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M.A.OlC.rfr, D.D., Pb D. 



Sutfiot'e; Stiituin 











E. K 
W. 8. 


WhEV thp aiitlior of the }JJf. rfnd Time-t nf Jpsus fha 
.Memnh wss taken away in iha spring nf this year IVom 
be labours and studies whicli lie luvetl, be bad alretid; 
\%wA unJer conftideration the exp^diencT of publisliing an 
abridged eclitioti of hie larger w<»rk, mH;h as Hlumld (.Iitow 
it open to b wider cirde of readers. That abridgment 
hoB now l^et-n carried out, it is hoped, iii>oti the lines which 
hp would liavR dfifiired. 

llioee who have attf mpt^d «ny such tjisk will be nware 
bow iliHic'tdt. it is Ui csecutti sutisioctoriiy. Whi-ii a n^- 
pUca i^ inudt* of a gn^sit piclore, its bcalu uiiiy ba ditoiuiidied 
\vithout nerions Ions. The proportions are prRserved ; the 
uont«nt8 lire nii> wime ; it is only that tliey are iDdicat>t>d| 
ratlter more sHj^'litly tlmo before, 'Ilie rednrtion tubes 
pt&ce evenly ovit the whole aiirfiioe. It in otherwise with 
a great literary work. Hera reducUoii involves omifciioTi ; 
and omissioD at onco altflTS the proportioiiB. It is not only 
that, thf logical coimecfcion is bmkeu and that new links 
ha^B to b© supplied : the ditlicnlties arising from this 
canHe arB perbiipB lesa than might be Buppoeed: hut the 
whole texture of the work ia disturbed. A style which 
was natural upon one scale, has bo hp atlapt^d to another j 
ud that by au external proceae which lacks the wse and 

vfil Jssus THE Messiah 

freedom of first composition. Dr. Edersheim's wort was 
planned emphatically upon a large scale. It had a certain 
breadth and richness of colouring which helped to carry off 
its profusion of detail. When the details were curtailed, 
this too had to be toned down. What could be done by 
omitting a phrase here, and a sentence there, has been 
done ; and upon this much anxious care and thought have 
been expended. 

As to the matter of the omissions, this was to some 
extent prescribed by the nature of the case. The broad 
framework of narrative was of course indispensable ; and 
along with this every effort has been made to save as much 
of the illustrative accessories as the size of the volume 
permitted. It is, however, greatly to be regretted that so 
much should have been lost which constituted the peculiar 
and unrivalled excellence of the larger book. Our genera- 
tion has seen a number of attempts— some in their way of 
great merit — to reproduce the externals and surroundings 
of the Life and Ministry of Christ. But it will, I think, 
be admitted by the general consent of scholars that in this 
respect Dr. Edersheim surpassed his predecessors. No one 
else has possessed such a profound and masterly knowledge 
of the whole Jewish background to the picture presented 
in the Gospels — not merely of the archaeology, which is 
something, but of the essential characteristics of Jewish 
thought and feeling, which is far more. It was inevitable 
that heavy sacrifices should be made here. All-important 
as these details are to the student, the ordinary reader 
would be simply oppressed and overpowered by them. For 
such readers the abridged edition is intended ; but it is 
hoped that not a few may be encouraged to go on to the 
abundant stores of the larger book. 

I am fain to believe that a more catholic spirit ia 
growing than prevailed a short time ago, when the first 



thro? a eritie did WRt* to tiMortain to what, spliool or pnity 
ft book bBi{jngi!(l, end tlicn to praiae or cuiidcimi it nccord- 
iiigly. This haa Iteen too much the case with those who 
aspired to bo in the forefrotif of opinion. To label a book 
' critical " or ' uucriticiJ " was eaougli to determine ilw fat* 
Huite apart from its solid value. Dr. EderBheiiii's book — 
full as it. was of infr.rniation on the very points on which a 
^hnlar would desire it — was not i)n« which could bw called 
exactly ' critical.' It did not, for iuntance, pre«iupp9se aay 
theory as to the origin mid iruiiijni«itioii_ot' the Uospels. 
It WRK not that tht* author wax iudiflerent upon the aub- 
jttct : be had hiniaelt' made Liidej)endeiit »tudit»< upon it, 
which with time might liavr 1xm.mi muturud and publislK-d : 
but he deliberately postponed llie L-riliod prncpss until 
after his book was written. It wiis quite as well tliiit it 

bould be eo ; a« well to stui't with an abi^^nct- of thuory, 
*VR e.g. tliat Keiin— to take tJie case of a very able und 
coiuciuiitioua writer — Bliould aturt from a theory which is 
pretty certainly untenable. We are teaming by degrees 
to 1«AV« first principles in aiiFpunae until we know better 
what are the fucts which Lave to be accounted for, 

A high aucliority hais ha.\A that whoever thinks himself 
capable of rewriting the Ht.ory of tJie Gospels does not 
onderstand them. And this is Indeed, in a sense, moat 
true. The Gospels hare filled for eighteen ceaturiea a 
phiee which nothing elae will ev^'i* till. But that doee not 
esclade the attempts which have been and are being made 

1 lo present the aubstnnce of their story as to set it in full 
'relation at once to its own times and to ouw. Tins has 
not yet been done finally. And if it ever should be done 
it will, I believe, be allowed thut few have contributed 
hmtc towards trhe culmimitioii und crown of many efforts 
tJian he of whom all that is mortal now reirtiK in peace by 
tiu.' watera of the Mediterraneaj;. With aerioua purpofle, 

jc Jesus the Messiah 

and after long and ardnous preparatioa, he had put his 
hand to a work which it was granted to him to prosecute 
far, but not to finish — for the lAfe and Times was to have 
been followed by a Life of 8t. Paul. He who 

Doth not need 
Either man's work or His own gifts 

gently took the pen irom his graap. And the present 
gleaning from the greatest of its many products is a tribute 
of filial piety. My own share in the work has been quite 
subordinate : but as I have gone over the ground after the 
preliminary abridgment had been made, and as I have 
been freely consulted in cases of doubt, I gladly accept the 
responsibility which falls to me. Nor can I bring these 
few words of pi-eface to a close without acknowledging 
the valuable assistance we have received from Mr. Norton 
Longman, whom the author always regarded as among 
the best and most trusted of his friends. 

Oxfobd: Oat. 3,1889. 


l— The AnnoflcintiMj of St, John the Kapliat ... I 

U.— IliB AiuiuiicbtLoti of Jeflita the Musdiali. and the Birfh 

of Hill ForcnitiiiPT 8 

in.— TliuNiiiivit}' of .I.i'^iift the MH»8ittli . .19 

IV.— Tiie Furilicatitti ot the Virgin and tlie Pratentatkm in 

t.lip TciiJiile IT 

T.— Hi*! Vinir unci Hcinagx of the M»gi, nn<l the Flif^Ll'iuM 

Egypl 81 

VI,— Th« CliiM-Li(e In Nazarelh , 38 

VIL— laitic Houso ol Uis HcfiTtnly, And in tUo Home of Hi* 
Ennbly Fmhcr-ihe Temple of Jerusalem ■ the 

B«>ni«nl at Natartlh 31 

7111.— A VoICB in Ihp Wlldemees 37 

IX.— Tho IlnplinTi of Jemiii . . . . , *2 

X,— The TcrujiTHtion (if Josiis ...... 10 

XI.— The DepiilJitioti from Jenuaalem— The Three Seels of 

the Plinrihoc!, Sftflil ucobb, an^ Br^-nnen ... 54 

XII.— The Twofolfl TcsTimony ot John— Tlie ritsl Siilii^iih 
iiE Ji!.sii«' Ministry— The FitM «uii(Liy— The t'irsl 

Discipleii .... , ... 82 

XIII.— The Murrin^-Fcnst in Oriiui of QoJLlee . , , .69 

XIV.— Th« Cieandng of the Tctiiplc T4 

XV. — Jesos anil Nipodeinii* . . . . . T9 

XVI.— In JtiilfM^anil DiTough .SnmBria .... 84 

XVir— JaTOBRtthc Wellof Byohar - . . . M 

XVILI.- The Cure of the •Nobleman's ' Snn at Cnpamanm . 9£ 

XIS.— Tb« 8ynJif.'ot'>ie »t Naaareth— Synagogue- Wore hip ninl 

AaangeiuciiU 91 

xii Jesus the Messiah 


XX.— The Pirat Galilean Ministry ..... 1(J4 

XXI. — At the ' Unknown ' Feast in Jerusalem, and b; the 

Pool of Bethosda . . . . . .108 

XXII.— The Pinal Call of the -First Disciples, and the 

Miiaculous Draught of Fishes . .113 

XXIII.— A Sabbath in Capernaum 117 

XXIV.— Second Journey Through Galilee— The Heaiing of the 

Leper 121 

XXV. — The Return to Capernaum — Concerning the Forgive- 
ness of Sins — The Healing of the Paialysed . . 126 

XXVI. — The Call of Matthew-— Rabbinic Theology as regards 
the Doctrine of Forgiveness in Contrast to the 
Gospel of Christ— The OaU of the Twelve Apostles 129 

XXVII.— The Sermon on the Uonnt 138 

XXVIIL— The Healing of the Centorion's Servant . . .147 
XXIX.— The Raising of the Yoong Man of Nain . . . lEl 
XXX. — The Woman which was a Sinner .... 155 
XXXI,— The Ministering Women— The Return to Caper- 
naum — Healing of the Demonised Dumb — Pharisaic 
Charge against Christ— The Visit of Christ's Mother 
and Brethren 160 

SXXII.— The Pajables to the People by the Lake of Galilee, 

and those to the Disciples in Capernaum . 165 

XXXIII.— The Storm on the Lake of Galilee . .177 

XXXIV.— At Gerasa— The Healing of the Demonised . 180 

XXXV.— The Healing of the Woman— The Raising of Jairos' 

Daughter 185 

XXXVI.— Second Visit to Nazareth— The Mission of the Twelve 192 

XXXVII.— The Baptist's Last Testimony to Jesus, and his Be- 
heading in Prison ....... 202 

XXXVIII.— The Miraculous Feeding of the Five Thousand . . 216 

XXXIX —The Night of Miracles on the Late of Gennesaret . 221 

XL. — Concerning ' Purification,' ' Hand - Washing,' and 

• Vows ' 224 

XLI. — The Great Crisis in Popular Feeling— Christ the 

Bread of Life — ' Will ye also go away T . .233 

XLII. — Jesus and the Syro-Phcenician Woman . . , 242 

XLIII. — ^A Group of Miracles among a Semi-Heathen Popu- 
lation 246 

XUV.— The Two Sabbath- Controversies— The Plucking of 
the Ears of Corn by the Disciples, and the Healing 
of the Man with the Withered Band . . 249 

Contents xIH 

ex A p. PUt> 

XLIT. — The Fecdiiig of the Voxa Thauiuiiul— ' The Sign Emm 

Hob veil* ......... it,! 

XLVI.—Tht Great Coiifeswon The Qrea.t Coiumi^iaii . . 2C3 

XLVIL— Tlie TraiuSguwtum .... £73 

XLTUI.— The Morrow of Ihe Tnuwlipiuaiion , . .277 

XUX,— rbe Last Ev<.-[it!- in Calilw :— Tliy Tribute- Money. Iho 
Dinpulc by i.he Way, ajid Uic FurbuiiUug of liliii wlm 
coujd not fallow with the Disciples .... Z64 

L. — ^M Joumcv to Jtru^alem — Fint tncldcaits t/j the 

Wny . ' «(3 

U.— The Mission nod Etetiim oE the- Scrvsntj— The Hooio 

&t Bethany !G0 

UI. — At the Feaet of Tii'benuit'lee — First Di>courM in the 

Temple M19 

Lin.— 'IiitheLii^t,theOroat Dbj o* theycnst" . . . 3ia 

LIV.— TeM^hiiiy in the Tenipit: on the Ocmve of the Fnut 

of TalJcnaicIes 3SL 

LV.— The Healing of the Man Born Blind . . . .831 

LVL— The 'Good SUetilierd' 839 

LVIL-^OisaouTBe i.-oiioerutii^ th« Two Kinj^otiis , . . S13 
LVIII.— The Uornlug-Mml in the Phiirisee's Uouiie . . .360 

LIS.— To the Risciploa— Two Events luid their Moral . . aUT 
I.X. — At the r«nst of the DedicAtinTi of ttio Temple . . 3t>t( 

LSI.— The Second Scrio* of Parables— The Two Parnbles at 

him who U Ne%'hhDui to as STl 

LXIL— Th* TliTte Pamblfti of Wamine: Ths FoolUh Rich 

Man— The Uajren Pig-Tree— The Great Supper . 877 

LXin.— The Three Pajubles of the Gospel : The Lo.-it 8he«p. 

the Loit Drachni, the Lost (ion .... 38S 

I^IV. -Tan UttjuHt, 81.1-ward— Dives aiyl Lasarus , . .3^3 

LSV. — The Thcee Last PamblM of the PcwMin Series: Th« 

ntiright.eoua Judge — The Pliiirif-ee and the Pabli- 

can — TLe Uuicerciful Servjuit ..... 408 

LITL— Chrlsfa Discourses in Penea— CIix^m; of the Fenean 

Ministry 41fi 

I.XVTI.— The Death uid the RaiHing of Lnz&niB .... IS.t 

LXVIIL— On tiiL- Journey to JemsaJem-Hpaling of Toti Lepers— 

0« Divoft'n-Tlip BlKMing to Little Children , . *38 

LXIX.— The L.iUil Int'ideut.s in Paiit*— The Yoniig Ruler who 
went away sorrowfiiit- Prii|ihcoy of Christ's PB»iiciD 
— The Hniue'^t of Salome, itcd of Jnmes find John . 44S 

xlv Jmsus the Messiah 

CHiP. P*6I 

LXX. — Id Jericbo— a Guest with Zacchseos — The Healing 
of Blind Bartinueus — At Bethany, and in the 
House of Simon the Leper 450 

LXXL— The Piret Day in Passion- Week— The Eoyal Entry 

into Jerusalem 469 

LXXIL— The Second Day in Passion- Week— The Barren 
Fig-Tree— The Cleansing of the Temple— The 
Hosanna of the Children 464 

LXXIII.— The Third Day in Passion-Week— The Question of 
Christ's Authority— The Question of Tribute to 
Cfesar— The Widow's Farthing — The Greeks who 
sought to see Jesus 4flS 

LXSIV.— The Third Day in Passion-Week— The Sadducees 
and the Resurrection — The Scribe and the Great 
Commandment — Question to the Pharisees and 
Final Warning against them .... 478 
LXXV. — The Third Day in Passion-Week- The Last Series 
of Parables : Of the Labourers in the Vineyard — 
Of the Two Sons— Of the Evil Husbandmen— 
Of the Marriage of the King's Son and of the 
Wedding Garment 491 

JjXXVI.— The Evening of the Third Day in Passion-Week— 
Discourse to the Disciples concerning the liaat 
Things 503 

LXXVIL— Evening of the Thu^ Day in Passion -Week —Last 
Parables : Of the Ten Virgins— Of the Talents— 
Of the Minas 615 

LXXVm.— The Fourth Day in Passion-Week— The Betrayal— 

Jndas : his Character, Apostasy, and End . . 621 

LXXIX,— The Fifth Day in Passion-Week— ' Make Ready the 

Passover I ' . . . . .631 

LXXX.— The Paschal Supper— The Institntion of the Lord's 

Supper 539 

LXXXI.— The Last Discourses of Christ— The Prayer of Ood- 

secration ........ 664 

LXXXIL— Gethsemane 568 

LXXXIII. — Thursday Night— Before Annas and Caiapbas — 

Peter and Jesus 578 

LXXXIV.— The Morning of Good Friday 588 

LXXXV.— 'Crucified, Dead, and Buried' 600 

LSXXVI.— On the Resurrection of Christ from the Dead , 624 

LXSXVIL— ' On the Third Dav He rose again from the Dead ; 

He ascended iuio Heaven ' 631 





(St. Luke i. ft-25.) 

It was the tUneof theMoruiug Sacrifice,' Astlie maKSJTO 
Temple gates slowij- awung on their liingoe, o throefolJ 
blast from the aiker truTii|)et;s of the Priests seeiuod to 
waken the City to the life of another Abj. 

Already the dawn, for which the I'rieat ou tha highi-Bb 
pinnacle of" the Temple had watched, to give the signal for 
begiuuing the eervices gt the day, had shot its brightuees 
far away to Hebron and beyond. Williin the courts Iwlow 
all hud Ifug been busy. At some time previously, un- 
known to those who waited for t.hci morning, the BtipL-rin- 
tenditig Prieet had suinmoQed to theif aaci'cd fuLctioUd 
those who had ' waaht^d,' according to the (irdinanco. 
Tliere must Litve httea fach day libout Mty pripstB on duty. 
Snch of tJipm as were ready now divided into two partieBj 
to make inspection of the Temple courts by tovchUght. 
Pteseotly thuy met, and trouped to the wpU-known Hall 
of Hewn P'diahuil Stones. The niiiitalry for the day was 
there appoi"tioaed. To prevent the lUaputes of carnal zeal, 
tie ' lot ' was to assign to e,icli his fnuction. ['our times 

' Fur a fieft\ptlaa of thodeMila at that aervlae, iiuo 'Tho "l^emiilB 
ud jt« Service*,' KclMKhotm, 

/bsus the Mkss/Ah 

waa it resorted to : twice bpfore, and twice after tlie 
Temple gates were opened. The first act of their miniatry 
Iiud to be done in the ^rtry duwn, by the fitful red light 
that glowed on the altar of hurnt-offering, ere the priests 
had Btiired it into fresh flfime. It was scarce-ly daybreak, 
when a second time they met for the 'lot,' which desig- 
niited those who were to take part iu the sacrifice itself, 
and who were to irim the golden candlestick, and make 
ready the altar of Incense wUhiik the Holy Place. And 
now nothing remained hid'nre the admission of worshippers 
but to bring oat the lamb, once again to make sure of its 
fitnesa for sacrifict?, to water it from a golden bowl, and 
then to lay it in mj'»tic fashion — as tradition described the 
binding of Isaac — on the north aide of the altar, with its 
face to the west. 

All, priests and laity, were present as the Priest, 
etandiiig on the east side of the aSfar, from a golden bowl 
sprinkled with sacrificial blood t.wo sides of the altar, below 
the red line which marked the dilt'erence between ordinary 
Bscrifices and those that were to he wholly consumed. 
While the shcri6cft waa prepared lor the altar, the priests, 
whose lot it waa, had made ready all within the Holy 
Place, where the mofit solemn part, of the day's aerrice was 
to take place — that of oB'eriug the incense, which ^raibo- 
lisi'd Tsraere accepted prayers. Again wa.s tlie lot (the 
thinl) cast to indieatt bim, who was to \><- honoured with 
this highest meiliatorial act. Only once in a lifetime 
tnight any one enjny that privilege. It wns fitting thiit, 
as the custom was, such lot should be preceded by prayer 
and confession of their faith on, the part of the asaeuibied 

It waa the first week in October 748 a.u.C. that is, in 
the sixth year before our present era, when ' the coarse of 
Abia'^ — the eighth in the original anangement of the 
weekly service — was on duty in the Temple. 

Id the group ranged that aatnmn morning around the 
Bnperintendin^ Priest was one, on whom at least sixty 
winters had fallen. But never during tbeap many ytora 
bad he been honoured with the office of incensing. Vet 





The Aym/ycMT/oy or Sr. John the Baptist 3 

ll»> vtinernhlo lignre of ZaL'liarias must have bwn well 
known in the Temple. For eacli course wixs twice a year 
un ministry, nod. unlike thftl^ftvitea, the priests wi're Dot 
(biqiutHfied Ijy Hgo, but only by infirmity. In many re- 
ipecte he soeineil (liDL-i'L-Dt from Ihoso aruuud, Ui» home 
was not in eiilier of tlio givat priest-centivsi tJie l>[iljel- 
quarter in Jerusalem, nor in Jericho — but in Konip (tmsll 
tjjwn in thciSf iipljmds, soiifh of jBTUsalem : tht* historic 
' hill-country of judu^a,' Ami yet he mi}/ht havt; clainiEd 
distinction. To be a prii'st. mv\ inai-rieii to thi? tlnughter 
of a priest, was HUpposeii to (vinvcy (wofnld honour. That 
he was BiirroLiniieil by rolativos and fricndg, and that he 
was well kui.)wu and rt^i-pL-ut^^l throii^^liuut his tli^trict. 
• BLLnkd ^PP^^"* incidentally fi-om the narrative.* For 
AB,«».iii,M^ Zactiariax and Elisabeth, his wife, were truly 
^ righteous,' in tim sense of walking ' blamelessly,' 
alike in tJiose comD)andnieDt« which were specially binding 
on Israel, and in those st^ut^^ft that weire of uuiwraal 
boaring' on mankind. 

Yet Klisnbiitb was childle^. For many a year this 
mnat hare been the burden of Zachanas' prayer ; the bur- 
den also of reproncli. which Elianbetli aeeued always to 
carry with her. 

On that bright autumn morning in the Tempio, how- 
ever, no Buch thoufifhte would disturb Zacharias, The lot 
had markwl liim for incfOHJiii^, and every thought must 
have centred on wbot was before bint. First, he hod to 
choose two of his spocial friendrt or ri^lntives, to audst to 
hia sacred eervice. Tlu-ir dutiue were t-umparatively simple. 
One reverently rHinoved what had bt'en left on the attar 
from the previous evening's service ; then, worshippiuy, 
retired backwards. The second assistant now advanced, 
and, having spread to the utmost vergt- of the golden altar 
the live coals taken from that of banif--()fipring, worshippeil 
and retire<L SfeHtuvhile the soinitl nf tho ■ organ,' heard 
to the moet distant parts of the 'I'eraple, and. atcordiug to 
tr^itioD, far beyond ita preciueta, had eumnioued priosts, 
Levil«), and peoph^ to p[-epare for whatcvi-r service or 
duty was beliuv thctn. But the gelebrant I'riest, beaiing 

a 1 

4 fssus THE Messiah 

liio golden censtr, stood alonp witliiu tlie Holy Plftcc. tifc 
bj ttt) sheen of the seven-branched candlestick. Before 
Jum, Homewlint fai+lier away, towards tte heavy Veil that 
huug before the Hnly of Ilolies, was the golden altar of 
incpuae, on which th« red coals glowed. To Lis right (tlis 
left of the altar — that is, on tlie north side) was the table 
of showbread ; to his left, on the right or eoutli side of the 
ultnr, was tht golden caudltstick. And still he waited, as 
instructed to do, tiill a special signal indicated that the 
ini>nn;ut UmI come to Bpi>;ad the incense on the altar, as 
noftv ftK poBHiblt^ to tliL' Holy of Hulins. Priosts and peopla 
bad revcri-ntly withdrawTi from the neiglibmirhood of the 
altar, and were prostrati' liefore the Lord, oiferiiig unspoken 
wonjliip. Zaeliaiiae waited, until he saw the uicense lind- 
ling. Then he also would hnvB ' bowMl down in worship," 
and ruvt^i'isntly withdrawn, had not a wondrous Htght; 
an-ested his steps. 

On the right (or aouthj side of the altar, betweeu it 
and the golden candlestick, stood what he could not but 
recognise as an Angelic fonu. Nbtuf, indeed, had even 
tradition repuiled such a vision to an ordiuaiy Priest in 
t;he act of incensing. The Iwu supernatural apparitions 
recorded — one of aa Angel each year of the Pontificate of 
Siinou the Just; the other iu that bla^plieniciii« account of 
the vision of the Almighty by lohnmel, the son of Eli-nha, 
and of the conversation which tin-u ensued — had both been 
voudisafed fro Iligb-l'i-iestP, and on the Day of Atuuenieut. 
Still, there was always nneasineaa among tiie pi-ople as any 
mortal approached tUo iiumcdiutc Presence of God, and 
everj' delay in his return seemed oniinou;^. No wonder, 
then, that Zacharias ' waa troubled, uud feur ft^U uo 

It was from this alate of semi-coneciousnesii that the 
Angel first wakened Zacharias with the r«uiembmuL'i? of 
Hie-long priiyere and hopes, which had now piiased into 
the biiekgn.huiid of hia being, and then suddenly startled 
liiiii by the promise of theii'i-caltniilion. But that Child of 
so many priiyei's, who was to bear the signilicant unuie of 
John (Jehocliauau, or Jocbaiian), 'the Lord is grucious,' 

H The AffSVNCtATro/f or Sr. John the Baptist s 

was txi be tlip soiiiVft of joy and ^Indness to a fur widei' 
circle than that of the tamj]^. Hip Child was to be great 

I before tho Lord; notunly wionlinarv, but a Iift>-Na7,arit<»,' 
oa SiiiDson nrnl 8uiniit-l of old hiid biieti. Like them, ho 
was Dot to conwrr.'tte hiiiiHelf, but from tlie inception of 
life wholly to belong to God, for M\» work. KnA, greater 
tb&n either of thfse rcprcscutrttivi-a of the s^'nibolicAl 
import of NaKuristii, Kf* would o<>inbiu<- the twofold niv»D- 
ing of thi'ir mission — outward and inward might in (iod, 
oti\y in B higher and mom Ppirttitnl sense. For this life- 
work he would be filled with the Holy Ghost, from the 
ntonit^ut lif^ wolcc witliin him. Tlwn, aa another 8a.nLRon, 
would he, in the etrenglh Oif God, lift the nxe to each 
tree to b^ follKl, »ud, liki> another Sumnel, turn many of 
(be cliildreu of Israel to the Lord their God. Nay, com- 
bining these two mi&iions, as did Elijah on Mount Carmpl, 
In; should, in nccordauw with pro])hecy,' precede 

■ the Mo«aianic nmnifo^tation . find, not indeed in 

the person or fonii. but in the spirit and power of Elijah, 
accomplish the typical lUfaaing of liis niission. Thus 

I would tliis uuw Elijuli ' make ready for thv Lord tv pooplo 
If the apparition of the Angel, in that placy, and ut 
that time, had overwhelmed the ujjed priest, the words 
whioh he hiMinl inuBt htrve (illed him with smdi bftwiWei-- 
ment, that for the moment he scarcely realisnd their mean- 
ing. One idea atone, which had strnck its roots so long 
in his consciouanesti, stood uat : A son. And so it was 
the obvious doubt, thut would au^fst ili^elf, which £i-5t 
fell from bin lips, as he ttiked for eorae pledge or confir- 
mation of wlutt he had heard. 

BHe that woidd not speitk the praises of God, bnt asked 
a mgn, received it. Hia dumbness was a eign — though 
the sign, as it werer the dumb child of the prayer of un- 
brtief, was it* puniBhriient also. And yet a sign in another 
Heme bIso — a sign to the wailiug multitude in the Temple ; 
■ m sign to Elizabeth ; to all who knew Zacharios in t>ie 

' Oa tiie diffarcDt oliuacB ot Naurites, see ■ The Tenipl«, ice.,' tip. 

• S'umh. ri. 

6 Jesus thf. Mrssiah 

Will-coiuihy ; wild to the Priest, luniself, cinvhig thos^ nine 
moDths ot" retij'emeiit and inward solitude; a sign also 
tUafc would kindle into fiery tiaiue in tlie day when God 
should loustrii liis toiij^ne. 

A period uf iiiiusiiiil length had passed, aince the sig^nal 
for incensing had "been j;ivu.u. The prayera of the people 
had been otTer^d. n.n(] their anxious gaze war diroct-t'd to- 
wards the Holy Place. At last Zacharias emerged to take 
his Htand on the top of the atppa which led from the Port-h 
to the (.Jo'art of the Priesls, waiting to lead in the prieatly 
benediction' that preceded the daily meat-offer- 
ing and tile cimnt of the Psalms of praise, ac- 
companied with joyous sound of music, as the drink- 
ofifering was punred out. But already the sign of Zachariaa 
was to be a si^n to all the people. The pieces of the 
sacrifices had been ranged in due order on the altar of 
burnt-ofTi-ring ; the J'riests stood on the steps to the porch, 
iind tJio pi-iciple were in waiting. Zofharias essayed to 
speak the words of benediction, unconscious that the 
stroke had fatleu. But the people knew it hy his silence, 
that he had seen a vision in tho Temple. Yet as he stood 
helpless, trying by Kigue to iudieate it to the awestruck 
assembly, he remained dtimb. 

Wondering, they had dispersed, people and Priest* — 
some to Opbe], some to Jeridio, some to their quiet dwell- 
ings in the country. But God fulfilled the word which 
Ho hud Bpoken by His Atigel. 



(St.Matti.; St Luke i. 26-SO.) ' 

The Galilee of the time of Jesus was rot only of the 
richest fertility, cultivated to the utmost, and thickly 
covered with popaloue towns ajid Tillages, but the ceutrd 



^ft wen 


of every known iiKJiistry, and the busy road of the world's 

Nor was it t tht^rwiae in Ni>uu%t)i. The ^reat niruviiii- 
ronte wliicli led from Acco on the sen to Oamnscns divided 
at ite commencenient into three roada, one of which passed 
through Naz&reth. Mpd of all natioua. busy with ftnother 
life thau that of laraci, would appear in ic» streets; uod 
through them ChoughtR, as^tocintioTis. ftnd hopes cormcctAd 
with the great ootBide world \ie stirred. But, on the 
other band, Na^tareth vt&s also one of the grMt (rentreB of 
Jewish Tempi e^lifi?, Tlie Prierthood was divided into 
twenty-four 'coursea,' each of which, in turn, ministered 
in the Temple. The PrieHte of the ' course ' which was to 
be oD duty always gntliered in certain towus, whence they 
went up in corapauy to Jerusalem, while those of tlieir 
Q.mnbtO' who were unable to go xpent the week iu fasting 

prayer. Now Mazai-et-b wae one of these Priest-centros, 
TTins, to take the wider view, a double symbolic siunifi- 
cance at;tnche<i to Kazareth, since through it pfLK>^ed alike 
thoK who CHrried on Ihe traffic of the world, aud those 
who miuifit^red iu the Tt^tuple. 

We may take it, that the people of Nazareth were like 
tlioec of other little towns similarly circtimafaDced : with 
all the peculiarities of the impulsive, strnight-apoken^ hotr 
blooded, brave, iiitensi^ly untional Galileans; with the 
deeper feelings and almoafc instinctive liabit» of thou};ht 
nnd life, which were the oritcotne of long ceatnries of Old 
Teetameut training ; but also with the petty interests and 
jealonaes of such places, and with all the ceremonialism 
and pnnctiliouB self-aesi!rtion of Orieutttln. The cast of 
Jadftiam prevalent in Nazareth wonld, of course, be the 
Baine- sa in Galilee geaeraliy, We know, that tliere were 
marked divergenLi^s from the observances in that. stronR- 
h(^d of Babbinism , Jadi^a — iudiL-ating greater simplicity 
ud Creedom from the constant introBion of traditional 
ordiiuuces. The purity of betrothal in Galilee w»8 lees 
lil^y to be sullied, and weddings were more siiiipie than 
'^•Mta '" J'ldien — without the dubioun institution of 
grooinsnien, or 'friends of the bridegroom. " 


Jesus tns Messiah 

The bride waaehoBen, not rs in JinSnaa, where monp^ w«8 
too oftva the motive, but as jn Jenifialuni, witli chief 
regard to ' a laip degree ; ' anil widows were (aa in Jeru- 
ealem) more tenderly cnred for. 

Whatever view may be taken of the gf-npalogies in the 
Ooepels according to St, Matthew and St. Lukfl, there 
OBU be no question tiint both Joseph and Maiy were of 
the royal lineage oP David. Most jjroha.blj the two were 
nearly relBted, while Mary could also clnim kinship witli 
the ]-*rie8thood, being, uo doubt on her mother's side, a 

• RLLiik«i. ' blood-rflative ' of KHsahetli, the Priest-wife of 

* Kachiirias.' Even this eeems to imply that 
Mary's family must shortly before have held higher rant, 
for only with snch did custom eanction any alliance on tlte 
part of Priests. But at the tinie of their betrothal, iilike 
Joseph and Mary were extremely jioor, as appears — not 
indeed fx-om his being a carpenter, since a trade was rd- 
^rded asalmoHt a religious duty — but from the offering 
■> St, Lntt at the prrsentation of Jesus in the TempJe.'' 
*■■'* Acx;ordinjjly, their botrotlial must have been of 
the simplest, ajid the dowry settled the fimaliest possible.' 
Frotn that moment Mary was the betrothed wife of Joseph; 
their relationship as aacred as if they had already lieen 
wedded. Any breach of it would be treated as adultery; 
nor coutd the bond be dis&oived except, aa after marriage, 
by regular divorce. Yet months might intervene between 
the betrothal and marriage. 

Five mouUis of Elisabeth's sacred retirement had 
pus.'ied, wheu a ati-ange messenger brought its first tidings 
tfl hpr kinswciDan in far-off (■Jalilee. It waa not in tho 
Bolemn grandeiir of the Temple, between the golden altar 
of incense and the seven-branched candlestick, that tho 
Angel Gabriel now appeared, but in the privacy of a 
humble home at Nazfireth. And, altliough the awe of the 
Supernatural must unconeciously have fiillen npou her, it 
was not so much the sndden appearance of the mysterious 

' Oomp. 'Sketohea of Jewish SooieJ Life in the Dftya of Clmsl,' 
})p. 14fl-US), Also theurtlcleoD 'Maidage' u iktaslVi 13ibl«-SduciL[«r, 

vul, iv. pp.M7-2T0. 



irement. tJiat startled the mai^^n, &i tbft 
words of his greeting, imjiijiiig; iiiitlioiis;lit blfwiiig. The 
■Peace to ihee' was, indeed, the well-ViKiwti salutation, 
while the worJe "The Ijord is with thee' mifht wakeo 
remembrance of the Angelic call to ^reat deliverance 
•jiKig.*L in the paat.' But thia deBignntiou of 'highly 
" favoured' came apou her with liewilderiug sur- 

prise, perhupa Jot so much frnmitB coutrnetto tlie humble- 
Dess of her estate, as fi-om the self-iiQcon scions humility of 
her heart. Accordingly, it is this story of special ' favour,' 
or grace, which the Angel traces in rapid outline, from 
the oonception of the \ irgin-M other to the distinctive, 
Divinely-given Namet symbolic of the nieaning^ of Hi* 
eomin^'; His absolute greatueets; His ackuoivleilgnient as 
the Sou of (rod ; and the fulhlmeiit iu tUm of the groat 
Davidic hope, with its never-cpaeing royalty, and its boand- 
lesB Kingdom. 

In all this, however marveiloue. there conldbe notjiing 
Htrauge to those who cherieh«d in their hearts Isnid'ii 
great ho]>e. Nor was there anything strange even in the 
naming of the yet unconceived Child. It aounda like a 
ayiag cnireiit among the people of old, thig of the RabliiH, 
concerning the six whose numes w*re given before their 
birth: Isaac, lehmnel, Moses, Solomon, Joeiah, and 'the 
Name of the Messiah. Whom may the Holy Ono, blessed 
be flis Name, briug quickly, in our days! ' 

Ttna, ou tlie supposition of the retidint^sB of lier he- 
lievhig heart there would have been nothing that needecl 
further light thitn the hovi of her own connaction with the 
glorious announceirieiit. Aud the words, which she, 
were not. of trembling doubt, but rather tlioee of encjnrry, 
for the further guidance of a wilting self-snrrender. And 
now the Angel unfolded y«t further promise of Divine 
favour, and so deepened her humility. For the idea of 
the flL-tivity of the Hcly Ghost in. all great event* was 
quite familiar to Ipniel at the time, even though the Indi- 
tidniktton of the Holy Ghost may not have been fiilly 
tpprebended. Only, they expected auch iufluencea to rent 
Mcli«rely upon those who were either mighty, or rich, oi 


/esus ths SfassMff 

wise. And of this twofold uianifestaMon of mimcnlona 
'favour' — thaft sLe, and as a Virgin, should he its sub- 
ject — Gabriel, 'tlie might of God," ^avo this unasked 
sign, in whab had happened to her kinsworaan KlisaWth. 

The eigii was at the snme time a direction. The tirst, 
bTitataotlie ever-deepening desire in the heart of Mtu-j, 
when the Angel left lier, must have heeii to be away frum 
Nazareth, and for the relief of opening her boart to tk 
woman, in all things lilte-njinded, who perhaps might 
speak blesBed worda to her. It is only what we would 
have expected, that ' with haste ' she should have resorted 
to her kins woni All. 

It could have been no ordinary welcome that would 
greet the Virgin-Motlier. Elisabeth must, have learnt 
from her husband the destiny of their son, and hence the 
near Advent of the Jlessiah. But she could not have 
kiiowD either when, or of whom He would be bora. When, 
by a sign not quite strange to Jewish expectancy, &he 
recogniBed in her near kinswoman the Mother of her Lord, 
her salutation was that of a mother to a mother— -the 
mother of the ' preparer ' to the mother of Htm for Wliom 
he TTOuld prepare. 

Three months had paasecl, and now the Virgin-Mother 
nmst rt'tum to Nazareth. Soon Eiiaabeth's neighbours 
^nd kinsfolk would gather with sympathetic! joy around a 
home which, as they thought, had experienced unexpected 
mercy. But Mary must not be exposed to the publicity 
of BQch meetings. However eunacious of what had led to 
her condition, it must have been as the first sharp pang of 
the Bword which was to pierce her soul, wlieu ehe told it 
all to her be^trothed. For only a direct Divine commnni- 
catioQ could liave chased all queationiug from his heart, 
and given him that assurance, which was needful in the 
future history of the Messiah. Brief as the narrative is, 
we can read in the ' thoughts ' of Joseph the anxious con- 
tending of feelings, the scarcely estabbshed, and yet 
delaved, resolve to ' put her away,' which could only be 
done by regular divorce ; this one determination only 
standing out clearly, tbnt, if jt umst be, her letter of 


Thr BiBTH or St. Jotm TtiE BAPrrsT ti 

tivoree shall be handed lo hi*i- ])rivatPly, outy iii the 
presence of two witneBses, The Iiiirablo I'saildiij of N'aKB- 
reth would Dot villingly make of her ' a public exhibition 
of Bhame,' 

The aafiurance, which Joseph could ttcarcely dare to 
hope for, was rairaculoiisly conveyed to him in a dream- 
vision. All would now bs clear; even the terms in which 
he was addressml (* thou son of JJnvid '), so utterly unueuat 
in ordinary ctrctiniatanc«s, would prepare him for the 
Anil's mesituge. The Qamiu^ of the unborn J^lc^siah 
woiild accord with popular nntioDS ; the symbolism of such 
a. uame was deeply rooted in Jewish belief; whUe the 
«xplaiMtioii of Mwshua or Jeghiia (Ji'ints), as He Who 
would savft Hia people (priiniirdy, as he would underMUmd 
it, Isrfipl) from their sinB, descTibed at least one generally 
expected aspect of Kis Miaeion. 

The fact tliitt such an aiiiiouu>cement came to him in ft 
dream, would disjxiMe Joseph alt the more readily to rw:eiv6 
it. ' A good dream ' was one of the three things popB- 
larly rogurded sb marks of God'a favour. 'J^huB Divinely 
set nl rest, Joseph oould no looker hesitate. The highost 
daty towards the Virgin-Mother and the nnhnra Jeeus 
demanded an immediate marriage, which would afford not 
wily outward, but moral protoction to both. 

Meanwhile the long-looki?d-fur eveut had taken place 
in the home of Zacharias. No domestic Boiemnity was so 
important or so joyous as that m which, by circumcision, 
the child had, ah it wore, laid upon it the yoke of the Law, 
willi all of duty aud privilege which this im])yecl. It was, 
go tradition has it, as if the father liad acted sacrificially 
as High-Priest, offering his child to God in gratitude and 
love ; and it Bymbuliaed thia deeper moral truth, that man 
must by his own act complete what flod liad first inflti- 
tnted. We can scarcely be mistaken in supposing, that 
then, aa now, a benediction was spoken before cii-cum- 
i^sioD, aDd that the ceremony cloaod with the usual grace 
ov*T the cap of wine, wbeu the child received hia name in 
a prayer, that probably did not much differ from this at 
pt^sent in uae : ' Our <.iod, luid the God of our fathers, 



raise up this chiltl to his father and mothor, and Ipt his 
uaoie be cuJIetl iu lernci Zftctiariaa, tlie acu of Zuchurias.' 
The prayer closed with the hope that the child mig)il-, grow 
up, and BUCceHsfully ' attivin to the Torah, the maniage- 
bflldaofiiiio, and good works.' 

Of iill this Zocliarias was, though a deeply intereeted, 
yet a denfaiul dumb ' witness. This only had he noticeil, 
that, in the benediction in which the child's name was 
inserted, the mother had interrupted the prayer. Without 
explaining Iier reason, she iii.iiated that hU name ehonld 
not be tliat of his aged father, as in the peciiliar tircum- 
Ht^ances might liave been expect^ed, but John {Jm^iaiwii). 
A reference to the fatlier oidy deepened the gcnifral 
BBtonishment, when he also gave the same name. But 
this wae not the sole cause fur niorve!. For, forthwith the 
tongue of the domb was loospd, and he, who could not 
ntter the nnrae of the child, now burst, into priiJae of the 
name of the Lord. His last woide had been those of 
nobelief, his first were those of prnise ; his last words had 
been a question of doubt, his first were a hymn of assu- 
i%nce. This hymn of the Priest closely follows, and, if the 
expression be allowable, spiritnaliaee a great part of the 
moat ancient Jewish prayer : the so-called Bighteen Ben&- 
dictioDB. Opening with tlie common tbrm of blessing-, hia 
hymn struck, one by one, the deepest chorda of that prayer. 

But far and wide, as these marvelloua tidings spread 
throuxhuut the hill-country of Judfeai, fear fs-U on all — the 
fi.>ar rtl«" of a nameles.'i hope : * What then shall this Child 
be ? I'or the Hand of the Lord also was with Iltiti ! ' 

' Pwm St. l/uie i- fiS wegniher that Zacbarias was what the Rnbbb 
nndnnii.ood by a Hebrew term sipriiifjririg one denf ub well as duraU 
<lci.-ordiun;l^i he wub coromnniciiteil nith Hy signs. 

TsE Nativity of Jesus 


• lUcBh V. S 


<St. MalL L 25; St. Luke n. l-2aj 

To BotUelit3m oa tbtf birtbpli*cc of Moseiiih. Dot only Old 
Tcet.»n)cnt pi'sdicUon,' biittho t.f«ti monj- of Rab- 
binic teachings, unltesitatiii^ly [minted. Yet no- 
thing could be imag'iaed more directly contrary to Jewish 
tliouglils— aud ln-'ticu natkiiig' lew Ukdv Lo sugp^f^l ite«lf 
to Jewish inventioD — tlmn tiie cironmstaiireH which, aocord- 
iog to the tiosp6l-Darra.tiye, brought about the bu'th of the 
Messiah in BethlL'htMn, A counting of the peoplt', op Cen- 
sm; ui"l thiit Census takeout (he bidding cif a heathen 
Enip(?ror, and executed by one no nnivi-rsftliy Imtt-d n* 
Ilijnjd, would represent the n^ f.<iutt ultra of ail that was 
moiit mpii<{iiuiit tu .tcwi^li fiwliu]^. 

TliuL tliu Kiiipenir Augustus iiiudo rcgisl-vTn of tin- 
Itoman Empire, and of subject and TTibiitnry stjitcs, is 
nowgcncrally admittt-d. This registration — for tht- pnrpofle 
of future taxation — woiiid ulsui'mbrucePuli^stine, Erenil' 
ii<i iictual oilier bo tliiili f Ifwt htul iicfu issuwl duriiii^ the 
life-timo of Uerod, wo can uadorstaiid that lie would dentin 
it most exijedient, in view of the probable excitement which 
S heathen ccuxus would i.iLuse in I'uk'^liue, to tuke stt^p^ 
for niukiii^ u lUj^istratton ruthttr iicourdinj^ to tiKt •It-'wi^li 
than the Roman miiuner. 

According to the Itoman law, all counti^-poople wen- 
to be regielerL'd in Ch^iir ■ own city ' — nu-iiuinu- tlmreby the 
town to which the viUii-^'e or plfice, wbt^ru ibey were bom, 
was attncbinl. In so doiiijif, ciie ' bouse and iinciige ' <rf" 
each were marked. According to the Jewish mode of 
regielration, the peoplu would have been enrolled accord- 
ing to /W'U-t,/iiwi.i7iW or olans, and the A'jfMCof their futhers. 
lint OS tlie ten tribp'i had not returned to Palef*tine, thia 
Could only tftke pUiae to a vexy limited extent, while it 

14 fnsus THE M'esaiAff ^^H 

would be easy for eitfti to be regiHterfil in ■ hia own eity.' 
In the case of Josepli and JIa,ry, whose (k'scent from David 
wan not only known, but where, for lli« auke of the unlxiru 
Messiidi, it. wits most iiiiport.ftiit that this fihould be dia- 
tinctly noted, it wiis uiitm-al fhat, in accordance with 
Jewish law, they should have gone to Betlileliem. Perhwps 
also, for TQEiiy reuBons which will reaiiily »uj;u;e8t them- 
selves, Josuph and Mary might be glad to leiive NaKaretli, 
and seek, if po^ttible, a home iii Bethlehem. Indeed, so 
strong was thia feeling, that it aiVerwards required special 
Divine direction to induce Joseph tu relinnuish this chosen 
•St. Matt. plaoe of rtsaidence, u,rid to rebiim into G-alilt-e.' 
"■'* In these circumstances, Mary, now the ' wife ' of 

Joaephj though standing to him only in the actual relation- 
»Bt. Lui* li, ship of ' betrothed,' '' would, of course, accompany 
*■ her hutiJiimd to Bethli'hein. 

The short winter's day was probably clofiing in, aa the 
two travellers from Nazai'eth, bringing with the^m the 
few necBtenriea of a poor Kast^m housi-hold, neared their 
journey's end. Only in the Enst wOnld the most absolcte 
simplicity be possible, and yet neither it, nor the poverty 
from which it sprang, necessarily imply even the elightest 
taint of Bociiil inferiority. The wiiy had been long and 
wonry — at the very least, three days' journey from Galilt^e. 
MoijC probably it would have been by that route bo com- 
monly followed, from a Jusiro to avoid .Sunmria, along the 
eaat«ra banks of the Jordan, and by the fords near 

'Vhv little tovra ofTietldehem was crowded with those 
who had come from all the outlying di«triot to reyiater 
tJieir names. The very inn was tilled, and the only avail- 
able space was where ordinarily the eatlle were stabled. 
Bearing in mind the simple htvbits of the East, thia scarcely 
iuiplies what it would in the We^T ; and perhaps tlie 
seclusion and privacy from the noisy, chiittTiring crowd, 
which thronged the khan, would be all the more welcome. 
Scanty as these particulars are, even thus mnch isgatheivil 
rather liy infei-ence than from the narrative itflplf. Thus 
early in this history does the absence of details, which 

Tifp. N'AT/rtTY OP fesus 




increanen hr wp procepil, rpuiind us. that. \hn GosjwIh were 
not intended to fumiah a bio^apliy of Jesus, nor even the 
iiuit«rinlK for it; but bud only tliia twoluM object: tliiit 
those who read tliRin 'might believe that JesiieiaMie Christ, 
the Son of God," and that believing they ' might have life 
•SLJahn tbrougfh His Name.' * The Christian he<art and 
^IJ' iiuagiuatiaa, indeed, long to be able in looilise 

si^tiAai.* the so^'ttP nnd linger with fond reverenca over 
that CavB, which is nowr covered by ' the Church of thw 
Nativity,' It seems likely that this, to which the most 
lie truditiou points, was the sacred spot of the 
gre&teftt event. But certainty we have not. As to 
all tliat paeaed in theeeclnsionof that 'stable' the Goapel- 
uarnitive is Kiient, This only is told, that then and iLoiw 
tlie Virgin-Mother ' brouj^ht foit.h her first-bom Sou, and 
wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in n 

Bnt as we pass from the eacred gtooin of the cave out 
into the night, ita lonelineee \» peopled, nud its »il<*uce 
made vocal from heaven. Jewish tra»iitton may here prove 
both illustrative and helpful. That the Messiah was to he 
born in Bethlehem, was a settled conviction. Equally so 
waa the belief, that. He was to be revealed from Mujiial 
Eder, ' the tower of the flock.' This Mlijdal Eder was not 
the w»tcL-t«wpr for the ordirmry tlocks which pastured on 
the barren sheep-ground beyond Betldeheni, but lay close 
to the town, on the road to Jerusaleni. A ptiaaage in t.lio 
Afiahnah leads to the concluBioD, thnt the (locks, which 
pai^turod there, wire di'stineit for Tenijile-aaorifices, nnfl, 
aooordingiy, that tJie aliopherds, who watched over them, 
were not ordinary ghi-jdif rds. The latter were nnder tlie 
ban of Rabbiiiitim, on ticoount of their necesFinry isolation 
from religions ordinances, and their miinner of life, which 
rt-nderwl strict legal observance unlikely, if not abaolutoly 
inijnssible. The same Miahuic pasMage also leads ns to 
infer, tliat these flocks lay out al! the year round, sincn 
tiitty are spoken of m tn the fields thirty day? bBlbrn the 
Paeaovw — thnt is, in the uioalb of February, when in 
P&lHtiD« tlii> average minfall is nearly greatest. 

It was, then, oa tliat ' wintry night * of tlie 25Ui of 
December, that ahophtirda wutohwJ the llocka ddatmed for 
uurrifioial service*, ia tlie very pliuie conso-cmied bytndi- 
tion oa that where tlie Messiah was to be lirst revralci). 01 
s BuddcD came tbe lou^'-dt-layecL, nsthoiight-of aDQOunw- 
Diflut: aa Aiigi;! aUmii (ji'Turt- their duiu;l»d eyei, while tlid 
outBtriairaing filory of the Tjiird seemod to enwrap them, as 
ia a tuiiDtlt! uf light. Surprise, awe, fiL>ar wmUd bo hushed 
into c»]iii &ud ^xpoctAUcy, as from the Au^l the; hesid 
that vfhal they saw Itudc-d not judgmeot, hut ushered in io 
wailing Israel tlw great jnyof thoHB good tidings which he 
bi\>u<;lil. : that the long-proiiii8t>d Ssvluur, IMcBsish, I/»d, 
WHS Ijurn in thu City of Duvid, and that they thomadvcd 
might go and stw, and reL'ognitti; Him hy the humbleness 
of Uto circumstannes surromidiiig His Nativitj, 

It was aa if atteuduDt angels hud only waited the 
Hignal. As, wlicu ihi? aatn-ific* was laid on the altar tJie 
Ttniple- music burnt forth in three aecticmB, each marked 
bv the blast of t!ie Priests' silver trumpets, su. when the 
Herald-A nj^L'l lind spoken, a mwltitnde of heaven's howt 
sttiod forth to liyiiiu the good tidiuga he had brought. 
WJiat thi?y sang was but the reflex of what hod been 
announced : — 

Qlcrr7 to God in the bigbeat — 
And upon eartb peace — 
Among men good pleasure I 

Ouly once hefoi-e had the woi-ds of Angela' hymn fallen 
upon mortals' ears, when, to Isaiah's rapt vision, Heaven's 
high Temple had opeued, atid tin; glory of Jehovah swBpb 
it« com-t*, almo«t breaking down the trembling posts that 
bore its boundary giitts. Now the same glory euwrapt 
the shepberda on Bethlehem's plains, TWn the Angels' 
hymn bad heralded the atiiiouiicemenfc of the Kingdom 
■.■oming; now that of the King come. Then it had been 
the Trh-Wujian of pi-ophetic auticipation j now that of 
Mviingelio fuHilinent. 

'Xhe hymn had ceased ; the light faded oat of the sky; 
and the Htiepherds were alone. But the Angelic me!<8age 

The PusfFiCATiojf^Sff^HE Virgin 17 

reniaiDed with them; and the sign, which was \a guido 
them to the lofant Christ, lighted their rapid way up th« 
terraced lieight to where, at the eiiterijug of Bfthlehem, 
the lamp awiBging ovyr the himti^lrj' diri-etrd them to the 
straogeTS of the hoiise of David, who had oome from 
NdEoreth. Thefts they found, perhaps not v^^liat they had 
expected, but as tli^^'.y had beta told. The hoiy group oaly 
coDBisted of the Vir^a-Mother, the carp«nti?r of Nazareth, 
and tho Buhe laid in the manger. What further passi.'d 
we know not, save that having seen it for themselves the 
shepherds told wliat had been spok«n to tlieai about this 
Child, to al! around — iu the • stable/ iu the fiBlda, probably 
^_ also in the Tt-mpUt, to which they would brino thi-ir flocks, 
^B thereby preparing the minds ol a 8imeon, of an Anna, and 
H of all Uieni that looked for aalvation in laroel. 





<Bt. Luke ii 21-18.) 

Foremost amon^^t thoBti who. wondi-rijig, had heard what 
the shepherds told, was she whom most it concerned : tie 
JUotlier of Jesus. 

At the very ontset of tbia history, aud iuoreaaingly in 
its course, the question meets ua, how, if the Augelio 
iDi^sagQ to the Virgin was a reality, and her motherhood 
BO euprmatural, she could have been apiuu'ently ao iguorant 
of what, was lo come — nay, so often have even miaundcr- 
atood it? Might we not have expected, that the Virgin- 
ilother from the inception of this Child's lite would have 
rcnliead that Hpwas truly the Son of God? Theqauatiou, 
like so many othere, requires only to be clearly alated, to 
find its emphatic answer. Pop, had it been so. His history. 
Ilia faumuu life, of which every sticp ia of euch importance 
to mankind, would not have been poasibla. Apart from 



all thoii]p;hts of the deeper necessity. Ixitli na rpwardpc! Mis 
MiifsioQ aud tlie ealvalicD of the world, of a ti-ue human 
development of gradual consciousiit-ws and personal Uft,J 
Christ could not, io auy real sense, luwe been subject tetl 
His Parents, if they had fully underBtood that He waai 
Divine ; nor could He, in that case, have been watched, aal 
He 'grew in wisdotn and in favour with God and meo.'j 
Such knowledfi^ would havf* broken the bond of Hiaj 
Humanity to ours, by sevi^ring that which bound Him aal 
n child to His mother. We could not have become Rial 
brethren, had He not been truly the Vu-gin'a Son. Tha-J 
iny»Jery of (he Incarnation iviiuld have been needleBS snil^ 
fruitless, had His Humanity not been aiibject to all ita 
right ajid ordinary conditiouB. In abort, one, and that 
the distiuctive New Testament, element in our salvatioaJ 
would have been taken «way. At the besinnin^ of His 
life He would have antici pated the lessous of ita end — 
nay, not those of His D«*Hlh ouly. Imt of His Uesm-rectioa^ 
ftnd Ascensiou, and of the cxiniing of the Holy Ghost. fl 

In all this we have only considered the earlhwajd, not 
the heavenward, aspect of His life. The latt«r, tbou^ti 
very real, lies beyond onr prosent horizon. Not sa the 
qupfltion as to the development of the Virgin-JIother's 
Bpiritiial knowledge. Axsumin^ hti* to hava occupied the 
standpoint of Jewish Messianic expectancy, and remember 
ing also that she was so ■ highly favoured ' of fiod, still 
there was not as yet anything, nor could there he for man; 
years, to lead her beyond what mig'lit be culled the utmoi 
hei^hti of Jewish belief, Ou the contrary, there was in 
connected with His true llnmanity to keep her buck. 

Thus it was, that, every event connected with tin 
Messianic manifei«1.ition of Jesus would come to tl 
Virgin- Mother as a new Bui-priwe. Each event, as it 
place, stood isolated in her mind, as H()niethjng quite 
iti*elf 8he knew the be^inninp, and she knew the e 
but she knew not the path which led from the onp to 
the other ; and each step in it was a new revelation. And 
it WB3 natural and well that it tthonld be so. For, thoa 
only oould she tmly, because self- unconsciously, as a Jewii 


The Pusipication of thr 





iroman and mother, fulfil all the reqairemenl'S of tliu 
Law, ftUkc 9& re^iu^ed herself and binr Child. 

The first nf these via& Circamciaion, repreBoating 
Tolnntary subjection to the conditions of the Law, and 
acceptauct) of thu obligations, but also of> privileg&'i, of 
tliB Covenant bftw«i'n Mod and AbraLurii and his settl. 
The ceremony took place, :is in all ordionry circumataiiceB, 
(fD the eighth dajf. wLen tlie Child received the Augel- 
givea Daiuv Jtsfiua {Jvnia). 'i'wo other legal ordi- 
nanc^e still remained to be obaei-ved. The firstliorn son 
of every household was, according to the Law, to be 
'redoamed' of the priest at tbe price office shekels of the 
•Xamtu Sanctuary ,'' The earliest period of presentatioD 
iTiu. IB ^gg thirtiy-one days after birtJi, so aa to make 
the legal mouth quite complete. The child must have 
been the firstbwra of liis mother; ufitht?r father iioi- 
mother must he of Levitic descent ; and the child mnat be 
five from all such bodily Mtmiishes as would have dis- 
qiialitied him for the priesthood — or. as it was I'spreesed : 
'the firstborn for the prieetliood.' It was a thing much 
dreudtxl, tiat the child shoulU dio beforo his redumptiou ; 
but if hia father died in the interval, the child had to 
redeem hiujfielf wh^n of age. The value of fcho 'redeinp- 
tiiiii-inouoy ' would aitiouiit to alwut ten or twelve 
.sliiUiiigR. Tlie redemption could be m.ide from any priest, 
aad attendance in tiw 'J'einple was not requisite. It was 
otiei'wisf; with " the piiriHcation ' of the mother.' 
The Rabbinic law fixed this at forty-one days 
aftor tho birth of a son, and eighty-oue alter that of a 
dauglit-er, so aa to make the Biblital tn-rms quite complete. 
But it might take place any time later — ^notably, when 
attendanu- on any of the great feasts brought a family to 
Jerusalvin. Indeed, the vvoniitn. was not retjaired to be 
VianiolLally pn^'Huft at all, when her olTering was provided 
for — say, by the representAtives of the laity, who daily 
look p«rt in the sei'vices tor the various diatrtcts from 
irlucb they cams. But mothers who were within con- 
irement distarice of the Temple, ivud especially the more 
wnett among them, would naturally attend pei-sonaliy in 



phpn prafticable, tt 


Ae Temple; nnd in euch cases, when prafticable, tdo 
redemption of the firstborn, and thti purification of liia 
mother, wonid be i?onihined. Such was nndoabtedly the 
Cftae witt the Vir^iti-M other and bei Son. 

Fop this twofold purpose the Holy Family went up to 
the Temple, when the prescribed days were coniplet'ed. 
The ceroraony at the redemption of a firstborn son was, uo 
doubt, more simple than that at prpsc'ut in use, It con- 
SLBted of the formal presentotion of the child to the prifst, 
accompanii?d by two short * benedictions ' — the one for the 
law of rpdi-mption, the other for the g^ift of a firatborn sea, 
after which the ri'dempt.i on- money wae paid. 

As regards the Pit* at the puriticiition of the mother, 
the scaatiuesB of information haa led to serious misstate- 
ments. Any compariaoQ with oar modern 'churching' 
of women is inapplicuble, since the latter consists of 
thanksgiving, and the ibrmpr primarily of a sin-ofiering 
for the Levitical defil<?meiit evmholically attaching; to the 
bf^uning of liff, and a buint-oflering;, that marked the 
Tefttorat.ion of communion with God. Bi lides, as already 
etnted, thg pacrilice for purification mighi be hroufjht in 
the absence of the mother. The service simply consisted 
of the statutory sacrifice. ThiB was what, iu eccleeiasltcal 
langnage, was t^^rmed an ofiering, 'ascending and de- 
aeending," that is: according' to the means of the offerer. 
The sin-oftering was, in all caeea, a turtle-dove or » young 
pigeon. But, whOe the more wealthy brought a lamb 
for a humt-offering, the poor might substitute for it a 
turtle-dove, or a yoimg pigeKjn. The Temple-price of the 
meat" and dpinli-H"illepiiige was fixed once a month; and 
special officials inatructed the intending; offerers, and pi'o- 
vided them with what was needed. There was also a 
sjjecinl ' tmperintendent of turtle-doves and pigeons,' 
required for certain purifications. In the Court of the 
Women there were thirteen trumpet-shaped cheats for 
pecuniary contributions, called ' trcinpets.' ' Into the 
third of these they who brought the poor'a offering, like 

■ Conip. St. UBtt, vl. 2. See - The Templa anil lis Service's,' Jt<3, 1 
pp. :!ti, 27. ' 




g^n-Hother, were to drop the price of the Bn«rific*'« 
ere needed for their piirificalion. As we inter, tbo 
itendiug privet most have been BtatioiiL-d hare, alikn 
Hnform the offerer of the prii« of the'-ilovea, nncl 
' see that all was in order. For the offerar of the poor'a 
ofTerinp woitld not reqniriR to deal directly with the 
sacrLficing priest. At a certain time in the day thia 

■ third chest wbb opened, and half of its conteiita apptitid 
to bomt-, the other half to Bin-offerings. Thua sacrifioea 
were provided for a corresponding nutnljer of those who 
vpxfi to be purified, without either slminiug tin? p(Hjr. 
neeidlesaly disclosing the character of impurity, or causiiijf 

■niiiiecessary bustle and work. Thoutfli this mode of pro- 
Oftdura could, of course, not bo obiigatoiTj it would, no 
doabt, be that generally fnllowed. 

We can now, in imatjination, follow the Virgin-Mother 
in the Temple. Her Child liud be>eD given up to the Lord, 

■and re<¥:ived back from Him. Sht> lisd enttri'd thft Court 
of the Women, probably by thii ■ (Jato of tlift M'"oni«D,' on 
the north side, and deposited the price of her siaoritiecji in 
'iVumpeC No. 3, which was close to tlie rained dais or 
f^lWy where the women worshipped, apart from the mwi. 
And DOW the sound of the organ, which nnnoimuvd 
throughont the va.'it 'I'emple-biiildingB that the inceiitie 
WAB abont to be kindled on the Golden Al-tar, summoned 
those who were to be purified. Thechiefofthe miuistraitt 
lay-representntives of Israel on duty (the so-called 'station- 
men ') ranged those, who presented tipmselves before the 
Lord as offerers of special sacrificeB, within the wicketa on 
either aide the great Nicanor Gate, at the top of the 
Bfteen steps which led up from the Court of the Women 
to that of Israel. The purification-service, with snoh 
□nspt^en prayer and praise aa would he the outcome of 
a gratefnl heart, was aoou ended, and they who had shared 
[in it were Le^'itica! ly clean. Now all staio was reinove<l, 
' and, aa the liaw put it, they might again pjirtake of stared 

it has been obaerveil, that by the aide of every humili- 
l&tion ooiincfit<*d with the Hutiiauity of the Messitth, the 

39 Jesus the Mbssiar H 

(•I'jty of nis Divinity w«b also matie \n shine forfi. Tlift 
coincidences sre nianilestly undesigned ou the part of the 
Evangelic writeni, and \\i!X\<.-'6 all the more atriking. And 
so, when nnw the Mother of Jeaus in her humbleitees 
iiould onljf hring the 'poor'e oft'ei-iug/ t.Le witoeas to the 
greatness of Him "W'hotn she had borne was not want- ^k 
ing. ■ 

The 'parents' of Jeaiis had brauglit ilini into the 
Temple for preaentntion and redemption, when they were 
met by one, whose venerable figure iniiat have been well 
known in the pity and the SBUotuaiy. Simeon combined 
the three characteristics of Old Testament piety : 'justice.' 
as regardyd hiB relation and bearing to God and man ; ' fear 
of Gcxl,' in opposition to the V>oastfiil self-iiifhteousneBS of 
Phariaaism ; and, al«ive all, longinff expectancy of the Bear 
fiilfilment of the ^eat promiaes. and that in their spiritutJ 
iinpoit as ' the Consolation of Israel,' And nor it was as 
liftil been pi'Duiined him. furiiincr 'in the Spirit' into the 
Temple, just as Hie parents were bringing the Infant^ 
lesiiE, he took Him into his urnDi, and buret into thantcs- ■ 
giving. God had fultilled Hia word. He wns not to see 
deati, till he had seen the lioi-d's Christ. Now did his 
Lord 'dismiss' him 'in pcat'i^' — release liini from work 
and »viit<'h — since he Imcl artunlly seen tliut s^iilvntioii, so 
long preparing for a waiting weary world : a glorious light, 
Whose rising would light up heathen darknese, and be 
the oiifsliining glory around Israel's mission. 

But hia unexpected appeiirauce, the more imexpccted'' 
deed and woixJs, and that moat imespected and un-judaicl 
form in which what was said of the Infant Christ was pre- 1 
seated to their mijids, Idled the heai-Ut of His parents mthj 
wonderment. And it was as if their silent wonderment 
had been an nii.s|K>kfn ijuestioti, to which the answer now ' 
came in words of bleBsing from tlif iiyed wntj^lier. But 
now it was the ijersonal. or lather the -Jndaic, aspect 
which, in broken utterances, was net bftbre the Virgin- 
Uotlier — act if the whole lustoiy of the (.'Ijriat upon earth 
were pairing in rapid visiou before Simeon. That Infant 
was to h« a stone of decisiou \ a foundation and corner* 




(rtoii«,* for fall or tor upming ; a Kign qioken 
agaiiLHt ; tho svrord of deep personal sorrow wonld 
pieKo the Mother's henrt ; aud ho to tbe terrible t<iid. when 
tlie veil of ezteroaUsni nrhicli had ro long covt^i-^d th» 
Ixwrte of larofrH Iciuiers would be rent, and the deep tm\ 
of thoir thoughts laid bBr«. 

Nor was Simeon's the only bymn of priuse pd thtit day. 
A special interest sttachea to her who rwpoudMl in praise 
to (rod for tlitj pledge sho saw of tho near redemption. A 
kind of tayttl«i7 si-4-ina to invest this Ajulb. A widow, 
whoee early desolateness had been followed by a long life 
of solitary raoumingf : one of those in whose home the 
trilnul gununlogy had been pre^ervt^. We inftr from tJiis, 
and from the fiict t.hfit it wfts that of a. tribo which had 
aot returned to Palestine, that here ntuj a family of wme 
distioctaoa.- Curioiwly enough, tbe tribe of Aaher uloae is 
colebnttod in tnulition for the bc»utv «f iln women, and 
their fitness to be wedded to Hij^h-Pripst or Kinjt. 

These many yea.ra had Anna spent in the Sanctuary, 
and ypent in flirting and prayer— yet iiut of tliut nolf- 
rightcouB, Dulf-Mutififivd kind whioK wiih of the e«aeuoe of 
popular religion. Nor yet were "fasting and prayer* to 
her the all-in-all of rolij^on, sufficient in themselves; 
HufBcient alito betbre God. 'ilie M^iuiii^iy hniielewi exile 
of hor own tribe, th" piiliticnl statti of Judaea, the con- 
ditioo— social, moral, and religious^-of her own ■ft;ruaur< 
lem, all kindled in lier, as in those who weru likc-mitided, 
deep, eameel lun;.'in(; for the time of promised 'redemp- 
tioo.' No |>hu»< Mt nuitiid to Huch an one as tbe Temple, 
witli its services; no occupation so iK-litting oa ' fiutin^ 
and prayer/ And tht-re were others, porhapH tniinj- suctx, 
in .lenimileiu. I'hi.iiijjrli liabbiuic tradilion ignored Ibem, 
they were the salt which preserved the mass from festering 
cormption. To her, aa the repreaentntive of such, was it 

ited aa propbi^t«?88 to i^eognise Rim, Whose Adveiit 
beea the burden of Sijtieon'a praise. 


Jesus the Messiah 



(Bt. Matt, ii, 1-lB.) 

The story of the hotnnge to tie infant Saviour by tbe 
Magiii told hy St. Muttliew, in langiiE^e of which the 
brevity oonstitutea the chief difKculty. Even their desig- 
uatiou is not free Irom ambiguity. The term Matji isuaed 
ill the LXX., by Piiilo, JoBCipbus, ftiid by profane writers. 
aUke in aa evil und, bo to speiik, in a good seaae — in the 
former case as impiying the practice of magisftl 
aoktUI. I ; arte ; ' in the latter, as referring to those Eastern 
(spe-cial ly ChaMee) prieat-fiftg^Sj whose res&arohes, 
in great meuaare ns yet a^yelerious »ud anknomi to us, 
seem to have embrnced muoh deep knowledg*, though not 
untinged with auperatition. It is to these latter, that the 
Magi spoken of by St, Matthew must have belonged. 
Their nnmber — to which, however, no ini]>ortftn(M* at-- 
tachea — cannot be iiacertaiiied. Various suggBStions IiaTo 
been made jis to the country of ' tlie Kast,' wheDL-e they 
came, Tlie oldest opinion traces the Magi — thongh par- 
tially on inauflicieut grounds — to Arabia. And there is 
this in favour of it, tJiat not only the intercourse 
exiBtwl between Palestine and Arabia, but that fi-om about 
1 20 B.C. to the sixth century of our era, the kings of Yemen 
profeased the Jewish faith. 

Shortly aftf r tlie Presentation of the Infant Saviour in 
the Temple, c<*rtain Magi from the Kast aiTived in Jeru- 
salem with strange tidings, They had seen at its' rising' 
a sidtireal Bppearanc<^, which they regaj-ded as betokening 
the birth of the Messiah-King of the Jews, in the sense 
which at the time attached to that designation. Accor- 
dingly, they had couie to Jernsalem to pay homage to 
Him, probably not because they imagined He muet be bom 


Thu Visit of tub Magi 


ia the Jewish capital, but because they wonld natnrally 
expect tLere to obtain wiitlientic information, ' where ' He 
might be found. In tlieir siiuplicitry, tho Magi addrpasc^d 
themselves in the first place to the official head of the 
nation. Bat their inquiry produced on King Herod, snd 
111 the capital, a far (liiTerent impression from the feeling 
of the Magi. Uuscrnpalously cruel as Herod had nlwajfa 
proved, even llie sligLtest snepicion of danger to his rule 
— the bare possibility of the Advent of One, "Who had 
such claims upon the allegiance of Israel, and Wlio, if 
acknowlodg«d, would ctoIco the most intense movempnt 
on their i>art — must have struck terror to hie heart. Nor 
is it difficult to understand that the whole city shnuld, 
althongh oa different groonds, have shared the 'trouble' 
of the king. They knew only too well the character of 
Herod, and what tJie consecjufncea would be to them, or 
to any one who might be anspect-ed, however nnjtislily, of 
fiympat.hy witi any claimant to the royal throne of David. 
Herod took immediate measurtis, charncteriaed by hia 
^sual conning. He Called together all the High-Priests — 
pft&t and present — and all the learned Rabbin, and, with- 
out committing hiniself as to whi>ther the Messiah was 
already born, or only expected, Biinply pixjpounded to 
tliem tlie qnestion of Hig birthplace. At the same tiino 
he took care diligently to inquire the precise time, when 
the sidereal appuarance had first attriLCted the attention of 
• SLHatt. tin) Magi." So long oa any one lived, who waa 
"■' bom in Bothiehfm between the earlii'st appoftr- 

iiDce of this 'star' and the time of the arrival of the 
Magi, ha was not safe. The f^ubaequent conduct 
of llerod'' shuws that the Magi mu?t have told 
him, that their first observation of the phenomenon had 
taken place two years before their arrival in Jerusalem. 

The assembled aulhorities of Israel could only return 
one answer to the <|iifstioii submitted by Herod. As shown 
by the rendering of the TargiLm Jonathan, the prediction 
la Micwh V. 2 was at the time ■univereiilly understood nst 
pointing to Bethlehem, as tlie birthplace of the Mi-ssiah. 
That Ruoh waa the general expectation, appears from the 



Jbsus tub Hf&ssrAM 

T&lmad, where, in an imaginary txmveraatian betwaen 
Ar&b and a Jew, Bethie-heni is authorilativoly naun^d as 
MesBiftb's biitljplace. St. Matthew reproduced tho pro- 
pliel.ic ut.terancp of Micali, exactly as siicli quotations wera 
pgpoLarty made at that time. It will be i-L>m em bared that, 
Hebrew Iwing u dwid lauguoge so far ua tho people ware 
concerned, the Holy Scriptures were always translated 
into the popular dialect, the person bo doing being desig- 
natad MoiJinrc^ffmaii (r/iriujoman) or interpreter. These reii- 
deringB, which at the time of St. Matthew were not yet 
allowed to be written down, foi'mod the pi'soedent for, if 
not the basis of, our later TiiTgum. 

The further conduct of Herod was in Iteeping with 
hie plaoB. He sent for the Majj^i — for various reasons, 
Becretly. After aactii'tainiiig the precisfi fcime when they 
bad drat observed the '»t.ur,' he directed them to Beth- 
lehem, with the reqiieet to inform him when they had 
found the Cliild ; on preU-nc* that he was equally de^Lrooe 
with t.heui \aj pay Him hotnjigt). As they iefl Jernsalein 
for the goal of their pilgrimage, to their siirpri8e» and joy, 
the ' star,' ' which had attracted theli- attention at its 
' rising,' UTid which, as seeiott implied iu the narrative, 
they Lnd not seen of late, onoe more appeared on tlie 
horizon, and rteenii?d to move before tbem, till 'it stood 
over (vhero the young child was '—-that is, oC course, over 
Bothlehcm, not over any special houHe in it. And, aiiice 
in ancient times anoh extraordinary' guidanoe ' by a ' star' 
was inulter of belief and expectancy, the Mugi would, 

' A^i.ruTiQinically sijriikijig there cAn be ro dmbt tliiii ibe most 
remarkable conjuuctinii u£ piftuels— lluil. of Jupiter and t^aiLi.rn tn tbe 
conalvllatioii Pisms. wliioli iiooufti unly imvn in MK) yuara— touk place 
no laes tliftn three tiuic-s in Ibe year 717 A-i;.c., or Iwo years before the 
birth of Olirist (In M»y, Ocu. ami Ouc.). la the year following TAhtb 
jr-iiioil this conjunction. Koplcr, who wns led t« the discovoiy by ob- 
fecrving a aniila* conjuQiTlioti in 1003-1. also Dotic«l IliaL when tbu 
tlitpcv plEiiitt.s caitip iiitoi-uiijuiiyttoi] II nfw, extmoi'diniiril)' brilliant 
Etai VHi» visible buiwMU Jut^itir and Saturn, and be su^^csted that a 
eimilac star bud apix'artnl iiDuei the same clrcuuj^taaccf in lUc onnjuno* 
tion precediDg ibr Nniivity. It iiB" i)eta iwlmnoniioUy asccrlaianl 
iJifti kupIi n mdnrcnl aiijmriliim would bu vis.iL>lc tu ihocf who left 
TerasAkm. nnd that it would point— ftlmo«l wemto golwtoru — in Iho 
diiKction o£ itnd abind over Belhlcbeiu. 






fioiQ their standpoint, re^ui-d it «>h the fullegt confirmation 
iKftt tliey iiad Leen rightly directed to Bethlehem — »tiil 
' they rejoiced with oxcecdinp i^reat joy.' Ifc could not be 
difficult to letun in BetkJeheni, where tlie Infant, uronnd 
Wlioge BirtJi murvels Iind gathered, caight be fouDd. It 
apppftTB that the temporary shelter of the 'stable* had 
been exchanged by thp Holy Family for the more pep- 
,,„ maiiijiit iibotie of u 'houee;'' and there the 
Ma^i found tlie Infant- Saviour witli His Motlier. 

Only two things are recorded of this viait of the Magi 
to Bethlehem: their homage, and their offerings. Viewed 
oe gifts, the inueuwe. and the niyrrk woald, indeed, have 
been htnuij^ly iua[)|)ix)pii«te. But their oRei-iuga were 
evidently intended as specimenB of the productfi of their 
oouatTy, and their preaeritation was, oven ne iu oni' own 
days, expressive of the huniage of tlieii* country to ths 
aew-foand King. In thin eeiiite. then, tlie Magt may 
truly be regarded ae the rejiresentativeN of the Gentile 
World; their honii»f(o ii« the tirist siiidtypicwl nck-nowledg- 
tneut of Christ by tliase who hithert^i iuui been ' far off;' 
and their oflei'ings as symbolic of the world's tribute, l^he 
ancient Church has traced in the gold the emblem of 
Hia R<]^ltj ; in (he myrrh, of Uis Utiuiauity, and that in 
tie fnllest evideure of it, in Hin burying; and in the in- 
cense, that of Hi»r Divinity. 

it could nut be, that theae Magi should l)econie the in- 
8t«imentw of Heroirs inurdrrous designs; nor yet that 
the Lnfaiitr-yaWour ahould fall a riclim to the tyrant. 
Warned of God in a dream, the 'wise men' returned *into 
their own eowutry another way ; ' iind. warjiedby theAngeL 
of the Lord in a dream, the Holy Family songht temporary 
ln:lt«r ill Kyypt. Baffled in the hope of attaiiiiug bis 

;t thffjugh the Magi, the recklena tyrant sought to 
secare it by an jndiscrimitiottf slaughter of all the chil- 
dren in Bethlehem and its inunadiate neighbourhood, from 
two years iMid under. True, coiisidering thi; population of 
Bethlehem, their number could only have been small^ 
piubably twenty at most. But (lie deed wub uone the leas 
Btnxuous; and these infants may justly be regarded as 


/esu& tus Messiah 

the ' profoniartyre,' tlie firBt. witnesses, of Clirist, ' the blos- 
som of martyrdom ' (' florea martynim,' as Piiidanlim calla 

But of two passages in his own Old Teaturaent Sorip- 
tnres tlie Evangelist, sees a fiiltiloient in thf-se events. 
The flight into KgyiJt is to him the fulfilment of this ex- 
preaeion by Iloeea, 'Out of Egypt have I called My 
•HtiMi. 1 Son,'"' In tbe murder of 'the Innocents,' heaeea 
"jflt.axtii t.he fulfilment of Rachel's lament'' ovpr her chil- 
dren, tbo men of Benjamin, when the exiles to Babylon met 
in Ranmh," and there waa bitter wailing at the pro- 
spect of parting for hopeless captivil.y, and yet 
bitterer lament, fts they who might have eiicumlipred the on- 
ward march were pitileaety slaughtered. Those who have 
attentively followed the course of Jewish thinking, and 
marked how the ancient Synagogue, and that rightly, 
read the Old Testament in its unity, as ever pointing to 
the Messiah as the fulfilment of Israel's history, will 
not wonder at, bnt fully accord with St. Matthew's retro- 
spective view. 



(8t. Matt. a. 18-83 ; 8t. Lnkc ii. 39, *0.) 

TiTE stay of the Holy Family in Egypt must have heen of 
brief duration. The cup of Herod's misdeeds, but also of 
his misery, was full. During the whole latter part of hia 
life, the dread of a rival to the throne had hauui.ed him, 
and he hfid sacrificed thoiiseiDds, among them those nearest 
and dearest to bini, to lay that ghost. And still the 
tyrant was not at rest. A more terrible scene is not pre- 
sented in hiatory than that of the closing days of Herod.' 
Tormented by naiiielesB fears ; even making attempts ou 

' For an ari'Dunl of the personiil liislory of Hpfod see ' Life mA 
TlmM.' bk. Ii.. d>H|>a. V\. au<l ix., iui>l app. iv. 

The Child-upb in Nazareth 


his own life ; the deliriara of tyranny, the passion ibr 
blood, drove him to the v«-rge of inadoegs. The most 
lonthsonie disease hud fugteTii.'d on bis body, and his sufTer- 
lugs were at timca agonising. By the advice of his 
phyaiciniia, he hod himself carried to the batha of Cal- 
lirhuo (eoat of the Jurdun), trjiug all remedies with the 
tletentunatioii of one who will do hard battle for life. It 
ras ia Tain. He knew that hiB hour waa come, »iid had 
aaeif conveyed back to his palace uudur the palm-treea 
of Jericho. 

The htst days of Herod were etained by fresh murduni. 
The execution of Aatipater — the false aocuBer aad real 
Diiirderer of his half-brothers Alexander and Aristobolua 
^preceded the dt^ath of bis fatiher by but fire dayn. Tho 
Ifttter occun'?d fivjm spven to fourteen days before the 
I'lmaover, which in TOU tw^k place on April 12. 

Herod had reifrned thirty-aeren years — thirty-foor 
since hia couqut.-st of Jerusalem. Soon the rule for which 
he had so long plottwl, striven, aud ttt»int!d himsolf withi 
aotold criniee, passed from his descemluiite. A ceotury 
niui^!, and bis whole race had been swept away. 

Htiriid had three timesj t-luiu^d his testament.' But 
a few days before his death he made yet another disposi- 
tioa, by which Art'helaus, the elder brother of Antipaa, 
wa<i appointed king; Antipas tetraroh of Galilee and 
Pi-rajaj and Philip l^rarc-h of the territory east of the 
Jordan. Althoiij^h the Eiriperor Beeuis to have autliorised 
him to appoint his sutcesaiir, Herod wisely rande his dis- 
position dependent on tlie approval of Angustus. But the 
hitter was not by any means to be taken for granted. 
Archelaus had, imleed, been immediately proclaimed Kiiif» 
by the army ; but he prudently deeliued the title, till it 
had hoen confirmed by the Emperor. 

Aognstns decided, however, to do this, though with 
ertain slight tnodifi cations, of which the laost important 
fas that Archelaos should bear the title of ^M/wrcA, 
which, if he deserved it, would by-and-by be exchaaged 

' Herod bAii -mnnied no less titan Urn time*. 1^ his genealogical 



for that of Kiug. His dominions were to be JihJsp*, 
ItJiimtra, and Samariu, •willi a revenus of 600 talents (iilioufc 
2aO,OOU(. to 240,000/,). It i« needless to follow the for- 
tnnes of the new Etlm[irc]i, His lirief reign ceased in tlie 
year 6 of our era, when the Emperor baaiehed liiin, on 
Account of hia criniea, to Gaul. 

It muat have been sood after the accession of Arobeloue, 
but before tidingB of it hfid nctiially reached JosepU in 
Kgypt, that tho Holy Family returned to Palestine. The 
first intention of Jos&ph aeemg to have been to settle in 
Betliiehem, where be had lived since the birtli of J«sus. 
Obvious reasons would incline him to choose thig, and, if 
possible, to avoid Naicareth as the place of his residence. 
But when, uu reaohiny Paleatuie, lie learned who tho 
BUBceHsor of ETi^rod waii, aiid also, no doubt, in whut 
manner he had iuangnrnted hie reign, common prudence 
would have ditrt.Bted the withdrsuval of the rnfant-Savionr 
from the dominions of Archelaits. It needed Divine direc- 
tion to determine hia reriii-n to Nazureth. 

Of the many years spent in Nazareth, dining which 
JpKii3 pas.«('(l from infancy to mjwihood, the Evangelic 
narrative has left ub but briefest notice. Of Hia childhood : 
that ' He grew and waxed strong in spirit, filled with 
• fit, iui« wisdom, and the grace of (Jod was upon him ; ' ' 
"-*" ijf Hisi youth : besides the account of His ques- 

tioning the Rabbia in the Temple, lihe year before He 
attained Jewieli majority — that ' He was subject to His 
Parents,' and that ' He increased in wisdom and statnre, 
and in favour with God and man.' (^Considering what 
loring care wat-t'bed over Jewish chitd-life, tenderly 
mnrking by not fewer rbim eii^ht desit^nationfi the various 
stages of itB development,' and the deep interest natni'ally 
attaching to the early life of the Measiah, tliat .silence, in 
contrast to the almost blaisphemoiis absurditiea of the 
Apocryplml Gospels, teaches iia once more, that the 
Gospels fumitih a history of the Saviour, not u biography 
(tf Jesue uf NaKareth. 

< S<<» ■ >4ketch(^i -i Jewish ttoriiil Life.' BdM«t>«Ilu, pp. 103, KM, luid 

Itr THE NousB OP Hjs HsjiyENLy Father 31 




(St. Lukeii. 41-52.) 

Okce only IB tlie silence which lies on the hletory of 
ChriBC'fl enrly life brokeQ. It is to record what took place 
on His first \-igit to t)\& Temple. 

In strict law, personal observance of the ortUnances, 
and lience alleiiclwiice on the feasts iit Jerusnlem, devolved 
OD a youth only when he was of ag*, that is, at thirtesu. 
years. Then he became what was called ■» eon of the 
Cotnniandinent,' or 'of the Tornli.' But, as a matter of 
fBct, tbe lej^al age was in tiiis respect antici])at^d liy two 
years, or at least by one. It was iu accordance with thia 
custom that, OR the Bi'st Pascha after Jesus had passed 
His twelfth year. His J'areiits took Him with thfin in tht) 
'company' of the NaziiieuL-s to Jeniaalem. The t«xt 
Beems to indicate, that it was tlieir wont to go up to tho 
Temple; and we mark that, nUhoiigli women were not 
boond to tiiuke such persontil appearance, Mary gladly 
availed herself of what seems to have been the direction 
of Hillel (followed alao by other religious wom&n, men- 
tioned in Rfti)l)iiiic writings), to go np to the solemn 
services of the Sanctuary. Politically, timee liad changed. 
Arehelau-t was banishwl. and JudiPa, Samaria, and Idnmaja 
were now incvrpgral • d into tbi- Homan province of Syria, 
QHdor its Governor, or LegntiC, H. Nuljtieius Quirinios. Th» 
Rp&dal administration of that jiart of Palestine was, how- 
WBT, enlrustt'd to a Procurator, whose ordinary residftncB 
Was St Cic^arfji. 

It was. as we reckon it. in spring A.n, i), that JB.tnH for 
tie first time went ii]) to the Paschal Feast in Jerusalem. 
A briAf calm had fallen upon the land. Tbe census and 



tAxing, with the consequent rising of the Nfttionalists witli 
Kz^kias at their lieai;!, which bad marked the accession of 
H«rod, miMiauied tlie Great, were alikt' past. There was 
nothing to provoke active resistance, anil the party of the 
Zeikluts, an theNationalintsweruafterwanis called, although 
still existtng, and striking deep&r root ia the hearts of dbe h 
people, was, for the time, rather ' the philosophical party ' — ^ 
their minds busy with an ideal, which theiphanda were not 
yet preparing to makeareaiity. And so, when,accordiBgto 
• Pi lUi. 4 : ancient wout," the festive, company from Nazareth, 
jfc^m.sB ^Qc^ix swelled by other bauds, went ap to Jerusa- 
^ticcrpM-; lem, chanling by the way those 'Pealma of 
«x»itT. Ascent''' to the accompiuiiment of the flute, 
they might implicitly yield themselves to the epiritual 
thonghta kindled by such worJB. 

WhftD the pilgrims" fset etood within the gates of 
Jemaalem, there could have been no diflicalty in finding 
hospitality, however crowded the City may have Leeia ou 
each occasions — the more ao when we remember the ex- 
trem« aimplicifcy of Eastern manners and wants, and the 
abundance of previ'^ions which the many sacrifices of the 
season would supply. Glorious as a view of Jerusalem 
must have geemed to a child coming to it for the first time 
from the retirement of a Galilean village, we must bear in 
mind, that He Who now looked upon it was not an ordi- 
iinry Child. But the one all-engroasiug thought would be 
of the Temple. As the pilgri rn aaoended the Mouut, crested 
by that Byramotrically proportioned building, which conid 
hold within its gigantic girdle not fewer than 210,000 
perHona, hia wonder might well increase at every step, 
The Mount itself seemed like an island, abruptly rising 
fiom out deep valleye, siirromided by a sea of walls, 
pnlaces, streets, and honses, and crowned by a masa of 
suowy marble and glittering gold, rising terrace upon 
t«rrace. Altogether it measured a square of about 1,000 
feet. At its north-western angle^ and eonnectcd with it, 
ftowDe^ the Castle of Antonia, heJd by the Roman garrison.' 

• For a, (all description rerqrcnoe nm>it bo matla lo 'Tlie I'Bmplc^ 
Its Ministry a'i'l Sri-vioen. Sk' 



Iif THB House of His Hraven^TWather 



In Bome pftrt of this Temple, 'sitting in the midst of 
ill© Doctors, botb hearing them and aaking them questions,' 
we innst look for tlio Child Jesus ou the third and tlir 
two foUrtwing daya of tlie Feast on which He first vtriitod 
the Sanctuary. Only on the two tirst days of the Feast of 
Passover was personal attendance in tie Temple nec&saary. 
With the third day cuminenced tlie Bo-culled half-holiduyd, 
when it wae lawful to return to one's home— o provis,inn 
of which, no doubt, muny availed themselves. For the 
Passover had been eaten, the fentive eacrifice (or Chaglgah) 
O&ered, and the first ripe barley reaped and brought to the 
Temple and waved as the Onier of first flour before the 
Lord. Hence, in \-iew of the well-knowK Itabbinic pro- 
figion, the expression in the Gospel -narrative concerning 
•hcLqKe the ' Parents' of Jesus, ' when they had fulfilled 
the days,'" cannot necessarily imply that JoBei)h 
and tiie Mother of Jesus had remained in Jenisalem during 
whole Pasclitil week. We read in the Talmnd that 
memhers of the Tempte-Sanhedrin, who on ordinary 
days sat as a (Jourt of Appeal from the close of the Morn- 
ing to the timei of the Evening Sacrifice, were wont on 
Sabbaths and feast-days to come out upon ' the Terrace ' of 
the Temple, and there to teach. In such popular ioKtmo- 
tion the atmost latitude of questioning wonld be given. 
It is in this audii-nce, whlcli sat on the gronnd, sur- 
rounding and mingliag with the Dorlora — and hence 
dnring, not after the Feast — that we must seek the Child 

The presence and queetioning of a Child of that age 
did not neceswirily imply anything so extraordinary, as to 
convey the idea of supernatural nees to those Doctors or 
otbera in the sudienci.-. Jewieli tradition gises other ia- 
Btanoes of prticoeiouH and strangely advanced studenta, 
Beeidee, scientific theological learning would not be necea- 
BBrj' to take part in such pnpniar discussions. If we may 
judge from later aiTan^'cineuta, not only in Babylon, bat in 
FaU'stines tht>ra weru two kinds of public lectures, and two 
hiud» of atudeuts. The first, or more scientific lector«;ft, 
implied considerable prepwatiou on the pai'tof the lecturing 




IJabbis, and nt least sonw Talniudic knowl^gp on t-lie part 
1)1' tlitj itf.U'ticl;nit.,-i, Oil lite ot.lit-r hanil, ilipre were Stiiideuta 
of the Courts wiio dining ordinai^y lectures sat Beparafced 
from the regiiioi- BtiidentB by a kind of hedge, outside, aa 
it were in the Court, Bome of wliom setsio to liave been 
igiioraut even of Bible. The lectmes addressed to 
Biich a genpral autliince woiikl, of course, be of n very 
different chamtter. 

But if there WAS iiothiDg bo impreoedeDted as to render 
His PreBence and queBtioning marvelloua, yet all who 
heard Him 'were amiuspd ' at Jlie 'combinative inbigbt' 
and 'discerning nnawere." Jiidg'ing by what we know of 
auch diticus^ioQs, we infer that M\» questioning may liave 
been euunsL'ted with Ihp Paacha! soipmnitiL't. Or perhaps 
He would lead tip by His questious to their deeper mean- 
ing, as it was to be unfolded, when Hiniaelf w»h offered up, 
' t.he Lamb of t»od, Which tiaketh away the sin of the 
world ,' 

Other questions also alniotit force theiaeelfbd on the 
mind — moat notably this : whether on the occasion of this 
Hls first visit to tie Temple, the Vii-gin-Motherhadtuld her 
Son the history of His Infancy, and of what had happened 
when, for the firat time, He had been brought to the 
Temple. It would almost seem so, if we might jndge fi-om 
the contrast between, the Virgin-llothw'a cninptaint about 
the search of Hia father and of hrr, and Hiu own emphatic 
appeal to the buuineBs of His Father. But most sur- 
prising — tmly wonderful it uini^t have swmed to Joseph, 
and even to the Mother of Jesus, that the meek, quiet 
Child should have been found in such company, and so 
engaged. The reply of Jesus to the expostulation of them 
who had sought Him ' sorrowing ' these tlu-ee daya, sets 
clBariy these three things befori! ns. He had been Bo 
entirely absorbed by tJie awakening thought of Hia Being 
aud MiBalon, hotvever kindled, as to be not only neglectftd, 
bat forgetful of all around. Het-ondly ; we may venture to 
eay, that Hy now realiBed that this was emphatically His 
Fatlier'a HouBB. And, thirdly: hu far as we can judge, it 
was then and tJjere tliat, for the first time, He felt the 



» His Be 
■ Af 
K^ qu 


f/ir Tun Home op His Eakthlv Father 35 

irrwaistihi© iinpulsi>— Ihat niriiiw ni^cossity of 
His Being — lo be 'aUout His Futher's bu§inesa,' 

A liii'tlier. thotigli to uh it hl-^^-ihh u duwiiward xtep, waH 
tj^ quiet., iRiiiieiHate, anqui-st.ioniug ref.uru tif J^hus to 
tJi with Uis Parents, and His willin}? Hiibmission to 
them while there. It was not self-ex inanition but delf- 
»ul)iiiis8ion, all the more glorioiia in proi;ortion to tin- 
greatneea (if that Self. This coriRtaut uontiiist, befiirfe hrr 
eyes only tieepent!d ia the heart of Mary the ever-present 
Lmpression of 'all those matters, of which she waa tlie 
most oo^iennt. 

With His return to Nazareth began Jesns' life of 
youth and early manhood, with all of iiiivanl und nutwanl 
developinent, of heavenly and earthly iip|iiv.l)fttii>ii which it 
•su Lnke 11. carried.' Whether or not He weut to Jeroealem 
•> on racurriiig Feasts, we know not. and need not 

mqaire. Other iniltLvucea were nttheir silent wurU to wehl 
Hi.'i inward mid nutwartl development, and to (K'torininc the 
manner of Hie later Manifesting of Hinieelf. We oesume 
that the Hchool-iiduoiitioa of JfHus muHt have eea.^pd booq 
after ffiw ri'tai-n to Nuzaretli. 

Jewish home-life, eapocially in tlie country, was of 
the elmplest. Only the Sabbath and fi-stiMils. wht-thiT 
domestic or public, brought whiit of the best lay within 
roaoli. The same siuiplicitr would prevail in dreaa and 
nuuiQcrs. We cannot here di.sciiwj the ve.'ced qnt-stion 
whothwr ' the brotlieis and ststern ' of Jcsns were such in 
the real sense, or step-broMiers and siBleis, or else coiisina, 
though it seems to ns aa if the primary ni'-aniiig of the 
tenoH would ecarcely luwe been culltsi in 'inestioii, but for 
n theory nl faltii' nsccticism, und uti undervalonij; 
M.ti.l'i*; of tiie sanctity of the married estate.'' Bnt. 
r^Bu^i'V "wbat^jvei- the pr&cieo relationHhip between Jesus 
u'it-sn!'' ""'* ili?^e 'brothers and aietera," it must, on any 
sitk tJieory. have been of the closest, and oxereised 
icion.Ui its influence upon Him. 

s:iM.f.i9 i'a'ising over -loBeB or Joseph, of whose his- 

tory we know next to nothing, we would venture to infer 
from tJie Epistle of St. Jivnies, that his I'eligiouB views hail 


/rsvs the Messiah 

originally been cast in the mould ftf Shanimai. Of His 
couHin Simon ' we know tlrnt; he had belonged to the 
Ifat.ionaH9t party, ainoe he is expressly so designated 
■ SLLuka (Zotot'js,' Caiui/tUKan*'}. Lastly, there are in the 
»l-i>:A«« Epiatle nf St. Jnde, oni> undoubted and another 
»'bt,ii«1( probable reference to two of those (Pseudepi- 
"'■'" j^iipliio) ApoiL-alyptic books, which at that time 

jDork^d oue deeply iutereatinj^ phase of tlie Messianic out- 
look of Israel.' We have thue within the nnr- 
Yv, n,''»io row oircle of Chriat'e Family-Life — nob t« spenk 
Sr.X'w"! ^'' "■"y intercourse with the sous of Zebedee, who 
jiUpruhibiy probably w«re also His touslns — the tJiree nuiat 
lmin.of hopeful and pure Jewish tendencies, brought int<i 
coDKtjiut contitct with Jesns: in Pharisaism, the 
teaching of Sliamiuai; then, the Katioiialist ideal; and, 
filially, the ho|»e of « glorious Messianic future. To these 
there slinnid probably be added at least knowledge of the 
lonely pi-epaiaiion of His kin!?iiian John, who, though 
certainly not an Esaen?, had, from the necessity of his 
calling, mach ia his outward bearing that wns akin to 

From what are, neceesarily, only euggestions, we turn 
agftiii to whiit is certain in coonection with Hia Family- 
Life and its inlluences. lV)in St. Mark vi. 3, we mny 
infer with great probability, though not with absolute cer- 
•oini.ii.3i. tainty,"* that He had adopted the tradeof Joseph, 
(T't-woiin Among the Jews the contempt for manual labour, 
»!■ " which was one of the character ietics of heathenism, 

did DOt exist. Ou the contrary, it was deemed a religioua 
duty, frequently and most earnestly insisted upon, to learo 
Bome trade, provided it did not iniui^ter to luxury, nor; 
tend to lead uway from pei-wonal obeervance of the Law. J 
ITiere was not such separation between rich and poor «»1 
with us, and while weulth might confi-r social distinction,,] 
the absence of it in no way iBipHed social inftiriority. 

The reverL'nce towards parents, as a duty higher than! 
any of outward observance, and the love of brethren, whicl] 

' I regard thid Simoti (Zcldtea') ua the eon of Olopas (bntlber i 
JiMopli, the Virgis'a htiaband^ luiJ of Ntiiry. 

A Voice m thb W/u}f.x\' 


iffliis hnd learoed iu His liuiue, form, &o to gpeak, ilie 
natural baaio of many of His* teachings. They ^wk us 
al»u sn iusif^ht into tJie faraily-life of NaKareth. Even thft 
euxnett of childreu, as well tis festive Riif heriogB of families, 
Dod their record in I.he woi'dg uad the life of Christ. Thi« 
also is c)iaiiu:teriflt ic of His pasf. And ao iiro Uis di'i-p 
Byinpnlhy with all sorrow and suffering, and His lovti fop 
the fnmily circle, ns evideoced in ihv. home nf Lnaanis. 
That He spoke Hebrew, and used and quotol tlie Hcrip- 
tnree in tlie original, has bean sliowm,' although, no doubt, 

■ lie nnderstood Greek, possibly also Latin. 
Thn6, Christ in His honie-life and eurroulidiDg'S, n» 
well as by the prevailing ideas mth which He was brought 
into contact, waa in syropathy with all the highest tendeii- 
CiM of His ptiwple and time. Htiyond this, into the mys- 
tery of His inner converse with God, the nnfolding of Uis 
epiritoal receptlveaeBB, and the incre&sing commuaication 
from above, we dare not enter. It is best to remain con- 
teat with tlie aimple accoout of the Evaii^Uc uurrativQ: 
H < Jesns increased iu favonr with God and man.' 



(B*. Mstt. iii. 1-ia J a. Mark L 8-8 ; St. LuVe HI. 1-1».) 

A SILENCE, even more complete than that coucermnfj tho 
early life of Jesna, rests on the thirty years and inoi-e, 
vbioh intervened between the birth and the open forth- 
showing of John in his character bs Forerunner of the 
Idcssiab. Only his outward and inward development, and 
♦"fc. LoiB 1. '''^ beintf ' in th^P deKsrts,' are briefly indicated,' 
■*> At last that aolemn ftiteneo was broken by an 

&ppe-aranc(<, a proclamation, a rite, and a ministry as 
rtartling as that of Elijah had been. In many respects, 
indeed, the two messengers and their times bore singular 

1 Sica ' Life and Tiui«« af Jesos the MeaaiaK,' voL J. p. :t34. 


Jbbvs the MesstAH 

liUenesa. -Tolin tame fluddanly oat of the TOilderuesa of 
Jiidiea, as Elijah from the wihis ol Gileml ; John bore the 
same strange ascetic appeBi-anae as liis predecpssor; the 
[iieBsag-f of John was t]ie counterpart of that of Elijah ; 
his Iwiptisni that of Klijah'a novel rite on Mount Carmel. 
And, as if tn make complete the parftllelism. even the more 
minufie ilt^tnils siirraunding the life of Elijah fonud their 
counterpart in tJiat of Jolui, 

Paleatiue, the ancient kingdom of Herod, was now 
divi-ded iiitu four paite: Judiea bping under the din?ct 
ad minist ration of Rome, two otiit'r ti»trarchiea under thft 
rule of Herod's soup (Heiijd Anttpae and Philip), while 
the small pri iicijiality of Abilene was governed \>y L^sa- 
maa, of whom nu detnils can be I'liniielicd. 

Hurod Antijms, whose rnlp ext^ndfd ovftr forty-thiwe 
years, reig^ned over Galilee and Peitea — the districts which 
were reapectively the principal sphere of tlie Miniatry of 
Jesos and of John tlie Baptist. Like bia brother Arche- 
laus, Hl'toiI Autipaa poss^iised in an even aggi-avatfid form 
most of the vices, without any of the greater qualitiea, of 
his father. Of deeper religious feelings or convictions he 
was entirely destitute, thoufi^h his couscieace occasionally 
misgave, if it did not reatraiD, him. The iuherent weak- 
ness of his character left liim in the absolute control of liia 
wife, to the final ruin of liis fortaoes. He was covetona, 
avariciouSf luxiiriouB, and utterly dissipated; sui^picious, 
aud with a good deal of that tbx-cunning which, especially 
in the East, often forms the sum total of etat-e-craft.. Like 
his father, he indulged a taste for building — always 
taking care to propitiate Rome by dedicating all to the 

A happier account can he jjiven of Philip, the son of 
Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem, He was a 
moderate and just ruler, and his reign of thirty-eeven 
years contrasted favourably with that of h is Idrismen. The 
land was quipt and prosperous, and the people contented 
aud happy. 

As regards tlie Roman rule, matters had 
changed for the worse aiuce the mild away of AugaatuH. 


greatly I 

:astuB. ^1 

A VoiCB m THB. Wilderness 



When Tib(^riiis aaccaeded to the Empire, and Jiidajii 
■was a proviuce, uitroilvua burMimt'sa characterised the 
lulmimstnitioD of Palestine; while the Emperor himnelf 
WHS bitterly hostile to Juclai--m and tlie -Jews, and that 
slthongli, personally, opL-oly careless of all religion. 

St. Luke significantly 'y>va% tog^i'ther, aa the highegt 
religioas authority in the liiud, tbe uames of Annas and 
Cuiaphns. The fortner had been appointed by Qairiniiia, 
After holding the Pontificate for nine years, he was de^ 
posed, and succeeded by othpi-s, of wliom tbe fourth was 
liis aon-iii-law Cajaphas, in whom the Procurator at last 
focnd a anffjcieutly submisaive inBtrument of Rotimn 
tyranny. The cliaracter of the High-Priests during tlie 
whole of that period is described in the TaEmud in terrible 
language. And attbongh there is no evidence tbab 'the 
liou8e of Annas' was guilty of the xnme sins as some of 
tbeireacoessors, they are included in the woes prnnonoced 
oo the corrnpt le-aders of the priesthood, whom the Sanc- 
tuary is represented tis bidding depart from the aacred 
precincts, which their presence defiled. 

Such a cumbiuatioQ of political and religious distreBS, 
Barely, constituted the time of I^mel's ntm'>st need. As 
DO attempt had been made by the people to right 
Bmaelves by Jirmed forcM. In these circumetanoea, the 
cry that the Kingdom of Heuveii was neiir at hand, and 
the call to preparation for it, mnet have awakened echoes 
throngbout the Land, and startled the most careless and 
uubelieviny. It was, according to St. Lake's exact state- 
ment, in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Cteaar 
— reckoning, as provincials would do, from his co-regency 
witb Ang\iatUB (which commenced two years before his 
sole r«igii) — in the year 2G a.D. According to our former 
compntation, .lesus would then be in Hia thirtieth year. 
The scene of John'a first public appearance was in. * the 
wilderness of .Jwilti'iii,' that is, the wild, desolate district 
around Uie mouth of the Joidan. We know not whether 
■St.lato John baptized in this place, nor yet how long he 
^'•' continued there; but we are expressly told that 

hia stay was not confined to that locality.' Soon afterwarda 



40 /bsus the Messiah 

we find him at Bethany "(A.V, Bethabara), wliict is fnrt.ber 
■ fit-Jobni. I'P til* atreaiu. The ontiward appearance and 
•* the habits of the Measeuger corresponded to the 

chttFttCter and object of his Mlasion. Neittier his droBB nor 
liis food was that of tlie I'lssenes ; and the Ibriner, at least, 
like that of bilijab," whose miBaioa he wa« novr 

to ' fiiitii; 

Thia was evidenced alike by what, he preached, and by 
the n<?w eymbolic rite, from which lie derived the name of 
* liaptist.' The gi'nnd burden of his messafje was : the 
announcemeut ui" the apunmch of ' the Kingdom of 
Heaveu,' aui3 the needed prepiiratiou of his hearers for 
that Kingdom. The latter he sought, positively, by ad- 
monition, and, negatively, by warninga, while he directed 
all to the Coming One, in Whom that Kingdom would 
becoDie, bi> to speak, iudividuidiaeil, 

Oonceming this ' Kingdom of Heaven,' which was the 
great measa^'i of John, and the great work of Christ Him- 
finlf, we niuy hero aay, that it is tlie whole Old 'I'estaraeut 
sublimated, and the whole New Testament realised. This 
rule of lieaven and Kingship of Jehovah was the very sub^ 
stance of tlie Old Testament ; the object of the catling and 
iniHaion of Israel ; the meanmg of a!l its ordiuancos, 
whether civil or rt>ligiou9; the underlying idea of all ita 
institutions. It explained alike the history of the people, 
the dealings of God with them, and the prospects opened 
up by the pi-opheta. It constituted alike the real contrasll 
between Israe! and the nations of antiquity, and Israel'a 
real tiifcle to dietinctlon. 

A review of many passages on the Bubject ehowB that, 
in the Jewish mind, the expression ' Kingdom of Heaven ' 
referred, not so much to any particular period, aa in 
general to Ike Htih of God — as acknowledged, manifeetred, 
and eventually perfected. Very often it is the equivalent 
for personal acknowledgment of God : the taking upon 
oneself of the ' yoke ' of ' the Kingdom," or of the com- 
mandmejitfi — the former preceding and conditioning th« 

As we pa»8 from th« Jewish ideas of the time (u tli« 


joCthe New Tnuwis «a fiael lint whilp them 

m aocopleto cii&Qge of i^inl, tii* Ibna is wlucli tbe idea 
of the Ejngdcas of HeaTso is presented is sobeunlullj 
HntiUr. . 

John tame to call larael to sabmit lo Uw B«ig7i of 
God, abcnit. to be nMuferted is ChjisTu Drace, nc lit^ <mw 
hand, be called UaeBtonpestaoce — ■' change of mind'— 
trilJi all that thin imptied; and, on tlu oUier, poiitiied thea 
to ihe Christy in the ■Mtoffwn of Si Peoiou nd tX^a^ 
Thns the eymbolu: action Inr n-hich Uns pnadung mu 
accompaoied mi^i be deeignatod ' the haptistn of repeat- 

For what Jobn preached, that hd alito »;FtDbolued \iy » 
rite which, duwfrh not ia itae)^ yet in itR applioatkn, wai 
whuUy new. Htihtoto the L«w had it. ihat those who had 
oontriicted Leviiiual defileniMit wen tu immersR befone 
ofiering sacrifice. Again, it ms preMnhrd that snch 
Geaitike as became * proselytes of riffhteoiigness,* or ' prcn 
wlytes of the CoreDant,* were to be admitted to fVill poiw 
ticipatioa in the privities of Israel by the tbre^fnld ritea 
of eirconicisioD, baptiam, and sacnlioc — thi? imiDCRiioa 
being, m it were, the AcknowIedgmeDt aad i^mbolid 
rvmora) of moral defilement, corresponding to that of 
[jeTictcal uncleanness. But nvvis' befnrs had it beeo pnv 
posed that Israel t-houldnndergoa 'baptism of repfntaiioo/ 
although there are iiKlicatknu of a dec^ter insijfht iuto the 
meaning of Levitical bapd&ms. Was it intended that the 
hearen of John should give this as evidetMse of their i^- 
pentance, that like persons defiled th<iy sought puriOca- 
tioti. and like strajigere liiey sought, adniissiuii amonp the 
people who look on tht5JDs*>lves tjje Rule of tjod V 'ITieBe 
two ideas woald, indeed, liare miide it truly a ' baptism of 
repentance.' But it septus dilSuiilt to suppoite that tfao 
people would hare beea prepared for such admisaiotis ; or, 
at least, that there ahould have Ijeen no record of tlm modo 
in which a change so ileeply spirituikl was brought alwut 

•CiBBi>.o«a. ^'*y '' not rather have been that ns, when the first 

CJorenant was made, Moses waa dirt-cted to pr^ 

pare Israel by symbolic baptiBm of their persons* and their 


fesus THE Messiah 

(•armeuts,' so the inidaCioii of the ntcw Covenant, by which 
•K(.lU.10. '■'"' jieople were to enter info tlie Kingdom of 
" (fod, was preceded by another ge-nenii wymboUe 

bfipt'itnn of those wlio would be the true Israel, anj. receive, 
or tftke on themselTCS, the Law from God ? 


(St. Matt, iii 13-17: ^^- Mark i. T-II; 8b. Luke Ifl. Zl-23) 
St. JghD i. 32-34.) 

The mure we thiak of it, the better do wa seem to uiidt^r- 
Btaiid liow that ' Voice cryiag ia the wilderness: Repeufc! 
for ths Kingdom of Heaven ia at hand,' awakened cicboes 
throughout the land, and brought from city, village, and 
hniiilet strangest LearerB. For once, eveiy distinction was 
levellfid. Pharifiee and Sadducee, outcast pubhcan and 
semi-heathen soldier, met here as on common ground. 
Their bond of onion was the common ' hope of Israel '^ 
the only hope that remained : that of ' the Kingdom,' 

That Kingdom had been the hiet word of the Old 
Testament. As the thoughtful Israelite, whether Eaateni 
or Wesl-em, viewed even the central part, of his worship in 
aacrificea, and remembered that hia oivn Scriptures had 
^okea of them in terms which pointed to something be- 
yond their oflertng,' he ninat felt that ' the blood of 
bulls and of goata, and the ashes of an heifer sprinkling 
the unclean,' could only ' saactify to the purifying of the 
flesh;' that, indeed, the whole body of ceremonial and 
ritual ordinances 'could not mako him that did theservico 
perfect as pertaining to the eonseience.' They were only 
'the shadow of good things to come ;' of 'anew' and 'better 
* Het ii covenant, eetabiished upon better promises.' '' It 
gr»i"-'i; was otherwise with the thought of the Kiugdooi. 
£ach successire link in the chain of prophecy, 

' Cotnp. I Bam, »-. 22 ; Fe, xl. 6-8: li. 7. 17; I"- '- H-IB ; Jor. Til. 

%?„ S3; AoiDST. 21, 22^ SodiM, vii. y i zxxiv. 18. 19; suv. 1,7. 

Thb baptism op fssvs 


even the wiltl faiitasies of Apocalyptic liLeiatiire, bouud 
Isriiel anew to tbis hope. 

This great espectoucy woiiid be >\ rung to utmost ten- 
sion during the pressure cA outward cLrcnmshinces more 
hopeless than any hitherto experienced. And now the cry 
hftd been suddenly raised: *The Kingdom of Heaven iB 
at hand!' It was heard ia the wilderness of Judeea, 
within ft few hours' distance from Jernsnlfni. No wonder 
Pharisee and rtfidducee floi^kKd to the spot. They would 
not see anything in the messenger that could have given 
their expectations a nide aliock. Hia waa not a call to 
arroed reaistance, but to repetitituce, aiich ae all knew and 
felt must precede the Kingdom. The hope which he held 
out was not of earthly pasaessions, Iiiit of purity. His 
appearance would command reapect. and hia character was 
in accordance with his appearance. Not rich nor yet 
Phonssic garl) with wide fringe^!, hound with many-colon reel 
or even priestly girdle, but the old pro|iliot's poor raiment 
and a leathern girdle. Not a luxurioug life, but one 
of meanest fare. ■ Not a ref*d shaken by the wind,' but 
unbendingly firm ia flee]> and settled conviction. For 
himself he sought nothing; for Chem he had otily one 
absorbing thought : The Kingdom was at hand, the King 
was coming— let them prepare! 

Sucb entire ahsorpHoti in his misaiciu, which leiivea ns 
in ignoranca of even the details of hia later activity, must 
have given force to hia meBsage, And stilt the voice, 
evei-ywhere proclaiming the Fame message, travelled up- 
ward, along the winding Jordan which cleft the tand 
of promise. It was probably the autiiinii of the year 
779 (a.u.c), whieh, it may be noted, was a Sabbatic 
yeiir. Beleused from bu-sinese and agriculture, the mul- 
titudes flockod around him as he passed on his Misfiion. 
He had reuch', \ -vhat seems to have been the most 
northern point of hia Mission-journey, Bntli-AMra (*the 
house of pn-teage,' or 'of shippiug') — according to the 
ancient reading, Bethany ('the hons«> of shipping') — one 

• Kt. John L ^^ ''^^ fprdw across the Jordan into IVrira. Here 

* he baptized.' But long before John had reached 

44 jESt/S THB MeSSIAH^^^^^^^^^ 

Uidt spot, tidiu^'s of his word aud work mast liave come 
erea into tlie retirement of Jesus' liomfi-lite. 

From earliest ages it haa been a question why Jesus 
went to be baptized. We need not Beek for any ulterior 
motlTe. The oue question with Him was, as He afti?rwarda 
put it : ' The Baptism of Jolin, whence was it ? from 
heaven, or of men ? ' (St. Matt, xxi. 26). Th;it question 
once answered, there could be no longer douLfc nor heaita^ 
tioii. He went not from any other motive than that it 
jwtw of QoA. The Baptism of Clirist was the last act of 
His private life ; and, emerging from its waters in prayer. 
He learned, when His business was to commence^ and 
how it would be done. 

Aione the two met — probablyfor the first time in their' 
lives. Over that whit;h passed between them Holy Scrip- 
ture has laid the vfii of reverent silence, save aa regards 
the beginning and the outcome of their meeting, which ib 
waa necessary for na to know. When Jeeua came, John 
knew Uim not. And even when he knew Him. that was 
not enough. For ao great a witness as that which John 
waa to bear, a present and vigiWe demonetration from 
heaven was to be given. 

We can understand how what he knew of Jeans, and 
what he now saw and heard, must overwhelmed John 
with the gense of Chnelis transcendental !y higher dignity, 
and led him fo hesitate about, if not to refuse, administer- 
ing to Him the rite of Baptism. Not because it was ' tlie 
baptism of repentance,' but because he stood in the 
presence of Him ' the latchet o!" Whose shoes ' he waa ' nob 
worthy to loose.' And yet in bo 'forbidding' Him, and 
even Bu^eeting his own baptism by Jesus, John forgofc 
and misiinderstood hia mission. John himself was never 
to be baptized ; he only held open the door of the new 
Kingdom ; himself entered it not, and he that was lenst in 
that Kingdom was greatiir thtm he. Jesus overcame his 
reluctance by fa.!ling hack upon the simple and clear 
principle which had brought Him to Jordant ' It beeoraeth 
us to fulfil all righteousneae.' Thus patting aside, with- 
out argument, the objection of the Baptist, He followed 


llowed m 

r/w BAPTISM op Tnsus 


pointed Uim 



tho Hand I 

Jesus stepped oiit of the Iwptisnial waterB ' prajiiig.'' 
• BcLuk* One payer, the only one which H« taudfittHis 
i"- *' disciples, recura to our tniDds. 

Aa the prayer of Jeens winged heavenwftrds, Hia 
solemn responsi* to the cnll of the Kingdom — ' llere am I ; ' 
' Lo, I oome to do Thy Will ' — the answer came, wLich at 
the same time was also tlie predicted eign to the Baptiflt. 
Heaven seemed cleft, and, in bodily shape like a dove, tlie 
Holy Ghost descended on JeeuB, remaining on Him. Here, 
at these waters, waa the Kingdom into which Jesna had 
entered in the fuitilment of all lighteousnesBT and from 
th^m He emerged as ita Heaven -designati'd, Heaven- 
qunlified, and Heaven-proclaimed King. As such He htid 
received the falness of the Sjiirit for His Mesgianio work. 
As aocb also the voice from Heaven proclaimed it, to Him 
and to John: 'ITion art ('this is") My Beloved Sou, ia 
Whom I am well pli^ased.' I^lie ratification of tine ffrt^at 
Davidic promise, tlie announceDieTit of the fiilfilment of its 
predictive import in Paalm ii,, waa Code eolemn declara- 
tion of Jesna as the Messiah, His public proclamation of it, 
and the bt-j^i lining of Jeans' Messianic wort. And sio tho 
>3t.Joba L BaptJBt understood it, when he ' bare record* that 
He was ' the Sou of God.' ^ 



(St Ualt. ir. I-lliSt. Uark 1. 12. 13; 8t, Luke i v. 1-13, > 

The pnKrlitmtition and inauguration of the 'Kingdom of 
Heaven ' at fiuch a tiniei, and under sticli circuinataucee, 
was one of the great antitb&iea of history. A similar, even 
greatiir antithesis, was the oommeuceme>nt of the Ministry 
of Christ. From the Jordan to the wilderneaa with its 
wild beasta ; from the devout ocknuwledgmeot of the 

4S Jb$j/s thr Mbsstah 

Baptist, the i\>iiswl- ration and lilml piavtr of JeBUn, the 
tleecect nf tin' Holj' Hpiril.^ luiil tLe heard tpstimony of 
Heaven, to the utter foi'sakenness, the felt want and weak- 
ness of Jeaua, and the assaults of the Devil — no coutiast 
more startling could be conceived. 

And yet that at His consecratinn to tlip KingsLip of the 
Kingdnm, Jesus should have become clearly conacious of all 
that it implied io a world of siu ; that the Divine method by 
which that Kingdom shoald be t)atabliHLed,ahould have been 
clearly bi-ought out, and its reality tested; and that tha 
Kin^, aji Represeiitiative and Founder of the Kingdom, 
should have encountered and defeated the representative, 
founder, and holder of the opposite power, 'thi? prince of 
this world ' — th«se are thoughts which must arise in every 
OD6 who believes in any Mission of the Christ. We can 
underst'Und how a Life and Work Buch aa that of JesuH 
would comoieiice with ' the Temptation,' but none other 
than His. Judaism never ooneeivetl such an idea ; because 
it never conceived a Mpasiah like Jesus, Tlie patriarchs 
indeed had been tried and proved ; eo had Motes, and all the 
lieroes of faith in Israel. And Rabbinit- legend, eulaiping 
■upon the Bi blical narratives, baa ranch to tell of the original 
envy of the Angels; of the assaults of Satiin upon Abraham, 
when about to oH'er up Isaac ; of attempted resietance by 
the Angels to Israel's reception of the Law ; and of the 
final vain endeavour of Satan to take away the soul of 
Moses. Foolish, and even blasphemous, aa some of those 
legends are, thus much at leaat clearly atands out, that 
Bpiritual trials must precede spiritiial elevatiou. In their 
own language : ' The Holy One, blessed be His Name, doea 
not elevfite a man to dignity till He has first tried and 
Bearched him ; and if he stands in temptation, then He 
raises him to dignity.' 

But so fiu" from tiny idea obtaining that Satan was to 
assault the Messiah, in a well-known pasfidge the Arch- 
enetny is represented as overwlieimed and falliDg oa his 
face at sigrht of Him, and owniag his complete defeat. 

Thus, though auch ideas were, indeed, present to the 
Jewish mind, they were so io a sense opposite to the 

The THAtPTATfON OP je^j^^^^^^^ff 

fitmel llMTttiiTea. But if tbe nnn-ative cannot be trored 
to BablMhtc leg^d, th« f^uestion may be raised if it be not 
as ndaptstiou uf an Old Ttratfim^-Dt narrative, auab ua the 
uCcoUDt of the forty days' I'uat ofMoyfyon tho mount, op of 
Elijah is tbe wildemeee ? Viewing tbe Old Testatueat in 
its unity, and tbe MenHiah aa tbe ap*x in tbe column of ita 
history, wi* iidniit^ — orrathiT, we must expt'ct — tlir«ughout 
. jjHB|8 of corrfS|>ondence hetwf-en Moses, Elijnb, and the 
'HMnab. Ill liict, tbesQ may be deacribedas niorkiitg tUo 
Ibree slaves in tba bistory of thp Covenant. Mosen was 
its (river, illHjiiL its j'eatorer, tbe Mis^iab its ren^wer and 
perfecter. And as such they all bad, in a. aense, u similar 
outward CODS eL-rntiou for their work. But that neither Moses 
nor fUijab was uasailed by llie Devil, couatitutt^K not tba 
only, though & ^ntal, djflprt'nce l)etwt:oii the fust of Mcises 
and £bJBh, and that of JeNUH. Moees fasted in tba middle, 
ElijaJi at the end, Je&ue at tbe beginning of His ministry. 
Moseig fast«d in the Presence of God ; ElijuJi alone ; Jesus 
AM^nlted by tbe Devil. Moaes liiid lieea calbd np by God; 
Elijah bad gone forth iu the bitterness of bis own spirit ; 
Jeaus was driven by the Spirit. Moses failed afler bia 
forty days' fast, when in indignation he cust tba Tables of 
the Law from bim ; Elijah tailed before bin forty days' 
fflBt; Jeaus was aasiiiled for forty days and endured tbe 
trial. Moses waa atigrj- against Israel; Elijab despaired 
of Israel ; Jeaus overcame for Israel. 

Before proceeding furtber, a most difficult and solemn 
qoeation ariaea ; la what respect oould Jesus Cliriat, tbe 
Perfect Sinless Mnn, the Son of God, have been tempted 
of tbe Devil ? That He was so tempted is of tbe very 
essence of this narrative, contirmed tbrougbout His after- 
lifv, and laid down as a fundamental principle in the 
• Jisb. It. teacbing and faith of tbe Church.' On tbe otheh 
'* hand, temptation without the inwai'd coiTespond- 

ence of esistettt sin is not only uutbinbable, 8o far as man 
•Bt.Jmiira '** concerned,*" but temptation without the poesi- 
''^* bility of aiu geeins nnreal — a kind of Doc'etism.' 

' Tlic herusj wliic-1: reprtavuls the Body of Clirlst «» cmlj apparent 
not nal 


Jesus tub Messiah 



Yet the very passago of Holy Scriptui-e iu which Chriat'a 
Kjuality with us aa regards alt tumptntion is expressed, 
also emphatically excepts from it this one particdar, mji," 
Heb.iT. not only in the aense that Christ actually did not 
sin, nor merely in this, that ' our concupiBconce ' * 
Lttd no part in Hia templalioas, but. emphationlly 
in this also, that tba notion of sin has to be wbolly ex- 
cluded frotu our thoughta of ChriBt's temptations. 

To obtaiu, if we can, a clearer understanding of this 
Biibject, two points inast be kept in view. Christ's waft 
real, though unfullen Hun^nn Nature; and Christ's Haman 
was in inseparable union with Hia Divine Nature. Jeaua 
volimtarily took upon Himaelf huaiiia nature with all its 
infirmities aud weahoeases — but. withoot the moral taint 
of the Fall : without ain. It was humati nature, in itself 
capable of Binning, bat not having dnned. The position 
of tbe first Adam waa that of being capable of not sinning, 
not that of being incapable of ainiiiag. The first Adam 
would have been 'perfected'— or paaaedirom the capability 
of not einnicg to the incapnbiiity of sinning — by obedience. 
That ' obedience ' — or absoluto submission to the Will of 
God — was the grand outetanding chaTacteristic of Christ's 
■work J but it was so, because He was not only the Uii- 
fiinuing, Unfalh^n Man, but also the Son of God. To sum 
np: The Second Adam, morally urifaileii, though volau- 
tiixily Bobject to all the conditions of our Nature, was, 
■with a peccable Human Natnre, absolutely impeccable 
as being also the Son of God — a peofable Nature, yet UQ j 
impeccable Pel-son : the God-Man, ' tempted in regard to f 
all (things) in like manner (as we), without (excepting) 

A few sentences are here required in explanation of 
eeeming ditferencea in the EvangelicaJ narration of th» 
event. The historical part of St. John's Gospel begins 
aflar the Temptation — ^that is, with tlie actiiiU Ministry 
of Christ. If Si. Mark only summarises in his own brief 
manner, he supplies tho twofold notice that Jesus waa 
*driveu' into the witdernoHa, 'and was with the wild 
beaats,' which is in fullest, interoal agi'&ement wi' 




with thd J 

rue TtMPTATtok Of /esus 49 

defaQed natrstiveB of St.. Matthew and St. Lnke. The 
oiily noteworthy di Iff fence between these two iB that 
St. Matthew places tlie Temple- temptation before that of 
t}ie world-kingJuQi, while St. Ltike inverts this wrdwr, 
probably because hia narmtive was priraarily intendpd for 
Gcntilo rtradera, to whose mtiKl this might present itself 
»9 to them the trne grjiilalion of tenip'i:iion. To 8t. 
Mattijew we owe the notice, that aft*?r tU« Temptation 
'Angels came and ininiHterud' unto Jesus; to St. Loko, 
tit&t tiie Temjiter only ' departed from Him for a season.' 

Daring the whole forty days of Ghrist's stay in the wil- 
derness His t.c-mjitntion continued, though it only attained 
i\a high-puikt at the Jai«t, wht^, »fter the long fu»t, Uu 
felt the weariness and weakness of hanger. As fasting 
occupies but a very subordinate place in the teaching of 
Jesus, and iia, so for aa we know. He eixerciged on no othur 
occasion such aacetic practices, we are left to infer internal, 
us well as t'xtt'nial, neceasity fop it in the present instance. 
The forniur is eiisily uuderetnod in Hie pre-oceupiiiion ; 
tile latteiT have had for its object to reduce Him to 
ntrooab outward weaknesiJ, fey the depression of all the 
yital powers. We regard it as a psychological fact that, 
luxler suuh circ am stances, of all tuental facultie!! \ht> 
memory aloHB is active, indeed almost preternatural ly 
actire. Duririg the prHceding tliiHy-iiLne <fnys the plwn, 
or rather the future, of the Work to which He had been 
■lui u.' '•^"'^ • ''*'^^*' iia^'o beeii always before Him. It 13 
fiRp^sibli) that He heBimtt'd for u morat;ut as to the meana 
by which He waa to establish the Kingdom of God. Tho 
nnchaugeable convictions which He had nlrpitdy attained 
niast have stood out hpfor& Him : that Ris FjithE-f's busineeg 
ma the Kingdom of Uod ; thub He vms furnished to it, 
not by outward weapons, but by the abiding Presence of 
the Spirit ; above all, that absolute Babtii.isaioti to the Will 
of liod wft9 thfl way to it, nay, it-aelf the Kini;ilom of trod. 
It will be observed thjit it was on these very points that 
the final attack of thy Knemy was directed in thw utmuBt 
weakness of Jesus. Btit, on the oilier hand, the Tempter 
could not have failed to assaulb Him with oonsidcratioDB 


50 Jesus the Mess/ ah V| 

wliicli He cmst have felt to be true. How could He hope, 
alose, and with such priiiciplos, to atiiud aguinst leravl P 
He knew their views and feelings ; and as, day by day, 
the iwDse of utter louetiuesii mid forsiLkeniiess iucreaaingly 
gathered around Him, in His iiicreaeing faintneMs aiid 
weaknees. the seeming hopeleesueas of snch a tosV as He 
had undprtakeu must have grown upon Him with almoet 
overwhelming power. Alternately, the temptation to de- 
Epaii', prt*suuiptii>u, or the cutting short of the contest 
in some decisive nmnner, must have preaented itaelf to 
His mind, or rather have been presented to it, by the 

And thia was, indeed,* the esst^iica of liis last three 
great teinptatioiie ; which, aa the whole coiiteHt, resolved 
theiosetveB iiitc the one queetion of abBolule submiBsioa to 
the Will of God. If He suhmitted to it, it niuet be suffer- 
ing — suffering to the bitter end ; to the Bxtiiiction of Ufe, 
in the agonies of the OroaB ; denounced, betrayed, rejected 
by Hie people. Aud when thus beateii ahoiit by tempta- 
tion, Hia powers reduced to the lo.w.->9t ebb of faintneaa, all 
the more vividly would nitfmcfr'y hold out the facts so well 
known: the scene Intj^ly eiuioted by the hanks of Jordan, 
aud the two great expectations of Hia own people, that the 
MeBsiah was to hoad lurael fniin the Sanctuary of the 
Temple, and that all kiugdoms of the world were to become 
subject to Him. 

