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1 I 

^ t •«-!' 


OR, A 







Bifffterution on ttie H^rfivetv m«n0itagr. 










A. . \o 

/* i^v 





The learned and worthy Author originallT composed 
the foUowing Treatise for the priTate use of dioee 
theolf^cal papUs, who studied mider his own direc- 
tioD ; and it is now <^ered to the public, as deserriog 
the perusal of all who would trfrtaio an intimate ac- 
quaintance with the sacred cwacles, espectally with 
the Old Testament; as well as of those whoee [Ht>- 
fession leads them more directly to the study of di- 
vini^. Many passages of the word of God are here 
slulfiilly explained and iUustrated, and many OHKe 
may be so, by a judicious a{^licati(m of that know- 
ledge of Jewish Antiquities;, which is comjMised in 
these Lectures. The represaitati(Mi made in than of 
the rites, customs, and (pinions of the Jews, chiefly 
respects those which are found in Scripture ; for the 
clear understanding of which, besides carefully ex- 
amining and comparing the accounts given in the sa- 
cred code, and deriving as much light as possible 
from that fountain, the Author hath called in the as- 
sistance of Josephus and Philo, and, on some occa- 
sicms, of the Jewish labbies, as well as of a great 



variety of oilier writers, both ancient and modern, 
wlio have treated concerning the Jews and iheir 
affairs. Of the rabbinical writers he had indeed a 
very m«in opinion, both in respect to the credit due 
to them, as relatcrs of ancient facts, or of established 
customs and opinions ; and in respect to their judg- 
ment, as interpreters of Scripture. Maimonides, Aben- 
Er.ra, and Abarfaanel, are the most eminent of this class, 
and almost the only persons amongst them who dis- 
cover a judicious and rational turn of mind. Of 
Maimonides in particular it is said, that he was the 
first Jew who ceased to trifle, "qui desiit dcsipere." 
But even these authors, though more respectable than 
most of tbcir bretlirc-n, come too lato to have much 
siTC^ laid upon their report of tiic sentiments and 
practices of ihc ancient Jews, if not suj>(iortcd or 
countenanced by Scripture, or by some other writer 
of more antiquity and greater authority than them- 

Though the learned Author chose to execute bis 
design upon the plan of the three 6r8t books of God- 
win's Moses and Aaron, his work, ncvertheleiis, doth 
not consist of detached remarks on the text of that 
writer, but of distinct and complete dissertations on 
the MubjectK ireatinl of by him, and on some others 
which he hath omitted ; insomuch that it is not ne- 
cessary to have recourse continually to Godwin, in 
the perusal of the following volume ; which must have 
been the reader's disagreeable tank, had this work 
been a collection of short notes and observations, lu 
one or two places, the Editor hath taken tiie lihi-rty 
of inverting, eillier froui (iodwin or from Hottingcrs 
Notes upon him, what seemed necessary to complete 



ihc subject, auci render the discourse regular and aoi- 
form ; particularly in the cJiapter on the gate* of Jeru- 
salem, which, in the Autliors MS copy, cousisted 
merely of what the reader will here find ou LJie mira- 
cle which our Saviour wrought at the pool of Bctlicsda; 
situatf^, OH some suppose, near the Sheep Gate. 
Nevertheless, though it is not requisite frequently 
to turn to Godwin in perusing this work, for a 
complete view of the subject, yet if the correspond- 
ent chapters iu the two treatises are read in conjunc- 
tion, we shall Bee reason, on the compArison, to enter- 
tain the higher opinion of the iodu9tfy with which our 
learned Autliorhath collected his materiaU, and of the 
judgment and skill with which he hath discussed the 
particular subject before, him- 

The Editor hath taken care all along to insert the 
words of the text of Scripture which occur, and which 
in the manuscript were only quoted by the chapter 
and verse. The Author might reasonably expect from 
bin pupils, that the passages referred to should be 
crarefully consulted ; but it would have beeu irksome 
and tedious to the generality of readers, to be conti- 
nually turning to passages of Scripture in order to 
understand the meaning of the Author's observations 
tipon tliem, or reasoniug from them. And the neces- 
sity the Editor wax under of introducing the texts 
ubli^d him to make some small alterations in tiie 
phraseology, especially in the connective particles and 
sentences, and even a few transpositions, in order to 
introduce tbcni consistently with the regularity and 
iinifonnity of the whole. 


Tbe references to authors, either for proof or 
illustration, which tire very numerous, have for the 
most part been carefully examined, and made very 
particniar, for the benefit of tlioc^e who are disposed 
to consult the authorities on which the Author relies, 
or those writers who have treated more largely on the 
subject. For want of producing his authorities, Lewin's 
Jewish Antiquities, which are otherwise valuable, are 
very unsatis factor)* ta a man who is desirous, not only 
to know what hath been said, but by whom it hath 
bee» said, and what credit it deserves. 

With respect to the Dissertation on the Hebrew 
Language, it may be observed, that the Author once 
thought more highly of the antiquity aud authority of 
the Masoretic readings, and of the vowel points, than 
he did after perusing the iogeuious aitd learned Dr. 
Kennicott's two dissertations, especially his second on 
the Hebrew textj by which the Author, as well as the 
generality of the learned world, was convinced} they 
deserved not that eKtravagant and .superstitious re- 
gard, which the credit of the two Buxtorfs, and of 
some other entinent Hebraiciaus in the last age, had 
procured them from nieu of letters. Once in par- 
ticular he expressed his sentiments on thi^ subject to 
the Editor, and gave some general idea of his in- 
tended alteration in the Dissertation on the Jewish 
Language; which, it is presumed, he was prevented 
from accomplishing by the declining state of his 
health for some time before his decease. The Editor 
hath endeavoured to supply this little defect in some 
measure, by inserting a few references to, and obscr- 



vatioDS from. Dr. Kennicott, and by &oflentng a few 
- npicasions, in conformity with the Author's latest sen- 
timents on this head. 

The reader will observe some digressions, in the 
earlier part of the work especially, to subjects which 
have an affinity to those of which the Author is treating. 
Some of these the Editor bath thrown into notes, and 
mi^ht perhaps have done it with a few more, particu- 
larly in the chapter on tlie patriarchal government 
As most of these relate to illustratioru> oi'^ripture, the 
Author WR.f willing to imlulge himself in them; de- 
claring to his pupils, that he never thought himself out 
of his way while be was explaimni;^ the sacred oracles. 
However, these digressions are not numerous, and 
chiefly at the beginning of the work. 

Though this volume professedly treats of the wbjects 
which are contained in the three first books uf Godwin, 
yet several things are occasionally introduced relative 
to Uie subjects of his three last books ; which wss one 
reucm why the Author did not proceed to the particular 
consideration of them. Another was, that the three 
hrst books comprise all the subjects which relate to the 
sacred or ecclesiastical antiquities of the Hebrews, and 
which are peculiarly requisite to the understanding of 
the Jewish, and, consequently, in some measure, of the 
Christian scheme of theolc^. 

This piece of Godwin, styled Moses and Aaron, the 
method of which our Author chose to follow, hath been 
annotated and commented upon by a variety of authont. 
One of the roosl judicious, who have favoured the pub- 
lic with their lucubratioas, is Holtinger. There are two 


sets of annotations in manuscript, one by titc learned 
Witftius, which be read to his students in Uie univrrsity 
of I^'yden ; a copy of which was in the hands of Dr. 
Jennings, who hath been, in a few instances, and but 
in a few, lieholdcn to it. Another onnotator, whose 
jwrformance is yet in manuscript, was the late Mr. 
Samuel Jones, of Tewkcsburj'. His work, of which 
there arc several copies extant, is written in neat Latin, 
and contains very valuable remarks, which discover bis 
great learning and accurate knowled^ of bis subject. 
From this writer the Editor hath inserted a note at page 
360, and in a few other places. Dr. Jennings never 
saw Mr. Jones's Annotations, though there is a simila* 
rity in a few of their observations, they having both 
been in possession of a copy of Witsius. But the Doc- 
tor's own work surpasses the perfonnunccs of both these 
learned writers, as in some other respects, so particu- 
larly in compass and variety, and as it contains tlic 
opinions and improvements of later authors : and it is 
hoped will answer the end for which it was originally 
composed, and is now published, — the advancement of 
religion and learning, and the knowledge o( those 
onicles of God, which are able to make us wise to 





Of the Form of the Hebrew Commomweatlh I 

CHAP. n. 

Of tie PublicaM and Taxea 55 


hraelitet and Proaelytea 67 

Of their KingM Ill 

Of the Higk-prieaU, Priests, LevHea, and Nethmwi ! 29 

Of the Prophets 234 

Of /he title Rabh't 27fl 



Of the Naiarilet and RechabUea 285 

Of the Auideaiu and Kamitea 296 

Of the Phar'uees 30i 

Of the Sadduceea and Samantaiu 314 

Of the Enenet 320 

Of the OttuhmUes and Herodimu 327 




Of the Grove$ and High Places 391 

Of the Citiet of Refuge 397 



0/Dayt, Houn, fVeeht, and Yeari 401 


0/ their Featf 418 

0/lhe Sabbath 428 

Of the PaiKwer and Feaet of Unieavewd Bread 448 

Of tiie Feaat of Pentecott 4a'J 

Of the Featt ofTabeniaclet 490 

Of the Feast ofTrumpeu, and New Moons 501 



Oftke Day o/E*piatiom 510 

0/tke Sa&iatical Year, or Seventh Yearn Rett 527 


TAe Jubilee 537 


The FeaitM o/Pnrim and of Dedication 544 


Conceminif the Language of the Jewt 55 1 







1 H E ancient state and form of the Hebrew govenunent may 
be distinguished into patriarchal and special. The patiiarchal 
uDiTcrsally prerailed in the first ages. Br special we mean 
the gOTenunent pecnliar to the people of Israel, from the time 
of their entrance into Egypt to the md of their polity. 

Of the Patriarchd Form of Gtncrmmtmt . 

I . The patriarchal form (so called from -rvrfMa, famnlia, and 
ap\tov, prittceps) is defined by Godwin to consist, in " the Ci- 
thers of families, and their first-born after them, exercising aU 
kinds of ecclesiastical and civil aathority in their respectiTe 
households; blessing, cnrsing, casting oat of doors, disinheiit- 
ing, and punishing with death.*' 

It is natural to suppose, that Adam, the fether of all man- 
kind, would be considered as supreme amongst them, and 
have special honour paid him, as loag as he lired ; and that 
when his posterity separated into distinct famihes and tribes, 
their respectiTe fathers would be acknowledged by them as 
their princes. For as they could not, in any titrable manner. 
Htc together without some kind of goremment, and no go- 
vemment can subsist without some head in whom the execu- 
tive power is lodged, whom were the children so likely, after 
they grew up, to acknowledge in this capacity, as their father, 
to whose authority they had been used to solxnit in their early 
years? And hence those, who were at first onlyacknowledsbd 
as kings over their own households, grew iosensiMy into mo* 



Bfdii of Ifgw ewmBiiUki, by dMiaiag the wf udbori^^ 
onrUiebmilkawkieli bnnefaeil mt frnn then. «• Uwy 

exerctaed over ibcir mra. Uowvm. the p^uprr pMnsrchal 
gOTermncnl ti luppoaed to have contiDtud amoog the peoplc- 
oTGod anta the lime of the I^|^ito dwdUng in Egrpci liar' 
Ihco w« hare the fint Tntimaiianaf a difirreni foRo of goTcrn- 
Bwnt among iheni. 

Oar oMlMBr hath perfaapa aongDed greater lotfaofitT to th« 
potriarrlu than they reaannahly coald of did clatm aud exer- 
ciac; at hauA, the itutanees he produces to prove they were 
onlinarily invested with such a de«pottc power. " in dviiibnt 
tf tarrit." u bo accribea to them, are not sufficiently con- 

That there was aome citiI government in the first ages, b 
■upfHMcd to apinrar fmm thi.- history of Cain, who wo* not only 
banishe<). but wd^ appn'tientuvc he nhoiild bu puni-Hhed with 
death, for the ninrder of his brother Abel. "And Coin said 
iinto ihp Lord, My pnnishinent t* grenter than 1 can bear. 
Ueholil, thoa hnst driven mc out this day from the face oftho 
eurtfa ; and fruiti thy face shall I be bid ; aiid I shall be a fugi- 
tive aod a vagabond in th« enrth ; niid it nhall come to pasa, 
(hat everyone that hoJetb me ^UaU nluy me;" Uen. iv. K), 14. 
Where nOTK adhamah, which we render, the earth, may ttig- 
nify htn nntive countr>*, ri/.. that part of the world where 
Adam dwrtt, where himself was Itom. »nd uherc hi« nearest 
kindriHl and acquaintance lived: this word, as well as t^N 
nrelM, iK-ing frfcpieiitly upf^ifd (o a purticuhr country, as to 
the land of Canaan, tien. xKviii. II; lo the Imul ofE^'pt. 
Bxod. viii. 17; and tu several uthvrs.* 

By " the face of God from which hr wiis hid." or banished, 
is properly meant what tlie Jews called the ^hechinah. a shin- 
mg light or piftry, in which God was wont to inanifcNl hin pre- 
■mcL<, and U\ present himMlf as n visible ubject of worship, 
and from which he gave ornclBi. aa lie did aOerward in iJie 
Jewish tabenincte over the mercy-»cal: thouj^h St.Chryaoatom 
nndervtandit hilt being " hid from thefiiceof God." of iJie l>i- 
vine Being's withdrawing his gracious presence from him, and 
potting him from ander his protection. 

* Vid. Stockii CU«. in tub. 



Mntirharc tiioti^ht.tlmt upon hit beiagUtiutHuuelied (ram 
ttir dirint- prtiki'iice, hr- turned Kli>l.«tcr, and srt up the woitbip 
of the sun. ns th« best r«fi«iiiblunr«of th? ShccluWi.or nsibli 
divinff glory; and thus they Kcrotinl for the cariy iotrcMluctMxi 
of that most general and nio!>l ancient kind of idolatry. 

The reason why this lighter puniahmeiitof banisbiDent waa 
indicled on him. instead of that sereter one of death, which 
his crtnit! had nu-nt^l, is suppoced to be ettber. find, that he 
might continoo a living cxampie of dirine vengsaiice, in order 
to deter others from the tike crime, whtfcaa had Ik beea pat 
to death, the cnmitiaJ and hi« punishment might aooQ have 
been forgotten: or, Becondly, tu) Gn>tiu« concetve«, becaoM 
there being yet but few inhubittuiu in the world, it waa fit be 
■huuld be ftulTured to live for the propagation of the species ; 
or at Ica«t an exampJe of severity iras lea« requisite, as there 
were not many who were Uiely to be exposed to sach out* 

Uowewr, it nppean that Cain, being sensible of his de- 
serts, was afraid the puni»hmeut of death would be indicted 
on him : for he adds, " I shall be a fugitive and a vsgabond 
on the earth { and it shall come to pasa, that enrj oae thftt 
Andelh OM aboil slay me:" that ie, either as a coaunon enany, 
or at least aa one banished and oatJawed, and not under the 
protection of the government. 

kruUow.t, Gen. iv. ITr, "And the Lord »aid unto him, Tbci*- 
lore whoever »layvth Cain, veogeance nhall he taken on him 
aeven-fold:" that in, as some underKtand it, to the seventh 
geoeratioii; or it may rather be a definite number for an in- 
de6niterf and ao the meaning i«. he shall endure many pu- 
niAhmenti, or shall be aevercly puniahcd. 

" And the Lord act a mark upon Cain, leat any Andmg him 
ahmild slay him." Mirny arc the eonjcctures, both of Jews and 
Chriatians (some of Ibeni ridiculous enough), couccming thta 
mark. Some will have it, Ood st^matixed him with a brand 
in his forehead, to denote bis being accursed ; oth«ra, that be 
had a wild aspect, and bloody eyes, which reeled in a homd 
manoer. The fatlieni, in geoeial, iuppose, that he had a eoo- 

* D« jvi* baUi et pacn, lib- 1. c*(k 2, HCl- S. 
t laMaooHoflbisirowlHwiii fWmuLfi; nis. 164; 
Itf, sihI msnjr «Air )it*c«*. 

■ 3 

ud PfO*. mr. 



tiiiiiRl tremblini^ of Oie Xxttiy, W) that he couW hardly get his 
food ta his mouth. Thi» opininn is favoitnxl by Uio Kt ptiiagint^ 
which reuders "arugitiveanfiairagabond,"<mi/iwv mu rfDi^ioi*, 
laiuviiting and trtmbling. Others wll us, that wheriivi-r he 
went ihe earth Khook iiiidiT him. And luioiher uotiou {as well 
founded as any of the t'oroier) is. that he had a horn gnmiii^ 
out of his forehfad, to want {K-ople to avoid hiin. Lc Clerc 
imagines, that Gud ordered hiin to wear »om« dislinguiahing 
giiriucnt. |>erha|is of lioiuc ghiriiig colour, ait a mark or tugn 
upon him for hiii pn-tfervuiion; hko Uie hlood upon Ute door- 
pQsU of tk«I»racht?s' houses, Kxod.xti. 13; or iJie scarlut Hue 
in Rithah'ii window, .loKh.ii. IS; fur had he been clothed only 
with the sliin>i of wild beastB. us in those day^ men g«!iii!rully 
were, after the fashion of their firxt )HircittH, Gun. lii. 21, be 
would h.ive lieeii very liable, whenever he hnd wandered in ihu 
woodHiiiid thiekctH, to have Ik-vii xhot at by Home hunter, aiiti 
|iprhnps killed through mistake. A nimtlar inKtancc you Iiuv4 
in llie fublo of Cc|ihL\ Procis. 

However, Dr. Shuckronl's opinion is the mo»l probable, 
who reiHlers the words ni« \^pb nvi* oz'^y rrjaiem Jfhovuh 
Ifcain ath, " God pive lu Cain a wg»i," tir token, probubly by 
Bomc apparent miraelc, that he would |irovidontiiilly protect 
llim: so that none that met him should kill him.* In tllis 
sense the word rm o/A is ui<ed when the rambow is called 
the rnK vth. lltat is. the sign or token of the covenant which 
God nftde will) Noah ; whereby he awtured him. lh:iL he would 
drawn the world uo more;Geu. w. \'2 — 17: and when Gideon 
desired, that the angel would n\\cm him a »\%n, or some mi- 
raculous token, that he brought him u eomniiHiiidn from God, 
and that hu bhoulU be uMv lu destroy the Midiunitcs j Judges 
vi. 17: see also Psalm Ixxxvi. 17. 

Another article in llie history of the antediluvian ages, 
which ia supjMued to intimate that there was » civil govern- 
ment then salMfxting. is the story of Ijmiech. " Lantech 
mid onto bin wives, Adah and ZillAli, Hear my voice; ye wives 
of Lnmech. heorken unlu my speech: for I have slain n muri 
unto my wuundini;. ajid a young man to my hurt. If Cain 
ftball be avenged seven-fold, truly Lamech seventy and seven- 

* SlracUurdV Conned. voL i. p. B. 


ltd;" Geo. iv.23, 24. ThiB speech, which is introduced 
SriUiont any roitncxioti with tJiu preceding hiitlnry.has given 
rotarprcters not n little trouble. The Jewish Rabbits nttcmpt 
to explain it by the help of a fttory. perhaps of their own in- 
vention ; Uiut l^ he was hunting, being iitfonued by a 
certain youtli, that a wild beast I»y lurking in a secret place, 
went thither, and unawares killod Cain, who lay hid there, 
witli a dart ; ami then, upon rinding his mistake, in a fit oT 
ntf^u for what he had done, beat the youth to death ; tu> that 
(Jnin woa the man be had slain by wounding; him ; and the 
yualh, the young man he had killed by hurttug, or beating 
him. But na this story is M^tbout any foundation in Scripture, 
we have no rcu»on to timk u|ioi) it in any other light than a» a 
mere fnble; though St. Jerome says it was received a» true 
by several ChWstians. Jacobnn CapeHtis, in his Historia 
Sarra et Exotica, fancicH that Lainech, Itcin;^ in a vapoury 
humour, was booBling of his courage, and what he would do 
if tticre was occaaiou : *' I would, or will, kill a man, if he 
wounds me; and a young man if he hurts me." But this 
vcfKion offers too much violencn to the Hebrew text: Onke- 
los, who wrote the first Chaldec paraphraw on the Pentateuch, 
Ims g-ivcn ux au easier sense, reading die followin<^ words with 
an intjcrmgiition : " Have I slain a man to my wounding, iind 
a young man to my linrl !" and acconlin'^ly he jmrapliniscs it 
Lhtis : " I liave not killed a man. tliut I should bear the »in o( 
it ; nor have 1 destroyed a young man, that my offspring 
should be cut off for it." Dr. Sliuckford has improved this 
interprt'talion. by •opposing that Linicch was cndeavoaringlo 
rraMju his wives and family out of tfieir fear of having the 
death of Alwl revenged upon them, who were ofthc poaierity 
of Cain. Ah if he hod said, " What hove we done, Uiat we 
should bu ttfniid ? We have not killed u urui, nor olTer«d any 
injorv to our bnjlhren of any other family ; and if God would 
not iUlow Cain to be killed, who had murdered liis brother, 
but tbrvatened to lake seYtti-fold vengeance on any that shoald 
kill him; doubtless ihey muRt eipect mach greater punish- 
nicnt, who should presume to kill any of us. Ttierefore, wo 
may suruly loc^ upon onrHelvva as safe under the prutcclion 
orUie law. and uflbc providuncu of God." 


•OOK 1. 

Having thus cotmilrrwl those parts of sacrcfl hintoi^- which 
ue pro<tuc«l as evidences of m ctvil govcmiucnl iu the vaily 
ages of tlie worid; we now proceed to examine the particular 
instanceft alleged of that df^potic power of the patriarchs, 
which our author aacribcft to ihcm. 

Th« firat Eft of Noah, who pronounced a cur^e upon Ca- 
naan — " Cursed be Canaan ; a iicrvaoi of scrvanta shall h? bv 
niito hia brethren ;" Gt>n. ix. 2^. 

U may reasonably be believed, that Noah, being the second 
father of Diuiikind, had, for a cunbidfrable Uiuu, the honour 
and authoiity of uaiversal monarch. a» Adam had before hinl. 
Some iQsiat upou it, that Nimrod wa« llic first that drew off a 
ty from their allegiance to Noah ; and, setting up for a 
ung, proved on oppressive tymnt. Accordingly, his being 
lcaHe<l fHR3 naj gilftmr taarfts, which lh« Srptitagint n-ndera 
[^<70c in rjK ync Gen. x. H, may refer, not to his statun?, but 
[to his power ; for HeKycbius makes 7(70? to st^ify the 
[fame aa Sowwrmr, Kr^n/wc. i>^>irm. rttbastua. Nimrod is ex- 
ly aaid to have set up " a kingdom," rer. 10 ; and. 
|u8t before, ver. 9, " to have bi-en a mighty hunter before 
the Lord." Wliirh the Jerusalem PuruphniKl intfrprt-lH of n 
[-sinful hunting after the sods of mea, lo turn ihum oH' from 
^'the true religion. Hut it may as well be taken in a more 
literal aeose, for hunting of wild beasts; inasmuch as tlie 
kcirctunatance of his bvtug a mighty hunter, is mentioned 
I with great propriety, 10 introduce the account of his set- 
ling up bis kingdom ; the oxereisc of hunting being looked 
npoo in aocieut limrs us a means of acquiring the rudimenU 
of war;* for which reason, the principal hproes of hea- 
|then antiquity, aa lltescus, Nestor, &c., wore, as Xcnnphoa 
jlella OB, bred up to hunting. Uesidcs, it may be supposed, 
that by this pntcticc Nimrod drew togvchor a gn*iit com- 
pany of robust young men to cittond him in his »port ; and 
I by thai means locreasoil hia power. AihI by ilestroying ihu 
wild b<n«U, which, m the comparativdy dcfeocelcas atatii of 

• Vid. XoutOmi. Cjfrop. lib. I p. |o, edit. Uuich.; Philon. lad. di J«>. 
«ph. ab laMio, apud optn, |i. 4l1,«diu Colon. Allol>n>f.M eusdem de 
Vila UoMS, p. 4T4 Sm thoM aod other auhon cited }fy Bochan in hb 
Oa^gnflus Skis, kb. 1*. csp. 19. 



•ociety in thosr early age*, wc"? no rioubt vory tiangertms 
eneniit'S, lie oiight, |>erliapfi, render hiniself farther popaUr; 
tlinvby cnga^n^ numbers to join with him, and to promote 
bis i;ht(*r design of sutxluing men. and nukmg htmacif maAicr 
of tuitions. 


Bat to return lo Nouh. and to the instance which our 
jaotfaor aingns ot' lu« patriarchid authoiity. iu denouncing 
curae upon Canaan. 

Unlesa it coutd be proved, that all the pntriarchs were en- 
dowed with a propht-iic spirit, a.s it was evidt-nt Noah waa, 
w huu be fuTL'told liie fate uf his three soaa and their posterity, 
it will by uo m«aus fulluw from the instnnce before us, tliat 
the authority of Ike patriarchs generally rvached so far as to 
pronouiicv vUectual blessings and cunesoo their chtklnm and 
■ubjc-cti<. Ill «hort. ill tliia a&ir, Noah seeuu to have act«d 
niihrr aa a prophet than om a patriarch : no arj^ment there- 
fure can bo drawn from his conduct on this occasion, to prove 
tlir extent of ihc patriarch:)! pinver. 

Some ditficulties occur ui ihiu piece of aacred history, which 
we cannot pa>a over without attcmpLiug at lea&t to explain 

lit. It is inquired in what Ham's crime consisted. 

The history iufonus un, that he " aaw the uukedncss of hia 
father, and told his two brethren without;" Gen. ix. 22. Now 
merely aecing might be accidental, unavoi<luble. and noway 
criminal. We must, therefore, Huppoae, ihura was somethiug 
mure ui the caac than la plainly expressed. 

Somo Jewish doctors maku his crime to be castrating his 
father iVuah, to prevent his baring any more sons, leat bis 
share in the division of Uie world should not be as large as be 
winhed ; which conceit some very grave authors hare serioualy 
refutwl, from tlieae words: " Noah awoke from his wine. and 
knew wliat hia younger son had doue unto him ;" vcr. 24. 
They argue, that if Ham hud performed so piunful an opera- 
tioQ upon his father, the anguisli would undoubtedly have 
awoke bim, and the erimuial had been tukeu in the veiy fact. 

Mr. Vander Hurt, professor of the oriental languages in the 
university of Helmjdad, is of opinion, that Manra crime was 
coiitmittinj* inrotti with hi« father's wife. Uut if we may gup- 
poM.' the tmrration!) of Moses to bo thus disguised, there wUI 


be hardly any depending upon a single fact he relates. The 
moBt probaUe. therefore, as well as the easiest account, is this, 
that Ham told his brethren of what he had seen, in a scornful 
manner. It is said, " he told his brethren without;" per- 
haps in the street, publicly before the people, proclaiming his 
father's shame with coatempt and derision; the very sin to 
which such exemplary "vengeance was afterward threatened : 
" The eye that mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey 
his mother, the rarras of the valley shall pick it out, and the 
Twu^r eagles shall est it ;" Prov. xxx. 17. 

ddhr. It is inquired, why Xoah denounced the curse, not on 
Han himself, but on his son Canaan ; Gen. ix. 25. 

It mi^l reiT likirly be a reason, why Canaan is here bo 
fittiticulaitT mentioned by Moees, that hereby the Israelites 
■n^i he encounced lo war against the Caooaanites, who were 
die pwterirr v^' tlu$ C«naan : when they knew, that by a curse 
tWy «m denxco u> subyection and slavery; and that on 
t^ Kvwni. :h«y m-^t be assured of victory over them. 

Bui as » the re»«oa <£ the cnise being denounced on 

tj*. Soar S% C«?)JUta vnJcrsand Canaan's father ; which 
» a *«> 5uiT>i -j»»,r<r?cw»ii.«. 

doA - Dte ,-«vi;x\r <«' iK" Hrbnw doctors is. that Canaan 
1tT«« iUL* >>4«>; 17 xr. ^XK7<v-v«t loanre^ and made a jest of it 
tv h» th&t}icr Haxc. Kor pwot « xhi*. they afiece the words 
ahnKiy ^«<s«^. " Nvtkk a«\-4.e ttvm hi» wme^ and knew what 
hn xoQ'.'^^rr StTir. had otiOkc bbIo hsa :" ver. C4. Bt ]E^ U3 



an is evuJorit from the following wonls : " Gmi shall enlarge 
Japhct, aihl hv bIwII dwell in the teriu of SUvm;'* ver. 27. 
Nov though th«Canaaiiili» KuHerad for thdr o«m wins (Lev. 
xriii. 24, 25, and Gen. xv. 16), y«t it was a pivscnt panish- 
mcnt ioOicted npoa Ham, lo be iiiforatL-il by the spirit of 
prophecy, that one branch of his pORterity wuuld prove so 
cxccvdiog Tile as to fnll remurkably tuidcr the cunte uf Ood. 
And be made a slaTe to the posterity of hU brcthrtn. Which 
leads us to inquirv. 

3dly- What is mcaDt by his being a*'8eiTnntof scrrants:" 
" Cunu^ be Canaan ; a servant of serranta iihall he be unto 
his brethren." 

This may easily be dctenmned from the umj uf the liko 
phniK on other occanoue. Samtum taaetontm signified the 
uiotft hoiy place in the Jewish tabcrnacie an d temple; and 
rauticuat cantkoriim, the [uo«t excelltnit Kong. fn like man- 
ner, atrvua tertvrum, n servant of >>on'ants, in tbe basest and 
vilest of »i^rvttnis. that is, a slave ; and very remarkaUy was 
the prediction lultilled eight hnndred yrant after, when tlie 
Israelites, who were descended from Shem, took poeaaBetoa 
of the Kind of Canaan, subduing thirty kin£r¥>, killing a vast 
ntmibcr of the luliabitunUi. laying h^-uvy tributes ua the re- 
mainder, or driving them out of their country, and using the 
Giboonites, who suved tliemMlve* by a wile, though not pro- 
perly as slaves, yet as mere dnidgca for the serricc of the 
tabanucle; and when, afterwards, liie scattered relics of the 
Cansanttea, at Tyre, at Thebes, and at Carthage, were all 
conquered and cut 00" by the Greeks and Komans, who wore 
deaeended from Juphvl.* 

The second instance which Godwin prodacee of the de- 
spotic power of the patriarchs, ts Abraham's turning llagar 
and Uhrnart nut of hu fnttiily ; Oen. xxi. 9. &c. 

Wht-n Abmhoro left bis father's house, and came into the 
latid of Canaan, beini; tlicre mi juris, and aabject to none, 
he doubilcfift exercised a patriarchal jurisdiciioa in his own 
foniily; in which he was succeeded by Isaac and Jacob. Itut 
u fur his tumtug hiM uuicubiue and her sons out of doors, 

* Stc Plilligpj Olearii ditputal. linlorico-monil, lie Ctiwa. nuMiCL 
lipk. IT07; and Apod Umbb. nov. thoolagico-phitniiNf. bun. I. p. 1011, 
Ufd. Bll. elAnuul. 17)3. 


leWISH ANTtQVirtK#. 

BOOK 1. 

when lie* bod a chiUl by his lawful wife, it in tuo coiiiiuoii n 
case to bo on vTiduuci: uf any BUigular uutbonty vestvd iaj 
the pairiarchft, attd peculiar to those aee«. 

The thinJ instance w that of Jncob's dennunt^inf^ a cun)« i 
upon Simron anH Levi, — " Cureeil be tlicir an^er. for it wna 
fterco; iittd ihnr wrath, for it wne cruel: 1 wilt dividi* thrm 
ia Jacob, nod hcntter thciii in laniel ;" Gen. xlix. 7. 

But thin niigbt havu ljt*fn nwrv prupi-rly alleged as an in- 
Htancc of prophetic iiispimtion than of patriitrchal authority ; 
it bein^ among the predictions which, under a divine ajftntus, 
Jacob deliviTwl concfniin^ the posterity of hit* twelve turn)*. 
And very remarkably was this prediction fulAlled. The irilic 
of Simeon, upon the division of the land of Canaan, had not 
« separate inheritance aaaif^cd them by themaelves, but only | 
a portion in the midfit of the tribe of Judah ; Josb. xix. !.!>.! 
And when they n'ere afterward increnKed, they acqnirvd po»>' 
nsaions wlivre thvy could, far from the rc»t of their brethren ; 
I Chron. iv. 39. 42. And if thi.' Ji-wiiih tradition be crwUble, 
that many of them, wantinf^ a livchhood, engaged in teaching 
c-hildren, and were employed as schoolmasters in alt the otlxT 
tribes of Israel, it was a further accomplinlimem of Jnrob'sj 
prophecy. A» for the tribe of l^vi, it w»8 reniarkablv scat^ 
tered umnn^ the other tribctt; having no trad of loud an- 
signed it. in the manner they had, but only certain cities (wt(f) 
a little Idiid about thent). out of alt the other tribes. Sec Josh, 
xxi. pttstim. Ilowbeit, as this tribe manifested an extraor 
dinary zcnl ag;ninst idolatry in the affair of the gnldcn rair, 
Exod. iixii. 26 — 2H, the curse was taken ofl', or rather 
lunicd into a blessing, ver. 29 ; for it was consecrated of i 
1o " teach Jacob his judgments, and Israel his tawM," Deut. 
xxxiti. 0, 10; and the Lrvites had Uie teiilli of all tJie in- 
frroajMof the landaimigncd them, throii^lioul»ll the country. 

The fourtli instance of patriarclwl authority, which is id-' 
Icf^, is of Judah ; who. when he was infonuv<l thai Tamar. 
hid dauu'hter-m-law. had [>!av«l the harlot, iind w:iji wirh rhilrl 
by ifthuredom, said, *' Uniij: her forth, and let her be burnt;" 
Gen. Kxxviii. 24. From whence it is inferred, that Judah. 
as a patriarch. wa.H inveHlt^tl with siipn-nu> unthnnly in hia 
own bouse, and cvmi with power of hfc and di»th. 13ul to 
tbta il is objcctcil. 


1st. It IB not fHvbable that Judah shoald be inresteil with 
such aathority. while his father Jacob was still Irring: much 

3d]y. That he should hare such a despotic power over 
Tamar, who was not one of his fiuuily ; for, after the death d 
Onan, she had retomed to dwell in her own father's hooae ; 
Tcr. II. Nor, 

Sdly. If be had possessed such a poww, is it likely he 
would have been goil^ of so much injustice and cnidty, as to 
put her to death, when she was with child ? Peifaaps there- 
fore Jiidah might speak trnly as a proseestor : " Bring her 
forth, to her trial, in order that she may be burnt after her 
delirery." For though the law of Moses, which enacted that 
adultery should be punished with death, Ler. xx. 10» was not 
yet giren, boming seems, however, to hare been the pvaisb- 
ment of that crime, which custom had established. We find 
it |»actised by the PfailistiDes, who were not under the law of 
Moses. When Samson's wife .had married another man, 
" they burnt her with fire ;" Judges xr. 6. It is fortb^ to be 
considered, that though Tamar had hved a widow since the 
death of Oaan, yet she was legally espoused to his younger 
brother Shelah, and only waited till be was of proper age for 
the consummation of the marriage, and therefore she was coo- 
sidered as a wife, and consequently as an adulteress. 

Of the Special Form of the Hebrew Gotermmemt. 

Haring tfaus examined the bints of the patriarehal form c£ 
gOTemmeot, which are to be found in the only aothoitic hifr- 
twy of those early ages, we proceed, 

il. To consider the special goremment of the peo{Je of 
Israel, from the beginning of their national polity to its final 
disscJution. Here I shall distii^uish this large tract tii time 
into four periods : 

Ist. From their entrance into ^ypt to their entrance into 

2dly. From their entrance into Canaan to the captinty. 

3dly. During the captivity ; and, 

4thly. From the captivity to the destruction of Jerusalem. 

I. lie first period is, firom their entrance into Egypt to 


l^BOOK I. 

tliirir rntnticc into Cuniiiin. which may cotivetiiciitly be suImj 
divided iiito two Icfucr ]>criod8. 

Thti roriticr takes u]i Uiu tiue of their lojouniing in the tandj 
of H^-pt ; the latter, the time of (heir mignition through the] 
wiidemcss, from Fgypt lo CannAti. 

First. As lo the itate and form of their government while 
thpy sojourned rti Kg>'pl. 

No doubt, while Jacob and Joseph Uved, they were (heir 
own ma&U-'TS, and were governed by thtnr own lows. And 
ibou^di aflcruards. " when another king aiwe that knew no^ 
Joseph." they were euslavcd by the Egyptians, yet wc nin.f\ 
perhaps diiKcrn the shadow, at least, of some funa of civiM 
government still subsisting among them. 

God commanded Moses to "gather the O^lpl ziktitim. clden . 
of Israel, together, in order to deliver to them the message «*ilh 
which he was sent to their nation ;" Exod. iii. I(j. And 
*' Moaes am) Aaron went, and gathered together all the elders ' 
of the children of Israel ;" chap. iv. "29. 

By elders ttome uudenttand the juilgcs in their civil conrts; 
because we find tliift titJe anerwarde applied to mich judgeti. 
Dent, xxi, '2, xix. 12. and in several oilier plnccs. But it it 
an objection of no small weight aguiiisl this opinion, that when 
Mo9C8 had brought the tsnielite* ont of Egypt, there were no 
snch judges nninnt: them ; but Moses jndgcd oil himwif, lo his 
cscecdmggnnil trouble; Exod. rviii. 13, &c. Hy the elder*., 
tlicrcfore, s|>oLeo of before, during their abode in Egypt, may 
only be meant the wisest and grarest men in tlic hiiihciit 
eatcvni among them, or at most, according to Mr. Selden, 
the heads of their tribes.* 

"■ As fur the O^lBtt' shourim, officers of the children of Israel, 
Exod. V. 14, which they luid umnngst them nt this lime, they 
Mem to have been appointed, and set over lUrm, by the 
Egyptians, merely fur the pur|K)S« of overseeing the work 
they were employed in. 

So th:it, upon the whole, we have only very dark and un- 
oertain hinu uf imy vpeciul form of government among the 
Hebrews during their abode in Egy|»i. But, 

Secondly. The form of their government is fur more con- 

twr. Ilcbr. hb.i.csit. t&. 

cnAw. I.] 



M}iicuons in aiitl timing tlmr ui^ijao througk ibe wildcr- 
nei* from Egypt lo Canaan. 

PivaentJy after they bad led EpTP*. tbe ThMkcncy was ace 
up amung tlvm, that is, God coodcaceiMlcd to be their kio^ 
aa wdl B& thrir Gud. The word Sm^potm. fonned by Jowphwi 
fnnn 6toct Dau. aiid iqporiM. inpero. very bapptljr rrpnilh 
that pecoliaf guvvniinent which God exerct««d orer the peo- 
|it« of fimel. Tu them he stoud in a ihtvcruld relation. 

Fir»t. A& tlirir Crcatt«. in coatnum with the rest of uii- 
kind ; aud. therefore, as the Lord of their conscienocfl, he 
required from ihvm all (he duties, of the moral htw. 

Secondly. He was their God, aalhey WHe a visible chufch. 
■unrated from all the notkm of the earth to be his pecubar 
people. In this cliaractcr lie prcsctibed tbe pendiar fornui 
iumI diatinguiRhing rites ind ceremanie« of Ihdt rrhpcwn 

Thirdly. He was their pfvper kin^, the aoveieigB of llMir 
body |M>litic. in which character be gsTe tbetn jodicial mr 
imliiitnl liiwfi rvbtiog to gorenuaent and ciTiI life : beordend 
* royul palao) to be buili (ot bis residence among them, I 
maan the tabernacle, in which he dwelt, or mamfcMcd his 
•pecal presence, by the Shechiaah, ai tbe Jewv call it ; thai 
ta. by a bright clood, or gk^-, appeanog over the mercy -oeat. 
betwixt tbe twocheriibim in the innemoM room of that palace. 
Ler. xri. 2; on which [account be ts aaid to " dwdl betwixt 
the chcnibiro," Psalm Ixxx. I ; and to " tit betwixt ibe che- 
rubim." Paaku xcix. I. Fruoi thence be gatv fortfa otadei. 
or Hgnified his will ooocernini; tuatt«rv of imporuoce to the 
state, which were not dctefuincd t^ the body of written lawa; 
Ler. i. 1. 

It Kbould seem, the oamnun way of ghring ihcae ofados 
«nu by an audible Twce. In thia wuaattr. w« are i ipn laly 
infomed. the oracle was girtn to Moaet. when be wtnl into 
the tabernacle to eonsalt it ; Nomb. vit. 89. And it may be 
infenad CrAm the phrue by which tbe onde ta aciiaUy ex- 
prr«ed.'*Jebarah tpoke. aaying." or "Jeborah Mid." 

Iloweret that waa (which will be coaBsdcred more folly is 
ita profier pUce), it anffictently appeaiw. (bat by the ocade. or 
by Jcliorah bim*elf, all law* wen enacted, war was pro- 
elaim«d, and tnagictnitea were appointed ; in which ilirnr 



[■ODK I. 

thing* th(> xumma potesta*. or wrttm^ aothority, of vof 
klatc, ciiiuiittti-ll).* 

1st. LawM worn ciiact«d and proroulgftted imioediatcly by 
the oraclu, or voice of Jehovah. 

TbuB. Vihva tli« laws of Uic two tables were ^vvn at mount 
Siiuti, tiio vutc« of Jeliuvuh muk h«anl by ull tbc |wuple : 
Dout. V. '2'Z, 23. ])ut tlio nuijesty iq which God uiajiifmt<rd 
hiin«ctf on that occa^iion was ao very awful, thui it fluuck. Uicm 
wilh uroazi'tuciit, aiid a kind of horror; therefore the rest of 
the hiws were, at their request, comniuQicaied more prirately 
to MosM, and by him to the |)eople. Yet they w<tr&All given 
ininiedialelv, by the omcle, or voice of Jebovuh. " The Lord 
ftplike unto MuHes, Miying," i& the usual jtrvfac« lu every body 
or |>arccl of laws. 

Now these laws are an evidence that Jehuvuh acted as their 
king, aa wuU bk thfir God, »iacu they coiituiu a number of 
forensic, as welt as moral and ceremonial precepts, relating to 
tlutr civil polity and government, to their magistrates aiid 
judgeH, their estalen and iiihentunce», their trade and coin- 
meree, and even to the form of their houseft. their food, and 
their apparel. God enacted all ttieirlaws. and no |>uwerwujt 
Tesl4^d in uuy one eliic, cither to wake new, or n.'j>eal old 

2dly. God, OB king, rraers-cd to himself the soTereii^ nf^t 
of iirocJuiniing war and making peace witli their ticighlxiunug 

He proclaimed war witJi the Amalekite*. Exod. xvii. IG, 
at)d with the Midianites. Numb. xxxi. 1,2; and tl>erefore a 
t«ertjun blNtory of the wars of the iRraelilcs. now lost, is called 
'"the lMM>k of the want of the Lord ;" Xnmb. xxi. 14. Jeho- 
vah commanded, and even headed, their armies in their 
HMrcbwand in llicir bnltles. Tims the Tnl>rniacle, or royal 
tent, [ad thoir marches through the wilderucKs; Irorn thence, 
by the rising and falling of a niiraculous cloud over it, was the 
■igiial t;ivt-n when they nhould proceed, and when they should 
nwt; .Nunib.ix. 17, IH. Uy tJiis extruoidiiiary appearance, or 
token of the divine prewoce, whs the course, as well as the 
time, dT iheir nmrchun dirt^clcd ; for " ih« Lord went bd'ora 

VmI. rmfinfi. ilit lUrp. Uvb. aeei vii. el %tt\. 

CMAr. I.] 



tlt«sti b)-<luv ill ■> pilluf of a clout], to lead tbem thewav; and 
by oiglil iu a pilUr uf tire, to give thom light; to go by ilmy and 
night;" Exod. xiii. 21. To the«e isincalotui signob tboM 
wotdi of Mwtes refiir, " WUeii tlie ark set forwaid. Mows 
■aid. Rise up. Lofd, and Irt thiiie eneaues br sc«Ueird, and 
let litem thnt hale thee. Hee before thee. j\nd when it nsted, 
he s»id, Ueturu. U Lord, unto the many thousanda of l»Tiiel ;" 
N'orott. JC.36, 36. 

We (uay rennuk by the war, with TauUnan in his oo4«Bon 
Virgil, that it prxwcvded. probably, from a iraditioo of thb 
nMtal a|ipeaniDce of Uie God of Icrael, that tbo heathen poets 
fnqiuiitly reprewnt thdr dcittca as appealing in adoad.with 
a peculiar bnghtnem la it. 

Now, GfKl litmiHrlf undertaking to kad their marches, it 
was gnat pceaiupptiaa in them vrar to aafch withool hts aig- 
nil or Older; and when, there&m. thejr wonid tfcas ban 
■arched into Canaan, Mosoa sharply expostoiatea with them. 
" Wbecvfvrv uuw du yoo tnn^reos the comoiandneot of the 
Lord ? But it ahslL not prosper. Go not np. for tib* Lofd is 
uot among rou, that yc be not aroitxen before yonr enemiea ;" 
.Numb. xiT.4l, 4'2. U'hich woids sogge«t a safficienl resiua 
of their being somctimeA defeated, thouiih Jehonih himself 
was their king and general. 

The whole dtreetioo of the siege of Jericho, and the ■winer 
of taking it. Joeh. ti., an: afurtbu tUustnous instanoe of J«- 
borah'ft iinniediate coodnct of tbcir miUtair afTairs. 

3dly. God in his royal capacity appointed all offioos in the 
■utv. Thus be mode Moms his vioeroy or [niina miniiHr, 
and Joshua not only the soeocaorof Moses sAer hi* death. 
Imtan associate with hint, orhiade])ntvandlieiitcoant.dunog 
his hfe : for so Dr. Fatiick ondetstands that cvder whick 
God gkTo to Moses oooocming Joahoa, '* Tboa afaak put 
soou of thiao honour opoa him. that ail ika nmgrfgitian of 
the ehildrc-u of bra^ laay be obedient;*' Simmb. urii. 20. 
OnkekM, lodml. sod the Hebrew doeturs, nwieriyand b]r Ifcs 
word *m kad, i«hkb w« raider " honour" in that pboe Qmt 
which noil! cosop an ly atgnftas glory), th* spJcodow wludi 
shooe in the Cue of Moacs, after be came down from the 
■wum, part of wfajdi. thejr s up posed, was now imparted to 
Joshua, in order to m^e him appear mere vemtsUe in the 


>Rttl»H ANTlQUITtCft. 

[enOK I. 

Vfn of th«! ix'oplr. Vpoa which, tlicy nay. Moncs'ii fiico 
ftltonv lil>u 1-lic •iiiu, JonIiuu'') Uke l)iu moon. Hut tlicy sliuulJ 
baT« obMTired, ihst Moses » ordered to put some of tti» glory 
or honour upon Jofihua; which cannot be understood, with 
any pntpriety. of thuL miractiloua limtrf whirh Moseit had no 
|Kiwer to iiDpiirt. but niny very nuturally be interpreted of the 
liuuour repnlling from his authority and post in the govern- 
itieiil, in which JoHhua wh)) now to be joined tvith him. 

We further obncrve. to thi»f purpoao, iJml when Jethrp sng- 
f![Ctriod to MoseK. that, for hi« tr-ifnp in the ;>ov(>mmenl, ht 
fihoidd appoint a number of infimor officers under him, he 
(U'ing duubtlviiK infarmed by Moses of the exlraunlinurv con- 
stitulion of Uie Hebrew state) did not propoBO he should do it 
without a special order from Jehovah, but that he should con- 
Bolt the orTicle: " If thou nhall do [hiit Uiin^, and God com- 
mand thee wj, tlien thou ahalt be able to endure," &c. ; Exod. 
xviii- 23. And thus, likcwisi.*, when any doubt arose about 
the moaning of any law which God had already given ; or 
when any case occurred which the law hod not expresxly pro- 
vided for, Jehovoli himself must bo oonsulted about it. Aa , 
in the caxe of tliosc who were detili'd liy a dead body, and 
therefore could not keep tlie [>:i.sfluver on the day appointed, 
>'unib. ix. G — 10; in the cane of the sabtKitli -breaker, 
Numb. xr. 34, 3^ ; and of Zelophehad'a dauf^hicrK. about the 
right of inheritance; Numb, xxvii. 6—7. I'rom which iii-i 
stanoea it plainly appoiirw.that God rtood in the peculiar rehi- 
tion to the Univlilirs, of tlicir kin^ a» well as their Go<l. 
\Vh«n. therefore, they adcrwanU desired n kin^ " to judge 
them, like the other narions," God says, thev had '* rejected 
him. that he Hhoul<l not roi};n over thcin ;*' 1 Sum. viii. 7. And 
Samuel upbraids them with thia their rebelhon: " Ye nid. 
a kilt;; Hhall rvign over uk, when the Lord your God waa 
your king," L Sam. xii. 12; thut is, in tlic same wnne itf' 
which the kings of other nation* are ihcir kings ; oiherwiae, 
the di'Mirint; an earthly king would n(»l hu»-e l»e«i incoii»i!<(«nt 
with tliL* iw>vfn-i)j;itty of Jehovah, ami thi-ir allegifince to him. 

Since, then, Jehornb himtielf wan the king, an well as the ' 
God, of Itfuel, it followii, thol the prie^u and Levitea, whcrj 
wen* ihe mure immediate and >luted nltenilantti uii hia pre-' 
■not, in the royal luint or {nlace, us the tubernaclo or temple 

t«B xngocRrtrv. 


any b« styled, snd to whom the execution of tho law wor in 
amnf cave* committcil, w«n^ properly niitiisiers of slate and 
of civiJ government, a* well as of religion. Thus, to them it 
belonged to Hectare who were clean and who were unclean ; 
who should be nhut out of the congregation, and who should 
be Bdmilied into it. The poopio were to inquire of the law 
from tlivir month, luid that in rei>pect lo civil as well as 
I'eli^ioufl uiulU*ni ; aiid liiey were Hpjioinled to teach Jacob 
God's judgments and Israel his laws, "even all the statutes 
which the I.Dr<l hathKpoken nntothemby the hand of Moses;" 
Lev.x. II ; that in, the forensic well as the moral and 
ceremonial preccptit. 

Hence we are naturally lo<l to conceive of a double use of 
the sacnbces which were otfered by tlic priests iu behalf, ami 
at ilip choice of the people; of which ttiey had u Bhure.asthe 
p»r<]uiKile8 of iJieir olfitre : I mean, that, besides their typical 
and reli^riouB use. they were aJso intended for the HUpporl of 
the state :ind civil govemment ; inasmuch as these minislerx 
of state were chiefly mniutaineil by them. Ko thai the »llot- 
tnenti to the priests, out of the sacrifices, may be considered 
as designed, like the ciril-liiit money in other nations, for the 
inmedtale support of the crown and the officers of stale. 

On these principles we are enabled to account for Paul 
sacrificing, as we arc informed he did, after the conunen cement 
of tlie Chrititian dispensalinn. AetR xxi. 2fi; nn action which 
has been severely ccnsure*l by fiome, an the ^eatetit error of 
his life. Hereby he not only gave, say they, too much coun- 
tenance to (he Jews, in their sitperstitiotis adherence lo the 
law uf Moses, after it wus abroE^ated by Christ ; but hut oHiir- 
ing IhcKe typical sacrifices, afler the antitype of them was 
•ocomplished in the mcrifice of Christ, was a virtual denial of 
Christ, and uf thL* virtue of his n.icnBce, which superseded hU 
others. Paul'H long trouble, which bet^un immodiately af^r 
this aSkir, some have looked upon as a judgment of God upoo 
him forthia great ofiencc. But if this action was really so 
criminal as tome suppose, one cannot enough womlvr, that so 
good and so wise a man aa Paul was should W guil^ of it; 
and that the apostle James, and the other Chridtiim elders, 
fthonid all advise him to it; ver. 18. 23. 24. It i» likewws 
strange, that we find no censure ever patised on tfaia action by 




[fioqK I. 

any uf Lhe aacnd writern; not eren by Paul hinuelf, who 
appears so ready, on other occo&ioiid. Ln iick now ledge and 
fauaiUe hiiiutuirfor bin crrorH antl railing. Uu tbe contcBry, he 
retlvcto witli comfort on liis having complied with thecusUitna 
of the Jew*, in urdvr to rumovu their prvjudice against him 
«iid hii niiiuKtry, nnd against the gonpel which he pieiichtO, 
and to mn thcin over to embrace it : " Unto the Jews 1 becume 
OS a Jew, that I might gain the Jews ; and this I do for the 
gospel'!, sake;" I Cor. \x. 20. 23. 

To L'luctdate this point, we are to consider, tliat there wna 
a political as well as typical use of sacrificoH ; and that tJiougb 
tJie typical cvasud u|ion Lhe sacrifice uf Christ, yet the jHihticul 
continued, till Ciod in his providence broke up the Jewish 
State and polity, about forty years after our Saviour's death. 
Till that time, it was not merely lawful, but matter of duty, 
for good subjects to pay the dues which were appointed by 
law for the support of the govcrniucnt and magisljacy. Now 
of this kind was the sacrifice which i'aul offered; and in this 
view they were paid by Christians, dwelling in Judea, u& well 
as by those who still adhered to the Jewish religion . So that, 
upon the whole, this action, for which Paul has been so much 
censured, probably amounts to nothing more than paying the 
triliute due to the mitgistrate bv law ; which the uposttu 
enjoins upon all other Christians in all other nations; Kou. 

From tlttfl aocouDt of the Tlieocracy. and of the peculiar re- 
tatioHH in which Ood stood to tbe Hebrew oatioii, we may also 
percoivo, in wbiit aeoM. ami how fftr, the Levitical sacrifice* 
could maku atonemeoi for sin . ThtH they arc often naid to do ; 
and yet it ia aaaerted in the Kpistle to the Hebrews, chap. x. 
4, " that it ifl not ])0ssible that the blood of bulls nrtd of goats 
should take away aina ;" that is. sins against Ctid as our Crea- 
tor and the Lotd of conscience. But. besides the typical re- 
fiMCncc which the Jewish sacrilkes had to the great atone- 
nent by the sacrifice of Christ, they may b« supposed to mak«. 
a proper and equitable atonement for tnuisgreaeiona of the p 
cultar law of the Thcocmcy, or for sins committed oguiiiKt God. 
merely as ktnguf tlie Jewa. It is enacted in the luw of Mosci 
Ltv. V. 16. 16. that if a penon " had oommitt«d a tn>ftpa8S,j 
and sinned through ignoraoce. in the holy things uf the Lord 

CM A v. !>.] 



(that is, hf m^fhfing; to hU own prime we what ifaovM liKve 
been paid Co God aj king, or to the pntsOM h» Buawters), ba 
iluttU nnke aoiwirfa to the fuD value in numey ; MUing to it 
m fifUi f>art owie, and • nm for a liuni— iifliiiiii^, with 
vfaich the prisai afaoaJd aftke atonemeatlbr him, aad it ahoaU 
be foigivca hoa." Now, in the case of a sia oTigaocanee, this 
nigbl well be deemed an equitable and full conpeosatioa. and 
■0 a proper atonement for the ain, or treapaia. But if thia, or 
any other trespaMS, una ooounitted preramptnooaly, that ts, 
wilfolly and audacioniity, in contempt of the divine Majecty 
Htkd hia antbority, that drcumstanoft rendered it a on against 
Ood, aa the IxtrA uf coosoieiKse ; forvdiieh therefore an bmtal 
aaorifioes conLd atone ; bot it ia aaid. " That soul ahall be cut 
off from among his people ;" Numb. n. 30. 

We have only funher to obserre, upon this Corm of gorenH 
ment. which waa peculiar to the Hehmws, that aa God himself 
WM thair king, ao Moaes wna his viceroy* in whom the aupreme 
rrfhniiiiliral aa well aa civil power, under Ood. waa hxlgod. 
By bim Aanm and hie aona wee* put ioto the piiesthood ; the 
royal palace, or tabomade, waa built by bis directioo ; by him 
it was consecrated ; he gave the nation the whole body of 
their Uwa ; he was commander-in-chief of all their forces. All 
this did Moses by commiBmon from Ood, or rather God did it 
by Moses. So that though the aervant of Ood, yet. as chief 
among men, ba ia called king in Jcahnnut ; Deut. xxKiii. 6. 
For though government by kings, propesiy so called, waa not 
aet up till the days of Saul ; yet the title was moie ancient, 
and given to poiaoos of high rank and great authority, though 
they were never crowned, never attended with royal pomp, 
nor tBveated with the regalia : in iMrticular it was applied to 
the Judges. When Abimeleoh «■• made judge in Sbechcm, 
it is said, they madu him king. Judges ix. G^ and when there 
»Wtmjadg«in l»racl, ili« i»aid," there was nokin^g;'' Judges 
xvii.6. 'Tbus, in after ages, the Roman dictators Ukewiae, to 
whoan Godwin oompves the Hebrew judges, are sometimea 
called kings, both by the Latin and Greek bistorians. It ia 
not, theiefiue. difficult lo account for Moeea'g being called 
king, though he was only Ood's lieutenant or viceroy. 

But it is not eo easy to account for UnLel'it being called Je- 
aharun. Some derive the word froui^i^ fmhar, m-rM«, joirt or 




[boos I. 

iJI^Uous, and so make h to signify a righteouK peopl«. Mon-', 
tftBu* Knden it rn-riVu^o, and ho docs the Samaritan vemioii.i 
Hut it Bcems a conatderaMe objection a^iiwt thi« seDse, thati 
Iiirarl is called Jeahurun at the Tcry time tliot ihey are U|> 
bratdi'd with tJieir sitiH aiul their rebeUiun : " Jesburun waxc 
fnt, and kicl(.ed,''&c> Oeut.xxxii. 16. It isrepUed.Jvsliurua'^ 
H ttio diiuiuutive of "tSl^ juthar (for uouum uttctnm tnjiiie nt'i 
nttmetnliminutiviim), iind so imports, that tliougb, in gciicr 
und on the whule, they were a righlcouftpeople, yet they wcrail 
nut without grciit liiuliB. 

P(!rhapti C'occetus has ^ivcn aa probable an interiirvtation aa 
any. He derives the word frum ~nc shitr. winch Higtutii's uy 
M0> behold, or discover; from whence, in the future tenn 
|ilural, comes ncn jashttru, which, with the addition of Nnai 
peragogiciim, makes Je&hurun ; that is, the people who hud 
the viaion of Ciod.* Thiit makes the name Je»hnnin to be 
properly npplied to Israel, not only when Moses is calkil thci»| 
king, but when Uiey aru upbraided with their rebellion agaiui 
God ; since the peculiar maiiifcetation which God hud 
of hinitelf to them, was a great aggravation of their ingratiludi 
and rvbellion. We now proceed to the 

Second period of the Hebrew history ; which commence 
with tlieir entrance into Connan under the command of Jotthuu 
and expires at the lung captivity. 

Joahaa, the Knccctwor of Mo^es, and captain -general oCj 
Uruel. nas uf the Inbe of Ephniim. His original name waai 
jntnn Iitii.htu»g, Numb. xiii. tf. It waa changed by Moaes«! 
no doubt by God'a command, into intnm, iQ. 
Now since bulh these narot^s iiifuify the same, iiamtJy, a Sa- 
viour, from ysr- jiuhang, iolvavit . hehaUi naved; it ia inquired. 
for what reaftou his trame was thoa changed ? To account for 
ibia. two conjectures are offered. 

Firat. that it was m order to put an huouur upon hioi. by 
addmg one of the lettorv of the name of Jchovuli to his name ; 
as God changed Abratii's nanic intoorrOM Abrahttm : adding 
n to it, from hie own name, say the Jews; Gen. xvii. 6. Thu 
WW> .lehos/iuang may wunify uthatvr Tki : and he was m;idc 
even in hia name a more eminent type of ('hri«i. who bore 

I'hinn Mom, •«>» 9T3 


(he Rjuac name with him. Jv»uk, nr Jotihun; and who is 
callod, Luke iii. (k mjnipmv roi* 6tov. " the saJration of 
Ood."* Bui if this rcasun fur the chiuige of Joshua's name 
bo thought too cabalistica], 

7^e second may. perhaps, be more sati&factory ; v\z. that the 
name jrcnn Ho$heang comes from the imperative of hipkU, and 
signifies, save; and perhaps his parents, by (;ivin^ it. meant 
to cxpr«w their wish, that he might prove a maviour to Israel. 
Butycnrn^M<iJiAtr/7N^nomesfmm ibcfuture tense, and unifies 
*ulv»bil, vr\M save. So that Moses, by making this change, 
predicted and promiM.-d what hi!< parents had wished. 

Jodiua had be«n Moftcs's mininter. Josh. i. t, and had aC- 
tunded upon him in tits highest employments. When he was 
called up by Jobovab into the mount, to receive the two tables 
vi the law, it is said, iJiat " Moee« rose up. and his mtni)(ter 
Joshua -" Exod. xjciv. 13. And he is said " to stand before 
MoMfl,'' Dent. i. 34, not snrely as a menial serrant, but as 
his first minister; for Joshua was one of the heads of the 
chtldrcn of Israel, and a ruler in his tnbe ; as were all the 
Ivrelve s|Mes whom Mosea sent to search out the land of Ca- 
naan, of wbich number Joshua was; Numb, xiii.2, 3. 8. He 
only and Caleb brought a good and true report of that land, 
encouraging the people to invade it, and usuring them of suc- 
cc«a, N'umb. xir. 6 — 9 ; while the other ten gave such a dis- 
couraging account of the gigantic stature and valout of tlie 
inhabilants.of the number and strength of Uieir fortified towns, 
aiid perhaps also of the uuhealtluness of their country (which 
set'iuB to be their meaning in saying, tbot " the land eateth 
up the inhnbitanu thereof"). Numb. xiii. 32, that the people 
were disheartened, and inclined to make themselves a captain, 
and retam into Egypt; Numb. xiv. 2 — 4. God was here- 
upon so much displeased, because they showed such ingrati- 
tude and ixdklelity. notwitlteUtuding the many wonders he bad 
wrought for them in Hg)*pt, and in the dea&rt, and notwith- 
standing the repealed assuraitces be had given them of the 
eonqncst of Canaan, that be sentenced all of them who were 
twenty years of age and upwards, except Caleb and Joshua, 
to wander in the witdcrncm for forty yeara^ till they were con- 

* Vid. Ailing, dc C^baliM. 



[book 1. 

■umed ; that uoue of tbem might enter into the promioed land. 
And aB for those to vrboee falac reporbt thi^ rebellion wus 
Owing, they were all destroyed by a nudduii death ; vcr. 36, 
87. But M for JuHhua, he not only lived lill the Israelttes 
entered into the land of Caoaaii, but had ttiv honour, an tlieir 
captain •general, to conduct them. He had before been ap- 
pointed Moses's successor by tlic oracle, or by Jehorali hini- 
aclf, and had been Milenuily orikuned to that office, whda 
.Mosea was lining. Numb, xxvii. 15 — 23; and after his death 
the pooplu ackiicmledgud him for tuB succeesor, promising to 
pay him the same obedience which th«y had paid to Mote*; 
Jo«h. i. 16, 17. However, though he succeeded Moses, as 
God's viceroy or lieutenant, and had the Huiue authority, mili- 
tary and civil, which bis predecessor hud ; yet, m some re- 
<pccta he was much inferior to him ; and therefore he coultl 
not be " tliat prophvt, like unto Mows, whom God had pro- 
mised to ruse up unto his brethren," Dent, xviii. 16, as tho 
modem Jews affirm, and some Christians have loo easily 
.granted, he was. For, besides ihat he had nut the honour of 
being a lawgiver, as Moses had (by whom the whnte body of 
laws wluch God intended for his people, was delivered), 1 
suy, besides this, he was never admitted to that immediate 
and familiar manner of convcrviitg with God, with which Moses 
was favoured ; for " with hmi the Uud apuke face lo face, as 
a man speaks to his friend," Exod. xxxiii. U; whereas when 
Joshua wanted to consult the oracle, he was to stand before 
Ihc " priest, who should ask counsel fur hiin after the judg- 
ment of Uriffl ;" Numb. xxni. 21. In both tliuse rrapeds, 
neither Joshua, nor any other prophet, was " hko unto Moses;" 
except he to whom that prophecy is applied by tbe apoatJo 
Peter, Acts iii. 20 — 22, and in whom sJono it was accom- 
plished . even our Lonl Jesus Christ. 

Our author says, that after Joshua succeiMlcd Judges. But 
it may be questioned, whether the jud^ were (yrupvrly suc- 
ccMors to Joahua, in the same ollicc, as ho had boon to Mosoa. 
For, a* tilt law had been given by Moses, and as the land ofj 
Canaan bad been conquered, and the thbas of Israel settled 
in the peacoablo possession of their inheritance, by Joshua ; 
there aeons to have been no further occasion for " a man to 
be act over the coogragation. who might go out before ihem, 

DbAP. 1.} 



and who might go in before tKom, and who might lead them 
oal, and who might bnog (hem in," which was the office of 
Joifcua; Numb, xivii. 16, 17. As, therefore, the legislative 
office which Moaeji had pofwesMd, expired at his death, m> did 
the office of Joshua, u prafeetut ordi$tari»*, and cap(ain-ge- 
oetal for life, at his. Hereupon the Hebrew i^Tenunent be- 
came oristociuticJil ; exccjrting that, in respect to the pecolior 
supremacy of Jehovah, it woa monarchicaj.* 

In the Hebrew coDimoowenlih, every city had its ddera, 
who formed a court of judicature, with a power ofduturmining 
leaser matters in th«ir respective dtatricti- The rabbies say, 
thfae were three such <M«n, or jtidgcs, in *aoh leaser cHy. 
and twenty-three in grenter. But Jo^ephus spcaltH of wven 
jodgen in each, without ouy such difilinctioo of greater or leea.i- 
We i^en read Id Scripture of the eldere of the cities; but 
the number of them is not detenurned ; probably that was left 
discretional. For instance, wc read of the eklera of Giltrjd, 
who went to fetch Jcphthah and make him their captain. 
Judges xi. 5,6; ol' the elders of Succoth.Jodges viii. 14; and 
of tifie elders of BeChleliem, where Bonz tired ; Rti^ ir. 2. 
4. 9, compared with chap. i. 1. In short, that there were 
elders in eveiy city, appears from the Iaw,directuig and regu- 
lattng the conduct of the cld^s of any city, on occasion of a 
person's being found dead in or near H; Deut. xxi. 1 — 9. Si- 
goniust supposes these elders and judges of cities were the 
original constitution settled in the wilderness by Mosea, upon 
tiie advice which Jcthro gave him, Cxod. xriii. 21. 22 ; and 
continued by divine appotutmeut afUT the settleaient in the 
land of Canaan. Wher&as others imagine the Jethronian pre- 

" AnstMTScj (to called from s^wtm, tflmmy sad tmwm w^ero} in- 
pmu, UiU the supreme gOTemnenL is lodged in ih^ estimates, or doMcs. 
Such 1* ih* prtMnl form of pwtrnneni in Venice and in Holland. Demc^ 
CTKj (fn>in *«•«> papmhu, ud aftntt^ iiwptra) oMam, thai the tupcenu ao. 
tiborityiflfaitkK|Mopte.wt>aMeicite K by pasoaxrftbeir own Older, Svdi 
n iht ^rrsBBiSBi «( Bwil, «ad of •ome of the &«e citi« of Genniiqr. 
Maasniky ((toBiiww, m/iu, and ^fzif , p^Hwa) u, wbm iba Mprssaesa. 
tboruyiskKlged ioa«iiiiKlep«iWD,ubiFraBceaodSpaio. Th« Eaglah coo- 
■timiioa ii plsisljr ■ mtitaie oT all dinw, Loasmudi a* tba atpcsnw aathority 
U lodged joudjr inlbilunK. ihe lords, aad ibe natnoas. 

t AMiq. BlKw.afi. viii. wet sir. edn. Usftrc 

I De Bspab, M^ lib. n. aq>. n. 




fectUTM wern u peruHar constitution, ^tuitod to thr^lr cniKlitkm . 
whiU encamped in the wildemeas, but laid nside after they.! 
came iuUi Canaan. However that be, it ie certain there wail 
a court of judges »nd officere appointed in every city liy tha 
law of Mosea; Deut. xvi. \H. Huw fur, uad in what retjpecUi, 
tbeae judges difleivd from the elders of the city, is not easily 
determined : and Mhcther tliey were dificrent persons, or the 
same. iV-rh&pd the title ciders, may denote their seniority 
and dignity ; aiuL that of jud^, the office they tiuAtained. 

An for the ufHcers. oy-CW ahoterim, mentioned along with the 
judgea,* they were, according to the account given of th^-ni by 
Muhitonidcn and the rabbinti. much like UiDse whom the Ro- 
man law calls ojficiaUs et extcutortt, and the New Teiilament 
rpoKropac. Luke xii. 56, who attended the court, to keep the 
people in order, with a Htnfl' and a whip, and to ext-cute the 
ordeni mid decnni* of the judgoa. Joseplius styles thciiifbai- 
tifls or officers under the judgeM ; and we flud them, on wme 
occasions, employed a« public cr^'crK : Ueut. xx . 5. K, 9 ; Josh. 
i. 10. II. Iluwev«r, the iiibbies place them next under their 
wis« men and doctors, and above their scribes or clerks. And 
irulecd they seem to have been persons of some consideTation, 
by Joshua's asscmbhng them along with the elders, heads, and 
judges ; not to hold any court of justice, but to hear his fare- 
well chaise anil exliurtation before his death ; Josh, xxiii. 2j 
xxiv. 1. 

The lower courts of justice, in their several cities, were held 
in their gatCH : " Judges and uiGcers sholt Ihou oiake in all tliy 
gat«« ;" Deut. xvi. \H. The gate among the Hebrews Wmbs 
to aaawer to the forum among Ltie Romans, itnd to thcaT'tyw 
amoog tlie Greeks, which was tlie name given to any common 
place of resort, whether for the keeping of nmrkctfi or the 
hobliog courts of judicature. In the fonuer sense, tlie word 
gate is used, when BliBhaforetekatwhat tuw rateit proTiAtoos 
woold be sold on the morrow, in the gate of Samaria ; 2 Kinga 
vii. I. According to the Utter sense. Ismel is exhorted u> 
" DXfculo tbo judgment of truth and peace in her gate*," 
Zeob. viii, 16 ; aod so in tie law we arc now explaining, they 

*8*t Patrick on ihclcti lui citril. 

f Vbt lupn, .SreslM Mui. r. U, whm'Mnr*V i* <n*d m ihr wunv 




arc coniBsod«d to " make jadgea and officers in tlicir gates." 
la eitlier sense, that is, as denoting in general a place of 
public concoune. the word is used, when it is said of the vir- 
titouH woman, " Give lier ul' tfau I'ruit of her bunds, and lot 
her own works praise her in the gates;" Prov. xxxi. 31. 

Each tribe bad its respective prince. Tbey are called the 
heads of the thousands of Israel, Numb. x. 4; and were the 
same, per ha{>s, with the twelve captains of the host mentioned 
in the second chapter of Numbeta ; and tbeir office, ihcreforo* 
related chietly, if not entirely, to tuililaPr- allaira. 

We lead also of the princea of the congregatioa, who pre- 
sided injudiciuxy'mattcra, Numb.xxxu. 2; Joflb. ix. 5; XTii.4. 
Theae probably were the same with the Jcthronian prefectures, 
of whom we spake before, and who are called elders, aud al&o 
princcA and nobles, on account of the dignity of tlicir office ; 
Exod. xxiv. 9. 1 1. They were in number seventy, as appears 
by the account of tbeir institution, which we have in the book 
of Numbers, chap. xi. 16, 17.24,26; thowgh Iratherapprvheud 
that to bean accountof their being confirmed in thciroftice, and 
perhaps tnveatcd with some additional authority, and endowed 
with mme miracaloua gift to qualify tlieni for it; for we find 
there were seventy eldera before, at the time of giving the 
law at mount Sinai; Kxod. xxiv. 1. ti. 14. 

Wbotlicr the coneiatory of seventy elders vraa a perpetual, 
or only a tcmporury institution, ia a matter of dispute. The 
Jews, and after tliem Grotio*. Selden, Lightfoot, and acrenil 
othar Christians, have aftirmed, it w;is the saiue that became 
■fterward so famous under tJic name of Uie Siuihvdrim; to 
which even their king» and bigh-priesia were subject. But 
others conceive the institution of tlie seventy elders was only 
temporary, for the assistance of Mows in the govenuneoi. 
before tlie settlement in the laml of Canaan ; and that the 
Banhvdrim was first set up in the time of the Maccabees. 

Oft the firaner aide, the rabbies are zealmia asaertoni of the 
hi|^ antiquity of the Sanhedrim; and though thov allow, thut 
ha sessioo ¥ras somctimea inicrrupte<l and discontuiued for 
years tog«lfcer« oapociaUy in the times of ilie kings ; they leave 
no stone unturned to prove, that the court, nevertheiese, sub- 
sisted from the lirae of .My«e». 

The first iirgumvDt tbey produce is taken from thift paiwMgo 




ia the book of Xumbera, cluip. xi. 16 : " The Lord gaid unto 
IfoMai, Gutlier unto me seventy of the elilurR of Uracl ;" 
which the TaJmud interprvtn, Umt " they may be a Suihodnm 
to my land ;" that u, a holy, staodiog, pcrpotual council, 
throughout all generatioiu. For wherever w« me«t uUh the 
word «^ it, unto me, the tabbies think it aignifiAA n thing esta- 
blished bv ^od to all generations. For instance, when he 
WKfB of Aaron and hi^ mhu, " They sliall minister unto mc in 
the prieats' ofhcc," Esod. xxviii. 41 ; and of the Leviteo. 
" They Khali buiuine," or unto uie, N'umb. iti. 12; and of tho 
whole nation, " Unto me the children of Israel are BervantH," 
Lev. Kxr. 65; and whun the like is »aid of tlie sanctuary, the 
sacriAces, the altar, and many other things ; in all these caaea 
they undoratand tho word \h H to import a perpetual institt 

2dly. It is argnod, that if Moses needed tlie a^ststaoce of 
aach a council, much more was it requisitB after his death ; and 
it is by no ra«ana probable, tluit uiiv cue would (iretiume toj 
abrogate BO prudent an institution of hia. in any age alter hira;/ 

3dly. We read of the eldera and judges of Israel, not cmlj 
afker the death of Moaes, but afler the laraelites were settled] 
ill the land of Canaan: Josh. xxiv. 1 ; Judgna ii. /■ Now by i 
thoae the rabbiea understand the seventy elders, or Sanhe- 
drim ; and tu tlie same purpose ilicy interpret n passage of tlie 
Psalmist ounceming the " thrones of j udgmeat." that are " set," 
or do sit, in Jomaalem, Psalmcxxii.6. The Itke reference to 
the Sanhedrim they find in the title of the forty-fi^ Psalm, 
wherethe Targum interprets shothtuotim, thoae that sit in the 
Sanhedrim of Mosc». And thus Dr. Lightfnoi undenrtanda 
tho expression concertiiug the Scribes and Phariaeea, who an ' 
said to ait in Moses's seat. Matt. udii. 2 ; that ia, in the San- 
hedrim, which was instituted bv Muse*. 

4tlily' In urd«r U} prtivc, not only that the Sanhedrim sub-' 
sistod in the day« of Zedekiah, but hkewise that its power 
and authority were superior to the king's, tliey allege th« : 
following passage of the prophet Jeremy: " llierefore thtfl 
prince* said unto the king. We beseech thee, let thifl man hm] 
pnttodeath; ror,"&C' "lltenZedckiah thekingsaid.'Behold. 
he is in your hand; for the kmg is not he that can do any 
thing against yon;" Jcr. xxxviii. 4,6. By the prinecs here 




spoken of they onderstaiul the «t<lera, or member* of the 

Tfawe are the chief arerumcatA which are prodtioed to prove 
thsC the Snnhcdrim, so famous in the boter agoe of tiie Jewieh 
polity, was instituleil by Moses, and always subeiated after 
hill tame. 

Oq the other aide, Mveral argumeuu ate brought to ihow, 
that the court of the SHnhrtlrim was of no higher antiquity 
than the time of the Maccabees, and wa» then Gr«l ael up- 
The finl is. 

That we do not find in Scripture one word of any Biich 

high conn, cither in the times of the judges, or of the kings ; 

and it is as preposterous to tuppoae a Jewish historian should 

not mention the Sanhedrim, if aucb a court there were m 

tunea, a» that a Latin hiBt^nnn should write u hintory 

RnniM Roman aiTairs without erer mentioning the .Senate. 

findly. We iind, in (lenifiing: their history, that the people 
.^eoerally fulloweil the kin;;, whether in the practice of ido- 
iKtry, or in the wondiip of Jehovuli ; which it is hard to ac- 
count for, if such a court had then luhaisted, with an authority 
•nperior to that of the king. 

Sdly. It pktuly »])[iean). that both the judges and the kings 
exercised a despotic power, and did all things according to 
their own will, without consulting the Sanhedrim ; as doubt- 
less they would, and must have done, if such a court of BUpe* 
rior authority had then «xuit«d : " And he said. This will be 
the manner of the king that shell retgn over you, he wiH take 
yoursons, and appoint thom for him»elf."&c.; 1 Sam.Ttii. 11. 
See almo 2 Sam. x. 2; and 1 Kinqa iii. 16— «//. 

4clily. It is said in the book of Judges, that " b those days 
there was no king in Israel ; therefore every man did that 
wlitrh was right in his own eyes ;" Judges xvii. 6 ; xxi. 25. 
But if there hiid been such a national court as is pretended, 
of avperior authority to a king, or a judge, there being ** no 
king" could not hare boon assigned as the reason of the peo- 
ple's living without any government. 

fithly- The story of the -Lerite, who was so vilely abuacd 
■t Gibesh, seoduig en aooonnt of his wrongs to the twelve 
thbcs. Judges xU- 'i^, 30, evidently shown there waa then no 


rKViHn ANTiqoiTiKs. 

[book I. 

■uch nntionol court as the Sanhedrim ; Tea if there had been 
tQ, to tliut lie would nutumlly have applied. 

tTpoD the whole, then, it appears most probable, Lliat the 
{iwtitiiiton of the wrunty elden ww only tempontn-. to assist 
Moaca diinntr the abode of the Israelites m the wildcmeoa; 
and perhaps at»o to aaaiat Joahua, till they were settled in 
Canaan; but that afterward tbcy aAMmbled no more, and 
that the Sanhedrim, so famous in later ages, was set up in ibc 
ttote of the Maccabees. 

An for the judges, which we read of after the death of 
Joahua, they seem to bo raised up and appuirited otily on 
particular occasion! ;, but were not praj'ecti ordinarii, hkc 
Moves and Joshua ; nor were tli«y coutiuucd in tb«ir office 
during life, but only a* long ns there was occaaion ; for in- 
stance, to deliver Israel from the power of some opprewor. 
Only it is said, ihal " Samuel jud^^ed Urael all the Jayn uf hiu 
lift;" which seenie to be meutiuued as a particulur caBe; 
1 Sam. vii. 1^, As for the otlier judgee, Godwin conipareti 
them to tl)c Roman dictators, who were appoititi-d only on 
oxtraordiiuiry emergencies, as in case of war abroad, or caom 
Hpiracica at home, and whose power, while they continued in 
ofBcc, was great, and even absolute. Thus the Hebrew 
judges svoni to have been appointeil only in cosoi of national 
trouble and danger. Olhoiel, thu first judge, was raised up 
Lo deliver ItMnel from the opprcasioa of Chusan-rishntliaim ; 
Judg«a ill. 8 — 10 : Ehud, the second, to deliver them from the 
power of Moub, who hud oppressed them eighteen years; 
Jodgeaiii. 14, 1£; and Gideon, on occasion of their oppreaauni 
by the MidianitDs ; Jud^t^s vi. .33. 34. 

Tliu power of the judges, whUc in their office, was very 
great ; as appears from Gideon's punishing tha elders of Suc- 
coth ; Judges viii. 16. Though their power doen not seem to 
have been limited to a certain time, as tliut of the Roman 
dictators, which continued fur half a year ; yet it is reasonable 
to siippoKe, that when they had peiiformed the huxiness for 
which tliey weiv uppoinU-d, ihey retired to a private life. Tliia 
Godwin infers from CJidtxm's raftuiiDg to take upon him the 
per|ictual ^ovcmnumtof Urad^as boiug incoiuiateat with tha 
Tbeocrucy; iudgca Till. 33. 

cnkv. I.] 



Tlmt the judgM were not profwrfy eatctaun to Jodiuft in 
hi» uftice, as not being ^nr^erft ordutarii, ia aigued, 

Isl, From there being no msation of the appoinltnent of a 
9UCC«Mor to Joshu&t as there Mras to MoAes; nor any cioe 
aeloolly made judf;e till some yean after his death, when 
OUiniel w» raised to that ofHcc nn a particular ocoesion. 

2dly. Prom its being represented as so criminal a thing for 
the people to desire a king, and even to amoiint to a " reject- 
ing God. that ho ehoutd not reign over them;" 1 Sam. viii. 
&— 7. Now the difference betwixt judges and kings was but 
very little. They neem to have had the same authority and 
power; only the judge* were ne»er cn>WDC<d, nor attended 
with soch pomp, nor invested with such regalia as kingn were : 
■r therefore the judges had been perpetual dictators, socceed- 
id^oncarmlhcrrc^tarly and without intermisKioo. whv t^lwnild 
the people d<wini a king; or where wan the ^eatevUofit 
when they did^ Was it the sole puqtort of tlieir requcirt, 
ihiU their judges mi|;rbt have the title of kings.' They had 
this before; for when there was no judge, it is said " there 
watt no king in Israel." Or was it only, that their judges 
might be cmwned, and have the regalia? This was a matter 
of very liltlumuiiiunl.iind lumlly worth dinputing about, llieir 
desire, then, plainly was, that they might hare a jud^e, or 
king, iu pfrpctuum, a» the stated supreme officer in the go- 
veniment. tike other nations ; and not merely on extraordinary 
oCCftHOns. Now this was altering the rnn5titiilii)n and form 
of govommeDt which God had estabUi>hed; and on this ac- 
count their motion was m displeasing to Samuel, and to God 

However, on the other band, in order to prove the judges 
were perpetual dictators, and m their oflke quite difl«t«nt 
frotu kings, it is objected and artnied, 

Ut. That S«muel had made his sons jndges, 1 Sam.viii. 1; 
and it was nothing hut the Ul government of these new jndgn 
liiat made the people desire a king,, ver. 3 — 6. Therefofe 
the kingly office was ditiercni from ttiat of the judges; conse- 
(]uently tl>e judge* might have been perpetual dictatore, noi- 
wilh^tandiiig the )ieoplc now desired a king. 

Rut ta>tlii% it may hu aiuwered, that the title judge wa^ 
iiffttaDv npplkldf not unly to the one supreme officer under 



(SOOK 1. 

Ood. Hioli M Otkntd, Barak, &c^ bat aho to inferior magis- 
trates ; Joei). viii. 43; xxiii. 2, and elsewhere. >'ow it a not 
wid. tliat SttiDttel tuadeoQe of hi4 sons the judge, or' i£oxqv, 
that is, hf appointing him to be his successor, or his partoer ia 
tbegovenniMnt; but dial fae made them both jodges; and they 
were jndgwa B— whelja. that is, inferior magistrates, whose 
oOoa it was ta di^WDM and execuie the laws of Jehorah. 

2dty. It is alleged, that the judge* nrr' t£oxQi'. is spokan d 
tMU atsled officer in the Hebrew coumooweallJi : "1'houi<halt 
oone anUj tlie jirKula, (he Levitev, »nd unto tliejudgu Uial 
shall be in those days;" Deut. xvii. 9. Cooaequently there 
must ahrays be a judge. 

B«t tlHwe on iba other aide of the questiou reply, 
Bfittfli Vt veei koitofitel may as well be roudered " oa unt 
the JDdge;" meaning, in case there should be any jiKlge 
that time. And this leoM they apprehend ia conlirmed byj 
its being said. " The man that will not hearken to the priest, , 
or to the judge, even that nian shall die," ver. 12. 

3dly. The chasm or interregnum betwixt Samson and Sav| 
mnel, whi!n there w-an nu jud^c, iK tncntiuiied once luid agai»J 
as an extraordinary t h i ng , and a calamitous circumstance ts^ 
the nation; JadgCAxni.6; xviii. 1; xix. 1; xzi. 2d. Tber»-, 
fnre, orditiarily. there was one supreme judge over all tha^ 
other ofTicers and ministers of state. 

Bat it ii replied, this will not prove that they had per* 
potnal judges; but only that it was a calamity to be without a. , 
judge at B time when such an officer was so much wanted. 

It is made a question, what time tliut was which is here re«j 
ferrcd to, when "there was no king, or judge, in Israel." 
The order at the history leads us to conceive, it wa^ betwixt 
SaniMiD and .Hamuel. But Dr. Patrick is of opinion, that 
thoso live last chapters of the book ol' Judges are a distinct 
history, in which the author ^ves an account of sevural me- 
morable transactions which fell out m or about the time of 
the judges, whose story be would not intx^rrupt by intermixing 
these roatlen with it, and therefore reserved tliuu to be re- 
lated fay UMnHwhsB, in tlie second part, or appendix. Where- 
in he first giras an account bow idolatry crept into the tribe 
of Ephratm, then how it was propagated among the Danites; 
iftir which he rolataa a most heinotu act of adultijry, com- 

CNAP. 1.1 

iRrnrH4u'« tow. 


mitt£d in liie tribe of Benjamin ; which introduces the hutocy, 
dm, of the almoBt totnl destruction of that tribe fu* ibor 
couDtenanciag that detestable fact ; and tbea, of its reslors- 
tioD. Now, OQ such extraoidiiiaiy occasioas, they should 
bare ap|>oint«d a judge, especially when the inferior o£Scera 
ao ' Ity neglected their duty. 

i Mbrew judges were in all fiAeen, from Othoiel the 

first Co tMrnoel the hst; before whose death tlie form of 
government was changed, and Saul wan made king. 

