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A History of the Society of Jesus from Its 
Foundation to the Present Time 



Volume II 


Pcrmissu superiorum 

IMPRIMATUR: PATRICK J. HAYES, D.D., ArcMnshap of New York 





Early life Ambitions Portuguese Missions Seizure of 
the Spanish Reductions. Expulsion of the Missionaries 

End of the Missions in Brazil War against the 
Society in Portugal The Jesuit Republic Cardinal 
Saldanha Seizure of Churches and Colleges The 
Assassination Plot The Prisons Exiles Execution 

of Malagrida . 442-477 



The French Method Purpose of the Enemy Preliminary 
Accusations Voltaire's testimony La Vallette La 
Chalotais Seizure of Property Auto da fe" of the 
Works of Lessius, Sudrez, Valentia, etc. Appeal of the 
French Episcopacy Christophe de Beaumont 
Demand for a French Vicar " Sint ut sunt aut non sint " 

Protest of Clement XIII Action of Father La Croix 
and the Jesuits of Paris Louis XV signs the Act of 
Suppression Occupations of dispersed Jesuits Undis- 
turbed in Canada Expelled from Louisiana 
Choiseul's Colonization of Guiana 478-503 



The Bourbon Kings of Spain Character of Charles III 
Spanish Ministries O'Reilly The Hat and Cloak Riot 

Cowardice of Charles Tricking the monarch The 
Decree of Suppression Grief of the Pope His death 

Disapproval in France by the Encyclopedists The 
Royal Secret Simultaneousness of the Suppression 

Wanderings of the Exiles Pignatelli Expulsion by 
Tanucci 504-529 



Ganganelli Political plotting at the Election Bernis, 
Aranda, Aubeterre The Zelanti Election of Clement 
XIV Renewal of Jesuit Privileges by the new Pope 
Demand of the Bourbons for a universal Suppression 
The Three Years' Struggle Fanaticism of Charles III 

vi Contents 

Menaces of Schism Mofrino Maria Theresa PAGE 
Spoliations in Italy Signing the Brief Imprison- 
ment of Father Ricci and the Assistants Silence and 
Submission of the Jesuits to the Pope's Decree 530-554 



Summary of the Brief of Suppression and its Supplementary 

Document 555~576 


Seizure of the Gesfr in Rome Suspension of the Priests 
Juridical Trial of Father Ricci continued during Two 
Years The Victim's Death-bed Statement Admis- 
sion of his Innocence by the Inquisitors Obsequies 
Reason of his Protracted Imprisonment Liberation of 
the Assistants by Pius VI Receipt of the Brief outside 
of Rome Refused by Switzerland, Poland, Russia and 
Prussia Read to the Prisoners in Portugal by Pombal 

Denunciation of it by the Archbishop of Paris Sup- 
pression of the Document by the Bishop of Quebec- 
Acceptance by Austria Its Enforcement in Belgium 
Carroll at Bruges Defective Promulgation in Maryland. 577603 



Failure of the, Papal Brief to &ivc peace to the Church 
Liguori and Tanuwi Joseph II destroying the Church 
in Austria Voltaireanism in Portugal Illncs 1 ; of 
Clement XIV Death Accusations of poiaiminK 
Election of Pius VI The Synod of Pistoia IVbron- 
ianism in Austria Visit of Pius VI to Joseph II The 
Ptmctation of 13ms Spain, Sardinia, Vc-nux', Sicily in 
opposition to the Pope Political collapse*, in Spain' 
Fall of Pombal Liberation of his Victims Protest of 
de Guzman Death of Joseph II Occupations of tlie 
dispersed Jesuits The Theolagia Wiceburgensis Fdkr 

Beauregard's Prophecy Zaccaria Tirabosrhi 
Boscovich Missionaries Denunciation of the Sup- 
pression in the French Assembly Slain in the French 
Revolution Destitute Jesuits in Poland Shelter in 
Russia 604-635 

Contents vii 


Frederick the Great and the " Philosophes " Protection of PAGE 
the Jesuits Death of Voltaire Catherine of Russia 
The Four Colleges The Empress at Polotsk Joseph 
II at Mohilew Archetti Baron Grimm Czernie- 
wicz and the Novitiate Assent of Pius VI Potemkin 

Siestrzencewicz General Congregation Benis- 
lawski " Approbo; Approbo" Accession of former 
Jesuits. Gruber and the Emperor Paul Alexander I 

Missions in Russia , . . . 636-664 


Fathers of the Sacred Heart Fathers of the Faith Fusion 

Paccanari The Rupture Exodus to Russia 
Varin in Paris Cloriviere Carroll's doubts Pigna- 

telli Poirot in China Grassi's Odyssey 665-684 


Tragic death of Father Gruber Fall of Napoleon Release 
of the Pope The Society Re-established Opening of 
Colleges Clorivi&re Welcome of the Society in Spain 

Repulsed in Portugal Opposed by Catholics in 
England Announced in America Carroll Fenwick 

Neale , 685-715 


Expulsion from Russia Petrucci, Vicar Attempt to wreck 
the Society Saved by Consalvi and Rozavcn 


Expulsion from Holland Trouble at Freiburg Expulsion 
and recall in Spain Petits SSminaires Berryer 
Montlosier The Men's Sodalities St. Acheul 
mobbed Fourteen Jesuits murdered in Madrid 
Interment of Pombal de Ravignan's pamphlet 
Veuillot Montalembert de Bonald Archbishop 
Affre Michelet, Quinet and Cousin Gioberti 

viii Contents 

Expulsion from Austria Kulturkampf Slaughter of PAGE 
the Hostages in the Commune South America and 
Mexico Flourishing Condition before the Outbreak of 
the World War 734-7^4 


During the Suppression Roothaan's appeal South 
America The Philippines - United States Indians 
De Smet Canadian Reservations Alaska British 
Honduras China India Syria Algeria Guinea 

Egypt Madagascar Mashonaland Congo 
Missions depleted by World War Actual number of 
missionaries 765-824. 




Responsibility of the Society for loss of Faith in Europe. The 
Loi Falloux Bombay Calcutta Beirut Ameri- 
can Colleges Scientists, Archaeologists, Meteorologists, 
Seismologists, Astronomers Ethnologists 825-854 



Grammars and Lexicons of every tongue Dramas His- 
tories of Literature Cartography Sinology Egypt- 
ology Sanscrit Catholic Encyclopedia Catalogues 
of Jesuit Writers Acta Sanctorum Jesuit Relations 

Nomendator Periodicals Philosophy Dogmatic, 

Moral and Ascetic Theology Canon Law Exegesis. . 855-890 


Devotion, Trust and Affection of each Pope of the Nineteenth 
and Twentieth Centuries manifested in his Official and 
Personal Relations with the Society 891-916 


Successive Generals in the Restored Society Present 

Membership, Missions and Provinces 9*7-93 

Volume II 



Early life Ambitions Portuguese Missions Seizure of the 
Spanish Reductions. Expulsion of the Missionaries End of the 
Missions in Brazil War against the Society in Portugal The Jesuit 
Republic Cardinal Saldanha Seizure of Churches and Colleges 
The Assassination Plot The Prisons Exiles Execution of Mala- 

THE first conspirator who set to work to cany out the 
plot to destroy the Society, which had long been 
planned by the powers, was, as might be expected, 
the ruthless Pombal He was more shameless and 
savage than his associates and would adopt any 
method to accomplish his purpose. The insensate 
fury which possessed his whole being against the 
Society is explained by Cardinal Pacca, who was 
Papal nuncio in Lisbon shortly after Pombal's fall 
(Notizie sul Portogallo, 10). He writes: "Pombal 
began his diplomatic career in Germany where he 
probably drank in those principles of aversion to the 
Holy See and the religious orders, which, when after- 
wards put in practice, merited for him from the irre- 
ligious philosophers the title of a great minister, and 
an illuminator of his nation; from good people, how- 
ever, that of a vile instrument of the sects at war with 
the Church. Having obtained the office of prime 
minister, he made himself master of the mind of the 
king, Don Joseph; and for a quarter of a century 
governed the kingdom as a despot. 

" To wage war against the Holy See, and to oppress 
the clergy, he adopted the measures and employed 
the arms which, in the hands of the irreligious men of 


Pombal 443 

our time, have done and are still doing harm and 
inflicting grievous wounds on the Church. He cor- 
rupted and perverted public education in the schools 
and universities, especially in Coimbra which soon 
became a centre of moral pestilence. He took from 
the hands of the youth of the kingdom the sound 
doctrinal works which they had so far been made to 
study; and substituted schismatical and heretical pub- 
lications such as Dupin's 'De antiqua ecclesia' which 
had been condemned by Innocent XII; and Hontheim's 
' Febronius ' condemned by Clement XIII. He also 
brought into Portugal the works of the regalists, and 
excluded those writers who maintained the rights 
and authority of the Holy See, in defence of which he 
would not allow a word to be uttered. And to the 
horror of all decent people, he imprisoned in a loath- 
some dungeon a holy and venerable bishop who had 
warned his flock against those pernicious publications. 
Meantime the notorious Oratorian Pereira, who was 
condemned by the Index, and others who flattered him 
were remunerated for their writings and could print 
whatever they liked. He was a Jansenist who, in 
the perfidious fashion of the sect, exalted the authority 
of the bishops in oitiler to diminish that of the Pope; 
and enlarged the authority of kings in church matters 
to such an extent that the system differed very little 
from that of the Protestant Anglican Church. Queen 
Maria, who succeeded Joseph on the throne, did much 
to improve conditions; but did not undo all the harm 
that Pombal had already inflicted on the nation. 
Disguised Anglicanism continued to exist in Portugal." 
Father Weld adds his own judgment to that of the 
cardinal, and tells us that "the bias in Pombal's 
nature may be traced to his English associations when 
he was ambassador in London." He advances this 
view, probably because of a note of Pacca's, who says 

444 The Jesuits 

that he could venture no opinion about the influence of 
England on Pombal, merely for want of documents 
on that point. The author of the " Memoires pour 
servir & 1'histoire ecclesiastique du xviii 6 siecle " assures 
us that Pombal's purpose was to extend his reforms 
even into the bosom of the Church; to change, to 
destroy; to subject the bishops to his will; to declare 
himself an enemy of the Holy See; to protect authors 
hostile to the Holy See; to encourage publications 
savoring of novelty; to favor in Portugal a theological 
instruction quite different from what had been adopted 
previous to his time; and finally to open the way to a 
pernicious teaching in a country which until then 
had enjoyed religious peace. 

This scheme did not restrict itself to a religious 
propaganda but got into the domain of politics; for 
the author of the " Vita di Pombal " (I, 145) notes the 
report, which is confirmed by the " Memoria Catholica 
secunda " that " Pombal had formed the design of 
marrying the Princess Maria to the Duke of Cumber- 
land, the butcher of Culloden but that this was 
thwarted by the Jesuit confessor of the king." On 
this point the Mar6chal de Belle Isle writes (Testament 
politique, 108) : " It is known 4 that the Duke of 
Cumberland looked forward to becoming King of 
Portugal, and I doubt not he would have succeeded, 
if ^the Jesuit confessors of the royal family had not been 
opposed to it. This crime was never forgiven the 
Portuguese Jesuits." 

Whatever the truth may be about these royal 
schemes, Pombal soon found his chance to wreak his 
vengeance on the Society for balking his plans of making 
Portugal a Protestant country. A scatter-brained 
individual, named Pereira, who lived at Rio Janerio, 
raised the cry which may have been suggested to him, 
that the Jesuits of the Reductions excluded white 

Pombal 445 

intercourse with the natives because of the valuable 
gold mines they possessed; and that it would be a 
proper and, indeed, a most commendable thing in the 
interests of religion for the government to seize this 
source of wealth, and thus compel the Jesuits who 
controlled that territory to live up to the holiness 
of their profession. It was also added that the missions 
were little else than a great commercial speculation; 
and finally that the ultimate design of the Society was 
to make a Republic of Paraguay, independent of the 
mother country. 

These three charges had been reiterated over and over 
again ever since the foundation of the Reductions, 
and had been just as often refuted and officially denied 
after the most vigorous investigation. But there was 
a man now in control of Portugal who would not be 
biased by any religious sentiment or regard for truth, 
if he could injure the Society. The first step was to 
transfer the aforesaid missions to Portuguese control. 
They all lay on the east shore of the Uruguay, and 
belonged to Spain. Hence, in 1750, a treaty was 
made between Spain and Portugal, to concede to 
Spain the undisputed control of the rich colony of 
San Sacramento, at the mouth of the River La Plata, 
in exchange for the territory, in which lay the seven 
Reductions of St. Michael, St. Lawrence, St. Aloysius, 
St. John, St. Francis Borgia, Holy Angels and St. 
Nicholas. According to the treaty, it was stipulated 
that the Portuguese should take immediate possession 
and fling out into the world, they did not care where, 
the 30,000 Indians who had built villages in the 
country, and were peacefully cultivating their 
farms, and who by the uprightness and purity 
of their lives were giving to the world and to all 
times an example of what Muratori calls a Cristi- 
anesimo felice. 

446 The Jesuits 

To add to the brutality of the act, the Fathers 
themselves were ordered to announce to the Indians 
the order to vacate. Representations were made by 
the Spanish Viceroy of Peru, the Royal Audiencia of 
Charcas and various civil and ecclesiastical authorities 
of Spain that not only was this seizure a most atrocious 
violation of justice which could not be carried out 
except by bloodshed, no one could say to what extent, 
but that it was giving up the property of the Indians 
to their bitterest enemies, the Portuguese. For it was 
precisely to avoid the Mamelukes of Brazil that the 
Reductions had been originally created. Moreover, 
it would almost compel the Indians to conclude that 
the Fathers had betrayed them, and that they were 
not only parties to, but instigators of, the whole 
scheme of spoliation. Southey, in his " History of 
Brazil, " denounces it as " one of the most tyrannical 
commands that were ever issued, in the recklessness 
of unfeeling power/' and says that " the weak 
Ferdinand VI had no idea of the importance of the 

The Jesuits appealed; but they were, of course, 
unheeded; and the Father General Visconti ordered 
them to submit without a murmur. Unfortunately, 
the commissioner Father Altamirano, whom he sent 
out was a bad choice. He was hot-headed and 
imperious; and according to Father Huonder (The 
Catholic Encyclopedia) actually treated his fellow 
Jesuits as rebels, when they advised him to proceed 
with moderation. Perhaps the fact that he was the 
representative of the king, as well as of the General, 
affected him; at all events the Indians would have 
killed him if he had not fled. Ten years would not 
have sufficed for a transfer of such a vast multitude 
with their women and children, and the old and infirm, 
not to speak of the herds and flocks and farming 

Pombal 447 

implements and household furniture, yet they were 
ordered to decamp within thirty days. Pombal 
would soon treat his Jesuit fellow countrymen as he had 
treated the Indians. 

When, at last, the cruel edict was published, all the 
savage instincts of the Indians awoke, and it seemed 
for a time as if the missionaries would be massacred. 
It speaks well for the solid Christian training that had 
been given to these children of the forest that they at 
last consented to consider the matter at all. Some of 
the caciques were actually won over to the advisability 
of the measure, and started out with several hundred 
exiles to find a new home in the wilderness. A number 
of the children and the sick succumbed on the way. 
When, at last they found a place in the mountains of 
Quanai, they were attacked by hostile jtribes. They 
resisted for a while, but finally returned in despair 
to their former abode. To make matters worse, the 
Bishop of Paraguay notified the Fathers that if they 
did not obey, they would be ipso facto suspended. 
" Whereas/' says Weld, " if the Fathers really wished 
to oppose the government, a single sign from them would 
have sent an army of fifty thousand men to resist the 
Europeans; but owing to their fidelity and incredible 
exertions, there were never as many as seven hundred 
men in the field against the united armies of Spain 
and Portugal when hostilities at last broke out." 

During the year 1 754, the Indians harassed the enemy 
by the skirmishes and won many a victory; and they 
would have ultimately triumphed if they had had a 
leader. At last in 1755,, the combined forces of the 
enemy with thirty pieces- of artillery attacked them 
with the result that might have been expected. The 
natives rushed frantically on their foes; but the 
musketry and cannon stretched four hundred of them 
in their blood; and the rest either fled to the mountains 

448 The Jesuits 

or relapsed into savage life; or made their submission 
to the government, many becoming as bad as their 
kindred in the forests because of the corruption they 
saw around them. The Portuguese entered into 
possession of the seven Reductions, but failed to find 
any gold. So great was their chagrin that, in 1761, 
Carvalho wanted the rich territory which he had given 
to Spain returned to Portugal ; and when Spain naturally' 
demurred, he prepared to go to war for it. He finally 
gained his point, and on February 12, 1761, the 
territories were restored to their original owners, 
but nothing was stipulated, about restitution to the 
unfortunate natives and Jesuits who had been the 
victims of this shameful political deal. 

Some of the Indians who fled to the forests kept up 
a guerilla warfare against the invaders; but the greater 
number followed the advice of the Fathers and settled 
on the ParaM and on the right bank of the Uruguay. 
In 1762 there were 2,497 families scattered through 
seventeen Reductions or doctrinas, as they had begun 
to be called, a term that is equivalent to "parish/' 
But the expulsion of the Fathers which followed soon 
after completed the ruin of this glorious work. The 
Indians died or became savage gain; and today only 
beautiful ruins mark the place where this great com- 
monwealth once stood. At the time of the Suppression, 
or rather when Pombal drove the Jesuits out of every 
Portuguese post into 'the dungeons of Portugal or 
flung them into the Papal States, the Paraguay province 
had five hundred and sixty-four members, twelve 
colleges, one university, three houses for spiritual 
retreats, two residences, fifty-seven Reductions and 
113,716 Christian Indians. The leave-taking of the 
Fathers and Indians was heart-rending on both sides. 

It is a long distance from the River La Plata to the 
Amazon; for there are about thirty-five degrees of 

Pombal 449 

latitude between the two places. But they were not 
too far apart to check Carvalho in his work of de- 
struction. After having done all he could for the 
moment at one end of Brazil, he addressed himself 
to the Jesuit missions at the other. A glance at the 
past history of these establishments will reveal the 
frightful injustice of the brutal acts of 1754. 

One hundred years before that time, Vieira had 
made his memorable fight against his Portuguese 
fellow-countrymen for the liberation of the Indians 
from slavery. By so doing, he had, of course, aroused 
the fury of the whites, and they determined to crush 
him. They put him in prison; and in 1660 sent him 
and his companions to Portugal, in a crazy ship to be 
tried for disturbing the peace of the colony. Never- 
theless, he won the fight, although meantime three 
Jesuits had been killed by the Indians, and their 
companions expelled from the colony, in spite of the 
king's protection. In this act, however, the Portu- 
guese had gone too far. His majesty saw the truth 
and sent the missionaries back. That was as early 
as 1680. In 1725 new complaints were sent to Portugal, 
but the supreme governor of the Maranhao district 
wrote, as follows, to the king: " The Fathers of the 
Society in this State of Maranhao are objects of enmity 
and have always been hated, for no other reason 
than for their strenuous defence of the liberty of the 
unfortunate Indians, and also because they used all 
their power to oppose the tyrannical oppression of 
those who would reduce to a degraded and unjust 
slavery men whom nature had made free. The 
Fathers take every possible care that the laws of 
your majesty on this point shall be most exactly 
observed. They devote themselves entirely to the 
promotion of the salvation of souls and the increase 
of the possessions of your majesty; and have added 

450 The Jesuits 

many sons to the Church and subjects to the crown 
from among these barbarous nations." 

With regard to their alleged commerce, the governor 
says: "Whatever has been charged against the 
Fathers by wicked calumniators who, through hatred 
and envy, manufacture ridiculous lies about the wealth 
they derive from those missions, I solemnly declare to 
your majesty, and I speak of a matter with which 
I am thoroughly acquainted, that the Fathers of the 
Society are the only true missionaries of these regions. 
Whatever they receive from their labors among the 
Indians is applied to the good of the Indians them- 
selves and to the decency and ornamentation of the 
churches, which, in these missions, are always very 
neat and very beautiful. Nothing whatever that is 
required in the missions is kept for themselves. As 
they have nothing of their own, whatever each 
missionary sends is delivered to the procurator of the 
mission, and every penny of it reverts to the use 
of the particular mission from whence it came. 
Missioners of other orders send quite as much produce, 
but each one keeps his own portion separate, to be used 
as he likes, so that the quantity however great being 
thus divided, does not make much impression on 
those who see it. But as the missionaries of the 
Society send everything together to the procurator, 
the quantity, when seen in bulk, excites the cupidity 
of the malevolent and envious. " 

About 1739, Eduardo dos Santos was sent by John V 
as a special commissioner to Maranhao. After spending 
twenty months in visiting every mission and examining 
every detail he wrote as follows: "The execrable 
barbarity with whicih the Indians are reduced to slavery 
has become such a matter of custom that it is rather 
looked on as -a virtue. All that is adduced against 
this inhuman custom is received with such repugnance 

Pombal 451 

and so quickly forgotten that the Fathers of the 
Society in 'whose charity these tinfortunate creatures 
often find refuge and protection, and who take com- 
passion on their miserable lot, become, for this very 
reason, objects of ^hatred to these avaricious men." 

Such were the official verdicts of the conduct of 
the Jesuits on the Amazon a few years before Pombal 
came into power. But in 1753 regardless of all this 
he sent out his brother Francis Xavier Mendoza, a 
particularly worthless individual, and made him 
Governor of Gran Para and Maranh2o, giving him a 
great squadron of ships and a considerable body of 
troops with orders to humble the Jesuits and send 
back to Portugal any of them who opposed his will. 
Everything was done to create opposition. They 
were forbidden to speak or to preach to the Indians 
except in Portuguese; the soldiers were quartered in 
the Jesuit settlements, and were instructed to treat 
the natives with especial violence and brutality. 

In 1754 a council was held in Lisbon to settle the 
question about expelling the Society from the missions 
of Maranhao. The order was held up temporarily by 
the queen ; but when she died, a despatch was sent in 
June 1755 ordering their immediate withdrawal from 
all ' 'temporal and civil government of the missions." 
The instructions stated that it was "in order that 
God might be better served.** Unfortunately the 
bishop of the place co-operated with Carvalho in 
everything that was proposed. He suppressed one of 
the colleges, restricted the number of Fathers in the 
others, to twelve, and sent the rest back to Portugal; 
and in order to excite the settlers against the Society, 
he had the Bull of Benedict XIV which condemned 
Indian slavery read from the pulpits, proclaiming that 
it had been inspired by the Jesuits, Meantime, in 
the reports home, the insignificant Indian villages where 

452 The Jesuits 

they labored were magnified into splendid cities and 
towns all owned by the Society; two pieces of cannon 
which had never fired a ball were described as a whole 
park of artillery, and a riot among the troops was set 
down as a rebellion excited by the Jesuits. 

The first three Fathers to be banished from Brazil 
were Jose, Hundertpfund and da Cruz. Jos6 was a 
royal appointee sent out to determine the boundary 
line between the Spanish and Portuguese American 
possessions. But that did not trouble Pombal; nor 
did the German nationality of Hundertpfund, nor did 
he deign to state the precise nature of their offenses. 
A fourth victim named Ballister had had the bad 
taste to preach on the text: "Make for yourself 
friends of the Mammon of iniquity." He was forth- 
with accused of attacking one of Carvalho's com- 
mercial enterprises, and promptly ordered out of the 
country. Again, when some mercantile rivals sent 
a petition to the king against Carvalho's monopolies, 
Father Fonseca was charged with prompting it, and 
he was outlawed though absolutely innocent. And 
so it went on. Carvalho's brother was instructed to 
invent any kind of an excuse to increase the number 
of these expatriations. 

While these outrages were being perpetrated in 
the colonies, Lisbon's historic earthquake of 1755 
occurred. The city was literally laid in ruins. Thou- 
sands of people were instantly killed; and while other 
thousands lay struggling in the ruins, the rising flood 
of the Tagus and a deluge of rain completed the disaster. 
Singularly enough, Carvalho's house escaped the 
general wreck; and the foolish king considered that 
exception to be a Divine intervention in behalf of 
his great minister, and possibly, on that account, 
left him unchecked in the fury which even the awful 
calamitv which had fallen on his country did not at 

Pombal 453 

all moderate. The Jesuits were praised by both 
king and patriarch for their heroic devotion both 
during and after the great disaster, but those com- 
mendations only infuriated Pombal the more. When 
one of the Fathers, the holy Malagrida, had dared 
to say in the pulpit that the earthquake was a punish- 
ment for the vice that was rampant in the capital, 
Pombal regarded it as a reflection on his administra- 
tion; and the offender, though seventy years old and 
universally regarded as a saint, was banished from 
the city as inciting the people to rebellion. 

However, the furious minister meted out similar 
treatment to others, even to his political friends. 
Thus, although the British parliament had voted 
40,000 for the relief of the sufferers, besides giving a 
personal gift to the king and sending ships with car- 
goes of food for the people, Pombal immediately 
ran up the tax on foreign imports, for he was financially 
interested in domestic productions. Even in doling 
out provisions to the famishing populace, he was so 
parsimonious that riots occurred, whereupon he hanged 
those who complained. The author of the " Vita " 
(I, 1 06) vouches for the fact that at one time there 
were three hundred gibbets erected in various parts of 
Lisbon. The Jesuit confessors at the court were 
especially obnoxious to him and he dismissed them all 
with an injunction never to set foot in the royal 
precincts again. The anger of their royal penitents 
did not restrain him, so absolute was his power both 
then and afterwards. The plea was that the priests 
were plotters against the king. To increase that 
impression he pointed out to his majesty the number 
of offenders against him; all members of the detested 
Order who were coming back in every ship from 
Brazil. The General of the Society, Father Centurioni, 
wrote to the king pleading the innocence of the 

454 The Jesuits 

victims; but the letter never got further than the minis- 
ter* The king did not even know it had been sent. 

The next step in this persecution was to publish 
the famous pamphlet entitled: " A Brief Account of 
the Republic which the Jesuits have established in 
the Spanish and Portuguese dominions of the New 
World, and of the War which they have carried on 
against the armies of the two Crowns; all extracted 
from the Register of the Commissaries and Plenipotenti- 
aries, and from other documents." A copy was sent to 
every bishop of the country; to the cardinals in Rome, 
and to all the courts of Europe. Pombal actually spent 
70,000 crowns to print and spread the work of which he 
himself was generally credited with being the author. 
In South America it was received with derision; in 
Europe mostly with disgust. Sad to say, Acciajuoli, 
the Apostolic nuncio at Lisbon, believed the Brazilian 
stories; but he changed his mind, when on the morning 
of June 15, 1760, just as he was about to say Mass, he 
received a note ordering him in the name of the king 
to leave the city at once, and the kingdom within 
four days; adding that to preserve him from insult a 
military escort would conduct him to the frontier. 
Other publications of the same tenor followed the 
" Brief Account." One especially became notorious. 
It was: " Letters of the Portuguese Minister to the 
Minister of Spain on the Jesuitical Empire, the Republic 
of Maranhao ; the history of Nicholas I. " The Nicholas 
in question was a Father named Plantico. To carry 
out the story of his having been crowned Idng or 
Emperor of Paraguay, coins with his effigy were 
actually struck and circulated throughout Europe. 
Unfortunately for the fraud, none of the coins were 
ever seen in Paraguay where they ought to have been 
current. Moreover, as Plantico was transported with 
the other Jesuits of Brazil, he would have been hanged 

Pombal 455 

on his arrival in Portugal, if he had tried to set up a 
kingdom of his own in Paraguay. On the contrary, 
he went off to his native country of Croatia, and was 
Rector of the College of Grosswardein when the 
general suppression of the Society took place. Fred- 
erick II and d'Alembert used to joke with each other 
about " King Nicholas I "; and in Spain, that and the 
other libels were officially denounced and their cir- 
culation prohibited. 

As for Carvalho, these hideous imaginings of his 
brain became realities; and the list of Jesuitical horrors 
which his ambassador at Rome repeated to the Pope, 
all, as he alleged, for the sake of the Church, almost 
suggest that Pombal was a madman. Long extracts of 
the document may be found in de Ravignan and Weld, 
but it will be sufficient here to mention a few of the 
charges. They are, for instance, " seditious machina- 
tions against every government of Europe; scandals in 
their missions so horrible that they cannot be related 
without extreme indecency; rebellion against the 
Sovereign Pontiff; the accumulation of vast wealth 
and the use of immense political power; gross moral 
corruption of individual members of the Order ; abandon- 
ment of even the externals of religion; the daily and 
public commission of enormous crimes; opposing the 
king with great armies; inculcating in the Indian 
mind an implacable hatred of all white men who are not 
Jesuits; starting insurrections in Uruguay so as to 
prevent the execution of the treaty of limits; atrociously 
calumniating the king; embroiling the courts of Spain 
and Portugal; creating sedition by preaching in the 
capital against the commercial companies of the 
minister; taking advantage of the earthquake to attain 
their detestable ends; surpassing Machiavelli in their 
diabolical plots; inventing prophecies of new disasters, 
such as warnings of subterranean fires and invasions 

456 The Jesuits 

of the sea; calumniating the venerable Palafox; com- 
mitting crimes worse than those of the Knights 
Templars, etc." 

Unfortunately, Cardinal Passionei who was tin- 
friendly to the Society, exercised great power at 
Rome at that time. He was so antagonistic that he 
would not allow a Jesuit book in the library, which made 
d'Alembert say: "I am sorry for his library." He 
also refused to condemn the work of the scandalous 
ex-monk Norbert, who was in the pay of Carvalho. 
To make matters worse, Benedict XIV was then at 
the point of death. And a short time previously, 
yielding to Carvalho's importunities, he had appointed 
Cardinal Saldanha, who was Carvalho's tool, to investi- 
gate the complaints and to report back to Rome, with- 
out however taking any action on the premises. The 
dying Pontiff was unaware of the intimacy of Saldanha 
with the man in Portugal or he would not have ordered 
him in the Brief of appointment to " follow the paths of 
gentleness and mildness, in dealing with an Order which 
has always been of the greatest edification to the whole 
world; lest by doing otherwise he would diminish the 
esteem which, up to that time, they have justly acquired 
as a reward of their diligence. Their holy Institute 
had given many illustrious men to the Church whose 
teachings they have not hesitated to confirm with 
their blood/' As the Pope died in the following month, 
Saldanha made light of the instructions. His usual 
boast was that " the will of the king was the rule of his 
actions; and he was under such obligations to his 
majesty, that he would not hesitate to throw himself 
from the window if such were the royal pleasure/' 

It was currently reported in Lisbon, says Weld 
(130), that the office of visitor had been first offered 
to Francis of the Annunciation, an Augustinian who 
had reformed the University of Coimbra; and on 

Pombal 457 

his refusal he was sent to prison where he ended his 
days. But the obliging Saldanha saw in it an oppor- 
tunity for still further advancement; he accepted the 
work and performed it in accordance with the wishes 
of Pombal. Meantime, new dungeons were being made 
in the fortress of Jonquiera in which the offending 
Jesuits were to be buried. Saldanha began his work 
as Inquisitor on May 31, by going with great pomp 
to the Jesuit Church of St. Roch. Seated on the throne 
in the sanctuary, he gave his hand to be kissed by all 
the religious. When the provincial knelt before him, 
the cardinal told him to have confidence he would 
act with clemency. When the ceremony was over, 
he departed abruptly without asking any questions 
or making any examination. But a few days after- 
ward, the provincial received a letter bearing the date 
May 15, that is sixteen days before this visit to the 
Church, declaring that the Fathers in Portugal and in 
its dominions to the ends of the earth were, on the 
fullest information, found to be guilty of a worldly 
traffic which was a disgrace to the ecclesiastical state; 
and they were commanded under pain of excommuni- 
cation to desist from such business transactions at 
the very hour the notification was made. The 
language employed in the letter which was immediately 
spread throughout the country was insulting and 
defamatory to the highest degree. 

All the procurators were then compelled to hand 
over their books to the government. And when the 
horrified people, who knew there was nothing back 
of it all but Carvalho's hatred, manifested their dis- 
content, it was ascribed to the Jesuits. Hence on 
June 6, the cardinal patriarch, at the instigation of the 
prime minister, suspended them all from the function 
of preaching and hearing confessions throughout the 
patriarchate. The cardinal had, at first, demurred, 

458 The Jesuits 

for he knew the Jesuits in Lisbon to be the very reverse 
of Saldanha's description of them, and he therefore 
demanded a regular trial. Whereupon Carvalho flew 
into such a rage that out of sheer terror, and after 
a few hours' struggle, he issued the cruel order. The 
poor cardinal, who was an ardent friend and admirer 
of the Society, was so horrified at what he had done 
that he fell into a fever, and died within a month. 
Before he received the last sacraments, he made a 
public declaration that the Society was innocent, and 
he drew up a paper to that effect; but Carvalho never 
let it see the light. When the Archbishop of Evora 
heard that the dying man had shed tears over his 
weakness, he said: "Tears are not enough. He 
should have shed the last drop of his blood/' 

Saldanha was made patriarch in the deceased 
prelate's place; and though his office of visitor had 
ceased ipso facto on the death of the Pope, he continued 
to exercise its functions nevertheless. He appointed 
Bulhoens, the Bishop of Para, a notorious adherent of 
Carvalho, to be his delegate in Brazil, Bulhoens 
first examined the Jesuits of Para, but could find 
nothing against them. He then proceeded to Mar- 
anhao; but the bishop of that place left in disgust; 
and the governor warned Bulhoens that if he persisted, 
the city would be in an uproar. Not being able to effect 
anything, he asked the Bishop of Bahia to undertake 
the work of investigation. The invitation was 
promptly accepted; and all the superiors were ordered 
to show their books under pain of excommunication. 
They readily complied, and no fault was found with the 
accounts. He then instituted a regular tribunal; 
received the depositions of seventy-five witnesses, 
among them Saldanha's own brother who had lived 
twenty-five years in Maranhao. Next he examined the 
tax commissioner, through whose hands all contracts 

Pombal 459 

and bills of exchange had to pass; and that official 
affirmed under oath that he had never known or 
heard of any business transactions having been carried 
on by Jesuits. The result was that the courageous 
bishop declared " it would be an offence against God 
and his conscience and against the king's majesty to 
condemn the Fathers/* When his report was for- 
warded to Portugal, Carvalho ordered the confiscation 
of his property; expelled him from his palace, and 
declared his see vacant. The valiant prelate passed 
the rest of his days in seclusion, supported by the 
alms of the faithful. 

In September 1758, a charge was trumped up in 
Lisbon in a most tortuous fashion, based on the alleged 
discovery of a plot to assassinate the king. Those 
chiefly involved were the Duke de Averio and the 
Marquis de Tavora, with his wife, his two sons, his 
two brothers and his two sons-in-law, all of whom 
were seized at midnight on December 12. The 
marchioness and her daughter-in-law were carried off 
to a convent in their night-dresses; the men of the 
family, to dens formerly occupied by the wild beasts 
of the city menagerie. De Aveiro, who was supposed 
to be the assassin-in-chief, was not taken until next 
day. Several others were included in this general 
round-up, some of them for having asserted that the 
whole conspiracy was a manufactured affair. At the 
same time, some of the domestic servants of the 
marquis, probably for having offered resistance at the 
time of the arrest, were put to death so that they could 
tell no tales. Not being able to have the accused 
parties tried before any regularly constituted tribunal, 
because of the lack of evidence, Carvalho drew up a 
sentence of condemnation himself, and presented it to 
a new court which he had just established, called the 
inconfidenza, and demanded the signatures of the judges 

460 The Jesuits 

who were all his creatures. After being stormed at 
for a whale, all, with one exception, put their names 
to the paper. Then, as by the law of the land no 
nobleman could be condemned to death except by his 
peers, he constituted himself as a tribunal, along with 
his secretary of the Navy and the secretary of Foreign 
Affairs, neither of whom had any difficulty in com- 
plying with the wish of their master. 

On January u, 1759, three of the noblemen involved, 
Aveiro, Tavora and Antongia, were led out to execution 
before the king's palace. Vast multitudes had 
assembled in the public square; and to ensure order, 
fresh regiments had been summoned from other parts 
of the kingdom. A riot was feared, for the Tavoras 
were among the noblest families of the realm. The 
accused had not even been defended and had been 
interrogated on the rack. The execution was most 
expeditious, and the heads of the three victims quickly 
rolled in the dust. That night, the marchioness was 
taken from the convent to the new dungeons in the 
fort; and on January 12, she heard the sentence of 
death passed on her by Carvalho himself who was 
both judge and accuser. The scaffold was erected in 
the square of Belem; and long before daylight of 
January 13 an immense multitude had gathered to 
witness the hideous spectacle. The marchioness ad- 
vanced and took her seat in the chair. The axe 
quickly descended on her neck and all was over. 
She was despatched in this hurried fashion because 
the interference of the king was feared. Indeed, the 
messenger arrived just when the head had been severed 
from the body. The two sons of the marchioness and. 
her son-in-law were then stretched on the rack and 
strangled. The father of the family, the old marquis 
followed next in order. As a mark of clemency, his 
torture was brief but effective. Pour others were then 

Pombal 461 

executed; fire was set to the gibbet; and its blood- 
stained timbers along with the bodies of the victims 
were reduced to ashes and thrown into the Tagus. 
This was not a scene in a village of savages, but in 
a great European capital which had just passed through 
a terrible visitation of God but apparently had not 
understood its meaning. Carvalho was thirsting for 
more blood, but the king held him back; so he contented 
himself with destroying the palaces of the Aveiras and 
Tavoras; sprinkling the sites with salt; forbidding 
anyone to bear the names hitherto so illustrious, and 
even effacing them from the monuments and the 
public archives. He was not allowed to commit any 
more official murders for the moment; but at least 
he had thousands who were dying in his underground 

What had the Jesuits to do with all this? Nothing 
whatever. They were accused of being the spiritual 
advisers of the Tavora family which it was impossible 
to disprove, because though the persons implicated by 
the accusation were all arrested on the nth, sentence 
of death had been already passed on the gth. There 
were twenty-nine paragraphs in the indictment. The 
twenty-second said that " even if the exuberant and 
conclusive proofs already adduced did not exist, the 
presumption of the law would suffice to condemn such 
monsters." Of course, no lawyer in the world could 
plead against such a charge, and it is noteworthy that 
in the Brief of Suppression of the whole Society by 
Clement XIV which brings together all the accusations 
against it, there is no mention whatsoever, even 
inferentially, of any conspiracy of the Jesuits against 
the life of the King of Portugal. Moreover, the 
Inquisition and all the Bishops of Spain judged this 
Portuguese horror at its proper value, when on May 3, 
1759 they put their official stamp of condemnation 

462 The Jesuits 

on the pamphlets with which the whole of Europe 
was flooded immediately after PombaTs infamous act. 
They denounced the charges one by one as " designed 
to foment discord, to disturb the peace and tran- 
quillity of souls and consciences, and especially to 
discredit the holy Society of Jesus and religious who 
laudably labor in it to the benefit of the Church; 
as is known throughout the world." Over and over 
again as each book is specifically anathematised, the 
" holy Society of Jesus " is spoken of with commend- 
ation and praise. The condemned publications were 
then burnt in the market place. That exculpation 
ought to have been sufficient, coming as it did not 
only from all the Spanish bishops but from the Inqui- 
sition, which from the very beginning had been uni- 
formly suspicious of everything Jesuitical. Against 
this utterance Pombal was powerless for it was the 
voice of another nation. 

When the year 1759 began, three of the most con- 
spicuous and most venerable Fathers of Portugal were 
in jail under sentence of death. But neither the king 
nor Carvalho dared to carry out the sentence of 
execution. Something however had to be done; and 
therefore a royal edict, which had been written long 
before, was issued. After reciting all that had been 
previously said about Brazil, etc. it declared that 
" these religious being corrupt and deplorably fallen 
away from their holy institute, and rendered mani- 
festly incapable by such abominable and inveterate 
vices to return to its observances, must be properly 
and effectually banished, denaturalized, proscribed 
and expelled from all his majesty's dominions, as 
notorious rebels, traitors, adversaries and aggressors 
of his royal person and realm; as well as for the public 
peace and the common good of his subjects; and it 
is ordered under the irremissible pain of death, that 

Pombal 463 

no person, of whatever state or condition, is to admit 
them into any of his possessions or hold any communica- 
tion with them by word or writing, even though they 
should return into these states in a different garb or 
should have entered another order, unless with the 
King's permission." It is sad to have to record that 
the Patriarch of Lisbon endorsed the invitation to the 
Jesuits to avail themselves of this royal clemency. 

The procurators of the missions who occupied a 
temporary house in Lisbon had been already carried 
off to jail; and their money, chalices, sacred vessels, 
all of which were intended for Asia and Brazil, were 
confiscated. The Exodus proper began at the College 
of Elvas on September i. At night-fall a squadron 
of cavalry arrived; and taking the inmates prisoners, 
marched them off without any intimation of whither 
they were going. On the following day, Sunday, 
they were lodged in a miserable shed, exhausted 
though they were by 'the journey, with nothing but a 
few crusts to eat, after having suffered intensely from 
the heat all day long. They were not even allowed to 
go to Mass. During the next night and the following 
day, they continued their weary tramp and at last 
arrived at Evora. There the young men were left 
at the college, and the sixty-nine Professed were 
compelled to walk for six consecutive days till they 
reached the Tagus. Many were old and decrepit and 
one of them lost his mind on the journey. When they 
reached the river, they were put in open boats and ex- 
posed all day long to the burning sun, with nothing to 
eat or drink. They were then transferred to a ship 
which had been waiting for them since the month of 
April. It was then late in September. 

Other exiles soon joined them, after going through 
similar experiences, until there were one hundred and 
thirty-three in the same vessel. They were all kept 

464 The Jesuits 

in the hold till they were out of sight of land. There 
was no accommodation for them: the food was insuffi- 
cient; the water was foul; there were no dishes, so that 
six or seven had to sit around a tin can, and take out 
what they could with a wooden spoon, and the same 
vessel had to serve for the water they drank. The 
orders were to stop at no port until they reached 
Civita Vecchia. However, after passing the Straits 
of Gibraltar, it became evident that unless the captain 
wanted to carry a cargo of corpses to Italy, he must 
take in supplies somewhere: for many of the victims 
were sixty or seventy years of age. There were even 
some octogenarians among them. Hence, on reaching 
Alicante, in Spain, one of the Fathers went ashore. 
There was a college of the Society in that city; and as 
soon as the news spread of the arrival of the prisoners, 
the people rushed to the shore to supply their wants, 
but the messenger was the only one allowed to be seen. 
They then sailed away from -Alicante. Off Corsica, a 
storm caught them and so delayed their progress that 
a stop had to be made at Spezia for more food. At 
last, on October 24, more than a month after they had 
left Lisbon, they were flung haggard, emaciated and 
exhausted on the shores of the Papal States at Civita 
Vecchia. Of course, they were received by the people 
there with unbounded affection; and as Father Weld 
relates "none exceeded the Dominican Fathers in 
their tender solicitude for the sufferers. A marble 
slab in their church records their admiration for these 
confessors of the Faith with whom the sons of St. 
Dominic declared they were devinctissimi "closely 
bound to them in affection." 

On September 29, troops surrounded the College of 
Coipibra. The astonished populace was informed 
that it was because the Fathers had been fighting; 
that some were already killed and others wounded; 

Pombal 465 

and the soldiers had been summoned to prevent 
further disorders. That night amid pouring rain, the 
tramp of horses* hoofs was heard; and as the people 
crowded to the windows, they saw the venerable men 
of the college led away between squads of cavalry as 
if they were brigands or prisoners of war. They 
arrived at the Tagus on October 7, where others were 
already waiting. They numbered in all 121, and 
were crowded into two small ships which were to 
carry them into exile. They had scarcely room to 
move. Yet, when they arrived at Genoa, they were 
all packed into one of the boats. At Leghorn, they 
were kept for a whole month in close confinement on 
board the ship. When they started out, they were 
buffeted by storms, and not until January 4, 1760 did 
they reach the papal territory. They were in a more 
wretched state of filth and emaciation than their 

These prisoners were the special criminals of the 
Society, namely the .professed Fathers. The other 
Jesuits were officially admitted to be without reproach 
and were exhorted, both by the civil and ecclesiastical 
authorities, to abandon the Order and be dispensed 
from their vows. As these non-Professed numbered 
at least three-fourths of the whole body, the difficult 
problem presents itself of explaining how the Professed 
who are looked up to by the rest of the Society for 
precept and example should be monsters of iniquity and 
yet could train the remaining three-fourths of the 
members in such a way as to make them models of 
every virtue. 

Pombal was convinced that he could separate the 
youth of the Society from their elders; and he was 
extremely anxious to do so, because of the family 
connections of many of them, and because of the loss 
to the nation at one stroke of so much ability and 


466 The Jesuits 

talent. But he failed egregiously. They were all 
gathered in the colleges of Coimbra and Evora. No 
seclusion was observed. Everybody was free to visit 
them from the world outside; and inducements of 
every kind were held out to them to abandon the 
Society: family affection, worldly ambition, etc. 
but without avail. They had no regular superior, so 
they elected a fourth-year theologian who had just 
been ordained a priest. Another was made minister; 
and a third, master of novices. The house was kept 
in excellent order; the religious discipline was perfect 
and the exercises of the community went on with as 
much regularity as if nothing were happening. Pombal 
sent commissioner after commissioner to shake the 
constancy of the young men, but only two of the 
tempted ones weakened. " Who is their superior? " 
he asked one day in a rage. The answer was: 
"Joseph Carvalho your namesake and relative. " 
On October 20, a letter from the cardinal was read 
in both houses. He expressed his astonishment that 
these young Jesuits did not avail themselves of the 
royal favor to desert; and he warned them that they 
were not suffering for their faith, and that "their 
refusal of His Majesty's offer to release them from their 
vows was not virtuous constancy but seditious 

Finally, October 24 was fixed for their departure, 
and notice was given that they could not expect to 
go to any civilized land, but would probably be dropped 
on some desolate island off the African coast. That 
shook the resolution of two of the band, but the rest 
stood firm. In the morning, all went to Holy Com- 
munion and at an hour before sunset, the word was 
given to start. They sang a Te Deum and then set 
out 130 in all. They were preceded by a troop of 
cavalry; a line of foot soldiers marched on either side; 

Pombal 467 

while here and there torches threw their glare over this 
grim nocturnal procession. It took them four days 
to reach Oporto, where they met their brethren from 
Braganza and Braza. There were only ten from the 
former place, but sixty soldiers had been detailed to 
guard them. Indeed, the troopers from Braza had 
to keep the crowds back with dra^n swords, so eager 
were the people along the road to express their sym- 
pathy. At Oporto the young heroes had to witness 
the desertion of four Professed Fathers; but that did 
not weaken their resolution. They were all crammed 
into three small craft, but the weather was too stormy 
to leave the port; and there they remained a whole 
week, packed so close together that there was scarcely 
room to lie side by side. The air became so foul that 
it was doubtful if they could survive. Even their 
guards took sick, and, at last, a number of the prisoners 
were transferred to a fort in the harbor. 

At last to the number of 223 they sailed down the 
Tagus. One of them died, and his companions sang 
the Office of the Dead over him and buried him in the 
sea. When the ship did not roll too much, Mass was 
said and they went to Communion. All the exercises 
that are customary in religious houses were scrupulously 
performed, and the Church festivals were observed as 
if they were a community at home. They were 
quarantined two weeks at Genoa without being per- 
mitted to go ashore. Then another scholastic died, 
and they found that his earthly goods consisted of 
nothing but a few bits of linen, that must have been 
foul by this time, besides a discipline and a hair shirt. 
They cast anchor at Civita Vecchia on February 7, 
having left inhospitable Portugal in October. 

The band from Evora to the number of ninety- 
eight, of whom only three were priests, had not such a 
rude experience except in the distress of seeing some 

468 The Jesuits 

deserters, among them two Professed Fathers. The 
officer in charge of the ship, unlike most of the govern- 
ment employees, was tender and kind to them. How 
could he have been otherwise? His name was de 
Britto the same as that of the Portuguese martyr in 
India. It meant the loss of his position, perhaps, 
but what did he care? When they reached Lisbon, 
the nineteen who had been separated from the first 
detachment to be kept in jail came aboard, and the 
little band numbered 115 all told, when the ship 
hoisted anchor and made for the sea. They reached 
Civita Vecchia where the two happy troops of valiant 
young Jesuits met in each others arms. Their number 
was then 336. They were distributed among the 
various establishments of Italy, the novices being 
sent to Sant* Andrea in Rome. Two cardinals and a 
papal nuncio who were making their retreat in the 
house at the time insisted on serving them at table, 
while the Pope sent a message to the General to say : 
" These young men have reflected great honor on the 
Society and have shown how well they have been 

The fury of Pombal was not yet sated. Not an 
island of the Atlantic, not a station in Africa or India, 
not a mission in the depths of the forests of America 
that was not searched and looted by his commissioners, 
who ruthlessly expelled the devoted missionaries who 
were found there. Men venerable for age and acquire- 
ments were given over to brutal soldiers who were 
ordered to shoot them if any attempt at escape was 
made. They were dragged hundreds of miles through 
the wildest of regions, over mountains, through raging 
torrents, amid driving storms; they were starved and 
had nothing but the bare ground on which to rest; 
they were searched again and again as if their rags 
held treasures; were made to answer the roll call twice* 

Pombal 469 

a day like convicts in jail; and then tossed in the holds 
of crazy ill-provisioned ships with no place to rest 
their weary heads, except on a coil of rope or in the 
the filth of the cattle; and when dead, they were to 
be flung to the sharks. When at last they reached 
Lisbon they were forbidden to show themselves on 
deck, lest their fellow-countrymen and their families 
might be shocked by their degradation. They were 
then spirited away to the dungeons of St. Julian and 
Jonquiera to rot, until death relieved them of their 
sufferings. Those who were not placed in the crowded 
jails were sent in their rags to find a refuge some- 
where outside of their native land. 

As has been said, there were two provinces in Portu- 
guese South America Brazil and MaranhSo. In the 
former, besides the Seminary of Belem, the Society 
had six colleges and sixty-two residences with a total 
of 445 members. Orders were given to the whole 
445 to assemble at Bahia, Pernambuco and San 
Sebastian. Everything was seized. At Bahia, the 
novices were stripped of their habits and sent adrift, 
though the families of some of them lived in far away 
Portugal. The rest were confined in a house surrounded 
by armed troops while the bishop of the city proclaimed 
that any one who would encourage the victims to 
persevere in their vocation would be excommunicated. 
Then, one day, without a moment's notice, all were 
ordered out of the house and sent to jail in different 
places. There they remained for the space of three 
months waiting for the missionaries from the interior 
to arrive. They came in slowly, for some of them 
lived eight hundred miles away, and had to tramp all 
that distance through the forests and over mountain 
ranges. Before all had made their appearance, however, 
the first batches were sent across to the mother country 
to make space. They started on March 16 and reached 

470 The Jesuits 

the Tagus on June 6. Those from Bahia had taken 
from April to June, and it was fully three months 
before the convict ship from Pernambuco arrived 
in port. " , 

All this time the deported religious were kept between 
decks, and soldiers stood at the gangway with drawn 
swords to prevent, any attempt to go up to get a 
breath of fresh air. Their food was nothing but 
vegetables cooked in sea-water, for there was not 
enough of drinking water even to slake their thirst. 
The result was that the ship had a cargo of half -dead 
men when it anchored off Lisbon; but the unfortunate 
wretches were kept imprisoned there for fifteen days 
with the port-holes closed. They were then trans- 
ferred to a Genoese ship and sent to Civita Vecchia. 
It appears that the Provincial of these Brazilian 
Jesuits was named Lynch; but strange to say, there is 
no mention of him in any of the Menologies. The 
deportation from Pernambuco and San Sebastian 
were repetitions of this organized brutality; and the 
same methods were employed at Goa in India, and 
the other dependencies, such as Macao and China. 
In the transportations from these posts in the Orient, 
the ships had to stop at Bahia which had been witness 
of the first exportations; but the victims in the China 
ships could learn nothing of what had happened. 
Twenty-three of them died on one of the journeys 
from India. It is noted that a Turk at Algiers and a 
Danish Lutheran sea-captain, had shown the greatest 
humanity to the victims whose fellow country-men 
seemed transformed into savage beasts. The prisoners 
had been kept in confinement twenty months before 
they left Goa; and when they arrived at Lisbon on 
October 18, 1764, they were taken off in long boats at 
the dead of night, and lodged in the foulest dungeons 
of the fortress of St. Julian. 

Pombal 471 

But these were not the only victims of Carvalho. 
There were prisoners from every grade of society, 
and their number reached the appalling figure of 
nine thousand. Among them were eminent ecclesi- 
astics, bishops and canons and some of the most dis- 
tinguished laymen of the kingdom. A description 
of the prisons in which they were confined for years 
or till they died has been given to posterity by some 
of the victims. Father Weld in his " Suppression of 
the Society in Portugal " quotes extensively from 
their letters. The jails were six in number: Belem, 
Almeida, Azeitano, St. George, Jonquiera and St. 
Julian. They had annexes, also, along the African 
coasts or on the remote islands of the Atlantic. Belem, 
the Portuguese name for Bethlehem, so called because 
it had once been an abbey, was about four miles from 
Lisbon towards the ocean. It had the distinction of 
keeping its prisoners behind iron bars, but exposed 
to the public like wild beasts in a menagerie; so that 
the public could come and look at them and feed them 
if so disposed. The Portuguese criminals were given a 
pittance by the government, to purchase food, but the 
foreigners had to beg from the spectators for the means 
to support life. It was admirably contrived to induce 

Jonquiera lay between Belefn and Lisbon. The 
cells were numerous in this place. Moreira, the king's 
former confessor, and Malagrida were among the 
inmates. The Marquis de Lorna who was also con- 
fined there says " there were nineteen cells, each about 
seven paces square, and so tightly closed that a light 
had to be kept burning continually; otherwise they 
would have been in absolute darkness. When the 
prisoners were first put in them, the plaster was 
still wet and yielded to the slightest pressure. The 
cold was intense. Worst of all for a Catholic country, 

472 The Jesuits 

the sacraments were allowed the prisoners only once a 
year." The Marquis says that during the sixteen 
years he spent there " he never heard Mass." In 
these dungeons there were 221 Jesuits, 88 of whom 
died in their chains. The Castle of St. Julian stood 
on the banks of the Tagus and the walls were washed 
by the tide. In this place, there were 125 Jesuits of 
aU nations; men of high birth, of great virtue and 
intellectual ability. The cells were situated below the 
sea-level; and were damp, unventilated, choked with 
filth and swarming with vermin. Some of the Fathers 
passed nineteen years in those tombs. The drinking 
water was putrid; the prisoners' clothes were in rags; 
often not sufficient for decency; many had no under 
garments and no shoes; their hair and beards were 
never cut; the food was scant and of the worst quality, 
and was often carried off before there was tim'e to eat it. 
The oil of the single lamp in the cells was so limited that 
to save it, the wick was reduced to two or three threads. 
The same conditions prevailed in the other prisons. 
Meantime the jailers were making money on the sup- 
plies supposed to be served to the prisoners. Such 
was prison life in Portugal during the twenty years 
of Pombars administration. 

One of the particularly outrageous features of these 
imprisonments was that Pombal preferred to hold 
foreigners rather than native Portuguese. The 
foreigners, having no friends in the country, would 
not, in all probability, be claimed by their relatives; 
and as the ministers of nearly all the nations of Europe 
were of the same mind as himself, he had no fear of 
political intervention. Thus we find in a letter of 
Father Kaulen, a German Jesuit, which was published 
by Christopher de Murr, that in one section of St. 
Julian, besides fifty-four Portuguese Jesuits, there were 
thirteen Germans, one Italian, three Frenchmen, 

Pombal 473 

two Spaniards, and three Chinese. These Chinese 
Jesuits must have made curious reflections on the mean- 
ing of the term " Christian nations." " There are 
others in the towers," adds Father Kaulen, " but I 
cannot find out who they are, or how many, or to 
what country they belong." 

The three Frenchmen, Fathers du Gad and de 
Ranceau along with Brother Delsart were set free 
at the demand of Marie Leczinska, the wife of Louis XV; 
it was through them that Father Kaulen was able to 
send his letter to the provincial of the Lower Rhine. 
He himself was probably liberated later by the inter- 
vention of Maria Theresa, but there is no record of 
it. His letter is of great value as he had personal 
experience of what he writes. His experience was a 
long one, for he entered the prison in 1759; and this 
communication to his provincial is dated October 12, 
1766. In it he writes: 

" I was taken prisoner by a soldier with a drawn 
sword and brought to Fort Olreida on the frontier of 
Portugal. There I was put in a frightful cell filled 
with rats which got into my bed and ate my food. 
I could not chase them away, it was so dark. We 
were twenty Jesuits, each one in a separate cell. 
During the first four months we were treated with some 
consideration. After that, they gave us only enough 
food to keep us from dying of hunger. They took 
away our breviaries, medals, etc. One of the 
Fathers resisted so vigorously when they tried to 
deprive him of his crucifix that they desisted. The 
sick got no help or medicine. 

" After ^ three years they transferred nineteen of us 
to another place because of a war that had broken out. 
We travelled across Portugal surrounded by a troop 
of cavalry, and were brought to Lisbon; and after 
passing the night in a jail with the worst kind of 

474 The Jesuits 

criminals, we were sent to St. Julian, which is on the 
seashore. It is a horrible hole, underground, dark 
and foul. The food is bad, the water swarming with 
worms. We have half a pound of bread a day. We 
receive the sacraments only when we are dying. The 
doctor lives outside but if we fall sick during the night, 
he is not called. The prison is filled with worms and 
insects and little animals such as I never saw before. 
The walls are Gripping wet, so that our clothes soon 
rot. One of the Fathers died and his face was so 
brilliant that one of the soldiers exclaimed: ' That's 
the face of a saint/ We are not unhappy, and the 
three French Fathers who left us envied our lot. 

" Very few of us have even the shreds of our soutanes 
left. Indeed we have scarcely enough 'clothes for 
decency. At night a rough covering full of sharp 
points serves as a blanket; and the straw on which we 
sleep as well as the blanket that covers us soon become 
foul, and it is very hard to get them renewed. We are 
not allowed to speak to any one. The jailor is 
extremely brutal and seems to make a point of adding 
to our sufferings; only with the greatest reluctance 
does he give us what we need. Yet we could be set 
free in a moment if we abandoned the Society. 
Some of the Fathers who were at Macao and had 
undergone all sorts of sufferings at the hands of the 
pagans, such as prison chains and torture say to us that 
perhaps God found it better to have them suffer in 
their own country for nothing, than among idolaters 
for the Faith. 

" We ask the prayers of the Fathers of the province, 
but not because we lament our condition. On the 
contrary, we are happy. As for myself, though I 
would like to see my companions set free, I would not 
change places with you outside. We wish all our 
Fathers good health so that they may work courage- 

Pombal 475 

ously for God in Germany to make up for the little 
glory he receives here in Portugal. 

Your Reverence's most humble servant 

Lawrence Kaulen, 

Captive of Jesus Christ." 

Pombal was determined now to make a master- 
stroke to discredit the Portuguese Jesuits. He would 
disgrace and put to death as a criminal their most 
distinguished representative, Father Malagrida, now 
over seventy years of age, who had already passed 
two years in the dungeons of Jonquiera. Malagrida 
was regarded by the people as a saint. He had labored 
for many years in the missions of Brazil and was 
marvelously successful in the work of converting the 
savages. Unfortunately he had been recalled to 
Portugal in 1749 by the queen mother to prepare her 
for the end of her earthly career. As Malagrida knew 
how Carvalho's brother was acting in Brazil, he was 
evidently a dangerous man to have so near the Court. 
Hence when the earthquake occurred and the holy old 
missionary dared to tell tthe people that possibly it was 
a punishment of God for the sins of the people, Car- 
valho banished him to Setubal and kept him there 
for two years. When the .supposed plot against the 
king's life occurred, Malagrida was sent to prison as 
being concerned in it, though he had never been in 
Lisbon since his banishment. He was condemned to 
death with the other supposed conspirators; but his 
character as a priest, and his acknowledged sanctity 
made the king forbid the execution of the sentence. 
Pombal, however, found a way out of the difficulty. 
A book was produced which was said to have been 
written by Malagrida during his imprisonment. It 
was crammed with utterances that only a madman 
could have written: In any case it could not have 

476 The Jesuits 

been produced by the occupant of a dark cell, where 
there was no ink and no paper. When it was pre- 
sented to the Inquisition whose death sentences the 
king himself could not revoke, the judges refused to 
consider the case at all; whereupon they were promptly 
removed by Pombal who made his own brother chief 
inquisitor; and from him and two other tools, promptly 
drew a condemnation of Malagrida for heresy, schism, 
blasphemy and gross immorality. 

The sentence of death was passed on September 20, 
1761, and on the same day the venerable priest was 
brought to hear the formal proclamation of it in the 
hall of supplication. There he was told that he was 
degraded from his priestly functions, and was con- 
demned to 'be led through the public streets of the city, 
with a rope around his neck, to the square called do 
Rocco, where he was to be strangled by the executioner, 
and after he was dead, his body was to be burned to 
ashes, so that -'no memory of him or his sepulchre might 
remain. He heard the sentence without emotion 
and quietly protested his innocence. On the very 
next day, September 21, the execution took place. 
Platforms were .erected around the square. Cavalry 
and infantry were massed here and there in large 
bodies; each soldier had eight rounds of ammunition. 
Pombal presided. The nobility, the members of 
the courts, and officers of the State were compelled 
to be present, and great throngs of people crowded the 
square and filled the abutting avenues and streets, 

When everything was ready, a gruesome procession 
started from the prison. Malagrida appeared with 
the carocha, or high c'ap of the criminal, on his head, 
and a gag in his mouth. With him were fifty-two 
others who had been condemned for various crimes; 
but only he was to die. They were called from their 
cells merely to accentuate his disgrace. Having 

Pombal 477 

arrived at the place of execution, the sentence was 
again read to him; and when he was relieved of the 
gag, he calmly protested his innocence and gave him- 
self up to the executioners, uttering the words of 
Our Lord on the Cross: " Father, into Thy hands, I 
commend my spirit. " He was quickly strangled; 
then fire was set to his lifeless body and the ashes were 
scattered to the winds. He was seventy-two years of 
age, and had spent forty-one of them working for the 
salvation of his fellowmen. 

All this happened in Portugal which once gloried 
in having the great Francis Xavier represent it before 
the world; which exulted in a son like de Britto, the 
splendid apostle of the Brahmans, who waived aside 
a mitre in Europe but bent his neck with delight to 
receive the stroke of an Oriental scimitar. The same 
Portugal which inscribed on its roll of honor the forty 
Jesuits who suffered death while on their way to 
evangelize Portugal's possessions in Brazil, now made 
a holiday to witness the hideous torture of the venerable 
and saintly Malagrida. The Jesuits of Portugal had 
done much for their country. They had borne an 
honorable part in the struggle that threw off the Spanish 
yoke: the magnificent Vieira was a greater emancipator 
of the native races than was Las Casas; and he and his 
brethren had won more territories for Portugal than 
da Gama and Cabral had ever discovered. But all 
that was forgotten, and they were driven out of their 
country, or kept chained in fetid dungeons till they 
died or were burned at the stake in the market-place, 
in the preseence of the king and the people. No wonder 
that Portugal has descended to the place she now 
occupies among the nations. 


The French Method Purpose of the Enemy Preliminary Accu- 
sations Voltaire's testimony La Vallette La Chalotais Seiz- 
ure of Property Auto da fe of the Works of Lessius, Suarez, Valentia, 
etc. Appeal of the French Episcopacy Christophe de Beaumont 
Demand for a French Vicar " Sint ut sunt aut non sint rr Protest 
of Clement XIII Action of Father La Croix and the Jesuits of Paris 
Louis XV signs the Act of Suppression Occupations of dispersed 
Jesuits Undisturbed in Canada Expelled from Louisiana 
Choiseul's Colonization of Guiana. 

THE result of PombaTs work in Portugal was 
applauded by his friends in Prance, but his methods 
were condemned. " He was a butcher with an axe/' 
Their own procedure was to be along different lines. 
They would first poison the public mind, would enjoy 
the pleasure of seeing the heretical Jansenist condemn- 
ing the Jesuit for heterodoxy, and the professional 
debauchee assailing his morality, and then they would 
put the Society to death by process of law for the good 
of the commonwealth and of the Church, There 
would be no imprisonments, no burnings at the stake, 
no exiles, but simply an authorized confiscation of 
property which would leave the Jesuits without a 
home, replenish the public purse and ensure the peace 
of the nation. It was much easier and more refined. 
Meantime, the Portuguese exhibition was a valuable 
object lesson to their followers, who saw a king lafely 
honored with the title of His Most Faithful Majesty 
putting to death the most ardent champions of the 
Faith. Later on, The Christian King, The Catholic 
King, and The Apostolic Emperor would unite to 
show that " Faith " and " Christianity " and Apos- 
tolicity " were only names, 


Choiseul 479 

With all their refinement, however, the French 
were more radical and more malignant than the Portu- 
guese. Pombal had no other idea beyond that of a 
state Church such as he had seen in England, forming 
a part of the government machinery, and when his 
effort to bring that about by marrying the Protestant 
Duke of Cumberland to the Infanta of Portugal was 
thwarted by the Jesuits, he simply treated them as 
he did his other political enemies; he put them in jail 
or the grave. In France, the scheme was more compre- 
hensive. With men like Voltaire and his associates in 
the literary world, and Choiseul and others of his set 
controlling the politics of the country, the plan was 
not merely to do away with the Church, but with all 
revealed religion. As the Jesuits were conspicuous 
adversaries of the scheme, it was natural that they 
should be disposed of first. 

Such is the opinion of St. Liguori, who says: " The 
whole thing is a plot of the Jansenists and unbelievers 
to strike the Pope and the Church." The Protestant 
historian Maximilian Schoell is of like mind (Cours 
d'histoire, xliv.): "The Church had to be isolated; 
and to be isolated, it had to be deprived of the help 'of 
that sacred phalanx which had avowed itself to the 

defence of the Pontifical throne Such was the 

real cause of the hatred meted out to that Society." 
Dutilleul, in his " Histoire des corporations religieuses 
en France" (p. 279) expresses himself as follows: 
" The Jesuit is a missionary, a traveller, a mystic, a 
man of learning, an elegant civilizer of savages, a con- 
fessor of queens, a professor, a legislator, a financier, 
and, if need be, a warrior. His was not a narrow and 
personal ambition, as people erroneously suppose and 
assert. He was something more. He was a reactionist, 
a Catholic and a Roman revolutionist. Far from 
being attached, as is supposed, to his own interests, 

480 The Jesuits 

the Society has been in the most daring efforts of its 
indefatigable ambition only the protagonists of the 
spiritual authority of Rome." 

Indeed, we have it from Voltaire himself, who wrote 
to Helvetius in 1761: " Once we have destroyed the 
Jesuits, we shall have easy work with the Pope. 7 ' 
Rorbacher (Histoire de l'6glise, torn. XXVII, p. 28) 
holds the same view, " They are attacking the Society 
only to strike with greater certainty at the Church 
and the State/' But the real, the ultimate purpose 
of Voltaire was expressed by his famous phrase Evrasoits 
rinfdmc "Let us crush the detestable thing/' the 
detestable thing meaning God or Christ, and such has 
ever been the aim of his disciples. That it still persists 
was proclaimed officially from the French tribune by 
Viviani, " Our war is not against the Church, nor 
against Christianity, but against God/' This open 
and defiant profession of atheism, however, would 
not have been possible in 1761. Hence, to conceal 
their purpose, they allied themselves with the most 
pretentious professors of the religion of the time; the 
only ones, according to themselves, who knew the 
Church's dogma and observed her moral law; the 
orthodox and austere Jansenists, who probably flattered 
themselves they were tricking Ics impics, whereas, 
d'Alcmbcrt wrote to one of his friends " Let the 
Pandours destroy the Jesuits; then we shall destroy the 

The programme was to compel the parliament to 
terrorise the king, which was very easy, because of the 
gross licentiousness of Louis XV. lie was simply a 
tool in the hands of his mistresses, and Guizot in his 
" Histoire de Prance " has a picture in which Madame 
du Barry stands over the king and poitits to the picture 
of Charles I of England, who was beheaded for resisting 

Choiseul 481 

The Jansenist section of the coalition began the 
fight by the time-worn accusation of the " lax morality " 
of the Jesuits a method of assault that was by no 
means acceptable to Voltaire who as early as 1746 
had written to his friend d'Alembert, as follows: 
11 What did I see during the seven years that I lived 
in the Jesuit's College? The most laborious and frugal 
manner of life; every hour of which was spent in the 
care of us boys and in the exercises of their austere 
profession. For that I call to witness thousands of men 
who were brought up as I was. Hence, it is that I 
can never help being astounded at their being accused 
of teaching lax morality. They have had Kke other 
religious in the dark ages casuists who have treated 
the pro and con of questions that are evident today 
or have been relegated to oblivion. But, ma Joi are 
we going to judge their morality by the satire of the 
Lettres Provinciaks. It is assuredly by Father Bour- 
daloue and Father Cheminais and their other preachers 
and by their missionaries that we should measure 
them. Put in parallel columns the sermons of Bour- 
daloue and the Lettrcs Provinciates, and you'll find 
in the latter the art of raillery pressed into service to 
make indifferent things appear criminal and to clothe 
insults in elegant language; but you will learn from 
Bourdaloue how to be severe to yourself and indulgent 
to others* I ask then, which is true morality and which 
of the two books is more useful to mankind? I make 
bold to say that there is nothing more contradictory; 
nothing more iniquitous; nothing more shameful in 
human nature than to accuse of lax morality, the men 
who lead the austerest kind of Hfe in Europe, and 
who go to face death at the ends of Asia and 

The romances about the immense wealth of the 
Society best appealed to the public imagination, 

482 The Jesuits 

especially as the news of an impending financial 
disaster was in the air. One instance of this style of 
propaganda may suffice. The others all resemble it. 
A Spaniard, it was said, had arrived at Brest with, 
2,000,000 limes in his wallet and was promptly killed 
by the Jesuits. Soon the 2,000,000 had grown to 
8,000,000. Then there was a distinguished conversion; 
that of a Jesuit named Chamillard who had turned 
Gallican and Jansenist on his death-bed; and although 
Chamillard a few days afterwards appeared in the flesh 
and protested that he was neither dead nor a Gallican 
nor a Jansenist, his testimony was set aside. It had 
appeared in print and that was enough. Such absurdi- 
ties of course could do no serious harm, but at last, a 
splendid fact presented itself which could not be dis- 
proved; especially as a vast number of people, in Prance 
and elsewhere, were financial sufferers in consequence 
of it. It was the bankruptcy of Father de la Valettc. 
In the public mind it proved everything that had ever 
been written about the Order. Briefly it is as follows : 
At the very beginning of the Seven Years War, 
the British fleet had destroyed 300 French ships, 
captured 10,000 ssailors and confiscated 300,000,000 
Mores worth of merchandise. Among the sufferers was 
Father La Valette, the superior of Martinique, who 
was engaged in cultivating extensive plantations on 
the island, and selling the products in Europe, for the 
support of the missions. Very unwisely he borrowed 
extensively after the first disaster, going deeper and 
deeper into debt, until at last he wa& unable to meet 
his obligations which by this time had run up to the 
alarming sum of 2,000,000 Jftm, or about $400,000, 
Suit was therefore brought by some of the creditors, 
but instead of submitting the case to it commission 
established long before by Louis XIV for adjusting 
the affairs of the missions, they laid it, before the usual 

Choiseul 483 

parliamentary tribunal in spite of the fact of its 
inveterate and well-known hatred of the Society. 
Guizot says that they did it with a certain pride, 
so convinced were they of the justice of their plea. 
Hundreds of others had suffered like themselves at 
the hands of the enemy in the Seven Years War, and 
they had no desire to avail themselves of any special 
legislation in their behalf. They underrated the 
honesty of the judges. 

A verdict was, of course, rendered against them, 
and the whole Society was made responsible for the 
debt, though by the law of the land there was no 
solidarity between the various houses of religious 
orders. Nevertheless, they set to work to cancel 
their indebtedness. They had made satisfactory 
arrangements with their principal creditors, and 
although Martinique, where much of the property was 
located, had been seized by the English; yet one-third 
of their liabilities had been paid off when the govern- 
ment took alarm. If this continued, the public 
treasury would reap no profit from the transaction. 
Hence, an order was issued to seize every Jesuit 
establishment in France, A stop was put to the reim- 
bursement of private individuals and the government 
seized all that was left. But although the Society was 
not "to blame it incurred the hatred of all those who 
were thus deprived of their money. That, indeed, 
was the purpose of the government seizure. 

Long before the crash, the superiors had done all 
in their power to stop La Valcttc, but in those days 
Martinique was far from Rome. Although attempt 
after attempt was made to reach him, it was all in vain. 
One messenger was crippled when embarking at 
Marseilles; another died at sea; another was captured 
by pirates, until in 1762 Father de la Marche arrived 
on the island. After a thorough investigation de la 

84 The Jesuits 

larche declared (i) that La Valette had given himself 
p to trading in defiance of canon law and of the special 
=tws of the Society; (2) that he had concealed his 
proceedings from the higher superiors of the Society 
,nd even from the Fathers of Martinique; (3) that 
lis acts had been denounced by his superiors, not only 
is soon as they were made known, but as soon as they 
vere suspected. The visitor then asked the General of 
;he Society (i) to suspend La Valette from all admin- 
.stration both spiritual and temporal: and (2) to recall 
aim immediately to Europe. 

La Valette's submission was appended to the verdict 
3f the visitor; in it, he acknowledges the justice of 
the sentence, although as soon as he knew what harm 
he was doing he had stopped. He attests under oath 
that not one of his superiors had given him any author-' 
ijsation or counsel or approval; and no one had shared 
in or connived at his enterprises. He takes God to 
witness that he did not make his avowals under 
compulsion or threat, or out of complaisance, or for 
any inducement held out to him, but absolutely of his 
own accord, and for truth's sake; and in order to dispel 
and refute, as far as in him lay, the calumnies against 
the Society consequent upon his acts. The document 
bore the date of April 25, 1762. He was expelled from 
the Society ami passed the rest of his life in England. 
He never retracted or modified any of the statements 
he had made in Martinique. 

Following close on the decision in the La Valette 
case, parliament ordered the immediate production 
of a copy of the Constitutions of the Society. On this 
following morning, it was in their hands and was 
submitted to several committees made up of Janscnists, 
Gallicans and Atheists. ThCvse committees were 
charged with the examination of the Institute and 
also of various publications of the Society. Extracts 

Choiseul 485 

were to be made and presented for tjie consideration 
of the court. The most famous of these reports was 
the one made by La Chalotais, a prominent magistrate 
of Brittany. He discovered that the Society was in 
conflict with the authority of the Church, the general 
Councils, the Apostolic See, and all ecclesiastical and 
civil governments; moreover that, in their approved 
theological works, they taught every form of heresy, 
idolatry and superstition, and inculcated suicide, 
regicide, sacrilege, robbery, impurity of every kind, 
usury, magic, murder, cruelty, hatred, vengeance, 
sedition, treachery in brief, whatever iniquity man- 
kind could commit was to be found in their writings. 
As soon as the report was laid before the judges, ,a 
decree was issued on May 8, 1761 declaring that the 
one hundred and fifty-eight colleges, churches and 
residences with the foreign missions of the Order were 
to be seized by the government; all the physical 
laboratories, the libraries, moneys, inheritances of its 
members, the bequests of friends for charitable, 
educational or missionary purposes all was to go 
into the Government coffers. 

Cr6tineau-Joly estimated that the total value of 
the property seized amounted to about 58,000,000 
francs or $11,600,000. The amount of the booty 
explains the zeal of the prosecution. To soften the 
blow a concession of a pension of thirty cents a day 
was made by the Paris parliament to those who would 
take an oath that they had left the Society. The 
Languedoc legislators, however, cut it down to twelve. 
Moreover this pension was restricted to the Professed. 
The Scholastics got nothing; and as they were con- 
sidered legally dead, because of the vows they had 
taken in the Society, they were declared incapable of 
inheriting even from their own parents. The decree 
also forbade all subjects of the king to enter the Society; 

486 The Jesuits 

to attend any lecture given by Jesuits; to visit their 
houses previous to their expulsion; or to hold any 
communication with them. The Jesuits themselves 
were enjoined not to write to each other, not even to 
the General. It is noteworthy that the lawmakers 
who issued these regulations profess to be shocked by 
the Jesuit doctrine of " blind obedience." 

By a second decree it was ordered that the works of 
twenty-seven Jesuits which had been examined should be 
burned by the public executioner. Among them wore 
such authors as Bellarminc, Lessius, Suarez, Valentia, 
Salmer6n, Gretser, Vasquez, Jouvancy, all of whom 
were and yet are considered to be among the greatest 
of Catholic theologians, but the lay doctors of the 
parliament held them to be dangerous to public 
morals; and to the peace of the nation and in order to 
express their horror emphatically, they called for this 
auto da /<?. It should be noted that all of these works 
were written in Latin, and that their technical character 
as well as the terminology employed would make it 
absolutely impossible for even these scions of the 
French parliament to grasp the meaning of the text. 
In order to sway the public mind, a summary of the 
Chalotais report, commonly known as " Extraits des 
assertions** was scattered broadcast throughout the 
country. The desired effect was produced and even to- 
day if an attempt is made to answer any of its charges 
the answer is always ready, " We have the authority 
of La Chalotais; he was an eminent magistrate; ho 
examined the books; the highest court in France 
accorded him the verdict, and any attempt to explain 
away the charges is superfluous! " 

Yet there was in Paris at that time a higher tribunal 
than the one which gave La Chalotais his claim to 
notoriety. It was the General Assembly of the Clergy 
which had been convoked by the King to pass upon 

Choiseul 487 

the character of the Jesuits as a body, before he affixed 
his signature to the decree of expulsion. It consisted 
of fifty-one prelates, some of them cardinals. They 
met on June 27 and with the exception of the Bishop 
of Angers, Allais, and especially of Fitzjames, the 
Bishop of Soissons, who was the head of the Jansenist 
party and whose pastoral utterances were condemned 
by the Pope as heretical, addressed a " Letter " to the 
king conjuring him " to preserve an institution which 
was so useful to the State, " and declaring that " they 
could not see without alarm the destruction of a 
society of religious who were so praiseworthy for the 
integrity of their morals, the austerity of their discipline, 
the vastness of their labors and their erudition and for 
the countless services they had rendered to the Church. 

" Charged as they are with the most precious trust 
of the education of youth, participating as they do 
under the authority of the bishops, in the most delicate 
functions of the holy ministry, honored as they are by 
the confidence of kings in the most redoubtable of 
tribunals, loved and sought after by a great number 
of our subjects and esteemed even by those who fear 
them, they have won for themselves a consideration 
which is too general to be disregarded." 

" Everything, Sire, pleads with you in favor of the 
Jesuits: religion claims them as its defenders; the 
Church as her ministers; Christians as the guardians 
of their conscience; a great number of your subjects 
who have been their pupils intercede with you for 
their old masters; and all the youth of the kingdom 
pray for those who are to form their minds and their 
hearts. Do not, Sire, turn a deaf car to our united 
supplication; do not permit in your kingdom, that in 
violation of the laws of justice, and of the Church 
and of the State an entire and blameless society 
should be destroyed. 1 ' 

488 The Jesuits 

The Archbishop of Paris, the famous Christophe de 
Beaumont was not satisfied with this general appeal. 
He was the chief figure in Prance at that time ; and e very- 
word he uttered was feared by the enemies of the Church. 
He was great enough to be in correspondence with all 
the crowned heads of Europe, and Frederick the Great 
said of him: " If he would consent to come to Prussia, 
I would go half way to meet him/' Louis XV had 
forced him to accept the Sec of Paris, but had not the 
courage to support him when assailed by his foes. 
He was a saint as well as a hero; he lent money to 
men who were libelling him, and would give the clothes 
on his back to the poor. When a hospital took fire 
in the city, he filled his palace and his cathedral with 
the patients. Hence, he did not hesitate, after parlia- 
ment had condemned the Society, to issue a pastoral 
which he foresaw would drive him from his see. * * What 
shall I say, Brethren," he asks, " to let you know 
what I think of the religious society which is now so 
fiercely assailed? We repeat with the Council of Trent 
that it is *a pious Institute;' that it is 'venerable, 1 
as the illustrious 'Bossuct declared it to be. We spurn 
far from us the ' Extraits des assertions * as a rcsum6 
of Jesuit teaching; and we renew our declaration that 
in the condition of suffering and humiliation to which 
they have been brought that their lot is a most happy 
one, because in the eyes of religions men, it is an 
infinitely precious thing to have no reproach on one's 
soul when overwhelmed by misfortune/ 1 As he 
foresaw he was expelled from his sec for this utterance, 
not by parliament but by Louis XV whose cause he 
was defending. 

Perhaps this treatment of the great Archbishop of 
Paris explains the silence maintained through all the 
uproar by the Jesuits themselves* One would expect 
some splendid outburst of eloquence in behalf of the 

Choiseul 489 

Society from one of its outraged members; but not a 
word was uttered by any of them. Their protests 
would not have been printed or published. Even 
Theiner who wrote against the Society says: "All 
France was inundated with libellous pamphlets against 
the Jesuits. The most notable of all was the one 
entitled Extracts of the dangerous and pernicious 
doctrines of all kinds which the so-called Jesuits have 
at all times, uninterruptedly maintained, taught and 
published.* Calumny and malice fill the book from 
cover to cover. There is no crime which the Jesuits 
did not teach or of which they are not accused. Never 
was bad faith carried to such extremes. And yet 
there is no book that is so often cited as an authority 
against the Society and its spirit." 

Meantime, the government had approached the 
Pope for the purpose of obtaining for the French 
Jesuits a special vicar who should be quasi-independent 
of the General. It was harking back to the old scheme 
of Philip II and Louis XIV. His Holiness replied 
in the memorable words: " Sint ut sunt aut non sint " 
(Let them be as they are or not at all.) We find in 
a letter of the procurator of Aquitaine that in case a 
vicar was appointed every member of the province 
of Paris would leave the Order, which under such an 
arrangement would be no longer the Society of Jesus. 
Again in his letter to the king, after declaring that the 
appointment of a French Vicar would be a substantial 
alteration of the Institute which he could not authorize, 
the Pope says; " For two hundred years the Society has 
been so useful to the Church, that, though it has never 
disturbed the public tranquillity cither in your kingdom 
or in any one else's, yet because it has inflicted such 
damage on the enemies of religion by its science and 
its piety, it is assailed on all sides by calumny and 
impOvSture when fair fighting was found insufficient to 

490 The Jesuits 

destroy them." Finally, on January 9, 1765, after 
the final knell had sounded, Clement XIII issued his 
famous Bull " Apostolicum." It is given at length in 
de Ravignan's "Clement XIII et Ctement XIV," but 
a few extracts will suffice. 

After enumerating the glories of the Society in the 
past, and calling attention to the fact that it had been 
approved by nineteen Popes, who had most minutely 
examined their Institute, Clement XIII continues: 
"It has, nevertheless, in our days been falsely and 
malignantly described both by word and printed book 
as irreligious and impious, and has been covered with 
opprobrium and ignominy until even the Church has 
been denounced for sustaining it. In order, therefore, 
to repel these calumnies and to put a stop to the impious 
discourses which are uttered in defiance of both reason 
and equity; and to comfort the Regular Clerks of the 
Society of Jesus who appeal to us for justice; and to 
give greater emphasis to our words by the weight of 
our authority and to lend some solace in the sufferings 
they arc undergoing; and finally to defer to the just 
desires of our venerable brothers, the bishops of the 
whole Catholic world, whose letters to us are filled with 
eulogies of this Society from whose labors the greatest 
services arc rendered in their dioceses; and also of 
our own accord and from certain knowledge, and 
making use of the plenitude of our Apostolic authority, 
and following in the footsteps of our predecessors, we, 
by this present Constitution, which is to remain in 
force forever, say and declare in the same form and 
in the same manner as has been heretofore said and 
declared, that the Institute of the Society of Jesus 
breathes in the very highest degree, piety and holiness 
both in the principal object which it has continually 
in view, which it> none other than the defence and propa- 
gation of the Catholic Faith, and also in the means it 

Choiseul 491 

employs for that end. Such is our experience of it 
up to the present day. It is this experience which 
has taught us how greatly the rule of the Society has 
formed up to our day defenders of the orthodox Faith 
and zealous missionaries who animated by an invincible 
courage dare a thousand dangers on land and sea, 
to carry the light of the Gospel to savage and barbarous 

nations Let no one dare be rash enough to set 

himself against this my present approbative and con- 
firmative Constitution lest he incur the wrath of God." 
These splendid approvals of their labors did much 
to keep up the courage of the harassed Jesuits, but if 
what Father de Ravignan and Cr6tineau-Joly relate 
be true, they had ample reason to keep themselves in 
a salutary humility or rather bow their heads in shame. 
On December 19, 1761, we are told, the provincial of 
Paris, Father de La Croix and one hundred and fifteen 
Fathers addressed a declaration to the clergy assembled 
in Paris, by order of the king, which ran as follows: 
" We the undersigned, provincial of the Jesuits of the 
province of Paris, the superior of the professed house, 
the rector of the College of Louis Le Grand, the 
superior of the novitiate and other Jesuits professed, 
even of the first vows, residing in the said houses, and 
renewing as far as needs be the declarations already 
made by the Jesuits of France in 1626, 1713 and 1757, 
declare before their Lordships the cardinals, arch- 
bishops and bishops now assembled in Paris, by order 
of the king, to give their opinion on several points of 
the Institute: (i) That it is impossible to be more 
submissive than we are, or more inviolably attached 
to the laws, maxims and usages of this kingdom with 
regard to the royal power, which in temporal matters 
depends neither directly nor indirectly from any power 
on earth, and has God alone above it. Recognizing 
that the bonds by which subjects are attached to their 

492 The Jesuits 

rulers are indissoluble, we condemn as pernicious and 
worthy of execration at all times every doctrine con- 
trary to the safety of the king, not only in the works of 
some theologians of our Society who have adopted 
such doctrines but also those of every other theologian 
whosoever he may be. (2) We shall teach in our 
public and private lessons of theology the doctrine 
established by the Clergy of Prance in the Four Articles 
of the Assembly of 1682, and shall teach nothing 
contrary to it. (3) We recognize that the bishops of 
Prance have the right to exercise in our regard what, 
according to the canons of the Gallican Church, 
belongs to them in their dealings with regulars; 
and we renounce all the privileges to the contrary 
that may have been accorded to our Society or may 
be accorded in the future. (4) If, which may God 
forbid, it happens that we are ordered by our General 
to do anything contrary to the present declaration, 
persuaded as we are that we cannot obey without sin, 
we shall regard such orders as unlawful, and absolutely 
null and void; which we could not and should not obey 
in virtue of the rules of obedience to the General such 
as is prescribed in the Constitutions, We, therefore, 
beg that the present declaration may be placed on the 
official register of Paris, and addressed to the other 
provinces of the kingdom, so that this same declaration 
signed by us, being deposited in the official registers of 
each diocese may serve as a perpetual memorial of 
our fidelity. 

Etienne de la Croix, Provincial/' 

Quoting this document and admitting its genuineness 
Father de Ravignan exclaims: " In my eyes nothing 
can excuse this act of weakness* I deplore it ; I condemn 
it; I shall merely relate how it came to pass' 1 (G16ment 
XIII $t C16ment XIV, I 135)- He goes on to say:* 

Choiseul 493 

" In a personal letter the original of which is in the 
archives of the Gesu at Rome, Father La Croix, 
provincial of Paris explains to the General the circum- 
stances and occasion of this unfortunate affair. He 
tells how the royal commissioners came to him with 
the aforesaid declaration already drawn up and accom- 
panied by a formal order of the king to sign it immedi- 
ately. It was a most unforeseen demand, for although 
the Jesuits of France had already suffered considerable 
trouble about the question of the Four Articles in 
1713, and also in 1757, when Damiens attempted to 
assassinate Louis XV, they had been compelled on 
both occasions to sign only the first article which 
dealt with the temporal independence of the king. 
Shortly afterwards, a new royal decree had been brought 
to their attention. It consisted of eighteen articles, 
the fourth of which was as follows: ' Our will is that 
in every theological course followed by the students of 
the Society, the propositions set forth by the Clergy 
of France in 1682, should be defended, at least in one 
public discussion, to which the principal personages 
of the place shall be invited, and over and above that, 
the arrangements laid down by the edict of March 
1682 shall be observed.* 

"While these matters were being debated by the 
king and his ministers on one side and by parliament 
on the other, a royal order was despatched to the 
Jesuits of Paris to affix their signatures to the disgrace- 
ful capitulation given above. It is said that Louis 
XV imagined that he could mollify the recalcitrant 
parliament by this new concession: and, hence, La 
Croix and his associates were foolish enough to imagine 
that such a result could ensue." 

Continuing his indictment of La Croix and his 
one hundred and fifteen associates, de Ravignan 
informs his readers that "an unpublished document 

494 The Jesuits 

which no writer has so far made mention of, furnishes 
important details about the matter. It is entitled 
An exact relation of all that took place with regard 
to the interpretation of the decree of Aquaviva in 
1610, which was sent to Rome in 1761 and rejected 
by the General; and also the declaration which the 
General refused to approve.' The author is M. de 
Plesselles, who was charged by the commission to 
report to Choiseul whose agent he was. 

" With regard to the declaration about Gallicanism " 
says de Plesselles " the Jesuits, after some difficulties 
regarding its form, determined to sign it, and even 
when urged by the royal commissioners they undertook 
to send it to their General for approbation. Soon 
after, when the Jesuits received the reply of their 
General, the provincial came to tell me that when the 
Pope was made aware of the declaration which the 
French Jesuits had made and of the one they proposed 
to make, His Holiness angrily reprimanded the General 
for permitting the members of the Society in Prance 
to maintain doctrines which are in conflict with the 
teachings of the Holy Sec/* 

; Now it is unpleasant to contest the authority of such 
an eminent man as de Ravignan, but, on the other 
hand, his conclusions that this letter was a Jesuit 
production or received a Jesuit endorsement are by no 
means convincing. In the first place, no Jesuit would 
ever sign a paper which began with the words: 4< We 
the Professed, even of the first vows. 11 There is no 
such category in the Society. Secondly, no Jesuit or 
indeed any one in his senses would ever ask a superior 
for a permission to teach error, and say, in the 
same breath, that it was a matter of indifference 
whether the permission was granted or not. Thirdly, 
as all the Jesuits of the province had announced their 
intention of leaving the Society if Louis XV imposed 

Choiseul 495 

on them a commissary General independent of their 
superior at Rome as we recited above from an 
extant letter from the procurator of the province of 
Aquitaine it is inconceivable that those same men, 
at that very same time should solemnly declare them- 
selves rebels against the Father General at Rome. 
Fourthly, as no association rewards a man who 
attempts to destroy it, one finds difficulty in under- 
standing how, after this revolt, the 'leader in the re- 
bellion, La Croix, was not only not expelled from the 
Society but was retained in his responsible post of 
provincial and later was made assistant general of the 

Moreover, it is difficult to understand why, when 
deFlessellessays that " the Fathers determined to sign 
the document/' de Ravignan should go one step further 
and say that "they signed it." Nor does it help matters 
to say that this was " un acte de faiblesse" when, it 
was a wholesale, corporate and deliberate crime of 
cowardice and treason; nor will it avail to suggest that 
the Pope and General must have been intensely, grieved 
" Us durent fitream&rement afflig6s." History does 
not deal with conjectures but with facts. The question 
is not whether they must have been, but whether they 
were really grieved over an act which had really occurred 
and which reflected such discredit on the Society? 
Again, as one of the greatest glories of the French 
Jesuits was their long and successful battle against 
Gallicanism, it is inconceivable that they should 
suddenly reverse and stultify themselves at the very 
moment when all the bishops of France, save one, 
had abandoned Gallicanism and had united in eulogiz- 
ing the Society ; and to do it at a time when the greatest 
friend they ever had, Pope Clement XIII, glorified 
them for their orthodoxy and pronoitnce dthe famous 
words: " Let them be as they are or not at all! " 

496 The Jesuits 

To have declared for Gallicanism would have 
stripped them of their priestly functions, it would 
have aroused the intense disgust and contempt of the 
hierarchy of Prance and of the world and would have 
called down on them the anathema of the Pope. Indeed, 
is it likely that Pope Clement XIV would have omitted 
to note the defection in his Brief of Suppression, if 
they had been guilty? Fortunately, we may refer to 
the explicit declaration of the Protestant historian, 
Schoell (Cours .d'histoire, xl, 53) > who says: "These 
men who are accused of playing with religion, refused 
to take the oath to sustain the principles of the Gallican 
Church. Of 4000 Fathers who were in Prance, hardly 
five submitted." If there were "hardly five " Gallicans 
in all the provinces of France, it is a justifiable con- 
clusion that 116 Jesuits of the provinces of Paris did 
not sign the famous " Statement " of de Flesselles. 

Louis XV made a feeble attempt to save the situation 
by withdrawing the decree of expulsion from the 
jurisdiction of parliament, but Mme, dc Pompadour 
and Choiseul so effectively worked on his fears that 
he ignominiously rescinded his order. The Pope had 
meantime delivered an allocution in a consistory on 
September 3, 1762; and had sent a letter to Cardinal 
Choiseul, the brother of the minister, on September 8 
of the same year, in both of which he declared that 
" by a solemn decree, he had quashed and nullified 
the proceedings of the various parliaments against, 
the Jesuits/ 1 He enjoined upon the cardinal " to ttse 
all his episcopal power against the impious act which 
was directed against the Church and against religion.'* 
He wrote to other bishops in the same tone of indig- 
nation and anger, It was not, however, until the 
November of 1764 that Choiseul succeeded in extorting 
the royal signature which made the decree irrevocable. 
Of course, Mme de Pompadour was to the fore in 

Choiseul 497 

securing this shameful surrender of the royal preroga- 
tive. The poor king cuts a sorry figure in signing the 
document. After making some feeble scrawls on the 
paper, he complained that the preamble was too long 
and that it would have sufficed to state that "the 
Jesuits had produced a great tumult in his kingdom." 
He added he did not think the word " punish " should 
be used; it was too strong; " he never cordially liked 
the Jesuits, yet they had the glory of being hated by 

all heretics I send them out of my kingdom 

against my will; at least, I don't want people to think 
that I agree with everything the parliament said or 
did against them." He ended by saying: " If 
you do not make these changes, I will not sign, but 
I must stop talking. I would say too much and I 
do not want anyone in France to discuss it." One 
could hardly say of Louis that " he was every inch a 

The desire to close the mouths of every one of .his 
subjects on a matter that concerned them all as 
intelligent beings and as citizens was carried out with 
extreme rigor. Thus, when two secular priests had 
the temerity to condemn the decree, they were promptly 
hanged. The audacity of the ministers and parliament 
went still further; and on December 3 the Duke de 
Praslin sent a note to Aubeterre, the French ambassador 
at Rome to advise him that " under the circumstances, 
it would be very futile and still more dangerous for the 
Pope to take any measures either directly or indirectly 
in contravention of the wishes and intention of his 
majesty; and hence His Holiness must, out of zeal for 
religion and out of regard for the Jesuits, observe the 
same silence which His Majesty had ordered to be 
observed in his states." The Pope replied to the insult 
by the Bull "Apostolicum," which was a splendid 
proclamation of the absolute innocence of the pro- 

498 The Jesuits 

scribed Order. It aroused the fury of the Governments 
of Prance, Portugal, Naples and other countries. In 
France it was burned in the streets of several cities 
by the public executioner. In Portugal, any one 
who circulated it or had it in his possession was adjudged 
guilty of high treason; but on the other hand, from the 
bishops of the entire Catholic world came enthusiastic 
letters of approval and praise for the fearless Pope 
who dared to stand forth as the enemy of tyranny and 

Bohmer-Monod, in their "Jesuites," are of the 
opinion that the Pope was " injudicious, and that out 
of the hundreds of Catholic bishops, only twenty- 
three assured him of their approbation. " De Ravignan, 
who is better informed, tells us that " almost the whole 
episcopacy of the world were a unit in this manifesta- 
tion of loyalty to the supreme Pastor. Before the 
event, two hundred bishops had sent their appeals to 
the Pope, in favor of the Society; and the Pope himself 
says in the Bull: " Ex omni rcgione sub code est una 
vox omnium episcoporum " (Prom every region 
under the canopy of heaven, there is but one voice 
from the episcopal body). After the Bull appeared, 
other bishops hastened to send him their adhesions 
and felicitations. Even in France itself, in spite of the 
terrorism exercised by parliament, the assembly of the 
clergy of 1765, by a unanimous vote, protested against 
the condemnation of the Jesuits, extolled " the integrity 
of their morals, the austerity of their lives, the greatness 
of their labors and science"; and declared that their 
expulsion left a frightful void in the ministry, in 
education, and in the sublime and laborious work of 
the missions. Not only that, but they wanted it put 
on record that " the clergy would never cease to 
pray for the re-establishment of the Order and 
would lay that pica at the fwt of the king." 

Choiseul 499 

The exiles lingered for a while in various parts of 
Prance; for some of the divisional parliaments were 
not at one with Paris in their opposition to the Society. 
Indeed, in many of them, the proscription was voted 
only by a small majority. Thus at Rennes, there was 
a majority of three; at Toulouse two; at Perpignan 
one; at Bordeaux five; at Aix two; while Besangon, 
Alsace, Flanders and Artois and Lorraine pronounced 
in their favor and proclaimed " the sons of St. Ignatius 
as the most faithful subjects of the King of France 
and the surest guarantees of the morality of the people." 
On the other hand, Brittany, the country of Chalotais, 
author of the " Extraits," was especially rancorous in 
its hate. Thus, it voted to deprive of all civil and 
municipal functions those parents who would send 
their children abroad to Jesuit schools; and the children 
on their return home were to be punished in a similar 
fashion. The Fathers lingered for a few years here 
and there in their native country employed in various 
occupations; but in 1767 a decree was issued expelling 
them all from the territory of France. 

An interesting manifestation of affection by the 
pupils of St. Omers for their persecuted masters occurred 
when the parliament of Paris issued its order of ex- 
pulsion in 1767. St. Omers was founded by Father 
Persons in 1592 or 1593. It was not for ecclesiastics 
as were the colleges of Douai, Rome and Valladolid, 
but to give English boys an education which they could 
not get in their own country. It was twenty-four 
miles from Calais and in territory which at that time 
belonged to the King of Spain. Shortly after its 
transfer from Eu in Normandy where an attempt 
had been made to start it, there were one hundred 
boys on its register and, thirty years later, the number 
had doubled. For years it was a favorite school for 
English Catholics and it rejoices in having had twenty 

500 The Jesuits 

of its students die for the Faith. It continued its 
work for a century and a half. When the expulsion 
of the Jesuits left the college without teachers it was 
handed over to the secular clergy, but when they 
arrived there were no boys. They had all decamped 
for Bruges in Belgium, and there the classes continued 
until the general suppression of the Society in 1773, 
Even after that, the English ex- Jesuits kept the 
college going until 1794, when the French Revolution 
put an end to it. By that time, however, one of the 
former students, Mr, Thomas Weld, had established the 
Fathers on his property at Stonyhurst in England, so 
that St. Omcrs and Stonyhurst are mother and 

The buildings and land at St. Omers were handed 
over by the French government to the English secular 
priests, who were at Douai. Alban Butler, the author 
of .the " Lives of the Saints," was its president from 
1766 to 1773* At present a military hospital occupies 
the site. 

In Louisiana, which still owed allegiance to France, 
the dismissal of the Fathers was particularly disgrace- 
ful. For no sooner had the news of ChoisettTs exploit 
in the mother-country arrived than the superior 
council of Louisiana set to work. " This insignificant 
body of provincial officers " as Sheu calls them (I, $#?) 
11 issued a decree declaring the Society to be dangerous 
to the royal authority, to the rights of bishops, to the 
public peace of society " and pronounced their vows 
to be null and void. These judges in matters eccle- 
siastical, it should be noted, were all laymen. They 
ordered all the property to be seized and sold at auction, 
though personal books and clothes were exempted, 
The name and habit of the Society were forbidden ; 
the vestments and plate of the chapel at Now Orleans 
were given by the authorities to the Capudiins; hut 

Choiseul 501 

all the Jesuit churches in Louisiana and Illinois were 
ordered to be levelled to the ground. Every Jesuit 
was to embark on the first ship that set sail for Prance; 
and arriving there, he was to report to Choiseul. Each 
one was given about $420 to pay for his passage 
and six month's subsistence. 

There was a deviation in some cases about going to 
France, for Father Carette was sent to San Domingo; 
and Father Le Roy made his way to Mexico. A diffi- 
culty arose about Father Beaudoin, who was a 
Canadian, Why should he be sent to France where 
he had no friends? Besides, his health was shattered 
by his privations on the missions, and he was at that 
time seventy-two years old. He was to go to France, 
however, but just as he was about to be dragged to 
the ship a wealthy friend interceded for him and 
gave him a home. Another Father in Alabama did 
not hear of the order for several months; and when 
at last he made his appearance in New Orleans, he 
was arrested like a criminal and packed off to France. 

On September 22, a courier reached Fort Chartres, 
which was on English territory; and in spite of the 
danger of embroiling the government, Father Watron 
\Ajho was then sixty-seven years old was expelled, and 
with him his two fellow missionaries. The official 
from Louisiana gave the vestments to negro wenches 
and the altar-plate and candelabra were soon found 
in houses of ill-fame. The chapel was then sold on 
condition that the purchaser should demolish it. At 
Vincennes, the same outrages were perpetrated and 
Father Duvcrnay, who had been for six months con- 
fined to his bed, was carried off with the others to New 
Orleans and despatched to France. Two only were 
allowed to remain, owing to the entreaties and protests 
of friends. One of the exiles was Father Viel, who 
was a Louisianian by birth. The most conspicuous 

502 The Jesuits 

personage enforcing this expulsion was a certain 
LafreniSre, but he soon met his punishment. In 1766 
Louis XV made a gift of the entire province to his 
cousin of Spain, and when Count Alexander O'Reilly 
was sent out with three thousand soldiers to quell the 
disturbance that ensued, Lafrenire and three associates 
were taken into the back yard of the barracks and shot 
to death. Others were sent in chains to Havana. 

