
apiarist is not necessarily a good bee hunter. 

"September and October are the best months 
for securing wild honey, as the bees have then 
in the main completed their stores. At that 
season they can also be most readily lined, 
for the scarcity of sweets makes them more 
susceptible to artificial bait. But the profe.s- 



sional bee hunter does not, as a rule, wait 
until fall to do all his lining. He wants to 
know what is in prospect, and by the time the 
honey bee suspends operations for the winter 
the hunter has perhaps a dozen bee trees 
located which he has been watching all sum- 
mer in order to judge as near as possible as 
to the amount of stored honey they contain. 
If the hunter wants to save the bees he cuts 
the tree in June and hives the inmates in the 
same manner as when they swarm in a domes- 
tic stale. Many swarms are thus obtained, 
and the hunter scorns to expend any money 
for a swarm of bees which he can get for the 
taking. As a matter of course, when the honey 
is taken in the fall the bees, being des]5oilcd 
of their subsistence, inevitably perish. 

"I'll gather the honey-comb bright as gold, 
.^nd cha>;e the elk to his secret fold. 

"The first warm days of .\pril. when tlic 
snows have melted from the south side of the 
liills, and the spring runs are clear of ice, find 
the bee hunter on the alert. There is nothing 
yet for the bees to feed upon, but a few of the 
advance guard are emerging from their long 
winter's hibernations in search of pollen and 
water, and they instinctively seek the water's 
edge, where the warm rays of the sun beat 
down. Where the stream has receded from 
the bank, leaving a miniature muddy bcacJi. 
there the bees congregate, dabbling in the mud, 
sipping water and carrying it away. The first 
material sought for by the bees is pollen, and 
the earliest pasturage for securing this is the 
jjiissy willow and skunk cabbage, which grow 
in the swamps. After these comes the soft 
mai)le. which also afifords a large supply of 
])ollen. Sugar maple is among the first wild 
growth which furnishes any honey. Then 
come the wild cherry, the locust, and the red 
raspberries and blackberries. Of course, the 
first blossoms and the cultivated plants play 
an important part, but the profusion of wild 
flowers which are honey bearing would prob- 
ably supply as much honey to the acre as the 
cultivated sections. 

■'The wild honeysuckle, which covers thou- 
sands of acres of the mountain ranges with 
a scarlet flame in May, is a particular favorite 
with bees, as is also the tulip tree, which is 
quite abundant in this section. Basswood 
honey has a national reputation, and before 
the paperwood cutters despoiled the ridges 
and forests the basswood tree furnished an 
almost imlimited feeding ground. This tree 
blooms for a period of two or three weeks, and 

a single swarm has been known to collect ten 
pounds of honey in a day when this flower 
was in blossom. Devil's club furnishes another 
strong feed for bees, as well as the despised 
sumach. Last, but not least, is the golden- 
rod, which in this latitude lasts from August 
until killed by the autumn frosts. While these 
are the chief wild-honey producing trees and 
plants, they are but a fractional part of the 
honey resources of the country. 

"Having discovered the feeding ground and 
haunts of the wild honey bee, the hunter pro- 
ceeds to capture a bee and trace it to its habi- 
tation. This is done by 'lining,' that is, fol- 
lowing the bee's flight to its home. The bee 
always flies in a direct line to its place of 
abode, and this wonderful instinct gives rise 
to the expression, 'a beeline.' 

"To assist in the chase the hunter provides 
liimself with a 'bee-box,' which is any small 
box possessing a lid, with some honey inside 
for ha.h. Arrived at any favorable feeding 
ground, the hunter eagerly scans the blossoms 
until he finds a bee at work. This he scoops into 
his box and closes the lid. If he can capture 
two or more bees at once, so much the better. 
After buzzing angrily for a few moments in 
the darkened box the liee scents the honey 
inside and immediately quiets down and be- 
gins to work. Then the box is set down and 
the lid opened. When the bee gets all the 
honey she can carry she mounts upward with 
a rapid spiral motion until she gets her bear- 
ings, and then she is oft' like a shot in a direct 
line to her habitation. Presently she is back 
again, and this time when she departs her 
bearings are located and she goes direct. After 
several trips more bees appear, and when they 
get to working the bait and the line of their 
flight is noted, the box is closed when the bees 
are inside and mo\e(I forward along the direc- 
tion in which they ha\e been coming and going. 
The hunter carefully marks his trail and opens 
the box again. The bees are apparently un- 
conscious that they have been moved, and 
work as before. This manceuvre is repeated 
until the spot where the swarm is located is 
ne;ir at band, and then comes the most trying 
])art of the quest to discover the exact location 
of the hive. I^ometimes it is in the hollow of 
a dead tree away to the top ; sometimes it is 
near the bottom, .\gain, it may be in a hol- 
low branch of a li\'ing tree of gigantic pro- 
portions, closely hidden in the foliage, or it 
may be in an old stump or log. To search it 
out requires the exercise of much patience, 
as well as a quick eye and an acute ear. 

"To determine the distance of the impro- 



vised hive after a line has been established 
from the bee-box the hunter resorts to 'cross- 
lining.' This is done by moving the box when 
the bees are at work in it some distance to 
one side. The bees as usual fly direct to their 
home, the second line of flight converging 
with the first, forming the apex of a triangle, 
the distance between the first and second loca- 
tions of the box being the base and the two 
lines of flight the sides. Where the lines meet 
the habitation is to be found. 

"Diliferent kinds of bait are frequently used 
in order to induce the bees to work the box. 
Tn the flowering season a little anise or other 
pungent oil is rubbed on the box to attract the 
Ijees and keep them from being turned aside 
by the wealth of blossoms along their flight. 
It is a mistake to mix the oil with the bait, as 
it spoils the honey the bees make and poisons 
the whole swarm. Sometimes in the early 
spring corncobs soaked in stagnant brine 
proves an attractive bait, while late in the fall 
heeswax burned on a heated stone will bring 
the belated straggler to the bee-box. 

"Cutting a bee tree is the adventuresome 
part of the sport. An angry swarm is a for- 
midable enemy. Then, too, the treasure for 
which the hunter is in search is about to be 
revealed, and the possibilities bring a thrill of 
anticipation and excitement. So far as the 
danger goes the experienced hunter is pre- 
pared for that, and protects his head and face 
by a bag of mosquito netting drawn over a 
broad-brimmed hat. With gloves on his hands 
he is tolerably protected, but sometimes a 
heavy swarm breaks through the netting, and 
instances are on record where bee hunters 
have been so severely stung in despoiling wild 
swarms as to endanger their lives. In felling 
a tree great care must be exercised in order 
that the tree may not break up and destroy the 

honey. Sometimes trees are felled after night, 
as bees do not swarm about in the darkness, 
and the danger of getting stung is not so 

"The amount of honey secured depends 
upon the age of the swarm. Frequently much 
time and labor have been expended in lining 
and cutting a tree which yielded nothing, 
while again the returns have been large. There 
are instances in this community where a single 
tree yielded over two hundred pounds of good 
honey. Not long since a hunter cut a tree in 
which a hollow space about eighteen inches 
in diameter was filled with fine honey for a 
length of fifteen feet. Often a tree is cut 
which has been worked so long that part of 
the honey is spoiled with age. Often the comb 
is broken and the honey mingled with the 
decayed wood of the tree. The bee hunter, 
however, carefully gathers up the honey, wood 
and all. in a tin pail, and strains it, and the 
pungent flavor of the wood does not in the least 
detract from the quality in his estimation. 

"Bee hunting as a sport could be pursued 
in nearly every section of western Pennsyl- 
\ania, particularly in the lumbering and tan- 
nery districts. In these sections thousands of 
acres are annually stripped of timber, extend- 
ing many miles back from the settled districts. 
Fire runs through these, old slashings every 
year or so, and a dense growth of blackberry 
and raspberrv briers spring up. These, with 
the innumerable varieties of wild flowers, af- 
ford a rich and vast pasturage for the honey 
bee which has thrown off the restraints of 
civilization. Swarm upon swarm is propa- 
gated, the surplus product of which is never 
utilized. With a little encouragement bee 
jiunting might become as popular a form of 
sport with the dweller of the town as with the 
skilled woodsman." 






And he that stealeth a man, and sellcth him, or if 
he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to 
death. — Exod. xxi. i6. 

White slavery is older than history. It is 
supposed to have originated ip kidnapping, 
piracy, and the practice of taking captives in 
war. Christians enslaved all barbarians and 
barbarians enslaved Christians. Early history 
tells us that Rome and Greece were great 
markets for all kinds of slaves, slave traders, 
slave owners, etc. The white slaves of Europe 
were mostly obtained in Russia and Poland 
in times of peace. All fathers could sell chil- 
dren. The poor could be sold for debt. The 
poor could sell themselves. But slavery did 
not exist among the poor and ignorant alone. 
The most learned in science, art and mechan- 
ism were bought and sold at prices ranging in 
our money from one hundred to three hundred 
dollars. Once sold, whether kidnapped or not, 
there was no redress, except at the will of the 
master. .\t one time in the history of Rome 
white slaves sold for sixty-two and a half 
cents apiece in our money. These were cap- 
tives taken in battle. By law the minimum 
price was eighty dollars. A good actress would 
sell for four thousand, and a good physician 
for eleven thousand dollars. The state, the 
church and individuals all owned slaves. 
Every wicked device that might and power 
could ])ractice was used to enslave meil and 
women without regard to nationality or color ; 
and when enslaved, no matter how well 
educated, the slaves possessed no right in law, 
were not deemed persons in law, and had no 
right in and to their children. Slavery as it 
existed among the Jews was a milder form 
than that which existed in any other nation. 
The ancients regarded black slaves as luxuries, 
because there was but little traffic in them 
until about the year 1441, and it was at that 
date that the modern .\frican slave trade was 


commenced by the Portuguese. The pioneer 
English African slave trader was Sir John 
Hawkins. Great companies were formed in 
London to carry on African traffic, of which 
Charles II and James II were members. It 
was money and the large profits in slavery, 
w^hether white or black, that gave it such a 
hold on church and state. The English were 
the most cruel African slave traders. In the 
year a. d. 1620 the pioneer African slaves 
were landed at Hampton Roads, Virginia, and 
nineteen slaves were sold. In one hundred 
years, from 1676 until 1776, it is estimated 
that three million people were imported and 
sold as slaves in the United States. In 1790 
there were 697,681 African slaves in the 
Middle States. In 1861 the United States had 
four and a half million. 


He found his fellow guilty — of a skin not colored 
like his own ; for such a cause dooms him as his 
lawful prey. 

In 1664 we read of negro slaves in Dela- 
ware, which afterwards became a part of 

Negro slaves were held in each of the 
thirteen original States. 

.Slavery was introduced in Pennsyhania in 
1681, and was in full force until the act for 
its gradual abolition was enacted in March, 
1780, by which adult slaves were liberated on 
July 4, 1827, and the children born before that 
date were to become free as they reached their 
majority. This made the last slave in the State 
become a free person about i860. As late as 
i860 there was still one slave in Pennsylvania ; 
his name was Lawson Lee Taylor, and he 
belonged to James Clark, of Donegal town- 
ship, Lancaster county. 

In 1774 Pennsylvania had 10.000 slaves; 




in 1790, 3,737; in 1800. 1,706; in 1810, 
795; in 1820, 211; in 1830, 403; in 1840, 64; 
in i860, in Lancaster county, i. 

In March, 1780. Pennsylvania enacted her 
gradual abolition law. ^Massachusetts, by con- 
stitutional enactment in 1780, abolished 
slavery. Rhode Island and Connecticut were 
made free States in 1784, Xew Jersey in 1804, 
New York in 1817, and New Hampshire about 
1808 or 1810. The remaining States of the 
thirteen, viz., Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, 
North and South Carolina, and Georgia, each 
retained their human chattels until the close 
of the Civil war. 

In the United States Constitutional conven- 
tion of 1787 the Carolinas. Georgia and New 
York wanted the slave trade continued and 
more slave property. To the credit of all the 
other Colonies, they wanted the foreign slave 
traffic stopped. .After much wrangling and 
discussion a compromise- was eflfected, by 
which no enactment was to restrain the slave 
trade before the year 1808. By this com- 
promise the slave trade was to continue twenty- 
one years. On March 2, 1807. Congress passed 
an act to prohibit the importation of any more 
slaves after the close of that year. I'.ut the 
profits from slave trading were enormous, and 
the foreign traffic continued in spite of all law. 
It was found that if one ship out of every 
three was captured, the profits still would be 
large. Out of every ten negroes stolen in 
Africa, seven died before they reached this 
market. .\ negro cost in Africa twenty dollars 
in gunpowder, old clothes, etc., and readily 
brought five hundred dollars in the United 
States. Everything connected with the trade 
was brutal. The daily ration of a captive on 
a vessel was a pint of water and a half pint of 
rice. Sick negroes were simply thrown over- 
board. This traffic "for revolting, heartles.s 
atrocity would make the devil wonder." The 
profits were so large that no slaveholder was 
ever convicted in this country until Nov. 12, 
i86r, when Nathaniel Gordon, of the slaver 
"Erie," was convicted in New York City and 
executed. It is estimated that from thirty to 
sixty thousand slaves were carried to the 
Southern States every year by New York ves- 
sels alone. .\ wicked practice was carried on 
between the slave and free States in this way. 
A complete description of a free colored man 
or woman would be sent from a free State to 
parties living in a slave .State. This description 
would then be [uiblished in handbills, etc., as 
that of a runaway slave. These bills would be 
widely circulated. In a short time the person ' 
so described would be arrested, kidnapped in 

the night, overpowered, manacled, carried 
away, and sold. He had no legal right, no 
friends, and was only a "nigger." Free colored 
men on the borders of Pennsylvania have left 
home to visit a neighbor and been kidnapped 
in broad daylight, and never heard of after. A 
negro man or woman would sell for from one 
to two thousand dollars, and this was more 
profitable than horse stealing or highway rob- 
bery, and attended with but little danger. .\ 
report in this or any other neighborhood that 
kidnappers were around struck terror to the 
heart of every free colored man and woman. 
Negroes of my acquaintance in Brookville 
have left their shanty homes to sleep in the 
stables of friends when such rumors were 

The average value of a negro slave in 1800 
was six hundred dollars; in 1861, twelve hun- 
dred dollars. 

There were many curious old wood prints 
of the slaves and slave brokers. When the 
slaves were placed on sale at auction, accord- 
ing to these prints, they were garbed in full 
dress suits, standing collars and high silk hats. 
This regalia was lent to them just during the 
formalities of the sale. 

One of the famous slave pits was in the 
west end of .Alexandria, Va., and was known 
as P)ruin (S: Hill's jail. The proprietors of this 
establishment were repeatedly charged with 
being "fences" — a sort of clearing house for 
stolen slaves. And the practice of stealing 
slaves was a very popular and profitable 

Negroes were sold at sheriff sales and 
auction in Pennsylvania uji to 1823. 

William Penn owned slaves. George Wash- 
ington owned slaves, both white and black. 
On June 4, 1786, he purchased two white men 
for sixty dollars each, one a shoemaker and 
the other a tailor. 


In an estimate based on figures for forty 
years, there escaped annually from the slave 
States fifteen hundred slaves, but still the 
slave population doubled in these States every 
twenty years. Fugitives traveled North 
usually in twos, but in two or three instances 
they went over our wilderness route in a small 
army, as an early paper of Brookville says, 
editorially : "Twenty-five fugitive slaves 
passed through Brookville Monday morning 
on their way to Canada." Again : "On Mon- 
day morning, October 14, 1850, forty armed 



fugitive slaves passed lliiouj,'!) Ihoolaillc to 

My ear is pained, 

My soul is sick with every day's report. 
Of wrong and outrage with which this earth is 

Tiie system to aid runawa)' slaves in these 
Cnited States had its origin in Columbia, 
Lancaster Co., Pa. In 1787 Samuel Wright 
laid out that town, and he set apart the north- 
eastern portion for colored people, to many of 
whom he presented lots. Under these cir- 
cumstances that section was settled rapidly by 
colored people. Htindreds of manumitted 
slaves from Maryland and \'irginia emigrated 
there and built homes. The term "under- 
ground railroad" originated there, and in this 
way: At Columbia the runaway slave would 
be so thoroughly and completely lost to the 
l>ursuer that the slave hunter, in perfect 
astonishment, would frequently exclaim, 
"There mustLe an underground railroad some- 
where." There was at this place an organized 
system by white abolitionists to assist, clotiie, 
feed and conduct fugitive sla\es to Canada. 
This system consisted in changing the clothing, 
secreting and hiding the fugiti\e in daytime, 
and then carrying or directing him how to 
travel in the nighttime to the next abolition 
station, where he would be similarly cared 
for. These stations existed from the Mary- 
land line clear through to Canada. In those 
days the North was as a whole for slavery, 
and to be an abolitionist was to be reviled and 
persecuted, even by churches of nearly all 
denominations. Abolition meetings were 
broken up by mobs, the speakers rotten-egged 
and murdered ; indeed, but few preachers 
would read from their pul])it a notice for an 
.-uUislavery meeting. S])ace will not permit 
me to depict the degrading state of public 
morals at that time, or the low ebb of true 
Christianity in that day, excepting, of course, 
that exhibited by a small haiKlful of abolition- 
ists in the land. I can only say, that to clothe, 
feed, secrete and to convey in the darkness of 
night poor, wretched iuiman beings fleeing for 
liberty, to suffer social ostracism, and to run 
the risk of the heavy penalties prescribed by 
luiholy laws for so doing, re<iuired the highest 
ly|)e of Christian men ;ind women — men and 
women of sagacity, coolness, firmness, cour- 
;ige and benevolence; rocks of adamant, to 
whom the downtrodden inuld tlock for relief 
and refuge. Smedley's "Inderground Rail- 
road" .says: "Heroes iia\e had their deeds of 
braxery upon battlefields emblazoned in his- 

tory, and their countrymen have delighted to 
do them honor; statesmen have been renowned, 
and their names have been engraved upon the 
enduring tablets of farne; philanthropists have 
had their acts of benevolence and charity pro- 
claimed to an appreciating world ; ministers, 
])ure and sincere in their gospel labors, have 
had their teachings collected in religious books 
that geneiations might profit by the reading; 
but these moral heroes, out of the fulness of 
their hearts, with neither e.xpectations of re- 
ward nor hope of remembrance, have, within 
the privacy of their own homes, at an hour 
when the outside world was locked in slumber, 
clothed, fed and in the darkness of night, 
whether in calm or in storm, assisted poor, 
degraded, hunted huni;in beings on their \vay 
to liberty 

"When, too, newspapers refused to publish 
antishuery speeches, but poured forth such 
denunciations as 'The people will hereafter 
consider abolitionists as out of the pale of legal 
and conventional protection which society 
affords its honest and well meaning members.' 
that 'they will be treated as robbers and pirates 
and as the enemies of mankind' ; when North- 
ern merchants extensively engaged in Southern 
trade told abolitionists that, as their pecuniary 
interests were largely connected with those of 
the South, they could not afford to allow them 
to succeed in their efforts to overthrow .slavery, 
that millions upon millions of dollars were due 
them from Southern merchaiits, the jjayment 
of which would be jeopardized, and that they 
wovdd put them down by fair means, if they 
could. b\- foul means, if they must, we must 
concede that it re(iuircd the manhood of a man 
and the unflinching fortitude of a woman, up- 
held by a full and firm Giristian faith, to be 
an abolitionist in those days, and especially an 
'underground railroad' agent." 

A great aid to the ignorant fugitive was that 
every slave knew the "'north star," and. 
further, that if he followed it he would even- 
tually reach the land of freedom. This 
knowledge enabled thousands to reach Canada. 
-Ml slaveholders (les|)ise(l this "star." 

To William Wright, of Columbia, Pa., is 
due the credit of ])utting into ])ractice the first 
"underground railroad" for the freedom of 
slaves. There was no .State organization 
eff'ected until about iN,V'~^. when, in Philadel- 
phia. Robert T'urvis was made president, and 
Jacob C. White, secretary. Then the system 
grew, and before the war of the Rebellion our 
whole Slate became interlaced with roads. We 
had a ronle. t(jo. in this wilderness. It was 
not as ])roniiiK'nt as the routes in the more 

'^rt.-f:S36. '<^*' 





-,j^ .. r-.^ 









, L 



_ D = ^ r 






populous counties of the State. I am sorry 
that I am unable to write a complete history of 
the pure, lofty, generous men and women of 
the northwest and in our county who worked 
these roads. They were Quakers and ^leth- 
odists, and the only ones that I can now recall 
in Jefferson county were Elijah Heath and 
wife, Arad Pearsall and wife, James Stead- 
man and wife, and Rev. Christopher Fogle and 
his first and second wives, of Brookville (Rev. 
Mr. Fogle was an agent and conductor in 
Troy) ; Isaac P. Carmalt and his wife, of near 
Clayville ; James A. Minish, of Punxsutawney, 
and William Coon and his wife, in Clarington 
(now Forest county). Others, no doubt, were 
connected with the work, but the history is 
lost. Jefferson's route started from Baltimore, 
Md., and extended via Bellefonte, Grampian 
Hills, Punxsutawney, Brookville, Clarington 
and Warren, to Lake Erie and Canada. A 
branch road came from Indiana, Pa., to Clay- 
ville. At Indiana, Pa., Dr. Mitchell, James 
Moorhead, James Hamilton, William Banks 
and a few others were agents in the cause. 

The earliest official record I can find of 
Jefferson's underground road is in the 
Jeffersonian of September 15, 1834. 

Christopher Fogle was born in Baden, 
Germany, in 1800. His father came to Phila- 
delphia, Pa., in 1817, and Christopher learned 
the tanning trade in Germantown. On June 
26, 1826, he was married. About this time he 
joined the Methodist Church. In 1835 he 
emigrated to Heathville, Jefferson Co., Pa., 
and built a tannery. In 1843 he moved to 
Troy, where he had a tannery. This he after- 
wards sold out to Hulett Smith, when he 
moved to Brookville and purchased from 
Elijah Heath and A. Cohvell what was called 
the David Henry tannery. Rev. Mr. Fogle 
was in the underground railroad business in 
Heathville, and he continued in that business 
until the war for the Union. The points in 
and around Brookville where he lived and 
secreted fugitives were, first, the old tannery ; 
second, the farm on the Troy road ; third, the 
little yellow house where Benscoter's residence 
now is ; and fourth, the old house formerly 
owned by John J. Thompson, opposite the 
United Presbyterian Church. ( )fficers fre- 
quently were close after these fugitives, and 
sometimes were in Brookville while the agents 
had the colored people hidden in the woods. 
The next station on this road to Canada was 
at the house of William Coon, in Clarington, 
Pa. Coon would ferry the slaves over the 
Clarion, feed, refresh, and start them through 
the wilderness for Warren, Pa., and when 

Canada was finally reached, the poor fugitive 
could sing, with a broken heart at times, think- 
ing of his wife and children yet in bonds, 

No more niaster'.s call for nie, 

No more, 110 more. 
No more driver's lash for me. 

No more, no more. 
No more auction-block for me, 

No more, no more. 
No more bloodhounds hunt for me. 

No more, no more. 
I'm free, I'm free at last; at last, 

Thank God, I'm free ! 

The first man who died in the Revolution 
was a colored man, and Peter Salem, a negro, 
decided the battle of Bunker Hill ; clinging to 
the Stars and Stripes, he cried, "I'll bring back 
the colors or answer to God the reason why !" 

On December 4, 1833, sixty persons met in 
Philadelphia, Pa., and organized the American 
Anti-Slavery Society. 

(See also Chapter XXI, Borough of Brook- 
\ille, under "Slavery.") 

AND WHITE "slavery" 

Colored people were not the only class held 
in servitude by Pennsylvanians. Genuine 
white slavery never survived in what is now 
the United States, but another form of slavery 
was carried on by speculators called New- 
landers. These traders in "white people" were 
protected by custom and legal statutes. They 
ran vessels regularly to European seaports and 
induced people to emigrate to Pennsylvania. 
By delay and expensive formalities these 
emigrants were systematically robbed during 
the trip of any money they might have, and 
upon their arrival at Philadelphia would be 
in a strange country, without money or friends 
to pay their passage or to lift their goods from 
the villainous captains and owners of the 
vessels which brought them to the wharves of 
Philadelphia. Imagine the destitute condition 
of these emigrants. Under the law of im- 
prisonment for debt the captain or merchant 
either sold these people or imprisoned them. 

The Newlander managed it so that the 
emigrant would Ije in his debt, and then the 
poor foreigners had to be sold for debt. The 
merchants advertised the cargo, the ]ilace of 
sale on the ship. The purchasers had to enter 
the ship, make the contract, take their jaurchase 
to the merchant and pay the price, and then 
legally bind the transaction before a mag- 
istrate. Unmarried peo]3le and young people, 
of course, were most readily sold, and brought 



better prices. Aged and decrepit persons were 
poor sale, but if they bad healthy children, 
these children were sold at good prices for the 
combined debt and to different masters in 
dift'erent States, perhaps never to see each 
other again in this world. The parents then 
were turned loose to beg. The time of sale 
was from two to seven years for about fifty 
dollars of our money. The poor people on 
board the ship were prisoners, and could 
neither go a.shore themselves nor send their 
baggage until they paid what they did not owe. 
These captains made more money out of such 
passengers as died than they did from the 
living, as this gave them a chance to rob chests 
and sell children. This was a cruel, murder- 
ing trade. Every cruel device was resorted to 
in order to gain gold through the misfortune 
of these poor people. 

These deluded people were so cruelly 
treated on shipboard that t^vo thousand in less 
than one year were thrown overboard. This 
was monopoly. 

Under this debasing system of indentured 
apprentices, the legal existence of African 
slavery, and the legalized sale of white emi- 
grants in our State, is it any wonder that 
among the people intemperance in preachers, 
illiteracy, lottery schemes for churches, 
gambling and profanity were the rule, or that 
to the poor, the weak and the wretched the 
prisons were the only homes or hospitals, and 
that the "driver's lash" fell alike on the back 
of the old and young, black and white, school- 
master and layman ? 

I pity tlie mother, careworn and weary, 

.\s she thinks of her children about to be sold; 

You may picture the Ixumds of the rock-girdled 
But the grief of tliat mother can never be told. 

This traffic in white people in Pennsylvania 
continued until about 183T, when public senti- 
ment caused its discontinuance. In law this 
system was known as an apprenticeship, or 
service entered into by a free jjcrson, volun- 
tarily, by contract for a term of years on wages 
advanced before the service was entered. The 
servants, by performing the service, were 
redeeming themselves, and therefore called 
■■Redemptioners." In practice, however, with 
a certain class of i)eoi)le, this system was as 
revollingly brutal and degenerating as the 
negro slavery (abolished in our own time) in 
its worst aspects. 

It was conceived and had its beginning in 
tlie harmless and in some respects benevolent 

idea to help a poor person in Europe who 
wished to emigrate to America and had not 
the money to pay for his passage across the 
ocean, by giving him credit for his passage 
money, on condition that he should work for 
it after his arrival here, by hiring as a servant 
for a term of years to a person who would 
advance him his wages by paying his passage 
money to the owner or master of the vessel. 

There are instances on record where school 
teachers, and even ministers of the gospel, 
were in this manner bought by congregations 
to render their services in their respective 
offices. Laws were passed for the protection 
of the masters and of the servants. Whilst 
this is the bright side of the Redemptioncr's 
life, it had also a very dark side. The Re- 
demptioners on their arrival here were not 
allowed to choose their masters or the kind of 
service most suitable for them. They were 
often separated from their families, the wife 
from the husband and children from their 
parents ; were disposed of for the term of 
years, often at public sale, to masters living 
far apart, and always to the greatest advantage 
of the shipper. I have read many reports of 
the barbarous treatment they received, how 
they. were literally worked to death, receiving 
insufficient food, scanty clothing and poor 
lodging. Cruel punishments were inflicted on 
them for slight offenses when they were at 
the mercy of a hard and brutal master. The 
black slave was often treated better, for he was 
a slave for life, and it was in the interest of 
the master to treat him well to preserve him, 
whilst the poor Redemptioner was a slave for 
a number of years only, and all his vital force 
was worked out of him during the years of his 

Up to 1S50 all boys had to learn a trade — ■ 
be indentured. 


L'p to 184J this law of Pennsylvania author- 
ized the imprisonment of men for debt, and 
to be fed on bread and water. In the year 
1829 seventy thousand persons were im- 
])ris()ne(l for debt in Pennsylvania. The act 
of Jidy 12. 1842, abolished such imprisonment, 
(juite a luniiber of men were committed to the 
old jail in iirookville because of their inability 
to ])ay debts. .Sometimes friends paid the debt 
for them, and sometimes they came out under 
the insolvent debtor's law. We reproduce an 
old execution issued against one James Green. 
The indorsement on the back reads : "Execu- 
tion, I'nller &■ Riddle, 81)2. vs. lames Green. 


Debt $4-69 to hard labor in the gaol of said county for six 

^"'- •• °-*^ months, and I am also tc dispose of said 

Const do .. .. .fd brooms when made as the said commissioners 

Ex. & Return...!..!.........^'..... .2054 may direct, and account to them for the pro- 

ceeds thereof, as the law directs. Received 

$5-50 also one shaving horse, one handsaw, one 

Const. Cost 10 drawiusf knife and one jack knife to enable 

Service, 5 Miles "3° him to work the above brooms, which I am to 

$5.98 return to the said commissioners at the expira- 

The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, tp z^/:. ^^^^ Constable. GREErrNG 

WHEREAS judgment agdinst^^-'^'^'-^^ ^h-e^z^r-*^ — -^ — 

for tbe sum of j^'S-^t^^^ ^^.^-i^^^^ /y^^<>Lk^ 
^7^^^.^^ a^^^.^^ debt and /<^^?^^"^^i:I^^ £^^7^ ^ 

— cos^ was 

before me at the suit of "S^^i^^ 

^^^-^^^^^^^^ ^ 

These are therefore, in the name of ll^e 
said Commdnwealth,to command^you to levy distress on the goods and clvaitles of the 

aaid ^^i.^^^..^^ <^^^^^-^-^ 

T^^-— — -~ and make sale thereof according to law, to the 

amount of said debt and costs, and what may accrue thereon, and make return to 
me in twenty days from the date hereof, and for wantof goods and chattles,whereon, 
to levy you are to convey the body of the said ^^^^^ss-z^-e-t^^t;?^ -t^^-re^*^!^ 

to the jail of said 

county, the jailor "Wliereof is hereby com mandfed to receive the same and in safe 
custody to keep, until the said debt and costs are paid or ofherwise discharged by 

duje course of law. ^^^^^^^ .<ly 

Given under my hand and seal, the /a^ day of '^/^^r^^ <83 c^ 

Early convicts were sentenced to hard labor 
in the county jail and were fed on bread and 
water. They had to make split brooms from 
hickory wood, as will be seen from this agree- 
ment between the commissioners and the 

"Received. lirookville, September 2gth, 
1834, of the commissioners of Jefferson 
comity, thirty-seven broomsticks, which I am 
to have made into brooms by Butler B. Arnos, 
lately convicted in the Court of Quarter Ses- 
.^ions of said county for larceny, and sentenced 

tion of said term of servitude of the said 
Butler B. Amos, with reasonable wear and 

"Arad Pearsall, Gaoler." 

Amos had been arrested for theft, as per the 
following advertisement in the Jcffcrsoiiian of 
the annexed date : 

"Commonwealth vs. Butler B. Amos. De- 
fendant committed to September term, 1834. 
Charge of larceny. And whereas the Act of 
Ceneral Assembly • requires that notice be 



given. I therefore hereby give notice that the 
following is an inventory of articles found in 
the possession of the said Butler B. Amos and 
supposed to have been stolen, viz. : i canal 
shovel, I grubbing hoe. 2 handsaws, 2 bake 
kettles, I curry comb, 2 wolf traps, i iron- 
bound bucket. I frow, 3 log chains, i piece of 
log chain, 2 drawing chains, i piece of draw- 
ing chain, i set of breast chains, i hand axe, 
etc. The above mentioned articles are now in 

possession of the subscriber, where those inter- 
ested can see and examine for themselves. 
"Alex. McKnight, /. P. 
"Brookville, August, 25th, 1834." 