We m&y remark, thai the Carthaginian Soffites. the chief 
officers and magistrates in that state, whom botlt tlw Gtvek 
and Latin historians frecjuentJy nicniioa.* aeem evidently to 
hare derived their title from the UeUew word D'€iBC sl^o^e- 
tim: which affbrda one argument, smoogwTeral others, of the 
CartJiaginians being originally Canaan ilea, driren ont of their 
country' by Joshua ; ainoe by this it appears, that their ancient 
language was Hebrew, the language of thm CMiaanitca.t 

Pnxopius GuffiUB obseireB, that tlie history of the judges 
u of excelleat use to represent to tis the uughty power of tme 
religion to make a nation happy, and the disoul calamities 
which impiety brings upon it. And, therefore, the writer of 
the Epiatic to the Hebrews has thought fit to propound •ereral 
oxamptes of tlie power of fiiith out of this book; as of Gideon, 
Barak, Samson, Jephthah, and Samncl ; who, being animated 
by tliM principle, did great things for their nation, and obtained 
aignal rictories oret Uicir enemies. { 

Tlwre is no affair related m this book, which has been made 
so ninch a matter of controversy, as that of JephUtah's vow; 
which, therefore, we shall now (ake into considention. 

CoKenmtg Jqththak'f Vov. 

It has been earnestly disputed, both among Jews azhI Chris* 
tnnft. whether Jcphthah did sacrifice hisdau^ter. Andrery 
considerable men Have appeared on each aide of tJiis quesrion. 
Not but ificphthab had been a heathen. I suppose, we shndd 

" linl ntrt. Uk. sVTili. cxp. ST; lib. nx. cap. T. 

t Vid- Bodwrt. Ofograp. Sacr. pan K. lib. i. cap. xxiv. apod Open, Unb. 
i. p. 473. edit. Lagd- Oat- 1712. 
1 Pawwi. on Jwlf , u iIm bcfjaahiii. 



[dook I, 

buTc had no more difBctilty in imderstandmg the accoant 
given of this matter in the book of Judges, chap, xi., of his 
sucrificbig litft daughter, than we have in understanding Ho- 
rner's account of Agamemnon's sacrificing hia daughter Iphi- 
gcnia, or tdomcncua his son, of a real sacrifice, t do not 
know thnt it is ao much bb pretended, that the Hebrew text 
wUI not admit of such a Hcnse. or even that it is not the moat 
natural one which the words will bear. Dut that a judge of 
the Hebrew nation, who were worshipiKrs of the true God, 
and who»e law did not admit of human aacriBces, should be 
^ilty of this grossest act of heathen superstition, is what a«- 
rcrol of the Jewish rabbies con by no mcan:^ admit ; and many 
learned Christians, not knowing how to reconcile Huch a bar- 
baruiui, us well a« aupcretitious, murder with the gfXMl cha- 
racter which is given of Jephtliah in tlie Hpistle to tJie He- 
brews, chnp. xi. 3'2 (where his name standi) in the catalogue 
of those ancient worthies who were iltui«(rious instances of the 
power of faith), hare cndt.>avoured to soften the account of this 
inhuman sacrifice, and to introduce a milder sense. For Ihia 
purpose the art of criticism hatli been diligently applieil in the 
Hebrew text, in order to make it signify no more than that 
Jephthah devoted his daughter to perpetual Ttr^pnity, for the' ' 
honour and in the service of God. Among the Jews, rabbi 
Joseph, and mbbi David Kimcln, and rabbi Levi Ben Ger- 
Bon,* have espoused this udc ol the question ; as among th«' 
Christian writers, have Estitu, Vatabliis. Junius, Grotius. 
Oruftius. Heinsius, Ghusius. and Le Cletc. 

In favour of the milder sense, that Jephthah devoted 
daughter to perpetual virginity, it is alleged, 

1st. That she desired time, before the vow was performedJ 
upon her, to bewail her virginity, not the los« of her life,, 
Judge* xi. 37. From whence it is conclude*!, that it wasnot^ 
death, but perpetmd virginity that she was devoted to suHei 
and the reason, tliey sny. why Jephthah was so truubli^l whrn^ 
his daughter met him, ver. 35, was, because she bemg his oul] 
child, ver. 34. and he now obliged by hta vow to devote her 
IteriK-tiinl virginity, his family would soon be extinct in Iwracl. 

But to tilts it i» rtplied, that to die childless wa^ accounted, 

* SvUhn. d* jurs nst. « ^cut lib. iv. cap. xi. 

lAf. I.] 

jcpstbar's vow. 


by the Jnra a rery sod cnlumiiy. Ifcuce it. was denounred 
as B heovy cara« on Coniali, the son of Jehoiokttn, king of 
Judoh: "'Hiiu ^th the Lord. Write this nun childless;" 
JtiT. xxii. 30. iVnd thvrefoiv JephlUah's daughter bewailed 
Iter viq;iaity. ur h«r dying childless, more than the loss of h«r 

2dly. It is alleged, in favour of the nution of her beiuc de- 
voted to perpetual virginity, that the words, nno^-ruV n^3^f> 
Iftkanftoth kbath Jtphthah. Judges xi. 40, which we render, 
" to lament the daughter of Jephthuh," shoidd be rendered, 
as in the margin, " to talk with the daughter of Jephthah ;" 
that 18. to viait and comfort her in her recluse life. To sup- 
port this sense of thu word mnV lethannuth. tliey allege tJie 
foMuwing expreasion in thia book of Judgea, "There fihuU 
ihey rehearse ihe nghteooii acts of the Lord," Judge» v. 1 1 ; 
where, they observe, the verb rtlD thami i.s rightly rendered, 
and can only tnea^fe rehearse. 

But to thift argument it ih replied, that, allowing this sense 
fjf the verb, it will not at all contradict the nution of her being 
sacrificed ; fur then the meaning of iliia paasagewtll be, that 
" llie daughters of Israel went yt^rly to rehearse the tragical 
story of the dau^biiir of Jephthah." Or even if we render 
tha word n:n tkana, as in the margin, to talk ; yet raV min^ 
itikmrnoih ithatii would rather signify to "talk concerning," 
tllan to "talk with'' OS ^V-^OK imriJi, is to ''say of me,'* 
or "concerning me," not "with me." Oen. xx. 13; and 
^fi-iDV^ jetzaweh-lak aignifiea. " he shall gire charge con- 
cerning th(x>/' not "with thee;" Psalm xci. II. And thus 
nnS^fO^ ni:r^ lethanHoth Uhath Jej*htknh, signifies to talk 
concerning the daughter of Jepbthali, and not with her. So 
that this critique is not at all inconsistent with the notion of 
her being vacnfioed, but rather conBrnis it. 

Sdiy.Tho chief critical argument in favour of her being 
devoted to perpetual virginity, is taken from this clause in Jcp- 
thah'a vow. Judges xi. 31, r^m TiNn-'Vnjyni nim^ nvn vthaja 
laihtnsa w^hanffuilitliihu gaoiath : where, they ^ay, the Vau 
should be nnderstoodnotcoputatively. butdisjunctively; and 
then the meaning is. "Whatsoever cometh to meet me, shall 
either be Uie UorI's.ob 1 will ofier it up for a burnt-offering;" 
that is. in case it should be a creature fit for sacrifice. Thus 



[rook I. 

Qhvnii, in liifl PtirloUn^it Sitcm, undurntiimU it; nnd 8i> Dm-* 
sias, ftnd aoverni uUicrH; und they iirixlure koiiio other ie\xa, 
whero the Km is ased disjunctively; ab where it is said^ 
" He that curwilh his father, or bis mothtir. shall Hurely be 
pal to death;" Extxi. xxl. 17, compared with Malt. xv. 4. 
Again. " Asahcl turned not to the right-hand, or to the loft.,^ 
3 Sam. ii. Id; where the Vau cannot sip;mfy uimI. In like 
mannicr the conjunetivr ifuf, in Latin, is aometimcs umvI in a 
dHJunctjve sense. Thus Vir^l — 


\M THago T)niuitim iiuidiaa, 9iui[)«etiu)ue dona 
PnKipitirv jnbnii, nihjectnque urere Asmnii<i. 

£«rid ii. I. 37. 

Saxutn ingeru rolntot alii. railiu(iu« rounm 

DuliKtt pendant. 

JEneitt n.1.616. 

Now, taking the Van in this Mnse in the passsf^ before 
th* meaning will he. "T vriW devote ii to Ood, or it shall be 
offered for a bumt-ofiering." 

But to this it is replied, thai every thing sacriftced was 
ofTered or devoted to Ood ; but every thing^ devoted to Ood 
was not sacrificed. Thurefon* ii ivuuld lie as iinproper toaay. 
I will cither devote it to God, or oifer it in sacrifice, as it 
would be to tay, animal aut homo; or, Aomo ntU Pftrtm 
or.Zwill rideeitfaetoD a four-footed beaut or a hone ; becauM* 
a hone is a four-footed beast- 

Bestdes. in other parallel texts, where towh arc expressed, 
like this of Jepththtih's, tmd where the Voh is ns«yl in the 
nune manner oa it is here, nobody will suppose it ttbould hti 
takcu disjunctively. Aa in Hannah's vow, 1 Sam. i. 11 : "I 
will give him unto the Lord all tlie days of his life, and there 
shall no razor come upon his head;" nobody understatulx it 
tiias, '* I will cither giw liim to the Lord, or no razor itbull 
OCMDC upon his head.'* So in Jacob's vow, "Then shall the 
Lord ho my Ood; anu this stone, which t have act up for h 
pillar, Rhallbr Ood'shoose;" Oen xxviii. 21, 22- 
■ You see. then, that tiut words of the Hebrew text wilt hardly 
htn any other schm! than is agreeable to the more, eoounon 
opinion, that Jephtltah did devote his daa^^ter todeelh, end 
itCtUHllv sacrifice her. 



However, ipt us Qncnd to the reaMflB which Home lune 
odvrcd. why the text Rhoul«l be int«ipKUil in tlic milHcr »efB>. 
cvea though it ehoiild oblige us to depart from the more natu- 
ral Mrantng and <umstniction of the wotda. 

ItL Some of the Jcnuh rabbiu seem to think it neocssary, 
for the honour of their nation, to vindicatn Jephthah's charac- 
ter at any rat« from the blemish of murder, which, if com- 
milUMl. must have been a douUe or triple crime, as a murder, 
ttamoctannatural marder of his own daughter and only child, 
and alao aa a heathenish the of sacrificing, which the Ixtrd 
Qod did by no means permit. Rut, enrely, it ia hardly worth 
tJieir whde to labour so camcBtlv, oa some of them have done, 
to vindicate JejAthah's cliaracter for tlie sake of thm natioiml 
honour, while the Uvea and acliona of Romany of their wicked 
knqga are on reconl in the sacred hiotory. particularly of Ahaz, 
who " made hia sua to pass through the fire according to the 
abouunationsof the heathen," 2 KingB xn.3; of Manaaaeh. 
who "cauaed hia children to pofis itirongh the tire in the valley 
of theflonof Hinnom," iChron.xxiiii.fl; which, if it did not 
mean their burning them to death, tn sacrifice to their idols, 
was at leaxi a rite of lnHtration(aa the hualhctiA rnllcd it>, hy 
which parents dedicated thcirchildrentothe worship and ser- 
vice of their false gode. 

2flty. It IH pleaded, that Jephthah is not censured in any 
pari of sacred history for what he ilul <ui thin occasion, which, 
they auppoae, if he had been guilty of ao abominable a crime 
as Kacrifictng his own daagbter, he would hare been. 

To this it may be replied, that if every action, mentioned in 
tW flwred hiatofy without censure, must therefore be con- 
clodod to bo lawful and good, many actions, which we are 
sure were contrary to the positive law of Ood, and others 
which were immoral in tlivtr own nature, must be held lawful. 
Aa Samson's nurrying a Philistine contrary to the law, which 
forbad thti Jtnvs to marry out of their own nation; his lewd- 
neas with Dalilah; and his revengeful spirit, which he mani- 
feal^d to the Uat. and carried to anch an extreme na to sacri- 
fice his own life, that he might '• be avenged on the Philistines 
for hia two •jra*.'^ Another argimicnt against th«> more literal 
••nse of ihii history is, 

3dly. It cannot be thought that God would have given 

D 3 



victory and Hucce«s (o Jephthoh in hi« expedition ftgaimit th« 
Ammoititea. upon his making «o wicked a vow sh this, of 
ofTeHog a human iwcrifico. 

Bitt it ia to be considered. Uul the private interest of Jeph- 
thsh was not so much cooeemed in thin ex|ic(litiun n.i the 
public interest of the whole Jewish naiion ; and why nii^ht 
not God succeed him in hm war against the A iiim unites, not- 
withstanding his faults, fur the sakcofdelivt-nng his fuvourite 
(lei^le. whom he had takun under his s|)cciBl protection, as in 
many other cases he buth given success to wicked itistruments, 
for accotnphshiug the wise and holy designs of his provideuce 
and grace ? But. 

4tiily. The chief reason which has mduced many Christians 
to soften the story of Jephthali'saniialural murder and sacri' 
6a?, is his beinif mcnlinned in the catulot^ue of behcvers, in th« 
Kpistle to the Hehn-ws, chap. xi. 3'J. Frani whence it is con- 
cluded, that he was not merely a good man, but a imin ofemi- 
oent piety, as all whose n&uies are in that catalogue are Hup- 
posed to be. And, taking this for gnunted. they nrgue, Huw' 
can it be thought that a f^ood man, nay, an eminently good 
man, shoultb deliberately commit so honid a crime, which wu 
doubly contrary to the divine law, as to murder and sacrifice* 
his own daughter? 

To this it is repHed, 

Ist. That there arc gmtt infimuiics and faults nf ^;ood men ' 
raeonled in Scnpturr, which, perhaps, considering idl circum- 
stance, weic OS heinous as this action of Jcphthah's. As 
David's debauching the wife of Uriah, and then perfidiuuslyj 
procuring the death uf her huHband ; and Solomon's lUulalry/l 
of whom, though it is n(M expressly saul Uint he otr«red any] 
human saeriftces, yet we raad that be went "afler Mik 
ihe aNiminnlion of the Ammonites," 1 Kings xi. 5; which is\ 
another name fur Molocli, am the same idol is called : ht\ 
"built an high place for Chcmosh, tbcaboroimitionof M( 
Molech, the abomintiiion of tlic children of AmoMn]" 

r. 7. Now it being well ktiown, that huaiuiisaartfiees 
commonly uffcrMl by the heathens to the idol Molech, it is i 
an improbable inference, from the passages just cited, 
Solomon nfierrd them. Iluwcvrrthat he, if Solomon. (h«*oo' 
of Oavid, who lived in timafi of great light, and had enjoyed 

jbphtiiam's vow. 

the iu1viinlng« of a rcHg^ious education far beyond wliat Jepli- 
Uiah hftd done; if he practised Uie idolatrous woralup ot the 
Mimbites and AnunonJtcs, is it any wonder Jephtbah should 
be led by a blind supentition to sacrifice bin daughter? It is 
certain Jcplithah bad had, ccunparatively, but mean advantages 
fur the knowledge of religion, and the law of Qod. la his 
younger days he dwelt at Gi lead, on the other side Jordan, 
very reioote from Shiloli, where Uie tabernacle was, where the 
public ordinances of divine worsbipwere celebrated, and which, 
therefore, in those times, was the fountain of knowledge 
and r«-lii;ion among the JewB. Ai'ter his father's deatli, bis 
brethren drove him out of the family, upon wliich he went and 
dwelt in the land uf Tab, a country no where cIm: mentioned 
in Scripture, but it wqb. undutibtedly, out of Canaan, and 
ihvrvibre a healiien country. And now, when he returned into 
Ibc land of Israel, the true religion was even there at a very 
low ebb, according to the account we have of the atate of it 
omongtit the liraeUteK in those da^-s: " The children of Israel 
did evil in the aight of the Lord, and screed Baalim and 
Aahtaruth. and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and 
the gods of Monb, and the gods of the children of Animon, 
and the godn of the Fhihfttines, and fomook the Lord, and 
served him not;" Judges x. 6. And though wo read, indeed, 
ver. in. that they had put away the sininge gu<l», before Jeph- 
tbah 's roturn, yet Uie knowledge of the law of God could not 
be revived on a auddea. Probably, therefore, as Jcphthah 
had lived among the heathen, with whom human sacrifices 
were ccmmooly practiced, and had little opportunity of ac- 
quaintance with the law of Jehovah, he might, at that time, 
think the highest honour he could pay to the God of Israel 
wan to offer bnn a human sacrifice. Now, all thi& considered, 
will not his unavoidable ignorance plead strongly inbinoxcuse? 
And may we not suppose he was a man of a pious turn, and 
liad a zeal for God, though not according to knowledge, when 
he made and fwr formed tiiia vow 7 

2dly. Shall 1. venture to suggest a query, whether Jcph- 
thah'n name, being inserted in the catalogue of betievera, or of 
ihOK who are remnrknhle iniitances of the power of faith, is 
mffioicnt to prove (hat he was a good man? The design of 
ituK chapter ia plainly to show the power of iaitb in several 


JRWtlll AHTlQaitlKII. 

(book I. 

Hiffciviit views of it, and oh acieil on rwvcral diflerfntobjccUi. 
Therefore, though all tlic [icrKons whotw names arc here tnrn- 
lioood, wore, no doubt, remarkable instoaccs of the |>owcr of 
faith, oFonc kind or another, yet it is not, perhapB, so certain, 
that they all bad justifying and saving faith. 

The firal person meDtiomd iu this catalogue is Abul, whoHo 
faith, m il rendered his aacritic« more acceptable to Cio<l than 
■hat of his brother Cain, muat l>c Bup{K>iM!d to respect the pro- 
mised antitype of tho ancient ex|>iatory Micrificca, or the alonr- 
ucntof Chtittt. Soon after, Noah's faith i<i celebrated, for his 
beUev-in^Ood'athrcatcningsof the universal delate; and thca 
the Cuth of Abraham and tiio patriarchs, by trhich they 
*' looked for a city whicit hath tbundotvons, whose builder and 
maker is God(" and which, therefore, made them easy and 
oontuntcd with Lhcir »ojouruing and unwilled cunditiou iu 
this work). Allihc«c are said to" die in faith;" Ileb. xi. 13. 
AfkOT sovcrol other names, and instances of the power of faith 
U arted upon parliciilnr prnmiftos, the apOAtle mciitionH somft- 
of the JeniKh heroic generals, whose faith in Ood's |UtuniMy' 
of protecting aiul supportuig Uieir nation, ins[iired them with 
exttaordiiiary courage in tighling for Uiu Uruuhlet. ai;aiu»t tlicir 
cuemiM and oppreasora,»o that " by f;uth they ttuUlued king- 
doou." Yet, if a man might bare Ihe faith of miradett, ao a« 
to remove mountains, and not be a icood man, as the apostla 
clttewhere 8up[}0«cj), 1 Cor. xiii. 2, might he nut have this pa^<'' 
licular faith in God's promise of Bup)>urting ihc Uraebtiah na- 
tion, for which Rahah, and Gideon, and Bitrak, and Snmsoa«^ 
and Jcphihah, arc here celebrated, and at tho qjuoG time 
ho a ^;ood man ( 

li will bo replied, perhaps, 

Ut. That afWr the catalogue of Lbosc names it ia added, 
Heb. xi. ;)$, " «tf whom th« world was not worthy." 

I answer. That seems to l>c Mitd, nut of the victorious gene- 
rals, who arc mcniionod aloon wiih Jrpblhah. but of anothci 
d i M of believers, who are meuiionod after them, unmetv, tb« 
"'Wfa i W wrf maiiyfi, who had been so unworthily trcatcdj 
by the world. 

3dly. In It not intimated in the two last vcnee of 
elcraith ch«pi..r of the Epiatie lo the Hcbrewa, that all the 
whose names were btfcte rccttod are now made pcffoot? 

CM HP.- t.1 


" ThciH! all. haniig obtained a u;ood report throngK faith, re* 
ceirod not the pnimises, Ood bavint; provided booiu liettar 
ibin^ (vT u«, tbat they without us should not bo made perfect." 

We anmver. The verb rtXtiwv, and Uie adjective t^X(^o^, arc 
applied by the Greek writers to maturity of age ; aod tfaos, in 
the New Testamertt, rtkutav £« tmttf 4 vrtpttt rpo^n, Heb, v. 
14, " Strong meat is for tfaem thnt are of full ago." Again, 
" III malice be yc children, hut in undcrirtanding be ye 
men," rtXaoi ytvtaik, 1 Cor. xiv. 20. And ovqp tiXhoc, Eph. 
if. 13, BigDifics a perfect or full-grown mnn.* Now, the 
apoatle rapnaeutA th<; church undi;r On: former di-ipennatton, 
when those penooa lived of whom he had been speaking 
kororc, as iti a Mate of minority, but under ihc go^pol dia- 
pensation oa advanced to a &tatc of maturity. Thr ntcan- 
in^, therefore, seems to be, that though God had vouoh- 
Bttfc<l some cxtraortlinarv measures of &ith to particular per- 
Hons, under tlic former dispensation, yet he did not Chen raise 
his church to that »tate of maturity to whicli he bad now ad- 
vanced iu 

I shall dose this diMertation with 9ome arguments in confirm 
mation of the more commonly received upinion, that Jt-phtbnh 
did «acn6ce his daughter, and that he mteaded a human sa- 
crifice when he made this vow. 

. Of this sentiment is Joscphus, the Chaldee Poraphr^Kt. and 
liunouB lakbiofi. Some of them, indeed, founded Lbcir 
0|Maiou on u niistaken senee of this passage in Leviticus, 
" None devotod, which shall be devoted of men, shall be re- 
doeniMi, bu( Hhall surely be put to death," no1^ nio moth 
jvmath, chap, xxrii. 29. Prom whence they concluded, that 
in some eases human Bacrificcii might be offered in conformity 
to the law uf Ood. Whereas that text cithur meauH, according 
to Dr. Sykus, tluit every person who is devoted to the spooiol 
■wviceof God, as Samud was by bin mother, shall not bo ro- 
dtesAd. but shall die in that devotod state; and he givea 
•evcral uiatances, whore rxsv* mo molkjumath is thus applied 
to a uaturoi dcalb, ■> when God said unto Adam, " In the day 
that thou eatest thereof tliou sbalt surely die," Gen. u. 17; 
aud when the torti said of the murmuring Israelites, "They 

■ S«e XcDoph. Cynf»d. hb. i. p. 6, inlit. Uuirh. 1738, whcns vcAcmu 
arfpanr may be moslaiedt viru 94^110 pkmi» «toCm, full.^o«n moa. 



[book I. 

bIiuII Hurely die iii the wildcmeM," Numb. xxvi. Go. thuut^h 
they were uot sacnfioed or eXL'Cutud, but dii-d u itutunil death ;* 
—or oUc Uiv (ux( iu Leviticus, according Ut Mr. Seldeu, is to 
be restrained to sucb as were devoted to death by the a|>- 
pointiaent and law of Qod ; iw tbc inhnbitaiils of Jericho, 
Joah. *i. 17 ; and luch of the Israelites as in catc of war did < 
not obey military orders, and perform the charj^ laid upon 
thorn; In particular, the inhabitonlit of Juliesh Ciileud, wlio 
comphed not with the general summom to ^ and fight against ' 
Bunjtunin, Judges xxi. 6. H — 10. And perhaps it tuay ox~■^ 
tend to all who had been guilty of any cruoe that was 
capital by the law of God, nod w the deiiign of it was no' 
more than to reatrain inferior niogiatratcft from pardoning 
capital offenders, which was ttie prerogative of God only, as^ 
their king.f 

Motit of the ancient Christian writera ore of opinion, that 
JcphUiah actually sacrificed his daughter, and ao is fir. Ligtit- 

Now tho chief reasons whicli arc alleged in favour of this 
opinion, besides that it agrees to the more natural nieaning of | 
the Hebrew text, are, 

Ist. That there in no rtilc nor precedent in ^ripturc, to ju»- 
tify the practice of devoting penms to perpetual virginity ; but, 
on the contrary, this is spcdicn of as one of tho nntichriatbin . 
comiptiona of the " latter iitnea, when men should def 
from the faith, and give heed to seducing spirils und doctiinea 
of devils;" I Tim. iv. 1. Nor was there any office bclong-j 
ing to the templo i»ervice to he performed by, women, ex- 
capt, j>erhapB, that some of llic dau^^htera of the Lcvitea as*^ 
Slated by their voice* in the temple choir, a* some think i* 
intimated in this paasagc of the first book of Chronicles, "And 
Ood gave to Heman fourteen aona and 0\rvr daughters. Alt > 
theae were under tlie bands of iHcir lather, for song iu the 
house of the Lord, with cymbals, poaittxies, and hariw, Jbr tho 
■iiitn of tho hooKo of (lod, occocduig to the king's order, to 
Anpb, Jeduthuii. and ilcman;" LChroa. xxv. 6, G. How- 

* S4W S^kn' PitDriptn uid ro«ir>tu-n iXyklMal and Rctralnl tUlt- 

t S«Mtn d» Jiuc Nal. «l GaiL bb. i> cap. «lv— «. 
I Bern, oa Judfn si. 99, vol. il. p. 121$. 

mAr. 1-1 

jKrRTnAu's vow. 

ever, Jcpfathoh uras not a Lcvite> and thererorc his dnughtcr 
could bear no port even in that service, nor liatli nutuicry ajiy 
counMuuice, either tn the Jtwisli or Cbristian law ; mid Ui 
feuppote, therefore, thnt Jephthah devoted his daughter to 
perpolnal ni^aity, in to suppose him acting ujb contrary to 

• the law of Qod, as ii* he had sacrificed her. 

2dly. What coutd he expect to come out of the door of his 
houitc to meet him, but a human person ? Can we think that 
Jephthah had his dog in hiu thoughts when he made this 
vow, — a creature that whb |>«rticiilarly excepted from hcin^ in 
nny Bemo flancti6ed nnd devoted to Ciod, as any clean beast 
might be '. Lev. xKvii. 9. 11, compared with l)eut. xxiii. 18. 
■'Idly, [f he had intended no moro than the sacrifice of a 
bullock, or a ram, what need was tbero of tiuch a koLcdui vow '. 
If he had meant a brutal sacriflce. he would surely have vowed 
to sacrifice hecatombs, rather than a single auimu), on no great 

' an occasion : or, like Jacob, he would have vowed to give the 
" tenth of all his substance uiiio the Lord ;" Gen. xxviii. 22. 
4ihly. Wc rend, that it was a " custom in Israel, that the 
daughterit of Inmcl went yearly to lament the daughter of 
JophtJinh;" Judges xi. 39, 40. Now the Hebrew word pHcAwA. 
which wc Tuulor custom, ngniiies a statute or ordinance of 
hutting obligation. Thus it is peculiarly applied to the law 
which God gave by Hoses in the following pasaaga: " Behold 
i hare taught you statutes {D>pn rAuJkAi>/i)and judgments, even 
as the Lord my God coounanded me, that yo should do so in 
the land whither ye go to posMui it- Keep, tlicrcfore, end do 
them, for thin m your wisdom and your understanding in the 
sight of the nations which shall hear all these statutes/' 
D^pm-Vs a>l-hn(htikkim, Deut. iv. 6, and so in many other 

^plaoos. Thia cuntom, therefore, of the daughters of Israel, 

to be intended for un annual rite m perpeittum, and 

not that they went yearly to talk witli her as long ut> .she lived . 

it is highly prabable, that Homer grounded his fable of 

Agaroomnoa's sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia on some tiB- 

dition of Jophthah's sacrifice. And indeed the name I phigenia 

^•eems to be a comiptKp*^ Jephlliigenia, the daughter of 
Jrphthdh. Ovid, who'ha» dreseed up the btory in his way, 
makes Diana put a stag in her room, and seems, therefore, to 

ihavc blended the tradition of Abraham '& saciifice with that of 





Jephlhah* But to return to tiie consi<leration of the Ih 
brew goveraiueut. 

We have distiDguuhod the time in which God exercised 
tpecial aatbority ovpr the people of Ismrt into four periods,] 
utA are now upon the second of them, namely, from llioir cut j 
trance into Canaan to the captivity. We have gone throui^h I 
the goveniiaeat of the judges. Wo proceed now to the rci^ { 
of the kings. 

This cootinucd.Miith Godwin, from Saul to tiio captivity of 
BabylOQ. about 030 years. But as, in tlic counw of tliis work, 
mihall haveachapter by itself coace^ui^^ UicJu^N'ish kings, 

1 ahull only for the present otitwrvo, that they were uT two 
•orta, tfaow that ^ei^lH>d over thn whole Hebrew nation, who 
w«re ooly thtrc, Saul. David, and Sulomoo, and those that 
raigiMd over aome of the tribe* ooly. 

And IhaMwore, 

1st. Tbe kings of the house of David, who were twenty id 
number, if you reckon Athaltah Uiu ijueon, who usurpod the 
throne for nix years, after the death of her son Ahaziah ; 

2 Kinga xi. These kiogs reigned over the two tribes of Judnh 
and Bienjaniin. until Ncbiichndnczzar canicd Zcdckiah, the 
last of theni. captive unto Babylon. They look their title 
from tbo larger tribe, and were called kingd of Jndah. 

ddly. The kittga of Unci, who reined over the other tnn 
tribea, from the time of their rebeUioD against Kohoboam. ihc 
•on of Solomon, to the Asaynan captivity. These kings were 
of Mwal difterent fninilioa, and were in all nineteen, rrom Je> 
nboun, Ute tiret, to llusea, the last. 

Wo now proceed to the thini period, whidi takes in the 
time uf tiie captivity, and coitctudcs with the end uf it. 

As live tU-bcvw nation mtn divided into two distinct king- 
doms, so each kingdom suflefed a diMioet captivity ; the one 
iaeaOed the Atsyriiio, the other the Rohylonidh. 

The Assyrian captivity vms that of tlie ten tribcn, which wns 
bagnn in the reign of Pekafa, Idng of Isncl, when Ttt;1ath- 
Pikser, king of AaKyrin, conquered a part of his country, and 
earned away the people captive to Assyria : 2 Kings xv. 29. 
It was afiurwaid completed by Sohnanobsar, who took S»- 

JVia CapBlli DtuUab, dc nto Jrahih, pcf lohioi; auud eritieus tnl Ui. H«Ua'» dMs on EMk is. ». 



nuuia, thn capita) of the kingdom of Umel, after three years' 
siofj^e, and went ap through the land, and csuricd away the 
reajdne of the people cnptivc into Amyria; 2 Kings xvJi. 5, 6. 

The people of the kingdom of Umcl had greatly corrupted 
Uie worship ofGud. and had been very much given to idolatry, 
pTcr since their Reparation from tho kingdom of Judah. It is 
said, that " they walked in the statutes of the beatheu, and 
■ervod idoU ;" vcr. 8. 1*2. And tt is no wonder, therefore!, that, 
when they were removed into Aitsyria, multitudes of th«m feQ 
in mth tho idolatrous worship and cnsloma of that counlrv, 
becoming mixed with the AssyrinoR, and in time, losing the 
very name of Jews and Israelites, inaomneh tJiat the greater 
part of thtt ton triljca, as a peculiar people and visible church 
of God, were quite lo«t in tliut captivity. 

The Bnbylonish captivity wus that of the kingdom of Judah, 
or of the two tribes who adhered to the house of David. It 
was begun by, king of Babylon, id the reign 
bf Jehoiaktm, whom Nobnchadnczzar " Itound in fetters, to 
carry him to Babylon. And he also carried avfay some of the 
vcMols belonging to the house of the Ix>rd. to famish his own 
temple in Babylon ;" 2 Chron. xxxvi. 6, 7. Prom hence be- 
gun the period of the seventy years' captivity. The people, 
buoyed up by their false prophets, were induced to believe, 
that these sacred vessels should be shortly brought again from 
Babylon ; but Jeremiah assured them of the contmnr, and that 
all tho remaining vessels should be carried after them; Jet. 
xxvil. 16,17.21,22. Accordingly, about nine yearanilerward, 
in the reign of Jchoiukim, iN'cbuchadnezzur made a second 
d«aceot against Jadah, and " besieged Jenisalem, and took 
it, and carried away the king, and all the nobles, and the 
great men, and officers, and ten thousand captives, to Baby- 
lon, witli all tho treasure of the house of the Lord, ami tlie 
traMore of the king's house ; and cut in pieces all the vessels 
of gold which Solomon had mode for tlic temple ;" '2 Kings 
xmv. 10—10. But the word fvp^l ntikalzttz is nolwell ren- 
dered " cut in pieces," since it appears, by a passage in Oftniel, 
thnl iheM' vcamIs were preserved entire, for *' Bebhaxzar. 
and his princes, bis wives, and his concubines, drank wiue in 
Uuoni" Dan. v. 2. The rorh yitp katzatz Mgnifies " to cut 
off;" as in the following poBsagc of the second book of Snniucl, 

JCWtsn AEiTI<|l!ITIB8. [SOOK t. 

" IMtkI wiindwl his young nicn. and tiicy skir them, 
Ibni M, Kediab uad Bftmnali, the murdereis of IshlKMihoUi. 
and cat atf,Da(p^>ruiAai/:rt£M. their btuidsajKl their feet," Su:.. 
2 Stua. if. 12;* where it is used in the sune fonn as it is in 
the p—enga before us, in which. theTefore, it can moan no 
more than the vessels being cut olf frum tbeir stands or 
hues, tad taken awsy from the tcntplc. 

Agiia, deren yean &Aer this, iii the reign of Zedekiab. 
Vdmiar-adan, the Dshylootkn general, came and sacked and 
Ininit Jentsalen, and the temple, and carried away the re- 
"**""^** of the sacred vesaels, together wiUi all the Jewi who 
remained in the country (except some poor people, wboni b« 
left to till the hnd), captives into Babylon ; 'J Kin^ xxv. H. &c. 

Four yean after th^ which was the twbniy<third of the 
atnofy, or from the beginmng o( tbr Babyknusb captivity, 
Nebutar-adan again tnTaded the land of Israel, and seized 
upon all the Jews be coold meet with, and sent them captive 
to Bat^lon; J«r. In. 30. This was done probably lu revenue 
for the murder of Gcdaliah. whom Nvbuchaduezzar had made 
governor of the laad, but wbon Ishmad killed ; Jer. xli. '2. 
Tpon the luunler of Qedaliah. Johannn. the son of Kareah, 
and many of the people that were left, ded into Hgypt for 
fear of the kit^ of Babylun : ver. 15—18; chap, xliii.4— 7. 
So that all the Jews that Nabaar^dMi now found, and 
made captive, amountnd lo no OMn than seven hundred aud 
6Ay pefsoQs. Thtts was the caplirity of Judah compl«t*d, 
and tik» land was nude ileaolalc^ none of its former inhabi- 
tants being now Mi in it. 

But though Uie captivity of Israel and of Jndah had difler- 
cnt beginnings, the funncr ooonusnciw a hundred yeant be- 
fore the latter; yet they andud togelbsr. whan Cyrus, the 
king of Persia, having cooqoerod both the ChaU«ana and As- 
syrians, and obtained universal monarchy. ti»ucd out s dtxree 
fur restoring the Jews to their oH-n UnJ, and for rcbmldiag 
Jerusalem and the temple; Ezra i. 1 — 3. This is that famouH 
Cyrut, who. one hundred and forty years before the tem- 
ple was desUoyed, aud two bundled years before he was 

*«oKlK>,)Kiogixvil7, A»iu"«iolfihi-I»rtr<1ff9or UwhMP*, ftc.; 
Mp- ■-ttl 1«, ItacUKh "ClU or* tit* (Old 6«Bi th« clo««,fcc. Hsl> 

tmmi DiaiisiiiB.vol. 1. p. I. 



born, was montioned by name, in Uie prophecy of Isaiah, as 
d(-«igDed by God fur resLoriu^ his people: Isa. xiiv. 28; 
xlr. 1—4. It is not Improbabte, that prophecy nughl have 
been shown to Cyrus by some captive Jews, perhaps by 
Daniel, which might be a mean* of moving him to accompbah 
rt. Thia appears to have been the opinion of the Jews in the 
time of Josephiis, which tliey had probably received by tra- 
(litioQ. For he mtikea Cynu say, in his decree, "Because 
the supreme God hath apparently made Die king of the world, 
I believe him to bo ho, whom the people uf Israel adore; for 
he predicted my name by his prophets, and that I should build 
his temple at Jerusalem in the land of Judea."* 

ITpoii this decree, the tribes of Judah and Benjamin as- 
sembled out of the several provinces of the kingdom of Baby- 
Ion, and put themsolves under the conduct of Zembbabol, the 
grandson of Jehoinkim, king of Judah, who was made their 
governor, and of Joshun the high-priest, to the numbar of 
forty-nine thousand six hundred and ninety-seven persons, 
and returned to their own Innd ; Ezra ii. And though the ten 
tribcM, in their national capacity, were never restored, but the 
tiiOKt part continue in their disperalon to this day, uisomueU 
that the Assyrian cHptivity put a hnol period to the kingdom 
of Israel ; jTt, aa the decree of Cyras extended to all the JewSi 
several persons belongmg to the ten tribes now joined them- 
mIvm to Judah and Benjamin, and returned with them to 
their own laud. We read, therefore, that among the sacri- 
ficefi ofTerud at the feast of the dedication of the temple, on 
itH being rebuilt, there were "twelve he-goats, according to 
the number of the tribes of Israel ;" Ezru vi. 17. Again, wc 
rend of "twelve bullucks" being sacrificed "for all Israel;'* 
Esra viii. 36. From wheuce it is highly probable, that some 
of all the ten tribes were now relumed ; though still it appears, 
that great numbeni of the Jews, probably most part of the ten 
tribes, who still adhered to the oUI religion, remained among 
the bsathen in the reign of .•VrtiixerxcA Longimauua ; whom 
Ur. Hrifleaax takes to be the Ahasuerus mentioned in the 
book of Esther, and for which opinion he offers sabstantial 
reasons. This, therefore, mnst have been nea* eighty yeara 

* Antiq. lib. xi. cap. t. mci. i- edit. Havcrc. 


iRWIBII ANTimilTir.S. 

[bouk I. 

after tlieir first return, in the reign ofCynis. It wan at tliM 
time that Exr&, a descendant (rota Scraioh the high-priest, 
and un account uf his ^reat luarning ctiileJ Uie »crit)e, obtainud 
an ample cuuunm&iun Truni Artuxerxeii for litH retam to Jeni- 
valetn, with all of his own nation who fvura wilUi^ to accom- 
pany him ; Ezra vij. I'pon thui, many more of the Jewn r««] 
turned to their own land. Yot, after ail, few of the ten trihes^ 
in comparison vnili tliose of Judah and Benjamin, ever re- 
tumnd from thrir diHpirrKion. It apjKMirH, that at the time of 
Haman's couspinicy. wliich must have been four or five yenra 
oiler the second return under Ezra, there were atilt a multtttida 
of Jews dispersed thruu;j;h tliu various provinces uf the Persian 
om|Hre, boudes tluist.- who had mingled with idolaters, and 
etnbracud tlieir religion. Dr. Prideaux thinks it w&b by llw 
favour of Estht-r tliut Ezra obtained ha comau«8ion, and vmH 
made governor cf the Jvwn in tlieir own Und ; which govern- 
ment he cxerciacd for thirteen yeara. After him auccoeded 
Nehesninh, who had a new commission gmntet) him bv Ar- 
tuunea, in the twentieth ycarof hin reign, with fitll authority 
to repair the wall of Jerusalem, and fortify it, in the same 
raunitcr an before it was dismantled by the Babylonians, 

U may reasonably be conjectured, that <]utteii Esther's in- 
terest with the king did not a UtUc contribute U> obtain thia 
farther favour for the Jew*; and no much, uuieed, seems to 
be hinted in the luHtory of thia transaction, where it ia par- 
ticularly remarked, thai when Artaxcrxew gave this new com- 
mission to Nchcmiali, " the queen was sitting by him;" Neh. 
ii. 6. 

Nchcmiali "s comnitssion KiipcT^f.-dwI that of E/,ra. who tliere- 
fure now msignt-d his government, and (!mploycd himself in 
collecting and publishing n new and correct edition uf th* 
Scnptumt, and in restoring the worship of God to ibi originnJ 

We proceed lo the fourth ponod of the Jewish history, 
which contains about six hundred yearn, from the end of their 
captivity to the dettnictaou of Jerusalem and of the Jewish 

The Jewa, wbo. after the return from the ca|)itivity, were 

* Sh PrUsuu't CooMct. pan L. book *. 

CHAP, t.] 



sittled offain tn their own land, were no longer divided into 
tiro kingdoms, tis they were before; but were oil one peo|i]e, 
und njtder one government; which yet varied in its form 
LhniDi^ several succeeding ages. 

1st, Upon their return from the captivity, Judca became a 
province of the Persian empire, and was tributary to the Per- 
aian monarch; as appears from the letter which the enemies 
of the Jews wrote to Artaxerxes. in order to prevent the re- 
building of Jorosalctu ; in which arc these words, " Be it 
known now unlo the king, that if this city bo builded, and 
the walls set op again, then will ihey not pay toll, tribnte, 
and custom, and so thou shalt endamage the revenue of the 
kings;" Ezia iv. 13. Notwithstanding which, though tributary, 
they enjoyed their own religion, and were govemod by their 
own laws; and their governor*, though they acted by viitfM 
of a commifuion froni the court of Persia, were, uevertheloB* 
of their own nation; as Z«rubbabel. Ezra, Nebemiah. 

Sdly. Tliis state of tilings, and Uiis form of govci^ment, 
continued for upwards of two hundred years, antil the time 
of Alexander the Great; who. having destroyed tlie Persian 
empire, and established the Grecian univeiKol monarchy, the 
Jews became subject to him and his successors. Vet they 
were not properly conquered by him, as all the neighbonriog 
nations were; God having preserved them by a special and 
very extraordinary providence, which is thus related by Jo- 

When Alexander was engaged in tlie siege of Tyre, ho 
sent to Jadduu, the Jewish high-priest, for auxiliary troops, 
end neoMsaries for his army. Jaddua excused himself, al- 
leging his oath to Darius. Alexander, being greatly incensed. 
revolved to take a severe revenge. As soon, therefore, as he 
bad madd himself master of IVre. and of Gaza, he marched 
a^nst Jemsalem. Jadduit, in his |Kintifical robes, accom- 
panicd by the other priests in their proper habits, went out, 
by divine direction, in solemn prooeseioa to meet Alexander. 
As soon as the king saw him. he hastened toward him, and 
bowed down to him with a religious veneration of that sacrod 
name which was inscribed on the golden Ullel round bis tiara. 

Antif). lib. xi. op. vili, leeu liL— v. ftlit. Uai<«rc. 




Wbite ail stood amazed at tliia exlraonlioary beliaviour. Par- 
roenio alone ventured to inquiru of him, why he, who was 
adored by nil, should hinuicir pay such devotion to the Jewish 
high-priest, lie replied, hn did not payil to tlie high-phest, 
bat to the God whose priest kc was ; for that when he was at 
Dio ill Macedonia, and was deliberating how he Khoutd carry 
on ihc war against the Pcmiiin*. this very person, in tiic very 
habit he now wore, appeared to him in a drearo, and encou- 
raged him to pafw over into Asia; nfwnring'him, that Ood 
would give hiin the Persian empire. 'Having said this, Alcx- 
aoder gnvc his band to Jaddua, and entered Jerusalem with 
turn in a very friendly manner, and under hia direction otfercd 
steriHces to God in the temple. Here Juildua showctl him 
the prophecy of Douiel. which predicted the overthrow of the 
Persian empire by a Qreciati king. At which he was ao 
pleased, thHt he ordered the Jewu to request whatever was 
agreeable to them. U[ior this Jaddua [letitioned, that tliey 
might enjoy their own laws and reli(^on,aiid be excutivd rroiii 
pa.ying tribute everj' seventh year, because in that year they 
neither sowed nor reaped. All which he freely granted. 

Af^r the drath of Alexander, the Jews bocantc subject 
and tributary to the kingn of Egypt, or Syria; aa by various 
tnniB of providence, one or the other eitcndtui their dominion 
tod power into those partn. The former were calknl l,agii, 
or Li^des. from Lai^us, the father of Ptolemy the First; tho 
latter, Sdeucii, or Scleucides, from Seleucus Nicauor, luug of 

Tlie Jew«, at length, were miaenbly persecuted and dis- 
tnawd by Antiuchus Hpiphaii»i, tlie t^th of the Seteucion 
lungs, obout one hundred aud Hoventj years before Christ. 
He ta generaily supposed lo be that " vile person," of whom 
Daniel prophesied nnder tiiat appeUation, chap. xt.2I, tie.; 
md he uctually proved altogether aa profane and cruel as the 
prapbit repcoMUts him ; for be laid siege to Jerusalem, and 
took it by Btorm, and in two days* time roossacrrd fortv thou- 
nnd of its inhabitants, and sold as many more to the iiciuh- 
fcottring nations for slaves. He impiously forced himself into 
the templo, and into the holy of holies ; ho sacnficod a gn»t 
Mw upon the altnr of burnt-olFenng. and caused broth to be 
Dwdo of some part of the flesh, and to bo sprinkled all over 

CHAP, t.] 



Utc templfi. He afterword plundered the sacred edifice ckf 
all its golden and silver vessels and titcnsitx. to the value of 
eigltieen liundrtMl Uilents of {;()ld ; iiud havin;; marte the like 
plunder in the city, he left it, utler he had, to theiurtbervex- 
ttiuii of the Jews, appointed Philip, a Phr)-gian, to be their 
governor ; who waa a man of a cruel and barbarous temper. 
Upon this, 
3dly. Their state and form of government was changed by 

ilhe Maccabees. 

When Antiochua had issued out a decree, tliat all nations 
under his dominion aliouhl cunfonn to hiti religion, and wor- 
ship the same gods, and in the some manner, that he did, 
which decree was levelled chiefly ugainst the Jews, he Rent 
romniissioncrA tu execute it In Judea. One of them, named 
Aj>c]le«, came to ftlodin, where dwelt Maltathias, a very 
honourable priest, and zealouK for tlic law of hia God ; he was 
the gicat'i^ndson of iUmona^us ; from whence it is prohaUe 
the famdy hud the nunie of Aemoneaus ; though others derive 
that title from Uie Hebrew word DMOUTT fhtnluHanntm, which 
signifies magnates ot proceres. This Mattathias, with hia five 
•onStfell upon the king's commi»^oner, a^ he was endeavouring 
to persuade the people to sacriAcc to idolit. nnd slew him and 
all hii attendnnta. After which he retired into the mountains; 
Trbither ninny of the JewK fullowint; him. they formed an 
anny. and vtood upon their d(;fetice. Aftcrwnrd, leaving 
their fnfttncitsiA. they went about the countr)', deatroying iho 
hcatfien nltara and idolaters, and restoring the worship of God 
according to the law, wherever they came. Maltathias, who 

I waa o^hI, died the next year, and was succeeded in the com- 

, Dam] of the army by hi> son Judas ; who took for the motto 

'«rhis standard, 

nj conto-ka l>fceliin Jehovab. — Exod. xv.1l. 

; " Who is like onto thee, O Lord, amon^ the ^ofU ?" Thin 
motto is said to have been written, nol at length, but only hy 
the fir«t letter of cnch word *a30 ; as /*. S. Q,. R., for populus 

,M>iitiu*jue Itvm<tHu.i. was written on the Roman Htandard. 

' Tbase four iiiitiAl IvtterR arc genentlly 6uppD»ed to have formed 
tlic artificial word Mnceabi; from whence IhinJudan ban been 



^nnOR I. 

ConimDiily cnllcil Judas Mnccnbicus; aad those th»t siclixl 
iJnLb him, iitid fought under his sUuidard, were termed Mac- 
Tliis m the 0]>iuioii of Duxtorf, Pridcnux. uiid ahnost 
'•Tl the learned. But Dr. Kcnnicot doubt« of tltiit itirivation, 
BiDce in BOme ancient manuscripts the name in written with a 
ip iDBtead of a 3.* Hut whntcrer was the original of the word 
'■ Alnccaba?UH, it aUerward became a general name for all such 
■a satforvd in tlie CHuae of the true religion, under the l^gy|>- 
tian or Syrian kings. Accordingly, it is applied by the an- 
cient Christian writers to lotne who died many yean before 
JudftH lot up his standard .-f 

The Jews cnjoyiMl their liberty under a sncccMion of the 
AbmomrAn princes, ttiough not uithout frequent wnrs and eon- 
fufiiouB, for near a hundred ycoia; till Aristubulum, endea- 
vouring to wreat tlie crown from his elder brother lIjkTcanus, 
Jiaiae^l » CivU war; which ffxte the Romaiw an upportuutly to 
OOnquer Jmica, and to reduce it into the fonn.&rat of a tribu- 
\tuy kin^iloui. and sAarward uf n Roman province. 11)i-< 
[bni^Ra HH 10 tlie luat <tat« of the Jews before tlteir utter 
KdwtnfitMi •• a natiun. 

4Uily, Tiny mm wbfwt to the Romans, and goveroeil 

\hff kngM «fi|Miialad by Um Uumun emiierora; utt by licrod. 

, %fbvrirud by ht» aga Archekui. and thvn by a aucceMion 

I if KmIM [lnftuU, liH tbo panod of tbrir Rtnlv and polity, 

*"tOlfHi» cMmiy deputrd from Judah, nnd tho 

tmm balVMB bi» fcM,** awrding to Jacob's c^e- 

^ iiiwJ DimmL «a lk« tarn et ikr pcioMl Hdwim Ten, 

•*» iij,i.Lfl «4 iMWiwJ MMM, mmi» «t tMOal letlra ; wliidi 
WMM^ wmt tea H }rm* Md ChratiaiM. Tbu^ hdobs 

I 4iiai TIT Til "- " . i»-.t^^ -.. 

inm r.ain W« hM« bkvnM «Md«ni biCaoc** of tbo 

<w ■». 4^ ifwa m— y. AhoM ibt jw k»40 thtn «vn 

i->i^a>J tcUMt tWmna tfimofmrj oadv tW naiM 

•m^tt iHu taMial tawn of ihawuan of Cm 

/• of Akw |wiiw f^ybm MintHd, EAmmii 

' -A W<^ Mkk- «[ tbc iailUI Wwn of the 
^ tin N ^ UMn Uh» :4hw«I\ tt^ •hn cibalM taf«dMr. 

•' .«^«M Ik «* »U« ite kw^a l iili ai ; Catoti, Mnagtrnt. 

cnH9. f .1 


rbntetl propheey, wKich Godwin cpeak* of at iho emi ofhU 
' fint chapter. But na his account of it, and of the «ontro> 

venieB coooeniiiig; iki meaning and accomplisliment, i» very 
imperfect, I shall hero give a more full uiid complete one. 

Concerning Jacob's Prophecy. 
"Tlie sceptre shall not d«part from Jndah, uor a lawgiver 
from tKiwcen his feet, until Shiloh come, and unto bim ahall 
the ^thcring of the people be;" Gen. riix. JO. 
And h(-To. 

Ist. I vill consider the literal meaning of the words: And, 
2dly. Their prophetic impart. .. 

1st. As to the literal meanii^ of those words, concerning 
which any dmibt has bo«n made, they are these four, mu 
shfUtet, the sceptre ; ppno nuxAokck, the lawgiver ; vhn ragtaiv, 
hi* feet ; and nStfr Shiloh. 

The Krst word i8(m9si^r/'Ar/,which we tmn&Utc the sceptre; 

for Avhich rendering we have the united authority of the threu 

pTarguniB. nuiuoly. tJnkeloe, Jonatliau. and the JeruiuJem ; be- 

Im a great many of the modern rabbies. But others imder* 

^ Bland by it a tribe, a» Uie same word nouictimedjiigntfies; par* 

licularly in the sixteenth and twenty-eighth ver^s of ihu^ very 

chapter in which the prophecy wo are now eonsidoriug is 

jKcmded, and in sorae other phioes. And tM> thoy make tlie 

^tnaaning of the first claaae to be. " J udali ehutl not cetuw from 

being a tribe." Others sgain (chiefly of the modem Jews), 

understand by DQcr ihebfiet, the rod of correetioD or aMictiun, 

aa the word aamettmes imports: Job ix. 34; 2 Sam. vii. U; 

fCom. iii. I. Accordingly, they make tlii^ clanso Ut Bignify. 

' J«dah shall not cease from beiu^ an aiBicted people. But ihe 

I'^Mce and prosperity which Judah and all iHtael h»ve inmie- 

timeit enjoywl, particuliirly during the rei^i> of David and 

Bi>)<Mnon, are a RufBcient objection ogainsit adopting thai sen&e 

in tl»a place- The truth is, dsv nisebhet, from tiiiL' a/tabJuit. pror 

ttuxit.m produc<>. primnrilv mgnififs a rod or wnnd. shooting 

fVna the n>ut of a tree ; metnpborical sense, it denotes 

eorreclion. of which a rod is often tlie instrument ; a tribe, 

irhich Hpringa oat of a oommon stock ; a sceptre, nud xcveral 

'otiier things. Tbo aaeaningof it, therefore, in any parricular 

place, must be decermined by the context, and by Utc aubjoct 

llivre spoken of. Nutr, ns the context immediately preceding 




Bonx I. 

tliiit famous prophecy rurcti.'ll» the <lomiriiou of Judah, not only 
orer his enemies, but over his brethren, ver. 8, i), notliin^ can 
be ao n»turully understood by O^V thebhet . in this cUiiNe. as a 
sceptre; and so it prcdirt* the conliinmnce and duration of 
that power and authority which was just before promisod. In 
this tteiiae the aarae phraw is used, nor is it rapuble of any 
other, when it is said, "The sceptre of Egypt shall depurt 
away;" Zccb. x. II. 

The next word to Iw explained is ^spno mechakek, from pj:(i 
chakak, icriptit. slufnit, mamiavtl , to ordain, command ; which 
is therefore very properly rendered a lawgiver. However, it 
seems to be n word of a lower nigniflcation thnn D31? ihrhhel, 
which denotes royal anthority; as, "he tliat holdeth the 
sceptre, "niennslhektng; Amos i.6. Accordingly. the D^^^pno 
meehukekim, mentioned in the book of Judges, are the chief 
men, or uingistrHtcs, of tlie tribes of Israel, Judges v. y. 14; 
who, though th**y were nrovemora, a« we render tlie word, yet 
wore not vested with royal and supreme authority. 

The next word iti Wjr\ rag/air, hts fi-ct; of the literal mean- 
ing; of which there is no doubt, unless wc admit the correctiun 
of Ludulpliufi, who for \**>yy ra^faiv would read Y>bxi dicfviv, 
bis banner, agreeably tu the Sauiuhtan copy. But there la 
W) sufficient reaiion to admit this correction, contrary to the 
Targums. and most of the ancient versions. The phrase, there- 
fore, w!?a"l piO tniMeiit nn^iititi, either signilicit, aa Waginaeil 
renders it, even " to the last end of his state;" Just as, " the 
peoplv at the feet," an expreshion used in some places (Elxod. 
xi. 8; 2 Kings iii. 9), denotes those that follow, or bring up 
the re»r; or the word |*aa mihbein aecma to determijie ^^Ji 
raglarv to the »en«c tluit is more commonly r«c«ivrd, nRmvly. 
IW>m thy seed or posterity, referring to the situation of the 
part^ of generation. 

4thly. But the greatest controvorsyof all is about the menn- 
mg of tbu word nSv •'ihUoA^ which our translatxm have not 
ventured to render by an English word, but have retains) the 
original. Anil isan crra^ Xf-^uvov.aud nothing in iht- context 
will certainly determine from what root it i* derived, interpreters 
arainuch divided alHiutitsftignilieation. LeCIercisfordoductng 
it from the C'haldue word u^iL' sMali. cessavit, tu oeaae. and so 
niakvt it to nignify the aid. Accordingly he represents the sense 
of ihil prophecy lo be. " that from the time the ^eptrc caniQ 

CHAP. I.] 



iulu Uiu Iribe uf Juduli, it will coqUquu in it, till liiat tribo be 
lit mi tad." Bui tliijt opiuioa liu» bcui confuted by Monsieur 
Saurin.* The tmn»iators of the Arabic ami Syrinc versions 
pecm to have read \hz' shelo, il/ius, his, or to him, and so render 
it, ** whose it is," that i»,the kingdom. And not mucli difFer- 
cat is the Sepluagint version, which renders t]>'iU ShUoh, nt 
mrok-fifuw mm^, tioutc vemant qtiic repitsita sunt d, or, ac- 
cording to other copies, u mttuKtirat. he fur whoiu ll is ru- 
Others derive it frDm ^^07 sJiii, which they will havu 
to signify a sou. Iwcauso n^^U* shiieiith signilic& something thai 
bclungK to the birth. But I tnLe the moKt prolxible o|)iuiuu 
to b«, either that Shiloh coiuea irorn rf>Vf xkitm-h, mhlt, to 
send, writing n for n, and so it signifies him that ts neut, or 
whom God would aend ; under which character our Saviour 
is oflen spoken of in the New Testament (and this is tlic 
opinion of Jerome and Grotius); or else it comes from rfjtU 
ihalah, tranquiUas tst, ifuievit, and so it Mguiftes peuceiible, 
or a peace-maker; answerable to that nanie of the Mewiiah, 
oAui nt? sar skalom. the prince of peace ; Isa, ix. 6. But let 
tbo originaJ of the word n^^K? Shi/uA be what it will, it is al- 
xuo6t universally acVnowledged to mean the Messiah ; in par- 
ticular, by all the Tur^ums, as well ait by many otlier ancient 
aud modem Jews, as well as Chrtstiuns. Having Uioh coniii- 
denxl the literal meaning of the wordtof this prophecy, we are, 
2dly. To inquire into its prophetical import, aud Lite time 
of its accomplish ment. 

According to the learned Joseph Mcdc, in his discourse on 

tills prnphc(Ty, tlie sceptre, and tho lawgiver, are pretty much 

i synonymous teru»i,im[Hirting any power or majesty ofguvtini- 

' mcnt, under what form or name soever ; and the meaning uf 

, tlie sceptre not departing from Juduli is, not that it sliuuld 

[ Aot cease frota having a king, or being a kingdom ; but that it 

■houki not ceaM from being a state or body politic, or from 

having a power of government and jurisdiction witltin itself, 

till tho Mesniah came. Accordingly, it is ob-^crvaWv, (Jmt 

Juduh, witti the bitle appendage of Benjamin, was the only 

tribe in which tlie sceptre did, in this sense, continue to the 

end of the Jewish polity. For it entirely departed from (iic 

otbar ten Iribca at the Awyrian captivity. 

■ Sw bis Diw. Umot. due. kU. 



[aaoK I. 

As for the lani ctautie oFtlH! proplipcy. " to him ehall the 
gathcrlttg of ihe people be," Mr. M<-<l« iintlen4iujt(]H it of 
uiolher rveot, which should albo be accomphiihed before the 
Kjcptrc (leparteri from JiiUuh, iiauiely. th« eon*«nnon of the 
OimtilcB to the Chn»liuii I'uith. Whvii, therirlore, our Saviour 
foretells the debtruction of Jeninlem and the Jcwuh utate. be 
nddd, " Thi<i gospel of the kinf|;dom shall be preached in nil 
the world, for a witness to t)H nntions, and then kIiiiII Uin end 
cotnc ;" Matt. xxtr. 14. But Ur. Putrick inclines to Wn< 
pnBoil's Kcnsc ; which is, thut tbprc should bo cither king or 
goTcrnor among the Jews till tlic comiug of Christ; for the 
Vtitt befonr ppnQ mrchoktk may as well be understood disjunc- 
tively Its copulatively : in which caM, " the sceptre" may re- 
fer to the royal governmeiil in the house of David ; and the 
" lawgiver" (which, wc obwirwl before, is n word of n lnwer 
signification), to the form of government tinder S^rrublialwl, 
the Moccabccfl, &c., till Jndca was made a Roman province. 
Forthongh mime of these governors were not of the. tribe of 
Judah ; the MaccubeeH, for inataiico, who were priesta of the 
tribe of Levi ; ueverthelciui the tribe of Judah waa the centre 
of the state, or the seat of government. And be further ob< 
serves, thnt tbe«e two forms of government, Hignitied by the 
seeptxc and the lawgiver, nearly divided the whole time, from 
the beg^inning to the end of Judah 's authority, into two eqnal 
parts, there being a little moru than five ccnluries nmler 
each. However, presently after our Savtoar'e birth, the Jews 
lost even their D'^pm mtchokfkim. or govvniura. aa they had 
before lost the sceptre; and the udmioistratioD of pabbc af- 
fairs ma DO longer in their own hands.* 

* Mvt]ff*iDiurilMir,dl£c.viii.; Rji](lcr'iD«naiui. gf ibt MeHdal),|Mriui. 
chsp. vti. : Sauris'i DiKOun. Hinor. A'ik. xlt ; Putrick in \ve. ; I*ridniuii's 
CanMCL nb. A. C. A. vol. U. p. 933, nliL t. ; Huhop Shcrtock'i thiid di»- 
Mrt. in kb Oise. on Prophfcy [ Biahop of Drinol (Mewtoa) en the Praphs- 
cies, ToL i. p. U4, Au. An ■ntooBi of ths vanoM iiilin»s^[iinM, boA af 
ihc Jews uul ClthUtaflK, nuy bf foutHl, Bol only in ibrav anlhDn, bnl ta 
Lc C\nc in tuc., tad r>ip«aally m M«ntn. Ilrlvic. d« vitKiin. JacuU, «|mhI 
Cndc.SM-T. Iikh. *iil ; Mmi- IVhio'dM. F.»an((. prop. n. CKp iv.; Chmlu|ih. 
Cartwrifchi' eWu TornuinHv R^hliin. in li«ti ; and Jwwbi AUin][tt Schilo, 
worn At Punaiefc* iwcM valirimo. 

Oa Am tenml oihjvd of the pc w d i ini cAapMr, as* Sps a ss r i» IVo- 
oaila JuiUkA: »pwl Lett*. Ilrbrw..; WiiM.n d. Tlwociai. tnasUildk; 
aad sipectall; Ml Li^uMii'* t'tril Uorerammi ofika lltbniwf. 




Bepork we treat of the publicans, or tax-gatherers, it will 
bo proper to prcmUc aomctbing coacurning the Jewish taxes. 

Oftkt Taift. 

It vru obi^erTCfl, in a fonner lectore, that as the law of 
Mo«es vras the only codei juris, or body of law, enacted by 
God, the king of fftraeJ^ for the gDrcmmcnt both of church 
and state; aad oa the priests were appointed to dispense it, 
they ar« properly to bs considered as ministers of stale, nti 
well %» of religion ; and therefuie the titbea, oad the portion 
cf sacrifices, which the Uw a&Kigned for tJieir mainteuauce, 
were in the nature of taxes, payikble for the support of tbc 
government. Bc^iidca these, we read of no other stated taxcii 
•ppoiAted by the law ; except a poll-tax of half a. shekel, 
which, when Uicy were numbered iu Uic witderucsa, uau luviod 
uiKin every uiau frtioi twenty years old and upwards; and it 
is said to be designed for "a ransom, or atonement, for his 
soqI," and to be " appointed for the service of the taberuaclu 
of the congregatioa," Exod. xxx. \'2 — 16. It is not provided 
that this lax should be paid amiualJy; but bein^^ intended for 
tbe nuiMun of their souls, or as an act of liomagc and ac- 
koowladgmeut to God of their being his redeemed people, 
there was equal reason, in Uie opinion of the Jewish doctors, 
for lis coustoat subsiHteucc, as fur its origiuai appointment ; 
and being devoted to the service of the tabernacle of the coo- 
gr^ation, by which they undcrtttand their daily t^nrrifice and 
oBSainga, salt for tlii- sacriticcs. wood for the altar of burnt- 
offering, incense, slicw-brcad, &c., which were constant na- 
tional charges ; from hence they infer, that the tax to flup|>ort 



[UOOK 1. 

them must be oational, and annual, or stated. Hut Grotitt* 
it> uf opinion, that thin poll-tax, at Icattt in the fonneT age« of 
the Hebrew commonwealth, was not annual ; but only levied 
on peculiar exigencies ; as when the free-will oOlTingti, d^- 
tlicBlcd by the {irinces and people to maintain the house of 
the Lord, were not sutficieut (for we reud of lur^e dunutioiu 
for that purpose in DHvid's time, which seem to render the 
|K>ll-tiuc needless, 1 Chron. xxvi. 26, 27); or, when some ex- 
traordinary expense, about the sanctuary and its service, oc 
curred ; as for repairing the temple in the reign of kin^ ' 
Jonah ; who " gathered the prietits and the Levites, and com- 
numded tliem to collect from all Israel money to repair ih 
hoDM of the Lord from year to year;" and, on account ofj 
their dilatorinesB. the order being repeated, " proclamati 
was made through Judah and Jeruaatem to bring In the collet 
lion that Moaen, the. aerrant of God, laid upon lamel in llioj 
wildernesa;" 3 Chron. xxiv. 5. 6. 9. Now one can hardly^ 
Buppoae thia tax would have been levied by proclamation, nn- 
leM it had been occasinnal, and not stated and annual. In 
Nehemiah'a time it waa also levied by a new onlinance; fa 
which there would have been no oceaaion, if tlie law of Moeet- 
had made it perpetual.* On account of (he people's poverty, 
it wan. at thia lime, lowered from one-half to one*thinl of 
shekel; Nehcm. x. 'd'2. 33. Tliis third of a shekel Ab«n-< 
will have to be an additional voluntary contribution, oven 
above (he annual tAx of the half ehckd. But, conaiderin^^ thaj 
low circumstances the Jews were now in. and bow they had 
been impoverished by the l&t« eaptivily, that is not prDbabl0.-^ 

If wesuppOM this poll-tax was not. by divine appotntmvnU. 
stat«d uid annual, but only levii'<l on public exigencies, W9| 
may, perhaps, be able to account for David's numbering iha-j 
people bein;; represented as so heinous a sin, 'J Sam. xxiv.; 
I Chron. xxi.; fur whicli diiTerenL interprelera have given very 
diffenDt roaians. 

The common ofunion ia, that his sin eooattted in his pridtf 
and vanity, which made him desirous of knowing how populous 
and |>owerful his country van. Tlalbag. who is followed 
Abarbancl, conceivca it lay in making flesh Ms arm, and can«' 

* Sv«< Inwrman't Civil Gorem. of ibe Iletir. p. 00, <-l mii. 
I St* Abci»-ein in lac., sad Orotin* on HaH. xni. 94. 

rnAF. II.] 



ftdins; in the niultitudc of his Biibjcrta. 8ome make it ctmnist 
in inHiIcltiy, and iQixtnib-tof Oixl'ti pronii^ to Abraham, that 
he waald " increase his seed like the Btare of heaven, which 
no lunn iihould be Mv to number;" Gtn. xv. 5. 

However, il' GroUuti be right about Uie poll-tux, it may in- 
cline one to adopt Dr. Lightfoot's opinion, that " God gave up 
David to a covetous thought to number the pcn|>le, that ho 
might lay a tax upon every pull."* And if so, wc carvnot wonder 
his sin is represented assohetnons: the^iltiraA very com{^i- 
catcd, beings. Iiosidea avaritv, a cnntradirtion to fho law of God, 
in levying the tax wht-n there was no occasion for il, and an 
act of tyranny and oppresiiion on the people. Bui to rotom. 

However it was in former times, this tax certainly became 
nnnuHl and stated In the later ages of the Jewish comnum- 
wealth; having, perhapN, been made so by the AKmoneao 
prince*; who being high-pricats, as well as possessed of the 
sovereign civil authority, wonid very likely be for increasing 
the ecrlesiiiHtiral revenues, by converting that occasional tax 
into a stated one. We have the testimony of Josephus, that 
this tax was |>uid annually ; for he saith, Vespasian commanded 
cver^' Jew to pay the annual tribute of two drachma to the 
Capitol, which had been formerly paid to the.tcmple at Jeru- 
•alem.-h Now bishop CumbeHand informs us, that the altic 
drachm an-twcrcd to the fourth part of the .lewleb <>hekct. which 
weightfl hnlf an ouurft uvoinlupoiMiJ two drachma, thercfon*, 
answered to the half shekel, being in value of Dur money a 
little more than one shilling and (wo-pence. Mr. Selden^ 
thinks, that thi-t was the tax Cicero refers to, when, in his 
oration pro fheco, he speaks of "gold, sen! every year in 
the name of the .Fews out of Italy, and all the provinces, to 
Jerusalem. "II This I take to be the tribute which was dcnranded 
of Christ, Matt. xvil. 24; not only because it is called 
hfya'ifjn, which signilielh two drachms, and so ouswerctb 

" llkmotiy df ihc OM Test njb Anno Mvnd. SOflfl, Davjdis, 39. 

1 D« Boll. Juil. Ith. vii. cap. vt. sgcl vi. edit. Usrerc.; we abo Hum 
Cawiu*, lib. Uvi. csp. ni. p. 1082, tdil- Reiman, 1752. 

I StK lii* Emj {lu JdwhJi Wciglna and Mouureo, chip. k. 

% Dv Jure Nu. ciOcdI. lib.Ti.cap. iviii. aptidOpera. vol. i.tom.i. p.69U 
Hit. Lomlini, I7J«. 

H Cicvronii OjKr. vol. v. MCt. ssvii p. ZM, nlll. OltvcL Ccoev, 1TS8. 


JBWIftH 4NTl<|UlTli;S. 

[book I. 

to tlic Jewish half Kbukcl ; hut becnuso the reason which he 
allcf;L-th, why he niio;ht have excoscd himaelf from laying it, 
trcr 23, 2^. hUows it wiut » tribute )>;Li<J, nut to the Roman 
cmpcrur, an Solniasiua think».* but to God, fur the service of 
bb temple : so that Chri«t, bung tbu Sou of Gud, ui^bt have 
lileaded an oxempdon. 

tt may poflsibly be objected, that if this tribute waa a ataied 
aonitnl tax, payable by every Jew, how came the collectors to 
inquire of PctL-r, " Doth not your 31aater pay tribute V To 
this it is rt;ptied^ 

lat. They might be in doubt, whether he would chooec to 
pny it at Capernaum, where at that time he wiu, which, very 
hkcly. they could not have obliged him to do ; or at hm own 
town of Nazareth, or at Jerusalem. Or, 

2dly. The mcnnini; of the question may he, whether he 
would pay it then, on the spot. For the doctors tcUs ub, tliat. 
on the first day of the month Adar, notice was g^ven, through- 
out all tJie country, for men to moke thi« pa)'mcnt; and offi- 
cent were appointed to Kit in every city of JuUt;a to receive 
tt; yet nobody was obliged ti> pay it imutediiitcly; but if they 
did not pny it in a ccriuin prehxed time afterword, they were 
Iben conifM-ilcd. 

ThcHc taxes, namely, tiie tithes, the sacrificial oH'eriiif^tt, 
and the poll-tax of tJie half sliekel (whether annual or occa- 
Btonal). are all the taxes expressly levied by the Mosttie hiw. 
We read, itidei'd, of tin cxtruordiuary contribution for the 
building of tlie tabernacle, which Qud ordvr>.-d Moses to re- 
commend to tlte people. £xod. zxv. '2; and which they made 
w liberally, that their lawgiver tlioi^hc proper to ivatraia 
Uicm by proclamation; MxoA. xxxvi. 3 — 7. However, this 
was not in the nature of a tax. bat a f^ gift, every one 
giving aa ho pleased. 

As for the exp^uee of war, in which tlie tsmehte* wore 
often engaged, it in to be considered, that they held their 
eatatca by military tenure; for it appeareth from thu exem|>- 
ticM allowed tome persons on particular occasions, from «t- 
tendinis military aervice, Dcut. xx. 5, Sic., that all olhurs were 
bound to attcnd-t SothatlhelarmeUtishtroops wercamihtia, 

* BstwsMi ad Jatunnmi Miltonaa npaoBio, p. 37a. 

t Bm Lowmtn'i Civil GownuncM orihc llebmn, cfaap. it. p. &%. 



maintained at their own eipense; whicli was the rcmon of 
Jtisse'8 seodtng proviiuDoe to hw wons in Saul'e army; 1 Sam, 
xvii. 17, 18. There was ordinarily, therefore, no oc«d of taxes 
lo defray tlie chaiiges of war. 

When the Israelites came to bo gmemcd by kin^. who, 
like olbur muourcbs. ufiectetl po(a{] and niagnifiouice, no 
doubt, BOU14 taxes were necessary to defray that exlraardioaiy 
experi6e,aikd to support lite dignity of the crown: nudthosgh 
tiw»e taxes wfre not properly of God'sapiioinLmeni, any more 
than the regal goTCtnmunt itself, yet tJic Jen's look upon this 
law iu the book of Ueutentnumy, " Neither shall the king 
greatly niuUipLy to hiinfieU" silver and ^td," Deut. xvii. 17, as 
implying a permtiwiua to levy tiecesKtiry taxes on the people; 
only God, foreseeing they would in time change the funu of 
government which he had appointed into a n)on:irchy, lil^e 
dint of other nations, restmina their kings by this prohibiiioo 
from levying expensive taxes on the subjccL 

It should seem, !>ulomon did not sufiiciently regard this iv- 
• stramti fur hu multiplied lu himself, not utiiy " hursuti uud 
wtve4," coutrsjry to the law, ver. 16, 17, but also " silver and 
gold ;" w> that the people groaned under the burden of taxes; 
which proved the immediate occasion of the revolt of tlie leu 
triboa firom his ton and successor Uchoboam; I Kings xii. 4. 
How these taxes were levied does nut appear in the BcripUire 

iVftcr the captivity, the Jews were tribntsry lo the Persians, 
as is plain from the letter which their enemies wrote to Artax- 
erxe«, to prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem; in wluch they 
inform liim, that if the city be built and fortified, then the 
Jews " will nut pay U)tl, tribute.', and custom;" Ezraiv. 13. 
We have no account how the toll, tribute, and custom, here 
mentioned, were levied. By the ftr»t of ttiese words, Grotius 
understands a poll-tax; by the second, a duty u[>on commo* 
ditics and merchandise; and by the third, a tax upon their 
land : but Witsius, a land-tax, or rsthcr a tax on property in 
genera), by the first; a poll-tax, by the sccoiul ; and a toll 
oolleeted on tho road from merchants, who travelled with Uieir 
goods ftora place to place, by tho third.* However that ha, it 

* Mtscell. igoi. ii. eioroitsL u. MCt. ui. p. M9. 



b pnifasblo the vrbulo tribute tn ibo Penian moiuuch was juiUl 
bv the ebief governor of JuUl-d, out of tbo taxc4 wbK'b lio 
lt>vit!«I DD ibo Mobjcct. 

When Pom|H*y couquorvd Judea, and put tn end to the 
AsnoDefin ncv orkin)]nt<uliicb (jtxlwin sayi was about MXty 
■yttrs before Chh»t), the J«w« became tributary to the lUi- 
nuuiH. But he is miKinkcn in supposinfr, qs he RVcniB to bare 
done, that the publicans, bo ofuii ineulioned in the New 
Tcat»raent, «ub«al«d amoag; them inimcdiuiely fmrn t^mt cihi- 
qunt: fur publicaoB went tax-gatbea'n in Lite Kotnoii pro- 
TiDccii. >'aw Jadea was not reduced luto tiic form ofa i>rO' 
viuoe till the reigu of Aiigustua, and some yvan nfior nur 
Sanonr's birth. TiU then it was only a d«pcndeiit kingdom. 
gorenwd by its own kin<;«; though not, aa formerly, natives 
utiddiuKcn by tlic Jv»^,I>ulap|Joii»tcd by the Honinn emptTor*. 
Ilerod, who nucccedtd Antigonus, the last of the Asnionean 
race, wna not a Jew, but an Idumean.* 

Archflaua, llerod'a son and rtticeettsor, hitvtng coainitt((.'d 
niiiiiy ItagTtuit acts of mal-adniinitilrutiun und tyranny, both 
tlie Jews and Samaritans sent ainbassadon, to accuse him 
iH-fort- Augu«tua. Upon which he waa summoned to Uouic, 
uhorc not Iwing able to clenr himself of ttte crimes chai^rd 
upon him, which were fully provcfl. he was deposed from hi* 
principality, after he had returned ten years. This happened 
Arho Duih, H, or in the 12th year of our Saviour's age.t 

Augustus uxik thia opportunity Lo r«duce Judrd into iho 
form ofa Ituiuan province, and twut PubUus Sulpitius Quiri- 
niita, afterward made president of Syria (the same who, ac- 
cordinfj to the Greek way of writing his name, is called Cyre- 
niua by St. Luke, chap. it. 2), to seixethe country over which 
ArcfaehiUB had reigned ; and with him Coponius, a Roman uf 

* Thia hath muU fome vuppoee, that thf icvptni ttvportnl bvm Judiih, 
auMding to Jamba pn^vcy, opon lbs MC«iwoa of Herod- Bui tkat 
UNiM \m s iBistake; lincit bt soctded sbove ihut; yean bofcn Sluloli, or 
ih* MiBbbi csuv. TbBmttbii,the«e|miiaiMiUanDifsitlwm,dioiiyti 
hm Mb* wma^^ it wm not s uuive. 

t DhMjrHUS Bi%uwb a Bmuui ibbot, w1k> lived in the lisAceMufx, sikd 
wwlh* Hriur orUwChriaisa Enh %m»A ii. hy inulskc, fuur >eus sAef 
lln- InrtK of Chriat. Sw Dupii/n Ilt<J>*ry of Ecclmotirtl WritM*, <*bL »i. 
p 42; Ih. Csvc'a HuuriA Uwiula, uili atuwi S33, p. 333, rJit, Ornav. 
irtUt « VMttl AaBalcs,*ttl. BnuiillvU.abinjt.p.30B,«lU.GciM)T.lTta. 

CM A p. ft.] 

Yns cBifsof. 


f hc^ (^ue<ierian attitr. to tok« upon him the gv««nuMnt. aulei 
the title oT procofalor of Judra. vet io sobordiDatioD to tb« 
preflidrot of Syria. Ii «hutil(l sccui the etuprror hM) fornMHt 
this de«^;n Rrrmlvemre bffbre, wbra hi* ordcKd the piiUic 
ccDsus, or rarolment, of the mbj^rtH of the enipirt lo exli'nd 
to Jucltsi ; wbicli fMcanoned the Virem Alarr's tino^ at Beth- 
lrh«-tn «l llie tim<- of hrr dcliTprv, rer. I — ^. But the redac- 
tion of Judm to tbr fona of a pnmDce «u ttot till twdve 
yean mfWr; and then taxes wcie 6nt paid by its inhabitanis 
tmmrdintclv tn the Roman Rtal«>. For tJioogb the people of 
drpendcut kini^doma paid them to tbcir oirn priocea, and 
whatever the liamanB reooved -was frun them, yet thoae of 
the prorincea pnid thctu directly to the Roman govenUMUt, 
or to thu ofHcvni «-hich tht* M.-nat4! npiNsinled to collecl atxl 
reeciri' fhcin. 

The AubjMt we hare been npon naturally leads me to con- 
aidor a ditficulty. which hath occasioned the leanied not a 
little troabte — the reouoethnt; St. Ljike's account of the eo- 
roUucut, or ceovus of the laud of Jodea. with Jwtephua. 

Comrrwug the C^wruj in the time ofAmguHut. 

Accordini; to tlie Jewish historiBn, Josepbuit, Cyreaius was 
not coveruor of Syrtu till ten or twelve years after our isi- 
rioiir'a birtli, afltT ArcbobiiH wii* depoatd, and the country 
brought under a Hoiuau procunttor ;* wheren St. Luke Bays, 
■wrp q imrypo^ wpttnf rjn vrro irftftovtwovra^ rw St^p<BC Kiyia- 
Moe; which we nnder, "And thi£ taxing tras first mnde when 
Cymiius was goveiBor of Syria," Luke ii. 2; yet this, ac- 
oardii^ to hint, wm» before the daatli of Herod, the fatlier and 
predecoaaor of Archelaua, and in the aamc year when Christ 
was bora. 

Now as, OD the one band, it cannot be suppoaed. that a 
wrteer ao accurate as Luke (were he coo&idercd only as a 
euunoa btatorian) shorald make so gross a inisiake as to con- 
fiKrod the enralnietat in the re^ of Herod with tliat taxation 
under Cyrenius, which luippeoed many yeaia after; so, on 
the other band, it is hard to conceive that Joscphus should be 

* Aaiif. Hk stM. €S(k iM. SKL ii. r.; el bV irtii. ap, i. ata. i. td. llavtrc. 




mifttak^n in ftn ttffaif of »o public a natare, »o important to 
Iiitt owD nation, and bo recent when he wrote hi» history. 
To remove tbii difliculty, 

Ist. Soiiw have supponed a romiption of the orieiunl lexl 
in Lnkc ; and thkil. iiuil(tn<l of CyreJiiuB, it ou^it txi t>e rmd 
Sttlnminiu, who, according tu Josephus, wbh prt:fcct of Syria 
within a year or two b*for* Herod's death. 

2dly. Othen hafc thought it probable, that Uic original nunc 
in St. l.uke was Quintibua ; aince Quiiittliuti Varai aaoceod«d 
Satuminus. and was in the prorincc of Syria when Herod died. 

But all the Greek rannascripts remonstrate a^in»t both 
these solutions. Tbefefore, 

3dly. Mr. Wh»ton and Dr. Prideaux suppow thmt tiie 
words, " In those days lUere went out a decree from C»anr 
Augustus, that all the woiM (or, as <MKnvfjtvti may be rendered, 
the whole land) shotdd be ta»ed," ver. 1, refer to the time of 
making the censno ; and the Ktibscquont words. "This taxiug 
¥pas firet made when Cvrenius was governor of Syria," ver, J, 
to the lime of levying the tax. Dr. Prideaux iniagiuctt thu 
will answer all objection*.* 

4thly- Herwacrt, and after him Dr. Whitby, render the 
text ill thiH manner. "And this taxing watt Bntt made bcforu 
that made when Cyreniiui waa governor of Syria.+ 

Athly. Dr. Lardner hu given tlie casieflt and best aolntion 
of this difficulty, rendering the worda thita ; "This wrk liie 
first aB.<<e!«menl of Cyrcniu*. ^oremor of Syria." Which ver- 
siou he halli supported by substantial critici»ai ; and likewise 
rendered it highly probable, that C'yrviuus (afterwanl (ruvi-mor 
of Syria, and at the time St. Luke wrote, well known by that 
title) was emplnycd in making the Hrst enrolment of ttic in- 
babitants of Jadoa in the reign of Hoiw).} 

0/the Publ'uam. 
-Judeu being now added to iKe provinc^ti of the Roinau 

* WtUttoa't >lioR View of ilw Uamoqjr vf the Evaii^luu, {>r»p si., utd 
I'ndmus'i Coiinvci {wn U. Iwoli U. vala aano j bc&irv the Chnmau mi, 
Kd. iv. p 017— 9^. f«lit 10. 

t llemui'n'k Nova ei Vers Cliraiwl«fla, p. 189, and Wlihbjr lu Xec. 
~lto CmltlaUiy of riwOgqd U^M?. pM L voU ii. ImoIl k di. i. 

eiTAT. ti.l 

TM^ rvnucANs. 

empire, niid the tnxea paid hv the Jens directly to Hu> em- 
peror, the publicBOS wero Uic officers appointed to coHect 

Now ihe ordinary taxes which the Romans levied in ilic 
proviocca. wert- of three sorts : 

1st. Cuatoras upon gnods imported and exported ; winch 
tribute was therefore called portiyrittm, from portui. a Imren. 

2dly. A tax upon cattle led in c«!n»iii pasture belonging 
to the Romau state, the number of wbicb being kept in wriu 
ing, this tribute was called icnptiira. 

3dly- A tax upuu com. of which the government demanded 
a trath part. Tliiii tribute was called tlectiMa. 

We read of foptt^ and rtXoc, translated " tribute and cns- 
toui ;" Romans xiii. 7. Couetviung the precipe and distinct 
meaning of the»G woids, the critics are much dt'viiled. Gn>> 
tiu« makt» ^opoc to signify a tux upon lands and persons ; and 
TtXw:. cuHtoiu u|M>n goods and mercbaudUe. Lipsius, by nXi>c 
nndentuids a. tax upon a i-eal estate; bv t^iHt^, a tax upon 
moveabtes and peraons. I^igh* supposes fopoc to mean 
dutiea upon goods ; rtXoCf a capitation or poll-tax. According 
to Beza, ^u^oc M^fies a copitation or poll-tax, aud rtXa^ in- 
clades ail other taxes and duties. OtJier ciitics havu given 
•till diifcrcut accounts. So tluil, in the midst of such gnat 
uncLTUiinty, we must be content witit this gcneml observation. 
that thvv-v words together include all taxes and duties, tboutrh 
we arc unable to ascertain the precipe meaning of either of 
them, or tbc difierence bclwJxt them. It being highly pro- 
bable, that the public tuxes varied from one age tu uuuJier, I 
suspect, that in dit)l>ront agei* the»e words were applied to 
dittervut taxes and duties, M-hicb occasions an uncertainty 
about the precise idea to be affixed to them. Perhaps u\o^ 
waa the more general name, or included the larger miinln-*r of 
taxes, at least among the Greeks ; which seems probable Ironi 
the coUectorSj in their language^ being called rcXwui ; ivhereas 
in the Liitiu thuy arc styled pubiicani. as being collectors of 
the public taxes, or rerenue of tlie state. 

These publicans arc distinguished by Sigonius into three 
aorta or degrees, the farmers of the revenue, their partners, 

* See kti CriUca Sacn. in veib. 



fBOOK 1. 

nikd Uieir Arctiriiie-i.* in which he fallows Polybius.-f Thcne 
are called the taancipes. tocii, find pra^en: who wrrn nil 
under the qyaaloret trrani, that |irv:ut(liHl over Lbc ftnunces nt 
Itonic. The mancipea romied the revetiuc of lar^« district*, 
or provinces, had the OTcrsi;;ht of the iofcrior |>ul)licaii«, re- 
ceived tliQir accounts and colkctionii, and traiuixiitted thorn to 
the tfutnlorft Krarii. Thoy often let out their provincwi in 
smaller parcel* to the norii ;% so ealled, iHicause Ihcy were 
admitted to a fihnre in the contract, pcrhaptt fur the sake of 
more easily rai»ini^ the pure haae- money ; at luast to aasist in 
coDecting Uiu tribute. Both the mancipe$ and socH are therc- 
forf} properly £tyted rtXhii-oi, from riXo^, tribntum, and kitto^uu, 
ewio. Tliey were obliged to ]>rocure pratlet, or suretim,^ 
who gave Mcurity to the government for the fulfilment of the 
conlrnct.j| The distribution of Stgunius, t)iereforo, or rather 
of Polybius, is not quite exact, since there were properly but 
two sorta of publicans, the nutacipet and the iocii. 