He is weary with the contest, faint with hiioger, alone 
in that wilderness. He must. He will alwolutely submib 
to the Will of Hod. But can this be the Will of God ? 
One word of jiower, and the scene would be changed. By 
His Will the Hon of God, ns the Tmnpler suggeata— notj 
however, calling thei'eby in question HJs Sonship, bnt 
rather proceeding on its adinithKl reality ^ — can change tha 
stones into bremd. He cau do rainicles— put au end to 
present want and ijuestioo, imd, as visibly the jKjfwes&or of 
absolute miraculous power, the goal is reEiched ! But this 
would roalLy have been to change the iilwt of'(;)!d Ti-ntauif nt 
miracle into the heathen oonceptiou of magic, which was 
absolute jwwer inherent in an individaa), without moral 

Thb Temptation of Jesvs 



purpose. The moral purpose — thei gmnc] moral purpose 
in all that was of Uad — was abeolute aubuii.'^Mnii t.o the 
Will of God- Hia Spirifc liad driven Him iuto thiit wil- 
derness. Hia circnmBtauCea were God-appointed, and 
where Ho so appninta them, He will supprnt as in them, 
even as in the iailur& of bre&d, He supported lemel by 
tlie manna* Jesnsdoee mort; tLon not Bncciunlt; 
He conquers. The Scriptiiral reference to a better 
life apon the Word of God marks more than the end of 
the contest ; it tnarke tlie conquest of Sutan. He emerges 
oil the other side triiiiuph»Qt, with this ejtpresaioa of Uis 
sssared conviction of the Hufliciency of God. 

It cannot be despair — and He csnnot take op His 
Ifingdom alone, in the exercise of mere power. If it be 
not despair of God, let it be presumption ! 

The Spirit of God baddriven Jesus into the wilderness; 
thespiritof theDeviJ now carriedHim toJernsalein. JesuH 
stands on the lofty pinnacle of the Tower, or of tlie Temple- 
porch, presumably that on which everj day a Priest waa 
Stationed to watch, as the pale moniiiio; light passed over 
the liiJls of Juda?a tar off to Hebron, to unuouu*:e it aa 
the signal for offering the morning sacrifice. In the nert 
temptation Jesus stEiuds on the wat^h-post which the 
white-robed Priest has just quilted, Fast the morning 
light ia apreatling over llie land. In the Priests' Court 
below Him the moruirg-fiacritice has been ufferud. The 
mnesire Temple-gates are slowly opening, and the blast of 
the EVieate' silver truinpeta is summoning leiael to begin 
a new day by appearing before their Lord. Now then let 
Him descend, Heuveu-liome, into the midst of Priesta mud 
people. What shouts of acclamation would greet His 
appearance ! What hom^^ of worship would be His ! The 
goal can at once be reached, and that at the head of 
believing Israel. 

Jesue is sm-veying the scene. By His side is the 
Tempter. The goal might indeed thus be reached; but 
not the Divine goal, nor in God's way — and, aa so often. 
Scripture itself explained and guanied the Divine prouiise 
Ely a preceding Divine command. And thus once more 


/esus the Messiar 

J^sns not only is not overcome, but He 
absolute tiubmueioa to tlie AYUl of Qod, 

To submit to the Will of God ! But is not this to 
acknowledge His authority, and the orJer nnd dispoeitioa 
which He has made of nil things? Once more the ac*"nB 
chanj^s. They Iiave turned their backs upon Jemsaleni 
and the Temple. Behind are also all popolar prL^ndices, 
narrow nationsdism, and liinitotions. Thtiy iio lunger 
breathe the stifled air, thick with the perfume of iucenae. 
They have taken thoir flight into God's wide world. Tliere 
they stand on the top of some very high momitain. Before 
Him from oat the cloud-lmid at the edge of the horimou 
the world, in all its glory, beauty, strength, majesty, lies 
unveiled. Its work, ita might, iba greatness, ita art, its 
thought, emerge into clear view. It is a world quite other 
than tliat whicli the retiring Son of the retired Nazareth- 
lionie had ever seen, that opens its enlarging wonders. 
But passingly sublime as it must have appeared to the 
I'erfect Maji, the (Jod-Man — and to Him fm- more than to 
ua from His infinitely deeper appreciation of, and wider 
sympathy with the good, the truo, and tho beautifid— Ho 
had already oviircome. It was, indeed, not ' worship,' but 
homage which the Cvil One claimed frvm Je»as, uad that 
tm the apparently rational gi-onnd that, in its present 8tjite, 
all this world ' was delivi^i-cd ' unto him, and he exercised 
the power of giving it to whom lie wouJd. But in this 
very fact lay the answer lo the suggestion. High above 
this moving scene of gloiy and beauty arched the deep 
blue of God's iieaven, and brighter than the sun, which 
punred its light over the sheen and dazzle beneath, stood 
out the fact; ' I mast be about My Fathei-'s business;' 
above the diu of far-oH" sounds rose the voice : ' Thy King- 
dom corae! ' Was not all this the Devd's to have and to 
give, becanse it was uot the Father's Kingdom, to which 
Jesns had consecrated Himself? To destroy all this: to 
destroy the worka of the Devil, to abolish his kingdom, to 
set man five from his dominion, was the very object o£ 
Cliriflt's Mission, On the ruins of the past shall the new 
arise. It is to beeotofl the Kingdom of God ; and Chriet's 


The TEAfpTJfroff of Jssus 53' 

conBecratioD (o it is to be the corner-atcine of its uew 
Temple. Those BCeaes are to be transfonried itito one of 
higlier woraiiip ; hhose sounds to aieKff I'jito a iiiclwly of 
praise. An andless train, unnumbered Diukiturlps from 
afar, are to bring their gifts, to pour their weah.h, to cou- 
secrate their wiisilcitn, to dedicate their beaatj' — to lay it all 
in lowly woreliip as huuihle ofttrlng at His feet. And so 
Satan's greatest hecomea to Christ, his coarsest temptation, 
vfhich Ho casts from liim ; and the words : 'Thon ahalt 
worship the Lord thy God, fmd Him ouiy ehftlt thon serve,' 
which BOW receive their highest fulfilment, mark not only 
Satan's defeat and ChriBfs triumph, bat the principle of 
His Kingdom — of all victory and all triumph. 

Foiled, defeated, the Enemy has spread his dark pinions 
towftrdg that far-off world of his, and covered it with fhoir 
ahadoTT. The euQ no longer glows with melting h^at; the 
mists have gathered on the edge of the horizon, and en- 
nrai^wd the scene which has faded from view. And in 
the cx)ol and shade that followed have the Angela come and 
iniiiist^rod to His wants, both bodily and mental. He 
would not yield to Jewish dream ; He did not pass from 
ilespnirto pi'esnmption. ; and lo, after the contest, with no 
reward m its object, all is His. He would not. have Satan's 
raseals as Hie legions, and all Heaven's hosts are at His 
command . 

They bad been overcome, theae three temptiationa 
against submission to the Will of God, present, personal, 
and speciiically Messinnic. Yet all His life long there 
were echoes of them : of the first, in the suggestion of His 
•ft.Jobn brethren to show Himself ° ; of the second, in the 
^i-*-* popular attempt to make Him a king, and per- 
haps also in what constituted the final idea of Judas 
Iscariot ; of the third, as being most plainly Satanic, iu 
the question of Pilate : ' Art Thou then a king ? * 

54 Jesvs tub Messiah 




(St. Jgbn i. 19-84.) 

Apart from the cjinml form which it Tiad tfiken, there 
is soinetliing sublime in the conlinunnce and intensity 
of the Jewish exiieetfttioa of the Messiah. It oatlived 
not only the delay of long centuries, but the persBcutions 
and scattering of the people ; it continued imdRr the 
clisappointinent of the Maccabees, the rule of a Herod, 
the administration of a corrupt and contemptible Priests 
hood, and, finally, the government of Rome as represented 
by a Pilate ; nay, it grew in intensity almost in pro- 
portion as it seemed unlikely of realisation. These are 
facts which ahnw that the doctrine of the KingdoDJ, as the 
sunt and subBtancL' of Old Testament teaching, was the 
very hejtrC of JewIeJi religiouB life; while, at the satoe 
time, they eviilence a mora! elevation which placed abstract 
religious conviction far beyond the reach of paasing events, 
and clung to it with a tenacity wliich nothing could 

Tidings of what these many months had occurred by 
bh« banks of the Jordan must have early reached Jeru- 
saleni, and ultinmtaly stirred to the depths its religious 
society, wliatever its preoccupation with ritual questiouB 
or politicaJ inatters. For it was not an ordinary inove- 
mentf nor in connection with any of the exiating parties, 
religions or political . An extrjiordinary preacher, of 
extraordinary appearance and hahita, not aiming, like 
others, after renewed zeal in legal observances, or increased 
Levilic-sxl purity, but preaching repentance and moral 
renoviitioTi in |Drepanttion for the coming Kingdom, and 
sealing this novel doctriue with an equally novel rite, had 
drawn from town and coontry multitudes of all claaaea — 
inquirpTB, penit«nl.s, and novices. The great and burning 


Aoestioii soemed, what the rpal character and meatiitig of 
It WM ? or rather, whence did it issue, and whither did it 
t«od? The religious lenders of the people pruposed to 
UDSwror this by instituting an inquiry through a tmst- 
wortby deputation. 

That the intenriew referred to oMarred aftfr the Bap- 
tiem of Jeaas, appears from the whole cootext. SioiUwly, 
the statement that the deputation which cam* to John was 
* sent from Jerusalem ' by ' the Jews ' implies that it pro- 
ceeded from authnpity, evfln if it did not. bear more than n 
Bemi-oflleial chariicti?r. For, although the eipresaion ' Jema ' 
in the fourth Gospel generally conveys the idea of con- 
trast to the disc:ipl<3» of Christ (t'.f/. St. John vii, 15), 
yet it refers to the people in their corporate capacity, that 
is, as represent^ed by their constituted religious authori- 
■ comp Bt. tip**' f^o tb^ other Imnd. it sepins a le^timate 
John ». IS. inference that, conaidering their own tendencies, 
n:iriji.i9; and tJie political dangers connected with auch a 
atepf the Sanhedria of Jerusaleai wonld not have 
come to the formal resolution of sending » rt-gular deputa- 
tion on such an inquiry. Moreover, a measnre like this 
would haye been entirely outside their recognised mode of 
procedure. It is quite true that judgment upon false 
prophets and reliy^ons seducers lay with it ; but the Bup- 
tirt had not n.-* yet snici or done anything to lay him open 
to such an accusation. If, nev-t>rthelea&, it aeema most 
probable that 'the Priests and Lerifces' came from the 
Sanhedrin, wl' are led to the conclusion that theirs tviis aa 
infomnftl mission, rnther privately arranged than publicly 
determined upon. 

And with this the eharjwjtar of the deputies agrees, 
' Priests und Levites ' — tb<* colleagues of John the Priest 
— would be Belect«?d foreuoh an errand, rather than leading 
liftbbinic authorities. The presence of the latter would, 
indeed, have given to the movement an importance, if not 
a sanction, wbicU the Sanhednn could not have wished. 
Finally, it seems qiiite natiual that suck an informal in- 
quiry, set on foot most probably by the SanhadriBts, should 
have been entrusted esoluaively to the Pborisaio party. 


It would in 110 way have interested« Sadduceea; and 
• M. Mon. what members of that ]iart.y liad seen of John" 
iu.i,Ae. niiist have conviiicpil thpni that Ms views and 
aims lay entirely boyoiid their horizon. 

The two great parties of Pharisees and Badducees ' 
mark, not sects, but meutiil directions, such aa in Iheir 
principles are natural and universal, and, indeed, appear 
in COTinpctioti with all metaphyaical (luestions. The latter 
originally represented « reacttoii from the Pliarisees — the 
moderate mpn, who syropathieed with the later tendencies 
of the Maccabuea. 

Without entfring on the pniiciplea nnd supposed pmo- 
ticea of ' the fraternity ' or ' asBociation ' of Pharisees, 
whii?h was comparatively email, numbering only about 
6,000 members, the following partienJarB may be of ia- 
tereet. The object of the asBociation was twofold : to 
cbserve in the strictest manner, and according to tradi- 
tional law, all the ordinances eoueeming Leritiwal parity, 
and to be extremely punctilious in all connected with 
religious dues ( tithes and all other dues). A person might 
undertake only the second, without the first of these obli- 
gstionfi. But he could not undertake the vow of Levities] 
pnrity witJiout also talcing the obligation of all religious 
dues. If he iindertoolc both vows be was a Cfialiher, or 
Aeeociate. Here there were four degrees, mnrking an 
aaceading scfile of Lovitical purity, or separation from all 
that was profane, in oppoaiuon to those was the Am hO" 
arete, or ' countiy people ' (the |>eo|3le wiiich knew not, or 
cared not for the law, and were regarded as ' cursed '). 

The two great obligations of the ' oiliciu! ' Pharisee, or 

' Aesocifttfa' — that iu retrard to tithint;'' and that 

ii.u:ivi>i. m regniu to ijevitical purity — are ponitedly re- 

w^suMMt. fprred to by Christ." In both caaf a they are aaBod- 

■'^s/'^ ated with a want of corresponding inward reality, 

8i,m1ii.i.' and with hypocrisy. But the sayings of some 

of the Rabbis io regard to Pbariwaiam and the 

' Vnr farther partirnlnrs hb to the origin anil periiliar views Bad 
pmrticpj lit tliP§e parties see ' I.ifo niiii 'lime* o( Jesiia tlie MtMHtnh,' 

Book i. cIl. viii., and Uaok iii. ch. ti. 



■^ Pharisres,, and EssE.ves 57 

profefieioual Piiarisea ore more withering than anj' in the 
New Teatameut, Such aa expression ae ' tbe plagTie ol 
Pbnrisaisiu ' is not uncommon ; and a silly pietiBt, a clever 
sinner, and a female Pliarisee, are rankpd among ' tho 
troables of life.' line Sadduceea had, indeed, gome reaeon 
for the taunt, that ' tho Pliarisees would by-and-by sabjeot 
the globe of the snn itself to their pnrificationB,' the mora 
BO that their asaertions of purity were tiometimes coojoiaed 
with Epieui-e/m natuciuis, betokcming a very different state 
of miitd, eucli as, ' Make haste to eat and driiik, for the 
world which we quit resembles a wedding feast.' 

Bat it would be unjust to identify Pharisaism, as a 
religious direction, with euch embodiniente of it, or even 
with the official ' fraternity.' While it may be granted 
that the tendency and logical sequence of their viewa and 
practices were such, their syetera, aa opposed to Snddu- 
ceeism, had very serious bearings: dogmatic, ritnal, and 

The ftindameatal dogmatic differences between the 
Pharinees and Saddacees concerned: the rule of faith and 
practice ; the ' after death ; ' the extaticnce of angels and 
Bpirita; and free will and piedesti nation. In regard to 
the first of these points, the Sadduceos did not lay down 
the principle of absolute rejection of all U-aditions as sncli, 
but they were opposed to trnditioniiHain as represented 
and carried out by the I'hnrisees, When put down by 
sheer weight of authority, they would probably cairy the 
oontrorersy further, and retort on their opponents by an 
appeal to Scripture as against their traditions, perhaps 
nltimately even hy an attack on traditional ism ; but always 
B8 represented by the Pharisees, A careful examination 
of the slatemenla of JoHephua on this subject, will show 
that they convey no uiore thau this. 'I'hafc there was 
sufficient gpoiind for Sadducean opposition to Pharisaic 
triidittonulism, alike in. principle and in practice, will 
appear from tlie following quotation, to which we add, 
fcy way of explanation, that tho wearing of phylactoriea 
was deemed by that party of Scriptural obligation, and 
tliat the phylactpry for the head WM to coniiifit (according 


Jesvs tue Messiah 

to trodition) of foar compartmente- ' Agaiaat tUe words 

cf the ScribpB is tnoi-e punishable than against the words 
of Scripture. Ho wiio says. No pLylncteries, bo as to 
trAnsgress the words of ScriptiiTe, is not gnilty (free) ; [he 
who says]] five comparttneutB — to add to tie woi-da o£ 
the Scribes — he is ^ilty.' 

The second doctrinal differaniw between Pharisiees and 
Sadducees concerned the 'after death.' According to the 

New Testament,* the Saddiiceea denied the re- 
irti. ui.i.nd HUTrection of tJie dend, while JosepfaoB, going 
iiig»«firt" fnrther, imputes to them denial of reward or 
^Ij^^i punishinent after death, and even the doctrine 

that the soul perishes with the body. The latter 
Blflteineut may be disiiiisstid a8 among those inferences 
which theological con trovers ialistt* are too fond of im- 
puting to theii- opponeutiB. But it is otherwise in regard 
to their denial of the reanrrection of the dead. Not only 
Joeephus, but the New TeBtflinent and Rabbinic writings, 
attest fhiB. The Mishuah eipreesly 8t,ate8 that the 
formula ' from age to age,' or rather ' from world to world,' 
liad been introdm-ed ns a protest against the oppoeite 
theory ; while the Talmud, wliich cecordB disputatione 
between Gamaliel and the Sadducees on the subject of 
the resurref;tion, expressly imputes the denial of this 
doetrine to the 'Scribes of the Stwlducees.' Jn fairness 
it is perhapa only right to lidd that in the discussion 
tha Sadducees seem only to have actuaUy dwiied that 
thei-e was pi-oof for this doctrijje in the Pent.atiiicU, and 
that they ultiinatfly profeesed themselves convinced by 
the reasonifig of Habbi Gamaliel. Whether or not their 
oppoaitioiito the doL-trine of the resurrection in the first 
instance waa pi-ouipted by rational i,s tic views, which they 
endeavoured to support by an appeal to the letter of 
the Pentateuch, as the souree of traditionalism, it deserves 
notice that in Hifi controverey with Jibe Sadducees Christ 
appealed to the Pentateuch in proof of His teaching 

Connected with this was the etpially nitionnlistlc 
. opposition to belief in Angels and Spirits.'' 

Itememljering what the Jewish Angelology was, 

■ PfMKfseas, Sadducbss, and Essenbs 59 

one can Hcarcel^' wonder that in contrDversy the Sadduceea 
ehonld have becii lc<l to tiie opposite extreme. 

The lost dogmatic difference between the two ' sect** 
concerned the problem i>f man's free will and Ood'e pr&- 
ordinftbion, or rather their compatibility. Thu tliffLTunce 
seems to have been this : that the PliariHeuit accimtutitucl 
God's pre-ordiaatjon, the Saddnc^es man a free will; and 
thfit, while the Pharieees aduiitt«] only a partial Inflaence 
of the human element wn what happened, or the co-oper*' 
tion of the human with the Divine, the Satldncees denied 
all abeolnte pre-ordinatioii, and made man 8 choice of evil 
or good, with its oonaequencea of misery or happiness, to 
depend entirely on the exercise of free will and selP- 

The other differences between the Pharieees and 
Sadducees can h» easily and briefiy sntnmt^ up. They 
concern cervinotiinl, ritiinl, and jtuidii-nl questions. In 
regard to the first, the opposition of the f>mldHcee8 to tlie 
exceaaive scruples of tht' Pharisees on tlie subject of 
Levilical dcGlpmeuts led 1.0 frequent controvfiray. 

Even greater importonce atl4ichi'il to diHerencea on 
ritoftl qnestione, althoujfh the eontrovcrsy here was purely 
theoretical. For the Sadducees, when in office, a.Iwar8 
ooufonned to the prevailiiitf Pliarisiiic practiueB. But 
(Jiu Saddncesiu objection fn pourinjj the water of libatl<>n 
Upon the altar on the Feast of Tabcmaclea, led tio riot 
and bloody reprisals on the only occasion on which it 
seems to have been carried into practice.' Tliere were 
SiIho many other minor differences which need not here be 

Among the diverpencee on jnridical qnestioaB it may 
be mentioned that the Sadducees only allowed marriage 
with the ' betrotiied,' and not with tJie actniiily espoused 
widowof a deceased childleaa brother.' Josephua, indeed, 

' For dtituils about tliQ ubsciTsnces on Uiie festiTnl, I uuet rafot M 
■Tlie Temple. Us Ministrj' f^"'' f'CTvicea,* 

' Tlic Sttdducefls in tlie Gos^ieJ argue on Hie Pharisaic tbeor/. 
•jjpareiitly tor Uie iwoi'ulrl objecl of casting ridicule on the rioc.l.rine of 
the reBnrreotion. and cii the PliariiiRic prnnlirn of maiTiiij^ wltli the 
MjKmt^d wife of R dflCeaficil brother. 


Go /esus the Messiah 

chiirj^es the Sadducees with extreme severity in criminal 
matters; buttliis must refer to the fact that the ingenuity 
OP pmictiliousneea of the Pharisees would afford to most 
ofiendera a loopliole of e.^cape. On the other hand, sucli of 
the diverging" juridical principles of the Sadducees as are 
attested on trustwortby authonty, seem mora in accord- 
ance with justice. t.han thoee of the Pharisees, 

With tbe exception of dogmatic differences, the con- 
trovetsy between the two parties turned on questions of 
* canon-1 aw.' Joaephue tells na that the Pharisees com- 
manded the masses, and especially the female world, while 
the Sflddttcees attached to their ranks only a. minority, KaA 
that belonging to the liighest class. The leading prieata 
in Jerusnleni formed, of course, part of that highest clasa 
of society; and from the New Testament and Joaephua 
we learn that the High-Priestly families helonged to the 

Sttdduceaa party.' But not a few of the 

Pharisdie leaders were afltoally priests, while 
the Pharisaic ordinances make more thflo ample recog- 
nition of the privileges and rights of the Priesthood. Even 
as regards the deputation to the Baptist of ' Priests and 
k9t.jeiuii, Levites' from Jerusalem, we are expressly told 
** that they 'were of the Pharisees.''' 

The name Pharisees, ' Pfirusliim,' ' separated ones,' was 
not taken by the party itself, bnt given to it by their 
opponents. Prom 1 Mace. ii. 42; vii, 13; 2 Mace. xiv. 6 
it appears that originally they had taken the sacred 

name of Cluindim, or 'the pious.'" This, no 
mi.13: ' doubt, on the ground that they were truly 
jriTsirii. tliose who, according to the directions of Ezra,* 
Jj.->jPj had separated tliemseives ' from the filthiness of 

the heathen ' (iill heathen defilement) by carry- 
ing out the traditional oniinancsB.^ Tho derivation of the 
name ' Sadducee ' has alwaja been in dispute. But the 
inference is ftt hand, that, whde the ' Pharisees ' would 
iirroj^ate to-themselvea the Scriptural name of Gfi.(iKidim, 
or 'tlie pious,' their opponents wonld retort that they 
w«re satisfied to be rs[((!(Z('-/!'w, or 'righteous.' Thus the 
* Ooinp. genemll;, 'Skorcbe^oC Jewish So«inl Ufe.'pp. SfK), SRI. 

■L Pf/AfflSBES, SaDDUCEES, AND Ess/t.VES 6l 

"mUA of TtoAfiiqim would become that of tbd party 
opposing' tLe Fliariseea, that U, of the S'.fdduwes. 

There remaiim yet another party, mention of which 
conld not ho omitted in any description of thoae times. 
Hut while the Phni'it*P9 and Sftddticeca were parties mtkm 
the Sjnagogae, the Essenes' were, although strict Jews, 
yei atiparatists, and, alilce in doctrine, worship, and prac- 
tice, ontfiile the Jewish body ecclesiaatlc. Their nninbera 
amonated to only aboot 4,000. They are not luenlioned 
in the New Testauient, and only very indirectly referred 
to in Itabbinic writings. Their entire separation from all 
who did not belong to their sect, the terrible oaths by 
which they bound theniaelvea to secrecy uhoat their 
doctrines, aud which would prevent any free religious dis- 
cusaiou, as well as the character of what is known of their 
views, would account for the scanty notices about tliem. 

On one point, at least, our bT-ief inquiry can leave no 
doubt. Thi* Essenos could never have been drawn either 
to the person or the preaching of John the Baptist. 
SiTnilarly, the Saddncees Would, afi«r they knew its real 
oliaracter and goal, turn contemptuously from a moveaient 
which would awaken no sympathy in them, and could only 
become of when it threatened to endanger their 
class by awakening popular enthusiaam, and so rouBing 
the suspicious of the Romans. To the Pbariseee thsre 
were questions of dogumtie, ritual, and even national im- 
portance involved, which made the barest poaeibility of 
what John announced a question of moment. And, 
although we judge that the report which the earliest 
• St. Malt. Phiu'isaic hearers of John' brought to Jeruualera 
^^ * — no doubt, detailed and acciimte— and which 

led to the despatch of the deputation, would entirely pr&« 
dispoae them against the Uapbt^t, yet it behoved them, as 
lenders of public opinion, to tnte such coguisanca of it, as 
would not only finally detemiine their own rplfttion to the 
movement, b«t enable them effectually to direct that of 

Tot a fnUet aocouat of the Euenes see ' Liio ultd Tiuuu, rol. i 
pp. Sa4-3M. 

7£S(/s TUB Mass/Atr 



(St. John i. 1&-51.) 

The forty (lajs, wliieli liaj passed since Jesus had com© to 
liim, must have been to tbe BaptiBt a time of imfulilmg 
noderatanding, aad of ripened decision. On iirst meeting 
Jesus by the bunks of Jordan, he had felt the seeming 
incongruity of baptizing On?, of Whom lie had j^thar 
need to be baptiaed. Yet what he needed was not to be 
baptized, but to leiirn that it bucame the Christ to fulfil 
all righteopsnees. Thici was th© first lesaon. 3.'he next 
and completing one eanie when after tlio Baptism the 
beftveus opened, the Spirit descended, aad the Divine 
Voice of Testimony pointed to. and G.vplained the promised 

ft. Jotni. 8'gu-' It told him that the work which he had 
begun in the obedience of faith had reached 


Ha had entered upoa it not only without iltnaiouB, but 
with auch entire self-forgcrt.fiilnesa as only dt-epeat con- 
viction of the reality of what he announced could have 
wrought. As we gather the etementa of that conviction, 
we find tJiean chiefly in the Boot of Isaiah. His apeecli 
and its imagery, and especially the burdou of his message, 
were taken from those prophecies. 

In his announcement of the Kingdom, in his call to 
inward repentance, even iu his symbohc Baptism, one 
Great Personality always stood Luit before the laiad of 
John, All elw was abaorlxid in that great fact; he waa 
only the voice of one that cried , ' Prepare ye the way \ ' 

And now, on the last of those forty diiya, simultjineioUBly, 
ail it would seem, with the final great Temptation of Jesus, 
which muBt have summed up all that had preceded it in 
the previous days, came tlie hour of John's temptation by 



Iho deputatioa from Jeruealem. Very geutly it came to 
him, not like the storm-blaat which swept over tlie Mastt-r. 
Yet u very real temptation it was, thi« provoking tn the 
assumption of succf^sai vflly lower grades of ad f-assertion, 
where only eutii'e atjU-abuegatiou was the rigliUiil feeliii;^. 
And greatest tenaptatiun it was wh^n, sii'tpr the firat victory, 
camw the not iitiiiaturQl challenge of hig au-thority ftir what 
he said and did. This was the question whicb niUBl. at 
all titnee, from the begiiimng of hia work to the hour of 
iiis detit.h, hiive preyi^ed must closely upon him, t^iuce it 
tx>uched not only his (iontwiiencc, but the very ground of 
his mission, uay, of his life. For what was the meaning 
of ibnt quei^tioD vrhich the disciples of John brought to 
Jesus : ' Art Thou He timt should come, or do we look 
for another ? ' uit.ber than doubt of hia own warrant and 
authority for what be had said and done ? But in that 
first time of bis trial »t BethabEira he overcame — ^the tirst 
t«niptatioQ by the humility uf hi§ int«us« sincerity, the 
second by the simplicity of his owii ^xperimentiil con- 
ii-ictiou ; the tiret by whai. he had Been, the aeoond by 
what ho hail heartl couceming the Chriat at the btinka of 

Yet, as we view it, the questionB of the Pharisaic 
depatntioQ si>em but uiitural. After hi» previous empbutic 
disclaimer at the beginning of hia preaching (St. Lnke iii. 
lo), of which they in. .(oruaulem could scarcely have been 
ignorant, the auggestion of his Messiahahip — not indeed 
expressly made, but auflitieatly implied to elicit what the 
language of the fourth Gospel shows to have been the most 
energetic denial — t^oiikl scarcely have been more than 
tentative. It wna othepwia? with their question whether he 
were ' Elijuh.' Yet, hewring in mind what wi; know of the 
Jewish expectations of Elijah, this aleti could scarcely have 
been meimt in its full literality — but rather as gronnd for 
tlie further question after the goal and warrant of hia 
mission. Uence alao Johii'y diaavowing of such claims ia 
not satisfactorily aecount#d for by the common explaua- 
tiou, t-hat he denied buing Elijah in the sense of not being 
what the Jews expected of the Poremnner of the Mesatah : 


Jesus tub Messiah 

the real, identical Elijah of the daye of Ahab; or else, 
tluit be denied beiom .sach in the sease ul' the peculiur 
Jewish hopes atbiicbing to his reappearance ia ' the last 
dayfl.' There is much Jeeper truth in the disclaimer of 
the Baptu^t. It w&s, indeed, true that, as foretold in the 
,g(_ L^,]_ Angelic aanoun cement," he was sent 'in the 
" spirit and power oT Etias,' that is, with the same 

object aud the same qualifications, Sitiiilarly, it is true 
wbnt, iu His mournful retrospect of Ihe result of John'8 
niission, and in the prospect of His own end, the Saviour 
said of hini : ' Eliaa is indeed come.' But ' the spirit and 
powOT ' of the Ehjah of the New Testamt-nt, wliich was to 
accomplish the inward reBtoration through penitent recep- 
tion of the Kingdoni of God in its reality, could only ac- 
comijlish that object if ' they received it ' — if ' they knew 
him.' And as in his own view, so also in very fact the 
Baptiflt, thongh Divinely snch, waB not renlly Ehjah to 
Israel. This is the meaning of the words of Jeans : ' And 
b HI. Hiitt. if y*' ■'^i'l receive it, bhls ia EUias, which waa for 
ii- '* to come.' *■ 

More natural still seema the third question of the 
Pharisees, whether the Baptiut were ' that prophet.' The 
reference here is undoubtedly to Deut. xviii. 15, 18. Not 
that the reappearance of Moses as lawgiver was expected. 
Bat tbe prediction taken in connection with the pro- 
• jar.1111. Diise"' of a 'new covenant" with a 'new law' 
SI «c writteo in, the hearts of the people waa expected 

to talce ploji'e in Mesaiamc days, and by the iuatru mentality 
of that prophet.' 

Whatever views the Jewish embassy might have enter- 
tained concerning the abrogation, renewal, or renovation 
of the Law in Mesaiauic times, the Baptist repelled the 
suggestion of his being ' that prophet ' with the same 
energy as those of his being either the Christ or Elijah. 
We mark increased intensity and directness in the teati- 
I 8t, joiioi. mony which he now bears to the Christ before the 
SMS Jerusalem deputies.^ 

And the reward of his overcoming temptation was at 
liftnd. On the very cln-y of the Baptist's ten,pt:fl,fcion J^auh 


Unit. TtIL 
IT ; 8L Luka 
nil. 17 : 
AnU tlil. 

Tj/b Twofold Testimonv of John 65 

had left; the wUdemeHa. Oti the morrow after it, 'John 
Beeth Jeeas coming unto liim, and saith, Behold, the Lamb 
of God, Whiiih tuketh away the sia of the world ! ' "We 
cannot doubt, that the thought here present to tlie mind 
of John was the descriptioa of ' The Servunt of 
JeLovdh,' aa set forth in la. liii. It must always 
have been Mtssianicnlly nnderatood;' it formed 
the graundwork of JMeEsiuuic thought to the New 
Teetrtment writers •' — Jior did tlie Sjnugogue read 
SaTiPM-u. it otherwiBB, till the necessitieH of controversy 
diverted its application, not indeed from the 
timea, but from the Person of the Messiah. But we oat 
nnderettind how, during those forty tiaya, this greatest 
beiglit of Isiiiah's conception of tbn Messiah was the one 
ontstnudin^ tact before his view. And what he believed, 
that he spake, wheu again, and unexpectedly, he saw 

Yet, while regarding his words as aa appeal to the 
prophecy of Isaiah, two other references must not be ex- 
cluded from tihem: those to the Kischal Lamb, itnd to the 
Daily Sacrifice. These are, if not dli-eeUy pointed to, yet 
implied. For the Paschal Lamb wae, in a aenae, the basis 
of all the sacrifices of the Old Testamuut, not only from its 
saving Import to Israel, but aa tliul which really made 
them 'the Church," and people of God. Hence the insbita- 
tion. of the Piischal Lamb was, bo to Hpeiik, only enhirgod 
and appliud iu the daily samtice of it l^amb, iu which 
this twofold idea of redemption and fellowship was ex- 
hibited. Lastly, the prophecy of Isitiidi liii. was but the 
complete realisittiou of those two ideas in the Messiah. 
Neither could the Paachal Lmiib with ite completioa in 
the Daily Sucrifice he properly viewed without this pro- 
phecy of IsaiiiJi, nor yet that, prophecy properly uoderstootl 
without it« nrierence to ite two grent types. Jewish com- 
ment explajua bow the morning and evening sacrifices were 
intended to atone, the one for the ains of the night, the 
Otiier for those of the day, so as ever to lenve larael guilt- 
less before God; and it expressly ascribes to them the 
efficacy of aPartw/ifri — that being the word used. And 


66 Jesus THE Messiah V 

both tEi6 acliool of Shammai and that of Hillel insii!teij on 
the aymboiic import of the Liimb of the Dally Sttcrifice m 
regard to the foi^iveness of sin. In view of such clear 
testimony from the time of Christ, less positireuess of 
asaertion might, not unrenaonably, be expectfii frt>iQ those 
who declare that the suciificeB bore no reft^retice to the 
forgiveness of Bins, just as), in the face of the appUcatioa 
made by the Baptist and other New Testameiit writers, 
moi'e erege-licftl modesty seems called for on the part of 
tboiie who deny the Messianic references in laaiali. 

It was, 88 we have reason to believe, the early morning 
of a 8abbatl). John stond, witli the two of his disciples 
who niOBt shared his thoiighte and feelings. One of them 
we know to liave been Andrew (t. 40) ; the other, un- 
named oue» could hnvei been no other than John liimgelf^ 
the beloved disciple. They hu^l heard what their teacher 
had on the previoue day said of Jeeua. And now that 
Figure once more ap])eared in view. The Baptist is not 
teaching now. but learning, aw the intensity and peuetra- 
tion of his gaz« calls from him iJje now worehipful repeti- 
tion of what, on the previous diiy, he had explained and 
enforced. There was no leave-taking on the pint of these 
two — perLa])a tbey meant not to leave Johu. It needed 
no direction of John, no call from JesnB. But ae they 
went, in tJie dawn of their rising faith, Heturued Him. It 
was not because He discerned it not tliat fie put to them 
the question, ' What seek ye ? ' which elicited & reply so 
simple, 80 real, as to carry its own evidence. He is still 
to tliem the Habbi — the most hououred title they can find 
— yet niarkitig still the strictly Jewish view, as well as 
their own atandpoint of ' What seek ye ? ' There is strict 
correspondence to their view iu the words of Jesus. Their 
very Hebraiaiu of ' llabbi ' ia met by the equally Hebraic 
' Come and see ; ' ' tlieir nnspoken, but hall-conacious 
longing by whafc the invitation implied. 

' The ptecisedittiiof thaori^ of tliisUesiifnation i« not (joite clear. 
When JtesuH is §0 addTL'ssed it is in the rfKiise uf "tny Teecher,' Nor 
cwi Ihare be unj' rawioiiable rtmibt tdat lh«K it waa generally current 
lo «nil tefore the limu imtoJ iu tlie Qoapuls. Ihe eXjjruB»igu ' Cuui* 



Tub Fjsst Disciplrs 


It was but earlj morning — ten o'clock.' The ft'rm uf 
tiie nanstlve and its very words coDvey, tliat tJia two, not 
(eameis now but toiieliers, Ijad gtuie, each t« seaich for his 
brother — Andrew for Hinion Peter, aud John fur Jniues. 
Here already^ at the outset of tliie history, the hast« of 
energy charucteristic of the sons of Jouh' outdistanced tiie 
Bi.JohoL mure qniet Int-etiHoness of John :' ' He (Andrew) 
" firat lindetih his own hrolher' But Andrew aiitl 

John equally brought the name announcement, etill 
markedly Hebraic in its form: ' Wti have found the 
Me^siaa.' This, tJieu, was the outoome to th^m of that 
day — He was the Messiah i and tbia the goal which their 
loaging had reaoliad, ' We have tbund Him.' 

And etill this day of tirst Qiarvelloua dtacovery bad not 
oloBed. It could scarcely have been but that Andrew had 
tcld (Tesiis of hia bi-uther, and even ash<;d leave to briug 
him. The searching yitmce of the Saviour now read in 
Peter's inmost character his future call and work : ' Thoa 
art Simon, the son of John — thou shalt ba calh'd Cf phaa, 
which ifl interpreted (tJrecianised) J^etfT.' 

It was Sunday morning, tha first of Christ's Mission- 
work, the first of His Preachmg. He ivas purposing to re- 
tui'a to Galilee. Th« fii'st Jemsaleia-visit rauat be prepared 
for by them all ; and he would not go there till the right 
time — for the Paschal Feast. It was probably a djatimco of 
about twenty miles from Bethany (Bet hulmrn) to Cana. By 
the way, two other dii^cipiea were to be gained — this tiiiio 
not bi'ought but called, where and in what precise ciccum- 
BUULces we know not. But the notice that Philip was a 

ami u-ti' ta araun^- the most common BabMaio fiirnialnfl. ultbougti 
Kcnerallj' connected with tlie aojubiUmi of apecut! aD<l impurtaDt iti> 
format iuti. 

' Tim ■uDKinioa suppositioTi is, tlint llie titna must be eoroputei 
Mcordtog to the Jewish luethcid. id whioti oase the tenth hoar wuukl 
Tepnwent 1 P.M. But reinornbering ihdt ttio Juwitih ilay 6nd«l witti 
«un>Gt. It could, in timt cnae. Iiavc been noarooly iii.'»i'k«1 tliat ' thuy 
■buil« tTith Him tliut day.' Tho oorreot inteipiutu-ttiin would tlierefors 
puiut ill thi?, AS in uther passages of St. J-ohn, to Itio ^eiu-tio nii mvration 
of houra, oorrewponrtin;; to i>ur own. Camp. J. li. Mcl^Uan't Nb*» 
T«3tsraent, pp. 740-712. 

■ iloCe : Accuidiu^ to the ti^t text, Joha, and not Jona, aa hrHov- 


jEStfS THE AfesSfAN 

H fellow-townsman of Andrew au(J Peter eeeuia to imply 
^B ttviaa instrumental it y on tLoir part. Similarly we gather 
^M that nfterwanle Philip wti^ tioint^what in advELQCd of the 
^M rest, when ho found hiB uccjuaiutance Nathanuel, and ea- 

^M S>^g^ iu couversatioo with him just as Jesus mid the 
^M others came up. But here also we maik, as another 
^1 characteristic trait of John, that he, and his brother with 
^M him, seem to have clung close to the Pereonof Christ, just 
^m B8 did Mai-y afterwards iti the house of her brother. It 
^m was this intense exclusiveness of fellowship with Jesus 

^B which traced ou Lis mind that fullest picture of the God- 

^M Man, which hia uarralive reflects. 

^1 The call to Philip from the lips of the Saviour met 

^H with imiu(?diato wspoiiBive obodieuce. ^'^et though no 

^M special obstacles hail to be overcome and hence no special 

^M uftiTative was called for, it must have implied much of 

^1 learning, to judge irom what Le did and h-om what he 
^M said to Nathanael. In JJathanafil's coiifpiest by Christ 

^M there is eomethiug special implied, of wljich the LotU'a 

^M words give signiticunt hints. Nathanoel (ITieodore, ' the 

^M (fill of God ') had, aa we often I'ead of Rabbis, rested for 

H prayer, meditation, or study, in the shadow of that wide- 

spreading treet ho oomniun ip Pah-stino, the fit'-tree. The 
ftppreaehiug Paesover-seaaoUj perliaps mingling with 
thoughts of John's announcement by the^ hauha of Jor- 
dan, would naturally Boggeat the great deliverance of 
Iturael in the age to come. Such a verse aa that with which 
the meditation for the New Moon of Nisan, the Passover- 
month, closes — ' Happy is he that hath the God of Jacob 
for hia help ' " — would recur, and so lead back tho 
mind to the suggestive symbol of Jacob's viaiou, 
and ita realisatioii in ' the age to come,' 
^_ These are, of coarse, only suppositions ; but it might 

^^ well be that Philip had found hiTu while still busy with 

^M mc)i thoughts. It. must have (teemed a startling answt^r 

^P to hia thoughts, this aimouucement, made with the fre»h- 

^M nesB of new conviction: 'We have found Him of Whom 

H Moaes in the Law, oud the Proph<:-tB, did write." But 

^^ this addition about the Mnii of Nazareth, the son of 

Thr First Disciples 


ph, wonld appear a terrible anti-climax. It was so 
eiifc fivini aDytliing^ tliat te )iatl nsi^ociftt.od either with 
the great hope of Israel, or «ith the Naznrpth of his own 
neighbourhood, that his exclamation, without implyiag 
any special imputation on the httle town, BtfeuiK only 
natural. Tlfere wan but one ouswer to this — that which 
Philip m«de, which Jesus had made to Andrew and Jobni 
' Come and see/ And as he wpnt with him evidences irre- 
i'mgable multiplied at every step. As he neared Jesus, 
he heard Him speak to the disciples words concerning him, 
which recftlled, truly and actually, what had pasBed in hia 
sodI. And to his aatrmished queatinn ciLmO such naswer 
that he could not but hurat into immediate and full acknow- 
ledgment ; 'Thou art the Son of God,' Who hast read my 
inmost being; 'Thou art tihe King of Israel,' Who doat 
me«t its lonpng and hope. 

Thu8 Nathanael , ' tha Gfod-given ' — or, aE we know him 
in «ft*r-history, Bartholomew, 'the son of Telamyon' — 
was ou tlkat first Sunday added to the disciples. 


(St. Jftiinii 1-13.) 

We ftT6 now to enter on the Ministry of 'The Son of 
iVIon,' fii'st and chiefly in its contrast to the preparatory 
caII of the Unptist, with the asceticism Byrabolio of it. 
We behold Him now as freely mingling with hiunanily, 
fnterinrr into its family life, 8anct.ioning and hnllowiug all 
by Hia Presence and blessing ; then aa trauaforming the 
' water of legal purification ' into the wine of the new dis- 
pensation; aud, lastly, ae having absolute power as the 
' Son of Man,* being ako ' the Son of God ' and ' the King 
of Israel.* 

It reuat be borne in mind that marringe conveyed to 
ieJewHmuch higher thoiight.a titan merely tho&eoffestivity 
ind merriment. TTie pious fasted before it, confessing their 
IsiDft. It was regarded almost as a Sacrament, lilutcaiu^e 

70 Jbsus the MRssrAs ■ 

into the mairliid »t at* was tUongbt tn cany thefoi^veneBS of 
Bins. It almost seeniB as if the relationship of HuBband 
and Bride between JeKovah and Hia people, so frequently 
insisted npuu, not only in the Bible, but io Rabbinlo 
writiugs, liiul always l>ee'n standiDg out in the buck- 

A special formfvlity, that of ' betrothal,' preceded the 
actiual marriage by r pei'iod vaiying in lengtli, but not ex- 
ceeding a twelvemonth in tte case of a maiden. At the 
betrothal, the britle^i-KJm, pei'soaaily cft by deputy, handed 
to the bride a piece of mouey or a letter, it being esprpssly 
stated in each case that the man thereby espoaeed the 
woman. A )^gal document fixed the dowry which each 
bmtight, the uiutaul obligatioas, and all other legal pointa, 

On the evening of the actual man-iage, the bride waa 
lull from her paternal home to tlmt of her hueband. First 
came the lueiT^' moiiiids of music; then tliey who dis- 
tributed amoug the people wine and oil, aud nuts among 
the childj-en ; nast the bride, covered with the bridal veij, 
ter long hair flowing, Bun'onnded by her compnnionB, and 
led by ' the frienda of the bridegroom,' and ■ tlie childreai 
of the bride-chamber.' All around were in festive array ; 
Bume carried torches, or lamps on poles ; those nearest had 
myrtie-branches and chaplets of Sowers. Everyone rose 
to salute the procession, or join it; and it was deemed 
nImoHt a religious duty to break into prai&e of the beauty, 
tlie modesty, or the rii-f nes of the bride. Arrived at her 
new home, she whs led to her hnsbaud. Son\6 such foi> 
mula 08 : ' Tnke her according to the Law of Moses and 
«f Tsrnel," would be spoken, and bride and bridegroom 
crowned with garlands. Then a formal legal instrument 
was signed, wMch set forth that the bridegroom undertook 
to wnrk for her, to honour, keep, and care for her, as ia 
tho mnnuer of the men of Israel ; that he promised to give 
bis maiden-wife at least two hundred Zuz^ (or more as 
might be),* and toincreafie her own dowry (which, in tho 

■ If Uie Zm \<a reoVoDcd at Id., about it. 16* M. 
' Thin, of course, represents (itJj the minlintiru. In t.he caao at t 
rrlest'a ilangtilei tbe onlisuy legal muumum waedoubl^d 



ease of a pmr orphan, the autJmrities siipplieH) by at leaat 
oae-bali*, »n3 tliat b& also unilertfioli to lay it out for her to 
tJie best sdvouta^, all hiH own poH8»-«sion8 being guarantee 
fi>r it. Then, after the preecriljed wishing of hauda and 
benediction, the mamnge-BuppRr began — the cup being 
filled, and the solemn pritjer of bridal benediction spolcea 
over it. A.Dd so the fcant lasted — it might ba more than 
one day, till at lawt ' tlio friends of the bridegroom ' led the 
bridal pair to the bridal-chamber and bed. Here it ought 
to be spectallj noticed, as a striking evidence that the 
writer of the fourth Oospel was not only a Hebrew, hub 
intimately accjuainted with the varying customs prevailing 
in GaiUf* and in Judaja, that at the maniage of Cana no 
' friend of the briJejj^ooni ' or ' gTOomsmon ' is mentiotiedj 
while he is referred to in Sfc. John iii. 29, where the 
words Are gpuken outside the boimdarieB of Galilee. For 
amoDg the simpler Gulileaiut the practice of having ' frienda 
of the bridegroom ' did not obtain, though alt the inviU-d 
•ornnp. at guests bore the general name of ' children of the 
jtoti.u.» bride-chamber.'' 

It n'aathe maniage iaOaaa of Galilee. All coxuiect«d 
with the account of it is strictly Jewish — ^the feoat, the 
quests, the iuvitntion of the strangB r itabbi, aud its accept- 
ance by Jesus. We are not able to fix with certainty the 
site of the little town of Cana. But if we adopt the most 
probable identiticatiou of it with the modern ple^^saut village' 
of Kefr Kennoy a few miles north-east of Kanareth, on the 
rood to the Lake of Galilee, we picture it to ourselves aa 
on the slope of a hill, its houses rising terrace upon terrace. 
Aa we apprujich the little t.own we come upon a fouiitaia 
of exuelient water, aiouiid which clustered the village gar- 
dens and orchards that produced iu great abundance the 
best pomegronntefi in Palestine. Here was the home of 
Natliauael- Bartholomew, and it seems not unltkelj, that 
with him Jesus had passed the time intervening between 
His arrival and ' the marriage,' to wliich Hia Mother had 
come— the onnssion of all mention of Joseph leading to the 
BUptiositioii, that he had died before that time. There in 
tut any difficulty in understanding that on Hia arrival 



72 fssus TUH Messiah ^|^| 

•TesuB would hear of this ' marrluge,' of t.lie pretwnce of Hia 
Mother in what aeeins to have be<in the house ofn friend, 
if aot. a mlat ive j that lie and His disciples would be bidden 
to the feast. ; and that He resolved not only to comply with 
the request, but to use it as n IflRve-talsiiig (rom home and 
friendB— similar, thmigli also far other, than, that of Eliaha, 
when he entered on his nijaaion. 

As we pass throngh tht* cunit of thiit house in Cana, 
and reach the covered f:^.illery which Opens on the various 
roomH — in this instjince, pnrticularly, on the ^eat reception 
room— all is festively adom-ed. In the g-nllery the Rervants 
move atouE, and there the ' water-|X)tB ' are ranj^'ed, '^ after 
the manner of the Jews,' for purification — for the washing 
not only of hands before and after eating, but also of tlie 
veesela used.' 'Purification' wns one of the 
main points in Rabbinic sanctity, and the mass 
of the pf'oplu would have regarded neglect of the 
i>rdinancefi of puriiicatiou as betokening either grpss igno- 
rance or daring impiety. 

At any rate, such would not be exhibited on an occasion 
like the present; and outside the reception-room, as St. 
John reiates, six of thoee stone pots, o-f which we know from 
Rabhinic writiugs. were ranjred. It seems likely thateach 
of these pots might have held from 17 to 2.^)^ gallons. For 
such an occnsion the family wonid pi-oduce or Ikiitow the 
lai'geat and handsomest stone-veasela that could be pi-ocured, 
and it seems to have been the practice to eet apart some of 
these vessels exoluaively for the use of the bride and of the 
more distiinguiahed guests, while the reet were used by the 
genera! company. 

Entering tlie spacious, lofty dining-room, which wonld 
be brilliantly lighted with lamps and eaudlesticlts, the 
guests are disposed romid tob!e« on couches, soft with 
cushions or covered with tapestry, or seated on chairs. Tlie 
bridal blessiug has been spoken, and the bridal cup emptied. 
The feast is proceeding — -not the common maal, which wae 
generally taken nhout even, nrrordinf; to the Rabbinic Bay- 
mg, tbftt lie who poatponecl it beyond that hour was ae if 
he swallowed a nt-one — but s feebive evening meal. And 

I Tub M ARBtAGB-FEAST IN Cana o^^au^^^^ 

now there maat haire been a painful paiiae, or something 
like it, when the mother of Jesus whispered to Him thfit 
'the wintj i'ailod.' Them could, perhftps, be the less cause 
for reticence on thia point towards her Son, not merely 
because this failure may have arisen from the accession of 
gueets in the persons of Jeans and His diecipbp, for whom 
no provieion had been tirigiiially made, but be>cause the gift 
of wine or oil on such occasiouB waa regarded as a meri- 
torious work of charity. 

Bnt all this still 1pq76B the main ineidpnts in the narPB- 
tive antouclied. How are we to und^TBtand the implied 
request of the Mother of JetiU&, how His ryply, and what 
was the meaninf^ of the mh-acle? Although we have no 
absolute cerfainty of it, we have the strongest internal 
reasons for beliering that Jesus had done no miracles these 
thirty years in the home at Nazareth, but Uved the life of 
qDietsubmisBion. and obedientwaitiug. That was the then 
part of His Work. 

And so when Mary told Him of the want that had arisen, 
it waa simply in absolute confidence in liei' Son, probably 
without any conscious expectancy of a miracle on His part. 
Yet not withoat a touch of mateiTial self-consciousness, pride, that He, Whom ahecnuld tmat to do anything 
that was needed, waa her Son, Whom she could solicit in 
the friendly family whose giie.?ts they were — and that what 
He did would be done if not for her sake, yet at her request. 
It was a tTue earth-yiew to take of their relationship : the 
, Qutcome of Hie miBimderEtood meekness. And therefore it 
Lirae that as on the first misunderstanding in the Temple, 
He had said : ' Wist ye not that 1 must be about My 
Father's boBineas ? ' bo now : ' Woman, what have I to do 
with thee ? ' With that ' business ' earthly relatimship, 
howsver tender, hud no connection. 

And Mary did not, and yet she did, nnder^tiand Him, 
when she turned to the servants with the direction, implicitly 
to follow His behests. What happened is well known : 
how, in the excesa of their zeal, tliey filled the water-pots to 
the brim — mi acciilenfai circnni stance, yet useful, as show- 
ing that there could he neither delusion, nor collusion ; how, 

74 Jesus THE Mess/. ■} ft 

probably in the drawing of it, the water became beet wine 
~'ttie conscious water saw its God, aud blushed;' tLeo 
tJie coiiree proverbift! joke of what was probably the master 
of ceremonieB aud purveyorof the feaat, intended, of course, 
not literally to apply to the present company, and yet in ita 
accidental nesB an evidence of the realily of the miracle. 
After this the narrative abruptly closes with a retrospective 
remark on the part, of Lim who relates it : ' And Hia disctplets 
believed oo Him.' 



(Bt. Jobn u. 13-SS.) 

Immediately after the marriage of Cana. Mary and th& 
* brethren of Jesus ' went with Him, or followed Him, to 
M,i. iv Capemaora, which heaceforth became ' His own 
13 ; It I : city ' ' during Hia stay by the Lake of Galilee. 
6tM«kU.l j^ ^^^^ ^^^ probable that the TeU Hlhn cf 

naod^rn exploration marks the site of the ancient Cajier- 
nainn,Kephitr Naclium, or Tanchtimin. At the time it oould 
have be^n of only recent origin, eince ita Synagogue had but 
lately been reared, through the friendly liberality of tie 
*si, Msit. true and faithful Centurion." But already its 
rtti. s. ta importance waa each, that it had become the 
station of a garrison, and of one of the principal cuBtotn- 
houses. Its soft BW«et air, the fertility of the country — 
notably of the plain of Gennesaret close by; and the 
fertilising proximity of a spring which, from ita teomiug 
with fish like that of the Nile, was popularly rpgarded as 
springing from the river of Egypt — this and more most 
have mada Capemmini one of the most delightful places in 
these ' Gardens of Piinces,' as the Babbia interpreted the 
word ' Genneaaret,' by the ' cither-shaped lake ' of that 
name. The town lay quite up on ita north-western shore, 
only two miles from where the Jordan falls into the lake. 
Close by the shore stood the Synagogue, built of white 
lim«iitouei>u dark basalt foundation. All the houses of tlia 





ID - oamp. 
111. ta 11 
• bblUtt. 

town are p^ne : the good Centurion's house, that of Mat- 
, tli(*w the publican,' that of" Simon Peter,*" the 

tcuiporary home which first sheltered the Master 
antl His loved ones. All are unri^coguisabla 
— a confuaed mass of ruina — save only that 
white Syna^gue in which He tanght. From its mina 
wc can sllll merisure its dimeusioHS, and trace its fiilleQ 
pillars 1 nay, we discover over the linM of it« entrance the 

* 91, Joiiu device of a pot of uiiinno, which may have lent 
«.«8.6» jfg %fcci to His leaching there," 

And this, tlien, is Caperaaom — ^the first and the chief 
home of JeauB, when He had enttrtd on Hia ai-tive work. 
But^ on this occuBion, He ' continued thers not many days.' 
For, ab^ady, ' the Jews' Passover was at hand," and Ha 
muat needs keep that feaet in Jerusalem. If our former 
compatatioDB tue light this PasBover must have taken place 
in the fipring (about April) of the year 27 a.d. A month 
before the feast bridges and roads were put in repair, and 
sepulcbree whitened, to prevent accidental pollution to the 
pilgrims. Then, some would select tliis out of the three 
great annual feasts for the tithing of their flocks and herds, 
which, in such case, had to be done two weeks before the 
Passover ; while others would tis on it as the time for going 

* Si. Joiid np to Jernaalem before the feast ' to purify them- 
''-"■ sekee'"' — that is, to undergo the prescribed 
puriticatiou iu any case of Levitica! defilement. But what 
must have appea-led to every one in the land was the appear- 
ance of the ' moaey-changera ' who opened their stalls in 
every country-town on the 15th of Adar (just a month 
before the feast). Tliey were, no doubt, regulurly accre- 
ditad and duly authorised. For all Jews and prowlytps 
— women, slave.?, and minors excepted — had to pay the 
annasi Temple-tribute of half a shekel, according to the 
'nacred ' standard, equal to about 1«. 2ci. of our money. 
From this tax, many of the Priests — to the chagrin of the 
RabbiB — claimed exemption. 

This Temple- tribute had to he paid in eiact half-ahekels 
of the ymictuary, or iiniinary Galilean shekBls, AVLen it 
ia remembered tliat, besides strictly Palestiniaii silver and 


Jesus the MussfAff 

oapBciftlly copper coin, Persian, Tyrian, Sjrrian, Egyptian, 
Grecian, aud Roman money circalnCed in the country, it will 
be understood what work theaa ' money-cbanffers ' must 
have had. From tie l&tb to the 25th Adar they had stalls 
in every eouatry-town. On tlie latter date, which mast 
tbecefore be considered as loarkiiig the first arrivals of 
festive pilgrims in the city, the atalle in the country 
were closet!, and the money-changera hencefortih sat withm 
the precincts of the Temple. All who refused to pay 
the Temple-tribute, except Priests, were liable to dis- 
traint of their goods. The raoney-chajigers made a 
sfcatufcory fi.ted charge of from ]^d. to 2d. on every half- 
shekel. Is gome cases, however, double this amount was 

It is a reasonable inference that many of the foreign 
Jews arriving in JeruBalem would take the opportanity of 
changing at theae tables their foreign money, and for this, 
of course, fresh charg^a would be made. For there was ft 
great deal to be bought within the Temple^area, needful 
for the feast (in the way of sacrLficea and their adjoncte), 
or for purification. We can picture to ourselves the scene 
nrotind the table of an Eastern money-changer — the 
weighing of the coins, deducticnB for ioes of weigh t, arguing, 
disputing, bargaining — and we can realise the terrible 
truthfulneea of our Lord's charge that they had made the 
l''atlier's House & mart and place of traffic. But even so 
the bueinees of the Teni|>!e money-changers would not be 
BKhauatf^d. Throiigh their hauds would pass probably all 
business matters connected with the Sanctimry. Some 
idea of the vast acciini illation of wealth in the Temple- 
ti'easiiry may be formed fi'om the circii instance that, despit^e 
many previous epoUations, the value of the gold aud silver 
which Crassns * carried from the Temple -treasury 
amoiintpd to the enormous sum of about two and 
a half millions sterilDg, 

The noisy and incoogruouB businesH of an Eastern 
money-li-ader wna not the only one carried on within the 
sacred Teinple-enclosHve. A person bringing a sacrifice 
might not only learn, but actually obtain, in the Tempi 


VraplA ■ 



fiom its officials what was required for tlie meat- aiii3 drink- 
Ofiering. The prioeK were lifted by tariff every month, and 
on ptbyiiient of the stated amouut the offerer HwKived oue 
of four counterfoils, which, respectively indicated, siid, on 
handing it to the proper, procured the prescribed 
complemeQtof his «icrifice.' The Priest* and Levites iu 
charge of this made up their accounts every evening, and 
theae (thoiighu ecijasary) transactions must have leffc a 
considerable margin of profit \.o the treasury. This would 
anon lead to auothei" lino of traffic. Ofl'crera might, of 
course, bring their Bacrificial animals with them, and we 
know that on the Mouub of OUvea there were four shops, 
»]>eci(illy for the sale of piyeons tind other things recinisite for 
sacrificial purposes. Butthen, when an auiinal was brought, 
it had to be examined us to its Levicical tituesa by persona 
r^g^ulurly qualified aud &p|K)iQted. Di^pat^a might her« 
arise, due to the ignorance of the purchaser or the groed of 
the esatuiner. But all troubla and difficulty would be avoidoU 
liy a regular market within the Temple-enclosure, where 
Bacrificial animals could bw purcluieed, having pi-^umaWy 
been duly iaspected, and all fees paid befiwe being oRoretl 
for sale- It needs no comment to show hyw ntt«rly the 
Temple would be pi^ofaued by such traftic, and to what 
scenes it might lead. 

These Temple-Bazaars,' the property, and cue of the 
principal yoiirces of iiicuiiie, of the family of Annus, were 
the scene of the purification of the Temple by Jesus ; and 
in the private /ocii/o attached to these very Bnzaara, where 
the Sanhedi'in held its uieetin^a at the time, the final con* 
denmstion of Jesna may have been planned, if not actnally 
pronounced. We can now also understand why the Temple 
olGcials, tu whom thi^-'^o Baiiaars belonged, only challenged 
the authority of Christ in thus purging the Temple: the 
un|)opuIarity of the whole traffic, if not their conaciences, 
preheated their proceeding to actual violence. Nor do we 
any longer wonder that no resistance was offered by the 
people to the action of Jeeus, and that eveu the remou- 

' Comp. "riie Temple niiil ila Pervkps, fc?.' iiu. 119. 118. 
s SW Lifpttfld TitnpSdfJewiMthe Mpflsifth, Vol.i, pp, 370-T2otth(! 
lufgcT work. 


fesus THE Messiah 

etrances of the priests were not direct, hut in the form 
perplexing (juestiou. 

Mauy of those present umst have known Jesus. The 
zeal of U-ia early djsciplps, who, oq their first rec-ognifcion 
of Him, pioclaimed the new-touiid MessiEihj could not have 
^veii place to abaoluta sileuce. The many GaUlean pil- 
griniB in the Temple could not but have spread the tidings, 
and the report mast aoou have passed from one t« l>he other 
in the Temple-com-ta, as He first entered their sacred en- 
cloeare. They would follow Him, aud watch what He did. 
Nor were they diaa|>i)omted. He inangurut^d His Mlsaion 
by fulfilliiig the prediction concerning Rim Who was to be 
lerael's refiner and purifit-r (Mai. iii. 1-3). Scarce hiid He 
entered the Temple-poreh, and trod the Court of the Gen- 
tilem, th&a He drove theuce what profanely deliled it. There 
was not a Land lilV*d, not a word spoken to arrest Him as 
He made the scourge of small cords, and with it drove ont 
of the Temple both the sheep and the oxen ; not a word enid 
nor a hand riiiaed as He poured iiit'O their receptacles the 
ehungery' money sind overthrew tlieir tables. His Presence 
awed them, HJs worduaw&ktmed even their consciences; they 
knew only too well how tjue Hiw denunciationa were. Aiid 
behind Him was gathered the wondering mnltitude, with 
whom BBch bold and Mesaianic vioclication of Temple eauc- 
til.y would gain TTim respect, approbation and admiration, 
and which, at any rate, secured His safety. 

For when 'the Jewa,' by which here, n»; in so many 
otjher places, we are to understAiitt the nilers of the people 
— in this instance, the Temple officials — did gather coai-age 
to come forward, th&y ventured not to lay hnuds on Him. 
Still more strangely, they did not even reprove Him for 
what He hod done, as if it had been wrong or improper. 
With infinite canning, as appealiug to the multitado, 
they only asked for • a sign ' whioh would warrant anch 
assumption of authority. But this qneetion of challenge 
marked two tbinge ; the essential oppoaitioa between the 
Jewish authoritiea and Jeaue, and the manner in 
ttay would can-y on the contest, which was hencefor 
be wat^ hetween Him and the rulere of the people. 

which B 

brtU to fl 


The Clbansing of thb Tbmfle 


And Jesus foresaw, or rather saw it all. As for ' the 
sign,' then and ever agaio souglit by an ' evil niid adalte- 
rous getieraHon ' — evil in tlieir thoughfa and ways, and 
ndnlteraiistotheGodoflsrael^ — He hadtheD.asaftenvards,' 
• atMsH, ooly one 'sign' to give: ' Destroy tliis IVniple, 
iit3s-w mj^ ^y three days I will raise it up.' Thus Ho 
met their challenge lor a sign by the challenge of a sign ; 
Crucify Him , and He would rise again ; let them BUppreaa 
the Christ, He would triumph. 


(St. John Lit 1-31.) 

The Feast of tbe Passover cotnuicnced on the 15th Nisan, 
dsitiug it, of course, from the preceding evening. On ibe 
evening of the 1-ith Nisan, with which the 14th, or *j>r«— 
paratio Ill-day,' commenced, the head of each household 
would, with lighted caudle and in solemn silence, search 
out all leaven in his house, prefni^itig his search with solemn 
thanksgiving and appeal to tiod, and closing it by an 
eqanlly solemn declnratioii that, he had accompliahed it, so 
far as within hia knowledge, and disavowing responsiLility 
for what lay beyond it. And as the worshippers went to 
the Temple, they wonld see prominently exposed, on a 
bench in one of thf- porches, two desecrated cakes of Bomo 
tliankoffering, indicating that it waa still lawful to eat of 
that which wns leavened. At tea, or at latest eleven, 
■o'clocli, one of those cukes was removed^ and then they 
Iniew that it waa no longer lawful to eat of it. At twelve 
o'clock the sectmd eake was removed, and thifi was tho 
signal for solemnly burning all the leaven that had been 

The ' cleansing of the Temple ' undoubtedly preceded 
»et.jobniL ^^ actual festive Paschal week." To those who 
** were in Jeruaalem it was a wt^k such as had 

BBTer btftn before, a week when 'they saw the signs whieh 


/flit/j THE Messiah 

He did,' and when, stirred by a strange impulse, 'tkey 
believed in His Name ' aa the MessJat, 

Among the obser\"Brs who were struck hy these signa 
was NicodemiiB, ods of the Phariseee and a member of tlie 
Jerusalem Sanliedriu. And, as we gather from his mode 
of expression, not he only, but others with him. From 
the Gospel-history we know him to have been cautious by 
nature mid education, anA timid of charEiettr, and we 
cannot wonder that be should have wished to shroud this 
hiB first riait va the utmost possible secrecy. It was a 
moBt compTomiaing step for u Sanhedriat to take. With 
that first bold purgation of the Temple a deadly feud 
between Jesus and the Jewish authorities had begun, of 
which the aeque! conld not be doubtful. 

Nevertheless, Nicoderaus came, And aa JeauBwaa not 
depreaaed by the resistttnce of the authorities, nor by th* 
' inilk-t'uith ' of the multitude (as Luther calls it), so He 
was not elated by the possibility of making such a convert 
as a meiuber of the Qi-eat Siiuhedi-ia. 

The report of what passed reiwis, more than almost any 
other in the GospeU, like notes taken at the lime by one 
who was present. We can almowt put it agaiu into the 
form of brief notes, by heading what each said in thia 
manner, Nicodmim :— or, Jesus. They are only the out- 
lines of the converaation, giving in each case the really im- 
portant gist, and leaving "abrupt gaps between, as would be 
the manner in such uotea. Yet they are quite sufficient to 
tell us all that is important for ua to know. We can scarcely 
doubt that it was the narrator, -fohn, who was the wit- 
ness that took the notes. Hia own reflections upon it, or 
rather his after-look upon it, in the light of lat-er facts, and 
under the teaching of the Holy Ghost, is described in the 
vereea with which the writer fuUows his i«:connt of what 
had passed between Jesua and Nicodemue (St. John iii. 
16-21). In the same manner he winds np with similar 
reflectioiiB (ib. vv. 31-36) the reported converaation 
between the Baptist and hia disciples. In neither case 
are the veraea to which we refer part of what eitlier 
JesuH or John &aid at the time, but what, in view of it. 




John eays in niiniQ of, and to the Church of the New 

If from St. John xix. 27 we mi^ht infer that St. John 
had ' a home ' in Jeriisftlem itself, the scwne ftboilt to he 
dt'Mcribetl would have tiiken pluco unrfcr the roof of him 
who hftB giren us its record. Up in the simply fiirn.ished 
AliijaA — th^ giiest-cham ber on the roof — liie lamp waa 
Btill burning. There was no ueod for Nicodamus to pasa 
through the hoose, for an outside stair led to tlie upper 
room. It was night, when Jewish superstition would 
keep men at home ; a wild, gusty epriug night, whea 
loiterern would not be in the streets; and no one would 
Bee him as a.t thiLt hour he ascended the outside steps that 
led up to the Aliijah. His errand wns soon told : one 
sentence, th«t which admitti'd the Divine TeacherBhip of 
I Jesiie, implied nil the questions he couhl wish to ask. It 
[was all atout'the Kingdom of God.'Mooouiiectedwith thab 
Teacher come from God, that Nicodemus would inquire. 

And JesuK took him strtiight to whence alone that 
'Kingdom' could be seen. 'Except a innn be born from 
above,' he cannot see the Kingdom of God.' Judaism 
could andi-'r^tand a new relntioDBhip towards God and 
man, and even the forgiveness of siua. But it had no 
conception of a moral renovation, a spiritual birth, as the 
initial condition for refornmtion, fnr less ba that for seeing 
the Kingdom of God. And it was because it had no idea 
of such ' birth from above,' of its reality or even prwsibllity, 
that Judaism could not be the Kingdom of God. 

Ail this souuiled qiiito strange and unintelligible to 
NictidemnB. Ha could understand how a man might 
beiMine other, and bo ultimately he other; but bow a miin 
should first be other in order to becoriie other — more than 
that, needed to be ' born From above,' in order to ' see the 
Kingdom of (rod' — passed alike his experience and his 
Jewish learning. Only one possibility of beinrj occurred 

' Not withst.oii ding the high authority of Profe8.-or Wetteott., I moat 
itill bold that this ami tjot ' anew.' is the riglit rendering. Tba word 
Iti'»i9«i' lias nlwajw tlie mefiiiiii^ 'ftljove' in tlin fourth f.iospel (ah. iii. 3, 
T, HI ; xix. II, JH); aiid otherwise also Ht. Jnbn alwiiva epcaka of 'a 
bUlh' from God (St. John i, 13; IJoha ii. 2^; lii. it ; iv. •; , t. 1. 4,Vii> 


fnsus THE Messiah 

to him : ibttt given Him in his naturtil disposition, or, as u 
Jew woiild have put it, in hia origimil iniioeency wien he 
first entei-ed the world. And this he tlioiiglit aloud." 
8i,JohD But there was another world of b^ing than that 
111.4 Q^ which Nicodem«8 thought. That world was 

the ' Kingdom of God ' in its e-sseiitinl contrariety to the 
kingdom of this world, whether in the yeneral sense of 
that espreseion, or even in the upecial Judaistic eense 
attaching to the ' King'dfitn ' oi* the Measiali, But that 
* Kingdom 'was spiritual, and here a man must ha in order 
to heeome. How wae he to attain that new being? The 
Baptist bad pointed it out ia its negative aspi-ct of repent- 
ance and putting away the old by his Baptism of water; 
and as regai-ded its positive aspect he had poiutect to Him 
Who was to baptize with Ihi? Holy Ghoat and with fire, 
This was the gale of hevug, through which a man must 
enter into the Kinfpdoni, which wijs of the Mpsgiah, be- 
cause it was of Go«l !Uid the Messiuh was of God, aud in 
that sense 'the Teacher oonie from God" — tliat is, being 
aent of God, He taught of God by bringing to God. But 
as to the mystery of this Ivhig in order to lanime — hark ! 
did he hear the sound of the wind as it swept past the 
Aliyah ? He heard its voice ; bnfc lie neither knew whence 
it came, nor whither it went. So was eveiy one that waa 
bom of thfi Spirit. You might hear the. voice of the Spirit 
Who onginated th<; new being, but the origination of that 
new being, or its further development into all that it might 
and would become, lay beyond man's observation. 

Kicodemiifl now uuderstood in some mea^are what 
entrance into the Kingdom meunt; bat lie wanted to 
know the how of these things before he bclievetl them. 
But to that height of being no ooe could aacend bat He 
that had come down from heaven, the only true Teacher 
come from God. Or did NicoderauH think of another 
Teacher — hitherto their only Teacher, iloyes^ — whom 
Jewish tradition generally believed to have ascended into 
the very heavens, in order to bring the teaching unto 
them ? Let the history of Moeee, then, tench them ! They 
bad heard what Mosee had taught themj they had seea 

fssus AND NlCODSmJS 


' the earttly ttiuf^B ' of God — nnd, in view and bearing of 
it all, thej had uot believed but muiinured and rpb*iUed. 
TheQ cam© the judgment of the fiery at-rpenta, and, in 
answer to repfutant prayer, the symbol of new heif^, a Ufe 
reetored from death, na thfy looked on their no longer 
living but dead death lifted up bel'ore them. A eymbol 
thiSj Bhowiri^ furth two ol(*an?ntii : DBgiitively, the pnttinj^ 
away of ths pasL in their dc-ad death (the serpent no longer 
living, but a brazen sei-peiit) ; and positively, in their look 
of faith and hope. Before this symbol, as has been siiid, 
tradition has stoorl dumb. It conld only suggest one 
meaning, and draw from it one lesson. The meauing 
which tradition attached to it waa that Israel lifted up 
their pyes, not mei'ely to the serpent, but rather to their 
Father in heaven, and had regard to His mercy. This, as 
St. John afterwards shows (ver. 16), waa a true but in- 
Bnfficient interpn-tation. And the lesson which tradition 
drew (ri,nn it was that this aymhol taught the ilend would 
live again; for, as it is argned, 'behold, if God made it 
that, thronjjh the similitude of the aerpt'nt which brought. 
death, the dyiji^ should be restored to life, how much nioiv 
sliall He, Who is Life, restore the dead lo life ? ' And here 
lies the true interpretation of what Jeaue taught. If the 
uplifted serpent, as symbol, brought life to the believing 
Iwk which was fixed upon the giving, pardoniug Icve of 
God, th(!U, in the truest seime, shall the uplifted Son of 
Man give true hfe to everyone that helieveth, looking up 
in Him to the giving and forgiving love of God, which Bis 
Son came to bring, to declare, and to manifest. 'For as 
Moses lifted up the sprpprit in the wildernesa, so ninst the 
Sou of Man be lifted np, that whosoever believeth should 
in linn have eternal life,' 

And so the record of this interview aliriipbly closes. 
Of Nicodemus we shall hear again in the aeqael, not need- 
lessly, nor yet to complete a biography, were it even that 
of Jesus ; but a3 is npces^nry for the understanding of this 
••kJoha History. follows' are not the words of 
'^'*'" Chriat, bat of St. John. In them, looking back 
many years afterwards in the light of completed events, 

84 Jmsus the Messmh 

the Apostle tates his istand, as bpcomes tlie circmnstances, 
wIiftrH Jti'sng had ended His teaching of Nicodeuius — under 
tJie Cross. 

Aud to all time and to all men Houads, like the Voice 
of the Teacher come from God, this eternal Gospel- message : 
' God so loved the -vvorkl, that He gave His only-hegottea 
Son, that whosoever bblieveth in Hiin shoali! not perish, 
but have everlasting lifo.' 


(St. John l». I-+.) 

FaOM the city Jesiis retired with His disciples to ' the 
country,' rbich formed the province of Jndtea. There He 
• Bk John taught, and Hie disciples Ijaptized.' Tho number 
'■'■' of those who professed adliesion to the expected 

□ew Kingdom, Hud were consequently baptized, was aa 
large, in that locality, as had submitted to the pieachiug 
and Baptism of JoKq— perhaps even larger. An exag- 
gerated report was carried to the Pharisaic authorities : 
•BL Johu 'JesuB [iiaketh and baptizetU more disciples thun 
"■' John.' " From which, at least, we inter that the 

opposition of the leaders of the pai-ty to the Eaptist was 
now settled, and that it extended to Jesns ; and also, vrbat 
PAreftj] wat^h they kept over the new movement. 

But what seems at first sig-ht strange is the twofnH 
circnmetftnce that Jesus should for a time Imv'e established 
Uiiuself in such appareutly cloae proximity to the Baptist, 
and that on thia occasion, and on this only, He should 
have allowed His disciples to administer the rite of Bap- 
tism. The latter mast not be confonndefl with Cfiristiau 
Baptism, which was only introduced after the death of 
Christ,' or, to speuk more accurately, after the 
outpouring of the Holy Ghost. The adniinisti-n- 
tiou of the same rite by John and by the disciples of Jasua 
aeems not only unnecessaty, but it migbt give rise to mi»- 



j>tion on the part of eueiiiies, and misundurstaQding 
ijfealooBj on the part of weak i]isciple& 
Such was actually the case wlieii. on one occasion, a 
disouasion arose 'on tiie part of John's disciples with a 
•Bt.J^.^n Jew," 'on the subject of puriiicatiou.' "We know 
*"■ " not the special point in dispute. But what really 

interests as is, that someiiow this Jewish objector mnat ha7e 
connected what he said with a reference to tke Baptism of 
Jesus' disciples. For, immediutiely afterwardH, the disci- 
ples of John, in their zenl for the honoor of their master, 
brought Lim tiding» of what to them seemed interference 
with the work of the Baptist, find ntmo^t presumption on 
tihe part of Jeans. While fiillj alive to their error, we 
cannot but honour and sympathize with tijia loving tare 
for their master. Never before had suoli deep eariiestiiesB 
and self-abnegation as his been witnessed. In the high-day 
of his power, when all men wondered whether he would an- 
nonnce himself as the Christ, or. at least, as Hia Porerunner. 
or 88 one of the great I'rfphets, John had disclaimed 
everything for himsfll', aud pointed to Another! And, as 
if thiH ha<l not been enough, the multitudes which had 
formerly come to John now flocked around Jesus ; nay, 
He had even usurped the one distinctive function etill left 
to their master. It was evident that, hat«d and watchwi 
by the PhariseeB, vvutched also by the i-uthleaa jealousy 
of a Herod, overlooked if not eupplunted by Jesus, the 
mission of their master was nearitig it-s close. It had been 
a life and work of suffering and self-denial; it was aboiitto 
end in loneliness and sorrow. They said nothing exjtressly 
to complain of Hiin to Whom John hod borne witness, but 
they told of what He did. and how all men canni to Him. 

The answer which the BaptiHt made may be said to 
mark the bigb-poiiit of hia life and witneSB. In the silence, 
which was now gathering around him, he heard but One 
Voice, that of the Bridegroom. For it he had watted ftod 
Worked. And now that it had come, he was content : his 
'joywaa now fulfilled.' *He must incn-aae, but I must 
deO'eMe.' It was the right and good order. 

* Tbia, and not * tliu Jews,' is the b«ttor reading: 


JESU& TUM Messiah 

Tbat these were Ma last words, publicly spoken and 
recorded, may. however, explam to us why on this excpp- 
tional occasion Jesus sanctioned the administration by His 
disciples of the Baptism of John. Far divergent as their 
paths hud be^n.thia practical sanction on the partof Jesus of 
John's Baptism, whpn the Baptist was about to be forsaken, 
betrayed and murdered, was Christ'a highest testimony to 
bim. Jesus adopted his Baptism ere its waters for ever 
cea^d to Unw, and thus He hles.'Sfd and consecrated fchera. 
Leaving the present the Bfiptist, we follow the foot- 
steps of the Maater. St. John alone tells of the early 
Jmltean ministry and the journey through yamaria, which 
preceded the t.falilean work. 

The shorter read from Judaea to Galilee led through 
Samaria; and this was the one generivUy taken by the 
Oalileans on thi-ir -wfty •« the capital. On the other hand, 
the Juda-fins seem chiefly to have made a t/^fowr through 
Per^a, in order to avoid hostile iind impure Samaria. The 
eipressiou, ' He must needs gn through Sniriana,' probably 
refers to the a^lvisability in the circumstances of taking 
the most direct I'oad, since such prejudices in regard to 
Samaria would not inlluence the coiidiicl. of Jesus. Great 
as tJiese undoubteilly were, they have been unduly exag- 
gerated by modern writers, misled by oiie-aided quotations 
fi-om Rabbinic works. 

The Biblical history of that pai+ of Palestine which 
bore the name of .Samaria need not here be re- 
peaf.ed,' Before the final deportation of Israel 
by .Shalmaneser, or rather iSar^m, the ' Sainaria ' 
t« which his operations extended must have con- 
siderably shrunk in dimt^iisions, It is difficult 
to fiuppoae. that the oripiiial deportation waa bo 
S^ffirnllo-k complete ae to leave behind no tract-s of the 
2'r*fflp.t original lernelitish inhabitante.'' Their number 
•^^"o- would probably be swelled by fuf,'itiveB from 

.iM.iii'*:' Assyria, nnd by Jewish settlers in llie troublous 
.iiiuur. times that followed. Aflenviirdu thi-y were largely 
increased by apostateti; and I'ebe!^ against the ordei' ol 
things estaWislied by Ezra and Neliemiah. 

• Conip, 1 
Klflgi ilil. 
J« r ivi. « 
Sia, : Tig. 
Iniili.pllcscr, : Shai. 



The first foreigD*coioniBts of Samaina bronght their 
• J Kini[> peculiar Ibrma of idolatry vpith them.' But tbe 
rmaxsi pnjvidfMitial jni1f.'niMnts liy which they wt*re 
sisited led to the introduction of a Hpurious Judaism, con- 
sisting of a mixture of their former superstitions with 
' ! kibr. Jewish docti-iQes and rites.^ Although this 8tat« 
tviL B»-*i of matters renembled that which had obtain&d in 
the origiiiBl kingdom of Israel, perhaps just becaase of 
this, Ezra aud Nehemiah, whi'^n reconst meting the Jewish 
coinmonH'raUh, ineisted on a strict srparation between 
(hose who had tetumed from Bfibylon and the SaniaritanB, 
reeiBtiiig eqnally their ot!era of co-operfition and their at- 
tempts at hindrance. This embittered the national feeling 
of jealousy already existing, and led to that oooatant hoH- 
tility between Jevrs and Samaritans which has eontinned 
to tbia day. The ivIigiouB Hi?pariiti«Q [>ecaine final when 
the SamaritacB built a rival temple on Mount Gerizim, 
uod Monauseh, the brother of Judduu, the Jewish Qigh- 
Priest, having refused to annul his niarriage with the 
daughter of Sanballat, was forced to flee, aud became the 
High-PriuHt of tha nt^w Synclnui?. Henefforth, by impu- 
dent falsification of the text of the Peiitiit^-ncb, Gerizim wap 
declared the rightful centre of worship, and the doctrines 
and rites of the HamaritanB exhibited a curious imitation 
and adaptation of those prevHlent in Juda-a. Aa might 
he espectud, their tendency was Sadducean rather than 

In general it may he said that>, while on certain poLotfl 
Jewish opinion remained always the aaine, the jodgmeut 
pu-ised on the Samaritans, and especially as to intercourse 
with them, varied, according a« they showed more or less 
active hostibty towards the Jews.' 

The expression, ' the Jews have no dealings with the 
•stjuhn Sanijiritans,' " finds its Rabbinic counterpart in 
''■* this : ' May I never set eyes on a Samaritan ; ' 

OT elea, * May I never bo thrown into company with 
him ! ' A Kabbi in Cieaui-ea explains, as the cause of these 
changed of opinion, that formerly the Samaritans had been 

• Par ruorp prprlsc ■ktaiis »« the ' LHe iiml Timet <i% Jcmhh die Men 
iiah.'vol i. [([J, 400, 401. 

/£sos TFTS Massr^ff 

obnervant of the Law, which they md lon^^pr were. Mat- 
ters proceedec! bo far, that they were pjihirety excluded 
from I'ellowsli i p. But at the time nf Chi-ist Jewish fole- 
rution dedjired all their food to be lawful, and there would 
be no diiBctilty B8 regarded the purchase of victuals on the 
part of the distiplea of Jesus. 

The Samaritaiis strongly believed in the Unity of God ; 
they held the doctrine of Angele iiud devils ; they received 
the 3'entateacL bb of sole Diviue authority ; tliey regftrded 
Moniit GerlBim AS the place chosen of God, maintaining^ 
that it alone iiad not been covered by the Flood, ae the 
Jews asserted of Mount Moriah; tliey were most, Btricb 
and zealous ia what of Biblical or traditional Law they 
received ; and they looked for the coming of a Mpssiah, in 
Whom the promiee would be fulfilled, that the Lord God 
would raise up a. Prophet from the midst of them, lika 
unto Moses, in Whona His words were to he, and unto 
• DBut.irOi. Whom they should hearken." Thus while in 
18,18 some i*s[Jt-cts acceas to them would be more 

difficult; than to His own countrymen, yet in others Jesiia 
would find there a soil better prepared for the Divine Seed, 
or, at least, less encumbered bj the thistles and tares of 
ttaditienaliam and Phurisaio bigotrj-. 


(St. John iv. 1-42.) 

Tbebe is not a district in ' the L«nd of Promise * which 
presents a scene more fair or rich than the plain of Samai'ia 
(the modern Ei Mukhta). As ve stand on the summit of 
the ridge, on the way from Shiloh, the eye timvels over the 
wide sweep, extending mote than seven milea northward, 
till it rests on the twin heights of Gerizim and Ebal, 
which enclose the Valley of Shechem. Following the 
straight olive-shaded road from the south to where a spur 
of Gerizim juttdng south-east forras the Vale of Shechem, 

y*r THE Well op Sychar 


we stand by tJiat ' Well of Jacob ' to which su many sacred 
mpmories attanh. North of the entrauce to the Vale of 
8hccOii.Tn rises Moniib Mlnil, which also fijrms, bo to speak, 
l!i6 western wail of the northern extension of the Plain of 
Samoria, Here it Ijears the nn,iiie of El 'jinkar, fi*oni 
Askar, the ancieut Sychiir, which ne&tlee at the foot of 
KItftI, at a diHtatice of about two milftB from Shwhem. 

It was, as we jadge, alM)Ut bis o'clock of an evening in 
parly Biiiunier, wliun Jesus, accompanied by the sniiill band 
which fornifii Bia disciples, emerged into the rich Plain of 

S:irnHi-ia. lar 



tliB tittlds ' wer<? 

eje could eweep, 
' alrsady white uuto the harvest.' Tbey had reached ' the 
Well of Jacob.' Here Jetius waitetl, while the others 
went to tlie little town of Sychar on their work of 
Ttiinistry. This latter ci re uiu stance marks that it was 
evaiiing, eicce noon was not the time either for the sale 
of proviGiona or for their purchase by travellers. Probably 
Joha remained with the Master, They would ecarcely 
have left Him alone, especially in that place ; sik! the 
whole nurrative reads like thatof one wbobad been present 
at what pas.ied. 

There was another well on the east side of the town, 
and much nearer to Sychar than ' Jacob's Well ; ' and to it 
prohjtbly the women of Sychar generally resorted. It 
should also be borne in mind that in thoao days such work 
no longer devolved, a« in early timee, on the matfona and 
maideuft of fair degree, but on women in much humbler 
station. This Saiiaaritaness may have cboaen 'Jacob's 
Well,' perhaps, because she had been at work or lived in 
that direction ; perhjips becnUBe, if her chnracter was what 
seems implied in verse 18, the concourse of the more com- 
mon women at the viilage-weli of an evening might scarcely 
make such a plt-asant place of resort to her. 

But whatevei' the motives which brought her thither, 
, both to Jeans and to the woiiiaa the meeting was unsought : 
[providential in the truest sense. The rei^ue&t : ' Give Me 
[to drink," was natural on the part of the thirsty traveller. 
fEvcTi if Ho hiul not spokii-n, the tSftmftritanesa would have 
reooiguiiicd the Jew by Hie appearance and dresG, if, aa 

90 Jb^us tbe Messiah 

fitf«n)8 liiely, He wore the ftingeB on the toi-der of Hie 
jfurment.' His Bpeech. would by its pronunciatioii place 
His nationulity beyond doubt. Any kindly addresB, con- 
veying 0. reqUL'st not absolutely ncceasary, would naturally 
Burprifti^ the woman ; for, as the Evangelist explauatively 
ttdds : ' Jevirs have no dealings with Samaritans.' BeBid>ea, 
we must remember that this was an ignorant ^amaritaoees 
of the lower order. In ihy mind of such an one, two 
points would mainly stnnd out : that the Jews in their 
wii^lsed pride would hav* no intercourse with them ; and 
that Gerisim, not Jerusalem, as the Jews fftbdy asaerted, 
was the plnce <>f rightful worBhip. It was, therefore, 
genuine sm-prise which expressed itself in the question; 
' How is it. Thou, being a Jew, of me askeet to drink ? ' 

And the ' How is it ? ' of the 'Samaritan woman, soon 
and fully found it.s answer. He Who had spoken to her 
was not like what she thought and knew of the Jews. He 
was what larnel waa intended to have become to mankind ; 
■what it waa the final object of Israel to Lave been. Had 
fihe but known it, tlie present relation between them would 
have been reversed ; the Well of Jacob wonld have been 
but a symbol of the living water, which she would have 
aaked and He given. 

Tlie ' How can these things, be ? ' of Nicodemua finds a 
parallel in (he bewilderment of the woman. JesuB had 
nothing wherewith to draw fruin tlie deep well. Whence, 
then, the ' living- water ' ? And yefc, as Nicodemua' ques- 
tion not only similarly pointed to a physical impoBsibihty, 
bnt also indicated his searching af^er higher meaning and 
epiritual rt-fility, eo that of the woman : ' No ! art Thon 
greatj-r than our father Jacob ? ' — who at snch labour had 
dug thia well, finding no other means than thia of supply- 
ing hia own wants and those of his descendants. Nor did 
the answer of Jeaaa now differ in spirit from that which 
He had given to the Rabbi of Jemsalem. Bat to this 

' Tbfl ■frinf.-es" on the TalUth of tbe Samarituas are blue, while 
those worn by tlif Ji-ws ure wliilD. Tho SauiarilAOB do not. teem to 
lave viara ji/ii/liioterUi. But neitliordidniaii;y o[ tlie JeivsoE old— cor. 
I feel pereiiaifeil, <iki onr Lord 



IB : ut. 

xio. » 

» Jm. H, II 



wrttnan His aDswerniitst be much ehnpler aud plainer tbau 
to the Babbi. It wits not water like that of Jtwrob's W«ll 
whicli He would give, but ' living wnter.' In the Old Tes- 
tament. B peremiiai spring had, id Bgurative Inngunge, been 
•Qeii.nn. thus designated, ' in eigQilicanti contmut to water 
accumulated iii a ciett'rii.*' But there was more 
than this: ifc was water which, iu him who had 
dnink of it, became a well, wot merely quenching the thirst 
on ibis side time, but ' springing up tulo evei'iiitilitig lift.' 

We would mark here that though in many pa^i^ages 
tiie teacihiug of the Rabbis is coniparfd to water, it la 
never likened to a 'well of water spruig'ing tip.' The 
difference is ^ear. For it ie the hoapt of Habbinisni tliat 
it« diecipleB drink of the wntera of their teachers ; chief 
merit lies io receptirenese not sponlimeitj, and higher 
praise eaoDot be given than ttint of being ' a welUplagtered 
dstera, which lets not out & drop of wat*r.' But this is 
qnite the oppoaite of what our Lord teatheH. For it is 
only true of what man cnn g^ivp whori we reni3 this (in 
Ecdus. xxiv, 21): ' 'Jliey that drink me shall yet be 
thiinty.' At the Feast of Tabern.icU's, aiiiidat oniveTBal 
rejoicing, water from Siloam was jMJurpd from a golden 
pitcher on the allar, as euibli-in ul' tht? ontpaiiring of the 
Holy Ghost.' But the saying of oiu- Lord to the Samari- 
laness referred neither to His teaching, nor to the Holy 
Ghost, nor yet to faith, bnt to the gift of that new spiritual 
life in Him, of which faith ia but the outcome. 

If the hunible, ignorant tiamaritaiieBs had formerly bnfe 
imperfectly giiessGd that, there was a higher meaning m 
the words of Hun Who spake to hfr, (<he now belieres in 
the incr<"dibie ; believes it bccnuwi" uf Illiu and in Him; 
helieves also in a satisfaction tliTOiigb Hiin of outward 
wants, reacliing up beyond this to the everlasting life. 
Bnt all these elements ore still in strange confuaion. And 
thuB Jeaus reached lier heart in that diialyeonscious longing 
which she expressed, though Iht iutellect was incapable of 
diatinguishing the ne.w truth. 

' SwTheTemplBandlti Ministry," pp. 2.11-243, 


Jesus the MmsfAH 

It IB difBcnlt to 

tliat He asked tLe 


• <ME.lll 


call her hufiband with tiie primary object of awaiening in 
lier a eeaiss of ain, Jior does aaytliuig in hiT bearing in- 
dicate any Huch efitct ; indeed, her reply ' and 
ter after-reference to it'' rather imply the con- 
trary. We do QOt even Icnow fgr certain whether the fire 
previons husbands had died or divorced her, and, if the 
latter, with, whom the blame lay, althgugh not oaiy the 
pecwiiar modo in which our Lord refere to it l^ut tlie 
present coudiljun of thu womttu eeem to point to a siiifiij 
life in the poKt. In Judaea a course like here would have 
been almost imposaible ; but we know too little of the 
social and rnorat condition of Sauinria to judge of what 
ini^ht there be tolerated, Ou the other hand, we have 
abundant evidence that, when the Saviour so nnexpeetedly 
laid open to her a past, which He conld only superuatii- 
rally have known, the conviclion at once arose in her ihat 
He was a Prophet, just as in similar circumstances it had 
•atjivtji been forced upon Nathauael," 
L4a, (9 This conviction, sudden hot firm, was already 

faith in Him ; and so the goal hod been attained — not, 
perhaps, faitb ia His Mesetaliship, about wbicli she might 
nave only very vague notions, but in Him. We feel tJaat 
the woman has no aller-thought, no covert purpose in 
what she now asks. All her life long she bad iieard that 
Gerizim was the ttiount of worship, and that the Jews were 
in deadly error. But here was an undoubt-ed Prophet, and 
He a Jew. W«re they then in error about (ht? right place 
of worship, and what was ehe to lUiuk and to do ? 

Onee more the Lord anawers her question by leading 
her fiir beyond all controverey: even ou to the goal of all 
Hia teaching. ' There cometh an hour, when neither in this 
mountain, nor yet in Jerusaiein, ye shall worship the Fothw.' 
Words, these, that pointed to the higher solution in fcha 
worship of a common Fatter, which would be the worship 
neither of Jews nor of SamaritaiiB, but of children. And 
yet there wag truth in their presenl differences. ' Te wor- 
ehip ye know not what : wa worship what we know, since 
sulvutiou is front out the Jews.* The Snmarltuu waa 



Jesus AT THE Well op SvhrtAk 


•imiepis worsliip, because ifc wanted the j^i;il of all the Old 
Testament institutioua, tJiat Messiah ' Who was to be of 
• aoni.i3 *^6 aeed i>f David" — fur of the Jewa, ' iia cou- 
»aom.i*,t cerniiig the flesh,' was Christ to com©.*' But 
only of present interest cxiuld such distinctions be; for 
an hour would come, uay, already was, when the true 
worshippers wocld 'worship the l-'atlitir iu spirit and in 
truth, for the Father also aeeketh such for Hia worshippers, 
spirit is God'— and only worship in spirit and in truth 
could be acceptable to such a God. 

Higher teaching than thja could act be ottered. And 
she who heard thiis far understood it, that in the glorious 
picture, which was set before her, she aaw tlie coming oi 
tlie Kingdom of the M^B»iah. ' I know that M^atdiiii 
Cometh. When He cometh, Be will tell us all things." 
It was then that, according to the need of that untutored 
woman, He t^sld her plainly what id Jndsa, and even by 
Uift disciples, would have bo^n carnally miuinterpreted and 
niiaappUed : that He was the Mt-ssiah, 

It was the crownitig lessoo of that day. The disciplfts 
had returned from Sychar. That Jesue should converse 
with a woman was so contrary t« all Juda^au Dotioos of a 
Gabbi, that they woudered. Yet, in their reverence for 
Him, they dared not ask any queations, MemiwhUe the 
woman, for<^tfuI of her errand, and only conscious of that 
new well-Bpring of life which had riseo within her, had 
left the nniilled waterpot, and hurried into 'the City.' 
' Come, see a man who told me all that I have done. No — 
is this the Chriat ? ' We inft:^ that these strange tidings 
soon gathered many around her ; that they questioned, and 
as they flscert.aiu«d From her the indisputable fact of Hia 
Buperhoiuaii kuowled^ believed on Him, so far as the 
woman could set Him before them na object of faith." 
■ T.. », «o Under tbis impreaaioii ' they went out of the City, 
■ftr.iu and came on their way towards Him.'* 

Mimtitime the disciples had urged the Master to eat 
uf the food which thev had brought. Hut His Soul was 
otherwise engBfj;Rd. His words of rehuko made them won- 
der whetbar, uoknown to them, some une had brong-ht Him 


■m. Vhm. 
xtI. «. t 

jEstrs THE Messiah 

foo(J. It wflB not the ou!y nor the Inst instanm 
of their duIiiesB to spiritual reiilitiL'S," 

Yet with Divine patienee He boie with tltem ; " Mj 
meet is, l,lia.t I may Ju the Will of Hitn that sent Me, and 
tliat I may accomplish {briug to a perfect end) His work.' 
To the diacipleu that work appefireJ still in the far future. 
To them it eeenied as yet licile more tLau seed«tiiiie; the 
greeu blade was only sprouting; the harvest of audi a 
Messianic Kingdom as they expected was still inonLbs dis- 
tfVDt. To correct', their misiake, tlie Diviue Teacher, aa so 
often, and aa best adapted to HIm lieftrei-s, chose His illns- 
tration from what was visible around. To show tlieir 
meaning more clearly, we veatnre to reverse the order of 
the aentencea which Jesus spoke: 'Behold, 1 say onto 
yon, lift' up your eyes and look [observantly] at the fields, 
that they are white to the harvest. [Butj do ys not say 
that there are yet four raooths, and the harvest coraeth ? ' 

Notice how the Lord fiirllier inifoldeti Hi.s own lesson 
of present harvesting, and thi-ir inversion of what was 
sowing and what reaping time. ' Already ' he that 
reaped received wngcn, and ^'titheifd fruit unto eteniul life 
(which is the rpdl reward of the Great Reaper, the Beeing 
of the travail of His Soul), bo that in this instance th« 
sower rejoiced equally aa ths redpET And, in this respect, 
the otherwis"^ cynita! proverb) that one was the sower, 
auother the reaper of his sowing, found a true application. 
It was indeed so, (bat the aer\'at]te of Christ were sent to 
reap wlmt othei-s had sown, and to en(er into their labour. 
And yet, as in this in&tant^e of the Samaritans, tlie sower 
would rejoice as well a^f the reaper. 

It wns as Christ had said. The Siimaritaus, who 
believed ' because of tJie word' (speech) ' of the woman 
[what she aaid] as she testified ' of tlie Christ, ' when they 
came ' to that well, ' naked Him to abide with them. And 
He abode there two Jaya. And many more believed 
because of His own word (speecli, discourse), and said 
onto the woman: No longer because of thy speaking do 
we believe. For- we oarach'ett have heai-d, and know, that 
tliia is tnily the Saviour of the world,' 



"tiIE cube of the 'nobleman's' son at CiTEHKAOMT 
(SL MatCiv. 12:St. MaikL14:St. LiikeiT.14, iri; 61. Jubniv. 4S-e4.) 

When Jesus retiirnerl to Galilee, it was in circumatatices 
entirely diffei-ent from tho&e under which Ho had left it. 
•sLJahnir. -^^8 il^ HiiDSBlf &aid," there haJ, porhtipa uatiir- 
** "-^^y^ been preindicea couuecteJ with the Iiuiiiblo- 

nsss of HJa nplirlDging, and the familiarity engendered hy 
knowledge of His home-suiTonndinga. These were over- 
come when the Galileans hud witnessed at t^e leafa'l in 
JemiSBlem what He Lad done. Ai'Ci)rdiii|^lj, they wera 
now prepared to receive Him with the reverent attention 
which His Word claimed. We may conjecture that it 
was partially for reasons such as thenti tliat He first bent 
Hin etep3 to Caua. ITie miracle, wliich had there be»?n 
»si.JaimiL wrought,'' would still farther prepare the people 
■-'> for His preaching. Besides, ^iiB was the home 

of Kalhanael, iu whose hoase welcome would now await 
Uiin. It waB hei'6 that the secoiid recorded miracle of His 
GiililcBii initiiBtiiy was wrought, with what efl'ect upon the 
whole district may be jud(ifed (rom the expectanciea 
•HtLotoiT- which the fame of it excitel evea iu NiLza.retlt, 
'* the city of Ilis eajly upbringing." 

It appuors that the son of one of Herod Antipos' officers 
was sicK, and «t the point of death. When tidings reached 
the father that the Prophet, or more than Prophet, Who.'^o 
fame had preceded ilim to Galilee, had come to Cana, he 
reaolred in hie despair of other means to apply to Him 
for the cure of his child. We do not assume that this 
' oourt-officer ' was actuated by fipiiitnal belief in the Son 
of God when applying to Him for help, Rather wonld 
we go tg liluiost the opposite extreme, and regard him aa 
simply actuated hy what, in the circumatances, might bs 
the viewH of a devout Jew. Instances are recorded ia 
the Talmud, which iimy here serve aa oar guide. Variona 


Jesus the Messiah 


cases are related iu which those Berioiisly ill, and even at 
the point of detilh, were restored by the prayora of cele- 
brated Rabbis. 

But ch© great and vital contrast lies alike in what was 
thought of HiiD Who was in5t,mLiientaI in the cure and iii 
the inornl etiecta which Iblloived. The prolune represenfciv- 
tioQ of the relation between God and His aerviinta, the 
utterly unspiritual view of pniyer, which are displayed by 
the Ka.bbt8, and their daring BelP-exalUtion mark suffi- 
ciently the contrast in spirit between the Jewish view and 
that wliich underlies the Epaugelic narrative. 

When, to the request that Jeans would come down to 
Capemamn to perform the cure, the Master replied, that 
unless they saw signs and wonders they would not believe, 
wliat He reproved was not the rerpiest for a am'acle, 
which was necessary, hut the urg.^ut plea that He ahould 
ooine down to Caperuaum for that purpoai'. That reqneat 
argued ignorance of the real chai'jiufcer of the Christ, as if 
Ho were either merely a Uabbi endowed with spticial 
power, orelse a miracle-raoiigep. What He intended to 
teach this mau wa-i, that He, Wbo had life in Himself, 
could re^tcre life at a distauce aa easily aa by His I're- 
sence; by the word of His Power as readily as by personal 
application. When the 'court-officer' bad learned thia 
leaBon, lie became ' obedient onto the faith,' and ' went his 

• wr. M way,'* presently to find his faith both crowned 
'™'-" and perfected.*' 

Whether this 'royal officer' was CkiKU-, Herod's 
steward, whose wife, under the abiding impression of tbia 
miracle to her child, afterwards gratefully ministered to 
■ St Low •Tesna,'' must remain undetermined. Suffice It 
»iii.i to mark the progress In the ' royal officer' from 

' TBI. to belief in the power of Jeaus to I'aith in His 

• «f. 65 wurd,'' and thence to absolute failJi in Hina,*witb 
its expansive effect on that whole household. And ao are 
we ever led from the lower stage of belief by what we see 
Him flo, to that higher failh which spruiga from exoeri- 
meatal knowledge of whnt He u. 





<8t. l.ak» iv. le.) 

The stay in Caoa, thougli we have no meaoa of determin- 
ing ita leii^h, w&a probably of only Ehort daration. Her- 
Iiapa ihs Sabbatli of the eaiue wwk already fuimd Jesus in 
I iho Synagogue of Nazareth. 

As the lengthening ehatlows of Friday's BUtx doeed 

IDd the qoiiit valley. Be woald hear iha well-rtitnem- 

ed double blast of the trampeb from the roof of t!io 

Synagogue-mi nister'e hous^e, prodiiimin^ the advent of the 

ilioly dny. Ouce more it Bounded tlirough ihe still Bummcr- 

air, to t«ll all that work ninat be laid aside. Yet a third 

time it was heard, ere the ' minister' put it aside clos« by 

'where he stood, not to jirofane the Sabbath ty carrying it; 

, lor now the Sabhiith had really commenced, and the festive 

, Sabbath lamp was lit. 

Sabbath morn dawned, and early He repaired to that 
S)Tiao"ogue where He had so often worshipped in the 
humble retireTuent of His ranJi, sittiog, not up' tiiere 
^L among the elders and the hououied, but tar back. Tho 
™ old well-known faces were aronnd Him, the old woll-ro- 
Hiembored words and eervices fell on Hie ear. And now 
He waa again among thfim, a Btrangi-r among Hia own 
couulryiaen ; tliia time, to he lunked at, hsteued to, tested, 
tried. It wo.s the first time, no lar aa we know, that He 
taught in a Syuagogue, and thia Syuugogue that of His 
own Nazareth. 

That Synagogues originated during, or in conseciuence 
of, the Babylonish captivity, la admitted by all. The Old 
Teafciitnent contains no allusion to their existeni":e, ami the 
Itabbinic attempta to trnue tbttm even to Patriarchal times 
dewervB, ol course, no serious considerat.ion. We can 
readily uodurstand how, doling the long years of exile in 



Jesus thr Msssr/in 

Babylon, places and opportunities for coiiiihoii womMp on' 
Sabbiilhs and feast-days muftt liave beeu ft'U tilmoet a 
necessity. This would furnish, at Iptist, the lasis for tha 
inBtitution of the Synagogue, After the return to PaU 
estiDe, and etill more by 'the disperBed ahroad,' such 
' ineetiiig-Ltinsea ' would become absolutely requiaite. Here 
thosei who were ignorant eren of the hinguatje of the Old 
Testament would Lave the Scriptures rend and ' fargnrned' 
to theiu. It wfts but natural that prayers, and, lastly, 
addresses, sliould in courBe' of time be added. Thus tha 
n-gular Synagogue services would graduiilly arise ; first 
on Subhaths and ou I' or fast-tlnys, tbfii on ordinary 
days, at the enijie hours as, and with a sort of internal 
correspondence to, the worship of the Temple. The services 
ou Mondays and Tliarsdays were special, these being tli9 
ordinary market-days, whpn tiie country-people came intj> 
the towQB, and would avail tbemaelves of the opportunity 
for bringing any case that might roqnire Ipgal deeieion 
before the local Sauhfdrin, whivh met in the Synagogue, 
and consiatpd of ita authorities. Naturally, thesfl two 
days would be utilised to afford tlie country-people, 
who lived fer from the SynagogueB, opportunities for 

A congregation, according to Jewish Law, most conaist 
of at least ten men. Anotlierand perhaps more important 
rule was as to the direction in whicli Synagogufs were to 
bo built, and which woreliippers shonld occupy dnring 
prayer, Praypr towards the east was condemned, on the 
ground oftho false worship towards the Past ntentiotiRd in 
Ezek. viii. 16. The prevailing direction in Palestine was 
towards the west, as in the Temple. It is a mistake to 
suppose that tlie men and woiueu sat in opposite aisles, 
separated by a low (vall. 

We can with the help given by recent escavRtiouR form 
a conception of these ancient Synagoguee, Th« Synagogue 
is built of the atone of the comitry. The flooring iB formed 
of slabs of white limi.'ntone; the walla are solid (fi-om 2 even 
to 7 feet in thickness), and well built of Rtoups, roitu'b in 
the exterior, but plastered in the interior. The building is 



H Synagogue-worship and AifftANGEMexTs: 99 

furnish(*(l witli sufficient windows to admit light. Tlie roof 
ia tlat,llit! oolumua knug BumLitlmes counecU^l by lilocks of 
stone, on whifli massive mftei's rest. 

Ent«ria^ liy the door at the Routhcm end, and making 
the circuit to the north, we tnke our position in front uf 
the women's t^iillerj. Timsc i-oloniiiidi-s fonn the body of 
the Synagog-ae. At thi^ ooiitli end, fa:*injf in^rth, is ft 
tnoYsble ' Ark," containinjr the eacretl roils of the Lfiw and 
the I'rophota. It was mfid& movribU-, so that it might be 
carrttMi out, as od pnHic fusts, Steps gijofrally leJ up to 
it. In frniit hangs tho r/Zon or curtJiin. But the Holy 
Lamp i» iK'ver wanting, in linitation of the undying light 
•fte«i. i" the Teiuptf ." Ki-rht Ijefope the Ark, and faciiiK 
KTii.aO jjj|j people, are the bl^iUs of honour, ftn- the rnlers 
>>fii.u,u. oftheSynnfiiogTieaud the honourable.'' The plnoa 
inii.e f,.,^ ijjij^ ,^.jjy leads the devotion of the people ia 

aluo in front of the Ark, either elevated, or eUe, to mark 
humility, lo»vered. In the inidLfl© of the Synagogue (so 
generally) is the elevation, on winch there is the desk, from 
which the Law is read. This i« also e«l led the chair, or 
throne. Those who are to reivd the La\v will gt^tnd. while 
he who is to pi-ench op delivei- an addi-esa svill sit. Beaide 
thetn will be the Metkiinjtunan; either to inttrpret or to 
repent aloud what is said. 

To neglect attendaDce on the servicPR of the Synagc^ie 
would not only involve personal guilt, hut bring puuisli- 
meut upon the whole district. Indeed, to tw eRtttual, 
prayer uiust he oHered in the Synagogue. At the earno 
time, the more strict ordinanoes in ri^gard to the Temple, 
such a-t that we muat not filter it cnrryiii;? a ataff. nor with 
ahoriH, nor even dust on the feet, nor with scrip or puree, 
i!o not apply to the Synngogne, as of comparatively inferior 
Bonctity. However, the Synagogue must not be maJu n 
tlionxigh&re. We ninet not beliave lijrhtly in it. Wo 
may not joke, luiigh, cat, talk, dresa, nor resort there for 
shdterfrom snn or ruin. Only Kabbis and tlieir disciples. 
to whom 80 many things are lawfiil, and who, indeed, must 
look upon the Synntri>M'ty as if it were their own dwelling, 
niay eat, drink, poi'haps even sleep there. Und«r certain 



Jbsus tne Mess/ait 

circii instances also, the poor aiirl stranfjers may tne fpj 
tlii?re. But, in general, the Syiuigogue must bB regm'ded b 
as conseci-ated io Uocl. fl 

All fliis, irrespective of any Habbinic lef^ends, shows 
with wlmt reverence these ' bouses of congregation' wei-a 
regarded. And uow tlie weekly Sabbath, tlie pledge 
between Israel and God, bad once luoje come. To meet ib 
as a bride or queen, eafib house was adorned on the Friday 
flvening. The Sabbath Itimp wag lighted ; the festive 
ganuents put on ; tlie table provided with the best which 
the family couid afTord; and the benediction spoken over 
a cup of wine, which, as alvmys, was mixed with water. 
And as Sabbiitli morning broke, they hastened with 
quick steps to tlie Synagogue ; for euch was the Tlabbinic 
rule in going, while it was pi-earribed to retura with slow 
and lingering etepa. Jewish piinctiliouenessdefinfid every 
moremeiit and attitude in pray>^r. If tliose Tales wera 
ever obaerved in llieir futiretj, deYotion must have been, 
crufihed under their weight. But we have evidenco that, 
in the time uf our Loril, and evea later, tht-re was room 
for personal frwdom left ; for not only was mnch in tha 
seiTicea detc-iuiiued by the usage of each place, but tha 
leatWr of the devotions might the regular servieoi 
by free prayer, or insert such between certain parts of thaj 

The officials are all assenibled. The lowest of theso^ 
WAR the Cha^zmi., or nibiister,' who oft<in aot«d also] 
as For this reason, and becanaa ■ 
the conduct of the services frequently devolved upon hini,j 
gre*t cai"e was taken in Uia seleclifin. Then there woraj 
the elders or riilevs, whose chief was the Arch'i<ifnagof)os. 
All the rulers of the Synagogue were duly examined aa to 
their knowledge, and ordained to the office. They formed 
the local Siinhedi-in or tribunal. But their election de- 
pended on the choice of the congregation ; and absence 
of pride, as also gentleneas and humility, are mentioned 
as spiiciul qualifications. 

To these i-egular oHiciaU we have to add thosfl who 
officiated during the service, the delegate uf the cougr^ai- 

• SL Luke 


tion — who. as it« mouthpiece, conducted fbe dwotions-- 
tile Interpreter or ^^elkur^emnn, and those who WL'i-e 
called OD to read in the Law and the Fropht-'ts, or eku to 

We are now in some measnre prepared to follow tho 
worsliip on fhitt Snljbatii in Jsai-.arpth. On His entrance 
into tlie Synagogue, or ptThapa iLtcfore tlmt, llie cbief 
riiW would rerfuest Jesus \a act for tliat Sabbath as the 
iSlmliach. I'sihbiir, or delegat,e of the coiifiregation. For, 
nccordiiig to the Miahnah, the ijei-son wlio read in tho 
Synagogue the portion from tLe PiupIiets,wn8a!aoexpected 
to condnot the devotions, at least in greater part. If this 
rule were enforced at that time, then JesuH would fwci-nd 
thft plevation, and, etanding at the lectern, begin tti^ 
servicB by two prayers. 

After thia followed what may be designated aa the 
Jewish Cre-ed. It consisted of three passages from the 
• D.'xi.Ti. Penraienoh,* so arranged tlint. the worsliipper 
suNumu *^^ Myoa h 1111 8t>lf first the yoke of the Kingdom 
ii-.iMi of Heavpu, and only aft«p it the yoke of thecom- 
mandments. The recitation of tliese passages waafullowed 
by a prayer. 

This finisTied, he wlio officiated took his place before 
the Ark, and thor*? repeated certain ' Eulogies * or Bene* 
diutious. Thi'se are eighteen, or rather nineteen, in 
niimheir, and date from different periods. But on 
Sabbaths only the Ihree first and the three hist of them, 
whict Ave also tlioan nndouljtedly of gi-ea1t?8t age, were 
repeated, and between them certain other prayers in- 

After this the Priests, if any were in the Synagogue, 
epoke the blesBing, elevatint^ their hands up to the 
shoulderB (in the Temple above the he-ad). This wan 
*c<imp. called tbo lifting np of hands," la the Syca- 
iTiui,u.e (jpg]ie the prii' blessing was spoken in throe 
sections, tin; peoplo each time re-sponding by an Amen. 
Lastly, in the Synagogue, the word ' Adoiiai ' was suh- 
Stitiit^Kl for Jehovah. If no descendants of Afiron were 
prRSeQt^ the leader of the devotions repeated the oBual 


Jbsus thb Messiah 

• Kninh. i\. 

After th(^ benediction 

priwHy lii'iu'dictidii." 

It was the (jrncliee uf It^udjxig Rabbis, probably dnting 
from very early tiiiit-K, \a\ a'iil at tbe cltise of this Kulogy 
certain prayers of tlieir own, either fixed oi" fiTi', of which 
the Talmud gives specitnenii:. Proiu verv early times also, 
th« cuBtorn HBeiiis to Imve ahtiiiued that the ileKcvudauts 
of Aiirou, hefoft' ]it'iiiKiiiiiciii^r tht* hli-Kslng^, put ott' their 
shoes. In the lieiiedicrion the Priests turned towards the 
people, while be who led the ordinaiy prayera stood with 
his back to the people, looking towiii'dB the Haiictuary. 
The public ]>rnyers elufetid with an Aiuen, epulcea by the 

The liturgical part being thns completed, one of the 
most iniporlniit, indeed, what had been the priniary object 
of the Synagogue s&rvice, began. The GJiazsan, or 
minieter, approathed the Ark, a:id brnuyht out a roll of 
ihit Law. It was talten from its case nnti unwouad fi-om 
those cloths which held it. The time had iiuiv come for 
the reading of (Kn-tions from the Law and the Propln+s. 
The reading of tin.- Law was both pri«tdm] and followed by 
brief Benedictions. 

Upon the Ijaw followed a section troin the Prophets. 
As the Hebrew was not ge^nfraUy underHtx)od, the 
ifetkurgenian, or Interpreter, stood liy ihe side of the 
reader,'' and translated ioto the Aramaiaii verae 
by Verne, and in the eection from the Prophets, 
alter every three verses. Bnt tha Melfiunjmian 
was not allowed to read hia translation, lest it might 
popnlarly bt- rej^ardcd as aiithoritalive. This may help us 
in soini' lueitftiire to midert-tand thi- popular mode of Old 
Testament qnotations in the New Teslanieut. S)i long as 
the substance of the text was given corrc>ctiy. the MM.urga- 
m<m might paraphrase for better popular understanding. 
Again, it is hat natural to suppose that the MslhiLVjemcm 
would prepare himself for his work by such materials aa 
he woald Hiid ia li.'knd, among which, cf cour§e, the traoR* 
iatinn of the IiXX. wonid hold <i proniuient place. Thin 
may in pait account alike for the employment of the LXX., 

1 Cat. Klv. 
37, JS 


\yffAGOGUB'Wonfsmp and aWkancbmrnts 103 
and Tor its T&rgumic uiQililicabions, in the New Teslamenb 


Tte residiiig of tlie peclioH fi-oni tlie Prophets was in 
oMen titnea immediately followed by an address, discourse, 
or Bdrmoii, tbut is, where a Itnbbi capable of giving such 
instruction, or a disti ngnisbod glriuiger, was present. 
Neither tJie leader of the devotions (' the delegnte of tlie 
coQgre^at iuii ■), nur tha MethuTijemim, nor yet tUf. preacher, 
requii'ej ui-diiiut iuu. That was reserveil for the ruin of the 
cnngrwgatinn, whrtlier in legislation or (Hiininistration, 
doctrine or discipline. Tlie only points rctjuiied in the 
prwacber wyra tha w^wssiiTy (^uulificaliona, biitJi. mental 
and monil. 

Jewish trnditinn uhbs the most HXtravagaut terms to 
I'xlol the institution of pii'at'hirg, So it c-aiue, that many 
cultivated this hfaiicb of Iheuloiiy. Wlieu a popular 
preacher wiis expended, iiifii crowded tiia area of the 
Synagogiip, wliila women filled the gallery. On such 
occaeioDS, thoi-"? was tlw mli!itii.>ad satis liiction of fi-tling 
that ihfy lia«l done soint::thing apeniilly rueritorioiis in 
niuiiiug with quick atep^ and cmwding into the Syna- 
gogue, for, wBs it not to cnrry out Uie spirit of Hob, 
vi. 3, xi. I — at least, as Rabhiuicaliy aiidiT!<ti>od ^ Even 
grave Bahliis joined In this 'puTHuit to know the Lord," 
and cue of them comes to the 4onii2»'bat canglic coocloiiioa, 
that ' the reward of a di,scoiirpi^ ia the hat«t«.' 

It ia interestiug to know that, at the close of his 
addrt^^is the preiiclier very generally referred to the great 
Messianic hope of Israel. The nervice closed wth a short 
prayer, or what we would term an ' aaa-iptiuu.' 

We can now picrtnre to ourselves the Synagogue, its 
worship and toucliloL;'. ^Ve can see the leader of tho 
p«opIt'9 devotions as (ncrordiug to TaliJiudic direction) lio 
Brat refiiaeB, with mock modesty, the honour confemsd on 
him by tlie chisf mlyr ; thwu, wh»a orgdd. pi-epai-es to go ; 
and when pn-^Ned a t.hii-d time, goea up with alow and 
tiKnimrecl steps t« tlie lecteni, and then before the Ark. 
We can imagiua how one att«r another, starnling and 
lacing the people, nnroUa and holds in bis band a copy of 


I04 Jesus the AIessiah 

lh« Ln.w or of tlie Prophets, ami reaJa fi-oni tlie Sacrecl 
Word, the M<^tli.urij&ma,n interpretiing. Finally, we can 
picture it, how the pr^eaclipr would sit down anci begin liis 
(liBConree.iione interrupting him with qutistions till Tie had 
finished, when a succession of objections, luiswers, or in- 
t^uiries might await thfi helper, if the preacher had em- 
ployed such. And hiilp it cei-tftinly W(i3 not in many 
caa»s, to judge hv the depreciatory remarka which not 
imlreiqnently occur, aa to the niannera, ton?, vanity, eelf- 
conceit, and silliiifsa of the MelhurfievKin or Amara as he 
was sometimes esOied. As he stood hesid*? tlie Rabbi, ha 
usually thought far more of attracting attention and 
applause to himself, than of henetiting his hearpra. Hence 
some Rabbis would only employ special and trasted inter- 
preteTs of their own, who were almve lifty years of age. 
In short, so fares the Bprnion was concerned, the impression 
it produced wuiKt hayp bi'PD very aimiliir to wliat we know 
the addreBflSH of this monks in the Middle At^cs to have 
wrought. All the better can we understand, even li'ora 
the human aspect, how the teaching of Jesus, alike in its 
substance and form, in its manner and matter, differed 
from that of the scribeB; how multitudes would Iiang on- 
tranced on. His word ; and how, everywhere and by all, its 
impression was felt to be overpowering. 



(St. Matt. iv. 13-17 ; Kt, Mark i. H. IE ; BE, LnkL' iv. lB-33.) 

As there could he no un-Jemsh forwardness on the part 
of JeauH, so would there be none of that mock humility of 
reluctance to ufliciu.te, in wbidi Riibbitkism deli^'hfced. It 
seems likely that Jesns commenced the first pai-t of the 
service, and then pronounced before the ' Ark ' those 
Eulogies which were regarded as, in the strictest eense, 
the prnyer. And tiow, one by one, Priest, Levite, and, 

The First Galilean Hf/y/sTRY loj 

in KticoMsion, fivs larapiitps, had rfad from th? Law, Tlie 
whole narratira Kc-cms to imply tbut Jvsua Hiitmcir rt^ad 
(hft oonehiding iwrtion from the PropliotB. It is most 
likely tlial the kfisoa for tliat day was taken frora the pro- 
• li lit I t P''™'^^ of Isaiah, and that; it inclndpil the paasagrt' 
»st Lake quoted by the Kvangeiist aa nwl by the Lord 
"■ "^ " Jesus.'' We know lliat. the ' rol le " on which the 
Law wae written were distinct from those of the Prophet.s. 
In this ioafance we are expressly told that the miniRtfO* 
' deliverexl unto Him the book of the prophet Kmiins," and 
that,, ■ when He had niirol led the book,' lie ' found ' tho 
place from which the Evaiigeliet niakea quotalioa. 

It was, indeed, Divino 'wisdom' — 'the Spirit of tha 
Lord ' u[M)ii Him, which directj?d Jeens in the choico of tho 
text for His first Mpssianic Sermon. It strnck iJie key- 
note to the whole of His Galilean minifitry. The ancient 
•Tiicpi.hoi S3rQiigogaci regardt-d Is. lii. I, 3. as one of thfl 
li. niii.'ii, tJiree piissiigi'B,'' in which mention of tho Holy 
i*m^ Ghost was connect-fd with the promised redemp- 
Itt.**" tion. In this view, the application which tha 

passage received in the discoarse of our fjord was peculiarly 
suitable. For the words in whifi St, Lake n-ports wiiiit 
followed the introductory text seem rather a suramary 
than either the introduction or part, of tJio discourae of 
Christ. ' Thia day is thii Seriptin-o fulfilled iu your ears." 
As regards its form, it would be : bo to present the tejwih- 
iog of Holy Scriptare, ne that it can be drawn together in 
the focus of one «entenco; as rewardH its eiibatance, fiat 
this be the one focus: ali Scripture fulfilled by a present 

There was not a word of that which common Jewish ex- 
ppftancy would have connected with, nay, chiefly Hcccmta- 
ated in an annoanceraentof theMes-aianic redemption ; not 
a word to raims carnal hopes, or flatter Jewish pride. Truly, 
it was the niotit tin-Jewish disoiiree for a .Jewish Messiah 
of thoKe days, witii whicti to open fl ia Ministry, And yet 
ench was the power of these * words of grace,' that the 
hearers hong apBlI-bound npon tbrni. For the time they 
forgot all else — Who it was that addressed them, even the 

loo /esi/s rifs Messiah V 

straiigeness of tJi« message, so iti contrast to any prpat'li- 
iug of Rabbi or IVat-bt^r that had Ijiiu hi-aicl in th:it 

The discourse had been sp.iketi, aud the breathless 
Bilence with which, even acmrdiiiy to Jewisli CListoDi, it had 
be«n lisU'iied to. gave place to thi? usual iil'tur-sei-iiiou ham of 
an Eastern Syiuigof(ue. On otje [joint all were agreed : that 
they were mnrvflloits wonls of grace, wJuch hjwl [)ri.ici?eded 
out of His ini.iinli. And still the preaclier waited fbraoine 
quostioa, which would have marked the spiritual applica- 
tion of whut He had spuki-n. 'Iliey were indeed making 
applicntioQ of the 8i-ruitin to the Preaclier. but in quite 
different luaniier fwiii tlmt to which Hie discourHe had 
pointed. It wan uot the fulfilment of the Scripture in 
Him, but the circumstance thdt t^uch an one as the Hon 
of .loeeph, theirvillage oarprtnter, .^lonUI have spokeQ such 
words, that attracted th'Pir attention, 

They had ke<Li'd, and now they would fain have seeM. 
But already the holy indignation of Him, Whom they only 
know as Joseph's Son, was kindled. No doubt they would 
next exj)ect that hem in Hie own city, and all the more 
bac»U8e it was siich, He would do what tht>y had heard had 
talion place in Capernaum. It wae the world-old saying, 
as speciuusly popular aa moat nvifh sayings: '(Jharity 
begins at home '—or, according to the Jewish proverb, and 
in application to the special circumstances : ' fhj'siciau, 
heal thyBelf.' Whereas, if there was any njeaning in the 
dificourse He had just fipoken, Cliarity does not begin at 
honie ; and " Phyaician, heal thyself ' is not of the Gospel for 
the poor, nor yet the preat-'hing of God's Jubilee, bnttbafof 
the Devil, whose wO'rha Jesus had ootue to deatroy. How could 
He say this better than by :i gain repeating, though now with 
diiFerent application, that sad experience, ' No prophet is 
<stj<>bn accepted in Mb own country ;'■ and by pointing 
'*■ *' to tiiose two Old Teetanient iimtancea of it, whose 

names and nuthority were most frequently on Jewiah Icpa ? 
Not they who were ' their own,' but they who were most 
receptive in faith — not Israel, but Geutilee, were tlioea 
Dio&t markedly favoured in the ministry of Elijah txA^ 
qf Elisba, 

Thb Ttit^t G"uLEAJ^Mr»'sTKy 


That Jftsus (ihould bave tarued so fully tlm li^ht upon 
ihe Gentiles, and Uun^ its largi^ »^lladows upDn tLein \ that 
' Joseph's HoL ' should have taken up this positiou toWfLrds 
tliem ; tiat He would make to them spiritual applicAtioD 
unto death of His sermon, since they would aot muke it 
unto life, stung ihem Iaj Hie t\\i ick. Away He iimst out. of 
His city; it cuuld not bear His Preaeuce any loopRr, nob 
even on that holy Sabbath. Out tiiey thrust Him fnun 
the Symigogut?: out of the city, along the ii>ad by the 
brow of the bill on which the city is builfc — perluips to 
(hat western angle, at present point«d out ue thp site. 
This, with the unspokpn intention of crowding Him ov«r 
the cliff, which there rises abruptly about forty feet out of 
the valley beneath. If we are correct in indicating the 
locality, the road here bifurcates, aud we can conceive how 
Je£Ul^, Who had Iiitherto allowed Himself to be priSBetl 
QU^raj-ds hy tlie surrouuding crowd, hqw turui?d, auG by 
His look of cominaiiding majesty, which pver and again 
wrought on those around niiracles of subji'cticin, coustraini.'icl 
them to halt and give way betiire Him, whilu uiibiu-miMl 
He passed through thetr midst. 

Cast out of His own city, Jeflutt pursued His floHtara 
way towards Capernuum. There, at least, devoted frioiiUM 
and believing disciples would welcome Him. Thera, also, 
a Ittige draught of souls >vuuld fill the Go»|)el-net. Caper- 
■ SLUkU. naum would be His Galilean home." Here He 
"■■^ would, on the Subbiith-dftj*s, preach ui that 

>st.Lak< Synagogue, of which the good centurion was the 
■^stfuarkT. builder,'' and JairuB the chief ruler.* These 
^ names, and the memories connected with them, 

are n sufficient conatneut on the eH'ect of Hi& preaching: 
that ' His word was with power,' Xn Capernanm, aL-jo, 
was the now believing household of the court-officer, whoae 
otdy ttoD the Word of Christ, spoken at a di^aace, had 
Eeatored to life. Here also, or in the immediate neigh- 
Ixrarfaood, was the home of Hia earliest and cloacst disci- 
ples, tJie brothers Simon and Andrew, aud of James and 
John, tie sous of Zebedee. 

He came; and now Capernaum was not the only place 


/rsus thr Mrssjah 

whorw He taught.. Rather was it. the centre for itinerftncy 
• etuftit. through all that district, to preach in ila Synii- 
'*■""" goffuffl.' Amidst each ministry of quiet ' power/ 
chiefly alone and iinntteuded by His diaciples, the aiiiiimer 
paaaed, To the writer ofthetirBt Gospel, lis, yecirsafterwarda, 
he iQokeO back on this happy time when he had first seca 
the Li^ht, till it hud aprun^ up evt^n to hiiri'in the region 
and shadow of ileiith,' it must have been a time of pf^culinrly 
bright metnoriea. How often, aa he sat at t!ie receipt of 
oastom, most he have fieen Jeaus paHsing by ; how often 
must he have henni Hih Words, some, pi-rhapa, apiikeii to 
himself, but all prspariiig hini at once to obey the snm- 
tnons when it came : FoUmc M« / 

There was a dim tradition in the Synagogue, that this 
^ prediction," 'The people that walk in diirtness 

see a greiit light,' leferretl to the new light, with 
which God woidd enlighten the eyes of tliose who had 
penetrated into the mysteriiaa of Rabbinic lore, enabling 
them to perceive concerning ' loosing and binding, con- 
cerning what was cleuQ and what was unclean.' Others 
regarded it as a pronjise to the eai'ly exiles, fulfilled when 
the great liberty came to them. To Lpvi-Matthew it 
seemed as if both interpretations had come true in those 
days of Christ's iirat Galilean rnioistry. 




(St. John V.) 

The shorter days of early autumn had coma a» Jesiia pFL<«!)^d 
from Galilee tx) what, in the absence of any eertain evi- 
dence, we must fitill be content to call 'the Unknown 
Feaat' in Jernsulem. Thus much, however, seems clear: 
that it WHS eilJier The ' Fesist of Wood-offering' an the 
16th of Abh (io August), when, atmdst demonstratioas of 

At thp- ' TTnkj^ou^n' Fbast 


y>y, willing givcrM briiHglit from nil pnrt.s of tin* country 
the wood re<|iiirenl for the service of the Altar; <tr oliw the 
'Feast ofTrumpetfl'ou the Iwt ofTishri (obout the muklle 
of Sepf.i;mber), which niarked the hp^nning of tlie New 
(civil) Year. The jouniey of Christ to that Feast and ita 
results are not mentioned in the Synoptic G(.ib})61h, hwauBo 
that Judfenti raiaistry lay, in great ineaBure, beyonfl their 
historical stnudpoint. fiut thia iiud similax evcuts belooged 
to tliat grand Self-Manifi^stiition of Christ, with the corrft- 
spondiug growth of oppcisitiou consequent ii|ion it, which 
it was the object of the fourth Oospel to set forth. 