Thus the Suppression of the Society in Prance was 
not carried out with the same brutality as in Portugal 
There were no prisons, or chains, or deportation, and 
they had not the glory of suffering martyrdom. They 
were merely stripped of all they had and told to go where 
they wished. Whether they lived or died was a matter 
of unconcern to the government. It was merely a 
difference of methods; but both were equally effective. 
The Portuguese Jesuits were scourged; their French 
brethren were sneered at. Perhaps the latter was 
harder to bear, 

There is a curious sequel to all this, Choiseul, 
proud of his achievement in expelling the Jesuits from 
Prance and its colonies, now conceived the magnificent 
project of colonizing Guyana on lines quite different 
from those followed by the detested Order. He induced 
14,000 deluded French people to go and take possession 
of the rich and fertile lands of Guyana. They found 
one poor old Jesuit there, who because he was not 
a subject of Prance, had refused to obey the decree 
of expulsion. His name was O'Reilly, but what could 
he do with 14,000 people He simply disappeared 
from the scene. Very likely, he joined the Indians, 
who fled into the forests at the sight of this immense 
army of Frenchmen, who now had the country to 
themselves without striking a blow. But two years 
later, Chevalier de Bahac had to report back to France, 
that of the 14,000 colonists only 918 were alive. Thus, 

Choiseul 503 

expelling 6,000 Jesuits from Prance, Choiseul had 
murdered 13,000 of his fellow-countiymen (Christian 
Missions, II, 168). 

In 1766, M. de Piedmont, the governor wrote to the 
Due de Praslin, that he had already informed the 
Due de Choiseul how necessary it was to send priests 
to this colony. He then described the destruction of 
the mission posts, the flight of the Indians, the growth 
of crime amongst the negroes and the rapid ruin of 
the colony, and added that religion was dying out 
among the whites as well as among the colored races. 
For ten years, he kept on repeating this complaint, 
but no heed was paid to him. At length, Louis XVI, 
who was so soon to be himself a victim of Choiseul's 
iniquity sent there, three Jesuits, not Frenchmen, 
perhaps he had not the heart to ask any of them, 
but three Jesuits, who had been expelled from Portugal 
by Pombal, Choiseul's accomplice. They were Padilla, 
Mathos, and Ferreira. They accepted the mission and 
the " Journal " of Christopher de Murr says: " The 
poor savages beholding once again men clothed in the 
habit which they had learned to venerate, and hearing 
them speak their own language, fell at their feet, 
bathing them with tears, and promised to become once 
more good Christians, since the Fathers, who had 
begotten them in Jesus Christ, had come back to them." 
No doubt, these three holy men remained till they 
died with their poor abandoned Indians. 

France's folly in this governmental act was summed 
up in a letter of d'Alembert to, Choiseul, just before 
the expulsion. In it he says: " France will resort to 
this rigorous measure against its own subjects at the 
very moment she is doing nothing in her foreign policy, 
and in the chronological epitomes of the future we shall 
read the words for the year 1762 : ' This year France 
lost all her colonies and threw out the Jesuits,' " 



The Bourbon Kings of Spain Character of Charles III Spanish 
Vlinistries O'Reilly The Hat and Cloak Riot -Cowardice of 
Jharles Tricking the monarch The Decree of Suppression 
3rief of the Pope His death Disapproval in Prance by the Ency- 
clopedists The Royal Secret Simultaneousness of the Suppres- 
sion Wanderings of the Exiles Pignatclli Expulsion by Tanucol 

SPAIK had begun to deteriorate in the seventeenth 
century; it lost all of its European dependencies in 
the eighteenth, and in the beginning of the nineteenth 
was stripped of almost every one of its rich and powerful 
colonies in America. During two-thirds of that period, 
it was governed by foreigners, none of whom had any 
claim to consideration, much less respect. Until 1700 
it owed allegiance to the house of Austria; after that, 
the French Bourbons hurried it to its ruin. 

Its first Bourbon king, Philip V, had already, in 1713, 
succeeded in losing Sicily, Milan, Sardinia, the Nether- 
lands, Gibraltar, and the Island of Minorca; that is 
one-half of its European possessions. Meantime, 
Catalonia was in rebellion. But little else could bo 
expected from such a ruler. He was not only consti- 
tutionally indolent, but apparently mentally defective. 
His queen kept him in seclusion, and he did nothing 
but at her dictation; he was professedly devout, but 
was racked by ridiculous scruples; " outwardly pious," 
says Schoell, quoting Saint-Simon, " but heedless of 
the fundamental principles of religion; he was timid 
and hence sporadically stubborn; and when not in 
temper, he was easily led. lie was without imagi- 
nation, except that he was continually dreaming of 
conquering Europe, although he never left Madrid; he 


Charles III 505 

was satisfied with the gloomiest existence, and his 
only amusement was shooting at game, which his 
servants drove into the brush for him to kill." His 
conscience often smote him for the sin he said he had 
committed when he renounced his claim to the throne 
of France; and, in consequence, he made a vow to lay 
aside the Spanish crown until what time he should be 
summoned by England to be King of France. To help 
him keep his vow, he built the palace of San Ildefonso, 
which cost the nation 45,000,000 pesos. He appointed 
his son Louis, a lad of 17, to reign in his stead, and the 
boy, of course, did nothing but enjoy himself, and 
died of small-pox in six months' time, having first gone 
through the ridiculous farce of making his father his 
heir. Philip then began to doubt whether he could 
resume his duties as king after having vowed to. 
relinquish them. Besides being thus troubled with 
scruples, he was in constant dread of catching the 
disease which carried off his son; he died of apoplexy, 
July 9, 1764 at the age ojt 53. 

Ferdinand VI, who succeeded him, was as indolent 
as his father, and with less talent and strength of will; 
he was afflicted with melancholia, and like his father 
was haunted by the fear of death. He took no part 
in the government of the kingdom, but spent most of 
his time listening to the warblings of the male-soprano, 
FarinelE, who was so adored by the king that he was 
sometimes consulted on state affairs. The queen was 
another of his idols, and when she died, he shut himself 
in, saw no one, would eat next to nothing; never 
diangcd his linen; let his hair and beard grow, and 
never went to bed. An hour or two in a chair was 
all he allowed himself for rest. Ho died at the end 
of the year, leaving a private fortune of 72,000,000 
francs. He was only forty-seven years old. Like the 
king, the quean was dominated by fear, not however 

506 The Jesuits 

of death, but of poverty. To guard against that 
contingency she hoarded all the money she could get; 
accepted whatever presents were offered; and let it be 
known that the easiest way to win her favor was to 
have something to give. It is gravely said that 
though she was very corpulent she was extravagantly 
fond of dancing. 

Ferdinand VI was succeeded by his brother Charles 
III, who had been King of Naples for twenty-four 
years. He had six sons, the eldest of whom, Philip 
Anthony was then twelve years of age, but a hopeless 
imbecile. The right of succession, therefore, devolved 
on his second son. The third, who was then eight 
years old, was to succeed to the crown of Naples, 
and was left in the hands of Tanucci to be trained 
for his future office. As Tanucci was a bitter enemy of 
Christianity, this act of Charles, who had a Jesuit 
confessor and was regarded as a pious man, would 
imply that he also was mentally deficient. Like his 
forebears, he was haunted by a fear of death, a weakness 
that revealed itself in all his political acts, notably in 
the suppression of the Society. That was one of the 
reasons why, long after Prance and Portugal would 
have willingly ended the fight with the expulsion of 
the Jesuits, the supposedly pious Charles persisted until 
he had wrung the Brief of Suppression from the un- 
willing hands of Clement XIV. 

The ministers of vState who controlled the destinies 
of Spain at this period arc erf a species whoso like cannot 
bo found in the history of any other nation. They 
begin with the Italian Albcroni who started life as 
a farm laborer; then became an ecclesiastic, and 
ultimately a cardinal " He was destined to trouble 
the tranquillity of the world for yeans/' says SchoelL 
Acconling to Saint-Simon, ho prevented the restitution 
o Gibraltar to Spain which England wan willing to 

Charles III 507 

grant; he was banned by the Pope; and was subse- 
quently turned out of office, chiefly by the intrigues 
of two Italian ecclesiastics. The queen's nurse, old 
Laura Piscatori, also figures in the amazing diplomacy 
of those days, and is charged with an ambition to be as 
important as Cardinal Alberoni, who came from her 
native village. The next prime minister was the 
Biscayan Grimaldi, whose physical appearance Saint- 
Simon describes, but which we omit. It will suffice to 
say that " he was base and supple when it suited his 
convenience, and he never made a false step in that 
direction." Following him, came Ripperda, who was 
born in the Netherlands and educated by the Jesuits 
at Cologne, but became a Protestant in Holland, and 
a Catholic in Spain, where he lasted only four months, 
as minister. He turned Protestant a second time, on 
his return to Holland, and subsequently led an army 
of Moors against Spain. It is not known whether he 
died a Christian or a Mohammedan. 

Patino and de la Quadra followed each other in 
quick succession, one good, the other timid and weak. 
Ensefiada, though skilful, was greedy of money, and 
was considered the head of the French faction in court. 
Carvajal is next on the list, and displays the English 
propensities which were natural to him, for he belonged 
to the house of Lancaster. Indeed, his policy was 
entirely pro-English and he was in collusion with 
Keene, the British ambassador. Wall, an Irishman, 
then flits across the scene, and has with him two 
associates: Losada and Squillacc, both Italians, When 
Wall quarrelled with the Pope and the Inquisition, 
he fell, and then another Grimaldi came to the fore; 
not a Biscayan, like his namesake, but a Genoese. 
Squillace, apparently from the Italian branch of the 
Borgias, was next in order, and then in rapid pro- 
cession came the Spaniards: Roda, dc Alva, Aranda, 

508 The Jesuits 

Roda, Moniiio, Campom&nez, either as prime ministers 
or prominent in the government, and nearly all of them 
under French influence. Finally, the generalissimo of 
the army and the most popular man in Spain was an 
Irishman, Alexander O'Reilly. The native Spaniards 
counted for little; even the king's bodyguard was made 
up of Walloons. 

O'Reilly was probably not in sympathy with the 
free-thinking politicians who then ruled the nation, 
for the reason that he was born in Ireland and had all 
his life been a soldier, Moreover, he was hated by 
the Aranda faction and retained his post, at the head of 
the army, only because the king thought that no one 
could vShicld the royal life as well as O'Reilly, He was 
born in 1735, and when still a youth was sub-lieutenant 
in the Irish Regiment serving in Spain. In 1757 he 
fought under his countryman de Lacy in Austria, and 
then followed the flcurde~lys in France, He so 
distinguished himself, that the Mar6chal de BrogHc 
recommended him to the King of Spain. There he 
soon became brigadier and restored the ancient prestige 
of the Spanish army. He was made a commandant 
at Havana, and rebuilt its fortifications, and from there 
went to Louisiana to secure it to the Spanish crown. 
His only military failure was in Algiers, but that was 
not clue to any lack of wisdom in hispluivsjmtbecause 
his fleet did not arrive at the time appointed Even 
then, there was no one so highly esteemed as O'Reilly, 
and when he died at an advanced age in 1794, the 
people all declared that the disasters which fell on the 
nation would have been averted if ho had lived. He is 
credited with possessing besides his military ardor 
a sweet and insinuating disposition which may explain 
how he could easily win over the mob which so terrified 
King Charles at Madrid. 

Charles III 509 

Meantime, the sinister Choiseul in France had all the 
ministers of Spain in his grip, and he then determined 
to capture the king. He first made him a present of 
what up to that time, had been the special pride of 
France; the precedence of its ambassadors in public 
functions over those of all other countries, the German 
Empire excepted. Charles naturally took the gift, but 
apparently failed to fathom its significance. The next 
move was to get rid of the court confessor; and his 
majesty was given a confidential letter from Pombal 
of Portugal accusing Father Ravago of having fo- 
mented the insurrection of the Indians of Paraguay, 
against the Spanish troops at the time of the transfer 
of that territory. The plot failed, however, for Charles 
knew Ravago too well, and then something more 
drastic was resorted to. Squillace was at that time 
in power and under him occurred the historic riot 
which, in the course of time, assumed such dimensions 
in the king's imagination, that it was one of the three 
or four things, besides his "royal secret,'* which he 
urged on the Pope as a reason for suppressing the 

The story of the riot is as follows: Squillace was 
very energetic in developing the material -resources 
of the kingdom, but always with an eye to his personal 
and pecuniary profit. He promoted public works; 
established monopolies even in food stuffs; loaded the 
people with taxes; and being intensely anti-clerical, 
was very, active in curtailing ecclesiastical privileges. 
The people and clergy meekly submitted, but something 
happened which brought Squillace's career to an end; 
though it had much more serious consequences than 
that. It scarcely seems credible, but the incident 
became one of the serious events of the time. Though 
none suspected it, the whole thing had been deliberately 

510 The Jesuits 

planned, and was the initial step in the plot to expel 
the Jesuits from Spain. Squillace objected or pre- 
tended to object to the kind of dress especially affected 
by the people of Madrid: a slouched sombrero and 
an all-enveloping cloak; and he gave orders to change 
it. Naturally, this exasperated the people, for although 
they had patiently submitted to the imposition of 
taxes; the creation of oppressive monopolies; the cur- 
tailment of ancient rights and privileges, etc., the 
audacity of a foreigner interfering with the cut of 
their garments brought about a popular upheaval. 
On March 26, 1766, the mob stormed the residence 
of Squillace, and he ignominiously took to flight, 
All night long, the excited crowds swarmed through 
the streets shouting, " Down with Squillace.*' On 
the following morning, they surrounded the palace 
of the king himself and he, in alarm, called for O'Reilly 
to quell the disturbance. When it was represented to 
his majesty that it might entail bloodshed, he depre- 
cated that and hurriedly left Madrid. Had he shown 
himself to the people, they would have done him no 
harm, for reverence for royalty was still deep in the 
popular heart, and the age of royal assassinations had 
not yet come. But the king was not a hero, and ho 
thrust his subaltern into what he fancied was a post 
of danger. Thereupon, unarmed and unattended, 
O'Reilly faced the excited mob. 

Delighted by his trust in them, they greeted him 
with cheers, but demanded a redress of thoir grievances. 
Unfortunately, while he was keeping them in good 
humor, the Walloons, who were guarding another 
gate of the palace, got into an altercation with some 
of the rioters. Hot words were exchanged, shots were 
fired and several persons were killed. The whole 
scene changed instantly, and the capital would have 
been drenched in blood, and perhaps Charles would 

Charles III 511 

have been dethroned, had not a number of Jesuits 
headed by the saintly Pignatelli, hurried through the 
crowd and held the rioters in check. Finally, when a 
placard was affixed to the palace walls, granting all 
their demands, the mob dispersed, cheering for the 
Jesuits a fatal cry for those whom it was meant to 
honor. They were accused of provoking the riot; and, 
from that moment, the king's hatred for the Society 
began. It was made more acute by the consciousness of 
his own cowardice. Thus, a farce was to introduce a 
tragedy. Ten years afterwards, the Duke of Alva, a 
descendant of the old tyrant of the Netherlands, 
confessed that it was he, who had planned the som- 
brero and cloak riot to discredit the Jesuits (de Murr, 
"Journal," ix, 222). 

Towards the end of January 1767, another episode 
in this curious history presents itself. Like the 
affair of the riot it seems to be taken from a novel, 
but unfortunately it is not so. Its setting is the princi- 
pal Jesuit residence at Madrid. The provincial and 
the community are at dinner, when a lay-brother 
enters with a package of letters, which he places 
before the provincial. It is not the usual way of 
delivering such communications in the Society, but the 
story is told by de Ravignan in " Clement XIII et 
Clement XIV " (I, 186), and he is quoting from Father 
Casscda, who is described as "a Jesuit Father of 
eminence and worthy of belief." The package was 
handed back to the brother, along with the keys of 
the provincial's room, where it was left. Immediately 
afterwards, an officer of the court arrived, searched the 
room and extracted one of the letters, said to be from 
Father Ricci, the General of the Jesuits, who among 
other things, declared that the king was an illegitimate 
son and was to be superseded by his brother, Don 
Luis. That such a letter was really written, is vouched 

512 The Jesuits 

for by several historians: Coxe, Ranke, Schoell, 
Adam, Sismondi, Darras, and others; and it is generally 
admitted to have been the work of Choiseul in Prance 
though he covered up his tracks so adroitly that no 
documentary evidence can be adduced to prove it 
against him. His intermediary was a certain Abb6 
Beliardy an attach^ of the French embassy in Madrid. 

According to Carayon (XV Opp. > 16-23) an d Boero 
(" Pignatelli " Appendix) there is a second scene in 
this melodrama. Two Fathers are leaving Madrid for 
Rome. A sealed package is entrusted to them, pur- 
porting to be from the papal ambassador in Spain. On 
the road they are held up and searched; the package 
is opened, and a letter is found in it reflecting on the 
king's legitimacy. Precisely at the same moment, 
the trick of the refectory letter was being played in 
the Jesuit residence at Madrid, and thus a connection 
was established. With this scrap of paper and the 
" cloak and sombrero riot " at their disposal, the 
plotters concluded that they had ample material to 
cany out their scheme, and the next chapter shows 
Aranda, the prime minister, Roda, Monifio and 
Campomafiesj meeting frequently in an old abandoned 
mansion in the country. With them was a number 
of boys, probably pages about the court, who were 
employed in copying a pile of documents whose import 
they were too unsophisticated to understand. Older 
amanuenses might have betrayed the secret. 

The chain of evidence was finally completed, and 
these grave statesmen then presented themselves 
before his majesty and, with evidence in hand, proved 
to him the undoubted iniquity of the religious order 
which up to that moment he had so implicitly trusted. 
He fell into the trap, and a series of cabinet meetings 
ensued in which information previously gathered or 
invented about every Jesuit in France was discussed. 

Charles III 513 

The result was that on January 29, 1767 a proposal 
was drawn up by Campomafiez and laid before his 
majesty to expel the Society from Spain, and advising 
him, first, to impose absolute silence on all his subjects 
with regard to the affair, to such an extent that no one 
should say or publish anything either for or against 
the measure, without a special permission of the 
government; secondly, to withhold all knowledge of 
the affair, even from the controller of the press and 
his subordinates; and finally to arrange that whatever 
action was taken, should proceed directly from the 
president and ministers of the extraordinary council. 

The advice was assented to by the king, and a 
decree was issued in virtue of which silence was passed 
on 6,000 Spanish subjects who not only had no trial 
but who were absolutely unaware that there was any 
charge against them. They had been as a body 
irreproachable for two hundred years, had reflected 
more glory, and won more territory for Spain than 
had ever been gained by its armies. They were men 
of holy lives, often of great distinction in every branch 
of learning; some of them belonged to the noblest 
families of the realm; and yet they were all to be thrown 
out in the world at a moment's notice, though not 
a judge on the bench, not a priest or a bishop, not even 
the Pope had been apprised of the cause of it, and, as 
we have seen, it was forbidden even to speak of the 
act. A more outrageous abuse of authority could 
not possibly be conceived. 

It was arranged that on the coming second of April, 
1767, a statement should be made throughout Europe 
by which the world would be informed; first, that 
for the necessary preservation of peace, and for other 
equally just and necessary reasons (though the world 
is not to be told what they are), the Jesuits are expelled 
from the king's dominions, and all their goods confis- 

514 The Jesuits 

cated; secondly, that the motive will forever remain 
buried in the royal heart; thirdly, that all the other 
religious congregations in Spain are most estimable and 
are not to be molested. The decree was signed by 
Charles and countersigned by Aranda and then sent 
out. The ambassador at Rome was ordered to hand 
it to the Pope and withdraw without saying a word. 
The despatches to the civil and military authorities 
in both worlds were enclosed in double envelopes and 
sealed with three seals. On the inner cover appeared 
the ominous words, as from a pirate addressing his 
crew: " Under pain of death this package is not to bo 
opened until April 2, 1767, at the setting sun." The 
letter read as follows: " I invest you with all my 
authority and all my royal power to descend immedi- 
ately with arms on the Jesuit establishments in your 
district; to seize the occupants and to lead them as 
prisoners to the port indicated inside of 24 hours. At 
the moment of seizure, you will seal the archives of the 
house and all private papers and permit no one to carry 
anything but his prayer-book and the linen strictly 
necessary for the voyage. If after your cmbarcation 
there is left behind a single Jesuit cither sick or dying 
in your department, you shall be punished with death/' 

"I, the King." 

The motive that prompted Charles to keep the secret; 
of this amassing proceeding " shut up in his royal 
heart " has been usually ascribed to his intense resent- 
ment at the suspicion east on his legitimacy, and his 
fear that even the mention of it would lead people to 
conclude that there was some foundation for the charge* 
Davila, quoted by Pollen in " The Month " (August, 
1902), finds another explanation. 

" Charles III," he says, 4< had become an extravagant 
legalist, and was convinced by his Voltairean ministers, 

Charles III 515 

mostly by Tanucci, whom he had left in charge of his 
son at Naples, that in all things the Church should be 
subject to the State. It was on that account that he 
kept the reasons for the expulsion of the Jesuits 
' buried in his royal heart/ The sole cause of this act 
was his change of policy; a true reason of state such 
as, on some occasions, covers grave acts of injustice 
for it must be always a grave injustice to charge a 
religious society with having conspired against the 
fundamental institutions of a country, and yet not be 
able to point out in any way the object and plan of so 
dark a conspiracy. If such be the case," continues 
Davila, "it is easy to understand why his majesty 
could not reveal this * secret of his royal heart ' even 
to the Pope, or perhaps least of all to him, for it would 
be a painful avowal that his Catholic Majesty was a 
yoke-fellow with the Voltaireans of Europe whose 
avowed purpose was to destroy the Church." 

Clement XIII was overwhelmed with grief when he 
read the king's decree and wrote to him as follows: 
" Of all the blows I have received during the nine 
unhappy years of my pontificate the worst is that of 
which your majesty informs me in your last letter, 
telling me of your resolution to expel from all your 
vast dominions the religious of the Society of Jesus. 
So you too, do this, my son, Tu quoque fili mi. Our 
beloved Charles III, the Catholic King, is the one who 
is to fill up the chalice of our woe and to bring down to 
the grave our old age bathed in tears and overwhelmed 
with grief. The very religious, the very pious King of 
Spain, Charles III, is going to give the support of his 
arm, that powerful arm which God has given him to 
increase his own honor and that of God and the Church, 
to destroy to its very foundation, an order so useful 
and so dear to the Church, an order -which owes its 
origin and its splendor to those saintly heroes whom 

516 The Jesuits 

God has deigned to choose in the Spanish nation to 
extend His greater glory throughout the world. It is 
you who are going to deprive your kingdom and your 
people of all the help and all the spiritual blessings 
which the religious of that Society have heaped on it 
by their preaching, their missions, their catechisms, 
their spiritual exercises, the administration of the 
sacraments, the education of youth in letters and piety, 
the worship of God, and the honor of the Church. 

" Ah! Sire! our soul cannot bear the thought of that 
awful ruin. And what cuts us to the heart still 
deeper perhaps is to sec the wise, just King Charles III, 
that prince whose conscience was so delicate and whose 
intentions were so right; who lest he might compromise 
his eternal salvation, would never consent to have the 
meanest of his subjects suffer the slightest injury in 
their private concerns without having their case 
previously and legitimately tried and every condition 
of the law complied with, is now vowing to total destruc- 
tion, by depriving of its honor, its country, its property, 
which was legitimately acquired, and its establish- 
ments, which wore rightfully owned, that whole body 
of religious who were dedicated to the service of God 
and the neighbor, and all that without examining them, 
without hearing them, without permitting them to 
defend themselves, Sire! this act of yours is grave; 
and if perchance it, is not sufficiently justified in the 
eyes of Almighty God, the Sovereign Judge of all 
creatures, the approval of those xvho have advised you 
in this matter will avail nothing, nor will the plaudits 
of those whose principles have prompted you to do 
this. As for us, plunged as we are in inexpressible 
grief, we avow to your majesty that we fear and tremble 
for the salvation of your soul which is so dear to us. 

14 Your Majesty tells us that you have been com- 
pelled to adopt these measures by the duly of main- 

Charles III 517 

taining peace in your states, implying we presume 
that this trouble has been provoked by some individual 
belonging to the Society of Jesus. But, even if it 
were true, Sire, why not punish the guilty without 
making the innocent suffer? The body, the Institute, 
the spirit of the Society of Jesus, we declare it in 
the presence of God and of man, is absolutely innocent 
of all crime, and not only innocent, but pious, useful, 
holy in its object, in its laws, in its maxims. It matters 
not that its enemies have endeavored to prove the 
contrary; all calm and impartial minds will abhor 
such accusers as discredited liars who contradict 
themselves in whatever they say. You may tell 
me that it is now an accomplished fact; that the 
royal edict has been promulgated and you may ask 
what will the world say if I retract? Should you not 
rather ask f Sire, what will God say? Let me tell you 
what the world will say. It will say what it said of 
Assuerus when he revoked his edict to butcher the 
Hebrews. It accorded him the eternal praise of being 
a just king who knew how to conquer himself. Ah! 
Sire, what a chance to win a like glory for yourself. 
We offer to your majesty the supplications not only 
of your royal spouse, who from heaven recalls to you 
the love she had for the Society of Jesus, but much 
more so, to the Sacred Spouse of Jesus Christ, the 
Holy Church, which cannot contemplate, without 
weeping, * the total and imminent extinction of the 
Society of Jestis, which until this very hour has rendered 
to her such great assistance and such signal services. 
Permit, then, that this matter be regularly discussed; 
let justice and truth be allowed to act, and they will 
scatter the clouds that have arisen from prejudice and 
suspicion. Listen to the counsels of those who are 
doctors in Israel; the bishops, the religious, in a cause 
that involves the interests of the State, the honor of 

518 The Jesuits 

the Church, the salvation of souls, your own conscience 
and your eternal salvation'/' 

How Charles could resist this appeal, which is among 
the most admirable and eloquent state papers ever 
given to the world, is incomprehensible. But he did. 
He merely replied to the Pope: " To spare the world 
a great scandal, I shall ever preserve as a secret in my 
heart the abominable plot which has necessitated this 
rigor. Your Holiness ought to believe my word, the 
safety of my life exacts of me a profound silence." 

Not satisfied with writing to the king himself, the 
Pope also pleaded with the greatest prelate in the 
realm, the Archbishop of Tarragona as follows : " What 
has come over you? How does it happen that, in an 
instant, the Society of Jesus has departed so far from 
the rules of its pious Institute, that our dear Son 
in Jesus Christ, Charles III, the Catholic King, can 
consider himself authorized to expel from his realm 
all the Regular Clerks of the Society? This is a 
mystery we cannot explain; only a year ago, the 
numberless letters addressed to us by the Spanish 
episcopacy afforded us some consolation in the deep 
grief that affected us when these same religious were 
expelled from Prance* Those letters informed us that 
the Fathers in your country gave an example of every 
virtue, and that the bishops and their dioceses received 
the most powerful support by their pious and useful 
labours. And now, behold, in tin instant, there come 
dreadful charges against them and we an*, asked to 
believe that all these Fathers or almost all have com- 
mitted some terrible crime; nay the king himself, 
so well known for his equity, is so convinced of it, 
that he feels obliged to treat the members of that 
Institute with a rigor hitherto unheard of." 

Addressing himself personally to the king's confessor 
he says: "We write to you, my dear son, that you 

Charles III 519 

may lay this before the prince who has taken you 
for his guide, and we charge you to speak in our name 
and in virtue of the obligations which the duty of your 
office imposes, and the authority it bestows on you. 
As for us, we do not refuse to employ measures of the 
severest and most rigorous justice against those 
members of the Society of Jesus who have incurred 
the just anger of the king, and to employ all our power 
to destroy and to root out the thorns and briars which 
may have sprung up in a soil hitherto so pure and fertile. 
As for you, it is part of your sacred ministry to consider 
with fear and trembling as you kneel at the feet of the 
image of Jesus Christ, to compel the king to consider 
the incalculable ruin that religion will suffer, especially 
in pagan lands, if the numberless Christian missions 
which are now so flourishing, are abandoned and left 
without pastors." Evidently the confessor could do 
nothing with his royal penitent. 

This mad act of Charles did not please some of his 
friends in France. Thus, on May 4, 1767, D'Alembert 
wrote to Voltaire: " What do you think of the edict 
of Charles III, who expels the Jesuits so abruptly? 
Persuaded as I am that he had good and sufficient 
reason, do you not think he ought to have made them 
known and not to 'shut them up in his royal heart?' 
Do you not think he ought to have allowed the Jesuits 
to justify themselves, especially as every one is sure 
they could not? Do you not think, moreover, that it 
would be very unjust to make them all die of starvation, 
if a single lay-brother who perhaps is cutting cabbage 
in the kitchen should say a word, one way or the other 
in their favor? And what do you think of the com- 
pliments which the King of Spain addresses to the 
other monks and priests, and cur6s and sacristants of 
his realm, who are not in my opinion less dangerous 
than the Jesuits, except that they are more stupid and 

520 The Jesuits 

vile? Finally, does it not seem to you that he could 
act with more common sense in carrying out what 
after all, is a reasonable measure ?" 

In spite of the royal order enjoining silence on his 
subjects high and low, there was a great deal of feeling 
manifested at the outrage. Roda, an agent of the 
ministry at Madrid, tried to conceal it and wrote to 
the Spanish Embassy at Rome on April 15, 1767: 
" There is not much agitation here. Some rich 
people, some women and other simpletons are very 
much excited about it, and are writing a great deal 
of their affection for the Jesuits, but that is clue to 
their blindness. You would be astounded to find how 
numerous they are. But papers discovered in the 
archives and libraries, garrets and cellars, furnish 
sufficient matter to justify the act. They reveal more 
than people here suspect/* And yet not one of these 
incriminating documents " found in archives and 
libraries and garrets and cellars " was ever produced 

Among " the simpletons " who denounced the act 
was the Bishop of Cuenca, Isidore de Carvajal, who 
told the king to his face, what he thought of the whole 
business. The Archbishop of Tarragona did the same, 
but they both incurred the royal displeasure. The 
Bishop of Terruel published a pamphlet " The Truth 
unveiled to the King our Master " and he was immedi- 
ately confined in a Franciscan convent, while his Vicar- 
general and chancellor were thrown into jail. The 
Archbishop of Toledo, Cardinal de C6rdova, wrote to 
the Pope and the contents of his letters were known 
in Spain, for Roda, the individual above referred to, 
hastened to tell the Spanish ambassador on May 12, 
1767: "In spite of all their tricks, the Archbishop of 
Toledo and his vicar-general have written a thousand 
stupid things to the Pope about this affair, We 
would not be a bit surprised if the Bishop of Cuenca, 

Charles III 521 

Coria, Cuidad Rodrigo, Terruel and some others have 
done the same thing, but we are not sure. 1 ' A year 
and a half after the blow was struck something happened 
which again threw the timid Charles into a panic 
about his royal life. According to custom, he pre- 
sented himself on November 4, 1768, on the balcony 
of his palace to receive the homage of his people, 
and to grant them some public favor out of his munifi- 
cence. To the stupefaction of both king and court, 
one universal cry arose from the vast multitude, 
"Send us back the Jesuits!*' Charles withdrew in 
alarm and immediately investigations began with the 
result that he drove out of the kingdom the Cardinal 
Archbishop of Toledo and his vicar on the charge 
that they had prompted the demand of the people 
(Coxe, " Spain under the Bourbons/* v, 25). 

With regard to the supposed letter of Father Ricci 
which brought on this disaster, it may be of use to 
refer here to what was told thirty years after these 
events, in a work called "Du r6tablissement des Jdsuites 
et de T 6ducation publique " (Emmerick, Lambert, 
Rouen). The author says: "It is proper to add an 
interesting item to the story of the means employed 
to destroy the Society of Jesus in the mind of Charles 
III. Besides the pretended letter of Father Ricci, 
there were other suppositious documents, and among 
these lying papers was a letter in the handwriting of 
an Italian Jesuit which had been perfectly imitated. 
It contained outrageous denunciations of the Spanish 
government. When Clement XIII insisted on having 
some proof to throw light on the allegations, this letter 
was sent to him. Among those who were commissioned 
to examine it, was a simple prelate, who afterwards 
became Pius VL Glancing at the missive he re- 
marked that the paper was of Spanish manufacture, 
and he wondered why an Italian should send to Spain 

522 The Jesuits 

for writing material. Looking at it closer and holding 
it up to the light he saw that the water-mark gave 
not only the name of a Spanish paper-factory, but also 
the date on which it was turned out. Now it happened 
that this date was two years after the letter was sup- 
posed to have been written. The imposture was mani- 
fest, but the blow had already been struck. Charles III 
was living at the time, yet he was not man enough 
to acknowledge and repair the wrong he had done." 
(Cr6tineau -Joly, v, 241). 

On the day appointed by the king, April 2, 1767, 
every ship selected to carry out the edict was in the 
harbor assigned to it, in every part of the Spanish 
world, where there happened to be a Jesuit establish- 
ment. The night before at sundown the captain had 
opened the letter which had the threat on its envelope: 
" Your life is forfeited if you anticipate the day or the 
hour/' He obeyed his instructions; and early in 
the morning the Fathers in the college of Salamanca, 
Saragossa, Madrid, Barcelona and all the great citiCvS, 
as well as in every town where the Jesuits had any 
kind of an establishment, heard the tramp of armed 
men entering the halls. The members of the house- 
hold were ejected from their rooms, seals were put 
on the doors, and the community marched down like 
convicts going to jail Old men and young, the sick 
and even the dying, all had to go to the nearest point; 
of embaroatton. Not a syllable were they allowed to 
utter as they tramped along, and no one could speak 
in their defence without being guilty of high treason. 
When they reached the ships, they were herded on 
board like cattle and despatched to Civita Vecohia, 
to be fixing on the shores of the States of the Pope, 
whose permission had not even been asked; nor had 
any notice been given him. It was a magnificent 
stroke of organised work, and incidentally very 

Charles III 523 

profitable to the government, for at one and the same 
moment it came into possession of 158 Jesuit houses, 
all of considerable value as real estate and some of 
them magnificent in their equipment. How much was 
added to the Spanish treasury on that eventful 
morning, we have no means of computing. 

There was one difficulty in the proceedings, however. 
The supply of ships was insufficient, for 2,643 men had 
to be simultaneously cared for; but their comfort 
did not interfere with the progress of the movement. 
" They were piled on top of each other on the decks or 
in the fetid holds," says Sismondi," as if they were crimi- 
nals." It was worse than the African slave-trade. 
Saint-Priest thinks " it was a trifle barbarous, but the 
precipitation was unavoidable." It was indeed a trifle 
barbarous and the precipitation was not unavoidable. 

In rounding up the victims, the king and the ministers 
were naturally anxious about the effect it might have 
upon many of the best Spanish families who had 
sons in the Order; notably the two Pignatellis, who 
were of princely lineage. Inducements were held out 
to both of them to abandon the Society, but the offer 
was spurned with contempt. Indeed very few even 
of the novices failed in this sore trial. As for the 
Pignatellis they were the angels of this exodus, par- 
ticularly Joseph, whose exalted virtue is now being 
considered in Rome in view of his beatification. He 
was at Saragossa when the royal order arrived, and 
though suffering with hemorrhages, he started out 
afoot on the weary journey to Tarragona, and from 
there to Salu, nine miles further on, where nineteen 
brigantincs were assembled to receive this first batch 
of 600 outcasts. He was so feeble that he had to be 
carried on board the ship. 

From there, they set sail for Civita Vecchia, where 
they arrived on May 7, but were not allowed to land. 

524 The Jesuits 

Even the generally fair Schoell describes the Pope's 
action in this instance as " characterized by the greatest 
inhumanity." On the contrary, it would have been an 
act of the greatest inhumanity to receive them. There 
were some thousands of Portuguese Jesuits there already, 
who had been flung on the shore unannounced, and in 
that impoverished region there was no means of 
providing them with food or medicine or even clothes 
and beds. To have admitted this new detachment of 
600 who were merely the forerunners of 4,500 more, 
and who, in turn were to be followed by all the Jesuits 
whom Tanucci would drive out of the Neapolitan 
Kingdom, and those whom Choiseul would hasten to 
gather up in France, the result would have been that 
ten or fifteen thousand Jesuits without money or 
food or clothing, some of them old and decrepit and ill, 
would have to be cared for and the native population 
in consequence would be subjected to a burden that 
would have been impossible to bear. It was " in- 
human " no doubt, but the inhumanity must be 
ascribed to Charles III who had plundered these 
victims, and not to Clement XIII who would have 
died for them. His first duty was to his own people 
and his next was to proclaim to the world and to all 
posterity, the grossness of the .insult as well a*s the 
injustice inflicted on the Vicar of Christ by the Most 
Catholic King, Charles III. Nor were the " unhappy 
wretches/' as Bohmcr-Monod call them, " received by 
cannon shot, at the demand of their own General, 
who had trouble enough with the Portuguese already 
on his hands;" (p. 274) nor did the Jesuits, as Saint- 
Priest adds : " vent their rage against Ricct and blame 
his harsh administration, as the cause of all their 
woes." Ricci was begging for bread to feed his Portu- 
guese sons at that time, and he certainly would not 
have received those from Spain with a cannon shot,; 

Charles III 525 

nor would the Jesuits have vented their rage against 
him and blamed his harsh administration, especially 
as his administration was the very reverse of harsh; 
and, finally, Jesuits were not accustomed to vent their 
rage against their superior. 

Sismondi (Hist, des Frangais, xxix, 372) says that 
"many of them perished on board ship, and Schoell 
describes them as lying on top of one another on deck 
for weeks, under the scorching rays of the sun or down 
in the fetid hold." The filthy ships finally turned their 
prows towards Corsica where arrangements had been 
made for them to discharge their human cargo. It 
took four days to reach that island, but Paoli was 
just then fighting for the independence of his country, 
and French ships which were aiding Genoa occupied 
the principal ports. At first the exiles remained in 
their ships, but, later, they were allowed to go ashore 
during the day. Meantime, a vessel had been de- 
spatched to Spain for instructions and when it returned 
on July 8, the " criminals " were ordered to go to 
Ajaccio, Algoila or CalvL They reached Ajaccio on 
July 24, and as they were then in a state of semi- 
starvation. Father Pignatelli went straight to the 
insurgent camp, though at every step he risked being 
shot or seized and hanged, but he did not care, he 
would appeal to Paoli's humanity. He was well 
received, help was sent to the sufferers, and they were 
given liberty to go where they chose on the island. 

They remained there a month and were then sent 
to the town of Saint-Boniface, where they bivouacked 
or lived in sheds until the 8th of December, when they 
were ordered to Genoa. This time the number of 
brigantines in which they embarked had been reduced 
from thirteen to five, though the number of the victims 
had considerably increased; but tkat mattered little; 
they finally reached the mainland but were not per- 

526 The Jesuits 

mitted to go ashore. Meantime, other Jesuits had 
arrived and they now numbered 2,000 or 2,400. After 
a short delay in the harbor, they made their way 
separately or in groups to different cities in the Papal 
States, chiefly to Bologna and Perrara. 

Their ejection from the Two Sicilies was a foregone 
conclusion, for it was ruled by the terrible Bernardo 
Tanucci, whom Charles III on his accession to the 
throne of Spain had left as regent during the minority 
of Ferdinand IV. Tanucci was a lawyer who began 
his career in a most illegal fashion by exciting riots; in 
Pisa against his rival Grandi. They had quarrelled 
about the discovery of the Pandects of Justinian. He 
next drew the attention of Charles by assailing the 
right of asylum for criminals, which he maintained was 
in contravention of all law human and divine. " He 
attacked the prerogatives of the Court of Rome and 
of the nobles of Naples, with more fury than prudence/' 
says de Angelis (Biographic universelle). Subse- 
quently he showed himself the enemy of the Church 
in every possible way, and, meantime, so neglected to 
provide for the security of the State that during the 
war of the Pragmatic Sanction, King Charles had to 
sign an act of neutrality at the mouth of the cannons 
of a British man-of-war. His political incapacity con- 
tinued to injure the country duxing the reign of Ferdi- 
nand until it was no longer reckoned among the 
military powers of Europe. Meantime, he kept the 
young king in ignorance of everything so as to maintain 
himself in power. He robbed the courts of justice of 
their power; drew up the Caroline Code which was 
never published; ruined the finances of the country, 
as well as its industry and agriculture, and allowed 
men of the greatest ability and learning to die in 
penury. In brief, says his biographer, "Tanuod's 
reputation both before and after his death is a mystery- 

Charles III 527 

It is probably due to his prominence as a bitter enemy 
of the Holy See. He seized Beneventum and Ponte- 
corvo which belonged to the Patrimony of Peter; he 
suppressed a great number of convents, distributed 
abbeys to his followers, fomented dissensions against 
the bishops and, of course, persecuted the Jesuits/' 

"When Charles III of Spain expelled the Society from 
Spain everyone knew what was going to happen in 
Sicily, and news was eagerly expected from the pen- 
insula. While they were waiting, an eruption of 
Vesuvius took place, which the excitable Italians 
regarded as a sign of God's wrath. Penitential 
pilgrimages were organized to avert the danger and 
angry murmurs were heard against tjie government. 
To quell tjie tumult, Tanucci sent out word that the 
Jesuits would be undisturbed, though ships were at 
that time on their way to carry off the victims. The 
young king's signature to the decree had, however, to 
be procured, but he angrily refused to give it until 
the official confessor, Latelle, the retired Bishop of 
Avellino entreated him to yield, saying that he him- 
self would answer for it on the Day of Judgment. 
The prelate did not know that he himself was to die 
at the end of the month. The expulsion took place 
in the usual dramatic fashion. At midnight of 
November 3, 1767, squads of soldiers descended on 
every Jesuit establishment in the land. The doors were 
smashed in; the furniture shattered; all the papers 
seized, both official and personal, and then surrounded 
by platoons of soldiers, the Fathers were led like 
criminals through the streets to the nearest beach with 
nothing but the clothes on their backs. The whole 
affair was managed with such lightning-like rapidity, 
that though the prisoners had been taken from their 
houses at midnight, they were out at sea before dawn 
and were heading for Ferrara. 

528 The Jesuits 

At Parma another Spanish prince ruled. He was 
still a child, however, but his minister was du Pillot, 
a statesman of the school of Tanucci and Choiseul. 
The expulsion took place simultaneously on the 
night of February 7, 1768 at Piacenza, Parma, San 
Domino and Busseto. In the first city, all the avail- 
able vehicles of the place had been requisitioned. 
At seven o'clock at night a dozen soldiers entered the 
house. Later, an officer, two adjutants and a magis- 
trate appeared, read the decree, the fourth article of 
which declared that any one not a priest or professor 
who would take off the habit of the society would be 
received among the faithful subjects of his royal 
highness. The fifth announced that the innate clemency 
of his highness accorded an annual pension of sixty 
scud} to the professed and forty to the brothers who 
were his subjects. The scholastics were to get nothing. 
In a quarter of an hour they were hurried to the citadel 
where carriages and carts were waiting and wore 
driven all night at top speed to Parma, where they 
arrived at day break. Passing through the city they 
caught up with those who had been expelled from the 
other places. Half an hour's rest and a bite to cat 
were allowed and then the journey was continued on to 
Reggio and Bologna, Not to be outdone in zeal for 
the king, the Knights of Malta drove them from the 
island on April aa, 1768. The expulsion at Parma was 
disastrous not only to the Jesuits but to the Pope. 
Parma was his fief, and he protested against the action 
of the duke. It was precisely what the plotters were 
waiting for. France immediately seized the Comtat 
Vcnaissin, and Naples took possession of Beneventum, 
both of which belonged to the Patrimony of St. Peter. 
Of course, the Jesuits were immediately expelled and 
their property confiscated 

Charles III 529 

The expulsion in Spanish America meant the seizure 
of at least 158 establishments belonging to the Jesuits 
in Mexico, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru and Chili. 
It involved the flinging out into the world of 2,943 
Jesuits, some of them old and infirm and absolutely 
unable to earn their living. Of those who embarked 
at Valparaiso sixty were drowned in 'the wreck of the 
ship " Our Lady of the Hermitage/ 1 Carayon gives 
some interesting diaries of the journeys of these exiles 
(Doc. indits, xvi), while Hubert Bancroft in his 
monumental work of thirty-nine volumes about the 
Pacific Coast furnishe's abundant and valuable infor- 
mation about the exodus from the missions of Mexico. 
The victims underwent the same sufferings as their 
Portuguese brethren in the long journeys over mountains 
and through the primeval forests and in the long, 
horrible crossing of the ocean to their native land, 
which they were thought unworthy to enter. 



Ganganclli Political plotting at the Election Bernis, Aranda 
Aubeterre The Zdanti Election of Clement XIV Renewal of 
Jesuit Privileges by the new Pope Demand of the Bourbons for a 
universal Suppression The Three Years Struggle Fanaticism of 
Charles III Menaces of Schism Moftino Maria Theresa 
Spoliations in Italy Signing the Brief Imprisonment of Father 
Ricci and the Assistants Silence and Submission of the Jesuits to 
the Pope's Decree. 

As early as 1768, the Bourbon courts let it be known 
that they would make a formal demand for the sup- 
pression of the Society throughout Christendom. On 
January 14 of that year, Cardinal Torregiam wrote 
to the papal nuncio at Madrid as follows; " His 
Holiness is horrified at the attitude of the king, and 
indignant that the demand should be accompanied 
by threats to force his hand, so as to wring from him 
a concession which is in violation of divine, natural 
and ecclesiastical law. If any mention of it is made 
to you again, dismiss immediately the person who 
dares to suggest it,'* That stinging rebuke, however, 
did not halt the stubborn Charles, and in the January 
of 1769 the coalition began its attack. First came the 
Spanish representative who presented himself for an 
audience on the eighteenth. The Pope received him 
with dignified reserve; gave expression to the intense 
pain caused by the request, and then, bursting into 
tears, withdrew. On the twentieth and twenty-second 
respectively, Orsini, representing Naples, made his 
appearance and after him Aubctcrrc, on behalf of 
Prance. They were both abruptly dismissed. The 
French document was especially insulting. It advised 

The Final Blow 531 

the Pope to admit the demand on the ground that it 
was based on a sincere and well-informed zeal for the 
progress of religion, the interest of the Roman Church, 
and the peace of Christendom. The use of the ex- 
pression " Roman " Church was an evident hint at 

On January 25, a formal reply was sent to the three 
courts, informing them that " the Pope could not 
explain the deplorable audacity they had displayed in 
adding to the sorrows that already overwhelmed the 
Church, a new anguish the only purpose of which 
was to torture the conscience and distress the soul 
of His Holiness. An impartial posterity would judge 
if such acts could be regarded as a new proof of that 
filial love which these sovereigns boast of having for 
His Holiness personally, and an assurance of that 
attachment which they pretend to show for the Holy 
See/' On January 28, Cardinal Negroni told the 
ambassadors: "You are digging the grave of the 
Holy Father." The prophecy was almost immediately 
fulfilled, for on February 2 Clement XIII died of a 
stroke of apoplexy. He had officiated at the ceremonies 
of that day, and had shown no sign of illness. The 
blow was a sudden one, and there is no doubt that 
this joint act of the Bourbon kings had caused his 
death* De Ravignan does not hesitate to describe him 
as a martyr who died in defence of the rights of the 
Church. He is blamed by some for " his lack of 
foresight in not yielding to the exigencies of the times." 
But there were other " exigencies of the times " besides 
those formulated by the men " who knew not the secrets 
of God, nor hoped for the wages of justice, nor esteemed 
the honor of holy souls," and the Pope's foresight 
was not limited by the horizons of Pombal, Choiseul 
and Charles III, " His pontificate," as has been well 
said, " affords the spectacle of a saint clad in moral 

532 The Jesuits 

strength, contending alone against the powers of 
the world. Such a spectacle is an acquisition forever." 
For it should not be forgotten that those arrayed against, 
him in this fight were not aiming merely at the anni- 
hilation of the Society of Jesus. That was only a 
secondary consideration. Their purpose was to destroy 
the Church, and in its defence Pope Clement XIII 

A new Pope was now to be elected and the alarming 
influence wielded by the statesmen of Europe in 
ecclesiastical affairs now assumed proportions which 
seemed to menace the destruction of the Church 
itself. In his " C16ment XIII et Clement XIV" 
(p. 552) de Ravignan gives an extract from Theiner 
which is startling. In 1769, that is before the election, 
we find all the cardinals tabulated as " good;' 1 *' bad;' 1 
"indifferent;" "doubtful;" "worst;" "null." Their 
ages are given ; their characters* their political tendencies. 
Among those marked " good " is Ganganelli; Rczzonico, 
the nephew of Clement XIII is in the category of the 
" worst;" the Cardinal of York is " null/ 1 There are 
eleven who are labelled " papobili" ten to be excluded 
and fourteen to be avoided. It is even settled who 
is to be secretary of State. Weekly instructions in 
this matter were sent from the court of Spain to its 
agents at Rome, whose motto was; "nee turpe ust 
quod dominus jubct nothing is base if the king orders 
it." They were at that time precisely the kind of 
men that the implacable Charles III needed to sustain 
him in his iniquitous measure: unprincipled qlerics like 
Sales, or savages like Monifto, or Aspuru, who ex mid 
write: *' What matter that the charges are not 
proved? The accused has been condemned. We have 
not to establish his guilU" As for the flippant Bernis 
and the infidel Aubeterrc, they were good enough for 
the royal debauchee* Ixuiis XV. Aubelerre had been 

The Final Blow 533 

a soldier, was now a diplomat and had lost his faith 
by contact with the revolting indecencies of the 
regency, while Bernis, says Carayon, was " a dis- 
tinguished type of French vanity who talked much, 
schemed continually and fancied he controlled the 
conclave though he was only a fly on the wheel. He 
was not ashamed to admit that he owed his red hat to 
la Pompadour."' 

Bernis' correspondence with his government is 
valuable not only in showing how unscrupulous were 
the methods of coercion employed but in revealing 
the ultimate purpose of the conspirators, viz. the 
establishment of state churches in their several king- 
doms. He and de Luynes were instructed to insist 
that the new Pope should: first, annul the Brief of 
Clement XIII against Parma; secondly, recognize the 
independent sovereignty of the Prince; thirdly, re- 
linquish Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin to Prance, 
and Beneventum to Sicily; fourthly, exile Cardinal 
Torregiani, the prime minister of Clement XIII; 
fifthly, completely abolish the Society of Jesus; 
secularize its members, and expel Father Ricci, the 
the General, from Rome. They let it be known that 
there would be no backing down. on these five points. 

It was chiefly to secure the suppression of the 
Society that the fight was to be made. The other 
matters could be left, if necessary, for future adjust- 
ment. If every other means failed, intimidation was 
to be resorted to. Indeed, as a preparation, veiled 
threats began to be heard from several quarters. 
Thus, for instance, Louis XV put his name to the 
following insulting letter: " My sincere and constant 
wish is," he said, " that the Barque of Peter should 
be entrusted to a pilot who is enlightened enough to 
appreciate the necessity of having the Head of the 
Church remain in the most perfect harmony with all 

534 The Jesuits 

the sovereigns of the Roman Faith; and of being wise 
enough to avoid every inconsiderate measure prompted 
by indiscreet and extravagant zeal; in brief, one who 
will shape his policy by the rules of moderation, 
prudence and sweetness in keeping with divine wisdom 
and human politics." Such language from the " Most 
Christian King" was an outrage on the memory of 
Clement XIII; and the words " Roman Faith" 
contained, as on a previous occasion, a threat of schism. 
Schoell, the Prbtestant historian, says that "the 
formation of State Churches in the three kingdoms 
was clearly the avowed purpose of these plotters." 

The "Zelanti 1 " were in the majority, but that 
difficulty was soon disposed of by the veto power 
which had been granted to the Catholic sovereigns. 
Making full use of it, they shamelessly forbade the 
consideration of any candidate who was suspected of 
being unfriendly to them, with the result that the 
number of eligible candidates was speedily reduced 
to eleven; and as most of these latter were old or 
infirm they could not be even considered by the electors. 
At this point, Bcmis protested against being excessive 
in the eliminations. Finally there were only two 
cardinals who could be considered papabili : Ganganelli 
and Stoppani. 

On March 7, 1769, instructions arrived from Madrid 
emphatically insisting that the election of no Pope 
would be recognized who would not first; bind himself 
to grant the five points insisted upon by the Bourbon 
kings, hut when the two vSpanish cardinals at Rome, 
represented to Charles III that such a proposal to the 
electors would involve serious risks, the obstinate 
king insisted, nevertheless, that he would yield on 
three of the points, but that he would have to exact 
absolutely as a condition of election that the new Pope 
would promise to caned the previous Pontiff's action 

The Final Blow 535 

with regard to the Duke of Parma, and also suppress 
the whole Society of Jesus. He wanted the conclave 
to pass a decree to that effect. Even in the Parma 
affair, he was willing to relent, because as Clement 
XIII was dead, his ruling might be considered as 
having lapsed, but as for the Society of Jesus, nothing 
would satisfy him except its absolute extinction. That 
much was due, he said, to the three powerful monarchs 
on whom the Church depended for support. On the 
other hand, as it would not be proper to compromise 
the reputation of these kings by letting it be known 
that such a deal was being made, for it might happen 
to fail; it was thought better not to give any precise 
orders, but to leave to the discretion of those who were 
on the spot to determine what means should be em- 
ployed fpr bringing about the desired results. 

The project of getting a distinct decree from the 
conclave in the sense of the King of Spain was 
abandoned, but while the political cardinals would 
not hear of exacting a written promise, the ambassadors 
who were working on the outside, openly avowed that 
they had no scruples about it. Indeed, Aubeterre, the 
French ambassador, wrote to Choiseul in France 
complaining that he and his fellow-diplomats felt hurt 
that their proposal should be rejected for moral reasons, 
especially as they had secretly consulted an excellent 
canonist, who ruled that there would be no harm 
in imposing on the new Pontiff the obligation of 
fulfilling the contract inside of a year, dating from the 
day of his election. Not only was it permissible, he 
said, but, in the circumstances, it was imperatively 
urgent for the good of the Church. " The excellent 
canonist " here referred to was Azpuru, the Spanish 
ambassador, but as Cardinals Orsini, Bernis and de 
Luynes insisted that such a contract would be 
simoniacal, they were informed that if an unacceptable 

535 The Jesuits 

Pope was elected there xvould be an immediate rupture 
of relations with the Holy See and the representatives 
of the three Powens would withdraw from Rome. 
They were further told that it was hoped that the 
fanatics, or Zelanti, would not drive them to such 
an extremity. D'Aubeterre who voiced the opinion 
of his associates went so far as to say, that any election 
which had not been arranged beforehand with the 
court would not be recognized. 

Finally, after the conclave had been in session from 
February 13 to May 19, Cardinal Ganganelli was 
elected Pope and took the name of Clement XIV. He 
was considered " acceptable/' especially by Spain. 
According to Cordara, however, his elevation to the 
pontifical throne was not due to the influence or the 
manipulations of the Spanish cardinals but was.brought 
about as follows; " Prom the beginning of the con- 
clave two or three votes were deposited in his favor, but 
he was never seriously thought of as Pope* Indeed, 
Cardinal Castclli, whose learning and piety gave 
him great influence in the Sacred College, was strongly 
opposed to him. Suddenly, however, he changed his 
opinion and declared that, having considered the matter 
more thoroughly, he was convinced that in the actual 
circumstances, no one was better fitted for the post 
than Ganganelli. Prom that moment, those who had 
been opposed to him regarded him favorably. Even 
Rezsonioo, the nephew of Clement XIII, who had 
many reasons to vote against him said ho would take 
the opinion of the majority of the cardinals. Hence the 
only one against him was Orsini who said that " the 
Franciscan was a Jesuit in disguise.*' He was, there- 
fore, after the fight had raged for 100 days, elected by 
forty-six out of forty-seven votes, The forty-seventh 
was his own, which he cast in favor of Re^onieo. 
It is not true that lie had made a promise to suppress 

The Final Blow 537 

the Society in case of election. Azpuru, the Spanish 
agent, wrote on May 8 : "No one has gone so far as 
to propose to anyone to give a written or verbal 
promise "; and after May 13, he added: " Ganganelli 
neither made a promise nor refused it." Unfortu- 
nately some of his written words were interpreted as 
implying it. 

Ganganelli was born in the town of Sant' Arcangelo, 
near Rimini, on October 31, 1705, and was baptised 
Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio, but took the name of 
Lorenzo when he became a Conventual of St. Francis. 
His life as a friar was characterized by piety and 
intense application to study. He was noted for his 
admiration of everything pertaining to the Society of 
Jesus, and, indeed, Pope Clement XIII when making 
him a cardinal said, " there is now a Jesuit in the 
Sacred College in the habit of a Franciscan. " But 
" the purple seemed to change him," says Cordara, 
" and from that out he was more reserved in his 
manifestations of friendship.'* As Pope he was as 
simple in his way of life as when living with his commu- 
nity; he was gentle, affable, kind, rarely ruffled, never 
precipitate and never carried away by inconsiderate zeal. 
He would have made an admirable Pope in better 
times. But when he was given control of the Barque 
of Peter a wild storm was sweeping over the world. 
Venice, Parma, Naples, France, Spain and Portugal 
were arrayed against him some of them threatening 
separation from the Church, Austria, the only Cath- 
olic government that remained, observed neutrality at 
first, but finally went to the wrong side. In brief, 
a fierce and united anti-religious element dominated all 
Catholic Europe, and the rest was Protestant. 

Of course, immediately after his election, felici- 
tations rained upon him, but as de Ravignan expresses 
it, " they were like flowers on the head of the victim 

538 The Jesuits 

that was to be immolated. " Indeed, even in the 
congratulations harsh notes were heard, as when France 
expressed its hope that the Holy See would show more 
condescension to the powers than usual, and when 
Spain " urgently called the attention of His Holi- 
ness to certain petitions which had been presented 
to him," The Spanish ambassador, Azpuru, reminded 
him in the very first audience that application had 
already been made to his predecessor for the suppres- 
sion of the Jesuits, The representatives of France, 
Portugal and Naples chanted the same dirge. Before 
three months had elapsed, there was an explosion that 
shook Christendom. Following an accepted custom, 
the Pope issued the septennial Brief of indulgences in 
favor of the missionaries " to bestow the treasures of 
heavenly blessings on those who, to our knowledge, 
arc laboring with indefatigable zeal for the salvation 
of souls. We include among these fervent apostles, 
the Religious of the Society of Jesus, and especially 
those whom our beloved son, Lorenzo Ricci, is to assign 
this year and afterwards, in various provinces of the 
Society, to that work; and we most certainly desire to 
promote and increase by these spiritual favors the piety 
and the active and enterprising zeal of those Religious." 
It was a thunderbolt. Fierce protests were made in 
Spain, Naples, Parma and Prance. Choisoul, who, up 
to that time, had been suave in his malice, lost his 
temper completely and ordered the Ambassador Bonus 
not only to make a public demand for the suppression 
of the Society but to order the Pope to begin it inside of 
two months. " This Pope is trifling with us/' he 
said; "and if he does not come to terms he can con- 
sider all relations with Franco at an end/* He became, 
grossly insulting and declared that " he had enough of 
this monkery ;" he would upset the plans of th&Fmtacci; 
and annihilate his Roman finesse, "A monk was 

The Final Blow 539 

always a monk," he said "and it was very hard for an 
Italian monk to be honest and frank in business 
matters." Choiseul's varnish of courtesy had been all 
rubbed off by the incident, and he wanted to know 
" who were going to win in- the fight? the kings or 
the Jesuits? If I were amabssador at Rome/' he 
wrote to Bernis, " I would be ashamed to see Father 
Ricci the antagonist of my master." 

Bernis, Cardinal though he was, meekly replied: 
" Of course the kings must win, but only the Pope can 
make them win. However, he has to do it according to 
the prescriptions of canon law, and must save his own 
reputation as well as that of the clergy. Moreover, 
as he is a temporal sovereign, he has to consider the 
courts of Vienna, Turin and Poland, and all that takes 
time. Personally, he means to keep the promise already 
given to the three crowns to suppress the Society, and 
has shown his mind on that point by public acts 
against the Fathers. He will renew the promise 
explicitly and immediately, in a letter written in his 
own hand to the King of Spain, He is not feeble or 
false as you seem to think. Time will show that such 
is his purpose. But, first, the way to lose the battle 
with the Jesuit General is to begin now. The Pope 
cannot and will not do it without preparation. 
Secondly, France and Spain must agree on the time 
and manner of arriving at the extinction of the Jesuits. 
Thirdly, it would be wiser to restrict the suppression 
to the Papal States, and not attempt it in countries 
that are favorable to the Society. Fourthly, a good 
preliminary would be to forbid the reception of novices, 
as the Pope has already done in his own dominions. 
Marefoschi and I put that into his head. Fifthly, I 
also proposed the seizure of the archives, the appoint- 
ment of a Vicar General, to whom Father Ricci will 
render an account of his administration." 

540 The Jesuits 

Serais' temporising, however, only exasperated the 
foes of the Society, especially Charles III. Never- 
theless, he succeeded in inducing the Pope to write to 
Louis XV on September 30, and in this communica- 
cation a promise was made to do all the king wanted. 
But that was not enough for Charles. To force the 
issue, he ordered all the Jesuit property in Spain^to be 
put up at auction, and a copy of the decree was sent 
to the Pope. That was on November 8, and on 
November 13, a joint letter was sent by the three 
powers requesting Clement to publish a Brief motu 
proprio, that is on his own initiative, as if they had 
had nothing to do with it, approving all that the 
Bourbon princes had done against the Society; and 
also to send to their majesties the plan he proposed 
to follow in carrying out its complete suppression. 
Clement humbly submitted to the outrage, and seven 
days later, Bernis was able to write to Choiseul: 
" His Holiness has renewed in the strongest manner 
the two promises he had made to the Bourbon kings 
with regard to the Brief approving the missionaries, 
and the plan to suppress the Jesuit Order. He has 
commissioned me to positively assure the ministers of 
the powers on that point." 

Spain wanted even more than that; and on November, 
22d, Azpuru told the Pope that if he did not send a 
manuscript letter to the king promising the suppression, 
extreme measures would be resorted to, and the rupture 
of relations which had been begun in 1767 and which 
was so disastrous to the Church in Spain would be 
carried to its limit. He was not exaggerating, and 
the nuncio at Madrid wrote that the king was so set 
on his purpose, that they did not know what mad 
thing he might do to gain his point. The general 
impression was that Charles was on the verge of 

The Final Blow 541 

To quiet him, the Pope wrote, on November 30, to 
say positively that he would carry out the will of the 
courts. " We have gathered all the documents,' 1 he 
said, " that are needed for writing the motu proprio 
agreed upon; so as to justify to the whole world, the 
wise conduct of your majesty in expelling the Jesuits, 
as troublesome and turbulent subjects. As we are 
carrying on our government, unaided, although crushed 
by the weight and multiplicity of questions that 
have to be settled, you will understand that it is 
not forgetfulness but merely the unavoidable delay 
required to bring this important matter to a 
successful issue." Indeed at that time Clement 
had secluded himself from everyone. He was in 
constant fear of being poisoned, and had his food 
prepared by a Cordelier lay-brother. " We beg Your 
Majesty ," he continued, " to put your entire confi- 
dence in us, for we have fully resolved to act, and we 
are preparing to give to the public incontestable 
proofs of our sincerity. We shall submit to the wis- 
dom and intelligence of Your Majesty a plan for the 
total extinction of this Society; and Your Majesty will 
receive it shortly. We shall not cease to give gen- 
uine proofs of our attachment and our veneration 
for Your Majesty to whom in the plenitude of our 
paternal affection we give our apostolic benediction " 
(De Ravignan, " Cl&nent XIII et Clement XIV," 
I, 295). 

Bernis gave himself the credit of having got the 
Pope to write this letter, and said that now: " His 
Holiness could not escape carrying out his promise. 
He will be forced to do it, in spite of his unwillingness, 
for he knows that the king is too intelligent not to 
publish the letter, and the Pope will be disgraced if he 
does not keep his word" (Saint-Priest, p. 131). Thus 
six months after his election, he was bound by a written 

542 The Jesuits 

and absolute promise to suppress the Society; though h 
was continually saying " questa supressione mi dar& 
la morte" (this suppression will kill me). At this 
stage of the proceedings little Naples was becoming 
obstreperous. Tanucci had seized the Greek College 
and expelled the Jesuits. He then claimed the property 
of all religious communities, and when remonstrated 
with, he replied that " he was going to keep on thwart- 
ing every order that came from Rome, until the Society 
of Jesus was abolished.'* In 1770 the Pope cancelled 
the excommunication of the Duke of Parma to gratify 
the sovereigns, but the satisfaction that ensued did not 
last long. Cardinal Pacca, who was quasi-nuncio at 
Lisbon just then, notes the disorders prevalent in 
the country especially in the University of Coimbra, 
where the worst kind of teaching was permitted. 
On July 3, 1770, Bernis wrote to Choiseul: " I 
heard that the Founder of the Passionists, Paul of 
the Cross, has warned the Pope to watch over his 
kitchen, and hence Brother Francisco who looks after 
the Pope's household has redoubled his vigilance. 
I do not know if it is on account of this warning, but 
in any case the Pope has gone to some mineral springs 
for treatment and is to be there for the next fortnight/' 
Ten days afterwards, Choiseul replied: "I cannot 
imagine the Pope is so credulous or so cowardly as to 
be so easily frightened by reports about attempts on 
his life. The Society of Jesus has been looked upon 
as dangerous because of its doctrines, its Institute 
and its intrigues in the countries from which they 
have been expelled; but they have not been accused 
of being poisoners. It is only the base jealousy and 
fanatical hatred of some monks that could suspect 
such a thing. The General of the Passionists might 
have dispensed himself from giving such indiscreet 
advice to the Pope, which seems to have aggravated 

The Final Blow 543 

the illness of which he was already complaining." 
As this General of the Passionists was no other than 
the saintly Paul of the Cross, who has been since 
raised to the honors of the altar, one may form some 
idea of the infamous devices resorted toinall this business. 
Far from being unfriendly, Paul of the Cross writes: 
" I am extremly pained by the sufferings of the 
illustrious Company of Jesus. The very thought of 
all those innocent religious being persecuted, in so many 
ways, makes me weep and groan, The devil is triumph* 
ing; God's glory is diminished, and multitudes of 
souls are deprived of all spiritual help. I pray, night 
and day that, after the storm is passed, God who gives 
both life and death may resuscitate the Society with 
greater glory than before. Such have been always, and 
such still are, my feelings towards the Jesuits." 

The fact is, however, that the Pope was really 
frightened. His cheerfulness had vanished, hfe health 
had failed, and his features wore an anxious and haunted 
look. He kept in seclusion, and, as has been said, 
would let no one prepare his meals but his fellow-friar, 
Brother Francisco, who remained with him till the end. 
He was evidently fighting for time; hoping, no doubt, 
that something might occur to absolve him from his 
promise. But his enemies were relentless. Charles 
III was more than fanatical in his insistency, and 
finally Clement appointed Marefoschi, an open enemy 
of the Jesuits, to prepare the Brief. The task was 
joyfully accepted, but the Pope discovered that it 
was not written in the usual pontifical style. That 
excuse, however, was regarded by his assailants, as 
a trick, and they complained of it bitterly. Then 
it was alleged that the Empress Maria Theresa, who 
was not averse to the Jesuits, had to be consulted. 
Indeed, she had given out that as long as she lived 
they had nothing to fear in her dominions, but she 

544 The Jesuits 

failed to keep her word. Subsequently, a promise 
was given not to allow Father Ricci to have a successor 
or to admit novices into the Order; then a general 
council was proposed to decide the question, but all 
was of no avail 

At this point, December 25, 1770, Choiseul fell from 
power, and the world began to breathe for a short 
spell, hoping that this might affect the situation, but 
d'Aiguillon, his successor, was just as bad. Moreover, 
Saint-Priest, in his " Ch^te des Jesuites " (p. 127) 
uses the incident for a nasty insult. He attributes 
Choiseul's fall to the regard that Madame du Barry 
had for the Society. "Thank God!" exclaims de 
Ravignan, "the Society has never had such a pro- 
tectress." She was admired by Voltaire, who hailed 
her as another Egeria, but no Jesuit ever sought her 
protection. Their only advocate at the court at 
that sad period was the saintly daughter of the king, 
who became a Carmelite nun to expiate her father's 
sins. The real cause of Choiseul's downfall was that 
Maupeou showed to Louis XV some of Choiseul's 
letters urging parliament " not to yield in the fight, 
for the king would sustain the Society with all his 
power/' " It was not hard," says Foisset in " Le 
President des Brosses " (p. 302), " for du Barry to 
persuade the king that those letters were meant to 
incite the parliament to rebellion against him/' She 
hated Choiseul who, though willing to pay court to 
Pompadour, had no respect for the low and coarse 
du Barry. 

At this point, the Pope offered another inducement 
to the King of Spain: the canonization of Palafox, 
whom Charles III worshipped, but that failed, though 
a little respite was gained by the help of the king's 
confessor; and certain discussions with regard to the 
restitution of the papal territories also contributed 

The Final Blow 545 

to delay the disaster. The year 1771 had now been 
reached, and to afford some satisfaction to the foe, 
the Pope established a commission or congregation of 
cardinals to examine the financial conditions of the 
Society. At its head was the fierce Marefoschi, who 
began by seizing the Roman Seminary. Thus matters 
dragged on till 1772. Up to that time very little 
progress had been made, and people were beginning 
to talk about the impossibility of abolishing the whole 
Order, or even a part of it without " proper juridical 
investigation/' Even Bernis told his government that 
a there was too much heat in this Jesuit affair to 
permit the Pope to explain his real thoughts about 
the suppression; " but, though Aranda was out of 
office and Choiseul likewise, the implacable Charles III 
was determined to put an end to the delay and instead 
of Azpuru, he sent the fierce Jos6 Monino, otherwise 
known as Florida Blanca to be his ambassador in Rome. 
Under an affable and polished exterior Monino was 
in reality very brutal. He simply terrorized the Pope, 
who put off receiving him for a week after his arrival 
and invented all sorts of excuses not to see him. When 
at last they met, the Pope was pale and excited but 
Monino had resolved to end the siege. He dismissed 
absolutely all question of a reform of the Order. What 
he wanted was suppression, or else there would be a 
rupture with Spain. In vain the Pope entreated him 
to wait for Ricci's death; but the angry minister re- 
jected the offer with scorn, and the Pope after being 
humiliated, insulted and outraged, withdrew to his 
apartments, exclaiming with sobs in his voice: " God 
forgive the Catholic King." " It was Monino," said a 
diplomat then at Rome, " who got the Brief of 1773; 
but he did not obtain it; he tore it from the Pope's 
hand." Under instructions from Charles III, Monino 
told the Pope, " I will disgrace you by publishing the 

546 The Jesuits 

letter you wrote to the king/' and he laid before the 
Pontiff a plan drawn up by himself and the other 
ministers of Charles III to carry out the suppression. 
De Ravignan condemns Cr6tineau-Joly for having 
published this paper. " It would have been better to 
have left it in the secret archives. " 

In Mpiiino's plan of action he declares that " it was 
not advisable to enter into details; so as not to allow 
any ground for discussion, as it would do harm to 
religion and uselessly defame the character of the 
Jesuits." The king's reasons had already been made 
known to the Holy See. They were three in number. 
The first was " they had caused the Sombrero Riot 
in Madrid; " the second: " their moral and doctrinal 
teaching was bad;" the third, and this was the most 
extraordinary of all: "they had always persecuted 
the holiest bishops and persons in the Kingdom of 
Spain." The last item probably referred to Palafox. 
His Majesty had not yet revealed the important 
secret which he kept " locked in his royal heart." All 
the terrible statements of the documents alleged to 
have been seized by Marefoschi were to be of no use, 
when compared with the Riot of the Sombreros. 

Meantime conditions were every day growing worse 
in Europe. The publications of Voltaire and his 
friends were destroying both religion and morality. 
The fulminations of the Pope against these books 
availed little, and meantime he was about to crush the 
men who were best able to face the enemy. Finally, 
poor Poland was being cut up by Prussia, Russia and 
Austria and the Pope was powerless to prevent it. On 
the other hand, there were some consolations. Thus 
in 1771 the Armenian patriarch and all his people 
renounced Nestorianism and returned to the unity of 
the Church. Between 1771 and 1772 seven thousand 
families and their ministers in the country of Sickclva 

The Final Blow 547 

abandoned Socinianism, and became Catholics. Again, 
wonderful conversions were made in Transylvania and 
Hungary, not only among Protestants but among the 
schismatical Greeks. Similar triumphs had been 
achieved in Armenia and Syria among the subjects of 
the Grand Turk, and the whole peninsula of Italy 
under the eyes of the Pope was in a transport of religious 
zeal. The peculiarly interesting feature about all this 
was that it was the work of the members of the Society 
of Jesus. But that did not check the progress of the 
anti-Christian plot of the Catholic kings of Europe 
to obliterate from the face of the earth the organization 
which even in its crippled condition and in the very 
last moments of its existence was capable of such 
achievements. Cardinal Migazzi, the Archbishop of 
Vienna, called the Pope's attention to this fact, but 
without avail. 

Up to this time, Maria Theresa had been the devoted 
friend of the Society. She had even said she would 
never cease to be so, but yielding to the influence of 
her son, Joseph II, and of her daughter, the Queen 
of Naples, she consented to their supression, on condition 
that she could dispose arbitrarily of their property 
(Ctement XIII et Ctement XIV, I, 362.) The illus- 
trious queen displayed great worldly prudence in with- 
drawing her affections. This desertion destroyed the 
last hope that the Pope had cherished of putting off 
the Suppression. Monino returned to the attack 
again and received an assurance from Clement that 
the document of suppression would be ready in eight 
days, and, copies would be sent to the Kings of Spain, 
France and Naples. Meantime, as a guarantee, 
he began the work in his own States. Under all sorts 
of pretexts, individuals and college corporations were 
haled to court; and official visits were made of the 
various establishments. On March 10, 1773, Malvezzi, 

548 The Jesuits 

the Archbishop of Bologna, applied to r the Pope for 
"permission to dissolve the novitiate, if it would 
seem proper to do so." If you think well of it, I 
shall carry that measure into effect, as soon as I arrive, 
I also judge it advisable to shut up St. Lucia, by 
dismissing the Jesuit theologians and philosophers. 
In doing so, Your Holiness will be dispensed from the 
trouble of investigating and will thus avoid the publicity 
of any notable offence which an examination might 

There were two difficulties in the way, however. 
The people objected to the expulsion, and the Jesuits 
refused to be released from their vows. The latter 
obstacle was thought to be overcome by tearing off 
the cassocks of the young men and sending them 
adrift as laymen, and when the rector, Father Belgrado, 
who besides being a theologian was one of the foremost 
physicists and mathematicians of the day, and had 
been the confessor of the Duke and Duchess of Parma, 
informed the archbishop that dispensation from sub- 
stantial vows must come from the Pope and from no 
one else, that did not stop Malvezzi. He had the 
rector arrested and exiled; and with the help of a band 
of soldiers expelled the scholastics from the house. 
He then wrote to the Pope regretting that he had 
not proceeded more rapidly. Besides this, Frascati 
was taken from the Jesuits and given to the Cardinal 
of York, who asked for it, though his royal pension 
had made him already immensely wealthy. Similar 
visitations were made in Ferrara and Montalto, and 
the looting became general. 

In Poland, as we learn from " Les JSsuites de la 
Russie blanche/' the spoliation had started even before 
the promulgation of the edict. Libraries were broken 
up and the books were often used to kindle bonfires; 
the silver of the churches was melted down and sold, 

The Final Blow 549 

and medals and chains from statues were seen on the 
necks of abandoned women. Even the cattle on the 
farms were seized. The Jews were especially conspicu- 
ous in these depredations. 

All this was the prelude of the fatal Brief, which was 
signed on July 21, 1773, but was not promulgated 
until August 16 of . that year. Theiner is the only 
author who gives August 17 as the date. As a matter 
of fact it was held up by Austria so as to gain time to 
prevent the secular clergy from seizing the property. 
The preparation of the Brief was conducted with the 
profoundest secrecy. Even on July 28, the French 
Ambassador wrote to D'Aiguillon: "the Pope is 
doing nothing in the Jesuit matter." He was unaware 
that not only was the Brief already signed but that a 
Congregatio de rebus extinctse Societatis (a Committee 
on the affairs of the Extinct Society) had been appointed, 
and that its members had been bound under pain of 
excommunication not to reveal the fact to any one. 
However, Bernis found it out on the nth, and com- 
plained that he had not been consulted. He wrote as 
follows: " Last Friday, the Pope summoned Cardinals 
Marefoschi, Casali, Zelada, Corsini and Caraffa, and 
after having made them take an oath, he put a Brief 
in their hands, which constituted them members of a 
congregation which was to meet every Monday and 
Thursday to discuss whatever concerned the Jesuit 
establishments, their benefices, colleges, seminaries, 
foundations, and such matters. It held its first meeting 
last Monday. Macedonio, the Pope's nephew, was 
the secretary; Alfani, a prelate, was the assessor; and 
Fathers Mamachi, a Dominican, and de Casal, a 
Recollect, were consulting theologians. The last two 
mentioned are men of repute/' 

"The i6th day of August 1773, the day of sad 
memories," writes de Ravignan, " arrived. Towards 

550 The Jesuits 

nine at night, Macedonio went to the Gesu and 
officially notified the General of the Brief that sup- 
pressed the Society throughout the world. He was 
accompanied by soldiers and officers of the police 
to keep order, though no one dreamed of creating any 
trouble. At the same hour, also by command of the 
Pope, other distinguished prelates and ecclesiastics 
gave notice of the Brief to the various Jesuit rectors 
in Rome. They also were accompanied by soldiers 
and notaries. Seals were put on the archives, the 
accounts, the offices of the treasurers and the doors 
of the sacristies. The Jesuits were suspended from 
all ecclesiastical functions such as confessions and 
preaching, and they were forbidden, for the time 
being, to leave their houses. The Father General and 
his assistants were carried off to jail." " Such/* said 
Schoell (xliv, 84), " was the end of one of the most 
remarkable institutions that perhaps ever existed. 
The Order of the Jesuits was divided into five nations, 
Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French and German, 
each one of which had a representative living with the 
General. In 1750 the organization comprised 39 
provinces, had 84 professed houses, which were resi- 
dences where the most experienced members worked 
unceasingly for the Order without being distracted 
by public instruction. There were 679 colleges, 61 
novitiates, 176 seminaries, 335 residences, and 273 
missions. There were 22,589 members of whom 
11,293 were priests." 

This official act of the Pope really added very little 
to the temporal injury already done to the Order in 
Spain, France and Portugal where they had already 
been robbed of everything. But to be regarded as 
reprobates by the Pope and branded as disturbers 
of the peace of the Church was a suffering with which 
all they had hitherto undergone bore no comparison. 

The Final Blow 551 

Nevertheless, they uttered no protest. They sub- 
mitted absolutely and died without a murmur, and 
in this silence they were true to their lifelong training, 
for loyalty to the See of Peter had always been the 
distinctive mark of the Society of Jesus from the 
moment that Ignatius Loyola knelt at the feet of 
the Sovereign Pontiff, for his approval and blessing. 
When the blow fell, the Society was found to be faith- 
ful. If it had during its lifetime achieved something 
for the glory of God and the salvation of souls; if it 
had been constantly appealed to for the most dangerous 
missions and had accepted them with enthusiasm; 
if* it had poured out its blood lavishly for the Faith; 
if it had given many glorious saints to the Church, 
now, in the last terrible crisis which preceded the 
French Revolution and perhaps precipitated it, when 
the ruler of the Militant Church judged that by sacri- 
ficing one of his legions he could hold back the foe, 
the Society of Jesus on being chosen did not hesitate; 
it obeyed, and it was cut to pieces. Not a word came 
from the heroic band to discuss the wisdom or the 
unwisdom of the act. Others protested but not they. 
Those who condemned Clement XIV were not Jesuits, 
though their enemies said they were. On the contrary, 
the Jesuits defended and eulogized him and some of 
them even maintained that in the terrible circum- 
stances in which he found himself, he could not have 
done otherwise. The Suppression gave them the 
chance, which they did not miss, to prove to the world 
the solidity of virtue that reigned throughout the 
Order, and to show that their doctrine of "blind 
obedience " was not a matter of mere words, but an 
achievable and an achieved virtue. They would have 
stultified themselves had they halted when the supreme 
test was asked for, and so they died to uphold the 
judgment of the Vicar of Christ, and in similar 

552 The Jesuits 

circumstances would do it again. They had preached 
sermons in every part of the world, but never one like 
this. Nor was it a sublime act such as some individual 
saints might have performed. It was the act of the 
whole Society of Jesus. 

Silent themselves, they did their best to persuade 
others to refrain from all criticism. One example 
will suffice. It was after the Pope's death when the 
ex- Jesuits at Pribourg held a funeral service in their 
collegiate Church of St. Nicholas. The whole city 
was present, and the preacher, Father Matzel, amid 
the sobs of the congregation uttered these words: 
"Friends! beloved Friends of our former Society! 
whoever and wherever you may be! If ever we have 
had the happiness to be of help and comfort to you 
by our labor in city or country; if ever we have con- 
tributed anything to the cause of Christianity in 
preaching the word of God or catechising or instructing 
youth, or laboring in hospitals or prisons, or writing 
edifying books now, on this occasion, although in our 
present distress we have many favors to ask of you, 
there is one we ask above all and we entreat and implore 
you to grant it. It is never to speak a word that would 
be harsh or bitter or disrespectful to the memory of 
Clement XIV, the Supreme Head of the Church of 

The* famous Brief is designated by its first words, 
Dominus ac Re&mptor. Its general tenor is as follows : 
It begins by enumerating the various religious orders 
which, in course of time, had been suppressed by 
successive Popes, and it then gives a list of the privileges 
accorded to the Society by the Holy See, but it notes 
that " from its very cradle " there were internal and 
external disagreements and dissensions and jealousies, 
as well as opposition to both secular and ecclesiastical 
authority, chiefly because of the excessive privileges that 

The Final Blow 553 

had been granted to it by the different Sovereign Pon- 
tiffs. Its moral and dogmatic theology also gave rise 
to considerable discussion, and it has frequently been 
accused of too great avidity in the acquisition of 
earthly goods. The Pontiff merely declares that such 
" charges " were made against the Society; he, in no 
place, admits that the " charges " were based on truth. 
These accusations, he continues, caused much chagrin. 
to the Holy See, and afforded a motive for several 
sovereigns of Europe to range themselves in opposition 
to the Society; while, on the other hand, a new con- 
firmation of the Institute was obtained from Pope 
Paul IV of happy memory. That, however, did not 
succeed in putting an end to the disputes with the 
ordinaries or with other religious orders on many 
points, and notably with regard to certain ceremonies 
which the Holy See proscribed as scandalous in doc- 
trine, and subversive of morality; nor did it avail to 
quell the tumult which ultimately led to the expulsion 
of the Society from Portugal, France, Spain and the 
Two Sicilies, and induced the kings of those countries 
to ask Clement XIII for its complete suppression, 
" Hence, finding that the Society of Jesus can no longer 
produce the abundant fruits for which it was instituted, 
and for which it was approved by so many Popes, and 
rewarded by so many privileges, we now abolish and 
suppress it. But as the purpose which we have set for 
ourselves and are eager to achieve is the general good 
of the Church and the tranquillity of the people, and, 
at the same time, to give help and consolation to each 
of the members of this Society, all of whom we tenderly 
cherish in the Lord, we ordain as follows with regard 
to them." He then explains the various ways in 
which each section of the Society is to be dealt with. 
Such in general is the substance of this very long 
Brief. In it, however, there is not one word about the 

554 The Jesuits 

decadence of the Society in its morality or its theology. 
The Pontiff merely says that many have " charged " 
them with such offenses. He even goes so far as to 
say that " he tenderly loved all of the individuals who 
composed the Society/' The real purpose of it was 
to bring peace to the Church. Cahours in his " Des 
Jesuites par un J&uite," (II, p. 278) says, " Every 
judge who passes a sentence affirms two things: the 
existence of a crime and the fitness of the penalty. 
Clement XIV pronounces on the second, but says noth- 
ing of the first. Hence the sentence is not something 
exacted by justice, but is merely an administrative 
measure called for by the embarrassment of the 

Was it legitimate? Yes; for the Holy See has a 
right to suppress what it has created. 



Summary of the Brief of Suppression and its Supplementary 

THE Brief of Clement XIV which suppressed the 
Society begins by enumerating the various religious 
orders which have been treated in a similar manner 
at different periods in the history of the Church, but 
it omits to note that their extinction occurred only 
after a juridical examination. Thus, for instance, 
when Clement V suppressed the Knights Templars 
in 1321, he first ordered all the bishops of the world to 
summon the Knights who had chapters in their dioceses; 
to subject them to a regular trial and then to forward a 
report of their proceedings to Rome. When this was 
done a general council was convened at Vienne in 
Dauphin6 to go over the whole matter and then 
submit its decision to the Pope. The council brought 
in a favorable verdict by a majority vote, although 
the Knights were very poorly defended, but the Pope, 
terrorized by Philip the Fair, ordered the dissolution 
of the Order. In the case of the Society there was a 
dissolution but no trial. 

After recounting these facts, the Pontiff says: 
" Having before my eyes these and other examples of 
Orders suppressed by the Church and being most 
eager to proceed with perfect confidence in carrying 
out the purpose which shall be referred to later, we 
have left nothing undone to make ourselves acquainted 
with the origin, progress and actual condition of the 
religious order commonly known as the Society of 
Jesus. We have seen that it was established by its 
Holy Founder for the salvation of souls, the conver- 


556 The Jesuits 

sion of heretics and especially of the heathen, and also 
for the increase of piety and religion. To accomplish 
these purposes its members were bound by a very 
strict vow of evangelical poverty both in common and 
individually, with the exception of its houses of study 
or colleges which are allowed to possess certain revenues, 
but in such wise that they could not be diverted or 
applied to the use of this Society. 

" In consequence of these statutes and of others 
equally wise, our predecessor Paul III approved of 
the Society of Jesus, by his Bull of September 27, 1540, 
and allowed it to draw up rules and statutes to ensure 
its peace, its existence and its government; and although 
he had restricted this Society to sixty members, yet 
by another Bull dated February 28, 1543, he per- 
mitted the superiors to receive all who appeared to 
possess the proper qualifications for the work proposed. 
Subsequently, the same Pontiff by a Brief of November 
*5 *549> accorded very great privileges to this Society 
and gave its Generals the power of accepting twenty 
priests as spiritual coadjutors and of conferring on 
them the same privileges, the same favor and the 
same authority as the Professed. His wish was and 
he so ordained that there should be no limit or restric- 
tion put on the number of those whom the General 
should judge worthy of being so received. Further- 
more, the Society itself, all its members and their 
possessions were entirely withdrawn from all superior- 
ship, control and correction of bishops and taken under 
the protection of the Holy See. 

" Others of our predecessors have exhibited the 
same munificent liberality to this order. In effect 
Julius III, Paul IV, Paul V, Gregory XIII, Sixtus V, 
Gregory XIV, Clement VIII and other Popes have 
either confirmed or augmented, or more distinctly 
defined and determined the privileges already conferred 

The Instrument 557 

on these religious. Nevertheless, the tenor and even 
the terms of these Apostolic Constitutions show that 
even at its inception the Society saw spring up within 
it various germs of discord and jealousies, which not 
only divided the members, but prompted them to 
exalt themselves above other religious orders, the 
secular clergy, the universities, colleges, public schools 
and even the sovereigns who had admitted and welcomed 
them in their realms. These troubles and dissensions 
were sometimes caused by the character of the Society's 
vows, by its power to admit novices to the vows, to 
dismiss from the Society, to present its subjects for 
ordination without any ecclesiastical title and without 
having made solemn vows. Moreover, it was in 
conflict with the decisions of the Council of Trent 
and of Pius V, our predecessor, both with regard 
to the absolute power arrogated by the General, as 
well as in other articles which not only relate to the 
government of the Society, but also on different points 
of doctrine, and in the exemptions and privileges 
which the ordinaries and other dignitaries both 
ecclesiastical and secular claim to be an invasion of 
their jurisdiction and their rights. In brief, there is 
scarcely any kind of a grave accusation that has not 
been brought against this Society, and in consequence, 
the peace and tranquillity of Christendom has been 
for a long time disturbed. 

11 Numberless complaints backed by the authority 
of kings and rulers have been urged against these 
religious at the tribunals of Paul IV, Pius V and Sixtus 
V. Thus, Philip II, King of Spain, laid before Sixtus 
V not only the urgent and grave personal reasons 
which prompted his action in this matter, but also the 
protest of the Spanish Inquisition against the excessive 
privileges of the Society. His majesty also complained 
of the Society's form of government, and of points in 

558 The Jesuits 

the Institution which were disputed by some of the 
members of the Society who were conspicuous for 
their knowledge and piety, and he asked the Sovereign 
Pontiff to name a commission for an Apostolic visitation 
of the Society. 

"As the zealous demands of Philip seemed to be 
based on justice and equity, Sixtus V appointed as 
visitor Apostolic a bishop generally recognized for 
his prudence, virtue and intellectual gifts. A congre- 
gation of cardinals was also instituted to dispose of the 
matter, but the premature death of Sixtus prevented 
any action. On the other hand, the first act of Gregory 
XIV on his accession to the Chair of Peter was to 
give by his. Bull of June 28, 1591, the most extensive 
approval of the Institute. He confirmed and ratified 
all the privileges accorded by his predecessors, and 
especially that of dismissal from the Order without 
juridical procedure, that is to say without having 
taken any previous information, without drawing up 
any indictment, without observing any legal process, 
or allowing any delay, even the most essential, but 
solely on the inspection of the truth of the fact and 
without regard to the fault or whether it or the 
attendant circumstances sufficiently justified the expul- 
sion of the person involved. 

" Moreover, Pope Gregory absolutely forbade under 
pain of excommunication ipso facto, any direct or 
indirect attack on the institute, the constitutions, 
or the decrees of the Society, or any attempt to change 
them, although he permitted an appeal to himself or 
his successors, either directly or through the legates 
and nuncios of the Holy See, and also the right to 
represent whatever one might think should be added, 
modified or retrenched. 

"However, all these precautions did not avail to 
silence the clamorous complaints against the Society. 

The Instrument 559 

On the contrary, strife arose everywhere about the 
doctrines of the Order, which many maintained were 
totally opposed to the orthodox faith and sound 
morality. The Society itself was torn by internal 
dissensions while this external warfare was going on. 
It was also everywhere reproached with too much 
avidity and eagerness for earthly goods and this 
complaint caused the Holy See much pain and exasper- . 
ated many rulers of nations against the Society. 
Hence, to strengthen themselves on that point these 
religious, wishing to obtain from Paul V of happy 
memory a new confirmation of their Institute and their 
privileges, were compelled to ask for a ratification 
of some decrees published in the fifth general congre- 
gation and inserted word for word in his Bull of 
September 14, 1606. These decrees expressly declared 
that the Society assembled in general congregation 
had been compelled both by the troubles and enmities 
among the members, and by the charges from without, 
to formulate the following statute:- 

" ' Our Society which has been raised up by God for 
the propagation of the Faith and the salvation of 
souls, is enabled by the proper functions of its Institute 
which are the arms of the spirit to attain under the 
standard of the Cross the end it 4 proposes, with edifica- 
tion to the neighbor and usefulness to the Church. 
On the other hand, it would do harm and expose 
itself to the greatest danger if it meddled in affairs of 
the world and especially with what concerns the politics 
and government of States. But, as in these unfortunate 
times our Order, perhaps because of the ambition or 
indiscreet zeal of some of its members, is attacked 
in different parts of the world and is complained of to 
certain sovereigns whose consideration and affection we 
have been bidden by St. Ignatius to preserve so that 
we may be more acceptable to God, and as, besides, 

560 The Jesuits 

the good odor of Jesus Christ is necessary to produce 
fruits of salvation, this congregation is of the opinion 
that it is incumbent upon all to avoid as far as possible 
even the appearance of evil, and thus to obviate the 
accusations that are based on unjust suspicions. Hence, 
the present decree forbids all under the most rigorous 
penalties to concern themselves in any way with 
public affairs, even when invited to do so or when for 
some reason they may seem to be indispensable. They 
are not to depart from the Institute of the Society no 
matter how entreated or solicited, and the definitors 
are to lay down rules and to prescribe the means best 
calculated to remedy abuses, in cases which may 
present themselves.' 

"We have observed with bitter grief that these 
remedies and many others subsequently employed 
failed to put an end to the troubles, complaints and 
accusations against the Society, and that Urban VIII, 
Clement IX, Clement X, Clement XI, Clement XII, 
Alexander VII, Alexander VIII, Innocent X, Innocent 
XI, Innocent XII, Innocent XIII, and Benedict XIV 
were unable to give the Church peace. The constitu- 
tions which were drawn up with regard to secular 
affairs with which the Society should not concern 
itself, whether outside of these missions or on account 
of them, failed to have any result. Nor did they put 
an end to the serious quarrels and dissensions caused 
by members of the Society with the ordinaries and 
religious orders, or about places consecrated to piety, 
and also with communities of every kind in Europe, 
Asia and America; all of which caused great scandal 
and loss of souls. The same was true with regard to 
the practice and interpretation of certain pagan 
ceremonies which were tolerated and permitted in 
many places while those approved of by the Universal 
Church were put aside. Then, too, there was the use 

The Instrument 561 

and interpretation of maxims which the Holy See 
deemed to be scandalous and evidently harmful to 
morality. Finally, there were other things of great 
moment and of absolute necessity for the preservation 
of the dogmas of the Christian religion in its purity 
and integrity which in our own and preceding centuries 
led to abuses and great evils such as the troubles and 
seditions in Catholic states, and even persecutions of 
the Church in some provinces of Asia and Europe. 

" All of our predecessors have been sorely afflicted 
by these things, among others Innocent XI of pious 
memory, who forbade the habit to be given to novices; 
Innocent XIII, who was obliged to utter the same 
threat; and, finally, Benedict XIV, who ordered a 
visitation of the houses and colleges of our dear son 
in Christ, the most faithful King of Portugal and the 
Algarves. But the Holy See derived no consolation from 
all this; nor was the Society helped; nor did Christianity 
secure any advantage from the last letter, which had 
been rather extorted than obtained from our immediate 
predecessor Clement XIII (to borrow the expression 
employed by Gregory X in the Ecumenical Council 
of Lyons.) 

" After so many terrible shocks, storms and tempests, 
the truly faithful hope to see the day dawn which will 
bring peace and calm. But under the pontificate 
of our predecessor Clement XIII, the times grew more 
stormy. Indeed, the clamors against the Society 
augmented daily and in some places there were troubles, 
dissensions, dangerous strifes and even scandals which, 
after completely shattering Christian charity, lighted in 
the hearts of the faithful, party spirit, hatred and 
enmity. The danger increased to such a degree that 
even those whose piety and well-known hereditary 
devotion to the Society, namely our very dear sons in 
Jesus Christ, the Kings of Prance, Spain, Portugal and 

562 The Jesuits 

the Two Sicilies, were forced to banish from their king- 
doms, states and provinces all the religious of this 
Order; being persuaded that this extreme measure was 
the only means of remedying so many evils and putting 
an end to the contentions and strife that were tearing 
the bosom of Mother Church. 

" But these same kings, our very dear sons in Jesus 
Christ, thought that this remedy could not be lasting 
in its effects or could avail to tranquillize Christendom 
unless the Society was altogether abolished and sup- 
pressed. Hence, they made known to Clement XIII 
their desire in this matter and asked him with one 
accord and with all the authority they possessed, 
adding also their prayers and entreaties to bring about 
in tiiat way the perpetual tranquillity of their subjects 
and the general good of the Church. But the sudden 
death of that Pontiff checked all progress in the 
matter. Hardly, however, had we, by the mercy 
of God, been elevated to the Chair of St. Peter, than 
the same prayers were addressed to us, the same 
insistent demands were made and a great number of 
bishops and other personages illustrious by their 
learning, dignity and virtue united their supplications 
to this request. 

" Wishing, however, to take the surest course in 
such a grave and important matter, we believed we 
needed a much longer time to consider it, not only 
for the purpose of making the most exact examination 
possible and then to deliberate upon the most prudent 
methods to be adopted and also to obtain from the 
Father of Light His especial help and assistance, we 
offered our most earnest prayers, mourning and grieving 
over what was before us, and we entreated the faithful 
to come to our aid by their prayers and good works. 
We have especially thought it advisable to find out 
upon what basis this widespread feeling rested with re- 

The Instrument 563 

gard to the Society, which had been confirmed and ap- 
proved in the most solemn manner by the Council of 
Trent. We discovered that the council mentions the 
Order only to exempt it from the general decree passed 
for other Orders. The Jesuit novices were to be ad- 
mitted to profession if judged worthy, or they were to be 
dismissed from the Society. Hence the council (Session 
25, c. xvi, de reg.) declared that it wished to make no 
innovation nor to prevent these religious from serving 
God and the Church in accordance with their pious 
Institute which had been approved by the Church. 
" Wherefore, after having made use of so many 
necessary means, and aided as we think by the presence' 
and inspiration of the Holy Ghost, and, moreover, 
compelled by the duty of our office which essentially 
obliges us to procure, maintain and strengthen with 
all our power, the repose and tranquillity of Christen- 
dom, and to root out entirely what could cause the 
slightest harm; and, moreover, having recognized 
that the Society of Jesus could no longer produce the 
abundant fruit and the great good for which it was 
instituted and approved by so many Popes, our prede- 
cessors, who adorned it with so many most admirable 
privileges, and seeing that it was almost and, indeed, 
absolutely impossible for the Church to enjoy a true 
and solid peace while this Order existed, being bound 
as we are by so many powerful considerations and 
compelled by other motives which the laws of prudence 
and the wise administration of the Church suggest 
but which we keep in the depths of our heart : Following 
in the footsteps of our predecessors and especially 
of Gregory X at the Council of Lyons, since the cases 
are identical, we do, hereby, after a mature examination, 
and of our certain knowledge, and by the plenitude of 
our Apostolic power, suppress and abolish the Society 
of Jesus* We nullify and abrogate all and each of 

564 The Jesuits 

its offices, functions, administrations, houses, schools, 
colleges, retreats, refuges and other establishments 
which belong to it in any manner whatever, and in 
every province, kingdom or state in which it may 
be found. We do the same for its statutes, customs, 
usages, decrees, constitutions, even those confirmed by 
the oath and by the approbation of the Holy See or 
otherwise, as well as all and each of its indults, both 
general and particular whose tenor we wish to be regarded 
as fully and sufficiently set forth by these present letters, 
as if they were here inserted word for word; notwith- 
standing any clause or formula to the contrary, no 
matter upon what decrees or obligations they may be 
based. Hence, we declare as forever broken and 
entirely extinct all authority, spiritual or temporal, 
of the General, provincials, visitors and other superiors 
of this Society, and we transfer absolutely and without 
restriction this same authority and this same juris- 
diction to the ordinaries of the places where the afore- 
said are, according to the case or persons, in the form 
and under the conditions which we shall explain here- 
after; forbidding, as we do by these presents forbid, 
that any one should be received into this Society or 
admitted to the novitiate or invested with the habit. 
We also forbid any of those who have already been 
received to pronounce the simple or solemn vows, 
under pain of nullity either of their admission or pro- 
fession and under other penalties as we may see fit. 
Moreover, we wish, ordain and enjoin that those who 
are at present novices, should be immediately, instantly 
and effectually dismissed, and we forbid those who have 
not made solemn vows and who have not yet been 
admitted to the priesthood to be promoted to cither 
under the title or pretext of their profession or in virtue 
of any privileges accorded to the Society and in con- 
travention of the decrees of the Council of Trent. 

The Instrument 565 

" But as the object we have in view and which we 
are most eager to attain is to watch over the general 
good of the Church and the peace of the nations, and 
at the same time to help and console each one of the 
members of this Society whom we tenderly cherish 
in the Lord, so that, freed at last from all the quarrels 
and disputes and annoyances in which they have 
until now been engaged, they may cultivate with 
more fruit the vineyard of the Lord and labor with 
more success for the salvation of souls, we decree and 
ordain that the members of this Society who have 
made only simple vows and who are not yet in Holy 
Orders shall depart from their houses and colleges 
freed from their vows, and that they are free to embrace 
whatever state they judge most conformable to their 
vocation, their strength and their conscience. The 
ordinary of the place will fix the time which may be 
deemed sufficient to procure an employment or an 
occupation, without, however, extending it beyond a 
year, just as in the Society they would be dismissed 
without any other reason than because the prudence of 
the superior so judges, and that without any previous 
citation or juridical proof. 

" We allow those in Holy Orders either to leave 
their houses and colleges and enter some religious 
order approved by the Holy See, in which case they 
must pass the probation prescribed by the Council of 
Trent, if they have only taken simple vows, if they 
have taken solemn vows, the time of their probation 
will be sk months in virtue of a dispensation which 
we give to that effect; or they may remain in the 
world as secular priests or clerics, and in that case 
they shall be entirely subject to the authority and 
jurisdiction of the ordinary of the place in which they 
reside. We ordain, also, that a suitable pension shall 
be assigned to those who remain in the world, until 

566 The Jesuits 

such time as they shall be otherwise provided for. 
This pension shall be derived from the funds of the 
house where they formerly lived, due consideration, 
however, being had to the revenues and the indebted- 
ness of such houses, 

" The professed who are already in Holy Orders and 
who fear they may not be able to live respectably on 
account of the smallness of their pension, either 
because they can find no other refuge or are very old 
and infirm, may live in their former houses on condition 
that they shall have no share in its administration, 
that they dress like secular priests and be entirely 
subject to the bishop of the place. We expressly 
forbid them to supply anyone's place or to acquire any 
house or place in the future, or, as the Council of Lyons 
decrees, to alienate the houses, goods or places which 
they actually possess. They may, nevertheless, meet 
in one or more houses, in such a manner that such 
houses may be available if needed for pious purposes, 
as may appear most in conformity, in time and place, 
with the Holy Canons and the will of the founders, 
and also more conducive to the growth of religion, 
the salvation of souls and public utility. Moreover, 
some one of the secular clergy, commendable for his 
prudence and virtuous life, must appear in the adminis- 
tration of such houses, as the name of the Society is 
now totally suppressed and abolished. 