Tlio former are, probaUy, those whom the Greeks cull 
apxtrtXtifvai ; of which sort wa* ZaccheuA ; Luke xix. 2. As 
they were much superior to the common publicans in dij^ity, 
bdnc: moatly of the equestrian order, bo they were generally 
in tlieir moral character. They are mentioned with groat re- 
aprct and honour by Cicero : " Floe." saith he, " c(|uitui 
Ronumorom, omameotum civitatu, dimaiaeatum reipublu 

* " Alii oonduceLant, alti cum hii MciotalstD coiboni, alti pro his bona ' 
Ibniuiuqut rapublica! obtigKbam." Sigon. ile Antiq. Jure Cirtun Rons- 
nonim, tib. ii. ca|k. |r. 

f 'Ch piP 74^ w^B f ^wrt ^mf* tm- nMrTaf mfrm tw trt^^t^ it k mwwtwi 

tmiMnof. " Alii nniiB k otnsoribtts locaiioov pvr m vroum; aiii cum liti 
MMrii>tal<>[n luibcot i alii pn Tedcmptonibiu fidon mani inu-qionum; aIU 
hunim immine boos nia in pvblieuts •ddkum.*' Polyb. Him. lib. * i. lom. 
i. p. A-Wt, nlii. Gronov. AoMcL 1670. 

1 W« tn«ei (Nqumljr (o Ctetn vilh iM Socii. and tb* Publinuiomni 
SoctodUf; Onu. in* DaiDeni*.To]. ▼.Met. xxvin. p. 4n,«d.Otmt.; and 
wiib Uw Principal^ or Klagiairi SodeUhun, nhu were the MsDcipfs, Om. 
pro rUnc. vol. r. tttt. ul. p. HA, et mcL 13, p. &48. d Eput. Funul- hb. 
uti. Bput. ii.; sjid ihe Dtgnti raeoUoa the Socii *<«li|sJ)ui», bb. xuis, 
M. iv. Irf. is. fteci. it. 

I CidlnJ ridfjuMofe* in 0« Karate, ubt niprs. I««. a. »b in»t. 

II I'rrt signifies s ««t)f tot moory, u vm doM a wafj In ctimuiit) 


fnK Mf»wrAK»» 


puMicaiionini online conlinrtiir."* Me likewise culls ihem 
*' urxliuem uiilii coniiuenttatiBKimum."t Uut an for the cuiiimon 
publicans, the collectons ur receivers, as many of the socH 
were, (huy are Kpokeo of with i;reut conterupt, by li«uthens as 
well 08 Jcw»; and particularly by Theocritus, who »a.\d, that 
" amon^ the beastJi of the wildemesa, bears end liona are the 

.noat cruel; among tho beasts of the city, the publican and 
parasite/'X T)ie reason of the general hatred to them was, 
doubtless, their rapine and extortion. For, havinf^a share in 
the farm of the tribute, at a certain rate, Litey were npt to 
oppreM the people with ille^ exactions, to raise as large a 
Ibrlune tut (hey could for theniKelven. Besides, publicann 
were |»articnlarly odious to the Jews, who looked upon them 
to be the infttniments of their subjection to the Roman em- 
perors. to which they genemlly held it sinful for thero to sub- 
mit. For amotig the laws in Deuteronomy cuncerniiig the 
kings, there is in particular the followiDg: "One fromanionp; 
(hv brethren shult thou set over lliee; thou maycst not set a 
utranger over thee, who is not thy brother;" chap. xvii. Ij- 
Now payitig tribute to the Roman emperOTthcy looked upon 
to bo a rirtaal acknowlcd^ent of hit sovereignty. Thift. 
therefore, waa a heavy grievance, and created an aversion to 
the collectoia, as the instnimeots of illegal oppression, apart 
from all consideration of their rapacious practices. Acuord- 
iogly, ia Uie New IcKlament, we lin<l tbem joined witli hiir- 
lota and liealhens, and pcrflonii of the most profligate and in- 
fnmouo characters ; and it waa intended for a ncvere reproach 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, when he was said to be " a friend of 
publicans and sinners ;" Luke vit. 34. Hence that ensnaring; 
question was put to him, nith a design " to entangle him in 
his talk," Matt. xxii. Id. 17, "In it lawful to give tribute to 
nr t" If be had denied il, it would have been judged an 

'oHenee against the state ; and if he had affirmed it, it would 

• Ifmi, ])tu Vlnnrio, npud L>pen, vol. *. seel. ii. p. 544, edit. Olivet. 

f I'^xti. I-ainil. lib, xiti. v\>iM. i. npiid Op. vot. vii. (i. 142. Xld. etiam 
rjiist. ». (ler uMum. ct t-^fLtt. utl Auic. Itti. i. (rjiisi. ini. fol. *ut. p. 80. 

; Vm). lluamuDil ou MtU. it. 10. Tht twelfth law, under die IbuHli 
tiito, in ihc tltiny-brat liook of tli« DigesU, b |in^ftccd wiili ili«sc rentuli- 
aldc Mvnt* : " Qaanta^ Mudaow, qtiantK temchbitiii tint publi;ajwniin 1^- 
lioiMs, iMTiuo m qui imcixt." 



,[book. I. 

prdbtl^ h«ve ttpoud him to the nge and r«t«ritni«nt of the 
people. It WW 00 pretence of freeing tbem from tliia tribuUry 
yoke, timt Judas u( Galilee, or (as Josephus chIU hiui) Judas 
GaolaDitca. excited an " insurrection in the days of the taxing, 
and drew au-ay much people afU'i him ;" Acts v. 37. Of thi» 
JosvphuB giTce a particular account,* aiid oaiih, that when 
the census was firat uxtcnded lo Judua by Cyrenius. after 
Aichclaus had been deposed by Au^ustuv, the Jewa were 
[greatly chagrined at it; but at the perftuasiun ufJuazcr. thu 
higli-pne»t, i))oy gunemlly 8ubmitte<l. Yet. it seeioi, much 
against their wilU; fur when thiH Judas excited ihe |>evple to 
rebellton, and tu uo^ert tlieir bberty.they heard him, ftaitblhe 
htstoriiui. " nitli incri'dil>lu pleuHurc." and made on insurrec- 
tion on that account, uader him as their leader. 

TeriuUiant imagined, that the pabticans, amonff tlw Jews, 
werv all heathens ; wbich, not understandiug llebrvw. tie 
grounded on a spurious text in the 8epluaguit.{ This opi- 
nion is Confuted by the instances of Matthew and ZHCcheus, 
who both appear to be Jew*, by iheir names and their bifttory. 
The hitter is oxpreaaly said to be a son of Abraham ; and a» 
for Matthew, we may be assured, that our Lord, who, at 
present, was sent to none bui the kmt sheep of the hou9t« of 
Israel, would not have made an apostle of a Gentile. How- 
ever, the Jews, who accepted the office of publtcanti. wen, 
on lliat account, hato<l of their own nation etjuiiUy with htm^ 
tbena, with whom they are Mrnietimea ranked, Matt.xriii. 17; 
and, according lo the rubbies, it was a maxim, " A religious 
man, who becomes a publican, jm to be driven out of the iw- 
eiety of religion."^ 

• Aniit]. Itb. will. cap. i, ttct. i. «dii. tlnmc. 

t t»*- I'uiHeH*, M^-t it. p. ifll, (.:, (^ii. Uigxli, 

I Denl. iMii in. tn Ihr Vitf^k TIm> imnk am mm tm ^tAwmftfn am* 
h ofw tafa^K^ Km •■« wm TwAmiu»*i mn htm l«iM*ft- limy i^w* ptoba- 
bij at Am • floM ui the nugin, or twartwd m ilw wat of Ui« Smntj ftotn 
KKtM oihtr <r«r«wn i taii mn niaaKtly taiMndaiMood b> TenulUai), wka 
■uppoHv T«>»»»yw mnynify, Ui thit plan, « publican, or ui-fUbtn-r. 
«dt(c^h It mnn wmHKxiljr iktm; but h*n it means ft prmutuif tot him, nadi 
u tn ih« pNKM) myumm numl omtribuUoM by ihcir kwdacH. See Gr»- 
itus Kn4 L* Ckrc iii lor. 

V Sw IjghifoM. Hof» ll«b, 00 Man. iriii. IT. 




Godwin distinguishes the people of Israel into two sorU» 
llebnswH and Fraectytes. We may properiy advance a gtcp 
higher, and diviilu lliu whole world, after the commDawealth 
yi liinnjl hHd bcfii formed, into Jews and Gentiles. 

The Jew*, or Uraeliles, were those inemben of the He- 
brew repubh'c who wor&liip[><.'d the one true Gud according to 
the Mosaic ritual; all ulUers they calletl 0*U g<*"«, OeutUei, 
and D^DM ummim, the people, moaning, of the world, Psalm ii, 
I. In the New Testament they are styled 'EAAijw*?. Greek*; 
Rom. i. 16. and ii. 9, 10. When Greeks are opposed to bar- 
barians,* the term signiiicsthc teamed, ad diatiaguished from 
the ilhlerate part of uianLind ; the Greeks in those days betn^ 
looked u)>ou aa a people of the must erudition, or at least their 
language being esteemed the most improved and polite. Rut 
when Greeko are opposed to Jews, they include the whole hea- 
then world, of which the Greeks were the most connidcrable. 
Some have imagined, thnt the triple distinction which f^t. Pant 
mukes, Gul. in. 2H, " there ts neither Jew nor Greek, there 
is ueitiior l)ond nor free, there is neither male nor female," re- 
fers to a form of thanks^ivin|^ which the Jews are said lo 
hare repcitted in Uieir daily prayers ; wherein they guve thanks 
to God for these three things: that he had made them Jews, 
and not Gentiles; titat he hud made them free, and not 
hoDd-men. or sJsvca; that he had made them men, and not 
woman. Instead of the third article, the women thanked 
God that he had nude them as it pleased him. If this 

• A« by Si. Paul. Ron. i. 14. and \vf hcalht-n authon: u^imitm ^«p r^ 
'CAAum a tfapfapM,— " The luirtKirian t« op|Kmcdtolh<-(Jnfk." Thnryrt.fib. i, 
Wci. III. Scliol. v.p. 3, etlil. Iluil*. (Hon. IC9fi. Aix<> S>«if>wrrst bvovto wp 
■vd^wMw «A9><N Mr 'CXA.qrai »• Oapimfvvt, — " dtvidini; iJio wboJe worl<t inlo 
(Jraeki utd b«bariu»." S<nb. lib. ii. p. 4S, cdiL Caiaab. Pnriit. 1030. 




the BiBBner iu which the reflation wss 
to tfa« pDplwtBj ftnd by them tv the people. < 
IJotTcvwr. before vre directly consider the mai 
Ood repealed secrets to the prophets, it vriU , 
premise • few worcU coDcerniug the qualificati^ 
phei, or ihe prr-rcqaisileM to m ibui'b receivtngi 

The flnt and most ewentia) qunliftcation of a 
tme piety. Thk i« the conifearit u-nse aiid n\ 
J«m^ doctors.* To which agree those words 
" Holy men of God spake aa they were numd 
Gtoal;" 2 Pot. i. '21. Yet thia general mle « 
BXCBpliona; for Qod.on epccml occasiooh and 
porpoeea, aometimea vouchsaled the prophetic 
men ; b« Ut Bataum, " nbo loved the wages o| 
nes8." Honii^v^r, it may mdJ be suppoaed, tj 
good oieo were stated prophetB. so aa to be i 
voijred with the divioa afflatus ; and espeoiaUy, 1 
sach were honoured with being employed aa i 
any part of tbe canon of Scn)>tiire ; inaomuch] 
aertion of St. Peter coDceming the written 
Old Teaiaroent, ia true withont exception. 

V/e may, perhapa, teaaonably aooonnt for ' 
spirit of prophecy fron amon^ the Jewa iu th« I 
tbar polity, till it waa rerived at thn ooming a| 
from their univenal degeneracy and oomiptil 
and morals. 

Udly. The mind of the prophet must beinai 
and frame for receiiring the divine afflahia, or pfl 
that is, aay tho doctors, it mast not be ofpnat 
Of dtsttirbed with pasnion of any kind. Tlieir I 
that Jacob did not prnphocy oil the time of hia 
loss of Joseph ; nor Mooc& for a long time afleC 
the spies , who brou^t an onl report of the ba 
because of his indignation against them.-t Anl 
spirit, which David praya might not be taken 
•tiored to him. Psalm li. 10. 11. the Chatdee IM 
tiM Hebrew conUKntators, ntiderstand the tpid 

' BlainoQ- Hocdi Nevodi. pan ii. cafi. went. | 
t Mafasrw iianik Nevoeb. cap. xawi. p. f99,i 

eBAP. Tr.j 

or TMB rnopHeTB. 


trhich, they uy. was withtlranm oa account of his sorrow and 
ghof for his shameful mismrria^e ia the matter of L'hah. 
And when he pny*, that God would " make him to hear joy 
and gladnesa," rer. H, they understand it of a che«rful frame 
of mind, which would fit him for receiving the prophetic af- 
flatus; and " the free spirit, with which he prays he might 
be upheld." ver. 12, they interpret of a spirit of alacrity and 
hberty of mind, free from the oppression of grief, or discom- 
posure of passion. 

In order to prove, that passion disqoalifinl a man for re- 
ceiving the prophetic afflatus, they allege the story of Elisha, 
in the third chapter of the Second Book of Kinga : when the 
kings of Jadali, and Israel, and Edom, in their distress for 
water during an expediboo against Moah, came to Hishu, to 
inquire of God by him, the prophet seems to have been moved 
with indignation against the wickec] king of Israel, addneasii^ 
him in tlie following manner: "Wliac hare f to do with thee? 
Get thee to the prophets of thy father, and to the prophets of 
thy mother ; surely if it were not that I regard the pmenoe 
of JehoMphat, the king of Judah. I would not look upon thee, 
DOT ace thee;" 2 Kings iii. 12, 13. Howercr, being willing 
to <^lig<e Jehosaphat. " he called for a minstrel ; and it came 
to pass when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord 
came npon him;" rer. 16. llw use of the minsUel seems to 
be to calm his passion and oompoae his mind, that he might 
be fit to receive the divine afflatus- 

This may perhaps suggest to us one reason, why the pro- 
phets practised music, see 1 &am. x. 5; namely, because oC 
its tendency to compose their niinds^ and to free them from 
all such melancholy or angry passions, as would render them 
unfit for the spirit of prophecy. We find this remedy suc- 
oaMfnlly applied to Saul's melancholy : " And it came to pass, 
when the evil spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took 
tn harp and played with his hand ; so Saul was refreshed and 
w*B well, and the evil spirit departed from hiui ;'' 1 Sam. zvi. 
23. This evil spirit was perhaps originally nothing but me- 
lancholy, or grief and angnish, which, however, through 
difiac permiaaioB, was wrou^t upon and heightened by the 
indnnsfinms of some evil spirit, which, at times, il seems, 
instigated him to prophesy : " It came to pass on the morrow, 

K 2 


BOOK 1. 

form was, indeed, ttfi aiicivnt hn ihtr linio nt thv npoatle. t| 
tnay naturally be 8U{j|k>««4| thai lie referred to it in Uiii* 
a«ge. where he i« showing thnt the peculiar prerogativef sni 
jH-irilefr^s which ihe Jews enjny^ tinder the Old TestamenCfl 
were by llic gospel i'f]uidly ektenth-d tj> the (iciitdca; and thall 
bU who beliere in Christ, without regard to tlieir iiation,j 
woridly condition, or nex, an udinitted into his church, aitd] 
made partakern of his miIv»iIod. 

We now coiDV to consider the dixttnctimi uf the incmbomj 
of the commonwealth of Isme), into Hebrcw-i and ProHrlylos. 

Int. Afi to the Hebrew*: The Icnmwl iire divided roneem- 
ing tlie derivation and meaning of thi» word, which ho afteni 
occurs both in lhi> Old and >rw Testament. Wi' find il first 
applied to Abraliain, Geu. xiv. 1^; and in a multitude of 
|i|^Ue& to his {HRiterity. to dintiii);iiiKh tlietii from all other pec 
pie; pnrtirnlarly from the Egyptimix. *^it. \liii. li'J ; und th«i 
Philitttineft, 1 Sam. iv. 8. 

The more rnmnion opinion eonrcrnin^ iK infaiiini;;, inuii)- 
tainn) hy the Jewish rabhieii. and enpoiiMfl hv Miixtorff the 

MW,* ill, 

1r(. That it I" appfi/iitto fiain'nt/mifa. a fonidy niiinntl 
from Kbvr, who w«s ihp great gratidsmi of Shem. and .Abra-T 
hftm'a gn>at, grent, great, great graiKlfatbtf ; that is, be 
n lineal -' ' : i ' '' ^' ■ • 


1st. Why Ahruham and bia pmicnty hbuuM ulto 
name fVom so renr ^- - . — I'l - -:.•.-.._. 

ino(e on", whv t>> f 

the fani! 

•2dly. ii. .;.... .p,.,.,l.i t... .,,. M-.f-"i 

and his : 



But ihit reoMfl sd'Dis lo hxve it» ptiaeifMl i 

tuiUmuU pride of the Jtv*, who wmiU kft«e ■» 

their tangnage wu spoken in PindiMt, aad ^ 

peeulikriy favoared orOod sbon aO olfact ftafi 

before the call of Abnfaam. B«t Le Clac fca 

highly pmhuhle, thai the Hcbw mm iht 
, CanaanitCB, mud thai Abnhaai, wham *igi— 1 iMp 
'laof^age of the Cbaldee (for be cHKMK^Crtf : 

deet,Gett.KT.7), Inrat u, w Immc uaiiwrmktwai^mMfim^ 
. lies did. by dvrelUng in the had of C«tmA.* JisBw Art 

bo, it runaina to be pnmd. tfaal tbr Hv^tfr* hiB gio y « 'She 

Hint! which Ebet tfMJie. V^ ^ 

i* gratiM dUtam; and thcu wLr^nwi m li.- .lut^ uvaof 

preserred in his fumlydomi in rtlmJiiB w mm^ 

rsgrees witli JcmIiuuV wying, dm ibe macemtf 4a^ 

ficos, who in old Ume dirdi " uo the «tber u^r ». u- ^amt. 

even Terah, ihf Taiher of Abnbsn. aem^ iriW hm^ 

Joiih. xxir. 'i. 
The MKond <{uery w. Why ibe dbih Uabi*-* •» *. 

gimi to Abnibatn and hii fkinily, ratber Ibwi t.> u,^ .^^ 

Ehvr'n posLertty ; for V.hvv liad other aoo^ 

sides Petcfr. hi« aoa to the Hne of Abniiuux. -. 
The cH^iiunoo rvirly i». tiecuusr ibe UoHniiv ui 
• limited '■ 

I _ II lo Ahr-! 

pcMod. Shem w oUcd " tl>< 

and mil so ■nch becatui* lu nj^ i«^ «-, .lepos- 

which hr irux, (iktrnw. ■/ mr.:.\ .fu, _ -igwAftrr. 

And as r 

, ' .y they wore 

ham's fiiaiil jfi -^ 

,., 1 • ■-<♦• 


I I. AbrahaO)' 
younger part < 

1!. n? 



[buok I. 

l^dly- Thero id another ofunioii cooecniino; ilw uppollation* 
as ajiplicd to Abrahani and his poslerity, wliif^h hntU ii f^i 
appearance of profaabllity : that it comn fram tfao prepositioO'l 
IS]/ gnehfter. trans: from w)i»iice Uiu«« tliat lived bevond^ 
or to the eaitl ot the river EuphrateH, w«r^ called by Lhtr Cn-* ' 
naiiaitcA and othcm who lived uo tho west, ov^p gttihhrim. 
Thus Abraham's fumilv, befuiv his call intoCannun. iftttnid U>| 
have dwelt Trttn "ajra brns^arMrr hnnnahur, trtrm tiuvittntt^ 
Josh. Tcxiv. 2 ; nifaning. beyond the river Kuphrates ; wbich ' 
being the ^atest river in tliat part nf the world, or that uattj 
known tothe ancient inhabitalitsurLhcadjacentcouniries, they I 
□aed to call it " the nrer," cor' i£f>\i|v. And Lhe people wha 
lired east or v/rst of it. styled those un the other aide, " th« ' 
people beyond the nvei," that is, traas Kuy/iratetma. Tbuft 
the enemies of the Jews, who wrote from Judeo to king Arta- 
xenea in Babylon, Ktyled thema«lr«Ni " thy servanu on thM 
Btdeof the river." Kimiiv. II ; and the king in hia answer di- 
rect* to them " l>eyond the river :" ver. 17. In Uie Chal<lee,i 
indeed, the phmse is the Rutne in both places, mru "ny piah^l 
har nahnrak, tnm* Jluvium: aod elsewhere we meet 
this exprcesion . itndarexor " brooi^ht out the Assyriium that 
were beyond the river;" 2 Sam. x. 16. Now it b ac(-f)nliti)^ 
to this phraseology, so common in Skripture, that Le Clerc 
onderstands the account we have, that " iSbeni was the fiitJier 
of ail tin- chddrtn of Lber.*' Gtn. x. 'il. thftt m. of all the 
people who dwell ea«t of the EDphmtt^; ttanslaung*\3ir«j3 Vq 
coi hrne gmehker, omitf* tjui tmiu fhtvittm tiegmit. Me tiiltes 
-V17 >13 btmf gMtbhft to be a Kebraigm, deootiii]^^ tlir inhu- 
bilanl« of the cmintr)' Itevond the Ruphnitra. So the a a— a 
of the text h, ihut all this eoatem |mrt of tin; world waa 
peoplnd by Sliem's potitfhty. 

It is anpposed that the L'aoaaMtBS called Ahrnham, in thcir^ 
lantruage. t>ic Hebrew, because he caiue *oy3 ben^ntbher; 
from iMiyond the river. Thus Josepbax says, that Ni^cr, the 
preaidentof Idumea, was called Wtpatrn^, because yivoc W *■ 
ntc ri/H Ici/iSavtrv vipoiacj tjufiti a trnna-Jor^mneim rtgiont ori- 
uttrfua Aur^* And hence Uie )K>Ktt'rity of Abraham acquired 
(he appellation of Dn3p ptibknm. or Hebrews. 

t^fl Baltn JmL Uh. S. «mp. zxi isct. ii. tAti. ILinae. 

CHAT. 111.] 



It IS evident the Bcvcnty umleratood the word ui tbii)t«n8e, 
for ihey tranalute Abraham the Hebrew, Gen. xiv. 13, Abra- 
iMfn a-tpoTiK-, tramitor. Thus, ftmong the nncienu, Theo- 
dnret,* and Jerome,t as well ns some others.t nnd among 
th« modems, Grotiua and Le Clero, undentUuul the wotd 

On cho whole, according to thia 0|)biiDn, Hebrew signifies 
much the same as foreigner ouiong us : or one that couHv 
IrniD bevond sea. Such were Abraliam and his fuiiidy unioiig 
the Canaanitea; and his poel«rity, leiimin^ and iisiot; the 
lani^age of the country, still relainod the appellation origi- 
nally ^iven them, even when they became poasessom and set- 
Ue<l inhabitants. In which circutnfilancc tbechurch of Israel 
WAft, in Dome »ort, a type of thai tar^r church of thi^ Oentilea, 
which was to be called and gathered to Christ, and ** t6 for^t 
her own people and her father's house," P^ialm xlv. )0; Uft 
Abraham's familv bein^ called out of an idnlatmiis nation, no 
longer retained the nonic of the people from whence the>' 
sprung, but were aftern-ards called Hebrews or I'oreiguem. 

It i« further very probable, that the Israelitee being called 
D^'UCeWtn.stran^rs, in David's time, I Cbrun.xxix. 16.iu^ht 
refer to their fathers having come into the country over the 
n:i gar, atvtttt, Uiat is. the Euphrates. 

It in, however, objected to thi» opinion, 

1st. That according to this senw of the word, the poslerily 
of Ishmael and Eaau might aa well havo been called Hebrews 
as the posterity of Isaac and Jacob, tliev bcint^ equally the po«- 
toriiy of Abraham the foreigner, who came 'ayz /lengiu^her, 
from beyond the rirer. 

To this it may be replied, that very probably they were 
cUIrd Hebrews while tJiey continued iu Abraham's family; 
bnt uflerward, when they sepaiatad themselves from it, and 
were incorponitcd into the Canaanitish and other nations b>- 
intermarriage, they were no long:er looked upon asforei^ors, 
and so lost thai name. Be«idee, there were personal reason* 
for Abraham, and laaae, and Jacob being called Hebrews, 
which did not affect cither Uhmael or Eaan. Abraham wu 
liom beyond the river, where be passed the younger pert of his 

• tn (icu. qiiwl 60. f liiTpaai xix. 10 

I 5m Bustorfti DiMcn. Philolog. Ttiw)log. dmen. iif. p. 141, 14? 



[book 1. 

life* laaac wouM not marry a Cauaanite, but went iK-voiid . 
Uw river fur a wife. Jacvb ditl Lhu sauue, and ilw«U UiL-rr for j 
upwmrds of twenty y«nn ; antl tliere all his chiklreii, esceptj 
one, were bom. But none of the»e reoMnis held for continu-[ 
tng the same appellation to Uhmael and Eaau, and tltcir i>o»->j 

2dly. It is objected, that the woni Hebrew is a name oH 
title of honour. As such St. Paul iiikm it. 'i Cor. xi. 'J2i 
" Arc they Hebrews? So am I." And can wc suppoec, thalj 
Jews would (;lory in benig foreigners, and in their ancestoraJ 
coming out of an idolatrous country ? 

To tiiis it may be aiuwered, that namee are often uncd in 
good or bad seme, Tery difierent from the import of their do-, 
riTBtioD. The word knare hath now a very bad n>eaiiiiiff,ri 
though it is derived from gnavut. diligent or active, uid^ 
tJiough lornierly it «igni6ed a servant, in whom dtligoDce'^ 
is a very good quality. Who, when he glories in being an 
Englinhroan. eonsiderrlli the derivation and original significa- 
tion of the word Englwh ' Besideti, it was r(?ally an honour 
to the Jews, that Uod wa« pleatted to call Abraham, the father J 
and founder of their nation, out of an idolatroutt country, in 
which he had been bora and educated, and to itepinite him 
and his posterity from all other nations, to be his pccubar 
|ieopte and visible church. 

A farlhcr reason of St. Paul's glorying in his being an He- 
brew, and consequently a farther answer to this objection, 
■will be shortly produced. 

3dly. Another objection afnunst the second, and in favour 

of the first opinion, is taken fmni RHlauni's prophecy : "And 

ahips shall come tirom the coast of Chittim, snd shall affliol 

Aahnr. nod shiUl afilict Eber," Numb. xxiv. 'J4, two brancbea 

•of Shem'i famdy ; Qen. x, '2'2. '24. Now. if it be admitted, 

^that the Aaayriaoft were called by the imiue of Ashur. because 

[hm was their primogeDitor ; can it be reusonubly denied, or 

1, that the Jews arc called Hebrews from Eber } 

I rtply. If hy Kber Ix-. in (hut place, meant the Jew«, ihi» 

ineut will have considerable wei|^t. But if the pro|>Uecy 

relen ta Alexander's cooqucst, which Orotius «a3ra is very 

plain, quod Mrmo non videt. then Kber c-annot hent mean tlin 

people of Israel, ainco thoy were not alttictcd by Alexauder, 




tia oUier oitioDH were, but remarkabty and nuracuIuusJy pti»> 
h«rved froiu his ravages. If, ihorelbre, we taku the won) 
Kbrr to come from "Of guehhrr. tranf, it must hens mean, 
aa OrDtiiiK and Lf Clerr uiidenUuid it, tlic other nations (as 
wdl as the AttsynaDs) tbat by cast of the nver Kuphrates. 

Thus much for the derivation and import of the word 

Tbere is a very remarkable a{ipeUatioii which the apostJc 
Paul, aAer glorying in his being " of the »tock of lirael. and 
of the tribe of Benjamin." apphes to himself, namely, that he 
was ■' an Hebrew of the Hebrews;" Phil. iii. r». Bv thi* ox- 
pnmao (iodwin undentauda an Hebrew both by father'^iand 
mother'a side. But if this be all that the phmse imports, 
th«r<e Boenu to be very little occosioa for the apoatle's using 
it imoirdialely after having declared, that be was " of the 
stock of laracl. and the tribe of Denjumiu;" which, on God* 
win's suppoeitioii. is the same as an Heljrew of the Hebrews ; 
for the Jew« were not allowed to niarr)' out of their own na- 
tion : or if they sometimes married proselytes, yet their nnm- 
her was comparatively ho smalt amoi^ them, especially while 
they wen under oppreaaioii. its ihey were at that time by the 
Romans, that methinks Paul would hardly have mentioned it 
aa a distini^ishing privilc^ and honour, that neither of hia 
IMrents were prosdytea. It u> therefore a much more probable 
aenae, that a Hebrew of the Hebrews dignities a Hebrew both 
by nation and language, which multitude-s of Abraliani'a pos- 
terity, in lho«e days, were not; or one of the Hebrew Jews, 
vrho perfurmod tlieir public worship in the Hebrew tongue; 
for such were reckoned more honourable than the HelleiuHtic 
Jews, who in their dispersion having, in a manner, lost the 
Hebrew, used the Greek language in taeris, and read the 
Scripture out of the Septuagint version. Wc meet uith this 
i^diMmction unongst the converted Jews, in the Acta uf tJie 
Apoatlw: " la those days, when the number of iJie diiiciples 
was multiplied, there arose a munnuring of tbe Grecians or 
HeUenist» against the Hebrews;" Acts vi. 1. Tliis is what 
St. Paul probably meant by hia being a Hebrew, as distin- 
guished from an Israelite; 'iCor.xi. 2*2. " Are tbc)* Hebrews f 
B« luo I. Arc tiiey Uraelites? So am I." la one M-tise. 
these were convertible terms, both signifying Jews by nation 


JtlWltH 4>|-ri(}l<IT1l{ft. 

[book I. 

■ad r^^bd; but in tb4 dense juU iiicnliotiMl, th«c« mn 
mmtijr. iu tlioxe dnys, who were IsrrfeliticM, but not Hebmn. 
Sc Ptui wan both, not only nn Israelite by birth, but a He- 
brew, snd not an Hellenistic Jen-. 

((oilwtn expmuiCB himiwIPtnacoarately, when he «aith, that 
those who lired in PaleBtine, and who, ah using the Hebrew 
text in their public worship, were oppoHcd to the KXAniiffttu. 
nn called Hebrewtt, or Jews. For, thotiirh Hebrew and 
Sen arc convertible tcmia, when opposed to Gentilen. a» dc- 
DOting the »ecd of Abrahaoi, and prolcMors of the Mosaic re- 
ligion, see Jar. xvxiv. 9; yet, as oppoaed to the 'EXXqi'umit. 
they nre not convertible terms, thfrre beitiK Hebrew Jewn and 
Uclleniatic Jcwh; for it ts said, that when " they, who were 
acattered by the persecution that arose about Stepbexi. tni- 
Telled into svTeral cnuntriea, prcarbinfir thi* word to none bni 
JewK only." yet iliey spoke, Tr/»oc muQ ' V.Wtitn/ira^ . to the Hel- 
lenists or (.rrecians; Act» xi. \^, 20.* 

In order to continn the itenw which 1 have gireu of the 
word 'EXXifftirrui, in opposition to the ap|>ellation HebrewK, it 
u proper we should take notice of the distinction between the 
'EXXfi^ and 'E^^wumii. The former were Ureeks by nation, 
and as tneh dtstingui«hcd fratn Jews, ActJt xvi. 1; xix- 10; 
and the Oreek empire having been rendered by Alexander in 
a manner univcrml, and Iheir language being then the most 
ooionion and general, the appellation Greeks u sonietimes 

* lnlhe*lhctiMlSGnM,tlitiap|>ellati«nD^'Tin^ Jc)iui)ii);, Ipi4kim, or Jtm, 
belonsn onlv lo Ow [XMUni; and tht)« of Judali. 1 1 i ihv fijll <•%• 

lea* at itw woH, were ilie potfeflty ef .Ahruhun ■■ • ; Iwaeltlea, 

the poMnltf of Jsoob, or I*n4-I: umI ifin, iht- paiicnty trf JiMltli, atm- vt 
ttic MMa of Istael. bil sftrr ibc dirnion of Abrmlun'* hmI LuwI'i put' 
ttnty uiU two ktn^am*, <it)d«f lUholioun uut J«robosn, the oue wu* 
called lli« tuti|[i)uiii vt Jiulali, bfcauM tlw: |nb« of Juclah IimI ihe Kr«»l«r 
uul of It, ami atw Imhi^uw llw kiug* «vn* of thai tribr ; llx; otlwr, cnuul- 
ins: of im tribe ^f callM (hr kioKdnoi of I<ini>l Tnmi liMirc art»t b 
dintincitnn btiwc«n Jvwii and Iirwlltw. Hiw, br lh« Jffws which lb« kins 
of AayrU diove (Iron Elaili. '3 Ktnpt xri. 0, an mmtu ihs Kbjscts of thr 
kia(doai </ JiicUb; fur to iksi kiugikint Fisih hail bcaa rawnd bf Am- 
htll KH&c jirftis bcAwe; 3 huif* uf. 33. Dui m the m tnbo wctr ailpt- 
ward, ill a tumiiirr. lunt in tlic Atajnuk oaplivttji ^u 1i«lh limi Jiow-d h^ 
liitv), sod Oto kitiodMn «f iuiLtti oa\y conttnuri) ihrou^ii uicmrdinK »ff* • 
hndf pulMW*. (hv tutar Jnr* awnr tn h« aitpliH] iFulill«n<n(l]r tn all ll e bcfw» 
■ad ImmIucs 




givRU to the whale heathen voHd, or to nil who were not 
Jews; lioni. i. Ui; ii. M. 

These Greeks, calleil RXAqviimi hy Josephua, are always 
styled 'EXXnwc in the New TostaHu-nt. On which nrcount 
Cirotius, undcrstatiiling \fy the 'EXXipioroi, or " Grecians, to 
whom some of thoso who were disp«r!ied ua the persecution 
which arose aboot Stephen, preached the Lord Jesus," 
Acts xi. 19. 20. GreekH by nation, concludes there is a mis- 
take in the text, and alters it according to the Syriac and Vul- 
(5»tc versions: " ccrtelegenduin/'saith he, "irpot twc'EXXij- 
>•«(." So indeed the Alexandrian manuscript reads, hut i» 
■upporied by no other copy. And which, I think, in decisive 
against it. it i* evident, from the words imiuediat«ly pre- 
ceding, that these Grecians were by oatioa Jews, and Dot 
Greckn, it Wing expreBsly said, that those who were scattered 
on the persecution " preached the goitpel to the Jews only." 
Aft fur the ' KXXi|i«c. or Greeks, mentioned in St. John's Owpd, 
chap. xii. '2ll, OS being come to Jerusalem at the pnssover to 
worship in the temple, and likewise those meniioac-d in the 
Acts, as worshipping along with the Jews in the synagognes; 
rhap. sir. 1; xviii. 4; they were doubtless Grei^ks hv hir(h 
and nation, yet pruHelyteii tu tlie Jewish religion. There is a 
distinctiounittdebetweeu Jews and proeetytes. Acts ii. 10; but 
none between HebrewH and proselytes, hec^iuM a proselyte 
might, be either am Hebrew or an Hellenist, Recording to the 
language in which he performed public worHhip. 

That the Hdlenists, or Qreciaiia, were Jews, is tiirther 
argued from the account we have, chap. ix. 29, that when st 
JemsalEVii Si. Paul "disputed against the GrecianH, they 
went »tiout to slay him," aa the Jews at DamascOB bad done 
before, ver. 23. Now had theee Or^iaoa been Ktrnogers of 
a dinerent nation, it caimot be imagined they durst have at- 
lompied to kill a Jew, among his own countrymen, in the 
capital, and without a formal accusatioc of him before any of 
their tribunals. 

Upon the whole, the 'EAXipwrai. or Grecians, being Jews 
who used the Greek tongue in thnr sacred exercises, the He* 
hrtw Jews and Grecian Jews wen> diuiinguished in lliovc 
days, in like manner nn tiic Portuguese and Dutch Jewa an 
among us. not so much by the place of tlieir birth tmany bo- 


tag bora in Eiigluiid. odient abroad), a& by Uic lunguage ibey 
uw: in their public prayers and sennoiu. 

I have already observed, that th« language which ilie 
Grecians ufted i» Merit, wbb that of the Scptu&giot, whicb is 
likewtK the language of the New Twtamcnt. It hath been, 
therefore, by some called ihc Hclleiiistic Umgue, lo distinguish , 
it from pure Greek, whde othen, rejecting the dLstinctiao^J 
UBert the punty of the I4ew Testament Greek. A con-J 
Kidexahlc dispute halb hereupon ariei-ii in Ibe KMrued norldi^ 
wiUi which It is proper we should not be uuuetjuaiuted. 

Concerning the Languagr of the Vno 'J'eslament . 

Scaliger, obserring th^t the phraseology In the New Twta^ 
mftnt agrees with that of the Septuagint. calls it the Hollcu-i 
istic dialect. Iletntiius imagined it to be a language dill'crrnl 
from the pure Greek, as the Italian is from the Latin, and 
peculiar to thu HdK'uiKts ; a people, he Kuppostni. who dwelt 
ill A*)a, iutd m M:verul of lho»e eastern j>arts. He v/un tj\y 
po««d by Salmasius.* Pbocenius, also, engaged in this cou*! 
trorcrsv, and niuiutained the purity of the Xcw Testament 
Greek. To him GaUkcr rephed in his piece, Di- Stylo NovJ 

The common opinion is, that the Greek of tbc New Testa* 
uicnt is neither pure, nor a new language ; but may properly 
be called the Uellemstic dialect; inoamnch as the words aro 
sometimes used in a dtthireut sense, and difiivent cunstnictiont 
from what (hey are in other authors. There la, also, a mix- 
lure of Latin, Pernii.-. and Syro-chotdaic words, besides sole- 
cisms and HebfaiitinK. 
. lat. The following Latin words are mentioned : mSfMvnK, 
I, Matt. V. '2(i; icinwoc. «'*''""'■ chap. x»ii. Qft; Siri*n/«oi', 
tf chap, xviii. 2H; Xtyuiiv, irgio. chiip. xxvi. 63 ; wpiw 
rvpmv, prtttoritim, chap, xxvii. 27 ; KDwrw&a, eufittdia, rer. 65; 

* " Uefaneua suiucn icMitii SM," audi >f''Ti-»f". ** IMlrauln dislsrti. 
JUe coontitl umnibiu hooiinBHu gnsc^ Kicatilnis m Ivquetiubua, i|wa 
Don dfoolni, amI oouicm bomitMfia iyxv^t-^*-" Uc i-ijigui IMlcn* 
IsilA CoBuiMmt. p. 191, cdil l4>4H' Bat te^S; intupimrt urnhith [Mrcr hv 
psb t it l wd ih« ••me fx»t hi* Funin UnpiK HelkuiMicB, ayainK Uciasius'i 
Eatfciut. d* llcUcnotb m Ltsg. Udkniu. 


NK^ ircrrA'MCHT oitveK. 


inrticauXarufi, spicu/ator, Mark vi. 27 ; Kivn'pttnf, rfnttmo. cbaj). 
XV. SW; mXaivui, rntoma. Acta xvi. 1*2; vou&iptoi', sudarium, 
chap. xiK. 12; ^uucfXAov, maccUum, I Cor. x. 2o; fjifi|j/>ai>a. 
mrmbrdiia, 2 Tiiu. iv. 13. 

Inslaiiccs of Latin phraMsare ovfifiwXiov iut^ttv, mnnhum 
tapert. Matt. xii. 14 ; fpyaatav Sourat, operant dare. Luke >ii. 
6S. Bpsides Latin, there an', 

2d)y. Prrsir wordfi ; an /tayot, magi, Malt. ii. I : ya2^a, 
tfienturus, Act» viii. 27 (the proper Greek word is ^n^^vpoc) ; 
unil lik<.'wis« yaZfi^vXwaov, J<ihn vJii. 20. There are also, 

:)illy. Syro-ctmldiiic wonln; as, A/J^, Mark xir. 36; AnA- 
^^a. Actsi. 19; f)tt3io&i. John v. 2; Effo^a. Mark vii.34; 
PoX-yoS'o. Malt, xxvii, 33 ; xop^av, Mark vii. \\ ; /kiui, Mat!. 
V. 22 : and whole sentences; as EXwt, EAtui, Xafifia au^ia\^a%-t, 
Mark xv. M; /ici/mv o^o, 1 Ccr. xvi. 22; TaAi5«, Kovfu, Mark 


Various instaiiresofsolecismsaru alleged; as, pmii'ySta&qv^r 
IV T«ii aifiart finv, to inrip vftbiv lK\v^'OiUvov, for iK^in'O^fi'iy, 
which it Hhould be in re<;ular coniitructiun with riyui/tort. Luke 
xxii. 20. And the following: awv Iff^rov Xpi~ou, ofiapTv^,6wtTff*: 
— Ttf uytnriproiTi »fia<; — wk (TOiiprtv iifia^, IScc, Rcv. i. 0, 6. 
Agaiti, 6 viKiitv, cw9tt> avru», St.c., chap. iti. 21. In like man- 
ner,& vncwir, jrottiatu auTov ■ttwAov, ^., ver. 12. And aUo, nfv 
Srt^uv airrow, -irXijf»ijc x^P'"*^! S^c*- John i. 14. 

Several nii-tiuKlK liuvc bei'ii tukeii to make out the gram- 
maticul construction of the»e psHMtges. But tli« attempt is 
iii.-e<lleA«: Oatnker* having Ahrrwri, thnt nnrh Kolecisnitt are 
common in thp purest Greek u-riters: and, indeed, they are 
odfa looked upon an beauties, rather than blemishes. 

HebraifiniH arc otwerved la ubiuidance, and that both iu 
words end phrases, iu coostructiun and in Hgurea. 

In the firet place, Hebraisin» in single words are of three 
.sorts : — such a» arc properly of a Hebrew extract : tiuch an 
ar« iude«d of a Greek extract, but used in a dill'ereut senae 
from what ihcy are in other uuthom, and \i\ u niatin«r con<- 
fomiablo to the Ur-brew : Had wordn, uew coined, to trans- 
Inie Hebrew words by. 

* AiumM. in MuB. Antonin. lib. iii. wet. i«^ 


'ISH ^hTll^l'ITIES. 

[hook I. 

1st. There ant wurUb uf un Hebrew extract, wliich havt 
cither a Greek tcmunation, as Mtvainr, John i> i'2; Xamtvc* 
iMatl. iv. lOj traapa, Lolce i. 15, potui iathriant. from *\3W* 
ihrthnr : oi Qtlivnt vrliich retain l)ie Hebrvw termination, aa 
AAXifXovta. R^v.xix. I; (ra^au»3, Rom.ix.'iU; A^a£&xi'. Rev. 
ix. 11. 

2dly- There are Cireek words, used in a ditTrrent sense from 
vAtt thev ar? m other authors, and in a miuiiifir couforinable 
to the Hebrew ; as /^jiAoc for a talalo^ue, like IDO sepher: 
jiiiiXo^ ytvtamtc lr)<TOv Xpicov, Matt. i. 1 ; QIH Pl^n ~\DO , 
sejiher toletlh»th Adam, Gen. v. I. Ei^, fua, tv, is always a| 
cardinal, except in the New Testtameol, where it is ("requently 
un ordiual, like ttih achetlh. in Hebrew ; ah, tik- /ita^ aaiiiiarwv, 
Mark svt. "2, pritno die iubdomadu, or vpwni tm\'^)\ar(tv, aK iti 
i* presently a/ter explained. Tcr. 9 : Kuru f*tav aa\^^iarwv, 
I Cor. xvi. 2: like arirt "Tlia bercMadh liuhudrsh, the firrtj 
day of the month. 'Pw" '<* Greek ug;ni6eBa word,but in tha 
Now Te»tuuie]it it sometunts atgnifiw a thing ; like "Oi dhab* 
har; 6n wk acvvmnim wapa r^ Of^ vnv pnm, Luke t. ^7,, 
AwoKftivofiot Bi^nidvs properly, Uj luiswer whcit another hutkj 
alroMljr a|ioken ; btit in thv \ewTv«l«mont it is uiwl for taking 
occuion to apeak, uiihout huving been apokvit to ^ like nay 
gnaimU, id Hebrew : K«i turoK^M^c ^ |i}ffoci; lortv uvnt, nempe, 
<r»nf' lAifKtn tit tutm tif rov chvwi odSh^ Kaf>rof ^iryat' " Aiul 
JflMis uimraring, wid tn the fig-trFe." &c., Mark xi. 14.| 
Uto/ioXoyut^ Rlrictly means, to ronless; bat in the New Tea«| 
tameut. tu tUunk or praise ; which is eridently a translation i 
tbf Hebrew word rrm kodhnb, in lliphil, from m> jadiudi»\ 
" And at that time Jmua niuwercd und «uiil, EHu^uAtnwftm vw« 
V«rtp, mvfui rou 0(t)Mwou vm r^^ ^^C. u" oirdyjui^x-c rai>ru," &.C< i 
fTipav signiBcM trauM, aa beyond, or oo the other aide oTa river; 
bat in tlie New TeMtnntent it ik UHrd f(ir nrar to, nilhoiit deter-' 
■uoiog on wbrch side. Thus nc read of " the land of i^abuloit^i 
aixl ihe Und of Naphthali, by the way of the am, letpnv 
Up&tvow. Galilee of the GfntilL*s," Mnlt. iv. \h; that ta, near, i 
•bout Jordan : fur oeitlu-r Ziibidon, nor Naphthali, oor Qalilc 
of the Oentiliii, were beyond (oa our traoabitora have exp rti MeJi] 
il), but near Jordan. Utpav, then, ia a tranalation of nsijr ^/Ai- ] 
«hich Migniliea near to, on ^itbcr akl«> aa well aa beyond. 

niAP. III.] new 



Thus Moves is said lo liare stood {Vi^ -uy^ bengnehArr 
kajjarden, Deut. i. 1; that is, near Jordan, for ho never 
vreot over it into Canaan ; l>cut. xxxii. 52. There are, 

'Miy. Some words new cutntKl. to trauslate Htl>few wordii 
by ; a» avo^w'^'C^i for D*VI ch»ram : it in igpEarD avaOmuri^itv 
ou n^viutv' on om M&i row ai<3^w«ov, &e., Mark xtr. 71- 
£«-Xu7X)'i2^oMfit, a word formed to transtate Eim nuham. in- 
f/m^ dilexit : o 3i Ii»<h>uc — um, tnr\tty\vitotioi twi tov o\Xov, art 
J/Sou ntUfiaf Tptl^ iTftoafUiMtvat fHU. kcic Ovk t\Ouai n ^ayutai. 

Matt. XV. 32. XaptTObt, to traiiHlate \irt chatwit, graiiomt f'uit : 
'O n7-yiXoc irpoc uvntf fnrt, \atpt, a\apiTMfuvtt, Luke 1.28. 

Secondly. licbraiBms in phrases, are either, 

Ul. Such uH have not bimn used by other Greek authors: a«, 
seeing of life and death, for living and dyin(£: numi £t>u^ 
furtrr^i} ruu fttt tiitv ^avarov, Ueb. xi. 5. In liko nxannor Uie 
Hebrew, mOTTin* mVi veh jireh-mavrth: Psulm Ixxxix. 4d 
Heb., 4S Bngl. A^in, <£tAi|Xi»doroc » rtrc wrftoc Aiipaoft, 
nanaloi^iis to the followiug expression : " AU die souls that 
came with Jacob nito Hgypt, XXV" ''tOf'jotsejereeito, who came 
ovt of his luius." flu-.. Oen. xlri. 25 Heb., 2G Engl. Or, 

!2dly. Such as have not been used by uther Greek writers in 
the Mune sense as in the >ew Testament ; as, to huur the voice 
of a person, si|pitlies, to obey : llac u -tv tKTJK uAir7i4af , axouu 
ftow ri)( fvvn'i. -fohn xviii. 37. parallel with yn-y b^pH rqmu' "O 
rhi ihfmaNgtn lekcil ixhtekti : Gen. iii. 17. To eat bread, 
signifiiw, to Ml down to a meul ; Ov yap viwrovrat roc \fpat 
avnav. hrav n/mii' Kr^iwvtv. Matt. xv.2rWhich iti an expression 
pBndlel to this, "And tliey made rciidy Uie prusont against 
Joaeph cauic at noun ; for tliey heart], or6 yhw> DtL* O cJn t/uim 
jochetn laehrm, that ihuy should eat bread there ;" Gwi. xtiii. 
24 Hcb.. 26 Engl. 

There ara iilso pleonasms in the Greek Testament, such 
as do not occur in othcrGrcck authors. As, Es-a^c ^»v it Iqmivc 
rove ofdoAf io«c tat ^ttaaantvoq art vnXv^Jkx; . " Vi hen Jesus then 
lift up his eyes and saw a great company," &o.. John vi. 5. 
Parallel to thin in the Hebrew, m^i r'V-y-t» omsK RC^i rajjitsa 
Abraham eiti-gnehiaiv vajjart: "And Abruham til't up his 
eyea,ttndsawtheplac«,'*8cc. Gen.xxii.*). Again, O^o^ir^nW 
npvy ^vnvwposTO¥^tw,KMuirov,"\Xwy bfl uptheirroiceto 
Ood with nne accord, and aaid." Acts iv. 24: hke the follow* 




Uw in tlie llebr«w : " i^nd when ihey lM ii to Jotham, be 
went and itood in the top of mount (jerizim, and lilt up tiig 
voice, and cried, and said unto them, *v3hm Hnpvi i^ip ttir^i raj~ 
Jima kolo vaijUtra vajjomer:" Jadges \x. 7, A^ui. Eifriiva( 
rqw \np<i tpfMTo avr»u I'l liHrotr^, " Jesus put furtb hiA hiiud, and 
touched hita," &c.; Matt, viti.3. Like Uiat expreMion con- 
L'«rniug Jioah, K3*l nnp*l n* n^tt'*l r.aj)nhtach jndho vai/akka- 
ckeha vajjahhee; " And he put forth his hand, and took her" 
(the dove), " And pulled her in unto Uiiu into the ark ;" Gen. 
viii. y. 

Thirdly. There are constniclicns in the New Testament, 
which iiro aaid U> be II<>braiiutix : aft, 

l)>t. The fcniiiiine gender for the ncuti?r : ^iQof ov 
awtimufiaattv In oiKuSo^Mnrvrtc, ovroc i^tyfr^ tic KCf<un|V> 7 wi'iac* 
wapaKvpiov tyivtTnaur^.Kaittrrt Sav/iavrp, &c.; MHtt.xxi.42. 
nw^DJ KV1 PKI rtr\-^T^ mm rwO njD CH"*^ npNn kajtlkah tervth 
pintuth, mrtth Jfhortik kajrlhah loth hi niphhth, Bcc. ; Pnalro 
cxviii. %\. In like manner, tt'paK nn'K nnv-riKO '^rfmttJ mw 
ofhath ahaaili mieth Jehotuih utknh ahakkesk ; Psaltn xxvii. 4. 
Some, indeed, make Kt^oXi)!' to be the antecctlent to ovrp 
(rOD pinmth to H>T\ ki), uiid uut the whole preceding iivritence: 
and thoy render the clause, wapa Kvpwv tytwro avry, li Dumtno 
coiuiittitus fit ifte anguhiTis: agreeable to tliv setiav of 
lyti'iro tn thiH pasBOgo, To on^f^arov ha tuv av^/ovrof lytvcro, 
Mark ii. 27. 

'itJly. A noun repeated twice to express a distribution inlo-i 
eeverat parts; as. '* He commanded them ull to nit dowi 
avftwoaia m'Hiroata.hy compantefl.and thev snl, vpaami r^Mtnoi^j 
in rankn," Mark ^1. .'t'J, 4i): like this Hebrew exprcKsiun, 
" He debvered them into the luinds of his aervanl*. Ilj' "iTJ-J 
gHtJfier, jfnedhrr, every drove by themselvea;" Oeo. xxxiu' 
IQ. Agittn, " He ciilted unto him the twelve, and beeon la. 
MDd them fnrlli, £i>o 7vo, by iwu and tuu," Mark vi. 7; lik« , 
the lullowing Hebrew |d)rase, "of every clean ticaxt ihonj 
altalt take to thre, nyas' nySD shthhngaak %kibhngnah. hfy 
Mnenai" Uen. vii.*J.* The regular expression is avu ewo, as it 
is in the parallel place, Luke x. 1. 

3dly. The iiui>erlutive degrott exprcased by the additiooi 
of 0M»c: "In which time Moves waaborn. and wanvvrmv r^ 
^^, exceettinit fair:" Act* vii. 'W. Thus, in Hebrew il la 



■kid," NinCTwh was, D»n!?R^ n^nj.-i»y gnir gadholah Mohim, 
an excaetling great city ; Jonah iii. 'i. 

4Uily. Some verbei are said to be used with different con- 
»truclions from what they are in oilier Grevk uuthorM ; as 
vpootsMtnta with a dative case : XttwfM^ tA^tuf irpooiKwu aiTw. 
Matt. viii. 2. Again, xm vpomKvvtfttnv aurtj, Johu ix. ;)8; 
wherva« in other aathont it govt^nm an accusative. So also 
ttvai lie "r for uvat ri, ia said to be an Uebraism : " For this 
ctitae ahall a man leave fatlier and mother, mid cteave to hJs 
wife, rat itfovTu ot £vo uc aapai fnav," Matt. xix. 5. "Unto 
them who bo disobedient, (lie stone which the builders disal- 
lowed, AuToy tyfvi^ HC Kt^aXtiv ytuvta^," I Pet. ii. 7. Thus 
ID Hebrew, " God \& ihu Lord, and he hath enUghtcncd as," 
^A IM^I vajjaer farm ; Ptulm cxviii. 27. 

roiirthly. There are Hebrew figures observed in the New 
Tivtameut ; us, 

Ut. Enallaga of the case, persou, number, and gender. 
Enallagc of the case, 'O vomv, Siuow ouroi. Sec, Rev. ii. 26; 
'Ov<Kiwv, )ro<q<nLi oirroir, Rev, iii. {'2; VJ<a\iiat wpo^ rav^ wartfiag 
itfuuv, rw \fiptuifi. Km rw owtpfutTi avrov. Luke i. 6A; Uavpiffia 
apytiv. tntt^MOouat mpi avrou Xoyov, Matt. Xli. 3f>: Ai^ov, mi 
awtSoKtfiaaav, avriK tytfq.^'q, 6(.c., Matt. xxi. 42 ; 'O yap Mwanc 
ivroc — ovK ot&i^ii' Ti ']f(7ovi)' aurw. Act* vii, 40. See the like 
kind of exprewiion in the Hebrew, lyv^ D^on : him Hael, ta- 
mim, darco: Pxalm xviii. 30. 

Etiullnge of lliu |H3rKon : " O Jerusalem. Jeru!»a]eai. tliou 
thai kiUeet the prophets, and tttune«t ihcm that are sent irp«c 
atmrv, how often would I have gathered ra rtKva oov," Matt. 
xxiit. 37. Thus in the Hebrew ; " I waa wroth with my peo- 
ple, *DiV"^y *fiE*p kaitaphti gnal-gaammi, &c., thou did«t 
ftbow them no mercy, O^Om orA tiov-k^ lo-aamt iahtm ra- 
pKamm" laa. xlvii. (>. 

En&llagp of number : " At that tune Jeeus went rote ffa/3- 
^91 Sm twv awoptfttav," Matt. xii. 1. And, 

or gender : " Not holding rnv ttt^aknv, tK m>, the whole 
body by joinu and handk," £cc. ; CtA. ii. 19. 

'2dly- Plconajtmii arv said to be borrowed from the Hebrew. 
I have mentioned some iilready, and ahall add the following : 
" That the reaidae of men might seek after the Lord, and all 
ih* OeDtilea, tf' ovc nrttuKkirroi ro ovofia iLwt nr avrovv." 



[dooc I, 

Acts XV. 17. Tlttta in the Hebrew. " Ercry place,*' &c. 
13 DDVr>-n3 "Pi/i ^If ** at^hrr iidhrok raph-ragieehem bo; Joah. 
i. 3. AgAiD 'r " To the woman were ^iveti two winga of a great 
•agji), tiiat she might Hy into Ihe wiidemeai, into bt^r piacv. 
«VDt> rpe^fTQi cKii," Itav. Kii. 14. iSiiuitar to thi« iiist«iK:« in 
tlift Hebrew: " Thrn uiid Saul (o hia servant. Well ttaiti ; 
come» let u» go : so they weal unto the city CVi^Mn i:.*vK DVt-'ntfH 
mthtr-tham ith Ilae/cAim:^' 1 Sam. ix. 10. Again, PiUte 
wid, A^ojoc ('Mi "«o roti tu^ioroc, &c., MaU. ixvii. 24 ; and 
SL I'uul, nri i.-a3a^c t.yu diro rov oi/uirof ravrk;v. Act* 
XX. 06, wbera awo seeim to be raJuadaiit. Tbo f^llowin); is 
a aimiUi llubrcw exprcvuon: " When David henrd it. he 
6aid, -iiaw *OiO — *3J« >pi iwi*i rtwcAi — wM/(/c/«f Aluiir:" 
2 Sam. ill. 28. 

3dly. Rlhpsm is a common figure in the New TestamenI 
after the manner of tJic llpbniw: for instaaca, " Behold 
send uulo you pruphuls, and wise men, and Sciibeft. Kai ■£* 
avTW awoKTtvttTk iwi QTanputmrt, cut iC ovriuv ^rrcywcrtri,** 
&c., MaU. xxiii. .14. Like the foUowiog expfe«*ion in the 
Seoand Bonk of Kings : " And Juhu went — into the liotiie of 
Baol, and said unto the worbhip(ier8 of Baai, i»uarch and look. 
IfiBt theri! Im here witb you mm «i3VD utrngHalihdhe Jehovah t" 
2 Kiuga X. 23. 

However, after all the exceptions to the purity of the New 
TeatAmctit Greek, it hath nn able critick amoQg ita advvcntt 
itn any thut have uppeorod on the coatrory Mile, |»artiouUurlyJ 
Mr. [iliiukwull. who. in bia Sacred Claaaiea, nmititainatlu 
guagc of tbu New TeBlament to be not only pare, but verj 
elegant Oree4.. He hath vindicated, with great leumin^;, thi 
MTeralpaaaagaa excepted HgnntKi, producing parallel onsH 
ofUicpureiiiauthorH. Ho dcnii-'a there arc any Boleciuoa.bavii 
not only well Hup[>ortcd tlio sus|)cciod plucee. Imt guneialljLj 
ahown a pecaiUar beauty to tbem. It is a remark of Mr. Ad-T 
di&on, tliat iliv moU exquiute woida and bituBt sUuke^ uf 
author are those which ofUa appear tha mo!tt df>uLtl'ul tuuL^ 
exceptionable to a maa who wanOt a rvliah fur {Kibte learitih| 
ftDda^kh a aour undiatiagiitahiug critic attack* witl) tbo greot- 
Ml vioUmoe. INilly obaervea, Uiat it i« rery caay <o brand or 
Ix a BUirk, upon what be calls verbum ardtnt, a bold, glow- 
ing; oxpKBiiun. and to turn it intu ridicule by u oold, ill-aa- 



tarsdcritieism. Riackwikll acknowledges the New Testamfiit 
hftth woHft and exprettsionH not to be fotim] in any cUsiiic 
author; nor could it be otherwise, when it treat* of thing* 
which the heathens had no ideas of. nor nny words for. New 
niunes muuL hv given to new things. In this respect no other 
hbertjr is taken than is freely done by Tully, Plato, and the 
l^atesl geniiises of all ages. 

As for the mixture of foreign words, especially Liitin. there 
are not many. However, in the ui»e of these tew, the »scred 
writcM atp equally to be vindicat<yl, at leant, with the Ortt-k 
clasHics, who have many foreign, jiarticularly Persic words. 
For, as the most eminent of Uiem flourished at a time when 
tile empire of the Persians was of voat extent, and had a 
influence on the uffairs of Orcecc, ntaiiy uf their wurd^. [>ecanie 
familiar to, and were adopted by the Greeks. In the tiiitex of 
the apostles and evangelists, the Roman empire having cx- 
tendetl its conquests over all the countries where Cireek was 
Bpoke, by thnt means Roman words and phrases crept in, « 
before Pernio hud done. As to Hobraibras, the reason why the 
New Testament writers mingled them with their Greek, does 
not «cra to be owing so much lo their heint; Hebrews, as to 
thnr discoursing of many things relating to the Mosaic luw, 
and eapsble of being well expressed in the Hebrew luDguafi^, 
which coiiUl not be expressed so happily, if at all, in any other. 
So tiiat if tliey had declined asing the Hebrew idiom, they 
must have invented new words and phrasea, whieh \vould not 
hare been easily or soon understood. Mr. HIstkwaH ob- 
serves, that in common morals, in matters of cnnverKalion and 
historit-nl nnmitivp.they use the stime words and phraswiwilh 
Herodotus, Thurydides, Xenophun, See., and tJiat they do not 
more difltfr front the classics in their form of expression, than 
these do from one another. 

A great many expressions, originally Hebraisms, have, b*^ 
tl>o best authors, been transplanted into the Greek tnngue, 
and are now become proper and genuine phrases. Hut the 
sacred writers, being better aei(uaiiited with the Hebrew Ian- 
gnage, hnve renMrluibly enriched their style from thai hiex- 
havatible mine, to which th< Qre«fcs had littl« acceaa, 

ITpon the whole, he in confident, thnt if a man reads the 
New Testament with a heart as much prepossessed in its 

u 2 




favour B« wh^n he mI* liowii lu Virgil or Hoiiivr, he will find 
incttleoU aixl seittiint'nto therein, exprcMt^l uith luorc natural 
propriety and ener^ than can be found in their uritingn, 
Uiough in every agw .since they wniu- ihcy have been the ob- 
jects of utiivurKal adniiratiun. 

1 nm lath tu disuiiiiK the subject we ore upon, without giving 
yon an ab»tmct of thiH author's critique upon iJic Beveral 
writerft of the New TeMoment.* 

St. Muttheu-, s^ith he, h»th all the characters of a good his- 
torian ; truth and iiu partiality, cletirncss of nanutiou, prupnety 
Bsd gniTtty ordtction, and order of time well observed. The 
two next evanKt-Iists often borrow his very words and form of 
expmuon. when tbey nre on the same subject, and yet each 
biu his proper ftlyle. 

St. Mark has a comprelieniitvc, clear, nud lx>RUtiful brevity. 
lie somclimes uws the n.-pi;tilion uf wordn of the Humc origi- 
nal and like «oui)d, as the moitt vigorous authors do: such as 
avuntyaouv rifv vrtyttv, Mark li. 4; tv ritavwrrumt Aracaifia- 
rufffi, chap. xii. "23; KTioiiwCf »c iktioev, chap- xiii. 0). 

St. Liike'ii style h pure, copiou»t, and flowing, lie ac- 
quaints nil with numerous huitorical paHuagi'S, not related by 
the other evangcltsLs. He ia justly applauded for hts polite- 
nnw nnd elegance by aomc critics, who itcein, however, to 
OMgntfy him in order to depreciate bi» brethren, notwith- 
standing he hath afi many lIcbrAitmttand poculiarities a* any 
of liieni. 

The style of St. John is grave and simple, Khoit and cou-J 
ftpicuous, altray» plain, and homelimei) low; but he reaeheLh 
the henvttna in the Hubliinity of lii& notions. He ha.*) frequent^ 
rcpetiuons, in order to pn-»shi&un{iortuntdoctrineH wiili mor«j 
closentKn and vehemence. He often lakes one thing Iwoj 
ways, iHJth ut the allirniatiie and negative: aa, " He thull 
hath the Son hath life; but he that bath nut the Son, hath not i 

St. Paul i» admired for the copiouineas ami variety of hiil 
Htyle, for the loftiness of bis sentiment, for the dexterity ofj 
biti address. He bait every chann of eJoqucncc, nnd sliowaf 
hinisvlf, oceBntonally. masEer of every stylo. " If any." aatib' 

* Se« Tot. I. [nn. ii. chap. ni. 



Mr. Locke, " hath thought St. Paul a loose writer, tl was 
only beeauM hu ms a locwe reader ; for he that tnke^ notice of 
hit deu]^, will find there is scarce a word or expression he 
makes use of. eitcept with relation and tendcncv to his present 
main purpoHe." 

Eraunus paeses a bokl cenaure upon St. Jatucs, when he 
tsatlh, " The epistle iittder his name docs not everywhere ex- 
pre»g the apostolical gravity «nd majesty."* But other learned 
und judicions persons have imagined they hare discovered in 
that epistle, vigorous and expresaivp words, a hetiulifu! sim- 
plicity, natural and engaging sentiments, lively hgures, and 
aub«taiitial eloquence. Where can a finer description of the 
malignity Aiid miHchief of an unbridled tongue be found, than 
in his third chapter * The emphasis and elrx|iience of th<it 
sublime description of the divine muniHcence and immutabilty, 
in the seventt-enth vente of the first chapter, is greatly and 
justly admired.t 

St. Peter's atylc expresses the noble vehemence and fervour 
of his spirit, lie writes vtith that quickness and rapidity, 
sometimes neglixrtiug the formal nicetitfis of gmmmar (as ia 
common with sublime geniuses), that you can scarcely per- 
ceive the pauMS of bis discoufBe, and the distinction uf h\» 
periods, llii* description of the conRai^nition and future 
judgment, 2 Pet. iii., is a ma&ter-piece. He maki% us see, as 
it were, tlie heavens and tlie earth wrapt up in devouring 
flames, and bear the groans of an expiring world, and the 
crush of nature tumblins into univeriial ruin. And how so- 
lemii and moving is the epiphonema. or practical inference, 
" Seeing, therefore, all these things mast be dissolved, what 
manner of persona ought ye to be in all holy convereation and 
godliness ;" vcr. II. 

Drigen Kaith, tliat " Judc hath wrote an cpuitle, of few 

* Vid. AsDU. in cap. «. wbOBc. 

1 TbeOnlwofilftof ihst paMagCAKS bnelwiuncier, 

\ itoall UaiGipontion vt ibe next mmb, will make anoihrr hexsuutatt, 

How nKlunlly do nibhoK MtiUineiiU k>w 1>inl> m portirBl nambcn, u wHI 
ai|iD«iesl etpnsiouil 




TPPtes, imtoed, but full of vigorous cxprcssioos of heavenly 
giHCO."* Tim apo«tle adopU tlie sentiment, and frequently' 
ifei wordx of St. Peter, in the second chapter of bis iwcoikI 
opistlo, though BoroetiaiM h« leavei oat Bomc of his n-ords, at 
other times be enlnrgea, and gives a ditTerent turn to the 
thought. These two writRre arc very near akin, in suliject, 
style, vehemence, and junt indignation agiunst impu<lence, 
lewdness, and dchaucheni of boiuid priucipleft. They aiiewef ' 
one another in the New Teatament, as the prophecy of Obit'. 
diah and part of the fortv-ninth of Jeremiah do in tbo Old. 

After Mr. Hlackwall hath fully riodicated th« writen oftht^ 
Nenr Tefrtaroont, and act them, at least, upon a lerel with th4 
best cImuos, be shows, in the last chapter, what udrant 
they bare over them in vanouo respects, llie greater part 
the second volume in n rrttir|ue upon tJiir versiomi and vnrioDS''^ 
lections of the New Testament, which it is beside our present 
pnrpoBO to cousider. 

Wo return, now, from this digreeaion. to the enbject of j 
Jewish Antiquitic-5. 

The Geneahgies t^ the flebravs. 

CJodwin obscrres, that " the whole body of (erael, or tha 
Hebrew notion, waa dividtM) into twelve tribes, and that puli- 
lic reeorda were kept, wherein every one's pmrolf^ was re* 
gieterad, to manifeKl to what particular tnbe he belonj^.**'] 
This appears from the folkiwing peanagi! in Chronirleit : *' Tb^ 
■oU of Rehobonm — ant they not written in the book of She 
maiuh the prophet, and of Iddo the »««r. concerning gene-' 
tilogiefc?" '2Chron. xiii. 15: irmnn^ Uhithjiuhtt, w gfntah^' 
fpando, that is, probably, in their geoealogica! tables of the 
royal fiimflies of the house of David ; in which, also, it seems 
was inteniperKed some nc<x)unt of the lives and artionii of the 
kmgs ; ilie acta of Itehoboam Iwin^ not only written in this , 
book, but likewise (ho " acts of his fion Abtjah, bis waya and 
hi* aaying*:" 2 Chroo. xiii. 22. In the fifth chofiter of ihe 
Fifit pook of Chronidee, tftn an abstract of the i^encaJoKics 

* CnsmoL U MUL itt. U, p. ttZ^ D. edil. Hum. Colun. lesA. 


contained in the book of Genesis, and nf some of iho tribes 
cS lamel to the tiuu of the captivity, it is added, " All these 
WMC Kckoncd by genL-alu^ic!> in the daya of Jutham king; of 
Judah.and in the days of Jeroboam kini^of Israel," vor. 17 ^ 
that 18, Uiu geDculogicul tables were Ibcu dmwit up, which 
•Aerw&nlH were continued down to the captivity, the imiins 
of several peraonM being inserted, who did not live till after 
the days of Jotham and Jeroboam. And then, aiW a gono- 
alo(;iciil table of the other tribea in the three next chapters, it 
loUows, " So all Israel were reckoned by gcneolopcs; and 
behold lliey were wnltcu in the book of tho kint^ of Israel 
aodJudah :"chap.ix. I. Wliere. by " the book of ibc kings." 
•aiuiot W meant those two historical books, which now pau 
und«i tliat tiaaie, the^e ^eiicalotpcs not being writloii theroiiii 
but MHne authontic public record of their genoelogies. called 
" the King's [look," probofaly as being under his custody; 
of which it is not unlikelv there was a duplicate, one copy 
kepi by tlw king nf Judah, tbe other hy tho king of iHracl, 
for it is called " tbe book of ihe Kings of Israel and JiidaJi." 
The itlory of ilcrod's destroying the a'cords of the gc- 
nealc^esr which Gudn in uicntionu, itt related hy EuHebius in 
his KcolesiaBtical Uiiitory.* Vet it does not seem that th« 
Jews lost all account of their genealogiea froni that time, for 
thtfy continued their difitinction of in\yf» long after. St. Paul 
uya he was of the" tribe uf'Benjnmm;" Hhil. iii. 6. St. Jaiuoa 
wtitea to the " twelve tribes that were scattered abroad;" 
Jamaa i. 1 . And. later Uill, Josephus gives the genealogy of 
ht« own Cuiuly in hia Life, and says, " 1 give you tJtus «itcces- 
sion of our family, as I find it written in the public tables. "f 
And be add*, that " all their priests were obliged to prove 
their succeaaion fmm an ancient line;" and if they could not 
do it, they were to bo excludes! from ntiiciating as prieeta. 
From whence it appears, there were public genealt^ical tables 
of tbtnr tnbes and famihes as late as Josephus, who lived at 
tbe deatroctiuo of JenisiUern. By the way, tlierefore, it may 
be reaamably picauiued, that both St. Matthew and St- Luke 
oopied tbeirgtkie!ilogieeofChri«t,tbe oneof the lineof Maiy, 
the other of Joseph, out of the public records which were 

• lib. L rop. «-H. p. 34, nlit Rtwrite^, CanMli- me. 

t jMeph. ta vuA, MTL i. »d Ao. ipiul UiMr. tots. ii. p. I» ediL Uatvrr. 



[book I. 

deenwd authentic voDchera. The aposUe, accordinglv. rc- 
pTMODto it as ft tiling CTJileut to tliu Jews, that '' otir l<ord 
iiprung out of Judah ;" Heb. ri. 14. It was »o by their own 
genealogical bkbleji, which the «acred historians fuiiUrully 
copied. If there n-crc any erront in thooe tables, tjiev were 
not Brcountable for them , their bnuneaa «u only to tianacribc 
without alteration ; tampering with thimi tnii^t hnvc rreatcd 
Ku»picion. and given the Jews book.' roloar for denying that 
our Lord " sprung out of Judah." according to the ancient 
prophecies coaccming the Meuiali. 

rpon Uie whole, wc must either concltide, that Uuitehiuii 
had been entirely misinformed concemnig Htn-txi'K burning 
the genealogical records, or that if one copy (purhap)« that 
which was laid up in the nrchivett of the temple) wan d«- 
itroycd, there were othen in prirate handii. from whence 
another public copy waa afterwards traniicribed. and depoBitcd 
ia the same place. 

It in probable, that after Uie dispoaibn of the Jews, upon 
the diutolution of their polity, itte g«ncttlogicul tables aune to 
be neglected. and so gradually perished. Some imagine, that 
their frequent intermarriages uith the people ufthc cuuninen 
into which they were diHpcT»ed. made them defltgrtedly di»- 
continuc them ; that the corrupt mixture and debasement of 
their blood mii^ht not appear- However that be, it is certain 
they have lung since been lost. 

From hence an argument is formed by Christians, that tho 
Messiah must be already come; since, if he be not, it can 
never be proved, that be is of the tribe of Judal) and famdy 
of David. 

But to this the Jews reply, that either Elias, or Bome other 
inspired priest or prophet, shall come, and restore their 
nealngiral tables before the MesBiafa's appearance ; — a tim- 
dition. which they ground on a puaage m Nehemiah, chap, 
ni. 64. 66, to Ibis effect : The genealogical ragttttr of the 
rnmities of certain priests being Icwt, they were not afal« to 
roaWe out their lineal dewent from Aaron; and therefora. 
" as poUuied, were put from the priesthood ;" the " Tirshntfaa 
■aid unto them, that they should not cat of the most hdj^ 
Ihings.ull there stood up a priest with I' rim and Thummiui."< 
From hence the Jews conclude, that such a priest will stand 

eMAi*. 111.] 


up, and rcAtorc and complete thcgcncalof^csof tliL-irfumiliH! 
thouf^ others suppose these wordi) to import, thai Uiey ahovlil 
never exerciHe their prieKthood any more ; and ttiat. " till there 
shall stand up a priest n-ith U'rim and Thuranuni." amounts 
to the same as the Roman proverb, ad Oracai catendas, 
since the Urim aod Thummim were now abeolutcly and Tor 
rver lost. 

Thf Frotrltfttt. 

We now come to the proselytes ; who were not of the na- 
turai posterity of Abrabaiu, but joined themselves to the peo- 
ple of Urael. and were, by the Greeks, styled nfMwtXvrot. mro 
rou irp(KT«Xi|Xu3**-ai, d^ advenlando et ateumlo:* but by tlie 
HobrewH, D^*U giri/ti, pertgriai, Ibreif^ers or innuites, in op- 
poflition to natives. Hence tlie son of a proselyte, by the 
fathcrV side, was called 11 p ben ^er ; the son ot"a proselylo 
by the mother's side, rru p Oeiigerah: and the son of both 
u he and the proselyte, by tlie artihciul name ^3J3 baglnig, 
which ia componed of the initial lettcra of beu ger, and ben 

The Hebrews speak of two sorts of proselytes, the one callod 
pT» via gere tsedhtk, pro»eiyti jtutititc; the other D^aa-vi to- 
iflaithim. inquitini, or TfW ^^J gere ihangnur, proselt/li fjurtte. 
llie furuii-r bvuuuie complete Jews, and were in all respect 
united to the Jewish chorch and oation ; the latter did not 
embrace the Jewish religion, yet were soH'erod to live among 
the Jews under certain restrictions. Nevertheless the former, 
as nell as the latter, are sometimes diatinguiuhed from Jews, 
that is, from native Jews. Thus in the AcU, chap. xiii. 43, 
we read of the Jews, and rchgious pi-oselytes, at Antioch in 
Piaidu ; who must have been proselytes of nghteuusness, be- 
cause none were called proselytes of the gat« (if any such 
there ware), who did not dwelt m the land of Umel- 

As for the prosdytes of rtghteousiwss. the f>cripturc i^ives 
lis no other account of tlte manner of their admission into the 
Jewish church, but by the rite of circumcision. In the book 
of Exodua, amon^ tiie regulations concerning the passover, 

* Phila. iiiH lib. 1.; «k Monarrh apuU Opm, (>. 6»l, etitl. C^tian 
Allobr. 1013. 



faoOK U 

titm ifl ona, " Wbea s stinii^r will 8o|<iom with Umw, uid 
wiU keep Ihe punrer to the Wd, let all bu iiuilen be cir- 
cwncised, and then k't him come near and keap it ; and he 
•haUbcas unulhatiaboTuinllielaiid;" cbap.xu,48. Where 
thcM two things are farther ofaeervable : 

I Hi. That when a. man thud brcame fl pTonelytc. all hit males 
were to be circumcised as well as himself; whtrcbv his chil- 
dren were admitted into tliv^nHiblc church ufGoil, in bis right, 
OS their father. 

2dly. Tliat upon this he should be entitled to all the privi- 
leges and imnmnities of the Jewish church and nation, ae well 
ai be subject to the whole Uw : he should be as one " bora in 
the Uod." 

To thi« brief account which the Scripture gives us of the m1- 
uieeion of proMtytea, the rabhioe add a much lai<Bpef ono. of the 
pnepamtion for their admiasioB, of the fonu of their a<lmi>>8toa, 
and of ttio ciiiisequencui and cHuctu of il. 

First, The preparatioa far thi- ndiuiHiioa of proselytes 
siat«d, according to them, of three urticks: 

Ut. An examination : 

2dly. Instruction : 

3dly. Their making a profeMitm of their fuith, and of their 
obedience to the Jewish law. 

1st. The person that otTered himielf to l>e a prosclyle, was 
eKanitned by three of the nagistnitcs conccrnini: the causes 
tint mored him to il ; whether it wns the love of any Jewish 
wooian, the fear of any teDi{K»at punishment, ihe ptoepcct of 
riches, or of any worldly ndvaota^e; or whullier it was a sia- 
0«m love to God iittd hw law ^ Wbtm he had given a satis- 
faotory answer to these quf^botu. Itc was tlum, 

•9dly. Inelruetod in the Jcmah religion, and pariiculaiiy in 
the doetrme of rewards nnd punishtnenta. And after this. 

3dly. Uo soleuuily professed his aaasnt to the doctrioaa 
which had been propoeed to huu, and promised to porMvere in 
the faith and practice of the law'ofGod till death. 

Secondly, As to the form and manner of udmiLtuig pnfselytus, 
the rabbie* m»ke it to consist of throo articles, — drcumctaion. 
bapttPtm, and Kocrtfioe. 

IsJ. To the i^c^ipturu account of the re4(ulri'meol of circun-' 
ciaiou, ID this caae, they add, that tliough the proselyte was 

entp. 111.3 


a Satnantan. or of any other nation who used that rite. Home 
bliMxl mu£t, noverthctess, be drawn afre^U from the |Mirt^fhich 
had twcu circiimcuetL 

2dly. The protwlyle, whether mule or feuiate, must be bap- 
eizi-d by the iuuitenion of Ihe whole body into watex; and 
this must be performed id a river, fountam. or pood, not in a 

Some gronnd this pnMwlyte IiBptimn on the initruction 
which Jacob gave to his " honswhold, and all that were with 
him," when they were to make a new conserntinn of thctn- 
aelveH to GckI, — " Put away the strange goda from lunoiigst 
you, and be clean," Qen. xzxr. 2; wlten, by "being 
clean," they understand their bcin^; baptized, or their bodies 
being washed with water. They farlher »iippoM, that die 
Uraeliles " being baptized imto Mo««« in the doud and in Ihe 
Hea,"tDentioaed bySt.Paul, 1 Cor.x. '2, iQean» iheir nntc-riug 
into the Mosaic covenant by the rite of baptism ; and that 
when, therefore, in after egea, any became proselyl4Jft, or en- 
tcrud into this covenant, they also were baptized. 

Godwin seeuis to think John's baptism was of ibis sort. 
But, it IK cerl.iiii, that could nut prop(>rly be proaelyle bap- 
tiani ; because he administered it to such as were Jews al- 
raedy, and he liad uo commisaion to set up a new dinpensa- 
tJon, (o which people ahoittd be admilte-d by (his c>r ftny nlher 
rite, lie, only Kvre notice, that the kingdom of God, or the 
gospel dispensation, waa at hand ; bat it did not comtnenoe 
till after hin death, namely, at our Saviour's resurrection : and 
proaely tc baptism was a form of professing a new religion, at 
letuit new to the person profe»&ing it, and of his being ad- 
mitted a member of a church of which he was not one before. 
It was, therefore, I say. of a very different nahire from John's 
baptism. His is rather to be considered as one of those 
" divem washings," in use among the Jews ou many occasions; 
fur he did not attempt to moke any alteration in the Jewish 
rehgion as aettled by the Mosiiic law, any more than to erect 
a new dispeosation. And as these washings wene intended, 
not only for " the purifying of I he flesh." but to be signs and 

fmholfl of moral purity; so the rite of baptism was, in this 

!w, very fiuiiablc to the doctrine of repentance, which John 



[ftooK ir 

It ii a fnrtlier snppowiion of OoHwin'n, Ihnt our Saviour 
converted thi^ Jcwioli proHcOytc bapuraa into a Cbriittian ta- 
crament. Upon this notion Dr. Wall* hath founded an argu- 
ment for baptizing children as well ns ndult persons ; becatue, 
when a parent was proselyted, all his children were beptixed, 
» well aa all his male children ciFcumctMd, But as boptifim 
was adiiiinlst^red. according to the Jewish doctorx, only to 
the children born before his pro*clvti«m, not to auv bom aftt-i- 
wards, nor to bin more dintnnt posterity, who were estoenwd 
holy brancheii, in virtue of ttprin^in^ from nn holy root if 
some infer, that under the Chrixtiiin diKpcnnation baptisin is 
only to bo tulMiint&tcrcd to couvcrta from Judiiisni, Mahomet- 
anism. Paganism, or soioe other religiou, and to their de- 
9cendant« born before their convcnfioii and baptism, but to 
none bom after. Mr. Rmlyri, in particular.^ inuist* upon tbia 
argument against the constant and univcrval obligation ol 
infant boptism. 

But, after all. it reniainn to I>e proved, not only that 
Christian baptism was iaHtituted in ihe room of proHelyte 
baptism, but that tlie JewH had any such baptism in our Sa- 
viour's time. The eariieist accouuls we have of it are in the 
Mifthna aud Gemara;^ the former compiled, as the Jews 
asiiert, by Rabbi Juda, in the second century, though learned 
men in general bring it several centuries lower; the latter, not 
till th^ jieventh century. There in not a word of it in Philo ; 
nor yet in Joeephus. though he gives an account of the pro- 

* Se« ll>« lotToductmn to hu liiMoiy of InGuit Dapuim. 

t It nu A iDioini with ilie labbies, " Nstui Itaptiuii habeiur pro bapu- 
salo." ThiB iTMricUon of baptam lo dilldtvn born before dieir parenu' 
proKlytisin, ntu va the «nc amhDrhy a* tke nMoa of bapduag nu} 
diihlMD of prasdyie, wkicb ^ipcan from Dr. Wtll. 

I Prerioiu Quesiion to Mvcrtl QacsliaH aboiii vaUd aod Javabd Bapiiim. 

^ Tlic Miihtui u a coUcctioo of tlu Je«i4i uwUtioai and nplainuoD* 
of Kvenl panagcs of Scripton. The Goin&n u k norl of gloHwjr od ihc 
Mbhas; imliheK Mgedwrmtke upihcTsliniid. Thm are iwoGemuai, 
ihai of JtniMleni uul ibol of Bobylou, iht lotler of which is moatvaluMl. 
Ttw J«nia«len) Gtman, Falhct Marin [>roiea fnta ibe worit oavlt, in wtuch 
tacntMra is msdc of tlie Turks, could no4 lijiv« been moU till Um time of 
ll«racliu*, about tht jtMi 620. lli* Ccntani of Btbylon mm bogitn by 
OM Am, III die bvKiiiniiig of the 4«t«ntli ccuiury, uhJ on accooni of the 
war* between ibe Sanc«n» and IVniaR*, ducuntiiiued (or ttveety-duce 
yrnnt aoA ihm ftniihed hj ono Jom, 

OHAP. 111.] 



selyting of the Idumennft b_v Hyrcanus. Indeed, on thi» 
occHnion, lie mcnuons only circumcioioa ha the rite of initia- 
tion, and saith, that upon receiving this rite, and liring ac- 
cording to the Jewish law, tJiey from that lime became Jews.* 
And nolwitlihtatidin^ be speukti ot Jutiii's bapti&ui, yet it ifl 
nnder a very differeui notion froni tlie proselyte baptism 
spoken of by the miftbnical rabbit's. " This good man," saith 
he, "did ilerud kill, who exhorted Uie virtuoii», just, and 
piouA, to come to his baptism ; fur he looked upon haptiiwi to 
be ncceptable lu God, when used, not for purging away cer- 
tain oHencvfl, but fur punfying the body, the iioul having been 
before cleansed by righteousness. ''t So that he makes John's 
bapliKm lo be of ttie nature of the Jewish purificaLions, or 
rerrmonini wafthings, without having any reference to protwi- 
Ivte baptism; which, on this occasion, he could hunlly have 
failed mentioning, if it had bt^en then i[i use. 

It U alleged, however, in favour of its antiquity, that it is 
roentiooed by Arrian, who lived A. 1). 160; fur, speakiuf^ of 
a philo«opher*9 obligation to act agreeably to his cb&mcter, be 
hatii this illuittratiou : " If we see any one change hiii profes- 
«ion," or become a Jew, " we do not for that reason style hira 
a Jew, but regard him as an hypocrite. Yet when he dis- 
corers the disposition and manners of one who is baptized, 
rov iitfiafituvoii, and enlisted in Uiat sect, then he botli ia. 
and ifl c^led, a Jew."}; 

But to tills it is replied, tlmtnothitig was more common 
than for the heathens to confound the Jews and Christians. 
Even Festn». who governed for some time in Judea. seems 
lo have taken the Christians only for a sect of the Jewa ; Acts 
UT. 19, 20, Suctumus 8|>eaks of an insurrection made by 
U» Jewa, " impulaore Cfare8to/'§ And it is most likely that 
Arrian meant Christians in the place alleged, because in his 
time iiifuiy persons became proselytes to Christianity, but few 
or tiooe lo Judaism, the Jews, who were scattered amongst 
all natjotu, being every where oppressed and despised, lie- 

' Anliq. Ub. xiii. cup. ii. wcl. i. torn, i- p. 669, «lit Hartrt, 

) Anii(|. liU iviii. cap. v. sect. ii. tatD. i. p. fSB3, 884^ edit. Ilaverc. 