It niuy be inf^rrfid that, during the fiuuimor vf Christ's 
first Galiieau ministry, when CVpernaiim was Hia centre 
of action, the diecipl^ had returued to their homes and 
nsual avocations, whUe Jeaua raovad about chieiHy alone 
Bnd onattended, This explains the circurtwlaiice of a 
B'cond call, even to His iiiort. intimate Jind elosf^t foilowcrB. 
It also accords best wilh that gradual development in 
Chriat'e activity, which, com menciDg with the more private 
ttmchiug of the new Preacher of RighleousnrKH in th« 
villages by the lake, or in the Syrinyogiies, esiwiuded into 
that publicity in which He at last appears, Burronndcil by 
His Apostles, attended by the loving ministry of Ilii^se to 
whom Ke had brought hcdlitig of body or .loiil, and fol- 
lowed by a mnltitude which everywhere presHed around 
Him for ti^acbing and help. 

This more public actiWty coninieoced with th^ retiiro 
nf Jeans from ' th« Unknown Fe«st in Jcrosdleni. There 
He had, in answer to tho clialleiige of the Jewish anthori* 
lies, for the drat time set forth \l\» McA-iiauic claimH in all 
their fiiUiess. And there, ulao. He bad for the firrt time 
enconnlered tlint active persecution unto deutb, of which 
(tnlgotlia was the logical outcome. TIlia Fea«t, tbcD, wu 
thd time of critical deciiiiou. 

It eeeins only nccordnnt with all the great deciiiTe 
Kt«psof Him in Whose footprintfl the disciple* trod, after 
He had marked them, »t) it were, with His Blood— tlmt 
He ahoold have gone op to tliat Feaat itluoe and im- 


1 10 



TLft narnitive t.caiiNport.a us to whii.t, at. tlie time, eaems 
t-o haVB been a well-knowu locality in Jerusalem, tJioiigli 
all attempts to itlentify it, or even to explain the Dame 
JieOiexda, havo hitherto failed. All we know is, tliat it 
was n pool pnclusttd within live porclies, by the ahipfp- 
• niarket, prpsuuiably close to the ' Shppp-Gatfl/ ■ 
»: xU.M This, aa aeems most, likely, op(«Ded frnm tho busy 
liorthern sobiirb of ninrkets. bazanrs, aiid workshops, eusb- 
warcls iipOD the romJ which Ited ovei" the Mouufc of Olives 
and Bethatiy tc Jericho. 

In the five porches aurroimding thia pool lay ' a great 
muUitude of the ioipotoiit.' in nnxiuus hope of a iniracalous 
core. The popular .snptirBtition, which gave rise to a 
pecnliarly painful esJiihition of Lninan niiaery of body and 
SOlll, IB striKtIy true t« th& tiinea and the people. Evon 
HOW tmvtiilen* describe a Btmilar concuiirfie of poor crippled 
sufferers, on their miserable pallets or on rupa, aronnd tie 
mineral epriii^B near Tiberias, tilling, in tiue Oriental 
fashion^ the air with their lamentations. In the present 
instance there would be even more occasion for this than 
around any ordinary thBrmal spring. For the popular 
idea was, that an An^cl ' descended into the water, causing 
it to bubble up. and that only he who Jivgt stopped into 
th(_' pi:iol would be cured. As thug only one person coald 
obtain benefit, we may imagine the lamentationB of the 
*Biaiiy' who would, perhaptt day by day, be dieappointed 
in their hopes. Tliis bubbling up of the water was. of 
course, due not to aupeniatoral but to physical causes. 
Such mtermittent apringB are not uncimimou, and to this 
day the so-called ' Pocintain of the Virgin' in Jemsalem 
exiiibits the same pheuonienon. The Gospel-narrative 
does not aficrihe this ' troubling of the waters ' to Aujj^elic 
agency, nor endorse tho belief, that only the first who 
alierwards entpred them could he healed, This was 
evidently the belief nf tie impotent mnn, as of all the 
"sfcjohiiT. waiting multitude,'' Kut the words inverse 4 
' of our AnthoriBpd Verfiion, and perhapfi, also, 

1 For the popular .tpwlali rtewn on Augols see ' Tho Life ami 'I'imi:* 

Bv rax Pool of BtrtiEsDA 



le l».«f. claiiKe of reree 3, are admittedly an interpola- 

The waters had not yet bwn ' troubled,' when Jphuh 
sf-ood among that multitude of safTerers and their att^ndaot 
frieodg. It was in those br«ithle«s niotii«fnta of mt«D»«* ex- 
pectancy, wheij evi'iy eye wns (ixed uii tlin |x>ol, tliaf tlie 
eyo of Irbe Saviour searched for th« most «Tvtchi-d ohjwt 
nmontf them all. In him, as a typical case, could He best 
do nna teach tlmt. for wtiich He had come. Thia ' impotent ' 
man, for thirly-ei^ht years a hopeless safferw, without 
•w*i. attendant or friend ' Bmong those whom misery 
mnde !^o intettselT seltish ; and who»<e sicknese was 
reaUy thecouseqnenoe of bis sin,*' and not merely 
in the sense which the -Jews attached to it" — tkit) now 
SRcmed the fittest object, for power and grace. It is idle 
to speak either of faith or of recept ivene«s on the man's 
part. Tlte essence of the whole history lies in the utter 
(ibsence of both; in Christ's raiaing, as it were, the dead, 
and calling the thinp* that are not as tlioKf^h they wore. 
The ' Wilt thou be made whole ?' with which Jesus drew 
the mun's altentioa to Himself, was only to probe and lay 
bore his misery. And tJien came the word of power or 
nitlier the power spoken forth, which mndt; him whole 
evi^ry whit. Away from thia pool, in whieli there wns no 
healing — for the Son iif God hail come tn hiui wirh the 
outHowing of His power aod pityinf? help, and he \i-a» made 
whole Away with his bed. not. although it was the holy 
Sabbath, but jiiat because it was the Sabbath of holy rest, 
mid holy delijtbt! 

Before the healed man, stvirr^ly conBnouii of what had 
had, with new-born vigianr, gathered himself np 
and rolled tnyefher his cuverlet: to ha»4tiin after Him, Jesus 
had already withdrawn.* In thnt. maltitude, all 
thinking only of their own soitows and wants, 
H* bad come and gone nnobserved. But they all now 
knew and observed this miiacle of Iiealing, as they saw 
this nnbi-fr tended one healed, wifhout the troubling of 
waters or first imroerBtnn in them. 

Tho JewB snw him. as fi-om Betbesda he carried home 

* »«. iJ 


/ESUS the MF.-'iSlAH 

his ' burdt^n.' Most, characteristically, it was tins Pitemal 
inrrtageiiieut which they saw, aud iioflung else ; it was the 
Peraon Who had commanded it Whom they would know, 
not Him Who had made whole the impot-ent man. 

It could not have hee-n long after thia that the healed 
man aud hia Healer met in the Temple. Mliat He then 
said to him completed the inward healing. On the ground 
of Mb having been healed, let him be whole. Ashe trusted 
and obeyed Jesus in the outward cure, so let him now in- 
wardly and morally trust and obey. Here aUo this lookiug 
through the esternal to the internal, through the teiiiporaJ 
to the spiritual and eternal, which is socluiract.eristioof the 
iifler-disconrae of Jesus, nay, of all Hia discourses and of 
Hi.f deeds, is most marked. The healed man now knew 
to Whom he owed faitli, gratitude, and trust of obedience ; 
and the consequences of this knowledge would make him a 
dificiple in the truest sense. And this was the only addi- 
tional lesHon wliich he, aa each of ua, must learn iudividu- 
ally and [Wiraonally : that the man healed by Chriat stands 
in quite another position, aa regards the morally right, 
from what he did before — not only before his healiog, but 
even before his felt sickness, so that, if ha were to go back 
to ein, or rather, as the original impHt^s, 'continue to sin,' 
a thiii^' infinitely worse would come to him. 

Aud yet something further was required. Jesua must 
Bpoak out in clear, open words, what was the hidden inward 
meauing of thin miracle. The first forthborating of His 
Messianic Mission and Character hnd ooine in that Temple 
when He realised it as Hia Father'a House, and His Life as 
fltxiut His FatJier's business. Aoain had these thoughts 
about His Father kindled wirJiiu Him in that Temple, when, 
on the first oo:asion of His Messianic appearance them, 
He had Bonglit to purge it, that it might be a Houae of 
Prayer. And now, once more in that Houae, it was the 
same consciousneee about God aa His Father, aud His Life 
as the business of His Father, whicli furnished tlie answer 
to the angry invectives altont His bieocb of the Sabbath- 
Law. Tlie Father's Sabbath was His ; the Father worked 
hitherto atid He worked| the l'"(it.ber'8 work aud His were 

By the Pool of Bethesda 


• auJoSjjT. the same; llo was tJie Son ol' tho Fnthor.^ And 
*' iu tilts He also tauglit, what the Jews had never 

understood, the true tneaniog of the Salibath-Law, by em- 
phttflising that which was the fuudnmeutal thought of thu 
Sabbath — ' Wherefore the Lord blpssefl the Sabbath day, 
Bod lialloirett tt : ' not the rest of iaoclivity, but of bleeisiiig 
and hallowing. 

Once more it was not His wholw nu'iiuing, bnt only 
tJiisone point, that He clainiwl to be equal with Ood,or which 
they took told. As we underet^ind it, the diBcoorae 1)6- 
girining with verse 19 is not » uonlinuatiuii of that which 
had bet;a bef,'UQ iu vt-rsii 17, but wiia dijliviired oa aiiotlictr, 
though probably proximate occasion. By wluit Hn had 
said about the Father working hitherto aud Uis working, 
He had silenced the riiuititudb, who must have felt that 
God'a rest was truly that of b«neficence, not of inactivity. 
But He had mised auotlisr cgaestion, that of Hia equality 
with God, and for this He was taken to task by t he Jlft9l.l^ra 
in Israel. But for ihi^ pivaent the majesty of Hia bearing 
overawed HU enemieH. even as it did to the end, and Christ 
ci^ulll paas luiharmwl fmm among thum. Wilb this inward 
Reparation and tiii> gatheriTig of hoatiln parties, oiosea thfl 
tiret, and begius the Hecond stage of Ohrial't) Kiniatiy. 

CHAl'lIiR XXil. 



(St. Matl. iv. 18-22 ; St. Mark i. 16^0 ; St. Lnko v. Ul 1.) 

We ai'e once again oat of the great City, and by the Lake 
of Galilee. They were other men, thflse honest, simple, im- 
jrahriTe GaiileaoB, than that sell^eeking, sophistical, heart- 
leaa UMmblage of Rabbis, whose first active pergecation 
Jeenitliad jnat encountered, and for tho time ovcrawctl by 
tha tnajesty of ilin bearing. What wonder that, iniraedi- 
atj.'ly on ffis rstura, ' the people pruBsod upon Him to hear 
His' word • ? 


j£St/S THE MeSSMff 


ItsMiiis ne if what we are about to ivlat* iKH/arreflwEue 
JesuB WHS t'l'liiniiii^ fruiii JeriMsiileiii. But pcrhajje it fol- 
lowed on tJif first morning after HIh return, lb had pro- 
bablybe*nanighfcof Btoi-mon the Lake. Forthe toiloi" (lie 
■ stLuto fiahei-iueu hadbroiiffht tbein uodrauglit of Hghes,* 
'■ ' ami t.bey stood hj tlie shore or in the boats di'awn 

up on the bench, casting in their in^la to ' wasli ' them of 
earn] lincl pebbles, or to tueuJ what bad bi.'t'n torn by the 
violence of the waves, It was a busy scene; foramong the 
many indnatriee by tbo Lake of Galilee that of fishing was 
not only the moat generally pursued, but perhapb the moBt 

Tradition had it, that since the days of Joshua, and by 
one of his t*Mi ordinances, fishing iu the Lake, thongh under 
certaia necefisary reeti'iotioiie, was free to all. And aa fiali 
was among the favourite articles of diet, in health andBicb- 
nesa, on week-days and especially at the Sabbath-meal, 
many must have bpen employed in connection with tbia 
trade. Fi-equent and soraetinieB strange are the Rabbinic 
advices, what kinds of fish to eat at different times, and in 
what state of preparation. Thi-y ivi.rre eaten fresb, dried, 
» at Mult. ^^ pickled ; * a kind of ' reliah * or sance was made 
tu, i<j;iiii. of them, and the roe also prepared. In truth, 
■'^' those Habbis are veritable conuoisaeurs in tbia 
delicacy. It is one of tbeir nanal eKa^gei'tttiona when we 
read of 300 diflereat kinds of fish at a dinner given to a 
great Rabbi, nllbough the common proverb bad it to di.<note 
what was abundant, that it waa like ' bringing fish to 
Acco,' yet fish was largely icnporteil from abroad. 

Those engag^'d in thn ta-ade of fimhing, like Zebedee and 
his sons, were not nnfrecjaently men of means and standing. 
ITiia, iirespective of the fact that tho Rabbis enjoined some 
trade or indnetrial occupation on every man, whatever Ms 

Jewish customs and modes of thinking at that time do 
nut help ua ftu-tlier to understand the Lfird's call, except bo 
far as they enable ub to apprehend what the words of Jesus 
wonld convey to tht?rn. The expression ' Follow Me ' would 
be readily undortitood, ns implying a call to become the 

from His temptjitiuu m the 


The Final Call of the FrssT DiscrfLEs 115 

pennaneoi disciplt^ of a tt^aeht'i-. Similarlv, it wus uotuDly 
tbo practice of lii>; Rjtlrbis, Intt regarded as otie of t\w moM- 
saored datim>, for a MnFt^r to gather aronnd hitn a circleof 
discipltw. Thas, neither Pet«^tr ani] Andrew, aor ihn sons 
of Zebedee, could hare iiiisuudtfi^tood the call of Christ, or 
even reKO"!^ '*■ "^ strauge. On thnt ni^morabte return 

wil(IvniL-ss they hitil lfariii;(l tQ 
know Hin) as the iiesaiah,' mid llit-y foUuwud 
Him. Aiif!, now that the time had come for 
ntJwriog around Him a eeparate disciploiihip, when, with 
tJie visit to the ITiiknown Feast, the Messinuic activity of 
Jeaua had panged into another RtAgc, that call would not 
oonl(^ AH a fiurprise to their minds or henrte. 

So far as fiie Maater was concem«i, wo mark thrc* 
pointe. first, the call came aft;<>r the open breach with, 
and initial persecution of, the Jewish authorities. It was, 
therefore, a call to fellowship in His peculiar relntionithipto 
the Syna^iT'Tgue. Secondly, it nec4!i»itat^ the abandon- 
ment of all their former ■xicupations, and, indeed, of all 
t SLibH. earlhiy tit*.'' Thirdly, it W!i.s from the first, and,» clearly, marked att tt>tAlly ditfrrimt from ii call to 
fiDCh disoiplesbip, OS that of any other Master in Israel. 
It was not to Ivam more of doctrine, nor more folly to 
follow out a life-direction already taken, but to begin, and 
to become, something quite new. of which theli- former 
Oocnpation oQered anfrnWem. Thediscipiesof the Rabbis, 
eVMi tliut^e of John the Baptist, ' followed, in order to U-am ; 
they, in ordeo" to do, and to enter into fellowship with His 
Work. ' Follow Me, and I will make you fiahers of men.' 
The more we think of it, the more do we perceive the mag- 
nitude of the call and of thrt decinion which it. iriipliMl — fur, 
without doubt, they andevRtood what it implied, perhaps 
more clearly than we do. All the deeper, then, must have 
been their belief ia Him, and their earnest attachment, 
when, with such absolute simplicity and entirenesB of self- 
Borrander, that it needed not even a apokeu I'eo on their 
part., they forsook ehip aud home to follow Uiui. And so, 
Bacceaaively, Simon and Andr«w, and John and .Tames — 
those who Wl been the first to bear, were alao the Hrnit to 

I 3 


/esus tub Mk&siah 

follow Jeeiis. Ami ever afterwards did tli*«y remain cIoBesb 
Ui Him, wbii had been the first fruits of His Ministry. 

Wliiit had passed between Jesus and, fir8t the bods of 
Jonn, fliid tlen those of Zelwdee, can ecai-cely Iiave occupied 
many uiinut«K. But already the people were presBiujEr 
aruund tJie i^faster in enger Iiiiuger tor the Wurd. To 
such call the Fisher of Men conkl norbe dpaf. The boat of 
Peter shall be His pulpit ; He had conaecrated it by conat^ 
crating its owner. We need scarcely ask what He spake. 
It woald be of the Father, of the Kiugdoiu, and of thotiO 
who entered it — like what He spake from the Monnt. or 
to those who laboured and were heavy latlen. And Peter 
had hi_'ard it all as he sat close by. This then wns the 
tenchtiig of which ht> had become a disciple; this the 
net and the fiehing to which he was just called. Conid 
such iin one as he ever hope, with whatever toil, to be a 
succpsafnl fi.'Jier? 

Jeans had read his thoughts, and mnch more than read 
them. This is another object in Christ's miracles to His 
difioiplea: to make clear their inmost thoughts and longingB, 
and to point them to the right goal, ' Lannch ont into the 
deep, and let down your nets for a draught.' That they 
toil in vain all life's night only teaches the need of onotJier 
begmmiig. The ' nevei'thelesSj at Thy word,' marks tha 
new trnst, and the new work aa springing from that tmat, 
Already ' the net was bi'i-aking,' when they beckoned to their 
partners in the other ship that they ehould come and help 
them. And now both ships are burdeucd to the water's edge. 

Bat what did itallroeantfl Simon Peter? JesnacoSd 
see to the very bottom of Fetor's hfart. And could he 
then be a fisher of men, out of wh<i8e heart, after a life's 
night of toil, the net would come up empty, or rather only 
clogged with eand and torn with pebbles ? This iB what 
he meant when 'he fell down at Jeans" kneea, saying: 
Depart fi-om me, for I am a siufu] man, Lord.' And 
this is why J^sus comforted him : ' Fear not ; from hence- 
forth thoK shalt catch men.' 

' And when they had brought their ships to land, they 
forsook aU and followed Elm.' 


A Sabbath in CapbunaOx/ 




(St. Matt, viii. 14-17 ; 81, Mart i. ai-31 ; St. Luke iv- 33.11.) 

It was the Holy Sabbfith — the firat afl^r He had eallf^ 
around Him Hie firal; periuaBent disciples ; tlie first, also, 
after His return from the Feast, at Jerusttlem, 

As yet all seemed cnltD and nndistvirbed. Those eiinplo, 
warm-hearted Galileans yielded themBBlves to the power of 
His words and works, not di9cerniiig hidden blatjphemy in 
what He said, nor yet Sabbath-desecration in Hia healing 
on God's holy day. It ia morning, and Jeeua goes to the 
Synagogne at Capernaum, To te^tch theru wna now His 
flTonfc. It wa-i not only what He taught, but the contrast 
with that to which tliey had been accustomed oc the part 
of * the Scribes," which iilh-d His heiirere with ' amazement.' 
There was no appeal to human authority, otlier than tliufc 
of the conscience ; no subtle logical diatincliona, lefjal 
niceties, nor clever sayings. Clear, limpid, and crptalline, 
His words flowed from out the epriug of the Divine Life 
that was in Him. 

Among the heftrera in the Synagogue that Sabbath 
morning was one of a clnss, concerning whose condition, 
whatever diflictilties may attach to our proper nuderstaiid- 
ing of it, the reader of the New Testament must form some 
definite idea. The New Testament speaks of those who 
}iad a Bpirit, or a demon, or denioua, or an unclean spirit, 
or the spirit of an unclean demon, but chiefly of persons 
who were ' demoni-sed.' We find that Jesus not. ouly 
tolerated the popular opinion regarding the demouiaed, bnt 
that He even made it pai't of Hia diaclples' comniiaaion to 
■St. UHi ' cast out demons,' * and that, when the discipleH 
J^( afterwards reported their aucceaa in thia, Christ 

H. la a(;tuatly made it a matter of thaiikagiving to 

God.' The same view tttiderliea His reproof to the disciples, 

• St. MbIU 
iviL II : 
onmp. alu 
til. 41 An., 


1 1 8 Jesus THE Messiah 

when failing in this part of tSeir work ' ; while in 

•St. Iduko si. 1 9, 24, He adopts and argues on tlua 

vipw &B against the Pharigees. 

Our next inquiry mtuit bo as to the cJiaracter 

of the. plieDomenon tlius designated. In view 
of the fact that in St. Merit ix. 21, the de.-moniHe3 Iiad 
been such ■ of a child,' it ia scarcely possible to BGcribe it 
simply to moral causes. Similarly, personal faith does not 
seem to have hetm a requisite condition of healing. Again, 
it ia evident that all physical or even mental diatempers of 
the Bame class were not ascribed to the eume csiiae: some 
■night he nafural, while others were demoniacal. On the 
other hand, there were more or leas violent symptoms of 
diaeaae in every demonised pereon, nnd these were greatly 
aggravated in the last ptHoxysm, when the demon quitt)ed 
bia habitation. We have therefore to regard the pheno- 
mena described as canned by the influence of soch ' spirita,' 
primarily, upon that which forms the ix^exnis h&tween body 
and mind, the nervous system, and as producing different 
physical effects, accortling to the part of the nervons 
syatem affected. To this must be added a certain im- 
pePBonality of conaciouaness, eo that for the time the 
consciousness was not that of the dernonised, but the 
demoiiiser, just as in certain mesmeric .states the conaoioua- 
nesB of the meameriaed ia I'eally that of the mesnieriser. 
We might carry the analogy farther, and say that the two 
states are exactly parttlle! — the demon or dfimona t^ikiiij^ 
the place of the raesmeriBer, only that the effects were 
more powerful and extensive, perhaps more enduring. 
Neither the New Testament, nor even Rabbinic literature, 
conveys the idea of permanent demoniac indwelling, to 
which the later term ' possession ' owes its origin. On 
the contrary, such accounts as that of the scene in t.he 
Synagogae of Capernaum give the irapression of a sudden 
influence, which in most cases seems occasioned by the 
spiritual eft'ect of the Person or of the Words of the 
Christ. In our view, it \% of the deepest importance 
always to keep in mind that the ' demon ised' was notiii 
permanent state, or posnesHion by the powers of darkness. 

A Sabpath IK CAPJ^p.VAUJir 



For it eBtikt)1isli«s a mm-nl element, sinew during the period 
of their tienipnrary liberty the demoniBed might have 
shidfen tbemselves free from the overshadowing power, or 
sought release frotu it. Thus the deiiionlMetl state in- 
volved personal responail^ility, although that of a diseaaad 
Bad disturbed consL-iousDeas. 

Whatever want of cleamesa there may be about the 
Jemsh ideae of demouiiic influences,' there is none as to 
the Dieans proposed for their removal. Theae may ba 
broadly claasilied as: magical meana for the prevention of 
BDch iMuencett (sutfh as the avoidance of cortjiin platies, 
times, numbere, or circumstaucee ; amulete, &c.) ; magical 
means for the cnre of dieeases ; and direct exorcieni (either 
by certain ontwnrd means, or else by formalaB of incanta- 
tion). Again, wliile the New Testament iijrnishes no data 
by which to leaiTi the viewa of Jesue or of the t^7angieliBt« 
regarding the exact character of the phenomiinon, it enp- 
pliee tlie IxiUest details as to the manner ia which the 
ciemoniseil were set free. This was always the same. It 
conaisted neither of magical means uor formulae of exoi^ 
cism, bat always in thi* Word of Power which Jesus 
epake, or entrnated to His diaciples, and which the demons 
always obeyed. There is here not only difference, but 
cout.rariety tn compariaon with the current Jewish notinnii, 
and it leads to the conclusion that there was the same 
contrast in His views, as in His treatment of tha ' de- 

In one respect those who were 'demotiised' exhibited 
the same pbeaoinenou. They nil owned the Power of 
Jesus. It was not otherwise in the Synagogue at Caper- 
naum OD tlmt Sabbath morning. What Jesus had spoken 
prudaced an immedintd efteet on the demonisod. though 
one which could scarcely have been anticipntetl. For 
thape 19 authority for inserting the wonj ' Btmight- 
• inKKuk way'* immediately after the account of Jeaua' 
■" preaching. Yet, as we think of it, we cnonot 

imagine that the demon would have continued silent, nor 

' See 'Lite nnd Tlnit-,' Appendi* X^l. 
Demoat and tiic Deraoai^d.' 

■Jeni^ fiam aboqt 

120 Jesus the MrssiArr 

yet that he could have spoken other than the truth in the 
Prosencp of the God-Man. TnvoluntarUy, in his coq- 
ro»;Ked iimbility of disgutGe or resiatiince, he owns defeat 
even before (.Ii© ootit*«t. ' What have we to do with 
Thee, Jestis of Nazareth ? Thou art come to destroy lis ! 
I know Thee Who Thon art, the Holy One of God,' And 
yeti there seems in these words already an emeirgence of the 
coiiHciousnesa of the demonisE^d, at least in so faj* that 
there is no longer coufnaion between him and his tor- 
mentor, and the Utter a|)eaks in his own name. One 
stronfi^r than the demon had afibcted the higher part in 
the demoui§(?d. 

But thia was not all. Jesus hnd come rot only to de- 
slifoy thfi works of the Devil, but (o aet the prieouers fi-ee. 
By a word of comtnattd He gugged the coiifessiona of the 
demon, unwillingly made, and even so with hostile intent. 
It was not by such voices tbat Be would iiare His 
Meaeiahship proclaimed. 

The aume power which yagged the confeesioa also bjw3e 
the demon relinquish hist prey. One wild paroxysm ^nnd 
the sufferer was for ever free. B«t on them, all who saw and 
heard it fell the stupor of astonishment. Eitch tnmed to 
hia neighbour with the inquiry: 'What is this ? Anew 
doctrine with authority! And He commandeth the uq- 
cleau splritH, and they obey Him.' 

From the Sjniagrigue we follow the Saviour, in com- 
pany witli Hia called disciples, to Peter's wedded home. 
But no festive meal, as was Jewish wont, awaited them 
there. A sudden access of viofent ' burning fever,' such 
as is even now common in tbat district, had laid Pet«r'9 
motber-in-hiw proatrate, If we had still any lingering 
thouj^ht of Jewieli magical cui'es aa connected with those 
of Jesus, what is now related mast dispel it. The Talmud 
gives this dieease precisely tho Biime name, 'bnming 
Cerer," and proscribes for it a magical remedy, of which 
the principal part is to tie a knife wholly of iron by a 
braid of hair to a thombuBh, and to repeat on aucc&seivft 
days Exod. iii. 2, 3, then ver. I-, and finally ver. 5, after 
which, the buah is to be cut down, while u certain magical 

A Sabbath in Capernaum 


formnla is pronoiTDced. How diflerent from this is thu 
Evaugelic naiTalive of the cure of Peter's mother-Ia-law, 
Jesus U 'toid' of tlia sickness ; He is besought for her 
who ia stricken dowu. la ilia Presence dissase and miaecy 
cannot contimie. Binding over the suftbrer He ' rebuked 
the fevPFj' juat as He had rebuked 'the demon' in tha 
Bynagogue. Then Hftiug her by tlie hand, she rose up, 
liwiled, to 'minister' nuto them. It was the first Dia- 
m%ait of womitn in the Church — a Diaconate to Christ 
aad to thoae that were His. 

The Btiii was setting;, and the Sabbath past. On this 
autumn evening at Capernaum no one thought of bueine&s, 
pleasure, or rest. There must have been many homes of 
eorrow, care, and sicltness tliere, and in the populoiia 
neighbourhood around. To all had the door of hope now 
been opened. No diaease too desperate, when even the 
demons owned the authority of His mere rebuke. From 
all parts they bring them, and the whole eity throngs — a 
hushed, aolemniaed multitode — expectant, waiting at tlie 
door of Simon's dwelling. There th&y laid them, along- 
the street, up to the maihetz-place, on their beds. Never, 
lurely, was He more trnly the Christ than when, in thi3 
BtillnesB of that evening. He went through that suffering 
throng, lajjiiigHis hantb^ in the LleBsing of healing on 
every one of them, and casting out many devils. 




(St. Hatt. iv. 23; TiiL 2-4; Bt. Mark J. 36-45; Kt. Luke Iv. 42-41; 

V. 12-1S.> 

I It was, ao to apeak, au inward necessity that the God-Man, 
when brought into contact with disease and uii,sery, 
whether from physical or supernatural causes, should re- 
luovo it by His Presence, by Hia touch, by His Word. An 



otibward DCceiiBtty also, tmcauiie no otliar mode of teaching 
Ci«iiiiilly convincing would havM rwiclieil those aocustomed 
tn Rabbinic disputAtion^, and who must hnve looked for 
BUch a nianifefrtation from One Who claim&d auch autho- 
rity! Aiid yet, m fur froui being a luere worker of miracleg, 
»t wft should havp expected if the history of Hia mirftcl^s 
had been of legendary origio, tb&re is DOtHag more marked 
tEiiiu the puin, we liiui ttlmost Gfiid tlie< hutDilia,tioii, which 
their necessity seems to have carried to His heart. * Ex- 
cept ye aee sigiis and wonders, ye will not believe;' 'nn 
evil iirjd adulterous generntion speketh a sign;' 'blessed 
are they tiiat have not seen, and yet have believed ' — such 
are the utterances of Him Who eighed when He opened 

• Rt. Mjuk the ears of the deaf." and biide Uis Apoiitles look 
'ist'liiiki '*''' lii^''^r "i"^*! better tilings tbaji power over all 
s. I'r-w diseaaeB or even over evil spirita.'" 

And BO, thinking of the scene on the evening before, 
we can undei-stojid how, ' very early, while it was still very 

• St. Mnth I. dfti'k,'" Jesus rose up, and went into a solitary 
*» place to pray. 

Ah the three Synoptiats accordantly state, Jesoa now 
entered on His eecoud GFalilean journey. TTiere can be 
little doubt that the chronological auccoasion of events is 
here accorately indicat.ed by the more circumstantial 
narrative in St. Marks Gospel. 

Significantly, His Work began where tliat of the 
Rabbia, we had almost said of tbe Old Testament Sftint*, 
ended. Whatever remedies, medical, magical, or sympa- 
thetic. Rabbinic writings mayindicate for varieus kinds of 
disease, leprosy is not included in the catalogue. They 
left aeide what even the Old Testftment markt^d as morni 
death, by enjoining those so stricken to avoid, all contact 
with tlie living, and even to bear the appearance of 
monrners. As the leper passed by, hig clothes rent, his 
hair dishevelled, and the lower pai+= of hie face and his 
upper lip covered,' it waa as one going to death 
who reads his own burial-ser^-ice, while the 
inoumfiil words, ' Unclean ! Unclean ! ' which he uttered, 
procduimed that his was both living aud moral death. 

> I/.T. Illi 


The HEAutm op the Lepbjt 


Again, the Old Teatameut, and even Rahliiaisin, took, in 
the meiistires. prescribed in t^pmsy, pi-imarilj a moral, op 
rather a ritual, and onEy secondarily a sanitary, view of tlie 

In the elaborate Rabbincc code of defiletnenla leprosy 
Htood foremoBt. Not merely ectual contact with the l6p(?t, 
but even hia entrance defiled a hitbitation, and everything 
in it, to the befimsof the roof. Bnt bi^youd this, Ritbbinic 
harshness or fear carried its provieioiia to tlie utmost 
secjuences of an unbending logic. Childlesauess and leprosy 
*re described ns ehastieemetits, which indeed procure for 
the snfl'erer forgiveuesB of sins, but cannot, like other 
chastisemeuts, be regarded ae the out<?onie of love, nor be 
received in lova. Traditioa had it that, as leprosy attached 
to the house, the dr^ss, or tlie person, these were to be re- 
garded as always heavier gtrnkeg, following as each gucces- 
eive warning had been neglected, ajid a reference to this 
was seen in Prov. lii. 29, Eleven sins are mentioned 
which bring leprosy, among them those of 
which the tougiie ia the organ. 

Still, if Huch had been the real views of RRbbinism, 
one might have expected that compassion would have been 
extended to tJiose who bore such heavy burden of their 
Bins. Instead of this, their troubles were iieedlefi.'sly in- 
creased. Trwe, as wrapped in moumer'fi garb the leper 
passed by, his cry ' Unclean ! ' waa to incite others to pray 
for him — but also to avoid him. No one waa even to ealnte 
him ; his bed was to be low, incUaing towards the ground. 
If he even put hia head into a p]n«e, it became unclean. 
No lees a distance than four cubits (six feet) mnet be kept 
from a leper ; or, if the wind came from that direction, a 
bandred waa scarcely sufficient. Rabbi Meir would not 
eat an egg purchased in a street where there was a leper. 
Another Kabbi boasted that he always threw stones at 
them to Ite&p them far off, while others hid themselves or 
ran away. To soch extent did Habbinism carry its inhuman 
logic in considering the leper as a monmer, that it even 
forbade him to wash his face. 

We can now in some measure appreciate the contrast 

1*4 /bsUS TtiBMeSSlAH 

between Jesus and His contempriraries in His bearing-' 
towards tho loper. Or, convorflely, we caw judge by tho 
lieiiliiig of this leper oj" the impreaaion which the Sa^nonr 
Jiad made Qpon. the people. He would Lave Hed froiQ a 
Babbi ; he came ia lowliest attitude of entreaty to Jesiia, 
There w&8 do Old Testament precedent for this approacli : 
not in the case of Moses, nor even in that of Etisha, and 
there was no Jewish expectancy of it. Bnt to hoive heard 
Him teacL, to have soeu or known Him afi healing all man- 
ner of diseiise, must hare cjirried the conviction of His 
ttbaolnte power. And bo one can nnderBtand this cry : 'If 
Thou wilt, Thou canst make me clean.' It ia not a prayer, 
but the ground-tone of all prayer — -faith in His Power, and 
absolute TOmmLttal to Him of our need. And .JeaiiB, 
toncIit;d with coiiipa-ssion, willed it. It almost seeme as if 
it were in the very exuberance of power that Jesus, noting 
in so direct contraventjon of Jewish "sage, tonched tba 
leper. It was fitting that Eliaha should disappoiut Naanian's 
expectancy thai, the prophet would heal his leproay by the 
touch of his hand. It was even more fitting that Jesus 
should aurpnae the Jewish leper by tonchingj ere by His 
Word He cleansed him. 

It is not quite so easy at first sight to understand why 
Christ should with such intense earnest jieas, aloiuBt vebom- 
ence, have sent the healed man away — at? the term hears, 
'east him out.' Perhaps we may here once more gather 
how the God-Man slirunlc from the fame counected with 
miracles — epecially with such an one — which, aa we Imve 
Been, were rather of inward and outward necaasity than of 
choice in His Miesion. Not thronged by eager multitudes 
of sight^seers, or aepirunts for toinporal benefits, was the 
Kingdom of Heaven to be preached and advanced. It 
would have bean the way of a Jewish Messiah, and have 
led up to His royal proclamation by the populace. But as 
we etody the character of the Christ, no contrast seems 
more glaring than that of such a acene. And ao we read 
that when, notwithstanding the Saviour's charge to ihe 
hi^aled leper to keep sileTice, it was ncverthfless all tlio 
mora made known by him. He could no more, as beforo, 

TiTB Healing of the Lepbr 


«nter the cities^ but reniaiued wilhoat in de»Bit. places, 
whither tLey came to Him from every quurfiT. Aud in 
that w^itlnlniwal He spoke, aud healed, ' aud juayed.' 

Christ's iujuiictiou of silence to the le]>er was com- 
LijH-d with that of preaenting hiinsKlf to the priest, and 
oouforming to tlie ritual reqn.iri?mentB of the Mosaic Law 
in 8UcL cases, ills conforniiug to the Moaaic Ritual was 
to be ' a testimony unto them,' The Lord did not wish 
to have the Law of Moses broken^ — and hroki-n, not Buper- 
eeiled, it would have been, if its proviBions had been in- 
frioged before Hia Death, Ascrasinn, and the Coining of 
tJie HolyGhoat had brought their fulfilment. 

But there is eomething else here. The ooaree of thia 
history ehowa that the open rupture between Jesus itnd 
tlie Jewish authorities, which had commeDccd at the 
Unknown Feaat at JeniHalem, waa to lead to practical 
eequeaces. On the part of the Jewish anthorities, it led to 
tneaBiu-ea of active hostility. The Synagogues of Galilee are 
no longer the quiet scenes of His teaching and miracles ; 
His Word and deeds no longer pass unchallenged. It had 
never occurred to these Galileiius, as they implicitly sur- 
rendered tfiemselves to the power of His words, to question 
their orthodoxy. But now, immediately after this occur- 
• si,Liiiw». reuce, we find Hioi accused of blasphemy .• They 
" had not thought it breach of God's Law when, 

on that Sabbath, He liad healed in the Synagogue of 
Capemamn and in the home of Peter ; but after this it 
became sinful to extend hke mercy on the Sabhath to him 
»st.Lu]w whose hand was withered.* They had never 
**■ ' thought of questioning the condescenaion of His 

int6rC0UT8e with the poor and needy ; but now they 
sought to sap the commencing allegiance of His diaciptea 
by charging Him with undue intercourse with pabliciuia 
■SLLnknT. andginuerei'and by incitiug against Him eveQth« 
*'«.Lak«T. pi"9Jndicea and doubta of the half-enlighttned 
" followers of His own 

new inddents are due to the 

fuhiesR of the Scribes aud Phiiriaeea, who now for the first 
tiruu appear on the scene of His mioistry, Ib it too mucb 

Forerunner.* All these 
prespnce and hosti le wateh- 



thpin to infer that, itiimediatpty art«r that Feast at Jern8»- 
loni, the Jewish aiithoritii>H t^eut their ramiliarH into Gahlee 
afler Jesus, iiiid that ib wok to the preseuc-e and intluetice 
of tbis iiifoi-iufvl depututioD t.ha,t tlie oppositioQ to Clirist, 
which now iDcreasingly uppeared, was due? If no, then 
we 868 not only an additioaal motive for Christ's injunc- 
tion of silence on tliosn whom He had healed, and for His 
own withdmwa) fi-oni the titles and their throng, but we 
can underfitaiid how, aa He aftenvarda imswered those 
whom John had sent to lay bt-fora Christ his doubts, by 
pointing bo His works, so He replied to the sending forth 
of the Scribes of Jerusalem to watch, oppo»6, and arrest 
Him, by sending to Jerusalem as His embaeay the healed 
leper, to suhiuit to all the rt-quirements of the Jjaw. 



(St. Matt, ix. 1-8 ; 8t. Murk ii. 1-13 ; St, Luke v. 1 7-36.) 

We are still mainly following the lead of St. Mark, alike 
EB regards the succBSsion of events and their details. 

The second jouruey O'f Jeeua through G-alilee had com- 
tnenced in autumn ; the return to Capernaum waa 'after 
days,' which, in common Jewish phnifteolog'y, meant a con- 
sideirable interval. As we reukon, it waa winter, which 
would equally account for Christ's return to Capernaum, 
and. for Hie teaching in the house. For, no sooner ' was 
it ht^ard that He wuh iu the house,' than so many flocked 
to the dwelling of Peter, which at that period may have 
teen ' the houae ' or t«mporary ' homi^ ' of the Sa%-ionr, ae 
to fill its limifced apace to overflowing. The general im- 
pression on our minds ie, that this audience was rather in 
a state of indeoiaion thnn of sympathy with Jesus. It in- 
cluded ' PhariBt^eB and doctors of the Law,' who had come 
on purpose from the towns of Galilee, from Judtea, and 

Ths Hrauno op the Paralysed 


&om J«rusalfrru These occupied (be ' uppermost riwnw,' 
sitting, no ddubt', near to Jesus. Their ioflupnce irtusb 
have been Celt by the people, 

AIlhougL iu no wise aeceflsflry to the trnderstauding 
of the event, it is helpt'nl to ti-y and realisEie the aoene. We 
cnn picture to ourselves tJie Suviour ' speaking the Word ' 
to that eftger, iuterested crowd, wliicli would aooa bacome 
forgetful even of the preeeace of tLe watchful ' Scribes.' 
ThougU we kTiow a good deal of the structure of Jewish 
Jioiises.' we feel it difficult to be sure of the exact plac^ 
which the Saviour occupied on thie oconsiou. Meetiiiga 
religious study and discussion were certainly held iu 
Qe Aliijah or upper chamber. But, on many grounds, 
^Sncb ti locali} Beeuis uuguited to the requiremeJite of the 

The house of Peter was, probably, one of the better 
dweHiiigft Lif the middle claBses. In that cuHe Jegus would 
Bpeak the Word, stuudlug in the covered gailery that rau 
roQDd the courtyai'd of such houEtes, and opened into tbs 
various apartments. Perhaps He stood within the entranco 
of the giiest-chamtier. wliije the Scribes eat withiu tliat 
apartiiieut, or beside Uim in the gallery. Tiie court before 
Him was thronged, oat into the street. All were abaorb- 
edly liateniug to the Master, when of a eudden those 
appeared who were bearing a paralytic on hia pallet. Ifi 
had of lat« become too common a scene to eee the sick 
thuB carried to Jeena to atti'oct special attention. And yet 
one can SCaixwly conceive that, if the crowd had merely 
filled an apartment and gathered argnnd its door, it would 
not have made way for the aick, or that eomehow the 
bearers could not Lavo coma within eight, or been able to 
Lttmct the attention of Chriet. But with a courtyard 
rdcd out into the street, all this would be, of course, 
at of the question. In such circuiustaiices access to Jesua 
{'WW simply impossible. 

Tlieir resolve was quickly taken. If they ca-unot ap- 
fproach Christ with tlieir burden, they can let it down from 
Lnbow at Eis feet. Outside the hoase, as well as iuBid«, a 
■ 6«« ' 6keroh«3 ol Jewiob Life,' pp, 93-98. 




stair led up to the roof. They may liava ascended it in 
ihi« wisp, or elaei reached it bj what the Rabbis called ' tho 
i-oftd of the raofb,' pIU>i^tng froDi roof to roof, if the house 
adjoined others in the sauie street. It would have been 
eomparativBly easy to ' unroof the covering of ' tilee,' and 
thuu, 'having dug out' an opening through the lighter 
franiework which supporlefl the tUes, to let down tlieir 
burdf 11 ' into the midst, bi^fore Jesus.' All thia, as done by 
four strong men, would be but the work of a few miouteB. 
But WL' can imagine the arresting of tie discourse of Jesus, 
and the surprise of the crowd as this oppning through the 
tiles ajipeared, and slowly a pidlet was let down before 
thi-ra. Busy hands would help to steady it, and biTng it 
safe to the ground. Ajid on that pallet lay one paralysed 
— his fevered face and glistening eyes upturned to Jeans. 

This energy and determination of faith exeoed&d aught 
that hod been witnessed before. Jeeus saw it, and Me 
Rpoke, Aa y«t the lips of the sufferer had not parted to 
utter bin petition. He believed, indeed, in the power of 
Jesus to ieal, with all the certitude thftt issued in the 
determination to \k laid at Hie feet. And thie open out- 
bargt of faitli shone out the more brightly from its contrast 
with the unbelief within the br^a^t of Uiose Scribee, who 
had come to watch and ensniiie Jesns. 

As yet no one had spoken, for the silence of expectancy 
had fellen on them all. But He, Who perceived man's 
unspoken thoughts, knew that there was not only faith, 
but also fear, in the heart of that man. Hence the first 
words which the Saviour spake to him were : ' Be of good 
■siuatt. cheer.'' He had, indeed, got beyond the coarse 
Judaic standpoint, from which sufToriiig Beemed 
ED expiation of sin. But this other Jewish idea was even 
more de<iply rooted, had more of underlying truth, and 
would, especially in preseace of the felt holiness of Jeans, 
have a deep influence on the soul, that recoveiy would Tiot 
be granted to the sick unless hia sins hsid tirafc heen for- 
given him. It was this, perb.ips as yit only partially 
conscious, want of the sufTtirer before Him, which Jeeua 
met when He spuke forgiveness to his bouI, und that not 

The HEAuii 



aa Bometbing to camp, bat ttA uu act already poKt : * Child, 
thy sins hava hwn forgiven." 

In (mother semso, also, tliLiro was a higher ' need be ' 
for tbu word wliifh broup^ht forgiveness, before that wliioh 
gave liealing. I.i?t usrec^ili tbat Jesus was in the pifscnco 
of tboae in wlioni tho Sfiribngwonldtain bave wrauglit dis- 
belief, not of llis powor tocure disease — which was patent 
to all^hut ill His pH«on iind authority; that, perhaps, 
sacli doubts had alreftdy hct'ii excited. And here it, tle- 
Beires siiecial notice, that, hj' first speaking fbr^veiiess, 
Christ not only presented the deeper moral aspect of His 
inirades, ae against their ascriptioD to magic or Satanic 
agency, but also established tluit very claim, aa regardrd 
His Person and authority, which it was sought to invali- 
date. In this forgiveness of siiiR He presented His Person 
and antliurity as Divine, and lie proved it sncb by the 
miracle of healing- which immediately followed. 

Thus the inwart! reiisoning of the Scribes, which was 
open and known to JTirn MTio rendeth all thoughts, iaBued 
in quite the opposite of what they could have expert.ed. 
Ifc seemed easy to say: 'Tliy sins have been forgiven.' 
But to Him, Who had 'niithority ' to do ao on earth, it 
was neither more enay nor more difficntt thani to say : 
*Bise, take up thy bed, and walk.* Yet this latter, 
osenredly, proved the fortiitr, atid gave it la the eight of 
itU men uaqiiestioned reality. 



(St. Mutt. ii_ »-13 ; St. Miirkii, ia-17; Si. Lulw r. 2T-33 ; 
8t. Matt. X. a-4 : St, Mutt Hi. 13-19 ; 8t. Lnke vi. 18-18.) 

In two things chiefly dtwa the fundamental differenco 
appear between Christianity and all otlier religious syatemH. 


130 Jesus the Messiah V 

notably Efibhinisin. Rabljimsm, and ev^ry oth(?r Bystem 
dowa to modern huiimuituriauisui, cuu ouly geaemtly 
point to God for the fbrg'iveneas of sin. What tiere ia 
merely an nbHtractlon boa become a concrete reality in 
C'hriftt. He speaks for^veneRs on earth, because He is its 
cinbodimeut. Ae regiircls Ihe secontl idea, that of tia 
sinner, "all olber sypleins woitIcJ tirst make him a penitent, 
and then bid him welcome to God ; Christ first welcomes 
him to God, and so makes him a penitent. The one 
domimda, the otlii^r impjirts life, And so Christ ia the 
JTiyaiciau, Whom they thnt ai-e in ]iealth need not^ but 
they that are aick. And so Clinst canie not to call the 
righteous, but sinners — not txj ropentanoe, as onr common 
tost erroneously puts it in St. Matthew ix. 13, and St. 
3f&rk U. 17, but to Himnielf, to the Kingdom; and this is 
the beginning of repentance. 

Thu3 it is that Jesus, when His teaching becomes dis- 
tinctive from that of Jiidaiam, puts tliese two points in the 
forejfTound : the oue at Ihe cure of the paralytic, the other 
in the caE of Levi-XIatthew. And this, also, ■further er- 
pluins His miracles of heiiling aa for the higher presenta- 
tion of Himself as the Great Physician, while it gives 
Bome iusigiit into the wea^wi of thesetwo events, and ex* 
plains iJieir chronological encceasioii. It was fitting that 
at the very outaet, when Kabbinisni followed and chal- 
lenged Jesua with hostile intent., these two spiritual fa*t8 
should be brought out, and that, not in a oontruversial, 
but in a positive and practical manner. For all the ocm- 
bi'ouB obst-rvances of Itabbiniam — its whole law- — were 
only an attempted answer to the question : How can a 
man be juet with God? 

But, as RabbiniBra stood Belf-confe&seclly silent and 
powerless' as regarded tlie forgiveness of sins, 80 it had 
emphatically no word of welcome or help for the sinner. 
The very t^rm ' PharUf^e,' or 'sepiirtited one,' iiiipliud the 
exclusion of einnera. With this the whole character of 
Pharisaism accordei? ; perbtips we should have said, that of 
Rabbiniam, aince the Sadtlucenn would here agreo with 
tho Phuristiic Rahbi. llie contempt and avoiil.tuce of 


>r the ■ 

The Call op Matthew 


Dnleanied, which was so characterifitic of tbe system, aroBP 
not from mere pride of knowledge hut from tlie thought 
that, mi ' the Ljiw ' was the glory and privilege of" Iflrael — 
indeed, the object for which the world was creafed and 
preserved — ignorance of it wiis culpable. Thns, tlut un- 
learned blasiihemed his Creator, and missed or perverted 
Ilia own destiuy. It was n principle that 'the ignorant 
cnunot be pious.' The yoke of ' the Kingdom of God' 
was the high dealiny of every true Israelite. Only to 
them it lay in external, not internal conformity to the Law 
of God : ' in meat nud drink,' not ' in righteousness, peace, 
and joy in the Holy tihost," 

Althongh Rnbbioism had no welcome to the ninner, it 
wna miceaaing in its call to rci|«ntflace imd in extolling 
its merits. Repentiince not rnly averted punishment and 
prolouged life, but brought good, even the tinul redemption 
to Israel and tbe world at targe. But, whi-n more closely 
es&mined, we tind that this repentance, as prtcediii^ the 
free welconio of invitation to the siuner, was only nnnther 
form of wort-riytiteonanees. 

We have already tonched the point wliere, as regards 
repentance, iis formerly in riJgard to forgiveness, tho 
teaching of Christ is in absolute and fundamentnl coa- 
tjrariefyto that of tlie Rabbis. According to Jesus Christ, 
when we have done all, we are to feel that we are but un- 
• BhLuJu profil.wble Bervaots." Accordiiigto the Rabbis, as 
*^-" St. Paul puts it, ' righteousne&s cometh by the 
Lav;* and, when it is lost, the Law alone cun restore 
life; while, according to Christian teaching, it only 
bringeth death. Thus there was, at the very foundation 
of religious life, absolute contrariety between iwxxi and 
His contemporaries. 

The iiBture of repentance has yet to be more fiilly 
explained. Its gate is sorrow and aliame. In that SeniW 
repentance may be the work of a mouieiit, ' aa in the 
twinkling of an eye,' and a life's dins may obtain mercy by 
the teare and prayers of ft few minutes' repentance. To 
this also refers the beautiful aaying, that all which rendered 
B sacrifice unfit for tbe ultar, such aa that it was broken, 



Tbsos thb Messiah 

fitted the penit*nt for ttcceptdiice, since 'tie sacriBces of 
God were a broknu uud L-ontcite heart.' 

In some redirects Rabbinic teaching about the need of 
repentance runs close to that of tlie Bible. Btit the vital 
differenca between ilabbiQism and the Gospel lies in thia: 
tliat whereas Jesus ChjiBt freely invited all sinners, what- 
ever their paat, assuring them (if welcome and gmcei, the 
last VFord of Riibbinistn is only despair and & kind of 
PeesimisQi. For it ie expreasiy and repeatedly declared 
in the case of certain sins, and characteristically of hereay, 
that, even if a man genuinely and truly repented, he must 
expert immodiftt^ly to die — indeed, his death would be 
t]ie evidence that hie repentance wae genuine, Binee, 
thongh such a sinner might turn from bis evil, it would be 
impossible for Hm, if he lived, to lay hold on the good, 
and to do it. 

It ia in the light of Rabbinic viewa of forgiveneBs and 
repentance that the call of Levi-Matthew must be read, if 
we would perceive its full meaning. 

Few, if any, could have enjoyed better oppoitunitipa 
for hearing and quietly thinking over the teaching of the 
Prophet of Nazareth, than Levi-Matthew. We do not 
wonder that in the sequel his first or purely Jewish name of 
Levi IB di'Chpped, and only that of Matthew, which would 
have been added iifter his convemon, retained, Thei 
latter, which ia the equivalent of Nathanael, or of the 
Greek Theodore (gift of God), seems to have been fre- 

Sitting before his cuatom-houae, aa on that day when 
JesuB called him, Matthew nuist have frequently hearii 
Him as He taught by the sea-shore. Thither not only th« 
multitude from Capernaum would eaaily follow ; but hero 
waa the landing-place for the many ahips which traversed 
the Lake, or coasted from town to town. And this uot 
only for them who had bnaineas in Capeimaum or tiiat 
aeig'hbourhood, but aleo for those who would then strike 
the great road of EastL»m commerce which led from 
PamaDcus to the harbyura of the West. 

We know much about thoiie ' tolls, duea, and cueboms/ 

Tmr Call qf Matthew 


which mad« the Roman adminiatration aach sor« and 
voKUtioQH exaction to all ' Pronucials,' and which in Judaea 
loaded tlie verj" name of publican with contempt and 
hatred. They who cherished the gravest religious donbt» 
as to the lawfiilness of paying any tribute to Creaar, as 
involving in principle recognitiou of a boiidiige to which 
thay wonld tiain have eloaed tlieir eyee, and th& substitu- 
tion of heathen kingship for that of Jehovah, must have 
looked OH the publican aa the very embodiment of anti- 
nationalism. The endlesa vexations interferences, th*- 
unjust and cruel exactions, the petty tyrnuny, and tho 
extjortionat* avarice, from which there wna neither defence 
nor appenl. would make it well-nigh unbearable. It ia to 
this that the Rabbia so often refer. If 'publicans' were 
diaqoaMed &om being judges or witneesea, it was, at 
learf. so far as regarded witneBs-bearing, becauae 'they 
exacted more than was due.' Hence also it was said that 
repentance was speciaJ-ly difiicalt for tax -gatherers and 
custom-house officers. 

It ia of importance to notice that the Talmud dis- 
tingnisheH two classes of 'publicans;' the tftx-giitherer 
in general, and the fJowo.Hi'w or cu»t«m-hoii8e official. 
Although both tbiHsea fall under the Babhinio ban, the 
iaxumier — such us Matthew was— is the object of chief 
execrutiou. And thi3, because bis exactiona were more 
vexations, and gave more scope to rapmnty. The tax- 
gathei*er collected the regiilar dues, which couaistod of 
ground-, income-, and pnll-tax. The ground-tax nmonntftd 
to one-tenth of all grain and one-fifth of th» wine and 
fruit grown — ptirMy paid in kind, and partly commulcd 
into money. The income-tax amounted to 1 per cent- ; 
while the head-money, or poll-tax, waB levied on all per- 
sona, bond and free, in the case of men from the age of 
fourteen, in that of women from the age of twelve op to 
that of sixty-five. 

K this offered many opportunities for vexatious exac- 
tiona and rapaciojis injustice, the custom-house official 
might inflict much greater hardship upon the poor people. 
Thera waa tax and duty upon all imports and exports ; on 


134 Jasus TffP- Mfssiar 

all tfcat was bgiigbt and sold ; bridge-money, road-money, 
harbour-dues, tuwii-ilin>B, &*.■- llio classical rojidt-r kiiowa 
tli<^ iiigeniiily wLicli conlJ invent » tux and Sud a name 
for evei7 kind of esartioD. On goods the oA 'mhrem dnty 
amounted to from 2J io 5, and on articles of hixniy to 
even I2i per feut. But even this was as nothing, com- 
pared vritii the vexation of being c:onalaiitly stopped on tbe 
journey, having to unload nil pack-animals, when every 
biile and piickiigft was opened, and tbe contents tumbled 
al)out, pi'ivute kittera opened, and the dmiairier ruled 
supreme in Kia inaolence and rapacity. This custom- 
house official waa called ' great ' if be employed eubBti- 
tutrOB, ftnd 'email' if he stood kiiuaelf at the receipt ot 

What has been described will cnat light on the call 
of Mtittibew by tbe Saviour of sinuera. For we remember 
that Levi-Matthew was not only a ' publican,' bnt of the 
worst kind : a ' Mo/ckes'or douimitr; a ' lillla Mohhce ' tsho 
himself stood at his custom-house ; of tbe class to whom, 
as we ai-e told, repentance offered special difficulties. And, 
of all each ofliciala, those who had to take toll from ships 
were perhaps the worst, if we are to judge by the pro- 
verb : ' Woe to the ship which saila without having paid 
the dues,' 

But now quits another day bad dawned for Matthew. 
Tbe Prophet of Naziiretb waa not like those other great 
Rabbis, or their self-righteous imitatora. There was not 
between Him and' one like Matthew, the great, almost 
impoesahle gap of repentance. He had seen and heard 
Hiin in tbe Synagogue — and who that bad heard Hib 
Words or witnessed His power could ever forget or lose 
the impression ? The people, the rulers, even the evil 
spirits, had owned His authority. But in tbe Synagogue 
JcBUS waa still the Great Oue, far away from him ; and he, 
Levi-Matthew, the ' little iVo/r/iCJ*' of Oaperniiiim, to whom, 
as tbe Rabbis told him, repentance was next to imposaiblew 
But oat tliere, in the open, by the eeaehore, it was other- 
wise. All unobserved by others, he observed all, and 
oould yield himself without reserve to the impression. 

The Call of Matthew 


Perhaps he may have witnesseil the caJl of the first 
Apobtles; lie wrtaialy mast have known the fishentipa 
and Bhipowiiers of CBperiiftiim. And now it appeared as 
if Jeana had been brought atill nearer to Mattliew. For 
the great, onea of Israel, ' the Scribes of the Phai-Jaeea,' 
and their piotiat. followers, had combined against Him, 
and wuald excludo Him, not on account of sin, but on 
aocoont of thy sinners. Ajid so, we take it, long bofore 
that eventful day which for ever decided his life, Mnttliew 
had, in heart, Locotne the disciple of Jeena, Only ho dnrpd 
not hope for personal recognition — far leae for call to 
disciplu^hip. But when it came, and Jesua fixed on him 
that look of love which searched the inoiost deep of tlii^ 
BonI, it needed not a moment's thouj^ht or eonsidepation. 
\Vlien He spake it, ' Follow Me,' tie past seemed all 
Bnallowed up. He said not n word ; but he rose up, lell 
the custom-bouse, and followed Him. That was a gain 
that day, not of Msitchew alone, but of all the poor and 
needy in Israel — nay, of all sinners from among men, 
to whom the door of heaven was opened. 

It Bould not have been long after this that the 
meraorable gathering took place in the house of Matthew, 
which pave occasion to that cavil of the Pharisaic Scribes, 
which sei-ved further to bring out the meaning of Levi's cwll. 
It wae nat.ui-al that all the publicans around shoulij, after 
the cidl of Mattliew, have cotne to hia lionee to meet Jeans. 
And it wiis cliarBcteristic that Jesna shcrald improve Such 
Opportunity. When we read of ' sinners ' as in company 
with these pnblicanfl, it is not neo^saary to think of gross 
or open offenders, though auch may haye been included. 
Por we know what snch a term may hfjv« included in the 
Pharisaic vocabulary. Equally charact-eristic was it, that 
the Rabbinista ahoald have addreased tht>ir objection as to 
fellowp'ship with such, not to the Master, but to the dia- 
L-iples, Had they been able \a lodge this cavil in their 
minds, it would have fatally shaken the confidence of the 
disciples in the Master. 

Prom their own standpoint and contention, in thfir 
owu foon of speech, He answered the Phai'lseea. And 


Jesus thr Mbssiah 

He not only eileiu-ed their giiinsftyirig, hnt. furthpr op»n< 
up the meaning of His acting^nay, His very purpose 
and Mission. 'No tiped have they who are strong and 

• Thciau'i ^^ health' of a physician, bat they who are 
laHLLuhi ill,' It was the very principle of Pharifiaism 

which He thus set forth, alike as regarded their 
self-exclasion from Him anci His consorting with the 
diseased. And, aa the more Hebraic St. Matthew addsj 
applying the Vi>ry Rabbinic fonnula, ao often used when 
siiper6cia1 epeciousness of knowledge is direfted to further 
tboagbt and infonnation: ' Go and leam ! ' Learn what? 
WhiUi their own Smptures meant; learn that fundamental 
principle of the spiritual memiing of the Law as explan^a- 
torj' of its tnere letter, ' 1 will have mercy, and not aacrifice,' 
There waa yet another and higher aspect of it, ex- 
plainiBg and applying alike this Baying and the whole 
Old Testament, and thtia Hie Own Mission; 'For lam 
not come to call righteoiiB men, bat sinners.' The intro- 
duction, of the words ' to repentance ' in Bonie manascripts 
of St. Matthew and iSt. Mark shows how early the ftiU 
meaning of Christ's words was niistnterpi-eted. ForChrist 
called sinners to better and higher than repentance, even 
to Himself and His Kingdom. 

The call of St. Matthew waa no donbt speedily followed 
by the calling of the other Apostles.'' It ap- 
pears that only the calling of those to the Apo- 
stoliite is related, which in aome sense is typical, 
vjj--. that of Peter and Andrew, of James anrl 
John, of Philip and Bartholomew (or Bar Tela- 
myon, or Temalyon, generally enpjiosed the same as 
Nathanael), and of Matthew the publican. Yet, ai^condly, 
there is something which aCtachea to each of the others. 
Thomas, who is called Didymua (which means 'twin')^ 
ia cloaely connected with Matthew, both iu St. Luk«'a 
Gospel and in that of St. Mfitthew himself. James is ei- 

• St. .Tobu pressly named as the son of Alphteua or Clopas." ' 
"*•" This we know to have been also the name of 

k et, iiuiT. 

St. Lulu ■A. 

' ThnR he would be Che same as ' James the Lecis.' or rathar 
Litile.' A i>oa o£ Marj, tht' BiBter-ui-ljiw of lUe Tifgin-Mclher. 


Thb Call op rtrs Twrlvb Apostles 137 

MAlitheW'LoTi'B father. But, as the nanie was a common 
one, no infarence can !» drawn from ifc, and it does not 
HWin likelj thnt the father of Matthew wus alao that of 
James, Judas, and SimOO, for these three seem to have 
been brothers. Judas ia designated by St. Matthew as 
Lebbseus, from the Hebrew for ' a inart,' and ie also oemed, 
both by him and by St. Mark, Tliaddfcus — a tfinn which 
we would diirive from the Jewish naiii<' for upraise,' In 
that case both Lebbreaa and Thadda^us would point to 
the heartiineas and thfl thanks^ntig of fhi* ApoatJe, and 
hence to bis character. St. Luke simply desifriiates him 
Jndaa of James, which means tliat he was the brother 
• st-Luu 0®*^ probably, the sion) of Jiimes.' Thus his 
tis; real name wotild have been LebbiBUB, and 
his earname Thaddreas. CloBely conn>icl«l with 
these two we have, in all the Gospels, Simon, 
sumam^ Zelotes or Canantean {not Canaanite), lioth terms 
indicating his original conn(*ction with the (Jalileiui Zealot 
party, the 'Zealots for the Law.' Eis position in tlie 
Apostolic Catalogue, and the testimony of Hcpeaippiia, 
seem to point him oat aa the Bon of Clopas, and brother of 
James, and of Jadas Lebhieuft, Tliese three w^re, in a 
sense, coueins of Chriat, since, according to Hegesippus, 
Clopas woe the brother of Joseph, while the eons of 
Zebedee were real cousins, their mother Salome being a 
sister of the Virgin. Lastly, wo have Judaa la-cariot, or 
Jth Kanofh, ' a man of Kerioth,' a town in Judah.** 
6J095LIT. Tbas the betrayer alone vroald be of Judseau 
" origin, the others all of Galilean ; and thia may 

throw light os a«b a little in his after-history. 





(St, Halt, T^Tii.) 

It was probably on one of those inonntain-ranp^s whici 
ulri-U'b tv ihi; nwrth of Capemaiiiu, that JesuB hfid Bpeut 
the night of lonely prayer which preceded tlie designation 
of the twelve Xo the Apostol&te. Ae the morning broke, 
He called d]) thoHe who had learned to follow Him, and 
from among thorn chose the twelve, who were to be His 
• St, Liika Ambaseadore and Rii])rtisi>uta,tives.» But abeady 
''■ ^' the e^er multitude from fill parts had conie to 

the broad level plateuu beneath, to bring to Him tbeir need 
of soul or body. To them He now descended wif^h words 
of comfort and power of healing. As they pressed around 
Him for that touch which brought virtue of heuling to all, 
He retired again to the mountain heij^ht, and through the 
clear air of the spring day spake wha,t haa ever since been 
known as the ' Sermon on the Monnt,* from the placd 
where He sat, or aa thab ' in the plain' (St. Luke vi. 17), 
from the place where He had first met the multitude, and 
which so many must have continued to occupy while He 

The first and most obvious^ perhaps ateo most super- 
ficial thought, is that which brings this teiic-hing of Christ 
into comparison with the beet of the wisdom and piety of 
the Jewish sages, as preserved in Rabbinic writings. Its 
eesential difference, or rather contrariety, in. epirit and 
substaQce, not only when viewed as a whole, but in ahnost 
each of its individual parts, will be briefly shown in the 

Turn from a reading of the ' Sermon on the Jlonnt ' to 
the wiedom of Die Jewish Fatbera ia their Talmud. It 
matters tittle whiit part be chosen for the piir|.«se. Here, 
also, the reader ia at disjidvimtnge, since his instractora 
preeeut to bim too frequently broken sentences, torn from 

Vhb SBRArOft Off TftB Movf^T 


their connection, words often niistranslatecl or inisappiliecl ; 
at bpst, only isolated sentences. Tliere is here wit. ami 
logic, quickness and reafliuess, psmpst.neps and zeal, but 
by the aide of il. profuuily, uncIeanneBs, superetition, and 
folly. Taken as a whole, it is nut only utterly unspiritniil, 
but anti-api ritual. Not that the Talmud is worse than 
might he expected of such writiings in suck timea and 
circuniat;aiice8, perli-^ps in many respects mueh better — 
Btways boaring in mind the particolar staiiilpuint of narrow 
nationalism, without- which Talmndisni itself could not 
hare existed, and which therefore ia not an accretion bnt 
an ensentia! part of it. Bat, taken not in abrupt sentences 
and quotations, bnt as a whole, it is ho att*irly and im- 
meaanrably nnlito the Ndw Teatament, that it is not easy 
to determine ivhicli is greater, the ignorance or the pre- 
BQuiptiun of thoae who put them side by side. And to the 
reader of such disjointed Riibbinic quotations there is this 
fiirt.her source of misnndtTstanding, that the form and 
sound of words is ao often the same as that of the sayings 
of Jeeus, however different their 8]>irit. For, iieceasariiy, 
the wine — be it new or old — made in Judaaa comes to ns 
in PaEegtinian vessels. But the ideas underlying terms 
eqaally employed by Jesus and the tea<ihers of Israel are, 
ID everything that: concerns the relation of souls to God, so 
absolutely difl'ert^nt as not to bear conipajieon. Whence 
otherwise the enmity and opposition to Jesus from the first, 
nud not only after His Divine claim Lad been pro noun clhI ? 

We can only here attempt a geiienil outline of the 
'Sermon on the Mount.' Ita great subject is neither 
righteousiieag, nor yet thy New Law (if sii'Ch deHignation 
be proper in regard to what in no real senae ia a Law), 
but the Kingdom of God. Notably, the Sermon on the 
Mount contains not any detailed or systematic doctrinal, 
nor any ritnal l^acliing, nor yet does it prescribe the ibrra 
of any outward observances. 

Aa from this point of view the Sermon on the Mount 
differs from all contfimporary Jewish teachmg. so also 
is it impoasible to compare it with any other system of 
morality. The difference here is ou« not of degree, nor 


Jesus thb Messiah 

ovon of (rind, but of standpoint. It is indeed tme that 
the Worrfn of Jesus, properly uuderstood, mark the utmost 
limit of all posaible rnoral conception. But every moral 
eystetn i? a n>acl by wbith, through self-denial, diacipUno, 
nnd effort, men s^ek to feack the goal. Ckriet beginfl 
with this gout, and places His disciples at once in tJie 
position to which ail otlier teachers point as the. end. 
Thoy work np to the goal of liecoming the ' diildreu of 
the Kingdom ; ' He makes msn such, freply, and of Hig 
grace : and this is the Kingdom, Accordingly, in the real 
sense, thei'e is neilhcr new law nor moral systpm here, bnt 
entrance int^ a new lil'e : ' Be ye therefore perfect, ns your 
Father Which is in hea.ven is perfect,' 

But if the Sermon on the Mount contains not a new, 
nor, indeed, any system of morality, and addreaaea itself 
to a new condition of things, it foUowa that the promieea 
nUaching. for exam pie, to the Bo-called ' Beatitudes' must- not 
bo regarded as tlie reward of the apiritual state with which 
they are resjiectively connected, nor yet as their result. 
It is not h^.cause a nitin is poor in spirit that his is the 
Kingdom of Heaven, in the sense that the one state will 
grow into the other, or be its result ; etiU lesn is the ono 
the reward of tlie other. Tlie connecting link between 
the ' state ' and the proroiae is in each caso Christ Himself: 
because He stands between our present and onr future, 
and ' has opened the Kingdom of Henveii to all believers." 
Thus the promise ropreeenta the gift of gi-ace by Christ in 
the new Kingdoui, as adapted to pnch case. 

It ia Christ, then, as the King, Who is here flinging 
opf n the gat^s of His Kingdom. To study it more closely : 
in tlie thiee chapters, uudei- which the Sermon on ths 
_^ . Mount is grouped in the First Gospt'I' the KLaff- 
dom ot bod 18 presented sw^eessiveiif, itrogrcssivni/i/y 
and extengively. Let tis fcnice this with the help of the text 

In the first part of the Sermon on the MoTrnt,' the 
Kingdom of God ia delineated geuevallyj first 
positively, and then negatively, marking espe- 
cially bow its righteousness goes deeper than the mer* 



letter of even the Old Teatament Law. It opens witb ten 
Beatitudes, which are the New Test amemt. coutiterprirt to 
the Ten Commandnienta. These preseot to us, not tlio 
observance of the Law written 011 atoiio, but the reatiaation 
of that Lttw which, by the Spirit, ia written on the fieshy 

tables of the heart,' 
s-ij, ' ThpfiB Ten Commandments in the Old Cor»- 
Jj5^*^ naut were prec+^ded by a Prologne.*' The ten 
i^-w""^'' ** Bt^atitiides hare, characteriatically, not a Prologue, 

but an Epilogue," which corresponds to the Old 
Testament Prologue. Thia closes the first section, of whicli 
the oljject was to present the Kingdom of God in tta 
L characteristic featnrL-a. Bub here it was necessary, in 
'order to mnrk the real continuity of the New Testament 
with the Old, to show the i-e!atioa of the cue to the other. 
And this 19 tha object of verses 17 to 20, the laat-nien- 
tioaed verge forming at the same time a grand climas anil 
tranEition to tho criticism of the Old Testnment-Law in ita 
merely lit^'ral applicatiou, such as the Scribes and Phari- 
« «. SI ta sens mady.'' In thia paa-t of the ' Seniiuii on the 
eiiii of ell. T. JJomit' tljg careful rejuler will mark an analogy 
to Exod. rxi. and xxii. 

This cloeea the 6rst part of the ' Sermon on the Mount.* 
The second part is containi>d in St. Matt, vi. In this the 
criticism of the Law is carriiHl deefier. The qutiation now 
i« not as concerns the Law in \X% lilerality, but as to 
constituted more than a mere otaei'vance of tJie outward 
conunandinents : ^ip((/. s}>irititality, nonctiti/. Three pinnls 
here stand out : aJms^ praifer, and fusiing — or, to put the 
Ifttticr more generally, the relation of the ])hyi*ical to the 
spiritual. These three are successively pjt-Keuted, nega- 
• Abiv.v%. *i™ly snd positively.* But even so, this would 
1-1 1.«™^, have been but the esterual aspect of them. The 

Kingdom of God carries alt bnclt to tlvi grand 

imderlying ideas. What were tliia or that mods 
of giving aims, unlfsa the right idea be apprehended, of 
that which constitutes riches, and where tliey should be 
eonght? Thia is indicated in verses 13 to 21. Again, as to 
pniy9r : what matters it if we avoid tlie extemalism of the 


143 /Est/s THS Messtah 

Phnrippes, or even catcli (be right foriD as set forth in the 
' Lord's Prayer,' uulL-sii we realise what nnclerlies prayer ? 
It ia to Uy our inner man wholly open to the hght of God 
in genuine, enrneefc aiinplicity, to be qnit.e ehone through 

• vT.aM I'y Him.' It is. moreover, absoiutt^ and nndi- 
*"■**"** vided Be!f-dedi cation to God.'' And in this lies 
its connection, alike withthe spirit tihatpi-omjita 'ilmntjiiting, 
and with that; which proinpta real /'wfmy. That which 
nndfrliea all blikIi fasting is a right view of the relation, in 
which the body with its wants stands to God — the temporal 

• w, uto ^ ^^^ spiritual." It La the spirit of prayer which 
snii'o(cii.<rL must ral(? alike alms and fiif^ting, and pervade 
them ; the aelf-dediuatiou to Gal, the seeking first after 
thft Kingdom of God and His Righteoueneee, that man, 
and self, and Ufe may be huptised in it. Such are the 
real alma, the real pntyera, the real faate of the Kingdom 
of God, 

If we have rightly apprehended the meaning of the 
first two parts of the ' Sermon oa the Mount,' we cannot 
be at a loss to imderatand its third part, as sat fort.h in the 
seventh chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel. Briefly, it ia 
this, OS addrefsed to His contemporaries, nay, with wider 
application to the men of all times ; First, the Kingdom 
of God cannot be ci-rcumserilml, as yon wonid do it,* 
Secondly, it cannot be extended^ as you would do 
it, by externa! mejtns,* but cometh to us from 
God,' and is entered by personal determination 
and separation.' Thirdly, it is not preached, as too often 

• rv. 13, It it* attempted, when thoughts of it lue merely of 
"■VT. 16, lu j^iiy ext'ernal." Lastly, it is not man{fe«ied in 
life in the manner too common among rcligionistB, but is 

very real, and true, and good in it*< elFectB.' And 
this Kiugdojii, as received by each of us, ia like 
a solid houae on a eoiitf foundation, which nothing from 

without can shake or destroy,* 
'"■ The coDtrftst juet set forth between the 

Kingdom as presented by the Christ and Jewish contem- 
porary teaching is tlie more striking, that it was expressed 
in a form, and clothed in words nith which all Hia hearen 

' vll. US 
• vtr. 
'vt, 7-U 

> wv. 17-» 



were fanuljnr. It is this whidi Iius niieled bo many in 
\\\<evc <)uotatiotis of Uabljiiik- pai-tillelii to 'Memion 
ou the Mouut..' Tht^y perceive oatward similarity, and 
they straightwiiy set it down to identity of epirifc, not 
understanding that orteu those things are most uiili]ce 
in the spirit of them, which are most like iu their form. 
Many of these Itabbiuic (luofntions are, however, eiitimly 
initpt, the einiilarity lying in an pxprensiou or turn of 
words. Ucc(L»Lonally, the misleading error goes even fur- 
ther, and that is (quoted in illustration of Jesus' saying 
which, cither by itself or in the context, iinpliee quite the 
opposite. A few epeciraens will Buliii;ieiit!y illii.strnte our 

To begin with the firat Beatitude, to the poor in spirit, 
since theirs ia the Kiugdom of Heaven. This early Jenish 
saying is its very counterpart, ronrbing not the optimism, 
but the pessioiiani of life : ' Jlrer be more and more lowly 
in spirit, since the expectancy of man ia to become the 
food of worms.' Another contrast to Christ's promise; of 
grace to the ' poor in spirit ' is prosented by the eaying of 
the great Hill?) : ' My humility is my greatness, and my 
greatnesB my humiiity,' which, bo it obeerved, is elicit<^d 
by a Rabbinic acconaiuodation. of Ps. cxiii. 5, 6 : ' Who ia 
exalted to sit, who luimbleth himself to behold.' It is 
the oiuisBion on the part of modem writers of this es- 
planatory addition, which has given the saving of Hillel 
even the faintest likeu<-ss to the first Beatitude. 

Bnt even so, what of the promise of ' the Kingdom of 
Heaven'? What is the meaning which Rahhiniam at- 
tacheji to that phnise, and would it have entered the mind 
of a Buhbi to pmmiBe what he nnderstood as the Kingdom 
to all men, Gentiles as well as Jews, who were poor in 
spirit? We recJill here the fate of the Gentiles in Mes- 
sianic days, and, t« prevent mis^al^tments, summarise the 
opening pagfs of the Tahniidic t.i-actate on Idolatry. At 
fche beginning of the coming era of the Kingdom, God ia 
represented aa opening the Law, and inviting all who 
■Iiad busied tlieinselvea with it to come for their reward. 
On this, nation by nation appe-ars, bat is in turn repelletd. 


Tasus THE Messiah 

Then all the Gentile nations urge that the Law Iiad not 
been offered to them, which is proved to Le a vain con- 
tention, since dxl had actually offered it to tbera, but only 
Israel had accept«d it. Ou this the nations repl^ by a 
pticuliar Rabliinic explanation of Bxod. xix. 17, according 
to which Uod is actually repreBented as having lifted 
Mount iSinai like a cank, and tbreateued to put it over 
Israel unless they accepted the Law, larael's obedience, 
thererore, was not willing, but enforced. On this the 
Almighty proposes to jodge the Gentiles by tbe Noachic 
commandments, although it ie added that, even had they 
obBeired them, these would have carried no reward. And, 
altbough it is a pniiciple that even a. heathen if he gtndied 
the Law was to be esteeined like the High-Prieat, yet it 
is argued, with the mo&t perverse logic, that the reward 
of heathens wlio observed tJie Lnw must be legs than that 
of those who did so because the Law was given them, 
sinee the former acted from impuUe, and not from ob&- 
tlience ! 

Other portioiis of the context bring out even more 
Btrongly the dirt'eriMice between the largeness of Christ's 
World-Kingdom, and the narrowness of Judaism. 

It is the same self-riglitennaneBs and canialness of view 
which underlies the other Rabbinic parallela to the Beati- 
tudes, pointing to contrast rather than likeness. Thus 
the Rabbinic blessedne»s of mourniug consista in this, 
that niuch misi'iy here maki-s up for punishment here- 
after. We scarcely wonder that no Rabbinic parallel can 
he Ibund to the third Beatitude, unless we recall the con- 
trast which assigns iu Mea-tianic days the possession of 
earth to Israel aa a nation. Nor could we expect any 
parallel to the fourth Beatitudf, ta those who hunger and 
thirst after righttjonsnesa, Rabbiniam would have qaite 
a different idea of ' righteousness,' considered as ' good 
works,* and chiefly as almegiving. To such the moat 
special rpwai'd is promised. Similarly, Rabbiniem speaks 
of the perfectly righteonB tind the perfectly unrighteona, 
or elae of the righteoue and unrighteous (according as the 
good or the evil might weigh heaviest in the scale) ; and, 

^^KmoSoM op Cmtrsr and Rabbinic TftAcnmc 145 

besides tiiese, of a kiad of middle state. But sucb a con- 
ception a3 thnt of 'h»n;^er ' and * thirst ' aft«r righteous- 
ness would have uo pla<je in the system. And, that no 
doubt uifiy obtain, this sentence muy be quoted : ' H© 
that says, I give thia "Sela" as alms, bi order that my 
sons may live, and that I may merit the world to come, 
behold, this ia t!ie perTectly rightooug.' Aloug with such 
^■nertioag of work -righteousness we have this princ-iple 
' often repeated, tlunt all such merit attaches only to Israel, 
while the good works and mercy of the Geutiles are 
actually reckoned to them aa sin, though it is only fnir 
b) add that one Toice is raised in contradiction of such 

It seems almost needless to prosecute this subject ; yet 
it miiy bo well to remark that the ajinie sell-righteouaneas 
attafhes lo the quality of mercy, bo highly prized among 
the Jews, and which is supposed nob only to bring reward, 
Init to atone for sins. With regard to purily of heart, 
there ia, indeed, a discusaion between the school of Sham- 
niui and that of Hillol — the former t4.'aching that guilty 
thonghts constitnte sin, while the latter c-xpreaBly contnes 
it to guilty deeds. The Beatitude attaching to peace- 
making has niany analogies in RHbhiidsm ; but the latter 
would never have connected the designation of 'childi'eo 
of God' with any but Israel. A similar remark appliwa 
to the use of the expression ' Kingdom of Heaven ' in. the 
next Beiititude. 

One by one, Q3 we place the sayings of the Rabbis by 
the fiide of those of Jeaus in this Sermon on the Mount, we 
mark the same essential contrariety of spirit, whether aa 
regapde righteousuesB, sin, pepontancie, faith, the Kingdom, 
alms, prayer, or fasting. Only two points may beapeL-ially 
seleoted, because they are so flwqnpntly brought forward by 
writers as proof thnt the sayings of Josiis did not rise 
above those of the chief Talmudic authorities. The first 
• St Mutu ^^ *''^^ refers to the well-known words of our 
f\i.'vi Lord:' 'Therefore all things whataoever ye 
would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them : 
ftw this is the law and the prtiphels.' Thia is com]iari;d 


Jesus tub MessfAif 

with the following Rabbiuic parullel, iu wliicli the geiitle- 
aes8 of Hilli?] is contrrasted with the opposite disiiosition 
of Shaumiiii. The lattor ia said to have harshly repulled 
\ii mtendiii.g prost-lyte, who wished to be taught the whole 
Law while slaadiug ou uiie ibi>t, while Hillel received 
hiiu with this saying;: 'WJiat is Iialeful to thee, do not 
to another. This is the whole Law, all else is only its ex- 
planation.' It will be noticed that the words in which 
this Lnw is thus siminied up are really only a quotatioiQ 
ti-om Tob. iv. 1 5) aUhough thirir presentation as the sub- 
stance of the Law is, of coursf, original. But apart from 
this, there is a vast dilFereuce bet^'eeu this negative iujoiic- 
tion and the positive direction to do unto othws aa we would 
have them do unto ua. The one does not riee above the 
Btandpoint of the Law, while the ChriBtiii.iiaayingemljodie9 
tho nearest approach to absolute love of which human nature 
is capable, making that the test of our conduct to others 
which we oiiraelveB desire to possess. Aiid. be it observed, 
Ihtt Lord does not put self-love as the principle of our coo- 
duot, but only as its ready test. Besides, the fnrt,her 
explanation iu Si. Luke vi. 38 should here be kept in 
view, as also the explanwtoiy additioue in St. Matt. T. 

The second instance ia the supposed similarity between 
• Bt. petitions in the Loi-d's Prayer' and Itubbinio 
ti, H-13 prajera. Here we may remark wfc the outset, 
that both the spirit and the maainer of prayerare (jreseuted 
by the Rabbis so externuUy, and with such details, as to 
make it quite difft-itiit from prayoras our Lord taught His 
disciples. That the warning against prayei-s at the corner 
of streetB waa token from life appears from the well- 
known anecdote concerning one Rahbi Jannai, who waa 
ohsierved saying his pmyers in the public streets of 
Sepphoria, and then advaiiciag four O-ubifs to make the so- 
culled supplementary prayer. Again, a perusal of some 
of the recorded prayers of the Rabbis will show how 
vastly diffeivut many of them were iroiti the petitions 
which our Lord taught. 

Further details would lead b^oud our present siiopa 



It iDU»t 8uffiw to iu(licate that such sayings as St. Matt, 
V. e. 15, 17, 25, 29, 31, 4(j, 47 ; vi. 8, 12. 18. 25, 24, 32 ; 
vii. 8, 9, 10, 15, 17-19, 22, 23, Uave uo piinvllel, iu uay 
real sense, in Jewish writings, wliose teaching, indeed, 
oFtea embodies opposite ideas. 



(St. Hatt. viiL 1, S-15 ; St. Mark iU. 80, 21 ; 8t. Luks viL 1-10.) 

Prom the Mount of Beatitudes, it was again to His tem- 
• stuiuk porary home at Capernaum that Jt^sits retJrBj." 
iii.i»-si Yg^ mit eith&r to solitude or to rest. For of 
tliat multitude which had hiing entrauced on His Words 
inikuy fbllowed Him, and there was now auch coastanb 
pressure around tlini, that ia the aeai of tlieir attendance 
upou tlie wants and demands of tlio«e who hungered after 
the Bread of Life alikn .Master aud disciples found not 
leisure so much as tor the necessary 8ust.enance of tho 

The circumstauoea, the iacessaut work, and the all- 
cOQSUDiing £eiil led to the Lippn^heuBioii ou the part uf ' His 
frienda" that tha bnlance of judgment miglit ha over- 
woighlod, and high reason brought into bondage to tho 
poverty of thtj earthly frame. On tidings reaching them, 
with perhaps Orientally oxayj,'tratiiig details, they hnateueU 
out of their lioase in u neighbouring street Xa take (lOKses- 
sion of Him, aa if He had needed tkeir charge. The idott 
that He wua 'besidt* HiuiNelf all'orded the only explima- 
tioQ of what otlierwUe would havu been to them well-iiif;h 
ineiplicable, Tu the Eastern mind efipoeially this want of 
self-posses.sion, tlif being ' beside ' oneself, would point to 
poese^sion by another — God or Devil. It was on the 
ground of such supposition thut the charge wita so con- 
stautly raiKwl by the Scribes, and unthinkingly taken up 
by the ptiopie, that JeHUs was mad, and had a devil: not 
denionifical possession, be it marked, but posseeKion by the 



Ufvil, in tlu> iiW^iiW! of si-lf-posBeesedcess. And hcnc« 
OUT Lord cliaractcrisiMl this charge as teaJly bliiaphemy 
agatnflt the Holy Ciho&t. Aud this a!.io explaina bow, 
while unable txi deny the reality of His Workfl, they coald 
Btill roBist tlioir evidential force. 

ThlB iucideitt coiUd bav« caused but brief interruptioa 
to Hie WoTk. Presently there came the Hummons of the 
henthoa Ceotarion and tht? healing of his Ber\'aDt, which 
both St. Matthew and St. Luke record. 

The Centurion ie a real historicii.1 peraonage. He w»9 
capliiin of thii troop qimrtered in Capernaum, aiid in the 
stmicM of Herod Antijjas. We know that Buch troops 
wero cbiefiy reei'uit^il from Sainuritjiiis and Gentiles of 
CtBBai-ea. Nor is there the Bli^htest evidence that this 
Centuriwu was a ' pruselyte of righteousness.' The accounts 
both ill St, Mnrthew ami in St. Luke are iiKTOiJipntible wltb 
this idea. A ' proselyte of ri^htetmsness ' could have had uo 
rruaon lor not approa<?liing Christ directly, nor would ho 
have spoken of hiniself as ' unfit' that Christ should come 
under his roof. But such laugnap; qaite accorcled with 
Jewish notions of a Gentile, sidcr the houses of Gentiles 
were cooaidered as defiled, nnd as deRling those who 
entered them. On the other hand, t!ie ' proselytes of 
nghteodsnesa ' were in all respects equrkl to Jews, Bo that 
the words of Christ concerning Jews and Gentiles, as 
repfvrted by St. Matthew, would not have been appUcabIa 
to them. The Ceuturion was simply one who had learned 
to love Israel and to reverence Israel's God ; oue who had 
builc that Sj'niigogue, of which, strangely enough, now 
after eighteen centurips the remaina in their rich and 
elaborate carvings of coruicefi and entablaturtia, of capitals 
and niohea, show with what liberal hand he had dealt hia 
votive offlbringB. 

As the houses of Gentiles were ' unclean,' entrance 
into them, and still tnoro familiar fellowship, would ' de- 
file.' The Centurion Toust have known this; and the 
higher he placed JesuB on the pinnacle of Judaism, the 
more natural was it for bim to commuuieate with Christ 
through the elders of the Jews, and not to expect the 

■ HBAU.ya OF rrrs Ceivn/frtoi/s Ssrvaxt 149 

personal Presence of the Master, even iT the appHcatian 
to H^im were attended, wit.ti snccess. 

Closely conHidered, whatever verbal diflerencea, there 
is not any real diacrepancy betweea the Jutlioaa presenta- 
tion of ttte event in St. Matthew and the fuller Gentile 
accotuit of ib by St. Luke>. From both narrafcivea we are 
led to infer' thftt the house of the Centurion waa not io 
Capernaum itsf^lf, but in ita immediate neigLhourhood, 
probably on the road to Tiberias. 

And in their lefwling leatureB the two accounts entirely 
agree. There is earnest supplication for bis Bick, seemiDgly 
dyin^ servant. Again, the Centurion in the fbllest sense 
believes in the power of Jesus to heal, in tlie eame manner 
as he knows hia own ooiiimnnds as an ofHcer would be im- 
plicitly obeyed. But in hia self-acknowledged ' nnfitaeaa ' 
lay the real 'fitness' of this fjood soldier for memberahip 
with the true Ismel ; and in hia deep-felt ' unworthiueas ' 
the real ' worthinpsa ' for ' the Kingdom " and its blessings. 
Here was one who was in the state described in the first 
elau^ee of the ' Beatitud™,' and to whom came the pro- 
mise of the second clauses; because Christ is the connect- 
ing link between the two, and becanne He consciously w«g 
Buch to the Centurion. 

And BO we mark that participation in the blessedness 
of the Kingdom is not connected with any outward rela- 
tionship toward.** it, nor belongs to onr inward consciona- 
noB8 in regard to it ; but le granted by the King to that 
faith which iu deepeHt simplicity realises, and holds fast 
by Him. 

Bat for the fuller underBtaniiing of tho words of 
Christ, the Jewish modea of thought, which Ha used in 
illustration, require to be briufly explained. It was a 
common liL-lief that in the day of the Meeslah n^deemed 
Israel would be gathered to 11 great fenat, togellier witi 
the patriarLli-s and heroes of the Jewish faith. One thing, 
however, was clear: Gentiles could have no part in that 
feast. On this point, then, the words of Jeans in r&- 
ff^rence to the believing Centnrion formed the moat marked 
cuatrast Ui Jewish teaching. 


Jesus the MESsiAtf 

In nnol.titii' rcHpt-irt also we mark similar pontTaripty, 
When our \iotA consigned t)ic iinljt'liB\'ing to ' out«r dark- 
nesA, where Uiere ie weepiug and ^inshing of teeth,' He 
onco more used Jewiali laiij:^inige, only with opposite appli- 
cation of it. Ophinnom wjis a place of darkness, to which, 
in the day of the Lord," the GentUes woiild ba 
foiiaigued. On the otlier hand, the merit of 
circuincisidii would iu the day of the MesBJah deliver 
Jewinh siniiprs from nMhinuom . It seems a moot qnestion, 
kPLMuii. whether the expreswon 'opter darVness'*" tnny 
'"'■"' not have beeii irteiided t« designate — besides 
the diirltnesfl oiitsidft the lighted bouae of the Father, and 
even beyond tlip darkness of Gehinnora — a place of hope- 
letm, eudleBB nightr. Associated with it is ' the weeping 
und the flushing of teetb.' hi Kabbiiii(i thought the 
fonneT' wfts (.'onnected wit.h sorrow, the latter almost always 
wiUi aiigiT — ^iiot, (18 generally supposed, with ang-uish. 

To coiiiplot« our apprehension of the contra*t between 
the viewB of the -Jews aiid the teachiiig of Jesua, we muBt 
Ijear in mind that, as the Qeutiles tonld not posaibly 
share in thu feuHt «f the MiiHaiuh, bo iBroel had claim and 
title to it. To nee Rabbinic terms, the former were 

* children of Gehinnom,' but Israel ' children of the King- 

• M-Kat-u don),'*^ or, in atrictly Rnbhinie langiinge, 'royal 
"'"■" childreu,' 'children of God,' 'of heaven,' 'chil- 
dren of the upper chfimber,' and ' of the woi'ld to come.' 

Never, aurely, could the Judaism of His bearers hare 
received more rude ahock thsii by thta inversion of all 
their cheiished beliefs. There was a feast of Messianic 
fellowship, a recognition on the pjirt of the King of all 
His faithful subjects, a festive gatliering with the fathers 
of the faith. But this fellowaliip was not of outward, bat 
of Kpiritual kinship, There were ' children of the King- 
dom,' and there was an ' outer darkness' with its anguish 
and despair. Bat this ciiildsliip waa of the Kingdom, 
Buch as He had optmed it to all believers; and that outer 
darknes.i theirB, who had only outward claims to present 
And 30 this history of the believing Centurion is at the 
same time an applicAtiou of the ' Sermon on the Mount^' 

Tan Raisixg of the Young Man op NAtif 151 

and a further carryiog out of its teaching. Nej^tivelj, 
it differentiated the Eijigdom from Israel ; while, posi- 
tively, it plfMjeil the hope of Israel, and felloweliip with 
its promises, within, rsach of all faith, whether of Jew or 




(St. Luke vii, 11-17.) 

It niattera little whether it was the very 'day nftar' the 
healing of the Centurion 'a aervAdt, or ' ahf> uttenvards,' 
that JesuB left Capernaum for Nain. Prolfably it was the 
morrow of that miracle, ftud the fact that ' much people,' 
ov rather ' a greiit multitude," fullowed Him seemB coa- 
firmatory of it. The way was long — as we reckon, more 
thao tweaty-five njiles; but even if it waa all taken on 
foot, th6r<^ could be no difficulty in reaching Nain ere the 
evening, wlien so ofteu fiinerale tixik place. Various 
njada lead to and from Nain. About ten minuteB' walk to 
the east of Nain liija the now unfeiiced buryiiig-grotindj 
whither on that spring afternoon tbtfy were carrying the 
widow's aon. 

Putting aside lat«r superstitions, so little has changed 
in the Ji?«nsli rites anil observances ubunt the dead, that 
fl'om Talniudii.^ and even earlier snurcea we can form a 
vivid conception of what had taken place jn Nain. The 
watchful anxiety, the vain uae of such rapans aa were 
known or within reat^b of the widow would be coiu- 
mon features in any sueh picture. But here we have 
beeides the Jewish tboughts of death and titler death; 
knowledge just sufficient to make airaid, but not to give 
firm consolation, which nijike even the nii">st pious Rabbi 
uncertJitn of hia future ; 3.nd then the desolate tlioughtH 
connected in the Jewish mind with childleesness. We 
can reiilise how Jewish ingenuity and wisdom would re- 
sort to reiniedies real or magical ; how the neighbours 
would come in with lovereut atep, feeling as if the verj 


/esus the Messiah 

f^liekltinah w^re, vnsDon, &t the hoad of thi> pallet in thtA 
liumblo home ; and liow they would resort t« the pnijere 
of thnite who wore deemed pious ia Niiin. 

But all was in vain. And now the well-kuowii Wast 
of the Lorn hue carriod tidiii<>6 tlint once more the Angel 
of Death has done his tehtiHt.. In. paaaioiiate grief the 
mothpr hiifi rent her upper pnnnent. The last sail offices 
have been rcindf^rod to tiio doiwl. The body lias been laid 
ou the ground ; hniF and nftils have beeo cut, and the Imdy 
wiiahed, anointed, and wrapped in the beet the widow 
couhl prficiirp. 

Tho mother i« left moaning, Jametitiiig'. She -wonld 
bit ou the floor, ripit.lier eat meat nor drink wine. What 
Hcauty iniihl she would talce must be without prayw, in the 
faousQ of A neighbour, or in another room, or at least with 
her iMwk to thi'i dead. Pious friends would render 
neighbourly officesj or busy thennselves about tho near 
funeral. If it was deemed duty for the poorest Jew, on 
the death of hia wift?, to provide at least two flutes and 
one rnoiiniing woiniin, vie may feel sure that the widowed 
mother had not neglected wbat were regarded as the last 
tokens of aHecHon. In all likelihood the custom obtained 
♦tven then, though in modified form, to have funeral 
orations at. the grave. For, if charity even provided for 
an unknown wayfarer the simplest funeral, mourning- 
women would be hired to chauut in weird straine the 
lacnetit: ' Alas, the lion ! bIos, the hero !' or sirailnr words, 
while great Rabbis were wont to hespt-ak for thomeelvea 
'a warm funprnl oration." 

We can follow in spiiit the moiu'nful pioeeseion. As 
it issued chiiirs anil couches were reversed and laid low. 
Outside, the funeral orator, if sui^ were employed, pre- 
ceded tlic bier, proclaiming the good deeds of the dead. 
Iiiunediateiy before the de:id cam* the women, this being 
pecniiar t<j f!aliJi.-e, the Midrash giving ihia reiisuii of it, 
that woman had introduced death into Ihe world. The 
body was not, as at'terwai'ds in pifference, carried in an 
ordinary coffin of wood, if po.ssible cedarwood, but laid ou 
u bier, or in an open c-uftiD. In former timea & di&tiuo- 



Tub Raising of the Young Man of Nain 153 

tion had been nmcle in these biers between rich aud poor. 
The former were carried, oa it were, in state — whilo the 
poor were conveyed in a recepfacle made of wickerworic, 
hftviiig &oiJiotiLieB ftt the foot what waa termed "aboru," 
to which the body was made faet. But this distinction 
between rich and poor was abolished by Rabbinic or- 
dinance, and both filike, if carried on & bier^ were laid in 
that made of wickerwork. Coiuinonly, though not io 
later practice, tJie face of the dead body was iincovered. 
The body lay with its face turned up, and ila bonds 
folded on the breast.. We may iwld that, when a peraon 
h»d died uuniarried vc cbildlesfs, it wns cuetoma-ry to 
put into the coffin aomethin^ distinctive of them, such as 
pen and ink, or a key. Over the cofline of brids or 
bridegrooni a balduchiuo was carried. SoitietimeB the 
(.offin was garlanded with myrtle. In esceptiotial casea we 
read of the Tifie of incense, and even of a kind of libation. 

We cannot, tlien, be miebaken in supposing that the 
body of the widow's son was laid on the ' bed,' or in the 
* willow basket,' already described. Nor ran we doobt 
that the ends or handles were borne by friends and 
neighbours, different parties of beiirers, all of them an- 
Hhod, at frequent intervals relieving each other, bo that as 
many oe possible luight share in the good work. During 
these pauses there was loud himentation; but this custom 
WI13 not observed in the burial of women. Behind tlie 
bier walked the relatives, friends, and then the sympa- 
thising 'multitude.' For it was deemed Ute mocking 
one's Creator not to follow the dead to his laat resting- 
place, and to all such want of reverence Prov. xvii. 5 was 
applied. If one were absolutely prevented from joining 
the proceBsion, although for its sake all work, eveu study, 
should be interrupted, reverence should at least be shown 
by rising up before tin? dead. And so tliey wonid go on 
to what the Hebrews beautifully designated as the ' house 
of aflBembly," or 'meeting,' the 'hoBtelrj-.' the 'place of 
rest,' or ' of freedom,' the ' Oeld of weepers," the ' house o( 
eternity," or ' of life." 

Up from tbe city dose by cume thitt ' great inuUituJa ' 


that followed the cliuid, with htoMutatioDS, ivild channts of 
mounfinjf womi^in, accDmp&nied h^ llut«B and the melan- 
choly tinkle of cvmbale, perliiips by trump&ts, amidst 
espressioQa of general aymi»itLy. Along the rOad from 
£ndor Bt^^unlt^d tbo great multitude which followed the 
* Prince of Lifo.' Her© they met : Life and Death. The 
coiiiiectiiiff link Ijetween them was the deep sorrow of the 
widowpd niotht-r. He recognieed her as she went before 
lh(! bifr, leading liim to the grave whom she had brought 
into life. She wan still w6L^ping : even after He had 
bu&teacd a atep or two iu adYauce of His followers, quite 
close to lier, !!he did not heed Uim and was still weeping, 
Uut, ' beholding her,' the Lord ' had compaeiiion on ber.' 
Wo reDiembtfr, by way of contraat, the common formula 
uwd at funeruh in I'ule'itine, ' Weep with them, all ye 
who Bre bitter of heart ! ' It wa3 not bo that Jesus spoke 
to those around, nor to her, but chai-acteriaticaJly : ' Be 
not weeping.' And what He sittd, that He wrought. 
He t-oiiclieJ tJie bier, perhdps tie very wicker-bashet in 
which the dead youtJi lay. He drended not the greatest 
of all defile m en ta — that of contact with the dead, which 
Habbinism, in Ita elaboration of the letter of the Law, had 
Burrounded with endless terrors. His was other eepara- 
tion tban of the Pharisees: uot that of Bubmlssiou to 
urdauancbB, but of coa({uest of what made tbem necee- 

And OB He touched the bipr, they who bore it stood 
Btill. The qwe of the coming wonder — as it were, the 
shiwlow of tliG openiug gettea of life — had fallen on theta. 
One word of coinnuiind, ' nnd lie that was dead sat up, and 
began to speak.' Not of fihnt world of which be had hod 
brief glimpse. For, as one who suddenly passes from 
dreara-visiou to waking, in theabmptnesaof the trausition 
loaea what he hae seen, so he, who fi'ora that dazzling 
brightneaa woa hurried hack to the dim light to which his 
vision had bee a ficcListonied- 

And still was Jeana the link between the mother and 
the t«oii, who had again found each other. And so, in tlie 
truest sense, ' He gave him to hi« mother.' 

The Woman wmcn was a Sinner 155 

But on those who saw fctis miracle at Nain fell tie 
fear of the Divine Presence, and over their souls swept tho 
hymn of Divine praise: fear, Viecauae a greut Prophet wan 
risen up among them; praise, because God had visited 
Hie people. 



(St. Lolte vii. 30-50,) 

The uextr recorded event in this Galilean journey of the 
Christ can Bcarcely Lave occurred in the qaiet little town 
of Nftin. And yet it mn&t have followed ailraost immedi- 
ately npon it. 

The trapresstOQ left apon us by St. Matt. jri. 20-^0 
(which follows on the aocount of the Baptist's embassy) is 
that Jesus waa on a. journey, and it uiny well be that those 
words of encourji-gement and iiivitatiou, spokeu to the 
• SLMirtt. burdened and wearily labouring." formed part, 
il. 3»-S<i perhaps the anbet.ince, of His preaching on Ihiit 
journey. Trnlj these were ■ good tidings,' and not only 
to those borne down by weij^ht of conseious sinfnlEeaB or 
deep sorrow. 'Good new,'*,' also, to them who would fuiit 
have ' learned ' according to their capacity, bnt whose 
teachers had weighted "the yokp of tho Kingdom' t-o a 
hcavj" hnrden, and made the Will of God to them labour, 
w«ary and imaccomplisbuble. 

Another point requires notice. It ia how, in tho nii- 
folding of HJB Mieeion to man, the Chnet progreesirely 
placed Himself in antagonism to the Jewiyh religiouB 
thought of His time, from out of which He had hiatoricatly 
sprung:. We find thia in the whole spirit and bearing of 
what He did aad said— in the Louse at Capernaum, in the 
iSynagognes, with the Gentile Centurion, at the gate of 
Nain, and especially here, in the history of the much- 
forgiven woman who had much sinned. A Jewigh Rabbi 
coald not have so acttid and spnlien; be would not wen 


Jbsvs thb Messiah 

hiive undemtnod Jpsus; nay, a Rabbi, however gentle iin7 
pitiful, would in word and deed have taken precisely the 
opposite diriictioQ from that of the Christ. 

The history itself seetcs but a fragment. We must 
try to learn froni its stractme, where and how it was 
broken off. We ouderntand the delicacy that left her 
utmamed, the record of whose ' rant^h forgiveness' und 
great love hiid lo be joined tc that of her mach sin. And 
we mark in contxaat the cravingB of morbid cariosity, or 
for saint- worship, which have asBOciated her history with 
the name of Muiy Magdalene, Another mistalte is the 
attempt of certnia critics to identify this history with the 
• BLMatb. ™''<^''i ^^^^ anoiiitiug of Christ at Bethany.* Yet 
■rH.e&a., the two nitrratives have really nothing in cora- 
mon, save that in each case there was a ' Simon ' 
— perhaps the commonest of Jewish nBmee ; a woman who 
anointed ; and that Christ, and those who were present, 
spoke and a^ted in accordance with other passages in the 

The invitfllion of Simon the Pharisee to his tnl>le 
does not neceeaarily indicate that he had been impressed 
by the teaching of Jesus. If Jesus had taught in the 
'city,' and, as always, irresistibly drawn to Him themulti- 
tude, it would be only in fujcoi-dance with thp raannprs of 
the time if the leading Pharisee invited the diatinguiahed 
'Teacher' to his table. As such he undoubtedly treated 
Him.* The question in Simon's mind waa, 
whether He wus more than ' Tearher ' — even 
'Prophet;' and that sudi qrieetioa rose within him iiitlt- 
cates not only that Christ opetdy claimed a position 
difl'erent from that of Rabbi, ami that His folkiwers re- 
garded Him at least as a Prophet, but also, witliia the 
breast, of Simon, a strnggle in which Jewish pi-ejudice waa 
bearing down the unpreasion of Christ's Presence. 

They were all sitting, or rather ' lying,' nromid the 
table, the body resting on the couch, the feet tuTTfd away 
from the table in. the direction of the wall, wlitla the left 
elbow rested on the table. And now. fi-oni theopi-ti court- 
yard, lip the venuidah-step, perhaps through an Hntt>- 

The Woman which was a SrivNEH 



ctiaiiilier, and hy the open door, passed bhe Bgnra of a 
woniai) into the festive reception -room and dining^-ball. 
How alie olituiued access little tniitti'ia — aa little as 
wlietlier she 'had been,' or 'was' up to that day, 'a 
BJnner,' in the terrible acceptation of the term. But we 
mi-st bear ill mind the gieutncsa of (Tewish prejudice 
against any Gonversation with woman, however lofty Ler 
character, fully to realiee the incongruity on the part of 
ench a womnn in SPftking acc&aa to the Rabhi, Whom so 
many regarded as the God-sant Prophet. 

We have said before that this etory is a ira^ment ; and 
here, bIso, as in the invitation of Situon to Jeaua, we have 
evidence of it. The woman had. no doubt, heard Hia 
woi-ds that day. What He had paid woald be, in sub- 
Btaace : ' Come onto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy 
Ittcli^^n, and I will give you re&t. . . . Learn of Me, for I 
am DU'ek and lowly in heart. ... Ye almll find rest unto 
your BOuls- . . .' This waa to her the Prophet aeut from 
God with the good news that opened even to her the 
Kiii(^doia of HciivftD, siud laid its yoke upon her, not bt-ar- 
intf iier down to very IimII, but ensy of wear and lig-ht of 
buition. She knew that it was all as He aaid, in regard 
to the heavy load of her past ; aad, as she listened to those 
Wurds, and looked on that Preaence, she learned to believe 
tliat it waa all as He had promised to the heavy-burdened. 
And she had watched, and followed Him afai- off to the 
Phariaee's house. 

The eliadow of her form mast have fallen on alt who 
sat at meat. But nooe spnke ; nor did she heed any but 
One. What mattt'i-ed it to her who waa there, or what 
they thongbt? There waa only Ono M'hose Presence she 
dared not encounter — not from fear of Him, bat from 
knowledge of herself. It was He to Whom she had come. 
And so she ' stood behind at Hia Feet.' She hod bronght 
witli her an aluliiislron (phial, or Qaak, commonly of 
alabaster) of perfume. We know that perfntnes were 
much sought after, and very largely in. use. Some, such 
■18 tme balsam, ivere worth double their weight in silver ; 
Others, like the spikenard, though uot equally costly, were 


Jesvs the MessfAH 

also ' precious.' Wy liave evidence that p«rtuTiied oils — 
notably oil of roses, autl of the iris pliiut, but chiefly thg 
uiLvture known in antiquity rb folmtuin, wei^e largely mauu- 
fiictareJ iiud used iu Palestine. A ilask with tLie perfume 
was wopu by women round the nock, and hung down below 
the breuet. Su comiuoa was itB use a.s to be allowed even 
ou the SaliUbtb. Ileiice it Be«nis at lejist not nnlikely 
that tbe idahaatrim wliicb slie brought, who loved Bomacli, 
was none other than the ' ilask of foliatiitn.' 

As she stood behind Him at HLa Feet, revereatly bend- 
ing', a ghowerof tears, like andden Bummer-ruin, ' bedewed' 
His Feet. As if afraid to iTeGIe Him by her tears, ehe 
ijuickly wiped them away with the long treaaea of her hair 
that had fallen down and tout-hed Him as she beat. And, 
now that ber faith bad grown bold iu Hia I^-eaenoe, she is 
continuing to kiss those Peet, which bud brought to her 
the ■ good tidings of peace,' and to anoint them out of the 
itlirba»tron round her iieuk. And still she spake not, nor 
yeti He. For, as on her part silence seemed moat fitting 
utterance, so on Hia, that He aufFered it la silence was 
best and moat fitting auawer to her. 

Another there was wlioae thoughts, far otlier than herft 
or the Chriet's, were also nuuttered. A more painfiil coa- 
trast thftij that of ' the Phiiriaee ' in this scene can scarcely 
be iiiiag'ined. We do not insist that the deaignalLou ' thia 
MaJi,'" given to Chriat in his nnspoken thoughts, 
or the inauuer is which afterwards he replied to 
tha Saviour's question by a supercilious ' I suppose,' or ' pre- 
aiinie,' *' necessarily imply contempt. But they 
• ver.M ceriainly iiidictite thy muud of his apirit. One 
thinj^, at least, Keenied now olear to this Pharisee : H 
' thia Man,' with Hia strange, novel ways and woi-ds, Whom 
in politeness he must call ' Teiicher,' Rabbi, wore a Prophet, 
He would have known who the woman was ; and, if He had 
known who she was, then would He never have allowed 
Buch approach. 

And yet Prophet He was, and in far fuller aenae than 
Simon could have imagined. For He had rend Siuioa'o 
Un»[>okea thouyhts. Prfstmlly He would »how it to him; 

• T«.i 

ThK WoiJAfi 



yet not by open reproof thut wooltl huve pub biiu to aLauie 
before his gin"-Bt.s. WLat IoIIowb ia unt, ita generally sni>- 
posed, a parable, but so illustration. Accordingly, ituiust 
in no wiiy be prfsstid. With this explanation vanish all 
the supposed dijiiciiltiea about the Pharisees being 'little 
forgiven,' and hence 'loving little.' To ocinvLnce iSimon 
of the error of his concluaion tliat, if the life of timt woman 
had Ix'flu fcaown. the Piophet niuNt, have forbidden her 
touL-li of love, J^?^UM eateruil into the Phiurisei^'s own rnodfs 
of reasoning. Of two debtors, one of whom owed (en 
times as much as the other, who would beet love the 
creditor who had freuly forgiven them ? Though to both 
tlie debt mi^ht hav-e been equally impossible of disclinrge, 
and both might love equally, yetsaEabhi, would, acoonling 
lo his Jewish notions, say that he would love moet to 
whom most had been forgiven. If this was the undoubted 
outcome of Jewish theology — the so mui-h for so much — 
let it be applied to the present caae. If there were inach 
benefit, there would ba much love; if little benefit, little 
love. And conversL-ly: in Buch case much love would 
argne much bpn^tit ; little love, smaU beuefit. Let him 
llieu apply the reafloaing by marking this woman, and 
oontraatinjf her conduct with lua own. To wash the feet 
of a guest, to give him th« kias of weiuome, and eapecialiy 
to fiuoint him," were not, indeed, Qece^ssary atten- 
tiouB at a fea.'-t. All the more did they indicate 
special care, affection, and respect.'' None of 
theao tokens of regard had marked the merely 
polite reception of Him by the Pharia&e. Bat, 
in a twofold climax,'^^ of which the mttneity can 
only be indifuti^d, the Savionr now proceeds to 
hhow how different it bful been with her, to 
wlioru. for the tirRt time, He now tnmed! On 
Simon's own reasoning, then, he must have re- 
ceived but little, ebe much benefit. Or, to apply the 
former illustration, and now to reality: 'Forgiven have 
been her gins, the many' — not in ignorance, but wiiU 
IcMowIedge of tlipir being 'moiiy.' This, by Simon's former 
itduiia.sion, would explain and account for bet much love^ 


Jesus the Messiah 

a£ tie affect of mucli forgiveness. On the otliRr hand — 
tJiimgh tin) Loril (lofH not acUially express it — this othiT 
inference would also hold true, that Siioou'e little love 
showed that ' little is beiug furgiven.' 

A_n(J as formerly for the first time He had turned, so 
now for the first time He spoke to her : ' Thy sina have 
been foryiveu ' — not now ' tho many.' Nur does He now 
heed tlie muriunriiig thoughts of those aronnd, who cannot 
understand Who this is that forgivetb sins also. But to her 
He said : ' Thy faith has saved thee : go into peace.' Oar 
logical doj/matic9 would have had it : ' (jfo m peace; * He, 
' into peace.' And so she, the Hrst who had come to Him 
for Hptrituat healing, went out into the better light, and 
into the eternal peace of the Kingdom of Heaven. 





(Bt. Lake viii. 1-3 i Bt. Matt Ix. SE-SS; St. Markjii S2. Jcc; St, Mstt. 
ail. Ifl-GO aud pBTallcls.) 

Although there aru diificultiea connected with details, we 
conclude that Christ was now returning to Capernaum 
• aiinkp '^"^ ^^^^^ Miaaionary joumay" of which Nain 
Till. L-B ; St had hi>en the southenamosb point. On this jour- 
ney He was attended, not only hy the Twelve, 
but by loving, grateful women. Among tliem three are 
specially named. ' Mary, called Magdalene,' lind received 
from Him special benefit of heiiling to body wnd eonl. 
Her desigDftt ion as Magdiilene was probably derived from 
her native city, Wagdala, just as several Rabbis are spoken 
of in the Talmud as ' Magdalene.' Magdala, wLtcli was a 
Sdbboth -day's journey from Tiberixis, was celebrated for its 
dyeworks, and its rannii factories of line woollen textures, 
of" which eighty are meutioiied. Indeed, all that district 

Tim, Wom£N 




eeeins to have been engaged in tbiy industry. It was also 
reputed for its traffic m fcnrt.le-i loves and pigeons for 
purilicatiotig — tr.idttion, with its usual exaggeration of 
numbers, uientioiiing three fiundrod sucli eliopa. Accord- 
iugty, its wealth waa very great, and it is uamod atMoiig 
the three citiee whoae contribntions. were so liirgu as to be 
Bent in a waggon to Jerusalem. But its moral corruption 
was also great, and to tbis tlie R.-ibbie attributed its final 
destructiou. Of the many towua aud villiiges that dotted 
the shores of the Tiiike of Galilee, all lutvtt |>iis»ed away 
except Magdabi, which is BtUl represented by the collection 
of mad liovels that bears the name of Mejdel. The ancient 
watch-tower which gave the place its niinie is still there, 
probably standing on the same site aa that which looked 
down on Jesus niid the Magdalene. To this day Magdiila 
is celebrated for its springs and rivulet.a, which render it 
specially suitable for dyewoi'ka; while the shell-fish, with 
which tfaeee waters and the Lake are said to abound, might 
supply some of the dye. 

Such details may help us more clearly t.o realise the 

borne, and with it, perhaps, alao the upbringing and 

cu'GUinstances of her who not only miniatered to Jaaaa in 

His life, but, witb eager avarice of love, watched ' afar off' 

His dyiug momenta,' and then sat over agaiiist 

the new tonih of Joseph in which His Body was 

laid.'' And the terrible time which followed ehe 

BpODt with her liko-naiTidod friends, who in Galilee had 

, , miuistered to Christ," ill preiiariug those 'spices 

[iU,M and Ointments " whicn Tlie Kisen baviour would 

'■ never require. But howevLT dillicult the circum- 

Btaoces may liave be'"'n, in which the Mafi^liilune came to 

I profess her faith in Jesus, those oi Joanna must have beon 

(even more trying. She was the wife of Chuza, Herod'a 

! Steward — [jossibiy, though not likely, the Court-official 

■ whose aoti Jeaua had healed by the word spoken in Cana.* 

• sLJoiia Only one other of those who miuistored to Jeeua 

If. twi4 jg meatioued by name. It ia SmaTina, the ' lily.* 

And they 'ministered to Hiin of their subBtance.' 

It was on this return-joarney to Capernaum, prrtbaMy 



jBSu^UR MBssr^m" 

not fiir from the Intter place, t.Iin.l Ibn twn bliiid uivn ha? 
■ ei.u>tt. ^■heir sight restored." ll wjis then «!«o thwf. ilie 
u. 17^1 tealing of the deinoniHetl dumb took place, which 
19 recorded in St. Mntt. is. 32-35, and allud&d to in St^ 
Mark iii. 22-30. This OBrralive muHt, of course, not be 
confounded with the Bomewhat mmilur event told in St. 
Matt. sii. 22-32, and in St. Lnke xi. 14-26. The latter 
occurred at n much later period in oiir Lord'h life, when, 
as the whole coiite-xt pIiows, the oppositiou of the Piiariaaic 
porty had aaaiimed much larg^er proportions, find the lan- 
guage of Jesus was more fully denunciatoiyof the character 
and guilt of Hie enemies. Tluit charge of the Pharisees, 
therefore, that Jesus cast out the demons throogh the 
k Bt. Halt. l*rince of the domons,'' as well as His reply to it, 
*»• ** will hest be considered when it bIijJI appear in 

its fullest development. 

It was on t.hifi retum-joumey to Capernaom from tJie 
uttermost boidei-s of Galilee that tlie denionised dumb waa 
restored by the casting out of tlie demon, nie circam- 
stacices show tliat a new giage in the Messianic course had 
begun. It ia characterised by fiiUi-r unfolding of Christ's 
teaching and workiny, and pnti jMUfti- by more fidly de- 
veloped opposition of the I'harisaic party. For the two 
went together, nor can they be distiugui^^hed as cause or 
efliict, That new stage, as repfatedly noted, iiad opened 
on His return from the ' Unknown Fcaat ' in Jerusalem, 
whence He aeemH to have Iwen followed by the Pharisaie 
party. We have marked it so early as tbe call of the four 
disciples by tlie Lake of Galilee. But it first actively 
appeared at the healing of the paralytic in Caperuiium, 
when, for the first time, we noticed the preaetico and 
murnmriug of the Scribea, and, for the firpt time also, the 
distinct declaration abont the forgivene.s.5 of sins on the 
part of JeeuB. The same twofold element appeared in the 
call of the publican Matthew, and the cavil of tlie Pharisees 
at Christ's subsequent eating and drinking M'itb ' siQners.' 
It was in further developmeut of this separation from tbe 
old aud now hostile elemeDt, that the twelve Apostlo? 
Were next appuinted, and Lhatdistiuctivetcuchtuguf Je»ua 

Hbaung op TH/i De.uoNisEo Dumb 163 

addressed to the people in the ' Sermon on the Mount,' 
ivhic-h Koa iiiike a vmdicntioii and un HppL'ul. Ou tim 
journey through CSalilee, wliicli followed, iJie Losf.ile purl.y 
does not seem to liave actually attended Jesus; hut their 
^owin^ and now onts|>oken opposition is heard in the 
dkcouree of Cliri»t uboiit JoIiq the Baptist after tlm 
^•■LUH. diMiuiesnl dF his clisciplos," while its iiiUueiicu appears in the unspoken thoughts of Simon the 

It has iili-eadybeen aiig-geated that tlie Pharisaic party, 
an suL'h, did uot attenil Jesus on His Galilean journey. 
But wo are eiiipLaticaUy told tJiat tidings of the raising 
k St. Luke "f the dead at Nain had gone forth intiO Judaea.'' 
'"■ " No douht tln'V reiiuhed tiia leadtTB at Jerusalem. 
There seems just sufficient timi; between this and thu 
healing of the demoiiised dumh on tfit" retiini-jnurDej to 
Oapertiaum, to account for the pi-eseuce there of those 

• St Miiiu Pharisees,'^ who are expressly dtiscrihed by St. 

• Mt.*Mwfc Mark '' ( ' the Scribes wliich came down from 
"'■»> JeniKaleTii.' 

Whatever view the leaders at Jeriisa,!em may have 
taken of the raising at Noiu, it coiikl no lontrer be denied 
thftt nairncles were wrought by Jesns. At least, what to 
us Beam miracles, yet not to them, !>iuce, as we have seen, 
'miraculous' cures and the expelling of demons lay within 
the sphere of their ' cstrttordinary ordinary' — w^re not 
miracles in oup sense, siiico they were, or professed to be, 
doae by their ' own thildien.' The mere fact, therefore, 
of such cures would present no difficulty to them. To us 
a single well-aacertfiined mirncle would form irrefragable 
evidt*nce of the claims of Christ ; to tliem it would not. 
They conld believe in the ' miracles,' and yet not in the 
Christ. And here, again, we perceive that it was enmity 
to the Person and 'Peofhing of Jusaa which led to the 
dnnial of His claims. The inquiry : By what Power Jesus 
did these works V they met by the assertion that it was 
through that of Satan, or the Chief of tho Demons. They 
regarded Jeans, as not only temporarily, but permanently, 
po83«)saed by u demon, that iu, aa the constant vchiclu of 

M 2 


164 /bsus tup. MssstAtt 

Satjuue influence. Aiul tlus (Ipmou w»h, aircordiii^ 
t&etn, none other tlian BeplKebub, tlio IVihot oI' the devils.* 

• iit.Muk TIiuH. in tJi^ir view, it was really Batan who 
lli*! nct«l in tiiid tLrough Hini; and Jtisus, iasb^ad 
of being recognised as the Son of God, was regarded as 
an inca.i'iiat.ioit of Sntan ; instead of being owned &s the 
Messinh, wasdenonnc«d and treated as the representative 
of the Kingdimi of Duricueas. All t.liis, the KLng- 
doni which He came to open and which He prK<i«hed, 
was precisely the opposite of what they regarded sh the 
Kingi3om of fiod. Thus it was the eeaeutia] contra-j 
riety of Rubhiniem to the Gospftl of the Christ that laj 
a,t the foundation of their conduct towards the Person 

To retpu-d every fresh iiianife^lation of Christ's Power 
as only a fnller development of the power of Satan, and ta^ 
oppose it with irtcreasiu^ determination and hostility, evei^l 
to the Opoaa : nnoh waji henceforth the natural progress of 
thie history. Ou the other liund, such a course once fully 
settled upon, there would and could be no further reason- 
ing with or a^inst it on the pai-t oi Jeaiis. Henceforth^ 
His DiscourHeH and attitude to anch Judiiism moHt b^fl 
chiefly Jenuuciatoi'y, while atiU eeekiiig— iis, from the 
inward necessity of" His Nature and the ontwaixi neceaaity 
of Hia Misfiion, He must — to save the elect remnant from 
this ' untoward generation,' and to lay broad and wide 
the foundatioua of tlie future Church. ^| 

The cliarge of Satanic agency was^ indeed, not qoits^ 
new. It had been eoggnsted that John the Baptist hoij 
been nnder demoniacal iuHueDce, «nd this cunning pretext 
for resistance to bia ni«?8aage had been eminently saeeessful 
»et.M«ii. with the people.'* The aanie charge, only 
et.Lnk*' much fuller form, was now raised ngiiinst Jest 
rtLsi-sB ^ 'the mijltitade marvelled, eajang, it wa 
never ao seen in Isiael,' the Phaviaeee, without denj' 
the fact^, bad this explanation of them r that, both as 
garded the casting out of the demon from the dumb me 

• St Mbm. ind all similar works, Jesus wrought it ' thrOQj 
u. I), M the Ruler cf the Demons.' " 



St. Matt 



Their beBetnieiit of the Cbrint did uot ceaee here. It 
is to it that we wttribiit-e the visit of 'the mother and 
brethren' of Jeeiis. which is recorded in the three Synoptic 
tiospels,* Pharisaic oppositioB had either tilled 
tliose relatives of Jesus with fear for His safety, 
or made them sincerely coucemed aljout Hia 
proceedinga. Onty if it meant some kind uf 
interference with Hia mission, whether proinpU.-d 
by fear or affectiou, would Jesua have ao disowned tlieip 

But it meant more than this. Without going so far 
da to see pride or oftteiitation in this, that the Virgin- 
Mother souiuioned Jesus to her outside the honae, since 
the opposite iiiiglifc ae well have been her motive, we 
cannot but regard the worde of Chriat as the aternpst pro- 
phetic rebuke of all Mariolatry, prayer for the Virgin's 
intercesBiou, and, etil! more, of the strange docfcriues 
about her trees^ora from actual and oriffiaal sin, up to 
their prurient sequence in the dogma of the ' Immaculate 

On the other baud, we also reniember the deep rever- 
ence among the Jews for parents, which found even ex- 
o^;erat«d expression in the Talmnd. And we feel that 
of ail in Israel He, who was their Kin^, could not have 
spoken or done what might even aeeiri tlisreapoctful to a 
mother. Tliere must have been higher meaning in His 
words. That, meaning would be better underatood ulWr 
Hia Resurrection. 




(St. Uutl. liii. 1-S3 ; Kt. Murk iv. 1-3* : St, Luke viii. 4_1«.) 

We are once more with Jeeua and His diBciples by the 
Late of Galilee. It was a spring moniing, and of surh 
^ring-time as only the East, aiid chiefly the (lalileiiQ 
Lake. knowB. Almost suddenly the blood-red anemone, 


Jesus the Mes&iah 

tlif gay lulip, the spotless narciseiiB, and tlie g'QHen ranua- 
ciilus (?lotJi(> the fields, while all rrees put fnrth their frJiyraiit 
promifw- of fruit. A» the inmjiryry t'lnpkyed in tho Rcniiini 
oti the Mount pontirrrifd the iiifei'pnee, ntherwise derived, 
thnt it was spol^eu du I'iu^ the brief period after the winter 
ntiiis, when the ' lilies ' decked the fresh grass, ho tlife scene 
depicled in the I*ui'iib1^H i^iwlcori by the Laki' of fluhlt-a 
indicates a ntoi'e advanced season, when \hs fields gave fii-st 
promise of & harvest ia be gathered In due time. And 
fts we know that, the harl«y-harveMt commeui-od with the 
I'lWBOver, we cannot be mistaken in sapposiiig that the 
scene is laid a few weeks belbre that Feast. 

Other evidence of this ib not wanting. From the 
•gt.MkU. opening versi^" we infer that Jesus had gone 
x'ii. I. s forth from 'tile houiiM.- ' %vith His disciples Only, 
vrA that, fts lie sat by tlie seaside, the gathpring multitude 
had obliged Him to enter a ship, whence He gpikke untO 
them many tilings in PurtiblL'-H. 

We mnrk nn ftsOMiding &cale in the three series of I^ra- 
bles, spoken reepectively at tliree different piriods in the 
History ofCiiriet, and with reference to three different stagrj! 
teurfuM. "* Pharistiic opposition and {lupiilar feeling. 
*iii- The first Beries is that,'' when Phnrisaic opposi- 

tion h«d juat devised the explanation thnt His worka wore of 
demoniac flgenpy, and when niinled afTection would have 
converted the tit-n of earthly relntiooehip into bonds to hold 
the Chrifit. 

«6- tobi "^'^ second series of Parables" is connected' 

fc-x¥i,. with the climax of PhariBaic opposiition as pre- 
iTiii„pa«rtm gpjjipj jjj ^jjg charge, in its most fully developed 

frtTOi, that Jesnn was, so to spenk, the incarnation oE 
Satan, the constant medium and vehicle of his iictiv' 
<si,Liit« ity.'' This was the blasphumy against the Hol; 

In llio third series, consisting of eight Pari 
blei!,* the Kingdom of God va prt't^ented in i 
final stage of ingathering, separation, reward and 
Jobs, rs, indeed, we might expect in the t.^nching 

of the Lord immediately btifore Uis fiiutl rejec 

ii. li-ae; 

fit. MlvW. 

111. :•■-■--«» ; 
ei. Muk Hi 

*8t. Milk. 



xx1t» Exr- 






Parables by the Lake op Galilee 


tion bj r»i-fli-l mid butrayal into tLe hands of the Gtm- 

One thing, however, is common to all the ParaLIee, 

wnd forms a pulot uf connection btitwe^n thwu. They are 
aIloC(asii>ni_-j by some uHri'icptivenesH on the part of the 
hearera, and that-, eveu wlif 11 the heitrers ai-e jjrofessing 
disciplea. Tliis seetiia indicated in the reaiton asBigued 
by Cliri^t to tlie dlsciploH for His use of parubolic teach- 
ing: thnt onto them it was 'given to know the mys- 
tery of the Kingdom of God, but unto them that 
•&t,w«k ""^ without, all these things are done in 
i».u paiabiea.'" 

Little information is to be gained from discussing the 
etymology of the word raraUc The word meaiiB the 
placing of oue thing by the side of another. Perhaps no 
othei- mode of teacbiuj^ was eo corainon among the Jews 
as that by Parables. Only in their case they were almost 
entirely illustrations of what had been eaid or taught; 
while, in the cese of Christ, they served as the fonmlation 
for Hie teaching. This distinction will hs found to hold 
true, even in instances where there seema the closest 
pnrallpllfiTu betwct-n a Rnbhinic nnd an Evuujri.'lic Parable. 
On fnrl.her examination, the ditSerence between them, as 
has l)een already remarked in regard to other forms of 
teaching, will appear not merely one of degree, but of kind, 
or rjither of sfaudpoint. Tliia may be illustrated by the 
I'arable of the woman who made anxiou.3 search for her lost 
^sbLuke coin,'' to which there is an almost literal Jewish 
IK. 8-10 pnriillel. But, whereas in the Jewish Parable 
the moi-al is that a man ought to take much great«f pains 
ia the study of the Law than in the aeiirch for coin, since 
the former procures fin eternal reward, while the coin 
would, if found, at most only procure temporary enjoy- 
ment, the Pn,rnblB of Christ ia intended to net foitli, not 
tlio merit of study or of works, but the conipatwlon of the 
^a^ioar in seeking the lost, and the joy of Ileaveu in his 
recovery. It need scarcely be said thnt. compjirison 
between sueb Parables, as regards their Bpirit, is Bcurcely 
PQSBibla, except by way of coDtraat, . 