" We declare, also, that those who have been already 
expelled from any country whatever are included in 
the general suppression of the Order, and we conse- 
quently decree that those banished Jesuits, even if 
they are in Holy Orders and have not entered a religious 
order, shall from this moment belong to the secular 
clergy and be entirely subject to the ordinary of the 

The Instrument 567 

" If the ordinaries recognize in those who in virtue 
of the present Brief have passed from the Society to 
the state of secular priests necessary knowledge and 
correctness of life, they may grant or refuse them, 
as they choose, the permission to confess and preach, 
and without such authorization none of them can 
exercise such functions. However, the bishops or 
ordinaries will never grant such powers as are conceded 
to those not of the diocese, if the applicants live in 
houses or colleges formerly belonging to the Society; 
and therefore we forbid such persons to preach or 
administer the sacraments, as Gregory X, our prede- 
cessor prescribed in the general council already referred 
to. We lay it on the conscience of the bishops to watch 
over the execution of all this and we command them 
to reflect on the rigorous account they will have one 
day to render to God of the sheep committed to their 
care and of the terrible judgment with which the 
Sovereign Judge of the living and the dead menaces 
those who govern others. 

" Moreover, if among those who were members of the 
Society there are any who were charged with the 
instruction of youth or who have exercised the functions 
of professors in colleges and schools, we warn them 
that they are absolutely deposed from any such 
direction, administration or authority and -that they 
are not permitted to be employed in any such work, 
except as long as there is a reason to hope for some 
good from their labors and as long as they appear to 
keep aloof from all discussions and points of doctrine 
whose laxity and futility only occasion and engender 
trouble and disastrous contentions. We 'furthermore 
ordain that they shall be forever forbidden to exercise, 
the functions aforesaid, if they do not endeavor to 
keep peace in their schools and with others; and that 

568 The Jesuits 

they shall be discharged from the schools if they happen 
to be employed in them. 

"As regards the missions, we include them in 
everything that has been ordered in this suppression, 
and we reserve to ourselves to take measures calculated 
to procure more easily and with greater certainty of 
results the conversion of the heathens and the cessation 
of disputes. 

" Therefore, we have entirely abolished and abro- 
gated all the privileges and statutes of this Order and 
we declare that all of its members shall as soon as they 
have left their houses and colleges and have embraced 
the state of secular clerics, be considered proper 
and fit to obtain, in conformity with the Holy Canons 
and the Apostolic Constitutions, all sorts of benefices 
either simple or with the care of souls annexed; and 
also to accept offices, dignities and pensions, from 
which in accordance with the Brief of Gregory XIII of 
September 10, 1584, which begins with the words: 
* Satis superque/ they were absolutely excluded as 
long as they belonged to the Society. We allow them 
also to accept compensations for celebrating Mass, 
which they were not allowed to receive as Jesuits, and 
to enjoy all the graces and favors of which they would 
have always been deprived as long as they were Clerks 
Regular of the Society. We abrogate likewise all 
permissions they may have obtained from the General 
and other superiors, in virtue of the privileges accorded 
by the Sovereign Pontiff, such as leave to read heretical 
books and others prohibited and condemned by the 
Holy See, or not to fast or abstain, or to anticipate 
the Divine Office or anything, in fact, of that nature. 
Under the severest penalties we forbid them to use 
such privileges in the future, as our intention is to 
make them live in conformity with the requirements 
of the common law, like secular priests, 

The Instrument 569 

" After the publication of the Brief, we forbid 
anyone, no matter who he may be, to dare to suspend 
its execution even under color, title or pretext of some 
demand, appeal or declaration or discussion of doubt 
that may arise or under any other pretext, foreseen 
or unforeseen; for we wish that the suppression and 
cessation of the whole Society as well as of all of 
its officers should have their full and entire effect, 
at the moment, and instanteously, and in the form 
and manner in which we have described above, under 
pain of major excommunication incurred if so facto 
by a single act, and reserved to us and to the Popes, 
our successors. This is directed against anyone who 
will dare to place the least obstacle, impediment or 
delay in the execution of this Brief. We order, 
likewise, and we forbid under holy obedience all and 
every ecclesiastic secular and regular, whatever be 
their grade, dignity, quality or condition, and notably 
those who are at present attached to the Society or 
were in the past, to oppose or attack this suppression, 
to write against it, even to speak of it, or of its causes 
or motives, or of the extinct Institute itself, its rules, 
constitutions or discipline or of anything else, relative 
to this affair, without the express permission of the 
Sovereign Pontiff. We likewise forbid all and everyone 
under pain of excommunication reserved to us and 
our successors to dare to assail either in secret or in 
public, verbally or in writing, by disputes, injuries 
and affronts or by any other kind of contempt, anyone, 
no matter who he may be and least of all those who 
were members of the said Order. 

" We exhort all Christian princes whose attachment 
and respect for the Holy See we know, to employ all 
the zeal, care, strength, authority and power which 
they have received from God for the execution of this 
Brief,, in order to protect and defend the Holy Roman 

570 The Jesuits 

Church, to adhere to all the articles it contains; to 
issue and publish similar decrees by which they may 
more carefully watch over the execution of this our 
present will and so forestall quarrelling, strife and 
dissensions among the faithful. 

" Finally, we exhort all Christians and we implore 
them by the bowels of Jesus Christ Our Lord to 
remember that they have the same Master, Who is in 
heaven; the same Savior, Who redeemed them at 
the price of His blood; that they have all been regener- 
ated by the grace of Baptism; that they have been all 
made sons of God and co-heirs of Christ; and are 
nourished by the same bread of the Divine word, 
the doctrine of the Church; that they are one body in 
Jesus Christ, and are members of each other; and 
consequently, it is necessary that being united by 
the bonds of charity they should live in peace with all 
men, as their only duty is to love each other, for he 
who loves his neighbor fulfills the law. Hence, 
also, they should regard with horror injuries, hatred, 
quarrels, deceits and other evils which the enemy of 
the human race has invented, devised and provoked 
to trouble the Church of God and to hinder the salva- 
tion of souls; nor are they to allege the false pretext 
of scholastic opinions or that of greater Christian 
perfection* Finally, let all endeavor to acquire that 
true wisdom of which St. James speaks (iii,i3) : * Who 
is a wise man and indued with knowledge among you? 
Let him show, by a good conversation, his work in 
the meekness of wisdom. But if you haye a bitter 
zeal, and there be contentions in your heart; glory 
not, and be not liars against the truth. For this is 
not wisdom, descending from above; but earthly, 
sensual, devilish. For, where envying and contention 
is, there is inconstancy, and every evil work. For the 
wisdom, that is from above, first indeed is chaste, 

The Instrument 571 

then peaceable, modest, easy to be persuaded, consent- 
ing to the good, full of mercy and good fruits, without 
judging, without dissimulation. And the fruit of 
justice is sown in peace, to them that make peace.' 

" Even if the superiors and the other religious of 
this Order, as well as all those who are interested 
or pretend to be, in any way whatever, in what has 
been herein ordered, give no assent to the present 
Brief and were not summoned or heard, we wish, 
nevertheless, that it should never be attacked, weakened 
or 1 invalidated on the plea of subreption, obreption, 
nullity, invalidity or defect of intention on our part 
or for any other motive, no matter how great or unfore- 
seen or essential it may be, or because formalities 
and other things have been omitted which should have 
been observed in the preceding enactments or in any 
one of them, or for any other capital point deriving 
from the law or any custom, or indeed contained in 
the body of the law; nor can there be any pretext of 
an enormous or a very enormous and extreme injury 
inflicted; nor, finally, can there be any reasons or 
causes however just or reasonable they may be, even 
one that should have necessarily been expressed, 
needed to give validity to the rules above given. We 
forbid that it should be ever retracted, discussed or 
brought to court or that it be provided against by 
way of restitution, discussion, review according to 
law or in any other way to obtain by legal procedure, 
fact, favor or justice, in any manner in which it might be 
accorded, to be made use of either in court or out of it. 

" Moreover, we wish expressly that the present 
Constitution should be from this moment valid, 
stable and efficacious forever, that it should have its 
full and entire effect; that it should be inviolably 
observed by all and each of those to whom it belongs 
or will belong in the future in any manner whatever," 

572 The Jesuits 

Such was the famous Brief which condemned the 
Society to death. Distressing as it is, it attributes 
no wrong doing to the Order. It narrates a few of the 
accusations against the Jesuits, but does not accept 
them as ever having been proved. The sole reason 
given for the suppression and it is repeated again 
and again is that the Society was the occasion of 
much trouble in the Church. It is thus, on the whole, 
a vindication and not a condemnation. It was not 
a Bull but a Brief, and on that account could be much 
more easily revoked than the more solemn document 
to which the papal India is affixed. 

Father Cordara's view of this act of the Pope is 
generally considered to reflect that of the Society at 
large. It is of special value for he was one of the 
suppressed Jesuits and happened to be living in Rome 
at the time. He maintained that "the Pope could, 
without injustice, suppress the Society, even if inno- 
cent, just as a king can deliver over an innocent man 
to be put to death by an enemy who otherwise would 
sack a city. Clement XIV thought to save the Church 
whose existence was menaced/* 

Two years later however, Cardinal Antonelli when 
interrogated by Clement's successor, Pius VI, and,, 
consequently, when he was compelled to speak, did 
not hesitate to condemn the Brief absolutely. His 
statement is quoted here, not as a view that is adopted, 
but merely as a matter of history. The document is of 
considerable importance, for Antonelli was prefect of 
the Propaganda and with Consalvi was the confidant 
of Pius VII and was his fellow-prisoner in 1804. We 
sum it up briefly, omitting its harsher phrases. 

" Your Holiness knows as well as the cardinals that 
Clement XIV would never consent to give the Brief 
of Suppression the canonical forms which were indis- 
pensable to make it definitive. Moreover this Brief 

The Instrument 573 

of Clement XIV is addressed to no one, although 
such letters usually are. In its form and execution all 
law is set aside, it is based on false accusations and 
shameful calumnies; it is self-contradictory, in speaking 
of vows both solemn and simple. Clement XIV claims 
powers such as none of his predecessors claimed, and, 
on the other hand, leaves doubts on points that should 
have been more clearly determined. The motives 
alleged by the Brief could be applied to any other 
Order, and seem to have been prepared for the destruc- 
tion of all of them, without specifying reasons it 
annuls many Bulls and Constitutions received and 
recognized by the Church; all of which goes to show 
that the Brief is null and void." 

A copy of the Brief was sent to every bishop in 
Christendom, even to the remotest missions. Accom- 
panying it was another document called an "Ency- 
clical from the Congregation styled ' For the abolition 
of the Society of Jesus/ with which is sent an exemplar 
to every bishop of the Brief of Extinction: Dominus 
ac Redemptor, with the command of His Holiness 
that all the bishops should publish and promulgate 
the Brief." The Latin text may be found in de Ravig- 
nan's " Cl&nent XIII et C16ment XIV " (p. 560). 
We give here the translation: 

" Most Illustrious and Most Reverend Lord and 

"From the printed copy herein contained of the 
Apostolic Letters in the form of a Brief, under the date 
of the 2ist of the preceding month of July, your 
lordship will learn of the suppression and extinction 
for just causes of the Regular Clerics hitherto called 
" of the Society of Jesus " by the most holy Lord 
Clement XIV; you will also learn by what legal process 
His Holiness has decreed that the suppression should 
be carried out in every part of the world. For the 

574 The Jesuits 

complete destruction of the same, he has established 
a special congregation of their eminences, the Cardinals 
Corsini, Marefoschi, Caraffa, Zelada, and Casali, 
together with the Reverend Macedonio and Alfani, 
who possess the most ample faculties for what is 
necessary and proper. The Brief establishing this 
congregation, under date of the i8th of the current 
month of August, is herein enclosed. 

"By command of His Holiness the same congregation 
transmits the present letters to your lordship,' in 
order that in each house and college and place where 
the individuals of the aforesaid suppressed Society 
may be found, your lordship shall assemble them in 
any house whatever (in qualibet domo) and you shall 
regularly (rite) announce, publish and intimate, as 
they say, and force and compel them to execute 
these letters; and your lordship shall take and retain 
possession for the use afterwards to be designated by 
His Holiness, of all and each of the houses, colleges 
and places of the same, with the lawful rights to their 
goods and appurtenances, after having removed the 
aforesaid individuals of the suppressed Society; and 
in their execution, your lordship will do whatever 
else is decreed in the letters of suppression and will 
advise the special congregation that such execution 
has been carried out. Your lordship will see to it. 
Meantime we entreat the Lord that all things may 
prosper with you. 

" Yours with brotherly devotedness. 
"Rome, Aug. 18, 1773." 

Carayon gives us the personnel of this congregation 
(Doc, in6dits, xvii). Cardinal Marefoschi, who had 
been for sixteen years secretary of the Propaganda, 
had made a digest of all the complaints uttered by 
missionaries in various parts of the world against the 
Jesuits, omitting, however, all that had been said in 

The Instrument 575 

their favor. The Pope had named him visitor of 
the Irish College, which had been entrusted to the 
Society by Cardinal Ludovisi, and he immediately 
removed the Jesuits. Among other professors he 
put in a certain Tamburini, who had been expelled 
from Brescia for Jansenism. In Marefoschi's report 
to the Pope, the former professors (the Jesuits) were 
accused of neglect of the studies, alienation of ecclesi- 
astical property and swindling, with a consequent 
diminution of the revenues. He was then sent to 
visit the College of Tuccioli and similar disastrous 
results ensued. In June, 1772, he and the Cardinal 
of York expelled the Jesuits from the Roman Seminary 
and in the same year from Frascati. The entire city 
addressed a petition to the cardinal begging him not 
to drive out the Fathers, but his royal highness was 
so wrought up by the audacity of the request that 
he was on the point of putting some of the chief 
petitioners in jail, magistrates though they were. 

With Marefoschi were three other cardinals, Casali, 
Caraffa, and Zelada, all three of whom had been raised 
to the purple in ' the month of May at the suggestion 
of Mgr. Bottari, who had been filling Rome with 
defamatory books against the Jesuits. In spite of the 
entreaties of his family, young Cardinal Cojrsini accepted 
the presidency. Macedonio was made secretary, and 
Alfani, assessor; both of these clergymen were subse- 
quently charged with pillage of the sequestrated 
property. Finally, to give an appearance of acting 
in conformity with canon law, two theologians were 
added to the commission; Mamachi, a Dominican, 
and de Casal, a Minor Reformed; both were avowed 
enemies of Probabilism and Molinism, and, singularly 
enough, were bitterly opposed to the Apostolic Con- 
stitution " Unigenitus " in which Clement XI con- 
demned the Jansenistic errors of Pasquier Quesnel. 

576 The Jesuits 

The Protestant historian SchoeU (xliv, 83) speaking 
of the brief of suppression says: " This Brief does not 
condemn the doctrine nor the morals, nor the rules of 
the Jesuits. The complaints of the courts are the 
sole motives alleged for the suppression of the Order, 
and the Pope justifies himself by the precedents of other 
Oniers which were suppressed to satisfy the demands 
of public opinion." As he was about to sign it, he 
heard the bells of the Gesu ringing. "What is that for? " 
he asked. "The Jesuits are about to recite the Litany 
of the Saints,'* he was told; " Not the Litany of the 
Saints/' he said, "but the Litany of the Dead." It 
was July 21, 1773. 



Seizure of the Gesft in Rome Suspension of the Priests Juri- 
dical Trial of Father Ricci continued during Two Years The Vic- 
tim's Death-bed Statement Admission of his Innocence by the 
Inquisitors Obsequies Reason of his Protracted Imprisonment 
Liberation of the Assistants by Pius VI Receipt of the Brief outside 
of Rome Refused by Switzerland, Poland, Russia and Prussia 
Read to the Prisoners in Portugal by Pombal Denunciation of it 
by the Archbishop of Paris Suppression of the Document by the 
Bishop of Quebec Acceptance by Austria Its Enforcement in 
Belgium Carroll at Bruges Defective Promulgation in Maryland. 

Two days before the subsidiary Brief was signed, 
namefy on August 16, 1773, the commissioner began 
operations. Led by Alfani and Macedonio, a squad 
of soldiers invaded the Gesti, where the General and 
his assistants were notified of the suppression of 
the Society. Apparently no one else was cited, and 
hence, according to de Ravignan, the procedure was 
illegal as far as the rest of the community was con- 
cerned. However, they made no difficulty about it 
and from that moment considered themselves as no 
longer Jesuits. It was supposed that a great amount 
of money would be seized at the central house of the 
Society; but the hope was not realized; for only about 
$50,000 were found, and that sum had been collected 
to defray the expenses of the beatification of St. 
Francis Hieronymo. It really belonged to St. Peter's 
rather than to the Gesti. However, there was plenty 
of material in the gold and silver vessels of the chapels, 
the works of art, the valuable library, and the archives. 
The same process was followed in the other Jesuit 
establishments of the city. The Fathers were locked 
up while the soldiers guarded the doors and swarmed 

37 577 

578 The Jesuits 

through the rooms and passage ways. The old and 
infirm were carried to the Roman College, and then 
sent back to the place whence they had been taken; 
in both instances on stretchers, when the victim was 
unable to walk. One old Father was actually breath- 
ing his last during the transfer. They were all 
suspended from their priestly faculties, and ordered 
to report every three months to the authorities with 
a certificate of their good behavior, signed by the 
parish priest. They were ecclesiastical "ticket of 
leave men." Pretexts were multiplied to have many 
of them arrested. They were paraded through the 
streets in custody of a policeman, and after being put 
in the dock with common criminals were locked up 
or banished from the Papal States. 

On August 17 at night-fall, the carriage of Cardinal 
Corsini drove to the Gesft. In it was the auditor of 
the congregation with a request to Father Ricci to 
meet the cardinal at the English College. The invita- 
tion was accepted in perfect good faith, although that 
very morning an offer made by the minister of Tuscany 
to take the General under his protection and thus 
secure him from arrest had been declined by Ricci. 
The freedom of the house was given to him on his 
arrival, but soon he was restricted to three rooms, 
and he then noticed that soldiers were on guard both 
inside and outside of the college. He was kept there 
for more than a month, during which time he was 
subjected to several judicial examinations; finally he 
was transferred to the Castle Sant' Angelo where he 
was soon followed by his secretary, Commolli, and the 
assistants, Le Forestier, Zaccharia, Gautier and Fauro. 
They were all assigned to separate cells. The enemies 
of the Society now had the arch-criminal in their 
hands, the General himself, Father Ricci; and they 
could get from him all the secrets of the redoubtable 

The Execution 579 

organization which they had destroyed. His papers, 
both private and official, were in their possession. 
The archives of the Society were before them with 
information about every member of it from the begin- 
ning, as well as all the personal letters from all over the 
world written in every conceivable circumstance of 
Jesuit life. They were all carefully studied and yet 
no cause for accusation was found in them. The 
jailors seemed to have lost their heads and to have 
forgotten their usual tactics of forgery and inter- 

The trial of Father Ricci was amazing both in its 
procedure and its length. There were no witnesses to 
give testimony for or against him, but he was brutally 
and repeatedly interrogated by an official named 
Andrettiwho was suggestively styled "the criminalist." 
The interrogatories have all been printed, and some 
of the questions are remarkable for their stupidity. 
Thus for instance, he was asked, " Do you think you 
have any authority since the suppression of the 
Society?" The answer was. " I am quite persuaded 
I have none." " What authority would you have if, 
instead of abolishing the Society, the Pope had done 
something else?" " What he would give me." " Are 
there any abuses in the Order?" To this he replied, 
" If you mean general abuses, I answer that, by the 
mercy of God there are none. On the contrary, there 
is in the Society a great deal of piety, regularity, zeal, 
and especially charity, which has shown itself in a 
remarkable way during these fifteen years of bitter 
trials." " Have you made any changes in the govern- 
ment of the Order?" "None." "Where are your 
moneys?" "I have none. I had not enough to 
keep the exiles of Spain and Portugal from starvation." 

The result of this investigation which went on for 
more than two years was that nothing was found either 

580 The Jesuits 

against him or against the Society, and yet he was 
kept in a dungeon until he died. As the end was 
approaching Father Ricci read from his dying bed 
the following declaration: 

" Because of the uncertainty of the moment when 
God will please to summon me before him and also in 
view of my advanced age and the multitude, duration, 
and greatness of my sufferings, which have been far 
beyond my strength, being on the point of appearing 
before the infallible tribunal of truth and justice, 
after long and mature deliberation and after having 
hitfnbly invoked my most merciful Redeemer that 
He will not permit me to speak from passion, especially 
in this the last action of my life, nor be moved by 
atoy bitterness of heart, or out of wrong desire or evil 
purpose, but only to acquit myself of my obligation 
to bear testimony to truth and to innocence, I now 
make the two following declarations and protests: 

"First, I declare and protest that the extinct Society 
of Jesus has given no reason for its suppression; and 
I declare and protest with that moral certainty which 
a well-informed superior has of what passes in his 
Order. Second, I declare and protest that I have 
given no reason, not even the slightest, for my imprison- 
ment, and I do so with that sovereign certitude which 
each one has of his own actions. I make this second 
protest solely because it is necessary for the reputation 
of the extinct Society of which I was superior, 

" I do not pretend in consequence of these protests 
that I or any one may judge as guilty before God 
any of those who have injured the Society of Jesus 
or mysejf. The thoughts of men are known to God 
alone. He alone sees the errors of the human mind 
and sees if they are such as to excuse from sin; He 
alone penetrates the motives of acts; as well as the 
spirit in which things are done, and the affections of 

The Execution 581 

the heart that accompany such actions; and since the 
malice or innocence of an external act depends on all 
these things, I leave it to God Who shall interrogate 
man's thoughts and deeds. 

" To do my duty as a Christian, I protest that with 
the help of God I have always pardoned and do now 
sincerely pardon all those who have tortured and 
harmed me, first, by the evils they have heaped on 
the Society and by the rigorous measures they have 
employed in dealing with its members; secondly, by 
the extinction of the Society and by its accompanying 
circumstances; thirdly, by my own imprisonment, and 
the hardships they have added to it, .and by the harm 
they have done to my reputation; all of which are 
public and notorious facts. I pray God, out of His 
goodness and mercy, through the merits of Jesus 
Christ, to pardon me my many sins and to pardon 
also all the authors of the above-mentioned evils and 
wrongs, as well as their co-operators. With this 
sentiment and with this prayer I wish to die. 

11 Finally I beg afid conjure all those who may read 
these declarations and protests to make them public 
throughout the world as far as in them lies. I ask 
this by all the titles of humanity, justice and Christian 
charity that may persuade them to carry out my will 
and desire, (signed) Lorenzo Ricci." 

The trial had been purposely prolonged. At each 
session only three of four questions would be put to 
the accused, although he constantly entreated the 
inquisitors to proceed. Then there would be an 
interruption of eight, ten and even twenty days or 
more. At times the interrogations were sent in on 
paper, until finally, Andretti, the chief inquisitor, said 
that the case was ended and he would return no more. 
Nevertheless he made his appearance a few days later. 

" No doubt," says Father Ricci, "someone had told 

582 The Jesuits 

him that the whole process was null and void; and I 
pitied this honest man, advanced in age as he was, and 
so long in the practice of his profession, who was now 
told that he did not know the conditions necessary for 
the validity of a process. Those who gave him that 
information should have warned him long before. 
So he began again, going over the same ground in the 
same way, and I gave him the same answers. His 
questions were always preceded by long formulas to 
whiich I paid no heed. After each question, he made 
me repeat my oath. I asked him to let me know the 
reason of my incarceration and could get no answer; 
but, finally he uttered these words : * Be content to 
know that you have not been imprisoned for any 
crime; and you might have inferred that from the fact 
that I have not interrogated you about anything 
criminal whatever.' " 

As a necessary consequence of this exoneration by 
the official deputed to try him, it follows that the 
Order of which he was the chief superior was also 
without reproach; for, if the numberless offences 
alleged against the Society were true, it would have 
been absolutely impossible for the General not to 
have known them; and having this knowledge, he 
would have been culpable and deserving of the severest 
punishment, if there had been dissensions in the Order 
and he had not endeavored to repress them; if lax 
morality had been taught and he did not censure it; 
if the Society had indulged in mercantile transactions 
and he had not condemned such departures from the 
law; if it had been guilty of ambition and he had not 
crushed it. Being the centre and the source of all 
authority and of all activity in the Order, his knowledge 
of what is going on extends to very minute details 
and hence if the Order was guilty he was the chief 
criminal. But even his bitterly prejudiced judges 

The Execution 583 

had declared him innocent and he was, therefore, 
to be set free. 

At this juncture, the Spanish minister, Florida 
Blanca, intervened and in the name of Charles III 
warned the Pope not to dare to release him. The 
Bourbons were still bent on terrorizing the Holy See. 
The difficulty was solved by the victim himself who 
died on November 24, 1775. He was then seventy- 
two years of age. He was able to speak up to the 
last moment and was often heard to moan: "Ah! 
poor Society! At least to my knowledge you did not 
deserve the punishment that was meted out to you/' 

On the evening of the 25th, Father Ricci's remains 
were carried to the Church of St. John of the Floren- 
tines. The whole edifice was draped in black, and the 
coffin was placed on the bier around which were 
thirty funeral torches. A vast multitude took part 
in the services. The Bishop of Commachio, a staunch 
friend of the Society, celebrated the Mass. He came, 
he said, not to pray for the General but to pray to him. 
Another bishop exclaimed: "Behold the martyr!" 
In the evening, the corpse was carried to the Gesft. 
It should have arrived by 9 o'clock, but it reached 
the church only at midnight. To avoid any demon- 
stration, the approaches to the church had been closed, 
and there were only five or six Fathers present. From 
Garayon's narrative it would appear that the uncof- 
fined body was carried in a coach and was clothed in a 
very short and very shabby habit. The cur6 of the 
parish and two other persons were in the conveyance. 
Two other carriages whose occupants were unknown 
but who were suspected of being spies followed close 
behind. After the absolution, the body was placed 
in the coffin and laid in the vault beside the remains of 
Ricci's seventeen predecessors. The tomb was then 
dosed and a scrap of paper was fixed on it, with the 

584 The Jesuits 

inscription: " Lorenzo Ricci, ex-General of the Jesuits, 
died at Castle Sant' Angelo, November 24, 1775." 

After reciting these facts, Boero asks why the ex- 
General was kept in such a long and severe confinement? 
There is no answer, he says, except that such was the 
good pleasure of His Majesty Charles III. The 
Spanish minister, Monino, had declared that such was 
the case. To let him out alive would have been 
an indirect condemnation of the pressure exerted by 
the court of Madrid in directing the course of the 
commission which had been expressly created to pass 
a sentence of death on the Society. The knowledge 
that the General and his assistants had issued alive 
from the dungeons of Sant' Angelo would have troubled 
the peace of Charles III and his fellow-conspirators; 
hence, in spite of the good will and the affection of 
the Sovereign Pontiff, Father Ricci, after two years 
imprisonment in Adrian's Tomb, was carried out a 1 
corpse. Those of his companions who survived were 
released, but were commanded by the judges to 
observe the strictest silence on what had passed during 
their captivity, or not to tell what questions had been 
put to them. 

One of the victims showed his indignation at this 
excessive cruelty, and exclaimed, " Why should you 
require me to swear on the Holy Gospels not to speak 
of my trial, when you know very well that it con- 
sisted of two or three insignificant and ridiculous 
questions?" Another assistant was merely asked his 
name and birthplace, and no more. A third satis- 
fied the judges when he replied, " I have neither said 
nor done anything wrong." He was never interro- 
gated again. The secretary of the Society had been 
asked in what subterranean hiding-place he kept the 
treasures. He answered that there were no sub- 
terranean hiding-places^ and no treasures. In that 

The Execution 585 

consisted his whole examination. He died shortly 
afterwards of sickness contracted in the prison and his 
death was for a long time concealed. 

Father Faure inquired of one of his judges: " For 
what crime am I in jail?" " For none/ 1 was the reply, 
' 'but the fear of your pen, and especially the fear of having 
you write against the Brief. That is the only cause of 
your imprisonment." "By the same rule," retorted 
the prisoner, " you might send me to the galleys for 
fear I might steal, or to be hanged to prevent me from 
committing murder." He was the only recalcitrant, 
and he was so dreaded that during his incarceration he 
was ordered to keep his light burning all night, so 
that he might be watched. This was after they 
found a black spot on his bed. They thought it 
was ink. Father Ricci, however, contrived to keep 
an exact account of the questions that were asked. 
Carayon has published them in 'his " Documents 

One of these redoubtable personages so rigidly 
kept in confinement was Father Romberg, the German 
assistant, who was eighty-two years of age. He 
became very feeble, and had a stroke of paralysis' 
which kept him to his chair. When the governor 
of the Castle came with the judges and officials to 
tell him he was free, he thanked them effusively, but 
requested the favor of being left in his cell to die. 
" You see," said he, " I have two fine friends who are 
prisoners here, and they, out of charity, come regularly 
every morning and carry me in my chair to the chapel 
where I can hear Mass and go to Communion. If I 
leave this place, God knows if I should have the same 
help and the same consolation." This was a specimen of 
the men who made Charles III and Florida Blanca 
tremble. In spite of the protests of the Spanish 
minister, every one was set free on February 16, 1776, 

586 The Jesuits 

and Pius VI cancelled the order of the inquisitors who 
forbade their victims to hold any communication 
with their fellow- Jesuits. 

The manner in which the Brief was executed out- 
side of Rome varied with the mentality and morality 
of the nations to which it was sent. Much to the 
chagrin of the Sovereign Pontiff, it was enthusiastically 
acclaimed by all the Protestants and infidels of Europe. 
For, was it not a justification of all the hatred they had 
invariably heaped on the Society wherever it happened 
to be? They could now congratulate themselves that 
they had instinctively divined the malignant character 
of the Institute which it took centuries for the Church 
to discover, and they logically concluded that all the 
laudatory Bulls lavished on the Society by previous 
Pontiffs were intentional deceits or ignorant delusions. 
They might have argued contrariwise, but as it would 
have been against themselves they refrained. They 
were jubilant because the Sovereign Pontiff had 
slain their chief enemy, and they had a medal struck 
to commemorate the event. 

In " Les J6suites " by Bohmer-Monod (p. 278) we 
find the following: " Cultured Europe triumphed in 
the Suppression of the Order, and the people every- 
where showed their approval. Here and there some 
pious devotees raised their voices in lamentation, 
but nowhere in Europe or elsewhere was there any 
serious opposition to the Brief, The Order had for* 
f cited all esteem; and public opinion evinced no 
compassion for anything tragic that occurred in its 
fall. It remained quite indifferent to the atrocities of 
which Pombal was guilty. The injustices which cer- 
tain Fathers suffered in various places were considered 
a just retribution or at least were regarded as necessary 
for progress of light and virtue/* This is not very 
flattering to ' 'cultured " Europe. 

The Execution 587 

Apart from the self -stultifying utterances on this 
quotation, as for instance, that " the injustices suf- 
fered were a just retribution, or were at least regarded 
as necessary for the progress of light and virtue," and 
also that certain Fathers suffered in various places; 
whereas the same authors give 23,000 who suffered 
all over the world, it is an absolute contradiction with 
the facts of the case to say that " nowhere in Europe 
was there any serious opposition to the Brief " and 
that " they everywhere showed their approval and 
evinced no compassion for anything tragic that occurred 
in the fall." 

In the first place, Frederick the Great in Prussia and 
Catherine II of Russia not only would not allow the 
Brief in their dominions, but forbade it under the 
severest penalties. Poland for a long time refused to 
receive it, and the Catholic cantons of Switzerland sent 
a remonstrance to the Pope. Moreover, although, 
even before the document was promulgated, the 
Fathers had secularized themselves of their own 
initiative, yet, the authorities would not allow them 
to give up the colleges. The other side of the picture 
was that in Naples, Tanucci not only forbade the Brief 
to be read under pain of death, but forbade all men- 
tion of it. In Portugal, of course, no opposition was 
made for there were no Jesuits to suppress, they were 
either dead or in prison or exile. It was, however, 
an occasion of public rejoicing, and the document was 
received with booming of cannon and ringing of bells, 
as if a victory had been won, but that governmental 
device did not extinguish in the heart of the suffering 
people a deep compassion for the victims of PombaTs 
" atrocities." 

In Spain, it was absolutely prohibited to read it 
or speak, about the Brief, because by its eulogy of 
the virtues of the members of the Society, it gave the 

588 The Jesuits 

lie to the government, which insisted on the suppression 
of the Society precisely because of the immorality of 
its members. In France, its promulgation was for- 
bidden for the very opposite reason, that is, because it 
praised the Institute, which the politicians had declared 
to be essentially vicious; though they admitted that 
the individual Jesuits were irreproachable. Thus, 
like Spain, France had been officially convicted by 
the Brief of calumniating, plundering and annihilating 
a great religious order. Voltaire, commenting on the 
situation, suggested that there might be a sort of 
national exchange by France and Spain. " Send the 
French Jesuits to Spain,*' he said, "and they will 
edify the people by observing the Institute, and send 
the Spaniards to France where they will satisfy the 
people by not observing it." 

The most notable opposition to the Brief, occurred 
in France. The whole hierarchy and clergy positively 
refused to accept it, and the Archbishop of Paris, 
Christopher de Beaumont, who had been especially 
requested by the Pope to promulgate it, answered by 
a letter which is unpleasant for a Jesuit to publish on 
account of its tone; for the most profound affection 
and reverence for the Holy See is one of the ingrained 
and distinctive traits of the Society. However, it is 
a historical document and is called for in the present 
instance as a refutation of the statement that there 
was no opposition to the Brief in Europe This famous 
letter was dated April 24, 1774, that is more than 
eight months after the Suppression. It is addressed 
to the Holy Father himself and runs as follows: 

"This Brief is nothing else than a personal and 
private judgment Among other things that are re- 
marked in it by our clergy is the extraordinary, odious, 
and immoderate characterization of the Bull " Pascendi 
Munus " of the saintly Clement XIII, whose memory 

The Execution 589 

will be forever glorious and who had invested the Bull 
in question with all the due and proper formalities of 
such documents. It is described by the Brief not 
only as being inexact but as having been ' extorted ' 
rather than obtained; whereas it has all the authority 
of a general council; for it was not promulgated until 
almost the whole clergy of the Church and all the 
secular princes had been consulted by the Holy Father. 
The clergy with common accord and with one voice 
applauded the purpose of the Holy Father, and earn- 
estly begged him to carry it out. It was conceived 
and published in a manner as general as it was solemn. 
And is it not precisely that, Holy Father, which really 
gives the efficacity, the reality and the force to a general 
council, rather than the material union of some persons 
who though physically united may be very far from 
one another in their judgments and their views?- 
As for the secular princes, if there were any who 
did not unite with the others to give their approbation, 
their number was inconsiderable. Not one of them 
protested against it, not one opposed it, and even 
those who, at that very time, were laying their plans 
to banish the Jesuits, allowed the Bull to be published 
in their dominions. 

" But as the spirit of the Church is one and indivisible 
in its teaching of truth, we have to conclude that it 
cannot teach error when it deals in a solemn manner 
with a matter of supreme importance. Yet it would 
have led us into error if it had not only proclaimed 
the Institute of the Society to be pious and holy, 
but had solemnly and explicitly said: 'We know of 
certain knowledge that it diffuses abroad and abund- 
antly the odor of sanctity/ In saying this it put upon 
that Institute the seal of its approbation, and confirmed 
anew not only the Society itself, but the members 
who composed it, the functions it exercised, the doctrines 

590 The Jesuits 

it taught, the glorious works it accomplished, all of 
which shed lustre upon it, in spite of the calumnies by 
which it was assailed and the storms of persecution 
which were let loose against it. Thus the Church 
would have deceived us most effectively on that 
occasion if it would now have us accept this Brief 
which destroys the Society; and also if we are to sup- 
pose that this Brief is on the same level in its law- 
fulness and its universality as the Constitution to 
which we refer. We abstract, Holy Father, from the 
individuals whom we might easily name, both secular 
and ecclesiastical who have meddled with this affair. 
Their character, condition, doctrine, sentiment, not to 
say more of them, are so little worthy of respect, as to 
justify us in expressing the formal and positive judgment 
that the Brief which destroys the Society of Jesus is 
nothing else than an isolated, private and pernicious 
judgment, which does no honor to the tiara and is 
prejudicial to the glory of the Church and the growth 
and conservation of the Orthodox Faith, 

" In any case, Holy Father, it is impossible for me 
to ask the clergy to accept the Brief; for in the first 
place, I would not be listened to, were I unfortunate 
enought to lend the aid of my ministry to its accept- 
ance. Moreover, I would dishonor my office if I did 
so, for the memory of the recent general assembly 
which I had the honor to convoke at the instance of 
His Majesty, to inquire into the need we have of the 
Society in France, its usefulness, the purity of its 
doctrines, etc., is too fresh in my mind to reverse my 
verdict. To charge myself with the task you wish me 
to perform would be to inflict a serious injury on 
religion as well as to cast an aspersion on the learning 
and integrity of the prelates who laid before the king 
their approval of the very points which are now con- 
demned by the Brief. Moreover, if it is true that the 

The Execution 591 

Order is to be condemned under the specious pretext 
of the impossibility of peace, as long as the Society 
exists, why not try it on those bodies which are jealous 
of the Society? Instead of condemning it you ought 
to canonize it. That you do not do so compels us to 
form a judgment of the Brief which, though just, is 
not in its favor. 

" For what is that peace which is incompatible with 
this Society? The question is startling in the reflection 
it evokes; for we fail to understand how such a motive 
had the power to induce Your Holiness to adopt a 
measure which is so hazardous, so dangerous, and so 
prejudicial. Most assuredly the peace which is irrec- 
oncilable with the existence of the Society is the peace 
which Jesus Christ calls insidious, false, deceitful. 
In a word what the Brief designates as peace is not 
peace; Pax, pax et non erat pax. It is the peace 
which vice and libertinism adopt; it is the peace 
which cannot ally itself with virtue, but which on 
the contrary has always been the principal enemy 
of virtue. 

" It is precisely that peace against which the piety 
of the Jesuits in the four quarters of the world have 
declared an active, a vigorous, a bloody warfare; 
which they have carried to the limit and in which they 
have achieved the greatest success. To put an end 
to that peace, they have devoted their talents; have 
undergone pain and suffering. By their zeal and 
their eloquence they have striven to block every 
avenue of approach, by which this false peace might 
enter and rend the bosom of the Church; they have 
set the souls of men free from its thralldom, and they 
have pursued it to its innermost lair, making light of 
the danger and expecting no other reward for their 
daring, than the hatred of the licentious and the 
persecution of the ungodly. 

592 The Jesuits 

" An infinite number of splendid illustrations of their 
courage might be adduced in the long succession of 
memorable achievements which have never been inter- 
rupted from the first moment of the Society's existence 
until the fatal day when the Church saw it die. If that 
peace cannot co-exist with the Society, and if the 
re-establishment of this pernicious peace is the motive 
of the destruction of the Jesuits, then the victims are 
crowned with glory and they end their career like 
the Apostles and Martyrs; but honest men are dis- 
mayed by this holocaust of piety and virtue. 

"A peace which is irreconcilable with the Society 
is not that peace which unites hearts; which is helpful 
to others; which each day contributes an increase in 
virtue, piety and Christian charity; which reflects 
glory on Christianity and sheds splendor on our 
holy religion. Nor is there need of proving this, 
though proof might be given, not by a few examples 
which this Society could furnish from the day of its 
birth to the fatal and ever deplorable day of its sup- 
pression, but by a countless multitude of facts which 
attest that the Jesuits were always and in every clime, 
the supporters, the promoters and the indefatigable 
defenders of true and solid peace. These facts are so 
evident that they carry conviction to every mind. 

" In this letter I am not constituting myself an 
apologist of the Jesuits; but I am placing before the 
eyes of Your Holiness the reasons which, in the present 
case, excuse us from obeying. I will not mention 
place or time, as it is an easy thing for Your Holiness 
to convince yourself of the truth of my utterance. 
Your Holiness is not ignorant of them. 

" Moreover, Holy Father, we have remarked with 
terror, that this destructive Brief eulogizes in the 
highest way certain persons whose conduct never 

The Execution 593 

merited praise from Clement XIII, of saintly memory. 
Par from doing so, he regarded it always as his duty 
to set them aside, and to act in their regard with the 
most absolute reserve. 

" This difference of appreciation necessarily excites 
attention, in view of the fact that your predecessor 
did not consider worthy of the purple those whom 
Your Holiness seems to design for the glory of the 
cardinalate. The firmness on one side and the conniv- 
ance on the other reveal themselves only too clearly. 
But perhaps an excuse might be found for the latter, 
were it not for the fact which has not been successfully 
disguised that an alien influence guided the pen that 
wrote the Brief. 

" In a word, most Holy Father, the clergy of France, 
which is the most learned and most illustrious of 
Holy Church, and which has no other aim than to 
promote the glory of the Church, does now judge 
after deep reflection that the reception of the Brief 
of Your Holiness will cast a shadow on the glory of 
the clergy of France; and it does not propose to consent 
to a measure which, in ages to come, will tarnish its 
glory. By rejecting the Brief and by an active resist- 
ance to it our clergy will transmit to posterity a 
splendid example of integrity and of zeal for the 
Catholic Faith, for the prosperity of the Church and 
particularly for the honor of its Visible Head. 

" These, Holy Father, are some of the reasons which 
determine us, myself and all the clergy of this kingdom, 
never to permit the publication of such a Brief, and to 
make known to Your Holiness, as I do by this present 
letter, that such is my attitude and that of all the 
clergy, who, however, will never cease to unite in prayer 
with me to our Lord for the sacred person of Your 
Holiness. We shall address our humble supplications 

594 The Jesuits 

to the Divine Father of Light that He may deign to 
diffuse it so abundantly that the truth may be dis- 
cerned whose splendor has been obscure." 

The Bishop of Quebec, Mgr. Briand, refused to pro- 
mulgate the Brief, and he informed some of his intimate 
friends that he had no fear of excommunication in 
doing so, for the reason that he was in constant com- 
munication with Pope Clement XIV, who approved of 
his course of action. Associated with the bishop was 
Governor Carleton, who was interested in the matter 
for his own personal reasons. His rival, General 
Amherst, the conqueror of Quebec, was anxious to 
see the Jesuits driven out, so as to secure their property 
for himself. Carleton, on the contrary, proposed to 
keep it for future educational purposes. He could 
not seize it immediately, for the treaty at the conquest 
had guaranteed the protection of the Canadians in 
their religion. Hence he did not molest the Fathers, 
though he refused to allow any accession either of 
novices or former Jesuits to their ranks. The result 
was that they gradually died out. The last of all was 
the venerable Casot, who gave up the ghost in 1800 
after having distributed all his goods to the poor. 
What was not available in that way he conveyed to re- 
ligious communities or to churches. The relics of Br6beuf 
and Lalemant are now among the treasures of the 
Hotel-Dieu. The Jesuit College, which was opposite 
the present basilica cathedral, was occupied by soldiers, 
and was first known as the " Jesuit Barracks, " and 
subsequently as the " Cheshire Barracks." Later it 
was a refuge for the poor, until at length Cardinal 
Taschereau ordered it to be demolished as unsafe* 
Thus the Brief was not executed in Canada. The 
Jesuits of New Orleans had been already expelled by 
Choiseul, and there was no one left to whom it could 
be read. 

The Execution 595 

The suppression of the Society in what is now the 
United States is of special interest to Americans, 
though it possesses also a general value in the fact that 
it furnishes the only account in English, as far as we 
are aware, of what took place in Belgium some years 
before as the prelude of the general suppression. This 
is based on the highest authority, for it is the personal 
narrative of John Carroll, the founder of the American 
hierarchy. He had gone when a kd of fourteen to 
St. Omers in French Flanders, and after his college 
course entered the Jesuit novitiate at Watten about 
six miles away, where he met several of his country- 
men who were to distinguish themselves later in 
the Jesuit mission of Maryland. They were Home, 
Jenkins, Knight, Emmot and Tyrer. There also was 
the English Jesuit, Reeve, whose "Bible History" 
was once an indispensable treasure in every Catholic 

On completing his novitiate, Carroll was sent for his 
theology and philosophy to Lige, and was ordained 
priest in 1769, after having proved his ability by a 
brilliant public defense in theology. He then taught 
at St. Omers and was subsequently made professor of 
philosophy and theology to the scholastics at Li&ge. 
He pronounced his four solemn vows as a Professed 
Father on February 2, 1771, a little more than two 
years before the suppression of the Society. As St. 
Omer was in France the Jesuits were expelled from 
it in 1764. That the occupants of the house were 
English did not matter. International comity received 
scant consideration in those days Every one was 
driven out except Father Brown, who was then ninety- 
four years of age. He was left there alone to die. 
The others, under the guidance of Father Reeve, crossed 
the frontier to Bruges where they had been invited 
by the authorities to found a college. 

596 The Jesuits 

Here begins a story told by Carroll of government 
duplicity which shows how largely the motive of 
plunder entered into the whole movement of the 
suppression. Belgium was then under the domination 
of Austria, and the government continually urged 
the Fathers to begin the erection of a college on a 
grand scale at that place. In all confidence that they 
would never be disturbed, they expended on the 
first set of buildings the sum of $37,000 a considerable 
amount of money in those days. They would have 
gone further but their money was exhausted. 

While teaching there, Father Carroll was sent on a 
short tour through Europe as tutor to the young son 
of Lord Stourton, an English nobleman. He passed 
through Alsace and Lorraine, where the Jesuits were 
still protected; was welcomed at the University of 
Heidelberg, and finally reached Rome. There, though 
under the very eyes of the Pope, he was compelled to 
conceal his identity as a Jesuit and hence met none of 
his brethren. He saw everywhere not only infamous 
libels on the Society which were for sale in the streets, 
but books and pamphlets assailing the devotion to 
the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and ridiculing the cere- 
monies of the Mass. The overthrow of the Jesuits 
was the common topic of conversation and word from 
the King of Spain was momentarily expected. Henry 
Stuart, Cardinal of York, the last descendant of James 
II, was there at the time, but as he was a rancorous 
enemy of the Society, Father Carroll did not dare to 
present the young Catholic nobleman to him. He 
returned by the way of France and saw the ruins 
everywhere, and finally arrived at Bruges to take part 
in the tragedy as one of the victims. 

The Brief was promulgated on August 16, and the 
superiors of the two colleges at Bruges, encouraged by 
the general expectation of the town that their status 

The Execution 597 

would not be effected, wrote a letter to the presi- 
dent of the council at Brussels, offering their services as 
secular clergy to continue the work of education. The 
rectors were invited to Brussels, and assured that they 
would be treated with respect, allowed to retain private 
property and be granted proper maintenance. Even 
after the reception of the Brief, the Bishop of Bruges 
assured them that in a few days the excitement would 
pass and everything would go on as usual. Austria, 
however, had already accepted and promulgated the 

The first commissioners of the Suppression threw up 
the work in disgust. It was then handed over to a 
coarse young fellow named Marouex who was anxious 
to make a name for himself. He succeeded. Arriving 
at the college on September 20, he summoned the 
community to his presence and ordered the Brief 
and edict to be read. He then forbade anyone 
to leave the house, or to be allowed to enter, 
or to write any letters, or to direct the college, or to 
teach the pupils. He seized the account books and 
began a hunt for hidden treasures. Each member of 
the community was examined individually, put under 
oath, and ordered to produce everything he had, 
even family letters; " which explains," says Shea, 
" how there is no trace of Carroll's letters from his 
mother and kindred in America." 

On October 14, Marouex, accompanied by a squad 
of soldiers, burst into the community rooms and 
ordered Fathers Angier, Plowden and Carroll to follow 
him. He would not even permit them to go to their 
rooms for a moment to get what they needed, but 
sent them under guard to wagons waiting outside, 
and hurried them off to the Flemish college, which 
had been already plundered. There they were locked 
up for several days without a bed to He on. The 

598 The Jesuits 

community was still there under lock and key. Three 
of them were kept as hostages and the rest were 
ordered out of the country. Thus did Maria 
Theresa allow her beloved Jesuits to be treated, in 
return for the benefits they had heaped on her empire 
from the time when Paber and Le Jay and Canisius 
and their great associates had saved it from destruc- 

Thoroughly heartbroken, Carroll turned his steps 
towards Protestant England* Before leaving the 
Continent, he wrote the following pathetic letter to his 
brother Daniel, who was in Maryland. Because of 
Carroll's own personal character and his prominence 
in American history, it is a precious testimonial of 
love and affection for the Society, as well as a splendid 
vindication of it for the world at large. It is dated 
September n, 1773. 

" I was willing to accept the vacant post of prefect 
of the sodality here, but now all room for deliberation 
is over. The enemies of the Society and, above all, 
the unrelenting perseverance of the Spanish and 
Portuguese ministries, with the passiveness of the 
court of Vienna have at last obtained their ends; 
and our so long persecuted, and, I must add, holy 
Society is no more, God's holy will be done and 
may His Name be blessed for ever and ever! This 
fatal blow was struck on July 21, but was kept secret 
at Rome till August 16, and was only made known to me 
on September 5. I am not, and perhaps never shall 
be, recovered from the shock of this dreadful intelli- 
gence. The greatest blessing which in my estimation 
I could receive from God would be immediate death, 
but if He deny me this, may His holy and adorable 
designs on me be wholly fulfilled, 

"I find it impossible to understand that Divine 
Providence should permit such an end to a body. 

The Execution 599 

wholly devoted, and striving with the most dis- 
interested charity to procure every comfort and 
advantage to their neighbors, whether by preaching, 
teaching, catechizing, missions, visiting hospitals, 
prisons and in every other function of spiritual and 
corporal mercy. Such have I beheld it in every part 
of my travels, the first of all ecclesiastical bodies in 
the esteem and confidence of the faithful, and cer- 
tainly the most laborious. What will become of our 
flourishing congregations with you and those culti- 
vated by the German Fathers? These reflections 
crowd so fast upon me, that I almost lose my senses. 
But I will endeavor to suppress them for a few moments. 
You see I am now my own master and left to my own 
direction. In returning to Maryland, I shall have 
the comfort of not only being with you, but of befog 
farther out of reach of scandal and defamation, and 
removed from the scenes of distress of many of my 
dearest friends whom I shall not be able to relieve. 
I shall therefore most certainly sail for Maryland early 
next spring if I possibly can." 

At the time of the Suppression there were nineteen 
Jesuits in Maryland and Pennsylvania; as it was then 
three years before the Declaration of Independence, 
they were still English subjects. On October 6, 
1773, Bishop Challoner, the Vicar of London, though 
Chandlery in his "Fasti breviores" says it was 
Talbot, -sent them the following letter: 

" To Messrs the Missioners in Maryland and 

" To obey the order which I have received from 
Rome, I notify to you, by this the Breve, of the total 
dissolution of the Society of Jesus; and send withal a 
form of declaration of your obedience and submission, 
to which you are all to subscribe, as your brethren 

600 The Jesuits 

have done here, and send me back the formula with 
the subscription of you all, as I am to send them up to 

" Ever yours, 

"Richard Deboren. V. Ap." 

In passing, it may be remarked that as a missive 
from a Superior to a number of devoted priests against 
whom not a word of reproach had been ever uttered 
and whose lives were wrecked by this official act 
this communication of the vicar cannot be cited as a 
manifestation of excessive paternal tenderness. 

The formula to which they were required to sub- 
scribe, was, in its English translation, as follows: 

"We the undersigned missionary priests of the 
London District of Maryland and Pennsylvania, 
hitherto known as the Clerks of the Society of Jesus, 
having been informed by the declaration and publi- 
cation of the Apostolic Brief issued on July 21, 1773, 
by our Most Holy Lord Pope Clement XIV, by which 
he completely suppresses and extinguishes the afore- 
said Congregation and Society in the whole world, 
and orders the priests to be entirely subject to the 
rule and authority of the Bishops as part of the secular 
clergy, we the aforesaid, fully and sincerely, submit 
to the Brief, and humbly acquiescing to the complete 
suppression of the said Society, submit ourselves 
entirely as secular priests to the jurisdiction and rule 
of the above mentioned Bishop, the Vicar Apostolic. " 

In this document of the vicar there are some features 
which are worthy of consideration. The first is that 
it was not communicated personally to those interested 
but through the post and it might have been a 
forgery. Secondly, it was not correct in saying that 
it was issued on July 21, 1773. It was signed on July 
21 but issued or published only on August 16 of that 

The Execution 601 

year, and it was not effective or binding until 'that 
date. Thirdly, there was no mention of the renewal 
of faculties to the superior whose ecclesiastical char- 
acter had now been completely transformed from that 
of a religious to a secular priest; and they were thus 
obliged to presume that they were not suspended and 
that their power of transmitting faculties was not 
withdrawn. Fourthly, before the Suppression, the 
vicar Apostolic had warned the Propaganda that he 
could do nothing to aid the Maryland missioners, 
and after the Revolution he refused absolutely to 
have any communication with them. Thus, there 
was no possibility of fulfilling the injunction of becoming 
secular priests, as the Brief enjoined. 

As far as the Jesuit habit was concerned there was no 
difficulty, for there is no distinctive habit in the Society. 
The Jesuits are ecclesiastically in the rank of " clerici 
regulares," and can wear the garb of any secular 
priest, just as they do, at present, in many parts of 
the world. St. Francis Xavier once wore green silk, 
and in our own days, the English Jesuit dress is rather 
an academic gown than a cassock. Again in Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania, there were at that time 
no secular priests; the missionaries were all Jesuits, 
and it would have been difficult to get any other 
ecclesiastical attire. What they wore was, as a 
matter of fact, used only in ecclesiastical functions. 
An analogous obstacle presented itself in the name. 
The people continued to recognize them as Jesuits, 
and it would have been very imprudent to publicly 
announce that they were no longer such. There are 
several letters extant, however, in which the Jesuits 
advise their friends to drop the S. J. in their correspond- 
ence, but that is not unusual even now. Exteriorly, 
the life of those old Maryland Jesuits continued to be 
precisely the same as it had always been. 

602 The Jesuits 

Moreover they retained possession of their property, 
for unlike the Jesuits of Canada, Illinois and Louisiana, 
they held their estates by personal, not by corporate 
title; and regularly deeded their possession by will or 
transfer* from one to another. In Maryland, it was 
impossible to do otherwise, for the English government 
did not recognize the Jesuits as constituting a legal 

Indeed, Challoner informs Talbot that he considered 
the promulgation of the Brief as enjoined by the Pope 
would be fraught with serious danger, and hence he 
was convinced that the method adopted for the extinc- 
tion of the Jesuits of England and her colonies was the 
only one possible and that the Pope would be so 

A lament from one of the Maryland missionaries may 
be of interest. Father Mosley is the writer. ' ' I cannot 
think of it," he says, "without tears in my eyes. Yes, 
dear Sister, our Body or Factory is dissolved of which 
your two brothers are members; and for myself, 
I know I am an unworthy one when I see so many 
worthy, saintly, pious, learned, laborious missionaries 
dead and alive who were or who have been members 
of the same, for the last two ages. I know no fault 
that we are guilty of. I am convinced that our labors 
are pure, upright and sincere for God's honor and our 
neighbor's good. What our Supreme Judge on earth 
may think of our labors is a mystery to me. It is true 
he has stigmatized us through the world with infamy, 
and declared us unfit for our business or his service. 
Our dissolution is known through the whole world; 
it is in every newspaper, and I am ashamed to show 
my face. As we are judged unserviceable, we labor 
with little heart, and what is worse, by no Rule. 

" To my great sorrow, the Society is abolished, and 
with it must die all the zeal that was founded and 

The Execution 603 

raised on it. Labor for our neighbor is a Jesuit's 
pleasure; destroy the Jesuit and labor is painful and 
disagreeable. I must allow that what was my pleasure 
is now irksome. Every fatigue I underwent caused a 
secret and inward .satisfaction; it is now unpleasant 
and disagreeable. I disregarded this unhealthy climate, 
and all its agues and fevers which have really paid me 
to my heart's content, for the sake of my rule. The 
night was as agreeable as the day; frost and cold as 
a warm fire and a soft bed; the excessive heats as 
welcome as a cool shade or pleasant breezes, 
but now the scene is changed. The Jesuit is 
metamorphosed into I know not what. He is a 
monster; a scarecrow in my idea. With joy I impaired 
my health and broke my constitution in the care of 
my flock. It was the Jesuit's call; it was his whole 
aim and business. The Jesuit is no more. He now 
endeavors to repair his little remains of health and his 
shattered constitution, as he has no rule calling him 
to expose it. 

"Joseph Mosley, S. J. forever, as I think and hope." 
It must have been a very hard trial for the Jesuit 
vicars Apostolic in the various foreign missions to be 
the executioners of their own brethren in carrying out 
this decree. One of these sad scenes occurred in 
Nankin, where Mgr. Laimbeckhoven, S. J., was 
vicar. He did not live to see the Restoration, for he 
died in 1787. 



Failure of the Papal Brief to give peace to the Church Liguori 
and Tanucci Joseph II destroying the Church in Austria Vol- 
taireanism in Portugal Illness of Clement XIV Death Accu- 
sations of poisoning Election of Pius VI The Synod of Pistoia 
Pebronianism in Austria Visit of Pius VI to Joseph II The Punc- 
tation of Ems Spain, Sardinia, Venice, Sicily in opposition to the 
Pope Political collapse in Spain Fall of Pombal Liberation of 
his Victims Protest of de Guzman Death of Joseph II Occu- 
pations of the dispersed Jesuits The Theologia, Wicebwgensis 
Feller Beauregard's Prophecy Zaccaria Tiraboschi Boscovich 
Missionaries Denunciation of the Suppression in the French 
Assembly Slain in the French Revolution Destitute Jesuits in 
Poland Shelter in Russia. 

CLEMENT XIV did not give peace to the Church as 
he had hoped. On the contrary, distressing scandals 
were continually occurring in the Holy City itself 
under his very eyes. Infamous books and pamphlets 
directed against the Church were hawked about the 
streets, and actors and buffoons parodied the most 
sacred ceremonies in the public squares. Elsewhere 
the same conditions obtained. Tanucci who had 
governed Naples for over forty years was continuing 
his ruthless persecution of every thing holy, and en- 
riching himself by the spoliation of ecclesiastical 
property. Even St. Alphonsus .Liguori could not 
obtain from the Pope the recognition of the 
Redemptorists as a congregation because Tanucci 
opposed it. Doctrinal views leading to schism in the 
Church were openly advocated in the schools and 
universities of Austria, in spite of the entreaties and 
threats of the Sovereign Pontiff. Maria Theresa had 
proved feeble or false, and her son Joseph II was 

The Sequel to the Suppression 605 

in league with the Bourbon princes in their work of 
destruction. In Portugal, Pombal was still raging like 
a wild beast; filling the schools with the disciples of 
Voltaire, flouting the papal nuncio, and keeping in 
dark and filthy dungeons the members of the detested 
Order which he had exterminated. The Philosophers 
and Jansenists were rejoicing in their triumph, and 
were suppressing all religious communities and seizing 
their property; the morality and orthodoxy of . Poland 
were being rapidly corrupted; Catherine of Russia was 
creating bishops and establishing sees as the fancy 
prompted her, and Freemason lodges were multiplying 
all over Europe. Worst of all, the Pope's own house- 
hold with but few exceptions kept aloof from him and 
were silent about what he had done, while many 
bishops of various countries of Europe and the entire 
episcopacy of France endorsed the sentiments ex- 
pressed in the terrible letter of the Archbishop of Paris, 
denouncing the Suppression* 

Ineffably shocked by all this, the Pope began to 
show signs of depression, and everyone was in con- 
sternation. St. Alphonsus Liguori, especially, was 
anxious about him and kept continually repeating: 
" Pray for the Pope; he is distressed; for there is 
nowhere the slightest glimmer of peace for the Church. 
He is praying for death, so crushed is he by the sorrows ; 
that are overwhelming the Church; he remains con- 
tinually in seclusion; gives audience to no one; and 
attends to no business. I have heard things about 
him from those who are at Rome that would bring 
tears to your eyes." His mind was unbalanced, and 
one of his successors, Pius VII, related later what he 
had been told by a prelate who was present at the 
signing of the fatal Brief: " As soon as he had affixed 
his signature to the paper he threw the pen to one side 
and the paper to the other. He had lost his mind.'* 

606 The Jesuits 

Before that, Pius had said the same thing to Cardinal 
Pacca at Pontainebleau, when in an agony of remorse 
for having signed the Concordat with Napoleon: 
"I cannot get the cruel thought out of my mind. 
I cannot sleep at night and I am haunted by the 
fear of going mad and ending like Clement XIV." 
Another writer who received his information from 
Gregory XVI tells the same sad story (de Ravignan, 
Clement XIII et Clement XIV, I, 452). St. Alphonsiis 
Liguori was with the Pope when he died, but according 
to a Redemptorist writer, it was " in spirit/' and not 
by bodily bilocation. The end came in September 
22, 1774, thirteen months after the unfortunate Brief 
was issued, 

Of course, when he died, the report went abroad 
that the Jesuits had poisoned him, by .administering 
a dose of aqua toffana, but although no one has ever 
found out what aqua tojffana is or was, and as there 
were no Jesuits in Rome at the time, the story was 
nevertheless believed by many and was adduced as 
a proof of the wisdom of the Pope in suppressing the 
iniquitous organization. The Jansenists even made a 
saint of the dead Pontiff and circulated marvellous 
romances about the ^corruption of his body and the 
miracles that were wrought at his tomb. 

Cantft in his " Storia dei cent* anni " says that " the 
Pope whose health and mind were grievously affected, 
died in delirium, haunted by phantoms, and begging 
for pardon. It was claimed that he had been poisoned 
by the Jesuits, but the truth is that the physicians 
found no trace of poison in the body. Had the Jesuits 
possessed the power or the will to do so, one might 
ask why they did not do it before and not after Clement 
had struck them. But passion often makes light of 
common sense." The post-mortem which was made 
in the presence of a great many people showed that 

The Sequel to the Suppression 607 

the sickness to which he had succumbed arose from 
scorbutic and hemorrhoidal conditions from which he 
had been suffering for many years, and which were 
aggravated by excessive work and the system he 
had followed of producing artificial perspiration even 
in the heats of summer." 

The poor Pope had exclaimed before he signed the 
Brief: " Questa soppressione mi dar& la morte" 
(this suppression will kill me.) " After it/' says Saint- 
Priest in his ' Chute des J6suites/ " he would pace 
his apartments in agony, crying: * Mercy! Mercy! 
They forced me to do it. Compulsus fed. 9 However, 
at the last moment his reason returned. He showed 
his indignation at a proposal made to him even then, 
to raise some of the enemies of the Society to the 
cardinalate and drove them from his bedside with 

Bernis, the French ambassador at Rome, wrote to 
Louis XV that " the Vicar of Christ prayed like the 
Redeemer for his implacable enemies/' and insinuated 
that he was poisoned. Knowing this d'Alembert 
warned Frederick II to be on his guard against a similar 
fate, but the king replied: " There is nothing more 
false than the story of the poisoning; the truth is 
that he was profoundly hurt by the coldness mani- 
fested by the cardinals and he often reproached him- 
self, for having sacrificed an Order like that of the 
Jesuits, to satisfy the whim of his rebellious children." 
Becantini (Storia di Pio VI, i, 31) says: " Nowadays 
no one believes the story of the poisoning of Clement 
XIV. Even Bernis who first stood for it, afterwards 
disavowed it." Canceller! one of the most dis- 
tinguished savants of Italy denies the fact; so does 
Gavani, a bitter enemy of the Church and the Society. 
Finally, Salcetto the physician of the Apostolic palace, 
and Adinolfi the Pope's own doctor, in their official 

608 The Jesuits 

report to the majordomo, Archinto, declare it to 
have been an absolutely natural death and they 
explain that the corruption which set in was due to 
the excessive heat that prevailed at the time. 

It was even said that the Pope had expressed to 
the General of the Conventuals, Marzoni, a fear that 
he had been poisoned. Whereupon Marzoni caused 
the following statement to be published: 

" I, the undersigned Minister General of the Order 
of the Conventuals of St. Francis, fully aware that by 
my oath I call the sovereign and true God to witness 
what I say; and being "certain of what I say, I now 
without any constraint and in the presence of God who 
knows that I do not lie, do by these words, which are 
absolutely true, and which I write and trace with my 
own hand, swear and attest to the whole universe, 
that never in any circumstance whatever did Clement 
XIV ever say to me either that he had been poisoned 
or that he felt the slightest symptom of poison. I 
swear also that I never said to any one soever that 
the same Clement XIV assured me in confidence 
that he had been poisoned or had felt the effects of 
poison. So help me God. 

"Given in the Convent of the Twelve Apostles at 
Rome July 27, 1775. 

"I, Bro. Louis -Maria Marzoni 

''Minister General of the Order." 

Thus Clement XIV, far from giving peace to the 
Church, left a heritage of woe to his successor, Angelo 
Braschi, who was elected Pope on February 15, 1775, 
and took the name of Pius VI. The new Pope was 
painfully conscious that an error had been committed 
by suppressing an Order without trial and without 
even condemnation, and that a reflection had been 
cast upon a great number of Pontiffs who had been 

The Sequel to the Suppression 609 

unstinted in their praise of it, no one more so than 
Clement's immediate predecessor. The act had also 
given to the Jansenists a terrific instrument in the 
implied approval of them by the Sovereign Pontiff. 
They became more aggressive than ever and organized 
their forces to introduce their doctrines into Italy itself. 

By a curious coincidence the leader of the move- 
ment was of the same family as the General of the 
suppressed Jesuits : Scipio Ricci, the Bishop of Pistoia. 
Supporting him in the civic world was the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany who was the brother of Joseph II of 
Austria. Ricci convened the famous Synod of Pistoia, 
on July 31, 1786. No doubt July 31 was chosen pur- 
posely; it was the feast of St. Ignatius. There were 
247 members in attendance, all exclusively Jansenists 
and regalists. The four Gallican Articles-were endorsed 
and among the measures was that of conferring the 
right on the civil authority to create matrimonial 
impediments. It advocated the reduction of all 
religious orders to one; the abolition of perpetual 
vows; a vernacular liturgy; the removal of all altars 
but one from the church; etc. The Acts of the synod 
were promulgated with the royal imprimatur. Indeed 
Pius VI found himself compelled to condemn eighty- 
five of the synod's propositions. 

Worse than this was the Febronianism of Austria, 
which went far beyond the Gallicanism of France or 
Italy in its rebellious aggressiveness. It maintained 
that the primacy of Rome had no basis in the authority 
of Christ; that the papacy was not restricted to Rome, 
but could be placed anywhere; that Rome was merely 
a centre with which the individual churches could 
be united; that the papal power was simply adminis- 
trative and unifying and not jurisdictional; that the 
papal power of condemning heresies, confirming epis- 
copal elections, naming coadjutors, transferring ^a 


610 The Jesuits 

removing bishops, erecting primatial sees, etc., all 
rested on the False Decretals. It was maintained 
that the Pope could issue no decrees for the Universal 
Church, and that even the decrees of general councils 
were not binding until approved of by the individual 

In vain Clement XlV had begged Maria Theresa 
to check the movement. She was absolutely in the 
power of her son Joseph II, whose very first ordinances 
forbade the reception of papal decrees without the 
government's sanction. The bishops, he ruled, were 
not to apply to the Pope for faculties; they could not 
even issue instructions to their own flocks without 
permission of the civil authority. He established 
parishes, assigned fast days, determined the number 
of Masses to be said, and sermons to be preached. 
He even decided how many candles were to be lighted 
on the altar; he made marriage a civil contract and 
abolished ecclesiastical ceremonies. 

In the hope that a personal appeal might avail, 
the Pope determined to make a journey to Vienna to 
entreat the emperor to desist. He arrived there on 
March 22, 1782, and was courteously received by 
Joseph himself, but brutally Ijy his minister, Kaunitz, 
who forbade any ecclesiastic to present himself in 
the city while the Pope was there. Pius remained a 
month in the capital and succeeded only in extracting a 
promise that nothing would be done against the 
Faith or the respect due the Holy See. How far the 
royal word was kept may be inferred from the fact 
that after accompanying the Pope as far as the 
Monastery of Marianbrunn Joseph suppressed that 
establishment an hour after the Pope had resumed his 
journey to Rome, 

In Germany the three ecclesiastical Electors of 
Mayence, Treves and Cologne with the Archbishop of 

The Sequel to the Suppression 611 

Salzburg met in a convention at Ems in 1786, and 
attempted to curtail the powers of the Pope in dealing 
with bishops. That assembly was also strongly Jansen- 
istic. Thirty-one of its articles were directed against 
the Pope. Pacca, the papal nuncio, was not even 
received by the Archbishop of Cologne, and three of 
the Elector bishops refused to honor his credentials. 
The famous " Punctation of Ems," which consisted of 
twenty-three articles, declared that German arch- 
bishops were independent of Rome, because of the 
" False Decretalfe." They pronounced for an abolition 
of all direct communication with Rome; all monasteries 
were to be subject to the bishops; religious orders 
were to have no superior generals residing outside of 
Germany; Rome's exclusive power of granting faculties 
was denied; Papal Bulls were binding only after 
the bishop of the diocese had given his placet; all 
Apostolic nunciatures were to be abolished, etc. In 
brief, the synod, or " Congress " as it was called, aimed 
at establishing a schismatical church. But the Pope's 
remarkable letter to the dissidents and the progress 
of the French Revolution, which was then raging 
furiously, prevented the application anywhere of the 
doctrines put forth at the meeting. 

Spain, Sardinia, Venice and Sicily were all in this 
movement against the Church, and Ferdinand IV 
of Sicily claimed the right of appointment to all 
ecclesiastical benefices, as well as the power to nullify 
all Papal Briefs which had not received his approval. 

Nor did the Brief of Suppression contribute to the 
political* stability of the nations. In Naples, for 
example, Tanucci was flung from power when the 
young king married an archduchess of Austria; so that 
he disappeared from the scene three years after the 
suppression of the Society. In 1798 the Bourbons 
fled from Naples; the city was given over to a mob 

612 The Jesuits 

directed by an innkeeper called Michael the Madman; 
the Duke deUa Torre and his- brother were burned 
alive in the public square; the Senate was dissolved; 
the palaces were pillaged; a republic was proclaimed 
and the whole Peninsula of Italy fell into the hands of 
the French. 

Charles III of Spain died in 1788, and was succeeded 
by Charles IV, whom Arnado describes as more deficient 
in character and ability than his father. The rude 
Florida Blanca, who was so conspicuous for his 
brutality in terrorizing Clement XIV, was thrown out 
of office by the inept Godoy, who allied Spain with 
France against England, and brought on the disaster 
of Trafalgar. The king was driven from his throne and 
country by his rebellious son, Ferdinand, and then 
kid his royal crown at the feet of Napoleon Bonaparte. 
Since that time, the country has been in a ferment 
because its politics are filled with the ideas of the 
French Revolution and of English Liberalism. 

In Portugal, retribution came at a rapid pace. 
Pombal fell from power in 1777 on the death of the 
king. He .had been detected in a plot to have the 
young Prince of Beira succeed to the throne to the 
exclusion of Queen Maria. It was possibly with the 
same end in view that he had endeavored to start a 
war with Spain. He had seized Spanish posts in 
America, mobilized troops and fortified Lisbon, but 
hostilities were never declared. Queen Maria's first 
act at her accession was to open Pomb^al's dungeons. 
Eight hundred men of all classes issued from these 
sepulchres in which some of them had been for eighteen 
years without a trial. They were like ghosts; emaci- 
ated; hollow-eyed and ghastly; some were sightless, 
many were half-naked. Among them were sixty 
Jesuits. The populace were so infuriated at the 
horrible spectacle that Pombal feared to venture into 

The Sequel to the Suppression 613 

the street. He might have been torn to pieces, and 
he was conducted under guard to his country estates. 
Father Oliviera, the confessor of the queen, was 
installed in court, and the venerable Father de Guzman 
issued the following statement to the public: 

'* At the age of eighty-one and at the point of appear- 
ing before the tribunal of Divine Justice, John de 
Guzman, the last assistant of the Society of Jesus, for 
the provinces and dominions of Portugal, would believe 
himself guilty of an unpardonable sin of omission, if, 
in neglecting to have recourse to the throne of Your 
Majesty where clemency and justice reign, he did not 
place at your feet, this humble petition in the name of 
six hundred subjects of Your Majesty, the unfortunate 
remnants of a wrong inflicted on them. 

" He entreats Your Majesty by the Sacred Heart of 
Jesus Christ, by that tender love which Your Majesty 
bears to the August Queen, His mother, and to the 
illustrious King Don Pedro, to the princes and 
princesses of the royal family, that you would deign 
and even command that the trial^ of so many of the 
faithful subjects of Your Majesty, who have been 
branded with infamy in the eyes of the world, be now 
reviewed. They are groaning under the accusation 
of having committed outrages and crimes which the 
very savages would shrink from even imagining, and 
which no human heart could ever conceive. They 
lament and moan that they were condemned without 
even having been brought to trial, without being heard 
and without being allowed to make any defense. 
Those who have now issued from prison are all in 
accord in this matter, and unanimously attest, that 
during all the time of their imprisonment, they have 
not even seen the face of any judge. 

" On his part, your suppliant, who is now making 
this appeal, and who for many years occupied a position 

614 The Jesuits 

where he could acquire an intimate knowledge of what 
was going on, is ready to swear in the most solemn 
manner, that the superiors and members of the Spanish 
assistancy of the Society of Jesus were without reproach. 
He and all the other exiles are ready to undergo 
sufferings more rigorous than any to which they have 
hitherto been subjected, if a single individual has 
ever been guilty of the least crime against the State. 

" Moreover, your suppliant and his brethren, the 
chief superiors of the Society, have been examined 
in Rome, again and again, in the most searching 
manner, and have been declared innocent. Pope 
Pius VI, now gloriously reigning, has seen the minutes 
of those investigations, and Your Majesty will find in 
that great Pontiff an enlightened witness whose 
integrity nothing on earth can equal; and at the same 
time you will find a judge who could not commit 
a wrong without rendering himself guilty of an un- 
paralleled iniquity. 

" Deign, then, Your Majesty, to extend to us that 
clemency which belongs to you as does your throne; 
deign to hearken to the prayers of so many unfortu- 
nates, whose innocence has been proven, and who have 
never ceased in the midst of their sufferings to be the 
faithful subjects of Your Majesty; and who could never 
falter or fail an instant, in the love that they have 
from childhood entertained for the royal family. 

This appeal had its effect. An enquiry was ordered, 
and in October 1780 a revision of the trial of the alleged 
conspirators of 1758 was begun. On April 3, 1781, the 
court announced that "all those, either living or dead, 
who had been imprisoned or executed in virtue of the 
sentence of January 12, 1759, were absolutely innocent." 
Pombal himself was put on trial, found guilty, and con- 
demned to receive'* an exemplary punishment. " He 
escaped imprisonment on account of his age, but he 

The Sequel to the Suppression 615 

died of leprosy on May 8, 1782. His corpse lay 
unburied until the Society which he had crushed was 
restored thirty-one years later to its former place in 
Portugal. One of its first duties was to sing a Requiem 
Mass over his remains. The details of the trial were 
suppressed at the request of the Pope, for the reason 
that too many prominent personages in the Church 
were implicated. There was another reason. The 
spirit of Pombal had so thoroughly impregnated the 
ruling classes that the report was withheld out of 
fear of a revolution. Indeed, the queen was so terrified 
by the danger that she lost her mind. Finally, in 
1807 a French army occupied Lisbon and the royal 
family fled to Brazil. Since then Portugal which was 
once so great counts for very lit'tle in the political 

It is unnecessary to refer to France, except to note 
that it was Choiseul who purchased Corsica and thus 
gave his country which he had helped to ruin an alien 
ruler: Napoleon Bonaparte, who put an end to the 
orgies of the Revolution by deluging Europe with 
French blood; who imprisoned the Pope; demolished 
the Bourbon dynasties wherever he could find them, 
and bound France in fetters which, in spite of its 
multiplied changes of government, it has never shaken 

When Joseph II of Austria ended his lonely and 
unhappy existence in 1790, he saw in France the be- 
ginning of the wreck which his friend Voltaire had 
helped to effect; he did not live to see the execution 
of his own sister, Marie Antoinette, but enough had 
occurred to fill him with terror especially as the exist- 
ence of his own monarchy was threatened; Belgium 
was lost; Hungary was in wild disorder, and other parts 
of the empire were about to rebel. Before he died 
he wrote his own epitaph. It was: " Here lies 

616 The Jesuits 

Joseph II, who never succeeded in any of his under- 

What became of the scattered Jesuits? The 
scholastics and lay-brothers, of course, went back to 
the world, but, in France, by a refinement of cruelty 
they were declared by the courts to be incapable of 
inheriting even from their own parents, because of 
the vows they had pronounced on entering the Society. 
That the vows no longer existed made no difference to 
the lawmakers. As for the priests they were 
secularized, and in many places were welcomed by 
the bishops as rectors or professors in colleges and 
seminaries. They were in demand, also, as directors 
of religious communities and not a few became bishops. 
Thus, in America, the first two members of the 
hierarchy, Carroll and Neale, were old Jesuits, as was 
Lawrence Graessel who had been named as Carroll's 
successor but who died before the Bulls arrived. 
Cr6tineau-Joly has a list of twenty-one bishops in 
Europe alone. Others were called to episcopal sees, 
but in hopes of the restoration of the Society they had 
declined the honor. 

Father Walcher was appointed imperial director of 
navigation and mathematics by Maria Theresa; Cabral, 
Lecci, and Riccati, were engaged by various govern- 
ments in engineering works; Zeplichal was employed 
by Frederick II in exploiting mines. The Theresian 
College of Vienna became one of the best schools in 
the world under their direction; and Breslau felt the 
effects of their assistance, as did other colleges such 
as the Oriental in Vienna, the University of Buda, 
and the schools of Mayence, and of various cities in 

They must have been often amused at some of the 
situations in which they found themselves. Thus, 
for instance in 1784 the Parliament of Languedoc, 

The Sequel to the Suppression 617 

which had been one of the bitterest enemies of the 
Society, met to arrange for the solemn obsequies of 
the Jesuit Father Sesane " the friend of the poor," 
and the ecclesiastical authorities were busy taking 
juridical information for his canonization. Again, 
although not permitted to exist in Switzerland the 
Council of Soleuse erected a statue in honor of the 
Jesuit Father Crollanza, who all his life had shunned 
honor and was conspicuous for his humility. On the 
pedestal was the very delightful inscription: 
" Pauperum patrem, aegrorum matrem, omnium 
fratrem, virum doctum et humilimum, in vita, in morte, 
in feretro suavitate sibi similem amabat, admirabatur, 
lugebat Solodurum." In the same way, Maria Theresa 
in an official document dated 1776 declared that 
" moved by the consideration of the brilliant virtues, 
the science, the erudition and the regular and exemplary 
life of Jean-Theophile Delpini; and reflecting more- 
over on his apostolic labors in Hungary and the 
Principality of Transylvania where to our great 
consolation, he led a vast throng of Anabaptists back 
to the true Faith, we have chosen and we hereby 
appoint the said Theophile Delpini who has merited 
much from the Church and the State, and who is 
therefore very acceptable to us personally, to the 
post of Abbot of Our Lady of Kolos-Monostros." 
Parhamer obtained a similar distinction in Austria 
and Carinthia. He was an advanced advocate of what 
is now called social service, and he made use of his 
position as confessor and friend of the Emperor Francis 
I to establish useful popular institutions; among which 
was an orphanage for the children of soldiers who had 
died for their country. It *was a sort of child's 
H6tel des Invalides. The discipline was exclusively 
military, with drills, camp life, etc. Joseph II 
wanted to make him a bishop but Parhamer asked 

618 The Jesuits 

for two months to think it over and before the two 
months had expired he was dead. That was as late 
as 1786. Meantime, Marie Leczinska, the Queen of 
France, would only have these prescribed Jesuits hear 
her confession, and two Poles, Radomiviski and Buganski 
were chosen for that office. On account of their nation- 
ality they could not be exiled from Prance. In Austria, 
Father Walcher was kept busy building dykes to prevent 
inundations. Father Cabral, a Portuguese, had to 
harness the cataract of Velino, which had so long 
wrought havoc in the city of Terni, and then he did the 
same thing for his own country by confining the 
Tagus to its bed. In doing so he did not remember 
that his country had kept him in exile for eighteen 
years. Ximenes made roads and bridges in Tuscany 
and Rome. Riccati saved Venice from inundations by 
controlling the Po, the Adige and Brenta, and by 
order of Frederick II of Prussia Father Zeplichal 
had to locate the metal mines of Glatz, and so on. 
All this was over and above their ecclesiastical work 
for which they were called on by every one, even by 
the Pope who had suppressed them. 

The famous astronomer, Maximilian Hell, was 
another of the homeless Jesuits of that period; and as 
it happened that from the beginning, astronomy had 
always been in honor in the Society, there was a great 
number of such men adrift in the world when their 
own observatories were taken away from them. The 
enthusiastic historian of the Society, Cr6tineau-Joly 
has an extended list of their names as well as those 
who were remarkable in other branches of science. 

The " Theologia Wiceburgensis," which is so popular 
in the modern Society, was composed by dispersed 
Jesuits, and, according to Cardinal Pacca, "in the 
difficulties that arose between the Papal nuncios and 
the ecclesiastical Electors of Germany it was the 

The Sequel to the Suppression 619 

former Jesuits who appeared in the lists as the 
champions of the Holy See, to illumine and strengthen 
the minds of the faithful by their solid and victorious 
writings/* Prangois Xavier de Peller belonged to this 
period, and in the opinion of Gerlache, the historian 
of the Netherlands, " he exerted a great influence on 
the Belgian Congress of 1790." It was he who led 
the assault on Josephinism and Febronianism. With 
him in this fight was Francesco Antonio Zaccaria who 
compelled the author of the ' ' Febronius " to acknowledge 
his errors. Guillaume Bertier revived the 'famous 
" Journal de TrSvoux, " and Fr6ron made a reputation 
for the "Journal des D6bats," Girolamo Tiraboschi 
wrote his "History of Italian Literature," Juan 
Andrfis, his " Origin of All Literature," Francisco 
Clavigero continued his " History of Mexico " and 
Antoine de Berault-Bercastel, Frangois De Ligny, 
Jean Grou, Giulio Cordara, wrote their various well- 
known works. Besides writing his stiU popular " Bible 
History" Reeve translated into Latin verses much of the 
poetry of Pope, Dryden and Young. The list is 
endless. A French-Canadian, Xavier du Plessis, was 
famous in the pulpits of France in those days, as was 
Nicholas de Beauregard, who in 1775 startled all 
France by an utterance he made when preaching at 

"These philosophers," he exclaimed, "are striking 
at the king and at religion. The axe and the hammer 
are in their hands. They are only waiting for the 
moment to overturn the altar and the throne. Yes 
Lord, Thy temples will be plundered and destroyed, 
Thy feasts abolished, Thy name proscribed. But 
what do I hear? Great God! what do I see. Instead 
of the holy canticles which resounded beneath these 
consecrated vaults till now, I hear lascivious and 
blasphemous songs. And thou, the infamous divinity 

620 The Jesuits 

of paganism, lascivious Venus, thou darest to come 
to take the place of the living God, to sit upon the 
throne of the Holy of Holies and receive the guilty 
incense of thy worshippers." The vision was realized 
eighteen years later. 

The sermon caused a tumult in the church. The 
preacher was denounced as seditious, and as a calum- 
niator of light and reason. Even Condorcet wrote him 
down as a ligueur and a fanatic. He continued preach- 
ing, nevertheless, and his old associates followed his 
example. During one Lent, out of twenty of the great 
preachers, sixteen were Jesuits. 

Three of these former Jesuits especially attracted 
attention at this time in the domain of letters and 
science: Zaccaria, Tiraboschi, and Boscovich. 

Francesco Antonio Zaccaria, whose name is some- 
times written Zaccheria, was a Venetian who had 
entered the Austrian novitiate in 1731, when he was 
a boy of seventeen. He taught literature at Goritz, 
but was subsequently sent to Rome where he became 
very distinguished both for his eloquence and his 
marvellous encyclopedic knowledge. In 1751 he was 
appointed to succeed Muratori as the ducal librarian 
at Modena, though Cardinal Quirini had asked for 
him and the celebrated Count Crustiani subsequently 
tried to bring him to Mantua. His fame was so great 
that the most illustrious academies of Italy claimed his 
name for their registers. In Rome he became the 
literary historiographer of the Society, and had been 
so excellent an aid for Clement XIII in the fight 
against GalHcanism that the Pope assigned him a 
pension. That was just before the Suppression of 
the Society; when that event occurred he was deprived 
of his pension, and after frequently running the risk 
of being imprisoned in the Castle Sant' Angelo, he was 
ordered not to attempt to leave Rome. When Pius VI 

The Sequel to the Suppression 621 

became Pope, Zaccaria's life became a little happier. 
His pension was restored and even increased; he was 
made Rector of the College of Clerical Nobles, and 
regained his old chair of ecclesiastical history in the 
Sapienza. He died in 1795 at the age of eighty-two. 
The " Biographie Universelle " says that, besides 
innumerable manuscripts, Zaccaria left one hundred 
and six printed books, the most important of which is 
the " Literary History of Italy " in 14 octavo volumes 
with supplements to volumes IV and V. His method of 
leading his readers through the literary labyrinth 
deserves no less praise than the penetration of his 
views, and the good taste of his criticism. Besides 
this literary work, he wrote on moral theology, scrip- 
ture, canon law, history, numismatics, etc. 

Girolamo Tiraboschi, who was born in Bergamo on 
December 28, 1731, went to the Jesuit school at Monza, 
and from there entered the Society. His first character- 
istic work, while teaching literature in Bergamo, was 
to re-edit the Latin-Italian dictionary of Mandosio. 
He made so many corrections that it was substantially 
a new work. When occupied as librarian in Milan, 
he discovered a set of valuable manuscripts about 
the suppressed Order of Humiliati. The publication of 
these MSS. filled up a gap in the annals of the Church, 
and made Tiraboschi's reputation in the world of 
letters. The Duke of Modena made him his librarian, 
the post formerly held by Zaccaria. Thanks to the 
munificence of the princes of Este, the library was a 
literary treasure house, and Tiraboschi conceived the 
idea of gathering up the riches around him and writing 
a good history of Italian literature; a task that seemed 
to be too much for one mind. The difficulty was 
increased by the jealousy of the various Italian states, 
so that an unbiased judgment about the merits of 
this army of writers called for a man with courage 

622 The Jesuits 

enough to shut his ears to the clamors of local prejudice. 
It supposed also a profound knowledge of ancient and 
modern literature, a sufficient acquaintance with the 
arts and sciences, and skill enough not to be over- 
whelmed by the mass of material he had to handle. 
It took him eleven years to complete the work, 

The Spaniards were irritated by the " History " 
for they were blamed for having corrupted the literary 
taste of Italy, and three Spanish Jesuits attacked 
him fiercely on that score. Nevertheless, the Academy 
accepted a copy of the work in the most flattering 
terms. The Italians regarded it as a most complete 
history of their literature and a monument erected to 
the glory of their country. He was made a knight 
by the Duke and appointed counsellor of the princi- 
pality. While he was engaged in this work, the Society 
was suppressed, and like Boscovich and Zaccaria, 
he did not live to see its resurrection. He died in 
Modena on June 3, 1794. 

Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich was a Dalmatian 
from Ragusa, where he was born on May 18, 1711. 
He was a boy at the Jesuit college of that town and 
entered the Society at the early age of fourteen. 
He was sent to the Roman College, where his unusual 
literary and philosophical as well as mathematical 
abilities immediately attracted attention. He was 
able to take the place of his professor in mathematics 
while he was yet in his theological studies, and sub- 
sequently occupied the chair of mathematics with great 
distinction for a generation. His bent, however, was 
chiefly for astronomy, and every year he issued a 
treatise on one or another subject of that science. 
Among them may be mentioned: the "Sun spots" 
(1736); "The Transit of Mercury" (1737); "The 
Aurora Borealis " (1738); "Application of the Tele- 
scope in Astronomical Studies " (1739); " The Figure 

The Sequel to the Suppression 623 

of the Earth " (1739) ; " The Motion of the Heavenly 
Bodies in an unresisting Medium " (1740); "Various 
effects of Gravity" (1741); "The Aberration of the 
Fixed Stars " (1742); and numberless others. Foreign 
and Italian academies, among them Bologna, Paris 
and London admitted him to membership. It was he 
who first suggested the massive pillars of the college 
church of St. Ignatius as the foundation of the Observ- 
atory in Rome; but the Suppression of the Society 
prevented him from carrying out the plan. When the 
great dome of St. Peter's began to crack, he allayed 
the general alarm by placing iron bands around it. 
His advice was sought for the draining of the Pontine 
Marshes; he surveyed the Papal States by order of 
Benedict XIV and induced the Pope to withdraw the 
obsolete decree in the Index against the Copernican 

When King John V of Portugal asked for ten Jesuit 
Fathers to make an elaborate survey of Brazil, Bosco- 
vich offered himself for the arduous task, hoping thus 
to make a survey in Ecuador, so as to obtain data for 
the final solution of the problem of the figure of the 
earth which was then exciting much attention in 
England and France, but the Pope kept him for the 
survey of Italy, which Boscovich did, and in 1755 he 
published a large quarto volume describing the work. 
In 1748, he had already revived Leibnitz's system of 
dynamism in the composition of bodies, a view which 
his fellow- Jesuits generally rejected. When this vol- 
ume was issued, the publisher added a list of Bosco- 
vich's previous works. They amounted to sixty-six 
and he soon added three more quartos on " The 
Elements of Mathematics." He even wrote Latin 
poetry, mostly eulogies of the Pope and distinguished 
men, and published five volumes of verse on " The 
Defects of the Sun and the Moon." 

624 The Jesuits 

Boscovich's advice was sought as an engineer for 
damming the Lakes which were threatening the city 
of Lucca; and he acquitted himself so well, that he 
was made an honorary citizen and his expenses were 
subsequently paid for his scientific exploration in 
Italy, Prance and England. He settled a dispute 
between his native town arid the King of France. He 
journeyed with the Venetian ambassador to Constanti- 
nople to complete his archaeological studies, but that 
journey seriously injured his health. He then accepted 
the appointment of professor of mathematics at the 
University of Pavia and helped to found the Observa- 
tory of Brera in Milan which with that of the Col- 
legio Romano is among the most prominent in Italy. 
The London Academy wanted to send him to Cali- 
fornia in 1769 to observe the transit of Venus, but the 
opposition to the Jesuits, which was four years later 
to lead to their suppression, caused the invitation 
to be withdrawn. Louis XV then called him to Prance 
where he was made director of optics for the Navy 
with a salary of 8,000 francs. He retained this posi- 
tion until 1783, that is ten years after the Society of 
Jesus had gone out of existence. He then went to 
Italy to publish five more books, and at the age of 
eighty-six retired to the monastery of the monks of 
Vallombroso. On account of his great ability, or 
rather on account of his being a Jesuit, he was bitterly 
assailed by Condorcet and d'Alembert and other 
infidels of Prance. 

Bolgeni, who died in 1811, was made penitentiary 
by Pius VI in recognition of his services against Jan- 
senism and Josephinism. Unfortunately, however, he 
advocated the acceptance of some scheme of Napoleon, 
for which Pope Pius VII deposed him from his office 
and called Father Muzzarelli from Parma to take his 
place. In 1809 when Pius VII was exiled, MuzzarelH 

The Sequel to the Suppression 625 

went with him to Paris or at least followed soon after. 
His work on the " Right Use of Reason in Religion " 
ran up to eleven volumes, besides which he produced 
other books against Rousseau, and several pious 
treatises, like the " Month of May," which has been 
translated into many languages. 

Possibly a certain number of missionaries remained 
with their neophytes because they were too remote 
to be reached. Others, who owed no allegiance to 
the king who ordered the expulsion, paid no attention 
to it, as the Englishman King, for instance, who was 
martyred in Siam after the Suppression; or the Irish- 
man O'Reilly, who buried himself, in the forests 
of Guiana with his savages; Poirot was kept at the 
court of Pekin as the emperor's musician; and Benoit 
constructed fountains for the imperial gardens, invented 
a famous waterclock, which spouted water from the 
mouths of animals, two hours for each beast, thus 
running through the twenty-four hours of the day; 
he made astronomical observations, brought out 
copper-plate engravings of maps and so on, and finally 
died of apoplexy in 1774, one year after Clement 
XIV had suppressed the Society. Hallerstein, the 
imperial astronomer, was also there waiting for news 
of the coming disaster. 

B. N. in " The Jesuits; their history and foundation " 
(II, 274) and Cretineau-Joly both declare that there 
were four of the proscribed Jesuits in the Etats g6n6raux 
which was convened in Paris at the opening of the 
Revolution: Delfau, de Rozaven, San-Estavan and 
Allain. Of course, the Rozaven in this instance 
was not the John Rozaven so famous later on. In 
1789 John was only eighteen years of age. In the 
session of February 19, 1790, the famous Abbe Gr6goire, 
who afterwards became the Constitutional Bishop of 
Loir-et-Cher, startled the assembly by crying out, 

626 The Jesuits 

" Among the hundred thousand vexations of the old 
government, whose hand was so heavy on France, we 
must place the suppression of the celebrated Order 
of the Jesuits. " The Deputy Lavie had also asked 
for justice in their behalf. The Protestant Barnave 
declared that " the first act of our new liberty should 
be to repair the injustices of despotism; and I, therefore, 
propose an amendment in favor of the Jesuits/' "They 
have," said the next speaker, the Abb6 de Montesquiou, 
" a right to your generosity. You will not refuse 
justice to that celebrated Society in whose colleges 
some of you have studied; whose wrongs we cannot 
understand, but whose sufferings were to be expected/ ' 

The sentiments of the speakers were enthusiastically 
applauded, but it was all forgotten as the terrible 
Revolution proceeded on its course. Jesuits like other 
priests were carried to the guillotine; but, as no records 
could now be kept, it is impossible to find out how 
many were put to death. We find out, however, 
from " Les martyrs " of Leclercq that in Paris alone 
there were eleven : DuPerron, Benoit, Bonnaiid, Cayx, 
Friteyre, du Rocher, Lanfant, Villecrohain, Le Cue, 
Rousseau, and Seconds. Cr6tineau-Joly adds to this 
list the two Rochefoucaulds; Dulau, who was Arch- 
bishop of Aries; Ddfaux; Millou; Gagni&re; Le Livec; 
another Du Rocher; Vourlat; Du Roure; Rouchon; 
Thomas; Andrieux and Verron; making in all twenty- 
five. In " Les crimes de la Revolution " there are 
two volumes of the names of the condemned in all 
parts of France, but as the ecclesiastical victims are 
merely described as " priests " it is impossible to find 
out how many Jesuits there were among them. The 
twenty-fivfe, however, make a good showing for a single 
city. Probably the proportion was the same elsewhere. 

The old Jesuits appear again for a moment in Spain, 
when in 1800 Charles IV recalled them. A pestilence 

The Sequel to the Suppression 627 

was raging in Andalusia when they arrived, and they 
immediately plunged into the work of caring for the 
sick. Twenty-seven Jesuits died in the performance 
of this act of charity; but the government soon forgot 
it and again drove into exile the men whom they had 
appealed to for help.. In Austria they remained in 
the colleges as secular priests. At Pribourg, Lucerne 
and Soleure, the people insisted on their retaining the 
colleges. In China, they clung to their missions until 
the arrival of the Lazarists in 1783. In Portuguese 
India, even before the Suppression, they had been 
forcibly expelled, and the same thing occurred in 
South America wherever Portugal ruled. The Spanish 
missions of both South and North America had like- 
wise been wrested from them. In Turkey the French 
ambassador, Saint-Priest, insisted on their staying at 
their posts in Constantinople, because of their success 
in dealing with the Moslems and schismatics. As we 
have seen when missionaries were needed in the 
deadly forests of French Guiana, the government was 
shameless enough to ask the Portuguese Jesuits to 
devote themselves to the work; and the request was 
acceded to. They were also entreated to remain in 
French India. 

Speaking of Brazil, Southey says (III) : " Centuries 
will not repair the evil done by their sudden expulsion. 
They had been the protectors of a persecuted race; 
the advocates of mercy, the founders of civilization; 
and their patience under their unmerited sufferings 
forms not the least honorable part of their character." 
What Southey says of Brazil applies to Paraguay, 
Chile and other missions. 

Montucla in his "Histoire des math6matiques " 
tells us that Father Hallerstein, the president of the 
tribunal of astronomy in China hearing of the 
Suppression, died of the shock, as did his two dis- 

628 The Jesuits 

tinguished companions. The story related by the 
Protestant historian Christopher de Murr in his 
" Journal " is also illustrative of the general attitude 
of mind in this trying conjuncture. Just before the 
Suppression, he informs us, a French Government ship 
left Marseilles for Pekin with four Jesuits on board. 
One was a painter, another a physician and the two 
others were mathematicians. All of them were to be 
in the personal entourage of the Emperor of China. 
They were Austrians from the Tyrol, but France, 
which had expelled the French Jesuits a few years 
before, was sending these foreign Jesuits to represent 
her, and to promote the interests of science in the 
Chinese court. They set sail in the month of July, 
1773, and not a word was said to them about the general 
Suppression, which Choiseul knew perfectly well would 
soon take place. The Archbishop of Paris, de Beau- 
mont, had warned them of what was in the air, but they 
could not believe it possible and so they departed for 
the Par East. 

After a weary journey of four months, they arrived 
at 'Macao. Meantime the Brief had been published, 
and the Bishop of Macao, a creature of Pombal's made 
haste to inform them of the fact. Had he held his 
peace there would have been no difficulty about the 
continuance of the journey to Pekin, and their sub- 
sequent standing at the court, for the Brief was not 
effective until it was promulgated. But once they 
knew it, the poor men were in a dilemma. Not to 
heed the invitation of the Chinese emperor meant 
death, if he laid hold of them; but, on the other hand, 
to go to China without the power of saying Mass or 
preaching, or hearing confessions, namely as suspended 
priests, was unthinkable. For three days, the un- 
fortunate wanderers studied the problem with aching 
hearts, and finally determined to run the risk of capture 

The Sequel to the Suppression 629 

by the Chinese with its subsequent punishment of 
death. They stowed themselves away on separate 
ships and thus got back to Europe. Incidentally, it 
serves as a proof that the Jesuits did not go out to China 
to be mandarins, as some of their enemies alleged. 
They accepted what honors came to them, but only 
to help them in their apostolic work. 

It was found out subsequently that these poor 
men would have had better luck had they continued 
on their journey to China instead of returning to 
Europe. The promulgation of the Brief and the 
observance of all the legal technicalities connected with 
its enforcement was next to impossible in China, 
and hence we find a letter of Father Bourgeois from 
Pekin to his friend Duprez in France, which bears 
the date May 15, 1775, announcing that " the Brief 
is on its way." It had been issued two years pre- 
viously. Of course, Bourgeois is in tears over the 
prospective calamity, and tells his friend: "I have 
nothing now but eternity and that is not far off. 
Happy are those of Ours who are with Ignatius and 
Xavier and Aloy sius Gonzaga and the numberless throng 
of saints who follow the Lamb under the glorious 
banner of the Name of Jesus/' 

Cr6tineau-Joly discovered another letter from an 
Italian lay-brother named Panzi, who writes eighteen 
months later than Bourgeois. It is dated November 
ii, 1776. In it he says "the missionaries had been 
notified of the Bull of Suppression (he does not state 
how), nevertheless they live together in the same 
house, under the same roof and eat at the same table." 
Apparently there had been a flaw in the promulgation 
of the "Bull" or Brief. The brother goes on to 
say, that " the Fathers preach, confess, baptise, retain 
possession of their property just as before. No one 
has been interdicted or suspended for the reason that 

630 The Jesuits 

in a country Eke this it would have been impossible 
to do otherwise. It is all done with the permission 
of the Bishop of Nankin, to whom we are subject. 
If the same course had been pursued here as in some 
parts of Europe, it would have put an end not only 
to the missions but to all religion, besides being a 
great scandal to the Chinese Christians who could not 
be provided for and 'who would have abandoned the 

" Thanks be to God, our holy Mission is going on 
well and at present everything is very tranquil. The 
number of converts increases daily. Father DolliSres 
brought over an entire tribe which lives on the 
mountains two days' journey from Pekin. The 
Emperor, so far, shows no signs of embracing the 
Catholic Faith, but he protects it everywhere through- 
out his vast dominions, and so do the other great 
men of the Empire. I am still at my work of painting. 
I am glad I am doing it for God; and I am determined 
to live in this holy mission until God wishes to take 
me to himself," 

About this time, the Fathers addressed a joint 
letter to Cardinal de Bernis, the French ambassador 
at Rome, who had been so conspicuous in wresting the 
Brief of Suppression from Clement XIV and had 
originated the calumny about the poisoning of the 

" Would your Eminence," says the document, " oast 
a glance at the inclosed report on the present condition 
of the French missions of China and the Indies which 
has been asked for by the Holy Congregation of the 
Propagation of the Faith. To these missions as you 
know, his majesty has sent great amounts of money 
and a large number of his subjects, knowing as he did 
that the interests of France are bound up with those 
of religion, and the advancement of the latter was 

The Sequel to the Suppression 631 

what he had chiefly in view. It will be gratifying to 
you to learn that the Chinese Emperor takes great 
pleasure in having these French missionaries employed 
in his palace; he frequently takes them with him on 
his journeys through the empire, and makes use of 
them to draw up maps of the country, which are of 
invaluable service to him. On the other hand, the 
missionaries, on account of the esteem in which they 
are held, use all their influence to prevent the per- 
secution of Christians and have succeeded in obtaining 
favors for Europeans and especially for the Frenchmen 
who arrive at Canton, by protecting them from the 
annoyances to which they are exposed. Over and above 
this, several of the Fathers are in correspondence with 
the Paris Academy of Science, and also with the 
ministers of State, and are sending them the results of 
their astronomical observations, and of their dis- 
coveries in botany, natural history, in brief, whatever 
can contribute to the advancement of science and art. 
" The king and his ministers, have in the past few 
years, accorded free transportation to the Fathers who 
are sent out here to the French missions of India, 
and deservedly so, for these missionaries have fre- 
quently rendered important service to France, and 
for that reason, the Supreme Council of Pondicherry 
has taken up their defense against the rulings of the 
Parliament of Paris, which sent officers out here to 
seize the little property we possess. The Pondicherry 
authorities would concede only that the Fathers 
might make a small change in their soutane and be 
called the " Messieurs les missionnaires de Malabar. " 
It is in accordance with this arrangement that we 
continue to exercise our functions under the juris- 
diction of the bishop. We are the only ones who 
understand the very difficult language of the country 
and there does not seem to be any reason why we should 

632 The Jesuits 

not be left as we are. Besides these two missions, 
there are two others in the Levant, one in Greece, 
the other in Syria. They have always been and still 
are tinder the protection of France. M. le Chevalier 
de Saint-Priest, who is ambassador to Turkey, said, 
on his arrival at Constantinople, that the long had 
explicitly recommended to him the French missions 
and ordered him to assure the Fathers of the continu- 
ance of his protection." 