I Cofnmenl. in Epklel- liTi. ii. cap. ix. p. 192, edit. CanUb. 1655. 

' f Snctoa in nt. ClnuiliJ, cap. uv. uxi. xii.; el Annol. ia toe. ton. ii. 

p. ST, tdit PIriKi. 




ndtl» if he httd spoken of pmsulvtas tn Juflninm, it is liiglily 
probftbla hu would hare tnenltDiied their cimimciHion, for 
wblcli the boatheu8 dendud tbeni, nther than their baptism, 
irhkfa wu not lo very foreign to itome of the heathen rit«« uf 

Upon ihe whole, it h more likely the Jews took the hint of 
proeclyte biiptisni from the Clinstinns, after our Saviour's 
time, thbn that he borrowed his baptitm from theirs; which, 
whenever it came into practice, was one of tliose uddiiiotis to 
the law of Ood, which he Bovcrely cunaares ; Matt. xv. U. 
To thi* U i» probable Justin Martyr refer*, in his dialutpie 
with Tr^-jtho, when, among the Jen-ish heh}>*iieii or sects, he 
mciitionR that of the iiamifTTuf, baptizcri*.* From hence it 
should seem, that in his time, about the middle of the fiecond 
century, proselyte 1>apti»im wsm a novel practice, and hnd not 
yet uiiiverHalty previiiled. 

However that be, there wants more eridence of itii being 
M ancient as onrSiiviour'^ time than I apprehend can be |ko 
dsced, to grotmd nny ar^menl u[Ktn it in relation to Chritt- 
tian bnptiiim. Wo. therefore, dismiiMt ihbt form of the sdntts- 
sion (rf priiselytVH aa uncertuin.'f 

3dly. 'Vh« mbbies tell us, the proselyte wait to oHvr n 
Bacriflco on ocraaion of hi? nduiiNMion, In the (treMince (>f tlirf<> 
witnesecs, not mean, but respecl^ible and houonmlile p«<r«niiH. 

Thus much concerning the form and iimnncr of adniiiun^ 

Thirdly. Wo aro to consider the eti'eote and conMcqncncuii 
of being imdu a proselyte. 

1st. The prowlylc was now considered as born agom. I( 
was a ■Mying smong the Jew«, that " when a man im madd a 
fUtHhfU, be is like a i)e«-bom infant," and " he huth a new 
■mI." This i« rniiposed to throw some bghpl on our Stivionr'a 
reproof (o Nicodemtta. '' An thou a fnaatar in larael, and 
knowcst not those thin^ V John iii. 10; tltat ift, whiit twing 
" born again" means? For, it seeau, Nicodeoiu, appnihend- 
iug u Jew was never to be a proselyte to any other religion, 

' A|iuil liftm, p. 307, A. wlit Pkh>, 1612. 

t till dw xubJKt uT pitAclyir lM|>tiini, *eu lijf^i&Mtt, ll>v. Ueb. ad 
Man. %ki. 0, uii) lUnn. bJ Juh. iti. 33. ScMvn, d* Jure Not. el G«ttt. 
Tib, ii <»\>. ii. ; iNntL-uUri)' Wairn InUududton lo tiii UiMovr of lalWcl 
B«pu*ni, ukI Ode'* Ofldcction* m ^^'all, leu. vl. x 




did not know how ti.> unUerMantI it otherwise tlian of "entet- 
iog • Hecund time Into the womb, ami beuig boru/' rot. 4. 
'WboM* h«. who wQ9 a master in Israel, and probably a 
memha of the threat council or Sanhedrim, might hare been 
expected to com[)rehetid tlie force of our Lord'A phnut^ology 
from the coaunon urc of the like expreeuons concernii^ those 
who became pro<ielyte«.* 

2dly. The bond of natural relatitui, betwixt the proselyte 
and all his kindred, was now diasolred. WhercfoK' it was a 
maxim with the rabbies, that a proselyte might lawfully m^ry 
his own mother, or his own daughter, bora tiofore he became 
a proaeljrte, they being now no more related to him than nnv 
other women : though Huch marriages wvtv looked upon ns 
indecent, and on that account not permitted.i- Some have 
auppoaed our Saviour refers to the pro«el>te'ti renunciation of 
hia natural relations wheu he aaith, " If any man come uulo 
roe, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and chil- 
dren, and brethren, iind sinters, yea, and hi^own life also, he 
cannot be my dittctplo ;" Luke xjv. 20. And ihat the same is 
aUudud to in the following passive of the Paalmiflt ; " Hearken, 
O daughter, and incline thine ear ; forget also thine own 
peo|^ and thy father's hooEe;" Pbulm xlv. 10. Tacitus, in 
bin charnctur of the .lews, having meutioiied iheir custom of 
eireuiucittion, as udopLed by proitelytes, iidda, "They then 
qinekly It^arn to denpisc the gods, to renounce their counti^, 
ud to hold their parciitH. children, and brethren, in the nt- 
moal contarapt."J And wry probably Ihi-i unnatural con- 
tempt, which the Jewish doctors taught protelytea to entertain 
of their nearest retationR, might be oiK- thJiit; on account of 
which they are aaid to have "made them twofold more the 
chilrlren of hell than themselvea;" Matt, xxiii. 1.5. 

3diy. The proselyte was now to all tntenta and purpoHCH a 
Jew,^ Olid entitled to a ithure in the privileges and ble&sings 

* £«« LlKhtfool, lloni; lleb. Iti liy. 

t l-iglttltwi, Uor. it«b. ftd Juh. iii. 3, aod S«ldeu, (li> Jure Nau ci Gent 

I T»ctt. Ilwtnr- lib. ». tap, ». 

) C«nmlt NiiKih. XV. 15, Enh. vSl IT, and Jotephua, in dM place 
aboirv ciml coDenrnirtft On MvncaiMi, wben b« tmiHt, ifiil Iwinj ctreum- 
cited and hoinf ac«ontiitf{ to the law at Muwi, Uivy WL-ti- Crum that nme 
Jewt> ra X«rov lotilatw- 



of Boch. He was to be treated with ihe ntmoBt respect and 
kindnen:* no native Jew mii^ht upbratil lum with hut former, 
idolatry aud wtckedneiui. Vel it in certain the Jews wen* in} 
geoerol apt to look willi a very evil eyu upon provelytes, e8|: 
ciitlly on those who had been Samaritans i for they tiioujfhtj 
themselves alloncd to hrtte Samaritans, even though they be- i 
came proselytes, bccautt:^ their iinceKiorH obstnictsd the ro-l 
building the temple and the holy city ; and for this they would . 
never forgive ihcm. thoiigli by aflmittiliL; them as proselvtes i 
Ihey Ucclannl their faith outl hope tliat God had forgiven Uiem. 

According to the rahbies, proselyteH were excluded fmiai 
many civil advantages, or privileges of the commonwealth, toj 
which Uraclltra by descent were entitlcd.f Certain it m. tb«^ 
luw made a difference between one nation and another, oa 
what is called "entering into the con^regaticoi of the l<ord;*'' 
Deut. xxiii, beginning. Hdowites and Egyptians had thiai 
privilege in tlie ihird generation, ver- 7, H ; though their ira* 
tnediate children wore excluded, their grandchildren were I 
admitted. An Ammonite or Moabite was excludod even " to] 
the tenth generation." naith the law, or, as it is added, "foe 
ever;" which the Jewa take to be explanatory of tlie tenth 1 
generation, ver. 3. The law was certainly thua underBtood'J 
in Nehemiah's time : " On that day they reud in tlie Innik of i 
Moses ia the audience of llie ix^^plc ; and theieiii was found 
written, that the Anunonite and the Moabite shoald not entar-j 
into the congregation of God for ever, &c.; and it came laJ 
pau, when they had bearti the luw. that they separated 
Israel all the mixed multitude;" Nehcm. xtU. 1~^. 
turds were, Ukewiue, under the wune exclusion to the tentlftl 
generation, though nut forever; Deut. xxiii. 'J. 

It iit not certain what is mc^nl by not " eiitenng into lliet 
coQgr^j^tion of the Lord." It cannot be, as Ainsworth rig;litly . 
obMma,t ixit adapting the faith and rehgion of Israel, and 
entering into the church in that respect ; because it was bw-J 

* Sos s T«inirk«bla pwgw in FUlo, lib, i. d« Huairrhii. »piMl 
p. 6ai,932, F. G. A. tdh. Colon. AUobr. 1612. 

t Vid. 8dd«&, do Jure Nauini n Gful. lib. ii. asp. i*. Op«. IMS. I.., 
p. tM — IM; « 4m Scjrotdr. lib. U. csp. tiii. Con. ti. p. ISM, h Mq. edit. 
Lmd 1744, 

I [Aloe. 

rnAf. lit.] 



ful fur all so to do ; Exod. xii. 48. 4^. The IIcbri>w duvtora 
geucrally understand by it. u prolubiUDn of tht^ Israelite); nmr- 
ryu)2 witli tiuch ponons »k ure iinrc cxclndud.* To tltr-s it is 
objected, tliut " lie wlio is wuuiided tti genila/ifms, cut aaut 
atlriif vei aotputnti leslti, or who 'm totally ciuilrated, cut 
abscUtum est vcrrfrum, is, likewise, eicludcd," ver. I. Now, 
siy tliev. it would be KuperRuous to forbid women to ninrry 
with Riieh pi-rKOiis, becaiute il cannot bo suppo^d they would. 
It may net-ertheleag be replied, tliougb such a prohibition might 
prob.d]ly he nei-dlees, when this their defect was known, it 
might be ref^uisile to forbid such potsuns marrying, when it 
wa« secret, as they mii^ht be inclined lo do for »cver»] pohtic 
reasons. Dr. Patrick, tlii^rofore. understands by the mixed 
multitude, which ii) the forccitc<l pasnageof Nchemiah we arc 
told, Htta sepftratod from lAmcl by this law, such as were born 
of Htrun(;en«, who were not allowed to partake of the rites of 
mamage with itaiielitei). 

Bui the opinion concerning cntorlng into the congregation, 
ntoet commonly received among Chrigtian writers. Jh. that it 
Mgaitieit being perinilLed to bearanyotTicc in the Jewish com- 
luouweolth. Ami it is certain, «aith Dr. Patrick, the Hebrew 
word Vip kakai, which we render congregalion, does in many 
places signify, uot the whole body of the people of Urjul, but 
the great assembly of elder*. Those who prefer this sense, 
assign as a reason why eunuchs of all sorts were excluded ns 
well as slrnugers, that they arc generally observed to want 
connge, and arc therefore unlit fur government.. 

We proceed now to Uic otlior sort of proselytes, whom the 
Jewish doctors style nyc ^IJ gere thnnvnar, " slraniiers of ihc 
gate," from an expression which several times t>ceurK in the 
Mosaic law, "The stranger that i» within thy gste," see 
UeuU xiv. 21. Or ulhcrwiee ihey are called SCnn v^ gere 
tmluibh. Thu* in Leyiticus we read of "strangers that so- 
joumod" among the Israelites, D^Tii D*3annn halt nijui him 
hai^orim. her. xxv- 45. These were foragncrs, who did nob 
embrace the Jewish religion (nnd are, therefore, improperly 
called proselytes), yet " were sulforcd to live among the .lew s." 
under certain Kstrictions, As, 

1st. That thoy should not prncttsc idolatry, nor worship 

• ViJ. Sel(lci>.<I« Juic NaUiiv « (ivM. tib.v. cap, xt i (^>p«!», Ion), i. p- iI6. 



leooK I. 

any other god iKrnide the God of Israel; which, under thtfj 
Tlieocricy, was rniwH lata m^ettatis. and therefore not tq] 
Ik tolerated : " flo that av:rificelh unto any god. save tlic; 
Lord, he rihall uiteHy l>e destroyed ;'' Kxod. xxii. 2U. 

2dly. That t)iey should not bkutpheuie the God of Iivaelt 
" He that blaxphemeth the name of the I<ord ahal) xurely ha' 
put to death ; hr well the stmn^cr as he that is bom in th«i 
land;" Lev. xxtv. ML And ]K'rlia|M also. 

Sdly. That they >ihould keep the Jewish ubbath; so far at' 
but as to rcfmin rrom working on tJiat day. For in the] 
fomth command ruent the obhgation of obMerring the sahba-' 
tieal rest is expressly extended to the " Btranger that wat^ 
within their gate«;" Exod. xx. 10. 

So long as they lived under these restrictions in a peaeaabl^ij 
manner, the Israehtes wen? forUd to " vex or oppreas them;* 
Exod. xxii. 21. NerertheleAs they might buy alaven out of' 
their families, as well as of the heathen that were romid 
about them; Lev. xxv. 44, 45. But of Uieir brethren, the 
Israelites, they were forbid to make slaves, ver. '.19, M). It 
was lawful to lend upon usury to these strangere. though itj 
was not to an IsraeUto; L)eut. xxiii. 20. They might call 
that which died of itself, which was prohibited to an Israehte;. 
Deut. xiv. 21. By the stranger, therefore, who was forbiddea 
to "eat blood and that which ilii-d of itself," Ler. xvii. 12. 16^, 
we must necessarily understand a proselyte of righteouaneas. 
And such also, the Jewish dfx:ton say, is the strai^n taen*. 
tioned in tho fourth conunandment, who waA obliged to koppl 
the iabbath ; it being, in their apprehension, nnlawtii) for any 
ancircumciHed pcmou to obnrve the law of Moses, bacanae 
it wu given peculiarly to Israel : *' Moaea commanded ns « 
law, even the inheritance of the oongr^ation of Jacob;" 
Dout. xxxiii. 4 : in particular the law concerning the sabbath ; 
"Therefore the children of Israel xhaLl keep th« sabbath. Id 
obMm the nbbath throughout their genentioiM for a per- 
petual oovuiant. It is a sign betwixt me and the cbildrm of 
Israel tor ever;" Kxod. xxxi. 16, 17. But in cotirJudinfi 
from htmce. thai none except native IsrecUtes, and such as 
bad joined themselves to their church, went obliged by tho 
law of the sabbath, they aeem to forget, that it was girea to 
Adam, and ooiMequentiy to alt mankind ; (ten- ii. 3. There 




M DO impropriety, therefore, in rappoAing, tfiAt these uncir- 
cumciMd itruigera were comprehended in the fuurth coin- 
mudmeot. Besides, it seems reawiuible, that Uiej should be 
obliged to rest on the JewiKh sabbath, lct;t their Ttorking or 
recreations should disturb and hinder the devotion of the 

These strangers were, moreover, permitted to womhip the 
Ooil of Israel in the outer court of the temple; which for 
that reaaon mtos called " Ibe court of the Gentiles ;" to which 
tfaare is a reference io the charge giTen to the angel in the 
book, of the Revelation, to measure the temple of God. sad the 
altar, and them that worship therein; but the court which t« 
without the temple, to leare out, and measure it not ; because 
it is given to Uiu Gentiles; Rev. xi. 2. Betwixt Uiis and tlie 
inner court, where the Israelites asMnablcd, there was a wall, 
to which the apostle Paul ulludtai; " For he is out pcacu. 
who hath made both <Jews aod Gentiles) one, and bitlli 
broken down tlte middle wall of partition between \xa;" Epb. 
ti. 14. For such wonbippert as these strangers, and fur their 
■occptonce with God, Solomon prayed at the dedication of 
the temple : " Moreover, cooeermug aa trunger. (hat i« not of 
thj people Israel, but concth out of a far country, for thy 
name's sake (for they shall hear of thy great name, and of Uiy 
•traaghantL.andof thy stietched-out arm), when ht; ^hiiUcomQ 
and pray toward this boune. hear tbou tn heaven thy dwell* 
ing place, and do according to all that the stranger callctb to 
, tliee for ; that all the people of the earth may know thy name 
'lo fear thee, as do thy people Israel;" 1 Kings viii. 41 — 43- 

The numbera of these strangers, who dwelt among the 
, Isnrlfies, were very considerable ; we find oo less than one 
[bndred fifly-three Lbouaand six hundred of them, lo Hol^- 
HM'a time, employed in aorile labour. 2 Chron. ii. 17. 18- 
This is the vom of what can b« gathered from Scripture 
eoficemiag the ^yt? nj) gtrt ihangMor, or xnn toshahk. 

Bat tbe talmndicat rabbiea have made prosdytcfl of all thesa 
strangers and sojourners.* at least, of all who were m the 
land of Israel when the Jews were their own mastan. and 
oot in subjection to any foreign power; fur they confess, in 
that case, tliere was no preventing heathens dwelling among 
• Vid- S«14cn. d« Jun TfUur* at Gant. bb. ti. t*p. m. 



[book 1. 

rticm, even Uiough tlioy refused lo Bubniit (o titp rc*triciioni 
of tlic law ; they Bay, therefore, there were no pronclyles of the 
gate in inch timet: but that at other timeft no Gentile wns 
pprtnittc<i lA dwell in the Innil of litm<^1, without boin^ n pro-.. 
sriylc of the gate ; thnt is, without submitting to, anU obcyinj 
tlie tirTcti pnicqitH, which the rabbiea pretend God gave 
Noah nnd his sons, and vrhich, Dccortlin}T to them, comprised' 
tJu' law of nature, commaii to all mankind. 

Thcbe hare been usually styled the xtplem prartrpta .\o 
chidarum;* by which tliey were required to abfulaiii frui 
idolntry. from blasphemy, from munler, from udubery, from' 
theft: to infltitutc judgeti to maintaio the laws; and not to 
cat tlie lleah of any animal, cut otf while it wns alive. 

Mainumidcs saith, tiiu first six precepts iverc given to 
Adam, and the seventh to Nuab.1- 

But what creates a suspicion, thnt this is alt invention of^ 
the tiilmtidislfi, is, that there ig no mentiuo of these tvCf en 
precepts being given to the Noachidte. in Scriptnrc. in Onkc- 
los, in Jut)cphu», or iu Pbilu; and tliat neither Jerome, nor 
Origen, nor any of the ancient fathers, appear to have been 
in the leatt acqiudntcd witli them. 

However, M>mething like tbe seventh wiis undoubtedly 
given to Noah and his posterity: "The flesh with the 111 
thertyrf", which is the blood tbcrvof, shall ye not tat;" Gen. 
ix. 't. Under this restriction, tliey had, presently after the 
flood, pennission to eat all eorta of animal food: " Every 
moving thiu;^, tliat Uvcth, shall be meat for yon ; even as the 
green herb have 1 given you ail tilings," ver. 3. Fnjui 
whence it has been generally coiicluil«d, that theantediluviaott 
UKcd oidy vegetablea; which seems, indeed, to he tbc only 
kind of food Ood allotted for man at his ca-ntlon ; Gen. i. 2U, 
30. Nevertheless, immediately after the tlotxl, Uu> iwrmiision 
is extendeil to " every moving thing that lireth;" (hat it, to 
all kind of animals that are tit for food, without any aucfa dis- 
tinction between clean and unclean as was afterward made 
umli-r the Jewish law. 

Some have, indeed, maintained tJio contrary opinion; nip- 

* Vitl. Soltteu. di Jitn Naturw el Gont. lib. i. c«p. %.; ci ShManl ill 
jure Rncio, cum Noiis Catpw. p- 3D3, w »i!i|, 

( \tf ItMnhtii, my ii ^ idiL apud Cmiii FuciaiL oomwi. p 133 




posinc^, thut the iijic of nnimal food was incltidetl m the gu- 
uenl ^mnt of power and dominion which God guve to 
Adam over the brntc creation ; Gen. i. 26 — '2S. 

The chief iir^umoiiLs to prove that animal food vas not 
used before the deJugc are,* 

1st. That God's ^nuit of the use of his creatarcs for food 
to Ailam. is expressly restrained to the vegetable creation. 

3<ily. The scripture history is wholly silent conceriitiig the 
use of animal food before the flood. 

3dly- If animal food had been then permitted, there could 
have been no reason for this new grant which God gave to 

The chief nr^ments, alleged on the Mher nide, arc taken, 

Ut. From the lii&tory of Abel's sarrificp ; which is said to 
have consisted of the " Arstlings of his flock, and tbu fat 
thercofi" Gen. iv. 4. Now, it having never been usual to 
otter any thing in sacrifice to God, but what was useful to 
man, it In conchided from thig account, that anirualii were 
at Uiat time used for food. KevcrthclcM!), tills will nut fol- 
low, because Abel's flock might be kept for the sake of the 
milk and wool, whicli reader Uicse creatures exceedingly ser- 

It roust bo owned, lliat the particular mention of the fai, 
in the account of this sacrifice, nii<;hl incline one to tliink tt 
wart a peace-nflering ; the fat of which was f»>usumcd upon 
the nltar, and the HeHh cat by the person at whose charge the 
oHering was made, and by tlio priests : I>cv. i(i. per totuni ; 
chap. vii. 15. '^. But the utKx of the word p.'nhn chribelua, 
which wo translate " the fut ihcreof," should mtltcr be ren- 
dered, " of them;" namely, of the tinitilings of his flock ; inti- 
mating, not cliat ho offered the fat uf the niiimnl, hut the 
fattest or best amongst them, llic word ihn chifleih is ohcn 
used for the best of its kind, whatever be the tliuig spoken 
of. Thus 7(m\ 3^n chttebh chitlah \& well rendered " the 
liuest of the wheat:" Fsalui Ixxxi. IG; cxlvii. 14. Tlio fat 
of the oil and the fat of the wine, mean the beat of their 
kind, as our tranalaton have rendered it; Numb* xviii. 12. 
The ■• fat of the land," meMn« the best of it* produce ; Gen. 
zlv. IH. Thus it seemfi most natural to unduretand the word 
* On dii* AAuk cMi-mlt lleidog^sr. \VMot. Vunatth. Mm. i. nctcH. xv- 



[K90K I. 

3^1 cJKitM, in th« prcscut case ; importiDg that AM brouglit 
the bc«t of his flock for *a offering to the Lord : Lhu wc sup- 
poM was a whok burat-offering, or mcrificc of atooeioenc; 
which, accordinf; to the law aftenrard (riven to Moscm, was 
entirely consunici) on the altar, except the skin, which waa 
I ihe pfieat'H i'ee, for killing and offering it ; Lev. vii. H. 

There were many utiier uortii of bacritices afterward up- 
pointed by Uie low of MuseK, which bad a political, as well 
RH retiirious u£e, as we sUowed in a former lecture. But the 
doiign of the whole bumt-otfenog was entirely rehgious. to 
imprcM the conacieDce with a waav of the d(f»er«-ed puaieli- 
ment of »in. and to typify the great atonement which Chmt, 
in due time, was to oifer. There was the same reason, there-' 
fore, for these sacrifices before the titac of Moses, as there 
was afterwards ; and it ia probable, that they were inatitutMl 
preacntJy after the foil, artd that of the skinii of the aoiaMla 
•lain for sacrifice, God made those gaimeiita for Adam and 
Eve. which ate S|mkeD of in the Uiird chapter of Genesis, 
ver. '2i ; that is, directed Uteui to make them ; a* Jacob is 
•aid to have made his son Joseph a coat of many coluur». 
Gen. notvii. 3, or ordered it to be made. 

Upon the whole, tbe history of Abel'i^ ttucri6ce afTonis oo 
proof of men's eattn;; animal food befon: the Hood. We pro- 
ceed, therefore, 

t^dlV' To another argutueut in favour of this opinion, built 
upon tlie diHtinctioD of the creatures mto clean and unclean, 
bofore Nuah riitvr«<l into tlie ark; Gen. ru.i. >'ow it iai 
■llagod, that wc cannot conceive of any cleanoew or uncloau- . 
BMS in those nnitnolft themselves; but merely as some are 
more 6t for food tlian otJiers. or as God in pleased to permit 
(be ase of aoinfl, and not of othera ; nnd thoicfore it is said. 
Ihit diatinctiun of them befure tlie flood must imply, that 
unipinl ftxid wn» ue>«<l at that time. 

To this it luu been replied by some, that the diatiuction is| 
nied by Moses, in his history of those early tinies, prolupti- 
cally- Cyreiiius is called govamor of Syria by St. Luke, iu 
feinting what ho did at tbe time erf* our Saviours birtli, tliongh, 
he was not made governor of Syhu till several yeoni after. 
So. we may suppoiie Moses, in his history of the deluge, 
f«Bg«s the animals that went into the ark, mlo clean and 

CHAP. lU.] 



udcIdou, occordiiic: to the distiactioD aiterword made bciwixt 
them by the law. and well known when he wrote. ThU 
answer, perhaps, hath too mach the air of a subterlugc to be 
ptnfwdy satiafactory* 

Suppose then we make thu reply, that the terms " clean 
and unclean" do not here respect the distiuctioa afterward 
made by the Jewieih law; but a natural dilfenuice, which may 
be otMorved in most of the creatures that God allowed or 
forbid to be eat by the Jew6. The clean have oo upper cut> 
lin{^ teeth, their fat hardens into suet, they rise up with their 
bind feet first; in all which respects they are the reverse of 
Iht unclean, isuch n distinction, therefore, men would na- 
turally make, not oidy wbeu animul food came to be used, 
but probably before. 

However, auppose it should respect the use of theoi for 
food. It will not follow, hecuuse Ood commanded abm-c three 
limes as'many more of the clean creatures, than of the un- 
clean, to be preserved in the ark, that men used them for 
forxl before the Hood. It seems mur<! probable, that this 
distinction was now first made, and a greater number of those 
whiofa were most fit for food preserved, merely because God 
IP tended to permit tlie u&e of litem in a very short time. 

There is another question oo this head, which should be a 
litlJc considered before we dismiss the subject: l-'or what 
reason were the antediluvians not allowed to malce une of ani- 
innl food, as well as Noah and his posterity after the flood 1 o 

The more commonW received opinion is, that it was to pra- 
senre their lives, that tiie world mifdit be speedily replenished 
with inhahitanta; because tliu free use of flash would impair 
their coostjUitioo, and shorten their days. Their loni^vity is 
accordingly imputed to their sobriety, and the simplicity of 
thoir diet, and in particular to their living only on vegetables. 
But this would make Ood's grant of animal food to Noah a 
can* intmd of a bkaaing. Besides, it is not certain, that 
the moderate use of it is at all prejudicial to liealt))- If it 
were, why hath God formed us with teeth so peculiarly 
adapted t« the maabcation of tt, and with a stomach auiiod to 
dif^l it! Bererovicitis, a Isanied physician.* is so far from 
beivig ooavioBid, that oatiiig fleah is uaa^utary, and tends to 

* VM *jiu Th«nunim Sflniiariii. lih. Si- ei spud Heid«gger. Hutet. Ps* 
iruRh. Imn I. esA. j^r. Af «onm leog. iseL ul 



[DOOK 1. 

•hMlen men's livei, that, ftokong several cfluteaorih* longevity 
j of tint aotediluviauii, one, which he auigiu, ia their eatin); r«w 
,0cfth; the best and moKt nouriahing parts of which he Hiip- 
pn«efi Iti he carrietl ulf in drcsHing by the nciioti of* ihe tire. 
Hut though there ik threat rcaMin to conclude the autetlilu- 
[▼mni ont no tlc8h, 1 can see no grxid reason to impntc their 
[longevity to abatainiof^ from it. or tu bel)e¥«, th»t it wa« for 
I the take of their health God did not allow thvni to use it. 

I dIiuU Utkc tlic liberly tnysvir to olfer a conjecture. Su|i- 
, posing the liveH of animal* were no longer ticlbre tlie flood. 
and consequontly their increase no greater than at preiHtni* 
' while the lives of men were ten times as long, aitd tlii'ir in- 
Icraaae eoDaociucully ten times greater; there wan Uien aii 
evident reason why animal food was not permitic<]. from Uis 
insufSeiiriit number of animals ; insomuch thnt the tiHe of them 
vould, probmbly, in u few ycara have dettruye<l llie whole 
•peciea. For now men's Urea are tshortened, and their in- 
crease ten timcA leu, there i* only such a proportion betwixt 
llic human and brutal species, as ordinarily prevents the want 
of animal food, without overstoctung us. Divme wisdom, 
thcrefure, did not make this f^rant till it thought lit to eontxart 
the hfe of nnin; which was immiidnitely ufter ilic deluge. 

CJodwin, who rolics on the authority of the tulratidicul rubhit-« 
. for his accomit of the pixnelytea of the g<ile. produces out of 
the Scripture hiatory four instances of such proselytes: Naa- 
nian the iSyrian, '2 Kings v.; Cornelius the Hoiuan centurion, 
Actsx.; the Kthio|iiao eunuch. Actsviii.27; and ihoae devout., 
tnen, avSptc (uXoiinc. *' out of every nation under heaven," 
who arc said to h*- du'eli>ii<; at JiTusidem, Acts ii. o. Bui 
Dune of these are Kulticient tu bupport thr nibbiuical account 
6f such proaelytcs. 

Ut. As for Natunan. who wa» bv birtti n .Syrian, and gene- 
nil of king Bcnhiidad's amty, he appeant to haw Ix-ru n Ocu- 
I tile idolater. But being miraculously cured of )m leprosy by 
>lhe power of the Oo«l of Ixrael.anil ilu^ direction of hiM prophet 
^i*ha,he renounced bin i4loliilr>', iieL.iiou'le'lgcil llii»(i<>'l lo Iw 
Ihe only true (iod, 2 Kings v. 15, — " Behold, now 1 know, that 
titare is no (iod in all thoenrlh, but in Israel," — and promisLvl. 
for the time Ut come, tluit hu wxiuld worship none oti)«T but 
Jfliovuli; vet. 17. lie also ret|ueKl4:d the prophet, thai be 
niighl have two muKV toad v( viiith to lurry humr with him 



fnim tlip land of Innu^l, most pr<.I>aWy intcmlini; (o boiUI an 
altar vith it in his own country ; aa ^c^Mns imtectl to he im- 
plied in the renson with which he enforcoa bis request: — " Shall 
there not, I pray thee, be piven to iliy w^rrnnt two muli-s* 
^burricn of e:irth : for lliy scrvnnt will henceforth offor neither 
biinitr-olFcring nor encriticf; to other gods, but unto JehoTah." 
ul/i supra. This nx]uei>t snenis to have been partiv founded 
on a HuperatitiouK opinion hu hud conceived of some peculiar 
faotioess und virtue in the earth of the coiinixy; so that he 
Aupposed an alt»r built of it woutd be more pleasing', and ren- 
der hiK Kacrifice more acceptable. to God, than if it were made 
of any otlicr materials. Periiaps he had formed this notion 
upon lindinf; such a miraculous virtue in the water of Jordan, 
that barely washing in it had utlected bin cnro ; and he con- 
cladi-d, therefore, the earth must have Ukewiso some extra- 
ordinary virtue. Yet he did not conceive this wan owing to 
any thin}; peculiar in the nature of that water and that earth ; 
but that God had miracolously infused into them this virtue; 
and he thought it, therefore, beut tu wonthip bim at on altar 
of that earth which he had peculiarly sanctified. 

Or. it may be. by thisBymbol of an altar built of the earth 
of the land of Israel, he meant to aif^ify bis conununioa uith 
that people In the worship of the inie Ood. 

Mo further dci^iired tbiit earth might he ci%'en him by llio 
prophet, probably HuppiMiing hi» consuDt and liiK hlexsing upon 
it wduld render it more efficacious for the acceplabtencss of hb 
sacrihce, than if he bad taken it without hi» perraiiuion. 

He further say»," In this the Lord [Kirdon thyfterviint, that 
when my master goe» into the house of Rimmon. to worship 
there, and Jie Icancth upon ray hand, and 1 how mynelf in the 
house of Tlimmon ; when I bow down in the house of Rim- 
moo, the Lord pardon thy Mervanc in .thin thing," vcr. 18: 
which Home undemtand to be a reserve, denoting he would 
renounce idolatry no farther than was consiatcnt witli his 
worldly inlcreat, with his prince's favour, and his placn ut 
court. 13ut if »o, the prophet wouUl hotdiy have dismiaaed 
luD) witli a blcMiiifir, sayinif, "Go in peace;" ver. 19. 

<)lbern therefore -iiippone. ihat m ihest- words he bega par- 
don ftirwhnt lie h;u) dune in time* past, not for what he nhould 
continue to do. 



[BflOR I. 

They obBurTQ, diat ^jrtTin&Ti tuthtachMtki, though reDd«rod 
ID the future tense by the 'rai^^uin, and by all the ancient 
vefwoiu. IB reallv the preter|>«rfect; und tbey, tbereCore. un* 
derstand it, "when I have bowod myself," or " becuuM; I 
hare bowed myself" in the house of liimmon. the Loid puidon 
thy Kcrrant. With ihift bvubv Di. Ligbli'oot agrees,* uud it 
i» defended by the U-^oed Bocbart in a large dii»6ertatioii on 
tiio COM of Kaaman. Yet to mc it doeti not accm very 
prubable, lU^, if be locaut this for a |»«nitential acknow- 
ledgment of hi& former idolatry, he should only mention what 
be had done as the king's servmnt, and uot his own voluntary 
worshi{iping the idol. 

The more probable opiaton, therefore, is, that he consulted 
Uic pro|)bet, whether it was lawful for him, having renounced 
idolatry and publicly professed the worship of the true Cfod, 
still, in virtue of hiit office, to attend hia master in the temple 
of Rimmon, in order that be utigbt Itsan ufwn him, either out 
of state, or perhap« out of bodily weukncsa; becaUM if he 
attended him, ns be had formerly done, he txiulj nut avoid 
iKiwing down, when be did. To this the prophet returua no 
direct answer; lest, if on the one band he had declared it 
unlawful, he «honld bnve too much dinconraged tlits new con* 
vert, before he was wet) cstabbshed in the true religion ; or 
if, on the other, be had declared it lawful, he should seem to 
give countenance to idolaLrv> He, therefore, m»de no other 
reply, but" (3o in peace." < 

After this we have no further mention of Nsaman. But 
in the following uccounl of the wars betwixt Syria and Israel, 
Benhftdad neeras to bav« eoounanded his army in person: 
from whence Mr. Bedfordf infers, that Naaroan was dis- 
missed from the commaod. for refusing to worship Rimmon. 
But the preiniHetf arc not sufiictenl to cuppori the conclusion; 
for it appears that Benhadad bad commaudcd his army in 
person twio« before ; once in ihe siege of Samaria. 1 Kin^ 
XX. 1, and oneo at Aphek. ver. 2^). Yet froiu the total Milesoe 
conoenung Kaaman i( m probably enough conjectured, that 
be either died, or nagned, or was dismissed, soon after bis 

* Vi4. lUr. Il<4)r. lu Uiko iv. 3T- 

t See hit Senpoin! rhimtoloitj, p- «tT, ediuLooi. IT». 




Wdl ! bat tfauu^h Naainan renonooed idolatry, and became 
ft worahipper of Ui« inie God ; yet he could not be a prot^ 

>|yte of the gnte, acoordiag to the account the tidniudists give 
of tficHp prosi^lvtcfl, because he did uot dwell in the land of 

'Jfiraul, but returned into Syria. If, therefore, he became a 
pro«clytc at all, it muitt huTc been a proaelyte of Uie ootb- 
it; though, perhBiw, when he lived in another country, 

'4facR was DO need, lu order to tux being lui acceptable wor- 
shipper of the true God. for hi» submitting to the whole Jew- 
itih Uwr. We are rather, therefore, to account him a pious 
Gentile, than a Jewitih proselyte. 

Tradition reportit. thai Gehazi, the prophet'x servant, bein^ 
struck with the lepioey, moved Naaman to erect a hoepital 
for aucb unhappy penioDB at Damascus. Thevunot tells us, 
thut Lliere la such a hospital, richly endowed, just by the 
wails (if that city, which owns Naaman for its founder.* 

It may not be amiss to oba«rTe fram Dr. Patrick, that 
Naaman 's waa the only miraculous cure of the leprosy, re- 
corded in the Scripture history, till Christ the great prophet 
came into the world. And bow beneficent a miracle it was, 
wc may conclude from the account which Muundrell g;ireH of 
that disease in those parts of the wodd.i- He says, it HitTer^ 
much from that which is found amongst ua; it defiles the 
ulutlc surface uf Lbe body witli a foul scurf. deforms the jointa, 
uurticularlv at the wrists and unclcK, which swell with a gouty 
Hcrofutous substance, very loathMme to look on. The legs of 
those that are atTccted with this distemper, look like oa old 
battered horse's; in short, it may pass fur the utmost comip> 
tioit of the human body on thin side the gmre. 

The next Scripture instance of |>roseIytes of die gate, men- 
tioned by Godwin, is Cornelius, the Homau centurion ; whon 
character is. that he waa " a devout man, and one that feared 
God with all Ids bouae, who gave alma to the people, and 
prayed tuOiKi always;" Acts X. '2. Yet it is erident. he was 
in no sense aJewish proselyte, because, in tlie account of the 
Jews themselves, be was an unclean person, such a one as it 
vrna not lawful for them to keep company with. Nor would 

• See Ms Tr»«h ut ihr Leraiit, part k. book i. chap, it 
f Sot hb Meond Letter to Mr. (Hborn. at llw vnd of hu Juanej tram 
Akppo to JcniMkia, p. 1 JO, 111, vda. 7. Oxiixd. l7-4». 



[book I. 

Pdrr liftvo cowc into h'n houK, if ho hnd notbc\<n inslructrd 
eo to itu by a opeciiil rvvvlation ; wUich U|i|H.>un( tVOin iJic 
manDOT of tiis jnsliryini; this vUti to Corneliuti, bo contmry 
to tile rvccived mtuinis of t\w Jews : " Ve knuw." Mith lie, 
" ihut it lA nil unlawful thing for a man that i« a Jrw to 
keep MUupoDy with, or couie nnto oue of another aatioo ; 
but God haf) showed mo that I should not call any ninii com- 
mon, or unclean: therefore came 1 unto you willioiit gnin- 
Bii}-ini;, as hood as 1 watt buuI for ;" Acts x. '2S, 29. Thu Jew- 
ish Clirttttiann at Jurusnleni, hkcwise, bhuiicd PcUt fur this 
visit: " Thou wcntest," say they, " to men uncircumcisctl, and 
didst cat with them," chap. xi. 3; which nhows. that thi-y 
did not look upon him at all as a prowlytp. fur with such th«y 
might lawfully converse and eat. However, he was, tndcod, 
of the character St. Peter mentions, one "who ft>aiwd OikI, 
and wrought nghleousne«8, and was accepted of him." chap, 
X. 32; notwitlutaiidiDfr, he was no way related to the Jews, 
except in tlie worship of the one true God. 

We may obsen'e farther, that Cornutius could not be b 
prof)«lyte of the gate, according to tlie talmudist«' account, 
becaiue the Jewinh nation was at that time umler the Ruinan 
yoke; and in circumstances, according to ihem, tlR-re 
could be no such pro«elytc«. That he was not a prom-lyie of 
tJie covemint is plain, hucausc he and his family and friemla 
were the hrst fruits of the Uentites. Ho was, therefore, in no 
sense a Jew, or a prosclvte. 

As for the £thio|iian eunuch, whom Philip convened to 
the faitii of Christ, and baptized. Acts viii. '2ii, et seq., he 
also is improperly rvckoned nmou}; the proaelytesof Uie ^te, 
fur tile same reason tJiat Naauion itt, becauto he did not livu 
in tlie land of Judea ; and for ibe same reason that ComdiiitJ 
is. )>ccaufic the Jews were not then their own maslent, but I 
subject to a funngn power; for at such a time, Uiu rabbi 
say, there could bo no proselytes of the RBle> 

lie acorns to have boon rather a proselyte of the covemint 
or oompletely a Jew : Dot only fruiu his reading the Scripture* 
but because ho had taken so lont; u journey to " worship at 
Jerusalem," ver. 27, at the feuAt of Pcntecoat; one of tlie 
ibrod grand l'v»tivaU, when hU the Jewixh nalea, who were 
able, were, accordinfi; to the law, to attund the worship of 

CnAI>, HI.] 



God at the natinnat altnr. lie hnd tnkcn, I say, a very long 
journey ; for his country was doiibtleiw the Ethiopia in Arncir, 
where, about that time, queeti Caiidacc reigned ; as we learn 
from Sirabo,* and from Dion Cassius,+ who inform* us that 
Petmnius, the pn^fect of Egypt, marched an urmy against 
Candure into Ethiopia, where he mragod the country a con- 
sidemble time, lUI the deep saDds and exceisiive heatK obh^d 
bim to return : wliich event was but about ten or eleven 
years before the affair here related of the eunuch. And 
Pliny, speaking of that country, sstith. "there reignn Can- 
dace," " quod nomcn multis jam annis nd rtginas transiit/'J 

Probably thitt eunuch, who was treasurer of Ethiopia, had 
been made ii prosolyli- by those Jews who A}>read themselves 
from Alc-xundnd in Egypt into tliat country. But the prc- 
■ent Kthiopiaus, or Ahysaines, who are Christians of the Greek 
church, maintain that the Jewiiih religion was universally cm- 
Waced in iheir country, from the days of Solomon. It hath 
bo«n a coniitant tradition among them, that the queen of 
Sheba, who went to visit him, was their empress; tliat she 
hnd a son by him, named David ; who. as soon aa be wan 
of a proper age to undertake such a journey, waa sent by her 
to JoruKalem, to reccire hia father's blessing, and to be in- 
structed in the law of Moses ; that Iwing made thoroughly 
acquuinted with the Je^visli religion, he was sent home, witli 
several priests and I^erites to assist him in introducing it into 
Ethiopia ; and they wltc so successful in their mission, that 
in 'a few years it was embrace<I bv the whole Ixtdy of the 
people, and continued to l>e the public profession till the pro- 
mulgation of the gospel in that country. 

Tt is a tradition likcwi«c among them, that the eunuch, 
baptized by Philip, was steward to tiieir empress, and that, 
returning home, ho converted his mistress and tlte whole em 
fHro to the Christian faith. 

Though WK cannot depend upon this latter story, yet it must 
be owned to have a far greater air of probability than the 
fable of the queen of Sheba and her ion, and, indeed, than 

• Stralw, XTii, p. ew, edH. CaiMub. l»am, IfiiO. 
t Dior. lib. liv. wet. r. lom. i, p. T34, edit. Itriman. 
1 nin. tll«tor, Nnmml. hli. r\. ccp. mcin. in tin, ml. i. p. 740, «dil. Ilni- 
dain. Puii. 1085 


iBVisn AirriqtrTTiBs. 

nooR t. 

most of the tinditiunal tttoriai of the finit conv^nions of coun<'j 

Tbe last instance which Gmlwin pradureii of proselytes of 
ihe gule, in. " The devoot niea, out of every nation under 
heaven, who dwelt at JenitKilem," and are mentioned iu the 
Acts, chap. it. Ij. But these devout men an* exprewly said to 
be Jew*; that iit, Jews by reli^n, not by nation ; for they 
longed to several nations. And though they are afterwi 
digtinguuhed into JewK and proselytes, ver. 10, thatdoubtleBvJ 
meeos auch aa wprc bom of Jewish parentit, thoiig;h in 
foniga country, and who had been brought up in their re- 
ligion ; or aucih aA vrere bom of Oentilo parents, and had be-j 
oone proeelyto8 to it. Besides, there is the same 
agunct Rcknowledging them to be ptoBelytes of the gate, 
there is agninat acknowledging Comelias and the eunuch 
be such ; namely, that the Jews were at that time subject 
the Roman power. 

Upon the whole, there does not appear to be Mufficieni evi-l 
dence in the Scripture history of the existence of such pro-*! 
•elytcs of iJic gate as Uie rabbicA mention ; nor indeed of an] 
who with propriety can lie styled proselytea, except aueh 
fully embraced the Jewish religion -t 

* Gcddct'a Churcb Uislof; ot Eibiopia, p. 8. 

f CODnningihe jMWelfleaof the ga\e, v)d. Mumoa. dc Regibiu.cMp. viii^ 
ttVL X. xi., M cap. i\. r., nim nntn Lcydecker, a\Mi Creaa Tamieat. na-^ 
■am, lel tjry^tiV. dr IlcfMihl Hrbrvur. lib. vt. cap. vli. 

Concemin^; the proaelyifs of rit(tiieoume«, «id. Mutnon. 6« Vetito < 
cnUui, upud J^d«cker, dt IkpuUtcA tlclnwor. liU »i. c»f. *i. p. 304, o^^ 
■eq. Annd. 1704, et Selclcn. (ht Jura Nal. « Gent, np- u. wpn ciUM. K 
np. iii, 



TuR alteration made in the fortnof lh« Hebrew coiiKtitutioit« 
which origiually wa» a proper Theocracv, by setting up the 
r^^ gorerDinent. hath been iilreaily connidercfl. Ak it wu. 
plainly aii act of ivbvliiuti agnmbl Uod to make any changa 
in hitt OTiginal eettlement, the Jews are therefore cliargeU witli 
" KJvcLtUdi; him. that hv shuulti nut reign over thmn, when 
they desired tubuveaking to judj^e tbeubke kll the uuUoiib;" 
1 Sam. viii. 6, 6, 7. Nevertheless, as he permitted divorces, 
" because of the hardness of their hearta," Matt. xix. H. iu liko 
manner, foreHei>ii)g the perversa; disposition they would hare, 
after llieir settlement in Canaan^ to such an alteration, he wb» 
pleatNNl to give thetu Mime ruleB beforehand, concerning their 
choice of a king, and tiic oiiinner of hid adn)uu»traljun ; Dcul. 
xvii. 14. to the end. Somu of the rabbic-s. iu order to excul- 
pate llieir nation fn^ni the char^ o( rebellion ou Ihi^ occaitton. 
Would have this pcrmiHsion and regulation aiuouni to on in- 
jun<:liou to choo«e a king. MBiiuonidet< ielU iik,* out of the 
Hiibylouish Qeauini,1- that Musea gave the Uraehteti threu 
expretia ccuiunaiidutents. to elect a kin|r, to destroy Amaiek, 
lud to baiJd a temple, after tJiey were po6««twed of the land 
(tfOanaao. Ueob^ervctt, tliat they accordingly cho»v Saul 
for their king, before tliey declared war against tlm Amalak- 
,Ke«. But if tliitf had been deaigited and undeniU>od as a 
etnamaud, iliey would no doubt have choKon a king prutently 
aflcr their settlement in Canaan, and not have delayed it for 
upwards of three hundred yeain-t We cannot suppowi, Uui 

* Da Rtgibtn. np. i- k>> irnr 

t Saalwdriii, eap. txiii. in evcvqjUi Cocmi, ci^ xu wet, vi. 

I Si petkio r«^ atMohit^, inquit Abarbaael. but Iqpumft, « p— iyaim 
ih^, et turn pwcaUMi IbU, am m moda peteodi, vil ia &a% hb^km*, hui 
i lateniiorH! ejiu : qoan Joatma el imtm judiccs UrMliat tpiuai wcuti, oiu»- 



BOOR f. 

Samuel would h»vo put t\w\n u|)ori cIux^HUtg a king in oImv 
dieuce to tlio law of God, long before they desired onv; aitJ 
not have blamed ihom, m he did. when they cxprcxMcd that 
^pairc; 1 Sam. x. U). Many of the mbbies are. ihererore. of 
B contrary Dpinion ;* and so i>t Jo8C[ilmB, who imputes tbiti 
desire of a kiugly govemraentt Ui the iiitolerablu cormplion 
which had crept iiiU) all the courts of justice throui;li (hi.- buM" 
ncu and avuiice of ^^amue^8 two soiis.^ Aod be ititroituceA 
his accoont of the regulutiona in Deuteronomy concernini^ 
their kings, with obscrring. that they ought not to have cf- 
fectefi any other govcnimcnt, but to have loved the present. 
httving the law fur their master, and living accordmg to it, for 
it waii flutlicicnl that Ood was their rulcr.§ That their de- 
sire of n king was displeasing^ to Ood, Kcoms also 10 be inti- 
mated iu tlie prophecy of ilusiea, " 1 gave tlice a kins in mine 
anger, and look him away in niy wrath;" llo8. xiii. 1 1 ; re- 
ferring to Saul, the firrt king, on oecasjon of wboftc election 
God expressed his ilispk-aKure by terrible thunder: 1 Snm.xii. 
17, IH; and to /edekiali. the Uat king, whom ho sullcred, 
together with his subjects, to be carried captive to Itabylon. 
Maimonidefi, indeed, preteiid^^ that llie sin, for which the pco- 
|Je were reproved by Samuel, did notcottsist m their desii-ing 
n king, but in their coming to bira in a lumnltuous and dinrc- 
spectfitl manner, and asking a king, not iu oK-dicncc to the 
divine command, but because they disdttined hisgovemment.y 
Thit), however, is by no means agreeable to the Scripture ac- 
count, which evidently lays the blame on ihe de«inng a kini;.5I 
not on the manner in which that dc«ire was expressed : " The 

<}uani cogiianint de mgc in bnwte rotutitUL-ndo, cum boc i|ieii pfwcepliitn 
vMel, quum in g re J efeiunr tsnomF ()uomo«lo oouib trnnvnai suBl hoc 
pntceptura, cum cascnt in tenft puM tjiu (McopUioofitn rt dimionriaf 
Nullum IttCieiuu iaurpretum vtdi, qui dr hoc r%vni, ci m) hoc aliituid n- 
(pontkht. Ahsrhitnel, IliMcrt. u. de Stitiu rl Jura lC*fio, ad eaictim Bui- 
tinfii t>i<n^ationuRi, p. 4TT, edit. D;i«il, 1C6J. 
' ' * Vid. Alxuhnnel, ut>i supra, p. 431. ci Mtj. 

t AgTcvoUy Iu I Suii. riii. 9. 

1 Aniici. lib. n, cap. Hi. •ki. tii. edit. Harfre. 

f Lib. iv. cap. *iti. tea- if il. 
* i Dc Itcgllim. rap. i. mcI. ii. 

^ In ngudutiom S«aniel». inqutt Aharbaorl, •raipM aunhniuir 
cMum petWonl Iffit ab«>)wi^t Xr. I'bi H|tni. p 4^7 

CHAr. tv. 



tbiog di»pl>ase<l Sniuuel, when tlicy baid. Give u» a kit^ to 
jutl(;e ii». And Samuel piaved uato the Lord. And the said uuto s>aiouel, Ufurkeo unto tlie roice of tlie people. 
it) all tliul tti«v CKiy uiilolbee ; fortliev have not reject^ lliee, 
but tliey have rejected me, that i nhould not roign over them ;" 
1 Sam. TJii. 6, 7. The law, therefore, in the seventeenth 
chapter of Deuteronomy, tnust l)e looked upon, not as a com- 
nand, nor hardly aa a peruti&siou, to choose a king; * for if 
ihey had supposed it to amount even to a permiBsion, uo 
doubt they would have alleged it to Saniuel ; nor is it easy to 
•ee how " their wickedncu woiUd then have been so great in 
making a king," aa it is represented to be. It miut tw eon- 
aideted, therefore, rather sth a restraining law, that in etum 
they would have a king, it shouki be under Huch limltatiana 
aa Ood then pruscribed. which are Lhe eigiit following: — 

1 at. That the choice of the pL-raon to be their king God 
would reserve to bimsdf. They must Dot say, " 1 wiU itet a 
king over lue, like as all the nations that are abuut me; 
but thou ahalt in any wine act him king over thee, whom the 
Lord thy God shall chooAc;" Deut.xvii. 14, 16. Accordingly 
be appointed Saul, by lot, tt) Ih; ihrir (irst king, 1 Sam. x. 21 ; 
Uid David, by naiu(«, to be their second king; I Sam. xvi. 12, 
He hkewise chose Solomon to be David'a succeseor, 1 Chran. 
xxviii. 6; and. al\er hiui. he made the kingly governiuent 
hereditary m David'^ family; I Kings ii. 4. Nevt^rtht-leaa. 
tills divine choice and appointment only restnxined the people 
frum making any other person king than him whom God had 
oonunHiMJ ; but it did nut actually invest him with the regal 
authority; LliuT.wasdonebyaaactarthe[H!ople.t Thus. after 
jUod hod appointed David to be king, in token of which h« 
fhui been anointed by Samuel, I Sam. xvi. 1^; yet the men 
ofJudah anointed him king over the houae of Judali, whereby 
tliey declared tJieir concurrence, and acceptance of him for 
their king; 2 Sam. u.4. And upon the death of Solomon, 

■ AbuUavt oMkw w««ni )tMli«tous atacmiioni, lo *huw it was w 
cmnaund, in hi* DitMrtMwo above quowd. p. 4^6, et Mq. 

t Per " pcosre rvgvm,** inquit AbnrbaDcl, iiildliifitur l-jui caaniniu<* 
[fV populum; «d «l*ctio diviDa tuiB Aiii par pnpfaMaa, Badiante 
MOdionc Ataibuiel, Du*eii. ui, p. 4SI. id ntccm Bujooif. DMen. FU- 
Jabg. Thwloc edU. Bw\. IM3. 



[book I. 

thauj;h dip crown was ihvn liirreflitnry. ''nil iKraet enmc tu 
Shechem to make hU son Reliolioatn king;" 1 Kiiig» xii. I. 

'2d\y. The king must bo a oaUvo IsraoliU*. not ■ Ueallicn, 
nor a Prcwulyte. " One from aiuon|^ thy brethren ulialt thou 
wl over th*fe ; thou niayvst not »el a nUanger over thee, who 
u not thy brother;" Deut. xvii. 14. 16. It may naturally be 
inquired, what occasion was there for thiu hmitntion, when 
God hud reserved the choice uf the person to hioueir. I 
answer, more eflectually to unit£ the people against any foreign 
invader, uiid any one who might attempt to seir.e the crown. 
The Mi»hna retaten,* that when king Agrippu. an Idumeun 
proaelyte. met with this text, as he wa« rending in piibhc. he 
burst into ti-ani, because he vinh not of the itced of Israel. 
The people, however, encouraged him, crying uat, " Feur nut, 
Agrippn. thoti nrt our brother;" probubly be<:aiiaf the rhildn-n 
of Eimu, from whom the Idumeansore deiicended, ure culled iii 
Deuteronomy the brethren of the Jews ; I>«uC. it. 4. 

3dly. The king was not to multiply horses; and i% par- 
ticularly forbid, UtereforL', sending to Egypt for them, Duut. 
xirii. 16, where was the chief breed of those animoU in (hat 
part of the world. The Egyptian cavalry, which invaded 
Judea in the reign of Kehoboam, constated of twelve hundred 
chariots, and sixty thousand liursemen ; 2Chran. xii. 2, 3. 
The reason uf the king's being prohibited to multiply horws 
hath been commonly Uiought to be, tu restrain htm from aflect- 
ing unnece&aary pomp, pxpeninvc to himself, and burdensome 
to his people. Ifso. Solomon wasegrcgiously guilty of trans- 
gressing this law, who had hordes brought out of Egypt, 
1 King8x.28; Bnd,arconlin[: to the account in the l-'ir^t Book 
of Kings, li ad forty thousand stjilU of horses for hitt ehanotH. 
and twelve thousand honwinen, 1 Kings iv. 26 ; or, according 
to the lower account in Chronicles, four thousand stalls for 
horses stHl chariots, and twelve thousand horitcnmn, ^Cliiun. 
ix. 2£. Perhaptt these two accounts are best recoiKiltd, by 
allowing ten hones to each stall, meniionc<l in Cbronicleii. 
Or. the word Bigiiifying oitJier stable or stall, in Chronicles it 
may mean liie fonnttr, in Kings, the latter.f 

* Uiib. ill Sou, Mra ds uKoit silultmi wspKM. cap. vii. Mel. vtii- «lii 
Sarsahosii, wm, ui. p. MH. 
t Siockii CIsTU inisrb. 

rttAP. iv.] 



Or. Warburtoii, in his Divine L^Blion of Moses, liuppoMa 
il wu the true nnd sole dcHign of this law to forbid the Jcwa 
ihe uae of cavalry in their armieB, which, he saya, God did on 
purpose to make it manifest that he protected llint natron hy 
a specia] providence.* If kg, Solomon does not seem to havi3 
TioUted this law so ^roMly ae hath been commonly ttnagined ; 
for though he kept such a inuhitudu of chariots for slat«r and 
had twelve thousand horMmen for his life-guard, yet itdoea 
oot appear that be had any cavalry designed for war- 

4thly. The king in forbidden " muUipIying; wive^i to him- 
self, that bin heart turn not away." Deut. ivii. I" ; the most 
natural exposition of which law is, Uiat itproliibits polygamy, 
or haviutr more wives than one. For it is not here said. 
" He shall nut greatly multiply," as it is in the next clanse 
concerning silver and gold, but simply. " he shall not mul- 
tiply." The rabbies, indeed, enlarge the number of wives al- 
lowed the kinf^ to eighteen, and understand the law as only 
forbidding his having more.t which tht-y atU'^mpt to ground 
on David's having six wires, a list, of whom we have in the 
Second Book of Samuel, chap, iii, 'Z — 6, compared with what 
llic prophet afterward telU him, that if he had not ultendtMi 
God. he " would moreover have given him such and such 
things." chap. xii. 8, which they interpret of twice as many 
wivns more, in all eighteen.^ And, in their opinion, no king 
should have a grenter number than God would have allowed 
David. Solomon, without doubt, heinously transgressed this 
bw, who bad seven hundred wives and three hundred con- 
cubines; t Kings xi, 3. And tlic- s:id vHect was, wliat this 
law was intended to prevent, that they " turned away his 
heart from God." 

Stilly. The king is also forbid "'^eatly to multiply to him- 
■elf silver and gold;" Deut. xvii. 17. This Solomon did in a 
n>markal)le manner ; fur it is said, that " the weight of gold 

* S«rmt> (w, tnquil AlMrbsncl. ngeni nhi non detHTr miillipiicarT equos 
»« usm i«l HiB ««l Bliuntn; fteque oonftdcre luir mulliliulini n potmiiK, 
non M|iiu el «a)uitibit* twiPCnMi*, «vd untnm suain Adncum debera e0« 
Denm. Ubi mpra, p. 440. 

- i Mbh. Ssnhtdnit, cap- >l (SCL (v- ion. iv. p. H7, edit Snnnhus, d 
0«tnir. in exccrput Coceeu, csp. ii. MCt. nil. 

1 R. *Hr. lie BinvHOTS in Mitb. ctpil» nipn chato, p. lie. 




[book I. 

thttteame to him in one y«ar was «ix hundred, threescore, aod 
six talents, liesidcs what li« received froin the merchaiitmeiiii 
and in perticuUr from the traffic of the spice merchanu, at 
from the king» of Arabia, and from the govemora of 
oountry ; and that, besidn a vast quHtiUty of targata 
shields, all of beaten gold, and a throne overlaid with gold^ 
ail his drinking vesseU, and ail the vetfsi'ls of the Ituuae of tl 
foreflt of lA'baiiun, were of tiun (uecioiLs mctul ; kdver beiiig u 
.IcruBaleoi. in a manner, na plenty as atones, and tittle esteeni« 
in hiadaya;" I Kings x. 14 — 27. Notnithittandini; no par-^ 
tictdftr renaon is given for this prohibition of nmltiptyingsilvc 
and gold, we may eaaily conceive the design of it was, partly 
to prevent Uie bing'aoppressing the people with taxes, in ordei 
to enrich hiniaelf, as eeema to have been done by Rehoboani^ 
whoae treasurer the people, therefore, atoned, I Kings xii. II 
nnd partly to restrain him from luxury, the common t-'tfect 
ricbea ; le«t the king's example altould debauch and enfeebl 
the nation, and prov<* its ruin, aa the wealth, and rona«<|uenl 
luxury of the Persians. prove4l the dcatruction of their eropir#. ' 
Hie rttbbiea, indeed, observe, that this law forbids only the 
king'a multi|>lvin^ ^old and silver to himself, or to hitt own' 
pmate cotient, but nut to the pubhc treasury, or for national' 

nthly. The king is enjoined to write for hiniaelf a copy 
the law in a book, out of that which is before the prints 
Levitea, Deut. xvii. IH; that iv, from the authentic copy kepi 
in the aanctnnry. Interpreters differ about the meaning 
Ihe word rcitia mhtuir. which we render a copy. The 
venty tmiiHlate it ro S^irtpofOfttov. and the Vulgate dcittfrona-^ 
tnium, thai translation generally following the vention of thi 
f^eventy ; from whence some have imagined that thu king was' 
obliged to transcribe only the book of Deuteronomy .+ Mon* 
tanua rcndera it dupium, which version agree* with Mai-' 
mOQtdee'a interpretation of ttiis Inw, that "the king was toll 
write the book of the law for himself, bexide^t the book thaH 
waa left him by htM father; and if his father bad \efi him none, 
or if that were lost, he was io write him two booka of the : 

* MainoB. do Hagibu*. cap. iii. lact. tt.( Midu. Stnh«in«, Mp. 
Mrt. ■«■; M MaioMo. m loc. turn- k«. p. Sl8» adiL Samhua. 
t Vid. AhwWiwI. CooiauMU. in Uk. uw OM«n. ubi aupta* p. ill 

CIIAr. IV.] 



law ;* fhe out- he wa» to keep iti liU archives, ihe other wu 
iHrt to defMirt from him, iinle«» wlieii he went to his timme, or 
Ui the bath, M- to a pltce where readiojB; would he iticau- 
venieot. If he went to war, it accompanied him ; if he sat in 
jadgment, h. was to be by him."t But the word does not im> 
port any mora than a sn^e exemplar or copy4 Joehua i» 
nojd to have engraved vn the ftlotics. which be erected on 
Mount Rbal. a copy of the htw, mtei3 miihne, a second, of 
which the autograph was the firat.^ The deeigti of the pre- 
cept was, undoubtedly, to riret the divine laws more firmly 
in tiie memory of the king*, of which, and of tlieir obligations 
to i^mnre Uwn, they became, throogh the neglect of thia pre- 
cept, go ignorant in the days of good king Josiah, that h« 
was strangely surprised at what be hoard read out of this 
book of tlio law,|| when it was found in the t£mpl«, after 
he had rtngnod about eighteen years; 2 Chron. xxxiv. 1B» 

7thly. The king v.-*xi bound to govern by law : for it ia en- 
joined him, that he read in thin copy of tiie law nil the days 
of his life, that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, to 
kpf-p all the words of ihift law and tliese statutes, to Ho ihem ; 
Oout. xvii. 1!>. InKtend of niuking his own will his law. as 
the niHtobite monarchft of the I^ast generally did, he was to 
nil(' iirconiing to the law which God had given b)- Moses, 
When iSamael, therefore, told the periple ihc manner. OBS.'O 

* Urn WW likeniv ifae opinioo vf nuuiy oiJ)ct Jewoh docwn- Vid. 
CarpsiHi.AnBot.iid Sdiickanl. Jus. Rrg. p. 113. 

t Df lt«gitxi*, l(b. iii. leoLL 

I iVnd so \\w SliJina undMrnuids it,Suibedria, cap. ii. sect. iv. 

( Vtd Ix-idccier. Not- ad Maimon. de R*phiu, lib. ii. sect i. 

i ll 19 iW opibion of AbafbsMl, thai ibi* book wni the autognph <rf 
MiMea. wlucb Da doabl «nu a Ammtrj lliu wouU occasion equal [dMaim 
and torprue. To coafirm this opinion, Lnndau otncrvea Uia( m^ft fAoroA, 
haraiK Uw Us mpbatic pnfiacd iu % Kiug* xxii. 1 1, ngnifieUi iliai xery 
faocA «f Uw Uw whivli mo rnvia nCO 1^3 ^'<dh Motth, by iha hand oT 
AloMM. sa II u Mprwaed m lb« |mr^«l place in C'l'r.iciicl», -^hith Dr. Kei»- 
nicoil obocrro, u a pluuo wliich only occur* ilnini, ajjd noiurallj mean* 
one pameular MS,, oamrfy, Uh- (m([Jnal. LeujJ. IliiMo? Hri«»o. mixt 
DIaaM. sxvt mcs. av. p. 175. adil Si KmnicoU'a 9«mim1 D^trntl 9d ibc 
Hab. Tm\, p. 100. 300. Sm alio l^eland'a Anavrw to Chnatiaai^ a* < >ld 
uthaCrratioa. n>I. ii- chap. iv. p. 12»— 136, Dublin «diL 1733. 



iBtHlfC I. 

ntfuA/'a/.of the king that should rei^n over thetn. 1 Snm.viii- 1 1. 
dcecribiog u most arbitrary- and tymniucal one, wbu woald 
take their oons, and appoint them for himsetf, for his chnriota, 
&c., ttc must not tinderatnnd him here, as some do, \o Iaji 
down the rightful nuthority of the king<if iHmeJ, hut only tlw-j 
practice of the arbltmry monarchs around them (for tlicy had 
desired to have a kini; like the nei<:hbouniit: nations, ver. 5},\ 
in order to divert them from no injmlu'iuus uiul ilt-advined^ 
a projecL* Accordingly, DDsro miahjmt \s> better rendercdj 
manner iit our English rer&ion, thaD^/us in the Vulgate and! 
^Kawfta in the Scptutigint. In some other places the word] 
aignifleft merely a manner or cuMom, without implying anyl 
legal right. Tlius Joseph interprets the dream of Pharaoh *i 
butler, that he should again deliver the cup into his suvereign'sl 
head, aAer the" former manner," when he wasinoflice; Qrnli 
xl. 13. Again. David in said to have destroyed all the inbwj 
bitanta of the ptace^^ on which he made inroads, while he< 
with Achish king of Gath. lest any of thcni iihould report. So 
ilid David, and bo will be " his manner," all the time that ho 
dwelleth in the country of the Philistines; 1 Sam. xxvii. 11. 
Nay. tlieword ia nsed even for a rery corrupt and illegal cuM 
torn : aJKl " tlie prieetfl' custom with the people was." as 
exp nw aiou is in relation to a very unjustiliable practice 
Eli'asons; 1 Sam. ii. 13. 

That the kini; was bound by law, app«ars from the story of 
Ahah, who destn^d to purchaM^ Naboth's vineyard; yet be- 
cause the law forbad the alienation of Inndit from one tribe or 
family Id nnnlher, he could not obtain it. till he had got 
Nalwth condemned and executnl for btaHphemy and treaiton, 
whereupon his Cbtate became forfeited to tlie crown; or the 
king, however, tteized it ; 1 Kings xxi. 1 — 16. From hence 
it appears, that the Hebrew monarch was only God '• viceroy, 
or lieutenant, governing in all re«pecta by his laws, which he 
fiMld not alter, under pretext of amending or improving, nor 
■broguic or repeal on account of any pretended or appnr- 
hcmled inconvenience arising from them ; and in mattcm of 
importance, when the law was not clear and certain, be waa 

* Thn M lh«' nptnimt n( Ahmihuip}, mhn r\\talr» mih apfttobiuoa ill* 
fbUowiof decnion nf RabN JrltuHa : " Itta (<!*< jure rl judicm ngs*) non 
furnnti dicu, aui md m>» penmcheitndaA." Ubi nipra, fk MA. 



tidi to enact and determine by his owu authority, but to coit- 
MiH thr oracte, or God himself. 

Sthly. The kiftg ia charged to he humble, and to gorem 
his subjects with lenity and kindness, not as slaves, but a« 
brethren, Deut. xvii. 20. Thun David, addreasing; himself to 
bis subjects, styles them his brethren, as well aa his people; 
I Cbron- xxviii. '^. The tirst Clinsti;iii t-mperorK imitated thiii 
cjcaiuple of the Hebrew kiiig« ; particularly Constanttuu the 
Great, who, in hia epistle to the peo|^e of Antiocb, styles 
them his brethren, whom he wa« bound to luve.* And he 
concludes his letter to Kiidobius with these words, u GtiK <n 
BuK^vXaitH, uSiA^t tryenrirri, " May God preserre you, beloved 
brother. "f Other inslimces of the like Kort may Ix? found in 
Euwbitis's Ecclukiustical History,^ and in hi* Lite of Cou- 

Having considered the form of the kingly goveniment, we 
proceed to the riteit of inauguration, by which the person 
whom God had appointed to that office was actually invested 
wiUi the royal dignity- 
First, lie H'as anointed. Godwin, foUowing the talmudi- 
cal rabbies,|| aMerts, that all kmg» were not anointed, but 
those only in whom the succession was broken ; and tlien tliu 
lifSL of the family was anointed for bis socceseors. except m 
cases of disseosion , when thvre wai* required a renewed unc* 
tioa for the confirmation of his authority. They say, tliere- 
fore. Solomon, as well as his father David, was anointed, 
1 Kings i. 3^. tiecauM* of the dispute between Adouijah and 
him, concerning the succession to the crown ; and likewise 
Joasb, the son of Ahaziah, 2 Kings xi. 12, because the suc- 
ceaiion bad been interrupted by AthalJah's usurpation. But 
tliii opmioo has no Butficient foundation in the sacred history ; 
on the contrary, it seems more probable, tliat all kings were 

* Emcb. (le Vil Coiutani. Mb. iii. cap. h. 

t Ibid. cap. Ixi. 

] Lib, %, cap. V. ci vii. 

) Lib. It. cap. siri. nt lib. in. txp. tx 

I Msimea. <1^ Regibtu, cap. i. secL x. sil. el Comment m Mi^D. lit. 
CbtnlhoU), cap. i.; «t Daitetwr. in «nndcm loc. ton. v. p. 237. edit. Sii- 
■■■hiia Sm tati(aoiii«> out of lli« Talmud, oud other authon, in Sdden, df 
imotmm. m Punutoai. lib. n. cap. n. apud Open, voL ti. totn. iii- p- t9i, 




r»ooii I. 

aaoinifld ; becaoM king, and the ■ooinled. veem in the Tol-'j 
lowing paMMges to be Mynooymoiu terms: " He abiJI gi** 
■mtmth onto his king, and rxall the horn of his anoinled/'i 
1 a^m. ii. 10; and ntntin, " David KAir) utitn him," that is, la^ 
Uio AiBBlolute who inloniicd him that he had killod Sanl> 
" ti DW wftit Uiou not afr&id to stretch forth thy faaad to desirof 
tha ixml's aaonitecl ?" 2Saia. i. J4; «nd, in hit lameniatioa 
on this occsAion, be hath tboK expreasioni, " The tfaicld of thfr^ 
nighty is viUly caet away, th« shield of Saul, as though he< 
had not fie«n anoinl^d with oil;" ver. 21. The«« LiHt wonli 
lose in a manner all thetr emphasis, aupposiog that no kinf 
ware anointed except the linil oi a family, or only in chm Lha 
nf^bi of succeasion to the crown was uncertain. Nay, it^ 
should aeain from thia pasaage. that thoae kinga whooe dgbt; 
of Muccoasioa was (toabtTuI, which had occasioued their being 
aooiotad, wen on tJiia supposition luore sacred than othara. 
Farther, wv read that Jehoohaz, the ion of J<Miiali, when h« 
was mad** king in his faiher'a stead, was anointed, 2 Kinga 
xxiii. 'M. iliou^h thfre does not appear to hare been any. 
doubt or dispute abont the succeMiujn. 

The llobrew doctors r*;presenC it to be the peculiar pri vilo^ 
of the kinga of the faiiidy of David to be anointed with the 
■ama holy oil which was used in the consecration of the high* 
priest; and tell u«, thai the kingn of the ten tribes were 
•nointad with coininon oil.* But (his opinion is hardly to be 
reconciled to a psMage in the l>ook of Kxodns. where the nae 
of the huiy oil iv appropriated to tJie consecroiiun <if Aaron. 
■nd his Hons, and the aiKiinting any other person with it ia 
expressly prohibiivd ; Hxod. xxx. Ill, 32. They pretend. Uiat 
a diapflDMtiun fur the use of the holy oil. to Buoint the kin^, 
waa aAerward revaaM to sotuc prophet ; but of (iii» they pro> 
duce no sort of evideooe. It appears, indeed, that tlie oil 
with which Solomon was anointed waa taken out oi' the tabcr> 
nacle; I Kinga i. 39. Rut that might as well Iw common oil, 
t considerable qiuintity of wbit-h was kept (here fur tlic use of 
the hunpa, and which /adoc tlte priest might have readier nt 
hand on this occasion than any other. However, the followit^ 

* Titmud riiMthmh. rsp- lii. ; *i4. Honing, da ian Hrhnmr li|. en 
^ IM. Sm »Uo SehicksMl. dr Jnin Rcfto, cap r iboor. i«- wet. mtu.,TO. sda. CafpNt*. lilMv, 11)74 

rttAr. IV.] iNAuawATioN or xifrcs. 

paMWgo in the Picalins tsailcgM in fftvnurof thf* opiniotk, that 
kings werp anointed with the holy oil : " I hflT« found David 
my nertant : with my holy oil havr I anointed him ;" PiMlm 
Uxxix. 20. But. as the jicrson there spoken of. under the 
name of DBvid.* uuduubtedly aiemi!« Christ, to whom uluuo 
a great part of what lo said in tliat context will agree ; tlteie- 
fore hy the holy oil mufit be undewtood the influeni^e of the 
Di»-ine Spirit, which was " given to him without mWRaTC;'* 
iokn Hi. 34. And ev«n if w« suppose here is an allasion to 
the anointing' of Dnvid, the Jewiiih king, vet the oil nscd on 
the occasion might possibly be styled ho)y, not because it was 
of that peculiar composition prescribed in tbe thirtieth chap- 
ter of Exodus, but becauae it was typical of the inflaenca of 
the Holy Spirit. 

Wo read of two diflerent sorts of vemels, in which the oil 
wherewith kings were anointed was contained, tbe one calM 
"ppafk, which we translate a phial, I Sam. x. I ; the other 
called pp kertn. a horn, I Kings i. 3D. Concerning the dif- 
ference between these two vessels there am rarionA conjectures. 
Some make it to lie In the matter of which they were formed ; 
apprBbendlng the ID pack vezn made of tnetal. eiltier c;oId or 
■Uvcr, and the pp keren of horn. Others pluce the difference 
in the shape; and tell us, that the P|? ktnn was like a horn, 
and the ^D pnrk like a bottle. Others conreive th** ditfereiice 
lay in ihc capacity of ihevemels; and that Oie pTi keren con- 
tained a lari^r. the 10 pack a smaller quantity. Tlie rabMes 
make the anointing with the oil out of one or the other of 
theae ressels, to be ominous of a longer or shorter reign. 
Accordingly they tell us. that Saal and .leho were anointed 
out oftiif! '\B pack. 1 Sum. x. 1 ; 2 Rings ix. 3 (!u the former 
of which text* pa^k IB rendered in oar English vervtion a phial. 
in the latter, a box), to denote the shortness of their reigns ; 
hut David and Solomon out of the yyp keren, 1 Sam. xvi. 13, 
and I Kings i. '.Hi. to denote the long sueeesaion of David's 
family.'^ Bat these are mere conjecture*. 

* II oughl oMulanUji lo tn t o p w itbw wl bare, ttut Pind, in lh« U«l)nw, 
■ifniiti*" » (M'non twloviil, which eraincitUjr agr«C9 \o Ui« Mnsiah. 

t U. Darxl Ktnwlit in 1 Ucr is. Sot StAMcard. tk Jwr* fi^fpo, cap i 
ibcM. IK. |i. 79; Ovnian, tti. CheriOwth Sc« Caqnov. poc (m) in lee. 
Sckirtuil, ism. ttta*. 


JBWI»H ANTI9mTttt«<. 


It is farther inquired, whose office and proper hiiftinriw it 
was to duoint the king ; «ince we read of the ccreniony'i 
buing p«rforTn«<l by prophets and hy priests: by prophets, u 
bv Samuel, who anointed Saul and David : and hy one of the 
sons of the prophi'tH, who wum tient hy Ehsha Ui umiint Jehu, 
3 Kings ix. at the beginning: by priests, as by Zadoc, si tiie 
inautEtimtion of Solomon, and by Jehotada at the coronation 
of JoiLsh ; 2 KingQ xi. 12. Here some dittlinguifth between 
private uid public anointing ; the former, they suppose, was 
lieTore the inauguration. »nd betokened the perMtn's mWanov- 
nieiit to the throne name time afterward, which, they ny, 
waii pcHbrtned by a prophet. The latter waa ai the lime of 
the inauguration ; and Uiis. they say. was perfumied by the 
priest. HK in the case of Solomon and Joash." 

An to the manner of performing this ceremonv. nil the ac- 
count we have in Scripture ib, tliat tbe oil wns poured npoii 
the head. When Samuel anomt«d SauJ, he " took a phial of 
oil, imd poure<l il on Ins head ;" 1 Sam. x. 1 . And when the 
prophet anointed Jehu, it is said, he poured the oil on his 
head ; 2 Kings ix. 6. From henco it seems probable, that the 
kings were anointed in tlie eune plentiful manner as the priests 
were at their consccratioD ; tbe ointment, or oil, was poured 
upon the head m such a quantity as to run down upon the 
beard, and even to the skirts, or rather the collar, of the gar- 
ment; for «o WHO ^D>l7y gnal'pi midtiotfmiv means in the 
following passage of the Hsalmist, " It," that is, brethren's 
dwelling together in unity. " is like tlie preciouit ointment 
upon the head, that run down ujton the Ward, even Aaron's 
beard, tliat went down, gnal-pi nuddothmv, to the skirlii, or 
the collar, of his garments," Pmilm cxxxtii. 2; pi signifymg 
the hole in the roid^t of the rt4>e of the ophod through which 
the head was put, and which was bound about, that it mitrht 
nut be rent; Exod. xxxix. 22, 23. The Jewish doctortk, 
however, infonu us of a difierence between the manner of 
anointing a king and a priest ; that the prieal waa anointed in 
the form of a Greek Chi, or St. Andrew's eross ; and the king 
in the form of a circle round his head rf and likewise, that 

* Vid. Scaochi Mynihccium. iiL csp. xlix. 1. p. 1060, tt loq. edtt. An- 
WA. 1701. 
f ObwLu ds Bartinats* ci MaiitKm. m Mithu. lii. Cbehlfeoiiit rap. t 

ctni*. iv.J iNAveev'ATioit or riivcs. 


the kiaj^ must be anointed in the open air. and near a fooQ- 
tain; which they ground upon the history of Solomon's being 
brought to GihoQ, which was a fountain, or brook, nenr Jero- 
Balem. aud there anointed by Zadoc; 1 Kings i. 38.» But 
from that particular circumstauce in Solomon's inauguration, 
I see no reason to conclude it to have beeu a law for all suc- 
ceeding king^ to be anointed at fountains. The talmudists 
indeed, And a mystery in the kingn being anointed by a foun- 
toin, as if it were intended to aignily the desired perpetuity 
of hiB kingdom, or that it might continue like a fountain, 
which runs perpetually, and is never dry-t 

We have ouly one remark more to make on this head : and 
that is, that the cufitom of consecrating of any ihiog to God 
by a profusion of oil upon it, appears to have been very an- 
cient, from the inst,tncc of Jacob's anointing the pillar at 
Beth-cl; (icn. xxviii. IS. But when it began, and how it was 
first introdncefl, we cannot so macli as guess, any farther than 
that probably it was by a diviue institution. We find it iu 
use. through the whole Mosaic dispeu^ation, in Uie dedication 
both of men aud things to the immediate service of God. It 
wta deaigDcd as emblematical of the giftii and graces of the 
Spirit of God, which arc therefore expressed by unction in the 
New Testament; I John ii. 20. 27. And as Christ excelled 
nil othorf! in these gifli* and graceii, he was eminently called 
mfO MaMiach, at Me&sias, from narO maafiadi. to anomt. 
Wliich title is also given, in a lower sense, to tlie pciest. Lev. 
iv. 3. and also to the kingA of Israel, I Sam. xii. 3. o. 

We proceed now to the second ceremony at the inaugura- 
tion of a king, which was, crowning him. There is a reference 
to it in these words of the Psalmist, "Thou preventcst him," 
that is, the king, " with the bleasings of goodness: thou set- 
test a crown pf pure gold on his head ;" P&alm xxi. 3. Aud 

urn. T. p. 2»T, edit. SuRnku. Sm pusagM gf oth«t aulhoo in Seldeu, 
da SucecH. in Pootiftcst. lib. iL cap. ix. spud O^tn, wl. ii. uno- iii. 
p. 193—195. 

* \*id. Msimon. de Regibui, e«p. i. ftm;i. li., and i ramarfcablo pBNSgv 
out of ihe Jeranlem ud Bst^loni^ Talraud, apud Schickard. Jut Rafiun 
Ifrbnor. : and Cupaovii nom, p. 71, T-j, «]ii, Ijps. 1874. 

t IV Talmud Kfened to Bbon; uu\ Itailiag and Abarboiicl in 1 Kntgt 
1.39; with other rabbinical commfeBtalan, spud Carpsov. notas, ub4 supn. 



I BOOK l< 

we read expmsly of its being performed at the innuguration 
of kinfif Joasb ; 2 Kings xi. 1 '2. What the fonn of the royal 
crown was. we do not preirjid to determine; only obaerving, 
that the word ~U) nezer, by which it is expr<>a«e(l, being used 
for the high-prieat's crowo, Exod, xxix. {i. which wa« mtniy 
a. fillet or ribbaud bound round the head, willi a plaie of gold 
on Uio front of it, Exod. xxviii. 3<>, 37; it in probable the 
royal crowTi was much of the same shape, or liki' the diadem 
which we see on the heada of the ancient Roman kings on 
their medaU. It Memo to have been the castom of tlie Jew ish 
kingR, an well as those of the neighbouring nations, to wear 
their ermm oonatantly when liny were dressed. King Saal 
had his cnmn on when be was slain in the battle uf tiiiboa. 
'2 Sam. i. 10; and tlie king of the Ammoniiea, when tie 
beaded his anny in war ; for when David bad redaced Rubbah, 
the royal city, he took the king's crown from his head, and 
pat icon hift own; 2 Sam. xii. 30. From this custom it may 
rcnsonitbly he inferred, (hst the ancient crowns were much 
loss in size and weight than those which nre now used by the 
European khiga. Yet the crown of the kmg of the Ammo- 
nites, Just mentioned, is said to " weigh ataleot of gnid, with 
the preciouB etom-fi." utn tapra. Now a talent being reckoned 
to be one hundred and twenty-live pounds, such an enormous 
load on the head no man can be supposed to have carried, as 
a part of hii4 ordinary dress. Bochart apprebcod*, with 
great probability, thtt the word hpmo mhkkat denotes, not 
the weight biit the value of the crown;* for though the 
verb Vpc xhahtl, in the Hebrew, tike peadfre in the Latin, 
relnted on^inally to weight : by which, tjcfore the invention of 
coins, metals were exchanged in traffic; yet, as we hnvc 
shown in our lectures on mednls, this word eanie aTlerward 
to be applied to the payment of money, when the custom of 
weighing it was laid a^idu. Ttius the Septuugint ren- 
ders ^pP shnkal by rrfinf. estimare, in the 6Ay-flfUi chapter 
of fsaiiih and the second verse; and accordingly Ihe noun 
^pCTl tnuhkal muy properly denote, not the weight of the 
crown bat its value, by reason of the jewcU U)at were act in 
tt. Our tianalatora, it aeems. with several other leantad oaeii, 
•nppOM an tna/i^e nnmen in the t«xt; it bring in the He- 
* lliem. pan I lib. tl. esp. xnnriU. 


brew mp* ptn veehen jokrait, and a precious stone ; which, 
however, the Jews inturprfiL more Ularally, of cue jewel ouiy; 
iuiU this, Kabbi Kimchi tells us, wu a magnet, by meaos of 
winch this weighty cruwu was su supported iu the air tui to be 
no load to the man that wore it. But the conceit, of a mag- 
net i beuig attructed by the air, ii a piece of phikmophy wortliy 
only of a Jewish rahbi. Jonephua says, this jewel wai aaar- 
dotiyx :* which nolioii, Bochart conjectures, might ariiefrom 
the ancient JewB pfaiying, iu their manner, with the phrase 
DsVd mcy, y.notereth maicam. the crown of the king* The 
word D3^Q nuiiciiiH liavui^ tlin Kuiue letters wiih Djho mUcom, 
the name of the god of the Ammonites, they made the ex- 
pnsBion to fti(^ify the crown of that god, who i» otherwise 
called Moloch: aod Moloch, it ^ecnui, or Molocas. i» the 
Eastern name of the sardonyx; for Epiphauius.'t speaking of 
the BurdiiM, adds, tan St koa nXXoc (Ai^oc) SapSawvC, oc Ka- 
Xbtoi MoAo\e?4 

The third ceremony at th« inauguiution of a kmg was the 
ki8B of homage, which (iie Jews call the kiss of majesty. 
With respect to Saul we are informed, that "Samuel look a 
phial of oil. and poured it on his head, and kitsedhim;" Ibom. 
X. 1. Thtv ceremony i» probably alluded to in the following 
{UMMge of the Psalniiat, " Kiiutheson, lest be be angry,'* &c. 
Psnim ii. 12; thntix. acknowledge him aa your king, pay him 
homage, and yield him subjection. 

Fourthly. The acclamations of the people attended Uia 
cMiomoay of inangaration. Thui». ui the case of Saul, we are 
nrfbiined. that " all the people shouted and said, God save 
the king;" 1 Sam, x. '^. And when Zadoc anointed Solo- 
inou, " they blew the tniinpet and said, Uod sure king So- 
lomon ;" 1 Kings i. 39. 

U may be proper niso to mention under this head, the royal 
robes, which, probably, were put on the king at lus coronation. 
Tbttw, nu dnubi, were very rich and splendid, aa may be coh- 
fllnded fnun our Saviour's declsring. in oMi-T lo set forth the 
bMaiy which Uod had unparted to the hlic» of the Held, that 

* AnHq. lib. vii. cap- rii, in Ane. edit. Haverc. 

f Ut duoAxim Ooanil* i» V«u Aanni*. cap. t. apud Optn^ ton. ti. 
p. tU, 236, «ilil. Petav. CoUm. 1682- 
t Sm Boebtfi. HiSfos. pan it. liK t. cap. tU. 