Jfsus the Messiah 

• Bt.M»tt. 

•' SI. BrUIl. 

Illl. 1. UllI 

•61. Uaik tT. 

111 tilt- record of tliis Grst seritf.c," the Pact tlmt 
Josiis Bpake lo tlie people in Pnrnbles,'' and only 
in Pariibles," ia strongly laarkfd. It appeara, 
therefore, to have been the first time that this 
mode of popular Ix-itcliiiij; was niiopted by Him. 
Accordingly, tho disciplea not only f^xpreeBed 
t-heif oatoniBhrnent, but inquired the reason of tliis novel 
'stKati. metLod-^ ITie ivnswer of the Lord epecioUy 
liiL 10, uni] marts this as the differenco between the teaching 
'""* ^ vouchsafed to them and the ParnhlGS spoken to 
the people, that the designed effect of the latter was 
judicial : to compL'te that hardening which, iii its com- 
mencement, had been taosed by tlieir voluntary rBJeotion 
• 8t.u»H. ^^ what they had heard." To us, at least', it 
»]. ij-» BGCuiB clear that the ground of the different 
effect of the Parables on the unbelieving moltittide and OQ 
the believing diaciplps was not caused by the Hubstance or 
form of thefip. Panibles, bnt by the different standpoint of 
the two classes of heaicrs tflwnrds the Kingdom of God. 

We are now in some measure able to understand wliy 
Christ now for fie first time adopted parabolic teaching. 
Its reason lay in the altered circumetmices of thecaae. All 
His former teaching had been pluin, although initial. Jn 
It He hiwl set forth by word, and exhibited by fact (iu 
miracles), that Kingdoni of Oud which He had come to open 
to all believerB. The hearers Lad now ranged tbemaelvea 
into two parties. Those who, whether temporarily or ppi^ 
manently {^ the result would show), had admitted theaa 
premiasee, so far ae they understood them, were His pro- 
fessing disciples. On the other hand, the J'liarisaic party 
had now devised a consistent theory, according to which 
the acts, and hence also the ten«hing, of JeauB were of 
Satanic oHfjiiu. CliriHt must still preach the Kingdom; 
for that pnrpoBi! had He come into the world. Only, the 
presentation of that Kingdom must now be for dfclsion. 
It innst separate the two classes, leading the one to clearer 
underatandijig of the mystwies of the Kingdom, while the 
otlier class of hearers wonld now regard these mysteries &a 
wholly onitiU'lliffiUe, incrt-dible, and to be rejected. Aud 

The Pasable of the Sower 


the gronnd of this lay in the respMtwe pOHifcions of these 
two claaeee towards the Kiugdom. ' ^Vliueoevtr halt, in 
him shall ba given, and he shall have more abundance; 
hut whosoever hath not, rrorn him ehall be taken away 
even that he hath.' And the mysterious manner in which 
they were presented m Parables waa alilce suited to, and 
corresponded with, the character of these ' mysteries of 
the Kiiigdnm,' nnw get forth, not for initial inBtruction, 
"but for final decision. 

Thus mnch ia general explanntion. The record of the 
•9t,ii«w. first Beriee of Parables ' contains three separate 
■"'■ aocoants: that of the Parables spoken to the 

people ; that of the reason for the use of parabolic teaching, 
and the explanation of the first Parables (both addressed 
to the disciples) ; and, finally, another series of Parables 
Bpohen to the disciples. To each of these we mast briefly 
address oarselveB. 

On that bright spring moruingj when Jesus spoke 
from ' the ship ' to the multitude that crowded the shore, 
He addressed to them these ywwr Porihlex: concerning 
Him Who sowed, concerning the Wheat and the Tares, 
concerning the Muatard-Seed, and concerning the Leaven. 
The first, or perhaps the two first of these, must be Bupple- 
mented by what may be deHignated aa affih Parable, that 
oftheSeed growing nnobservedly. This is the only Parable 
■St. jurk t"*^ which St. Mark alone has pfeserved the record." 
It. »•-)» ii] these Parables refer, as is expressly stated, to 
the Kingdom of God ; that is, not to any special phase or 
characteristic of it, but to the Kingdom itself, or in other 
words, to its history. 

The first Parable is that of Hinj Who sowed. We 
can ahnoBt picture to ourselves the Saviour seitted in the 
prow of the boat, as He points His hearers to the rich 
plain over against Him, where the young com, still in the 
first green of its growing, is giving promise of harvest. 
Lika thia 18 the Kingdom of Ht-aven which He has come 
to proclaim. Thp Sower hits gone forth to bow the Good 
Seed. If we beat' iu mind a mode of sowing pecnhar to 
those times, the Parable g»ins iu vividness. According to 

I7D Jesvs the MESSrAH 

Jevrish authorities theiw was twofold suwfng, as tte seed 
waa either cai*t by flm Lund or by cnenns of cti>t.!e. In tha 
l»tl.t*r I'HSP, a sark with holes was (iilpd wit-h corn, and 
Ini'd on the Imck of tlie animal, bo that, aa it moved on- 
wards, the Meed was tlilukljafattt-rt^U. Thus it might well 
be that it would full indiacrimimtlvly on Wiilta ruadway, 
on stony phicts but thiiiiy covered with soil, or where the 
Hioma hail not Iteeu cleared away, or undi-rgrowth from 
the thorii-hedj/e cfept into the field, as well as on good 
gronnil. The result in each c&sta need not here ba 
repeated. But what meaning would all this convey to 
the Jewish heare^rs of Jeaus ? How coald thia sowing trnd 
gi'owing belike the Kingdom of God? Certainly not in 
the sense in which they expected It. To thtjin it was only 
a rich harvcmt, when all Israel would bear pleiittoas fruit. 
Again, what was the See.d, and who the Sower? or what 
coidd be meant by the variouB liinda of soil and their 
nnproduct jven&as ? 

To us, us explained by the Lord, all thia seems plain. 
The initial condition requisitp was to he]i*?v6 that Jesu3 
was the Divine Sower, and His Word the Seed of th« 
Xin^om. If this were admitted, they had at least the 
right premisses for iinderetanding ' thia mystery of tlie 
Kingdom.' Acuordiiig to Jewish view the Messiah was \o 
appear in outward pomp, and by display of power to esta- 
blish the Kingdom. But this was th* very idea of the 
Kingdom, with which Siitau hud temptfid Jeeus at the oiit> 
set of His Ministry. In opposition to it was this ' mystery 
of the Kingdom,' according to which it consisted in recep- 
tion of the Seed af the Word. That reception would 
dcpi'nd on the nature of thp aoil, that is, on the mind and 
heart of the hearers. The Kingdom ofGoii was within \ 
it came neither by a display O'f power, nor even by this, 
that Israel, or else the Gospel -hearers, were the field on 
which the Seed of the Kinp'doni was sown. 

If even the disciplea failed to comprehend the whole 
bearing of this 'mystery of the Kingdom," we can believe 
how utterly strange and un-Jewish such a Parable of tho 
Keitslanic Kingdom mnst have sounded to them who had 



beieu infiweiited bv the Plmritaic repreaentation h of the 
Person and Ti-achiiig ofClinst. 

ThiB appears tJie fitteflt place for inBcrCing the Parable 
•6t.uiirk n«ordedby Si. Mark alone/ coaLenihip thi-Seed 
iT.»-« ^rowin^unobaerv.'dly. If the tiret I'nrahle, that 
of lie Sower autl the field oi" Sowing, would prove to 
all who wpre outside the pale ol iliscipioship u * mjsh>ry,' 
while t-fl those within it would imtMil knowltiljje of f.he 
very mysteries of the KiDgdom, this vvoultl evoii inote fully 
be tlie case in rej^ard to thia aecoiid or Blip piemen taty 
Parablp. In it we ure tiuly viewing Ihat purtion of tlip 
fipld. wMch the funner Parable hud ilescrJlied a-s pioil 
soil. ' So IB tlie Kingdom of God, ns if ii man had caBt tha 
aeed on the earth, and slept and rose, night and day, aud 
the seed spniug- up and grew : how. he knows not biiimelf. 
Automatons [seti'-uL-ti iig^ the efirth l»fareth fruit: lirsfc 
blade, then ear, then full wheat in the ear ! But wh^n 
the frnit presenta itself, iDiniediiitely be sendeth forth the 
Kickle, becanse the harvest is come.' Tin.- uicuniiig of ull 
this seems plain. We can only gii tibonfc our dnily work, 
or He down to rest, as day and nig:ht ultimate ; we see, 
but know not the liow of the growth of tie si-ed. Trt 
iissnredly it will ripen, and wlwii thai; ninineut ban. arrived, 
immediately the sickle is thrii»t in, for the hardest is come. 
And 8o also witli the Sower. Hia oiitwiu-d itftivity on 
earth was in the sowing, and it will bo in the harpostiiig. 
What lies between tbem ia of 'hat other Dispensation of the 
Spirit, till He a^ain send forth His reapers into Ilia field. 
Bnt aJl this must have been to those 'withont' a grent 
mystery- in no wise conipalible with Jowifili nutinns ; while 
to them • within ' it pn>ved a very needful unfolding of tlie 
, mysteries of the Kingdom, with wide application Of them. 

The ' mystery' is made Slill further mysterious, or els© 
it is still further unfolded, in the next Parable concerning 
the Tfu-ps Bown among the Wh'?ttt. According to the com- 
mon view, these Tares represent what is botaiiically known 
as tlie ' bearded duriiel,' a poisonous rye-gi-aes, very com- 
mon in the East, ' entirely like wheat until the ear appeal's;' 
or else the 'creeping wbi*at' or ' couoh-graoa ' (TVi'/ictwre 


JBSVS TtiS Meshiah 

rfjKii*), of wliicli the roots creep ui»tlei'f(ioi) nd anil t>ecome 
intertwinecl with those of the wlieiit. Bnt the Parable 
gains in meaning if we Ijear in mind that, according to 
nncient Jewish (anti, indeed, mtn3ern Eiist-erii) ideas, the 
Tares were not of different seed, but ouly a degenerate 
kind of wh^nt. 

Oii(;i! more we see the field on wliich the corn is grow- 
ing — we know not how. The sowing tiime ia past. 'The 
Kingdom of Heaven is becxjme like to a man who Bowed 
good seed in his field. Bnt in the time: that men sleep 
cume hie enemy and over-aowed tare.s in (npon) the midst 
of the wheat, and went away," Thus far the picture is 
trae to natare, eiuce Buch deedn of enmity were, and still 
are, common in the Kaat. And so luiatt'ers would go on 
nnobaerTed, since, whatpver kind of ' tares ' may be meant, 
it would, from their likeness, be for eome time imposeihle 
todiatingutsh them from the wheat. ' But when thelierb- 
&ge grew and mtide fruit, then appeured (became nianifeal) 
alBo tlie tares.' What follows ia equally true to fact, Bince 
moet Bfcrenuoas eflbrts are always miule in tlie East to weed 
out the tares. But in tlis pi-esent instance separation 
would have been impossible, withont at the same time 
aprooting some of the wheat. For the tares had been 
Bown right Into the midst, and not merely by the sidt* of 
the wheat ; and their roots and blades must have bf^come 
iutertwined. And so they must grow together to the har- 
vest. Then such danger would no longer exist, for tVie 
period of growing wiis past, and the wheat bad to !»e 
gathered into the barn. Then would ha the right time 
to bid the reapers first gather the tai-es into bundles for 
burning, that aftenvartk the wheat, pure and unmixed, 
might be st^ored in the garner. 

True to life as the picture ia, yet the Parabla was, of 
all others, perhaps the most uu-Jewish, and t.liei-efnre 
mysterious and unintelligible. Hotice the disciplos spe- 
cially asked explanation of tJiia only, which from its main 
snbject (Jiey dBsigiiiited as the Parable 'of the Tiires,'' 
•nt Mnit. Vet tliie was also perhaps the most important for 
Uiem to anderetand. For already ' tbt) Kingdom 

iHI M 


TUB Wheat 

The Tares 

of Heavttu is lurcoiuu like' Uiis, altliougli the uppi-ivmuce <jf 
fruit has not yet. iimde it mantieet that tares Lave bopn 
80WD right, into the midst of the wlieat. But tbey would 
soon have to learn it, in bitter experience and teiiiptation,' 
•St. Joiin and not only as regarded the impressionable, 
»i.6fl-!o |i<>bie multitude, nor eveu the narrower eircie of 
profeasiag followers of Jesua, bat that iii their very midet 
there was atraitxir. Most needful, yet most mysterious also, 
IB this other leasoii, as the experience of the Church has 
shown, since almost evet^ period of her luetory liaa wit- 
nesBed not only the recurrence of the pi-opoeal to uiakd 
the wheat unmixed while growing, by gathering oui the 
tBi-SB, but actual attempts to wards it. All eiicb have proved 
failures, because the field is the wide 'world,' not a narrow 
sect ; because the tares have been sown intfl the midst of 
the wheat, and by the enemy ; and becauBa, if such gather- 
ing were to take pltice, the roots and blades of t^ros aud 
wheat would be found so intertwined, that harm would 
come \o the wheat. But whut Lave we, who are only the 
owner's servants, to do with it, since we are not bidden of 
Ilim ? The ' j^on-completion ' will witness the harvest, 
when the separation of tares and wheat may not only be 
accouiplished with safety, but shall become necessary. 
For the wheat must be garnered in the heavenly storehoutie, 
and the tares bound in bundles to be burned. 

More myaterioiia still, and if powsible even more need- 
fill, wna the instruction that the Enemy who sowed the 
tares was the Devil. To the JewH, nay, to us all, it may 
seem a mystery that in ' the Messianic Eingdom of 
Heaveu ' there should be a miitui-e of tares with the wheat, 
the more myeterioUB, thar the Baptist had predicted that 
the coniLug Messiah wonid throughly purge Hie floor. 
But to those who were capable of iv^ceiving it, it would be 
explained by the fact that the Devil was * the Eiieniy ' of 
Christ and of His Kingdom, and that he had Bowed those 
tares. Tins would, at the same time, be the most effective 
answer to the Pharisaic charge that Jeaus was the incar- 
nation ofSatau, and the vehicle of his influence. 

The coiicludinff two Parables set forth another equally 


Jesus the Messiar 

nij'«ti.'rious cimrdfteristic of tlie Kijif^dom : flint of its 
development auJ power, as coiitrasted with its small uiid 
Weak bt>giuuiiig8. In the Pai-able of tie MuBtard-seed 
tliis is sliowii as regards the relation of the Kingdom to 
tlie outer world ; in that of the J^eaveii iu reference to 
the world witliiii ua. Tlie one exliiblta the exteiutU-ensgg, 
the other the inteimcmess of its power; in both cases at 
first hiddeu, iihaost imperceptible, and seemingly wholly 
inadequate to tlie liiial result. 

A few remarks will set the special meaniiig of these 
Parables more clearly before as. Here also the illusEratione 
used may hnve beeu at liiiiid. The very idea of Parables 
implies, not strict acieiitific accuracy, but popular pLctorial- 
ness. It in cliu-racteristic of tbem to present vivid aketehes 
that appeal to the popular mind, and exhibit such analogies 
of higher truths as can be remlily perceived by all. Thus, 
as R'giMds the firat of these two Parables, the seed of the 
inii^tjird-plant pat^sed in popular parlauce as the smallest 
of seeds. In fac't, the expression, 'small as u muatard- 
seed,' had become proverbial, nud was used, not only by 
• 8[,Miia oor Lord,' but frequently by the Eabbia, to indi- 
ivii20 g^jg i^jj^, gmalJeat amount, such as the least dmp 

of bloodj the least defilemeut, or the Bniiilleat remnant of 
8nn-ylow in the eky. ' But when it is grown, it is ^latep 
thim the garden-herlja.' Indeed, it looks no lonfi^-r like 
a large gawlen-herb or ahrnb, but ' becomes,' or rather 
appears like ' a tma ' — as St. Luke puts it, ' a great tree ''■ — 
of conrso, not in compariaon -with other treea, but 
with gaitlea-ahrubs. Sach growth of the mus- 
tarrl-swd was also a fuot well known at the time, anc 
indeed still obHei-ved in the Cast. 

This ia the firat and main point in the Parable. The 
other coLceruiug the birds which are attract^ to its 
I at. M«k brancln'9 and ' lodge ' — literally, ' make tents ' — 
'*'■*' there, or else under the shadow of it," is aubsl-t 

diary. Pictnrial, of courae, this trait would he, and we caaj 
tliti more readily understand that birds would be attrncted to] 
the branches or the sluidow of the mustarch-plant, when we - 
bnow that mustard was iu Puleiitiiie mixed with or used as 

Pakable of the Lbaven 


fooil fur pij^eoiis, ami jM'estuniiiily would be sought by other 
birds. And the geneiul [ijwujirig would the more easily be 
apprehended, that a trpe, vioBe wide-apreadiug lironckes 
allbrded lodf^ment to tUe birds of heaven, wiis a familisp 
Old Teelament tigiire tVir a migKty kinydoin that g-ave 
•Ei<;k.ii«i. shelter to the nations.' ludacd. it is epecitiaiily 
i».^ii n.a'i, used &3 an illuhtratioii of thu Sl<?ssiimic King- 
** dom.'' Thus the Parable woidd point to this, SO 

»3 ftdl of mystery to the Jews, eo explnnatory of 

the myatery to the dtat-iplea : that the Kitigdoni of Heaven, 
plauted iu the Gald of the world as tho smalit'Ht seed, ia 
t]je inoat humbly aod uQ^ruiuisliig mauner, woiiM grow 
till it far outstripped all other similar plaata, aud gave 
shelter to all uations uo<ler heaven. 

To this axieiuim power of the Kinoilom corresponded 
ita vnlensivA character, whether in the world at large or iu 
the intUvidual. This formed the aubji'Ct of the last of the 
ParableG addrossed at this tune to the people — tliat of the 
Leaven. We nt^eid not here resort to ingenious methods 
of esplnmiug ' the three meaHiiresj' or Seahn, of meal ia 
which the Itaven was hid. Three Seahs were an Ephali, 
of which the exact capacity difibred ia various districts. 
To mix ' three meaaorea ' of meal waa common in Biblical, 

• n-_ as wfU aa. in Iat«r tiniBs." Nothina farther waa 

• oomp. .11° 

ftMi-iwii. thorelore conveyed thiiii the common process of 

iaii8i>iu.L ordinary, everyday hfe. And in this, indeed, 
" lies the very point of the Parable : that the King* 

dom of God when received within would sepm like leaven 
hid, but would gradually pervade, assimilate, and trane- 

irm the whole of our common life. 
With this most un-Jeivish charaoteriBation of the 

iagdom of Heaven, the Saviour dismissed the people. 
Enough had been said to them and for tbem, if they had 
but eara to hear. And now He was again aloiiy with the 
disciples ' in the houtse ' at Ca{>e['iiaiiui, to which they had 

• jii, KM*, returned.'' Many new and deeper thoughts of 
xiii. 311; the KiuEdoui had come to them. But why had 

c»TrLE>. Tt^r. IB ". ^,1 I'ji" 

ith.iiiitiNt. -lie KO S7Jo!;en to the multitude, in a manner so 
uuttiv.iu ii(ii.r^nt, as regarded not only the form, but 



even tilie siiI).s1aDce of His twiching ? And did they quite 
midi-mliaud its Boletnii meaaiog themaolves ? More especi- 
ally, who was the enemy whose activity would threaten 
the safety of the harvest ? Of tLat harvest they had 
• Be. jDbn already heard on the way through Samaria,' 
It, SB And whah were Ihostt ' tares,' which wcte to con- 

tinue m their very midst till the judicial separation of the 
end ? To theae quGstions Jesus now made auswer, HU 
etatemenb of the reason for adoptiu^ in the present inatance 
the parahulic mode of teaching would, at the same time, 
give them farther insight into those very mysteries of the 
Kingdom which it had been the object of these Parables 
to set forth. His uuflolicited explanation of the details of 
th& first Pttrftble would call attention to points that might 
readily have escaped their notice, but which, for warning 
and inatraction, it moat behoved them to keep in view. 

Kindred, or rather closely connected, aa are the two 
PArnbloB of the Tresisure hid iu the Field and of the Pearl 
cf Great Price — now epoken to the disciples — their dif- 
ferences are sufliciently marked. In the first, one who must 
probably be regaj'Jed as intending to buy a, if not this, 
field, discovers a tt'e-asiira hidden there, and in his joy 
parts with all elae to become owner of the field aud of 
the hiddf u treasure wJiich be had so unexpectedly found. 
Some difficulty has been expressed in regard to the 
morality of such a fcranauction. Iu reply it may be ol> 
served that it was, at IwaBt, in entire accordance with 
JewiKli law. If a man had found a treasure in loose coins 
among the corn, it would curtainly be his, if he bought 
the corn. If he liad found it on the ground, or in. the 
soil, it would eijually certainly belong to him, if he conld 
claim ownership of the soil, aud even if tbe field were not 
his own, unless others could prove their right to it. The 
law went so far aa to adjudge to the purchaser of fruita 
anything found innoiig these fruits. 

In the sp(X)ud Parable we have a wise merchantman 
who travels in search of pearls, and when La fiiula one 
which in value exceeds all else, he returut^ and sells all 
that he has, in order to buy this imique gem. Tbo 

Thb Storm on the Lake op Gauleb 177 

Bopi-eme value of tie Kini^clcimj the conseqiieut doeire to 
appropriat.e it, and tJie necessity of pajting with all el«e 
for tiiis purpose, are tLe points common to this aii3 the 
previous Parable. But in tie one case, it is marked that 
this treaaare la hid from common, view in the field, and 
the finder makes anexpecteil dincovary of it, which fiUa 
liiiii with joy. Ill the ottier case, the meridiant man ia, 
indeed, in eearch of pearls, but he has the wisdom to dis- 
cover the trnnscendont value of this one gem, and the 
jet greftfer wisdom to j^ive up all further searcL uiid to 
acquire it at the sm-reudor of everything else. Thus, two 
different aspects of the Kiiijzdom, and two different coa- 
ditiotia on the part of thoae who, for its sake, equally part 
with all, are here set hefore the disciples. 

Nor was the closing Parable of the Draw-net lees 
needful, Asaaredly it btcame, aad woiUd more and more 
become, tliym to know that mere discipleship — mere in- 
cluiiiou in liie Gospul-ii«t — was not suBicieiit. That net 
let down into the .^ea of this world would include much 
which, when the uet was at hist ilniwii to shore, would 
prove worthless or eveu hurtful. To he a disciple, theii, was 
not enough. Evi?ii here tliore wonld he separatiou. Not 
only the tares, which the Enemy had dt^signedjy sown intiO 
tliu midat of the wheat, l.iiit even much that the Gospel- 
iiet cast into the sea had inclosed, would when brought 
to land prove fit only to be ca-st away, into ' the oveo of 
the fire wliere there ia the wailing- and the gnashing of 
teeth.' ' 



(St. Matt. Tiii. la. aX-ZT ; St. Mmk iv. 35-11 : St. Luke vilt 32.2B.) 

It was the evening, and once more great mnltitudes were 
gatlieriiig to Him. What more could He have said to 
thiWB to wiioin He hud all that morning spoken in Parables, 
which hearing they had not heard or aiideratood? lo 

• The well-kuowo o»eii of the well-known fire— GeheniMi. 



/ssus Tffs Messiah 

trath, after tlmti daj'a teaching it was better, alike for these 
multitiukij and for His diseipk-'s, that He should withdruw, 
Audso'they took Him eveu as He wa8'~bli«t is, pro- 
bnbly without refreshment of food, or even preparation 
of it for tbe jouinej, Tlus iudicates how readily, uaj, 
eagerly, the disciples obeyed the beheyt. 

Whether in tiieir haste tliey heeded not tie rigHB of 
the coming stortn ; whi'tlier tliey had the secret feeiiug 
thiit ship and sen which bore such burden were safe fiijm 
tempest ; or whetbpr it was nee of those stortiis which so 
ofben rise siiddeuly, and swtep witb eiich fury over the 
Lake of Galilee, must remain undL^Ifrniincd. He waa ia 
the shi[i,' th« weU-linowu boat which was always xeady 
for His sfirvice, whether as pulpit, resting-place, or means 
of journeying. But the departure had nob bfen so rapid 
fis topjtaa iiuobsiirred; nud the ship was attended hy other 
boats, whidi bore those who woiiH fuio follow Ulm. In 
the stern of the sliip, on the low bt^nclt wht'i-e the steers- 
man sometimes takes rest, lay Jesus. Weariaess, faintneas, 
hunger, exhaiiatioa, aaHerted their mastery over His true 
humanity. He, Whom earliest Apostolic testimony' pro- 
• Fiiii.iL4 claimed to have been in • the fonn of God,' slept. 

Meanwhile the heavens darken, the wild wind awoopg 
down those mouuluin-gorgea, howling over the trembliag 
aea. The danger is increasing — ' eo that the ship waa 
ksLUuk now filling.''' They who watched it might ba 
"■'^ tempted to regard the peaceful i-eat of Jebos 

as weakness in not being able, even at such a time, to 
overcome the demands of oiir lower nature; real indiffer- 
ence, also, to tbeir fate — nob from want of sympathy, but 
of power. In short, it might lead op to the inference that 
the Chiiet was a no-Christ, and the Kingdom of which He 
had spoken in Parables, not His, in the sense of being 
identilied with Hia Person. 

It hasbeenaskud, with which of the words recorded by 
the Synoptiate the disciples had wakened the Lord: witli 
■ itt, Matt, those of entreaty to save them," or wifi those of 
m'^Lhu impatience, perhaps uttered by Peter himself?^ 
' "■ ""* Similarly, it lia» Iweu asked, which came first — 

• SLBfJitt- 



SI. Luke 

Thb Storm ojv the Laxb op Gauler 179 

th« Lord's I'L^bulio of tlia disciples, and after if that, of 
tbe wind aud si*a,* or the convei-se ? '' But, 
uiay it not be that **ach recorded that tirst wKich 
had most imprt-ascd itself uu Iiiri niiad^St, 

Matthew, who hud been iiL the ahij) thnt night, the needfu.1 

• Kt. «Mt, rebuke to the ditMiiples ; St, Mark and St. Luke, 
£^'i'''"y who had htrard it from others," the help first, and 
St. frtw thfiii the rebuke ? 

Yet it is not eiwy to uDderstimd what the disciples had 
really exptcted. when the/ w»kfned tlie Christ with their 
' Lord, save U9 — we perish ! * Certainly not that which 
actually happened, since not only wouder but fear came 
over them as they witii*seed it. Probahly tlieire would be 
a vague, undefiued belief iu the onlimited possibility of 
all in connection witli the Christ. 

When ' He was awakeued ' ^ by the voice of 
His disdpleB, ' He r«buk«d the wind and thu aoa,' 
aa JebvviJi bad of old" — ^juBt aa He had 'ro- 
buked' the fever,' and the paroxysm of tha de- 
iBomBed,* And the eeo He commanded aa If !t 
wore a si^iitieut. being ; ' Be silent ! Be nil^ueed ! ' 
And imuuediatety the wind was boimd, the witvea throbbed 
into stilluees, and a gi-eat calm fell \ipon the Lake. For, 
when. Chriat sleepeth, there is stLirta; when He waketh, 
peace. But over these men wlio had wakeued Him with 
their cry, now crept wonderment, awe, and fear. No 
longer, as at Hia first wonder-working in Ciipernaum, was 

• stitarki. it: ' Whai\% this':'''' but,' Whf>, then, is this?' 
^ And so the grand C|ueatton, which tlie enmity of 
the PbanBeeB had i-aised, and which, in part, had been 
answered in the Parubles of teaching, wtis still more fully 
and practically met in whiit, not oidy to the- disciples, but 
to all time, was a Parable of help. Atid JesuB also 
woodered ; how was it that thdy had no faith ? 

' St. Hark 

• Ps. fl«, » ; 1.4 

i*. » 

■ SL Muk 


■ So 

Jesus THE Mess/au 



(St. }lBtt vlii. 2S-34 : St. Uark t, 1-SO ; St. Lukevlli.ZU.39,) 

Most wrltera hnve eiiggested that the lienliiiy of tlio 
deiiLoiiiN(.>(] on the other aide t.ook place at early dawD of 
the (lay following tht^ storm ud the Luke. But tbe distance 
is so sliurt tliatj even iiiakitiy iilliiwaDce for the ^elny l»y 
th« tempest, the passage could scarcely have occupied the 
whole night. All the circuinstaucee lead ub to regard tlje 
hejiliiig at Gt'rasa as a uight-sceue, foMuwing immediately 
on Clirist's arrival fi-oiii Capeniauui, riiJ after the cutming 
of the slorin at sea. 

We Cftu witli confidence describe the exact place wliare 
onr l»ord and Hisdi9ciple.s touched the other shore. The 
riiiufi right over against the plain of Geuneearyt, which 
still bear the name of Kmea or Gcna, must represent tiie 
Hiicient Gerasn, the-- locality entirely meets the require- 
meiita of the narratitve. About a quarter of an hour to the 
aouth of Gersa is a steep hluif, which cleaceucis abruptly ou 
u Harrow ledge of fihore. A terrified herd running down 
thi« olifl" could not have recovered its foothold, and ronst 
inevitably have boeu hm!(>Jiiito the Laku heoeath. Again, 
the whole countiy around ia burrowed with HiHestoue 
caverne and rock-chambers for the deud. aoch as those 
which, were thi' dwelling of the demouised. 

From these tombs the denionised, who is specially 
sintrled out hy St, Mark and St. Luke, ae well as his \e-m 
• ai. Malt, promiuen.! compunion," oame foi-th to meet Jesus. 
riiLie According lo comnioD Jewish superstition, the 
evil spirits dwelt especially in lonely desLiUitJs places, and 
also among tombs.' We must here remember what has 
previously been explained as to the eonfiision in the con- 
scionsoess of tlie daraonised between theii- own notions 

'See 'Life and TimoB.' App. XIII., ■ Angelolagy and l")i^uiuiiuloHy | * 
nnJ App SVl. ' Jewish Views about Dcmunii ami the Ueuioniaed, 



and the ideas imposed on them by the domons. It is 
quite in accorilitiice with the Jewish notions of the de- 
monised that, according to the more cii-cunistautial ac- 
count of St. Luke, he should fee! aa it wi-re driven into 
the deserts, and that he was in the torabs. while, accord- 
ing to St. Mark, lie wfts 'night n,ud day in the tomba 
aad in the mountains,' the very order of the words iiifii- 
cating the notion (h.s iu Jewish belief) that it was chiefly 
at night that evil spirits were wout to haunt buryiag- 

In calling attention to this and similar pnrticulars, W8 
repeat that thLs must be kept; in vieiv as clinrjioteristio 
of the deraoniMid, tliitt they were incapable of sepa- 
rating their own consciousness and ideas from the in- 
Suence of the demoti, thc'ir own identity being merged, 
and bo that extent loBt. in that of their fcormfntflrs. In 
this respect the demonised state was cilso kindred to mad- 

The language and coni3nct of the denionised, whether 
Heemingly hia own, or that of thi^ demons who inlhienced 
him, must always be vegardetl as a mixture of the Jewiah- 
faumaa and thi> demoniacal. The deiiionised speaks and 
iLC'ta as a Jew under the confci-ol of a demon. Thus, if he 
chooBes solitary places by rlay. and tomba by night, it is 
not that demons really pret'erri'd such habitations, but that 
the Jews imagined it, and that the demoue, acting on the 
existing cousciouauesa, would lead Lim, in accordance 
with hifl preconceived ootiona, to select snch plaoe&, Hero 
also mental disease offers points of analogy. The fact 
that iu tliBdemonisedatote a man's identity wasuoteuper- 
fiedud but controlled, enables ub to aornnnt for many 
phenomeua without either confounding demwnism with 
mania, or else imputing to our Lonl anch nccommodation 
til t^e luitions of the times, as is not only untenalile in 
itBi»lf, but forbidden eveu by the language of the present 

Tile description of the deinoni,sed. coming out of the 
totnliH to meet JesuK as Tie touched the shorr at (^Jernsa, is 
vivid in the extreme. His violence, the iniposaibility ol 

1 82 

Jhsus TffB Messiah 

• Bt, Uiirk *. 

• et, llntt. 
Titi. as 

conti'ol by others,* the absenco of splf-conlrol,* 
his homicidal,'' and alrno»t aiiicidal,'' ti-enny, are 
hII depicted. Christ., Wto liiLd been charged by 
the PliariHeeB with being the em balimeut nnd 
* St. Murk T, messenger of Satan, is hero face to face with the 
extreme iiimiilestfitioii of demoniac (waiver and 
influenoe. It is onw more, then, a Miracle in I'ariibla 
which is about to take place. The question, which had 
been raised by the enemies, is nbont to be brought to the 
issue of a practical denionatration. 

"With irresistible power the demotiised was drawn to 
Jesns, as He toncbed the shore at-, Oeraea. j^s filwo.ys, 
the first effect of the cnntnct was a freah paroxysm, liut 
in this peculiar case not phyaical, but moral. As always, 
also, the deraona knew Jesns, and His Piesence seemed to 
conatrBin their confession of tbeaiBslveB — -and therefore of 

The strange mixture of the demoniac with the human, 
or rather, this expression of underlying demon!n.c thought 
in tJie forma and modes of thinking of the JewiBli victim, 
explnins the exprosBed fear of present actual torment, or, 
as St. Matthew, who, from tlie brif-fiiess of his acconnt, 
does not seem to have been an eye-witness, expresses it: 
'Tlioc art come to torment u9 before the time ;'and possibly 
also for the 'ndjiiration by God.' For, as immediately on 
the homage and protestation of the demonised ; ' What 
between nie and Thee, Jesiis, Thou Son of the Most High 
God y Chi'iat had commanded the unclean spirit tiO come 
cot of the man, it may have been that in bo doing Ho 
had used the Name of the Must High God; or ejgu the 
'adjuration' itself may have been tJie form in which the 
Jewish speaker clotJied tht' conscious neas of the demons, 
with which bis own was ideutified. 

Tt may be conjectured that it was parf-ly in order to 
break this ident i ficatioUj or ra.ther to show the. demoniBed 
that it was not real, and only the conaecjuence of the con- 
trol which the demons had over him, that the Lord asked 
his name. To this the man made anewer, stUI in the duid 
consciousneaa, ' My name la Legion ; for we are muny.* 

7he ffEAUN^^^Tim UEytoNissb 


Snch niiglit le tlie subjective motive for Clirist'e qaestion. 
Its objective. resRon mny have been to show the power of 
tbe demoniac possession in the preseub insbaace, thus 
marking it ns an ;ill.iig>:'t-h6r extreme aise. It was a com- 
Boa Jewisli idea that, ander c&rtiiin circntastances, ' a 
legrion of hnrtful spirits' (of course not in the senae of a 
Roman IpginnJ 'were on tLu wntch for men, saying: When 
shall he t^ll into the hands of one of theeie things, and be 
taken ? ' 

This identificdtion of the deinona with the demonised, 
in coiiB«:]iience of wliicU he thought with their conscioua- 
HHSS, and they spoke not only through hini but in his forma 
of thinking', may alao account for the last and most diiRciiH 
part of this narrative. Their main object and wish was 
not to be banished from the country and people, or, as 
St. Luke puts it-^again to ' depart into the abyss,' Let; ns 
now try to realise the scene. On the VPry narrow strip of 
shore, between the steep cliff that rises in the background 
and the Lake, stands Jesus with His disoiples and the 
demoniBed. TJie wish of the demons is not to be sent out_ 
of the conutiy — nob back into the abyss. Up ou that 
clifi' a great herd of swine ia feeding ; up that cliff, there- 
fore, ifi ' into the ewine ; ' and this ^so agreea with Jewish 
thoaghtB concerning uDcleanneae. The rendering of our 
•St. Mark Autborified Version,* that, in reply to the demo- 
»-" niac entreaty, ' forthwith JeeuB gave them leave,' 

has led to misnnderatanding. The verb, which ia the same 
in all the three Gospels, woold be better rendered by 
* BufTered ' than by ' gave them leave.' With the latter we 
associat* poaitive permiasirin. None such was eltherasked 
or given. The Lord suffered it — that ia. He did not 
actually hinder it. He only ' said unto them, Go I ' 

What followed belongs to the phwionieiia of supersen- 
snous influences upon animals, of which many inetancea 
are recorded, but lie TationalQ of which it is impossible to 
explain. This, liowever, we can anderatand; that under 
Buch circnmstances a panic wonld seize the herd, that its 
would madly rush down the ate&p, on which it could not 
arreot itself, and so perish in the aea. 

Jesus the Messua 

The weird eceae was past. And novi uleace has 
fallen on them. From above, the fceepei-a of the herd hnd 
seen it all— alike what had prtssed witli the demoui^eJ, 
and then the issue in the deel ruction of the herd. From 
the first, ae they saw the demoniaed, for fear of whom 'no 
man might pass that way,' rnnoing to Jesna, they must 
have watched with eager interest. In the clear Eastern 
air iiot a word that wbs spoken could have been lost. And 
now in wild terror tliey Hed, iatoGerasn. — into the country 
round iibout — to tell what had happened. 

It ie morning, and a new morniug-aacrlfice and mom- 
ing-]*salm are about to be offered. He that had been the 
poseesaion of tbul and evil spirits — a very legion of them 
— and deprived of his human individuality, is now 'sitting 
at tlie feet of Jesus,' learning of Hioij ' clothed and in his 
right mind.' He baa been, brought to God, restored to 
eelf, to reaaon, iind to hnmaa society — and all this by 
Jeans, at Whose Feet he ia gratefully, humbly sitting, ' a 

Bat now from town and country have they come, who 
had been startled by the tidings which those who led the 
Bn'ine had brought. It ia not necessary to suppose that 
their request that Jeeua would depart out of their coa&t*. 
was prompted only by tlie loss of the ht-ril of swine. 
There could be no doubt in their minrlB that One possess- 
ing BUpreme and unlimited power waa in their midat. 
Among men Biiperstitiotis, and nnwilHng to anhmit abso- 
lutely to the Kingdom which Chriat Ux>nght. there could 
only be one efleet of what tliey had heard, and now 
witnessed in the person of the healed demonlsed — awe and 
fear! And iu such place und cirrumstfincea Jesus could 
not have continued. As He entered tlie ship, the henlod 
demonised humbly, earnestly entreated that he might go 
with Lis Saviour. It woidd have seemed to him as if there 
were calm, safety, and happiness only in HU Presence; 
not far from Him — not among those wild mountains and 
yet wUder men. Bo too often do we reason and speak, aa 
reganla onrselvea or tlioae we love. Not so He Who 
tippoints ulilie cur discipline and oar work. To go back, 

The Hbau^o of the Woman 


now healed, to his nwn, and to publiali there, in the city — 
nay, tlirongh the wfcola of the larg-e district of the ten con- 
federate cities, the UecajJoliE — how great thiugs Jesus hi*d 
done for him, sach was benwlbrth t« l>e his lil'e-work. In 
this there woald be both safety aod happiness. 

' And all men did nrnrvel.' And pregently Jesns Him- 
self oaine liack into thnt Decapolis, where the hualed 
deiuouised had prepared the way for Him. 



(St, Matt. ix. 1B-S6: &t. Uaik v.Sl-lS; St. LulM viii. W^S.) 

On the shore at Capernaum many were gfithered on the 
morning nfter the etoi-m eagerly looking out for the well- 
known biiat that bore the Master and His disciples. And, 
s& He again stepped on the shore, lie was aooa ' thronged,' 
inconveniently prweed upon, by (Jii^ umwd, etiger. cnriotis, 
expectant. The titliuge rapidly spread, and reached two 
homes whtir& His h^;lp was ne-edod; where, indeod, it alone 
could now be of possible avail. The two moat nearly con- 
cprned mnst have gone to epek that help about the aame 
time, and prompted by (lie eame feelings of expectancy. 
Both JaJnis, the Ruler of the Synagogue, and the woman 
enU'ering these many years fi-om disease, Imd faith. But 
the wetness of the one arose from excess, and thre-atened 
to merge into superstition, while the weakness of the other 
was doe to defect, and thrextened to end in despair. lu 
lioth cases faith had to be called out, tried, pnrified, and 
BO perfected, 

jB.irua, one of the Synagogue-i'ulera of Capernaum, 
had an only daughter, who at the lime of this narrative 
hud jasl passed childJiood, and reached the period when 
Jewiflh Law declared a woman of nKe, Although St. 
Matthew, contracting the whole narrative into briefest 
sutnuary, speaks of her as dead at the time of Jairua' 



two ErangeJists, giving 
U)6 poiDt of detatli. 

npplication to Jesue, the other 
fuller details, describe her a3 on 
Utorally, ' at the last treath,' 

ITiat, in view of his child's imminsnt death, and 
with the knowledge he had of tke ' mighty deeds' com- 
monly reported of J^siib, Jairna should hare applied to 
Him, con the less surprise us n'hea vre remember how 
often Jesos tnust, with coosent and by invitation of this 
Ruler, huve Bpok<.^u in the Synagogue, and what im- 
prpBsion HiB words niiiet have infule. There waa nothing 
ID what Jainis Baid which a Jew in those days might 
not have spolien to a Raljbi, who was regarded as Jesus 
tnuKt Iiave been by all in Capeiiiaum who believed 
not the clinrge, which the Judjeaa Pliiirisees had just 
raised. Though we cannot point to any instance whore 
the laying on of a great Rabbi's hands waa sought for 
healing, such combined with prayer would certainly be iu 
entire accorilance with Jewish views at the tizae. The 
confidtiDoe in the I'esulfc, expressed by the fiit-her in the 
acconnta of St. Mark and St. Matthew, ia not mentioned 
by St. Luke. And, perhaps, as hBing the language of an 
Eastern, it should not be talien in its strict literality as 
iudtcating acliual cftnviction on the part of Jaims, that the 
laying on of C'hrist'a Hands would certainly restore the 

Be this as it may, when JesuB followed the Ruler to 
his house, the niultitade ' thronging Him ' in eager 
curiosity, another approached Him whose inner history 
was far ditfei-ent from that of Jaims. The diaease Irom 
which this woman had suffered for twelve years would 
render her Levitically * unclean." It muat have been not 
unfrcqueut in Palestine, and proved as intraclable aa 
modem ecieiice Los found it, to judgi? by the number and 
variety of remedies prefloribed, and by their character. 
But what po&ses.tea rt>al int<erest is that, in all eases wher* 
astringents or Iconics are prescribed, it is ordered that, 
while the woman fjtkes the remedy, she is to be addreK-sed 
in the words ; ' Arise from thy flnx,' It is not only that 
pwychical means are apparently to accompauy the therapei 

apen- A 

'^hb' fleAUN^o^^^WoMTy 


tical in this disease, but tlie coiiicEtlmice in the ootninnnd, 
'Arise,' with tlie words iise^J by Clirisfc in raising Jiiinis' 
daughter ia striking. But bGre also we mark oaly con-i 
ti'aat to the magical curps of the Rabbis. ForJcaua neither 
oaed remedies, nor spoke the word ' Arise ' to her who hud 
come 'in the press behind ' to touch for her healing *the 
iViuge of His outer garment.' 

We can form an iippi-oxiinate idea of th& outward 
Bpipearance of Jesus amidat the tliroDg at Capernaum. He 
would, we may safely asenme, go about in the ordinary 
although not in the more ostentatious, dress, -worn by tlie 
Jewish tetiehers of Gniilee, His hefid-g<?ar would pro- 
bably be a kind of turbau, or perhaps a, coverinig for the 
head which descended over thf back of the neck and 
eboulders, somewhat like the Iiidiiiu piignree. Hi? feet , 
were probably shod with saodaU. Hib inner garment 
must have been c]oae-fitt.iag, and descended to His feet, 
eiiice it was not only bo worn by teachBrm, but was regarded 
hA absnlntely necessary for wnyon© who would publicly 
read or 'Targum ' the Scriptures, or exercise any fntietion 
in. the SynagogTie. As we know, it waa without seam, 
•St John woven troni the top throughout,* and this closely 
"•^^ accords with the t*;xtnre of these gai'nienta. 

Round the middle it would be fast^ened with a girdle. 
Over tits inner lie woidd most probably wear the square 
outer garment, or Tallifh, with the custionmry fringes of 
four long white threads with one of hyacinth knotted 
together at each of the four comers, Tiiere is reason to 
believe that three square garments were made with these 
' fringes," although by way of ostentation, the Pharisees 
made them particularly wide so as to attract attention, 
»3t,Mmw, juat as they made their phylacteries broud."" Al- 
*^'" ' though Christ only denounced the latter praetice, 
not the phylacteries themselves, it is impossible to believe 
that Himself ever wore them, either on the forelu'ad or the 
Krm. There waa certainly no wan-irat for them in Holy 
Scripture, and only Pburisaie esternalism could n^presont 
their use aa t'ulfilliitg the import of Esod. xiii. tt, 16 ; 
Dent. vL 8; li. 18. The admission that neither the 


Jesus the Messiah 

officiating priests, nor tlie representativies of bhe people, 
won.' them in tlie Temple, seems to imply tfcat tLis prac- 
tice was not quite universal. 

One further remark may be allowed before dlHinissillg 
this subject. Onr inqniries enable us in this mattsr also 
to confirm fclie actMirttcy of tlie Fourth Gospel. We read " 
•stjiita that the quaternion of soldiers who crucified 
*'^" Christ made division of tbe riches of His poverty, 
taking each one part of Hia dreas, while for the fifth, 
which, if divided, wonld have had to be ront in piecea, they 
cast lota. Tlia incidental remark carries evidence of the 
Jnd£oan authorship nf the Goapel in the accurate know- 
ledge which it displays. The four pieces of di-eae to be 
divided would be tha liead-gear, the more expensive 
sandals or shoes, the long girdle, and the coarse 'Tullith — 
all about oqual in value. And the filth undivided and 
comparatively nioet expensive gnrnitint, 'without seam, 
woven from the top throughont,' probably of wool, ns be- 
fitted the season of the year, was the inner garment. 

We do not wonder that this Jewish woman, 'having 
heard the things conci^rning' Jesua," with her imperfect 
knowledge, in the weakness of her ati-ong faith, thought 
that, if she might but tonck His garment, she would be 
made whole. 

We can pieture her to our minds as, mingling with 
those who thronged and preaeed upon the Lord, ahe put 
forth her hand and ' touched the herder of His garment," 
moat probably the long fringes of one of the comers of the 
outer garment. We can imderstand how, with a diaeaae 
which not only rendered her Levitically defiling, but where 
womanly shnmefacedneBS would make public speech 80 
difficult, she, thinking of Him Whose Word spoken at a 
distance had brought healiuu;, migkt thus aeek to have hor 
heart's desire. Tet in the very strength of her faitli lay 
also its weakness. She believed so muck in Uira, that ahe 
felt as if it needed not personal appeal to Him ; she felt 
sodepplytihe hindrauces U) her making request of Him- 
Belf, that, boliei-iug so strongly in Hitn, she depmed it 
sufficient to touch, not even Himself, but that which in 


itself LfiJ DO power nor value, except an it was in contact 
with His Divine I'ersoii. 

Very significantly, the IJord disappointed not her faith, 
but corrected the error of its directioii and itianifeatation. 
No aooaer had she so tonched the border of His garment 
than ' she knew in the body tLnt she was liealt^d of the 
scourge.' No sooner, also, had shti so touched the border 
of Ilia gflnnent tba.u Ee knew, ' perceived in HLinself,' 
what had tuken place ; the forthgoing of the Power that 
is &om out of Him. 

Aud this was neither UDCoondous nor unwilled ou His 
part. It WHS caused by her faith, not by her touch. * Thy 
faitli hath made thee whole.' Aud the question of Jeijua 
eould not have beeu misleading, when ' yt;raightwa.y ' He 
' turned Him abont in the crowd and said, ' Whg touched 
My gnmLents?' 'I'hat He knew who had dona it, and 
only wished, thpoiigh aelf-confeseion, to bring her to clear- 
nesti in the exurcise of her faith, appaars fram what is 
Immediately added : ' And He looked round about,' not 
to owe who had done it, but ■ to see her that bad done this 
tfain^.' And a& His look was at laat fixed on her iilone in 
sU that crowd, which, as Peter rightly said, was thi-oug- 
ing and pressing Him, ' the woman saw that abe was not 
• Bi, i-nw hid," ° and came forward to make full confession. 
""■■" lliiis, while in His mercy He had home with her 

weakncBSf aud in His faithfulueaa not disappointed her 
faith, its twofold error was also corrected. She learned 
that it wftB not from the garment, but from the Saviour, 
that the jHiwer proceeded ; she learned also tiiat it was not 
the touch of it, but the faith in Him, that made whole — 
aud 8Uoh faith mnet. ever be of pei-aonal dealiug with Hiia. 
And 00 He sjioke to lier the Word of twofuld help and 
assurance: 'Thy faith hath made thee whole — go forth 
into peace, and be healed of thy scourge.' 

Brief as is the record of this occurrence, it must have 
Caosed considerable delay in the progress of our Lord to 
the hoQBe of Jaims, For in the interval the maiden, who 
had been at the last gasp when her father went to entreat 
the help of Jesus, bad not only died, hat the bousa of 

igo Jesus the Messiah 

monming waa alroady filled witli relatives, Kired laoorners, 
wailing womun, uatJ mn&icitinH, in preparation for tlie 
funeral. The intentional delay of Jesus when summoned 
•(it. John t'* Lazariia • leads us to aak vrliether similar 
**•• purpoae may not liave influenced Hie conduct in 

the present instance. But even were it otlierwiae, no out- 
come of God's Providence ia of chance, but each ia 
deugoed. Tlie circumatasceg, wliicli in tlieir concurrence 
make up an event, may all be of natural ocearrence, but 
iliuir C(?ujunction i» uf Divine ordering and to s lusher 
piirposf^, nrnl this constilnt^s Divine Providence. It wa3 
in the inter\~ai of this delay that the lUeeaeii^rB came, 
who informed Jairus of the aiJtual death of his child. 
JesuB overhead it, as they whispered to the Buler not to 
tl-ouble the Rahhi any further, but He heeded it not, save 
80 far as it affected the fether, 'Hip emphatic admonition, 
not to fear, only to believL*, gives us an insight into the 
threnteuinj^ fuiluro of the Rulei^'s faith ; perhaps, al&o, into 
the motive which prompted the delay of ChriHt. The 
utmost need, which would henceforth require the utmost 
faitli on the pait of Jiiirus, had now come, But into that 
which wa,'* to pass wlthiu the house no stranger muet 
intmds, Even of the Apoatlcs only those, who uow for the 
iivBttime became, and henceforth continued, the innermost 
circle, might witnees what was about to tftke place. 

WitWn, ' the tumult ' and weeping, the wail of thft 
mourners, real or hired, and the melancholy Bound of the 
monmiu^ flutes— Bud preparation for, and pii.^antry of, 
an Eastern funeral —broke discordantly on the calm of 
assured victory over death, with which JesuE had entered 
the house of nioumiiig. Butevtin so lie would tell them 
that the damsel was not dead, but only sleeping. Tho 
Rabbis also frequently have the eixpreasion ' to sJeep ' 
(when the sleep ia overpoweriug and oppressive), iiiatetid 
of ' to die.' It may wf II have heeu thitt Jeaas made use 
ofthiawordof douhle meaning in Bome Buch manner aa 
thie: 'the maiden sleejjeth.' And they understood Him 
well in their own way, yet understood Him not at all. 

For did they not veiily know that elie had actuaUy 

Tub Raising op Jairu^ Davohtbr 191 

3k'J, even bprore the meaaeiigers had been despatched to 
prevent thu ucfdltias trouble of His coming? Yet even 
this tlieir scorn nerved a higher purpose. For it< showed 
tkese two tilings : that to the certain beJiet' of those iti 
the house the uMkides wilb really dead, and that the Goapel- 
writers retarded tho ritising of tlie dead aa not only h^yoiid 
the ordinary range of Measiunic activity, but. os sometliiiig 
miracu]ou5 even among tihe inirjiclea of CJiriflt. 

Tlie first thing to be done by Christ was to ' put oot ' 
the monruers, whose proper place this house no longer 
waa, and who by their conduct had proved themselves unfit 
to be witnesses ff Christ's great uia.iiifeBtation. The im- 
preseion which the nurrative leaver 00 the mind \& that 
all thia while the lather of the muideu was stupefied, 
passive rather than active in the matter. The preftt fear, 
wliich had come upon him when the measengpre ap- 
priaod him of hig only child's death, seemed stdl to uitmb 
his faith, 

Christ now led the father and the mother intfl the 
chamber where the dejid maiden lay, followed by the three 
Apostles, witnesses of Ilia chiefeat worldiig and of His 
utmost earthly glory, bat alao of His inmost aufferinga. 
Without doubt or hesitation He took her by the hand, 
and spoke only these two words : Tidi/cOia Q«m [|£u.m] 
Maiden, arise! ' And straightway the damsel arose.' But 
the great astonishment which came upon them, aa well as 
the ' strait charg-e ' that no man should know it, are further 
evidence, if such mere re<]uirfd, how little their faith bad 
been prepared for that which in its weakneas was granted 
to it. And thua Jesua. as He had formerly corrected in 
the woman that wtiuknesa of faith which came through 
very escess, so now in the Roler of the Synagogue the 
weakness which was by failure. 


[esus the Messjah 



(8t. Mfttt. itii. U-m-, s. 1, £-42; xi. li St. Maik vi, i-]3i 

How iemm conveyed Himself avfuy from OaperttaBin, 
wlietlier tliroiigli luiotlier eatrance into the liouae, or by 
' the roiid of the roofs," we are not told. But aysuredly He 
mu«t have avoided tbe iiiultit.iide. Pre.seutly we Gnd Him 
fnr from Capei-naum, Probably Uo had left it immediately 
oil (juittinj^ tbe lioiisi" of Jainis. 

It ftliaoat seems aa if tbe departure of.Iesu8 from tho 
town markefj a crisis in ita history. From heucefoi-th it 
ceaaeB to be the centre of iJia activity, and is ouly occa- 
HioTially, and in pasain^, viniti'd. Indeed, th-^ coneentra. 
tlou Olid growing power of I'hnrisaic oppoajtiou, luid tho 
proximity of Herod's reaidence at 'I'iberias, would have 
rendered a permanent stay tliore iiupnesiblo at this stage 
in oar Lord's Iiistory. Heticefbrth, He has no certaia 
dwelliuy-place ; in His own language, ' He hath not where 
to lay His Head.' 

•st.Kjak 'T^'^ notice in St. Mark's Gospel,' that His 

^'■' dist'iples followed Him, aeenis to comiect the 

arrival of Jesus in 'His own. country' (at Naaaretb) with 
the departure from the house of .hiiriis, intn wliich He had 
allowed only threi? of His Apostles to acfotapany Him. 
The eirCLunstJiiiees uf the present visit, as well as the tone 
of His ctmotrymea at this time, are entirely diHeroat from 
what is recorded of His former aqjoaru at NaKareCh.'' 
► si-LutB Nazareth would have^ ceased to be Nazareth, had 
iT.iBji ita people felt or spokeu otherwise than they bad 
before. That HIe fiitne bad so gi-own in the interval 
would only stimulate the conceit of the village-town. 

And now He had come back to them, after nine or tea 
months, in totally difl'erent cireunistancea. No one could 
any longer qaeation His claima, whether for good or for 

~HE Mission op the T\VBi.yE rgj 

evil. As on the Sabbalh He stood up once more in tlim 
Synagcigiie to teach, they were aatotuahed. But theii' 
astoubiiineat waa tbat of unbelief. Whence Imtl ' this 
One' ' thesti thittga,' 'am] whut the wisdom whii;li ' wns 
•SLMuk "given to this One — rikI these mighty works 
•>■ " done by H is Haiida ? ' ' 

'And H© laurYelled bucimse of their uiibfilief.' lu 
view of theiT own reasoning it was most unreasonable. 

But it would liavi! bfeu impossible for Christ to have 
finally given up Hia own town of Nazareth without one 
I'nrtier it-ppou! imd one farther vfj^ortuiutj' fur repeutauci;. 
Ah He had begun, so He closed thiR part of His Galilean 
Miiiiatry, by prenchinj^ iu His own Synagogue of Nastireth. 
Save in thy case of a ffw who wem Ptweptive, on whom He 
laid His Hnads for healing, His visit piiwi'?d awiiy without 
such 'mighty works ' as the Na7.arenes had beard of. He 
will not return again to Nazareth. Henceforth He will 
make commonceniejit of sending forth Flis disciples. For 
His Heart t;ouipuj4sii mated! the uiaiiy who were ignorant 
and oub of the way. 

Viewing the discourse with which Chriet now sent out 
•at.Uki.iLi. t^^ Twelve iu ils fullest form,'' it is to be not^d 
stotiuoiiti t.hat it couwiets of /['e pjirtM: vv.otolS; w. 10 
to 23 ; w. 24 to 33 ; vv. 34: to 30 ; \v. iO to the end. 

Its first part" applies entirely to tliis first 
Misaiou of the Twelve, although the closing words 
point forward to ' the jud^ueut.''' Accordingly it has ita 
parallels, although in briefer form, in the other 
tfwo Ciospels,*' 

1. Tlie Twelve were Co go forth two and two,' 
furnished with authority— or, as St. Luke more 
fully expresses it, with 'power ami authority' — 
alike over nil deruona nnd to heal all manner of diaeaaes. 
The special comtnission, lor which they received such 
'Cr, waa to proclaim the near advent of the Kingdom, 
in luaojifestatiou as well as in evidence of it, to heal 
.nse the lepers, and cast out dsraouB. They 
good and to do good In the highest sense, 
and tLat id a manner which all would feel to be good : freely, 


•SL UatL 

^». Mirk 


F^st. uuk 


194 jESt/s Tim MnssiAit 

even u tliey hml rerfivw) it. Af^:iiii, tJmy werp not to 
make auy special provision for their joamey, beyomi tlic 
ttbsolule iininwlialB preaout. Tlioy were but Iwbourers, 
yet ne »ucli tJjuy had claim to eiippyrfc. Their Emplorer 
would proviile, and the field in wliidi they worked might 
•OoiBl.-iBi well be exjiecled to supply it.* 
]^'"''' Bt'fory Biitering inlu a city, Uiey were lo 

iTim.T.H maki^i iii(|iiiry, Uti-riiUy to ' seiiivh out,' who in it 
was ' worthy," and of them to ask Lospitality ; not seeking 
during their stay a chanoie for the gratification of vanity or 
for self-induljtt'iici?. If tlif rt-port on which they had niadfl 
clioicw of a li< proved t.nie, tfieii the * Peace with thee ! 
witL whicli tliey had entered their temporary Iintne, would 
heooine a reality. Christ would make it auch. 

But even if the housi* nhouM prove uuworthy, the 
Lord would dump the It-ss own the words ofHis im-sarngMs 
and makp them real; only, in such case thp ' Peace with 
thee!' would roiiam to them who had spoken it. Yet 
another ciiae wiia [KiBsiblf. Thi" house to wliich their 
inquiH&s had led them, or thf (;ity into which they had 
untered, might refuHR to receive them, because they came 
ae Cbriat's ambaaaadors. Grcatei', indet^d, would be their 
guilt than thut of lln* Citit^a uf the Plain, since these had 
not known the character of the hoavi'^nly guests to whom 
thoy rofuaed i-eception ; and more terrible would be their 
future piitiisiliuit<iit. So Clij-ist would vindicate their 
authority as well oe His own, uud show the reality of their 
coiuiiiisfdoa: on the one hand, by making thoir word nf 
pe4*ce a rpidity to those who had proved 'worthy;' and, 
on llio other, by punishment if thrir message were refused. 
Lastly, iu their present Urissioii ihey were not to toueh 
either fieiitile or Samaritan territory. This direction — bo 
different in spirit from what Jc-aus Himaelf had previously 
said and done, and from tlieir own Inter commission — was, 
of caiirae, only ' fur the present iiecte.isity.' It woidd have 
been a Hital anticipation of their inner and outer history 
to have atteiii pi ■id more, nnd it woidd have def'enled tl»0 
object of our I^rd of disaniiicig prejudices when making a 
tinal ftppaal t« the Jews of Galilee. 

Thp. flfrss/oy op the Twelve 




Kvon tliiw f(>iiwi<ii?riitii>iiw li'iiil us t^j exjK'ct. a strictly 
Jewisli Lust in thift Dij^coiirse to tlie Disn])IeH. The eom- 
nianil to abntaio Imiii an> religious fellowship i.vitli (ientiles 
auci yntnjirittms wfis in teinpomry accoiaiaodation to the 
prejmlires nf" lliw disciples nnd of the -lews, Acd tbc dia- 
tiactioit between ■ llie way of the Geatilns ' and ' any city 
of tlie SaiimritanH' jh the more fiignilicunt, when we bejir 
in mind tbnt L-ven the dust of"ii heathiiii roiwl was re.gnrded 
as defiling, wliile the houwes, wpi-ings, rotuls, and certiiiii 
food of the Saniarilaiis were declared clean. At t!ie aaiiia 
titiio, religiously and as regarded fellowship, ihe Saniaritana 
wi-re plitced on the «ime foisting with Ueiibiles, Nor 
would the iujiioction, to impiirt their freely, sound 
strange in Jewish ears. It wiut, in fact, what the Rabbis 
theinselvea most earnestly enjoined in regnid bo the teach- 
ing of the Law and traditions, liowciver difterRnt their prac- 
tice may have btii-n. ludfed,the very arguinetit that they 
were to iinpurt frr-Lily, hefaiise they Jiatl received fVeftly, ia 
oinplnyed by the Itubbis, and derived from tlm language 
and example of Mosl>» iu Deut. iv. 5. Again, the dirao 
tione ahoiit not taking Btiiff. shoes, nor luoney-purse, 
exactly correB|x>iid to (he Rabbinic iiijuuction not to enler 
the Temple-preeincts with Btaff, shoes (mai'k, not sundnta), 
and a. moiiey-girdfe. The symbolic reasoue underlying 
rJiis cotumaiid ^vodUI, in huth cases, be probably tlie siiuie: 
la avoid even tho ap^ienrance of being engaged on other 
business, when the whole being should be absorbed in tlio 
service of the Lord. Nor ooidd they be in douht what 
severity of final puuiahnifiit ii doom heavier than that of 
Sodtmi and Goiiiormh would imply, since, according to 
early tradition, their iuhahitanta were to have no pai't in 
ebfl world to come. And tnost impressive to a Jewish mind 
would he t.hi) sjTnbolic injunction, to sliake off the dust of 
their feet for a tesliiiiony against such a housa or city. The 
ex|ni5*sion, no doubt, indicated tliiit the ban of the IiOrd 
was resting on it, iind the symbolic act would, as it were, 
\ta the eoleiini prouonncing that ' nought of the cursed 
• Dncxui. thing' clave to them." In th.ia seu&e, anything 
" tluifc cl.ive t" a person was metaphorically called 



Jesus thb Messiah 

• in. M»tt. 

'the daet/ as, for esample, ' t.Iie dust of an ev\\ tongtie,' 
'tlio dust of uaurj',' as, on tlie other hand, to 'dust to 
idolatry ' mennt to cleave to it, Even the injunction not 
to change tlie dwelling, where a reception hnd been given, 
was in accordance witli Jewish views, the example of Abr&. 
•AMOTdiJiK ^"1 being quoted, who" 'returned to the place 
looi'ii. lilt whtre his tent hud heen at thu beginning.' 
H9t, Moti.1. These renmrks aliuw how closfly the Lord 
followed, in this first part of Hia charge in the 
dlaciplcs,'' Jewish forma of thinking and modes of 
expreg.'iion. It is not otherwise in the Hei'ond," although the 
difFereuce is herts very marked. We have nu longer merely 
the original coniinission, as it is given in almost the same 
terms by St. Mark and St. Luke. Bnt the horizon is now 
enlarged, anil St. Matthew reports that wliich the other 
Evaug^lista record at a later stiige of the Lord's Ministry. 
Without here anticipating the fidl inquiry into the 
pronuae of His immediate Coming, it is iuipoi-tant to 
avoid, even at tliis Mtage, any possyihli* misunderstanding on 
the point. The espectntion of t he Cnining of ' the Son of 
'Dun.YU, Man' was gronnded on a prophecy of Daniel,* in 
I' which that Advent, or rrither manifoatation, waa 

associated with jutlgiutTiit The same is the rase in this 
charge of our Loitl. Tlie disciples ia tlipir work de- 
scribed ' as sheep in the midst of woIvcb,' a ])hraae which 
the Midrash applies to the position of Israel amidst a 
hostile world, adding : How great is that Shepherd, Who 
delivers them, and vanquiBhes the wolves! Similarly, 
the admonition to ' be wise as aer]ieuta and harmless as 
doves' Ib reprodnced in the Midrnsh, where Israel is de- 
acrihed as liarmleas as the dove towards God, and wise as 
serpents towards the hostile Gentile nationi. Such and 
even gT'eat^jr would be the enmity which the disciples, &s 
the triie Israel, would have to encounter from Israel after 
the tlesh. They would be haiidod over to the various 
Sanhedrin, and visited with such punisbineuts as these 
• St Mutt, tribunals had power to inflict.' More than this. 
17 ' tht'y would be brought before ffovernors and 

Iduga — primarily, tte iloniau governors a;)d the Hero- 

The Amission op the Twelve 


dian prinoeii." And so determined would be tliig poTswu- 
tion. astobreakthetit-B of thccloeeet kinship, and to bring 
,g y on tJiem tho hatred of all men.'' The only support 
» in those tcrrrible circuni&tanoes was the assurauce 

"' ' of snch holp fi-om aboce, tliat, Jilthough nntcarnfid 
and Iiiiuible, ihey need bare no care, normake preparation 
iu their defence. And with thia they had the promise 
tliat. he who endured to the end would be saved, mid the 
prudential direction, ao far as poaKible, to avoid peraeuution 
by timely withdrawal, which could be the more readily 
achieved, since they woudd not have completed theircircnit 
of the cities of Isi-ael before the ' Son of Man be come.' 

It is of tlie greatest importance (o keep tn view t.liab, 
at whatever period of Chi'ist's Ministry this prediction and 
promise were spoken, and whether only once or oftener, 
they refer exclnBlvely to a JevUh state of things. The 
persecHtions are. exclusiTely Jewish. This appyars from 
verse 18, where the answer of the disiciples is proniisijd to 
ba * for a testimoDy against them," who had delivered tliem 
up, that is, here, evidently the Jews, as also against ' the 
Gentiles.' And the Evftngelimtic circuit of the dieciplee 
in their preaching was to be jn-!marilif Jew'mh ; and uot 
only so, hat in the time when there were still 'cities of 
Israol,' tbftt is, previons to theiinal destniotion of the Jew- 
i^ commonwealth. The relert-nce, then, is to that period of 
Jewish persecution and of Apostolic preaching in the cities 
of Icirael, which is bounded by the destruction of Jerusalem. 
Accordingly, the 'Coming of the Son of .Man,' and 'tha 
t'ud ' here spoken of, must also huv« the same application. 
It was, as we luive sepn, according to Dan. vii. 13, a coming 
in judgment, To the Jawi»h peraeeuting authorities, who 
bad rejected the Christ, in order, as thoy imagined, to save 
■ st.jDtm tJ>eir City and Temple from the Roinana," and to 
^■^ whom Christ hdd testified thufc He would come 

ajJain, this jiidgment on their city and state, thia destruc- 
tion of their polity, wa.s ' the Coming of the Son of Man ' 
in judgment, and the only coming which the Jews, se a 
state, coold expect. 

The disciples most have the more readily applied this 


Jesus the Msssuff 

preilipt.ion of His Coming to Pulestitw, siucc ' tbe woea ' 
couutcted it so closely corresijuiicliid tothtiee expected 
by tlip Jews lipfore the AAveui of Meesiah. Even tlie 
direction tn flee from peraecution is repeated by flie Riibbis 
in sitnilnr circiimsta,ticos, and cstabli sliced by thf example 
of Jacob, of Moai-H, and of David. 

In tiie ui'xt section of this Discourse of onr Lord, 

• Bt.ujiit.1. as report«d by St. Matthew." the horizoii us 
I4-M enlarged. The statements are wtill primnrily ap- 
plicuble to the t-arly ditiuiplee, and tlieir pi-eadiiiig among 
the Jewa mid in Palestine. But their ultiinnte bi'iirliig is 
already wider, aiid includes predictions jind principles ti-ue 
to all tinm. In view of the trealiiietit which their Alaslev 
ret't-'ived, tin- d'si.-iph-s tiiust expect niisrepi-eseiit^tioii juid 
evil -speo lei i](r. Nop cniild it seem slrange to them, mace 
even the common lirtbbinic pn.wtirb had it ; 'It is enoup;h 
fur n servant to be as Ills lord,' As we li«ir it fioin the 
lipB of ChriBt, we remember that this saying afterivardB 
coiiitbi-ted those who nicmriied tlie downfall of we;ilthy 
and liberal homes in Israel, by tlionglits of the grettter 
calttmity which had overthrown Jerusalem and the Temple- 
Ajid very sijjnificant U its application by Christ: 'If they 
have called the Master of the Beelaebul, how mudi 
more them of His household.' 

But they were not to fear such misrepresentatioiie. In 
dne time the Lord would luake manifest both Hia and 
»fi(.MMt.t. their true character.'' Nor were they to be de^ 
^^ terred from announcing in t.h*' clearest, and most 

public manner, in broad daylight, and from the flat roofe 
of honsee, that whif h had been first told them in the dai-k- 
nesB, as Jewish teachere commmiiuuted the donpfst and 
highest dotttriues in secret to their disciples, or as the 
preacher would whisper his di.icourae iiito the ear of the 
intrtfrpreter. But, from a luuth higher point of view, how 
diHtrent was the teaching of Chiist from that of the 
Habbis! The latter laid it dowu as a principle, which 

• L«,s»lii, ^^^y tried to prove fruin Scripture," that, inj 
«■ order to save nne'a life, it was not only lawful, 
but evea daty, if oecestMry, lo voiuxuit any land of aiu) 



excpph idnlnfry, iuoest, or nurder. Nay, eveo Wolatiy was 
allowed, if only it were tlona in aocret, bo aa not to pro- 
fane the Nnnie of the Lonl — ^thaD which death was in- 
finitely preferable. Chfittt, on the other Lanci, not only 
igaorrd this vicious Jewish disti action of public and 
private as regard(?d ntoruHty, but tade His followers set 
aeide all retjard for peraonal sil'uLy, eyeu iu reference to 
the duty of proncbing the Gospel. Tb<>re was a higher 
feai than of tuen : that of Gml — and it should drive oat 
the fear of thoee who could only till the body, Beaidoa, 
why feur? God's Providence exteudcd evcu over the 
meaoeat of Hia ereatiires. Two apavrows coat only about 
the third of a penny. Yet even one of them would not 
periah without the knowledge of God, No ilhisLmtion 
wiuj Tiiore fuuiiliar to the Jewish mind than that of His 
watclifiil care even over tJie sparrows. 

Nor could eii'en the addltiouul promise of Ohrist: 
'But of yon even the hairs of the head are all nuiiibered,' 
aurpriae His disciplea. But it would convey to thorn the 
assurance that, in doing His Work, they were peribrniinff 
the Will of God, and were specially in His keeping. Anil 
it would carry lionie to them what Kabbinisni expressed 
in a realistic amnner by the comiuou sayings, tliat whither 
a man was to go, thither hia feet would carry him ; and, 
that a man could not injure hia finger on earth, nulnsM it 
had heeu so dt-creed of him in heaven. And in latflr 
liabbinic writings we read, in almost the words of Christ : 
'I)o I not number all the hsii-s of every creature ? ' And 
yet an itveu liigher outlook waft opened to the disciples. 
All preaching was confessing, and all confeswing a preach- 
ing of Christ; and our coiifission or denial would, almo^it 
by a law of nature, meet with .-iiniilar coiiftssion or denial 
on the part of Christ before His Father in heaven. This, 
iiio, viBH au application of that fundamental pr!nnipl«, 
thftt * nothing is covered that shall not be revealed.' 
' Ht-Hidi.!. Wliat follows in our Lord's IJiscourse * still 

** further widens the horizon. It descrihea the 

.condition and hiw* of His Kingdom, anfil thl^ final revela- 
tiou of tihal which is now covered and hidden. So long 


Jesus the Messiah 

ae lUs cIsuniB were set before a liostilc world, they 
only jiro-ioke war. Ou the otLer hand, so Iouk m each 
decision was iiecesmry, in the choioeof either those nearest 
and dearest, of ease, nay, of life itself, or else of Christ, 
there could be no compromifie. Not that., as is ^ometimefl 
erroneoiiely supposed, ft very great de{i;ree of lovti to the 
dea.reat on earth timounts to loving them more than Christ. 
The love which Christ ecndemneth differs not in deg^ree, 
but in kind, from rightful affe-ction. It is one which tfikes 
the place of love to Chriet^ — not which ie placed by the 
aide of that of Christ. For, rightly vieweJ. the two 
occupy different provinces. Wherever and whenever the 
two affl'Ctions eotiie into comparison, they also couie into 
coDision- And no the (juestiona of nt»t being worthy of 
Him. and of the true findinu; or losing of our life, have 
their bearing on our tiaily tifn and profes.'^ion. 

But even in this respect tJie disciples must, to some 
extent, have been pi'epjtred to receive the teaching of 
Clirist. It was generally expected that » time of great 
tribulatiou would precede the Advent of the Me8i^(di. 
Again, it was a Rabbinic axiom thnt the cause of the 
teacher, to whom a man owed eternel Hfe. was to be 
taken va hand before that of his father, to whom he owed 
only the life of this world. Even the stuhfrnent about 
taking up the CrohS in following ChriHt, although pro- 
phetic, could not sound quite strange. Crticitixion was, 
indeed, not ii Jewish pnniKhmetit, bnt the Jews innet liave 
heconte sadly faniihar with it. Indeed, the expression 
' bearing the cross,' oa indicative of afirrow and suHering, 
is »o common, tliat we read, Abrnhani cirried tilie wood 
for the sa&rilico of laaac, ' like one who heat's his cross od 
his shoulder.'. 

Nor could the disciples be in doubt as to the meaning 
• SLMnti. of the last part, of Christ's address.* They were 
t<tM! q]^ Jewiah fonns of thought, only fille*! with the 
new wine of the Gospel. ITie Itabbis taught, bnt in 
extravagant tenns, the merit attaching to the reception 
and fnterfflinment of sages. The very expre.«sion ' in the 
name of a prophet, or a rightema man, is etrietly Jewish, 

TfiR Mission of the Twslve 


and nit^ans for t!ip ftike of, or with intention in regard to. 
It appears to U9 that Clirist intrtidtiwd Jlia own die- 
tinctive teaching by tlie nclinitted Jevvisli principle, t.lmt 
liospilftble leci'plinn fnr t.he Bake of, or witli ihe iiit<eiitioa 
of Joirig it to, a propliet or a rigliti^oiis uimi, would pro- 
fure a share in the prophet's or rigliteoiis man's niwartl. 
Thiie, tradition luid it that th^ fHiadiati of King Alidb's 
•isjugi court* had become the profiiiet of that name, 
iriit. 4 bpcaiise he had provided for the hnndr(>d pro- 
pliets. And we are rupvatedly assured that to rccoivw 
a eu^, or pvpti au elder, was like receiving the Shokhiimh 
itsL'lf. But the concluding promise of Christ, conrernin)^ 
tlie reward of even ' a cup of eold water ' to ' one of these 
little ones' 'in tht naiue of a disciple," goes far beyoud 
the farthfat conceptions of His eonteinporaries. Yet, even 
8G. the GxpreBsioii would, bo far aa its form is concerned, 
pi-rhaps hear a fuller inL>aning to them than to ns. These 
'little ones' wort? 'the children,' who were still learning 
the elements of knowledge, and who would by-aud-by 
grow into ' disciples.' For, as the Midrash has it : ' Where 
there are no little ones, there are no disciples ; and wht-re 
uo disciples, do sagea; wliere no sjigea, there no elders ; 
where no eldprs, tliere no prophets; and where no pra- 
pliets, there doe.s (iod not cause His Shekliitmh to refjt.' 

We hftve been particiilar in innrkin|r the Jewish parallel- 
isms in tliie Dist^onrse. first, becausa it seemed iinjMirtaut 
to show that the wordp of the Lord were not beyond the 
oompreliensicin of the disciples. Starting from forma of 
thrmght and nspn'Reioiis with which rti-'y were familiar, 
He carried them far beyond Jewish iden^i find hopes. But, 
Hecondly. it ii< just in this piinilarity of funii. which proves 
that it was of the timo and to the time, as well as to us 
ivnd to all tinips, that we best eee how far the teaching of 
Chriift transcended all contt^mporary conception. 


Jesus th£ Messiah 



(1. til. John iii. 3V-3U. % &x, Halt. ix. 11-lT; St. Umk U. m-Si; 8t. 
Lnkp r. 3;i-39. 3. St. MjiH. li. :^U; St. Luke vii. 18-30. 4. Bu 
Mutt. xiv. I-ia ; Rt. Mark «. H-29 ; St. LxAe ix. T-8.) 

While the AiKJstles went Tortli by two aiirl two oa theit 
first Miseion, J<\-<ub Hiiiisiiir taught and prwiobed in the 

• 8t.Miut. towns around Capernaum.' This pwiod of uii- 
'sLUaik disturbed activity seems, however, to linvo beKtii 
ai!.LiI^i». °^ ^"^*^ duraUon. That it was eminently BU<^ 
« csBsfnl, we infer not ou!y froui direct noticee,* 
lint aUt) fi*oui the drcuinstance that, for the first time, tho 
attention of Ilenxl Aiitip,is was now callt'd to tlio Pcr-son 
of JesuB. We »iipi) that, during the nine or ten 
months of Christs Galilean Ministry, the Tetrarcli had 
renided in his Perscan domiiiiotiB (east of the .Ionian), 
either at Julias or at Macliasrus, in whiuh latti-r fort-rL-ss 
tin; Baptist was beheaded. We infer that the lahoiirs of 
the AposUps had tdsu extended thus far. since they at- 
tracted the notice of Herod. In thu popular excitement 
caused by the execution of the Baptist, the niiraculoua 
BCtiiTity of the meeseDgers of the Christ Wlioni John had 
announced, wonid natnrjtlly att,ra<;t wider intt^re.'it, while 
Antipas would, under the influtiuce of fuar and supersti- 
tion, pive pvtit^r heed to thetn. We can scyircely be 
mtst&ken id supposing that this accounts for tlie abrupt 
termination of the lahours of the ApoHtlBS, and their r&- 
tnrn to Jesu£. Al imy rute, tJio nrrivid of the dinciples 
of John, with tidings of their niawlevH dpal.h, and the 
rolnm of iLe Apo&tles, seem to have bet-u tontempora- 

• neoviR." Finally, we conjeeliiro that it wuu 
a'siukei. a"'o"g tlie motiva which influenced the re- 

• inovai of Christ and Hia Apontlus from Caper- 
nautu. Tein|M»rarily to withdniw Biin.self iijid Uis dis- 

TftR Baptist is Pmsotr 


vi. 1 

>■ et. Miirk 

Til, H 



■"wpl^s from Hpriid, to givB thain a fwitaon cf rest and 
fiii-tlier preparation after tlie t'xcit«m«iit. of tho liwl, few 
weets, ami to nvokl beiug iuvolvwl in the popiilnr more- 
niewts coDEeqtH'iit 011 tlit? murder of tbe BaptisI- — such we 
may veiilure to indicate aB iinioag tlie rcaBoiis of the de- 
parture of Jeans uiul His disciples, first into tlie doiuinioiis 

• W[. .Tuu of the Tetrarth Philip, on the eiisteni side of the 
LiiJte,* and itl'ter that ' into the tiiji-di'ra of. Tyre 
mid Sidoii.''' ITiUK the fate of the Baptist was, 

as wight have boeri expected, decisive iu its inllupncei on 
the History of the Christ uiid uf His Kiiimloiii, But. we 
h»ve yet to truce the JDCicIeritH in the life of Juhii, no far 
as recorder! in the G-osppls, fi'oni the time of his hist con- 
tact with Jesus to his execution. 

• SLJoitn 1- II- wae'^ in the early summer of the year 
llLSiwiv.] 27 of OTU- era, thut John was hiiptiaing in jEwm, 
nour to Salim. In the neigh bourliood flpsus arifl His 
diBciplpB nvere siiiiilarly engaged. The PiT^eQce and 

• H.iinTjo iL ftt-'tivily of" JeetiH in JerusaltMii iit the I'nasover*^ 
13 tn 111,11 l^fl^i deteriiiined tlie Pharisaic party to takeuefive 
muastirea a^aiiibt Him and His Porerunnpr, John, Ab the 
first outcome of this plan we notice the discusBious on the 
■.]ue:»liun of 'purification,' and the attempt to gvpfinitu 
between Christ and the Baptist by exciting the jealousy of 
» SI. John the latter." But the result was far dilFereut. His 
m.!»to. diaciples might have beeii iutiiieneed, but John 
hiinaelf was loo li*ue a uiaa, and too deeply convinced of 
die reality of ChiistB MiBsion, to yield even for a moment 
to such temptation. 

It was not the jfreatiiess of the Christ, to his own 
i<eeming loss, whidi could cloiid the Baptist's convictious. 
In simple Judiean itlustration, he wait only ' the friend of 
the Bridegroom ,' with nil that popn!ar ussociatirm orhigher 
JewiftU ftliej^rji-y connected with that relationship. He 
<jlaimed not the bride. Ilia was unotlier joy — tliat of 
hearing the Voice of her i-ig-litful Bridefj^'oont, Whuse 
■ groomsman ' hr wiis. In the sound of that Voice lay the 
fultUment ofhisofiiiie. 

2. The sgcne has clmiiged, and the Baptist hus become 


Jesus the Messiah 

tho prIsontT of Horod AuliijiJis. Tlit-r ilooiinions of tho 
latter embriiced, ic the nortJi : Galilee, weet of tlie Joitlau 
and of the Lake of Galilee ; and in the Goutb : Pera^a, east 
of the Jordiui. To realise events we must betir in mind 
that, crossing the Lake easitwarcU, we should pass froiu the 
possessions of lleroJ to tJinsp of the Tetrarch Pliilip, or 
eiae come upon the territory of tlie 'Ten Cities' or 
Di,*ca.polis, a kind of'conftiileralion of toivnshipg, with coii- 
etitiition and libei'tios, such as tiiosB of the (irecian cities. 
By a narrow strip northwards, Peiwa just elipiwd in 
between the DsLmjiolis and Samoi-ia. It is impoesible with 
fertainty to locJilise the ^non, Dt-ai* Salim, where John 
ba])lized. We believe that the place wap close to, perhaps 
actually in, the north -eastora angle of the province of 
Judiea, where it borders on Samaria, We are now on the 
western hank of Jordan. Tbts other, or eastern, l.iaak of 
the river would be that narrow northern strip of Perfea 
which formed part of tha teiTitury of Aiitipaa. Thus a few 
miles, orthemerecrossiugof the river, would have brought 
the Baptist into Ponea. There can be no doubt but that 
the Bftptist must either have crosstd into, or else that 
j-Enou, near Salim, was actually within tha dominioriB ol 
Herod. It was on that octnaion that Herod seized on his 
pernonj' and that Jc'sub, Who waa still within 
Judjeiin territory, witJidrew fi'om the intrigues of 
the Pharisees uTid the proximity of Herod, through 
Samaria, into Galilee.'' 

Supposing Antipng to have been at his palace in the 
PeiTean Julias, he would have been in close proximity to 
the scene of the Baptist's last recorded labours at ^Enon. 
We can now understand, not only how John was im- 
prisoned by Autipns, but also the threefold motivea which 
inHuenced it. According to Josephos, the Tetrarch was 
sJraid that hia abaoUite inllnenue over the people, who 
ee^uied diB}7osed t-o carry out whatuvt-r he advised, might 
lead to a rebellion This eircnuiBtance is also indicufixl in 
« Bt, a«[c. the remark of -St. Msittliew " that Herod waa 
>>'■' afraid tJi put the Baptist to death on account ot 

tfii? people's opinion of him. On the other baud, the 

• 81. JohU 

iii. 34 

k Bt, Jabu 

Tme Baptist /.v Prjson 



• at.lCtH. Evangelic Btiitemeofc' that Herod had inipiiaoneJ 
S'«Vk"ri. John on account of his declaring his marriage 
17. i» with Herndias unlawful, is in no wiiy inconsistent 

with the reason assiijiied by Josephus. Nnt only might 
both motives have influenced Ileirod, biit there is »n 
obvious coiiuwtiou between th«iii. For John's open 
dectaratiou of the unlawfulness of HptoiVs marmge, bs 
alike incestuous anJ adiilterous. Djijarht, in view of the 
infiuence which the Baptii^t exercispd, hitve easily ]^i\ to & 
rebellion. The reference to the Pharisaic tipyiiig and to 
their compnnsons betwoen the influence of Jegus and of 
*Si.jQhniv. John,'' which led to the wil.hdrawal of Christ 
^» into Galilee, seems to imply that the Plinriwes 

had &oraething to do wiili the iiapriBoninent of .loliii. 
Their coauection with Herod appears even more clearly in 
the attempt to induce's di-imrture from Galilwi, on 
pretext of Herod's machinations- It will be reoieinbered 
that the Lord unmasked their hy]H>CTisy by bidding them 
go back to Herod, showing that He fully knew that real 
danger threaten etl Him^ not from the Tetrarch, but from 

■ at. Lnko tlie- leailers of the party in Jerusalem."^ Our 
Bii.81-33 inference, therefore, ia that I'hariBaic intrigue 

a very large shtire in giving effect to Herod's fear of 

Bapli^t and id" hie reproofs. 

3. Macha'HiH (fho mi^cra M'khaiir) marked the extreme 
point Honth. aa Pella that north, in J'eriea. As the 
boniicliiry fortress in the aouth-eaBt (towards Arabia), its 
safety was of* the greutost imjio^rtance, and everything was 
done to make a place, esceedingly strong by nature, 

• A nijrged line of uptiiroed squared stones ' ehowe iha 
old Roman paved road leading to the fortress, in which, 
■ocording to Joscphna, the Baptist waa confined. Rinus 
covering quite a scpuire mile, on h. group of undulating 
hills, mai'k the site of the ancient t«wn of Machicrua. 
Although surrdundod by a wall and towers, its position is 
Bupposed not to have been stratogically defensible. Only 

■ uukSB of ruins here, with tratt-'a of a temple to the Syrian 
Sun-God, broken cisterns, and desolatenesa aU arottu(]. 

■ Sun-Gc- 

ao6 Jssus THS Messiah ^^H 

CiiieiKingf B QAi-i-iiw ilfi«*]i valley, iiljoiit ii thiI© wiJi?, w« 
climb np \<a thp niicipiit fortrrss on acoiiicii.1 liili. AlhigetJier 
it oovered a ridge of uioro tbaii a mile. Tlie key (jf the 
petition vv«a u citntlel lo tJii? extreme east of tin- (urt.rass, 
It occnpieil tlie stmiinit. ot' the L'one, was isolafed, and 
al most iiDprpgnable, but very uniall. Descendiug a »taep 
elope- nbout loO VHi'ds towiivds the west, we r^boh the 
oblong Hat ptutcaii that fortiied tlie fortress, coaUiiiiio^ 
Herod's iua(^ilict.-iil- ptlace. 

No trtiCGti of l.hL' riij'al imlnce ar^ left>, save fouadutiunt 
and enormoHB stonPa uptiinitfd. Within the arya of the 
keup tiro 1* wfll of threat dt^pth, tind a deep cemented with t.he vaulting of the roof still complete, and two 
dungeons, one of theiu deep down, ite sidfa starcely broken 
in, ' with Kiimll holes atiU viaiblo iu the luasoiiry where 
staple!^ <ii wood itiid iron htid once been fixed." An w»; look 
down into its hot. diirkness, we shudder in renlisiiig that 
this terrible keep had for lii^di ten iQontJia bt'en tlie pinson 
of tliat Hon of the frye ' wildnmeas," the bold herald of the 
coiaing Kin^oTJi, the humlili-, earnest, self-denying John 
the Baptist. 

4. In these circumatances we scarcely wonder at the 
feelingB of John's disciples, as monthB of his weary 
captivity piiaseil. Uucertain what to psjject;, they seem 
to have oatiliat*!(J betweeii MachjeruB and Oapeniaum. 
Any hope of t.hoir Master's vindication and deliverance lay 
in the powHibiliHt^s involved in the aunoHnceniL-nt he had 
mado of Jesas as the Olirist. And it was to Hini that 
their jMas[.er's tinger had pointed theni, Indepd, some of 
Jeeo»' eai'liest and moat; intimate disciples had come fi-oni 
their riitika; imd, Jis themselves liad remurkej, llie multi- 
tude had turiieil to Jcbus even before the Baptist's iui- 
» St. John prison rac'nt." And yet>, in their view, tlierp must 
IILSI have been a terrible conirast lietween him who 

lay in the dungeon of Miu-ha^nis, and Iliiii Who sat down 
to f-nt and di-ink at a ft-ast of the publicans- 
Hie reception of publiciuia imd sinners they Dould 
nnderstiind; tlieirowii Master had not rejected them. But 
why cut and drink with them ? Waa uol fwsting alwuya, 

The Baptist m Pxison 


bntmor^ Mipi'riiillj' imn', w|jpi-o|iriatL« ? Th« PhanHces, in. 
tlic'ir aiixicty U> Bnparate bplivn(*ii Jesus aud Hb F»jii>- 
rminm', iiiiist hnve lold hhem all this again and i^ain, and 
poiuted to tlie codti-ast. 

At any ra,**, it w«a at the instigtition of Uie Pliariseea, 
and in company witii them, tliat the dinciplcs of John pro- 
ponnded to Je?ue this qn^stifin about. fuatLiig- and pray&r, 
immediati-ly jifler t^e fensfc in the houBu of the uonvt-i-ted 
.^. .... Levi- Matt how.' We must Ijpar in miud tJiafc 
u.K-17 festin^ and prayer, or cIhp fanHug and aims, or 
an i»rn s ^jj ^|^^^ three, were always combined. Fasting 

reprcseotud the nt'f^ativL-, prayer aud alms the positive 
elenipnt, in tJif forgivenf^sa of sins. Fasting, as self- 
punisbmi^nt and mortification, would avert the anger of 
God and calamiHea. ilost extraordinary instuncas of the 
purposes ia view iu fasting, iird of the regnlte obtained, 
are told in Ji^wiah legt^iid, which (as will Ije rememherpd) 
went so fftr at) to relate how a Jewitih saint wae thereby 
adered proof against the fire of Grehenna. of wluc^h a 
jistic dcTnoushration was given when hie body waa 
biidert^d proof againet ordinary fii-e. 
To the Jp\s'H, fasting was the readiest means of turning 
aside any thrtateninjr calamity, such na dronght. pesti- 
len.ce, or national diinger. The second and Hfth days of 
the week (Monday and Thurgday) were those appointed 
for |>nl)lic CafltB, because Mioses was supposed to have gone 
np the Moant for thtt second 'Pabl^m nf the Law on » 
Thursday, and to have returned on a Monday. 

It may well have been that it waa on one of these 
WiX'Icly fasts that the feast of Levi-Matthew had taken 
place, and that this explains the expression : ' And John's 
'ei.tUrk disciples and tlie Pharisees were filling.' ^ This 
II. IB would give point to their coniplaiut, 'Thy 

disciples fast not.' Looking back upon tho standpoint 
from which Ihcy viewed faatiiig, it is easy to perceive 
why JeoDK could imt have sanctioned. noT even to!e- 
ratud, th« practice, among His diaeiples. as little as St. 
PanI conid tolerate ninont,' Judaising (jhristinns the, in 
itself iiidiQi;reiit, practice of cii-comcisioa. But it was 


Jesus the Mrssiaii 

uot ao easy to explain this at the time to the diaciplea of 

Tht) last i-pcordM testimony of the BapHat hnd pt)tnt*)(l 
• at, Johu to Christ as 'the Bridtsg'itwiw.' " As expittiiieJ 
I"-*" in a previouB chapter, John applii'd tliis in n 

uiaimer which appealed to popular cuatom. As lie luuj 
poiDted out, \hif Pri?9t'uce ol' Jesus marked the marriafft?- 
W&eli. By univeraal consent and according to Rabbinic 
law, tjiis waa to be a tiiut? of nnniixeil feativity. During 
the 111 ft IT ia;^ -wet- k all luoumuiy was to be ftusptwided — 
eviiin the obligation of Ihe presLTibed daily prayers ceaartd. 
It was regarded as a n-lif^ious duty to pladdi?n the brida 
and bridegroom. Was it not, thi?n, incousistfiit: on the 
part of John's disfipli-a to uxpt-ct ' the sons of the bride- 
chamher ' to fast., bo long as the Bridegroom was with 
them ? 

Bnt let it not< be thought thut it waa to be a time of 
Qubcokon joy to th« disciples of Jesus. The Brid^prnom 
would be violently tiiken from them, and theo would be 
the time for moiirnin;^ and fasting. Not that this m^cea- 
sarily implies literal faatiiitj, JUiy mure than it excludes iti, 
pritvidi-d the great prmciplt-a, inori- fully indieatt'd imiue- 
diately aftBrwards, are kept in view, Painfally miiiate, 
Jndaiatic Belf-iiitrospection is eontraiY to the spirit of the 
joyous liberty of the children of God. It is only n sfuat* of 
sin. and tha felt absence of the Christ., which should lead to 
mourning and fasting, though not in order thereby to avert 
either the anger of G«I or outward caliimity. 

In general, the two illufiirutioiiB employod — that of the 
piece of undressed cloth (or, awoi'ding to Sf . liuke, a piece 
torn from a new garment) sewed upon the rent of an old 
garment, and tbnt of the new wine put iDto the old wine* 
skins — must not be too closely pressed in regard to their 
language. They 9»»m chic-fly to imply thia: Yon luik, 
why do we fast oftien, but Tliy disciples fast not ? You are 
mistaken in Bupposiug thtir the old garment can be re- 
tained, and nietvly its rents made good by patching it 
with a piece of new cloth. Tho old garment will not bear 
meiidiug with the ' niidreKSfd cloth.' Christ's wiw not 

TfiM Baptist /.v PutsoN 



ttier(Jy a rerormatiun ; all things must become uew. Or, 
again, take the otler view of it — the new wine of the 
Kingdo]ii cannot be con'fiiied in the old forms. It woald 
burst those wUifi-skins. The spirit mast, indeed, lisve Its 
ccrreis^ioniliog form of expressiou; but that form must ba 
adapted, and corresjiond to it. Such are the two final 
principles — tke one primarily addressed to the Pharisees, 
the other to the ilisciplea of John, by which the illnstrative 
teaching oiicermng the marriage-feaat, with its bridal 
garmeut and wine of bani^uet, is earned beyond the 
orioinal question of the disciplea of John, and receives an 
application to all time. 

5. Weflks had passed, and the disciplee of John had come 
back and allowed thi^ir Master of aU these things. XIa 
Still lay in the dungeon of Machsertia : his eircuiaBtances 
aiiL-hiuiged — perhaps, more liojieleBS than before. Fqr 
Herod wae in that epiritiially moat- desperate state : he 
had heard the BaptiF^t, and was much perplexed. Thiawe 
can nnderstnnd, since be * feared litm, knowing that be 
woa a righteous man and holy,' and thus fearing ' hAiinl 
him.' But that, being' much perplexed,' he still 'heard 
■B[,Miirk him gifwily,'* conatitutied the liopelessDeBS of hi& 
**■*" case. Hut wa.s the Baptist ri^ht? Did it con- 

stitute part of hia DivinD calling to have not only de- 
nouiK^et], but apparently directly confronted Herod oa hia 
adnlteroua laarriiige ? Had he not atti-nipted to lift him- 
Belf the aie which seemed to have sHpt from the grasp of 
Him. of Whom the Baptist bad hoped and said that He 
would lay it to the root of the tree ? 

Such thoiightfl may have been with him, aa he passed 
from his dungeon to the audience of Ilerod, and from ancti 
bootless interviews baek to his deep keep. Strange as it 
may seetii, it was, perhaps, better for the Baptiat when 
he was alone. The state of miud aud experience of hia 
disciplea has already appeared, even in the slight notioea 
concerning them. Indeed, had they fully understood kim, 
and not ended where he began — which, truly, ia the 
characteristic of nil aects — they wonUl not have remained 
his disciplea. Tlteir very atfection for him, and their aeal 

2IO /ssas THE Mbssiah 

for Iiie cR'dit (us alivwu in tho tiliiioet ooaree Iniiguage Oif 
their inquiry : ' John the Bnptist HbIJi sent, ub unto Thee, 
eaying. Art Thou H« that coraetJi, or look we for another ? '), 
as well ae tlieir t«>iiaf ity of uiipi-ogrfssivenesa— were nil, 90 
to spetik, luurkn of his failure. Aad if he had failed with 
tliem, hftd hs succeeded in anything? 

And yet further and more 8<.-«n'!iing questions rose in 
tjial dark dungeon. Whnt if afrer all t.liere had been 
twine liorrilile iniatake on his part? At anj- rate the logic 
of cvpiitN WHS against, him. He was now the fast prisont-r 
of that Iferod, t^o wlioni he had t<poken with authority j in 
the power of that lx>!d adulreress, Herodiaa, If he wore 
Elijali, the g^^at Tishbite had uover been in the hands of 
Ahah and Jezebel. And tlie Messiah, Whose Elijah le 
WHS, tncivwl not ; toidd not, or wonld not, mpve. hiit 
feasted wit.h publicjmH and siunersl Was it all a reality? 
It must have been a teiTible hour, and the power of dark- 
aesa. At the end of a life, and that of such aelf-denial and 
suffering, and witli a oonaoience ho alive to God, which hud 
— when a youtJi — driven hiin burning with holy zeal into 
the wildemesB. to have the question meeting him : Art 
Thou He, or do we wait for another? 

In that conflict John overcjirne. as we all must over- 
conie. His very despair op«ncd thf door of hope. The 
helploss doubt, whieh none could solve but One, he brought 
to Him around Whom it had gathered, Wht-u John 
asked the qaeetion : Do we wait for another ? li^ht wns 
already atcuggling through diirkiiess. It waa incipient 
victoiy even in defeat. When he tient hie disdplys with 
this question sti-aight to Christ, he liail already contjnerMl ; 
for such ;i question addreea^ to a poRBihly fake Messiah 
had no tuebiiiinf^. 

The desipuation ' The Ooraioff <Jne,' though a most 
trutlifiil expri'swion of Jewish expectancy, was not one 
ordinarily used of tliL* Mt^saiah. But it was invariably 
used in reference to the Mesaianic age as the coming world 
or Man. In the mouth of John it might therefore meao 
ohiefiy this: Art. Thou He thai. 13 to establish the 
Uessiauic Kingdom in its outward power, or have v/fi to 

Thr Baptist /.v Pift.^orir 



Wait, (or nnotliiT ? In tJiat casp, tlie nianiier m wliich th« 
Lord fttiMvered it would bo ail Ihu inoro sigiiiHranfi. The 
In esse n get's Cfltne just aa He wna engage<l in hcaliug body 

• M-Luiw iuid soal." Without, interrupting His work, or 
*""^' otherwise noticing tbeir inquiry, lie bade tliptu 
tell John for jtiiH\vi-i- whiit they had aeen and heard, and 

* St. uau. that ' the poor '' are fvanprelis^^d." To this, as tho 
■'■' inmost cbariicteristic of tlie MBaaianic Kingdom, 
He only addod, not by way of reproof nor even of warning, 
but iiB u fresh ' Bentitude ' ; ' Blossed is be, whosoever 
fihall not be Htwidaliged in Me." And sncli knowledtfe 
ot Ohrisl's distinctive Work and Word is the only tnie 
aiiswL'r to our qnestious, whether of hend or hoart. 

But Ji li«rder saying than this did tbn Lord 8)ki«Ic 
amid:^ thfl forthpouring' of His te-stiniony to John, when 
his mesBL-nitfrn had left, He to Whom John hiid formerly 
borne lestiuioiiy now bore testimony to him; and thut, 
nol in fho hmir wlieu John hfwl testified for Hiin, butivliou 
his testimony bad wavered a.ud almoxt failed. A^in \ve 
mark that tlie tesliniony of CIliriHt in as from a higher 
ftftiidpoint. And it, is a full vindication as well as iinstJutt^d 
praise, spuken, not as in his ht'ariiig, but after bis 
messengers — who had met a Beemingly cold reception — 
had left.. 

G. The scene once more chnnges, and we are again nt 
llauliaerus. Weeks have passed since the I'eturn of John's 
inissengers. We cannot denbt that the auubght of faith 
has ngnin I'lillen into the dark dnngeon, nor yet that the 
pi-;ii.'.e of conviction hna filled the martyr of (.Tirist- 
Hi* tiiuat liave known that his end was at hand, and been 
ready to be offered Rp. Nor wouM he any longer expect 
ironi the llessiah aesertiotia of power on his bt^half. He 
now understood that for which ' J{e Imd come;' he knew 
Ihf (h-tier liberty, triiiitiph. and victory whicli He brought. 
His life-work htid been done, and there was nothing fortJu-r 
lliat fell in him or that he could do, and the weary servant 
of the I/ird mnst have Iijngrd for his rest. 

It wflM early spring, fihortly before the PasHover. the 
anniversary of the death of Herod the Great and of the 

2ia /bsvs thk Af^ss/Afi 

sccMUfion of (hj» Mtti) llnrod Antipai; Ui ibo Tfitrarchy. A 
lit tim« this for a Belahazzar-fes^, whon sitcli &o one u 
Uerod w-oultl ^'itti^'i' to a ^ntnd banquet ' hU lorde,* aud 
thp militftry nnThoritipa. nnd fin* chief msn of (Jalilfw. It is 
ereniag, and thecastle-palace ia brilliantly lightcJ up. TTio 
noiiteof tDQfiic and the shoote of revelry come across tlie 
slope into tbe citadel, and fall iato the de^p dungeon where 
waitfi the prisonflr of ChriBt. And now the merriinMit in 
the great banqneting-hall lias reached its atmo«t. height. 
ITie DDR has uolLiLg fartlierto offer his satinled giiest*, 
DO fre«h exfttt-ment. So let it be the sensuous etimulua 
of dubiouH dances, and, to coioplet^ it, let the dancer be 
the fair yonng dftiighter of fliB king's wife, the very 
descendant of the ABmontean ptiPHt-princes ! To viler 
dt'pth of coarse familiarity even a Herod could not have 

She liaa co>iie, and she has dauced, this princely 
maidpD. And shii has done her best m fJiot wretched 
exhibition, and plwuted Herod and iheni bhat eat at meat 
witJi him. And now, aniidet the general plaudits, she 
Ahall have her reward— and the king swears it to her with 
lood voice, that all around hear it — even to the half of his 
kingdom. The maiden steals ont of the bAnqnet-faall to 
aak her iiiotlier wliut. it fliull be. Can there be doabt or 
hesitation in the mind of Herodiafl ? If there was one object 
she }iad at heart, which these ten muuths she had in vain 
sought to attain, it was the death of John the Baptiiit, 
She remi'mbcred it all only t-oo well^-her stomiy, recklet^ 
past. The daughter of Ari»tobulus, the ill-fated son of tlie 
ill-fated AstuoiucaTi priuti'ss Marianimr (I.), she htul hwvi 
inarried to her half-iincle, Herod I'hilip, the wm of Herod 
the Great and of Mariamme (11.), the daughter of the 
High- Priest (ho*>thoii!). At one time it aeerned as if Herod 
Philip would havebeen sole inlieiitorofhin flit hw'sdiiniiniijiw. 
But the old tyrant had changed his testanisnt, and Philip 
was left with great wealth, bittuxa private poi-son living 
in Jernsnleni. This little suited the woman's ambition. 
It waH when his half-brother, Herod AntipaH, i^iiie on a 
visit to him at Jerusalom, that an iiitiiguo iH-gmi bvtwtKii 

Beheading of John the Baptist ill 

tJie Tefcrarch and hia brother's wife. It wns ngreed that, 
after tlie return of Anttpas frgiii bis impending jvurney to 
Bome, be t^liould repudiute his wife, tie daughter of Arata.1, 
king of AniViiii, aud wed Herodias, But Ajetas' (laughl-er 
haard of the plot, and having obtfiiued her husband's con- 
sent to gij to Mauliieriia, ahe fled thetice t-o her ftither. 
ThiB, of cours*^, led ta euiiiity between Antipasand Aretas, 

Hfeverttelese, th* adulterous marriage with Herxxliiis 
fbllowed. Id s few sentence's the sloiy may be carriod to 
its tenni nation. The woinau proved tho cura^ and ruin of 
Antipits, First came the murder of the Huptist, which 
sent a thrill of horror throagh thti peujilo. iiml to which all 
later iniBfortuues of Herod wern attributed. Then 

'ftllowiKi a war with Aretita, in. which t.ho Tetrarch waa 
worettid. And, last of all, his mfe's nnibition led hiui to 
Rome to solicit the title of king, latoly given lo Agrippa, 
tbu bruiher ofHerodiae. Antipan not unly failed, but was 
deprived of his dominions, aod banished to Lyons in Giml. 
Tiip pride of tht- wuuian iu refusing favours from the 
Kmperor, ami ht\r faithfulness to her husimnd in his fallen 
fortuueB, are Uie only redeeming points iu her hietvry. 
Ab for Salome, aha was firat married to her uncle, Phdip 
the Tetraroh. Legend has it that her death wae retribu- 
tive, being in oonai'q insure of a fall on the ice. 

Such was tht^ woman *^"ho bad thee* many nioiitha 
sought to rid herself of th^ halted person who uloue had 
darei] publicly denomiL'e hpr sin, aud whose words held hor 
weak husband in awe. The opportunity bad now come for 
ohtaiiiing from tlie vacillating moiiaith what her i^ntroaties 
■ Bt. Mill, could uevfi' have necnred. Aa the Goapt-1 pats it," 
«iT.» . instigated' by her mother, tht? damae! hesitated 

not. * With haste," aa if no time were to be lost, she went 
up to the king : ' J will that thou furthwith give me in a 
chat^r the hnad of John the Baptist.' Silence must 
have fallen on the aasombly. Ev*n into their hearts aiich 
a duinund from the lips of little more than a child maab 
liavH MtrucV horror. They all knew John tobea righteous 
and a holy nnm. Wicked hb ihey were, in their supersti- 
tion, if not religiijiisueM», tew, if iiuy of them, would have 

/cscu TMR Messiah 

willingly lent himself to Btich work. And they all knew 
ubo why Solocuv, ur rather HuiiidifLS, hud uukIv this 
demand. Wlint would Herod do? 'The king was ot- 
ceediug aorry.' For luguths he had striven agaiusl tliis. 
His eouHcieace, fow of tlio ptMjple, inward horror of the 
dt't-d, nil would have kept hitn fiiitii ic, But he hiwl Mwom 
to the maiden, whn now stood before him, claiming thnt 
the pledge he ledeemud, and twcry eye in the aesembly 
wa» fixed U])OQ him. UDfaitlil'iil to Mh Ood, to Lis can- 
HCteticit, to HJict ri^ht(Kiii8jie8a; not a^liaiued uf bay 
crime or sin. hf would yet be faithful tu hin Iialf-drmiken 
oath, and appear bonouvablc tind ti'iio bfloi-e t-uch com- 

It hue beeii but the ooiitest uf a, inoiueui. ' Straight- 
way * tlio king givex the order to one of the body-guard. 
No time for prupHFtition iti given, or neede>d. A few 
minutes more, and the gory head of the Baptist is brought 
to the maiden iu a charger, and ^e gives line gliaatly di«b 
to her motht-r. 

It iH ull over ! .'1> the pide morning light stieama into 
the keep, the laitlit'iil discipiee, who Iwnl been told of it, 
come reverently to bear the It«atllet<t* Imdy to the burying. 
They go fi»i*th for tvrr I'runi that arciirscd place, which is 
to 8uon to bic^onift a mftsM of s!ia|)elt*ti ruins. They go to 
tell it to Jfaufi, and hettcefuith to i-emaiii with Uixn. Wti 
can imagine what wekvjme awaited them. Bat the people 
ever aftvrwtudg cmiied the tyrant, luid lookud for thoso 
judgments of God to follow, which wen.- wi soon to descend 
OD him. And lie liimaelf wii& yvei" afterwards reatlees, 
wretuht'd, and full of appreht^miiouH. He txjuld searcely 
believe that the Baptist was realty dn'ftil, Jind when the 
fame of Jeaue reached him. and tJiosc around suggested 
that this was Elijah, a prophet, or as one of them. Herod'a 
mind, amidst ita strauge perplexities, BtiU i-evert««I to the 
man whom he hud murdered. It was a new anxiety, 
pcirhnps even so a new hope; and as formerly he had 
often and gladly hetird the Biiptist, ec> now he would fain 
oatLutait ^ve seeu Jesus." He would nee Him ; but not 
* nutr. Iti that dark uight of b'truyal. he, hLu at 



tlie tidding of the child of an adulteif ss, had murdfretl the 
Forerunner, mifjlit. witli thi- appro Ijiitiun oi s. Pilate, tavei 
rescued Hiiu Whose faithful wituess John had been. But 
night was to nitit^ into yet ilarlter night. For it was th© 
time and the power of th*" Rvil One. And jet: Jehovah 
reijjiietli ! 




((ft. M«tl_ ii». IB-ai i St,. Mark ^. HO-U-, Bt. Lube ix Ift-ITi 
St. John fi- 1-U.) 

'Vs the circuniBtaucPB dflscrilted in the previone chapter, 
Jesns resolved at oiice t<i leave Capernaum ; and this prob- 
ably, as wo have seen, alike for tlip salct* nf His diaciplea, 
who needled icat : fur that of thtf people, who might liave 
utt.L'iJiptpd a riMtti^ iift.t-r the inui'der of thti Baptist ; aticl 
teniporaj'iJy to withdriiw Himaelf and His followers froni 
the power of Herod. For this purpow^ He chose the place, 
outside thL^ dumiiiiou8 of Anliptkt, uetu-Bst to Oaperauuu. 
Thib was Beth-S«iila ("the liouHe of tishiiig') ou the 
eastern bonier i)f Ualilee, just wtthio the twritory of the 
Tetrareii Philip. Origiiiftlly a sriinll village. Philip had 
caQveilud it into a town, and named it Julias, after Cieaar's 
daught«^r. It lay ou the t>aMU>rn hunk of Jordan, juat 
before thdt stream eiitf ra the Latke of Galiltjc' 

Only a li^w hour.'*' sail from Capernaum, ard even a 
shorter dietfluce by laud, lay thi- ilislriet rif Betlisaida 
Juliiis. It watt natural thnt Chriat. wiKhiug to avoid 
public attfuhiuii, nhuuld liave ^'iiie ■ by ship." and tsjoaily 
BO timt the many ■ eeeing them departing, and knowing' 
— viK. what diiVLTtion th** buitt was tahiiif^ — -should have 
followed on fotit, and been joined by uth<-rs from thL- nei^h- 
hourtug villages. The circumstance that the Paasover wbs 

I ' Ttiiv ilctliMiida luunt not be coiifomiHed wlili thi: otiiot ' fisher- 
I town 'or Bt'ltiBiiI'lM, on the western itlivre of th.' I.ak<^ whieli theVoiulb 
I Ooepal liUt.liipui^hta from the EiwtOTn wi 'Ptihmiilti nf (l:illli'o" fSi. 
I John III. Si ; (.■«mi> i. 41 ; Mt. Murk vi. 4B> 

2i6 Jbsus the Messiah 

nijjli at band, no tliat. many must hnv« Iicpii stni+iiig on 
their jonrne-y t« JtriiMalem. round tin- l^oke sad tbrougli 
Periwa, partly iwcounts lor the inimenee number of ' ubiiufc 
6,000 men, beside women niiti child ri-n." which is nien- 
tioned. And thi^, i>erluvps in conjunct ion with the effect 
OD the people of John's murder, may also e}C]ilain tiheJr 
rrady and wuft-r jfiilhering to ClLrist. 

As we picture it to ohtsbIvl-b, onr Lord witli ilis 
disciples, and perhaps follow^i.-d by those who had outrun 
thti rent, firrt. retired to the top of a height^ and there 
• ai,j,.hn reflfed in teaching convCTse with thpim." Pre- 
MSt UML Be^ntly, as He saw the jp-f iit umltitud^s gatherinj;, 
>"»■ '« He was ' Tnon^d with compassion towards them.' * 
There ooald be no queslioD of retiromeDt or rest, ia view 
of tliia, Ht) muHt work whilp it waa cssWvA to-day, ere the 
nilprlit wf jndgiiient i-'Uin«. It was (Jiis depth of pity which 
now ended tlie Saviour's rest, and bi-oiiyht Him down from 
the hill to meet tJie gathering tnultitade in the 'desert' 
plain beneath. 

And what a si^ht — these thousands of mai, beades 
women and children; and what thoughhi of the past, tJie 
present, and the future, woulil Iw? called up by the eceoe. 
These Passover-pilgrims and Uod's guests, now .-streaming 
out into this deai^rt after Him ; with a tuurdert^d John just 
btiried, and no etu"thly teacher, g-uide, or help left! Truly 
■ahUnrk tliey were ' as sheop having no shepherd. ' 
^** The very Burrouodingn seemed to give to the 

thought the viiddnesa of a pictme: this wandering, sti-ay- 
ing multitude, the deeert sweep of coimtry, the very want 
of provisions. A Passover, indeed, but of which He would 
be the Pascliul Lamb, the Bread which He gave the 
Snpper, and around which He would gather those 
scattered, shepheidleaa sheep into one flock of many 
' comptiniea,' to which Hih Apostle.^ woald bring the 
bread He had bleeaed aud brolieu, to their auliicient and 
more than suSicient nouriBhiuent ; aud from which they 
would carry the remimnt^bRslietB full, after the flock 
been fed, to the poor in the ontlying plitces of 

k hw) ■ 
iat-oS ■ 

Fbeding of thk Five Thov^anh 


• 6t, Jolin 

Meantime the Savioar was moviug among them — 
■ be^nnin^ to teach them many thing'j,' ■ and 
' healing them that had need of healing.' " Yet, 
ae Ue an moved nud thought of it all, frum tbe 
first 'Hellimaelflinew what He was about todo.'^ 
And uow tho sun had paaaed its meridiau, and 
the ahfidowB fell on the surging crowd. Full of the 
tbuughtB of the grettt Supper, which was syinholiciilly to 
link the Passover of the piist with that of the future, aiid 
il3 Siwramontal cotitlimjition to ail time, He turned to 
Philip with this quBbtiou : ' ^Vhenoe iim we to buy hri^ad, 
that theee tonj eat?' Pei'hiipe there ku« souiething in 
Philip which maile it specially desirahle that the question 
'CoiiiiLBi siGold be put to him,'' At luiy rate, the answer 
johiiWT. of Philip allowed that there had been & ' need be* 
for it. 'Hiis— ' two hundred denarii (between 
sir and seven pounds) worth of bread ih not. sufficient for 
them, that every niie may tflke a little," is the reahem, not 
of unbelief, but of an absence of faith which, entirely 
ignoring any higher poeaibJlity, has not even its hope left 
iu a ' Thou knowest. Lord,' 

Bat there is evidence, also, that the question of Christ 
worked deeper thinking and higher gooii. As we uiider- 
s(«iid it, Philip told it to Andrew, and they to the otliers. 
While Jesus taught and healed, iJiey muBl huve spoken 
together of tJiis stmnga question of the Mnater. They 
knew Him aufiicieutly to judge thii.t it implied wme 
purpose on His part. Did He intend f-a provide for all 
that multitude? They counted them roughly. They 
thought of all the meana for feeding such a multitude. 
How mach Lad they of their own ? As we judge by com- 
bining the various stAtenients, there was a lad there who 
corriod tJie humble provisions of the party — ^perhaps a 
fisher-lad bi'ought for the purpose Irora the boat." 
It would tnhe quite what Philip had reckoned — 
about two hundred denarii — if the Master meant 
them to go ainl buy victuals for ail that nialtitudft. 
Probably the common Etock — at smy rate as com* 
puted by Jadus, who carried the biig — ^dtd not contain that 

John vl, D 
*it1. St. 
UaU. liT, 
17 ; SI, Mmk 

vl, 18:61. 

Lalw ii^ 13 


fasvs THE Mussr.^H 

amount. In any cose, the right and the vriae tiusg wan to 
disinisM tlie multitude, tbut t!iey might go into tLe towns 
and villages and buy for themeelvea vjctoals, and find 

Aln-ady what wiia called ' the first evening ' had set in, 
wh*>n the disciples, wbow anxiety must have been growing 
with the progi-ess of time, at<ked the Lord to di.6nii8a the 
people. But it was as they had thought. He would have 
ihem give Ihe (teople to <;at ! llow aany loaves had they ? 
•K.iiiuK I^t them go and see," And wh»Mi Andrew went 
1-M to see what store the iisher-l«I carried for them, 

he brought, hack the Lidiuga, ' He Lath five barley loavt^ 
ivnd twy 6t»uil fishes,' to whicli he added, half in disbeJief, 
half in faith's nsirij^' expootiuicy of inipossible posaibiUty: 
• at-Johii 'But what are tJiey among so ma»y?'^ It is 
''■■ to the fourth Evangelist alone that we owe the 

reoord of thin retmirk, which we inetinctively feel gives to 
the whole the touch of truth and life. It is to him alao 
that we owe two other miaiit^ traits of d«*p interest, and 
of greater iuiportauce Ibiin at firal sight Bp|«:'ars. 

Whcrij we reiKl tliiit the.-ic livi- were '"^i/i'^y-loaves, we 
learn that, no doubt from voluntaiy choice, the fiire of the 
1x>rd and of IlisfoIlowPTswas the pooreKt. Indeed, barley- 
bread wu.s, ulmusl proverbiiiily, tht* menneat. The other 
miniilv trait in .St. John's Go,-ipel cuu^iatj^ in the use of a 
peculiar word for " fish '^' opaarion,' whieh properly means 
what was eaten silong with the breaJ, and specially i-efera 
to the HUiall and genemlly dried or pickltid fish eaten with 
bread, like our 'sardines,' or the * caviar' of Russia, the 
pickled herrings of Holland and Geiinany, or a peculiar 
kind of small driod tisli, eaten with llie bonea, in the North 
of Houtlund. Now the Luke of (Jalilw was particularly 
rich in th^w Kshes, and we know that both the snlting 
and pickling of thero wus n yperiul industry among ita 
liuheruten. I'Vir this purpose a bdihII kind waM speiiidly 
(telet.-t«;d. The diminutive used by Ht. Jolm, of which our 
Authorised Version no doubt given Ihe meaning fairly by 
renJoiing it '«rniil! lisjies," it-fei-s, iTnwt likely, to thoee small 
fishes (probably il kind of .sardine), of which millions were 

-B^oma tf> rHE Five Thousamd 


luglit in tlie Liike, and whicli, dried und suited, wuiiEd 

ffiTOi the most common ' aapoiiry 'wif,li bread for the fisln-r- 
populution along the Khores. 

Only ouce nyain does the same ejcpreKsion occur, aud 
tlial ODCt! mure iu the Ibui'tb Oospel. On Uiat moiTiiiig, 
when the Riseti One nianifented Himnelf by the Lake- of 
Oalilee to them who hud atl the uight toiled in vain, ile 
hfid providtid for them niii'ncu IochI y the meal, when on the 
fire of charcoal ' they saw the well-rempmbered ' little fish,* 
and, as He bade tht>ni bring of the ' little fith ' which thf y 
had miraculously caught, Peter drew to shore the nel. full, 
not of 'little' but 'of gi-eat fiahea.' And yst it was not 
of those 'gresi tisiiea' that He gave thein, but 'He took 
•tft.jfi.i. t^'* bread and gave tbem, and the o^axion liJio- 
xii.»,lo.l' wise.'* 

There is one proof at least of the implicit faitb, or 
rather truitt, of the disciples iu their Master. They had 
given Hi)]] wcconnt of their own scanty proviBiou, and yet, 
as He bade them latike th« people sit down to the meal, 
they hesitatied not to obey. We c-an picture to ouj-aelves 

ilv. 11 

• Bt Mrvrlt 
1I, I» 

• SLJiihs 
vf. 1(1 
•at. Mart 
Tl, 9U, 

• Hi. Luke 
■■_ K 

■ SI. Hu-k 
*1, 4IJ 

the expanse of ' ^nias,' ** 'green, iiud frealu' 

' much g-niMS ; ' ** then the people in their ' com- 
pittiies'" of fifties and hiiTidrecls, rec-liuiug/and 
looking iu their regular divisions, juid with their 
bright in any-coloured di-esses, likes ■ garden- 
bed»"« oil the turf. But ou One l''igure mnab 
every eye havL' been bent. Around Him stood 
His Apostles. They had Imd before Him the 
scant provision made for their own wants, (md which was 
now to feed this groat multitude. As wan wont at meals 
on the pint of tlie head of the houHahold, J egua took the 
bread, 'bledsed' or, as St, John puts it, 'gave thanks,' 
and ' brake ' it. The exjireasion reealU tliut counected 
with the Holy Euehorist, and leaves little doubt on the 
mind that, in the Diseourse delivered in the Synagogue of 
••Bt. J11I111 Caperuauni,'' there is also reference to the Lord's 
**■"-"" fSupf)er. Asof comparatively secondary innKtrfc- 
aace, yet bi^lping us better to realise the scene, we recall 
the Jewish ordinance, that the hefid of the house waa only to 

Z20 /BSUS the iJESSlAH 

gpeak the blflasing if ha himself shtired in the meal. Yet if 
tliey who sat di>wn to it wei"e not mei'^ty gueats, but Lis 
cliildrcR, or hiH houKpholcl, tlu-n might be speak it, eveu if 
he himself did cot partake of the brBad whicK te had 

lliero cait be little doubt tliat the wortls which Jesua 
spakt-, whotht-r in Aramaean, Greek, or Hebrew, weretlios© 
»<) wi'll known : ' lik-H.S'icl nrt Thoa, Jobyv.ib our God, Kiug 
of the world, "Who cftusest to come forth bfead from tbd 
earth.* AaBUredlj it wiis this threefold ttaaght : the np- 
Wftrd tbouglil, the rei^oguitiou of the creative act as 
regnrda every pit'ce of bread we eafc, and the tliauks- 
giving — which was realised aoew in all its faloess when, 
OS lit! distributed to the disciples, the provision iiiirai:u- 
lously multiplied iu His Hands. And still tbey borp it 
from His Hands from company to couipany, laying before 
encb n atorc. Whun they were all filled. He that liiui pro- 
ridoc) tlie meal biidw tbom gather op the fragments before 
each crjmpany. So doings, each of the twelve hod hia 
basket filled. Here also we have another lite-touch. 
TboHo ' buskDUs ' known in Jewish writing's by a eimilor 
name, mndo of wicker or willows, were in common use, 
but considered of the jioorest kind. There is a Bubliun^m-ss 
of contrast that paswes description between this feast, to 
the fivB tbousanJ, besides wijiaen and tbJldj-en, and tbo 
poor's pro™ioD of harley-brend aud the two liuittll fishes; 
and, HgaitjL, between tbo quantity left and thp coar.sB 
wicker buckets in whit-h it was Htored, Nor do we forget to 
draw mentally the parallel bL-tween this Measianic feaet 
and that bunqiiPt of 'the hitter days' which Kabbiiiism 
pictured ea realistically. But as the wonden'ng multitude 
watched, aa the disciple*; gathered from company to com- 
pany the frft^mpnt-s into their baskets, the murmur ran 
thfoiigh the ranks: 'Tbia is truly the Propheb, "the 
Coming One."' 


TUB Nronr of miracles oh the lake or ge^msaret. 

(St. Idtttt. riv. 32-35! BU MarkTi. 45-56; 81. Joiin vi. 1&-21.) 

The last qutrsdon of the Baptist spoken in public had 
been : ' Art. TLoii the ComiDg One, or look we for another ? ' 
It had in part been answered, as the murmur had passed 
tJirough the ratika; 'This One is truly the Prophet, the 
Coming One ! ' So, then, they hatl no longer to wait, uor 
to look for another! An irreaistible impulse seized the 
people. They would proclaim Him King, fchen and there; 
and as they knew, prohabiy from previous atterances, per- 
haps when similar movements had to be checked, that He 
wonld resiet, tliey would coustraiii Him to declare Him- 
Belf, or at least to be proclaimed by them. 

'.Jesiis. therefore, perceiving that they were about to 
oome^ and to take Him by force, that they might nuike 
Him King, withdrew again into the mountain. Himself 
alone,' or, as it might be rendered, though not quite iii the 
modem usage of the expreasion, ' became an anthorilo 
• si.j«im again . . . Hiinself alone.'' He withdrew to 
*^' " pray ; and He stilled the people, and sent them, 

no doubt Bolenmiei-d, to their homes, by telling tbem that 
He withdrew to pray. And He did pray till far on, when 
*8t.uiii:b the (second) evening had come,** and the first 
***■" stars shone out over the Lake of Galilee. 

Por whom and for what He pniyed alone on that 
mountain, we dare not inquire. And as He prayed, out nn 
the Lake, v here tlio bark which bore His disciples miulo 
for the other shore, ' a gieat wind ' ' contrary to them ' was 
rising. And still He was ' alone on the hind,' hut looking 
out ftAer them, as the ship wa» ' in the midst of tlie sea,' 
and they toiling and ' di8tre3Bed in rowing.* 

Thna fiir, to the utmoat verge of thair need, but not 
ferther. The Lalte is altogether about six miles wide, 
and they had as yet made little more than lialf the dis- 
tance. Already it was 'the fourth watch of the night,' 


Jesus ths Messiah 

what miglit be termed tJie morning wnkli,' wlicntliP well- 
known Fonn Heemed to be passing them, " walking upon 
the eea.' Tliere can, at lenst, We no qiipstiort thafc such 
WHS the impreiision, not nnlj of one or anothpr, but tlifit 
all SftW Him. They tell na that they regarded His Form 
moving ou the wiitCT us ■ a apirib,' anti crii:ii out for frar ; 
and again, that the impression produced by the whole 
Bwne, even on them that had witnessed the miracle of tlie 
previous m?eniug', wng oneof ovenvhel m injj fl&tonishnient. 
This witlking on the water, then, wus eveu to them within 
the domain of the truly miraculnuB, and it affected llisir 
miurls t^rpiiilly, perhaps even mnre than ours, from the fiict 
thnt in their Wew ao much which to \\% aeem« miraeulons 
lay within the sphere of what might be expected in the 
courtie of such a history. 

As ri'g;irds whtit may he tt-rmed the credibility of this 
miracle this may nj^in he stated, that this ami similar 
instaTices of ' dotiiinion over the creiitui-e,' are not beyond 
the range of what God had originally asHigiiwl to man, 
when He madf) him h little lower thau the aiigek, and 
crowned him with glory and hononr, made him to have 
domiaioQ over the works of His Hands, and all thinga 
were put under hie feet.* Indeed, this ' doniiniou 
over the sea ' eesmB to exhibit the Divinely 
human rather than the humanly Divine aspect of 
Christ'* Pereon, if snch distinction may be lawfully made. 
Thie, however, deserves epecial notice : that theve is one 
marked point of difference between the account of this 
Uiii'acle and what will be found a general charnct eristic in 
leg^ndaiy narratives. In the latter the miraculong, how- 
ever extraordinary, ia ihe expected ; it creates no sur- 
prise and it ia never mistaken for something that might 
have occurred in the ordinary courw of events. For it i« 
characteristic of the mythical that tlie ininwialous is iiof. 
only introduced in the most realistic mauner. but form* 
the essential element in the conception of thiugB. Nnw 
the opposite is tbe ease in the present nan-ative. Hud it 
been niytliicol or legendary, we should have expected thnt 
' iYobably from 3 to about G AJI. 

•r*. rlll.l, 

B ; i-omp. 

OfJfrsT WAiKmo on the Water 



the disciples woiilil liave been desoriljeil as immediately 

ri-cygiiisiDg x\vs Mit-ter jim He wHlki-d oti tin-- ki'ii, iind 

worsiiippbig Him. Insttead of tliis, they ' are trouWeri ' and 

'afraid.' 'Thej- supposed it was an apparifcion' (this ia 

accordance witli popular Jewish nutions), aad ' cried out 

for iVnr.' Eve u ttlVer wards, wlien itey hiut rt;c>t!vfi,l Him 

into tJie ship, ' they were sore amazed ia IiKpdispIvpb,' and 

' iinderetoodnot,' while those in the sbip (iu coDtradistinc- 

tiou to the disciples) burst furth into an act (jf worship. 

This much then ia evident, that the disciples expected mit 

^ihe miraculous; that they were unprepared For it; that 

^■tliey explained it on what to tliem seemed natural grounds; 

Bsud tluit, even when toiiviured of ita reality, the iuipres- 

^■Bion of wonder which it made was of the deepest. 