A few years after this sentence was com- 
l)lied with Amos left Brookville on a flatboat 
for Kentucky, where he w-as dirked in a row 
and killed. Although Amos was a thief, he 
had a "warm heart" in him. 






War has cost the United States about ten 
billions of dollars, and over six hundred and 
eighty thousand lives, to say nothing of thirty 
thousand lives lost in Colonial wars before 
the Revolution. The Indian wars cost forty- 
nine thousand lives and a billion dollars in 


The United States, as such, has had seven 
wars, and has been successful in every one, on 
land or sea. The first fought under the Stars 
and Stripes was the war of the Revolution, 
which lasted from .April ig, 1775, to April 11, 
1783. The total of .American troops employed, 
regulars, volunteers and militia, was 395.858 : 
maximum numljer of Americans in field at 
any one time, 35,000 ; navy vessels, four ; cost 
of the war in specie, $185,193,380. British 
troops employed; In 1776, 20,121; in 1781. 
42,075. 'i"he land forces fought about fifty 
battles, the seaforces more than two hundred 
battles. The latter brought safely into port 
more than twenty million dollars in hard cash 
or solid specie values, and made jirisoners of 
more than twenty-six IJiousand English sailors. 
Burgoyne surrendered about si.x thousand men 
after Saratoga, and Cornwallis fewer than 
eight tiiousand at Yorktown. America ob- 
tained loans from France aggregating eight 
million dollars, from Holland one million 
dollars, and a smaller sum from Spain (very 

little of which reached the United States either 
in cash or purchased articles). There is no 
accurate record showing the casualties sus- 
tained. It is stated by Strait that the Ameri- 
can troops lost in killed and wounded 9,138; 
British troops, killed and wounded, 26,877. 
Nearly all transportation by the .Americans 
was done by oxen. Even the American artil- 
lery was placed and moved on the field of 
battle by o.xen. 

The Revolution was mainly a defensive war, 
against what was then one of the strongest 
nations on earth, and while we gained some 
sur()rising victories by aggressive action, yet 
our defense was quite brilliant, and succeeded 
in wearing out the British attem]>ts to re- 
conquer the country. The capture of York- 
town was a brilliant strategic conception by 
Washington, to wiiom the highest credit should 
be given. .After he had shut up Cornwallis in 
Yorktown, the fate of the British was certain, 
and the fighting was only continued until Corn- 
wallis saw that his case was hopeless. 

The six great .Americans of the Rexulution- 
ary period were: First. ( ieorge WasJiington; 
second, r)enjamin Franklin, the scientist; third, 
Patrick Henry, the orator; fourth. Tom 
Paine, whose tongue was as pointed as a 
stiletto and as forcible as an army; fifth, John 
Paul Jones, the greatest naval hero in the 
world; sixth. General Hamilton, the financier. 

The German population of Pennsylvania 
was largely increased by the addition of almost 



five thousand German (Hessian) soldiers, who 
deserted from the German army at the close 
of the Revolution and remained in the States, 
and "scattered among their countrymen 
throughout Pennsylvania.'' Many of our 
present good people are descendants of these 
Hessians. The opprobrious name of "Hes- 
sian mercenaries"' has preserved to the present 
time the infamy of George HI in hiring from 
more infamous German princes about thirty 
thousand of their poor subjects to make war 
upon his own countrymen in the American 
colonies. The enslaved Germans who were 
hired to the British king were in no sense to 
blame, but rather to be greatly pitied for the 
part they unwillingly played in our Revolu- 
tionary struggle. That many of them con- 
cluded to remain in Pennsylvania and settle 
among their countrymen is of itself sufficient 
evidence of their own love of liberty and of 
their detestation of the conduct of the princes 
by whom they had been held in bondage. 
Diffenderfifer says that the exact number of 
the Germans who were sent to America as 
soldiers of George HI was 29,867, of whom 
17,313 returned to Europe in the autumn of 
1783, leaving 12,554 who did not return, 
divided as follows : Killed and died of wovmds, 
1.200 ; died of illness and accidents, 6,354; 
deserted. 5.000, of whom nearly all settled in 
Pennsylvania. They were called Hessians 
because they came from the Hessian State of 
Germany. Mr. Difl^enderffer gives the follow- 
ing additional details: "The Landgrave of 
Hesse Cassel sent in all 16,992 men, more than 
one half of the entire number that came over. 
The Landgrave made the best bargain with 
England of all the German princes. He got 
£7 4s. 4j/2d. for every man and an annual sub- 
sidy of £108.281 5s., the same to be continued 
for one year after the return of the soldiers. 
In addition he insisted on being paid an old 
claim arising out of the Seven Years' war, but 
which England had disallowed up to that time ; 
it amounted to £41,820 14s. 5d. He was the 
worst of the lot." (From "Progressive Penn- 

Hessian soldiers when taken prisoners were 
sold to farmers and manufacturers. In the 
accounts of Robert Coleman, an ironmaker of 
Lancaster county. Pa., who cast cannon and 
shot for the Continental army, appears an 
entry: "By cash, being the value of 42 Ger- 
man prisoners of war at £30 each, £1,260." 
Another entry reads: "By cash, being the 
value of 28 German prisoners of war at £30 
each, £840." 

Of Jefferson county pioneers the following 

were in the Revolutionary war: Joseph and 
Andrew Barnett, Elijah Graham' and Joel 
Clarke, and Fudge Van Camp, a colored man. 


The second war in which the United States 
engaged was the war with France, a naval con- 
flict entirely, which began July 9, 1798, and 
closed September 30. 1800. The Americans 
won every battle. Alen, 4,593. 


Our third war, with Tripoli, was also con- 
fined to naval operations. It was carried on 
for four years, June 10, 1801, to June 4, 1805. 
Men, 3,330. The Americans won every battle. 

WAR OF 1812 

The fourth war, which commenced June 
18. 1812, and lasted until Feb. 17, 181 5, is 
known as the War of 1812. American troops 
employed, 527,654 ; British troops employed, 
81.502; American losses, killed and wounded, 
5,877 ; British losses, killed and wounded, 
9,023. Though the American navy had but 
twelve vessels at the outbreak of the war, and 
England had one thousand, the Americans 
were victorious in twelve of the fifteen battles 
fought on the sea. Americans killed, 1,233. 
American privateermen in this war captured 
1,345 vessels and took prisoners twenty-five 
thousand British sailors and soldiers, and 
Commodore Perry wiped a whole fleet of the 
I'ritish navy off the waters of the earth, the 
first time it ever had been done. 

In the War of 1812 we gained a very sub- 
stantial victory over the British at Plattsburg ; 
drove the British from the field on the Niagara 
frontier; the raw militia decisively defeated 
the British attempt to capture Baltimore ; 
General Harrison with his militia forces de- 
feated the British at Fort Meigs and Fort 
Stephenson, and absolutely crushed the British 
and Indians at the battle of the Thames. 

This war cost the country $107,159,003. 

Pciinsyhaiiia Militia ivhicli marched over the 

old State road through Brookville and 

within tzi'o utiles of zi'here Reyvolds- 

z'ille iiozv stands on its zvay to Erie 

George Washington never passed through 
any portion of Jefferson county with soldiers ; 
neither did Colonel Bird, who was stationed at 
Fort Augusta in 1756. In 1814, early in the 



spring, a dclacluiK-iu of soldiers under com- 
mand of Maj. William McClelland, traveled 
through our county, over the old State road 
(Bald Eagle's Nest and Le Boeuf road) to 
Erie. They encani])ed at Soldiers' Run, in 
what is now W'inslow township, rested at Port 
rSarnett for four days, and encamped over 
night at the "four-mile" spring, on what is 
now the Afton farm. Elijah M. Graham was 
impressed with his two "pack-horses" into 
their service, and was tak.-n as far as French 
Creek, now in \'enango county. These 
soldiers were I'eimsylvania volunteers and 
drafted men, and were from Franklin county. 
Major McClelland, with his officers and men, 
passed through where Brookville now is. 
Three detachments of troops left Franklin 
county during the years 1812-14 at three dif- 
ferent times, one by way of Pittsburgh, one 
by way of Baltimore, and the last one through 
this wilderness. 

Upon the arrival of these troops at Erie 
they were put into the Fifth Regiment of the 
Pennsylvania troops, commanded by Col. 
James I'enton, of that regiment, the whole 
army being under the command of Maj. Gen. 
Jacob Brown. These soldiers did valiant 
service against the British. They fought in 
the desperate battles of Chippewa and Lundy's 
Lane, on July 5th and 25th of the year 1814. 

In the early part of the year 1814, the 
general government having made a call upon 
the State of Pennsylvania for more troops, 
Gov. Simon Snyder, about the beginning of 
February of that year, ordered a draft for one 
thousand men from the counties of York, 
Adams, Franklin and Cumberland, Cumber- 
land county to raise five hundred men and the 
other counties the balance. The quota of 
Franklin county was ordered to assemble at 
Loudon on the ist of March, 1814. What was 
its exact number I have not been able to 

At that time Captain Samuel Dunn, of Path 
\'alley, had a small volunteer company under 
his command, numbering about forty men. 
These. I am informed, volunteered to go as 
part of the quota of the county, and were 
accepted. Drafts were then made to furnish 
the balanc' of the quota, and one full company 
of drafted men, under the command of Capt. 
.Samuel Gordon, of W;iynesl)urg, and one 
partial company, under command of Capt. 
Jacob Stake, of Lurgan township, were organ- 
ized, and assembled at Loudon in pursuance 
of the orders of the Governor. There the ' 
command of the detachment was assumed by 
Maj. \\'illiam McClelland, brigade inspector 

of the county, who conducted it to Erie. It 
moved from Loudon on the 4th of March, 
and was twenty-eight days in reaching Erie. 
.According to Major McClelland's report on 
tile in the auditor general's office at Harris- 
burg, it was composed of one major, three cap- 
tains, five lieutenants, two ensigns and two 
hundred and twenty-one privates. 

Capt. Jacob Stake lived along the foot of 
the tiiountain, between Roxbury and Stras- 
burg. He went as captain of a company of 
drafted men as far as Erie, at which place his 
company was merged into those of Captains 
Dunn and Gordon, as the commissions of those 
officers antedated his commission and there 
were not men enough in their companies to 
fill them uj) to the required complement, 

ME.\IC.\N W.\R 

The fifth war in which the United States 
engaged was that with Mexico, declared April 
12, 1846. It ended July 4, 1848. American 
troops employed, 104,284 ; American losses, 
killed in action, 1,777 (one being from Jeffer- 
son county); died of wounds, 954; died of 
disease, 16,054, making a total loss of 18,785. 
Cost of war, $74,000,000. 

CIVIL WAR, 1861-1865 

In the Civil war no State w-as better repre- 
sented upon the battlefield than Pennsylvania. 
.She sent to the front one soldier out of every 
eight of military age, and lost more killed in 
battle than any other State, viz.: 15,265 killed, 
and 17,918 died of disease, as prisoners of war, 
accidents, etc., total, 33,183. The total cost in 
money is estimated at $8,500,000,000. 

The aggregate number of men raised by the 
government for the Union armies from 1861 
to 1865 reached over two million, thirty-six 
thousand soldiers, and if we add to this the 
Confederate forces there is a grand aggregate 
of four million of men, the largest force ever 
put on a war footing in any one country in any 
age of the world. Over six hundred thousand 
ninety-days men served in the Union army. 
The inimber of battles and skirmishes in the 
course of the war is estimated at six thousand, 
five hundred. 

Af/cs (if Unlisted Soldiers 

There were twenty-five enlistments at ten 
years of age; thirty-eight at eleven years; two 
hundred and twenty-five at twelve years ; three 
hundred at thirteen years; one hundred and 



five thousand at fourteen and fifteen years ; 
one hundred and twenty-six thousand at 
sixteen years ; three hundred and seven thou- 
sand at seventeen years; one miUion, nine 
thousand at seventeen to twenty-one _ years ; 
twenty-one and over, one hundred and eighteen 

Marching Equiptuent 

Our soldiers usually carried on the march 
sixty-two pounds, viz. : gun, bayonet, cart- 
ridge box, cap box, haversack, canteen, knap- 
sack, one fourth of the shelter tent, blanket, 
overcoat, three to five days' rations, frying 
pan, tin cup, knife, fork and spoon. 

On each of the wagons that followed the 
Army of the Potomac was plainly marked 
the badge of the brigade and division it be- 
longed to, and what it carried, whether am- 
munition, or forage, or rations, and the kind. 

The army was to march and fight on "light 
rations." The beef to be consumed was for- 
warded on foot. A soldier's ration was eight- 
een pounds. Each one carried a three-days' 
supply. Each soldier's three days' food, his 
blanket, overcoat, canteen, gun and fifty 
rounds of ammunition weighed about thirty- 
five pounds. Thus the one hundred thousand 
infantry soldiers carried over sixteen hundred 
tons on their backs. Estimating the ration for 
each man at one and eight-tenths pounds, and 
the army at one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand, the food consumed daily was 112 
tons, not counting beef. 

Grant says in his Memoirs that his wagon 
train would have reached from the Rapidan to 
Richmond, sixty-five miles. The number of 
wagons provided for this forward movement 
of the army was four thousand, three hundred, 
and of ambulances eight hundred and thirty- 
five. If they had been placed in a single 
column, allowing seventy-five feet for each 
vehicle, the column would have been seventy- 
five miles long. The horses and mules re- 
quired to haul these wagons and ambulances, 
with those of the cavalry, and ridden by 
officers, numbered fifty-six thousand, five hun- 
dred. If they had been led in single file, giving 
each one ten feet of space, they would have 
made a procession one hundred and seven 
miles long. Forage for these animals, allow- 
ing each one ten pounds, required two hundred 
and eighty-two tons a day. 

During the war dolls were made the means 
of conveying various articles through the lines 
of the enemy. All sorts of drugs and even 

war dispatches were successfully carried in this 
way, for it was a long time before suspicions 
became aroused by so innocent looking a play- 
thing carried tenderly in the arms of the little 
maiden of the day. But after a while the doll 
had to go through as severe an examination as 
any suspect. 


What old soldier is there of any of the 
"marching regiments" that does not know 
how to prepare a mess of lobscouse? That 
was indeed one of the "first duties of a 
soldier." Nor were the utensils to make it 
many. If you possessed one of those little 
army frying pans you were of the fortunate 
few. If not, everyone had a tin plate, or could 
get half a canteen. The only other article 
needed was that faithful old "coffee boiler." 
Battered and smoke-stained though it was 
from long service, yet was it the most precious 
of all our limited cooking kit. In fact, the 
articles named above comprised our sole and 
only culinary outfit. 
•Go back to the noonday halt, after a long 
half day's march through heat and dust, when 
the welcome order was given, "half an hour 
for dinner." There was no time to waste. 
Wood and water must be obtained before that 
anticipated mess of lobscouse could be pre- 
pared. You and your "bunkey" at once started 
out, you for wood, he with the two canteens 
for water. A nearby rail fence would gen- 
erally supply the wood, but one seldom knew 
where water was to be' found. I never knew 
how that water was found, but in some way 
it always was found, and by the time the fire 
was started "bunkey" came back with full can- 
teens. First came a good drink, then you 
poured some water over the broken-up hard- 
lack in the cofl^ee boilers. Next you fried what 
you considered to be a ration of salt pork ; 
when that was done, emptied the soaked 
crackers into the frying pan and set it on the 
coals ; next put a liberal quantity of cofifee 
into the "boiler," fill with water and set by 
the side of the fire. By the time the cofifee 
had boiled the lobscouse was do;ie, and you 
sat down on mother earth to enjoy your well- 
earned meal. Such w^s our unvaried diet 
from one month to another, year in and year' 
out. 1 believe no comrade will doubt the asser- 
tion that lobscouse, under some one of its 
various names, constituted his 'only meal nine 
times out of ten. This, of course, applies to 
troops in the field. 




Scarce had the gun fired upon Sumter 
April 12, 1861, ceased its vibrations when 
the hardy sons of Jefil'erson county vohni- 
teered to defend the flag, assauhed by Rebel 
hands. Two companies were soon raised for 
the first three months' service, and to every 
call for troops thereafter "Little JeiTerson" 
responded nobly, until she had enrolled over 
two thousand four hundred men. Of these 
eight hundred sixty-seven were in the One 
Hundred and Mfth Pennsylvania X'olunteers, 
and three hundred and twenty-two were emer- 
gency men. The balance ser\ed in the 
Eleventh Penn.sylvania Reserve, the .Sixty- 
second, Sixty-seventh, One Hundred and 
Thirty-fifth, One Hundred and Forty-eighth, 
Two Hundred and Eleventh and Two Hun- 
dred and Si.xth Regiments, in the dififerent 
cavalry regiments, the Eighteenth United 
States Infantry, the United States Sharp- 
shooters, Jefl'erson county being represented 
in eighteen dififerent organizations. 

The ])opulation of the county in iSfx) was 
18,270, so that thirteen and one-half per ce^t. 
went into the service. 

It can be said of the people of Jefl^erson 
county that they promptly responded to every 
draft, and in no instance was there the least 
resistance olTered to the ofificers in the dis- 
charge of their duty. This submission to the 
will of the administration, and acquiescence 
in the plan for filling up the army, which the 
exigencies of the service demanded, did not 
prevail in all portions of the country. 

The following record of regiments and 
roster of soldiers shows how well Jefferson 
county did her jiart :* 

Companies I and K . Rif/hth Pcnnsyk'ania Reg- 
iment, Three Months Volunteers 

The first soldiers from Jefiferson county to 
enter the Union service were Companies T 
and K, Eighth Regiment. PcnnsvUania 
Troops, who volunteered for three months. 
They were mustered in April 24, i<S6i, and 
mustered out July 2(), 1861. The regiment 
was commanded by Col. A. H. Emley. The 
muster roll follows : 

Company I. — Cajitain. Amor A. McKnight ; 
first lieutenant, John Hastings; second lieu- 
tenant, Herman Kretz; first sergeant, William 
J. Clyde; sergeants, Albert C. Thompson, 

* Quoted matter from Kate M. Scott's History of 
Jefferson County, Pennsylvania. 

Abram .M. Hall, Winfield S. Barr; corporals. 
Steele S. Williams, Richard J. Espy, William 
J. I'air; musicians, James L. Holliday, George 
I'.owdish. Privates, .^amucl Anderson, .Albert 
Plack, Fernando C. Bryant, Alilo L. Bryant, 
Samuel Benner, Joseph Bowdish, Sylvanus T. 
Covin, Josiah Clingersmith, .Samuel .Alfred 
Craig. Niman Chitester. Daniel N. Coe. Wil- 
liam T. Clark. Simon P. Cravener, Samuel W. 
Depi), John Darrow, John Dolphin, John El- 
liot, Henry B. Fox. Horace Fails, John L. 
Gilbert, Lorenzo S. Garrison. Leonard A. 
Groover, John S. Gallagher, Robert Gilmore, 
George W. Hettrick, Samuel Hibler. James 
Hall, Thomas L. Hall, Randall Hart," Paul 
Hettrick, Robert A. Henry, Joseph B. Hen- 
derson. Jared Jones, Wellington Johnston, 
Daniel Kinley. Thonias Long, Wilmarth Mat- 
son, Tames H. Moore, Joseph K. Murphw 
Robert S. McCauley, DaVid H. McCullougii. 
James Moorhead, Levi AfcFadden, Shannon 
^IcP'adden, Elijah Mc.Xninch, George Ohls, 
^Villiam Osman, John Prevo, William N. 
Pierce. John W. Pearshall, Robert J. Robinson. 
John Stivers. Francis H. Steck, Thaddeus C. 
Spottswood, William Toye, Alex. R. Taylor, 
Gustavus Verbeck, Robert Warner. Joseph N. 
Wachob, .Amos Weaver, Mark H. Williams, 
Alexander C. White, Hiram Warner. 

Company K. — Captain, William W. \Mse; 
first lieutenant, John C. Dowling; second lieu- 
tenant. Wilson Keys : first sergeant. Samuel 
C. Arthurs; sergeants. John Coon, Benjamin 
Lerch, r)rlando H. P.rown ; corporals. John 
Cummins, J. Potter Aliller, Charles J. Wil- 
son, Franklin --Rea ; musicians, David Dickey, 
James Campbell. Privates, William .Adams, 
.Sydney .Armstrong, David Bates. Rowan \L 
Bell. Lafayette Piurge, Ed. H. I'aum, James 
i.aldwin, Thomas Baird, David Baldwin. 
Darius Blose, .Asaph M. Clarke, Frank W. 
Clark. .Andrew Christie, .Samuel H. Coon. 
Charles B. Coon, (ioorge W. Crosby, William 
P. Confer, Isaac Currier, Lewis Diabler, Ben- 
jamin Diabler, James C. Dowling, John B. 
Deacon, Chris. D. Fleck, Lewis Gaup, Wil- 
liam George, Wort Gaffield, Henry Hawthorn, 
( leorge Hawthorn, Archibald Hadden. Ben- 
jamin Harvey, Peter Keck. .Andrew Love, 
James W. Logan, Samuel May, Hiram Mc- 
Aninch. Harvey Mc.Aninch, .Samuel J-f. Mit- 
chell, William Neill, Judson J. Parsons. David 
Porter. George I'orter, Henry Page. Burdett 
Riggs, Daniel Rhodes, Franklin Rumbarger, 
James Robinson. .Adam A. Rankin. William 
Smathers, .Addis ]\r. Shugert. Salumiel and 
D;nid Swineford. \\'m. \\'. Sheets, Chauncev 
Shafi'er, David A. Taylor. Philip P. Taylor. 



I'raiik Van Overbeck', liarton B. Welden, Sam- 
uel Wilson, James H. Wilson, Francis M. 
Whiteman, Oliver P. Woods, William E. 
Young, Stephen R. Young. 

Company K, Elex'cnth Regiment Pennsylvania 

"It was soon seen that the war cloud had 
assumed more gigantic proportions than was 
at first anticipated, and that more than three 
months would elapse before the rebellion 
would be quelled. Capt. Evans R. Brady, 
editor of the BrookviUc Jeffcrsonian, at once, 
upon the call for troops, had begtm to recruit 
a company, but the quota was filled before 
his company was ready. In the meantime 
(rovemor Curtin, with the promptness that 
characterized him all through the trying days 
of the war, and which gained for him the name 
of "War Governor,' had convened the legis- 
lature in special session and recommended 
the immediate organization, arming, and dis- 
ciplining of at least fifteen regiments for State 
defense. The legislature promptl)' acted on 
this suggestion of the executive, and on the 
15th of May, 1861, i)assed an act providing 
for the organizing of the 'Reserve Corps of 
the Commonwealth.' to consist of thirteen 
regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, and 
one of artillery. Two days after the passage 
of this act. Governor Curtin issued a call for 
troops to fill these regiments, stating that the 
companies to be furnished l>y the several coun- 
ties would be i)roportionate to the number of 
men already in the service from each county. 
Under the previous call hundreds of com- 
panies had been formed in excess of the num- 
ber called for by the war department, and 
there was a rush to get into the new organiza- 
tions as soon as the governor's call was issued. 

"Captain Brady had gone on recruiting his 
company, and by the middle of May had 
enough men enrolled to form two companies, 
so that they were divided into Companies A 
and B. Company A was organized by select- 
ing as captain, Evans R. Brady; first lieu- 
tenant, James P. George ; second lieutenant, 
James E. Long. Company B organized by 
selecting for their captain Robert R. Means. 
Captain Brady proceeded to Harrisburg to 
have these companies accepted, but found that 
only one company could be received in the 
Reserves from Jefiferson county. Company 
P. was afterwards Company I of the Sixty- 
second Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

"During their tiiree years' service the 
I'.lcventh took jiart in fifteen battles — Me- 

chanicsville, Gaines's Mill, New Market Cross 
Roads, Malvern Hill, Bull Run, South Moun- 
tain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, 
Bristoe Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania Court House, North Anna and 
Bethesda Church. 

"Lieut. J. P. George was promoted to cap- 
tain April 10, 1863, and resigned August 10, 
[863. Lieuts. J. E. Long and Cyrus Butler also 
having resigned, Lieut. Edward Scofield was 
promoted to captain of Company K Novem- 
ber 17, 1863. Captain Scofield, while in com- 
mand of his company, was taken prisoner in 
the Wilderness May 5, 1864, and was held by 
the Rebels for ten months, in which time he 
was successively incarcerated in nine different 
prisons. He was released at Wilmington, N. 

C, March i, 1865, and discharged from the 
service March 12, 1865. Just nine months 
after his company was mustered out, March 
13, 1865, he was breveted major. 

"William D. Knapp, James A. McKillip 
and George Ittle, of the same company, were 
also taken prisoners at the battle of the Wil- 
derness and confined at Andersonville, where 
they saw two of their comrades, Henry Reigle 
and Calvin Galbraith, die of starvation. While 
being removed to Millen they, with some other 
prisoners, cut a hole in the car and, jumping 
from the train, escaped, and after undergoing 
untold privations, with the aid of the friendly 
negroes finally reached Sherman's army, 
which they accompanied to Savannah, and, 
their time having expired, returned home. 

"The death roll of Company K is as fol- 
lows: Died, Jackson Crisswell, at (leorge- 
town, D. C. ; Giles Skinner, at Camp Pierpont ; 
Thomas Hughes, at Washington, D. C. ; John 

D. S. McAnulty, in Camp Hospital ; George 
R. Ward and John Uplinger, of wounds, at 
Fortress Monroe; Isaac G. Monks, of wounds, 
at Fortress Monroe ; Sylvester McKinley, of 
wounds, Levi McFadden, at Washington ; 
William Coulter, at Fredericksburg; Henry 
Reigle, Calvin Galbraith, at Andersonville ; 
James Montgomery, Lewis S. Newberry, at 
Richmond ; John B. Clough, of wounds, at 
Alexandria ; Sergeant Andrew J. Harl, died 
at Indiana, Pa., on his way home; William 
Chamberlain, of wounds, at Richmond ; Joseph 
S. Bovard, of wounds ; Reuben Weaver, John 
Reif, John Sheasley, Aiken's Landing; James 
Gallagher, Baltimore. Killed, Capt. £. R. 
Brady, South Mountain ; Winfield S. Taylor, 
M. L. Boyington, Horatio Morey, Davis De- 
Haven, at Gaines's Mill ; William Clark, Al- 
bert L. Brown, Perry Welch, at Antietan;i ; 
Madison A. Travis, J. A. C. Thorn, Thomas 



F. Rush, at I-'rcdcrickslniri;; Milo E. r.ryaiit, 
at Wilderness; Thonias C. Eucas, at Bethesda 

Members (if C(iiii])aiiy K. I-lIeventh I'. K. 
C, transferred to other organizations: Cor- 
Ijoral Eemucl Dobbs, transferred to Nineteenth 
Regiment U. S. C. T. ; Private Perry A. Fos- 
ter, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps ; 
Private Thomas !•;. Eove, transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps ; Private James P. Wil- 
liams, transferred to ^^etcran Reserve Corps ; 
Private Barton Nicliolson, transferred to One 
Elundred and -Fifth Regiment P. V. Trans- 
ferred to Company E One Hundred and Nine- 
tieth Regiment P. \\ : F.h'jah Bish, Alpheus 

C. Cochran, Othoniel Davis. I-. A. Gruver, 
Joseph P. Miller, David Montgomery, Wil- 
liam Steel, Thomas W. Salada, A. W. Perrin. 
H. S. Wyant. The two last-named were cap- 
tured and died at Salisbury, North Carolina. 

"The muster roll of the company is as fol- 
lows : Captains, Evans R. Brady, James P. 
George, Edward Scofield ; first lieutenant, 
Harvey H. Clover; second lieutenants, James 
E. Eong, Cyrus Butler; first sergeants, An- 
drew J. Harl, Arch. M. McKillep, James El- 
liott, \\'illiam W. Ossawandel ; sergeants, 
Daniel L. Swartz, Thomas P. McCrea, John 
H. Miller, Bennewell Elaugh, David C. K. 
Eevan. Calvin Galbraith ; cor])orals, Eemuel 

D. Dodds, Joshua Jones, John LTplinger, John 
Baker, Thomas A. I^ucas, T. E. Hall, Benja- 
min McClellan, R. Wilson Ramsey, Job M. 
Carley. Privates, Samuel Alexander, William 

G. .\lgeo. Cornelius J. Adams, John H. Alt, 
Elijah Bish. Albert E. Brown, M. E. Boying- 
ton. Joseph S. Bovard, Milo E. Bryant. James 
A. P.lair, Martin V. Briggs, Enos .'\. Cornell, 
John Cuddy, William Cathcart. Jesse Crav- 
ener, A. C. Cochran, Jack.son Crisswell, Wil- 
liam Coulter, William ("lark, William Cham- 
berlain, John B. Clough, John W. Carr. Sam- 
uel Donley, Othoniel Davis, Davis DeHaven, 
John Engle. William I'j'sle, .Solomon Fitzger- 
ald, Perry A. Foster, Samuel A. Gordon, 
Joseph C. Gibson. E. A. Gruver, James Galla- 
gher, William Hoffman, Clark H. Elaven, 
David R. Hurst. Thomas TTnghes, George 
Ittle, William A. |ohnson, William D. Knapp, 
William Kelly, Ed. G. Kirkman, Michael A. 
King, Thomas E. Eove, William F. Eoomis, 
J. A. Montgomery, Orville T. Minor, John 
McMillen, James H. Mvers, William T- Mills, 
John A. McGuire, IT. W. McKillip. William 
"Morri.son, James IT. McKillip,])h P. Mil- 
ler, David Montgomery, Horatio R. Morey, 
J. D. S. McAnulty, Israel G. Monks, Sylvester 
McKinley, Eevi P.. McFadden, J. Montgom- 

ery, Samuel W. Miles. William McEaughlin, 
Thomas Neal, Thomas Nolf. E. S. Newberry, 
r.arton .\. Nicholson, Eli Phillips, A. W. Per- 
rin, Henry A. Reigle, John J. Robinson, David 
J. Reigle, Thomas Rock. Thomas F. Rush, 
John Reif, Samuel Steele, George Shick, 
Joseph Smith, George Surdam, Loran Skin- 
ner, J. W. Shellabarger, George Slack. Wil- 
liam Steele, Thomas W. Sallada, Giles Skin- 
ner, John Sheesly, Moses M. Sugards. Win- 
field S. Taylor, James A. C. Thom, Madison 
A. Travis, Robert M. Wilson, Eevi B. Wise, 
Robert N. Williams, Thomas T. Wesley, 
James P. Williams, Andrew Waley, Allen C. 
\\'i,int, II. S. Wiant, Reuben Weaver, George 
R. U'anl, Perry A. Welch." 

Covipdiiy I . Sivty-sccoiul Rri/imrnt P. V. 

"Cajjt. Robert R. Means, of Brookville. 
r.-iised a company. Col. Samuel W. Black, of 
Pittsburgh, by authority from the secretary 
of war. Gen. Simon Cameron, commenced to 
recruit a regiment, and Captain Means at once 
offered his company for this new organization 
and was accepted. A comjiany had been 
partially recruited in and near Punxsutawnev, 
and was joined to that of Captain Means, and 
the compaiiy with full ranks left Punxsutau- 
ney July 24. 1861, and proceeded to Camp 
Wright, near Pittsburgh, where it was mus- 
tered in as Company E Thirty-third Inde- 
pendent Regiment. The election of officers 
resulted in the election of Robert R. Means, 
cajjtain ; Edwin H. Eittle, first lieutenant; and 
John T. Bell, second lieutenant. 

