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JERUSALEM 

1920— 1922 



All Richts Reserved 




Masons at work on the East Tower of the Citadel. 



No. 22. 



^r>»'o<oi^ 



JERUSALEM 

1920— 1922 

Being the Records of the Pro-Jerusalem 

Council during the First Two Years of 

the Civil Administration 



EDITED FOR THE COUNCIL OF THE PRO-JERUSALEM SOCIETY 
BY C. R. ASHBEE, M.A. 

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS 
SOMETIME CIVIC ADVISER TO THE CITY OF JERUSALEM 



WITH A PREFACE 
BY SIR RONALD STORRS 

GOVERNOR OF JERUSALEM 
PRESIDENT OF THE PRO-JERUSALEM SOCIETY 




LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

Published for 

THE COUNCIL OF THE PRO-JERUSALEM SOCIETY 

1924 



Printed in Great Britain by 
Hazell, Wal$on~_& Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury. 



PREFACE 

ALTHOUGH the Second Volume of the Records of the Pro- 
Jerusalem Society does not strictly include more than the 
years 1920-22, 1 propose in this Preface to offer for the informa- 
tion of members and of the public a very brief review of its activities 
up to the date of writing. 

As stated in the Preface to the First Volume, " there were, and 
always will remain, many aspects of civic life, more especially in this 
unique city, in which no Military Administration, no Civil Govern- 
ment even, could, without thwarting civic and individual effort, 
occupy itself, however sympathetically inclined." 

" The objects of the Society, as defined in the Charter, are the 
preservation and advancement of the interests of Jerusalem, its district 
and inhabitants, more especially : 

" i. The protection of and the addition to the amenities of 
Jerusalem and its District. 

" 2. The provision and maintenance of parks, gardens, and open 
spaces in Jerusalem and its District. 

" 3. The establishment in the District of Jerusalem of Museums, 
Libraries, Art Galleries, Exhibitions, Musical and Dramatic 
Centres, or other institutions of a similar nature for the 
benefit of the public. 

" 4. The protection and preservation, with the consent of the 
Government, of the Antiquities in the District of Jerusalem. 

" 5. The encouragement in the District of Jerusalem of arts, 
handicrafts, and industries in consonance with the general 
objects of the Society. 

" 6. The administration of any immovable property in the District 
of Jerusalem which is acquired by the Society or entrusted 
to it by any person or corporation with a view to securing 
the improvement of the property and the welfare of its 
tenants or occupants. 

" 7. To co-operate with the Departments of Education, Agricul- 
ture, Public Health, Public Works, so far as may be in 
harmony with the general objects of the Society." 



PREFACE 

It being clearly impossible for a Governor, military or civil, to 
superintend, still less to carry out in detail the execution of this highly 
technical programme, I requested Mr. C. R. Ashbee, then in Cairo, 
to visit Jerusalem and to report upon its possibilities in this respect. 
After perusal of his interesting and highly suggestive report, I offered 
to him, and he accepted, the post of Civic Adviser, which included 
that of Secretary to the Society. Mr. Ashbee began work at once, 
and for nearly four years rendered loyal and excellent service to Pro- 
Jerusalem. The weaving and tile-making industries were established, 
and the Rampart Walk round the walls was cleared and restored. 

Mr. Ashbee retired in 1922, and was succeeded by Mr. A. C. 
Holliday, the present Civic Adviser. Since that date several works 
and projects of works have to be reported. Special efforts have been 
made to improve the condition of the Citadel. Many minor repairs 
have been executed on the crenellated and parapet walls, and repairs 
to the South Tower are actually in progress. Designs have been 
prepared for a stone bridge at the entrance of the Citadel. The 
Turkish barrack buildings within the courtyard are in process of 
removal, and over 6,000 cubic metres of buildings and stone have 
already been dug up and carted away. 

The clock tower erected by the loyal burgesses of Jerusalem, in 
a style midway between that of the Eddystone lighthouse and a jubilee 
memorial to commemorate the thirty-third year of the auspicious 
reign of the late Sultan Abdul Hamid, has been bodily removed from 
the north side of the Jaffa Gate, which it too long disfigured, and is 
being set up again in fulfilment of a promise (less aggressively and 
shorn of its more offensive trimmings) in the central and suitable 
neighbourhood of the Post Office Square. 

Stricter measures are being enforced for the preservation of the 
traditional building style of Jerusalem, offensive and unsuitable 
materials are being prohibited or removed, and an effective control 
of new buildings and town planning sections has been instituted. 
The size of shop signs, which had become of recent years a serious 
disfigurement to the city, has been regulated by Municipal By-laws, 
under which also the posting of bills, placards, and advertisements is 
restricted to moderate-sized notice-boards displayed in specially chosen 
localities. The majority of the streets have been named by a special 
committee representative of the three great religions, and the names 
vi 



PREFACE 

blazoned in the three official languages in coloured and glazed Dome 
of the Rock tiles. For the first time in the history of the city the 
houses of Jerusalem are being numbered. A map is being published 
to a scale of i : 5,000 in English, Arabic, and Hebrew, giving contours 
and street names. A civic survey and a comprehensive town plan 
are in course of preparation. 

The Society is taking a prominent part in the Palestine Pavilion 
of the British Empire Exhibition. The celebrated models of the 
Temples will be exhibited, and the Dome of the Rock and other 
pottery, with the Hebron glass products, will be sold in the Pavilion. 
All profits, after reimbursement of the heavy initial expenditure, will 
be devoted to the work of the Society in Jerusalem. 

Early last year I travelled to the United States with the object 
of enlisting the interest, sympathy, and assistance of that generous 
nation. I have to record with gratitude the chivalrous reception 
accorded to my remote and unusual quest, in so much that a sojourn 
forcibly limited to twenty days resulted in subscriptions and donations 
amounting to several thousand pounds. 

The monthly expenditure of the Society is about £E.2oo (exclusive 
of the exceptional British Empire Exhibition expenses). As the 
Government grant of £E. 1,000 will probably have to be withdrawn, 
new members and donations are urgently needed. 

The following special projects are in contemplation, and are 
detailed in the hope of striking the imagination of friends, as yet 
unknown, who may perhaps desire to associate their names with some 
specific achievement of permanent benefit to the Holy City : 

Seats in Palestine marble or other good stone for the 
Society's parks and gardens. The donor's name 
will be carved upon the seat from >£E.2o 

Seats in wood or iron at convenient points in the 
Rampart Walk or in the gardens. The donor's 
name will be cut or painted on the seat ... from ^E.2-5 

Repairs to the walls of Jerusalem, to be done in 

sections ... ... £E.iooo 

Upkeep of the School of Ceramics ^E.500 

Repairs to Citadel (site of Palace of Herod the Great) 

in sections in its different towers, and excavations... £E.2ooo 

■ • 

Vll 



PREFACE 

For the establishment of a Museum to house the 

Society's collection yfE.500 

For repairs to the seven gates of Jerusalem, each about £^-S° 

Minor repairs to the historic bazaars from >C^' 10 

Gifts of historical subjects (Palestine history) for the 

Society's Museum. 
Gifts of examples of arts and crafts, especially examples 

of Oriental weaving and embroidery for the School 

of Textiles. 

I would like to take this opportunity of thanking the High Com- 
missioner for his never-failing interest and support, and the departing 
Assistant Governor, Mr. H. C. Luke, whose activities and vigilance 
recently evoked from the Council a unanimous resolution appointing 
him to life-long membership ; further, the past and present Civic 
Advisers for their loyal collaboration. I would also place on record 
the debt of gratitude which Jerusalem owes to the members of the 
Council, the Mayor, the Director of Antiquities, the Mufti, the 
Orthodox, the Latin and the Armenian Patriarchs, the Anglican 
Bishop, the President of the Jewish Community, and the other dis- 
tinguished Moslems, Christians, and Jews, all of them busy men with 
urgent and important duties of their own, who, nevertheless, have not 
spared themselves nor their time in keeping this constructive and 
unifying fellowship so far as possible abreast with the needs of the 
time, and in holding it above and out of the dust and clamour of 
political and other controversy. 

Of our benefactors many, who live in remote continents, may 
never witness the results of their generosity ; of whom we can but say 
that, while some little of their achievement will be presented to their 
vision by picture and by plan, their true satisfaction will rest rather 
in the sure and certain knowledge that, through their loving carefulness, 
Jerusalem will have been preserved nearer to the city of their faith and 
of their dreams. 

Ronald Storrs, 
President of the Pro-Jerusalem Society. 
April, 1924. 



• • • 

Vlll 



CONTENTS 



FAOE 



Preface. By Sir Ronald Storrs, C.M.G., C.B.E., Governor of Jerusalem v 

List of Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 

Council of the Pro-Jerusalem Society xv 

Review of the Various Works undertaken by the Society durinc 1920-22. 
By C. R. Ashbee, M.A., F.R.I.B.A., sometime Civic Adviser to the City of 
Jerusalem 

1. Introductory . . . . I 

2. The Work of Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 

3. The New Town Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 

4. The Park and Garden System 20 

5. Markets and Khans .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21 

6. The Naming of the Streets . . . . . . 26 

7. New Industries and Educational Work 29 

8. Finance .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 31 

L'Etat de la Cite de Jerusalem au XII" Siecle. Par F. M. Abel, O.P., Pro- 

fesseur & l'Ecole Biblique et Archeologique de Saint-Etienne, Jerusalem . . 33 

Extracts from the Diary of a Franciscan Pilgrim of the Sixteenth 
Century. Contributed by H. C. Luke, B.Litt., M.A., Assistant Governor 

of Jerusalem .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 41 

The Christian Communities in the Holy Sepulchre. By H. C. Luke . . 46 

A Brief Account of the Painted Tile Work in the Armenian Cathedral 

of St. James. By George Antonius, M.A., and Ch. A. Nomico . . . . 57 

A Brief Description of the Work done by the Local Craftsmen at Govern- 
ment House, Jerusalem. By C. R. Ashbee . . . . . . . . . . 60 

An Account of the New Jewish Garden Cities, etc., and the Modifications 

they entail in the Town Plan. By C. R. Ashbee . . . . . . 64 

A Bibliography of Moslem Architecture in Palestine. By K. A. C. 

Creswell, M.B.E., late Inspector of Monuments, G.S., O.E.T.A 69 

Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 

Index 105 

B ix 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



i. Key Plan of the Citadel. 

2. Citadel Drawbridge before repair. 

3. Drawbridge Tower. 

4. Cupola during reconstruction. 

5. Cupola seen from below. 

6. The Hippicus Tower. Block Plan. 

7. „ „ „ The Window, after Enlargement. 

8. „ „ „ The same seen Sectionally. 

9. „ „ „ Section A.B. 

10. „ „ „ Section CD. 

11. „ „ „ Lower, or Street Level Plan. 

12. „ „ „ Upper Floor Plan. 

13. „ „ „ North Elevation. 

14. „ „ „ West Elevation. 

15. „ „ „ South Elevation. 

16. Tower by the Minaret. 

17. Tower by the Minaret, showing the Crack. 

18. Citadel South Tower. South Facade. 

19. „ „ „ West Facade. 

20. Citadel Glacis during repairs. 

21. Present ending of the Rampart Walk by St. Stephen's Gate. 



XI 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

22. {Frontispiece) Masons at Work on the East Tower of the Citadel. 

23. Rampart Walk, clearance in progress. 

24. Rampart Walk, showing the lowering of the roof of the Franciscan 

Convent, to reopen the public way at that point. 

25. Rampart Walk, showing the building line of the Latin Patriarchate, 

now safeguarded by the town planning legislation. 

26. Al Aqsa Mosque, showing the break in the Rampart Walk on the 

south side of the City. 

27. Al Aqsa Mosque, showing how it is proposed to complete the Walk. 

28. Rampart Walk as now completed around Bezetha. 

29. Damascus Gate pinnacles before repair. 

30. Damascus Gate pinnacles after repair. 

31. The SOq al Kabir, showing the Society's repairs. 

32. The Tariq Bab al Selseleh. 

33. Details of a window in the Tariq Bab al Selseleh. 

34. The Jerusalem town planning area. 

35. Jerusalem Zoning System. 

36. Seat in the Citadel Garden. The Gift of Mrs. Elizabeth McQueen. 

37. „ „ „ The Gift of the Anglo-American 

Society. 

38. „ „ „ The Gift of Mr. Arthur Franklin. 

39. „ „ „ The Gift of Miss Virginia Blandy. 

40. Jaffa Gate Maidan Improvement Scheme, with Market. 

41. Jaffa Gate Improvement Scheme as a whole. 

42. Jaffa Gate, the present condition, showing the Market sprawling 

over the road area and upon the fosse (now covered). 

xii 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



43. Jaffa Gate, showinc the proposed alterations from the same point, 

with the reconstructed cafe and a low-built containing wall 
for a properly regulated market. 

44. The proposed Valero Khan at the Damascus Gate. 

45. Plan of the Holy City in the Thirteenth Century. 

46. Plan of the Holy Sepulchre and surroundings. 

47. St. George and the Dragon. (Tile in the Church of St. James.) 

48. Execution of John the Baptist. 

49. Our Lord's entry into Jerusalem. 

50. The Virgin and Child. 
ex. David playing on the Harp. 

52. The Miracle of Lazarus. 

53. The Descent from the Cross. 

54. The Resurrection. 

55. Government House, Jerusalem. The Drawing-room. 

56. Government House, Jerusalem. The Dining-room. 

57. Government House, Jerusalem. The sideboard in the Dining-room, 

designed by c. r. ashbee. 

58. Block plan of Antiochus. 

59. Model of block plan of Antiochus, with British Government's plot 

shown in outline. 

60. Elevation of block plan. Antiochus. 

61. Talpioth Garden City. Block plan. 

62. Talpioth Garden City. Contour plan. 

63. Talpioth Garden City. Model. 

64. Talpioth Garden City. Model. 



zai 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

65. Block plan. Janjirieh Garden City. 

66. The proposed Synagogue. Janjirieh Garden City. 

67. Boneh Bayit Garden City. Key plan. 

68. Antimus Porah in the Jaffa Road. Block plan. 

69. Boneh Bayit Garden City. Model. 



xiv 



COUNCIL OF THE PRO-JERUSALEM SOCIETY 

Founded September 1918. 

Incorporated October 1920 (under the Palestine Administration). 

HON. PRESIDENT. 
The Right Hon. SIR HERBERT SAMUEL, C.B.E., High Commissioner of Palestine. 

PRESIDENT. 
SIR RONALD STORRS, C.M.G., C.B.E., Governor of Jerusalem. 

COUNCIL. 
Hon. Member: The Right Hon. Viscount Milner, K.G., G.C.B. 

Members. 
The Mayor of Jerusalem. 
The Director of Antiquities. 
His Eminence the Rais al-'Ulema. 
His Beatitude the Orthodox Patriarch. 
His Beatitude the Latin Patriarch. 
His Beatitude the Armenian Patriarch. 
The Right Rev. the Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem. 
The Very Reverend the Custodian of Terra Santa. 
His Reverence the Superior of the Dominican Convent. 
The Very Reverend Chief Rabbi Kuk. 
The Representative of the Palestine Zionist Executive. 
Le Rev. Pere Abel (Ecole Biblique de Saint-Etienne). 
Mr. C. R. Ashbee, M.A., F.R.I.B.A. (late Civic Adviser). 
Le Capitaine Barluzzi. 

Captain K. A. C. Creswell, M.B.E. (late Inspector of Monuments, G.S., O.E.T.A.). 
Dr. M. Eliash, B.Litt. 
Professor Patrick Geddes. 
Mr. R. A. Harari. 

Muza Kazem Pasha al-Husseini, C.B.E. 

Mr. H. C. Luke, B.Litt., M.A. (Assistant Governor of Jerusalem). 
Mr. J. Meyuhas, M.B.E. 
Mr. E. T. Richmond. 
Mr. D. G. Salameh. 
Dr. Nahum Slousch. 
Mr. Jacob Spafford. 

Le Rev. Pere Vincent (Ecole Biblique de Saint-Etienne). 
Mr. John Whiting. 

Mr. David Yellin, M.B.E. (Vice-Mayor of Jerusalem). 
-Mr. A. C. Holliday, B.A., Civic Adviser (Hon. Secretary). 

XV 



NOTE 

While there has been carejul collaboration 
between the various writers of the essays here 
following, the Council, as well as the in- 
dividual writers, wish it to be understood 
that the writers alone take responsibility for 
the statements made. 

The Council desire to thank the Ameri- 
can Colony for the use of many valuable 
photographs. 

Ed. 



xvi 



JERUSALEM 

1920 — 1922 
By C. R. Ashbee 

Introductory 

1. The present volume carries on the work conceived, planned, 
and started during the period of the British Military Occupation of 
Palestine. The occupation lasted roughly for two years, the Civil 
Administration beginning on July 1, 1920. The present record, 
therefore, may be taken to cover the two years from that date, and 
the volume containing it might be fitly named "Jerusalem, 1921-1922," 
in effect the two years of Civil Administration that preceded the formal 
granting of the Mandate. 

2. The principal interest, from a practical point of view, in the 
present volume will, I think, be found to lie in a comparison between 
what was planned and what may have been accomplished — the dream 
and its realization. This involves other than the purely technical 
considerations dealt with in the following pages. The status of the 
Society in the new Administration had to be considered and its rela- 
tions to such of the newly created Government Departments whose 
work impinged upon that of the Society. Thus the conservation of 
public monuments in the Jerusalem area became also a matter for the 
newly established Department of Antiquities. The town planning 
of the modern city and the making of roads became a matter that 
also concerned the newly established Department of Public Works 
and the Town Planning Commission. Further, there was during 
the years 1921 and 1922 a much more precise definition of the functions 
of the Jerusalem Municipality and those of the Pro-Jerusalem Council 
and the Civic Adviser. 

3. Two things became evident during the two years with which 
we are dealing : first, powers and functions which were formerly 
exercised by the Pro-Jerusalem Council through the Governor's 
Administrative order were exercised more and more by the new 

c 1 



INTRODUCTORY 

departments of State ; and, in the second place, many of the ideas, 
plans, and proposals outlined in Vol. I have been, at least as far as 
Jerusalem is concerned, incorporated into the structure of the new 
State. The Pro-Jerusalem Society did its four years' work during a 
very plastic period in the social history of Palestine. Such laws as 
the Antiquities Ordinance, the Town Planning Ordinance, the regula- 
tions regarding corrugated iron and advertisement, the Town Plan 
with its green belt or " reserved area " round the Holy City, the new 
municipal by-laws — all these were largely stimulated by, or were the 
direct outcome of, discussions on the Pro-Jerusalem Council, or of 
action taken by it. As the new social order becomes less plastic and 
more rigid it will be interesting to watch how far the Society is able 
to go on inspiring and moulding the new social life. So far much 
of this legislation may be regarded as typical of the post-war State. 
Will it all survive ? No community can live for long above its own 
level. Will the new order that is shaping in Palestine be able to 
grow within, and carry out, the new laws which its Administrators in 
the years 1921 and 1922 made for it? The thought contains a 
challenge. 

Following the method of the previous volume, the grouping is 
under the heading of (1) Work of Conservation, (2) the New Town 
Plan. This broadly is first the protection of the old city, then the 
laying out of the new. 

4. The various contributions by members of the Council are of 
special interest in that they all touch on the Society's work. Pere 
Abel contributes a monograph on the condition of the city in the 
Crusading period. This monograph is largely epigraphical. The 
Reverend Father was a member of the street-naming committee, to the 
work of which I give a special section below, and without his great 
knowledge of the nomenclature and the written records of Jerusalem 
in its various languages the sub-committee would have been unable 
to carry on their work. Mr. H. C. Luke, the Assistant Governor of 
Jerusalem, contributes an extract from the Diary of a sixteenth-century 
Franciscan Pilgrim to the Holy City, translated from the unpublished 
Latin manuscript in his possession. We also have from his hand an 
account of the Christian Communities in the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre. This chapter, in view of the recent changes within the 
body of the Orthodox Church, has particular interest and significance. 
2 



INTRODUCTORY 

Mr. Geo. Anton ius contributes a monograph upon the historical side 
of the craft of Ceramics. This dovetails into the Society's practical 
work on behalf of the tilework and repair of the Dome of the Rock, 
and the School of Ceramics, which it initiated in 1920. Mr. Creswell's 
bibliography of Moslem Architecture in Palestine will be found to be 
an invaluable addition to the study, and more especially to the dating 
of Arabic building — matters about which English architects and writers 
have been very ignorant. 

The remaining contributions, the account of the new Jewish 
town planning projects, and the work of the local craftsmen at Govern- 
ment House, explain themselves. They deal almost entirely with 
modern work and modern creative endeavour. I treat the subject- 
matter in its place, but would like to say here that without the assist- 
ance, the constant and kindly encouragement, of Dr. Ruppin, or the 
scholarly labours of Mr. Kauffmann, the work could not have taken 
the shape it has in the actual town plan of the city, nor could I have 
set down the record of what has been done or projected in the two 
years and which is here shown. 



The Work of Conservation 

5. The disaster of the Great War has forced upon all men and 
women the necessity of preserving all that is possible of the beauty 
and the purpose, in actual form, of the civilizations that have passed 
before. We have come to see, moreover, that this is not a mere matter 
of archaeology or the protection of ancient buildings. In the blind 
mechanical order with which we are threatened everything that we 
associate with our sense of beauty is alike in danger. Landscape, the 
unities of streets and sites, the embodied vision of the men that set the 
great whole together, the sense of colour which in any oriental city is 
still a living sense — all these things have to be considered practically ; 
they must, to put it plainly, be protected against the incursions of 
the grasping trader, the ignorant workman, the self-interested property 
owner, and the well-intentioned Government Department. 

In Jerusalem, perhaps more than in any other city, these facts are 
brought home to us. It is a city unique, and before all things a city 
of idealists, a city moreover in which the idealists through succeeding 
generations have torn each other and their city to pieces. Over forty 
times has it changed hands in history. And perhaps partly because 
of all this and partly because of the grandeur of its site and surrounding 
landscape it is a city of singular romance and beauty. 

These facts are emphasized by other considerations. When the 
British Military Administration began work there were practically 
no roads. The Turks only improvised roads and most of them the 
Great War had destroyed. Next, in the turning of every sod or scrap 
of stone some historic association is affected. There are then the 
interminable questions of prescriptive right in venerated sites, the 
joint ownerships by divers and conflicting religious bodies. The city 
maintains a large parasitic population — priests, caretakers, monks, 
missionaries, pious women, clerks, lawyers, the motley order that has 
a vested interest in maintaining the status quo. Here is a force that 
often makes for what is picturesque and conservative, but as often 
checks the administrator in genuine and rational improvement, because 
the sanction for what he wants to do rests not in the city itself, but in 
the great world outside somewhere, hidden away. The actual bit of 
stone or the rubbish-heap we want to clean up may, it is true, belong 

4 



THE WORK OF CONSERVATION 

to some Greek, or Moslem, or Jew, but the Armenian, the English 
Protestant, the Abyssinian, the American missionary, the Italian, 
the Wakf in India, the Copt, the other fellow somewhere — they all 
have a word to say on the matter, and before we do anything we must 
wait to hear it. 

And, last, there has been the fact that has necessarily modified 
alike the enterprise of the Pro-Jerusalem Society and the Administra- 
tion — there has been very little money to do anything with. This, 
though it may cripple historical research, may also be a protection 
against vandalism or ill-considered enterprise, for one great power 
at least the Administrator of to-day possesses, the power of sitting 
tight and doing nothing, of stopping unintelligent or destructive 
action, of waiting till a better day. If he have taste, though he himself 
be precluded from all creation, he can at least prevent foolish or wanton 
things from being done. That has, in the Holy City during the last 
five years, been a very great help. 

And one thing we whose concern is civics must always remember. 
In the conservation of a city, whether it be like London, Paris, Rome, 
or New York, well within the great stream of the world, or whether 
like Jerusalem set upon a hill-top and remote, what we are conserving 
is not only the things, themselves, the streets, the houses, spires, towers, 
and domes, but the way of living, the idealism, the feeling for 
righteousness and fitness which these things connote, and with which 
every city with any claim to dignity and beauty is instinct. 

6. I will now take the Society's work of conservation in detail 
and begin with the Citadel of Jerusalem. This has been the centre 
of its activities. There are, including the little tower at the entrance 
gate and the old drawbridge, seven main towers in the Citadel, and 
to all but one of these the Society during the last two years did some 
important structural work. I give twenty-one illustrations, eight of 
them photographs and thirteen diagrams or plans, and I take them 
in the order of the towers on the plan (Illustration No. i). Beginning 
with the entrance or drawbridge tower (b on the plan), I show in 
No. 2 a photograph of the tower as it was before the ugly, dilapidated 
Turkish woodwork was cleared away. Illustration No. 3 shows the 
little tower, carefully pointed and repaired, and once again free. The 
picture also shows the fosse garden as finally constructed. Passing 
through the entrance tower, we come to a beautiful little octagon, 

5 




lower of David. 

Entrance, or Drawbridge Tower. 

The Second Tower. 

The South-East Tower. 

The dismantled and ruined Keep. 

The Minaret and South-West Tower. 

The Terrace above the glacis. 

The Mosque. 

The Hippicus Tower. 

Fosse, new Citadel Garden. 

The Jaffa Gate. 

The Rampart Walk. 



m. The Barracks, 



Key Plan of the Citadel. 



No. i. 




Cupola during reconstruction. 



No. 4. 



















1 












B**'^ ^^t 



Cupola seen jrom below. 



No. 5. 



THE WORK OF CONSERVATION 




The Hippicus Tower. 

The Jaffa Gate. 

Cistern. 

Half -excavated pit 

debris. 
Modern Turkish stables, 

partial ruins. 
Modern annex. 
The walls. 

The Terrace on the glacis. 
The Fosse. 

{Scale, 1.200 m.) 



The Hippicus Tower. Block Plan. 



No. 6. 



so called, of Suleiman the Magnificent. Over this octagon is a dome 
or cupola. This was falling ; the parts were reassembled and reset. 
No. 4 shows one of the Society's masons at work on this cupola, and 
No. 5 the masonry itself as seen from below. 

One of the most important pieces of structural repair has been 
that on the East or Second Tower (see c on Plan No. i), which was 
taken in hand with the financial help of the Department of Antiquities. 
Some of the Roman stone work, reset in Moslem times, was dis- 

7 



Scale of Feet 
.' ' ? < ? 6 




No. 7. 



Note the existing 
inset at A A 



Limits of window 
I before enlargement 




No. 8. 

The Hippicus Tower — showing how the little prison-like window {hatched 
in the diagrams) was replaced by a large light fitted into, but without 

disturbing., the original masonry. 



THE WORK OF CONSERVATION 

integrating. The beautiful illustration {See Frontispiece) shows the 
Society's masons at work. The lower portion of the tower was 
made good and the bulk of the tower repointed. 

The same picture shows in the distance the Tower of David. 
To the outside of this nothing was done, but the Society repaired 
and opened out the interior, making of the great central chamber a 
rather beautiful exhibition room. 

A like work was carried out in the Hippicus Tower (see i on Plan 
No. i). This, which before and during war was a hospital for spotted 
fever, was carefully put in order and the interior converted into two 
large exhibition rooms (Nos. 9 to 15). Illustrations Nos. 7 and 8 



o 1 a a . a * t b Metres 





Section C. D. 

No. 10. 



The Hippicus Tower. 



show how the little prison-like window beneath the arch was enlarged 
to light the great room. The Hippicus Tower flanking the Jaffa 
Road, and opposite the Jaffa Gate, is necessarily one of the main 
features of any improvement scheme in this part of the city, as will 
be seen later when the Jaffa Gate improvement is considered (see 
pp. 21, 22, 23). The Society, therefore, arranged with the Depart- 
ment of Antiquities to have this tower specially measured, and some 
of the drawings here given are from the measurements of Mr. Salante. 

The last of the towers, upon which the Society was at work in 
1922, is the south-west tower (see Nos. 16 and 17) in which a serious 
crack showed itself in the summer of 1922. This tower, the fall 
of which would endanger the minaret, is one of the most distinguished 
of all the Citadel towers. Though the Society at the time had no 

d 9 




No. 1 1 . 

Lower, or street level plan. 



No. 1 2. 



Upper floor plan. 



The Hippicus Tower. 



j—ij—ij — LT 



D 



JUU 



Cs^ 



N. Elevation 

No. 13. 
The Hippicus Tower. 



rtm 



n> 



tf¥I 



West Elevation 



No. 14. 



D S 



D 



South Elevation 



No. 15. 







Tower by the Minaret. 



No. 1 6. 




No. 1 7. 
Tower by the Minaret, showing the crack. 



10] 



THE WORK OF CONSERVATION 



money it was felt that special sacrifices must be made and the ^.300 
needed for its protection somehow or other found. The diagrams here 
given (Nos. 18 and 19) show the cracks in detail and the method of 
tying to be adopted. 




— 



Minaret 



Corbel missing 



i 



Vertical height! 
approximate 



Tie rode 



~l 1 




A Plan * 



X 



. ■ 

■ 



W 



South Fafade 

No. 18. 
Citadel South Tower. 

The thick black lines show the cracks in the masonry. 



West Facade 

01 a j 4 ; 6 7 8 Metres 



No. 19. 



The last of the Citadel works to which I shall allude is the repair 
of the angle of the glacis. In No. 20 we see the work in progress. 
Illustration No. 16 shows the glacis in its relation to the whole 
Citadel. 

It will, I think, be agreed that these various works undertaken 
at a total cost of about jTE. 1,000 (the exact figure during the financial 
year 192 1 was £495, the balance having been spent later), show no 
mean record of conservation taken over a period of two years. And, 
indeed, the work was needed. There had been no repair for over 
ten years, and much of the Citadel was in danger of falling. Much 



11 



THE WORK OF CONSERVATION 

yet remains to do, and much of the most interesting work historically 
is below the ground level or in the blocked-up passages beneath or 
skirting the glacis, or even under the moat. But the Citadel of 
Jerusalem is one of those buildings upon which the architect and 
the archaeologist join issue. The latter would wish to dig it up and 
search its origins. To do this he has to kill the building. The 
former insists that as the building is still alive and serving a purpose, 
noble and beautiful, it must be so kept. The later periods cannot be 
disturbed to reveal the earlier. Architecture here is more important 
than archaeology. 

7. The work on the Citadel leads inevitably to that of the ramparts. 
The preserving and opening out of the Rampart, or Sentinel's Walk, 
which was discussed at length in the first volume of the Jerusalem 
Records, is now to all intents and purposes complete. All encroach- 
ments except one have been cleared away ; that one, the most difficult 
of all, is at the two ends of the Haram al Sherif. One of these is 
shown in Illustration No. 21, the other was shown in the first volume 
Illustration No. 39. The difficulty is not technical, it is political, 
and it is greater than it was at the close of the Military Administration. 
In technical matters that affect the general welfare or the amenities 
of the whole community alike it was often easier to get things done 
then than now. Mr. Benton Fletcher's drawing (No. 26), which 
with the other in this volume the Council commissioned him to do, 
gives an interesting view of this side of the Rampart Walk from 
without the walls. The precise way in which it is proposed to solve 
the problem of linking up the last section of the walk that will pass 
across the Al Aqsa Mosque is not yet determined. An inconspicuous 
iron way, skirting the Al Aqsa outside, is suggested (see Inset No. 27). 
Illustrations Nos. 23 and 24 show two clearances near the New Gate, 
the former a gang at work opposite the Convent of the Sceurs 
Reparatrices ; the latter the lowering of the roof of the Franciscan 
Convent, where a gabled roof had been built over, and butting upon 
the Rampart Walk parapet. This, by arrangement with His Reverence 
the President of the Franciscan Community, was brought down to 
the level of the walk, thus preserving the public right-of-way. 

Illustration No. 25 is of the utmost interest. It shows how the 
activities of the Pro-Jerusalem Society have automatically come to 
be incorporated in the working legislation of the city. The building 
12 




Rampart Walk, clearance in progress. 



No. 23. 




Rampart Walk, showing the lowering 
of the roof of the Franciscan Convent 
to reopen the public way at that point. 



No. 24. 




No. 25. 



Rampart Walk, showing the building 
line of the Latin Patriarchate, nmv 
safeguarded by the town planning 
legislation. 



12) 






CO 
N 

i 



I 



. 



si 

cq 

a; 
is 

C5 






3 



r 




Damascus Gate pinnacles bejore repair. 



No. 29. 




Damascus Gate pinnacles after repair. 



No. 3 o. 



fi3 



THE WORK OF CONSERVATION 

is the Latin Patriarchate with its garden skirting the walk. Beyond 
is the Citadel with the Hippicus Tower and David's Tower. A 
permit to build had been asked for at the point shown below the arrow, 
thus blocking out the view of the towers from the walk. The Society 
had nothing to do with the case except through its representative 
officer, myself, with whom lay the decision as to whether it should 
be brought up at the Town Planning Commission. With this body, 
under the new law, rests the final decision as to whether or not permits 
shall be allowed that affect the town plan. The case was heard, the 
Commission disallowed the permit, and ruled that the building line 
of the Latin Patriarchate must be followed. A precedent of the 
utmost importance under the new law was thus established which may 
have the effect of saving large portions of the city from destruction. 

The last illustration I give of the now completed Rampart Walk 
(No. 28) is that of the corner by the Stork Tower. It shows the 
great stretch of the walls across Bezetha and looking out to Scopus 
and the Mount of Olives. 