Of the missions in Hindostan it may be of use 
to quote here the utterance of M. Perrin of the Mis- 
sions Etrang&res, who went out to India three years 
after the destruction of the Jesuit Missions in those 
parts. "I cannot be suspected when I speak in 
praise of those Fathers. I was never associated with 
them. Indeed, they were already extinct as a body 
when Providence placed me in the happy necessity of 
having had to do with some of the former members. 
I belonged to an association which had protracted and 
sometimes very lively debates with the Jesuit Fathers, 
who might have regarded us as their enemies, if 
Christians are capable of entertaining that feeling; 
but I feel bound to say that, notwithstanding these 
discussions, we always held each other in the highest 
esteem, and I hereby defy the most audacious calumni- 
ator to prove that the Society of Jesus had ever to 
blush for the conduct of any of its Malabar missionaries 
either at Pondicherry or in the interior. All were 
formed and fashioned by virtue's hand and they 
breathed virtue back in their conduct and their ser- 
mons." (Voyage daas Tliadostan, II, 261.) 

Among tike Preach Jesuits in China, Father Amiot 
was conspicuous, Langl&s, the French Academian who 
was ambassador in China, dedicated to him a trans- 
lation of Holme's " Travels in China," in which the 
Jesuit is described as " Apostolic Missionary at Pekin, 

The Sequel to the Suppression 633 

Correspondent of the Academy of Inscriptions and 
Belles Lettres; an indefatigable savant, profoundly 
versed in the knowledge of the history of the sciences, 
the art's and the language of China and an ardent 
promoter of the Tatar-Manchou language and lit- 
terature." With Amiot was Father Joseph d'Espinha, 
who was president of the imperial tribunal of astronomy, 
and simultaneously administrator of the Diocese of 
Pekin. Fathers de Rocha and Rodrigues presided 
over the tribunal of mathematics, and Father Schel- 
barth replaced Castiglione as the chief painter of the 
emperor; there were other Jesuits also who evangelised 
the various provinces of the country under the direction 
of the Ordinary. 

This condition of things lasted for ten years and it 
was only then that the question arose of handing over 
the work to the Lazarists. Thus in a letter of Father 
Bourgeois, of whom we have already spoken, he says: 
" they have given our mission to the Lazarist Fathers!!" 
The letter' is dated November 15, 1783, namely ten 
years after the suppression of the Society. "They 
were to have come last year," continues the writer; 
" Will they come this year? They are fine men and 
they can feel sure that I shall do all in my power to 
help them and put them in good shape." It was not 
until 1785 that a Lazarist, Father Raux, took over 
the Pekin Mission, and in 1788, three years after- 
wards, Bourgeois was able to say to Father Beaure- 
gard who had contrived to remain in Paris in spite of 
the Revolution: "Our missionary successors are 
men of merit, remarkable for virtue, talent and refine- 
ment. We live together like brothers, and thus the 
Lord consoles us for the loss of our good mother, the 
Society, whom we can never forget. Nothing can 
tear that love out of our hearts, and hence every 
moment we have to make acts of resignation in the 

634 The Jesuits 

calamity that has fallen upon us. Meanwhile it is 
hard to say in our house whether the Lazarists live as 
Jesuits or the Jesuits like Lazarists/ 1 

The old and infirm Jesuits who were homeless and 
could find no ecclesiastical employment had much to 
suffer. They became pitiable objects of charity. 
Zalenski in " Les J&uites da la Russie Blanche " 
(I, 77) gives an instance of it, in an appeal made to 
the King of Poland by one hundred and five of these 
outcasts, many of whom had been distinguished pro- 
fessors in the splendid colleges of the country. They 
had been granted a miserable pittance out of their own 
property in the way of a pension, but even that was 
often not forthcoming. After reminding His Majesty 
that this pension had been guaranteed them by the 
Church, by their country, and by the Sovereign Pon- 
tiff, and that the allowance was from their own property; 
and was due to them from the natural law; and also that 
the amount needed was every day decreasing, because 
of the great number among them who were dying, they 
asked him imploringly: " Will Poland, so long known 
for its humanity, be cruel only to us; will you permit us 
the Lord's anointed, the old teachers of the youth of 
Poland, to go begging our bread on the streets, with 
our garments in rags, and exposed to insults; will you 
permit that our tears and our cries which are forced 
from us by the grief and abandonment to which we are 
reduoed should add to the affliction of our country; 
will you permit that our country should be accused of 
inhumanity and insulted because it withholds our 
pension? It is sad enough for us to have lost the 
Society, the dearest and nearest thing to our heart in 
this life, without adding this new suffering. Should 
you not have pity on our lot and grant us a pension? 
Do not bring us down to the grave with this new 
sorrow/' Whether their prayers were answered or not 

The Sequel to the Suppression 635 

we do not know. However, as Cardinal Pallavicini 
denounces the king as " impious and inert," it is 
very likely that the poor old men were left to starve. 
Quite unexpectedly the Protestant Frederick the 
Great of Prussia and the schismatical Catherine II of 
Russia insisted on having what Jesuits they could 
get for educational work in their respective domains. 
As neither sovereign would permit the Papal Brief 
to be read in the countries which they governed, a 
number of the exiles in various parts of Europe flocked 
thither. Efforts were made to have the Brief promul- 
gated in both countries, but without success; for 
Catherine as well as Frederick denied any right of 
the Pope in their regard; nor would either of them 
listen to any request of the Jesuits to have it pub- 
lished. They were told to hold their peace. Of 
course, they were condemned by their enemies for 
accepting this heterodox protection; but it has been 
blamed for almost everything, so they went on with 
their work, thanking God for the unexpected shelter, 
and knowing perfectly well that Clement XIV was 
not averse to the preservation of some of the victims. 



Frederick the Great and the " Philosophers " Protection of the 
Jesuits Death of Voltaire Catherine of Russia The Four Col- 
leges The Empress at Polotsk Joseph II at Mohilew Archetti 
Baron Grimm Czerniewicz and the Novitiate Assent of Pius 
VI Potemkin Siestrzencewicz General Congregation Benis- 
lawski "Approbo; Approbo " Accession of former Jesuits. Gruber 
and the Emperor Paul Alexander I Missions in Russia. 

EVEN before the general suppression of the Society, 
Frederick II of Prussia had given a shock to the 
politicians of Europe and to his friends the philosophes 
of France, by welcoming the exiled Jesuits into his 
dominions and employing them as teachers. Hence 
d'Alembert wrote to remonstrate; though at first 
glance he appears to approve of the king's action, 
his insulting tone when speaking of the Pope reveals 
the animus of this enemy of God. It ran as follows: 
" They say that the Cordelier, Ganganelli, does not 
promise ripe pears to the Society of Jesus and that 
St. Francis will very likely kill St. Ignatius. It 
appears to me that the Holy Father, Cordelier though 
he be, would be very foolish to disband his regiment 
of guards to please the Catholic princes. Such a 
treaty would be very like that of the sheep and 
the wolves; the first article of which was tha the 
sheep should deliver their dogs to the wolves. But in 
any case, Sire, it will be a curious condition of affairs, 
if while the Most Christian, the Most Catholic, the 
Most Apostolic, and the Most Faithful kings are 
destroying the grenadiers of the Holy See, your Most 
Heretical Majesty should -be the only one to protect 
them." A little later he writes: " I am assured that 


The Russian Contingent 637 

the Cordelier Pope needs a good deal of plucking at 
his sleeves to get him to abolish the Jesuits. I am not 
surprised. To propose to the Pope to destroy this 
brave troop is like asking Your Majesty to disband 
your body guards." 

D'Alembert was playing double. He was as anxious 
as any one to bring about the Suppression, and on 
April 3, 1770, Frederick wrote him that, "The Phil- 
osophy which has had such vogue in this century is 
bragged about more brazenly than ever.' But what 
progress has it made? 'It has expelled the Jesuits,' 
you tell me. Granted, but I will prove, if you want 
me to do so, that the whole business started in vanity, 
spite, underhand dealing and selfishness." 

On July 7, 1770, Frederick wrote to Voltaire and 
said: "The good Cordelier of the Vatican lets me 
keep my dear Jesuits whom they persecute everywhere. 
I will guard the precious seed so that softie day I may 
supply it to those who may want to cultivate this rare 
plant in their respective countries. " Frederick had 
annexed Silesia which was entirely Catholic, while the 
part of Poland which was allotted to him at the time 
of the division had remained only half faithful. To 
gratify them and keep them at peace, he thought he 
could do no better than to ask the Jesuits to take care 
of the education of the youth of those countries, 
" let the philosopkes cry out against it as they may." 
Hence, on December 4, 1772, he wrote to d'Alembert: 
" I received an ambassador from the General of the 
Ignatians, asking me to declare myself openly as the 
protector of the Order; but I answered that when Louis 
XV thought proper to suppress the regiment of Pitz- 
james (the Jansenists), I did not think I could inter- 
cede for that corps; and moreover, the Pope is well 
able to bring about such a reformation without having 
heretics take a hand in it." 

638 The Jesuits 

A Jesuit named Pinto had, indeed, presented himself 
to Frederick to ask for his protection, but he had no 
warrant to do so. Someone in Rome had suggested 
it, and he was encouraged in his enterprise by Maria 
Theresa. When apprised of it, the General sent a very 
severe reprimand to the volunteer ambassador, and that 
disposed of Father Pinto. No more was heard of him, 

Frederick showed himself a very vigorous protector 
of the Society. When the Brief was published he 
issued the following decree: "We, Frederick by the 
Grace of God, King of Prussia, to all and every of 
our subjects, greeting: 

"As you have already been advised that you are 
not permitted to circulate any Bulls or Briefs of the 
Pope, without our approbation of the same, we have 
no doubt that you will conform to this general order, 
in case the Brief of the Pope suppressing the Society 
of Jesus arrives at any department within your juris- 
diction. Nevertheless, we have deemed it necessary 
to recall this to your memory, and as, under the date 
of Berlin, the sixth of this month, we have resolved, for 
reasons prompting us thereto, that this annihilation 
of the Society which has recently taken' place shall 
not be published in our states, we graciously enjoin 
upon you to take all necessary measures in your 
district to suppress the aforesaid Bull of the Pope; 
for which end you will, in our name, as soon as you 
receive this communication, issue an explicit order, 
under penalty of rigorous chastisement, to all ecclesi- 
astics of the Roman Catholic religion domiciled in your 
territory not to publish the aforesaid Bull annulling 
the Society of Jesus. You are commanded to see 
carefully to the execution of this order, and to inform 
us immediately in case any high foreign ecclesiastics 
endeavor to introduce any Bulls of this kind into our 
kingdom surreptitiously/ 1 

The Russian Contingent 639 

This mandate had the effect of protecting the 
Jesuits who were in his dominions; for as canon law 
made the promulgation of the Brief an indispensable 
condition of the suppression, it followed that the 
Jesuits in Prussia could conscientiously continue to 
live there as Jesuits. Indeed, the king had previously 
notified the Pope that such would be his course of 
action, and an autograph dispatch to the Prussian 
representative at Rome, dated Potsdam, September 
*3 I 773> reads as follows: "Abbe Columbini: You 
will say to whomsoever it may concern, but without 
any ostentation or affectation, and indeed you will 
endeavor to find an opportunity to say naturally, 
both to the Pope and his prime minister, that with 
regard to the affair of the Jesuits, my resolution is 
taken to keep them in my States as they hitherto 
have been. I guaranteed in the treaty of Breslau 
the statu quo of the Catholic religion, and I have 
found no better priests than they under every aspect. 
You will add that as " I am a heretic, the Pope 
cannot dispense me from the obligation of keeping 
my word nor from minifying my obligation as an 
honest man." 

The last phrase, of course, is very insulting, but 
there was no help for it. It was the king's. When 
d'Alembert heard of the letter, he revealed his true 
colors, and warned Frederick that he would regret 
it, reminding him that in the Silesian War, the Jesuits 
had been opposed to him; that is to say, the Silesian 
Jesuits were faithful to Silesia. Frederick replied, on 
Jan. 7, 1774: "You need not be alarmed for my 
safety. I have nothing to fear from the Jesuits; they 
can teach the youth of the country, and they are 
better able to do that than any one else. It is true 
that they were on the other side, during the war, 
but, as a philosopher, you ought not to reproach me 

640 The Jesuits 

for being kind and humane to every one of the human 
species, no matter what religion or society he belongs 
to. Try to be more of a philosopher and less of a 
metaphysician. Good acts are more profitable to the 
public than the most subtle systems and the most 
extravagant discoveries, in which, generally speaking, 
the mind wanders wildly without ever finding the 
truth. In any case, I am not the only one who has 
protected the Jesuits. The English and the Empress 
of Russia have done as much." This correspondence 
with d'Alembert continued for a year or so; and in 
1777, when Voltaire was dying, the king wrote to 
advise him to think of his old school days at Louis- 
le-Grand. " Remember Father Tournemine, who was 
your nurse and made you suck the sweet milk of the 
Muses, Reconcile yourself with the Order which in 
the last century gave to France its greatest men.*' To 
all appearances Voltaire did not take the advice of 
his royal friend. 

The politicans of Spain were particularly irritated 
at this action of Frederick, but he paid no attention 
to their anger. It is even said that the Pope ordered 
his nuncio at Warsaw to suspend all the Jesuits in 
Prussia from their ecclesiastical and pedagogical 
function and that a request was made to the King to 
have it done pro forma, with a promise to lift the 
ban immediately afterwards, a proposition which seems 
too silly to have ever been seriously made. But when 
Clement XIV died, Pius VI, after a few perfunctory 
protests, so as not to exasperate the other powers, 
let it be known that he was not dissatisfied with the 
status of the Jesuits in Prussia, and he not only wrote 
in that sense to Frederick, but encouraged him to 
continue his protection of the outcasts. Whereupon 
Frederick dispatched the following letter to the 
superior of Breslau. It is dated September 27, 1775: 

The Russian Contingent 641 

" Venerable, dear and faithful Father: The new 
Pontiff having declared that he left to me the choice 
of the most suitable means to be employed for the 
conservation of the Jesuits in my kingdom, and that 
he would put no obstacle in my way by any declaration 
of irregularity, I have in consequence enjoined on my 
bishops to leave your Institute in statu quo, and not 
to trouble any of your members or to refuse ordination 
to any of your candidates to the priesthood. You will 
therefore conform to this arrangement and advise 
your confreres to do likewise. 11 

Until the death of Bishop Bayer of Culm, who was 
the staunch friend of the Fathers, there was no cloud 
on the horizon; but he was succeeded by Bishop 
Hohenzotten, who belonged to the House of Branden- 
burg. He had been extremely friendly before his 
installation as bishop, but immediately afterwards he 
advised the king to secularize the Jesuits and to forbid 
the establishment of a novitiate. The king, however, 
would not yield any further than to permit of their 
dressing as secular priests, and until his death in 1786 
they continued to live in community under the name 
of the " Priests of the Royal Institute." His successor 
was not so benignant, for he seized all the revenues of 
the houses and thus put an end to their existence in 
Prussia, and they, like their brethren elsewhere, took 
the road of exile. Some joined the secular clergy and 
others made their way to Russia. 

More surprising still was the protection accorded to 
them by the terrible Empress Catherine II of Russia. 
Indeed, it was she who made it possible to preserve 
unbroken the link between the old and the new Society. 
On the other hand, not a few Pharisees have reproached 
the Society for having accepted the protection of this 
imperial tigress. For the same reason, they might 
have found fault with Daniel in the lion's den. He 

642 The Jesuits 

could not get out of it; and, the animals were kinder 
than the humans above ground. 

Catherine of Russia was not a Russian but a Prussian. 
Her name was Sophia Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst. 
She and her unfortunate husband had been adopted 
by the czarina, Elizabeth, as her successors on the 
imperial throne of Russia, on condition that they 
would change their name and religion. There was 
no difficulty about either, especially the latter. Accord- 
ing to Oliphant, Kohl, Dollinger and others who have 
described the state of the empire as it was about 
forty years later, sixteen millions or about one fourth 
of the entire population of Russia did not profess the 
Greek faith. The educated classes neither cared nor 
affected to care for the state religion. Prom the mer- 
cantile classes and most of their employees and the 
landed aristocracy all faith had departed. The peasants 
were divided into about fifty sects, and hatred and 
contempt for one another and the enmity of all of 
them for the Orthodox Church were extreme. No 
two Russian bishops had any spiritual dependence or 
connection with any other. They were simply 
paid officials of a common master who appointed, 
degraded or discarded them at pleasure, De Maistre 
who lived in Russia about that time says. " The words : 
" Oriental Church " or " Greek Church " have no 
meaning whatever/' " I recognize," said Peter the 
Great, " no other legitimate Patriarch than the Pope 
of Rome. Since you will not obey him you shall obey 
me only. Behold your Pope/' On that basis the 
Russian Church was built. 

Strictly speaking the Jesuits were not entering 
Russia but merely staying in their old establishments 
which were still Polish, though geographically labelled 
Russia. Nevertheless, with Russia proper they had 
already a considerable acquaintance. Thus, as early 

The Russian Contingent 643 

as 1612, Father Szgoda had allowed himself to be 
taken by the Tatars to the Crimea, so as to evangelize 
the Cossacks. Later, Father Schmidt had appeared 
at the court of Peter the Great as chaplain of the 
Austrian embassy. In 1685, Father Debois brought 
a letter to the czar from the Pope Innocent III, and 
in 1687 Father Vota, encouraged by several Russian 
theologians of note, was bold enough to propose to 
Peter the Great a union with Rome. Peter's sister 
Sophia was favorable to the project and the moment 
seemed propitious, but a brace of fanatical monks 
backed by the patriarch, fiercely denounced the scheme 
and it was dropped. A school, however, was established 
at Moscow, but when Sophia died, Peter drove out 
the Fathers. In 1691, however, he returned to a better 
state of mind and permitted the Catholics of Moscow 
to build a church and to invite the Jesuits to take charge 
of it. But in 1719 he again expelled them, for he had 
conceived the idea of a Church of his own; not only 
independent of Rome but of Constantinople, and 
absolutely under his own control a view it is said 
that was suggested to him by the French Jansenists 
whom he met in Paris on a visit there in 1717. 

That ended all hopes of Catholicity in Russia, but 
in 1772 when Poland was dismembered, a large number 
of Catholics were added to the population of Russia 
and Catherine II, who had murdered her husband in 
order to be supreme in the State, addressed herself to 
the task of constituting these Russianized Poles into 
an independent Catholic Church. She found an 
ambitious Polish bishop, named Siestrzencewicz who 
entered into her views, and on May 23, 1774, by an 
imperial ukase she established the Diocese of White 
Russia. Zalenski, S, J., the author of " Les Jesuites 
et la Russie Blanche " is strong in his denunciation 
of Siestrzencewicz, as are Pierling and Markowitch, 

644 The Jesuits 

but GodlewsM is more benignant and tries to excuse 
the bishop as a man who did indeed resort to question- 
able methods, but was striving to stave off an open 
persecution of the Catholics. Zalenski has the more 
likely view. 

This name of " White " Russia is a puzzle to most 
people, as are the opposite descriptions of " Black " 
and " Red " Russia. Indeed Okolski, who wrote in 
1646, has a book entitled " Russia Florida," a name 
not in accordance with the popular notions about that 
country. There is also a " Greater " and a " Little " 
and a " West " Russia. The geographical limits of 
White Russia may be found in any encyclopedia. 
It is the region in which are Polotsk, Vitebsk, Orsha, 
Mohilew, Motislave and Gomel, and is bounded by 
the rivers Duna, Dneiper, Peripet and Bug. It was 
Russia's share in the first spoliation of Poland, and had 
a population of 1,600,000. Moscow is not far to the 
east but St. Petersburg (Petrograd) is at a great distance 
to the north. 

In 1772 Catherine made known her intention regard- 
ing the Jesuits whom she found teaching in the section 
of Poland which had passed under her sceptre. They 
were even to retain their four colleges of Polotsk, 
Vitebsk, Orsha and Dunaberg besides their two resi- 
dences and fourteen missions. She needed them as 
teachers and as they were the first to declare their 
acceptance of the new conditions, and had thus set an 
example to their countrymen, she revoked the ancient 
proscription of Peter the Great against the Society in 
Russia proper, and also apprised the other provinces 
of Europe that she would be their guardian in the 

When the Brief of Suppression was announced, the 
Fathers felt perfectly sure that, like Frederick II, 
she would not permit it to be promulgated, both 

The Russian Contingent 645 

because the Russian Church refused allegiance to 
Rome, and also because she had already bound her- 
self by a promise to protect them. Nevertheless, 
through their superior, they addressed to her " Sacred 
Imperial Majesty " the following letter: 

"It is to Your Majesty that we owe the privilege 
of professing publicly the Roman Catholic Religion 
in your glorious states, and of depending in spiritual 
matters on the Sovereign Pontiff who is the visible 
head of our Church. That is the reason why we Jesuits, 
all of whom belong to the Roman Rite, but who are 
most faithful subjects of Your Majesty, now prostrate 
before your -august imperial throne, implore Your 
Majesty by all that is most sacred to permit us to 
render prompt and public obedience to the authority 
which resides in the person of the Sovereign Roman 
Pontiff and to execute the edict he has sent us abolish- 
ing our Society. By condescending to have a public 
proclamation made of this Brief of Suppression, 
Your Majesty will thus exercise your royal authority, 
and we by 'promptly -obeying will show ourselves 
obedient both to Your Majesty and to the Sovereign 
Pontiff who has ordered this proclamation. Such 
are the sentiments and the prayers of all and each of 
the Jesuits, which are now expressed by me to Your 
Majesty, of whom I have the honor to be, with the 
most profound veneration and the most respectful 
submission, the most humble, the most devoted and 
the most faithful subject, 

" Stanislas Czerniewicz." 

11 Her Sacred Majesty " absolutely refused to accede 
to the request. On the contrary she insisted that the 
Brief should not be proclaimed in her dominions. She 
showed them the greatest consideration and insisted 
that her nobles should imitate her example, so that it 

646 The Jesuits 

became the fashion for the dignitaries of the empire 
to visit the various Jesuit establishments; on their 
part, the Jesuits never failed to show their apprecia- 
tion of such an honor in as splendid a fashion as pos- 
sible. The most memorable of all such visits was one 
in which the " Semiramis of the North " was the 
central figure. Catherine left St. Petersburg, on May 
20, 1780, and reached Polotsk ten days later. In her 
suite were Potemkin, Tchernichef, de Cobentzel, 
the Prince Marshal Borjantynski, and Prince Dol- 
kowiouki. On her arrival, while surrounded by all 
the notables who had hastened to meet her, the Jesuits 
were pointed out to her and she graciously saluted them. 
In the evening, the college was splendidly illuminated 
in her honor, and on the following morning she came 
to the church, for she was burning with a desire to 
witness a Catholic ceremonial. After Mass she went 
through the house, and both at her arrival and depart- 
ure the rector celebrated her glory in an epic poem. 

From thence she set out for Mohilew where Joseph II 
of Austria awaited her. He had already visited the 
college at this place, and was received with proper 
honor by the rector and provincial. He made all 
sorts of inquiries about the reason why the suppressed 
Jesuits were permitted to exist in Russia, and the 
bishop told him laconically: " The people need them; 
the empress ordered it and Rome has said nothing." 
" You did well," replied the emperor, " you should not, 
and could not have done otherwise." With the 
emperor on this occasion appears the unexpected 
figure of one of the suppressed Jesuits: Father 
Francis Xavier Kalatai. He was his majesty's 
travelling companion, and has left a letter telling us 
what happened on this occasion. 

" At Mohilew," he writes, " at the farthest extremity 
of the recently dismembered provinces of Poland, the 

The Russian Contingent 647 

Jesuits still remain on their former footing. They are 
protected by the empress, because of their ability in 
training the youth of the country in science and 
piety. I asked to be presented to the superior when 
we visited the college and found him to be a very 
venerable old man. I questioned him and other 
members of the community on what they based their 
non-submission to the Brief of Suppression, and they 
replied in the same formula as the bishop: " Clemen- 
tissima imperatrice nostra protegente, populo derelicto 
exigente, Roma sciente et non contradicente ;' ' (i.e. on the 
protection of our most clement empress, the needs of the 
the abandoned people, and the knowledge and tacit 
consent of Rome). They then showed me a letter 
from the Pope expressing his affection for them, and 
exhorting them to remain as they were until new 
arrangements could be made. He insisted upon their 
receiving novices and admitting Jesuits from other 
provinces, who desired to resume with them the 
sweet yoke of Christ from which they had been so 
violently torn. The provincial added that all the 
Jesuits of Russia were willing to relinquish everything 
they had, at the first authentic sign of the will of the 
Pope, and that they waited only a canonical announce- 
ment to that effect. Thus, I found that the true 
spirit of the Society had kept its first fervor among these 
scattered remnants of it in Russia/' 

The empress arrived, after making fifty leagues a day 
on the trip from Polotsk; killing ten horses on the 
journey. The meeting of the two sovereigns was 
unusually splendid; ten thousand soldiers stood on 
guard in the city, and besides state receptions, there 
were theatrical performances, public sports, banquets 
and the rest. The Jesuits of other establishments 
paid their respects, and were presented to the empress 
by the governor. On the i2th of June, " Semiramis " 

648 The Jesuits 

left for St. Petersburg. Such a favor, of course, 
made the Jesuits still more popular and, at the same 
time, checked the papal nuncio, Archetti, who had not 
yet recovered from his failure to have the suppression 
made effective. Nevertheless, he still persisted in his 
efforts, in spite of the threats of the empress. But 
she never yielded. 

Father Brucker writing in the " Etudes " (torn. 132, 
1912, 558-59) gives a characteristic letter of the 
empress to Baron Grimm who was a friend and asso- 
ciate of Rousseau, Diderot, d'Alembert, Holbach and 
the rest. At that time, Grimm was the envoy of 
the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, at the court of France, and 
later on, Catherine's, own plenipotentiary to Lower 

The letter is dated May 7, 1779 and runs as follows: 
"Neither I nor my coquins en litre (my honorable 
rogues) les Jfcuites de la R. BL (the Jesuits of White 
Russia) are going to cause the Pope any worry. They 
are very submissive to him and want to do only what 
he wishes. I suppose it is you who wrote the article 
in the * Gazette de Cologne ' about the hot house 
(the Jesuit novitiate). You say that I am amusing 
myself by being kind to them. Assuredly, you credit 
me with a pretty motive, whereas I have no other than 
that of keeping my word and seeking the public good. 
As for your grocers (the Bourbon kings) I make a 
present of them to you; but I know one thing, namely, 
they are not going to visit me and sing the song: 
* Bonhomme! you are not master of your house while 
we are in it. 1 " 

As early as 1776, that is only three years after the 
Suppression, the Jesuits of White Russia already 
numbered 145 members, and had twelve establish- 
ments: colleges, residences, missions, etc. In 1777 
the question was discussed about opening a novitiate 

The Russian Contingent 649 

and the Fathers had sufficient evidence that Pius VI 
would be glad of it and that even Clement XIV had 
not been averse. Moreover, the letter sent to Bishop 
Siestrzencewicz had been found on examination not 
to be the " formidable decree/' as friends in Rome had 
described it, for it left to him the right of creating and 
renewing only "what he might find necessary.*' 
Finally, as it was not couched in the usual form of 
Apostolic documents, the superior, Father Czer- 
niewicz, set aside his doubts and wrote both to the 
bishop and to the firm friend of the Society, Governor 
General Tchernichef , that he had determined to open 
that establishment. 

Tchernichef 's support must have been very strong,' 
for when Father Czerniewicz arrived at Mohilew to 
arrange matters with the bishop, he received from the 
prelate a decree dated June 29, 1779, authorizing him 
to carry out his purpose. This decree began with 
the words: "Pope Clement XIV, of celebrated 
memory, condescending to the desire of the Most 
August Empress of the Russias, our Most Clement 
Sovereign, had permitted the non-promulgation in 
her dominions of the Bull 'Dominus ac Redemptor;' 
and Our Holy Father Pope Pius VI, now happily 
reigning, shows the same deference to the desires of Her 
Imperial Majesty, by refraining from all opposition to 
the retention of their habit, name and profession by 
the Regular Clerks of the Society of Jesus, in the estates 
of her Majesty, notwithstanding the Bull * Dominus ac 
Redemptor. ' Moreover as the Most August Empress to 
whom both we and the numerous Catholic churches in 
her vast domains are under such grave obligations has 
recommended to us both verbally and by writing 
to do all in our power to see that the aforesaid Regular 
Clerks of the Society of Jesus may provide for the 
conservation of their Institute, we hasten to fulfil 

650 The Jesuits 

that duty which is so agreeable to us and for which 
we should reproach ourselves did we stint our efforts 
in carrying it out. Hitherto, they have not had any 
novitiate in this country, and, as their numbers are 
gradually diminishing, it is evident that they cannot 
exercise their useful ministry unless a novitiate is 
accorded them." 

In virtue of this permission, a novitiate was estab- 
lished at Polotsk on February 2, 1780, and ten novices 
entered and began community life under the direction 
of Father Lubowicki, On that occasion, according to 
de Murr, a formidable Latin poem of 169 hexameters 
was composed by Father Michael Korycki in honor of 
Bishop Siestrzencewicz. Thus was the house estab- 
lished; and in spite of the importunities of the Bourbon 
ambassadors at Rome, the Sovereign Pontiff, Pius VI, 
never gave utterance, either personally or through his 
nuncio in Poland, to any public protest against it. 
All the denunciations of the alleged " refractory- 
Jesuits " were either letters of private individuals or 
secret official correspondence, written doubtless in 
the name of the Pope, but indirectly, that is through 
the channel of the secretaryship of State and the 
nunciature; and never going outside the narrow dip- 
lomatic circle. Nor is there the slightest positive proof 
that the Pope regarded the Jesuits of White Russia 
except as religious. 

" On the contrary," says Zalenski (I, 330), " Pius 
VI knew very well, as did everyone else in Rome, that 
Clement XIV had published the Brief of Suppression 
in spite of himself, and only after four years of hesitation 
and conflict with the diplomats. Moreover, Cardinals 
Antonelli and Calini, eye-witnesses of what had 
happened, represented to Pius VI in personal memorials 
that the suppression was invalid. Pius himself had 
belonged to that section of cardinals which disapproved 

The Russian Contingent 651 

of the destruction, and, as has been already said, 
when he was Pope, he set free the prisoners of the 
Castle Sant' Angelo, rehabilitated their memory, and 
ordered Father Ricci to be buried with the honors due 
to the general of an Order. In brief, Pius VI, as both 
Frederick II and Tchernichef insisted, was really 
glad that the Society had been preserved, and his 
silence was an approbation of it. Indeed, he could 
not, as the Father of Christendom, exclude the Jesuits 
from the protection of the general law of the Church 
and regard them as suppressed and freed from their 
vows, before the Brief of Clement XIV had been 
properly made known to them by the ordinary of the 
diocese. Of course, their enemies systematically 
rejected this axiom although accepted both by common 
and canon law. They denounced it as " a vain sub- 
terfuge," and even the Apostolic nuncio, in one of his 
dispatches declared it to be such; but the Holy Father 
could not, in conscience, accept that view. 

In February, 1782, Tchernichef, the great friend of 
the Society, f ell from power, but his successor PotemMn 
showed himself even a more devoted defender. 
Fortunately, Father Benislawski, a former Jesuit, but 
now a canon, was very intimate with him and induced 
him to give his aid to the Society. As Bishop Siestr- 
zencewicz had meantime become Archbishop of 
Mohilew, the fear was again revived that he would 
claim to be the religious superior of the Jesuits. Indeed, 
by sundry appointments to parishes, he began to 
reveal that such was his intention, and Archetti, the nun- 
cio at Warsaw, urged him to persist in his attacks. To 
head off the danger, the Fathers had determined to 
proceed to the election of a Vicar General, and they 
obtained permission from the empress to that effect. 
She issued a ukase, on June 23, 1782, in which she 
said that the Jesuits were to be subject to the arch- 

652 The Jesuits 

bishop, in things that pertained to his rights and 
duties, but that he should be very careful not to inter- 
fere with any of the rules of the Order which were to 
remain intact " in as far as they agree with our civil 
constitutions. " Siestrzencewicz was quite upset by 
this order, and not knowing that it had been obtained 
through the intervention of Potemkin, he asked the 
Prince Wiaziemski, who was then president of the 
Senate, to' obtain a decree from that body subjecting 
the Jesuits to his jurisdiction. The Senate so ruled 
by a rescript dated September 12, 1781, but it was a 
very ill-advised proceeding on their part, for it set 
them in opposition both to the empress and the power- 
ful Potemkin, besides making a rebel of the archbishop 
and a meddler of the nuncio. 

While a spirited correspondence was going on between 
those two distinguished ecclesiastics about the matter, 
the Fathers met at Polotsk, on October 10, 1782, 
which happened to be the feast of St. Francis Borgia, 
to hold the twentieth congregation of the Society. 
Everything was done according to the rule which 
governs such assemblies, and Father Stanislaus Cerznie- 
wicz, the vice-provincial, was chosen Vicar General 
of the Society. In the following session, it was decreed 
that for those who re-entered the Society, the years 
spent involuntarily and by compulsion, in the world, 
would count as so many years in religion. With this 
the congregation ended, because orders had come to 
Polofsk, for the Vicar General to report immediately 
to the Empress at St. Petersburg. Accordingly, after 
naming Father Francis Kareu, vice-provincial, he set 
out for the capital and was welcomed by Catherine, 
with the words: " I defended you thus far, and will 
do so till the end." 

The question now arose how would the archbishop 
receive the delegates of the congregation which had 

The Russian Contingent 653 

ignored his claim to control the internal affairs of the 
Society. The all-powerful Potemkin had attended to 
that. He had called the prelate to task for daring to 
oppose the explicit command of the empress, and 
warned him of the danger of such a course of action. 
As Siestrzencewicz was primarily a politician, he had 
no difficulty in modifying his views. Moreover, 
Canon Benislawski, who had studied him at close 
range and knew his peculiarities, had taken care to 
prepare him for the visit of the delegates. When they 
arrived, he received them with the greatest courtesy 
and sent a letter of congratulation to the newly- 
elected vicar. The future of the Society was thus 
assured. A successor to Father Ricci had been elected; 
a general congregation had convened and its proceeding 
had been conducted in strict conformity with the 
Constitution. Besides, a novitiate had been established, 
members of the dispersed provinces had been officially 
recognized as belonging to the Society; and all this had 
been done with the tacit consent of the Sovereign Pontiff. 
Father Czerniewicz remained in St. Petersburg 
more than three months, during which time he was 
frequently summoned to discuss with the empress 
and Potemkin matters pertaining to education, but 
chiefly to make arrangements for negotiations in 
Rome, in order to obtain the Pope's express approval 
of the election. The matter called for considerable 
diplomatic skill, for in the Acts of the congregation, 
some very bold expressions had been employed which 
might cause the failure of the whole venture. Thus, 
it had declared that "the Brief of Clement XIV 
destroyed the Society outside of Russia ;" and again, 
that " the Vicar was elected by the authority of the 
Holy See." The second especially was a dangerous 
assertion, since the papal nuncio, Archetti, regarded 
the election as illegal, and even a few of the Jesuits 

654 The Jesuits 

themselves were doubtful as to the correctness of the 
claim. There was fear, also, about the personal 
disposition of the Pope on that point. 

To dispose of all these difficulties Catherine sent 
Benislawski as her ambassador to Rome, with very 
positive instructions not to modify them in any way 
whatever. He was not to stop at Warsaw, but might 
call on the nuncio, Garampi, at Vienna, and also on 
Gallitzin, the Russian ambassador. He was to go by 
the shortest route to Rome, to visit no cardinals there, 
but to present himself immediately to the Pope. In 
his audience, he was to make three requests. They 
were: first, the preconization of Siestrzencewicz as 
archbishop; second, the appointment of Benislawski 
himself as coadjutor; and third, the approbation of 
the Jesuits in White Russia, and especially the recogni- 
tion of the Acts of the congregation. The refusal 
of anyone of them was to entail a rupture of negotia- 
tions with Russia. 

On February 21, 1783, Benislawski arrived in Rome, 
and saw the Pope on the same day. He was received 
most graciously; his own nomination as bishop was 
confirmed; but, said the Pope: " Siestrzencewicz had 
no right to open the novitiate. " " That was done," 
replied Benislawski, "by order of the empress. " 
" Since that is the case/' said the Pope, " I shall 
forget the injury done to me by the bishop. " He then 
asked about the Jesuits and their General, and whether 
the election had been formally ordered by the empress." 
When assured upon the latter point, he answered, 
" I do not object." After an interview of two hours 
Benislawski withdrew. 

At the second audience the attitude of the Pope was 
cold and indifferent, for the Bourbon ambassadors 
had influenced him meantime. Noticing the change, 
Benislawski fell upon his kn,ees and asked the Pope's 

The Russian Contingent 655 

benediction. " What does this mean?" he was asked. 
" My orders are to withdraw immediately, if my 
requests are not granted." That startled the Pope, 
and he immediately changed his tone; he spoke kindly 
to Benislawski and told him to put his requests in 
writing. All night long the faithful ambassador 
labored at his desk formulating each request and 
answering every argument that might be alleged 
against it. Zalenski gives the entire document (I, 
386), which substantially amounted to this: "The 
failure of the bishop to abolish the Society in Russia; 
the establishment of the novitiate, and the election 
of the General were all due to the explicit and positive 
orders of Catherine. As she had threatened to persecute 
the Catholics of Russia and to compel the Poles to 
enter the Orthodox Church, it was clear that there 
was no choice but to submit to her demands. 

" With regard to the objection that the Bourbon 
Princes would be angry at Catherine's support of the 
Jesuits, Benislawski made answer, that, ' as the 
empress had offered no objections to the suppression 
of the Order in the dominions of those rulers, she 
failed to see why they had any right to question her 
action in preserving it. She owed those kings no 
allegiance/ Secondly, the approval of the Society 
would not be a reflection on the present Pope, who 
had as much right to reverse the judgment of Clement 
XIV, as Clement XIV had to reverse the judgment of 
thirty of his predecessors. If none of the kings and 
diplomats had blamed Clement for acting as he did, 
why should they blame Pius VI for using his own right 
in the premises? Moreover, the Brief was never 
published in Russia, and there was not the slightest 
prospect that it ever would be. Finally, the empress 
had made a solemn promise not to harm her Catholic 
subjects; but she was convinced that she could not 

656 The Jesuits 

inflict a greater injury on them than to deprive their 
churches of priests and their schools of teachers who 
in her opinion were invaluable." As to the charge 
that the whole course of the empress was due to the 
suggestion of the Jesuits, Benislawski replied that 
" everyone knew they had petitioned her to have the 
Brief promulgated, and that she had told them they 
were asking what was not agreeable to her." 

The next day the Pope read the statement, smiled 
and said, " You want to arrange this matter by a 
debate with me. But there can be no answer to your 
contention. Your arguments are irrefutable. " Very 
opportunely, a letter arrived from the empress who 
expressed her willingness to receive a papal legate to 
settle the case of the XIniate Archbishop of Polotsk, 
and asking to have Benislawski consecrated in St. 
Petersburg. The letter was read to the Pope, in the 
presence of a number of Cardinals, to whom Benislawski 
was presented. The Holy Father then gave his assent 
to the preconization of the archbishop, and the conse- 
cration of Benislawski, "As to the third/' he said, 
raising his voice: "Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba 
Russia degentem; approbo, approbo" (that is I 
approve of the Society of Jesus, now in Russia; I 
approve, I approve). As the verbal utterances of 
Popes in public matters of the Church, have the same 
force as when they are in writing, and are designated 
by canonists and theologians as viva vocis oracula, 
Benislawski contented himself with this approval. 
Besides, fearing the machinations of the Bourbon 
politicians, he could not ask for more. He had won 
his case, and had received the Pope's assurance that 
the Society in Russia was not and never had been 
suppressed. No more was needed, 

Against the immense majority of historians of every 
shade of opinion, Theiner in his " Pontificate of Clement 

The Russian Contingent 657 

XIV " denounces this account of the embassy as " a 
fabrication of the Jesuit Benislawski," though Benis- 
lawski was not then a Jesuit, nor did he ever re-enter 
the Society. Besides, although Theiner characterizes 
the distinguished canonist whom the Pope had just 
made a bishop as " a liar " and " an intriguer," he 
admits at the same time that he was " a virtuous 
man " and " a pious priest." If the account of the 
audience had been untrue, the Pope would certainly 
haye been compelled to denounce it ; for it was published 
immediately in the Florence Gazette; and the falsifier 
would assuredly never have received his mitre. Never- 
theless, to settle the matter definitely and to allay all 
doubts and suspicions, Benislawski, after he was 
installed as Bishop of Gadara, was invited to the 
second congregation of the Jesuits, It met at Polotsk, 
on July 25, 1785, and he there made the following 
declaration under oath: 

" Having been sent to Rome by the Most Illustrious 
Empress of all the Russias to interview the Pope 
with a view of settling the difficulty about the Arch- 
bishopric of Mohilew and of the Co-adjutorship of 
that see, as well as to obtain from the Pope the approval 
of the Society of Jesus in White Russia, I represented 
to His Holiness the state of the Jesuits living there in 
conformity with the laws of their Institute, and I 
acquainted him with the fact that they had elected a 
General in obedience to the command of the Most 
Illustrious Empress. After having heard me, His 
Holiness kindly approved of the manner of life which 
the Jesuits were leading in White Russia, and ratified the 
election of the General, repeating three times, 'approbo, 
approbo, approbo* I affirm under a most solemn 
oath, the truth of this verbal approbation; in 
confirmation of which I hereunto affix my seal and 

658 The Jesuits 

Theiner adduces three Briefs of Pius VI to offset 
this affidavit of Benislawski, but two of them antedate 
the episode at Rome; the third was issued a month 
later, and has nothing in common with the question 
at issue. Besides this, a few years subsequent to 
this approval, when Father Joseph Pignatelfi, who 
may one day be among the canonized saints of the 
Church, asked permission of the Pope to go to White 
Russia " if the Society existed there/' His Holiness 
answered: " Yes, it exists there; and if it were possible 
I would have it extended everywhere throughout the 
world. Go to Russia. I authorise you to wear the 
habit of the Jesuits. I regard the Jesuits there, as 
true Jesuits and the Society existing in Russia as 
lawfully existing. " (Bonfier, Vie de Pignatelli, 196.) 

As their status was now settled, the Fathers addressed 
themselves to the educational reform which the empress 
wanted to introduce into the schools of Russia. It 
consisted mainly in giving prominence to the physical 
sciences. They had no difficulty in complying with 
her wishes, ,and Father Gruber, who was a*i eminent 
physicist, immediately established a training-school 
for the preparation of future professors, and in March 
1785, a number of Jesuit scientists were summoned by 
Potemkin to St. Petersburg. 

On June 20, of that year, the Vicar General Czernie- 
wicz died. He was born in 1728, and had entered the 
Society at sixteen; af er teaching at Warsaw, he was 
called to Rome as secretary to Father Ricci; later he 
was substitute assistant of Poland. He was then sent 
to be rector of Polotsk, and was at that post when 
Clement XIV issued the decree of Suppression. At 
the congregation which was called on October i, 
Father Lenkiewicz was elected to succeed him. 

By this time, many of the old Jesuits were sending 
in their requests for admission. Among them were 

The Russian Contingent 659 

such distinguished personages as the astronomer Hell; 
two of Father Ricci's assistants, Romberg and Korycki 
and others. All could not be received in Russia itself, 
but wherever they were, in America, Europe, China, 
the East and West Indies, etc., they were all gladly 
welcomed back and their names were inscribed in the 
catalogue. It is of especial interest for Americans to 
find those of Adam Britt of Maryland and of several 
who were sent from White Russia to the United States 
when Carroll was empowered to re-establish the Society 
in 1805. They are Anthony Kohlmann, Malevy, Brown, 
Epinette and others. Those who, for one reason or 
another, were unable to go to Russia in person, were 
informed that they were duly recognized as Jesuits 
and were given permission to renew their vows. This 
arrangement was made especially for the ex-members 
who had been appointed to bishoprics, or were employed 
in some important function, such as royal confessors, 
court preachers, scientists, etc., or again, who were 
prevented by age and infirmity from making the long 
and difficult journey. 

In the " Catalogus mortuorum," or list of deceased 
members, which covers the period between 1773 and 
1814, Zalenski counts 268 who are extra provinciam; 
all nations under the sun are represented. From 
everywhere gifts were sent by former Jesuits. Thus, 
Father Raczynski who had become Primate of Poland 
gathered together at various auctions as many as 
8000 Jesuit books and sent them to the College of 
Polotsk. Others followed his example, and in 1815 
the college library had 35,000 volumes on its shelves. 
Other contributions came in the form of money. As 
early as 1787, Polotsk had a printing-press, and 
produced its own text-books, besides publishing a 
number of works which were out of print. Fr. Gruber 
kept at work forming a corps of able scientists, and 

660 The Jesuits 

he* even made many coadjutor brothers architects, 
painters and skilled artificers in various crafts. The 
institution soon became famous for its physical and 
chemical laboratories, its splendid theatre, its paintings, 
sculpture, etc. The minor colleges soon followed its 
example, and the Jesuit churches resumed their custom- 
ary magnificence. Sodalities were established, distant 
missions were undertaken, and a*mong the neighboring 
Letts, Jesuit missionaries created a veritable Paraguay, 
Catherine reigned for thirty-five years, and until 
her death, as she had promised, she had never failed 
to protect the Society. Her word alone counted in 
Russia. She was alone on the throne for she had 
murdered the czar, her husband, because of his repudia- 
tion of her son Paul, and also because of her 
natural intolerance of an equal. It is true that Father 
Carroll, in far-away America, was lamenting that his 
brethren had such a protectress, but that was beyond 
their control. It can at least be claimed that they 
had never yielded an iota in their duties as Catholic 
priests. During the .whole of her reign she kept her 
unfortunate heir almost in complete seclusion. He 
was confided to the care chiefly of Father Gruber, 
who besides being a saint was a man of wonderful 
ability. He was a musician, a painter, an architect, a 
physicist and a mathematician. One of his -oil paintings 
adorns the refectory of Georgetown today; brought 
over, no doubt, by some of the Polish Fathers. It is 
very far from being the work of an amateur. Naturally, 
therefore, Paul took to him kindly, and the affection 
continued till the end. When on the throne, he 
multiplied the colleges of the Society, enlarged the 
novitiate, installed the Fathers in the University of 
Vilna, and even persuaded the Grand Turk to restore 
to the Jesuits their ancient missions on the 

The Russian Contingent 661 

The intimacy was so great that Gruber was supposed 
to be able to procure any favor from Paul and hence 
his life was made miserable by the swarm of suitors 
who beset him; but he was not foolish enough to forfeit 
the favor of the prince by being made a tool to further 
the selfish aims of the petitioners. He did, however, 
request the czar to ask the newly-elected Pope Pius 
VII for an official recognition of the Society in Russia. 
The Pope was only too willing to grant it, but the 
lingering hostility to the Jesuits, even in Rome itself, 
made it somewhat difficult. Indeed, a certain number 
of the cardinals pronounced very decidedly against it, 
and only yielded, when the Pope made them take all 
the responsibility of a refusal. He appointed a com- 
mittee of the most hostile among them to report on 
the imperial request, thus bringing them face to face 
with the consequences of opposing the ruler of a great 
empire and converting him from a friend into a perse- 
cutor of the Church. Looking at it from that point 
of view, they quickly came to a favorable conclusion, 
and on March 7, 1801, the Bull " Catholicae Fidei " 
was issued, explicitly re-establishing the Society of Jesus 
in Russia. It was the first great step to the general 
restoration throughout the world thirteen years later. 
The approbation arrived very opportunely, for sixteen 
days after its reception Paul I was assassinated. 

At his accession, Alexander, though less demon- 
strative than Paul, showed his esteem for the Society 
to such an extent that when the General, Father 
Kareu, was at the point of death, the czar went in 
person to Polotsk to offer his condolence. This con- 
descension was so marked that Father Gruber availed 
himself of the opportunity to solicit the publication of 
the Papal Bull which the turmoil consequent upon 
Paul's assassination had prevented from being officially 
proclaimed. The emperor made no difficulty about 

662 The Jesuits 

it, and issued a ukase to that effect. He even went 
further in his approval, for when Gruber was elected 
General in place of Father Kareu, he was summoned to 
St. Petersburg to occupy a splendidly equipped College 
of Nobles which Paul had established in the city itself. 
It was there that Gruber met the famous Count Joseph 
deMaistre who was at that time Ambassador of Sardinia 
at the imperial court. A deep and sincere affection 
sprung up between the two great men, and in the 
storm that, later on, broke out against the Society, 
de Maistre showed himself its fearless and devoted 

Catherine II had, in her time, attempted the colon- 
ization of the vast steppes of her empire, and Paul I had 
been energetic in carrying out her plans. Alexander 
I, also, was anxious to further the project which 
called for not a little heroism on the part of those 
who undertook it. Incidentally, it would relieve the 
government of considerable anxiety and worry; for 
as the new settlers came from every part of Germany, 
and professed all kinds of religious beliefs, it was 
considered to be of primary importance politically, 
to establish some sort of unity among them and to 
accustom them to Russian legislation and ways of 
life. The Jesuits were selected for the task, and in 
spite of the hardships and the isolation to which they 
were subjected, and in face, also, of the hatred and 
opposition of their enemies as well as the usually 
surly mood of the brutalized immigrants who had 
been driven out of their own country by starvation 
and oppression, order was restored within a year, 
and the government reported that these few priests 
had achieved what a whole army of soldiers could 
never have accomplished. The missions of Astrakhan 
were said to be similarly successful. But it appears 

The Russian Contingent 663 

in the light of subsequent events, that no solid or 
permanent results had been effected. 

A glance at the map will show us that these two 
fields of endeavor were at the extreme eastern and 
western ends of Russia's vast empire. The Riga district 
is on the Baltic or, more properly, on the Gulf of Riga. 
Below it, are the now famous cities of Koningsberg and 
Dantzic. Astrakhan is on the Caspian Sea into which 
the great River Volga empties. On both sides of this 
river, as in the city itself, the Jesuits had established 
their mission posts. But from both the Baltic and the 
Caspian they had to withdraw, when driven out of 
Russia by Alexander in 1820. 

The present condition of these two sections of the 
now dismembered empire is most deplorable. Indeed, 
as early as 1864 Marshall (Christian Missions, I, 74) 
says of them: " Let us begin with the Provinces of the 
Baltic. The Letts who inhabit Courland and the 
southern half of Livonia, though long normally Chris- 
tians and surrounded by Lutherans and Russo-Greeks, 
sacrifice to household spirits by setting out food for 
them in their gardens or houses or under old oak 
trees* Of the Esthonians, Kohl says : ' The old practices 
of heathenism have been preserved among them 
more completely than among any other Lutheran 
people. There are many spots where the peasants yet 
offer up sacrifices/ Let us n~ow accompany Mr. 
Laurence Oliphant down the Volga to the Caspian 
Sea. Everywhere his experience is uniform; The 
Kalmuks whom he discovered are still Buddhists. 
Near the mouth of the Volga he visits a large and 
populous village in a state of utter heathenism and 
apparently destined to remain so. At Sarepta near 
Astrakhan, the Moravians had attempted to convert 
the neighboring heathen but the Greek clergy prevented 

664 The Jesuits 

them. One tribe is made up of followers of the Grand 
Lama; another of pagans; a third of Mahometans. 
In the city of Kazan, once the capital of a powerful 
nation, there are 20,000 Mahometans, and the immense 
Tatar population of the entire region reaching as far 
as Astrakhan has adopted a combination of Christianity, 
Islamism and Shamanism, or are as out and out pagans 
as they were before being annexed to the Russian 

Among these degraded peoples the Jesuits were at 
work while they were directing their colleges at Polotsk, 
St. Petersburg and elsewhere until 1814. 



Fathers of the Sacred Heart Fathers of the Faith Fusion 
Paccanari The Rupture Exodus to Russia Varin in Paris 
Clorivifre Carroll's doubts Pignatelli Poirot in China 
Grassi's Odyssey. 

WHILE the Society was maintaining its corporate 
life in Russia several contributory sources began to 
flow towards it from various parts of Europe. The 
most notable was the association that was formed 
under the eyes and with the approval of the wise and 
virtuous Jacques-Andr6 Emery, the superior of the 
Seminary of Paris, who himself had been trained in 
the Jesuit college of Macon. Under his guidance and 
very much attached to him, was a little group of 
seminarians consisting of Charles and Maurice de 
Broglie, sons of the celebrated Marshal of that name, 
both of whom bore the title of Prince; Prangois 
Elonore de Tournely, who was the animating spirit 
of the little association, and, omitting others, Joseph 
Varin who succeeded de Tourn61y as the guide of the 
growing community. 

When the Revolution broke out, Varin yielding to 
his martial instincts, left the seminary and became a 
soldier in the royalist army; but Charles de Broglie 
kept the group together and under the direction of 
Pey, a distinguished canon of Paris, they plunged into 
the study of the spiritual life and continued to dream 
of an association which might in one way or another 
take up the work of the suppressed Society of Jesus. 
In 1791 they were compelled to seek a refuge in Luxem- 
bourg. Two years later, they fled to Antwerp, and 


666 The Jesuits 

finally found themselves in the old Jesuit villa of 
Louvain, which is still standing near the cMteau of 
the Due d'Arenberg. There they were joined by de 
Broglie's brother, Xavier, and by Pierre Leblanc, 
both of whom had served for two years in the army 
of the Prince de Cond& Varin joined them in that 
year. He had been a soldier ever since the seminary 
had closed, and had given up all idea of ever resuming 
the soutane. But it happened that he was absent 
from his regiment when a battle occurred, and in 
disgust he had gone to Belgium to ask to be transferred 
to another corps. While there, he fell into the hands 
of his old seminary friends; in a few days his former 
fervor returned and he was accepted as the sixth 
member of what de TournSy had determined to call 
" The Society of the Sacred Heart." 

On the very day of Varin's entrance, he and five 
associates started off on foot, with their bags on" their 
backs, to beg their way to Bavaria. It took them five 
days to get as far as Augsburg, and there they remained, 
though their intention was to establish themselves at 
Munich. But the Bishop of Augsburg told them that 
if they wanted to learn what the Society of Jesus was, 
no .better place could be found than the city in which 
they then found themselves, for the memory of many 
illustrious Jesuits was still fresh in the hearts of the 
people. The bishop who gave them this welcome 
hospitality was Clemens Wenzeslaus, who besides 
being a prelate was a prince of Saxony and Poland. 
Yielding to his advice, they took up their abode in 
Augsburg where they were soon joined by two dis- 
tinguished men who were afterwards to be conspicuous 
in the reconstructed Society, Grivel, who was to be 
sent to Georgetown in America as master of novices, 
and the famous Rozaven, who was to .save the Society 
from wreck in the first general congregation held after 

The Rallying 667 

the Restoration, .and who was subsequently to be the 
assistant General both of Fortis and Roothaan. 

As they were all Frenchmen, they were necessarily de- 
barred from apostolic work among the people whose lan- 
guage they could not speak. But that was providential, 
for they had thus a better opportunity to devote them- 
selves to the study of the spiritual life. On March 12, 
1796, Varin and some others were promoted to the 
priesthood, and about the middle of December, they 
were installed first at Neudorf and then at Hagenbrunn, 
near Vienna, as the invading armies of Moreau and 
Jourdan made Augsburg an unsafe place to live in. 
They were now sixteen in number and their close 
imitation of the Jesuit mode of Kf e caused a sensation 
there, as Austria had only a short time before suppressed 
the Society. 

De Tourn&y died on July 9, 1797, and Varin was 
elected in his place on the first ballot. The organization 
however, had not yet received the authorization of the 
Sovereign Pontiff, for as Napoleon held him a prisoner 
now in one place now in another, it was impossible to 
make any personal application for his approval of the 
new organization. Hence, a petition was drawn up, 
signed by twenty-five or thirty bishops asking the 
Holy Father's approbation. The answer came in 
the month of September 1798, assuring them that their 
project afforded him the greatest consolation, and 
with all his heart he gave them his blessing. 

The establishment of this Society was not as has 
been said "the underhand work of the Jesuits, 1 ' for 
Varin and. his associates had as yet never met any 
member of the old Society, nor were they aware of the 
existence of any similar organization in Italy. Indeed, 
when a letter came from Rome, signed Nicolas Pac- 
canari, announcing that he was their superior, and 
was such, " in virtue of an express wish of the Pope 

668 The Jesuits 

to have the two communities united," the associates 
regarded it as the abolition of their Society of the 
41 Fathers of the Sacred Heart/' especially as this 
unknown individual announced that he was then on 
his way to Hagenbrunn to carry the plan into effect* 

Nicolas Paccanari was a very curious personage. 
He had no education whatever, and in his early life 
had been engaged in various occupations which 
scarcely seemed to fit him to be the founder of a 
religious order. He was born near Trent, and had been 
for some time a soldier, then a merchant on a small 
scale, and when swindled by an associate, he took to 
tramping from town to town, vending, as Guidee 
says, " objects of curiosity," that is, he was an itinerant 
peddler. He was a pious man, and as he belonged to 
one of the guilds in the Caravita at Rome, he was 
prompted by the spirit that prevailed in that famous 
Oratory to do something more than usual for the glory 
of God. He first thought of being a Carmelite, and 
then the fancy seized him that he was destined to 
resuscitate the Society of Jesus. Strangely enough, 
although he was not even a priest, he was joined by 
a doctor of the Sapienza and two French ecclesiastics, 
Halnat and Epinette, the latter of whom entered the 
Society and later taught philosophy at Georgetown 
D. C. He was undoubtedly clever, and so plausible in 
his speech that he won the confidence of the most 
distinguished personages in Europe: cardinals and 
noblemen and heads of religious orders, with the result 
that he and his two friends made their vows on the 
eve of the Assumption 1797, in the chapel of the 
Caravita, and Paccanari was elected superior. He 
succeeded even in seeing the Pope, who was then a 
prisoner at Spoleto, and obtained his approval and 
blessing. He called his organization " The Society of 
the Fathers of the Faith of Jesus," which was shortened 

The Rallying 669 

later into " The Fathers of the Faith." In Bohmer- 
Monod we find them styled "The Brothers of the 

Paccanari failed to arrive at Hagenbrunn for a 
considerable time, for he had fallen into the hands of 
the police and was kept a prisoner in Sant' Angelo. 
His restless activity and constant change of abode had 
attracted the notice of the authorities, and he was 
suspected of being concerned in some political plot' 
against the Roman Republic, which the French had 
just then set up in the Papal dominions. His associates 
were arrested at the same time, and were not released 
for four months. It was during this time of incarcera- 
tion that Paccanari sent a second letter to Varin 
more startling than the first. It announced that the 
Fathers of the Sacred Heart had been received into 
the Paccanari association, and that Father Varin was 
appointed superior of the society in Germany. Such 
a communication from a man whom they had not 
even seen, made them conclude that they had to do 
with a lunatic. Finally, in the month of February 1799, 
a third letter arrived, clearing up what had been said 
in the second. The explanation offered was that not 
knowing if he would ever be let out of jail, and not 
wishing that the privileges he had received from the 
Holy See should lapse, he had as a precaution admitted 
Varin and his associates into the Society of the Fathers 
of the Faith. 

When at last he was released, he started for Vienna, 
and on his way, made it his business to see some of 
the dispersed Jesuits who were in Parma and Venice. 
They were very kind to him, procured him financial 
assistance, but did not welcome him with the enthusi- 
asm he expected. They had remarked that he never 
spoke of uniting his associates with the Jesuits of 
Russia. Paccanari was keen enough to divine their 

670 The Jesuits 

reason, and he was therefore only the more eager to 
affiliate with the people at Hagenbrunn, for he had 
only twenty members of his own, not more than three 
of whom were priests. He reached Vienna on April 3, 
and was naturally received with some reserve, but 
when Cardinal Migazzi and the nuncio made known 
the desire of the Pope, all opposition ceased and the 
discussion of the mode of union began. The sessions 
lasted ten days and ended by the election of Paccanari 
as general. The Society of the Fathers of the Sacred 
Heart thus passed out of existence on April 18, 1799. 
f The house at Hagenbrunn at once took on a different 
aspect. There was less study, fewer exercises of piety, 
the recreations were immoderately prolonged, and 
the Fathers were actually compelled to take up a 
series of athletic exercises that made them think they 
were back in their college days. Of course this soon 
became intolerable, but little else could have been 
expected from a man like Paccanari, who was absolutely 
ignorant of the first elements of community life. 
What is still more curious is that he was not even 
yet tonsured; but he was, nevertheless, so wonderfully 
insinuating in his manner that he succeeded in per- 
suading everyone outside of his own household that he 
was the man of the hour. The public praised him, but 
his subjects were exasperated at his opinionativeness, 
his despotism, his repeated absences from home, and 
above all by his avoidance of all association with the 
dispersed Jesuits. All that quickly convinced the 
Fathers of the Sacred Heart that a serious mistake 
had been made. It is true that on August n, 1799, 
Paccanari made a formal announcement that his sole 
purpose was to amalgamate with the Jesuits of Russia, 
but it was tolerably clear that if he ever had any such 
intention it was rapidly vanishing from his mind. He 
began by founding several establishments in various 

The Rallying 671 

parts of Europe, even Moravia being favored in this 
respect. In this distribution, de Broglie and Rosaven 
were dispatched to England, and Halnat, Roger and 
Varin to France. 

After the example of the old Jesuits, the first work 
that Varin and his companions undertook when they 
arrived in Paris was the care of the hospitals of La 
Salpetriere and BicStre, the first of which had 6,000 
patients and had not seen a priest in its wards for ten 
years. The government now admitted the folly of its 
previous methods of procedure, and sought the help 
of the ministers of religion. A tremendous trans- 
formation was immediately effected. Nor could it 
have been otherwise, for the zealous priests spent 
thirteen and fourteen hours a day there, going from 
bed to bed to comfort the patients. 

It was Halnat who first discovered the existence of 
the venerable Father de Cloriviere, a Jesuit of the old 
Society, who was to be the first provincial of France 
after the restoration. The pious Mile, de Cice, a 
niece of the Archbishop of Bordeaux, also comes into 
view at this period. She had been the directress of 
an association of ladies estabEshed by Father de 
Cloriviere to supply as far as possible the place of the 
expelled nuns, in looking after the young girls of Paris. 
Varin became her spiritual guide and also directed 
Mile, de Jugon, a remarkable woman, who subsequently 
married *a wealthy nobleman; but at his death she 
resumed with great ardor the charitable works which 
had previously reflected such glory upon her piety 
and zeal. 

Just at this time, an attempt was made to assassinate 
Napoleon. An " infernal machine," as it was called, 
was exploded under his carriage, and Mile, de Cic6 
was suspected of knowing something about it, chiefly 
because of her association with the mysterious person- 

672 The Jesuits 

ages who had recently arrived in France Varin and 
his companions. Indeed, although the good woman's 
holiness of life was vouched for by a great number 
of witnesses, chiefly, the beneficiaries of her charity, 
she might have been condemned to death, had not 
Father Varin appeared in court, where he made a 
candid explanation of the character of his society, 
as having for its only purpose religion and charity, 
without any political affiliations whatever. His good 
temper at the trial was a happy offset to Father Halnat's 
outburst of anger which almost provoked an un- 
favorable verdict. Later Halnat applied for admission 
to the Society of Jesus, but it was thought unsafe to 
admit him. 

At this juncture, there appears the figure of 
Madeleine-Sophie Barat, the foundress of the Ladies 
of the Sacred Heart, a title chosen at that time not 
to indicate any social distinction; indeed Madame 
Barat was from people in very ordinary circumstances, 
but the name " religious " was in disfavor at that 
turbulent period, and it was thought advisable not to 
obtrude unnecessarily the fact that she and her asso- 
ciates formed a community of nuns. They were 
merely de$ dames fieuses, who lived together for 
charitable and educational work. The name " dames " 
is an old title for nuns in England. 

She was the sister of Father Louis Barat, who was 
one of the Fathers of the Faith, and when Varin was 
looking around for some capable woman to give the 
girls of Paris and elsewhere a Christian education, 
Barat suggested her as a possibility. He had taught 
her Latin, Greek, Spanish, Italian, and natural 
philosophy, besides subjecting her to a very rigid and 
somewhat harsh training in asceticism. She was then 
twenty years of age, and with her usual habit of sub- 
mission, she and her three companions addressed 

The Rallying 673 

themselves to the task. This was in 1801. Before 
1857, she had succeeded in establishing more than 
eighty foundations in various parts of the world and 
she is now ranked among the Beatified. 

To Varin must also be accorded the credit of form- 
ing in the religious life another woman who is among 
the Blessed; the Foundress of the Sisters of Notre- 
Dame de Namur, Julie Billiart. Perhaps his prayers 
had something to do with the restoration to health 
of this remarkable woman, who had been a paralytic 
and almost speechless for thirty-one years. She 
recovered her youthful vigor in 1804, at the end of 
a novena to the Sacred Heart, which had been suggested 
by her confessor. She was then at Amiens, and 
Varin united her and her companions into a teaching 
community, and drew up the rules and constitutions 
which they have undeviatingly adhered to ever since. 
Indeed it was this very fidelity that gave them the 
name of Notre Dame de Namur. For in the absence 
of Varin a prominent ecclesiastic attempted to modify 
their rule, whereupon the indignant women left Amiens 
and emigrated in a body to Namur. That city has 
ever since been regarded as their spiritual birthplace. 
In the space of twelve years, namely between 1804 
and 1812, this quondam paralytic founded fifteen 
convents, and made as many as one hundred and 
twenty journeys, some of them very long and toilsome, 
in the prosecution of her great work for the Church. 
Like the Ladies of the Sacred Heart, the Sisters of 
Notre Dame de Namur have establishments all over 
the world. * 

Meantime, a very marked difference had displayed 
itself in the tone of the various members of the Fathers 
of the Faith. Those who had been followers of 
Paccanari had no idea whatever of the real nature of 
religious life, whereas the disciples of Varin for the 

674 The Jesuits 

most part were spiritual men and eager in the work of 
perfection. How noticeable this was, is revealed in 
a letter from Bishop Carroll in America. He had 
asked for help from the new organization, and four 
priests had been promised him, but only one arrived 
an Italian named Zucchi. Whether he lost his way or 
not, or fancied he could follow his own guidance, he 
went first to Quebec, but was promptly informed by the 
government officials there that 1 his presence was 
undesirable. He finally reached Maryland, and Carroll 
describes him in a letter to Father Plowden in England 
as follows: " There is a priest here named Zucchi, 
a Romano di nascitd,, a man of narrow understanding, 
who does nothing but pine for the arrival of his com- 
panions. Meantime he will undertake no work. 
Prom this sample of the new order, I am led to believe 
that they are very little instructed in the maxims of 
the Institute of our venerable mother, the Society. 
- Though they profess to have no other rule than ours, 
Zucchi seems to know nothing of the structure of our 
Society, nor even to have read the Regula Communes 
which our very novices know almost by heart," 

The bishop had also heard of the establishment of 
one of the communities of women by Father Varin, 
and that made him still more suspicious about the 
genuineness of the Fathers of the Faith. " In one 
point," he writes to Plowden, " they seem to have 
departed from St. Ignatius, by engrafting on their 
Institution a new order of nuns, which is to be under 
their government." 

The rupture in the ranks of the Fathers of the 
Faith took place in 1803. In the preceding year, 
Rcxsaven and Varin had gone to Rome and were there 
confirmed in their suspicions that Paccanari was not 
sincere in his protestations about his desire to join 
the Jesuits in Russia. They were also shocked at the 

The Rallying 675 

lack of religious spirit in the Paccanarist house in 
Rome. In the following year, Rozaven again returned 
to Rome, and besides being confirmed in his con- 
viction that Paccanari was working for the development 
of an independent society, he was informed of certain 
charges against the personal character of the man. 
Paccanari's explanation of the accusations, far from 
convincing Rozaven, only confirmed him in his opinion. 
The result was that he obtained a private audience 
with the Pope, and was authorized to sever his con- 
nection with the Fathers of the Faith. 

To his amazement, he found on his return to London, 
that his associates had already taken the matter in 
hand for themselves and had applied to Father Gruber 
in Russia, for admission to the Society. The petition 
was granted, not, however to enter corporately but 
individually, namely after each one's vocation had 
been carefully examined. The application was to be 
made to Father Strickland in England, who had been 
a member of the old Society. With other candidates 
from Holland and Germany, twenty-five new members 
passed over to Russia. 

It is very distressing to note that Father Charles 
de Broglie, who with de Tourn61y had initiated the 
whole movement, was not in this group. He and 
three others remained in London as secular priests, 
and unfortunately, his relations with a certain number 
of refractory Frenchmen led him into the schism 
known as La Petite Eglise. He persisted in his rebellion 
as late as 1842, when he at last made his submission 
to the Church. 

Rozaven wrote from Polotsk to Varin, giving him 
an account of what had happened to him in Rome, 
insisting on the justifiableness of the act, and reminding 
him that they had joined the Fathers of the Sacred 
Heart, and subsequently the Fathers of the Faith, solely 

676 The Jesuits 

for the sake of uniting with the Jesuits in Russia. 
As Paccanari had not only no intention of carrying 
out that purpose, but was doing everything in his 
power to prevent it, the duty of allegiance ceased, 
and so the Pope had decided. Forthwith, Varin, with 
the approval of all his subjects in Prance, notified 
Paccanari that they had severed all connection with his 
Society. Meantime however, they retained the name 
of Fathers of the Faith. 

But this independence was not satisfactory to Varin. 
What was he to do? Should he disband his com- 
munities which were performing very effective work in 
France or wait for developments? The Apostolic 
nuncio at Paris, della Genga, decided that he should 
continue as he was till more favorable circumstances 
presented themselves-. They had not long, to wait. 
The emperor's uncle, Cardinal Pesch, had thus far 
protected them, but in 1807 Napoleon publicly and 
angrily reproached him for this patronage, and on 
November ist ordered all the Fathers to report to their 
respective dioceses within fifteen days, under penalty 
of being sent to the deadly convict colony of Guiana. 
Fouch6 offered several positions of honor to Varin 
and on his refusal to accept them, drove him out of 
Paris. By this time, however, Varin was a Jesuit and 
was following the directions of the venerable Father 
Clorivifere who had been empowered to receive him. 

The secession of the Fathers of France and England 
was quickly imitated by the communities in other parts 
of Europe. Meanwhile Paccanari's conduct became 
a public scandal. A canonical process was instituted 
against him in 1808, and he was condemned to ten 
years" imprisonment. But when the French took 
possession of the city in 1809 and opened the prison 
doors, Paccanari disappeared from view, and no one 
ever knew what became of him. 

The Rallying 677 

While the work of the Fathers of the Faith was pro- 
gressing in France and elsewhere, the saintly Pignatelli, 
who had been Angel Guardian of the Spanish Jesuits 
when they were expelled from their native land, was 
accomplishing much for the general establishment of 
the Society. After landing in Italy where the Jesuits 
were as yet unmolested, he had betaken himself, with 
the advice of the provincial to Ferrara, and there 
housed the exiles as best he could. He also established 
a novitiate in connection with the college which had 
been handed over to him; but all this was swept away 
when the Brief of Clement XIV suppressed the entire 
Society in 1773. Of course, the first thought of 
Pignatelli after this disaster was to join his brethren 
in Russia, and with that in view he wrote to Pope 
Pius VI,- who had succeeded Clement XIV, asking 
him if the Jesuits whom Catherine II had sheltered, 
really belonged to the Society. The reply delighted 
him beyond measure, for it told him that he might go 
to Russia with a safe conscience and put on the habit 
of the Society. The Jesuits there really belonged to 
the Society for the Brief of Suppression had never 
reached that country. The Pontiff also added that he 
would restore the Society as soon as possible; and if 
he were not able to do so he would recommend it to 
his successor. 

Pignatelli's joy knew no bounds, and he immediately 
prepared for his journey to the North, but the 
Providence of God kept him in Italy, for the Duke 
of Parma, though a son of Charles III of Spain, had 
resolved to recall the Jesuits to his Duchy, and for that 
purpose had written to Catherine II of Russia to ask 
for three members of the Society to organize the houses. 
The empress was only too glad to accede to his wish; 
on February, 1794, three Jesuits arrived in Parma 
and began their work at Calorno, just when Pius VI 

678 The Jesuits 

was passing through that city on his way to the prisons 
of France. The opportunity was taken advantage of 
to ask the august captive for authorization to open 
a novitiate and he most willingly granted the request. 
Panizzoni, who was then provincial of Italy, appointed 
Pignatelli as superior and master of novices. Unfortu- 
nately the Duke of Parma died, and the Duchy was 
taken over by Prance; however, the Jesuits were not 
molested for a year and a half, and during this time 
Pignatelli, who was exercising the office of provincial, 
succeeded in having the Society restored in Naples 
and Sicily. This was in 1804. But when Napoleon 
laid his hands on the whole of the peninsula an order 
was formulated for the expulsion of the Jesuits. 
Fortunately its execution was not rigorously enforced 
and colleges were established in Rome, Tivoli, Sardinia 
and Orvieto. 

Meantime matters were progressing favorably in 
Russia, so much so that in 1803 Father Angiolini was 
sent as imperial ambassador to the Pope to solicit alms 
for the missions. When he appeared in Rome dressed 
as a Jesuit, he found himself the sensation of the hour. 
The Sovereign Pontiff received him with effusive 
affection and granted all that he asked. He remained 
there as procurator of the Society, and in the following 
year, was able to communicate to Father Gruber the 
pleasing news that, at the request of King Ferdinand, 
the Society had been re-established in the Two Sicilies. 
Father Pignatelli was made provincial, and as many 
as 170 of those who had survived after Tanucci had 
driven them out thirty-seven years previously came 
from the various places that had sheltered them during 
the Suppression to resume their former way of life. 
Several of them who had been made bishops asked 
the Pope for permission to return but all were refused 
except two, Avogado of Verona and Bencassa of Carpi. 

The Rallying 679 

The whole kingdom welcomed back the exiles with 
enthusiasm. The King came in person to open the 
Church which he had persistently refused to enter 
ever since the expulsion; at the first Mass he and the 
entire royal family received Holy Communion. He 
also gave the Fathers their former college, and endowed 
it with an annual income of forty thousand ducats. 
This example encouraged others; colleges were founded 
everywhere, and the number of applicants was so 
great that the conditions for admission to the Society 
had to be made as rigorous as possible. Unfortunately 
this happy condition of affairs did not last long, for in 
March 1806, Joseph Bonaparte replaced Ferdinand IV 
on the throne of Naples, and the Jesuits again took 
the road of exile. The Pope offered them a refuge 
in Rome, and when they protested that such a course 
would draw on him the wrath of Napoleon, he replied 
that they were suffering for the Church, and that he 
must receive them just as Clement XIII had done 
when they were exiled from Naples. 

While these events were occurring in Italy and France, 
an opportunity was presented to the Jesuits of Russia 
to revive their old missions in China. Unfortunately 
it was frustrated. The story as told in the " Wood- 
stock Letters " (IV, 113) is a veritable Odyssey, and 
is particularly interesting to Americans, for the reason 
that the principal personage concerned in what proved 
to be a very heroic enterprise became subsequently the 
President of Georgetown College: John Anthony Grassi. 

Grassi was a native of Bergamo, and in 1799 entered 
the novitiate established by Father Pignatelli at 
Calorno. He thus received a genuine Jesuit training 
and escaped the influence of the establishments which 
Paccanari was inaugurating in Italy just as that time. 
From Calorno he was sent to Russia, and was made 
Rector of the College of Nobles which was dependent 

680 The Jesuits 

upon the establishment at Polotsk. Meanwhile, he 
was preparing himself for the missions of Astrakhan, 
and was already deep in the study of Armenian when the 
Chinese matter was brought to the attention of Father 
Gruber by a letter from a member of the old Society, 
who had contrived to remain in China ever since the 
Suppression. He was Louis Poirot. It appears that 
his ability as a musician had charmed the emperor, 
and thus enabled him to continue his evangelical 
work in the Celestial Empire. 

Hearing of the establishment in Russia, he bethought 
himself of having the Jesuits resume their old place in 
China, evidently unaware that the Brief of 1801 
expressly declared that the Society had been established 
" only within the limits of the Russian Empire." 
But not knowing this he availed himself of the return 
of a Lazarist missionary and wrote two letters; one to 
the Pope and another to the Father General in which 
he said: " I am eighty years of age and there is only 
one thing I care to live for. It is to see the Jesuits 
return to China/' His letter to the General ends with 
a request to be permitted to renew his vows, " so as 
to die a true son of the Society of Jesus." Between 
the time he wrote this letter and its arrival in Europe, 
the limitation of the approval of the Society to Russia 
had been withdrawn, and Father Gruber immediately 
set about granting the venerable and faithful old 
man's request. Happily a solemn legation was just 
then to leave St. Petersburg for China, and the ambas- 
sador, Golowkin, was urged to take some Jesuits in 
his suite. The offer was gladly accepted, but it was 
decided that it should be better for the priests to go 
by the usual sea route than to accompany the embassy 

Father Grassi was considered to be the most avail- 
able man in the circumstances, and he was told merely 

The Rallying 681 

that lie was to go to a distant post, and that his com- 
panions were to be Father Korsack, a native of Russia 
and a German lay-brother named Surmer, who hap- 
pened to be a sculptor. On January 14, 1805, they 
left Polotsk, and travelling day and night, arrived at 
St. Petersburg on January .19. Only then were they 
informed that their destination was Pekin. On Feb- 
ruary 2 they started^on sleds for Sweden. At the 
end of three days, they were all sick and exhausted, 
but kept bravely on till they reached the frontier where 
they found shelter in a little inn. Fortunately a 
physician happened to be there and he helped them 
over their ailments, so that in ten days they were 
able to resume their journey. They then started for 
Abo, the capital of Finland and from there crossed 
the frozen sea at top speed, till they reached the 
Island of Aland. On March 20 they traversed the 
Gulf of Bothnia in a mail packet, and landed safely 
on the shore of Sweden. On March 22 they were in 
Stockholm, but the Abbe Morrette, the superior of 
the Swedish mission to whom they were to present them- 
selves was dead. An Italian gentleman, happily 
named Fortuna, who was Russian Consul at that 
place, took care of them and presented them to Alopeus, 
the Russian minister. 

Alopeus dissuaded them from going to England as 
they had been directed, and suggested Copenhagen 
as the proper place to embark. Arrived there, they 
were informed that there was a ship out in the harbor, 
waiting to sail for Canton, but that the captain refused 
to take any passengers; whereupon they determined 
to follow their original instructions, and after a stormy 
voyage arrived at Gravesend on May 22. From there 
they went to London where they met Father Zohlmann. 

The same misfortune attended them at London for 
although Lord Macartney, who had known the Jesuits 

682 The Jesuits 

in Pekin, did everything to secure them a passage to 
China, he failed utterly. Then acting under new 
instructions they set sail for Lisbon on July 29, but 
were driven by contrary winds to Cork in Ireland, 
where of course they met with the heartiest welcome 
from everyone especially from the bishop. They 
finally landed at Lisbon on 'September 28; passing as 
they entered the harbor, the gloomy fortress of St. 
Julian where so many of their brethren had been 
imprisoned by Pombal. They were befriended there 
by an Irish merchant named Stack, and also by the 
rector of the Irish College; but were finally lodged 
in an old dismantled monastery where they slept 
on the floor. Then, in the dress of secular priests, 
they presented themselves to the Apostolic nuncio 
who was very friendly to the Society, and who would 
have been a Jesuit himself had it not been for the 
opposition of his family. He warned them to be 
very cautious in what they did and said, and informed 
them that there were very few ships clearing for Macao. 
While at Lisbon, they devoted themselves to the 
study of mathematics and astronomy, and after two 
months their friend, the Irish merchant, came to tell 
them that there was a ship about to sail. They 
hastened to advise the nuncio of it, but were then 
told that they could not go to China, without the 
Pope's permission, for the reason that the Society 
had been suppressed in that country. They also 
learned from a missionary priest of the Propaganda, 
that Rome was very much excited about their proposed 
journey; Father Angiolini who was then in Rome, wrote 
to the same effect. It was then March 1806. Not 
knowing what to do, they began a course of astronomy 
at the observatory of Coimbra, but unfortunately, the 
founder of the observatory, an ex- Jesuit, Jos6 Monteiro 
da Rocha, was very hostile to the Society; and even 

The Rallying 683 

went so far in his opposition that in a pubEc oration 
before the university he had praised Pombal extrava- 
gantly for having abolished the Order. 

The wanderers remained at Coimbra for two months, 
and then rettirned to Lisbon. On their -way to the 
capital they saw the unburied coffin of Pombal. On 
June 4 a letter came from England which revived their 
hopes, especially as it was followed by pecuniary 
help from the czar; but soon after that, they received 
news of the Russian embassy's failure to reach China, 
and they also heard that the country of their dreams 
was in the wildest excitement because a missionary 
there had sent a map of the empire to Europe. The 
imprudent Cartographer was imprisoned and an imperial 
edict announced that vengeance was to be taken on all 
Christians in the empire. Who the poor man was we 
do not know. It could not have been old Father 
Poirot. He was merely a musician and not a maker 
of maps. On December 2, 1806, the nuncio at Lisbon 
was informed that the Pope quite approved of the 
project of the Fathers and had urged his officials to 
assist them to carry it out. The reason of this change 
of mind on the part of the Holy Father is explained by 
the fact that he was anxious to propitiate Russia. 
Nevertheless, the nuncio advised them to wait for 
further developments. 

Another year went by, during which they continued 
their studies and made some conversions. They had 
also the gratification of being introduced to the Mar- 
chioness of Tavora, the sole survivor of the illustrious 
house which Pombal had so ruthlessly persecuted. 
Finally they were recalled to England, which they 
reached on November 16 1807, after a month of 
great hardship at sea. They were welcomed at 
Liverpool by the American Jesuit, Father Sewall, who 
was at that time sheltering four other members of the 

684 The Jesuits 

Society in his house. When the little community met 
at table, they represented seven different nationalities 
American, English, French, German, Italian, Polish 
and Belgian, Father Grassi remained in England, 
chiefly at Stonyhurst until 1810, and on August 27 
of that year set sail from Liverpool for Baltimore, 
where he arrived on October 20. He had thus passed 
three years in England where community life had been 
carried on almost without interruption from the time 
of the old Society. For although the Brief of Sup- 
pression had explicitly forbidden it, nevertheless 
Clement's successor had authorized it as early as 
1778, and had permitted the pronouncement of the 
religious vows in 1803, a privilege that was extended 
to the Kingdom of Naples in 1804. Arriving in the 
United States, Father Grassi found that there had been 
virtually no interruption of the Society's traditions in 
this part of the .world. The Fathers had been in 
close communication 'with Russia as early as 1805 and 
were being continually reinforced by members of 
the Society in Europe. When the Bull of Re-establish- 
ment was issued there were nineteen Jesuits in the 
United States. 



Tragic death of Father Gruber Pall of Napoleon Release of the 
Pope The Society Re-established Opening of Colleges Clori- 
vi&re Welcome of the Society in Spain Repulsed in Portugal 
Opposed by Catholics in England Announced in America Carroll 
Penwick Neale. 

IN 1805 the Society met with a disaster which in 
the circumstances seemed almost irreparable. During 
the night of March 25-26 its distinguished General, 
Father Gruber, was burned to death in his residence 
at St. Petersburg. His friend, the Count de Maistre, 
who was still ambassador at the Russian Court, hurried 
to the scene in time to receive his dying blessing and 
farewell. Gruber's influence was so great in Russia 
that it was feared no one could replace him. His 
successor was Thaddeus Brzozowski, who was elected 
on the second of September, Splendid plans, especially 
in the field of education had been made by Gruber 
and had been warmly approved of by the emperor, 
but they had to be set aside for more pressing needs. 
Napoleon was just then devastating Europe, and the 
very existence of Russia as well as of other nations was 
at stake. It is true that the empire was at peace with 
France, but at the rupture of the treaty of Amiens, 
Napoleon complained of the political measures of 
the cabinet of St. Petersburg, and the ambassadors 
of both countries received their papers of dismissal. 
The result was that a coalition of Russia, England, 
Austria and Sweden was formed to thwart the ambitions 
of Napoleon who was at that time laying claim to the 
whole Italian Peninsula. War was declared in 1805. 

' [685] 

686 The Jesuits 

Austerlitz compelled the empire to accept Napoleon's 
terms, but Prussia and Russia continued the fight 
until the disasters at Jena, Eylau and Friedland. 
Then the Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia 
met Napoleon on a raft anchored out in the Niemen, 
where on the eighth and ninth of July peace was 
agreed to. 

At Erfurt, in 1808 Napoleon and Alexander drew 
up what was known as the " Continental System," in 
accordance with which, all English merchandise was 
to be excluded from every continental nation. This 
was followed by a defensive alliance of Austria and 
England, and as Austria was Russia's ally, Alexander 
again entered the fight against Napoleon, but the 
victory of Wagram and the marriage of Napoleon 
with the Austrian archduchess, Maria Louisa, changed 
the aspect of affairs and the " Continental System " 
was restored, but in so modified a form that war 
broke out again, and in 1812 Napoleon began his 
Russian Campaign. The battle of Smolensk opened 
the way for him to Moscow, but when the conqueror 
arrived he found the city in flames. He mistook it 
for an act of surrender and Alexander purposely 
detained him, discussing the terms of peace until 
the winter set in. Then the conqueror decided to 
return, but it was too late. On February 22, 1813, 
Alexander sent out a call to all the kings of Europe to 
unite against Napoleon and they eagerly responded. 
He beat them at Lutzen and Bautzen, and in Silesia, 
but in spite of his success he had to continue his retreat. 
He won again at Dresden and Leipzig, but they pursued 
him relentlessly, until at last the Rhine was reached. 
Peace was offered in December 1813, but when its 
acceptance was delayed, the Allies entered France, and 
on March 3, 1814, laid siege to Paris. The city 
surrendered on the following dav. 

The Restoration 687 

Meantime Napoleon had released Pius VII from 
captivity, not voluntarily, but as a political measure, 
to propitiate the anger of the Catholics of the world, 
who were beginning to open their eyes to the extent 
of the outrage. Eighteen months previously he had 
dragged the venerable Pontiff from Rome and hurried 
him night and day over the Alps, absolutely heedless 
of the age and infirmity of his victim, until at last the 
Pope entered Pontainebleau a prisoner. According to 
Pacca, it was a jail more than a palace. There by 
dint of threats and brutal treatment Napoleon so 
wore out the strength of the aged man that a Concordat 
was signed which sacrificed some of the most sacred 
rights of the Holy See. It was cancelled, indeed, 
subsequently, but it almost drove the Pope insane 
when he realized the full import of what he had been 
driven to concede. " I shall die like Clement XIV," 
he exclaimed. But his jailer was heartless and it 
was only after a year and a half of imprisonment, and 
when the Allies were actually entering France as 
conquerors, that he made up his mind to send the 
Pontiff back to Rome. Had he done it with less 
brutality he might even then, have succeeded in his 
calculations, but only one attendant was sent to 
accompany the prisoner. The cardinals were purposely 
dismissed some days later in batches, and ordered to 
go by different routes so as to prevent any popular 
demonstration on the way. 

Pacca overtook the Pope at Sinigaglia on May 12, 
and on May 24, after a brief stay at Ancona, Loreto, 
Macerata, Tolentino, Poligno, % Spoleto, Terni and 
Nepi, entered Rome. What happened at these places 
deserves to be recorded, as it shows that the Faith 
was not only not dead but had grown more intense 
because of the outrages of which the Vicar of Christ 
had been the object. At Ancona, for instance, Artaud 

688 The Jesuits 

tell us, "he was received with transports of delight. 
The sailors in the harbor flocked around his carriage, 
unhitched the horses and with silken ropes of yellow 
and red drew it triumphantly through the city, while 
the cannon thundered from the ramparts, and the bells 
of every tower proclaimed the joy of the people. Prom 
the top of a triumphal arch the Pope gave his bene- 
diction to the kneeling multitudes, and then blessed 
the wide Adriatic. Prom there he went to the palace 
of the Picis for a brief rest. The next day he crowned 
the statue of the Blessed Virgin, Queen of All Saints, 
and then set out for Osimo escorted as far as, Loreto 
by a scarlet-robed guard of honor. Entering Rome 
by the Porto del Popolo, his carriage was drawn by 
young noblemen, and he was met by a procession of 
little orphan children chosen from the Protectory of 
Providence, They were all clothed in white robes 
and in their hands they held golden palm branches 
which they waved above their heads, while their young 
voices fitted the air with jubilant songs. When the 
crowd became too dense, the little ones knelt before 
him to present their emblems of peace, which he 
affectionately received, while tears rolled down his 
cheeks. At last, the city gates were reached and 
he proceeded along the streets lined on either side by 
kneeling multitudes who were overcome with joy 
at his return." 

Almost the first official act of the Pope was to 
re-establish the Society. How that came about may 
be best told in the words of his faithful servant, Cardinal 

"While we were in prison together," says the 
illustrious cardinal, "I had never tired of adroi+ly 
leading the conversation up to this important matter, 
so as to furnish His Holiness with useful information 
if ever it happened that he would again ascend the 

The Restoration 689 

Chair of St. Peter. In those interviews he never 
failed to manifest the greatest esteem and affection 
for the Society. The situation in which we found 
ourselves was remarkable, and it shows the admirable 
Providence of God with regard to this celebrated 

" When Baxnabo Chiaramonte was a young Bene- 
dictine, he had teachers and professors in theology 
whose sentiments were anti- Jesuit, and they filled his 
mind with theological views that were most opposed 
to those maintained by the Society. Everyone knows 
what profound impressions early teaching leaves in the 
mind; and, as for myself, I also had been inspired 
from my youth with sentiments of aversion, hatred 
and, I might say, a sort of fanaticism against the 
illustrious Society. It will suffice to add that my 
teachers put in my hands and ordered me to make 
extracts from the famous ' Lettres Provinciates/ first 
in French and then in Latin, with the notes of Wendrok 
(Nicole) which were still more abominable than the 
text. I read also in perfect good faith, c La morale 
pratique des Jesuites,' and other works of that kind 
and accepted them as true. 

" Who then would have believed that the first act 
of the Benedictine Chiaramonte who had become 
Pope, immediately after emerging from the frightful 
tempest of the Revolution, and in the face of so many 
sects, then raging against the Jesuits, should be the 
re-establishment of the Society throughout the Catholic 
world; or that I should have prepared the way for this 
new triumph; or, finally, that I should have been 
appointed by the Pope to carry out those orders 
which were so acceptable to me and conferred on me 
so much honor? For both the Pope and myself, 
this act was a source of supreme satisfaction. I was 
present in Rome on the two memorable occasions of 


690 The Jesuits 

the Suppression and the Re-establishment of the 
Society, and I can testify to the different impressions 
they produced. Thus, on August 17, 1773, ^ e day 
of the publication of the Brief ' Dominus ac Re- 
demptor, 1 one saw surprise and sorrow painted on 
every face; whereas on August 7, 1814, the day of the 
resurrection of the Society, Rome rang with accla- 
mations of satisfaction and approval. The people 
followed the Pope from the Quirinal to the Ges&, where 
the Bull was to be read, and made the return of the 
Pope to his palace a triumphal procession. 

" I have deemed it proper to enter into these details, 
in order to profit by the occasion of these * Memoirs ' 
to make a solemn retraction of the imprudent utterances 
that I may have made in my youth against a Society 
which has merited so well from the Church of Jesus 

Some of the cardinals were opposed to the Restor- 
ation, out of fear of the commotion it was sure to excite. 
Even Consalvi would have preferred to see it deferred 
for a few months, but it is a calumny to say that he 
was antagonistic to the Society. 'As early as February 
I 3> *799> he wrote as follows to Albani, the legate at 
Vienna: "You do me a great, a very great wrong, 
if you ever doubted that I was not convinced that the 
Jesuits should be brought back again. I call God 
to witness that I always thought so, although I was 
educated in colleges which were not favorable to them, 
but I did not on that account think ill of them. In 
those days, however, I did say one thing of them, viz., 
that although I was fully persuaded of their impor- 
tance, I declared it to be fanatical to pretend that the 
Church could not stand without them, since it had 
existed for centuries before they existed, but when 
I saw the French Revolution and when I got to really 
understand Jansenism, I then thought and think now 

The Restoration 691 

that without the Jesuits the Church is in very bad 
straits. If it depended on me, I would restore the 
Society to-morrow. I have frequently told that to 
the Pope, who has always desired their restoration, 
but fear of the governments that were opposed to 
it made him put it off, though he always cherished 
the hope that he could bring it about. He would do 
it if he lived; and if he were unable he would advise 
his successor to do it as quickly as possible. The 
rulers of the nations will find out that the Jesuits will 
make their thrones secure by bringing back religion/' 

Of course, the thought of restoring the Society did 
not originate with Pius VII and Pacca. Pius VI had 
repeatedly declared that he would have brought it 
about had it been at all feasible. Even after the 
return of Pius VII to Rome, some of the most devoted 
friends of the Jesuits, as we have seen, thought that 
the difficulties were insuperable; but the Pope judged 
otherwise, and hence the affection with which the 
Society will ever regard him. Indeed, he had already 
gone far in preparing the way for it. He had approved 
of the Society in Russia, England, America and Italy. 
He had permitted Father Fonteyne to establish com- 
munities in the Netherlands; Father Clorivire was 
doing the same thing in France with his approval so 
that everyone was expecting the complete restoration 
to take place at any moment. The Father provincial 
of Italy had announced that the Bull would be issued 
before Easter Sunday 1814, although some of his 
brethren laughed at him and thought he was losing 
his mind. This did not disturb him, however, and in 
June, 1814 he knelt before the Sovereign Pontiff and 
in the name of Father General Brzozowski presented 
the following petition: 

" We, the Father General and the Fathers who, by 
the benignity of the Holy See, reside in Russia and 

592 The Jesuits 

in Sicily, desiring to meet the wishes of certain princes 
who ask our assistance in the education of the youth of 
their realms, humbly implore Your Highness to remove 
the difficulty created by the Brief of Clement XIV and 
to restore the Society to its former state in accordance 
with the last confirmation of it by Clement XIII, so 
that in whatever country we may be asked for we may 
give to the princes above referred to whatever help 
the needs of their several countries may demand.* 1 

On June 17, Pius VII let it be known that he was 
more than eager to satisfy the wish of the petitioners; 
and a few days afterwards, when Cardinal Pacca said 
to him, " Holy Father, do you not think we ought to 
do what we so often spoke of? " he replied, " Yes; 
we can re-establish the Society of Jesus on the next 
feast of Saint Ignatius." Even Pacca was taken 
aback by the early date that was fixed upon, for there 
was not a month and a half to prepare for it. The 
outside world was even still more surprised, and the 
enemies of the Society strove to belittle the Pontifical 
act by starting the report that it was not the old Society 
that was going to be brought back to life; only a new 
congregation was to be approved. That idea took 
possession of the public mind to such an extent that 
Father de Zliniga, the provincial of Sicily, brought it 
to the attention of the Sovereign Pontiff. " On the 
contrary," said Pius, " it is the same Society which 
existed for two hundred years, although now circum- 
scribed by some restrictions, because there will be no 
mention of privileges in the Bull, and there are other 
things which will have to be inserted, on account of 
circumstances in France and Spain and the needs of 
certain bishops." 

The chief difficulty was in draughting the document. 
The time was very short and some of the cardinals 
were of opinion that the courts of Europe should be 

me Kestoration 

consulted about it. But Pacca and the Pope both 
swept aside that suggestion. They had had a sad 
experience -with the courts of Europe. Hence Cardinal 
Litta, who when ablegate at St. Petersburg had asked 
for the confirmation of the Society in Russia, was 
chosen to draw up the Bull. He addressed himself 
to the task with delight and presented to the Pope a 
splendid defense of the Society which he declared 
" had been guilty of no fault ; " but when he added that 
" the suppression had been granted by Clement XIV 
unwillingly/' and that "it was to be ascribed to the 
wicked devices, the atrocious calumnies, and the impious 
principles of false political science and philosophy 
which, by the destruction of the Order, foolishly 
imagined that the Church could be destroyed," the 
language was found to be too strong and even Cardinal 
di Pietro, who was a staunch friend of the Society, 
protested vehemently against it. Indeed, di Pietro 
went so far as to say that certain changes should be 
,1118x16 in the Institute before the Bull was issued. 
Other members of the Sacred College were of the same 
opinion, but did not express themselves so openly. 
They were afraid to do so, because the popular joy was 
so pronounced at the news of the proposed restoration 
that anyone opposing it would run the risk of being 
classed as an enemy. 

As a compromise, the Pope set aside the Bull drawn 
up by Litta and also the corrections by di Pietro, and 
entrusted the work to Pacca. It was his draught that 
was finally published. It makes no mention of any 
change or mutilation of the Institute; neither does it 
name nor abrogate any privilege; it is not addressed 
to any particular State, as some wished, but to the 
whole world; it does not reprehend anyone, nor does it 
subject to the Propaganda the foreign missions which 
the Society might undertake. Some of the "black 

694 The Jesuits 

cardinals " such as Brancadoro, Gabrielli, Litta, 
Mattel an ( d even di Pietro, asked for greater praise 
in it for the Society, while others wanted it just as 
Pacca had written it; Mattei objected to the expression 
" primitive rule of St. Ignatius/ 1 because the words 
would seem to imply that the Society had adopted 
another at some time in its history and he also wanted 
the reason of the restoration to be explicitly stated, 
namely: " the Pope's deep conviction of the Society's 
usefulness to the Church/' His reason was that many 
had asked for it; but only some of his suggestions 
were accepted. 

These details prevented the publication of the Bull 
on July 31, hence August 7, the octave of the feast was 

A few extracts from it will suffice. Its title is " The 
Constitution by which the Society of Jesus is restored 
in its pristine state throughout the Catholic World." 
The preamble first refers to the Brief " Catholicse 
fidei " which confirmed the Society in Russia and also 
to the "Per alias" which restored it in the Two 
Sicilies. It then says: "The Catholic world unani- 
mously demands the re-establishment of the Society 
of Jesus. Every day we are receiving most urgent 
petitions from our venerable brothers, the archbishops 
and bishops of the Church, and from other most dis- 
tinguished personages to that effect. The dispersion 
of the very stones of the sanctuary in the calamitous 
days which we shudder even to recall, namely the 
destruction of a religious order which was the glory and 
the support of the Catholic Church, now makes it 
imperative that we should respond to the general and 
just desire for its restoration. In truth, we should 
consider ourselves culpable of a grievous sin in the 
sight of God, if, in the great dangers to which the 
Christian commonwealth is exposed, we should fail to 

The Restoration 695 

avail ourselves of the help which the special Providence 
of God now puts at our disposal; if, seated as we are 
in the Barque of Peter, we should refuse the aid of the 
tried and vigorous mariners who offer themselves to 
face the surges of the sea which threaten us with 
shipwreck and death. Therefore, we have resolved 
to do to-day what we have longed from the first days 
of our Pontificate to be able to accomplish, and, hence, 
after having in fervent prayer implored the Divine 
assistance, and having sought the advice and counsel of 
a great number of our venerable brothers, the cardinals 
of the Holy Roman Church, we have decreed, with 
certain knowledge, and in virtue of the plenitude of 
our Apostolic power, that all the concessions and facul- 
ties accorded by us to the Russian empire and the 
Two Sicilies, in particular, shall henceforward be 
extended in perpetuity to all other countries of the 

"Wherefore, we concede and accord to our well- 
beloved son Thaddeus BrzozowsM, at present the 
General of the Society of Jesus, and to the other 
members of the Society delegated by him, all proper 
and necessary powers to receive and welcome freely 
and lawfully all those who desire to be admitted into 
the Regular Order of the Society of Jesus, and that, 
under the authority of the General at the time such 
persons may be received into and assigned to one or 
many houses, or colleges or provinces, as needs be, 
wherein they shall follow the rule prescribed by St. 
Ignatius Loyola, which was confirmed by the Consti- 
tutions of Paul III. Over and above this, we declare 
them to possess and we hereby concede to them the 
power of devoting themselves freely and lawfully 
to educate youth in the principles of the Catholic 
religion;' to train them in morality; to direct colleges 
and seminaries; to preach and to administer the sacra- 

696 The Jesuits 

ments in their place of residence, with the consent and 
approbation of the ordinary. We take under our 
protection and tinder our immediate obedience as 
well as that of the Apostolic See, all the colleges, all 
the houses, all the provinces, all the members of the 
Order, and all those who are gathered in their estab- 
lishments, reserving nevertheless to Ourself, and to 
the Roman Pontiffs, our successors, to decree and pre- 
scribe whatever we consider it our duty to decree and 
prescribe as necessary to consolidate more and more 
the same Society, in order to render it stronger and to 
purge it from abuse, if ever (which may God avert) 
any may be found therein. And we exhort with our 
whole heart, in the name of the Lord, all superiors, 
rectors and provincials, as well as all the members 
and pupils of this re-established Order to show them- 
selves in all places, faithful imitators of their Father. 
Let them observe with exactness the rule prescribed 
for them by their great founder, and let them follow 
with ever increasing zeal the useful admonitions and 
counsels which he has left for the guidance of his sons. 