"The regiment was at once ordered to Cam]i 
Cameron, near Harri.sburg, where it arrived 
with full ranks and splendidly organized and 
officered. Tt proceeded in a few weeks to 
Camp Ra])]). in the northern suburbs of Wash- 
ington city, where it was equipped with cloth- 
ing, arms, etc. ; six companies receiving the 
new .S])ringficld rifles and the balance sniooth- 
1)ore muskets. 

"On the nth of September the regiment 
moved across the Potomac, going into caniji 
near Fort Corcoran, where it was assigned to 
the .Second lirigade of Gen. Fitzjohn Porter's 
Division. Drill was commenced, but owing 
to the men being constantly on detail for 
fatigue duty at work constructing roads and 
throwing up entrenchments, but little was 
acc(im])lished. On the 2r)th the regiment wa.s 
moved with the new line, which was advanced 
by the enemy falling back from Munson's 
llill. It remained here at Fall's Church for a 
few weeks, when it moved to Elinor's Hill 



and went into winter quarters. The new 
camp was called Bettie Black, for the Colonel's 
youngest daughter. 

"Here the regiment was renumbered as the 
Sixty-second P. V. Here drill and discipline 
w-as rigidly enforced, and a school established 
for the officers. Both officers and men soon 
became proficient in 'tactics.' In December, 
at Hall's Hill, the State colors were presented 
to the regiment. Colonel Black receiving them 
in behalf of the regiment in his usual eloquent 
and happy manner. Here, also, the regiment 
received the new zouave outfit, the most com- 
plete in all its details of any uniform furnished 
the volunteer soldiers. The men took pride 
in keeping their camp in the best of order, 
and much taste was displayed. The streets 
were lined with rows of cedars, and at the end 
of every street was an arch, with the letter 
of each company in a wreath .suspended in its 
center. The reporter of the New York World 
wrote of it as 'the model camp of the Army 
of the Potomac' During the early part of 
the winter much sickness prevailed in the regi- 
ment, and several died out of Company I. 
The surgeon placed the camj) under the strict- 
est sanitary measures, and the disease soon 

"Capt. Robert R. Means resigned January 
13, 1863. when Lieut. Edwin H. Little was 
promoted captain, and ])roved a brave and 
faithful officer until the battle of Gettysburg, 
when he was killed while fighting desperately 
at the head of his company, in that fearful 
hand-to-hand conflict in the wheatfield, July 
2d. Captain Little was a son of Jacob and 
.Anna Little, nee Shunk, and was born in 
Bridgewater, Beaver Co., Pa., on the 14th of 
Augtist, 1833. He removed with his parents 
to Punxsutawney in 1852. 

"When Captain Little fell the command of 
Company I devolved upon Lieut. John T. Bell, 
who was promoted captain September 12. 
1863. Captain Bell was wounded and taken 
prisoner at Gaines's Mill, and again wounded 
in the Wilderness. He commanded the com- 
pany efficiently until its muster out. Com- 
pany T look part in the battles of Yorktown, 
Hanover Court House. Gaines's Mill, Malvern 
Hill. Antietani. Second Bull Run. Fredericks- 
burg. Chancellorsville. Rappahannock Station. 
Locust Grove Church, the Wilderness, Spott- 
sylvania. North Anna, Tolopotomy, Bethesda 
Church, Petersburg, June 18, Jerusalem 
Plank Road. The company lost by battle and 
disease the following : 

"Killed at Gettysburg— Capt. E. H. Little, 
Sergt. Isaac S. Osborne, William Orr, H. C. 

Tafel; at Gaines's Mill. Sergt. Clarence R. 

"Died of wounds and disease — Ephraim 
Myers. A. W. Armagost. John Bouch. David 
Burkett, Samuel Crissman, William Farley, 
James A. Fairman, George Leech, Adam W. 
Musser, Jacob H. Trout, James Spencer; G. 
Vancampment. at Andersonville. Ga. John 
Kaylor, wounded, with loss of arm. at Han- 
over Court House, died at Kittanning. Pa., on 
his way home. July 17, 1863.* 

"The following Jefiferson county men served 
in Company I, Sixty-second Regiment : Cap- 
tains. Robert R. Means. Edwin LI. Little, 
John T. Bell ; first lieutenant, Samuel W. 
Temple ; first sergeants, John M. .Steck, Isaac 
S. Osborne; sergeants, George Mack, David 
W. Kerr, George S. Campbell, C. R. Thomp- 
son ; corporals, Thomas A. Hendricks, Alex- 
ander Glenn, William Smith, Arr Neil, Charles 
F. Liebrick, Thomas H. Budlong, Ephraim 
Myers, Ephraim B. Johnston, A. W. Arma- 
gost. John Shannon. Thomas Anderson. Sam- 
uel Crissman. Ira Felt. Watson Guthrie; 
musicians. William R. Depp. John Ready. 
Privates. Paul' Broadhead. Philip Black, 
Joseph T. Burns, John Bouch, David Burkett, 
Joseph L. Burly, George Bei-ger, George 
Christy, Harrison Covill, Edwin B. Cavinore, 
James C. Cavinore, Thomas Connell, James 
Caldwell, Fleming Caldwell, John Collins, Wil- 
liam Cunningham. Samuel J. Denny, Fred- 
erick C. Eshliaugh. Thomas Edmonds, George 
M. Emrick, John W. Frost, William M. Fair- 
man, James A. Fairman, William Farley, 
James Geer, Mathew Griffith. Solomon Heim, 
David Hopkins, Isaac Hendricks, James B. 
Jordan. John Kaylor, Hughes Kelly. Francis 
Lyman. John II. Love. George Leech, Abra- 
ham Milliron, Josiah Morehead, Adam W. 
Musser, William F. Meeker, John Maginnis, 
David McKee, Neil McKay, James McSpar- 
rin, lames McKee, George W. McKinlv, 
ChaiJes H. McCracken. Frederick Nulf. H. 
N. G. Nutting, William Orr, John Oyster, 
Lyman H. Phelps, Samuel Reynolds, George 
W. Richards, William Rowley. Joseph Rich- 
ards. William Randolph. Clark Rodgers, Henry 
Slagle, Simon J. Shanafelt. Henry Shearer, 
Joseph Sterrett, R. W. Shafifer, Henry C. 
Shuey, James Spencer, George L. Smith, 
Adam .Smith, Noah Shotts, Absalom Stoner, 
Benjamin Smyers, Adam Smouse, James C. 
Shields, Samuel Shafifer, Jacob S. Trout, PL 
C. Tafel, Joseph M. Temple. George Van- 
liorn. G. VanCampment. David J. Watt. Rob- 
ert Welsh. Noah \\'ensell. John Warner. lohn 
M. Weaver. 



"The following men from Company I, 
Sixty-second P. V., reenlisted in Company I, 
One Hundred and Fifty-fifth P. V.: Capt. 
John T. Bell ; First Sergt. Thomas C. Ander- 
son ; Sergt. Ephraim B. Johnston ; Corporals 
Sylvanus F. Covill, George L. Smith, Robert 
W. Shaffer, Samuel Reynolds, died; Noah 
Wensell, killed at Spottsylvania ; Privates 
Joseph J,. lUicley (Burly), Samuel J. Denny, 
killed at Peeblc's Farm, \'a. ; John Maginnis, 
William F. Meek-er, John W. Oyster, Lyman 
S. Phelps, Jose])h Ricliards. Absalom Stoner, 
Samuel ShatTer." 

One Uitiulrcd and Fifth I'cmtsylvania Regi- 
ment — Wild Cat Regiment 

"The Wild Cat Regiment, so called from 
the old name of the Congressional district 
which embraced Jefferson county, from which 
it was princijx'illy recruited, was raised in ac- 
cordance with authority granted by the war 
department to Amor A. McKnight, Esq., of 
Brookville, Pa. The regiment was organized 
at Pittsburgh. September g, 1861, and pro- 
ceeded immediately to Washington city, going 
into camp at Kalorama Heights on the nth 
of .Septemlx-r. LI ere a company from West- 
moreland county, commanded by Capt. M. M. 
Dick, seceded from Colonel Leasure's Round- 
head regiment and joined Colonel McKnight's 
regiment. This, one of the best companies in 
the regiment, was afterwards known as Com- 
pany E. In a few days the regiment was 
moved across the Potomac into \^irginia and 
encamped upon the farm of Hon. George 
Mason, one of the most bitter Rebels in the 
Old Dominion, and whose life during that 
winter was one season of discontent, caused 
by the presence of the hated bluecoats en- 
camped at his very door. This camp, situated 
on a slight eminence, about one and a half 
miles from Alexandria, was called Camp 
Jameson, after the gallant Gen. Charles D. 
Jaineson, of Maine, to w^hose brigade the regi- 
ment was assigned. This noble officer, who, 
while in command of his own tried regiment, 
the Second Maine, had won his stars at Bull 
Jvun, soon became a great favorite with the 
men of the Wild Cat Regiment. Llimself a 
lumberman, he could appreciate the hardy, 
stalwart sons of the forest. On one occasion 
some of the boys who had been detailed to 

* These arc all that an- ri'piirtcil as having hceii 
killed or died from Company 1. Init the records of 
llu- company are not fnll, as forty-two names are 
reported "not on mnster-oiit roll." and it is more 
than likely that some of these were killed or died. 

cut firewood employed their time instead in 
gathering chestnuts and returned to camp 
i)ringing only a few fence rails. As a punish- 
ment for this breach of discipline Colonel Mc- 
Knight ordered them to 'walk the ring,' each 
man carrying a rail. General Jameson passing 
by, the boys came to a halt and saluted him by 
bringing their rails to 'present arms.' The 
Cieneral returned the salute, seemingly much 
amused. An election for field officers was 
held soon after the regiment reached Camp 
Jameson, which resulted in the election of 
Amor A. McKnight, colonel; W. W. Corbet, 
lieutenant colonel; M. M. Dick, major. The 
regiment, which was now called the One 
Hundred and Fifth Pennsylvania Yolunteers, 
was assigned to the First Brigade, First Divis- 
ion, Third Corps, which place it kept from 
that time until the glorious old Third was con- 
solidated with the Second Corps, and, with 
the Sixty-third Pennsylvatiia Volunteers, 
were, I think, the only regiments that ke])t 
their original place in the same brigade. This 
brigade was at first composed of the Fifty- 
seventh, Sixty-third, and One Hundred and 
Fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and the 
Eighty-seventh New York. 

"Gen. Charles K. Graham, under whom the 
One Hundred and Fifth did some of its most 
heroic fighting, gives me in a recent letter this 
unsolicited tribute to the regiment : 'The 
One Hundred and Fifth was composed of 
unusually fine material. Young in years and 
strong in brawn. Colonel McKnight, too, was 
a very capable drill officer and fine discip- 
linarian and taught his men to excel in their 
manoeuvres. Frec|ucntly, when I commanded 
the brigade, I visited the headquarters of the 
regiment to witness the bayonet drill, in which 
the regiment was particularly proficient.' 

"On the 26th of January, 1862, Captains 
Rose and Altman and Lieutenants Brady, 
Worrall, J. G. and C. J. Wilson resigned. 
Capt. L. B. Dufif, of the Ninth Pennsylvania 
Reserves, was given the command of Com- 
pany D. Cajit. James Hamiltoti, of the same 
regiment, was assigned to Company L and 
Lieut. A. C. Thompson, of Company P>, to 
the command of Company K. This was for a 
time dee])ly resented by the men of these com- 
panies, but when they found how brave, cap- 
able and honorable these officers were they 
forgot their grievances, and no officers in the 
regiment were more highly honored or more 
po])tilar. January 5, 1X62, the One Hundred 
and iMfth was presented by the .State with ;in 
elegant stand of colors. Gen. L K. Moorhead, 
of Pittsburgh, making the |)resentation oti be- 



half of Governor Curtin, and Colonel Mc- 
Knight receiving the flag on behalf of his regi- 

"On March 17th the One Hundred and 
Fifth embarked on the steamer 'Catskill,' for 
Fortress Monroe, arriving there on the even- 
ing of the 19th. They disembarked in the 
midst of a fearful rainstorm, and in this were 
marched about a mile north of the fort and 
halted for the night. This was their first field 
experience, and not relishing the prospect of 
lying all night in the rain, the regiment, with- 
out orders, broke ranks, and officers and men 
sought refuge from the storm in some cavalry 
stables of the. Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, 
who gave the drenched and suffering soldiers 
shelter, and with the Sixteenth Massachusetts 
Infantry, who were on guard near by, pre- 
pared hot coiTee for both the One Flundred 
and Fifth and Sixty-third. They remained in 
the vicinity of Yorktown until the 5th of May, 
when the First Brigade, which had been de- 
tached from the division, was ordered to rejoin 
it and were hurried forward at a 'double 
quick' past all obstruction through the rain 
and mud. As they neared Williamsburg 
General Heintzelman rode out to meet them, 
while the rest of the division received them 
with a cheer. The other brigades of the divis- 
ion were almost used up, but when they heard 
the enthusiastic cheers of Jameson's brigade 
as it hastened to their relief it infused new 
life into their weary, bleeding ranks, and they, 
rallying, made charge after charge until the 
enemy gave way. Jameson's brigade was 
hurried to the front, but the enemy did not 
venture to attack, and, our forces not caring 
to attack their works that night, the division 
was formed in line and lay there all night in 
the pouring rain without overcoats or blankets. 
The next morning the One Hundred and Fifth 
was deployed as skirmishers to enter the 
town. General Jameson and Colonel McKnight 
both with them. Company C, which occupied 
the center as the advance, was the first to 
enter the town, and the regimental flag was 
hoisted on the courthouse by Sergeant McNutt 
of that company. As our troops entered the 
eastern end of the town the last of the Con- 
federate infantry could be seen leaving from 
the west. The regiment was deployed in and 
about the town and captured several prisoners. 
Sergt. Joseph Craig, of Company C, captured 
a Confederate cavalryman with his horse and 
arms. Company K captured the sabre, sash 
and dress suit of Major General Wilcox, of 
the Confederate army. Captain Thompson 
appropriated the sash. Lieutenant Lawson the 

sabre, while the boys 'parted his raiment 
among them.' The One Hundred and Fifth 
was detailed to guard Williamsburg, Lieut. 
Colonel Corbet being appointed provost mar- 
shal. They remained here until the 9th of 
May, when they left Williamsburg and until 
the 31st of May were employed on guard and 
picket duty between Williamsburg and the 
Chickahominy River. 

"On the morning of May 31 firing began 
in their front, which rapidly grew heavier, and 
at four o'clock p. m. the brigade was ordered 
to the front. The One Hundred and Fifth, 
with seven companies, leaving all baggage be- 
hind, marched at 'double quick' down the rail- 
road, past Savage Station about half a mile, 
where they were halted for a few minutes in 
the woods. To their right was an open field, 
across this a rifle-pit filled with our men, wait- 
ing the onset of the enemy. On their imme- 
diate front was a narrow 'slashing' of fallen 
timber, beyond which was Casey's camp, now 
in possession of the enemy. The One Hun- 
dred and Fifth turned to the right out of the 
woods in front of the rifle-pit, where they 
were brought to the front, and ordered by 
General Jameson to charge through the 'slash- 
ing' upon the enemy. They relieved the Tenth 
Massachusetts, and as they moved forward 
at double quick, found the Confederates about 
to attack them, and the two forces met almost 
on the edge of Casey's camp. So impetuous 
and deadly was the charge that the enemy 
gave way and were driven across and out of 
Casey's camp. Not being able to get their 
horses into the fallen timber, the officers, dis- 
mounting, turned them loose and went into 
the fight on foot. The One Hundred and 
Fifth pursued the flying foe until our entire 
right gave way, and the heroic little band was 
with difficulty withdrawn through a swamp 
on their left. The two companies, C and I, 
who could not join their regiment at the com- 
mencement of the fight, came up as soon as 
possible and were ordered by General Heint- 
zelman to form on the right of the Fifty- 
seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, and advance 
into the woods upon the enemy and hold the 
road, if possible. This they did until, the 
Fifty-seventh being obliged to retire, they 
also fell back, loading and firing as they went. 
Four of Company C were wounded, but there 
were no casualties in Company I. During the 
night they were joined by the survivors of the 
other companies. 

"General Jameson, in his report of the bat- 
tle of Fair Oaks, says : 'I had disposed of all 
my command at different points, with the ex- 



ception of three hundred and forty-eight men 
of the One Hundred and Fifth Pennsylvania 
N'oUniteers, under Colonel McKnight. All our 
men had fled from the abatis in the vicinity 
of the Richmond road. Our only alternative 
was to make the best possible stand with the 
handful of men under Colonel McKnight. 
We led them across the open field to the Rich- 
mond road and into the abatis, at double quick 
and under a most terrific fire, deploying one 
half on either side of the road. For more than 
an hour and a half this small force held every 
inch of the ground. At last the enemy broke 
and ran, and McKnight pursued them through 

Casey's camp No other evidence of 

the valor displayed by this heroic little band 
is necessary than the list of their killed and 
wounded. Every eighth man of their number 
has, since the fight, been buried on the field, 
and just one half their number killed or 
wounded. Of the eighteen commissioned of- 
ficers thirteen were killed or wounded. Gen- 
eral Kearny's horse and mine were killed. A 
parallel to this fighting does not exist in the 
two days' battle, nor will it exist during the 

"Headly, in his 'History of the Rebellion," 
says of the conduct of the One Hundred and 
Fifth at Fair Oaks : 'Napoleon's veterans 
never stood firmer under a devastating fire.' 

"In this fight the One Hundred and Fifth 
lost two of its best officers, Capt. John C. Bow- 
ling, of Company B, and Lieut. J. P. R. Cum- 
miskey, of Company D ; forty-one enlisted men 
killed, one hundred and seventeen wounded, 
and seventeen missing. Colonel AIcKnighl, 
Captains Duff'. Greenawalt, Kirk and Thomp- 
son, and Lieutenants Craig, Markle, Shipley, 
Geggie and Baird were wounded. 

"From the battle of Fair Oaks to the 25th 
of June the regiment remained quiet, doing 
picket duty, fiencral Jameson, so beloved by 
the regiment, had been seriously injured by 
his horse falling upon him, which, added to 
sickness caused by exposure, etc., had caused 
him to resign, and the command of the brigade 
devolved upon General Robinson. On the 
27th of June, while engaged as skirmishers, 
two men were killed and si.x wounded. On 
the 30th of June and ist of July the One Hun- 
dred and Fifth was hotly engaged at Glendale 
and Malvern Hill, losing, during the two days. 
one hundred and three killed and wounded — 
more than half the entire force of the regi- 
ment — but their loss was not to be wondered 
at, for at Glendale the regiment was hotly 
engaged from two p. ni. until dark, the enemy 
making desperate attempts to capture a battery 

which it was supporting. "The battle of Glen- 
dale,' says the Compte de Paris, 'is remark- 
able for its fierceness, among all those that 
have drenched the American forests with 

"The night after this fight they retired to 
Malvern Hill, where they were sharply en- 
gaged next day, standing for over four hours 
under an incessant fire of musketry and artill- 
ery, with no protection but a rail fence. Each 
man was supplied with one hundred and fifty 
cartridges, and not a man left his post while 
he had a cartridge left. At times the Con- 
federates came so close that our men could 
almost touch them with their bayonets, and 
they fought with desperation. Col. C. A. 
Craig, in writing of this battle, says : 'We 
are not a blowing regiment, or a blowing divis- 
ion, but if men can fight better than Kearny's 
Di\ision, it will be more than I have imagined 
in the art of war.' 

"On August 23d the regiment embarked 
upon truck cars for Manassas Junction, the 
different companies being detailed to do guard 
duty at Manassas, Catletts, Bristoe. and the 
high bridge at Turkey Run. Companies E 
and K were relieved at Bristoe on the 29th by 
part of the Eighty-seventh New York, and by 
sundown started down the railroad towards 
Catletts, picking up the men stationed on the 
road as they went along. This saved them 
from capture, as Stonewall Jackson's column, 
thirty thousand strong, struck Bristoe a few 
minutes after they were relieved. They had 
barely reached the switch, when, hearing fir- 
ing in the direction of Bristoe, they started 
l)ack, but finding the enemy in force Cajitain 
(ireenawalt, commanding the detachment, 
retired to Kettle Run bridge, which they were 
preparing to defend when a detachment from 
Sickles's Excelsior Brigade was sent to their 
relief. The officer in command ordered them 
to boai'd a train coming north, which was 
ordered Ijack towards Bristoe. When they 
reached the brow of the hill overlooking Bris'- 
toe, they l)eheld spread out before them the 
Rebel camp. They moved l)ack to Kettle Run, 
wiiere they made a stand to save the brigade, 
l)Ut a battery and a large force of Rebel in- 
fantry was sent after them, and not being able 
to cope with so large a force they were again 
put aljoard the train and run back to Catletts, 
to find their regiment in line, having been 
ordered to join Hooker, who, with the Third 
Corps, was moving back to meet Jackson. 
They found the bridge at Kettle Run de- 
stroyed, anrl iiad a brisk engagement. The 
(^ne Hundred and I'ifth supported a battery 



on the left of Hooker's line, on the hill over- 
looking Bristoe, and the Confederates made 
furious attempts to take it. General Hooker 
rode up and turned one of the guns upon the 
enemy himself. The next morning they 
marched to Manassas Junction, from which 
the enemy had retired during the night. Here 
Companies B and G had been left under com- 
mand of Capt. S. A. Craig, who had in addi- 
tion about thirty-five men of the Eighty- 
seventh New York, and four or five pieces 
of artillery in charge of Lieutenant James. 
The heroic little force tried gallantly to defend 
and hold the place, but after a short resistance 
were obliged to yield to the large force op- 
posed to them. This force was composed of 
the 'Louisiana Tigers' and a. North Carolina- 
Georgia battalion, and was commanded by the 
late General Gordon. About half of Captain 
Craig's command was captured, the rest escap- 
ing in the darkness. Captain Craig was 
wounded and taken prisoner. Three men of 
Company B were killed. 

"On August iijth the regiment started for 
Bull Run, meeting on the way those of their 
comrades captured at Bristoe and Manassas, 
whom Jackson, not wishing to be hampered 
with prisoners, had paroled. On reaching the 
battlefield the First Brigade was placed on the 
extreme right, facing Bull Run. Here they 
lay all day under a heavy artillery fire, but 
being protected by a rail fence and the woods 
in their front no casualties occurred in the 
One Hundred and Fifth. It was a great relief, 
however, when about five o'clock p. m. Gen- 
eral Kearny formed his column for attack, 
and led them into the fight. This column was 
formed of the Twentieth Indiana on the right, 
the Sixty-third Pennsylvania \'olunteers on 
the left, the Third Michigan on the right, and 
the One Hundred and Fifth the left center. 
They charged through the woods, and drove 
the enemy from the embankment and some 
distance beyond, but he rallied in force, and, 
though they again and again repulsed him, 
they were at last obliged to give way, and lost 
all the ground they had gained. The One 
Hundred and Fifth was the last to leave the 
railroad, and held their jjosition for some time 
after the balance of the brigade had left them. 
The Confederates, having crept up under 
cover of the embankment of the old railroad, 
suddenly delivered a heavy fire straight in 
their faces, causing the old regiment to reel 
and stagger like a drunken man. Captains 
Kirk and Thompson, finding themselves in a 
crowd from all companies, at once began to 
form their lines as on dress parade, and soon 

had the regiment in order again. It was here 
that the regiment sustained its heaviest loss. 
Capt. C. A. Craig, in command of the regi- 
ment, was shot through the ankle and his 
horse killed. Captains Hastings and Thomp- 
son were both severely wounded, and Lieuten- 
ant Gilbert, it is supposed, killed, as no trace 
was ever had of the brave yovmg officer after- 
wards. Captain Duff and Lieutenant Clyde 
brought the regiment off the field. The loss 
sustained was twelve killed, forty-three 
wounded, and three missing. When the re- 
treat began, the regiment was ordered to cover 
the road from Centreville, which they did, 
lying perfectly still until the army had all 
passed safely, when the brigade was ordered 
to march off the field without noise. 

"On the 1st of September the regiment was 
in the battle of Chantilly. Here they lost their 
beloved leader, the gallant Kearny, who, as, 
he rode unwittingly to meet his death, received 
his last cheer from the One Hundred and 
Fifth as he passed their lines. In his report 
of the battle of Bull Run, made the day he 
fell. General Kearny says : 'The One Hun- 
dred and Fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers was 
not wanting. They are Pennsylvanians — 
mountain men. Again have they been fear- 
fully decimated. The desperate charges of 
these regiments sustain the past history of 
this division.' 

''Colonel McKnight having regained his 
health, on the 20th of September was again 
commissioned colonel of the regiment. The 
government in thus keeping the position for 
him showed its appreciation of his value as 
an officer. The regiment remained quietly 
in camp until the nth of October, when it 
"was ordered to cross the Potomac to watch 
some Confederate cavalry raiding in Mary- 
land. On the 28th they returned to Virginia, 
and were engaged in guard and picket duty 
and bridge building until Burnside began his 
movement against Fredericksburg, where they 
supported Randolph's Battery in the fight of 
the 13th and 14th of December, losing three 
men killed, and Captain Hamilton, Lieuten- 
ants Clyde and Patterson, and eleven men 
wounded. Gen. Charles K. Graham, on taking 
charge of the First Brigade, noticed the pro- 
ficiency of the One Hundred and Fifth in 
drill and discipline, and tO' satisfy himself that 
he was not mistaken in his estimate of it. with 
Gen. D. B. Birney, commanding the division, 
selected the regiment acknowledged to be the 
best drilled in the division, the Thirty-eighth 
New York, to compete with the One Hiuidred 
and Fifth for the championship, General Bir- 



ney to be the judge, who. after witnessing the 
drill, pronounced the One Hundred and Fifth 
the victor in the contest. General Sickles, 
who came over on the invitation of General 
Birney to see the One Hundred and Fifth on 
dress parade, also warmly eulogized them on 
their excellence in drill, and complimented 
Colonel ]\rcKnight for the pains he had 
taken in drilling and disciplining them. 

"On the 28th of April the gallant Third 
Corps commenced its march towards Chancel- 
lorsville. On the 2d of May the brigade was 
moved to the center near the Chancellorsville 
brick house, the One Hundred and Fifth being 
deployed as skinnishers and to make a road 
across a swamp. Just as the work was fin- 
ished several of the men were wounded by a 
heavy artillery fire from the enemy. On the 
morning of the 3d their line was formed in 
the rear of the house, the One Hundred and 
Fourteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers on the 
right and the One Hundred and Fifth on the 
extreme left of the brigade. The regiment 
charged through the woods immediately in 
front of the Confederate batteries, where they 
were hotly engaged for two hours. Colonel 
McKnight and Lieutenant Colonel Craig were 
continually passing along the line, encourag- 
ing the men by their example and coolness. 
Just as the regiment was gaining position at 
the entrance of the woods. Colonel McKnight 
was shot through the head and killed. With 
his hat in his hand he had just given the com- 
mand, 'Forward, double quick, march!' With 
shouts his men pressed on to fulfill his last 
command, and advancing on a double quick- 
drove the enemy from the breastworks that 
they had taken from the Eleventh Corps the 
day before. 

"Upon the fall of Colonel AIcKnight, the 
command of the regiment devolved upon Col- 
onel Craig, who drove the enemy from the 
first line of entrenchments, which they held 
until, their ammunition being exhausted, the 
regiment, with the rest of the brigade, fell 
back, the enemy following to the brow of the 
hill, when the One Hundred and Fifth made 
a stand and would have charged had the 
enemy continued to advance. A new line 
being formed, the regiment retired again to 
the rear of the Chancellor house. W^hile here 
Colonel Craig rode up to General Graham and 
asked him whether he was aware that the 
regiment was without ammunition. The Gen- 
eral turned his horse and coolly surveying 
them, replied that it was all right, for. said 
he: 'They have their bayonets yet.' They 
hafl fired every cartridge before falling back, 

even searching the dead and wounded for 
them. The One Hundred and Fifth took into 
this fight twenty-seven officers and three hun- 
dred and twenty men, and lost Colonel Mc- 
Knight. Captain Kirk, Lieutenant Powers and 
eight men killed; Captain Clyde, Lieutenants 
Shipley, Piatt, Hewett, McHenry, and sixty 
enlisted men wounded, and seven missing. 

"On May 21st Lieutenant Colonel Craig 
was commissioned colonel ; Major J. W. 
Greenawalt. lieutenant colonel ; Capt. Levi B. 
Dufl:'. major. On the 27th those non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates who, by theij 
bravery and good conduct as soldiers, hacl. 
merited the gift, were presented by General 
Sickles with the Kearny badge of honor. The 
following members of the One Hundred and 
Fifth received the cross: Sergts. A. H. Mit- 
chell. A. D. McPherson, Samuel T. Hadden, 
Company A; Sergts. Joseph C. Kelso, George 
Heiges. Charles C. McCauley, B ; Corporal 
A. A. Flarley, Privates Charles C. Weaver, 
Samuel H. Mays, C; Sergt. James Sylvis, 
Corporal Milton Craven, D ; "Sergt. Joseph E. 
Geiger, Corporals George \^'eddell, James M. 
Shoaf, E ; Sergt. Robert Doty. Corporal Henry 
McKillip, Private Perry Cupler. F ; Sergt. 
George W. Hawthorn, Private William D. 
Kane. G; Privates Thomas M. Rea, Robert 
Feverly, H ; Sergt. Oliver C. Redic, Joseph 
Ivinnear, I ; Sergts. James Miller, George S. 
Reed, K. 

"It was a very difficult matter to thus select 
out particular individuals, where all had been 
so brave, and had on so many hard-fought 
battlefields shown their valor, and it was a 
double honor to be thus singled out to receive 
this mark of distinction — this memento of 
tiieir brave old commander, the lamented 
Kearny. In his order announcing the names 
of those entitled to receive the 'cross,' Gen- 
eral Birney says: 

" 'Many deserving soldiers may have es- 
caped the notice of their commanding officers, 
bul in the selection after the next battle they 
will doubtless receive the honorable distinc- 
ti(}ii. The cross is in honor of our old leader, 
and tlie wearers of it will always remember 
the high standard of a true and brave soldier, 
and will never disgrace it.' 

"Nobly did those brave fellows deserve the 
honor bestowed, as their subsequent history 
shows. Miller was promoted colonel and 
Redic lieutenant colonel of the regiment, Mit- 
chell and Kelso to captain, .Sylvis. Slioaf. and 
McKillip to lieutenants; Hadden, McCauley, 
Doty. Hawthorn, and Kiniiear were killed; 
Heiges and Reed died of wounds; Craven lost 



his right arm in the Wilderness ; McPherson, 
a leg at Gettysburg, while every one of the 
others received one or more wounds ere their 
term of service expired. 

"From the battle of ChancellorsvlUe until 
the march into Pennsylvania began the One 
Himdred and Fifth did picket and guard duty 
along the Potomac. Monday. June 29, the 
regiment marched through Taneytown and 
encamped for the night within live miles of 
the Pennsylvania State line. Tuesday they 
marched to the Emmitsburg road, the Third 
Corps being ordered to hold Emmitsburg. 
General Sickles, in response to General Rey- 
nolds's order, hurried his corps, which was 
ten miles away, to Gettysburg. The roads 
were exceedingly heavy, as it had been rain- 
ing hard, and the long march of the preceding 
days had told upon the troops, so that it was 
after 5 p. m. on Wednesday when they reached 
Gettysburg. Birney's division came up on 
the Emmitsburg road, passed Sherfy's house, 
where it turned to the right and halted just 
north of Little Round Top, where they lay 
all iiight. The next morning at daybreak 
they formed in line of battle. Ward's Brigade 
on the left, with his left resting on the DevTs 
Den ; De Trobriand in the center, and Gra- 
ham on the right in the peach orchard, with 
his right resting on the Emmitsburg road. 
This line was gradually moved forward until 
the left of the division rested on Little Round 
Top and the right at Sherfy's house, where 
the One Hundred and Fifth was moved to the 
right of the road, and a little before noon was 
marched to the front, where Companies A, 
C, F and I were deployed as skirmishers to 
support the Sixty-third Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, already engaged in their front and keep- 
ing up a brisk fire upon the skirmishers of the 
enemy, who could be seen watching them 
through the trees. .Soon after these companies 
were called in and the regiment took its place 
on the extreme right of the brigade, where it 
remained quiet until three p. m., when the bat- 
tle opened in earnest, and the One Hundred 
and Fifth was moved up to the brow of the 
hill along the Emmitsburg road. Here, for 
an hour, they stood imflinchingly under a 
heavy fire of shot and shell from front and 
flank, losing some ten or twehe men. 