8. I now come to the Gates. During the two years effective 
work has been done upon three, the Jaffa Gate, the Damascus Gate, 
and Herod's Gate. Over the last of these the Rampart Walk was 
cleared. At Damascus Gate an important piece of repair work was 
undertaken on the pinnacles, again with the financial assistance of the 
Department of Antiquities. I give two illustrations (Nos. 29 and 30) 
of their condition before and after repair. Beneath these pinnacles, 
in the eastern wing of the gate, one of the old guard-rooms was 
cleaned up and let as a studio. It is now in the occupation of Mr. 
Melnikoff the sculptor. The more important scheme of the Khan 
outside the Damascus Gate, which has also been considered by the 
Society, I shall deal with below (section 20), as it affects town 
planning rather than conservation, though, indeed, the partial opening 
up of the Roman arch and levels is involved (see plan 44). 

For the Jaffa Gate the Council worked out a definite scheme 
entailing the removal of the clock tower. It is now proposed, in 
deference to wishes of the donors, to re-erect it elsewhere. The 
Rampart Walk was opened out through the Jaffa Gate, an attempt 
having been made to convert that entrance into private property. 

9. In the old suqs and covered ways of the city the Society was 
unfortunately not able, owing to lack of funds, to do what should be 

*3 



THE WORK OF CONSERVATION 

done. I would refer here again to what was set forth on this matter 
in p. 8 of the Records, Vol. I. Almost everything there stated still 
holds good. One piece of work, however, was well carried through, 
and this largely owing to the enterprise of the Mayor of Jerusalem, 
Ragib Bey Nashashibi. This work is best shown in the drawing 
made for the Council by Mr. Benton Fletcher (Illustration No. 31). 
The matter is one of finance. It is much to be hoped that the plan 
of the pro rata levy on property owners will shortly be worked out. 
To this could be added, where needed, the sums budgeted for the 
upkeep of historic buildings in the municipal budget. 

These ancient suqs of Jerusalem are unique. Their present state 
and the photographic records scattered up and down the Society's 
two volumes of Records should be studied side by side with Pere Abel's 
plan of the mediaeval city (Illustration No. 45). 

10. A matter upon which the Society would have liked to take 
action, but which unfortunately went no further than report and con- 
servative advice, was the state of the houses in the Tariq Bab al 
Selseleh, the most beautiful street in Jerusalem. I give two illustrations 
(Nos. 3 2 and 33). Most of these houses are private, and Wakf property ; 
moreover, they are almost entirely Moslem. An occasional bit of 
pointing, the saving of a stone or an inscription here and there, would 
be of immense, because of timely, help. It is a matter upon which 
the Pro-Jerusalem Society and the Wakf might co-operate. Here, 
again, technical matters are often affected adversely by political con- 
siderations. 



14 







v%%^ 



^ 






The Suq al Kahir, showing the Society's repairs. 



No. 3 




The Tariq Bab a I Seise leh. 



No. 32. 




Details of a window in the Tariq Bab al Selseleh. 

Note the crack through the inscription. 



No. 33. 



[15 



The New Town Plan 

ii. A study in the Council's work upon the new city during 
the years 1921-22 becomes inevitably a study in town planning, and 
town planning of a very practical and direct kind. Not only had a 
new city to be planned ; the law had to be drafted that should make 
this planning possible, and the machinery set up that should give 
effect to the law. Moreover, all the remains of the old Turkish order 
had to be taken over as part of the O.E.T.A. heritage, and this often 
made direct action or a " clean slate " impossible. 

It was after many informal conferences between members of the 
Council, Professor Geddes, Dr. Ruppin, the Legal Adviser, the 
Governor of Jerusalem, and myself that the law was finally got into 
shape for drafting, and it was the two years' experience of the Pro- 
Jerusalem Society that provided the necessary data, or indicated how 
much of the modern western town planning legislation it might be 
possible to use in Palestine. 

12. The Palestine Town Planning Ordinance then may be said 
to have come into existence largely as the result of the spade work 
done in the city by the Council of the Pro-Jerusalem Society. Much 
of the legislation it embodies is dealt with in the Council's early 
minutes, and the ideas set forth in Vol. I of the Records have for the 
most part been incorporated. 

It has been complained that the Ordinance is complicated and 
difficult to understand, that it is impossible to render in the three 
official languages, that it is in parts, as a mere matter of machinery, 
unworkable. Some of these criticisms were found to be just, and in 
1922 an amending Ordinance was passed to give effect to them. 
And there is much of real truth in them. Laws and Ordinances that 
are suitable to western cities, and partly because of the way in which 
their citizens observe and administer them, may not be suitable to 
eastern cities, or it may be a very long time before they are. 

13. The question whether the work initiated by the Pro-Jerusalem 
Society in the new town plan succeeds or not will depend very largely 
upon whether the members of the Town Planning Commission ap- 
pointed under the Ordinance to carry out the town plan understand 
and can administer the great trust committed to them. It is that 

'5 



THE NEW TOWN PLAN 

sections, first on the ground of expense, then on that of scale, and 
lastly because all are still liable to modification during the process of 
development in the next few years. It may therefore be better to 
issue them in some later volume that shall give the complete town 
plan. There will probably be some twenty sections in all, and these 
have to be linked together with the eight sections already officially 
published and open for inspection in the Municipality of Jerusalem. 

15. I give, however, the zoning plan in general outline coloured 
(No. 35) because it affects the order and arrangement of the new 
city. Also a zoning plan necessarily precedes the making of new 
alignments, or the planning of new roads and quarters. This plan 
must, however, be regarded only as a first draft. No complete plan is 
possible until the survey itself has been completed. But the plan here 
shown is the working plan upon which permits to build were granted 
up to the end of the period covered by this volume. 

Zoning, indeed, as understood in European cities, is hardly yet 
possible in the East. There is too much medievalism, too much 
muddle and litter of western industrialism to be first cleared out of 
the way, and, above all, the people themselves are not as yet ready 
to act in accordance with the laws when these are made. They are 
still too dependent upon orders imposed from above. In some respects 
this makes our task as town planners easier, but in so far as we try 
as administrators to encourage the citizens to think, act, and legislate 
for themselves, we are handicapped because an ideal order is postulated. 

To make the town plan itself ideal predicates a good deal more 
than town planning. Thus we have after long and careful study to 
set the roads where they should go, we have to consider all the beauty 
spots, we have to save and link up all the historic buildings, we have 
to tear down and clear away all the ugly things and make the private 
give way to the public interests. That is the ideal way. The City of 
Jerusalem is worthy such a treatment. As a matter of practical experi- 
ence and where there is no money what happens is very different. 
It is impossible to get out of the hard rut of existing roads ; all we can 
do is to widen a little. It is difficult, often impossible, to touch buildings 
that are in the hands of religious bodies. There is as yet neither money 
nor administrative machinery to keep in repair historic buildings, and 
many of the finest of these are in private hands. The real work is, 
after all, not the drawing of the city plan on paper, nor the description 

18 



IS] 



THE NEW TOWN PLAN 

of it in a book, nor the comments on it in an office file, nor even the 
making of a picture of it for the walls of the Royal Academy. The 
real work is to administer it intelligently and towards the shaping of 
a more or less ideal end. The only test of this is the beauty and the 
comeliness of the city itself. 



19 



Park System and Gardens 

i 6. I deal now with certain minor aspects of the town plan which 
have been under the special charge of the Pro-Jerusalem Society, and 
I take first the parks and gardens. 

The Citadel Garden, of which illustrations have already been 
given, has made considerable progress, and some gracious and valuable 
gifts (see Nos. 36 to 39) have been made to it. The pictures speak for 
themselves. Of the ceramic work, I shall speak later (see pages 29 
and 62). A beautiful example of the Dome of the Rock tiles is shown, 
No. 39. Mr. Antonius, in his article on the Kutahia craft, pp. 58 
and 59, also refers to its revival in Jerusalem. 

17. A careful record has been kept of all the trees planted in the 
city during the two years with which this monograph deals. The 
record for the second of these years will be found in Appendix I. 
It shows thirty-eight failures in a total of 1,903 trees planted in 
1921-2, as against 332 failures in a total of 1,283 planted during 
the year 1920-21. The reason of this success is, from the civic 
point of view, highly gratifying. The staff learned to understand 
}heir work better, the public to give it greater value. The Society 
established two nurseries, one in the Citadel Garden, one on the 
open land claimed by the municipality and known as Jamal Pasha's 
Park, near the Muscovia. 

18. The work in the Post Office Square still needs completion. 
The stone work has to be finished, the terraces to be paved, and the 
circular seat and steps, as shown in Vol. I, p. 25, to be built. But the 
trees at the close of 1922 were doing well, and this centre of the town, 
instead of being an ugly refuse heap of broken stone and litter, was 
taking form and colour. Meantime the land itself, under the new 
Town Planning Ordinance, has to be expropriated or the owner com- 
pensated. The return upon the capital outlay, it is estimated, will be 
from improved values to the municipal buildings in the square and from 
the " Sharafia," or betterment tax. 



20 




rtt 



w 



;J% 



Seat in the Citadel Garden. 
The gift of Mrs. Elizabeth 
McQueen. 



w 




No. 36. 




Seat in the Citadel Garden. 
The gift of Mr. Arthur 
Franklin. 



No. 38. 




Seat in the Citadel Garden. No. 37. 

The gift of the Anglo-American 
Society. 




Seat in the Citadel Garden. 
The gift of Miss Virginia 
Blandy. 



No. 39. 



20] 




yaffil Gate, the present condition, showing the market sprawling 
over the road area and upon the Fosse (now covered). 



No. 42. 







m 






y^ffa Gate, showing the proposed alterations from the same point, 
with the reconstructed caje and a low-built containing wall for a 
properly regulated market. 






\ 







No. 43. 



Markets and Khans 

19. The work on the markets has progressed but slowly. There 
has been no money. And private enterprise does not move readily 
in a mould meant for public benefit ; but Mr. Valero, one of the 
owners of the Mahanna Yuda property, for which the designs were 
shown in Vol. I, p. 27, expressed his willingness to carry out the 
scheme, and the tenants of the miserable booths which still disgrace 
the entrance to the modern city from the Jaffa side have been given 
notice. 

More important is the scheme I show of the Jaffa Gate Market, 
Illustration No. 40. Here the efforts of the Town Planning Commis- 
sion, of the municipality, and the Pro-Jerusalem Society, are combined. 
The inception was with the latter. The Commission approved the 
scheme in principle ; the working out of the finance, in other words 
the collection and adjustment of the market dues that will cover the 
payment of interest on loan, is with the municipality. 

When once the market is moved from the Citadel Fosse and the 
latter opened out the whole Jaffa Gate improvement scheme as shown 
in plans 40 and 41 will be within measurable distance of accomplish- 
ment. This market improvement project should, from the civic point 
of view, be studied in conjunction with the new ridge road that lies to 
the north, the Jewish scheme for the new business quarter of Antiochus 
that lies to the north-east of it, and the new hotel, the site of which will 
be seen to the north-west (B on No. 41). All around, from the present 
site of the banks and cafes (No. 42), which later might be rebuilt some- 
what as shown in my illustration No. 43, should be reserved as open 
space or park land as already laid down in the general park plan in 
Vol. I, p. 19. Much of this has already, through financial necessity, 
being whittled away. If the great idea of the green belt, or what 
is left of it round the Holy City, is to be preserved, all ruksahs must 
in this area be jealously watched or refused altogether. 

21 




Jaffa Gate Maidan Improvement Scheme, with Market. 



No. 4 



MARKETS AND KHANS 




A. The New Ridge Road. 

B. The Four new Building Reservations. 
Antiochus. 

The Government 's Plot. 

The French Government's Plot. 

The New Hotel. 

The Market in front of Jaffa Gate. 

C. To be Expropriated. 



No. 41. 

The object of this plan is to show that the land 
marked 



and at present vacant should be kept clear of all 
building in order to preserve uninterrupted the view 
to and from the Jaffa Gate. 



Key to 

The object of the whole scheme is : 

1. To give market accommodation. 

2. To preserve the unique view from the 

Jaffa Gate. 

3. To complete the Citadel garden. 

4. To widen the Jaffa road at the dangerous 

points. 

5. To clear away the present unsightly 

shanties. 
The shaded part on plan No. 40 is the Baruchoff 
land it was agreed to expropriate for 
market purposes. 
A represents later market-extension, to the N. 
B represents possible extension to the S., or 

plantation. 
C areas to be expropriated for road widening and 

for opening out the City wall. 
D causeway (for foot traffic) with embankment 



No. 40. 

wall, overlooking the valley of Ales, which 
is to remain open, or " park area." 

E the old Turkish " sebil " to be replaced. 

K suggested new permissible building line 
for Banks (but not to exceed existing 
heights). 

The Market is on two levels, and the accom- 
modation given is : 

Lower Level — 4 domed store-houses ; 28 stone 
shops ; 54 booths. 

Upper Level — 4 domed store-houses ; 28 stone 
shops ; 40 booths ; a sebil and " mastaba " 
at the N. end. 

Interior mean width of stone-built shops, 3 m. 

Interior mean width of stone-built stores, 5 m. 

Interior span of domes, 5 m. 

Mean width of wooden stalls (under tiled awning^ 
2 in. X ij m. 

n 



MARKETS AND KHANS 

20. Closely akin to the schemes put up for market improvements 
in the city is that of the proposed Khan at Damascus Gate, immediately 
opposite the Governorate. The object here is not only to clear away 
the unsightly shops and corrugated iron buildings that obliterate the 
Damascus Gate, but also to accommodate the Bedouins and their 
camels that enter the city here in great numbers. The sketch plan 
(No. 44) shows what is proposed. Here, again, the Valero family, who, 
it is suggested, shall build and hold the Khan as a private undertaking, 
have evinced a sympathetic interest in the work. As the area of the 
proposed Khan is reserved and may not be further built on, and as 
the corrugated iron when it falls will not, under the ordinance, be 
renewed, it is to be hoped that in default of other more profitable 
ventures the building of the Khan will materialize. 



24 



Scale of Metrcn 



fnnf T. 



Section 
A 



rVr/1 ■ ■Oamatcui Oatt 
lutl 




The space marked • X | 

shows the Roman '- » 

u/orA underground. 
Palestine exploration 
clearing. 1867. 



The proposed Valero Khan at the Damascus Gate. 



No. 44. 



The Naming of the Streets 

21. The record of the civic work of the Pro-Jerusalem Council 
during the year 1922 would not be complete without an account of 
the street naming. A special sub-committee was, at the instance of 
his Excellency the High Commissioner, formed to undertake this 
most interesting and by no means easy task. The names had to be in 
the three official languages, and the three traditions, Christian, Moslem, 
and Jewish, had, so far as possible, to be preserved. Not only that, 
their connotations in the language in which they had no precise 
meaning had often to be sought out. Here was scope not only for 
scholarship but acute political division, and the sub-committee had on 
several occasions to be steered over very dangerous rocks. That was 
the work of the Assistant Governor, who was chairman of the sub- 
committee. I give here the first set of names that have been chosen 
and sanctioned up to the close of 1922. Forty-six in the old city and 
eighty in the new city were either named or numbered for naming, 
and the names in some cases were painted in ceramics, and set in the 
streets. The list is so full of history, poetry, and folk-lore that it is 
well worth careful study. Since 1922 the list as given below has been 
added to and amended in several respects. 

THE OLD CITY (WITHIN THE WALLS) 



1. New Gate 


1. Al Bab al Jadid 


2. David Street 


2. Tariq Mehrab Daud 


3. Street of the Chain 


3. Tariq Bab al Selseleh 


4. The Citadel 


4. Maidan al Qal'ah 


5. Cloth Merchants' Market 


5. Suq al Tujjar 


6. Spice Market 


6. Suq al 'Attarin 


7. Meat Market 


7. Suq al Lahhamin 


8. Armenian Street 


8. Haret al Arman 


9. The Muristan 


9. Al Marestan 


10. Street of the Hospital 


10. Tariq al Marestan 


II. Citadel Lane 


II. Haret al Qal'ah 


12. Way of Zion Gate 


12. Tariq al Nabi Daud 


13. Honour Lane 


13. Haret el Sharaf 


14. Moorish Quarter 


14. Haret al Magharbeh 


15. Moorgate Street 


15. Tariq Bab al Magharbeh 


16. Tyropaeum 


16. Al Wad 


17. Latin Convent Lane 


1 7. Haret Dair al If ranj 


18. Khanqah Street 


18. Hosh al Khaneqah 


19. Damascus Gate Street 


19. Tariq Bab al 'Amud 


20. Our Lady's Street 


20. Tariq Bab Sitti Mariam 


21. Orthodox Convent Street 


21. Haret Dair al Rum 



26 



THE NAMING OF THE STREETS 



Herod's Gate Street 
Sheikh Rihan's Way 
Christian Street 
Feather Lane 
Casa Nova Lane 
Street of the Latins 
Jews' Street 
El Medan 
Qaraite Street 
Saadieh Stairs 
El Asali Street 

Blacksmith's Lane 
Bab Hetta Street 



22. 

23- 
24. 

*5- 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30- 

J». 

32. 

33- 
34- 
35- 
36. 

37. Khan al Zeit 

38. Water Melon Alley 

39. Lentil Convent Lane 
Al-Buraq Court 
Cotton Gate 
Via Dolorosa 
Bezetha Street 
Dancing Dervish Street 
Jacobite Street 
Stork Lane 



40 

41 

42. 
43. 
44. 
45- 
46. 



22. Tariq Bab al Zahera 

23. Tariq al Shaikh Rihan 

24. Haret al Nasara 

25. Haret al Risheh 

26. Tariq al Casa Nuova 

27. Tariq al Latin 

28. Haret al Yahud 

29. Haret al Maidan 

30. Haret al Qaraim 

3 1 . Haret al Sa'diyeh 

32. Haret al 'Asali 



33- 
34- 
35- 
36. 

37- 
38. 

39- 
40. 

4»- 

42. 
43- 
44- 
45- 
46. 



Haret al Haddadin 
Haret Bab Hetta 

Khan al Zait 
'Akabat al Battikha 
Sekket Dair al 'Adas 
Hosh al Buraq 
Suq al Qattanin 
Tariq al Alam 
Tariq Bait Zaita 
Tariq al Maulawiyeh 
Tariq Dair al Surian 
Tariq Laqlaq. 



THE NEW CITY (WITHOUT THE WALLS) 



1. Jaffa Road 

2. Nablus Road 

3. Jericho Road 

4. Hebron Road 

5. Mamilla Road 

6. St. Paul's Road 

7. Godfrey de Bouillon Street 

8. Street of the Prophets 

9. Tancred Lane 
io. Suleiman Road 

11. Allenby Square 

12. Herod's Way 

13. Nehemiah Road 

14. Agrippa's Way 

15. Street of Josephus 

16. St. Louis's Way 

17. Julian's Way 

18. Q. Melisande's Way 

19. Street of Baldwin I 

20. Ibn Batuta Street 



21. 

22. 
23. 
2 4- 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31- 
32. 

33- 
34- 
35- 
36. 
37- 
38. 

39- 

40. 



Street of Ezra 
Gaza Road 
Constantine's Way 
Moses Maimonides Street 
Street of the Maccabees 

Isaiah Street 
King George V Avenue 
St. John the Baptist Street 
Jeremiah Street 

Amos Road 

Ben Yehuda Street 

King Solomon Street 

Hezekiah Street 



St. George's Road 



27 



THE NAMING OF THE STREETS 

THE NEW CITY (WITHOUT THE WALLS)— Continued 



41. St. Stephen's Road 


46. 




42. Cceur de Lion Street 


47- 




43- 


4». 




44- 


49- 




45- 


So- 




TOWN PLAN, PART II 






51. Saladin's Road 


57. Way of Al Mansur 




52. Al Mamun's Way 


58. Selim I Road 




53. Al Mahdi's Way 


59- 




54. Al Walid Road 


60. Qalaun's Way 




55. Al Malik Road 


61-65 (numbers reserved for 


unplanned 


56. Omar's Way 


streets) 




TOWN PLAN, PART III 






66. Unnamed for the present 


74. Unnamed for the present 




67- 


75- » >> >> 




68. 


76. Ein Kerim Road 




69. 


77. Reserved numbers for 


unplanned 


7°- 


streets 




71- 


78. 


5> 


72. 


79- ,, 


»> 


73- 


80. ,, „ 


>> 



28 



New Industries, 
Educational Work and 
Exhibitions 

22. The Society, during the two years under review, concentrated 
its effort on the three industries of weaving, ceramics, and glass. The 
inability of the Administration to carry out the Society's plan for the 
proposed Palestine School of Weaving, whose centre was to be in the 
Suq al Qattanin, determined the Council to wind up its weaving 
apprentice contracts. The enterprise of the "Jerusalem looms" had 
either to develop by union with Mejdel and Gaza, become a Palestine 
industry, or contract into a purely Jerusalem undertaking. The latter 
as an endowed school seemed inadvisable, so it was decided to cancel 
the contract with Mr. Batato, arrange for a certain number of shops 
to be leased direct to the master weaver, and some of his boys, to retain 
the looms and plant for the future school of weaving, and to place out 
all the remaining apprentices. 

23. In the craft of ceramics the Society, with the aid of the 
Department of Education, did a good deal to help the work of Mr. 
Ohanessian and the Armenian and Moslem industry of painted tile 
work for the Dome of the Rock. 

The pergola in the Citadel Garden (Illustration No. 39) has been 
already referred to. This was in part the gift of an American lady, 
Miss Blandy. The names of the streets are also being painted in 
ceramics, and the Society was in great part responsible for the wedding 
present of a table centre, a miniature Dome of the Rock in blue 
faience, for Princess Mary, for which I made the designs. 

The method adopted in regard to apprenticeship and training 
in the school of ceramics is much the same as it was in the "Jerusalem 
looms." The young men and women are indentured to learn the 
craft as far as possible right through. The supervision rests with the 
Department of Education, and the Department and the Society con- 
jointly put up the money. 

24. The craft of the Hebron glassblowers still hangs on by a 
thread. The Society in 1921 had a furnace erected in the Via Dolorosa, 
at the Dome of the Rock pottery, and got some of the Hebron crafts- 
men to work. An example of these experiments is shown below, 
in the work they did under my direction at Government House (see 

29 



NEW INDUSTRIES AND EDUCATIONAL WORK 

Nos. 56 and 57). Some ^E.50 or £E.6o was spent in this experiment, 
and it was one well worth making. It proved certain things essential 
to our knowledge before the revival of the craft of glass work could 
be seriously undertaken. First, that this craft was an integral part 
of the structure of Moslem agricultural society. The men work 
in short but intense spells for many hours at a stretch to retain the 
furnace at the necessary heat, and then alternate these periods with 
long stretches of work in the fields, adjusting their work at the craft 
to the Palestine season and the crops. It proved next, that the furnace, 
for economy and annealing capacity, had to be constructed of a certain 
size, the unitary workshop group being five or six men or boys in 
each ; and that below this group it could not be made to work econo- 
mically. And it proved, last, that the problem of fuel and its transport 
to Hebron and Jerusalem was not yet mastered. A knowledge of 
these preliminary conditions is needed to determine the capital or the 
basic organization required for the re-establishment of the craft. The 
necessary resources were not at the Society's disposal, but I am con- 
vinced it can be done. It is, first, a matter of intelligent administration, 
with a little financial backing by the Education Department. But 
it must be done soon. Since these lines were written the craftsmen 
who conducted the Society's experiment and did for me the work at 
Government House have left the country in search of work. There 
is now, they say, more " Baraka," that is the blessing of the Lord, in 
Constantinople than in Palestine. 

25. The last enterprises of the Society to be reviewed in these 
pages are its exhibitions in the Citadel. These have, it is hoped, 
been a help in the education of the community. There were three 
during the two years, and all of considerable interest. The exhibition 
of the year 1921 was in part town planning and the crafts encouraged 
by the Society, in part ancient Moslem art, in part modern Palestinian 
effort. In 1922 the Society had a special show of Mr. Benton Fletcher's 
Jerusalem drawings. Some of these were prepared specially for the 
Society, and have been already referred to, and two (Nos. 26 and 31) 
are shown in these pages. This exhibition was followed by another 
dealing with the crafts and industries of Palestine, initiated by the 
Society, but conducted and financed under a special Commission 
appointed by the High Commissioner to investigate the crafts in 
relation to agriculture. The data provided by this exhibition and the 

3° 



NEW INDUSTRIES AND EDUCATIONAL WORK 

findings of the Commission are of profound interest and importance 
to the future of Palestine. Is the life to be agricultural or industrial ? 
Can it be both ? If not, to what extent is the former to be dependent 
upon western industrialism ? The whole Zionist problem is involved 
in this, for it means the life of the Jewish colonies. Are they going 
to continue to be dependent on outside support ? Will they develop 
mechanical power intelligently ? will they practise by-crafts, as the 
Palestinian peasant has done for thousands of years ? Here are not 
only vital problems in the theory of civics, the Zionist question itself 
is involved, and the Mandate for Palestine. 

Finance 

26. A word in conclusion as to the Society's finance. The 
Administration gives to the Society pound for pound of what it 
receives in subscriptions and donations. These during the year 
ending January 1922 amounted to ^E. 1,218, so that the income, 
exclusive of special grants for education or fresh subscriptions and 
donations, will for the current year be double that sum. As this 
record is taken up to the end of the second year of the Civil Adminis- 
tration, i.e. July 1, 1922, it is only possible to give complete accounts 
to the end of the year 1921. This I do below, showing how the money 
received by the Society was accounted for. An analysis of the monthly 
outlays is shown in the Appendix, No. 3. 

CASH ACCOUNT 



Receipts 

Balance in hand from January 

1, 1921 .. .. 
By grants, subscriptions, and 

receipts from all sources . . 


^.857 
5,268 


Payments 

By total expenditure for the 
year 

Balance in hand on Decem- 
ber 31, 1921 


^E.5,276 
». 849 



6,125 



6,125 



The Society had liabilities in respect of payments still due before 
next 30 June, contracts with its apprentices, etc., amounting to about 
^E.500. It had assets in the capitalized value of its rent-bearing 
properties, its stocks of iron, wood, books, trees, nursery, glass, and 
museum objects, but of these none except the books and the glass are 
to be considered as marketable. 

C. R. Ashbee. 

3 r 






pSernede la Madeleine | 



Porte S^Estien 

'AbcSh 




Fbslerne de laTannerie 



'Fbrte du Mont Syon 



Fbrte de 
Belcayre 

Plan of the Holy City in the Thirteenth Century. 



No. 45. 



L'Etat de la Cite de 
Jerusalem au XII e Siecle 

Par le Rev. Pere F. M. Abel, O.P. 

Pour se rendre compte de la physionomie de la Jerusalem m^dieVale 
il faut joindre a la lecture des itineVaires celle des descriptions, des 
chartes et des plans de l'^poque des Croisades. Les itineVaires ou 
remits de voyage ne s'inteVessant guere qu'aux choses du pelerinage 
ne touchent qu'en passant a l'dtat de la ville. Leur t^moignage n'est 
pas a d^daigner, mais ils demandent a etre compl£t& par les esquisses 
techniques comme celle de " la Citez de Jherusalem " et les nombreuses 
allusions des actes publics que confirment dans les grandes lignes 
les relev^s graphiques ex^cut^s aux XIP et XIIP siecles. La pr^sente 
description a pour objet de dresser le cadre de la ville sainte d'apres 
les conclusions tiroes de l'&ude et de la comparaison des documents 
entre eux. Si pour l'une ou l'autre des identifications proposers et 
qu'on trouvera dans le plan ci-joint il est difficile d'arriver a une solution 
certaine, on s'est arrete a l'approximation la plus stricte dans les cas 
douteux, qui sont d'ailleurs en infime minority. C'est ainsi que nous 
pouvons presenter comme un r^sultat acquis l'ordre des portes et le 
r^seau des rues principales a 1'inteVieur des remparts, car il n'entre pas 
dans notre dessein de franchir les limites de l'enceinte pour battre les 
chemins de la banlieue. Cet apercu suffira pourtant a jeter quelque 
lumiere sur la vie civile de cette peViode lointaine et fournira peut-etre 
quelque inspiration en vue de la restauration de la Jerusalem moderne 
qui n'est autre que la cite* m^dieVale, degraded, d^chue et ruin^e. 
II ne sera pas sans intdret de constater que les denominations passers 
dans l'usage d'alors se trouvaient logiquement fondles soit sur d'ancien- 
nes traditions, soit sur la presence d'un Edifice connu, soit sur la proxi- 
mity d'une corporation ou d'une colonie, constatation qui nous fait 
regretter davantage les modifications imposes a l'Onomastique de 
Jerusalem par la topographie arbitraire mise en vigueur au cours du 
XV e siecle. Afin d'obtenir plus de clarte - dans l'exposition nous 
traiterons successivement des portes de la ville, des quartiers, des rues, 

G 33 



L'ETAT DE LA CITE DE JERUSALEM AU XIP SIECLE 

des marches, des hospices, des bains, des moulins et des fours, sans 
aborder la question des sanctuaires autrement qu'en relation avec les 
voies auxquelles ils communiquent leur vocable. 

Partes. — En appelant Porte David Tentree occidentale les mddi£- 
vaux ne faisaient que conserver une appellation byzantine provenant 
de la proximite* de la Citadelle qui etait connue sous le nom populaire 
de Tour de David. La Poterne Saint-Ladre, ou Saint Lazare, que 
Ton rencontrait au nord tirait son nom du voisinage de la Maladrerie, 
ou leproserie situee non loin de Tangle nord-ouest de la ville. Cette 
issue secondaire qui a 6t6 retrouvee mure'e dans le jardin des Peres 
Franciscains dtait encore en usage aux environs de 1 500 avec le nom 
de " Porte du Couvent des Serbes." Les Serbes possedaient alors le 
monastere de Saint-Michel contigu a Saint-Sauveur. C'est aussi en 
conformity avec l'usage byzantin que le Moyen-Sge donnait a la porte du 
nord (bab el-'Amoud) le nom de Porte Saint-fetienne, parce qu'elle 
s'ouvrait dans la direction du lieu 011 la tradition primitive avait place* 
le martyre du premier diacre et sur lequel Eudocie avait acheve la 
basilique fondee par le patriarche Juvenal. Au XIP siecle, une chapelle 
perpetuait ce meme souvenir. Ce n'est que bien plus tard que ce 
vocable fut transfere a la porte de Test par quelques Occidentaux, sans 
que toutefois fut abolie la memoire de l'ancienne localisation. Au 
XVIP siecle, le topographe Quaresmius sera contraint de deployer 
toute sa casuistique pour resoudre ce probleme : Porta sancti Stephani 
quomodo cum orientalis sit aquilonaris dici possit ? Comment expliquer 
qu'une porte que les temoins antiques placent au nord puisse se trouver 
a l'orient ? La solution donnee est pitoyable, mais la confusion ne 
s'en est pas moins poursuivie jusqu'a nos jours en vertu de la tendance 
moutonniere des drogmans, des imprimeurs de cartes postales et des 
dresseurs de plans ignorant l'histoire et enclins au moindre effort. 
Les Juifs, si Ton en croit Benjamin de Tudele, nommaient Porte 
d' Abraham la porte septentrionale, reservant le vocable de David a 
notre moderne Porte de Jaffa suivant la coutume generale. II est a 
remarquer, en effet, qu'un plan du Moyen-age place dans les environs 
une eglise Saint-Abraham. 

Dans la muraille qui constituait un renforcement de Tangle nord-est 
du rempart, vis-a-vis de la breche par laquelle Godefroy de Bouillon 
avait penetre dans la ville, les documents signalent la presence de la 
Poterne Sainte-Madeleine qui ne donnait pas imm^diatement dans 

34 






L'ETAT DE LA CITE DE JERUSALEM AU XIP SIECLE 

la campagne mais dans un espace resserre* entre deux murs — " dont on 
ne povoit mie issir au chans, mais entre II murs aloit on." Elle avoisi- 
nait l'^glise jacobite de Sainte-Madeleine. Quant a l'entr^e orientale, 
on 1'appelait commun^ment Porte de Josaphat tant chez les chrdtiens 
que chez les juifs, en raison de sa position sur le bord de la vallde de 
Josaphat. Les itineVaires grecs lui donneront jusqu'a nos jours le 
vocable de Porte de Gethsimani, manifestant ainsi que toute autre 
appellation leur est etrangere. 

La denomination de Poterne de la Tannerie attribute a la moderne 
bab el-Mogharbeh venait de ce qu'elle s'ouvrait vers la piscine de 
Siloe' dont l'eau etait reconnue excellente pour tanner les cuirs. A la 
preparation des peaux qui se pratiquait encore au XV e siecle en cet 
endroit, il faut ajouter la buanderie et l'irrigation des jardins, car l'eau 
de Silod, peu recherch^e comme boisson, ne servait guere qu'a l'industrie 
et a l'arrosage — " De celle aigue, tanoit Ton les cuirs de la cite\ et si 
en lavoit Ton les dras, et en abevreit Ton les jardins, qui estoient desoz 
en la valee." La Porte de Mont-Syon se trouvait directement a l'extr£- 
mite' des deux rues paralleles qui viennent du centre de la ville, de 
sorte que pour plus de commodity l'abbaye du Mont-Syon s'&ait 
fait accorder le droit de percer une porte suppl^mentaire a l'aboutisse- 
ment de la rue des Arm^niens. Cette derniere £tait dite Porte de 
Belcayre, soit a cause du grand square de Tangle sud-ouest du rempart 
(Bellum Quadrum), soit a cause de l'installation des gens de Baucaire 
aux abords de cet angle. On sait en effet que les gens de Raymond de 
Saint-Gilles, apres avoir assiege* la ville de ce cot£, avaient du occuper 
cette region. 