" Finally we earnestly recommend in the Lord this 
Society and its members to the illustrious kings and 
princes and temporal lords of the various nations, as 
well as to our venerable brothers, the archbishops and 
bishops and whosoever may occupy positions of honor 
and authority. We exhort them, nay we conjure them, 
not only not to suffer that these religious should be 
molested, in any manner, but to see that they should 
be treated with the benevolence and the charity 
which they deserve." 

A difficulty now arose as to the person into whose 
hands the Bull was to be delivered. It was impossible 
for the General to be present, for he was unable to 
obtain permission of the emperor to take part in 
what concerned him more than any other member of 

The Restoration 697 

the Society a condition of things which made it 
evident that the residence of the next General had to 
be in some other place than Russia. That, of course, 
the czar would never permit and the expulsion of the 
Society from Russia was from that moment a fore- 
gone conclusion. Angiolini, who was rather conspicu- 
ous in Rome at that time, possibly because he had 
some years before arrived in the city as an envoy 
from the Russian court, was first thought of. In 
fact the Pope had already named him, but Albers 
in his " Liber saecularis " does not hesitate to say that 
Angiolini sought the honor, and had succeeded in 
enlisting the interest of Cardinal Litta in his behalf. 
But he was known to be a man of impetuous character, 
eager to be concerned in every matter of importance 
and decidedly headstrong. The provincial was chosen, 
therefore, to represent the General, and Angiolini was 
consoled by being made consultor of the Congregation 
of Rites. The difficulty seems almost childish, for 
whatever prominence Angiolini possessed, it was 
purely personal whereas that of Father Panizzoni was 
official It may be, however, that Angiolini's friend- 
ship for Rezzi, who attempted to wreck the Society 
at the first congregation, had laid him open to suspicion. 
At last the great day arrived* It was Sunday; and 
all Rome was seen flocking to the Gesft. As early 
as eight o'clock in the morning, as many as one hun- 
dred Jesuits along with the College of Cardinals were 
waiting to receive the Pope. He arrived at last and 
said Mass at the high altar. He then proceeded to 
the chapel of the Sodality which was crowded with 
bishops and most of the notables then in the city. 
Among them were Queen Marie Louise of Bourbon, the 
wife of Charles IV of Spain, with her niece and three 
sons. It was Spain's reparation for the wrong it had 
done the Society, Behind the cardinals, ia a double 

698 The Jesuits 

row were the Spanish, Italian and Portuguese Jesuits; 
the youngest of whom was sixty years of age, while 
there were others still who had reached eighty-six. 
It is even asserted that there was present one old 
Jesuit who was one hundred and twenty-six years old. 
His name was Albert Montalto and he had been in 
the Society for one hundred and eight years. He was 
born in 1689, was admitted to the novitiate in 1706 
and hence was sixty-four years old at the time of 
the Suppression. 

This beautiful fairy story is vouched for by Cr6tin- 
eau-Joly (V, 436), but Albers, in his " Liber ssecularis," 
tells us that there is no such name as Montalto or 
Montaud in the Catalogue of 1773 or in Vivier's 
" Catalogus Mortuorum Societatis Jesu." 

When the Pope had taken his seat upon the throne, 
he handed the Bull to Belisario Cristaldi, who in a 
clear voice, amid the applause of all in the chapel, 
read the consoling words which the Jesuits listened 
to with tears and sobs. Then one by one some 
hobbling up with the help of their canes, others lean- 
ing on the arms of the distinguished men present, 
knelt at the feet of the Pontiff, who spoke to them all 
with the deepest and tenderest affection. For them 
it was the happiest day of their lives and the old men 
among them could now sing their " Nunc dimittis." 

Pacca then handed to Panizzoni a paper appointing 
him superior of the Roman house, until the nomina- 
tion arrived from Father General. The professed 
house, the novitiate of Sant' Andrea and other properties 
were also made over to the Society with a monthly 
payment of five hundred scudL 

On entering the Gesft, the Fathers found the house 
almost in the same condition as when Father Ricci 
and his assistants left it in 1773, to go to the dungeons 
of Sant' Angdo. It was occupied by a community 

The Restoration 699 

of priests, most of them former Jesuits, who had con- 
tinued to serve the adjoining church, which, though 
despoiled of most of its treasures, still possessed the re- 
mains of St. Ignatius. Two years later, the novitiate of 
Sant* Andrea was so crowded that a second one had 
to be opened at Reggio. Among the novices at that 
place was Charles Emanuel, King of Sardinia, who had 
resigned his crown to enter the Society. He died there 
in 1819. In 1815 the Jesuits had colleges in Orvieto, 
Viterbo, Tivoli, Urbino, Perentino, and Galloro, 
Modena, Forli, Genoa, Turin, Novarra, and a little 
later, Nice. In Parma and Naples, they had been 
at work prior to 1814. 

Just eight days before these happenings in Rome, 
an aged Jesuit in Paris saw assembled around him 
ten distinguished men whom he had admitted to the 
Society. It was July 31, the feast of St. Ignatius, 
and the place of the meeting was full of tragic memories. 
It was the chapel of the Abbaye des Cannes, where, 
in the general massacre of priests which took place 
there in 1792, twelve Jesuits had been murdered. In 
the old man's mind there were still other memories. 
Fifty-two years before, he and his religious brethren 
had been driven like criminals from their native land. 
Forty years had passed since the whole Society had 
been suppressed. He had witnessed all the horrors 
of the French Revolution, and now as he was nearing 
eternity he was then eighty-five he saw at his 
feet a group of men some of whom had already gained 
distinction in the world, but who at that moment, 
had only one ambition, that of being admitted into 
the Society of Jesus, which they hoped would be one 
day re-established. They never dreamed that seven 
days after they had thus met at the Abbaye to cele- 
brate the feast of St. Ignatius, Pius VII who had 
returned from his captivity in France would,- by the 

700 The Jesuits 

Bull "Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum/' solemnly 
re-establish the Society throughout the world. 

The old priest was Pierre- Joseph Picot de Clori- 
vire. He was born at St. Malo, June 29, 1735 and 
had entered the Society on August 14, 1756. He was 
teaching a class at Compigne when Choiseul drove 
the Society out of the country, but though he was 
only a scholastic, it had no effect on his vocation. He 
attached himself to the English province, and after 
finishing his course of theology at Lige in Belgium, was 
professed of the four vows about a month after Clement 
XIV had issued his Brief of Suppression. The decree 
had not yet been promulgated in the Netherlands, 
Instead of going to England as one would expect, he 
returned to his native country as a secular priest, and 
we find him in charge of a parish at Param6 from 1775 
to 1779. He was also the director of the diocesan 
College of Dinan, where he remained up to the time 
of the Revolution. Meantime, he was writing pious 
books and founding two religious congregations, one 
for priests, the other for pious women in the world. 
The former went out of existence in 1825. The latter 
still flourishes. 

Having refused to take the constitutional oath, he 
was debarred from all ecclesiastical functions, and 
began to think of offering himself to his old friend and 
classmate at Lige, Bishop Carroll, to work on the 
Maryland missions; but one thing or another pre- 
vented him from carrying out his purpose, though 
on the other hand it is surprising that he could make 
up his mind to remain in France. His brother had 
been guillotined in 1793; his niece met the same fate 
later; his sister, a Visitation nun, was put in prison 
and escaped death only by Robespierre's fall from 
power; several of his spiritual followers had perished 
in the storm, but he contrived to escape until 1801, 

The Restoration 701 

when, owing to his relationship with Limoellan, who 
was implicated in the conspiracy to kiH the First 
Consul, he was lodged in jail. He was then sixty- 
nine years old. 

During his seven years of imprisonment, he wrote 
voluminous commentaries on the Bible, chiefly the 
Apocalypse. He also devoted himself to the spiritual 
improvement of his fellow-prisoners, one of whom, a 
Swiss Calvinist named Christin, became a Catholic. 
As Christin had been an attache of the Russian embassy 
he posted off to Russia when he was liberated in 1805, 
taking with him a letter from Clorivire to the General 
of the Society, asking permission for the writer to 
renew his profession and to enter the Russian province. 
Of course, both requests were granted. "When he 
was finally discharged from custody in 1809, Clori- 
viere wrote again to Russia to inform the General 
that Bishop Carroll wanted to have him go out to 
Maryland as master of novices. As for himself though he 
was seventy-five years of age, he was quite ready to 
accede to the bishop's request. The General's decision, 
however, was that it would be better to remain in 

Meantime, Father Varin, the superior of the Fathers 
of the Faith, had convoked the members of his com- 
munity to consider how they could carry out the original 
purpose of their organization, namely: to unite with 
the Jesuits of Russia, but no progress had been made 
up to 1814. In his perplexity, he consulted Mgr. della 
Genga who was afterwards Leo XII, and also Father 
Clorivi&re. But to his dismay, both of them told him 
to leave the matter in statu quo. This was all the 
more disconcerting, because he had just heard that 
Father Fonteyne, who was at Amsterdam, had already 
received several Fathers of the Faith. Whereupon 
he posted off to Holland, and was told that both della 

702 The Jesuits 

Genga and Clorivi&re were wrong in their decision. 
To remove every doubt he was advised to write 
immediately to Russia, or better yet to go there in 
person. He determined to do both. At the beginning 
of June 1814, he returned to France to tell his friends 
the result of his conference with Father Fonteyne, 
but during his absence Clorivire had been commis- 
sioned by Father BrzozowsH to do in France what 
Fonteyne had been doing in Holland. That settled 
everything, and on July 19, 1814, Fathers Varin, 
Boissard, Roger and Jennesseaux were admitted 
to the novitiate; and a few days later, Dumouchel, 
Bequet, Ronsin, Coulon, Loriquet, with a lay brother 
followed their example. On the 3ist, St. Ignatius' 
Day, they all met at the Abbaye to entreat the Founder 
of the Society to bless tods inauguration of the province 
of France. 

In virtue of his appointment Father Clorivi&re 
found that he had now to take care of seventy novices, 
most of whom were former Fathers of the Faith; 
in this rapidly assembled throng it was impossible 
to carry out the whole scheme of a novitiate training 
in all its details. Indeed, the only " experiment " 
given to the newcomers was the thirty-days retreat, 
and that, the venerable old superior undertook him- 
self . Perhaps it was age that made him talkative, 
perhaps it was over-flowing joy, for he not only carried 
out the whole programme but overdid it, and far 
from explaining the points, he talked at each medita- 
tion during what the French call " five quarters of an 
hour." But grace supplied what was lost by this 
prolixity, and the community was on fire with zeal 
when the Exercises were ended. How soon they 
received the news of what happened on August 7, 
in Rome, we do not know. But there were no happier 
men in the world than they when the glad tidings came; 

The Restoration 703 

and they continued to be so even if Louis XVIII did 
not deign or was afraid to pay any attention to the 
Bull, and warned the Jesuits and their friends to make 
no demonstration. The Society was restored and that 
made them indifferent to anything else. 

In Spain, a formal decree dated May 25, 1825, 
proclaimed the re-establishment of the Society, and 
when Father de Zuniga arrived at Madrid to re-organize 
the Spanish province, he was met at the gate of the 
city by a long procession of Dominicans, Franciscans, 
and the members of other religious orders to welcome 
him. Subsequently, as many as one hundred and 
fifteen former Jesuits returned to their native land 
from the various countries of Europe where they had 
been laboring, and began to reconstruct their old 
establishments. Many of these old heroes were over 
eighty years of age. Loyola, Onate 'and Manresa 
greeted them with delight, and forty-six cities sent 
petitions for colleges. Meanwhile, novitiates were 
established at Loyola, Manresa and Seville. 

Portugal not only did not admit them, but issued a 
furious decree against the Bull. Not till fifteen 
years later did the Jesuits enter that country, and then 
their first work was to inter the yet unburied remains 
of their arch-enemy Pombal and to admit four of 
his great-grandsons into one of their colleges. Brazil, 
Portugal's dependency, imitated the bitterness of 
the mother country. The Emperor of Austria was 
favorable, but the spirit fostered among the people by 
his predecessor, Joseph, was still rampant and pre- 
vented the introduction of the Society into his domains, 
But, on the whole, the act of the Pope was acclaimed 
everywhere throughout the wold. So Pacca wrote to 

Of course there was an uproar in non-Cathofic 
countries. In England, even some Catholics were in 

704 The Jesuits 

arms against the Bull, One individual, writing in 
the " Catholic Directory" of 1815, considered it to 
be " the downfall of the Catholic religion. " A congress 
in which a number of Englishmen participated was 
held a few years later at Aix-la-Chapelle to protest 
against the re-establishment of the Order. Fortunately 
it evoked a letter from the old Admiral Earl St. Vincent 
which runs as follows : " I have heard with indignation 
that Sir J. C. Hippisley, a member of Parliament, is 
gone to the Congress. I therefore beseech you to 
cause this letter to be laid before his Holiness the 
Pope as a record of my opinion that we are not only 
obliged to that Order for the most useful discoveries 
of every description, but that they are now necessary 
for the education of Catholic youth throughout the 
civilized world." With the exception of John Milner, 
all the vicars Apostolic of England were strongly 
opposed to the restitution of the Society in that 

The United States was at war with England just 
then, and it happened that seventeen days before the 
Bull was issued Father Gras^si and his fellow- Jesuits 
were witnessing from the windows of Georgetown 
College the bombardment of Washington by the 
British fleet. They saw the city in flames, and fully 
expected that the college would be taken by the 
enemy, but to their great delight they saw the forty 
ships on the following morning hoist their anchors and, 
one by one, drop down the Potomac. They did not, 
of course, know what was going on in Rome, but as 
soon as the news of the re-establishment arrived in 
America, Father Penwick, the future Bishop of Boston, 
who was then working in St. Peter's Church, New 
York, wrote about it to Father Grassi, who was Presi- 
dent of Georgetown. The letter is dated December 21, 
1814 and runs as follows: 

The Restoration 705 

" Rev. and Dear Father, 

Te Deum Laudamus, Te Dominum confitemurl 
The Society of Jesus is then re-established! That 
long-insulted Society! The Society which has been 
denounced as the corrupter of youth, the inculcator 
of unsound, unchristian and lax morality! That 
Society which has been degraded by the Church 
itself, rejected by her ministers, outlawed by her kings 
and insulted by her laity! Restored throughout the 
world and restored by a public Bull of the Sovereign 
Pontiff! Hitherto cooped up in a .small corner of 
the world, and not allowed to extend herself, lest the 
nations of the earth, the favorites of heaven, should 
inhale the poison of her pestiferous breath, she is now 
called forth, as the only plank left for the salvation of 
a shipwrecked philosophered world; the only restorer of 
ecclesiastical discipline and sound morality; the only 
dependence of Christianity for the renewal of correct 
principles and the diffusion of piety! It is then so. 
What a triumph! How glorious to the Society! How 
confounding to the enemies! Gaudeamus in Domino, 
diem festum cekbrantesl If any man will say after 
that, that God is not a friend of the Society, I shall 
pronounce him without hesitation a liar. 

11 1 embrace, dear Sir, the first leisure moments after 
the receipt of your letter, to forward you my congratu- 
lations on the great and glorious tidings you have 
recently received from Europe tidings which should 
exhilarate the heart of every true friend of Christianity 
and of the propagation of the Gospel; tidings particu- 
larly grateful to this country, and especially to the 
College of which you are rector, which will hereafter 
be able to proceed secundum regulam et Institutum." 

A word about this distinguished American Jesuit 
may not be out of place here. He was born in the 

706 The Jesuits 

ancestral manor of the Fenwicks, in old St. Mary's 
County, Maryland, and was a lineal descendant of 
Cuthbert Fenwick who was distinguished among the 
first Catholic colonists by his opposition to Lewger, 
Calvert's secretary, then assailing the rights of the 
Church in Maryland. When Georgetown College 
opened its doors, Benedict Penwick and his brother 
Enoch were among its first students. After finishing 
the course, he took upon himself what his old admirer, 
the famous Father Stonestreet, calls "the painful 
but self-improving duties of the class room," and was 
professor of Humanities for three years. Later he 
began a course of theology at St. Mary's Seminary, 
Baltimore, but he left in order to become a Jesuit. 
The Fenwicks, both in England and America had 
been always closely identified with the Society, and 
when the news came that it was about to be resuscitated, 
Benedict and Enoch were chosen with four other 
applicants to be the corner stones of the first novitiate 
in the United States of North America. He was 
ordained on June n, 1808, in Trinity Church, George- 
town, D. C., by the Jesuit Bishop Neale, coadjutor of 
Archbishop Carroll, and was immediately sent to 
New York with Father Kohlmann to prepare that 
diocese for the coming of its first bishop Dr. Concanen. 
Kohlmann himself had been named for the see, but the 
Pontiff had yielded to the entreaties of Father Roothaan 
not to deprive the still helpless Society of such a 
valuable workman; hence, Father Richard Luke 
Concanen, a Dominican, was appointed in his stead. 
Kohlmann and Fenwick were welcomed with great 
enthusiasm in New York which had suffered much 
from the various transients who had from time to 
time officiated there. Several distinguished converts 
were won over to the faith, and an attempt was made 
to influence the famous free-thinker, Tom Paine, but 

The Restoration 707 

the unfortunate wretch died blaspheming. It was 
Kohlmann and Fenwick who established the New York 
Literary Institute on the site of the present St. 
Patrick's Cathedral. It was successful enough to 
attract the sons of the most distinguished families 
of the city and merited the commendation of such 
men as the famous governor of New York, De Witt 
Clinton, and of Governor Thompkins who was sub- 
sequently Vice-President of the United States. At the 
same time, they were building old St. Patrick's, which 
was to become the cathedral of the new bishop. Bishop 
Concanen never reached New York, and when his 
successor Bishop Connolly arrived in 1814, Father 
Fenwick was his consolation and support in the many 
bitter trials that had to be undergone in those turbulent 
days. He was made vicar general and when he was 
sent to Georgetown to be president of the college 
in 1817, it was against the strong protest and earnest 
entreaties of the bishop, who, it may be said in passing, 
regretted exceedingly the closing of the Literary 
Institute, a feeling shared by every American Jesuit. 
The reason for so doing is given by Hughes (History of 
the Soc. of Jesus in North America, I, ii, 945). 

While Fenwick was in Georgetown, Charleston, 
South Carolina, was in an uproar ecclesiastically. 
The people were in open schism, and Archbishop 
Mar6chal of Baltimore, in spite of his antagonism to 
the Society appealed to the superior of the Jesuits for 
some one to bring order out of the chaos. Fenwick 
was sent, and such was his tact, good judgment and 
kindness, that he soon mastered the situation and the 
diocese was at peace when the new bishop, the dis- 
tinguished John England, arrived. Strange to say, 
Bishop England had the same prejudice as Bishop 
Concanen, against the Society; a condition of mind 
that may be explained by the fact that it had been 

708 The Jesuits 

suppressed by the highest authority in the Church, 
and that even educated men were ignorant of the causes 
that had brought about the disaster. But Penwick 
soon disabused the bishop. Indeed, he remained as 
Vicar General of Charleston until 1822, and when 
he was recalled to Georgetown, Bishop England, at 
first, absolutely refused to let him go. 

In a funeral oration pronounced over Penwick, later 
by Father Stonestreet he said in referring to the 
Charleston, troubles; " Difficulties had arisen between 
the French and Anglo-Irish portions of the congregation, 
each insisting it should be preached to in its own tongue; 
each restive at remaining in the sacred temple while 
the word of God was announced in the language of 
the other. The good Father, nothing daunted by the 
scene of contrariety before him, ascends the pulpit, 
opens his discourse in both languages, rapidly alter- 
nates the tongues of La Belle Prance and of the Anglo- 
Saxon, and by his ardent desire to unite the whole 
community in the bonds of charity, astonishes, softens, 
wins and harmonizes the hearts of all. A lasting 
peace was restored which still continues. " 

Bishop Cheverus, who was then at Boston, was sub- 
sequently called to France to be Archbishop of Bordeaux 
and cardinal. Father Penwick, without being con- 
sulted, was appointed to the vacant see. In fact, the 
first news he had of the promotion was when the 
Bulls were in his hands, so that no means of protesting 
was possible. He was consecrated on November i, 
1825, and his friend Bishop England travelled all 
the way from Charleston to assist as one of the 
Consecrators. At that time the diocese of Boston 
was synonymous with New England, but it had only 
ten churches, two of which were for Indians. Fenwick, 
however, set to work in his usual heroic fashion. He 
was particularly fond of the Indians, and bravely 

The Restoration 709 

fought their battle against the dishonest whites. 
As the red men were the descendants of the Abenakis 
to whom the old Jesuits had brought the Faith, there 
was a family feeling in his defense of them. The same 
sentiment of kinship prompted him to establish a 
newspaper which he called " The Jesuit." It was 
a defiance of the bigotry of New England, of which 
there were to be many serious manifestations. " The 
Jesuit " was the pioneer of Catholic journalism in the 
United States. 

Bishop Fenwick was averse to the crowding of 
Catholics in the large cities, and to segregate them 
he established the exclusively Catholic colony of 
Benedicta, but this scheme of a Paraguay in the woods 
of Maine had only a limited success. Prompted by 
the same motive of love of the Society he visited 
the place which Father Rasle had sanctified with his 
blood when the fanatical Puritans of Massachusetts 
put him to death in 1724. Father Rasle was the 
apostle of the Abenakis and had established himself 
at what is now Norridgewock on the Kennebec. Fen- 
wick went there to pray. Although it was in the 
wilderness, he determined to make it a notable place 
for the future Catholics of America; and over the 
mouldering remains of Rasle and his brave Indian 
defenders, he erected a monument, a shaft of granite, 
on which an inscription was cut to record the tragedy. 
It was too much for the bigotry that then reigned in 
those parts, and the monument was thrown down; 
but Fenwick put it in its place again; at a later date 
when, in the course of time, it had fallen out of per- 
pendicular, Bishop Walsh of Portland corrected the 
defect and amid a great throng of people solemnly 
reconsecrated it. 

While he was Bishop of Boston, Fenwick made a 
pious pilgrimage to Quebec; the city from which 

710 The Jesuits 

the Jesuits of the old Society had started on their 
perilous journeys to evangelize the Indians of the 
continent. He saw there an immense building on 
whose fagade were cut the letters I. H. S. " What 
is that?" he asked. " It is the old Jesuit College, now 
a soldiers 7 barracks," was the reply. His soul was 
filled with indignation and he exclaimed in anger, 
" The, outrage that these men of blood should occupy 
the house sanctified by the martyrs Jogues, Brebeuf , 
Lalemant and the others." The good bishop was 
unaware that the martyrs had never seen the building. 
It was built after they had gone to claim their crowns 
in heaven. 

During his episcopacy Knownothingism reigned, and 
in one of the outbreaks the Ursuline Convent in 
Charlestown was attacked .at midnight. The sisters 
were shot at, the house was pillaged, the chapel des- 
ecrated and the whole edifice given over to the flames. 
The blackened ruins remained for fifty years to remind 
the Commonwealth of its disgrace, until finally the 
remnants of the building, which it had cost so much to 
erect, had to be removed to escape taxation. It was 
Fenwick who founded Holy Cross College, in Worcester, 
Massachusetts, an establishment which is the Alma 
Mater of most of the subsequent bishops of New 
England. It has also the singular distinction of being 
the only Catholic College exempted by law from 
receiving any but Catholic students. Fenwick is 
buried there. He died on August n, 1846, after an 
episcopacy of twenty-one years. 

Strange to say the Bull resurrecting the Society 
was not sent to America until October 8, 1814, and 
on January 5, 1815, Bishop Carroll wrote to Father 
Marmaduke Stone, in England, as follows: " Your 
precious and grateful favor accompanied by the Bull 
of Restoration was received early in December and 

The Restoration 711 

diffused the greatest sensation of joy and thanksgiving, 
not only among the surviving and new members of the 
Society, but also all good Christians who have any 
remembrances of their services or heard of their 
unjust and cruel treatment, and have witnessed the 
consequences of their suppression. You may conceive 
my sensations when I read the account of the cele- 
bration of Mass by His Holiness himself at the superb 
altar of St. Ignatius at the Gesfr; the assemblage of the 
surviving Jesuits in the chapel to hear the proclamation 
of their resurrection, etc." 

On returning to America after the suppression of 
the Society in Belgium, Father Carroll had gone to 
live at his mothers house in Rock Creek, Maryland, 
for he no longer considered himself entitled to support 
from the funds of the Jesuits who still maintained 
their existence in the colonies. They had never been 
suppressed, whereas he had belonged to a community 
in the Netherlands which had been canonically put out 
of existence by the Brief. He spent two years in the 
rough country missions of Maryland and then went 
with Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Chase and his cousin 
Charles Carroll to Canada to induce the Frenchmen 
there to make common cause with the Americans 
against Great Britain. The Continental Congress 
had especially requested him to form a part of the 
embassy. The mission was a failure and the Colonies 
had themselves to blame for it; because two years 
previously they had issued an " Address to the English 
People " denouncing the government for not only 
attempting to establish an Anglican episcopacy in the 
English possessions, but for maintaining a papistical 
one on the banks of the St. Lawrence. Clearly it 
would have been impossible for the French Catholics 
who had been guaranteed the free exercise of their 
religion to transfer their allegiance to a country which 

712 The Jesuits 

considered that concession to be one of the reasons 
justifying a revolution. 

When the war was over, Carroll and five other 
Jesuits met at Whitemarsh to devise means to keep 
their property intact in order to carry on their 
missionary work. They had no other resources than 
the produce of their farms, for their personal support. 
The faithful gave them nothing. At this conference 
they decided to ask Rome to empower some one of their 
number to confirm, grant faculties and dispensations, 
bless oils, etc. They added that, for the moment, 
a bishop was unnecessary. The petition was sent on 
November 6, 1783, and on June 7, 1784, Carroll was 
appointed superior of the missions in the thirteen states, 
and was given power to confirm. There were at that 
time about nineteen priests in the country and fifteen 
thousand Catholics, of whom three thousand were 
negro slaves. In 1786 Carroll took up his residence 
in Baltimore and was conspicuously active in municipal 
affairs, establishing schools, libraries and charities. 
Possibly it was due to him that Article 6 was inserted 
in the Constitution of the United States which declares 
that "no religious test shall ever be required as a 
qualification to any office or public trust under the 
United States; " and probably also the amendment 
that " this Congress shall make no laws respecting the 
establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise 
thereof. " Its actual sponsor in the Convention was 
C. C. Pinckney of South Carolina. 

Carroll was made Bishop of Baltimore by Pius VI 
on November 6, 1789, twenty-four out of the twenty- 
five priests in the country voting for him. He was 
consecrated on August 15, 1790, at Lulworth Castle, 
England by the senior vicar Apostolic of England, 
Bishop Walmesly. On the election of Washington to 
the presidency, he represented the clergy in a con- 

The Restoration 713 

gratulatory address to which Washington answered; 
" I hope your fellow-countrymen will not forget the 
patriotic part in the accomplishment of the Revolution 
and the establishment of the government or the impor- 
tant assistance which they received from a nation in 
which the Roman Catholic Faith is professed." 

He convoked the first Synod of Baltimore in 1791. 
There were twenty-two priests of five nationalities 
in attendance. He called the Sulpicians to Balti- 
more in 1791 ; the first priest he ordained was Stephen 
Badin, the beloved pioneer of Kentucky, and four 
years later the famous Russian prince, Demetrius 
Gallitzin. He also succeeded in having a missionary 
for the Indians appointed by the government. He had 
intended to have as his coadjutor and successor in 
the see, Father Lawrence Grassel, who had been a 
novice in the old Society and who at Carroll's urgent 
request, had come out to America as a missionary. 
Grassel, however, died before the arrival of the Bulls. 
Father Leonard Neale, a Maryland Jesuit, was then 
chosen and was consecrated in 1800. A year and 
two months after the re-establishment of the Society, 
namely on December 3, 1815, Carroll died It was 
fitting that this son of Saint Ignatius should be called 
to heaven on the feast of the great friend and companion 
of Saint Ignatius, Saint Francis Xavier. 

Apropos of this, a note has been quoted by Father 
Hughes (op. cit., Doc., I, 424) which is often cited as 
revealing a change in Carroll's attitude toward the 
Society after he became archbishop. Fr. Charles 
Neale had written to him as follows, " It is equally 
certain that I have no authority to give up any right 
that would put the subject out of the power of his 
superior, who must and ought to be the best judge 
of what is most beneficial to the universal or individual 
good of the members, of the Congregation." On 

714 The Jesuits 

the back of the letter appear the words "Inadmissible 
Pretensions," said by Bishop Mar6chal to have been 
written by Carroll. 

Archbishop Carroll's attitude to the Society is 
clearly manifested in his letter of December 10, 1814, 
addressed to Father Grassi, which says: "Having 
contributed to your greatest happiness on earth by 
sending the miraculous bull of general restoration, even 
before I could nearly finish the reading of it, I fully 
expect it back this evening with Mr. Plowden's letter. " 
It should not be forgotten that Carroll was heart- 
broken when the Society was suppressed and that he 
longed for death because of the grief it caused him. 
The words " Inadmissible Pretensions " noted on 
Neale's letter referred to a formal protest made by 
Father Charles Neale against a synodial statute of 
the bishops convened at Baltimore. Neale, indeed, 
desired to exercise the special privileges of the Society 
and to govern as was done in the old Society or as in 
Russia, a procedure which incurred the disapproval 
of the General. Grassi writing to Plowden, in England, 
says: "He (Archbishop Carroll) considers Mr. Chas. 
Neale as a wrongheaded man, and persons who knew 
him at Lige and Antwerp are nearly of the same 
opinion." In brief, Neale's administration both as 
president of Georgetown and as superior of the mis- 
sion was most disastrous (cf. Hughes, I, ii, passim), 

Leonard Neale, like Carroll, was an American. 
He was born near Port Tobacco in Maryland in 1746, 
and with many other young Marylanders, was sent 
to the Jesuit College of St. Omer in France. After 
the Suppression he went to England, where he was en- 
gaged in parochial work for four years. From 
there he was sent to Demerara in British Guiana 
and continued at work in that trying country from 
1779 to 1783. His health finally gave way, and 

The Restoration 715 

he returned to Maryland and joined his Jesuit 
brethren. He distinguished himself in the yellow 
fever epidemic in Philadelphia, and remained in that 
city, for six years as the vicar of Bishop Carroll. 
In 1797 another epidemic of fever occurred and he was 
stricken but recovered. In 1798 he was sent to 
Georgetown College as president, and in 1800 while 
still president he was consecrated coadjutor of Arch- 
bishop Carroll. He continued his scholastic work 
until 1806, succeeding to the See of Baltimore in 1815. 
He was then seventy years old and in feeble health. 
He died at Georgetown on June 18, 1817. Bishop 
Mar6chal who had been suggested to the Pope by 
Bishop Cheverus of Boston, had already been named 
for the See. 

Bishop Mar6chal was a Sulpician. He had left 
France at the outbreak of the French Revolution 
and after spending some years in America as a professor 
both at Georgetown and Baltimore, returned to his native 
country, but was back again in Maryland after a few 
years. Neale wanted him to be Bishop of Philadelphia, 
but the offer was declined, and he was made coadjutor 
of Baltimore with the right of succession. He was 
consecrated on December 14, 1817, and occupied the 
see until 1826. Unfortunately, the whole period 
from 1820 was marked by misunderstandings with the 
Society. In spite of this controversy, which was 
unnecessarily acrimonious at times, Archbishop Mar6- 
chal was anxious to have the Jesuit visitor Father 
Peter Kenny appointed Bishop of Philadelphia. (cL 
Hughes, op. cit., Documents, for details of the con- 



Expulsion from Russia Petrucci, Vicar Attempt to wreck the 
Society Saved by Consalvi and Rozaven. 

THE superiors-general who presided over the Society 
in Russia were Stanislaus Cernlewicz (1782-85), 
Gabriel Lenkiewicz (1785-98), Francis Kareu, (1799- 
1802), Gabriel Gruber, (1802-05), and Thaddeus 
Brzozowski, (1805-20). The first two were only 
vicars, as was Father Kareu when ftfet elected, but 
by the Brief " CathoEcae Fidei " he was raised to the 
rank of General on March 7, 1801. His two successors 
bore the same title. Father Brzozowski lived six 
years after the Restoration. But those years must 
have been a time of great suffering for him. Over 
the rapidly expanding Society, whose activities were 
already extending to the ends of the earth, he had 
been chosen to preside but he was virtually a prisoner 
in Russia. It soon became evident that such an 
arrangement was intolerable and not only was there 
an exasperating surveillance of every member of 
the Order by the government, but even when Brzo- 
zowski himself asked permission to go to Rome to 
thank the Holy Father in person for the favor he had 
conferred on the Society by the Bull of Re-establish- 
ment, he was flatly refused. Hence it was resolved 
that when he died, a General had to be elected who would 
reside in Rome, no matter what might be the conse- 
quences in Russia. 

The difficulty, however, solved itself. Though 
officially the head of the Orthodox Church, Alexander 
cared little for its doctrines, its practises or its tradi- 


The First Congregation 717 

tions, and he set about establishing; a union of all the 
sects on the basis of what he considered to be the 
fundamental truths of religion. He is even credited 
with the ambition of aiming at a universal spiritual 
dominion which would eclipse Napoleon's dream of 
world-wide empire built upon material power. 
Whether this was the outcome of his meditations, 
for after his fashion, he was a religious man, or 
was suggested to him by the Baroness Julia de Krudner, 
who was creating a sensation at that time, as a revivalist, 
cannot be ascertained. There is no doubt, however, 
that he fell under her sway. 

Mme. de Krudner had given up pleasures and 
wealth to bring back the world to what she called the 
principles of the primitive Church. She travelled 
through Germany and Switzerland with about forty 
of her admirers, who kept incessantly crying out: 
" We call only the elect to follow us,' 1 She established 
soup-kitchens wherever she went, and her converts 
knelt before her, as this slim diet which they regarded 
as a gift from heaven was doled out to them. Natu- 
rally this attraction worked first on the poor, but the 
baroness soon reached the upper grades of society. 
Her opportunity presented itself at Vienna, where 
the allied sovereigns were in session to determine 
the political complexion of the world, after they had 
disposed of Napoleon. They did her the honor of 
attending some of her meetings, and Alexander who 
showed himself greatly interested, became the special 
object of her attention. She styled him: "The 
White Angel of God," while Napoleon was set down as 
" The Dark Angel of Hell/ 1 

Such a serious writer as Cantft is of the opinion that 
it was the baroness who drew up the scheme of the 
Holy Alliance, in which the four monarchs agreed 
to love one another as brothers; to govern their 

718 The Jesuits 

respective states as different brandies of the great 
family of nations, and to have Jesus Christ, the Omnip- 
otent Word, as their Sovereign Lord. But immediately 
after making this pious pact they began to distribute 
among themselves the spoils of war. Prussia took 
Saxony; Russia, Poland; Austria, Northern Italy; 
and England, Malta, Helioland and the Cape. Thus 
was virtue rewarded. 

At the suggestion of Galitzin, his minister of worship, 
Alexander had begun a devout course of Bible reading 
as a means of lifting himself out of the gloom into which 
he seemed to be plunged after the war. It had appar- 
ently some beneficial effect on him, and he became an 
enthusiastic advocate of the practise for all classes 
of people. The English Bible Society was to help 
the propaganda and the Catholic Archbishop of 
Mohilew and his clergy strongly supported the 
imperial project. Necessarily the Jesuits had to 
antagonize this wholesale diffusion of corrupt versions 
of the sacred text, and they endeavored to point out 
the folly of leaving its interpretation to ignorant people. 
The consequence was that they provoked the anger 
not only of the Bible Society and of the emperor, 
but also both of the Russian and partly of the Catholic 
clergy. The troublesome Siestrzencewicz, Archbishop 
of Mohilew, not only strongly favored the project but 
suggested to Galitzin that the attitude of the Jesuits 
furnished an excellent opportunity to get rid of them. 
There was another reason also why the blow was sure 
to fall. A Catholic Polish woman named Narychkine 
it is said had been dissociated from the czar by a 
refusal of absolution at Easter time. The confessor was 
the Jesuit, Father Perkowski, and, of course, as all 
his associates would have acted in the same way, 
the whole Society came under the baa. 

The First Congregation 719 

Zalenski, in his " Russie Blanche," finds another 
reason for this loss of Alexander's favor. He was 
not only not a Romanoff but had not a drop of Russian 
blood in his veins, except through his father Paul, 
the alleged bastard son of Catherine before she 
became empress. He was aware that the Jesuits 
knew of this family stain, though not a word was 
ever uttered about it. It made him uncomfortable, 
nevertheless, and he was quite willing to rid himself 
of their presence. 

As he had officially proclaimed that all religions 
were alike, many who had professed allegiance to the 
Greek Church under political pressure became material- 
ists or atheists, and some distinguished women became 
Catholics. No attention was paid to the atheists, 
but these conversions to the Faith were blamed on 
the Jesuits, particularly on three French fathers, 
among whom was Rozaven. Count de Maistre, who was 
in St. Petersburg at the time, declares emphatically 
that they had nothing to do with it. The feeling 
against them, however, was very intense and only 
lacked an occasion to show itself. It came when a 
nephew of Galitzin, announced that he was going to 
become a Catholic. This was too much for the 
minister of worship to put up with and although the 
lad, who was a pupil of one of the Jesuit colleges, had 
let it be known that the Fathers had absolutely noth- 
ing to do with his project and that his resolution was 
only the result of his own investigations, he was not 
believed, and a ukase, dated December 25, 1815, was 
issued, proclaiming their expulsion from the country. 
This was seventeen months after the Re-establishment. 

The decree called attention to the fact that " when 
the Jesuits were expelled from all the other nations 
of Europe, Russia had charitably admitted them and 
confided to their care the instruction of youth. In 

720 The Jesuits 

return, they had destroyed the peace of the Orthodox 
Church and had turned from it some of the pupils 
of their colleges. Such an act, said the document, 
explains why they were held in such abhorrence else- 
where. The ukase bubbles over with piety, deploring 
the " apostacies " that had taken place, and then 
goes on to state that: first, the Catholic Church in 
Russia is hereby re-established on the plan which had 
been adopted since the time of Catherine II until 
the year 1800; secondly, the Jesuits are to withdraw 
immediately from St. Petersburg; thirdly, they are 
forbidden to enter either of the capitals. 

It is noteworthy that the decree of banishment 
is not stocked with calumnies like those issued by the 
Catholic courts of Europe. It was based purely on 
religious ground. Nor was the expulsion characterized 
by any exhibition of brutality as in Spain, Portugal and 
Prance ; for although the police descended on the houses, 
in the dead of night, and drove out the occupants, 
an almost maternal care was taken against their 
suffering in the slightest degree on their way to the 
places of their exile. Of course, all their papers and 
books were seised but perhaps the Fathers were glad 
of it; for although, since Catherine's time, they had 
been brought into closest contact with the hideous 
skeletons of her court and those of her successors, no 
mention was made of any family scandal in the volu- 
minous correspondence that had been so suddenly 
seized by the government. As regards the charge of 
proselytism, there is a letter from Father Brzozowski 
to Father de Clorivi&re, dated February 20, 1816, 
which stated that not only did none of the Fathers 
ever attempt to influence their pupils, but that during 
the thirteen years of the existence of the College of 
St. Petersburg, no Russian Orthodox student had been 
admitted to the Church. It goes on to say that for 

The First Congregation 721 

a long time the storm had been foreseen and that 
everyone was prepared for it. 

Before the final blow came, Father Brzozowski 
petitioned the emperor at least to permit the Fathers 
to continue their labors in the dangerous mission of 
the Riga district, in the Caucasus, and on the banks 
of the Volga, in all of which places, their success in 
civilizing .and christianizing the population had been 
officially recognized by the emperor. But the request 
was not granted, and in 1820, just as Father 
Brzozowski was dying, the Jesuits were ordered out 
of the empire, and all their possessions were confiscated. 
The loss was a grevious one in many respects, but it 
had its compensations. For, in the first place, it 
effectually settled the question of the General's resi- 
dence. Secondly, as the Jesuits living in Russia were 
almost of every nationality in Europe and as many 
of them were conspicuous for their great ability in 
many branches of learning, a valuable re-inforcement 
was thus available for the hastily formed colleges in 
various parts of the world. Thirdly, the traditions 
of the Society had remained unbroken in Russia, and 
the example and guidance of the venerable men who 
were there to the number of 358 would transmit to the 
various provinces the true spirit of the Society. In any 
case Alexander's successor would have expelled them, 
for he was a violent persecutor of the Church, and, 
moreover, Freemasonry and infidelity had been making 
sad havoc with what was left of the religion of the 

Brzozowski when dying, had named as Vicar, 
Father Petrucci, the master of novices at Genoa, 
a most unfortunate choice; for Petrucci was not only 
old and ill, but was woefully lacking in wordly wisdom, 
and proved to be a pliant tool in the hands of designing 
men. His appointment went to show the impossibility 

722 The Jesuits 

of directing the Society in pent-up Russia, where the 
General could not be sufficiently informed of the 
character of the various members of the Order. The 
congregation was summoned for September 14, 1820, 
but although there were already in Rome on August 2 
seventeen out of the twenty-one delegates, Cardinal 
della Genga wrote to Petrucci to say that the Pope 
wanted the congregation to be delayed, because he 
desired time for the arrival of the Polish Fathers who 
represented a notable part of the Society. 

As no one ever questioned the fact that the Polish 
province, which alone had remained intact in the 
general wreck, was a notable part of the Congregation 
and of the Society, and as, moreover, the Polish 
delegates would have no difficulty in reaching Rome 
before September 14, everyone suspected that some- 
thing sinister was being attempted. That Petrucci 
and Cardinal della Genga were in league with each 
other in this matter was clear from the fact that 
Petrucci, without consulting any one of his colleagues, 
immediately dispatched letters to aH the provinces 
announcing the prorogation of the congregation, 
protesting meantime that the office of vicar was too 
great for one of his age and infirmities. It was also 
remarked that with the cardinal was a small group 
of malcontents composed of Rizzi, Pancaldi, who was 
only in deacon's orders, Pietroboni and a certain 
number of Roman ecclesiastics, some of them prelates 
who, like della Genga, did not of course belong to 
the Society. 

These conspirators kept the minds of the waiting 
delegates in a feverish state of excitement by giving 
out that there was a great fear, not only in the public 
at large, but even in the papal court, that a Paccanarist 
might be elected. Indeed there were already three 
of them among the electors: Sineo, Rozaven and 

The First Congregation 723 

Grivel, and hence it was desirable to delay the con- 
gregation until it would be sure that no others would 
arrive* Over and above this, some of those recently 
admitted to the Society maintained that only those who 
belonged to the old Society or had been a long time 
in Russia should be accepted as delegates. Doubts 
were raised also as to whether those who had taken 
their vows before the formal recognition of the Society 
in Russia in 1801, or the recognition in Sicily in 1804, 
were to be considered as Jesuits or as secular priests. 

In brief, Rizzi and his associates had so filled the 
minds of outsiders with doubts, that some prelates 
and even a cardinal advised that the questions should 
be submitted to the Pope for settlement. Finally, on 
the day originally fixed for the congregation, namely, 
September 14, Cardinal della Genga sent three letters 
to the Fathers at Rome. In the first he said that the 
Pope was convinced that the meeting of the delegates 
should be postponed, and that he had given to the 
Vicar, Petrucci, all the faculties of a regularly elected 
General. The second letter was directed to the 
assistants, who were informed that it was the wish 
of His Holiness that all the irregularities which della 
Genga declared existed in the congregation should be 
remedied, and to that end, he had appointed a com- 
mittee composed of himself, Cardinal Galiffi and the 
Archbishop of Nanzianzum, together with Petrucci 
and Rizzi to consider them. This committee, moreover, 
was to preside at the election. The third letter 
ordered that new assistants should be added to those 
already in office, making seven in all, a thing absolutely 
unheard of in the Society until then. 

Rizzi and Petrucci were in high spirits when this 
became known, but not so the other delegates, and 
they determined to appeal directly to the Pope. Then 
a doubt arose as to which cardinal was to present the 

724 The Jesuits 

appeal. Mattel and Litta, the staunch friends of the 
Society were dead and Pacca leaned slightly to Rizzi's 
views. There remained ConsalvL To him Father 
Rozaven wrote the appeal, but, two of the assistants 
and Petrucci refused to sign it. Consalvi received the 
petitioners with the greatest benignity, promised to 
present the document to the Pope, and bade the 
Fathers not to be discouraged. He explained the 
situation to the Holy Father, who immediately approved 
of the request, and issued the following order: 
" Having heard the plea, We command that the 
general congregation be convened immediately, and 
that, as soon as possible, the General be elected, all 
things to the contrary notwithstanding." "Every- 
one/* wrote Rozaven, "was delighted, except of 
course, Petrucci, the provincial of the Italian Province, 
Pietroboni, and those who had been misled by Rizzi. 
The congregation met on October 9. Twenty-four 
professed Fathers were present and they elected Father 
Aloysius Fortis as General. Petrucci protested the 
legality of the election, but when the usual delegation 
presented itself to the Pope, they were received most 
cordially and he referred them to Consalvi for the decree 
of " sanation," if any were needed. " He is altogether 
devoted to you," said the Pope, " and watches with 
the greatest concern over your interests." Now that 
the congregation was regularly constituted, the Fathers 
proceeded as quickly as possible to the punishment of 
the conspirators. Both Petrucci and Pietroboni were 
deposed from their respective offices as Vicar and 
provincial, and other disturbers were expelled from the 
Society; the Pope highly approving of the action. 
It was Cardinal Consalvi who had averted the wreck. 
In view of the great cardinal's attitude in this matter, 
it is distressing to find Cr6tineau-Joly declaring that 
Consalvi acted as he did because he was a diplomat, 

The First Congregation 725 

a man of the world rather than an ecclesiastic. He 
cared little for the Jesuits (il aimait peu les J&uites) 
whom he regarded as adding a new political embarrass- 
ment to the actual complications in Europe, but he 
knew how to be just, and refused to be an accomplice 
in the plot (VI, i). This is a calumny. We have 
the Pope's own words about Consalvi's concern for 
the Society, and in the " Memoirs " edited by Cr6ti- 
neau-Joly himself the exact opposite is asserted. Thus 
on page 56, we read: " he made the greatest number 
of people happy and in doing so was happier than 
they, because he was thus making them venerate the 
Church, his Mother." On page n, he says that 
whenever Consalvi wrote about Napoleon " he placed 
himself in the presence of God in order to be impartial 
in judging his persecutor." On page 180: "He 
lived without any concern for wealth; he never asked 
or received any gifts. He realized what St. Bernard 
and Pope Eugenius III said of a Cardinal Cibo in then- 
day: * In passing through this world of money, he 
never knew what money was. He was prodigal in his 
benevolence and died virtually a poor man." These 
are not the traits of a ''man of the world and a 

As for " his not liking the Jesuits," we find in those 
" Memoirs," which were finished in 1812, and con- 
sequently eight years before the meeting of the 
congregation, the following words (II, 303): "When 
Pope Pius VII returned to Rome in 1801, he received 
a letter from Paul I, the Emperor of Russia, asking 
for the re-establishment of the Jesuits in his dominions. 
The Pope was delighted to have the chance to gratify 
the Czar and also to perform a praiseworthy (fauable) 
action; for it was restoring to life an Institute which 
had deserved well of Christendom and whose fall had 
hastened the ruin of the Church, of thrones, of public 

726 The Jesuits 

order, of morality, of society. One can assert this 
without fear of being taxed with exaggeration or 
falsehood by honest and reasonable men and by those 
who are not imbued with a false philosophy or party 

He then narrates how cautious the Pope had to be 
before granting Paul's request, " so as not," Consalvi 
says, " to arouse the antagonism of the enemies of 
the Society: the philosophers and haters of religion 
and of public order, who, as they had forced its 
condemnation from Clement XIV, would now employ 
all the machinery of the courts which had asked for 
the suppression to prevent its rehabilitation. The 
Pope succeeded, but a few years afterwards, when the 
Emperor of Austria asked for the Jesuits, his ministers 
brought about the failure of the project. They con- 
sented to accept the Jesuits, but in such a fashion and 
under such a form that they could no longer be Jesuits. 
The Pope would not consent to such conditions, and 
as the imperial court would not accept them as they 
were, the matter was dropped. " In other words, 
Pope Pius VII and his great cardinal believed with 
Clement XIII that no changes should be made in 
their Institute. Sint ut sunt aut non sint. Let them 
be themselves or not at all. To assert that in the 
heart of the great champion of the Faith, Consalvi, 
there was little love for the Jesuits is to say what is 
contrary to facts. 

The new General, Father Aloysius Fortis, was born 
in 1748 and was consequently seventy-two years of 
age when he was elected. In spite of his age, however, 
he was in vigorous health and governed the Society 
for nine years. He had been in the old Society for 
eleven years before the Suppression. In 1794 he was 
associated in Parma with the saintly Pignatelli, who 
twice foretold his election. He had been prefect of 

The First Congregation 727 

studies in the scholasticate at Naples, and when the 
Society was re-established he was named as Father 
Brzozowski's vicar in Rome. In 1819 Pius VII 
appointed- him Examinator Efiscoporum. Hence his 
election was naturally gratifying to the Pope, and he 
gave evidence of ft by the joy that suffused his counte- 
nance when the formal announcement of the result 
was made to him. The eagerness with which he affixed 
his signature to the official document also testified to 
his satisfaction. In the Professed House, the Fathers 
acclaimed the choice with enthusiasm, as did the 
throngs of people who had immediately flocked to 
the Gesii to hear the announcement. They have chosen 
a saint was the universal cry. The Emperor of Austria, 
Francis I, Frederick, the Prince of Hesse, and Duke 
Antony, who was soon to be King of Saxony, all 
expressed their pleasure at the promotion of Father 

* The letter written by Antony is worth quoting. 
" I have read with the greatest joy, in the public press," 
he said, " of the election of a man of whom it may well 
be said he is Fortis by name and fortis by nature. 
I am aware that his humility would prompt him to 
differ with me, but I hoped that such would be the 
choice, and now my desire has been fulfilled. God 
who directed this election will give you that strength 
which you tVn'nk you lack to fulfill the duties of your 
office. Now more than ever I commend myself to 
the fervent prayers of yourself and your associates. 
I have a daim on them, for ever since my earliest 
youth, I have been most devoted to the Society, to 
which I owe my religious training." 

In the congregation, Father Fortis proposed a 
resolution or a decree, as it is called, which is of 
supreme importance, and which was, it is needless to 
say, unanimously adopted. It runs as follows: 

728 The Jesuits 

" Although there is #0 doubt that both the Consti- 
tutions given by Our Holy Pounder and whatever in 
the course of time the Fathers have judged to add to 
them have recovered their force at the very outset 
of the restored Society, as it was the manifest wish of 
our Holy Father, Pius VII, that the Society re-estab- 
lished by him should be governed by the same laws 
as before the Suppression, nevertheless, to remove 
all anxiety on that score, and to put an end to the 
obstinacy of certain disturbers of the peace, this 
congregation not only confirms, but as far as necessary 
decrees anew, in conformity with the power vested 
in the General aad the congregations by Paul III, 
and reaffirms that not only the Constitutions with the 
declarations and the decrees of the general congrega- 
tions, but the Common Rules and those of the several 
offices, the Ratio Studiorum, the ordinations, the 
formulas and whatsoever belongs to the legislation 
of Our Society are intact, and it wishes all and 
each of the aforesaid to have the same binding force on 
those who -live in the Society that they had before 
Clement XIV's Bull of Suppression." 

Although Fortis was gentle and humble he admitted 
no relaxation, especially in the matter of poverty, 
and those who were unwilling to put up with the re- 
quirements, he allowed to leave the Order. "We 
want fruits," he used to say, " not roots." Again, 
in spite of his new dignity and of his great natural 
gifts he was always the same simple Father Fortis. 
He was such an ardent lover of poverty that he kept 
his clothes till they were threadbare and torn, 
and had to be stolen out of his room to be replaced 
by others more befitting his station. In 1821 he 
united into a vice-province the various members of 
the Society scattered through Belgium, Holland, 
Switzerland and Germany and gave it a name descrip- 

The First Congregation 729 

tive of its composition: "The Vice-Province of 
Switzerland and the German Missions." In 1823 the 
Province of Galicia was established. In it were many 
of the old Fathers of Russia, but the number was so 
great that many had to be sent to Italy, Prance and 
elsewhere. Sicily, especially, was benefited in this 
way. From the province thus established three others 
sprung in a short time: Germany, Belgium and 

Father Fortis died on January 27, 1829. The grief 
for his loss was general and none felt it more keenly 
than the King of Saxony, who wrote another affection- 
ate letter to express his sorrow. It is worthy of note 
that, although the royal family of Saxony is still 
Catholic, no one who has been trained in a Jesuit School 
is eligible there to any ecclesiastical office. It is a curious 
condition in a kingdom which in 1821 was ruled by a 
sovereign who exulted in the fact that he was a Jesuit 

Chief among the distinguished Jesuits in the con- 
gregation of 1820 was, without doubt, the Frenchman, 
John Rozaven. He was bora at Quimper in Brittany, 
March 9, 1772. His uncle had belonged to the Society 
when it was suppressed in France in 1760, and had 
then become a parish priest at Plogonnec. While 
there, he was elected, in 1789, at the outbreak of the 
Revolution to be a representative at the Etats G6n6raux. 
He accepted the constitutional oath, but soon retracted. 
He had to atone for his treason to the Church, how- 
ever, by being made the victim of his bishop, who, 
like him, had joined the schism but had not recanted. 
On account of this ill-feeling, Rozaven left the country, 
taking with him the future Jesuit, his nephew, who 
was living with him at that time. They both disap- 
peared on the night of June 20, 1792, and on the 24th 
arrived at the Island of Jersey. From there they 

730 The Jesuits 

went to London and after a few months made their 
way to the Duchy of Cleves. 

Hearing that there was a French ecclesiastical 
seminary at Brussels, young Rozaven entered it, was 
ordained sub-deacon> but was obliged to leave after 
six months, because of the arrival of the French troops. 
He and his uncle then took up their abode in Pader- 
bora and lodged in an old Jesuit establishment where 
they lived for four years, at which time the young man 
was ordained priest and then left his uncle in order 
to join the Fathers of the Sacred Heart under Father 
Varin. When informed of the existence of the Jesuits 
in Russia, John applied for admission and was received 
on March 28, 1804. He was subsequently made 
prefect of studies and professor of philosophy in the 
College of Nobles at St. Petersburg. In the course 
of his ministerial work, he brought to the Faith the 
Princess Elizabeth Galitzin, well-known as one of 
the first of the Ladies of the Sacred Heart. The 
famous Madame Swetchine was another of his con-: 
verts. He was the professor of the young Galitzin 
who had created such an uproar in St. Petersburg by 
his supposed part in the conversion. 

At the death of Father General Brzozowski, 
Rozaven was sent as a delegate to the congregation 
and, as we have seen, it was his wisdom and courage 
that saved the Society from shipwreck on that occasion. 
He was elected assistant to the General, and, with the 
exception of one short visit to France, remained for 
the rest of his life in Rome. He was too valuable an 
aid for the General to be allowed even to be the official 
visitor to France although everyone there was clamor- 
ing for him. It was he who demolished the philo- 
sophical system of de Lamennais, and at the same time 
restrained the hotheads of the French provinces from 
accepting and teaching the new doctrine. .His 

The First Congregation 731 

" Examen of Certain Philosophical Doctrines " came 
out in 1831, and although his office of assistant gave 
him plenty of occupation, he taught theology, was a 
member of several pontifical congregations, and heard 
as many as 20,000 confessions a year. This immense 
labor was made possible by his rising at half past three 
in the morning, and by the clock-like punctuality 
and system with which he addressed himself to the 
various tasks of the day. In the cholera epidemic 
of 1837, despite his sixty-five years of age, he plunged 
into the work like the rest of his brethren and heard 
23,000 confessions during the continuance of the plague. 
When the Revolution of '48 broke out, Rozaven 
remained at Rome more or less secluded, but at last, 
when there was danger of his being taken to prison, 
a friend of his, the Count Rampon, said: " You will 
come to my chateau and I shall see that you are not 
molested." The protection was accepted, and a few 
nights after, a banquet was given at the chateau, to 
which the French ambassador and several conspicuous 
anti-Jesuit personages had been invited. When the 
guests were seated it was remarked that there was an 
empty place near the Count. "Are you waiting 
for someone else?*' they asked. "Yes/' he said 
" I have here a very remarkable old gentleman whom 
I want to present to you. He is my friend and more 
worthy of respect than anyone in the whole world." 
Then leaving the room, he led Father Rozaven in by 
the hand and said to his guests in a loud voice: 
" Gentlemen, I have to present my friend, Father 
Rozaven, who has deigned to accept my hospitality. 
He is here under my protection and I place him under 
yours. If, contrary to my expectation, hatred pursues 
him into my house, the Count Rampon will defend his 
guest to the last drop of his blood/' Then making 
a step backward, he swung open a door which revealed 

732 The Jesuits 

a formidable array of muskets, pistols and swords 
which would be available if the contingency he referred 
to arose. It is needless to say that Father Rozaven 
was treated with the most distinguished consideration, 
not only at the banquet but subsequently. 

From there he went to Naples but, later, joined 
Father Roothaan in France. When Pius IX returned 
to Rome, the Father General and his faithful assistant 
returned also. But Rozaven had reached the end 
of his pilgrimage. In 1851 he fell seriously ill and 
breathed his last on April 2, at the age of seventy-nine. 
He had put in thirty years of incessant work since 
the time he had fought so valiantly in the twentieth 

Besides Rozaven, there was present at the twentieth 
congregation the distinguished English Jesuit, Charles 
Plowden. He was born at Plowden Hall, Shropshire, 
in 1743, of a family which had not only steadfastly 
adhered to the Faith in all the persecutions that had 
desolated England, but had given several of its sons 
to the Society of Jesus and some of its daughters as 
nuns in religious orders. He entered the Society in 
1759, aad was ordained in Rome three years before 
the Suppression. He was in Belgium when the 
Brief was read and was kept in prison for several 
months. After teaching at Lifege, he returned to 
England where he was appointed chaplain at Lul- 
worth Castle, and as such preached there at Bishop 
Carroll's consecration. He had much to do with 
the establishment of Stonyhurst and was the first 
master of novices in England after the re-establish- 
ment, subsequently he was rector of Stonyhurst and 
provincial. It was he who, with Fathers Mattingly 
and Sewall, called upon Benjamin Franklin in Paris 
to persuade him to crush the scheme of making the 
Church of the United States dependent upon the ecclesi- 

The First Congregation 733 

astical authorities of France. He died at Jougne, in 
France, on his way home from the congregation and 
was buried with military honors, because his attendant 
had informed the authorities of the little town that 
the dead man had been called to Rome for the election 
of a General. They mistook the meaning of the word 
" General ", and so buried the humble Jesuit with all 
the pomp and ceremony that usually accompany the 
obsequies of a distinguished soldier. 

On August 20, 1823, Pius VII, the great friend of the 
Society, died and it was with no little consternation 
that the Jesuits heard of the election of Leo XII. He 
was the same Cardinal della Genga who had endeavored 
to control the twentieth congregation and was supposed 
to have revealed his attitude towards the Society 
years before, when he advised Father Varin not to 
attempt to form a union between the Fathers of the 
Faith and the Jesuits in White Russia. Father 
Rozaven, especially, had reason for apprehension, for 
it was he who had thwarted della Genga's plans at 
the election of Fortis; but the fear proved to be ground- 
less, and Rozaven hastened to assttre his friends in 
Prance that in the three years that had intervened 
since that eventful struggle, God had operated a 
change in the mind of della Genga. As Sovereign 
Pontiff he became one of the most ardent friends of the 



Expulsion from Holland Trouble at Freiburg Expulsion and 
recall in Spain Petits Seminaires Berryer Montlosier The 
Men's Sodalities St. Acheul mobbed Fourteen Jesuits murdered 
in Madrid Interment of Pombal de Ravignan^s pamphlet 
Veuillot Montalembert de Bonald Archbishop Afire Miche- 
let, Quinet and Cousin Gioberti Expulsion from Austria Kul- 
turkampf Slaughter of the Hostages in the Commune South 
America and Mexico Flourishing Condition before Outbreak of the 
World War. 

WHEN Pius VII restored the Society in 1814, he said it 
was because " he needed experienced mariners in the 
Barque of Peter which was tossed about on the stormy 
sea of the world." The storm had not abated. On the 
contrary its violence had increased, and the mariners 
who were honored by the call have never had a 
moment's rest since that eventful day when they were 
bidden to resume their work. 

As early as 1816 the King of the Netherlands, 
William I, sent a band of soldiers to drive the Jesuits 
out of his dominions. He began with the novitiate 
of Destelbergen. Some of the exiles went to Hanover 
and others to Switzerland. The dispersion, how- 
ever, did not check vocations. In 1819, for instance, 
Peter Beckx, who was then a secular priest in the 
parish of Uccle, never imagining, of course, that he 
was afterwards to be the General of the Society, 
entered the novitiate at Hildesheim. Before 1830 
more than fifty applicants had been received. The 
figure is amazing, because it meant expatriation, 
paternal opposition, and a decree of perpetual exclu- 
sion from any public office in Holland. In spite of 


A Century of Disaster 735 

the law of banishment, however, a few priests succeeded 
in remaining in the country, exercising the functions 
of their ministry secretly. 

In Russia, the Society, as mentioned above, had 
been cooped up in a restricted part of White Russia 
from 1815; on March 13, 1820, Alexander II extended 
the application of the decree of banishment to the 
entire country. 

Then the storm broke on the Society in Freiburg, 
the occasion being a pedagogical quarrel with which 
the Jesuits had absolutely nothing to do. The people 
of the city were discussing the relative merits of the 
Pestalozzi and Lancaster systems for primary teaching; 
and to restore peace, the town council, at the bishop's 
request, closed all the schools. This drew down the 
public wrath on the head of the bishop, but as reverence 
for his official position protected him from open attack, 
someone suggested that the Jesuits were at the back 
of the measure. The result was that, at midnight on 
March 9, 1823, a mob attacked the Jesuit college, and 
clamored for its destruction. The bishop, however, 
wrote a letter assuming complete responsibility for 
the measure and the trouble then ceased. 

After the fall of Napoleon, Talleyrand suggested to 
Louis XVIII to recall the Jesuits for collegiate work. 
But before his majesty had succeeded in making up 
his mind, the proposition became known and Talley- 
rand was driven from power in spite of a proclamation 
which he issued, assuring the public that he was 
always a foe of the Society. In the lull that followed, 
the Fathers were able to remain at their work, but 
four years afterwards, namely in 1819, they were 
expelled from Brest but continued to labor as^ mis- 
sionaries in the remote country districts. 

On May 15, 1815, they had been recalled to Spain by 
Ferdinand as a reparation for the sins of his ancestors 

736 The Jesuits 

and their reception was an occasion of public rejoicing 
the Imperial College itself being entrusted to them. 
They then numbered about one hundred, and in the 
space of five years there were one hundred and ninety- 
seven on the catalogue. They were left at peace 
for a time, but in 1820 throngs gathered in the streets 
around their houses, clamoring for their blood, and a 
bill was drawn up for their expulsion. By a notable 
or was it an intentional? coincidence the docu- 
ment bore the date of July 31, the feast of the Spanish 
saint, Ignatius Loyola. The feeling against them was 
so intense that three Fathers, who had been acclaimed 
all over Spain for their devotion to the plague-stricken, 
were taken out of their beds, thrown into prison and 
then sent into exile. Meantime, Father Urigoitia 
was murdered by a mob, near the famous cave of 
St. Ignatius at Manresa. The Pope and king pro- 
tested in vain. Indeed the king was besieged in his 
palace and kept there until everything the rioters 
demanded was granted; he remained virtually a 
prisoner until the French troops entered Spain. In 
1824 the Jesuits were recalled again, in 1825 the pre- 
paratory military school was entrusted to their care, 
as was the College of Nobles at Madrid in 1827. 

In 1828 new troubles began for the French Jesuits. 
As they had been unable to have colleges of their own, 
they had accepted eight petits s$minaires which were 
offered them by the bishops. This was before they 
had become known as Jesuits, for to all outward 
appearances they were secular priests. But, little by 
little* their establishments took on a compound char- 
acter. Boys who had no clerical aspirations whatever 
asked for admittance, so that the management of 
the schools became extremely difficult and, of course, 
their real character soon began to be suspected by the 
authorities. Investigations were therefore ordered of 

A Century of Disaster 737 

all the petits seminaires of the country, though the 
measure was aimed only at the eight controlled by 
the Jesuits. As the interrogatory was very minute, 
it caused great annoyance to the bishops, who saw in 
it an attempt of the government to control elementary 
sacerdotal education throughout the country, and 
hence there was an angry protest from the whole 
hierarchy, with the exception of one prelate who had 
been a Constitutional bishop. 

It was on this occasion that the younger Berryer 
pronounced his masterly discourse before the " General 
Council for the Defense of the Catholic Religion." 
He established irrefragably the point of law that 
" a congregation which is not authorized is not there- 
fore prohibited " a principle accepted by Ml the 
French courts until recently. Apart from the ability 
and eloquence of the plea, it was the more remarkable 
because his father had been one of the most noted 
assailants of the Society in 1826. The plea ended with 
this remarkable utterance: " Behold the result of all 
these intrigues, of all this fury, of all these outrages, 
of all this hate! Two ministers of State compel a 
legitimate monarchy to do what even the Revolution 
never dreamed of wresting from the throne. One of 
these ministers is the chief of the French magistracy, 
and the guardian of the laws; the other is a Catholic 
bishop, an official trustee of the rights of his brethren in 
the episcopate. Both of them are rivals in their zeal 
to exterminate the priesthood and to complete the 
bloody work of the Revolution. Applaud it, sacri- 
legious and atheistic race! Behold a priest who 
betrays the sanctuary! Behold a magistrate who 
betrays the courts of law and justice!" 

Berryer's chief opponent" was the famous Count 
de Montlosier whose " Memoire " was the sensation of 
the hour. It consisted of four chapters: i. The 

738 The Jesuits 

Sodalities. 2. The Jesuits. 3. The Ultramontanes. 
4. The Clerical Encroachments. These were described 
as " The Pour Calamities which were going to subvert 
the throne." The Sodalities especially worried him, 
for they were, according to his conception of them, 
" apparently a pious assembly of angels, a senate of 
sages, but in reality a circle of intriguing devils.*' 
These sodalities or congregations, as they are called 
in France, had assumed an importance and effectiveness 
for good which is perhaps unequalled in the history of 
similar organizations elsewhere. Their founder was 
Father Delpuits, "whom it is a pleasure to name," 
said the eloquent Lacordaire, " for though others may 
have won more applause for their influence over 
young men, no one deserved it more." 

When the Society was expelled from France in 1762, 
Delpuits became a secular priest and was offered a 
canonry by de Beaumont, the Archbishop of Paris. 
He gave retreats to the clergy and laity and especially 
to young collegians. During the Revolution, he was 
put in prison and then exiled, but he returned to 
France after the storm. There he met young Father 
Barat, who had just been released from prison and 
was anxious to join the Jesuits in Russia. Delpuits 
advised him to remain in France where men of his 
stamp were sorely needed and hence Barat did not 
enter the Society until 1814, 

In 1 80 1, following out the old Jesuit traditions, 
Delpuits organized a sodality, beginning with four 
young students of law and medicine. Others soon 
joined them, among them Laennec who subsequently 
became one of the glories of the medical profession 
as the inventor of auscultation. Then came two 
abbds and two brothers of the house of Montmorency. 
The future mathematician, Augustin Cauchy, and also 
Simon Brut6 de R&nur who, at a later date, was to be 

A Century of Disaster 739 

one of the first bishops of the United States; Forbin- 
Janson, so eminent in the Church of France, was a 
socialist, as were the three McCarthys, one of whom, 
Nicholas, became a Jesuit, and was regarded as the 
Chrysostom of France. The list is a long one. When 
Delpuits died in 1812, his sodalists erected a modest 
memorial above him, and inserted the S. J. after Tiis 
name. That was two years prior to the re-establish- 
ment. A Sulpician then took up the work, but in 
1814, he turned it over to Father de Clorivire who, 
in turn, entrusted it to Father Ronsin. Its good 
works multiplied in all directions, and branches were 
established throughout France. By the time Mont- 
losier began his attacks, the register showed 1,373 
names, though Montlosier assured the public that they 
were no less than 48,000, Among them were a great 
number of priests and even bishops, notably, Cheverus, 
the first Bishop of Boston and subsequently, Cardinal 
Archbishop of Bordeaux. The last meeting of the 
sodality was held on July 18, 1830. Paris was then 
in the Revolution and the sodality was suppressed, 
but rose again to life later on. 

While this attack on the sodalists was going on, the 
Jesuits of course were assailed on all sides. The fight 
grew fiercer every day until the <c Journal des Debats " 
was able to say: "The name Jesuit is on every 
tongue, but it is there to be cursed; it is repeated 
in every newspaper of the land with fear and alarm; 
it is carried throughout the whole of France on the 
wings of the terror that it inspires." As many as one 
hundred books, big and little, were cottnted in the 
Bibliothfeque Nationale, all of which had been published 
in the year 1826 alone. They were the works not 
only of anonymous and money-making scribes, but 
of men like Thiers and the poet Beranger who did not 
think such literature beneath them. Casimir P6rier 

?40 The Jesuits 

Appeared in the tribune against the Society, and the 
ominous name of Pasquier, whose bearer was possibly 
a descendant of the famous anti- Jesuit of the time of 
Henry IV, is found on the list of the orators. Lam- 
ennais got into the fray, not precisely in defense of the 
Jesuits, but to proclaim his ultra anti-Gallicanism; 
thus bringing that element into the war. Added to 
this was the old Jansenist spirit, which had not yet 
been purged out of France; indeed, Bournichon dis- 
covers traces of it in some of the Fathers of the Faith 
who had joined the Society. 

Finally came the Revolution of 1830, during which 
the novitiate of Montrouge was sacked and pillaged. 
Other houses of France shared the same fate. On 
July 29 a mob of four or five hundred men attacked 
St. Acheul, some of the assailants shouting for the 
king, others for the emperor, others again for the 
Republic, but all uniting in: " Down with the priests! 
Death to the Jesuits! " Father de Ravignan attempted 
to talk to the mob, but his voice was drowned in the 
crashing of falling timbers. The bell was rung to call 
for help, but that only maddened the assailants the 
more. De Ravignan persisted in appealing to them, 
but was struck in the face by a stone and badly 
wounded. Then some one in the crowd shouted for 
drink, and wine was brought out. It calmed the 
rioters for a while, but while they were busy emptying 
bottles and breaking barrels, a troop of cavalry from 
Amiens swept down on them and they fled. The 
troopers however, came too late to save the house. 
It was a wreck and some of the Fathers were sent 
to different parts of the world Italy, Switzerland, 
America or the foreign missions. But when there 
were no more popular outbreaks, many returned from 
abroad and gave their services to the French bishops, 
with the result that there never had been a period 

A Century of Disaster 741 

for a long time which had so many pulpit orators 
and missionaries as the reign of Louis-Philippe. 

Pius VIII died on November 30, 1830, and it was 
a signal for an uprising in Italy. Thanks to Cardinal 
Bernetti, the Vicar of Rome, peace was maintained 
in the City itself, but elsewhere in the Papal States, 
the anti- Jesuit cry was raised. The colleges were 
closed and all the houses were searched, on the pretext 
of looking for concealed weapons. Meantime 
calumnious reports were industriously circulated against 
the reputations of the Fathers. 

In the Spanish Revolution of 1820, twenty-five 
Jesuits were murdered. In 1833 c*vil war broke out 
between the partisans and opponents of Isabella and, 
for no reason whatever, two Jesuits were arrested and 
thrown into prison. One of them died after three 
months' incarceration. Meanwhile threats were made 
in Madrid to murder all the religious in the city. 
The Jesuits were to be the special victims for they 
were accused of having started the cholera, poisoned 
the wells, etc. July 17, 1834, was the day fixed for 
the deed, and crowds gathered around the Imperial 
College to see what might happen. 

The pupils were at dinner. A police officer entered 
and dismissed them and then the mob invaded the 
house. Inside the building, three Jesuits were killed; 
a priest, a scholastic and a lay-brother. The priest 
had his skull crushed in, his teeth knocked out and 
his body horribly mangled. The scholastic was beaten 
with dubs; pierced through the body with swords, 
and when he fell in his blood, his head was cloven 
with an axe. Four of the community disguised 
themselves and attempted to escape but were caught 
and murdered in the street. Three more were killed 
on the roof; and two lay-brothers who were captured 
somewhere else were likewise butchered. The rest 

742 The Jesuits 

of the community had succeeded in reaching the 
chapel, and were on their knees before the altar, when 
an officer forced his way through the crowd and called 
for his brother who was one of the scholastics, to go 
with him to a place of safety. The young Jesuit 
refused the offer, whereupon the soldier replied: 
" Very wdl I shall take care of all of you.*' He kept 
his word and fifty-four Jesuits followed him out of 
the chapel and were conducted to a place of safety. 
The house, however, was gutted; unspeakable horrors 
were committed in the chapel; everything that could 
not be carried off was broken, and in the meantime 
a line of soldiers stood outside, not only looking on, 
but even taking sides with the rioters. 

Evidently the times had passed when it was necessary 
to go out among the savages to die for the Faith. 
The savages had come to Madrid. Nor was this a 
conventional anti- Jesuit uprising; for on that hideous 
xyth of July, 1834, seventy-three members of other 
religious communities were murdered in the dead of 
night in the capital of Catholic Spain. Nevertheless 
Father General Roothaan wrote to his Jesuit sons: 
" I am not worried about our fourteen who have so 
gloriously died, for * blessed are those who die in the 
Lord.' What causes me most anguish is the danger 
of those who remain; most of them still young, who are 
scattered abroad, in surroundings where their vocation 
and virtue will be exposed to many dangers. ' ' Nothing 
was done to the murderers, and before another year had 
elapsed, a decree was issued expelling the Jesuits from 
the whole of Spain; but as Don Carlos was just then in 
the field asserting his daim to the throne, a large num- 
ber of the exiles from other parts of Spain, were able to 
remain at Loyola in the Pyrenees until 1840. 

The Portuguese had waited for fifteen years after 
Pius VII had re-established the Society before consent- 

A Century of Disaster 743 

ing to re-admit the Jesuits. Don Miguel issued a 
decree to that effect on July 10, 1829, and the Countess 
Oliviera, a niece of Pombal, was the first to welcome 
them back and to place her boys in their college. 
The Fathers were given their former residence in Lisbon 
and, shortly afterwards, the Bishop of Evora established 
them in their old college in that city. In 1832 they 
were presented with their own college at Coinibra, 
and on their way thither they laid in the tomb the 
still unburied remains of their arch-enemy, Pombal, 
which had remained in the morgue ever since March 
5, 1872, a space of half a century. It seemed 
almost like a dream. Indeed it was little else, for 
Dom Miguel, who was then on the throne, was deposed 
by his rival, Dom Pedro, soon after, and on July 20, 
1833 he Jesuits of Lisbon were again expelled. The 
decree was superfluous, for in the early Spring, their 
.house had been sacked, and on that occasion the 
inmates would have been killed had not a young 
Englishman, a former student of Stonyhurst, appeared 
on the scene. The four that were there he took 
on his yacht to England, the others had already 
departed for Genoa. 

Hatred for the Society, however, had nothing to do 
with it. The whole affair was purely political. Had 
the Fathers accepted Dom Pedro's invitation to go 
out among the people and persuade them to abandon 
the cause of the deposed king, they would have been 
allowed to remain* They were expelled for not being 
traitors to their lawful sovereign. The Fathers of 
Coimbra contrived to remain another year, but on 
May 26, i&34, they were seized by a squad of soldiers 
and marched off to Lisbon. Fortunately the French 
ambassador, Baron de Mortier, interceded for them, 
otherwise they would have ended their days in the 
dungeons of San Sebastian, to which they had already 

744 The Jesuits 

been sentenced. They were released on June 28, 
1834, and sent by ship to Italy and from there, along 
with the dispersed Spaniards were sent by Father 
Roothaan to France and South America. 

Switzerland, which is the land of liberty to such an 
extent that it will harbor the worst kind of anarchists, 
refused to admit the Jesuits, at least in some parts of it. 
There were seven Catholic Cantons, Uri, Schwyz, 
Unterwalden, Lucerne, Zug, Fribourg and Valais. 
These sections formed a coalition known as the Sunder- 
bund. A war broke out between them and the other 
cantons, but the Sunderbund was defeated. The 
Jesuits were then expelled from the little town of 
Sion where they had an important school. In 1845 
the people of Lucerne asked for a college, and though 
Father Roothaan refused, Pope Gregory XVI insisted 
on it. The expected happened. The Radicals arose 
in a rage and with 10,000 men laid siege to Lucerne. 
They were beaten, it is true, but that did not insure 
the permanency of the college. In 1847 the Sunder- 
bund was again defeated, and in 1848 when the general 
European revolution broke out, the College of Fri- 
bourg was looted, and its collection of Natural History 
which was regarded as among the best on the Conti- 
nent was thrown out in the street. 

The rumblings of the storm began to be heard in 
France on May i, the Feast of the Apostles Philip 
and James, Louis-Philippe's name-day. Someone in 
the Tuilleries said that the Jesuits were starting a 
conspiracy against the throne. Happily a distinguished 
woman heard the remark, and admitted that she was 
concerned in it, along with 300 other conspicuous 
representatives of the best families of France. It was 
a charity lottery and most of the conspirators had 
received a pot or basket of flowers for their partici- 
pation in the plot. 

A Century of Disaster 745 

When, that myth was exploded, the "Journal des 
Debats" attacked de Ravignan for his wide influence 
over many important people in Paris, and though 
admitting his unquestioned probity, added "What 
matters his virtue, if he brings us the pest?" The 
word caught the popular fancy, but it brought out de 
Ravignan J s famous reply: " De i'existence et de 
Finstitut des Jesuites." It was received with im- 
mense favor, applauded by such men as Vatemesnil, 
Dupanloup, Montalembert, Barthelemy, Beugnot, 
Berryer and others. In this year 1844 alone, 25,000 
copies were sold. 

The root of the trouble w;as the university's monopoly 
of education; which was obnoxious even to many 
who cared little for religion. Catholics objected to it 
chiefly because Cousin, the Positivist, controlled its 
philosophy. Many of the bishops failed to see the 
danger until Father Delvaux published a digest of 
the utterances of many of the university professors 
on religious subjects. Then the battle began. On the 
Catholic side were such fighters as Veuillot, Monta- 
lembert, Cardinal de Bonald, Mgr. Parisis. Ranged 
against them were Michelet, Quinet, Sainte-Beuve 
and their followers. The battle waxed hotter as time 
went on; and the Jesuits soon became the general 
target. Cousin introduced the " Lettres Provinciales " 
in the course. Villemain in his Reports denounced 
" the turbulent and imperious Society which the spirit 
of liberty and the spirit of our government repudiate." 
Dupin glorified Etienne Pasquier, the old anti-Jesuit 
of the time of Henry IV; similar eulogies of the old 
enemy were pronounced in various parts of France; 
Quinet and Michelet did nothing else in their historical 
lectures than attack the Society, while Eugene Sue 
received 100,000 francs from the editor of the " Consti- 
tutionel " for his " Juif errant," which presented to 

746 The Jesuits 

the public the most grotesque picture of the Jesuits that 
was ever conceived. It was however, accepted as 
a genuine portrait. 

The anti- Jesuit cry was of course the usual cam- 
paign device to alarm the populace. It was success- 
ful, chiefly because of the persistency with which it was 
kept up by the press, and,- from 1842 till 1845, the 
book-market was glutted with every imaginable species 
of anti- Jesuit literature. Conspicuous among the pro- 
Jesuits were Louis Veuillot and the Comte de Monta- 
lembert. The royalist papers spoke in the Society's 
defense but feebly or not at all. Finally, a certain 
Marshall Marcet de la Roche Arnauld, who as a scho- 
lastic had been driven from the Society in 1824, and 
who had been paid to write against it, suddenly dis- 
avowed all that he had ever said. Cretineau-Joly also 
leaped into the fray with his rapidly written six volumes 
of the " History of the Society." 

It would have been comparatively easy to continue 
the struggle with outside enemies, but in the very 
midst of the battle, the Archbishop of Paris, Affire, 
ranged himself on the side of the foe. He denied that 
the Jesuits were a religious order, for the extraordinary 
reason that they were not recognized by the State; 
their vows, consequently, were not solemn; and the 
members of the Society were in all things subject to 
the cur6 of the parish in which their establishment 
happened to be. He even exacted that he should be 
informed of everything that took place in the com- 
munity, and if an individual was to be changed, His 
Grace was to be notified of it a month in advance. 
The archbishop, however, was not peculiar in these 
views. They were deduced from Bouvier's theology 
which was then taught in all the seminaries of Prance. 

Of course, this affected other religious as well as 
the Jesuits, and, hence, when Dom Gu6ranger wanted 

A Century of Disaster 747 

to establish the Benedictines in Paris, the archbishop 
had no objection, except that " they had no legal 
existence in France." To this Gueranger immedi- 
ately replied: " Monseigneur! the episcopacy has no 
legal existence in England, Ireland and Belgium, 
and perhaps the day will come when it will not have 
any in France, but the episcopacy will be no less sacred 
for all that." The great Benedictine then appealed 
to the Pope, and when the reply was handed to him, 
the Apostolic nuncio said: "It is not an ordinary 
Brief I give you, but an Apostolic Constitution/* 
In it the archbishop was told by His Holiness that 
the French religious had not been destroyed because 
of the refusal of the government to give them a legal 
existence. His Grace had also received a communi- 
cation from Father Roothaan, the General, who, after 
reminding him of the provision of canon law on the 
point at issue, warned him that if he persisted in his 
view the Jesuits would simply withdraw from his diocese. 
Meantime the Pope had suspended the execution of 
the orders of the archbishop and shortly after, sent him 
the following severe admonition: " We admit, Vener- 
able Brother, our inability to comprehend your very 
inconsiderate ruling with regard to the faculties for 
hearing confessions which you have withdrawn from 
the Jesuit Fathers, or by what authority or for what 
reason you forbid them either to leave the city or to 
enter it, without notifying you a month in advance; 
especially as this Society, on account of the immense 
services it has rendered to the Church, is held in great 
esteem by far-seeing and fervent Catholics and by 
the Holy See itself. We know also that it is calum- 
niated by people who have abandoned the Faith and 
by those who have no respect for the authority of 
the Holy See and we regret that they will now use the 
authority of your name in support of their calumnies." 

748 The Jesuits 

Of course the archbishop could do nothing else than 
obey. But he did not change his mind with regard 
to the objects of his hostility. Possibly he was consti- 
tutionally incapable of doing so. For he treated his 
cathedral chapter in the same fashion and we read in a 
communication from the French ambassador at Rome 
to Guizot who was then head of the Government 
that the canons of Paris had complained of being 
absolutely excluded from all influence or authority in 
the administration of the diocese. This note gives an 
insight into the methods of Gallicanism, which con- 
ceded that the disputes or differences of the clergy 
with the archbishop were to be passed upon by a 
minister of state even if he were a Protestant. 

The trouble did not end there and the Parliamentary 
session of 1844 marked a very notable epoch in the 
history of the French province of the Society and of 
the Church of France. M. Villemain presented a 
bill which proposed to reaffirm and reassure the 
university's monopoly of the education of the country. 
It explicitly excluded all members of religious congre- 
gations from the function of teaching. It is true that 
there was not a single word in it about the Jesuits, 
nevertheless in the stormy debates that it evoked, 
and in which the most prominent men of the nation 
participated, there was mention of not one other teach- 
ing body. Almost the very first speaker, Dupin, 
pompously proclaimed that " France did not want 
that famous Society which owes allegiance to a foreign 
superior and whose instruction is diametrically opposed 
to what all lovers of the country desire" nor was it 
desirable that " these religious speculators should slip 
in through the meshes of the law.' 1 His last word was: 
" Let us be implacable. " In the official Report, 
however, "implacable" became "inflexible." The 
ministerial and university organ, the " Journal des 

A Century of Disaster 749 

Dbats," admitted that such was the purpose of the 

Villemain fancied that he had silenced the bishops 
by leaving them full authority over the little semi- 
naries. He was quickly disillusioned. Prom the 
entire hierarchy individually and collectively came 
indignant repudiations of the measure and none was 
fiercer than the protest of Mgr. Affre, Archbishop of 
Paris. He denounced the university as " a centre of 
irreligion " and as perverting in the most flagrant man- 
ner the youth of Prance. " You reproach us," he 
said, " with disturbing the country by our protests. 
Yes, we have raised our voices, but the university has 
committed the crime. We may embarrass the throne 
for the present, but in the university are to be found 
all the perils of the future/' The excitement was so 
intense that the government actually put the Abb6 
Combalot in jail for an article he wrote against the 
bill, and the whole hierarchy was threatened with 
being summoned before the council of state if they 
persisted in their opposition. 

Montalembert was more than usually eloquent in 
the course of the parliamentary war. To Dupin who 
exhorted the peers to be " implacable " he replied: 
" In the midst of a free people, we, Catholics, refuse 
to be slaves; we are the successors of the martyrs 
and we shall not quail before the successors of Julian 
the Apostate; we are the sons of the Crusaders and 
we shall not recoil before the sons of Voltaire." 

There were thirty-five or forty discourses and twelve 
or fifteen of the speakers described the Society as 
" the detested congregation," while the members who 
admitted the injustice and the odious tyranny of 
the proposed legislation made haste to assure their 
constituents that they had no use for the Jesuits, 
Cousin consumed three hours in assailing them; 

750 The Jesuits 

another member of the Dupin family saw " an appalling 
danger to the State in the fact that Montalemberf 
could speak of them without cursing them, and that 
the peers could listen to him in silence, while he 
extolled the poisoners of the pious Ganganelli. * ' Others 
insisted that the Jesuits had dragged the episcopate 
into the fight; even Guizot declared that "public 
sentiment inexorably repudiated the Jesuits and the 
other congregations, who are the champions of authority 
and the enemies of private judgment." The great 
man was not aware that the same reproach might 
be and is addressed to the Church. 

The measure was finally carried by 85 against 51, 
but the heavy minority disconcerted the government 
and better hopes were entertained in the lower house 
to which Villemain presented his bill on June loth. 
There it was left in the hands of Thiers, and it did 
not reach the Assembly, as a body, for an entire month. 
As the summer vacations were at hand, the projet 
de loi was dropped. Guizot then conceived the plan of 
appealing directly to the Pope to suppress the French 
Jesuits. He chose as his envoy an Italian named 
Rossi, who had been banished from Bologna, Naples 
and Florence as a revolutionist. After a, short stay 
at Geneva, he made his way to France where, by 
Protestant influence, chiefly that of Guizot, he ad- 
vanced rapidly to very distinguished and lucrative 
positions. The country was shocked to hear that an 
Italian and a Protestant should represent the nation 
at the court of the Pope from whose dominions he 
had been expelled, but Guizot intended by so doing, to 
express the sentiments, of his government. It was an 
open threat, Rossi arrived in Rome and presented his 
credentials on April n. 

The French Jesuits who had been expelled from 
Portugal did not return to their native country; for 

A Century of Disaster 751 

Charles X, discovering at last that the Liberals, as 
they called themselves, had played him false, resolved 
to have a thoroughgoing monarchical government; 
and, to cany out his purpose, made the inept Polignac 
prime minister. On July 25 he signed four ordinances, 
the first of which restricted the liberty of the press; 
the second dissolved parliament; the third diminished 
the electorate to 25,000. The next day, the press was 
in rebellion; Charles abdicated and sailed for England. 
Of course the Revolution was anti-religious and the 
Jesuits were the first sufferers. House after house 
was wrecked and the scholastics were gathered together 
and hurried off to different countries in Europe. 
Thus ended the first sixteen years of the Society's 
existence in Prance, after the promulgation of the Bull 
of Pius VII " Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum." 

The first successor of Father de Clorivi&re as vice- 
provincial was Father Simpson. France was made 
a province in 1820, and on the death of Father Simpson, 
the new General, Father Fortis, appointed Father 
Richardot, who at the end of his three years' term 
asked to be relieved. In 1814 Godinot was appointed, 
because none of those who had been proposed for 
the office had been more than ten years in the Society. 
Godinot himself had been admitted only in 1810. 
He had been vice-provincial of the Fathers of the 
Faith, and eleven years after his admission, was 
directing the scattered Jesuit establishments in Switzer- 
land, Belgium, Holland and Germany. In Switzerland, 
he had given the impulse to the college of Fribourg, 
which afterwards became so famous. It is worth 
noting that when he was a Father of the Faith he 
was a member of the community of Sion in Valais 
which enjoyed the exceptional privilege of being 
united as a body to the Society. Everywhere else 
each individual had to be admitted separately. 

752 The Jesuits 

On April 14, the peers met to discuss a very exciting 
subject. A protest had come from Marseilles signed 
by 89 electors, against the books of Michelet and 
Quinet. Immediately Cousin was on his feet and 
ascribed it to the Jesuits. A few days later, another 
topic engrossed their attention. Dupin's " Manual of 
Ecclesiastical Law " had been condemned by Cardinal 
de Bonald, and more than sixty bishops concurred 
with him in prohibiting the book. At Rome, it was 
put on the Index, along with Cousin's " History of 
Philosophy/' The anti-Catholics were in a fury, and 
on April 24, Cousin addressed the House. At the end 
of a three hour discourse which he began, unbeliever 
though he was, by protesting his respect for " the 
august religion of his country," he concluded by 
saying that " probably the action of the bishops 
was due to the Jesuits " and therefore he called for 
the enforcement of the law for their suppression. 
The question now arose, whether they could proceed 
to the suppression by force of law while the government 
actually had an envoy at Rome to dispose of the 
affair in a different fashion. It was decided that 
the non-authorized congregations would be suppressed, 
no matter what might be the outcome of Rossi's 
mission. Such a resolution was a gross diplomatic 
insult, but they cared little for that. 

Meanwhile no news had come from Rossi. He had 
been left in the ante- chamber of the Pope until the 
Abbe de Bonnechose had succeeded in getting him 
an audience, a service which de Bonnechose had 
some difficulty in explaining when he was subsequently 
made a cardinal. A congregation of cardinals was 
named to discuss Guizot's proposition, and it was 
unanimously decided to reject it; and when Rossi 
asked what he had to do, he was told he might address 
himself to the General of the Society. To make it 

A Century of Disaster 753 

easy for him, Lambruschini, the papal secretary of 
state, proposed to Father Roothaan to diminish the 
personnel of some of the houses which were too much 
in evidence or remove them elsewhere. As for dis- 
solution of the communities or banishment from 
France, not a word was said. 

Immediately Rossi despatched a messenger to Paris 
with the account of what had been done, and twelve 
days afterwards the "Moniteur" stated: "The 
Government has received news from Rome that the 
negotiations with which M. Rossi was entrusted have 
attained their object. The congregation of the Jesuits 
will cease to exist in France and will, of its own accord, 
disperse. Its houses will be closed and its novitiates 
dissolved." On July 15, Guizot was asked by the 
peers to show the alleged documents. He answered 
that " they were too precious to give to the public/* 
They have been unearthed since, and it turns out 
that Guizot 's notice in the " Moniteur " does not 
correspond with the despatch of Rossi who merely 
said, " the Congregation is going to disperse; " and 
instead of saying " the houses will be closed," he 
wrote: " only a small number of people will remain 
in each house." In brief, the famous Guizot, so 
renowned for his integrity, prevaricated in this instance, 
and one of the worst enemies of everything Jesuitical, 
Dibidous, who wrote a " History of the Church and 
State in France from 1789 to 1870 " declares bluntly 
that Guizot 's note in the " Moniteur " was not only 
a He but " an impudent lie." 

A great many militant Catholics in France were 
indignant that Father Roothaan had not defied the 
government on this occasion. Yet probably those 
same perfervid souls would have denounced him, had 
he acted as they wished. He knew perfectly well 
that the government was only too anxious to get out 
4 8 

754 The Jesuits 

of the mess in which it found itself, and the little 
by-play which was resorted to harmed nobody aad 
secured at least a temporary respite. 

" To gain the support of the Catholics against the 
anarchical elements which were eveaywhere revealing 
themselves," says the Cambridge History (XI, 34) 
" Guizot had tolerated the unauthorized Congre- 
gations. This had the immediate consequence of 
concentrating popular attention upon those religious 
passions whose existence the populace, if left to itself, 
might have forgotten. Even the colleagues of Guizot, 
such as Villemain and the editors of the " Journal des 
D6bats," the leading ministepal organ, began by de- 
claring that they saw everywhere the finger of the 
Jesuits. In each party, men's minds were so divided 
on the subject of the Jesuits or rather that of edu- 
cational liberty which was so closely linked with it, 
that nothing of immediate gravity to the Government 
would for the moment arise. 1 ' Liberals, or rather 
Republicans, such as Quinet and Michelet, in their 
lectures at the College de Prance took up the alarm 
and spread at broadcast. 

Bournichon in his " Histoire d'un Si&de," (II, 492) 
calls attention to the fact that this attack was 
apparently against the Jesuits, but in reality against 
the Church. The "Revue Ind6pendante " did not 
hesitate to make the avowal that " Jesuitism is only 
a formula which has the merit of uniting all the popular 
hatred for what is odious and retrograde in a degenerate 
religion. IJ Cousin started the hue and cry, in this 
instance, and Thureau-Dangin in his " Histoire de 
la monarchic de Juillet " (p. 503-10) says that " Quinet 
and Michelet transformed their courses into bitter 
and spiteful diatribes against the Jesuits. Both were 
hired for the work, and did not speak from conviction." 
"Quinet," says Bournichon (II, 494) "was quite 

A Century of Disaster 755 

indifferent to religious matters and had passed for a 
harmless thinker and dreamer up to that moment. 
As for Michelet, he had obtained his position in the 
Ecole Normale from Mgr. Frayssinous, yet he forgot 
his benefactor, and maintained that not only the 
Jesuits but Christianity was an obstacle to human 
progress; paganism or even fetichism was preferable, 
and Christ had to be dethroned/' 

Guizot removed Villemain from the office of Minister 
of public instruction and reprimanded Michelet and 
Quinet Then Thiers seized the occasion to denounce 
Guizot for favoring the religious congregations and 
succeeded in defeating the minister's measure for 
educational freedom. It was at this stage that Guizot 
sent his envoy Rossi to Rome to induce Pope Gregory 
XVI to recall the Jesuits so as to extricate the French 
government from its difficulty. The Pope refused, 
as we have seen, and Father Roothaan merely gave 
orders to the members of the Society in France to 
make themselves less conspicuous. 

In 1847 Gioberti published his " Gesuita Moderno " 
which unfortunately had the effect of creating in the 
minds of the Italian clergy a deep prejudice against 
the Society. Gioberti was a priest and a professor 
of theology. He first taught Rosminianism, and then 
opposed it. Under the pen-name of " Demofilo " or 
the " People's Friend " he wrote articles for Mazzini 
in the " Giovane Italia/' and was the author of " Del 
Buono " and " Del primato morale e civile degli 
Italian! " His first attack on the Society appeared 
in 1845 fa the " Prolegomena al Primato;" " II Gesuita 
Moderno," a large sized pamphlet full of vulgar invec- 
tive, appeared in 1847. It was followed in 1848 by 
the "Apologia del Gesuita Moderno," He was 
answered by Father Curd Deserting Mazzini, Gio- 
berti espoused the cause of King Charles Albert, and 

756 The Jesuits 

founded a society to propagate the idea of a federated 
Italy with the King of Piedmont at its head. His 
last book, " Rinnovamento civile d'ltalia " showed 
him to be the enemy of the temporal power of the 
papacy. His philosophy is a mixture of pantheistic 
ontology, rationalism, platonism and traditionalism. 
Though a revolutionist, he denied the sovereignty 
of the people- His complete works fill thirty-five 

Of course the Society felt the shock of the Italian 
Revolution of 1848. Gioberti's writing had excited 
all Italy and as a consequence the Jesuit houses 
were abandoned. At Naples, the exiles were hooted 
as they took ship for Malta; they were mobbed in 
Venice and Piedmont. The General Father Roothaan 
left Rome on April 28 in company with a priest and a 
lay-brother, and as he stood on the deck at Genoa, 
he heard the cry from the shore, " You have Jesuits 
aboard; throw them overboard." There was nothing 
surprising in all this, however, for Rossi, the Pope's 
prime minister, was stabbed to death while mounting 
tjie steps of the Cancelleria. On the following day, 
the Pope himself was besieged in the Quirinal; Palma, 
a Papal prelate, was shot while standing at a window; 
and finally on November 24, Pope Pius fled in dis- 
guise to Gaeta. 

In Austria, the Jesuits were expelled in the month of 
April. The community of Innsbruck, which is in 
the Tyrol, held together for some time, but finally 
drifted off to France or America or Australia or else- 
where. The emperor signed the decree on May 7, 
1848. It applied also to Galicia, Switzerland, and 
Silesia, and the Jesuit houses all disappeared in those 

What happened to the Jesuits in France in the 
meantime? Nothing whatever. They had obeyed the 

A Century of Disaster 757 

General .in 1845, an d had simply kept their activities 
out of sight. They did not wait for the Revolution, 
and hence although the "Journal des Debats," 
announced officially, on October 18, 1845, that " at 
the present moment there are no more Jesuits in 
Prance," there were a great many. Indeed, the 
catalogues of 1846 and 1847 were issued as usual, not 
in print, however, but in lithograph, and as if they 
felt perfectly free in 1848, the catalogue of that year 
appeared in printed form. Meantime de Ravignan 
was giving conferences in Notre-Dame, and preaching 
all over the country. The only change the Fathers 
made was to transport two of their establishments 
beyond the frontiers. Thus a college was organized 
at Brugelette in Belgium and a novitiate at Issenheim. 
The scholasticate of Laval continued as usual. What 
was done in the province of Paris was identical with 
that of Lyons. For a year or so the catalogues were 
lithographed but after that they appeared in the 
usual form. 

For two years Father Roothaan journeyed from place 
to place through France, Belgium, Holland, England, 
and Ireland, and in 1850 returned to Rome. The 
storm had spent itself, and the ruins it had caused 
were rapidly repaired, at least in France, where the 
Falloux Law, which was passed in 1850, permitted 
freedom of education, and the Fathers hastened to 
avail themselves of the opportunity to establish col- 
leges throughout the country. 

Elsewhere, however, other conditions prevailed. 
In 1851 there was a dispersion in Spain; in 1859 the 
provinces of Venice and Turin were disrupted and the 
members were distributed through the fifteen other 
provinces of the Society. In 1860 the arrival of 
Garibaldi had already made an end of the Jesuits in 
Naples and Sicily. The wreckage was considerable, 

758 The Jesuits 

and from a complaint presented to King Victor Emman- 
uel by Father Beckx, it appears that the Society had 
lost three establishments in Lombardy; in Modena, six; 
in Sardinia, eleven; in Naples, nineteen, and in Sicily, 
fifteen. Fifteen hundred Jesuits had been expelled 
from their houses, as if they had been criminals, and 
were thrown into public jails, abused and ill-treated. 
They were forbidden to accept shelter even from their 
most devoted friends, and the old and the infirm had 
to suffer Eke the rest. Nor were these outrages per- 
petrated by excited mobs, but by the authorities then 
established in Sardinia, Sicily, Naples, Modena and 
elsewhere. " This appeal for justice and reparation 
for at least some of the harm done," said Father Beckx, 
"'is placed, as it were, on the tomb of your ancestor 
Charles Emmanuel, who laid aside his royal dignity 
and entered the Society of Jesus as a lay-brother. He 
surely would not have embraced that manner of life 
if it were iniquitous." But it is not on record that 
Victor Emmanuel showed his appreciation of his 
predecessor's virtue by healing any of the wounds of 
the Society, whose garb Charles Emmanuel had worn. 

The Jesuits of Venice had 'resumed work in their 
province, when in 1866 war was declared between 
Prussia and Austria. Sadowa shattered the Austrian 
forces, and though the Italians had been badly beaten 
at Custozzio, Venice was handed over to them by 
the treaty that ended the war. That meant of course 
another expulsion. Most of the exiles went to the 
Tyrol and Dalmatia. Then followed the dispersion 
of all the provinces of Italy except that of Rome. 

The Spanish Jesuits had recovered somewhat from 
the dispersions of 1854, but, in 1868 just as the pro- 
vincial congregations had concluded their sessions, a 
revolution broke out all over Spain. Many of the 
houses were attacked, but no personal injuries were 

A Century of Disaster 759 

inflicted. After a while, a provisional government 
was established at Madrid which held the mob in 
check but made no pretence to restrain the attacks 
on priests and nuns. Indeed, it inaugurated a bitter 
persecution on its own account. The minister of 
justice issued a decree which not only ordered the 
Jesuits out of all Spain and the adjacent islands within 
three days, but forbade any Spaniard to join the Society, 
even in foreign parts. Of course all the property 
was confiscated* That was probably the chief motive 
of the whole procedure. The outcasts for the most 
part went to France, and a temporary novitiate was 
established in the territory known as Les Landes, 
They returned home after some time, but were expect- 
ing another expulsion in 1912 when the great war was 
threatening. Possibly the hideous scenes enacted in 
Portugal in 1912 were deemed sufficient by the revolu- 
tionists for the time being. 

The expatriation of the Jesuits and other religious 
from Portugal which was decreed by the Republican 
government, on October 10, 1910, six days after the 
bombardment of the royal palace and the flight of 
King Manuel, is typical of the manner in which such 
demonstrations are made in Europe. We have an 
account of it from the Father provincial Cabral which 
we quote in part. 