"Just at this juncture, the enemy moving 
up in force, the regiment advanced to receive 
them, and formed in the road a little in ad- 
vance of our batteries. The fighting was now 
desperate, the enemy steadily advancing, but 
the brigade held its ground until, the line on 
its left giving way, the enemy poured into 

its flank and rear a most murderous fire, forc- 
ing it to fall back for an instant. But they 
rallied again and again and drove the enemy 
back to Sherfy's house; but the force opposed 
to them was too heavy and they were forced 
to retire. It was when engaged in this hand- 
to-hand conflict, with an overwhelming force 
of the enemy, and just as the shattered line 
of Graham was yielding to the overwhelm- 
ing force of Barksdale's Mississippians, that 
the gallant troops of the First Division of the 
.Second Corps, in which was the One Hundred 
and Forty-eighth ^Pennsylvania, came rush- 
ing to their relief. The regiment then took 
position with the new line that had been 
formed in the rear, connecting Cemetery 
Ridge with Round Top. where they remained 
until the close of the day's fighting. During 
the 3d and 4th they lay quiet on the second 
line, doing no further fighting. The regiment 
took into the battle of Gettysburg two hun- 
dred and forty-seven men, and lost Lieut. 
George W. Crossly and fourteen men killed, 
thirteen officers and one hundred and eleven 
men wounded, and nine missing. Lieut. Isaac 
A. Dunston, who was mortally wounded, 
died soon after. Out of the seventeen officers 
who went into the fight only four escaped 
uninjured. Colonel Craig lost three horses 
and Adjt. Joseph Craig two. 

"On the 5th the regiment left (Gettysburg, 
and July 24th went into camp at White Sul- 
phur Springs. A'irginia. In this beautiful 
l)lace they remained until .September 13th. 
recruiting their exhausted strength and de- 
pleted ranks. On the 15th they left the 
.Springs. The regiment leading the advance 
encountered the skirmishers of the enemy at 
Auburn, who opened a heavy fire upon them, 
but the One Hundred and Fifth steadily ad- 
vanced, loading and firing, until the First 
Division formed in line, and General Birney 
ordered a charge to i)rotect them. In this 
fight the regiment lost one killed and five 
wounded. The next morning they were again 
on the move, and until the 27th, when they 
were engaged at Kelly's Ford, where they 
sustained no loss, the regiment acted for the 
most jjart as advance guard for the division. 
It had become a great favorite with General 
Birney, who frecjuently selected it for import- 
ant positions, and on one occasion, when the 
enemy was reported near, he ordered General 
CoUis, who since the wounding of General 
Graham at Gettysburg commanded the brigade, 
to send the One Hundred and Fifth Regiment 
as an advance guard, as he 'wanted a regi- 
ment he could depend uj)on.' From here they 



went into camp at Rrandy Station, remaining- 
there until November ^jth, when they took 
part in the battle of Locust Grove, where 
seven men were wounded. The next day, after 
remaining in line of battle all night, they 
marched through mud almost knee deep to a 
point near Mine Run, and that night sup- 
ported a battery, having one man wounded. 
On the 1st of December, 1863, they returned 
to their old camp at Brandy Station and on 
the 2Xth the regiment was reenlisted by Colo- 
nel Craig, according to orders from the war 
department. Two hundred and forty men — 
almost the entire force of the regiment — re- 
enlisted and went home on veteran furlough. 
where, after being feted and feasted by their 
friends, they returned to their old quarters at 
Brandy Station on the 21st of February, 1864, 
bringing with them some fifty recruits. 

"On the 26th of .March, 1864, the Third 
Corps was consolidated with the Second 
Corps, and the remnants of Kearny's famous 
Red Diamond Division was consolidated into 
two brigades. The old First Brigade, now 
known as the Third Brigade, Third Division, 
of the Second Corps, was put under command 
of the brave Alexander Hays, the dashing 
colonel of the Sixty-third Pennsylvania. This 
brigade was composed of the Fifty-seventh. 
Sixty-third, Sixty-eighth and One Uunflred 
and Fifth Pennsylvania, Third and Fifth 
Michigan. Fourth and Seventeenth Maine, and 
First Regiment U. S. .Sharpshooters. 

"It was a sad day for the men who had fol- 
lowed Kearny, Hooker and Sickles on many 
hotly contested fields to see their beloved Third 
Corps obliterated from the Army of the 
Potomac. The wound yet rankles in the 
breasts of many who wore the diamond ; and 
their hearts are yet sore over this dismember- 
ment of the organization they held so sacred. 
But as the fiat had gone forth that was the 
death knell of the old Third, the brave men 
of the Diamond Division could not have been 
assigned to any other organization where they 
would have been so cordially received, or with 
whom they could so easily assimilate, as with 
the gallant .Second Corps. General Walker, 
in his excellent history of the Second Corps, 
says of this transferring of the Third Corps : 

" 'Hereafter the names of Birney and Mott. 
Egan and McCallistcr. Pierce and Madill. 
Brewster and Dc Trobriand. were to be borne 
on the rolls of the Second Corps in equal 
honor with Barlow and Gibbon. TTays and 
Miles. Carroll and Brooke, Webb and Smyth ; 
the deeds of these newcomers were to be an 
indistinguishable j)art of the common glory; 

their sufferings and losses were to be felt in 
every nerve of the common frame ; the blood 
of the men of Hooker and Kearnv, the men of 
Richardson and Sedgwick, was to drench the 
same fields from the Rapidan to the Appomat- 

"On the night of May 3d the One Hundred 
and Fifth encamped on the battlefield of Chan- 
cellorsville, the anniversary of their hard- 
fought fight the year before, where they found 
the hones of their gallant comrades bleaching 
on the field. On the next day Birney 's 
Division was selected to make the attack or 
receive that of the enemy, as the case might 
be, in the Wilderness. The One Hundred and 
Fifth advanced about half a mile through the 
dense wood, when they suddenly came upon 
the enemy, and were at once fiercely engaged. 
They at first took position in the rear of the 
Sixty-third Pennsylvania \'olunteers, which 
occupied the front line. Here several were 
wounded. About four p. m. they relieved the 
Sixty- third and then their hardest fighting 
began. Every step of ground was hotly con- 
tested, neither side giving an inch. The dead 
were piled up in rows. Here Captain Hamilton 
was killed, and Lieutenant Colonel Greena- 
walt mortally wounded ; Lieutenants Kimple, 
Sylvis, Redic and Miller were all severely 
wounded, and fully one half of the men killed 
and wounded. Colonel Craig, while riding 
near the right of the regiment, about dark, 
was shot in the head and seriously wounded. 
Their colonel badly wounded, their brave 
lieutenant colonel borne from the field dying, 
the command devolved upon Major Duff, who 
gallantly led them through the balance of the 
fight, which still raged hotly. 

"Here, while holding his ground against 
heavy odds, the gallant Hays was killed. 
When night closed upon the fearful scene the 
One Hundred and Fifth held its original 
position, but during the night it was relieved 
and went to the rear. The next morning, how- 
ever, Birney's Division again took the initia- 
tive, charging the enemy's lines and forcing him 
back almost a mile, until their ammunition 
being exhausted they had to fall back to a 
temporary line of breastworks, which the 
enemy tried several times to take, but were re- 
pulsed each time. The One Hundred and Fifth 
here charged forward and occupied a position 
on the front line. Captain Clyde, who, with 
several others, mounted the front line of 
breastworks, urging the men forward, fell 
dead, almost touciiing the enemy. On the lOth 
the brigade marched np the Po river to sup- 
port the First Division, engaged with the 



enemy on the south side of the river. Colonel 
Crocker, who was temporarily commanding 
the brigade, marched it up almost against a 
Confederate battery, which opened fire at short 
range. The regiment suffered terribly for a 
few minutes. The first shot struck Private 
Enos Shirts, of Company I, and blew him 
literally to pieces, the men near him being 
sprinkled with his blood and flesh. The 
regiment held its ground until ordered to fall 
back into a little ravine, where they held 
position until the First Division had crossed 
the river, when they retired to the rear of 
the Fifth Corps. Here the Sixty-third Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers was added to Major 
Duff's command, and the two regiments re- 
duced to five companies. At dawn on the 12th 
they were at Spottsylvania. where Major 
Duff's gallant little command struck the Con- 
federate line at the angle near the Sandrum 
house, where, before the enemy had time to fire 
a gun, our boys, with loud cheers, were leap- 
ing over his entrenchments. They captured a 
large number of prisoners, among them Brig- 
adier General Stewart. On the left of the 
point where Major Duff struck the enemy's 
line was a battery, which was immediately 
brought to bear upon them, but our men rushed 
upon and captured it, some of the enemy 
standing to their guns until killed on the spot. 
They then crossed the swamp, capturing two 
rifle guns and the Eighteenth North Carolina 
Regiment, which was in support of these guns. 
Lieut. A. H. Mitchell, of the One Hundred and 
Fifth, captured the flag of this regiment, and 
Corporal John Kendig, of the .Sixty-third, that 
of the Twenty-fourth North Carolina. 
Lieutenant Mitchell was wounded, and Lieu- 
tenant Hewitt wounded and taken prisoner. 
The Confederates, rallying in force, drove 
them across the swamp, where they made a 
.=tand. They lay for the balance of the day 
and night under a severe fire, forming the left 
support of the 'death angle.' This was one 
of the regiment's hardest fights, and the loss 
from the 5th to the isth inclusive was three 
officers and forty-six men killed, ten officers 
, and one hundred and thirty-six men wounded, 
one officer and eight men missing, a total of 
two hundred and four. 

"On the 20th the regiments started on the 
march to the North Anna river, one of the 
hardest marches they ever made, yet at roll 
call only one man from the One Hundred and 
Fifth and two from the Sixty-third failed to 
answer to their names. On this march Lieu- 
tenant Kelso was severely wounded on the 
shoulder by a Rebel sharpshooter. On the 

23d the regiments halted on the north bank of 
the North Anna, the Confederates being on the 
other side. They were formed in the thick 
woods and ordered to charge without firing a 
gun, which was done, driving the enemy from 
his fortifications. They held this position until 
after dark. In this charge Capt. Daniel 
Dougherty, a brave officer of the Sixty-third, 
was killed. On June 2d they were slightly 
engaged at Cold Harbor. The 15th found 
them in front of Petersburg, where in the 
various engagements they lost eleven men 
killed, and three officers and eighteen men 
wounded, among the number being Lieutenant 
Colonel Duff, who lost a leg while gallantly 
leading his small force in the 'Hare's House 
slaughter.' On the i6th of July the regiment, 
with the balance of the brigade, which was 
under command of Colonel Craig, drove the 
enemy into his works at Deep Bottom and 
then charged and captured them, with two 
commissioned officers and seventy-five men ; 
but while flushed with victory and driving the 
enemy before them, a heavy force fell upon 
the left flank of the brigade with such fury 
that it was compelled to fall back. Here a 
heavy loss fell on the One Hundred and Fifth, 
for while leading the charge their beloved 
young leader. Col. C. A. Craig, was mortally 
wounded, dying the next day, and no one 
whom death claimed from their ranks was ever 
mourned more sincerely. Seventeen men were 
killed, and Captain Barr and twenty-three men 
wounded. The regiment remained in front 
of Petersburg doing picket and fatigue duty 
until September ist, when those who had not 
reenlisted were mustered out and one hundred 
;tnd sixty-two men and two officers of the 
Sixty-third were transferred to the One Hun- 
dred and Fifth. The veterans of the Sixty- 
ihird were at first put in the Ninety-ninth 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, but they rebelled at 
this and petitioned Governor Curtin to have 
them put in the One Hundred and Fifth, with 
which regiment they had served from their 
first enlistment, which request was granted. 

"After the death of Colonel Craig Captain 
Conser, who that day rejoined the regiment, 
took command. On the ist of October the 
regiment was transferred to the Weldon Rail- 
road and the next day took part in the fight at 
Poplar Grove Church, having one man killed 
and eleven wounded. On the 5th they were 
back in front of Petersburg, remaining there 
until the 24th, when they were moved to the 
Southside Railroad, and on the 27th took part 
in the battle of Boydton Plank Road. Here 
General Pierce, who commanded the brigade, 



ordered the One Hundred and Fifth into a 
dense wood, to hold that part of the line con- 
necting- with the Ninety-first New York on the 
left. The Confederates with a yell charged 
through these woods, but the One Hundred 
and Fifth kept them at bay initil, unknown to 
them, our cavalry on their right gave way, 
allowing a heavy force of the enemy on their 
left flank, and they were driven back. The 
conflict was terrible, one of the most desperate 
hand-to-hand fights of the war. Major Conser 
and Captain Patton — the two senior and two 
of the most meritorious officers of the regi- 
ment — and four men were killed, eighteen 
wounded and forty missing. The latter were, 
however, nearly all recaptured that evening. 
The balance of the devoted little band was 
with difficulty brought off the field. Captain 
Redic, with several of the men, barely escaped 
capture while vainly trying to bring off the 
bodies of their dead comrades. The regiment 
* for the first time in its history lost its colors. 
After the fall of the two senior officers Captain 
Miller was ordered by General Pierce to 
assume command of the regiment, and was 
afterwards commissioned colonel. On the 
27th the regiment went into quarters at Fort 
Davis, on the front line of works, where 
officers were appointed by Governor Curtin to 
fill the vacancies in nearly ever\' company. .Ml 
the new officers, from Colonel Aliller and Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Redic down, had risen bv their 
own merit and bravery from the ranks. While 
here the regiment lost one killed and four 
wounded while driving the enemy from his 
rifle pits. On the 30th Lieutenant Colonel 
Redic, while engaged in a reconnoissance, had 
one man killed and two wounded, and on the 
2d of April one man was killed and one 
wounded. On the 6th, near Farmville, the 
regiment charged upon the enemy's works, 
repulsed him and captured two hundred and 
thirty-nine men and nineteen commissioned 
officers, and in the evening of the same day 
assisted in capturing part of the enemy's train. 
The loss was one killed and fifteen wounded. 
Colonel Miller losing his horse. April 9th one 
man was wounded, the last to feel Confederate 
lead, as on that day the enemy at Appomattox 
laid down tiieir arms ;ind surrendered to 
General Grant. 

"May 2, 1865, the regiment took up its line 
of march for Washington, reaching liailcy's 
Cross Roads on the 15th. and on the nth of 
July reached Pittsburgh, where the men were 
paid off and discharged. But alas ! how small 
a remnant of the gallant regiment which wi'nt 

to the front almost four years before returned 
to their homes. The official record gives the 
entire list of casualties as 1.089. The regiment 
from April 11, 1862, until April 9, 1863, took 
part in thirty-eight engagements, and of its 
almost four years of service giving just three 
years' active service in the field. Its aggregate 
force, as given by the rolls, was 2,040. This 
number, however, comprised the veterans 
from the Sixty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers 
and 588 drafted men and substitutes put into 
the regiment in March, 1865, leaving the entire 
force of the original regiment, with its recruits, 
1,288. It is a noteworthy fact that never once 
in its history did the One Hundred and Fifth 
fail to respond when ordered to face the 
enemy. Not once did it hesitate when ordered 
to charge, even though against overwhelming 

"To show the estimation in which the One 
Hundred and Fifth was held by the soldiers of 
other organizations, and the material compos- 
ing its rank and file, we quote a few tributes 
to their valor. Gen. Charles H. T. Collis, 
formerly colonel of the One Hundred and 
Fourteenth Pennsylvania, and who com- 
manded the brigade for some time after the 
battle of Gettysburg, says : 

" 'Since we parted on the field 1 have seen 
all the armies of European countries, but I 
have never seen a body of men out of whom 
more solid and eft"ective work could be ob- 
tained, than those who fought under the heroic 
Craig, and the intrepid, genial Greenawalt.' 

"General Walker, in his history of the 
Second Corps, says of the battle of Fair Oaks: 

" 'The last brigade to arrive was Jameson's, 
which had been far to the rear, near Bottom 
Bridge, at the opening of the action. Two of 
Jameson's regiments were sent to the right, 
and two to the left. .Ml of Kearny's men. who 
became engaged, fought heroically.' 

"Col. A.'S. M. Morgan, of the'Si.xty-lhinl 
Pennsylvania, later captain in the United 
States army, says : 

" 'I have one vivid recollection of the One 
Hundred and Fifth that can never be obliter- 
ated from my memory. At the battle of Fair 
(~)aks the right of the Sixty-third did not reach 
the Williamsburg road, and a column of Rebel 
infantry came marching down the road, and 
had reached oiiposite our line, when the One 
Hundred and Fifth came u]i and extended the 
line across the road. At that moment I was 
badly wounded, but my last recollection, ere I 
lost consciousness, was of seeing that gallant 
regiment coming up at a full run on our right. 



in the face of the Rebel infantry and the 
battery that was playing on us both from 
across the road.' 

"The following incident was related to the 
writer by Dr. Adam Wenger, surgeon of the 
regiment: 'There is one incident that is 
always pleasant for me to recall. It is of one 
of the men whose braverj' and patriotism stand 
forth in bold relief. After being several times 
severely wounded, and returning each time 
promptly, to again share the dangers of battle, 
he was at last so disabled as to be totally un- 
fitted for duty, and was informed that his dis- 
charge from the service would be necessary. 
He begged to remain, and asked me if he 
could not be permitted to ride in the ambulance 
on the marches, which request I granted ; but 
he never availed himself of this privilege when 
there was a prospect of a fight ; and in case 
he was in the ambulance and firing was heard 
in the front, he at once left his comfortable 
berth and hurried to his place in the ranks — 
musket in hand — with all the speed he was 
capable of. It must be borne in mind that a 
pass to ride in the ambulance excused the 
soldier from all duty. There were of course 
others just as brave and patriotic as this man, 
but for certain reasons his actions greatly 
impressed me, for he was reared in ]50verty, 
and without an education.' 

"Jefferson county lost among other brave 
soldiers the following officers of the One Hun- 
dred and Fifth: 

"Col. Amor Archer McKxight. — Amor 
Archer McKnight had, from his youth, been 
an admirer of all things pertaining to the 
military, and we find him at an early age a 
member of the 'Brookville Guards' and 
'Brookville Rifles,' which company he com- 
manded when the war broke out. When the 
stmimons came it found him ready to respond, 
and with his gallant command he was soon in 
the field. After the three months' term of 
service had expired, and he had received 
authority to recruit a regiment for three years, 
he went to work, and with an energy that never 
flagged soon had the regiment, whose deeds 
of glory and renown we have but feebly por- 
trayed, in the field. 

"As soon as his regiment went into camp. 
Colonel McKnight began to rigidly drill and 
discipline it, and so severe and exacting was 
he in this work that, for a time, he was severe- 
ly censured and criticized by the officers and 
men under him ; but he had set himself to the 
task of making the One Hundred and Fifth a 
regiment that could not be excelled, and he let 
nothing deter him from the end in view; that 

he accomplished his desire the history of his 
gallant regiment nobly proves, for by all who 
liave any knowledge of its prowess and valor 
it has been pronounced withotit a peer; and 
to the stern and ofttimes merciless discipline 
enforced by Colonel McKnight was this state 
of perfection due. 

"While thus strict with his officers and men, 
he was no less strict with himself. He studied 
and worked unceasingly to perfect himself in 
the art of warfare ; for, like his men, he had 
come from the civil walks of life, and like 
them he had to learn. With all this sternness, 
for which so many have censured him, Colonel 
McKnight had the welfare and comfort of his 
men at heart, and we have known him to give 
up the last dainty his camp chest afiforded, and 
share his last dollar with the sick soldier, and 
we never appealed to him in vain when he 
could add to the comfort of the men in the 
hospital, or enhance the efficiency of the 
hospital force. 

"It was his unremitting labor to make his 
regiment excel that caused him at last, after 
fifteen months' hard service, to yield to the 
inroads of disease that obliged him to resign 
his command ; but after two months he was 
again in the field, as the war department, 
jcnowing his worth in the service,xhad not filled 
the vacancy caused by his resignation." 

.// Headquarters, first Brigade, lyeaniy's Division, 
Army of the Potomac, 

July 25, lS62. 
I liercby certify that I have carefully and thor- 
oughly examined Col. A. A. McKnight, One Hun- 
<lred and Fiftli Pennsylvania Volunteers, and find 
him laboring under a diseased condition of the 
system, which requires him to abandon the service 
as a ficld-ofificer to secure permanent recovery. 
Orpheus Evkrts. Surgeon Twentieth hid. Vo., 
E.vamining Surgeon First Brigade. 

That Colonel McKnight only embraced this 
alternative as a last resort, knowing that he 
was not able to command his regiment in the 
then enfeebled condition of his health, the 
following letter from him at that time proves : 

Camp near Harrison's Landing, Va., 
July 2g, 1862. 
* * * You will no doubt be greatly surprised 
when I tell you that physical inability has compelled 
me to resign my position. Such is the case, and if 
ever a man suffered anguish of heart at parting 
with an object of pride and affection. I now feel 
it in leaving lliis regiment. How I have worked 
for and with it; and then to have to leave it in the 
midst of its triumphs. It seems there is no alterna- 
tive. For fifteen months I have worked assiduously 
and unremittingly in the army, and the consequence 
has been that the miasmas and fatigue of the Penin- 


siila have overcome a constitution previously weak- 
ened by disease, and I now suffer from debility to 
such an extent that the brigade and division sur- 
geons tell me I must leave the army to recover. 
Though going, it is only temporary, and my friends 
in Rrookville, as well as my secesh friends south, 
will again hear of me in the field before this war 
closes, . 

Though weak in flesh, I have lost none of that 
spirit W'hich first promjited me to enter the field, 
and only wait for ])hysical ability to again become 
actively engaged. 

Your friend, 

A. A. McKNir.HT. 

Colonel McKnitjht returned hoinc, and with 
care and good medical treatment was, at the 
expiration of two months, able to return to 
the front. He was impatient to be again with 
his regiment, whose every movement, during 
his enforced absence, he followed with 
a jealous eye. He said he was instrumental 
in taking them into the service, and he wished 
to share their toils and their danger. He ap- 
plied to the war department, and was recom- 
missioned colonel of the One Hundred and 
Fifth on September 20, 1862. Knowing his 
worth, and the reluctance with which he left 
his regiment, there had been no effort made to 
fill the vacancy caused by his resignation. 

.\fter rejoining his regiment. Colonel Mc- 
Knight shared all its fortunes, leading it into 
every engagement, with the exception of a 
ten days' furlough in March, 1863, when he 
made a visit to his home in Brookville, until 
the disastrous battle of Chancellorsville, May 
3, 1863, when, at the head of his gallant 
regiment, he was killed while leading his men 
against the veterans of Stonewall Jackson. 

While they lay at Camp Jameson Colonel 
McKnight subjected the regiment to a' rigid 
course of discipline, and so ardent was he in 
this system of drill that, at the time, his course 
was severely crilit-i/.cd by the officers and men 
under him ; but when they had gone through 
a few hard-fought battles they found that it 
was just this course of severe discipline that 
had made them the efficient regiment they 
were, and coused their fame to be known 
throughout the .Army of the Potomac. The 
Colonel a]iplied himself assiduously to the 
study of discipline and tactics, and the "wee 
snia' hours" would find him poring over his 
books. At dawn he would he u]j .mil ready for 
the duties of the day. 

Soon after the battle of FairX)aks Colonel 
McKnight was stricken with fever, brought 
on by exposure and fatigue, and which left him 
so debilitated that his ])hysician told him that 
he could not recover unless he left the service 

and returned home. He applied for a fur- 
lough, but owing to the exigencies of the 
service at that time he could not obtain one. 
He then sent in his letter of resignation, 
accompanied by the certificate of the examin- 
ing surgeon : 

Headquarters, 105th Regiment, P. V., 
Caiiij' near Harrison's Landing, Va., 
July 25, 1S62. 
General: — Fifteen months' unremitting service in 
various positions, has so shattered what was 
previously a weak constitution, that I find myself 
at this time unable any longer to hold my present 
Iiosition, either with honor to myself or profit to 
my country. 

I am, therefore, reluctantly obliged to respectfully 
tender my resignation. See surgeon's certificate at- 

K. A. McKnight, 

Colonel 105th P. V. 
To Gen. S. \Villi.\ms. .-/. A. General. Army of 

"After rejoining the regiment Colonel Mc- 
Knight shared all its fortunes, leading it into 
all its hard-fought engagements, until the battle 
of Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863, when he was 
killed by a Rebel sharpshooter, while leading 
his men against the veterans of Stonewall 
Jackson. Colonel Craig, in a letter giving us 
the intelligence of Colonel McKnight's fall, 
written May 11, 1863, says: 

" 'Colonel McKnight was in the act of cheer- 
ing his men on when he was shot, and was 
swinging his sword. The ball passed through 
his right arm, almost tearing it off, and passed 
on, entering his head about the right temple. 
I saw him fall, and riding up to him, dis- 
mounted and kneeled beside him. He looked 
up once, so beseechingly, before he died, as 
if he wanted to say something, but could not 
speak. I ordered four of the men to carry- 
him to the rear, and rode after the regiment ; 
luit they were unable to get him back on 
account of the heavy fire, and had to leave him 
on the field. Everything of value was got off' 
his person, except his pocketbook, which could 
not be found. After the fight, I made applica- 
tion to General Hooker for permission to take 
out a flag of truce for his remains, which he 
granted, but General Lee would not permit us 
to enter his lines, so we had to be content. No 
man ever acted braver than he did, and believe 
nic, there are few such men, either in the army 
or at home.' 

"The Rebel papers claiined that he was 
buried ^with the honors due his rank, out of 
respect for the 'Kearny Cross,' which he wore, 
and it was asserted that 'whenever our men 
were found to have upon them the Kearny 



red patch, if wounded they were kindly cared 
for; and if dead were buried with the honors 
of war, and their graves so marked as to be 
readily recognized.' 

"It was claimed that Colonel AIcKnight was 
so honored, that 'a band played a funeral dirge, 
while over his remains was fired the usual 
salute due to an officer of his rank.' 

■'This may have been the case, but when 
the One Hundred and Fifth, on the anniver- 
sary of his death, on the 3d of May, 1S64, 
bivouacked on the field where he fell, no trace 
of his grave could be found, nor have his 
brothers, who wished his remains to lie with 
the dust of his kindred, ever been able to find 
the spot where he was buried. 

''Had Colonel McKnight lived he would 
soon have been promoted to brigadier general, 
as steps to that effect had already been taken, 
and the late Hon. John Covode, in his letter 
of condolence to the Colonel's brother. Dr. W. 
J. McKnight, says : 

" 'Had your brother survived the last ter- 
rible struggle, he would have been promoted, 
as I had a conversation with the president in 
regard to him.' 

"The field officers of the First Division, 
Third Army Corps, had sent in a petition to 
President Lincoln asking for his promotion, 
in which they say : 

" 'Colonel McKnight is a brave, gallant, and 
efficient officer ; the regiment which he now 
commands, for drill and discipline, is second 
to none in the service. His experience as a 
field officer during the Peninsula campaign 
and in other places, also his ability as a 
thorough tactician, eminently fit him for such 

"At the meeting held by the field officers ■ 
of the First Brigade, First Division, Third 
Corps, to take action on the death of their 
fellow officers who fell at Chancellors\ille, the 
following resolutions in regard to Colonel Mc- 
Knight were passed : 

" 'Resolved, That in the death of Col. A. A. 
McKnight, of the One Hundred and Fifth 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, the country has lost 
a brave, efficient, and patriotic officer, whose 
untiring energies were given to promoting the 
efficiency of his regiment, who sealed his 
devotion to the cause in which he was engaged 
with his lifeblood. at the hearl of his command, 
on the battlefield of Chancellorsville. Va., May 
3. /^863. 

" 'Resoh'ed, That we condole with the rela- 
tives and friends of the deceased in their loss 
of a companion, endeared to them by his many 
amiable \irtues, and that we lament the loss the 

country has sustained by his untimely death, 
in the hour of her greatest need.' " 

Colonel McKnight, at the time of his death, 
was thirty years, eleven months, fifteen days 
old. He was six feet in height, had gray eyes, 
black hair, and strongly marked and expressive 
features. He was of a very commanding 
presence, and in every respect a fine-looking 

"M.\j. John C. Con.ser. — John C. Conser 
was born in Centre county. Pa., in the year 
1826, and the same year his parents, who were 
respectable, worthy people, removed to Clarion 
county, settling near the present town of 
Clarion. Here the subject of this sketch spent 
his early days. He was a studious and con- 
scientious boy. At an early age he evinced a 
great admiration for military matters, and 
with his elder brothers would attend the 
reviews of the militia. In 1851 he removed 
to Jefferson county, and soon afterwards 
married and settled in Reynoldsville, where he 
was known and respected as one of the best 
citizens of that place, until the war called into 
action the jiatriotism that had been slumbering 
in his soul from childhood, and he was one of 
the first to enlist from his neighborhood. He 
was chosen first lieutenant of Company H, 
One Hundred and Fifth, and upon the resigna- 
'tion of Captain Tracy was promoted to captain, 
April 20, 1863. He was commissioned major. 
May 6, 1864, but was never mustered as such. 

"At the battle of Fair Oaks, Captain Conser 
received his first wound ; while crawling on 
his hands and knees reconnoitering the enemy, 
a ball struck him on the head, inflicting a slight 
wound, and stunning him for a time. After- 
wards in the retreat through White Oak 
Swamp, he almost lost his life in those dismal 
recesses, and writing of it said, 'It was the 
most horrible night I ever experienced.' At 
Fredericksburg a minie ball struck his 
shoulder, and glancing oft along the blade of 
his sword entered the fleshy part of his arm, 
inflicting a severe wound. At Bristoe Station 
he, with his little command, was taken 
prisoner, and taken to Richmond, where he 
was consigned to the tender mercies of Libby 
prison. Here he was much annoyed by one 
of the Rebel guards, who delighted in telling 
the prisoners that the Union side was 'clean 
licked out,' and that when he got out of Libby 
he would find 'the North not worth shucks.' 
The brave officer replied that when he got 'out 
of Libby and came again to Richmond, it 
would be when it was taken by the Union 
troops, and the Confederacy smashed.' After 
this, his most ardent desire was to be with the 



army at the taking of Richmond; but when 
that day dawned upon the Union arms the 
brave officer had entered the eternal city, 
dying on the very thresliold of victory. 