Quartiers. — S'il est difficile de tracer une ligne de demarcation 
bien d^finie entre les diffeVents groupes ethniques qui peuplaient 
alors l'intdrieur de la ville, il n'est pas impossible d'aboutir a une 
repartition geneVale tout en admettant sur certains points une corn- 
penetration inevitable due aux hasards de l'installation qui suivit la 
conquete, a des n^cessit^s commerciales et aux exigences de l'association 
corporative ou de souvenirs religieux. 

Deux quartiers considerables se partageaient le nord de la cite - : 
celui du Patriarche limite* par la rue David et la rue Saint-Etienne, et 
celui des Syriens ou Chretiens indigenes sur la colline du B£zetha. 
Le Quartier du Patriarche r^pondait au quartier chr^tien organise* 
sous Constantin Monomaque. II contenait une quantity de petits 

35 



L'ETAT DE LA CITE DE JERUSALEM AU XII e SIECLE 

monasteres grecs, et autres dont les vocables ont persist^ jusqu'a nos 
jours. Autour du Saint-Sepulcre se pressaient le palais du Patriarche 
ct les batiments du chapitre des Chanoines et, non loin de la, au midi, 
rimposante maison des Hospitallers, ou Chevaliers de Saint-Jean 
et les deux abbayes b£n£dictines : Sainte-Marie Latine et Sainte- 
Marie la Grande. Ce quartier etait done en grande partie 
eccl^siastique. 

Les chre'tiens de langue arabe occupaient la portion de la ville 
comprise entre le Haram et le rempart septentrional, quartier ddsign£ 
sous le nom de yuiverie, sans doute parce que pr£c£demment il abritait 
la petite colonie juive de Jerusalem. Mais on ne la trouve plus la 
au XII e siecle. Les deux cents juifs qui exercent le metier de teinturiers 
dont ils ont le monopole sont alors confines dans un coin de la ville sous 
la Tour de David. 

Les Templiers et les moines de l'Abbaye du Temple se partageaient 
l'esplanade du Haram ou s'elevaient leurs residences, leur arsenal avec 
les ^curies dans les substructions ou Ton parvenait par des portes pra- 
tiques dans le mur meridional. Des jardins occupaient les parties non 
dallees. 

Au sud de la ville les Hermins ou Armeniens sont grouped a 
l'ombre de l'^glise de Saint-Jacques. Les Europeans ou Francs habitent 
le quartier juif actuel, le centre de la ville et les abords du Haram. 
Dans la rue du Mont-Syon les chartes signalent les habitations de 
Guillaume Angevin, de Marie Lachevere, de Jean de Lisbonne, des 
sieurs Turoz, Mahafe, Litart, Jean Raimont ; dans la rue Saint- 
Martin : Richard Capons, Pierre Baron, Guillaume Tortuz, Etienne 
de Cahors, et dans les memes parages le Syrien Seyr et le medecin 
Bulfarage. On retrouve aussi des noms francais dans la rue du Temple 
et sur la ligne nord du Haram. Les Allemands ont une rue et un 
hospice au plus haut point du quartier des synagogues actuel. Des 
Lombards et des Espagnols habitent aux environs du serail turc. 
Benjamin de Tudele est frappe" de la multiplicity des langues qui se 
parlent, et Jean de Wurzbourg se plaint qu'on ait fait la part trop petite 
aux Allemands dans une ville qu'occupent " Francs, Lorrains, Nor- 
mands, Provencaux, Auvergnats, Italiens, Espagnols et Bourguignons." 
Parmi les privileges accorded par le roi aux citis maritimes on compte 
la concession d'une rue aux G^nois, aux Venitiens, aux Pisans et aux 
Marseillais. Les chartes mentionnent en passant une rue d'Espagne ; 

36 



L'ETAT DE LA CITE DE JERUSALEM AU XIP SIECLE 

dans la foule des signatures de contrats nous remarquons ccllcs dc 
plusieurs Anglais. 

Rues. — De la Porte David au Haram on suivait la rue David et 
la rue du Temple desquelles se ddtachaient perpendiculairement vers 
le sud la rue des Hermins (Arm^niens), la rue du Mont-Syon, la rue de 
VArc Judas et la rue aux Allemands, ces deux dern teres unies par la 
rue Saint-Martin. Du cote* septentrional de l'artere David-Temple 
partaient la rue du Patriarche, et le triple bazar : rues aux Herbes, 
rue Malcuisinat et rue Couverte dont nous avons traite* au volume 
prdcddent (No. 65), puis la rue Saint-Julien et la rue des Pelletiers 
qui passant sous la rue du Temple conduisait vers la Poterne de la 
Tannerie. Ce passage couvert nomme - le Pont a 6t6 condamne' sous 
les Mamelouks. 

Au centre de la ville la rue des Paumiers, ou des Syriens vendaient 
des cierges et des palmes que les pelerins rapportaient comme souvenir 
de voyage, aboutissait au parvis du Saint-S<£pulcre, tandis que la rue 
du Sipulcre passait au nord de la basilique desservant le prieure' et le 
patriarcat. Ces deux rues avaient leur point de depart sur la grande 
artere dite rue Saint-£tienne, aujourd'hui Khan ez-Zeit. Au c6te* 
oppose^ c'est-a-dire a Test, s'amorcaient la rue du Marechal (1) qui se 
confondait avec la rue Sainte-Anastasie, la rue Saint-jfean I'Evan- 
gHiste et la rue Saint-Cosme appel^e a faire partie, plus tard, de la voie 
Douloureuse. 

La rue de "Josaphat aboutissait a la porte du meme nom. La rue 
du Repos tirait son nom de la proximite* du moustier eVige' sous ce 
vocable a l'Antonia. 

II y a plus de difficulte a identifier les rues concedes aux cit6s 
maritimes ou a d'autres nationality comme la rue d'Espagne que 
Ton trouve en relation avec Saint-Jean l'Evangdliste. Ainsi en va-t-il 
pour celles qui ne sont d&igndes que par le nom d'un notable qui y 
possddait sa demeure telles que la rue de Girard Lissebonette, la rue de 
Romain du Puy, la rue de Lauremer, etc. 

Marchis. — A 1' inter ieur de la Porte David s'&endait la Place 
au bit, vaste espace reserve* a la vente des ceV^ales et dont la Fonde, 
ou khan servant de Chambre de commerce, n'^tait pas ^loign^e. Les 
villes de la cote n'^taient pas les seules a jouir de cette institution 
composed de jurds Syriens et Francs. Un acte d'Amaury I, en 1 173, 

(1) La rue Marzban de Moudjir ed-Din. 

37 



L'ETAT DE LA CITE DE JERUSALEM AU XIP SIECLE 

mentionne la Fonde de Naplouse " Funda Neapolitana," une charte 
de 1 1 14, celle de Jerusalem (1). 

A l'ombre des abbayes du Mauristan se trouvait le Marche principal 
" ou on vendoit les ces (ceufs), les fromages, les poules et les oisiaux " ; 
les vendeurs de poissons avaient egalement leur place. Tout autour 
s'alignaient les dchoppes des orfevres latins et des orfevres syriens. 
Le triple bazar parallele, a peu de distance de la, abritait les marchands 
de legumes, les cuisiniers-traitants, les coiffeurs et les drapiers. Deux 
banques, l'une a chaque extremite, facilitaient les transactions : le 
Change Latin et le Change Syrien. 

Bouchers, ecorcheurs, cordonniers bordaient la rue du Temple 
au sud de laquelle, dans les terrains vagues, on trouvait la Buflerie ou 
marche" aux bestiaux. Dans la rue voisine les pelletiers preparaient 
peaux et fourrures. Plus proche du Saint-Sepulcre les Syriens vendaient 
leurs draps et fabriquaient des cierges sous une roue voutee. Les 
boutiques des bazars etaient designees sous le nom de stationes. Le 
Saint-Sepulcre en fit construire de nouvelles au Khan ez-Zeit ; Sainte 
Anne et le Temple en possedaient au centre de la ville. 

Moulins et Fours. — Un recensement des revenus de l'Hopital 
(1 170) fait allusion a un moulin a huile de la rue Saint-Etienne (Khan 
ez-Zeit, ou khan de l'huile) — molendinum olivarum in ruga S. Stephani. 
Des moulins a ble se trouvaient en ville concedes a l'abbaye de Josaphat. 
Les Hospitaliers avaient aussi le leur. Celui de Saint-Lazare pres 
la Tour de David fut enleve par la reine Melissende en 1 1 5 1 comme 
nuisible a la Porte et a la Tour. Sur le cbti droit de la rue du Temple 
on voyait la maison du minotier Ldger. 

Les fours sont dissemines par toute la ville. Sauf deux qui sont 
la propriete des Hospitaliers et un appartenant a la Latine, ils relevent 
tous du Saint-Sepulcre. On les signale dans la rue David, devant la 
porte de Saint-Jacques, devant la residence de Rohard le chatelain de 
la Tour, en face de l'eglise Saint-Martin, dans la rue du Mont-Syon, 
vis-a-vis de l'eglise Saint-Thomas des Allemands, devant Saint-Gilles 
vers le Pont, devant la Boucherie, vers la Tannerie, dans les rues 
Malcuisinat, d'Anastasie et du Repos, trois au quartier syrien (Juiverie) : 
a Saint-Helie, a Sainte-Agnes, et celui de Martin Karaon ; d'autres 
dans les rues de Girard de Lisbonne, de Tremailes et de Saint-Etienne, 

(1) Le patriarche percevait les dimes de la Fonde, qui appartenait a son quartier. Un 
plan medieval situe une eglise Saint-Georges in Funda pres de la Place au ble. 

38 



L'ETAT DE LA CITE DE JERUSALEM AU XIP SIECLE 

pres de Saint-Chariton, devant la porte du Saint-Sdpulcre, pres de 
Saint-Pastor. 

Hospices, Bains, etc. — Les pterins latins trouvaient ais^ment a 
loger dans les vastes salles de l'Hopital Saint-Jean qui recevait aussi 
les pauvres et les malades. Les abbayes avaient dgalement leurs h6tel- 
leries ou les voyageurs ^taient h^berg^s. Un plan de 1180 marque 
deux tavernes sur la rue du Mont-Syon. Les Hongrois avaient un 
pied-a-terre a quelque distance au nord du Saint-S6pulcre, les Alle- 
mands a Sainte-Marie sur la rue qui portait leur nom. Les Orientaux 
devaient se loger dans leurs quartiers, autour de leurs ^glises, les 
Arm^niens a Saint-Jacques, les Jacobites a Sainte-Madeleine, les 
Grecs a la mdtochie de Saint-Sabas pres la Tour de David ou encore a 
l'hospice dependant du monastere du Sinai. 

Une bulle de 11 79 fait mention des bains [balnea) que possede 
Tabbaye du Mont-Syon a 1'inteVieur des murs. Les restes d'une 
installation baln^aire retrouv^s en 1870 du c6te* de Mb es-Silsileh 
nous reportent au bain signale - en 1229 a proximity de la Boucherie. 
Les bains du Patriarche alimented par l'eau du birket Hammam el- 
Batrak (lac des bains du Patriarche) sont encore bien connus quoique 
abandonn^s. Aux abords de l'dglise Saint-Martin il existait aussi 
un bain. Les autres n'ont aucune mention sp^ciale. 

La porcherie du Patriarche confinait des terrains vagues situ^s 
vers Tangle nord-ouest du cote* de la Tour de Tancrede. 

Pres de la Porte Saint-fitienne on marque un palatium appartenant 
a Sainte-Marie Latine. Quant au palais royal et a la citadelle nous 
n'avons rien a ajouter a ce qui a 6t6 dit au volume pre^dent, No. 61. 

Les voutes de certaines rues apparaissent a maintes reprises dans 
les chartes, en particulier celles du Change de l'Hopital, de Robert, 
de Roger l'Anglais sur la rue du Temple, de Sainte-Marie la Petite 
dans la rue des Drapiers, et sous les maisons de Robert le Hongrois. 
M Presque toutes les rues, dcrit Theodoric en 1 1 72, sont construites 
dans le bas avec de grandes dalles, au-dessus la plupart ont des voutes 
de pierre, perches de jours de distance en distance. Les maisons 
elevens en appareil soigne* se terminent non pas avec des toits inclines 
comme chez nous, mais avec des terrasses planes, propres a recevoir l'eau 
des pluies que Ton recueille dans des citernes pour l'usage des habitants 
qui n'usent pas d'autre eau. Les bo is propres a l'industrie ou au chauffage 
sont chers, car le Liban, qui seul abonde en cedres, en cypres et en pins, 

39 



L'ETAT DE LA CITE DE JERUSALEM AU XIP SIECLE 

est trop eloigne" et les embuscades des ennemis en rendent l'acces 
impossible." Les observations de Rey [Les Colonies Franques de 
Syrie, p. 238) sur l'dtat forestier de la Syrie et de la Palestine corrigent 
ce que cette derniere reflexion d'un voyageur de passage pr&ente de 
trop absolu. 

F. M. Abel, 
Prof, a l'Ecole Biblique et Archeologique de 
Saint-Etienne, Jerusalem. 



40 



Extracts from the Diary of a 
Franciscan Pilgrim of the i 6th Century 

Contributed by H. C. Luke 

Note. — The hitherto unpublished Latin manuscript, from which I translate the 
following extracts concerning Jerusalem, came into my possession some twelve years 
ago. The manuscript, which is entitled " A Pilgrimage from Rome to Jerusalem," is 
unsigned and undated, but, from internal evidence, must have been written somewhere 
about 1560. All that the manuscript reveals of its author is that he was a member of 
the Franciscan Order and a native of Italy. — H. C. L. 

" Having arrived in the Holy City of Jerusalem we were lodged 
with the friars of St. Francis, on Mount Zion, although not in the 
convent, from which our friars have been expelled. The Turks 
and the Moors occupy that place as a mosque, together with the Holy 
Casnaculum and the Chapel of the Holy Ghost, which descended 
upon the Apostles on the day of Pentecost. The sites of other miracles, 
which took place on Mount Zion, are also in the hands of the Turks ; 
and then they took the Csenaculum and the Chapel of the Holy Ghost, 
and, eight years later, the cloister. In the year 1552 they seized, a 
little at a time, the whole of the monastery and large church which 
was situated at the side of the Cxnaculum, on the very spot where 
Christ said to Thomas, Infer manum tuam. Behind the convent there 
is a stone, set in a wall so that it may not be lost, which is said to have 
been transported by an angel from Mount Sinai. Close by the place 
where stood this church are many other holy sites, such as the place 
where the Virgin Mary passed from this life to the other ; where she 
was anointed ; where the Apostle John the Evangelist celebrated mass. 
Some say that the Virgin Mary lived in these buildings for fourteen 
years after Christ's Ascension. Here, too, is the place where St. James 
the Less was elected Bishop of Jerusalem ; the place where the lot for 
the Apostolate fell upon Matthias ; where Christ sent the Apostles 
out to preach ; where St. Stephen the Protomartyr was buried by his 
followers after he had been stoned, although his body, with that of St. 
Lawrence, lies in Rome, without the walls. Many other wonders 
took place in this church, of which vestiges still remain. The Cjena- 

h 41 



DIARY OF A FRANCISCAN PILGRIM 

culum and the Chapel of the Holy Ghost were at the side of the said 
church, somewhat higher up. We there observed a stone commemo- 
rating the spasm of the Blessed Virgin, who was as though dead when 
she saw her Son despised upon the cross. This stone was preserved 
and carried into the said monastery ; and, so that it should not be 
lost, the friars took care to place it in the lintel of one of the doors of 
the monastery. 

" Beyond Mount Zion, by the city wall, is to be seen the place 
where the Jews wished to stop the coffin containing the body of the 
Blessed Virgin when the Apostles were carrying her to burial in the 
Valley of Jehoshaphat ; but, as they did so, their arms and hands 
became rigid. At that time this place and the Mount were within 
the city. Ascending in this direction we found the cave where Peter 
wept bitterly after having denied Jesus Christ. From this place is 
seen the brook Kidron, which is now spanned by a small stone bridge. 
From this bridge, towards the upper part of the valley, begins the 
Valley of Jehoshaphat, which is not very long nor very wide : it is 
perhaps a mile in length and a stone's throw, or perhaps a little more, 
in width. Below the bridge is the Valley of Siloam. In this brook 
the poor friars have been living, since their expulsion in 1552, in the 
place where stood their bakery. Here they celebrate, eat, and sleep, 
and bake the bread for themselves and for the religious of the Holy 
Sepulchre and of Bethlehem. These are things that would provoke 
tears if they were taken more deeply into consideration by our superiors 
and by the Pope. If the Almighty had not provided, everything 
would have been taken away from them. The monastery of Mount 
Zion stands outside the city ; we were accommodated in a place close 
to it, also outside the city, because the Turk, in the year 1 548, caused 
the city to be enclosed within a new wall, changing the line of the 
old one. Thus the city has been contracted on the south, where is 
Mount Zion, and enlarged towards the north ; and so the convent of 
Mount Zion, which was formerly within the city, is now outside it. 
The converse is the case of the Holy Sepulchre, which once was without, 
but is now within, the city, together with Mount Calvary. 

" Having obtained permission from the Saracen monks who, 
against money, give permission to enter by night the convent of Mount 
Zion, and having received the keys, we were able, together with the 
monks, to visit the Holy Casnaculum, where Jesus Christ supped with 
42 



DIARY OF A FRANCISCAN PILGRIM 

His disciples, where He instituted the Sacrament of the Eucharist, 
and where He washed the feet of the Apostles. There is still to be seen 
the stone marking the place where Jesus pronounced that divine dis- 
course after the supper (John xiii., sqq.) ; now the Caenaculum is a 
Saracen mosque. Above the Caenaculum is the Chapel of the Holy 
Ghost. In the middle is a wall which the Saracens have discovered. 
The Caenaculum is eleven paces long and seven paces wide. Below 
the Caenaculum we saw the cell where the Virgin Mary lived for several 
years after the ascension of Christ into heaven, and another, which 
housed St. John the Evangelist. David and Solomon are said to lie 
buried in an underground place ; we know from Holy Writ that their 
sepulchre is on Mount Zion (3 Kings ii. and xi. : Sepultus est in ciuitate 
David patris su't). For this reason the Saracens consider us unworthy 
of [owning] these places, where lie buried their Patriarchs David and 
Solomon ; for they hold the Patriarchs in great esteem, making them 
to be descended from the race of Mohammed. On this account they 
took away the holy monastery, having obtained it from the Grand 
Turk. In the year of the capture of the island of Rhodes [1521] 
there was only water in the brook when it rained. At the brook is a 
tomb, which some say is that of Absalom, others that of King Jehosha- 
phat, whence the valley is called the Valley of Jehoshaphat. Close to 
it is the valley and the garden of Gethsemane, and, near by in the 
Valley of Jehoshaphat, the tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary, within 
a church. Twenty paces from this church, on Olivet, is a cave where 
Christ prayed many times and sweated drops of blood for us. It is 
a holy underground place, down which one descends eight steps ; 
almost in the middle is an open hole and within are pillars carved of 
the very rock of the cave. Here mass is said at times, especially in 
Holy Week. In these places there are many indulgences. By the 
entrance to Gethsemane is the place where Christ left the eight apostles 
and took with Him the other three, namely Peter, James, and John, 
and after a little while enjoined them to stop and watch while He went 
to the aforesaid cave and prayed to the Father. 



" Before the entrance to the Holy Sepulchre each pilgrim pays nine 
castellani ; then come four or five Turkish officials to open the gate, 
together with their scribe, and when they have taken the names of 

43 



DIARY OF A FRANCISCAN PILGRIM 

the pilgrims and of their countries and have increased the amount of 
the fee, they open the gate with much to-do with their keys, taking 
away the seal. Having entered, we saluted the religious who live 
therein, and, all together, preceded by the cross, went in procession 
to visit the holy places in this great church, the friars at every holy 
place saying the appropriate prayers, followed by an antiphon. The 
Turks then closed and sealed the gate and went away, not returning until 
the next day or two days after. In the meantime the pilgrims consoled 
themselves with many visits to the holy places, above all to the Holy 
Sepulchre of Christ, a spot worthy of all veneration. . . . This 
sepulchre is built from east to west, for, when the sun rises, it enters 
by the larger chapel through the aforesaid door of the Holy Sepulchre. 
In the edicule, which, as I have said, is square (although the inside 
chapels are almost round), is a small chapel belonging to the Coptic 
Christians. ... In perambulating the church, which is very 
large, we visited the green (i) stone on which Christ was anointed 
after His death. Close to this is the place where the Virgin Mary, 
with the other women, watched from afar when they placed Jesus 
Christ upon the cross ; it is distant a good stone's throw from Calvary. 
Afterwards we visited Mount Calvary, ascending to it by nineteen steps. 
There is the chapel where Jesus was crucified upon the cross. This 
chapel belongs to the friars of St. Francis. There are many lamps in 
the place, and beside it is the place where the cross was erected and 
placed in the hole, which is now to be seen surrounded with silver. 
The hole in the rock is a cubit in depth and a hand's breadth in width ; 
it is round. This chapel belongs to the Greeks. At the sides of the 
holes are two columns, showing where were set up the crosses of the 
thieves. To the right of the chapel is the rock which was rent when 
Christ died : quia petrce scissce sunt. Underneath this same chapel, 
almost below the hole of the cross, is the place where was found the 
head of Adam, and the rent in the rock comes down as far as here. 
Having descended from Mount Calvary we saw six or seven tombs of 
Kings of this city, among them that of Godfrey of Bouillon, and of 
King Baldwin. . . . Around the church live the representatives of 
all the Christian nations, who have their special places and their lamps 
here ; those who live here are either priests or members of religious 
orders. First come the friars of St. Francis ; secondly, the Greeks ; 
(i) The present Stone of Unction is a slab of pink marble. — H. C. L. 

44 



DIARY OF A FRANCISCAN PILGRIM 

thirdly, the Syrians ; fourth, the Jacobites ; fifth, the Georgians ; 
sixth, the Abyssinians ; seventh, the Copts ; eighth, the Nestorians ; 
ninth, the Armenians. Our friars of the Holy Sepulchre own twelve 
lamps in the chapel [of the Holy Sepulchre], and the other nations 
have also some." 

H. C; Luke. 



45 



The Christian Communities in 
the Holy Sepulchre 

By H. C. Luke 

Among the features which separate the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre from the other sanctuaries of Christendom is the fact that it 
is not served by a single community, but is shared by many Christian 
denominations. This circumstance has been the controlling element 
in its history since the end of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem. 
Its annals are primarily concerned with the claims to its shrines and 
chapels of the Churches of East and West, and with the fluctuations of 
their boundaries within its walls. In the following pages I have 
attempted to give a very rapid yet continuous survey of this aspect 
of the Holy Sepulchre's history : a comprehensive one would easily 
fill several volumes. It will involve, when it comes to be under- 
taken, not only a study of the countless works, both manuscript and 
printed, of the pilgrims and other travellers, who in the course of 
seven centuries have written accounts of the Holy Sepulchre ; it will 
also necessitate a critical examination of many Firmans in Arabic, in 
Turkish, and in the Tataro-Arabic jargon employed by some of the 
Caucasian Mamelukes of Egypt, which the Moslem rulers of Palestine 
granted to the several communities in the Holy Sepulchre. The circum- 
stance that these Firmans are not infrequently in contradiction with 
one another will not lighten the difficulties of the Holy Places Commis- 
sion, when that body is constituted and has begun to address itself to 
the prosecution of its task. 

In 1009, when Palestine lay within the dominions of the Fatimite 
Khalifs of Egypt, the eccentric and tyrannical Khalif Hakim bi-amr- 
Illah ordered the destruction of the group of buildings, whose successors 
were subsequently to be united into the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 
The buildings of Constantine, as restored by the Patriarch Modestus 
after their sack by the Persians in 614, were razed to the ground, or 
almost to the ground ; only those parts of the foundations " whose 
demolition was difficult " and whose stones " could not be torn out 
without much trouble " (1) were suffered to remain. Eleven years 
later the Patriarch Nicephorus, who had previously been a carpenter 

(1) Yahia Ibn Sa'id, quoted by Vincent and Abel, Jerusalem, vol. ii., p. 249. 
46 



CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES IN HOLY SEPULCHRE 

in Hakim's employ, made use of his acquaintance with the Khalif to 
secure permission for the Christians to resume their services " suivant 
n'importe quel rite ou n'importe quelle croyance . . . dans l'enceintc 
dite de 1'^glise de la Qi&meh et sur ses ruines " (i). Finally, twenty- 
nine years after its destruction, the Church of the Anastasis — that is, 
the Church surmounting the Tomb of the Saviour — was restored at 
the expense of the Emperor Constantine Monomachus. The restora- 
tion of Monomachus did not extend to the Martyrium, that is to say, 
to the buildings which had been erected over the sites of our Lord's 
Passion ; it was left to the Crusaders, after the establishment of the 
Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, to unite Anastasis and Martyrium, 
together with their dependent chapels and shrines, into one compre- 
hensive cathedral. Partly by utilizing and adapting the existing 
buildings, mostly by new constructions, they left a church which to 
some extent in fabric, wholly in outline, is the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre as we know it to-day. 

While we read that, in the new cathedral, the Orthodox retained 
their former altar under the Triumphal Arch (2) together with the 
chapel in which was preserved their reliquary of the True Cross (3), 
and that the Armenians owned a chapel just within St. Mary's Gate (4), 
that mediaeval porch, now walled up, which is situated in Christian 
Street immediately to the north of the present police post, the Latins 
were paramount in the church during the existence of the Latin 
Kingdom. Nevertheless, even at this time, most of the Eastern Churches 
celebrated their services under the roof of the Holy Sepulchre. In 
his Libellus de Locis Sanctis (5) the monk Theodoric, writing about 
1 172, gives the following account of the arrangements then in force: 
" Before the door of the choir is an altar of no small size, which, how- 
ever, is only used by the Syrians (6) in their services. When the daily 
Latin services are over the Syrians are wont to sing their hymns either 
there outside the choir, or in one of the apses of the church ; indeed, 
they have several small altars in the church, arranged and devoted to 
their own peculiar use. These are the religious sects which celebrate 
divine service in the church at Jerusalem : the Latins, Syrians, 

(1) Vincent and Abel, vol. cit., p. 250. (2) Ibid., p. 266. 

(3) Ibid., pp. 269-70. (4) Ibid., p. 269. 

(5) English version published by the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, London, 1891. 

(6) Theodoric distinguishes between the Orthodox Arabs and the Orthodox Greeks. 

47 



CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES IN HOLY SEPULCHRE 

Armenians, Greeks (i), Jacobites, and Nubians. All these differ from 
one another in language and in their manner of conducting divine 
service. The Jacobites use trumpets on their feast days, after the 
fashion of the Jews." 

The Crusaders lost Jerusalem to Saladin in 1187, regained it 
under the Emperor Frederick II for the decade 1 229-1 239, and after 
that held it no more, although the Latin Kingdom maintained its 
foothold in the Holy Land until Acre, its last outpost, fell to the Mame- 
luke Melek al-Ashraf in 1291. After 1239 the Saracens took control 
of the Holy Sepulchre, and gave the custody of its keys to the two 
Moslem families whose descendants still retain it. The end of 
undisputed Latin supremacy in the Holy Sepulchre synchronized with 
the end of Latin rule in Jerusalem ; by the consent of the Moslem 
rulers, given in accordance with the ability to pay the heavy fees which 
they exacted, the Eastern Churches now secured their shares in the 
fabric (2). The Latin clergy were not expelled from the church, but 
by 1333 the Augustinian Canons of the Latin Kingdom are replaced 
by the Franciscans, who are henceforth the representatives of Latin 
Christianity in the Holy Sepulchre. By 1335 three Orthodox monks 
are established within it (3), and are soon followed by representatives 
of the other Eastern Churches, who, as we have seen from the extract 
from Theodoric's Libellus quoted above, were celebrating their services 
in it two centuries previously. The small chapel then known as 
St. Mary of Golgotha (now St. Mary of Egypt), which is the lower of 
the two chapels that occupy the projecting building in the north-east 
corner of the parvis, belonged to the Abyssinians (and is now Orthodox); 
the chapel of St. Michael (now in the hands of the Copts), which 
adjoins it on the south, then belonged to the Georgians, or, according 
to some authorities, to the Jacobites ; that of St. John the Baptist, now 
St. James (the southern neighbour of St. Michael), belonged then, as 
it does now, to the Armenians. Ludolf of Sudheim, in 1348, finds 
" Latins, Greeks, Armenians, Nubians, Syrians and Georgians " in 
occupation, and also mentions the Nestorians — as pessimi heretici. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the Holy Sepulchre was now 

(1) Theodoric distinguishes between the Orthodox Arabs and the Orthodox Greeks. 

(2) Cf. Jeffery, A Brie] Description of the Holy Sepulchre, etc., Cambridge, 1919, 
pp. 30-31. 

(3) Vincent and Abel, vol. ciu, p. 291. 

48 



CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES IN HOLY SEPULCHRE 

accessible to all Churches, the Latins were still able, in the fifteenth 
century, to maintain a predominant position, largely thanks to the 
protection afforded to them by the Dukes of Burgundy. The man 
who obtained for them this assistance was the Burgundian knight 
Bertrandon de la Brocquiere, perhaps the most interesting of the 
travellers and pilgrims of the fifteenth century. This nobleman, who 
visited Jerusalem in 1432, was esquire carver to the Duke of Burgundy, 
and it was his account of the condition of the Christians in the Holy 
Land that led his master to exert himself to fortify the position of the 
Latins in the Holy Sepulchre. De la Brocquiere's description of his 
travels ( 1 ), while full of life and picturesque detail, is marked by 
accuracy and good sense, and betrays none of the credulity of so many 
of his predecessors. This is his account of the various branches of 
Christianity which he found in the Holy Sepulchre : " Among the 
free Christians there are but two Cordeliers who inhabit the Holy 
Sepulchre, and even they are oppressed by the Saracens ; I can speak 
of it from my own knowledge, having been witness of it for two 
months. In the Church of the Holy Sepulchre reside also many other 
sorts of Christians, Jacobites, Armenians, Abyssinians from the country 
of Prester John, and Christians of the girdle ; but of these the Franks 
suffer the greatest hardships." 

Largely. in consequence, no doubt, of the efforts of the Duke of 
Burgundy, the Latins improved their position to such an extent that 
before the end of the century they held the keys of the chapel surmount- 
ing the Tomb itself (2), and, among other shrines, the chapel of St. 
Mary and an altar on Calvary. The Chorus Dominorum and the 
Prison of Christ belonged as now to the Orthodox. In the Chapel of 
Calvary the Georgians took the place of the Armenians, who acquired 
instead a portion (which they still hold) of the galleries in the Rotunda. 
The Dominican Felix Faber of Ulm, in his discursive Evagatorium (3), 
whose epistle dedicatory is dated 1484, assigns to the Georgians 
Calvary and the chapel beneath it, together with the chapel of the 

(1) Included, in an English version, in Wright, Early Travels in Palestine, London, 
1848. 

(2) Having dispossessed the Georgians, who held them at the time of the pilgrimage 
of Ludolf of Sudheim. 

(3) Translated and published by the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, 2 vols., London, 
1892. 

I 49 



CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES IN HOLY SEPULCHRE 

Invention of the Cross ; to the Jacobites the Stone of Unction and 
" a small chapel adjoining the Lord's monument " ; to the Abyssinians 
the Chapel of Derision, which is now in the hands of the Orthodox (i). 

Two other fifteenth-century pilgrims deserve special notice in 
this connexion. The Franciscan Francesco Suriano, who was subse- 
quently to become, for two periods, " Guardian of Mount Zion," that 
is to say, the head of the Franciscan Missions in the Holy Land, com- 
pleted the first text of his Trattato (2) in 1485. In the twenty-third 
chapter of Golubovich's edition, which reproduces the second of the 
three texts of the Trattato, Suriano enumerates ten partners in the 
Holy Sepulchre, namely, Latins, Maronites, Greeks, Georgians, Abys- 
sinians, Copts, Jacobites, Syrians or Christians of the Girdle, Armenians, 
and Nestorians ; and in the ten subsequent chapters he gives a mass 
of interesting (also outspoken and, it is to be feared, at times uncharit- 
able) particulars of each. He does not, as a rule, define the portions 
of the Holy Sepulchre occupied by the several Churches, being more 
concerned with the " putrid heresies " of those not in communion 
with Rome ; but of the Nestorians, concerning whom the notices of 
mediaeval writers in this connexion are scantier than are those dealing 
with the other Eastern Churches (3), he says that they own an altar 
by what is now the sacristy of the Franciscans. 

In the interesting description (4) of his pilgrimage to Jerusalem 
in 1494 Pietro Casola, Canon of Milan Cathedral, enumerates nine 
communities as sharing the ownership of the Holy Sepulchre, namely, 
Latins, Greeks, Georgians, Armenians, Abyssinians, Syrians, Maronites, 
Jacobites, and people whom he calls Golbites. He describes the 
Orthodox occupancy of the Chorus Dominorum, and states that the 
chapel of the Jacobites is behind the Tomb itself ; while Calvary belongs 
to the Georgians and the Chapel of Derision to the Abyssinians. He 
finds the Armenians in possession of a " chapel which goes down by 
many steps under Mount Calvary " — perhaps meaning thereby the 

(1) Cf. vol. i., pp. 431-439- 

(2) 77 Trattato di Terra Santa e delV Oriente, edited by Father G. Golubovich, O.F.M., 
Milan, 1900. 