" After the press had been working up the populace 
for three years to the proper state of mind by stories of 
subterranean arsenals in the Jesuit colleges; the bound- 
less wealth of the Fathers; their affiliated secret 
organizations; their political plots, etc., the colleges 
of Campolide and San Fiel were invaded. The occu- 
pants were driven out and led between lines of soldiers 
through a howling mob to the common jail. Those 
who had fled before the arrival of the soldiers were 
pursued across the fields with rifles, and when caught 

760 The Jesuits 

were insulted, beaten and spat upon, and led like the 
others to prison. They had to eat out of the dishes with 
their hands, and at night sentinels stood over them with 
loaded rifles and warned the victims that if they got 
up they would be shot. Abandoned women were 
sent in among them, but those poor creatures soon 
withdrew. The prisoners were then transferred to 
Caixas where they slept on the floor. Twenty-three 
were confined in a space that could scarcely accommo- 
date three. They were kept there for four days, and 
were not allowed to leave the room for any reason 
whatever, and were told that they would be kept in 
that condition until they began to rot, and that then 
some of their rich friends would buy them off. They 
were photographed, subjected to anthropometric exami- 
nations, and their finger prints taken, etc. They 
were then expelled from the country and forbidden 
ever to return. They had only the clothes on their 
backs, and had no money except what was given them 
by some friends; their colleges with their splendid 
museums and libraries were confiscated, and in this 
condition they set out, old and young, the sick and 
the strong, to ask shelter from their brethren in other 
lands. It was almost a return to the days of Pombal 

In Germany the Kulturkampf began in 1870, and in 
1872 a decree was signed by the Kaiser, on June 14, 
1872, expelling all members of the Society, and with 
them the Redemptorists, Lazarists, Fathers of the 
Holy Ghost, and the Society of the Sacred Heart. 
Some of the Jesuits went to Holland; others to England 
and America. Contrary to expectations, this act of 
tyranny did not harm the German province, for, whereas 
it then numbered only 775, it now (1920) has 1210 on 
its roll, of whom 664 are priests. 

France had its horror in 1871, when on May 24 
and 26, Fathers OHvaint, Duqouclray, Caubert, Clerq 

A Century of Disaster 761 

and de Bengy were shot to death by the Communists, 
who were then in possession of Paris. It was not, 
however, a rising against the Jesuits. There were 
fifty-seven victims in all; priests, religious and 
seculars, were immolated. At their head, was the 
venerable Archbishop of Paris, Mgr. Darboy. Again, 
on March 29, 1880, a decree issued by Jules Ferry 
brought about a new dispersion and the substitution 
of staffs of non-religious teachers in the Jesuit colleges. 
The law was not enforced, however, and little by little 
the Fathers returned to their posts. Then followed 
the law of Waldeck-Rousseau in 1901 against unauthor- 
ized congregations, which closed all their houses, for 
these religious declined to apply for authorization 
which they knew would be refused, or if not, would 
be used to oppress them. The communities were, 
therefore, scattered in various houses of Europe. The 
last blow was the summons sent to all parts of the 
world for every Frenchman not exempt from military 
service to take part in the great World War, as chap- 
lains, hospital aids or common soldiers. 

The simultaneity as well as the similarity in the 
methods of executing these multiplied expulsions show 
clearly enough that they were not accidental but part 
of a universal war against the Church. Thus, at the other 
ends of the earth, similar outrages were being committed. 
When, for instance, the Conservatives fell from power 
in Colombia, South America, in 1850, the Jesuits 
were expelted. They went from there to Ecuador and 
Guayaquil, but were left unmolested only for a year. 
In 1 86 1 they were re-admitted, and soon had fifty 
mission stations and had succeeded in converting 10,000 
natives to the faith. But Garcia Moreno who had 
invited them was assassinated, and forthwith they were 
expelled. A second time they were recalled, but 
remained only from 1883 to 1894, and from there they 

762 The Jesuits 

returned to Colombia where they are at present. 
In Argentina, whither they were summoned in 1836, 
their houses were closed in 1841. They entered 
Paraguay in 1848, where the old Society had achieved 
such triumphs, but were allowed to remain there 
only three years. They asked the Chilian government 
to let them evangelize the fierce Araucanian savages, 
but this was refused. At the death of the dictator Rosas 
is. 1873, they again went to Argentina and have not 
since been disturbed. They have had the same good 
fortune in Chile. 

A different condition of things, however, obtained 
in Brazil. In the very year that Rosas died in Argen- 
tina, 1873, the Jesuit College of Olinda in Brazil was 
looted and the Fathers expelled. The reason was not 
that the Jesuits were objectionable but that the bishop 
had suspended a young ecclesiastic who was a Free- 
mason. The College of Pernambuco was wrecked by 
a mob, and one of the priests was dangerously wounded. 
Worse treatment was meted out to them when the 
Emperor, Don Pedro, was deposed in 1889. Since 
then, however, there has been comparatively no trouble. 

Of course, when the Piedmontese broke down the 
Porta Pia the Jesuits had to leave Rome, where until 
then they had undisturbed. The novitiate of Sant' 
Andrea was the first to be seized; then St. Eusebio, the 
house of the third probation, and after that, St. Vitalis, 
the Gesxi, and finally the Roman College. The occupants 
had three months to vacate the premises. The other 
religious orders whose general or procurator resided at 
Rome could retain one house for the transaction of 
business but that indulgence was not granted to the 
Jesuits. Their General was not to remain, and hence 
Father Peter Beckx, though then seventy-eight years 
old, had to depart with his brethren for Fiesole, where 
he was received in the family of the Counts of Ricasole 

A Century of Disaster 763 

on November 9, 1873. Prom that place he governed 
the Society until the year 1884, when he was succeeded 
by Father Anthony Anderledy, who remained in the 
same city until he died. Father Luis Martin, the 
next General, returned to Rome in 1893, so that Piesole 
was the centre of the Society for twenty years. 

As the chief representative of Christ on Earth is the 
most prominent victim of these spoliations, and as 
he has been frequently driven into exile and is at 
present only tolerated in his own territory, the Society 
of Jesus with the other religious orders cannot consider 
it a reproach but rather a glory to be treated like him. 
How does the Society survive all these disasters? 
It continues as if nothing had happened, and one reads 
with amazement the statement of Father General 
"Wernz at the meeting of the procurators held in 
September and October 1910, when in a tone that is 
almost jubilant he congratulates the Society on its 
" flourishing condition." He said in brief: 

"There are .five new provinces; a revival of the 
professed houses; new novitiates, scholasticates, ter- 
tianships and courses in the best colleges for students of 
special subjects; and a superior course for Jesuit 
students of canon law in the Gregorian University. 
Next year there are to be accommodations for 300 
theologians (boarders) at Innsbruck, which institution 
will be a Collegium Maximum for philosophy, theology 
and special studies. The novitiate is to be moved to 
the suburbs of Vienna. In the province of Galicia 
sufficient ground has been bought to make the College 
of Cracow similar to Innsbruck, and a beautiful 
church is being built there. The province of Germany 
though dispersed has built in Holland an immense 
novitiate and house of retreats and the Luxemburg 
house of writers is to be united to the Collegium 
Maximum of Valkenburg. The Holland province 

764 The Jesuits 

has more diplomated professors than any other in the 
Society, and is about to build a new scholasticate. 
Louvain is becoming more and more a house of special 
studies. In England, the Campion house at Oxford 
is continuing its success and there is question of moving 
St. Beuno's. The Irish province is looking for another 
site for the novitiate and juniorate, and is using the 
University to form better teachers. Canada is looking 
for another place for its novitiate and so are Mexico, 
Brazil and Argentina, while Maryland is trying to put 
its scholasticate near New York. 

" Not much remains to be done in Spain. However, 
Toledo has estabEshed a scholasticate in Murcia, and 
Aragon is planning one for Tarragona. Prance is 
dispersed, but it has furnished excellent professors 
for the Biblical Institute and the Gregorian University. 
In the mission of Calcutta, 130,000 pagans have been 
brought to the Faith and in one Chinese mission, 
12,000. The numbers could be doubled if there were 
more workers." This was in 1910, and within a week 
of this pronouncement, the expulsion in Portugal took 
place; in 1914 the war broke out which shattered 
Belgium and made Prance more wretched than ever. 
What the future will be no one knows. 



During the Suppression Roothaan's appeal South America 
The Philippines United States Indians De Smet Canadian 
Reservations Alaska British Honduras China India Syria 
Algeria Guinea Egypt Madagascar Mashonaland 
Congo Missions depleted by World War Actual number of mis- 

BESIDES its educational work, the Society of Jesus 
has always been eager for desperate and daring work 
among savages. At the time of the Suppression, 
namely in 1773 three thousand of its members were so 
employed; and the ruthless and cruel separation from 
those abandoned human beings was one of the darkest 
and gloomiest features of the tragedy. To all human 
appearances millions of heathens were thus hopelessly 
lost. Happily the disaster was not as great as was 
anticipated. In his " Christian Missions " Marshall 
says: It would almost seem as if God had resolved to 
justify his servants by a special and marvellous Provi- 
dence before the face of the whole world, and had left 
their work to what seemed inevitable ruin and decay 
only to show that neither the world nor the devil, 
neither persecution, nor fraud nor neglect could 
extinguish the life that was in it. And so when they 
came to look upon it, after sixty years of silence and 
desolation they found a living multitude where they 
expected to count only the corpses of the dead. Some 
indeed had failed, and paganism or heresy had sung 
its song of triumph over the victims; others had 
retained only the great truths of the Trinity and the 
Incarnation while ignorance and its twin sister, super- 
stition, had spread a veil over their eyes, but still 


766 The Jesuits 

the prodigious fact was revealed that in India alone 
that there were more than one' million natives who, after 
half a century of abandonment, still clung with 
constancy to the faith which had been preached to 
their fathers, and still bowed the head with loving 
awe when the names of their departed apostles were 
uttered amongst them. Such is the astonishing con- 
clusion of a trial without parallel in the history of 
Christianity, and which if it had befallen the Christians 
of other lands, boasting their science and civilization, 
might perhaps have produced other results than 
among the despised Asiatics. The natural inference 
would be that besides this special Providence in their 
regard these neophytes had been well trained by their 
old masters (I, 246). 

For a time, of course, there were some Jesuits who 
lingered on the missions in spite of the government's 
orders to the contrary. Thus we find a very dis- 
tinguished man, a Tyrolese from Bolzano, who died at 
Lucknow on July 5, 1785. His name was Joseph 
Tiffenthaller and he had Kved forty years in Hindostan. 
His -tombstone, we are told, may be still seen in the 
cemetery of Agra where they laid his precious remains. 
He was a man of unusual ability and besides speaking 
his native tongue was familiar with Latin, Italian, 
Spanish, French, Hindustanee, Arabic, Persian and 
Sanscrit. He was the first European who wrote a 
description of Hindostan. It is a detailed account of 
the twenty-two Provinces of India, with their cities, 
towns, fortresses, whose geographical situations were 
all calculated by means of a simple quadrant. The 
work contains a large number of maps, plans and 
sketches drawn by himself and the list of places fills 
twenty-one quarto pages. He also made a large 
atlas of the basin of the Ganges, and is the author of 
a treatise on the regions in which the rivers of India 

Modern Missions 767 

rise; a map of the Gagra which Bernoulli calls "a 
work of enormous labor " is another part of Tiffen- 
thaller's relics. 

In the field of religion he wrote books on " Brah- 
martism," " Indian Idolatry," " Indian Asceticism," 
" The religonof theParseesand Mohammedanism with 
their relations to each other." He also published 
his astronomical observations 'on the sun-spots, on the 
zodiacal light, besides discussions on the astrology and 
cosmology of the Hindus, with descriptions of the 
flora and the fauna of the country. He was besides 
all that an historian, and has left us an account in 
Latin of the origin and religion of the Hindus, another 
in German of the expedition of Nadir Shah to India ; 
a third in Persian about the deeds of the Great Mogul, 
Alam, and a fourth in French which tells of the incur- 
sions of the Afghans and the capture of Delhi, together 
with a contemporary history of India for the years 
1757-64. In linguistics, he wrote a ' Parsee-Sanscrit 
lexicon and treatises in Latin on the Parsee language, 
the pronunciation of Latin, etc., He was held in the 
highest esteem by the scientific societies of Europe 
with which he was in communication. During the 
greater part of his life in India, the struggle was going 
on between the French and English for the possession 
of the Peninsula. 

Of course he was not alone in India, at that time, 
for Bertrand tells us in his " Notions sur T Inde et 
les missions " (p. 30) that " the Jesuits had a residence 
at Delhi as late as 1790", but, unfortunately, he could 
say nothing more about them. It is very likely, 
however, that when Pombars agents attempted to 
crowd the 127 Jesuits who were at work in the various 
districts of Hindostan into a ship which had accommo- 
dations and such accommodations for only forty 
or fifty, many of them had perforce to be left behind, 

768 The Jesuits 

or perhaps failed to report at the place of emharcation. 
By keeping out of Ooa, they could easily elude the 
pursuivants. The jungle, for instance, was a con- 
venient hiding place. However, as they received no 
recruits the work went to pieces when the old heroes 
died, so that there were, most likely, no Jesuits there 
at the beginning of the nineteenth century. It was 
just at this time, that England took possession of the 
greater part of Hindostan and, as a consequence, the 
country was soon swarming with Protestant parsons 
of every sect, eager to fill their depleted ranks with 
new converts from the East. 

Marshall had been employed to report on their 
success, but as every one knows, the investigation 
brought him to the Church. His researches furnish 
very reliable and interesting information about the 
conditions prevailing in those parts among the old 
proselytes of the Jesuits. Quoting from the " Madras 
Directory " of 1857, he shows that in the Missions of 
Madura, founded by de Nobili, there were still 130,000 
Catholics, and in Verapoli as many as 300,000, with an 
accession of 1000 converts from Mohammedanism 
every year. Nor were these Hindus merely nominal 
Christians. Bertrand who knew India thoroughly, 
writing in 1838, says of the Sanars: "One might 
almost say that they have not eaten of the tree of 
knowledge of good and evil with Adam, and that 
they were created in the days of original innocence. 
Among these Hindus there are numbers who when asked 
whether they commit this or that sin, answer : * Formerly 
[ did, but that is many years ago. I told it to the 
Father, and he forbade me to do it. Since then I 
lave not committed it.' We reckon more than 7000 
Christians of this caste/' Father Gamier, S. J. wrote 
n the same year as follows: "The Christians of this 
country are, in general, well disposed and strongly 

Modern Missions 769 

attached to the Faith. The usages introduced among 
them by the Jesuits still subsist; morning prayer in 
common, an hour before sunrise; evening prayer with 
spiritual reading; catechism for the children every 
day given by a catechist ; Mass on Sunday in the chapel. 
But in spite of these excellent practices there still 
remains much ignorance and superstition, and we shall 
have a good deal to do to form them into a people 
of true Christians before we turn our attention to the 
pagans. We shall do that when we are more numerous." 

Of course these testimonies of Jesuits may be rejected 
by some people, but the Protestant missionaries in 
Hindostan, at that time, leave no room for doubt about 
the actual conditions. Buchanan, for instance, who 
was particularly conspicuous among his fellows and 
was greatly extolled in England says: " There are in 
India members of the Church of Rome who deserve the 
affection and respect of all good men. From Cape 
Commorin to Cochin, there are about one hundred 
churches on the seashore alone. Before each is a lofty 
cross which like the church itself is seen from a great 
distance. At Jaffna, on Sundays, about a thousand 
or twelve hundred people attend church and on feast 
days three thousand and upward. At Manaar they are 
all Romish Christians. At Tutycorin, the whole of 
the tribe, without exception, are Christians in the 
Romish Communion. Before they hoist sail to go out 
to sea, a number of boatmen all join in prayer to God 
for protection. Every man at his post, with the rope 
in his hands, pronounces the prayer." 

One of these parsons who bore the very inappropriate 
name of Joseph Mullens and whose writing is usually 
a shriek against the Church says that " in 1854, the 
Jesuit and Roman Catholic missions are spread very 
widely through the Madras Presidency. At Pubna 
there is a population of 13,000 souls. It is all due to 


770 The Jesuits 

the Catholic missionaries. I allow that they dress 
simply, eat plainly and have no luxuries at home; 
they travel much; are greatly exposed; live poorly, 
and toil hard, and I have heard of a bishop living in 
a cave on fifty rupees a month, and devoutly attending 
the sick when friends and relatives had fled from fear. 
But all that is much easier on the principles of a 
Jesuit who is supported by motives of self -righteous- 
ness than it is to be a faithful minister on t*he principles 
of the New Testament. " 

The bloody persecution of 1805 in China showed 
how fervent and strong those Christians were in 
their faith. Very few apostatized, though new and 
terrible punishments were inflicted on them. Dr. Wells 
Williams, a Protestant agent in China, says that 
" many of them exhibited the greatest constancy in 
their profession, suffering persecution, torture, banish- 
ment and death, rather than deny their faith, though 
every inducement of prevarication and mental reser- 
vation was held out to them by the magistrates, in 
order to avoid the necessity of proceeding to extreme 
measures.*' It came to an end only when it was 
discovered that Christianity had even entered the 
royal family, and that the judges were sometimes 
trying their own immediate relatives. In 1 8 1 5 , however, 
the very year that the Protestant missionaries arrived 
in China the persecution broke out again. Bishop 
Dufresse was one of the victims, and when the day of 
execution arrived he with thirty-two other martyrs 
ascended the scaffold. In 1818 many were sent to the 
wastes of Tatary, and 1823 when pardon was offered 
to all who would renounce their faith, after suffering 
in the desert for five years only five proved recreant. 
In the midst of all this storm one of the missionaries 
reported that he had baptized one hundred and six 

Modern Missions 771 

That a great many Chinese had remained faithful 
CathoEcs during the long period which had elapsed 
after the Suppression was manifested by a notable 
event recorded by Brou in " Les Jgsuites Mission- 


"On November i, 1903, " he writes "a funeral 
ceremony took place in Zikawei, a town situated about 
six miles from Shanghai. It was more like the triumph 
of a great hero than an occasion of mourning. The 
people were in a state of great enthusiasm about it, 
and assembled in immense throngs around the tomb 
of the illustrious personage whose glories were b'eing 
celebrated. The object of these honors was Paul Zi 
or Sin, a literary celebrity in his day, the prime minister 
of an emperor in the long past, and one of the first 
converts of the famous Father Ricci, whom he had 
aided with lavish generosity in building churches and 
in establishing the Faith in the neighborhood of 

" The celebration of 1903 was the third centenary 
of his baptism, and all his relations or descendants 
who were very numerous, had gathered at Zikawei 
for the occasion. Among them, the Fathers discovered 
a great number of Christians who had remained true 
to the teachings of the Church during those 300 years; 
and there were many others throughout the country 
who resembled the Zi family in this particular. In 
Paul's district, that is in the neighborhood of Shanghai, 
there were, 60 years after the baptism of the great 
man, as many as 40,000 Christians, and in 1683 the 
number had risen to 800,000, but a century later the 
persecutions had cut them down to 30,000 though 
doubtless there were many who had succeeded in 
concealing themselves. * * 

With Cochin the Jesuits never had anything to do, 
except that their great hero, de Rhodes, was its first 

772 The Jesuits 

successful missionary in former days. It was at his 
suggestion that the Society of the Missions Etrangres 
was founded and took up the work which the Jesuits 
were unable to cany on alone. 

About Corea, Marshall furnishes us with two very 
interesting facts. The first is that England had the 
honor of giving a martyr to Corea, the English Jesuit, 
Thomas King, who died there in 1788, that is fifteen 
years after the Suppression. Unfortunately the name 
"King" does not appear in Foley's "Records/* 

The second is vouched for by the " Annales " (p. 190) 
which relate that a French priest, known as M. de 
Maistre, had for ten years vainly endeavored to enter 
the forbidden kingdom and had spent 60,000 francs in 
roaming around its impenetrable frontier. He assumed 
all sorts of disguises, faced every kind of danger in 
his journeys from the ports of China to the deserts of 
Leao-tong, asking alternately the Chinese junks and 
the French ships to put him ashore somewhere on the 
coast. Death was so evidently to be the result of 
his enterprise that the most courageous seaman refused 
to help him. It required the zeal of an apostle to 
comprehend this heroism and to second its endeavors. 
Father H61ot, being a priest, understood what the 
Cross required of him, and as a member of a society 
whose tradition is that they have never been baffled 
by any difficulties or perils, felt himself at the post 
where his Company desired him to be. The Jesuit 
becomes the pilot of a battered ship, safely conducts 
his intrepid passenger to an unknown land, and having 
deposited him on the shore, looked after him for a 
while and returned to his neophytes with the consoling 
satisfaction of having exposed his life for a mission 
that was not his own. 

From the Catalogues of the Society, we find that 
Louis Hflot was born on January 29, 1816. He was 

Modern Missions 773 

a novice at St. Acheul,in 1835, and in the same house 
there happened to be a certain Isidore Daubresse, 
not a novice, however, but a theologian who was well- 
known later on in New York. The master of novices 
was Ambrose Rubillon who was subsequently assistant 
of the General for France. By 1850 Hflot was in 
China and spent the rest of his life hunting after souls in 
the region of Nankin. He died sometime after 1864. 
De Maistre succeeded in entering the country and we 
find him waiting one Good Friday night to welcome 
the first bishop who had three priests with him, one 
of whom was a Jesuit. 

Before the re-establishment the few Jesuits in White 
Russia had kept up the missionary traditions of the 
Society. Their missions extended all along the Volga 
and they were at Odessa in 1800. In 1801, thanks to 
the Emperor Paul's intercession, they had returned 
to their ancient posts on the JEgean Islands, which 
were in the dominions of the Grand Turk; by 1806 they 
had reached Astrakhan; and in 1810 were in the Cau- 
casus. Before Father Grassi came to America, he 
was studying in St. Petersburg to prepare himself 
for the missions of Astrakhan. 

In America, in spite of the Suppression, the work 
of the old Jesuits did not fail to leave its traces. Thus 
in Brazil where Nobrega and Anchieta once labored, 
over 800,000 domesticated Indians now represent the 
fruit of their toil. Deprived during sixty years of 
their fathers and guides and too often scandalized by 
men who are Christians only in name, the native 
races have not only preserved the Faith through all 
their sorrows and trials, but every where rejected the 
bribes and promises of heresy. In that vast region, which 
stretches from the mouth of the San Francisco to the 
Isthmus of Panama, watered by the mightiest rivers 
of our globe, and including the district of the Amazon 

774 The Jesuits 

with its 45,000 miles of navigable water communication, 
" the natives who still find shelter in its forests or 
guide their barks over its myriad streams," says a 
Protestant writer, "push their profession of the 
Catholic religion even to the point of fanaticism.'' 

The Paraguayans of course could be counted upon not 
to forget their fathers in Christ. Both Sir Woodbine 
Parish and d'Orbigny testify that the effects of the 
preponderating influence of the monastic establish- 
ments are still visible in the habits of the generality 
of the people. One thing is certain, they say, and 
ought to be declared to the praise of the Fathers, 
that since their expulsion the material prosperity of 
Paraguay has diminished; many lands formerly culti- 
vated have ceased to be so; many localities formerly 
inhabited present at this day only ruins. What ought 
to be confessed is this that they knew how to engrave 
with such power, on their hearts, reverence for authority 
that even to this very hour the tribes of Paraguay 
beyond all those who inhabit this portion of America 
are the most gentle and the most submissive to the 
dictates of duty. 

In " La Compania de Jesds en las Republicas del Sur 
de America," Father Hernandez tells us that there 
were three former Jesuits in Chile at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century: Father Caldera, Vildaurre 
and Carvajal. The first two died respectively in 1818 
and 1822, the date of CarvajaTs demise is not known, 
nor is there any information available as to whether 
or not they ever re-entered the Society. In the old 
Province of Paraguay, there was a Father Villafane 
who was seventy-four years old in 1814. Hearing of 
the re-establishment, he wrote to the Pope asking to 
renew his vows when "in danger of death." The 
request, of course, was granted but he continued to 
live till the year 1830. Whether he waited till then 

Modern Missions 775 

to renew his vows has not been found out. In that 
same year there died in Buenos Aires an Irish Jesuit 
named Patrick Moran. His name is inscribed not 
only on the headstone over his remains, in the Recolta 
graveyard, but on a slab inserted "in the wall of the 
church. He was probably a chaplain in some dis- 
tinguished family or what was more likely exercising 
his ministry in the Irish colony of that place. 

Coming to the northern part of the hemisphere we 
are told by Mr. Russell Bartlett that the Yaqui Indians 
of Sonora, the fishermen and pearl divers of California 
are invariably honest, faithful and industrious. They 
were among the first to be converted by the Jesuits. 
Originally extremely warlike, their savage nature was 
completely subdued on being converted to Christianity, 
and they became the most docile and tractable of 
people. They are now very populous in the southern 
part of Sonora. 

Anyone who has visited the Abenakis at Old Town 
in Maine, or La Jeune Lorette in Quebec, or Caugh- 
nawaga on the St. Lawrence, or the Indian settlements 
at Wekwemikong and Killarney on Lake Huron will 
testify to the excellent results of the teachings implanted 
in their hearts by the old Jesuit missionaries who 
reclaimed them from savagery. 

A most remarkable example of this fidelity to their 
former teachers was afforded by the Indians of Caugh- 
nawaga. They were mostly Iroquois from New York 
who after their conversion to the Faith were sent or 
went, of their own accord, to the Christian village 
that was assigned to them above Montreal. Long 
after the Suppression of the Society, namely in the 
first third of the nineteenth century, a party of these 
Indians headed by two chiefs with the significant 
names of Ignace and Frangois R6gis tramped almost 
completely across the continent, and without the aid 

776 The Jesuits 

of a priest, for none could be got, converted an entire 
tribe to Christianity and did it in such wonderful 
fashion that the first white men who visited these 
converts were amazed at the purity, honesty, self- 
restraint and piety 'that reigned in the tribe. Over 
and over again, Ignace travelled down to St. Louis, 
thus making a journey of two thousand miles each 
time to beg for a Black Robe from the poor missionary 
bishop who had none to give him. The devoted Ignace, 
at last, lost his life in pursuance of his apostolic purpose. 
He fell among hostile Indians, and though he might 
have escaped, for he was dressed as a white man, he 
confessed himself an Iroquois and died with his people. 

Father Fortis, the first General after the re-establish- 
ment of the Society, was rather averse to any missionary 
enterprise for the time being, because he judged that 
he had not as yet any available men for such perilous 
work. Father Roothaan, his immediate successor, was 
of a different opinion, and when in 1833, he appealed 
for missionaries the response was immediate. Hence 
Bengal was begun in 1834; Madura, Argentina and 
Paraguay in 1836, and the Rocky Mountains and 
China in 1840. In 1852 at the request of Napoleon 
III the penal colony of French Guinea was accepted as 
were the offers of Fernando Po in Africa and the 
Philippines from Queen Isabella of Spain. 

The Spanish missions in Latin America were the 
least successful of any in the Society, The Fathers 
were debarred from any communication with the 
native tribes, even those formerly Christianized and 
civilized by them, or if permission were granted it 
was soon under some frivolous pretext or other res- 
cinded, as we have mentioned above. 

The Belgian Jesuits went to Guatemala in 1843, 
but only after considerable trouble was their existence 
assured by a government Act, in 1851, In 1871, 

Modern Missions 777 

however, they were expelled and withdrew to Nicaragua, 
from which they were driven in 1884. The Brazilian 
Mission was inaugurated by the Jesuits whom Rosas 
had exiled from Argentina. They were acceptable 
because priests were needed in the devastated Province 
of Rio Grande do Sul, which had been the theatre of 
an unsuccessful war of independence. Of course, 
the usual government methods in vogue in that part 
of the world were resorted to. 

The suppression of the Society wrought havoc in 
the Philippines, and we are told that in 1836 as many 
as 6000 people were carried off into slavery by Moham- 
medan pirates, a disaster that would have probably 
been prevented had the missionaries been left there. 
They would have made soldiers out of the natives 
as they did in Paraguay. It was only in 1859 ^at 
they returned to that field of work. They resumed 
their . educational labors in Manila and at the same 
time evangelized Mindanao with wonderful success. 
In 1881 there were on that island 194,134 Christians 
and in 1893, 302,107. Inside of thirty-six years, the 
Fathers had brought 57,000 Filipinos to the Faith 
and established them in Reductions as in Paraguay. 
Great success was also had with the Moros,- who were 
grouped together in three distinct villages. The 
Spanish War brought its disturbances, but little by 
little the Jesuits recovered what they had lost and 
there are at present 162 members of the province of 
Aragon at work in the Islands. 

In the United States, the native races have largely 
disappeared except in the very far West. With the 
remnants, the Jesuits are, of course, concerned, and 
perhaps the most reliable official estimate of the success 
they have achieved was expressed by Senator Vest 
during the discussion of the Indian Appropriation 
Bill before the United States Senate in 1900; 

778 The Jesuits 

" I was raised a Protestant," he said; " I expect to 
die one. I was never in a Catholic church in my life, 
and I have not the slightest sympathy with many of 
its dogmas; but above all I have no respect for the 
insane fear that the Catholic Church is about to over- 
turn this Government. I should be ashamed to 
call myself an American if I indulged in any such 
ignorant belief. I said that I was a Protestant. I 
was reared in the Scotch Presbyterian Church; my 
father was an elder in it and my earliest impressions 
were that the Jesuits had horns and hoofs and tails, 
and that there was a faint tinge of sulphur in the 
circumambient air whenever one of them crossed 
youf path. Some years ago I was assigned by the 
Senate to examine the Indian schools in Wyoming 
and Montana. I visited every one of them. I wish 
to say now what I have said before in the Senate 
and it is not the popular side of the question by any 
means, that I did not see in all my journey a single 
school that was doing any educational work worthy of 
the name educational work, unless it was under the con- 
trol of the Jesuits. I did not see a single Government 
school, especially day schools where there was any work 
done at all. The Jesuits have elevated the Indian wher- 
ever they have been allowed to do so without the inter- 
ference of bigotry and fanaticism and the cowardice 
of politicians. They have made him a Christian, have 
made him a workman able to support himself and those 
dependent on him. Go to the Flathead Reservation 
in Montana, and look at the work of the Jesuits and 
what do you find? Comfortable dwellings, herds of 
cattle and horses, self-respecting Indian?. I am not 
afraid to say this, because I speak from personal 
observation, and no man ever went among these 
Indians with more intense prejudice than I had when 
I left the city of Washington to perform that duty. 

Modern Missions 779 

Every dollar you give to the Government day schools 
might as well be thrown into the Potomac under a 
ton of lead." (Congressional Records, Apl. 7, 1900,, 
p. 7- 4120.) 

The most conspicuous of the missionaries among 
the North American Indians is Father Peter de Smet. 
He was born in Dendermonde on the Scheldt, 
and was twelve years old when the booming of the 
cannons of Waterloo startled the little town. He 
came out to Maryland in 1821 and after remaining 
for a short time at Whitemarsh in the log cabin which 
then sheltered the novices of the Province of Mary- 
land, set out on foot with a party of young Jesuits for 
the then Wild West. They walked from Whitemarsh 
to Wheeling, a distance of 400 miles, and then went 
in fiat boats down the Ohio to Shawneetown and from 
there proceeded again on foot to St. Louis. It was a 
journey of a month and a half. 

His first work was among the Pottawotamis, and 
then he was sent to the wonderful Platheads, whom 
the Iroquois from Caughnawaga had converted. 
From that time forward his life was like a changing 
panorama. In the story, there are Indians of every 
kind who come before us. Gros Ventres and Flatheads 
and Pottawotamis, and Pend d'Oreilles and Sioux; 
their incantations and cannibalism and dances and 
massacres and disgusting feasts are described; there 
are scenes in the Bad Lands and mountains and forests; 
there are tempests in the mid-Pacific and more alarming 
calms; there are councils with Indian chiefs, and inter- 
views with Popes and presidents and kings and ambas- 
sadors and archbishops and great statesmen and 
Mormon leaders, always and exclusively in the interests 
of the Church. The great man's life has been written 
in four volumes by two admiring Protestants, and 
another biography has lately come from the pen of a 

780 The Jesuits 

Belgian Jesuit. In them appears an utterance from 
Archbishop Purcell about 'the hero, which deserves to 
be quoted. " Never," he says, "since the days of Xavier, 
Brebeuf, Marquette and Lalemant has there been a 
missionary more clearly pointed out and called than 
Father de Smet" Thurlow Weed, one of the most 
conspicuous American statesmen of the day, said of 
him: " No white man knows the Indians as Father de 
Smet nor has any man their confidence to the same 
degree." Thomas H. Benton wrote to him in 1832: 
" You can do more for the welfare of the Indians in 
keeping them at peace and friendship with the United 
States than an army with banners." 

Again and again he was sent by the government to 
pacify the Indians. His mission in 1868 was partic- 
ularly notable. Sitting Bull was on the warpath 
and was devastating the whole regions of the Upper 
Missouri and Yellowstone. They were called for a 
parley, and de Smet went out alone among the painted 
warriors. He held a banner of the Blessed Virgin in 
his hand and pleaded so earnestly with them to forget 
the past, that they went down into the very midst of 
the United States troops and signed the treaty of 
peace that brought 50,000 Indians to continue their 
allegiance to the government. De Smet in his journeys 
had crossed the ocean nineteen times and had travelled 
180,000 miles by sailing vessels, river barges, canoes, 
dogsleds, snow shoes, wagons, or on horseback or on 
foot. " We shall never forget," said General Stanley 
of the United States Army and this eulogy of the 
great man will suffice " nor shall we ever cease to 
admire the disinterested devotion of Reverend Father 
de Smet who at the age of sixty-eight years did not 
hesitate, in the midst of the summer heat, to undertake 
a long and perilous journey across the burning plains, 
destitute of trees and even of grass, having none but 

Modern Missions 781 

corrupted and unwholesome water, constantly exposed 
to scalping by Indians, and this without seeking 
honor or remuneration of any sort but solely to arrest 
the shedding of blood, and save, if it might be, some 
lives and preserve some habitations." 

In Canada, the Indian reservation of La Jeune 
Lorette, which was established in the early days by 
Father Chaumonot, is now directed by the secular 
clergy of Quebec. The Caughnawaga settlement near 
Montreal was, of course, lost to the Society at the time 
of the Suppression, but of late years has been restored 
to its founders. The Canadian Jesuits also look after 
the Indians of Lakes Huron and Superior. Their latest 
undertaking is in Alaska which began by a tragedy. 

The saintly Bishop Charles John Seghers, who was 
coadjutor to the Bishop of Oregon, had himself trans- 
ferred to the See of Vancouver in order to devote his 
life to the savages of Alaska. In 1886 when he asked 
the Jesuits to come to his assistance, Fathers Tosi 
and Robaut were assigned to the work. In July, the 
bishop, the two Jesuits and a hired man started over 
the Chilcoot Pass for the headwaters of the Yukon. 
It was decided that the two Jesuits should spend the 
winter at the mouth of the Stewart River, while the 
Bishop with his man hastened to a distant post to 
forestall the members of a sect, who contemplated 
establishing a post at the same place. During the 
terrible 1,100 mile journey the servant became insane 
and in the dead of night killed the bishop. The result 
was that new arrangements had to be made and Father 
Tosi was made prefect Apostolic in 1894. His health 
soon gave way under the terrible privations of the mis- 
sion and he died in 1898, although only fifty-one years of 
age. He was succeeded by Father Ren6 of the Society 
who resigned in 1904, and the present incumbent Father 
Crimont, S. J., took his place. 

782 The Jesuits 

The condition of Alaska has greafly" changed 
since the advent of the missionaries. The discovery 
of placer gold deposits with the influx of miners robbed 
a portion of Alaska of its primitive isolation. The 
invading whites had to be looked after, and hence 
there are resident Jesuit priests at Juneau, Douglas, 
Fairbanks, Nome, Skagway, St. Michael and Seward. 
A great number of posts are attended to from these 
centres. The Ten'a Indians and Esquimaux are the 
only natives whom the missionaries have been able 
to evangelize thus far. There is a training-school 
for them at Koserefsky, where the boys are taught 
gardening, carpentry and smithing of various kinds, 
and the girls are instructed in cooking, sewing and other 
household arts. This work is particularly trying not 
only because of the bodily suffering it entails, but because 
of the awful monotony and isolation of those desolate 
arctic regions. Some idea of it may be gathered 
from a few extracts taken from a letter of one of the 
missionaries.. It is dated May 29, 1916. 

"The Sktilarak district of 15,000 square miles, 
depending on St. Mary's Mission," says the writer, 
" is as large as a diocese. It has seventy or eighty 
villages. The whole country along the coast is a vast 
swamp covered with a net work of rivers, sloughs, 
kkes nd ponds. There is only one inhabitant to 
every ten or twelve square miles. There is no question 
of roads except in winter and then as everything is 
deep in snow, it is impossible to tell whether one is 
going over land or lake or river. When we started the 
thermometer registered 28 below zero, Fahrenheit. 
We had nine dogs; but two were knocked out shortly 
after starting. Eleven hours travelling brought us 
to our first cabins. We rose next morning at five, said 
Mass on an improvised altar and set out southward. 
At noon we stopped for lunch, which consisted of frozen 

Modern Missions 783 

bread and some tea from our thermo bottle. It was 
only at seven o'clock that we reached a little 'village' 
of three houses at the foot of the Kusilwak Mountains, 
which are two or three thousand feet high. They served 
as a guide to direct our course. ' * At another stage of the 
journey he writes: " At sundown as we lost all hope of 
reaching any village we made for a faraway clump of 
brushwood intending to pass the night there. It is full 
moon and its rays light up an immaculate white 
landscape, there is a bright cloudless sky, and every- 
thing is so still that you cannot even breathe without 
a plainly audible sound/' 

What kind of people was he pursuing? Not very 
interesting in any way, " I came upon a new style 
of native dwelling, a low-roofed miserable hovel about 
twelve feet square; in the centre, a pit, about two and 
a half feet deep, was the sink and dumping ground for 
the refuse of the house. There we had to descend 
if we wanted the privilege of standing erect. That is 
where I placed myself to perform a baptism of the latest 
arrival of the family whom t the mother held on her 
lap squatted on the higher ground which served as 
a bed. The habits of the natives cannot be described." 
" Our dogs were so exhausted," he says in the course 
of his narrative, "that they lay down at once without 
waiting to have their harness taken off. We fed them 
their ration of dry fish, they curled up in the snow and 
went to sleep. As for ourselves we tried to build 
a fire but could not succeed in boiling enough of melted 
snow for even a cup of tea; a box of sardines, the 
contents of which were so frozen that I had to chop 
them up with the prong of a fork constituted my royal 
supper. A hole was soon dug in the snow, by using 
the snow shoes for a shovel and a few sticks thrown 
in to prevent direct contact with the snow. I opened 
my bag of blankets, put on my fur parkey and tried 

784 The Jesuits 

to keep the blankets around me to keep from freezing. 
After a couple of hours I felt my limbs getting numb, 
and I was compelled to crawl out and look around for 
a hard mound of snow where I began to execute a 
dance that would baffle the best orchestra. I jigged 
and clogged around for fifteen or twenty minutes, and 
feeling I was alive again sought my blankets once more, 
but the cold was too intense and I could only say 
a few prayers and make a peaceful application of the 
meditation * de propriis peccatis.' 

" Another time, after fruitlessly scanning the horizon 
for a sign of a village, we found ourselves compelled 
to pass the night in the open air. This time I con- 
structed a scientific Pullman berth for myself. 
Selecting the leeward side of an ice block, I dug a trench 
in the snow, using the fire-pan as a shovel. I hewed out 
the pillow at the head and made the grave (indeed it 
looked like one) about two feet wide and two deep 
and my exact length. Stretching my cassock over it, 
with the snow shoes as a supporting rack, I crawled 
into it and passed a tolerably comfortable night, 
though I awoke dozens of times from the violent 
coughing that had stuck to me since my stay in 
Tumna. So it went on till April 8. We had been 
three weeks on the road. Never had the trip to 
Tumna lasted so long. This was due to the fact that 
the dogs were exhausted and we had to walk back 
for about 250 miles in the snow." 

The missionaries of the old Society would recognize 
this light hearted modern American apostle as their 

Another example in a region which is the -very 
opposite of Alaska will convince the skeptic that the 
modern Jesuit retains the old heroic spirit of the 
missions. This time we are in the deadly swamps 
and forests of British Honduras and the apostle there 

Modern Missions 785 

is Father William Stanton of the Missouri province. 
As a scholastic he was teaching the dark skinned boys 
of Belize and incidentally gathering numberless speci- 
mens of tropical flora and fauna for the Smithsonian 
Institute in Washington. From there he went to the 
other end of the earth and was put at scientific work 
in the Observatory at Manila. He was the first 
American priest ordained in the Philippines, and his 
initial ministerial work was to attend to the American 
soldiers, who were dying by scores of cholera. After 
that we find him again in Honduras, no longer in college 
but in the bush with about 800 Maya Indians, whose 
language he did not know but soon learned. He was 
still a naturalist but first of all he was absorbed in 
the care of the lazy and degraded Indians. His hut 
was made of sticks plastered with mud and thatched 
with palm leaves and he was all alone. 

"Roads! Roads!*' he writes, "they are simply 
unspeakable. It's only a little over nine miles from 
Benque Viejo to Cayo but it took me five hours to do 
it on horseback. Rain and the darkness caught me. 
It was so dark I could not see my horse's head but 
my Angel Guardian brought me through all right. 
. . . The only beasts that bother me are the garrapatas 
(ticks). I have to spend from an hour and a half to 
two hours picking them out of my flesh and my whole 
body is thickly peppered with blotchy sores where 
they have left their mark. But one can't expect to 
have everything his own way in this life even in the 
paradise of Benque. By the way, before I forget, 
would you try to send me a wash basin or bowl of 
glazed metal. I have nothing but the huge tin dishpan 
of the kitchen to wash my face in. It's a little inconven- 
ient to scour the grease out every time I want to wash 
and I don't want to fall into real Spanish costMmbres" 
His table was a packing case, his chair a box of 

786 The Jesuits 

tinned goods, his bed four ropes and a mat woven 
of palm leaves. He had one cup, plate and saucer. 

" I have forty stations to get around to, and I haven't 
a decent crucifix, or ciborium, and only one chalice. 
I am not squealing for my house but for the Lord's. 
My good little mud house is a palace, even if the pigs 
and goats of the village do break in now and then to 
make a meal off one's old boots or the scabbard of 
one's machete. My bush church is fine; same archi- 
tecture as my house, only larger. In ch rch, the men 
stand around the walls, while the women and children 
squat on the clay floor and the babies roll all over, 
garbed only in angelic innocence.'* 

Of one of his journeys he writes: " I have just 
returned from a river trip, after being away from 
home thirty-one days moving about from place to 
place among my scattered people on the river b.anks 
and in the bush. My health was good until last week 
when I got a little stroke from the heat, followed 
by several days' fever which put me on my back for 
four days, but I am now myself again. Fortunately 
I had only three more days* journey, and with the help 
of my two faithful Indians I arrived safely at Benque." 
These " three days," though he does not say so, were 
days of torture, and his Indians wondered if they could 
get him back alive. " I am now back as far as Cayo, 
arriving at 1.30 this morning. Everything is flooded 
with mud and water. I must get a horse and get 
out to Benque today, as I hear Father Henneman is 
down with fever. I have ten miles more to make, 
and over a terrible road through the bush, with the 
horse up to his belly in mud and water most of the 
time; but with the Lord's help I hope to be safe at home 
before night. I have been away only a week, having 
made some hundred and sixty miles on horseback, 
the whole of it through a dense jungle. I had to cut 

Modern Missions 787 

my way through with my machete, for the rank vege- 
tation and hanging lianas completely closed the narrow 

He had gone out to visit a village and crossed a ford 
on the way. The river was high and the current 
strong. His horse was swept off his feet and Father 
Stanton slipped out of his saddle and swam beside 
the animal. Some quarter of a mile below there was 
a dangerous fall in the river, but they managed to reach 
the bank a hundred feet above the fall. He caught 
hold of a branch, but it broke and he was swept down 
the stream. With a prayer to his Guardian Angel he 
struck out for the deepest water and went over the fall. 
Some Indians near the bank saw the bearded white 
man go over the roaring cataract and they thought 
he was a wizard, but he went safely through, and then 
with long powerful strokes (he was a marvellous 
swimmer) he made for the bank. Then waving his 
hand to the startled Indians, he cut his way with his 
machete through the bush to look for his horse. 
Another time we find him returning after what he 
calls a " stiff trip, 7 * soaking wet all the time, for he 
had to swim across a swift river with boots and clothes 
on, he was all day in the saddle, was caught one night 
in the jungle in a swamp, pitch dark, knee deep in 
the mud " Clouds of mosquitos and swarms of fiery 
ants had taken their fill of me," he writes, "while the 
blood sucking vampire bats lapped my poor horse. 
We got out all right and I had the consolation of 
being told by an Indian that three big tigers (jaguars) 
had been killed near the place last month." 

On April 13, 1909, he says: "Just at present I am 
flat on my back with an attack of something, apparently 
acute articular rheumatism." He felt it, the first 
time while he was working in the garden. " I simply 
squirmed on the ground and screeched like a wild 

788 The Jesuits 


Indian." And* yet he starts off to Belize on horseback 
to see the doctor, which meant a distant journey of 
four days, and he had to sleep in the bush one night. 
From Belize he returned by water in a "pitpan," 
a freight boat for shallow rivers that can easily upset 
in the slightest current. That meant eight weary 
days without room even to stretch himself out at night; 
with no awning in the day to shield him from the sun 
and frequently drenched by torrential rains. In 
September he is following his horse through the mud 
of the jungle. In October he was sent for again by 
the doctor at Belize, and returns a second time to his 
mission which meant eight days in the forest alone. 

Finally, Father Stanton was ordered home to St. 
Louis, and it was found that his whole body was 
ringed around with a monstrous growth of cancer. 
He died in intense agony, but never spoke of his 
sufferings. In his delirium he was talking about 
Honduras. Only once he said " I am so long a-dying." 
He finally expired on March 10, 1910. He had just 
completed his fortieth year, but his missionary work 
was equal to anything in the old Society. 

When the Jesuits resumed work in China in 1841 they 
found that all over the country there were great 
numbers of natives who had kept the Faith in spite 
of the bitter persecutions to which they had been 
subjected during the absence of the missionaries. 
The Province of Kiang-nan, the capital of which is 
Nankin, and the city where Ricci began his apostolic 
labors, welcomed back the great man's brethren. 

Kiang-nan is a territory half the size of France, 
In the west and south-west it is hilly, but the rest 
of it is an immense plain watered by the Yang-tse- 
Kiang and by countless lakes, streams and canals. 
It is marvellously fertile and furnishes a double crop 
every year. The rivers swarm with fish, and the 

Modern Missions 789 

land with, human beings. In it are many large cities 
such as Shanghai with its 650,000 inhabitants; Tchen- 
Kiang with 170,000, Odi-si with 200,000 and so on. 
Nankin is the residence of the viceroy, and was formerly 
the " Capital of the south/' and the rival of Peldn, 
but later it had only 130,000 people within its walls. 
At present, however, it is reviving and is credited with 
three or four hundred thousand inhabitants. Before 
the Jesuits arrived, the country had been cared for 
by other religious orders, chiefly the Lazarists and the 
Fathers of the Missions EtrangSres. 

In the neighborhood of Shanghai, there were 48,000 
Catholic Chinese who dated back through their 
ancestors to the time of the Jesuit missionaries of the 
seventeenth century. Perhaps four thousand more 
might have been found in the rest of the province, 
but they were submerged in the mass of 45,000,000 
idolaters. The outlook on the whole was consoling, 
for the vicar Apostolic, Mgr. de Besi, had founded 
a seminary, which before 1907 furnished more than 
one hundred native priests. The work of the Holy 
Childhood was enthusiastically carried on, with the 
result that in the years 1847-48, 60,963 names appear 
on the baptismal registers. In 1849 the Jesuits had 
establishments at Nankin, Ousi and along the Grand 
Canal, That year, however, was made gloomy by 
floods, famine and sickness. Nevertheless the trials 
had the good result of compelling the erection of 
orphanages where the Faith could be taught without 
difficulty, In 1852 the revolt against the Manchu 
dynasty broke out, and in 1853 Nankin and Shanghai 
were sacked. Everything Christian disappeared in the 
general carnage; but in 1855 the imperial troops with 
the aid of the French Admiral Laguerre entered 
Shanghai, but Nankin and the provinces remained 
in the hands of the rebels. 

790 The Jesuits 

Certain ecclesiastical changes also occurred at that 
time. Pekin and Nankin disappeared as dioceses, 
and the province of Kiang-nan became a vicariate 
Apostolic, whose administration was entrusted to the 
Jesuits of Paris under Mgr. Borgniet. He was ap- 
pointed in 1856. The vicariate of South-Eastern 
Tche-ly was given to the province of Champagne and 
Mgr. Languillat began his work there with three 
Fathers and 9,475 old Christians, the descendants of 
the neophytes of Pekin. 

In 1860 the Chinese war broke out and the Taipings 
availed themselves of it for another rising. The 
English and French, who were fighting the emperor, 
held different opinions about what to do with the 
rebels, and finally contented themselves with defending 
Shanghai; leaving the rest of the country to be ravaged 
at will. Father Massa was thrown into prison and 
was about to be executed, but contrived to make his 
escape. His brother Louis, however, was put to death 
at Tsai-kia-ouan, along with a crowd of orphans 
whom he was trying to protect. In 1861 Father 
Vuillaume was killed at Pou-tong and others were 
robbed, taken prisoners and ill-treated. In 1862 an 
epidemic of cholera broke out in the province and 
lasted two years; the vicar Apostolic, Mgr. Borgniet, 
sixteen religious and four hundred of the faithful 
succumbed to the pestilence. In the following year 
six more Jesuits died. At this time General Gordon 
was beginning his great career. He was then only 
a major but he reorganized the imperial army, crushed 
the rebels and took Nankin. This gave a breathing 
spell to the missionaries; but in 1868, the Taipings 
were out again, under another name, and anarchy 
reigned for an entire year. 

In the mean time the cities of Shanghai and Zikawei 
had relatively little to suffer, and the end of the war 

Modern Missions 791 

gave the missionaries the right to build churches, to 
exercise the ministry everywhere, and even to be 
compensated for the destruction of their property* 
But the rights were merely on paper, and fourteen 
or fifteen years of quarrels with every little mandarin 
in the country followed. Nevertheless the work went 
on. At Zikawei, for instance, schools were established, 
a printing-establishment inaugurated, and in 1872 the 
observatory which was soon to be famous in all the 
Orient was begun. Progress was also made at 
Shanghai. Of course the usual burnings and plunder- 
ings, with occasional massacre of groups of Christians 
continued, but not much attention was paid to these 
disturbances until 1878, when the Church at Nankin 
was set on fire, and Sisters of Charity, priests, and 
Christians in general, among whom was the French 
consul, were all ruthlessly murdered. The imperial 
government then took cognizance of the outbreak, 
and eleven alleged culprits were put to death. That 
helped to calm the mob, and evangelical work was 
resumed, so that Kiang-nan, which had 70,685 
Christians in 1866 counted over 100,000 in 1882. 
In the year 1900 there were 124,000 of whom 55,171 
were adults. There were also 50,000 catechumens 
preparing for baptism. The number of priests had 
grown to 159, of whom 42 were Chinese. The 940 
schools had an attendance of 18,563 children 

The Boxer uprising was the most formidable trial 
to which the mission has so far been subjected. It was 
organized in the court itself by Toan, the emperor's 
unde, General Tong-Fou-Siang and the secretary of 
state, Kangi-i, and its rumblings were heard for years 
before the actual outbreak. In Se-tchouan, a third 
of the churches were destroyed, villages set on fire, 
missionaries thrown into prison and many Christians 
massacred. A priest and his people were burned in 

792 The Jesuits 

the church at Kouang-toung; and at Hou-pe, another 
was put to death. These outrages were as yet local, 
but there was every evidence that a general conspiracy 
was at work for the expulsion of all foreigners from 
the empire. Finally the Boxers, or Grand Sabres, 
declared themselves, and by order of the viceroy, 
Yu-heen, 360 Christian villages were destroyed. That 
was only a beginning. Tche4y suffered most. It was 
the stronghold of the rebels. In the autumn of 1899 
there were conflagrations and riots everywhere. In 
1900 the northern part of the mission was in flames, 
and forty-five Christian centres were reduced to ashes, 
but there were few, if any, apostacies, although 
thousands were put to death in the most horrible 
fashion. On June 20 Fathers Isore and Andlauer 
were murdered at the altar. On July 20 Fathers 
Mangin and Denn were killed, and on April 26, 1902, 
after peace had been concluded, Father Lomuller 
with his catechist and servant suffered death. 

In this storm, five missionaries had been killed; 
Mgr. Henry Bulte died of exhaustion; 5,000 Christians 
had disappeared from the country; 616 churches had 
been destroyed along with 381 schools and three 
colleges. But that the blood of martyrs is the seed 
of the Church was shown by the fact that there are 
now more Christians in the district than there were 
before the persecution. The churches have been 
rebuilt; priests and catechists are more numerous; 
the seminary is crowded, and schools and pupils and 
teachers are at work, as if nothing had happened. 
The exact figures may be found in Brou's " JSsuites 
missionaires au xix si6cle." Shanghai and Zikawei 
form the center of the Vicariate of Kiang-nan. In 
Shanghai are a cathedral and three parish churches 
which provide for a CathoEc population of 9,724* 
There are three hospitals; m orphanage with trade 

Modern Missions 793 

schools; six schools; a home for the aged; conferences 
of St. Vincent de Paul. At Zikawei there is a scholas- 
ticate of the Society; a grand and little seminary; 
a meteorological and magnetic observatory; a museum 
of natural history; a college with 266 students, of 
whom 105 are pagans; a printing-house; a bi-weekly 
publication, and the beginnings of a university which 
it is hoped will head off the tendency of the natives 
to go for an education to Japan or to the Japanese 
schools founded in China itself. 

When Gregory XVI sent the Jesuits to China, it 
was thought that from there it would be easy for them 
to go to Japan to resume the work in which they had 
so distinguished themselves in former times. Eighty 
years have passed since then, and only lately, a few 
Jesuits have shown themselves in that country. The 
Fathers of the Missions Etrang&res have occupied 
the ground and have succeeded in establishing a com- 
plete hierarchy of five bishops and have won praise 
for themselves by their work in missions and parishes, 
in polemics and conferences. A school has been 
attempted and an American Jesuit has lately been 
placed on the staff of the University of Tokio. Only 
that and nothing more. What the future has in 
store, who can tdl? 

It was a happy day for the new Society when in 
1841 it was ordered by Gregory XVI to undertake the 
missions of Hindostan; the country sanctified by the 
labors of Francis Xavier, de NobiE, de Britto, Crim- 
inali and a host of other saintly missionaries. No 
work could be more acceptable. The chief obstacle 
in the way of success was the protectorate which 
Portugal exercised over the churches of the Orient. 
In Catholic times its kings had the right not only to 
nominate all the bishops of the East, but to legislate 
on almost the entire ecclesiastical procedure within its 

794 The Jesuits 

dominions. Not even a sacristan could be sent to 
the Indies without the official approval of the Portu- 
guese government. Such a state of things was bad 
enough in Catholic times, but when the politics of 
Portugal were in the hands of infidels and enemies of 
the Church, it could not possibly be tolerated, no 
matter how persistent was the claim that the right 
still adhered to the crown. Another abnormality in 
the pretence was that the country no longer belonged 
to Portugal but was to a very great extent English 
and hence if there were to be any dictation it should 
come from the government of that country. 

The first act of the Pope was to create a number of 
vicars Apostolic who were to be independent of the 
Archbishop of Goa. This started a war which lasted 
sixty years. It was called the Goanese schism, or the 
fight of the double jurisdiction. The vicar Apostolic 
of the Calcutta district was Robert St. Leger, an 
Irish Jesuit, who came to India with five members of 
the Society after. his appointment on 15 April, 1834. 
St. beger's jurisdiction was disputed by a number of 
the adherents of Goa and he retired in December, 1838. 
The Jesuits with him had begun a college, which was 
enthusiastically supported by his successor, Bishop 
Jean-Louis Taberd, Unfortunately he died suddenly 
in 1840, and the same encouragement was not given 
by Dr. Patrick Carew, the third vicar, with the result 
that the college which had begun to prosper was 
closed. In 1846 the Jesuits left Calcutta, but in 1860 
they were recalled by Mgr. Oliffe, the successor -of Dr. 

The missionaries came under the leadership of 
Father Depelchin, who when he had finished his work in 
Calcutta was later to add to his glory by founding the 
mission of the Zambesi in Africa. They found every- 
thing in ruins. Out of a population of 2,300,000 in 

Modern Missions 795 

the city and suburbs, there were no more than seven 
or eight thousand Catholics, many of whom were 
Tamouls from Madras. Only a few of the faithful 
were in easy circumstances and their influence in the 
city amounted to nothing. There was no help for it, 
therefore, but to resuscitate the College of St. Francis 
Xavier, which had been suppressed fourteen years 
before, ft had no furniture and its library consisted 
of a few books with the covers off. The college was 
opened nevertheless and had, on the first day, eighty 
students on the benches. When Bishop OKffe died 
there was a dreadful possibility of the appointment of 
a Goanese bishop, which, for the Jesuits, meant pack- 
ing up a second time and leaving Calcutta. An 
appeal was therefore made to Rome and Father 
Auguste Van Heule was named, but he died in 1865 
shortly after his arrival, and in 1867, Bishop Walter 
Steins was called over from Bombay to take his place. 
By this time the college had 350 students; a new 
building and another situation were imperative, but 
Depelchin was equal to the task, and before he left 
Calcutta for Africa he had 500 students on the roster. 

The initial work of the missionaries was the develop- 
ment of the colleges but they subsequently addressed 
themselves to the evangelization of the whole popu- 
lation of the city and suburbs, and to-day they have 
six parishes with a population of 13,000 souls, who are 
provided with schools, hospitals, asylums and the 
like. The native population, the Bengalis as they are 
called, were found to be hopeless. Contact with the 
whites has made them skeptical in religion, and morally 
worse than they had been originally. The only 
Christian Hindoos in Calcutta are Tamouls from 
the South. 

Not finding the Bengalis apt for evangelization, 
they sought out their countrymen, the Ourias in the 

796 The Jesuits 

Delta of the Ganges. Their home had the unhappy 
distinction of being called " the famine district/* 
the dreadful calamity being caused either by too 
much water or by none. In 1866 there was a drought 
that withered all the crops, and then came inundations 
that covered 68,000 acres of land, swept away hundreds 
of villages, and diminished the population by half a 
million. Orphans, of course, abounded, and in 1868 
an asylum was built for them in Balasore, which served 
also as an evangelical centre for missionary expeditions 
into the interior. But this venture was not very suc- 
cessful, for only about 1,600 conversions resulted after 
years of hard labor. The Ourias, it was found, had 
all the bad qualities of their friends the Bengalis. 
Perhaps also the movement was halted because their 
territory was a sort of Holy Land for Hindooism. 
Every year 500,000 pilgrims arrived there to pray at 
the shrine of Vishnu, and idolatry of all kinds, from 
the bloody ancestral fetichism to the refined cult of 
the Vedas and undiluted Brahmanisin, took root and 
flourished there. Hence a mission was begun among 
the Orissas still further south. 

Better than anywhere else one can see at close range 
among the Ourias how formidable are the moral, 
intellectual, social and historical obstacles that oppose 
the progress of Christianity in Hindostan. To add 
to the difficulty, Protestantism with its jumble of 
sects had established itself there and claimed at this 
time 15,000 adherents. But when cholera swept over 
the land in 1868, the Protestant missionaries fled and 
many of the native converts came over to the priests 
who, of course, did not imitate their non-Catholic rivals 
in deserting their charges. Father Goffinet especially 
distinguished himself i# this instance, going everywhere 
in his narrow canoe and lavishing spiritual and corporal 
aid on the victims. In 1873 he was joined by Father 

Modern Missions 797 

Delplace, who went still nearer the sea. Others 
followed, lived in the huts of the natives, satisfied their 
hunger with a few handf uls of rice varied by a fish on 
Sundays to break the monotony of the diet, with the 
result that, in three years, there were thirty Catholic 
missions between the Hoogly and the Mutlah with 
3,000 converts in what had been previously a strong- 
hold of Hindoo Protestantism. 

In the same year, Father Schoff went north of Cal- 
cutta to Bardwan " The Garden of Western Bengal." 
He kept away from the rich, and devoted himself to the 
dregs of the populace. Over and over again the 
superiors doubted if it were worth while, but to-day 
the Haris, who were previously so degraded, live in 
pretty villages, and the order, piety and honesty for 
which they are noted make one forget the ignorance, 
debauchery and dishonesty of the past. A group of 
over 5,000 Catholics may be found there at the present 

In these parts, the caste system prevails in all its 
vigors but if you go still further west into the heart of 
the Province of Chota-Nagpur you come upon a half- 
savage people, the offscouring of humanity who have 
been driven into the hills and forests by the conquering 
Aryans of the plains. They are the Ouraons of 
Dravidian origin; small, black as negroes, filthy, 
often wrapped in cow-dung and tattooed all over the 
body, but nevertheless light-hearted, robust and proud 
of their ability to perform hard work. With them also 
lives a more ancient race known as the Koles: men 
of broad flat faces which recall the Mongolian type. 
They are probably the aborigines. Their religion is 
grossly elementary a vague adoration of the Supreme 
Being, superstition and ancestor worship; but with a 
shade of the pride that characterizes the horrible caste 
system of the Hindoos. The German Lutherans had 

798 The Jesuits 

essayed to convert them. Fifty rupees were paid for 
each adhesion, and fifty ministers devoted themselves 
to this apostolate. They are credited with having dis- 
bursed 3,700,000 francs by the year 1876, Then came 
the AngEcans who claimed 40,000 of them. In 1869 
Father Stockman arrived and opened a mission at 
Chaibassa. In 1873 ^ e had only a group of thirty 
converts. Nine years later, he had succeeded in 
baptising only 273, but by 1885 there were four 
residences in Chota-Nagpur with one out-mission. 
Five priests were engaged in the task. 

The progress of the work, however, was compara- 
tively slow until the young Father Constant Lievens 
made himself the champion of the natives in the courts. 
This gave it a phenomenal impulse. For years, these 
poor mountaineers had been cruelly exploited by 
Hindoo traders from Calcutta. As soon as the natives 
had contrived to cultivate a bit of land they were 
loaded down with taxes and enforced contributions, 
haled before the magistrates and flung into jail to rot. 
Unfortunately the police regulations were all in favor 
of the aggressors. Hence there were incessant riots 
and massacres, and when the English authorities 
tried in good faith to remedy matters, they could 
find no one among these poor outcasts fit to hold any 
position of responsibility. The Lutherans presented 
themselves and promised protection for those who would 
join the sect, and many went over to them, but the 
government disapproved of these unworthy tactics, as 
calculated only to make things worse in the end. 
It was like the temptation on the mountain. 

At this point Father Lievens stepped into the breach. 
He could speak all the languages: Bengali, Hindoo, 
Mundari and Ouraon; and he then plunged into a 
study of the laws and customs of the land; an appar- 
ently inextricable maze, but in less than a year he was 

Modern Missions 799 

master of the whole legal procedure then in force. 
Thus armed, he appeared in court whenever a victim 
was arraigned, and almost invariably won a verdict in 
his favor. His reputation spread, and the victims of 
the sharks flocked to him from all sides. He argued 
for all of them, without however, omitting his minis- 
terial occupation of preaching, teaching, composing 
canticles, helping the needy, and seeking out souls 
everywhere. He cut out so much work for his associates 
that his superiors were in a panic. But he succeeded. 
The native Protestants came over in crowds, and 
there was a flood tide of conversions to the Faith. 
It cost him his life, indeed, for he died in 1892, overcome 
by his labors and privations, but he had started a great 
movement and two years after his death, the flock 
had grown from 16,000 to 61,312, with more than 2,566 
catechumens preparing for baptism. To-day the dis- 
trict is absolutely unlike its former self. Sacred 
canticles have taken the place of the old pagan chants 
and immoral dances are unknown. Even the pagans 
who are in the majority do not dare to perform certain 
rites of theirs in public. 

In a district of Chota-Nagpur other than that in 
which Lievens labored, the conversions are still more 
pronounced. Six missionaries are at work, and their 
catechumens number more than 25,000. They offered 
themselves in spite of the fact that the Rajah was in 
a rage with his subjects about it; beat many of them 
unmercifully, and flung them into jail. Indeed the 
English government had to intervene to stop him. 
If there were a sufficiency of priests, there would be 
no difficulty in converting the whole countryside. 
The last accounts available tell us that the inhabitants 
of fifteen villages have declared themselves Christians, 
and cut off their hair to let the world know that they 
have renounced idolatry. Fifty years ago there were 

800 The Jesuits 

in all Western Bengal only a few thousand Catholics. 
In 1904 there were 106,000; in the following year, 
119,705; in 1906, 126,529. Chota-Nagpur alone has 
another 102,000 and the number could be doubled if 
twenty new missionaries were on the spot. Western 
Bengal has now 27 churches, 346 chapels, 124 schools 
and two great colleges. Working there, are 101 priests, 
55 scholastics and 27 coadjutor brothers of the Society, 
along with 34 Christian Brothers and 158 Sisters. 

When Bishop Steins left Bombay, his successor 
Mgr. Jean-Gabriel Meurin built the college already* 
planned, and called it St. Francis Xavier's, The 
undertaking was a difficult one, for the schismatical 
Goanese numbered 40^00 out of the 60,000 Catholics 
in the city, and their ecclesiastical leaders were not 
only indifferent to the project but refused to contrib- 
ute anything to carry it out, just as if it had been a 
Moslem or a heretical establishment. The people, 
however, were better minded. - Every one, Catholic, 
heathen and heretic, was eager to build the college, 
for Bombay was proud of being a great intellectual 
centre; and hence when the government promised to 
double what could be collected, the enthusiasm was 
general and money poured in. The Observatory still 
bears the name of the rich Parsee who built it. 

The Bombay mission included Beluchistan up to 
the frontiers of Afghanistan; its southern limit was 
the Diocese of Poona. In this vast territory were 
native villages, military posts, Anglo-Indian settle- 
ments, Indo-Portuguese, and pure Hindoos. There 
were only about 33,000 Christians to be found in 
this amalgam, excluding the 70,000 people of the 
Goanese allegiance. Four colleges were erected in 
the various districts of this territory, but, unlike the 
great establishments of Bombay and Calcutta, they 
were exclusively Catholic. They gave instructions 

Modern Missions 801 

respectively to 500, 690, 298, and 306 pupils. The 
girls of the two dioceses were also provided for and the 
high school population exceeded 10,000. . The great 
advantage of this scheme was that it ate very rapidly 
into the schism through the children of the insur- 

The Carmelites had been in Mangalore; but found 
it too hard to hold out against the Calvinists from 
BMe who, in 1880 had twenty stations, sixty-five 
schools and an annual budget of half a million; conse- 
quently they begged the Holy See to call in the Jesuits. 
When the new missionaries arrived in December, 1879, 
the Carmelites went out to meet them in a ship hung 
with flags and bunting and, on landing, presented them 
to the enthusiastic multitude waiting on the shore. 
The college of St. Aloysius was immediately begun and 
opened its classes with 1 50 students. Thus it happened 
that the greatest part of St. Francis Xavier's territory 
had come back to the Society; German Jesuits being 
in Bombay, Belgians in Calcutta, French in Madura 
and Italians in Mangalore. In the latter mission 
out of a population of 3,685,000 there are to-day only 
93,000 Catholics, but there were 1,500 Christian 
students in St. Aloysius' college in 1920. It might be 
noted that Mangalore has acquired a world wide 
reputation for its leper hospital which was founded 
by Father Muller, formerly of the New York province. 
In that district also there are more native priests than 
in any other part of India. They number 60 all told 
and take care of about 32 parishes. They are not 
pure-blood, however, for they bear distinctively Portu- 
guese names, such as Coelho, Fernandes, Saldanha 
and Pinto. This growth of the native clergy is encour- 
aging, but it would be a mistake to regard them as 
useful for spreading the Faith. They make relatively 
very few conversions. They leave that to outsiders. 

802 The Jesuits 

They merely hold on to what has been won for them 
by others. 

In 1884, the college of Negapatam was transferred to 
Trichinopoly, the reason being that in the latter there 
was a Catholic population of 20,000. Of course, the 
Anglican educators of the city tried to prevent the 
move but failed, The college at one time had 1,800 
pupils, and although there was a drop to 1,550 in 1905, 
because of new rivals in the field, the latest accounts 
place the attendance at 2,562. St. Xavier's high 
school in Tuticorin, in the Madura mission had 563 
pupils in 1920, and St. Mary's erected in 1910 in the 
very heart of Brahmanism has 441. In Trichinopoly, 
the discipline and work of the students have attracted 
much attention, but especially the enterprise of the 
sodalists, who have formed twenty groups of catechists 
and are engaged in giving religious instruction to 700 
children. Most notable, however, is the success of 
the college in overthrowing the caste barriers. Indeed 
the missionaries of the old days would look with amaze- 
ment at the grouping in the class rooms of Brahmins, 
Vellalans, Odeayans, Kalians, Paravers and twenty 
other social divisions down to the very Pariahs, all 
studying in the same house and eating at the same 
table. There were walled divisions, at first; then 
screens; then benches, and now there is only an 
imaginary line between the grades which formerly 
could not come near each other without contamination. 

Among these castes, the Brahmins display the 
greatest curiosity about things Christian, but like the 
rich young man in the Gospel when they hear the 
truth they turn sadly away. " Why did God permit 
me to meet you/ 1 said one of them, " if I am going to 
suffer both here and hereafter?" One of them at last 
yielded and took flight to the ecclesiastical seminary 
at Ceylon, When the news spread abroad, priests 

Modern Missions 803 

from the pagodas and professors from the national 
schools came to the college and stormed against the 
other catechumens but without avail. Another 
Brahmin declared himself a Christian the next year; 
three in 1896, three in 1897, four in 1898, six in 1899 
and two in 1900. They all have a hard fight before 
them; for they are thrown out of their caste and are 
disinherited by their families. Two of these con- 
verts died, and there is a suspicion that at least one 
was poisoned. Already 60 Brahmins have been bap- 
tized and India is in an uproar about it. To those who 
know the country, these conversions are of more 
importance than that of a thousand ordinary people 
and it is almost amusing to learn that the well-known 
theosophist leader, Annie Besant, hastened back to 
India to denounce the Catholic Church for its effrontery. 
The incident, it is true, gave a new life to idol-worship 
but possibly it was the last gasp before death. 

The Madura district had been taken over by the 
Fathers of the Foreign Missions, after the Jesuits had 
been suppressed in 1773. When the Pope, Pius VII, 
re-established the Society, insistent appeals were 
made by those devoted and overtaxed missionaries 
to have the Jesuits resume their old place in that part 
of the Peninsula. The petition was heeded and the 
Jesuits returned to Madura in 1837. They were con- 
fronted by a frightful condition of affairs. La spite 
of the heroic labors of their immediate predecessors, 
there were scandals innumerable, and a large part 
of the population had lapsed into the grossest super- 
stition and idolatry. The missionaries were well 
received at first, but a fulmination from Goa incited 
the people to rebellion. Moreover their labors were 
so crushing that four of the Fathers died of exhaustion 
in the year 1843 alone. Little by little however a 
change of feeling began to manifest itself, and as early 

804 The Jesuits 

as 1842, there were 118,400 Catholics in the mission, 
many of them converts from Protestantism and 
paganism. In 1847 Madura was made a vicariate 
Apostolic under Mgr. Alexis Canoz, a year after the 
Hindo-European college was established at Negapatam. 

Madura has another great achievement to its credit. 
The English government had put an end to the suttee: 
the frightful and compulsory custom of widows flinging 
themselves on the funeral pyres of their husbands 
who were being incinerated. The prohibition was 
universally applauded but the Fathers started another 
movement. It was against the enforced celibacy of 
widows, some of whom had been married in babyhood, 
often to some old man, and were consequently obliged 
to live a single life after his death. The moral results 
of such a custom may be imagined. It was difficult 
at first to convince a convert that it was a perfectly 
proper thing for him to marry a widow, but little by 
little the prejudice was removed. Of course there are 
orphanages, old people's homes, Magdalqn asylums, 
maternity hospitals, industrial schools, and other 
charitable institutions in prosperous Madura. 

The work among the lower classes in the country 
districts is of the most trying description. There is 
no place for the itinerant missionary to find shelter in 
the villages except in some miserable hut. Indeed, 
I 8S3 of these hamlets out of 2,035 h ave n o accommo- 
dations at all for the priest, who perhaps has travelled 
for days through forests to visit them. Moreover, 
though the people have their good qualities and a great 
leaning to religion, they are fickle, excitable, ungrate- 
ful, unmindful as children at times, and hard to manage. 
In certain quarters, especially in the south, conversions 
are multiplying daily. The movement began as early 
as 1876, after a frightful famine that swept the country, 
and in one place the Christian population grew in 

Modern Missions 805 

fifteen years from 4,800 to 68,000. In 1889 around 
Tuticorin whole villages came over in a body. In 
December, 1891, 600 people were clamoring for baptism 
in one place, and they represented a dozen different 
castes. In 1891 one missionary was compelled to erect 
thirty-two new chapels. " I said we have 75 new 
villages; " writes another, " if we had priests enough 
we could have 75 more." 

In 1920, there were in the Diocese of Trichinopoly 
besides the bishop, Mgr. Augustine Faisandier, 119 
Jesuit priests of whom 28 are natives. There are 
a number of native scholastics. Besides this group 
there are 27 natives studying philosophy and theology 
in the seminary at Zandy. Add to this 32 Brothers 
of the Sacred Heart, an institute of Indian lay religious, 
who assist the missionaries as catechists and school 
teachers; 75 nuns in European and 346 in Indian 
institutions; and 75 oblates or pious women who 
devote themselves to the baptizing of heathen children; 
and you have some of the working corps in this pros- 
perous mission. The Catholic population was 267,772 
in 1916, There are 1,100 churches and chapels, 2,620 
posts, a school attendance of 27,378 children, and 
7 Catholic periodicals. 

The missions in Mohammedan countries were 
particularly difficult to handle, because Turkey is a 
veritable Babel of races, languages and religions. There 
are Turks, and Syrians, and Egyptians and Arabians, 
along with the Metualis of Mount Lebanon and the- 
Bedouins of the desert. There are Druses, who have 
a slender link holding them to Islamism; there are 
idolaters of every stripe; there are Schismatical Greeks, 
who call themselves Orthodox and depend on Con- 
stantinople; and there are United Greeks or Melchites 
who submit to Rome; Monophysite Armenians, and 
Armenian Catholics; and Copts also of the same 

806 The Jesuits 

divided allegiance. Then come Syrian Jacobites and 
United Syrians, Nestorians, Chaldeans, Maronites, 
Latins, Russians, with English, German and American 
Protestants, and to end all, the ubiquitous Jews. 
The missionaries who labor in this chaos are also of 
every race and wear every kind of religious garb. 
What will be the result of the changes consequent upon 
the World War no one can foretell. There is nothing 
to hope for from the Jews or Mohammedans; and only 
a very slight possibility of uniting the schismatics to 
Rome, or of converting the Protestants who have 
nothing to build on but sentiment and ingrained and 
inveterate prejudice. There is plenty to do, however, 
in restraining Catholics from rationalism and heresy; 
in lifting up the dergy'to their proper level, by imparting 
to them science and piety; forming priests and bishops 
for the Uniates; promoting a love for the Chair of 
Peter; and aU the while not only not hurting Uniate 
susceptibilities, but showing the greatest respect for 
the jealous autonomy of each Oriental Church. 

Before the Suppression, the missions of the Levant 
were largely entrusted to the Jesuits of the province 
of Lyons. The alliance of the Grand Turk with the 
kings of Prance assured the safety of the missionaries 
and hence there were stations not only at Constanti- 
nople, but in Roumelia, Anatolia, Armenia, Mingrelia, 
Crimea, Persia, Syria, Egypt and in the Islands of 
the JEgean Sea. The work of predilection in all these 
places was toiling in the galleys with the convicts, or 
in the lazar houses with the plague-stricken. Between 
1587 and 1773, tnore than 100 Jesuit missionaries 
died of the pest. In 1816, that is two years after the 
re-establishment of the Society, the bishops of the 
Levant petitioned Rome to send back the Jesuits. 
Thanks to Paul of Russia, they had resumed their 
old posts in 1805 in the -/Egean, where one of the 

Modern Missions 807 

former Jesuits, named Mortellaro, had remained as 
a secular priest, and lived long enough to have one of 
the Fathers from Russia receive his last sigh and hear 
him renew his religious vows. This was the beginning 
of the present Sicilian Jesuit missions in the Archipelago. 
The Galician province has four stations in Moravia, 
and the Venitian has posts in Albania and Dalmatia. 

In 1831 Gregory XVI ordered the Society to under- 
take the missions of Syria; but at that time Mehemet 
Ali of Egypt was at war with the Sultan, and the 
Druses and Maronites were butchering each other at 
will. Finally, in the name of the Sultan, Emir 
Haidar invited the Fathers to begin a mission at 
Bekfaya on the west slope of Mount Lebanon and 
about 10 miles west of Beirut. Simultaneously Emir 
Beckir, who was an upholder of Egypt, established 
them at Muallakah, a suburb of Zghl6 on the other 
side of the mountain. At Hauran, on the borders 
of the desert, they found a Christian population in the 
midst of Druses and Bedouins. They were despised, 
ill-treated and virtually enslaved. They had no 
churches and no priests, were in absolute ignorance 
of their duties as Christians, and were stupefied to 
find that Rome had come so far to seek them. The 
work of lifting them up was hard enough, but it was 
a trying task to be commissioned by Rome to settle 
the disputes that were continually arising between 
Christian, Orthodox, and Turk, and even between 
ecclesiastical authorities. Father Planchet was the 
chief pacificator in all these wrangles, and for his 
punishment was made delegate Apostolic in 1850, 
consecrated Bishop of Mossul in 1853, and murdered 
in 1839 w h- en about to set out for Rome. 

Father Planchet was a Frenchman; with Father 
Riccadonna, an Italian, and Brother Henze, a Han- 
overian, he went to Syria in 1831, at the joint request 

808 The Jesuits 

of the MdcHte bishop, Muzlottm, Joseph Assemani, 
the procurator of the Maronite patriarch and the 
Maronite Archbishop of Aleppo, Germanus Harva. 
A hitherto unpublished document recently edited 
by Father Jullien in " La Nouvelle Mission en Syrie " 
gives a detailed account of the journey of this illus- 
trious trio from Leghorn to Syria. 

" The vessel was called ' The Will of God/ and the 
voyage was," says Riccadonna "an uninterrupted 
series of misfortunes, fevers, faintings, rotten water, 
broken rigging, shattered masts, wild seas, frightful 
tempests, a sea-sick crew and escapes from English, 
Turkish and other cruisers on the high seas. When 
they came ashore the cholera was raging throughout 
the country." The narrative is full of interest with 
its picturesque descriptions of the people, their habita- 
tions, their festivals, their caravans, their filth, their 
fanaticism and the continually recurring massacres of 
Christians. The travellers journeyed to Beirut and 
Qamar and Bagdad and Damascus, and give vivid 
pictures of the conditions that met them in those 
early days. The medical ability of ,the lay-brother 
was of great service, He was the only physician in 
the country, with the result that, according to Ricca- 
donna, each stopping place was a probatica piscina, 
every one striving to reach him first. " In Arabia," 
says the Relation, "as in the plains of Ba'albek, there 
is nothing but ignorance and sin. There are sorcerers 
and sorceresses in every village; superstitions of every 
kind, lies, blasphemies, perjury and impurity prevail. 
It is a common thing for Christians to bear Mussulman 
names and to pray to Mahomet. They never fast, 
and on feast days never go to Mass. Of spiritual 
books or the sacraments they know nothing; dan and 
personal vengeance and murder are common, and 

Modern Missions 809 

sexual immorality indescribable,'* Such was the state 
of these countries in 1831. 

In 1843 the mission, which until then depended on 
the general, was handed to the province of Lyons. In 
that year a seminary for native priests was begun at 
Ghazir, in an old abandoned castle bought from an 
emir of the mountains. It began with two students, 
but at the end of the year there were twenty-five 
on the benches, and in that small number, many 
Rites were represented. A college for boys soon grew 
up around it, and a religious community of native 
nuns for the education of children was established. 
The latest account credits the Sisters with nearly 
4,000 pupils. 

New posts were established at Zahle and ancient 
Sidon and also at Deir el Qamar. The prospects 
seemed fair for the moment, for had not the French 
and Turks been companions in arms in the Criipea? 
But in 1860 the terrible massacres in Syria began as 
a protest of the ultra-Mussulmans against the liberal 
concession of Constantinople to the Christians. In 
the long list of victims the Jesuits counted for something ; 
for on June 18, four of them were butchered at Zahl6 
and a fifth at Deir el Qamar. In that slaughter 
eight thousand Christians were killed; 560 churches 
destroyed; three hundred and sixty villages devastated 
and forty-two convents burned Three months later 
the Turkish troops from the garrison at Damascus 
butchered eight thousand five hundred people, four 
prelates, fifty Syrian priests, and all the Franciscan 
Friars in the city. They levelled to the ground 
three thousand eight hundred houses and two churches, 
and would have done more; but the slaughter was 
stopped when the Algerian Abd-el-Kader arrived on 
the scene. They still live on a volcano. Preceding 

810 The Jesuits 

and during the war of 1914, massacre of the Christians 
continued as usual. 

Armenia is the Ararat of Scripture. Little Armenia, 
in which the Jesuits are laboring, is an irregular strip 
of territory that starts from the Gulf of Alexandretta' 
and continues on towards the Black Sea. Its principal 
towns are Adana, Caesarea, Civas, Tokat, Amasia, and 
Marswan, about two or three days' journey from each 
other. The country is mountainous, without rail- 
roads or other means of transport. The highways are 
infested with brigands; and the climate is excessively 
hot and excessively cold. The difficulties with which 
the Church has to contend in this inhospitable region 
are first, the government which is Turkish; second, 
the secret societies which are continually plotting 
against their Turkish masters; and third, the American 
Protestant sects which are covering the country with 
churches, orphan asylums, schools and dispensaries, 
and flooding it with anti-Catholic literature, and money. 
In 1886 all the schools were closed by the Turks, but 
when the French protested they were reopened. In 
1894 two of the priests died while caring for the cholera 
victims and that helped to spread the Faith, for, of 
course, there are never any parsons on the scene in 
such calamities. Under Turkish rule also, massacres 
are naturally chronic, but Brou informs us that on 
such occasions the Protestants suffer more than the 
Catholics; for the latter are not suspected of being in 
the secret revolutionary societies, while the others are 
known to be deeply involved. 

The population of this region consists of 500,000 
Christians, of whom 14,000 are Protestants and 12,000 
Catholics* The rest are Monophysite schismatics. 
In the mission besides the secular priests there are 
57 Jesuits and 50 teaching sisters from France. There 
are 22 schools with 3,309 pupils, but only 504 of these 

Modern Missions 811 

children are Uniate Catholics. They are what are 
called Gregorians, for the tradition is that Armenia 
was converted to the Faith bySt. Gregory the Illumi- 
nator. There are few conversions, but the schismatics 
accept whatever Catholic truth is imparted to them. 
They believe in the Immaculate Conception; pray for 
the dead; love the Pope; say their beads; and invoke 
the Sacred Heart. For them the difference between 
Romans and Gregorians is merely a matter of ritual. 
In several places, however, whole villages have asked 
to be received into Roman unity. As a people they 
look mainly to Russia for deliverance from the 
Turk, but neither Turk nor Russian now counts 
in the world's politics and no one can foresee the 

Father Roothaan had long been dreaming of sending 
missionaries to what until very recently has been called 
the Unknown or Dark Continent, Africa. Hence 
when the authorities of the Propaganda spoke to him 
of a proposition, made by an ecclesiastic of admitted 
probity, about establishing a mission there, Roothaan 
accepted it immediately, and in the year 1846 ordered 
Father Maximilian Ryllo with three companions to 
ascend the Nile as far as possible and report on the 
conditions of the country. Ryllo was born in Russia 
in 1802 and entered the Roman province in 1820. 
After many years of missionary work in Syria, Malta 
and Sicily he was made rector of the Urban College in 
Rome on July 4, 1844, an d was occupying that post 
when he was sent by Father Roothaan to the new 
mission of Central Africa. 

In 1845 Ryllo was at Alexandria in search of " the 
eminent personage " who had suggested the mission 
and had been consecrated bishop in partibus, for the 
purpose of advancing the enterprise. But the " emi- 
nent personage " was not to be found either there or 

812 The Jesuits 

in Cairo. Hence after waiting in vain for a month, 
Ryllo and his companions started for Khartoum 
which .was to be the central point for future, explora- 
tions. After a little rest, they made their way up the 
White Nile. They were then under the equator, and 
had scant provisions for the journey, and no means of 
protection from the terrible heat, and, besides, they 
were in constant peril of the crocodiles which infested 
the shores of the river* The first negro tribes they 
met spoke an Arabic dialect, so it was easy to 
understand them. The native houses were caves in 
the hillsides, a style of dwelling that was a necessity 
on account of the burning heat. Their manner of 
life was patriarchal; they were liberal and kind, and 
seemed to be available foundation stones for the future 
Church which the missionaries hoped to build there. 
Satisfied with what they had discovered, they returned 
to Khartoum, but when they reported in due time to 
Propaganda, the mission was not entrusted to them. 
It was handed over to the Congregation of the Mis- 
sionaries of Verona. 

In 1840 the Jesuits went to Algeria. The work was 
not overwhelming. They were given charge of an 
orphan asylum. But unfortunately though they had 
plenty of orphans they had no money to feed them. 
Nevertheless, trusting in God, Father Brumauld not 
only did not dose the establishment, but purchased 
370 acres of ground, in the centre of which was a pile 
of buildings which had formerly been the official baths 
of the deys of Algiers, In 1848 the asylum sheltered 
250 orphans. Fr. Brumauld simply went around the 
caf 6s and restaurants and money pottfed into his hat, 
for the enterprise appealed to every one. He even 
gathered up at the hotels the left-over food and brought 
it back to the motherless and fatherless little beggars 
whom he had picked up at the street corners. They were 

Modern Missions 813 

filthy, ragged and vicious, but he scraped them clean 
and clothed them, taught them the moral law and gave 
them instructions in the useful trades and occupations. 
Marshal Bougeaud, the governor, fell in love with 
the priest and when told he was a Jesuit, replied 
" he may be the devil himself if you will, but he is doing 
good in Algeria and will be my friend forever. 1 * One 
day some Arab children were brought in and he said 
to Father Brumauld " Try to make Christians out of 
these youngsters. If you succeed they won't be shoot- 
ing at us one day from the underbrush. " 

The Orphanage stood in the highroad that led to 
Blidak and permission was asked to get in touch with 
natives. Leave was given Father Brumauld to put up 
a house which served as caf6 for the Arabs. It had a 
large hall for the travellers and a shed for the beasts. 
Next to it was a school the upper part of which gave 
him rooms for his little community. It was a zaoui 
for the Christian marabouts, a meeting place for the 
French and natives, and a neutral ground where 
fanaticism was not inflamed but made to die out. 
All the governors, Pelissier, the Due d'Aumale, Mac- 
Mahon, Admiral de Gu6ydon and General Chanzy were 
fond of the Father and encouraged him in his work. 
One day General d'Hautpoul praised him for his 
success, and advised him to begin another establish- 
ment. The suggestion was acted on immediately. 
The government was appealed to and soon a second 
orphanage was in operation at Bouffarik further South. 
Finally, as the number of Arab orphans was diminish- 
ing in consequence of better domestic conditions, 
Brumauld asked why he could not receive orphans from 
France? Of course he could, and he was made happy 
when 200 of them were sent as a present from Paris. 
There would be so many gamins less in the streets of 
the capital. 

814 The Jesuits 

Meantime, residences and colleges were being estab- 
lished in the cities of Al-Oran, Constantine and Algiers, 
but when at the instance of the bishop, Father Schimbri 
opened a little house in the neighborhood of Selif and 
was ingratiating himself with the natives, the authori- 
ties demanded his immediate recall. Later, when the 
bishop solicited leave to begin a native mission he 
was denounced in Paris for influencing minors, because 
he had asked some Lazarists to teach a few vagabond 
Arab children; but the government, whose disrespect 
for religion was a by-word with the natives, had no 
scruple in building Moslem schoolhouses, allowing a 
French general to pronounce an eulogy of Islamism in the 
pulpit of a mosque. While it forbade religious pro- 
cessions, it provided a ship to carry Arabian pilgrims 
to Mecca. It was so scrupulously careful of the 
Moslem conscience that it forbade the nuns to hang up 
a crucifix in the hospital when these holy women were 
nursing sick Mohammedans. 

In 1864 there were Jesuit chaplains in two of the 
forts, and from there they ventured among the natives 
with whom they soon became popular. That was 
too much to put up with, so they were ordered to dis- 
continue, because, forsooth, they were attacking the 
right of freedom of conscience. The result of this 
governmental policy was that in the revolt of the 
Kabyles in 1871 the leaders of the insurgents were the 
Arab students who had been given exclusively lay and 
irreligious instructions in Fort Napoleon. Father 
Brou says (viii, 218) that MacMahon who was governor 
of the colony was opposed to Cardinal Lavigerie's 
efforts to Christianize the natives, but that Napoleon 
III supported the cardinal, who after his victory, 
installed the Jesuits in the orphanage and also made 
Father Terasse novice master of the community 

Modern Missions 815 

of White Fathers, which was then being founded; 
two others were commissioned to put themselves in 
communication with the tribes of the Sahara and when 
they reported that everything was favorable the new 
Order began its triumphant career. That was in 1872. 
When Vice-Admiral de Gu6ydon was made governor 
he willingly permitted the cardinal to employ Jesuits as 
well as White Fathers in the work among the Kabyles, 
but de Gu6ydon was quickly removed from office and 
the old methods of persecution were resumed. When 
the year 1880 arrived and the government was busy 
closing Jesuit houses, the single one left to them in 
Algeria was seized. 

Portugal graciously made a gift to Spain of the 
Island of Fernando Po in the Gulf of Guinea. Brou 
calls it " an island of hell/' with heat like a lime-kiln, 
and reeking with yellow fever. It was inhabited by 
a race of negroes called Boubis, who were dwarfs, with 
rickety limbs, malformed, tattooed from head to foot, 
smeared with a compound of red clay and oil, speaking 
five different dialects, each one unintelligible to 
speakers of the others; they had been charged with 
poisoning the streams so as to get rid of the Portuguese 
and were trying to kill the Spaniards by starvation. 
It cannot have been brotherly love that suggested 
this Portuguese present. To this lovely spot Queen 
Isabella of Spain invited the Jesuits in 1859, and they 
accepted the offer. They lived among the blacks, 
unravelled the tangle of the five dialects and won 
the affection of the natives. Their success in civilizing 
these degraded creatures was such that whenever a 
quarrel broke out in any of the villages the governor 
had only to send his staff of office and peace descended 
on the settlement. In other words the missionaries 
had made Fernando Po a Paraguay. This condition 

816 The Jesuits 

of things lasted twelve years, but when Isabella de- 
scended from her throne the first act of the revolutionists 
was to expel the Jesuits from the mission. 

Leo XIII had ordered the General, Father Beckx to 
begin a seminary at Cairo, It was opened with twelve 
pupils. Three years afterwards occurred the Turkish 
massacre of Damascus and Libanus and the bombard- 
ment of Alexandria by the English. In consequence 
of all this the seminarians fled to Beirut, and after 
the war a college was begun at the deserted establish- 
ment of the Lazarists at Alexandria. Cairo was near 
by, but there was such an antagonism between the 
two cities that two distinct colleges with different 
methods and courses had to be maintained. Cairo 
was Egyptian in tone; Alexandria was French. Mean- 
while, a mission was established on the Nile at Nineh 
which was some distance south of Cairo. In this 
mission the young priests trained at Beirut were 
employed, and they proved to be such excellent apostles 
that Leo XIII made three of them bishops and thus 
laid the foundation of the United Coptic hierarchy. 
In 1905 there were 20,000 United Copts in Egypt, 
four-fifths of whom had been reclaimed from the 
schism. This is all the more remarkable because the 
Protestants had spent enormous amounts of money in 
schools, hospitals, and asylums. 

Madagascar was originally called the Island of 
St. Lawrence, because it was first sighted on the festival 
day of the great martyr by Diego Diaz, who with 
Cabral, the Portuguese discoverer, was exploring the 
Indian Ocean in the year 1500. A Portuguese priest 
was massacred there in 1540; in 1585 a Dominican 
was poisoned by the natives, and in the seventeenth 
century two Jesuits came from Goa with a native 
prince who had been captured by the Portuguese. 
Their benevolence toward the prince secured them 

Modern Missions 817 

permission to preach Christianity for a while, but 
when their influence began to show itself, they were, 
in obedience to a royal order, absolutely avoided by 
the natives so that one starved to death; the other 
succeeded in reaching home. The Lazarists came in 
1648, but remained only fourteen months, two of their 
number having died meantime. Other attempts were 
made, but all ended in disaster to the missionaries. 
Nothing more was done until the middle of the nine- 
teenth century. In 1832 Fathers de Solages and Dal- 
mond were sent out, but they had been anticipated by 
the Protestant missionaries who, as early as 1830, had 
32 schools with 4,000 pupils. De Solages soon 
succumbed and Dalmond continued to work on the 
small islands off the coast until 1845, when he returned 
to Europe to ask Father Roothaan to send him some 
Jesuits. Six members of the Society together with 
two Fathers of the Holy Ghost responded to the call, 
but they could get no farther than the islands of Nossi- 
B6 or St. Mary's and Reunion, or Bourbon as it was 

The Queen Ranavalo, who was a ferocious and blood- 
thirsty pagan, had no use for any kind of evangelists, 
Protestant or Catholic, but there was a Frenchman 
named Laborde in the capital, who was held in high 
esteem by her majesty, because he was a cannon- 
founder, a manufacturer of furniture and a maker of 
soap. Besides these accomplishments to recommend 
him, he had won the esteem of the heir-apparent. 
Incidentally Laborde put the prince in relation with 
the missionaries off the coast. A short time after- 
wards, there appeared in the royal city another French- 
man who could make balloons, organize theatrical 
representations, and compound drugs. He was ac- 
cepted in the queen's service. He was a Jesuit in 
disguise. His name was Finaz, and he continued to 

818 The Jesuits 

remain at Tananarive until 1857, when the violence of 
the queen, who was insanely superstitious, brought 
about an uprising against her which was organized by 
the Protestant missionaries. She prevailed against the 
rebels, and as a consequence all Europeans were 
expelled from the island, and among them Father 
Finaz. He could congratulate himself that he had at 
least learned the language and made himself acquainted 
with the inhabitants. 

Four years later (1861), the queen died, and King 
Radama II ascended the throne; whereupon six Jesuits 
opened a mission in Tananarive. They soon had 2 
schools with 400 pupils and numberless catechumens, 
but their success was not solid, for the Malgassy 
easily goes from one side to another as his personal 
advantage may dictate. Radama was killed, and 
then followed a forty years' struggle between the 
French and the English to get control of the island. 
The English prevailed for a time and, in 1869, 
Protestantism was declared to be the state religion. 
The number of evangelists multiplied enormously, 
but they were merely government agents and knew 
next to nothing about Christian truth or morality. 
The confusion was increased, when to the English 
parsons were added American Quakers and Nor- 
wegian Lutherans. The Evangelical statistics of all 
of them in 1892 were most imposing. Thus the 
Independents claimed 51,033 and the Norwegians 
47,681, with 37,500 children in their schools. The 
names were on the lists, but the school-houses were 
often empty, and in the interim between the different 
official visits of the inspectors often no instruction tras 
given. Against this the Catholics had only 22 chapels 
and 25 schools, and they were mostly in the neighbor- 
hood of Tananarivo. 

Modern Missions 819 

France was subsequently the dominant influence in 
Madagascar but, as in the mother country religion 
was tabooed, there was little concern about it in the 
colonies. When the Franco-Prussian war showed the 
weakness of France, the respect for the alleged religion 
of France vanished, especially when a crusade began 
against the Catholic schools. Nevertheless the faithful 
continued to grow in number, and in 1882 they were 
reckoned at -80,000 with 152 churches-, 44 priests, 527 
teachers and 2,000 pupils. War broke out in 1881, 
and the missionaries were expelled but returned after 
hostilities ceased, and found that their neophytes, 
under the guidance of a princess of the royal blood, 
had held firmly to their religion, notwithstanding the 
closing of the schools and the sacking of the churches. 
After these troubles, conversions increased, and in 
1894 there were 75 Jesuit priests in the island; and, 
besides the primary schools which had increased in 
number, a college and nine high schools as well as 
a printing house and two leper hospitals were erected. 
Added to this, an observatory was built and serious 
work began in geographical research, cartography, 
ethnography, natural history, folklore and philology. 

Just at the height of this prosperity, a persecution 
began. The missionaries were expelled, their buildings 
looted, and the observatory wrecked. In 1896 the 
bishop counted 108 of his chapels which had been 
devastated, but in 1897 General Galieni arrived, and 
the queen vanished from the scene. After that the 
faith prospered, and in the year 1900 alone there were 
94,998 baptisms. In 1896 Propaganda divided Mada- 
gascar into three vicariates: one entrusted to the 
Lazarists; another to the Fathers of the Holy Ghost; 
and a third to the Jesuits of the provinces of Toulouse 
and Champagne. In the Jesuit portion, the latest 

820 The Jesuits 

statistics give 160,080 Christians and 170,000 cate- 
chumens, with 74 priests, 8 scholastics and n lay- 
brothers. The chief difficulty to contend with is the 
gross immorality of the people who are, in consequence, 
almost impervious to religious teaching, and at the same 
time easily captured by the money that pours into the 
country from England and Norway. The French 
officials, of course, cannot be expected to further the 
cause of Catholicity. 

In 1877, when Bishop Ricards of Grahamstown in 
South Africa asked the Jesuits to accept the Zam- 
besi Mission, Father Weld ardently took up the 
work, and in April, 1879, Father Depelchin, a 
Belgian, started from Kimberly, with eleven com- 
panions for Matabeleland, over which King Lo Benguela 
ruled. It was a five months' journey and the 
missionaries did not arrive at the royal kraal until 
September 2. But as the prospects of conversion of 
the much-married king and his followers were not 
particularly bright, only one part of the expedition 
remained with Lo Benguela, while two others struck 
for the interior. There several of the strongest 
missionaries sickened and died. The work went on, 
however, for ten weary years when the king told them 
to stop teaching religion and show the people how 
to till the soil. Otherwise they must go. They 
accepted the offer, of course, for it got them a better 
means of imparting religious instruction. 

Then a quarrel broke out between the British, the 
Portuguese, the Boers and Lo Benguela for the pos- 
session of Mashonaland. The British as usual won 
the fight, but when Cecil Rhodes came to the kraal, 
to arrange matters, Lo Benguela ordered all the whites 
out of his dominion and the Fathers withdrew. A 
new difficulty then arose between the English and 
Portuguese, and the mission was divided between 

Modern Missions 821 

Upper and Lower Zambesi, the latter being assigned 
to the Portuguese Jesuits. There was trouble with 
the natives of both sections for some time, and then 
the Anglo-Boer war broke out, so that for twenty-five 
years very little apostolic progress was made. In 
Upper Zambesi or Rhodesia, as it is called, there are at 
present 40 Jesuit priests and 24 brothers, and 3 mis- 
sionaries of Mariannhill, with 115 nuns, 20 churches 
or chapels, and 30 schools of which 26 are for natives, 
and about 5,000 Catholics. Naturally speaking the 
result scarcely warrants the outlay but the purpose is 
supernatural and intelligible only from that point of 
view. In Lower Zambesi, which was given to the 
Portuguese Jesuits, there have been no troubles because 
it is garrisoned by Portuguese soldiers; the four sta- 
tions in that district with their thirty-five Fathers 
were doing splendid work when the Portuguese revolu- 
tion occurred; the Jesuits were then expelled, but 
twenty-six Fathers of the Divine Word took their 

The early days of the Zambesi mission evoked 
splendid manifestations of the old heroic spirit of 
the Society. Thus we read of one of the missionaries, a 
Father Wehl, who was separated from his companions 
and wandered for twenty-six days in the bush, luckily 
escaping the wild beasts and finally falling into the 
hands of some Kaffirs who were about to put him to 
death, when he was saved by the opportune arrival of an 
English gold-hunter, But starvation and disease had 
shattered his health and his mind was gone. Six 
months afterwards he died. 

Meantime his two companions Father Law and 
"Brother Hedley found shelter among the natives, but 
had to live in a clay hut which was a veritable oven. 
They both fell sick of fever; little or no food was given 
them, and they slowly starved to death. They lay 

822 The Jesuits 

along side of each other, neither being able to assist his 
companion, and when finally the Father breathed his 
last, all the poor lonely brother could do was to place 
a handkerchief on the face, but when he removed the 
covering in the morning, he found that the rats had 
been eating the flesh. The dead missionary lay there 
for some time because the superstitious natives would 
not touch the corpse; when finally a rope was tied 
around it, they dragged it out of the hut and left it 
in the forest. For three weeks after this horrible 
funeral the poor brother had to fight off the rats that 
were attacking himself; at last the chief took pity on 
him and had him carried on a litter to a band of other 
missionaries who were approaching. When his friends 
saw him they burst into tears. He had not changed 
his clothes for five months and they were in tatters. 
His whole body was covered with sores and ulcers 
and the wounds were filled with vermin. He was in a 
state of stupor when he arrived, but strange to say 
he recovered. His dead companion, the priest, had been 
a naval officer, and was a convert to the Faith and the 
grandson of one of the lord chancellors of England. 
The Congo mission was organized by the Belgium 
Jesuits in 1885, under the auspices of Leopold II of 
Belgium, who had established the Congo Free State. 
His majesty requested the Fathers to assist him, but 
he gave them no financial aid whatever, though he 
was pointedly asked to do so. The Congo Free State 
begins 400 miles from the Atlantic ocean and extends 
to Central Africa. Leopold's plan was to abolish 
slavery within the boundaries of this domain; then to 
make the adult male population his soldiers, and mean- 
time to place the orphans and abandoned children in 
asylums which the missionaries would manage. Some 
of these establishments were to be supported from the 
public revenues, others by charity. The whole hope 

Modern Missions 823 

of the mission was in these orphanages, for nothing 
could be expected from the adult population. The 
boys were to be taught a trade and then married at 
the proper time* These households were to be visited 
and supervised by the missionaries. 