■'At Gettysburg lie was again W'ounded, 
being shot in the head, just above the left 
temple, and carried off the field for dead. 
When, after a short stay at home, he had 
recovered from this wound, he rejoined his 
regiment in time to receive another wound 
at Auburn. At the battle of the Wilderness 
he was severely wounded in the thigh by a 
sabre cut, from the effects of which he was 
still lame at the time of his death. Again, he 
w^as severely wounded at Petersburg, June 
i8, 1864. and while on his way to rejoin bis 
regiment, after recovering from this wound, 
he met at Fortress Monroe those having in 
charge the body of Colonel Craig, who had 
fallen at Deep Bottom. Stopping just long 
enough to assist in forwarding to his home 
the remains of his brave friend and gallant 
commander, he hurried on to his regiment, 
and was in all the subsequent skirmishes and 
marches up to the battle of Boydton Plank 
Road, where on the 27th of October, 1864, 
he fell, while battling against an overwhelm- 
ing force of the enemy. An eyewitness of 
this sanguinary struggle, says : 'W^e w^ere 
surrounded when 'I heard Conser say, "Men, 
we are surrounded. Will you surrender? 
Won't you fight it out?" Three Rebels at- 
tacked Iiim, and, while fighting them with 
pistols and sword, another came up. and 
]jlacing his gun almost against his Ijody. blew 
the contents of the piece into his side ;ind he 
fell dead.' 

"The enemy being repulsed after this. 
Captain Redic and others of the regiment 
attempted to bring off Major Conser's body. 
but the enemy rallying in force, they were 
obliged to leave him on the field where he 
fell, and thus died one of the bravest soldiers 
the war jiroduced — his last words being, 
'Fight it out.' " 

"C.M'T. Joii.v C.M.vix DowLixf;. — W'hen 
the Civil war broke out Captain Dowling at 
once enlisted in the three months' campaign, 
and served as first lieutenant of Company K. 
Fighlh Regiment, taking command of that 
com])any on Ca])trjin Wise's promotion. At 
the expiration of this term of service he 
returned home and recruited Company P., of 
the One Hundred and Fifth, which he labored 
unceasingly to make one of the best companies 
in the service. He remained constantly with 
his men, with the exception of a ten days' 
leave of absence in Februarv. 1862, until he 

fell at Fair Oaks, 2\lay 31st, while gallantly 
leading his men in the charge where the 
regiment won its first laurels, and he with 
many others of Jefferson county's bravest and 
best soldiers won victors' crowns. He was 
shot through the neck, killing him instantly. 
Rev. D. S. Steadman. chaplain, in a letter 
written just after the battle says : 'We buried 
our dear Captain Dowling last evening. Tune 
1st, at sunset, in a beautiful grove. Bowdish, 
one of his men, had made a good coffin. There 
was no lack of mourners; we w-ere all 
mourners.' His remains were subsequently re- 
interred in the soldiers' cemetery at Seven 
Pines. Captain Dowling was of a genial dis- 
position, and possessing an excellent education, 
his social qualities and gentlemanly bearing 
had endeared him to a large circle of acquaint- 
ances and friends, and the news of his death 
carried gloom to the hearts of all who knew 
him. When the sad news of the death of this 
gallant young officer, and of those who fell 
with him on that fatal field. Jeft'erson county's 
first oft'erings for the cause of freedom, was 
received in Brookville. the flags were draped 
in mourning, and suspended at half mast, and 
sorrow- pervaded the entire community." 

"C.APT. William J. Clyde. — William John- 
ston Clyde, son of William and Janet Clyde, 
nee Mabon, was born in Perry (now Oliver) 
township in the year 1838. His father dying, 
he was at an early age thrown tipon his own 
resources, and when about thirteen years old 
he went to Brookville. and commenced to learn 
the carpenter and joiner's trade, with Messrs. 
^^'iIliam Reed and David S. Johnston, both of 
whom are now dead. After finishing his ap- 
prenticeship, he remained in Brookville work- 
ing at his trade until the Ijreaking out of the 
war, when he enlisted in Company I, Eighth 
Regiment, of three months' men. and served 
as first sergeant of his company. On returning 
home after the expiration of this term of 
service, he threw himself heartily into the work 
of recruiting for Colonel McKnight's three 
year regiment, and on the organization of that 
regiment he was appointed first sergeant of 
Company A, and November 8. 1861. was pro- 
moted to second lieutenant ; to first lieutenant. 
.September 27, 1862, and to captain, Februarv 
0, 1863. Tie was wounded in the battles of 
.Second Bull Run. I-'redericksburg and Gettys- 
burg, in all of wliich he was conspicuous for 
his daring and courage. He fought with the 
most desperate bravery at the battle of the 
\\'ilderness, until near the close of the fighting 
on the 6th of May, 1864. when the One Hun- 
drerl and h'ifth was occupying the second line 



of breastworks, and charged forward, carrying 
a part of the front Hne, when Captain Clyde 
with several others of the regiment mounted 
the Rebel redoubts on the front line, and 
while gallantly urging his men on he was shot 
by one of the enemy's sharpshooters, and fell 
mortally wounded, only living long enough to 
ask his men to bury him decently, and write to 
his mother. When he fell, he was so close to 
the enemy that he could almost touch them. 
His body was afterwards recovered and re- 
moved to the soldiers' cemetery at Fredericks- 

"Field and Staff Officers of the One Hun- 
dred and Fifth Regiment, Pennsylvania 
\'olunteers, from Jefferson county : Colonels, 
Amor A. JMcK;iight, James Miller ; lieutenant 
colonel, W. W. Corbet ; adjutant. Orlando 
Cray; quartermasters, Robert Nicholson, Har- 
rison Coon ; surgeon, A. P. Heichhold ; chap- 
lains, Darius S. Steadman, John C. Truesdale; 
sergeants major, W. H. McLaughlin, George 
Vanvliet, Robert J. Boyington ; quartermaster 
sergeants, Fleming Y. Caldwell, Benjamin F. 
Stauffer; commissary sergeant, John Coon; 
hospital stewards, D. Ramsey Crawford, 
Charles D. Shrieves ; musicians, Andrew J. 
McKown, Eli B. Clemson. 

"Members of the brass band of the One 
Hundred and Fifth Regiment from Jeft'erson 
county: Calvin B. Clark, John S. Gallagher, 
John A. Guft'ey, James A. "McClelland, T. C. 
Spottswood, Charles Sitz, Alexander Ross 
Taylor, James A. Thompson. 

"Company A was recruited in the southern 
part of Jefferson county, principally from 
Punxsutawney, and Perry and Oliver town- 
ships. The company was raised in tJirce days, 
chiefly througii the exertion of Capt. John 
Hastings, assisted by Lieutenants Neel and 
Morris. Captain Hastings, while gallantly 
leading his company in the desperate charge at 
Second Bull Rfln, was severely wounded in the 
leg, and after months of suffering was disabled 
for life by the wound and obliged to resign, 
when the command devolved upon Capt. W. 
J. Clyde, who fell while charging at the head 
of the company in the battle of the Wilder- 
ness. Lieut. A. H. Mitchell was then pro- 
moted to captain, but before he received his 
commission was discharged on account of 
wounds received in front of Petersburg, and 
then Lieut. John H. McKee was promoted 

"Captains, John Hastings, W. J. Clyde, John 
IT. McKee; first lieutenants, William Neel, 
Alexander H. Mitchell, James W. Wachob ; 

second lieutenants, Moses A. Morris, Daniel 
Brewer, William M. Blose; first sergeants, 
Albert C. Little, Samuel T. Hadden, Joseph 
Cummisky, John Blair, Joseph Wickline, 
Wesley P. Hoover, A. D. McPherson, John G. 
Myers, Allen H. Naylor, Arthur H. Murray, 
Samuel Hibler; corporals, Samuel Kesslar, 
John McHendry, Henry Weaver, James M. 
Keck, Smith M» McHendry, James B. Jordan, 
Benjamin F. Rolls, Joseph F.. Bell, Isaac M. 
Depp, David W. Logan, William J. Mogle, 
David Y. Salsgiver, John E. Sadler, William 
C. McKee, Levi P. Frampton, James L. Clyde; 
privates, Henry All, Thomas T. Adams, Hard- 
ing Allabrand, John I. Barr, Samuel Brillhart, 
L. H. Bolinger, Samuel W. Brewer, John 
Blose, Boaz D. Blose, Adolphus Bhoy, Charles 
S. Bender, Isaac Bowersock, James W. Brooks, 
John Beck, William F. Campbell, W. W. 
Crissman, David Cochran, John Chambers, 
Byron Cowan, John Campbell, Oliver Croas- 
man, H. C. Campbell, Flem. Y. Caldwell, 
Michael L. Coon, Hugh Crawford, Jonathan 
Chambers, William P. Christ, John W. Corey, 
George W. Davis, John O. Dean, George W. 
Davis, John G. Depp, John A. De Havens, 
Robert Fleming, David W. Goheen, David G. 
Gray, James A. Grove, Thomas M. Gibson, 
Thomas Glass, Benjamin Gaskill, George W. 
Ginter, George Goheen, Francis W. Grove, 
Henry Grant, Charles H. Haskins, John Hen- 
nigh, J. Henry, Joseph W'. Hickox, William 
Hutchinson, John P. Imler, John M. Irwin, 
Robert A. Jordan, George M. Johnston, Robert 
Jordan, John Jordan, Benjamin F. Johnston, 
H. Kirkpatrick, Christopher Kesslar, John C. 
Kelly, Jonathan R. Leitzall, David W. Leech, 
John H. London. William Leech, James G. 
'Mitchell, Jermiah C. Miles, William F. Means, 
Josej>h Means, John Means, Jr., John L. 
Mabon, John Means, Sr., James Mogle, Wil- 
liam Meitz, Robert S. Michaels, Thomas 
Means, Robert Marsh, John Marsh, James 
Mack, J. L. McHendry, John B. McGinnis, Cas- 
sius E. McCrea, James C. McQuown, Samuel 
McHendry, John McGraw, Charles McConkey, 
Edwin McCafferty, R. McAdams, William 
McHendry, Scott Neel, Augustus C. Nolf, 
William Painter, William S. Perry, James D. 
Prosser, P. S. Rudolph, John K. Rupert, 
George W. Rhodes, Nicholas Robbins, Fred 
Rhinehart, Benjamin C. Smith, Joseph M. 
.Swisher, Dan. J. Smyers, George Smith, James 
.^niith, Washington Sunderland, Joseph B. 
-Sowers, Christopher Sutter, William H. 
Swisher, Henry Sutter, John R. Stewart, Elias 
S. Simpson, Jacob Sutter, George W. Shawl, 
James .C. Trimble, Thomas L. Templeton, 



Fctur Walker, Uavid W. Wilson. I'hilip 
Wyning. Daniel Zimnier. 

"In the numerous battles in which it took 
part, and from disease. Company A lost the 
following- : 

"Killed — Capt. \\'. J. Clyde; Sergt. Sam- 
uel T. Haddcn ; Cor])orals Daniel Y. Sals- 
giver, John E. Sadler, William C. McKee; 
Privates Charles S. Bender, Isaac Bowersock, 
James W. Brooks, Hugh Crawford, Jonathan 
Chambers, John G. Depp, John P. Imler, 
Robert S. Michaels, William McHenry, Wil- 
liam H. Swisher, Henry Sutter, Daniel Zim- 

"Died — Sergt. Allen H. Xaylor; Corj)or- 
als Levi P. Frampton, James L. Clyde; 
privates, John Beck, W'illiam P. Crist, John 
W. Corey, James Henry, Joseph W. Hickox, 
W^illiam Hutchison, George ]M. Johnston. AVil- 
liam Leech, Thomas Means, Robert H. Marsh, 
John Marsh, William S. Perry, John R. 
Stewart, E. S. Simpson. Jacob Sutter, Fred. 
Rhinehart. Transferred to Veteran Reserve 
Corps — J. Henry, Christopher Sutter. David 
W. Wilson." 

"Company B was recruited chiefly in Brook- 
ville and vicinity, mainly by Capt. John C. 
Dowling, who commanded it until he fell at 
Fair Oaks, when he was succeeded by Capt. S. 
A. Craig, who on account of wounds had to 
give up the command to Capt. W'. S. Barr, who 
in turn for the same cause had to yield it to 
Capt. Joseph C. Kelso, who led it through the 
subsequent hard fights until the final muster 

"Captains, John C. Dowling, S. A. Craig, W. 
S. Barr, Joseph C. Kelso; first lieutenants, R. 
J. Nicholson, Richard J. Espy, John A. Mc- 
Lain ; second lieuten;uit. Judson J. Parsons ; 
first sergeants, William Fox, W'illiam N. 
Pearce, Samuel II. Mitchell; sergeants, John 
E. Barr, Hiram Wing, W'illiam Lucas. .An- 
thony Kreis, (ieorge Hciges, James C. Dow- 
ling, John J. Gejiry (Geasy), W^illiam English. 
Robert .Miller; corporals, John J. Champion, 
McCurdy Hunter, Samuel Hunter, Josejih 
Baughman, Wellington Johnston, Nathan D. 
Carrier, .\ndrew J. Cochran. David R. Porter, 
Rol)ert (i. Wilson. Benjamin Ramsey, J. M. 
Thompson. Philo Winsor; musician. M. L. 
Spottswood. I'rivales. Benjamin .Arthurs, 
Peter Allwell. Charles G. Anderson. 
y\nderson, W'illiam D. Black, Liberty Burns, 
Sibley Beimett, Joseph Booth, Joseph B. P)Ow- 
dish, William Bish, Lafayette Burge, Samuel 
Cable, .Alfred Cable, William Covert, Joseph 
Coon. Thomas J. Champion, David D. Demott. 
Jonathan Dixon, M. G. De Vallance, M. L. 

De \'allance, Mathew M. Dowling, John Dun- 
kelburg, Joseph A. Geer, Amos Goup, John W. 
(juthrie, Cyrus Geer, Robert Gilmore. Michael 
D. (Grinder, Jackson Gearheart, Jacob M. 
Haugh, James L. liolliday, Adam W. Haugh, 
Thomas Hildreth, Emanuel Haugh, James 
Hopkins, Edward Hartman. Joseph Harriger, 
.Augustus Haugh, John Hawthorn, William 
H. Jackson, John Jacox, Frederick Jackson, 
William Kelly, Solomon C. Kelso. George 
Keyser. Winfield S. Lucas, Joseph Lawhart, 
Lewis Leitzell, John Love. David Lanker, 
Frederick .Miller, William Milligan, Courson 
Miller, \\'illiam C. Miller. Michael Miller, 
Solomon McManingle. Charles S. McCauley, 
Joseph E. H. McGary, William McCutcheon, 
William McCaskey, Jesse McElhose, Barton 
A. Nicholson, John Ossewandle, Asa M. Pres- 
ton, Jesse Penrose, Benjamin F.Rhodes, James 
A. Robinson. William Riddle, Edward Reigle, 
Philip Rockwell, W'illiam Reede. Daniel C. 
Rockwell. Lewis Rhodes, John Shreckengost, 
John Shirey, Joseph S. Stine. George Shick, 
\\'illiam K. Stevenson, Chauncey Shaft'er. 
Jacob Siverling, George W'. Smith, Samuel 
Stormer. George W'. Saxton, Samuel Shaffer, 
Philip Taylor, John Taylor, James Taylor. B. 
D. X'asbinder, Gustavus Verbeck, Joseph Wil- 
liams, John B. Wensel, Oliver Woods, Francis 
Winters, John Webster, Philip Young. 

"Killed — Capt. John C. Dowling; Sergts. 
Samuel H. Mitchell, Anthony Kreis, James C. 
Dowling. George Heiges ; Corporals Welling- 
ton Johnston. Nathan D. Carrier, Andrew J. 
Cochran ; Privates Benjamin Arthurs, Peter 
Allwell, .Amos Goup, John W'. Guthrie, 
Thomas Flildreth. W'illiam H. Jackson, Cour- 
son Miller, Charles S. McCauley, B. A. Nichol- 
son, .Asa M. Preston. William Reed. John 
Taylor, Joseph Williairis. 

"Died — Sergt. John J. Geasy; Privates 
Liberty Burns, Jose])h Bouch, Adam W. 
Haugh. Emanuel Haugh. William C. Miller, 
Joseph E. H. AIcGary. Dan C. Rockwell, John 
Shirey. Joseph F. Stine. Died in Rebel 
])rison,s — Sibley Bennett, Jonathan Dixon. 

"Transferred to V. R. C. — Capt. S. A. Craig, 
Benjamin Ramsey, Thomas J. Chamjiion. 
David Lanker. lohn W'ebster. To Eighteenth 
U. S. I.— David R. Porter. Robert G.'Wilson, 
.Samuel Shafi'er. 

"Company C was raised in Clarion county. 
Only the following men from Jefferson county 
were in its ranks : Sergeants, Samuel Latti- 
nier. John II. Pearsall ; corporals, Eli H. Chil- 
son. Isaac I.vle. Tames W. Spears. W'illiam 
Hil)ple : prixa'tes, E. P. Cochran. M. G. De Val- 
lance, Perry C. Fox, John C. Johnston, Ami 



Sibley, Francis Smith. James Woods, William 
Hippie, killed. 

"Company D was recruited in Jefferson and 
Clearfield counties. The only officers from 
' Jefferson county were Lieut. Charles J. Wilson 
and Capt. William Kelly, Captain Kelly, who 
rose from the ranks, being promoted captain 
November 26, 1864. He shared all their 
battles and dangers with the company, and 
finally brought them home. The following 
list comprises the men from Jefferson county, 
with those who were killed in battle, died of 
wounds and disease, or were transferred to 
other organizations : 

"Captain, William Kelly; second lieutenant, 
Charles J. Wilson ; sergeants, George O. 
Riggs, William C. McGan-y, Milton Craven, 
Ebenezer Bullers (of Hazen), John C. John- 
ston, Isaac M. Temple ; corporals, John R. 
Shaffer, Daniel R. Snyder, James H. Green, 
Gilbraith Patterson, Darius Vasbinder, D. H. 
Paulhamus, Andrew J. McKown, Milton J. 
Adams, Benjamin F. Alexander, Amos Ash- 
kettle; privates, Eben O. Bartlett (of Rich- 
ardsville), Philip Black, Daniel Bowers. David 
Bell, Richard Bedell (of Richardsville), Silas 
Boose, Asa Bowdish, Byron H. Byrant (of 
Brockwayville), John S. Christie, Isaiah 
Corbet (of Falls Creek"), James R. Corbet, 
Samuel Criswell, Andrew Christie, Joel Clark. 
Eli B. Clemson. William Dunn. Charles 
Graham, William Griffith. Andrew Hender- 
son, John Hilliard, Lyman Higby, Nathan B. 
Hippie, James Kelly, John Knarr, Henry 
Keys (of Schoffners), John Klinger. Edward 
Knapp, James Murphy, Malvin Munger. Arch. 
F. Mason. James McAtee. Samuel McFadden. 
William JMcKelvy, Reid McFadden (of 
Schoffners). Samuel McLaughlin. John Mc- 
Laughlin. Irwin McCutcheon, Benjamin New- 
corn, William Pennington, George Plotner. 
Josiah V. Reppard, William Riddle. Charles 
B. Ross, Joseph Rensell, John Robinson. 
Solomon B. Riggs. William M. Riggs (of 
Richardsville). Andrew Sites, George Smith, 
Gershon Saxton. William Shaffer, William 
Smith. Henry Shaffner, Perry .Smith (of 
Richardsville), W. H. Saxton. Isaac Solly. 
Almon Spencer, James Thompson, Gabriel 
Vasbinder (of Hazen), William Wilson, 
Henry C. Wycoff, George Wilson (of Hazen), 
Ellis Wilson. 

"Killed — Samuel Criswell. William Pen- 
nington, George Plottner, William Riddle. 
Charles B. Ross. Gershon .Saxton, William 
Shaffer, John Wilson. Died — Corporal Daniel 
R. Snyder ; Privates David Bell, Andrew 
Christie, John Hilliard, Henry Shaffner, Jo- 

seph Rensell. Died in Rebel prison — William 

"Transferred to V. R. C. — Silas Bouse, 
Lyman Higby, W. N. Riggs, W. H. Saxton, 
to Tenth Regiment, U. S. I. 

"Company F was principally recruited in 
Indiana and Clearfield counties by the gallant 
and lamented Capt. Robert Kirk, who fell at 
Chancellorsville. The only officer from Jef- 
ferson county was Lieut. Henry P. McKillip. 
The following list comprises the men from 
Jefferson county, with deaths, transfers, etc. : 
"First lieutenant. Henry P. McKillip; second 
lieutenant. Ogg Neel; sergeants. John M. 
Brewer. Robert Doty. John W. Smith. John 
Hendricks, Elijah Pantall, Jonathan Briiidle, 
Joshua Pearce; corporals, John N. Means, 
Thomas Neil; privates, William H. H. An- 
thony, James D. Anthony, John W. Bryant, 
John H. Bush. John W. Brooks, Charles 
Berry, William A. Chambers. Peter Depp, 
Henry H. Depp, Philip B. Depp, John P. 
Dunn. James Dunn, Samuel Edwards. Henry 
A. L. Girts, Jonathan Himes, William S. Hen- 
dricks. Isaac Flendricks, James Hopkins. 
Thomas M. Hauck, Samuel Hannah, Charles 
Klepfer, John Kelly, Charles Lyle, Scott 
Mitchell. William C. Martin, George Moore, 
John Miller, James A. Minish, James Mc- 
Carthy, Robert McMannes. Samuel A. Mc- 
Ghee. \\'illiani T. Neil. Thomas Orr, Jackson 
Piper, David R. Porter, z-\dam Reitz, Irwin 
Robinson, James W. Shaffer. Isaac Smith, 
David Simpson, Charles Smouse, Henry 
Shaffer, Peter C. Spencer. William H. Wilson, 
David Williard. George W. Yoimg. 

"Killed — Jacob L. Smith. Robert Doty. John 
W. Smith, W. H. H. Anthony. Peter Depp. 
Jose(>h Hill, Charles Lyle. Charles Smouse. 
David L. Simpson, William H. Wilson, David 
Williard, Thomas Orr. Died — Henry H. 
Depp. Charles Klepfer. Robert McMannes, 
David R. Porter, George W. Young, William 
C. Martin. Died in Rebel prison — John 
Kelly, . 

"Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corp.s — ■ 
Elijah Pantall, Jonathan Brindle, James Aul, 
William A. Chambers ; to First United .States 
Cavalry — H. A. L. Girtz. 

"Company G was recruited principally from 
the southwestern townships, from the sturdy, 
honest German yeomanry of the cotmty. and 
on the day of their departure for the front 
rendezvoused at Ringgold, where a large 
crfiwd had assembled to see them off, and from 
wliich point the farmers took them in wagons 
to Kittanning, where they took the cars. 

"Capt. John A. Freas, who first commanded 



the coiiiijany, resigned December 24, 1861, and 
Lieut. John M. Steck was promoted captain, 
and commanded it imtil he was obliged, on 
account of ill health, to resign, April 12, 1863. 
when Captain Woodward succeeded him until 
October S, 1864, when, his time having ex- 
pired. Capt. Jacob H. Freas took charge of the 
coni])any and was mustered out with it. 

■"Captains, John A. Freas, John M. Steck, 
Woodward, Jacob H. Freas ; first lieutenants, 
Charles B. Coon, Benjamin M. Stauffer; 
second lieutenants, Harvey McAninch, E. H. 
Mc.Vninch, Edward P. Shaw : first sergeant, 
Peter Slagle ; sergeants, Jackson Hettrick, 
Jacob Swab. Philip H. Freas, George W. 
Taylor, George W. Hawthorn, Adam Himes, 
James W. Walker, Henry Crooks, Andrew J. 
Monks, John Startzell ; corporals, David 
Kellar, Hiram J. Milliron, William H. Lucas, 
John M. Fike, Daniel Parsons, William H. 
Smith, James F. Miller, William Aikens, 
George Saucerman, John A. Swartz, David C. 
Swineford, William F. Green. Isaac Hughes ; 
privates, George Blystene, Samuel D. Barnctt, 
Robert Baughman. Perry Brink, (ieorge Beer, 
Daniel Blose. Jacob Campbell, William Cobb, 
Robert Davidson, Jacob Dibler, John Dover- 
spike, Emanuel Eisenhart, Adam Fike, Jacob 
Freedline, George ^^^ Geist, Samuel Geist, I. 
N. Hinderliter, William E. Hawthorn, Wil- 
liam Hartman, Francis F. Hawthorn, David 
Harj). Jacob Harp, Joseph K. Hawthorn, John 
Harwick, William A. Hadden, Jacob Harsh- 
berger, Samuel Henderson, William A. Haines, 
David Haugh, Jacob Hilliard, Frank P. Het- 
trick, William Jenkins, Michael Kellar, Wil- 
liam D. Kane, Elijah Kellar, George W. 
Kinsel, Henry H. Kiehl, Henry N. Milliron, 
William Means, Jacob Neece, James Orr, 
William D. Orts, Joseph Plyter, Richard J. 
Parsons, William Plyter, Robert Patterson, 
Anthony Peters, John Richards, Daniel Ritch-_ 
ards, Isaac Reitz, Joseph Reed, Flarvcy 
Rowan. Henry Ravbuck. .Adam Raybuck, 
John D. Rhodes. Caleb E. Stewart, John P. 
Smith, Daniel Shaffer, Michael Strawcutter, 
Philip Shrauger, John Snyder, Conrad Shorf- 
stall, Peter .Snepp, Garrett B. Shrauger, Wil- 
liam Slagle, David Snowden, Samuel Smith. 
John Smith. Nathan P. Spranklc, Frederick B. 
.Spranklc, Martin V. .Shaffer, James L. 
-Shafifer, Andrew J. Timblin, Daniel Under- 
coffer, Thomas M. Watson. Alexander Wiley, 
Watson Young, Edward W. Young. 

"Killed — Sergt. G. W. Hawthorn ; Corpor- 
als' Daniel Parsons, William H. Smith : 
Privates George W. Geist, Daniel Ritchards, 
Isaac Reitz, Joseph Reed, Philip .Shrauger. 

John Snyder, Conrad Shoafstall (Shorf stall). 

"Died — Sergts. Adam Himes, James W. 
Walker, Henry Crooks ; Corporals John A. 
Swartz, William Aiken, George Saucerman, 
David C. .Simpson. Privates, Jacob Campbell, 
William Cobb, Samuel Geist, William Hart- 
man, David Harp, Francis F. Hawthorn, Jacob 
Harp, Joseph K. Hawthorn, William Jenkins, 
Richard J. Parsons. Thomas M. Watson, Wat- 
son Young. Died in Rebel prisons — James F. 
Milieu, Michael Kellar, James Orr. 

"Transferred to \'eteran Reserve Corps — 
Lieut. A. J. Alonks ; John Doverspike, Jacob 
Friedline, David Haugh, Jacob Hilliard, John 
D. Rhodes, James L. Shaffer. 

"Company H was recruited principally in 
the townships of Winslow, Washington and 
Snyder. Captain Tracy, of Rockdale Mills, 
who had assisted largely in recruiting the com- 
pany, soon resigning, the command devolved 
upon Capt. John C. Conser. who bravely com- 
manded them until he fell at Boydton, when 
he was succeeded by Capt. Tilton C. Reynolds, 
who shared their fortunes until the final 
muster out. 

"Captains, Artemas H. Tracy, John C. Con- 
ser, Tilton C. Reynolds ; first lieutenants, 
Thomas K. Hastings, George Van Vliet, Sam- 
uel Jones ; second lieutenants, George W. 
Crosley, Josiah E. Miller; first sergeant, 
]\Iathias Bankert ; sergeants, George Sharp, 
Adam Miller, George D. Mosier, E. L. Evans, 
Benjamin L. Johnson, Mathew Miller, Joseph 
F. Green, James Millen, Forbes Kilgore, Irvin 
R. Long; corporals. James Penfield, Samuel 
(_r. Moorhead, Henry Grant, James Truhy, 
John K. Moore, Philip N. Tapper, Samuel 
Preston, E. S. Holloway, John Neil, John St. 
Clair; privates, Jesse N. Atwell, James Bailly, 
Lewis Boyington, Hamilton F. Burris, Stephen 
.S. Briggs, John Buchanon. George Britton, 
William Blystone, Jesse Cole, Peter Cox, 
Joseph L. Cofin, Charles H. Clinton, George 
A. Clark, Daniel G. Carl, Hugh Conn, Jacob 
Dickey. Ebenezer Dailey, Samuel C. Dewoody, 
John Denberger, John Foust, Jacob Foust, 
Robert Feverly, Robert Fleming, William H. 
Farren, William Foust, Casper Gillnet, Har- 
vey Groves, William Green, John L. Groves, 
George W. Harding. Thomas Hutchinson, 
William J. Heckman, Benjamin F. Haymaker, 
James Harbenger, George Ilowlett, George P. 
Ilartzell, Willirnn J. Henderson, Andrew 
Iloak, Moses Ishman. .\rchie Jones, George 
W. Keck, .Sampson Kirker, William Kerp, 
Thomas Kessner, John Kerker, Edward Lewis, ' 
James R. London, George W. Luke, Henry 
1 .. 1 .indsey, George Montgomery, David B. 



Moore, W. S. Mattock, Henry C. Moore, 
James Mulkins, James Moore, William 
Menser, Nelson Munger, Joseph F. Millen, 
Michael Miller, Robert Morrison, William 
Mulkins, James McCutcheon, James McGeary, 
John McDonald, R. McAdams, Sr., David 
McKibbin, John McKean, William McKean, 
James McGhee, W. H. McLaughlin, William 
"McClelland, Noble McClure, John Nelson, 
John Osborne, George G. Rickard, Wash- 
ington Rhoades, Albert Reynolds, Robert 
Rager, Gilbert P. Rea, Thomas W. Rea, 
Joseph Rutter, James H. Reed, John W. 
Rea, George Shick, William C. Smith, 
Daniel Sharp, John Soliday, Oliver Smith, 
Ami Sibley, H. H. Sparks, Robert Spur, 
Andrew S. Smith, Henry Stevenson, Hiram 
P. Sprague, Peter Sharp, William Smith, 
Joseph Tedlie, Anthony Tory, John Thomas, 
William S. Whiteman, George Winklebauch, 
George Walch, George W. Warnock, William 
Walch, Peter B. Wensell, Adam Wensell, Dex- 
ter F. Wilson, George Yount, Edward W. 

"Killed — Capt. John C. Conser; Lieut. 
George W. Crosley ; .Sergt. James Millen ; Cor- 
poral John Neil ; Privates George A. Clark, 
Daniel G. Carl, William Foust, John L. 
Groves, George Howlett, Robert Morrison, 
John Nelson, Joseph Rutter, Hiram P. 
Sprague, Peter Sharp, George Yount. 

"Died — Sergts. Forbes Kilgore, Irvin R. 
Long; Privates William F.lystone, Hugh 
Conn, William J. Henderson, .Archie Jones, 
John Kerker, William Mulkins, William Mc- 
Clelland, James H. Reed, John W. Rea, 
Joseph Tedley, George Winklebauch, Edward 
W. Young. Died in Rebel prisons, Sergts. 
Joseph F. Green, Michael Miller. 

"Transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps — 
Thomas W. Rea, Dexter F. Wilson, E. S. 
Flolloway, John Grossman, R. C. McAdams. 