(3) For the Nestorians in the Holy Sepulchre, cf. also Amico, Trattato delle Piante , . . 
di Terra Santa, p. 32. 

(4) Margaret Newett, Canon Pietro Casola's Pilgrimage to Jerusalem in the year 141)4, 
Manchester University Press, 1907. 

50 



CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES IN HOLY SEPULCHRE 

Chapel of St. Helena. By " Golbites " the Canon presumably means 
the Copts. 

Although Casola does not, as do some of the pilgrims, assign a 
part of the Holy Sepulchre to the " Christians of the Girdle," he refers 
to them on several occasions in the course of his narrative as having 
communities in Jerusalem, Ramleh, and elsewhere in Palestine. It 
may not be out of place, therefore, to ask ourselves who exactly were 
these people, these Christiani del la cintura. Most of the mediaeval 
authors refer to them as if they were a sect apart. Thus Sir John 
Maundeville, no very reliable guide, it is true, in enumerating the 
sects of Syria and Palestine, says : " There are others who are called 
Christians of the girdle, because they are all girt above." Roberto da 
Sanseverino, writing of Jerusalem in 1458, states that "the Christians 
of the Girdle are so called because their ancestors were converted by 
the miracles performed by Saint Thomas the Apostle with the girdle of 
the glorious Virgin Mary, which he received from her when she ascended 
into heaven. In remembrance of this, and in sign of devotion, when 
they enter the churches for worship, they put on a girdle made like 
those sold for the measure of the Holy Sepulchre. According to what 
people say the girdle they wear is exactly like that of the glorious 
Virgin." Similar accounts are given by Santo Brasca and other pil- 
grims (1) ; while Faber goes yet farther astray in blending Georgians, 
Nubians, and "Christians of the Cincture" into one impossible 
identity. Suriano is nearer the truth when he describes the eighth 
in his list of sects in the Holy Sepulchre as Syriani, zioi christiani de 
la Centura. And Bertrandon de la Brocquiere, who, as we have seen, 
includes them among the tenants of the Sepulchre, also refers to them, 
as does Casola, as inhabiting villages in Palestine. No foreign eastern 
sect would then be mingled with the local population in Palestinian 
villages ; and it may be assumed with safety that the " Christians of 
the Girdle " were none other than the local native Orthodox Christians, 
the people who would now be described as the Arabophone flock 
of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The mediaeval writers 
almost invariably distinguish between the Orthodox Arabs on the 
one hand, and their hierarchy and monks in the Holy Sepulchre, 
who were mainly Greeks by race, on the other. The appellation " of 
the Girdle " may have originated from the edict issued by the 

(1) Casola, p. 386, note 77. 

5* 



CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES IN HOLY SEPULCHRE 

persecuting Khalif Mutawakil in a.d. 856, whereby Christians and 
Jews in his dominions were ordered to wear broad girdles of leather. 

The sixteenth century witnesses the beginning of a change in 
the balance of power in the Holy Places. The conquest of Palestine 
by Sultan Selim I in 15 17 from the Mameluke rulers of Egypt 
and the incorporation of the country within the Ottoman Empire 
inaugurates a renaissance of Orthodox influence at the expense of 
the Latins ; and the Franciscans in Jerusalem are beset in the course 
of the century with many difficulties, such as the loss of the 
Casnaculum in 1547. 

In the Holy Sepulchre the position is not materially altered, but 
in 1537 (or 1 571) (1) the Copts erected a small chapel back to back with 
that covering the Tomb (2). This chapel shared the fate of the Rotunda 
in the fire of 1808, but, with it, was afterwards rebuilt in its present 
form. The anonymous sixteenth-century Franciscan, from whose 
manuscript description of the Holy Places I have translated extracts 
in the previous chapter, enumerates, as we have seen, the Latins, 
Greeks, Syrians, Jacobites, Georgians, Abyssinians, Copts, Nestorians, 
and Armenians as the occupants of the church. 

An informative description of the Holy Sepulchre and its com- 
munities in the latter half of the sixteenth century is given by the 
Dutch traveller Dr. Leonhart Rauwolff (3), who visited Jerusalem in 
1575. As permanent denizens of the Holy Sepulchre Rauwolff 
mentions the Latins, Abyssinians, Greeks, Armenians, Georgians, 
Nestorians, Syrians, and "Jacobites or Golti." It is to be noted that 
by " Syrians " he means Jacobites (he states that they own, as they do 
to this day, the House of St. Mark in the south-east quarter of Jerusa- 
lem), and that his " Jacobites or Golti " are the Copts. Of the Maronites 
he says that " these live not continually in the Temple of Mount 
Calvaria, but go often thither on Pilgrimages." In his careful account 
of the Holy Sepulchre Rauwolff places the Latins where they are at 
present, and the Orthodox in the Chorus Dominorum, also in Calvary, 

(1) Vincent and Abel, vol. cit., p. 294. 

(2) Zuallardo, in 1587, speaks of an altar in the Holy Sepulchre used by " Goffiti 
Indiani." Can he be referring to the Church of Malabar, originally an offshoot of the 
Nestorian Church, but now in greater part in communion with the Jacobites ? 

(3) An English version of Rauwolff's work is included in John Ray, A Collection of 
Curious Travels and Voyages, London, 1693. 

52 



CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES IN HOLY SEPULCHRE 

" which they forced from the Georgians, as they [sc. the Georgians] 
did before from the Armenians, by giving money to the Turks." 
The Copts have " the chapel behind the Sepulchre of Christ " ; the 
Abyssinians " live in the Temple of Mount Calvaria, just by the 
church door towards the left, and have through their Lodging a peculiar 
way, so that without hindrance, according to their pleasure, they may 
go in and out." The Georgians " are also possessed of their peculiar 
places, wherein they sing and exercise the Offices, and chiefly of one 
in the Church of Mount Calvaria, in the place near the Sepulchre of 
our Lord Christ, where He did first appear unto Mary Magdalen in 
the similitude of a Gardener, after His Resurrection." Of the 
Nestorians Rauwolff only says that " some of their Priests live upon the 
Mount Calvaria in the Temple," without specifying the precise locality. 
The first half of the seventeenth century is mainly occupied by 
the struggle, which had now come to a head, between the Orthodox 
and the Latins for supremacy within the Holy Sepulchre. The 
former had as their spokesman in the capital the Oecumenical Patriarch, 
the latter were powerfully supported by successive French Ambassadors 
to the Porte. The battle raged most fiercely, with varying fortunes, 
during the years 1 630-1 637, Sultan Murad IV being then on the throne. 
In this brief period the right of pre-eminence {pra •dominium) in the 
Holy Places principally concerned, namely, the Holy Sepulchre, the 
Church of the Tomb of the Virgin near Gethsemane and the Basilica 
of the Nativity at Bethlehem, alternated no fewer than six times 
between the two protagonists (1). Finally, in October, 1637, Theo- 
phanes III, Patriarch of Jerusalem, obtained of the Sultan a Firman in 
favour of the Orthodox, and thereupon the dispute remained quiescent 
until it broke out with renewed violence at Easter, 1674. The English 
Ambassador to the Porte was then Sir John Finch, his French colleague 
the Marquis de Nointel ; but the lengthy negotiations now inaugurated 
with Sultan Mehmed IV, in which these diplomatists took a large share, 
left the matter, on the whole, in statu quo ante (2). 

(1) These events are related, from somewhat different points of view, in Papado- 
poulos, 'Icrropia Trjs 'JS/c/cXTjo-ia? ' IepocroXvfuov, Jerusalem, 1910, ch. 7, and Golubovich, 
/ Frati Minori nel Possesso de' Luoghi Santi di Gerusalemme e i falsi Firmani posseduti 
dai Greco-Elleni, Florence, 1921. The Latin position is also summarized in the same 
writer's La Questione de' Luoghi Santi (extracted from the Archivum Franciscanum 
Historicum, vol. xiv), pp. 6-9. 

(2) Cf. Abbott, Under the Turk in Constantinople, London, 1920, pp. 116 sqq. 

53 



CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES IN HOLY SEPULCHRE 

This century also saw the decline of some of the Eastern Churches 
in the Holy Sepulchre, the complete withdrawal of others. The 
Georgians, unable, owing to the exactions imposed by Persia on the 
Georgian Kingdom, to afford any longer the heavy dues demanded 
by the Turkish Government, retired from the church about 1644 ; 
a quarter of a century later the Abyssinians were forced to retreat to 
the roof of St. Helena's chapel, where they remain to the present day ; 
we now hear no more of Nestorian participation in the fabric. Of 
the Maronite holdings we also hear no more : henceforth the Uniate 
Churches are represented in the Holy Sepulchre by the Latins. 

In view of the outstanding position so long occupied by the 
Georgians in the Holy City, I may perhaps be permitted the following 
quotation from what I have written elsewhere (1) : " An Armenian 
historian says of the Georgian Queen Tamara (reigned 11 84-1 2 12) : 
' Tamara made a treaty of peace with the Sultan of Damascus. . . . 
From that time the Sultan has treated the Christians more humanely . . . 
taxes on the monasteries are reduced . . . the pillage of pilgrims 
travelling to Jerusalem is forbidden, especially if they are Georgians. . . . 
They (sc. the Georgians) are free from taxation in the Empire of the 
Sultans and in Jerusalem, where Tamara was held in great esteem.' 
According to another Armenian chronicler ' only the Georgians had 
the right to enter Jerusalem with flying colours and without paying 
tribute. The Saracens dare not insult them.' Indeed, from the early 
days of Christianity the Georgians occupied a very special position in 
Jerusalem and the Holy Land. They ranked fourth in the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre, where they owned the Chapel of the Invention of 
the Cross, and at one time they possessed eleven religious establishments 
in and around the Holy City. Dositheus I, Patriarch of Jerusalem, a 
contemporary of Queen Tamara, wrote that ' the pious Kings of 
Iberia have always been the protectors of the Holy Sepulchre and other 
sacred sites.' In so late a period as the sixteenth century the Georgians 
enjoyed immunities conceded to no other Christians in Jerusalem ; 

(1) Luke, Anaiolica, London, 1924, ch. 10. For the Georgians in Jerusalem, cf. also 
Tsagareli, Pamyatniki Grusinskoi Starinui v Svyatoi Zemlje i na Sinaje, in No. 10 of the 
Review of the Russian Orthodox Palestine Society (Pravoslavnuii Palestinskii Sbornik), 
Petrograd, 1888 ; extracts from Georgian codices in the Athonite monastery of Iveron, 
given by Themeles in ' EicaTovTaeTT)pl$ rov Uavtepov Naov rfjs 'AvacrTdo-ecos, Jerusalem, 
1910, pp. 152-3 ; Williams, The Holy City, 2nd ed., vol. ii. ; Dowling, Sketches of Georgian- 
Church History, London, 1912. 

54 



CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES IN HOLY SEPULCHRE 

and, had not their ancient autocephalous Church been absorbed by the 
Church of Russia when Russia absorbed Georgia, they would be 
there to this day. Their last possession, the Convent of the Holy 
Cross, the death-place of Rustaveli, lying in a shallow valley one and a 
half miles west of the city walls, is now the theological college of the 
Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem ; but Georgian inscriptions are still 
visible in fresco on the walls of the church." 

Another Dutchman, the painter Cornelius van Bruyn (i), visiting 
Jerusalem in 1 68 1, found that " in this Church of the holy Sepulcher 
there are always Nine Latin Priests, whose constant business it is to 
pray to God, and to take care of the holy Places. These are the Chief, 
and invested with the greatest Authority. Of the Greeks there are 
commonly seven ; of the Armenians five, and of the Coptes one. 
There is not a Person that resides there besides them. Formerly the 
Abyssines and Syrians were Resident (2). The Maronites come 
thither and join with the Latins in their publick Offices. The Latins 
are in possession of the greatest part of this Church : the Greeks have 
the Quire and the holy Sepulcher : the Armenians have in the Front 
of the Church a large Court, where they reside ; but the other Christians 
that are there are crpuded into a small Apartment." 

The situation at the close of the seventeenth century is described 
by the Reverend Henry Maundrell, who, as Chaplain to the Factory 
of the English Levant Company at Aleppo, visited Jerusalem in 1697, 
in the following words (3) : " In galleries round about the church, 
and also in little buildings annext to it on the outside, are certain 
apartments for the reception of friars and pilgrims ; and in these places 
almost every Christian nation anciently maintained a small society of 
monks, each society having its proper quarter assigned to it by the 
appointment of the Turks, such as the Latins, Greeks, Syrians, Arme- 
nians, Abyssinians, Georgians, Nestorians, Cophtites, Maronites, etc., 
all which had anciently their several apartments in the church ; but 

(1) The English version was published as A Voyage to the Levant, London, 1702. 

(2) Although the Abyssinians then resided on the roof of St. Helena's Chapel, van 
Bruyn evidently regards that locality as outside the Holy Sepulchre proper. The 
Jacobites, while maintaining their chapel at the western end of the Rotunda, which they 
have never ceased to hold, did not actually reside within the precincts, and are for this 
reason, presumably, omitted. 

(3) A Journey from Ale-ppo to Jerusalem at Easter, i6p?, Oxford, 1703. 

55 




CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES IN HOLY SEPULCHRE 

these have all, except four, forsaken their quarters, not being able to 
sustain the severe rents and extortions which their Turkish landlords 
impose upon them The Latins, Greeks, Armenians, and Cophtites 
keep their footing still ; but of these four the Cophtites have now 
only one poor representative of their nation left ; and the Armenians 
are run so much in debt that it is supposed they are hastening apace 
to follow the examples of their brethren, who have deserted before 
them." 

Maundrell seems to have overlooked the Jacobites, and he says 
nothing of the Abyssinians on the roof of the Chapel of St. Helena ; 
otherwise his account may be regarded as reliable. The eighteenth 
century saw some improvement in the financial position of those whom 
he found tottering on the verge of bankruptcy, and since his day 
there have been no more withdrawals. Gradually, during the eigh- 
teenth century, the respective shares of the surviving communities 
became consolidated, and were not materially affected by the fire of 
1808 and the subsequent reconstruction of the Rotunda. 

The accompanying plan, No. 46, adapted by permission from that 
made by Dr. Schick in 1885 anc * amended by Dr. Mommert in 1898 for 
the German Palestine Society, shows the position of the several com- 
munities as now established under the status quo. It will not, of course, 
have been forgotten that it was an aspect of the question concerning 
the Holy Places which, by exacerbating the general Eastern Question, 
brought about the Crimean War. A settlement was reached in 1878 
at the Congress of Berlin ; and Article LXII of the Treaty of Berlin 
reads as follows : "It is well understood that no alterations can be 
made in the status quo of the Holy Places." Thus it will readily be 
realized how the words status quo have assumed so tremendous a 
significance in matters affecting the Holy Sepulchre, for it is to them 
that appeal is made in all questions which still arise within those sacred 
and much contested walls. 

In conclusion, it may be added that in 1885 the Orthodox Patriarch 
Nicodemus assigned to the Church of England, for the celebration of 
Anglican services, the Chapel of Abraham in the Convent of the same 
name, adjoining Golgotha on the south. This act of courtesy con- 
stitutes a privilege, not a right, and does not imply that the ownership 
of the chapel is vested in the Church of England. 

H. C. Luke. 

56 



The ground-. 



Ortho< 



.766 



WiST 






iM 



Mill 

.41 -. 



Entrap 



Mt.':> ,5 1 -r 



S.h 



:rr 



56] 



The Tiles of the Church of 
St. James of Jerusalem 

By George Antonius 

The Armenian Church of St. James prides itself on the possession 
of a set, unfortunately incomplete, of ceramic tiles of unusual interest. 
They are to be found, for the most part, in the Echmiadzin Chapel on 
the south side of the church, in two vertical rows facing each other, 
of which one adorns the northern and the other the southern walls of 
the chapel. A few more may be seen in a remote part of the convent, 
on the wall of a priest's cell, where they form a quaint dado beneath 
the window-sill. These tiles, of which there are thirty-seven altogether, 
are all that is left of a larger set of three hundred, originally brought to 
Jerusalem in the first quarter of the eighteenth century, by pious 
Armenians. They were votive offerings, as the inscriptions on some 
of them testify, which had been specially ordered and made in Kutahia 
for the decoration of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. But, for 
various reasons, this intention was never fulfilled ; the tiles were set 
up elsewhere. In course of time they were destroyed or scattered, 
and only thirty-seven remain. 

Eight of these tiles are reproduced here (Nos. 47 to 54), by the 
courtesy of M. Christophe A. Nomico, whose learned monograph (1) 
throws fresh and interesting light on their origin and manufacture. 
They are of uniform size, namely, 7 by 7 inches, or rather they were, 
for some have had their edges worn away or have been truncated in the 
process of setting up. The pictures are in bright colours (green, yellow, 
and blue, and sometimes purple and red) on a background which is 
invariably white ; while the subjects are either scenes from the Old 
and New Testaments, or images of saints. They were manufactured in 
Kutahia, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, that is to say, at 
a time when the artistic traditions, if not the processes, of the great 
Anatolian and Syrian ceramists of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
had become virtually extinct and the art of the faience decorator was 

(1) " Ta XpiartaviKa /cepa/xovpyij/iaTa rov 'Ap/ievi/cov IlaTpiapxeiou rmv 'Iepocro- 
\vp.cov," ed. Kasimatis, Alexandria, 1922. 

K 57 



THE ARMENIAN CATHEDRAL OF ST. JAMES 

in decadence. Hence the primitive designs, the crude ornamentation. 
Yet the pictures are not devoid of beauty. Though their perspective 
is rudimentary and the composition of their groups hardly more 
cunning than that of a conscientious child, the effect is one of peculiar 
charm and freshness. The tile representing our Lord's entry into 
Jerusalem (No. 49) is perhaps the most characteristic, both of the naive 
conception of the artist and the fidelity with which he sought to repro- 
duce every detail of the holy episode : the waving of palms and spreading 
of raiments, with an onlooker perched on a tree. Another, which 
represents the beheading of John the Baptist (No. 48), is interesting 
as showing, in the figure of Salome, distinct traces of Persian influence, 
with a distant echo of Chinese mannerisms. 

For it must be remembered that when these tiles were manu- 
factured, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the art of the 
Anatolian ceramist was well-nigh at its lowest ebb and was readily 
influenced by the more individual methods of his Persian neighbour. 
The decline began about the end of the sixteenth century at a time 
when a marked, though somewhat short-lived, revival of this and 
other arts was taking place in Persia. As time went on, the great 
traditions of the earlier centuries were forgotten and lost, and a new 
and inferior art arose, confined almost exclusively to Kutahia and to 
the fabrication of small objects, such as plates, cups, tiles, and egg- 
shaped ornaments. The artisans were Armenian Christians who could 
copy, albeit clumsily, the processes of their predecessors, but lacked 
their decorative genius. Moreover, they were gradually turning their 
art to new uses. Hitherto, they had worked exclusively for their 
Turkish masters whose houses and mosques they had adorned. But 
now the great age of building had passed, and they turned their attention 
to their own needs, to their houses and their churches. Christian 
decoration, however, involved saints with human figures, of which 
there were in Asia Minor no traditions to observe or models to copy. 
Hence the primitive designs, and the immature drawing, in these 
tiles which are a fair sample of the production of the period. Their 
manufacture shows that the ceramists of Kutahia could still imitate the 
processes of the sixteenth century, with a fair measure of success ; but 
the pictorial talent in them is rude and primitive, as of an art in its 
infancy. 

It may not be out of place to say a word here about the possibilities 

58 




No. 47. 
St. George and the Dragon. 







tzrAl 



Afo. 48. 



Execution oj John the Baptist. 



l h«"tr"*"" i ' 4t> bF*tJ~*-h> 




■ i. — * — ?»i» m. ^ ^^^M ,^ _* 

fl.-v^-Lo. j^^u/v^uli' ny'Cf.-fJL »&-¥t4}„.j 



No. 49. 



0«r Lord's entry into "Jerusalem. 

58] 




T 7 /^ Virgin and Child. 



No. 50. 





No. 51. No. 52. 

David playing on the Harp. The Miracle of Lazarus. 




The Descent from the Cross. 



No. 53. 




No. 54. 



The Resurrection. 



THE ARMENIAN CATHEDRAL OF ST. JAMES 

of a revival of the Anatolian ceramic art. Of late years there has been 
displayed a new activity in Kutahia and other centres in Asia Minor, 
which is taking the form of a striving after the forms and the designs 
of the sixteenth century. The Pro-Jerusalem Society have seen in 
this the seeds of a possible revival, and have established a workshop 
in Jerusalem, with an Armenian Christian artisan from Kutahia at its 
head, where experiments have been actively conducted during the last 
five years. The immediate object of these experiments is to produce 
the coloured tiles required for the repairs to the Dome of the Rock. 
But they have another end in view, which is to collaborate in the 
endeavour to revive the craft. The possibilities are immense, and it 
must be owned that whatever success may be achieved will be due, 
in the first place, to the humble artisans of Kutahia who have preserved 
and handed down all that was left of the processes of the " belle ipoque." 

G. Antonius. 



59 



A Brief Description of the Work 
done by the local craftsmen at 
Government House 

By C. R. Ashbee 

One of the most interesting pieces of constructive work that was 
done during the first year of the Civil Administration, a direct outcome 
of the Pro-Jerusalem Society's activities and experiments, was the 
work of furnishing and decorating at Government House. It is 
interesting as showing what can be done in Palestine by Palestinians, 
and still more as showing the method and traditions of labour that 
have perforce to be followed, and the difficulties which have to be 
faced in the work of practical administration. 

There were four rooms to decorate and furnish, some £E. 3,000 
to spend, and the question was, should this be done from England, 
by Maple or Waring, or some other firm, or could it be done in Jerusalem 
by local craftsmen ? His Excellency the High Commissioner decided 
on the local venture, and put the work in my hands. The experiment 
was not purely aesthetic ; it was also human. I think that all con- 
structive ventures in the crafts have their human side, and may be 
submitted to a human as well as a merely aesthetic test ; for it is a fact 
daily growing clearer to us that in these days of the industrial helot 
state, with its infinite subdivisions of mechanical labour, we often get 
better value for our money from work produced among groups of 
men working happily and humanly together, and conscious of their 
own personal creation, than from work produced in the impersonal 
factory. 

In the Government House work we employed six main groups 
of craftsmen : 

masons 

ceramic painters and tile-makers 

blacksmiths 

cabinet-makers, carvers and upholsterers 

weavers 

glass-blowers 
60 



WORK DONE AT GOVERNMENT HOUSE, JERUSALEM 

Including the subordinate crafts in each case, the machine-minders, 
the seamstresses, the journeymen and labourers, there were from 
forty to fifty craftsmen employed over a great many months. They 
were practically all Palestinian, and all the work was local with the 
exception of the silks, which I had woven in Cairo, and the carpets 
which I selected for the colour schemes I needed. The stone was 
local marble (Missi Yahudi) and sandstone, the clay was local clay, 
the cotton and wool, though imported, were made up at the Jerusalem 
looms, and the glass was from Hebron. Wood there was none in the 
country, so my selection was limited to such slight and carefully hidden 
stocks, Indian woods mainly, as had been left over from the wastage 
of the war. 

The chief difficulty, and it is the difficulty familiar to every 
administrator in Palestine, was labour co-ordination. How were all 
these different races and religions, with their various traditions and 
customs, to be got to work together ? In Jerusalem we had not only 
every variety of race and language as a natural condition, but on the 
top of it all the disorganization of the war, and the chronic confusion 
which industrialism has introduced into the crafts, a condition that is 
now rapidly disintegrating the traditional methods of the East, as it 
has long ago destroyed those of our western workshops. 

But craftsmanship and the love of craftsmanship — the cunning 
of a man's own right hand — was found here to be, as so often before in 
human story, a great amalgam ; and it was interesting to observe how 
all these different work-people, Moslems, Christians, Jews ; English, 
French, German ; Greeks, Armenians, Syrians, Poles, and Russians, 
with no common language, and who when the machine-guns of the 
mandatory Power patrol the streets are ready to be at each others' 
throats, were working, jesting, and in the end banqueting harmoniously 
together. Of my four foremen, one talked Greek, Arabic, and French ; 
the second Arabic, French, and Armenian ; the third German and 
Arabic ; and the fourth Arabic and Turkish. Among the Jewish 
carvers, upholsterers, and seamstresses the languages were Yiddish, 
Polish, Russian, and there may have been a dash of classic Hebrew 
and American Bowery English. Whatever the aesthetic merits of the 
work may be which this polyglot community produced, it was an object- 
lesson in the futility of political methods as set beside the cohesive 
power of the arts and crafts when practised rather than talked about. 

61 




WORK DONE AT GOVERNMENT HOUSE, JERUSALEM 

I give here three illustrations, one of the drawing-room (No. 55) 
and two of the dining-room (Nos. 56, 57). In the first will be seen 
some of the wood-work and the treatment of the walls, the hangings, 
and the inlaid and other furniture. The scheme was a greenish blue 
with purple and gold. In the latter the effect was got by following 
the blue turquoise and green pattern work designs of certain traditional 
sixteenth-century colour schemes in the Dome of the Rock. In the 
rendering of these schemes the Kutahia workmen are masters. 

My plan for the completion of the dining-room some day is to 
carry the rich blue panelling and tile work up to the curve of the 
dome, on the wall opposite the large window. This will give their full 
value to the golden " atlas " hangings, and to the sideboard with its 
peachblossom marble and its carved and gilded Indian woods (No. 57). 

Two other rooms were worked out, the Library in a scheme of 
grey and raisin-coloured silks, and Lady Samuel's boudoir in white 
with dark indigo and red striped Bethlehem hangings. In the details 
of the design I worked to no style, but tried to make things that should 
first serve their needs and then have about them something of the 
character of the country. There are many essentially Syrian forms, 
such as the twisted cord, the corded hoop, and similar simple patterns 
and mouldings that are Byzantine or Arabic in character and go well in 
local stone and wood. 

The electroliers were made of Hebron glass in great pendant 
clusters of blue and white mosque lamps and hanging bead work. 
One hopes that this method of light, which will always need some 
sort of shell or screen around the glass bulb, may help revive a beautiful 
if unhappy craft that has fallen on such evil days. The Pro-Jerusalem 
Society was just engaged in its Hebron glass experiments, so a special 
furnace was constructed below the Via Dolorosa at the new tile works 
of the Dome of Rock pottery. And during the making of this glass 
a curious and significant thing happened. It was of the utmost 
importance that the work should be done by a certain date, but nothing 
could move the old Moslem craftsmen. They would conform to no 
time conditions I desired to impose. And why ? Because their craft 
of glass-blowing was implicit with the seasons of Palestinian agriculture. 
" If," said they, " the High Commissioner desired their glass he must 
first wait till the tomato crop was harvested." And wait we had to. 
" Why should these things be hurried ? " said the old Moslem crafts- 
62 




r- 



Hill 

iiiiii 
pi ii ii. i 




Government House, "Jerusalem. The Drawing-room. 



No. 55. 




Government House, Jerusalem. The Dining-room. 



No. 56. 




Government House, Jerusalem. The sideboard in the 
Dining-room, designed by C. R. Ashbee. 



No. S7- 



[63 



WORK DONE AT GOVERNMENT HOUSE, JERUSALEM 

men. " You cannot hurry the seasons. God's blessing rests on those 
who observe His ways and do not hustle. Hustling is a western 
disease and connotes factories, and mechanical transportand faithlessness, 
with other evils that are coming upon this land. But Allah is merci- 
ful ! " There is a slender hope He yet may grant His blessing. Every 
evening after the last form was drawn from the fire the old glass-worker 
spread his prayer-mat out beside his furnace, and he and his two assistants 
would ask that blessing on their work. 

C. R. ASHBEE. 

Jerusalem, July 1922. 



63 



An Account of the New Jewish 
Garden Cities, etc., and the 
Modifications they entail in the 
Town Plan 

By C. R. Ashbee 

Among the most interesting developments in the modern con- 
structive work of Jerusalem are the various plans and proposals for 
building upon which different Jewish groups are engaged under the 
auspices, for the most part, of the Palestine Land Development Company- 

I am indebted for the information here following partly to Dr- 
Ruppin, the chairman of the company, with whom it was my privilege 
to serve for many months upon the Central Town Planning Commis- 
sion, and partly to the architect of the company, Mr. Kauffmann, many 
of whose plans I am showing here, and all of which had to come 
before me in my capacity as Civic Adviser and Secretary of the Jerusa- 
lem Town Planning Commission. In several instances it has been 
my business to modify and to co-ordinate. 

If reference be made again to the key plan No. 34 on page 17 it 
will be seen how these specifically Jewish schemes are being linked on to 
the general town planning of the city. There are five so far, and I 
would say a word or two as to each : Antiochus, Talpioth, Janjirieh,, 
Boneh Bayit, and Antimus Porah. With the exception of Antiochus, 
which is in Part I of the Plan, they occupy the parts to the south and 
west of the city. 

ANTIOCHUS 

The decision to sell some of the lands of the Orthodox Patriarchate 
of Jerusalem brought into the market the land at the corner of the 
Mamilla Cemetery (see No. 41 on page 23). 

An important road improvement was carried out at this point,, 
on a very uneasy corner in between two rather steep slopes, and the 
higher portion of the land to the south-west of the new road had 
64 




Block plan of Antiochus 



No. 58. 




Model of block plan of Antiochus, 
with British Government's plot 
shown in outline. 



No. 59. 




Elevation of block plan. Antiochus. 



No. 60. 



64; 






• ■• •* loeoe 



yiTOATION PL/sN 

T/\LPIOTU 




Talpioth Garden City. Block plan. 



No. 61, 




N 



8! 

<3 



5S 



fc 



o 



THE NEW JEWISH GARDEN CITIES 

already been given by the Greek Patriarch, to the Turkish Administra- 
tion, for a public building. This plot is shown at the top of plan 
No. 41, as " B. Government's plot," and the suggested building upon 
it is indicated in outline in No. 59. The new plans for Antiochus 
had therefore to take these two facts into consideration. It will be 
seen in the architect's block plan No. 58 and the photograph of his 
model No. 59 that this proposed public building must in the future 
determine the axis of the new Ridge Road ; also the new corner of 
the road from the Post Office to the railway station has been a dominating 
feature. But even more important has been the linking up of the 
Antiochus group with the Ridge Road, and the plans shown here should 
be compared with that on p. 23. When the new town plan for this 
area was under consideration a co-ordination was envisaged of the 
following: the Jaffa Gate improvement scheme (see No. 40), the opening 
out in front of the Jaffa Gate, including the new market, the park 
reservation in the valley of Mes, and the proposed new hotel in the 
Ard es Sillam (see No. 41). 

The accommodation which the present Antiochus scheme provides, 
and some of which is shown on the plan, is as follows : on a total new 
area of 19,270 square pics, approximately 200 shops. About 50 of 
these are small bazaars. There are further four buildings for banks, 
each building site being 1,000 square metres, and there are offices and 
ware houses. The elevation No. 60 is shown through the proposed 
Suq and shop buildings. 



THE TALPIOTH GARDEN CITY 

The proposed suburb lies to the south of Jerusalem beyond the 
station, and the key plan on p. 17 already referred to shows it as 
No. VI. The plan No. 6 1 explains the relation of the site to the Holy 
City, to the Bethlehem road, the railway station, and the monastery of 
Mar Elias. The proposed garden city is to be on high ground ; a 
part of it at one time was the landing station for aeroplanes. The 
photographs of the architect's contour plan and models Nos. 62, 63, 
64, give an idea of the disposition. 

The total area is given as 1,859,544 square pics, or 1,068,650 
square metres, from which have to be deducted the area for roads. 

L 65 



THE NEW JEWISH GARDEN CITIES 

The accommodation proposed is as follows, and this should be studied 
on the plan No. 62, upon which also the contours are shown. 

Private plots with houses : ca. 800. 

Town Hall. 

Hotel. 

Baths. 

Post Office. 

Co-operative distributive store for food-stuffs. 

Theatre. 

Academy. 

Synagogue. 

Hospital. 

The area allowed for parks and plantations is given as 160,892 
square pics (92,450 square metres), and for the sporting ground 21,936 
square pics (12,600 square metres), making a total area for public open 
space reservation of 28,873 s q uare pi cs C 1 6,550 square metres), and a 
net area for plots of 1,294,658 square pics (801,488 square metres). 

An extract from Mr. Kauffmann's explanatory Report is worth 
quoting, and in the language of the Report. It should be read in 
conjunction with the drawings. " Die naturliche form Talpioth's 
bedingt seine stadtbauliche Gestaltung. Die Kuppe des ovalen Berges 
wird bekront von weiten und grossartig gedachten Monumentalbauten. 
Hier in diesem kulminationspunkt des Ganzen sei praktisch und ideell 
alles zusammengefasst, was eine grosse Menschensiedelung gemeinsam 
haben und Kronen soil." 

The planning and the dream are symbolic of Zionist activities, and 
it is interesting to note how these are already modifying the town plan 
of Jerusalem. That it will all materialize as set forth in Mr. Kauffmann's 
Report and drawings is improbable, but one must admire the enthusiasm 
and the hope. 

THE JANJIRIEH GARDEN CITY 

This is a less ambitious undertaking (see No. 65), and one that 
will more readily come together with the English, Greek, and Moslem 
building projects in this, the south-western area of the city, in which 
one of the principal building developments is to be anticipated. 