It was an excellent plan, but it was opposed by the 
Belgian anti-clericals, who objected to giving so much 
power to priests. A number of English Protestants 
also busied themselves in spreading calumnies about 
these settlements and brought their accusations to 
court, where sentence was frequently given without 
hearing the accused. The charges were based on 
alleged occurrences in three out of the forty-four mis- 
sion stations. The persecution became so acute 
that the Jesuits appealed to the king and received 
the thanks of his majesty and the government for the 
work they had performed, but the calumnies were not 
retracted, until May 26, 1906, when a formal docu- 
ment was issued by the Free State declaring that it 
greatly esteemed the work performed by the Catholic 
missionaries in the civilization of the State. In the 
following year on May 22, it added: " Since it is 
impossible to do without the missionaries in the 
conversion of the blacks, and as their help is of the 
greatest value in imparting instruction, we recommend 
that the mission be made still more efficacious by grant- 
ing them a subsidy for the upkeep of their institutions. 
At the beginning of 1913, the Jesuits had seven stations 
and forty missionaries. In spite of all this, however, 
the work of systematic calumniation still continues. 

The great war of 1914 brought absolute ruin on all 
the missions of Asia and Africa. Thus Prance called 
to the army every French priest, or lay brother who 
was not crippled by age and infirmity, and made him 
fight in the ranks as a common soldier or a stretcher 
bearer in the hospital or on the battlefield. This was 

824 The Jesuits 

the case not only -with the Jesuits, but with other 
religious orders and the secular priesthood. Nor was 
this call to the colors restricted to those who were in 
the French colonies; it affected all priests or brothers 
of French birth who were laboring in Nigeria, Sierra 
Leone, Belgian Congo, Angola, Zambesi, Canada, Haiti, 
the United States or South America. Sixty priests 
or brothers had to leave Japan. Out of forty-three 
missionaries of the Society of African Missions who 
were in Egypt, half had to leave. Of the twenty-two 
who were on the Ivory Coast sixteen were mobilized. 
Indeed, four bishops were summoned to the ranks, 
Mgr$. Moury of the Ivory Coast, Terrien of Benin, 
Perros of Siam, and Hermel of Haiti. There were at 
the outbreak of the war thirty-five Jesuits from the 
Levant in the army, besides others from Madagascar, 
Madura and China. 



Responsibility of the Society for loss of Faith in Etirope. The Loi 
Falloux Bombay Calcutta Beirut American Colleges 
Scientists, Archaeologists, Meteorologists, Seismologists, Astronomers 

THE Society of Jesus is frequently charged with being 
responsible for the present irreligious condition of the 
Latin nations, of France in particular, because, having 
had the absolute control of education in the past, it 
did not train its pupils to resist the inroads of atheism 
and unbelief. 

In the first place, the charge is based on the sup- 
position that the Society had complete control of the 
education of Catholic countries, which is not the case. 
Thus, for instance, Montesquieu, one of the first and 
most dangerous of the assailants of the Church in the 
eighteenth century, was educated by the Oratorians. 
As much as thirty-seven years before the French 
Revolution, namely, in 1752, Father Vitelleschi, the 
General of the Society, addressed the following letter 
to the Jesuits throughout the world: 

" It is of supreme importance that what we call the 
schol inferiores (those namely below philosophy and 
theology) should be looked after with extreme solici- 
tude. We owe this to the municipalities which have 
established colleges for us, and entrusted to us the 
education of their youth. This is especially incumbent 
upon us at the present time, when such an intense desire 
for scholastic education everywhere manifests itself, 
and has called into existence so many schools of that 
kind. Hence, unless we are careful, there is danger of 


826 The Jesuits 

our colleges being considered unnecessary. We must 
not forget that for a long time there were almost no 
other Latin schools but ours, or at least very few; 
so that parents were forced to send their sons to us 
who otherwise would not have done so. But now in 
many places, many schools are competing with ours, and 
we are exposing ourselves to be regarded as not up to 
the mark, and thus losing both our reputation and our 
scholars. Hence, our pupils are not to be detained 
for too long a period by a multiplication of courses, 
and they must be more than moderately imbued with a 
knowledge of the Classics. If they have not the best 
of masters, it is very much to be feared that they will 
betake themselves elsewhere and then every effort on 
our part to repair the damage will be futile." 

In the second place, after the year 1762, that is 
twenty-seven years before the Revolution, there were 
not only no Jesuit colleges at all in France, but no 
Jesuits, and consequently there was an entire generation 
which had been trained in schools that were distinctly 
and intensely antagonistic to everything connected with 
the Society. Furthermore, it is an undeniable fact, 
provable by chronology, that the most conspicuous 
men in that dreadful upheaval, namely, Robespierre, 
Desmoulins, Tallien, Fr&ron, Chenier and others were 
educated in schools from which the Jesuits had been 
expelled before some of those furious young demagogues 
were born. Danton, for instance, was only three years 
old in 1762; Marat was a Protestant from Geneva, 
and, of course, was not a Jesuit pupil; and Mira- 
beau was educated by private tutors. The fact that 
Robespierre and Desmoulins were together at Louis- 
le-Grand has misled some into the belief that they were 
Jesuit students, whereas the college when they were 
there had long been out of the hands of the Society. 
The same is true of Portugal and Spain. The Society 

Colleges 827 

had ceased to exist in Portugal as early as 1758, and in 
Spain in 1767. 

Far from being in control of the schools of France, 
the whole history of the French Jesuits is that of 
one uninterrupted struggle to get schools at all. 
Against them, from the very beginning, were the 
University of Paris and the various parliaments of 
France, which represented the highest culture of the 
nation and bitterly resented the intrusion of the Society 
into the domain of education. 

Not only is this true of the period that preceded but 
also of the one that followed the French Revolution. 
It was only in 1850, namely seventy-seven years after 
the Suppression of the Society, that the Jesuits, in 
virtue of the Loi Falloux, were permitted to open a 
single school in France. The wonder is that the -inces- 
sant confiscations and suppressions which followed 
would permit of any educational success whatever. 
Nevertheless, in the short respites that were allowed 
them they filled the army and navy with officers who 
were not only conspicuous in their profession but, at 
the same time, thoroughgoing Catholics. Marshal 
Foch is one of their triumphs. Indeed it was the supe- 
riority of their education that provoked the latest 
suppression of the Jesuit schools in France. 

It is this government monopoly of education in all 
the Continental countries that constitutes the present 
difficulty both for the Society of Jesus and for all the 
other teaching orders. Thus after 1872, the German 
province had not a single college in the whole extent 
of the German Empire. It could only attempt to do 
something beyond the frontiers. It has one in Austria, 
a second in Holland, and a third in Denmark. Austria 
has only one to its credit; Hungary one and Bohemia 
another. The province of Rome has one; Sicily two, 
one of which is in Malta, and Malta is English terri- 

828 The Jesuits 

tory; Naples had three and Turin four, but some of 
these have already disappeared. All the splendid 
colleges of Prance were closed by Waldeck-Rousseau in 
1890. Spain has five excellent establishments, but 
they have no guarantee of permanency. Belgium has 
thirteen colleges, packed with students, but the ter- 
rible World War has at least for a time depleted them. 
Holland has three colleges of its own, England four, 
and Ireland three. 

The expulsions, however, have their compensations. 
Thus when the Jesuits were expelled from Germany by 
Bismarck, the English government welcomed them to 
India, and the splendid college of Bombay was the 
result. Italy also benefited by the disaster. Not to 
mention other distinguished men, Father Ehrle became 
Vatican librarian, and Father Wernz, rector of the 
Gregorian University and subsequently General of the 
Society. In South America, the exiles did excellent work 
in Argentina and Ecuador. The Jesuits of New York 
gave them an entrance into Buffalo, and from that 
starting-point they established a chain of colleges in 
the West, and later, when conditions called for it, they 
were assimilated to the provinces of Maryland, New 
York and Missouri, thus greatly increasing the efficiency 
of those sections of the Society. 

When driven out of their country, the Portuguese 
Jesuits betook themselves to Brazil, where their help 
was greatly needed; the Italians went to New Mexico 
and California; and the French missions of China and 
Syria benefited by the anti-clericalism of the home 
government; for Zikawei became an important scien- 
tific world-centre and Beirut obtained a university. 
The latter was, until the war broke out, a great seat of 
Oriental studies. 

The most imposing institutions in Beirut, a city with 
a population of over 150,000, made up of Mussulmans, 

Colleges 829 

Greeks, Latins, Americans and Jews, are those of the 
Jesuits. They maintain and direct outside of Beirut 
192 schools for boys and girls with 294 teachers and 
12,000 pupils. There is, in the city, a university with 
a faculty of medicine (120 students) founded in 1881 
with the help of the French government; its examina- 
tions are conducted before French and Ottoman 
physicians and its diplomas are recognized by both 
France and Turkey. The university has also a semi- 
nary (60 students) for all the native Rites. Up to 
1902 it had sent out 228 students including three 
patriarchs, fifteen bishops, one hundred and fifteen priests 
and eighty-three friars. Its faculty of philosophy and 
theology grants the same degrees as the Gregorian 
University in Rome. Its faculty of Oriental languages 
and sciences, founded in 1902, teaches literary and con- 
versational Arabic, Hebrew, Syriac, Coptic and Ethr 
opic ; the comparative grammar of the Semitic languages ; 
the history and geography of the Orient; Oriental 
archaeology; Graeco-Roman epigraphy and antiquities. 
Its classical college has 400 pupils and its three primaries 
600. A printing-house, inaugurated in 1853, * s now 
considered to be the foremost for its output in that 
part of the world. Since 1871 it has published a 
weekly Arabic paper, and since 1898 a fortnightly 
review in the same language, the editors of which 
took rank at once among the best Orientalists. Besides 
continually adding to their collection of philological 
papers, they contribute to many scientific European 
reviews. (The Catholic Encyclopedia, II, 393.) 

There are Jesuit colleges, also, throughout India, 
such as the great institutions of Bombay and Calcutta 
with their subsidiary colleges, and further down the 
Peninsula are Trichinopoly, all winning distinction 
by their successful courses of study. Indeed the first 
effort the Society makes in establishing itself in any 

830 The Jesuits 

part of the world, where conditions allow it, is to 
organize a college. If they would relinquish that one 
work they would be left in peace. 

An interesting personage appears in connection with 
the University of Beirut: William Gifford Palgrave. 
It is true that one period of his amazing career humili- 
ated his former associates, but as it is a matter of 
history it must needs be told. 

He was the son of an eminent English Protestant 
lawyer, Sir Francis Palgrave, and had Jewish blood in 
his veins. He was. born in 1826, and after a brilliant 
course of studies at Oxford began his romantic career 
as a traveller. He went first to India and was an 
officer of Sepoys in the British army. While there, 
he became .a Catholic, and afterwards presented 
himself at the novitiate of Negapatam as an appli- 
cant for admission. Unfortunately his request was 
granted, and forthwith he changed his name to Michael 
Cohen, as he said to conceal his identity. This was 
a most amassing mask; for Palgrave would have 
escaped notice, whereas everyone would immediately 
ask, who is this Jesuit Jew? How he was admitted is 
a mystery, especially as he proclaimed his race so 

After his novitiate he was sent to Rome to begin 
his theology another mystery. Why was he not 
compelled to study philosophy first like everyone else? 
Then he insisted that Rome did not agree with his 
health, and he was transferred to Beirut to which he 
betook himself, not in the ordinary steamer, but in 
a sailing vessel filled with Mussulmans. On the way, he 
picked up Arabic. Inside of a year, namely in 1834, he 
was made a priest and given charge of the men's sodality 
which he Charmed by his facility in the use of the native 
tongue; in the meantime he made many adventurous 
journeys to the interior to convert the natives, but 

Colleges 831 

failed every time. In 1860 he was sent to France for 
his third year of probation under the famous Father 
Fouillot, whom he fascinated by his scheme of entering 
Arabia Petrea as its apostle. He succeeded in getting 
Louis Napoleon to give him 10,000 francs on the plea 
that he would thus carry out the scheme of the Cheva- 
lier Lascaris whom Napoleon Bonaparte had sent to 
the East. 

At Rome, he found the Father General quite cold to 
the proposition, and when he had the audacity to 
ask Propaganda for permission to say Mass in Arabic, 
he was told: " Convert your Arabs first and then we 
shall see about the Mass." The brother who was to 
go with him fell ill, and the General then insisted that 
he should not attempt the journey without a priest as 
companion; whereupon Palgrave persuaded the Greek 
Bishop of Zahl6 to ordain one of the lay professors of 
the college, after a few days* instruction in moral 
theology. Fortunately this improvised priest turned 
out well, and he became His Beatitude Mgr. Geraigri, 
patriarch of the Greek Melchites. 

In 1862 the travellers set out by way of Gaza in 
Palestine, Palgrave as a physician, the other as his 
assistant. They covered the entire Arabian peninsula 
and were back again in Beirut at the end of fourteen 
months. Palgrave had made no converts, and was 
himself a changed man. Even his sodalists remarked 
it. What had happened no one ever knew. In 1 864 he 
was sent to Maria-Laach in Gennany, where the 
saintly Father Behrens wrestled with him in vain for 
a while, but he left the Society and passed over to 
Protestantism, securing meanwhile an appointment as 
Prussian consul at Mossul. In the following year he 
published an account of his travels and the book was 
a European sensation. In it he made no secret of his 
having been a member of the Society, which he says was 

832 The Jesuits 

" so celebrated in the annals of courageous and devoted 
philanthropy. The many years I spent in the East 
were the happiest of my life." In 1884 he was British 
consul at Montevideo and remained there till 1888 when 
he died. 

For twenty years he seemed never to have been 
ashamed of his apostasy, but three or four years before 
his death the grace of God found him. The change 
was noticed on his return from a trip to England. 
He had become a Catholic again. He went to Mass 
and received Holy Communion. Although a govern- 
ment official, he refused to go to the Protestant Church 
even for the queen's jubilee, in spite of the excitement 
caused by his absence. He died of leprosy. A Jesuit 
attended him in his last sickness, and he was buried 
with all the rites of the Church. These details are 
taken from a recent publication by Father Jullien, 
S. J., entitled "Nouvelle mission de la Compagnie de 
J6sus en Syrie " (II, iii.) 

The great difficulty that confronts educators of 
youth in our times, is state control. In the United 
States it has not yet gone to extremes, but every 
now and then one can detect tendencies in that direc- 
tion. Meantime the Society has developed satis- 
factorily along educational lines. According to the 
report of October 10, 1916 (Woodstock Letters, V 45), 
there were 16,438 students in its American colleges and 
universities. Of these 13,301 were day scholars and 
3,137 boarders. There were 3,943 in the college 
departments, 10,502 in the high schools and 1,416 
' in the preparatory. Besides all this, there were com- 
mercial and special sections numbering 737. The 
total increase over the preceding year was 523. 

The Maryland-New York provinces had 1,848 
students of law, 341 of medicine, 127 of dentistry, 
122 of pharmacy. Missouri had 786 students of law, 

Colleges 833 

643 of medicine, 776 of dentistry, 245 of pharmacy, 
126 of engineering, 530 of finance, 240 of sociology, 
425 of music, 43 of journalism, and 61 in the nurse's 
training school. New Orleans had a law school of 
81 and California one of 232 students. 

It is sometimes urged as an objection to Catholic 
colleges that they give only a Classical education, 
and are thus not keeping pace with the world outside. 
To show that the objection has no foundation in fact, 
it would be sufficient to enter any Jesuit college which 
is at all on its feet, and see the extensive and fully 
equipped chemical and physical laboratories, the seismic 
plants and in some cases the valuable museums of 
natural history which they possess. If it were other- 
wise, they would be false to all their traditions; for 
the Society has always been conspicuous for its achieve- 
ments in the natural sciences. It has produced 
not only great mathematicians and astronomers, but 
explorers, cosmographers, ethnologists, and archaeolo- 
gists. Thus, for instance, there would have been 
absolutely no knowledge of the aborigines of North 
America, their customs, their manner of life, their food, 
their dress, their superstitions, their dances, their 
games, their language had it not been for the minute 
details sent by the missionaries of the old and new 
Society to their superiors. In every country where 
they have been, they have charted the territories over 
which they journeyed or in which they have labored, 
described their natural f caturCvS, catalogued their fauna 
and flora, enriched the pharmacopeia of the world 
with drugs, foodstuffs and plants, and have located 
the salts and minerals and mines. 

That this is not idle boasting may be seen at a 
glance in Sommervogel's " Bibliothfique des ficrivains." 
Thus the names of publications on mathematics fill 
twenty-eight columns of the huge folio pages. Then 


834 The Jesuits 

follow other long lists on hydrostatics and hydraulics, 
navigation, military science; surveying; hydrography 
and gnomics; physics, chemistry and seismology call 
for thirty columns; medical sciences; zoology, botany, 
geology, mineralogy, paleontology, rural economy and 
agriculture require eight. Then there are two columns 
on the black art. The fine arts including painting, 
drawing, sculpture, architecture, music, equitation, 
printing and mnemonics take from column 927 to 940. 

According to this catalogue, the new Society has 
already on its lists one hundred and sixty-four writers 
on subjects pertaining to the natural sciences: physics, 
chemistry, mineralogy, zoology, botany, paleontology, 
geography, meteorology, astronomy, etc. The names 
of living writers are not recorded. Nor does this 
number include the writers who published their works 
during the Suppression, asde Mailla, who in 1785 issued 
in thirteen volumes a history of China with plans 
and maps, the outcome of an official survey of the 
country a work entrusted by the emperor to the 
Jesuits. Father de Mailla was made a mandarin for his 
share of the work. 

The extraordinary work on the zoology of China 
by the French Jesuit, Pierre Heude, might be adduced 
as an illustration of similar work in later times. He 
began his studies in boyhood as a botanist, but 
abandoned that branch of science when he went to 
the East. "While laboring as a missionary there for 
thirty years he devoted every moment of his spare 
time to zoology. 

He first travelled along all the rivers of Middle 
and Eastern China to classify the fresh-water molluscs 
of those regions. On this subject alone he published 
ten illustrated volumes between 1876 and 1885. His 
treatise " Les Mollusques terrestres de la valise du 
Fleuve Bleu " is today the authority on that subject. 

Colleges 835 

He then directed his attention particularly to the 
systematic and geographical propagation of Eastern 
Asiatic species of mammals, as well as to a com- 
parative morphology of classes and family groups, 
according to tooth and skeleton formations. His 
fitness for the work was furthered by his extremely 
keen eye, his accurate memory, and the enormous 
wealth of material which he had accumulated, partly 
in the course of his early travels and partly in later 
expeditions, which carried him in all directions. These 
expeditions covered chiefly the eight years from 1892 
to 1900. They took him to the Philippines which he 
visited three times; to Singapore, Batavia, the Celebes, 
the Moluccas, New Guinea, Japan, Vladivostock, 
Cochin-China, Cambodia, Siam, and Tongking. He 
carried on his work with absolute independence of 
method. He contented himself with the facts before 
him and sought little assistance from authorities; nor 
did he fear to deduce theoretical conclusions from his 
own observations which flatly contradicted other 
authorities. He continued his scientific work until 
shortly before his death which occuired at Zikawei 
on January 3, 1902. (The Catholic Encyclopedia, 
VII, 308,) 

Albers in his "Liber Saecularis " maintains that 
" in the cultivation of the natural sciences, the restored 
Society won greater fame than the old," and that 
"a glance at the men whom the Italian provinces 
alone have produced would be sufficient to convince 
the doubter. Angelo Secchi, of course, stands out 
most prominently, and a little later Father Barello, 
who with the Barnabite Denza established the Meteoro- 
logical Observatory of Malta, Giambattista Pianciani 
was regarded with the greatest veneration in Rome 
because of his vast erudition as a scientist, as were 
Caraffa, Mancini and Poligni for their knowledge of 

836 The Jesuits 

mathematics. Marchi was the man who trained 
the illustrious de Rossi, as an archaeologist, and also 
the Jesuit Raffaele Garrucci whose "Monumenta 
delle arte cristiane primitive nella metropoli del 
Cristianesimo " laid the foundations of the new study 
of archaeology. The writings of Father Gondi and 
Francis Tongiorgi have also contributed much to 
advancement in those fields of knowledge. 

Paustino Ar6valo was one of the exiles from Spain 
at the time of the Suppression. He was born at 
Campanario in Estremadura in 1747, and entered the 
Society in 1761. Six years afterwards he was deported 
to Italy by Charles III. In Rome he won the esteem 
and confidence of Cardinal Lorenzano, who proved to 
be his Maecenas by bearing the expense of Ar6valo's 
learned publications. He was held in high honor in 
Rome, and was appointed to various offices of trust, 
among them that of pontifical hymnographer and 
theologian of the penitenziaria, thus succeeding the 
illustrious Muzzarelli. When the Society was re- 
stored, he returned to Spain and was made provincial 
of Castile. One of his works was the " Hymnodia 
hispanica," a restoration of ancient Spanish hymns to 
their original metrical, musical and grammatical 
perfection. This publication was much esteemed by 
Cardinal Mai and Dom Gu6ranger It was accom- 
panied by a curious dissertation on the Breviary of 
Cardinal Quignonea. He also edited the poems of 
Prudentius and Dracontius and those of a fifth century 
Christian of Roman Africa. Besides this, he has 
to his credit four volumes of Jouvancy's "Gospel 
History/' the works of Sedulius and St. Isidore and 
a Gothic Missal. He stands in the forefront of Spanish 
patristic scholars, and has shed great lustre on the 
Church of Spain by his vast learning, fine literary 

Colleges 837 

taste and patriotic devotion to the Christian writers 
of his fatherland. 

The founder of the science of archaeology, according 
to Hurter, was Stefano Antonio Morcelli. He was 
a member of the old Society and re-entered it when 
it was restored. Even before the Suppression, which 
occurred twenty years after his entrance, he had 
established an archaeological section in the Kircher 
Museum of Rome. When he found himself homeless, 
in consequence of the publication of the Brief of 
Clement XIV, he was made the librarian of Cardinal 
Albani, He refused the Archbishopric of Ragusa and 
continued his literary labors in Rome. His first 
publication was " The Style of Inscriptions." In the 
town of Chiari, his birthplace, to which he afterwards 
withdrew, he founded an institution for the education 
of girls, reformed the entire school system, devoted 
his splendid library to public use, and restored many 
buildings and churches. Meantime his reputation as 
master of epigraphic style increased and he was placed 
in a class of his own above all competitors. Besides 
his many works on his special subject, he gave to the 
world five volumes of sermons and ascetic treatises. 
When the Society was re-established he again took his 
place in its ranks, and died in Brescia in 1822 at the 
age of eighty-four. Hurter classifies him as also 
a historian and geographer. 

Nor was Morcelli an exception. Fathers Arthur 
Martin and Charles Cahier are still of great authority 
as archaeologists, chiefly for their monograph in which, 
as government officials, they described the Cathedral 
of Bourges; and likewise for their " Melanges arche- 
ologiques," in which the sacred vessels, enamels and 
other treasures of Aix-la-Chapelle and of Cologne are 
discussed. They also wrote on the antique ivories 

838 The Jesuits 

of Bamberg, Ratisbon, Munich and London; on 
the Byzantine and Arabian weavings; and on the 
paintings and the mysterious bas-reliefs of the Roman 
and Carlovingian periods. Their works appeared 
between 1841 and 1848. 

A very famous Jesuit archaeologist died only a few 
years ago, and the French government which had just 
expelled the Jesuits erected a monument at Poitiers 
to perpetuate his memory. He was Father Camille 
de la Croix. He was a scion of the old Flemish nobility 
and was born in the Chateau Saint-Aubert, near 
Tournai in Belgium, but he passed nearly all his life 
in France, and hence Frenchmen considered him as 
one of their own. He got his first schooling in Bruge- 
lette, and, when that college was given up, went with 
his old masters to France. In 1877 we find him 
mentioned in the catalogue as a teacher and writer 
of music. Three years later, the French provinces had 
been dispersed by the government, and he was then- 
docketed as an archaeologist at the former Jesuit 
college of Poitiers. 

De la Croix's success as a discoverer was marvellous. 
Near Poitiers he found vast Roman baths, five acres 
in extent, whose existence had never even been sus- 
pected. There were tombs of Christian martyrs; a 
wonderful crypt dating from the beginning of the 
Christian era; a temple dedicated to Mercury, with its 
sacred wells, votive vases etc* At Sauxay, nineteen 
miles from Poitiers, he unearthed the ruins of an 
entire Roman colony; a veritable Pompeii with its 
temple of Apollo, its theatres, its palaces, its baths etc. 
He had the same success at Nantes, Saint-Philibert, 
and Berthouville; the French government supplying 
him with the necessary funds. The " Gaulois " said 
of him that " in his first ten years he discovered more 
monuments than would have made twenty archae- 

Colleges 839 

ologists famous." Meantime he lived in a wooden 
cabin, on the banks of the Clain, and there he died 
at the age of eighty, on April 14, 1900; and there also 
the French government built his monument. At the 
dedication, all the scientific men of tjie country were 
present, and the King of Belgium sent a representative. 

Although the well-known Prangois Moigno severed 
his connection with the Society, it was only after 
he had achieved greatness while yet in its ranks. He 
entered the novitiate on September 2, 1822, when he 
was eighteen years of age. He made his theological 
studies at Montrouge, and in his spare moments devoted 
himself to the study of the natural sciences. At the 
outbreak of the Revolution of 1830, he went with his 
brethren to Brieg in Switzerland, where he took up, 
the study of languages, chiefly Hebrew and Arabic. 
When the troubles subsided in France he was appointed 
professor of mathematics in Paris at the Rue des Postes, 
and became widely known as a man of unusual attain- 
ments. He was on intimate terms with Cauchy, 
Arago, Amp&re and others. He was engaged on one of 
his best known works: " Legons de calcul differen- 
tial et de calcul int6gral " and had already published 
the first volume when he left the Society. He had 
been a Jesuit for twenty-one years. He was then 
made chaplain of Louis-le-Grand, one of the famous 
colleges owned by the Jesuits before the Suppression, 
and became the scientific editor of " La Presse " in 
1850; of "Le Pays" in 1851, and in the following 
year, founded the well-known scientific journal " Cos- 
mos," followed by " Les Mondes" in 1862, editing 
meanwhile " Les Actualitfis scientifiques." As a matter 
of fact, it was the Society that had formed him and 
enabled him to publish his greatest works. 

The German, Father Ludwig Dressel, who was for 
many years the director of the Polytechnic in Quito, is 

840 The Jesuits 

well-known for his treatises on geology, chemistry and 
physics. Kramers, in Holland, is the author of three 
volumes on chemistry. In entomology, Father Erich 
Wasmann is among the masters of today, and has written 
a series of works which have elicited the applause 
of the scientific world, especially his " Die moderne 
Biologie und die Entwicklungstheorie." (Modern 
Biology and the Theory of Evolution.) The writings 
of Bolsius on biology won for him a membership in 
the scientific societies of Russia, Belgium, Italy and 

The first meteorological society, the " Palatina," 
was founded by Father Johann Hemmer in 1780, and 
it is noteworthy that nearly all its contributors were 
members of the various religious orders of Austria- 
Hungary, Italy and France. Its scope was not 
restricted to the study of meteors, for it accepted 
papers on ethnology, linguistics, etc. Hence we find 
Father Dobrizhoffer writing to it from Paraguay, 
Joseph Lafitaux from Canada, Johann Hanxleden, the 
Sanscrit scholar from Hindostan, and Lorenzo Herv&s. 
Hanxleden and his colleague Roth were the pioneers 
in Sanscrit. The former was the first European 
to write a Sanscrit grammar and to compile a 
Malabar-Sanscrit-Portuguese dictionary, Herv&s was 
one of the Jesuits expelled from Mexico, and after 
the Suppression was made prefect of the Quirinal 
Library by Pius VIL While there, he worked in 
conjunction with several of his former brethren in 
the compilation and composition of scientific works, 
mostly of an ethnological character. He also wrote 
a number of educational works for deaf mutes. 

The Observatory of Stonyhurst dates back to 1838- 
39, when a building consisting of an octagonal center- 
piece with four abutting structures was erected in 
the middle of the garden. But it was not until 1845 

Colleges 841 

that a 4-inch Jones equatorial was mounted in its 
dome. Meteorological observations were begun as 
early as 1844, and magnetic in 1856 by Father Weld. 
In 1867 an 8-inch equatorial was set up. The chief 
workers were Fathers Stephen Perry, Walter Sidgreaves 
and Aloysius Cortie. All three were members of 
the Royal Astronomical Society and were frequently 
chosen to fill official positions. Father Perry achieved 
special prominence. He was the director from 1860 to 
1862, and again from 1868 till his death in 1889. He 
was a member of more scientific expeditions than 
any other living astronomer. He was at Cadiz for 
the solar eclipse in 1870; he was sent as astronomer 
royal in 1874 for the transit of Venus to Kerguelen 
or Desolation Island, and for another observation to 
Madagascar in 1882. In 1886 he observed a total 
eclipse at Carriacou in the West Indies. For the 
eclipse of 1887 he was sent to Russia, and for that 
'of 1889 to Cayenne. On the latter expedition he was 
attacked by a pestilential fever and died on board 
the warship " Comus" off Georgetown, Demerara, 
after receiving the last sacraments from a French 
Abb resident in Georgetown. Father Perry was 
buried there in the cathedral cemetery. His death 
was that of a saint, and a touching account of it has 
been left by his assistant, a Jesuit lay-brother. 

Father Perry's prominence in the scientific world 
may be judged by the honors bestowed upon him. 
He was a Fellow of the Royal Society and a member 
of the Council; also a member and Fellow of the 
Royal Astronomical Society and, shortly before he 
died, he had been proposed as Vice-President. At the 
time of his death he held the post of President of the 
Liverpool Astronomical Society. He was a Fellow 
of the Royal Meteorological Society, a member of the 
Physical Society of London, and an associate of the 

842 The Jesuits 

Papal Academy of the Nuovi Lincei, the oldest 
scientific society in Europe. He belonged also to the 
Societ6 Gfeographique of Antwerp, and had received 
the degree of Doctor of Science honoris causa from the 
Royal University of Ireland. For several years before 
his death, he served on the committee of the council 
on education, as well as on the committee for compar- 
ing and reducing magnetic observations, for which 
work he had been appointed by the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, a body of which he was 
a life-member. In 1887 and 1889 he attended at 
Paris the meetings of the Astrographic Congress for 
the photographic charting of the heavens. 

In the " Monthly Notices " of the Royal Astronomical 
Society (L, iv) the following resolution appears on 
the occasion of his death: " The Council having heard 
with the deepest regret of the death of the Rev. S. J. 
Perry while on the Society's expedition to observe 
the total eclipse at the Salut Islands, desire to put 
on record their sense of the great loss which astronomy 
has suffered by the death of so enthusiastic and capable 
an observer, and to offer to his relations and to his col- 
leagues at Stonyhurst the expression of their sincere 
sympathy and condolence on this sad event/' The 
list of his scientific papers covers twelve pages of his 
biography. Father Cortie, his associate in the Stony- 
hurst Observatory, says of him: "His death was 
glorious, for he died a victim to his sense of duty 
and his zeal for science. Truly he may lay claim to 
the title of * martyr of science/ and a part of the 
story of the eclipse of December 22, 1889, will be the 
account of how Father Perry was carried from a sick 
bed to take his last observation. " 

Besides the Observatories in Granada and Ona the 
Spanish Jesuits have another near Tortosa. The 
main object of the latter is the study of terrestrial 

Colleges 843 

magnetism, seismology, meteorology, study of the sun, 
etc. It has five separate buildings and a valuable 
periodical regularly published by the observers. 

The Zo-se Observatory near Zikawei in China is in 
charge of the French Fathers. The Observatory is 
about 80 feet in length. It has a library of 20,000 
volumes with numerous and valuable Chinese manu- 
scripts. They have another station in Madagascar, 
which is 4,600 feet above sea-level, and consequently 
higher by 100 metres than the Lick Observatory in 
California. When the Jesuits were expelled from 
Madagascar, the Observatory was demolished ' by 
the natives who thought it was a fortress. It was 
rebuilt later at the expense of the French government 
and the director, Father Colin, was made a corre- 
sponding Member of the French Academy. In 1890, 
1895, 1898 and 1899 the observers were honored by 
their home government with purses of considerable 
value, one being of 6,000 and another of 3,000 

There are other observatories at Calcutta, Rhodesia, 
Feldkirch, Louvain, Oudenbosch (Holland), Puebla 
(Mexico), Havana, Woodstock and other Jesuit col- 
leges in the United States ; these are attracting notice 
principally by their seismograhical reports. The 
most conspicuous of all these North American 
observatories is that of Georgetown which was founded 
in 1842-43, about the same time as the Naval Obser- 
vatory. It was built under the direction of Father 
Curley, whose determination of the longitude of Wash- 
ington in conjunction with Sir G. B. Airy, the Astrono- 
mer Royal of Greenwich, England, was made by 
observing a series of transits of the moon, and was 
later shown by the electric telegraph to have been 
correct to within the tenth of a second. Fathers De 
Vico, Sestini and Secchi labored at Georgetown. 

844 The Jesuits 

Secchi's " Researches in Electrical Rheometry " was 
published in 1852 by the Smithsonian Institute. It 
was his first literary contribution to science. Sestini's 
drawings of the sun spots were published by the Naval 
Observatory. In 1889 Father Hagen, then the director, 
published his "Atlas stellarum variabilium." In 
1890 Father Fargis solved the question of " the personal 
equation " in astronomical observations by his invention 
of the Photochronograph. It had been attempted by 
Father Braun in Kalocsa (Hungary) and by Repsola 
in Konigsberg, but both failed. Professors Pickering 
and Bigelow in the United States had also given it up, 
but Father Fargis solved the difficulty by a fixed 
photographic plate and a narrow metal tongue attached 
to the armature of an electric magnet. It has proved 
satisfactory in every test. 

In Sommervogel's " Biblioth&que " the list of the 
astronomical works written by Secchi covers nineteen 
pages quarto, in double columns. He was equally 
active in physics and meteorology and his large mete- 
orograph described in Ganot's " Physics " merited for 
him the Grand Prix (100,000 francs) and the Cross 
of the Legion of Honor at the Paris Universal Exposi- 
tion in 1867. It was conferred upon him by the hand 
of the Emperor Napoleon, in the presence of the 
Emperors of Russia and Austria and the Kings of 
Prussia and Belgium. The Emperor of Brazil sent 
him a golden rose as a token of appreciation. 

The "Atlas stellaxum variabilium" by Father 
Johann Hagen is according to " Popular Astronomy " 
(n. 8 1, p. 50) the most important event in the star 
world. Ernst Harturg (V. J. S., vol. 35) says: " It 
will without doubt become in time an indispensable 
requisite of the library of every observatory just as 
the Bonn maps have become." Father Hagen has 
also won distinction in the mathematical world by his 

Colleges 845 

" Synopsis der hoheren Mathematik," in four volumes 

The seismological department of Georgetown, under 
Father Francis A. Tondorf, has attained an especial 
prominence in the United States. Its equipment is 
of the latest perfection, and its earthquake reports 
are those most commonly quoted in the daily press of 

Important in their own sphere are the books " Astro- 
nomisches aus Babylon " by Fathers Joseph Epping 
and Johann Nepomuk Strassmaier, and " Die babylon- 
ische Mondrechnung " by Epping. F. K. Ginzel 
(in V. J. S., vol. 35.) expresses the following opinion of 
them: " It is well known that the investigations made 
by the Jesuit Father Epping, in conjunction with the 
Assyriologist Father Strassmaier, upon many Baby- 
lonian astronomical bricks have had as a consequence 
that the scientific level upon which the history of 
astronomy had formerly placed the Babylonians 
must be taken considerably higher. Epping's investi- 
gations now receive a very valuable extension through 
the labor of Father Kugher of Valkenburg, Holland. 
From the communications received concerning Kugher's 
work the importance of his book to the history of 
astronomy may be inferred/ 1 

" Die Gravitations-Constante " (Vienna, 1896), by 
Father Carl Braun of Mariaschein, Bohemia, represents 
about eight years of patient work, and according to 
Poynting (Proc. of the Royal Soc. Inst. of Great Britain, 
XVI, 2) "bears internal evidence of great care and 
accuracy. He obtained almost exactly the same result 
as Professor Boys with regard to the earth's mean 
density. Father Braun carried on his work far from 
the usual mechanical laboratory facilities and had to 
make much of the apparatus himself. His patience 
and persistence command our highest admiration/ 1 

846 The Jesuits 

With regard to the " Kosmogonie vom Standpunkte 
christlicher Wissenschaft," by Father Braun, Dr. 
Poster says: (V. J. S., vol. 25) " this problem, mighty 
in every aspect, is treated from all points of view with 
clearness and impressiveness. One could hardly find 
at this time in any other book all the essential features 
of a theory of the sun collected together in such a 
directive manner.*' 

Perhaps the famous phrase of St. Ignatius, Quam 
sordet tellus quum cc&lum aspicio, had something to do 
with the Society's passion for astronomy. " How 
sordid the earth is when I look at the sky/' His sons 
have been looking at the sky from the beginning not 
only spiritually but through telescopes, and many of 
them have become famous as astronomers. This is 
all the more notable, because star-gazing was only a 
secondary object with them. They were first of all 
priests and scientific men afterwards. As- early as 
1591 Father Perrerin, in his " Divinatio astrologica," 
denounced astrology as a superstition although his 
Protestant friend, the great Kepler, did not admit the 
distinction between it and astronomy. The book of 
Perrerin's went through five editions. Father de 
Angelis published in 1604 five volumes entitled " In 
astrologos conjectores " (Against astrological guessers). 
As late as 1676, the work was still in demand, for 
illustrious personages like Rudolph II, Wallenstein, 
Gustavus Adolphus, Catherine de' Medici and even 
Luther and Melanchthon with a host of others were 
continually having their horoscopes taken. 

Another eminent worker was Father Riccioli, of 
whom we read: " If you want to know the ancient 
follies on this point consult Riccioli." (Littrois in 
" Wunder des Himmels," 1886, 604.) The implication 
might be that Riccioli approved of them, but the reverse 
is the case, for, as Thomas Aquinas furnishes a list of 

Colleges 847 

every actual and almost every possible theological 
and philosophical error, but after each adds mdetur 
quod non, which he follows up by a refutation, so 
does Riccioli in his Astrology. He was a genius. He 
became a Jesuit when he was sixteen, and for years 
never thought of telescopes. He taught poetry, 
philosophy and theology at Parma and Bologna, 
and took up astronomy only when his superiors assigned 
him to that study. Being an Italian, he did not like 
Copernicus or Kepler. They were from the Protestant 
North and had refused to accept the Gregorian Calen- 
dar. He admitted, indeed, that the Copernican 
system was the most beautiful, the most simple, the 
best conceived, but not solid, so he made one of his 
own, but did not adhere to it tenaciously. 

Appreciating the deficiencies of the astronomy of the 
ancients, he composed the famous "Almagestum 
novum," which placed the whole science on a new 
basis. Beginning by the measurement of the earth, he 
produced, though he made mistakes, the first meteoro- 
log-system. His lunar observations revealed 600 spots 
on the moon, which is fifty more than had been found 
by Hevelius. His collaborator, Grimaldi, the greatest 
mathematician of his age, made the maps. His remarks 
on libration fill an entire volume, and the writer in 
the " Biographie universelle " gives him the credit of 
experimenting on the oscillations of the pendulum before 
Galileo. His health was always poor, but he worked 
like a giant. His "Almagestum" consists of 1500 
folio pages, and is described as a treasure of astro- 
nomical erudition. Lalande quotes from it continually. 
His " Astronomia reformata " is in two volumes 
folio, and he has twelve folio volumes on geography 
and hydrography. Its learning is astounding. Thus, 
for instance, in the second part of his " Chronologia" 
there is a list of the principal events from the creation 

848 The Jesuits 

to the year 1688, along with the names of kings, patri- 
archs, nations, heresies, councils, and great personages, 
which was really collateral matter. 

What the Jesuit astronomers accomplished in China 
from the time of Ricci down to Hallerstein in 1774 has 
been continued there to the present day. The first 
government observatory in Europe was erected in the 
University of Vienna, then in the hands of the Jesuits. 
There were others at Vilna, Schwetzingen and Mann- 
heim. Twelve other private ones had been built in 
the various European colleges of the Society. The 
establishment of these observatories was providential, 
for when the Society was suppressed they afforded 
occupation and support to a great number of dispersed 
Jesuits, who remained in charge of them during their 
forty years of homelessness and kept alive the old 
spirit of the Order in its affection for that particular 
study. As in the old Society this work is still a matter of 
private enterprise. As far as we are aware there is 
only one observatory where a government assists, 
the Observatory of Manila, in which the employees 
are salaried by the United States government. The 
equipment itself, however, was provided by the Jesuits, 
who reduced their living expenses to the minimum 
in order to build the house and buy the instruments. 

On the other hand, the number of actual Jesuilb 
observatories in the strict sense of the term already 
rivals that of the old Society. The Roman establish- 
ment which had been made famous by Scheiner, 
Gottignes, Asclepi, Borgondius, Maire and Boscovich 
was continued during the Suppression by the secular 
priest Calandrelli. In 1824 Leo XII restored it to the 
Society, and Father Dumouchel took charge of it 
with De Vico as an assistant. The latter's reputation 
was European. He was known as the Comet Chaser, 
for he had discovered eight of them. The well-known 

Colleges 849 

five and a half years periodic comet bears his name. 
He succeeded Dumoudiel as director in 1840, and was 
holding that office when the Revolution of 1848 drove the 
Jesuits from Rome. He was received with great 
enthusiasm in France by Arago, and in England he 
was offered the directorship of the Observatory of 
Madras but he preferred to go to Georgetown in the 
United States. Being called , to London on business, 
he died there on November 15, 1848, at the age of 43. 
Herschel wrote his obituary in the " Notices of the 
Astronomical Society. 1 ' 

Secchi had gone with De Vico to Georgetown, but was 
recalled to Rome in 1849 by Pius IX, and given 
charge of the observatory. He was born at Reggio in 
1818, and, after studying in the Jesuit college there, 
entered the Society at the age of sixteen. He began 
as a tutor in physics and continued at that work when 
he went to Georgetown. Astronomy had as yet not 
appealed to him, but in Washington he met the famous 
hydrographer, meteorologist and astronomer, Maury, 
and a deep affection sprang up between them, and 
Secchi dedicated one of his books to his American 
friend. His appointment to the Roman Observatory in 
1859 was due to the recommendation of De Vico, and 
in two years his brilliant success as an observer attracted 
the attention of the scientific world. He began by a 
revision of Struve's " Catalogue of Double Stars/* 
which necessitated seven years' strenuous work, and 
he was able to verify 10,000 of the entries. Meantime 
he was studying the physical condition of Saturn, 
Jupiter, Mars and the four great moons of Jupiter. 
In 1852 the moon became the special object of his 
investigations, and his micrometrical map of the great 
crater was so exact that the Royal Society of London 
had numerous photographs made of it. In 1859 he 
published his great work "II quadro fisico del sistema 

850 The Jesuits 

solare secondo il piu recenti osservazioni." The study 
of the sun spots was his favorite task, and his expedition 
to Spain in 1860 to observe the total eclipse established 
the fact that the red protuberances around the edge of 
the eclipsed sun were real features of the sun itself and 
not optical illuminations or illuminated mountains of 
the moon. He began the " Sun Records " in Rome, 
and they are kept up till this day. No other observatory 
has anything like them. All this, with his inventions, 
and the study of the spectroscope, heliospectroscope 
and telespectroscope, besides the mass of scientific 
results which he arrived at, has put him in the very 
first rank of astronomers. He was equally conspicuous 
as a meteorologist and a physicist, When the Pied- 
montese took Rome, Secchi was offered the rank of 
senator and the superintendency of all the observatories 
of Italy if he would leave the Society. Of course he 
scoffed at the proposal; but his authority in Italy was 
so great that the invaders did not dare to expel him 
from his observatory. He died in 1878. 

Clerke says of him: "The effective founders of 
stellar photography were Father Secchi, the eminent 
Jesuit astronomer of the Collegio Romano, and Dr. 
Huggins with whom the late Professor Mullen was 
associated. The work of each was happily made to 
supplement that of the other. With less perfect 
appliances, the Roman astronomer sought to render 
his work extensive rather than precise; whereas, at 
Upper Tulse Hill, searching accuracy over a narrower 
guage was aimed at and attained. To Father Secchi 
is due the merit of having executed the first spectroscope 
view of the heavens. Above 4000 stars were all 
passed in review by him and classified according to the 
varying qualities of their light. His provisional 
establishment (1863-7) of four types of stellar spectra 

Colleges 851 

has proved a genuine aid to knowledge, through the 
facilities afforded by it for the arrangement and com- 
parison of rapidly accumulating facts. Moreover it 
is scarcely doubtful that these spectral distinctions 
correspond to differences in physical conditions of a 
marked kind/' 

" I saw the great man," said one who was in the 
audience of the splendid hall of the Cancelleria, " when 
he was giring a course on the solar spectrum. The 
vast auditorium was crowded with a brilliant throng in 
which you could see cardinals, archbishops, monsignori 
and laymen, all representing the highest religious, 
diplomatic and scientific circles. Though an Italian, 
Secchi spoke in French that was absolutely perfect. 
Everyone was enthralled, but what captivated me 
was the gentleness and even deference with which he 
spoke to the men who were adjusting the screens. He 
almost seemed to be their servant and I could not help 
saying to myself, ' Oh! I love you/ I saw him later 
in the street. It was in the turbulent days of the 
Italian occupation. He was walking alone; his head 
slightly bowed. Suddenly the cry was heard: ' Death 
to the Jesuits!' and an excited mob was seen rushing 
towards him. He stood still; grasped the stout stick 
in his hand, glared at them; and they fled. I never 
saw anything like it. I loved him before. I adored 
him now/' In brief, Secchi was a great man in the 
eyes of the world, but he was a greater religious. 
Indeed it is said that when his superiors told him to 
apply himself to mathematics he burst into tears. 
He wanted to be a missionary. He was such, while 
being at the same time one of the most distinguished 
men in the scientific world. 

The Manila Observatory in the Philippines, strictly 
speaking, began its meteorological service in 1865, 

852 The Jesuits 

though observations had been made many years previ- 
ously. In 1 88 1 it was officially approved by the Spanish 
government and in 1901 by that of the United States. 
The meteorological importance and efficiency of the 
Manila Observatory overshadows its astronomical, for 
the reason that it is situated in the eastern typhoon 
path. Astronomy, however, is by no means neglected- 
From 1880 up to the present time it has rendered very 
valuable services to the world. First, the official time 
was given to the city of Manila and, after the American 
occupation, it was extended to all the telegraph stations 
throughout the islands. Secondly, about one hundred 
ship chronometers are annually compared and rated at 
the Observatory free of charge, 

In 1894 Father Jose Algu6 began to complete the 
astronomical equipment and erected a new building 
at the cost of $40,000, equipping it with instruments of 
the latest and best type. Three years later he was 
given charge of the whole establishment, and is now 
rendering immense and indispensable service to the 
shipping interests of the Far East by his weather 
predictions. His barocyclonometer is carried on every 
ship in those waters. In 1900 he was sent to Washing- 
ton by the United States government to supervise 
the printing of his immense work entitled " El Archi- 
pi61ago Filipino," and he gave later to the World's 
Fair at St. Louis one of its remarkable exhibits, a 
relief map covering a great expanse on the ground and 
representing every island, river, bay, cape, peninsula, 
volcano, village and city of the Archipelago. Previous 
to his appointment in Manila Father Algu< had worked 
for several years in the Georgetown Observatory. 

In the matter of the theological teaching it will suffice 
to note that the Collegium Germanicum was given back 
to the Society in 1829 and entrusted to Father Aloysius 

Colleges 853 

Landes as rector. The German government for some 
time forbade German students to attend its classes, 
but in 1848 there were 251 on the roster. Since it 
opened its doors to the present day, it has given to 
the Church 4 cardinals, 4 archbishops, n bishops, 
3 coadjutor bishops, i vicar Apostolic, besides a number 
of distinguished professors, canons and priests. 

A very notable recognition of the Society in the 
field of education was given by Pius IX, when he 
confided to it the government of the college known as 
the Pium Latinum. The distinguished ecclesiastic 
who suggested it was the Apostolic prothonotary, 
Jos6 Ignacio Eyzaguirre, a Chilian by birth. The 
college was founded in 1858 to prepare a body of learned 
priests for the various countries of South America. 
In 1908 at its golden jubilee it could show a record 
not only of distinguished priests but of a cardinal, 
Joachim Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, and 
of 30 bishops, though it began with only 15 students. 
The house that first sheltered them was extremely 
small, but the Pope saw to it that they had a larger 
establishment. While urging the bishops of Latin 
America to support it liberally for having been 
Apostolic delegate in Chili no one knew better than 
he the urgent necessity of such a school he himself 
was lavish in his gifts of money, books, vestments, 
etc. In 1867 a part of the old Jesuit novitiate was 
purchased from the Government, and although in 1870 
the Jesuits were expelled from Rome those in the Pio 
Latino were not disturbed. In 1884 a new site was 
found near the Vatican and on the banks of the Tiber 
where there is now a splendid college with a capacity 
of 400 students. In 1905 Cardinal Vives y Tuto 
published an Apostolic Constitution which gave the 
title " Pontifical " to the college and confided the 

854 The Jesuits 

education in perpetuum to the Society. This Constitu- 
tion had been asked for by the Latin American Bishops 
during the Council, it was promised by Leo XIII, and 
finally realized by Pius X. When formally handed 
over to the Jesuits there were 104 alumni present. 
The trust was accepted in the name of Father General 
by Father Catering provincial of the Roman province. 



Grammars and Lexicons of every tongue Dramas Histories of 
Literature Cartography Sinology Egyptology Sanscrit 
Catholic Encyclopedia Catalogues of Jesuit Writers Acta Sanc- 
torum Jesuit Relations Nomenclator Periodicals Philosophy 
Dogmatic, Moral and Ascetic Theology Canon Law Exegesis. 

THE literary activity of the Society has always been 
very great, not only in theological, philosophical and 
scientific fields, but also in those that are specifically 
designated as pertaining to the belles lettres. Thus, 
under the heading " Linguistics/ 1 in SommervogeTs 
41 Bibliotheca " we find treatises on philology, the origin of 
language, grammatical theories, a pentaglottic vocabu- 
lary, a lexicon of twenty-four languages, the first 
language, etc. Then come the Classics. Under 
" Greek," there are two huge pages with the names of 
various grammars; besides dictionaries, exercises and 
collections of old Greek authors Under " Latin," 
we find four pages of grammars and lexicons; some of 
the latter giving the equivalents in Portuguese, Tamul, 
Chinese, French, Polish, Brazilian, Bohemian, Syrian, 
Armenian and Japanese. After that we have: 
" Elegances," " Roots," " Ancient and Modern Latin," 
"Anthologies," "Pronunciations," "Medullas" etc. 
Six pages are devoted to grammars and dictionaries 
of European languages, not only the ordinary ones 
but also Basque, Bohemian, Celtic, Croat, Illyrian, 
Wend, Provencal, Russian and Turkish, The Astatic 
languages follow next in order: Annamite, Siamese, 
Arabian, Armenian, Georgian, Chinese, Cochinese, 
Hebrew, Hindustanee, Japanese, Persian, Sanscrit 


856 The Jesuits 

and Syrian; with two columns of Angolese, Caffre, 
Egyptian, Ethiopian, Kabyle and Malgache grammars. 
The Malgache all bear the dates of the late nineteenth 
century, and there is an Esquimaux Grammar by 
Father Barnum dated 1901. 

The tongues of most of the North and South Ameri- 
can Indians are represented; the dictionaries of the 
South American Indians were all written by the Fathers 
of the old Society. 

The books devoted to the study of eloquence are 
appalling in their number. They are in all languages 
and on all sorts of subjects, sacred and profane. There 
are panegyrics, funeral orations, coronation speeches, 
eulogies, episcopal consecrations, royal progresses, 
patriotic discourses, but only occasionally does the 
eye catch a modern date in the formidable list of 
sixty-three folio pages. 

Latin poetry claims fifty-seven pages for the titles 
of compositions or studies. Poetry in the modern 
languages is much more modest and requires only as 
many columns as the ancients demanded pages. The 
English list is very brief; the Italian very long; and 
while the ancient Jesuits seemed to have little fear 
of breaking forth into verse, the modern worshippers 
of the Muse, except when they utter their thoughts 
in Malgache, or Chouana or Tagale or Japanese, are 
very cautious. 

Pious people perhaps may be scandalized to hear that 
the Jesuits of the old Society wrote a great deal for 
the theatres; it was not, however, for the theatres of 
the world, but for the theatres of their colleges. Hence 
in the chapter entitled " Theatre," after a number of 
treatises on " The Restriction of Comedies,'* " Theatre 
des Grecs," " Liturgical Drama," "Reflections on 
the Danger of Shows/' " The mind of St. Paul, St. 
Thomas Aquinas and St. Francis de Sales on Plays;" 

Literature 857 

etc., we come face to face with the titles of plays 
that crowd and blacken by their close print no less 
than ten huge folio pages. They are contributed by 
the Jesuits of all countries. Germany especially was 
very prolific in this kind of literature, claiming as many 
as four pages of titles; England furnishes only seven 
dramas in all, three of which are modern. Three of 
the ancient plays had for their author no less a per- 
sonage than the Blessed Edmund Campion. They 
were entitled " The Sacrifice of Isaac/' " The Tragedy 
of King Saul," while Southwell credits him with 
" Nectar et Ambrosia," which was acted before the 
emperor. All these were written in 1575, when he 
was professor of rhetoric in Bohemia. 

Belgium has a long list to its credit, and among the 
dramatists appears the very eminent Ignace Car- 
bonelle, but only as the author of the text of a Cantata 
for the jubilee of Pius IX in 1877. In Prance occurs the 
name of Ars&ne Cahours, who wrote many tragedies 
and even a vaudeville, which he called " L'enterrement 
du P&re Simon, le brocanteur." Longhaye's well- 
known college plays are on the list; 

There are many oratorios, but it is feared that the 
timid will be scandalized to hear that an entire column 
is required for the names of the authors of ballets. 
One of the writers is no less a personage than the 
distinguished historian Jouvancy. The ballets are 
interludes; there was no impropriety in these dances, 
however, for no female characters appeared, and the 
college boys for whom they were written had to do all 
the dancing themselves. 

" Many of these dramas/' says Father Schwickerath 
quoting Janssen, " were exhibited with all possible 
splendor, as for instance those given at La Fl&che in 
1614 before Louis XIII and his court. But it seems 
that nowhere was greater pomp displayed than at 

858 The Jesuits 

Munich where the court liberally contributed to make 
the performances especially brilliant. In 1574 the 
tragedy ' Constantine ' was played on two successive 
days, and the whole city was beautifully decorated. 
More than one thousand actors took part in the play. 
Constantine entered the city in a triumphal chariot 
surrounded by four hundred horsemen in glittering 
armor. At the performance of 'Esther* in 1577, 
the most splendid costumes and gems were furnished 
from the treasury of the Duke; and at the banquet of 
King Assuerus one hundred precious dishes of gold 
and silver were used." 

Those old Jesuits seemed to be carrying out the 
famous order of La Mancha's Knight when the ordinary 
stage was too small; " Then build a house or act it 
on the plain;" or as a recent writer declares " Like 
Richard Wagner in our days, the Jesuits aimed at and 
succeeded in uniting all the arts within the compass 
of the drama, The effect of such plays was like those 
of the Oberammergau Passion Play, ravishing, over- 
powering. Even people ignorant of the Latin tongue 
were captivated by these -representations and the 
concourse of people was usually very great. In 1565 
* Judith ' was acted before the court in Munich and 
then repeated in the public square. Even the surround- 
ing walls and roofs of the houses were covered with 
eager spectators. In 1560 the comedy ' Euripus ' 
was given in the courtyard of the college at Prague 
before a crowd of more than eight thousand people, 
It had to be repeated three times and was asked for 
again and again." 

The early German parsons denounced these dramas 
as devices for propagating idolatry, but on the other 
hand a very capable critic Karl von Reinhardstottner 
says: " In the first century of their history the Jesuits 
did great work in this line, They performed dramas 

Literature 859 

full of power and grandeur, and though their dramatic 
productions did not equal the fine lyrics of the Jesuit 
poets Balde and Sarbiewski, still in the dramas of 
Fabricius, Agricola and others, there is unmistakable 
poetic spirit and noble seriousness. How could the 
enormous success of their performances be otherwise 
explained? And who could doubt for a moment that 
by their dramas they rendered great service to their 
century; that they advanced culture, and preserved 
taste for the theatre and its subsidiary arts? It would 
be sheer ingratitude to undervalue what they effected 
by their dramas. " 

Goethe was present at a play given in 1786 at Ratis- 
bon. It was during the Suppression, but happily the 
Jesuit traditions had been maintained in the college. 
He has left his impressions in writing: " This public 
performance has convinced me anew of the cleverness 
of the Jesuits. They rejected nothing that could 
be of any conceivable service to them, and they knew 
how to wield their weapons with devotion and dexterity. 
This is not cleverness of the merely abstract order; it 
is a real fruition of the thing itself; an absorbing interest 
which springs from the practical uses of life. Just as 
this great spiritual society had its organ-builders, 
its sculptors, its gilders so there seem to be some who 
by nature and inclination take to the drama; and as 
their churches are distinguished by a pleasing pomp, 
so these prudent men have seized on the sensibility 
of the world by a decent theatre. " (Italien Reise, Goethe 
Wcrke, Cotta's Ed. 1840 XXIII p. 3-4.) 

Tiraboschi began his literary work when a young 
professor in Modena by editing the Latin-Italian 
dictionary of Monza, but he made so many corrections 
that it was practically a new work. Subsequently he 
was appointed librarian 'at Milan, and by means of 
the documents he discovered, wrote a " History of 

860 The Jesuits 

the HumiKati," which filled up a gap in the annals of 
the Church. While librarian in the ducal library at 
Modena, he began his monumental work on the " Storia 
della letteratura italiana." This history extends from 
Etruscan times to 1700, and required eleven years of 
constant labor to complete it. 

Hurter tells us " Michael Cosmas Petrus Denis was 
a most celebrated bibliographer, whose almost innumer- 
able works must be placed in the category of human- 
istic literature. " He entered the Society in Upper 
Austria on October 17, 1747, and taught rhetoric for 
twelve years in the Theresian College for Nobles, 
where he won some renown by his poetry. At the 
time of the Suppression of the Society, to which he 
ever remained grateful and attached, he was given 
charge of the Garelli Library and devoted himself to 
the study of literature and bibliography. His public 
lectures attracted immense throngs from far and near. 
He was promoted to be royal counsellor by Emperor 
Leopold and was made custodian of the Imperial 
Library. By that time he was a European celebrity, 
De Backer in his " Bibliotheca " mentions ninety- 
three of his publications. Hurter classifies as the most 
important the " Denkmale der christlichcn Glauben- 
und Sittenlehre." His poems which he signed " Sined," 
which was Denis spelled backward, won him the name 
of Bard of the Danube, and helped considerably to 
promote the study of German in Austria. He was 
one of a group of poets whose chief aim was to arouse 
German patriotism, Ossian was their ideal and 
inspiration, and Denis translated the Gaelic poet into 
German (1768-69), and in addition he published two 
volumes of poems just one year before the Suppression. 
Naturally these patriotic effusions in verse by a Jesuit 
attracted considerable attention. Denis died in 
Vienna on 20 September, 1800. 

Literature 861 

Father Baumgartner has won a high place in the 
domain of letters by his large work entitled " History 
of the Literature of the Entire World." Besides this 
he has to his credit three volumes on " Goethe/ 1 another 
on " Longfellow;" a fifth on " Vondel," a sixth entitled 
"Ausfliige in das Land der Seein " and a seventh 
called " Island und die Faroer." 

Of Father Faustino Ar6valo, the distinguished 
hymnographer and patrologist, we have spoken above. 

Geographical themes appealed to many writers both 
of the old and the new Society, and also to those of 
the intervening period. The subjects relate to every 
part of the world. There is, for instance, " The German 
Tyrol" by the Italian Bresciani; "The Longitude of 
Milan " by Lagrange; " The Geography of the Archi- 
pelago " by F. X. Liechtl6. This archipelago was the 
West Indies. His brother Ignatius executed a sim- 
ilar work on the Grecian Islands. He went to Naxos 
in 1754, and died there in 1795. " Chota-Nagpur " 
is described in 1883, " Abyssinia" in 1896, and the 
"Belgian Congo" in 1897. Veiga writes of the 
" Orinoco " in 1789, and Armand Jean of the " Poly- 
nesians " in 1867. There is no end of maps such as 
"Turkestan and Dzoungaria," "China and Tatary," 
"The Land of Chanaan," "Paraguay," "Lake 
Superior," " The Land between the Napo and the 
Amazons*" The famous maps of Mexico by Father 
Kino have been reproduced by Hubert Bancroft in his 
" Native Races." 

Joseph de Mayoria de Mailla's great work called 
" Toung-E3ian-Kang-mou," which is an abstract of 
the Chinese annals, was sent to France in 1737, but 
was not published until 1785. He was the first Euro- 
pean to give the world a knowledge of the classic 
historical works of the Chinese. His work is of great 
value for the reason that it provides the most important 

862 The Jesuits 

foundation for a connected history of China. He sent 
along with it many very valuable maps and charts 
the result of his work in making a cartographical survey 
of the country; the part assigned to him including 
the provinces of Ho-nan, Eiang-hinan, Tshe-Kiang, 
Fo-Kien and the Island of Formosa. As a reward for 
his labor the emperor made him a mandarin, and when 
he died at the age of seventy-nine very elaborate 
obsequies were ordered by imperial decree. 

Father Joseph Fischer, a professor at Feldskirch, is 
known in all the learned societies of the world for his 
"Die Entdeckungen der Normannen in America" 
and also for his " Cosmographiae introductio " of 
Martin Waldseemuller, on whose map the name 
" America " first appeared. The maps and studies of 
old Huronia by Father Jones have been published by 
the Canadian Government. 

John Baptist Belot, who died in 1904, won a reputa- 
tion as an Orientalist, as did his associate Father 
Cheiko by his " Chrestomathia Arabica," in five 
volumes, and also by his Arabic Lexicon. Their 
fellow-worker Father Lammens is now a professor in 
the Biblical Institute in Rome. As they lived a 
considerable time in Syria they have a distinct advan- 
tage over other Europeans in this particular study, 

Andrew Zottoli is an authority as a sinologist. The 
misfortune of being exiled from Italy in 1848 gave him 
the advantage, which he would not otherwise have had, 
of becoming proficient in Chinese, for he lived fifty- 
four years in Kiang-nan. Besides his Chinese cate- 
chism and grammar, he has published a complete 
course of Chinese literature in five volumes, and a 
universal dictionary of the Chinese language in twelve, 

To this list may be added what a recent critic called 
the monumental work of the illustrious Father Beccari, 
known as " Scriptores rerum gyptiacarum." It 

Literature 863 

consists of sixteen volumes, and includes the entire 
period of Egyptian history from the sixteenth to the 
nineteenth ceAtury. In this category, Father Strass- 
maier represents the Society by his works on Assyri- 
ology and cuneiform inscriptions. With him is Father 
Dahlman whose " Das Mahabharata als Epos und 
Rechtbuch," " Nirvana/' " Buddha/ 7 and " Mahab- 
hatara Studien "have won universal applause. 

Luigi Lanzi, the Italian archaeologist, was born at 
Olmo near Macerata in 1732, and entered the Society 
in 1749. At its Suppression, the Grand Duke of 
Tuscany made him the assistant director of the 
Florentine Museum. He devoted himself to the study 
of ancient and modern literature, and was made a 
member of the Arcadians. The deciphering of monu- 
ments, chiefly Etruscan, was one of his favorite 
occupations and resulted in his writing his " Saggio 
di lingua etrusca" in 1789. Four years later he 
produced his noted ' * History of Painting in Italy. ' ' His 
other works included a critical commentary on Hesiod's 
" Works and Days/' with a Latin and an Italian transla- 
tion in verse ; three books of " Inscriptiones et carmina/ ' 
translations of Catullus, Theocritus and others, besides 
two ascetic works on St. Joseph and the Sacred Heart 
respectively. He died in 1810 four years before the 

Angelo Mai is one of the very attractive figures at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. He had studied 
at the seminary of Bergamo and had as professor, 
Father Mozzi, a member of the suppressed Society. 
When the saintly Pignatelli opened the novitiate at 
Parma in 1799, Mom joined him and young Angelo 
who was then seventeen years old went there as a 
novice* He was sent to Naples in 1804 to teach 
humanities, but was obliged to leave when the French 
occupied the city. He was then summoned to Rome, 

864 The Jesuits 

and ordained a priest. While there, he met two 
exiled Jesuits from Spain : Monero and Monacho, who 
besides teaching him Hebrew and Greek, gave him 
his first instructions in paleography, showing him how 
to manipulate and decipher palimpsests. In 1813 
he was compelled by the order of the duke to return 
to his native country, and was appointed custodian 
of the Ambrosian Library at Milan. There he made 
his first great discoveries of a number of precious 
manuscripts, which alone sufficed to give him an impor- 
tant place in the learned world. In 1819 at the 
suggestion of Cardinals Consalvi and Litta, the 
staunchest friends of the Society, Pius VII appointed 
him librarian of the Vatican, with the consent of the 

Prom all this it is very hard to understand how Mai 
is generally set down as having left the Society. 
Albers says so in his " Liber ssecularis," Hurter in his 
" Nomenclator, 1 ' as does Sommervogel in his " Bibli- 
otheca," and his name does not appear in Terrien's 
list of those who died in the Society. In spite of all 
this, however, the expression "left the Society" seems 
a somewhat cruel term to apply to one who was 
evidently without reproach and who was asked for 
by the Sovereign Pontiff . He was made a cardinal 
by Gregory XVI, a promotion which his old novice 
master Father Pignatelli had foretold when Angelo 
was summoned to be librarian at Milan. He continued 
his work in the Vatican and gave to the world the 
unpublished pages of three hundred and fifty ancient 
authors which he had discovered. 

Father Hugo Hurter calls Francesco Zaccaria of the 
old Society the most industrious worker in the his- 
tory of literature. This praise might well be applied to 
himself if it were only for his wonderful " Nomenclator 
Kterarius theologize catholicx." It is a catalogue of the 

Literature 865 

names and works of all Catholic theological writers 
from the year 1 5 64 up to the year 1 894. Nor is it merely 
a list of names for it gives an epitome of the lives 
of the authors and an appreciation of their work 
and their relative merit in the special subject to which 
they devoted themselves; it thus covers the .whole 
domain of scholastic, positive and moral theology, 
as well as of patrology, ecclesiastical history and the 
cognate sciences such as epigraphy, archaeology and 
liturgy. It consists of five volumes with two closely 
printed columns on each page. The last column in 
the second volume is numbered 1846, After that come 
fifty-three pages of indexes and a single page of corri- 
genda in that volume alone. It is worth while noting 
that there are only six errors in all this bewildering mass 
of matter; there are, besides, three additions, not to the 
text, but to the index, from which the names of three 
writers were accidentally omitted. 

So condensed is the letterpress that only a dash 
separates one subject from another. Nevertheless, 
thanks to the ingenious indexes, both of persons 
and subjects, the subject sought for can be found 
immediately. Finally, between the text and the indexes 
are two marvellous chronological charts. By means of 
the first, the student can follow year by year the 
growth of the various branches of theology and know 
the names of all the authors in each* The second 
chart takes the different countries of Europe Italy, 
Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, Germany, England, 
Poland and Hungary and as you travel down the 
years in the succeeding centuries you can see what 
studies were most in favor in different parts of the 
world and the different stages of their history. Not 
only that, but a style of type, varying from a large 
black print, down to a very pale and small impression, 
gives you the relative prominence of every one of the 

866 The Jesuits 

vast multitude of authors. Such a work will last to 
the end of time and never lose its value, and how 
Father Hurter, who was the beloved spiritual father 
of the University of Innsbruck, whose theological 
faculty he entered in 1858, and who, besides publishing 
his unusually attractive theology and editing fifty- 
eight volumes of the Fathers of the Church, could find 
time and strength to produce his encyclopedic 
" Nomenclator" is almost inconceivable. 

In the year 1907, the scheme of a Catholic Encyclo- 
pedia was launched in New York. The editors chosen 
were Dr. Charles Herbermann, for more than fifty 
years professor of Latin and the most distinguished 
member of the College of the City of New York; 
Mgr. Thomas Shahan, the rector of the Catholic 
University at Washington, and later raised to the 
episcopal dignity; Dr. Edward A. Pace, professor of 
philosophy in the same university; Dr. Cond6 Benoist 
Fallen, a well-known Catholic publicist, and Father 
John J. Wynne of the Society of Jesus. 

The scope of the work is unlike that of other Catholic 
encyclopedias. It is not exclusively ecclesiastical, for 
it records all that Catholics have done not only in 
behalf of charity or morals, but also in the intellectual, 
and artistic development of mankind* Hence, while 
covering the whole domain of dogmatic and moral 
theology, ecclesiastical history and liturgy, it has 
succeeded in giving its readers information on art, 
architecture, archeology, literature, history, travel, 
language, ethnology, etc., such as cannot be found in 
any other encyclopedia in the English language. Only 
the most eminent writers have been asked to contribute 
to it, and hence its articles can be cited as the most 
recent exposition of the matters discussed. It appeared 
with amazing rapidity, the whole series of sixteen 
volumes being completed in nine years. To it is 

Literature 867 

added an extra volume entitled " The Catholic Ency- 
clopedia and its Makers," which consists of photographs 
and biographical sketches of all the contributors. 

The encyclopedia has proved to be an immense 
boon to the Church in America. The chief credit of 
the publication is generally accorded to Father John 
Wynne, who is a native of New York. It was he who 
conceived it, secured the board of editors, and, as his 
distinguished associate, Bishop Shahan, declared with 
almost affectionate eagerness at a public session of 
the faculty and students of the ecclesiastical seminary 
of New York: " it was he who encouraged and sustained 
the editors by his buoyant optimism in the perilous 
stages of its elaboration." This information may be 
helpful abroad to show that the Society in America 
is doing something for the glory of God and the salva- 
tion of souls. The apostolic character of the work is 
further enhanced by the fact that funds are being 
established in various dioceses to enable each seminarian 
to become the personal owner of the entire set from 
the very first moment he begins his studies. The 
effect of such an arrangement on the ecclesiastical 
mind of the century is inestimable. It is also being 
placed by the Knights of Columbus and by rich 
Catholics in battleships and the United States' military 
posts, as well as in civic libraries and club houses* 

The first catalogue of Jesuit writers was drawn up 
by Father Ribadeneira in 1602-1608, Schott and 
Alegambe continued the work in 1643, and Nathaniel 
Bacon or Southwell, or Sotwcl, as he was called on 
the Continent, published a third in 1676. Nothing 
more, however, was done in that line by the old Society, 
and it was not until the twenty-first congregation, at 
which Father Roothaan presided, that a postulatum 
was presented asking for the resumption of this valuable 
work. Something prevented this from being done for 

868 The Jesuits 

the time being, and it was not until 1853 that the 
work was undertaken by the two Belgians, Augustine 
and Aloys de Backer. 

Up to 1 86 1 a series of seven issues appeared, but 
as by that time the number of names had increased 
to ten thousand, a new arrangement had to be made, 
and in i860 the work appeared in three large folios. 
In 1885, on the death of Augustine de Backer, Charles 
Sommervogel took up the work. Providentially he 
was well, equipped for the task, for although he had been 
continually employed at other tasks, sometimes merely 
as a surveillant in a French college, he had contrived 
to publish in 1884 a " Dictionnaire des ouvrages anony 
meset pseudonymes des religieux de la Compagnie de 
Jesus/' He began by recasting all that his predecessors 
had done, and it was only after four years that he had 
published the first volume. Others, however, followed 
in quick succession, and in 1900 the ninth volume 
appeared. The tenth volume, an index, was unfinished 
at the time of his death, but has since been completed 
by Father Bliard. Besides his articles in the f ' Etudes/ ' 
he had also put into press a " Table methodique des 
M&noires de Tr&voux," in three volumes, a "Biblio- 
theca Mariana S. J." and a " Moniteur bibliographique 
de la Compagnie de J6sus." He had intended to 
publish a revised edition of Carayon's, " Bibliographic 
historique," but was prevented by death. 

As far back as 1658, Pope Alexander VIII did not 
hesitate to declare that " no literary work had over 
been undertaken that was more useful or more glorious " 
than the " Acta Sanctorum " of Father Bollandus and 
his associates, nor did the learned Protestants of those 
days refrain from extolling the scientific spirit in which 
the work was being conducted The "Acta," which 
began in the middle of the seventeenth century and 
which is still going on, reads like a romance. The 

Literature 869 

account of it by De Smedt tells us how the first writers 
had only a garret for a library, and were forced to 
pile their books on the floor; how Cardinal Bellarmine 
denounced the work as chimerical; how the Carmelites 
were in a rage because Papebroch denied that Elias 
was the founder of their order; how the Spanish 
Inquisition denounced the work and condemned the 
thirty volumes as heretical, and how finally it reached 
its present status. 

The Bollandists did not immediately feel the blow 
that struck the rest of the Society of Jesus in 1773. 
Indeed, the commissioners announced that the govern- 
ment was satisfied with the labors of the Bollandists 
and was disposed to exercise special consideration in 
their behalf. In 1778 they removed to the Abbey 
of Caudenberg in Brussels, and the writers received 
a small pension. In 1788 three new volumes were 
published. Meantime Joseph II had succeeded Maria 
Theresa, and the sky began to darken. On October 
16, 1788, the government decided to stop the pension 
of the writers, and their books and manuscripts which 
the official inspectors denounced as " trash " were 
ordered to be sold. After a year, the Fathers made 
an offer to the Prcmonstratensian Abbot of Tongerloo 
to buy the books and manuscripts for what would be 
equivalent now to about $4,353; ^c money, however, 
was to be paid to the Austrian government and not 
to the owners of the library. Happily the writers 
found shelter in the monastery with their books and, 
though the Brabantine Revolution disturbed them 
for a time, they continued at their work unmolested 
until 1794, when they issued another volume. 

It was fortunate that they had succeeded in putting 
that volume into print, for that very year the French 
invaded Belgium and both Premonstratensians and 
Bollandists were obliged to disperse. Some of the 

870 The Jesuits 

treasures of the library were hidden in the houses 
of the peasants, and others were hastily piled into 
wagons and carried to Westphalia, with the only 
result that could be anticipated the loss of an 
immense amount of most valuable material; a certain 
number of the books were returned to the abbey, and 
left there in the dust until 1825. As there was no 
hope, at that time, of the Bollandists ever being able 
to resume their work, the monks disposed of most of 
the library treasure at public auction, and, what was 
not sold, was given to the Holland government and 
incorporated in the library of the Hague. The manu- 
scripts were transported to Brussels and deposited in 
the Burgundian Library. They are still there. 

In 1836 a hagiographical society in Prance under 
the patronage of Guizot and several bishops proposed 
to take up the work of the Bollandists and an envoy 
was sent to purchase the documents from the Belgian 
government. The proposition evoked a patriotic storm 
in the little country, and a petition was made to the 
minister of the interior, de Theux, imploring him to 
lose no time in securing for his native land the honor 
of completing the work, and to entrust the task to the 
Jesuit Fathers, who had begun it and carried it on 
for two centuries. The result was that on January 
2 9> 1837, the provincial of Belgium appointed four 
Fathers who were to live at St. Michel in Brussels, 
The government gave them an annual subsidy of six 
thousand francs, but this was withdrawn in 1868 
by the Liberals and never restored, though the Catholics 
have been in control since 1884. 

There are more than one hundred volumevS to the 
credit of the writers up to the present time, sixty-five 
of which are huge folios. What they contain may be 
learned from the most competent of all authorities, 
Charles de Smedt, the Bollandist director, who wrote 

Literature 871 

the most complete and scientific account of the 
Bollandist collection for the Catholic Encyclopedia. 
It is sufficient to state that in the opinion of the most 
distinguished and capable scholars in the field, the 
work of the later Bollandists is in no wise inferior to 
the work of their illustrious predecessors of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. 

In reviewing a recent publication of a Bollandist 
work, the scholarly " American Historical Review " 
(July, 1920) has this to say: " It is to be hoped that 
a more widely diffused knowledge of what the 
Bollandists have been doing for human learning, 
historical and literary, may bring American aid to fill 
the gaps in their resources caused by the devastations 
of war. It is a pleasure to know that the Princeton 
University Press intends to issue an English translation 
of Father Delehaye's admirable book, which gives an 
account of the labors of the Bollandists from 1638 
down to the present day." 

It has been said that the Jesuits had a way of keeping 
their most brilliant members before the public eye while 
sending their inferior men to the missions to be eaten 
by the savages. That this is not an accepted opinion 
in America is evidenced by the publication of what 
are called the "Jesuit Relations/' in seventy-two 
volumes, by a firm in Cleveland, Ohio, whose members 
had no affiliation with Catholics or Jesuits, and whose 
venture involved immense financial risks. " The Jesuit 
Relations and Allied Documents " is the title of 
the work. The subsidiary title is " Travels and 
Explorations of Jesuit Missionaries in New Prance, 
1610-1791, The Original French, Latin and Italian 
Texts, with English Translations and Notes, illustrated 
by Portraits, Maps and Facsimiles," 

The editor is Reuben Gold Thwaites, Secretary of 
the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. In his 

872 The Jesuits 

preface he says: "American historians from Shea 
and Parkman down have already made liberal use of 
the * Relations/ and here and there antiquarians and 
historical societies have published fragmentary trans- 
lations. The great body of the ' Relations ' and their 
allied documents however have never been Englished; 
hence these interesting papers have never been accessible 
to the majority of historical students. The present 
edition offers to the public for the first time an English 
rendering side by side with the original. 

" The authors of the journals which form the basis 
of the ' Relations ' were for the most part men of 
trained intellect, acute observers, and practiced in the 
art of keeping records of their experiences. They had 
left the most highly civilized country of their times 
to plunge at once into the heart of the wilderness and 
attempt to win to the Christian Faith the fiercest 
savages known to history. To gain these savages it was 
first necessary to know them intimately, their speech, 
their habits, their manner of thought, their strong points 
and their weak. These first students of American 
Indian history were not only amply fitted for their 
task but none have since had better opportunity for 
its prosecution. They performed a great service to 
mankind in publishing their annals, which are for 
historian, geographer and ethnologist our best 

" Many of the ' Relations ' were written in Indian 
camps amid a chaos of distractions. Insects innumer- 
able tormented the journalists; they were immersed in 
scenes of squalor and degradation, overcome by fatigue 
and lack of proper sustenance, often suffering from 
wounds and disease, maltreated in a hundred ways by 
hosts, who at times, might more properly be called 
jailers; and not seldom had savage superstition risen 
to such heights that to be seen making a memorandum 

Literature 873 

was certain to arouse the ferocious enmity of the band. 
It is not surprising that the composition of these 
journal^ is sometimes crude; the wonder is that they 
could be written at all. Nearly always the style is 
simple and earnest. Never does the narrator descend 
to self-glorification or dwell unnecessarily upon the 
details of his continual martyrdom. He never com- 
plains of his lot, but sets forth his experiences in 
matter of fact phrases. 

" From these writings we gain a vivid picture of 
life in the primeval forests. Not only do these devoted 
missionaries never in any 'field has been witnessed 
greater personal heroism than theirs live and breathe 
before us in these 'Relations/ but we have in them our 
first competent account of the Red Indian when 
relatively uncontaminated by contact with Europeans. 
Few periods of history are so well illuminated as the 
French rdgime in North America. This we owe in a 
large measure to the existence of the Jesuit Relations. 1 ' 

" The existence of these Relations, " to use Mr. 
Thwaites' expression, is due to the scholarly modern 
Jesuit, Father F61ix Martin, the founder and first 
rector of St. Mary's College at Montreal, who in 1858 
induced the Quebec government to reprint the old 
Cramoisy editions of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. It was Martin who developed in Gilmary 
Shea, then a Jesuit scholastic in Montreal, the historical 
instinct; and gave to Parkman much if not all of the 
information that made that author famous, in spite 
of the bigotry or lack of comprehension that sometimes 
reveals itself in his pages. Martin's first publication 
consisted of three double columned, closely printed and 
bttlky octavos in French. He never dreamed that the 
interest in the book would grow until the splendid 
edition of Thwaites in seventy-two volumes would 
signify to the scientific world the value of these docu- 

874 The Jesuits 

ments " written in canoes or in the depths of. the 
forests/' as Thwaites says, "a decade before the land- 
ing of the Plymouth Pilgrims." 

While these " Relations " about the Canada mis- 
sions were being published Father Le Gobien began to 
issue his " Lettres sur les progrs de la religion de la 
Chine/* which ultimately developed into the well- 
known " Lettres edifiantes et curieuses " describing 
missionary enterprises all over the world. During 
the Suppression they were issued in twenty-six duo- 
decimo volumes. An Austrian Jesuit began in 1720 
to translate some of these letters, entitling his work 
" Neue Welt Bott." It soon became independent of 
the " Letters " and appeared in five volumes folio. 
It is still being published. 

A certain number of periodicals are published by 
the Society, the most important of which are the 
" Civile CattoKca," the " Etudes/ 1 the " Stimmenaus 
Maria-Laach " and the " Raz6n y Pe/' 

The " Civiltd " was begun in 1830 by express order 
of Pius IX. Its first editors were Fathers Curci, 
Bresciani, Liberatore, Taparelli, Oreglia, Piccirillo, 
and Pianciani, a staff which would insure the success 
of any publication. Its articles are of the most serious 
kind, dealing with questions of theology, philosophy, 
sociology and literature. Its first issue of 4,200 copies 
appeared at Naples; later it was published at Rome. 
Tn 1870 the staff was transferred to Naples, but returned 
in 1887 to Rome. It is published every fortnight, and 
at present has a circulation of over 12,000 copies. 
It is under the direct control of the Pope, and unlike 
other Society publications of the same kind it is not 
connected with any house or college. It has received 
the highest commendations from Pius IX and from 
Leo XIII. 

Literature 875 

In 1856 the " Etudes " was begun by the Jesuits in 
France under the editorship of Daniel Gagarin and 
Godfroy. In character it closely resembles the " Civ- 
ilti." The troubles of 1876 caused its suspension for 
almost a year, but the various dispersions of the French 
provinces have not affected it, except perhaps in the 
extent of its circulation. It is published at Paris, 
but was at one time issued from Lyons. From a 
monthly it has developed into a fortnightly review in 
latter years. 

The German Fathers have their monthly " Stimmen 
aus Maria-Laach," the first number of which appeared 
in 1865. The defense of the Syllabus called it into 
being. When the Kulturkampf drove the editors from 
Maria-Laach, they migrated to Tervuren in Belgium. 
There they remained until 1880, when they went to 
Blijenbeck in Holland. In 1910 we find them at 
Valkenburg, Holland, attached to the Scholasticate, 
The ability of the staff has placed the " Stimmen " 
on a very high plane as a periodical. 

The monthly " Raz6n y Fe " was begun by the 
Spanish Fathers in 1901, and "Studies" by the 
Irish Jesuits in 1912. This latter, however, admits 
contributors who are not of the Society. The same 
may be said of the " Month " (London), the weekly 
"America" (New York), the " Irish Monthly " (Dublin) 
and a number of minor periodicals. There are also 
publications for private circulation, such as the 
"Woodstock Letters," the "Letters and Notices"; 
" Lettres Edifiantes " of various provinces of the 
Society, most of which are printed in the scholasticates, 
and convey information about the different works 
of the Society in different parts of the world. They 
are largely of the character of the ancient " Relations 
des J6suites " of the old French Fathers and are of 

876 The Jesuits 

great value as historical material. Finally the 
American "Messenger of the Sacred Heart " publishes 
a monthly edition of 350,000, besides millions of leaflets 
to promote the devotion. There are fifty-one editions 
of the " Messenger" published in thirty-five different 

The reason why the Society has not succeeded in 
producing since the Restoration any theologians like 
Surez, Toletus and others, is the same that pre- 
vented Napoleon Bonaparte from winning back his 
empire when he was a prisoner on St. Helena. Con- 
ditions have changed. Suarez, de Lugo, Ripalda and 
their brilliant associates passed their lives in Catholic 
Spain which gloried in universities like Salamanca, 
Valladolid or Alcala. There those great men wrote 
and taught; Bellarmine and Toletus labored in Rome 
and Lessius in Louvain; whereas the Jesuit theologians 
in our day have been not only debarred from the great 
universities but robbed of their libraries, sent adrift in 
the world and compelled to seek not for learned leisure 
but for a roof to shelter them. They were expelled 
from France in 1762, and were never allowed to open 
a school even for small boys until 1850, At present 
they are permitted to shed their blood on the battle 
field for their country from which they have been 
driven into exile. They were banished from Italy 
repeatedly, and have never secured a foothold in 
Germany since 1872; they do not exist in Portugal and 
any moment may see them expelled from Spain. 
In England and Ireland Catholics were not emanci- 
pated until 1829, and it is only grudgingly that the 
government allows Ireland to have a university which 
Catholics can safely frequent, and even there no chair 
of Catholic theology may be maintained with the 
ordinary revenues. In America everything is in a 
formative state and what money is available has to be 

Literature 877 

used for elementary instruction, both religious and 
secular, of the millions whom poverty and persecution 
have driven out of Europe. It is very doubtful if 
Suarez and his great associates would have written their 
splendid works in such surroundings. 

As the eye travels over Hurter's carefully prepared 
chronological chart, it catches only an occasional 
gleam of the old glory, when the names of the Wice- 
burgenses, Zaccaria, Mai, Muzzarelli, ArSvalo and 
Morcelli make their appearance in the late sixties of 
the nineteenth century. But those were the days 
of the French Revolution and of its subsequent 
upheavals. The Church itself was in the same straits 
between 1773 and 1860, and its number of great 
theologians of any kind is extremely small. Thus, 
abstracting from the Jesuits, we find in 1773 only 
Florez, the Augustinian, who wrote ecclesiastical 
history; in 1782 the erudite Maronite Assemani, who 
is classed as a moralist; in 1787 St. Alphonsus Liguori; 
and in 1793 the Benedictine Gerbert, who is also a 
moralist. The Barnabite Gerdil appears under date 
of 1802 as an apologist, and from that year up to 
1864 there is no one to whom Hurter accords distinction 
in any branch of divinity. Perhaps the reason is that 
the century was in the full triumph of its material 
civilization and that men derided and despised the 
dogmatic teachings of religion. 

A study of Hurter's " Nomenclator " is instructive. 
In 1774, the year after the Suppression, there are 
only four publications by Jesuit authors; in 1773 there 
are nine; and then the number begins to grow smaller. 
In 1780 the figure rises to ten, and it is somewhat 
remarkable that in 1789 and 1790, the first years of the 
French Revolution, seventeen writers appear. The 
stream then dribbles along until 1814, the year of the 
Restoration, when we find only one book with the 

878 The Jesuits 

letters SJ. after the name of its author. The next 
year there is none. 

The Jesuit who illumines the darkness of that period 
is Thaddeus Nogarola, whom Hurter describes as 
" a member of the most noble family of Verona." 
He was born on 24 December, 1729. Consequently 
he was eighty-five years of age at the time of the 
Restoration. He wrote on sanctifying grace; and in 
1800 he and another Jesuit had a fierce theological 
battle on the subject of attrition, in which he defended 
his position with excessive vehemence. In 1806 he had 
issued his great treatise against Gallicanism. His 
doughty antagonist re-entered the Society in 1816. He 
had expressed himself very vigorously on the subject 
of the Napoleonic oath in France and his books were 
prohibited in the Cisalpine Republic. 

In 1816 four books were published; but the number 
continues small and 1823 is credited with none. In 
1824, there were two publications, one of them by 
Ar6valo, the eminent patrologist, who composed the 
hymns and lessons of the feast of Our Lady Help of 
Christians. It is a very sad list from 1826 to 1862, 
with its succession of ones and zeros. Only three 
names of any note appear: Kohlmann in 1836, Lori- 
quet in 1845, and <fe Ravignan in 1858. That period 
of almost forty years had seen the revolutions of 
1830 and 1848, and there was no stability for any 
Jesuit establishment. Finally, however, in 1862 came 
Pianciani, Taparelli and Bresciani; and in 1865 and 
1866 Tongiorgi and Gury, respectively. It was only 
then that the Society was able to begin its theological 
work after its redintegration. The space is not- 
great between 1862 and the present time, but since then 
there have been Perrone and the great Bollandist and 
theologian, Victor de Buck, who appeared in 1876; 
Edmund O'Reilly in 1878; Ballerini and Patrai in 

Literature 879 

1881; Kleutgen in 1883; and in 1886 Cardinals Franze- 
lin and Mazzella. 

During that period there was no end of confisca- 
tions and expulsions, even of those who were not 
engaged in educational work. Thus the German 
Jesuits acquired the old Benedictine Monastery of 
Maria-Laach in 1863 on the southwest bank of a fine 
lake near Andernach in the Rhineland. There 
they organized a course of studies for the scholastics 
as well as a college of writers. Among them were 
the learned Schneeman, Riess and others who began 
the great work of the church Councils and the 
" Philosophia Lacensis," besides publishing the Jesuit 
" Stimmen." How long were they there? Only ten 
years. The Kulturkampf banished them from their 
native land and they had to continue their labors in 
exile. This has been the story of the Society in almost 
every European country and in the Spanish Republics 
of South America and Mexico. In spite of all this, 
however, Hurtcr's chart shows that from 1773 to r 894 
there have been no less than four hundred Jesuit 
theologians who published works in defense of the 
doctrines of the Church, and some of them have 
achieved prominence. 

In philosophy, for instance, there was Taparelli 
who died in 1863. He was the first rector of the Roman 
College, when it was given back to the Society by 
Leo XII. He taught philosophy for fifteen years at 
Palermo, and in 1840 issued his great work which ho 
called " A Theoretical Essay on Natural Rights from 
an historical standpoint." It reached the seventh 
edition in 1883 an( i was translated into French and 
German. Next in importance is his " Esamc critico 
dcgli ordini rappresentativi nella sotiet& moderna." 
Besides his striking monographs on " Nationality," 
" Sovereignty of the People," " The Grounds of War/' 

880 The Jesuits 

he wrote a great number of articles in the " CiviM " 
on matters of political economy and social rights. His 
first great work was in a way the beginning of modern 
sociology. Palmieri issued his " Institutiones Phil- 
osophise" in 1874, and at the very outset won the 
reputation of a great thinker, even from those who 
were at variance with his conclusions and mode of 

In the same branch Liberatore was for a long time 
preeminent, and his " Institutiones " and " Composite 
humano " went through eleven editions. Cornoldi's 
" Filosofia scolastica specolativa " was also a notable 
production. Lehmen's " Lehrbuch " reached the third 
edition before his death in 1 9 10. Boedder is well-known 
to English speaking people because of his many works 
written during his professorship at St. Beuno's in Wales. 
Cathrein's " Socialism " has been translated into nine 
different languages, and his " Moral Philosophy " 
has enjoyed great popularity. Pesch's position is 
established; his last work, " Christliche Lebens-philo- 
sophie," reached its'fourth edition within four years. 
Kleutgen who is perhaps the best known of these 
German Jesuits, was called by Leo XIII " the prince 
of philosophers " and is regarded as the restorer of 
Catholic philosophy throughout Germany. In Spain, 
Father Cuevas has written a " Cursus completes 
philosophise " and a " History of Philosophy. Men- 
dive's "Text-book of Philosophy" in Spanish is used 
in several universities, but the writer who dominated 
all the rest in that country is admittedly Urraburu, 
who died prematurely in 1904. His " Cursus philo- 
sophise scholastic, " brings up the memory of the 
famous old philosophers of earlier ages. 

It is not only edifying but inspiring to hear that the 
Venerable Father de Clorivire occupied himself while 
in prison in the Temple at Paris during the Revolution 

Literature 881 

in writing commentaries on the Sacred Scriptures. 
He was over seventy years of age and was expecting 
to be summoned to the guillotine at any moment, 
but he had plenty of time to write, for his imprison- 
ment lasted five years* Sommervogel credits him with 
commentaries on " The Canticle of Canticles," "The 
Epistles of St. Peter/' " The Discourse at the Last 
Supper," "The Animals of Ezechiel," "The Two 
Seraphim of Isaias," besides Constitutions , for the 
religious orders he had founded, lives of the saints, 
novenas, and religious poems. He also translated 
" Paradise Lost " into French. Evidently the com- 
mentary written in a prison cell cannot have measured 
up to the scientific exegesis of the present day, but 
perhaps for that reason it reached the soul more 
readily. In any case, the Scriptural students of the 
modern Society made an excellent start with a saint 
and a virtual martyr. 

Francis Xavicr Patrizi distinguished himself as an 
exegcte. He was one of the first to enter -the Society 
after the Restoration, and was so esteemed for his 
virtue and ability that he came very near being elected 
General of the Society. His first publication on 
" The Interpretation of the Holy Scriptures " appeared 
in 1844. He translated the Psalms word for word 
from the Hebrew. His works are packed with erudi- 
tion, of scrupulous accuracy in their citations, and of 
most sedulous care in defending the Sacred Text against 
the Protestants of the early days of the nineteenth 
century. The " Curstis Scriptunc " of the Fathers of 
M'aria-Laach : Corncly, Knabcnbauer, Hummdauer, 
and others, is a monument of erudition and labor 
and is without doubt the most splendid triumph of 
exegesis in the present century, 

In 1901, the Sovereign Pontiff appointed and approved 
a Biblical Commission for the proper interpretation and 

882 The Jesuits 

defense of Holy Scripture. It consists of five cardinals 
and forty-three consultors. Among the distinguished 
men chosen for this work we find Fathers Comely, 
Delattre, Gismondi, von Hummelauer, M6chineau, and 
Prat. One of the duties with which the commission 
was charged was the establishment of a special institute 
for the prosecution of higher Biblical Studies. In 1910 
Father Fonck, its first rector, began the series of 
public conferences which was one of the assigned works 
of the Institute. It publishes the ''Biblical Annals/' 
The French Fathers in Syria are very valuable adjuncts 
to this institute, because of their knowledge of Oriental 
languages. One of them, Father Lammens, was for 
years the editor of " Bachir," an Arabic periodical. 

When Father John Carroll went to England to be 
consecrated Bishop of Baltimore, he probably met at 
Lulworth Castle, where the ceremony took place, a 
French Jesuit of the old Society who had found shelter 
with the Weld family during the Revolution and was 
acting as their chaplain. He was Father Grou, a man 
of saintly life. It was while he was in England that he 
wrote " La Science de crucifix " the " Caractire de la 
vraie d6votion," " Maximes spirituelles," " M6dita- 
tion sur Tamour de Dieu," " L'intdrieur de Jfisus et 
de Marie," " Manuel des Ames int&ieures," " Lc livre 
du jeune hoxnme." These works were frequently 
reprinted and translated. 

It is very interesting to find that, before the expul- 
sion from France, Father Grou had been an ardent 
student of Plato and had even published eight books 
about the great philosopher. He also wrote an answer 
to La Chalotais* attack on the Society. Sominervogel 
mentions another book written by him in conjunction 
with Father du Rochen It is entitled " Temps 
Fabuleux," an historical and dogmatic treatise on the 
true religion. 

Literature 883 

Among the other noted ascetical writers were Vigi- 
tello, author of " La Sapienza del cristiano," Mislei, 
who wrote " Grandezze di Gesft Cristo" and " Gesfi Cristo 
e il Cristiano," Hillegeer, Dufau, Verbeke, Vercruysse, 
de Doss, Petit, Meschler, Schneider and Chaignon, 
whose " Nouveau cours de meditations sacerdotales " 
has gone through numberless editions; Watrigant has 
made extensive studies on the " Exercises;" Rami&re's 
" Apostolat de la Pri6re " made the circuit of the 
world and gave the first impulse to the League of the 
Sacred Heart. Coleridge's " Life of Our Lord," 
consisting of thirty volumes, is a mine of thought 
and especially valuable for directors of religious 

In 1874 Father Camillo Tarquini was raised to the 
cardinalate for his ability as a canonist. His disserta- 
tion on the Regium placet exequatur made him an 
international celebrity. With him high in the ranks 
of canonists are Father General Wernz, Laurentius, 
Hilgers, Beringer, Oswald, Sanguinetti, Ojetti, Ver- 
meersch, and the present Assistant General Father 

Stephen Anthony Morcelli, who is eminent as a 
historian and is regarded as the founder of epigraphy, 
was born in Trent, in the year 1737. He made his 
studies in the Roman College, and there founded 
an academy of archaeology. At the Suppression he 
became the librarian of Cardinal Albani. He re- 
entered the restored Society. He was then eighty-four 
years of age. He had no superior as a Latin stylist. 
His " Calendar of the Church of Constantinople," 
covering a thousand years, his "Readings of the 
Four Gospels " according to various codices, and his 
notes on " Africa Christiana " are of great value. 

Possibly the Portuguese Francis Macedo might be 
admitted to this list of famous authors. It is true 

884 The Jesuits 

that he left the Society but as he had been a member 
for twenty-eight years it deserves some credit for the 
cultivation of his remarkable abilities, Maynard calls 
him the prodigy of his age. Thus at Venice in 1667 
Macedo held a public disputation on nearly every 
branch of human knowledge, especially the Bible, 
theology, patrology, history, literature and poetry. 
In his quaint and extravagant style he called this dis- 
play the literary roarings of the Lion of St. Mark. 
It had been prepared in eight days. On account of 
his success, Venice gave him the freedom of the city 
and the professorship of moral philosophy at the 
University of Padua. In his " Myrothecium morale " 
he tells us that he had pronounced three hundred and 
fifty panegyrics, sixty Latin harangues, thirty-two 
funeral orations, and had composed one hundred and 
twenty-three elegies, one hundred and fifteen epitaphs, 
two hundred and twelve dedicatory epistles, two 
thousand and six hundred heroic poems, one hundred 
and ten odes, four Latin comedies, two tragedies and 
satires in Spanish, besides a number of treatises on 
theology such as " The Doctrines of St. Thomas and 
Scotus," "Positive theology for the refutation of 
heretics," "The Keys of Peter,'* "The Pontifical 
Authority/' "Medulla of Ecclesiastical History," 
and the "Refutation of Jansenism." The Society 
made him great but failed to teach him humility. 
In most theological libraries which are even moder- 
ately equipped one sees long lines of books on which the 
name of Muzzarelli appears. They arc of different 
kinds; ascetical, devotional, educational, philosophical 
and theological, and many of them have been trans* 
lated into various languages. He belonged to the 
old Society, entering it only four years before the 
suppression. He was then twenty-four years of age. 
As he was of a noble family of Ferrara, he held 

Literature 885 

a benefice in his native city at the time of his 
banishment, and a little later, the Duke of Parma 
made him rector of the College of Nobles. Pius VII 
called him to Rome and made him theologian of the 
Penitentiaria, which meant that he was the Pope's 
theologian. When the Society was re-established in 
Naples, he asked permission to join his brethren there, 
but the Pope refused. It was just as well, for Napo- 
leon's troops soon closed the establishment. When 
Pius VII was carried off a prisoner in 1809, Muzzarelli 
was also deported. He never returned to Rome, 
but died in Paris one year before the Restoration of 
the Society. He was not however forgotten in his 
native city, which regarded him as one of its glories. 
Among his works were several of an ascetic character 
such as " The Sacred Heart," " The Month of Mary," 
and also a "Life of St. Francis Hieronymo." 

There were also a few modern Jesuits who were 
conspicuous in moral theology. First, in point of 
time was Jean-Pierre Gury, who was born in Mailleron- 
court on January 23, 1801. He taught theology for 
thirty-five years at Annecy and at the Roman College. 
He died on April 18, 1866, His work was adopted as 
a text-book iu a number of seminaries, because of Its 
brevity, honesty and solidity. It is true that his 
brevity impaired his accuracy at times, as well as 
the scientific presentation of questions, but his 
successors such as Seite, Cercia, Melandri and Ballerini 
filled up the gaps by the help of the decisions of the 
Congregations and the more recent pronouncements 
of the Holy Sec* Besides his " Moral Theology " he 
also published his " Castis conscientte." That made 
him the typical "Jesuit Casuist," and drew on him 
all the traditional hatred of Protestant polemicists, 
especially in Germany. His work did much to extirpate 
what was left of Jansenism in Europe. 

886 The Jesuits 

Antonio Ballerini held the chair of moral theology 
in the Roman College from 1856 until his death in 
1881. In the cautious words of Hurter he was " almost 
the prince of moralists of our times." Besides his 
" Priricipi della scuola Rosminiana" he wrote his 
remarkable " Sylloge monumentorum ad mysterium 
Immaculatae Conceptionis illustrandum," and in 1863 
issued his " De morali systemate S. Alphonsi M. de Li- 
gorio." In 1866 appeared his " Compendium theologian 
moralis." The style was somewhat acrid, and sharp, es- 
pecially in the controversy it provoked with the out-and- 
out defenders of St. Alphonsus. His annotations were 
a mine of erudition and revealed at the same time 
a very unusual intellectual sagacity and correctness of 
judgment. His book, on the whole, exercised a great 
influence in promoting solid theological study; and 
its denunciation of the frivolous reasons on which 
many opinions were based and the unreliableness of 
many quotations decided the tone of subsequent 
works by other authors. Following Ballerini were 
other Jesuits such as Lehmkuhl, Sabbetti, Noldin, 
Genicot and Palmieri, who won fame as moralists. 