"even Solomou, in all his ^lon-, wa« nut nimyetl like oiie of 
Iheaa;" Matt. rt. 2i). TIiib alluHioii ts the nioru uppoaite, it', 
as Joeephus saith. SoJomon was usually clothed in white.* 
And on thia auppoeition, it is probable this wan the colour of 
tlie royal robes of bis Kucce»80ni. But it being likewiive the 
colour of the priestA' garments, the difference between them 
munt be supposed to lie in the richness of the sliiH' they were 
made of. Upon this notion, that ifae ancient Jcwiftli king^ 
wore white ^micnts, the rabbieit call persons of di^tinf^ished 
birth and high niiik D^l^n c/tortm. uf/mti, in oppofiitiun to 
those of obftciure birth and mean condiUon, whom they caJI 
0*3*ttn cfias/iuchiitt, Ifjiebroti, ubscuri. To tin* dietinctioii 
St. Jameti is supponed to allude, chap ii. 2, when he Mtith, 
if there come into your assembly a man iv ta^t Xn/twpm, 
which some render, in n white garment ; anH a poor inan tv 
Nr^$pi pvwapa, in a dark or dirty one. Thirf cnricisni. however, 
wants o better support than the opinion of Josephus and the 
rabbies conceraiog the colour of the robes of the Jewisli 
kingsi it being certain that the word Xa^n-poc is applied by the 
Gr«ek wntera to any gay colour. Thus Plutarch saith.t thai 
weak eyes are offended. irpoc mrav roXaforpav. And Xenophoii 
npplieA the word to such as are clothed in purple, or who are 
adorned with brnceletti and jewels, and splendidly dre^scd.^ 
In the book of the Kcvelalion, XafiwpoQ is used tu signil^ the 
bhglituess or splendour of the morning star. Rev. xxii. 1^; 
and Ukswise, in general, kucIi things as are pleasant and 
ngree&ble to the sight. Thus in the prophetic doom of the 
great city Babylon, it is said, " all things which were daiuly 
and goodly, ruAfird^, icat raXaftvpa, are departed from thee," 
Rcv.xviii, 14; that is, tliu things which i3t. John elwrwhere 
expresses by *' the lust of the flesh, and the lost of the eyes;" 
1 Juhnii. I'i. Ourauthor's conjecture, tliert;furo, that the Ro- 
man soldiers putting a purple, aud Herod awliite, gamivut on 
Chriat. when in derision they clothed him as a king, was in 
conformity to the customs of their resjiective countries, is very 
pretty and ingenious, but not sntHciently »>upported ; it being 
far from certain that white was tlie royal colour amongst 

* Aatiq. lib. viti. cap. vii, sect. iii. lom. i. p. 440, edit. lUverc. 

t Ciut. m SuphsDO. _ 

I yiopmA. Hb. ii. p. 1 15. « 1 17, sdii. lluich. irSB. 



iKe JuwB. Sotuethiuu, however, concerning the ceretnonwd 
used at the Lnauj^ralion of their lung», in the latter ages of 
their |>ol)ty, luay be cunjocluxed with pn^bihty ftoiu the 
mock ceremoiiieji which were paid to our blessed Saviour ; see 
Man. xxvii. 39. 

It may nbt be improper lo add a few words concerning th« 
Mate iind gnindeiir of the Jewish nionnrchs : which consitited, 
partly, in the prufnund res|>ecl that was paid then) : of which 
we hiive many iDStancee in their history; and, portly, in their 
uttandaata and ^tii-dti ; pHrttciilurlv the Cheretliites and Pe- 
lethitev, of whom we have frequeut mention m the builurieH of 
David and Solomon. That they were soldient, appears from 
ihcir making part of David's army, when he marched out of 
■Irruiuilem on occasion of Absalom's conspimcy.tfSam.xv. 18; 
iind hkewiae when they were sent againiM the rebel Sheba, the 
SOD of Uichri ; chap. xx. 7- That they were a diatinct cor]is 
from Uie common soldiera is evident from their having a pe- 
culiar conimuiider, luid not bemg under Joub, the general of 
the army ; '2 i^um. viii. IQ. 18- tliey seem, tlierefore. to have 
been the kinj^'s body-guard, like the Pnetorian band among 
theRnmanH. TlieClierethiies were originally Philititinea(8ee 
1 Sam. XXX. 14, imd \(i, compared, and Zcph. ii.6), who were 
skilful archers ; and it is therefore supposed, that after the 
Isnelitett hud ttufiured au much by the Philistine archers at 
the fatal battle of Gilboa, I Sam. xxxi. 3, Datid not only 
took care to have his people instructed in llic use of tltc how, 
'.JSnm.i. 18, bat having made peace witlt ihc Philistines, 
hired a body of these archers (it may be with a view of in- 
strticting his own people), and made them his guards. With 
these were joined the Pelethites ; who are supposed to have 
been native IsraeliteK, for we find two of tlie name of Peleth 
among the Jewish families ; one of the tril>e of Reuben, 
Numb. xvt. I ; anotlier of the tribe of Judah, 1 Chron.ii.33. 
The Chaldec Paraphrase every where calls the Cberelhites 
und PeletliitPtt, archers und slingera. Their number may 
pr^ibubly he gathered from tlie targets and nhields uf gold, 
which Solomon made fur his guards, which were hve hun- 
dred ; see 1 Kings x. lf>, 17, compared with 2 Chron. xii. 
»— II. 

A* an article of thu state and magnificence of the Jewish 


[nook 1. 

kiogs, it nmy be |)roper tu mention SdoiQon'K ruyal tlironv. 
which was raued uq six steps, adorned witJi the images of 
lions, and orwlaid with ivory and gold ; 1 Kings x. 18 — 20. 

The last hoDoui** paid the lung were at his death. It ia 
said, the royal coqise was c&rried by nobles to the sepulchre, 
though it were at a very considerable distance.* Howerer 
this be, we rtad of public mourning observed for good kings : 
2 Chron. kxxt. 24 ; eee also Jcrem. xxu. 18; and xxxiv. 5. 
Yet. notwithstanding this royal state and grandeur, tliL-y were 
only (Jod's viceroys, bound to govern according to the statute 
Uw of the land, which tliey, as well an their subjects, wer« 
Mquind lo ob«y. The rabbies tell us, that their violation of 
•ome lava was punished with whipping by ordpr of the San- 
hedrim ; on account which ia bo utterly improbable, especially 
lUi not a Hint^le iustunre can be produced of ihit) piiniHhiiiL'iit 
being intlicted, Lliut it would not deserve to be mentioned. 
wen it not espoused by such leumed nieu as Selden.t Schick- 
ud^and Grotius.^ Besides what Imth beruobaervcd againsi 
thia notion by Leusdcit^l and Carp/.oviuii,^!' I appreheud 1 
hara rendered it at least proboble, that the Sanhedrim, to 
whom the labbies ascribe Huch ejitraordinaty powers, did not 
exist till the time of the Mut'cobees. 

* Schicksrd. Jus U«gium, «sp- vi. ; tfaeor, xxx. p. 415^417, edit. C«r|n»«. 
UptiK, 1674. 

f S«Mnt. d« SyDvdr. lib. fi. c«]t. h- M<cl. v. Sfud Opem, vol. i- lont. 
p. 1437, llMMjiib aA«n««ld. bsvinu r«cttr4 ibe wipuneMs on bodi ndcit Iw 
■xprMMib huMslf Euon dmibilUlj', lib. iii. cap- ix. kcl v. in fine. 

I SciiickAnl- il« Jure Rcgiv, vap. ii. theoc. f u. p. 141, I43,vd>l. Carpio*. 
i On>L Jg Juk Belli vt Pucit, lib. i. ca|>. iii. wci. %t. 2, p. 7P. 90, €dli. 

GroDDT. llitgrv, com. IdSO. To sccviint hr ihti Aagclhboii, he lappoen h 
was not inflin«d on die kin; by any odwrs, u ■ puniiluMBt ; boi wu • 
vebintsfy iuAictwo oE his ovm. u a lokn of his pcaiMOM. But ilii* n oat 
afiaeshle lu Uie repnuuiution given by Qw lUfamw docum. 

II Lnisden. ritilolof. Ifcbrvo num. di»en. uv. wet. i. p. 107 — 149, 
fdil. kcuikI. I'lttsjML mm. 

f Not. sd Schlckvd, loc. niprs dui 



With respect to the priests, we propose to inquire, 
1st. What iu>rt.of oiKcers id the Hebrew conimonweullli 
thoy were: aotl, 
2dly. To whom it appertiiinod to exccale iliat office- 
Our first incjuiry i&, wh»t sort of ofliccrs the pricslswcrc, 
who ftre called in the Hebrew 0*3nz cahanim. The reason 
ofthiv inquiry in, because we ftntl in Scripture the title rohaaim 
applied to th« officers of state, ixn well us to tlie miniaterK of 
the sanctuary. Thus, in the Second Book of Samuel. David's 
BOAS ore flftid to have been cohauim: '2 Sam. vtii. 18. That 
thay were not ministers of the sanctuary id certain, because 
they were of the tribe of Judah, not of Levi, to which 
tribe the ecclesiastical ministry was by tlie \av expressly 
hmiled. Their being called evJioittm, therefore, con mean no 
other than a« our tranelators rundet the word, chief rulers, 
or principal ufHcvrs of state. And so, indeed, this title seenu 
to be explained in th« parallel pluce in Chronicles, where the 
sons of David are said to have been l^on t^^ o^JSiKin harisk- 
oitmi Irjiuih tmattnttek, primi ad mauitin ffgis, " chief about 
thekin;;;" 1 Chron. xriii. 17. Thus also Ira. the Jnirite, is 
called 'r>ni pa eok^n /^^JJitvid, which our translators render. 
" chief ruler about Da\ id ;" 2 Sam. \x. 26. But more com- 
nonly the tide eohanim is given to the minister of the sanc- 
tuary, who offered sacrifices, and other ivay* officiated in 
the public worship. Hcnco arises that uncertainty, whether 
Potiphcrab and Jethro, the former the father-in-law of Jo- 
s«ph. the latter of Moses, were ecclesiastical orcivd persons; 
which our translators have exprcsMd by calling them priests 
in the text, and prince in the margin : Gen. xti- 46; Exod. ii. 
16. The true leason of the different application of the •vord 




coAanrm seems to b?, that in ihv priiukry Mnae h imports 
■■ those that minister to a kiiig. They who were T^fsn ^>>h lejudk 
tuimmefrk, about tlie kmg. of hi« luinislors, were culled hi« 
'D^ns cohaMm. And thcrDfore, as God is a king, he had his 
cohaHim M well as earthly monarch^, or such aa attended on 
hiB Hpecial presence ia the Hinctutiry. and tniniutered in tho 
sacred service. Accordingly, havitig taken upou himself th« 
character of the king of Uraul, he commanded Moses to con- 
secrate Aaron and hia sous, vV pob lemhen It, Exod. xxx. 30. 
to be bis cohanim. Accordingly, God's cokainta are satd to 
come near uuto the Lord (Exod. xa. 23 ; Numb. xvi. 6), at 
the ministers of state come near to a king, and nttcnd in hi* 

It baa bc«n roada-ft question, in which aoiiRe we are to uii- 
dentaad the word p3 rohin in the fotlowin<; passage of tba ' 
Fsalnusl : " Thou art a priost for ever afier the older of Mel- \ 
cltixedek;" Psalm ex. 4. Many of the later rallies, who 
think Daviil is Uie person there spoken of, understand by p3 
coiun, a king, in the civil nnd f>olitical, since it is certain Da- 
vid was not aroA^n in the eccle-siastical, sense.* But in this 
they are undoubtedly mistaken ; fur not only is it certain rrom ^ 
several cfuotalions, in the New Testament, of the Psalm, 
wherein Uus pasaagu is contained, tliat it relates to Chriiit:f 
but the word euhin is no where used to si^ily a king, but! 
always one that ministers to a kin^. Mvlchized^, it is true^J 
was a king in Salem; nevertheless it was on account of aifj 
other office which he (executed, that he is called a toh^n, 
Geo. xir. 18; naincly, as he ministered in tacrit, or in the 
aolemniticR of divine worship, lie was a kiuf; over men, but 
at ttie same time n ru^» to tlie must higit God. Of these 
sacred or ecolcaiastical eoAMmiti, we propoae to discourw, 
and proceed to inquire, 

'idly. To whom it appertained to execute tiiu office of afi 

eeclesiasticfti o>hin, or priest, especially in otferit^ sacrificea* 

In order to retolve this question, it will be necessary to dia- 

liuguish the sacred rites into private, domestic, und puUio. 

Itiaaupposed, that in the most ancient times every pnvat« 

* R IHnl Kimchi bt Iw. 

i At)4 u ti u undcTMood by the loncM nbbies. See Own oa dw 
Htbraw*. foL t •xtreaM. ti. va. xivi. 




person was nllumtl to utTlT Kacrifice<i for Iiimstlf. Wkc^ 
Cain and Alwl bToij<;ht rach ol' lh«ni an oHcring (■> the LorrI, 
tberc is no mention of any )>netil otficiatini; for thrin, rhoitfvh 
it does nol (ip|>«»r (li;)t cKtivr of tlteni sustainvrl anv piiblin 
ehameter, or had been consecrated to the 8ac«rdotul otiice j 
we Gen. iv. The talmudists. indeed, are of opiiiioii, that 
tlwv hroHjjht their iwicrifices to Adam, that hv- mi»ht ofil-r 
thoiu on thrir hvh»lf ; but of lhi*t IhcK in not (lie Wast hint in 
(ho sacred history.* When a aacrifioe tvoB ofiered, or rather 
saciDt) rites were performed for a family, it tteemB to hnvr 
been dune by the head of it ; thus Noah i>acrificc<l for hininclf 
and family, 0«n. tHi. 20; and likewise Jacob, Crtni. xxxv. 3, 
Job " offered buml-offerines for bis daugbtera and his sons, 
according to thenumlKT of them all ;" chap. i. 6, It has becik 
commonly supposed, rather than proved, that the priest's office 
wa« hereditary in e^-ery family, dcsoendtag from the father to 
the eldest Ron. When, in proceaa of time, several lamilies 
were combined into nation!^ nnd bodies politic, the king, as 
head of the community, officiated as priest for the whole. 
Thni Melchizedek was tmth kin;* and priest in Sniem ; and 
Moaes, na kinif in Jefthuru n (which iv another name for Israel), 
officiated as priest in the solemn national sacrifice offered on 
occasion of Israel's entering into covenant with Qod at 
Horeb. Mo«e?< spr'mklejl the Wood of the sarrifiec npon the 
nltar, and upon the people; Hxod. xx\r. ft. H. 

Tndeod, the Racrificen are aaid to Ihitc been offered by 
•• young men of the children of Israel, whom Moses aent or 
appointed," ver. 5: that is, ttays theTargum of Otikcloa, by 
tho firet-bom of the sons of Israel, who were the priests and 
sacrificers, till the Invite*. Iieing appointed instead of them, 
hiid the priesthoo<l nettled in their tribe. The Arabic and 
Persic versions favour this opinion. However, it in to be ob- 
aerved, that triyj ntmgnnrim, which we render young n»en, 
does not always signify those who are young in years, hut 
those who are fit for service ; and accordingly it is applied to 
mtnistcre, or Hervanta of any kind: Gen. x'w.QA; xxii. 3; 
3 Sam. xviii. 15: 1 Kingn xx. 14. There is no necewnty, 
therefore, that we shoald understand by the o^VI fmnfinnrhn, 
whom Mows sent to offer bumt-offcrings. and to &acri6ce 

* Vlil- H*M)rgc«r ffiMnr. i'tlTkiHi. Inrn. t Px«nntat. t. p. 17? 





peace-oircrin^K, inopcr priesU, consecralvti to that ofiice; fur^ 
tbey might be only ttervautu, employed lo kill und prepare Ut 
BQcrificuB, white he, as priett, sprinkled the blood of ihein oa. 
the aJtar, and on the people. Mo«e« ia, therefore, by Lh« 
Psalmist, called n priest : " Moftes aod Anron among his 
prieeta;" Psalm xcix. (>. 

But wliun Ci<xl mode a more iKifect settlement of theit^ 
catulitiition, and gave them his litw at StDai, be allotted Ihfr' 
public sacerdotal office to Aaron and his sous, and entailed it] 
oa their posterity ; and though the whole tribe of Levi, tO:' 
which Aaron belonged, was apix^inted to tlie service of tlia' 
flancluar\', nnmely, to perform the lower offices relating to iJ 
public wonship, yet it was now made u cupital crime for any, 
besides Aaron, aiid his sons and dettcendoiits, to officiate u . 
priests, iu th<; more solemn acts of oH'enii!^ B:icri(ici-->>. biirniogi' 
incense, and bletuting tlie people, losomiich thuL \\ ben KoraJl 
and his companions (thougli Korah was of the tribe of Lftri) ' 
uUonipted to invade the pru-ttl's ofiice, I'umb. xvi. lU, God 
executed his vengeance ii|Kin them m u very remarkable niun* 
oer, as a waTning to all others, ver. 3 1 — 33, and confirmed 
tlie priesthood anew to Aaron and his family by the niiracu-* 
lous sign of the buddioj; of his rod ; chap. xvii. It was now 
no more lawful for tlie king, than for the meaneiit uf the 
people, to oHiciate iu the priest's othcc. This is evident from 
the remonKtnince which Azuriati and hin companions made to 
king Uzziah. when he "went into iJie temple of the Lord, to 
bum iiu:cniic upon the altar of inccntic" (jx^iapft out uf a vain 
Msbition of imitating the heathen kings, who in many placet' 
Utwutcd the pricsihoiKl, and that he might in all respecta ap- 
pear as greut a» tlivy) ; udU from tlie judgment which God 
infljcted upon him for it ; 2 Chron. xxvi. lb'. 31. 

Here a considerable difficulty arises, iu that after llie giving 
of the Uw (by which the prieHtbood waa limited lo Aaron's 
family), we have an account of several kings, judges, and 
prophets, taking upon them to officiate as prieata, sacrificing 
and blcMing the people, who yet were not of the family of 
Aaioii, nor of the tribe of Levi, without any censure passed 
upon Uivm ; nay, it afaoQld scorn, H*ith the divine approbation. 
Saujuet, who was of Uie tnbe of HpliPAim, was waited for, 
(hat, according to his custom, ho might blewi the sacrifice. 




I Sam. ijc. 13. And, on another occiuion, lie "oflered a 
lamb for a bumt-ofleriiij; to the Lord ;" I Sam. vij. !). Both 
which nets did properly belong to ihe priest. King Saul 
oflerwi n hiimt-ortering, 1 Sam. xiii. 9; and DAvid oHTcred 
" tjurat-offeringa and peace-offerings before tlic Lord, and 
bleued the people io the name of tlie I^rd of hosts ;" 2 Sam» 
vi. 17. \H. Solomon, likewise, blesified the people, as well ha 
prayed in the public congregntions, at the dedication of the 
tcojple ; 1 Kini^ vii. 54. And the prophet Elijah Bacrificed 
a hnllrtck ; 1 Kin<^ xviii. 30. 

Thff common noluiioii of this difficulty is, that these kin-^s 
and prophets caused the prieAU to perform the sacrifices for 
them, and are said to do what was done by their order. IJut 
this sense of the expressions useil on lhe»e occasions, is loo 
forced to be easily admitted. What Elijah is said to have 
done, in particuhir, in the forecited passage, seems evidently 
to have been done by himself; and cannot, without great 
force upon the wordii, be underalood of any other person's 
doing it for him. The dilKculty. therefore, is perhaps better 
solved by suppfisinf^, that when tliusc p«r<on!4 acted as priests, 
they did it not. as being heads of tJii> people, hut as Iteing 
prophets, luid under tlie apecial direction of the Spirit of God, 
who had. no doubt, aright todispciise with liisuwu laws, and 
somctmies did, on cxlruordinwry oeca»ions. Some, on this 
principle, interpret the words of Sntniicl to Suul ; " The Spirit 
of the Lord shall come upon thee, and thou shall prophesy; 
then do tliou om occasion shall serve tJiee, for God is with 
thee," 1 Sam. x. 6. 7 ; that is, according to them, when thou 
art thus endowed with the Spirit, (hou mayest follow his di- 
rections upon all emergencies, without regarding the letter of 
the Ihm'. I'hough this will not excii>ie his sacriflcing, be- 
cautie from his own account it appears, that he did not do it 
by Kpecial divine direction, but contrary to his judgment ; he 
" forcud hinuielf to it." accordin); to his own cxpresaion, " and 
did it out of fear;" 1 Sara. xiii. II, 12. i 

With respect to the different oider^ and ranks of pri««6t, 
and of other ministers about the Jcwij<h lemple-servicc, God- 
win xaith. they were throe. Pne^tii. I^viIck. ami N'ethinims; 
and he adds, they may bo parullelcd uitli ministers, deacons, 
and yulxlcticons in the primitive church ; and over them t\u- 



[•OOK I. 

biBlh-jmcBl vns chivf. In this manner th« Papists pretend to 
found their eccieeiattical hierarchy on tho Jewiiih establiiib« 
ment ; conparing the pope with the high-priest, the clcr^ 
ivith the priests, the lav moitkii und r»the<lrnl oBicvrH, nurh aj 
their tinging men and hoy», &c.. witti ^e Lcvitca and Nethi- 
tuiou. Bat the etithor has not produced, from the Hem Tc«- 
btratrnl, hia evidence of Auch a ditlinctiun of initii&t«r*t in tlie 
pritnitivu Chrieitian cliuicli aa he here epeaks of. There we 
have not the least intimatioD of two sorts of deacons, the on* 
preachers, the other not ; but only of one sort, whoae province 
wft« to lake cnre of the poor, and of the other temporal mat- 
ters relating: to the church.* Hut tu fL-tum. 

The priesthood waa entailed on the posterity of Aaron, in 
whoin Uie aucccatuon was continued, Exod. xxviii. 4^}, and 
xxix. 9 ; and he having fuar sons. N'adab and Abihu, Ueazar 
aad lUuuuar, I CJiron, vi. 3, they, togcthui wiLtt their lather, 
were coDaecnitod to the sacerdotal office. It w&s not long 
bcfoR Nadab and Abthu M'ere both struck dead by fire from 
heaven. The crime, thuH severely punished, was tlieir piO' 
auniiug to burn iocenae in thu tabernacle with other lire thaa* 
ihut winch Gud hud couiumndeJ to be uacd. Lev. x. 1.2; 
and which he urdnrud to be kejit constantly buniing on the 
aJtar, having been Grat lighted by a dash from heaven, 
whereby the dnt victims that were offered on the altar, aflet 
it waa erected, had been consumed in the presence of the 
people; Lev. ix. 24. As, immediately upon thii, Aaron and 
bU the priestA were forbid In drink wine, or any other intox- 
iaating liquors, whenever tliey went into the tabernacle, " lest 
Utey should die," Lev. x. 9, the Jews, with Dome rcanon, ron- 
clwle, that the crime of these two pnoata wim tlicir being 
dmnk when ihoy went to olficialo m the tabomaelc. 

Nndab and Abihu tlius dying before their father, and leav- 
ini; no children, 1 Chrun. xxiv. '2, there n.-muiDed Elc«mr 
knd Ithanar, in whoso posterity the family of Aaron, or nt 
the prieau, was dtntiriguinhed into two bronchea. Godwin 
aaith, that "the high priesthood was tied or limited tA the 
linn of Anran'a firat born." that is, to tlic line of Kleaznr, wha ' 
imOMdbtely ancceedwl his father in the olliec of high>prieai. 

^ Sii ika aaa n st o( ibnir lasutuiwo ana iifitt. An* «^ u Uie lw|iDains. 

cUAr. y.] 



Numb. XX. 26, 28, and was succeeded by his eldest hod 
Phinchns, who had the digiuly confirmed to him, and entailed 
on Lbe boe of his posterity, for the pioue zeal which he showed 
^jBinst idolntry uud lvw<lne»8. " Behold, 1 give htm my 
covenant of peace, saith God, and he Bhall hafe it, and bis 
seed after him, even the covcnaot of an everlasting priest- 
hood ;'' Namb. xxv. 12, 13. Hovrevcr, rht!4 promise muiit be 
nndenstood conditionally, in ca!«e the eldest bmiich of hif^ honw 
was fit lo diachai^ this hii^ office, or did not forfeit the dig- 
nity by some notorious uickedneDB ; for upon any Huch failure 
io the line of Pbiuefaati, it was lo be transferred lo the cldusl 
branch of the line of Ithamar. Accordingly, we find there 
were twvcrai changes from one line to the other, between the 
death of Aaron and the captivity of Israel. It first eontinuetl 
through gevcn successions in tho line of Eleaxar. and was then 
tnuistutc<l to tho htio of Ithawar, in the person of Kb, who 
waft botli hiij^h-prieet and jud^ in Israel. lliaL he was of the 
fiunilyof Ithamar, not of Elcazar, is concluded from his name 
pot bviog inserted in the genealogy of Eleazar. 1 Chron. vi. 
3. flee. ; and from Josephus's saying that he was of thefmnily 
Driihamiu-.* £h', then, was the first of tliat line who was 
raised to this high dignity, and in his family it contioued till 
the reign of Saul, who caused Ahimelccb, the son of Ahitub. 
to be shun, and probably transferred the priesthood to Zadoc, 
who was of the I'hinohan lm« ; fur in Uavid's time we find 
Zadoc joined with Abiatliar (who had escaped the massacre of 
the priests, of Ithamar 'a bnc) in the execution of the high, 
priesthood ; 2 Sam. xx. 26- It may be presumed, that Zadoc 
having been advanced by Saul, and being also of the eldc«t 
line of /Varon's family, David did not choose to depose him, 
and therefore joined him with Abiathar, whoRe father and 
other ndalJous had lost their lives on his account, ami whom 
he had acknowledged as high-priest, ojul tmd accordingly iu- 
quind of tlia Lord by him, presently after his father's death; 
I Sam. xxiii., beginning. And thua Zadoc and Abiathitr con- 
tinued partners in this dignity through the reign of David, 
It is said, indeed, in the acooant of this king's principal officf^ni 
and miniiiter» in the Second Book of Sumnel, that " Zadoc* 
ihfi Bpn of iVhitabf and Abimeloch, the eon of Abiatbort wvn 

■ • ' - * A«iq. Uk. r. lap. oh. 




tlie prieaU;" 2 Sam. viii. 17. In tliw pssHogo here are two 
tliiug« which require explsnaLiou : tlie 5n»C is, that Aliinivlecll 
'ia said to be the son of Ablatliar, whereas Abiathar was the 
■on of Ahimelech. Dut this difficulty is removed by the easy 
Buppoeition, that Abiaihar might h»ve a son. called after bin 
fulhcr Ahimelech. The second i-s, that Ahimelech, instead 
of hia father Abiathar, is juiucd uk priest with Zadoc. Thu 
iiiuet ptulnible solution of Oiis itt. lliat Abiathar, through in- 
dolence or sickness, not much attending to the duty of hi« 
vlHce, his son Ahimelech commonly ofticiutcd for hini ; anrl 
on Uiat account, he, rather than his father, is iiamtxl with Za- 
doc, ai executing the priest's uflico. Afterward, when Solo- 
mtm waa fixed on his throne, he degraded Abiathar for bis 
treason in tfac conspiracy of Adonijab. 1 KingK ii. 27, and put 
SUdoc in hi(t room, ver. Do, that is, established him in thu 
otbce alone : and in hi^ line the auccesaitm contwued tdl thu 
captivity. But though Abiathar was turned out of his oflic«» 
it seciuji he was still honoured Mtlh the title of hi(ih-prie)it aa 
before ; for, presently al\er, we tind him named with Zadoc, 
as in David's lime ; I Kings iv. 4. The tniili ia, he was now 
reduced to the same mnk which the eldest branch of the line 
of lUiaoLur ht'ld. before tlie traii&tulion of ttie pneslhiiod to 
Eli, thai ia. he was secood in tlie ecclesiaatical dignity. Thia 
probably was the case with Zephaumh, menlioned by iha 
prophet Jeremy, who tttyles " Serniah the chief, aitd Zopba- 
niah the second priest," Jer. )ii. 24, the»c two bring the eUUat 
.branches of the two hnes of Aaron's family. 

Many have been the conjectures concenunf; the reason of 
the firsl translation of the high priealbood from ICIeuzur's to 
ItJianiiir'a fiunily, iu tJie perM>n uf Eli. One la, the idolatry 
which Micah introduced among the 1 nraeUles. which the high- 
priest IK supposed to have countenanced and encouraged; 
M< Jiidgca xviii. 

To Uus it may bo objected, not only that this idoUtry seems 
to have been peculiar to the tribe of Dan, or rather to a omall 
part of that tribe which acttled at Loish, ver. 2H — 30; but 
thai, though Uie history of tliis ailiiir is placed neat the end of ] 
the book uf Judges, it is generally thought to have happened 
aoon aflet Uie death of Junhuu.* before theie was" any judge 

' joaepbai fVtnw to bat« bera of ihl* opteioa eoswm « n iks mrlf dsi* 

Tap, v.l 



in Israel;"* UiaL is, at least three tiuiidred years before the 
tranitlalion of tiie piieiithood uut vf J-Ueazar's fuoiily. And it 
vaanot be siipposeU, tJiat if the degrailaliou of that rmiiily had 
been the puniHhment of t)ti« Kin, it would have been no long 

Dr. Lightfuot conjuctmrs, that God's depriving Eleazar's 
family of the ponliiicui dignity for Berend successions, was on 
eccount of the tgiiurance or careleeisucss of the hi^h-prieHt, m 
KufilBring Jephlhah to sacrifice hiK daughter r|- whence you 
vnl\ ubseive, it w&n his opinion he did actually sacntice her. 
After all, nothing can be advanced here beyond bare conjec- 
ture, the Scripture no where informing us of the reason for which 
the line of Kleazat was thus de^[radcd. But, considering bow 
luany lognl imperfections would disqualify a man for that high 
dignity, it iu no nundcr thai llic Jincal Hiiccossion jriiH oRen 
iubcrrupte<i. and the second priest, or tlie bead of one Hoc of 
Aaron's fAmily. placed abore the natural tsuccessor in. the 
other line. However, it has been generally thought, and with 
re«M>n, that some enormous crime wati the cause of the hrtit 
iranftlation from the family of Klcazar to that of Ithamar; 
piartly. becaose God had by covenant entailed the succession 
on the Phinchan line, as was observed before ; and partiv, 
becaiuc the next translation back again, from the Itncoflthti- 
marlo that of Kleuzar, vas on account of tiic Kins of Eli's 
KMU. " I clioee tlic house of thy father Aaron," saith God 
to £li by the prophet, '* to offer up incense and sacrilices 
upon mine nltar. Why then do ye kick at my sacriflce^? 
Therefore, though I said that thine should stand before 
me for ever, now be it far from me. Behold the days come, 
liiat thou shaft see an enemy in thine habitation, and I will 
raise mo up a faithful priest;" 1 Sam. ii. 27, &c. By an 
enemy, or rival (as some would translate the word nx lutr), 
may probably be meant the eldest branch of the other line, 
who, though set aside for « time, was to be reinstated in tlio 
niprflow dignit)-, 

of !kliciih'« tdolalry ; lor W plicei the wMj of ihf Ijtviu, rclatMl in llie oex( 
rl»ii4vr, wKm a&et lh« dmih of JtMhua. Anliq. lib. v. cap. ii. 

* Sri? v«r. 1 ; Bitd likfwi(H> ntHn-t. book i. «hap. i. p. 46. 

f UghifoDt** Uonnony of the OM Touunmi, on Judge* xl ul lub Anno 
.Muwli, 2819 


tWl»M Al 

[book I. 

There appmr. by tJic Scripture accoaiit, U> liuvc liccn thirty, 
high priests from Aaron to JcHUxleck, who wsb cnrritti rnpUvi 
into Babylon ; yet we cannot be sure tbero were no mora,J 
since thuScnplun; nowhere proreM«8 to giv« us an vxaci UttUi 
AfU-r lite captivity, the rcgiilanly of succession \\i\» little n>- 1 
guded. The Jews acknowlixige that Home got into the oAiea 
by money;* and it is said, that some nf the high-prieflta de-j 
vtroyed one anutlier by witchcraft. Whether we gira creditj 
to this account or not, it shows that ecvcral of them, in tho84 
latter ages of the Jewish chnrch, were corrupt and vicioui 
men, and lefi a very bad character bvhiiid thrm. Some rub-^ 
bics reckon eighty hi^h-pnests. from the return from the Ba- 
bylonioh captinty to the dc«truclioii of the Mcond temple;] 
others eighty-four or eighty-fivc.t 

Wo now proceed to coniidcr, 

tst. The comeeralion of the Jewish priosta lo ih<nr ollico;,] 

2d]y. The office ilwlf. to which tliey werecontwcratud ; bliuw- 
ing under both headtiin what roftpects Uie higlk-|>ricMt and lli« 
inferior priests were alike, and whcnein tbey diflered. 

In discoursing of the consocrntion of the hij^h-pncst, God-^ 
win begins with the anointing of hira, u.h one thing whertun Imi 
dificrcd from the inferior pncsts. But the Scripture mentions' , 
his being clothed with the |H>ntilical garments, as previous to.^ 
his unction : " The holy garmetils uf Aurun shall be Iiih Bons*| 
after him. to be anointed therein, and to be consecrated in i 
them;" Exod. xx'ix. 29. There was »lill luiotiier ceremony,] 
prerious both to anointing and clothing, and common to tlioj 
high-priest and to the inferior priests, Domely, their being | 

* Vid. n«rtenorB, et Maiman, in Midia. lit. Jona. cap. i. ncL ui, Ma, iL,| 
p. 208, vdiL Suranliua. 

t 4>D tha niocoMoa of the hi);li-prietta. oomilt S«IHcn dc Succcmiooi: laJ 
ronli5catum ; Itslnd. Ai)li(|. llfbrw. put ii. cup. iii.; uhI Pridniix'i C'Oi^j 
tMTCt. i»n i. book i nib anno flSfi uiiv Chiutnm. Sdden'i Hfcood book 
Swctwione n Ponii/. codimw k. laige Kcount oui of ihp nUi*n 4if ihi* i 
^wriHuUcbwefeiSHlepiVl^iulollM! initial Hin of the hifilt-pnt'«l, *>ttrUi«r] 
ba ra nan is blood, uiil bum of a ttumkaiti >lkm«<<| t>y th« \»^ ; BhciliMr 1 
br wv oTa pfopa sg^.thal u.amrvd la pnUnty ; wtMilKr h« Iiwlajiy bodiljfl 
d?fn:i,OT»aswl(UelMlloui;WcewUdidwqaMeilUm. The like biquiriaiV 
■niMid •absvebwniiwki.mnlatumstMidisopiKwmiliglbaMiiUDPaiinsu, 
pKfioui 10 thtHf cOMvcntioo- 



washed mib water : " Aaron and his sons tlioii shalt bring 
unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and alialt 
wash ihem with water;" ver. 4. From hence, some ex- 
plain those wonis of our Saviour to John the Baptist, when 
lie deKirnl to be baptized of him : " Thus it becometh us to 
fulfil all nghtL>ou9nes8," Matt. iii. !&; that is, being about to 
unter on his |ine«tt)r ofTtce, it became him to be bitptized, or 
waabcd. according to the law which he was subject to; or, 
a* the apostle expresses tt, "was made under;" Gal. iy. 4. 
Othentlhink, that " fulfilling all righteonBnL'ss" here means, 
ownin{( and complying with ever^ divine institution, which 
John's baptism w&s.* Be this as it will, tiie ceremonial 
washing of all the priests was, doubtless, designed to be ty- 
pical of that purity of heart and life which is declared to be 
essential to the miiusters of the gospel ; 1 Tim. iii. 2. 7, and 

Wo now proceed to consider the unction, which was on- 
otlier ceremony at tlie consecration of the pricala. floiiwin 
represents this anointittg (which term, he seems to think, in- 
timates the profusion of the oil used on the occasion) as pe- 
culiar to the high-priest; whereas the second priei^ts.hesaith, 
were only sprmkled with this oil. min^^ed with the blood uf 
the sacrifices. But in this he is uudoubtedly mistaken ; for 
U the ceremony of sprinkling was commnn to Aaron and bis 
MOB, Lev. viti. 30, so also was the anointing. Thus the 
Lord spake unto Moses, "Thou shall anoint Aaron am! his 
hODs, and coosccratc them, that they may minister unto mc in 
iJie priest's office ;" Again, it is said. "These 
lue the names of the sons of Aaron, tlie priests, who were 
anouited, whom ho conaectatMl tu minister in the priest's 
office, even Nadab and Abihu. Eleaxvir and Itliamar;" Numb. 
iii. 3. There sccni*, however, to have been this dificrcnce 
lietween the high-priest and tlie common priests, that every 
high-priest was anomted at his consecration, at least before 
the captivity; whereas noao of the conunon priests were 
anointed after the inunediate sona of Aaron. Every higfa- 
privst, I Kty, was anointed ; only when Elcazar succeeded bin 
father in the hif^h priesthood , the ceremony of anointing sccma 

WtUii MikHI. lom. II lib. u. diitnt. u. moi. 47. 


jewitn AKTIQVITISfl. 


to have brcii utut(tvi) at lua cousecration, because he had been 
anoiutcd before, whea ho was couaccrated a common priest. 
There h mi other account, therrrore, of the cereinonv of hiti 
inntaluR'tit, but his being clothed with his fiithcr's ponti5rTnl 
^nueiit^; Numb. xx. 28. That the succeeding high-priesta 
were anointed at their consecration, may be certainly inferred 
from that perpetual law concemini^ the hi(;h-pric8t (menning 
not only Aaron, but any of his snccc«»or9 in that office). 
wherein he is called " the pricut that is anointed :" I>ev. iv. 3 ; 
see aliK) vur. Wi. And tliin being the diMtinf^uisbin^ rhamcter 
of the hi<^h-pnest. it may likewise be inferred, that the 
common priests, the tucceftsorv of Aaron'» cons, were not 

Maimonides and tJie lalmudical rabbiett Apeak much of a 
Mfrrdot <id hctUim Httctitu, or prie«t anointed for war, who. 
Ihey say, was anointed with the same oil that the hi^h-priest 
waA, an being little inferior to him in dignity, though in (bo 
sanctuary be mnnstercd onlv as a common priest, and wore 
no other garmoutu tbuu tbey did. llin proper ottice. as Uicy 
inform a*, was to attend the camp in time of war, and en- 
courai^ the people lo the battle. accordingto the foltowinir law : 
" And it shall be, when ye are come nigh unto the battle, that 
the priest shall approach, and speak unto the people, and 
shall «fly unto tbcm. Hear. O Israel, you approach this day 
unlo battle against your enemies : let not your hearts faint ; 
fear nut, and do not tremble, neither be ye terrified beimuBC 
of them. For the Lord your God is he that goeth with you. 
lo tight for you against your enemies, to sare you ;" Deut. xs, 
2- 4 . Maimonides Kiith, that when he, who is anointed 
for Uie war, standing on a high place, before the whole army, 
hath pronounced thefte words in the holy tongue, another 
priest under him procluimeth it to all the people witli a loud 
voice : and then the anointed priest anith, " What man is Uiero 
(hat hath buitL a new house, and hath not dedicated it '. Let 
liim j^ and return to his house, lest he die iu the battle, uikI 
another muo dedicate it. What man is tfaere that hath 
planted a rineyard, and hath nut yet eaten of it'^ Let htm also 
go and letuni unto hi» houfe. lest be die in the battle, and 
aiioUicr muii eat of it. What mail is there thul Iiatli bctroUicd 
■ wife, and bath not taken her ? Ix-t him go and rctiini uuiu 

(A p. f .] 




liin house, Im be die in Irattte. and another mnn t:ikc her;" 
Dent. XX. fi — 7. Thus much the anointed firicat xpeaLetli. 
and the officer proclainiuth it aloud to the people. Afierward 
the otlir^^r himt^i-lf speiikcUi, aud Kaitli, " What man is there 
that is fuarfiil and laJnt-hearted ? Let him goand return unin 
his house, lest his bnrthrea's heart faint av well an his heart," 
Deut. XX. 8; and another otHcer proclaims it to the people.* 
\ow, though it may be very naturally supposed, that aome of 
the priests attended the camp, as a kind of chaplains to the 
refj^iments, and an having; some particular service assti^ed 
them, which made their presence Decexsarv, namely, to blow 
with the trumpets, {Humb. x. H. 9, and to encourage the 
people; nerertheletts, that there wa& one prieat peculiarly con- 
secrated to this flerrice, and of superior dignity to tjie common 
priestA, doe*i not appear in Sciiptiii'e ; and vtc havt , therefore, 
no reason to believe (notwithstanding this rabbinical Miction) 
that any pneiit«, after the oodb of Aaron, were anointed, but 
the higJi-priest only. 

The omtmeiit, or oil, with which the priest was anointed, 
is described, and there is a receipt for making it to the book 
of BxoduH, chap. xxx. 23 — 26. It was compounded of spicy 
drugs, namely, myrrh, sweet cinnamon, sweet calamus, and 
cftssia^ mixed with oil olive. Mitimonidex pretends to tell us 
tJie manner of makinf; this mixture. ** Each of these four 
spices," soith he, " was pouiidcd Beparately: then they were 
all mixed together, and a strong decoction of them mad* 
with water, which, being strained from the ingredients, was 
bailed up with the oil. till the water was all eTaporated."f 
Tlte rabbiea are very positive, that no more of tliis holy oil 
was mode aft«r Uiat which Moses made, for anointing the 
tabernacle, and tlie first set of ptieata^ And they ground 

* AUinutn. de [tf^itbiu. chap. vil. sect. i. — iv, 

•f Dt Apparaiu Tcmpli, cap. i. wet. i. apud Cnnii Faacicutum Sestom, 
p, 64, CI SM).; C'oiiDU>enL in Mnha. tit. ('herithoih, cap. i. MCL i. torn. r. 
p, 237, 238, edit Suretthuv; IlMtin^ de Legibus I icbrror. MCt crii.ctui.; 
rt SchKlunl. Jus H«giiim llwbcsor. cam notia Carptor. thtwr. ir. p^ 63, 

M *«] 

I Vid T4lmiKl.Cbentliodi,cap.i.;«$chickui). JiuR«Kiuni;«tC&rp«>v. 
DM. p. (i7— 71. 



[rook I. 

their opinion tni Jiv foUuwin^ passago, which they umli-niltuid 
aa a pruhiliiUuu of waking it in any fature time: "Thin ithail 
be an holy UDuintin^ oil unto me throughout yourg^>ncnitiut»< 
Upon man's fietih it shall not be poanKl, n«ilh«r hhall ye 
taiJke any other like it, after ihe composition fif it; it is holy^ 
and ahnll be holy unto you. Whosoever compouudcth nny 
like it, or whosoever putteth any of it upon a slnuigur, shiill 
even lie cut otf from hiit people ;" Exod. \xx. 31 — 33. But 
this only meouH. aa Christopher Cartwri<^hl juHtly oboen'os,* 
ttitit none of it HhouUl be matlo for any private or profane uvc ; 
not that nhen it -was uecesnary for the holy parposes (at 
wbici) it was appointed, no frcnh quantity fkhould evrt be made 
by thu original receipt. Indeed, I can see no rea»on why % 
■voeipt abauld be given for mnking' it, if no more wm to be 
made of^r that tirst parcel. Uesideit, the quantity made by ' 
Moses with one hin of oil, a niiauure, according to Biahop' 
Cumlwrlood, little more than a wine gallon, could not fa« 
much mure Uiau wan BulBcieDt for anointing the tnherirada 
und all its furniture, the altar and all iu vessels, the laver, and 
Aaron and hi.s four sons; ver. 26 — 30. Or if any aftt^ all 
remained, it could not be sufficient for anointing the succeed^ 
ing high-prieflii) for m»nv tig's; nor would it keep so lon^, 
but evaporate and be dried up. The rabbics, indeed, nhraya 
dexterous at unravelling dillicultics, tell ua, it was miraculously 
preaerved.f like the pot of nuuuia m tlic urk of the covenant, 
and was multiphed lUce the widow's cruse of oil, 1 Kings xviu'- 
14. They, however, acknowledge ii was lost in Josiah's tiraoi , 
about lil\y yuan before the destruction of the temple, antti 
that after thiit uo more high-prie-ita were anointed.;]: But if] 
by the " two anointed ones," spoken of by Zcchonah, " that 
atutd by the Lord of the whole earth," Zech. iv. 14, ai«^ 
meant, {us Kimchi ami niiiny othen underiitand that [>nKsage]|^ 
Joafaua the high-pricet, and Zerubbabel the govttinor. who] 

* Slseu'IWgninica-Ralibinka in Bxod. ua. S3. 

t Schickard. iib| atipn, |i. <I0; Tsltnud. ClMtillKiUi, cap. *■ •! «■; «i^ 
UanttiK«r. dsJvm Usbnnr. LsgJtwis, le( p. IM, IM.edit^ Tfafi, 

1 Taimsrf. Choriihoth, cat', i-: ft MsiiBOB. ds Appanlu TDispli, cip. i.- 
HVl. viu.; «i<l. Scbiekonl. uln fuprs, p. 69» 70- 

lAV. T.] 



RCleil M king of the Jews, this will be iiii evidt'nce, thai 
aiMMHtiog was used even iilur tht- cnptivity. Kiisebiua in of 
opinion, thni it coiitinueU in use till our Saviour's timc^* 

As to the inaoncr of perrormin^ this ct^himony, the lubbies 
relalt* it with ai luucli pattivuUirily Hiid confi(l«nce att if (hey 
hud been e^'e-witnesHen of it. tliey tcU lu, indeed, they 
had the account of it from tlicir wise men, and tbey had it 
from the prophets, who had swa it performed. They inform 
us, that the oil was poured on the top of the priest's head, 
which was bare, so plentifully, as to run down his face upon 
his be«nl to the collnr of his robe; and some say, that he 
who auoLDted hiin. drew on his forehead, with his finger, tlio 
figure of the Greek Caph, or Kappa, the lirst letter of the 
word p3 coM^n, Whereas others make it to be the figure of 
tlie Greek Chi,* whica some »up|^io*Mj was for ihe first letter 
in -xptv, uHgo, and \j»tarof, unctits, in which they discover 
a great typical mystery. But all whicli can with any certainty 
be depended upon ift that very hrief account given us in Lo- 
viticua: " And Mosea poured the anointing oil upon Aaron's 
bead;" Lev.viii. 12. And by the Psalmust, when he coca- 
inrea bruUivrly love and unity to " tbe precious ointment on 
Uie head, that ran dowti upon Aaron's beard, that went down 
to tbe skirts," or the collar, " of his gamtents ;" Ps. cxxxiii. 2. 
SoRi«sup{Mt»e, that,alth«consccratiooof tbe high-priest, this 
unction was repeated seven days together, an opinion which 
tbcry ground upon a paasoge in the book of Exodus, where 
that " son of Aaron, who it priest in his stead," that is, high- 
priest, is enjoined, " wbeo he cometh into the tal>emacle of 
the cungregatiou, ia order to aiinister in Uie holy place, to 
wear those garments, in which tie was anointed and con- 
«ecr*te<I, seven days;" Exod. xxix. 29, 30. Bat it does not 
follow, that therefore he was to be anointed seven times over. 
The higli-pricst being represcntetl in the New Testament 
as A type of Christ, Godwin very reasonably suppose* his 
unctami to be typical of those extraordinary giflH and in- 
tiueocos of the Spint with which the human nature of our 
Lord was endowed, and which, in allusion to this type, are 

" EuMh. Demoiirt, ETwig, lib. »iii. p. 387, Hit. Pari^ 1«28. 
t Vkl. de Bartnora ei Maimonidem ia Miiha. lit. CberillMli, cap i: 
asTL t. «l SvUaa. dt Soec<M. in PoiNiAcaL lib. ii. cap. ix. 


JftfflfiU AKTIQDlTIEv. 

[■OOK I. 

expre&8«d by iinulitlinir him: "OuJ, thy G<i(l, liaUi anoint 
itiet! with the oil orgladnex^ nhtive thy fclluvvH;" ]Vahii .\lv. 7i 
It it obMnrod, thiit thU fipintuAl unction of Christ wa« ui: 
ptfrforraod nt once, but at three diflercnt limes, each cD'uiiton 
being more pleiuit'iil than tho former. T)ic first was »l his 
birth, and in hia niinortty; und it a|i[»t>iired ni the extraor- 
dtnanr wisdom which he discovered ut twelve yeura old. inso- 
much. tliHt when at that early >ige he laughl in the teuiplai 
amoug the ftcrilies and doctont. " all who heurd hiui M-erel 
actOQiBhed at his understanding and aiiswen;" Luke ii. 47.1 
The fl«coiid was at his baptism, when (iie Spirit of God de^i 
itcended like a dove, and lighted upon him; Matt. iii. ItiM 
The third, and most cooipletc, was upon his aaccnsion, when.] 
he " received of the Fatiier the promise of the Holy Ghost,.! 
which he shed forth upon his discipItS;" Acb< ii. 3^. The. 
prophecy of the pDuiuust, coula.tne<l in the forly-tifth FkiIdi^ 
to which I referred above, relates. I nppruhciid. not so much 
to the two formor unction». which were designed to (qualify 
him for his miiiiatty on earth, as to that which be received 
nfier his ascension, in reward of his bumitiation and obedietice^ 
The second part' of the ceremony of consecration was en«j 
robing the priests with the sacerdotal veatmcnts. These were 
eifcht, four common to the high-priest and inferior priaBts, 
and four peculiar to the high-priest, llic former were tlie 
drawers or breeches, the coat, the girdle, und the bomicl or 
turban; lixod. xxvtii. 40—42. The latter, llie robe, the 
ephod, the breast-plate, and the holy crown. All theae gar-, 
mcnts, especially those peculiar to the higfa'priost, wen ex- : 
ceeding rich and ^lumptuous; the colours gay, and disposed in, 
a beautiful contrast; they were orDament«d with rich cm- 
broidery, and 84:t off with gold and jewels; and. no doubt, 
they were very grueefut in their s,hap«and forta, according to 
the taste of thuse limes. Liitie, indeed, can be advanced with 
certainty concerning the fashion of several of these vestments, 1 
Mosea having left us hardly any thing more than iheir names. 
Josephiw. indeed, hath given a particular description of them 
all,* aivd, doubtJ^s, a very faithful one, according to their 
fashion in his time. But who can say. how far it might hare 
altered during many ages, and in such various changes as tho 
* Afiiiq. Ub. Hi. np. vii. loia. J. p 13a, edit IU««tC- 



Hebrew commonwealth had undergone, from the time of 
Mosei f The account given by tliu rabbies is very diftei-ent 
from hit* ; and St. Jerome 'h, as to some of Uit^se gunnentB, 
diflereiit from both. The modcruR. wbo have set befort- ua 
lively descripliuas, in wntlug, and in pictures, vary bo much, 
that some of them seem to bare furnished the world with new 
model*, for ma»()iivrddi- hiibiU, mtiier tliaii to have detiueuU-il 
the real fushloo of the {iontihcal ve&tUKOts.* Thia caution 
pnmiaed. w« nUall endeavour to give you the bettt accomit we 
ran of these garmentA, m the order in which they were put otu 

The first was the *T3-«Ci130 michneie-btuih, which we render 
'^ linen breeches;" Exod. XKviii..4d. And according toJo- 
eephus, il much n%embltHi the modern gurmeni, which we 
call by tfiat uaiiie ; fobbe says it was t'antetmd romid the mid- 
dle, tft^tavwmv lie «niro rwv wohtfv, the feet or legb being 
put into it.t \U u^w was " to cover their nakedness," as it Is 
expressed in the book of Exodua; that in, for the sake of de- 
cency, whi^n tliey stood aloft on the altar, and the people 
were l>eneath them, or eren when they were on the ground. 
otooping to perform any part of the sacred service. Moset 
baa left us no description of these (Irawers, only that ttiey 
were made of Imen. and that they were to " reach from tlie 
loin* even to tlie thigha ;" that is, according to the rabbies, to 
the butUtm of the Uiighs. or to the knees. They also inform us, 
that tJie wuistfauiid was a little above the oarel. and near the 
heart ; and that llicy were tied about the wntst with a string', 
run throui/li the waistband, in the manner of a purse- This 
ganuDut wat^ cmnmon to tlic high-pricitA and to the mfenor 

That no such i^uniiBnl whh wore in. Noah'n time, t^eenis evi> 
dent, from tht- xtor)- of his being uncorcred m hii tent, Geo. 
ix. 2] ; nor by the Jews in the time of Moiea, except by the 
prieais, nnd tlim perliaps only when they were tilBciutin^ at 
the shnr, ax may he reaaonably conjectured from the law m 

* Anutog «dwo, cooipwc Brauinua de Vntilu S«£«nl. p. 646, 647. 6i&, 
odrt. 1701 ; or Wibni Uutodl- torn. i. lib. ii. d>»cn. ii. Md. »knu^ witk 
Calmct'* DirUanvy, unii-r th* wgnJ ptiwt. 

t AnlK). ubi toprt, aiwl. i. p. ta9. 

I Maimoo- d« Appamu Teaipliicap. viA. mvi. xniv p 146; Crcnti 



DeuteroQOiiiy agaiu«t itie imnjoilest wuman. Ucitt. xxv. II ; 
for if it had been cooiiuonly wvre, aim could not easily have 
oommitled the criiutr for which »be wu coiidemoed to lose ber 
hftod. Probably, in David's time, it nut worn only by the 
pncnts, which may be the reasoa that wheu Hanun, king of 
the AmmOuitM, " shaved off half the beardii of David'* ftor* 
vntits." or anibusuwdurs, " and cut off tbi^ir gnmientK in Cbe 
middle, even to their itintfrioni," and disiaiHst-d tbciu in thic 
disgraceful nntl indecent condition, " they wve gnatiy 
afthatued ;" 2 Sam. x. 4. o. That thin tranueni was not used 
Biuung the Kumans, in latter limes, cvuu by tlivir pnehUi. ap- 
pears from Martial's ludicrouK deacriptton of one who wa« m> 
crilkinK ■ 

l|» iup«r •irtdm am htcUnliijMU^ 
L>um imi'cat cotiru colU, imnaM^H auuiu, 
iBgpM imi* appaniit licnua ncris-* 

Suotonius'it account of the manner of Juhua Cieaar'a death, 
makes it murv tliau probablo that he wore no such g-amient. 
" Utqae animadvertit unditjue se strictu jtu^onibiia peU, locra 
ij^Mlt obvnivit : simill siuiatnt maiiu aiuum ad imu cnira do> 
duxit. quo hunestiu'^ cuderet ; ctiam infehure (.■orporia parU 
veiata/'t I'pon the whole, il may W rvusouably concluded, 
that the uhc of this decent gnnnent had ii» origin froal the 
divine inititntion of the Jr«i»h priesthood. 

The second ^nnent. whicli wiu put on after the breechea, 
was the niro chftln»ieth, or cnat, us it is called in our trana- 
lationj Exoci.xXTiii.40. Il was made of hnen ; Kxod.xxrix. 
27. We have no dvscripttun of the iai)biun of it in Scripture, 
except in (he visionary appearance of Christ to St. John, to 
the form and habit of a priest. Rev. i. 13 : and he is aaid tu 
be ivSt^M^foc vo^vpv, " clothed vtilh a garment down to the 
feet/* which perfectly agrees with the de&cription the Jcwiah 
writefR give of the chelhoneth : who say, that it reached 
dowa to the feet : and that it likewise had sleeves which cum 
down to the writtt, and was tied nbout the nock, in the *nxat 
manner as the brenfrhes about t)ie waist; so that it was not 
much unlike a long shirt.^ It was common to the high-priest 

* Lib. in. vfugntn. 34- i U Vaa Jul. Cm». otfi. Uiai. 

i ^UawM. d« Affwrntu Tanplii <:a|»> iili. vvct- i.«-ii. tiiuil Crwnl Fu- 
desl. Sntan, p, IM " De lnni;iivilit»# luiucanifn, enuii Ilia triarMkt qaa- 


and Ute infanor priusts; except Uiul, perliap«, ihe luuic of 
Ute hif^-pru-sl wait ratli^r insdc of finer liiieii. or wuvo in a 
tuorc curions niniiucr : for it in caittid \'2U.'n J'UTQ {■hethonetk 
taJtbitf. whicli we render the " broidered coBt;" Exod. xxviii. 
4. Aiimwortli translalrs it, " u coat of t-ircLed work ;" and ob- 
Mrve«, (but tl di(}ttnfd Crum bruidt*rvd wurJc, because that wu 
«r various) colottn, wbemH this coat w^m all white, hui wove 
in circleii, or rouud IwUow places, tike eyee. The »atue word, 
he remarVs, i* used atterwards, ver. J 1, fbr uucftes, or hollow 
aock«iM. ui wliich jeweU were set. Dt. Ltghtfoot conceives 
iJit:^ tunic to be u sort of dtiiper, wove in M>nie ti;^-ure, as 
circkn. or chcckent.* Tfat: high-pricHt, when he went iuto the 
holy of holie» on the day of expiutiou, ^-;i8 clothijd utdy in the 
i>rii/a d/^a-. U9 they aJV.cominuidy calletl. or tlie ganucnls of, 
tile couuuoa pnests, ■ Lev. xvi. 4 ; yvt the tunic which he 
then wore u itu|>puMd to be somewhat ditfeivnt from, uud 
perhaps meaner thau thein* ; thai it mi^ht be more suitable tv 
ihe peculiar ttervict.* and deep humilintiun of that day. This jf 
thought to be intimated, in tJic coat« made in oouimoD for 
Aaron and bis soiih l>eiog called U>1P rOTO chcthouelh thiih, 
Kxod. xxxix. ^; wbereaa the tunic which the liigh-prievt 
frora on the sotcoin feast day, is called 73-nsn3 ckethoiuth- 
'hadh\ Lev. xvi. •!. The ihesh is imagined to be a fine sort of 
^Tfittan bnen. »uch as was worn by their princes ; for witli 
it Phamoh dothod Joseph ; Oeit. xli. A'2. Sonui tuko it to be 
a fioe coltitn ; M-hereas the word 13 badh, i^ supposed to im- 
port a common and meaner sort.f 

Draoniiis i« of opinion, that there wfts no difTcrcnce between 
ibe thrtk and the badht as to the tiiieneas of llie tituB', the 
[anrcAttase badh, or Unen bruechesj being spoken of ^ nude of 
*wntro §hti§k laonJttor, " fine twined liuen," a^ our tranah- 
lotH nrntler it. And the only ditference between them, which 
be Assigns, i*. that the budh (being derived from 1T3 badhadh. 
mtius) waa uuulc of a single thread, and the ikhh (which word 

ran tnsnicv pettuebsat id volsm maniu, et pro latitudtne qmbu* paicbam." 
See othet tonimoaia npud Bnuniuni de Vestitu Sac«td. lib. ii. np. U. lect. 
VII. p. 4(il, edit ICflO. lect. crcxU. p. 372, edit. 1701. 

* Temple S«nic«, ctup. iU. 

\ VtA. Cuinrum de Kepab. Rebr. Bb. U. cap. x.; et Leuadea. Phllol. 
Uefar. iQUL cUaMrt. Ultu. p. 179, 180> 




[book I. 

iti^ilies six) wad composed of several, perhaps »ix, (hreadi* 
twisted together. He supports tJiis ivcntimcnt by the testi- 
mony uf Maimonides, and rartoua other Jewi&h doctors.* 

The tKird gnrmont was the DJax ahnet. «r j;irtllr; Kx^td. 
xxviii. 40. This was likewiw made of the CC thi^h, or liue 
twioed linen, and cvirioueJy eiitbtx>tdcred with a variety of co- 
lours; Exod-xxxix. "20. Mo«e« ha» not ac»juiiinto*l us either 
with the length ur breadth of thi» girdle. But Josephuii and 
the ntbbies have given um the meusure of it, tJiough their ms 
counts are verv differem. It went, according to Jo^ephus. 
twice altout the waist.f But M»iiijonideH makes it to be 
thirty-two elU long.;^ If thin account be true, the use of it 
Keema lo have been, not only to bind the tunic close and 
tight, but lo iterve for a warm tipfier gantient, by svi-nthin^ 
the body from the arms lo the waiitt ; and also to strengthm 
the bitck for the laborious work of killing, dreflsiog, and burn- 
ing the sncnfices. However, Jo&ephus's nccount seems the 
more probable; partly, because so warm u dress wotdd. in 
that wami climate, have been highly inconvenient, eiapeciaUy 
when tliey were engngcd in the most laborious part of their 
employment, or were lending the fire on the altar; and partly. 
becauK in the visionary appearuocc of Christ in the priest'* 
habit, referred to before, ho is Rud to be " girt about the 
paps with a golden girdle :" nn expression which renders it 
unlikely that the grmler part of his txxly wus swathed with 
it; rather intinmtinir, that it was tied odc« or twice about the 
breast. Josepbus informs us,E) that it was tiecl in a knot beforv, 
the endii of it hanging down for omamenl to the leet ; but 
that whcu the pric«t wati about any work, which obliged hiui 
to ctoop. »nd the ends of ihe girdle would be in his way, be 
threw thrnt over his left i»houMcr. Miiiinooides make» ihe 
breadth of th« ^rdle to be three ftngerB,|| Joaephus four; 

* \ td. BfMU. de Vnijtu Sacod. [Ictir. lib. i. cup. n. wil. lii. p. 13— 3S, 
edit. KxtmA. 16ftO; allw, •»«. i«ii.— irix. y. IT— 19, edit, 1701 : cap. vl. 
•«t. »»ii. p. 131—134, «lk- 16S0i M<ci, Mil. xcui. p. 101— 10.\ edit 
1701; cap. »ii. necl- i.— J*. p. 137—141, •©!- I«S0; wkA. lev.— lerilL 
p. lOi— l09,fN)it. ITOl- 

t Anuq. Ith. m- np- *li. uct ii torn. i. p. IM, Cdll. IU*«rc 

t Do A^tnui Tempi), cap- tiii. wet. six. spud Crmitt rvM-iml !v<t. 
mm, p l-ti. 14T 

\ AiilK). ul» Mpn. II Maimoii. . . , 



and he addti, thai it was wove hollow, like u tiriuku's t>kin, 
and so served for n purse, as wull us u. girdle;* to which use. 
indeed, in ancietit times girdles were commonly applied both 
among llie Jewit and Itoinaus. Hence Horace »aith. " Ibit 
no. ijiio via, qui xonani |>erdJdit."+ And " zonani |>erdere" 
is a Latin phraw for being a baiiknipi. And hencp also, 
when our Shtiouf sent ont his dittcipletito preach, be enjoined 
Lhem to " provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brans, «c i-oc 
Cuvuc, in their punies," or girdles: Matt. x. 9. 

The fottrt-h garment was ri'^y^JO migbangHoth, the bonnet, 
or bonnets, ns we n.*iideir the word, Exod. xxriii, 40. It was 
ali*o made of the ttTtf sjifth. or fine twined liuen; Kxod. xxxix. 
*28. The Scripture is wholly silent, both as to the fa«liion of 
it, and the finantity of linen that rompoAed it. According to 
the rahhiejt' description of it, it wam much like the Turkish tur- 
ban ; thf>y iiav, it conitisted of a slip of linen sixteen ells long, 
wound round the he&d.^ Josephussailh.itwHs like n helmet 
made of linen, unr wrenth being plaiti'<l nnd folded over ano- 
ther, and a thin cap. suited to the tihajK of it. put over all, to 
preveiil its unfolding or gmwing alack.§ 

The liigh-priefit's head dress i*^ indeed expressed by another 
word, which we render a uiitre; but the Jewa reckon the 
nutre and the bonnet to be the same, only folded up in ti 
•omewhal ditferent maiuicr, according to the dignity of the 
penoi) that wore ii. They describe the mitre, ns wound into 
a broader and more beaatiful form, like the Turkish turban ; 
whereas the bonnet wa« made into a more conical figure, 
though not into a point like the Persian turban; and this ia 
what Jo^ephiis means, when he culls the bonnet aKu»i«w.|| 

Ilie sacerdotal vestments. |>eculi>)r to tlie high-pricf?l, were 
the robe, the ephod, the breastplate, and the holy crown. 
Tl»««e are commonly called the vtxtfs anrta, to diNtinguiiih 

* Joacpti. ulit sti[mi. t C|nstoIuuni, Ufa. it. rptM. ii. 1. 40. 

t Mumun. il« Ai>piinitu Tsinplt, cap. riu, sect. ii. et kU. p. 140, 141, vt 
144, apud C'renii Vucicul. S«ti \'>d. Uniuniuro de Volitu Sa«nl. lib. ii, 
c«p. iv. McL xi. ui. p. 113, 513, edn. 1080; lect. eccluaviir. ecclnm. 
p. 4l4,41&.«]ii. ITOI. 

ff V\n (upta, 

H Antiq. lib. iii. cap. vii. *«ct tii- ton. i. p. Ml, edit Hivne. Vtd. 
BnraiuuiD d« VcMiui Sacerd. lib. it. cap. iv. mci. xi*. kv. «dit 1680; iMI. 
trcta- cccidi. p- 418, el »eq. «liL 1701. 


(book I. 

thrill fVdCii ib« plain or liii6)i gamienta,* already described; 
for ihey were richly ornAiuenled with uold and jt:weU. 

Tlir first wtt« the Sjro mtn^ml, or bloe robe, which was 
worr over Uir linen vest. We have the deacription of it iq 
the hiM^ af KxofluH : " And tiiiiu uhult maktt the robe oflhe 
cphod b1] of blue, nud there shall b« an hulc in the top of it, 
in the midst (hemor; it bhuU have a biudtii^ of woven vrork, 
round about the hol« of it, as it wera lji» bote of au hub«rt;vun, . 
that it be nut rent. And h(<neath, upon Uir hem of it. ihuu 
vhalt make |Kimegnin»te» oi blue, and of purple, and of Bcailet*^ 
round aliout the hem thereof, and belhi of gold hetween thenl 
round nbout; n gohlen bi'll and a pomegranati;, a golden bell 
and a pomegranate, upun the hem of the robe round about," 
Exod. xxviii. :U— 34. It is called tlie robe of the ephod|, 
not oitly because it wnn won! along with, and ni-xi tinder it, 
but beeanAC, mys Maimonides, it n'a« girded with the ephod;f 

[that is, the giidle of the ephod 8ervi.>d for this mbe a» well 
•a for the cpliod iL<M.:tf, and Ivuiind ilitnte two gnrmeiit^*. toge- 
ther, to Uie body. It is not ccrtiiin of what Htu^ this robt' 
was mode ; but as it was coloured, it ia not probable it was 
linen; because that takm thi- dye the vontt of any sort of] 
■tuff of which ^umientA arc made. Some, therefore, will have 
it to be made of wool, others of cotton: the Syriac vemion, 
and after it thv old Flemish, make it to be yellow mlk. Bnt 
as to thu colour, tliou|^h we are not very certain or the mean- 
iu^ of the Hebrew word JlVsri terhrUth, yet il seems reaaonablu 
to follow the KcptuHuint, which renders it hyacinlh : luid so 
docs the r'hnldw: Paraphni'te. What occawons the uncur- 
tninty in this case is, that there in Ikith a 9>iotie and a flower 
called the hyacinth ; llif rtlone velluw, and t.hf (lower blue. 

I But conaideriog thut the ephod, which was wore over the 
upper part of this robe, w:ui embroidered willi Mcarlet and 

I gold, and that golden bells hung at the bottom of the robe 

[itself, it is more likely that the colour was that of the 
liyaointh ftuwi^r than thai of the stone, since the gold 
scarlet would khow to more advantage on blue than on 
yellow; and therefore, we translate the word n^sn trthflfih, 

* Mumon df .Vp|>«ntii Trmpli, c«|».*iti «l( iiuL 

\ VU mxn, cap. \ spcl. iii. p. 154, Creaii fssot. ^«U. 


F(ii»pi THB'ttKlKSTS. 

Id I 

Rimod the hottoni of this rob«, iii the luaiiiier of a friii^, 
there* were little (golden twUs, and balls ut' blui?, purple, and 
Bcnrlet, in the shapeof pomegranates, which hung interchange- 
ably. We are not informed in tiie Scripture of the imniber or 
dize either of the bells or pontegranatcti. But the rabbies, 
who are not content to be iiupp(>fted ignorant of any thing, 
have fupphed bolh these ilefectH; os«uring us, that the nnm- 
bor of each was just seventy-two,* the niiinlter of the elders 
of laraet ; and that each pomcgrooate vtan as tai^ m an egg .i- 
Now since the bells, in order to their making a becoming and 
gracofiil appcaruiice, must be tiiipponed to be an large as the 
pomccrauateK, and likewise qIIouiii^ a proper space between 
each bell and pomegianate, fur the Hounding of the bdl», one 
cannot well admit Ic8» room than a nail of a yard, or two 
inches and a (juartcr, for each j which, miiliiplied by the whole 
number of bclU and pomegmnates, amounts to one hundred 
forty-four noils, or nine jrard.s : tin incredible circumference in- 
deed, alMul double the size of a modem hoop petticoat ! 

ThiH robe is said by Josephus^ and the rsbbies.i^ to be 
without sle«veit, havijtg a hole on each aide, to put llie arms 
through. .Moses describtnt it as having a hole at the top. to 
put the head through; and saith. that this hole bad a strong 
binding round it, to prereot its being rent, in putting it on and 
off; Exod. xxviii. 3*2. 

This hole in the top cf the robe is cxpreased in the Hebrew 
by lerirt ^s phi-miAu. the mouth of his head ; or through 
which tJiu priest put Ivis heiul ; or by SvOD-^ pki-/iami»ettgmf, 
the mouth, or bole, of the rabc i Exod. xxxix. 2.3. This wilt 
explain what is meant by the Psalmist, when be describes the 
pfociouH ointment, Uiat was poured on Aaron's head, us run- 
ding down " to the skirt* of his garment," i*nnf>*D phi-mid- 
dotfittiv. pAalmcxxJciti. 2; the mouth, or collar of hisrol)e; as 
our transistors have rendered the word phi in another place* 

* Mshnon. At ApiwinuTeinpli,cSp. iv. p. 148, Crtnii Puck. SetU. 

t It- S. .laiclii All Eaoal. xivili. 31; vid Kjua vcrtM ftpnd Mraiifi dc 
VmUI Sacerd. 12^ u. CS{>. r. «ttL xriii. p. i6S, Mtt, edit 1680; Wcl. 
«»cxiii- p. *ii, «dH- 1701. 

; TbM in imikiuUedly ib« neODing vi ibc following 'nofds ta .losrptiiui 
«■■ oAaF ai X*'^* t'nn^i'Taif v^wrrvt tirnw, f^inm npcrta C*\f t^ta IRSfws »^4-- 
nminr. Aniiq liK ili. rap. ni. feet. iv. wm- i- p. 143, rdil. H«v«k. 

$ Maimwi tibi fupni, HTCl. ut. 



[book I< 

Job. x\x. 18. and Ainswortti in this; agroeable to which ia^ 
Bitbop Fainck'<i pMafibrafte. 1 cao see nofotindatiDii. thcr 
fun*, for tliat very disagreeable idra, RUggc«tnl bvthe geDera- 
Utyofour metrical iranslalors, not erccptinp even the inge- 
DM>a» Dr. Wutts; that the oil wan poiitvd in su profitiw 
■quantity on Auron'ii hpud, ns to descend, not only upon hiti. 
beard, but ro tJie bottom or his clothes ; which, indeed, il ii^ 
not probsble God would Imvo directed to lie madr in 
expensive i>nd beautiful n mannor. if they liarl \ivvi\ de«ii);rnei|>' 
to be smeared wtth oil, and thereby to be utterly upoilfd. 

I take the cbm to be, that the hair of his bend and beui 
was to be well anoinieil to the extremity, which probably 
reached as low us the collar of hiv robe. Thin whn gnic:vritl' 
and ornamental, according to the fashion of that country, aoc 
thoBC times. Hence w\' rpad. not only of " wine thnt makell 
{^d the heart of man, but of oil to make his fare to shiue.' 
Psalm civ. Ifi, or his out«ide; for ao O^IS pa/tim frcquentlyrl 
si^ifiea. in opposition to his heart: referring probably to tl^I 
anointini; the hair, which wua then the fanhion. Hence it it, 
likewise, that David, amon<r other oxpressionK of the plent] 
uiid g^lury of the state, (o which God liad advancfxl him, pai 
ticularly mAulions his anointing his head with oil, Psali 
uciii.6. It was a mark ofthegaietyiuidtuxiiry of men of plea- 
sure, that tbey " anointed theniKelveB willi the chief cint 
ments,'' Amos vi. 6. The same custom coi)tinue<l tn ourj 
SaTJoTir'R time, ait is evident fn)m a certain woman'tt pourinf 
the precious ointment on his head, when he wan entert:uike4j 
at the house of Simon the leper. Matt, xxvi, 7 ; and from th4\ 
f^ntle rcprtuif whirh our I.r)rd gave Simon (he Phnrispc. nirj 
an occasion uf Uic like nature, for oniittiD^ Uiat common octij 
of civility; Luke vii. 46. On the wbolo, beside the myst 
mtentjon of the sacerdotal unction, it wa«> desisted, as tb«] 
garment* themselves were. " for glory and for beauty.'^ 
Exod. jocviii. 2; which it coidd not have been, if they bad 
been thereby daubed and spoiled. 

It may perhaps be objected, that if thei«e beautiful vent 
meniH were nut defaced by the anointing, they must, hot 
ever, have been grievously defiled with tlie sprinkling of blond 1 
and oil upon tliem. which was one ceremony prescribed and ob- ■ 
aarred m thrconaecrationof the high-prioi ; Exodxxu.21. 

rHAr. v.^ bAituiKTi or thi tkixsts. 

Btit M 10 ihi^. \vi it be reiuark^l. that the Eugli«h word 
sprinkle is used by our translatun fur two Hebrew n-onls. 
pnt larak, unci m iiozaA, n» difierent from «vch other in 
■eilsr BB they are in sound. The former d^-notci- spriiiltling 
in a largi< (juHniity; as when Mohca ik couimHTidcd to take 
" bandfuU of th« ashes of the funmce. and sprinklt^ them 
towvrd heHveii," Exod.ix.8; oiid when, in Ezekiel'a vision, 
the man clothed in linen w ordrrvd to " fill hii hand with 
coala of lire, aad scatter, or sprinkle, them over thecitjr;** 
Euk. X. 2. Again, thi« word is Hpphed to Kuch a Kprinkling. 
or mther |)Ouriiig of deun water as i«hould cleanse the pcntonw 
on whom it w* poured from all their Althiness, Kzek. xxxvi. 
26; which seems to impiv a conHidemble quantity, [t is the 
word used for aprinkling t)tc blood of the HacnticeB round 
alwut upon the altar. I<ev. vit. '1; Kxod. xxix. Iti; which 
implies, that no inronaidenilile proportion of it was difspoaed 
of in that manner, which vtah afterward driwi and consuojed 
by the lire. 

The other word nri naxah, is usud for sprinkling in a smalt 
quantity ; as when a man dip* the end of his flt^r in some 
liquor, and with thai Hprinklee a dro[> or two upon any thing. 
Thus, in performing the rites of cleansing « leper, the priest i« 
ordered to pour oil into the palm of his left band, and to sprin- 
kle some of it withhift right finger; l-ei-. xiv. 20, '27. Again, 
" the prieat shall dip his finger in the blood , and sprinkle setan 
limes before the Uird ;*' Lev. iv. 6. In the same manner was 
the high-priest (o sprinkle the blood of the aacrificed bullock 
upon the nifn'y-ceal ; Lev. xvi. 14. It ts not sorely to be 
imagined, that he was to throw any coasiderahle quantity of 
blood upon it, lo defile and deface that beautiful piece of 
carving, and the curious images of the cherubim, lie was 
Onh*. with the tip of his finger. juBt to spot it serentimefi, and 
probably in a part where it could be easily wiped off. >*owj 
this is the word used for the sprinkling ol' Aaron's garments; 
which, 1 lliink, uiav Iw eottaidurcd as the wetting God's mark 
upon them, perhapa by a spot in one pnrticular place; which 
wouhl no more defare their beauty, than one black letter 
would sullv a clean rnmbrin handkorchu-f. 

liui to return to the Syo Htettgnif, ot blue robe, which »ai» 
put on over the head, and corerrd the body all round ; but 




bow tow i( rptiched the Scripttire do where infunuK u». Tha 
Supluagint cailii it i>iroSvrr\v iro^qpii, aiiil Ju»?}iliui> irueiipiic;* 
vrltich meatis, Uiat it reached down to the feet. But the 
lenffth which wc cotnmoaly sc« cxpreucd id rhe pictures of 
the hiQ;h-priest. to about the midille nfihe leg. is prolrably 
the true one ; because, otherwise, tlic tunica oceUata would 
have beeu quite hid by it. Besides, this would be more coo- 
Yeoieut for the aounding uC Ui« bells whtcb liung on tho botf^ 
toDi of it, Ihoji if it came quite down to the feet. 

The Becood of Uie aurrff vtstex was the ephod, no caMe<t{ 
from IDK uphaii, awichit or nccinxU : which verb we reodet^ 
to gird and to bind, in the only two places wherein it ncf^un:, 
End. xxix. 5; Lev. viii. 7. Dphod seeing to have been th«] 
Dome of an upper gannent which waa worn by persoiiaof dia«| 
tiuction of vonous chiimcterb. We read thiit kinj^ Davidd 
2 Sum. \i. 4. and the L-i)^hty-five prieatit who were inurdviedj 
by Saul, I S^am. xxii. Iti, and even Samuel, when a child,, 
1 Sam. ii. \H, were girded with a linen ephod. It ih there-. 
fore probable, that the iwcubaniy uf ilie big li- priest's ephud 
did not conaiBt in its tmog of a diiferent ahajie from tlia|j 
which wuti worn by other persons: but to the richneiiti of tlia 
materials of which it was made, and the line embroidery and 
jevrvht witli which it was adorned, luvumucb thut it might 
properly be called the ephod, nir' iCo;^r)V. 

The deacription of thi« garment in the book of Iixodus, iv 
btlM only to il» materiaU. and not to it« «.hape or form. Iki 
wft* made *' of gold, of bine, and of purple, of scarlet, and{ 
fine twined linen with cunning work ;" Exod. xxviit. ti, &c. 
Vfe are not very certain concerning Uie nuturv ol' tbcN* 
teloora. I have already ^ven aome account of llie word 
rfrsn trcMleih, which we render blue. Ar for the |OiiRiir|frt- 
flurn, or purple, iia it is rendered, it i*. neneniHv rhoHght to be 
a dye made of the hUiiK) of a Khell-titih oi that name, which 
Drma UkcD on the coast of Falntine, and for which the Tynanf j 
afterward became famous.'^ 

Some Jewinh etymologists iuak.e \txnti argatnan, to be * 
kind of adjectire of the won) on rtgrm, which, according to 
them, itigntfica a prinee or a royal porvn ; wherefore tlicy 

* Atitiq lib. ill. Cap t-u. *m. i«. tan. i. p. l*t, erltt. IU««rc. 
^ Vii Bodun. Hleras. pan ii. lib. v. rafk a. tad d. ' ' 

eHfcr-. V;] 



would translate it a piioccty colour, or ituch as kia^ won 
thcmsctves, and bestowed on their i^reBtest favourites, llias 
Daniel was clutiied with purple by Betshazzar, Dan. v. 29. 

Aa for (be »hftpe of the ephud, the Septuag^int callg it 
tv^ftic,* which Aigiiiliea that it wa* worn on the shoulders. 
Josephiut saitb, it was a cubit long.f !^t, Jerome oompnres it 
tt} the Ronutii carHcaltii, which was a son of Hhort clonk, only 
tiiat it liud a head or liotid to it, sontcthini^ tike the capuchini 
tlic ladies now wear, which the ephod hnd iiot.;^ Maiinonidcs 
saith, it reachcil down to the fret: ivliich twme «up|)oec to be 
true of the back, tliou^h not of the forepart. It ooniiated* 
iliey imagine, of two partit. the one an oblong, rectangular 
piece, hanging down behind from thi* nhoalders to the foct; 
and the rabbles Hay, it was the breadth of bis back who wore 
it Arooi shoulder tu shoulder; ihe other a short rectangular 
piece, which huu^ down before, the length of s cubit. Tbcac 
two pieces were joined together, upuu Uie KhoulderH, with 
some proper fii»teuitig, aa loops, butioii«. or th« Itke.^ 

The high-pric»t'a ephod had a very rich button upon each 
ahoulder, made of a large ouys rtone act in gold ; »o large 
that the nanie-i of the iweke trib&s of Israel were engraven, 
MX ufton euch Ktonc ; Exod. xxviii. <t — \'2. 

The word Dnur.sAoAtfjn. whicli we render onyx, the Septua- 
, gtot Uauiilales ofiapay^tc on emerald. But we have no per- 
tain knowledge, either of this, </r of any of the twelve »totiea 
of the breaat^platc, and may as well be sattslieil with our 
traiialntion ao with any other^ 

To the ephod there belonged a curious girdle, of the ttamc 
rich fabric with iho ephod itself. This is snid to be " upon 
Lite ephod," Kxod. xxviii. H; that iu, wore with it, as Maiino* 
uides uiMlerstandK it ; and coming out from ir on each side. 

* And >" .t<'M.-|>ii>:i, Aiilii). Itl), tu. <:«|). vii, »i-cL «■. U|HrT.tuin. i )i. ISO 
1 Aiiiif| lit>. III. c»[T. ■?ii »«;». *. J*. 143, tdtl. Ilaverc 

I llipTon ad FuliiMUfii, v\m\. cxxviii, 

J Mannon. Ac A|i^tiTaiu TciD^ili, cap. ii- KCL ix. p. 130y (Jkuu FatcieuL 

II Bnunios LiiJi confidervd ilie nibjMi ai lai^e, de Veiiitu Sacerd. II«- 
bnroT lib. ti. 1 cap. vin. %(t \u. inclosirt p. 497 — J68, nliL ITOl. Sett 
likcwiK Kiiiphuiiu* dc x\i Omuniit ; Baxtorf the Younger, ■> liij luMnnidi. 
de Area Fsderic: aod Clirisi. Canwrighi. F.lrri. Targtim. Rabbin, in Uk.- 



[book t. 

it was brought nmler the nrme likv a sat>li, and tied upon Ihp 
breast.* l^pon the cphod was put, 

Sdly- Thf) OCVia IBtr chothen mithpat. " (he breast-plate 
(if judgnienl," Exod. xxt-iil, 15; iso called, because Ih*- hitjh- 
priest always woro it wht^n lie congultcd the ornclc, by which 
were detmninud all doubtful cnttA of national ini|K>rtaDoe. 
Tlie breast- pta If wuh inHtk' of the atinir rich materials with the 
ephod,lwo8|rdns long, and one broad ; but, folding up double, 
H was a span wjunre, ver. 16.1- The bn^at-platc whh faKtened 
upon the epiiod by rJni^ of gutd at the four corucrB. the two 
upper ringt) being bung upon or fastened to the ^houlder- 
piucea with golden chains, and the two lower riii^ tied to the 
girdle of the ephod ^vith blue tttringa or ribandn; Rxod. xrriii. 
22 — 28. The breasi-plate was adorned with four rows of 
jewels set in sockets of gold, three Jewtls in a row ; that la, 
in three perpendicular rowH. and four horizontal, ti'ptm these 
jewels were graven Ihe nauieM of the twelve patriarchs, one 
name upon each jewel ; Kxod. xxvni. 17 — 21. IfourtraJifi- 
laton* have giren us the right uauies of these Ktoiiea. some of 
them are so hanl (qk particularly the diamond), tliKt we might 
well wonder how they engraved ihcm. Hut here the tnlniud- 
ista wonderfully help us, by ftAsunng iis, that they were not 
e&graren with any tool, which would have wasted sonic of the 
substance of these precious stonett. but by a niimculouH worm, 
not now in being, which, being set upon each uf these stunea, 
trept and suuk itself along those places which Moses bad 
^Utfked out to it, and so impresiied the letter* upon the stoucs, 

if it hjd been ou soft wax. without taking oflT any part uf 
it4 Hat as we do not pretend to know wh;it, or how hard 
tJiesc stones were, we stand in no need of this niiracidoua 
worm to account for the difficulty of cngrdving them. 

The fourth garment, or mthtr omnnient, |tecu]iar tu the 
high-pnest, was the phite, or crown of gold, nbich he wura 
upon the front of his mitre; Exod. xxviii. 36^IM. This 

' Maimcm. d« Appsnun Tvmpli, ubi M|m, ei sect. u. p. 151. 

t A fpsa m bslf a cubit, w appean fnira FdA.. xliii. 13- IT, wbrir lu <iot 
*en« K b Mid. Uiai lite bovdcr ot llie sltar Aail bt t apan ; iii ihr otkn, 
Iku it *hdl W hiir « niliN. 

1 Dnuti. d« \'<thtu Sanrdoi. lib. u. cap. riL wcL cccclz«a- \y 490, i-da. 




likewise called " the lioty crown," I-jcod. xxx'ix. 6; and ih« 
plate v( the holy crown ; Exod. xxxix. :)0. The Hebrew 
word t^if /«'/i. which we translate a plate, properly signifies a 
flower. The Snptuagint rt'ndvrii it grernXoi', which tiignities a 
leaf, bfcauat*. fluith Aiiibworth, it appeared fair and glorious. 
Or inther. perhaps, it is expresHed by n word which signifies 
a flowet ur leaf, becau&v it is lliiii. that so it might nut be 
burdcn»omc to wear. However, we oiuat not conctive it to 
be Dear bo thin at our leaf gold, because it had letters, en* 
graven upon it. which leaf ^olii will nut udmit of. The size 
and fomi of this pUite or crown, are not (expressed by Mosea ; 
but, if the Jewish doctor* are worthy of credit, it waa two 
ftngen broad, and madv in a circular form, tiuited to the shape 
of ihe brad ; and so long, tliat it rcachiNl fmin ear loear.aod 
was faatened upou a blae lace or riband, which waa tied be- 
biiid thti head ;* and as IIiik gold plate reuclied but about half 
round the head, thtr runiaiuiug part ol' the ribund, which was 
not covered with it, an far a* to the tying, wag richly orna* 
mented with artificial flowers of embroidered work. ThJa 
plat© had the following motto engraved on it, mn*V-ttnp kod- 
AtiA luiAovah . which lA rendered in our tnuiMlation, agreeable 
to nio^tt of the nuciont vcr«iuuH. " llolinetiii lo the Lord." 
The manner of engraving this rauttu, it^ said to be '' like the 
eogmvinguf a t>ignet." But whether Uiat is to be understood 
that ibc Letters were siuiiL. us in a Mml, or prutiib<.'nu)t a» iu 
the iiupreoKion ; as altio, whether the two words were wrote 
iu one line or two, are pointtt which the Jewish doctOK must 
be \fti\ to dispute and dutemiinc among themselve«. 