The total area is 212,000 square pics (about 120,000 square 
66 



? 



J AN SIH AH 







Janjirieli Garden City. Block plan. 



... 

No. 65. 




The Proposed Synagogue. No. 66. 

Janjirieh Garden City. 



66j 




Boneh Bayit Garden City. Key plan. 



No. 67. 




Antimus Porah in the Jaffa 
Road. Block plan. 



No. 68- 




. ^ — - 
Boneh Bayit Garden City. Model. 






No. 69. 



THE NEW JEWISH GARDEN CITIES 

metres), net 163,000 pics (about 94,000 square metres) ; there are 1 14 
plots reserved for private building, besides plots for business premises, 
a Hebrew high school, a synagogue, etc. The plan should be carefully 
studied, it explains itself, and the contours are shown. The architect 
contributes with the above figures a sketch of the synagogue which it is 
proposed to erect upon the high land to the north of the site (No. 66). 

THE BONEH BAYIT (GARDEN CITY) (NOW 
" BETH-HAKEREM ") 

The last of the proposed Jewish enterprises which has so far been 
incorporated into the Jerusalem town plan is the garden city planned 
on the road to A in Karem ; it is No. VIII on the key plan on page 17. 
It covers approximately 280 dunems of land. The contours on the 
plan are characteristic of Judaean landscape and well worth noting 
(No. 67), as also the manner in which the architect has handled them. 
See in this connection the photograph of the model (No. 69). The 
accommodation provided is as follows 

School. 

Public hall. 

Synagogue. 

Sports ground. 

Play-ground. 

Co-operative distributive stores. 

Twenty-four per cent, of the total area is devoted to roads, open 
spaces, green belt area, and public building, and there are 148 separate 
lots, of which 29 are 1 dunem in area and 119 two dunem. 

ANTIMUS PORAH IN THE JAFFA ROAD 

One other minor Jewish enterprise is worth noting in so far as 
it affects the modification of the town plan ; it is the treatment of the 
piece of land skirting the Jaffa road from the point where at present 
the cinema stands, northwards through the old sports ground and 
westwards towards Tabitha Cumi. The architect's block plan is 
given (No. 68). 

C. R. ASHBEE. 

Jerusalem, August 1922. 

67 



A Provisional Bibliography of the 
Moslem Architecture of Syria and 
Palestine 

By K. A. C. Creswell, M.R.A.S., Hon. A.R.I.B.A. 






A Provisional Bibliography of the 
Moslem Architecture of Syria and 
Palestine 

By K. A. C. Creswell, M.R.A.S., Hon. A.R.I.B.A. 



FOREWORD 

The following bibliography forms one section of a 
Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts, and Crafts of 
Islam, the completion of which was stopped by the 
war. In its present state it consists of about 4,7oo 
different entries under " Authors," and about 6,700 
under " Subjects." It is not possible to publish it 
now in the form of a book, and I am accordingly 
endeavouring to publish sections of it as opportunity 
offers. The section on the Moslem Architecture of 
India has already appeared in the Indian Antiquary, 
May and September 1922. I may add that I have 
personally seen and examined every item in the 
following list (except those marked *), either in 
the libraries of the British Museum, the India Office, 
the Royal Asiatic Society, the Royal Institute of 
British Architects, the Art Library at South Ken- 
sington or elsewhere. I shall be extremely grateful 
to those readers who are kind enough to notify me 
of omissions. 

Arrangement : 

I. Guide-books. 
II. General Works. 

III. For Jerusalem only. 

IV. For Qusair 'Amra only. 

V. For the Palace of Mshatta only. 

I. GUIDE-BOOKS 

A Guide-book to Central Palestine, 
Samaria and Southern Galilee, including 
Nablus, Arsuf, Haifa, Acre, Nazareth, 
Tiberias and tneir Districts, with His- 
torical Appendix and four Maps. Based 
upon the well-known enemy publication 
Baedeker's Palestine & Syria, and 
augmented by numerous additions. Sm. 
8vo, pp. in. 

" The Palestine News," Jerusalem, 

1918. 
Palestine Pocket Guide-books (vol. II). 

Baedeker, Karl. Palestine and Syria, 
with routes through Mesopotamia and 
Babylonia and the Island of Cyprus. 
Handbook for travellers. With 21 maps, 

70 



56 plans, and a panorama of Jerusalem. 
Fifth edition, remodelled and augmented. 
8vo, pp. civ and 462. 

Baedeker, Leipzig : Unwin, London, 
1912. 

Review [of French edition], S. R[einachl, 
Review archiologique, iv e serie, tome xiv, p. 445. 

Brodrick, Mary. Handbook for Tra- 
vellers in Syria and Palestine, including 
a short account of the geography, history, 
and religious and political divisions of 
these countries, together with detailed 
description of Jerusalem, Damascus, 
Palmyra, Baalbek, and the interesting 
ruined cities of Moab, Gilead, and Ba- 
shan. A revised edition. With new 
maps and plans. 8vo, pp. Hi, 3 and 426. 
Stanford, London, 1903. 

One of Murray's Handbooks. 

Chauvet, Ad. and E. Isambert. Itin6- 
raire descriptif, historique, et archeolo- 
gique de l'Orient. Tome troisieme : Syrie, 
Palestine, comprenant le Sinai, l'Arabie 
petree et la Cilicie. 4 cartes, 62 plans et 
coupes, et 5 vues. Sm. 8vo, pp. lviii and 
848, maps in separate case. 

Hachette, Paris, 1882. 
One of the Collection des Guides-Joanne. 

Lievin de Hamme, Le frere. Guide- 
Indicateur des sanctuaires et lieux his- 
toriques de la Terre-Sainte. Seconde 
edition, revue, augmentee, et accompagnee 
de cartes et de plans. 8vo, 3 parts, 
pp. xxviii and 391 ; xx and 200 ; xxvii 
and 254, with folding map. 

Lefever, Louvain, 1876. 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Macmillan's Guide to Palestine and 
Syria. With thirteen maps and six plans. 
Fifth edition. 8vo, pp. xxxi and 164. 

Macmillan, London, 1910. 

Meisterman, Pere Barnabft, O.F.M. 
Nouveau guide de Terre Sainte. Avec 23 
cartes en couleurs et no plans de villes 
et de monuments dans le texte et hors 
texte. l2mo, pp. xliii and 610. 

Picard, Paris, 1907. 

Reynolds-Ball, Eustace. Jerusalem. A 
practical guide to Jerusalem and its 
environs, with excursions to Bethlehem, 
Hebron, Jericho, the Dead Sea, and the 
Jordan, Nablous, Nazareth, Beirut, Baal- 
bek, Damascus, etc. (Second edition. Re- 
vised and enlarged.) With eight full-page 
illustrations in colour by John Fulleylbve, 
R.I., and five maps and plans. Sm. 8vo, 
pp. viii and 238. 

A. & C. Black, London, 1912. 
First edition : 1901. 

II. GENERAL 

Ahmed Djemal Pascha. Alte Denk- 
maler aus Syrien, Palastina, und West- 
arabien. 100 Tafeln mit beschreibendem 
Text. Veroffentlicht auf Befehl von 
Ahmed Djemal Pascha. 4to, pp. [vii] 
and 1 page of text, in Turkish and German, 
to each plate. 

Reimer, Berlin, 1918. 

Aloof, Michel M. History of Baalbek. 
12th edition, revised and completed. 
i2mo, pp. vii and 155, with 5 plates and 
2 plans. 

Catholic Printing Press, Beyrut, 1914. 

Qubbat Satha, Qubbat as-Sa'adin, Qubbat 
Duris, Qubbat al-Amjad, pp. 5-6 ; Mosque at 
Ras al-'Ain, p. 3. 

Anon. A Room from "the Street 
called Straight." The Connoisseur, Vol. 
xxxvi, pp. 132-134, with I coloured plate. 

Plate : " i6th-i7th [18th ?] century old 
panelled room from Damascus, about 16 x 14 
x 12 ft high." Exhibited in London at the 
Vincent Robinson Galleries, Wigmorc Street. 



Apostolidhis, D. L'Architecture en 

Palestine. La Construction Moderne, tome 

xxv, pp. 391-393, with 2 illustrations. 

Includes a fine large illustration of the Dome 
of the Rock (exterior). 

Banse, Ewald. Die Gubab-Hiitten Nord- 

Syriens und Nordwest-Mesopotamiens. 

Orientalisches Archiv, Jahrg. ii, pp. 173- 

179, with 4 illustrations on 1 plate, a map, 

and 6 figures. 1912. 

Modern representatives of the domed huts 
shown on Layard's slab. These huts are first 
met with as the valley opens out into the plain 
to the south of Horns, and are a constant feature 
from Horns to the north of Aleppo and thence 
to Mesopotamia. 

Bell, Gertrude Lowthian. Amurath to 
Amurath. 8vo, pp. xvii and 370, with 
234 illustrations and a folding map. 

Heinemann, Londo n, 191 1 . 
Aleppo, pp. 1-16, with 13 illustrations. 

Bell, H. J. Greek Papyri in the British 
Museum. Catalogue with Texts. Vol. iv, 
The Aphrodito Papyri. With an Appen- 
dix of Coptic Papyri, edited by W. E. 
Crum. 4to, pp. xlviii and 648. 

British Museum, London, 1910. 

See pp. 12-13, 42-43 and 80 for papyri relating 
to the Great Umayyad Mosque at Damascus, 
and pp. 74, 75, for one relating to a mosque at 
Jerusalem. 

. Translations of the Greek 



Aphrodito Papyri in the British Museum. 

Der Islam, ii, pp. 269-283, 372-384 ; 

iii, pp. 132-140, 369-373 ; and iv, pp. 

87-96. 1911-1913. 

See ii, p. 374, and iii, pp. 133, 371 and 373 
for papyri relating to the Great Mosque at 
Damascus ; and ii, p. 383 and iii, pp. 137 and 370 
for papyri relating to a mosque and palace 
being built for the Amir al-Mu'minin at 
Jerusalem. 

Berchem, Max van. Le Chateau de 
Banias et ses inscriptions. Journal 
Asiatique, viii* serie, tome xii, pp. 440-470, 
with 1 plate (plan). 1888. 

. Notes d'archeologie arabe. 

Monuments et inscriptions fatimites. 
Journal Asiatique, viii* serie, tome xvii, 

71 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



pp. 411-495, with 1 folding plate and 
I plan ; tome xviii, pp. 46-86. 1891. 

Inscriptions on the Great Mosque at Damascus, 
etc., pp. 420-423. 

Berchem, Max van. Notes d'archeologie 
arabe. Deuxieme article. Toulounides et 
fatimites. Journal Asiatique, viii" serie, 
tome xix, pp. 377-407. 1892. 

Inscriptions on the Great Mosque at Damascus, 
etc., pp. 394-397- 

. Eine arabische Inschrift aus 

dem Ostjordanlande mit historischen 
Erlauterungen. Zeitschr. d. Deutschen 
Palaestina-V ereins, Band xvi, pp. 84-105, 
with 1 plate. 1892. 

Inscription from the wall of the Kh3n al- 
'Akabe, dated a.h. 610 (1213). 



Recherches archeo logiques 
Lettre a M. Barbier de Meynard. 



en Syrie 

Journal Asiatique, ix e serie, tome vi, pp. 

485-515. 1895. 

. Arabische Inschriften aus 

Syrien. Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Palaes- 
tina-V ereins, Band xix, pp. 105-113, with 
1 plate. 1896. 

Inscriptions from buildings at al-Mu'arriba, 
Bosra, Der'at, the Haram in Hebron, etc. 

. Epigraphie des Assassins de 

Syrie. Journal Asiatique, 9 me serie, tome 
ix, pp. 453-501, with 1 plate. 1897. 

For r6sume see the Comples Rendus de V Acad, 
des Inscr. et Belles-Lettres, 4 m0 serie, tome xxv, 
pp. 201-208. 1897. 

For the inscriptions on the castles of Masyad, 
Kahf and Qadmus. 

. Inscriptions arabes de Syrie. 

Memoires de I'Institut Egyptien, tome iii, 
pp. 417-520, with 8 plates. 1897. 

. Les chateaux des croises en 

Syrie. Union syndicate des architectes 
francais ; bull, et comptes rendus des 
travaux, iv, pp. 260-276, with 10 illustra- 
tions. 1897. 
See vol. v, p. 283. 

72 



Berchem, Max van. Arabische Inschriften 

aus Syrien II. Mitth. und Nuchr. des 

Deutschen Palaestina-V ereins, Jahrg. ix, 

pp. 33-70, with 15 illustrations (facsimiles). 

1903. 

Includes several dating inscriptions of 
buildings. 

. Monuments et inscriptions de 

l'atabek Lu'lu' de Mossoul. Orientalische 

Studien(Theodor Noldeke Festschrift), Band 

i, pp. 197-210, with 1 figure (inscription). 

Topelmann, Gieszen, 1906. 

. Muhammadan Architecture in 

Syria and Egypt. Article in the Ency- 
clopedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. i, 
pp. 757-760. 1908. 

. Epigraphie des Atabeks de 

Damas. Florilegium Melchior de Vogue, 
pp. 29-43, with 2 plates. I 9°9- 

Dating inscriptions on mosques, etc. 

. Inschriften aus Syrien, Meso- 

potamien und Kleinasien gesammelt 
im Jahre 1899 von Max Freiherrn von 
Oppenheim, mit Beitragen von Max van 
Berchem, Julius Euting, Nicolaus Finck, 
Alfred Jeremias, Leopold Messerschmidt, 
Bernhard Moritz. I. — Arabische Inschrif- 
ten, bearbeitet von Max van Berchem, mit 
26 Abbildungen und 7 Lichtdrucktafeln. 
8vo, pp. 156. 

Hinrichs, Leipzig, 1909. 

Beitrdge zur Assyriologie und semitischen 
Sprachwissenschaft, vii, 1. 

The Principal Forms of 



Islamic Religious Buildings (Syro-Egyp- 
tian School). Article in the Encyclopedia 
of Islam, vol. i, pp. 422-425. 1910. 

Berchem, Max van, and Joseph Strzy- 

gowski. Amida. 4to. 

Winter, Heidelberg, 1910. 

See p. 312 and Abb. 258 (Mosque at Baalbek) ; 
pp. 316, 320-32, and Abb. 263 and 268 (Great 
Mosque at Damascus), pp. 324-325 and Abb. 271- 
272 (Baalbek). 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Berchem, Max van, and Edmond Fatio. 

Voyage en Syrie. Impl. 4to, 2 vols., pp. 

xvi and 344, with 2 folding maps and 179 

figures ; 78 plates. 

Le Caire, 191 3-14. 

Tripoli, Homs, Qal'at al-Mudiq, Aleppo, 
Harim, Baalbek, etc. 

Bischof, Dr. Tuhaf al-anba* fi ta'rikh 
Halab. Sm. 8vo, pp. 163. 

Beyrut, 1880. 
Contains transliterations of dating inscriptions 
on many monuments ot Aleppo. 

Blochet, E. L'Histoire d'Alep de 
Kamal-ad-Din. Version francaise d'apres 
le texte arabe. Revue de ['Orient Latin, 
tomes iii, pp. 509-565 ; iv, 145-225 ; 
v , 37—107 ; and vi, 1-49. 1895-1898. 

. Do. Tirage d part, with title- 
page : " Kamal-ad-Din. Histoire d'Alep 
traduite avec des notes historiques et 
g^ographiques. 8vo, pp. 256. 

Leroux, Paris, 1900. 

Appendice I : " Sur la topographic de la ville 
d'Alep, quelques details empruntes a la Descrip- 
tion d'Alep, MS. ar. 1683 de la Bibliotheque 
nationale," vi, pp. 20—39, and /. d. p., pp. 226- 
242. 

Appendice II : "Inscriptions arabes de Nour 
ad-Din et des souverains Ayyoubites dans la 
ville d'Alep," vi, pp. 39-49, and t. d. p., pp. 
245-*55- 

Borghese, Scipione. In Asia. Siria- 
Eufrate-Babilonia. Con 235 illustrazioni 
da fotografie di A. M. Borghese ed una 
carta. (2a edizione riveduta dall' autore.) 
Large 8vo, pp. 224. 

Instituto Italiano d'Arti Grafiche, 
Bergamo, 1904. 

Colleiione di Monografie illustrate. Serie 
Viaggi, No. 2. 

See chap, ii, Damascus. 

Borrmann, Richard. Die Baukunst des 
Altertums und des Islam im Mittelalter. 
4to. 

Seemann, Leipzig, 1904. 
See pp. 323-327, with 5 illustrations. 

Bourgoin, J. Claire-voie (xvi e siecle) 
dans la grande mosqu6e de Damas. 
Revue generate de F Architecture et des 
M 



Travaux publics, tome xxxvii, col. 247, 
and plate 54. 1880. 

Plate signed J. Bourgoin. 

Bourgoin, A. Prdcis de Part arabe, 
et mat6riaux pour servir a la thiorie et 
a la technique des arts de l'orient musul- 
man. 410, in 4 parts, pp. ii, 16, 22, 25 and 
9, with 300 plates (many coloured). 

Leroux, Paris, 1892. 

Mimoires de la Mission archiologique francaise 
au Caire, tome vii. 

See Part I, pis. 11-15, 17-20, 34-42 ; II, pis. 
12-ij, 28-35, 56-60 ; III, pis. 14, 25-29, 74-75, 
and 85-86, for beautifully drawn details of 
stalactite doorways, inlaid panels, minarets, etc., 
etc., all at Jerusalem or Damascus. 

Bridel, Rev. Ph. La Palestine illustree. 
Collection de vues recueillies en Orient 
par F. et E. Thivoz. Texte explicatif 
par Ph. Bridel. Oblong 4to. 

Lausanne, 1889. 

. Palestine of To-day. Illus- 
trated by F. Th6voz & Co., Geneva. With 
text translated from Rev. Ph. Bridel, 
Lausanne. Revised by A. H. Marshall. 
Part I. [All published.] Oblong 4to, 10 
plates, with explanatory text interleaved. 
Marshall, London. (Printed in Lau- 
sanne.) [1889.] 

. Palestine Illustrated. A Col- 
lection of Views obtained in the Holy 
Land. By Messrs. F. Thevoz & Co., of 
Geneva. Reproduced by Photogravure. 
With descriptive Letterpress by P. Bridel. 
Series I, Part I, — From Jaffa to Jerusalem. 
[All published.] Oblong 4to, pp. [4], with 
the same 10 plates and nearly identical 
text interleaved. 

Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, London, 1892. 

See pi. 9, Tower of the Forty Martyrs, Ramleh, 
and pi. 10, Ramleh, within the walls. 

Briggs, Martin S. Through Egypt in 
War Time. 8vo, pp. 280, with 67 illus- 
trations on 32 plates (1 coloured) and 2 
maps. 

Unwin, London, [19 18]. 

For Khan Yunus, see pp. 240-241, and plate 
facing p. 242. 

73 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Briggs, Martin S. The Architecture of 
Saladin and the Influence of the 
Crusades (a.d. 1171-1250). Burlington 
Magazine, vol. xxxviii, pp. 10-20, with 
2 plates and 2 figures. 192 1. 

. The Saracenic House. Bur- 
lington Magazine, vol. xxxviii, pp. 228- 
238, with 2 plates ; pp. 289-301, with 
2 plates and 2 figures. 1921. 

See p. 301 and Plates iii and iv for houses at 
Damascus. 

Briinnow, Rudolf Ernst, and Alfred v. 

Domaszewski. Die Provincia Arabia auf 

Grund zweier in den Jahren 1897 und 

1898 unternommenen Reisen und der 

Berichte fruherer Reisender beschrieben. 

Impl. 4to, 3 vols., pp. xxiv and 532 ; xii 

and 359 ; xiv and 403 ; with very many 

plates, illustrations, plans, maps, etc. 

Triibner, Strassburg, 1904-1909. 

Bd. i, ash-Shaubak, pp. 113-119, and figs. 97- 
104 ; Bd. ii, section vi : El-Mesetta [Mashita], 
pp. 105-176, with 4 double plate and 69 illustra- 
tions (many full-page). Mosque at al-Manahir, 
ii, pp. 192-195, and figs. 180-784 ; Qal'at ad- 
Daba'a, ii, pp. 74-76, and figs. 655-656 ; Mosque 
at Bosra, Bd. iii, pp. 39-40, with section and 
plan, etc., stc. 

Briinnow, R. Uber Musils Forschungs- 
reisen. Vienna Oriental 'Journal, vol. xxi, 

PP- 353-374 5 xxii. PP- 399-4H; xxiii > 
pp. 18-32. 1907-1909. 

An article on Musil's, Arabia Petraa, Bd. 
i and ii [q.v.]. 

Burford, Robert. Description of a 
View of the City of Damascus, and the 
surrounding country, now exhibiting at 
the Panorama, Leicester Square. Painted 
by the Proprietor, Robert Burford. 8vo, 
pp. 12, with folding plate. 

Brettell, London, 1841. 

Butler, Howard Crosby. Ancient 

Architecture in Syria. Section A. — 

Southern Syria. 4to, pp. xii and 363, 

with many plates and illustrations. 

Brill, Leyden, 1907-1915. 

Only two Muhammadan buildings are de- 
scribed ; both, however, are important on 
account of their early date: (1) Mosque at 
Qusair al-Hallabat, probably 8th century, pp. 
74-77. with 2 illustrations and 6 figures, also 

74 



Appendix, pp. xvi-xix, with 1 illustration and 
5 figures ; (2) Hammam as-Sarakh, a bath 
building almost identical with Qusair ' Amra, pp. 
77-80, with 5 figures, also Appendix, pp. xix-xxv, 
with 4 illustrations and 5 figures. 

Buyser, Bray de. Interieur d'une 
maison arabe a Damas. Revue de I'Orient, 
de VAlgerie et des Colonies, nouvelle serie, 
tome i, pp. 367-372. 1855. 

Chamonard, J. A propos du Service 
des antiquites de Syrie. Syria, tome i, 
pp. 81-98. 1920. 

Choisy, Auguste. L'Art de batir chez 

les Byzantins. Sm. folio, pp. 187 and 

[iv], with 25 plates and 178 figures. 

Soc. anon, de publications periodi- 

ques, Paris, 1883. 

See p. 85 and planche xxi, for the squinches 
of the Great Mosque at Damascus. 

. Histoire de l'architecture. 



8vo, 2 vols., pp. 642 and 800, with 1,700 
figures. 

Rouveyre, Paris, n.d. 

See " Architectures musulmanes," tome ii, pp. 
83-138. Scattered information on Syrian archi- 
tecture. 

Clermont-Ganneau, Ch. Inscription du 
calife el-Mahdi relatant la construction de 
la mosquee d'Ascalon en l'an 155 de 
1'hegire. Journal Asiatique, 8 me serie, 
tome ix, pp. 485-491, and 1 plate (to left). 

1887. 

Reprinted in his Recueil d' archiologie orientate, 
1, pp. 214-218, and planche xi (to left). 1887. 

■ . L'Inscription de Banias. Jour- 
nal Asiatique, 8 me serie, tome x, pp. 496- 
509. 1887. 

Reprinted in his Recueil a" archiologie orientate, 
tome i, pp. 241-252. 1888. 

See also Gildemeister : A rabische Jnschrift vom 
Nahr Banijas. 

. Le Port de Lydda construit 

par le sultan Beibars. Journal Asiatique, 
8 me serie, tome x, pp. 509-527, with 1 
double plate; xi, pp. 305-310 with 2 
plates. 1887-1888. 

The first part of the above (pp. 509-527) was 
reprinted in his Recueil d' archiologie orientate, 
tome i, pp. 262-279, with the three plates (1888). 

An English translation subsequently appeared 
in his Archtcological Researches in Palestine [q-v.], 
vol. ii, pp. 102-118 and 470 (1896). 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Clermont-Ganneau, Ch. Archaeological 
Researches in Palestine during the years 
1873-4. With numerous illustrations 
from drawings made on the spot by 
A. Lecomte de Noiiy, Architect. Trans- 
lated by Aubray Stewart, M.A. [Vol. ii, 
by John Macfarlane.] 2 vols., 4to, pp. 
xvii and 528 ; x and 504. 

Palestine Exploration Fund, London, 

1899, 1896. 

See vol. i, pp. 127-178 for the Haram ash- 
Sharif ; 179-227 for the author's most important 
researches on the Dome of the Rock ; p. 234, 
Khan as-Sultan. 

See vol. ii, pp. 47-48 for the shrine of Nebi 
Musa ; pp. 102-118, for mosque (converted 
church) with minaret, and bridge (Jisr Jindas) 
at Ludd ; 119-122, mosque (converted church) 
at Ramla; 167-182, for mosque (converted 
church), shrine of Abu Hureira and bridge at 
Yebna; p. 314, Nablus ; 383 ff. for great mosque 
(partly a converted church) at Gaza, and 470, 
for further reference to bridge at Ludd. 

. Le tombeau de Dja'far, 

cousin-germain de Mahomet. Recueil 

£ ' Archeologie orientale, tome iii, pp. 

278-283, with 2 figures (of inscriptions). 

1899. 

References to a mosque, restored A.H. 752 
(1351), and to a mausoleum, the latter dated 
A.H. 727 (1327) erroneously attributed by the 
Arabs to Ja'far. 

. El-Kahf et la Caverne des 

Sept-Dormants. Recueil £ Archeologie 

orientale, tome iii, pp. 293-303, and 

plates ix and x. '899. 

With notes on the ruined mosque (J mile S.E. 
of 'Amman) and plan of same. 

. Une inscription du calife 

Hicham (an no de l'hegire). Recueil 
a" Archeologie orientale, tome iii, pp. 285- 
293, with 1 figure and plates vii, A (facsi- 
mile) and viii. 1900. 

Kufic dating inscription of a monument, 
apparently a fortified khan, built by the in- 
habitants of Homs, A.H. no (728). 



. The Moslem Mukams. Pales- 
tine Exploration Fund, Q. St., pp. 89-103. 

1877. 

Reprinted in the Survey 0/ Western Palestine, 
Special Papers, pp. 258-273. 1881. 



Conder, Lt. Claude R., R.E. Notes on 
Architecture in Palestine. Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund, Q. St., pp. 29-40. 1878. 
At all periods. 

Conder, C. R. Report on the Visit of 
their Royal Highnesses Princes Albert, 
Victor and George of Wales to the Hebron 
Haram, on 5th April, 1882. Palestine 
Exploration Fund, Q. St., pp. 197-213, 
with 3 figures. 1882. 

Conder, Major C. R. The Survey of 
Eastern Palestine. Memoirs of the Topo- 
graphy, Orography, Hydrography, Ar- 
chaeology, etc. Vol. i, The 'Adwan 
Country. [All published.] 4to, pp. xii 
and 305, with 15 plates and many illus- 
trations. 

Palestine Exploration Fund, London, 

1889. 

See pp. 57-59 for mosque at 'Amman, and pp. 
216-217, for fort with Arabic inscription dated 
1191 (1777). 

Conder, Lieut. C. R., and Lieut H. H. 
Kitchener. The Survey of Western 
Palestine, Memoirs of the Topography, 
Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeo- 
logy. Edited with additions by E. H. 
Palmer and Walter Besant. 4to, 3 vols., 
pp. x and 420, with 30 plates and many 
illustrations; pp. vii and 445, with 21 
plates and many illustrations ; pp. vii 
and 450, with 21 plates and many illus- 
trations. 

Palestine Exploration Fund, London, 

1881-1883. 

For Moslem work, see vol. i, Galilee, pp. 72-81, 
no— in, 116, 123, 123-125, 125, 125-128, 128- 
133, 133-135, 160-167, 185-186, 186-190, 191, 
206-207, 207-208, 226, 234, 248-250, 256, 272, 
335-338, 394-396, 409-4", and 418-420. 

Vol. ii : Samaria, pp. 105, 116, 119-121, 185, 
195, 203-210, 264, 264-265, 266-267 (?), 269-275, 
332, 368-369, 421, 422 and 441-443. 

Vol. iii : Juda?a, pp. 8, 16, 25, 54-55, 91, 129- 
130, 149-152, 157-158, 163, 207, 220, 234-235, 
236, 248-250, 252-253, 270, 303-304, 305-307, 
320, 327-328, 333-346, 374 and 449-450. 

Contenau, Dr. G. Mission archeolo- 
gique a Sidon (1914). Syria, tome i, pp. 
16-55; 108-154; 198-229; 287-317. 1920. 
See pp. 108-118, planche x, and figs. 20-26, 



for researches at the Castle of Sidon. 



7S 






MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Cowper, H. Swainson. Through 
Turkish Arabia. A journey from the 
Mediterranean to Bombay by the Eu- 
phrates and Tigris Valleys and the 
Persian Gulf. 8vo, pp. xx and 490. 

Allen, London, 1894. 

See chap, iv, pp. 68-114 for a good account 
of Aleppo ; also illustrations on pp. 229 and 243. 

Crace, John D. On the Ornamental 
Features of Arabic Architecture in Egypt 
and Syria. Sessional Papers of the Roy. 
Inst, of Brit. Architects, vol. xx, pp. 71-90, 
with 3 plates. 1870. 

Creswell, K. A. C. The Origin of the 
Cruciform Plan of Cairene Madrasas. 
Bull, de I'Inst. francais d'archeologie 
orientale, tome xxi, pp. 1-54, with 12 
plates and 10 plans. 1922. 

Contains plans, photographs and descriptions 
of eight early madrasas in Aleppo, Ma'arrat an- 
Nu'man and Damascus. 

. Two Khans at Khan Turn an. 

Syria, tome iv, pp. 1 34-1 39, and PI. 
xxxvi-xxxviii. J 9 2 3- 

Daly, Ce'sar. Incrustations de marbre 
et faience (XV e s.) a Damas. Revue 
generale de P Architecture et des Travaux 
publics, tome xliii, col. 5, with 1 coloured 
plate. 1886. 

A fine piece of marble inlay from the Mosque 
Qal'at al-Ullah, at Damascus. 

Dickie, Archibald Campbell. The 

Great Mosque of the Omeiyades, Damas- 
cus. Report. Palestine Exploration Fund, 
Q. St., pp. 268-282, with 5 folding plates 
and 1 figure. l %97- 

Diez, Dr. Ernst. Die Kunst der is- 
lamischen Volker. Sm. 4to. 

Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft 
Athenaion, Berlin-Neubabels- 
berg, [1915]. 

See pp. 12-33, Tafel I, and Abb. 6-36 ; pp. 
37-3 8 . 65, and Abb. 81, 84-86 and 88. 



Drake, C. F. Tyrwhitt. [Horns and 
Hama.] Palestine Exploration Fund, Q. 
St., pp. 7-1 1. 1872. 

Reprinted in the Survey of Western Palestine, 
Special Papers, pp. 119-122 (1881). 



. Reports— XVI. 

Exploration Fund, Q. St., 



76 



Palestine 
pp. 64-76. 
1874. 

See pp. 64-67 for notes on the Citadel and 
Qubbat as-Sakhra at Jerusalem, and the White 
Mosque at Ramleh. 

Dussaud, Rene, and Frederic Macler. 

Rapport sur une mission scientifique dans 

les regions desertiques de la Syrie moyenne. 

Nouvelles Archives des Missions Scienti- 

fiques, tome x, pp. 411-744, with many 

plates and figures. 1902. 

Dating inscriptions on buildings at el-'Ayin, 
Salkhad, and Qal'at Azraq. 

. Le Temple de Jupiter Damas- 

cenien et ses transformations aux epoques 
chretienne et musulmane. Syria, tome 
iii, pp. 219-250, planches li-liv and figs. 
1-6. 1922. 

Fago, Vincenzo. Arte araba. I — 

L'Arte araba nella Siria e in Egitto. 

4to, pp. 198 and lxxv, with 50 plates (fine 

photogravures). 

Roma, 1909. 

Chiefly devoted to Egypt. See, however, 
plates i-iii. 

Fergusson, James. A History of 

Architecture. 8vo, 2 vols. 

Murray, London, 1893. 

See pp. 516-525, with 7 illustrations. Also 
p. 407 and figs. 270-271 for Mshatta. 

Fulleylove, John, R.I., and John Eel- 
man. The Holy Land. Painted by John 
Fulleylove. Described by John Kelman. 
4to, pp. xv and 301, with 92 coloured 
plates. 

Adam and Charles Black, London, 
1902. 

See chap, iv, Moslem, pp. 157-179 and plates 
49- 54 and 56-64. 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Germer-Durand. Rapport sur l'ex- 
ploration arch6ologique en 1903 de la voie 
romaine entre Amman et Bostra (Arabie). 
Bulletin archeologique, pp. I— 43, with 6 
plates. 1904. 

Plate vi : " Dcra'a (Syrie), intencur de la 
mosquee." 

Gildemeister, Prof. J. Arabische In- 

schrift vom Nahr Banijas. Zeitschr. d. 

Deutschen Palaestina-Vereins, Band x, 

pp. 188-189. 1887. 

On an inscription copied by Dr. Fritz Noetling 

recording the construction of a military work. 

See Clermont-Ganncau : Inscription arabe de 

Banias. 

Girault de Prangey. Monuments 
arabes d'Egypte, de Syrie et d'Asie 
Mineure, dessin£s et mesures de 1842 a 
1845. Ouvrage faisant suite aux Monu- 
ments arabes de Cordoue, Seville et 
Grenade, publies de 1836 a 1839. Livr. 
1-6. Folio, with 24 tinted plates, and 
16 pages of description. 