H But their fear, which mfid& thcra almost hcfiitate to rn* 

^Ceiv© Him into the boat, even though the outcome of error 

acid i'uperstitiou, brought Hi» reudy sympathy and coui- 

tfort, in languftjfe which has so often conv>Tt.pd inisuppr^- 
beusion into tliankful asHurance : ■ It is I, be not afraid ! ' 
And thoy werf no lonjjer afraid, though traiy His walb- 
mg upon tJie wateis niight e&em more «"'esonie than any 
' apparition.' The starm in their hearts, like that on tlia 

rL»ih«, was comrnauded by His Preeeuce. We- must Htill 
Tx-ap in mind theii" former e.'^citement, now grpatJy in- 
tensified by what, they lirtd just witripssed, in order to 
mide'r»taud the request of Peter: ' Txird, if it be Thou, 
bid mu conn- to Thee on the water.' Tht:y «n^ tlio words 
of B nian whcm the excitement of the inonient has cfirrit'd 
beyond all reflectiou. And yet, with reverencp he it said, 
Christ eould not have left, the rfijueHt ungranled, tsven 
thoiij(h it was the ontcome of yet imrironcili'd and uu- 
itransfomu'd doubt nud pi'e:itiniption. And so He bade him 
[come upon the water to tranj-fuiui his doubt, but left him 
his own feelings nnan^ured from without as he aaw the 
rind, ill ordtT to transform liiw presumption : while by stretch- 
ig out Uia Hand Iaj save liliii from sinking, and by tlio 
k'ord." of correction which He spake. He did actually so point 
tJneir transfommtioQ in that liope, of which St. Peter ia 
le special representative, and the preacher intJie Chnrcb. 


/bsvs tub Messiah 

And presently, tin they twn caiae iutu fche bonl~', (iijf! wind 
oeosnd, and immetlia.tely thf. sliip wnhi }|.t tbe l&ud. Itub 
' tlipy that wore in the boat' — ii.ppareiitly in oontrailiBtino- 
tion to the disciples, tlioiigh the latter must have stood 
arouiiil in sy in pathetic reverencp? — -^ worshipped Hiin, say- 
ing, Of a truth Thou art tiie Sou of Uad.' Tlie first full 
public confession this of the fact, and m;tde not by tJie 
disciples, bat by others. But in the disciples also the 
thonghfc waft strildng deep root; and presently, by the 
Mount of Transfigiiration, would it be fpokea in the name 
of all by Peter, not ns demon nor as man tatight, but as 
tau^lit of Christ'a Father Who i^ in Heaven, 



(St. Matt. lY. I-aO ; 8i. Miwk vii. 1-23.) 

It is quite in acfordance with the abrupt departiire of 
J^sns from Capt>maum, and it-s motives, thaf. when, far from 
finding rest and privacy at Brthsiiida (east of the JonlBii), 
a greater multitudo than ever hiuJ there gathered around 
Him, which would fain have prodiiittied Ilim King. He 
rosolviMl on immediate retm-n to the wesitem shore, with 
tbe viewof se^ldng n quieti-ir retr^iat, even though it were in 
•acMBtu 'the coasts of Tyre and Sidon.'' I^^rom the fact 
»8i'M«k '^"^ St, Mark*" names BethHaida, and St. John" 
^** Capernaum, as the original destination of the boat, 

Ti.i» we would infer that Bethsaida waB tiie fishing 

quartier of, or ratier close to, Capemnnm, even as we so 
often find in oar own country a ' FiBherton ' iidjucent to 
larger towns. 

Christ had directed the disciples to steer thither. But 
'8t, Mark we gather from the exprt'ssions usi'd"^ that tbe boat 
"■'^ which bore them had drifted ont of its course — 

probably otving t« tbn wind^and touched bind, not where 
they had intended, but at Gennesaret, wlun- they moored 
it uarij on tin- Friday moruiuj^. Tiiere can Iw no 





that by this term is meant 'tlie Plain of Gennesnreb,' the 
richijesa and beiiiity of which Joseptas and tbe ILubbis 
describe in sucb glowing langri&ge. To thia da^ it iK-iirs 
marks of having been the moat fayoored spot id this 
favoured region. 

As Iihe liidinga spread of flia arriml and of the minifies 
■which had so lutoly been witnesHed, t.he people fi-om llie 
neighbouring villn^es and towus Clocked aroaiid Uim, aiid 
brought. f.heLr aick for the healing touch. So p&ssed tha 
greiatex part of the forenoon. Meantime the reporh of all 
this must have reached the neighbouring Cnpernanm. 
This brought inimedifttely on the aceno tUtise Pharisees and 
Scribes ' who had come from Jemenlem ' on purpiHC \a 
watch, and, if possible, to compsise Ihe destruction of Jenaa. 
As we conceive it, they met the Lord and His diaciplea od 
their way to Capernanni. 

Although the cavil of the Jeruaalem Scribes may hare 
been occasioned by seei ng some of the disciples eati ng with- 
oat fiffit having washed their hands, we camiot banish thu 
iinpresBioii that, it reflected on the miraculonsly provided 
meal of the previous evening, when thou^andii had sat, down 
to food without the previous observance of the Uabbinic 
Ofdioance. Neither in that case, nor ia the present, had 
the Master interposed. He was, therefore, guilty of par- 
ticipation in their offence. But, in another aspect, tlio 
objection of the Scribes was not a mere cavil. 

It bait already been shown that tlie Pharisees accooiited 
for the miracles of Christ as wrought by the power oP 
f^atan, wbone apocial representative—almost incarnation — 
they declared Jeaus to be. ThiH would not only turn the 
evidential force of these signs into an argument against 
Christ., but, viddicnte the resistance of the Phariaeee to His 
claims. The second charge against Jeans wnw, that He 
• St. j<.hn was ' not of God ; ' that Ha was ' a sinner.' ■ If 
b. i«.s* j^g could be established it would, of course, 
prove that He waa not the Messiah, but a deceiver who 
miBled the people, and whom it was the duty of the San- 
tedrin to nnniask and arrest, llie way in which they 
alLiMuytcd to uatu-blisU this, perhaps persua^led theiusylveB 

226 /ESirS TMB Mt^SSiAH 

that it w»« »o, WHS Iiy proving tlmt H<- !<auctioii^ motJiers, 
and Himself cciminitted, breaches of the traditional law. 
The third and last charge agoiust Jcbub, which fintilly 
decided the aL'tion of the Council, could ouly lie fully made 
at the closp of His cnrppr. It might he formulat*^ bo as to 
meet the views of .^ither the Pharisees or Sadducees. To 
tiie former it might he presented as a blnsphemons ctaim 
to equality with tiod — the Very Son of the Liring Godi 
To the. Sadduceea it would appear as a inoveraent on the 
part of a moat dongerous enthnsiast— if honeet and self- 
deceived, all the more daogerous ; one of thosE^ pseudo- 
Messiahs who led away the ignorant, fluperetitious, and 
excitelile people; and which, if unchecked, woidd result in 
perHecutioDS and terrible ven^ance by tJie Ruinaus, and 
ill loss of the last remnaotsof their national independence. 
To each of these three chturfjes, of which we are now 
watehinp the openinfj or development, there was (from the 
tiieu ttlaiidpoiiit) only one answer: faith in Hiit Persou. To 
tliis faith Je»UB wiis now leatling Hlb diaciples, till, fully 
ri-aliaed in the great confession of Peter, it became, and 
has ever siuce proved, the Koek on which that Chnreh 
\s, built, against which the very gates of Hndes cannot 

It was in support of the second of these charges ttiab 
the Scrilws now blamed the Maater for Allowing His dig- 
cipiea to eat wit.hout having previously washed, or, aa St. 
Mark — indicating in the word tie origin of the cnstom— 
expresses it : ' wit.h corriinon hii,nds." Tliis practice is ex- 
pressly admitted to have been, not a Law of JMoses, but 'a 
tradition of the elders,' Still, it was ao strictly enjoined 
thftt to neglect it was like being guilty of gross camal de- 
hlenient. Its omisaion would load to temporal destruction, 
or, at least, to poverty. Bread eaten with uiiwasheulianda 
was as if it had bpen filbh. In fact, although at one timO 
it Iftd only been one of the uiarka of u Pharisee, yet at a 
lat*i" period to wasli before eating was regarde«ln» nlVonliu^ 
the ready meaua of recognising a Jew, 

Let us tr\- to realise the attitude of Christ in 
to the oi-dinauceii about purificatiou, and seiek to 

onliu^ ^^ 

^(^g^rd ^| 
Uiid«r- fl 

^F CoNCEPffiyr. 'H.t.vfy-WAsmNo' 227 

efand the renwm oC II ifr iH-nring. That, in repKHtig totUe 
charge ol' llie Scribes lurniiist. Hts liibciploa, He iiritlier 
vindit-fttiyl theii;coD<1iict, nr>r upnlo^is^d for their breacb 
of Rnhbinic ortiiiifuiaw, iiiijiHfd at leant, an attitudes of 
indiffoivnci' townrds triulirioualism. Tliis ia the more 
noliceatjltr, .■*iiic«. ik* we know, tlieoi-diiiautvsof the Scribes 
were Ht'dared niopp^-inus and of more binding import- 
»n"ij tb*n those of Holy Scripture ilsvit'. But, cv«d so, 
t.In' qiK'stion might uriJie, why Chnat should haw ppovokod 
Bud) hoetility bv phLcin;^ Himself in cnarke*! antagoai^ni 
to what, aftpp ull.wiii in itself indifferent. The answer to 
this ini|iiirv will rpijiiirp a discidsm'e of ihiit aspect of 
Ruliiiinisni which has hitherin heon iivnidiiil. 

It has elsewherp lieen told how Rabbiiiieni, in the maJ- 
DefiH of its Relf-exaltution, repreNenladUodasbosying Him- 
self by (lay ivitli t.lif* stiitly nf Scxipturcs. and by ni;|,'ht 
wirh that of t,he ilisliimh ; and how, in the heavenly Saii- 
hedrin, over which the Almighty pre.'iided, the Rabbia s^tt 
iii tlie order of thi^ir {freitineas, and the Huiakhah wiia 
diseased, aad dt^JHinna taken, in acconlaiice with it. It 
is even more terrible to read of God wearing the Tfdlith, 
or that He pufca on the Phylacteries, which fa deduced 
' nn Is. Ixii. 8, lu iike manner the Alinifi:hty ia Riip- 
ii^ii to snbiint to pun ii eat ions. Similarly He immersed 
ID a bath of fire, after the defilemeut of the burial of 

Kiich details will explain how -JeBua could not have 
aftsamed merely an attitude oT indiHerenco towards tradi- 
tionalimn. His anl.agouisin was never uiurL- pronounced 
that ill what He r^aid in reply to the charge of not,'iect of 
tl)e ordinance atKJiit "the washing; of hands.' It was an 

litted Rabbinic principle that, while the ordinancps of 
ripliirc HMjuiivd no coufirniation, those of the Scnbc^ 
neede-d such, aiul tliiit no Halathah (traditionn,! law) 
might eoutradict .Scrip' lire. When Christ, tlierefoi-e, next 
procetKled to show that in n very important point — nay, 
in ' Kiauy audi lilce things ' — the Halalvhali was utterly in- 
compatible with Scripture, that, indeed, they made "void 
the Word of God' i/y their traditions which they had 

Q 1 


Jesus rrtF MessiJif 

• W Miit. 
SI. I, B : 

received,* He dealt the tieaviest blow to tra- 
^ ditionaliftm. Rahljinisui stn™! splf-coadfltiinpd ; 
on itfl own showing it wns \<\ be -rejected as in- 
compatible witJi the Word of God. 

Il, iH not so eft*y to iiiiderstand why the Lord shonid, 
oat of ' many soch things,' hare selected in illustraticm 
tlie Rabbinic ordinance coiK-erniu^ vows, as in certuin 
cireumataiioea contravening the fifth eominandmant. Of 
course, the 'Ten Words' were the Holy of Holiea of the 
Law; nor waa there any obligation more rigidly ohsprvcd 
than that of honour to pamnts. In lifit.h respects, then, 
thia wftB a specially viiliierablp point. &nA it might well lie 
argiied that if in this Law Rabbinic ordinances came into 
eonflict with tlm demands ot (lod's Word, the essential 
contrnriet.y hetiwct'ti them mrsti, Lndeed, he ^reat. 

At the outset it must be admitted that Rabbinism did 
not enconrage the practice of promiacuous vowing. The 
Jewish proverb had it : 'In the hour of need a vow ; in 
tinif of ease excess.' Toirnrtls such work-rip^hteoiianeas 
and religions gnmbling the EaHtem, and especially the 
Rabbinic -Ipw. wonld be pitrticnlarly inclined. Biit even 
the Hahbis saw tbat it,« etiroiiragement wonld lead to tlie 
profii nation of wliat was holy. Of many sJiyinga eon- 
demnatnry of the practice one will snflice to mart tJio 
general feeling: ' lie who mukoa a vow, even if he keep 
it, deserveB the name of wicked.' NevwtheleBs, the practice 
niTiBt. have attained eerions proportions, whether as reganla 
the nimiber of vows, the lightness with which they were 
made, or the kind of things which became thoir object. 
It was not necessary to use tlie express words of vowing. 
Not only the word ' Qorhan' \_Korhn}i~\ — ' given to God* — 
bnl liny fiimilnr fixpreii.'-ion would siiflice ; the mention of 
anything laid upon the altar (though not of the altar it- 
self ), such as the wood or the fire, wonld constitute a vow, 
nay, the repetition of the form which generally followed on 
the votive Qimam or Qfrrhan l)»d binding foTOe, eVWl thougb 
not preceded by these terms, 

It 18 ill esplnining ihi." strunge provision. int<.-ntTed 
both to uplioid the eolemuily of vows, and to iliuooiinga 


CoifCEffNlNG 'Vows' 


tne rash nse of wofds, that the Talmud makes nee of the 
word ' /j(i-?«J ' in a conuectioa which might, by associatiou 
of idL'as, havL' su^gpsted to Clirist the contrast between 
what the Biblt: and what the Rubbie regarded as ' eatictified 
hiinda,' and Ui-iiceU'twm'u the coDimatidi! of Gixi and the 
traditioDs of llie Eldera. For the Taliiiiid explaius that 
when a ma.L eimply says : "That (or if) 1 eat or tiiste sach 
a thmg,' it is impiitod as a vow, and he tuay not. cat or 
taste of it, ' because the band is on the Qorban '—the mere 
touch of Qojljiin had suiictilied it and put it beyond hia 
reach, jnst as if it had been laid on tLe altar itself. Here 
then waa a coiii raat. Accoi'diiig to the Rjibbit;, tht* touch 
of • a common ' hand defiled Gwd's good gift of meat, while 
the touch oi" ' ii sanctified " baud in rash or wicked ivorda 
might render it impossible to give anjtbing to a parent, 
and ao involve the grossest breach of tlie Fifth Com- 
mandment ! Such, according t-o Kabhinic Law, was the 
'coaimiiu' and SLich the ' SBiictifying ' touch of the bands. 
And did such traditionalism not truly ' make void the 
Word of God'? 

A ft;w farther paitiuuioni may aerve tu set tbia in 

I elearei- light. It must not be tJiou^ht that the pronuncia- 
tion of the volive word ' Qorhun,' ullhough ut^aning ■ a gift.' 
or 'given to God.' iieceswurily dedicated a thing to tha 
Temple. The mt-imiag might aimply be, aud generally was, 
that it was to be regarded lika Qorban — that is, the thing' 
termed was to he considered as if it were Qorfian, laid on 
the altar, and put eiitii-ely out of their reficli. For ultlioiigh 
included mxdi-r the one name, there were really two kinds 
of vtiwa; those of cotisecratiou 1o (jo<l, and those of per- 
eooul obtig»i.r.iou ^ and the latter were the lODat fi-equent. 
The legal distinctions between a vow, an oath, and ' tJi© 

than,' are clearly markod both in reason and in Jewish 

iLaw. The oath was an absolute, the vow a conditioiial 
U iiderl-aking. The ' bun ' might refer to one of three thinga : 
tliose iledicalwd for the nse of the priesthood, those dedicated 
to God, or else to a sentence pronounced hy the San- 
hedria. Absolutions &om a vow might be obtained before a 

[•sagfe,' or, in hia absence, befoi* ^ee laymen, when oil 


/ssvs THE Messiah 

obliKHtioits Ik-cuuic null uiid vuid. At rht; tmnie time tlie 
MinlintLb adiintB that iLis power of aLaolvin^ I'rom vows 
roci'iv'itl little (or, aa Maim.ijtu<le/: puts it. do) sup^jort from 

HiPi-e can be no doubt tliat the words of CTirist referred 
to sudi vows of personal obliyatioD. By these b pcrMtii 
mif,'lit bitid hiuiBelf iii rfgitrd to men or things, or else put 
that which was auotliereout orhisuwn ii-aeh. ortJiat which 
vviiHliii* own out o£'l.lit*refM:h ofauotlier, and thisrtscwiiiplcti'ly 
as if tiiB thing nr tilings had bieeD Qfjrhwn, a gift givt'ii 
to tiotl. Aod so atritigiMit wns fiie ordtuniici' tlint (aJuiOHt 
ia the worda of Ctii'ist) it is exprL'**ly elated that such a vow 
wa« bitiditig, even if what was vowed iiivolvi-d a bivfu^h of 
the Lhw. Such vow^ in regiii-d to parents were certainly 
binding, find wcrt.- iictiially niitde. Thuslhf charge brought 
by Christ is in fullest «ccordiitn.v \vit.h tlie fiicis of the ciii^e. 
More than this, tie aeoniingly inuppiy)[priatL- adtlitioo touur 
Loitl's nieutiou of the Fiftii Conitnandiaenti of the woitIs: 
' He (hot revi'eth fnther or mother, he shall (let him) 
^XluLIt snrely die.' " is not ouly explained but Wndiinlej 
by the connnon iieiige of the Rabbie, to nn-titiou 
along with a ooninmnJ thf penalty belonging to lis breach, 
so ft8 to indicate t)ie iniporr.unci^ which Scripture irftachfd 
to it. Ou the othff hand, the woide of St, Mark : ' t^or- 
ban (that is to say, gift [viz. to God]) that by whit-h 
tliou iiiij,'hteBt be pixifiicd by me,' are a moat exaci tran- 
scription into Grt't'k of the eomnum forimila of vowing, 
tin givco in the Mishnah and Talmud. 

But Christ did not merely ahow tha hyjiocrisy of the 
Byateni i>f traditiontdlsni m conioininjj in tLi* name ofre- 
ligion the greatpst ontwaitl punetiliousness with the groswest 
breach of real duty. Never prophecy uiov i-1'.iarly vin- 
dicated than the words of Isiiah to israel : 'This people 
hnuuun-lh Me mth their Hpa, but their hfart is far fiiim 
Me. Howbeit, in vain do they worsldp Me, teaching 
for doctrinBB the comma Qduienta of men.' InthuK sotting 
forth for the lii-st titne the renl character of traditionaliam, 
mill plncing Hiiiwelf in open opjjoBition to its fundamental 
priuciples, the Chiist isuunciulcd ulau fur tiic tiii>t tituv (ho 

That which Dbp/lbth a Man 

S3 J 

lUndameutul iniaciplu of &\& own interpretation of the Law. 
That Law was oot a systi-m of oxtrTiialisiu. in which out- 
ward thiu^^s aft'ecrt-d thf iimer man. It wjib munil, uuj 
tuidi'sshenl itKolf to niaii aa a moral tjeiiig. Not from writh- 
out inwards, Wt from witJiiti outwjirils: sucbwau the prin- 
caple of tht* new Kingdom, as yetling forth the Law in its 
fulness and fulfilling it. 'There Is nothing from witliont 
the man, that, ent'eriu^ into him, L-an defil« him ; but tht^ 
things which piocoed uiit of the man, thoHft ai« thwy tliiil. 
defile the niaij.' It is in this essentia! contrariety of prin- 
ciple, rather titan in any details, that tlie anapeakable 
diflereuce Iwtween Christ and all coutcniporary teachers 

As we read it, the djacussioii had taken place between 
(he Scribes and the Lord, while the niuliitude perhaps 
stood aside. But when euuncintiug the grand principle of 
vhat conatitnttMi real defilement, ' He called to Him the 
multitude.'" It wna probably while pursuing 
thiiir way to (viipt^i'uaum, when this conversation 
liad tabun place, that His discipli^s ftfterwards re- 
poi-ted that the Phariseea had been ofF-^ndod by that saying 
of His to tJie multitude. Eveo this impHfB tht^ weakness 
of the disciples : that they were not only intluenc^^d by 
tile good or evil opiuioQ of these religious leaders of 
the people, but in some measure sympathised with their 
views. Tlie answer which the Loi"d gave boie a twofoW 
aspect: that of warnini; couctniiiijjrthe inevitable fate of 
every plaiit whieh God had not planted, and that of warn- 
ing eoucemiiig the character and issue of Phnrisaic tt»ach- 
ing. aa being the leadersliip of the blind by the blind, 
whicli nnist t-nd in ruin to both. 

But even so the words of Christ are represfuteti in the 
Gospel as sounding strange and difficult to the disciples. 
Tliey were eamestv genuine men ; and when they I'eacbivl 
the home in Capernaum, Peter, as the moet conrapi^oua of 
(Jieni, broke the reserve — half of fear and half of reverence 
— whicli, despite their necessary famLliarity. eeems Ui have 
subsiMted between the MastiiT and Hiftdiaciplca. He would 
seek for binieelf and his leUow-disciplea explanation of 

• St. -Mult. 

lY. in: 

*•>.. Muck 

■jTJOW THB Mess/ah 

what Beenit>d to liim purabuUc iu tbe Slaster'e teaoTim^. 
Ue rcooivwl it in tlm fulk-st. iimiiinT. 'I'hrre was, iE<lt'ed, 
ont' part evt'n in the teaching of tJiB [-orJ, which ovcurdoJ 
witJt the higher views of the Itabhis. lliosf sins wliic-h 
ChrJHt Kt bcfori; tlii^ia ae mu of Lhe outward and invrard 
miui, and of wlmt coitnefts the two : our relati<jn to others, 
were the* outcome of ' fvil thoti^hta.' And this tW Bablua 
f»ii;,'ht. i>\|jl!Liiiing will) intioh dctnil how the heart wm 
uliki; ihi- suurfL- of strength and of wenkn«ea, of (food 
and of pvil thoughts, lovfd and Iiatud, fnvifd. lust^^d aud 
, dcwived, proving wich 8tttf«raeiit from ScriiiMiri!. But 
iwver before could they have realiswl that anything miter- 
ing from without ooiild not defile a man. Loast. of nil 
uould they jKrccivf thp final infi'reuct' wliich St. Marie 
• m.]rvh tunj; nft«>rward8 dmvi-d froni this lenchiiip; of tiie 
i!l!i.i'uu>* Liord: ' This He naict, making all meatfi clean.'' 



(8t. Jolin vi. 22-71.) 

Tee narrative now rftums to those who, ou the pieWons* 
evi.'iiiiijf, had Hfl<.T the miratmlwus meid bwu 'sv^]t tvway' 
to thuir homes. We remembiT that this hud been aft«r 
an nhortive attempt on their part to take Jeeus by force 
and make BJm their MesBiab-Kiii^;. We can understand 

Lhow the reaifetauce of Ji-sae to tiieir pui-pose not only 
weakt^ned, but in great measure neutrali-sca, the efll?ct of 
tilt' rniriicld which they had wituossed. In fact, we look 
upou this ciieck as the tifBt tnioiug of the tide of popular 
enthiisiaam. Let an hcur in uiiiid what idi-ns ii-nd oxpe^ 
tationa of nn altogether exterual character those men con- 
nected with the Messiah of their dreams. At last,, by 
some miracle more notable even than the giving of the 
Manna in the Hildempss, eatliiisiasni hud lii-en raiHcxl to 




pil^inage t« the Pteaorer, and Uteo and thtrre 
pruclaua the Galilc^an Tettcber Israel's Kin^. IT He vr«r» 
tbo Meoaah, Bucb kfbs ilis rightful titit-. Why theo did 
He so etiwiiioiQi;Iy and effectoally resifct it ? In ijfnorance 
of fiis real vUrws ooocenusg the Kiu^ip, diey would 
naturally conclude tliat it must have br^n ftom fear, from 
toisgiving, ttvm wont of belief in Himsvlf. At any rate, 
He conld Dol be the lleM-iah. Rlio wuuld not be Isnu-ra 
King. Enthusiasm of tbia kind, voce p:{in:«eed, could 
never again be kindled. Heno^foftli there were fiontinnons 
misunderstAading, doubt, and defection amcmg former ad- 
licrente, growiug into oppcwiitioti and hutrpd onto duAih. 
Kveii to tlioM? vrlio t<iuk not tJiis jK«itiot], Jesu^, Uia 
Words and Works, were henceforth a constant mystery. 
And 80 it catne that the morning after tlit^ miracutou^ 
meal fonud the vast majority of those who bad be«u fed 
«itlier in their homes or on their pilgrim-way to the T^ss- 
ovt*r at Jerusalem. Only comparatively few came back to 
wn-l; Him, where they had eaten bread at His Hand. And 
even they sought both ' a sigu ' to guide, and an explana- 
tion to give tJieiii iLa uiiderstaudiDg. 

It is tliis view of the mental and moral state of lliosa 
who, on the morniog after the meol, camt.' to eet-k .It'nua 
which alone explains the questions and answers of the 
interview at CajwruHuiii. As we read It : ' the day follow- 
ing', the muUitiule which sEochI on the other [the ts&tvru] 
«ia<! of the sen ' ' saw that Jesus was not there, neither 
• stJohB ^'^ disciples,'' But of two fact* they wero 
*i-»tiW cogniiaant. They knew that on the evening 
before only oue boat had come over, briugiug Jc»us and 
Hig di.sciple5 ; and thur J^isus had not reMinied in it with 
His disL-iples, for tliey had tteon them dt'purt, whiW .Turtu* 
remaiiii'd to diumiss thii people. In these cii-cuniiitiuicea 
tJicy prob:il>ly iiiittgiiied tliat CUriat had ri'torDtvd on loot 
by land, bying, of eniirse, iguorant of the miiw^le of that 
night. Bat the wind wlileli had been cotifraiy to the di»- 
cipies had hIso driven over to tJie eastern shore a number 
of fishing-boats from Tiberias. Those they now hired, 
aud came to Capwaiiiim. maltiug iuq^iiiry for Jesus. It 


/esus the Messtatt 

■ Yd. 01 

J8 (liflicult to ilL-t(?rtiiiue wht^ther liiB euiivyi"«iliou and ont- 
liiied ad(ii'fw« nf Clirist hxik place on the Friday at'f.i'rniioa 
and SabtiatJi niominy, or only on the Sabbath. All that 

wii know for certjiiii is (liiit. the last port, (at auy 

ni\v 'J viijt 6|j[ikeii ' in Syiiii^u;iio, us He taught 

ill t'lijMTimutii.'*' 
Wp liavpi til bi-ar in mind that the Discourse in ques- 
tion wan dolivered in the tity whifh liwl bi-eii the scene 
of HO many of OiiristH ^'ifitt lairacles, and the centra uf 
Hi* teaching, and in tlie Synagogue built by the good 
Ccntiiirinn, and of which Jairus wns the chief rnler. Agiiiti, 
it was delivered aiWr that tniraciilouM feeding which hjid 
reiaed tlie [Kipuhir (?uthnt!ii>aiu to the hi^lciit pitch, und 
alto sfter Ihiit i.-liil1iiig diiiappointment ol' th^ir Jadaistic 
bopes in Christ^ utiooBt rosistaniw to His Messiajiic pi-o- 
elamatioii. They now caine * seeking for Jesus.' in every 
sense of the word. They were outw«rdly prepared for the 
very higheet teaching, to which the preceding- events had 
led up, and thBrflbrt; they nuist receive sach, if any. But 
thoy were not inwaitlly prepared foi' it., iind tlieretbrc they 
could not understand it. Secondly, and in coiuiection 
wiHi it, we muHt rtfrnember that two high-points had been 
reacln-'d — by th« pt-ople, thitt Jesus wai!> the Messiah- 
Kinji; by tho ship's company, that Hp was the Son of 
Goci. However imjierfectly thesi? truths may have been, 
apprehended, yet the teaching of Clu-i&t must start from 
them, and tlien poiat onwards. 
, ^ jj_j, I, The queBtion : " ■ Riibbi, when earnest 

Thou hither ? ' with which they from the eastern 
shore greeted Jesus, seems to imply that they vi-ert* per- 
plexed aliout, and that some perhaps had hr-ard a vague 
rumour of thi- miracle of His fftum to the western shore. 
It was the beginning of that unhealthy craving for the 
miracnlouB which the Lord had so shiiqily to reprove. In 
nis own words: they sought Him not beeanse thwy 'saw 
signs,' but because they 'ate of the loiivea,' and, in their 
love for the miracnlou.?. ' were filled,' What brovight them 
was not thai they had diaceineH:! either thi- liigher mean- 
ing of that miracle, or the Son of God, but those caiual 

Lyfsr Dtscoij/iSB at Capermaum 



Judaistic expecthiicjea which had Iwl them to procUuin Him 
King. What they vmittul for was a Kmgilom of God — 
not ia righteousneaa, joy, and peace in the Holy Ghoitt, 
but iu uimt aud di'irik — n kingdom with mimculoua wJl- 
dei-Dea^biiiitjuetB to Israfl, and coarse uiiritciiloua triiiiiiplis 
' mx the Gentiles. Not to speak of the liiliiloiiH Mf^spid- 

baniquet which a eeusiious realism exp<-cCi'd, or of ths ■ 
ftctiievemeiitet for which it looked, every figure in wbitrli 
prophets had clc^thed the brightness of those days was first 
iiteralised, and then exag^eratt-d, till the most glorious 
poetic descriptions beeam-e. incongruous cnrimtm-ps pf 
epii'itual Messiauic expectancy. The fruit-trees were eveiy 
day, or at least every w&ek or two, to yield thi'ir riL'hcii, 
tho ficldfi tlieir harvests ; the ^raio was to stand like piilm 
trees, and to be reaped and winuow<3d without labour. 
Similar blessings were to visit the vine ; ordinary tives 
would bear like fruit-trees, and every prodnce of every 
clittie would be found in Palestine in sucb abundance and 
luxuriance as only the wildeut imagiaatiou cuald uou- 

Such wiire the carnal thoughts about the Meseiah and 
His Kiugdoui of those who sought Jesus becaiiee they ' ata 
of the loaves, and were lilleil.' Whal a contrast betwewn 
them and the Christ, as He pointed them from the search 
for such meat to ' work for the meat which He would give 
tliein,' not aa a merely Jewish Measiahj but as ' the Sun 
of Man.' And yet in uttering thia strange truth, Jesus 
could appeal to something they would undei-stimd when He 
added, 'for Him the Father hath sealed, even (iod.' The 
words, which seeai almoat iDexplicabile in this connection, 
become cleiu" when we remember that this was a well- 
known Jewish expression. According to the littbbia, ' the 
seal of God was Tftith^' the three letters of which thia 
word is comptiRed in Hebrew baing, ae was significantly 
TKiiuted out, respectively the first, the middle, and the lii:^ti 
letteri^ of the alphabet. ThuB the woi-d.'i of Christ would 
convey to His hearers that for the real meat, which would 
endure to eternal life— fur the better Myaaianic banquet — > 
they mtiat come to Uiuj, Lipywuise t'ud hwd impi'cssed upon 


Jesus thr Messiah 


Him UiH otvn seitl oF hruth, and ao tiutLeuttcated His Teacli'- 
iDg and Mission. 

• %juLu 2, Probably what now tbUows * took place at 

'^*''"'* a somewhat different time— perhaps on fiie way 
to the Synagogue. Among the niiua of the .Synagogue of 
Cftpemaum the lintel Las bei-u diBcovei'od : it bears the 
tievice of a pot of iiiaiiuH, oniamented with a flowing 
pattern of vine leaves and clusters of grupes. Here then 
were the outward fmbleiiis, which would counect them- 
Belvea with the Loni'c t*achiiig on that day. The niiracu- 
louB feeding of the multitude in the ' dt'^crt place' the 
evening before, and the Messianic thoughts which gathered 
around it, would natvirally suggest, to tJieir minds remein- 
braace of the iiiauna. That manna, wliich was angels' 
food, distillpd (as they imagined) from the. upper light, 
' the dew from above '■ — miraculous food, of all manneir of 
taste, and suited to eveiy afft^, accoi'ding to the wish or 
condition of him who ate it, but bitterneea to Gentile 
palates — ^they pspecfced the Mes^ali to bring again from 
heiiven. For all that the first deliverer, Moses, had done, 
the second- -Messiah — would also do. And here, over 
their Syiuigogne, was the pot of nianua — symbol of what 
God had done, earnest of what the Messiah would do : that 
pot of manna, which whs now ainong the things hidden, 
but whidi Elijah, wheu he came, would restore again. 

Id their view the events of yesterday muBt lead up to 
BDiiiesach HLgn, if they had any real meaning. Tht^y had 
biwu told to believe on Him as the One aiitliL-nlicut^d by 
God with the seal of truth, and Who would give them 
moat to eternal life. By what sign would dirist cor- 
roborate Hifi assertion that they might Bee iiud believe? 
What work wonid Ke do to vindicate His claim ? Their 
fathers had eaten manna in the wikleraesa. To uiideretand 
the reasoning of the -Jews, impUed but not fully expressed, 
\s& also the anewer oj Jeous, it la necessary to bear in 
mind that it wiis the oft and most anciently expresaeJ 
opinion that, although God had given them this bread out 
of heaven, yet it was given through the merit* ot Moses, 
ajiU ceased with Lis duath. Tiuci ihi^ Ji^wa hud ^rubaUy 

Christ the Bfe^d ot> Lifh 


m view, when they asked : ' Wliat work«at Thoii?' and 
Ibis waa tlie metining of Christ's emphatic assertion that 
it was not Moses w!io gave Igraol that brend. And th*a, 
by wliat inuy be designated a peculiarly Jewish turn of 
reasoning, such as only those fainiliai' with Jewish litera- 
ture can fully appreciate, the Saviour makes qaite different, 
yet to tht?m familiar, application of tlie manna, Moaes 
hiid not given it — hie merits lad notprocurMd it — bnt His 
Father yave them the true bi-ead out of heaven. ' For/ 
as He explained, 'the bread of God is that which cometh 
down fi'om heaven, and givetb lii'e unto the world.' Again, 
tJiis very Kabbinic tradition which described in anch y-low- 
inj> language the woiidei-s of that manna, also further ex- 
plained it« other and real roeaniog to be that if Wiadom 
said ' Eat of my bread and drink of my wine,'" 
it iudicat^d that the mantm and the mhraculons 
wat«r-eiipply were the aeqnence of Israel's receiving the 
Law and the ConnnaiidmBnta — for the real bread from 
lieaven was t]ie Law. 

It was a reference which the Jewe understood, and bo 
■wliich they conld not bnt respond. Yet tie mood was 
Tjrief. As Jesus, in answer to the appt-nl that He wonid 
evermore give them this bread, onci- nion* directed th^m 
to Himself — from works of ineu to the Worke of God and 
tfl faith — the passing gleam of spiritual hopy had already 
<lied out, for they liad Sfieii Uim and ' yet did not believe.' 

With these words Jesiia rnriied away from His ques- 
»8t.M"i tioners. The eult*inn sayings which now followed'' 
Ti.S7-« cuuid not liave been spoken ta, and ihey would 
not have been nndergtood by, the multitude. And accord- 
ingly we find thar. wlieii the convei-sation of Iho Jews ig 
, once more uttrodnced,*^ it takes up tlu- threcid 

wherL' it had been broken off, when JpHns spake 
of HiniRi'lf as the Bread Which hod come down from 

3. Regarding these words of Christ as addressed to tlie 
disciples, thei-e ia nothing iji them beyond their atandpoiut. 
Believing rlint Jesus was the Meaaiah, it might not be 
quite strange nor new to thein as Jews — although not 


/esus the Meshiah 

oominonlj r«cpiv(«d — ^f hat He would al the end of llie worl3 
riiine (hf pbuH dwid. Indeed, one of the names given to 
t.he Messiah has by some been dei-ived from this very ex- 
ptictancy. Again. He had wiid that it was not any Law, 
but His Person ihut was ih^ bread which came down from 
lieaven and gave life, not, to Jews only, but unto the 
world^acd tliey Imd seen liiin and believed ngt, But 
noue tiie less would the purjwse of God be accomplished in 
the totality of Hi^i true people, awd its iraHtj be expe- 
rienced by every iudividuai aiiioug tliem: 'Ail that [r he 
total number] which the Father g-iveth Me shall come unto 
We [shaU reach Me], and huii that conieth untc Me [the 
coming one to Me] I will not cast oat outside.' The 
totality of the God-giveu niiiMt n-oah Him, despite all hin- 
drances, for the object of Hi» Coniing was to do the ^Vill 
of His Father; and those who came would not be cast 
outside, for the Will of Him that had sent Him, and which 
He had come to do, was tlittt of ' We all which He has 
given ' Him, He ' should not ioae onylMny out of this, biit 
raise it up in the last day.' Again, it waa the Will of Him 
that aent Him ' that evei^one who intently looketh at the 
Son, and beUeveth on Him, should have eternal life; ' and 
the coming ones would not be cast outside, since thifl 
was His nndcrlaking and pi-omlse aa the Chiiat in regard 
• st.j.,u»rL to euch: 'And raise Mm ap will I at the last 

i. What now follows " is again spoken to 
'the Jews," and may have occurred just as th^y 
were entering the kSynugogue. To those gpiritually un- 
enlightaned, the point of difficulty seemed how ChnVt 
could claim to be the Brejid come down from heaven. His 
kiioivn parentage and early history forbade anything like 
a lit^i-at interpretation of His Words, 

Yet we ninrt that what Jesua now spake to ' tbe Jews' 
was the same in subslanre as, thmish diifereiit in applica- 
tion fi*om, what He had just uttered to the disoiples. This, 
not merely in regard to the Messianic predictiion of the 
Resurrection, bnt even in what He pronounced as the jodg- 
mcntcia their murinuriug. The words : ' No man can oom* 


' TT. tl-il 

CifRisT TNR Bread of Lrr/> 


to M^e, exc^ipt tVift Fut.ln-i- Which hatJi si?iii Me draw him,' 
pi¥v<-iit only the ixinverse asppct. of tliose to llie disc-iples; 
' All that which the Father giveth Mw sSiall come unto Me, 
and him that coiiieth unto Me I will in no wise cast out.' 
No inau can coTn& to the Christ — such is tJie condition of 
the hamau niiud and li^-art liiat coining to Christ kh a 
disciple is not an oiitwardj hut an tuwai-d, impossibility — 
except, the Father 'draw him,' And this, again, not in 
the sense of any constraint, but in that of the perBonal 
Dioral infliicnc'e and revelation, to which Christ afVt'i'wards 
• St. John roHira wh^n He aiiit.h : ' And T, if I be lifted up 
*"■ *' fi-om the earth, will draw all nien unto myself.' ' 

Mor did Jesus, while uttering theee entirely un-Jewish 
truths, forget that Be was spt-akin^ to Jews. The appeal 
to their own Prophets was the more telling, that Jewish 
tradition also applied these two prophecies (Is, Uv. 13 j 
Jer. xxJti, 34_) to the teafhiog by God in tlie Messianic 
Age. But the esplanatitiu of the mauiier and issue of 
God's teaching was new: 'Everyone that lialh heard from 
the Father, and learned, cometli unto Me.' And this, not 
by Bomii external or realistic contact with God, such as they 
regarded that of Mosee iu the past, or expected for tbetu- 
BeJvea in the latter days; only 'He Which is from God, 
He hath seen the Father.' But even this might sound 
general and without exchisive reference to Christ. So, 
also, might tills statement aeera : ' He that beliereth Lath 
eternal life.' Not so the final apptieation, in which the 
eubject was curried to its uUimate hearing, and all that 
might have seemed general or mysterious plainly set forth. 
The Personality of Christ 7Cim the Bread of Life: 'lam 
tsuJoha *h« Bread of Life."'' The Mimna had not been 
t!.*s hreiid of lil'e, for those who at*i it had died, tbt-ir 

earcoseft had tallen in tlie wildemesB. Not so in regard to 
this, the true Bread from heaven. To share in that Food 
waa to have everlasting life, a life which the sin and death 
of unbelief and judgment would not cut short, as it had 
that of them who hud eflteii the Manna and died in the 
wilderneas: 'the Brend that I will give is My Flesh, for 
the life of the world.' 

240 jESlfS TUB MsSsrAff 

h. These wordB, so sig-nilicattt (o ns, as pointing oat 
the true meaning of all His teaching, must have aoundod 
moBt tnyaterions. Yet tlie fatrt that t.iiey stroPL- about their 
meaning elioiys tliat tliey must luive bud aotne glimmer of 
apprehension that Ihej bore on His sBlf-siirrender, or, aa 
they might view it, His innrtyrdom. This last point ia 
*st.jDhD set forth in the ecincJudin^ Discourse," which we 
TiiiBsa kuowtohavf ijceii dflivertHi iu tJie Synagogue, 
whetlicr before, -daring, or afler, His rpg-utar SatbutJi 
address. It was not u mere martyrdom for the hfe of the 
world, in which all who benefited by it woidd Bha,re^ — but 
permiitu.! fellowship with Him. Eittiog the Flesh and 
drinking thn Blood of the Son of Man, such waa the neces- 
saty condition of Becunn^ eternal life. It is impoaaible to 
mistake the primary reference of these words to our per- 
sonal npplication of His Deatli and Paasion to the def^ppst 
need and hunj^tir of our kouIb ; niost diliiciilt, also, to resist 
the feeling that, see^ndarily, they referrrd to that Holy 
Feaijt which tibowe foiih thut Deatli and l^afsion, aiid la to 
alt time it^ retiii'uibranco, flyinbol, seal, and fellowship. 

6. But to tht^iii liliat heard it, nay even to many of His 
diacipleB, tJiia was un hard aayini^. It waa a thorough dia- 
enchantment of all their Jniluio illusions, au. entire upturn- 
ing of all tlifir Mussiftuic thoughts. The ' ni^af and 
'drink' fi-oin lit-avcn which had the Divine seal of 'troth' 
were, according to Cliriet's touching, not ' the Law,' nor yet 
Israel's pri"vileg«?B, but fi*llowship with the Person of Jesits 
in that slate of humbleness (' the son of Joseph '"), 
nay, of martyi'dom, wliich His words «rtemed to 
indicate, ' My Flesh h the true meat, and My BlcMjd is 
the true drinlt : ' " and what even this fellowship 
secured conei-'ted only in abiding in Him and 
• fw.M g^ ui tht'm;'* or, as tbey would undeiBtand it, 
in inner coinmnnion with Him, ajid in Bharing His con- 
dition and views. 

ITiough they apiikt it not, this was the rock of offence 
over which tliey stumbled and fell. And Jt^.-^ns read their 
thoughts. If tJiey stumbled at this, what when they came 
to contemplate the far more myatenuus and un-Je^visJi 

* TSr. Dft 

Christ the Bsbad op Lipb 


■suohnvi. facts of the Messiah's Crucifixiou iiiid Asieijeion!' 
" Truly, not outward following, but only inward 

and Bpirihial life-quickeniDg could be of profit— even in 
tie case of tliose who heard the very Words of Christ, 
which were spirit and hfe. Thua it again appeared, and 
moet fully, thiit, monilly speaking, it was alwoluteiy im- 
'TB<.«- P<is9ible to come to Him, evfo it' Hie Words 
•ro^rr.' were heard, except under t-be gracioas iiiOnence 
from above.'' 

And so tliie was the great msiB in tJie History of the 
Christ. We Uiive traced Ih.' j^adual growth and develop- 
ment of the popidnr movement, till the murder of the 
Baptist stirred popalar feeling to its imnoat d^ptli. With 
his deatli it seemed aa if the Messianic hope, uwakened by 
his preacliing und teetimony to Christ, were fading from 
view. It was a terrible diHiippointuient, not easily home. 
Now mnst it tie decided wlielher Jeans were really the 
Messiah. Hia Worka, uotwithstandiug what the Pharisees 
said, seemed to prove it;. ITiat miraculous feeding, th&t 
wildemeas-cry of Hosanna to tie txalilean King-Measiiili 
fixim thoTiaanda of Galilean voices— what were they bat ila 
begmning ? All the greater was the disappointment : Grst, 
in the represeioTi of the niovement — so to apeak, the retrt-at 
of the Messinb, Hia volnntary abdication, rather, His 
defeat ; then, next day, the iacongruousnesa of a King, 
Whose few uuIeAmed followers, in their ignorQni>e and an- 
Jamsh aeglect of most sacred ordinancee, outrnged evei-y 
Jewish feeling, and whose conduct was even vindicated by 
their Master in Ek general attack on all traditioudism, that 
baais of Jndaisni — as it might be represented, to the con- 
t«iapt of religion and even of comiiion truthfulDeas in the 
denunciation of solemn vows ! This waa not the Messiah 
-Bt.Mait, Whom the many — nay, Whom almost any — 
«*■■ '> wonld own." 

Here, then, we are at tJie parting of the two wuya ; 
and, jo8t Iwcsoa* it was the hour of decision, did Christ so 
clearly set forth the highest truths concerning Himself, in 
opposition to the views which the multitude ent^irtained 
about the Messiah. The resolt was yet another aud a sorer 

342 Jesus THt M&SSfAH 

defeotioD. 'Upon this many of Ilia disciples went back, 
-BLJoba fin^ walked no niorii' with Him.'" Nay, lU© 
»i.M scoircliing trial reached even unto the hearts of 

the Twelve. But one thing kept them true. It was the 
experience of the past. This was the bnsis of their presoiit 
faith uiid ulk'giftuCL'. Iln'y could tiut go back to tlicir old 
past; they must cl<*n7e to Him. So Pt'ttr spake it in 
name gf ^om aU : ' Lord, tt whtim shoU we go ? Words 
'of Eternal Life hast Thon ! ' Niiy. aud more thau this, 
aa the WBult of what they had Imnied : 'And we have 
believed and know tlittt Thou art the Holy One 
"'"•'^""' ofGod;* 

But of these Twelve Chriat kiif w one to be ' a devil '^ 
like that Angt-l, fallen from highfsf height ro lowest dt-ptli. 
The apostasy of Judae had already commenced in his hetirt. 
And the greater the jxipnlar esjjectaiicy and diaappoiiit- 
ment had been, the greater tlie reaction and the eiunity 
that ibliowed. 



(at. Miitu IV. 31-2B ; St. Mark vii. 2-1-30.) 

The pwrpo&e of Christ to withdraw Hia disciples from the 
excitement of Ga.Iilc*', jind from wliat might follow tiio 
esecatiou of the Baptist, had lieen iDterniptfid by the 
eventis at BethHaida-Juliaa, but it was not changed. 

A comparatively ahort. journey would bring JcsnS niid 
Hia compatiions from Cftperraiim 'into the parts,' or, as 
St. Mark more eiieci fit-ally caJla them, ' the borders of Tyre 
and Sidou.' At that time thie district extended, noi-th of 
Ualilee, Iroiti th« Mediterraueaa to the Jordan.. But the 
event about to he relatsd occurred, as ftll circonistancM 
show, not within the territory of Tyrv and iSidou, bat on 
its borders, and within the limits of tlie Land of Isrnel. 

The whole circiuuBtauc«e seem to point to more than a 
night's rest in that distant bututi. Fui^sihly, the two iirst 

• X>» te. 1 

The SyRo-Pfttn.vicfAN Wo.\fAf/ 343' 

I^is90ver-d8j*ft may have bi-eu spi-iit hcnv. Artiordmg' to 
St. Miu'k, Jesus ■ wonlil liitve uo ioud feuuw ' HU PresBiice 
in thiit pliicf, 'but lie could not be hid,' ancl the fame of 
His Presence apreiiding into tLe neifjfhboiiriiig district of 
TjreandSidou rejiched the mother of the deiiiotiised child. 
All this implies a stay of two or thi-ee davh. And with 
tliis also agrees the affer-t'omplaint nf the dist^ipW: ■ Send 
• m.Uftet. hf"* nw'fty. t'ni' «he crieth after uB." " As tlie 
"e'Wii: Sftviour appareutly receivfl the woman in tlie 
mkw houac* it Beems that she innat hava followed 
eome of the disciples into Galilf^e, entresitiufr their help ur 
intertessiou in atuanner that, attracted the attention wliieli, 
according to the will of Jeaus, they would fain have avoided, 
■before, in her despair, she ventured into the presencB of 
Chrigt within the house. 

She who now sought help was, as St. Matthew 
calls her, from the Jewish standpoint, " a Ca- 
naanitiBh" woniau,' by whieli term ik Jew would 
designute a native of Phceniciii.. or, as St.. .Mark calls Ler, 
a Syro-PhcBiiician (to distinguish her country from Lybo- 
Phtenicia), and 'a Greek' — that is, a teatlien. But via 
can understand liow she would, on he^aring of the Christ 
and His mififhty deeds, seek His help for her child with tlia 
most intense earnestness, and that, in so doing, she would 
'SI. UuK approach Him with lowliest reverence, falling 
'*-*' at Uis Keet. ■* But what, in our view, fnruiahea 
the explanation of the Lord's bearing' towards this womaiL 
ie her mode of addressings Him : ' O Lord, Thou Son of 
David!' This was the most distinctively .lewiah appellation 
of the Messiah -■, and yet it ie emphatically stated of her 
that flhe was a hi?atlien. 

Spoken by a heathen, these words were, if used witli- 
ont knowledge, an address to a Jewish MeBsiah, Whoaa 
works were only niiracLee, and not aLso and primarily signs. 
Now this was exactly the error of the Jews which Jasiis 
had eacouDt^red and combated, alike when He resisted tha 
attempt to make Him ICin^, in His reply to the Jeru- 
eatem Scriber", and in His Jiiseoui'sea at Ciiperiiauni. To 
bare granted her the help .she so entreated would have been. 

244 /£sus THB Messiah reverse the wlioleof HiBTeactiDg-jfindtonuJce 
His woi-ks of healing merely works of power. In her 
mouth, the designation meant aouietHng to which Christ 
could not have yielded. And yet He could not refuse her 
petition. And bo He lirst taught her, in such manner aa 
she could HndepolaTid, that which nhe nei-ded to know — 
the relation of the heathen to the Jewish worW, and of both 
to the Messiah, and then He gave her what she asked. 

She had spoken, but Jesue hod auswered her not a 
mird, Wheo the dieciplee — in eome meaanre, probably, 
still sharing the views of this heathen, that He was the 
Jewish Meeuioh — without, indeed, interceding for her, 
neked that ehe might be sent away, because she waa 
trouble60iDe to them. He replied that HieHittaion was only 
to the lost aheep of tJie house of Israel. ITds waa true, as 
regnrded His Work while upon eaHh ; and true, in every 
SBDse, Hi we beep in view the world-witle bearing of the 
Davidic reign and promises, and the real relation between 
Israel and the world. Tliua baffled, as it might seem, she 
cried uo longer ' Son of David,' but ' Lord, help me.' It 
was then that the Epecial teaching rame in tlie manner she 
could understand. If it were aa ' the Sou of David ' 
that He was entreated— if the heathen woman as snch 
applied to the Jewish Messiah as such, what, in the Jewish 
view, were the heathens bat 'dogs,' and what would be 
fellowship with theiu but to cast to the dog«— houae-dogs, 
it may be — v»hat should have been the children's bread ? 
And, cerlainly, no expreaaion more common in the mouth 
of the Jews than that which designated the heatJiena as 
dogs. Most harsh as it was, aa the outcome of nationa! 
pride Rnd Jewish aelf-asBertion, yet in a sense it waa true, 
•Her wu '''"^*' tl'os* w'dk'in Were the children, and those 
»» ■ ■ ■ \L-\ihout ' ' dogs.' ' 

Two leasona did she learn with that instinct-libe 
rapidity which Christ's personal Presence seemed ever and 
again to call forth. 'Yea, Lord,' it is as 'ITiOu sayeat. 
heetheuisni stuads related to Judaism aa the house-dogs to 
the childri™, and it were not meet to rob the children of 
their bread in order to give it to dogs. But Thine ovm 


wui'ds allow that such would not now be the oiise. If fhey 
are house-doga, tihen they are the Mns^pr's and nridpr Hia 
t-able, and when Ho breaks the bread to Ihe children, in 
the bmakiug of it the orumbs iiiDBt full iLiMuud. 

Bub in so saying she was no longer ' under the table,' 
bat had eat down at the tnble with Abrtiham, Isaac, and 
Jacob, and was partiikei- of the children's bread. He was 
no longfer to her the Jewish Messinh, but truly 'the Son 
of David.' She now understood what ebe prayed, and elie 
wj(M a daughter of Abrnlmm. And thftt which had taaghfc 
her all this was fatth in His Pergon and Worli. as not only 
jnat enough for the Jews, hut Buonf^h and to spare for all — 
children at the table and dogs under it ; that in and with 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Piivid, all natioriB were 
blessed in Israel's King and Messiah. And so it wits that 
the Lord said it : ' O woman, great is thy faith : be it 
done unto thee even as thou wilt.' Or, as St., Mark puts 
it, not qootitig the very sonnd of the Lord's words, bat 
their impresaion upon Peter : ' For this saying go tliy way ; 
the devil ia gone out of thy daughter.' ' And her daughter 
•stUiit. ^"^'^ healed from that hoiir.'' 'And she went away unto her house, and found her daughter 

prostrate [indeed] apon the bed, and [but] th© demon 
gone out." 



<8t. Mall,. IV. 2D- 3L; St, Ma/k Hi, 31-37 j -riii. S2-2e i 
St. Mntl, -a, 3V-3I.) 

If even the brief stay of Jesus in that friendly Jewish 
boui(» by the borders of Tyre n.mld not reinaiu unknown, 
the fame of the healing of the Syro- Phcenician maiden 
would soon have rendered impossible tha,t privacy and 
retirement, which hail bet'u the chief object of His leaving 
Gftpemkum. Accordingly, when the two Paschal days 
were ended, He resumed His journey, esteiiding it far 
beyond any previously undertaken. The borders of 


Jbsus the Messiah 

Palestine proper, tbough not of what the Rabbis reckoned 
as belonging to it, ' were passed. Making a long circuit 
tlirough the territoiy of Sidon, He descended — probably 
througli one of the pasaea of the Hermon range— into the 
country of the Tetrarch Philip. Thenfe He continued 
'through tlie midat of the borders of Decapolis," till He 
fince more peached the eastern, or aouth-eantem, shore of 
tile Lake of GaUlee. It will be reuiembered that the 
Decapolis, or confederacy of ' the Ten Gitiea.' was wedged 
in between the Tetrarchiea of Philip and Autipaa. Their 
political conatihition was that of the free Greek cities. 
They were subject only to the Governor of Syria, and 
formed part of Coele-Byrift, in contTadistinction to Synv 
Phcenicia, Their privileges dated irom Pompey's Cimt.'. 
It is iinport.aQt t^ keep in vipw that, althongh Jesn^i 
was now within the territory of ancient Israel, the district 
and all the surroundings were essentially heathen, although 
in closeat proximity t^ tbnt which was purely Jewish. Sr. 
• si, Matthew " gives a general description of CliriBt'a activity there. 

They have heard of Him as the wonder-worker, these 
heathens in the land eo neaj' to, and yet so far from, 
Israel : and they have brought to Him 'the lame, blind, 
dumb, maimed, and many others, and laid them at His 
Feet, All disease vanishes in presence of Heaven's Own 
Life Incarnate. It is a new era — larael conquers the 
heathen world, not. by force, bnt by love ; not by outward 
means, but by the manifestation of life-power from above. 
Tnily, thie is the Messianic conquest and reign; ' and they 
glorified the God of Israel.' 

One apetiial instance of miraculous healing is recortled 
by St. Mark, not only from its intrinsic intoreat, bat, per- 
haps, also, as in some respects typical. 

1 . Among those brought to Him was one deaf, whose 
epeech had, probably in consequence of this, been so affected 
as practtoftlly to deprive him of ite power. This circum- 
stance, and that he is not spoken of as so aEdicted trom his 

' For the Rabbinic views of the boandftriw «£ FaleatUs *•• 
'SkeictieBOt Jewish Soui&l Liife,' oh. ii. 



birth, lends us to infer tliat tlie affection waB the reanlt of 
diii>-a.te, and not cdngeiiilal. Reiiu'iiiK'-ring tlifit alike the 
eubjcct of the nmuule iiud they who brought him were 
heathens, but in cf-iiriinut Bnd plose contact with Jews, 
what folloivB is vividly true to life. The entreaty to ' lay 
liisirand upon liiiu' whb heiithen, nnd yet Bemi-lewish 
(viso. Quite pL'ciilitir it i&, whcu. tht- Lord took him aside 
from the roullitntle; and again that, uRJng a means of 
healing acccpt>''d in popular opinion of Jew nnrl Gentile, 
* lis Bpat,' appiying it directiy to the dist/ased orjran. We 
read of t.hedirect uppliciitjon of aalivw ouly Jiert) liud in the 
■tiLMuk healing- of the blind man at Bethsaida.' We are 
siii.M dispose<l to regard this as pecuUarto the healing 
of Gentiles. Peculiar, also, is the term expressive of 
burdeu on the miiid, when, 'looking up to heaven, Ho 
sighed.* Peculiar, also, is the ' thrusting ' of His Fingers 
iiito I he man's ears, and the touch of his toiiiriie. Only 
the upward look to lieasen, and the command ' Ephphafcha' 
— ' be opened' — seem the same as in Ilia everyday won- 
ders uf healing. But we mark that all here seemti more 
elnhorate tlmii in Israel. The reason of this mnat, of 
course, be sought in the moral condition of the person 
healed. There is an EiociionilHtion of means, yet each and 
ail inadequfite to effect the purpuBe,bat all connected witJi 
Hi.« Per.'iou. This elaborate use of such means wo«ld 
banish the idea i>f uui.ijic; it would aroiiee the attention. 

tBod fix it uiJon Clirist as using these nu'iiiis, which wera 

'all ooniieded wich Hisoivn Per^-on. 

It was in vain to enjoin silence. Wider and wider 
spread the unbidden fame, till it wns t'(iut.'ht up in this 
hymn of praise: 'He liatli (lone ;dl tilings well — He 
makifth even the deaf to hear, and ih'/ dumb to spenk.' 
►bi, Miirt 2. Another miracle is n-corcM hy St. Mart,* 

l«ii, s3-ae as wrought by Jef-us in th--He parts, nnd, aa we 

^fer, on a heathen. All the circumstaacej arc kindred to 
just related. It was in Beth sitida -Julian that one 

^blind was broaght nnto Him, with tlie entreaty that Ha 
would touch him, — ^just as in the ciise of the deaf and 
dumbb Here, also, the Saviour took him aside — ' led him 

24S Jrsus the Messiah 

out. of tJift village '^and ' spat on hia eyes, and put His 
Hands upon bim.' Wt murk not only tiie similarity of 
the m^ans emplcnjf'd, but tie same, and even greater e!a- 
boTfttenoss in the use of them, since a twofold tondi is 
ri»corded before the man aaw elearly. So far as we can 
jadge, the object was, by a gradual procesa of healiug, 
to ^abaae the man of any idea of magical cure, while at 
the sitme time the process of healing iigaiu markedly 
centred in the Person of Jegus. Willi this also agrees (as 
iti the casii of the deaf and dumb) the use of spittle in the 
liealing. We may heie recall that the use of saliva was a 
well-kiiown Jewish remedy for affections of the eyes. 

3. Yet a thirtl miracle of healing requires to be li«re 
considered, ftltKoUf|;li ivlated by St. Mattliew in aiiotter 
• Bi, Kiiit. connection." But we have learned enough of the 
to. sj^i stroctiire of the first Gospel to know that il» 
arrangement i-s det^ernuned by the piaii of the writer rather 
than by thBchronoio^cat succession of events. The man- 
ner in which the Lord healed the two blind men, the 
injunction of silence, and ths notice that none the less 
they spread Hia fume in all that Inmd, seem to imply that 
He was not. on the ordinaiy scene of His labours in 
(ialilee. Nor can we fail to mark an internal analogy 
between this and the other two miracles enacted amidst ft 
chiefly Grecian popniatlon. And, strange though it may 
soniid, the cry with which the two blind men who sought 
His help followed Him, ' Son of David, have mercy 00 ob,' 
comes more fieqnently from Gentile than from .Tpwiah lips, 
ft was, of coui'se, pre-eminently the Jewish designation of 
the Messiah, the basis of all Jewi«h thought of Kim. Bat 
we can tinderRtaml how toOenlilea who riHBidfd in Palestine 
the MesHiah of Israel would chiefly stand out .^s ■ the Son 
of David.' [t was the most really, and, at tbe same time, 
the moBti nniviprsal, ffirm in whifh the grent Jewish hope 
could be viewed by them. 

Peculiai' to tiii.? Iiistory is the te.sting qaestion cf 
Christ, whether fihev really believed what their petition 
implied, that He »v;is able to rrgton- their aighl : and, 
again, His etem, almost pa^sionatu, iosiatence on their 



silencp as to the mode of tlielr cure. OdIj on one uthet 
occasion do we read of the same inaistence. It is, when 
the lopcr bad espreesed the same absolute fiiith in Obrist's 
ability to heal if He willed it, and Jesus Lail, as in tlie 
case of i^heye two blind men^ confciTed the IjfiDi'fifc \tj the 
■sLUirti, touch nf His Hand." Ln both these cases, it is 
*»• *' remarkable tiiat, along with strongest faith of 

those who came to Him, there was rather ao implied l,hiiu 
an expj-L'i-se.d petition on their part. The lep'r who bnelfc 
before Him only said: ' Lord, if Thou wilt, Thou canst 
make me clean ; ' and the two blind men : ' Have mercy on 
ns, Thoa Son of David,' Thna it is the highest and most 
realiFitig faif.h whi cb is niosrt. absolute in its trust, a nd moet 
reticent as regards the details of its request. 




(St. Matt. lii. 1-21; St. Miurfc ii. SJ-UL 6 ! 8t. l-uke vi. 1-11.) 

Is grouping together the three miracles of healing d&- 
acribed in the la«t chapter, we do not wish to convey that 
it is certain they had taken plaee in ppei-ii>ely that order. 
Ftom their position in the Evangelic narratives we inferred 
that they happened at thnt particular period andeiiat of the 
•Jordan, They differ from the events about to be related 
by the absence of the Jerusalem Scribes, who hntig 011 the 
fiMjlsti-'p* of Jesat;. AVhile the Saviour tarried on the 
brirdere of Tyre, and thence passed through the terri- 
tory of Sidon into the Dt'capolis and to the tsoiitheni and 
eastern shuits of the Lake of Gahlee, they were la Jeru- 
salem at the PaaBOver. But after the two festive da^-a, 
which wonld reiiuire th^ir attendance in the Temple, they 
seem to liax-e i-eturned. And the events about tn lie 
related are rhmnoio^irully diatinguished from bhoho tliat 


bad pi'ecedtfd by this pri-^cin-t) unJ opposition of the Pha- 
TiBiiie pitrty. The Conti-st no'W Lt^comfs iiiiiifi decided aud 
sharp, and we nrp rapidiy neiirinf^' the pt^riod wlifn He, 
Who had hitherto been chiefly preaohing the Kingdom, 
and healing body and sonl, will, throug:h the liostility of 
tJie leaders of Israfl, .^utpr on the second, or prevftilingly 
negative stag^ of His VVoi-k. 

Where fundamental princiiik'swtTHao dii-eetly contrary, 
the wcHsion for couflict couij not be long wanting, lu- 
daod, nil that. Jeeiis taught must linvf scemad to thpBP 
PhnrisoeB atraugely un-Jewish in Cii&t and directioD, even 
if not in t'orai and words. But ebierty would tliia be the 
case m ro^ard to that on which, of all else, thp Phftr[st'>.'3 
laid niOBt stress : the observance of the Sabbath. On no 
other subject is Rabbinic teaching more minute and more 
manifestly incongruous to its profeiJfied object. For, if we 
lightly upprehend what uticlttrluy tbi^ complicated and in- 
tolerably burdensome laws and rules of the Pharisaic 
Sabbat li -observance, it was to secure, negatively, absohite 
rest from ail labour, and, poair.iFciIy. to n\akv the Sabbath 
a delight. Th* Misltnah iucludfs Habbath-ilcsetTraliuu 
among those most lieioons crimes for which a man was to 
be atoned. This, tben^ was their lirst care : by a series of 
compli<-'ated ordinances to niakf a breach of flie •Sabbath- 
rest impossible. The nest object was, iti » aimilarly ex- 
ternal manner, to make the Sabbath a delight. A special 
Sablinth dress, the best that could be pi'ocurei] ; the choicest 
food, even though a man had to work for it all the week, 
or public charity were to supply it — such were some of tlie 
mcanfi by which the day was to be honoured and men were 
to find pleasure thi^rein. The etraiigi'st sturifS are told, 
how, by the purchase of the most expfnaivediwhcfi, the piouB 
poor had gained nn.'*peabable merit, and obtamed, even on 
«>arth. Heaven's manliest reward. And yet, by the side of 
tiieae and Bimilar misdirections of pifiy, wecotne ais^o upon 
that which is touching, beautiful, and cvoii !*pu-Ltuiil. Oa 
the Sabbath there must be no moiiruiog, for to the SabbatJi 
• In Vmi. X. app^PS this saying : ' " The blesBing of the Lord, 
it maketh rich, and He addetb no sorrow with 

tfaiC ■ 

• Ki.n.8 

Thr Plucking op tue Eaks of Cokn 251 

Qnita nluiif was the SiibbalJi atnonf/ the ineasiires of timsL 
K very other day bad been paireii ivith ite fpiiow; not so-] 
the Habbatli. Ajid so any festiviii. f ven th*- Day of AtOQa* 1 
raent, might be t.ransfeiTed to anollier day: not eo the < 
obsen'ance of the Sabbfith, Nny, when the S:ibbath com- 
plainpd before God that oY all days it ivldiie stood solitary. 
Uod had wedded it to Ifiratfi ; aiicj this holy niiiim God lifid 
bidden His ppi>pb' ' i*f»iiipmber,'* when theystotid 
before the Mount. KvL-n the tortures of Gehenna 
were intermitted on that holy. Fifi.ppy day. 

Jewish Law suffidenUy explains the controversies in 
which the Pliarinaie party now t-ngaged with JeauB. 
these the first was when, going through the comfiehls on] 
the SabbatJi, His clieciples b«*g«n to pluck and eat the e»P8^ 
of corn . 

This first Sabbeth-controversy is immediateiy followed 
by that eonnBct.ed with (lie heating of the man with th« 
withered hand. From St- Matthew w\A St. Mark it niiglit 
sppear as if this had occurred on the itanie day as the 
plucking of the pars of fioni, bat St. Luke onrrects any 
possible misuiidprstandiug by t-etiing us that it hap|>eiied 
'on another Sabbath' — perhaps that follnwing the walk 
through the comiieids. 

Iti was probably on Ihe Sabbath after the Second Pas 
chal Day that, ae Christ aiul His disL'i|tles pussed throtigli 
*Rt Mit- cornfield-i, Uia disciples, being hungry,'' as they 
"S^M » "'ent." plucked ears of eorn and ate them, hasTng 
*8tLnk» nibbed off the hueka in their hands." On any 
• Ptat.iojii. Q^iy^ry ^^y t|j{g wouJd have been lawful.* but 

on the SabbatJi it involved, according to Rabbinic statuten, 
at least two sine. For, according to the Talmud, what 
was really one labour, would, if made up of several acta, 
«ach of them forbidden, amount to several acta, of laboar, 
each involving sin, punishment, and a sin-offerini,'. Now 
in this case, there were at least two such acts involved: 
that of plucking the eara of com, ranged under the sin of 
reaping, and that of rubbing them, which might be ranged 
under sifting in a sieve, threahing, sifting out fruit, grind- 
ing, or fanning. 


Jesc/s the Messtah 

HoHing vip\75 likf> thflse, the PhatiaL-es. who witnessed 
the contliict of the diaciplea, wouh] Lixtm-ally coudt;iiiii 
what ihpy niitst have rej^ajded as gross tli'secrntion of tiie 
Subbatlu Yet. it was clearly not a bneinL'h of the Biblical, 
but of the Eabbinic Law, Nut only to nhow tliein their 
error, bat to lay down prini:i|iie8 wWcIi would foe ever 
apply to this difficult queslioii, was the objwt of Christ's 
reply. Unlike the others of the Tt^ri CotnnKuiiltn'iits, the 
Sabbfith Law has in it two etfinente : thw moral aud the 
ceremoniiil ; the eternal, and that which is BubjV-ct to time 
and place; the inward and spiritual, and tho outward (the 
one as the mode of reiilising^ the other). In their distinc- 
tion and 8epnr«tion liee the dlHiculty of the B»bject., In 
its spiritual aud eternal element, the Sabbath Law em- 
bodied the two thoughts of rest for worship, and worship 
which pointed to rest.. The keeping of the seventh iluy. 
and the Jewish mode of itfl obRci-vauce. were the temporal 
and outward form in which these eternal principles were 
presented. Even Rabbinism, in some mesEiire, perceived 
this, It was a principle that danger to the life of an 
Israelite, but not of a heathen or Samaritan, superseded 
the Sabbath Law, and, iodwd, all other obliyationa. It 
was argued that a man was to keep the commandraeats 
that he might live — certainly not, that by so doing he 
might die. Vet this other and kindred principle did Rab- 
binism lay down, that every positive commandment Ruper- 
sedod the Sabbath-reat, This was the ultimate viiidicutioD 
of work in the Temple, although certainly not it? o^planiw 
tion. Lastly, we should, in this connection, include ihifi 
important canon, laid down by the Ilabbis: 'a single 
Ilabbiiuio prohibition is not to be heeded, where a graver 
tiiatt^ir is in qnestion.' 

These points must be kept in view for the proper 
understanding of the words of Christ to the Scribes. For, 
while going far beyond the times and notions of His ques- 
tioners, Hia rensoning must have been within their oom- 
prehenaiou. Hcnct* the tirst argunieui. of our Lord, ae 
recorded by all the Synoptists, was taken from Biblical 

history. Whcu, on his 


rfuiii 8iiui, Duvid bud. 


*wten an liujiy«i-ed,' eaten of the Blicwhrpad, nnd ffivpu it 

to his follower, althntigh, by the letter of thi' LeTitien! 
•■Ut. HIT. Law," it wii« only to he eati^'ii iiy thf priesttt, 
"""■ Jewish tmclitinii rindicjited his conduct on iJih 

plea that 'danger to life siiiici'spded the Sabbath-Law," 
and hei\ce all laws connected with it ; while, to show 
Dnvid'a zeal fot' the Sahhath-Law. the legend was added 
tliat he had rppraved thp priesta of Nob, who had been 
baking thL- ahewbrt'nd on the Sahhath. To the first argu- 
ment of Christ .St. Mutthew adtis tliis as Hia second, 
that the priests, in tlieiv servicee iii the Temple, nccesBanly 
broke tlie Sabbath-Law without thereby incarring goilt. 

In truth, th« Snbbalb-Law wa.> not one naeroly of rest, 
but of rest for worsliip. The Service of the Lord was the 
object in view. The prieata worked on the 8ahbath, be- 
cause this service was the object of the Sabbath ; aud 
David was allowed to eat of the shewbread, not because 
there was danger to life from starvation, but because he 
pleaded that, he was on the service of the Lord, and needed 
this provitdon. 

To this St. Mark adds aa n corollary : ' Thft Sabbath 
^Wft6 mode for man, and not man for the Snbbath.' It ia 
Femnrkftble that a similar argument is used by the Kabbte. 
When insisting that the Sabbath-Law should be set asida 
to avoid danger to life, it ie urged : • the Sabbath is handed 
over to you; not, ye are handed over to the Sabbath.' 
Lastly, the thre? Kvnngelists record this ae the final out- 
come of His leaching' on this subject, that ' The Son of 
Mfta IB Lord of the Sabbath also.' The Service of God. 
and the Ser\'ice of the Temple, by universal consent, 
superseded the Sabljath-Law. But Christ, waa greater 
rtlian the Temple, and His Sei-vice more truly that of God, 
Vniid higher than that of the outward Temple — and the 
fSabbath was intj-ndsd for man, to sei've God: therefore 
[Christ and His Service were superior to the Sabbath-Law. 
'Thns much would be intelhgihle to these PhariseeSj 
although they would not receive it, because they believed 
not on Him as the Sent of God. 

But to QB the woi-ds mean more than this. We are 


fesvs TUB MsssrAtt 

froe whilp we are dniii^ anything for Christ; Rod 1ov" 
mercy, and fl('iiinii<U not sacrifice ; His sacrifice is the 
service of Christ, in !i.ii[(, and life, iind wurt. We are 
not free t« do uriylluu^' we pli>iist- ; but we iirc fri-e to do 
anything needful or hetpfnl. while we are (join*; any ser- 
vicp to Chriat;. He is the Lnrd of the< Sibbhath. Whom we 
serve in and Hirough the Sablmth. 

Thftqaest.iou as between Chi-iet and tho Phiii'iwes was 
not, however, to end here. 'On another Sabbath' — pri>- 
bably that following — He wan in their Synagogue. 
Whether or not the Pharisees had brought ' the man with 
the wither&d band ' on purpost'. or otherwise raised tin* 
question, certain it ia that their SPt'ret object was to com- 
mit Chri^it to aonip word or dei^d, which wonid lay Him 
open to the capita] charge of breaking the Sabbiitli-La<r. 
It does not appear whether the man with the withered 
Laad was coasciou.'^ly or unconsciouaty their toot. But ia 
this they judged rightly; that Christ wmild not witness 
diseaee mithont removing it — or, ae wc tnight express it, 
that disfaBP could not continue in the Presence of Hhn 
Who was the Life, He read their inwai-d thoughts of evil, 
and yet. He proceeded to do the good which He purposed. 

So much uncleamess prevails aa to the .Jewish views 
about healing on the Sabbath that soine connected infor- 
mation on the aubiect seema ueedfi-d. We have alreiidy 
seen that in their view only actual dauLref to life warrant eil 
a breach of the Sabbatb-Law. But this opened a large 
field for discnasiiiu. Thus, aei'Oi-diTig to some, disease of 
the ear, a*:cording t^ some thioat-disease, while, according 
to others, such a disease as angina, involved danger, and 
su|)iiir»eded the Sabbath-Law. All applitatioua to the out- 
side of the body were forbidden on the Sabbnth. As 
i*eg(trded internal remedies, such subHtancea an were used 
in health, bnt had also a remedial effect, might be taken, 
although here also there was a way of evading the Law. 
A perBon sufTering from tuoiiiache might not gnrgle hi.s 
mouth with vinegar, but be might use an ordiDary tooth- 
brush iind dip it in vinegar. Medical aid might be calleil 
in if a perBtm bad liivallowed a piei?e of glass ; a splitter 

ffsAUNG THE Man with the Wituere^T^anu 25 s 

might be removed ftoin the eye, Rud even a tlioiii fi-om 
the body. 

But although tJic niun with tlie withered Iiani] coiilil 
not be classitil with tliOJ'<? daag'erouily ill, it could not havti 
beea difijcult to sileiice the Rabbis on their mvn adniisaioQs. 
Clenrly, their principle inipHed that it was lawful on thei 
Sahbalh tu do that which would save life or prevent di-ath. 
But if so, did it not niso, in strictly lojjieal sequence, imply 
this far widtr priiifiple, that it must bt' lawful to do good 
on the Sabbath ? There was no anawpr to such an argu- 
ment; St. Murk exprofsly rf^urde tJmt they dwed not 
*8(,a«-t attempt a reply.* On the other hand, St. 
»s?.MiiM, Matthew, while iklludiii^ to this cliaileng^e,'' re- 
"•'■'^ cords y<!t another and a personal arguineut. Tl 

BeeniB that Christ pnlilicly appealed to them : If any poor 
man among them, who had one sheep, were in dauger 0I 
losing it through it having fallen into a pit, would h*i not 
lift it out? To be sui-e, theEabbinicLaw ordered thnt food 
and drink should b* lowerpd to it, or else that M>rue means 
should be furnished by which it might either In- kept up 
m the pit, cir eualjlfd to come out of it. And m :i:- ^\(^\ the 
life of a human being to be mom accounted of !-' 

We wm now Imagine tlip scene in that Synagogue. 
The place is'crowded. Christ proliably occupic-s » promi- 
nent, poeitioii as leading the prayors or teaching : a position 
whence He can see, and Ije ween by all. Here, eagerly 
bending forward, are the dark fates of the Phnriiteea, ex- 
pressive of ciirioeity, iiiaitce. ciinLJng. They are looking 
• et.i.'aiw round at a man whose right hand is withered,' 
»'•• perhaps putting hiin forward, drawing attention 

to him. loudly whis^pering, 'Is it lawful to lienl on thtr 
i:>abbath-day y ' Tiie Lord tabes up the cJiallnnge. He 
bids the man ^^tarid forlh — right in the midst of them, 
where tht!V might all aee and hear. By one of ihose telling 
appeals, which go straight to the conscieoce. Ha pats the 
aii«logi.]UB case of a poor niaii who was in dangi-r of losing 
his only nheep ol the Sabbath ; would he nol rescue it ; 
and was not a man better than a eheep ? Nay, did they 
out themselves enjoin » bi-each of the Sabbalh-Law to save 


Jssus TUB Messiah 

liumaii life ? Tbi-ti uinst He not do ao ; mi^bt He not do 
good rather tliau evil ? 

They were speechless. Bnt a strange misfaim of feel- 
ing was in tha Saviour's heart : 'And whpn He had looted 
ronnd atrout on them with aiiger, heiug gripved at the 
hardfoing of tlieir beart,' It was hut for a inoment, and 
then He hade the man stretch forth hia hand. Withered 
it was no longer, when the Word had bee;i spoken. A 
fri-sh lifi* had streamed iuto it, as, following the tSavionr'ii 
Eye and Wni-d, he slowly stretched it forth. And as he 
stretched it forth, hie liand was restored. The Savioni- 
had broken their Sabbuth-Law, and yet He had not. hroken 
it, for riPither by reimedy, nor touch, nor onfcward Applica- 
tion had He healed hiiu" He IihJ hrokfU the Sabbath-rest.. 
US God brealcs it, wh<^» H*' w-^ihIb. or snstjiina, or restores 
life, or does good. 

They had all a^^n it, this miracle of almoef. new creation. 

• at, Loke ■^s ^^^1 "^"^^ '''' * *^py ■'^^'"^ filled with raadiiesB.' * 
ri.ii They could not gainsay, but they went forth and 

took counsel with the Herodiana against Him, how they 
might destroy Him. Presumably, then, He was wit-bin, or 
unite close by, the dominions of Herod, east of the Jordan. 
And the Lord withdrew once more, as it eeeniB to us, into 
Gentile territory, probably that of the Decapoiis. For, as 
He went about heiiHng all that needed it in that great 
multitude that followed Hie steps, yet enjoining silence 
on them, this prophecy of Tsaiah blazed iiit« fulfilmant : 
' Beheld My Servant, Whom I have chosen, My Beloved, 
in Whom My soul is welt-pleaged ; I will put My Spirit 
upon Him, and He shall declare judgment to the Gentilee. 
Hp shall not strive nor cry aloud, neither shall any hear 
His Voice in the at.recta. A bruisr'd rued shall He not 
break, and smoking flat shall He not quench, till He send 
forth judgment unto victory. And in Hia Nome shall the 
Gentiles trust.' 






(St. Matt. r7. S2-ivL 12; 8t. Uaik viii. 1-81.) 

It ia remarkable that encK time CJhrist'B prolonged stay 
aod Miiiiatry in a district were brought to a close with 
Fome supper, ao to speak, some feative entertainment on 
His part. The Qalileuu Mimatry bad closed with the feed- 
ing of the five thousand, the gnests being mostly from 
Oapernaam aad the t'Owua around, as far as Bethsaida 
(Juliaa), many in the number probably on thuirway to the 
Paschal Peaat at Jerusiilem. But now at the se«oad pro- 
vision for tJie four thousand, with which Hiw Decapolis 
Ministry closed, the guests were not strictly Jews, bat 
somi-Gentile iuhabitauts of tJmt district aud its neighbour- 
hood. Lastly, His Jndasan Ministry closed with t^e Last 
iS upper. At the first 'Supper,' the Jewish guests would 
f»in have proclaimed Him Mee&iah-King ; at the second, 
<is ' the Son of ifan,' He gave food to those Geutile multi- 
tudes which, having been with Him tliose days, and con- 
Humed all their victuals during their stay with Him, He 
could not send away fasting, lest they Bhonid faint by the 
way. And on the iaat occasion, m the true Priest and 
Sacrifice, He fed Hit* own with the true Paschal Feast ere 
He sent them forth alone into the wildeniesa. Thus these 
three 'Sappers' eeein connected, each leading up, as it 
were, to the other. 

"Hiere can be little doubt tliat this eecond feeding of 
multitude toot place in t}ie Gentile Decapolta, and tliat 
thngi; who sat down to the meal were chiafly the inhabitants 
of that district. If it bo lawfiil, departing from strict 
history, to study the aymbolism of tliis event, as compared 
with titQ previous feeding of the five thousand who were 
Jews, somewhat aingulai' tlifTercnces will pwwynt theui&L'lves 



to the mind. On th^ former octiaeion fchei-e were five 
thouaand fed with five loaves, when twelve baskets of irag^ 
meats were left. On tbe second ctcL-ustoii, Tuur tkousaud 
were fed from seven loaves, and aevf n baskets of fragments 
collected. It is at least curioiiB tliat the number five in 
the pronsion for the Jew.s is that of the Peiitiileuch, just 
us the number twelee corrftsponda to that of the tnbes and 
of the Apoellea. On the oflter hand, in the feeding of the 
Gentilea we mark the number foitr. which is the signature 
of the world, and eecejii, which is that of the Sanctuary. 

On all general points the naiTatlv&s of the twofold 
miraculoue feeding run so parallel that it is not neceesary 
again to consider thia event in detail. But th& att'endant 
circumatancea are quite unlike. There ai-e broad lines of 
diflerence as to the number of persons, the provision, and 
the quantity pf fragmente left. On the former occnsiwn 
the repast was* provided in the evening for thuse who had 
^ne after Christ, and listened to Hitii all day ; who bad 
been bo busy for tlie Bread of Life that they had forgotten 
tlwt of earth. But on this second occiision, of the fe^iding 
of the Gentiles, the multitade liad been thj'ee days with 
Him, and what suatenance they had brtiuglit must have 
tailed, when, in His ooroptiMsion. the Siiviour would not 
send them to their homes fasting, lest they should faint by 
the way. And it mnat be kept in view that Chi-ist dig- 
missed tiem, not, as before, because they would have made 
Him their King. Yet another marked difference lies even 
iu the deaig-nation of ' the bai-kets ' in which the fragments 
left were gathered. At the first feeding they were, as the 
Greek word showa, the small wicker-baahi'ts which each of 
the Twelve would carry in Ids hand. At the second feed- 
ing they were the large baskets, in which provisions, chiefly 
bread, were stored or carried for longer voyages. For on 
the first occasion, when they passed into Israelitiah terri- 
tory — and, aa they might think, left their home for a very 
brief time — there was not the same need to make provision 
(or storing necesaariea as on the wecond, when they were on 
a len^hened journey, and passing through or tarrying in 
Gentile tfiritury. 


• St. Uurk 

The Feeding of the Four Thousand 259 

But the most, noteworthy ditfcrence saems to ti" this: 
fliat on the first oix.'aaioii they who were fed were Jews; 
on the itecotiJ, Gentiles. There is a little tmlt in the 
narrative wHcli affords striking, though uudeaigned, evi- 
dence of this. In refoniiig to the blessing which -T&sna 
spake over the first meul, it was noted that, La atriut 
accordance with Jewish custom, He only rendered thanka 
once over the bread. But no such cuBtoni would rule His 
conduLl when dispeuBuif^ the food to the Gentiles ; and, 
indeed, Hia speakLoj^ the blessing only over the bread, 
while He was silent when distributing the fishes, would 
probably hava g^iven rise to n]i,•^^lIlde^atalldiIlg. Accoitl- 
''•Sly? w^ fifd it expressly atatt^il that He not only gave 
thanks over the bread, but also spake the bless- 
ing over the Gahes." Nor should we, vrhen mark- 
ing such undesigned e-videncc, omit to notice that on tJie 
first occasion, which waa iinmediateiy before the Pasaove]-, 
the guests were, as thi-t-e of thfi l^'vaugelists expreaalv 
tSLiiiut. state, ranged on 'the grass,''' while, on the 
ItTunVvL P''^*^"^ occasion, which must have been several 
a»:8tJohn weeks later, when in the I'laht the grass would 
be burnt up, we an; told by the two Evangelists 
that they sat on ' the ground.' 

On ^e occasion referred to in the preceding narrative, 
thofip who hnd lately taken counsel together agiiinst Jesue — 
t!ie Fhariseeg and the Herodians, or, to put it otherwise, 
the PhariseeB and Haddiiceee — wnre not present. For those 
who, politically speaking, were ' Herodians ' might also, 
though perhaps not religiously speidiing, yet from the 
Jewish standpoint of 8r.. Matthew, be designoti'd as, or 
else include, SadJuoees. But they were soon to renppeur 
00 the scene, as Jchhs eanie cloee to the Jewish t*rritoi'y 
of Herod. As Je.siis sent a\vay the multitude whom He 
had fed. He took ship with His disciplee, and 'came into 
• 8t sCbk. the boi-ders of Magadjin,' " or, aa St. Mark puts it, 
^■^ 'the parts of Diilnianutha.' Neither 'Magadan' 

■ Dalmaoudia ' bus lieeu identified. This only we infer, 
that the place was close to, yet not within the boundary 
of strictly .lewisL territory ; since on His arrivaJ there the 

ft 't 


Jesus THE Messiah 

Pharisees are said to ' come foi-th ' » — ^a word which ' 
• Ml. tutk impliee tliat tliey rpBided elsewhere, though, of 
*'"■" coopse, in the neighbourhood. We can quite 
uDderabiiid tha challenge ou the part of SaddaireeB of 'a 
sign from heaven," They would disbelieve the heavenly 
Missiou iif OliriHt, or, indeed, to use a iiK^deni term, any 
aupra-natiiralislic connection between heavtn and earth. 
But in the mouth of the Phur!gee.s also il. had a apecial 
meaning. Certain supposed miracles had been either wit- 
Desiied by, or teBtifiecl to them, as done by Christ. Ab 
they now represented it— since Chi'if^t laid claims which 
in their view were incoiisist^int \^it.h tlir doctrine received 
in Isroi^l, prenelied a Kingdom quite other than that of 
Jewish expectancy, wan at iBsue with all Jewish customs, 
mort tliau thiB, was a btenkcr of the Law, in itB Eaost 
iiiipin-tiiiit comnmndmirnls, u» they unJei-atood them — it 
folbwed thiit, arcordiny to Dent, siii., He was a false 
prophet, who was not to be listened to. Then, also, must 
the miracles which He did have been wronght by the power 
ol" BeelKebul. ' the lord of iilolatroua woi-ship,' the very 
prince of devila. But had there been real signa, and 
might it not all hnvci been an illuRon ? Let Him show 
tlieni ' ft sign; and K't Ihat sign come direct from heaven ! 

It is said that Rabbi illie?.er, when liis teaching was 
cliallenged, succeesfiilly appealt^ii to certain ' signs.* First, a 
locust tree moved at hla biddhig oni? hundred, or according 
to some, four hundred cubitg. Next the channels of water 
were made to flow backwards. Then the walls of the 
Academy leaned forward, and were only arrested at the 
bidding of another Rabbi. Lastly, Kiiezer exclaimed : ' If 
the Law is as I teach, Jet it be pi-oved from heav*^a ! ' when 
fl voice fell from the eky : ' What have ye to do with Rabbi 
Eliezer, for the Halakhah is as he teacbeB ? ' 

It wns. tliepefore, no strange thing, when the Pharisees 
fished of JeeuB ' a eign from heaven,' to attest His claims 
and t<*achiiig. The answer which He gave was among 
the most solemn which the leaders of Israel conUl have 
heard. They had asked Him virtually for some sign of 
HiH Messiahship ; soiu? titiiking vindicatiou from heaven 


The ' Sign rmm He a vrn 


of His claims. It wonld be giTen them nnly too soon, 
Bj tiie light of the flames of Jerusalem and tbo Sanctuury 
were the words on the Cross to be read acrain. The bura- 
ing of JeruBatem was God's answ-er to the Jews' cry, 
' Awny with Him^we hiive no king but Cajsar;' the 
thousauds of crosses on wliich the RnniaDs hanged their 
captives, the terrible count«rpaPt of the Cross on Golgotha. 

It was to tbiB that Jesus refen'e<i in His reply to the 
l^harisees and ' Saddncean ' Herudians. Men could dis- 
cern by the appearitnce of tlifl aky whether the day would 
be fair or stomiy. And yet, when all th« signs of the 
gathering etorm tlmt would destroy their city and people, 
were clearly visihif, tliey, the leadr-rs of the peopk*. failed 
to perceive them! Israel aaked for ' a sign' — bnt nono 
ahoald be given the doomed land and city other than that 
which hsid been given to Nineveh: 'the sign of Jonah,' 
The nnly eigii to Nineveh was Jonah's solemn warning 
and call to repentance ; aud the only sign now, or rather, 
'auto this geiierution no sign,'' was the wam^ 
ing cry of judgment and the loving call to 

It was but a natural aequeiiee that ' He l«fl them 
and departed.' Once morp the ship buri; Him and Hia 
disciples towards the coji.'it of liethsaida-Julina. He wns 
on hja way to the utmost limit of the laud, to Ceesarca 
Philippi. in pui-Moit of Hit! puiTDoae to delay the tinat con- 
Qict. For the great criisis must begin, at) it would end, 
in Jemaaleni, and at the Feast; it would begin at the 
■ot.Juhn Feast of Tal>6rnacles,* aud it would end at the 
"*■ following Passover. Bat by the way th(? disciplL-** 

t^hemselves showed how little even tboy, who hud so long 
and closely followixl Christ, midersttwd His teaching, and 
how prone to misapprehension their spiritual dcduess 
rendered them. 

When the Lord touched the other shore, Hia mind aod 
heart were- still full of the scene from which He had lat^ely 
passed. For truly on this demand for a sign did the 
future of Israel seem to hang, And now, when they 
landed, they can-ied ashore the empty provision baaketjt; 

Tilt, la 



for, ns, witb hie usual atteutiitn to details, St. Mark notes, 
tihtiy had only brought one loaf of brpsul with tJiem. In 
fact, in the escitenient and hum- 'they forgot to take 
brefld.' Whether or not something couiiected witli this 
arreat&i the attentiou of Christ, He broke the silence, 
spealcisg that which was so tinich on His miiid. He 
warned them, as greatly they needed it, of the Ie»ven 
with which Pharis*-f-8 and SaddiiceeB had, each in their 
own manner. leavened, and so currnpted, the holy bread 
of Script.nre-tmth. The disciple.*, aware thiit in their 
hurry and exoitement thi^y had fnrgottien bread, niis- 
uuderstcod these words of Christ. They thouglit the words 
implied (hat in His riew they hiid not foryolten to bring 
bread, but purposely omitt*-d to do so, in order, like the 
Pharieeew and Sr«ldnce^s, to 'j^eek of Him -a aign ' of His 
rHvinp Mfsaiah ship— nay. lo nblijre Hiiri to show each: 
that of miraculous proviBion in Ihi-ir want. The mere 
auspicion showed what was in their minds, ami pointed to 
thfiii- daji^er. Thi.s explains how, in His reply, Jesus re- 
proved them, not fomtter want of diseeTniaent, hut only 
'little faith.' It was their lack of faith — the veiy 
ren of the Piiarisees and Railduc(;ea — which had sug- 
ppsted BTiph a thonght. Again, if the experience of the 
pasit had taught them anything, it should have been to 
beliove that the needful provision of their wants by Christ 
was not 'a sign.' i^uch ae the Pharisees had asked, bat 
what faith mifHjt ever pxpect ftwm Christ, when following 
after or waiting npou Him. Tlien understood they 
t.ruly that it was not of the leavpu of bread that He had 
bidden them beware, but pointed to the far more real 
danger of *the teaching of the Pharinees and Saddncees,' 
whi<^ had underlain the demand for a sign from heaven. 




est. Matt. xvi. 13-S8 ; St. Mark viij. 27-ix. 1 ; fit. Lake ix. 1 S-S7.> 

If we are right in identifying the Jittle bay^Dalmanutba 
—with the JipiglihoiiriiiUKE of TarichiBa, jet another link 
of stran<»e coincidence cftiinects the proplifti<! warainj* 
Bpcken there with its fuIlilmeaC. From Dalniannthn, our 
Lord passed acrnsR the Lake to Cipssrea Philippi. From 
Cassarea Philippi did Vespasian paaa through Tiberias 
to Tajichiea, when the Utwa and ppople were destroyed, 
and tie blood of tbe fugitives reddened tbe Lake, and 
their bodies elioked its waters. Even amidst the horrors 
of the lafit Jewish war, few spectacles could have been so 
Bickening as that of the wild stand at Tarichaea, ending 
with the butt^heiy of 6,500 on laud and sea; and lastly, the 
vile treachery by which they to whom inei-cy had been 
promised were hired into the circus at Tlherias, when 
tlie weak and old, to the nuinlwr of about 1,2U0, wpi-e 
slaughtered, and the rest — upwards of SO, 401}— sold into 
shivwy. Well might He, who foresaw aad foretold that 
terrible end, sta.a<linf|; on that spot, deeply sigh in spirit 
as He spake to them who asked ■ a aign, and yet 3aw not 
what even oi"diiiary diacernment might have perceived of 
the ri'd and lowering sky overhead, 

Prom Da 111) an nth a, across tbe Lake, then by the plain 
where so lately the five thonaand had been fed, and neni' 
to Bethsaida, would the road of Christ and His disciples 
lead to the capital of the Tetrarch Philip, the ancient 
PaiiHfvs, or, as it was then called, Csesareft PMlippi, the 
modern Banias. 

The sitnation of the ancient Caesarea Philippi (1,147 
feet above the sea) ia, indeed, tna^nificflnt. Nestling amid 
three valleys on a terrace in the angle of Hermon, it is 
almost shot out from view by clifl's and woods. Th« 


Jesus tub Messiah 

western side of n steep moMniftin, ciBwncd by the mins of 
8u ancient oiatle, fyrins aii abrupt rock-wuU. Uei« fruin 
out an iitmienBe eiiveni burstB a river. These are 'the 
upper Bourfijs ' of the Jordaa. This cove, an ancieat 
sanrtuary of Pan, gave itH fiirliesl imiue of Pmieaa to the 
town. Here Hero3. when reciiving the t«'frnrcby from 
AugiiBtua, built a temple in hie honour. On the rocky 
wall close by, votive niches may still be trncL'd.oae of fchern 
bearing the Greek iuBcriplion, ' Priest of Pan.' When 
Herod's aon, Philip, ri^ceived the tetrarchy, he enlarged 
and greiitly beautified the ancient Panejis, and called it in 
honour of the Kmperor, OaeBiiren Philijipi. 

It was into this chiefly Gentile district that the Lord 
now withdrew with His dtHciples after that last and de- 
cisiTe qneation of the Phuxisets, It was here that as Hi» 
i)i]RBtioa, like Moaes' rod. Btruch thi*ir hearts, there leaped 
ii'om the lipa of Peter the living, Ufe-sp reading watcre of 
his coiiffssion. It niny have been that, this rock-wall 
below the castle, fi-om under which sprang Jordan, ortlie 
pock on which the castle stxxid. supplied the inatpvidl srag- 
gostiou for Christ's words : ' Th-ou artj Peter, uud on tliia 
Pock will I build My Church.' In Casarea, or its ini- 
mediate nei^hboiuhood, did the Lord spend with His dis- 
ciples six days after this confession ; and here, close by, 
on one of the heights of snowy Hermon, was the swno uf 
, the Transtiguration , the light of which shone 

for ever into tJie hearts of the disciples on their 
dark and tangled path.' 

Tlie trial to which Jesus had putHit^ disL\ipW (kith at 
Capernaum was only renewed and deejx'Ded by alt that 
followed. It shoidd be remembered that His refiisaJ to 
liieet the challenge of 'a sign' of the Sadducees must bavs 
left the imprcsfiion of a virtujil deft-at, while His subsequent 
'hard aayings" led to the defection of inaoy. Un- 
doubtedly the faith of the disciples had bef'n grefttly tried, 
as appears also from the queatioQ of Christ : ' WUl ye also 
go away ? ' But here it was their whole jiast experience tB 
following Hini which enabled them to overcome, AlmoBt 
like 8 cry of despair goes up that shout of rictory ; ' Lord, 

'ffrfi-ff'5 Gkbat Confession 



TO wlioin shall we go? Thou hast the words of etenial 

We ahull, pt-rhup?, best understand the pro^sa of 
this trial wlieti folluwing it in him who, ftt last, aiitde ship- 
wreck of hia faith : Judas lecariot. Without attempting 
to penetrate the Sfttanic element in his apostasy, we may 
trace his course in its paycliologi;;al development. We 
most not regard Judas ae a monster, hnt aa one with 
like passions as ourselves. True, there wos one terrible 
masfcer-pasHioii in his soul — covetousnesa; but that waa 
only the downward, lower aspect of what seems, und to 
many really is, that which leadi* tothehig-herand better — 
ambition. It had been thoughts of larael's King which 
h«d first set hie iniayiiuition un Sre, and brought him to 
follow the Messiah. Gmdually, increasingly, came lh» 
diaeuchuntment. It was quite another Kingdom, that of 
ChriBt; quite another Kingship than what had aet Judas 
aglow. This feeliug- was deepened as ev&rita proceeded. 
His confidence must have be-en rudely flhakeii when the 
Baptist was beheaded. Then came the next disappoint- 
ment, when .TeBus would not be made King, Why not — 
ifHe were King? And so on, step by Bt<>p, till the final 
depth was reached, when Jesus would not, or could not — 
which vias it 'i — meet tbe public challenge of the Pharisees. 
We tnke it that it was then that the leaven perviwled 
and leavened Judas in heart and soul. 

We repeat that what bo permanpntiy penetrated Judas 
could not (as Clirist'a warning Bhows) have left, the others 
wholly unaffected. The vOTy presence of Judae with them 
must have had ita infiuence. The Uttli'iiesa of their faith 
refjnired correction ; it must grow and become strong. 
And BO we can underataad what follows. It was after 
• Bt.LBka Eolitary prayer — no doubt for them * — that, with 
^ " reference to the challenge of the Pharisifes, ' tho 

lea.V6n ' that threatened them. He now gathered up all their 
experience of the pa^it^ hy putting to them the queetion, 
what tatn, the people who had watched His Works and 
heard His Words, regarded Him as bein^. Rveu on them 
Bome conviction had been wrought by their observance of 

266 Ji-st/s THR SfsssMfr 

Hirn. It mflrked Him ont (as the disciples said) as dif- 
ferpDt from a!l aronnd, nay, from all ordiDary men : like 
the Baptist, or Klijali, or as if He were one of the old 
prophets alivp again. But, if even the niQltitnde had 
gathered encli knowledge of Him. what was their experience 
who hftd aiwavB tieen with Him ? Answered be, who must 
truly reiire&entH the Cliurch, beabni^e he combined with 
the moat advanced experience of the three most, intimftto 
disciples the utmost boldnees of confession : 'ThoQ art the 

And so in part was this ' leaven ' of the Phaiiseea 
pnrgfld ! Yd not wholly- For then it was that Chri'^t 
spake to them of Hie eufferiugH and death, «nd that tlie 
r^&ietADCR of Peter showed how deeply that leaven had 
penetrated. And then followed the ^and contrast pre- 
sented by Christ, between minding the things of men 
sod those of God, with the warning which it implied, and 
the monition as to thp necessity of bearing the cross of 
contempt, and the a-bsolute call \n do so, as addressed 
to thoRp who would be His diaciples. Here, then, th« 
contest about ' the sign," or rather the challenge about the 
Meesiahship, was carried from the mentJil into the moral 
sphere, and so decided. Six days more of quiet waiting 
aud growth of faith, aud it was met, rewarded, crowned, and 
perfectetl by the eifrbt on the Afount of Transfiguration ; 
yet, even so, perceived only a-stlirongb the heaviness of sleep. 

We are probably correct in siipp<')sing that popular 
opinion did not point to as literally the Baptist, 
Elijah, Jeremiah, or one of the other propheta who had 
long been dend. Rather would it mean that some saw in 
Him the continuation of the work of John, as heraJdinj^ 
and preparing the way of the Mewi^iah, or, if they did not 
believe in John, of that of Elijah; while to others He 
Eeemed a second Jeremiah, denonncing woe on Israel, and 
calling to tnrdy repentance : or else one of thoBft old pro- 
pbetB, who had spoken either of the near jndi,'ment or of 
the coming glory. But however men differed on these 
points, in this aU agreed, that they regarded Him not na 
Iku ordinary man or teacher, hut His Mi^itiion an straight 

pET/ir's GKEAr CoifFESStON- 


worn heaven : iind iii this also, tliat they did not view liim 
as t.lie Measiiih. 

There is a sjoriificaiil; euphasis in the words with 
which Jesna tnrned from ths opinion of ' the laultitudes ' 
Ut elicit the faith of the discipleg : ' Bnt yon, wliom do 
yon eav that I am ? ' In. that moment it leaped, by tho 
power of God, to the lips of Peter : ' Thou art. the Christ 
•St K^ti, (^''* Mesflinh), the Son of the Living God,'" St. 
*'^' "* Chrysostom haa beautifully designated Peter as 

* the month of the ApoBtles — and we recall, in this con- 
nection, the woi-da of St. I'mil as casting light on the re- 
presentative cliarncter of Peter's confession as that of tha 
Church, and hence on the meaning of Christ's reply, and 

itri equally rcprospntative application : ' With ihe 
mouth confesfiion is made unto aalvafcion.' '' The 
words of the confcasion are ^veii somewhat differently by 
the three Evangelists. Prom onr standpoint, the briefest 
form (that of St, Mark) : ' Thoa n.rt the Christ,' mt-ana 
rpiit*" as much as the fullest (that of St. Matthew) : ' Thou 
art the Christ, the Son of the Living God.' We can thus 
anderetand how the latter might be trnthfully adopted, 
and, indeed, would be the most truthful, accurate, and 
suitable in a Gospel primarily written for the Jews. And 
here we notice that thu most exact form of the words 
eeeniB that in the Gospel of St. Luke : ' The Christ of God.' 
Previously to the confeseion of Peter, the ship's com- 
pany, that had witnessed His walking on the water, had 

• si.M«ti, owned: Of a truth Thon art the Son of God,'" 
tiT.M \yat not in the sense in which ft wi'tl-in formed, 
believing Jew would hail Him as the JTessiah, and ' thp 
Son of tho Liviug God.' designating liot.h His Office snd 
His Nature — and thtfse two in their combination. A^in, 
Peter hinistdf had made a confi-ssion of Chriat, when, after 
*Si..rohn His Discourse at Capernanm, so many of His 
" •" disciple.? liad forsnkeo Him. It hud been: "We 
have believed, and know that Thou art the Holy One of 

But now he bae oonsciooaly reached the finn ground 
of Messianic acknowledgment. All else is implied in this, 


/esus thb Mfssiam 

'Boolai ilT. 

\%: ttli. 31 

• 1 Doir. IT. 
W; ftal. L 

in : Epii. n 


and w&uH follow from it. It is the firafc real coafeiiBioii 
• BtLokB of the Church. We cau understaad how it fol- 
«■ 1* loired after solitary prayer by Christ *■■ — we can 

scarcely donbt, for that very revelation by the Father, which 
He aft^rwarda joyouaiy recognised in the worda of Ppt^r, 
The reply of the Saviuur la only ret-orded by St. 
Matthew. The whole form is Hebraistic. The ' blesaed 
art thou ' is Jewish ; the ivddress, * Simon bur Jona,' proves 
that the Lord spake in AnLinaic. The espression ' flesh 
and blood,' as coatrasted with God, occurs not only in that 
Apocryphon of etriclly Jewiah authorship, the Wisdom of 
the Son of Sira<'}i,''and in the letters of St. Paul," 
but in almoBt innumepftble pii^sa^s in Jewish 
writings, aa denoting man in oppuBJlloii to God; 
while the revelation of such a truth by 'the 
Pfttber Which is in Heaven,' represents nut only 
both Old and New Tesfameut twiching, but is clothed in 
language familiar to Jewish ears. 

Not leas Jewish in form are the sueciwtling words of 
Chriat : ' Thou art Peter (Ped'oa), and npon this Bock 
(Peira) will I build My Church.' We notice Ln the ori- 
^nal the change from tbe msisculine gender, 'Peter' 
(Petros), to the feminine, ' Petra ' (' Kock '), which seems 
the more significant, that Pelros ia usi-d in Gret-h for 
' Btone,' and ftlso sonietimes for ' rock," while Potra always 
means a ' rocli,' The change of gender mnst therefore 
have a definite object. The Greek word Rock ('on this 
PHra [Rock] will I build my Chnrcli "J was used in the 
Biiine HensB in Rabbinic language. According to Jewish 
ideas, the world wonid not have been created, unless it 
had rested, as it were, on eome solid foundation of piety 
and acceptance of God's Law — in other words, it reqnired 
a moral, before it could receive a physical fonndatiou. It 
is, ao runs the comment, as if a king were going to bnild 
a city. One and another site ia tried for a foundation, 
but in digging they alwayti come upon water. At last 
they oome upon a Soch. So, when God was about to Imild 
Hie world. He conld not rear it on the generation of Enos, 
por on that of the flood, whe brought deBtruction on tlie 




world; bnfc 'when He hehptd that Abraham woalrJ arise 
in the future, He said : Bflliold I have fouod a Hock to 
build on it, and to found the world,' whence also Abraham 
is called a Rock, as it is Bflid : ' ' Look onto the 
"■ Rock whence ye are hewn.' The parallel between 

Abraham and Peter mi^lit be cinTied even further. If, 
from a inisunderBtandiiig of the Lord's promise to Peter, 
later Christian legend re|iresente<l the ApnaLle as sitting 
at the g&te. of heaven, Jewish legend represents Abraham 
as sittiiig at the gata of Gelienna, so as to present all who 
had the seal of circumcifiion from falling into its ahystj. 

But to return. Relieving that JesuK apoki' to I'et^fin. 
the A]ii.niiiic, we cjlu now understaud hoM' ihe words l-'etros 
and I'l-lra would be purixjseiy used by Christ to mark tba 
difference which their choice would auj^j^ist. Perhaps it 
might be exprensod in this somewhat duniBy paraphrase: 
'Thou art Peter (Petroa) — a Stone or Rock— and upon 
this Petra — the Rock, the Pelrine — will I found My 
Church.' If, therefore, we would m>t entirely limit the 
refHPenee to the words of Pot^r'a conli'ssion, wo would 
cerliiinly apply them to that which was the Peti-ine in 
Peter : the heaven-g^iven fiiith whifh inatiifL-«t^ itsylf in 
hia confession. And we can further understand how, just 
as Christ's contemponines may have regarded the world a.'* 
nrared on the rock of faithful Al>mhani,Ho Christ promised 
that He would bill 111 His Church on the I'ytrine in PettT — 
on his faith and confession. Nor would the fj-rtn ' Church * 
sound strange in Jewish ears. The eatne (.)refk word 
(^jc/cXi}<rc'a), as the equivalent of the Hebrew whii'h is 
pendei-ed in our version 'convocation,' 'the called," was 
apparently in familiar n*.e at the time. In Hebrow use it 
referred to Israel, not in thpirnationalbutin their religious 
unity. As here employed, it would convey the prophecy 
tliat His disciples would in the future be joined t<igeCher 
in (I religious unity ; that this religious unity or ' Church* 
would be a bnilding of which Christ, wae the Rniider ; that 
it would hi- founded on 'the Petrine ' of heaven-taughfc 
ittith ojid confeBsion ; and that this n^Hgious unity, this 
Church, was not only intended for a time, like a school of 



thonght, but would liuit beyond death and the diseuibodie:3 
Btate : thai, ulike m regarded Christ aad Uis Churcli — 
' the gates of Uades shall not prevail agninst it.' 

Tien-iag ' the Church ' &» a building fotmded upon * the 
Petrine,' it was not to vary. To carry on the same meta- 
phor, Christ promised to give to him who had spoken as re- 
presentative of the Apostles — ' t)te stfwarde ofthe mysteries 
of God ' — ' the teya of the Kingdom of" Heaven,' For, us 
the religious unitj of His diaciples, or the Church, repre- 
BBDted ' the royal ml© of heaven,' so, figuratively, enrrance 
into the gates of this building, snhmission to the rule oF 
(lod — to that Kingdom of which Christ was the King. 
And we remetnher how, in a special sense, this promise was 
fulfilled to Peter. Even as he had been the first to utter 
the coniession of the Cliwrch, so was he also privileged to 
be the first to open its liitherto closed ^tes to the Gen- 
tilsB, when God made choice of him, that, through hlB 
■ AistaiT. I mouth, the Gentiles should first hear the words of 
<.i<.i...48 ^g Gospel," and at his hidding first- be baptized.'' 

Our primary inquiry must here be, what the further 
words of Christ) would convey to the person to whom the 
proroiae was addressed. And here we recall that no other 
taraiB were in more constant use. in Kahbinic C'anon-Law 
than those of ' binding ' and ' loosing.' The wordu are tho 
literal translation of th« Hebrew ■ to bind/ in the eenete of 
prohibiting, and 'to loose,' in the sense of permitting. The 
imwer of 'bindiog and looaing' waa one claimed by the 
Kabbia. It represented the lei/ialattve, while another jwe- 
tenaioa, that of declnriug ' free ' or else ' liable,' i.e. guUty, 
expressed their claim to the jiidiriii! power. By the first 
of tUeae they • bound ' or ' loosed ' acts or things ; by tho 
aecond they ' remitted ' or ' retained,' dt'olured « pePBOn 
free fi'om, or liable to punishment, to cntnpensation, or to 
Gachlire. ThesL* two powers — the legislative and judicial — 
which belonged to the Kabhhuc office, Chriet now trans- 
ferred, and that not in their pretension, but in their reality, 
•euJalw to HiH Apostles: the first here to Peter aa their 
■*■ '* Representative, the second after His HeBurrecliou 

to the Church." 

The G If eat Co.xmrssroif 


Un rl]e seeoud of thetii' powers we aeed not «t present 
(iwell. That of •binditij^'* luud • loosing * itiL-lnileil idl the 
legialuttve fuiictioii» for the new Church. In the view of 
tliB Rabbis, heaven was like earth, andl questiona were dis- 
cussed and settled by ii heavenly t^uiihedrm. Ndw, in regard 
to some of tliii'ir earthly ilecret-K. they were wont to say that 
' the Sanhedriu above ' continued what ' the Sanhedrin be- 
neath ' bad done. But the worda of Christ, as they avoided 
the foolish coiic«t of His contomporariea, left it not doubt- 
ftd, hut conveyed the nssurnnce that, underthe guidiuice of 
the Holy Ghost, whatsoever they bound or ]oo.sed on earth 
would be bound or loosed in he^aven. 

But all this that Imd pajiaed bLilwim them could uot 
bo matter of common tulk — of all, iit that crisis in 
His Hifitory, and in tha.t locality. Accordingly, all the 
three Evftngi?lists record — each with distiuctive emphasis — 
that the opcu coiifes3.ion of His Mes!«itihship, wliioh was 
virtually its proclamation, was not to be made public 
Among the people it could only liave led to results the 
opposite of thoBe to be desirpd. How unprepared &ven 
that Apostle was, who hod made procluuiiitiua of the 
Mesaiah, for what his confession implied, and how ignorant 
of the real ineamng of Israel's Messiah, appeared Quly too 
90OQ. The Evangelistji, indeed. writ.e it down in pluiii 
language, as fiilly taught them by later experience, that 
He was to be rejected by the rulers of Israel, Blaiu, imd 
to rise again the third day. And there can he as little 
donbt that Chrittt's laoguag-e (as afterwards they looked 
back npon it) must have clearly implied all this, as that nt 
the time tliey did not fully understand it. They could 
well underal.and Hia rejection by the Scribes — » sort of 
hgiirativ* death, or violent auppression of His claims and 
doctrines, and then, after briefe-st period, their reeurrection, 
as it were— but not these terrible details in their full 

But, even so, tJiere was enough of realiani in the 
words of Jesus to alarm Peter. His very affection, in- 
tensely human, to the Huiooa Peraouality of his Master 
would lead hini astray. He put it in the very sfcrougeat 

273 fBSUS THB RIessrAii 

laiipuace, althmi^rb tho "Evangelist ^ves only n IttP 
iTiiiinliLlionof the Hnbltinicespresaion — God I'oibid it, ' Ood 
be mercifli] to Thee:' no, sucli nei'er could, hop should 
be to the Christ! It wns an appeal to the Rnmau in 
Christ, just as SatFin had, in the great Teniptrtt ioa after 
the forty days' fast, appealed to the purely Uoman in 

Yet Peter's words wore to bo made useful, by affording 
to the Master the opportunity of correcting what was amiss 
in the hearts of all Uis disciples, and tenchiiig them such 
general principlea about Hia Kiiirrdum, and alwat that 
implied in true discipleship, as would, if received in the 
heart, enable them in due time victoriously to bear those 
trials connected with that rejectiiou and Doath of the Chri»i, 
which at the tiine they could not Hiiderstand. Not a 
Mesaianic Kingdom, with glory to its heralds and chieDains 
— but Belf-denial, and the voluntary bearing of that croea 
on which the powers of this world would nail the foUowera 
of Chriet. They knew the torture which their maatera 
— the power of the world — the Rcimans, wt-n* wont to inflict: 
such mu»t they, and fiimilar miii^t we all, be prepared to 
bear, and in so doing begin by denying self. In Buch ft 
contest to lose life would be to gain it, to g;ain would bo 
to lose lif"'^. And if the iaano lay bi>twf->:'n these two, who 
could hesitate what to choose, evi'U if it were ours to gsiu 
or lose a whole world ? For behind it all there was a 
reality — a Messianic triumph and Kingdom — not, indeed, 
such SB they imagined. Imt far hiplier, holier: the Coming 
•at,Mrtit, *f tlip '^on of iMftu in the glory of Hia Father, 
»Ti.s*-ir and with His Angels, and, theo eternuJ gain or 
loas, acLXJrding to oiir deeds.* 

Biil why spcnk of the future and distant? 'A sign' 
— a terrible sign of it 'from heaven,' a vindication of the 
Chriat Whom tliey had slain, invoking Hie Blood on their 
City and Nai.ion. a vindication each (is /kloijn thewe men 
could nnderstiuid, of the reality of His KesniTectlon and 
Ascension, wa.» in the near future. The flaiiiea of the City 
and Temple would be the light ia that nation's darknesSi, 
by which to read the inscriptiim on the Cniss, All thia 





not; afar off. Same of tiioae wbo stooJ there wonld nut 
■ St. Mutt 'teste death,' till in those judgmentB they would see 
tbat the Son of Dilaii hud come in His Kingdom.* 





(St. xrii. 1-8 ; »k Msik ix. 2-S ; St. Lnke ix. Sli-36.) 

Ta£ great coDfeasiou of Peter, as the repretidiitativQ 
Apostle, had laid the fbandutions of the Church as such. 
In contradistinction to the varying opinions of even those 
best disposed towards Christ, it openly declared that Jesufl 
was the Very Christ of God, tlie fulfilment of all Old 
Testament propbecy, the heir of Old Testament promise, 
the reallstttion of the Old Teatatueiit hope for Israel, and, 
in Israel, for all niatikind. Without this coiifession, 
Christians might have heen a Jewish eect, a religious 
party, or a school of tliought, and Jeaus a Teacher, Rabhi, 
Reformer, or Leader of tnea. But the coafesaion whic-h 
marked JoHas as the Christ also constituted His followers 
the Church. It Bpparated them, as it; separated Him, Iroin 
all aroinid; it gathered them into One, even Cliriat.; and 
it marked out the foundation on wliich the building made 
without hands was to rise. Never waa illustrative answer 
so 6xa<!t ae this : ' On thia Rock ' — bold, outstanding, well- 
defined, immovable — 'will I huild My GLurch.' 

Without doubt this conieseion also marked the high- 
point of the Apostles' faith. Nevflr afterwards, till His 
Resurrection, did it reach ao high. Nay, what followed 
seems rather a retrogression from it : beginning with their 
im willingness to receive the annoon cement of His Decease, 
and ending with their unreadiness to share Hia suSeringa 
or to beheve in His Resurrection. 

Perhaps It was the Sabbath when Peter's great con- 
fession wa-i made; and the 'sis days' of St, Matthew and 
St. Mark becoiae the ' about eight; days' of St. Luke, when 
we reckon from that Sabbath to the close of another, and 
suppose that at even the Savionr ascended the Mount of 

274 Jmsus run Mbssiah 

U'ransfigurabion with the threes Apoetli-s ; PeU'i-, James, uud 
John. There cftu scarcely be a reasonable doubt that 
Christ and His dluciples liad not left the neighbourhood of 
CtKBttTBa, and heuce tbot ' the mountain ' muat hove been 
one of the sinpeB of gigantic, gnowy Hermon. 

It was tben, as we have su^g^^ated, the erening after 
the Sabbath, wliea the Master and thost* three of His dia- 
cipl'es, who were motit cloaelj United to Him in beart and 
tbrmght, climbed the pBth that led up to one of these heights, 

Aa St. Luke tJone informs iia, it was ' to pray ' that 
Jesut; took theni apart up into that mountain. 'To pray,' 
no tlonbt in coontictiou witli * those sayings ; ' since th^ 
reception requii'ed quite as much the direct teaching of 
the Heavenly Father, as had the previoua confession of 
Peter, of which it was, iudtwd, the complement. And tli« 
Transfiguration, with its attendiuit glorified Ministry and 
Voice from heaven, was God's answer to that prayer. 

On thati mountain-top 'He pniyed.' And, with deep 
reverence be it said, tor Himself also did Jesus piay. He 
needed prayer, that in it His Soul might lie calm and stiU 
in the onniffled quiet of His Self-aurrender, and the victory 
of Hia Sacritifial Obedience. And He needed prayer a!ao, 
88 the intivxiuction to, and preparation for, Hie Trans- 
figuration. Truly, He atood on Hermon. It waa the 
hipbest ascent, the widest prospect into the past, pi^eseut, 
and future, in His Earthly Life. 

As we uaderatund it, the prayer with them hud coa&od, 
or merg«^d into silent prayer of each, or Je«us now prayed 
alone and apart, when what gives thie Bceue sucJi a truly 
bumau and truthful aepect ensued. It was but natural 
for these men of simple habits, at night, and afti^r tlw 
long ascent, and in the strong mountain-air, to be heavy 
with sleep. "They were heavy — weighted— with sleep,' 
aa afterwaitlB in GethH&ntane their eyes were weighted.' 
•St Mutt Yet they strugp;led with it, and it is ignite cou- 
^)n'Ji sistf rit with experience that they nhnuld ra>ntinuti 
■rt *o inthatBtateofsemi-Htuporduring wbiit p»'*aod b** 

tween Sf oses and Elijah and Christ, and also b« ' fully awake' 
*tu iwe Hia Glory, and the two men who stood with Him.' 

What they saw was their Moater, while preying, 



*triuisfoniK^(I" The 'form of God' uhone tbnms^ti tht- 
* form of a servaut ; ' ' the appeiiruuce of Hie F»i;tr became 

" 81. Mfit 


• St.Uwk 

' ei. Luke 

• Sk Lnfce 


otliep,' ' it ' did shine «a the sun.* ^ Nay, the 
whole Figure seemed twitlied in iigbt, the very 
garments whiter far than the snow on which the 
moon shone — ' ao as no fuller ou earth can white them,' ° 
' glittering,' '^' whiteaathe light ' And more than 
this they saw anJ heard. They saw 'with Him 
two men,'° whom, in their heightened Bensitive- 
nesB to spiritvial phenomena, they could hav9 no 
diflBcalby in reiMJgiiising, by sndi of theipconvergation as 
they heard, aa Mosee and Kiijah. The column was now com- 
plete : the base in the Law ; the shaft in that Prophetism 
of which Elijah was the greni ttepre-^entative; and the 
apex in Christ Himself— a unity completely fitting to- 
gether in iiU its pan a. And they htai-d also that they 
spake of 'His E xodus— -outgoing — which He was abont 
to fulfil at Jernsalem.' Although the term 
'EioduB,' 'outgoing,' occura otherwise for 
' death,' we must heiir in mind it« meaning hh contrasted 
with that in which the same Evangelic writer desiguntea 
the Birth of Christ, a*i His ' incoming.'' In 
truth, it itiipliea nob only His Decease, bat its 
manner, and «ven Hib Resurrection and Ascension. In 
that sense we can understand the bettor, as ou the lips of 
Mogea and Elijah, this about His fidhlling that Exodus: 
accompliehlag it in oil its fnlueaa, and so completing Law 
and Prophecy, type and prediction. 

And still that night of glory bod not ended. A strange 
peculiarity has been noticed about Hermon : in 'a few 
Qihiuttis a thick cup fonns over tJie top of the mountain, 
and as quickly dispprses and entirely disappears.' Sud- 
denly a cloud paiiSfd over the clear brow of the mountain — 
not an oiidinary, biit ■aliirainou8cloud,'aclouduplit, filled 
with light. As it laid itaelf between Jeans ami tho two 
Old Testauieat Representatives, it parted, and presently 
enwrapped them. Most significant ia it, aiiggestive of the 
PreaeQceofGod,revealing,yetconcealing — acloudiyetlumi- 
nouB. And thisoloudovershaduwedthediaciplee: thesliadow 

t 1 



Jesus TUB ifEss/Air 

of h« lif^bt fell upoD thern. A namelees terror seizfiJ tliem. 
Fain would they have held whst seemed to escape their grasp. 
Such vitton bnd Dover before been rouchsafed to mis-tul 
nUD BB had fallen 011 their sight ; they had heard Heayen's 
ooorene ; they bad tasted Angels' Food, the Bread of Ht« 
Presence. Could the vision DOt be pcrpelaated — at least 
{rrolongwl? In the confusion of their terror tbey knew 
not bow othenrine to word it, than by an erprosaioa at 
ecetatic longing for the continnance of what they had, of 
their earnest reudineaB to do their little beet, ifthej could 
biit wcnt^ it — make booths for the heavenly \^9itant3 — 
and thpmselvea wait id hnntble Bervicei and reverent att^n- 
tioaoQ what their dull heaviness hud preveated them from 
enjoying and profiting by to the ruU. They knew and felt 
it : ' liord ' — ' Rnbbi ' — ' Master* — ' it is ^od for ns to be 
hiTC.' 'They wist, not what they said.' In presence of the 
lominons cloud that, enwrappi^d those glorified Saints, they 
apake from out that darkoese which couipAsaed them about. 

And now the tight-cloud was Bpreading ; pr^ntly ila 
ft-ingw frtll upon thcrn. Heawo's awe was upon them : for 
the touch of the heavBuly Htrains, almost to breaking, the 
bond betwixt bodv and soul. • And a Voice came ont of 
thtt cloud, Miiying, This is My Beloved Son: hear Him.' 
[t bu<l ntS'tlMd <jnly f)ne other TeBt.imony to seal it all; 
One other Voice, to give both meaning and music to what 
had Ixwn tliv subject of Moses' and Elijah's speaking. 
That Voice had now come^not in teatimony to any fact, 
but t« a Person — that, of .Jesus as His ' Beloved Son,' and 
in gruciouH direction tfl them. They heard it, falling on 
their faoex in awestruck worship. 

How long the silence had lasted, and the last rays of 
the cloud had passed, we know not^ Presently, it was a 
grtitlu touch that roused them. It was the Hund of Jesus, 
lis with worrls of (comfort He reassured them ; ' Arise, and 
bo not afraid.' And as, startled, they looked mund about 
them, they saw no man save Jesna only. The heavenly 
Vi&itanlB had gone, the laat glow of the liifht-cloud had 
faded away, the echoes of Heavpn's Voice had died out. 
It was night, and they were on the Mouut with Jesus, and 
wirh Jeaue only. 





(SU Matt. xvii. 9-21; St. Haik ix. »-S9 ; St. Luke Ix. 37-43.) 

It was the early i&wD of another summer's day when th« 
Master and His disciples tamed their steis once more 
towards the plain. Thoy had seen His Glory ; ttey had 
had the most solf^uia witneHB which, as Ji-ws. tliey could 
have; and they had gnined a new knowledge of the Old 
Testament. It all bore reference to the Christ, and it 
spake of Hie Decease. Perhaps on that tnoming better 
than in the prcTious night did they realise the visioQ, and 
feel its calm happine^is. 

It would be only Bittui'n) that their thoufjhts ehonld 
also wander to the companions and fellow-disciplea whom 
on the previous evening they had left in the valley beneatli. 
A light hail been shedupouthat hard say ing concerning Hta 
Rejection and violent Death. They — at least these three — 
had formerly eimply submitted to the saying of Christ 
because it was Ilis, without under standing it; but now 
they had learned to see it in quit™? another light. How 
they must b.ive longed to impart it to thoae whose diffi- 
culties were at least as gn-at, perhaps greater ; who perhaps 
had not yet recovered froui the rade shock which their 
Messianic thoughts and hopes had so !at.ely received.. 

But it was not t-o he so. Evidtintly it was not an event 
to be made generally known, either to t]ii_' people or even 
to the great body of the diflciples. They could not have 
understood its real meaning; in their ignorauce they would 
have misapplied to carnal Jewish pnrpoaen ite heavenly 
lessona. But even the rest of the Apostlea must not know 
of it : that they were not qnaiified to witneaa it, proved 
that they were not prepared to hear of it;. 

And so it was that, when the silence of that moming- 
denoent was broken, the Master laid on them the command 
to tell DO man of this vision, till after the Son of Man 
were risen from the dead. The Bilenoe thuM enjoined waa 


Jbsvs the Messiah 

tlie Hrxt step into the Valley of ilumiliatioQ. It was also 
a t«0t whether they had uuderstcod the spiritu&l teaching 
of the vi»i(ni. AtkI <}ieir strict obedteneej not qti«et)onitig 
eran the grounds of thp injunction, prcverl that they had 
learaed it. So entire, indi?^^, was their snbrnis^ion that 
ihny dared not even aek the Master about a new and 
Kn^miogly greater mystery than tliey tad yet heard : the 
• Ht.H<ik mraning of the Son of Man rising ftom the 
I* w dead." Did it r«fer to the general Resmrectiou ; 

waB iJie Mi'Hsinh to he the tiret to rise fi'oni the dead, and 
\ki waken the other aleeperp — or was it only n fignrative 
expression for His triumph and vindicaHon ? Evidently 
they kiirwnB. yet nothing of Christ'a Personal Resnrrertion 
u separate Irom that of others, and on the third d&y after 
HiH D^ftth. Among thetneelvee, then and many timee 
•iit.Uiirk aftarwardu, in eeoret converse, they c|ue8tinned 
i>,in what the rising again from the dead ghonid 


There was another question, and it they might ask of 
Jesns, since it concerned not the mysteries of the fiitaire 
but the leaaouB of the past. Thinking of that vision, of 
the iippojirnnce of Elijah aud of his speaking oi the Death 
of the NfeiiRifih. why did the Scribes say that Elijai should 
first, come — and, as was the iiniTerBsil teaching, f«r the 
pur|x»8e of refltoring all things? If, as they had seen, 
Elijah had come— hot only for a brief season, not to abide 
together with Moses as they had wished when they proposed 
trf> rear them booths ; if he had oome not to the people but 
Xa Christ, in riew of nnly them thi-et*— and they were not 
even \xs tell of it; and if it had been not to prepare for a 
spiritual restoration, but to ap«ak of what implied the 
opposite: the Rejection and violent Death of the Messiah 
— then, were the Scribes right in their teaching, and what 
was its real meaning? The question affordi?d the oppor- 
tunity of pre&enting to the dipciples not only a solution 
of their difticulties, but another insiglifc into the necessity 
of His Rejection and Death. They had failed to dia- 
tingnifih between the coming of Elijah and its alternative 
seqnence. Trnly ' Eliae cometh first ' and Klijah had ' come 

The Comyfi of Eltjah 




already* in tls person rtf John thw Baptisit- The Divinely 
intended object of Blijah's comia^ waa to 'refrtorft all 
thiiiga," This, of course. jinpHetl & moral Bl^-ment in the 
Bcbmiesiou of tlie people to God, and tbeir williTifinesB to 
recelTe his mesiaftg-e, Othprwiso thpre was this Dinne 
alt«rnat.ive in the prophocv of Malnclii : ' Leaf, I come to 
smite (he land with the biin,' Elijnh had come; if the 
ptwple had received his uiestiiige thei-e would have beea 
the proraiwed restoriition of all things. As the Lord had 
• 81, Msrt ^'^ <"■ " previotis nccasLon : ' ' If ye are willing 
»*■" to receive him, thin is Elijah, which is to come.' 

SimilftrEy, if Israel hud received the Christ>. He wrmld have 
g^ttthered Ihem as a. hen her chickens for pmrecljon; He 
would Drtt ATily have been, but have visibly appeared as 
their Kin<.'. But Israel did not know iheir Elijah, and 
did nnto hitn whatsoever thoy listed; and so, in logical 
setinence, would the Si^n of Man also suffer of them. And 
thoB has the other part of MaJachi'g prnpheoy been ful- 
filled, and the land of Iprael been Biuitt*'n with the ban. 