It htts been customary in other nations, as Uraunius shows.t 
to write inscnptiona on the crown of princes and heroes, to 
whicli thtre seem^ to be an allusion in that paaaage of the 
Revelation, where nntichrial ia describfd as u lewd woouin. 
with an inaortption on her forehead : " Mystery. Babylon the 
groat, the uiotJier of harb)ti>, and the al>uutuiaUuDN of the 
earth;" Kev.Kni. 6. Uuwevvr, 1 imagine th« refeienco in this 
place is more inpecially to the Jewinh kigli-prietit, and to the 

* Matman. de A^pimtu Tcapli, cup. u. *mM i. p. 147, Cttoil FtUctevI. 
Sect.; rt R- S. JartW id !«;. ■■"» 

t Tie VtfUiti: Stct-rd. Hcbneor. lib. U. cup. xtii. MtL XT. edit .Auilel 
1600 : wtt. tirlil p- 0!^Sj ed«. ITOI 



f HltOK t. 

inficHption on bin rrown ; because thw womnn immeidiAt«1i 
before w said to be " amypd in purple and scarlet colomjl] 
ttnd decked with gold and precioaiv stone*." which were ti 
cnloure rikI (irnaiuenta of his vates aaira. or goldeu veeUi 
mentfl. The detcription «eeiaii, iheretbru, to intimate, tbi 
tbe person was one who would assume tlie character of Pon^j 
(ifejc Muxiiiius. How applicabitt thist i^ lo thf Pojk-, every] 
oae may perceive, who is not greatly prejudiced ; especiallyf 
U the word Mifntfrinm was fonn«rty engraven on the papd'J 
crown. But wheii the Protestant* hi-gnn to reiunrk iln con*! 
)^it]r to the foreclted paBSR<Te in the KovetDlion, I'npe Juhuf-I 
the Third ordered a new crown to he made, on which, instettdf 
of the former motto, waa autrruven. 'Juiinn, Ponttfki Mnxi*^ 

Josephni; give» uk lh« d«scnptioii of a more ponipoas crown,^ 
which, in his time, tht- high-pnentA wore over their mitre, 
which wan cint)08ae<l the calyx, or cup of a flower, retKinliling^ ' 
that prodneed by a plant which tbe Greeks call votncuafiti^.^ 
But since, according tu the original institution, this was no' 
part of the pontiftcol dretia, it drieH not Itelong; lo utir province' 
pan icidarlv to comtider it. PoKnihlv thi-4 niti^ht ite the cmwn 
which Alexander the Urcut prcKenled lu Judduit, wlteo he 
went out tn meet him. and which was afterward wont on 
grand and solemn occasions, in like manner an perions wear 
medals presented to them by princes, as budges of honour. 

Thus have we considered the pontifical vntn anrttt. To 
these, porticiilarlv to ihr I>rea'(t-plate. beloiij^I the rrim and 
Thiimmim : "Thou Hbalt put in the brea»t-plat(iof judg;ilMillt. 
the (Jrim and the Thummim ; and they ahaU be npon Aaron's' 
fieart, when he t^eth in liefore the Lord; and Aaron shall' 
tiear the judgment of the childrm of lamel npon bis heart 
4»efbre the Lord conlinually;*' Esod. iixviii, '30. Tbe words 
D*^W and t>on C'rim »nd 7i*«ffm»»« signify litjhu and prfec- 
lioiiB. Tile ^^eptualritll rendera thf>m KtiAb'<T(v and oAti^tiair, 
ivmnifeslalinn and truth. But what thcyniQao, na applied to 
the pontifical bfewt-p^nte, is not etuiily aictruined. Moaea 
tkaving said little concerning theto, hath left rooiu for inoumc- 
[nble conjectures, wherewith many page^. and whole irolumes. 
I. « Am Poli Syttof*. Ill kw. 
f Amm]. Kb. 111. rat' *<■ ""^ *^ ***>■ *' P^ '*^' **^*- ^^""^ 


xnw AKirvffvMHiM. 

uf later nnters liAvt; been filled. Aud. after all. nothing ig 
more |)ertitifiiit iJiuu tJic t'ulluuiu^ seutviico of Rabbi Kimchi : 
"Ue iff oo the Mtii'st side," Kaith he, " who fnuikiy coDfe«se» 
his ignortucc : so that wc !«ceoi to need a priest to stand up 
witli (^rim and Thuinniiin, to teach us what tJte Tliunimiin 
were/' alluiling to Ezm ii. Si. 

We read of no conimaiidment. or direction, given to Mobob 
fiir the making uC iJieoi ; lie in an\y ordered to pul them in Jtlie 
braast-plflte: "Thuu shall put 4» thu brea«t-pUte of judg- 
niont tlie L'ritu and the Tliunmuoi ;" Kxod. xKTiti. 30. I'heve 
IS DO mcnUoaof them in the account of tbc making of Aaron's 
^nneatit ia the thirty-ninth cliaptcr of Hxodu«; uuly in that 
of clothing the high-prieat in LeviitcuH, it t« aaid, " He put 
the bronftt^pUite upon him. also bo put in the breast-plati; ike 
L'riui ami Thnmuuiu." Frotu heuee aooia of the Hebrew 
doctors cuiicliiite, tliey woiv not the work of any human ar- 
tificer, but nf God himself.* The use of them was to inqnire 
tiOod, and torec^veao OBawcr b>' theiu concerning his will. 
It iasaid, in the book of Numbers, tltat Etvazur the piie»t shall 
atk couDwl for Joflhua oAcr the judgment of Crim before the 
Lord; >iunb. xxviL :^1. And when Saul " inquired of tbe 
Lord. Ibc Lord answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by 
Urio), aor by the propbels;" 1 Sam. ifxtiii. <3. And when 
Moai*« bleared tl)» tribe* of liirael, of Lni he said, " Let thy 
Urim oadThummnu be with thy l-loly One;" Dent, xxxiii. 8. 
The opinion concerning the Urim and I'humuiim, uoht gene- 
riilly received among the iew», la, tJiat they were the twelve 
preciouB «tuuu!> m the bruu&t-plate. uu wliich uere engraven 
the nameB of lb* twelve tribea of larael ; and that the oracle 
gav* its answer tu any quealion propoAfrd, by cauMini: such 
Wtera in them to «hine with » Kuperifir Iiiitre, or lo appear 
pronunont above the rest, bk formed the words of the anawor; 
which, some etuy, Uie high-prient was by inispitation taught to 
■pell, and dupoae in tlicir proper ordL-r; though others mitiu- 
tain the several letters shone or appeared promuient, not all 
together, but one iifter another, in the order which formed the 
words of tljf auswer.t And whereaii all the letters of the 

«^l>aMK8wlMi,^nad t^^Scliwfeard. Jure Hegio. wp t. ihew. H. p. I», 
t Vh). SdiKkwd. de Jan R«<sio, op. i th«or. i). p. t4. fdtt. CKrpwv. Bn 



[buuk I. 

alphabet arc doI found in ibe names of ihv twelvu tribes, th« 
talmudtsts infurm uk. tlmt tbe namea of AbmhAm, Inaac, und 
Juob. were likewise en^rareu over tbe uame of Reubon i 
nnd iimler tlmt iif Bc'iijiimin, Uic words n> ^C3S^ shibhtc-Jahf 
"tile tribes uf the Loni;" and by tbia lutiins tlte ulplivbet 
was completed. JoAepbiis. and some othera, imagine the 
aiwwer was returned by the &u>nei( of the breaflt-plBt£ appear-- 
ingwith an unusual lustre, when it was favourable, or. in iho^ 
coolrary case, dim.* Others suppose the Urim and Thum-, 
mim were soraetbiiie; inclosed between the foldinj; or doubling | 
of the brt»uit-pliite ; whieti, tltey h»y. was doubled fur ihalj 
very pur|K>Hi!, thai it miixlit be til, as a punu*, to cuutiiin tlienii^ 
What they were, is, however, difliirently conjectured. Souivj] 
of the rabbies will hsTe tbem to be tht? Tetmgraniraaton. ori 
the word nin* Jrhmah, wliich, tiiey »ay. wan wrott; in a uiy»- i 
terious manner iii two |>arts, and twodillereut way».'^ Chn*>^ 
tophoru& de Castro, and after him Dr Spencer^ mainuia.^ 
them to \iv two little iniHgiit, shut up in the doubling of thei 
breast-plate, which L;ttve the oniculur answer from thence by 
an articulate voice. They accordingly denve them from the 
yptiaiia, who consulted their Lares, and hiid an oracle, ur 
iphim, which tliey culU-d TruLit : wliich,huwevi>r,it ismurs 
likeily they borrowed from the Jewa, than the Jews from them. 
This conceit of Or, Spencer's has been so abuudautly cou* 
futed by Dr. Pocock,^ that it doee iu>t appear to have bee«j 

SdMVTDghani. on il)« Miilinicsl book Joina, cap. viii. sect. «. iiDt. ti. \t. Ul*^ 
U7, »ith, ihat ScHkWiI ««» mtMsketi in tiip[H)iiiig it ili« ujiinion of the 
nbhica, iJui ihe Imilts shonr, or bMSiDv pronuDcnl, in lit* order whlok 
coMtiUHd the vronb at ilic ■tHwvr; bui thai iheir nodoti wu, thai by an 
wulibttt <liviD« TQice pranoUDnnif the wotda, Uie hifii-pnuii mo prefrated 
fn>jn niaiaJiiug eaiut the orJu of the leiifn, wlucti vat, or dit pouili 
wHicl) were not etigtsv«D on tbe ttraut-jilAix. Sea likcwiH Csrpior. sd 

* Anlu]. til>. til cap. tiU. ftcci. iv ' '' i )■ 161. 

t Viil. R. Soluman. rt Tarjnim J" -it- »» Schkkmrd. Ju» Rc^, 

cap. I. iJtcvt. li. p. 30, 21. 

[ V'lil. DuMiii. dv L'run vtTbunuiiin. 

if CoBinirnl. ott Uu^ik, ch«p. iii. -1: ««•> likewise Wttotus'* EgjrplMCi. m 
ihs &rsi bool: luiil eigbib diaplvr vf whieh IiatiimI pcribrnuocv hr buk 
finn u aceoont of Speneer't bypMtww, sod m iJie atcoaA book, tbe 
third, tenth, ckveoih, aitd twelfth dupi«i». a diitluct uul ■c ca ntc oooAiia* 
USD of a. 

«HAK v.] 



ii(lu|)t^l by any since his tiuie. Tlif more common upnuon 
among Climtmiii« roncenung tlic onicic by Vnm Had Thum- 
ntim, «nd which Dr. Prideaux eApouse*,* in, that when the 
high-prit!St appeared before the reil. clothed with hi^ ephod 
and breast-plate, to ask counsel of God, the answer was 
giTim by an audible voice from the mercy-sent within the veil : 
which, he thinks, best ant^wers to the Scripture exprestfitm of 
"inquiring at the mouth of the Lord," Joah. ix. 14; and 
God's "communing" and talking' with those who consulted 
him; Exod. XXV. 22. But thia account will by no tneHna 
agree with the history of David's comtiiltini^ the oracle by 
Abiathnr: when he kitew " Saul secretly procti&ed mischief 
againi^t him, he said to AbiHlliar the prieitt. Bring hither the 
ephod;" and ihvn lie iutjuired of the Lonl. " Will the men 
(jf Koilah deliver me up into his hands !" I Sam. \xiii.9— II* 
And on another occanion, " I pray thee." said be to Abiathor, 
" bring me hither the ephod : and he brought the ephod: and 
Darid inquired at tlie Lortl. Shall I pursue after this troop *" 
Stc, chap. XXX. 7, A. On both the occasions, the ephod U-ing 
nsed in consulting the oracle, it is concluded the ansn-cr whh 
given by L'rini: and that could not hi' by a voice from the 
meney-aeat upon the ark, the ark bL'ingihen at Kirjnth-jearim. 
n city in the tribe of Jndah, 1 Sam. vii. I, 2: whereas David 
and Ahiatharwere in the forest of llarelh the firitt time of con- 
Bultini; the oracle, I Suui. xxii. &; and at Ziklag, in the country 
of the Phili'4tinrA. the second, chap. xxix. II. and xxx. I. t 
f will only nirntinn one opinion more on this subject, that 
which is e«pou<ied and .snppurtp<l by (he learned Hrauniu*. 
He supposea. that when Moses ts commanded to put in the 
brea«t-p]ate the L'rim aud Thummim, which words are in the 
plural number, and mgnify lights end |>erfection8, it ueaiia 
wdy that he nhould make choice of ihe most perfect set of 
KtoQCs, and have them ho polished as to give the brightest and. 
finest lu»tre.t Tliis in likewise the notion of Hottinger.} 
Artd on this supposition, the use and design of the Urim and 

* See kii Connect, pan i. bouk ui. tuh anno MS ante (,'lmiit. 

t See the rcamiu Nrilh which he fuppurta this opmrnn, in hia IMatlM Da 
Veiiitu SarenL llebcKot- Uh- ii. ap. ii. uttt. xWii. — x%i. p. TM— TT3. 
Aawt*!. 1660; wet. dcicxxi.— <k>x>*. p. 60&— 4Sto, cdiL IT01. 

; Vm). limiting. febnM. ta CJodw. MoMn M A«Mti. lib. i. np. t. not. 11. 




[book t. 

Thummim, or nf llicsc ritqtilwttirly |H>li»liccl jf-wtlx in llw i»«3- 
toral. wat) ooiy to be ft s^iiibgl of the Divine presence, and 
tha light and pcrfcetioD of tlio prophetic inHpiratioii; oiid, 
tiich, cooKtanily to be worn bv the hiu;li-prie»t in the exereia 
of his Mcred fuDction, especiailv in coutiuluiig Ihit uracle.* 

Aniidst this great variety of sentiments, we may indalgs^ 
tliiB conM^atocy reflection, that if a more clear aitd certain . 
knowledge of this subject had beca necesaarA' or useful, OidJ 
Scripture account, beyond alt t|ueKliun, would bare been mor#J 
distinct and particulnr.f 

Having detcribcd the Kacerdotal vetilmunU, it only rcmair 
that 1 add a few ^^cral renmrks concemin;^ them. 

1st. The prtMUi wore tbenc jfurmuata imly when theyoQici-^ 
ated ; at other times it does not appear they were diKliaguii 
liy their Uabilii from other niea.t It it> »aid, tbeae veattuenl 
"shall he upon Aaron and ntKnt hit) nonit, when they conle 
unto tJie tabernacle of the congregation, or when thoy com^] 
near unto the altar to mrntster in the holy place ;" Kxod. xxviiiJ 
43. And again, thoy are styled " the clotheH of aervice, tu ilaj 
service ni the holy place; and the holy fj^rmtaita for Aai 
the priest, und his sonii' ({unneuts. to niniittttrr iii the prievt'i 
office;" chap, xxxix. 41. Accordingly, Ju!tepbu». speaking i 
the priests, aaith. they were habited like thecoaiuion puoploj] 
adding, he only who mini^terft wears the sacred TealmenU.^ 
It is Feiisonably vuppotu-d, tJiai ftorac of the " chauben bail 
round about against the wall of tJie temple." 1 Kinga vi. 
were vestries, in which the prieats dressed for their ministfyj 
oud hud up ilie sacred Testmoau whuu the tn-rvice was ovrAj 
This is conformed by the following paaaage lu Kzekiel'sTisiol 

* Draim. de Venitu, ubi aupim, moi. -ay, — xmi. p. 778 — 7t)3, sdif-i 
AruIcI. 1680; MKLdcst dcxliij. p. 613 — 617, «diL iroi. 

t Sen ou llii* subject LiglitfMH'i lUodful of G\eiuiingt upon Rvod. Md.] 
tlviii. ; Diutorf, in liis EcoTCtlaL dc Area F«ilem; Sfliirkanl. Jm llnriua 
tMwaor. cum annul. Varpun. cap. i. dwoc. iii. p. tT^-4d: and Shenn 
ham in Joma npud Milhnt Eonntltnni. taft. rib. ivcL *. iiot. ti. tola. 
p. 3.'il, ti2. 

I Vid.Seld«n- dn SocottM. ia PooiiT. lib. ii. cap. fti (>per. vnl. li. p. lUa] 
pnmmm ih S^mIf. Ith. ii. eap. n. ■wi. ni. Op. vol. ■ ntm- li. p. K 

f Vid. Jowpli. d»Ihll.'Jkid. Kb. V. np. r. wvt. vn,; and Miltn't dik 
wmiMWann fhm poMss*, (n buTfTCIM* ip Vtifdr. ttbt *Mfm, p. Ifll. 


or the temple and the holy aerrice: " When they go forth 
iato the outer court, uvun into thu court of the people, they 
flhall put oH' their gonneiitH, whcreio they miaisteretl, and Iny 
them ill the huly chaubera; and thuy shall put on other ear- 
meiits;" Ezvk. xltr. 19. This renmrk. perhups, niiiy funiisli 
Bs orith tlie beat ftc<:0unt of Paul'H not knowiug the high- 
[irieHt, Aiiaaiaii, ivhen be appeared before htm in the Sanhe- 
drim, Acts xxiii. 5 : Ijecause, being not engaged in any duty 
of hi« mmiBteriai function, he had not on hiti pontifical roben, 
nor wu diMinguifihed by uity particular habit; and as m 
Ihoee times the bigh-pricst wa^ often changed by the Kotnaa 

{ tower, ao aa rather to have becooiv an anoual otUccr, than, as ' 
t« ought to have been according to the law of Mo<ie9, one fur 
lif«, nnd as Paul was nowf^rown a «tnuiger at JonisalbDi. ilj 
is very probable he might never have Mien him before; or, if 
he had, in his p^mtifical rubes iu llic temple, where he badi 
lately :\tten4lud for seven days successively, Acta xxi. 27, h«^ 
might not have taken auch particular luHice of hta person, as 4 
readily to know biro again in another place and another ' 
drean. 1'hiM I take to be an eawer )K>lutiou than to rvnder ' 
OK nSav (as some do), " I acknowledge him Dot to be high- 
priest," on account of hin procuring the oflSce by corrupiioa 
and bribery ; or to stippost-, with Dr. Wiitby, that the mmv 
prophetic impulse which had moved him to utter that pro- ; 
phccy uguiiul biui. " God Nhall smite thee, thou whited wall,' 
Acta xxiii. 3, did not suA'er him U> cuusidur, just at (hat time. 
that it was the high'prie«t to whom lie »poke. 

Go<lwin aaith. the htgli-prieat might not wear bi» aot^di 
garments ubroad in the city, unless on some urgent occasion; 
a* when SirofOii llie JiihI went forth to uieet Alexander. But 
fata nanir. uccordio;^ to Ju&ophus, was nut Simeon the Jutit. 
hut Jaddua.* his gnuidfather.i 

2dly. The sacerdotal ve«tiu«nl» were provided ut the ex- 
penae, out of the pneats, hut of the pcople.| As lot the 

* Atitiq. IRk. xi. cap- mi- McL i«. «. ton. i. |t. K80-'-A82; >«e klao au 
«ccouiit of tlie afkif la l*n>lMuu'« t^uoned- |Mil u (mmiIl vii. Mib jumo 3)2 

f Cotapsni ioMfk. Aiiliq- vb* wtpn, mn. vii- p- 591, ariifa lib. lii. cip. ii. 
•ccL iv. p. 589. 

tMateoa it Appanta Tenpli, oap. viii. wcl rii. p. Ul, Crenii 
FHcie. Sni . 

M 2 



[qook. t. 

pontifical tvstrs aurnr. which were exceeUing rich qikI cosily, 
ihey an «tt|>po8etl to hari; been jjrovided out of the piiMIc 
Iiwwnry; and the (»ther ^ncenlotal ^aniienls. either the sam* 
way. or by frw-will offerinpi. We are told, Ezra ii. KH. fl9. 
that vthen some iif tlie chief of the fathers came to nee the 
temple, which was rebnitdiDir after the captivity, thev ^ve 
Hcronhng to their abihty unto the tretisurt of the work, 
not only (^old uod sdver. but u liundnil pricKU' gantu'nls. 
Again, the Tinhatha (or Nchemi»h the governor) ^ve to 
the tren^un- (beside gold and »tlver there tiientioiied). Hvo 
hundred and thirty prioits* g>^nnenl», Neheni. vii, 70: iitid 
the rent of the people gave flirty-seven, ver. 72. i 

I'he TnlmuiJiftts nnd Mitimoniden nny. that all frco-will 
olfeiin^of Limt fiort must In* given to the whole coiijip'i-pitKin. 
that is, to the officers who managed its concerns; insomuch 
that if the mother of u prieat brought her »oii a gunneiit. it 
was to he given, not to him. hut to them.* itml they mi^fht 

li^ik the u«c of it to wliom they pleased. Indeed, ii di)«*t 
>t 8eem likely the sacerdotal garments should be tlic property 
of pnrticiilnr pricsU. and worn bythem only: especinllv when 
the priests were divided, as ihey ui-rc in Uavid'a lime, into 
twenty-four coumen. and esch inferior priest officiated at the 
temple onlv a fortnight in n year. They were deKig;ne<] there- 
fore for the common n»ie of the prients, nK they came in their 
tnrna to minister, 

3dly. The rublitea say. that when the garments of the 

inferior priests were ^.Town foiil, they were not uasliwl. but 

Eut into shredH, to make wickx for the bmpH of the .>iniictuary ; 

whm the high-priest* restmeot* were left off, they *«* 

^iit to no farther um, but hid in some aecrel place.f llui of 

thii the Scripture aays nothing. 

4thly. Vdu will obaenre. that neither the high-priest, nur 
thoHc of the lower order, wore any thin^. either <m ihrir 
hands or fe«t, wliile they were euiployed in ihrir miiiifctry. 
There is uo garment aasigned to either in any Scripture cata- 

* Gemv- lliPiowl^ro. tit. ShcK. eaf>. it ; •«« ihn. Utd a qitri|«uan tmn 
iW Batn-lnntut Oem«a, anJ rtwm Manuoniiln, id Ununiu* iW V»^mi, 
lib ii. njt. mv sect xv. p. B39, edit. Amstri. tono; np. u*. «•«■ 4«rviii 
p. MT, nlii ITOI, 

f \'ir} Bndn utM vifpra, np t«*. ttn. t>. p. aW~B6l. *4a. Ai)i|i«t 
I&80. ra|>. xvri 4ivi dmv p. 6H3, (iS3. riln. 1701. 



loguc. The sacrificial services, in wliich the pricutfi n-erc chiefly 
cffijUoyed, would not conveniently adiiiilof'thcirwettrmgglijvcs; 
mad in public worship, to b» Irarefooi Mxtms to buve been 
reckoned a token of reverence even before the giving of the 
law : fur when God sppearcd to Mo»*:» iu ihc bush, he corn- 
ajoiidod hiu) to " put hm »hoen fruoi oH' hiit feet, becnuitc the 
jilucv uheroon he ittood wa» huly ground ;" Kxod. iii. 5. lu 
ihoftc days th'tst wan a uaual token of reverence duruig divine 
worship, when mun consideivd ihcmselvc-i us in the more ini- 
nioiUate prcbcncc of God. It was fit, therefore, Mt»5fit 
bhould cxprcM the kouic kind of religious veneration in a 
|ilacu which God, by manifesting hinmetf in no extraordinary 
u uiuuner, was pleaacd to render, pro tempure, a leuiple or 
holy place. For the saine reason. Joidiua ia comiuanded to 
pay the like homage before the " cupLaJu of the hoHl uf ibv 
Lord," Jo8ti. V. 1 J, who wa» undoubtedly " iLe luigel ul Gud'n 
presence, in whom bin name ifi,"cven the divine Aoyoc; for it 
iv Huid, Joshua " fell on hiufuce to ilie earth, and won>liipped 
hiiu ;" ver. 14. Thit> we cannot «up(Kieie he would have done 
if lie had esteemed him only a created augul; or that^ if ho 
had done it, hi* wonthip would nut have met with such a 
rebuke as the angel gave to St. John, — " Sou Uluu do it not ; 
for 1 ani thy fellow senaut : worehip God j" Uev. xxii. U. 
llie Jf wuth priestn, according to tlie rabbies, were required to 
be supcrstiliouftly exact in tliii* ceremony ; for if any tiling in- 
tervened between their feut uitd the ground, iliey imagined 
their ministry would bt- null and invalid.* 

It may not be impro[icr here to renutrk, that aa the Jews 
accounted it a token of reverence to have tlieir feel bare in 
publjc worship, so hkewitie to huvu their heads covcix>d. 1'liiit 
wu accordingly the practice, not only ol' the priestii but of tho 
people, n* at thi« day it i», in tokvn of llieir uiodenty and 
humility, and of their accounting themttelveB unworthy to look 
up in the more immediato presence of God. ThuH, on the 
Divine appearance to Momh in the bush, it ia «uid, " he hid 
liis luce, for he woa afraid to look ujm>u God ;" Kxod. iii. 3. 
And ou the extiuordinary manifestation of the Divine presence 

■ Vid. Mith, ut. Zcbhac. cap. tj. teci. i.; tt. Bortmor ti Maiinon in 
\ac. torn \. )). IU, edit Surcnliua. ^ tA Maimuu. d« llaUOiMi adrundi Tvm- 
|>U< tap. «. tccn. xnt. us. f, 204, 303, Ctenn F«*cu:iUi SexLi. 



[BdOK 1. 

to Elij&h, hi> " wrapped his hcc in his mantle ;" 1 Kin^xtx,^ 
\'A. Ou the same Hccount, perhaps, the an^ols wexe rcpi 
rented iu vision tu Uaiab, as coviTiiij; Iheir faces with ibdf 
wingM in the pie&ence o( Jehovah, Isa. vi. U; to hare th^ 
heH(J tincuvem], hcio^ cftteemcd a marie of confidence. Fo^ 
which reason, in (ho^c: places where the Ismchti-'a are said to 
have " marchMl out ctl' tigj-pl with a high hand." the ChaldeQ 
Paraphrasl renders it " bareheaded," tliat is. with boldnei 
and tntrcpidity. 

Tlin aiicicnl liomans. hkewise. pprforracd tlioir sacred rit 
with a veil or covering on their heuds, as appears from tfai 
line* iu Virgil : — 

t^uin, uhl innntib^v sIMi-niit tntm n-qutira cI^sbm, 
Va pos'im art* jtm rmn m Itttoir mlvrt; 
t^irpvieo vvlarc comiu adAp«Tus uaklii : 
N* qtia iiitet Miiclua ign«* ut lionunt I}«uniin 
IloMila fikoies occurral, ct onunK lurbel. 

jl-l^ek), lb. I. 403, 4(( 

Spu Ml pftcis, ml Turn numiua ■ancta precooiut 
Pnllkdii luriRuonw, quir ptitna ac«vpil otoiiIcs : 
El cajiMa. DtUe otas I'Ur^irio ir«liuBUi uniclu. 

Ibid. >. 443, Itc 

The Grecians, on the contrary, perforwfd the socred riteil 
bnrchended. " llhc (nrmpe in wde Satumi) Ortpco ritn, ra-j 
|iite apertt), tv» divinn fit." mith Macrobius.* St. PaiiI^J 
thenfore, writing to the Corinthians, who were Greeks, d< 
cbrcs, that " every man pmyini; or prophesying, with hiri 
head covepod, dishonoureth his head," 1 Cor. xi. 4 ; thereliy] 
teaching us, that thoti^h t))c rircum<)tnnce« of dress, a« vrffi-\ 
■ji gesture, m divine womhip, are in themselves indifferrni;] 
yat Buofa are proper to be used, aa the custom of the country] 
wlwre we dwell has reoderad flignificBtive orhuniility and rafrj 

•Mhly. The sacerdotal restments are all supposet) to hm 
a iDonU »nd typi' ' ifieation. though the more imiiiediatt 

design of thuiU. > _ ■ >. of tlw ponltlical vestn mirfir. w)l»J 

" for glory wid tor beaniy ;" Exod. kxriii.S. Fortbewholl 
ceremonial worehip hod " a abiidow of good liiin^a (o conic,'*^ 

■ S«iuit>«] lib. i. »p. vw. i>. in, m^ «diL Gmun. iMfi. Bu. 1A70. 

rHjtr« *.'J 



llcb. X. I ; niid it is mni ol' ilie |)rivtti< iit itarticulur, thai they 
" served uotti the example and fliadow of tKavcnIy f liiDgs," 
chap. viii. 6. Concerning the typical and spiritual meaning 
of these vesUniuits. as pretty commonly roprcMenteiil by Chrrti- 
tians, conauli Mather's scrniou on tiiis subject in hia " Typus 
Unveiled." Aa fnr the Jtws, they di&caver a world of phi- 
lo50f)hy in them. Jooephus* makea the high-prie^tV linen 
f^aritient represent the liwly of tlic earth ; Ihi; gloritnih nohe, 
henveu ; the WUk and pomegraniUiea, thunder and lightning. 
Or oUierwiiie, the ephod of various colourv i» the uaivenK ; 
ihf! hri*ast-(ilute, the cttrlh in it«i centre; the girdle, tlw wia ; 
Uie onyn stone on each shoulder, the sun nnd moon ; thu 
twelve Btones in the breast-plate, tlie twelve **ign8 of the 
zodiac, or the twelve months in the year; the nntrc, heaven; 
iiad the golden plate with the name of Ciod uiif^ren on it, 
the splendour of the Divine Majesty in heaven. Fhilo philo- 
aofihiseH on them in a aiuiilar nianner.f 

But the taltuudical doclura aeaiga theni a more religious 
aitd moral signiticaUon ; tlie ei^ht garments denoting circum- 
cision, which was to be perfortzkcd on the eighth day; and 
«aeh garaent being U) expinte a particular sin — the brcecbcii. 
UDcbaniMW; the girdle, theft; the ephod, iduluiry ; Uic 
breut*pUte, pervertkc judgtn«nt; the bells, evil speekiDg; 
the mitre, and the golden plate on the forehead, pride and 


The CoGceian divinea, who have great talents at allego- 
rizing, find out in them, m n mftnner, all apirittiAl blessings 
and graces. Braiiniua, in particular, ruake« the mitre signify 
wisdom; the robe, righleoumeaa; the breechefi, »ancti5ca- 
tjon ; and the girdle, redemption : all which " Christ is made 
of Ood untx) believers;" 1 Cor. i. 30. By the other vest- 
tuents are denoted the principal bcuefits of the gospel ; elec- 
tion and adffption, by the ephod and tlte pectoral ; vocation, 

' AntK]. Ub. 111. cap- vu.»ei;i. till, lom.i. p. IM, 157, «iii- lls»erc. 
I Phtlo. Jud. in Sonmns itfuA Open, ^t ■1C3, 464 ; tie Viii Mmtf, Ub. 
iii. p. 518 — .191; d* MoooKh. \ih \\. p. 03<i, 637, edit. Colon. Allobr. 

t Vid. Dnua. de Vwuu Sawnl. UebrMr. lib. u. up. xivi. kcL ix. \. 
p. 876 — &9I, edit. AnMd. 16dO ; caip. uvii. »GCt. dccxlv. dcodvi. p. 707 



BO OK 1/ 

or eOcctuul culling, by the bells ; faitli, bv tlie gulden cruwii, 
iiX.* These divjtits, as wtll as soiin.- of the ancients, have 
permitted th«ir fanciefi to make fxcurgione bc^vond the bound* 
of rMSon and good sense. Nevertheless, iho«e who will ad- 
mil of no typical meaning in any of these thiugv, go into a 
cootrary extreme. It mil be happy, if we can hit the juBt 
medium, in attempting which the Scripture will be onr best 

' TlirPe riteH of the cont^ecrution. both of tlic hi^h-pncst and 
the commou [irieslB, tbeir washii^, unoiiiling, and ciothiiig, 
being considered, there remiuns a 

4tfa. The oHering certain sacrificeif uccoixling to the prc- 
acrtption in the book of Exodun, chap. xxix. These were a 
young bullock and two rains, beside unlenvcnMl bread, cakcA, 
and wafers, ver. 1,3; tlie bullock for a sin-offering, one ram 
for a biimt'oHering, both which were entirelv consumed with 
Hre, ver. 13, H. IK : and the other ram and ihe bread in the 
nature of a peace-oH'enug, part only of which was consumed 
on the altar, and the re»t eat by the priestti, for whom the 
Mcrifieea were oftered, ver. 19 — 2J*. 

TTic first of tlicw »Michfices, which was the siti-otferinu. wa» 
to signify, that til) their ains were expiated, they were not fit 
to pefform nnv acceptable service, much lens to offer fiacrificc, 
or make atonement for the him* of the people. 

The second, which was the hotocnust, or whole barnt-' 
oft'ering, was in the nutiire of a gift or present, whereby they 
were recoitmu-mled to (iotl. 

The third was a peace-offering, on which they made a feast, 
and by that were initiated into his family ■i' 

The ram of the peace-offering is called in the Hebrew 
0»kVi3 Sh rit milfuim, aries impletiouum, ver. 22: which Ain«« 
worth rcTKlers the " ram of filhng the hand ;" because " tho 
part which was to be consumed on the altar, hub flrMi put into 
the hands of Aaron, and mto the handb of his sons," ver. '24, 

Kubbi Solomon gires a different reaauii for Uic mnrb being 
called Qr>K*70 V*« eii milluim, from kVo muW, plenua vel com- 
putus ett : because the offering of this sacrifice completed 

' l^l>i Hnpn, wet. vn. x*ii. |t. M7 — 8B9, fritt. Atailtl. IMO; mc< 
4rdtu. ilnJtv. p 713— ri5,«lil- iroi. 
f See rsUtck nn Eawt. uii- 10. 

IaI'. v.] t-OHSKCKATfOlf' or TUB PXIESTil. 


ihe cunsecration, and tlivreupon llie prie&ts were fully itiveKted 
HI their office. Acconiingly, Ui« Septuagint rcuderb D»H^IS 
miiiuim by rtXtttMnc, coDuuiniiiution; nn<l Jieac«, perhapti, the 
ufiostle, speaking of Christ under the character of a priest, 
Beith. ho IB «c row oiiumi unXuutftivo^, Hob. vii. 2ti, consum- 
mated or perfected for ever. 

Godwin takes particuhir notice of two circunistaucea in 
thetie Mcrifica : — 

l«t. That iKMae of die blood uf the mm of consecration was 
put upon the tip of the right ear, and the thumb of Uie rifrht 
band, and the great too of the right foot of the pncub. who 
were consecrated ; Bxod.xxix. 20. Probably it was put upon 
their ear, as denoting the uttentiou they, eapecially, ought to 
give lo God*s word, that they might be thoroughly mslructcd 
in the duties of their otHce. and be fit to be teachers of utherb ; 
for attention to the word of God, or care and dihgence in 
Irarning hia mind and will, 'a expreiiiicd by " opening the 
ear:" Job xxxvi. 10; Isa. 1. 5. 

1'hc touching tlie right thumb with the same blood was to 
tiignUy, that they were to attend with diligence on the work 
of their ministry, which is called " the work of their hands ;" 
Deut. xxxiti. II. 'rbi« phrase is expressive uf any sort of 
active aerrtce- It is said in the Acts, that " by the hands of 
the apostles were many nigna and wonders wrought among the 
people ;" though some of thcHe were wrought only by speak- 
ing, chap. V. 6 ; and others, by their shadow overabadowmg the 
diseased; ver. 16, IG. 

Since the right handuuly was consecrated by the sacnficial 
blood, the rubbics aay, if a prie«t made aae of his left, iiihlead 
d' bi» right, in performing any part of the service, it jmlluted 

The toiichmg of the great toe with the blood is gupposcd 
lo signify, Uiat they ought to take great heed, that their coii- 
venatioa might be huly, without blame, and such as became 
the QUDiBters of GihI : for the conversation in frequently ex- 
preesed by wulkiug: Psalm i. 1 ; xr.'2; Prov. x.^ ; I^. xxxiiJ. 
\5 ; Phi), iti. 17 ; GaI. li. 14 ; and in many other places, both 
of Uie Ohl and New Tcstaiueut. Anil llic apphcation of the 

* Mitbii. n BsrWoor, at Uwmon. in loc. ubi nijira ; Muinuu. dc llu* 
UMM uleundi Temple, sbl aupn, hcl kviii. 



[ttnOR I J 

sacrificial blood lu all Uietw parUt of the body, witH doubUeaa 
mlendifl to deaote Uiai ail tntist be sanctifipi) and reoderod 
acoeptablti ia Qod by the blood of Christ. 

Tbc other circiitustauc« which <nu autJior remarks, is, thai 
" ai the consecrution of the priwts* corlaia |]iece<t of the sa- 
crifices were put into their hands," as was before observed. 
On which acoount their cotutecratioD ttaell' is cxpreascd by 
"tilhng their bands i" Exod. xxviii. 41. D^tv-riK /iR^ tuw?/- 
liatk eth-jadham, el impiebis muHum eorum. Our unthor 
ftOEU lience deriros the custom in the Chorch of Englund. or« 
lU be 18 pleased to express it. in the Chti»tiau church, uf the 
liishop'tf giving u Bible into the band of the mianter to be or- 
dained; " BOTH wiiiru," be»iith,"majrsig;uify.thatuuuiHti 
takech that bononr to himself, but lie that is called of God, 
as was Aaron :" and ndds, " conti-arv to tbi^ did Jeroboam** 
piieeta; whoever would, Ke tilK-d his onu hands," I Kitiga 
ziii. 33 : that is. " ho thrust hitusolf into tlie priesthood." 1 
hope our author did uo( intend this coniparii^na to JerobiMiin's 
priests for aretleclion on all luiimters nut cpiscopatly onlnioud 
accordiDg to the r)t£S of the ICnglish eslablishioent. However. 
[ beg leftve to observe, that the words in Kin^ll^-rw N^« I'orn 
hfrh/Tphfts jrauillf- elh jadfto, iiboiild rathtT he rendered ejmt\ 
qui Drt/vi'r imptevit mtinum, that is, JeToboom tilled the Itftndii 
of bim that would. Vet, because our king appoiDts to 
episcopal office whom he pleases, fur be it from me tucciii^j 
para our bishops to Jeroboam's priosts. 

Godwin retuarku ttonie peculiarities, by which the higk 
priest was dtstingnifthed iVoni tlie connnco priests. 

Ist. He must marry none but a virgiu ; tuv. xxi. 13, Mi 
Therefore be was exempt from tiie law of nuim'ing his bro«. 
ther's widow, in case he died without children ; Deut. xxv. Si' 
Our author saya, another priest may lawriilly marry u widow ;•! 
and Josephns Bars the •ame.* But there is no such expreM < 
penntasion in the law ; Ottlf it ie inferred from a widow's ool^ 
hehig mentioned nmrnii; those wbou a common priest 
foibid to inan7 : Lev.xxi. 7. Nenvtbtfles*. Groims is of'j 
0|Mni(«i the common priests had not this liberty, unke* with 
respect to the widows of prieats- This he grounds on iha- 
followiug pMsage of Exekiel: " Neither shall tliuy (that is, 
* Antii). lib. itL cap. tii. wei. n.vtm.i.f. t U. win- lUvwc. 

lAP. v.] P8€ULIAItlTIE8 OF Tl 



yuiy priests) take for th«ir wiTee a widow, or )ior thut is pat 
itway ; but ther sbail take maklenB of tbe seed of ilie Itousc of 
Ismcl, or a widow that had a priest before;" ISaak. zbv. 22.* 
However, it i» certain the h>i,'h-prie!tl miiihl marr^- aoile but a 
virgio ; and th« tabbies haw ciutt-rmiiii-Hl the age the muet be, 
Rtthe time of her marriage, within kaa than Haifa year, be- 
tiwcn twelve years otd and a day. and t«clve years and a 
half, l-'or they obaer»e, she must not only be a virgin nVina 
helkuiah, but he must marry her before she comcA to the a^ 
of puberty, ^^Vlra3 Uihhthuleifta, in iier Tii^inlty : which, they 
tiay. was circumscribed within the Bhort period 1 have men- 
tioned .f 

We may farther observe, they are much mote liberal to the 
kii>p: than to the priest ^ allowing the former eighteen wive«, 
the latter but one; at Ictist. if he did take another, they say^ 
he mu-'il give a bill of divorce to one of tliem before the great 
day of expiation, otherwise he would be incapable of perform- 
ing the «ervicctt llxm required.^ 

'2dly. Tbe higb-prie»t must not mount for the death o< his 
ueareat kindred. He " shall not uncover hia head, nor rend 
his clothea; neither shall he go in to any dead body, nor de- 
tiU; hioiMlffor his father, or for his mother. Neitliernhnll he 
go ont of the sanctuary, nor profane ihe sanctuary of his 
Ood;" Lew. xxi. 10 — 12. The cereinonivs of mourning, here 
prohibited, ure such as would not consist with hts attending 
the service of the sanctuary; and the reason of the law is, 
that the public wortbip of Ood, in which the preaence and 
ministration of the high-priest was in many cases necessary. 
might not be inlerrupted. 

The ceremonies forbidden are, 

Ut. Uncovering his bead. The !»eptiia^t renders 
jnO* M^ TE^Kn ntshn h jipkrang, ntv Kt^oAni' "W" airoKiHapwati , 
tapul KOH mttlabit tidari: or, if 1 may be alkjwcd lite expres- 
sion, he shall not unmitre his huad ; a phrase which, though it 
is not an exact translation, doea not improperiy convey the true 

" Sep OroUi Aiuial. ml Ler. \ti. 14. 

t Vh). SfldMi, i'xof . HetM-- lit), ti. csp. vii. Oper vul- it. turn. ii. p. SSb, 

1 SsHea, ubt mi(ms, ni|t. VH(. p. Ml , 5M- 



[aooK I. 

draign of the law, which was to prcv^^ut Um umitliiig Ui« 
dutivs uf lus office oituccasivii of the death even oriiiii ii«irc«t 
relstifMis, which he tuu»t have done if he had complied with 
the cufttom of uncoTeriag his head, or layiii); aside hiii mitre, 
that iH-iiigonu of the holy garnienlH, nUhoiit which it wau uii- 
luwt'id for him to oUiciatc; Kxod. xxviii. 36 — 3K. TfacChul- 
dee Poraphrutiti rvudcrs the word very did'ervQlly froiu tiia 
i?«|>(U'^iiit : in citpiu tuu nwi tiulnat cvmam. Aiiuworth 
»aith HiK Hebrew word yiD phaiang, »i(^iiitie!>, both to maka 
bare oud to make frei?: OukeloM, it M.-euis, taking it in tha. 
lattor BOQse, uDdon»tands the mcoaing of the law to be. thai 
their hair bhtjuld nut be left lu gruw free, without triiiiuiiig. 
lu this lUAUxiei, we aie luld by Hi-rudutuK, the li^yptiaus 
lued to e&pres» their moumiug for the dead ;* lettiu|{ the hair 
grow long, aiid in a ticgligeut form, beiug eousidered as ■ 
luurk uf iudtttiiitioii to theuiDvlvcM, tlirough ckcei4»ive gneir 
Mepbibosheth was in such deep cuticcm for David on account 
of Absalom's rebellion, that " he neither trimmed biit beard, 
nor waahed his eiottiuti, fruui the day the king departed fruiu 
JeruBalem, until the day he cnnio agiiin in [trace;" 'J Sam. 
xiK. 24. If we uiiderataud the Juw Mjcorduig to the sense of 
OnkeloB, it is eitlier designed to prcTcat the btgh-pricHt's 
•ymboUzing with the Ueatlienii, ut the ntea of mounuug, or 
to preserve decency in public worship, it not being lit that Uio 
chief minister in the sanctuary should appear with hi» tuiir 
long and neglected, as mourner? sometime^ did- 

Uowevtir, butli among tiic Jaws and the neighliuunng na* 
tious, it was a more usual sign of wourniug, not only la 
uncover, but even to shave their heads. When Job was iu- 
fonued of hiii repeated losses, and of tlie deiith ut hi* chiklren, 
" be rBOt bis ui&ntle. and shared bis bead;" Jobi. 20. And 
in the prophecy of Jeremiah wc read of fuurscorc men, who 
were going to tiuueat the desoUtiuii of Jerusalem, huvmg 
their boards shaven, and tlieu elotlies rent ; Jcr. xli. 5. That 
thia was usual among the Peisiaus uppearb frum tlie following 
IMuaage of Quintus Curiius : " Person, comia suo more detuu- 
ais, in lu^bri vcstc, cum coujugibus ac liberis (Alexaudrum). 

■ llerodut. EUiUirp. up. uuvi. p. IQI, vdil. iirooov. Lugd. Uu- 1715. 

CIIA1». v.] PBCULI4feiTIES OT THtfflQn-rRI RftT. 


non ut victorcm. et inodo hostcm. set! ut gentia sun> ju«iliMi- 
luiini regem Tem dcaulorio liigvlmnt."* And that the name 
rite was in use among other nations, appears from Sitetoniiis, 
in his life of Cnligula. where, after observing, thai on Lhe 
iloatli ofCieHar Germanicus, Rome barbarous nations at war 
imcfof^ tbcmaelves and with the HomanK, agreed to a cessa- 
tion nf luwtilities. as if their grief had been of a domestic 
tiiitnrc, and on an occn<tinti which alike cancenied them both. 
he odds. " Regukm qnosdam (fenini) barbam posuisse et ux- 
onim capitfi niHisse. ad indicinni maximi luctriB."'f 

We meet with frequent reierences to Ihbi rite of iiiouming 
in Scriptunj. lu the prophet Jeremiah : " Cut off thy hair, 
O JentHnlcm ; take np a lamentation ;" chap. vii. '^9. In the 
prophet Micah : "Make thcf^ bold, nnd poll thei> for thy 
dcliraie children, for tlicy arc gone into captivity;" chap. i. 16. 
In Isniab : "The ImtxI shall shave with n razor tliat is hired, 
iiami-Iy, by them beyond the river, by the king of Aitsyria. the 
head and the hair of the feet ; and it Khatl also cunaume the 
beard," referring to the AMynon captivity; chap. «ii. '20. And 
by the same prophet baldnefn is mentioned among the signs 
of ninuming, chap. xxii. 12. And so hy .Itremiah : ** Every 
head ^hall be bald, and every beard dipt;" which is thus 
explaincfl. "There nhall Iw lamentation, generally, npon all 
thf hoiise-topc of Moab;" Jcr. xlviii. 37, 38. And once mora, 
" Neither shall men lament for them, nor cut theniselvc**, nor 
iniikc lhcmsolv«« bald for them ;" chap. xri. fi. I'pon the 
whole, then, the prohibition of the high-prie»i'n uncovering 
his head for the dead, probfthly means, not only that he must 
not Bp|>ear without his mitre, but that he mnnt not nhavc his 
head, nor yet. on the other hand, let his hair groH long and 
ne^ected. Both these extremes are expressly prohibited : 
" Neither shall they." that is. the priests, " shave their headt, 
nor Hiifl'er their locks to grow lon^;" Ewk. xliv. 20. 

2dly. The high-priest must not rend his clothes, in token 
of munming for the dead, which was anciently mnch practised 
ty lhe Jewa and other nations. Quintus Curtius saich, that 

I " QuntL Curt, de Guiia Alrund. lA. X. etp. i- »n. xrii. p. TM. vdir. 
ImkA. BjiI 1096- 

f In VitA Calig. ctp. v. Mct-iii. )v. lora. i. p. T6B, t4il. PiliHi, Tni- 
J««1. B'l Rhfn. 1090. 



when DanuA was oii Llin point of beiD^ »eizetl by Bessius hihI 

tiie ilactnans, in under to be delivered up to Alexander, and 

the onJy domtMtic lelt about hjm made Huch loud boiuntation* 

'••alarmed the camp, "imipcre deinde alii larerilJsqoe vee- 

' liboB, luf^nbri et barbaro ululntu regcm deplomre ca?p«runt."* 

' V'irgil tays of Amata, that apprehending Tnrnua was dead, 

Se nusam cbuml, criamiqiie eapulque niftlonim, 
Ha)tof}ur per moMian denens dhta Atruretn. 
Purpuno* riontura nuuii dociarfit anucnu, 
Kt nodum iiiti)nni9 iMhi iitihr ix-ctit ah altA. 

lltieiil, sii. I. 600— «03. 

And Latinus. her Uuitbaud, bc-anng uf her unhuppy fate. 

— ■ — II icimik i-efie Laiidus 
Coojugu kuonitus bus urt>iAque ruutt. 

Ib. 1. 009, 61U 

So Juvenal, describing the funeral rites witJi which Priaia 
would have been hoaoiir«d. bad he died lieforo Parin com- 
mitted the rape of Helen, saith. 

Incvlumi Tni}i IViainati veniaaei ad aiabr«« 
Aoaimci nmpii) »(4«iiiiiB>tw. Ueeiore funin 
PorUnltt, u rdiqub ftamitn cetricnitu, iautt 
[liadum bcrymn*, ui primos til^n- [iIaiiciim 
CAMBudrt iticipftd, tOMMjuc Polyxena pallA. 

We have this rite of mourning f'rvH^ucuOy uieniioued m 
Scripture, as practiiHKl on various occu»ion&, particularly on 
the death of rclationji or friends, us by Reuben and bis father . 
Jacob ou the 8uppo»ed death of Joseph, Oea. xxxvii. 
34; and by Darid, on the death of Saul and Joiiathan«J 
2 Saiu. i . 11 : Rometimcft it was practi«ed on account of great* 
injuries receiTotl, as by Tamar, when she bad Wii ubuainJ by 
her brother AniQoo. 2 Sam. xiii. 1!>; or im account of the in - 
fliotiou or deuuociattua of public j iidgiueuts ; fur which re-dMia l 
it is mentioaod as a sign of great stupidity in king Jehoiakim* 
and hx» courtiers, that when tbcy rend, in a roll of Jeremiah '■ 
prophecy, what jud^enls God Uircotoned to hrin^ u|>on thtti 
luti£iUB, "they wore not afraid, nor rent llu-ir {{i»nnent»;"^ 

Jer. xxzri. 24. A(r<iin. it was practised when ihey heard' 

^ QafaH. Cm. i* OeMri Alvuml. Msga. lib. v. cap. z. wd. xli. p 930. 
edit iMfA. Bu. 1096 



l>lasf>hi!niy or any other prarniic contempt of Ood, nt by 
king llezekiob and fais otticers, when they beard the Mas- 
phemoua railtog of Rabshakeh; Imi. xxxvi. 22. and chap. 
vxxvii. 1 . Hie rabbies indeed «Hy, it was to be practised only 
ou bearing blasphemy from one of their own nation, and there- 
fbtc (heyconelndeRabshnkchwaaan apostate Jew.* in this 
way riiey expensed tbcir detotlation of either uorda or actionx 
lliiifr wore a£IVoDtive to the Uuity. When, tiicrefun;, the primt 
and people at Lystiu would have paid divine honauni to Paul 
and Bamabiis. " they rent their clothes;" Acli xiv. H. And 
thin Caiaphaftdid. whvn our Suviuur declared himsvlt'tu tx.- the 
Son of Ood, on which account he charged him ivith blaa- 
phcmv : Matt, xxvi. 65. Upon this a question has been 
started, whether he did lutl hereio act contrary to the law in 
LeritjcuB, which, in two places, under a severe peniilty. for- 
bid* the liigh-priest rending fai8 cJoUies; Lev. x. G, and 
chap, xxi. U>. Grotiu* observes, the occasion in both ca«e« 
wafi ihi! death of relation?*, and that there js no express ]>m- 
hitiition which extendi) to any other occoeion.t Besides, 
titeae tveni Uotli very peculiar end extraordinary cusca. The 
one was, the death of fiudnb and Abihu by the immediate 
hand of Owl, fur ulierinu- ^ltull^e fire on tlie altar, when 
neither their fattier nor their brethren were permitted to show 
any sitrn of nujuraing, Icsl it should look like arraigniog tJie 
Uivine juntice ; and perliHp* it might he intended na an ad- 
ditionol punishment to ihem, that they Hhtnitd not only be 
Btnick dead, but dit; unlamentcd The latter pruhibition. 
chap. xxi. 10, is in the case of tlie priust'K daughter playing 
the faarloi, for which she was tn be biinit with hre, ver. 9; 
and then it fallows, he, tJiat ia. the higb-pheat, shall not uii- 
cuver hiB head, nor rand hiif clothet». because, on ouch an oc- 
caaiiin, it would look like a reflection on tlie IcKialator, or on 
the htw itself. iLuwever, il' tile prohibition be sopposod lo 
oxtend to all cases, it probably related to the sacerdotal veat- 
nenu only, which wcr« not to be rent on any ocoasion.t 

^ , * In lilini riww^unin. >ee die paHHyf ijuuKd by Dnulu* o« MiUt 

uvi. ny 

i AitTi?cat)l_r ttt itw (.'hstiirf fanphnst m loc. 

I Seidra de Jui* Naiur. li Hm. lib. ii cap- tW. Opvr. vol. t. (od. I 
p. in, 372 





And M it i» certain ihc Jew« in Inter Bge* undomtood it ; for 
it is said in tlic Fir«t Book of Mnccabces. chap. xi. 7|, ihnt 
Jonathan the bigh>pno8t, on the defeat nnd flight of his army, 
" rent his clothes." Ami in .Toscphim wc aro inrornif<), thnt 
lo appcaac a popular commotion, excited by the cnieltieK of 
Rorus. proQuntlor uf Judea, the principal persons, and par- 
ticularly ihe high-prieBt8, rent their garmenta. »at (w^ip-ac 
wtptii>pniovTo, and on their knees besought the people not to 
pauli things to extieniily, lest the consequence should be their 
ruin. And when the tumult, which wan thu.H allayed, was 
like to be revived, thev had recourse to the same ex|ieilienl: 
roue S* ap\ifpfic aurov^ iiv tSuv Kara/JM;jEfouc M*^ ^C KifoAtic 
Koyiv, -yvfivovc St ru aripva rwv oittruiv n*f>upfm^uvti/v-^ The 
rabbles say. the higli-prieiit wasnilawodto rend his clothes at 
the bottom, but nut from the tup to tbe bottoui.t- which ww 
the common way. Tlicy tcU ua, moreover, that it miut b* 
done standing, which they ground on the example uf David. 
who. it is ^aid, on a report that Absalom had Hiain all htft, 
brethren, arose uod tore htr> garments; 2 Sam. xiii. Gl . They i 
>.4ldd. that the rent ruust not be more tlinn a haiid'a breadth.,] 
and (hat it must be made in the upper gatnmnt. and in tJi 
fore-part of ii.J 

The third peculiarity of the high-prieet conusled in his pro* 
siding over the inferior priests, in taking care that all thing! 
Were conducted with decency, and iircordmg to the law. and 
in performing liimself nrme appropriate ports of the divinai 

Godwin saith, that both the hiKh-pnest and the infenorJ 
priests burnt incense, nnd odered sachfices. I Chruu. vi. 49, 
and even slew ihe viclimb. 2 Chroo. xxix. '£2 ; that they both 
eonnded the trumpet, either for an alarm in war. or to as-^ 
the people and their rulers. Numb. x. 1 — ■H; that they 
nuCnicted the people. Lev. x. II; Deut. xvii. K — I'^e- 
MlJt U.7 ; mnd botli judged and dctenuioed concerning lepmy^J 
l.ev. xiii.2; and he ought have added, concerning caa 
udultrry by the waters of jealous v. Numb. v. 19; and 
eeniing things vowed, or devoted, the former being redeem- 1 

*,D« Beilojudftk tit> ii.oi|». i« McLii. it. edit. lUvcrc. 
, t Maha. tit. Uonjodt cap iii. wcL v. ion. ir. p, ftOl , Mu. SumAn^ 
I Vm). Maimnn, ^ l.una. nip. riii. »en. L li. 


Tlf« SIIRAff. 

able at a valuation or price set by the priest, the latter not ( 
Lev. xxvti. B. 28. 

It belonged likewise to the priests lo setoa and remove the 
sbvw-bread ', to tend aud supply the lamps. Lev. xxiv. 1 — 9; 
to bum the red heil'er. Numb. x'ix. 2 ] to blew the people. 
Numb. vi. '23—27 ; and to keep watch in three several 
places of the temple ; '2 Chron. xxiii. 4. No doubt the high- 
priest bad power or authority, in virtue of his office, to perform 
any port (^ the sacerdolal service, and several of the articles 
(dready mentioned arc cxpres&ly declared to pertain to him as 
vreU u to the inferior priests ; howevtr, same of the more la- 
borious part«of the service were ordinarily performed by the 
inferior priestjt under his direction. 

On the other band, he had his pecuhar province, the prin- 
cipal hrancfaee of which were, intjuuing of the i^rd, and 
giving amtwera by Urim and Thummim, and performing the 
most holy parts of tlte divine service, especially on the great 
annual fast, or day of expiation, when, cIotht;d m his lioeo 
garmeois, be wvnt alone into the holy of holies, and there 
burnt incense, and sprinkled some of the blood of the sacri6c« 
upon the mercy-seat ; Lev. xvi. throughout, and Hcb. i\. 7. 

The duties of his office on that day will be considered in 
their place, when we are treating of the Jewish festivals. 

It is, however, proper here to take notice of what our 
author observes concerning the high-priest's suflVagan, or 
deputy, called 1^ sagan, as some write it, or, as others, 
UP xgen, who, in case of the high-priest's incapacity by sick- 
oeaa or any legal uncleanneas, discharged his office for him. 
The word pp sagan. in the ungular number, is never used in 
Seripture ; but the plural D^UO seganim several times occurs, 
toA seems always to import secular rulers, or governors ; as 
particularly in the book of Nehemiah, where the o^izo aga- 
nim are joined with the nobles, and are not improperly called 
rulers in the English version, Nehem. iv. 14 — 19. In Isaiah, 
chap, xli.25, wc style them princes; and Daniel is said lo be 
made chief of the Kganim, which we there render governors ; 
Dan. ii. 48. Aad certain it is, his was not an ecclesiastical, 
but civil office- So that in all those places, and wherever 
else tJie word occurs in the Hebrew Bible, it evidently im- 
port* secular dignity and authority. Nevertheless, the singular 


noun sagan U often used by the Hebrew doctor* for an ec- 
clesiasCicttl penion. ThcTargum of Jonathan, on the Second 
Book of Kings, rendi-ra "the prieat of the second order" the 
sagan ofthc priests, on 2 Kings xxiii. 4; andcalU " Zeph&niah, 
the lecond pnest," the Hagan. on 2 Kings xxt. 18. And hi 
the prophecy of Jeremiah it iu one place styles him (Jer. lii. 
24), and in another. Pashur (Jer. xx. 1}, the aagan o( the 
prie«ts. It is agreed on all hands, that the aagon was next to 
the high-|Hiest. and his ricegerent ; biit for what end he wan 
appointed, and what were the duties of his office, is disputed. 
One opinion, espoused by Cuneeus,* is, that he was only to 
officiate for the high-priest, in case he was rendered incapable 
of attending the service through sickness, or legal UDcleaniKH, 
on the day of expiation. Josephus gives an instance of the 
service of that day being performed by one Joseph, the son of 
Eli, as deputy, or aag&n, of the high-pricat Matthias, who the 
night before had bcpii uccidentally rendered unclean ;'f and 
Mr. Selden ^ informs us, out of the Jerusalem and Babylonish 
Talmud, tliat Simeon, the high-priest, being rendered unclean 
by some drops of spittle falling on his ganuentd the day before, 
his brother Judah officiated as his sagan on the day of ex- 
piation- Tlie patrons of this opinion tell us the sagan was ap- 
pointed the preceding crening, and for the service of that day 
only. So Unit, according to them, there was a new sagan 
erery year, or. at least, he was appointed anew to his office. 
The mishnical book Joma| tells us farther, that they not oidy 
appointed a sagan for the high-priest, in case he should be 
polluted, but likewise a wife, in case his wife should die on 
that day, or the night before- For it is said, " He shall 
make atonement for himself, and for his house ;" Ler. xvi- Q. 
Now a house, it is said, implies a wife, which, therefore, he 
must not be without on that day. 

After all. the sagan's officiating for the high-priest on thi 
day of expiation has no founda^on in Scripture, by which no 
man is allowed to officiate in the holy of hohes but tlie high- 

* D« RepQb- Hebr- lib. ii. cap. vi, 
t Antiq lib, x^it. csp vi. MCt. iv. edit Htverc. 
t D* ^Koea. in PontificBL lib. L etp. ni. mpud Opera* 
p. 145, 146, Loodini, IfM. 
i Csfi t- stet, L lata. ii. p. 106, vdk. intabm. 

«•!. i tDfll.d 




prwtt; and if, Uierefore, he watt (lick. or otbenrise disabled, 
that part of the service must, no doubt, be omitted ; Trhleli, 
in caieof neceflsity, it might be, without such bad consequence 
SB the rabbies apprehend, who make the cfHcacy of nil the 
■acnfiees of the ensuing year to depend upon it. 

Others think the tiugan wus tjie high-priest 'a ricar, or suf- 
fragan, to assist him in the care of (and in his abttence to 
orentee) (he ofiain of the temple and the service of the 
priealJi. Dr. Ligfatfoot, in aupport of tbia opinion, obaervea,* 
that the aagan is commonly called, both in the Tarj^m + and 
by the rabbies, D^wn jjd MOgan haccaattim, the sagan of the 
pneats, wbich seema to import, tlmt his office referred as much 
(if not more) to the common pricatt., aa to the higb-pricBt. 
Maimonides in particular »aya,t " all the pneat» were at 
the command of the ai^n." According to this opinion, hta 
office waa not for a day only, but probably for life, at least 
ull he became superannuated, or till the high -priest's death. 
Soma Kay he wua always heir apparent to the high-priculliuod, 
and that none could be high-priest, who had not first been 
«agan.§ To tliia Dr.Iightfoot objects, out only that it could 
not be the cane under Uie second temple, and afler the day& 
of Hecod, when the pontifical dignity waa at the arbitrary dia^ 
posal of the Bxrman presidents, who preferred to it whom they 
pleased; but even in earlier agca. when the Knrccaalon waft 
leg)d and regular, wc do not Bnd that he whom the Targwn 
calla HHgan. alwajra succeeded on a demise* There is not tlie 
lea«t intimaticiu thatZepJiiiniah. who in the Second Book of 
KingV in culled the second priest, or sagan, was Uie son of 
Scraiah the htgh-priest, ornucceeded him in his office ; 2 Kings 
xxr. IH. 

l/pon the whole, it is probable, that be who wax next io 
the aucceaaioa to the high -priesthood, was for the moat part 
appoint«d aagan. but uot always, since it re^^uired a persoo 
of leaming and experience in the laws and ritual to ajutat the 

* Temple $«n-ice, clup. t. mcL i^ snd Ilonr [tr1>nir« on Ijuke tii. S. 

f Sec Targum Jotialhtn on 1 King* xx*. 18, And Jer. lii- 34. 

I Mumon. d« Apjnnlu T«aipli, np. i«. wot. sri. apuil Ct«na Fucicul. 
9«xtp 11$. 

t R. Solom. in Numb. xix. and lUmud HunnolTm qw>l»d ia Ligtu&M'» 
Tnptt Ssrrk*, chap. tv. 

K 2 


[book 1.1 

liiglt-pripst, aapactaUy if he were a wunk man ; und tlierefo 
it is likely they regarded merit nitfaer than birth in the chmc 
nnd appointmeQt of this otHccr. 

The divine institution of him in coufcivcd to be in the foU| 
lowing piu«age of the book of Numbers: " Elcazar, the soi 
of Aaron the priest, shail be chief over tiiu chief of the Le-] 
vHes, and hav<: thi- nvt^nii^ht of them that kcop the charge 
the sanctuary :" Numb. iii. 313. Thus, it appeufs, tlicre wi 
some among the priests nnd Levites, who ha<t pre-cuiinem 
and authority over their brethren; each, [lerhaps, being aj|J 
overseer to a certain uumber. or presiding in a p»niculai 
branch of the service of tlie sanctuary ; but Eleazar was chief 
Over these chiefs. Hence, »ay» Ainsworih,* ames the diii- 
tinctioa of the hi^h-prie^it and tin* second priest. And when 
Aaron was dead, and Eleazar, the aecond priest, was higb-j 
priest in his room, Xumb. xx. 26. 28, then Fbinchas, Eleazar'l 
son, tiucceeded Uim in tlie ofHce of second priest, or go%'eraof1 
over the Levites ', for Phinchaii, the ttou of I^teazar, ih Haid iii] 
the Finit Book of Chronicles to have been ruler over them, 
is, the Levites, in lime pest; 1 Chron. ix. 20. 

From hence it should soeni, the hint wuh fint taken of ap^' 
pointing, besides bishopii, who have the oversighl of the priutis 
in particular dioceses, archbiKhop^, who have the ovensif^t of 
Hiu Inabops of sevenU dioceses, or are " chief of the chiefH." 
But the New 'reKlameiil is totally silent concemmg huch an 
institution fur the goTemmeiit of the Clihatian cliureh. 

The mbbie!> speak of three other ftort» of tacerdotal ofiiccrs, 
superior to common prienU, but inferior to the higli-prie»t 
and »8gan; pp^7lnp kalholikiu, I*^3TDK immarcalin, and p-i3U 

There were two kaihalikin. of whom .Maimonidest gives 
thi« abort account, that thrv were to the aagan as the sagan 
to the high-priest, namely, substitutes and asststauts, and next 
in place and honour. According to other llehrow writera, 
their office related to the treasuries of tlie Icmplr, and to the 
managemcnl of the revenues arising from the oblations- 

The immartatin were seven, who carried the keys of the 
aeven gates of the court, and one conkl not open them without 


t l>* ApfMraiu TnnpU, Mp. tr. aeet vni. 




the rest.* According to whicli uccount, <>acl) pile oust have 
Beveo ditiercDt locks, the keys of which were suvemlly kept 
by tlie Mvcii immarcaiiH. i>ame ol' the rabbies tell us. then; 
were seven rooms at the Be\'CD gates ; in which Uie sucred 
veaKeU uid veftlmenU were kept, under the care of thew 
officers .+ 

The zizbarin were not to be less than three, who were ii 
■ort of treasurers, or coUcetorB of the ofteringH hrouglit to the 
Irmplc.]; which they accounted for to the immarcaliu, and 
they tu the kntholikin, and all under the inspection of the 
high-prieat and tmgan. Hut huving no nieiittun of these 
officers in the »acred Scriptures, we shall enter into no further 
particulars concerning thcm.^ 

Wt; proceed to Bpcnk of the inferior pricsu. These were 
grown so numerous in David's time, that it became ver)* in- 
convenicnL for them toiiLt^nd fhu ncrrice at the tidwrnacle all 
together. He therefore divided them into twenty-four com- 
panies, who were to serve in rotation, euch company by itself, 
for a week ; 1 Chron. xxiv. throughout. Tliat he did thus by 
dirine appointmeal, appears from the following pawt^e : 
" Dnvid gavp to Solomon his son the pattern of all that ho 
had by the Spirit, of the courts of tlie bousi- of the l^rd ; 
also for the courses, mpViO mafhiekoth, of the priests nod the 
Levitcs;" i Chron. xxviii. II — l.'J. These courses are here 
called mpWlO machlekoth, from p^n chalnky divisit : and in 
Nehemiah. rtriOCfO mithmaroth. frt>m "CfZ' ahamtir, custottivit, 
Nehem. xiii. 30. The Septuagint renders both these words 
by i^iv»/-(a<, in which they are followed by St. Luke, who 
■tith that Ziicharias the priest, the father of John the Baptist, 
wna f£ tfiifttfuac Ajita, of thi* coursp of Ahia ; Luke i. o. The 
word K^nfitpta is derived from the form of the Athenian re- 
public. Tlie country of Alticu was divided into leu fifXac. or 
tribes; fifty persons were chosen out of each tribe, who com> 
powd the Mnatc ; and each fifty sat and goveniM for one 
day in tbi-ir turns. Hence their Apx»j. or form of govern 
mcnt, was called tfufttpo^; because their govemom were daily 

* Mumoa. d« Appnatu Tenph, ubi nipra. 

t Jovcpli. nd Sbckslim, anp. k. R. Solom. in 3 Kin^ lii. 

t Uaimnn. dr Appuaiii Templi, np. \t. sect, xviir. ubi wpn. 

( Sw I.tghilboi'« Temple Serrice, ubi lupra- 




chaoged according to u regular roUtion.* Now there beio^j 
a oonnderabic resemblanoe between thin din»ion mid ii 
sioo of the Attic Beimtors and that of the Jewish priest 
tbe Beptuagint nppli(>)> the word t^t^fifpta to thu courtte^ of the' 
priaats; though e^niewhut improperly, became they abtllcd 
not daily but weekly, as ia coocludod from ita being said ia 
Chroniclea, that the porters of tlie gate were relieved by their 
brethren every seveu days, I Chroti. in. 26; and if the in- 
ferior officers relieved one another weekly, it it reaeooable to 
Hiipposc the priests did so loo- Tliere i« (he more reaitnti for , 
thtit conclusion, because the couracii of the priests and of thai 
portan are mentioned together in the account of Suiuraon'tt' 
confimiing the regulation which bin father David had made : 
"He appointed, according to the order of David his father*, 
the coureea of tlie prieiitjs to their aervice. and the I^evites to 
their charge, the portem altio by their counter at every gate;".] 
2 Cbnn. viii. 14. Tbe time of ahifling the coimcs aeema to 
have been the Nihbath ; for the priesta are <le8oribed by thia . 
periphruus, "Tliosc Ihat enter in ou the sabbath;" 2 King*, 
xi. &. So that each courae attended the service of the aaiic- 
tuary, for a week, twice n-year. 

The Jewitth writers nay, the tint circulation of the couraos 
Itegan on the first sabbath of llie month Niian, answering to 
our Aliirvh and April ; and the second on the firsL sabbath of 
the moiitb Tiiri, anawering to our i>epteuiLH:r and October ; 
and eo they luuke two circalKlion>4 to complete tbe year. But 
whereaa there were but Lwcnty-four courses, which therefore 
in thia double circulation would till up only forty-eight weeks, 
or eleven months, ihtiy say ihe WL-vki) ul' the three greAt feaata 
were not taken into thiet account; for (hen all the couraes at* 
tended, being ailobUgedby the law to appear before UieLord; 
Exod- xxiii. 17. If so, the double circulation of the twenty* 
four coursea would very near complete the Jewish year. 

Each c<Mir»e had ita respective head, or chief. The>ie are 
called, " chief men of the houses of their fathers ;" of wham 
there were sixteen, and couaequently sixteen courses, of tha 
poalerity of Eleaiar, and eight of the posterity of Itbamai; 
I Chnm. xxiv. 4. Theae chiefs of llirir respective diviaion*. 

• VM. Jamfk. SeaUfv. di Enwadaapoo Tcbi|iot. Itb. i. f. it, tni 
67. «3. 

Cto«rc-V;i THE COURSM «P TMV ritlESTS. 


fren c«U«d CMTOn ^"tK* jirre hactohanim. princes, or chieft 
of the pri««s: Ewa viii. 24; chap. k. 5. These were pro- 
babJy the apx*'P*<<'< *^ chief priwts, bo often mentioDed in the 
New Testanirat : Matt. xvi. 21 ; xxvJi. 12.41 ; John vii.32; 
Xfm. 3 ; Acts ix. U» &c. Theee chief priest* are, id eeveral 
plx^es, mentioned together witli the elders, scribes, and pha- 
risMs of chief note, as being fvUow-uembera of the Sanhe- 
drini, the aupreoie court of judicature. 

The order in which Uie several coursen were to serve was 
determined by lot, 1 Chron. txiv. 6; nnd €«ch course was, 
in ftll sneoeedinft Bg^' called by the oume of its chief at the 
time of itA first division. Thus Zacharias ie said to be of the 
coune of Abia, the eighth course; of which Abijab, or Abia. 
wa* the cbief in David's time ; ver. 10. And Joaephas says.* 
be himwlf na^ of the flmt counw, or the course of Jehoiarib, 
upon whom tbe lirst lot felt ; ver. 7. 

' Aa the ^reat number of the KacerdotuI order occasioned 
their being first divided into twenty-four oomp&nies, so in after 
titoes ihL' number of nich company grew too large for them 
all lo minitter together ; for there were tio less, according to 
JoBCphns, than 6ve thousand prieats in one course, in hts 
time-t The Jewiftb writers, therefore, tell us, that the rat- 
niitry of enefa course was dirided according to tbe number of 
dw homee of their fathers that were contained in it.]: For 
iMrtanee, if a course consisted of five such houses, three ser\-ed 
three days, aikd tbe other two, two dnyit a-piece. If it con- 
tained MX, ftve served five day», and the other, two days. If 
it eeataiiUKl aevea, the prietta of each house served a day.^ 
And they farther nf«*m ai, that the particalar branchct of 
the aervice were nssigned l>y tm to each pricht, whose turn it 
was to attend on the minietry ; us who Hhould kill the aaori- 
ficBK, who Hftrinkli- xhv blood, who bum Itic inoeufte, VU:.|| 
Tho^ St. Luke tells u», that " according lo the cortom of the 
prtmt's olBce, it waa tiia lot of Zacharias to bum irtcenne, 

* iowph Vits, ab iBitfo. 

f Jwiph. Motn Appion. cap. ii. vol. M. p. 477, cdo. iUvensiap. 

I Maiwaa- it Appuani Toapli, cap. i*. aeei. u. p- 1 li> C'tvoii ywcKiO, 

i T.i' '0. nTaanitli, cap. iv, ciTbovapb- ttd lor. S^e ibe pa»> 

«gf qi'i' j'nlbottTtepte Sem'cc, chap. vf. &ub Ane. 

II Muhn. Taimdh. cap. tit «ct. i wn. v. p. 491, tritt Sattahu. 



[book 1* 

when he went into the temple of the Lord ;" Lnkc i. 9. Tba I 
rabbles aay, but lour of the courHcn relumetl from the cap- 
tivity. Uiose aientjonefl in Ezra, namely, " the children of | 
Jedaiah of the hou»e of Joehuu, the chiltlrett of Immcr. tfaa 
children of Pashur, and ihe children of Harim ;" Eira ii. 3(> — 
39. And they tell ub id what manner tlie pnc«t« were di- 1 
vidcd by lot into iwimly-fuur courses, which were still caUe<ij 
by the ancient names.* But it may be objected to thib ac- 
count, that Pashur wan not the ancient head or name of any 
of tl)u twenty-fuur coiirbcb : and that ni the catalogue of the 
priests who returned from the captivity, which we have lu tli«j 
twelfth chapter of Xeheiuiuh, there are the names of sereial' 
otlient yf the chief* or head* of the cour»e8, besides the lhre« | 
mentioned by Ezra ; (ui Shechaniah, who wan the head of th« ' 
tenth course; Abijali, the head of the eighth ; Uilgah, thaj 
head of the fiflcrnlh ; uud Jojarib, who was the head of Uie ^ 
first course. It n, probuble. Chut the chief of each course was 
always called by the name of him who was itA chief at iu Unt ' 
division ill the days of David. 

Not only were the pncKlH divided into twentv-four course 
but the Levitvs, and indeed the whole people of lurael. 
will be seen when we come to speak of the n'rr Mtttiionariiji 
whom our aiiUtor luentions toward ihe close of this chapirr. 

The Iwevites being, m the larger sense of the word, tliwj 
posterity of the patriarch Levi, the third aon of Jacob 
Leah, were one of the twelve tribes of Uracl ; but in n more' 
reatrained and peculiar sense, they were a lower order of 
ccclesiasttcal penons, inferior to the pncBta, and their aasut- 
ants in the sacred semce. In this subordinate capacity wera 
nil the mules of the tribe of Levi, beside the family of Aaroua 
who were the pricstA; and it is very observable, that th^l 
posterity of Moses were no more than common Levites, whiloi] 
the descendautx of his brother Aaron were advanced, by tha 
appointment of his law, to the dignity of the pneathood{ 
1 Chron. xxiii. 13. 14. A plmii evidence that Moees waa in-^ 
fluenced hy no worldly or ambitious views ; or rather, that bej 
was not the coiilrivor and author of thr law which he gave to 
Isnul, but received it from Ciod : for Imd ho fruintyl il, it is 
nalural to suppose, he would have made some better provision 
* Talinud. Iliflios, si Tboaapli. kd Ttw>hli( uhi Hipra. 

CHAP, v.] 



than he did, for his Eonn. nnd for the f^ndeur of his home, 
add not have advanced his brother's above hiA own. 

indeed, the Levitcs vrae appointed to the service of Uie 
oancluory by God himself, for tlie following rcaeioii : — 

When he miraculotutly destroyed all the first-born of the 
Egyptianft, Exod. xii. !29, be spared the firnt-bom of the Is- 
reelitcR, and. in order to preserve the memory of the miracle, 
uid nf that grt-at deliverance from their hondiige in I^gypl 
which it oconHiotied, he waa pleased to appoint, that for the 
future alt the fir«t-bora males " ahould Imj set npnrt unto him- 
self :" Exod. xiii. 12 — 16; Numb. viii. 17. But ul'terward. 
Upon thewnsofLcvi discovering an extraordinary zeal against 
idolatry in the rase of the golden cfilf, Exod. xixii. 26— 2S. 
he was pleased to assign the honour of attending his imme- 
diate aerrice lo that whole trilie. indtead of the Arst-bom of 
laracl; Nnnih. iii. 12, \3; chap. viii. 18. And that it might 
appear there was a just subblitution of the Levites for the 
first-boni, number for number, he ordered an estimate to be 
nuuie of both ; and when, on coating up the poll, the first-bortt 
were found to exceed the Levitea by two hundred seventy- 
three, thr Kurfilua was redeemed at the price nf five ehekela 
n-head, which was paid to the prief^ts for the ut^e of the sonc- 
taary; Numb. iii. I' the end. 

The Levitea. originally, were distinguished intothr«oclft»M8, 
or families, from the three soniri of Levi, Knhatit, Oershoo, and 
Mcrari, called Kohathites.Gcrtihonites.and Merarites; though 
afterward by David, as we have utready obnerved, they, as 
well as the priesla, were divided into tweniy-four courses : 
1 Chran. xxiii. 6; chap, xxviii. II. 13. A great part of the 
ttervice assigned Utem, ou their first institution in the wil- 
demese. was peculiar to the state of the Uraelitea at that 
time, namely, taking down the tab^^mEicle, setting it up, and 
carrying it about, aa they removed from place to place.* To 
the Kohathitea was conimittetl the charge of the most sacred 
tfaioga, the ark of the testimony, and all the mstruments of 
the sanctnary. The Ocrshonites were to take down, carry. 
and put up, the curtains of the tabernacle, and its covering 
of badger flkina, and the veil, or curtains, which acrvctl for n 

* See the Tv«peciiTc cnvicr of the clas><e« in ibr founb cbapief of 



[boor r; 

dnor; as hIho the rurtain which formed the court round it. 
The Menixitc« had the can of the boonlB of tJie tal>eraiicle, 
with tiie burs, piUara, and Kockets, both of ths tabeniacle and 

"Whea the Uraeliteji were wtiled in the land of Canaan, 
and tlic tabernacle was no longer carried about a« before, tb« 
sririce of the l,«tnie« was of c<mrs« changed, and became 
mttch eaiier. On which account, in DnTJd'ii time.thev wrr« 
thought fit tocntar on their offlreattvrentyyeani old, 1 Chron. 
xxiii.24. 27,28; whereas they wm not admitted, l>y tlie ori- 
ginal apjwintment of Mokcs, till they were tnenty-tipe or 
thirty, and were discharged at 6nv. Numb. iv. 3. 23. 43, and 
chap, viii, 24, '25; probubty becauite thoir »ervicc was thon 
very laborious, and required gr«ttt bodily strength. I aay. 
they wore not to enter on their office til) they were twenty-fiTe 
or thirty years old; — the account in the fourth chiipter of 
Numbers saitb, they are to " do the work of the tabernacle 
of the congregation frum thirty yean old and upward;" and 
in the eighth chapter it m said, that " from twenty-five year* 
old and upward they should go in to wait on the service of 
the tabernacle of the congrepUioD." In order to reconcile 
these two accounts, aotne Kup|>oee. that from twenty-five to 
thirty veara of a^ thoy attended only to tearu the duties of 
their office, but did not actually perform any part of the «er- 
rice till they were fully thirty. This ts the opinion (^ Mai- 
■UWides,* But other rabluect tell us, they entered on the 
Hwer and lighter parla of the service, such b« keeping watch 
at the sanctuary, and bearing a part in tbcchoir, at twenty- 
five; but did not meddle uith the more laborioos till thirty. 
The Jews indeed inform u«, that the Levitea paseed through 
Ibvr different degree*. Prom one month «li1 to their twentieth 
jaar they were instructed in tlie law at God ; from twenty to 
twenty-Are, in the funrtiona of their ministry ; front thence to 
thirty they served a sort of apprenticoahip, beipniiiog to exar~ 
cue tlicnwelveR in some ol' the lower bnuicbea of the tiacred 
svnricc; and laatly, when they altained their thirtieth year^ 
they were fully instituted in their office. Some have observed 

* Dc Appantu Tcmpli, cap. lu- HCt vii.; mmI kUo ttw Babylofinh Gc- 
mu%, ClM>tm, cap. 1. 
-f Abea-Kcni on Kumb. viu. 

CHAP, v.] 

or TH« LBVITK*. 


ntudb the Mn>e degrees among the vesud virgins, which [jer- 
haps were borrowed from the Jcwitth Lerite^. Thirty years 
Utey were bound to the strictest chastity ; the first i«a of which 
were tipent in learning the mysteries of their profession; the 
second ten they ministered in holy thiugfi ; mid the last t«n 
wore employed in bringing up young novices.* Some have 
thought, aud in ptuttcutar our author, that the apowtle alludes 
to Uieae degrees of the Lcvitcs when he tells Timothy, that 
they who perform the ofhce of a deacon well, purchase to 
thniselves a good degree, koXqv fiiJifinv; I Tim. iiU 13. 

Jttous ordered, that at the age of Hfty the Invites should 
" MUM waiiitig upon the wrvice uf the tabernacle, and should 
serve DO more ;" ^umb.nii.'i^. Yet be immediately adds, 
" They shall miniiiier with their brethren in the cahomacle of 
the congregation, to keep the charge, and shall do no service." 
It seems, therelbre, they were not distnissed ; but, while they 
were exempted from oil laborious empJoyment, cimtinued to 
cxecoLe the etuier part of their nunistry: and, probably, la^ 
■tnicted the younger Levites in the duties of their oifice. 

We have se^n before, that the I^rites were originaJly 
dirided into three families. In Jlavid'a time they were distin- 
guished into three claeBCB,tooach of which a ditirrt-nt H«rvice 
wwassigned; and probably each was divided into tweuty-four 
cDorses. The hrst class were " to wait upon Llie sons ol' 
AaroQ, for the service of the house of the Lord/' tiiat is, to 
assist the privsts lu lh« exercise of their ministry, " to purify 
the holy things, to prepare the shew-bread, and flour, and 
wine, and oil for the sacriAcc : and sometimes to kill the sacri- 
fice," when there was more work of the sort than the priest 
could conveniently perform: 1 Chron. xxiii.28, '29; 2Chron. 
axis. 34 ; and chap, xiezv. 10 — 14. So that it was not neces- 
sary that iJie sacrifice should be slain by the prieiit. as some 
erroneously suppom:. alleging ftguinst the con»id«ratioii of 
Christ's death sa a proper sacrifice, that he must, in that cu*. 
m the character of a priest, have shiin bimMlf. 

The Mcorkd class of Lcv>tc» Curme<l the temple choir: the 
dmiioti uf this claas into twenty-four oporses is espressly le- 
corded in the twenty-fifth chapter of the First Book of Chro- 
nicles. Some imuLgine there were wunicn singers, as well ui 
' Dwny*. Uslmtn. lih. u. 



[book I,- 

men, in the temple choir ; b^cnuite in the book of Kzra, ai 
those who returned from the Babylonish captivity, there «» 
ssiH to have been two hnndrcd, Kzn ii. fi5, and elsewhere we 
read oftwo hundred forty -Hve, Neheni. vii.67, sinp'iii^ men and 
women. The Jewitth due-tor^ will, indeed, by no meuiix Hdmti 
there were any female voices in the temple choir ; and an lor 
tho«e rmrwn mfxhoreroth, as thev ore called in the Hebrew, 
they Auppofie them to bi^ tbp wiren of those wliu tiun^.* ^t 
vcrtbelrsa the followinf; passafi^e inake«( ii e%'ident, th^it womenj 
likewise, were thiiH employtfl : " (iod gave to Heinan lour- 
t«en sons and three daughters; and all theM were under ibe 
hands of their father for tong in the bouse of ttic l^rd, with 
cymbaU. psalteries, and harps, for the service of tlie house of 
Ood ;" 1 Chron. xxv. 6. 6. 

InstnimentAl music was first introduced into the Jemsh 
serrice by Mosca, and afterward, by the express command of 
Ood, was very much improved witli the addition of several 
instruments in the rojgn of David. When lletekiah restored 
the ti^niple itervice. which hud been negtectr<l in his prede- 
cesHor's reign, it is said, that " he set tlie l^evites in the bouse 
of the liOrd, with cyrabaU. with psalteries, and with harps, 
according to the commuDdiucnt of David, and of (iad the 
king's seer, and Nathan the prophet ; for so was the com- 
mandment of the Lord by bis prophets;" 2 Chron. xxix. 26. 
Tlie instruments origmaily appointed in the law of Mosei 
were only two; namely, the mviim ehatintsfrnih, or silver 
trumpets, Nnmb. x. '1. which they " were to blow in their 
solemn days, and over ihoir bnmt-offerings. and over the sacri- 
fices of their peace- offerings," ver. 10; and the nDC sfii^pknr, 
or cornet, as the word Im Tendered in the fulluwinj^ pussHgc of 
the Psalmist: " With trumpets and sound nf comet make a 
joyful noise before the Lord, the King;" Hore 
it is expressly distingnieheil from the trum|H't, though in many 
other places, in our version, tt is confounded with tt. As we 
are informed, that the /n*^Enaf ihopheroth, used atthe siege of 
Jericho, were of " rams' horns." Josh. vi. 4. it Is probable Ihia 
instrument was madeof bom , and is therefore properly rendered 
a comet. It was appointed by the law to be blown thrmi|;houl 

* noloit-l. Aniii] pui II. np. vk ssct. tI, p. m, ibud rdil. 1717. 



tlie land, when ihey procUimeU the year ot jubilee, on thuday 
ol' utuuement ; Lev. xxv. 9. It inuy b« ubnervvd, that as no 
other iiiatrumenta arc prescribed by tbe ritual, besides the 
trumpet and the comet, it is likely they were the only ones at 
that time in uxe among the ^ews, and which th«y h&d skill to 
play on, except we reckon the ^^ntoph, or timbrel, which was 
Qsed by the women : K%Qd.xv.'20. But as that waa properly 
a Bort of tabor, wiUiout any variuty of notes, used only to 
accompauy tlie voice, it hardly duttcrvos to bo ranked among 
the musical instruments. It is not indeed likely the Israel- 
ites, who were a poor Uliouring people, but lately come from 
working at the brick-kilns, should have much skill in music at 
the time of their receiving the law ; only some could make 
shift to sound the horu, or tbe trumpet, which therefore was 
ail the music that could then be prescribed to attend tlie sacri- 
fices, but when they were grown more polite and ukillul. in 
tbe reign of David, several other instruments were added by 
divine direction. When icomc, therefore, plead for instru- 
mental music in Christian worship, as pleasing to God, though 
not commanded, from the notion of its having been Itrst intro- 
dur<'d inlo llie JcwiKti worship by David, withfiut iinv divine 
im«titiition, notwithstanding which God approved of it, they 
cotnunt two mistakes. For Duvid did not introduce any part 
of tlie temple muuic without an exprei^s divine injunction: "So 
was the commandment of the I»rd by biti pruphel«." And it 
was not HrHt brought in by biro, but by Moses, who prescribed 
it to attend the Mcrtficea, so far as it could be practised in 
thoae times. And when, in after-ages, they were more skil- 
ful in music, and capable of performing the service in a better 
manner, they were required 1*0 to do ; iievertlielesH, not one 
new instniment was then added without divine direction and 
appointment. But to retnm to the temple choir. 