Palmieri was not only a theologian, a moralist 
and a philosopher, but an exegete. He taught Scripture 
and the Oriental languages in Maastricht for seven 
years, and in 1886, published a Commentary on the 
Epistle to the Galatians and another on the historicity 
of the Book of Judith, He was among the first to 
sound the alarm about Loisy's heterodoxy and he wrote 
several books against the Modernistic errors. His 
reputation rests chiefly on his dogmatic theology; 
every two years, from 1902, he issued treatises that 
immediately attracted attention for their brilliant 
originality and exhaustive learning. He died in Rome 
on May 29, 1909. "This superlatively sagacious 
man," says Hurter, " blended Gury and the super- 

Literature 887 

abundant commentaries of Ballerini into one con- 
tinuous text, injecting, of course, his own personal views 
into his seven great volumes, with the result that it 
is a positive pleasure to read him. The wonderful 
theological acumen manifested in this, as in his 
other works apparently restored him to favor with 
Leo XIII, who disliked some of his philosophical 
speculations. Hence, when Father Steinhuber was 
made cardinal, Palmieri was appointed to succeed him 
as theologian of the Penitentiaria. 

Besides all this, Palmieri gave a delightful revelation 
of his affectionate character as a devoted son, when 
he wrote, at the request of his mother, a Commentary 
of Dante, Ojetti says that " he brought all the pro- 
fundity of his philosophy and theology to his task 
and produced a work which astonished those who 
were able to appreciate the depth of the thought and 
the scientific erudition employed in the exposition of 
each individual canto.'* 

The great Perrone was born in Chieri in 17 94 and en- 
tered the Society on December 14, 1815, one of the first 
novices after the Re-establishment, He began his 
career as professor of dogma at Orvieto, and from thence 
was transferred to Rome, where he remained until the 
outbreak of the Revolution in 1848. After a three 
years' stay in England he resumed his place at the 
Roman College, He was consultor of various con- 
gregations, was conspicuous as the antagonist of 
Hermes, and also in the discussion that ended in the 
dogmatic definition of the Immaculate Conception. 
His " Pralectiones theologize " in nine volumevS reached 
its thirty-fourth edition, while its " Compendium " 
saw fifty-seven. 

Carlo Passaglia is another great theological luminary. 
He entered the Society in 1827, and when scarcely 
thirty years old was teaching at the Sapienza and 

888 The Jesuits 

was prefect of studies at the Collegium Germanicum. 
The Gregorian University then claimed him, and, in 
1850, he took a leading part in preparing the definition 
of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception on which 
he wrote three large volumes. Other great works 
are to his credit, but his historico-linguistic method 
met with criticism. It was said he substituted grammar 
for dogma. Passaglia left the Society, however, in 
1859. Pi us IX gave him a chair in the Sapienza; 
there he came in contact with an agent of Cavour 
and under his influence wrote his book " Pro causa 
italica." It was placed on the " Index/* and Passaglia 
fled to Turin, where he taught moral philosophy until 
his death and edited a weekly called " II Medicatore," 
which welcomed articles from discontented priests. 
He also published a daily paper called " La Pace/* 
as well as "II Gerdil," a theological review. He was 
suspended from his priestly functions, dressed as 
a layman, and was temerarious enough to criticise 
the Syllabus. The Bishop of Mondovi tried to recon- 
cile him with the Church, but he did not retract until 
a few months before his death. Hurter calls him 
" an illustrious professor of dogma who was carried 
away by politics, left the Society, assailed the Temporal 
Power, and by his sad defection cast a stain on his 
former glory. His quotations from the Fathers are 
too diffuse, and although his work on the Immaculate 
Conception displays immense erudition it crushes the 
reader by its bulk/' 

Carlo Maria Curci also brought grief to his associates 
in those days. He had acquired great fame for hib 
defense of the rights of the Pope against the Liberal 
politicians of the Peninsula, but unfortunately, soon 
after, became a Liberal himself and left the Society. 
He returned again, however, shortly before his death 
which occurred on June 19, 1891, He was one of 

Literature 889 

the first contributors to the " Civilta " and was, 
besides, a remarkable orator. His ' ' Nature and Grace, ' ' 
" Christian Marriage," " Lessons from the two books 
of the Machabees and the Four Gospels," and " Joseph 
in Egypt " were the most notable of his writings. 

Josef Wilhelm Karl Kleutgen was a WestphaKan. 
He entered the Society on April 28, 1834, at Brieg; 
to avoid difficulties with the German Government 
he became a naturalized Swiss, and for some time 
went by the name of Peters. In 1 843 he was professor of 
sabred eloquence in the Collegium Germanicum, 
and subsequently was named substitute to the Secre- 
tary of Father General, consultor of the Congregation 
of the Index, and collaborator in the preparation of 
the Constitution " De fide catholica " of the Vatican 
Council. He wrote the first draft of Pope Leo's 
Encyclical " JSterni Patris " on the revival of Scholastic 
theology and philosophy. His knowledge of the 
writings of the Angelic Doctor was so great that he was 
called Thomas redivmts. His first work " Theologie 
der Vorseit " and his " Philosophie der Vorseit " 
against Hermes, Hirscher, and Gunther were declared 
to be epoch-making. The writing of these books 
coincided with a remarkable event in his life, namely 
suspension from his priestly office for his imprudence in 
allowing a community of nuns under his direction to 
honor as a saint one of their deceased members. He 
went into seclusion consequently but at the opening 
of the Vatican Council he was recalled by Pius IX to 
take part in it. All his works excel in solidity of 
doctrine, accuracy and brilliancy of exposition and 
nobility of style. 

Johann Franzelin was a Tyrolese. He entered the 
Society on 27 July, 1834, but passed most of his life 
outside of his country. He studied theology in Rome, 
and became such an adept in Greek and Hebrew that 

890 The Jesuits 

he occupied the chair when the professor was ill. He 
had to leave the city in the troublous times of 1848, 
but on his return he gave public lectures in the Roman 
College on Oriental languages. In 1857 he began his 
career as professor of dogma and his immense erudition 
caused him to be called for in many of the Roman 
congregations. In 1876 Pius IX created him cardinal. 
His theological works are known throughout the Church 
for their solidity, erudition and scrupulous accuracy. 
His, dignity made no change in his simple and laborious 
life. He continued until the end of his days to wear 
poor garments, occupied two small rooms in the Novitiate 
of Sant 7 Andrea, rose at four every morning and spent 
tjie time until seven in devotional exercises. He kept 
up his penitential practises till death came on 
ii December, 1886. 



Devotion, Trust and Affection of each Pope of the Nineteenth and 
Twentieth Centuries manifested in their Official and Personal Rela- 
tions with the Society. 

THE restored Society, like the old, has been the recip- 
ient of many favors from the Sovereign Pontiffs. 
Pius VI would have immediately undone the work of 
Clement XIV, had it been at all possible; and Pius VII 
faced the wrath of all the kings and statesmen of 
Europe by issuing the Bull that put back the Society 
in the place it had previously occupied in the Church. 

The election of Leo XII, who succeeded Pius VII on 
September 28, 1823, had, at first, thrown consternation 
among the members of the Order, because of his 
previous attitude as Cardinal della Genga. He had 
been associated with its enemies and had uttered 
very harsh words about the Society, but it soon became 
evident that it was all due to the impression which the 
plotters had given him that they were fighting against 
the influence of Paccanarisrn in certain members of 
the congregation. When he became Pope, he under- 
stood better the facts of the case and became one of 
the wannest friends the Society ever had. 

On May 7, 1824, he recalled the Fathers to the Roman 
College and gave them a yearly revenue of 12,000 
scudi, besides restoring to them the Church of St. 
Ignatius, the Caravita Oratory, the museum, the 
library, the observatory, etc. He entrusted to them 
the direction of the College of Nobles; assigned to them 
the Villa of Tivoli; set apart new buildings for the 
Collegium Germanicum, and on July 4, 1826, he 


892 The Jesuits 

established them in the College of Spoleto, which he 
had founded for the teaching of humanities, philosophy, 
civil and canon law, theology and holy Scripture; 
for all of which he had provided ample revenues. 

In the same year he issued the celebrated Bull 
" Plura inter/' restoring the ancient privileges of the 
Society and adding new ones. This list of spiritual 
favors fills seven complete columns, " Everyone is 
aware," he said in the Bull, " how many and how great 
were the services performed by this Society, which 
was the fruitful mother of men who were conspicuous 
for their piety and learning. From it we expect still 
more in the future, seeing that it is extending its 
branches so widely even before it has taken new root. 
For not only in Rome but in Transalpine countries 
and in the remotest regions of the world, it is affec- 
tionately received, because it leaves nothing undone to 
train youth in piety and the liberal arts, in order to 
make them the future ornaments of their respective 

On July 27, he increased the revenues of the Col- 
lege of Beneventum, and on October n, of the same 
year, he told the people of Faenza that lie could not, 
just then, give them a Jesuit College because of the 
lack of funds, but that he would meet their wishes as 
soon as possible. The very month before his death, 
he sent encouraging words to the Fathers in England, 
who were harassed by all sorts of calumnious accusa- 
tions, and told the Bishop of Thespia that " the 
English scholastics could be ordained $ub titith paupcr- 
tatis, and had a right to the same privileges as other 
religious orders in England." Finally, he would have 
appointed Father Kohlmann Bishop of New York and 
Father Kenny to the See of Drornore, had not the 
General persuaded him not to do so, The same 
thing occurred in the case of Father Pallavicini who was 

Pontiffs and the Society 893 

named for the See of Reggio in Calabria. Pope Leo XII 
died on February 10, 1829, a few days after the demise 
of Father Fortis, who was his affectionate and intimate 

The name of his successor, Pius VIII, was Francis 
Xavier Castiglione a good omen for the brethren of 
the great Apostle. Indeed, brief though his pontificate 
was, he always made it clear that the Society was very 
dear to him. " I have always let it be known/* he 
said to the Fathers who had presented themselves to 
greet him at his accession, "and I shall avail myself 
of every occasion to declare that I love the Society o\ 
Jesus. From my earliest childhood that feeling waa 
deep in my heart, and I have always profoundly 
venerated St. Ignatius and St. Francis Xavier. I 
bear, all unworthy as I am, the name of Xavier. I 
have been taught by the most distinguished Jesuits, 
and I know how much good they have done for the 
Church, so that as the Church cannot be separated 
from the Pope, he cannot be separated from the 
Society. These are sad days and there never was 
witnessed greater audacity and hate. Impiety has 
never employed greater cunning against the truth. 
Perhaps very soon other grievous wounds will be 
inflicted on the Church; but together we shall fight the 
enemies of God. Return to your provinces, therefore, 
and arouse in your brethren the same ardor that is 
in your hearts. Preach and teach obedience and 
integrity of life in your schools, in your pulpits, by 
voice and pen, and with all your soul. May God 
second your efforts. Meantime keep always unshaken 
in the assurance that I shall always be, before all, 
your most tender and devoted Father." 

On December 2, 1829, accompanied by Cardinals 
Somaglia and Odescalchi he went to the Gesii, and 
after praying at the altar of St. Francis Xavier, 

894 The Jesuits 

published the beatification of Alphonsus Liguori, the 
founder of the Redemptorist Order. He lavished 
favors on the Germanico-Hungarico and the College 
of Nobles; and when Charles Augustus von Reisach, 
a student of the Collegium Germanicum who was 
very young at the time, was named rector of the 
Propaganda, the Pope said to those who referred to it ; 
" Never mind; he is young but he has studied in the 
best of schools and every one praises him for the matu- 
rity of his character, his irreproachable life and his 
fitness for the office." 

When this devoted friend of the Society died, Car- 
dinal Cappellari, the learned Camaldolese monk, 
ascended the pontifical throne and took the name 
Gregory XVI. Fifteen days afterwards all Italy was 
in the throes of Revolution. The Carbonari were in 
control, and as usual the Society felt the first blow, 
On February xyth, at the same hour, the colleges of 
Spoleto, Fano, Modena, Reggio, Forli and Ferrara were 
attacked and the masters and pupils thrown out in 
the street. A decree of banishment was issued, but 
the people arose in their wrath, suppressed the in- 
surrection and the Fathers were re-instated. 

When peace was restored, the Pope gave a notable 
illustration of his esteem for the Society. He sum- 
moned all the religious of the various orders in Rome 
to the Gesu to make the Spiritual Exercises. A short 
time afterwards, at the instance of the Propaganda, 
he entrusted to it the administration of several col- 
leges and formulated the concessions in the most eulo- 
gistic of terms, declaring among other things that a 
long and happy experience from the very beginning 
of the Institute until the present time, and in divers 
parts of the world, had shown the Holy See the 
incontestable aptitude of the Fathers for directing 
both clerical and secular schools. The same eonvie- 

Pontiffs and the Society 895 

tion, he said later, also prompted him to give them 
the Illyrian College, 

The cholera which was sweeping over Europe 
finally reached Rome. The Pope had already estab- 
lished ambulances and hospitals in various parts 
of the city, and his appeal to the religious sentiments 
of the people prevented the frightful orgies which 
had disgraced London, Madrid and Paris when simi- 
larly afflicted. Cardinal Odescalchi, soon to be a 
Jesuit, was especially conspicuous in tranquillizing the 
populace, and a solemn ceremony in which the entire 
city participated is especially worthy of note, since 
it was intended by the Sovereign Pontiff to be an 
official announcement that while the pestilence lasted, 
the Jesuit Fathers were to be the principal channel 
of the Papal charities. The miraculous picture of 
the Blessed Virgin was carried in procession from St. 
Mary Major's to the Gesu and, in spite of the stifling 
heat, the Pope himself, surrounded by his cardinals, 
the clergy and the principal civil officials, accom- 
panied the picture through the kneeling multitudes in 
the streets, and placed it on the altar in the Jesuit 
church, which thus became the prayer centre for the 
city while the pestilence lasted. 

On August 23, 1837, it struck the city at the same 
moment in several places. Two princesses were its 
first victims, but the Pope in person went wherever the 
harvest of death was greatest, and his example inspired 
every one to emulate his devotion. Naturally members 
of the Society di'd their duty in those terrible days when 
9,372 people were attacked by the disease and more" 
than 5,000 perished. By the month of October the 
plague had ceased. 

Cardinal Odescalchi, who had won the affection of 
the people of Rome by his heroic devotion to them 
at this crisis, astounded them in the following year 

896 The Jesuits 

by the renunciation of the exalted dignities which he 
enjoyed in the Church and in the State, for he was 
a prince in order to assume the humble garb and 
subject himself to the obedience of the Society of 
Jesus. The Pope and the cardinals endeavored to 
dissuade him from taking the step, pleading the interests 
of the Church, but he persisted, and on the day of his 
admission, December 8, 1838, he wrote to Father 
Roothaan to say that he could not describe the happi- 
ness that he felt, and he requested the General to 
deal with him as he would with the humblest of his 
subjects. He was then fifty-two years old. He died at 
Modena, on August 17, 1841, and had thus been able 
as one of its sons to celebrate the third centenary of 
the Society, which occurred in 1840. There was 
little if any public declaration, however, of this anni- 
versary, for Father Roothaan had sent a reminder 
to all the provinces that the dangers of the time made it 
advisable to keep all manifestations of happiness and of 
gratitude to God within the limits of the domestic circle. 

In 1836 an imperial edict in answer to a popular 
demand permitted the Jesuits to establish schools 
anywhere in the limits of the Austrian empire and 
to follow their own methods of teaching independently 
of university control The emperor and empress 
honored by their presence the first college opened 
in Verona. Other cities of Italy invited the Fathers 
to open schools, and Metternich, who is sometimes 
cited as their enemy, allowed them to install themselves 
at Venice, where a remnant of antagonism had re- 
mained, ever since the time of Paolo Sarpi; but by St. 
Ignatius Day in 1844 that had all vanished and the 
patriarch, the doge, the nobility, the clergy and the 
people united in giving the Fathers a cordial welcome. 

In the Island of Malta, which had become a British 
possession, the inhabitants sent a letter of thanks to 

Pontiffs and the Society 897 

Lord Stanley, the secretary of State, for having granted 
them a college of the Society. The letter had 4,000 
signatures. The Two Sicilies welcomed the Society in 
1804 and restored to it the Professed house, along with 
the Collegium Maximum and the old churches; other 
establishments were begun elsewhere in the kingdom. 
After the Jesuits had been expelled by the Carbonari 
in 1820 the usual reaction occurred and they were 
soon back at their posts. The cholera of 1837 gave 
them a new hold on the affection of the people, and 
for the moment their position in the kingdom appeared 
to be absolutely secure. 

During the fifteen years of his pontificate, Gregory 
XVI published no less than fifteen rescripts in favor 
of the Society. On March 30, 1843, ^ e empowered 
Georgetown College in Washington to confer philo- 
sophical and theological degrees. In the following 
year he restored the Illyrian College, which Gregory 
XIII had established at Loreto, and gave it to the 
Society together with the Villa Leonaria. At the re- 
quest of Cardinal Franzoni, the prefect of the Propa- 
ganda, lie turned over the Urban College to the Society, 
and in the rescript announcing the transfer he said: 
" Whereas the Congregation of the Propaganda was 
convinced that the instruction of the young clerics who 
are to be sent to foreign parts to spread the light of 
the Gospel and to cultivate the vineyard of the Lord 
could not be better trained for such a task than by 
those religious who make it the special work of their 
Institute to form youth in piety, literature and science, 
arid who always strive intensely in whatever they 
undertake to promote the greater glory of God; and 
whereas, from the very establishment of the Society 
of Jesus, the Church has had daily experience of the 
aptitude of the Fathers of the Society in the education 
of youth both in secular and clerical pursuits in all 

898 The Jesuits 

parts of the world; and whereas the testimony which 
even the enemies of the Holy See and of the Church 
are compelled by the evidence of things to pay to the 
Society of Jesus for the excellent education which the 
youth of their colleges receive, we do therefore assent 
most willingly to the petition of the lord cardinal of 
the Congregation of the Propaganda. " 

On October u, 1838, a chair of canon law was 
erected in the Roman College. In the following year 
on March 5, the Pontiff gave the Society the College 
of Fermo, and on September 28, the College of Camerino. 
In brief, there was no end of the spiritual favors which 
Gregory XVI bestowed on the Society through its 
General, Father Roothaan, whom he honored with his 
most intimate friendship, 

Pius IX succeeded Gregory XVI, and although he 
greatly esteemed Rosmini, who was attacked for his 
philosophical views by the Jesuits, chiefly by Mclia, 
Passaglia, Rozaven and Ballerini, that did not affect 
the great Pontiffs affection for the Society, Hence 
when the procurators at their meeting of 1847 presented 
themselves to His Holiness to protest against the 
charge that they were averse to his governmental 
policies, he assured them that he was well aware of 
the calumnious nature of the accusation. He repeated 
the same words in 1853 to the electors of the twenty- 
second general congregation, and in 1860, when Gari- 
baldi expelled the Jesuits from the Two Sicilies, Pope 
Pius not only welcomed the refugees to Rome, but, 
when they arrived, went in person to console them. 
"Let us suffer with equanimity/ 5 he said, "whatever 
God wishes. Persecution always brings courage to 
Catholics. What you have suffered is passed. What 
is to come who knows? It is splendid/' he said as 
he withdrew, " to see that even when you are scourged 
you do not cease to work" 

Pontiffs and the Society 899 

Not only did he comfort them verbally, but he issued 
as many as one hundred and thirty-two briefs and 
Bulls, m each of which some favor was conferred on 
the Society. He beatified seventy-seven Jesuits and 
canonized three of them. He gave the College of 
Tephernatum to the Society and endowed it richly. 
In 1850 he ordered Father General, who was hesitating 
because of the difficulty of the work, to establish the 
" CiviltA Cattolica." In 1851 he built and endowed 
a college at Valiterno, and gave them another at 
Sinigaglia. He entrusted to them the Collegium Pio- 
Latinum Americanum, a confidence in their ability 
which was reaffirmed in 1908 by Pius X when 
he said: "For fifty years this college has been of 
singular advantage to the Church by forming a learned 
body of holy bishops and distinguished ecclesiastics/' 

As for Leo XIII, he was during his entire life 
intimately associated with the Society. " You Jesuits 
have enjoyed the great privilege," he once said to a 
Father of the Roman Province, " of having had 
saints for Generals. I knew Father Fortis; he was a 
saint. I knew Father Roothaan intimately; he was 
a saint. I was long acquainted with Father Beckx; 
he was a saint. And now you have Father Anderledy," 

On February 25, 1881, he gave to the college at 
Beirut in Syria the power of conferring degrees in 
philosophy and theology. Pour years later when there 
was question of a new edition of the third volume of 
the Institute, and Father Anderledy had asked His 
Holiness to re-affirm the ancient privileges of the 
Society, Leo XIII replied with the Brief " Dolemus 
inter," which is regarded by the Society as one of its 
great treasures. After expressing his sorrow for the 
persecution which it was just then suffering in France, 
the Pope says: " In order that our will with regard 
to the Society of Jesus may be more thoroughly under- 

900 The Jesuits 

stood, we hereby declare that each and every Apostolic 
letter which concerns the establishment, the institution 
and confirmation of the Society of Jesus and which 
has been published by our predecessors, the Roman 
Pontiffs, beginning with Paul III of happy memory, 
up to our own time either by briefs or Bulls, and 
whatever is contained in them or follows from them 
and which either directly or by participation with 
other religious orders has been granted to the Society 
and has not been abrogated or revoked in whole or 
in part by the Council of Trent and other Constitutions 
of the Apostolic See, namely, its privileges, immunities, 
exemptions and indults, we hereby confirm by these 
letters, and fortify them by the strength of our Apostolic 
authority and once more concede. . . Let these 
letters be a witness of the love which we have always 
cherished and still cherish for the illustrious Society of 
Jesus which has been most devoted to Our Predecessors 
and to Us; which has been the fruitful mother of men 
who are distinguished for their holiness and wisdom, and 
the promoter of sound and solid doctrine, and which, 
although it suffered grievous persecution for justice 
sake, has never ceased to labor with a cheerful and 
unconquerable courage in cultivating the vineyard 
of the Lord, Let this well-deserving Society of Jesus, 
therefore, which was commended by the Council of 
Trent itself and whose accumulated glory lias been 
proclaimed by Our Predecessors, continue in spite of 
the multiplied attacks of perverse men against the 
Church of Jesus Christ to follow its Institute in 
its fight for the greater glory of God and the salvation 
of souls. Let the Society continue in its efforts to 
bring to pagan nations and to heretics the light of 
truth, to imbue the youth of our times with virtue 
and learning, and to inculcate the teachings of the 
Angelical doctor in our schools of philosophy and 

Pontiffs and the Society 901 

theology. Meantime, embracing this Society of Jesus, 
which is most beloved by Us, We impart to its Father 
General and his vicar and to all and each of its members 
our Apostolic benediction." 

On the occasion of his golden jubilee in 1888, he 
showed his esteem for the Society by canonizing Peter 
Claver, and when the Fathers went to express their 
gratitude for this mark of affection, he replied that the 
Society had always been dear to the Sovereign Pontiffs, 
considering it as they did to be a bulwark of religion, 
and a most valiant legion that was always ready to 
undertake the greatest labors for the Church and the 
salvation of souls. To himself personally it had always 
been very dear. He had shown this affection as 
soon as he was made Pope, by making a cardinal of 
Father Mazzella, whose virtue and doctrine he held in 
the highest esteem, and by employing Cardinal Franzelin 
as long as he lived in the most important and most 
secret negotiations* Neither of whom ever waited for 
the expression of his wish. A mere suggestion sufficed. 
He then began to speak of his boyhood in the College 
of Viterbo, where he had learned to love the Jesuit 
teachers, and he went on to say that his affection 
had increased in the Roman College under such eminent 
masters as Taparelli, Manera, Perrone, Caraffa and 
others whom he named. He spoke enthusiastically of 
Father Roothaan, and then reverting to Blessed John 
Berchmans whom he had canonized, he told how his 
devotion to the boy saint began in his early college 
days of Viterbo, 

In 1896 he showed his approval of the Society's 
theology by giving it the Institutum Leoninum at 
Anagni, and in the Motu proprio which he issued on 
that occasion, he said: "To the glory which the 
Society acquired even in its earliest days among 
learned men, by its scientific achievements and the 

902 The Jesuits 

excellent work it accomplished in doctrinal matters, 
must be added the art which is so full of cleverness 
and initiative of instilling knowledge and piety in the 
hearts of their scholars. Such has been their reputation 
throughout their history, and we recall with pleasure 
that we have had the opportunity of studying under 
the most distinguished Jesuits. Hence, as soon as 
by the Providence of God we were called to the Supreme 
Pontificate, we asked more than once that young men, 
especially those who were to consecrate themselves 
to the Church, should be trained by the members 
of the Society, both in our own city and in distant 
countries of the world. We recall especially in this 
connection their work among the Basilians of Galicia 
and in the Xaverian Seminary which we established 
at Kandy in the East Indies. Hence, wishing to 
inaugurate an educational institution in our native 
city of Aiaagni, we cast our eyes upon the members 
of the Society and in neither case have we been 
disappointed. " 

The mention of the Ruthenian Basilians refers to an 
extremely delicate work entrusted to the Jesuits. 
Something had gone wrong in the Basilian province 
of Ruthenia, and at the request of the bishops and by 
command of the Pope, a number of Galician Jesuits 
took up their abode in the monastery of that ancient 
and venerable Order, and after twelve years of labor 
restored its former fervor* One scarcely knows which 
deserves greater commendation: the prudence and 
skill of those who undertook the difficult task or the 
humility and submission of those who were the objects 
of it. When the end had been attained, the Jesuits 
asked to be relieved of the burden of direction and 
government, and far from leaving any trace of resent- 
ment behind them, it was solemnly declared by a 
general congregation of the Basilian monks that the 

Pontiffs and the Society 903 

link of affection which had been established between 
the two orders was to endure forever. The second 
apostolic work alluded to by the Pope in this Brief of 
1897, was the Pontifical Seminary for all India which 
he had built on the Island of Ceylon and entrusted to 
the Belgian Jesuits. 

In 1887, he had established a hierarchy of thirty 
dioceses in the Indies, and as a native clergy would 
have to be provided, an ecclesiastical seminary was 
imperative. The Propaganda was therefore com- 
missioned to erect the buildings and provide for the 
maintenance of the teachers-, and in virtue of the com- 
mand 250 acres of land were bought in 1892 near the 
city of Kandy on the Ampitiya Hills. Father Gros- 
jean, S. J., was appointed superior and began his 
work in a bungalow. It took five years before any 
suitable structures could be provided. The course of 
studies included three years of philosophy and four 
years of theology. There is now a staff of eleven pro- 
fessors and they have succeeded in overcoming a dif- 
ficulty which seemed at first insurmountable, namely, 
the grouping together under one roof of a number of 
men who were of different castes and of different races. 
The bishops held off for a time, and in the first year 
only one diocese sent its pupils; three years later, seven 
were represented and now there are one hundred semi- 
narians from all parts of India. They are so well 
trained that it is a rare thing for the'm not to satisfy 
their bishops when they return as priests. " The 
project of the great Pontiff, Leo XIII, " says the Bel- 
gian chronicler, " seemed audacious but the results 
have justified it." 

The Fathers found another friend in Pius X. They 
knew him when he was Bishop of Mantua, and he not 
only frequented their house but used to delight to 
stand at the gate distributing the usual dole to the poor. 

904 The Jesuits 

He enjoyed immensely the joke of the coadjutor brother 
who said. " Bishop Sarto (sarto means tailor) will 
make a fine garment for the Church when he is Pope;" 
though the holy prelate never dreamt of any such honor 
in those days or even when he was Patriarch of Venice, 
When he went to his new see, he took his Jesuit con- 
fessor with him, and there, as at Mantua, he wavS at 
home with the community and found particular delight 
in talking to the brothers. When Farther Martin 
lost his arm in consequence of an operation for sar- 
coma, the Pope gave him permission to celebrate 
Mass. " I tried it myself to sec if it were possible," 
he said " and I found it could be done without much 
difficulty, so I give permission to Father General to 
offer the Holy Sacrifice, provided another priest assists 
him." When the new General, Father Wemz, and 
his associates presented themselves to the Pope after 
the election, he thanked God for having given him the 
Society, which he described as "a chosen body of 
soldiers, who were skilled in war, trained to fight, 
and ready at the first sign of their leader/' He gave 
a further proof of the trust he had in them by putting 
into their hands the Pontifical Biblical Institute, which 
was part of the general purpose he had in view when, 
in 1901, he organized the Biblical Commission already 

Apart from the esteem manifested by the Sovereign 
Pontiffs for the Society itself as a religious order, their 
personal regard for each successive General is worthy 
of note. Thus Pius VII, on being informed of the 
election of Father Brzozowski as General, immediately 
expressed his gratification by letter " that the Society 
had chosen a man of such merit and virtue/* Loo XII, 
as we have said, lived on the most intimate and ulTeo- 
tionate terms with Father Fortis. Only his brief 
career as Pontiff prevented him from giving more 

Pontiffs and the Society 905 

positive proofs of his affection. The same may be said 
of Pius VIII, whose term was even shorter than that of 
Leo XII. During that time, however, he lavished 
favors on the Society. Gregory XVI made Father 
Roothaan his intimate friend and gave him any favor 
he asked, and Pius IX expressed the wish that " the 
Society would elect a General of equal prudence and 
wisdom, and who, like Roothaan, would be a man 
according to the heart of God." The amiable Father 
Beckx was always welcomed by Pius IX and their 
intercourse with each other was almost one of famil- 
iarity. When the General was on his death-bed, Leo 
XIII said to the Roman provincial: " I am deeply 
moved by the illness and suffering of Father Beckx 
for whom I have always entertained a great regard and 
even a filial affection. I most willingly send him 
my blessing; tonight in his pain and agony, I shall be 
at his vside in spirit and, aid him with my prayers.'' 

In Father Beckx's successor, 'Father Anderledy, 
Leo XIII had absolute confidence. So too, Father 
Mar tin 'v$ return to Rome from Fiesole was made an 
occasion of great rejoicing for the Pope, who used to 
ask Cardinal Aloysius Massella good humoredly: 
" Why don't you give up your office and be a Jesuit?' 1 
When Father Martin presented himself for an audience 
in times of trouble, Leo would say to him affectionately: 
" Come here, Father General and sit beside me so that 
we can talk over our sorrows; for your sufferings are 

Of course, affection was almost expected from Pius X, ' 
and when Father Martin returned to Rome with his 
health slightly improved, his reception by the Pope 
was like that of a son coming from the grave to the 
arms of his father. Later on he kept himself informed 
about Father Martin's suffering and prayed for him 
several times every day. " We cannot spare such 

906 The Jesuits 

men" was his expression; and when at last the Gen- 
eral died, the Pop was deeply affected. " He was a 
man of God/' was his exclamation, " A saint! A saint! 
A saint ! " At the election of Father Wernz, Pius X spoke 
of the great good he had done to the whole Church 
by his profound learning as teacher in the Gregorian 
University* " There was scarcely any part of the 
world/' he said, " where his merit was not acknowledged. 
He was known to all as the possessor of a great, solid 
and sure intelligence; of vast erudition which found 
expression in his learned treatises on the Law of 
Decretals, and which won the applause of all who 
were versed in canon law/' 

Another mark of this esteem for the Society, though an 
unwelcome one, was the elevation of so many of its mem- 
bers to ecclesiastical dignities by the Sovereign Pontiffs. 
First, in point of time, was the selection of John 
Carroll to be the founder of the American hierarchy. 
It was all the more notable because Challoner, the 
Vicar Apostolic of London, had repeatedly said that 
there was no one in America who measured up to the 
height of the episcopal dignity. The sequel proved 
that the Pontiff was wiser than the Vicar. We have 
already called attention to the fact not generally 
known that there was another Jesuit appointed to the 
See of Baltimore; though he never wore the mitre, 
He died before the Bulls arrived. His name was 
Laurence Grassel, and he had been a novice in the 
Society in Germany at the time of the Suppression. 
Carroll describes him as " a most amiable ex- Jesuit." 
Shea records the fact that " the Reverend Laurence 
Grassel, a learned and devoted priest, of whose sanctity 
tradition has preserved the most exalted estimate, 
revived the missions in New Jersey which had been 
attended by the Reverend Messrs. Schneider and 
Fanner." (Vol, II.) 

Pontiffs and the Society 907 

Leonard Ncale, who succeeded Archbishop Carroll 
in the See of Baltimore, was a Jesuit priest in Lige 
at the Suppression. Before returning to his native 
country, he spent four years in England and four more 
in Demerara. In Philadelphia, when vicar general of 
Bishop Carroll, he was stricken with yellow fever while 
administering to the sick during the pestilence. Later 
he was made president of Georgetown College, and in 
1 80 1 was appointed Coadjutor of Baltimore. The 
successor of the illustrious Cheverus in the See of 
Boston was Benedict Fenwick, who had entered the 
Society in Maryland eight years before Pius VII 
re-established it throughout the world. The first 
Bishop of New York also would have been a Jesuit, 
Anthony Kohlmann, had not Father Roothaan, 
entreated the Pope to withdraw the nomination. 

Anthony Kohlmann was born at Kaisersberg in 
Alsace, July 13, 1771. The outbreak of the French 
Revolution compelled him to leave his country when 
he was a young man and betake himself to Switzerland 
to continue his interrupted studies. He completed his 
theological course and was ordained a priest in the 
College of Fribourg. In 1796 he joined the Con- 
gregation of the Fathers of the Sacred Heart, and 
labored for two years in Austria and Italy as a military 
chaplain. We find him next at Dillingen in Bavaria 
as the director of an ecclesiastical seminary. By this 
time the Fathers of the Faith, Paccanari's organization, 
had united with those of the Sacred Heart, and Kohl- 
mann was dispatched to Berlin and subsequently to 
Amsterdam as rector of a new college in that place. 

As soon as he heard that the Jesuits in White Russia 
had been recognized by the Pope, he applied for 
admission, and entered the novitiate at Duneburg 
on 21 June, 1803, and in the following year was 
sent to Georgetown as assistant-master of novices. 

908 The Jesuits 

While holding that position he travelled extensively 
through Pennsylvania and Maryland to look after 
several groups of German colonists who had settled in 
those states. When the ecclesiastical troubles of New 
York were at their height, Bishop Carroll selected 
Kohlmann to restore order. With him went Father 
Benedict Fenwick and four scholastics. He was 
given charge of that whole district in iSoS. There 
were about fourteen thousand Catholics there at the 
time: French, German and Irish. In 1809 he laid the 
corner stone of old St Patrick's, which was the second 
church in the city. He also founded the New York 
Literary Institution as a school for boys, on what is 
now the site of the present cathedral, but which then 
was far out of town. In 1812 he began a nearby 
school for girls and gave it to the Ursuline nuns, who 
had been sent from Ireland for that purpose. 

Father Kohlmann rendered a great service to the 
Church by the part he took in gaining a verdict for 
the protection of the seal of Confession. lie had 
acted as agent in the restitution of stolen money when 
the owner of it demanded the name of the thief. As 
this was refused, he haled the priest to court, but the 
case ended in a decision given by the presiding Judge, 
DeWitt Clinton, that " no minister of the Gospel or 
priest of any denomination whatsoever shall be allowed 
to disclose any confession made to him in his pro- 
fessional character in the course of discipline enjoined 
by the rules or practices of such denomination," This 
decision was embodied in a state law passed on Decem- 
ber 10, 1828* His controversy with Jared Sparks, 
a well-known Unitarian, brought his reply entitled 
11 Unitarianism, theologically and philosophically 
considered." It is a classic on. that topic. 

As mentioned above, Kohlmann was designated Bis- 
hop of New York, but at the entreaty of the General of 

Pontiffs and the Society 909 

the Society, the Pope withdrew his name. In 1815 
he returned to Georgetown as master of novices, and 
in 1817 was appointed president of the college. In 
1824 he was called to Rome as professor of theology 
in the Gregorian University and occupied that post 
for five years. Among his students were the future 
Pope Leo XIII, Cardinal Cullen of Dublin, and Cardinal 
McCloskey of New York. Both Leo XII and Gregory 
XVI held Kohlmann in the highest esteem and had 
him attached to them as consultor to the staffs of the 
College of cardinals and to several important con- 
gregations such as that of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical 
Affairs; of Bishops and Regulars; and the Inquisition. 
He died at Rome in 1836, in consequence of overwork 
in the confessional. 

It might be of interest to quote here a passage from 
the " Life of Jolin Cardinal McCloskey " by Cardinal 
Farley: " About this time Father McCloskey suffered 
the loss of a very dear and devoted friend, Father 
Anthony Kohlmann, S. J. As pastor of St. Peter's, 
Barclay Street, he had been the adviser of the young 
priest's parents in New York for many years. He 
had seen him grow up from childhood, and had been 
his guide and friend in Rome. It is therefore but 
natural that he should express himself feelingly on 
the death of this holy man, as in this letter addressed 
to the Very Rev. Dr. Power: 

Rome, April 15, 1836, 
'Veiy Rev. dear Sir: 

* It is truly with deep regret that I now feel it my 
duty to acquaint you with the news which, if not 
already known to you, cannot but give you pain. 
Our venerable and most worthy friend, Father Kohl- 
mann, is no more. He has been summoned to another 
world, after a warning of only a few days. On Friday, 

910 The Jesuits 

the 8th. inst., he was as usual in his confessional. 
During the course of the day he was seized with a 
violent fever which obliged him to take to his bed, 
and on Sunday morning, about five o'clock, he was 
a corpse. On Monday, I had the melancholy pleasure 
of beholding him laid out in the Church of the Gesti, 
where numbers were assembled to show respect for his 
memory, and to view for a little time his mortal remains. 
His sickness was so very short that death effected 
but little change in his appearance. He seemed to be 
in a gentle sleep, such calmness and placidity. His 
countenance seemed to have lost nothing of its usual 
fulness or even freshness. And such was the composure 
of every feature, that one could hardly resist saying 
within himself: He is not dead, but sleepeth. His 
loss as you may well conceive, is deeply regretted 
by the members of his Order here as well as by all 
who knew him. 

'As for myself, I feel his death most sensibly, having 
lost in him so prudent a director, so kind a father and 
friend. You also, Very Reverend and dear Sir, are 
deprived by his death of a most active and valuable 
friend in Rome.*" 

In Hughes's " History of the Society of Jesus in North 
America" (I, pt ii, 866) there is a quotation from 
the " Memoirs " of Father Grassi which refers to 
Father Kohlmann and calls for consideration. He is 
described by the odious name of Paccanarist. As a 
matter of fact, Kohlmann joined the Fathers of the 
Sacred Heart in 1796, three years before Paccanari 
was even heard of. In April 1799, by order of the Pope, 
the Fathers of the Sacred Heart were amalgamated 
with Paccanari's Fathers of the Faith, but from the 
very beginning there was distinct cleavage between 
the two sections; and in 1803 when it became evident 

Pontiffs and the Society 911 

that Paccanari had no intention of uniting with the 
Jesuits in Russia, Kohlmann was one of the first to 
separate from him and was admitted to the Society 
in that year. If he was a " Paccanarist," then so 
were Rozaven and Varin. 

We are also informed that Kohlmann was an ex-Capu- 
chin. It is s strange, however, that Guide makes no 
mention of it in his historical sketches of the Fathers of 
the Sacred Heart. Moreover, if he ever were a member 
of that Order, it must have been for an extremely 
brief period; for he was born in 1771, and at the out- 
break of the French Revolution which swept away 
all religious communities he was only eighteen years 
of age. We find him then finishing his theological 
studies at Fribourg where the Jesuits had been con- 
spicuous before the Suppression, and he was ordained 
a priest in 1796, when he was twenty-five years old. 
Immediately afterwards, he joined the Fathers of tjhe 
Sacred Heart. So that if 'he ever had been a Capuchin 
it must have been at a very early age; and in any 
case he did not leave his Order voluntarily. It had 
been swept out of existence in the general storm, 

Grassi tells us also that, out of pity for the distressed 
religious who had been thrown out of their homes at 
that time, the General of the Society had asked the 
Pope to lift the ban against the Society's receiving 
into its ranks the members of other Orders a policy 
which it had always pursued, both out of respect for 
the Orders themselves, and because a change in such 
a serious matter would imply instability of character 
in the applicant. Father Pignatelli was deputed to 
submit the cause to His Holiness, and Grassi is in 
admiration at the sublime obedience of Pignatelli in 
doing what he was told; but it is hard to imagine why 
he should be so edified. The Professed of the Society 
make a special and solemn vow of obedience to the 

912 The Jesuits 

Pope and admit his decision without question. Even 
when the Pope suppressed the entire Society they 
defended his action. Where is there anything heroic 
in being merely the messenger between the General 
and the Pope? In any case Kohlmann's admission to 
the Society was with the full approval of both the 
Sovereign Pontiff and the General, even if he had been 
a Capuchin, which is by no means certain. 

We are also informed that the authorities in Rome 
were surprised that Kohlmann was admitted to his 
last vows before the customary ten years had elapsed, 
but there are many such instances in the history of 
the Society, and the General in referring to it may have 
been merely asking for information. Finally with 
regard to the alleged worry about Kohlmann's appoint- 
ment as Vicar General of New York; it suffices to say 
that the office is of its nature temporary, and cannot 
well be classified as a prelacy; especially as there was 
only one permanent church structure in the entire 
episcopal territory that stretched between the Hudson 
River and Lake Erie, and the clergy was largely made 
up of transients. 

At the time that Father Kohlmann was mentioned 
for the See of New York, Father Peter Kenny was 
proposed for that of Dromore in Ireland. Foley in 
his " Chronological Catalogue of the Irish Province 
S. J. " gives a brief account of this very distinguished 
man, who like Kohlmann was for some time identified 
with the Church in the United States. 

He was born in Dublin, July 7, 1779, anc l ontcnnl 
the Society at Hodder, Stonyhurst, September 20, juSo.j, 
He died in the Gcsii at Rome, November 19, 1841. 
When a boy he attracted the notice of Father Thomas 
Bctagh, the last of the Irish Jesuits of the old Society, 
who was then Vicar General of Dublin, and was sent 
to Carlow College. Even in early youth he was 

i Pontiffs and the Society 913 

remarkable for his extraordinary eloquence. When 
a novice he was told to come down from the pulpit, 
his fellow-novices being so spell-bound that they 
refused to eat. At Stonyhurst, he wrote a work in 
mathematics and physics. In 1811 he was Vice- 
President of Maynooth College. He purchased Clon- 
gowes Wood in 1814, and in 1819 was sent as visitor 
to the Jesuit houses of Maryland. He was made 
vice-provincial of Ireland in 1829, and again came to 
America in 1830, where he remained for three years 
and then installed Father McSherry as the first pro- 
vincial of the American province. His retreats in 
Ireland are still enthusiastically referred to and quoted. 
In 1809 when he was finishing his theology in Palermo, 
Father Angiolini wrote to Father Plowden "Father 
Kenny is head and shoulders over every one. He has 
genius, health, zeal, energy, success in action and 
prudence to a remarkable degree. May God keep 
him for the glory and increase of the Irish Missions! " 
God did so and the missions of America also profited 
by his genius and virtue. 

Later on, Father Van de Velde was made Bishop of 
Chicago, but he continually petitioned Rome to be 
allowed to return to the Society; while Father Mige 
after twenty-four years of the episcopate and without 
waiting to celebrate his silver jubilee became a Jesuit 
again and spent his last days at Woodstock, where he 
met Father Michael O'Connor, who had resigned the 
See of Pittsburg in order to assume the habit of St. 
Ignatius. His brother before being made Bishop of 
Omaha asked to enter the Society but he was told 
" Be a bishop first like your brother and afterwards a 
Jesuit." One of the most distinguished Jesuits of 
New York, Father Larkin, had to flee the country to 
avoid being made Bishop of Toronto, and Father 
William Duncan of Boston would have occupied 

914 The Jesuits 

the See of Savannah had not he entered the 

The same thing is true of the cardinalate. An unu- 
sually large number of Jesuits have been raised to that 
dignity in the hundred years of the new Society, in 
spite of the oath they have taken to do all in their 
power to prevent it, an oath which they have all most 
faithfully kept, yielding only because they were bidden 
to do so under pain of sin. 

Camillo Mazzella entered the Society in 1857, and 
when the scholasticate at Woodstock in Maryland was 
opened, he was made prefect of studies. He was 
called to Rome in 1878 to take the place of Franzclin 
in the Gregorian University. In 1886 he was created 
Cardinal deacon and ten years later Cardinal priest, 
while in 1897 he was appointed Cardinal bishop of 
Palestrina. Camillo Tarquini was made cardinal be- 
cause of his prominence as a canonist; Andreas 
Steinhuber's learning and his great labors as Vatican 
librarian won for him the honor of the purple, while 
Louis Billot after teaching dogmatic theology at Angers 
and the Gregorian University was named Cardinal 
deacon of Santa Maria in Via Lata on November 27, 
1911. But much greater consolation has been afforded 
to the new Society by the canonization of its saints 
than by the choice of its members for the cardinalate. 
One is a recognition of the intellectual ability and 
personal virtue; the other is an official, though indirect, 
approval of the Institute. 

At the very time that Pombal, Choiseui and Charles 
III were crushing the Society in their respective 
countries, Rome as if in condemnation of the act was 
jubilant with delight over the heroic virtue of the 
Italian Jesuit, Francis Hieronymo; and people were 
asking each other how a Society could be bad when it 

Pontiffs and the Society 915 

produced such a saint? In an issue of the " Gazette " 
of distant Quebec at that time we find a bewildered 
Protestant Englishman who was the journal's corre- 
spondent at Rome asking himself that question. The 
political troubles of the period caused the proceedings 
of the canonization to be suspended, but Gregory XVI, 
who succeeded Leo XII, canonized Francis on the Feast 
of the Blessed Trinity, 1839. Pius IX beatified 
Canisius, Bobola, Faber, de Britto and Berchmans, 
with Peter Claver, the apostle of the negroes, and the 
lay-brother Alphonso Rodriguez, besides placing the 
crown of martyrdom on the throng of martyrs in 
Japan, Europeans and natives alike, as well as upon 
Azevedo and his thirty-nine Portuguese associates 
who were slaughtered at sea near the Azores. 

Leo XIII beatified Antonio Baldinucci and Rudolph 
Aquaviva with his fellow- Jesuits who were put to 
death at Salsette in Hindostan, besides raising to the 
honors of sainthood Peter Claver and Alphonso 
Rodriguez, and also placing John Berchmans in the 
same category, thus re-affirming the sanctity of the 
rules of the Society, for the realization of which the 
holy youth had already been beatified. The canon- 
ization of Alphonso is also notable because it was 
by Leo XII, whose name Leo XIII had adopted, that 
the humble porter of Minorca was raised to the first 
honors of the altar. Finally, Pius X showed his love 
for the Society and his approval of the rule by beatifying 
the three martyrs of Hungary whom scarcely anybody 
had ever heard of before: Mark Crisin, Stephen Pon- 
gracz and Melchior Grodecz, There is also under 
consideration the beatification of the great American 
apostles Jogucs, Br6beuf, Lalemant, Daniel, Chabanel, 
Gamier, Goupil and Lalande, five of whom died for 
the Faith in Canada, and three in what is now the 
State of New York. 

916 The Jesuits 

The new Society has not failed to add new names 
to this catalogue of honor of prospective saints. They 
are Joseph Pignatelli, who died in 1811; Father Joseph 
de Clorivi&re, 1820; Paul Cappelari, 1857; and Paul 
Ginhac, 1895. Five Jesuits were put to death at Paris 
in 1871 by the Communards: namely Pierre Olivaint, 
Anatole de Bengy, Alexis Clerc, L6on Ducoudray, and 
Jean Caubert, 

Between 1822 and 1902, forty-four others have 
given glory to the Society either by the heroic sanctity 
of their lives, or by shedding their blood for the Faith* 
Besides these, there are thirty-five Jesuits who have 
been put to death in various parts of the world. They 
are: four Italians, Ferdinando Bonacini and Luigi 
Massa in 1860; Genaio Pastore in 1887 and Emilio 
Moscoso in 1897; four Germans: Anthony Terorde 
in 1880; Stephen Gzimmerman, Joseph Plateer and 
Clemens Wigger who were killed by the Caffirs in 
1895-6, The French can boast of 12 namely; 
Bishop Planchet in 1859; Edouard Billotet; Elie 
Joun&s, Habib Maksoud, and Alphonse Habeiscli who 
were killed in Syria in 1860; Martin Brutail in 1883; 
Gaston de Bate in 1883; Modeste Andlaucr, Leon 
Mangin, Remi IsorS, and Paul Denn,'who met their 
death in the Boxer Uprising in 1900; L6on Mtiller was 
killed by the Boxers two years later. Sixteen Spaniards 
were put to death: Casto Hernfindez, Juan Sauri, 
Juan Artigas, Jos6 Fern&ndes, Juan Elola, Jos6 Urri- 
etta, Domingo Barreau, Jos6 Gamier, Jos6 Sancho, 
Pedro Demont, Firmin Barba, Martfn Buxons, Eman- 
uel Ostolom, Juan Ruedas, Vincente Gogorza, who 
were massacred in Madrid in 1834. 



Successive Generals in the Restored Society Present Membership, 
Missions and Provinces. 

As we have seen, the first General of the Society elected 
after the Restoration was Father Fortis, who died on 
January 27, 1829. On June 29 of that year Father 
John Roothaan was chosen as his successor on the 
fourth ballot. As in the previous election, Father Ro- 
zaven was the choice of many of the delegates. 

John Philip Roothaan, the twenty-first General of 
the Society, was born at Amsterdam on November 23, 
1785, and finished his classical studies in the Atheneum 
Illustre under the famous Jakob van Lennep. When 
he had made up his mind to enter the Society in "White 
Russia in 1804, his distinguished teacher, though a 
Protestant, gave him the following letter of introduc- 
tion: " I am fully aware of how in former times the 
Society distinguished itself in every branch of 
knowledge. Its splendid services in that respect 
can never be forgotten, and I am, therefore, especially 
pleased to recommend this young man whose merit 
I most highly appreciate. May he be enriched with 
all your science and your virtues, and I trust to see 
him again in possession of those treasures which he 
has gone so far to seek," 

The praise was well merited, for, even at that early 
period of his life, Roothaan had mastered French, 
Polish, Latin, Greek and Hebrew. He studied phil- 
osophy at Polotsk, and in 1812 was ordained priest. 
After the expulsion he went to Switzerland in 1820, 
and taught rhetoric there for three years. As socius 
to the provincial, he made the tour of all the Jesuit 


918 The Jesuits 

houses in Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and Hol- 
land three times, and afterwards was appointed rector 
of the new college in Turin. As General, his chief 
care was to strengthen the internal life of the Society. 
His first eleven encyclicals have that object in view. 
His edition of the " Exercises " is a classic. In 1832 he 
published the " Revised Order of Studies," adapting 
the Ratio to the needs of the times; and he increased 
the activities of the Society in the mission fields. 
But his long term of office was one uninterrupted 
series of trials. His enforced visit to the greater 
number of the houses has already been told in a pre- 
ceding chapter. 

Among the many things for which the Society is 
profoundly grateful to Father Roothaan is the very 
remarkable publication of the " Exercises of St, 
Ignatius." According to Astrain, " the autograph 
was in rough and labored Castilian," for it must be 
remembered that the saintly author was a Basque. 
" The text," he tells us, " arrests the attention," not 
, by its elegance but, " by the energetic precision and 
brevity with which certain thoughts are expressed. 
The autograph itself no longer exists. What goes by 
that name is only a quarto copy made by some secretary, 
but containing corrections in the author's handwriting. 
It has been reproduced by photography. Two Latin 
translations were made of it during the lifetime of 
St. Ignatius. There remain now, first the wrsio 
antiqua or ancient Latin translation, which is a literal 
version, probably by the saint himself; second, a free 
translation by Father Prusius, more elegant and more 
in accordance with the style of the period. It !s 
commonly called the 'Vulgate/ The wrsio antiqua 
bears the date, Rome, July 9, 1541. The 'Vulgate' 
is later than 1541 but earlier than 1548, when the two 
versions were presented to Paul III for approval IIo 

Conclusion 919 

appointed three examiners, who warmly pfaised both 
versions, but the Vulgate was the only one printed. 
It was published in Rome on September n, 1548, and 
was called the editio princeps. 

" Besides these two translations, there are two 
others. One is the still unpublished text left by Blessed 
Peter Faber to the Carthusians of Cologne before 
1546. It holds a middle place between the literal 
document and the Vulgate. The second was made by 
Father Roothaan, who, on account of the differences 
between the Vulgate and the Spanish autograph, 
wished to translate the Exercises into Latin as accu- 
rately as possible, at the same time making use of the 
versio antiqua. His intention was not to supplant the 
Vulgate, and on that account he published the work 
of Frusius and his own in parallel columns (1835)." 

Father Roothaan was succeeded as General by 
Father Beckx, who was born in 1795 at Sichem, near 
Diest, the town that glories in being the birthplace of 
St. John Berchmans. He entered the Society at 
Hildesheim in 1819, after having been a secular priest 
for eight months. In 1825 he was appointed chaplain 
of the Duke of Anhalt-Kothen, who had become a 
Catholic 'after visiting the home of one of his Catholic 
friends in France. Anhalt-Kothen is in Prussian Sax- 
ony, and there were only twenty Catholics in the entire 
duchy when Beckx arrived there. Before four years 
had passed, the number had grown to two hundred. 
In 1830 he was sent to Vienna and for a time was the 
only Jesuit in that city. In 1852 he was made provin- 
cial of Austria and had the happiness of leading back 
his brethren to the beloved Innsbruck as well as to 
Leniz and Lemberg. In the following year he was 
elected General, and occupied the post for thirty-four 
years* He used to say that at the time he entered 
into office the province of Portugal consisted of one 

920 The Jesuits 

Jesuit and a half. The one was in hiding in Lisbon, 
and the " half " was a novice in Turin. Even now 
they number only three hundred. All the houses 
have been seized by the Republican government and 
the Fathers, scholastics and brothers expelled from 
their native land in the usual brutal fashion. 

During Father Beckx's term of office eighty Jesuits 
were raised to the honors of the altar. All but three 
of them were martyrs. In spite of this the Society 
was expelled from Italy in 1860; from Spain in 1868; 
and from Germany in 1873, at which time the General 
and the assistants left Rome, where, after the Pied- 
montese occupation, it was no longer safe to live. 
They took up their abode at Fiesole and there the 
curia, as it is called, remained until after the death 
of Father Beckx's successor. In 1883 the age and 
infirmities of the General made the election of a vicar 
peremptory, and Father Anderledy was chosen. Father 
Beckx died at the age of ninety-two, and one who saw 
him in the closing years of his life thus writes of him: 
" This holy old man who has attained the age of nearly 
ninety years, so modest, so humble, so prudent, always 
the same; always amiable, with the glory of thirty 
years' government and of interior martyrdom inflicted 
upon him by the mishaps of the Society, was a spectacle 
to fill one with admiration. His angelic mien delighted 
me. With how great charity he received me in his 
room! With what deference! His poor cassock was 
patched. He is as punctual at the exercises as the 
most vigorous. In spite of his old age he observes 
all the laws of fasting and abstinence. At a quarter 
past five he commences his Mass and spends con- 
siderable time kneeling before the Blessed Sacrament 
God grant us many imitators of his virtues," 

Father Anderledy was a Swiss. He was born in the 
canton of Valais in 1819, and entered the Society at 

Conclusion 921 

Brieg in 1838. He was sent to Rome for his theological 
studies and it is reported that he was such a pertinacious 
disputant that old Father Perrone said to him one 
day: " Young man, cease or I shall get angry. " In 
the disturbances of 1847, he was on his way to Switzer- 
land when he was halted by a squad of furious soldiers 
who asked him " Are you a Jesuit?" " What do you 
mean by a Jesuit?'* he asked. When the conventional 
answer was given, he angrily demanded " Do you 
take me for a scoundrel?" and they let him pass. 
In 1848 he was sent to America and was ordained at 
St. Louis by Archbishop Kenrick and then put in 
charge of a German parish at Green Bay, Wisconsin, 
a place teeming with memories of the old Jesuit 
missionaries: Marquette, Allouez and others. On his 
return to Europe, he went through Germany preaching 
missions and winning a reputation as a great orator, 
although working in conjunction with the famous 
Father Roh. He was made rector of the College of 
Cologne and, subsequently, professor at the scholasti- 
cate of Maria-Laach. In 1870 he was called to Rome 
to be made German assistant, and in 1883 he was 
elected vicar to Father Beckx with the right of suc- 
cession. He was particularly zealous as General in 
promoting the study of theology and philosophy, and 
in training men in the physical sciences. During his 
administration, the Society increased from 11,840 
members" to 13,275, but he was very much adverse 
to the establishment of new provinces. The creation 
of Canada as an independent mission was all he would 
grant in that direction. He died at Fiesole on 18 
January, 1892. 

Luis Martin Garcia, or, as he is commonly called, 
Father Martin, who succeeded Father Anderledy, was 
the fifth Spanish General of the Society, He was 
born on 19 August, 1846, at Melgar de Fermamental, 

922 The Jesuits 

a small town about twenty-five miles north-west of 
Burgos, and was already a seminarian in his second 
year of theology when he began to think of becoming 
a religious. To be a Jesuit, however, was at first as 
abhorrent to him as becoming a Saracen, But his 
ideas on that point began to clarify when he heard his 
very distinguished professor Don Manuel Gonzalez 
Pena, who had been a theologian in the Vatican Council, 
discourse enthusiastically and on every occasion, 
about the glories of Suarez, Toletus, Petavius, Bellar- 
mine and the other great lights of the Society. The 
impression was heightened by some letters from the 
Philippine Jesuits which had fallen into his hands, and 
CrStineau-Joly's history also contributed to his change 
of views. A conversation with the Jesuit superior of 
the residence at Burgos, and the departure of a brilliant 
fellow-student for the novitiate, completed the dis- 
illusionment and he was admitted at Loyola on 13 
October, 1864, 

In 1870, when the Society was expelled from Spain, 

he went with the other scholastics to Vals in France, 

and later to Poyanne. In the latter place he remained 

as minister and professor of dogmatic theology until 

1880, and when the religious were expelled from Franco 

he returned to Spain and \vas made superior of the 

scholasticate which had been opened in Salamanca. 

He was charged also with the duty of teaching theology 

and Hebrew. In 1886 he opened the house of studies at 

Bilbao, and in the same year he was made provincial 

of Castile, Previous to that he had been the 

editor of "The Messenger of the Sacred Heart " for 

a year. In 1891 he was summoned to Rome by Father 

Anderledy, to analyze and summarize the reports sent 

in by all the provinces on the proposed quinquennium 

of theology and a new arrangement of studies. On the 

death of Father Anderledy he was made Vicar General 

Conclusion 923 

He was then only forty-five years of age. His appoint- 
ment coincided with the outbreak of an epidemic of 
influenza of which he was very near being a victim. 
Singularly enough, it was this same disease that 
carried him off thirteen years later, supervening as 
it did on the terrible sarcoma from which he had long 
been suffering. 

As Vicar he convoked the general congregation, 
assigning September 23 as the date and choosing 
Loyola in Spain as the place of meeting. It was the 
first time in the history of the Society that the con- 
vention took place outside of Rome, with the exception 
of the meetings in Russia during the Suppression. 
The reason for the decision was that the Pope let it 
be known that it would not be possible to remain in 
session in Rome for any considerable period, though he 
suggested that they might elect the General in Rome 
and then continue the congregation elsewhere. After 
long deliberation by the assistants, it was determined 
not to separate the election from the other proceedings. 
As for the place of meeting, Loyola was chosen, though 
Tronchiennes in Belgium had been offered. The choice 
of Spain was determined by the vote of the assistant 
who had no Spanish affiliations. Father Martin 
was elected general on 2 October, and the sessions 
continued until 5 December. 

In this congregation, Father Martin called the 
attention of the delegates to the fact that no Jesuit 
had ever addressed himself to the task of writing the 
complete history of the Order; an abstention, it might 
be urged, which ought to acquit them of the accusation 
of unduly praising the Society. Father Aquaviva 
had indeed commissioned Orlandini to begin the work, 
but the distinguished writer not only got no further 
then the Generalate of St. Ignatius but did not even 
publish his book, Saechini his continuator had to see 

924 The Jesuits 

to the publication; his own contributions appeared in 
1615 and 1621. Jouvancy was then called to Rome 
to finish the second half of the fifth section which had 
by that time appeared, but he did not advance beyond 
the year 1616. He had bad luck with it even in that 
small space, for certain opinions appeared in it about 
the rights of sovereigns which were not acceptable 
to the Bourbon kings, and the book was forbidden in 
France by decrees of Parliament, dated 25 February 
and 25 March, 1715. Finally, Cordara, an Italian, 
assumed the task and wrote two volumes, which 
though exquisitely done embraced not more than 
seventeen years of Father Vitelleschi's generalate 
(1616-33), and only one volume was published then. 
More than one hundred years elapsed before the second 
appeared. It was edited by Raggazzini in 1859- 

It was high time, Father Martin declared, that 
something should be done to remedy this condition 
of affairs and that a history of the Society should be 
written on a scale commensurate with the greatness 
of the subject, and in keeping with the methods which 
modern requirements look for in historical writing. 
As the undertaking in the way it was conceived would 
have been too much for any one man, a literary syndi- 
cate was established in which Father Hughes was 
assigned to write the history of the Society's work in 
English-speaking America, Father Astrain that of 
the Spanish assistancy, Father Venturi the Italian, 
Father Fouqueray the French, Father Dflhr and Father 
Kroess the German. This work is now in progress, 
Those who are engaged on it are men of unim- 
peachable integrity. Meantime an immense num- 
ber of hitherto unpublished documents are being 
put in the hands of the writers. As many as fifty 
bulky volumes known as the " Monurnenta hlstorica 
Societatis Jesu," consisting of the chronicles of the 

Conclusion 925 

houses and provinces, the intimate correspondence 
of many of the great men of the Society, such as 
Ignatius, Lainez, Borgia etc., have been printed, 
and sent broadcast through all the provinces. 
Nor is this mass of material jealously guarded by the 
Jesuits themselves. It is available to any sincere 

As the Congregation had expressed the desire that 
the residence of the General and his assistants at 
Piesole be closed, and that if the political troubles 
would permit it he should return to Rome, Father 
Martin, after consulting with the Pope, who granted 
the permission with some hesitation, established 
himself at the Collegium Germanicum on 20 January, 
1895. The public excitement that was apprehended 
did not occur. The papers merely chronicled the fact 
but made no ado about it whatever. Father Martin 
had much to console him, during his administration, 
as, for instance, the beatification of several members 
of the Society, but he had also many sorrows such as 
the closing of all the houses in France by the Waldeck- 
Rousseau government and the deplorable defections 
of some Jesuits in connection with the Modernist 

In 1905 the first symptoms of the disease that was 
to carry him off in a short time declared themselves. 
In that year, four cancerous swellings developed in 
his right arm. He had submitted to the painful 
cutting of two of them without the aid of anesthetics. 
The operation lasted two hours and a half, and he 
maintained his consciousness throughout. A little 
later, the other swellings showed signs of -gangrene 
and the amputation of the arm was decided upon, 
but in this instance he submitted to chloroform. He 
rallied after the operation and in spite of his crippled 
condition was permitted by the Pope to say Mass. 

926 The Jesuits 

His strength had left him, however, and on 1 5 February, 
1906 he was attacked by influenza and he died on 
1 8 April at the age of sixty. At his death the Society 
numbered 15,515 members. 

Father Martin's successor was Francis Xavier 
Wernz who was born in Wurtemberg in 1842. When 
the Society was expelled from Germany in 1872, he 
went to Ditton Hall in England to complete his studies, 
after having spent the greater part of a year in the 
army ambulance-corps, during the Franco-Prussian 
War of 1870. He taught canon law for several years 
at Ditton Hall, and in 1882 was a professor at St. 
Beuno's in Wales. From there he was transferred to 
the Gregorian University in Rome, where he lectured 
from 1883 to I 9 6 - * n September of the latter year, 
he was elected General, in which post he lived only 
eight years. Previous to his election, he had issued 
four volumes of his great work on canon law. Two 
others were published later, one of them after his death. 
The end of his labors came on 19 August, 1914, Ho 
was then in his seventy-second year and had passed 
fifty-seven years in the Society. It was during this 
generalate that the provinces of Canada, New Orleans, 
Mexico, California and Hungary were erected. 

Father Wladimir Ledochowski was elected to the 
vacant post on n February, 1915. He was then only 
forty-nine years of age. He entered the Society in 
1889, and in 1902, shortly after his ordination, was 
made provincial of Galicia, while in 1906 he was 
elected as assistant to Father Worm. He is the 
nephew of the famous Cardinal Ledochowski, whom 
Bismarck imprisoned for his courageous championship 
of the rights of Poland. 

The new Society like the old has not failed to produce 
saints and at the present moment the lives of a very 
considerable number of those who have lived and 

Conclusion 927 

labored in the century that has elapsed since the 
restoration are being considered by the Church as 
possible candidates for canonization. 

The number of Jesuits who were under the colors as 
soldiers, chaplains or stretcher bearers or volunteers 
in the World War of 1914-1918 ran up to 2014, a 
very great drain on the Society as a whole, which in 
1918 had only 17,205 names on its rolls, among whom 
were very many incapacitated either by age or youth 
or ailment for any active work. Of the 2014 Belgium 
furnished 165, Austria 82, Prance 855, Germany 376, 
Italy 369, England 83, Ireland 30, Canada 4 and the 
United States 50. Of the 83 English Jesuits serving as 
chaplains, 5 died while in the service, 2 won the 
Distinguished Service Order, 13 the Military Cross, 3 
the Order of the British Empire, 21 were mentioned in 
despatches, 2 were mentioned for valuable services 
and 4 received foreign decorations, a total of 45 

France calls for special notice in this matter. From 
the four French provinces of the Society 855 Jesuits 
were mobilized. Of these 107 were officers, 3 com- 
mandants, i lieutenant-commander, 13 captains, 4 naval 
lieutenants, 22 lieutenants, 50 second-lieutenants, i 
naval ensign, and 5 officers in the health services. 
The loss in dead was 165 Jesuits, of whom 28 were 
chaplains, 30 officers, 36 sub-officers, 17 corporals and 
54 privates. The number of distinctions won is 
almost incredible. The decoration of the Legion 
d'honneur was conferred on 68, the M6daille militaire 
on 48, the M6daille des 6pid6mies on 4, the Croix de 
guerre on 320, the Moroccan or Tunisian medal on 3, 
while 595 were mentioned in despatches, and 18 
foreign decorations were received: in all 1,056 dis- 
tinctions were won by the 855 Jesuits in the French 
army and navy (The Jesuit Directory, 1921). "What 

yz me Jesuits 

party or group or club or lodge/' says a sometime 
unfriendly paper, the " Italia/' " can claim a similar 
distinction ?" Another of their distinctions is that 
Foch, de Castelnau, Fayolle, Guynemer and many 
more French heroes were trained in Jesuit schools. 
Finally, the French Jesuits performed this marvellous 
service to their country in spite of the fact that the 
government of that country had closed and confiscated 
every one of their churches and colleges from one 
end of France to the other, and by so doing had exiled 
these loyal subjects from their native land. To add 
to the outrage, they were summoned back when the 
war began, and not one of them failed to respond 
immediately, returning from distant missions among 
savages at the ends of the earth or from civilized 
countries that were more hospitable to them than their 
own for the defense of which they willingly offered 
their lives. Now, when the war is over, they have 
no home to go to. 

In 1912, two years before the War, the Society had 
on its rolls 16,545 members. At the beginning of 
1920 it had 17,250 members: 8,454 priests, 4,819 
scholastics, 3,977 lay-brothers. The Society is divided 
into what are called assistancies. The Italian assis- 
tancy, which is composed of the provinces of Rome, 
Naples, Sicily, Turin and Venice, numbers in all 1,415 
members. The frequent dispersions and confisca- 
tions to which this section has been subjected account 
for the small number. Thus, the Roman province 
has only 354, and Sicily has but 223. In the assistancy 
there are 748 priests, but the prospects of the increase 
of this category is the reverse of encouraging, for there 
are only 308 scholastics* The lay-brothers number 
359, What has acted as a deterrent in Italy has, 
paradoxically^ acted in a contrary sense in the German 
assistancy. Several of these provinces have bean dis- 

Conclusion 929 

persed, but they aggregate as many as 4,329 members. 
Belgium is a strong factor in this large number, for 
it totals 1,279, of whom 672 are priests; the Germans, 
who have no establishment in their own country, 
but are scattered over the earth, have a membership 
of 1,210, of whom 664 are in Holy Orders. Austria 
has 356 on her register, Poland 464, Czechs-Slovakia 
114, Jugoslavia 113, Hungary 212, while Holland has 
as many as 581. 

The Waldeck-Rousseau Associations Law of 1901 
not only confiscated every Jesuit establishment in 
France but denied the Society the right even to possess 
property. Nevertheless, unlike Italy the provinces of 
Champagne, Prance, Lyons and Toulouse show 2,758 
names in their catalogues for 1920. They have 1,647 
priests with 583 scholastics to draw on. The Spaniards 
are grouped in the provinces of Aragon, Castile, Mexico, 
and Toledo, to which has been added the Province of 
Portugal. This combination has 1,760 to its credit. 
Possibly the figures would have been larger had not 
the Revolution of 1901 brought about the exile of 
the Jesuits. The English assistancy which until 
recently included the United States, has now 1,622 
members of whom 793 are priests and 544 scholastics: 
England 750, Canada 472 and Ireland 400. The 
assistancy of America has 2,892 members of whom 1,230 
are priests with a future supply to draw on of 1,214 
scholastics. The contingent of scholastics exceeds that 
of an/ other assistancy by more than a hundred. The of California has 485 members, Maryland- 
New York, i, 080; Missouri, 1,022 and New Orleans, 305. 

BcvSicles its regularly established houses the Society 
has missions scattered throughout the world. Thus, 
in Europe its missionaries are to be found in Albania; 
in Asia, they are working in Armenia, Syria, Ceylon, 
Assam, Bengal, Bombay, Poona, Goa, Madura, Man- 

930 The Jesuits 

galore, Japan, Canton, Nankin, and South East 
Tche-ly. In Africa, they are in Egypt, Cape Colony, 
Zambesi, Rhodesia, Belgian Congo, and Madagascar, 
Mauritius and Reunion; in America, they are working 
in Jamaica and among the Indians of Alaska, Canada, 
South Dakota, the Rocky Mountains, the Pimeria, 
and Guiana; finally in Oceania, they are toiling in 
Celebes, Plores, Java, and the Philippines. To these 
missions 1,707 Jesuits are devoting their lives in direct 
contact with the aborigines. 




Africa, 85 et seq. 
Alcala, 52 
Alegambe, 867 

Biblical fastitute, 764 
Billiart, 673 
Billot, Cardinal, ^14 
Blackwell, 153 

Alexandria, 109,811 
Alfonso Rodriguez, St., 383 

Bobadilla, 2isqq. 
Bobola, 384 
Bollandists, 370, 869 

Algonqums, 338 

Bonzes, 80, 256 

Allen, Cardinal, 13-isq. 

Borgias, 102 

Allouez, 338 
Aloysius, St., iSr 
Alphonsus Liguori, St., 380, 604 
Alva, Duke of, 428 
Amaguchi, 167 
Amherst, 594 

Boscovich, 367, 622 
Bossuet, 353 
Bouhours, 367 
Bourdaloue, 264, 283 
Boxer uprising, 791 
Brazil, 87 etseq, 

Amiot, 632 
Anchieta, 89 
Anderledy, 763, 899 

Bre"beuf, 291, 385 
Bressani, 336 
Britto, John de, 233 

Andrada, 237, 372 
Angiolini. 678 

Broglie, Charles de, 665 
Brouet, assqq. 

Angola, 85 

Brugelette, 757 

Antilles, 3 06 

Brzozowski, 685 

Appellants, i S3 J . 
Aquaviva, Claudius, I32SQ. 
Aquaviva, Rudolph, 75, 34 

Bungo, 1 76 
Busenbaum, 380 
Buteux, 338 

Aranda, 421, 507 

Bye Plot, 157 

Araos, 36, 104, 203 

Archetti, 648 

Archipresbyterate, 153 


Arevalo, 836 
Armenians, 805 
Arnauld, n, 216, 277 
Asia, 229 et scq. 
Assembly of the Clergy, 413, 486 
Aubetierre, 497, 530 
Auger, 41, 57 ft 
Augu&tmus, 281 
Avogado, 678 
Azevedo, 90, 384 

Cabral, 87, 174-5 
Calcutta, 764, 794~5, SOT, 839, 843 , 
California, i 828, 833, 926, 929. See Lower 

Calvinists, 87 , 334, 801 
Cambrensis, 137 
Campion, 134, 136-40, 143-6, 384, 857 
Canada, 262, 291, 334-0, 42S-6, $94, 7U, 
764, 78r t 824, 874, 921 
Camsms, Peter, 2, 23, 45, Si, 65, 67, 70, 
102, 272, 345, 384* 508, 915 

Canonization, 381-2 


Canton,. 248, 250, 252, 260-1, 930 

Backers, da, 868 

Caraffa, 208, 225, 391, 549. 57*4 

Baertz, 77 

Carbonari, 894, 897 

Bftgnorca, 30 
BajjotistB, 244 

Carbonelle, 857 
Cardinals, 914 

BulUfi, 112 

Balcle, 358, 362 

Carintiiia, 346, 37$ 
Carlos, Don, 742 

Bttrat, Mme,, 673 

Carmelites, 801, 86p 

BaroniuF, xia 
IkisiluuiK, 903 
Bathes, Christopher, 307 

Carranza, 53 
Carroll, Charles, 711 
Carroll, John, 50S, 616, 659, 674, 700, 

Bathori, 123 
Beaumont, de, 488, 588 

Cartagena, 305 3H f e A mf 
Cartomphy, 253, 376, 631, 852, 861 

Boirut, 807 
Ballarmine, 68, no, ais 

Cosaubon, 118-9, 2Ji 
Casea of Consicexice. 200 

IkJloc, 285 
Honpy, de, 761 
BemttUwBKi, 6s 

Casto, 230, 350, 264, 707, 8oi 
Casuistry, 285 
Cat(schinm,38 (of Canisius,40) ; (of Trent). 

Rernis, Cardinal, 53WQ 
Berry or, 737 

*' Ctttochisme des Jesuites/' 2 73 

BoUgh, 912 605. 635. 641-60, 66;, 677, 719 

Pp. 1-441, Vol. I; pp. 448-930, Vol. II. 




Catholic Encyclopedia, 866 

Catholicae Pidei, 38, 66i f 694, 7x6 

Cathrein, 288, 880 

Caughnawaga, 338, 77S 

Cavalcanti, 853 

Cayenne, 312, 841 

Celibacy, 120 

Centuiators of Magdeburg, 49 

Ceylon, 802, 903, 929 

Chabanel, 336, 385, 9*5 

Challoner, S99, 602, 906 

Charles V., Emperor, 9. 23. 38, 44. Si, 

102, 344 

Charles Borromeo, St., r$, 102, 138, 218 
Charlevoix. 171. 370 
Cheminais, 481 

Chile, 298, 373. 4*5, 529, 6*7, 76s, 774 
China. 8X, 124, 173. 245-07, 372, 375, 

424. 470, 627, 679. 770. 776. 788-93, 

824. 828. 834, 843, 86r 
Choiseul, Due de, 314, 4*9, 429, 496, 

500-3, 500, 512, 524. 535 
Christina of Sweden, 1 28 
" Civilta Catolica," 874, 899 
Clavigero, 369, 619 
Clavhis, 246,35S37i 
Clement VIII, 56. m, 113, it 8, 153-5, 

157. 200, 213, 217, 240, 385, 43<>, 556 
Clement XIII, 15, 422, 435 et sea.. 
Clement XIV, 4, 436 et seq. 
Clerc, 760, 916 
Clergy, native, 262 
Clermont, College of, 57, xxs, 216, JTJ, 

Clorivi&re, 671, 676, 691, 700, 720, 730, 

751, 880, 916 
Coblentz, 67 
Cochin-China, 241-2 
Cochin, 82, 771 
Cochlacus, 42 
Cocomaricopas, 3x0 
Cocospera, 323 
Codure, 25, 29. 36, 39 
Coeflfler, 356 
Coello, 801 
Coelho, 183 
Coeurdoux, 233 
Cotfordan, 60, too 

Coimbra, 43, 443. 464. S4, 68a t 743 
Coleridt?, 683 

Collegio Pio-Latmo. 853, 899 
Collegium Germunicum, 0, 56, M. 7<>, 

Collegium Maximum, 897 
Collins, 149 

Cologne, 4J, a8R, 345, 433, **37 
Colombia, 304, 761 
Colombicrv, dc, 385, 395, 402 
Colonna, 208 
Columbini, 630 
(V)mmcnclone, 113 
Coxnnunrcc, 44$, 4510, 457. 4 SO 
** Common Rulcn," i.y, 7^8 
Compaiiiu de Jesus, 7 
C'oncnnt'n, 706-7 
ConcorcUt, 6^7 

Cton<U\ fin, (11, 353, 356, jMv, 301, 666 
Confession, Scnlof, V08 

6s a, 057, 
Connuni, r 16 

, > 
, Ooncral, 

, 930 
3. 47, 

107, ato, 

Conscience, Account of, 33 
Constantinople, 239, 267, 627, 632, 806, 

Constitution, ar-S. T <^ T J 33, ^99, 207, 

213.381.38^484,095, 728 
Conti, 416 

" Continental System," 686 
Copp6e, 360 
Copts, 86, 805, 816 
Cordara, 369, 572, 6ro, 924 
Corea. 242, 249, 772 
Corneille, 3 S3 
Cornelius a Lapide, 381 
Corrca, 127 
Conicntes, 300 
Cornelv, 88x-2 
Cornoldi, RRo 
Corsica, 525, 6iS 
C.ortic, 841-2 
C'oton, aor, soo-i 
Cottam, 1.1 1, 144, 40 
Coulon, 702 
Courtoin, 357 
Cracow, ?f>4 
CranRanore, 7S 
Orashuw, 360 
Cremona, xBi 
C'r6tineau"Joly, 74& 
("richton, 150, 152, 233 
Crimea, 806 
Criminal!, 77, Br 
Crimont, 781 
Crisin, QTJC 
Cristaldi, 6oR 
Critonius, 140 
Croix, (\imille d* In, 838-0 
Croix, Kticnne dc U, 4<;x~S 
CrollanKa, 0x7 
Cruz, da, 452 
Cruz, Caspar c!< IA. 2 15 
Cubostimu, 173. X75. X8a 
Cycvas, 880 
Cullen, 909 
Ciaasco, SS, 9T4. 

p Slovakia, 9^ 



S> *t 8cq 

Dablon, 33 ft 
Dalntatiiu jHOt 75**. 8rt 7 
Daniel, j(4, 2^* 3,*S*<*, 330, 
** I)c Auxilii,'* 214 
Decretals, kaw ot , 906 

"Do fide catholic*," 8Kp 
t\ 871; 
fti, 714* 007, 94 J 

, , 

, -uu *fH, 67, x 17, 346 
* 1 

ch, $6 

Domtnit). d 
Duminus aw 

* 7<M. 

Connolly. 707 

uousu, us* 130, soo 
t, 690, 70 j, 734, 864 Dracontaui, 846 

Pp. 1-441, Vol I; pp. 442-S3Q, Vol II. 



Drama, 865-9 
Dresden, 686 
DrexelliuK, 306 
Drury, 150, 164 
Dublin, 149-50 
Dublin, University of, 137 
Duelling, 286 
Dupin, 443, 748-5O, 752 
Duplessis-Mornay, 220 
Duprez, 629 

Gregory de Valencia, 374 
Gresset, 353 
Grivel, 666 
Grou, 354, 619 
Gniber, 6s8sqq. 
Guidiccioni, 31 
Gunpowder Plot, I43sqq, 

Damn, 373 Hagenbrunn, 667 

Duvernay, 501 3 

lay, 150 

Dynamism, 623 Healey, 821 


Liell. 61 8 

E Helot, 77 
Eck, 43 Henry IV, 60, 113 

Ecuador, 425, 539, 761, 828 Hindostan, 242 
Education, 56, 64, 68, 343-57, 567, 630, Miranda, 1 68 
644, 647, 653, 658, 695, 704, 736, 745, goensbroech, 288 
748, 778, 835-38* 853. 901 Hontheirn, 433 
Eflypt. 806, 816, 834, 862, 930 gotel Dieu, 504 , o 
Elizabeth, Queen, 135, 141, 144, 152, 155, Howard, Cardinal, 408 

182, 228, 274 J 

tozes, 25 

" End justifies the Means," 287-9 j 

lunsrarian College, 69 

England, 278, 424, 426, 612, 675, 68t, 3 

iurons, 335 

683, 685, 691, 703, 7i8, 743, 76o, 764, Hurter, 866 

794, 828, 857, 876, 892, 927 

England John 7078 

English bollege, 148, 152, 578 8> ane 2 3 

Equivocation, 286 Ibenalle,307 
"Etudes," 874 Ignatius Loyola, St., 5-13, 21-4,36, 71. 

Examen, Particular, 14 T 75,. 93., 96-9 
Excommunication, 222-6 Inquisition, at, 127, 200, 225sqq. 
Exercises?, 14 I r , oquo / ?!' 32Q 

Expulsion, 2T2, 451, 462-70, 499-503, Isla, 366 
5*3-30, 548, 553, 562, 566, 627, 720, Ive >^ C *st, 824 

734, 743, 756-62, 828, 898, 930 


* : 

afanapatam. 233 
apan, 73, 78, 166-196 

Faber, Peter, Bl., 5aasqq. i 
Faith, Fathers of the, 669sqq. 
Palloux Law, 757 -> 

araes II, 403 
ansenists, 221, 41?, 573 
esuati, x 

Fftrinclli, 505 
Farmer, 906 
Fcbronius, 433 < 
Feller, 619 < 
Fmwick, Benedict, 704 J 
Finding of the Christians, 196 

pgues, 336sqq. 
ohn Berchmans, St., 383 
bhn Casitnir, 40,$ 
ohn Francis Re^is, St., 383 
oseph II. 421, 547, 604 

Flagellants, 92 
PlttfteUcs, de, 401 K 
Fourcjuevaux, Baron de, 41 Kabyles, 814 

Francis Borgia, St., 53, 102, rt7sqq. Kandy, 805 
Francis Xuvier, St., 5, 29, i66sqq. Kareu, 652 
Francis Retfis, St., 775 KaunitK, 421 

FranKolm, 77 880 Kenny, 715, 892 
French Revolution, 626 King, Thomas, 772 


uno, 316, 372 


Cleutocn. 870 

G Kniwht, 595 
Gapro, r66 Kohlmann, 659, 706, 878 

Gfttlitrin, 73 Krudncr, Mme., 717 

Gallicaniam, 416, 494, 600 

Gurnet, t^7 
Gamier, < harlefi, 336 


Garr^au, 33tt ! 

vacnncr, 738 

(yaudun, 40 ] 

^afarKCville, 263 

( IcorKOtown, 704sqq. Laiitaux, 840 

(rerard, 160 ! 

ji& Plechc, 11 8, ar8 

Gbberti, 7S5 ! 

Wivn^rv, 502 

Gkw* 74 3 

.dihwe. aao 

Cw.?., 350 Linmbeckhuven, 603 

Goldwell, xaB LainoB, 5 
(}omiUft, Tirnio* 4^5 Lulandc, 336 
Goujiil, 3^0 Lalcment, Charles, 291 

Gravel, 61 6, TIJ Lullcment, Louis, 390 
Gram* 679, 7<H Lauciciue, 381, 385, 306 

Pp. 1-441, Vol. 1; pp. W-930, Vpl, 



La Petite Bglise, 675 

Larkin, 913 

Lascaris, 831 

Laval, Scholasticato, 757 

Laval, Montmorency de, 244-5, 337 

Lavigcric, 815 

Lazarists, 627, 633-4 

Le Camus, 289 

Ledochowski, Wladimir, gj6 

Lehmkuhl, 288, 886 

Leibnitz, 361, 3 77 

Lejav, 25, 20-30 

Le Mcwnc, 33? 

Leo XII <dclla Genfja), 676, 7^2, 848, 009 

Lessius, 114, r*i7 

Lewger, 339, 7oft 

Liberatore, 874 

Ligny, de, 619 

Litta, 603-4 

Loisy, 886 

Longhaye, 857 

Loretto* 320 

Lorijjuet, 702, 878 

Louisiana, 435-6. 500-3 

Louis-lc-Grand, 353-5 

Lou vain, 57 

Lower California, 31S-8 

Ludolph of Saxony, i, is 

Lugo, do, 21, 116-7 


Macao, 180 
Macartney, Lord, 68 1 
McCarthy, 730 
McCloskey, <>oo 
Macodo, Antonio, 128-0 
Macodonio, 540-50, S74-S* 577 
Machado, 187, 37J> 
McShcrry, 01^ 
Madagascar, 816-20 
Madras, 7<to 
Madura, 230, 233-5 
Madgeburj-i, Ccutuiiators of, 40 
Mai, 371 

Majlla, de, 834. 86 1 
Miiimbourg, ,;C)7* 4H 
Maistre, do, 64* 

Maldonadn, 115, 3 


Malta, 52 
Mancra, got 
Muiujalore, 75 
Manila Observatory, 8JX-3 
Manrcsa f 13. 703 
Maranlulo, 435 
Marefaschi, 539 

Maruuw. 305* 274-S 
Maria Thorewtx, BSmprcan 


yj t <jir>, 38, (>o 
Maries Antoinette, 4,\ ] 
Murio tie L'lnc&rnftUiuii ,l< 


Mure nit CD, 339 
Marot, 30 

Mazzolla, 879. 90t, 914 

Masszini, 75 S 

Melanehthon. 42-3 , 45. W 

Menard, 3^8 

Mendoza, Bp, of CUKCO, 214 

Mercurian, 34. 3 6 

Meschlcr, 883 

Meurin, 800 

Mexico, S4, 2ax-7 9^0 

Michclct, 745, 754 

Mi6c, 013 

Milan. I3t, 18* 

Milnor, 704 

Mmtlannn, 777 

MjnKTotia, -139, So6 

Miro, yj 3 

Mksal, Chinisc, JM ,2f>.j. 

Missicins Etrnn^res, J4t 

Mohaw ka, ^07 

Mohilow, C) 6-7., <>57, 718 

>, 575 

, .*. 

Mor.ita atvrcU, J7, 
Montali'inbcrt. 7.JS"<>. 749 
Montt'con.'rt, 430 
Montlo.wr, 73 7 730 
Montmart*. 2 \ 
Montreal fJrS 
Monis, <lf, AM 

Mcntaerriit, la , 

'* MnnuiaentA hxstonca bocwtfttui Jcsu. 

Morccitti, 37 
Mowow, 3t>7, 6 

Mtlrr, 47 a, 503 

J 686 

Myroae, 233 


4 I #4-7. 1 80* IQ,-A, ,^.\ 
, in, 199, % >o, joj, 4-'/ 4 . 4. f". 
5,<7. 544, sRT.An^Sft 
Nav<urrcto 257, us. ^ f ''. 3.U 

IrfConr<I, 616, 706, 71^. 'x>7 
-u .405^ ^ r t . ;if>,t, 7 1 r\ H 1 1 j \ 
8.*4 <>-'. '*"' 

907. 9U,OiS<> 

New York Litf*riTy Inntttutr* 7<A vow 

Niraraitun* 777 

NiererrtbrrK* y (Mm, it* 3<J3, jftl 

Nworia, 8 j j. 

Nottili, eta. aao-j, -*Vi" J, 3<Xn 414, 768 

tuntwl. 31 

4 Nomm'Utcvr," 877 

orridriirwtH^k. ?**** 

. Hi? 


Marnuenpf 33, 37 J V* f i uowueiut), OJ* MS 

Martm, Felix, 873 

MiurtiA! Luis. 37. ^-P 
Martiuu'iue, 300, 3 1 1 
Maryland, tflu, 33 

Mu.iti6.aox..U4- 5 
Ma.'Uiillon, 3(4 
Mnfitrilli, 194 
Muttei, 604. 724 
Muury, 366, $49 

Pp. 1-441, VoL I; pp. 44-83a, Vol 

^" 10* 407-0 
848. &t 

, t 

Ochino, 40 
Odr^ji!- hi, , 
(^ilkc, Dsviiir, ;, }, H>i, 
Office* Tcmacrf* 4,| 
(J^tlvic, LSI 
0/cttt. HH^ 
Oltkitrnc. 16 it -4 



Oliva, 260, 290, 39i 35)4, 399-402, 405, 

408, 410 

O'Reilly, Edmund, 878 
Orientalists, 829, 862 
Ormanetto, 199, 203 
Orsini, Cardinal, 396, 530, ssssqq, 
Oviedo, 36, 56, S9, 85, 104, 161-2, 194 
Oxford, 136, 764 
Pacca, 433-4, 442, 542, 606. 6ll. 618, 

687-94, 698, 703, 724 
Palafox, 221-7, 544, 546 
Pallavicini, 380, 396, 635, 892 
Pampeluna, 9, 10, ir, 304 
Pancaldi, 722 
Papebroch, 869 
Paphlagonia, 230 
Paraguay* 299-304, 347, 373. 4x8, 4^5, 

444-8, 454, 509, 627, 762, 774, 7?6 
Pariahs, 235, 802 

Paris, 32, 36, 118, 243, S8l, 671, 699, 
^ 747-8, 757, 76i 
Pans, Parliament of, 3, 15, 56, 63, a 16, 

280, 401, 485, 493, 407, 631, 748 
Pans, University of, 56, 70, 748, 927 
Parma, 210, 439, 528, 637, 669, 677, 699 
Pascal, 278, 281-7, 295 

Pascendi Munus," 588 
Passrurlia, 887, 898 
Par.sion.ei, 422, 456 
Patrizi, 878, 881 
Paul III, Pope, 15, 28, 31, 34, 38, 556, 

728, 018 
Paul IV, Pope, 3S 46, 71, ior, 173, 198, 

553, 5*6 
Paul V, Pope, 56, 1x6, 157, 264, 390, 556, 

., ,55 . 

Pauhstas," 392 
Pasmany, 68, 396 
Pearl-FisneneB, 74 

Pckin, 349, 252, 254, 256, 358-61, 265, 
^ 629, 633, 790 
Permde ac cadaver, 35 
Periodicals, 874-6 
Persia, 239, 44 267, 410, 424, 806 
Persons, 136, 138-40, xsi-55. 164, 177, 

Peru, 54, 372, 395-98, 425, SJ9 
Peruvian bark, 299 
Peach, 388, 880 
Petau (Petaviur,), xx8, 305 
Peter Claver, St, 305, 383, 396, 901, 915 
Petrc, 402 
Petrueru 721-4 

Philip II, KinK of Spain, 54, xoo, 1x3, ir6, 
1, 1ST, 177, 181, 202, 204, 207, 209- 

.., 274, 2<X>, 333, 344, 420, 557 

uippim-s, 183, 180, joi, 245, 255,333, 

370, 4.56, 470, 785, 835. 930 
Philoflophy, 3SS-7, 378-80 
Piedmont, 756 
Pittnatdli, Joseph, 511. 533, 52$, 658, 677, 

7^6, 863 f on, oio 


Pious Fund, 3 *H 

PIUH V, St,. Tope, 48. 49, 54, too, 100, 

, , 
Pma VI, sax, 572, 586, 008-10, 614, <^o, 

024, 640, 640-51, 653-56, 607, 677, 084, 

6fjn, 7U r 981 
Piuti VII, Pope, S, 353t 57a, 605, 6^4, ^6t, 

, ,JO, 8f>., 8$ 9I, 904 
lll* 7,U, 893, POS 
Piu IX, JPor>c, 16, ro6, 733. 756, 840, 
3, 854, BS7. 74 888-po, 808, 903-6, 

a. SP7. 674, 714, 73*, 913 

Poetry, 258-63, 856, 860 

Poissy Colloquy, 60-63, 102 

Poland, 124, 275, 357, 376, 404, 424, 546, 

548, 587, 605, 634, 637. 643, 718, 722, 

026, 929 
Polotsk, 347, 644, 646, 650, 652, 657, 

659-60, 664 
Pombal, Marquis de, 419, 421, 430, 437, 

442-79, 503, 509, 60S 612-15, 683, 

703, 7*13 

Pondicherry, 260, 292, 426, 631 
44 Popish Plot," 407 
Portugal, 36, 42, 92, 126, 177, 242, 269, 

344, 4i6, 421, 426, 430, 438, 442-79, 

498, 502, 537, 5SO, 553. 587, 605, 612, 

627, 682, 703, 742, 759i 764, 793, 815, 

826, 876, 929 

Possevin, 121-25, 129, 201, 208, 218 
Poverty, 33. 249-51, 394. 397, 556, 728 
Prague, 47, 67, 123, 138, 34S, 388 
Printing 40, 55, 659. 829 
Probabihonsm, 415 
Probabilism, 380, 415, 575 
Propaganda, 693, 897, 903 
Property, 33, 222-23, 602, 616 
Property, Confiscation of, 478. 485, Soo, 

513, 523, 528, 540, 548, 577, 720, 759 
Prose, 366-67 
Proselytism, 720 
" Provinciates, " of Pascal, 281-87, 689, 

Prussia, 426, 635, 636-41, 686, 718, 758 

;, 263, 291,307,334 
", 417, 575 

, 337 

Rasle, 709 

'* Ratio studiorum,' r 70, 200 

Ravijinan, de, 4, 43$ 

Raymbatilt, 336 

Kaynal, 410 

4 Razqn y Fe/ 874sq. 

Realini, Bernardino, 396 

Recollect Friars, 334sq,. 

Redumptorists, 604 

Reductions, Philippine, 777 

Reductions of Paraguay, 301-04. 444-4 8 

Reeve, 595, 619 

Regale, 410-13 

Regffio, 699 

Regimmi Militantiu Ecclesiae, 3* 

Rcnaudot, 29 1 

Relations, 871-4 

Rota, 4x8sq 

Rozzonico, 533 

Rho, 259 

Rhodes, Alexander de, 240-45 

Ribadeneira, k j<>, ^04 

Riccadonna, H07aq 

Rioci, Lorenzo, 419-2*, 43<>, 44osq., six. 

521, 848 

Ricci, Sapio, 600 
Richelieu, 274, ^BSsq., 290 
Riot of the Sombreros, siosq., 546 
Ripalela, 206, 876 


Rodrigues, 176, x84 
Rodriguez, Alphonsus, 381, 396 
Rodriguez, Simon, 23, 24, 72 

Pp. 1-441, Vol, I; pp, 4WHW30, Vol II, 



Roh, osr 

Roman College, 60 
Romberg, Assistant, 585 
Roothaan, John, 398, 667, 706 
Rosas* 762 
Rosrnini, 898 

Rossi, Giovanni Battista de, 836 
Rossi, Guizot's envoy, 750 
Rosweyde, 370 
Roth, 840 

. Rozaven, 625, 719 et seq., 898 
Rubillon, Ambrose, 773 
Russia, 841 
Russian Church, 642 
Ruthenia, 9.02 
Ryllo, Maximilian, Siisq. 


Sabbetti, 886 

Sacchini, 360, 923 

Sacred Heart, Fathers of the, ft 

Sacred Heart, Ladies of the, 672 sq. 

St. Acheul, 740 

St. Bartholomew Massacre, 27 2 

St. Beuno's, 764 

St. Clement's Island, 330 

Sainte-Beuve, 283 SQ., 745 

Saint-Germain-des-Pres,, Chapel, 58 

St. Julian, Castle, 469-472 


Saint Kitts, 306-3 10 

St. Michel, Brussels, 870 

St. Omers, 407 

St. Sulpice, Society of, 344 

St. Vincent, Admiral, 704 

Saints, 9U-S 

Salamanca, 21 

Saldanha, 421-2 

Salmuron, Alphonsus, si, 45 

Salsettc, 170, 329 

Salvatierra, 333, 32t 

Sancian, Island of, 84 

Sanguinetti, 883 

San Sebastian , prison, 743 

Sant* Andrea, 70s 

Santet, 360 

Sarbiewski, 359 

Sardinia, 504, 75& 

Sarpi, 112, 3208ci. 

Sault Ste. Marie, 338 

Saxony, 718 

Scoramolli, 381 

Schall, Adum, 2S4~aOi, 373 

Schemer, 848 

Scholastics, 485 

Schrciiicr, Christopher, 371 

Science, 248-^50, 63*. 37*. 8j4sq. 

Scientia media. 315 

Scotch Doctor, 38 

Scotland, 40, 150 

gccchi, 371.835 

Secret Members of Jesuit Order, 35 



oodlmuyor, 372 
gegwri, 364 
tafturu, ^4 

oenunaneii, 44, 65-67 
gociijiora. 185 
fecitnu. 8438(1. 

Seven Ytoini War, 435, 483*3. 
Suwall, yja, <8j 
nhout Giltnary, 873 
Sht'rwin, 144 
Shin-toititn, 166 
n, 175 

Siam, 234 

Sicily. 504 _, 

Sidgreaves, Walter, 841 

Sierra Leone, 824 

Siestrzencewicz, 643 

Siffismond, King of Poland, 35, 122, 308 

Silesia, 637 

Silverira, $5 

Simpson, 751 

Sin (Mandarin), 250 

Sin, Paul, or Zi, 77 1 

44 Sined." 860 

Sioux, 770 

Sirmond, 354 

Si-Scnouss\ t Sheik ami Jesuit Constitu- 

tions, 3.< 
Sixtus V, Pope. p 7, in, JO^, x8o, joo- 



Slingsby, Francis, 1 4<xm. 
Smet, Peter tic, 779-8 r 

, , 

Smolensk, <)6 
Smyrna, s^o 

Sobieski, John, 304, ^07, 404 
Sodalities, (>8, ^07, 7.i 
Sollicitucio cmnhnn eccle;;ijiruni, 604-6 

5orbonne, jo-7, soo 

Soto, us 

Sotwd. 867 

Sousa, 87-8 

Southey, 90 

Southwell, 147-R, ^,18 

Spain, 3<>, 4j, J0j-i4 SJ*"3 

Sparks, 908 

** Speculum Jcautticnm," J7J 

Spec, von, ti7, j&xiKjn- 

Spmoln, is , 

Spintua! ISxercuwt, xj"i5 j^x. o 

SQuillfti*e, 4^8 soy 

Stu.nisl.LU3 Kofitkiu ^t., 48, 38 j, 

Stanton* Father, 78$ 8 


Statistics, 418-0, $50, 777 
$teinh(ibcr, 887 
Steins, 70S 
Stephenu, t4ts<M, 
** Stimmen AU* Maria Laach," 
Stontt, 710 
Stonestrcot, 706 
Ktony burnt, SCO, 73 i 

r, ,is, 8ftj 
Stritch. ceHathj 
Stuart, Hfinry. Soft York, <*rrtiiiAl *rf 
Sur<% ut, 116, jHx, ^7*;. jot>, jv&titK 
^ 486, 876 
Smm, s.'.sqtj. 

, 444-00,1 

, 804 

Sweden* i.!<*-, 
Swetchitu;. y,o 


Pp. 1-441, Voi I; 

Syria, 240* <M-'. Hot* 1 v *jMD 


Tamburini, 4x7-8, 57$ 
Tanut, 33t,a<u 
T&mux'i,, ifjt, 506 ct n**!j. 

TwuVy, aWWo 
j>p. 44a930, Vol. It 



Theology, 378-81, 852, 864-5, 876-9, 885- 

90, 901. 

Tibet, s 


Toletus, S 54. 112-5, 152, 107, 209-13, 

215, 3i8, 379, 401, 876 
Tonsiorgi, 836, 878 
Tonkin, 241, 245 
Torres, Cosmo de, 76, 79, 93 
Torres, 166-7, 169, 174, 188 
Torres, Luis de, 381 
Tournon, Charles-Thomas-Naillard, dc, 


Tournon, Francois de. 40, 60 
Trent, Council of, 8, 33, 44-6, 48, 62, xoS, 

138. 150, SS7, 563 
Trichinopoly, 802, 805, 829 
Tyburn, 141, 146 
Tyrnau, 69 

Ucondono, us. 182-3, 189 

Ugarte, 316, 326-7, 329-3* 

Uniates, 805-6, 8rr 

** Unigenitus," 575 

Urban VIH, 113, 119. 192, 255, 385, 390, 

>Uege, 894, 897 

Valencia, Gregorio de, 21, 117-8, 315 

Valignani, I73~4, 176, 183-5, 246-7 

Valkenburg, 763, 875 

Valladolid, 43, S3. **6, 151. so6, 406, 409 

Van Ortroy, 384 

Varin, 665, 600, 671-6, 701, 730, 733, 911 

Vasa, House of, 404 

Vasqucz, Dionisio, 5-7. *99, 204-7, 209, 


Vasqites, Gabriel, ax, 68, 379, 486 
Verbiest, as?, aoi, 264, 375, 377 
Vicars General, 38. 651-2. 
Vicp, de, 37X, 843, 848-9 
Vieira, 3taO-8, 130, 192, 363, 367, 306, 

Villomiun, 748-50, 7S4-S 

Vilaa, Uaivorsity of, 347. 660, 848 

Pp. 1-441, Vol. I; pp. 442-930, Vol. II. 

Vitelleschi, 269-71, 387, 390-2, 394, 396- 

8. 825 

Vives y Tuto, 853 
Vows, 32-3, 548, 557, 564, 609, 616, 659, 

684, 746 


Wadding, 315-6 

Wasmann, 840 

Waterclock, 625 

Wauchope (Waucop), 38, 41 

Wealth, 348, 445, 45<>, 481, 559 

Weld. 431, 443, 820, 841 

Wendrok. See Nicole 

Wernz, 763, 828, 883, 904, 906. 926 

White, 307. 339-40 

Whitebread, 408 

Whitcmarsh, 712, 770 

White Russia, 267, 735, 773 

Witchcraft, 117,361 

Woodstock, 843 

" Woodstock Letters," 75 

World War, 701, 823, 828, 927 

Wunsburg, 48, 67, 346 

Wynne, 866-7 

Xavier, Francis. See Francis Xavier, St. 
Xavier, Jeronimo, 229-30, 306 
Ximenes, 618 

York, Cardinal of, 532, 548, 575, S>6 
York, Duke of, 408 
Yu-heen, 79* 

Zacatecas, 3x5 

Zaccaria, 578, 619-21, 864, 877 

2ahi6, 807. 809 

Zambesi, 794, 820-2. 824, 930 

Zapata, 39 

Zefada, 549, 574 

Zelanti, 534. S3t> 

Zikawex, 771* 790-3, 828, 843 

Zoology, 834 

, 693, 703 


J, 8,