Amidst such c-onversntioii the deecont Iratn the monn- 
Iain was accomplished. Prfsently they found theniseliveB 
in view of a scene, which only too clearly showed that 
niifita«s8 nt the disciples for the heavenly vision of tli© 
preceding night, to which reference has been made. 

It wa-B. indeed, a terrible contrast between tbe ^ceIle 
below and that vision of Mosee and Elijah, when they had 
spoken of the Exodus of the Christ, and the Divine Voicehad 
attest-ed the Christ from out the luminous cloud, A con- 
conree of excited people — among theni once more ' Scribes,' 
who had trackf^ the Lord and come a\viv His weakest, 
disciples in tlie hour of their ^'eat«st weakaesa — i« gathered 
about a man who had in vain brought his lunattck son for 
healing. He ia eagerly questioned hy the multitude, and 
'BtMitt mtwdily answers; or, aa it might ahnost seem 
»»iLM from St. Matthew," be is leaving the crowd and 
tboae from whom lie had vainly Bought help. This was 
the hoor of trinmph for these Scribes. The Master had 
refused the challenge in Dahuanutlia, and the disciples, 
accepting it, had aignnlly failed. There they were, ' qnes- 



' S[. Unik 

* Bt. Mai- 


tioning with them ' noisily, discugsing tliis and all similar 
phfttiMtiifiia, but. cliitfly the power, authority, aud reality of 
ihe Master. It reminds na of Israel's teraptation in the 
wildemesB, and we should scarcely wonder if they had 
even qneationed the retam of Jesus, as thev of old did fthat 
of Moses. 

At that very moment Jeaua appeared with the three. 
We cannot wonder that, ' when they saw Him, they were 
greatly aina&ed and mnning bo Him saluted 
Him.'" Before the Master's inqniry abont tho 
cause of this Tiolent discassioo c^iuld b& answered, the 
man who hfwl been its oecdsion came forward and, ' koael- 
iiig to Uim,'*' addreaijed Jesus. Describing the 
Gymptoms of his son's distt^iiiper, whJoh were 
thoue of epilepsy «nd miiuia — although bolJi the father 
and Jesus rightly attributed the disease to demoniac in- 
6ueDce — ho told how he had come in search of the Master, 
hut only found thij nine disciples, and how they had 
attempted and failed in the desired cure. 

Why had they failed ? For the same reason that they 
had not been taken into the Mount of Tranafignration — 
because they were ' faithless,' because of their ' unbelief.' 
They had that outward laitli of the * frohaUvm csi' (' it IB 
proved '); they believed because of what they had seen ; 
but that deeper faith, which consisted in the spiritual view 
of that which was the unseen in Christ, and that, higher 
power, which flows from such apprehension, they had not. 
In Buch fiiith as they had, they repeated forms of exorcism, 
tried to imitftte their Master. But they si^ally failed, as 
did those s*ven Jewish PrieBf^aona at Epheaus. In that 
hour of crisis, in the presence of questioning Scribes; and a 
wondering jiopulace, and in the absence of the Christ, only 
one power ct>uld prevail, that of spiritual faith ; and ' that 
kind ' coald ' not come out but by prayer.* 

For one moment we have a glimpse into the Savioor'B 
aoul : the poignant sorrow of His disappointment at the 
iinl»elief of the ' faithlofls and perver.'tf genRmtiim,' with 
which Ho had no lonp bonn' : the patienc.^ and condeacen- 
uon, the iJivine ' nt-i'd bf ' of Hi&haviug thus to hear aven 

JjBAUtra OFT/mLiWAT/ci^Soy 


witii His owD, together with the humiliation which it in- 
x'olved; and the ahiioatlioiiio-Ioiiging,as it has been calked, 
of His soul, nicac tilings are inyeteriea. The next 
moment Je:^ us turns Him to the father. At His command 
the lunatick ia brought to Hitn. InthePreBence of JesaB, 
and in new of the ooiniiig contaet hetween Light and 
Darkness, one of those paroxyams of demiiniac operation 
ensues, such as we have witneBSpd on all similar occaaiona. 
This was allowed to pass in view of all. Bat both this, 
and the quefltion ns to the length of time the lunatick had 
been afflicted, together with the anewer and the descrip- 
tion of the dangers involved which it elicited, were 
evidently intended to ]Joint the lesson of the need of » 
higher faith. To the father, however, who knew not the 
mode of treatment by the Heavenly Physician, they seained 
like the questions of an earthly healer who must con- 
sider the symptoms before he could attempt to cure. ' If 
Thoa canst do anything, haye compa->iBion on as, and 
help na," 

There is all the culm majesty of Divine self-conacioiia- 
ii«es, yet without trace of self-assert ion, when Jesus, 
utterly ignoring the 'if Thou canst,' turns to the man 
and tells him that, while with the Divine Helper there ie 
the possibility of all help, it is conditionerl by a possibility 
in onrselvea, by man's receptiveuesa, by bis faith. ' If 
thou canat believe, all things are possible to him that 

It wft8 a lesson, of which the reality wae attested by 
the hold which it took on the man'a whole nature. While 
by one great out-going of his soul he overleapt all, to lay 
hold on the fact set before him, he felt all the more the 
dark chasm of unbelief behind him. Thus throug-h the 
felt on belief of faith he attained true faith by laying hold 
on. the Uivine Saviour, when he cried O'ut and eaid : ' Lord, 
I believe; help Thou mine unbelief.' 

Such cry could not be, and never is, unheard. It wae 
a reality, and not accommoflation to Jewish views, when, as 
He aaw ' the multitude running together, He rehuked the 
■ UDclean spirit, saying to him: Dumb and deaf Hpirit, 1 




comni&Qd fhen, oome out of bim, and no tuure oome into 

Another and a more violent paroiyBm, so thst the bj- 
Btanders almost tlkonght Mm dead. But tlio unclean spirit 
had oome out of him. And with strong genrte Hand the 
Saviour lifted Mm, and delivered him to his father. 



(St, Matt. rrii. 2&— xvJiL 22 ; Sb. Muk ix. 90-50 ; St. Luke tx. 43-50.) 

Now that the Lord's retreat at CteaiueA Pbilippi was 
kaowti to the Scribes, and that He was again suirounded 
and followed by the iniiltitiide, the-re could be no further 
object in His retirement. Indeed, the time was coming 
that He should meet that forwhich He htnl been, and was 
still, preparing the minds of His disciples — Bis Decease 
at Jeruealem. Accordingly, we find Him once more with 
His disciples in Galilee — not to abide there, but prepara- 
tory to Hie journey to the Feiist of Tabeniaclea. The few 
events of this brief stay, and the teaching connected with 
it, may he sninmed up as follows, 

1. ProDiinentiy, perhaps, us tlie suramaiy of all, we 
h&Te now the clear and emphatic repetition of the predic- 
tion of His Death and Resurrection. The announcemeiitt 
filled their heflrts with e.xceeding sorrow; rhoy compre- 
hended it not ; nay, they were — perhaps not uiuiat orally — 
airaid to aek Him about it. 

2. It is to the depression cauged by Bib insistence on 
this terrible future, to the constant apprehcnaion of near 
danger, and tlie consequent desire not to ' offend,' and so 
provoke those at whose hands Chriat had told them He 
was t« snffer, that we trace the incident of the tribnto- 
money. We can scarcely believe that Pet«p would have 

TliH TlfJflt/TX-^f6.>lfJtr 



answered as be did. without previous permi^on of his 
Maater, had it not been for such thoughts and feare. It 
was another mode of eaynng, ' That he (at from Thee '—or, 
TBth«r, trjirg to keep it as far 118 he could from Christ. 

It is well knft'Wii that, on the groancl of thft injnnction 
ID Exod. xss. 13 &c., every mule in I^niel. froJii twenty 
,y vfars upwards, was pxfiepted annually to con- 

» Kings ill. tribute to the Tpniple-Tivftsury tbe sum of Otic 
tiiv.A: " half-shetelof the Sanctiiarjv'equivati^ntt'vaboTit 
jfoii.tM ^g 2(i. or \t. Sd. of onr money. Whether or cot 
tlie origrina! TiiWioJtl opdiunncre had haim intended to iBBti- 
tute a regular animal contribation, the .Jbws of the Dis- 
perBion would probably regHrd it in tha light of ft putriotie 
tts well as religions tuct. 

It will be remembered that, shortly before the previous 
I'assovep, Jesus with His disciples hiul left. Capernauiii, 
that they returned to the latter city only foi- the Sabbath, 
rtnd that, as we have siij»gested, (hey passed the first 
Paschal days nn the borders of Tyre. It must have been 
known that He had not gone Up to JernnHlem for the 
Paesover. Accordingly, when it was told in Capernaum 
that the Rabhi of Nazareth had once more come to what 
seems to have been Hie Gnlilfan home, it wan only natural 
that they who eollect^d the Temple-tribute ahould have 
applied for its payment. It is qnit^ posttible that (heir 
application may have been, if not prompted, yet quickened, 
by the wish to involve Him in a breach of so well-known 
an obligation, or else by a hostile curiosity. 

We pictui-e it to ounselveB on this wise. ThoB& who 
received the Tribute-money had come to Peter, tiad per- 
haps met him iu the court or corridor, and asked Mm : 
• Yonr Teacher ('Rabbi),doefi He not pay the didrflchma?' 
While Pet«r haetjly responded in the affiiimitive, and then 
pntered into the house to procure the coin, orolss tx> rt'|>ort 
what had pUBsed. ■Teaus, Who had been in another part of 
the house, but was cognisitnt of all, ■ auticipated him.' 
AddreBaingliiiH 10 kindly language as 'Simon.' He pointed 
out the real state of matters by an illustratioD which must, 
of course, not be too literally pressed; and of winch the 


Jesus thm. Me-^siah 

meAning was : Wliom does & King intend to tax for tlie 
mainteaanco of his palace and o&ccis? Surely not bis 
own family, bnt others. The inference from this, as re- 
^nled the Tompk-tribnte, was obnous. As in all similar 
Jewish parabolic teaching, it was only indicated in general 
principle: "Then are the children tree.' But even ao. be 
it as Peter bad wished, althongh not from the same motive. 
Ijet no needless offence be given; for, assuredly, they 
wonld not hiLve andergtood the principle on which Clirist 
uroold have refused the Tribute-money, and all misimder- 
staudiug on the part of Peter wae now iiripoaeibie. Yet 
Christ would still fiirth«r vindicate Hia royal title. 
He will pay for Peter bIbo, and pay, ae heaven's King, 
with B stuter, or foor-drochm piece, miraculously pro- 

If we wish to mark the difference between the sobriety 
of this record and the extravagances of legend, we may 
remind oarselveB of a somewhat kindred Jewish Haggadahj 
intended to glorify the Jewish mode ot" Sabbath obseiTance. 
One Joseph, known as 'the honourer' of the Sabbath, had 
a wealthy heathen neighbonr, to whom the Ghuldie-ans had 
prophesied that all his riches would come to Joseph. Tr> 
render this impoasible, the wealthy man converted all his 
property into one magnificent gem, which he carefully 
concualed within his head-gear. Then he took ship, so at. 
for ever to avoid the dangerous vicinity of the Jew. But 
the wind blew his head-gear into the sea, and the gem wae 
swallowed by a fish. And, lo ! it wae the holy season, uai 
they brought to the market a splendid fish. Who shontc 
purchase it bnt Joseph? for none as he would prepare to 
honour the day by the best whicli he could provide. Bat 
when they opened the fish, the gem was found in it — the 
moral beir^: "He that borrowetb for the Sabbath, the 
Sabbath will repay him.' 

3. The event ne-irt recorded in the Gospels took plaM 
partly on the way froui the Mount of Transfiguration to 
Capernaum, and partly in CapernuiiiH itself, immediately 
after the scene connected with the Tribute- money. It is 
recorded liy the three Evangelists, and it led to explana- 

The Dispute by tub Way 


•St. Uuk 

.ons and udmonitioiig, which are told by St. Marie aod 
St. Luke, but cliiefly by St. Mat.tlmw. Thia circumstance 
seems to indicate that the latter was the chief actor in 
that vt^htch occiisioneJ tbis special teaching aad wamingof 
Christ, oud that it niuet have eonk very deeply into his 

As St. Ifark puts it * by the way they had 
disputed among themselves which of them should 
> Bi. SUM. be the greatest — as St. Matthew explains,'' in 
»'"'■' the Messianic Kingdom of Heaven. Of a dispute 
eerioas and even violent, among the diaciples, we Imve 
evidence in the exhortation of the Miister, as reported by 
' St. Mwk St. Mark,'^ in the direction of the Lord how to 
n.ii-eo ^gjji ^^j^^ gjj offendiDg brother, and in the 

■fit Kwt, answering inquiry of I'ster.** Nor can we be ut 
^111. It, 11 alosa to perceive ifcsocciision. Thedistinctionjiiat 
bestowed on the three in being taken up the Mount, may 
have roused feelings of jealousy in the othera, perhaps 
of self-exaltation in the three. Alike the spirit which 
John displayed in his harsh prohibition of ihe man that 
'Bt UM-k did not follow with the disciples,' and the at'^lf- 

'fit. Hfttt, 

righteous boi^aining of Peter about forgi ling the 
supposed or real otfencea of a brother,' give evi- 
d*iiee of this. 
In troth, the Apostles were still gn-atly under the in- 
fluence of the old spirit. Itwaa the common Jewish view 
thai there would be distLn<jtionH of rank in the Kingdom 
of Heaven. It can acarcely be necessary to prove this by 
Rabbinic quotations, since the whoLe system of Rabbinism 
and Pharisaiam, with its separation from tJie vnlgar and 
igoorunt, rests upou it. But oven within the circle of 
Rabbinism there would be distinctions, due to learning. 

f merit, and even to favouritism. In thia world there were 
Ood'» spe«ial favourites, who could command aoytliin^at 
His hand — \ia nss the Rabbinic illustration, like a spoilt 
child from ita father. And in the Messianic age God would 
assign bootha to each according to his rank. 

How deep-rooted were such thoughts and feelings 
■ appears not only from the dispute of the disciples \rj the 



n. 10 

wtiy, lint fpfim the request ppoflered by the mother 
of ^1)mIi^'h obildi-nti ani] hisr KODtt at a lnt«i- 

We Lnvo ulreacly «^pn that there was quite sufHcietiti 
occasion and rnaterial foi' such a dispute on the way from 
the Mount of TianHfij^m-atiou to Cnpertiauin. We suppcMd 
Pot«r to have Jteen only at the first with thn others. To 
juilgp by the latter question, how olWn ha wae to forgive 
Uie broUier who had simieci aguusl him, h« luay h&7e beeu 

deeply hurt that he left tile othar diaotplea, aad 
haistoned ua with the Muster, Who would, at any rate, 
Kojonm in Lis housi>. For neither \w nor Christ seems fo 
have lieen preatnt when John anil the others tbrbodi^ thw 
man, who would not follow with tlietii, to cast out demons 
in CbriBt's Nuuik. Again, the other disciples only oamo 
into Capernaum, and C[it«r«d the bouso, juat as Pctor had 
gono for tJw slater, with which to pwy the Temple-tribute 
tor the Master and himsplf. And, if ni»culation be p^r- 
ini^Mble, we would suggest that tlif hioth^i, whose oStucOd 
Futer found it so diflScuh to forgive, nuLv have Ijeen none 
othyr tlinn Judas. In such a diwputf by tlie way, Judas, 
with his Judaistiu ^new^n, would he purticalarly iuterested; 
perhagin he may hare been its cliief instigutov; certainly, 
he, whose natural character amid»t it* sharp contrasts to 
that of Peter presented so many poiiitH of res<?niblance to 

it, would OQ uuiiy gi'ouodti be specially jealoue of and 
aut&gonifitic to him. 

Quite natural In view of this dispute by th« way ia 
anothvr incident of the journey, which is al^eirworda 
" SI jfMk related.** As we judge. John seems to have been 
stiluisii. *^^ prinoipal actor in it ; perhaps in thi* absence 
« of Pctor he ilaimed tho leadership. '■'h^'y h*d 

metone who wits fasting out demouain the Name of Christ 
— whether aucceesfuUy or not^, we need scarcely inquire. 
So widely had faith in the power of Jeeus extended ; ao real 
was the belief in the subjection of the demons to Him; 
so reverent was the Acknowtedg^iiicnt of Him. A mati 
who, thua for&aking the methods of Jewish Qxorciste, 
own«d Jesua in the face of the Jewish world, could not " 

lot b* fl 





hs fivin the Kingdom of Heavan. Jolm iiad, in ua.iiie (jI 
the disciples, iorbirlrJtni iiim, because he had tiot cdHt in bin 
lot wlioUy witli them. To forbitl a inau in aucb circum- 
stances vciuld be either prompt^ad by the spirit of tLa 
dispute by the way, or eba mast be grounded on 
evidence that the motive w£is, orthoefFect would ultiiiiat«ly 
be (as in the case of the soiis of Sceva), to i<^ad men ' to 
speak evil' of Christ, or to hinder the work of His dtaciples. 
Afisuredly, such <x>uld not have been the ciise with a man 
who invoked TTJh Name, and perhaps eicperiencad Its 
efficacy. More than this — and here i» an eternal principle : 

• He that is not agaiuBt ua is for as ;' a sayiug atill more 

• atLukB clear, when we adopt the better reading: to St. 
**•'" Luke,' ' Hl> thnt is not against yoo is foryoa.' 

The leaaon is of the moHt deep-reacliing character. 
Not that it ifl unimportant to follow with the disciplei), 
but that it is not onre to forbid anv work done, however 
imperfectly, in His Name, and that only one question is 
really vital — whether or not a man is decid&dly with 

Sach were the incidenta by the way. A.nd now, while 
witldiolding from r'hristtheirdiE])u,te,and, indeed, anything 
that might seem personal in the question, the diDcIples, 
on entering the honse where Ue was iii Capeiiiaiim, 
addressed to Him this intjuiry : ' Who then is greatest in 
the Kingdom of Heaven ?' It was a general question — 
bat JeHus perceived tha thought of their heart ; '' 
He knew about what they had disputed by the 

• Bi Mark Way.'' aud now asked them conciTuing- it. The 
•^'^ accoontof St. Murk is mostgraphic, Conscienco- 
etricken ' they hfld tbeir pesice.' It seems as if the Mftster 
had at first gone to welcome the disuiples on their arrival, 
and they, 'fullof their diBput.e,' had without delay oddreaned 
tlieir inquiry to Hira mthecourt or aot-echambei, where they 
met Hini. Li^admg the way into tlie house, ■ He aat down.' 
not only to answer their luqauy, but to ttacL them what 
they needed to learn. He called a liate i;hild — perhaps 
Peter s little son — aud put him in the midst of tliem. Not 
to etrive who was to be greatest, but to be utterly without 


Jesus thf. SfEssufi 

aelf-conaciooBOMB, lUce a child — tbua to become tnraed 
and untirel^ obangnd in miud, 'convcrtod,' watt the coodi- 
tiou for cniETitig into thtt Kingdoni of Heaven. Tlieo, aa 
to the qaestiou of greatness there, it was really one of 
greatness of aervioe, and that was greatest Bervice which 
implied most sclf-di-nial. Suiting the axitiou to the teac;!i- 
ing, the BIcBscd Sftviour took the happy child in Hia 
Arma, Not to teach, to preach, to work miraclee. nor to 
do great things, bat to do the hombl^at service for Chriafa 
aakf, vrns to receive Christ — aay, to i-eceive the Fother. 
And th<i emalle«t service, as it might seem — even the 
giving B Clip of cold water in such spirit;— would not lose 
its reward. 

Theeu words uhont receiving Christ, and 'receiving 
ill the Name of Christy' had Btirred the inpinfay and con- 
science of John, and made him half wonder, half fear, 
whether what they had done by the way, in forbidding thi« 
iijuit to do what he cuuM in tht- Niutie of Christ, had been 
right. And so he told it, and received the further and 
higher beaching on the snbject. St. Mark and St- 
Matthew record further instruction in coimection with 
tliis, to which St. Luke refera at a somewhat later 
period.* The love of Christ goes deeper than 
the condeeceneioii of receiving a child, utterly ua-Pharisaic 

y and un-Rabbinic as thia is.'' A man may enter 
irtii. »-•. into tlie Kingdom and do service — yet, if iu so 
"■ '' doing he disregard the law of love to the little 

ones, far better his work should be abruptly cut short; 
better one of those large millstonea turm^ by an aaa 
were hnng abont hia neck and he cast into the sea ! We 
pause to note, once more, the Jodatc, and therefore 
evidential setting of the Eva.ngeHo narrative. The 
Talmud also speaks of two kinds of milltstones — the one 
turned by h-iiid, referred to in St. Lnke xvii. 35 : the 
other turaed bj- an uss. Similarly, the Hjfoie ab(.'ut a 
millst^on^ hung rcnnd the neck occurs also in the Talmud 
— altbougb there &» fijgurative of almost insuperable diffi- 
cnltieB. Again, the expression. ' it were better for him," 
in a weJl-known Rabbinic expreosion. Lastly, according 

• St. Lake 

ITll. 1-1 






'Saltbd foe THB FlSE* 



to St. Jerome, the pnnishment wliieli seemB aJInded to in 
the wordfl of Christ, aaJ which we Icnow to have been in- 
fiict^ by Augustas, was actually practised by the RoDiana 
in Galilee on acme of the lenders of the ioaurrectioii ander 
Jndas of Galilee. 

And yet greater guilt would only too surely bw in- 
■stuau. curredl Woe unto the world!* Occasions of 
*j"^'^ij_ stumbling and offence would snrelj comej but 
*•-« wott to the man through whom such havoc was 

wrongbt. What theo is the alteraative ? If it be a ques- 
tion as between offence and some part of onrselvea. a !imh 
OP member, however uaeful — tbe hand, the foot, the eye — 
tbi-n let it rather be severed from the Ixiiiy, however paiu- 
fnl, or however aeeniingly great the loefi. It cannot be so 
great as that of the whole being in the eternal fire of 
Gehenna, whore their worm dieth not, and the fire is not 
queuclied. Bo it hand, foot, or eye — practice, pursuit, or 
research — which coaadonsly leads ns to occaeionB of 
stumbling', it must be rt^oltitc'ly put a^de ia view of the 
incomparably greater loss of eternal remorse and anguish. 

Here St. Mark abruptly breaks ofl" with a aaj'ing in 
■which the Saviour mabtia general application, although the 
'BLMftTk narrative is further continued by St. Matthew.* 
"■*"'"' It Ee«mB to uB that, turning from this thought 
that even menibera which are intended for useful service 
may, iu certain circumstance?, have to be cat off to avoid 
the greatest loss, the Lord gave to His disciples this aa the 
final summary and esplanation of all : ' For every one 
shall be salted for the fire ' — or, as a very early gloss 
wliicli has Blrangely crept into the t-ext pnrftphrased and 
explained it, ' Every sacrifice shall be salted with nalt.' 
No one ia fit for the sacrificial fire nor can offer anything 
a» ft Bjwritice, unless it have been first, according to the 
Ijevitical Lew. covered with salt, Byrobolic of the incor- 
raptible. ' Salt is gootl ; but if tho Bait,' with which tha 
Bpiriloal Bdcrifice ia to be salted for the (ire, ' have lost its 
savour, wherewith will ye season it?' Henre, 'have salt 
in yourselves,' but do not let that ealt be corrupted by 
making ifcan occadon of offence tootLers, or among your* 


• lav.lLU 

290 Jesus TBE Mbsstah 

Bplves. fts ill Mr* disputo by the way, or in the (Hsposition 
of mind that Iftd to it, or iu forbidding oth«ra to work who 
follow not with you, hat ' be at peace among youreelves.' 

Tf) ibis explnuatioD of thf^ words of Christ ifc in«j, 
pprhaps, he lidHtd tbiit, from their foiTn, tb«y niiiRt have 
conveyed a sp.'cijil meaning tiJ the diHfiipIes, It was a 
well-known law that every sacrifice burned on the Altar 
mush be snNx^d with salt,' Indifd, aciording to 
the Tnlmiid, not only evei^ such ottering, but 
erven the wood with which the Hacrificinl 6re was kiadled, 
was sprinkled with salt. Rait syinbnliNeil to the Jews of 
that tirrie the incorruptible and the liiplnT. Tb6 Clble 
Wft8 compared t^ salt, so wan aculeiiras of intellect, 80 
was the soul. Ijiwtly, tlie qnwit.ion : ' If the salt hftVO 
lost its savour, wherewith will ye aeasou it?' ^eema to 
hare been provrrbial, and occurs in exactly the Hamo 
words in the Talmud, apparently to denote a thins f*** ** 

Most thoroughly auti-Pharieaic and anti-Rabbinic as 
all thiB was, what St. Matthew further reporlB leads still 
forther in the siime diivction. We sctin to see Jesus still 
holding this child, and, with evident refci-ence to tha 
Jewish cont.empt for that which is striall, point to him and 
apply, in quite other manner than they hnd ever heiird, 
thp Rabbinic toacliing about the Angeb. In the Jewish 
view, only the chiefeet of the Angels were before the Face 
of God within the curtained Veil, while the others, ranged 
in difTerenti classes, stood outside and awaited His behest. 
The dlstincf.iorj which the former enjoyed was always to 
behold His Face, and to hear ajid know directly the Divine 
counsels and commands, ITiiB diBtinction was, therefore, 
one of knowledge ; Christ tacght that it was owe of love- 
Look up from eart.h to hfnven; thoae representative, it 
may be guardian Angels neaiest to God, are not those of 
deepest knowledge of God's counsel and commands, bat 
thoBe of eimpie, humble grace and faith — and ao learn 
not only not to despise one of these little ones, but who ia 
traly greateat in the Kingdom of Hoaven ! 

let a further depth of Christian lova remained to be 

In of a ' BKorrrmt' 


^^enown, tli;it wliit'Ii .sciii^jht; not ils own, linl. the thitij^s of 
olliei-s. ]Iil,hert:> it lu«I lit.'ii^iquPBtionof not seeking .-n'll" 

Iiior minding j?n*iit tilings, but^ Christ-like and liod-iike, tu 
Ctindescend to tiio' ones. Wliat if sictntil wrong had 
■ *i. Una. ^^^D donn. nnd jii^l offence j^ven, by a ' brother' ?■ 
xi:ii. ij In aacK case, also, the |innciple of thp Kingdom 
^wliich. in'^nt.ivfly. istliatiorRe!f-ror^ftfuln''.sM, jHisi Lively, 
that of sprvice of lovo— would first s^ek tlip good of liie 
oilending brother. Wi- nmrk liere the coiitrfiet to Ua.b- 
, Liiijain, which directs that the first overtures must be 
laudeby the tflli-iider, UuL the offended; uadeven prest-ribes 
thin to bp fhmp in prpNciice of nurapi-oiis witiipssps. and, if 
needful, rept?at.i.'d thr^-e tiniea. As regards the duty of 
showlnj^ to It bnjtii*T his fnult, and the delicate tenderness 
of doing UiiH ill priviil.p mi n» tiof, 1o {iiit him to slijinic, 
JtitbbiniH))! sppaks the snmo an tJic .Master of Nazareth. 
Vet, ill practice, matU-i's wcif ve.ry ilitl'erent; and npithcr 
eoiild tliufi*' be fotiud who would lake reproof, nor yet such 
a» wi'fH worthy to adniiiii.-<ti-r il. 

■ Quite otht-r was it in the Kinjifdom of Christ, where 

the theoiy whs left. iinili-Hiied, but the practice clearly 
marked. Here, by loving denling. to cnnvince of his 
wrong him who had done it, was uot humiliation nor loaa 
of dignity or of right, but reaJ gain : the gain of our 
brother to ua, and evenfriallv t;o Christ Hiynaelf. But even 
if this should fail, the oHended niuat not dosiat from his 
service of love, but ronjoin in it others with liimaelf so as 
to give weight and authority to his remonstrances, as not 
being the outcome of pi^rsoiial fei-ling or prejudice — per- 
haps, also, to be wiine.'.j'es before the Divine tribiuial. If 
this failed, a final iippeal should be made oa the part of 
the Church as a wholu, which, of course, could only be 
done through hor rf-prMCntativos and rulers, to whom 
Divine authority had been comraitti^d. And if that were 
rejected, the offer of lovp would, as* always in the Gospel, 
pitfls into doager of jud^uieut. Not, indeed, that such was 
to be executed by man ; but that such an offender, after the 
firat and aocond admonition, was to be rejected,*' 
Ho was to be treated an was the custom in r^-gard 




to a linutlion or & puMicau — not pcrsecated, det^pUod, or 
avoided, Imt out reoeivMl in Churdi'fetlowship (a beatJieD), 
nor admiUtMl to clote familiar intercourse (a pablJeao). 
And lhiii,iui wn nnderalnnd it, markH out the mode of what 
UcbIImI Ohurch discipline in gcbei-al. nod spMific*UT u 
rvfrardH wiunj^ done to u brother. Discipline so exerdaecl 
(whit-h may (fcA rentom to uh) has the highest DiTioa 
BODclJon, and the must (.-omcst renlitjr attaches to it. For 
in vtrttie of th« authority which Cliriat had oommitted to 
th<r Church iu the persons of lier rulers and represeutatires, 
what, they bound or loosed— declared obligatory op uon- 
ol)li((«tory — vra« n>lifi«^ in heavt-n. 5Tor wns lUis to W 
wondered at. 'X\w I iicamation of Christ was the link 
which bound earth to heaven; through it whatever was 
i^preed upon in the fiiUawDhip of Ctirist ae that which was 
•BbHatt. *^ '^' 't^ltw^ wimfd \»' done for them of Hia 
«"••■ " Father Wliich wr.s in heaven.' Thus the power 
of the Churfh i-wiehed up to heaven through the power of 
prayer in His Name Who made God our Father. And 
«r>, l)eyond thn exer(;i»e of discipUne uud Kntliority, 
there was the omnipotence of prayer — ' if two of yon 
shall ajfTee ... as touching anything ... it shall be 
done for thorn ' — and with it also tlic possibility of a hightT 
service wf lovt-. For in the smtillest tfatlieriuc 
in the Name of Christ His Prpseiice would he, 
and with it the certainty of ueameea to, and aoceptance 
with, (Jod.'' 

It i.i bitti»rly diadppointiuff that, after sneh teaching, 
even a Putcr could come to the Master— either immediately, 
or perhaps after he had had tinje to think it over, and 
apply it — with the question how often be was to forgive 
an offending brother, imagining that he had more than 
aatistied the new requirements, if be pxtended it 
""■*' to seven tinQes." Such trait.? show better than 
elaborate discuanioii8 the need of the niiesion and the re- 
newing of the Holy Ghost,. And yet there is something 
touching in the simplicity and honesty n-ith which Peter 
goes to the Master, as if he had fully entered into Hia 
teaching, jet with such a miaapprshension of ita spirit. 


On Fohgjvenbss op a 'BRoTtiBtt* 


Surelv, tte new wine was bursting the old bottles. It was 
a principle of HabHuism timt, even if tJie wroii|fdoer had 
made full rest.oraiion, lie would not obtain forgivenesa till 
he hatl asked it of liim whom he had wmngeil, but that it 
was cruelty in sucb cil-cuiualaiices to i-efiiae jjnidon. Tho 
JL^rUBBlem Taltnud aJda tlie beautiful renmrk: 'Let this 
be a tolcen in thine band — each time that thou abowust 
inej-cy, God will show mercy on thee ; luid if thoii showest 
not mercy, neither will God show taercy on ttiee.' But 
it was B Eettled rule, that forgiveness should not be ex- 
tended more than three times. Even bo, the prnctioe was 
Vary different. 

It must have aeemcd to Pet^i, in hia ignorance, 
quite & 6tretch of charity to extend forgiveness to seven, 
instead of three oSences. It did not occm* to him that the 
very act of numbering offences marked an extemalism 
which never entered into, nor eomprehentled the 
spirit of Cbriiit. Until seven times? Noy, until seventy 
times seven \ The evident purport of these words was to 
efiace all such landmnrks. Peter had yet to learn what 
we too ofl*n foryet : that Christ's forgiveness, as that of 
the Christian, mnst not be computed by numbers. It ta 
g^ualitaiivr-. not 'fiianfjiative : Christ forgiveR sin, not sius 
■ — and he who has experienced it follows in Hia footsteps. 




(Bt. John vii. 1-U; St. Luka ix. l-fi(J. 57-6! : Bt. Matt. viii. 19-SB.) 

The part in the "Evangelie History wliich we have now 
reached has This pettuHarity and ilifficulty, tliat the events 
are recorded by only one of tlie Evangelists. The section 
in St, Lake's Gospel froui chapter ix. 61 to chapter 
xviii. 14 stands absolutely alone. 8t, John mentions three 


Jesvs Tii/i Messiah 

period : at the 

• ,si> Juhn 

Til. ML 

* U, UatL 

II. II ftcv : 

»t Umrk X. 

J9 Its. : ts. 

l.i\ki; irtL 
II &u. 

• Sb John XL 

iHUtea of Chrint in Jerusalem at 

Feiwt iiiTiilreriiai-les,* sit tliat of tlie Hi'dicatioD," 
and His linal eutry, whieh is n^tt-nvil to by nil 
the other Kvangeliats." Hiil, wlijle the: ziarmlive 
of St. JoIlu couliaes itself exclasivcly to what 
h(i|)peiieJ in Jeriisulem or its immediate Deipli- 
bourhood, it alao either nifiiiioiiH or gives Hufli- 
cieiit itulittAlion thftt on Two out of these three 
occiiaiuna Jetfus k-fl. Jenienleni for the coiiutry eaat of the 
Jordnti (St. John x. 19-21 ; St. John 1.39-43. where tho 
words in ver. 39, ' thuy souyht ux«iu to tukc Him,' point 
trt a previous Biinilar nttcmpt and tiig-ht). Besides thene, 
St. Johu aleo records a journey to Bethany — though not 
to JeriiBdlem— for thu raising of Liizarns,'' aiiJ 
after thjit a council agniust Christ in JeiuBidem, 
in coiisequeiicn of which He ivithdrew out of Judman 
• XL M territovy into a district near ' the wildernese ' " — 
'8t.Uk> fts we infer, that iu the north, where Johu had 
Tii'ji''"' l^*^!^ btt[ilisiiig and Christ been tempted, and 
iKLLiikt whither He had afterwards withdrawn.' We 
Tiii. IB rejjard this ' wilderness " iis on the enstt^ni bank 

of the Joi'dau, and ejttandiug novtliward towards tlie 
eastern shore of the Lake of Gidilwe.'^ 

If St. John relates three appearances of Jesus at 
■StLulw ^^'•' ''1"' '^ Jenisa,lem, St. Luke records three 
|»_*i i »!* journeys to JeritNileni,'' the last of which agrees, 
' si. Miiit, ^ regai'd to its st-arting point, witJi the notices 
of the other Evangelists.' 

Sti. Luke's occottut of the three journeys to 
Jerusalem fits into the narrative of Christ's three nppear- 
. =. . u aiices in Jerusalem as deacribed by St. John. Ihe uaiquB section m ht. Jjube' supplies the 
record of what trtok place before, during, and 
after those journeys, of which the upshot is told by St. 
John. We have now Bome iimight into tho plan of St. 
Lake's Goapel, as compared with that of thi- others. Wo 
see that St. Lulte forms n. kind of traiiwition between the 
other two Syiiopti&ta and St. John. 'V\k Gospel by St. 
Matthew has for its main object the Discoui-sL's ur tetichiug 

lix. 1; 



WKm The Journxv to Jerusalem 295 

of tte Lord, ai-ound which the Hiatorj groups itbelt. It 
is iotended as a demoiistnition, primarily addresswil to the 
Jews, and in a form peculiarly aiiilwl to tlieni, thiit Je<au8 
was the Megsiuh, the Son of tlie Livinjj God. The Goapt-l 
hj- St. Marlr is a rapid survey ol' the History of the duiet 
assuch. It dp;t.i8 m»iiily with the Giiltlean Mbistry. The 
Gospel by yt. John, which gives the higlieat, the reflective, 
view of the Ktenial Hon us the Word, d«»lB almost excla- 
gively with the Jemsiilem Ministrj'. And the Gospel by 
St. Lnke corapletueiitt* tlie nnrrativea in the other two 
Gospola (St. Matthew and St. Mark), and it snpplementfi 
them by tracing, what is not done o^erwise ; the Miaiatry 
in PerBja. 

The aabjecl primarily before ua is th& journejing of 
Jesus to JeniBalera, In that widoi- view which St, Lube 
tukes of this whole history, he presents what really were 
three sepai-at* journeys as one — that towards the great 

St. John goes farther back, and speidiB of the circum- 
stances which preceded Christ's jounn^y to JemsaJem. The 
events chronicled in the sLxih chapter of St. John's Gospel 
• BtJhn "^^ place immediately before the Passover,' 
vL* which was on the tifl.eeuth day of the lirst eccle- 

siastical mouth (A'i'stt/i), while the Feast of 
Tabernacles " began on the siinie day of the seventh eccle- 
eiastical mouth Cl\nhr'\). The six or seven months between 
•oh.Ti the Feast of Passover" and that of Tabernacles,'' 
'eh. Tit ^^j ^ jjj,^t jHiaaed within them, are covered by 
this brief remark: ■ After these things Jeans walked in 
Galilt>e : for He wonld net walk in Jndam, befauBS the 
Jews [the leaders of the people] soug-ht to kill Him.' 

But now the Feast of Tabemacles was at hand. The 
pilyrirna would probably arrive in Jerusalem liefore the 
opening day of the Festival. For betiideis the needful pre- 
parations — which would require time, especuiUy on this 
Feaat, when booths had to be constructed in which to live 
during the festive week — it was the common practice to 
offer Buch aacrifices as might have previously become due 
nt any of the great Feasts to which the people might go 


Jesus tbb MESsfAir 

ap. Rt^mnmbering that ftve montbd had eJapsed Binoe 
last great Fwist (that of Weeks), mnny nnch Bacri6ce« 
must have beeu duo. Accordingly, tiie ordinary featire 
niTn]Mnit« of [)ilgrii[i8, which would tmvel hIowIjt, maat 
have st-iTbtd from Gftlilee HomB time before the beginning 
of the Feast. Tbeae circumstancefl fully explain the details 
of the nmrative. Tiiey also atlbrd another illustration of 
tli»loneIii]e:<4 of Oliriat in Ilis Work. His disciplds liud 
failed to understand His teaching. In the near prospect 
of His Death they cithei- displayed gross i^onmce, or el» 
disputedabouttheirfuturerank. AndHisown ' brethren' 
did not bolitjTe in Tlim. The whole course of late ev«nta, 
especially the unmnt challenfre of l,he Scribes (or ' a sign 
from heaven,' had deeply shakea them. If He rwdly did 
tiieae ' Works,' let Him inanit'eat Himself before the world 
— in JemBalem, the capital of their world, and before t.hoes 
who could teet the reality of them. Let Him oomc foi^ 
ward, at one of Tsmerg trreat Feasts, in the Temple, and 
especially at this Feast which pointed to the Meesianic in- 
g^hering of all nations. Let Him now go up with Lhem 
in the festive company into Judsea, that ao Bin disciples — 
not the (Jftlilenns only, but all — might have the opportnni^ 
of ' gazing ' on Hie Works. 

Aa the challenge wiig not new. bo from th« worldly 
puint of view it can scai'u'ely be called iinreaeouable. To 
miinifL-st Himself ! This triUy would He do, though not 
in their way. For this ' the aeu-son ' had not yet compj 
though it would aoon arrive. Tlieir 'aeason' — that for 
such Messianic mauifeetatiotiB as they contemplated — was 
' always ready.' And this naturally, for ' the world ' could 
not ' hate ' them ; they aud their donionat rations were qiiilo 
in accordance with the world and its viewa. But towarda 
Him the world cherifihed personal hatred, becftuse of their 
contrariety of principle, because Christ was manifested, 
not to restore an earthly kingdom to Israel, bat to bring 
tiie Heavenly Kingdom upon earth — ' to destroy tho works 
of thfl Devil.' Hence, He must, provoke the enmity of 
that world which lay in the Wicked One, Another Riani- 
festatioD than that which they sought would He make. 



ThB JoVirXF.r TO /ei!ffSALE.V 





when Hia ' Benson was fulfilled;' soon, beginning nt this 
very Feast, continued nt the next, and completed »t the 
last Passover; siidinionifestalioE of Himself as the Christ, 
as conld nloiie be ma<)e in view of the essential enmity oi 
the world. 

And BO He let them go up in the festive companj, while 
Himself tarried. Wlieii the noise and publicity (which Ub 
wishi.-d to avoid^ were no longer to be apprehended, He 
also went up, bnt privately, not publicly, as they had sug- 
gested. Here St. Luke's accoont begins. It almost read.i 
like a comnientfiry on what the Lord had juat &eud to His 
brethrpn about the enmity of the world, and His mode of 
nianifea till inn. ■ He camp unto His own, and His own re^- 
ceived Him not. But as many as received Him, to them 
gave He powertobecomochiidren of God . . . which were 
bom . . . of God.' 

The Erst pni-pose of Chriet Beems to have been to taka 
the more direct road to Jerusalem, through Samaria, and 
not to follow that of the festive piigriin-bands, which tra- 
velled to Jerusalem through Peptea, in order to avoid the 
land of theii" hated riviite. But His intention was soon 
frustrated. In the very first; Saranritan village to which 
the Cbriiit had Bent beforehand to prepare for Himself and 
His company, Hia messongerB were told that the Rabhi 
conld not be reci^ived; that ni^ither hospitality nor friendly 
treatment could be extended to One Who going up to 
the Feast at Jerusalem. The messengers who brought 
back this strangely un-Oriental answer met the Master 
and His followers on the road. It was not only an out^ 
rage on common manners, but an act of open hostility to 
Israel, as well as to Christ, and the ■ Sous of Thunder,' 
whose feelings for their Muster wore, perhaps, the mora 
deeply atirred as opposition to Him grew more fierce, pro- 
i|nBed to vindicate the cauee, alike of Isi'&el &ad ita Sileeeiah- 
Kiiig, by the open and Divine judgment of fire called down 
from heaven to destroy that village. Did they in. this 
OOfUiection thint of the vision of Elijah, niinistering to 
'Christ on the Mount of Transfiguratiou— and was this 
their applicattno of it? But lie Who had coine, uot to 


Jesc/s tub MRSsrAii 


destroy, bot to sovi-, turoud uiid rt^biikcd them, an3 passed 
from Saiiiurityu iuto Jiwish territory. 

This jounii-y was deciwye not only as regarded dw 
MaKter, but: thoHe who followed Him. Hencefoith it must 
not be as ia former times, but. wbolly sind exclnsively as 
into 8ulfc!riD^ and death. It is thu» tJiat wa view thd next 
three incident* oi tbe wiiy. 

It seems that as, after the rebuff of these SaTnaritans, 
thfy ' were going' towtirds Another, and a Jewish villago, 
'one' of the company, and aa we learn from Ht. MattbL^v, 
* a Scribe,' iu t.lie generous eiithu.'iiasm of the moment— 
pcrhtips stimulated by the wrong of th* Samaritans, per- 
bapb touched by the love which would rebiite (he ze^ of ^| 
the disciples, but had no word of blame for the unkindnesa 
of others- — broki; into s. fipontaneoua declaration, of readiness 
to follow Him absolntely auti evetywhera. But there waa 
onocventnality which that Scribe, and all of lik& enthumssm, 
reckoned not with — libe utter homelessueeB of the Christ in 
this world; and this, not from accidental circum stances, 
but because He was ' the Hon of Kan,' 

The int^nseness of the aelf-de-niiil involved in following 
Christ, and its coiiti-ariety to all that was coaiinonly r^ 
ceived among men, was immediately brought otit. This 
Scribe had proffored to follow Jeeus. Another of His dis- 
ciples Be iisked to follow Bim, and that iu circumBtances 
•St, Luke of peculiar trial and difficulty.' The expression 
**■" ' to follow' a Teacher would, in those du.ya, be 

univeraatly understood as implying dipcijdesbip. Again, 
no other duty would be regarded as more sacred than that 
they, on whom the obligation naturally devolved, ahould 
bury the dead. To this everything must give way — even 
prayer, and the study of the Law. Lastly, we feel certain 
that when Christ called this disciple to follow Him, He 
was fnlly aware that at that verj' moment hia father lay 
dead. Thus, He called him not only to horaelesaneas — for 
this he might have h^en prepared- — but t« set aside what 
alike natural feeling and the Jewish Law seemed to impose 
on him as the m^'st sacred duty. In the apparently strange 
reply which Cbiiat made to the requfst to be allowed £ 


Oe FoLionixa OittisT 




to bury his fnther, w pass over the cont>ideratioD t)ml>, 
acooTding to Jewish Law. the burial and mourning for a 
dead father and I be sulifcaijucnt piirifinitiouo would bavo 
oecopieii numy diiys, so thiit it miyht h«v<5 Ijeeti diflif^ult, 
perbftps uiipossib!<', to oveilake CIiriBt. We would ratJier 
abide by the simple words of Christ. Th*v t.eAch ui 
this Benrchiufi lesion, tliat. thi-re are higher duties than 
either tlios''' of tlie .lewi:»h Law, oi- evon of natnnil rfiverence, 
and a higher cnll tliau that of man. 

Yet anothiT hindrance to following Christ wjis to Im 
foct-d. Another in th;.- cumpuiiy w(>uld go with Bini, but 
ht' asked permission first to go and bid fiuewell to thuBe 
whom he hsd lett iu his home. It slmoel seome tis if 
tliiii reqoL'St bad \xvn on& of those 'tL^mpting' ciuestions 
addressed to Christ. It shows thuli (o follow Christ 
was re^farded ae a duty, and tn leave thns« in the lairtldy 
home aa a trial ; and it betokens not merely a divided 
heart, but one not tit for thy Kingdom of God. For 
how can he draw a straight fuj-nsw lu which to coat 
the Beet!, who, as he puts his hand to the plough, looks 
iironnd or behind !iim ? 

Thus, these are the thn-e vital conditions of following 
Christ : abeolufce self-denial aud horaelestmess in the world ; 
immediate and entire self-surrender to Christ and His 
Work; and a heart and aH'ettions simple, undivided, 
and set on Christ and His Work — while there is no 
other trial of parting like thiit which would involvp parting 
from Him, no other or higher joy than tJiat of following 
H irn. 




^ Luke ».t-!S!8t. Mate, ii. 36-38 ; li. 20-a4i SI. Lnke I. 17-24; 
St. M«U. li 2^-30 i siti IG ; 'At. Luke x. 3.1. 38-43.) 

It seeniB moet liktaly that it wa» on His pnigress Bonth- 
wai'ds al this time ihat Jtjt>aB ' di.':3igimted ' tliosH ' BOVenty' 



' others,' wlio were to herald Hia arrival io every town anj 

With all titBir sbnilnrity, there ore notable differeiicm 
between the MiRsion of the Twelve and this of 'tie other 
Seventy.' Ijet it be noted that tlie former is recorded by 
the tlmm KvangnlifitH, an that there could hsuve been no 
•SbUaU. OOTifueioL OH the part of St. Lnke" Bnt thft 
tt-'itaik «. Missioij of the Twelve waa on their appointment ta 
l^^;,^ (I. thft Apostolate ; it was evangelistic and misaion- 
I ** ary ; aod it was in coufinnatioQ aod mauifeBt-o- 

tian of tJie ' power and aiilliority " given to them. We 
regard it, therefore, as Byml>olical of the Apostohite just 
instituted, with its work and aurhority. On tha other 
hand, no power or aothority was formally conferred on the 
Seventy, their mission being only tempornry ; its primary 
olgect was to prepare for the coming of the Master in the 
places to which they were sent; and their eelection wa* 
(rom the wider circle of disciples, the number being now 
Seventy instead of Twelve. Even these two numbers, as 
well &s the difference in the functions of the two classes of 
messengers, 8(?em to indicate that the Twelve symbolised 
the princes <if the tiibes of Israel, while tlie Seventy were 
the symhohcal repicsentiitives of theae tribes, like the 
* Num. «t seventy elders appointed io assist Moses.*' This 
'" sjinbolical meaaing of the niiniber Seventy con- 

tinaed among the Jewa. We can ti'ace it in the LXX 
(eupposed) translatora of the Bible into Greek, and iu the 
seventy members of the SanheJrin, or aupreme court. 

We mark that, what may be termed ' the Preface ' to 
the Misaion of the Seventy, is given by St. Matthew (in a 
somewhat fuller form) as tJiat to the appointment and 
mission of the Twelve Apostles;" and it may 
have been, that kindred worde had preceded both. 
Partially, indeed, the expre^iona reported in St. Luke x. 2 
"BUJoiiu bad been employed long before.^ Those ' nialti- 
"'" tndes ' throughout Isriiel^nay, thoy.' -iIbo which 

'are uot of that flock' — appeai-ed to His view like sheep 
without a true ahepherd'a cure, ' distrefised and proBtrate,' 
and thoir iniitf misery oppewled to His Pivine oom- 

<SC Uatt. 

^m^^^Trr/? Mrssiort of the Seventy 301 

passion. This constituted the ultimate ^ound of the 
Misaiou of the Apostles., aud now of tiiat of the Seventy, 
m'ia a harvest that wa-s truly great. Compared with the 
esteot of the field, aud tbe urgency of the work, how few 
were the labourers ! Yet, ae the field was God's, so also 
could He aloue ' thrust forth labuurei-s ' \rillicg and aLIn 
to do Hie woi-k. whilo it maHt be ours to pray that He 
would be pleased to do bo. 

Oq these iiitrodactory words,' which ever since havo 
•ae,Luki formed 'the blddiug prayer' of the Church in her 
*■* work for Christ, followed the commission and 

epeoiftl dtrections to the thirty-five paira of diaciplea who 
went on this I'uihjigsy. In almost every purtiLnilar they 
are the same as those formerly given to the Twelve. We 
mark, however, that both the introductory and the con- 

Icliiiling words addressed to the Apostles are wanting in 
what vras Raid to the Seventy. It was not necessary to 
warn them against going to the Saiiiaritana, siuce the 
direction of the Seventy was to those cities of Penea iind 
JudfEB, on the road to Jenisalera, through which Christ 
was about to pass. Jfor were they armed with precisely 
»st. M»tt. the same sapematural powers as the Twelve." 
^^1} Niitarally, the persona! directione aa to tlieir 
svtiuei. B conduct were in both cftses subKtantially the 
same. We mark oaly three peculiarities in ihose oddreseed 
to the Seventy. The direction to 'salute no man by the 
way ' waa auitabie to a teniiJorary and rapid miesion, which 
jiugbt have been iuterruptt'd by making or renewing ac- 
'qonmtances, Both the MJsbnah and the Talmod lay it 
dowu, that praj'er wag not to bo interrupted to saluta even 
a king, nay, W uncoil a serpent that had woouJ round tlie 
foot. All agreed that immediately before prayer no one 
should he siiluted, to prevent distTaction, and it was 
advised rather to summarise or to ait short than to inter- 
rupt prayer, thongh the latter might be admissible in case 
of absolute necessity. None of these provisions, however, 
aeenis to have heen in the mind of Christ. If any paralle.! 
is to be Bought, it. would be found in the Btmilar direction 
of Rlisha t« Geliazi, when sent to lay the prophet's stuH" 
on the dead child of the Shnuainmite. 

*M. LbIe* 

the tone 
I- 1,« 


I' m 

• St. MaW. 
■ LI*-*! 

301 Jssvs T«£ Messiab 

The otlif^r two p«cu1uiritip8 ia th« ad<lrHS to 
Bovciity Rvein vcrhni ntlht^r than r»il. The expressio 

' if the Son of I'faw be there,' is a Hebraism, 
e(|uival«it to ' if the hou»e be worthy,'* and iv 
fLirK to the character of the bead of the hou8<e and 
of t)j<.^ hou!^i-ho]d. Laatly, the direetioD to eat 
and drink wia-h things us were set hL-fore tjiem" 
is only n ("urtliiT f^xiiliiiintitiii of tbo conimaDd to 
the which hiui received them, vritbout 
(K-ckiog' iV>r better entertainments On the other hand, the 
whole most importmit close of the iiddri-ss to tlw.- Tweire— 
which, inilii'd. funtia liy far the large-'t [lart of it** 
— in wftiitinK in tin- com mission to the Seven^, 
thuH cleiirly iiiiirkiiig ittt men-ly tenijjomry chaiucter. 

In St. LukeV tioMpcl, thf; aildn^sa to the ^centv is 
followed by a donnnciation of (Jhorazin and Beth- 
• m. Uk. aaida.* This ie evidently in its right place 
*-"■'• there, after the Ministiy of Christ in Galilee had 
been complcU-d mid tiuall.v rujetted. In St. Matthews 
GoBpel, it Btainis iiiinie*iiivtj'ly aft^r the Lord's rebuke of 
»»!, VMX. ^^ populai' rejection of the Baptist's message.' 
iL SM* "pijg t ^„(, ■ pponoonced on those cities, in wbiclt 
'most of His miffhty works were done,' is in proportion to 
the p'^^f^SB of their privileges. The dennnciation of 
Choraaiii ami Bethsaida is the more remarkable, that 
Chorazin i« not uthorwiBe mentioned iii the Gospels, uor 
yet any niiraolai rficorded as having taken place in (the 
western) Betbiiaida Prom this two inferences seem inevi- 
table. First., if this history were legendary, -Jepws would 
not be represented as selecting t.he nainei^ of places, which 
trhe writer had not connected with the legend- Again, ap- 
parently no record has been preserved in the Goapels of most 
of Christ's miracles — only those being narrated, which were 
neceaaary in order to present Jesus as the Christ, in ao- 
eordimct* with the respective plana on which each 
of the Gospels was coiistjuctixl.* 
Chorazin and Bethsaidn are compared with Tyre and 
Sidon, which untlei' eiuiilnr admonitions would have re- 
pentt^d, while Capemaom, which, as for so long the home 

* et. Jobn 

'he Mission of thb Skvexty 303 

of Jesos, had truly ' been exalted t-o heaven,' is compared 
wii.h Sodom. And aiich guilt involved a still p^i^aiLir 
punishmeut. Tin? very site of Bi-t]iF<in<la and Clmra/AQ 
cnnuot be fixed with ci-rfjiinty. Tlie tbrititir prolmbly rtt- 
preseats t.ha ' Fishirton ' of Cappniauiii ; t.lie latter St. 
Jerome placi^s two miles from C'ajpeniaiim. If bo, it may 
be reprisiNtt-d by the luoileru Kerriz**h. soiiii-ivhiit to the 
north-west of Capernnutn. As for Oaprmitiim itself — 
.standing on that ViiNt fir-Id of ruins aud tipt.arned stAinea 
wbioh marks tbe site of the modfm 'IWl Hdm, we feel 
that QO description of it ccmld bf mure pictorially true 
than that in which Christ pTOpbdJwtllv likt-ned (Jie city 
in ite downfall t.o the di.'solatenpss of death and ' Hadea." 

Whether or out thti S<.'7fnty acttmlly r.-l iimed to Jesua 
before the I'east ol' 'rui)criim.'ies, it is cyjivfiiii'ut to consider 
in this connection t".ho result of thfir .Mission. It had 
Cllpd them with 'joy ; ' nay, the result had exce<ded their 
esp.ictation8, jnst as th(?ir faith hwi oonc berond the rai're 
letter unto the spirit of His Wun-ls. Aa they reported it 
to Him, even the demons had b(!en subject to them through 
His Name, In this they had exceeded the lettpr of Christ's 
commission ; biit as they made experiment of it, their faith 
had ^rowTi, and fliey Wad applied Hia command to 'heal 
the sick' to the worst of ail euiferera, tliose grievously 
vexed by demuiia. Thi? Prince of Light and Life had 
vanquished the Priuce of Darkness and Death. Tli» 
•SI. John Prince of this world mast be cast out.' In 
»"■ « spirit, Christ gazed on ' Satan, fal ling as lightning 

from heaven.' He sees of the travail of His soni, and is 
gatisflcd ! 

What the faith of the Seventy had attained was now 
to be made permanent to the Cbiirch, whose representatives 
tliey were. For the words in which Christ now gave 
authority and power tio trend on serpent* and scorpions, 
and over all the power of the Knemy. and the promise 
that nothing should hurt them, could not have been ad* 
dreeaed to (he Seventy for n Miseiou which had now come 
tc an end, «xcept in mh fiir aa they represimted the Chnrch 
■ Universal. Yet it ia not this power or authority which is 






Jesus the Mess/ah 

to ht> the main joy eithflr of the Charch or the mdiridoal, 
but the fiKC Uiat our aamca are written in honven. And 
so Christ brin^ m tmok to Uis givAt teaching abont the 
need ot becoming chiltlren, auJ vrhereiu lies tJie secret of 
true ffftMitmiBH in tht! Kingdom. 

Thf joy of tbc disciples waa met by lli«t of tlio Master, 
and His tiiacliiiit,' p^•8eIltIy mprpod iiiton prayer of thunk*- 
giving. Throuj^hout the occurrfncea sincf the Tranafigo* 
ration, we have noticed an increaBing autithesiet to the 
teaching of thi.^ RnbbiK. But it almost reochml its climai: 
in the thankspiving, that the Father in heaven had bid 
these things frtnn the wise and the understanding, and 
rwvealed them unto hahfs. As we viaw it ia the light of 
thoiio tim«s, we know that 'ttio wise and ondtirx tan ding ' 
—the Rtihbi and the Scribe — could not, from their sl<and> 
point, have perceived them. And ao it mast ever be tie 
law of the Kingdom and tJie fundamental principlo of 
DiviiKj Eevclntion that, nob as 'wise and nndprstanding,' 
bnt only as 'baljes' — as 'converted,' 'like cliiklreo' — we 
can share in that knowledge which maketh wise nntoaalva- 
tion. This truly is the Gospel, and the Fathor's good 

The words ' with which Christ turned from this address 
• Bi-trtikoK. ** ''■^^ Seventy and tliMiksgiviiig to Ciod, seem 
almost like the Father's answer to the prayer of 
the Son. They reler to and explain the authority which 
Jesus had befltowed on His Church : ' All things wero 
delivered to Me of My Father ; ' and they aflbrd tie highest 
raiionnic for the fuct that these things had been hid IxDm 
the wise and revealed unto babes. For &s no man, only 
the Father, conid have fall knowledge of the Son, and con- 
versely no man^ only the Son, had trne knowledge of the 
FathtT, it followed that this knowledge came to us, not of 
wisdom or learning, but only through the Revelation of 
Christ : ' No one knowetL WIio tie Son is, save tie Father ; 
and ^Vho the Father is, save the Son, and he to whomso- 
ever the Son willeth to reveal Him,' 

St. Matthew, who also records this — althongh iti a 
diflerent con nectioa— concludes this section by words which 




Ttte YoKB OF Christ 

tlio ernnrl text of 



nvi^r sinrfl bi'<'ii tlio Rrnnrl text of tlioaf who, following 
"SI Miin '" tliB iv.ike of the tjevoiity, Ijave bwu ftmljasam- 
iL vMu dura for Christ.' Od the nllier hand, St. Lake 
sifs*'""''* "" coQclucleg Uiis part of liia namttive by adducing 
• corap, St words equally congruoas to the occas-ion,^ which, 
lUtLtlil. 11 indeed, are not new in (lie montli of the Lord." 
Jl'rom their siiitablpness to whtit had piwi'dei], we can 
Lave liltlfl donbt tLjit. both th;it wliick St, Matthew, and 
that whiflb St. Luke report, were spoken on this occasion. 
Because knowledge of tlie Fnther came only through the 
Son, and brt-an;^'.' thL'sr? things were hidden from the wise 
nad reveah'd to ' bulit-s,' did the gracious Lord open His 
Anna and bid all that laboured and were heavy Jailen come 
to Hini. These were the slieep. distpessed and prostrate, 
whom to gatlier, that. Ee might give tht-m rest, He bad 
eent fortli the 8i'venty on a work for which He btid prayed 
the Father to thrust fort.b laboun-j-s, and which He hae 
since ont.riist^d lo the tmd aerrici? of love of tiie 
Church. And the true wisdom, which qualified for the 
Eingdom, was to take up Ilia yoke, whioh would be found 
^ easy, not like t!iat unbearable jok« of Rabbinic 

eO'iiditioiiiK;'' and the true understanding to \i^ 
Wfts by learning of Hioi. In that wisdom of ent«r- 
Kangdoin by taking np its yoke, and in that know- 
It-dge which cani*> by li'araiag of" Hiin, Christ was Himself 
nJiko the true U^saon and tha beet teacher for (]iose " babes/ 
Tor He is me«k and lowly in heart, and bo, by coming nnto 
Him, wooid truQ rt'St be found for thu soul. 

These words, as recorded by St. Matthew — the Evan- 
gelist of the Jews— must have sunk tbs deeper into the 
hearts of Clii*ist's Jewish bearers, that they cume in fcheir 
own <ild familiar I'orDi of speech, yet with such coutroat 
of spirit. One of tlie moat common figurative expreasdona 
of the time was that of ' tlie yoke,' to indicate submission 
to an occupdt.iou or obligation. Thus we read not only of 
the 'yoke of the Law," but of that of "earthly goverimienta,' 
and ordinary 'civil ohligEitions,' This yoke tnig-lit be ' cast 
olf," as the ben tribes had cost off that 'of God,' and thus 

bi'ought on themselvea thoir exile. 

On the other hand, to 



Jesvs the Messiah 

* take upon oaeself the yoke ' meant to submit to it. of I 
choice ami dulibt^rute peaolutiun. Of Isuuili it was sa 
tJiat he had benu privileged to propb««y of so many 
blawingH, ' because he bad tiiken upon biniaelf the yoke of 
the Kingdom of Heaveii with joy.' And, as previously 
stated, it vras set forth thar. in the ■ Shrmit,' or Creed — which 
waft repeated every day — the words, Deufc. vi. 4—9. were 
rocih'd before those in xi. 13-21, so as first generally to 
'tttk(^ upon oiirBelves tJie yoke of thpi Kingdom of Heaven, 
au(l ooly aftenvai"dfl that of the commaudiui^nts.' And this 
yoke alt Israel had takeu upon itaelf, thereby gaining the 
merit BVLT afterwards imputed to them. 

Yet, prncticftUy, ■ the yoke of the Kingdom ' was none 
other than that ' of the Law ' aad ' of the couiiuaudaieats ; ' 
OHO of laljorious peHbruianeea and of imposBiblt' sflf- 
rigbteousiieas. It was ' unbeai-aWe,' not * the «»ay ' yoke 
of Christ, in which the Kingdom of God was of faith, not 
of wrtrks. This volLinfnry making of the yoke as heuvy as 
possible, the taking on theniseiveM as many obligations as 
possible, was the ideal of Rabbinic piety. There was, 
therefore, pi-cniiar ti-achiiig and comfort in the words of 
•8t.t.uki;x. Christ; and well might. H<- add, as St. Luke 
*^' " rejiorts,' that blessed were they who saw and 

hejini these things. 

It seems not unlikely, that the scene ueit r«:orded by 
^ St, Luke*" stands in its right place. Such an 

inquiry on the part of a ' certain lawyer,' as to 
what he should do to inherit etienini life, together with 
Christ's Parabolic teaching about the Good Sam eu-itau. is 
evidently congruous to the previous teaching of Obrist 
about entering into thi- Kingdom of Heaven. I'oasibly, 
this Scrihe may have understood the words of the Master 
about tieae things being hid from the wiBe, and the need 
of taking up the yoke of the Kingdom, as enforfing the 
views of those Rabbinic teachers who laid more stress 
npon good works than upon study. i 

Fi-om thia interruption, wliich, but for tln.i t<^-uchiiicr | 
of Christ connected witli it, would have formed a discora 
ill tlie heavenly harmony of this journey, we turn to a far 


Thb Home at Bethany 307 

otlier scene. It must mark tlie close of Christ's journey to 
thp Feagt of Tatenmcles, «iiice the lioiue of ^laitha aud 
Mary, to which it introduces us, was in Bethany, close to 
Jerusalem, almost one of its suborbs. From the uarpative 
of Ciirist's reception in the house of Martlia, we gatlier 
that Jesus had arrived in Bi."thany with His disciples, but 
• «.Liiiwi. that He alonie wa3 the gneat of the two aistera.* 
" We infer thut Christ had dismissed His discipk-a 

to go Into the nt-ighbouring City for the TL-ast, whilo Him- 
flL'lf tarried in Bethany. With thia agrees the notice in 
Sh, Jobn vii. 14, that it was not at tbe heginuing. hut 
'about the midst of the feast,' that'Jesua went up into 
the Temple.' Although travelling on the two first feetlve 
days was nut actnally unlawful, yet we can scarcely conceive 
that Jesus would hnve donf- so — eapecially on the PeflSt of 
Tabenmcles ; and tho infei'eace is obvious, that Jesun had 
tarried in the iiumediatj^ unjghbonrhood, aa wa know He 
did at Bethany in the house of Martha and Mary. 

Other things, also, do at) explain themselves — notably, 
the absence of the brother of Martha and Mnry, who pro- 
bably spent the festive days in the Cily itself. It was the 
bediming of the Feast of Tabei'naclee. aud the scene ro- 
corded bv St, Luke'' would take place in the 
opt'u leaiy booth which served as Uie sitting 
apartment during the festive wi^k. For, according to 
law, it was duty during the festive week toeat. sleep, pray, 
study — in short, to live— in these buolhs. which were to 
he constructed of the botighaof living trees. Aud, although 
this was not. absolutely obligittoty on women, yet ihe rule 
which bade all make ' ttiet booth the principal, and tlie 
house only the secondary dwelling,' woiild indnct; theiu to 
mako thia leftfy t«nt at lua&t tlie sitting apartment alike 
for men Mud women. They were high enough, and yet 
not too hijrh ; chietly open in front ; cloae euougji to be 
shady, and yet not so close as to exclude sunlight aud air. 
Such would be the apni-tiueut in which what is recordud 
passed; iuid, if we add that this booth stood probably in 
thn court, we can picture to ourselves Martha moving 
forwards and Imck^'arrlB on her busy eixands, and seeing, 







as nlie went, Mary Btill Hiittiiig u rapt tleiteuer, oot heedi 
what pflBSfd amnnd ; and, lastly, how the elder sister con 
W« t'nc langiiagp of verse 40 unpliesj enter bo snddenly th» 
Masters Prpseiic?, Iifing'iiightfr eoinplaint. 

To ntiileratauil this history, we iniiBt dismiss from 
mindK premnpeived, though, perhnps. Ettractjve thoughts. 
There If no evidence l^hmt the hotiK&hnld of Retlintiy hnil^ 
previongly belongt:-d to the circle of Clirist'g prott-ss**! dj»>H 
ciple^i. It waji, hs l.he-whole history ehowa, a wealthy liome. 
Although we know not how it came so tn he. the house 
wa» eWdently Martha's, and into it shn recpivi-d Jesus on 
His arrival iii Bethany. It would have been no uncoiiimoa 
occun^iiofl ill lerael for a ptous, wealthy lady to receive 
great Itabbi into her house. But the present was not a: 
ordinary CJise. Martha tmist have heard of Him, even 
ahe liarl not sepn Him. Rut. iiitleed, the whole namitiva 
• Count. 61. implies ' that -lesiis had come to Bethany with 
i,om. M jjj^ yjp^, pf aL'ceptitig the hospitality of Martlia, 
which ppohably had been pritH'ered when sonie of thosrt 
' Seventy,' sojourning in the worthiest house at Bpthany, 
had nnnonnced the near arrival of the Master. Still, her 
bearing afTorda only indication of bring drawn towards 
Christ^ — at most, of a sinewe desire to lenm the good news, 
Dot of actual disci pleehip. 

And so J&S118 eanie. He wns to lodge in one of 
booths, the sisters in the house, and the gr<*at booth in Ih© 
middle of the courtyard would be the common living apart- 
ment of all. TViis festive season was a busy time for the 
mistress of a wpalthy houeehoid. espmatly in the near 
neighbourhood of Jerusalem, whence her brother might, 
aft«r the first two festive days, bring with him any tima^ 
that week honoured gnest.s from the City. To tliese cares^f 
was now added that of doing sullident hononr to sach ft 
Guest — for she must already have deeply felt Ilia greatness. 
And Si) she hurried to and fro through the courtyard^ 
literaHy, * distracted about much serving.' 

Her younger aister, also, would do Him all higlieet 
hononr; hot not as Martha. Her homage consisted in 
forgetting all else bat Him, Who apake as Done bad ever 




The Feast op Tabernacles 


done. * She sat at the Lord's Feet, and hdanJ His Word." 
And 90, time after time, as Martha paBse^ ou her busy 
way, she atiil sat IiBtening and living. At laat the ajstter, 
who in her imjialienci; could not think thnt a woman 
could in Buch miiuner fulfil hpr duty or show forth hpr 
rtvligiouB protiting, broke in with what aoiiDdg like a 
querulous conjplaint: ' Lord, dost Tlioii not care that my 
Bister did leave me to serve aloiie? ' Mary had served with 
her, but she had now left her t« do tie work alone. With 
tone of gentle reproof and admonition, the aHectionatenesa 
of which ftpjieared even in the repetition of her name, 
' Martha, Martha ' — as similarly, on a later occasion, ' Simon, 
Simon '— 4lid He teach her in words which, however simple 
in their primary meaning, are bo full that they have ever 
Hince home the most many-sided application : ' Thou art 
carefnl and anxious about many things: but one fhiiifr is 
needfnl ; and Mary !iath chosen that good part, which 
shall iLot be taken awav ^om her.' 





(St. Johnvii, 11-38.) 

It was the non-eacred part of thp festive week, the half- 
holy days. Jerusalem wore quite another than its oBuai 
aspect ; other, even, than when its streets were thronged 
by festive pilgrims during the Passover-week, or at Pente- 
cost. For thia wfis pre-eminently the Fe/iRt for forc-ign 
pilgrims, coining from tlie lartliest distance, whose Templo- 
coiitri butions were then received and counted. As the 
Jenisalemite would look with proud aelf-conBOiouaneas, not 
nnmmgled with kindly ptitromige, on the swarthy strauj^ers, 
yetfellow-couutrynien.ortht- eager-ey<?d Galilean curiously 
Stare after them, the pilgriTus would in turn gaze with 
mingled awe nad wonderment on the novel scene. 

All day loog the smoke of the burning, sraouldering 



Fastis TttE MESStAn 

(iacrificpf* rose in slnwly-« irlamng column, and hang betweeo 
fJi<* Mount of Olivi-s aucj Zioc ; the chant of l/eTitosand tlie 
solemn ni^poiiseiB of tlii? Hallfl were bonie on tte breczre, or 
tlit-i ck'Jir bln«|. of l:ln* Priesta' silver triiinftrs seemed to 
wftken tl)» echoTB far Awny. And flirn, at night, how all 
tlipse vast Temiple-buildin^ utood out. illnmtnalfd by tlie 
gn-at Oaiidrliilirae that liunied in tiif Conrt of llie Women, 
and liy the f^larp of torches, when straiigp scnnd of mystic 
hymiiB and daiiccfi came Hooting over the intenening darfc- 
necB! Tmly, well niifrht Israel designate the Feast of 
TftlxTunclf^i! at) ' the Fc^aj^t.' and the Jewisli liistoriou dejacribe 
it aa ' the hotij'st nnd grent-est." 

Early on the 14tJi Tisliri (c-orrespimding to our Sep- 
t*ml)fr or early <k'tobt'r),nll rlie I'ffitive pilgriiiiH hiid arrived. 
Tln'ii it waM iiidi'fd a sci^n^' of bustle and actiyiiy. Hos- 
pitality had to be sought and found ; guasts to be welcomed 
and oti)*!rtj»inctl ; all thin^ ri-qnired for the Peost tK> be got 
I'pndy. Rootli.^ hi- preclpd pverywlierp — in court, and 
on in strei't and square, for tlip lodgment and 
eutortftinmeut of that vast rnultitnde: Sealy dwpllinga 
f?vi-ry where, \t\ remind of the wilderness-journey, and no\w 
of the goodly land. Only t]i»t fierce castle, Antnnia, which 
frowned above tbt- '"JV^raple, was undecked by the feativa 
sprint; iit" 'vbicb the laud liad burst. To the Jew it must 
have beeti a hateful sight, thai cnst.le. which guarded mid 
dominated his own City and Temple, Tet. for all tJiis, 
Israel could not reud on Mm lowering sky the signs of the 
timns. nor yet knew the day of their mercii'ul visitation. 
And this, although of all festivals that of Tab&roftclf^a 
tdionld have UKist cleai'ty pointL'd tlieni to the fafcurer. 

Indi!w5, the whole symholiBm of the Feast., beginning 
with thf coniplrt-fd harvest, for which it was a thouks- 
giffing, pointt'd to the future. Tlie "Rnbljly thuuiaelvea 
admitt^ed tJiis. The strange nunil>er of eacvificial bullocks 
— serentj' in all— iiie\ regarded as referring to ' tlie seventy 
natioup ' of hcatlnndom. The ceremony of tlie outpouring 
of wat#r, which was considered of sneh vital importance sa 
to give to the whole festival the name of 'House of Out- 
pouring,' was symbolical of the oiitpoiiriug of the Holy 



Thb Feast of T^beknacles 311 

Spirit.. As the brief night of the great Temple-illnmiDatioti 
cloeied, tht-n- was solemn tegtimony made before -rehovnh 
agaiuBt heatheoiam. It must hare been a stirring scene, 
when from out the mass of Levites, with their musical ioatru- 
ments, who orowdeJ the fifteen stepB that led from the 
Court of lerae^I to that of the Womeu, etepjjetl two Priests 
with their silver frumpelw. As the first cockcrowing in- 
timated thp dftwn of morn, they blew a. threefold blast, 
another on the t^nth step, and yet another threefold blast 
as they entered the Court of the Women. And, etill 
souadiag their trumpets, thi^y marched through the Court 
of the Women to the Beautiinl Gtite. Here, turning round 
and facing westwards to the Holy Place, they repeated : 
'Our fathers, who were in this place, they turned their 
bucks on the Suncliiary of Jetos'ah, and their faces east- 
ward, for they worshipped easlward, the aun ; but we, onr 
eyes are towai-ds Jehovah." ' We are Jehovah's — onr eyeei 
are towai-ds Jehovali.' Nay, the whole of this night- and 
morn izig-9c file wa*i symbolical: the Temple-illumination, 
of the light which was to shine frimi out the Temple into 
the dark night of b-'atlieniloni ; theu, at the lirat dnwn of 
mom the blast of the PrieRta' silver trumpets, (;f the army 
of God, as it advanced with festive trumpet-so and and call 
to awaken the sleepers, marching on to quite the utmost 
bounds of the Sanctuary, t-o the Beautiful Gate, which 
opened upon tlie Court of the Gentiles — and then again 
facing round to utter aoleinn protest against heathenism, 
and make soleuiu con!e«8ion of Jeliovah ! 

But Jesus did not appear in the Temple during the 
tiret two festive da\-s, 'Hie pilgrims from all parts of the 
country had exp^eferl Him thire, fur everyone would now 
speak of Him — ■ uot upeiily.' in Jenisaleju, for they were 
afraid of their rulere. But they sought Him. and inquired 
alter Him — a low, confused discnsBioii of the prtf and r.nn. 
ill thi« great TOntnivem- timoiifj the "uinltitodesi.'or festive 
bands Iroiu v.irioiia piirts, Some .said : ' He is a good man, 
while other)! declared that He only led aatray the eoniTuon, 
ignorant populace. And now, all at once, in the huU-lmly- 
days, JesuB Himself appeared in the Temple, and taught. 

jia Jesvs Tue Mmssiau 

W* know tliat on a lat^r occasiou • He walked and tangbt 
.„ , ^ in ' Solomon's Porci," and, from Uie circumstance 
M tliat the cnrlj- discipIcK miiili/ thi« Uieir L-om- 

•AM.T.U jjjyj^ meetin;»-place,*' we mny riraw thi? inference 
tliat, it wan litrre tie p.^ople dow found llim. Although 
neithflr .loncphiii! nor tbti Mishnah mi-ntioii8 this ' Porch ' by 
name, wc Iiavu t^vvry n-ason tor lu'lieving thiil it was Uie 
eastern colonnade, which abutted agninst< the Moant of 
Olives and faced ' the Beautiful Gate,' that formed the 
priQcipal (entrance into the • Court of the Women,' and so 
into tne Siinctimry, Fnir all along the iuaide of thfi pr>-at 
Trail which fonned the Temploenclosure ran a double 
colonnade — each column a monolttk of white marble, 2& 
cubits high, cov<-red with ccidar-beamB. These colonnadifl, 
which, from their ample spnce, formed nlibe places for fjiiict 
walk and for larger gath.^rinfrs; had benches in them— and, 
from the liljprty of epLiiikiuj^ mid tfaebing in lerael, Jesus 
niiifht here address the pwple id the Tery face of His 

We know not what wap the subject of Christ's teach- 
ing on this occnsioii. But the efl'e«t on the people was 
one of general aBlouishiueiit. They knew what common 
• et,jnbB unlettered Galilean tradesnipn wt-re— but this, 
whctnci-iciimeit?'' 'How does this one know literft- 
tnre (letters, learning)* riever having learned?' 
To the Jews there waa only oup kind of Ipaming— that of 
TheQlovfy; and only one road to it — theSclioois of l^he Rabbis, 
Their iiuijor wus trm?, but thi-ir wiiurr fnW, and Jesus 
hast^inc-d to cornet it, He hnd, indwd, ' learned,' but IQ 
a School quiteother than those which alone they recognised. 
Yet, on their own ahowing, it cluiint.^d sabmisiiion. 
Among the Jews a Rabbi's temrhiiig dt-rived authority 
from tlip fnct of ita accordance with tradition — ^that it 
accurately represented what hdd been reci-ired from a 
previouB great tenclier, and so on npwards to Moaes, and to 
God Himaelf. On tliie gi*ound Chriirt- claimed the highest 
authority. Hie doctrine woa not Hie own invention ; it 
was the teaching of Him that sent Him. 'Hie doctiise 
was God-received, and Christ was aent direct froni God to 





*S£JVT OF God* 



• St JohB 


it. H* was God's m^-BNenger of it to them." 
Everyone who in ht§ soul felt. drawD towards God, 
eacli one who really ' willetli to do His Will,' 
would know ' concerning this ieafking^, whetter it. is of 
God,' or whetiher it was of man. It was this felt, though 
uni-ealised iniluence, which had drawn all men after Him, 
BO Ihat fchey hung on His lips, 

Jeans had said : ' He shnll know of the teoching, 
whether it be of God, or whether I speak from Myself.* 
Prom Myself ? Why, there la this other test of it : ' Who 
speaketli irom himeelf, seeketh his own g'lory' — there can 
be no doubt or question of this., but do 1 seet My own 
glory ? — ' But He Wlio eeebeth the glory of Hiui Wlio 
sdQt Him, He is true [a faithful measengvr], and uu- 
ri^hteousaeBB is not in Him."'' Thus did Chriiat 
™' appeal and prove it : My doctrine is of Uod, and 

I am sent of God ! 

Seut of God, no Tinriffhteonsneaa in Him ! And yet at 
that very moment thero hung over Him the charge of de- 
fiance of the Law of MoaeB, nay, of that of God, in an opsn 
breach of the Sabbath-commandment — there, in that very 
City, the last time He had been in J^imsulem ; for which, 
well 08 for His Divine Claims, the Jews were even then 

jubu.. seeking' to kiJl Him.'" And this forms the tran- 
'* sition to what may he called the second part of 

Christ's address. Here He argoeB as a Jew would argna 
with Jews, only the anbsta«ice of the leaaoning is to all 
times and people. In Hin reply the two threads of the 
foiTner argument are taken up. Doing ia the condition of 
knowledge — and a messeiigcT had been seat ft'onuGod! 
Adniitt-edly, Moses was such, ami yet L-VL-ry one of tliwn 
was brpjiking the Law which he bad given them ; for were 
they not eeeWing to kill Hitn without right or justice? 
lob. tu.18, Tills, pnt iu the form of a double question,'* 



presents b peculiarly Jewish mode of argumenta- 
tion, behind which lay the tmtli, ihat tliose whose henrta 
were so little longing to do the AVill of God, not only mnsfc 
remain ignorant of Hia Teaching as that of God, but hud 
niso rejected that of Moses. 


Jf.SUS tub MfiSSfAff 

A general disclainwr, a cry ' Thou hast a demon' (m 
posseesed), * who seeks fco kill Thci- ? " h<i-r brok<' in upon 
the Spt'dkeT, But He would nnt be interrupt^, and con- 
tinue : ' Onp work 1 did, and all you wonder on account 
of it ' — n-lf-rring to Mis liealing ou the Sabbath, and th(?ir 
ufrter inability to uiiderstiuid His conduct. Well, then, 
ACoaea was a mcBKL-ugcr a? (iod, and I am sent of GtMi. 
Moees ^jivp the Inw of circumcision — not, indeed, that it 
was of his authority, but had loug before been God-given 
— and. to observe tiiB law, no one heaitated to hrct^ the 
Sablisth, isiucL\ acTording to Etabbiuic principle, a poatire 
ordinance eiipfim'tlod a negative. And yet when Christ, 
ns sent from God, made a man ever; " liii whole on the 
Sabliath (' made a whole man Hound "). tiny were angry 
• aih John with Uun !' Every arjciiment which might bare 
VII.II-SI Ui'iuii'gfd Tnfavouroftlie[W8tiK)neiiient of Christ's 
healing to a week-day, would equally apply to th^t of cu-- 
enmcipiou : while evepj* reason that roulil 1)p urgr^ in favour 
of Sabbatb-ciiv II incision, would tell an Imtidredfold in favour 
of the act of ChriHt. Let tliem not judge, then, after the 
mere outward appeaiaufe, but ' jud^e the right jndgmeDt.' 
From the rsportMreniurksofsorDe Jernsalemites in the 
crowd we learn that the fact tbii-t He, Whom they sought 
to kiU, wiiB ttufli^red to speak openly, seemed incomprebea- 
sible.'' Could it be that the autliorities wen* 
shaken in their former ideas abuut Him. and now 
regarded Htm as tin- Messiah ? But it cuuld not be. It was 
& settled popular Ivlief, and in a .sense not quite nnfounded, 
that the appearance of the Messiah won Id be sudden and 
nnexpected. Hi- migbt be there, and nut be known ; or He 
might come, and be again hiddt'U fur a time. As they put 
it, when Messiah came no one wonld know whruceHc wns; 
but tiey all knew ' whence this One ' was. And with this 
rooffb and ivsidy ar^Tirncnt they, like so many ainoug us, 
settled off-hand niul once for all the great qupstion. But 
Jesus could not, even for the sake of Iliri disciples, let it 
rest there. 'Therefore' He lifted up His voice, thftt it 
reuohcd the disptTwng. rceodiu],'' uuiltifude. Yes, they 
thought they knew botJi Him and wlieiiw He cauia 

D/SCOVRSB ttf THE Tbmplb 


■ St. Joba 
Tii. m 

It would havfl h9\m so had He cnnie I'poni Hirasplf. But He 
bad been tsent, antl He iJiat sent Him ■ was reiii ; ' fclioiigfc tht-y 
kn^w Him uot. And so, with a ryaffirniation of His two- 
fold claim. His Discourse cloeeil.' But they bad 
uDdeniUH)d HJH allusions, and in thfir anger would 
fein have laid bands on Rim, but His hour hiiil not cozne. 
Yet others were deeply stirred to faitli. As they parted 
they spokL> of It among themnelveH. and the sum of it all 
was : ' The Christ, when He cometli, will He do more 
tniraclpR (eigaa) than this One did ? * 

So endeci the tirst teaching of tJiat day in the Temple. 
And ae the peopJe dispersed, the leaders of the Pharisees 
^■who, no douljt aware of tlie prwence of Christ in the 
Temple, yet nnwilling to be in thf number of His henreri*, 
had watclied the effect of Hia Teachiiig^ — overhervrd the 
furtive, half-spoken remarks {' tJie murmuring') of the 
pe'jpli- about Him. Presently they conferred with this 
lieada of the priesthofiil and thi- chief Temple-officiiils, 
Although there waa neitJiiT meeting, nor di'Ciw. of the 
Sa.nhedriii about it, nor. indeed, could be. orders were 
given to the Teniple-guai>J on the first pt>psible occattiou 
to seixe Him. Jesun was awaw of it, nnd as, either on thi.R 
or another dity. He wa-'= moving in the Temple, watched 
by the spies of tlie rnk-r^i and followed by a uiJiigled crowd 
of disciples and eneniien, deep aadnei^s in view of the end 
filled Hia heart. ' Jesus therefore said '—no doubt to Hia 
disciples, though in the bearing of all — 'Yet a little while 
nni I witli yon, then I go juvay to Him that sent Me. 
Ye shall seek Me, and not find Me; and where 1 am, 
> TT u. u t'hitherye cannot come,' •* Mournful words, these, 
wliicb were only too soon to become tme. But 
tho3e who heard them naturally failed to comprehend their 
meaning. Was He aboat to leave Pnleiitine, and go 
among ttie dispersed who lived in heathen landa, to teach 
the GreeLs? Or what oonKl be His meaning? 



fSiUS TUB Messiau 


(St. John vii. 37-viii.iI.) 

It wai * tbe last, the Grent Day of the Feaet," and Jesus wsa 
once raore in tlie Tpmple. We have in tiiis Pfiast tiie 
only Old Teslaineiit type yet uuiiilfiUed ; the only Jewish 
frstival which Las no oonnt^erpart in the cycle of the 
Chrietiaii yur, just because it point* forward to that great, 
yet luifiiltillMl hope of tlie Church: the ingathering of 
Earth's nations to the ChriBt. 

'I'he celebration of th« Feaab corresponded bo its mMuung, 
Not only did al) the priestly families mini8t«r daring that. 
week, but it has lie«n cslculatt'd that not fewer than 4>il> 
Priests, with, of courae, a correBjjonding noni ber of Levitee, 
wirre required for its sacrllicial worship, I u giineral, thii 
services were the same evpi^* day, except that the niiml»er 
of bullocks offered decreaBwl daily &om thirteen on the 
first to seven on the saveutL day. Only during the iiret 
two, and on the last festive day (as also on tJie Octave d" 
the Peaat), was strict Sabbatic rest enjoined. On the 
intervening lialf-holy days, although no new Inbonr was to 
be undertjiken, tinlese in tbe public service, the ordinary 
and neceaaary avocations of the home and of life were 
carried on, and eepecially all done that was required lor 
the festive seagon. But ' the last, the Great Day of tbe 
Feast,' was marked by special obeervancee. 

Let U8 suppose onrselves in theuuniber of worahippers 
who are leaving their ' booths ' at dnybreak to part in 
the gcrvice. The pilgrims are all in festive army. In Ms 
right baud each carries a myi'tle and willow-branch tied 
together with a palm-bramrh between thern. Tliis was 
Bupposed to \y in fuHilinenti of the eoniniand, Lev. xxiii. 
40. 'Tlie IViiit (A.V. ' houghs') of the goodly trees,' 
mentioned in the same verse of Scripturw, -viftn supposed to 
be the so-called Paradise-apple, a species of citroa. This 
each worshipper curries in his left hand. 

The Last, the Grrat Day of the Feast' 317 

Thtis provide, tJi^ festiro multitude would diviil-> into 
tluijt! bauds. Home would rwmain in the Temple to attc-ud 
tlie prepnrntion of tlie Moruitig Sarrifice, Another band 
would go in pmccasiou ■ below Jerusalem 'to a placy wLicb 
Home have »iought to identify with the KtnmauB of the 
Eesarreotion-Kvenin^. Here they cut down willow- 
branches, witJi wLicii, amidst the blastA of tht* Ppivsts' 
trnuipetB, they adorned the altai', foniiiiig n leafy canopy 
about it. Yet a third ojuipaiiy was tJiking part in a still 
more inti'iv sting' service. To tbe 8oiiud of music a pro- 
cession stfirted from tlie Temple. It followed a Priest 
who bore a j^oklen pitcher, capable of liolding about two 
pinte, Onwardii it piiN»ed, probably tlirough Ophel, which 
recent invr.-stigatioiiH Iibvb flbowii Uj have been covered 
with bnildingB to the *'ery verge of iSiloani, down the edge 
of the T^TOpooon Valley, where it merges into that of the 
KedroD. To thiH day terraces mark wlien- the gardens, 
watered by the living springs, eirt^'aded from the King's 
fiai-denB down to the entrance into the TyropcBon. 

When the Teniple-proceasion had reriehed the Pool 
of Siloam, the Prieftt tilled his goiden pitcher from its 
waters. Then Ihay went back to the Temple, so timing 
it that they ahould arrive juet as the pieces of the 
socriSco were being laid on the great Altar of Bumt^offering 
towards the close of the ordinary Jlorniug-Sacrifice service. 
A thrL*foid blast of the Priests' trumpets weLcomad t!ie 
arrinil of tbe Pi-iest, as he entered throagh the ' Water- 
gate,' which obtained its name from this ceremony, and 
passed straight into the Court of the Prieata, Here ho 
W119 joined by another Priest, who carried the wine for tho 
drink-oPTeritig. The two Priests awcended ' the rise ' of 
the altar, and tamed to liie left. There were two silvftr 
funnels here, with narrow openings, lending down to the 
baee of the altar. Into that at the enst, which was Bomo- 
what wider, the wine was poured, and, at tlie same time, 
the water into the westei-u and naniwer ojMiiing. 

Immediately after ' the pouring of water,' the gi'eat 
' Hallel,' conaiatiTig of Psalms cxiii, to osviii. (inclusive), 
waa chanted aritiphonally, or rather with respousea, to the 

• h.arU 



318 /£sus TNB Messiah 

aoconipaiiuieut of the flute. As the Levites iutoaeJ toe 
firsL liue of ench [*){aliD, the peoptu mjH'ated it ; while to 
Mob of the otlitT lines they re-sjKJiided by Hallelu Yali 
(' Pratw ye t.lit' fxji-d '). But ia I'salm cxviii, the people 
iiot only rt^pfiili-d the first liue, ' O give tliaulcs to tlia 
Lord,' but fllw] thcsH, ■ O tlien, work uow salvatioa, Joho* 
ynh,'' '0 Lord, send now prosperily j ' •* und 
again, at the close of the Psalm, ■ give thanks 
to tlie Lori,' As they repeated these lines, 
llioy tiiook ttjwanls thi? ultivr the braaches which they held 
in ihoir lmtnl« imif with this token of the past to express 
tlip reality arid cause of their praise, and to remind God of 
Llifi pcomiHeEt. It ia this moment which should be chieBy 
kept in view. 

The festive moming-serviee was followed by the otter. 
jiig of the special sacriEces for the d<iy, n'ith their driak- 
otlBriugB, ttud by the I'salm for the day, which, on ■ the 
lost, the Great Day of the Feust,' wiut Paulm Uxxii. fhim 
verae 5. The PRalni was, of oourae, chantad ats always 
to instrnmeiLtal accompaninient, and at the eud of each of 
iU throe s&L'tions thf Priests blew a thj'eefold blast, while 
llie people bowed down in worwhij). In fiirtliei- symboHsiu 
of thin Keast, as pointing to the injfiil.hering of the beaUien 
natioos, the public services closed with a procession round 
the altar by thp Prit^sts, who chanted, ' then, work now 
Aulvatitm, Jehovah! .lehovah, send uow prosperity.' ° 
• ivcavui. B"* oil 'the laHt, the fireat Diiy of the Feast,' 
'* tliif" procession of IVLcMts rnude the circuit of the 

altar, not only once but seven timeB, ft3 U' they were again 
compasaiog, but now with prayer, the Gentile Jericho 
which barred their possession of tho protaised laud. Hem:* 
this seventh or lasl. day t>f the Feast was also ealled that 
of 'the Grout Hoeaiiuah." As the people left: the Temple, 
they saluted the idtar with words of thanks, and on thfl 
last d(iy of the Feast they shook off the leaves ou tho 
willow-branches round the allai', and beat their palm- 
br&Qches to pieces, On the same aPtontuon the ' booths ' 
were dismantled, and the Feast ended. 

We csu have Utile diOiculty ia determuiiog at what 



'T/fe Last, the Cheat Day of tub Feast* %ig 

part of the servicM of ' the ksb, the Gfeat Day of the 
Feast,' -JusuB stood nnd cried, ' If any one thirst, let bioi 
come unto Me and dritik!' It miiet have been with 
^Special reference to the cftremony of the outponring of tba 
qnter, which was considered the ccntralpartof theaervice. 
Moreover, all would understand that His words must refer 
to the Holy Spirit, since iJie rite was universally re- 
garded as syTnljoIical of Hia outpouring. Tlie forthpoiiring 
«t' the water was immediately followed by the chanting of 
tlie Jlallei. But after that tLere mugl have been a short 
pan^ to prepare for the festive sacrifices. It was then, 
i III mediately aRer the symbolic rite of water-pouring, 
immediately after the pe<jyie had rtwponded by repeating 
tliose lines iVaiu Psalm cx\'iii. — given thanks, and prayed 
that Jehovah would send salvntion luid prosperity, and 
hod shaken their branches towai'ds the alttir, thus praising 
' with heart and mouth and haiidi*,' and then silence 
had fallen upon tliem — ihat tliere i-oss*. so loud as to \ie> 
hcLird tiiroughout the 'IVniple, the Voice of Jeaus. He 
interrupted not the services, for they tad for the moment 
He iiiterpret^l, and He fiilfiUi^d rhem. 
Of those who hud heard Him, none but niuet have 
id that, if the invitation were indeed real, and 
^e fulfilment of all, then the promise also had its 
deepest nieauin^, that he who believed on Him would not 
only reoeive the promised fnhiess of the Spirit, but (jive it 
forth to the fertilising of the barren waste around. It 
truly, the faltilrupnt of the S«ript« re-promise', not 
one bat of all : that in Messianic times the ■ prophet/ 
literally the ■ wpller forth.' viz., of the Divine, aliould not bo 
one or another select indiridual, but that He would pour 
out on all His handmuidens and servants of His Holy 
Spirit, and thus the moral wilderness of tins world be 
chan^ into a frnilful yiirdeu. What was new to them 
was that all this was treaaui'ed up in the (_'hrist, that out 
of His fulneag men might receive. And yet even this wna 
not quite new. For was it not the fiilfilmeni of that old 
prophetic cry : "The Spirit of the Lord Jehovah is upoQ 
Me- : therefore has He Messiahed (anointed) Me to preach 

jao Jesus THR Messjitfr 

^vmA tidiuga unto 1h« |x>or * ? 80, Irheii, it was Doi 
tiew, only the hitppj' fulfilment of the oM, wli^n He 
'Kpake of the Holy Spirit, Which they wlio belipved on 
Hint elioiild receive,' not then, but upon His MeaBianic 

Aai] BO ff« MifU'Cetly wondiT tlmf. raAay on hearing 
Ilira said, thimgh not with thai, heurt-cotiviction which 
would have k-^l to ai^lf-surrtfnder, that He was the Prophet 
promiw^ of old, even the Ohrist. j while othei-fl, by thfir 
Bi<Ie, regarding Him aa & Galilean, the Son of Jos6ph, 
rained tlir ignorant objertioii that Ho wuld not "be tba 
Messiah, i«iQCi> iha lattor must bo of the ^cd of David and 
vDiua rmm Betlileht*iu. Nay, tiucb was the auger of Botne 
(i^inst what they regai-di-a a daiigepoua seducer of the 
pour people, that they would foiu have laid violeut hnnda 
ou Him. But amidst all thiu, the strouge^t testimony to 
HiB PerHoii and Mittaim) remuiiiH to be told. It cauie, na 
BO often, from n q^narler whencie it could least bave b«»ii 
expLigt-cd, Those Temple-officers, whom the authoritieshad 
commissioned to watch au opportunity for seizing J^sufl, 
now rtturoi'd witJiuat having done tlitjir behest, luid that 
when, mauifcatly, the scene in the Templa might have 
odered the de-wiied ground for Hie imprison in ent. To tJie 
questiou of the I'hariMees. tliey coidd only give this reply, 
whirh httii ever sluce rcmaiued uticjUnBtionable fact OJ 
histoiy. admitted alike by friend and ffio : ' Never man 80 
Bpake ae this Mnn.' 

The scene which followed is ao thoroughly Jewish, that 
it alone would suffice to prove the Jewish, and hence 
Johannino, authorship of the Fourth Gospel. The hiirsli 
eneer : ' Are ye also led a.'stray ? ' is siiccepded by pointing 
tu the authority of the If-arm^d and great, who with one 
accord were rejecting JesuB. 'But thia pt'ople ' — the 
country-people, the ignorant, onlettt'red riibbli; — ' arft 

But there was one atundiug among the Templc-aot' 
ritiee, whom an uneasy conicience would not allow W' 
remain quite HiLeob. lb was the SaiihudriHt ^Nicodomus. 
He could not hold his peace, and yet he dared not speak 


Teaching in the Trmplm 


fijT Christ. So Le tuatlp (■^omproinise nf fiotti by ^almlg 
the part of. and sppaking an a righteooa, rigid Sanhedrist. 
' Does oar Law judge (prononnce sentence upon) a man, 
except it first hear ftnin hiniHclf and kiiow what he doeth ? ' 
From the RaHiinifl point of view, no artundprjitdirial saying 
uouJd have been uttered. Yet each coinmoc-place helped 
not th(^ cause of JeBiis, and it diap;uJaed not the advocacy 
of Nifodemua, Wf> know what wne thonghfc of Gahlee in 
the Kabbinic world. ' Art thou nlso of fialilrteV Search 
Mid see, for out of Gjtlilee ariseth no prophet.' ' 




(St, John viij. I3-51t.) 

Tbe addreBavB of Jesns which followed must have been 
delivered either later on that day, op, as seemH mora likely. 
cliieSy, or all, on the nest day, which wo* the Octave 
of the Feast, when the Temple would be once mors 
thronged by worshippers. 

On this occasion we find Christ first in ' the Treasury,' • 
, and then '■ in soaie unnamed part of the siicred 

tulhv building, in all pi-obability one of tlie ' I'orcbes.' 
Greater frijedoni could be here enjoyed, aiuce 
these ' Porches," which enclosed the Court of the Gentiiea, 
did not form piirt of the Srinctuaiy in the stricter aenae. 
Discns^ton^ niiglit take plnce. in which not, as in 'the 
Treasury,' only ' Uie Pharisees,''' but the people 
generally, might projumnd questions, answer, or 
' assent. Apaiu. as regards the re<|uirfiments of the present 
narrative, since the Porches opened upon the Court, the 

^ The rewrter will observe that Hie iiai-ralive of (he woraun taken in 
a<lullery. u kIso tlie previous verse (St. John vii. 5:i-viii. II) have 
Iwen left oiil In tliie Flislory— »ltboug^h with gieat, reluLtaitce. Bj tliJN 
it is mil intjinded lo oliaracLcTise Uiut gwiliuii as Apoui'yplia.1. Ail tliut 
we feel boiind to maintain is tlmt the nnrralive in its prsMiit (orni (lid 
jiot nrist in the ftcispel nf St. Joho. 


I • •DT.U 


Jesus tup. STessiah 

Jt-nrn ini}.'ht thtre pict ap atcinee to cast at nini (v\n 
would liave lHx>n impuissibk- in auy port of the ^ouctuary 
ila^lf), whil«, la«tly, Ji>8ue mipht <>asily pf»it out of tlie 
Temple in the crowd that niored tltrough the PorclieB to 
the ontAr gates. 

Bat the uurrtii ivc firet tronsportK us into ' (lie Tronsiity/ 
where 'the Phorisws' — or lo&rlai'S — would iilone vpntiirs 
lo ttpettk. Tliis would \ie within ' tho Court of the Women,' 
the oomiuou nieBting-placti of the worshippijra. and, as wa 
maywiy, thf niostyenerullyatiendcil piirt of the Sauctuary. 
Here, in the heanog^ of the leadwi* of l!ii' [iflopU', took 
place the firafi Dialogue between fhrist and the I'harise**, 

It opened with wbiLt probably tvur^ uii iiIluKiuQ alike to 
OQ* of the gri-ii t ceremonies of t.he Pwast of Tubemacles, to 
ita fymbolic meaning, and To an express Mpssiaiiic expec- 
tation of the Uabbis. As the Mishnah states : On the first, 
or, «6 the Talmud would have it. un every iiighli of the 
festivB week, 'tin- Court of the Wnuien ' wafe briHiiiiitly 
illuminated, and the iii^ht Bpeui, in the deinonBtrations 
already described. This was called 'the joy of the Peast.' 
Tliia ' festive joy,' of which the origin is obincure, was no 
doubt counect^d with the hope of eartli'e great harvest-joy 
in the coQversion of the healhea. world, and so pointed to 
'the days of the Meesiah.' In conneetion with this wa 
mark that the term 'light' was epecl ally applied to the 
Messiah. In a very interesting pasasge of the Midrasb w« 
are told that, while commonly windows were tnade wido 
within and narrow without, it waa the opposite in the 
Temple of Solomon, because tke light issuing from the 
Sanctnaiy was to lighten that whieh was without. Thia 
tstLutau. reminds us of the language of devout old Simeon 
** in regard to the Mesbiah," as ' a light to lighten 

the Gentiles, and the glory of His people Israel.' Wo 
ought to refer to a poNsage in another Midrash, where, 
after a remarkable discusaion on such names of thelleesiah 
as ' the Lord our Rigbt-ponsness,' ' the Branch.' ' the Com- 
forter,' ' Shilob,' • Com passion,' Ilia Birth is connected with 
the destruction, and His return with the reBtoratiou of tla 
Temple. Bat in that very passage the MessiiJi in h\ao 



spciciaLly desi'^tmti'^ as the ' Enlightener,' the words : ' the 
^ liylit dwelletli with UUiu,'' tjeiug applied to 


tWliat lias jast Ijeen stuted shows tliat the Pharisees could 
not have miHtaktMi the MfsyiaiiiL' meiiiiing in tlie woitls of 
JesuB, in tlieii' ri.'tVi'eiice to the piiet. festivity : ' I am the 
Light of the world,' Suhslautially, the DiscourBes wLieh 
Rsllow are a contiimafion of those pi'eviously delivered at 

»this feast. What Je&ii»^ bad ^laiUnilly commuuicatui) tu 
the disciplee, who wei-e ao uowiliiiig to reueive it, had now 
b«:oine an aclaiowledged fact, II was no longer a seci-et 
that the lenders of Israel and Jenisaleni were coiupam^inf^ 
the Dpath of Jesus. This uaderliea all His Worda. Aiid 

fHe Bouglit to tiiru them from their purpose, uot by appeal- 
ing to their pity or to any lower motive, but by claiming 
»9 Hia right tlmfc for which they would condetiin Hiiu. He 
was the S^'nt of tJoii, the Meaaiah ; aUlioti^h, to know Hhu 
and His uiisfeion. it needed moral kiiwhip with Rim that 
had eeut Hiui. But. this they did uot poBsess; nay, no 
man possessed it. till given him of God. lliis was not 
exactly npw in these Diacourees of Chrif*t, but it was now 
iar more clearly stated and developeil. 

Aa a cxjriilhiry" He would teach that Satan was not a 
merely malicious being, wru'kiug ontwnnl destruction, but 
that there wae a moral power of evil ^viiiuh held us a.11 — uot 
the GentilH werldooly, but even the most favoured, learned, 
and exalted among thv Jews. 01 thi^ power 8al»a was 
the concent ration and imp«rBonation ; the prinee of the 
power of ■ dai'kne'^a.' TliJs opens up the leaBoaing of 
Chrifit. alike aa exprL'Ssed and implied. He pivs^uted 
Himaelf to them ris the Messiah, and hence aa tlie Light of 
the World. It resulted that only in following HUn would 
a man ' not walk in the darkness,' but have the light — and 
'atJojiB that, be it marked, not the light of knowledge, 
■^"■U hut of life.'' On the other hivnd. it also followed 

that all who were Dot within this liglit were in darknugs 
Bud in drath. 

It was an appeal to the moral in Hia hearers. The 
Pharisees soiight to turn it aside by an appeal to the 



JeS(/S tub MESSMtf 



i^xt^MUftl anilvisilili'. They a«l;pd for some witness, 

pahU' evi(Ii?nc<*, «f what they calW His tvstimouy 

About' IliiuHelf,* well knowing Uiat bucTi oonld 
only be llirougli wotin- t-xtemal^ visililtf, mirncaloQE msni- 
ftstatioii, just a» thpy hfid formerly askefl for a aign from 
tiCAViMi. Thp BiV)l{?, anil especially thp EvHn^Uc liisliir 
is full of wliai. meu ordinarily, aud often tlioiightlt«sly, i-a 
tU« tuirftculoiis. But iu this case the iiiiiaciJoue wmilfl 
havH becoinH the magicat, wliich it never is. If C'lirist 
yifltk-d to ihfir appi-ftl, imd transliTTMl t.lie cjnestioii froo 
the moral to rhe coarsely extfnial spliere, Ife would hare' 
oivisrtl tn [m tlirt MeaaiflJi of the Incarnation, TfempfntJon, 
ftnd OroHs, tliti Messiflh-Snyiour, A niiriicle or sign would 
nt that moment have be>QD a moral anachroniEin^ as muc 
as any iniritoie would be in our days, whem the Chria 
makes His ap|>eal to the mora!, and ia met by a deinac 
for tliw exUsrnuI and niiitenal evidence of Ilia ivitneas. 

The interruption of tho Pliariaeea '' was thoroughly 
^ iTowieli, and so was t!ieir objecHon. It had to ba 

met, and that in the .Tewish form in which it ImJ 
been raised, while tho Ghri»t muHt at Iho Mine timn oon-_ 
tinne His fomifr ti^aching to them conwrning God au^l 
their own dieiance from Him. Their ohjectioa hml pro- 
ceeded on tUi^ fiindfimenfcal judifiial priiicipla — *A person 
Lt not, aecre'lit.<^l iibont himself,' Harsh and unjust a6 this 
principle Honi(>fimeB was, it evidwitly applied only in judi- 
cinl cases, nnd hence implied that these Pharii?6e8 sal ia 
jiid^ixient on Him as ona sugp^ct^d, and oharged with guilt 
The reply of Jesus was plain. Evenif His tpstimonynbont 
Himself were unsupported, it would still be tnie, and He 
was competent to bear it, for He Itneiw as a matter of fact 
wheuce He came and wliither He went — His own part- a 
this Mission., and its goal, as wl-II as (Jiid (s — whi?riin« thcrl 

knew not either." But more than this: tJieirl 

demand for a witness had proceeded on the as-l 
BLimption of their being the judges, and He thf panel — 1\ 
relation which only aro&e from their jnd^iig alK-r thai 
flcnh. Spiritual judgment upon that which was within; 
belonged only to llim Who aeiirchoth all si^crttte. Christ, 

Tbaching m THE Trmflb 




wliile on earth, judged no man ; and, even if He did so, it 
must be rememhi'reJ that He dtd it not alone, hub with, 
imd as tlie Rept'esentatiTO of, the Father. Qence such 
• 8i.j.ihn jn^tneiit would be true* But as for their 
i\\\. la, 18 niftin charge, was it either true or good in lnw ? 
In accordance with the Law of God, there were two wit- 
nesBee to the fact of His Mission : Hie owti, and the 
frequently-shown attestatiyu wf His Father. And, if it 
were objected that a man could not bear mtnessin his own 
cause, tlie euiae Uabbinic canon laid it down, that this only 
applied if his teetimouy etood silone. But if it were cor- 
robnratfd, although by only one iiiiile or femide slaye — who 
ordimu'ily were unfit for t«9limony — it would be crediti'd. 

The reasoning of Christ, without for a moment quitting 
th(« higher ^tround of His teaching, wae (jnite nnanswerable 
from ths Jewish Ettindpoiut. The Pharieees felt it, and, 
though well kiiowiiiLT to Whom He ivferred. tried to evatlo 
it by the sneer — where (not Who) His Father was? Thia 
gave occasion for Christ to return to the main subject of 
His address, that the renson of their ignorance of Hitn 
'vw i» '"^^ '''^"^ they knew not the Father, and, in tnm, 
that only ackuowledgment of Him would bring 
true knowledge of the Father.'' 

Such words would onlv ripen in t!i6 hearta of such men 
the murderouB resolve against Jesua. Yet, not till His 
hour had come ! 1'reaeiitly we find Him agAin, now in 
one of the Porches — probably that of Solomon — ^teaching, 
this time, ' the -lews.' Wp imagine they were chieHy, if 
not all. Judfta 118— perhaps Jcrusakmites, aware of tlie 
nuuderout! intent of their leiwlers — not His own Galilejins, 
irliom He adtlresaed. It wa« in continuation of what bad 
gone beforf! — aliki^ of what Hp had said to them, and of 
what they felt towards Him. The words are Christ's fare- 
well to His rehellious people, Hia tear-wtmla over lost 
Israel ; abi'upt aleo. a? if they were torn sentences, or elsB 
hendingg for upi^cial diswmrKes: I go My way' — ^' Ye shall 
aefk Me, and in your siu ahall ye dit- ' — ' Whithei' I go, ye 
cannot oome ! ' 'Iliey thought that He spoke of His dying, 
and not, as He did, of that which came after it. But how 


Jssus THE Mess/ah 


could HU d^ing eEtnbliiih 8iic)i 8«paratioii between tlieiii ? 
•«t.Joi,i. This wan the nest question which rose in tJieit 
TiiLSi minds' Would there be Anytiiin^ ?o p«culiai 

about Hist flyinp, or did His pxprrssiqn about going 
indicate a puipoBt" of Inlciii^ away Ui» Own life ? 

It was Miis iTiifiiiiidfrrilflnrliug which Jesus briefly bat 
umphnticiilly corrected bj telliug; them, that the groaod of 
their separation waa thp difference of thtnr nature : llej 
w&x from bcDouth, Hi? from above ; they of this world. 
He uot of this world, lience they could not comw wlicm 
]Je woTiid be, since they nnist die in thiiir sin, 
as He had told them — 'if ye believe not that 

The worde were ioteutionally myeterioualy spoken, &e 
to a Jewish audience. Believe not that Thou art ! But 
' Who artThon "f ' Their question c^udpiimed themselves. 
In His broken sentence. Jeeus had tried them — to see how 
they would complete it. All this time they ha<l not yet 
learned Who He was : had not even a conviction on that 
point either for or agninst Him, but were ready to be 
swayed by their lea.dprs ! ' Who I am ? ' Has My testi- 
mony by word nr deed ever awerved on this point ? I am 
what ail along, from the beginniug-. I tell you. Then, 
putting aside this inti-rruption, Mf resumed His 
argnraent." Many other things had He to say 
and to judge concerning them, besides the bitter truth of 
their perishing- if they beliered not that it was H&— but He 
that had sent Him wac tnie. und Hemusteper8])eak into the 
world the message which He had received. When Christ 
referred t-o it as that which ' He heard from 
Him.'" He evidently wished thereby to emphasise 
the fact of His Mission from God, as tMiistitnting His 
claim on their obedience of faith, But it woj* this very 
point which, even at that moment, they were not 
uiider-ttflnding." And they would only K-iiru it. 
not by His Words, but by the event, when they hod 
' lifted Him up.'aH they thought to the Cro68,hut 
really on the wny to His (ilorj-.' Thon would 
tbej perceive the nieauiug of the designation He bad 

• »T. ». M 

• wr.« 


'v«r. 3* 



giren of HimeeJf, and the claim founded on it : ' 'Thea 
• St. John Bhall ye perceive that. I oja' Meantime : ' Aod 
{3^ TCT. 0*" Myself do I notlung, but as the Father tau^bt 
Ml ' Me, th»i& thin^a do 1 appak. And He that HPnt 

He is wif^h Me. He not \stt Me alone, because whab 
pleases Him 1 do always.' 

If the Jews failed to undi*rataiid the exprL-saion ' lift!n)if 
np,' which might mean His I'jxallation.thou^'h itdid inean 
in the Krst place His Cross, there was that in Hia appeal to 
His Words and Deeds as bearing witoesst-oHis Mission and 
to the Divine Help and Presence in it. which by its eincerity 
anrl rejility found its way to the hearts of many, Instinc- 
tivetj they ielt and believed that Hia Mission must be 
Divine. Whether or not this found articulate expresaion, 
Jesoa now addressed Himself to tliose who tb us far — at least> 
for the inonient — believed on Him. They were at the crisis 
of their spiritual history, and He must press home ou tliem 
what He hnd?ought totenchatthplirat. By nuture ftirfnim 
Him. tb(-y were boodsmpin. Only if thoy abode in His Word 
wonM they know the truth, and tlm truth would make 
tlieni free. The result of tiie knowledge would be moral, 
KDd lieoce that knowledge couaisted not in iiierely believ- 
ing on Him, but in making His Word and teaching their 
dwellir^ — abiding in it.'' But it was this very 
moral application which tb^y resisted. In this 
also Jesus had used their own fomiaof thinking and teach- 
ing, only in a much highc-r sense. For their own trndidon 
had it. that he only was free who laboured in the study of 
the Law. Yet the liberty of which He spfikp cam^ not 
thi-oitgh study of the Law, but from abiding in the Word 
of J»BU8. But they ignored the spiritual, and fell baok upcm 
the national application i)f the words of fJbrist. Ab this 
is OQce more evidential of the Jewish authorship of this 
Gospel, so also the characteristically Jewiah boast., that as 
the children of Abraham they had never been and never 
could be in n-aJ servitnde. It would take too lon^ to 
Rnnmerate all the benelils snppoai.-d to be derived from 
deeoent (rom Abtaliam, Saffice here the almost ftinda- 
meutol principle: ' All Israel are the childavin uf KingEy' 

fc TT.IO-33 

328 Jesus the Messiah 

and its opplication evi^n Ui couimou LUe, ^ll(lt OS ' tbe ditl* 
dren of Abraham, l«anc, untl JaMl), not even Solomoo'* 
feast could be too (food for them,' 

Not so, hijwever, would the Lord allow them to pass it 
by. He poinu-d tliHiii to another servitude which tbej 
• at. JobD kn«w noti that of sin,' iind, euteruig at the same 
*!••• time aUo on their own ideas, He told them thai 
contjnaanoe iu this serritudit would also lead to □attunol 
bondage and rejection : * For tlk- seirvnut abideth not in 
the house for ever.' On the oth«>r Imtid, the Son abod^ 
there for ever ; whom He niiide fitM- hy adoption into His 
Family, they would be free in reality and essentially.'' 
» Thini, for their very diilnesa. He woidd turn to 

thiur favourite conceit uf hiiug Ahraham'st seed. 
There was, nideed, an obvious HenBe in which, by their 
nataral de^'eut, they were such. But thei-e wds a moral 
desoent — and thut alone wne of real Talue. Abnibum's 
seed? But they etit.ertdiiied pori>nsi-3 of iniinler, nnd 
that bocauso the Word of Clirist bad not free counie, 
made not way in thc-m. His Word was what he had«(>«i 
with (before) the l'"uther-, not heard — -for Hia I'reBeace 
there was eternal, Their deeds were what they hud 
heard frcmi their father — the word ■seen ' in our coninioa 
text deptndiny on a wrongreading. And thus Hts ahowed 
them — ia aiiawei- to tberr interpelliiriou — that their futhcr 
could not have been Abraliam, so far aa spiritual descent 
■ 87Jn "''^ conceraed." They bad now a glimpse of 
His iiieaning, but only to raisiipply it, aci^ord- 
ing to their Jewiah prejudice. Tht-ir spiritual desc-ent, 
they urged, must be of God, since their descent from 
« »M 41 Abraham was legitimate.* But the Lord dis- 
pelled even this eonceit by showiag' that if theira 
were spiritual descent from God, then would tliey not 
reject His Message, uor seek to kill Him, but recognise 
•iCT, « '^^^ \o\^. Hiin.'^' 

'Tr.*i-4i ij^ij whence all tliis misundei'st'audini; of His 

speech?' Bocauwe they were morally inaipable .if hi-dring 
it — and this becauwH of the sinfiilnej» of tJicir nature: au 
element which Jadaism had never taken into account. 

Tbachtng m THE Temple 


And BO, with inGnite wiHtlom, Christ once more brougil 
back Ilia Discooree to wliat He would teat^h tlieiu concern- 
ing man's need, whetter he be Jew or Genlile, of a Saviour 
ani] of renewing by the Holy Gliost. If the Jews were 
morally nnabie to h&ar His Word and chwish^rl murderous 
designs, it was becaiiae, morally speaking, their descent 
was of the DeTil. Very differently from Jeivish ideas did 
fie epetik ccmcerning the nionil evil of Sn.tan, as both a 
murderer wnd a liar — a murderer from the beginning of 
tlie history of our race, and one who 'stood not in tbe 
truth, because truth is not in him.' Hence ' whenever 
be speaketh a He' — whether to our first parents, or now 
coocemiiiff the Christ — ' tie Bpeiiktith from out his own 
(things), for lie (Satan) is a Har, and the fotht-r of ancli an 
one (who telleth or believeth lies),' Wliich of them could 
convict Him of sin? If therefore Ho spake truth (ind 
tliey believed FTini not, it was because tbey were not of 
God, but, as He bad shown them, of their father, the 

The argument was unauswerable, and there aeeujed only 
one way to turn it aside- — a ■Jewish In fjito-jite. an adapta- 
tion cfthe'PIiyBiciftn, heal thyself: 'Do we not say rightly, 
tliat Thon art. a Sn.tnaritunjiind hast u demon ? " By no slmin 
of ingennity is it iiossible to accoimt for the tlesignation 
' Samaritan,' as given by the Jewa to Jesns, if it ib regnnli.'d 
38 referring to nationality. But in the language wliicii 
they spoke, whut is rendered into Greek by ' Saninrit'an,* 
while literally meaning such, is almost as often used in 
the sense of 'liAretie.' But it is also somciiynes iisw! n« 
tJif equivalent of AshmeiUi, the prince of the demons. 
If this, therefore, were the term appliixl by the JewB to 
Jesna, it wonM literally ineiin, ' Ohiltl of the Devil.' 

This wLnild also explain why Christ only replied to the 
charge of having a demon, since the two ohnrges meant 
itantiiilly the >iamL': 'Thou art a child of the rWil and 
a demon,' In wondrous patience and mercy Hw 
almost passEid it by, dwelliiiif rathei-, for their leaching, 
on the fact that, while tliey dishouoiired Hirn, He honoured 
His Father. He beaded not their uhai-ges. His concern 


Jesus the Messiah 

was the giory of His Father ; tbe vinriimtion of His own 
honour would lie brought about by tlie Piifher — tbotigh, 
alsR! in jiidginent on those who wt^i-e casting such dis- 
•8t.ji>iiit honour on ilie Sent of Cod.* Tlien He once 
niLw more pressed home the great subject of His 
lAsoourse, that only 'if a man keep' — both have regard 
t», Bnd oliaervp — His ' Word,' ' he shall not gaze at death 
[intrntlj^ bohobl it] unto eternity' — for ever sliall he not 
come witliin close and terrible gaze of what is really 
deatk, of what became such to Adam m the honr of liis 

It waa, as repeatedly observed, tbis death as the con- 
aeqiience of the Fa!!, of which tha Jews knew notliing. 
And go they once more niisundflrsfrtod it as of physical 
death, and, sitice Abraham and the prophets had died, 
regarded Christ as setting up a claim hig'hcpr than theirs.^ 
*Tr ifcM "^^ Discourse had contamed all that He bod 
wished to bring before thpm, and their objections 
were degenerating' into wrniig'ling. It was time to break 
it off bj' a general iipplication. Thp quPsHon, He added, 
was not of what He aaid, but of what God said of Him — 
tliat God, Whom they claimed as theirs, and yet knew 
not, but Whom He knew, and Whose Word He ' kept.' 
But, as for Abraham — he had ' exulted ' in the thought of 
the coming day of the Christ, and, seeing its gloiy, he 
was glad. Eveu Jt-wish tradiliou could scareeiy gainsay 
this, since there were two parties in the Kynagogne of 
which one believed that, when that horror of great darlc- 
ness fell on him," Abraham bad in vision been 
shown nut only this, but the coming world— 
and not only all events in the present ' age,' but also those 
in Messianic times. And now theirs was not niisunder- 
stianding, but wiifid mi.iinterpretation. He hjid spoken of 
Abraham seeing His day ; they took it of His seeing 
Ahraham'e day, and challpnged its possibility. Whether 
or not they intended thua to elicit an avowal of Him claim 
to eternal duration, and hence fo Dirinity, it was not tima 
any Icaiger to forbear the full atalement, and, with Divine 
cmphftsia, He epake the words which could not be mia- 

HsAUffG OP THp. Man Born Blind 331 

taken : ' Verily, "rerily, I eay unto you, before Abraham 
WHS, I AM.' 

It was as if they had only wait^;l3 for ttis. Parloualy 
tliw nisht'd ['rmii the Porch into tlie Conrt of the Gentiles 
— with BymboHc sijTnificance t-ven in tliis — to pick up 
stonpR, nnd to cast thrai at Kim. But, ohpp more. His 
hour had not- yet come, ami their rage pro\-p3 impotent. 
Hiding Himself foi* the monieut, ns might so easily be 
done, in oue of tte many chauiliers, passages, or gateways 
of the Temple, He prespntly passed out. 

It hml heen the firwl. plnin disclosure and avowal of 
His Divinity, and it was 'in the midBt of His enemies,' 
and when most contempt was cant upon Him. PrpBPnUy 
would that avowal be renewed both in Word and by 
Deed ; for ' ihe end ' of mercy and judgment had not yet 
comey bat was drawing terribly nigh. 



(St. John ix.) 

After tbe scene in the Temple described iu the last chapter, 
and Christ's conaequent withdrawal from His enemies, we 
are led to infer that no long interval of time elapsed before 
tie healing of the man bom bliiKl. Probably it happened 
the day after the events jnst reccirdetl 

It was the Sabbath, tlie dav after the Octave of the 
reaat.and Christ with Hia disciples was passing — presum- 
ably when (foing into the Temple — where this blind beggar 
was wont to sit. probably floliciting nlms, perhaps in some 
fiUch terms as these, wluch were coinmoti at the time i 
•Gain merit by nie;' or 'O teiidfrhearled. by me gain 
meiit. to thine own bimcfit.' But on the Sfibbnth he 
woald of course neither ask nor receive alma, though hin 
prpsence iii tlie wonti.-d plsK'e would secnre wider notice, 
and perhaps lead to in,^ny private jj'iffa, Imleed, the 

332 Jesus tub Messiah 

blind wpre regarded as specially oinitled to charity; «l<1 
thn .Ifimsalcm Talmud reliittia iuslttiicuB of tli« dtdicacj' 
displayed t^wftrds thera. As the MasUir, and His disciplett 
jKisaed the blind bejfgar, Jesos ' saw ' him with thai, look 
which tliey who followed Him knew to be full of meauing. 
Y»t, 80 thor(JU{,'lilY Jtidaiaed were they by thfJr late con- 
tact, with the' I'hftrifleps, that no thought of poasible mercy 
came to Ihem, only a queaticm addrei^tied to Him expressljr 
mid aa ' Uabbi : ' through whose gnxlt this blindneas had 
brfnUun hiiu — through hia own, or that of his paruDt«. 

Thoroughly Jewish the qufstion was. Many instanc«x 
could be adduced in which one or another ain is said to 
have boen paniahed by aome itnmeJiate strokL', disease, oi' 
oven by death ; and wo oonatJintly find Rabbis, wheu 
mating 9iich unfortunate personK, asking them how, or by 
what sin this had come to them. Bnt, as this man woa 
' blind from bin birth,' the possibility of some actual sin 
Imfori' birth woald suggest itself, at least as a Bpeculative 
(|U8Btioa, since tie evil impulse' might even then be 
called into actlWty. At the same time, both the Talmod 
and the later chm-tre of the Pharisees. ' In sins waat thou 
liom altogether," imply that in such casea the alh*rnative 
explanation would be considered, tJiat the blindness might 
b« canaed by the sin of his parents. It waa a common 
Jewish view that the merits or demerits of the parents 
would ttpj^jear in the children. Certain special sins in the 
parents would result in specific diseases in their oftaprinjr, 
and ouf is uientioiieil as caiisint,' blindness in the children. 
But the impression left, on uiir uiiiids is that the disciplea 
telt not 3ure aa to either of these solutions nf the difficulty. 
It seemed a mystery. Inexplicable on the supposition of 
IJod'* infinite goodness, atid to tt'Iiieli they songht to apply 
tbtf oommuii Jewish ttolution. 

Putting aside the cinmay alti-fnative suggnsted by the 
disciples, Jesus told them tlmt it was so in order ' that the 
works of God might be made manifest, in him,' They 
wanted to know the ' why,' He told them tJie • in order to,' 
of the man's cailamity : they wiahed to oudei'Ktaiid its 
reason aa ivgin'Jed its origin, He told them it* ruasoaaU^' 


Hbauno of the Man Born Bund J33 

Tiess in regart! to purpose which it. nrii^ all similinr 
Buffering sliould serve, einre Gtiristi has coTne, tlip Healer 
of evil — because the Saviour from ain. Tlins He trana- 
ftired the question from intelletctual ground to tlut of the 
moral pnrpose wliioh SHflenng might, aerve. 

To mate tiiir* thf reality U' us, was ' the wort of Uim ' 
Who sent, and for which Hh sent the Christ. And rjipidly 
now niuet. He work it, for pi-cpclual example, duiTiifj the 
•sbJoLo *^^ howrs still Ipft. ol Hia brief working-day.* 
!•-*.» Tliis figure was not unlaniiliar to the Jews, though 

it may weJI be that, by thus emphasising the briofuess of 
the time, He may also have anttcipntftd auy nhj'-fition to 
His healing on the .Sahlnith. 

Once luore we notice how in His Deeds, aa in His 
Worcis, the Ijord adoptpd the forms known and used by 
llis contetiiporaries. while He filled tbem with quite ot,her 
substance. It has alrt'atly bpi?n .stated that saliva was 
commonly regarded as a remedy for diseases of the eye, 
although, of L-ourse, not for the removal of biindness. 
With thi-* He iiiade clay, which He now uaed, adding to it 
the direction to go and wash in the Pool of Silonm, a t^enn 
which literally meant ■ sent.' A Hyniboliani this, of Him 
Who was the Sent of tbei Fatlu^r. 

And sn, what the PhariseeB had Bonght in vain, was 
fi-eely vouchsaled when there was ueed for it. With perfect 
(simplicity the man's obetlience and healiiig are recorded. 
We judge that hie first imp nlee when healed mast have been 
to seek for JeeriS, naturally, where he had first met Hint. 
On his way. probably past hia own house to tell hia parents, 
ajid again on the apot where he had sa long sat begging, 
all who hud known hiiu mugtbavt: noticed the great change 
that had passed over him. So tnarvellons indeed did it 
appear, that while part of the crowd that gathered would, 
of course, aekmiwledge his identity, other3 would eay : 
' No, but lie is like him ; ' in their suspicionsnesB looking 
for Bome imposture. .For therti can be little doubt that on 
Ilia way he must, have learned more about Jesua than merely 
His Naiue.'' and in turn have communicated to his 
iniorniaiits the story of his healing. Similarly, 


Jesus the Mrssmh 

tbe formal qnpstion now put to liiin liy the Jews' 
mucli, if not more, n preparatory iiiquUitiou iJian tfceOQt- 
ootue of a wiiih to leoi'n the cirtmmBtaDces of his healing. 
And BO we uutiu» iu bia uaan-er the cnutiuas desirs not to 
flay aD;^lliing Mint ooiild incrimin&te Ms Beoefiictor. He 
In tbu lactii truthfully, pltiiuly ; he acceotualed by what 
ADS lie had ' recovered,' not rei-eived, sight ; but other- 
• At. John wise givco no clao by which either to discovtrr 
"■'* or to incriniiniite Jesus." 

Preseotly tliey briuj^ him to the Pharisees, not to take 
Dotice of hiH liHHlinf^. hut to found on it a chafifd against 
Christ. The gi'DUod on which the whnrgw would rest was 
pkin : the heitliii^ iiivolvtid h, mtioifnid breiich of the 
Kuhbath-Law. 'llie tirst of these was that Jesus had made 
clay. Next, it would ba a question whether auy remedy 
mi^bt bft applied ou the holy day. Such could only Ix- 
doTift in diaeases of tbe tnteriuil organs (from the throat 
downwards), except when diinf^er lo life or the loss of an 
oiXnn was involved. It was, indeed, declai-ed lawful to 
apply, for exuinplo. wine to the outaiile of the eyelid, on the 
ground that this mi^'ht b«* truutt-d as washing; but it was 
tiinful to apply it to the insdile of the eye. And as regards 
saliva, it« applicfifioii to the eye is erpreasly forbidden, on 
the ground thiit it was evidently intended aa a remedy. 