The muBic there used was both vocal and instrumental : " As 
well lingers ax players on instruments shall be there;" Fsalm 
Ixxxvii. 7. In David's time there were appointed three mas- 
ters of the b»nd of music, Heman, Asaph, and Kthan, 
1 Chron. xw. 17; whose names are preAxod to some of the 
psalms, pertiaps because they set them to music. Amph's 
name is inscribed to the filUeth, seventy-thinl, and ten follow- 
ing pnlms ,' Heman 's to the eighty-eighth : and Ethan's to the 



ei^t]»-ninLh. There was also, over oil the rest, ooe chief 
nuciciui, or head master of the rhnir, U) whom ncveral of the 
psaims art iuwrilKd, or to wboHO core it was entJU8i«cl to have 
them get to mu^ic, and performed in the t&hemade or leniple. 
At ike time of wntui)^ Uie thirty-ninth, HuLy-Becond, uod 
Kreniy-Mveoth p»aJm», this master's name wa» Jedulhan. 

The vocal music was perfonned by the L«Tites. The H^ 
brew doctors say, the number of roiccii must not be less than 
twelve, but might be more without limitation.* They add, 
that the youth, the sons of the Lentes, bore a port with their 
fathers in the choir; wtiich they grouud on Ihct pussaee in 
the book of £inu,i- " Then stood Joshua with hia sonit. Kad- 
miel and his sons, and etung together by coune, in praising 
and giving thanks uutothe Lord;" chap, iii.d — 11. 

As for iDxtrumeotal music, though it was perfunned chiuHy 
by the Levites, yet, the robbies say, other Isiaeliti-s nho Mvra 
skitfuU if they were men of worth and piety, might bear k 
part.J This thoy ground on tlie nccount wo have, ihul on 
occasion of David's t'etcliing Ltie ark from " Kirjath-jeanm, he 
and all the house of Israel played before the Lord on all 
manner of instruments ;" 2 Sam. vi. ,'i. 

In the temple choir there were both wind and stringed m- 
stntmcota; the chief of the former was the mncn ekattoturah^ 
which we have spoken of before. The name uf it m suppoKed 
to have had an afiinity wiUi, and to be formed from its sound. 
We find thai this music attended at the scrrice of the altar. 
Thun when ^^olumon and all the people ofiered Kacrifices at 
the dedicattuQ of the temple, " the Levites played od instni<- 
monta of music, and tJie i>riests saauded trumpets bcforv 
them;" '2Chron. ni. 6. And when Unekiah punned the 
house of the Lord, and restored the< templa serrioe, and oa 
that occastnu ofiered sacrifices, "the LevitH stood with the 
instruments of David, anii the priests with the trompet«," 
3Gbii6n.aui. 211; and so likewise in many other plaoM. In 
both theae panagqa the pritnts are said to mnnd the tnunpett, 
and not tha Lerilea. who pluyt-d aa other iustmnients. And 
thus, when David brought up the ark out of the house of 

* Otit^rachiii ia BSnlm. eip. ii. Mct. vi. : AUimon. M Butesor. in loc. M i 
Oensn, M. 11.6: Msinoo- d« Appsr. Templi. cap. Ui. wm. Ui. 

t OloMB, ibid. 1 Mumoa. de Appantu Tmpli, ubi lupn. 

!H4P. v.] 



Obed-edam, the Levites were appointed to he dingers with 
instruments of muHic. pftalterics, harps, nnd cirmbals. and thft 
priwlftdid blow with the tiumpets. 1 Chran. xv. 16—24, ait 
it was prescribed in the law of Mo»cSl" The son of Aanut 
(lie priest sUdll bluw with tbe Irumpeta ;" Numb. x. 8. 

According to the Hebrew doctors, then miMt be two truin- 
pets at \oastt. Numb. x. 2, and not more than a hundred and 
twenty.* because that was the number used when the ark waa 
brought into Solomon's temple ; 2 Cbron. v. 1*^. They say* 
that in singing the psalms, the voices and instruments nindtf' 
three iuLeriuisKions or pnubeti. which they call D^no peraldm, 
from p*>0 pnrak, rupit : aud that then tbe priests soundMl tlie 
trumpets, 8o that Dr. Lightibot »ay:«. the tnmipeta were 
nerer joined with the cbotr in concert, but sounded only whea 
the choir was ititent.f However, in this be is undoubtodly 
mistttken ; for on the occasion above referrud iu, of bringing 
tbe luk into the temple, we find the trumpets, and voicen, ami 
qrmbals, and othtr instrozoeuts of music, united in one grajid 
choraa: " The trumpeters and singers were a» one, to make 
one sound in praising the Lord ; and they lift up cheii: voices 
with the trumpets and cymbaJs. and instrumeots of music, and 
praised the iMfd ;" 2 Cbron. t. 13. 

Another wind inatrument ia use among the Jews, was the 
ht'm chalil, tJie pipe, Hute, or huuUioy. The rabbiea aay, it 
wai nsed uuly on twoire days in the year ;| but tt doea not 
appear in Sciiptun), that it was ever used in tbe t«mplB m»« 
vice. It i» vaiA, bodeed, in Isaiah, " Ye shall have gladnea* 
of heart, as when one goeth with a pipe to come into th« 
mount of the Lord, to the Mighty One of Israel ;" Isa. sux, 
29. But that may probably allude to the people's having 
music playing before tliem, when they came in companiea 
from all parid of the country, to pay their worship at tbe na- 
tional altar on the threw grand festivals. The ^"hn chaitl, 

* HauDon. de Appantu Trmpli, cap. oi. net. iv. Craoii Fudc- Scirti, 
p. 103; Mbbn. in Oncraduo, cap. ii. mcl v.; el dc Butesor. in loc; el 
Mwiaoa. in Met. vi. p. 197, 19B, umi. t. ediL Sattahm. 

t TMBplc Service, dup. rii. mcL it 

] Msimoo. nbt wpn. lect. ri ; Uuhn. in Gneiadua, cap. ii. JMt iii. 
p. 196^ lorn. r. 




might )>e a coinmun inntrumcnt, uiveti on that occasion, thoa^ 
not in the tentpie choir. 

The otber musical inntnimentA. chiefly uHcd in ihe sacred' 
fteirice, were the O^Vsj nebboHm, nn]3 kimwroth, atid the 
O^rtVxO meiitUmm, which in tlitf lifUt-ntli chapter of the l''iret 
Book of Chronicles we render p«aUerie«, harps, aod cymbals; 
I Chron. XV. 16. The ^31 tifbhel, and the 133 kinnor. the 
paaltery and hnrp, are buth said to be stringed instruiuentfl, 
Josephus describes the kittnor as hat-ing ten yap&at, or ttring* 
(vrKlcfa, 08 the word BignifieB, were all open notes, in the 
nmnDer of our harpH, or harpsichords); and Uie nelthei as 
having twelve ^^trfytA, notes or sounds ; produced by Hloppin^ 
with frets in the manner of our violii; for so Or. Lightfoct 
iiDftginea those two words should be expluined. Josephus 
further nailh, that the kinnor wa» struck irXntcrpQ. with u qaill, 
OS we play on the dulcimer; uid the nebhel twanged with th* 
fingers, as we play on the lute.* Rut if they bad got into tlie 
way, by stopping, of playini^ several notes on one string, in 
Jusephus'ii time, [ much suHpect they hud not lliat coutnvance 
in David's ; b«cauM he seems to speak, of uu titHtruinent of ten 
Btlings as the grandeiit and most excellent of all, on account 
of the number of itii strings: Pitalm xxxiii. 2; xcii.3; cxliv.9. 
Whereas if they had had the way of stopping thc-m, as wc do 
the violin, I can see no sufficient reason, why such a number 
of strings should be reckoned a murk of excellence, when fewer 
would have reached as lar^ a compass as they bad ever occa>' 
sion for. It seems, therefore. as if tcnopeDstrings.orten notes, 
was the whole comp&ss of their music in those days. And to 
this time the eaittem music bath but a small compass of noie*; 

The W)H ttfltsel, which both the Septuogini, in 1 Chron. 
XT. 16, and Josephusf translate ku/i/^Aow, the cymbol, seema 
to have been neither a wind nor stringed instrument, but 
aooKtlui^ made of metal, which gure a aound with strikmg 
upon it, without any variety of Dotea, tike a bell. Josepbus 
gives tko olfaer description of cymbals, but that they were great 
and broad, and made of brass. Mr. Lampe has written a 

* JoMph. Antk). lib. vii. «ap. iij.Mct.nii. «dk.Hs«sf&; tad Lighifuoi's 
Temple Scrvics, uta npn 
t I'bi M[m. 

lAP. ».] 



treattte dt Cymbaln Vrlfrum. And Sir Richart) Eltis. who 
haUt one on the Rame subject in his Fortmla Sacra, shuws 
the ancient cymbals were generally two brau hemispheres, or 
buons, which the musicians stniclc against one another with 
great address, in lime to the song or otJier music which they 
accompanied. This is Ihc instrument lo which the apoatlc 
alludes, when he compareth a professor of relitdon without 
cJiarity or lore, io " thti soundiug brds& or tinkling cymbal ;" 
I Cor. aiii. 1. The Hebrew name ^iri tselttel, iH probably 
taken frooi its repeated, uuiforDi sound ; and &o may the 
Qre«k word aXoXu2^o»', which wo traiiHlate by a like, namely, 
tinkling. Perhap« oor kettle-drums may be supposed to suc- 
ceed the c>'mbal« of the ancients, though, if th6 rnbbiea say 
rifrht, there wad but one cymbal iii the temple concert,* and 
it coukl not, therefore, answer the same end our kettle-Hlrums 
do; which arc always placed in pairs, and being tuned at a 
fourth to each other, make an agreeable baas to the trumpet. 
There are some other iustrumentB, of which we have no re- 
maiunig devcription, mentioned in the hundred and fifiivth 
Paalm, as used in pmising God, hut whether in tlie teruple- 
serviee docs not appear. The use of instnimental music iu 
pubhc worship was one of the typical ceremonies of th« Jew- 
ish peligion, which is abrogated, therefore, with the rest, by the 
goftpt-l diitpensation, and there is no revival of this institution 
in the New Testament. The ancient futhers wwo so far 
fmcn practising or approving instruraental music in Christian 
worship, that »ome of them would hardly allow it was used in 
till! Jewish, but put allegorical interpretations on the texts 
that mention it. The unknown autlior of the Commentary on 
the Pnalms. in St. Jerome's works, makes the iostrmnent often 
strings, to signify the ten conimandmc-nta, in Psalm xxxiii.'2, 
and xliii. 4, &c. And he hath this notable obeerration on 
the following passage, " Praise him with stringed iostnimenLs 
and organs," Psalm cl. 4 : that the guta being twisted by rea> 
son of abstinence from food, and so all carnal desires subdued, 
men are found fit for the kingdom of God, to sing his praiso. 
St. Basil calls musical instruroenta the inventioa of Jubal, of 
the race of Cain.t And Clement of Alexandria says, they 

* Mnhn. nbi iu|>fA, MCl. v. ; Miunwn. ubt supra, sect. n. 

t Cvcnnwnl m I«aiab,Gap. «. upud Opart, lorn. i. p. 56, edit. Psrb, tOlfl- 


jBvisH AXTH^nrriEt. 

fnottK I. 

■re better Tar bffisU tbau men.* That maaical inBlrunwDti 
were not used even in the Popish cliurch in Thcnnas Aquinu'a 
time, about the year 1250, appear* from thts jtassacre iu hid 
qnaiboiis :-f " In the old Uw, God vras praiuKl botli wil 
muMat idHtniinentA aiid human roiceK ; but the Chrii 
charoh does not use iiutnimcntJi to praiM him, le*t the aliould I 
seem to Judaize." So thnt it seems, instrumental music hnth 
been introduced into Christian worship within iibout the la«tJ 
five hundred yeuri, in the darkest und most cormpt times of J 
Popery> It is retained in tite Lutheran church, contrary 
the opinion of Luther, who. as Eckard confesae*, reckoi 
or^ns anioni; the ensi^s of Baal. Ort^mis ore Ktill used id. 
Bome of the Dutch church«;». but ag-ainat the mind» of theif 
pMtors; for in llie national synod at Mtddleburgfa, anno \5ii\t\ 
and in that uf Holtand and Zraland, uiino lo94, it was re«.| 
fiolred that they would endeavour to obtain of the niagistratMK i 
the bying aside of oi^i^ans. and the singiiif; with them in 
churches-t The Church of Englnnd alio, in her bomitieft, 
strongly remonstmteji «(rain>it the uw of organs, aiul otb(« 
instnimontaof music in churches. In the homily on the place 
and time of prayer, after mention of piping, siugtng, chant- 
ing, and playing on organs, which was in use befine the Re^ 
fonnatioii, we are exhorted " greatly to rejoice, and give 
titanks to God tliat our churches are delivered out of tbete- 
things, that displeased God so sore, and so fttthily defiled til* 
holy house and place of prayer." I only adtl, that tbe vote* 
of harpers and musicians, and of pipers and trumpeters, b 
mentioned among the glories of the mystical Babylon, " that 
mother of harlots and abominations of the earth, wliom God 
wilt destroy with the bword of bis mouth, and with the bright* 
ness of hia coming;" Rev- xviii. 22- But to return to tbe 

The third class were tbe porters, to whose charge tlie se- 
rtnl gates of the courts of the sanctuary were appointed by 
lot; 1 Cliron. xxvi. 1. 13. 1^. " They waited at every gate; 
and were not permitted todejMirt from their senrioe;" SChron* 

* Pvdag. lib. d. cap. iv. (nil. 

■f Secunda mvuikIk Qucwo ici. art. iv. COliclus- tr. 

1 VmI. Afuluij. (llKnanni) pro MiaiMni to As^ NeeowJbmuMM. p. 

ciTAr. I.I 



XXXV. \h: and they ntU;nJe<l iiy turns m tbeir coursefi, tts the 
other Levites did; s«e 2 Chron. vin. 14, 

Their proper buHmess was to open and shut the gates, and 
to attend at them by day, u a sort of peace •ofliccre, in order 
to pruvcnl any tumult amoag the people; to keep utraiigers; 
and Uie excommunicated and unclean persons, from entering 
into the holy coiirt; and. in bhort, to prevent whatever might 
be prejudicial to the safety, peace, and purity of the holy 
pluce and service. 

The tabbies oa&ign aevcral particiilflr works to these porters. 
aa bmshtng the gate, clcnnin;^ the gilding, &c.. which pro- 
bably belonged to their oflfice, as they had the charge of the 
sacred buildings, bat of which there is no occasion to speak 

They also kept guard by night about the temple and it« 
courts; and they are- mtd to have been twenty- four,* including 
three prteiits, who stood sentry at no many different places, 
'lliere vras a nuperiur otfioer over the whole guard, called by 
Maimonidesf " the man of the mountain of the bouse ;" he 
n'alked the round as oft^i as be pleased ; when he passed a 
Bflntitirl ihai whh standing, he said, " F'eace be unto you;" 
bat if he found one atUcvp, ho struck him, and he bad liberty 
to set fire to bis garment. This custom may. perhaps, be al- 
luded to mthefollomng passage ; " Behold, t come as a thief," 
that iff, nnawares ; " blessed is he that u-atchcth and keepeth 
his gnrmonis ;" Rev. xvi. 15. The hundred and thirty-fourth 
Psalm seems to be addresBcd to these watchmen of the tem- 
ple, "wbn hy night stand in the houB« of the l.ord;" in 
which Ihcy are exhorted to employ their waking hours in acts 
of praiai! and devotion. Thus the Levites, as it is said in 
the First Book of Chroniclos, were employed in the workday 
and night; 1 Cbron. ix. 33. Godwin observes, " that acme 
of the Levites had the charge of the treasures of the temple." 
It it said, that "of the Leviles, Ahijah was over the trea- 
sores of the house of God, and over the treasures of the 
dedicated things;" I Chron. xxvi. 20. But I do not 
conceive it was a distinct class of Levites that was en- 

* MuiinOQ- dc iEdi6cK> Tsmpli. cap. viii. sect. ir. Crraii Fucicut. Scxti, 

p. to. 

t Ibid.Mct. I. p. fl.n. 

o 2 



[Bf>OK 1. 

lruftt«(J with the trea^iircM and tledic»l«il Uiings, bill mtlier Uiat 
licreii) they acted an ubtiUtaiits to the pricKts, or ha jiiferiur 
officers uod«r thoin, it appearing tliut tho liigb-privst, uid 
others of the chkrf of the pricKtH, had the char^ of thowe 
things an well as the porters, who might probably have liie 
immediate eare of them undur their superior direction. " The 
kingcoinmandcd Hilkiah,thc high-priest, and thi^ prii^st of th« 
second order, and the keepers of the doonn, to bring furtli out 
of the totnple nf the Lonl all the vessels that were luade forj 
BitaJ." &c.; 2 Kings xxiii. 4. Godwin add». that " othem] 
of the Levitcs were overseers and judges," D^'ttMr ahottrim,\ 
and 0H5DK' *fif>phefim, ok they are called in the Frsl Book of 
Chronicles, chap, xxiii. 4; where «ix thousand Lcvites are 
said to have been appointed to these offices in David's time. 
For though God had ordered, in the Uw of Mosos, that tht-y , 
should appoint DXSDC' ihophetim. and D^io;:* sfiotenm, in iiUl 
their gates. Dent. svi. IB; yet it should seem, that order and i 
appointment had lieen much ne|;lected ; the beads of the tribes, 
perhaps, having taken upon them to judgv and dettnmue 
controversies in tiieir respective tribes, only in causes of great 
moment allowing an appeal to the king ; for that David used, 
hinself, to act as judge, and determine controversies between 
his subjects, may be concloded from the following passage: 
" When any man t-hat had a controversy came to the king fof J 
judgment, then Absalom culh^ unto him. and said. Of what 
city art thou?" &c., 2Sam. xv. 2. But when David wasiinj 
troducing hift son Solomon to the throne, he was desirous of] 
settling the inferior courts, acoorduag to the original instilu- 
tion, well knowing that was the likeliest way of preserving the 
peace, amt cousulling the welfare of Uie nation. Accordingly. 
he restored tliese judicatories to their ancient order, and con- 
stituted Unritesto be officers and judges. 

We have had an occasion already tn speak of the distioc- 
tjon between the CTODV thttpheim and D^iew thoterim: audi 
we then observed, thai the dnsew ahophxtim were the supe- 
rior magistrates or judges, as may be concluded from that 
title's being applied to the chief magisirate uuder Ood. or th« 
temporary victstiy. for several age*. As few the 0*"OP *Ao- 
Uritn. they seem to have been the inferior officer* in the ju- 
dicatury courU. who attende<l the superior, and are therefore 

PHAP. Vrl 



continually mentioned along with them, who, by whatever title 
they are diatioguiahcd, whether judges, rulers, ciders, or cap- 
tains, still bad their D^1C3Ur jAofertm ; Oeut. i. 16; xvi. 18; 
Josh. viii. 33; 2 Chron. xix. U; Prov. vi. 7. But in thi« 
accouut of David's appointment of the Levites to tbeJr ollicra, 
1 Chron. xxiti. 4. quoted above, the D^'tOtP shotrrim are 
pttteed before the dmscu' ihitphfiim: so likeiA-)»e in Jixih. viii. 
33. From hence Dr. Paixick conjectures, we are not to take 
them for inferior perMms, but for men of great authority, whom 
the Targum caltit governors, who, like our jiisticcA of the peace, 
*aw good order kept and the laws obser%*ed, while the pronnce 
of the judges was the deciding causes in their several courti. 

Some think their judicial authority extended no farther than 
their own tribe, nnd the judging and determining coutroversies 
which arose among tlic inferior priests and Lcvites, especially 
about matten relating to the sacred ministry. But this 
opinion is hardly consistent with the account we have, that 
" Jehoaaphnt set of the Levites, and of the priests, along 
with the chief of the fathers of Israel, for the judgment of the 
Lord, and for controversies," 2 Chron. xix. 8; that is, all 
sorts of caiiMS, both eccIesiaBtical and civil. And the Levites 
were th« D^iDtC' shoterim. officers, " under Amaziah. who was 
chief in all matters of the I^rd;" and " under Zebadiab, the 
ruler of the house of Judah for all the king's matters," rer. 1 1 . 

Upon the whole, it should seem tlie miigiMtrucy belonged, 
not tu the Levites, or any class of them, merely as Levites. but 
only as they gctiemlly addicted themselves more to the study 
of the law, uud hud more leisure to attend on the duties of 
the magistracy, than other persons who were employed in 
secular busineu. 

The magistrates of different ranks, both the o^EKCr thophe- 
liia and O^iotL' shoterim* were very generally, though not al- 
ways, chosen out of Uml tribe. And thus the prophetic curse 
which Jacob pronounced upon l,evi,that his posterity should 
be scattered amongst the tribes of Israel, Oeu. xlix. 7, was 
remarkably accomplished (though in effect converted into a 
bleMing), not only in respect to the appointment of their h^bi- 
Intion (of which we shall take notice heroaftcr), but Ukewi^c 

* See ahoM, p. a&^24- 




uftheir offices aod employments; more of them, than [Krliapc 
of nil the other tnbett together, being ollicer» and judges 
throughout the whole country; and, probably, as the rabbtes 
toll us. acme of them were generally directors of their semi* 
naries of learning.* 

Godwin obserres, that the consecration of the Levites, in 
Mobcs'b time, began at the Iwcniy-firih vear nf their age; in 
Dand's, at the twentieth; -.uid " here," &ailU he, " we may 
note the hberty granted to the cbarch in changing ceremomes.*' 
liut he would undoubtedly have spared this note, if be had 
attended to what Oaiid declareH. namely, that he had ap- 
(loiiited the courses of the priest« and the Lcvites (wliich in- 
cludrd the time of their entering on their ministry), nnd all 
the service of the house of the Lord, by the exprcfut order of 
God himself. " All tliis," says David, " the lx)nl made me 
understand in a writing by his hand upon me;" I Chron. xxriii. 
13, 19. Tt does not. therefore, appear from bence, that there 
was any such liberty given to the church under the Old Tes- 
tament, ns our author mentions, but rather the coatiarv; find. 
I apprehend, it will be hard to find it any where, cither in 
the Old Testament or m the New. 

As for the coniwerutiun of the l^evites, when they wcrv 
oll'ered by the priest, it is said, " Aaron shall offer thom be- 
fore the Lord for an oflering of the children of IsraeU" Numb. 
viit. U. But the literal traoslation is. " Aaron shall wave 
them for a n-avcring, or wave-oAering. before Jeho^-ah." 
The Targum renders it, " Elirvabit Aaron I.evitas clevatiime 
coram Domino." This i^^ n manifest allusion to an ancient 
sacrificial nte, namely, waving the sacrificpH liefore tlie Lord. 
Thi» waving wns of two kinds; one colled nonn terumah, 
from on rum, elevatu* cat. which, they say. was pcrlormed 
Ity waving it perpendicularly upward and downward ; the 
other, nsmn Uttupluth, from DU nuph. agitart, movert, which 
rhe Jewish writers tell us w8s performed by waving it bori- 
xontally. toward the four cardinal points, lo denote ihc con- 
secration of what was thus waved to the Lord of the whole 

" Sm the outhotittn ta Vitrinita <)« S/nag. Vrt«i«, bb. i. part ii. cap. viii. 
p 36*, 345, <*ho, bow«T«r, looli* upao this uj br ■ rabbtntcal Iklfoii- 
Or LtKhtToM nt(>pQ«M the (bfly-^igbi citin of ibe Lntta lo hat* bM-n ■ 
kind of univcmbn. Se« hb lisraunqp 00 MaU. ii. 4. 




earth.* And this word is applied t4> (Jio consecration of the 
Leviies in the passage before (]uoted. The tSeptnajpni rcn- 
dera it by «^/m2^u ; and as this wonl is used, iii the hiHtory of 
the Aets» for Ihu sepanuion or consecration of Puut and 
Banmblut to the luuiiKtry uf the goepcL among Uie Uentiles, 
Acts xiij. 2. Godwin coDceiveii. it le in aliusiou to the coubo- 
cration and separatiou of the Jewish Levites to the ministi)' of 
tJie tabernacle. The »ame Greek word occurs conceniing 
Paul in the EpiaUe to the Romans, where he saith of himself, 
that he was afotpiofuvoc «r toayftXtov, Aet apart for the gos- 
pel; Rotn. I, 1. However, he may here oUnde, perhaps, to 
hift having been a Phiiritiee, or ainD pkanitJij which coming 
from ttno phurath, lepitravii, signifies a^ptofuvin: ; and as 
before his convertiiun be gloried in being a Pharisee, a^pta- 
favov uc i-ofiov, so he now docN in being a^tttpiafuvo^ hc 
nuyy tXiov. 

Another ccremcinv. at the consecration of the Lerites, was 
imposition ol' hands: "Thou t^htili bring the Lcvitctt before 
thi? Lord, and the children of iinrael shall put their hands 
upon them;" Numb. viii. 10. By the ^nn*^ «)3 bate isratl. 
children of laiael, aomi; Jewish docioni understand the firsts 
bora,+ in whose room the Levites vivtM subKtituted; ver. 17, 
i%. And their laying their hands, every one on the head of 
his substitute, had the same iMgnification as the I.evttc« laying 
their bands on the heads of the bullocks that were to be 
Mcrtfic«d for them, ver. 12, or to suHer and die in Llieir room 
and atead; that is, denoting, not only their consecration to 
God. bnt their substitution to attend the service of God at his 
tabemacie, instead of the lirst-bom. 

Ur. U' by the ^vrer* '^u frenc IsrmU, we luiderstaod, with 
Dr. Patnck. the elders, as rt^reseitalivea of the whole as- 
sembly mentioned in ihc wordn proccdiog, we may ^appose 
their laying their bands ou the Levites was a form of benedic- 
tion ; a» when Jacob laid his hand on Epbraim and Manasseh, 
and Aid, " God, before whom my fiLtlicni walked, ble«s the 
lads;" tlen. xlviii. 1.5, Iti: and as when Utile chikiren were 

* Abaibsnol. Bcclwi. lUiil L««i Den Gtnoa, qoolad bj UuIivd, (t« 
SMcrificia. p. i6s. 

t V'id. AJmwonh in loc. 



[■nOK 1. 

brou(i;1it to our Saviour, ihnt he mif^ht bloBs ihcm, he laid hiSi 
huntia upon tbeni ; Matt. xix. )i^. 

This ceremony, uud at the consecratioD of the Levites, 
came afterward into dho at tbe coDiiecration of other persona 
into either civil or ttacreU oIKcefi. Jo«hua was coiivKicrated 
captain-general of the tribe* of Urael by impoiution of th» 
hands of Moacs; Numb. %x\i\. 18. And the same rite conti-. 
nnecl in theChristianchurchattheonlinntion orothccTR.bottl 
ordinary and extraordinary ; parbcularly of the seven deacons^' 
Acts vi. 6; of Barnabas and Saul to a special itervirjc, 
ffliicb God called tliciu, Acta xiii. 2, 3; and of oidinary] 
pastore, 1 Tim. it. 14. especially chap. v. '22. 

There i« a difierence, which Godwin obMTvea, between \tf ' 
poQima and xupojwm. the former signifying the consf^cmtioa ' 
ofa pention to an officvby thciinpoHitiouof haml»; th^lntter^^ 
hia election or choice by holding up of hands. It is derived 
from an ancient custom of the Athenians in the choice of their 
magi8trat4», among whom the candidate Iwinv pmpuHpd lo 
the people, who niji^nilied ttieir choice by holding up their 
hands, he who bad most, was looked upon aa duly elected.* ' 

Thus there was a brolluT, -^ttpuroinfiti^ am* rwv tixXiiaiun'. >ip* 
[Kiintcd by the suffrage of the churches to travel along with 
Paul, to convey their alms to the poor saints in Judea; 
2Cor. viii. 19. And in the history of the Acta we are in- 
fonned, that Paul and Barnabas having travelled to Dcrbe, 
Lyatra, Iconium, and Antioch, had been there employed in 
np|>ointing, by sutliruge, elders in every city. \ttporoviiaavn^ 
airroic wp(a(i\mpQvc ntr' (KKAifOtav. Acts xiv. 23; a form of] 
cxprcsaion which intimates, that they referred it to the poopJe ' 
to choose their own presbyters or pastors, in whose ordioation 
they aBnated.t 

Before we dismiss the consideration of the l>evitrs, it wiU 
he proper to take notice of the place of their ordinary resi- 
dence, and of their subsistence. 

' Ansiophui. ia ImM*. p. 371 . Vid. Suiceri ThcMur. m (ofb. xf«f*> 
*•»«■• wbo quoin DcmoMhena snil JCadiinn, to nbow thai this AiUc 
riuumi wu exp*««M3 by ih* ymhi x<v>«twm. Vid. Mimi ConMiDUni Us-^ 
iCMI in tut). }(tifm* n mt ft jfttfanvrta, 

f Vh). Wittii MsJctem. dc \tii Vmuh, Md. tu. psrap. u. p. 53—65. 

CHAFi v.] 


As to their nrsidonre, they, as well as the priests, were pre- 
cluded by the law (mm sharing the promised inheritance of 
Canaan with their brethren of the other tribcx, Deut. xriii. 
1.2:** Th« priests, (he l^evitee, and all the tribe of Levi, 
shall have no part nor inheritance with Israel ; they ithall hare 
uo inheritance among their brethren." The meaning is. th«y 
were to have no tract of land separately allotted to them as a 
tribe, in the Banio manner as ihe oihcr tribea imil ; but in lieu 
of that, ihcy hod forty -eight cities with their subarba assigned 
them out of the otht'r tribes, thirteen of which belonged to the 
prieata, and thirty-ftw to the rest of the tribe of Levi ; N umb. 
Kxxv.l — 8; Josb.xxi. It maybe observed. that theciliesof the 
priests were, for the most the tribes of Judah and Ben- 
jamin, and con!W<|uontlv nearer to Jerusalem, which atood ill the 
confines of these two tribes ; whereas those of the Lcvites were 
divided to them by lot out of the other tribes on either side 
Jordan. And thus God converted Jacob's curse on Levi, 
which we spoke of before, into a national blessing, by dispers- 
ing tivs prieat« and Leviten. who^e olUce it was to preserve 
and teach knowledge, throughout the whole land. Ehr. Light- 
foot nakea these forty-eight cities to be so many univergities, 
where the ministerial tribe studied the law. and dttfused the 
knowledige of it throngh the nation.* Of theae, six were ap- 
pointed cities of refuge, for protecting of persons from the 
rigour of the law, in cose of involuntary houiicide, of which 
we sball discourse in its proper place. The Levitical cities 
had iniburba and &ekla surrounding them, to the extent of 
three thousand cubits on every side: " Tlii; suburbs of the 
cities, which ye shaQ give unto the Levites. shall reach from 
the wall of the city and outward a thousand cubits round 
about; and ye shall measure from without the city on the cast 
side two ehoosand cubits, on the south Ride two thousand 
cubits, on the west tnde two thousand cubits, on the north side 
two thousand cubita; and the city shall be in the midat. This 
shall be to them the suburbs of tlie cities ;" Numb. xx:xv. 4, 5. 
To reconcile the aeeming contradiction between the thousand 
and two thousand cubits, Juiiios supposes the latter number 
eiprcMtes the diameter of the suburba, tlic city being ab- 

* 8sc his cbofoifTaphlcal rvnluiy of ihi- ImmI of iMarl, chap, xcwil. 



{OOOK li 

stracted.rroni out to out. So llmt the whole territory belum;- 
iiig to thr city reached no farther than a ilioiisaiitl <;iibiljj.' 
But Dr. ijghtloot follows the more probnblo opinion 
MaimoiiiUes if namely, that the former lbou»aiicl cubita 
were for 8uburh«, more pro|ierly »o calleil; lor oiit-hou»e«, 
baniA,«B, &c.; and, it may be, for gardens of herb» aiul 
flowers : and the latter two thousand were for ficIdH and vine- 
yardftjj which are ctdlvd ihp " fields of the HiihurliH," l*v, 
XXV. 34. From the produce of these fiukU and vineyards 
arose some part of the subsistenoc of the prieata and Levitect, 
when they wem not in waiting at the eanctuary; for in Uib 
weeks of their atteudoocc they were maintained by the dues 
arifiit^ from the sacrifices: as the apostle ob«ervee, " Do 
y« not know, that Lhey who minister nbout holy thingH, live of 
the things of the temple; and ihuy who watt at the altar, are 
partakers of the altar?*' 1 Cor. ix. 13. Bettide the^e dues*. 
the 6rst-firuits, which were brongfat to the temple, and thtti 
money paid for the redemption of the tirst^hnni. contributed'] 
towani their subsixtpnce. But when tJn-y were out of wail 
ug, their maintenance partly, as we have said, arose from 
glebed btiluDi^^ing to their cities; but chJcHy from the tithe* 
of Lliu produce of Uie whole country, which thv l»iv allotted to 
the tribe of Levi : '■ Behold,'* saidi God, " I have gi««n the 
children of Levi all the tenth in Israel for an inheritance, for j 
Uieir service which tliey nerve;" Numb. xviii.2l. Tlus tithe' 
the people paid both frcm the aniaial and vegetable produce 
of tbflir eatatea; from the seed of ilie huulH, and the fruit of 
dwtTeea; from the Bhecp and black caltie; I.ov. xxrii. 30; 
2 CbroD. xxxi. 0. 6. It was paid nnmedialely to the Levitee. 

* Juahis ia loc. 

t Lij^tdbol, ubt Bupra^ Hb jiui.^ vid. eusm Muka. Sotah, c^. v. i 
iii.; AtKiman. «1 Bwtciion ia loc. lotn. iii. p. 34&> tdii. Surcohui. 

} Mr. Lonwau undmtsnds the thcnuimd rabiu ta be Uif measufemeni 
of Ihe fobortM 9vrry my from ihc wall* of ihe diy into tho <minlry; ml 
thtf fo ibeiuanil riil>iis, th« mvinuvneal from (he boKittninji of the nlv 
uflie on Uw cgantry »itl« into ibc c«a|i« of Oie Cttj. S«c bi> Civil Gvmmh 
invnt of the Uttbrcw*, p. 110. It b rtaiarkitbli: lliai tlw S«>iitua(int ivads 
iwo iluNu(uu3 in both placet. And buUi Jtxwphu* and Ptiito Ricntinn onlj 
l«o ihiigtsLiul. J«««p1i. Anli(|. Itb. iv. cap. tv. wci- III. torn I. p. ?0<, •dii 
lUrcrc, ti rhilv dc Soccrtktum Huovrifau*, nub Aurm, p 64\ edit Coloa. 
MMm. I«l«- 



who probably receivecl it. oither on the spot where H was pro- 
duced . or, nt least, in their sovcra) cities ; Nchcm. x. 37. Out 
oTthisttthf the Lerites paid a t«nLh part to the prients, Nuinb. 
niii. 26 — 28. which is culled their nonn teruutuh, or heave- 
odehng, as we reuder it, to the Lord ; in like manner as the 
genenl tithe, paid by the people, is called their noiin tent- 
mmA, ver. 24. Not tbut we are to suppose all their titlies 
were lit\ed up toward heaTcn, as were some of the obU- 
tioDs. in token of their desire that God might accept them ; 
but because they were ^o far of the same nature with the 
things offered to tiod by that rite, as to he separated and sot 
apart for hia nae and service, in which sense all tlie ufier- 
ings, or free donations to Ood, required for buildiiu; biu n 
sanctuary, are called nrann tenutuih, Exod- xxv. 2; which 
the Chaidee Paraphrase translates, " that which is sup- 

Besides this tithe, which the people were to pay to the 
Levitcft. thev wore also to tithe the remaininL; ninr parts, and 
of that tithe to make a feast, to be kept in the court of the 
canctuary, or in some apartment belongiug to it ; or in caae 
the>- lived so remote, that they could not with convenience 
carry this titlie thither in kind, they might sell it, and purchase 
provisions with the money when they came to the sanctuary; 
only adding a fifth part thereto: Deut.xit. 17, 18; chap.xtv. 
3'<t— 27 ; Lev. xxvii. 31. At this feast, which was kept in 
token of Ikcir thankfulness to God, for his providential boun- 
ties, they were to entertain, not only their own fantiiieB and 
friends, but also llic Levitcs. It is not expressly said how 
many of them were to b« invited ; that was l«fl to prudence, 
and to he determined by the quantity of promions ; only in 
genera] the law is, "Thou shalt cat there before the Lord 
thy Ood, and thou ahalt rejoice, thou and thy houtiehold. and 
the Levite that is within thy gale ; thou nhaJt not forsake 
him." Now that this ttthe was diflerent from that paid to 
the Invites is manifest, Br«t, in that the tithe paid to Lhem 
was for their own use ; whereas this was consumed by the 
owners and their friends; only they were to invite some 
LevitfR to the feast. Secondly, That tithe was [Wiid alt Ujc 
country over, this only at the sanctuary- Thirdly, The Lu- 
vitcs were to pay a tenth of their lit he (o the prieNta* which 




tliey conld notdoof thiH, hannt^ no property in it, except that i 
they wore Id partake of it as invited guests. 

B«side« these two tithc«, Josephns,* and th& apocryphal I 
hook, Tobit, chap. i. 8, speak of a third, paid once in thrcaj 
years; which wkh given away in charity. And itomc Jewisb 
writers, therefore, call it the pour man's tithe.f Thi» opinion 
may wem to receive some countenance from the exprei>s order 
io die book of Deuteronomy, thai at the end of ever^' ihrre 
years they should bring forth all the tithe of their iucrcase. and 
lay it up within their gates; that the stranger, the fatherlcM, 
and the widow, an well as the Lcviie, might conic, and mtt 
and be satisfied ; Dent. xiv. 28. 29. Nevertheless, scvejal 
learned Jews and ChnstiunB conceive this was not a distinct 
tithe, but the same with the second, with only this difference^ i 
that whereas, for two years together, the feast that was inadol 
by it, wan kept at the sanctuarj', the third year it was kept liy 
the oWDCTB at their own house, in order that such of their poor 
neighlMurti and friends, as were aged and infirm, and could not] 
travel to the place of the aanctuary, might not be wholly cx-J 
cinded from thin ifaankngiving-feast ; or, as Mr. Mede 
preiWS it, for two venrs together they paid the Levitcs'tithe^l 
and the fe8ti%'al tithe ; but, in tliu tliird year, Uiey paid tJie Le> 
vites' tithe, and the poor man's tithe ; that is, what was wont 
in other years to be spent in feasting, was every third year. 
spent uixm the poor.^ Dut 1 acknowledge, that ibis thii 
year's being called " the j'car of tithing," in the twenty-sixtll i 
chapter of Deuteronomy, ver. 12, seema to roe to iro[ 
that some additional titlic was paid that yeor. 

The reason of God's commanding this titlie to be paid to] 
the priests ami Lcvites was manifestly for their Kubsistence. , 
For us tliey had no estatea iit laud, bkc the other tribes, ex- 
cept only in their cities, and a fuw little fields nbuut theai;i 
they must have starved, without some such contribution froai^ 
the other tribes. But why Ood would have them supported 
in this way, rather than by aAKigning them on inheritunc«, ' 

* A»tk). lifa. it. cap. viii ned. kui p. 338, «tlU. lUvcrc 

t Bluinon. de Jim l*nu)M:ru, cap. ri. mkl i. |t. OO, tdu. E*rM«mux, Oimi. 


tSMMnleaWwki, tnotLtduc-iiiin [tin, ITl; >n<l hlewiir SeUrn 
•Q Iflhea, ebsp. II. (M. iii. 

t*r. V-l 



like the rest of the triI>CB ; and wliy ihis proportion of a tenth 
was lo be paid them, rather than any other, are ()ue«ttuns not 
M> easy to be revolved. 

As to the former <^uery, why God would have the jirieflts 
and Levttes snpported by tithes, rather than by alloting them 
an inkerilaiice in land, it was, no doubt, partly, that their time 
might not be taken up with secular buaioesa, and iheir uiinda 
burtheiied about worldly cares nud managing their estateti. uiid 
that they might employ themselves wholly in the dutiea of 
their office ; as Timothy \h exhorted by St. Paul, " to give 
himfwir wholly to lua tuini^tiy :" and, for that end, cautioned 
against " entangling himself witli the atTairs of thin life :" 
I Tim. iv. 16; 2 Tiro. ii. 4. 

A^n, God's commnndit^ the other Ismelites to pay titJie 
out of their estates to Iiis priests and Levites, might be de- 
signed as an acknowledgment, tlmt Uioy hud received their 
estalca from his free gift, and held them by no other tenure 
but his bounty. In which view the titiies may be considered 
UR a quit-rent, to be annually paid to tlie original proprietor uf 
the land, who had conquered it for them, and put them in poft- 
■eulon of it.* Paying it to the priests and Lcvites, hia tm- 
iBcdiate svrvantit aud ministers, for their maintenance and 
mpport, was paying it to him ; and as they het<) their estates 
by this tenure, a neglect or refusal was a forfeiture. To this 
cH'ect is the obaervatiun of Rabbi Uechaii on the following 
words: "And thuu afaait eat before the Lord the tithe of tliy 
from, of thy wine, and thy oil," 8tc.; Deul. xiv. 23. If, aaith 
be, tliou pay the tithe, tlten it is thy com, &c.; if not, it is 
mine; as it » said in the prophecy of Ho««a, "Therefore 
will t return and take away my com in the Lime thereof, and 
my wine in the season lliereof;" chap. ii. t». For they for- 

■ Whm WiUiMii iba Conqutror pircelled not the laod* of Engluul, he 
rtMrvcd I certain •null not to be uuiually pud oul of eveiy otatc to th« 
Crown, at an acknowWRWetii, iJai it »r» rewivtd from, uud held under 
him. Ttiii rtnt u jxud to itii* daj' frotn all ftrchoM ««tau>, omler the outt 
vr chier tuL Or if than b« an; cttsMs that pay it doi, it is becauM tlwy 
hare iMxn ptnciiaaed ooi of od»or», of which purchase tiwas mad* a coo* 
dttiaa Om ihuj ahoold be clear gf thia utcumlmnce, ihoM other eiuts 
fljiaf ilfor Ihera, 

t See Fkindi in loc. 



[book t. 

fetied the whole, who did ooL pay a tenth, the rent which God 
had i-eserred to hiDiM-U~. 

Ai for the secoud queslioii, why God appointed the pro- 
pUtion of a tenth rather than any other, the JewB gcceraily 
Ksy. it waA bccauae ten is a perfect number, almoit all na- 
tions ending their account of simple norobers with it, and Uien 
beginning again with compound nambent ; or, ah others pfaraae 
it, thib is the end of lesser numbers, and ihe beginning at} 
greater; on which accounl it was looked upon as the mfi«t^ 
perfect, and therefore bad in great regard. But this is too 
ftivolou&. Perhaps a more substantiiil reason may be drawn 
from the ancient laws and customfi of mo«t nations, of pnying^ 
a tenth to their kingv. Aristotle meulions it as un ancii 
law in Babylon;* and Dr. Spencerf- observes, from a 
in Aristophanes, that it wa* the custom lu Athens, though aJ 
commonwealth, for the people to pay a tenth to the utag'istntcy>j 
That this WHS reckoned a part of the jus regum, in the east-J 
ern couniries, appeara from hi-nce, that among tht* other op- 
preHHitins which Samuel tells the Israelites they might expect 
from a king, he mentiona his demanding their tithes : " H«< 
will take the tenth of your seed, uad of your vinnynrdB, and 
give to his ofliccnt, and to his servants;" 1 Sam. viii. 11k 
Now, aa we have shown before, the priesta and Levites were 
properly the officers and ministers of state, under God, asking; 
of Israel ; and the Itrkdite* paying through their hands one* ' 
tenth to him, was agreeable to the custom of almost all na- 
tions to pay one-tenth to their king. Tithes, then, are to b« 
considered as an appendage to the Theocracy ; and I appre- 
hend it niti he extremely difficult to prove, that Chrisiian 
ministerB have a dirine right lo demand tJiem, from this cir- 
cumstance of a constitution peculiar to the Jewiah nation. 
Thus much concemitfg the priests anti Levites. 

The rabbies speak of another sort of ecclesiastical persons, 

tenned iQpO ^CSK ans&e mangnamidh, viri Uationarii.X bI«- 

[tionaiy men; of whom we have no mention in Scripture. 

* AriMoi. (Eeoautuc. lib. ij- iufa fin. 

t Dt Lqibui llebnMf. lib. iti. cap. i. tact I. ion. IL p. Tit, TIS, tdk. 

I Vid. MaiauNi. dc Appaiara Ten|il^ cap. vi. per loium, p. ISO, m >«i. 
CMsti Fucic SniL 

'OUAF. v.] 



NevertliafaRa, tliere i« some probability hi tlie account of the 
Jewish doctors, that Ihcre were men chosen out of the several 
tribes, as representutivett tu attend at the sacriBcvs otiTered for 
all littuel : the luw ri'(|uiriug, tliut the persons A>t whom sacri- 
fices wore uHere*! should l>e present at the offering: Lev, i. 
3.4; chap- iii- '2 — 8. AnioDg the ftacriiicefi offered for ail 
Itmel, or for the whole oonj^egatior, were the continual 
daily sacrifices, provideit »t ttiu public charge; and extmor- 
dinary «acriflce«, when, on account of the sin of any pnrticulAr 
pcrfton or persons, any judgment of God lay upon the whole 
luiliuii; as in the case of the Israelites being worsted by the 
Cuuaanitea at At, on account of Achau's transgression; in 
such cases the law directed, that " the congregation &bould 
offer u young bullock for the sin, and bum him before the 
tabernaclu of the congregation ;" I.ev. i*. 13. 14. On the 
annual fast, or day of expiation, th(>re was likewiiic a solema 
sacrifice of atonement otfered for all Israel, " becanae of their 
transgressions, in all their sins:" I,ev. xri. 16. On such oc- 
caaiooB, it being impossible that all the people shouhl t>e pre- 
sent, there were representatives chosen, say the doctors, for 
the whole body ; who, being divided into twenty^four courses^ 
attended by rotation. a& the priests ami Levitcn did. 

The Ncthinim, who come next under consideration, were 
M> called from jru tiathaii, dedit, because Uiey were given to 
the Levitts for servants, or slaves, to do the drudgery Wlong- 
ing to the sacred serrice. Ewa says, they were ^ven w 
appointed by Darid and the princes for the service of the 
Invites ; chap. riii. 20. They were originally the Gibeonites, 
who obtaining a league of peace with the Israelites, soon after 
they came into Canaan, by artifice and fraud, were condemned 
by Jo&hua to the lowest and most laborious ofHcea belonging to 
theserviceofthetabernaclo; drawing water, fetcbingaudcleav- 
ing wood for the lire of the altar, tiM. ; Josh. ix. 3, to the end'. 

We never find them called Nethioim before David's time; 
but Hfterwsrds, when the Israelites had enlarged their con- 
quests, and probably added others of other nations to these 
▼aasals of the sanctuary, they were no longer called Gibeoi^ 
ilea, but Nethinim, a name tttat would suit (hose of one na- 
tion as well as anotlicr. From tltiK timu they du nut neem to 
have been considered and treated like alaTes, but rather as 



[book I. 

the low«a( ofder of the VTvtnu of the nuictoftry, hitviag. mj 
(luubt. «ij)breee<l the Jcwwh religion. At their reiuni fr 
Uiti captivity they were pinced in cilMst with the Leviteirj 
?4eheni. xi. 3 ; Ezra ii. 70; 1 Chron. ix. 2. Therv were very 
few, indeed, that chose to return; prubably, because uf the 
knnHBB of their condition am) Btatiun aiuoogHt tlte Umeltteti. 
We read of no morv than two hundred and twenty, nhu'canw 
witit Ezra, chap. riii. '20 ; and three hundred ninety-two withn 
Zcrubbabel; cluip. ii. &d: a number »o iii»utbcient fur the 
Rcrvice-work of the temple, that Jo«ephu» telU u« they insti-, 
luted a festival, which they called £vXofopM, on which t) 
people were obbj^ed to carry a certain quantity of wood, to 
mpply the altar of humt-otferingB.* The Papists have a sort 
officers in imitation of the Nethinim, whom tJiuy call sub- 
deacona; whose t>u>jineK8 it \a to carry a baaoii of water, and 
a towel, to the priet.t& who miiuHter at the altar, to waiih tJieir 
handfl before they celebrate inam. 

Of the SticriJUet. 

To this chapter, coDcemiim; the mmisterR of the sanctuaiy, 
may properly be subjoined a brief account of that part of iu 
■ervice, in which they were chiefly employed, namely, the 

Of their firbt inBtitution we have no certain informatioo in 
Scripture. Hut tliey were practised, we find, in ihe 5rst ages 
of the world by Cain aud Abel, Geo. iv.; and by our (irst pa- 
rents, probably, presently after the fall. For we read, tliat 
" unto Adam and to his wife the Lord made coals of slcina, 
aiKi clothed them;" Oen, iii. 'it. As animal food waa nut 
used till after the flood, which we formerly proved.f we ean- 

* Jodeph. At Bell. Judaic, htt. ti. cap. xrfl. MCL VL p. 194, edit, lla- 

t HIdc« we <oi»Mler«d ihu aobjtcl, Dr. Sjke*, u htl Ulc Enay on |1m 
Naiurv, Ocsifo, uwl Ori^n of SscrifioM, ia wdtr lo eiplsin Uw anmal 
MKnftce wtwHi Abel otfiired^ eoDnstanlly with Ida own noliiMi ot HcriAce* 
i» fomal, iwin«l}r, iImi tfaqr were s kind of adng and dtinkiog wtth God 
m tt wm at htai lablt, ud in coosoqueiKe of tlui bciag in » Mats of friend- 
•Up <nlli bin by npiaiaMa sad POaflsifaB tt tint (p. lso)t hadi MidM- 
«oui«d lu Aam, in opfomkm » Gratiiu sod U Oecc, ibsi tnlmata •m 
«Md for (itod U(bn ikt Hood. Aad si ihcw uilhuo thmk. tiM capnM 

O'HAr- v.] 




noCenRily inmgine wliencf^ tlmy no Honn procured ihftte ttkins, 
probably before any creature* hati Hird of themselves, iinlrss 
froDi beaaU slain for sncrili<%. 

imni or unim*] food mode dlcrilio tooA ismfficicnt proortlmtit wa mm in 
we tiefurt: ibc fluod, he jmiuirts btu tbe meaaing of tbe itspccliv« gmnK lu 
Adam iitul Noah (p. 167— I7e>. 

The fbrroer is m iheM wonla (Gim. i- 29, 30} : " Bebold, I have givini jrou 
fvcfy hcrtt bcflrioi; wed, whicli is uputi llic fate of nil iIm nnb, utd every 
tree in iti« wliieh i« ibe frijit ofn Irtc bauiiij seed ; lo you ii fhall be for 
meat. And to evciy b>4st of tlie fieM, and lo ewry lovrl of ibe air, and 
to every dimg Uul crerpelh upon llie CBfth, wbtrcin (here u life, have 
I givea tMrsy given herb fur mi^ut." Ami tlie Doclur, nmuiriLitig, tlut this 
grviit tniud nrcirvianty tic imdtTiluud willi aome liiiiita|K>ii», hqeiip creatures 
b^iiig noi liiniied Int tivini; u{Kin hertM, and iKMOtr herlia bring of u |iot»uaou» 
qnality, infen fmm hrnrr, lK«1 it wo* not intiitilMl to Tiitimaiv, that this or 
thai fimd inu protiibited, and not tn b« eaten by man, bul to declare is 
gfinenl^ ttow well Oud hud, in fait iniinite wisdom, proi-ided lur tlie nuroeraiu 
ipocwa of cnauun:* wbicb be bad created. But I af>prelMn»d, tbtt, if vt 
xbouM allow there wete noMO\u vegetables before tlie fiiU, ytUua this grau 
woa made, it is not a very itoiurol inference, that, becaitae K was tu be limited 
to thoM bertM ibol were aalatary in their nature, it inighl for that reason be 
ensBded lo ommal food, of which kind of fond Aere h imi the leut mrn> 
liDii. It ts a luxim, that pennisive laws are in be resiniiiied to Uiom ob- 
jects which ore «xpnasly dtclored m them, or at Idk*! to Uivh: which are of 
the ume nature, wd ore evidently caaiprehendcd in tbe geoavl ground and 
reason of the law. 

t^iih respect lu the graol tn Ni<ah. " c^ciy moving thuig tliat hrtlh shall 
be mmt for you, esen us ihi; green lierb hare 1 niv-eo you all things" Cm. 
iZ' 3, ha apprebetkb it does aot imply any gnut of onimiit food ia iteneral> 
bot only of aona poniculot soru of ii, such us ore included in the word 
WOTi rennA, here tendered "moring," whicb, oceording to him, signifieth 
crecpitig thing*, or such animaU as are not comprehended under the words, 
beast atid ItrwI. Consequrtuly, Mliaieter i* die in>-9ning »f iku groat, ji may 
be consistent with mcnV eating threp aiid oxen, ^oiils, osd the like anliuals, 
from the fttft. But this criticnm is without bundmion, fcr il is certain thu 
msn rrmah a oit very geiwnU signiScatioD, oud used fbr all kinds of «m> 
nwls, or all thai can raov«. A,i in the Collowing poasagen : " All Hash died 
that moTdb, mtsnn hurantftk, upon the bee of the es/ih, both of tow), and 
of caitle»UKl of every beui and crae|Mng thing;" Gen. vii. 2) . Aptn, "God 
cicaied grcai wholes, and every living creature that moveih, Unnn iMramaA, 
which the waters bring forth ahuodantly ," G»n. i- 21 ; ihai is a" kinds of 
Allief. When, ihefefeee, God gave to Adam dominion over the fiihes of lb* 
tea, and o*(!t thu (nwU of the aii, and ovpr every livinif ihinn thai mo^ctb, 
JTCDTI ImrvfHtiJitth, Mpoti the face of ibe edfth, vcr. 28 ; the ZTH or JTB 0^ 
rtmnM, or rrmrvhrl A, cannot here be undenlood to denote a panirular «peHei 



[nonit r. 

Whether men w^ro led to the practjce of Mcrifieina by iht-ir 
own reason, or by the coinmaik! of God, hath bcrn a mattef 
of controversy both among Jews and Cfanstions. Some of 
th« Hebrew doctors are of the former opiaion,* in which 
they are followed by Chi^'sostom ; who saith. that Abel sacri- 
Bocd. the firsiUngn of bis flock voluntarily, and from the motion 
of hia own conaciencc, without any instruction or any positive 
law.f And the author of the questions and answers to the 
orthodox, in the works of Justin Martyr, asAcrts, that all who 
ofTcrcd animals in sacrifice before the law of Moses, did it 
withoQt any diviiio command ; nevertheless, Qod accepted ttie 
oflering, and was pleased with the otferer.J Grotius declarea 
himself of the same opinion,^ and producei*. anion^^ others,! 
the following pasaagea in support of it : the 6rst oat nf tlia < 
prophet Jeremv : *' For 1 wpsJcc not unto your f»«lhers. neither ■ 
commanded them in (he day that I brought them out of tlie ; 
land of Egypt, concerning burntKifferingB or eacnfices;" Jer. 
vii. 22. Agaio, out of the I*Kalms, *' I will not reprove thte 
for thy sacrifices, or thy burni-«>tre rings, to have been con- 
tinually before mc. I will take no bullock out of thy houae, 
nur he-goats out of thy folds. Will I eat the fle^^h of hulla,j 
or drink the blood of goats ? Ofier unto God thunksgiving, 
and pay thy vows unto the Must High;" Psalm 1. 8 — 14. 

of BninalB tJiiTercni Irom fiibes aotl fowl*, Init «II wrts «f utioials, or scqr { 
otket iliai can more, is well as thoM ptiticalariy nantil . 

Tit Doctor undemaiida (he lattar ctaute, " ibc flesh with tb« bloody whick^ 
b dw Ufc ihereof, ihou ihah not cal," to be only s imihihition of 
■ninib which di»d ofihenurU-r^, »nd aa injunction m kill bt-ror^ lliry ett^ 
A |irohibition iin<) injunnion, whith, if men uMd uttust hoi before ibtj 
fleod, wf^nu dilhcuh (o ht xcuutittd (or, unWi upon suppoMtion tfaai a < 
their pTAcnoe to fted on tninials which died of titvnuclrc*, and tlut theyl 
^id not kill then for food ; which it very uatildy, tince it u certain, ftn4 { 
Dr. SyliM ndmiti, they killed thetn for uerihce. 

Upou the Mbole, llwnHbr*, npiwiifaiundinf; all the Doctor hith advanced, ' 
I <aiHM M* tMson to depart Oon llw optnioa I h^on e»pOg»ed, that ibem 
was no ponsMMBe lo eat aoinul food (ill »fbtr the flood. 

* BlainMoides, lUbbi Levi Ben Gemm. and Abarbsncl; rU. Ouuaai. 
4m SKrifictb. p. 9. 

t UeaL au. ad Hop«L Aatiocfa. torn. ii. edit. Btttedlct. p. 139. 

1 B«ipOB».adQaM.laum. apudOprre JiHdn. p.44?, edit Pant, lOtS. 

t VId. AaaoL ia Ooi. tr. a, et in Jereni. *u. 33. pnrctpoe, dc Vanut. 
Bativ- ChriiL lib. r. Md. viii. 

CIIAI*. v.] 



Ami ID another place, " Thou <lesirc8t not «>acririce, else woulit 
I give it. Thou delighte^t not in burnt-oficrings ;" Psalm 
li. 16. Once more, " Sacrifice and ollcring thou didst not 
4l<?sire ; mine ears thou opened. Bumt-olJering; and sio- 
iitiexing liuHi lIiou not ruquirud ;" Psulm xl. 6. Jn ali nfaicb 
pwnges, and some othera Uiat might be mentiuned, the 
l)lc»bed CJod seems to speiik Trillt conteuipt of Kacnticee, not 
only as uiiproti table to bim, but qk if be did nul command 
them. As for tlioee in Lb« Psalms, ibey mu»t oertaioly be 
understood, either in a comparative aense, as importing that 
Bacriticea were not so plumbing to him as moml obedience ; or 
us expresBtng their insufficiency to make a proper atonement 
for sin; according to the apoatle, " It is not poasible. that 
the blood of bulla and of goata should take away situ," lleb. 
X. 4 ; and as reptovin^;. therefore, the vain dependence of those 
who re«ted upon them for pardon and divine acceptance, witb- 
ODt looking by faith to their great antitype, the sacrifice of 
Christ. It cannot lie suppo8«J Uie Pxalmist meant that God 
had not instituted Bacrifices, because ue know he had done it 
long before tiis- time, by Moses. Dut the posiktigie in the pro- 
phet Jeremy, tbut God "spake not untc tJie fathers, nor com- 
manded them, concermng bumt-oHerings and i^aciilices." being 
•aid expnwily to relate to a lime prior to the giving of the law 
at Mount Sinai, namely, to the day of their deliverance out 
of the land of Itgypt; it is from hence inferred, that he did 
not institute aacriHces before the promulgation of the law by 
Moses. This opinion is zeulously pationized by the Papisti, ■ 
in favour of their will-worship, or appointing religious ritea 
ftnd ceremoaies without any divine institution ; for so, they 
allage, did the patriarchs io case of sacri6cee; yet God ap- 
prove<l. though he did not command them. The »ame notion 
ia also coibraced by some Proteiitanls, in order to evade the 
argument drawn from tJie typical sacrifices oi atonement, to 
prove the death of Christ a proper expiatory sacrifice. Sacii- 
ficcSf they plead, were at first a human institution, and to 
prevent their being offered to idols, God conde&ceuded to the 
introducing them into his service ; not that be approved them 
as good in thoniBi'1ve«, or an proper ritc« of worship, How- 
aver, those who apprehend tli»t Mcri6ces were onginatly of 
divine institution, reply, — 




[book I. 

1st. That Abel i* »ftid to have " ofTeretl lii» R;iciifice liy 
faith/'lleb. xi. 4; which oiu&t imply, as itx ^ouiid and foun- 
dation, Home divine pramiae connected with that rite, and coiw 
Beqtiently a divine direction for the pcrformamx' of it. 

Dr. Spencer mnintainH, that eacntjce^ were ofijjrinally con- 
sidered under Uie notion of gifts, the etj'ect of wliicb lu ap- 
peasing thfr anger and conciliating the fuvonr of men beini; 
'«betrved, it wu aopposcd thuv would have the Ukt etioct 
with Ood, and thereupon wa» invented the rile of sacriticing.* 
but to this it may be replied, that if both Cuin and Abel 
sacriHced upon thin principle, which niiiHt be acknowled^d 
to be a wrong one. it will be hard to uccouut for God's ac- 
cepting the one, and rejecting the other. Uesides, as Dr. 
Keniiicolt Tery justly observes, the opinion, that BacnHces 
would prevnil wilh (Wxl, must proceed from an ub»ervdtion, 
that gifts had prevailed with men; an ohiiervBtion, which 
'Cain and Al>el had little upporttmily of making.f Not Co 
iuaist on what he further urges, tlml gifts could not have 
•been in use till property wa« entabtiahed ; which it probably^ 
■ was not in the day8 of Cain and Abel. 

'2dly. The pa-schal lamb wus exprcMtlv inHtituted by Ood 
l'bim»elf, not only before the giving the law at Siiui. but before 
^,the migration of the laraeliteit from Egypt; and that thin wa« 
real secriHce is certain, it being called "the sacfiQce of the 
[Xon pasaover," l^Kod. xii. 27 ; and it being elsewhere said, 
>'**Thuu fihult sacrilice the pae&ovcr unto the Lord thy God," 
>eut. XVI. 2; see aJ»o ver. 6, 6, Again, Christ, under the 
[notion of our " I*B8»ovCT," is dtfclared "to be sacrificed for 
-lift;" I Cor. V. 7. When therefore it in Mtid in Jeremiah, tliat . 
" God did not apcalt unto the fathers concerning luicriticea in 
)c> day that he brought them out of Egypt." it cannot niean 
^that he had yet instituted no itacrifices at all. Again, farther, 
3dlr. If w'e consider how highly God hath rvsented, and 
i'bow severely he hath punished will-worship in other caaes; 
iriictdarly with respect to Nadab and Abihn'a burning in- 

* Spmcrr dt Le^bo* llcbfnor. lib. iii. dinert. ii. cup. iii- lect. i. li. um. 
Il p. 743, 7C3. Ib Ok a«n clupier h« ailcmpt* lo prow ai la/^, U»t 
iCTJftca wfre of human origin, and ooi pf dtrine hidftuiiofi. 
f Two DiMcn. on ilic Tree of Lift, and Oblaiiviti vtCua ami Abel, ^ MS. 
1 MA, Append, p. U2—i^. 


• ikCltrPICBB. 


CL-nse with strange fire, nlitch the Lord commanded them uot, 
vu wluch tliey were struck, dead oa the spot. Lev. x. 1, 2; 
one cannot surely suppose, be would have ik> highly approved 
of the patriarchs' cacrificing, as he did, if be bod not com- 
manded it. 

When God, thrrcfore, saith, in the words so ollcn cited. 
" I spoke not uuto the fathers, nor cominanded them, in the 
day that 1 brought thcui out of the land of K^ypl. cuticeruing 
blUTit-afierings uid sacrifices." it must be taken in connexion 
with tlie words immediately following, " But this thmg com- 
mnndfd I them, wiymg, Obey my roice. and 1 will be your 
Ciod, and ye shall be my people ; and walk ye in all the ways 
that 1 have commanded" (rather, shall conuuuud you)." that it 
may be well unto you ;" and then, with Habbi Solomon Jarchi. 
kKnd Maimonides, we may understand, — 

Ist. That after God had brought Uroel out of Egypt, be 
did not first speak to thorn, and command them, concerning 
sacrificial rites, hut conreniing moral obedience. Pw ibc 
bt'giunmg of till* law tboy date from the I^'raclites coming to 
lAlarab. three days after they bud left the Red Sea, where 
f*' Uod made a statute ajid au ordinance, and where be proved 
''tltera, axid said. If thou wilt diligently hearken to tlie voice of 
the Lord thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, 
and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his 
statutes, 1 will put none of these diseaAes u^Hin Uiee, which 1 
liave brought upon the Egyptians ;" Exod. xv. 26, 26. And 
tliis bemg befuce the new institution of aacriliceB at mount 
■ Sinai, tfaey were in f<tct not first commanded concerning these, 
I but concerning moral obedience.* So that thc^e Jewish doc- 
Liors understand the form of expression in Jeremy, as we must 
^Uiat of St. Paul, " Adam waa not deceived, but the woman 
being deceived was in the tmn^greiwiun." 1 Tim. ii. 14; that 
^is, Adam was not first deceived, and won not tirat m the trans- 
gression, bat Eve. 

2dly. These words may be very well understood in a ooro- 
paraiiTu sense : " Gud did not command the fathers coocern- 
ing aacrifices, but this he commanded obey his voice ;** 
that is, he did not command them coocenitiig sacrifices, u 

* Matnsfi. Mors Nwodi. [>m. iii cap. \%\\ 

P- 136. Bu«inrf. Basil. 



: much as roncenimg^ moral obedience ; " to obey bein^ better 

[thun bacriflce, and to hearken than the fat of rams ;" 1 Sam. 

XT. 22. Accordingly. God is nid to desire mercy, and not 

'mcnfice. Hob. vi. 6; or marcy rather than sacnfice. In this 

manner negatives are frequently used for comparalivei : " It 

I vaa not you that sent me hither, but God/' Gen. xlv, 8; not 

so much you, u God. " Your murmurings are not against 

U8, but against the Lord," Exod.xvi.8; not so properlv 

■gunit us, as the Lord. " Labour not for the meat that 

periftheth, but for the meat which endureth to everlasting life," 

I John vi. 27; thai ia, not n-ith so much assiduity nml anxiety 

[for the former, as for the latter. 

Upon the whole, then, it is most probable, aacriftces were 
'first instituted by Oud bimMlf, and enjoined our fint parents 
presently after the fall; from whom, and afterward from 
Noah, all nalioiis received them by traditioD,* 

However, in process of time these, as well as all tha other 
branches of icIigiouB fiiith and woinhip, wen- miserably cor- 
rupted ; instead of brute animali which God hod appointed, 
haman sacrifices grew into ase, and it became no uncommon 
Ihio);, in several couDtries,for parents to tmcritiee their children. 
Andbesidcfi thischanire.aBto thesul^ectaof thesac-nt)cef>. the 
objects of them wore likewise altered ; the Gentiles " Bacrificing 
to demons, Hod not to God;" ICor. x. 20. When. Iberefore, 
God choM Israel to be his peculiar peopld and church, among 
whom he would revive the true religion, he gav« them, anew, 
his law concerning saerillcra, with the addition of such parti- 
cular rites as would make them more signiticaut types of ^(ood 
thin<^ to come under the gospel dispensation. For inslarire, 
whereas formerly the hewl of every family wan, probably, the 
nunffiecr for his own household, God now appointed a pecu- 
liar order o* priests, with their iitwistantK the Leviles, whose 
whole business it should bo to attend the Mcriflces ; by whom, 
therefore, they would be more rei^larly performed, and bettvf 
preserved from being corrupted, tlian in times past.. It is 
* AfaittM Uie lianua, and for ihe flninv in«uiutK)n uf McriftcM, wc iM 
lng«UDM mai iMnMtl Dr. JUnaiooU'k twro DmontUiaiu oo llw 1W gf ImIk, 
and ibe Uhlalion* af Lwu and Abal. p. 301, rt acq.; Wiuti MuktH. iata,i. 
lib. it. du»»rt. a mcI. i.^sv. Ur (hilram halh iliaruHcd iji* arguniriiii on 
P a— II. 1. 




CQUCwming Uipsc new instituted Jewish sacrifices we are now 
more especially to discourse. 

The geoenl name sometimes includes all tlie olTerings made 
to God. or any way devotvd to his s^rKO and honour. Thus, 
not only ofljetings of fruitii, as well u Qninuds, are called sacri- 
fices; but likewise the moral duties of repentance, thanks- 
giving, and praise : " The sacrifices of God an; u hroknn and 
a contrito spirit;" Psalm li. 17. Again, "i will ofi'cr unio 
thee the sacrifice of thanksgiving;" Fsalra cxvi. 17. And, 
" Lei us otfor the sacrifice of praise to Ood;" Ueb, xiii. lb. 

But, in a stricter sense, sacrifices and ofierin^rg nere two 
things ; erery sacrifice, indeed, was an ofifering, but every 
oireriog not a sacrifice. All sorts of tithes, and first-fruits, 
and whatever of their worldly substance was consecrated to 
Ood, for the support of his worship, and the maintenance of 
his ministcrtj, were ofierin^. or oblations. These were either 
of living creatures, or otlier things; as com, flour, wine, oil, 
&e. But sacrifices, in the more peculiar sense of the term, 
were of living etcaturos ; of which only five sorts were pre- 
«crit)ed, or allowed by the kw; three of beasts, namely, 
bullocks, slicep, or ^oat6 ; and two of birds, tliat is, doves and 
turtles. Beasts only were allowed in public sacrifices, and 
birds in private ooes; and that chiefly when persons wer« too 
poor to proride s more costly sacriBce. 

Hie general design and use of such oHeringa and sacrifices 
was partly, — 

laL. As an acknowledgment of their receiving all their 
good tJujigs from tiic hand of God, and of his right in the 
whole of that of which they ofiered him a part: though to 
muko tilts act llie more significant and expressive, it was a 
part of almost every thing they bad. 

'2dly. To bo a means of repentance and humiliatiou for aiu, 
of the desert of which they were remmded by tlie sutfering and 
deaili of Uie victim, substiiuled in their room, and sun'cring in 
their stead. 

3dly. To typify, and so to assist their faith in that promised 

■acrifice of atonement, which the Sou of God was to ofltr in 

due time. There was also a polilical ur« uf many of thrsc 

sacrifices, which we have formutly tiikcti notice of. I>r. Sykcs* 

" EaM/on Uis Nsiurv, Dctipi, uhJ Origin vrSMhficic»,p.59. 


noes t. 

naJccfi all Bacnfice» to be fedcnU rites, which implied men's 
entering into friendship with God ; or if they had riotaterl 
their friendship with him, then they denoted reconctliatjon, 
and a renewal of that friendship, lie supposes the fire on the 
altar represented God. who wuti anciently wont to manifest 
iliiniaelfin a shechinah, or flame; an be did to MtMeH in the 
, hush, and in the holy of holies in the Jewish tabernacle.* 
Andttcconliiigly, thoaeftucrificeH, pnrtnfwhich wasconuimed 
on the nltnr, and part cat by the oHerera. si^iticd ibeir beinf^ 
ia frieiidsliip witli OihI, and their tiexire of eonlinnin^ao; eat-^ 
ing and dnuking together being an ancient rite, und token of' 
CriendHhip among men. And the whole burnt-offering, io 
which all was given to Qod. beinc consumed on his altar, aig- 
nificd their desire of reconcili.'ktion and renewed friendship 
with him ; and their acknowledgment of tiieir unworthineas 
of it, as they ent of do part of the sacrifice.f i 

But as for the notion of the victim's being bubEtitnled, to 
•ttfiar death and be consumed in the room and &tead of the 
IranagnHor, for whum it was oH'ered, the Doctor allows it to 
have been ancient, and commonly received among CJentilee 
and Jews, aa well as CbristianH-t 1 1nis Ovid, in the Mxth 
buok of his Faati, suppoces the sacriliced Hiiimal lo be a 
vicarious substihite, the seveml parts of which were given a« 
equivalents for H-hat was due bv the ofilBren : 

Cor pro cord«, prct-ar; pro Mm wibIib Mna« ; 
Uaac tntnaiB vobis pro laHiore damns. 

Aharhnnrl cs)io(i»e(« the name Rentiment in his Introdtit-tion 
to hiftC'omment on Leviticus:^ "The person." saith he. " that 
put Ilia hand upon the head of the beast, by this rile confwted 
thedewrtof hn Binis. and declared the blood of that animn! to 
be shed in lien of his own ; and that it was just and rij^t that 
the offender's life shonid be taken away, as was that of tha 
beast brought to the flltar." And Dr. Ootrim(l nbandanlty' 
shows, thai it was the common opinion of the rahbies, ** thaC 
the hlctod of the sinner tn equity ought to have been poured 

* Esuj' OD lfa« I^tUniVt DwigD) uhJ Oiism of SscnAcc*, p. 337- 
t Ibid. p. -J3'i. 333. nr 1 IUd.p-121. 

( Absrbwtfl. Exord. CoiiinMmt. m Lini. ad ailcL-iii Msiraon. dt ^i**^^ 
tdii par D« VM. p. 301. 
P Outraa. d« Saorifieiis, liK i. cap. taii. Hd. v. — !!■■ p> 400 — nt.- 




out. and hut body burnt, ots u-ns the Mood of the Tictim poured 
Oat and its body burnt, and tbat God in his mercy and good- 
□eu ioak the victim instead of. and as an expiation for, the 
olTeuder." Thu» they understiind a tr,int>latian of sin upun 
the h«ad of the victim, and Ukewi»e of the puiut»luuent due to 
the oflTender. Dr. Sykcs utterly rejects this notion of »acnticeH 
being ricaritiu)) and expiatory, and endeavours to confute it 
with the following argiinieiilH :- — 

1st. It is not anywhere expressly said, or so much luhinted, 
ill the Old Teslumeut, thai the vietim'H life wns ^ven in heu 
of, or UB a vtcanouH substitute for, iliv hfu of him that oti'ered 
it."* To this we answer,' 

There was no need of its being eTprefwiy eaid, it beuig well 
known and uiiiverwalty understood to be the true intent uud 
meaning of killing the victim. Of this fact numerous testi- 
monies might be added to those already cited, from the most 
ancient writers of several nations. It is strange he ahould 
say it is not so much q8 hinted in the Old Testament, where 
Uiere are so many cases, in which a pereon having done some- 
tliii^, that, according to the law, furfeitmi his Uli;, upon a 
victim's b»og alain and ttacrificed lor him. whereby an atone- 
ment was made for his tran^ression. the forfeiture was ru- 
vetsod, and thereupon hi^ life was spared. However, this 
notion is expressly advanced in tha New T«atamcnt. in rela- 
tion to the deatJi of Christ, which is said to be " an offering 
and sacriflcc to God." Eph. v. 2; and he is said to have" pat 
awayain by the sacrifice of himself," Heb. ix.2t>; and to hare 
suffered for hids, the just for tJie niijust," 1 Pet. iii. 18; and 
to have died for us in tlie same sense that one man may die 
for another, that is, to save the ottier from dying by suffering 
death m his stead; Horn. v. 4> — H. And lhi% ii? founded on 
tlie Mupposition. that the victim's life was given io Hcu of, or 
IIS a vicarious substitute for, the person for whom it waa ofr 
furcd . I 

t'idly. The Doctor pleads, that in some cisee, ahinetaent 
was made forsin without any animal sacTiftcc, and without any 
life being given ; therefore, piaonlar aacrilieo did not imply 
giving life fur lifv.i* Thiia, when a pour man. who could not 
be at the expense of an ouimal aacrifice. had forfeited his life 
* Eauy on SwriSces. p. I3J. t I' ia»— n«. 




by florae tnm^p'Gssion of tbo law, lio wuid indulged with otfcr- 
ing a bandful of line flour only, niul witii Unit lIio " pnc»t 
waB to luaku utonenacnt for the oflcndor, u touching biH sin 
that he had sitinud ;" Lmv. v. 13. 

1 reply. This by no lueaiw prove*, that wbon an animal 
niacular siicrificc wa& offered, it did not imply giving Ufe for 
life. It only shows God might, if he pleased, accept of a 
lower atonement for the forfeited life of the offender. And 
it i« a reuiarkuble inHLauce of his cxtmpaa&ionate indulgence to 
the poor, that he would accept of >ome flour only, to he 
bunil and destroyed on hit) altar, an a Vicarious vubulitute for 
tho«e lives or pvrsoiit) who deserved to be destroyed . 

3dly. The Doctor argues, that if the design of auiuial aacri- 
6cea had been to give life for life, niaclation alone would have 
been sutficicnt ; and there would have been no occri&ion for 
the subsequent riU; of burning tbu blood upon the altar, that 
was to attend it.* To this we reply. 

If the only end and dusi;^ ki( piucular sacriBces had botm 
to give hfa lor life, Lburc lui^ht hsvu bwn »omt: weight ni this 
argument. But am the IraiugrcMor of God's law had not only 
forfeited his uatund life, but had incurred future puntHhuirot, 
it made the «acnfice more properly and significantly vtcartou^^ 
that, alW it wu» lulled, the fleeb tthoald be burnt with fii 
and utterly consiuned on the altar. And as for the nxo lain- 
duth, or meat-offering, that waa to attend it and be consuotcd 
along with it. it might naturally s^^ify the forfeitun: of theiri 
subbtancu as well as tlieir hvcs, into tlie handa of diTtnsj 

4lhly. The Doctor observes, that no where, in the 
that particularly motiUoit the institution ofMtciiHcex.orlargBljl 
Ifcai about them, or lu the vcr»ionit of ihom, are they •*«! 
called Xirr^. awiAwrpa, Of avn\ppx*i, CijuivalcDls, cocnpens**^ 
tiona, exchangcfi, substitutos, or by any other word whicbii 
implies giving life for life-t I answer. 

Wo are not much concerned what word the ^eptuagutt. or 
any other version, bath uaed for sncriticea. But since thi 
DoeUtr seems to allow, that if they were called Xurpu. ot\ 
avriXifTfta, that would imply tlieirrirarious ^nbstitiibon : t think 
it a sub»taiiliul argument^ tlml they leully were so, that Um 
* P. IM— IM. ' f P. IM. lai. 

enxv\i v;1 



dcRth of Chrinl, which U cxpresflly aiutl t« be a sacrifice for 
the sins of nion, is said to bo a \vTf>ov. Matt. xx. 28, Mark x. 
46; and mTtXvrpov, 1 Tim. ii. fi. That no word in used in the 
books thit mention ihe " institution of Bacrifices, or so largely 
treat about tbem, winch imptivs giving lift! for life," is poai- 
Urdy AMCfted ; and if wc should iui»ert, that the Hebrew 
Vonl Htt'l Haso. porlavit, tuttuiait, which u so often used 
oonceming piaruUr itHchtict^H, doen naturally and strictly imply 
this. I am persuaded wc should hare reaooti and truth on our 
side. As tins word i« usi-d for men's bearing Uieir own sin, 
that is. ifuticnii!; Lht> punishment of it in tlieir own poreons, 
L«v. xxiv. 16; ^utnb. xiv. 34, et aiibi; and for ooe mau's 
bearing the stnfi of another, that in, Butferins; the punishmeot 
which tlie other's ains had deserved. Ktek. xviii. 20; ao it in 
aiKO used fur the sin-oirering, which ia said to " bear the ini- 
ifiiity of tlie coiii^e^tioo, and to make atonement for them 
beFore the Lord," Lev. x. 17: where, to bear the iniquity of 
the cot^pegBttOD, mid to make alouement for lUeir siiiK, are 
plainly tlw Kune tiling ; and to bear the iniquity of the cou- 
gregntion, acoM^ing to the common use of the word ttSfi uaxa, 
m 111 sutl'tir the legal result iif ibeir iniquity, or, which cornea to 
the a:ime, a vicuriiktiH death and punishment for them. And 
thus CbnHt is naid to hare " borne our griefs and carried our 
sorrowfl," isa. lui. 4, and to " bear tha aioii of many," vcr. 12. 
Uqc« more. 

SUily. Th« Doctor obaerres, that atonement is required to 
be mode by animal aacrifice^, in some cases, where there was 
no crime committed, and tlterefore no life forfeited.* A 
woman after child'bearing is commanded to bring a lamb, or. 
if not able to do tliat, two turtlc-duvea or two youog pigeoos. 
" tlie one for a burn t-o tiering, tiie otjier for a ain-ofiering; and 
tile prie»t bUouId make an atonement for her;" Lev. xii. S. 
Again, certain aniwal sacrifices are apjMinted for the cleansing 
of a leper, Lev.iiv, 10 — 21, by which the prieai wa» to make 
" an atonement for him;'* ver, 21. From tiiese two ca«e» tlio 
Doctor argues, that, aa in neither of tliem any crime i-i »up- 
poKcd tu be eooimitted, nor life forfeited, therefore no vioa- 
rions drath nnd punishnieiit coutd be fiup{K>sed to be inflicted 
oil the victim; aud eunkcqueully, the common uoUoD of a 
• P. I3&— Ul. 

JP.WI8H *KTI91}ITiefl. 

[book 1. 

Bubstitution in piacular Rarrificctt, n hich has %o much prevailed 
in iJic world, docs not at aU cntur into the Scripture notion 
of making atonemeut. 

Btit bere i would aek, if tliose persotift for wboiu -atonfoiunt 
wa8 made were not guilty of sin, why ntii any Atonciuent 
mode for them; since the Doctor himself telU us, that " to 
make nionemcni. for Bins, is lo do luimuthing. by meunH of 
which a imin obtains the pardon of them."* We iillow ihe 
woman had not properly contrtdcd guilt by her child-bearing, 
Dor Uie leper by his disease ; but, as the puius of child-bearing, 
and as all diMases to which the human body is incident (of 
which leprosy, according to the account travellers give of it, 
in the eastern cnnnthes, seems to be the most grifvous), ar« 
the fruits and consequences of the apoAtacy, and of «in. which 
hath brought these calamities on human nature, it was highly 
proper, that, on occasion of a delivetnncc from these remark- 
able eflects of sin. there should be an humble ackuowledgmtrnt 
made of the desert of it in general, and a piacular sacrifico 
offered for original and for all actual tran^gressiouit; which I 
take to be the intent of such incriflce4 on these occasion*. 

I'pon ihe whole, then. I see no reason, from any of 
Dr. Sykps*a argnmenti, to depart from the ancient doctrine, 
which hath so universally approved itself to the reason of 
Gentiles as well as Jews; namely, that in sacriBces of expta- 
tioQ and atonement for sin, there was a snbstjtutioo of the 
rictim to suffer in the room and stead of the transgretaor. 

Sacrifices are distinguished by the Jewish writers into the 
moat holy, and into tho«e of an inferior kind, or less holy.i* 
Of the former sort were the burnt-oAeringa, sin-offerings^ 
trespaitn-oftcnngw, and peace-offeriot^, uf the whole congrega- 
taon; of the latter, they reckon tite peace-offcnng of parti- 
cular persons, paschal Inmbs, Hrsllings, and tenths. Some of 
them distinguish them also into sacrifices of duty, to which 
they were bound by the law, aiid voluntary aacrifices, which 
they offered of their own free will.{ 

• P. .TOO. 

t Uuhn. til- lUbochim, cnp. v mci. i. «t ni. p. 3) rt li, lom v. oditi 
Surnthufc. ; Maimon. dc itaiiorw SKvifictonin bciendonun, csp> i. NCI. ira. 
p 390, Cremi I'vctC' S«i(i. 

I Vir). RtIjiimI. Anli(|. Vvlrrum Mehnoar. p«it. lii. cap. i. Md. iA. p. 391, 
393, 3d. cdll Tnij«Cl. Hu. UIT. 

CBAr. T.] 



Wlmterer was oflereil in sacrifice was to b« good and per- 
fect in iU kiad ; no beast that had any distemper, bleoush, or 
defect, was aliowed. 

In treating of tfaiii subject, we shall distinguish sacrifices in 

1st. To their slgnitication and use:' 

!i!dly- To the persons that offered them : and. 

3dly. To the subject-matter of them. 

Ist. In reapeot to their signitication and use, they are dis- 
tinguitihed into four kinds — bumt-ufreriiigs.sin-ofleringB.tres- 
pass-oflennt^, and peace-otle rings.* 

1 Ht. Tlie first and most ancient sort of sacrifices were burnt- 
offerings, which the Hebrews call rrfjyp giioloth, from rhjr gna- 
iah.aicettdit ; the Orerkti, i,\txavtrra, (rota oXoc. totuA, and imuu, 
ura : because they were wholly contiumod with fire, except 
the skin, and ho made In ascend in flames and smoke from the 
altar, i^iacrifices of this sort are otteu meutioued by the Ilea- 
thensf as well as Jews; |>art(cular]y by Xenophon, wJio 
speaks of sacrificing holocauals of oxen to Jupiter, and of 
horses to the sun.j: They appear to have been in use long 
before the instirntion of the other Jewish sacrifices by the Inw 
of MoBcs. Abel's was most probably of that sort. However, 
we expRSsly read uf bumt-oflerin^ in Job's titne, chap. i. 5 ; 
ilii. 8; and in Abrulmnrs. Oen. xxii. 13; and as early as 
Noah. who. upon his coming out of the ark. " built an altar 
unto the Lord , and took of every clean beast and of every 
clean fowl, and ofiered bamt-oiferings upon the altar;" Gen. 
Tiii. 'JO. 

Hence it was, that though the Jewft would not allow Uie 
Oeotiles to olfer un their nitnr any other sucrificeH peculiarly 
enjoined by the Inw of iMosee, yet they admitted them by the 
bands of the Jewish priests to ofi'er holocausts, thi« Wing a 

* TTiJN (liviflon ii sw) by Maimonidu and Ahartiwiel to oonprelivtid 
even ktsil uf nenflen dui the Uw pmeribei, wbetber public or private. 
Vul. MuimofL de Rnlion* Socrificiorum facivndonira, cap. L mcl ii. p. 383. 
Ctvnti Vatctc. S«TtJ: tri R. Atwrbuirl. Etofd. L'ominenl. iu t«ti(. cap. li. 
p. 243, ail calccm Maiinun. de SacriAcii^, per Du Viel ; >ee likewise A(&i- 
mon. Pnrfut. ad Quttitun Pnrtrin Muduiv, M. t. 

t OutrafD. de Smxnficta, lib. i. c»p. x. seel- ii- p 1 13. 

dOl«««rr» •«*■ rw«v Ivirswr, Cjrropwd. Jib- *iti. y>. id, «di( [|ulchtm.lT3B. 

jxwitn ANTigriTics. 