Publies par l'auteur, Paris, 1846. 
See plates 1, 8, 12, 14, 15 and 24. 

Gliick, Heinrich. Ein islamisches Hei- 
ligtum auf den Olberg. Ein Beitrag zur 
Geschichte des islamischen Raumbaues. 
Der Islam, Band vi, pp. 328-349, with 15 
illustrations. 1916. 

Goldziher, Dr. Ign. Das Patriarchen- 

grab in Hebron nach Al-'Abdarl. Zeitschr . 

d. Deutschen Palaestina-V ereins, Band 

xvii, pp. 1 15-122, with 1 double plate 

(interior). 1894. 

See also Guthe (H.), Stumme (H.), Vincent 
(H.) and Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems, 
pp. 309-327. 

Grimaldi, Rev. A. B. Cenotaphs of the 
Hebrew Patriarchs at the Cave of Mach- 
pelah. Palestine Exploration Fund, Q. St., 
pp. 145-150, with 6 plates. 1912. 

Includes views of the interior of the Haram 
at Hebron, from the North British-Israel Review, 
January. 191 1. 

Gurlitt, Cornelius. Geschichte der 
Kunst. Large 8vo, 2 vols. 

Bergstrasser, Stuttgart, 1902. 

Syrien und Africa unter arabischer Herrschaft, 
Band i, pp. 381-386 ; Das Heilige Land, pp. 477- 
479- 



Guthe, Prof. H. Die Untersuchung 
des Patriarchengrabes in Habron im 
Jahre 11 19. Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Palae- 
stina-Vereins, Band xvii, pp. 238-248, 
with 1 double plate (interior). '894. 

(Sec also Goldziher (I.), Stumme (H.) and 
Vincent (H.) 

Hammer-Purgstall. Uber Hrn. v. 
Kremer's Topographie von Damaskus. 
Situngsber. der philos.-hist. classe der K. 
Akademie der Wissenschajten, Band xiii, 
483-494. 

Wien, 1854. 

Hanauer, J. E. Right of Sanctuary at 
Damascus. Palestine Exploration Fund, 
Q. St., p. 207. 1913. 

Instance of the ancient right of Sanctuary 
connected with the Great Umayyad Mosque, 
October 1912. See also ibid., 1912, pp. 206-209. 

Hartmann, Martin. Die arabischen In- 
schriften in Salamja. Zeitschr. d. Deut- 
schen Palaestina-Vereins, Band xxiv, pp. 
49-68, with 7 illustrations (facsimiles). 

1901. 

Hartmann, R. Damascus. Article in 

the Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. i, pp. 902- 

910. 1912. 

With notes on the great Umayyad Mosque 
and other buildings. 

Harvey, William. — Saracenic Vaulting. 
Architectural Review, vol. xxx, pp. 241-245, 
with 6 illustrations. 191 1. 

Three Syrian examples illustrated. 

. Some Saracenic Doorways. 

Architectural Review, vol. xxxii, pp. 25 5-260, 
with 5 illustrations. 1912. 

Two Syrian examples illustrated. 

Herzfeld, Ernst. Mshatta, Hira und 
Badiya, die Mittellander des Islam und 
ihre Baukunst. Jahrbuch der Preuszischen 
Kunstsammlungen, 192 1, pp. 104-146, 
with 10 plates and 17 illustrations. 1921. 

Hornstein, Charles Alexander. A Visit 
to Kerak and Petra. Palestine Explora- 

77 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



tion Fund, Q. St., pp. 94-103, with 17 
plates and 3 figures. 1898. 

Jalabert, L. Damas. Article in Cabrol 

and Le Clercq's Dictionnaire d'arch/ologie 

chretienne, iv, cds. 119-145. 1920. 

See cols. 135-145 for the Great Mosque at 

Damascus. 

Janssen, J.-A. Trois inscriptions arabes 
inedites, du Haram d'Hebron. Revue 
biblique, tome xxxii, " Melanges," pp. 80- 
92, with 2 plates (facsimiles). 1923. 

On three inscriptions, relating to the endow- 
ments, not published in the work of Vincent and 
Mackay [q.v.]. 

Inscription arabe du Khan 



al-Ahmar a Beisan (Palestine). Bulletin 
de I'lnstitut francais d'Archeologie ori- 
entate, tome xxii, pp. 99-103, with 1 
figure (facsimile of inscription). 1923. 

Built by the Emir Salar in Gumada 708 (in 
November 1308). 

Kahle, Paul. Die moslemischen Heilig- 
tumer in Palastina. Palastinajahrbuch, 
Tahrg. vi, pp. 63-101, with 6 illustrations. 

1910. 

. Das Wesen der moslemischen 

Heiligtiimer in Palastina. Paldstinajahr- 
buch, Jahrg. vii, pp. 85-119, with 8 illus- 
trations. 191 1. 

Kay, Henry Cassels. A Seljukite In- 
scription at Damascus. Journ. Roy. 
Asiatic Society, pp. 335~345- l8 97- 

On an inscription in the Great Mosque at 
Damascus, whi-.h records a restoration of the 
maqsHra, etc., in a.h. 475 (1082). 

. " Squeeze " from the mosque 

of Scheikh Murad, near Jaffa. Palestine 

Exploration Fund, Quarterly Statement, 

p. 247. 1898. 

Recording its restoration by A mir Jamal ad- 

Din. 

Kremer, A. von. Ausziige aus Ibn-osch- 
Schihne's Geschichte von Haleb. Sit- 
zungsber. der philos.-hist. Classe der k. 
Akademie der Wissenschajten, Band iv, 
pp. 215-250. 1850. 

Contains considerable architectural and topo- 
graphical information. 

78 



Kremer, A. von. Die Medreseen von 

Haleb. Sitzungsber. der philos.-hist. Classe 

der k. Akademie der Wissenschajten, Band 

iv, pp. 304-309. 1850. 

A list with notes. 

Topographie von Damascus. 



Denkschrijten der k. Akademie der Wissen- 
schajten, philos.-hist. Classe, Band v, Abt. 
2, pp. 1-5, with 3 plates and 3 figures; 
Band vi, Abt. 2, pp. 1-37, with 1 plate 
and 1 figure. 1854-1855. 

See Hammer-Purgstall. 

Laborde, Leon de. Voyage en Orient. 

Pres de 400 vues de sites historiques de 

l'Asie Mineure et de la Syrie, dessinees 

d'apres nature par l'auteur, accompagnees 

d'un Texte explicatif. Vol. ii, Voyage de 

la Syrie. Folio. 

Firmin Didot, Paris, 1838. 

See plate xv, Tripoli ; xxvii, Beyrut, old 
fortifications ; xxxvii, Bteddin, Palace of the 
Emir Beshir ; xliv, Damascus ; lvii and lviii, 
Bosra, Citadel and walls ; lxii and lxiii, Tiberias, 
before and after the earthquake of 1837 (in the 
first completely walled), and lxxxvii, Sidon, fine 
doorway. 

Lallemand, Ch. D'Algei a Constan- 
tinople. Jerusalem-Damas. j.to, pp. 134, 
with 22 plates (1 coloured) and 74 illustra- 
tions. 

Quantin, Paris : Gervais-Courtelle- 
mont, Alger, [1894]. 

Collection Courtellemont artistique et pittoresque. 
Illustrations directes d'apris nature. 

Lammens, H. La Syrie : Precis his- 
torique. Sm. 8vo, 2 vols., pp. ix and 279, 
277. 

Imprimerie Catholique, Beyrouth, 
1921. 

See pp. 87-88 for the Great Mosque at 
Damascus, and pp. 96-98 for a discussion of the 
problem of Mshatta, which the author attributes 
to Walid II (743-744). 

Le Strange, Guy. Palestine under the 
Moslems. A Description of Syria and the 
Holy Land from a.d. 650 to 1500. Trans- 
lated from the works of the mediaeval 
Arab geographers. 8vo, pp. xxiii and 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



604, with 17 plans and illustrations and 2 
maps. 

Alexander Watt, for The Palestine 
Exploration Fund, London, 1890. 

Le Strange, Gay. Description of Syria, 
including Palestine, by Mukaddasi (circ. 
985 a.d.). Translated from the Arabic 
and annotated. 8vo, pp. xvi and 116, 
with 2 maps and 4 plans (including one 
of the Haram-esh-Sherif). 

London, 1892. 
Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, vol. iii. 

Littman. Aibeg (Arab. pron. Aibak), 
properly called 'Izz al-Din Abu'l-Mansur 
Aibeg al-Mu'azzami. Article in the En- 
cyclopedia of Islam, vol. i, pp. 208-209. 

1909. 

Governor of Damascus. Gives a list of his 
buildings at Salkhad (Hauran) and elsewhere. 
Died a.h. 646 (1248/9). 

de Lorey, Eustache, and Gaston Wiet. 

Cenotaphes de deux dames musulmanes 
a Damas. Syria, ii, pp. 221-225 an< ^ 
Planche xxvii. 192 1. 

Lukach, Harry Charles. The Fringe of 

the East. A journey through past and 

present provinces of Turkey. 8vo, pp. 

xiii and 273, with map and 76 illustrations. 

Macmillan, London, 191 3. 

Contains several new architectural photo- 
graphs, e.g. Great Mosque of l.l.-un.i ; Great 
Mosque at Damascus, as restored since the 
fire, etc. 

Luke, Harry Charles, and Edward 
Keith-Roach. The Handbook of Pales- 
tine. With an Introduction by the Right 
Hon. Sir Herbert Samuel, P.C., G.B.E. 
Issued under the authority of the Govern- 
ment of Palestine. Sm. 8vo, pp. xii and 
295, with frontispiece and folding map. 
Macmillan, London, 1922. 

See Moslem Architecture in Palestine (by 
E. T. Richmond), pp. 67-74 ', also the Pro- 
Jerusalem Society, pp. 131-132. 

Luynes, Due de. Voyage d'exploration 
a la Mer Morte, a Petra et sur la rive 
gauche du Jourdain. Guivre posthume 



publile par ses petits-fils sous la direction 
de M. le comte de Vogiie\ Impl. 4to, 
text : 3 vols., pp. iii and 388 ; 227 ; vi 
and 326 ; plates : 97, with 2 folding maps. 
Bertrand, Paris, [1871-1876]. 

Mosquee dite d'Omar — Qoubbet-es-Sakhrah, 
tome i, Appendice, pp. 333-34°. 

Also dating inscriptions on mosques, etc., at El- 
Borak, Hebron, Karak, Mo'teh, Qal'at al-Hesa, 
Shaubak and Ramleh, tome ii, pp. 183-222. 

Marcais, Georges. La Mosquee d'El- 
Walid a Damas et son influence sur 
1' Architecture musulmane d'Occident. 
Revue Africaine, L* annee, pp. 37-56, 
with 2 figures. 1906. 

Margoliouth, Rev. D. S., D.Litt. Cairo, 

Jerusalem & Damascus : three chief 

cities of the Egyptian Sultans. With 

illustrations in colour by W. S.S.Tyrwhitt, 

R.B.A., and additional plates by Reginald 

Barratt, A.R.W.S. 4to, pp. xvi and 301, 

with.57coloured plates and 3 line drawings. 

Chatto & Windus, London, 1907. 

Moslem architecture at Jerusalem, pp. 203- 
225 ; at Damascus, pp. 228-248. 

Masterman, Ernest W. Gurney. A 

Greek Inscription from the Grand Mosque, 

Damascus. Palestine Exploration Fund, 

Q. St., pp. 224-5, with facsimile. 1896. 

Note by Dr. Murray, ibid., pp. 225-226. 

Mayer, L. A. Arabic Inscriptions of 
Gaza. Journal of the Palestine Oriental 
Society, vol. iii, pp. 69-78, with 3 plates 
and 1 figure. J 9 2 3- 

du Mesnil du Buisson. Les anciennes 
defenses de Beyrouth. Syria, tome ii, 
pp. 235-257, planches xxxv-xl and figs. 
1-8; pp. 317-327, planches xlvi-liii and 
figs. 9-1 1. 1921. 

Migeon, Gaston. Hama, de Syrie. 
Syria, tome ii, pp. 1-5, and planches i-ii. 

1921. 

Much, Hans. Islamik. Westlicher 
Teil bis zur persischen Grenze. 8vo, pp. 
16, with 98 illustrations. 

Friederichsen, Hamburg, 192 1. 
See Abb. 10, n», 14, 21 (Aleppo), 27 b , 50, 5i b , 
54, 55, 58-61, 63, 66», 67" and 79- 

79 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Muir, Sir Wm. Destruction of the 
Great Mosque of Damascus. The Archi- 
tect, vol. li, p. 55. 1894. 

Reprint of a letter to the Scotsman. 

Miilinen, Dr. E. Graf von. Das Grab 
Abu'l-Fida's in Hama. Zeitschr. d. Deut- 
schen morgenldndischen Gesellschaft, Band 
lxii, pp. 657-660, with 4 illustrations on 

2 plates. 1908. 

See Seybold. 

Musil, Alois. Arabia Petraea. 8vo, 

3 parts : I — Moab, topographischer Reise- 
bericht, mit 1 Tafel und 190 Abbildungen 
im Texte, pp. xxiii and 443 ; II — Edom, 
topographischer Reisebericht. 1. Teil, mit 
I Umgebungskarte von wadi Musa (Petra) 
und 170 Abbildungen im Texte, pp. xii 
and 343 ; 2. Teil, mit 1 Ubersichtskarte 
des Dreiecknetzes und 152 Abbildungen im 
Texte, pp. x and 300 ; III — Ethnologischer 
Reisebericht, mit 62 Abbildungen im 
Texte, pp. xvi and 550. 

Holder, Wien, 1907-1908. 

Kusejr 'Amra, Band i, pp. 219-233, illus. 
96-105 ; pp. 276-289, illus. u8-r24 ; Kasr al- 
Harani, pp. 290-293, illus. 129-135 ; Mashita, 
pp. 196-203, illus. 83-92. 

Nasir-i-Khusrau. Sefer Nameh. Rela- 
tion du voyage de Nassiri Khosrau en 
Syrie, en Palestine, en Egypte, en Arabie 
et en Perse, pendant les annees de l'hegire 
437-444 (1035-1042). Publie, traduite et 
annote par Charles Schefer. Large 8vo, 
pp. lviii, 348 and 97 (Persian text), with 4 
coloured plates. 

Leroux, Paris, 1881. 

Publications de t'icole des langues orientates 
vivantes, ii" serie, vol. i. 

See pp. 31-105, for Aleppo, Ma'arrat an- 
Nu'man, Tripoli, Jebeil, Sidon, Akka, Tiberias, 
Cassarea, Ramleh, Jerusalem (most important 
account of the Haram Area) and Hebron. 

Oppenheim, Dr. Max von. Vom Mittel- 
meer zum Persischen Golf durch den 
Hauran, die syrische Wiiste und Mesopo- 
tamien. Mit vier Originalkarten von 
Dr. Richard Kiepert, einer Uebersichts- 

80 



karte und zahlreichen Abbildungen. 8vo, 
2 vols., pp. xv and 334 ; xv and 434. 

Reimer, Berlin, 1 899-1900. 

Bteddin, Band i, pp. 27-30, with r plate and 
2 illustrations ; Damascus, pp. 48-77, well illus- 
trated ; Bosra, two mosques, pp. 198-199, with 
plate ; Salkhad, castle and minaret dated a.h. 
603 (1206/7), pp. 203-207, with 2 illustrations. 

Pierotti, Dr. Ermete. On Jewish and 
Roman Architecture in Palestine from the 
earliest period to the time of the Crusades. 
Papers read at the Roy. Inst, of Brit. 
Architects, vol. xii, pp. 149-164. 1862. 

" Epoch of the Arabs," pp. 161-162. 

Porter, Rev. 3. L. Five Years in 
Damascus : including an account of the 
history, topography, and antiquities of 
that city ; with travels and researches in 
Palmyra, Lebanon, and the Hauran. Sm. 
8vo, 2 vols., pp. xi and 395, with 8 plates 
and 8 illustrations ; pp. vii and 372, with 
2 plates, a map and 12 illustrations. 

Murray, London, 1855. 

. Second edition, revised. Sm. 

8vo, pp. xvi and 339, with 1 plate, map 
and 18 illustrations. 

Murray, London, 1870. 

Portfolio of Saracenic Art. 4to, 4 

parts, 8 coloured plates, no text. 

London, [1 887-1 890]. 

Part 2, plate 1 : " Panel of tiles. From the 
Senariyeh [? Sinaniyya] Mosque at Damascus, 
about 1580." 

Puchstein, Dr. 0. Guide de Ba'albek. 
Traduit de l'allemand. Sm. 8vo, pp. 42, 
with 12 figures. Reimer, Berlin, 1906. 

Reinach, A. J. Les mosaiques de la 
mosquee des Omayades a Damas. Revue 
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453-454- I 9 11 - 

Reitemeyer, Dr. Else. Die Stadte- 
grundungen der Araber im Islam, nach den 
arabischen Historikern und Geographen. 
8vo, pp. iv and 170. 

Harrassowitz, Leipzig, 1912. 
See pp. 69-75, for Ramla, Rusafa, etc. 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Rey, E. Guillaume. Voyage dans le 

Haouran et aux bords de la Mer Morte, 

execute" pendant les annees 1857 et '858. 

Text : 8vo, pp. xx and 306 ; plates : atlas 

folio, pp. [i] with 25 plates (1 double). 

Bertrand, Paris, [i860?]. 

Bosra : Mosque Dar-al-Moslim, Mosque of al- 
Mebrak, and Mosque of Omar-al-Kitab, pp. 179- 
183. View and plan of latter, plate xvi, frieze, 
plate xvii. 

. Rapport sur une mission 

scientifique accomplie en 1 864-1865 dans 

le nord de la Syrie. Archives des missions, 

2 m s6rie, tome iii, pp. 329-373, with 9 

plates. 1866. 

Salamiyya, p. 245 (mosque with Kufio in- 
scriptions) ; Shoumaimis, pp. 343-34° ; and 
Mambij, p. 352 (square minaret built, according 
to an inscription, by Saladin in 55i-?58i — a.d. 
1183). 

Riant, Comte. Note explicative d'un 
plan de la mosqu£e d'Hebron. Comptes 
rendus de VAcademie des Inscriptions et 
Belles-Lettres, pp. 54-63, with 1 double 
plate (plan). 1886. 

Rivoira, G. T. Architettura Musul- 
mana, sue origini e suo sviluppo. 4to, pp. 
ix and 391, with 341 illustrations. 

Hoepli, Milan, 1914. 

! . Moslem Architecture, its 

origins and development. Translated 
from the Italian by G. McN. Rushforth. 
4to, pp. xvii and 383, with 341 illustra- 
tions. 

Milford, Oxford, 191 8. 

See Dome of the Rock, and Mosque of al- 
Aqsa, pp. 45-72 and 11-23, an< l Great Mosque 
at Damascus, pp. 72-137. 

Russell, Alex. The Natural History of 
Aleppo, and parts adjacent. Containing 
a description of the city, and the principal 
natural productions in its neighbourhood ; 
. . . 4to, pp. viii and 276, with 15 plates. 
Millar, London, 1756. 

. The second edition. Revised, 

enlarged, and illustrated with notes. 
By Pat. Russell, M.D., F.R.S. 4to, 

N 



2 vols., pp. xxiv, 446 and xxv, with 5 
plates ; pp. vii, 430, xxxiv and 26, with 
15 plates. 

Robinson, London, 1794. 

Sachau, Dr. Eduard. Reise in Syrien 
und Mesopotamien. Mit 2 Karten von 
Professor Heinrich Kiepert, 18 Abbildun- 
gen und 22 Lichtdruckbildern. 8vo, pp. 
x and 479. Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1883. 

Horns, pp. 62-64 and plate viii ; Qal'at Sejar, 
pp. 68-69 and plate x ; Mambij, pp. 146-132 ; 
Qal'at an-Negm, pp. 153-135 ; and Aleppo, 
pp. 458-459 and plates xx-xxii. 

Sachsen, Johann Georg, Herzog zu. 

Tagebuchblatter aus Nordsyrien. Mit 85 

Abbildungen. 8vo, pp. viii and 71. 

Teubner, Leipzig, 192 1. 

Review : Hugo Grothe, Orientalisches Archiv, 
Jahrg. iii, pp. 146-147. 

For Horns, Hama and Aleppo. 

Saladin, H. Manuel d'art musulman. 

I — L'Architecture. 8vo. 

Picard, Paris, 1907. 

Chap, ii : " Ecole syro-egyptienne (lsgypte, 
Syrie, Arabic)," pp. 45-i84,with 108 illustrations. 

Salhab, Dr. T. La fabrication des 
briques en Orient. Al-Machriq, pp. 747- 
749. [In Arabic.]. 1910. 

Sarre, Friedrich, and Ernst Herzfeld. 
Archaologische Reise im Euphrat und 
Tigris - Gebiet. Mit einem Beitrage : 
Arabische Inschriften von Max van 
Berchem. Sm. folio, 4 vols., pp. x 
and 252, with 2 maps and 132 illustra- 
tions ; pp. xii and 395, with 2 maps and 
245 illustrations ; pp. xi, with 120 plates ; 
pp. vii and 59, with 28 plates. 

Reimer, Berlin, 1911-1920. 

Forschungen der Islamischcn Kunst, i. 

See i, pp. 1-3, for dating inscriptions at 
Balis, by M. van Berchem, pp. no— 172, for 
itinerary from Aleppo to Deir az-Z6r, by E. 
Herzfeld ; and iii, Tafeln i and xxiv. 

Sauvaire, Henry. Histoire de Jerusalem 
et d'Hebron, depuis Abraham jusqu'a la 
fin du xv' siecle de J.-C. Fragments de 

8l 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



la Chronique de Moudjir-ed-dyn traduits 

sur le texte arabe. 8vo, pp. [iv] and 346. 

Leroux, Paris, 1876. 

Architecture and topography of Jerusalem 
and Hebron in the fifteenth century, with the 
dates of many monuments. 

Sauvaire, Henry. Description de Damas. 
Traductions de l'arabe. Journal A siaiique, 
ix e serie, tome iii, pp. 251-318, 385-501 ; 
iv, pp. 242-331, 460-503 ; v, pp. 269- 
315, 377-411; vi, pp. 221-303, 409- 
484; vii, pp. 185-285, 369-453. 

1 894-1 896. 

. Do. Extrait du Journal 

Asiatique. 8vo, 2 parts, pp. 318 and 441. 
Imprimerie Nationale, Paris, 1895-6. 

Schick, Dr. Conrad. Letters, II — 
Arabic Building Terms. Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund, Q. St., pp. 194-201, with 
9 small figures. 1893. 

Includes stone-cutters' and masons' tools, 
which the figures illustrate. 

Schumacher, Dr. G. Unsere Arbeiten 
im Ostjordanlande. VII. Zeitschr. des 
Deutschen P alastina-V ereins, Band xxxviii, 
pp. 136-149, and plates vi-xviii. 1915. 

See p. 140 and plates viii-x for Mosque of al- 
Khidr and Great Mosque, and pp. 146-147 and 
plates xvi-xvii for Great Mosque at Ezra. 

Sepp, Dr. Jerusalem und das heilige 
Land. Pilgerbuch nach Palastina, Syrien 
und Aegypten. 8vo, 2 vols., pp. xxxviii 
and 781, with 1 plate and 232 woodcuts ; 
pp. xxviii and 866, with 1 plate and 174 
woodcuts. 

Hurter, Schaffhausen,i863. 

Do. Zweite, durch architek- 



tonische und diplomatische Studien ver- 
mehrte Auflage, mit 550 Illustratione und 
einer selbstaendigen Karte von Palaestina. 
8vo, 2 vols., xxxv and 923 ; xii and 916. 
Hurter, Schaffhauser (Bd. ii-Manz, 
Regensburg), 1 873-1 876. 

Seybold, C. F. Zum Grab Abu'lfida's in 
Hama. Zeitschr. d. Deutschen morgen- 

82 



landischen Gesellschaft, Band lxiii, pp. 329- 
333, 853-854- IQ0 9- 

Notes, chiefly epigraphical. 
See Mulinen. 

Sobernheim, Moritz. Materiaux pour 
un Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum. 
Deuxieme partie. Syrie du Nord. 
Fasc. i, impl. 4to, pp. vii and 139, with 
15 plates. 

Le Caire, 1909. 

Memoires de I'Institut Francais d'Archiologie 
Orientale du Caire, tome xxv. 

. Das Heiligtum Shaik Mu- 

hassin in Aleppo. Melanges Harttvig 

Derenbourg, pp. 379-390. 

Leroux, Paris, 1909. 

A history of the shrine with transliterations 
and translations of the five inscriptions. 

Sobernheim, M. Halab. Article in the 

Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. ii, pp. 227-237, 

with folding map. IQI 5- 

See iii, Notes on the Architectural History 
(based on the joint researches of Dr. Herzfeld 
and the writer), pp. 233-236. 

. Hama. Article in the En- 



cyclopedia of Islam, vol. ii, pp. 240-241, 
with folding map. I 9 I 5- 

. Hims. Article in the En- 



cyclopedia of Islam, vol. ii, pp. 309-310, 
with folding map. 1916. 

. Baalbek in islamischer Zeit. 



Large 4to, pp. 40, with 6 figures (facsimiles 
of inscriptions). 

De Gruyter, Berlin, 1922. 

Vorabdruck aus dem Werke : Baalbek, Ergeb- 
nisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen in 
den Jahren 1899 bis 1905, Band iii. 

Spiers, R. Phene\ F.R.I.B.A., F.S.A. 

The Great Mosque of the Omeiyades, 
Damascus. Journ. of the Roy. Inst, of 
Brit. Architects, vol. iv, third series, pp. 
25-40, with 14 illustrations ; pp. 57-65, 
with 2 illustrations. ^97- 

Also note under " Chronicle," ibid., p. 41. 
This account is fuller and the illustrations on 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



a larger scale than the same articles in Architec- 
ture t East and West. 

Additional Notes, as a result of further in- 
vestigations made on the spot by Mr. A. C. 
Dickie, A.R.I. B.A., for the Palestine Exploration 
Fund, appeared ibid., vol. v, pp. 166-171, with 
6 illustrations. 

Spiers, R. Phen<§, F.R.I.B.A., F.S.A. 

The Great Mosque of Damascus. Pales- 
tine Exploration Fund, Q. St., pp. 282- 
299, with 8 illustrations. 1897. 

In substance the same as that published in the 
J.R.I.B.A., but revised, in view of additional 
information, received subsequently from Dr. 
Masterman of Damascus, and from Mr. Dickie, 
who was specially sent by the Palestine Fund 
Committee to make fresh researches. 

The Great Mosque of the 



Omeiyades, Damascus. Architectural Re- 
view, vol. viii, pp. 80-88, with 9 illustra- 
tions ; pp. 103-114, with 10 illustrations ; 
pp. 158-169, with 10 illustrations. 1900. 
The illustrations are on a large scale. 

Spoer, Hans H. Das Nebi-Musa-Fest. 
Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Palaestina-V ereins, 
Band xxxii, pp. 207-221, with 6 illustra- 
tions. 1909. 
See abb. 5, 7, and 9. 

Stadler, Ferd. Damascus und der Khan 
Assad-Pascha daselbst. Zeiischrift fur 
Bauwesen, Jahrg. xix, col. 567-572, and 
plate 70 in folio volume. 1869. 

Street, A. E. On Fountains and Water 
Treatment. Architectural Review, vol. iv, 
pp. 44-50, with 8 illustrations ; pp. 93-98, 
with 6 illustrations. 1898. 

Includes : Mosque of Omar, Jerusalem ; 
Courtyard Reservoir, Holy Land ; a Pool in the 
Holy Land. 

Stumme, Dr. Hans. Inschriften im 
Haram in Hebron. Zeitschr. d. Deutschen 
Palaestina-V ereins, Band xvii, pp. 249- 

250. J 894- 

Suras from the Kuran over Mihra, etc. 
See also Goldziher (I.), Guthe (H.) and 
Vincent (H). 

Tarchi, TJgo. L'Architettura e l'arte 
musulmana in Egitto e nella Palestina. 
Folio, 18 pp. of text (Italian and French 



in parallel columns), with 166 plates and 

47 figures. 

Crudo, Torino, [1923]. 

See Tavoli 5-»i, 'or Jerusalem, 12-13 for 
Damascus, 13 for Baalbek and 60 for Ramla. 

Thiersch, Hermann. Pharos. Antike 
Islam und Occident. Ein Beitrag zur 
Architekturgeschichte. Mit 9 Tafeln, 2 
Beilagen und 455 Abbildungen im Text. 
Impl. 4to, pp. viii and 260. 

Teubner, Leipzig and Berlin, 1909. 

See " Kapitel V. — Die Nachwirkungen des 
Pharos im Mittelaltcr. i. — In der islamischen 
Baukunst," pp. 97-174. The author, in 
developing his well-known theory as to the origin 
of the Egyptian type of minaret, passes a large 
number of Syrian minarets in review. 

The second part of the Appendix (pp. 212-245) 
is devoted to the evolution of the mosque plan, 
and an entirely new theory is offered as to the 
origin of the plan and elevation of the Great 
Mosque at Damascus. See pp. 214-217. 

Vincent, L. H., E. J. H. Hackay 
and F. M. Abel. Hebron : le Haram 
el-Khalil, sepulture des Patriarches. 
Ouvrage honore d'une souscription de 
l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles- 
Lettres. Large 4to, pp. vi, 257 and vi, 
with 28 plates and 86 figures. 

Leroux, Paris, 1923. 

Vincent, L. P. Nebi Samouil. Revue 
biblique, tome xxxi, " Melanges," pp. 360- 
402, planches xi-xiii and figs. 1 and 2. 

1922. 

Vogiig, Marquis de. La citerne de 
Ramleh et le trace des arcs brises. 
Memoires de I' 'Academic des Inscr. et Belles- 
Lettres, tome xxxix, pp. 163-180, with 3 
plates, 1 figure and 9 diagrams. 1912. 

With Kufic inscription dated a.h. 172 (789): 
" Le principal interet de ce monument reside 
dans ce fait qu'il off re le plus ancien exemple 
date de l'emploi systematique et exclusif, en 
Palestine et en Egypte, de l'arc bris£, vulgaire- 
ment appclc ogive." Includes also an important 
study on the setting-out of two-centred arches. 

Wetzstein, Dr. Johann Gottfried. 

Reisebericht uber Hauran und die 
Trachonen, nebst einem Anhange uber 
die sabaischen Denkmaler in Ostsyrien. 



83 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Mit Karte, Inschriftentafel und Holz- 

schnitten. 8vo, pp. vi and 150. 

Reimer, Berlin, i860. 

For Sala and Bosra. Notes on the Citadel, 
mosque, etc., with dating inscriptions, pp. 70-72. 

Wiet, Gaston. Les Inscriptions arabes 
de Damas. Syria, tome iii, pp. 153-163. 

1922. 

On a collection of copies of several hundred 
inscriptions at Damascus, made for Waddington 
by a Syrian, and recently found by M. Courant 
of Lyons. 

Williams, Robert, F.R.I.B.A. An 

Architectural Quest. The Architect, vol. 
lxxxix, pp. 32-40, with 17 illustrations ; 
pp. 67-69, with 8 illustrations ; pp. 97-99, 
with 7 illustrations. 1913. 

See illustration on p. 26 : " Baalbek. — Ruins 
of Mosque built in the Thirteenth Century from 
the ruins of Roman Temples " ; also on p. 29 : 
" Aleppo. — Interior of the Mosque of Halawia." 

Wilson, Colonel. Picturesque Palestine, 
Sinai and Egypt. Edited by Colonel 
Wilson, assisted by the most eminent 
Palestine explorers. 4to, 4 vols., pp. xx 
and 240 ; vi and 240 ; vi and 240 ; vi 
and 236. With 44 steel engravings and 
several hundred woodcuts. 

Virtue, London, [1880-83]. 

Wilson. Extracts from the Diary of 
Captain (now Major-General Sir Charles) 
Wilson, in 1865. Palestine Exploration 
Fund, Q. St., pp. 299-301. 1897. 



III. FOR JERUSALEM ONLY 

Abel, F. M. Pour la conservation 
de Jerusalem. Revue Biblique, nouvelle 
serie, tome xv, " Chronique," pp. 550-552. 

1918. 

Foreshadowing the formation of the Pro- 
Jerusalem Society by Colonel (now Sir Ronald) 
Storrs, the Military Governor. 

Adler, F. Der Felsendom und die 
heilige Grabeskirche zu Jerusalem. Vor- 
trag, gehalten fur den wissenschaftlichen 
Verein in der Sing-Akademie am 18. 



Januar 1873. Mit zwei Lithografien. 
8vo, pp. 27. 

Habel, Berlin, 1873. 

Virchow und Holtzendorff. Sammlung Ge- 
meinverstdndlichcr wissenschaftlicher Vortrdge, 
Serie viii, No. 188. 

Arren, J. La mosquee d'Omar violee. 
Revue Archeologique, iv e serie, tome xvii, 
pp. 452-453. 1911. 

On the excavations of Captain Parker. 

Ashbee, C. R. Jerusalem 1918-1920. 
Being the Records of the Pro-Jerusalem 
Council during the period of the British 
Military Administration. Edited by C. R. 
Ashbee. 4to, pp. xvi and 87, with 79 
illustrations. 

Murray, London, 192 1. 