"Company I was composed principally of 
men from Brookville and the adjacent town- 
ships, and was mainly recruited by Capt. Silas 
J. Martin, who. on account of sickness in his 
family, was obliged to resign March lo, 1862. 
Upon his resignation Capt. James Hamilton 
was selected from the Thirty-eighth Pennsyl- 
vania (Ninth Reserves), to command the 
company, and when he gloriously fell at the 
Wilderness, the command devolved upon Capt. 
Oliver C. Redic. of Clarion county, and upon 
his promotion to lieutenant colonel Capt. 
Henry Galbraith succeeded him, and remained 
with the company, sharing all its battles and 
dangers, until its final muster out. The muster 
rolls below give all the men from Jefferson 

county, with a list of those killed, died of 
wounds or disease, and those transferred to 
other organizations : 

"Captains, Silas J. Martin, Henry Galbraith; 
first lieutenant, Isaac N. Tuller; second lieu- 
tenants, Hugh Brady, Robert L Boyington, 
John H. Kennedy; first sergeants, John Ma- 
giffin, George VanVliet ; sergeants, John 
Douglass, James L. Paul, Benjamin Pollyard, 
James C. Quinter, Isaiah E.Davis, Joseph Kin- 
near, Mathias Manner, James Nicholson; cor- 
porals, Henry ShaiTer, Daniel A. Friedline, 
Frederick Trapp, David Criswell, Andrew 
Edinger, James C. Gilson, Henry Rhoads, 
James Moorhead, .Stephen Sartwell, Henry 
k. Mitchell. WilHam Toye, John W. Man- 
ners; privates, Isaac Allen, Ethan Allen, Wil- 
liam Armstrong, Daniel A. Brown, Edwin 
Black, Jesse Bump, John Blosser, George 
Boyer, James R. Bennett. John Burgess, Wil- 
liam Burford, Emery E. Brown, Andrew 
Campbell, Mathew L. Cochran, William 
Campbell, William A. Crawford, Simeon 
Chaijman. William Christie, Nathaniel Car- 
baugh, William Cowan. William Chapman, 
William Courtney, George W. Christie, H. A. 
Davis, Aaron Douglass, Samuel C. Davis, 
James Doyle, Jacob Edwards, Peter Eye, 
Oliver Graham, William H.' Gray, George 
(iraham, James F. Hawthorn, George How- 
ard. Abram F. Hunter, Samuel .S. Howser, 
Samuel Hogue, William E. Hawthorn, David 
Hawthorn, John Hillman, Joel Horn, George 
C. Hopkins, James R. Hoover, George W. 
Hettrick, Henry J. Hawthorn, Samuel A. 
Hunter, Harrison Hogue, Silas Irwin, Harry 
Ickes, John R. Johnson, Thomas Jolly, Henry 
Kennedy, Levi Knight, John Koch, Benjamin 
F. Lerch, John C. Moorhead, Robert C. Mil- 
len, David R. Matson, R. S. Montgomery, 
William Miller, Jacob J. Mauk, William A. 
Millen, John A. Mikle, Jacob Moore, William 
H. Manners, Edward I. Miller, Eli C. Mc- 
Laughlin, William McDonald, Alexander Mc- 
Donald. William O'Donnel, James O'Neal, 
John Royer, Chapman Rose, Eli Roll, Joseph 
Ronke. John S. Smith, James Stroup, Jacob 
Snowden, Riley .Siverly, Fred L. Swentzell, 
Enos Shirts, Henry Smith, John O. Spencer, 
Samuel Stroup, Henry Shirley, Joseph 
Stumph, James W. .Shields, John J. Sherman, 
Hugh M. Steel. James Shaffer, George J. 
Shultz, George Thomas, Mathias Thompson, 
Henry Toye, Samuel Tingley, William \''ande- 
vort, James Warey, • Thomas Woodward, 
Flenry Yount, Isaac Yount. 

"Killed — Sergts. Isaiah E. Davis, Joseph 
Kinnear, Mathias Manner; Corporals James 



Moorhead, Stephen Sartwell, James R. Ben- 
nett; Privates John Burgess, William Chap- 
man, William Courtney, James R. Hoover, 
George W. Ilettrick, II. J. Hawthorn, Samuel 
A. Hunter, Silas Irvin, John R. Johnson. D. 
R. Matson, R. S. Montgomery, Philip Ritchie, 
Enos Shirts, Mathew Thompson, I;aac Yount. 

"Died — Sergt. James Nicholson; Corporals 
H. K. -Mitchell, William Toye, John W. Man- 
ners; William Burford. Ceorge W. Christie, 
Samuel Hogue, Harrison Hogue, Levi Knight. 
John Koch, Benjamin F. Lerch, William Alil- 
ler, Jacoh Mauk, William A. Millen. William 
McDonald, James O'Neil, Henry Smith. John 
O, Spencer, Samuel Stroup, Thomas Wood- 

"Transferred to V. R. C. — Sergt. James C. 
Quinter, John Hillman, Joel Horn, George J. 
Shultz, James Shaffer; transferred to U. S. 
army — George C. Hopkins. 

"Company K was recruited in Lidiana 
county, but Jefferson county furnished some 
of its most gallant officers. Capt. A. C. Thomp- 
son, who was disabled at the second battle of 
Bull Run, and Capt. James Miller, who after- 
wards rose to be colonel of the regiment. The 
only Jefferson county men in this company 
were : 

"Captains, Albert C. Thompson, James Mil- 
ler; first lieutenant, John G. Wilson; first 
sergeants. John Gold. Thomas K. Hastings ; 
sergeants, Robert T. Pattison, John T. 
Swisher, James H. May ; corporal, James M. 
Torrcnce ; privates, George M. Bouch, John 
Baker, .Samuel Benner, Hugh C. Craven, Z. 
T. Chambers, Alpheus B. Clark, James D. 
Frampton. Samuel McAdoo, Samuel Rhoads, 
John Stiver, Jesse J. Tcm]5leton, Henry Wyn- 

"Killed — Sergts. Robert T. Pattison, John 
T. Swisher. 

"Died — Hugh C. Craven, James D. b'ramp- 
ton, Jesse J. Templeton." 

To epitomize the regimental history : The 
One Hundred and Fifth Regiment, Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteer Infantry, known as the "Wild 
Cat Regiment," was mustered in at Pittsburgh. 
September 9, i<%T, for three years. Col. Amor 
A. McKnighl commanding. He was killed 
at Chancellorsville, Va., and was succeeded 
by Col. C. A. Craig, who also fell, at Deep 
Bottom, Va. The next ranking officers were 
Lieutenant Colonel Greenawalt, who died of 
wounds received at the Wilderness, and Lictit. 
Col. Levi B. Duff, invalided from wovmds with 
loss of leg, at Petersburg. \'a., hence the com- 
mand devolved upon Col. James Miller, who 
brought the regiment home to Pittsburgh July 

10, 1865. On June 23, 1865, the regiment 
marched in the grand review in Washington, 
and was mustered out of service on July 11, 
1865, after serving three years and ten 
months, at Washington, D. C. 

The One Hundred and Fifth Regiment 
served in the First Brigade, First Division, 
Third Army Corps, until after the battle of 
Gettysburg, when the Third was consolidated 
with the Second Corps, and the One Hundred 
and Fifth was put in the Second Division of 
the Second Corps. 


Jesse Jamison Templeton was born in Brookville, 
Pa., February 20, 1846, and died in the hospital of 
tiie Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, at Fortress 
Monroe, Va., of congestion of the brain, on the 
26th of March, 1862, aged sixteen years, one month, 
six days. He was a jirivatc in Capt. A. C. Thomp- 
son's Company, K, 105th Regiment Pennsylvania 
Volunteers; was enlisted at Indiana, in i86r, and 
joined the regiment with a squad of enlisted men 
and taken to Cam]) Jameson by Captain Altman, 
who was then captain of this company. 

During its term of service the regiment 
took part in the following engagements : York- 
town, April, 1862; Williainsburg, Mav 2, 
1862; Fair Oaks, May 31-June i, 1862; the 



Orchards, June 25, 1862 ; Glendale, June 30. 
1862; Malvern Hill, July i, 1862: Bristoe 
Stadon, August 28, i8(52 ; Second Bull Run, 
August 29, 1862 (where the regiment was 
specially complimented by General Kearny 
for its gallantry) ; Chantilly, September i, 
1862 ; Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862 ; 
Chancellorsville, May 2 and 3. 1863; Gettys- 
burg, July 2 and 3, 1863 ; Wapping Heights, 
July 24, 1863; Auburn, October 13, 1863; 
Kelly's Ford, November 7, 1863 ; Payne's 
Farm (Locust Grove), November 27, 1863; 
Mine Run, November 28, 1863 ; Wilderness. 
May 5, 6 and 7, 1864 ; Po River, May 10 and 
II, 1864; Spottsylvania, May 12 to 15, 1864; 
North Anna, May 23 to 25, 1864; Cold Har- 
bor, June 2, 1864; Petersburg, June 16 to 18, 
1864; Petersburg, June 20, 1864; Petersburg, 
June 22 to July 26, 1864; Deep Bottom, July 
26 to 29, August 15 and 16, 1864; Poplar 
Grove Church, October 2, 1864; Boydton 
Plank Road, October 27, 1864; before Peters- 
burg, March 25 and 30, 1865 ; before Peters- 
burg, April 2, 1865 ; near Farmville, April 6 
and 9, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifth was "one of 
the forty-five regiments of infantry in the 
United States service designated as the fight- 
ing regiments, viz. : 'those having lost in killed 
in battle two hundred and over.' " 

The loss by battle and disease, as officially 
reported, was fourteen officers killed in battle 
and two hundred and ninety-five men killed 
and died of disease, making a death roll of_ 
three hundred and nine. One hundred and 
ninety-nine were reported missing. 

Since the close of the war the death of 
thirty-three officers, including Colonel Miller, 
and one hundred and six enlisted men, have 
been reported. Of the ten men vi'ho went out 
as captains in the regiment, all are dead. 

The first reunion of the regiment was held 
and the One Hundred and Fifth Association 
formed at Brookville. Pa.. October 7, 1879. 
On that occasion' the following field and staff 
officers were present : Lieut. Cols. W. W. 
Corbet (of Brookville), Oliver C. Redic (of 
Butler, Pa.), and Levi B. Duff (of Pitts- 
burgh) ; Adjt. Hillis McKown (of Pitts- 
burgh) ; Surgeon Adam Wenger (of Concord, 
111.) ; Chaplain D. S. Steadman (of Union 
City, Pa.) ; Hospital Steward Charles D. 
Shrieves (5421 Jefferson street, Philadelphia, 
Pa.). Memljers of the band: John F. Strat- 
tan (Navy Yard. Washington, D. C.) ; John 
A. Guff^ey (Eureka Springs, Ark.) ; Lott J. 
Leech (Chicora, Pa.) ; John Weir (Indiana, 
Pa.) ; James A. McClelland (Sigel, Pa.). 

The following, quoted from a newspaper 
article, expresses something of the pride and 
spirit which animated this exceptional body 
of fighting men : '^ 

"As to this regiment of ours, it needs no 
eulogy of mine ; its eulogy is in the history 
of what it has done. It takes no back seat in 
the history of the war. In point of time, it 
was four years making up its battle record. 
In point of distance, it was from Williamsburg 
clear through to Sailor's Creek. To give the 
history of its battles would be substantially 
to give the history of the Army of the Poto- 
mac. In drill, on the march, in battle, in all 
soldierly qualities, this regiment had no su- 
perior, and repeatedly drew words of praise 
from such generals as Kearny, Jameson, Gra- 
ham and Birney. It was mustered in in '61, 
one thousand strong ; it was mustered out in 
July. '65, with about one hundred and fifty 
of its original members in it. Its depleted 
ranks were filled up twice; the last time, just 
as the war was closing. What gave this regi- 
ment its fine reputation? First, it was made 
up of good material — a sprinkling of Ger- 
mans as you will see by their names (and they 
made good soldiers), but largely our regiment 
was Scotch-Irish. Look at the names : Mc- 
Knight, Craig, Duff, Redic. Miller, Hamilton, 
^Ickillip, McKown, Galbraith. McGiffin, Mc- 
Geary, Kelso, Millen, Kennedy, Campbell, etc., 
to the end of the company rolls. They came 
of fighting stock; not so good on a dash, per- 
haps, but just the men for holding on and 
pounding away if it should take all summer. 
The hardest and most stubborn fighting of the 
war was when these Scotch-Irish regiments, 
North and South, were pitted against each 

■'Then they were intelligent men. They 
knew what the war was about, and they went, 
not for money or glory, but from a sense of 
duty. But this regiment, from the first clear 
through, had good leaders. Colonel ]\IcKnight 
was determined to make his regiment one of 
the best, and spared no pains to reach that 
point. Day by day, week after week, he drilled 
the men, he instructed the officers, until they 
got mad and swore like the troops in Flanders ; 
but the Colonel was right, and they found it 
so after a while. And then was there ever a 
better officer than Colonel Craig? So cool, 
so brave, and yet so kind-hearted. He was 
stern to demand of his men the discharge of 
all duty, and yet he could sympathize with 
them in any trouble. I make special mention, 
of these two men because they had command 
of the regiment longer than any others. But 



they had wortliy successors, and their equals 
in all soldierly qualities, in Grecnawalt and 
Dufif and Conser and Rcdio and Miller." 

Besides those already enumerated, Jeffer- 
son county was represented in a number of 
military organizations, whose service and per- 
sonnel deserve great praise, reflecting so favor- 
ably the loyal sjiirit which prevailed in the 

Company F. Si.vly-sczrnlli Rc(/liiiriit. P. F* 

''Tn November, i<%i, S. C. Arthurs com- 
menced to recruit a company styled the 
United Eagles, raised in Jefferson and Clarion 
counties. This company went into camp near 
Rimcrsburg, Clarion county, where an organ- 
ization was eft'ected. with S. C. Arthurs cap- 
tain, the other commissioned officers being 
from Clarion county. In 1862 the company 
joined the regiment of Col. John F. Staunton, 
at Philadelphia, and was mustered into the 
service as Company F, .Sixty-seventh Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers. 

"On the 3d of .April, 1862, the Si.xty- 
seventh was ordered to Baltimore, and from 
there to .\nnapnlis. Aid., where it relieved the 
Eleventh Regiment, P. \'. It was here em- 
])!oyed in guard and provost duty in the city 
anci in other parts of eastern Maryland, and 
in furnishing guards for Camp Parole, near 
the city. The latter duty was so well per- 
formed that the citizens experienced no trouble 
from the presence of the large body of 
paroled jirisoners constantly at this camp. 
During all this time the discipline was very 
strict, and the regiment was thoroughly drilled, 
until it was equal to any in the service. 

"The Sixty-se\-enth took- part in the pursuit 
of Early and in all the subsequent brilliant 
career of .Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley. 
In the fight of the 19th of October, which, but 
for the oijportune arrival of Sheridan, would 
have ended so disastrously to our arms, the 
.Sixty-seventh was hotly engaged, losing forty- 
eight in killed and wounded. 

"It remained in the valley until near the 
close of the year, when, with the corps, it was 
ordered to the front al Petersburg, and par- 
ticipated in the closing camjxiign. .After the 
surrender of Lee it was sent to Danville, near 
the North Carolina border, where Johnston 
still had a large Rebel force, but on his sur- 

* The material relatiiiK to the Sixty-seveiitli Rejji- 
nu-iit was taken from Bates's History, Pennsylvania 

render returned to Washington, where it was 
mustered out of service July 14, 1865. 

"Captain Arthurs was taken prisoner June 
13, 1863, at the battle of Winchester. Lieut. 
Asaph M. Clarke, who escaped capture, gal- 
lantly commanded the company in most of 
its further qami)aigns. until he was promoted 
to first lieutenant of Company K, February 5, 
1865, and .afterwards to captain of that com- 

"The following Jeft'erson county men in 
Coni])an\' ]• were killed, or died of disease: 
1'.. Rush Scott, killed at Winchester; Bene- 
well Fisher, R. D. McCutcheon, Daniel Dun- 
kleljurg, died, the latter dying while at his 
home on furlough. John \V. Creenawalt, 
James W. Kerr, Daniel Mc.Adoo, transferred 
to \'eteran Reserve Corps, 

"The following men from Jeft'erson county 
were in Company F: Cajitain, Samuel C. 
Arthurs; first .sergeants, Jacob B, McCracken, 
Asaph M, Clarke ; sergeants, Thomas J. Proc- 
tor, Elias W. Haines ; corporals, Fred Hilliard, 
Thompson McAnidch, Alexander F. Flick, 
David Clepper, ■ John Dougherty, Samuel 
Irwin ; jirivates, James R. Adams, Edward 
Burns, Layfayette Burge, Thomas Brown. 
John Baxter, David Barry, Noah Burkepile, 
John H, Cox, John Dicky, Daniel Dunkleburg, 
Ceorge Friedline, Jesse Flick, George Fisher, 
Henry Msher, Benewell Fisher, Peter Grove, 
Jr,, James R. Gailey, John W. Greenawalt, 
Henry Geesev, Aaron Hendricks, George M. 
Hilliard, Michael Harriger, Silas E. Hall. 
John M. Hadden, George W, Keys, John P.. 
Lucas, John Messner, Henry B. Milliron. 
Daniel McAdoo, R, D, McCutcheon, Oninton ' 
O'Kain, Samuel D. Patterson, John "Shadle. 
Henry Snyder, Henry C. Snyder, Benjamin 
R. Scott, David Taylor. Henry Truman, John 
Voinchet, Daniel Williams, John Warner, 
F'Jobert D. Williams, Edward W. ^'oung, Sam- 
uel Yeomans," 

Conipaiiy B. i;ith rrmisylvnnia Volunteers 

"This company was recruited, under the call 
of the president, issued July i, 1862. for troops 
to serve for nine months. It was raised largely 
through the efforts of Richard J. Espy, A. B. 
and Charles McLain, an<l left Brookville 
.August "til and proceeded to Camp Curtin, at 
llarrisburg, where it was mustered into theOne 
Hundred and Thirty-fifth Pennsylvania Regi- 
ment. ( )n the organizjition of the regiment, 
with J. R. Porter, of Indiana, as colonel, \. 
B. McLain was made adjutant, and the elec- 
liim for company officers resulted in Richard 
I. I'".s])y being chosen captain; Charles McLain, 



first lieutenant, and Andrew J. Sparks, sec- 
ond lieutenant. On the same day that the 
regiment was organized, August 19, 1862, it 
left for Washington, and on reporting to Gen- 
eral Wadsworth, in command of that depart- 
ment, was assigned to provost guard duty, 
being detailed in detachments in Washington 
and Georgetown, the field officers being as- 
signed to special duty, such as president of 
general court martial, commandant of Capitol 
Hill and of the Soldiers' Home, and in taking 
charge of the prisoners on their way for ex- 
change between Washington and Aiken's 
Landing. The regiment remained at Wash- 
ington until February 16, 1863, though Colo- 
nel Porter made repeated application to have 
his regiment sent to the front, but without 
avail, until General Wadsworth joined the 
Amiy of the Potomac, when the scattered 
detachments were united, and the regiment 
proceeded to Belle Plain, where it was as- 
signed to the First Brigade, Third Division, 
First Corps, Colonel Porter being for a time 
in command of the brigade. The regiment 
was engaged on picket and guard duty until 
the Chancellorsville campaign commenced, 
when it was moved, on the 28th of April, to 
Pollock Mills, on the Rappahannock river, 
near Fredericksburg. Shortly after dark Colo- 
nel Porter was ordered to move his regiment 
close to the bank of the river to support the 
batteries. On the following morning the 
enemy opened upon the One Hundred and 
Thirty-fifth, the fire being promptly and ef- 
fectively returned ; the regiment having three 
wounded, one of whom, E. H. Baum, was of 
Company B. 

"On the 2d of May the First Corps was 
ordered to Chancellorsville, where Hooker 
was engaged with the enemy, but the One 
Hundred and Thirty-fifth was left in support 
of the batteries. As soon as relieved it has- 
tened to rejoin its brigade at the front, and 
was there thrown out to cover the front of 
the brigade, losing in the movement several 
prisoners. After this campaign closed the 
regiment returned to Belle Plain, where it 
remained until its term of service expired. 

''General Doubleday, commanding the Third 
Division of the First Corps, said of this regi- 
ment: 'Colonel Porter has rendered very 
good service with his regiment in guarding 
the batteries along the Rappahannock engaged 
in covering the crossing of our troops below 
Fredericksburg. His men defended the guns 
against the enemy's sharpshooters, and did 

good execution The One Hundred and 

Thirty-fifth also covered the front of the First 

Brigade of my Division at the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville, and though not actively engaged, 
did all that was required of it.' 

"Their term of enlistment having expired, 
the regiment returned to Harrisburg, where, 
on the 24th of May, 1863, it was mustered 
out of service. During its nine months' service 
it lost eight men. From disease, Benjamin F. 
Bonham, George Diveler, James Flanders ; 
Robert Gilmore, William F. Hufi^man, Daniel 
Reed, George W. Weckerly, William Whal- 
ing. Lee Forsythe died of injuries received 
in railroad accident near Washington. Miles 
Flack lost both legs in same accident. 

"Muster roll: Captain, Richard J. Espy; 
first lieutenant, Charles McLain ; second lieu- 
tenant, Andrew J. Sparks ; first sergeant, John 

A. McLain ; sergeants, George W. Porter, E. 
PI. Baum, Samuel M. Moore, George W. Sib- 
ley; corporals, Thomas S. McCreight, Thomas 
M. Myers, Samuel L. Allen, Hiram W. Clark, 
Alanson R. Felt, Robert W. Anderson, Daniel 

B. Porter, John A. Rishel ; musician, William 
S. T^ucas ; privates, Robert Andrews, John W. 
Alford, Leonard Agnew, John Alcorn, Calvin 
Burns, Joseph Beer, Liberty Beer, Isaac H. 
Buzzard, Anson H. Bowdish, James Bennett, 
Jacob Booth, John Bonham, David Buchanan, 
Benjamin F. Bonham, George W. Corbin, 
John A. Cuzzens, G. W. Chamljerlain, Sylves- 
ter Davis, Alonzo Dixon, George Diveler, 
Miles Flack, Lee Forsythe. James Flanders, 
Franklin Goodar, Samuel Gibbs, Ray Giles, 
Robert Gilmore, Elias J. Hettrick, Frederick 
Harvey, Nathaniel Harriger, William V. 
Heim, John Hettrick, James Hildreth, Na- 
than Hoig, George Haight, Wesley Haight, 
William Harris, Chauncey P. Harding, Wil- 
liam F. Hofifman, Elias W. Jones, Cyrenus N. 
Jackson, Henry Keihl, Jacob S. Keihl, Othoniel 
Kelly, John L. Lucas, Louis Litzel, Julius 
Morey, James A. Myers, Abel L. Mathews, 
James E. Mitchell, G. S. Montgomery, Robert 
Miller, C. W. Morehead, James E. McCrack- 
en, F. B. McNaughton, William G. McMinn, 
Jonathan R. McFadden, Frank M. Robinson, 
Thomas V. Robinson, William A. Royer, Dan- 
iel Reed, Louis Riley, James T. Smith, Peter 
Spangler, Jeremiah B. Smith, .Solomon Stahl- 
man, David Stahlman, David Uplinger, Silas 
Whelpley, Joseph Woods, Orlando Wayland, 
George R. White, George S. Wallace, George 
W. Weckerly, William Whaling." 

Companies E and I, One Hundred and Forty- 
eighth Regiment P. V. 

"The One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regi- 
ment was principally recruited in Centre 



county, and when ready to take the field, desir- 
ing that a Centre county soldier should com- 
mand them, their choice fell upon James A. 
Beaver, of Bellefonte, Pa., who was then at 
the front with his regiment, the Forty-fifth 
Pennsylvania, of which he was lieutenant colo- 
nel. Governor Curtin adding his petition to 
that of the officers of the new regiment, that 
he should become its commander, Colonel 
Beaver resigned from the Forty-fifth and as- 
sumed command of the new regiment, which 
was designated as the One Hundred and 
Forty-eighth. The regiment was organized 
September 8, 1862, at Camp Curtin. with 
seven companies from Centre county, one 
from Clarion, two from Jeft'erson and Indiana. 
All of Company I and about half the men in 
Company E were from Jefl:'erson. The day 
following its organization the regiment was 
sent to guard the Northern Central railroad, 
with headquarters at Cockeysville, Md. Here 
it was put under the most rigid and uniform 
rules of discipline, so that in less than three 
months after entering the service, some vet- 
eran officers who had just been released from 
Rebel prisons, and were passing the well 
arranged and orderly camp, noticing the trim 
appearance of the pickets, and the guards at 
the colonel's headquarters, wearing clean white 
gloves, burnished brasses and blackened shoes, 
called out to the men, 'Are you regulars?' 
Colonel Beaver took great pride in the rapid 
progress of his regiment, and said of them 
at this time, 'The men of this regiment are 
willing and of more than ordinary intelligence. 
I am satisfied that it can be made all that a 
regiment ought to be, if the officers are faith- 
ful.' This jirediction the subsequent history 
of the regiment proved. The discipline en- 
forced embraced every phase of a soldier's 
obligation. Though there was no immediate 
necessity apjxirent, the men were instructed 
in the duties of the outpost as well as the 
camp. Careful picket lines were maintained 
and tested by the young colonel at all hours 
of the day and night, 'i'he most rigid rules 
of soldierly conduct were kindly but lirmly 

"One of the best drilled comjjanies in the 
regiment was Comjjany I, and to Captain Mar- 
lin of tliat company was the One Hundred and 
Forty-eighth in a great measure indebted for 
its efficiency in drill and discipline, for in him 
Colonel Beaver found an officer thoroughly 
posted in every detail of soldierly qualifica- 
tions. Going as he did from the One Hun- 
dred and Fifth Penn.sylvania, he carried with 
him the lessons learned in military tactics in 

that rigid school of drill and discipline that 
Colonel McKnight established at Camp Jame- 
son during the winter of 1861-62, and which 
made the officers of that regiment excel in 
this respect. Colonel Marlin gives this severe 
and thorough training that he then received 
the credit for his success as an officer. He 
lent himself ardently to aid the colonel of the 
regiment in his efforts to make the One Hun- 
dred and Forty-eighth a regiment that would 
have done credit to the 'Old Guards.' 

"A good story is told of the obstacles which 
Colonel Beaver sometimes encountered in his 
desire to make a crack regiment out of the 
material gathered from the mountains of 
Pennsylvania. .Standing one day near his 
headquarters, a sturdy German of the Clarion 
county company came shambling along toward 
him. with anything but a soldierly gait, and 
without a soldier's bearing. Approaching the 
Colonel, without saluting, he said : 
" 'Say, vere's de old docther?' 
"'I don't know. But who are you?' asked 
the Colonel. 

" 'Vy, I been Switzer.' 

" 'Are you a soldier?' sternly demanded the 
Colonel, appreciating the comedy nature of 
the performance, but also realizing the neces- 
sity of giving the man a practical lesson in a 
soldier's education. 

" 'Oh, yah ; I belong to the Hundred and 

" 'Ah, is that so,' replied the Colonel. 'You 
don't appear like a soldier of that regiment. 
But if you are, let me show you how a mem- 
ber of that regiment addresses an officer. You 
stand here and be colonel for a moment, while 
1 take your place as a private.' 

"The German citizen soldier eyed the Colo- 
nel curiously as he walked away a few paces, 
, wheeled about and approached him with a 
brisk, soldierly step and military carriage. The 
substituted private addressed the suddenly 
commissioned officer and said : 

" '("oloncl, can you tell me, sir, where I will 
find the surgeon of the regiment?' 

" 'Mein (iolt in ITininiel, I doan no! I'm 
been lookin' for him meinself ober an hour.' 

"Companies I and I"", took part in the fol- 
lowing engagements in which their regiment 
was engaged: Auburn, Bristoe, Mine Run, 
the Wilderness, Po River, Spottsylvania Court 
House, Xorth .Anna, Tolopotomy, Cold Har- 
bor, Petersburg. Deep Bottom, Strawberry 
Plains. Reams's .Station, Hatcher's Run, Ad- 
.inis's Farm, .Sutherland .Station, Farmville, 
and .Appomattox. 

"Company E shared equally in the honors 



of the One Hundred and Forty-eighth with 
Company I. Captain Stewart resigning soon 
after it went out, the command devolved upon 
Captain Sutton, of Indiana; but two of its 
most efficient and bravest officers were Lieu- 
tenants Clark and Sprankle, both of Jefferson 
county. Joseph E. Hall of Company I was on 
April 27, 1863, promoted from sergeant to 
sergeant major of the regiment, and on Au- 
gust 2d, to second lieutenant of Company I, 
and promoted to adjutant of the One Hundred 
and Eighty-third Regiment Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers September 7, 1864, a position he held 
until the muster out of his regiment, with great 
credit. An officer of the division said of him: 
'You cannot praise him too highly.' 

"The following were the Jefferson county 
men in Company E, One Hundred and Forty- 
eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers : 

"Captain, Charles Stewart, resigned Sep- 
tember 25, 1863 ; first lieutenants, W. T. 
Clark, promoted November 15. 1863, dis- 
charged on surgeon's certificate July 7, 1864; 
Peter D. Sprankle, promoted September 25, 
1864; first sergeants, George Baughman, Levi 
C. Smith, Robert A. Travis ; sergeants, Dan- 
iel W. Smith, Charles M. Law ; corporals, 
Robert J. Crissman, John Milliron, E. Vincent 
Richards, James Shoppard, W. J. Postlethwait, 
John J. Shoffstall; musicians, David N. Hen- 
ry, Johnston Hamilton ; privates, John Boyer, 
Emanuel Bush, Peter Burkett, Isaac G. Coch- 
ran, Robert J. Crissman, Alexander R. Dun- 
lap. Samuel P. Edwards, William Evans, 
David Gearheart, Samuel R. Gearheart, John 
M. Hartman, John C. Hoover, William Jor- 
dan. Benjamin F. Keck, Sampson Klingen- 
smith, Daniel C. Law, Joseph H. Law, Joseph 
Long. John Milliron, William Milliron, George 
Miller, Andrew Minish, William S. Newcom, 
Josiah Postlethwait, William J. Postlethwait, 
Emanuel Raybuck, • Henry Raybuck, Philip 
Sloppy, James L. Staggers, David Smith, John 
Snyder, Samuel Shilling, Joseph Shoffstall, 
Chambers O. Timblin, George Timhlin. Philip 
Whitesell, Henry Young. 

"The following Jefferson county men in 
Company E were killed, died of wounds and 
disease, or were transferred to other organiza- 
tions : 

"Killed — Sampson Klingensmith, Joseph H. 
Law, David Smith, Joseph Shoffstall, Philip 
Whitesell, .'\ndrew Minish. 

"Died — Samuel R. Gearheart, Joseph Long, 
William Milliron, William S. Newcom, Wil- 
liam Postlethwait, George Timblin, Henry 

"Died in Rebel prisons — ^E. Bush, Philip 
Sloppy, James Staggers, John Snyder. 

"Transferred and promoted to captain, U. 
S. C. T. — Sergt. R. A. Travis. Transferred 
and promoted to Adjutant, U. S. C. T. — 
George Miller. Transferred to V. R. C— 
Samuel P. Edwards, William Evans, William 
Jordan, B. F. Keck." 

"Company I: Captain, Silas J. Marlin; 
first lieutenants, John A. Maguire, Junius F. 
Grain; second lieutenants, Orlando H. Brown, 
Joseph E. Hall, Frank W. Clark; first ser- 
geant, Thomas W. Douglass; sergeants, Henry 
Carey, Shelumiel Swineford, Benjamin F. Mc- 
Gifiin, Jehial Vasbinder, Alexander McQuis- 
ton, William Davidson, Robert Kissinger, Ed- 
ward Murphy; corporals, Jacob B. Rumbaugh, 
William H. Harley, John M. Davis, Lewis 
Diebler, Thomas McCullough, Alexander 
Douglass, Joseph Earnest, Harrison Catz, 
John M. Love, Russell S. Adams, Russell 
Weeks ; musician, Joseph Arthurs ; privates, 
George W. Anthony, William Acker, Philip 
Boyer, John S. Buzzard, Emery J. Barr, 
Hugh A. Barr, William H. Barr, William C. 
Boyd, John Banghart, Eli Bailey, Joseph W. 
Bowley, Jonathan L. Bitner, Philip S. Crate, 
Wallace Coon, James Cochran, Lewis Cobbs, 
-Andrew Craft, Harvey Crispin, Isaac Corey, 
Andrew J. Clark, Josiah T. Crouch, Calvin 
Dixon, Isaiah S. Davis, John W. Demott, John 
Emmett, Alonzo Fowler, Daniel Ferringer, 
William M. Firman, Isaac J. Grenoble, Fred- 
erick Gilhousen, James J. Gailey, Orin Giles, 
James Garvin, Christ. C. Gearheart, Samuel 
K. Groh,' Samuel Howard, Andrew Harp, 
Jacob S. Haugh, Augustus Haugh, Andrew 
J. Hagerty, Benjamin F. Hull, George Horner, 
David M. Hillis, John Lloward, Manasses 
Kerr, Reuben Lyle, Harrison Long, Peter P. 
Love, Lyman E. Mapes, Jackson Moore, 
Thompson Moorhead, David Mattison, Stew- 
art H. Monteer, Henry Mapes, Harrison 
Moore, James A. Murphy, James McMangle, 
Peter Nulf, Nelson P. O'Connor, Robert 
Omslaer, William J. Orr, William O'Connor, 
Edward Plyler, Samuel Ransom, David D. 
Rhodes, Harris Ransom, Eli Rhinehart, Wil- 
liam Rogers, James W. Rea, Lewis R. Stahl- 
man, Peter Shannon, William H. H. Smith, 
Edward M. Sage. John H. H. Shuster, Sam- 
uel Shaw, John W. Smith, Theophilus Smith, 
Benjamin F. Scandrett, Richard Snyder, 
Jacob Snyder, John Stahlman, Joseph Y. 
Thompson, Samuel Fry, Robert M. Wadding, 
Joseph White, William White, William P. ' 
Woods, Frank M. Whiteman. 