Thore was, therefore, abundant legal grounil for a 
Oriminal charge. And, althuiigh on. the .Sabbath the 
Batihedrin would not hold any formal meeting, and even 
had there been such, tho teelimouy of one man would not 
have Hulliced, yet 'the PJiariaoeM' set tbe inquiry regularly 
on foot. Fii-at, aa if not eatiafied with the report of those 
who had brought the man, they made him reptMit it,'' The 
wondrous fact eonid neither be denied nor «c- 
"* plaiufd. The alternative, therefore, wbb : wliotlier 

their traditional law of Sabhnth-obHervance, op bIeo He 
Who had done auch miracles, was Uiviue ? Was Christ not 
ot God, because He did not beep the Sabbath in their way ? 
Bat then, coald an open trant$|,'reeeor of God's Law d<i 
such miracles? In tliis dikmma they turned to the simple 
man before theui. ' Seeiug that He opened ' hiB eyeie, what 


Heaung of the Man Bor.v Bi/.vd 335 

lip gnyof Him? what: was the inipifssioti li'ft on hi= 
JvUiiz. mind, who had the best oppui-tuniiy for judg- 

'™™ There ib Boint^tliing very pecuiinr, and, in one 

sense, most insIrucHve. as to the general opiuion eat^rtnined 
even by the best disposed who had uot yet liflt-n taught 1 Iio 
higher truth, in his ri'ply, hu simple, so cumprt'hensive ia 
its sequences, and yet so nttprly mtidcqiiaki by itself: ■ tie 
is a Prophet.' One possihilitj still remained. After all, 
the man might oot have been really blind ; and tliey 
might, by cross-exam inintr the parents, elicit that (tlxHit 
his original conrliliou which would explain tht- prct^-udod 
cure- Bat on this most iuiporraiit point, the pui^nts, 
with all their fear of the anger of the PhurLteea, retnaiun] 
uasliakea. H« had been born blind ; but as to the manner 
of his cure, they deelitied fo ofler any opinion. 

For to persons so wi-etcliedly poor us to allow their Boa 
to live by begging, the consequences of being ' un-Syna- 
gogued,' or put outside the coiigre.i^at ion — which was to bo 
the punishment of any one who confessed Jesus ns th<* 
Messiah — would have been dreadful. Taloiudie writings 
speak of two, or rather, we ahould nay, of three, kinds of 
' excoiamunication,' of which tlie first two werechiefly dis- 
ciplinary, while the third was the real ' casting ont,' ' un- 
Synagogwing," 'cutting otl' from the congregution.' The 
lirst and lightest degree was, properly, ' a rebuke,' an in- 
veighing- Ordinarily, its dui-atiou extended over ceven 
days; but, if pronounced Ity the Head of the Sauhedrin, 
it larited for tliitty days. Ia later times, however, it only 
rested for one day on the guilty person. Perhaps St. Paul 
referred to this ' rebuke ' in the expression which he u.stil 
*iT- . ahout an offending Rider." lie certainly adopted 
the practice in J*al>'sline, when he would not 
have an Elder ' rebuked,' although he went far beyond it 
when ha would have such • eiitieated.' Yet another 
direction of St. Paul's is evidently derived from these 
arrange III enta of the Synagogue, although applied in a far 
^ diHeivnt spint. When the Apostle wrote; 'An htn-etic 
■ att«r the first and second admonitios reject,' there must 



336 JBSUS THE Messiah 

hare been in Iiia mind tlie fwivinfl degree of Jewish ©icom- 
monicotioii, cnlU'd frnin the verb to thi-iieit, thrust out, cost 
out. This Ifietcd for thirty days &t the leaat, although among 
the Babylonians only for sev^en daya. At the end of that 
term there was ' a second admnuition,' which lasted other 
thirty days. If still uurepenlaDt, the third, or reiil ex- 
crimmimieiitioD, h'eiu prononnc^d, which was called the 
ban, and of which the duratiuu was iudehnif^?. Hence- 
forth he WftB like one dead. He was not allowed t^ study 
vilh others, do intercoorse woe to be held with him, he 
was not even to Ije sliuwn the roiiJ. He mi^ht, indeed, 
■Oonpi ^^y the neei'Ssaries of life, bnt it was forbidden 
tcor.T.i] (^ p^,. Qj, j]p[q^ (Pith such an one.* 

When we remember what such aii anathema would 
involve to per^DUB in tlie rank of life, and bo poor us t:he 
parents of thiit lilinil nia,n, we no longer wonder at their 
evasion of the question pnt by the tSanhedrin. And if we 
fist ourselves, on what gronud bo terrible a puniehinent 
could btf inflicted to all time and in i-very plac&— for the 
baa once [ironouuced applied everywhi-re — simply for the 
confeasion of Jesns as the C'hiisli. tbe answer is not difficult. 
The Kabbiniflts enutuernfce tweiitv-foiir grounds for excom- 
mnoication, of which more than one mi^ht serve the porjiose 
of the Pharisii'H. Bat in general, to rtrsistthe authority "f 
the Scribes, or any of their decrees, or to le^Mi others either 
away from ' the commandmenta,' or to wliat was regarded 
»a prufanatiou of the Diyine waa sufficient to incur 
the bail, while it masfc be borae in mind that escoiiimuni- 
catioD by the President of the Sanhi^ria extended to all 
placee and persons. 

Ab nothing' eould be elicited from bis p&rentB, tlie man 
who had been blind was once more Biammoned before tie 
Pharieeee. It was no longer to inquire into the reality of 
his allej^ed blindneKa, nor to a»k about the cure, hut simply 
to demiiud of him recantation, though this was put in the 
most, epecious manner. Thou hast been healed : own that 
it waa only by God's Hand mirwnlonsly stretirhed forth, 
and thftt * this man ' had notluTis; to do with it. save that 
the coincidence may have been allowed to try the faith of 



Hf.auhg Of THu Man Bo/cn Bund 


Tsrael. It COnM not Imve hi'i-n Jes-iis Who had dane it, 
for they knew Hiin to bo ' a Biiiner." Of the two alUima- 
tiveg ^hey had chosen that of the absotnto rightnese of 
their owu Sabbiith-tratlitioti}" as against the evidence of 
His Miracles. Virtnnlly, then, this was the condenmatinn 
of Christ and the apotheosis of tniditioniilJfiTn. 

Thp Pfiiewed inqniry iia to the manner in which Jesuti 
had healed liim " iniglit liave had for its cLyect. to betray 
•St. Joim tiie man iti to a positive confi^ssion, or tnolicitsome- 
'^■* thing denioninctil in the itiodp of the cure. The 

blind man had now fully the Bdviintage. Hi* had already 
told them. As he put it half ironically : Waa it bocnnse 
thoy felt the wrongnessof thsir own position, and that they 
should become His disciples V It stung them to the quick; 
they lost) all Belf-pOBsession, and with tlii^ their uioral 
defeat became complete. ' Thou art the disciple of that 
Man, but we (according to the fa^unrite phrase) are the 
dJBciples of Moaea.' t)f the Divine Missiou of Moses thev 
knew, but of tho Mission of Jesus they knew 
nothing." The unlettered ma-n had now the full 
ndvantage in the coiitioverey, ' In this, indeed,' there was 
' the marvellona.' that the leadera of Israel slioiild eonfesa 
tbemselvea ignorant of the aiithorify of One, Who hml 
power t/i open the eyes of the blind^a marvel whici hnd 
never before bet^n witjiessed, If He had that jxiwer, whence 
had He obtained it, and why? It could only have been 
from God. They said, He wiis ■ a sinner ' — and yet there 
no prinoijile more frHC|ueotly repeated by the KabbiB, 
that anawpra tn prayer dependi'd on a man being 
'devout' and dointr the Will of Goil. Then? could thei-e- 
fore be only one infeifriee : If Jeaiia liiid not Divine Autho- 
rity, He coald not have had Divine Power. 

The truthful reasoning nf that «jitiit^>red man, which 
confounded the acnteness of the sages, shows tlio effect of 
these iiianifeBtalionB on ah whose Le-nrts wei-e open to the 
tmth. The Pharisees had nothing to answer, and, aa not 
nnfreniietitlv in aiialuyoua ca^ea, conld only in then- furv 
cast, him out with bitter reprofuihes. Would he teach 
them — he, whose very disease showed him to have been a 

JsSaS THE Messjah 

■A tiiiil Iwn 

nl wlv 


•HL John 

ii. as 

»TW, M 


child «!t>n(Viv<-<l tind Iwrii 111 kiii, ami who, evor wine* liW 
birlli, Iiail bcRn among i(rn"r'*'it, ljnw-ii(f!;lerHiij»" sinners'? 
Hut. tborc" was Another WI10 watclied and knew him: 
He Whom, m) fur ii« he ttnfw. h*" hml diircd to coufwts, 
and (or Wluitii \\f wa« c(itit«-nt to siilPfr. liet him now 
have the Tfwarcl of his foith, even its mrn plotinn. Ten- 
derly did Jo^ne eook him out,* and. oe He found 
liiiti, thia one queeitiou Jid H« ask, wliebhor the 
coiivit+iua of bin exivricnrt* waf not Rowing into the 
higher faith of the Vft unwrn; ' Dust thou bi-lieye on thft 

To Much a soul it needed only the directing "WoriJ ol 
Christ. "And Who is H«>, Lord, that 1 may l>Glieve on 
IliinV*' It seeing ne if the (iiipstioo of Jeeus 
Imd kindlod in liim the oonvidion of wlmt waa 
tiie right anpwer. To siicb refidinesa theri* cwuUl be oidy 
une auswur. In buiguag? ninre phiin than He bad ever 
Iwfort^ iised, Jwiiit nnstt-ered, and wi(h ininiedinte ctrnfcssion 
of implicit, fnith tlip man worshipped. And so it was that 
the first time he atiw his Delivorer, it was to worship Him. 
There wt^re tho^e who still folhiwed Him — notcuuvinced 
by, UHjr np yi.'i dL-cidcd ngninst ITim — Pharisees, who well 
understood the appiicniii'ii of His Words, Fonn.illy. ithad 
l)eeii a contest between traditioimUani and the Work of 
CUriat. Thej also were traditionalists— were they also 
blind ? Bat. nay, they btid mis nnd erst owl IJim hy iLtiving 
out the moral eJement., thus (showing tbem-sHves blind 
ind(.'i?d, ft was not the calamity of blindues.s ; but it waa 
a bliiiduees in which tbey were guilty, anil for which thoy 
were n-sponsible,'^ which indeed was thti rcisultof 
their deliberate choice; therefore their sin — not 
their blindness only — remained. 




(St. .lolins. l-ai.) 

It was in acc^ordanct- witli tho ctmactcr of tlie DiMyiiirKo 
pi-ic^eiitly iiucler miisklerAtioii. thiil. Ji'sua epiika it, not 
iudc.-d in I*anililea in the. Rtiii^l aensi- (for noao such are 
recwrded in tlw; fiiurth (roHfxl). Imt in an aDefjory in ^ht^ 
•et.JoUn Parftbolic form.' liiffint,' tlui hiMior tnttha Pmin 
»■• tliose who liaviiig eyes liitd uot eeeu, but rerctil- 

ing them to auch wliosft eyi.-8 liiid been opcnt^ij. If the 
scenes of the last fciv days ha.d made anything plain, it was 
the Titter untittief^ of thp teachers of turael for their pro- 
fessed work of ft-ediiif; thv llwk of GjkI. The Hnbbinifits 
also called their spiritual leaders ■ foi^dfri'/ Th? tL^nii (."oin- 
prised th<" two ideas of ■ leading' ' and ' ftediiiif,' wbich itia 
sepiimtely insi^t^ on in the Lords aliygory. It only r*- 
cjuired to recall the Old Tefttnment, !iiiiguajT<> about the 
ajiepheidinir of lind, and that nf pvil Hhephords, to niftkc 
Ihe application to what had so Int^-ly hjippi-iiod. They 
were, surely, not shsphei-ds, who fiad cnst out tlio hcnli^ 
blind nian. or wlio so jud^d of the (Christ, and would ca,iE 
out all His diecipleB. Theyhatl entered intxJ tiod'ii Sheep- 
Cold, but not by the door by whinh f.h« Ownor, God, had 
lirought Hi« flock into t.he fold. To it the entrance had 
been HiB love, Hi.f (honglils of pardoning, Hia purpo.'*e of 
saving mercy. Not by that donr, ns had so lately fully 
uppearMl, had iNrael's rulers come in. They had climbt-d 
up to their place in the fold some other way — with the 
same right, or by the enine wronj^, as a thief or » robber. 
They had wrongfully taken what did not belong to them — 
cimningly and undetected, like a thiif ; they had allotted 
it (-0 theniaelres, and U8ur])ed it by violence, like a rabber. 
What more accurate description wiuld he giv«n of the 
means by which the Pharisees and Sodilucees bad attained 
the mle over God's flock, and claimed it for them- 
aelves ? 

How diflerent. He, Whu comes in and leiul« us through 

340 /ssvs TH& Messiah ■! 

GiM'ii door of C(i*'en«nt- mercy aucl Cio9peUpromiB«i — tbe 
door by which Gncl hsd broiigfat, and even* brings, ULk Bock 
into His Ibid ! This wn* the trae Shepherd, Tlie allegory 
must, of coiirHe, uot b« too closely ptve^sed; bat. as we 
r6ni«iiiber liow in hlie East tLe floots )U-c at uight driven 
into A larj^ fold, and charj^ of tJiPiii is jriven io an iindtr- 
shepherd, we can understand Iioxv. when the shepherd 
oonK-H iu the morning, ' the doorkeeper' or *guiirduui' 
opon« to him. And when u true spiritDal shepherd come« 
Co the true spiritual door, it ia opened to him by the 
guardian fi-om within — that is, he finds ready nnd iinme- 
diatti acxre^. Equally jiictorial is the progree^ of the 
nllvtgorj'. Having thus gained access to hi@ flock, it lias 
not iK'eo to Htcal or rob, but the shepherd knows and caJle 
th<>iu. Bach by liis name, and leadB tkem out. We mark 
thub in the expi-e^^aion : ' when ht- has fui fwUi all hia 
own,' — the woi-d is k trtrong one. For they have to go 
earh Bingly. and perhaps they are not willing to go out 
(SFich by hiiiise^lf, or even to le^ve that fold, and eo he 
' puta ' or thrusts Cliem forth, and he does so to ^ &U bie^ 
own.' Then the Kaetem shepherd places himself at the 
hetid of his flock, and goes before them, guiding them, 
making sure of their following simply by hia voice, which 
r.livy know. So would His flock follow Christ, for they 
know His Voice, and in vain woald strangers sc^-k to lend 
fh«im away, ft-H thp fharijiti-B had tried. Ifc was not the 
• *t.Joi.n kno<vii Voice of their own Slieplierd, and they 
*•*•' would cnly flee from it," 

We can scarcely wonder that they who heard it did 
not iinderatand the itlli']y;in-j', for i hey wltp not of His Bock 
mid knew not His Voice. Rut His own knew it then, and 
would linow it lor ever. 'Therefore,''' both foi- 
the sake of the one and the other. He continuod, 
DOW dividing for greiiter cleiiriies's tlie two Irading id<Mia of 
HiB ttllngory, and applying wich nepiirately for better com- 
fort.. Those two ideafi wore; enlraiirs hy the door, nnd 
the characteristics of Che ^aod Skepkftrd — tlmn alTordiDg a 
twofcid teat by which to recognini- the truL-, and distio- 
^'uitdi it Ixoui the falou. 

*Tftf. 7 





^ TffS *C00D SlfBPHEBP' 341 

1. Tfht Prtflr. — Clirist was (Le IJoor.* All the Old 
• st,ii«hui. Testament iiiittitution.-t, pnipliif-ii-w, luid pt'uinii^.'H, 
'■* eo far as they refcrrpd tn accHKs inTo God's fold, 
meant Christ. And all those who went hel'ore llim, pro- 
twudiiig to bei tlie door— wlitthyr I'bixrisfi-s, Saddut'ww, or 
NaJ^ioDsIists^ — tverp only t liit-vwt ;inii rol>!;i'i"s : tliut won 
not \hf floor into the Kinj/diini of (ind. And tliH sheep, 
God's flock, did not hear th*^ni ; for although tliey niifjjht 
pretend to lend the fluck. the voice was that of slracguiv. 
The trauttitiuu now tu another applioutiunuf the allefi^Hcnl 
idea of tlie ' door ' was natcrul and almnst oerasaarj-, 
though it ap^iears eoiiiewliat. abrupt. Even in this it is 
peculiarly Jewish. We miiBt onderBtaiid this tmiisitioit 
as foDows : I am the Dour ; tLosi? who prufi'.'fsed otherwiMe 
to gain accPBH !« the fold have climlipd in Home otlior way. 
But if I am the only, I am also trnly tlw Door. And, 
di'opping the fii^i'iire. if uuy man eutt-rH by Alt;, be ehuU he 
saved, securely ^> out and in (wlirci- lln" language is not 
to he closely pressed), in the sense of liaving liberty and 
finding: pasture. 

11. This fonne ulso th& traueitioii to tJbe aecond 
leading idf-a of the allef^oi-y : ths Titts and Good Shi'pfierd. 
lien? we mark a fourfold progre!?sion of thought, which 
reminds vs of the poetry of the Book of Psalms. There 
tho thought expreBBed in one line or one couplet is cjirned 
forwitrd and developed in the next, forming whal are 
called the Psalms of Ascent (' of Degrees '). And in the 
DiBCOUPse of Chriat also the final thought of each couplet 
of verses is cwrrii-d forwari!, or rather leads upwaid in l.h« 
next. Thus we have here a Psalm of Degrees concerning 
the Good Bliepherd and His Flock, and, at the ^ame time, 
a New Testament version of Psalm xxiii. Accordingly its 
analysis might he fnt'innlated ns follows : 

1, Christ (Ab (loud Slic])herd, in contrast to 
""^ "^ others who faUehj clui.invd Ui hf Ike akephi^rdtt.*' 

2. The Good Shepfu-nt Who taijnlh down Itis life for 
Hit slintffi! 

3. l''or the stici-ji that are Mine^ whom / Anww, and for 
whom £ laij down Mij Life ! 


Jesus the RTessiah 

the titiol 



leading thonght* 
»H.iam X. of (lie w'liuJc Uiscuur^t; are lakeD up and carried 
>'•'" to the Inst and highest thoaght. The Good 

f^heptterd that hrin^i together tfte One Flock! Yes — ^by 
t.'iving down Hia Life, bat alao by laking it ap again, 
ifotb are iR'ceJwary for tin- work of Llie Good Sbtrphcrd : 
nav, ihe life is tnid tlown in thu nurpendep of sacrifice, in 
orJvr tiiat it may bt* taken op ai;nin, and mncb more fully, 
in the Rpsurrectiuu-l'owiT. And tlicrtfopH His FaUiep 
lovetb H im as I he Mttwiftb-Sht-ptnnxl, Who so fully doee 
ih<! work committed to IJim, and so entirely eurreaderB 
Himst-lf to it. 

And nil this, in ordMr f* be tlit* Shupbtrrd-Suvioar — to 
die. and risu fur His Shi^'p, nml ibiis to giifJit'r them »U, 
Jevrs utid Oenliies, into one fiock, and to be their iShep- 
hitrd. 'riiia, neither more noi- less, wbb the MisBioii which 
God hwl jjiveu Hiui ; tlii», ' tht* covivumdment ' which He 
Imd reiviviil of His FiitEer — ihat which God had 
giixn Him tu do}' 

It was a noble cIobc of the st'Pies of those Discourses 
in the Temple, wliich bud it for their object to fihnw tbat 
He waa fcndy Rt-rit of Gud. 

And, in a nipasiirf, tlify attdired that object. To some, 
indeed, it all seemed unintolligiUe, iiicobei-pnt, uiadn.e»«; 
and tliey foil buck uii tliu fuvuurit<r oxpluiintion of all this 
strange drama — He hnth a demon! Hut others there ^ 
were, aot yet His disciples, to whose hearts these words fl 
went straight. ' These utterances are not of a demonistjd ' i 
— and then it cuuie btick to tbcui : ' Con u demon open ^ 
the eyes nf the blind ? ' ^M 

And Ed, once a^in, the Light of His Words and of^l 
Hia Person ftll upon His Works. Bud, as ever, pevetiled 
tlieir diantctty, oud muda them clear. 



(St. Matt. Xii. aa-45; St. Luke n. H-36.) 

wfll that J«su8 should, for the prewnr, havp parter! 
'ernaulum witli words iiUo tlieae. Even " the Bcliiaui " 
• 8«,jpi.ii ^'^^^ ^"^ come among tlom • concpming His 
x,u Person made it po&eible not oiilj lo tontinuc His 

Teacbiug, but to rytura to the City ouce tnorp ere His final 
entrance. For Hia Perjeaii. Ministry, which extended 
from after the Feast of Tabei-naclea to the week preecdiiig 
tie last Pasiiover, was, ao to speak, cut iu half by the 
brief visit of Jesus to Jerusalpin at the FeuBt of 
th« DedicatLOD,'" Of these six motithB we have 
(with t!iB Kfjlitiiry exception of St, Matthew xii. 
22-45), no other account than that furnished by 
St. Luke," iiltiioii^h, as usually, the Jerudaleni 
and Juda^ati iiicidentB of it are described Ly St. 

It will be uoticTed that this section is ppcutijirly lacking 
in incident. It consists almost exclusively of DiscoiirsL-s 
and Parables, wit h but few narrative [Kirtiona interspersed. 
And this chieUy from the character of His Ministry in 
Perrea. We rememher that, similarly, the beginning of 
Christ's Graltlean JSIinistry liad been chiefly niarlied by 
Biscoursea and Pai'ablee. In fact, Hia Perteau was finb- 
Rlantially a resumption of His early Galilean Ministry, 
only modified and influenced by the much fuller knowledge 
of the people coDceruing Christ, and Ihe greatly developt-'d 
enmity of tlieir leaders. Thus, to bewin with, we can 
understand how He would, at this initial staj^e of Hia 
^era-nii, as in that of His (ialilean Ministry, I'ppeat, whfin 
,ed for insti'iiction com-eriiiug prayer, those snorej 
worda ever since known as the Lord's Prayer. The varia- 
tions ixro so flight as io be easily accounted for by thu 

I* St. Jalib I. 

■I. U (a 


• 9L John 


TbSI/S tub MKSSiAtt 


tDclividiiality of tJie rpportcr. Thftv afiorcl, huwever, the 
occasion for remarking on t.bc two prmc{|]al differences. 
In St. Luke iIji- [iiiiyer is tor the fcrgivenees of 'sine," 
wliiln Si. MikttJiew uNett the Hebraic term 'dehta,' which 
tiBS psHsrid even into tlic Jtrwieli Liturgy, ik-Dotine oui 
guilt, as ind«bt«dni>«B. Agftin the ' day by (Inj ' of St. lAike, 
which f'urtlier explninn the petitioB for ■ daily bread,' com- 
mon bofh to St. ilattliijw and St. Lube, maj be illuifLi-at«d 
by the bt-autiful Rabbinic teaclitng, tlial tbi- Muuutt foil 
only for eiich day. in i^nb^r timt tiiought of ihciT daily 
dependence might call forth const&nt faith in our ' Father 
Wnicb is in lieaveu.' 

IVom the introductory espi-*'ssion : 'When (or wbon- 
over) ye pmy. sny ' — wp venture to infer, that this prayar 
was intended, nut. only as the niodel, but as fariiiahin^ the 
woit3» for the fjture use of the Cburcb. Yet another 
fttiggeetion may be made. Tlie request., * Lord, t«uch ns to 
• scLniu pray, as John also taught his discijilss,"' Bpioms 
■•■ ' to indicate what was 'the certain place.' which, 

now consecrated by our Lord's prayer, became llie schuul 
for ourB. It eeems at leawt likely, that the allusion of tlw 
disciples to tJie Baptist may have been prompted by the 
circumstance that the locality was that which had been 
the Bcene of John's labours — of course, in Pera^. This 
chapter will be devoted to the hnefeet aunimary of the 
Lord's Discuursfis in Perasa, previous to His return 
to Jemgalem for the Feast of the Dedication oi" the 

The first of these waa on the occasion of Hib casting 
>8t.Laiu **'^* ^ deuiou,'' and restoring f-pnech to the de- 
"i-" monised; or if, as seems likely, the cure is the 

same ei6 that recui-ded in St, Matt, rii, 122, both sight and 
speech, which hud probably been pai'alyaed. ThiM is one 
of t.he cases in which it is difficult to determine wh&ther 
narratives in different Gospels, with slightly varying 
details, nppresent different events or only differing modes 
of nurration. Wh(?n recording similar events the Evange- 
liatR would natut'iilly te^ll thi'm in much tlie name manner. 
TT^nce it does not follow that two simitar narratives in 







difTrrent Go8pvI« alwftyt! rtiprBtieDt tlie aame erent. 
in tliiB inBt/ince it swma likely. 

It is the Pharieeee' chargi" Uiat He was aa instrumeiit 
of Satan wUicli forms llie main subject of Chriel.'s address, 
•Kt Murk ilis language Wiiig now much more explicit tiiaa 
W-ii foniieply • evtu m, the oppo^-itiun of tbn Pharis^ee 

lud more fdlly rijieiied. Tlie following aro the li-ailing 

,ure8 of" ChriHt's reply: lat. It was utterly iinraason- 

~», Mutt, fl'ble,*' and iiicoiisisi •■nt with tlieir own preraleBee," 

"f-^' BliowiDg tbut thi^ir ascriiJlimi of Satanic agency 

' '"■*'-^ t.o what Christ did wasoiily prompted by hostility 

to His IVretHi. ThiB mode of turning the argument 

inst the arjfuer was peculiarly Hebraic, and it does not. 
ply aiij ast^erticin on the part, of CliriKt. as to whether or 
not the diaciplea of the Phnriaeea ivally cfiet out denioris. 
Mentally we mnst supply — according to your own pro- 
feasious, your dieciptes cast out demons. If bo, by whom 
sre they doin^ it ? 

Bnt Sodly, beneath this logical nrgumentation lies 
spiritual instruction, closnly connected with the late 
teaL-liiiig during the festive days in Jerusalem. It is 
directed against the superatilious and nnspiritual views 
enti?rtain<Ml by Israel alik« of the Kiugdom of evil and of 
that of God. For if we ignore the mural aRpect of Satan 
and l)ia kingdom, all degenerates into the nljsiii'dibiea and 
Hiiperstitiona of the Jewish view concerning deniimB and 
Satan. On the oliiet hand, introduce th« ideas of iriorul 
evil, of the concentration of Its) power in » kingdom of 
which Satan is the representative and ruler, and of our 
own inherent ainfulness, which makes us his subjects — and 
all becomcB clear. Then, truly, can 8atan not cast out 
Satan — elae how could hia kingdom stand? Then, nlno, io 
the costing out of Satiinonly by 'God'a Spirit,' or' Fiiii^cr: ' 
•w 9(-sa ""*^ '■^'^ ''* '^*' Kingduin of God.** Nay, by their 

iown admission, the casting ont of Satan waa part 
of the Work of Mesaiah. Tlien had tJie Kingdom of Ood 
indeed come to thoni — for in this was the Kingdom of 
tiod ; and He was the God-sent Messiah, come not fbi- tli« 
ft glory of Israel, nor for uuythiog outward or iittellectaal, 



but to en^B^r in mHrtuI onuflict wwh moral evQ, and wit 
Safan as it* rfpn.-»cnti*'iv»-. In tJial conlvat f!brist, as Uie 
Slnnij^T, bindet.h ■ the &tforiffoiift'B]»UBiiis buuite (divideth 
hin 8|ioil), and takes from liim tJii- urmour ld whidi liin ^ 
strimgtit jny ('he trusted *) by tuktitg nwav the power of H 
• tfMutt. sin.' Tliifl i» the work o\' tie Mpswiiih— and, ^ 
^ " thurefori-, «Ifto, do one c«,» be iiidiffi-rtnt totvunls 

Him, becanso all, being by nature in « certain rekljon H 
towarda Siiiun, muBt, aimi; tho Miiifiinh had cviumfiived " 
HiB Work, occupy a definite rektionsliip towards 

•" " tJie Clirist Who combnta Stttan.* m 

But it is conceivablp that, a man may not only try U> be H 
paiwiviily, but even be- actively on the enemy's aid(% and 
(luB not by niorBly spoukiug agitiimt tha Christ, whicli 
nii^ht 1» thf witcvuie of ignwrantc or utibrliuf, but by n- fl 
prE!i)»Dtinji,* that as Satanic which was the object, of Ilia ™ 
Coming.' Such perversion represeoitA sin in its 

"■ aljHuluty couipk-IeiitfHs. and for which there can 

be no pardon, wince the ataU^ of iiiiml of which it is tb& 
outooine admits not the posaibilily ol' reiK'UlaiicD, because 
il« •.*»)wiica Iie« in thio. to call that •Sal&nic which is tho 
very object, of rwpuntauce. 

3rdly. ItticogDitioii of the epiritnal, which was tlie oppo- 

site of the siu a^ninat the Holy Ghost, was. as Christ had 

eo lately t-x plained lu -JeniBalem, ooly to be attaiii(?(] by 

Hpiritual kinship with it,'' Tho X.wc mnst be 

"' mil c)f good, if t!ie fruit were t-obo ]L^od ; tr«eand 

fruit would cnries|)nn(] to (>ach other. How theti coold 
these Phariseea ' ^peiik good things,' since the htat« of tlj«i 
heart delorniiiii-d speech and artiou ? Htmcti, a luiin would 
have to yivw ikii rtccoiint ev<?ti of every iille word, ance 
howRver triliing it might appejir %ii olbers or to onest-lf. it 
was really the outcome of 'the lienrt,' and ehowwl the 
inner xtide. And thus, in reality, woidd a man's future 
in jndgniont be dft^nnined by his words ; a coneiuiiioD tha 
more Roleiuu, wlit'n we reim^niber Its bearing on what His 
diseipleti on thp one tide, and the Pbiirift-efl on the oth«r 
iaidoonceruia^ t.'hri^t and tbi- yjiirit of (Jod. 

4thly. Both lugically and niui-jdly tho ^V''t)^ds of Chnst 



7oNC£ffmflro t//b Two KrffaeoMS 347 

Wfre nnanHWerable ; and the Pliai-ispps fell back on theoM 
device of cliailengiiig proof of His DiTine Mission by some 

• St. Matt, risible sign." But this was ati attempt to (thift 
*"■"' t}ie urgiunent from the mura! to tbe pliysiatl. 
It was tije moi-al that was at fault, op rather, wantinj^ in 
thena ; nad no aiiioiint of pliyaical evidence or denioostration 
could liaye supplied that. Hence, as uticler previous similar 

• 8t.ui»i. circmristflDces," He would offi-r them onJy wou 
gigii,that of Jonas the prophet. But wliereas on 

the former occasi on Cliristcbiefly referred to Joiiiia' preiw^h- 
iflg (of repeutance), on this He ratlier pointed to tlie 
allegorical history of Joilhh us the Divine nlfesta+ion of hi* 
Mission. As he appeared in Niiieveli. Ii>- was liiinscif ' a 
•st,Luitt sign uuto the Niuevites ; ' " Hie fact that he liad 
'"■*' been three days and nights in the whale's belly, 

and that thenoe he Imd, so to upeak, Ix^en sent fort.h alive 
to preach in !Nineveli, was evidence t« them that he hsid 
riwen sent of (iod. Ami so would it Iteagain. Af^erthree 
diys and three niyhts ' iu the heart of the earth '—which 
is a He.hraiBni for ' in the eailh ' — would His Resurrection 
Divinely attest to this generation His Mi&eion. The 
Kinevites did not qnestion, but received this attestation of 
Jonaa ; nay, an anthentic rejjort of the wigdoin of Solomon 
had bet*n auffieient to hv'm^ the Qiieen of Shelia from so 
far ; in the one case it wue because they felt, their ein ; in 
the othfr, because she felt need and longing for better 
wisdom than she possessed. But these were the veiy 
eleraeiite wanting in the tnen of this generation ; and so 
hoth Mineveh and the Queen of Shehii ^voiilil stand up, 
not only as mute wilneBSes against, but to eondemn, them. 
For, the great Reality of which the preaching of Jonus had 
l»en only the type, and for which the wisdom of Solomou 

• «. SUM, had heeu only the preparation, had been presented 
to them in f'hrist.^ 

Sthly. And ao. having put aside this cavil, Jesos returned 
to Hisfoniier tfiichirig* concerning the Kiiiiidom 
of Satan and the power of evil. Here, also, it 
must be rpmemhei-ed that, as the words used by our l^ord 
were allegorical and illustrative, they must not be too 

■U. iV-A-l 




fllofiely pressed. As oora|>iin'il witL f.Le of h<'r nntione 
tlie world. IgiwI was like a liousi^ from whicli the detuuu 
(£ idolatry hnd ^oiie out witii ail bis attendants — really 
the ' Beel-Zibl>iil ' whom tLwy diMiid^iii. And then the 
house had been swept of all the foulness and uncl^'aniif'Sa 
of idolatry, and garnblic-d with all nianueT of I'ljunsaic 
aduriitntiatB. Tt<t, all thia while it was k-ft really empty; 
G"d WHS not th-er* ; thu Strongt-r One, Wlio alonp couM 
have reBi8t.'d the Strong' One, held not rule in it. And so 
ihc demon returned to it again, to find the liouae whence he 
Lad cum<? out, swupt and ganiishM iiirleed^ijat also wnpty 
iiiwl defeiicolese. The fully of Isj-ael lay in tLi.?, that, tlioy 
thdiighl of only nue demon — him of idolatiy — BeeUZibbiil, 
with all his foulness. So, to continue the illufilraCive 
laugnafre of Christ, Satan iiame btnk ' with ee'sren other 
Bpi rits iijoie wicked than hitustilf ' — priile, Bulf-righteocsueas, 
anbelipf, and the like, tihe nnmber seven being general — 
and thiiB the last wt ate — Israel without ihefoulnessof gross 
idolatiy, and garnished with all tbe adoninients of Pharisaic 
devotion to the atiidy and pruotit-e of tlie liaw — was rwdly 
worse than bad been the Urst with all its open repulsivo* 

6lihly. Once more wa« the DiBCOurse inttrnipted, thiSi 
time! by a truly Jewiah incidt-iit. A woranu iji tite crowd 
burst into Bxclaniatione about the blef^yedneas of the Mother' 
»Bi. i,ukr who had borne and nurtured such a Son.' 'Jli» 
*'■ *' pbraeeology aeeniB to bave been not uncommon, 

since it is equally applied by the Rahbis to Mosea, and evem' 
to a great Rnbbi. 

And yet aueh praise must bnve been peculiarly nnwel- 
come to Chi'iat, as being the exaltation of only His Ham. 
Personal excellence, intellectual or moral. It quite looki 
away from that which He would present: Hia Work an 
MisMJOD as the Saviour. This pi-ais^e of the Christ tlirougk'l 
Hie Viryiu-MotLer was as unacceptable and unsuitable aa 
the depreciation of the Christ, wbieh really, thongh nn- 
consciously, underlay the lovitig cure of the Vlrgin-Motl' 
when she would have arrested Him in Hie Woi-k. ai 
which (j)erhap8 for this very reason) St. Matthew relatui 


^^V Co.VCmtflf/MC Tf/E Two Kt!*lGD()MS 345 

V the sttiiit? cunnt'cHoii.* Accorilingly. Yhv rmmvpr in both 

■ » 81. Mall,. i:ases in anhstantially the name : to point away 

iu.«.« f^p, His merely Hninaii Personality to His Work 

tand Mission — in the one case: 'Wliosoeyer shall do the 
Will of My Porhr^r WTiioi is in hi:-RV(>n. the same is My 
brotlier, and sister, and mother ; ' in the other : ' Y^a 
rather, bleascil are they that hesif tho Word of God and 
keep it.' 

7tihly. AndnowtliP Di9conr.spdrawa toac!oBP''byaft'eHli 
'BtLnkB application of what, in some oth^r form or con- 
itsi-a« noction. Christ had taught at the ontspt of Hia 
'BUMjiti.y, pn!)!ic Ministry in the ' Henaoii on the Mount-'" 
ii;£i jjjgiifly -fQ understand its prpsent connection, 
we mtist pass over tlie various inten-oplions of Cbtist's 
Discourse, and join tbia as the conclusion to the previous 
part, wliich contained tie main subject. This wiis, that 
spiritual knowledge pre-^upposed spiritual kinsliip. Aa 
^ere put. it is that spiritual receptiveuesa is ever the con- 
'difcion of spiritual ruception. What was the object of 
lighting a lamp ? Surely, that it may give light. But if 
BO, no one would put it into a vault, or under the bushel, 
but on the stand. Should we then expect that God would 
light tlie spiritual lamp, if it be put in a dark vault? Or, to 
tnku an illustration of it fmrn tbtf eye, whit;h, us reganls 
the body, aen-es the Ramo purpose as the lamp in a bousB. 
Does it not depend on tlie state of the eye whether or not 
we have the sensation, emjoymeiit, and bL'nefib of tho light ? 
Let ns therefore take CJire, k'St by phieing, as it. were, the 
lamp in a vault, the light in tie .be really only darkness.^ 
On the other hand, if by means of a good eye the light is 
tranamitti^d throuj;]i the; wholf syHfein, then sliall we be 
wholly foil of ii^bt. And thia, finally, esplaina the recep- 
tuni orrejectiouof Clii-ist : how, in thu words of an Apostle, 
lie game Gonpel would be both a savonr of life unto life, 
and of deatli unto death. 

' III >iiiii(i iiiPOfiir? lilie tho demon wlio returu^il tu HuiI his houM 



(St. Luke ji. S7-M0 

BnTFR as was thp enmity of \h<> PJiariawc party ngainst 
Ji-auM, it bad not yet bo far spreiid, uor lecome k> avowoii, 
M in every place to Bupernedc the ordinary rules of courtesy. 
It i» tbufl tbat wi- vxplaia tluit ioWtntion of a Phariaee to 
the mominp-meftl, which furnisln-d the occaaiott for Uie 
secnnd recoitlfd Peiwaii Discourse of Christ. It is thB 
loat ftddrws to tlip J^ititriitei^ recordiHl in tho Gofipel of 
8t. Uvk^. A siciiilar ta):t nppeal is recorded ia a much 
•«.«-[». '"■'*''' iwrtinii of St. JHaMhew'a Gospel,* only 
>*'"■ that Rt, Luke rE*poi't« )Ji«t xpokvii in Ponca, 

St, Matthew tliut iiittdii in .reniRalem. Tliii* may also 
partly nc«mnt, for the sitnilurity of l&ngiiage in tte two 

What inalcea it almont ct^rtaiti tliut Momo tiuw most 
bave elflpned betwenii this and the previous Discourse (or 
rather that, as we hflicvt-, tht' two ©venta happened in 
ditferetit placeit'). is. ihnt tlie iuvitntion of the Pharisee wag 
to liii^ ' Eiiiiriiinff-iiicid.' We know thiiL thiit took place 
early, imiiiPLliatcly aftpr the return from niornin^prayera 
in the. yynagogiu'. It le, thereforp, scarcely conceivable 
that all that is recorded ui coiiuectioD with the first Din- 
course flhould have occurred hfifore this fii-st rnoal. On thr 
other hnnd. It may wirll have h<H!n, that what i>assed at the 
Pharisee'e table may have some connection with Bometliinp 
thnt hfid occurrL'd jnst Ijefore in the Hynaj^ogue, for we 
winji'cture tliiit it was the 8nbhatli-day. We infer this 
from the circiiniHlBnti! that the invitation was not to tbe 
principal meal, which on n Sabbath 'tlift Lawyers' (nnd, 
indeed, a!! hmiMeholders) would, at least ordiuarily, have in 
thpir own linirn'ii. We can picture to ourselves the scene. 
The week-day fami!y-meal was simple enough, wbetJlCT 
hrsakfaBt or dinner — the latter towards evening, although 

Mrals amung the Jews 


I -Pl. dBt. I 

a&s aJsii in*' mitldlt; of t.he ilitj, but. »lw.i\s ln-fiim 
liii'kncss, in order, a« it was exprpsswl, tliat the 
sight of tiie disjiee by diiylight nii'^Iit Bxcit« t.lie appBtite. 

I Tim Baliyloiiiiin Jt^wn wiTi^ c&iiterit to make a toi'ttl with- 
out, meat ; not so tbe PdlrtMtinijitis. Wit.h the latter tie 
fttvourifce fowl svas ynimg mpnt. ; gxiatf, laralis, calves. Beef 
was not so ofiea iin«d, and slill mori- raivly fowls. Bread 
was regiirded h.!i the matuatay of life, wlthurit which no 
enteftttiiiuit'nt wiip con.'<t(]i*i'ed jis a meiil. Indc>*^d, in a senae 
it constitiiti'il the mi'al. For thft birs.-iiii;; was fipokon 07*ir 
the hrpfid. and this was sii ])7)oai.'d to coverall the rest of the 
lbin.1 that lbUowed,Buch us the vegetables — in 
short, all ihnt mndo np the din&^r, but oot, tlie dessei-t, 
Similarly, the blei^ing apokeu over the wine iucluded all 
otln^r kinds of drink. Otiierwiao it would have boeii iiecea- 
aary t^j |irf>iioiitn.'e a separa.t.e beneilii;tion over pacli different 
article eat^n or <lruuk. lie who neglected the pi-PHPribed 
beiiedictiotiH was rejfardwl as if fie hud eat*u of 
thiugn dedieated to (iod, aince it was written: 
•The earth is the Lord's and the fiilneas ttin'of.'' 

Let lip suppose the guests n-asernbled. To such a niom- 
ing-nieal they would not bo sumnintied by slaves, nor be 
sived iu Buch solemn stale as at feasts. First., i-ai'h 
Id ohnerve, as a rL-Ugious rite, ' the washing of haiidw.' 
Next, tha head of the house woald cut a piece from the 
whole loaf — on the Sabbafli there were two loaves^ — and 
epeak the blessing. But this only if the company reclined 
at table^ as at dinner. If they sat, as pr-oimbly always at the 
early meal, each would spe»k the benediclion for hini.self. 

»The same rule applied In regard to fiie wine. 
At the eiitvrtfliiinieat of this Pharisee, att indeed gene- 
rally, oar Lord oniitlwl the prescribed 'washing; of bands' 
before the tni'itl. But as this rite was in itself iiididereji t., 
1 He. must hav? had some df^finitft object, which will he ex- 
[plaioed in the sequel. 

In regard to tbe position of the guests, we know tliat 

kibe uppermost aeats wer& occupied by the Eabbis. The 

Palmud Ibrin iilAles it in this manner' That the worthiest 

[lies down lij-st, on his left side, witL his feet stretcUiug 


/bsus tur Messiah 

bnck. If there are two 'ciiehions' (divans), t.lie next 
worthiest ivcliiies above liirn, at his ifll hjiud ; if there are 
Uireo cushions, the thirtl wort.liii.'st; lies Leiow biin wlio liail 
hiin down first (nt hia right.), si* tli/it thp chief person is in 
the middle (between the worthiest, piiest at hia left and tli« 
less worthy one at his rijjht haud). The wat^r befor* 
eating 19 tii'^l liauded to the \v(}rt.}Li<-st, and 90 iu rogard to 
the washing after meat. But if a large number art- present, 
you begin afV«r dinner with the least worthy, till yoa come 
to the last five, wbeii the worthiest in the company wasbw 
hid hands, and the ot.lier fnnr after him. TLe pleats being 
thuH arrangi'd, the head of the house, or tip chief person at 
tnble, epeaks the bleasing, and then cut* the hreftd. Then, 
generally, the bread was dipped into salt, or sometliiiig 
salted, eti(jni'tte di^mimdiug that where tburt- w*re t.wu 
they should vn\\t oub lor the other, but not wlvere there 
werf three or more. 

The wine was mixed with water, and, indeed, some 
thought that the benediction should not be pronounced till 
the water hud been added to the wine. Various vintages 
are mentioned : amon^ th^m a red wine of Snrori, and a 
black wine. Spiced wine was made with honey and pepper. 
•M lo d Another mixture, chiefly Dsed for invalids, coii- 
■i> Bt. »iMic sisted of old wine, water, and bal^nin ; yet aiiotht;r 
**■** was ' wine of myrrh.** Palm wine was also in 

oee, and foreign drinks. 

As regarda thH various kinds of grain, meat, fish, and 
fi'iiita nspd by the Jews, either iu thi'ir nn.tmal etate W 
preserved, almost everj-thiog kiinwn to The anrient world 
was embraced. At feaat» there was an introductory conrae, 
followed by thi? diuner itself, which finitfhiil with dessL-rt. 
OonsiHtingoC piclvled olives, radislics nnd k-Muee, and fmitK, 
ninoug which even preserved giui^er from India is men- 
tioned. E^sh was a favonnte dish, and never wiinting at a 
RabbfttJi-maal. It was a anying. that both salt and water 
should be used at every meal, if he*dth waw to be presftrved.^^™ 
Very differ«nt weie the meaia of the pnor — lo('mit.8, e^ai^| 
or a aoiip nindu of vegetables: the poorer still would 8atw&^^ 
their hunger with bread utid chetstc or bruud aud friiit. 




At meftls tbt* rak* of etiqnette were strictly observed, 
especially ns rej^'urdeil (be sage?. According t.o somo, it 
was not good brcediog- to speak while eating. The learned 
atid moHt huiioured occupied iiob only tbe chief pl^M^s, but 
were 80tuetii»e» distinguished by a double portion. Ac- 
iug to Jewish etiquette, n, gii-ist BhuuliI conionii in 

frytUing to hia host, even though it were unplcasnnt. 
Altboiigb hospitfdity was tbe grufttewt nud moat priKocI 
eocial virtue, wliick, to use a Rabbinic expreBsion, lui^ht 
make every home a sauctuary and every table an altar, an 
DJibiddeu guest, or a. guest who brought another guest, was 
pi'overbialiy nu unwelcome npitnritiuu. Sompitimes, byway 
of aelf-righieoiisuoss. the poor *vere brought in, and the 
lioat part of the meal ostentatiously given to thtira.' After 
dinner, ibeforiimlitiee concerning liAndwaiabing aad prayer 
already describt»d were gone tlirough, and then frequently 
aromutio spices bomb, over wbicb a special beoediction 
wns pi'oiiouiK'ed. We have only to add, that on Sabbuths 
it was deemed a religious duty to have lliretj lueaU, and Ui 
pi-ocure the best that, money could obtain, even though one 
were to save and fast for it all tb« week. Lastly, it wan 
regarded as a xpecial oblig'atioa and honour to entartaia 

I We have no difficulty now in nndenitAnding what 
paemed at the (able of the Pharisee. When the wati-r for 
purification waa presented to Him, Jesus would either 
tefase it ; or if, as seems more likely at a moming-ineal, 
Mtoli guesti repaired by himself for the prescribed purifica- 
tion, He would omit to do so, and ait down to meat without 
this formahty. No one who knows the stress which 
PbarLsaisni laid on this rit« would nrgue thar Jesns might 

I have conformed to the practice. Indeed, the 
Was long and bitt«*r bGtwt!en the Schools of Sbantmai and 
Hillel on such a point as whether the hands were to he 
washed before the cup was filled with wine, or after that, 
and where tbe tnwel waa to be deposited. A religion 
' which spent its eiwrgy on such trivialities must have 
lowered the moral tone. All fcJie more that Jesns insisted 
H ' For ruUer deialb aee > Life aud Timeo, Jtc.,' vol. U, p. 20U. 



/lisus THE Messiah 

»i «ini(^Hly, «» till* Rulwtance of FTis t»«ehing. on llint 
comipt.ion of our nature which .ludiiism ignoivd, aiiti no 
tliat spiritual ptirificntion which wit¥ nr^idfnl for the reccjH 
tion of Hi» iloci riiit-. would He ptiWicly aiirl openly srt 
iMidf onliiin]i(r*-s of man wliich divei+ed thonglit« of [jurii? 
into que«l.iors of tJic mo»l, childish chanit-tcr, On the 
other hand, we criu niso undenrtAnd what hiftor thoughts 
mast have fiIli-(] the mind of the PhariBee, whose guest 
Jesuti was, whfn he obeprved His neglpct of the cherished 
rite. It wiis an insult ta himself, n deiiuuci; of Jewish 
Ijftv, ft revolt nfTftiust the mnst rhcrished trnditiong of the 
Syuagojfwe. llemeinbpriiig that a Pharisee ought not tO 
Bit dotrn t/> a mi<nl with such, he iiiif^ht ovon fe^l thftt be 
should oot htive aslced Jeeus to his tnhle. 

Whnt our Lord snid on that occasion will Iw considfrfd 
iu detail In another phice, Siiflice it liere to rnnrk that 
He first exposed the mere extentaliwiTi of the Pliarisaie ]jtw 
of piirificatiou. to the alter ignoring of tlie higher need of 

• tit. uk> inward pnritj-, which lay at the fonndatjon of all.' 
il» jf ^p primnnr origin of the onlinunce wn* to 
prevent the <>ating of sacred offerings in defilement, were 
t1ie!*e outward offerings not a aymhol of the inward sacri- 
fice, and wns then- nut un inward defilement as well nil ihe 

outward?'' To consecrate wlm,t we hud U> God 
in Hie poor, inyteiid of welfiahly enjoying it, would 
not, indeed, be a purifieation of tlisiu (for anch was not 
needed), bnt it would, in the truest sense, be to eat (lod's 
offimngB in cleannees.* We mark here a pro- 
ff reee and a development as compared with the 
former occnsion when J^'9M3 bftd pnbliely spoken on the 
< SI. Mint same subject.'* Fomierlj Ue had treated the 
"'■ '"• ordinance of tht? EHers as a matter not hiiidinj^ ; 
now He showed how this externalism mililnted ngningt 
thoiights of the interniil nnd Rpiritiml. Forniei'ly He had 
shoxvn how tiwlitionnliBm came into conflict with the 
wriltan Lftw of God: now. how it aiijjt.'rB(aled the first 
principled which nnileilay that Law. rurmerly K<- had 

• riLMxi, '"'li dottii the principle that defilement r.inie not, U fi^oui wilJiout. itiwai-da but from within outwardaf* 

• tar. ta 

• IPT. 11 

' vot. 13 


now He uiifukk-d iIub bit;h»(t prtndple that, higher conse- 
cration iinprtrfi'd purity, 

Thei sum*' prinripie, iinlred. won III apply luulhtr things, 
BUch as to the Ilabbinic law of iit.hing. At tht' sjiini^ time 
it may have Iwbn, as alivady auggesteil. thai stmif^thing 
which \w\ pn>vi(iufi!y bik'-n phice, or was the aiibjoct of 
Converftfition at tahh, hfwl jjivpti ncfAsion (or tlifi fVirthcr 

• Hi,Lak* remarka of Cliriht.' Thus, the Fliiii-iotM! rtiny 
"■** have wi si led t^i convey his rt:lmke of Christ hy 
referring to thp Bnbject of tithing'. Aiifl sitcli covert, mode 
of rebuking was verj' comiiion amongf the .(pwh. It wum 
rewarded as utti^rly dotiltiif^ to eat of that which had not 
been tithed. Inderd, the three distinctions of n I'hiinsee 
w&re: unt i:o niaTtf ubi' nor to partake of aiiytlutig- tliat 
had not been tithed; to observe the laws of purification ; 
and, as A 0011 seq (It! nee of t he«e two, to ahntain from familiar 
iiitej-coui-se with all iiou-l*lmritiieeH. Tliissepamtiou formed 

the jrrniiud of tlieir elaini to diBtinetioii.'* It wil I 
be nollend thiU it ia exsiclly to these three thiii^(< 
our Lord wIvertM ; so that these sayings of HIh are not. 
as might seeai, uocomiected, but iu the atricteat interiiiil 
relationship. Our Ijord shows how I'hai-Jsaisiu, as rogardeil 
;^ie outer, wtis coniiecl.ed with the opposite tendency as rv- 
lled the inner man : outward pnritication with ignorance 
of the need of tbnt inward purity, which coiisi.'sted in 
God-conspcration. and with the negh*ct of it; strictnfsN of 
ontwai'd titliing with ignornnee anil neglect of thepn]icipl« 
which nnderlay it, viz. the ackaowledpnent of (iod's ripht 
over mind and lieart (judgment, find (he love of God); 
wlule, lastly, the I'harisaic pretence of Bcparatiuii, anil 
consequent chilm tu dint incdiuu, isfmed only in pride and 
self-asaertinn. Thns, tried by its owa h^stw, Pharii>aiHm 
foiled. It wfis hypocrisy, although that word was not 

• suLuke mentioned till idterwards ; " and that both nc}{a- 
*"■' lively and positively: the concealnipnt of what 
it wns, and the pretension to wliat it was not. And the 
Pharisaism which pretended to the liighewt purity was 
really the greatest impurity — tlie tlefili-ment of graves, 
Only covBred up not tu be aeen of men ! 


Jesus tub Messiah 

It was at thi* point that out* of 'tlic Scrilvs* at tnT? 
broke ID. Hnmi-iiilierin^ in wiint wmtciiipt some of tlii 
learned lieltl tlie ignornnt. hif^itry orttie Pharisees, we 
understand that he might have li^t^ied with secret enjoy- 
mont to denuticiiitioiiN of their ' folly.' As the common 
Baying had it, ' thr sitly piotist.' '» womnn Phan'seR,' anj 
the fself-uiflicced) ' blows of Pharisaism.' were nmong the 
plagUPK of Hff. But., a« the Scribe rightly reianrked, byi 
attacking, not rat-rely their practicH bul their principl 
tli« whole ay BttitD oi'triwlitionnlism.whieh theyrepreaentt^d, 
■ ikLiik* "'^ coademned.* And so the Lord osaureill 
"•" irienut it. The 'Scribea' were the exponen 

of the traditional law : those who bound and looked in 
Israel. They did bind on h«nvy biirdi.-ne. but they never 
loosed oae; oil the>se ^riefous burdens of traditiooalism 
they laid on tlin tn«>r people, but not tlit* Hlighi^^t effort 
, did they niabn tio mnorc anv of thetu.'' IVadi-j 

tion, the ordinnncws that hud coirif. dovm — tlieji 
would not iHoni) nor put nfirft ttnything, but t-laim mi'" 
proclaim all had come down from the fathers »s 
eocrcd iuliHritancc to which they cluiig. So bi- it ! 
tb^-m be judytid by tlieir own worde. The fathera lind? 
miirilfred the prophets, and they built their sepulchred j 
that also was a trndition — tJiat of jjuilt which wnnld bo 
avi-iigi.iil. TrnditiuD, Itaming, exclusiveneas — alas! ttwii»| 
only taking away from tLf poor the key of kiiowledgt 
and while they th^mselveB eutered not by ' the door* itt 
the ICingdom. they hindered those who would havp goa 
in. And truly so did they provi- that theii-s was ilie ih 
herit-anre, the ■ tradition,' of guilt in himiei-ing 
and bauiahiiig the Divine teaching of old, and 
murdering it« Divine mB&spngerB." 

Tliere wa.-* torrible tratli and solemnity in what Jestia 
spake, and in the Woe which lie denounced on tlieuu 
Jiiit after such denunciations, tke entertainment iu the 
Pliariaet^'s house must have b^en broken up. WitI 
what feelings they parted from Him fipiiciirH irotn 

' And when He waa come out from tht^oici', th« 8cn< 




To THf. Djsciplss 


rend the Pharieoes began to press upon Him veheineutiy, 

' and to provoke Him to speak of many things ; laying wait 
for Qiiu, to catch somethiDg out of JJiH Mouili.' 



(St. Like lii. l-xiii. 17-> 

The record of Clirist'e luat waj'iilug to the Pharisees, and 
of thu ft^IiiigB of murderous hate whici it called forth, is 
followed by usutnuiaiy of Christ's teadiingtoilisilisuiples. 
The tone is slUI that of wamiag, but entirely diderent 
fi-om that to tlitf I'hariseea. It is a waiiiiug of eiii that 
tlireatfiiiid, uot of judtfinent that awaitwl ; it was for pre- 
Vi^ution, not in d..-uunciatioii. The same teaching, bi.*CiUise 
piompttrd hy the same cauBi«, had been, mostly delivered 
also oil other occiisioas. Yet there are notable, though 
Beeniingly slij/ht, divergeocea, uccunntpd for by Ihe differ- 
ence of tlie writfi's or of the circiitiiatanct«, and whicli 
mark the iudcpeadeQce of the narrativps. 

1. The first of these Diaoourses" uatiimlly comifots 

9t. Lake itself with what had passed at the Pha,riBee'a 

""■^^ table, an account of which must anon have spread. 

Althoagli the Lord is reported aa having addressed the 

;6aine lan^aage chiiftly to the Twelve when sending thora 

oii their lir&t Miesioa,'' we mark cbaracterialic 

variatioiiB, The address — or pi-obably only its 

inmroary — is introdneeJ by tlie following uotice of the 

'circnmstftneee ; ' Lu the mean time, when llis many tbou- 

eandaof the people wer« gathered together, so tJiat thej 

trode upon paeli nther. He licgau to say to His diaoiples : 

" Fii'st [^n.bovp all], beware of the leaven of the Phariaeea, 

■which is hypocrisy.'" There is no uetd to point out the 

connection between this wuiruing and the denuncintiou 

of PhariBaism Mid traditionaiism at the Pharisee's table. 

I Although the word 'hypocrisy' bad not be*^n apoken 
there, it was the suin aud aabsumce of Uia ooottiutloa 


Jesus the MmsMJ/ 

fhiit PlmriKaism, wliile preU-ndiug It* what it wna uot, 
oonoeiiletL what it wiis. And it was tliis «Lich, like • leuven,' 
pervaded the wliole system of PliariBaigiu. Not that as in- 
diviiiiiulH thi*y Ktnv all hj[K3<:rites, but that thu syblviu wa* 
IiyjMwmy. And biTL^ it in clinrut-ti-rJstic ol' l^lijinniiisin, 
that llnbbinic Hebrew has Qot eveo a vrurd pqiiivalent 
to the term ' hy]>ueri»y.' The only expression used refont 
either to fluttdrj- of. or pi-etence before wen. not to that 
uiiwiii.iciiiUR hypocri:^" tiawarils (.luit which unr Ixird no 
truly descritxfl as ' the Wven ' that pervaded all the PLari- 
eeea said aud did. 

After all, hypocriay was only self-deception." 'But 
• St. Lnko ibt-TP in Tiothing covi'i'ed thul. cJiall not Im re- 
*"■ *■ vealed.' Hence, what they had said in the dark- 

ness vroultl he I'evealed. and u-hat tliey hiid ttpokcii alxtut 
in \ha stiurif-rooiiiH would he pfottaiinKl on the housetops. 
Xor shonJd frjir intiufiice rhfim.'' Man could 
only kill the body, but God hfld body and soul. 
And OS fear was fiMliah, so was it nevedli^^s id view of that 
Providence which watched over even the meanest of God's 
crt'al.uvf^s.' Rather let thfiii. Id the impending 
htiug^le with the powers of Uii* «ijrld, rise lo 
(jonsiiiuuHnoHB of itM full iiiipoit. And this cont^-st woa not 
iHily ojipuHitiuii to Christ, but, in it* inmoat esaence, blas- 
phemy against the Holy Ghost. Therefore, to saccumb 
unplieil the deepest spiritual danger,^ Nay, hut 
let them Lot he sijjpi-ehensive ; llieir ackuowledg- 
nieat would he uot only in the iiiture. I'lven now, in the 
Lioui' of their danger, would the Holy tihowt help thetii, 
and give them an answer before their ttccuspi-? and judjrcs, 
whoever they iiii}^ht be — Jews or Geaitiles, Thus, if they 
fell victims, it would be with the knowledge — not by neglect 
— ot'theb' Father ; in their own hearta before the Anjiels, 
before men. would He erive tpstimonv for those 

•W.ll, 1! , ,,. ., ^ 

who were His witnesses.* 
2. The second IJinconrae recorded in this connection 
WM oi-cat*ionod by a requcBl for judicial interpoBition on 
, ilu- pfii-i of Ohridt. 'riii.-i He auswerfd by a 

J'aiuhle/ which will be ttxplaiucd in coajuDcdoa 

• m.4 

• 'V. H, J 

i T*. B-Ui 

» vcr.33 

To Tf/fi. Disciples 359 

tKi* r&h^r Parablt^s of tlint period. Ths outcome ut 
Pai-ablt^, a» tu the UDCtrLttinly of ibis lift-, ttiid tie 
ooiiaeqamt folly of b.'inf» bo cai'sfnl for this world while 
neglectful of Gud, led Him to make warning applicatiou 
'lit. Luke tn Hia Puni'an iliKciplea.'' Only ln-rti the iieg^~ 
alLn-Ji [^j^.^ injuriclioii t.iiat ]n'tic<«:l«il tlif Piirtililo, ' In— 
rware of covL'tousuefis.' is, whed luldressvtl to ■ the dist-i pies,' 
carried huck to its jxjsitive underlying principle : tudieiriiss 
nil anxiety, even for tlie neceistiriea of life. learuing from 
the birds and the flowei-e to have absolute faith and trust 
in God, and to labour for only oua thing — the Kingdom 
of God. But even in this thfy were not to be careful, 
but to litive abwihit*! fiiith and trust in tlieir 
Fathur, 'Who was well pioaaed to give' tJiom 
'the Kingdom/'' 

With but alight variutiona the Lord had used the sama 

language, even aa Ithe wauie admonition hiul been nwdwl, 

lit the beginning of Hin GaUIean Ministry, in the Serraun 

'Bi.Uiitt. on the Mount.'' IVrhajis we niiiy here also 

vL;tft-sa regard the idhision to the spriugiug tlowera as a 

mark of timi). Only, whereas in Oalilee this would mark 

the hi-gioning of spring, it would, in the more favoured 

cliiiwit-e of cdilJiiti i»arts of Pt-ribu, iudicate the beginning 

of Deceuiher, about: the time of the Feast of the Dedication 

of the Tetnplii. More important, perhaps, is it to note, 

* St. Luke that t he expreaaion ^ i^eadered in the AiithoriBed 

i"'-^" anj Kevised Vereiona, ' neither be ye of doubtful 

I mind,' ivnlly means, ' neither be ye uplifted.' in the aensy 

i • Oomii. of not aiming, or seeking after great thingB." 

jw. .1.. .pj^g contest here shows that the term must refer 

. to the disciples coveting gri-at things, since only to this 

, the remark could apply, that the Gentile world sought 

Biich things, but, that, our Father knew what was reiiily 

iiet'dfu! for us. Of deep importance is the tiiial consols' 

I iion. to dinuiisa all care and anxiety, since the Fatht-r was 

pleased to give to liiis ■ little flock ' the Kingdom, The ex- 

I pression ' flock ' carries ub hack to the language which J<-mu» 

had held ere parliug fi-oni Jerusalem.' Hence- 

'iwjwuufc j-Q^.^jj (jjjy deaiguation would mark llis pflOple, 

The g-pniTftl 
espn-aw-d by 

260 /fsus the Messiah 

These admonitions, alike as agaiuet covetouaneae, and 
as to nbaolate trust and a self-surrender Co God, which 
would count all loss for tiie Kingdom, nre finally set forth, 
aliku in their prt-smt appliaitiou «iid their ultimate and 
permnnent principle, in wh.ii, we regard as the concluding 
•stuu part of this Discourse." Its first aeiiteuce, 'Sell 
■n.i].M that ve have, and g^ro alms,' which is only re- 
corded by St. Lute, indicates not a general principle, but 
ifa ftpplipation to tJiat particnlar period, when the faithful 
disciple required to follow the Lord unencumbered by 
•Ootrin worldly cares or poF-seKEions.'' 
Bj-Mijw. priociplo nnderlying it is that 
• li^.Tti. St. Paul,*' and fiunlly rr^eolvts itsflf into this: 
thiit the Christian should have as not holding, 
and UBP what he has not for self nor bIti. but for neces^ty. 

3. Closely coniiecteid with, jmd yat. qiuU* distinct, from 
the previous DiscoursPf is that about the waitbig attitude 
of the disciplfs m regard fo their Mast4?r, The Diecoursc 
iteelf consists of three parts and a practical npiibcatiou. 

(1) jTAe Jivt<:vj>\6» rijt Sr^i'/mh in the alumcfi of ikeir 
^far^tcr:^ Ihnir clutij iiTid ihtir rcfcard." This 
part, containing' what wuiild be so aeedfnl to 
theee Pera-nii clieciples, is peculiai- fo St, Luke. 
The Master ia supposed to be absent, at a wedding, so 
that the exati time of his return could not be known to 
the i^ervants who wait? d at home. In these circamstancea, 
they should hold theinBelvcs in readiness, that, whatever 
hour it inig-lit be, they should he able to open the door at 
the first knocking. Suth togeme^-B and dfvotiou wf service 
would naturally meet its reward, and the Master would, in 
tarn, consult the comfort of those who bad not allowed 
themselves their evening-meal, uoi' Inin dowTi,but watcbed 
for him. Hungry and weary as they were from tlieir 
zeal for him, he wuuld now, in turu, minister to their 
personal comfort. And this applied to 8ervajit» wlio 80 
watched — it mattered not how long, whether into the 
second or the IhinJ of the watches into which the night 
waa divided. 

The ' Parable ' now paaseB into another aspect of the 


«S1. Liik.i 




case, wiich is ag^in ref<?rr<Ml to m thtj last Disoourses of 
• sbMnti Christ.' Conversely — suppose tlie other case, 
nir, 4!, « of people aleepiag : the house might be broken 
into. If oue bad known the hunr when the thii*f would 
come, ali'ep woaid not hiivi" been inJulgeJ in; but it it* 
jnat this uncertainty iini3 suddenness which should keep 
the people in the house (^ver on their wsitch till Chiiot 
► fiuLuk. oame." 

rit,att.« jt nraa at this particular point that a question 

of Petor interrupted the Discourse of Christ. To whom 
did this ' PiwabI© ' apply about ' tbe good inan ' and * tho 
servants * who were to watch : to the Apoetiies, or also to 
all? We can nnderstand how Ptter might entertain the 
jCTvieh notion, that the Apostles wonid come with the 
Mastor from the cintriage-sKpper, rather than wait for Hia 
return and work while waiting. It is to this that tho 
reply of Chriat refers. If che Apostles or olhere are tqIlts, 
it is as t'tewai'da, and tlieir rewtu'd of fuitliftil und wi^o 
Btewardship will be advajiee to higher admin ii<ti-utian. 
But as stewards they are servants — eervants of Christ, and 
ministering servants ui regsird to the other and general 
aervaiite. What becomes tbem In this twofold capacity 
is faithfulni'tiH to the absent yt-t iwvr near Lord, and to 
tht'ir work, nvoiding on the one hand the maatoi'hilnesa 
of pride and of harshness, and on the other the self- 
dGgradntion of conformity to evil mannefB, either of which 
wonId entail sadden and condign pnuitthmeut in the Budtleii 
and righteous reckoning at His appearing. Tht- ' Parable,' 
tlierelbre, alike as to the waiting and the reckrining, 
applied to ivork for Christ, aa well as to personal relation- 
Bliip towards Him. 

In thia Peraean DiBCOurae, as reported by St. Luke," 

*st,Lni:e tliere now follows what muet be regarded, not 

i^«-«; indfud as a ftirther answer to Peter's inquirv', 

SkUuii. but as referi'ino; to th-e question of the rL-latioa 

'■ between speria! work and general diBcipleship 

■ wliich had be«n raised. For, in one sense, all disciples 

B are st*rvanta, not only to wait, but to work. As TL-^garded 

I those who, like the profegsed stewoids or labourers, knew 


Jssus TUB Mess/Ait 

tlirtii* work, but neitlur 'made rejidy,' nor did accordit 
1o Hi« Will, Uiiir [tuiiishinfiit nud loss (wlicro tho lili 
trativp figure of ' many ' ftnd ■ few stripes ' iiiiisl not be too 
cloGfly pr'-HBud) would naturally W greater than tliat <A 
tliL-m ivho knew nul — iliun^b tUis nlso iavolvrg guUt — 
that Hit'ir IauhI !iiw1 iiuy will hiwards tJu-iii, tiuit is, any 

• w. hiu "'W'^' *"""■ til*"!!!.' 

xiL^r.iit ^2) In the ubBeiiceof tlieir jVIasirer! Apmod 

this of wurk, an well as uf wailing; w jieriod of trial 
•liiui}' Wfve. alflo the two opening verses, in 
their connection with thr eubjfft-mattej" under 
the fifGt h«iwi of tbis DiBTOurBe, but cspfciaily with the 
cl'ising i*eii(fncv9 iiljinil wurk fur the Maalf r, urti pwuliar 
ti(> St. Liikc^'s narrativt-. The Ctmrch bad a work to do in 
His ubscncf — tliu woo-k for which Ue had come, lie 
' cnuie to tfiht lii'L* on earth' — that firt* which was kindttKl 
when the RUen Saviour sent ihtt Huly Ghut^t, a:id of »vliicli 
thy t^nyiu'B uf firw wwb tho Ryinlml. Tliat fire must thi>y 
B[iroail : tlii.s was tbi: work in which, ns disciples, each one 
must talci- part." Again, in that llnptii^ina] 
Af^ony ol' His they alsu must be pre|jared Xo 
Khari^ It via&jire: burning np, as well as purifying and 
giving light. And here it wan in placo to ivpL'at to His 
Feneau di&cipk-B the pi-etlictiou ftln-ady addressed to the 
•o(, Mttti.i, Twelve wbi-ii -going on their Mibsiun,'' ^\» to 
"■** the Cfirtain and necpsaary trials connected witi 

carrying ' thu fire ' which Christ, bad caafc on earth, even 
to tho burning up of the closBHt bonds of associutiun and 
._ , , kiufchip,' 

S11.W-M {3l ThuB fiir the disuipKrs. And now for ita 

apjihoiitirin t-o 'tin- uniltitudi's. "^ Let ibom not 
think tJiat all ihia only concerned the diaciplps. Weiie 
tJiey an Uiudtxl as not ' to know how to interpret the 
«wr.M time''— they who had no difficulty in iulrrpreti- 
»irrr.a7 jng jt when & cloud rose from the sea, or th« 
sirocco blew troni thi- Kuuth?* Why then did they not 
of tbcniselvps judge what was fitting and necesBary, io 
vii^w of the gntberiuj; t«iiipt;el' V 

What was it ? JSven what He had told th eni Iwtbrs in 





•SL Unit. 




for iJif circutijBlancts were the aame. What 
coinnitjtt BfUfii; luul coiuinoii prudtiuco would 
dictJvli^to (TviTj- onowUom lus nocii»«r or crfttlitor 
halcrf hffovw the magistrate: tio come tn lui spT't^nient 
with him bfCove it waa too late, bi-'fore scEli'iice had been 
t>Bt,i.ti]ie piuiiuiiiia'd urul csi'cuti.-d.'' Althuiiffh thi' ilius- 
lii. M,aLi trfitiwi must not b>' prnespd, its geiK'iivI mcftiiing 
would be (ho moi-e readily uiidt^i'stood that, there wa« a 
similar U^nbhinic proverb, although with rery difltrfnt 
practical up[ilicatiou. 

4. B&»i(li'S thi'pi* Discourses, two evf-iits arp n-f^orrL-d 
boftire Christ *e d^eparture to the ■ FeBflt of the Dedii;iiti(ju.' 
Kiich of these led to a brief Diticoiii'so, ending in a 

The fivsl records two circutustaiicos not mentioned by 
th« Jewish liistoriiiii J'mii'lni/^, iior in any other historical 
iioticL' of tho time, either by Rnbbiiiic dp other writwre. 

It iLiipcare that, then, or soon aiienvai'dR, sonie pereoiis 
told Christ nboiit a number of Hi& uwu Galilusms, whom 
Pilat-e had ordt-redto be out down, wwe iuffr, in the Teiii- 
•6t. tuko I'lf- while eiigTiged in ofFwing' tlieir Bacrifictw;' 
*i>i-^^ so thtit, in the pictorial laugtinge of the I'liist, 
their blood had niitif:<h-d with that of tlieir saeritices. 
Cleurly, their narratittii of this event must be connected 
with the preceding DiscuurHe of JeanB. lie bad asked 
thi^iu whether they cotilJ not discern the signa of tlio 
terrible national storm tliat was jiearing-. And it was in 
reference to this, a» we judge, that they repeated this story. 
To nnderstnnd their object, we muat attend to the anawt-U' 
of Christ. It is intendtid to refute the idea, that, the^e 
GaJileauR had in this been visited by a apecial punishment 
of some special sin against (Jod, 

Very piobiibly thew (laUK'^aDB were thus niuidered 
because of their real co- suspected conneclJon with the 
Katioiialiat niorement. of which Galilee was the focus. 
It is an if thi'^ie Jewa had said to JesuH : Yes, signs of the 
'timee »ud of the coiuing storm ! Tbeiw Galileiiua of yours, 

Jonr own counti-ytueii. involved in a kind of Pseudo- 
[vesiunic uiuveuieiit, a kind of ' aigm of the times ' rising, 







* T*. jo-ir 

Bomething like that towwds wliicli you want U9 to look — 
was uot Uit'ir death a condign puniNhnieut ? Tlti^ latter h 
infi^renro ihi-j did uot. express in wonln, but inipii<;d in ^M 
their narrnrion of the fact- But tJie Ijord read tJieir 
thoughts and refuted their reasoning. For thifl purpose 
«(n.tiiiu He aJducL'd auothw instance,' wht-n a tower at 
"'"* thr' Siloam-PiKjl hud fiillvn on vighrpeu pcT»oii» 

aud killed them, ptrhaps in connectinn with that con- 
structiun of an aqueduct into Jerusalem by Pilate, which 
called forth on the part of the Jews the violent oppo^tioQ 
which the Eoumn wo terribly avtnged. Ab good Jows 
tbey would pi-obably think that the fall of the tnwer, 
which had buried in its ruins these eighteen persons 
who were perhaps eagngt-d in the building of that cursed 
Btructure, was a just judgment of God! For Pilat* had 
used fur it the Bocred money which hiid been dnrotod to 
Temple-purposes, and njany there were who perished in 
the tumult caused by the Jewish resistance to this act of 
profanation. But CiirLst ar^od that it was as wrong to 
infer that Divine judgment had overtaken Hie Gahleaa 
couritrjmen, aa it woald be to judu^e that the Tower of 
Siloam hitd fallen to punish ihc^" Jerugaleuiites. Not 
one party only, nor another; not the suppoeed Measianic 
tendency (in the shape of a national rising), nor, on the 
other hnnd, the ojjpoaite direction of absolute BubmisBJon 
to Roman doaiinatiou, was in fault. The whole nation 
wns guilty; and the coming storm, to the sigiiH of which 
}Je had pointed, would destroy all, unless thvre were 
spiritual repentance on the part of the nation. 

Having thus answered the implied objection, the Lord 
next showed, in the Parable of the Fig-tree,** th« 
need nnd urgency of national repentance. 
The second event recorded by St, Luke in this oonneo 
tion' recalls the incidents of the early Judfraui' 
and of the Galilean Ministry.* In Jerusalem there 
is neitJier ren.eoning uor rebuke on the part of 
the Jews, bnt absolute persecution. There also 
tJie Lord enters on the higher exjmHition of Hia 
octiona, niutiveti, aiid Mission.' In tiulileo thera 

Tub Woman wiTU a ' Sfnir op iNpiteMiTv' 3*5 

te questioning, an J cimaln^ intrigue against. Hitii on tho 
parfr of the .ludiP&ns who dogged His steps. Bnt while no 
violence can be nttempted against Him, the people do not 
• Bt SUM. venture ojienly to take Hia part." But in Per>ea 
lU. 1-11 ^g gj^ coarroiit.ed by the clumsy zeal of h country- 
Archiaynagogoa (Chief Ruli^r of a 8yDagogue), who is 
very angry, but not very wise ; who admits Chiiat'a healing 
IKJwer, and does not dare to atKick Him directly, bat in- 
stead rebukes, oot Christ, not even the woman who had 
been healed, but the people who witnessed it, at the same 
time tilling them to come for henltng on other days, not 
perceiving, in hia narrow-minded bigotry, what this 
admiii^oa implied. 

Little more r^uires to be added about this incident ia 
♦one of the Synagogues' of Parteft. Let us only bri*'tty 
recall the scene. Among those present m thin Synugogtio 
had betm a poor woman, who for eighteen years had heen 
a exjfTerer, as we Ifnarn, throngh demoninc nj^ticy. In fact, 
she was, both phy.iiicaily and morally, not siek, but sickly, 
and most tmly was hers ■ a Bjijrit of infirmity,' Bo that ' sh** 
was bowed together, and could in no wise lift herself up.* 
For we mark that hers wns not demoninc po»iesdiou at. (lU 
— and yet, though she. "had not jielded, Hhe had not t-ffi'c- 
tiially resisttid, and so whe was ' bound' by 'a spirit of 
infinuity,' both in body and Boid- 

We recognise the satna ' spirit of infirmity ' in the cir- 
cumstances of her healing. When Chriet, aeeJng her, 
called her. she oame; when He auid unto her, ' Woman, 
thou host btien loosed from thy picklineHB.' aliewvj-^unboand, 
and yet in her weaklineia she answered not, nor atraighteur-d 
herself, till Jesus ' laid His Hands on her.' and so strength- 
ened her in body and aoul, and then she waa immediately 
' made Blraight. and glorified God.' 

Aa for the Archiaynagogos, we have, as alreiidy hinted, 
BTieh ohiiructeristic portraiture of him that we can almost 
sei' him ; coQfu.^iH], in'f?aoUit6. perplexerl, and very angry, 
bnatling forward and ecokling the people who had don« 
notliioo', yet not venturing to silence ths woman, now no 
longer infirui^far iesH to reprove the ^veai Rabbi, Wlio 



tf«I ju8l ilftiw Riicli li • f^lorlinjs tliiiij?,' but- nfit-akiiiK ftt 
liim tUn>Q^li Miow who hwl bp<^ti liie aur^undecl ei,*e- 
'jritni)iiK>'8. lie wns easily and oirn^tiiHlly eilenc-et], mid aJI 
who sviiip)itlii''r(] willi liiiii ii\il Uj shmno. ■ HvinK-ritt's!' 
spate Ui I? I.«>nl — 'HI vourowii hiliiiisjiidii.H voiir [inict.uw iind 
jdiir [ijiw mnili'iTiii your sjwech. Kwry ntie on thn Ssb- 
b&th li»Ht4li Ilia ox or il^is, iitid Wijs him (o tlic watoriug. 
Tim Kiibbinic Itiw exprt^y »)lowed tliis, and even to draw 
thi* wiitir, pn>vi(lc(3 tlie vs^fl wi>re not: oarried to tbo 
nniniiil. If. as yuri iiiiniit, I liarn tliii pnwer of 'looBing' 
from the bonds o!" Sn-tan, and she has br<?ii so l>onnd thcB? 
eiybt*ou yrrirs, nbuulJ sUi; — u iJiiughU*r ol' Abmhaia — nut 
hftw thftt done for her which yon do for your heast* of 
bui'den ? 

Thw P'tort was iinannwurabk' ; it oovered the advnrsiiriw 
wilJi ahainv. Arnl thi" JVni'iins »ii ihftl Syiiapi]|^ie felt 
hIso, at Ipast for thi' tinn-, the Ti^'Mlnni whii-h liiid come to 
tlijit woman, Tliey (ook up ochoeB of her hymn of 
pmitiv, aud ' i^juicBd for nil th« glorioug Ihin}^ that wero 
doncf by Hini.' And Ht? nnswen-d thi-ir joy by iM'I.ting 
before tht'in ' the KinEdom," whicli He had t-omp botli to 
prt-ach and bo bring, in itarwdity andall-piTvading encrgj-, 
tu exhibit*?!! iu the two J'ariiblyaof ' Ilitt MiiBtard-«eed"aiid 
' the IjCttVL'n,' spoken bpfore in Gitlilec. These were now 
repeatf^l, aa specially suited to tiie circumstAnc«ti. And 
tJiij practicfil application of fcbeee Parables musb have been 
obvious to aU. 



<(;t. Luke xiii. S8; 8t. John s. SS-43.> 

Aboff tworoontbs had passed aince Jesus had left Ji 
siilein aft-er the I'wiat of Tubt'rnmk'a. Al tliw I''tiant of 
Dedication of tluj Ti-mplc we lind Christ imce more in tWl 
Tein pie. 

There seeiu:* i^pccial fitoess in CluMt's spending wi 

At thr Fbast op mn Dudilation 


} * Fa. BtlU.- 


by ft com piiUition of dntics, wb may n-giird ftd tho Itwt unnw 
versary eeaeon of His Hirth, in llie Temple atrthnt Peast, It 
was not of Biblical origin, but bad been institnted by JnJ»^ 
Maccnl)ieus ia I64 B.C., when the Teinplo, which lusd beeu 
diise«i*iit«<l by ADtinfihua Kpiphanes, wasonci'morBpimfiofl, 
aiid re-deiiicatetl to the aiTvice ol' Jeliovali. Accordingly, 
it was dt^sif^nafyii as "tlie IVilittitioii ul'tlu* Altur' 

Duriu^ tilt.' f ij^bt diiys of lliu Ft;ast the eerief of Pealiiis 
known as the Ilalhl •■ was chanlwd in the TemplH, 
the peoplt) lespoiidiDg ao at the- Fwist of Taixjr- 
Olher rites resfiubled thost^ of (he Intter Feasil. 
Thua, onginally, the people appeared witli jialni- 
■■' bnuicheH.*' 'Iliis liowt^vpr dons not s^eiii to have 

l>een afterwnrtJs obswved, while iimitlifir rite, nijl. meuhi<»iieil 
in tJie Book ot'Maccabees— ihati of illuminating tli« Temple 
and private liooseB — became characteristic of the Feaat. Tra- 
dition iiiici it, tliatwlieo the Teinplt'-Servicea were r*Bturnd 
by Judjin Mnecnliipus, the oil was found to hsive btieii 

ideaecr»t«d. Only one firif^oii was discovpred of tbat which. 
Was ^jfine, sealed witii the very signet o'l the High-Prirht, 

I The supply proved jual- Buflicient to feed lor one day tho 
Sacred Caiidlaetick, but by a iitiracle the fla^n waa con- 
liniiiilly repleniahed duriug eight days, till a fresh supply 
could be broufrht from Thekoah, In neiiiory of this, it 
Wiui oi-dorod thu* followiaj? year, that the 'i'eniple be illii- 

tminated for eisrht days on the anniverBary of ita ' J)edieation.' 
But the ■ Lii^htn ' in honour of the Feast w«n; ht not only 

\\a the Teiuiile, bat in every home. One would Imve buI- 
fipcd foT tlip whole household on the first eveniiij^, but 
pious housf^lioldf rw lit u htrht for evi'iy inmat(> of the home, 

tec that, if t.i'ii biu'ued on the firet, tht-re would be eifrhty 
Oti the last night of the festival. According to ths Talinuil, 
the !i>,'ht tniwht bo jjln.ceil ab the entrunce tx> the liouse or 
itx)ni, or, acconhng to circumstances, in tht* window, or 
even on the table. According to modern practice tJit; light 
19 plac«l at. thf left, on entering a room (the McKUzah, or 
folded H«nili of liie Law. is on the ritrht). Certain 
dictions lui; Mpokuu uu li^jhtiiit; tliese li^lit&. ull work Ia 
ayt>d, aud thti iuativo time s^eut iu murrLineiiL. The tiratt 


3*58 Jbsvs the M&ssiah 

night is sp«^Mlly kept, in memory of Judith, who is mppoaed 
to hare slain Ilolnfrnies, and cheese is fi'eely partaken of 
■a the food of which, aecArding to legend, she gave him so 
largely, to incii-e him to thintt und dniiiken»es& Ldutttr, 
duriDg this Fi'ftival all faafing and public mourning were 
prohibited, thuagh Gomu minor acts of private moaraing 
were nilowei). 

This Festival, like the Feast of Tabernacles, oom- 
meitiurat^Kl a Divioe victory, which a^in |^ve to Ismel 
their ^(uod Uad, aft«T they liail oac« ?nore undergone sor- 
rows like thost* of the wilderness : it wsis anot-her harvest- 
feaat, and pointed Forwair] to yet another in?athering. As 
the uQCf extinguished light tya* relit in the Temple, it grew 
day by day in brightness, till it shnue out into tin." heittin'ti 
darkness, tliHt once had threatened to quench it. That He 
Wto piirifitid the Temple, was its Trne Light, and brought 
the Great Deliverance, shonld (as hinted) hin^e spent the 
laat anniveraajy aeasiin of His Birth iit thftt Feast in tlie 
Su.nctiiary, shining into their daaknciw. Bctiins most Rtltn^. 

Thoughts of the mmniiig of this Kwwsl; and of what w«» 
associated with it, will be helpful as we listen lo the words 
which Jeana spake ia the i>eople in • Solomon's Porch.' 
It is winter, and Christ is walking in the coven-d Porch in 
front of the ' Beftuliful Gate,' which formed the principal 
entrance into the ' Court of the Women ' As He walks up 
and down, the people are literally bjuring Hia way — ' came 
round about 'Uiju. Fruuitbe whole circum:<tiiuces we can- 
not doubt that the quertion which they pat, ' How long 
boldest Then us in snspenue?' had not in it an clement of 
genuine tiiqiiiry. Their desire that He sluiuld tell them 
' plainly ' if He were the Christ, hud no other motive thnu 
that of grounding on it an accusatirm. The more clearly 
we perceive this, the more woodeifiil appear tlie forbear- 
ance of Christ and the wisdom of Hii* aiiMwer Brielly Ho 
ptit^ aside thiiir hypocrisy What niwd is there of fresh 
speech? He told them before, ajid they 'believe twU' 
Prom words He appeals it) tlie iiidiftjintiibln witness ot 
dfeds: the works which Hewrought in His Fathn-'s Same, 
l'h«ir oou-beliel' iu prescuci; ut'tiieae lactti wuu due tu thair 


wK -^r 7'ft'jS FSAST OF rrrs Dudication 369 

not Ijeiiig of Ilia Sbeep. As He \\i\A said uiito thelii before 
it. waa churaftlepinlic of His Sheep (as generally of nvery 
flock in regard to it.9 own shepherd) to he^ir — recogiiiee, 
listen to — His Voice ftnil follow Hiin. We maTk in the 
•st.JiiUu words of Chriat a triplrt of double pftralleliame 
%.Tt.-3» concerning- tli« Sheep and the Shepherd, in 
ascending cliinas,' as follows: 

UyaliMfi hear My Voice, And I Itnaw tlieio, 

And they folJow Me : And I give nnto tJiem eternnl life ; 

And ihef simll never peiisb. And no cme eh&ll ntnttcli tli^Di vat uf 

My Hand, 

Bioher aasumace conld not have been given. But 
BomeUiiiig epi-ciul has here to be nmarked. The two first 
paritlleliama nlwuya link the promise of Christ to tha 
attitude of the aheep ; not, perhaps, conditionaJlj. but us 
a matter of sequLHici* and of fiict. But in tlie third 
paralleliKm there ia no reff rcnce to anything on thi^ pnrt 
of the shet- p ; it is all prnmise, and I he second claune only 
explains and infrensiliee what it) espreayed in the first. 
If it indicates attack of the fiercest kind, and bj the 
strongest and uinst cunning of ^mfiniea, ha they men or 
di-'vils, it also marks the watch fulness and ab-^olute 
fluperiority nf Him Who hath them, iik it were, in Hie 
Hand — perhaps a Bebraisin for ' power' — and hence their 
aljKolutt« Bafety. And, us if to carry twofold assurance of 
it, He romincla His heai-ers that His Work, being ' tlie 
Father's C'oTnniandment,' is really tlie Fathfr's Work, 
give-n to Christ to do, and no one could snatch them out 
of the Father's Hand. 

One logical sequence ia unavoidivble. Rightly under- 
stood, it is not only the last and highest announL-ement, 
but. it coniains mid implies everything else. If the Work 
of Christ ifl re)i.lly that of the Father, and Ilia Working 
also that of the Father, then it follows that He ' and the 
Father are One" ('one' is in the neuter). This identity 
of work (and implies the identity of Nature 
(EBsence) ; that of working, the identity of Power. Anil 
80, evidently, t.he .Tews underBtood it when they again 
took up stonea with the int'cutiou of etoaing Him — no 



doubt because !]■• <»xpiv8sw3, in yet morw pltwn t«nns, 
what ihuy t-ef^arded as UI^ blaisphemy. Once more t:ti« 
Lon] iip[«yilrtl from His Words, wliicli were doubted, to 
His WorlcN, which He huth 'showrd from the Father,* 
auy one of which might Imve servwl jib t-vidmce of His 
Missinu. And wliru the Jews igriored this Hoe of evidence, 
and insisti^d thai, He hiwl been gailf<y of Mnsphemy, since, 
being & Man, hp hiid made HiuiKelf tiod, thr Lord replied 
iu a manner that calls for our special Jttt^ritioQ. From 
the pecTitiurly Hehraistic mode of denignntiiig' a quotntion 

• p. LuTii •^'^ tt"^ Paalms' as ' writtfn iii the 1-aiv.' we 

• gather that we have here a liltral tmnscript 
of the verj' words of our Lord. Up had cliiimcd to be 
One with the Father in work and working; from whicli, 
of tvuirso. the necesBarj- inference wsb. that He was aluo 
One with Him in Nature and Po*vfr. Let us sei- wh<,-th<p 
the clnim wiw strnDge. in Ps, Ixxsii. ti the titles ' (iod * 
and " Sons of the Highest ' limi been ^vcii to Judges RB 
the KeprefeentativeK and Vicegerents of God. wielding His 
delef^ult:d Bulhnrity^ since to them had comn His Word ol 
authoriBfttion. But here was authority not tmnsmitfed 
by ■ tlie word.' but personal nnd diri-ct consecration and 
Mission on tlie part of (iod. The ciniipMrisoD made was 
not with Proplii-ta, Viw.'iiuse fiiejr only told the woTd and 
message from God, but with Judges, who, »8 such, did 
the very act of God. If those who, in so acting, had 
received an indii-ect commission, were 'gfHla,' the very 
representjitives of God, could it be blruspLeuty when Ho 
claimed to be the Son of God, Who had i-eceived, not 
anthority through a word traiiBniitted tlirough long een- 
tiiries, bnt direct per30iiol coinniaiid, to do the Father's 
\\^orl{ i had been directly and personalty eonaecratt'd to it 
by the Father, and ditvctly and persounHy sent by Him, 
not to .say, but to do, th^ work of the Father ? 

All ■wonkl, of course, depend on tins, whether Christ 

• si.juhn really did the worka of the Puther." If He 
' ^ did the works of Hi» Father, tlitin let them 
bplieve, if not the words, yet the works, and thiiB would 
they an-ive at the knowledge, " and uiiderstaud — <UstJn- 

Thb Ssco!^z> Se/tlBS OF Parables 


goishiug here the act fruni the atute — that 'in Me is the 
Father, and 1 in tlie Father.' In other words, recognising 
the Work as that of the Father, tht-y wonld come to 
uudei-sl-And tliiit tie Father worked in Him, and fchftt the 
root of Uis Work was in the Father. 

The stones that hfid been taken up wtire not thrown, 
for the words of Ohrial rendered impossible the charge 
of explicit bltisphemy which alone would, accirdins to 
Rabbinic law, have warrunted such summary vt-ngeance. 
But ' Hi«y sought sigftin to seize Him,' iM> as to drag Him 
before their tribunal. Hiti time. h<>we\'©r, bad not yet 
come, ' and lie vranl forth out of their hand.' 



<3t. Luke X. a£-3T; 

TlIB period betwi^pn Ohrist's return froiii the '■ Pesst of the 
TVdication' and His lust entry into Jerusalem, may bp 
ttn-anged into two parts, divided by the brief visit to 
Bethany for the purjiose uf raising La?.arii9 f^-om the dead. 

The Parablea of thia jwriod look back upon the past, and 
forward into the future. Those apolten by the Lakeof (ta]ilep 
were purely symbolical. Tli is second aeries of Parablea could 
be understood by all. They were typiwd, using the woi-d 
' type ' a3 an example, or perhapa mor^ correctly, an exeiu- 
•Aiiii lOur. plification.'' Accordingly, they itre also inleusely 
ph^.'i'i! II ; practical- Their prevailing' character ia not 
i^!"*iir deacriptive, but liort^t^ory ; ruid they hring llie 
": 'Tin';-"- (iospel, in the aenae of glad tidings to tiia loet, 
Tjii'oi, V. B tti the hearts of all who hear Iheuj. 

Of the Parablea of the third series it will for tie 
present; suffice to say thiit they are neither Hynibolical nor 
typical, but their prevailing chnrncteristic is prophetic. 

The Parables of the second (or Pprrean) seriew, which 
art" typical and hortatory, and ' Kvaugelical ' iii chamctar, 


JfiSiJS TH8 Messiah 

arc thirteen iu nuinber, aud, with the exceptioa of the 
Itut, iirr eit.Iier pecntiiir to, or e)»« moDt. fully recorded in. 
the Gospel by fit. Lukr. 

• at. Lutiii. 1. '''/(f Ptiniite of the Goi'-if t^'omaritan.' — 

«M7 >jijjjg Parahle io coiinc«fed with a question ad- 

dressed to Jesus by a ' lawyer ' — not one of the Jerusalem 
Scribc'M or Teacliers, but probably na expt-rt. in Jewish 
Cnnnn Law, who possibly made it more or less a profession 
in that district, tliough periiftps not for gain. We have 
sa^tfited that the words of this lawyer referred, or else 
that himself l)elcmged. lo that small pjirty among iho 
Rabbiniats who, at least iu theory, ftttacliwl greater value 
to good works than tct study. Knowing the habits of hia 
clasK, we do not wonder that he put his question to 
'tempt' — test. Iry — the great Rnbbi of Naziiretli. 

We seem to witneRs the opening of a regular Rabbinic 
coatesfcas TOe listen to this speculative problem : 'Teacher, 
what having dune shall I inherit (eternal life?' At tlie 
foundation lay the notion that. I'tenial lite was the reward 
of merit, of works : the only fjiie.-'tion was, what these works 
were tc be. The idea of gnilt bad not entered hia mind; 
he had no conception of sin within. There wa.s a way iu 
which a man might inherit etrt^mal life, not indeed as 
having absolute claim to it, but in conseriuence of tiod'e 
Covenant on .Sinai. And so onr Lord, using the common 
Rnlibinic espiPSHioa, ■ What readest thon?' pointed him to 
the Scriptures of the Old Testament. 

Th« reply of the ' lawyer ' is remarkable, not only on 
its own account, but aa aubatantially that given on two 
► St Moct, <'f'^8r occasions by the Lord Himeielf.'' The qacft- 
»i».'n-va: tion therefore naturally arisefl, whence did thja 
lawyer, who certainly hud not spiritual insight, 
derive hia r*ply ? A a regarded the duty of abyolnto lovo 
to God, indicated by the tjuoUitioti of Deut. vi. 5, tht;re 
could, of course, be no hesitation in the mind of a Jew. 
The primary obligation of this is frequently i-cferrcd to, 
and, indeed, taken for granted, in Rabbinic l:eaching. 
The repetition of this command formed part of the daily 
paayars. When Jesus reiurred the liiwy «r to the fScriptuiva, 




D^>on1d (scarcely fail to quote this tirat paramount obliga^ 


HUlel liad smnm«d ap Hie Law, in briefest oompn^s, in 
these words ; ' Wliat is hateful to thee, that do not to 
auothei'. Tiiis is the wholf Law ; the reat is only its ex- 
planation.' Still, the two principles just uientioiied ai-e 
not enimciated Ln conjunction by Rabbiiiisni, nor serioasly 
propnanded as either cuntainiDg tbo whole Lmv or tia secur- 
ing heaven. They are nJao siibjectedto grave modifications. 

On the ground of works^if that had been tenable — the 
lawyer's answer really pointed to the right solution of the 
question : tliis was the way {a Leaven. To uaderstaucl nny 
other answer would have required a sense of siu ; and it in 
the preaching of the Law wliich awakens in the mind a 
■ ft™ eetiSB of aiu.' But the difficulty of this ' way ' 
•would soon suggest itself to a Jew. 

Whatever complexity of inotives there may have b&en, 
thera can be no doubt aa to the main object of the lawyer's 
question: ' But wlio is my neighbour ?' He wished 'to 
justify liimself,' in the aenss of vindicating his original 
question, and showing thnt it was not quite ao easily 
settled aa the answer of Jesue seemed to imply. And 
here it was that Christ could in a ' Parable ' show how far 
orthodox Judaism was fronL ev&n a tme understanding, 
much moro from snch perfect ubaervanca of (his Law as 
would gain heaven. 

Some one coming from the Holy City, the Mftropolis 
of Judaism, is pursuing the solitary desert-road, those 
twt'nty-one miies to Jericho, a difitrict. notoriously insocure, 
when he ' fell among roliberfi, who, having both stripped and 
inflicted on him utrokew, went away loavii^ him jimt as 
he was, half dead," This is the first scime. The second 
opt-ns with an expression which, theologically, aa well as 
©xegBticttlly, is of the greatest- interest. The word reo- 
dered ' by chance ' occurs only in this place, for Scripture 
commonly views mattera in relation to agents rather than 
to results. 'ITii? real luf-aning of the word is ' couourrence,' 
mnch like th,- corresponding HeVjrew terra. And h«tter 
dfUnitioa oould not bi* given, not, indeed, of ' Providence,' 



jEst/s THE Messiah 

whicb Ih a h^alben Abst-raL-lion for wlitoh tlie Bihle has no 
««<iuivalent., but for tlir- (■oucreli' reality of God's providing. 
//«pp<)vides through a t-oiicunvnce of cirL-umstancea. all in 
tliemselv^H nntui-ol and iu thi.-' eucceseion of onlinaiy 
causatiou (aud chin dii<tijiKUiehe8 it from the miracle), 
but the oonciirriiig of whicli im directed and overruled hy 
Ilim. And this helps us t*i put aside those coarse tests 
of the rt-nUty of prayer iind of the direct rule of God which 
mea soiuetliiies pi'opose. 

It was hy such a ' coiicurrence * tliat first a priest, then 
B I^'vitiii. canic d»wa that road, wheii eacli succeeBivKly 
' when hti saw him, pftssed hy over against (khn).' It 
Wiis tilie principle of qufstioning, ' W ho is my neighbour i ' 
which led both priest and IrfWte to such conduct. Who 
knew what this wounded man was, and bow he came 
t» li** tlii^ro ; and were they culled upon, in igno- 
rance of this, to take alt (iie (rouble, perhaps incur the 
risk of life, which care of him would involve ? Thus 
JadaisDi (in the pt^raoas of ite chief rcprt-seulativeu) bod, 
by its exchisive attention to tlie lefttT, come to destroy 
the spirit of the Law. Happily, tJiere came yet anoth«r 
tha,t way, not only a stvangiar. bnt one deHpiaed, a semi- 
beathen Saiiiaritnu. He asked nut who the man. wns, 
but what was lits need. VVliutuver the wounded Jrw 
mi^ht have felt towards him, the SBniuritnn proved a 
trne ' neighbour.' ' He camt* townrda him, and bt^holdinf^ 
him, he was movc^l with compusaion.' He first bound np 
his wounds, and then, taking from his travelling provision 
wine and oil, made of them what was n^frarded as the 
oomnion dressing for vroiiiid?. Nt-xt, having ' 8et ' (lifted) 
him on his own beast, be walked by his side, and brought 
him to one of those khans, or hostelriea, by ihx side of 
nnfre<juented roads, which afl'orded free lodgmwnt t» the 
traveller. Geiierally they also offered entertaininent, 
ill which casej of course, the host, coniniouly a iion- 
Israelite, diiirged for the victuals BuppHed to inim or 
(jeast. or lor the care tnkeii. In the yirearjit instiuicv the 
Samaritan BeeniB himself to have tended the wounded 
muu all that evoniDg. But even thiis his care did not 


•nd. Tho nojct Dioniing, before continuiug bia journey, 
he Rave to the host two dinars — about oas shiiliug uiid 
threepence of oar money, the amount of a lAboiirer'a wagsa 
•Bi. Mfttt, ftr two days'^aa it were, two days' wages for 
"■* Ilia cure of him, with thia provieion, that if any 

further expense were incurred, he would pay it when he 
ne-rt came that way. 

So ffir the Pnrahlo: its lessoa 'the lawyer' is made 
himself to emiucinto. 'Whieli of these three seems to 
thee to Iiave become ueigbbour uf hiui that fell among the 
robbers?* Thouyh unwilling to take the hated name of 
Samarit^m on liis lifjs. especially as the nieauing oF the 
Parable and it* auli-Ka.l>biuic !)Fiariiig were ao evident, 
the ' lawyer ' was obligt^d to reply : ' He that showed 
luertry on him,' when the Saviour answered, ' Go, and do 
thou likewise.' 

The Parable implies not a mere enla.rgeraent of the 
Jewish ideas, but a eomplpte cbajigo of them. The whole 
old relation.'(hip of mere duty is clmnged into one of love. 
Thua matters are phicrid on an entirely different basis 
from that of Judaism. The tiuestion now la not ' Who ib 
my neighbour?' but -Whose neighbour am I?" The 
(Jospel answers the question of duty by pointing us to 
love. WouldatthoH know who i« thy neiyhbouri' Become 
a neighbour to all by the iitiiio&t service thou cauat do 
theiJi in their need. Anil ao the Gospel would not only 
abolish man'a enmity, hut bridge over inuii's eeparatiuu. 

3. The Pamble which follows in St, Liikft's uari-ative '' 
* 81. Luke «eeiiis closely connei-ted with that just eom- 
ii, (-13 mented upon. It ia also a at^ry of a good 
neighbour who gives* in our need, but jjre!<entht another 
aapect. of the truth to which the I^arable of the Good 
Samnritjin had pointed. Love beuda to our nend : this 
is the objective inanifestuLion of tlie Gospel. Need looks 
up to love, and by its cry elicits the Ikjou whieh it weeks. 
And this ia the subjective esperience of the Guspul, The 
oii'^ underlies the story of the first Parable, the other that 
of the second. 

Tlii.4 second Piirable is strung to the request of Home 



Jf-SUS tub. Messiah 

disciples to be taught what to pniy. 



A nmn has n 
ll, unexpectedly 

comes to him from a journey. He has nothing 
in tliP hoiist!, yet he must provide for his neecl, for Jiospitelity 
demandti ir, AccorcJingly, though it Ije so late, lie goes to 
hla friend snd neighbour To ask hiiii forthreeloavrs, Ktatiui^ 
the case. On the otlicr baud, the frit^nd so asked KfuRCft, 
since at tliab late hour he has retired to bed witli his 
children, and to g^rant his reqnest would imply not only 
inconvenience to himself, but the distiirhing of tho whole 
honsehold. It ia aot ordinary but. bo to spe«k, estra- 
ordinary prayer, which ia here alludtid to. 

To return to the Pftwihle: the quPBtion (ahruptly 
broken off ft-om tlm beginniug of the Parable in vtr. 5) 
is, what each of iis would do in the circumstances jost 
^ detailed. The answer !■■< >mp5ie<l in what follows* 

It points to continued importunity, which would 
At liiBt obtain what it neede. ' I t^ell you, even if h« will 
not give him, rising up, bccnase lie is his friend, yet at 
least on acoount of his importunity, he will tIbp op and 
give him as many «.■* he needeth." It is a, gross misunder- 
standing to di'Bcribe this ae presenting a mechanical view 
of prayer; as if it implied either that (kid was anwilling 
\/a answer, or else that prayer, otlierwiae unheard, would 
be answered merely for ita iraportimity. The leason ia 
tliiit where, for some reasons, there are or seem special 
difficulties to an answer trO our piayers, the importunity 
arieing from the sense of our abeulute need, and the 
knowledge that He is our Friend and that He has bread, 
will oltiniatply pi-e\iiil. Tbu difiiculty is not as to the 
giving, but as to the giving then, — 'rising up ;' and this 
13 overcome hy perseverance, so that (to return to the 
Parable) if he will not riee up becaiiae he is his friend, 
yet at least he will rise because of his importunity, and 
not only give him ' three ' loaves, but, in genwal, ' u 
many as he nt^edeth.' 

So importADt ia the teaching of this Parable that 
Christ mates detailed application of it. He bids us ' aek,' 
and that earueetly and belii.-viiit;Iy ; ' f«'i*k,' and tbat 

Pas ABLE OF TNP FoousH Rich Man 377 

enerpetjcally and instantly; ' kmn'k," and tluit intently 
and loudly. Ask — He is a Frit-nd, and we shall ' reteivc; ' 
•seek' — it JB there, fiiitl wn sball 'find;' 'knot-k' — oup 
peed is rvbsolut^^, nnd it, gliiil! bo optrned to "S. And such 
imporhiQity applips to 'every one,' wlioever lie be, and 
whatever the cil'tunistaiicoa which would seem to render 
Iiis prayer specially difficult of mibwot. 

More than this, Ood will not deceivohj' the appearance of 
what is not reality. He will even give the greatest gift. 
The Parabolic relation ia now not that oF friendB, but of 
fiither aod sou. If the son aak for bread, will tlie fathtfr 
give what seems such, but ia only a stone V If he ask 
for a fish, will he tender him what looks such, hnt is a 
eerpent? If he seeka an egg, will he band to him what 
br^s a scorpion ? The iierd, the bangf r, of the child will 
not, in onawer t:0 its prayer, receive at- the Father's Hands 
that which seems, but gives not the reality of satiBfaclion 
— rntlipr is poison. Let ns draw the inference. Such is 
our coiidact — how much more shall our heavenly father , 
give His Holy Spirit to them that ask liim ? 



(St. Luke ail. 13-31 ; xiiL 6-9 ; xlv. 16-24.) 

The three Parables which successively fullow in St. Liike'a 
Gospel may f^ijnemlly hu designated as those ' of warning,' 
This holds espeeiiilly true of the last two of theui, winch 
rofer t« the civil and the ecclesinstica! polity of Israel. 
Each of the three Parables was sjDoken under circumstances 
wliich gave occasion for such illaHtmtiou. 
• St Loki- 1. T/ic PcifiihU of Uu) FoulUh Rich Man.* It 

""■ '*"'^ appears that Bome ouh among them that liateoeil 
t.o Jesua, cmici-ived the idea that the imthority of the Greiit 
Itabbi of Ntizareth might be used for his own selfiah 



TUk Messiah 

porpoei-ii. Evidintly Ciiriet miisl have attracted nod 
deciply moved niulMtiules, or His interposition would not 
have be^n eougbt ; and, equally evidpntly, what He preadied 
had made upou Uiia man tha iiupresgion r:liat. he might 
poasiljy eDiigt Him as his champion. On the other hand, 
Christ had not only no legal authority for interfering, but 
the Jewish law of iuheritance was so clearly deHced, and 
we may add tw just, t)i»t if this ptraoD hiwl hnd any just 
or gotMl cii.iise, itmra could hitw* been no need for appealitig 
to Ji'BnF, Hence it must; have Tjeeu ' covetouBness*,' in the 
strictest aenee, which prompted it — perhfips a wish to hure, 
IwBidHS bia own shart.^ a« a younger brother, half of thai 
lulditiomt! portion which, by law, came to the eldest aou of 
the family. 

'riiis accounte for tht immediiite ret'ereace of our Lord 
to covetou!iue38, the folly of which He showed by this 
almost w^if-evideiit principle — that * nobiu the supei'abouud- 
ing to any oau [not in that, wherein he has more than 
wnougrhj coiisi»t-i-th his life. I' the things which hf [«*»- 
sesseth.' Id other vvonls, th»t part of the things which a 
man pnsseseeth by which Ins life isiniataiiied, cousisteiiotia 
what is SHporiibunilant : his life is suKtJiined by thatwhich 
ho needs and uses; thereat, the sup^rabii udauoe, fonusno 
piirt. of his life, and may. pevhapa, never be of use to Iiim. 
And herein lies the dnnf^er: the love of these things will 
engrfss mind and hetvrt, mid can? about them will drive 
out higher tbonght.H mid aims, 'ilie mnrnlus regarded the 
Kingdom of Grid, and the warning not to lose it for thought 
of what ' periahoth with the nfiing," are obvious. 

The Parnblrt its<i-lf coutjista of two parts, of which the 
first shows the folly, the second the siu au<l danger of that 
care for what is beyond our present need, which is the 
characteristic of eovetoiisness. The richintiu is snrvejnng 
his land, which is benririf^ plentifully— evidently beyond it^ 
former yiild, since the old provision for Ntnring the corn 
appaara no longer sufficient, In the c«lculiitions which \\<a 
now makes, he louhs inio the future, and sees there prcH 
giessive increase and riches. As yet, the harvest waa not 
i-eaped ; bnt he was alrewiy considering what to do, reckon- 

P.illABUi OF THE Foousi* Ricu Man 379 

ing apon the richer l)i»t would com<> tn bitn. And bo ha. 
resolved to pulldowu tlie old, nii(]biiii(l lurgTr biirn'^. whvroi 
lie would slon* liis future pu8«i'»i<toii8. lo these pl».tLi> i«t 
tiie hitarf — and it wiis liiit folly to umke Bucli absolutely — 
he thought not of liod. llis wlinle beuct was vet on tba 
acquisition of rarthly riches, not on the service of God, 
He remembered out hisreepousibility ; all thai be bad wagi 
for himself, and ubsi(lut«'ly hU own, to hatleii upon : ' Soul, 
thou hast much goods lidd up for tnuny years ; tttke thino 
ease, eat, drink, be merrj'.' He did nut iwen remembor 
that there wae a Ood Who uiiglif cut short hie years. 

And HOW Collier the quick, sharp contrast. ' But God 
Bftid unto him ' — not by nvelution, nor through iiiwurcl 
pnr-sentimcnt, but with iiwful fiuddonnoss. iii thoat> un- 
spoken words of finrt viliicUciiiiuot be ^ftsaid or answered : 
' Thou fool \ thia very ni^bt ' — which follows on thy plana 
and purposingb — 'thy bouI i» required of thoi;. But the 
tilings which thou ha»t preparfJ, whose ehftll they be?', 
Here, wilh the obvious evidence of the folly of aucb st»t«'' 
of mind, the Pnrable hreaka off. TtB sin fill iifHs—iiny, and 
beyond this negative aspect of it, the wriedoui of riL[htooii«- 
Tiess in laying up iJie good treasure which cntmot he tnken 
irom us, appeiirs in thia coiii-lui3in>f remark uf ClirisI — ' So 
is he who layeth up treasure (treasnrethj fur hiiiiSL-lf. und 
lot riili townrdti God," 

It WHS u buj-bed arrow, we might say, out of the Jewish 
quiver, but directed by the Hand of the I^rd. For we 
read in the Tslruiid that a Hahbi t<j!U his disciples, 
* Repent thu day bt-fofL! tky denth ; ' mid who'll his dis- 
ciples asked Itiiii : ' Does a iiiuu know the day of his 
dun-th V be i-eplieJ, that on tlmt veiy ground be aliould 
repent to-day, lost, he should die tu-uiorrow. And so 
would all bin (lays W- daye of repi'iitance. The Sou of 
KifAch, the Talmud, and the MidnLshfurmsh similiu' wum- 
ings and parallels. But we mise in tliein the spiritual 
application mode by (Christ. 

2. The special waminjr int^ndod to bt- i-oiivi-yed by 
'oiLni* liw Parable of (/to liarrcit t'iii'tKe' suBlci- 
xiiL M gotiy appears from the context. As previously 

3 So 

Jesus THS Messiah 


explained, Uie Lord had not only corrected the erroneous 
iuteipretatione which the Ji'wa were giving to certain 
recent national ot;ciirrencBK,biit pointed them to this higher 
moral of all such events, fchiifc, unkas spewiy untionaJ re- 
peBtftnce followed, the whole people would perisli. This 
Parable ofTf-rfi not merely an exfuiplificatioii of this general 
predictrton of Christ, but sets before us that which underlies 
it : Israel in its relation to Go<l ; the need of rejieufcance ; 
leruel'it danger; the nature of repentance, and its urgency ; 
the relofioei of Christ ta Israel ; the Goapel ; a«d the final 
judgement on impenitence. 

As regards the dptails of this Parabli?, we mark titat 
the fig-tree Imd been speciiilly plftriteil by tlie owner ia his 
vineyiird, which waa thechoicftst situation. This, we know, 
waa not unusual. Fig-tre«», as well iis palm- and olive- 
trees, were regarded as ao valuable, that to cut them down, 
if they jielded even a amall nieaeureof fruit, wan popularly 
deemed to deserve death at the Hand of (5od. Ancient 
Jewish writingB supply inti^reatiug particulars of this 
tree and its culture. On account of its repeated crops, 
it was declared uot subject to the ordinance which en- 
joined that fruit should he left in the corners for the poor. 
Its artificial inoculation was known. The practice men- 
tioned in the Panible of digging about the tree and dtuigliiy; 
it, is freqnently meutioned in Rabbinic writiiigH, and Lv 
the same designations. Curiously, Maimonides mentioaK 
three years as the utmost limit within which a tree aliould 
bear fruit in the laiid of Israel. Lastly, as trees weiw re- 
garded as by their roots undermining and deteriorating the 
ground, a barren tree would be of threefold disadvantage : 
it would yield no fruit; it would fill valimble ejKice. which 
R fruitf-bearer might occupy; and it would needlessly 
deteriorate the land. Accordingly, wliile it wns forbidden 
to destroy fruit-bearing trees, ifc would, on the grounds 
above stated, be duty to cut down a ' barren ' or ' empty ' 

These particiilara will enable us nior« fully to uiuler- 
sland the details of the I'arubiB. -Mlegorically, the fig- 
tree served in the Old Tisfament aa emblem of the Jewiflli 

' 81. Mutt. 

IX. 1 *G : 

In J owWJi 



aatJon * ; in the 'ialemidj nither as l.biit. of Isruel'rt l«i-i-, ami 
, hence of the leiwJm-a aiitl the piouH of t.he people. 

The vineyard ia in tlie New Te-stament the 
Bjuibolofbhe Kingdom of fioJ. as diHtinetfrointheimtioD 
ofIt<rael.'' Thus IVir Uii-n, the Purable niay be 
tihiiH t.miisijiCed : God culled Israel as a nation, 
and pliiiitisil it in the most favoured apot — ad a 
fig-tree in the vineyard of His own Kingdom. 
' And He cfttne sfeking,' as He liad every rightto 
do, ' fruit thereon, and found none.' It was the 
third year (not after three yenra, but. evidently in the third 
year, when the third yeur'b crop slioijld have appeared), 
that He had vainly lookpd for fruit, when He turned to His 
Vinedresser — the Mesaiah, to Whom the vineyard is com- 
mitted as its King — with this direction: 'Cut it down — 
why doth it also deteriorate the soil ? ' It is liarreii, 
though in the brst position ; as a fig-tree it ought to beiir 
figs, and here the beat ; it filla the plfl.ce whleh a. good tree 
might ocenpy; and besides, it the soil. And 
its three years' htiri'eanesB has eatablislied (aa before ex- 
plained) its utterly hopeless character. Then it is that 
the Divine Vinedresser, in Hia infinite oomp.issiciUjpJeftds, 
and with far deeper reality than either Abr:ibaDi or Mo-ses 
could have entreated, for the fig-tree whieh Uimaeti'had 
planted and tended, that it should be spared ' this year 
also,' ' until then that I shall dig nbout it, and dung it ' — 
till He labour otherwise than liefore, even by His Own 
Pi-esence and Words, n;iy, by laying to its roots Hia most 
precious Blood. 'And if then it bear fruit' — here the 
text abmptly breaks oif, iia implying that in such case it 
would, of oonree, be allowed to remain; 'but if not, theni 
agftinat the future (coming) year ahaJt thou tut it down.' 
The Parable needs no further coinmentatiou, 

3, The third Parable of wnming — that of the Great 
• SL Luke Sujijier * —refers not to the political state of Israel, 
xiv.iti-H Ij^).^ to their ecclesiaaticftl «'a/'«, nud their con- 
tinuaace as the posseseore and representatives of th© 
Kinfidom of God. It was spoken after the return of Jesua 
from the Feast of the Dedication, and therefore carries ua 



Jesvs tns Ubssiah 

beyond the point in this history which we have reacljeJ, 
Aaordiuvly, th*f abtead»ntclrcmu8tniici's will Iw espl;tin«3 
in th(^ sn'|iiiil. 

What led up to tbfl PMmhle of '" fireat Supjier' 

happeiiuJ afiLer these thinga : ni^er His healing' of the tuan 

with the dropsy iii sight <if them all on the Sabbath, aflir 

Hia twijrol<l ri^biike of tlieir pervtTBion of (he Sabliath- 

Lftw, and of those marked charactBristicH of Phftrisaisiii, 

which showed how far they wure from bringing forth fruit 

worthy of the Kingdom, and how they miarepresentcd 

■ SULuliF "'^ Kingdom, atid wre utterly nnEt ever to do 

■*"-'-" ottierwisi>." The Eiord had spokeu of inaking a 

feast, not for one's kindred, nor for the rich — whether such 

outwardly, or mentally and spiritually from the fitandifuint 

ofthe Pharisees — but forthe pon^rand nfflicted. This wonid 

imply trn? Bpiritiiality, btcause thai fellowship of jiriviiiff, 

which desc»?nds to others in order to miae them as brethren, 

not condescends, ia order to be raised by them ua thuir 

Mastpr and -Siipprior." Aiid He ha<l eoncludod 

with theee words : ■ And thou shalt be blessed — 

bMiaiiRe thyy liavs not to rf iider Ijaek ajjjaiu to thee, for 

it shall be rendered biek to thee again in the 

™'' Kesurrection of the Just.'" 

It was thia lasti clause — but 8e|wmt«d, in tme Phari- 
saic spirit, from that which had preu'eded and indicated the 
motive' — on wtiich one of those present now commented, 
probably with a coveit,, perhaps a provocative, rfference to 
what forniL'd llie suhjftt of Christ's constant leaching: 
' Blessed whuso shall cat bread in the Kingdom of Heaven.' 
An esjiresaion this, which to the Phurisee meant the com- 
mon Jewish expectancy of a gi'f'at least, at the beg'iiiiiiiijr 
of the MeBsiaiiic Kingdom. Whether or not it was the 
object of his exclamation, as sometimes religious common- 
places or platitudes arc in our days, to interrupt ih"^ comxe 
of Christ's rebukes, or as before hinted, to provoke Him 
to unguarded sjieech, must be left undetcrrained. What 
ia chiefly appiirent i«, that this Pharisee separated what 
t'hi-i.'tt said about the blessingg of the (ii-at Itesiimctioii 
fi\mi that with wliicb He hail connected thi™ as logically 

Pahablb of tub Great Suffbh 


»JllIIT.Il, 7 


their mural iiulwcedorit ; viz. love, in opposition to fwH- 
a8st*i'tioii and self-seeking. The Pharisee's words imply 
tliat like Ixis class lif. at any rate, fully expected to sliare 
in theirs blpssiii^ as a matter of ooui'se, and becansa lie 
was a PiiariawP. Tliiis Ui fptivtf out OWist's aatt'CL-dini^ 
wurda was not ouly U> set them Hside, but to pervert Hia 
saying, and to plncia iho bletjaediiesa of tlie future on the 
7«ry opposite bjisia from that 00 which Christ hud rested 
•81, Lui« it. Arcordinujly. it was to this man personally' 
*''■■ " that iLp Parable web iwldii-ased. 

There can be no difficulty in underatandlng' the main 
ideas underlying tht- Parable. Tbe man who made the 
' Great Supjifr' was Me Who had, in the Old Testament, 
prepared ■ a feaat of fat thingB," '' The " bidding 
many' preceded the actnal anno u net' meat of the 
day and hour of tho ffust. This general announcement 
WHS made in the Old Testament institutions and prophecies, 
and tbe gueats bidden were Ihose in the city, the chief 
men — not the ignorant and those out of the '''ay, bat the 
men who knew, and read, and expounded these propheciaa. 
At laat the prepacations were ended, and the Master sent 
out Hia Servant — rett^rriug to whomsoever He would eai- 
ploy for that pur^ioae. It wuk to intinuite to the peri^ons 
formerly hidden, tliat everything was now ready. Then it 
was that, however cUflering in their special grounds for it, 
or expressing it with more or lees courte^, they were all 
at one in dpeliiiiiig to eoiiie. The fertst U> which they had 
been bicHen aoioe time before, and to which they had ap- 
parently agreed to come, was, wlien actually annonnc&l as 
ready, not what they Lad expected, at nay rate not what 
they regarded aa more desirable than what they had, and 
must give up ill order to come to it. For — and this seems 
one of the principal points in the Parable^to come to that 
feast., to enter into the Kinj^dom, inipiiesi the giving up of 
eoraething that seenia, if not nece.'^sary, yet moat desu-able, 
and the enjoyment of which appears oaly reasonable. 

Then let tbe feast be for tJiose who were in need of it, 
and to whom it would be a feaafc : the i>oor and those 
ufllicted — tbe toaimed. and blind and lame, on whom tlioHB 




Jtsus TUB Messiah 


prcat citizens who !in,d bf?en first bidden would !ook down. 
Tliia, witli R'ffiL-ncc to, uud in liigliLT Bpirituul uxpliiuution 
of what. Ckrist liad pn^vioiisly fluid about", bidding stish to 
•81. Luire **"!■ '•^"■sts of fellowfJiip and love." AccordiiiKly, 
>''■'» the St^n-ant is now direcLed to 'go out quickly 

into tbe (lfvrg>'r) stiuets ftnd tlie (narrow) lanes of tlio City ' 
— n trait wliicli shows that the aeene- is laid in " the City,' 
the profeBsed haliitatton of God, The iiuporSftuce of ttiia 
circumstance is evident. It not only expliiins who the 
first hidden chief citiKeiia wei-e, hnt also tliat these poor 
were the despisod igiioroiit, and the maimed, lame, nnd 
blind — auch as the publicans and sinners. Ilieae are they 
in ' the Htreets ' and ' lanes ; ' and the Servant is directed, 
not only to invite, but to 'bring them in,' us otlivrwiso 
they miglit naturally eliriuk from cotiiingf to snch » feast. 
But ev«iL aoj ' there is yet room ; ' for tlit; Ijord of the house 
h&% in His liberality, prepared a very great fenst for very 
many. And so the Servant is once more sent, w that the 
Master's ' house may be filled.' But; uow he is hidden to 
* go oat,' outside the City, outeide the Theocracy, ' into the 
highways niid hedges,' to tho38 who travel along the 
world's great higlnviiy, or who have fallen down weary, 
and rest by its hedges; into the busy, or else, weary, 
lietttheu world. This reference to the heathen world is the 
more apparent that., according to tbe Tahnud, there were 
commonly no hedges round the fields of the Jews. And 
this time the direction to tiie SeiTant is not. as in regard 
to thoee naturally bashful outcast3 of the City — who would 
scarcely venture to the great house^ — to ' brins them in," 
but ' conrtrain " [without a pronoun] • t.o come in.' Their 
being invited by a Lord Whom tliey bad not knijwn, per- 
hape never heard of before, to a City in which they were 
Etrann>?r8, tmd to a feaet for which— aa wayiiirers, or ns 
routing by the hedges, or else as working withiu their en- 
closure — they were wholly nnpreparfd, required special 
urgency, 'a constraining.' to make them either believe in 
it, or come to it from where the messengers found thom, 
and thai, without prejHtring for iC by dress or otherwise. 
Aud ao the house would he filled. 

The Three Parables 6P the Gospel 385 

Here the Parable abrupt ly Iji-eaks off. What follows 
aro the words of our Lord in esplmiwf.ian and apjiHcation 
of it to the compjiny then present ; ' For I say unto Tou, 
that none of those men which were bidden shall t.a9ta of 
My Supper.' And this was the 6nal answer to this 
PhariBee and to those with him at that table, and to all 
amch pjrveraiou of Christ's Words and mi sup plication of 
Giod's Promiaes aa be and they were guitty of. 




(St. LiUte xy. ) 

A BIMFLE pemsal of the three Parables ^roope3 together 
in the tifteenth chapter of St. Luke's Gospul, will convince 
na of their connection. They are peouliarly Gospel 
I^rablea ' of the ri-'covery of the lost : ' in the first 
iDfttauce, through the nnwearied labour ; in the second, 
through the anxious care, of the owner; and in the third 
Parable, through the never-ceasing love of the Father. 

Properly to understand these Parables, the circum- 
stances which elicited them must be tept in view. Aa 
Jesus preached the Gospel of God's cull, not to tlioae who 
had, aa they imaginedj prepared themselves for the King- 
dom by study and good works, bat as that of a door open, 
and a welcome free to all, ' all the pub!ica.ns and sinners 
were [constantly] drawing near to Him.' It h)i.s been 
shown, that the Jewish teaching concerning repentance 
was quite other than, nay, contrary to, that of Chriet. 
Theirs was not a Gospel to the lost. : they had nothing to 
say to BJaiierM. They called upon tlieni to ' do psniteuoe,' 
and th«u Di\ine A[er(;y, or rather Justice, woald have its 
reward for the penitent. Christ '9 Gospel was to the loatas 
such. It told theru of forgivenesH, of what the Saviour 
was doing, and the Father parpuaed and felt for them ; and 
that, not in the future and eh reward of their penitence, 
but now in the immediate present. From what we know 


^1 liUUI', 11 

H but no 


Jbsus the MassfAji 

of tlie Plmri««eit, we can scarcply wnnder that ' they were 
mnrmuring at Him, ttayinjir. This iumu r«cBJvetti *' sianerSj' 
and tintetli with them,' Whether or not. Chrii'l IwiJ on this, 
•BLMnt. as on other occasinns,' jftined at ampal with Hucli 
ta. 10. 11 persons, their charge was so far trup, that ' this 
One," in contmricty Xa the priiioiiili'H imd pntc-tice ol 
Kubbinisin, ' received sinaeni ' an mica, unil consorted with 

Tlieae tJiree Parabl&s proceed on the view tlat the worl; 
of the Fatlirr und of Olirist, iw rnKHrds ' ihtr Kiiij,'iloni,' is 
the Bami." ; tlint. Christ, wiis doing tJu" work iif t.hi- Father, 
and tliat they who Itnow C'hriflt know the Father also. 
That work was the reBtoi-atioa of the lost ; (Christ had come 
to do it. and it wob the lon-^iag of th« Fiithfr to welcome 
tho lost home nffnin. Furthi^r, and this w only i)«cond in 
importance, the lost was Bti!l God's property ; and he who 
liaj wnndep*'d fnrtlioet was a child of the l-'athcp, and con- 
Bi<ll:^rti(l as siicli. 

In other piirticiilarH tJiem arc, Iiowtive!*, diflireDops, ail 
the more markod that they are so finely shadtN^, These 
concern the lust, their rMwnHon. and its r^mlie. 

1. T}m Pnr-ihh of Ihfi Li'xl .sV;«<7-. — The Ijost Rheep ia 
only nne among a himdrpii : rnt a reiy ffTPni loss. Yet 
which among as wuuUI not, evpn from the cotninon motives 
of ownership, leave the ninety -an d-niue. and jfO aft*r it, all 
the more that It hasatrnyed Into the wildpniess? At the 
onbiet we remark that this pHrablpand the nt-xt, that nf the 
Tjojtt r>rachni, aio iiitcntlfil as iin ansMer to thf- l*harii=w>s, 
Hencp they are addressed to them. Should not Hip (.'limt 
do even as they would have dune to the strnyiiig' and 
atinoNt lost sheep of His own flouk ? We think not only 
of thone shppp which .lewish pride and su peered ionsncj^s 
had left to go astrny, hut. of our own natural t^Tideiicy to 
wander. And we recall the Snyincf of Si. Pet^r. which, no 
doubt, looked Imck npon this Parable : ' Ye wei-c as sheep 
going astray; bat are luiwrfttunied nulo tJie Shepheril nnn 
Bishop of ynur souls.'" It is not difficult io 
" imnjrinat;ion to followthe Paraboliepicture: how 
ia its folly and ignomuc& tbd sheep atmyed further and 




furt.Iifr, imi") iil'. Iiiisli was lost ia Hfvlitutlf aiiil ainonH^ stony 
places; how thi^ sheplierd followed and fouiLd it, wt^ary aud 
footeore ; and tlieii with t<'iid«r isirn liftr-il it oti his shoulder, 
mid cariied it Iiome. glad that he had found (hs lost. And 
not only liiis, biih when, iifter lont; absoncf, bt« TBtarnad 
home Tvilh his found sliet-p. tliar. tiow iiestli-d clo.'3i' to its 
Siiviour, he called together his fiieuds, and bade them 
rejoice with bim over the erst loBt and now found 

To mark lien.- tliR cnntraet bntween the-teftcliing of 
Christ and that of The Vhiiriswa, we put dfi\vn in all its 
nakedness the niesi^uye wiucli Pharisuiem bronght to the 
lost. Christ said to them : ' Therfi in joy in heaven ovpr 
one sinner that repenteth.' Pharisaism eaid — and we quote 
literally— ' There i» joy before God when those who pro- 
voke Him pei'isli fn»iu the worM.' 