See " Muslim Work Touched by the Pro- 
Jerusalem Society," by K. A. C. Creswell, pp. 
67-70 and illus. 77-79. 

Barclay, J. T. The City of the Great 
King ; or Jerusalem as it was, as it is, 
and as it is to be. Large 8vo, pp. xxiii 
and 627, with 17 plates (5 coloured) and 
45 illustrations. 

Challen, Philadelphia, 1858. 

Bartlett, W. H. Walks about the City 
and Environs of Jerusalem. 8vo, pp. viii 
and 224, with 16 steel engravings, 26 
illustrations and a map. 

Virtue, London, [1844]. 

See pp. 161-178 for Catherwood's account of 
the Dome of the Rock, etc., written in 1833. 

Bartolini. Le temple de Salomon a 
Jerusalem. Revue de V Art chretien, xiv e 
annee, pp. 217-227, with I plate ; pp. 265- 
271, with 1 plate ; pp. 321-325, with 1 
plate ; pp. 377-381, with 1 plate ; pp. 

+33-444- l8 7°- 

The Dome of the Rock, pp. 377 ff., with 1 plate 
(plan). 

Becker, Heinrich. Die Tempel zu Jeru- 
salem. Allegemeine Bauzeitung, Jahrg. lviii, 
PP- 5-7, H- 18 , 30-31- 1893. 

The Qubbet as-Sakhra (which the author 
believes to be the church built by Constantine), 
pp. 1 6-1 8. 



84 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Berchem, Max van. Arabische In- 
schrift aus Jerusalem. Mitth. undNachr. 
des Deutschen Palaestina-V ereins, Jahrg. 
iii, pp. 70-78, with 1 facsimile and 1 
plan. [Note by Vollers, p. 86.] 1897. 

English translation : Palestine Exploration 
Fund, Q. St., pp. 86-93, with > pl an alul a pboto- 
graph of the inscription. 1898. 

An undated Kufic inscription, which the author 
suggests may be of Muktadir about a.d. 930, 
referring to a mosque. 

See Clermont-Ganneau : La basilique de 
Constantin, etc. 

Materiaux pour un Corpus 



Inscriptionum Arabicarum. Deuxieme 
partie : Syrie du Sud. Tome premier. — 
Jerusalem " Ville." Impl. 4to, pp. xxxii 
and 464, with 72 figures. Tome troisieme. 
Impl. 4to, 120 plates. 

Institut francais d'archeologie 
orientale, Le Caire, 1920-1923. 

Mlmoires de I'lnstitut francais d'archiologie 
orientale, tomes xliii and xlv. 

Tome ii is in the press. It will contain the 
inscriptions of the Haram Area. 

A fundamental work for the study of the 
Moslem architecture of Jerusalem. It contains 
a great amount of architectural and archaeological 
information, and the plans of a great number of 
buildings are given. The plates also are full of 
architectural subjects. 

Besant, Walter, and E. H. Palmer. 

Jerusalem, the City of Herod & Saladin. 

with a frontispiece. 8vo, pp. xii and 532. 

Chatto & Windus, London, 1899. 

Building of the Dome of the Rock, mosque 
of El Aksa, etc., pp. 86-98 ; see also pp. 433-435- 
Previous editions: 1871, 1888. A thin paper 
edition in 1908. 



Bourgoin, Jules. 

Folio. 



Les Arts arabes. 
Morel, Paris, 1873. 

See plate 2 (Turbeh of Jalikiyyat Khatun) 
and 14 (Madrasa Rasasiya). See also plates 31 
and 91. 

Castelnau, L. de. Ein Besuch in der 
Omarmoschee in Jerusalem. Aus dem 
Berichte des Hrn. L. de Castelnau an 
den franzosischen Kultusminister. Allge- 
meine Bauzeitung, Jahrg. xxi, " Notiz- 
blatt," pp. 47-49. 1856. 



Catherwood, P. Description of a View 
of the City of Jerusalem, and the sur- 
rounding country, now exhibiting at the 
Panorama, Leicester Square. Painted by 
the Proprietor, Robert Burford. From 
Drawings taken in 1834, by Mr. F. Cather- 
wood, Architect. 8vo, pp. 12, with fold- 
ing plate. 

Brettell, London, 1835. 

Clermont-Ganneau, Ch. The Jerusalem 
Researches. Letters vii and viii. Pales- 
tine Exploration Fund, Q. St., pp. 135-158, 
with 7 figures. l %74- 

Notes on, and discoveries regarding the 
Qubbat as-Sakhra during the repairs in 1873/4. 

See also : Lt. Conder's Report, ibid., 1873, 
p. 154, and Tyrwhitt Drake's Report, ibid., 1874, 
pp. 65-6. 

-. La basilique de Constantin et 



la mosquee d'Omar a Jerusalem. Recueil 
d' Archeologie orientale, tome ii, pp. 302- 
362, with 3 illustrations. 1898. 

The mosque of Omar referred to here is not 
the Qubbat as-Sakhra, but one of the many 
mosques named after Omar which were built at 
various points in Jerusalem. The inscription, 
which had just been discovered, on which this 
paper is written, refers to a mosque named after 
Omar, which was built at the latest in the 10th 
century (the author suggests a.d. 936/7), in 
the vestibule of the Basilica of Constantine, at 
the top of the staircase giving access to it. 

See also ibid., tome iv, pp. 283-287. On 
fresh evidence he attributes the inscription to 
el-Hakim. 

See Berchem (M. van) : Arabische Inschrift aus 
Jerusalem. 

. Une inscription inconnue du 

calife 'Abd el-Melik a la Sakhra. Recueil 

d' Archeologie orientale, tome ii, p. 400. 

1898. 

On an inscription existing in the 17th century 
in the Qubbat as-Sakhra, relating its construc- 
tion by the Khalif 'Abd al-Malik. 



. L'hemisphere, abside ou cibo- 

rium du Martyrion de Constantin et de la 

Mosquee d'Omar. Recueil a" Archeologie 

orientale, tome iii, pp. 88-90. J ^99. 

Quotation from Eutychius (d. a.d. 940) to 
the effect that the Khalif al-Walid carried off a 
dome of brass gilt (in which description the 
author recognizes the hemispherical cover of a 
ciborium) from a church at Baalbek, in order to 



85 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



cover the Sakhra (rock) at Jerusalem — where it 
was no doubt placed like a baldachino over the 
sacred spot, in emulation of the Christian 
practice. 

Conder, Claude, Lieut. R.E. The High 
Sanctuary at Jerusalem. Transactions 
of the Roy. Inst, of Brit. Architects, vol. 
xxix, pp. 25-60, with 3 plates. 1 %79- 

Communication on the above from E. C. 
Robins, F.S.A., ibid., pp. 23^232. 

Condor, Lieut.-Col. Claude Beignier. 

Syrian Stone Lore ; or, the Monumental 

History of Palestine. New [3rd] edition. 

Sm. 8vo, pp. xvi and 484, with 28 figures 

and 3 folding maps. 

Palestine Exploration Fund, London, 

1896. 

See pp. 355-362 for the Dome of the Rock and 
the Aqsa Mosque. 

Dalman, Prof. Gustaf. Die Grabungen 
nach dem Tempelschatz von Jerusalem. 
Mitth. und Nachr. des Deutschen Palaestina- 
Vereins, pp. 56-61. 191 1. 

. Neue Petra-Forschungen und 

der heilige Felsen von Jerusalem. Mit 64 
Ansichten und 19 Planen. 4to, pp. viii 
and 172. 

Hinrich, Leipzig, 191 2. 

" Der heilige Felsen von Jerusalem," pp. 111- 
151 ; contains many photographs of the interior 
of the Qubbat as-Sakkra. 

Dehio, G. Ein Proportionsgesetz der 

antiken Baukunst und sein Nachleben 

im Mittelalter und in der Renaissance. 

Large 8vo, pp. 36, with 60 plates. 

Triibner, Strassburg, 1895. 

See plate ix, which shows the author's ideas 
applied to a section of the Dome of the Rock. A 
system of triangulation is superimposed on it 
which gives most of the fixed points. 

Du Camp, Maxime. Egypte, Nubie, 
Palestine et Syrie. Dessins photogra- 
phiques recueillis pendant les annees 
1849, 1850 et 1851. Folio, pp. 61, with 
125 plates (photographs mounted). 

Gide et Baudry, Paris, 1852. 

See Planche 113 for the wall from the Citadel 
to the S.W. corner of Jerusalem, and Planche 
117 for the Dome of the Rock. 

86 



Fergusson, James. An Essay on the 
Ancient Topography of Jerusalem, with 
restored plans of the Temple, &c, and 
plans, sections and details of the church 
built by Constantine the Great over the 
Holy Sepulchre, now known as the Mosque 
of Omar, and other illustrations. 4to, pp. 
xvi and 188, with 7 plates and iowoodcuts, 
Weale, London, 1847. 

The Holy Sepulchre and the 



Temple at Jerusalem. Being the sub- 
stance of two lectures delivered in the 
Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, on 
the 2 1 st February, 1862, and 3rd March, 
1865. 8vo, pp. xvi and 151, with 1 plate 
and 30 figures. 

Murray, London, 1865. 

" El Aksah," pp. 36-45, with 1 figure and 
2 plans. 

The Temples of the Jews and 



the other buildings in the Haram area at 
Jerusalem. 4to, pp. xviii and 304, with 
9 plates and 79 figures. 

Murray, London, 1878. 

Part III, " Christian and Saracenic buildings 
in the Haram area," pp. 193-260. 

Frith, Francis. Sinai and Palestine. 
Folio, with 36 plates (mounted photo- 
graphs), i leaf of text to each. 

Mackenzie, London, n.d. 

Includes photographs of the Dome of the 
Rock and the mosque of al-Aqsa. 

Fuller, Major A. R. An Account of 
Jerusalem, translated for the late Sir 
H. M. Elliot, from the Persian text of 
Nasir ibn Khusrii's Safarnamah. Journ. 
Roy. Asiatic Society, new series, vol. vi, 
pp. 142-164. 1873. 

Contains a detailed description of the Qubbat 
as-Sakhra, etc., in a.h. 438 [1047]. 

Gildemeister, Dr. J. Beitrage zur 
Palastinakunde aus arabischen Quellen. 
Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Palaestina-V ereins, 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Band iv, pp. 85-92 ; vi, pp. 1-12 ; vii, pp. 

143-172, 215-230; viii, pp. 117-145. 

1881-1884. 

Includes " Ibn Abd rabbih : Beschretbung 
der Moschee von Jerusalem," iv, pp. 89-91, etc. 

Gildemeister, Dr. J. Die arabischen 
Nachrichten zur Geschichte der Haram- 
bauten. Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Palaestina- 
Vereins, Band xiii, pp. 1-24. 1890. 

Gressmann, Hugo. Der Felsendom in 
Jerusalem. Paldstinajahrbucb. Jahrg. iv, 
pp. 54-66, with 2 illustrations on I plate. 

1908. 

Gu6rin, Victor. La Terre Sainte. Jeru- 
salem et le nord de la Judee. Ouvrage 
illustre de 147 gravures dans le texte et 
hors texte. 4to, pp. 338. 

Plon, Paris, 1897. 

" Jerusalem apres l'invasion arabc. Sanctu- 
aires musulmans du Haram ech-cherif," pp. 
163-177, with 6 illustrations. 

Hanauer, Rev. J. E. Walks about 
Jerusalem. 8vo, pp. xvii and 260, with 
193 illustrations. 

London Society for Promoting Chris- 
tianity amongst the Jews. Lon- 
don, 1910. 

Harper, Henry A. Walks in Palestine. 
Illustrated by 24 photogravures from 
photographs taken by Cecil V. Shadbolt. 
4to, pp. 128. 

Religious Tract Society, London, 

1888. 

See pp. 23-27, 70-77, and plates 4, 13-14. 

Hartmann, Richard. Studien aus dem 
Deutschen evang. archaolog. Insti- 
tut zu Jerusalem. 17. Geschichte der 
Aksa-Moschee zu Jerusalem. Zeitschr. d. 
Deutschen Palaestina-Vereins, Band xxxii, 
pp. 185-207. I 9°9- 

Hartman, Richard. Der Felsendom in 
Jerusalem und seine Geschichte. Mit 5 
Lichtdrucktafeln. 4to, pp. 73. 

Heitz, Strassburg, 1909. 



Harvey, William. Jerusalem Door- 
ways. Architectural Review, vol. xxxi, pp. 
201-206, with 12 illustrations. 1912. 

Chiefly devoted to the Tenklztyya Madrasa 
and the Old Serai. 

. Colour in Architecture. Journ. 

of the Roy. Inst, of British Architects, 
vol. xxix, Third Series, pp. 485-501, with 
5 illustrations. 1922. 

See p. 495 and figs. 3-5 for the Dome of the 
Rock. The three illustrations are much reduced 
from the beautiful drawings made by William 
Harvey ; they are in the possession of the 
Byzantine Research Fund, who have not yet 
published the book for which they were made. 

Hasak, D. Die Konigliche Halle des 
Herodes, die Marienkirche Justinians und 
die Moschee el-Aksa auf dem Tempelplatz 
in Jerusalem. Zeitschr. d. Deutschen 
Palaestina-V ereins, Band xxxvi, pp. 300- 
309, with 1 plan. 1913. 

Herzfeld, Ernst. Die Qubbat al- 
Sakhra, ein Denkmal fruhislamischer 
Baukunst. Der Islam, Band ii, pp. 235- 
244, with 1 figure (plan). 191 1. 

. Zu Strzygowski's Aufsatzen 

in Band ii, 79 ff. u. OLZ 191 1 Nr. 4. Der 
Islam, Band ii, pp. 411-413. 191 1. 

See Strzygowski's Felsendom und A ksamoschee- 

Holscher, G. Englische Schatzgraber 
im Felsendom zu Jerusalem. Mitth. und 
Nachr. des Deutschen Palaestina-V ereins, 
Jahrg. xvii, pp. 44-46. 191 1. 

Jeffery, Geo. The Secondary Churches 
of Jerusalem and its Suburbs. Journ. of 
the Roy. Inst, of Brit. Architects, vol. xviii, 
Third Series, pp. 737-766, with 10 plans 
and illustrations. 191 1. 

Includes notes on the Haram, the Dome of 
the Rock, the Mosque of al-Aqsa, etc. 

Lagrange, M. J. La pretendue viola- 
tion de la mosquee d'Omar. Revue 

87 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Biblique, nouvelle serie, tome viii, pp. 
440-442. 191 1. 

Lees, G. Robinson. Jerusalem Illus- 
trated. With a preface by the Rt. Rev. 
Bishop Blyth ; and an appendix illus- 
trating the models [of the Temple area at 
all periods] of Herr Baurath von Schick, 
with descriptive letterpress, translated 
by the Rev. J. E. Hanauer. 8vo, pp. [x] 
and 163, with 74 illustrations and 5 plans. 
Mawson, Swan, & Morgan, New- 
castle-on-Tyne : Gay & Bird, 
London, 1893. 

Le Strange, Guy. Notices of the Dome 
of the Rock and of the Church of the 
Sepulchre by Arab Historians prior to 
the First Crusade. Palestine Exploration 
Fund, Q. St., pp. 90-103, with plan of 
the Haram area. 1887. 

To show that the Dome of the Rock does not 
represent the Basilica erected by Constantine, 
as maintained by Fergusson. 

. Description of the Noble 

Sanctuary at Jerusalem in a.d. 1470, 
by Kamal (or Shams) ad Din as Suyuti. 
Extracts re-translated by Guy Le Strange. 
Journ. Roy. Asiatic Society, New Series, 
vol. xix, pp. 247-305, with 1 plate. 1887. 

. Idrisi's description of Jerusa- 
lem in 1154. Palestine Exploration Fund, 
0. St., pp. 31-35. 1888. 



An Inscription in the Aksa 
Palestine Exploration Fund, Q. 

1888. 



Mosque. 

St., pp. 278-280. 



Lewin, Thomas. The Mosque of Omar. 
Archceologia, vol. xli, pp. 1 35-1 50, with 



plate. 



1867. 



The writer compares it with the Temple of 
Jupiter at Spalato, and comes to the conclusion 
that the present building is in fact the Temple 
of Jupiter Capitolinus restored or rebuilt by 
Maximin Daza, the successor of Diocletian ! ! ! 

Lewis, Prof. T. Hayter, F.S.A. The 

Mosque El Aksa, Jerusalem. Palestine 

88 



Exploration Fund, Q. St., pp. 47-49, with 
2 plans. 1887. 

One plan show3 mosque as it was according 
to Muqaddasi. 

Lewis, Prof. T. Hayter, F.S.A.. The 

Holy Places of Jerusalem. 8vo, pp. xii 

and 130, with many illustrations. 

Murray, London, 1888. 

Chapters on the Dome of the Rock, the Mosque 
of al-Aqsa, etc. 

Lloyd, W. Watkins. Mr. Fergusson on 
the Temple of Jerusalem. The Architect, 
vol. xix, pp. 262-264; 320-322. 1878. 
An article on Fergusson's work [q.v.]. 

Mauss, C. Note sur la methode em- 
ployee pour tracer le plan de la mosquee 
d'Omar et de la rotonde du Saint-Sepulcre 
a Jerusalem. Revue Archeologique, iii* 
serie, tome xii, pp. 1-31, with 3 plates 
and 11 figures in the text. 1888. 

Showing that the proportions were obtained 
by a system of triangulation. In the first case 
right-angled, in the second case, equilateral 
triangles were used. 

. Note pour faire suite au trace 

du plan de la mosquee d'Omar, publie 
en juin-juillet, 1888. Revue Archeolo- 
gique, iii* 5 serie, tome xiv, pp. 194-200. 

1889. 

On the unit of measurement used by the 
designers. 

Mitchell, Hinckley G. The Modern Wall 
of Jerusalem. Annual of the American 
School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem, 
vol. i, pp. 28-50, with 71 figures. 1920. 

Offord, Joseph. Documents concerning 
Jerusalem in the Aphrodito Papyri of the 
Mohammedan Era. Palestine Exploration 
Fund, Q. St., pp. 205-206. 1912. 

Relating to workmen for the "mosque at 
Jerusalem " and " the Palace of the Amir al- 
Mu'minin." Date c. 708-714 a.d. 

Palmer, E. H. History of the Haram 
es Sherif. Compiled from the Arabic 
Historians. Palestine Exploration Fund, 
Q. St., pp. 122-132, 164-170. 1871. 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Paris, Le contre-amiral. Souvenirs 

de Jerusalem. Album dessine' par M. le 

contre-amiral Paris. Lithographie par 

Hubert Clerget, Bachelier, Jules Gaildrau 

et Fichot. Ouvrage publie par l'escadre 

de la Mediterran^e. Impl. folio, pp. 4, 

with 14 plates (13 coloured). 

Bertrand, Paris, [1862]. 

Includes 2 fine lithographs of the interior of 
the Dome of the Rock, and 1 of the interior of 
the Mosque of al-Aqsa. 

Paris, Vice-Admiral. Beschreibung der 
Omarmoschee und der Moschee El-Aksa 
zu Jerusalem. Allgemeine Bauzeitung, 
Jahrg. xxix, Lit.-blatt, pp. 355—358. 

1864. 

Payer, Alois. Album von Jerusalem 
in 25 Ansichten aus den heiligen Landern, 
nach photografischen Original-Aufnahmen 
von Alois Payer . . . unter der Leitung 
des Dr. Ignaz Knoblecher. I*" Heft. 
Sm. oblong folio. 

Dittmarsch, Wien, [1866]. 

Plate iiis : " Die Eck-Moschee " (Minaret). 
Also shown in iv«. No more.published. Heft i 
contains plates 3-6, 16 and 17 only. 

Pierotti, Ermete. Jerusalem Explored : 

being a description of the ancient and 

modern city. Translated by Thomas 

George Bonney. 4to, 2 vols., pp. xii and 

339 5 [ m ]> w "h 63 plates (many tinted), 

and explanatory notes interleaved. 

Bell, London : Deighton, Cambridge, 

1864. 

See plates xi, xiv, xxi, xxiii, xxiv, xxvi-xxix, 
xliii-xlvi, and liii. 

Reynolds, Rev. James. The History 
of the Temple of Jerusalem : translated 
from the Arabic MS. of the Imam Jalal- 
addin al Siuti. With notes and disserta- 
tions. Large 8vo, pp. xxxvi, xx and 551. 
Valpy, London, 1836. 

Oriental Translation Fund. 

This translation has been very severely 
criticised by G. Le Strange [q.v.], who has re- 
translated portions of the work. 

Riess, Dr. von. Zur Baugeschichte 
des Felsendomes in Jerusalem. Zeitschr, 



d. Deutschen Palaestina-V ereins, Band 
xi, pp. 197-21 1. 1888. 

An article on Conrad Schick's Htit tl MakJat 
[q-v.]. 

Rosen, Dr. 0. Topographisches aus 

Jerusalem. Zeitschr. d. Deutschen mor- 

genldndischen Gesellschaft, Band xiv, pp. 

605-621, with double-page map. i860. 

Includes notes on the Qubbat as-Sakhra. 

Salzmann, Auguste. Jerusalem. Etude 
de reproduction photographique des monu- 
ments de la Ville Sainte, depuis l'6poque 
judaique jusqu'a nos jours. Text : folio, 
pp. 92, with 3 plates (1 coloured) and 
many figures ; plates : atlas folio, 2 vols., 
with 81 and 93. 

Gide et Baudry, Paris, 1856. 
There was a " Grande edition " and a " Petite 
edition " of the plates. In the former the 
photographs number 180 (on 174 plates) and 
measure 24 x 34 cm., in the latter there are 
40 only, measuring 16 x 22 cm. 

See Monuments arabcs, pp. 76-90, with 18 
figures, and 47 plates in atlas-folio. 

Schick, C. Die Baugeschichte der 
Stadt Jerusalem in kurzen Umrissen von 
den altesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegen- 
wart dargestellt. Zeitschr. d. Deutschen 
Palaestina-V ereins, Band xvi, pp. 237-246, 
with 2 figures ; xvii, pp. 1-24, with a 
folding plan and 2 figures, pp. 75-88, 
165-179,251-276. 1893-1894. 

. Letters,III. — Notes of changes 

in Jerusalem Buildings, &c. Palestine 
Exploration Fund, Q. St., pp. 19-21. 

1894. 

Minaret of the Haram Esh Sherif ; spire 
*' removed and a dome-shaped stone top put on." 

. Reports, No. 3 : Mosque in 

the Street " Suweikat Allun " [Jerusalem], 
Palestine Exploration Fund, Q. St., p. 217. 

1896. 

Die Stiftshiitte, der Temper 



in Jerusalem und der Tempelplatz del 
Jetztzeit. Dargestellt. Mit 47 in den 
Text gedruckten Abbildungen und 11 

89 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



lithographierten Tafeln. 8vo, pp. viii 
and 363. 

Weidmann, Berlin, 1896. 
For Moslem buildings see pp. 226-283. 

Schick, C. Reports and Papers. No. 1 : 
The Kubbet " Shekfee Sakhra." Also 
called the " Little Sakhra," in the Haram 
es Sherif, Jerusalem. Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund, Q. St., pp. 103-105, with plan, 
section and elevation. 1 ^97- 

. Reports, VII. — The Book: 

" Palestine under the Moslems." Pales- 
tine Exploration Fund, Q. St., pp. 84-85. 

1898. 

Note re p. 122, confirming the correctness, at 
the present day, of Ibn al Fakih's statement re 
30 pillars supporting the Dome of the Rock. 

Schick, Dr. Conrad. Birket as-Sultan, 
Jerusalem. Palestine Exploration Fund, 
Q. St., pp. 224-229, with 1 folding plate. 

1898. 

Sepp, Dr. Bernh. Die Felsenkuppel in 
Jerusalem. Zeitschr. d. Deutschen Palaes- 
tina-Vereins, Band xii, pp. 167-192, with 
1 illustration (section). 1889. 

Sepp, Prof. [J. N.] Neue architek- 
tonische Studien und historisch-topo- 
graphische Forschungen in Palastina. Mit 
siebzig Illustrationen. 8vo, pp. xliv and 
256. 

Stahel, Wurzburg, 1867. 

Chap, ii, Die Hagia Sophia order Felsenkuppel, 
ein werk Justinianus ; iii, Erbauung der Aksa 
durch den Chalifer Abd el Melik. 

Sepp, Prof. J. N. and Dr. Bernh. Sepp. 

Die Felsenkuppel eine Justinianische 
Sophienkirche und die iibrigen Tempel 
Jerusalems. 8vo, pp. xxiv and 176, with 
I plate and 41 illustrations. 

Kellerer, Miinchen, 1882. 

Simpson, William. Transference of 

Sites. Palestine Exploration Fund, Q. St., 

pp. 18-32, with 4 figures. I %79. 

On the Holy Sepulchre and the Dome of the 
Rock. 

90 



Simpson, William. The Sakhrah. 
Palestine Exploration Fund, 0. St., pp. 
74-75, with view and plan. 1887. 

■ -. The Holy Sepulchre and the 

Dome of the Rock. Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund, Q. St., pp. 14-17. 1889. 

On the connection between the design of the 
two buildings, and a quotation from Muqaddasi 
in support of this opinion. 

Spence, T. R. Jerusalem from an 
Architectural Point of View. Architec- 
tural Review, vol. vi, pp. 253-262, with 8 
illustrations. J 899- 

Strzygowski, Josef. Felsendom und 
Aksamoschee. Eine Abwehr. Der Islam, 
Band ii, pp. 79-97, with 5 plates. 191 1. 

See Herzfeld, Zu Sirzygowski's AufsaUen. 

Tobler, Dr. Titos. Zwei Biicher Topo- 
graphic von Jerusalem und seinen Um- 
gebungen. Erster Buch : Die heilige 
Stadt. Zweites Buch : Die Umgebungen. 
8vo, 2 vols., pp. cvi and 677, with 4 
plates ; pp. iv and 1033, with I plate and 
several figures in the text. 

Reimer, Berlin, 1 853-1854. 

" Die Moscheen," i, pp. 456-614. With 
numerous references to the descriptions of 
mediaeval travellers, both Christian and Muham- 
madan. 

Vara, Baron Ludovic de. La Pales- 
tine. Ouvrage illustre par P. Chardin et 
C. Mauss. 4to, pp. ii and 527, with 154 
illustrations and a map. 

Leroux, Paris, 1883. 
For the Haram ash-Sharif and the buildings 
within it see pp. 188-215, with 1 plate and 3 
illustrations. See also p. 297, for plan and view 
of a mausoleum in the Mamillah cemetery at 
Jerusalem. 

Vincent, F. H. Nouvelles de Jerusalem. 

Revue Biblique, nouvelle serie, tome xvi, 

" Chronique," pp. 252-254. 1919 

Notes on the clearing away of hovels, debris 

etc., from the interior of the citadel. 

Vogiie\ Le comte Melenior de. Les 

Eglises de la Terre Sainte. Sm. 4to, pp. 

464, with 28 plates, 23 figures and 2 maps. 

Didron, Paris, i860. 

See chap, vi, pp. 266-291, and Planches xix 
and xx, for the Dome of the Rock and the 
Mosque of al-Aqsa. 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Vogiil, Le comte Melchior de. Le 

Temple de Jerusalem. Monographic du 
Haram-Ech-Cherif, suivie d'un essai sur 
la topographie de la Ville-Sainte. Folio, 
pp. vii and 148, with 37 plates (11 
coloured) and 56 figures. 

Noblet & Baudry, Paris, 1864. 

La mosquee d'Omar a Jeru- 



salem. Revue illustree de La Terre Sainte, 
tome xxii, 1905. 

Illustration, p. 129 (chaire d'Omar), illustra- 
tion p. 137 (mosqu6e d'Omar), p. 142 s. 

Warren, Col. Sir Charles, K.C.M.G., and 
Capt. C. R. Conder. The Survey of 
Western Palestine : Jerusalem. 410, pp. 
vii and 542, with 10 plates and many 
illustrations. 

Palestine Exploration Fund, London, 

1884. 
See pp. 38-40, 42, 66-69, and 80-84. 

Watson, Sir C. M. The Story of Jeru- 
salem. Illustrated by Genevieve Watson. 
i2mo, pp. xx and 339, with 44 illustra- 
tions and a folding plan of the city. 

Dent, London ; Dutton, New York, 

1912. 

One of the Mediaval Towns Serits. 
Muhamrnadan period, pp. 131ft. 

Wild. Die Omar-Moschee in Jerusalem. 
Allgemeine Bauzeitung, Jahrg. xix, pp. 
1-2, with 1 plate (in folio volume). 1854. 

Williams, Robert. Crosses on the 
Mosque of the Dome of the Rock, Jerusa- 
lem. Palestine Exploration Fund, Q. St., 
pp. 178-183, with 10 illustrations. 1913. 

Wilson, Capt. Charles W. Ordnance 
Survey of Jerusalem. Made with the 
sanction of the Rt. Hon. Earl de Grey 
and Ripon, Secretary of State for War, by 
Capt. Charles W. Wilson, under the direc- 
tion of Colonel Sir Henry James. Folio, 
3 vols.: text pp. iii, 90, and [26], with 
30 plates ; " Portfolio of Plans," with 14 
• I have not seen this memoir. 



plates ; " Volume of Photographs," pp. 
ii, with 76 photographs on 43 plates. 

Published by Authority of the Lords 

Commissioners of Her Majesty's 

Treasury, 1865. 

IV. FOR QUSAIR 'AMRA ONLY 

Becker, C. H. Das Wiener Qusair 
'Amra-Werk. Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie, 
Band xx, pp. 355-379. 1907. 

An article on Musil's Work [q.v.]. 

Berchem, Max van. Au pays de Moab 
et d'Edom. Journal des Savants, pp. 

293-309; 363-37 2 ; 4 OI -4 IJ - !9°9- 

Chiefly on Qusair 'Amra and its date. Also 

on the date of Mshatta. Written as an article 

on Musil's f Arabia Pttraa [q.v.], and Kusejr 

'Antra [q.v.]. 

Herzfeld, E. 'Amra (Kusair 'Amra, the 
little castle of 'Amra). Article in the 
Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. i, pp. 336-339. 

1910. 

Hurgronje, C. Snouck. Kusejr 'Am- 
ra und das Bilderverbot. Zeitschr, d. 
Deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschajt, 
Band Ixi, pp. 186-191. 1 9°7- 

Janssen and Savignac. Les Chateaux 
arabes de Qeseir 'Amra, Haraneh et 
Tuba. Large 8vo, pp. [i] and 135, with 
21 illustrations in the text, and 58 plates 
in separate cover. 

Geuthner, Paris, 1922. 
Mission archiologique en Arabic, iii. 

*Karabacek, Josef, von. tlber die 
Affindung eines Khalifenschlosses in der 
nord-arabischen Wiiste. Neue Freie 
Presse, No. 13,563. 

Wien, 1902. 

* . Uber die Affindung eines 

Chalifenschlosses in der nordarabischen 
Wiiste. Almanach der Kaiserl. Akad. d. 
Wissenschaft, Hi, pp. 341 ff. 

Vienna, 1903. 
* Not seen. 

91 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Migeon, Gaston. Qesejir Amra. Revue 
Biblique, nouvelle serie, tome xi, pp. 392- 
401, with 1 double plate and 7 illustra- 
tions. I 9 I 4- 

A short survey of research on this subject, 
accompanied by photographs of the frescoes, 
taken by MM. Janssen and Savignac for a work 
not yet published. 

Moritz, Dr. B. Ausfliige in der Arabia 

Petraea. Melanges de la Faculte Orientale, 

Beyrouth, tome iii, pp. 387-436, with 7 

plates. 1908. 

Kusejr 'Amra, pp. 416-433. Also Qasr 
Kharaneh. 

Musil, Alois. Kusejr 'amra und andere 
Schlosser ostlich von Moab. Topogra- 
phischer Reisebericht. I. Theil. Sit- 
zungsber. der philos.-hist. Classe der k. 
Akademie der Wissenschaften, Band cxliv, 
Abh. vii, pp. 51, with 18 plates. 

Wien, 1 90 1. 

. Do. Separat abdruck. 8vo, 

pp. 51, with 18 plates. 

Gerold's Sohn, Wien, 1902. 

Reviews : Clermont-Ganneau, Journal des 
Savants, 1902, pp. 281-284 ; R- Briinnow, 
Vienna Oriental Journal, vol. xxiv, pp. 268-296. 

. Kusejr 'Amra. Folio, 2 vols., 

pp. x and 238, with 145 illustrations and 
large folding map ; p. [i] and 41 coloured 
or tinted plates (18 double). 

K. K. Hof-und Staatsdruckerei, Wien, 

1907. 

Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, 
Wien. 

Contents : Kusejr 'Amra. Von Alois Musil. 
Architektonische Beschaffenheit des Baues. 
Von Max Kropf. Die Aufnahme der Malereien. 
Von A. L. Mielich. Die chemische Analyse der 
Farben. Von J. Pollak und F. Wenzel. Der 
Stil der Malereien. Von Franz Wiekhoff. 
Erklarung der Tafeln. Von Franz Wiekhoff. 
Datierung und Bestimmung des Baues. Von 
Josef von Karabacek. 

See Noldeke, Zeitsch. der deutschen morgen- 
landischen Gesellschaft, lxi, pp. 222-233, for a 
most important review of this work, in which he 
disputes Karabacek's dating and gives the now 
universally accepted interpretation of the 
inscriptions. 

. Neues aus Arabia Petraea. 



Strzygowski, Josef. Amra als Bauwerk. 