"The following niciiibers of Company I 
were killed, died of wounds or disease, or 
were transferred to other organizations : 

"Killed— Lieut. John McGuire ; Sergt. Alex- 
ander McQuiston ; Privates Andrew Craft. 
Daniel Ferringcr, Andrew J. Hagerty, David 
D. Rhodes, Samuel Shaw. Died — Corporal 
Thomas McCullough. Emery J. Barr, Wil- 
liam H. Barr. William C. Boyd, Harvey Cris- 
pin, Frederick Gilhousen, James J. Gailey, 
Augustus Haugh, Harrison Long, Jackson 
Moore, Thompson Moorhead, Peter Nulf, 
William White, William J. Orr. Died in 
Rebel prisons — Hugh A. Barr, Stewart H. 
Monteer, Harris Ransom, Lewis Diebler. The 
latter was shot by the prison giiard at Salis- 
bur\-, N. C. William Acker and Isaac J. 
Grenoble, though not Jefferson county 'boys,' 
were yet always identified with the company. 
Acker was mistaken for one of the enemy, 
and so badly wounded by one of his own regi- 
ment, while at work on one of the outpost 
riflepits at Cold Harbor, that he lost an arm, 
while Grenoble lost a leg at Po River. The 
following men were transferred : To adjutant 
One Hundred and Eighty-third Regiment 
Pennsylvania ^"olunteers, Lieut. Joseph E. 
Hall ; to Veteran Reserve Corps, Corporal 
John M. Love ; Philip Boyer, John S. Buz- 
zard, Eli Bailey, Josiah T. Crouch, Isaiah S. 
Davis, John W. Demott, Reuben Lyle, Har- 
rison Moore, John W. Smith, Theophilus 
Smith, B. F. Scandrett, Richard Snyder, W. 
P. Woods. Transferred to Fifty-third Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers — Peter P. Love, James 
A. Murphy. William O'Connor. To Signal 
Corps — James W. Rea." 

Company B, Tzvo Hundred and Eleventh 
Regiment, P. V. 

"Company B, of the Two Hundred and 
Eleventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, was raised 
in Jefferson county. The regiment was organ- 
ized at Camp Reynolds, Pittsburgh, Septem- 
ber i6, 1864, for one year's service. James 
H. Trimble was elected colonel, and Levi A. 
Dodd, of Brookvillc, lieutenant colonel. The 
regiment was sent immediately to the front, 
and on the 20th of September found itself in 
the entrenchments at Bermuda Hundred, 
where it was put in a provisional brigade of 
the Army of the James. Scarcely had it gained 
its position when it was ordered to mount the 
parapets, formed of sandbags, in full view 
of the enemy, who at once opened upon them 
with his batteries, killing two men in Com- 
pany F with a single .shell. The object in 

thus exposing this command, was to attract 
the attention of the enemy from the storming 
party which was about to move on Fort Har- 
rison, which movement was successful. The 
picket line which the regiment was required 
to hold extended from the James river, on 
the right, opposite Dutch Gap, through a 
dense i)ine wood to an open space, within 
which was the camp of the regiment. The 
line after leaving the river ran nearly straight 
to this slashing, where it made an abrupt 
bend, leaving the apex of the angle close to 
the enemy's lines. The opposing pickets had 
always been on the most friendly terms, and 
a great many deserters from the enemy came 
into our lines at this point. General Pickett, 
who was in command, determined to stop 
this wholesale desertion, and on the night of 
the i/th of November, quietly massing a body 
of picked men, suddenly burst upon the 
Union Pickets, capturing over fifty before 
they could rally, or the regiment come to their 
aid. He built a strong redoubt at this point, 
and so strengthened his lines that General 
Grant deemed it inexpedient to try to retake 
the ground. This put an end to all intercourse 
between the pickets, and hostilities were 
actively kept up, and while the regiment re- 
mained on that line the men were obliged to 
hug the breastworks or lie close to the bomb- 

'Tn the less than nine months that it was 
out, the Two Hundred and Eleventh did gal- 
lant service and lost heavily. Company B 
lost in killed besides Captain McLain, who 
had been promoted to lieutenant colonel, but 
not mustered: Killed — Sergt. Joel Brown, 
Thomas Witherow. Died of wounds and 
disease — John Bailey, Solomon F. Da\is. 
Washington A. Prindle, Israel D. Smitii. 
James W. Boyd. The latter died in the Rebel 
prison at Salisbury, N. C. 

"Lieut. Col. Charles McLain first enlisted 
in the nine months' ser\ace, becoming first 
lieutenant of Company B, One Hundred and 
Thirty-fifth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, and when their time of enlistment ex- 
])ired he again went out, as captain of Com- 
])any B (six months). Independent Battalion, 
July 23, 1S63. Again feeling that his country 
still needed his sen'ices, he went once more 
to the front as captain of Company B, Two 
Hundred and Eleventh Regiment, Penns\l- 
vania ^'olu^tcers. He served gallantly 
through all their campaigns, winning high 
encomiums from his superior officers, and 
having the love and respect of his men, to 
whom he was a kind and faithful friend, until 



in the severe fight at Fort Steadman, April 2, 
1865, he was shot in the charge of his regi- 
ment, and instantly killed. He had been pro- 
moted to lieutenant colonel of his regiment 
the day before he fell. When the news of • 
his fall reached his home in Brookville, a meet- 
ing of the citizens was held April 13th, and 
resolutions of respect and sorrow for the dead 
soldier, and condolence with his family, were 
passed, and a committee of soldiers appointed 
to take charge of his remains, and make ar- 
rangements for his funeral. On the 30th of 
April his body, which had been brought home 
by his brother, was laid to rest in the Brook- 
ville cemetery. Colonel McLain left a wife 
and three children to mourn his loss. 

"Jefiferson county men in the Two Hun- 
dred and Eleventh Regiment, P. V. : 

"Colonel, Levi A. Dodd. promoted from 
lieutenant colonel April 4. 1865; adjutant, 
Herman F. Steck, promoted from first ser- 
geant. Company B, May 11, 1S65. Company 
B — Captains, Charles AIcLain. Charles J. 
Wilson; first lieutenant, Milton H. McAninch; 
first sergeant, Thomas M. Myers ; sergeants, 
John M. Alford. Anson H. Bowdish, Thomas 
P. Craven, William Hall, Thomas P. McCrea, 
Israel D. Smith, Joel Brown ; corporals, Robert 
W. Anderson, James McMurtrie, Reuben K. 
Morey, Joseph A. Dempsey, Simon M. Denny, 
Milton Graham, Andrew Braden, Malachi 
Davis ; musician, Peter Spangler ; privates, 
Marvin Allen, James T. Alford, H. J. Baugh- 
man, Henry Bullers, Jeremiah Bowers, Fay- 
ette Bowdish, Henry J. Bruner, Calvin G. 
Burns, James W. Boyd, John Bailey, Alvin 
Clark, David W. Craft, Esekiel Dixon, Daniel 
Deeter, Charles Driscoll, Solomon F. Davis, 
Peter Emerick, Joshua F. Fisher, Russell M. 
Felt, Adam Foust, Lewis Gaup, Christ. C. 
Gearheart, David P. Gearheart,' Justice Gage, 
Mathew Gayley, Hiram Hettrick, Jacob Hart- 
man, Anthony M. Holden, Edward A. Holly, 
Joseph Ishman, Frank Kreitler. Thomas S. 
Kline, Thomas Lindemuth, J. S. Montgom- 
ery, Alexander Moore, James Mackey, Jesse 
B. Miller, Milton G. Miller, John K. McFJroy, 
William G. McMinn, Henry McGinley, James 
O'Hara, George W. Paris, Henry Peters, 
James Penfield, Washington A. Prindle, Sam- 
uel C. Richards, William J. Riddle, Frederick 
Raywinkle, Lafayette Stahlman, Solomon 
Shoffner, Fulton Shofifner, George W. Shafl^er, 
Lewis Swab, John Simmett, Warren Sibley. 
James M. Thompson, John Thomas, Madison 
A. Timblin, Frank Truman, George Walker, 
Joseph M. Wilson. William A. Watts, Jacob 
Weidner, Thomas M. Witherow." 

Companies B and C, Tzvo Hundred and Sixth 
Regiment, P. V. 

"The men for the Two Hundred and Sixth 
Regiment were principally recruited in the 
southern part of the county. The regiment 
was organized at Camp Reynolds, Pittsburgh, 
September 8, 1864, under Col. Hugh J. Brady, 
a cousin of Capt. Evans R. Brady. The field 
and line officers wtrt all veterans, and nearly 
all the men had seen service. Soon after it 
was organized the regiment was sent to City 
Point, and assigned. to the Army of the James. 
On the 4th of .October, while engaged in build- 
ing a fort near Dutch Gap, it was under the 
enemy's guns, and had one man killed and 
several wounded. For this work the regiment 
was commended in a complimentary order, by 
the commander of , the department, who 
ordered the works to be called Fort Brady. 

"On the 26th of October the regiment was 
ordered to report to General Terry, command- 
ing the Tenth Corps, and assigned to the Third 
Brigade, First Division, and soon after went 
into winter quarters near the line of works . 
north of Fort Harrison, where the men were 
well drilled and disciplined. By an order 
from the War Department of December 3d, 
the Tenth and Eighteenth Corps were con- 
solidated, and the Twenty-fourth and Twenty- 
fifth Corps formed from them. All the white 
troops were put in the Twenty-fourth. Gen- 
eral Ord was put in command of the Army 
of the James. 

"When the army moved on the 27th of 
March, 1865, the Two Hundred and Sixth 
was detached and ordered to remain in camp, 
reporting to General Devens, commanding the 
Third Division. This order was received 
with great disfavor by the regiment, and in 
response to the remonstrance against it, the 
following answer was returned from head- 
quarters : T am directed by General Foster 
to state that he regrets exceedingly that your 
command should have been ordered to remain. 
The order came from department headquar- 
ters, and the General did all in his power to 
have it revoked, but could not.' The con- 
valescents of the First Division were ordered 
to report to Colonel Brady, who was directed 
to organize and hold them in readiness to 

"On the 3d of April the troops in front of 
Richmond were ordered to advance, and it 
was soon discovered that the enemy had 
evacuated his works and fired the city, so that 
our troops marched in without opposition. 
On the 22d the regiment was relieved from 



General Dcvens's command, and ordered to 
report to Gen. F. T. Dent, military governor, 
who assigned it to provost duty in Richmond. 
A month later it returned to the brigade, of 
which Colonel Brady assumed command. The 
regiment was soon after sent to report to Gen- 
eral Gregg, at Lynchburg, who assigned it to 
provost duty in that place. It remained here 
about two weeks, and then rejoined its divi- 
sion at Richmond. On the 26th, no further 
service being required of it, it was sent to 
Pittsburgh, and the term of service having 
expired was mustered out June 2, 1865. Gen- 
eral Dandy in command of the brigade said 
of this regiment : "Under your gallant com- 
mander. Col. Hugh Brady, you were the first 
to enter Richmond, and to display in the 
capitol of traitors the Stars and Stripes of 
your country. Carry home with you, and 
bequeath it to your thildren, the red heart, 
the badge of the First Division. It is the 
symbol that will li\e when the present and 
succeeding generations have passed away.' 

"Muster roll of Company B: Captain, Wil- 
liam Neal ; first lieutenant, Henry C. Camp- 
bell ; second lieutenant, Arr. Neal ; first ser- 
geant, Benjamin W. Reitz ; sergeants, William 
A. Hadden, Thomas J. Cooper, John C. Cam- 
eron. Darius E. Blose ; corporals, Benjamin 
T. Smyers, David G. Gourly, Charles Barry, 
David Neal, Joseph W. Long, Thomas R. 
Lamison, Jacob Keihl, Mitchell ,R. Lewis; 
privates, John D. Brown, Joshua Brink, James 
^I. Bush, Lewis H. Bollinger, Abraham Bow- 
man, Boaz D., William J. Bell, Eli 
Byerlv. Peter Brunner, Philip Bush, Jacob 
Conrad, John Carr. Robert English, William 
Frampton, George Frampton, James S. Gray, 
John Cirovc, Daniel, Gearheart. Enoch G. Gray, 
Eli Homer, Michael P. Hummel, Thomas M. 
Hawk, William Huffman, William L. Henry, 
Samuel S. Jordon, George Johnson, tJeorge 
M. Jordon, IClijah Kinsell, Thomas Kerr. Levi 
Kinsell, James K. Lewis. Jacob Lingenfetter, 
Robert F. Law, William M. Michaels, Thomas 
M. Marshall, William P. Morris, John Marsh, 
Harrison .Marsh, l^i Miller, Robert W. Mc- 
Brien, John !■;. McPherson, John W. Neal, 
Samuel H. Nolf, John C. Neal, T. J. Postle- 
thwait, Samuel H. Parkhill, Michael Painter, 
David Painter, David Pierce, Isaac Postle- 
thwait, John Pierce, Dallas M. Risbell, James 
O. .S. Spencer, (iotlcib Steiver, Thomas Spen- 
cer, Joseph T. Sparr, Peter Swaney, Isaac 
Smouse, David L. Smeyers, Philip .Smeyers, 
Alfred .Shaffer, William E. Simjjson, David A. 
Thomjison. f.corge 11. Torrance, John Varner, 
Bcnoni Williams, Samuel C. Williams, Thomas 

M. Williams, Charles C. Williams, William 
Weaver, George C. Wachob, John M. White- 
sell, Jacob G. Zufall, George J. Zufall. 

"Company C: First sergeant, Charles M. 
Brewer; sergeant, William L. McQuowen; 
corporals, John McHenry, Thomas P. North; 
privates, Joseph Gary, Samuel Frampton, 
(jeorge S. Hennigh, John Hickox, Joseph 
Mauk, Joseph P. North, Michael Palmer, 
Henry C. Peffer, W. P. Postlethwait, John F. 
Pifer, David G. Pifer, Samuel Pearce, John 
Rinn, William Riddle, George W. Shorthill, 
Joseph Shields, David Stiver, Daniel Stiver, 
John F. Smith, William Sutter. 

"Company E: Sergeant, Benjamin F. 

"Company F: Private, Tobias Long. 

"Company H: Corporal, David S. Altman; 
privates, George F. Bowers, John H. Bow- 
ers, William H. Campbell, Henry Fritz, George 
S. Gailey, John H. Miller, Andrew Marsh, 
Samuel McNutt. John C. McNutt, Joseph 
McCrackcn, John .St. Clair, John Wagner, 
Jacob Wagner." 

"Quite a number of Jefferson county men 
enlisted and did gallant service in companies 
and regiments raised in other localities. The 
names and organizations of all such that we 
have been able to find we give below : 

Compan\ L, Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry 

"The Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry was 
organized at Washington, D. C, September, 
1S61, by Col. Josiah Harlan, as an Inde])end- 
ent light horse cavalry regiment, composed of 
companies from different States; but as Con- 
gress had only authorized the raising of regi- 
ments by States,, the formation of this regi- 
ment as an independent organization"^ was 
irregular, and on the 13th of November it was 
attached to the Pennsylvania .State organiza- 
tions, and was thereafter known as the 
Eleventh Pennsylvania Cavalry — the One 
Hundred and Eighth regiment in line. 

"Company L, in which were forty-seven 
men from Jeft'erson county, was raised by 
Capt. John B. Loomis, of Clarion, and was 
mustered into the service September 12, 1861. 
This regiment was one of the best cavalry 
organizations in the army, and performed gal- 
lant service. It took ])art in thirty-two battles 
and over one hundred and five skirmishes. 
Company L lost in killed and died the follow- 
ing men from Jefferson county : 

"Killed — Henry Allen. Charles Barnard 
(killed at Oil City while at home on veteran 



furlough), Amos W. Delp, Jesse Evans, Cal- 
vin Lucas, Amos Weaver, Thomas C. Nolf. 
Died — Paul Hettrick, Joseph Gates. James 
McCann died at Andersonville, Georgia. 

"A number of this company were captured 
in the fight at Reams's Station, Va.. June 29, 
1864, among whom was David S. Orcutt, of 
Corsica, and whose experience in Rebeldom 
was, we presume, not excelled for hardship by 
any other of our soldiers. After being cap- 
tured he was taken to Richmond, and there 
kept in Libby prison twenty days, and then 
sent to Andersonville, Ga., from which place 
he escaped, but was recaptured by blood- 
hounds, near j\Iacon ; from there he was taken 
to Savannah, and on his way to the latter 
place he again managed to escape, and was 
again, the next day, recaptured by blood- 
Jjounds and sent to Savannah, and from there 
to Millen. When Sherman 'came marching 
through Georgia,' the prisoners were sent 
ahead of the army to Savannah and ex- 
changed, and then sent to .Annapolis, Md., 
where Mr. Orcutt was put in the hospital, 
and from there transferred to a hospital' in 
Baltimore. From Baltimore he was taken 
to Washington, D. C, as a witness in the trial 
of Wirz, on which he was detained for six 
weeks, when he was so prostrated by illness 
that he had to be sent back to the hospital at 
Baltimore, where on the 12th of April, 1865, 
he was discharged and returned home, after 
having served in the army four years and one 
month. When he was taken prisoner he 
weighed one hundred and eighty pounds ; 
when he was released he was reduced to one 
hundred pounds, and he never recovered from 
the effects of his imprisonment. David R. 
McCuUough, who was taken prisoner at the 
same time, made his escape from Anderson- 
ville, and after traveling fourteen days and 
nights, reached our lines at Chattanooga about 
Christmas. 1864. Mr. Orcutt says, 'No one 
will ever know what we suffered at Ander- 
sonville. Only those who have been there 
can tell anything about it. All other prisons 
were parlors compared with Andersonville.' 

"The following Jefferson county men were 
in Company L: First lieutenant, Robert J. 
Robinson ; second lieutenant. Shannon Mc- 
Fadden; first sergeant, William K. Shaffer; 
sergeants, Enos G. Nolf, Christian D. Fleck, 
James Baldwin, Aaron Fulmer, William N. 
George, Thomas McDowell, Edward Meeker, 
Charles Kline, Amos Weaver; corporals, John 
H. Shaw, James M. Matthews, David B. Zila- 
fro, Paul Hettrick; farrier, Samuel Moor- 
head ; privates, Samuel Anderson, Henry Al- 

len, Charles Barnard, James Christie, William 
P. Confer, James F. Cannon, Amos W. Delp, 
Benjamin Divler, James P. DiUman, Jesse 
Evans, Frederick Fulmer, W. N. George, 
Joseph Gates, John C. Hettrick, Jacob Hecka- 
thorn, Josiah Klingensmith, Calvin Lucas, 
Moses W. Mathews, D. R. McCullough, John 
McCullough, James McCann, John R. Mc- 
Fadden, Daniel R. Noble, Thomas B. Nolf, 
David S. Orcutt, John C. Piatt, Richard Tip- 
ton, Jacob Taylor, James R. Vandevort, Amos 

"A number of recruits were put into this 
regiment in 1863-64, among whom were the 
following additional Jefferson county men : 

"Company A — Corporal James H. Moore ; 
privates, Lester S. Beebe," William Baugh- 
mon, James D. Dean. 

"Company B — Privates, George E. A. 
Clark, James E. Mitchell. 

"Company C — Privates, Liberty Beer, Sam- 
uel W. Bniner, Martin Eakman, Paul Vande- 
vort, Josiah Wyley. 

"Company G — Private, F. J. Strong. 

"Company I — Privates, John L. Knapp, 
William L.' Slack." 

Company K, Fourteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry 

"The Fourteenth Cavalry, another gallant 
body of men. was enlisted November 23, 1862, 
and mustered out August 24. 1865. The fol- 
lowing Jeft'erson county soldiers were mem- 
bers of Company K: 

"Sergeant, William R. Co\\'an ; corporal, 
Benjamin F. McCreight ; bugler, John F. Gm- 
ber ; privates, John G. Bouch, Jacob J. Boden- 
horn, Henry J. Bodenhorn, S. P. Cravener. 
The latter died in prison at Andersonville, 

Company C, Second Regiment, U. S. Sharp- 

"During the month of August, 1861, Capt. 
.S. M. Dewey, of Harrisburg, Pa., visited Jef- 
ferson county for the purpose of recruiting 
men for a company in Berdan's Sharpshooters. 
None but expert marksmen were received, 
each individual being required to 'make ten 
consecutive shots at a distance of two hun- 
dred yards, within five inches of the center 
of the target, or five inches measured from 
the center of the target to the center of ball- 
holes. Each man to certify to his "target" be- 
fore a justice of the peace.' 

"Ira J. Northrup was left in charge of re- 
cruiting for this company, and soon recruited 



a good squad of men wlio were at once sent 
to the headquarters of the regiment at Harris- 
burg, and were mustered into the service Oc- 
tober 5, iiS6i. This comi)any did gallant 
service for the Union. They were all expert 
marksmen, and were armed with the most 
approved breech-loading rifles. The history 
of lierdan's Sliarpshooters is that of the Army 
of Potomac. In the thick of every battle they 
were sure to do effective work, as their shots 
always told on the foe. 

"The following men represented Jefferson 
county in Company C, U. S. .S. : Sergeants, 
Ira J. Northrup, promoted to captain; Frank 
Runibarger, John W. Pearsall ; corporals, 
Jolm Mc.Murray, Isaac Lyle ; privates, George 
lioals, George W. Dunkle, John S. Geer, W. 
E. Jacox, Leroy C. Jacox, James (or Samuel) 
Law, Samuel Lattimer. Thomas Long, Wil- 
liam McCullough, J. Prindle, L. W. Scott, 
George H. Stewart, Wesley C. Thompson, 
James Watts. • Law died of wounds received 
at Antietam." 

Eighteenth U. S. Infantry 

"In the winter of 1861-62 quite a number of 
men were enlisted in Jeft'erson county for the 
regular army by Sergt. W. D. Madeira, of 
the Eighteenth United States Infantry. They 
were put into Company E, Third Battalion 
of that regiment, and with the men recruited 
in Clarion and Venango counties formed 
almost the • entire company. Those subse- 
quently recruited for the same service were 
put in Company F of the same battalion, until 
January, 1863, when they were all transferred 
to the Second Battalion. The Eighteenth saw 
hard service in the Army of the Cumberland, 
which it joined just after the Irattle of Fort 
Donelson, and with which it remained until 
its term of service expired, just after the bat- 
tle of Lovejoy"s .Station, Ga. The following 
men from Jefferson county served in the regi- 
ment : 

"Company 11, .Second Battalion — Sergeant, 
Herman Kretz. 

"Company E — .Sergeant. Thomas Barr ; 
cor])oral, Thomas I'aird ; jirivates, John Con- 
rad, Frank Carroll, James Cochran, John 
Dean, William Dean, Joseph Dcmpsey, Jere- 
miah i'.merick, Jonathan Harp, James Hall, 
fohn Houjit, Wilson Hutchinson, Adam Ileil- 
bruner, Jacob I leilbruner. Nelson Ishnian, 
Andrew Love, .S. R. Milliron, William Math- 
ews, Jacob Messinger, David Porter, Samuel 
Rhodes, William l^einstine, William Reams, 
.\mos Shirey, John .Strawcutter, .Samuel .Sax- 

ion, Jacob Shaft'er, Isaac Shoft'ner, Russell 

"Company F — Sergeant, William Martz; 
])rivates, William Adams, John Custard, James 
Campbell, Samuel Haines, Adam Haines, 
.\mos Starr, Samuel D. Shaft'er, Peter Wolf- 
gang, (ohn Wolfgang, Peter Wolf, Samuel 

"Of these, Andrew Love, Samuel Rhodes, 
Jacob Shaffer, Russell Vantassel were killed. 
John Custard, who was discharged in 1864, 
was lost coming home, the train being captured 
by the Rebels, and he was, it is presumed, 
killed, as he was never heard of afterwards. 

"Thomas Barr (Bairde), Jonathan Harp, 
Samuel Haines, Adam Haines, Peter Wolf- 
gang, John Wolfgang, Adam Heilbruner, 
Jacob Heilbruner, James Campbell, William 
Adams, Amos Shirey and John Strawcutt^ 
served until their term of enlistment expired, 
January 6, 1865 ; the others had been killed or 
previously discharged. Sergeant Madeira, 
who recruited them, was killed at Murfrees- 
boro, Tennessee." 

Jefferson county men in other organ- 
izations : 

"Company E, Fifth Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Reserves, First Lieut. Joseph P. Lucas. 

"Company H, Eighth Regiment, Pennsyl- 
vania Reserves, Private J. Wilson Henderson; 
transferred to Company H, One Hundred and 
Ninety-first Regiment, and promoted to 

"Company G, Ninth Regiment, Pennsyh-ania 
Reserves, Private Christian Aliller. 

"Company C, One Hundred and Twenty- 
fifth Pennsylvania Regiment, Henry B. Heck- 

"Company M, Sixth United States Cavalry. 
Robert A. Hubbard. 

"Company C, Fifteenth United States In- 
fantry, Capt. William W. Wise (killed)." 

United Stales Colored Troops 

The .\merican negroes in the country's wars 
liave been patriotic and valorous. Several won 
high official praise in the Revolution. Perry 
commended warmly those who fought with 
him the battle of Lake Erie; Andrew Jackson 
extolled the bravery of the negro troops at 
New Orleans, and during this war approxi- 
mately 180,000 members of the race were in 
the armies of the Union. 

"On account of the limited colored popula- 
tion, Jefferson county had very few repre- 
sentatives in the colored regiments, but those 
who did go out from this county did noble 



service. Several of the best officers belonging 
to the colored organizations were from this 
county. Major McMurray, who served as 
captain of Company D, Sixth Regiment, and 
as inspector on the staff of Gen. Charles J. 
Paine, commanding the Third Division of the 
Eighteenth Corps, gives the following incidents 
of his regiment to which some of the Jefferson 
county men belonged : 

■' 'On the morning of September 29, 1864, 
the day of the capture of Fort Harrison, our 
brigade was ordered to assault the enemy's 
works at Deep Bottom, near Spring Hill, about 
a mile from the Fort Harrison front. The 
assault was made shortly after sunrise, through 
a heavy slashing. When we went into the fight 
.our regiment numbered about three hundred 
and fifty; when we came out it numbered 
about one hundred and twenty-five, sixty of 
whom belonged to two companies that were 
not in the as.sault, being deployed as skir- 
mishers on the flanks of the brigade. 

" 'My company was in the center of the 
regiment as well as of the brigade, and was 
almost annihilated. When we went into the 
fight I had thirty enlisted men and one officer. 
When we came out I had myself and three 
enlisted men. Eleven of the company were 
killed, fifteen were wounded, and one was 
captured. ]My first lieutenant, who is now a 
captain in the Third Cavalry, was shot through 
the right arm. 

" T know of no loss equal to this in a square 
standup fight, in the history of the late war. 
Of the hundred men who started out in my 
company one year before, but one was left with 
me. the three who escaped being recniits.' 

"Company D, Sixth Regiment, Capt. John 
McMurray, brevetted major April 15, 1865; 
second lieutenant, Thomas P. AlcCrea. 

"Company H, Corporal Robert Webster, 
killed at New JMarket Heights, Va. ; Privates 
Peter B. Enty, Peter F. Enty, both died in 

"Seventh Regiment, Adjt. Georgp Miller. 

"Eighth Regiment, Surgeon .-\. P. Heichold ; 
Hospital Steward George W. Luke. 

"Company I, Eighth Regiment, Capt. Robert 
A. Travis. 

"First Massachusetts Colored Troops, 
Oliver Steel." 

Emergency Men of 186J-64 

"The victories gained by the Rebel troops at 
Fredericksburg, in December, 1862, followed 
by that of Chancellorsville, in May, 1863, em- 
boldened their leaders so much that they con- 

templated a raid into the Northern border 
States. As a precaution against this invasion 
the war department, June 9, 1863, issued an 
order creating two new military departments, 
that for the western district being established 
at Pittsburgh, with Maj. Gen. W. T. H. 
Brooks as commandant, and on the 13th Gov- 
ernor Curtin issued a call for volunteers to 
protect the southern borders of our State. 
This was followed on the 15th by the Rebel 
raid on Chambersburg, and there was a general 
uprising of the people in response to the call. 
On the 28th of June, General Lee having 
already crossed the Potomac with his entire 
army, (jovernor Curtin again called for sixty 
thousand men for ninety days, to repel the 
invasion, 'but to remain only so long as the 
safety of the Commonwealth should require.' 
Under this last call three companies were 
raised in Jefferson county and mustered into 
the Fifty-seventh Regiment, Emergency Vol- 
unteers, July 3-8, 1863. 

''On the organization of the regiment Col. 
James R. Porter, whose term of service with 
the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers had just expired, was 
chosen colonel. The Fifty-seventh took part 
in the chase after Morgan, and were for a 
time engaged in guarding the fords of the 
Ohio river from Steubenville to Wheeling, W. 
\'a. The Fifty-seventh, while occupying strong 
ground on the Warrenton road, undoubtedly 
foiled Morgan's attempt to cross at that point. 

"No further need arising for their services, 
the regiment was mustered out. 

"Much satire has been indulged in at the 
expense of the 'six weeks' soldiers, but their 
presence proved a powerful check to the 
enemy, and though not brought into actual 
combat, they were ready for it, and it was 
no fault of theirs that they did not meet the 
enemy. Called suddenly from the business 
walks of life, they met the emergency promptly 
and cheerfully, at the call of danger. Many 
of them were men who had already met the 
enemy ; some were at home on account of 
wounds, others who had served the term of 
their enlistment, others physically unfit for a 
long term of service, and some boys in their 
teens ; but the rolls of these companies show 
the material they were composed of. 

"The return of the Emergency men was 
saddened by the death of one of their mem- 
bers, Mr. -Samuel McElhose, who died in camp 
at East Liberty, near Pittsburgh, August 16. 
1863. Mr. McElhose was one of the most 
prominent citizens of Jefferson county, being 
at the time of his death the editor and pro- 



prietor of the Jefferson Star, which paper he 
had established in Brookville in 1849. He 
had also served as comity superintendent of 
common schools for two terms, and was a 
well-known educator. Mr. McElhose was 
strongly wedded to the cause of liberty, but 
his health being far from robust prohibited him 
from enlisting until the call came for volun- 
teers to defend our own State, when he could 
no longer remain at home; but closing his 
office he, with all his hands, enlisted, and ere 
the time of service expired he died for his 
country as much as though a Rebel ball had 
laid him low. 