2. In proeeoding t« the second Parable, that of ihe 
Lout Driirhm, we must, keep in mind that in the fir.rt the 
danger of being lost arose ffoni The nittural tendency of 
the sheep t« wander, fii the second Parable it is no longer 
OTir iiatur.'Ll tendency to which onr loss iw attiihutablo. 
Th-e drachm (iibout 7^'^. of onr tmim-y) has Ijfieii lust, lie 
the woiiia.i), its owner, nsiiig nr rountin^ her tnoney. 
The loss is the more aensibio as it in one ont of only ten, 
which constitute the owners property. But it is still Id 
the house — not hhe the sheeji that had gone astray — only 
covered by the dnst that is continually accumulating from 
the work and accidents aroaud. And so it i& moro nnd 
more likely to be baried umier it, or swept into chinksand 
corners, aiid less and lessllkely to be found as titaepaiBS&B. 
But the woman lights a lamp, sweeps the house, audaeerk? 
diligently till sho has found it. And then .-"he calleth 
together those around, and bids* tbeni rejoice with herovor 
the tinding of the loi^t part of her poHSeBoioiia. Ami so 
there 19 joy in the pres'-iice of the Augclf* over one aiuner 
that repenteth. The interest of this Parabla cecitroBin the 

3. If it has already appeared that the two first Parii^ 
bles are not merely a repetition, in diilereat form, of the 


c c '1 



suiDit t.liiKifilil, Ijut. ri-presMnt twn diHercnl. a«|ii*(:tiS au<! 
cfiurteB ot'tlie ' being lost/^thrttwweritijilditfBi'Bncc bobwcxm 
■ tbem appears evi>ii iiioi-e cletii'ly in t>lie hlilrd Pnrnblti, tliab 
of Ikv. Lust Smi: Bi'fom imlifiiHiijit it in (Jet«il, we may 
mark l.he siniiijirifcy in form, «nd Hie coiih'iist in sfHrit, of 
• st-ui finalo^us ItnblWiiic I'arabliiti. The MidrnBh" 
relates liow whciii Moses fed the she^p of Jethro 
in the wilderness, aud a kid liad gone astray, lie weut after 
it, and found it drinldng at a spring. AJs he thought it 
might bti wear;, lie laid it oo his sboulder aud brought it 
b[u;k ; when (Jod ajiid tliat, b*H;ft»i9o lie had .shown pity on 
the sheep of a man. He would give liim His own sheep, 
Jsnwl, to feed. As a parallwl to the aeeoud i*arable, this 
may Ije qutit*<l as similar in Torm, though very diflei-enb in 
Bpirit, whon a Rabbi that, if a man had last a mfa 
,ni) or anything' else of value in his house, he would 
_ iver 80 miiny lights till he had found what provides 
for only one hour in this world. Hnw Tnuth inoivi, then, 
should he search, as for hidden treajaures, for tlie words of 
the Lftw, on which dei)endH the Ufe of this and of the world 
tooome! And id rL-ganl to the high place which Ohrist 
assigned to the rt-peuting Biiitier, wi? lany note that, (i<v;«r- 
ding to the leading Rabbis, the peaitents wouki stand 
uejirer t-o God than the ' perfectly righteous,' since, in 
Is. Ivii. 19, pence was first bidden to those who had been 
afar off', and then only to those near. 

It mHy be addM that beaideB illustrations, to which 
reference will Vje miwle in the aeqiiel^ Rnbhinic ti-aditJoii 
supplies a parallel to at least part of the tiliinl Panihle, that 
of the Lost Son. It tell.-* us tliat while pravcp may som»- 
titues fiud the gateof accnss dosed, it is never shut againHb 
rfrpentance, and it introduces a Parablo in wlii<^h a king 
eeiida a tutor after his eon, who, in his wickedness, hod lell 
the palaee, with this TiiesHagB : ' Keluni. my noii ! ' to which 
the latter replied ; ' With what face can [ return ? I aiu 
asihaiiipd ! ' (>n wMeh the father sends thi.'j message : ■ My 
eon, 18 there a son who is ashamed to lY^tunt tohisfnthw — 
and slialt thoti not return to thy father !* Thou shall re- 
turn.' So, continues the Midrwshj had God sent Jerenuah 

• Jo-. UL IS 


Parabls op thb Prodigal Son 389 

after iHrael in \ho tionrof tti^ir sin with the call to return,* 
and the conifortmg reminder that ifc was to their 

In the Parnhle of ' Iht Lvnt Sun' tlie main interest 
centres in Uia ivstotaliou. Ih is not now to the itinute t-ea- 
clcncy of hia nature, nor yet to the work and duet, in the 
house that the loas is attribiit,iijle, but to the personal, free 
choice of the icdividaah He does not atriuj; he does not 
I'all aside — he wilfully departs, and iindor a^rft%-ated cir- 
cuiiistaocea. It ia the younger of two sons of a father wlio 
in e^nally loving to both, and kind rt-eii to hia hire<l ser- 
vants, whose hoiiiu, moreover, ia one not only of sufficiency 
bnt of wealth. The demimd which he makes for the • por- 
tion of property falling' to hiui is founded on llie Jewish 
Law of Inheritance. Presiminbly. tha father had only thpse 
two sons. Tlie elder wonid receive two portions, the 
yoiing:er the third of all movable property. The father 
could not have disinliprit-ed the yonnger son, although, if 
there had been spveial younger bous, he might have dix-idod 
the property falling to tiiein as he wished, provided he 
expressed only his diepoaition, and did not add that 
such or such of the children were to have b less share or 
none at all. On llie other hand, » man might, daring his 
lifetime, dispoBe of all liis property by gift, aa he chose, 
to the disadvantage or even the total loss of iJie firsts 
born, or of any other children j nay, he might give nil to 

It tlius appears that the youn^r son wae, by law, fully 
eJititled to \m flhare of the poaaessions, although, of course, 
he had no right to chtim it daring bis father's lifetime. 
Hiscondnct, whatever his motives, wa^niost heartless as re- 
garded hia fftt.]ier,and8Jnful its before God. SuchadiflpoBltion 
ooiild not prosper. Tlje father had yielded to hie demand, 
and, to be as free as poeaible fi-om control and restrAitit, 
the younger son Imd gone into a far coniitry. There the 
nnttira-l Bpqnence?! aoon appGa.r6d, and his property was 
wasted in riotous living. 

The next ecene in the history is misunderstood wLeu 
the objection is raiaod, that the young man's misery a 


Jesus the Msssiah 

t]i<Te rppiw»ent«l aw tlie result of I'ropidentiai eirenniBtaiicoa 
ratJier Uian of his own misd^ihig. For uur awaifaiajf, in- 
dited, we arp fretpifuMy indebted to wliwt is called tho 
I'rnvideiice, but wliat is really tJie nianiltilcl working to- 
jjether of the grace of God. Aud so we tiiid speciit! mean- 
ing in tiie oi'cunviice of tliis fiiiuiue. That in his want 
' he clii^e to Olio of tlie cihiiwiia of tJiut country,' si^nis to 
indicate that the ntnn had beeu univilling to engage thd 
dissipated yoim^' Mi-anger, audouly yielded to his desperate 
iiujjorl unity. This (ilsu trxplaiiis how he i^inploved Jum in 
tlir loweNt iiicniiil wrvice.thfttof feeding siviiie. ToaJew 
thtM'B was more tlmu degradation in tliis, since the keeping 
of swine (althoiigli perhapatheownerr-Iiijiratherthatithefeed- 
iug) was prohibited to laruelitea uiidt?r ii cm-ae. Aud eveu iu 
tJiia demeaninfi service he was so evil entreated, tliat for very 
hunger he would fain have ' filled his U'lly with the carob- 
pods that the swine did eat.' But hciv the siuik* lim-tihuL^ss 
which lukd eeut him to t^iieb employnieut met him on the 
part of all the people of that country : ' and no man gave 
unto hirn,' evon uufReient of such ftiod, AVlmt perhape 
gives ndditioual meaning to this deJicriptioii is the Jewish 
saying, ' Wlien Iwael ia reduced to tlio carob-tree, they 
become repenlitnt.' 

!r. WHS this pressure of extreme want which first 
showed to the younger son the contra-st between the 
country aud the oircumsiancea to which his sin bad 
brought him, and lhe pieiicifnl provision of the home Iw 
hiid left, aud the kiudnesa which provided bread enough 
(uid to spare for ereii the hired secvjints. There- was 
Oldy a step between what he said, ' hnviiig couie ioto him- 
Kolf," and his rewlve to return, though its felt difficulty 
ee«nis implied in the espre?sion, '1 will arise.' Nor would 
he go back with the hop* of beiu-r roinstuteil in his positioa 
aa son, seeing he had already received aiid wiwted in sin 
hia portion of the patrimony. All hf; nought waa to be 
mads OS one of the hired servnnta. And alike from tmo 
feeling, and to show that this was all hie pretence, \» 
would preface hia reqnest by the confession, that ho bad 
Binntd ' uguinst li«aven' — a frc4U«^utH^'brui>iU]for'aglinrt 



God ' — and iii the 

t of hia fatJier, and hence could do 
lougtr lay claim to the nmne of eon. 

Buf. the result; was far otiier than he could hnve ex- 
jwcted. Wlien. we rernl that, 'while he was yet afwr oflT, 
his i'atlier saw him.' we must evtdentily Tinderstand it in 
the sense. tJiitt his father had been always unthuoutiook for 
hiin, Kn iuipriaHicin which is strengthened by the later 
command to th« servantB to ' bring tlte ciiif, thu fatted 
• Kt. Lnko o°P'" ' as if it had bpen epeclully fattened ugaiost 
^''- -^ hifi return. As he now saw him, ' he was moved 

with compassLon, ajid he ran, and he fell oa his ueck. imd 
covered him with kisses.' Such a rboeption rendered the 
purposed requc&t, to be made as one of the hired eervujits, 
iatpos^ible. The fatht-r'^ love had ajiliL')])ated Mb con- 
fession, and rrtaJerod itssi'lf-spokttnaentwici' of cOtidetiiDai- 
tion impossible. And so lie only made coniesaion of his 
ain and wron<^^not only aa preface to the recjueet to be 
taken in aa a servant, but as tliL- uiityolng of a humbled, 
grjiti'fid, ti'oly jieniteiit ln^iirl^. H^ra it denervce special 
notice, an mRi'kinp the abeolule contrant between the 
teaching of Chi'iat and llabbinistn, that wo Imve ia. one of 
the oldest Rabbinic works a Parable exactly the reverse of 
this, when the aon of a friend is redeemed from bonda^, 
not as a aon. but to be a slavL-. Chat so oheilience might 
be demande'd of him. The inference drawn is, that the 
obfdience of the redeemed is not that of tiJial love of the 
nnrdnned, hnt the enforcement of the claim of tie master. 

Thf-y have rt-ached the house. And now (he futhei' 
would not only restore the eon, but convey to him the 
evidence of its f»nd he would do so before, and by the 
serYaiits. The three tokens of wealtii and iw-vition nre to 
be furnished him, ' Quickly' the senautb are to bi'in^ 
forth the *itola,' the upper garment of tha higher clasBL^B, 
and that ' the firsC ' — tho best, and this instead of the 
tattered, coarae ntimeiit. of the foreign swineherd. Similarly, 
the finffer-riniif for his hand, and the sandals for hia un- 
shod feet, would iiiiJifafe the son of the house. And to 
mark this still further, the eerviiiits are not only to bring 
these articles, bat iheuiselvee to 'put tlieim on 'the soil, 


60 as thereby to own his mastership, And yot fortLyp7 
the calf, ' the fii-l.t-ed on? ' for this very occasion, was to \tfi 
killed, and thei-e was to I« a joyous feaKt, for ' this ' hia 
son ' was deud, aud is ooine to life ng^uin ; wns lout und is 

Whiie this was going on, so continues the Parablp, 
the elder TjruthtT was still ia the tisld. On his return 
home, he inrjuiivd of a aerfant the reason of tlie festivities 
which he heard within the house. The hnrsh words of 
reproach with which he next set forth his own apparent 
wrongH coald have only one meaning': his fatlier hiid ntjvor 
rewarded him for his services. 

But in this very thing lay the error of the (ilder son, 
and to apply it — the fatal niist.abo of Phari«i.isni. The 
eldsr son n-gurdetl all as of merit mid rewaj'd, us SFork 
and return. But it is not so. We mark, first, that the 
same te-nderresg which had welcotaed the returning son 
now in^t the eldr-r bnn \wv. The futher Ppoko to the angry 
man, not in the language of merited reproof, but iiddi-esi'i.-d 
him lovingly as ' son,' and renfloned with him. And th^n, 
when he had shown hint hia wrong, lie would fain recoil him 
to betlerfwling by tolling him ofthe other R3 his ' brcithar.'" 
• Bt.Lnkf '^"'' ^^^ main (mint ia tliis. There can be here 
"■*' no qiipstioii of dosert. So long ns. the eon is in 

His Father's house, Hp gives in His great gotiihiess to His 
child all f.hat istlie Father's. But this poor lo.stonp — still 
a eon and n hn.ither — he has not got any r-eivard, oidy 
been taken bmk again by a Father's love, when ha had 
come hack to Ilim in thp misery of his nptid. This sou, or 
rather, as th« other should view him. this ' brother,' had 
been deail, and "'ns comt' to life again ; lost, and was 
found. And over tliia ' it was mi'et to miike merrj- and bo 
glad,' not tomnnuur. Such luunnunugcaiiiofroiiithoughts 
of work and pay— wrong in tbemselv-es, and foreign tKitJie 
proper idea of Father (ind son ; such joy, from a Pitther'a 
heart. The: eldfir brother's were the thoughts of a Bervant; 
of servioe and return ; the younger brother'a waa the 
welcome of a Bou in tho morcy fuid livcrlustiiig luvo of a 





(St. Lake svi.> 

Althocc-b widely differing in tlieir olijeot and teacling, 
the last i^Toiip of Purablea spoken diii-iii^ (.his ptirt uf 
Clii"ist'B Miaisf.i-y is, at least outwardly, connected by a 
leading thouglit. The word by whicti we would string 
tliem together la Righieott^ne^s. Tliere are three Parables 
of ihB t/jirightnoiie: tlie Utirit^hteoiis Steward, the lln- 
righteoua Owner, ami the UimgliteouB DlBpenaer, or Judge, 
And these aro folltiweii by two other Pambles of tie 
Se/^-righteoua : Self-rightieousiifeHS in its Ignorance, and 
its dangers as regai-da oueaelf ; uiiJ iSelf-Kight&ousiieae in 
its Hnrshriess, and its dimwerB as regnrds othera. But 
when this outward connection Ims hc^a inai'ked, we have 
gone tlie utmost length. Much more close is the intenial 
coimecliou between some of lliein. 

t, The Piirahle of Ihfl Uujiisf, StiiwiiiM-. — Here we dia- 
•si.Lnko tinguisli — 1. Tlie ilhiatratire Pavabla." 2. Its 
*rerfl iiioval,'* 3, Its application in the combination 

■ rv.w-ia of (iije moral with acme of the features of tJie 

1. The iHuatrativw Pftrable." This may bo said to 
• *». t-t converge to the point brought out in the conclad- 

■ YBT.B jjjg vt-rae:" the prudence which characterises tlio 
dealings of the children of this world in regmrd to their 
own geiieration^-oT, to traatilaf-e tho Jewish forma of px-- 
pressiou into our o^ti phraapology, the wisdom with which 
tlioee who cure not for the world bo come choose the ineana 
most effccf.nal tor atttiiiiing their worldly objacts. It ie 
this prudence by which tbeir aims are so effectually 
secured, ami it alone., which is Ket before ' the children of 
light,' an that from which li> learn. And the lee^on is the 
more [iractical, that thosa primarily addressed bad hitherto 
b&en among these men of the world. Let thom leani 
from the serpeut its ivi^idom, and from the dove its harm- 


fBSUS TH& Messiah 

lewBiiFSS ; from tho childn-n of tfiis world, tlicir pmdeiice 
BS regarilftl tlit-ir goncrnMon, wiiile, us cliildrcn <il' the uew 
light, iht-y imiBl remember tliti hiirlitir itiiii iVn- which that 
prudence was to be f>inploved. Tims would (lint MelidOu 
which IB ■ of unrightooaBncsii ' anJ whidj certainlj- ' t&ilf>th,' 
become to us trtiasure in thfr world to conit— w&lcomo 
lis th^rL'. luid, Bi> far fRtm "tftiliuf^.' prove pemiantiit— 
weleoiiii- us in pv<>rlastiiig tabrnniOps, Thus alsn shnll 
we Jiave made friends of tlie ' Munion of unrif^hteoiisness," 
and that, which from its natnre tnuBt fail, be«oiii« eternal 

I'ho connection between this Parable ftnd what th« 
Loixl had pre^■io^slJ■ said concerning returning sinnera, ia 
eridenced by the uao of thp term ' wjistini; " in the eharce 
against the st^wnrd, just us} the proJitrn! son hjul ' wHstt'd ' 
• M.[.iib> liis substjince.* Only, in the preni^iit [nstance, 
■"-" the property had been entruBted 1o hia oduuiiia- 

tniiion. Ah r<?t^ai"dH tha ownt-r, his dtu^i^iialion hk 'rich ' 
senilis imti'tidud to mark h^^w Lnrgi- w(is tht) propi-rty com- 
mitted to the (ileward. The ' stewurd ' was not, tis in St. 
Luke xii. 42-40, a elave, but one employed foi- tlia admioia* 
tration or the rich man's aJIairs, subji^ct to notice of 
'St. Luke diSTniKsid.'' He wib accused — ^the term implying 
«ri.3.j malevolence, bnt not necessarily «, faisp clii»rp;e — 
not of fi'aiid, but of wasting hia umster's ^oi^ds. And bis 
muster af«iia to have convinced himself that the charge 
wfta truf, ftiuci! lib at once gives him notice of disinissni. 
The latter is absolnte, and iioti made dej^ndent on the 
' account of his ate ward ship,' which is only asked ivhen be 
g!T68 up hb oflice. Nor does the nteword fithtT deny tbo 
charge or plrnd any extenuation. His gri-at concern 
rather is, during tlie time still left, of hia stewardship, 
before be gives up Ids accounts, to provide for his future 
support. The only alternative beforu biin in tlie fntnro is 
that of manual labour or Tuendieanoy. Bnt for th.> formw 
he ha« uoti strength ; from the latter he is restrained by 

Then it is that bis 'pmduace' stig:g»st8 a derive 1^ 
which, after his dismissal, \\<s may witioat begging bo 

V Pakable op the Unjust Stewaxd 395 

received inki the Louses of tluwft wliom In- ))a.i maJe 
friends. It must bft borno in mind that hp in slJil stcwnrd, 
luid, BS siicli, hns TuU power uf di&podng of biK miiskTr's 
litlliifB, Wliei], tliei'efore, Lo SLiiiis for one nfttr iiuother of 
Lia uififiter's ilfbtorK, unci lii>lU i-Jiub )u ult.iT the sum ill thi> 
bond, lie dws uot hug^sfc to tliom forgery or fnuid, but, in 
pemittiiig;j>att of the debt, he acts, aithcii^li iiiirif'htoously, 
yet Blrictly within Lis rig-Iilrt. Tbus neither the ateward 
aor the debtors could lift charged witii criiiiiimlity, and the 
master mitat liavp bi^eii struck with tho DlKVenir&sof a maa. 
who had thiia scciiri'd a future jJi-uviBion byniiikiii;? fri<*ndfl, 
so long a& he bail tlie UR-aui> of &o doiog (ere hi» Mamon 
of nnrighicfiUBnesg failed). 

A few ardiEBological notices may help the interpretation 
of details. It seLiiiB HIcely, thiit the 'bonds.' or rathOr 
'writiiigB,' of tliL'se dfbloi-B wun- writren acknowledg- 
meiit.s of dfht. In the lirKt case tbey are .'Stated as ' a 
hundred huth of <ii!,' in the se-cond ae *a hundred cor of 
wheat,' III ri-^iLrd to these quBiititieB we have tba pre- 
liminary difKculty, tbiLt tlu^e kiudm of iQeiisureiiieut were 
in nse in Palestine — thiit of the ' Witiiei-uess,' or the 
original .Mosaic; that of " JeruBalem,' whith waa more 
than a tiflh largnr; and that of SeiiplKtris, probably the 
ooramon Oiiiiieiin ineiiauremeut, which, in turn, was more 
than, n fifth larger than the Jerusalemmoaaiire. Assuming 
the mwi.'«iireitient to have buen the Galilean, one hiiUi 
wonld have been equal t^o about 39 litre*. In (he Parable, 
the first debtor waa owing 100 of these ha.lli^ or, accoi-- 
ding- to the Galilenn tnensurcment, Bbout3,900 liirc» of oil. 
The value of the oil would probably amount, to about lU/. 
of OUT money, and tbe remissioii of Uie ste\vard. of course, 
to 51. 

Tbe seooQcl debtor owed ' a hundred cor of wheat ' — 
tliftl IB, in dry mensare, teu times th* amount of the oil of 
the lirst debtor, since the cor was ten ephah or ftfifA, tbo 
tf'hah three xmh^ the ,i(mA ijLv ijuhh, and the ijdhh four log. 
Thi.-* must, be borne in mind, since tbe dry and the lluid 
meaNarea were pruciKel y the same ; aud here, alao, their 
threefold com[jiitatiou (tin; ■ Wildernoss,' the ' Jtruiialvm»' 



396 Jesus the Messiah V 

and the* Gnliloivn ') obtained. Strikiugnnavontgetetweeii 
tho rarioiiB prices meiitioiiod we infer that the hundred cor 
would wpreBpnt a debt of from MiOl. to 125^, and the re- 
mission of the steward (of 20 wr), a sum of 20^. to 25/. 
Comparatively Biiiall aa \h»=B sums nmj seem, they are in 
reality large, reiueiribennff thu vahieof money in I'ldeetioe, 
which, on a low <iomputatiou, would be tive tinjoB as great 
as in our own country. These two debtors are only mea- 
tioned as iiistaucea, and ao the unJHst atf-wnrd would etaily 
aecure for hiniHclf friends by the ' Mamon of anrighteoaH- 
neHs' — the tt'rra Mnvion, we mm note, hoicg derived from 
tlio Syriac aud Rabbinic word of the same kind (aigoifying 
tj3 appoptiun). 

Antither point on which acijiiaintance with the history 
and liabits of those times throws li^lit is, how the debtors 
could so easily alter the sum rneutioiied in their rpspcdive 
boiide. For the ti-st impliea thsit this, aud not the writing 
of a new hoiul, is inteudpd ; siace iti that- the old one 
wuuld have been destroyed, and not given baek for alt«ra- 

The materials on which the Jews wrote were of the 
ino&t divei'se kind : lenves, as ol' olives, palins, the carob, 
&ic. ; the rind of the pomeoranate, the shell of walnuts. 
&C. ; the prepared skins of aiiinials (leather and parch- 
ment) ; and the product of the papyma, used king before 
the time of Alexander tlio Gn-at for the maunftictnre gf 
paper, and known in Talmiidie writing& by the same name. 
Bnt whfit intiiests us more, as we remember the ' tablet ' 
ou which /'(.iiIiitriaR wrote the name of the future Baptist,' 
• 81, Luke i* *;h6 eircnniatauce that it Ix-ai-s not only thfr 
'•*' same name, but that it seems to have been of 

sneh common uee in Palestine. It consisted of thin 
pieces of wood fastened or strung t-oj^ther. Tlie Mi^buah 
enumeratfiB three kinds of thetn : thosr- where tho woofl 
was covered with papyrus, those where it was covered with 
wax, and those where the wood was h-ft plain t^o be written 
on with ink. The latter was of diifei-ent Icttids, Blutk 
ink was prepared of soot, or of vegetable or mineral Eub- 
stances. Gum Arabic and Egyptian and vitriol &eem sleo 

Parable op the U.vyi/sT Steward 397 

to bave Iweu used id writing. A pen maile of reed was 
employed, and the rel'tirencR in on Apostolic EpisMe* to 
wriling ' witli ink and pen ' linds eveu its verbal 
couuteqjai't iu Me Midrasli. Indeed, the public 
'writer' — a trade very common in the EnsL^ — went iibont 
■with a reed-peti buhiud Ida ear. aa Ijiwige of hia em- 
ployment. With the reed-pen we ought to mention it« 
neceaeary accompaniments ; the pen-knife, the iukatwnd 
(whidi, wEi&n douHe, for black and red ink, was eotue- 
tiniea made of earthenware), and the ruler — it heing re- 
gaifled by the stricter aet as ualawftd to write any worile ; 
of Holy Writ on any uulined mati?rial, no doubt to eueiiira ' 
correct writing and reading. 

\a. all this we have not referred to the ptiictice »t 
writing OQ leather spflciaily prepared with aalt and fioiir, 
nor to the parchmeut iu the atrict«r sense. For we ai« 
hore chiefly interftsted in the common mode of writing, 
that on the' tablet.,' and especially on that covered with was. 
Indeed, a little vessel holding wax was generally alttujhed 
to it. On such a tablet they wrote, of courae, not with a 
reed-pen, but with a xtijlus. generally of iron, 'litis in- 
stmuji-nt conHisted. of two party, which miyht be detai.'lied 
from each otlier: the hard pointed 'writer,' and the 
' blotter,' which was fla.tand thick for smoothing out letters 
and words wliidi had been written or ratfiergrftven in tlie 
wiiXL. Thure cnn be no C|iiestion that ackuuwledgrnents of 
delit, and other transactions, were oi-dinarily written down on 
Biich wax- covered tablets; for not only is direct reference 
made to it, hut there arm Bpt.-tia] provisioiiB in regiird to 
diicnmenta where there am sLich eraHure.H. or rather elfiice- 
riientsi — such iis, that they require to be noted in the docu- 
ment, under what condilione and liow the witnesses are in 
such cases to ullis their [^ignaturew, »!tc. — just as there are 
particular injunetionn how witiiewaea who could not write 
are to afHx th(.*ir mark. 

2. We return to notice thp momi of the Parable.'' It 18 
put in these words: 'Muke to yourselves friends out 
of [by means ofj the Msmon of iiiirighteoiisness, 
that, when it shall (ail, they may receive you into ever- 

> HI-LukB 


j£St's TME Mess/A fr 

lasting fciilifTPaclcs.' I■^■om wliat has bt^cn pn'vinitsly stfi+e^ 
the mnsniiig nf tliftifl wortiB oBBm littlt* soriniis difficnlty. 
Wo rowill tlu' circumsfttnoL- that thvy were pritnarily 
(iddresseMl to ctnivert<*rl publicniis and Kuiners, to whom the 
exprfswiori ' Mainoii of aiinKiit*>oiiHiifSB " — of whi«li them 
are rlren- amilngiirs, iitid cvfm ati i-xatrt tmiiNcript in tlie 
'I'argnm — would liavc an obvious tnetiiiing. Aj>:ain, Hie 
addition of t>he definite article leAvea no doubt, that ' the 
«veila!ttiug tftbfrrnacles ' meaa the well-knuwn bearenly 
liomp; in whicli sptian tlio Irrm ' tal«TniK;b ' is. indeed, 
fttrcndy ti&Kl iu tlie Old Tcetanifitt. Hid us ii whole wv 
regard it as aii adaptation to the I'«ral)le of the well- 
Itijnwii Riihhiiiic 8«ying. that tht<re w^re ceitjiiii gvaoeaof 
which « man enjoved the Itenefit hvrv:. whilu thw cnpitul, 
eo to speftk, rcumintMl for the^ next world. And if A mow 
literal iiili^rprf t^it ion were demanded, w^ cannot but feei 
the duty incumbent on thoB*^ cionvart^d publit'ans, nay, in 
o nouns, on ua all. to seek to nuiki* for oursi-'tvcs of the 
Mnmon — he it of money, of knowledge, of strenjrth, op 
opportunities — which to many haa, and to sH may so 
easily Ijecwne thai. ' of Hnrighteouaneas * — -such lastinjf and 
spiritual iipplicalion; ^lin sn*rli friends by mixin* of it-, 
tfiiit, • when it fails,' ns fail it muKt when we die. nil may 
not be lost, hut ratliar meet ua iu heaven. Thus would 
each deed done for God with this Manion bocome a friend 
to greet ii» iw we enter the et*mnl woHd. 

3. The snitablenest* both of the Pnrahle and of its appli- 
cation to the aiidifiiiPo of Christ appears fram its similaritv 
to what f>ccnr» in Jewish writings. We almost seein to 
henr tiio very words of Christ : • He that i« faiUiful in 
thut which i« lea.< is faithful also in much,' in this of the 
Midraali : ' The Holy One, blessed be Hib Name, does not 
give great thinjkCM t^o n ruan uutil he hiis bie^^u tried in a 
Rmall Tiiiittcr ; ' which i» illusta'nted by the hi-dorv of* 
«nd of David, who were both called to rule from the faithful 
guiding of sheep, 

Oonsidering that the Jewish mind would be fauiiliAT 
with Btieli modee of illustration, there could have bi^en no 
misnndoistandinf ef the words of Clirist. Those c<HiTert«d 

Parablr of Dn'ss and Lazaxvs 


puUirans might, think tluit. t|]fiwwfi«a v«*iy iiaiTMW ^|ilii-i-e 
of service, nn« of HtlJp importnticr ; or else, litcL- tlie I'hari- 
apes, that fnithfnl arlminiKt ration of the thingaof this world 
(' the IMnmon of Hiirigliteonsness') Iiitd no K-ariiig on the 
poKML'ssioii of Hip tmf riches in the nt-xi wm-lil. In .-inswtif 
to tlie first (iiffiouhy. Christ points ont; that the principle 
of service is t:h<» enmP, whether ftpi>li«l to much or to little; 
tliat the one was, inrlped. niwt. preparation for, iind, in 
*si,i:nki> tnith, thi' twit of the other.* Thf-reforc, if a man 
KTi,iii failed in faithful soi-vice of GckI iu his worldly 
mftfters, could he look for the t.nie Mamnn. op richcH of the 
vrorW to come? Would not his uufail.hfiihieps in tlie lower 
sti'wardahip imply unfitnese for the higher? And — «till 
in the lan^nge of the Parahle — if they had not proved 
fnithful Iti niero Htf wardship, ' in tlmt 'ffliioh wns atiothor's,' 
cotihi if- lio exfwx'tutl that they would he es«!ted fmni 
st^pwnrxlship to propri«kirship? And the iilfiiiiafe upplicji- 
IJOU of all was this, that dividcdnpss was imposaihlo in tho 
servico of (Jod.'' Thfc>w m iiKscilntcly no dietinc- 
'^' tiioa to the diseiple between spiriliml mattera and 

worldly, and otir common iixage of the words SMnlar and 
Bpii-itual is derived from a serious niisimderstfrnding and 
mrwlak^. To the fieiculai*. nothing is spiritual ; and to the 
spiriliiHl. nothing in si^cidar: No servant ran serve two 
Jfnstprs ; ye cjinnol servo Gnd unci Mniiion. 

II. The Piiruble of /hVf.* and Laiarim." — Although 
primarily spoken to the Pharisees, <ind not to 
the disciples, yet. aa will presently appear, it 
was spoken for rhp disciples. 

The ivords of f'liritit hiwl t^mched more than one sore 
spot in the hearts of the Pliarisee**, It is said that 
llu-y derided Elim — litemlly, 'turned up their nosea »t 
"Wbt h H'"'-" '' Tl"' iii'iokincr gpstures. ^.vitli which they 
pointed to Ilia puhlicin-diseiples, would he bp- 
oonipnnied by niorkine' words iu whieii they would L-xtol 
and favoorahly compare tiicir own chuMB and standing 
with that of those new dieciples of Christ. But one by 
one their pleas w«r6 taken up aud qhown to be uiiteimhle. 
They were ]»er«ons who by outwitrd rightccuwiicss and 


Jesus the ^f£ss/AU 


pretances sought to sjipear jast befon* niea, but Got! 
ifiiKW their henrls; and Ihat which was esalted amonff 
men, tbeir PharieAic standing and standing aloof, was 
•stbike Bbomiiiation before Him." These two points ftirm 
""■ " omin subject of t.lie Pwaljle. Its first objoct 

wae to show the gi'Kit differencH between the ' before men " 
and tho ' bL^fore God ; ' between Divtis as he appears to 
men in this world, and tm be iu before God and will ba lu 
tbe next world. Again, tbe s&coad main object of tbe 
Parable was to illustrate that tbeir Pharisaic standing and 
standing aloof — the b<?aring of DLvea in reference to a 
Liizarus — which was the glory of Pbarisaism before men. 
was an aboTninntion bftforn God. Yet a third object of tbe 
Parable waa in ivferi-nce to tbeir covetou&uesa, the selfish 
nse which they mude of tlintr poKBessioiiS' — their Mamon. 
But a st'lfisb wns im imriirhl^^oTi.s nse ; and, as such, would 
iTiet't with Borsr rL'tribntion than in tbe case of an unfaith- 
ful stcrwai-d. 

ChpiaL tlion pi'OL'i'etib to combat tleaa gi'ounds of their 
bwiriiig, tbiih they were the costnJuius and obs«rpei')i of 
tbe Law unri of the Prophets, while those poor sinners hml 
no cbrtniB upon the Kiiif^duin of God, Vta — but. the Law 
and tlie Prophets had their terminus lul (jv>'in in John tin- 
Biipti(»t, wlio ' brought tbn gooil tiding of tbe Kiajrdoni of 
God.' Since then ' every one ' bad to enter it by personal 
reaolutiou and ' force.' '' It was true that the 
Law L-onld not fall in one tittle of it." Bnt, 
iiot.orioii,ily and iu everydiiy lile, the PbariNees, 
wlio thus spnke of the Law and appealed to it, 
well* the constant and open breaters of it. Wit- 
ness liL-re their teaching and practice conoemiag 
divorce, wliich I'HuIly involved u briiacb of the aeventh 

Honring in mind that wo have here only tbe ' headiage,' 
or rather the' stL'ppin^ stones,' of Christ's argument — froBi 
nottta by a lieart*r at the time, whifh wi«re idii-nMinls given 
to at. Luke— wc ptircBivo how closely oonnocted aro the 
secminirly disjointed S0ntence« which prcifnce the Parable, 
and how aptly they mtxodlLce it, TUv PuiuUu il,aelf ii" 

^ riiirnli. St,. 
Miitt.. li. II, 
ikoi) ciur 
r^amjt^^ nn 

•SL Llikf 
iri. 10. 17 

Parablb qf Dives aitd Lazarus 


fit-nctly of the Phajisees ancl tlieir relation to tha ' publicans 
and sinners ' wliom tbey despised, and to whose steward- 
ship they opposed thoaghts of tlieir own proprietorship. 
It teilla in two directions: in regard to their selfiah uae of 
the literal riches — tlieir cov^tousness ; and in legard to 
thttir selGah cae of t)ie tigurative riches — their Phariaajr 
rig-hteousness, which left poor Lazarus at tht-ir door to the 
ddgB and to famine, not bi-stowing on him aught from their 
HTipposed rich festive banquets. 

It will be neceBsaiy in the interpretation of this Parable 
to keep in mind that its Parabolic details must not be ex- 
ploited, nor doctrines of any kind derived from them, 
either as to the cbaractor of the other woi'ld, the question 
of tbe duration of fnture pnniahmenta, or the possible 
moral improvement of tlioee in Gelmmom. All such things 
are foreign to the Parable, which 13 only a type and illuB- 
txation of what ia intended to be taught, 

1, Dives tnid Lazarus before and after deatk.* — The 
•st-LnkB Parable opeaa by presenting to ub ' a rich man' 
iTi,i((-M 'clothed in purple and bysaiis, joyouely faring 
every day in aplendoiir.' Byssus and purple were the most 
expensive mat^riala, only inferior to silk, which if genuine 
and unmised — for at least tlrireekiudaof silk are mentioned 
in anciient Jewish wriUnga — was worth its weight in gold. 

Quite in aucordaiice with this luxuriousneas was t.he 
fc>a«tiug every day, the description of which conveya the 
impressiom of company, merriment, and splendour. This 
is intended to set fortii the selfish use which this man made 
of his wealth, and to point the contrast of his bearing to- 
wards Laznriis. Here also every detail is nieant to mark 
the pitiabliiness of tlie case, aa it stood ont before Dives. 
The very name — not often mentioned in auy other real, 
and never in any other Pariibolic story — tellu It : Lazanis, 
LaazdTf a common abbi'eviation of Jikmm, as it were, ' God 
help hvm ! ' Then we read that he ' was cast ' (it his gate- 
way, as if to mark that the bearere were glad to throw 
down thfir unwelcome burden. Laid tliore, he waa in foil 
view of the Phariaee aa he weat out or came in, or eat in 
his courtyjinl. And us he looked at him, h« was covered 


Jesus the STrssiah 

with a loathfloine diBt^ase ; as h« heui'd him, lie uttered a 
pilwjUB request to be lilled mtli what fell fi'om tJie riidi 
man's table. Yet iiotliiiig was done ttj help his bodily 
niiserj, and, aa the wi>cd 'deisinug' impliea, bis longing 
for the 'crumbs' reuiitined unsatisfied. So selfiah ia the 
UMo «f his weallh was Div?a, ao wrpitchpd Lazarus in his 
view ; BO sell-salisfied and unpitying was the Pharisee, so 
mifierable in bis aiglit and ao ne^dj the publican and 
sinner. ' Yea, even the dogs came and licked his sores ' — 
for it is not to be anderstood ns an allpviation, bat as an 
aggravation of his ills, that he was left tf> the dogs, which 
in Scripture aro always represented aa unclean animals. 

So it was before men. But how was it before God ? 
There thd ri-lation waa reversed. The heggar died^uo 
more of him here. But the Angels ' carried him away 
into Abraham's bosom.' Leaving aside for the present tho 
tTewieh teacliiiig conireniing \Aiv. ' after deiitli," we ai'e struck 
with the sublime simplicity of the Ggiiviitive langtiage used 
by Christ, as compared with the wild and 3en.-iuou9 fancies 
of later Rabbinic teaching on the subject. It is, indeed, 
true that we must not look in this Paiabolic language for 
Christ's teaching about the 'after death.' On the other 
hand, while He would say nothing that wa« essentially 
divtrgent from the purest viewH entertained on the subject 
at that time, yet whatever He did eay must, when stripped 
of its Parabolic details, be coneonaat with fact. Thus, the 
carrying up of the soul of the righ taous by Angele is certainly 
in accordance with Jewish teaching, though stripped of »1J 
legendarydetail8,8ucha9aboutthenumberand the greetings 
of the Aiigels. But it is also fully in accordance with Chris- 
tian thought of the ministry of Angels, Again, as regards 
the expreseion '■ Abraham's bosom,' it occurs, although not 
frequently, in Jewish writings. On the other band, the appeal 
to Abraham as our father is so frequent, his presence and 
merits are so constantly invoked ; notably, he ia so expressly 
designated as he who re-ceives tlie penitent into Pa.radist\ that 
wo can see how congmoua, especially to the higher Jtiwieh 
teaching which dealt not in coflrseiy BPUBuoas descriptiona 
of Paradise, the jthrase ' Abraham's bosom ' must have biTjn. 

Parable of Divps and Lazarus 


• BE, Liifce 
ivi. i3-ia 

2. DivuH mid Lasiirus afUsr (.ieaih;* The 'great con- 
trast' ftilly realiaed, and how to enter into the 
Kingclum. — Here also the main interest centreB 
in Dives. He ulsu hiLs died and been buried. Thug eads 
all hia exaltedneas before men. The next scene is in JIajiMji 
or Sheol, the place of the disemhodied apirite befoi'e the 
final Jud^eot. It consists of two divisions: the one of 
consolation, witJi all the faithful gathered unto Abrahani ne 
their father ; the other of fiery tonnent. Thus far iu ac- 
cordance with the general teaching of the New Te§tametit. 
As regai-ds the detaiJa, they evidently represent the views 
cuTPent ai. the time amoug the Jews. According to them, 
the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life were the abode of 
the blessed. Nay, in common belief, the worda of Gen. 
ii. 10 : ' a river went out of Eden to water the garden,'in- 
dicated that this Eden was distinct fi-om-andauperiorto, the 
garden in wJiich Adaui liad been originally placed. With 
refoceooe to it, we read that tlie righteouB in Paradise sea 
the wicked iu (jfihimwmy and rejoice j and, similarly, that 
the wiclted in QMnnom. see the righteoas sitting beatified 
in Paradise, aad their aouls are troubled. Again, it is 
consonant with what were the views of the Jews, that cftn- 
versatione could be held between dead pei'aone, of which 
eoveml legendary instances are given in the Talmud. The 
torment, especially of thirst, of the wicked, is repeatedly 
mentioned in Jewish writings. The righteous is seen be- 
side delicious springs, and the wicked with his tongue 
parched at the brink of a river, the waves of which are 
constantly receding from him. But there is this very 
marked and characteristic contrast, tbiit iu the Jewish 
legend the beatified is a Pharisee, while tlie Rinner tor- 
mented with thirst ia a Publican! Above all, we notice 
that there is no analogy in Rabbinic writings to the state- 
ment in the Parable, that there ia a wide and impassable 
gulf between Paradise and Gehenna. 

To return to Che Parable. When we read that Divea 
in torments 'lifted op his eyes,' it was, no doubt, for help, 
or, at least', alleviation. Then be first perceived and re- 
cognised the reversed relationship. The text emphatically 

D n I 


repifata bere : ' And he,'— litpraJlj, thia oae, as if now for 
the firnt time h» realiaBJ, but only to misunderataiid aud 
misapply it, how easily saperabandance might. miiiiBter 
relief to extrenie need — ' calling (viz, upon = invoking) 
ftaid : " Father Abraham, have mercy upon me, anci Bend 
Lazarus.'" Tlie invocation trf Abraham, aa ha^g the 
powor, and of" Abruham as 'Father,' was n;iliiral on the 
part of a Jew. All the more telling is it, that the rich 
Pharisee should belioM in the bosom of Abmbam, whose 
rhild he specially clniroed to be, what, in hia eight, had 
lieen poor LaKonis, covered with morfvl sores, and, re- 
ligiously fpeaJsing, thrown down outside his gste. And it 
waa the climax of the contraRt that he should now have to 
invoke, and that in vain, his ministry, seeking it at the 
bands of Abraham. And here we also recall the prerioua 
Parable about making, ere it fail, friends by means of the 
Mamon of unrighteouauoas, that thpy may welcome ub in 
the everlasting tiibemaclea. 

It should be remembered that Dives now limits hi."? ra- 
qnest to the hnmblefitdimensions, asking only that Xaaarus 
might by sent to dip the tip of hiw finger in the cooling 
liqnid, and thug give liim even the smallest relief. To this 
Abraham rpplies, though in a tone of pity : ' Child,' yet 
decidedly — showing Iiim, first, the rightness of the present 
position of things ; and, secondly, the impossibility of any 
alteration, such aa he had asked. Dives bad in hia life- 
time received Iiis good things ; those had been his, he had 
choaen them lis his part, and lined them ftir self, without 
communicating of ihem. And IjiKanis had received evil 
things. Now Lazarus was comforted and Dives in 
torment. It was the right order — not that l.(azaru8 was 
comforted beoause in this world he^ had suffered, nor yet 
that Dives was Ln torment because in this world he had 
had riches, Bnt Lazarns received there fcli© couifort. which 
had been refnsed to him on earth, and the man who bad 
made this world his good, and obtained there his yiortion, 
of which he had refused even the crumbs to the most needy, 
now received the meet reward of his unpitying, unlot'ing, 
aelfiah life. But, besides all this, Dives had asked what 

Parablb of Dives and Lazarus 


was impoesibla : no intercoiirae could be held fcel^weeo 
Paradise and Gehenna, and on this account a great and 
impassable chaam existed betweeu the two, so that oven if 
they would, they could not pass from heaven to hell, nor 
y«t from hell to those in bliss. 

• St. LuitB 3. AfpUcation 0/ the jPamtife,' showing how 

*^- ""*' the Law and the Prophets cannot fail, and how 
we tnnet now preas into the Kingdom. 

We now find Dives pleading that Lnzariia roi^ht be 
sent to hia tire brothers, who, as we infer, were of t!ie same 
disposition and life aa himself had been, to ' testify nnt« 
them ' — the word implying earneet testimony. Preaum- 
ably, what he so asked to be attested was, that he, Divea, 
waa in torment ; and the expected effect, not of the testi- 
mony bQt of the mission of Lazarua,'" whom they 
are aiipposed to huve Ituowu, was that these hia 
brothers might not come to the aaine place. At. the same 
tinje, the request seeiBB to imply an attempt at seli-juati- 
ficatioii, as if during hia life he had not had suHicient 
warning. Atcordiuj;Iy, the reply of Abraham is no longer 
couched in a t<jne of pity, but implies stem rebuke of Dives. 
ITiey need no witiiess-betii'er : they have Mnses nnd the 
Prophet.!*, let them hear th^m. If testimony be needed, 
theirs has been given and it is sufficient — b reply this, 
which would specially appeal to the Phariaees. And when 
Dives, now, perhaps, as much bent on selt'-j us tifi cation as 
on the message to hia brothers, remonstrates that although 
tiiey had not received such testimony, yet ' if one come to 
them from the dead,' they would repent, the final, and as 
history bus .shown since the Resurrection of Christ, the true 
answer is, that ' if they hear not [give not liearing to] 
Moses a,nd the Prophetn, neither will they bp infiuenoed 
[moved; their intellect* to believe, their wills to repent] 
if one rose from the dead.' 

And here the Parable, and the warning to the Pharisees, 

abruptly break off. When next we hear the Master's 

Toice," it is in loving application to the disciples 

ofsome of the lessons which were implied in what 

He had .spoken to the Phwisees. 


Jesus THE MsssfAff 






(8t. Lulie xviii. 1-14 : 81. Malt. xviU. S3-3b.> 
We iiiuflt bear in mind tlint between tte JParaltle of 
DiiKe arid Lazarus (lud that of the Uiijiid Ji^^iije, most. 
moinent«u8 events hnA inten-ened. These were : the visit 
ul* Jesua to Betliuuy, the raising of Luzarua, the Jerusaleai 
•at-juiin council ftgftinBt Cliriat, the Hifjlit. to Ephraim,' & 
brief atity and preaching there, and the comuieace- 
meiit of Ills Iftgt journey to Jeriisalom.ti Duriug 
this last, slow progress frorn the bucdera of Galileo 
to .leruealeiti, we t^tippose the Discourses" and 
the Parable about the Coming of the Son of Man 
to hare been spukwii. Aad although such utteranceg will 
be b«st conaidei-ed in oonnectiou with Christ's later and 
fall Diacourses about 'The Last Things,' we readily per- 
ceive, etven at this stage, how, when He set His Faco 
towards Jerusalem, thei-e to be cfteced up, thoiij^hla and 
words coiiceiaiii^ the ' End ' iniif have entered int-o all 
His tejiching. 

The most common but also the most serious mistake 
in reference to the Pai-able of ' the Unjust Judge,' is to 
regard it as implying that, just as the poor widow 
iu&isted in her petition and was righted because of her 
inaistence, so the diecipleB sliould persist in prayer, and 
would be heard because of theiriusietenre. The inference 
fi-om the Parable ia aot that tJie Church will be ultimately 
vindicated becauEn she perseveres in prayer, but l,hat ehe 
so perseveres, because (ioA will sui'ely right her cause: it 
is not that inaisteuce in prayer is the cause of itiS anewei^, 
but that the certainty of that which is asked lor ehonld 
lead to continuance in prayer, even when all around auums 
to forbid the hope of answer. This ia the lesson to be 
leiu-Hfd from a compariBou of the Ui^ust Judge witb the 

Parable op tub Unjust Jvdgb 407 

Just and Holy God in His dealings witJi His own. If the 
widow persevered, knowing tliat althongh no otber con- 
sideration, human or Divine, would infiuenw the UDJnst 
Judge, yet her insistence would secure its object, how much 
more should we ' not faint,' but continue in prayer, who 
are appealing to God, Who haa His people and His caase 
at heart, even though H© delay — renieiuberijig also that 
even thia ib for their eakea who pray I And this ia fully 
expreBSed in the inttodnctory words; 'He spake also a 
Parable to them with reference to the need be of their 
always prayiflg, and not fainting.' 

If it be asked, bow the conduct of the Unjust Jad^ 
could serve as illnstration of what might bo expected from 
God, we answer, that the lesson in the Parable ia not froRk 
the sitnilarity, but from the eontrtLet between the Unrigh- 
tt-oua human and the Righteous Divine Judge. ' Hear 
what the Unrighteous Judge aoitb. But God [mark the 
emphatic position of the word^, shall He not indeed viu- 
diuate [the injurieB of, do judgment for] His elect . . . ? ' 
Id truth, this mode of argament ia perhaps the inoBt 
common in Jewish Parables, and occurs on almost every 
page of antient Rtibbiuic comtneutarles. It is called the 
* light and heavy,' and answers to our reasoning u, ftyrtiori 
orde minorB adrnaJuK (from the less to the greater). Accord- 
ing to the Rabbis, ten instances of auch reasoning occur 
in the Old Testiimeot itself.' In the present Parable the 
reasoning would be: ' If the Judge of UurightBOuaneas' 
eaid that he would vindicate, shall not the Judge of all 
Kighteousneas do jud^nnent 011 behtilf of His Elect? Iti 
&ct, we have au esact Rabbiuio parallel to the thought 
uuderlying, and the leaaon derived from, this Parable. 
When describing how at the preaching of Jonah Nineveh 
repented and cried to God. His answer to the load perais- 
tentcry of the people ia thus explained : 'The bold (Tie who 
ia unabashed) contjuers even a wicked person [to grant him 
bis reqnestj, how much more the All-(4ood of the world! ' 

■ Theae t«n pusaiigcs are : Geii. xliv. 8 ; Exod. vi. 9, ISi Hnub, xii. 
14; Dent, nsi ST; two iD^iaaccs in Jerein, xii. 6; 1 SatD. xxtii. 3] 
Frnr. Xi. 31 ; B^tti, \x- U; uiid ICiiulc xv. i. 


Jesus the Mfssiah 


The Parable ojiens by laying down as a geoeral principle 
the neceaaity and duty of the disciples alwap to pray — 
the precise meaning being defined by iba opposite, or 
limiting clause; 'not to faint,' that is, not 'to become 
weaiy.' The word ' always ' must be underHtood la the seose 
of nnder all eircutti stances, however apparootly adverse, 
when it might seem as if an rtnawer could not come, and 
we ehottld therefore be in danger of ' laiuting ' or becO'ioiDg 
weary. Thus it ia argnfrd evon in Jewish writings, that a 
man should never be deterred from, nor ceaae pruyiiig — the 
Lillustrfition being from the case of Moaes, who knew tliat It 
fwaa decreed he should not enterthe land, and yet continued 
praying: ahoat it. 

The Parable introdnces to os a Judge in a city, and a 
widow. Except where a case was voluntarily submitted 
for arbitratioa rather than j iidgmeut, or jadiciii! advice waa 
sottg'ht of a sage, one inno could not have formed a Jewish 
tribunal. Be.-ides, his mode of speaking and acting ia 
inconsistent with such a hypothesis. He mnst therefora 
have been one of the Jndges, or municipn.! authoritias, 
appointed by Herod or the Komans — perhaps k Jew, but 
not a Jewish Judge. Posaibly, he may liave been a polico- 
magistrate, or one who hud some function of that kind 
delegated to him. We know that, at least in Jerasalem, 
there were two atipendiury magietratea, whose duty it was 
to see to the observance of all piolice-rygulatioDB and the 
prevention of crime, At any rate there were in every 
locality poliee-officials, who watered over order and law. 
Frequent in&taucea are mentioned of grosa injuaficB aud 
bribery in regard to the non-Jewish Judgpa in Palestina. 

It is to such a Judge that the Parable refers — one who 
, 8t. LnKe ^^ avowfidly " inaccessihle to the highest motive, 
"111-* the fear of God, and not even restrained by the 
lower consideration of regard for public opinion. It is an 
extretoe case, intended to illustrate the exceeding unlikeli- 
hood of justice being dona For the Baine purpose, the 
party seeking jnn-tice at his hnnda ib deacribf"! as « poor, 
unprotected widow. This widow cnme to the Unjust ■ 
Jndgo (the imperfect tense in the original indicating 


repeated coming), with the urgent domnnd to Ke vindicak'd 
of h«r ftdverBary : that is, tlmt tbe Judge should make 
legal inquiry, and by a docipion set ber right as agninHt 
him at wLoge hands she was sufTeiiTig wrong. Forruasons 
cif big own he would not; and this condiniifd for a while. 
At last, not from any hif^her principle, nor eveu from regard 
for public opinion —both of wliitih, indeed, as he avowed to 
himself, had no "weight with bini^he complied with her 
request, as the text (literally tracslateiJ) has it. : ' Yet at any 
• Corap. et, '"*** * because this widow tixmbleth me, I will do 
Luke It 8 jnatice for her, lest, in tbe end, coming sheliruiHe 
me ' — do pei'Bonal violence to m.e, ttio bodily. Then 
folloWH the grand inference from it: 1 1" the 'Judge of 
Unrighteonsneaa' apeak thus, shall not tbe Judge of all 
Kighteoasnesa — God — do judgment, vindicate [by His 
Coming to jadgmenfc and so setting right the wrong done 
to Hia Oburch] 'Hia Elect, which cry to Him day and 
night, alfchongh He aiifl'er long on account of them"' — delay 
Hia final interposition of judgment and mercy, and that, 
not as th* Unjust Judge, but for tbpir own saiifiH, in order 
that the number of the Elect may aLl be gathered in, and 
they fully prepared ? 

2. 27ie PmuhU of tlie Pharisee a7id the PuJdica-n, which 
' St. LnkB foUowa," is only internally connected with that of 
iviii, u-n < the Unjust judge.' It is not of uDrighteou&- 
neBB, bat of self-righteousness — and this, both in its poei- 
tive and negative aspects : as trust in one's own state, and 
as contempt of others. Again, it has also this connection 
vfith the previona Parable, that, whereas that of tbe Un- 
righteous Judge poinwd to continnance, tiiis to humility 
in prayer. 

Probably something had taken place which is not 
recorded, to occasion tbls Parable, wliich, if not directly 
addressed to the Pharisees, is to such as are of Pharisaic 
spli'it. It brings before us two men going itp to the 
Temple — ^whether ' at the hour of prayer,* or otherwise is 
not stated. Remembering that, with the exception of the 
Psalnia for the day and the interval for a certain prescribed 
prayer, tbe service in the Temple was entirely eacri^cial, 




H-e are thankful for such glimpses nhich eliov that, both in 
the time of public service, and sliU more at other times, 
the Temple was tnadd the place of private prBjer.' On 
i^ ti'e preeent occasion the two meB, who went to- 
»;'^Ao"u"i. g>"ther to the entrance of the Teraple, represented 
Miv.iii.« tlie two religious extremes in Jewish society. 
To the entrance of the Temple, but no farther, did the 
Phorise© and the Publican go together. Within th« sacred 
enclosure — before God, where man should least have made 
it, began their separation. ' The Pbitriaeo put hiniiseif by 
hiniBelf, and prayed thus: O God, I tliBuk Thee thiit I am 
not as the rest of men — extortiouers, unjust, adulterers — 
nor ftlao as tliis Pablican [tliere].' Never, perhapa, were 
words of tiiaukagivtog apokeu in less thaukfiilnesa than 
theee. They referred not to what he had received, but to 
the sinB of olliers by which they were sepJirated from him, 
and to hi» owii meritorious deetls by wliicLlewas separated 
from thena. Thus his words expresaed wliat his attitada 
indicated; and both were the expression, not of thank- 
fulnees, hut of boastf'ulness. It wab the eame as their 
heaiitig at feasts aud in public places ; the same t& their 
contempt iiud ceindemnatiou of ' thi^ i-est of men,' and espe- 
cUdly ' the publicans ; ' the same tluitBven their designation 
— 'Phai-iHoe8,''SepEira.ted ones' — implied. The 'reBtof'nien' 
might be either the GeiiUlfs, or more probably, the common 
unleiu-ued peojile, whom they accused or suspected of every 
possible liin, acc-ording to their fundamental principle: 
'Tbe uuleiimed cannot be pious.' And it must he added 
that, B& we read the Liturgy of tlie Synagogue, we come 
ever and again upon suA and similar tbankagiving — that 
they are 'not as the rtst of men.' 

But this Wiis not nil. From lookitig down upon otherg 
tlie Pharisee pi'ocffded to look up to hiniadf. Here 
Talmndie writinijs offer parallelisma. They are full of 
referencee to the merita of the juut, to ' the merits aud 
rightfcousnees of the fathers,' or else of lerael in taking upon 
itself the Law. And for the sake of these merits and of that 
righteousness, iBi-jel. as a nation, expeete general ofCept- 
mucp, pardon, and teiuporal benefits. All spiriuia-l beuelitg 

Parable op the Pharisee and the Pubucan 411 

Isriiel a& h iiutioQ, and the pious in Israel individual);^, 
poaaees already, nor do tJiey need to get theia from 
heaven, since they can and do work them out fox 
themselves. And here the Pharisee in the Parable sig- 
nificaiitly dropped even the form of thanksgiving. Ilie 
religioua perlonniinces which he anmnerated are those 
which mark the Pharisee among tie Pliarisees : ' I fa.?t 
twice a week, and 1 give titheaof all thjit J. acquire.' The 
first of these was in pursuance of the cuafcom of some 
' more rigliteous thaa the rest,' who, as previously ex- 
plained, fasted on the aeooud and fillh dayg of the week. 
But, perhaps, wo ehoiild not fcirgpt that, these were also 
the regular market, dayt', whtn the conntry-people came to 
tlie liQwns, and there worie special Services in the Syna- 
gogues, and the local Sanhedrm raet^— ho that these saints 
in Israel would, at the aame time, attract and receive 
spL-cial notice for their faats. As far t!i« boast about 
^ving tithes of all ihat he acqiurftl — and not merely of 
his land, firuita, ttc. — it has already been explained 
that this was one of the distinet.ive characteriaticB of * the 
sett of the Phiiriseen.' Their practice in this respect may 
be summed up in these words of the Mishnah : ' He tithes 
all that he eats, all that he- sells, and all that he buys, 
and he ia not a guest with an unlearned person [so aa not 
posaibly to piirtake of what may liave been left uotithied].' 
Although it may not be necessary, yet a quotation 
will help to show how truly this picture of the Pharisee 
was taken from life. Thus, the following prayer of a 
Rabbi is recorded: ' I tbauk Thee, O Loal my God, that 
Thou hast put my part with those who sit in the Academy, 
and not with those who sit at the corners [iiiouey-chaiigera 
and traders]. For I riae early, and they rise early : I riao 
early to the woi-da of the Law, and they to vain thiuga. 
I labour and they labour : I labour and receive a rp«"ard, 
they labour and receive no rewai"d. I run und they run : 
I run to the life of the wortd to come, and tbey to the pit 
of destruction.' We also recall mich painful sayings m 
those of Rabbi Simeon ben -Jochtii, to which vferonce baa 
already been mad<; — notably this, that jf there were otily 


Jesus the Meshiah 

two riftliteoua men in tie world, lio mid hia 8on wen- 
these ; and if only one, it was he 1 

The second pictare, or scene, in the Parable sets before 
us the reverae etaW of fueling from ihiiC of the Pharisee, 
Only wa must hear in mind, that as the Pharisee is not 
blamed for his giving of thanks, nor yet for bis good- 
d6iDg, reni or imnginary, bo the prayer of the Publican is 
Dot answered beoAiise he wa« a sinner. lu both caseti 
what decides the rejection or accejjiaiioe of the prayer is, 
whether or not it was prayer. The Pharisee retains the 
righteonsiiesa which he had claimed for bitnself, wliatever 
its value; and the Publican receivea the righteouKuess 
whtcli lie asks : both have what they desire before God. 
If the Pharisee ' stood by himself,' apart from others, ho did 
the Publican: 'standing iiiar ofT,' viz. from the Pharisee 
— quite far back, as became one who fflit himself unwnrthy 
to mingle with God's people. In accordance with this: 
' lie wonlil not so much as lift his eyes to he^vim,' as mcit 
generally do iti piayer, ' but smote bis breast ' — as the 
Jews i^till do in the most solenm part of their oonfcEiHion 
on the Day of Atonement. — -' saying, God be mprcit'ui to 
me the aiuner.' The aao appealed to himself for justice, 
the other appealed to God for mercy. 

Odc« moro, aa between the Pharisee and the Publican, 
the aeeiniug and the real, that before men and before God, 
there is aliarp oontraat ; and the leeson which Christ hod so 
often pointed is again eet forth, not only in remind to the 
feeling winch the Pharisees ewtertained, but also to the 
glad tidings of psirdoii to the lost : ' I say unto yon, This 
man went down to hia house justified above the other.' 
In other words, the sentence of righteousness as from G«d 
with which the Publican went Jiome was above, fur better 
than, the seiiteuce of rig-ittaousuess as pronounced by 
himself, with which the Pharisee returned. This saying 
iMstii also li^ht on such comparisons us between 'tisB 
righteous ' elder brother and the pardout-d prodij^iil, or the 
nioety.nLne that 'need no repentance' and the lost that 
was fouud, or on snch an utterance as this : ' Kxct-pt your 
righteousness shall exceed the rightt^uusness of the ^crUwe 


Papablb of the UxMSffaFUL SsRVAifT 413 

and PbaTiBeeB, ye shall in no case enter iTifi^i tKe Kinjfdora 
•at, Matt of Heaven.'* And bo the Parable ends with 
'■* the genernl principle, so often enunci&ted : ' For 

every one that oxaltedi himBelf eliall be abased ; and he 
that humbleth bimself shfill be exulted.' And with this 
Tully accords the instruction of Christ to Hie dieciplea 
coaceming the reception of Iit.tle children, whioh ira- 
'8t. Luke mediately follows.*" 

f B^M^tB.' 3. The pamble with which this Beries closeg — ■ 

ixux.-ii^i that of the Uivmitrciful Svn-ant '-"—can be treated 
more briefly, fljnee the circumatftuces lending up to it hava 
ivlready been explained, We nre now reacliiug the point 
where the solitary iiapnitive of St. Lake again merges with 
those of the otlier Evangelists. The Parabie of the Un- 
merciful Servant belongs to the Periean series, and closea it. 

Its connectiou with the Parable of the Pharisee and 
the Publican lies in this, that Pharisaic gelf-righteousneaa 
and contempt of others may easily lead to unforgivetieBS 
and nninert'i fatness, which are utterly incompatible with 
a sense of oiir own need of Divine mercy and forg^iveneaa. 
And so in the Go.'spel of St. Matthew this Parable followB 
on the exhibition of a self-righteous, unmerciful spirit, 
which wotild reckon up how oftoo we should forgive, 
forgetful of our own need of absolute and unlimited pardon 
« St. Kurt, iit t-he hands of God *' — a spirit, moreover, of 
i»iitis-3a harshness, that conld look down npon Christ's 
' little ones,' id Ibrgetfiilnese of our own need perhaps of 
cutting off even a riglit hand or foot to enter the Kingdom 
. a. V « "f Heaven." 

jvuii. 1-H. in studj'ing thig i'arable, we must onee mora 

ijnanui remind oureelyea of tlie general canon of the need 

of lUstiugaishing between what is eeaentiul in a Parable, 
as directly lifaring on its lessons, and what is merely bitro- 
dnced for the sake of the Parable itself, to give point to 
its inun teaching. 

Keeping apart the eseentials of the Parable from the 
accident.3 of its narration, we have three distinct scenes, or 
pai'ts, in this story. lu the iiiist, our new feelings towards 
our brethren are trnced to oar new relation towards Ood, 


Jesus the Mkrsiah 


»a the prnp^r spring of all our thinking, epenking, ftod 
uctlng, Not.ably, as regards forgiveness, we are to re- 
member the Eingdom of God : ' Therefore has the Kingdom 
of God become like ' — ' therefore ' : iii order that thereby we 
may learn the duty of absolute, not limited, forgivoneas — 
not that of 'seven,' but of 'seventy times seven." And 
HOW thia likenasa of the Kingdom of Heaven la set forth 
ill the Parable of ' a man, a King ' (as the Rabbia woulil 
Imve expressed it, ' a king of flesh and blood '), who would 
'make his reckoning' ' with hU eervants' — not his hood- 
serviuita, but probably the governors of his pravinees, or 
those who had charga of the revenue and finances. ' But 
after he had begun to reckon ' — not aecessarily at tho 
very beginning of it — * one was brought to him, a debtor of 
tan thousand talenta.' Reckouiag them ooly as Attic 
taleuts this wouH amoant to the enonnoiiB sum of about 
two and a quarts millions sterling. No wonder that one 
who during his admiuiatration had been guilty of such 
]>i!eQlatiou, or elsu cnlpable negligence, ahould, &n the 
words ' biMught to him ' imply, have been retuotaiit to 
fate the king. The Parable further implies that the 
debt waa adoiitted ; and hence, in the course of" ordinary 
judicial procedure— Oicoording to the Law of ^oaes,' 
_ ^. . and the nniveraal code of antiqnitv — that 
ut.dt. 'servant, with his family and all uia property, 
'^ *' wua ordered to be sold, and the returns paid 

into the treasury. 

It is not suggested thnt the ' payment ' thna made would 
have met his debt. This trait belongs not to the esaentlala of 
the Parable. Nop does tha promiae : ' I will pay thee ftll.' 
In truth, the narrative takes no notice ol' this, but on tlie 
other hand, states : * But, being moved with compassion, 
the lord of that servant released him [fi-om the bondage 
decreed, and which had\Trtually begun with hie aeutenee], 
and the debt forgave he him.' A more accurate repre- 
sentation of our relation to God could not he made. We 
ore the debtors to our heavenly King, Who has entnistod 
to OS the administration of what is His, and which wo 
have purloined or mianaed, Incurring an unsjieakable debt, 


^K Payable op the UmfSffc/r^t SsifVANT 415 

wUch we can never (lischap^e, and of which, in tJie course 
of justice, unending touda^, iniaery, and ruiii would be 
the proper sequeiiee. But if in hiitaWe repontaDCe we 
cast ourselves at II is Peet, He is reudy in infinite com- 
passion, not only ia release ua from maet punishment, but — 
O blesaed revelation of the Gospel ! — to forg-ive ub the <Iebt. 

It is this utiw relatioiialiip to God which must bt* ths 
foundation and tJie rule for onr new relutionsliip towards 
our fellow-Beri'aiita. And this brings ua to the second 
part, or ecene, in this Pnrabie. Here the lately purdoned 
servant finds one of his fellow-servants, who owes him the 
81111*11 sum i>f 100 dinars, about il. lOx. In the fii-at case, 
it was the servant brought to account, aud that before the 
king- here it ia a servant finding, and that Lis fellow- 
aeirantj iu the first case he owed talents, in the second 
dinnre (a six-thousan-dt.h part of them) ; in the firat, ten 
tkonsand fcvlents; in the eecond, one hundred dinars. 
Again, in the first case payment is only demanded, while 
in the second tlie man tJikes hia fellow-servant by tlic 
throat — a not uncommon mode of harshness on the part of 
Roman creditors — and says ; ' Pay what,' or, according to 
tie better rpuding, "if thou owest anything.' Aud lastly, 
although the words of the scc-ond debtor are almost the 
same aa those in which the tirnt debtor besought the king's 
piitienee, jet ng mercy is shown, bnt he is 'cast' [wit'i 
violence] into prison, till he hiive paid what waa due. 

It can scarcely be necessary to show the inco-ngi-uoaa- 
ness or thi? gnilt of such conduct. But this is the object 
of the third port, or scene, in the Parablp. Here the other 
servants are introduced as exceedingly sorry, no doubt 
about the fate of their fellow-servant. Then they come to 
their lord, and ' cleurly set forth,' or ' explaio ' what had 
happened,Tipon which the Unmei-ciful Servant ia summoned, 
and addressed as ' wicked servant,' not only because he had 
not followed the example of hia lord, but because, after 
Iiaving received such immense favour as the entire remis- 
aion of hia debt on entreating his master, to have refused 
to the entreaty of his fellow-servant even a brief delay in 
the payment of a email snm argued want of all tnerc^ and 


Jgsvs Tim Messiah 

positive Tficlfediipsi*. And tJio words are followed by the 
loanifestation of rigbteons anger. As he hae done, ao is it 
done to bini- — and this ia the final iippliciition of the Para* 
•St., a»tt. ble.* He is delivered' to the tormentons:' in other 
mil. » words, he is sent to t.he hardest and sBvereat priaon, 
thi-re to remain till he should pay all that was due by him 
—that is, in the circumstances, for ever. And here we may 
remark that, or sin has incurred a dirht which cnn Dever 
be diaclinr^ed, go the bnnishment, or rather the loss and 
misery of the ainner, will be endless. 

We |]ani« to notice how near RabbiTiism Las come to 
tins Parttble, and yet how Inr it is from its sublime (eitch- 
ing. At the outset we recall that iinlim it*»(l flirjriveness — 
or, indeed, for more than the farthest limit of three times 
— was not the dLTctriae of Hubbiaiem. It did, indeed, 
teaflh how freely God would forgive Israelj and it introduces 
a Kimilar Parahle of a debtor appealing to his creditor, and 
receiving the fiiUeat and freest release of mercy, and it also 
draws from it the moral, that man aliould similarly show 
mercy ; but it is not the mercy of forgiveness fi-om the 
liiiiirt, but of forgiveneBs of money debts to Iihe poor, or of 
various injuries, and the mercy of benevolence and benefi- 
ceucu to tiie wretched. But, liowever beautifnlly Rabbin- 
iRm ftt times speaicn on the 8ubj.=et, thfl tjospel conception 
of forgiveness, even as that of mercy, could only come by 
experience of the infinitely higher forgiveness, and the in- 
comparably greater mercy, which the pardoned siiiuer has 
received in Christ from oiir Father in Hetiven. 




(Bt. Lukcxiil. 83-30, 31-35; riv. 1-11.25-3^; svil. I-IO.) 

From the Pjuables we now tnm to siicii Diecouraes of Xhb 
Lord as belong to thia period of Hia Ministry. Ulieir con- 
Bideration may be the more brief, that throughout we Bud 
points of correspondence with previous or Inter portions of 
Uis teaching. 




lilt, tS^U 

" IKt. !f, 

UutL nl.13, 
11 : n. SB. 
IT. aoniti. 
Bt. MaB. rli. 


1 . Ilia wordB of our Lord, as rfcordod by St. Ln Ice,' iii-e 

• siLiiito '*°'' spoli^^D, a** in 'The fternion on the Mount,"" 
in coiiiieetion with His teaching to His dlsctplea, 
but art* ill reply to a, question addressed to Him 
by some one — prohably, a ropresentative of the 
Pharisees : " ■ Lord, are they few, tjie saved ones 
[that lire being wLved] ? ' We can scarcely 
BLioJaiBL donbt that the word ' savod ' hui-o refL-rence, not 
to the eternal state of tlie BOiiL, but to iLdmisston 
to the benelila ol" the Kiugdom of God — the Messiamc 
Kingdom, with its privileges and its judgments, such as 
tlio Pliafiaeee uiideratood Jt. The question, whether ' few ' 
wero to be sBVpd, could not have been put from tlie 
PhariHaic poiut of view, if uadpi^tood of peraonjd salva- 
tion ; while, on the other hand, if taken as fipplyiug to 
j)art in the near-expected Mc-aaianic Kingdom, it has its 
tlistinct pavaUel in the Rabbinic atatenieut, that, iis re- 
f^arded the dnya of the Messiah (His Kingdotii), it woidd 
be similar to what it had been at the entrance into the 
land of proniisi?, when only two (Jo^ua and Caleb) out 
of ell tluvt geueratioa wore allowed to have part iu it. 

As regards entrance into the Megsianio Kinwdoni, 
tliis Pharisee, and those whom he represented, are told 
thut tho Kingdom wan not t]ieir9, aa a niiitter of course — 
their quesliou aa to the reat of the world being only 
whether few or many would shitra iii it— but ttiat all must 
*BtroggIe [ngoiiise] to enter in through ths narrow door.' 
'WIi(?u unire the Master of the house is risen up,' to 
welcompHiB guests to the banquet, and has shot to the door, 
while they Btanding; without vainly call upon Him to 
open it, and lie replies: ' I know you not whence ye are,' 
would they liegiii to remind Uim of those covemmt-privi- 
leg'es oD which, aa Israel after the tltish, they had relied 
(' we have uftt^n ;ind drimk in Thy Presence, aud Thou hast 
taught in our street*'). To this He would reply by a 
rejietitiou of His former worda, grounding alike His 
disftvowttl ttnd His refusal to open on their inward contra- 
riety to the King and His liingdora : ' Depart from Me, 
ail ye workers of iniquity.' It was a banquet to the 

E E 

4t8 Jesus the Mfssiau 

I'l iouds of iliA Ring: the inauguration of His kingdom. 
When they found the door shut, tiiey would indet-U knock, 
is the confident expectation tlmt their claims would at 
once be recogiiiaed. and tliey admitted. And when tlie 
Master of the houHt> did not itcogniae thvia us they had 
eJtpected. ond they n-miuded IIi»n of their outward connec- 
tion, He only reppiited the wrune words as befope, since it 
was not outward but invv»rd relntionship that qualified the 
guests, and theirs wid^ not friendeliip, but nutiigoiiigm to 
Him. Terrible woidd then be their sni-rnw and sngaisb, 
when they would spe their own patriarchs (' we have 
eaten and drunk iu Thy Preaoiice ') iwul their own prophets 
('Thou haettiMiight in our atreets ') within, and yet them- 
selves were excluded from what was peculiarly theirs — 
while from all parts of the heathen world the welconif 
guests would flock to tlie joyous feast. And here pre- 

• ctaniii.«i»o emineutly would the sajiug hold good, in oppo- 
»iji »-'»i. sition to PLaristiic claims and self- Hght,eouan ess : 
'« ' There are Inst which shall be first, und there are 
Brst which ahall be last.'' 

2. The next Discouree, noted by St. Luke,*" had been 
»8t.Lnko spoken 'in that very day,' aa the last. It was 
Eiu.ti-M occasioned by a pretended warning of 'cei-tttin 
of thy Pharisees' to depart from Peru'ii, whi^'h, with 
Galilee, wiw the terpttory of Herod Aiitipaa, as else the 
Tetrarch would till Him. Probably the danger of which 
these Phnrisees spoke might have beea real enough, and 
from their secret intrigues with Hei-od they might have 
special reasons for knowiug of such. But their siisgestion 
tliat Jeaus should deimrt could only have pi-occed&d froni 
a wish to get Him out of Perrea, where, evidently, His 
works of healing were largely attracting and inflnencing 
the people. 

But if onr Lord would not be deterr&d by the feare of 

• Ht.jnhn His discipleM from going into Judtea,' feeling 
'^'' that each one hud liis appointed working day, in 
the light of which he was sivfe, and during the brief dura- 
tion of which he was bound to ' wnlk,' far less would He 
recede befoi-e His enemies. Pointing to their secret 


DrscoussBS in Perma 



intrigues, Hb hade them, if they chose, go buck 
fox,' and ^ve to hiB loiv cunning, and to all fiiniilBr 
atteinpl* to hiiiilcr ru- nnvst His Ministry, whrit would be 
a dwisivf answer, sinfi' it nnfoldi'tl wlint He cleivrly luri.— 
HQw in rlip near future. ' Depart,?'— yes, ' dpiwrt' ye to 
tfll • that fox,' I li.tve gfill ft brief and an sppfiinted time 
to work, and then ' l itin |>t-i'fec'N'd.' in tin* t'cnai' in which 
we all TLWidily uiidepfltandthefivpreBsion,as applying 'an Hia 
Work and Mission. 'I know tiiiit at the goal ia death: 
yet not at t,lie handn of Hcmd. l)ut in Jeniaalf'm, the 
slanghter-lionse oi them that '" tfiicli in lier streets."* 

Bitt thf tlifitighf of JenisalBm — of wlmt it waa, what 
it Tmght h»ve lu'eu. nnd what would <'iimo t<i it — may welt 
have forcfd ironi tbp lips of Hitn Who wept over it a cry 
• St- ifuiio of niinglt^d anguish, lovf, and warning." Tt may 
S'st.^Mi. I* t^"*' tlii'KB very words, which are reported by 
Diii.aT-3B St. Miittlipw in anotlicr connection,'' are here 
qaoted by St. Liikf, bemuse they lully express the thought 
to which Christ bar's first gave distinct ntt«i^ance. But 
Boiiie auch words, we can stiarrcOy clonbt. He did spenlc 
even now, wlipti |)oJntiiig to Mis ni-iur Decense in 

3. The nest in order of the Discourses r&corded by St, 
' St. Lnkt Lnke '^ is that which prefaced the Parable of ' ttie 
*a\iioiBt fji'fitt Supper,' expounded in a previona chapter," 
■*"■ A very brief comnieutation will here suffico. It 

appears that the Lord accepted the invitation to a Sabbatli- 
Qieal in the house ' of one of the Rulers of the Pharisees' 
— perhaps one of the Rulers of the Synago^ne in which 
they had jiist worsliippedv and where Chriat may have 
taught. His aeeeptance waa mtide use of to ' watch Him.' 
Thi^ man witli tht) dropsy had, no doubt, beeu introduced 
for ft treacherous piirpoae, although it is not neeessary to 
snp|)ose that he himself had been privy to it. Od the 
other hand, it ia charactpristic of the gnioionR Lord, that, 
with full ktiowletlge of their purpose. He ^^iit down with 
siich companions, and that He did Hia Work of power and 
love onrestrainerl by tlieir evil thoughts. But, even bo, 
He moat turn their wickedness also to good account. Ye* 


420 Jmsus the Messmb 

vrtt iniu-k tliftfc Hfl first disiiiissttd hhfi man liorilwl of tlio 
dropsy before He repfored the rhariat;4-s.' It 
was better eo — for the snte of the gneste, and 
for the tienled mnn lnms<'ir. 

And nftt>r hia dcpailure the Lord first spake to them, 
ii»t was }Iis wont, coticeniiiig Mieir lu is up plication of the 
Kftbbntli-Liiw, to wliicJi, indeed, Micir own prafrtice g«ve 
the lie, Thfv deeincd it unUwfu] • to lieal ' on tin- SuTjlmdi- 
day, tliougli, whfii He r^ad their thoug^hts and purposes ob 
iigninst Him, tlii-y would not (inswer Ris (jiifstion on the 
point. And yet, if ' b son.' or even ku ox,' of iiiiy of thejo 
Iinil ' fnllftn into a pit,' they would tiave found some valid 
legal rfason for (iiiHing h'un out! Their SahbHLh-feaet, 
and tlieir iQvitntion tii llim, when thereby tht-y wisln-d to 
lure Him to evil — and, indeed, tiheir iiuich-lK)a8t.ed hoapi- 
tality — was all diuracl eristic, only externa! eliow, with 
litter absence of all mal love; only self-!issiitni)tiuu. prido, 
and self-naht*'oiisn<-*t, tug'-ther with contonijit of nil who 
were reg'arded as religiously or iatalletrl imlty beneath them, 
Ereii amoug themselves there was strife about ' the first 
places' — 6uch as, perhaps, Christ hed on that ocoiaitm 
witnessed, amidst, mock professions of humility, when, 
pprhiips, the nmsfe'i' of the house had afterwards, in true 
Pharisaic fashion, proceeded to i-e-arraiige the guests ac- 
cording to their eiippoaed dignity. And even the Uabbis 
had given advice to the some etteet. as €liri.^t's * — 
and of this His words may have reminded them. 
But fiirlher — addressing him who bad so treacherously 
bidden llini to this feiist, C'hrist showed how tht: principle 
of PharisaiHin eondsted in aelf-seeking, to tiie necessary 
exclusion of idl true love. This aelf-righteoubnesa appeared 
even in what, perhnpu, tliey most boasted of — their hoa- 
pit«lity. Pot if in an earlier Jewish record we rend the 
beantiiul words: 'Let thy house be open towards the 
street, and let the poor he the sous of thy houne,' we have 
also this later conimeot on then), thnt Job had thus had 
hi« house opened to the four i:|uftrter.t of the f^lobe for the 
poor, and ^at when his ealnmities befell hitn, he reinoii- 
Sd — aiid not ' Ms '— occordli)^ to tlie beat rcudiug, 



Btrateilwitli Godon tliegronni] of bisraiTits in bliia reHp«ot, 
to wliich answer was made that, he hat] in this matter 
come yeiy iar sliort of tlie merita of AbraliatD . So entirely 
self-inlifuspectire and spli'-seekiog' did Rabbiiiisni become, 
aad 8o contrary wits its outcome to the apii-it of Christ, t.ha 
inmost meaning of 'Whose Work, sa well aa Words, was 
emtire self-forgetfuhit^aa and Heif-surrender in love. 

4. In tLe fourth Diecoursd reconlL-d by Kt. Lukft,' we 

■ Se L In paf*sfrom tliepiirentlieticafuimnt^of tkatSii-bhakh- 

iiT.'is-SB meal in the lintise of the ■ Rider of the Pharisees,' 

back to wiieie the narrative of tliP Phfiriaepg^ 

threat about Herod and tlie leply of Jesus had left us.'' 

At the outlet we mark tliat we are not told what con- 
stitatfid the true disciple, but what would prevent a man 
from becoming such. AKiiiii, it wua now no longer {m in 
the earlier addresa to t'be Twelve), thut lie who loved the 
nearest and doare-at of earthly kin more thun Christ— and 
Jience clave to such rather i.lmu to Him— was not worlliy 
Him ; nor tliut he who did not take his cross and follow 

r Ilim was not worthy of the Christ- Since then the 
nniity had riptmyd, and di»;ci pl^ship boeame impossible 
without nctuiil rfnunciation r.i[' the nearest rehitioaahip, 
■Bt-Luito B.'url. more than that, of life itself." The term 
**" ** * hat*> ' points to this, that, as outward separation 

oonseqnent npon men's antagonism to Chriet. was before 
them in the near future, so in the present itiwai-d separa- 
tion, a renunciation in mind and heiu-t, preparatory to that 
outwardly, was absolutely nec-easary. And thia immediate' 
call wa^ illnstrateil in twofold manner. A man who wa* 
about to beffin huildiniJ a tower, must count the coat of Iiis 
undertfikinjf.'' It was not enouirh thiit. he was 
prepai-ed to defray the expeiisi; of the fonudn- 
tions; lie must look to the cosr of the whole. So must 
thoy in becoming disciples look not on what was involvad 
in tli8 present following^ of Christ, but reraember the cost 
of the finiil Rckiiovvledgment of Jesus. Again, if a king 
went to war, connnou prudence would lead him to consider 
whether hia forces w*re equal to the ^reat contest before 
hiui ; elae it were tar better to withdraw in time, evuu 



k *v, U. IS 


423 Jesus the Messiah 

though it involvexi linmilifttion, from what, in view of hia 

• Bt.uiiicc weakiieBi, would end iii misenible defeut." So, 
iw.3i.» g^jjjj much more, must the inlemliiig dJBciple 
miike fninplete inward surrender uf ull, detiberiitely couat- 
jng the coat, and in view of the coming trial ask himself 
whether he had indt-ed eufficient inward afci-eiigtli — the 
force of lore to Cbrii^t — to conquer. 

Or else, and heiv Christ breaka once more into tihst 
pithy Jewish proverb — ' Suit le good:' 'salt, if it have 
lost its savour, shall it be Siiltod?''' 
We have preferred quoting the proverb in its 
Jewish form to show its popular origin. &>alt in such 
condition was neither tit to improve the Innd, uor on the 
other hand to be mixed with the inaimre. The discipk' 
who had loBt hia diHtinctiveueHa wouhl neither henefit the 
liind. Tior was he even tit. as it were, for the dunghill, and 
ciiuld only be uist out. And so, lei liim thut hath ears tc 
hear, hear tlie warning! 

5. We have still to consider the last DiacourBes ol 
•ei-LDiEe t'hrist before (he rtiising uf Luaurus." As hein^ 
TTU.1-ID addressed to the disciples,'' we liiive to cauneL-l 
*"■ them with the Discourse just commeiited upon. 

In point of tact, part of these admonitions had already 
been spoken on a previous occa^iou. uod that 
more fully, to the diseiplea in Galilee.' Only wi- 
HuiHt again bear iu mind the difference of cir- 
cuniatances. Here they immediately precede the 
ruiaing of Lazanis,' and they form the close of 
Christ's public Ministry in I'erBea. Hence they 
come to us hb Chrigta parting tiduioiiitions to His Peneau 

They are intended to impreae od the new diaciples 
these four things: to be careful r.n give no olfence*; to be 

• si.LuKc careful to take no offence''; to be simple and 
'w.ii,4 eurueat in their faith, and ahaolut^ly to trust its 

• Tw. a all-pervading power ' ; and vet, when they had 
made experience of it, not to be elatt-d, but to retnember 
their relation to their Master, that all was in Hid 
eervice, and that, after all, when everything bad be«n 

•TV. H, 
4ntnu. ai^ 

nnuip. St. 

Mktl, IH\\. 


I>/scouss£s w Pbrma 423 

done, fchey were but unprofitabls aervante* In other 
• at. utoi woiiis, thejr urged upcm tlie disciples holJiieBB, 
xviLT-iD love, fiiibh, and s«rvic« of aelf-surrender and 

TI16 four parts of thia Discourse at* broken by the 
prayer of tlif Apostlt-?-, w!iu had formeriy expressed their 
^ difficulty in repnrd to these very re^quiremeutB ; " 

lYiit.i-fl!' ' Add untg iiB t'aith.' It wiw iipcn this that the 
*8i Luke Lord spake to them, for their eoinfort, of the 
J^ * ,^ absolute power of evea tlie aiiiaUest faith,'" and o( 
the service imd humility of faith.'' 'Ilie latter 
W!in couched inn, Parnbohc lt>riii, well calcidatfd to impress 
OQ tkem thoap feelings which would l;»'ep them lowly. 
They were but aervaiits ; and, avt-ii thougli they hfkd done 
their work, the Master expected them t« serve Him, before 
they eat down to their own meal and rest. Vet meal and 
rest there wnnld be in the end. Only, let there not be 
self-elation, nor weariiiesa, nor impatience ; but let the 
Master and Hia service be all in all. Surely, if ever there 
was emphatic protet^t against tlie Fundauiental idea of 
Pharisaism, na clainiiog merit and reward, it. was in the 
closing Bdmonit ion of Clirist's public Minialry in Persea : 
' When ye shall tiave done all those things which are 
commanded you, say, We are uuprofitable servants; we 
have dune that which was oar duty to du.' 

And with tliese piirtitig words did He moat eftentiially 
and for ever separate, in heart, and spirit, the Church from 
the Synagngue. 


(St. John Ki. 1-S4.) 

From liBtening: to the teaching of Christ, we turn noce 
more to follow Hie working, it will be remembered that 
the visit to Betliauy divide:* the periofl from the Feast of 
the Pedicatioa to Uio last Paschal week into two parts. It 
also forma tie prelude and prepai-atioii for the awful eveDta 



of the lOnd. For it was on tliat. onrasion that the meinben 
of the WfttihodriTi fmrinaUy resolx-ed on Hifi IXintJi. It »ow 
only ruuiaiiieil tu si^ttle and carry out tJie plans for giving 
effVitt to tlit-ir purfxiKft. 

At tlia outset, we. ranst here onne more meet, however 
briefly, the pri^liminary rliBicnlby in iwgnrd to Miroclea, of 
which the miHiii^ of liAKanis ia the most notable. Un- 
doubtedly, a Miracle runs counter not only to our oxpdri- 
enco, but lo the facls ou which our experience is grounded; 
nnd n»n only Iw nt-coimt^'d fur by a direct Divine interpo- 
sitiun, which also mnn counli-r to our experience, although 
it c&nnot lofTioally be said to run count«r to xh« fsfits on 
which thtit experience is {^rounded. IJeyond this it is im- 
poHHibie to go, since the argument on other grounds than 
of experience— be it phenomeaulfobgervatioufiud historical 
iiifomiation] or real [knowledge of laws and priueiplfts] — 
would necessitate knowlejge alike of all the laws of Nature 
and of all the secretB of Heaven, 

On the other haod, to argue tins point only on the 
gniund of experience (phenomeniil or real), were not only 
reasouiog A pn'-ori, but in a vicious circle. It would really 
amoaut to this ■ A thing has not been, becanse it oauuot 
be ; Rud it cimuot b«, becnuse, so far tis I Iniow, it is not 
and has not been. But to deny on Btich i* p-irrrl preijndg- 
ment the poaaibiUty of MiracW ultimately involves a denial 
of B Living, Keignitig God. For the existence of a God iin- 
piias at least th« pospiltihty, it may be the rational necessity, 
of Miracles. And the same gmunrls of exporient'e, which 
tfill against the occnrnence of a Miracle, would equally 
apply against belief in a God. We huve as little ground 
in experience (of a physical kind) for the one' as for the 
olher. Tliis ia not Baid tu deter inquiry, but for the sake 
of onr fti-gninent. For we confidently asflert, and cballongo 
experiment of it, that disbelief in a God, or Materialism, 
involvea infinitely movii difGe\ilUeK. and that, at ev«ry 
step and in regtird to uU things, than the faith of tlM 

Wp rnny now follow this solemn nerrative itself. Per- 
h&I)s the more hrietiy we comment on it the better. 

Death of Laiasus 
while in Pei'ffia, tlt&t tliia i 


aga suddenly 


It was 
reacliod the Master from the weU-remeuibered 
Bt'thiuiy, ' the village of Mary and her sister Martha,' con- 
iiL-miag their (younger) brother Tjaziirus: ' Lrnd, behold 
he whom Thou Invest ia &ick ! ' We notp as an important 
fiict that the Lazarus, who had uot even been mentioned in 
t.he only account prest-rvod to ua of a previons visit of Christ 
• stLnkiBi. to BetJiany," ia described as 'he whom Christ 
ssAti. loved." What a gap of untold events between 

the two visits of Christ to Bethany — unJ what inodeety 
should it t«aeh us as regards inl'erencea from the circum- 
stance that certain events are not recorded in the Gospels ! 
The raesaenger was appurently dismiKfied by Christ with 
this reply : 'This sicliaeBS ia not unto death, tut for the 
glory of God, in order that the Son of God miiy be glorified 
thereby.' This answer was hetud by Buch of the Apostles 
as were present at the time. They would iiaturaliy infer 
from it tlubt Lanarus wonKl not die. hikI that liia rcHtoratinn 
would glorify Christ, either a« having foretold it, or prayed 
for it, or ed'ected it by Jlis Will. 

And yet, probatly at the very time when the messeuger 
received his answer, and ere he could have brought it to 
fche sisters. Liizarus was already dead. Nor did this awaken 
doubt in the minds of ilie sisters. We Sftem to Iiear the veiy 
words, which at the time they said to each other, wlieu 
each of them afterwai-ds repeated to the Lord: 'Ix)rd, if 
Thou hadat been here, my brother would not have died/ 
They probably thought the message had readied Him too 
late. Eveu in their keenest auguisb, there was no failure 
of truBt, Yet all this while Christ knew that t-RsnruB had 
died, and stil] He continued tno whole days where Be 
was, finiiihiDg His work. And yet — and this is noted be- 
fore anything else, aJJlie in regard to His delay and to lijs 
tift:pi"-eoiidui;t — He ' loved Marthii. aud Iier sister, and 
[.azarua.' Cliriat ia never in haete, because He ie always 

It was only after these two days that Jesus broke 
silence as to His purposes and as to Laxarus. Though 
thouglifcs of him must have been present with the (lisciplea, 


JrSVS the Messiah 

noiif riiired iwfc aught, althotijih not from misf^iving, nof 
ypt fivm fpflr. This also of fftith und of confidence. At 
IftBt, wb^n His work in that part ]incl been conn)loted, He 
epoke of left\'iQg, but ernn so not of goiuur to Betbaoy, 
bnr, into Juda^n. For. in truth, His work iu Bethany was 
not only gt'oi:raiJiiailiy, but ivailv, [wiit uf His work iu 
Jndiva; and He told die discipWs nf His pnrpoae, just bfi- 
cause He knew their fwtirp imd wuuld teBch them, not only 
for thig but for every l'uturt'«foii.<ioD, whnt principle applied 
to them. For wlien iu tbtir care and aff^clioo they i"©- 
nitiid(*d thp " Kiibbi'thatthie Jews ' were even now geeJcing 
to stoue ' Uim. Hr replied by t«Iliug thi.'io in figurative 
lBi])^ungi> tbat we bavi^ each our working day from God, 
and that while it laati uo foe can shoitoQ it or break up 
our work. The day hud twelve hours, and while these 
lasted no niiMliap would hefsU him tliut walkfd in the way 
[he stumblt^th not, because he seeth the light of this world]. 
It was otherwise wlien the day was past and thp night bad 
oonie. Wlien onr God-piven day has set, aiid with it the 
light 1>eeu withdrawn which hitherto jffevented our stum- 
bling — then, if a man went in hia own way and at his 
own time, might such miahap Ijefall him, " because, fignrit- 
tivt^ly ua til light, iu the night-time, and realty as to 
guidance and direelion in the way, ' the light is not in 

But thijs was only pnrt of what Jesus said to His dift- 
ciplen in preparation for a journey that would issue in such 
trempndouBt'oniJpquences. He n&xtspokcof Lazarus, their 
' friend,' as ' fallen asleep ' — in the frequent Jewish figura- 
tive sense of it, and of His going there to wake him out of 
sleep, The disciplt-s would niituraUy connect this mention 
of His goiiig to Lazarus with His proposed visit to Judsa, 
and, in their eagerness to ke«?p Hiiu from the latter, inler- 
post^d that therei could be no need for going to Laxarus, sinoe 
slerp waa acconling K/n Jewish notions one of the six, or, 
ftccordiug to others, five syniptonis or crises in recovery 
fronk dangerous illness. And when the Lord then plainly 
stAted it, ' Liizariis died,' abiding, what should have aroused 
their attention, that for their aakea He was gtad fie ha4 

Burial op Laz-ikus 



not teen in Bethiuiy bL-fore the e7eut, beeaase now that 
would come winch would wort faitSi in tliotii. and pro|iOHea 

to go to tliL^ dmrl Tjttiw,rii8 — *vl'1i tlit-u, their whole atten- 
tion wus so ahaoiiiwl by the cei-taiiity i>f dtiiigui" tO thpir 
loved Teacher, tlmt ThoiuaN had only inie tlioughi; eiuce 
it was to be 30, let them go and die with Jesus, 

We already know the cjuiet happy home of Bethany. 
When Jesus reache^d it, * He found ' — pi-obably from those 

• t!ouii>.ai, who met Him by the way* — that, Lazarna hsid ij^gjj ((.li-eady t'uur diiys in the grave. Accordinjf 
to cu&lom, lif would be buriea the same dny that h© had 

This may l>e a convenient place for adding to the 
iiceount. already given, in coiiiiecllon with the burying of 
file widow's son at Nain, such further piirliculars of the 
Ji>vvisb obsen'ances and rites, as may illiirtrate the present 
history. Referring to the previous deacription, we resume^ 
iu ioiagination, our attendance at the point where Christ 
met the bier at Naiu and again gave Hie to the dead. Rnt 
we renieraber thut, as w>' aie now in Judjeft, the hii-ed 
mourners- — both niouruing-niBii and niou ruing- women — 
would follow, and not, us in Galik-L-, precede the body. 
Kmin the narrative we infer Hint fclie burial of LuzaruH did 
not take place in a coiumon burying-groutid, wbit^h was never 
netirer a t^jwn than 50 tfubits, dry and n>oky plafica being 
chosen in prefen-nc^e. Here the graveh uiusC be at leaist a 
fixftand a half apttrt. It was deemed adiahononr to theik-iul 
to ^and on. or walk uver, the turf of a grave. Rosea and 
other Howein seem to have been planted on graves. But 
cemeteries, or ooiamon buryiiig-placee, appeal- in earUt^st 

• 1 Kinga times to have been used only for the poor," or for 
jer,'i^.23 BtxRiigers." lu JerusiUem therei were also two 
tjv'it"?"' pl^os where executed criniinalB were bnrii'd. 
icuLiu All these, it is needleaa to say, were outi^ide the 
City. But tbei-e iw abundant evideuce that every placjs 
had not its own bnrying-ground ; and that, not niifre- 
quently, provision had to be made for thp transport nf 
bodies. Indeed, a hiiryiag- place is not mentioned among 
the ten rtMjuisiujB fur evei-y fully -oryaui&od Jewii^h uuininu- 


/ssus TUB MesstAft 

nity.' The luuiips given, both to the graves imtl t« flic 
hnrying-pliice itsel f, are of interest. As regiirils tJie former, 
we mention sucb as ' the bouse of aileace ; ' * the liouhe ot 
stone ; ' ' the hoatelry.'or literally, 'place wlierp ynu s[jrMid 
the night ; ' ' the couch ; ' ' the resting- [iluce ; ' ' tbc valli'y 
of the multitude,' or "of the ileiid,' The ceiiielery was 
called ' tJii; house of graves ; ' or ' the court of burying ; ' 
Btitl ' tha house of eternity.' By a euphemism, ' to die' 
was designttted rs 'going to rest;' 'being completed;' 
' being gatheri'd to the world,' ot ' to the liome of light ; ' 
'being withdrawn,' or 'hidden.' Burial withont coffin 
stems to hiive continued the pnictice for a cousiderahie 
time, and rides are given how a pit, the. siM of the body, 
was to be dutr. and eurrounded by a wall of looae etonee toj 
prevent the falling in of earth. It is intpre^iting to lear 
thut, ibr the sakp of |ie!K'e, just ns tlie poor and sick of the 
(ientiles niij,Mtt bo fed find nnrs<;'d as well ra thoRP of the 
Jews, so tlipir dead might be buried with those of the Jews, 
though not in tlu'ir graves. On the other hand, a wicked 
person should not be burled cIubp to n sag>^. Stiicidciswere 
not iLCCorded iili the honours of thosfi ix'ho had died *J 
natural death, ftiid the bodies of executed criniinnlawera' 
laid in a Biracial place, whence thL- rt-iatives inigiit after a 
time reiTiove their boaeB. The burial tenrunated by cnsting 
earth on the grave. 

But, as already stated, Lazams was, as became bis sta- 
tion, not laid in & cemetery, but iu his ovn\ privnt<> tomb 
in a cave — probably in a, gartlpn, the favourite pliice oU 
internifnt. Though on terms of rla^e friendship witJli 
J<HU». he wfis evidently not regai-dtd as an apostn.te fi-om 
the Synagogue. For every indignity was shown ut tllo 
burial ot an apostate ; people were even fo a.rray themselves 
in white fi'sttve garinunta to mnke dpiuonstralion of joy. 
Here, on the oontrwy, (>vpry mnrb of sympathy, reapwt, 
and sorrow had been shown by the peopk- in the district 
and by triends in the neighbouting Jerusalem. ]□ euck, 

' Thcio were ; a low court, [itovigioa for ttie puor, u eynairqni^ iiil 

public b.'ttli, A tter.tmt, a iloct.or. a snis;coDi a scrite, a butcbiu-, and ii 

BrntAi OF Lazari's 


ease !t wonlii be regsnicd as n pririlejjp to obey the 
ItabUntc din*clipn of acroiitpanyiuK (Jie dead, ito M to 
Kbow honour to the departed and Idndncestotheramvore. 
As the sisterg of Bethkny wpre - tliscipli^,' we may well 
believe that some of the more fxtravagant deuiunsi rations 
of grief were, if not diajwnMxl with, yel modified. Wecan 
Kcarcely believe that the hired • motinierH ' would Nltfanatd 
between extrti\'iiL'"ut prai»e« of tbedpad nod ohIIb upoa the 
attecdtuits to ininpnt ; or thar, as wb8 their wout> they 
would strike on their breasts, beat their haiuU, and AaA\ 
about tlieir f«et, or hi-eak iuto waiJ« and mourning sou^, 
nlono or in choraa. la all protmliilitv. however, the 
fuueral oralif^n would be delivered — a* in Hie 01** of all 
distinguished per&nnii — either in the hoiiae. or ut one of 
tlie stations where the bearers changed, or at the biirying- 
vjnce ; perhaps, if they piM!^ed it, in the Synngx)gue. it 
}BBB preriously Iweu utrted what extravagant value was id 
later tiiiiea attached to tlieee oratioiie, aa indicating botli 
a mans life on earth and \m plikce in heaven. The dead 
was suppoved to be present, listening to the words of the 
Bpeakia' and wstcblug the expreesion on the faces of the 

When thinking of these tombs in gardens, we uatu- 
rftlly revert to that wJiteh tor throt* days held the Lord of 
Life. U ia, perhaps^ better to give deluilii here ratla-r 
than afterwards to interrupt, by such inquiries, our solemn 
thoughts in presence of the Crucified Chriet. Not only 
the rich, bat even thosie moderately well-to-do, had tomb^ 
of their own, which probably were ac(|uiri>d uud pr-pnred 
long before they were ne€>ded, and treated and iuherited 
lis private and personal property. In such caves, or rock- 
hewn tombs, the bodies were laid, having been anointed 
with many sjiices, with myrtle, alwea, aud, at a Inter ]»riod, 
alsn with hyssop, rose-oil, and roBi»*vvtiler. The body wa."* 
dresHfd mid, nt a later periinl, wrapped, if pOKwible, in the 
worn cloths in which orij^inally a Roll uf the Law had 
been held. The ' tombs ' were either ' roek-hewn/ or 
natural 'caves/ or else large walled vaults, with niches alonj^ 
the sides. Sni^ s ' cave ' or ' vault ' t> feet in width, 9 f©Bt 


/bsus thb MbssiAh 

in It'nglli, nud 5 ftet in height, contnineii ' niches ' for (Hgh 
ImdieB. The larjrer caves or vaults h^lil tKirteen bodiea^ 
Thcw" 6gtire« apply, of rnurse, only to wliat thfl Law 
re«»^iiii'<"<L wIk'ii n. vault hiul bi-on contrwicd for. At th* 
entrance tfl tlw vault was ' a court ' 9 feet square, t© hold 
tiie bier and its bearers. Afl«r a time tlip bones were 
Co11«ctc^d and put into a box or tofiin, having first, been 
nnointLid witb wini- and oil, nntl Tx-ing hpld tog'-lhur by 
wnippiuf^s of cloth. Tbj» circiiutstance explains tbe exis- 
ieiio« of tlie moi'tuary cheata. or iwi(<(»/Jiayi', so rrp<|uautly 
found in tin- toiiiba of J'ulestim; by late oxplf)nfrs, wlio 
liHrt- b*vn iiniibli- to»xpl:iin their mcniiitig. Inscriptions 
appeiir to have been j^raven either on the lid of the mortuajy 
ffbest, 01" nn Ui« (ffeut atone ' rolled ' at the entrance to the 
vault, or to Uiu ' court ' leading into it, or elae cm the inside 
■walls of ypt nnntliiT (>r«-tirtti. iimile over the vaults of the 
weoltbj, and which was nuppoeed tocomplete the buryiuc^ 

Thvae amall buildiu^ sunuwuutiug tie graves may have 
served as shelter to those who viaited the tombs, They 
also served as ' monnincDts,' of which we read iu the Bible, 
in the Apocrypha and in JogL-phm. But of gravestones 
with inscriptions we cannot find any record in Talmudic 
works. At the aaine lime, the place wliei-e tliere was a 
vault or (t ffTiive was miirked by a stone, wliicli was kept 
whitened, to warn the posaer-by against defilement. 

We are now able fully to reidiae all the cireutnatunoea 
and surronnding.s in the burial and raisiug of LazaruH. 

Jes!|i8 liml come to Bethany. Bat in (he house of 
Tnouminjj tliey knew it not. As Bplhany was only about 
two miles from JernBalem, many from the City, who were 
on t**rra8 of friendship with what was eriilently a distin- 
fCuiahed family, liiid. come in obedience to one of the most 
binding Rabbinic direftione— that of comforting the 
iiioomi-fs. Iri the fnneral proceanion the sexes ha<l been 
separated, and the practice probably prevailed even nttbat> 
time for the women to return alone from the grave. This 
may eicplaiiL why iifterwards the women went and returntMi 
alone to the Tomb of our X^nl. Th^ mttnruinir, which 

V Burial op Lazarus 431 

hogfto before the Imriftl, IinH hepn ahared by the friends 
who sat silent on tbe fi^uud, yr wore busy prepm-iuff tbo 
mourning nipal. As ilie comptiny Ipft the dpiid, twrh hiwj 
token Iviii-e of the deceajfed with a ' Depart, in pence ! ' 
Then they had formed into linee, thi-ouKh which tha 
mouraerfl passed amidst exjirfSMtonrt of NyiHpr^thy,r'*iii'iiI(*d 
(at leust seven times) as tiie proefiHsion hnltcd on tha 
return to thp house of in<iurning. Tht>n be^n the mniirii- 
ing in the house, which really laetod thirty diiys, of wbit'h 
tJie lirat tlirise were those nf (ifreat^st. t\w oth<»rn, diii-ing 
the seven days, or the special week nf unrmw, of Icm 
intense mniimiiig. But on the S/, as (totlV holy day, 
all mourning was interinitfi'd — niid so ' thoy ri'ufed ol the 

• Sabbath, according to the commaudment.' 
In that hoasehold of di«HpIiiB thin mourning would not 
have assumed soch violent fdnnx. lus when wi< rr-ud thnt tho 
women were in the habit nf tertrin^ und tlmir hiiir, or of n 
Rabhi wlio publicly scourged hiniMelf. Hut we kimw Imw 
the dead would be spiikeii of. \u defilh llm two woHiIh 
were said to meet »iid ItinH. And nf>w they who lind 
passed away beheld (iod. They wcie at rest.. Hiidi 
beautiful passages as Ps. exii. 6, Prov. x. 7, Is. xi. 10; ln«t 
clause.and It). Ivii. 2, wei-e applied totlieiii. Nay,the holy 
dead wliould he eallpd * livinjj.' In truth, tliey knew uboiit 
us, (tnd unseen still suiToumhd oh. Nor should tbyy over 
be uientioned without uddiuj/ u bieosin^ on their inemo'^. 
In this spirit, we cannot doubt, the Jews were ou<v 
* comforting' the sisters. They may have repeated wordu 
like those quoted as the conclnBion of «iich n conwlatory 
speedi: 'May the Lord of cunnokfious comfort you! 
Blessed he He Who eoirif'>rt*-tli thti inoiiniera \ ' But 
they could scai-eely have imaf^ned liow lilenilly r wish 
like this wan about to be fiillilU^l. Fnr already the 
message had reiicheii Mnrtbn. whn was pmbiibly in one of 
the outer apartments of the house : .I«wii» as cominj^ ! She 
hastened to meet the Master, Not a word of conjpliiiut, 
not a munnur, nor doubt, escaped her lipi* — only what 
during those four bitter days these two eiateis must Iiave 
been so of1«u «uyiug to each other, when the luxury of 




Jesus the MESsrAii 


Bolitudo waa allowed tht»m,t.liat. if He had been thpre, their 
brotlior would noh have died. And BtUl she Imld faac ty 
it,t,hnf.pven now God would ^ive Him wbatgoover H«a^cd. 
Her words could scarcwly have be«ii the expreaeioii of any 
[■L'lJ hope of the miracle aboat to tiike place, or Martha 
would n-it limn iift^irwivnle eoiiyht to Rrniit Him, wlieti 
Hf! bftde tlii'iu roll away the atone. And yet i3 it not 
evoii so, that when that oomea to na which oni* faith had 
once dared to siig^iiest, if not to hope, wy fayl as if it were 
nil too great and impoHsihle — thai a very phjaical 'caniioli 
he' separates tis fpom it? 

It was in very truth and literality that the Lord 
iiieBat it, wlii'ti He told Martha her brother woQid rise 
n>»aio, alt]ioiij,'h she understood His Words of the Re- 
furrection at the La^t Day. In answer, Christ pointed 
out to her the counecliou between Himself and the 
Uesurrection ; and, what He spoke, that He did when 
lie raised Laxdrus fmm the dead. The K»*!<urrection 
and the Lifs are not special gifts either to the Church or 
to huniantty, hut. are connected with the Christ — the oub- 
corae of Himsi^tf. Most literally He ie the Resurrection 
and the Life — and this, the new teaching ahciiit tho 
llesurreirtion, was the object and the meaiiijig of the 
nilsiug^ of Lazarus. 

It is only when we think of the meaning of Christ'a 
lii-evioii* woi-ds that wa can understand the answdr of 
^f artha to His q[oe&tion : ' Believest thou this ? Tea, 
Lord, I have believed that Thou art the Chriet, the Son of 
God [with Bpt-cial reference to the ori^-inul nu-v.-ja^ of 
■etJoim Christ'], He that conn-th into the world' ['th« 
"■ * Coming One into the world ' — tliB world'a 

promified, expected, come Saviour]. 

What else passed between them we can only patheT 
ftom the context. It seenis that the Master 'called' for 
JIary. This message Marth» now Latited to deUv«r^ 
nlthou^h 'secretly.' Mary was probably sitting in tha 
chamber of mourning, with ita upeot chairs and coaches, 
and other melaDcholy tokens of iiioiiniiriir. as was the 
eu§4tom.; aurrouoded hy many who had come to comfort 

Rai&inc. of Lazakus 



fJiem. As aim lieiiitl of His rornnig arid (.'ivU, «lii* roee 
'quickly,' and the Jews foUpwed hi?r, midi?r thi' impivasion 
that she wns qgsin g^Liig to visit and to weep at the tomb 
of her brcitiier. Fur it was tlie practice to visit the 
grave, espedally diu-ing tlic tirst thrt'R days. When ehe 
came to Jesus, whert^ FJe still stood, outsidp Bethauy, she 
waB forgetful of" nil around. She conld oiiij fall at His 
Feet, and repeat the poor words with wliiuL sh« and iier 
Bifiter had these ffjur weary days tried to cover the iiaked- 
aesa of [.heir sorrow : poor words of ftHth, which she did 
not, like ht- r sister, Diake still pnoret by addin<^ the poverty 
of hor hfi|)e to that of her taith. Tn Martha that had 
be^n the -ituiximtnm, to Marj- it was the mhumuni of her 
faith ; for the re^l , it wiis far better to add aothiug more, 
but simply to worehip at tlis Feet. 

It must hiive lieeu a deeply touching scene : the out- 
pouring of lipr sorrow, the ahsolutpness of her faith, tha 
mute fip]i(';i.| of her tears. And the Jews who witne.'*(ied 
it were moved as she, and wapt with her. What follow.^ 
is difficult to understand. Bnt if with a, realisntios of 
Christ's Condescensiou ta, aiid union with humanity as its 
Hejder, hy laldno; upon Himself its diseases, we combine 
the gtatement fonrierly made alwiit the Kesarrection, as 
not a gift or boon liut the outcome of IlimsE'lf — we may, 
in aoiiu; way, not understand, but be abh* to gaze into 
thi) unfiithomed depth of that Tht.'tintliTojiit! fellow-suHBrlng 
wliicli was both ricanous and redemptive, and which, 
before He became the Resurrection to bazams, shook IHs 
whole inntT Beiii]^, when, in the words of 8t. John, ' bte 
velieinently moved His Spirit and troubled Uimself.' 

And now every trait h in accord. ' Wliere have ye 
laid him ?' As tbey hade Him come and s^e, the tears 
that fell from Hini were not like the violent lamentation 
that buret from Rim at sij^ht and prophetic view of doomed 
•st.ini» Jeniaak-m.* Yet. we can sciircely thitde that the 
**^-" Jews rightly intPi'preted it, whwn they ascribed 
it only t.o His love for T-aziiriis. But surely there was uot 
n touch either of mulevoleuce or of irony, only what we 
foel to be qTiite natui-al in tlie oircumstauces, when some of 

F V 

434 Jbsus tub Msssiah 

tliem asked aloud: 'Could not tiiis Ouo, Wliich opened 
the eyefi of tlm blind, have wrought bo tLat [Lii orderj 
this one also should not die?' Scarcely was it even 
nnbelief. They had so lately witnesm-d in Jerusalem thiit 
Miracle, such as hnd 'not been heard' * since the world 
• si.,jnUo bt'gaii,*' that it seemed diliicult to understand 
'*^*' how, seeing there WB8 the will (in His affection 

for Lazarus), there wae not the power — uot to raige liim 
from the defuj, for tbiit did not occur to them, bnt t<j 
prevent his dying. Was there, then, a baiTier in death? 
And it viviA tliJK, and not Lndi^mtinn, wbich oniH) more 
ciinsed thnt Theaiitliivjpic recnri'fiice upon Himself, when 
again ' He vehemently moved His Spirit." 

And now tht-y were at the cave which wa« Laziirus* 
tomb. He bade them roll a)«ide the ^ejit ston« which 
covered its entrance. Amidat the avvl'ul pause which pre- 
ceded obedience, one voice only whs raised. It wa.s that 
of Msrt.ha. Jesus bad not spoken of raising rjn/iiruy. 
Bnt what was about to be done ? She could scarcely 
have thought tliat He merely wiehed to gaze once more 
opon the face of the dead. Somethings namelfSB had 
si^iKed her. She dared uot believe : she dared not dis- 
believe. Did she, perliapa, not di-fnd a fiiilure, hut feel 
misgivingH, when thinking of CiiriBt as in presouce of 
Cummenoing corrnption before these Jews — tind yet, as we 
BO often, sttll love Him even in unbelief y It waa the 
common Jewish idea that crirriiption commenced on the 
fourth day, that the drop of gall, which had fallen from 
the sword of the Angei aud ciiiieed death, wiie then 
ivurkiny its etieet, and tliat, as the fiw-e clumired, the soul 
took its final leave I'rom the re ,i ting- place of the body. 
Only one spnteuce Jesus spake of gentle reproof, of re- 
minder of what He had f^aid to her just before, aud of the 
message He had sent when first He heiird of Lazarus' 
'fit-joliii illnef^s.'' And now the stone was rolled away, 
*'■* We all feel that the fitting thing hero was 

prayer — yet not petition, but thanksgivingthat the Father 
■ lieanl ' Him, not. as regarded the raising of Luzanis, 
which was His Own Work, but in the onlt-riug ui>4| 

Raising op Lazarus 



arranging of all the cLrcniuBtttnces — alike the petition 
tUe thauksgiving having for their object them tliat stood' 
by, for He knew that the Fatlier always heard Him : that 
so they might beliiive that the Father had senb Him. 
Sent of the Father — not come of Himaelf, not sent of 
Satau — -and aeut to do Hia "Will ! 

Oni.^ loEid command spoken into that aik'iic^; one loud 
call to that sleeper, and the wlieela of life iigajn moved at 
the outgoing of The Life. Anil, still bound hand and foot 
with graveclothes, and his face with the napkin, La^nrus 
stood forth, shuddering atnJ silent, in the cold light of 
earth's day. hi that multitude, now more pale anil shud- 
dering than the man l»und in the gravedothes, the only 
one ujajeBtically calm was He, Who before had been eo 
deeply moved and tronbled He now bade them 
' Loose him, and let him go.' 

We know uo more. What happened nfterwarda — how 
they loosed him, what they said, and what were Lazarua' drat 
words, we know not. Did Lazarus ivmember aught of the 
late past, or vi\& not rather the rending of the grave ureal 
rending from the past ; the awakiiLiug eo sudden, the 
transition so great, that nothing of the bright vieion re- 
mained, but its imprPSB— just as a raai-vellously bfftntiful 
Jewish legend hag it, that before entering this world, the 
»oul of a child haa seen all of heaven and hell, of past, 
present, and future; but that, as the Angel strikes it on 
the mouth to waken it into this world, all of the other has 
passed from the mind ? Again we say : We fenow not — 
and it ia better so. 

And here abruptly breaks off this narrative. Some of 
those who had seen it believed on Him ; others hurrie<l 
back to JeruSiilein to tell it to the Pli;u'isees. Then wa-s 
hastily galliered a meeting of tlie Sanhedrists, not to judge 
Him. but to deliberate what was to be done. They had 
not the courage of, though the wish for judicial uiui'der. 
till he who was the fligh-Prteal. Caiupha», rpmiuded thetii 
of the well-known Jeivish adage, that it ' ia better one noan 
should die, thiiii the commimity perish.' 

This waa the last prophecy in Israel ; with the eent*>nc© 


Jbsus the MeSSiAH 

of death oil Isriiers h-no High-Priest ilL-il jiruphr-cy in 
IbtucI, diirtl Israel's Hig'h Priesthood. It bnd spoken 
wntencp upon itself. 

Thifi was the first hVidsy of dnrk resolve. Hencefortli 
it only newled U> concert plans for carrying it out. Some 
one, perhaps N'icydfmus, sent wtrd of the eeiTol aii^tiojf 
and resohitioii of thp Sanliedriste, That Friday and tha 
next Sahliatrh Je^ua rested in Bethany, with the sama 
inajesiiL' i^alm which He had uhuwii at thn grave of Lazarns. 
Then He withdrew fur away to the ohecnre Ijouuds of 
Peiiea and Galilee, to a city of which the very location is 
now unknown. And there He continued with His disciples, 
withdrawn from the Jwws — till He would make Hig Snsl 
flutranct) into Jerusalem, 



{'At. MtLtt. lU. I, S: &t. Mark t. \; St. Liike kvU. U; 1J~1U; St. 
Malt. iJx- 3-18; St. Mark X a-12; 8t. Mftti. ijx. 13-U; .%. Mwk 
x.l»-lfl. St. Luke jtvJii, IS-IT.) 

The brief time of rest »nd i^met converse with His disciple* 
in the retirenipnt of Kphmim was past, and the Saviour of] 
men prepared for His last journey to JerLisalem. All tbo 
•i^t MMt. '^"^^ Synoptic liospels nini-k this, although with 
*■«- 1. "i varying details. ' Fi-om the mention of Ualileo 
i:'at. Late by 8t. Matthew, s-nd by St. Luke of Samaria and 
**'''^' Galilee— or more correctly, ' betwueu (along tins 

frontiers of ) Samaria and (jalilee.'we may conjecture that>, 
on leaving Ephratm, Christ made a, very brief detoiir along 
the northern frontier to Bome place at the southern border 
of Galilee — perhaps to meet at a certain point those who 
were to accompJiny Him on His final Joiiraey to Jeruisalein. 
The whole company would then form one ol' thoae fMtive 
bonds which travelled to the Paachal Feiist, oor would 

Hraunc of Te.v LirpE/fs 


'St. MnU 


f St, Mark 

tliere be anythiug sti'ange or unosiial m tht) iippi^iuance 
of such a band, in RUs instance under the lendership of 


Annfchftr notic'e, fiirniBlied by 8S. MaM.hew and Mark, 
is thai, duritig this journey throiig'li Periea, " great mulf.i- 
tndes ' resorted to. and Ibllowed Him, and that 
'He healed'* aud ■titupht theni.''" This will 
account for the incidentfl and Discourses by the 
way, and also how, from among' many clef-de, the Evanjfe- 
Hsda may have selectad for record what to them seemed the 
moat important or novel, or else befit accorded with the 
'81 L k plft'is of their respective narratives, 
»>ii. is-i» 1, St. Lukealone relates the v&iytirst incident 

"■ by the way,* and the 6ret DiacoursB,'* 

It is R further contirmation of our sn^yestion us to the 
road tiitceti by Jeaua, that of the ten lepera whom, at tte 
oataetof His journoy, He met when entering into a village, 
one was a Saniaritan. It may have been that the district! 
was infested with leprosy ; or these lepe^rs inny, on tidings 
of Chriat'a approach, have hastily gathered there. It was 
in strict accuidance with Jewisli Law, thftt these lepers 
wiuained both outside the village aud far from Him to 
Whom they now cried for mercy. And, tvithoat either 
touch or even cotnniatid of healing, Ohiiat bade tbi>m go 
aud stow themselves aa hi.'aled to the priests. For this it 
was not necesaary to repair to Jeru^lem. Any prieet 
might decUrci ' niidean'or ' clean,' provided the applicants 
presented themselves singly, and not in company, for 
his iuppection. And they went at Christ's bidding, even 
befoTB they had actually experienced the h(^aliugr So 
great wtiA their tailh, and, may wo not almost infer, the 
general belief thraughoot the district, in tlie Power of ' the 
Master,' And aa they went, the new life conrsed in their 

But now the characteristic difference between these 
men appeared. C)t' the ten, equally recipients of the 
benefit, the nine Jews continued their way — presinniibly 
to the pries-l* — while the one Saninritaii in t-he numbnr at 
once turned back, with a lend voice gSorifj-ing Giod, No 


j£sus THE Messiah 

longer now did he remain afar off", but fell on his face at 
the Feet of Him to Whom he gBve tJianks. Thin Samari- 
issx had re-ceived more than new bodily lUe and health : he 
had fuuDd spirituul life nnd liealing. 

Bnt why ditl the nine J^ws not return? Aaauredl;?, 
they mtiBt Iiave had some faith when first sinking help 
froir Christ, and still more when setting- oiit for the- priest* 
before tliey hnd exiicrienced the heaiiiig. But pprhapa wo 
may over-estimate the fatfch of these men. Bearing in mind 
the views of the Jews at the time, mid what constant eao 
cession of rairaenlous cures liftd been witnessed the&e yeiira, 
it cannot seem strange that lepers should apply to Jesus. 
Nor yf t perhnps did it, in the cirfnmstaneeB, involve very 
mnGh greater faith lo go to thti priests at Hie bidding — 
implying, of course, thjit tlisy were or wonld he healed. 
But it was far difftTvnl to turn hack aad tfl fall down at 
His Feet in woraliip anil thanke^ving. That made a man 
a disciple. 

And the Liord eriiphaeiged the contrast in this betwecta 
the children of the household and ' this stiranger.' Acoord- 
ing to the Gospels, a man might either seek beiietit from 
Christ, or else receiveChrist through such benefit. In the 
one case the benefit soaglit was the objr-ct. in the other the 
means; in the one it ultimately lee! iiway froni, in the 
other it led to <!hrist and to discipleship. And so Christ 
now spuke to this Samaritan : ' Arise, go thy way ; thy 
faith has made thee whole.' 

2, The Discourse cMUcerning the Coming of the 
Kingdom, which is reported by St. Luke immediately nfter 
• SL Luko the healing of the ten lepers," will be more con- 
irtL sw? veniently considered in connection with the 
» 81, luti. fiillPT statement of the same truths at the close 
""■ of our Lord's Miiiiatry.'' 

3. This brings ns to what we i-egard as, in point of 
•st-KjiiT, time, the next Discourse of Christ on thie journey, 
S"'M(iVt recorded both by St.. Matthew and, in briefer 
»i» form, by St. Mark.' 

Christ had advanced further ou Hie jouraey, and now 
cnce more encountered the hostile Pharisees, It will be 


^ On Divorce 439 

remenibpref) tKat He hiw) met. them before in the same 
»3i,LiiM part of the country," iiiid ouawered their taunte 
■^' '■* and objections, among other things, by charging 

them with breitking in spirit that Law of which they pro- 
fessed tfl he the exponente and repreaeiiljii iwa. And this 
He had proved bj reference to their views and teaching 
on the subject of divorce." This seema to have 
ruukled iu tlieir tniiiils, Prohjibly tliey also 
imagined, it would he ensy t.o sliiiw on this point aniarked 
difference between the teftcUing of Jesussaad Uiat of Moses 
nad the Rabbis, and to enlist popular feeling against Him, 
Accordingly, when tliese Pliiiriwi-etiiig^n.iii encountered Jesus, 
now on Hisjourueyt« J uditea. they resumed llieRiihject pre- ; 
cieely where it bad been broken off when tliey had last met 
Him, only now with liieobje<'tor'tempting Him." Perhaips 
it may also hfive beeu in the hope gutting Christ 
to commit Hmif^elfagaiiiat divorce inl'iTB'n— the territory 
of Herod— they might enlist ayfti1l^t Him. as formerly 
against the Baptist, the iniplatable hativd of Herodius. 

But their niuin object evidently was to involve Chj-iat 
in controvci-sy witli some of the Riiltbinic Schools. This 
iippenre fn-n) the fonn hi which they put the question, 
■ ^^t. Kmt whether it was lawful tn pat away a wife ' for 
xu-j every cause'?" St. Mai'k.who gives only a very 

condensed account, ntnit^a thia clause ; bnt in JewiBb circles 
tlie whole controversy between diffL'rent teachers tunn'ij 
upon this point. All held thatdivorcewfislawfql, the only 
queetion being aw to its grounds. There ran however be 
nu question that the practice was disoonraged by many uf 
the better Rabbis, alike in word and by their example : 
nor yet, that the Jewish Laxv took the tno'-t walchfnl cure 
of the iut^iBstH of the woman. In fact, if «uy doubt wem 
raised as to the legal validity of a lettiT of divorce, the 
Law always pronounced against the divorce. At the name 
time, in p^jpalrar practice, divorce must have been very 
frequent ; while the principles nndeHying Jewish legis- 
lation on the Bubjeict nre most objectionable. 

No real comparison ii^ poseible between Christ and 
even the strictest of the Rabbis, since none of them actually 



Jtroliibiteid divorce, excepi In case of luliilloiy, nor vet laid 
lown those lu^h eternftlpririciplea whir:!] Jei^rDjeuitncisied. 
But wo ran tindf rstaiid liow from the Jewish point of view 
'tempting Him,' they would nut Ihe question, whether it 
was lawful to divorce a wit'o ' for civery cause.' Avoiding 
thuir ciiyIIb, the Lord appealpd elrai^ht to tlie Ligbeat 
fluthority — God's Inslitutiouof injirriagi?. Hu Who at the 
begiiiaiag hiid ruude llmm irmlo and fomale Lad ia the 
tnatTiftps-teldtion 'joined thetn txjgfther,' to the breaking 
of L-vtrj' other, even the nearest, relationahip, to be • oae 
fleali ' — that is, to s. union which was unity. Such was 
the fact of God's nrdpring. Itfolloweil that they were one 
— and whnt. Ciod had willpd to be one, uinu might not put 
Oftuiider. Tlien followed the natumi Rabbinic objection, 
wliy, ia such c'tue, Moses had comirianded a bill of divoire- 
niciit. Our Lord replied by pointing out that Moswi huil 
not commrtnd'^d divorce, only tok-rated it ou account of 
their Jiaidai-pa of heart, and in sn«h case eoniinaiided to 
g;ive a bill of divorce for the protection of tlie wife. And 
tliia ai-pument would ap[>eal the more foToibly to tliem, ibut 
tite Kabbis thL-msolvea taiigbt that a eoniewhat aioillar con- 
• Dr»i. iiL cepsion had Iteeri made" by Moses in n*g»rd to 
" female captives of war — ns the Talrand haw it, 

*on account of the evil impuUe.' But §uch a aeparation, 
onr Lord continued, had nut Ijeen provided for iu the 
original institution, whioii wns a union to unity. Onlyono 
thing could put an end t-o that iiuily — its absolute breach. 
Hence, to divorce ones wife (or hucbtind) while this unity 
luated, and to many anollier, wii» adultery, because, sxb the 
divorce was null before God. the origitinl marriage still 
STibeisted — and iu thitt case the IJu.bbinic Law would also 
have forbidden it. The ne.ict part of the Lord's inference, 
tliat ' whoso marrieth her whieb is put away dotli commit 
adultery,' is more diflicult of interpretstioii. Generally, it 
is underetood as implying that a woirmn divon.ri:d ?ot 
adultery might not be married. Be this as it may, the 
Jewish Ivinv, which regii.rdi'd marriaye with a woman 
divorced under any circumstances as unsciviwable.abaolutely 
fcrbadc that of the itdulterer with tlie adulteiesa. 

Thb BiEssrvr, TO f.tTTts Chiwuhn 441 

That the I 'liaiisees hud lig'lirty judgi-<i, wheu * tomiilirig 
Him,' what the popular feeling on the subject would bw, 
appfara even froai what ' His disciples' [not neceaearily 
lio Apostles] JifteiwardK eaid to Hiin. 'llin' widtdd t^) ox- 
• Bi.M.Lik prt?ss tJieir dissent till thoy wi?ro nloiie with Him 
■^^ '^ ' in the bouse,' ' and then iirfi^d that, if it weit) 

as Christ hatl laiight, it would ho bt^ltL-r not lo marry at 
''Si.MftU, »"■ To whicli thfi TiOn] ri.'|il it'll,'' tlmt ' this »»y- 
ii*.io-is iiig' of iJie (iieciples, 'it is not g;oo*i to marry,' 
couM not be received hy all men, but only l>y those to 
whom it waa ' given.' Fop thertf wore Hirtt.' ciisl*h in which 
itbstineuce rii>iii mai'mif^(f might lavrfiiily he corit^iiiiplfittK]. 
In two of iJiPBo it wiia, of course, natural ; and, where it 
waa not 80, a man might, ' for the Kingdom of Ileuveii's 
sake'— -that is, in thu service of God Biid of Christ— have 
ull IiiH thoughts, fefliii^s, tind inipnlfiiis Bo eD^u-gi'd Unit 
others were no longer existent. It ia thia wldch reqnires 
to be 'given' of God; a.ud which 'he that, is ablt'to receive 
it" — who lia* the moral capacily for it — is called upon to 

■I. The next incident ia recorilwl by thti thrnt) EvangG- 
■ BLUntc listri.' It probably oeuin'ri'il in tliv «iun<i houiit^ 
ki'mbik'^ where the disciples Imd questioned Gliriet about 
ii^irtU ^'^ teaching on the Divinely sacred wlafcionship 
i»-i' of marriage. And the accoiiut of Hia blesaiug of 

' infants' and ' httle children" most, aptly followH on the 
former teaching. We can trndeririand bow, when One 
Who 80 ppake and wrought rostod in the house, Jewiwh 
mothers ybould Liive brought tLeii- 'little children,' uud 
Bome their • inf»titn,' to Him, tliat He mi^ht ' touch,' 'put 
His Hands outhem, and pray.' What power and holininsM 
must these mothers have believed to be in Hi» txinch and 
prayer; what life to be in, and to come from Him; and 
what gentleueae and teiiderm'Kti niuM Hiu huve lj<-«ii, when 
they dared so ia bring tliene little ones ! For how utterly 
contrary it was to all .lewitdi notions, and how incomialible 
with thi) Hnp|)aik.-d tUgniLy of n Rabbi, iippearB from the 
rebuke of tJie disdpieH. It was an occasion and an act 
wheU] as the fuller and more pictorial account of St. Murb 

442 Jesus the Messiah 

infomiB UK, JpBttB 'wfts nmeh di9plea«pd '^fhe only tfme 
tiiiB strong word is us«I of our Lord^and said uuto theni : 
' Sufl«r th« littlff cliililren to oonie to Me, liiudpr them not, 
forofaucb is the Kingdom of God,' Theu He gently re- ^ 
minded His own diBciples of their gra,V8 «rror, byrupeatinj | 
• Bi.Matt. wliiil, tlit'y liiid u]> forgotten,* that, in 
"'"■' order to enter thp Kingdnm of (rod, it must baj 
received an by a tinle chil