Zeitschr. f. Geschichte der Architectur, 
Jahrg. i, pp. 57-64, with 3 illustrations. 

1907. 

■ . Amra und seine Malereien. 



Zeitschr. fur bildende Kunst, neue Folge, 
Band xviii, pp. 213-218, with 6 illustra- 
tions. I 9°7- 

Der grosse hellenistische Kunst- 



Vienna Oriental 'Journal, vol. xxiv, pp. 
51-61, with 1 illustration. 1910. 

An article on Moritz's Ausfliige in der Arabia 
Petreea [q.v.]. 

92 



kreis im Innern Asiens. Zeitschrift fur 
Assyriologie, Band xxvii, pp. 139-146, 
with 1 plate. 191 2. 

Discusses also the wall paintings of Qusair 
'Amra. 



V. FOR THE PALACE OF MSHATTA 
ONLY 

Bell, Miss G. L. Palace and Mosque at 
Ukhaidir. 4to. 

Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1914. 

See pp. 117-118, 120, and plate 81 for Mshatta, 
which the authoress is inclined to attribute to 
Yazid II (d. a.d. 724). 

Berchem, Max van. Mechatta. Journal 

des Savants, pp. 472-477. I 9°5« 

An article on Schulz and Strzygowski's 
Mschatta [q.v.]. 

Bliss, Frederick Jones, Ph.D. Narra- 
tive of an Expedition to Moab and Gilead 
in March, 1895. Palestine Exploration 
Fund, Q. St., pp. 203-235, with 16 illus- 
trations and a map. 1895. 

Mshatta, pp. 229-234, with 2 plans and 3 
illustrations. 

Briinnow, Prof. R. Reisebericht : I, 
Von Jerusalem bis Madeba; II, Meschetta ; 
III, 'Amman— Jerusalem — Dscholan ; IV, 
Dscholan und Hauran. Mitth. und Nachr. 
des Deutschen Palaestina-V ereins, Jahrg. i, 
pp. 65-73, with 7 illustrations, pp. 81-88, 
with 6 illustrations ; ii, pp. 1-5, with 5 
illustrations, pp. 17-24, with 5 illustra- 
tions. 1 895-1 896. 
Mshatta, i, pp. 81-88, with 6 illustrations. 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



Briinnow, Prof. R. Zur neuesten Ent- 

wickelung der Meschetta-Frage. Zeit- 

schrijt jiir Assyriologie, Band xxvii, pp. 

129-138. 1912. 

Assigns it to the sixth century. 

Diehl, Charles. Manuel d'art byzantin. 

8vo, pp. xi and 837, with 420 illustrations. 

Picard, Paris, 1910. 

See pp. 45-49 and fig. 17, for the Palace of 
Mshatta, which the author believes to be fourth 
or fifth century. 

Dieulafoy, Marcel. L'Art antique de 

la Perse : Ach6mehides, Parthes, Sassa- 

nides. Sm. folio, in 5 parts. 

Morel, Paris, 1884, etc. 

See Vme partie, pp. 88-95 and figs. 63-68. 
Suggests that it was commenced c. a.d. 612. 

Dussaud, Rene. Les Arabes en Syrie 

avant l'Islam. Avec 32 figures. 8vo, pp. 

i and 178. 

Leroux, Paris, 1907. 

See pp. 40-56 and fig. 12 for the date of 
Mshatta, which the author considers to be pre- 
Islamic. 

Harvey, W., W. R. Lethaby, 0. M. 
Dalton, H. A. A. Cruso, and A. C. Head- 
lam. The Church of the Nativity at 
Bethlehem. Sm. folio, pp. xi and 76, 
with 13 plates (2 coloured), and 30 illus- 
trations. 

Batsford, London, 1910. 

See pp. 29-30 for remarks on Mshatta by 
Prof. W. R. Lethaby, who places it in the sixth 
century. 

Herzfeld, Ernst. Die Genesis der 

islamschen Kunst und das Mshatta-Pro- 

blem. Der Islam, Band i, pp. 27-63, 

with 4 plates and 19 figures ; pp. 105-144, 

with 1 folding plate and 4 figures. 1910. 

See pp. 105-144. He comes to the conclusion 
that it was built either by Yazld II (720-724), or 
Walid II (743-744), probably the former. 

Hill, Gray. Mashita. Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund, Q. St., pp. 173-174. 1890. 
Short note on visit. 

Lammens, H. Les ruines d'al-Mochatta 
[Mshatta]. Al-Machriq. I* 9 annee, pp. 



481-487, with 2 illustrations ; pp. 630- 
637, with 2 illustrations. [In Arabic] 

1898. 

Lammens, H. La bddia et la hxra sous 
les Omaiyades. Al-Machriq. xi* ann6e, 
pp. 765-773. [In Arabic] 1908. 

. La Badia et la Hira sous les 



Omaiyades. Un mot a propos de Msatta. 

Melanges de la Faculte Orientale, Beyrouth, 

tome iv, pp. 91-112, with 2 plates. 1910. 

Plate ii shows entrance and interior of Qasr 
Kharaneh. 

Resume in al-Machriq, 1908. 

Merrill, Selah. East of the Jordan : 

a record of travel and observation in the 

countries of Moab, Gilead, and Bashan. 

70 illustrations and a map. 8vo, pp. xv 

and 549. 

Bentley, London, 188 1. 

For Mshatta see pp. 256-263, with 4 illus- 
trations. 

Rawlinson, George. The Seventh Great 
Oriental Monarchy, or the geography, 
history, and antiquities of the Sassanian, 
or New Persian Empire. 8vo, pp. xxi 
and 691, with 20 plates (1 coloured) and 
56 illustrations. 

Longmans, Green and Co., London, 
1876. 

See pp. 594-599, plate 10, and figs. 62-64, for 
an account of Mshatta, based on Tristram and 
Fergusson. The author places it between a.d. 
614 and 627. 

R[einach], S. La date de la facade de 
M'schatta. Revue archeologique, iv e serie, 
tome vii, p. 485. 1906. 

Saladin, H. Le palais de Machitta 
(Palestine). Rapport de M. Saladin. Bulle- 
tin archeologique, pp. 409-414, with 
3 plates. I 9°4- 

Schulz and Strzygowski. Mschatta. 
Bericht iiber die Aufnahme der Ruine 
von Bruno Schulz und kunstwissenschaft- 
liche Untersuchung von Josef Strzygowski. 
Jahrbuch der Kgl. Preuss. Kunstsamm. 

93 



MOSLEM ARCHITECTURE IN PALESTINE 



lungen, Bd. xxv, pp. 205-373, with 12 
plates (some double) and 119 illustrations. 

1904. 

S6journ6, Paul M. [Plan et monuments 
de Mechatta.] Revue Biblique, ii e annee, 
" Chronique," pp. 131-134, with 4 figures. 

1893. 

Tristram, H. B. The Land of Moab. 
Travels and discoveries on the east side 
of the Dead Sea and the Jordan. With 
a chapter on the Persian palace of Mashita 
by Jas. Fergusson, F.R.S. With map : 
and illustrations by C. L. Buxton and 



R. C. Johnson. 8vo, pp. xvi and 408, 
with 1 plate and 41 illustrations. 

Murray, London, 1873. 

See pp. 195-216 for Tristram's account, and 
pp. 367-385 for Fergusson's essay. He comes to 
the conclusion that it was built by Chosroes II 
in a.d. 614. 

See also above : Fergusson, History (3rd ed.), 
i,p. 407, and figs. 470-471 ; Musil, Arabia Petrcea, 
i, pp. 196-203 and Abb. 83-92 ; and his Kusejr 
'Antra, pp. 14-15 and figs. 6-10 ; Briinnow and 
Domaszewski, Die Provincia Arabia, ii, pp. 105— 
176, figs. 686-754, and Tafelnxlv-xlviii ; also pp. 
308-311 (for a review of the work of Schulz and 
Strzygowski) ; van Berchem, in the /. dcs 
Savants, 1909, pp. 293-309 ; Baedeker, Syria, 
p. 149 ; Diez, Kunst der islamischen Vblker, pp. 
29-33 ; TaI - i. and Abb- 3 I_ 33 (assigns it to 
Yazid II, a.d. 720-724) ; Herzfeld, Mshattd, 
Hira und Bddiya, pp. 84-105 and 133-146, and 
faf. i (assigns it to Walidll, 126 H.= 743-744) ; 
and Lammens, La Syrie, i, pp. 96-98 (assigns it 
also to Walid II, a.d. 743-744). 



94 



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95 



Appendix ii. 

LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONS AND DONATIONS RECEIVED 

BETWEEN DECEMBER 30, 1921, AND JULY 1, 1922 

Vaughan Morgan, Esq. 1.940 

Miss Mabel C. Hopkins ... ... ... ... ... 480 

F. A. White, Esq. ... ... ... ... ... ... 5-090 

Sir Alfred Mond ... ... ... ... ... ... 24.250 

Anglo-Egyptian Bank ... ... ... 100.000 

Mr. Garabed Melkonian ... ... ... ... ... 100.000 

National Bank of Egypt 97-5°° 

John H. Finley 1 3.4.3 o 

Max Mouchly ... ... ... ... ... 5.000 

Credit Lyonnais ... ... ... ... 10.000 

Mrs. Tod Osbourne ... 1.940 

Princess Edmond de Polignac ... ... ... ... 29.090 

Sir Hugh Bell ... ... ... ... ... 9-54° 

The Khangi Karbari of Baroda ... ... 25.000 

Mrs. Clowes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 9*54° 

Wolf Papenheim ... ... ... ... 5.000 

Herbert Krustal ... ... ... ... 5.000 

Banco di Roma ... ... ... ... ... ... 25.000 

Anonymous (per H. E.) ... ... 50.000 

Herbert Bentwich ... ... ... 2.046 

J. A. de Rothschild ... ... ... ... 48.750 

H. C. Luke, Esq. ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.000 

Anglo-Palestine Bank ... ... ... ... 25.000 

Arthur Franklin, Esq ... ... ... 29.100 

Hon. Stanley Fisher ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.000 

V. Harari Pasha ... ... 25.000 

Baron Felix de Menasce ... ... ... 25.000 



Carried forward ... ... ... ... ... ... 674.696 

96 



APPENDIX II 



Brought forward ... 


• • • 


... ••• .. 


674.696 


Mr. Justice Isaac A. Isaac 


... 


... ... . . 


24.250 


Frederic Wenham Morton & Co. 


... •*• ..■ 


5.000 


Mr. and Mrs. H. B. Abdy 


... 


... 


4.805 


Sir Stuart Samuel, Bart. 


. . . 


... ... . . 


30.000 


Imperial Ottoman Bank 




... ... ... 


50.000 


Prof. Michael E. Sadler 


... 


... ... ..i 


1.000 


Miss Sampter ... 


... 


... ... 


5.000 


Prof. Garstang, British School of 


Archaeology 


30.000 


N. Nahoum 


• . . 


■•• ••• • • 


200.000 


N. Nahoum 


• . . 


• •• • • • ... 


15.000 


S. Goldstein 


. . . 


••* ••• •• 


50.000 


S. Goldstein 


. • . 


• • • > • • • • 


5.000 


J. Eisenberg 


... 


... 


3.000 


J. B. Barron, Esq. 


... 


... ... 


5.500 


H.E. Sir Herbert Samuel 


... 


••• ... •• 


20.000 


Sir Thos. Haycraft 


... 


• •• ••« * • 


5.000 


Lionel Cust, Esq. 


... 


... 


4.850 


G. Antonius 


• • • 


... ... 


2.050 


Mr. Henry Friend 


. . . 


... ... 


5.000 


H.E. the Latin Patriarch 


... 


... ... .. 


5.000 


Mrs. Clowes 


... 


... ... .. 


14.550 


E. T. Richmond, Esq 


... 


... ... 


2.047 


Dr. Reynolds 


. . . 


... ... 


5.000 


Arthur E. Franklin, Esq. 


... 


... ... .. 


50.000 


Nevill Forbes, Esq. 




... ... .. 


2.000 


Total 


1,218.748 



97 





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98 



Appendix IV. 

THE PRO-JERUSALEM SOCIETY 

List of Subscribers 

Mr. and Mrs. B. Abdy 

The Reverend Pere Abel, O.P. 

The American Colony Stores 

Mr. Solomon Angel 

The Right Reverend the Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem 

The Anglo-American Society 

The Anglo-Egyptian Bank 

The Anglo-Palestine Bank 

Department of Antiquities, Palestine 

Mr. G. Antonius 

His Beatitude the Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem 

Mr. C. R. Ashbee 

Mr. Adam Atkinson 

The late Sir Abbas Eff. Abd-el-Baha 

Mr. Barluzzi 

Mr. J. B. Barron 

Miss Edith Beach 

Sir Hugh Bell 

Messrs. Bentovia and Forer 

Mr. Herbert Bentwich 

Mr. Norman Bentwich 

The late Mr. Eleazer Ben Yahuda 

Miss A. Berger 

Miss S. Berger 

Miss Virginia Blandy 

Messrs. Blum and Levy 

His Excellency Boghos Pasha Nubar 

His Eminence Cardinal Bourne 

Lord Brownlow 

Mr. John Bruce 

Messrs. Btesh Brothers 

Messrs. Buckler 

Mr. Alfred Buxton 

99 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 

Mr. Richard Cadbury 

The Cairo Syrian Committee 

Miss Carey-Thomas 

Mrs. Andrew Carnegie 

The Reverend Harris Cohen 

Mr. Isaac Cohen 

Sir H. Cohen 

The Council of Jerusalem Jews 

The Council of Sephardic Jews 

The Credit Lyonnais 

Mr. A. Creswell 

Mr. L. G. A. Cust 

The Very Reverend Custodian of the Holy Land 

Mr. Denham (for Messrs. Norton and Co.) 
The Dominican Convent of St. Etienne 
Dr. Drinker 

Dr. Eder 

National Bank of Egypt 

Mr. Joseph Eisenberg 

Mr. Solomon Feingold 
Mrs. Joseph Fels 
Mr. Marshall Field 
Mr. John H. Finley 
The Hon. Stanley Fisher 
Mr. Bernard Flexner 
Mr. Nevill Forbes 
Mr. Arthur Franklin 
Mr. Henry Friend 

Mrs. J. S. Gardiner 
Professor John Garstang 
Judge Gary 
Mrs. W. Gatling 
Professor Patrick Geddes 
Mr. S. Goldstein 
100 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 

Mrs. Gordon 
Mr. Morris Gray 
Mrs. C. A. Grinnell 
Mr. B. Guini 

Capt. Hamborough 

Mr. Charles Hamilton 

V. Harari Pasha, C.M.G. 

Dr. A. C. Harte 

Sir Thomas Hay craft 

Mr. David Hazan 

Mr. F. N. Hoffstat 

Miss Mabel C. Hopkins 

Rabbi Horowitz 

Mrs. Holman Hunt 

Musa Kazem Pasha al-Husseini, C.B.E. 

Jerusalem Municipality 
Justice Isaac A. Isaac 

The Khangi Karbari of Baroda 
Mr. H. M. Kalvaresky 
Mr. Kenny Leveck 
Lieut.-Commander Kenworthy, M.P. 
The Kneseth Israel Central Committee 
Mr. Benjamin Kokia 
Mr. Herbert Krustal 
Rabbi I. Hacohen Kuk 

Miss Landau 

Miss Lap in 

Mr. Nathan Laski 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence 

His Beatitude the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem 

The late Right Hon. Andrew Bonar Law 

Lord Lee of Fareham 

Mr. F. Levaux 

Mr. Little 

The Right Hon. David Lloyd George 

IOI 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 

Mr. Joseph Lorenzo 
Lady Ludlow 
Mr. H. C. Luke 

Capt. Mackay 

Mr. Macjames Remie 

Messrs. Marash Brothers 

His Worship the Mayor of Jerusalem 

Mrs. Elizabeth McQueen 

Mr. Mellon, U.S.A. 

Mr. Garabed Melkonian 

Baron Felix de Menasce 

Mr. Joseph Meyuhas 

Viscount Milner, K.G., G.C.B. 

Sir Alfred Mond, Bart. 

Mr. John Pierpont Morgan 

Mr. Vaughan Morgan 

Messrs. Frederick Wendham Morton and Co. 

Messrs. Morum's Oriental Stores 

Mr. Max Mouchly 

His Eminence the late Grand Mufti of Jerusalem 

Mr. N. Nahum 
Dr. Faris Nimr 
The late Viscount Northcliffe 

His Beatitude the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem 

Mrs. Todd Osborne 

The Imperial Ottoman Bank 

Mr. Harold Pailet 
Miss Palmer 
Mr. Wolf Papenheim 
Mr. Hennay J. Paten 
Mr. Lazarus Paul 
The Hon. A. and Mrs. Pelham 
Mr. B. W. Peterson 
Mr. de Picciotto 
102 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 



Princess Edmond de Polignac 
Licut.-Colonel Popham 

Mr. Reynolds 
Mr. E. T. Richmond 
The Banco di Roma 
Mr. J. A. de Rothschild 
Mr. P. Rutenberg 

Sir Michael Sadler 

Mr. D. Salameh 

His Excellency Sir Herbert Samuel, P.C., G.C.B. 

Sir Stuart Samuel, Bart. 

Mr. Simon Sidnawy 

Mr. Mortimer Schiff 

51st Sikhs Regiment 

Mr. Logan Pearsall Smith 

Messrs. Smouha and Company 

Mr. Jacob Spafford 

Mr. F. C. O. Speyer 

Lady Storrs 

Sir Ronald Storrs, C.M.G., C.B.E. 

Lieut.-Colonel Waters Taylor, C.B.E. 
Mrs. I. Tucker Burr 

Mr. Haim Valero 

The Reverend Pere Vincent, O.P. 

Mr. L. A. Van Vriesland 

Canon Stacey Waddy 
Mr. Felix Warburg 
Mr. Waterman 
Mr. F. A. White 
Mr. John Whiting 

Mr. David Yellin 

Haj Yusef Wafa al-Dajani 

Sir Basil Zaharoff, G.C.B. 

The Zionist Executive in Palestine 



'03 



Index 

Unless otherwise specified in the text, the mediaeval names on Pire Abel's plan, p. 32, 
the names in Mr. CreswelPs Bibliography, pp. 69-94, an< * l ^ e names of the Members 
and Subscribers to the Pro-Jerusalem Society shown at the close of this volume are not 
given in this Index. 



Abbott 

Abdul Hamid 

Abel (Pere), 2, 14, 32, 33 

Abraham (Chapel of) 

Absalom . . 

Acre 

Agrippa's Way 

Ain Karem 

Aleppo 

Allenby 

Amaury I . . 

Amos 

Anastasia (Street of) 

Anastasis (Chapel of the) 

Anatolia . . 

Antimus Porah 

Antiochus . . 

Antiquities (Department 

Antonia 

Antonius (G). 

Aqsa Mosque 

Ard es Sillam 

Arman (Haret al) . . 

Asali 

Ashbee (C. R.) . . 

Augustinian Canons 

Azarie 



vi 

4°. 46, 47. 48, 52 
.. 56 
•• 43 
.. 48 
.. 27 
17,67 

•• 55 
.. 27 

•• 37 
..27 

.. 38 
.. 47 
.. 58 
64,67 
.. 64 
viii, 1, 7, 9 

•• 37 
3, 20, 37 
.. 12 
.. 65 
26, 36, 37 
.. 27 
vi, 1, 60, 63, 67 
.. 48 
16, 17 



B 

Bab Hetta (Haret) 27 

Baldwin I 27, 44 

Baron (Pierre) . . 36 

Barracks . . . . . . . . . . 6 

Baruchoff . . . . . . . . . . 23 

Batato (Shukri) 29 

Battikha ('Akabat al) 27 

Baucayre . . . . . . . . • • 35 

Q 



Bellum Quadrum 

Ben Yehuda 

Benton Fletcher 

Bertrandon de la Brocquiire 

Beth Hakerem. See Boneh Bayit. 

Bethlehem.. ' .. .. 42,53, 

Bezetha 

Bibliography of Moslem Architecture. 

Blandy (Miss) 

Boneh Bayit 

Buflerie 

Bulfarage . . . . 

Buraq (Hosh al) . . 

By-laws (Municipal) 



PAGE 

•• 35 

• 27 

12, 30 

49.51 

62,65 
13,35 

69 

.. 29 
64,67 
.. 38 
.. 36 

• 27 

vi 



Caenaculum 
Cahors (Etienne de) 
Calvary 

Capons (Richard) 
Casa Nova Lane 
Casola (Pietro) 
Ceramics . . 
" Change Latin " 
" Change Syrien " 
Chapel of Derision 
Chorus Dominoram 
Christ 

Christian Street . . 
Citadel (Gardens) . . 
„ of Jerusalem 
Cceur de Lion 
Constantine Monomachus 
Constantine's Way 
Corn Market 
Creswell (K. A. C.) 
Crusades . . 



vu, 



4 1 . 



3,29, 



42, 52 

.. 36 

42, 44. 49. 5°. 52, 53 

• 36 

• 27 

• 5° 
57,62 

38 
.. 38 
.. 50 

49,52 

42,44 

27,47 
12, 26 

95,98 
. 28 

35,47 

• 27 

• 37 
3,69 

47.48 



5. 6, 7. 



4 r > 

9. ". 

6,20, 



33, 



I05 



INDEX 



Dair al 'Adas (Sekket) 
„ al Ifranj (Haret) 
„ Jasin . . 
„ al Rum (Haret) 
,, al Surian (Tariq) 

Damascus Gate . . 

David 

„ (Street) 

„ (Tower of) . . 

Dome of the Rock 

„ „ (Tiles 

Dositheus I (Patriarch) 

Dowling 



PAGE 

. . 27 
. . 26 
16,17 
. . 26 
. . 27 
13. 24, 25, 26, 34 

• • 6, 34, 43 

• • 26, 35, 36 
6,9.13,34, 36, 38 

3, 29, 59, 62 

vii, 3, 20, 29, 62 

. . 54 

• • 54 



E 

Echmiadzin Chapel 
Education (Department of) 



•• 57 
29, 3° 



Felix Faber 


• ■ ■ 


•• 49 


Finch (Sir John) . . 


• • 


•• 53 


Fosse 


. 


7, 21 


Francesco Suriano 


. 


.. 50 


Franciscans 


34, 


4i, 5°, 53 


Frederick II 




.. 48 


Funda Neapolitana 


. 


.. 38 



Garden Cities 

Gaza 

Geddes (Prof.) . . 

George V Avenue. . 

Germans (Street of) 

Gethsemane 

Godfrey de Bouillon 

Golbites 

Golgotha 

Gold 

Golubovich 

Government House 

Governor of Jerusalem 

106 



64 



Governorate (Jerusalem) 
Guillaume Angevin 
Guini 



PAGB 

24,25 
.. 36 
.. 16 



H 

Haddadin (Haret al) 

Hakim (bi-amr Illah) 

Hamborough 

Haram (al Sarif) 

Hebron 

Herbs (Street of) 

Herod 

„ (Gate of) 
Hezekiah . . 
High Commissioner of Palestine 



. . 27 

.. .. 46 

. . 25 

•• •• 36 

vii, 27, 29, 61, 62 

vii, 27 
13,27 
.. 27 
16, 26, 30, 
60, 62 
Hippicus Tower . . . . 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13 

Holliday (A. C.) vi 

Holy Cross (Convent of) . . . . . . 55 

Holy Ghost (Chapel of) .. .. 41,42,43 

Holy Sepulchre (Church of) 2, 36, 37, 38, 
39, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 5°, 52, 53, 

54, 55, 56, 57 
Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem . . 39 

Hospitallers . . . . . . 36, 38 



Ibn Batuta . . . . . . . . 27 

Invention of the Cross (Chapel of the) . . 54 
Isaiah . . . . . . . . . . 27 

Isawiye . . 16, 17 



27,29 






15, 16 






.. 27 

•• 37 




J 


35,43 


Jaffa 


27,67 


27, 34, 44 


„ Gate. . 


6, 7, 9, I 3, 21, 22, 27, 34, 65 


.. 50 


Jamal Pasha 


. . 20 


.. 56 


Janjirieh . . 


64, 66 


•• 52 


Jeffery 


48 


5°, 53 


Jehoshaphat 


• • 35, 37, 38, 42, 43 


30, 60 


Jeremiah . . 


27 


•• 15 


Jericho 


27 



INDEX 



M 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Jerusalem looms 


29, 6l 


Mamilla 


27, 64 


Jewry 


36, 38 


Mamun (Al) 


..28 


Josephus 


..27 


Mansur (Al) 


.. 28 


Judas (Street of the Arch of) 


• • 37 


Mar Elias . . 


.. 16, 17, 65 


Julian 


. . 27 


Marshal (rue du) 


..37 






Martin Karaon 


•• ..38 






Martyrium 


••47 


K 




Mary (Princess) 


. . 29 




Marzban 


• • 37 


Kauffmann 


, . 3, 64, 66 


Maulawiyeh (Tariq al) . . 


..27 


Khan ez-Zeit 


••37 


Maundeville (Sir John) . . 


.. 51 


Khaneqah 


. . 26 


Maundrell (H.) 


••5.5 


Kidron 


. . 42 


Mayor of Jerusalem 


. . viii 


Kutahia 


• • 57, 59, °~ 2 


Mehmed IV , . . 


••53 






Mejdel 


. . 29 






Melek al-Ashraf 


.. .. 48 


T 




Melisande 


27, 38 


L 




Melnikoff 


.. 13 


Lachevere (Marie) 


.. .. 36 


Mes (Valley of) 


22, 65 


Lahamin (Suq al) . . 


. . 26 


Missi Yahudi 


. . 61 


Laqlaq (Tariq) 


.. ..27 


Modestus (Patriarch) 


.. .. 46 


Latin Patriarchate 


.. 13 


Mogharbeh (Bab) . . 


••35 


„ (Tariq al) . . 


..27 


„ (Haret al) . . 


. . 26 


Lauremer . . . . 


••37 


Mommert (Dr.) 


.. .. 56 


Lebanon 


• • 39 


Moudjir ed-Din 


• • 37 


Levant Company 


••55 


Mount of Olives 


• • 13 


Lifta 


16,17 


Mount Sinai 


..41 


Lisbonne (Girard de) 


•• •• 38 


Mount Sion 35, 36, 37, 38, J 


9, 4 1 , 4 2 , 43, 50 


„ (Jean du) 


.. .. 36 


Mufti (Grand) 


. . viii 


Lissbonette (Girard de) . . 


••37 


Municipality of Jerusalem 


1,18 


Litart 


•• ..36 


Murad IV 


••53 


Ludolf of Sudheim 


48, 49 


Muristan 


26, 38 


Luke (H. C.) 


viii, 2, 46, 54 


Muscovia 


. . 20 






Mutawakil 


..52 



Maccabees 




.. 27 


n 




McLean 




.. 16 


Nablus 


25, 27 


Mahafe 




. •• 36 


Nasara (Haret al) 


.. 27 


Mahanna Yuda . . 




. . 21 


Nashashibi (Ragib Bey) . . 


..14 


Mahdi (Al) 




.. 28 


Nativity (Basilica of) 


• 53 


Maidan (Haret al) 




.. 27 


Nehemia 


.. 27 


Maimonides 




.. 27 


New Gate 


12, 26 


Malabar (Church of) 




.. 52 


Newett (Margaret) 


.. 50 


Malcuisinat 




37, 38 


Nicephorus (Patriarch) . . 


. .. 46 


Malik (Al) 




.. 28 


Nicodemus (Patriarch) . . 


. .. 56 



107 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Nikephoria . . . . . . . . 22 

Nointel (Marquis de) . . . . . . 53 

Nomico (C. A.) 57 



O.E.T.A. 4, 15, 16 

Ohanessian (D.) . . . . . . . . 29 

Omar .. .. .. .. ..28 

Ordinance (Antiquities) . . . . . . 2 

„ (Town Planning) . . 2, 15, 20 



Palestine Exploration 

„ Land Development Co. 

„ Pilgrim's Text Society 
Papadopoulos 
Patriarch 36, 37, 

„ (Bath of) 
Porte de Belcayre 
Porte de Josaphat 
Porte de Mont-Syon 
Porte d' Abraham 
Porte du Couvent des Serbes 
Post Office Square 
Poterne de la Tannerie . . 
Poterne St. Ladre 
Poterne St. Madeleine . . 
Prester John 
Prison of Christ 
Pro- Jerusalem Society v, 1, 



Prophets (Street of the) 



Qalaun 

Qaraim (Haret al) 

Qattanin (Suq al) 

Qiameh 

Quaresmius 

Quartier du Patriarche 

I08 



2 , 5, 

1, 26, 



25 

64 

47,49 

53 

5«> 54 

39 
35 
35 
35 
34 

• 34 
. 20 

35, 37 

• 34 

• 34 

• 49 

• 49 
12, 14, 15, 

59, 6o , 62 

.. 27 



.. 28 
.. 27 

27, 29 
.. 47 

•• 34 
•• 35 



Raimont (Jean) . . 

Ramleh 

Rampart Walk . . 

Rauwolff (Dr. L.) . . 

Ray (John) 

Repos (rue du) 

Rhodes 

Ridge Road (Jerusalem) 

Rihan (Sheikh) . . 

Risheh (Haret al) . . 

Robert the Hungarian 

Roger the Englishman 

Romain du Puy . . 

Ruppin (Dr.) 

Rustaveli 



vii, 6, 



PAGE 
.. 36 

.. S i 

13, 25, 33 

52,53 

.. 52 

•• 37 
•• 43 
23,65 
.. 27 
.. 27 
•• 39 
•• 39 
•• 37 
3, 15, 64 
•• 55 



Saadieh 

Saafat 

St. Abraham 

St. Agnes . . 

St. Anastasia 

St. Anne . . 

St. Chariton 

St. Cosimus 

St. Elias . . 

St. Francis . . 

St. George 

St. Gilles . . 

St. Helena 

St. James . . 

St. John . . 

St. John the Baptist 

St. Julian . . 

St. Lawrence 

St. Lazare . . 

St. Louis . . 

St. Madeleine 

St. Mark . . 

St. Martin . . 

St. Mary 36,39,41,42, 

St. Michael 

St. Pastor . . 

St. Paul . . 



.. 27 
16, 17 
34,56 
.. 38 

•• 37 

• • 38 
•• 39 
•• 37 
.. 38 

4i,44 

.. 27 

• • 38 
5«i 54, 55 

'•>, 39, 4 1 , 43, 48, 57 
36, 37, 39, 4 1 , 43 
27, 48, 58 

•• 37 
.. 41 

34,38 
.. 27 

34, 35, 39, 53 
•• 52 
36,37 
43,44,47,48,49,51 
.. 48 

•• 39 

.. 27 



INDEX 



28, 34. 35. 37. 



St. Peter . . 
St. Sabas . . 
St. Stephen 
St. Thomas 
Saladin 
Salante 
Salome 

Samuel (Lady) 
„ (Sir Herbert). See High 
missioner. 
Sanseverino (Roberto da) 
Santo Brasca 
Schick (Dr.) 
Selenfreund (Yuda) 
Selim I 
Selseleh 

Sepulchre. See Holy Sepulchre 
Seraglio (the old) . 
Seyr (Syrien) 
Sharaf (Haret al) . 
Shop signs 
Siloam 

Sitti Mariam (Bab) 
Sceurs Reparatrices (Convent of) 
Solomon 

Spain (Street of) . •. 
Stone of Unction . . 
Storrs (Sir Ronald) 
Suleiman the Magnificent 
Suriano 



PACE 

.. 43 

•• 39 

38, 39. 4 1 

38, 4'.Si 

28, 48 

.. 9 

.. 58 

.. 62 

Com- 

.. 51 

.. 51 

.. 56 

•• 95 
27,52 

26,39 



36 
36 
26 
vi 
42 
26,47 
. 12 

27.43 
36, 37 
44,5p. 
. viii 

7.27 
• 51 



T 

Tabitha Cumi 6j 

Talpioth . . . . . . . . . . 64 

Tamara (Queen) . . . . . . "54 

Tancred . . . . . . . . 27, 39 

Tanners (Street of the) . . . . . . 37 

Tariq al Alam. See Via Dolorosa. 

Temple 37, 38, 53 

„ (Abbey of) 36 

Textiles viii, 29 

Theodoric 39, 47, 48 



PAOB 

Theophanes III (Patriarch) . . . . 53 

Tortuz (Guillaume) . . . . . . 36 

Town Plan (Jerusalem) . . 2, 15, 17, 64, 67 
Town Planning Commission 1, 13, 15, 16, 21, 

64 
Tsagareli . . . . . . . . . . 54 

Tudela (Benjamin of) . . . . 34, 36 

Tujjar (Suq al) 26 

Turoz . . . . . . . . . . 36 

Tyropaeum . . . . . . 26 



Valero (Haim) 
Van Bruyn (Cornelius) 
Via Dolorosa 
Vincent (P£re) 



.. 21,24,25 

••55 
27, 29, 37, 6z 
46, 47, 48, 52 



W 

Wad (Al) 26 

Walid(Al) 28 

Weaving (School of). See Textiles. 

Williams 54 

Wright 49 

Wurzburg (John of) 36 

Y 

Yahia Ibn Sa'id 46 

Yahud (Haret al) 27 

Z 

Zahera (Bab al) 27 

Zait (Khan al) . . . . . . 27, 38 

Zionism . . 30 

Zoning . . . . . . . . . . 18 

„ (Plan of Jerusalem) .. .. 18 

Zuallardo ". . • • 5 2 



109 



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