"The field and staff of the Fifty-seventli 
was largely from Jefferson county, viz. : 

"Lieutenant colonel, Cyrus Butler; quarter- 
master, M. H. Shannon ; assistant stirgeon, 
John M. Cummins; chaplain, John C. Trues- 
dale; quartermaster sergeant, W. J. Mc- 
Knight ; commissary sergeant, John J. Thomp- 


The year 1863 was an historical one. The 
complete victory of Lee and disastrous defeat 
of "fighting Joe Hooker" at the battle of 
Chancellorsville, Va., on May 3d, of that year 
emboldened Jefferson Davis and the other 
Rebel leaders to plan an invasion of the North 
and, if possible, rob and loot rich Pennsylvania. 
Accordingly, as a precautionary measure and 
to prepare for such a condition, on the 9th of 
June, 1863, the war department issued a gen- 
eral order (No. 172) establishing two new 
military departments, viz. : 

1st. The Department of the Monongahela, 
embracing that portion of the State of Penn- 
sylvania west of Johnstown and the Laurel 
Hill range of mountains, and the counties of 
Hancock, Brooke and Ohio, in the State of 
tiv -Virginia, and the counties of Columbiana, Jef- 
ferson and I'elmont, in the State of Ohio. The 
command of this department was assigned to 
Maj. Gen. William T. IT. Brooks, with his 
headquarters at Pittsburgh. Five thousand, 
one hundred and sixty-six men enlisted in this 

2d, The Department of the Susquehanna, 
embracing that portion of the State of Penn- 
sylvania east of Johnstown and the Laurel 
Hill range of mountains. The command of 
this department was assigned to Maj. Gen. 
Darius N. Cotich. with his headquarters at 
Chambersburg. Tbirtv-one thousand, four 

hundred and thirty-two men enlisted in this 

Eight regiments, two batteries, six com- 
])anies of cavalry and four independent com- 
jKinies, in the two departments, were sworn 
into the United States service for the emer- 
gency. The remaining regiments were only 
.State militia. 

On the 28th of June. 1863, Governor Curtin 
issued a call for sixty thousand emergency 
men to serve for ninety days. In response to 
this call three companies were enlisted in 
Jeft'erson county. One in Brookville of about 
ninety men commanded by Cyrus Butler; one 
in Ringgold township about seventy strong, 
commanded by John C. McNutt, and one in 
Brockwavville seventv strong, commanded by 
Nichols M. Brockway. I (Dr. W. J. Mc- 
Knight ) enlisted in Brockway's company and 
this company was hauled in two wagons to 
Kittanning, Pa., each wagon drawn bv four 
horses. John A. Fox, of Warsaw, drove one 
of the teams, and W. H. Schram the other. 
From Kittanning we expected to be rushed to 
Harrisburg, join Couch and meet Lee at 
Gettysburg, but at Pittsburgh both companies 
were ordered to Camp Howe, where we 
organized a regiment, the Fifty-seventh, after 
which the regiment as organized marched 
about four miles to a beautiful grove — !\IcFar- 
land'.s — with the street cars on one side of us 
and the Pennsylvania railroad on the other. 
This spot was named Camp Swearingen, near 
East Liberty. Butler's company was Com- 
])any B. Brockway's company was Company 
Cj. and McNutt's company was Company H. 

In the organization of the regiment the fol- 
lowing Jefferson county men were selected for 
the field and staff': Lieutenant colonel, Cyrus 
Butler; quartermaster, Martin H. Shannon; 
surgeons, John H. Cummins. John W. 
Hughes ; chapl-ain, John C. Truesdale ; quarter- 
master sergeant, W. J. McKnight ; commis- 
sary sergeant, John J. Thompson. 

Brockway's company was enrolled June, 
30th, mustered into the United States service 
July 3d, and discharged August 17, 1863. I 
am the only one now living of the entire field 
and staff of the regiment. The regiment was 
assigned to General Brooks, and assisted him 
in his campaign against General Morgan. 

These L'nited States volunteers received no 
bounty, but were paid the same as other 
soldiers in the army of the United States, as 
soon as Congress made an appropriation for 
tliat jnirpose. 



War Department, June 27, 1863, I :45 p. m. 
Major General Brooks. Pittsburgh: 

Directions have been given to the quartermaster 
general to furnish, upon the requisition of the gov- 
ernor, uniforms to the State troops that may answer 
the governor's call. Those who are sworn into the 
United States service will be supplied upon your 

Edwin M. Stanton, 
Secretary of War. 

In addition to throwing up defenses for 
Pittsburgh, General Brooks determined to 
capture Morgan if he came into his depart- 
ment, and accordingly went to work to deploy 
his forces in such a way that escape for 
Morgan would be impossible, as the following 
official telegrams will explain: 

Pittsburgh. July 7. 1863. (Received 2:20 a. m.) 
Major General Halleck: 

There are six hundred and fifty six months' vol- 
unteers in camp here, all armed and equipped. Also 
two thousand six hundred three months' militia that 
can be ready to move tomorrow night. 

W. T. H. Brooks. 
Major General. 

Pittsburgh, July 8, 1863. (Received July 9, 
12:05 a. m.) 
Major General Halleck: 

The following troops will leave for Grafton to- 
morrow : Two regiments three months' militia, 
numbering one thousand three hundred ; one bat- 
talion six months' volunteers, six hundred and fifty 
strong; and one battery, fully equipped, one hundred 
strong. A regiment of three months' militia, com- 
manded by Col. Thomas F. Gallagher, objects to 
leaving the state. 

W. T. H. Brooks. 
Major General. 
(Note. — This regiment afterwards reconsidered 
their action and went along.) 

On Friday, June 24th, General Erooks 
moved his headquarters to Wellsville. Ohio, 
and ordered three Pennsylvania U. S. 
Emergency regiments to break ranks, viz., the 
Fifty-fourth, (Tol. Thomas F. Gallagher; the 
Fifty-.seventh. Col. James R. Porter; the Fifty- 
eighth. Col. George H. Bemu.s. and to proceed 
to the front. At East Liberty we were shipped 
in cattle cars down the Ohio river and were 
posted along the river to block the fords 
between -Steubenville and Wheeling. Colonel 
Porter's Fifty-seventh regiment arrived first, 
and halting at Portland Station took position 
to cover Warrenton ford. Colonel Porter 
occupying with the right wing strong ground 
on the Hill road and Major Reed occupying 
with the left wing strong ground on the \'allcy 
road. The Fifty-eighth arrived next and in 
conjunction with two sections of artillery and 
two companies of cavalry occupied La Grange. 
The Fifty-fourth came last and was ordered 

in position midway between the other two 
regiments. This line had scarcely been formed 
when Morgan sent some six or eight scouts to 
feel the way, and they met a siiuple and honest 
old farmer, about two miles above the Fifty- 
seventh's position, whom they accosted thus : 
■'Ho, old fellow, are there any troops down 
at the river? Morgan and his whole Rebel 
band are just behind us, and if there are no 
troops down at the river, he will get across." 
The old man replied to Morgan's men to give 
themselves no uneasiness, that there were 
about one thotisand Pennsylvanians down at 
the river waiting for Rebels. Early next 
morning Morgan made another attempt to 
cross our ford. On this second appearance of 
Morgan's scouts, John W. Goodar, a moun- 
taineer, fired at them contrary to orders and a 
scout was seen to fall. Goodar remarked with 
a Christian word, "I'll let them know we are 
here." Nearly every one of Brockway's men 
were mountaineers, hunters and expert rifle- 
men. After this shot these scouts wheeled and 
made a rapid retreat, met ]\Iorgan, who halted 
his forces, took off the road, and skedaddled 
in the direction of Steubenville. The Fifty- 
seventh regiment then was ordered to leave for 
another ford, some ten miles above Steuben- 
ville. The Rebels came within two miles of 
the Fifty-seventh at this point, and if they had 
come there on Saturday night. Colonel Porter 
would have captured the whole force, but 
sympathizers gave information to Morgan of 
the condition of afTairs in that quarter. When 
the Fifty-seventh left the point above Wheel- 
ing they had no stockcars on which to ship 
horses, so the horses were sent up to Steuben- 
ville on board a boat. 

Wlien ^Morgan left this point he steered his 
course to the left of Steubenville, towards 
Salineville, on the Cleveland & Pittsburgh rail- 
road, where the United States cavalry over- 
took him a few miles north of Steubenville on 
Saturday night, and had a skirmish, putting 
his forces to flight. At this point (General 
Brooks ordered Colonel Gallagher's regiment 
to go by the cars to Salineville and intercept 
Morgan at that place, and the Fifty-seventh to 
Island Creek. 

As soon as Gallagher arrived at Salineville 
he placed his men in a position to receive the 
enemy. .A.bout sunrise Morgan's skirmishers 
made their appearance near the town, but when 
his scouts discovered our forces Morgan, who 
was then about a mile out of .Salineville, halted 
for an hour, when Colonel .Shackelford, com- 
manding the Tenth Kentucky cavalry, came 
upon his rear, making a charge upon his force, 



killin<,r and w oiinding- about thirty of their 

Morgan was now detained some time in 
crossing a neck of woods, and had to throw 
down four fences to get into another road, 
when Major Way's Michigan cavalry charged 
the Rebels on their flank, cutting off about 
three hundred in killed, wounded and prison- 
ers. Those who were thus cut off jumped 
from their horses, threw down their guns and 
took to a piece of woods about forty rods dis- 
tant, where they surrendered in squads. At 
this point John Morgan was riding in a buggy 
when the Rebels crossed the last fence, and 
when Morgan drove up to the fence it was 
only partly thrown down, so that he could 
not drive over with his buggy. Morgan 
jumped out of the buggy and caught a strag- 
gling horse on which he made his escape. The 
U. S. cavalry pressed the balance of Morgan's 
force and overtook them near New Lisbon. 
New Lisbon was the former home of that 
Knight of the Golden Circle, Clement L. Val- 
landigham, who was arrested, tried by court 
martial, and ordered May 24, 1863, by Lincoln, 
to be banished across the Confederate lines. 
At New Lisbon these Rebels were met in 
front by a comi)any of Ohio militia cavalry 
sent by Brooks to head them. When Mor- 
gan saw the Ohio militia, commanded by 
Captain Burbick, in front of him and the 
L^nited States cavalry coming close upon his 
rear, he surrendered without a fight, and thus 
ended the famous John Hunt Morgan raid. 

The four hundred and forty prisoners were 
placed in charge of Col. George H. Bemus, of 
the Fifty-eighth Regiment, and were marched 
by him to Salineville station, where they and 
their captors entrained for Steubenville, the 
prisoners in coaches, and our men on flatcars. 
Arriving at Steubenville the raiders were 
marched up Adams and Market streets to the 
.Steubenville &- Indiana railroad. 

By the grand maneuvering of General 
Brooks, Morg.'in was caught on the third day 
after Brooks took llie matter in hand. Our 
three months' boys played a very important 
part in helping to catch the old guerrilla. If 
our regiments had not been on the ground the 
Rebels surely would have crossed the Ohio 
river and made their escape, or burned and 
destroyed Pittsburgh and other places. 

The Kentucky and Michigan cavalrv 
deserve a great deal of credit for their vigi- 
lance in following these three thousand guer- 
rillas. They pursued them for twenty-seven 
days, riding day and night, sleeping very little 
during that time. The Rebels had the ad- 

vantage, for they stole fresh horses every day, 
<Jur cavalry would overtake them about once 
every twenty-four hours. When captured the 
poor Rebels were nearly e.xhausted. Some of 
them would fall asleep standing on their feet. 
On being asked why they did not cross the 
river, they answered : "If it had not been for 

the d d Pennsylvanians' Fifty-seventh 

Regiment we would have got over all right." 

On our return on flatcars all through Ohio 
we received a continued ovation. At Steuben- 
ville great crowds greeted us, and fifteen hun- 
dred girls were formed in line all dressed in 
white, with blue ribbons around their waists, 
waving their handkerchiefs and hailing us as 
their deliverers. 

The Fifty-seventh Regiment reached Pitts- 
burgh the 26th, about ten o'clock at night. We 
enjoyed a good supper prepared for us by the 
citizens of Pittsburgh, after which we marched 
out to Camp Swearingen without the loss of 
a man. Several were hurt. I only remember 
two, M. H. Shannon and L. A. Brady. I can 
but commend the kind reception the citizens of 
Ohio gave us, especially the ladies. We took 
but one day's rations with us, and on the 
evening of the first day things looked a little 
sexually ; but the next morning the country 
people came pouring in with wagonloads of 
provisions, the best the land afforded, and 
when we came to Steubenville the ladies came 
pouring out in force, and with their good 
eatables, their smiles, and the waving of their 
handkerchiefs, came near captivating our 
whole regiment. 

General Orders No. 4, 
Hdqrs. Dep't. of the Monongahela, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., August 3, 1863. 
r. The prompt manner in which the officers and 
men of Colonels Gallagher's, Porter's and Bemus' 
regiments responded to the order which carried 
them to Ohio, for the purpose of aiding in the cap- 
ture of Morgan and his band, is worthy of high 
praise. Their good conduct throughout that excit- 
ing campaign was tlie subject of general remark. 

T. B. .Swr.\RINCEN, 

.Issislant Adjutant General. 

War of the KebelHon. Official Records. Series 
I, Volume 27, Part 3. 

These two new departments in 1863 saved the 
nation. Pennsylvania soldiers opened the fight at 
Gettysburg, won the day and cleared the field. Penn- 
sylvania soldiers of western Pennsylvania captured, 
guarded and escorted John H. Morgan, the guerrilla, 
to General Brooks' headquarters at Wellsville. All 
I can say to this is, "Great the state and great her 

The official telegram from the field announc- 
ing a com|)lete victory and capture is given 
below : 



Headquarters in the field, three miles south 
of New Lisbon, Ohio, July 26, 1863. 
To Col. Lewis Richmond, A. A. G. : 

By the blessing of Almighty God I have succeeded 
in capturing Gen. John H. Morgan, Colonel Duke 
and the remainder of the command, amounting to 
about four hundred prisoners. I will start with 
Morgan and staff on the first train for Cincinnati, 
and await the general's order for transportation 
for the remainder. 

J. M. Shackelford, 
Col. Conijnaiiding. 

Most of the prisoners were Kentucky men. 
The privates were taken north to Johnson's 
Island in Lake Erie. There were sixty-five 
sent by Brooks from Wellsville to the Cokmi- 
bus penitentiary with Morgan. Six of them 
are now hving, viz. : Col. Richard C. Morgan ; 
Colonel Coleman; Col. Basil W. Duke, of 
Louisville, Ky. ; General Morgan's brother-in- 
law and right-hand man, Gov. J. B. McCreary, 
of Kentucky ; a man named Hockersmith, in 
Madisonville, Ky., and Capt. Andy Barry, of 

The four hundred and forty raiders when 
captured had four hundred and forsy of ihe 
best horses that could be procured on their 
line of march through the States of Indiana 
and Ohio, and as they had sacked many stores 
and lived off the inhabitants along their route 
had a supply of clothing and dry goods and 
many other articles, such as ladies' wearing 
apparel, shawls, hats, watches, jewelry, sad- 
dles, canteens of liquor and boxes of cigars, 
the plunder from Ohio and Indiana stores. 
They were armed with four hundred and 
forty-one rifles, and after their surrender our 
troops were ordered to unload their arms, 
which was done and the rifles stacked. 

The officers were "stout, athletic men from 
twenty-five to forty years of age," but the 
privates were young men, many of them boys, 
and but few wore uniforms. The privates 
were dressed in all sorts of costumes, the but- 
ternut and Kentucky jeans being prominent. 
Some had straw hats, some wool hats, and but 
few had decent clothing of any kind. They 
were as motley and dirty looking a set of men 
as one ever saw. They were of all ages, from 
the beardless boy of sixteen to the gray-haired 
tnan of threescore and ten. There were- a 
number of Texans among them, wild, woolly 
and uncouth-looking men. General Morgan 
was dressed in blue jean pants and a new linen 
blouse. He was apparently "over six feet in 
height, weighing perhaps two hundred pounds, 
with erect form, florid complexion, light hair, 

goatee and mustache closely trimmed." He 

had pleasant blue eyes, full and sharp, and his 
gait was swaggering. 

General Morgan was badly disappointed that 
his raid was such a complete failure. He fully 
expected to be able to recruit an army from 
members of the Knights of the Golden Circle, 
Copperheads and Democrats of the North, 
and recross the Ohio river into Kentucky. 

John Hunt Morgan was born in Alabama 
in 1825, and in 1830 removed to Lexington, 
Ky. In 1861 he joined the Confederate camp, 
near Green river, and although a commissioned 
officer carried on largely an independent cam- 
paign in Kentucky and eastern Tennessee. In 
1863 he started on his raid through Indiana 
and Ohio for Pennsylvania, crossing the Ohio 
river at Brandenburg with about three thou- 
sand. He was followed by Gen. James M. 
Shackelford with a force of U. S. mounted 
infantry, cavalry and artillery, but being 
practically unopposed in front Morgan 
managed to give his pursuers a long chase. 
The invaders entered Ohio at Harrison on July 
13th, and following an eastwardly course at- 
tempted to cross the river at Portland, near 
Buffington Island, but were overtaken and lost 
about fifteen hundred men in killed, wounded 
and prisoners. Morgan, with the remainder 
of his forces, escaped through Athens, Mor- 
gan, Muskingum, Guernsey and Harrison 
counties, Ohio, entering Mt. Pleasant town- 
ship, Jefferson Co., Ohio, Saturday morning, 
July 25th. He followed the road down Long 
run to Short creek; thence to the present vil- 
lage of Dillonvale and up Dry Fork road to 
Smithfield ; thence to New Alexandria and 
down Mclntire to Cross Creek; thence via 
Ekey's and Dry Fork to Wintersville; thence 
through Richmond and East Springfield, 
northwardly to Monroeville, where there was 
a skirmish on Sunday morning, the 26th of 
July. Morgan was now cornered and sur- 
rendered with the remnant of his forces near 
Salineville about one p. m. This was the , 
farthest point north reached by an invading' 
force during the Civil war. At all prominent 
points along this route monuments have been 
erected with suitable inscriptions — fourteen 
monuments in all. Morgan and sixty-five of 
his men were imprisoned in the Ohio peniten- 
tiary in retaliation for similar treatment of 
some Union raiders, from which penitentiary 
he and six others escaped on November 26, 
1863. He resumed operations in the South, 
and was shot at Greeneville, Tenn., on Sep- 
tember 3, 1864. 

The roster of the Jefferson county com- 
panies in the Fifty-seventh Regiment follows: 



Company B, Fifty-sez'enth Regiment 

"Captains, Cyrus Butler (promoted), Alex- 
ander L. Gordon ; first lieutenant, William 
Dickey ; second lieutenant, John A. McLain ; 
first sergeant, Daniel F'ogle; sergeants, AVil- 
marth Matson. William C. Smith, William 
Kelso, Robert Cathcart ; corporals, Samuel J. 
Ream, Joseph M. Calbraith, Samuel A. 
Munter, John Alexander. Jared Jones, Clar- 
ence 1\. Hall. John McCullough, James L. 
Brown ; musicians, Warren P. Bowdish, Sam- 
uel Mcl'-lhose ; privates, Charles S. Andrews, 
John S. liarr, Hugh Brady, Benjamin Boyer, 
Ellas Boyer, Henry Bullers, William Bailey, 
Philip Carrier, Isaiah Corbet, Daniel V. 
Clements. Lanford Carrier, Solomon Davis, 
Oliver Darr, Morgan English, George W. 
Farr, John 11. Fike, George G. Fryer, Edwin 
Forsyth, I.eander W. Graham, Henry D. 
Guthrie, [acob Cicist, Airwine Hubbard, Elias 
J. Hettrick, l-:iijah C. Hall, Darius Hettrick, 
Henry Hettrick, John Hartman. Eli Hettrick. 
Thaddeus S. Hall, John W. Hawthorne, Wil- 
liam Hall, Daniel Horam, William Ishman, 
Moses Ishman, Edward G. Kirkman, Alexan- 
der Kennedy, James Lockwood, Logan Linsen- 
bigler, luioch J. Loux. William Love, Magee 
A. Larrinicr, Jeremiah Mowry, George 
Mowry, John Moore, James W. Murphy, John 
H. Mc'Elroy. A. H. McKillip, J. R. McFadden, 
Christy Mc(iiffin, John McMurray, William 
O'Connor, Monroe Prindle, Benjamin Reitz, 
Calvin W. Ray, David J. Reigle, Robert Reed, 
Harris Ransom, Joseph T. Space, Calvin 
Simpson, Thomas Stewart. Peter Spangler, 
Michael Strawcutter. Charles Shindledecker, 
Newton Taylor, John Truby, Barclay D. Vas- 
binder, Hezekiah Vasbinder, Russell Van 
Tassell, Barton 15. Welden, Ira Welch, John 
C. Wilson, Jackson Welch, \A'illiam A. 

Company G. Fifty-sc7'cuth Rcr/imcnt 

"Captain, Nicholas Brockway ; first lieu- 
tenant. John C. Johnson ; second lieutenant, 
Ezekicl Stcrrett ; first sergeant, M. R. Bell; 
sergeants, Frederick Harvey, Joel Brown. 
Perry C. Fox, Mulkins; corporals. 
James Dennison, John H. Robinson, Samuel 
Daveni>ort, Richard Humphrey, John R. 
Wilkins, John Adams ; j)rivates, Jesse N. At- 
well, Joseph Briggs, Charles Baker, Dennis 
Butts, John Bryant, William Brittain, David 
Bovaird, James Calhoun, James Coder. Wil- 
liam Clinton, .Andrew Calhoun, John Caldwell. 
.Stewart Crawford, John M. Dailey, William 

Frost, Stephen Fox, Justice Gage, John 
(]oodar, Thomas Groves, Franklin Goodar, 
Sanniel Holt. Washington Henderson, Jacob 
Hartman, William Irwin, John Irvin, James 
Jackson, Cyrus Kilgore. Robert Kearney, John 
Kearney, James Kearney, Franklin Lyman, C. 
Logue, Livingston Lockwood, D. W. Linsen- 
bigler, Frank Lindemuth, Wesley Mulkins, 
William Mather, William McMinn, William B. 
McCullough. }ames McConnell, William Mc- 
Cofmell. Scott McClelland, Adam Nulf, Wil- 
liam Nulf. Stewart Porter, V. L. Parsons, 
Coleman Parris, James Pearsall, James Pat- 
terson, Lewis Riley, James M. Smith, James 
Smith, John Sylvis, Hamilton Smith, James 
.Stevenson, Levi Vandevort. Frederick Walker, 
James Welch, William H. Wilson. 

Company H , Fifty-seventh Regiment 

"Cajjtain. John C. McNutt : first lieutenant, 
James E. Long; second lieutenant, J. N. Gar- 
rison; first sergeant. Henry Keihl; sergeants, 
David Milliron, Peter Fike, George Richards, 
Daniel Hoy; corporals, John W. Alcorn, 
Joseph Heasley, John J. Fishell, E. H. Clark, 
Joseph Glontz, Alvin Startzell, Jacob Smith, 
Hiram McAninch ; musicians, Samuel Gear- 
heart, Amos Lerch ; privates, William W. 
Alcorn, James G. Averell, S. R. Anderson, 
Lewis A. Brady, Amos Cailor, Andrew H. 
Diven, Frank Doubles, John B. Farr, Philip 
H. Freas, Robert Geist, James Geist, William 
J. Geist, Thomas M. Gibson. Edward Hender- 
son, George B. Haine, William Jenkins, C. N. 
Jackson, Thomas Jones, Israel Johnson, Elijah 
Keller. John Lash, James Lang, William R. 
Loder, Cieorge Mauk, John Matson, Eli Miller. 
Isaac Mauk, Alexander Mauk, Jacob Mauk; 
John J. Montgomery, Gilmore S. Montgomery, 
Williani Milliron, John McFarland. Joseph 
Neal, John G. Porterfield, Amos Raybuck, 
John Ross, George J. Reitz, F. S. Sprankle (of 
Frostburg). Henry Shilling, Manoah .Smith 
(of (irange), William R. Shafifer, Henry 
Snyder, William Swab, .Abraham Thomas, 
Williani Wonderling, William J. Wilson, 
James W;ilnuT. 

Companies B and C, Seeond Battalion, 
Six Months' Volunteers 

"In response to the call for six months' 
volunteers for border defense, issued by 
President Lincoln and Governor Curtin in 
July, 1863, two companies responded from 
Jefi'erson county, and were mustered into the 
Second Independent Battalion July 2t„ 1863, 



and discharged January 21, 1864. They went 
first into camp at Cumberland, Md., and 
though not actively engaged did good service 
in guard and picket duty. Lieut. Herman 
Kretz, who went out with Company B, was, on 
the organization of the battalion, promoted to 

"Company B — Captain, Charles ^IcLain; 
first lieutenant, Thomas P. McCrea ; second 
lieutenant, Samuel P. Huston, first ser|;eant, 
David Baldwin ; sergeants, Frank H. Steck, 
James E. Mitchell, George Stack, Solomon 
Kelso; corporals, Henry C. Keys, Charles 
Lyle, Edward Guthrie, Edgar Rodgers, Ado- 
niram J. Smith, Charles Butler, George New- 
com, McCurdy Hunter; musicians, Archibald 
O. McWilliams, W. S. Lucas ; privates, Benton 
Arthurs, James T. Alford, J. G. .Mien, Thomas 
B. Adams, Joseph Bowdish, William Baugh- 
man, Benjamin Bickle, Webster Butler, Ham- 
ilton Beatty, Robert Beatty, Washington K. 
Christy, Simon Denny, Marcellus G. DeVal- 
lance, William F. Ewing, Samuel Frank, Bar- 
ton Guthrie, William Gilbert, Robert S. Gilli- 
land, Wilson Gilliland, William Gordon, John 
|. Guthrie, Norman B. Galbraith. Jacob Het- 
"trick, James Hays. Edward Holly, David A. 
Henderson, John H. Huston. Eli J. Irvin, 
George Irvin, Lawson Knapp, John L. Knapp, 
Robert Kelly, Thomas F. Keys, John T. Kelso, 
William Love, John L. Lucas, Edward Linde- 
muth, Constantine Levis, Philip Levy, William 
Miller, David F. Matter, Alexander Moore, 
Robert H. Mcintosh, George McDole. John .S. 
McGiffin, Robert M. McElroy, Arad Pearsall, 
John B. Patrick, John S. Richards, John C. 
Rhea, Reuben \[. Shick, Amos Shirev, Alfred 
Slack, Robert A. Smith, William C. Smith, 
John Showalter, Lewis Stine, Henry Startzell, 
Frederick Steck, John Shields, David .Simpson, 
James M. Simpson, Frank Truman, \\'illiam 
L. Thompson. Joseph Thompson, Paul \'ande- 
\ort, John C. \'andevort, Josiah Wiley. 

"Company C — Captain, William Neel ; first 
lieutenant, Thomas K. Hastings ; second 
lieutenant, William C. Brown ; first sergeant, 
James L. Crawford ; sergeants. John M. 
Brewer, William W. Crissman. Thomas J. 
Cooper, Henry C. Campbell ; corporals, 
Thomas .S. Neel. David A. Buchanan, Daniel 
M. Swisher, Joseph M. Kerr, Robert T. 
Philliber, John B. Bair. John St. Clair, 
Charles S. Bender; musicians. William J. 
Drum, Clark D. Allison ; privates, Robert B. 
Adams, Charles S. Brown, George R. Brady, 
David Black. John Bush, George W. Barto, 
George A. Blose, Lorenzo D. Bair, William 
Boyd, David R. Bender, Darius E. Blose, 

Finly Cameron, Joseph C. Curry, John 
Chambers. John B. Croasman, Michael L. 
Coon, W. ll. Chamberlain, Daniel M. Cook, 
James N. Chambers, George W. Davis, Wil- 
liam C. Downy, David S. Downy, Abijah 
Davis, Hiram Depp, Thomas D. Frampton, 
John Fierman, Benjamin F. Frampton, George 
H. Grove, David G. Gourly, James Garrabrant, 
James B. Hinds, John C. Hadden, George 
Hannah, Henry Hilliard, William A. Johnston, 
Mitchell R. Lewis, John J. Lewis, Thomas R. 
Lamison, Charles Ledos, Robert Means, 
Henry M. Means, Elias Meeley, George Moot, 
Israel W. Marsh (died at camp near Cumber- 
land, Md., September 30, 1863), Robert Mc- 
Brier, James R. McOuown, William T. Neal, 
Aaron Neal, John W. Neal, Thomas J. Postle- 
thwait. \\'atson B. Ross. Casper Reader, 
Irwin Robinson. William H. Redding. Samuel 
Shaffer. John Shorthill, John Summerville, 
Garret Standish, Samuel Stevenson, James G. 
Sample, George W. Taylor. James Urey, 
James H. Weaver, Silas W. Work, John H. 
Work, David R. Whitesell, Thomas M. Wil- 
liams, Adam Yohe. George W. Yount." 

Emergency Men of 1864 

"In July, 1864, Governor Curtin again called 
out the militia, to repel the contemplated raid 
of Early into Pennsylvania, and in response to 
this call a company for one hundred days was 
raised in Jefferson county, by Capt. Charles 
Stewart, which left Brookville July 10, 1864. 
This company was principally recruited in 
Corsica and Reynoldsville. Captain Stewart 
on the organization of the regiment, which was 
an independent organization, having no num- 
ber, was chosen lieutenant colonel. Their 
services not beifig needed on the border. Colo- 
nel Stewart was ordered to Bloomsburg, Pa., 
to quell disturbances there. The company was 
discharged November 10, 1864. 

"Company F — Captains, Charles Stewart, 
promoted; Joseph R. Weaver; first lieutenant, 
John A. Rishel ; second lieutenant, W. A. 
Burkett ; first sergeant, Gilbert P. Rea ; 
sergeants, Augustus H. Derby, Arad A. Pear- 
sall, George W. Chamberlain, William K. Mc- 
Clelland; corporals, Gordon R. Clark, James 
D. McKillip, L. N. Townsend, John McGeary, 
John M. Gamble, James W. Murphy, James 
Goe; musicians, William Dougherty, John H. 
Corbet; privates, Benjamin F. Bickle, Jacob 
Bash, Samuel G. Boyer, Jacob Boyer, Jona- 
than W. Clark, Alexander Campbell, John 
Cochran, William G. Cummins, John C. Cal- 
houn, George W. Couch, John Covert, Myers 



Delorm, Martin L. Devallance. George Evans, 
Lewis Evans, Benjamin F. Earheart, James T. 
Fox, Hiram A. Frost, Richard Fitzsimmons, 
'lliomas Fitzsimmons, James Green, Thomas 
B. Galbraith, William Guthrie, John Hastings, 
Robert Harriger, Andrew Haugh, Harvey D. 
Haiigh, Jackson A. Horrell, John A. Hoff- 
man, \\'illiam B. Hughes, Samuel E. Harris, 
Michael Henscll, John Hall, Robert J. Irwin, 
Nathaniel Imen, Alfred Johnson, Alexander 
Kennedy, David S. Kelly, W. W. Kelly, 
Robert Kelly, John T. Kelly, John Kelsp, 
Thomas M. Kier, William C. Kime, David 
Long, David L. Lambing, Samuel London, 
Benjamin Love, Henry Leech, James K. 
Moore, Orville T. Minor, Campbell Morrison, 
William M. Michael, Albert McHenry, Chris- 
topher B. McGiffin, John S. McCauley, Harvey 
H. Pearsall, Richard W. Porter, Henry 
Rhodes, Lyman A. Rich. Taylor D. Rhines, 
Samuel Shoffner, Asa W. Scott, Porter J. 
Stitzell, John C. Wilson, Thomas R. Weaver." 


The first draft was in pursuance of the order 
of President Lincoln of August 4, 1862, call- 
ing for three hundred thousand men. The 
enrollment for this draft was by States, and 
on August 4, 1862, commissioners were ap- 
pointed by Governor Curtin in each covin