[book I. 

»ort of MeriAce* prior to the law, aniJ conunon tn all nations ■ 
During their •ubjection lo the Roman*, it »-ai> no iincommoD 
thing for those Oontiles to offer iiacnfice« to tho God of lanid 
at Jenutnlem. Them it a letter nfking A^rippa Ui Caiua in 
Fhito'H works, in which it was Kiiid . that the triiiiieror Aiignstin 
ordered a bolocaiut of two IuiiiIm ami a huUnck to he vtrerv<J 
for hirn daily, ry m^wt^ ^ly, tu the Most Hi^h Jvru- 
•aleni.t And hence Tertnllian, in h'w apology to the Ro- 
uaDa, saya, " cujiia (Jud»te ac.) et D«um victimiB. et tcniplmii 
dontB, ct gentcni fa>deribns. aliquandiu honurafttia.''^ 

Thu Jens accounted thtut holOMtuHl tliv most excuUcut o( 
all their Bacrifices. Accordingly it in ko Mylvd hy Philu, in 
hta book de Vietimit, who begins with it, and assigns this 
reason for giving it tho preftirence, tliat it redounds »ulely to 
tlie divine honour, being entirely consumed with lire, and 
leaving therefore no room for seltUhncsii or avarice. <^ Moncs 
likewise begins tho law concerning sacrifices with those nslat- 
ing to the holocaust or bumt-ofierinc;, L(.'v. i. imUn ; and in- 
CbnilB Ufl, that the creatures proper for sacnhccs were bullocks, 
sheep, or guats, uud turtle duves-or young pigeons ; var. 6. 
10. 14. The doves and pigeons were chiedy for tJie poorer 
sort of people, who coukl not go tu the price of ImUovlu and 
sheep. The law enjoins a peraon who had been guilty in 
some articlci particularly K|iec)fied. " \n bring his trespass* 
oflering unto the Lord, a feniule from the lluck, a lamb or a 
kid of the goats, for a ain-ofiering ; but if he be not aUe to 
bring a lantb. then two turtle doves or two young pigeons, 
one for a Bin-oR'cring, and the other fur a burnt-otfenng; Lev. 
V. Cy, 7. And in like manner a woman, after child-bearing, i« 
ordered to bring a lamb for a buml-otlenng, and a dore or a 
pigeon for a sin-otfering ; but if she be nut able to bring a 
larab. she shall bring two turtUiKloves or two young pigeooa, 
Iho one for a bumt<oflering, the other for a itin-oHering; Lev. 
xii. 6. 8. It is observable, lliat tba poor woman's olfering 

* Miimon. de Rsiioue Sacrifinorum bciandanin, cap. iii. mA. o. p^ 
SOO.Cratii FaMic- Sexii 
t De LffarbD* ad Caiiun, spud Op«TS, p. 80l> E. adiL Cel«n. AUofar 

I Ttftnlllsn. Apolog- net. %xn. p. to. edit. Higalt. 1(75. 
S Apud OpriB, p, «48, B ('. edil. Colon AlMir. tOI3. 






waa that which the Vii^n Mary made et her purification ; 
Luke ii. 24. 

The bDmt-ofTentig, as I said, wuh entirely consumed by 
fire: " It is the burnt-oflering, because of the burning upon 
the altar all night until the morning, and tlie fire nf thu nitar 
•hall bv burning in it;" Lev. vi. 9. Only the »kin was the 
priest's due fur the trouble of performing the sacrifice ;" chap, 
vii. 8. It in disputed among the Jewith doctors on what 
accounts the holocausts were offered. Some sav. to expiate 
all eril thoughts, as sin-ofTcrings and trespaM-offerings all evil 
actions. Othera say, to atone for the breach of affirmative 
precepts, as tlie latter did for that of negative ones.* 

Some Chriatiaa writers make the holocaust to be offered to 
Ood as an acknowledgment of his being tlie Creator, Lord, 
am) Prfserver ofiJI, worthy of all honour and worttbip ; and 
likewise as a token or emblem of men's giving theiu^elves up 
entirely to hitu, as they did the victim, which was wholly con> 
•nmed on the nhar. Accordingly it ts supposed the apostle 
alludes to Uic hulocaust. ^^heu he cxhortx ua to " prusicut our 
bodies/' orounwlvea, "a Uviug sachiice toOod:" Kom. xii. I. 

But farther. Dince the end of the otTering was always to 
make atonement, as is declared in tlie general law ci>ncernin(; 
bumt-oHvrings, Lev. i.4. which yet it could not do absolutely 
and prxjperly, Heb. x. 1 — 4. 1 1 ; it must, therefore, be under- 
stood to do it typically, or in a way of representation. And 
this was, doubtless, its grand intention and use, even to 
typify, and to direct Uiu faitli of tho Old Testament believera 
to that only true atoning sacrifice, which t)>e Son of God was 
to ofier in due time, iience Christ is said to have " ofl'ervd 
np his body once for all," that is, his whole self, his entire 
human nature; v«r. H — 10. I have only farther to observe, 
diat of this kind was the continual sacrifice offered every 
morning and evening, which, it was predicted, the Messiah 
should cause to cease, Dan. ix. 27. and witit Ui« abolitioD of 
which, tlie Jewish worship and church was brought to a final 

Sdly. thtt next kind of sacrifices were the rwon cltattaoih, 
or sin -offerings, the law and rites of which are laid down and 
deiKnbe^I in the fourtli chapter of Leviticus. The verb ttOn 
* Ouuan. de Sacnfi«ii», liili> >' »p. x. *pcr, vli. p. ill. 


JEWlitt ANTigOITlkt. 

[book I. 

cMmt0, in Atf/. at^ifieii to sin ; and hetice DHCn chttlttun *\^' 
liiftesBtnnen; Piulmi. 1. Bui, in pihel. it lia« a diOcrciit sig- 
niftcation, namely, to cleuise, expiate, make atoneaiMit, ur 
iMtiAraction : "Tliiit which was torn," saith Joeob to Laban, 
"1 brouglit It out to thee;" mOHK uchattcnna, I bnrc the 
loBH of It; 1 nrnde sati&faction for it ; Uen. xxxi. 31). tlence 
the noua HMCn chattauk, is used to denote au otfering for 
sin, wher«by pardon is procured, atonement is made, sud sin 
is expiated. In the »iime »en»e the apo»tJe Paul uses the 
Gre«k word afiaftria, in imitation, I suppose, of the Hebrew 
phnueology. " Him that knew no ain, vwip' riff>v ofiaprmv 
fvciirtiTiif. he hath made a sin-oflerin^ for us;" '2 Cor. v. 21. 
And HO the apostle rendera the following words of the Psalm- 
ilt.rWBni n^V guolah vachattaah. Psalm xl. 6. 'OAoKaurw/uira 
mu iri/w aysaprtai:, " bumt-otrerings, and sin-oflcriogs;" Heb.x. 
6. Tbuft v*fu aftapTiac ought undoubtedly to Ix; rendered, 
where it ia suid, " God sending his Son in the likeneas of sin- 
ful flesh, Kai wtfH ixnapTUK:, and, by a sin-offcriDg, condemned 
ain in the flesh;" Horn. viii. 3. 

According to the Scripture acooont, these sacrifices were 

lift. I'or all sins of ij^oraiice or inudrertcacy against what 
are communly called the negative precept", or with re»ji«<ct to 
things forbidden. The case slated in Lenticus is, "If a 
soul shall sin, throughignoruice. against any of the cotuuaiid- 
ments of the Lord, concerning things which ouj;ht nut (d bo 
done, and shall do aguin»t any of them." NotwithM;inding 
this general mode of expression, tlie rabbics limit tlie law to 
those sins of i^^omnce, which, if they had been cominitted 
knowingly itnd wilfully, wuuld have incurred the pi^nally of 
"cutting off;" and they tell us they were forty-three in num- 
ber, which they pretend exactly to enumerate.* But the 
wordn are express against this rabbinical restriction, " if a 
aoul shall ein through ignoranoe. mso Vi30 mieeol miUoih, 
against anv of the commandments of tlic Lord ;" Lev. vr, 2, 
3. l:{. 14. -J-.>. '2:1. 27. '2H. Besides, wc Bud these sacrificw 
enjoiued in ca^t■s where Ihe penalty of being "cut off" could 
not be incurreil ; jMirticularly, 

• M«mi«>n ■}« SacriKci», Irartst. W, rsp. I. leci. ii, — |r. 1>a Vnl, \mA. 

t'HAP. «.J 



*2dly. On occasion of leoal pulluUon; a« at the ckannin^ of 
a Itfper, Lev. xiv. \\), and the piintication of a wonturi after 
cbild-beanng, chap. xU. 6, and other Ifgal pollutions, speci- 
fied in thu fifteenth chapter of l.evilicu«. ver. 19. 'W, 30. 

In the common sin-olfering, whether private or public, the 
fat oal]^ vas hnmt upon the altar, and part of the blood put 
ontlie homHof the altar, aitd partof it |H)ured uttlic foot of it ; 
chap. iv. 25, 26. But the flesh was the due of the priest, to be 
eaten ia the courts of ilit; tabemarlcof tlii: congTegaUon.chap. 
vi. 25,26; and by these, and by the treBpass-offiBrings, were 
the prie»t8 chiefly maintained in the weeks of their attendance 
on the temple ncrvice. Besides many particular occasions, on 
which these sacrificca were oHered, there were alao constant 
Bin-ofTeriiigB at stated seasons, as on every new moon a kid of 
the goals, Numb, xxviii. 1 6 ; and on the fifteenth day of the 
pajsoTer month, one goat, and oo for seven days Kuccesstrcly, 
ver. 22. 34; on the day of the feaiit;i of tnimpeta. a kid, chap, 
ixix. 6; and at the feast of tabernacles, a kid for seven days 
together, ver. 7. 11, rt trtf. 

There were also sin-oiTerings of a more solemn nature, 
olftred on extraordinary occasions, of which the priesis had 
no part, but they were entirelv consumed with fire : not., how- 
ever, cm the altar, as the holocausts were, hut without the 
camp, or upon the ground in the open held ; only the kidneys 
and the fat were burnt on the altar of bumt-offeriDg, and part 
of the blood poured out at its foot ; and pan of it the priest 
carried into the sanctuary, with some of which he tinged the 
horna of the golden altar of sweet incense, and with the rest 
he sprinkled iievcn times before the Ujrd, before the veil of 
the sanetuajy; Lev. iv. 4. 6—10. 17—19. 21. Of this 
sort was the high-priest'a nn-ofieriog bullock, when he bad 
•injied through ignorance," according to the sin of the people ;" 
ver. 2, ;j. The sacredneaa of his office was an aggmvation 
nf his sin beyond that of others, and his dignity rendered his 
example in doing evil more hurtful than theirs, for which rea- 
son a more solemn sacntice was nppoiiited to be ulTered for 
his sins, even of ignorance, than for those of the common peo- 
ple. Of this kind , also, was the high-priest'a sin-oflcnilg bul- 
lock on thi day of expiation, chap xvi. 6; only with this dif- 
lerence, that the blood of i( was sprinkled, not before the veil 



[HUOK t 

of tbe aanetnory, but before the mercy-aeat, in the holy ofj 
holies; Ter. 14. 

OfthisBori likewise waa the aiu-offering bullork for tha] 
suu through ignorance of the wbalaoangiegauon. chap. ir. 1 J 

The Jevith writen are of difforeai opinions cooceruing iJii 
occuion of these tsacrifices. Some by the whole con^ga* 
tion nmierstaiid the Sanhulrim, and imagine their sin to b«f 
that they hail mistaken in judgment, and by that meanH niiaJt 
the peopW-* Others interpret it of any g;eaeml popalur de- 
fection from the law of God, which through their ^onuice of 
the law was not presently attcndod to.f Thus wheu Hl-ko- 
kiah reatored the true norsibip of Go<l, afler the temple had 
boon ihut up and the daUy stacrilices uiniited for a cooMdura- 
ble tim£, he otfercd " a sin-olfcnng for the kingdom, ami for 
the sanctnary, and for Judah;" 2 Chron. xxix. 21. The ea- 
crifice of Christ, which he olfered for the Hin^ of his people, is 
FCM^mhled in Scripture to the siu-ofTeriog of tlic congregation, 
because lie oH'ert»J it for all of them in the fjoneral, a« when 
he is said to be " made sin," thut is, a (uu-otl'eriug, " for uh ;" 
2 Cor. T. '21. And hi» Aacrifice ia represented to Im of the 
same kind with thoHC who»e blood was brought within the 
sanotuary for aio, and whose bodies were burnt witJiout tho 
camp : " The bodii^s of tboae bcaais," «aitU the apostte to the 
Hebrews, " whose blood ia broa^t into the sanctuary by the 
higfa-pTtest for md, are burnt without the camp. Wherefore 
Jeaus nlso, that he might sanctify the people with his own 
blpDcl, suffered without the gnte;" Heb. xiii. 11, 12, com- 
pared with LcT. xvi. 27. The burning of those sacriAcca 
without the camp is to be uiidenstood therefore aa typical, not 
only of Christ's suAertDg without the gates of Jerusalem, as 
the apostle applies it; but, probably, likewise of bis sufltring 
for the salvation of Gentiles, who wert without the ramp of 
Israel, as well an Jews; aud tliv bringing thr blood of those 
sacrifices into liie holy place was u ttgura of Chmt's preaent- 
uig the merits of his death for us, in his heavenly intcf- 

* M^iraoaulM, «■»! ibe rabljics in gvnenl. VU. OuiraiD de SkcnAciui, 
Iftt. i. rftjv ii». »«»et. i. p M», 110, and Vlotuagn dc Jutit H(4mnir. 
Ug. aiviil p 147. 148, cJit Ttpa. t«3. 

I Aim>~Fjmu ViA. Oiaisni, •«o. i. ad Riwd, si Met. it. p. idO— 1A9. 

CHAP. ■»;! 



The third kind of sacrificeii were called D^OCPK mka- 
mtm, which we render lreitpas»-otteriug«.* They bo [^eatly 
rcMiiibled the sin-oBerings, that it is not «asy to dislinguiali 
between them. The occa«ion« on which thoy w«re ofTered 
were much the sanie ; nay, Botnetimcs the same oblations are 
indiiTcrently called sin-offieriogs or traBpaaft-oBerin^, patticu- 
larly in tht; following paesage : " And he Khali bring bia trcs- 
paM-oftering, vycn aikamo. unto the l^rd, for his sin which 
he haUi sinned, KSn NM* ITKOrr by gnat chattatho tuher 
rhaUi ; and if he be not able to bring a lamb, then he shall 
bring for hia irespiuM which he hath committed , MSn ~>IPH ^OXt* 
aakamo tuher chala, two turtle-HloTes, or two young pigeons, 
th« one for a aia-oflering, nMSn^ Urkattalh, and the other 
for a biirnt-ofTering ;" Lev. v. 6—8. Where it is remarkable, 
that the ofieuce committed is called indifferently a nin and a 
tnaspasv; and the wcniice offered, a trespasB-olfering dnd a 
Rin-otiTeting. Nererthcless, there are some ci ream stances in 
which these two kinds of sacrilices are observed to difter. 
Sin-ofteringit were sometimes ofi'ered for the whdle congrega- 
tion; treBpOBs-ofiivingH never, but for particular persons.' Bul- 
locks were wmetimeK used for ain-ofierings, never for treapass- 
oAiinngM. The blood of Lhesin-offerixigswasputonthcbonwof 
thealtar,thBt of the trcspasa-ofleringBwas onlyspnnkled round 
about the bottom of the altar: whence some have concludad, 
the diflerence between the ain-oficrings and the treftpass-offer- 
iogii lay only in these circnmBtances. But othora conceive 
there must have been some greater difference between them, 
which wuH the reaaon of their being offered with IheiM* different 
cirrumatancee. Yet what, tliat difierence was, is variously 
ooDJecturod by many learned men, rather than asserted by 
any. Dr. Ligfatfool. from the rabbies.f makes the differ- 
•oca to lie in this, that both indeed were offered for the 
same sort of tranagrcHions, but the Dmt aiham, or trespass- 
offering, waa to be otfered, when it was doubtful whether a 
peraon had transgresaed or not. As, suppoae he had cat 
MMW fat. and wa» sftei^vard in doubt, whether it was the fat 
that belonged to the muKcular flesh, which was lawful to be 

* See tb« lawv wnevminH ihcnt, L*f. v. wd ft. and xiv. 13, IS, and 
da. t»— «. «nd Numb. w\. It. 
't Stc, in paniculv, R. Abutanri. Etonl. ConHBrnt. in Ln^. p. 307. 





[■UOK 1. 

catea ; or the fitt of tlie inwards, which was imliiwrul; Uicn 
h« w«H (o ortcr an 0C*H ruAdfM. But if it nrre certain, imd 
he knew that he bad tresposMd, be miut oB'ei tiienHCn dtal^ 
taah. or tiin-oHcruit;.* Muimimides ift of opiuiun. that the 
uHvncM Tor which the OIL'K arhum was of)«n;d. wvre inferior 
to LhoM for which Uw fWCn chaHauh wiui offeted.t Bo- 
«hut. on the contrary, i« of opiiiino, that the offences expiated 
by OB'M aihtsM. were more gTip^'oub t^'^"' <iif»si-' expiated 
In rtMSn rhittaah.X. Abcn-Exra mnktw rndl ckattaah in 
aigaify a tiacrifice oHerod for pur^rint; offences committed 
through ignorance of the Ihw ; OCM asham for ftucb aa were 
committed ihroagh furgetfulnesK of it.^ Olbafs, again, maka 
the ditrereoct! tu be. that I be HKOn fhaltnah was for off«ncea 
proved by wiUmsCM ; the OICK axham for secrel faitltft, known 
lo otlicni only by the oflenderV coofeision. For it in ttaid, 
" If hitt Din which he liuth ainned. vhn ym hcuihaHg eiaiv, 
come Co hia knowledge, then he shall bring his oflering;" 
l^ev. iv. 'JR. Now imn hotihang in nf a pasnive Kifrnificalifln. 
and here therefore iiuports, if hiH fault be uiadc kaown to him, 
by tMime other petaoo, then lie niust oBer a sin-oO'ering : 
ver. 'Z^. But elM-uhere it is ftaid, " When a peraon has beea 
guilty of any of the things before mentioned, he tdiall confsH 
thai he hath sinned in that thing, and he shall bring his tna- 
paits-ofTering ;" l^v. v. h, 6. And, to mention only ono 
opinion mure, otIierH thiuk tlie nKton duiltaah had nwpect 
chiefly u> ofll'Dciit n^nioat <*od ; and D^tt atham, chieBy to of- 
fences nptinst men- Tu this purpose Dr. Ouuram observes, 
tliat in uU case? where the Citw asfiam is required, there wna 
torn* wroug or injury done hini. except in the case of the 
Nnzarite defiled by the dead, Xumb. vi. 12, and of the 
leper. Lev. xiv. 1'2. But as both these were to be purged 
with a rhttttiwh lu well nn nn atham, he apprehends Utev 
tdford no mutenol objection to this general ndc.|| 
. The fourth Mirt of sacrihees were 0>0^ i/wiamiim. or 

* U^nibat'j Tvmpie tteime, chap. riii. 

i Men NoTocUn, pan iiu cap. slvi p. 4H, ndii. et run. Buauif. 
Bui). I«29. 

I llimo. pan 1. lib. ii. np. iniil. 

I Abnt-Ru* m1 Lav. (|iiDUil by Ouintin, Ae SBerifitib, p. Ul. 

II Outrsffl i)» Sserl&cm, lib. i. csp sm. ptt totuii^ p. 135 — 147. Mpicl- 
allfMci. Till. p. Hft— UA. 

CMAT. v.] 



peftce-offmngB ; «o called, not as boiog intended to make 
peace with God, but Mtder to preserve it. BarDt-olI«rings, 
»iii-oHerings, and irespass-ofTcring):, wore all offered utider the 
Qotion of some oHencct cninmitt«d, and some f^uilt contrKCted, 
whicti they were the means of removing; )iut in tlie peaee- 
offieriDgs the olTerer was supposed to be nt pence with Ood, 
and the oTt-ring uatt made rather in a wuv of thankful ucknow- 
ledgmeitt for mercies received, or as accompanying vowd for 
the obtaining of farther bleiMringv; or, in a way of free devo- 
tion, AS a means of preserving and coniiiming peace with 
God. Thus the peace-offeringa ure distinguished into »»- 
cnficee of thankagiving, votive-utferingB, and voluntaTy or 
free-will offeriiigB; Lev. vii. II. 12. 16. The itacrifice of 
thanksgiving, which the SeptuMgintrei>d?rs6«*na nic ita-isihic. 
IB evidently referred to in these words of the Epistle to the 
Hehrewa: " Bv him let us ofler ihe sacrifice of prai&o tv 
Clod;" Heb. xiii. lA. Some peace-offerings were required, 
by the law. to be offered at certain times, and on particular 
occasions; as on llie fenst of Pentecost, Lev. xxiii. 19; by a 
Noxarite, when he had accomplished his vow, Xunib. vi. 14; 
and at the consecration of tlie priest; h^od. xxix. '2H. fiut 
genemlly it was referred to the devotion and iVce-will of the 
people, to offer these sacriAcea when and how often tliey 

The peao»<rfferinga might be either of tlie flock or the 
herd. Lev. iiL 1. 6; that is, cither of beeves, or sheep, or 
goots, and either male or femnlo. 

Hut birds were not allowed, the reason of which waH. pro- 
bably, Itectiuse they were ton snnd) to admit of being divided 
into three porta : one for the altar, another for tbv priests, anil 
a third for the otfercr, without bringing the sacrifice into 

In all peace-offering*, the fat, that is, the suet, aa also the 
kidneys, were hiirnl upon the altar. Lev.iii. 3 — 5; and if Uw 
sacrifice wna of the Hock, (hut i^. a sheep or u goat, the rump 
or tail wu burnt along with them. vcr. 9 — 1 1. 

The breast and the nght shoulder were the pnent's due, 
and they are cnlletl the wave-breast and the heave-shoulder, 
Ix-v. vii. 3-1, bccnuse of the ceremony of waving thL-ni this 
way and that, and upward and downwanl. which was done by 




the owner of the sacri6cc, ui the form of his presentiDg theai 
to Uoil. These portioiu of the peace-otferin^pi were iillotted 
,lowarfl the mainteDatice of the priests. durui|j; the weekti of 
their attendance at tJie sanctuary ; for they were not p«r« 
mittod to carry them home with them unto tlieir own houaes 
in the country; hut they and their lamilies were to "eat 
them in tlie place which the Lord should nhooae;" thatU, the 
place of his public looitt nolmnn wumhip by ncrifioe; Deut. 
xii. 18. 

Along with these p6aoe<«6eri[igi, at least with those of 
tbtnka^ving, there wu also offered bread of tine flour, and 
oil, both leavened and unleaTened, made into cakes and 
wafers, which were likewise the priest's due [ Lev. vii. 12, 13. 
The reet of the fleeh of the jteace-offeriiigs beloogod to the 
owner of the sacrifice, with which it was usual to make a 
feast, and entertain his friends, either on the day ol' the sa- 
crifice, or the next dsy at farthest ; for if any of the fleeh re- 
mained till the third day, it was to be btirat; ver 17. Thu* 
the lewd womnn m the Proverbs is represented as inviting an 
unwary youth to a feast upon her votive p«aee-ofieriiigB ; 
Prov. vii. 14. Thew feavtK were often kept in the courts of 
the temple, or in some of the buildings adjoining, where tbera 
were cook-roouio, and conveniences for dressing the flesh of 
the sacrifices, as appears vcrv' probable from the »ccoiint of 
tha solemn Pasiovcr which Josioh kept at the temple, Uiat the 
Levitea " roasted the Passover with fire, accoiding to the 
ordinance : but the other holy offerings sotl they in pots, and: 
in caldrons, and in pans, and divided them speedily amoi^ 
all the people. And afterward thev made rvsdy for them* 
•elves and for the priests;" 2 Chron. xxxv. 13. 14. In like 
manner ihey did at Shiloh , before the temple was bailt ; where 
the sons of Eli. instead of contenttng tbenaelres with the 
bnast and shoulder, which the law asngnad Iham for their 
doe, brought up a custom of sticking a tltree-pronged fork or 
kook into the caldron whvru <he pi^ce-offeriug was boiling, 
nnd taking whatever it brought up: 1 Snm. ii. 13. 14. 

Tbt Gentiles, likewise, who borrowed many of their sacri- 
ficial rites from the Jew«, uwd Homotimce to hold the feasts of 
their pence-offerings in the tt^uiplee of their gods. Henoe 
Si. Paul, in the Pimt Bptstie to the Cormthisns.spaaiuof their 

mfcp. Tfl 



" sitting at meat in tKo iHoI'm lomple;'' I Coi*. vili. ID. But 
they did not always feaat upon tiuti Hesth with their f'ricuds; 
they HomctimeA nold it in the common market, ns is plainly 
intimatad in ihc foUowinE! pussag;c of the same epiKtle, " W'haU 
ever is huUI iu the ahainbles, that eat, asking no qucxlioa foe 
coascieoce' sake," 1 Cor. x. '25, that U. as the context leads 
D« to understand it, not inquiring whether it had been oAercd 
in BKcrifice to an idol. 

ThuH much for the different sorts of aacrifices, in respect lo 
tlieir signification and use. 

2dly. Sacriticea may be divided, in respect to Uie pcraona 
that offered them, ioto pnbhc and primte. >>i 

Ut. The public sacrifices were offered for the whole people 
of larael; as two lambs for bunit-oflerings every day, one in 
the morning, the other in the evening; which are called the 
cootiniiai biimt-olTering, £xod. xxix. 42: two loaibs more, 
that li, four, ou every Mibbath-day. Numb, xxviil. 9, 10; two 
you^ bullocks, one ram, and wven lambA, for a bunit>olfer- 
inf;, and a kid of the goats for a sm-ofl'cring, every new 
moon. ver. 1 !■ 15; and the eanic sacriflces every day of the 
feast of unleavened bread, and of the first-fruits, ver. 17, ei 
$e^. On the day of the feast of trumpets^ on the great day 
of expiation, and al the feast of tabernacle)., there were aUo 
«xtraordirtary public Aacritlces appointed; N'unib. xxix. Be- 
ude theftc and tome other stated public sacrifices, there wero 
oooanonal public sacrifices aometimea ottered ; as the aiD-of- 
fering of the congregation, when they had sinned tlirough 
ignorance; Lev.iv. l:j, 14. And on occasion of the warwith 
the Beujiiiuites, " ail the children of Israel offered burnt-offer- 
iagit and peaco-offeringa before Uie Lord;" Judges xx. '20. 
• 2dly. Private aacrificei), offered for particular penuma, wenj 
either Mated or occasional. Of the Ibmner aort vean the 
paachal lamb, aacrificed annually for each family; and tiie 
bigb-prteal's aiu-oH'ering furbimaelf, on the day of expiatiob ; 
Lev. Xvi. 6. To thin there is a reference in Uie following 
paaaage of the apoiitle : " into the second" tabernacle, or holy 
of bolie«, " went the high-pnest afene every year, dot without 
Uood, which he odl-red for himself, and for the errors of tlie 
people;" Heb. ix. 7. 

OooHiona) pnvalc sacrifices were offered on account of any 



ti«Bpus conuniUvd agaiiist the law, ur any legal pollulioa 
coDtracted. any tow tnade, any blessing rvccivcU, &c. 

3dly. Sacrifices are again to be di«(ini;ui«lied, in Kspcctto 
the fiiibjcct-mattcr of them, into bloody or nnbloody, or into 
animal and vegeiahie. 

Tho animal sacrificeB were of one species of the herd ; 
namely, the bullock, ur cow, including the calf: two of lite 
flock; namely, sheep und goats: und two of the fowls; 
Dtmely.dovea and pigeons. 

The nnbloody, or v«(rrtablc Mcrificrs, of which we arc. to 
•peak at present, were ihe mnio minchoth, and d*dpj tteMchim, 
meat-oflerings and dnnk-orierintje. As for the tiihcHand firel- 
fniits. we shall have occa&ioii to upeak of them hereafter. 

The meat-oHering« were either attended with drink-ofler- 
ings, €wr they were offered alone. 

Ut. The meat-offeringft. attended with drink-offeriogii, 
colled D^SDl nvno mmchoth nesaehim, were fine flour, salt, 
and oil, made either into thick cakee, or ihiu wnfers, and 
baked either in a pan or oven. The dnnk-ofl'ermg was of 
wine, which was poured out at the baae of the altar. Tliese 
meal and driuk-ofTeringa were a aorl of appendagen to the 
sacrilices; they were offered along with all the humt-offeringx, 
except of birds, nod with the peace-offerings, K'umb. xr. 3, 
S(c.; but not wttli the sJn-otleringB, except that which was 
offered at the cleansing a leper; Lev. xiv. 10. 

2dly. The meat-offeringH ulonc, which were not offered 
along with antmul sHcriftces, were either public or private. 

The public were the ware sheaf. I.,ev. xxiJi. 10, 1 1, and the 
twelve cakes of shew bread ; l-ev. xxiv. 5. 

The private were either enjoined by tlic law, as that of the 
priest at his coiuMcnition. L«v. vi. '20, and that which the 
jealouK buNband wa» to offer. Numb. v. 16; or they were 
allowed in ca&c of poverty, when the persons could not afford 
a more cxHttly sacrifice ; Lev. v. 1 1. 

The meat-offerings were all of white flour, except thai of 
the jealoufi hiiiiband, which was of tiarley meiil, without any 
utxture; and the wave sheaf^ which was not jimuiid into 
Aour; all the rest were fine wheat Hour, veasonrd with salt; 
Lev. ii. 13. Some were mixt with oil. or frunkincenMe, or 
both; ver. 15. Some were offered unbaked, oiht'n> baked. 


Some wen est l^ the priests, without bringiDg them to the 
altar at all ; as the leavened cakes and the shew bread. 

Some were wholly consumed on the altar, as every meat- 
offering for a priest ; Lev. vi. 23. 

But as to the most of them, a memoHal or small part was 
consumed on the altar ; the rest belonged to the priest; Lev. 
ii. 2. 3. 

Thus I hare given you a brief account of the Jewish sacri- 
fices. I shall only farther observe, that if a person, obliged 
by the law to offer any of these sacrifices, refiised to do it, he 
was puniidied even with " cutting off." But the Jews were 
generally so zealously attached to their law, that there was 
very raraly an occasion for inflicting punishment upon t^ 
account. If a man, who lived at a great distance from Jeru- 
salem, had fallen under an offence, which required him to 
make a sin or a trespaBs-<^ering, the rabbies say, he might 
defer it till the next solemn festival, when all were oUiged to 
appear before the Lord at the national altar.* 

* See CD tbia subject Maimonides de Sacrificiis, Absrbsnera EiordioB 
ConxioeDt. in LeviL, and Outnm de Sacrificiis. 



CoNcfiBNiNu the prophcifl, we aliall first conatdei the 
oamc, and then the duty and buaiuees uf the (Kophelic office. 

Ak to tiie name, then; are three diflereut wurdo. by winch 
prophets are denominated in Scripture; namely, K^3] nrn ntn 
roch, choidt, iuibhi, which are all found in one passage, where 
we read of Samuel ntm luiroeh, Nathan NOSl hatmabfii, and 
Gnd mnn hachoiek; 1 Chroii. xxix. *21>. The word K*3i nahhi, 
U by some derived from kO bo, ventt, intimating that God 
came to the prophet by the divine afflatus. Thus Ezekiel 
•aith, nn *a H3ri vuttnbo hi ruacA, which we render, "and 
the Bpirit entered into me," Eiek. ii. 2. Some light, perhaps, 
may be hereby given to that remarkable pramiie of Chrivt, 
" If any man love me, he will keep my words, and I and my 
Father will love hitii, and we will curoe and make our abode 
with him>" John xir. 23 ; namely, by the continual influence 
of the Spirit on his heart. 

Bat othem derive H^D: naUti from 3>3 nubh, provenirr, 
from whence comes 3^3 iiibh, gtrmen, frurtus, n word meta- 
phorically applied to speech, which ia called tlic fruit, 3^3 nihk, 
of the hp«, Isa. Ivii. If) ; and it is said (he mouth of tlie just 
bringeth forth yti^ Janubh. wisdom; Fror. x. 31. Prophecy, 
therefore, being the fruit of the lips in consequence of divue 
inspiration, the prophet is called io3i nabhi. In the first place 
wherein this word occurs, it is applied to Ahmham : ** ReKtore 
the man his wife, for be is a prophet, and he shall pray for 
thee, and ihou shalt live; but if thou restore her not, thou 
abalt die;" Cien. xx. 1. Where a k^33 nabhi is supposed to 
be a friend of God, whom he would nut sutler to be WTongr<l, 
and whose prayers were very prevalent with him. Accordingly 
by the Paalmiiit Qod is repmented as saying, " Touch not mine 

cuir. V 

or TitK rnoPHSTB. 

anointed, and do my prophets no harm;" Psakn ct, 15. And 
from tlw followiiiK passaf^ of Jcrenii&h, it appears to have 
been the special businesH of the 0^101 'ur^bim, or prophets, to 
pray for the people : *" If they be prophets, and if the word of 
the Lord be with them, let them now make mtercesaiou to the 
Lord of hosts," &c.; chap, xxrti. Iti. And their prayers are 
supposed to be very prevalent with God : " Though Moaea and 
Samuel stood before me. yet my miml could not be toward 
Utis people;" chap. xr. I. When, therefore, God was de- 
termined to bring jndf^mpotR upon the Israelitee, be forbad 
Jen-miah the prophet to pray for them: " Then tiuid the 
Lord unto me, Pray not for this people for their good;" 
chap. ]dv. 11. 

liie other two names of a prophet, nn chozek and mn roeh, 
seem to be aynonymous, both ni^if^-ing. one thut secth or dis- 
cemetfa : the former from nirr ekazah, and the latter from rort 
ratih, vidit. And, indeed, it is hard to say. bow thes«> three 
numeit or tjtlea ditfer in tlieir 8i|i,piiHc3tion. 

Itslxould seem, the word nxt rocft was the more ancient 
denomination of the prophet: but in the days of Samuel the 
word K^3J iiahM was grown into more common use; as ap- 
pears from the foUowing passage: " lie that Is now called a 
prophet, K^33 nabhi, was beforetime called a seer, mn roeh ;" 
1 Sam. ix. 9. Here a considerable difficulty unseth; for we 
do not any where meet with the word ntn roth in the Scrip- 
ture history belbrs this time, whereas the word M^3) aabhi is 
oommon in the writings of Moseii ; who is therefore by some 
•apposed not to have been the author of the Pentateuch, a 
word commonly occurring therein, which it seems was not 
used till long aher his days. 

One solution that has been offered is, that the word h^ds 
fui6Ai. though in common use in the dsyo of Mo«es, was not 
used in the same sense as iV/n meh was ni the days of 
Swancl, naoudy, for a reveaJer of secrets, or a man by whom 
Qod was to be consulted ; but that ancit-ntly it only signified 
afriendofOod, one who had an intimacy with him. Butthis 
w hardly rvconclleable Wish the oharacier of a H^33 nabhi, or 
prophet, dcAcrilwd in several plaoesof the Henlateuch (Numb, 
lii. b ; Deul. jlIII. 1 ; and chap, xriii. '22). an uiiv to wliom 
Ood makes himtelf known by visions, or dreams, who givtw' 


JBWISH «tlTl«VITIl!5. 


miniculouii signii of \xii divine misKton, and fnrelclb Uiiogs Ui 
come. And surely itach a ooe musl be an caj^able of revca]- 
tng aecreU aa any mn ro^A, or aecr, id afler-timc«. 

Others soItp the difiiciiliv,l>v lupposiog th« word nMnrcwA 
was oncienlly in vui|^ use. and being eat«eii)ed a low word. 
which would have b«cn iuuiuitabl« to the ptitity and dignity 
of Moees's style, he for that re&BOU alwayH uwt, the politer 
word K03 MdMi: but that in Samuel's time K^31 na6hi wati 
ubo grown into common and vulgur use. No doubt there 
might be worda in the >Icbrcw, as there are in our taQguatre, 
which are decently enough uned in cunTersation, but nre 
hardly tliought proper for the pulpit, or for any grave com- 
positious. Of thut sort nii^t have been the word rwr» 
roeA : but a» the language grew more r«fined, it was of conrw 
dropped, and the more polite word nah/ii subintiUited in its 
room, both in conversation and in writing. It ia obwrved in 
con6rmatioD of this opinion, that the word ntn roeh 19 but 
very seldom used in the ttacred writing. 

After all, I know not wht'ther two lines of Ilomcc. m bin 
Art of Poetry, will not KUggest llie ntsieat solution of thi» 

Mulu r«iia3«eDUu, quae jkm c«ctdcr«; radentqiu! 
QuK Duoc mnl id hgnorv YOcabvb, n Tolet ohk. 

I,- TO, 71 

The word k*ZZ iutbhi might have been common in the days 
of Mooea, it might hare grown much out nf use in some cen- 
turies afterwards, when nto roeh was u«ied mstead of it; and 
nevertJieless, be revived and become common in the daj's of 

Thus much for the name; we now come to consider the 
thing, or the duty and basinoBs of a prophet. 

A prophet, in the Ktrirt and proper sense, was one to whoiu 
the knowledge of secret things was revealed, that he might 
declare them to others.* whether tliey were things past, or 
present, or to come. The woman of !>umaria perceived ovr 
Saviour was a prophet, by hi» tcllini; her the secrets of her 
past life; John iv. ID. The prophet Eltsha had the present 
cuoduct of hiB servant Gehazi revealed to him ; 2 Kings v. 'it>. 

' MwnKMi, t'rwbl. in Mi^n- |i. 4. edit Survnlius. ApfM-llahaiS PK^)b»- 
lun, Vidrntem, quod n* fatuna, anltfiaKta vxiucntit, ptwndrrvt 

fAP. m.] 



And mont of the pmpiietfi had revdntions coocemiiig future 
events; !il>oveulI, cimccrnin^ the roniing and kingdom of the 
Meuiab : " He has niitied up a bom of satration for ub id the 
house of his Servant David, as ht 8|>ake by Uie mouth of his 
holy prophetic, m hicti have been hince the world began ;" Luke 
i. 6Q, 70.* Nevertheless, in a more lax or analogical sense, 
the title prophet in HometimeK givrn to persons who had no 
such revelation, imr were properly inspired. Thus Aaron is 
said to be Moseii's prophet: " The Lord aatU unio Muses,' 
See. i have uiado thee a god to Pharaoh, and Aarou thy 
brother shall be thy prophet," Exod. vii. 1 : because Aarun 
receireil the divine nieiutages, which he carried to Pharaoh 
immediately from Mo»es ; whereas other prophets receive thcir 
m«Mttges immediately from God himself. In this respect, as 
Moset stood in the place of God to Pharaoh, so Aaron actod 
in the chnracter of his prophet. 

The title of prophets in given also to the sacred musicians, 
who t^ung tlie prai:^s of God. or who accompanied the song 
with mubical instruments. Thus " the sons of Asaph, and of 
Heman, and of Jeduthun." are said to " prophecy witli harpsi, 
with psalteries, and with cymbals," 1 Chrou. xxv. 1 ; and they 
prophesied, it is icaid, "according to the order of the king;'* 
ver. 2. Upon which R. S, Jarchi remarks, they prophesied 
when they played npon these musical instniments. We also 
read in the story of Saul'ti Ddvancement to the kingdom of 
Israel, that he met "n company of prophets coming down 
from the high place with u psaltery and u tabor, and a pipe, 
and a barp before them; and they prophesied, and he with 
tlieni;" 1 Sam. x. o. 10. What kind of prophecy this was is 
evident; it was praising Qod with spiritual songs, and the 
melody of musical instrumenta. Perhaps Miriam, the sister 
of Aaron, may be called a prophetess only on this account, 
that she led the concert of the women, who sung the koi^ 
of Moses with timbrels and witli dances; Exod. xv. 20, 21. 
Thus the lieathen poets, who sung or composed verses in 
praise of their gods, were called by the Romans tales, or 
prophcu; which is of the same import with the Greek wpa^ijrK> 

' Tlw rabbta aBy, all the prophtli {wophcsiKl coiiMfniuK >>>e Ateauli. 
Vid. Cod. SsaMns, ci^ u. wet. asxTii. p. 302 ; Cocwii «Kc«fpt. Oconr. 



[aooK I. 

ft tiUe whicb St. Pud i^irw to ^ndandes, m Crettn poet;j 
Tit. i. 12. 

Tbi» notioa of propheu and prapb«cyitt|; umj give touMl 
Hfrht to the following pMMgc ia the Fmi Rputle to tb*| 
(Corinthians, chap. xi. ^ : *' Evrry womiin, praying or pre 
phajing with her head uncoTcred, diahonoarctii her head.'*'' 
Prophesying canDOt be niKleratood in the strictrr aeiue 
roretelliiig things to oonw. oor even of interpreting the ho^; 
Scriptures by diriQe inspiration; in which seoie the nonli 
nana to b« tued. when the apostle, dtscuur^ing of »pintii«l1 
gifts, prtfien the gift of prophecy above all othera, becaiiM,] 
futh he, " he that propbeaieth apeaketh onto men for nditica* | 
tion, and exhortation, and comfort;" I Cor.xnr.3. Hanever,| 
neither of these kinds of propbe^'ing will auit with the deaigii 
of tbe mpoetb, when, in the passage we are now conaidenii^j 
he speeka of a womauV prophe^ring in the church or coogra* j 
gBAion; for there «he was not permitted to vpeak, nor »o much ^ 
M to ask a question for her instmction, mnrh It^A to teach < 
•od infltmct others; ver. 34. In order to Aolve the dilhculiyJ 
some would have the word ir^m^^moiNNi to be taken piinaively, 
and to signify, a hearing or being present at prophesytog : bal 
this ia an acceptation of the (enn contrary to the rules 
grammar, and without example either in Scripture or in any I 
profane author. Besides, though abe may properly enough 
be said to pray, as joining with the minister, who is the mouthi 
of the congregation to God; yet with no propriety can the 
be said to prophesy, only as attending on the preaching of the 
ttiniBter, who is considered as the mouth of Ood to the con- 

Perhaps, then, prophesying may bete nMn (as w« have] 
shown it does mean in other pkcea) praising God in psahasl 
and hymns. And thus pn^ying ^^d prophesyiof; aie fitlyj 
joined together, these being the two parts of public worshif 
in which the whole coi^pmgstaon is suppoaed to units.* 

" Vid- Mflik't Dist/& di»c xvi. on t Cor. xL ft, p. 58. « mi). of I 
Wofk*. Smith, in his Discount oo Proplwcy, spprabtudi that siopnt 
esBsd foo^tcf, when (be map or pMlms were coinpesed nnder tbt no 
Sbmw of iht OMat SpfaHf M lbs smtnd at aiaaDal iinuiuasutt. PBba|» 
ssas flf ib« pfspbiis taSTtaff uHcrsd awh imfinA wmpaMam W m^ 

rH*P, T|.] or THE PROPHETS. 239 

We Imre ohwrred. that a prophet, in the tttrict uid proper 
BOnto, was one, to wlirxu the know)e<l|re of vecret tluugs wM 
TcveaJed, m order that he mt^ht declare them to others. Of 
such propheca the talmudiBts reckon forty-eight from Abraham 
to MaJac^^ and seven proptietf aaes.* It is remarkable, that 
though, to make up their catalogue, tlity take in Eldad and 
Medad, meationed in the book of Numbers, cbap. xi. 26; 
Cdtceraing whom, bowevur, il does not appear that they re- 
reaied any secret ; but their propbeayinf; waa no more than 
exboctin^ the ptraplu to obedience to God, to which they were 
movnd. and in which they were aasitited by the Holy bpirit, 
as were the rest of the neventy elders, vcr. '35; notwithstand- 
ing Una, i say, Ihey do not admit U&tiiel into the liat.i- nor 
place h» writiuf^ among those of the prophets, hut only among 
the ha;^ogmpha;:t which tliey reckon of the least authority 
of all tlie canonical books. The reasonv they assign for it. as 
tb<y an radted by the authors of the Ancient Univeraal His* 
tory,§ are, 

1st. 'Iliat Daniel was a counter, and spent his life in luxury 
and grandeur, in the service of on ancircumciscd king. 

'^dly. That the spirit of prophecy was confined to the land 
of Canaan, out of which he Uved all bis life. And some have 
added a 

^ reason ; namely, that he was made a eunuch, according 
to Isaiah 'h prophecy, which he delivered to Hexckiah, 2 Kings 
XX. 18; and such were excluded from entering into the con- 
gregntkn) of the Lord : though Aben-Ezra vindicates him from 
tins tmpntBtion.|t 

tnitlti Kive occnsioa to the oure geaenJ sppUcaiion of the uam to oil «bo 
Ring divine hjmuw, sceoaipuiied mtJi innnuncntal muaic S«c Snidi'i 
Select DiscouiWii, p. 330. 233. 

* Vid. Megill. fol. xh. i, ci It-S. Jarchi ad loc. ; vid. euaia noum Vomii 
ad p. 104; Msinwa. uset. de Fnndsnieni. Lsgis. edit. Amsie). ItiWh 

-f Vid. Cocceii ewetpi. Gmsr. Cod. Sanliedf. cap. xi. wci. x«i. p. 334, 
edit. Aouid. 1619. Hi (Rtnipc U^^iu, Zacliaiias, «i MiilxInaH) pnt«u- 
baiU ipal, qui tmenl proplisto, qvua Dwiel doo fupril prophvu. lft%e illii 
ra^Of ob viuua vbioiwni. 

t Mainwrn. Mora Ncrovh. part ii. cap. xlv. p. 318, 319. edit, fiusuwf. 
DsnI. 1629. 

^ llni. of the Jewt, booh, i. dii^k vii. bwl iti.Mfalia.aou. 

I Aben-Etfi io DssM. 



[book I. 

R. Johnnan in reprefleiit«d in tlic Oemara u castji^ a itiU' 
more injuhouii r«Hection oo him ; Damely, that he stole into 
Egypt to buy hogs, at the time Nebuchadnezzar set up hitf' 
goldeii image, and liis three friends, Shadrach. MeKhech,aDd.i 
Ahednego, were thruwii into llic fiery furnace for refusing tcii 
worship it.* 

Afler all, it is easy to discern what was the trve cause of 
the rancour which many of the tabbies have discovered iigmtiiit' 
this eminent prt>phvl : it is because he ha» so clearly predicted 
and^ascertiiined the time of the Messiah's coming, which t* 
long since elapsed ; and because of the $^at advantage which 
the Cliriftlians have hereby obtained in tbeirar^umentii against 
the Jews. Therefore, I say, though their liistonan Josephus 
waa «o far from denying bim the title of a prophet, that he haa 
in several respects given him the preference to tbe rest of the 
prophets ;1- and notwithstanding the high character that is 
given of him in the prophecy of Ksekiel, chap. xiv. 14, 
wherein he is ranked witli \oah and Job, men of eminent 
hghteousnesa and piety ; nevertheless, several of the ruU)ieM, 
though not all.t have spitefully endeavoured la sink his cha- 
racter below that of a prophet, or even of a good man. 

Malachi has been commonly reckoned by tlie ChnstiBiu 
the last prophet^ under the Old Testament dispensatiou, with 
whom the spirit of prophecy ceased four hundred eightv-six 
years before Christ. Nevertheless Jonephus mentions several 
others, who during those ages predicted various future event* 
by the spirit of prophecy ; as one Judas an E«eiw,B SazDeaa,if 
Mahanecn ;** and Hircaniis the high'phest, the fourth of the 
Asmonean princes from Judas Maccabeus, is said by Josephos 

* Vid. Cod. Suthedrio, ap. id. sect. idli. spud Cocomi «xosrpc. Gcnir. 
p. 3tO, adiL AisiNl. 1629. 

t Aaliii. lib. t. cnp. li. mci.tu. p. Si2, edit. HsTcre. 
} Vid. Hottrago. Thmur. Ffatlakg. Ub. ti. csp. i. seci- Bl. p. i\\, edn. 
[T^V. 1649. 

( SoMith the Talmud liliFMiAc. Vid. Coeceti riu:CTpi. Oemsr Suhedr. 
asp. L tecl. lUL p. 156. Tndiint MagvNn, t% quo monui nim proplMfis 
iMteriote*, Ilaggctu, ZscfaahsU} MaUduu, kblstiu at Sp'thttu Suetua tb 

n Anii(| [ill. xiii.cap.ii.MCt.U. p.665,Mlrl Uarerc Ic^lmw rt^m Eifw^rw* 
|W ra ^»^, •(•ji««rt ti nr ef wpmnn Itc^waptMV roXfttir. 
f lA. IT. sap. t Met t. p. 760. ** fM. atfk. a. aiet. v. p. m. 

I. VI.] 



lo be honoured with three of the hif^faeat di^itiefl, beint^ a 
prophet, as well as pnncr and high-priest. In his Antiquities 
be gives two instancett of his prophetic gift** Howerer that 
be. we have good authority to add John the Baptist to the 
list of proph«ts under lh« Old Testament, though his history 
U recorded in the N«w ; for h« Ured and prophe«ied before 
tbc kingdom of God. or the Messiah's kingdom, was set up. 
Accordingly our Saviour distinguishes the time in which John 
the T)*ptii)t lived, from the time of the kingdom of God, or 
the gospel dispensation. " Among tJio5e that are born of 
women. Ihi^re is not a greater prophet than John the Baptist, 
but he that is leaat in the kingdom of God is greater than he." 
Luke vt). 24 ; that is, on account of the clearness of the gos- 
pel revelation, by means of which, ordinary Christians may 
know more of the glories of divine grace, than any of the 
Old Testament prophets, or even John himself knew. 

On the same account we may add to the hst of the Old 
Testament prophets, Zachariah, the father of John, " who was 
filled with the Holy Ghost and prophesied," l.uke i. G7 ; and 
Itkewiae Simeon, and Anna the prophetess ; chap. ii. 2&. 36. 
Indeed, some of the Jewish rahbies will not allow that the 
spirit of prophecy ever quite departed from them ; but they 
tell us of a certain SaZovxta, or torch of prophecy, one shining 
when another was set. R. Kimchi gives us this mystical gloss 
upon the following passage in the First Book of Samuel : "And 
it came to pass at that time, when Eli was laid down iu his 
place, and his eyes began to wax dim, that he could not see, 
aod ere the lamp of God went out in the temple of the Lord, 
where the ark of God was, and Samuel was laid dovro to 
sleep, that the I*ord called Samuel," chap. iii. 2 — 4 ; — I say, 
R. Kimchi, glossing on these words, saith. " This is spoken 
mystically concerning the spirit of prophecy ; according to the 
saying among our doctors. The Kun ri^eth, and the suD 
•etteth ; that is, ere God makes the sun of one righteous 
man to set, he makes the «nn of another righteous man to 

But, leaving the Jewish whims and fables concerning the 
number of their prophets, we proceed to iaquiie coocemiiig 

* Lib. xiii. cap. a. MCt- ui- p. MS; u>d cap- xu- »Kt i. p. 644. 


JBWian A9(TI4}GITIKi. 

[■OOK 1. 

the manner in which the rerelalion wis made, both by God 
to the jiropheu, uiil by thuiu tu the peoplc- 

HoireT«r, before we directly consider the muin«r iu which 

Ood revealed accrcu to the prophets, it will be proper to 

prcmiic a tew words concerning the qualilications of a pro- 

iphet, or tfao pre-rcqaiRitett to h tnan'B receiving the spirit of 


- The first and moit esseuti&l quaUfkation of a prophet was 
true pioty. Tliis is the conitant sense and opiaion of the 
iewish doctors.* To which agree those words of St. Peter, 
•' Holy men of God spake as they wcro moved by the Holy 
GhOdt;" 2 Pet. i. 21. Yet this central rule in not without 
excsptions ; for Obd, on special occamons and tor particular 
'purpoMS, Bometimee vonohsafod the prophetic spirit to bad 
nan; as to Balanm, " who loved the wages of unriKhtoous- 
nesB." However, it may well be aupposed, that nooe but 
good men were stated prophets, k> as to be frequently &- 
roared with the diviiM afflatus ; and especially, that none but 
neh were honoured with being employed an the writers at 
any part of the canon of Scripture; insomuch, that tlie as- 
sertion of St. Peter concerning the written pnipheeies of the 
Old Testament, is true without exception. 

We may, perhaps, reasonably aooouot for the ceasing of the 
spirit of prophecy trom among the Jews in the latter ages of 
Iheir polity, till it was revived at the comiag of our Smvioor, 
from their universal degeneracy and corruption in religioA 
and morals. 

2dly. The mind of the prophei roust be in a proper posture 
and frame for rcreivin<; the divine afflatus, or prophetic spirtt ; 
that is, say the doctors, it must not be oppressed with grief, 
or disturbed with passion of any kind. Their tradition says^ 
that Jacob did not prophecy all the time of his grief for Uie 
loss of Joeeph ; nor Moees for a loog time after the return of ' 
the spies, who brought an evil report of the land of Canaan, 
beoauAc cf hio indignation against them.i- And by the holy 
spirit, which David pray^ might not bo talcen away, but r^ 
' Mored to bin, Psalm li. 10, 11, the Cbeldee Paraphrasl. and 
tbe Hebrew oommentaton, mideratand the spirit of prophecy, 

' BduiBMt. Morth Nrtoch. jnui li. ra^i. niit p. 284. 
♦ &l«iiiKi«. MOTfb Netocti. «ir. nxvi. p. tW, •••. 



vrhicli, they say, vru withdrawn oa account of his sorrow and 
grief for biB shameful miscarriage in Lbe matter of Uriufa. 
And when be prajs. that Ood would " make him to hear joy 
and gladueu," ver. 8, they uoderstand it of a cheerl'nl frame 
of mind, which would fit him for receiving the prophetic af- 
Aatui ; and ** the free spirit, with which he prays he might 
be upheld," ver. 12, they interpret of a aptrit of alacrity and 
Ubertv o( mind, free from the oppreeoion of grief, or diKcom- 
poBure of paasioa. 

In order to prove, that pawkm disqualified a man for re- 
ceiving the prophetic afflatus, they allege the story of Elisha, 
in the third chapter of the Second Book of Kings : when the 
kings of Judah, and Israel, and Edom, in their distress for 
water during on expedition agaiost Moab, came to Klisha, to 
inquire of Ood by him, the prophet seems to hare been moved 
with indignation against the wicked kiog of Isruel, addressing 
him in the following maimer: "What have I to do with tliee? 
Oet ibee to the prophets of thy father, and to the prophets of 
thy mother ; surely if it were not that 1 regard the presence 
of Jehoeaphat. the kingof Judah, I would not look upon thee, 
nor see thee:" 2 Kings iii. 12, 13. However, being willing 
to oblige Jehoftaphat. " he railed for a mitistrel; and it came 
to pasH when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord 
came upon him;" ver. 15. The use of the min^lret seenu (o 
be to calm liis passion and compose his mind, that he might 
be fit to receive the divine ntHatua. 

Tliis may perhapa suggest to ua one rtason, why the pro- 
phetH pructiecd muaic, see 1 Sam. x. 5 ; namely, because of 
its tendency to compose their minds, and to free them from 
■11 auch melancholy or angry passions, as would render ihem 
unfit for the spirit of prophecy. We find this remedy sue- 
oessfttUy applied to Saul's melancholy : " And it came to pass, 
when the evil spirit from Go<l van upon Sanl, that David took 
an harp anil played with his band ; so Saul was refreshed and 
was well, and the evil spirit dqiartcd from him;" 1 Sam. xvi. 
23. This evil spirit was perhttfM origiuolly nothing but me- 
hncboly, or grief and anguish, which, however, tbro(^;li 
diraie penmnioa, was wroo^ upon and heighteaed by the 
iniiaiifttioiu «f some eril apirit, which, at tioica, it seemB. 
instigated hin to prophesy : " It came to pass on the morrow, 

R 2 


J e WISH antTqvitTI 


that the eril ipirit crnne upon him, and h« pm|ihtait^ in th*] 
midst of ibe house," 1 Sani. xviii. 10; whic)) theTargutu 
Jonathan rendera "tDBanirit in medio domus;" and RablA^ 
Leri Hen (Irrfihon gInueH upon it thus: " He spake in the 
midst of the houBe very confusedly, by resBon oi the uvil 
Bpiht." But why this should be calk-d prophesying is not 
Msy to determiDe. unless he sometiroes suog in his raving 
fits, since singing is called prophesying, u we ha^e already' 
shown. Mr. Heoiy supposes, Saul pretended a religions 
ecstasy, imitatinfjr the motion* and gestures of a prophet,^ 
with a design to d(«o\' David into a snare, and put him oi 
from bis gnnrd, and perhaps, tr hu could kdl him, to impute 
it 10 a divine impulse. However that wub, Saurs original' 
disorder was probably nielancboly. for which music was »{ 
proper remedy. And so it in often atill found to be; par-'' 
ticularly for the deep melancholy occasioned bv the bite of t 
tatancula, which is ordinarily cured by this means. Vvu may 
see a great variety of instances of the powesful effects of music 
in calming the poasions of the mind, and in some cases curing 
the diKordcra of the bodv. produced by Ikichart in his Hie- 

We come now to consider the maimer in which God n^ 
vealed secrets to the prophets : which the apostle saith was 
«YjXtrr^on-«»?, " in divert manners." Heb. i. I, as by dreuns. 
visions, inspirations, voices, and angels. 

Ist. By dreams and visions. I join these together, since 
they seem to \te sometimes used as synonymous terms; and 
visions )m|jort no more than prophetic dreams. 'I'hos Neba- 
chndoexzar's dreain is called the visions of his head ; Dan. ii. 
2fl. And so is Daniel's dream, chap. vii. 1. This is pn> 
perly what we are to understand by a " vision of the night," 
in the book of Job. chap. xx. 8; and God is snid to speak 
** in a dream, in n vision of the night ;" chap. Kxxiii. 14, 16. 
And in Genesis. God "spake unto Israel in the visiooi of 
the night :" chap. xlvi. 2. N^vertheletm. in Homo other places, 
iviaions seem to be distinguished from dreams ; as in the 
Mlowing paasage : " Your old men shall dream dreams, and 
your young men shall see visions;" Joel ii. 28. When a 
Tiaioa ia diattnguished from a dream, I conreive it detiotM 
* Psfi 1, lib, U. cap. sliv. p. 461^-405, Oper. n\. ii. ina. 

CHAP, vr.l 



the repraeeniatioD of tbings Disde to the iiua^uatioii of the 
prophet whiJe he is awoke. Ferbape ibe diiibrence between 
prophetic dreams and vuioiis may be much tite same as be- 
lwci.'n common dreams and a deUnuui in a ferer; in which 
the patient, though awake, imagines he sees things and per> 
MUiB that are not prcaent, and of which therefore bis senses 
l^ivc hiui nn notice. 

Such was the vistan that St. Peter saw iii a trance or ecs- 
tasy; Acts xi. 5. For he saw it, not upon his bed in the 
visioog uf the iiighl, but on the houae-top about noon, while 
he waa at prayer; chap. x. H. lU. Such perhaps was Paul's 
vision of the third beaveus, 2 Cor. xii. 1, 2. 4 ; though whe- 
ther this was not more than a vision, Paul himself could not 
inform us : " Whether in the body, 1 cannot tell ; or out of 
the body, I cannot tell: God kiioweth." That is, whether 
cele&tial objects were represented to him in a vision only; or 
whether his soul was really for a lime separated from bis body, 
and tniuslated mto the heavenly regions. However, by the 
way, wti may surely conclude, from St. Paul'a uncertainty on 
this head, that the soul is something quite distinct from the 
body, ninch can exist and act, and receive and undemLind 
celestial things in a state of separation from it; uthcr\%i»ic* the 
•oul must have had this vision in the body, or not at all, and 
it could have been no doubt witli St. Paul, whether at this 
Ixuut be was m the body or out of the body. 

Again, the word vision is applied, not only to such tma- 
gioary representations, but to real miraculous appearances 
made to the senses- Thus the angel's appearing to Zacbariaii 
in the temple is culled a vision ; Lake i. ii"^. iSometimcs the 
wotd is used inalaxersensc, for any kind uf divine revelation; 
as the voice which the child Samuel heard in the uxbernacle, 
is colled a vision, though it doc!> not seem to have been ac- 
CfMupsuied with any bensibic appearance; 1 Sam. iii. 16. 
The books of the prophecies of Isaiah, Obadioh, ajid N'afaum, 
Hte expressly called tlieir visions; though it does not itcem 
probable, that all the revelations contained in them, were 
conveyed to the prophets by viMunury representations. 

It has been inquired, how the prophets could certainty dis- 
tinguish Uiusc prophetic drcamo and visions from cuamiuu 
drwuns, and from cnLbusiastical and diabolical delusions ; fur 



BOOR t. 

which parpoMs serera) criteria have been aasi^«d by Jewish 
and Christian wrilera ; for instance, 

I St. Divine dreama and visioDB are said to have been known 
by the extraordinRry majesty and splendour of the appear- 
ance, or the Btreiij^h and vigour of the repreaentiitiun mad« 
to the prophet, and the Uvelineas of his perception of it; see 
Dan. vii. 8; viii. 27 ; x. 8 ; which, Honietimes, was such as 
the feeble powers of nature could hardly sustain.* 

2dly. During the divine ecataay, the prophet had the full 
exercise of his rooAon if whereas diabolical posaes«ot\s and 
inaptrations threw him intu a 5t of maducas. 8o Virgil d»> 
scribea the Sybil, wbvn tlie prnphuLic afflatus came upon her, 
as perfectly distracted and raving. 

-Subito DOD vultus, noD color unui. 

Non cofDpnt maaieK coniK : B«d penu* snhduu. 
El rabie fen cords niment ; majorqne riien, 
the flKMtale Huaiis : ASlua eat Niuaiae quuik> 
Jim proprioTS Osi. 

XneML vi. 1. 47, et mi^ 

3dly. The nnbjoct-matter nf divine visions and revelations, , 
it is supposed, was aJway*^ Henoua, weighty, and imjiortnntjj 
such as it became tlie wiulom, and holiness, and nmjeaty of] 
God to reveal. 

After all, if we are content without being wiee above what 
is written, wc- must frankly acknowledge, we do not certainly 
know what those criteria were. But of this we may be sure, 
and it is sufficient, that God, who has an absolute power over 
thu hearts and spirils of men, can give any man certain eri- 
deoce and aaeurance in his own breast, that a revel 
which he ia pleased to vouchsafe, does indoed come fram' 
him; otherwise, God would be supposed to be the most iu- 

* Mainon. de Pundsmeni. Lfgis, cap. vh. hcL iii. p. 93. 103, edit 
Irt e t pict Vmiii, Aiulel. 1660. 

f Thi* n i{[re«al>l« to tli« definition whidi Haimonidn giTat of proi^' 
pbscy, ihst il to sa taflamc* ot iba Deity, Km upon ih* nliond, aad thsn 
QpOB ihs iiBSgiBaiiva bcoltjr, by iIm nadislioa oflJic adrra ialvUsci. Wd. 
Uorah Nevodi* pan ti. c^- xxt-vi. p. 3^ ; compani cap. xxxtUI., wpecisUy 
p. SOO. Pe TCfU propbciis taoium lo<iimtua sum, ut nenpc •xcipun eoi, 
>^Qi aolli ntionnlia, neqiifi Mjaentiain bib«nt, led nudas tAnuim imsgins- 
ttooH* M coglutjooeB. RcMoo, ihenftm, Accordiai to tUi Judtoow rabbi, 
*faa «l«ay« in caMCfM dahsg the ptopbMK tcstaay. 




potent nf all rational beings, whOj while he is capable of coo- 
veying bis mind to his creatures, is incapable of making them 
■ensibJe that he duea so. When Jacob awoke out of his 
sleep, he certainly knew (by what critenoa we connoi tell) 
that the visionary dream, willi which be had been favoured, 
was of God; Geo. xxviii, 16. Pharaoh, though & heathen 
king, knew hi« dream was extraordinary and prophetic, as ap- 
peart by his spirit being so troubled about it. and by hi« send- 
ing for all the magicians and wise men of Egypt to explain it 
to him; Gen. xli. 8. And Nebuchadnozxar was sure he had 
Imd an extraordiuary prophetic dream, though he could not 
recolteot it. Otherwise no caonot suppose he would have 
been ko exceeding augry at the wise men of Babylon, for not 
reTealing and explaining it to hioi ; Dan. u. 12. And no 
doubt Uod gave Abcahani likewise such irresistible evidence 
and assurance, that it was he who commanded him to nacri- 
lice his son Isaac, as overcame all the reluctance of paternal 
aAlCtion, and whatever reaaon might object against so unn&- 
tuml a saoritice, or ho would never have set about it. 

Thua much for the criteria by which the prophets might 
know, that their dreams or visions, and other revelations, came 
from God. 

Before we have doou with this head, it will be {iropor to 
inquire, by what critena other persons might judge and be 
assured, that the revelations which the prophets delivered. 
were tnw divine revelations. 

Here it must be observed, that if the prophet ddjvered any 
thing that was oODtradiotory to the invariable law of nature, 
it was to be rejected, and he was to be treated an a false pro- 
phet, even though he produced miracles in evidence of his 
mission from God; Dout xiii. 1 — 3. For it was a muoh 
more supposeable case, that the devil might counterfeit oura- 
dse, titan that God would contradict the immutable law of 

But if nothing which the prophet delivered was contrary to 
that law, then his divine mission might be evidenced variotM 
ways : — 

Ist. By the sanctity of his own life,* which afibrded very 

* Maimnti. dc FuoduimL L^gia, cap. vti. (VCt. i. it p. 07—69, cdil. M 
■utcipret. Vontii, Anutel. I6tt9. 



[ftOOK U 

pnlNble growid to bcliere. that he did not comiterfuii 
frnteod revdatiooB which bad uot becii made tu him. Upoo'' 
this «videace, lUrod regarded John the B&pttat u & divine 
prophet. He " feared John, knowing that he was a just man 
tnd holy;" Mark vi. 30. 

2dly. By Uie tesliinany of other prophets of undoubted ve- 
laetty.* Thutt Moses bofe testimony to Joshua, when he gave 
him a charge in the name of God Mont all the congregation ; 
Deut. xxxi. 23. And John thu Baptiiii. whom the Jews ac- 
knowledged to be a prophet, twre witness to Christ; John i. 

3dly- Sometimes his miesMHi was proved by minictes ; aa 
the miftsioo of Moses to the people of Israel, Exod. iv. 1 — 10. 
and afterward to Pharaoh, chap. vtj. 9. 

4thiy. At other times by some sodden and remark able ' 
judgment from Uod, upon such as alighted and rejected the 
maaage he delivered in the name of the Lord : as on Jero- 
boam, when he commanded the man of Ood In be taken into 
custody for tlie prediction be delivered, 1 Kings uii. 1 — 6; 
and in the case of Elijah's calling down fire from heaven, to 
eonaamc the cftptainn and troops of the king of Samaria; 
2Kingti.9— K\ 

fithly. By the accomplishment of his predictions ; whereas, 
if what he foretold did not come to pass, he wa.<t to be treated 
as a false prophet ; Deut. xviii. 22. Yet this rule was not to 
hold concerning the predictions of judgmenta, but only of 
good things or favuurablo events; see Jer. sxviii. 9. But 
aa for prophetic ibreateuing^, they were supposed to be con- 
. diUonal, and that the judgments or punishments denounced 
might be averted by repentance. It is evident, the Xine- 
vites understood Jonah's prediction of the deatructiou of their 
city in forty days in this sense, though delivered without any 
[Sondition crpressed ; Jonah iii. 4. Otheru'iM:, they would 
had no encouragement to repent, in hopes tJiat Lhorcby 
I jadgmenl might be averted ; ver. 9. It was, liiurefore, no 
['Vvidence against Jonah's bemg a true prophet, commissioned 
[«f Ood, that this hta prediction was not fulftlled.f 

It is very proper, while we are upon the subjtKt of pro- 

* Mataxxi. At Fimrliaumi legn, csp. a. *ecL ix. p. 147. 
Y MslBoa. de Fundunenl. hefiit etp. a.^McL ii.— vai. 

finkT. Ti.l 


phctic dreams and visions, to inquire whether thu accounti 
of the severnJ symbolical actions, said to be done by the pro- 
phets, are hiitoricH of real tactii, or only relalioua of tJieir 
dreams aodvisiuoft. Such as Isaiah's walking naked and bare- 
foot three jreara, " for a «ign and wonder" upon Egypt and 
Ethiopia, chap. xx. 2, 3 ; Jeremiah's hiding his girdle in a 
rock bv Enphrntes, chap, iciii. 4. 5 ; Rzekiel's mock siege of 
Jorusaiem, chap, iv.; Hosea's raking a wife of whoredom, 
chap. i. 2 ; and several otbcra. 

Learned men, ofconi^iderable repulatiun, have been divided 
in their sentiments on Uii-s iiuustiiin. Aharbuncl and R. Solo- 
mon among the Jews, and the generality of Christian writers 
before Calvin, understood these iinrralives in the hteral seose, 
as histories of real faictt. On the olh«^ side, A)>cn-E/ra and 
MlilDonides, * and. since Calvin, several other Christian 
irriterB take them to be onlv relations of prophetic dreams 
and visions. 

The principal nrgnment alleged to prove these actions were 
really done, is, thst several of them are said to be signs to the 
people: as Isaiali's walking naked and barefoot, Ezekiel's 
mock siege uf Jerusalem, chap. iv. 3, and his removing hbi 
hoDsohold goods ; chap. xii. 6. Now, it is said, how could 
that be a sign to any people, which never was presented be- 
fore them, but only ucted in the imagination of the prnphet 1 
To this, however, it may be replied, that these cjcprc«aions, 
" this shall be a sign," or " I have set thee to be a sign to 
the houHo of Israel." were a part of the dream or vision ; the 
prophet imugining not only that he saw and did certain things 
or actions, but that be beard such declarations concerning the 
end for which they were designed, lliese were, therefore, 
imagtoary signs, given to imagmary persons ; but when after- 
ward the vision was revealod to tlie real pereons, for wliose 
use it was intended, it must have the Karae efiect upon them 
(provided they believed it to be a divine vision) as if it had 
b«en a real fact, and transacted l»efore their eyes. And thus 
what was done in vision was properly a sign to them to whom 
it was declared and applied bv the prophet. 

On the other bond, to prove that thei^e symbolical actions 
of the prophets were dooe only in imagination, or that the uC' 
* ^'id Maimon. Morvli Nemcb. )isii. ii. rap. xir'i. 



[booe U} 

counts of Uwm ore mere narrative* of the prophets* 
or vi&iofu. it is alleged, 

lot. That sereral of tb« things aaid to be done, are highlyl 
iapmbafale, if not impoBsible to be really performed. For 
^JBMtaiKe, that Inuah should walk naked and barefooted three 
together, summer and winter, even if you ottderfttand 
^ his being naked, merely being without hia upper ^^ment: 
that Jeremiah akould send yoket lo the kiu^ uf Udom, aud 
lo the king of Moab, and to the king of the Anunoniteti, and 
to the king of Tyrus. and to the king ofZidon, Jer. xxvii. 
3; and that he should take ao long a journey as from Jeru- 
•olem to the Eophrates, which in about five hundred miles, to 
hide hifi girdle in u rock ; and that after it was rotted, he 
should take the same long journey to fetch it back again, 
chap. xiii. 4.6,7; and that he should take a wine-cup froBft 
God* and carry it up and down to atl oations, far and near. 
ereo all the kingdoms which are upon the face of the earth, 
and make thorn drink it, — is more than improbable; chap. 
xxT. 15 — 29. So likewise that Ezekiel should actually eat 
a roll, which God gave him. chap. iii. I. 3; and that he 
ahould lie npon his left nidi; thn-f hundrc<l and ninety* days 
together, and after that forty days totrcther on his right aide, 
with bands upon him that he could not turn frtim one side to 
the other, chap, ir., is not only extremely improtmhle upon 
aevaral accounts, but hardly possiUa to be dune in tlie time 
allotted to this whole a&tr; for it all paaaed between the pro- 
phet'a eeaing his lirst vision at the river Kebar, which was on 
the fifth day of the fourtli montli, in the hfth year of kmg Je- 
hoiachin's captivity, chap. i. 1, 2, and bis sitting in hu house 
with the elden of Judah on the fiflh day of the sixth month of 
the sixth year, chap. riii. I ; that is, within a year and two 
months. Now the Jewish year, being lunar, eooaialed of three 
hundred hfty-four day*, and their month of twenty-nine tlaya 
and thirty days alternately ; therefore a year and tno months 
(three hundred tifty-fonr, twtuity-nme. and thirty, added to- 
gtther) could uinunnt to nu more than four hundred and thir- 
teen days; which felli short of the number of days, during 
which the prophet i« said to Ue on his side, aamely. four 
hundred und tliirty days, by seventeen day*- And if yon de- 
duct also, from thr; four hundred and thirteen days, the sercn 

ctiftr. Ti.] 



dav" which he sat among the captives atTelabib^ chap. lii. 
15, there remains but foor hundred and six daya; which arc 
twenty-four days short of four hundred and thirty. 

The onlv colour of an answer which I have met with to 
this aigument, is, that possibly this might be au eoiboiymeau 
year, id which a whole month was lutercahited ; as it was once 
in thr«« years; or, more exactly, there were seven emboly- 
mfon years in nineteen, in order to reduce the lunar year to 
the solar. On this supposition, indeed, there will be time 
enough for the prophet's lying on bin side, in the literal sense, 
four hundred and thirty Hay». Uut this solntion is too subtle 
for common readers. Four hundred and thirty days, with 
the addition of seven days when the prophet sat at Telabib, 
amount to a year and nearly three months in common compu- 
tation ; and can it be thought the sacred wnter would have 
allotieJ but a year and two months for the whole affair (sup- 
posing it to be a history uf real fact), without the least hint 
how the glaring contradiction, which would stare every body 
in the face on the first reading;, might possibly be reconciled? 

To this head of impossibilities we may refer God's bringing 
Ahmharo abroad into the field, and showing him the start, 
Gpu. XV. 5; since it appears, that it was not yet sun-set: 
" when the sun was going down," it is said, " a great sleep 
fell upon Abraham;" ver. 12. From whence it is manifest, 
that his going out before to view the stars, his ordering several 
living creatures for sacrifice, and his driving away the fowls 
that came down upon the careniUK-s, were all pf^ormed in 
prophetic vision only; as is indeed intimated when it iasaid, 
" liie word of the Lord came unto Abraham in a vision;'* 
ver. 1. 

'.idly. There are some things said to be dorve by the pro- 
phets, in their narrativeB of these aymbolical actions, which 
could not he really done without sin; and therefore we may 
conclude, that neither did God order them, nor did they really 
do them ; but all was traiisacieil in the prophet's imagination, 
in a dream or vioiMi only. Thus the prophet lloeea is said, 
at the command of Ood, to take a wife of whoredom, that is, 
a whore; and to have three children by her. which ate called 
tho children of whoredom, that is, bastards; Moa. i. 2. Those 
who will have lliis to be real fact, allege, that she ia called a 

iswisa A*TiQcmM. 

fsooi I. 

irifc «f mha nA o m ; wfaids mtimttea. t]i«T my, tbM tboi^j 
iib» h»4 bem s Inrd pcfwo. jtct tb« prophet wm leg«% mar- 
hed to brr. Bot thnr &irpt, dmi Ae dnldm wbidi *he boM 
Ua we ofcd dnUm of wharadom. Beadn, he u ordered 
to " lof« tmadmr womum. aa •dahcmi,'* chap. iii. 1, and is 
■ud to baf« bovgiit or bind her fcr ** fifleen pteeea of nlTer. 
tr atkd a half of faariey, lo mbida with hitn many 
\4tjtJ' "ns, 2. 3: citroaMancea n^i^ endwtUy poiot out u 
k kwd ouaCns*. ogt a bafol wife. 

KoOT caa it be aappoaed, thai the p«Dphci Hoaca. the 
[cAaef aeope of whow prophecy tt to diaeorer «n, and io 
the jodgBiena of Ood apoo a pcofde ihot woold 
ha MAnned, would hiaiMlf be gnilty of each an immotal 
i aeaadalDoa pcaetioe a> to oohabtt with one bariot after 
idler? Macfaleaaanttbetbo^t,thatGod wostd have 
■iMwh it him M to do. It ia far more biieiy. that tho 
[irbek narrative m a rduionof his prophetic drvanu, to which 
woe npmenled to hia aeaaea. that wonki by no 
have been it lo be dooe in reality ; which dreams fur- 
aiibed out an aarafcening and very inatnwtire parable to the 
people of lend and Jadah, who were intended by the two 

3dly. A farther ar^ment to prove, thai theae cymbolicaJ 
■eliom arere only periormed in the imagnetieiia of the [>n>- 
pbata^ ia dnwn from tbeir own oanatma. by the learned 
Mr. Smith, in hi* DtKoarae on Prophecy.* He obeerves, 
that the propbata oac a di^erent «tyle, when relating thair 
itaaginaiy aymbobcal actions, and wbeo speaking of what they 
really did. In the fonner caae they cooBionly speak in the 
fint pcfaon, as " I did so and to." and " the Lord said eo 
and Hft to me ;" whereu in the lauer eaae they apeak of thein- 
selres in thi: third pcnion, idler the hhuumt of hixtoriana re- 
lating A iiiuttvr of Tact. Thns, after an account of one of 
these aymbolicaJ actions, nameiy. tlie prophet's getting a 
[HAtrr'a earthen bottle, and taking with hint Ihe ancients of 
the people, and the ancivnta of the priests, and conducting 
(hem to the valley of the son of llinnoni, and there breaking 
the bottle before them. J«r. six.; it fullon-s, " then came 

* Bm Bmtili'B S<]«ct DlKOMtwvtDiicoaTMen Prophecy, clup. n-fkaia, 
M adli CnabrMxt, l«73. 




J«reimtib from To^ihct, whither the Txtrd bud sent him U> 
praphecy, atkd he stood lu Ute court of tlic Lord's house;" 
ver. 14. Now Mr. Smith supposes, that when the prophet 
thus spoke of himRoIf in the thinl person, he related some real 
fuct; and that Jen-miah, iJu-rufore, really wore a yoke on his 
neck, which the false prophet Haiiuiiah broke J chap, xxviii. 10, 
UoMever. thi» observation will hardly hold univeraaliy; for 
Hoaaa related tite btory of bis cohabitiug with the former 
sdultere&s iu the third penwa, cbap. i, and gf his cohabitiug 
with the M9cund in the first person ; chap. iii. Yet there is no 
reason to bcUeve one was real fact, any more tiiau thu other. 
Though this argument, therefore, must be acknowledged to 
be iugeiiiuui», uo stress can be laid upon it. And so Uio two 
former arguments, it is presumed, are sufficient to sutiufy us, 
that many of the Scripture narratires of tJie synibolical actions 
of the propheta dre ouly relations of Ibeir prophetic dreums or 

2dly. Another way, in which secrets were revealed to the 
proph(;t«, was by inspiration ; that is, when something was 
suggested to the mind of the prophet while be wan awake, 
without Rny such Hcenical n^preseolation to his imagination or 
fancy as is made in drcums and visions. The Jewixh wnlcrs 
distinguish inspiration into several degroes, the chief of which, 
and indeed all that arc worth our notice, are what they call 
enpn m*% ruach hukkodhe»h, or the Holy Spirit, and the 
gradua Mosaicut, the degree of Moses, which they make to 
be the highest of all. 

The Isi, cnpn mi ruacii hakkodiush, is thus distingaibhed 
by Maimonidcs, When a man perceives some power to arise 
witfam and rest upon him. which urgeth bim to speak; iaso- 
much that, under this iuipulse, he either discoutse?) coucenung 
Wta and sciences, or utters psalms and hymns, or useful and 
salutary prvcepts for the conduct of bfc, ta matter political 
and civil, or sacred and divine; and that wlitle he ts awake, 
and has the ordinary use and vigour of his seoseii; this ia 
such a uae. concerning whom it is said, that he 8[>eaks by the 
Holy Spirit.* And thus St. Peter says, thai '* prophecy 
came not iu old time by the will of man. but holy men spteke 
as they were moved by the Holy Cb«M,"'2Pet. i. 21. Such 
* .Mitnion. HoTC Ncroch, pan it. cap. xlv. p, 3t7. 



[book I. 

waa the inspiration of Zocharias.of whom it in said, that "he, 
waa filled witli the Holy <ihoHl aud pruphuiicd," l.iike i. <37;^ 
and aiao of his wife Elizabeth, who " was filled with the Holy 
GhoHUand tpake with a loud Tuic«." Sic., v«r. 41, 42- What 
they delivered waa immediately suggested to iheir minds by 
die Holy Ghoiit. Thii kind of inspiration was calm and 
gentle, and did not throw the prophet into those fears and cod- 
stemationi), and disorders of body, which the prophetic dreams 
and visions sometimes did ;* but he continued, uU the time 
the afBatuB was upon hini, in full posacsiiion of himself. And 
by tliis circumstance divine inspiration was distingniahed firon 
the paendo-prophetical spirit of tlie heathens, and other pra-i 
tenders to prophecy; which if it did indeed, without dissiiua»j 
lation, enter into any person, its energy seems to have 
merely on the imagination or fancy, which was thereby 
disturbed, that the prophet was thrown iuto a aort ol'fury or 
madness. Thus Virgil represents the Sybil as distracted aud 
raving when the pruphetic itfflatus came upoa ber, iu a pas- 
sagv t)uoted betbre. The Pythi«u prophetuss is descnbed byi 
Lucant as full of fiiry, when she was inspired by the pt 
phetio spirit, and uttering her oracles with her hair toni, 
ftawii^ at the mouth, with many antic gcxtures. Aud 
Mndra is represented by Lycophron as prophesying in the 
Bune manner. t 

Thia sort of enthusiastic ecstasy was accounted by the 
primitive fatlien to be a sure diagnostic of a false propheUj 
Hence Miltiades made it an objection against the Monta-j 
DMta;^ and Clemeus AlexandriDus saith of those who madtj 
Uie pretence* to prophecy, tliat they prophesied being io 
aoatasy, like the servants of the devil-jl Tertulhan, who 
ft friend to the Montanists, giantx they were sometunes 

* See itr. ixlii. 0; Euli. iti. U; Dan- <rii. 15, Tiii. 97; llali. (11.3; 
and pcTfasps io ihn don ire maj abo tffer ba. xii. S, 3, though JonathM 
fkc iBffuBtMl aDd ioae ollwn aaien«ad lbs ptaphit as bsie spaaliing i 
•ka (wnoa of ife fTfcaU— m, ud w pwis nli sf Ike imam and mfutA i ' 
s fc o u ld oooi* upon iheoi. 

t Loean, lib. •- 1- 142—218, psMin. 

I L]roa))b. CawMndi. ah iniL 

I EuMb. Ettlcs. Iliitor. lib. v. np. arii. p. 3U, tM, eilil. Caau^ If flV. 

II Strom, lib. t. p. »11. D. ada. Puis, IMl. 




ecstntical in their prophetic dreamn or vtAions. but denies th«y 
feU into any rage or fury, which he seems to admit is the 
character of a false prophet.* St. Jerome, in hia preface to 
laaiah, aays, " the pro|ihitM did not Kpeak in ecstasies, neither 
did they epcak they knew not what; uor were thay, when 
they went about to instruct others, ignorant of what they said 
tb«nselv«6." St. CliryMtstom is of the same opiuiou.t " It 
is the property of a diviner." &ays he. " to be ecstatical. to 
undergo some violence, to be tossed and harried about like a 
madman; but it is otherwise with the prophet, whose under- 
standing is awake, and bis mmd in a sober and orderly tem- 
per, and he knows every thing he sailb." Hence we may 
infer what opinion these fathers would have entertained of the 
ecstatic fits of the modem French prophets, Quakers. Me- 
thodists, and Moravians. 

The energy of the pseudo-prophetic spirit is farther repre- 
sentbd as irresistible by the prophets themselves; so that they 
could not withstand it, nor suppieas its dictates, but moat 
inuucd lately uiier what it suggested. Tliua Virgil represents 
Uie 8;ybil, in her raving fit, as striving, but in vain, to shake 
ofl'the prophetic adiatus, while it ruturned upon her with so 
much the more violence, and forced hei to utter prophecies. 

At Phobi aondwB putwB. wwpsnit in astro 
BaGchtnirvusa. ■sjams li psclan ponil 
EimMiwe Dsunj usln nngu ills fiuigst 
Os tabidusi, (dim cotdsdaiaanB fioilque pctucailo. 

JEoetd. vi. I. 7T, Ice. 

On the contrary, tlta true prophets were only ^ipofuvot aro 
wMu/tanK 07(01*, 2 Pet. i. 21, " moved by the Holy Ghost," as 
we render it. The word imports a more gentle inlluence and 
snggcBlion, without any thing of force and violence upon the 
mind; such an iafluence as nu way disturbed and hindered, 
but rather pitunoU-Hl the ejiercise of reason and prudence. 
For the verb fifm sigiufics to uphold, support, bear, or carry; 
as the tree bears fruit, John xr. 6; and as Christ is said t» 
" uphold oD tUi^ by the word of bis power," Heb. i. 3, 
ftpwv rawavra. Stc. 'I be senae of which may perhaps be 
expressed by those beautiful lineit of Virgil : 

' TenoR. dt Aoinik. cap. xK. p. 99T, D. «lit. Bigalt. 
f Vtd. Bam. txn. m I. Or. 



[book I. 

Pmapk) eivhim, tc terrw, cunpowjuc lic|uentei 
Luccntemque gbltun luniv. litoniaque utn 
Spimui intuit alii, iounu|uc uifusa per wtus 
MiM agiui molafu, et nugno at corp«re mUcci. 

£arUI, VI. I. Ti4, « teq. 

And the prapheu of Qoct being thus moved by the Spirit. 
in the full exercise of their own reason and prudence, mny 
give tight to that passage of tlic upostle Paul, "The spirits 
of tlie prophets are subject to the prophets," 1 Cor. xiv. 32 ; 
or, as vroraonnu may perhaps be more justly rendered, are 
under the direction of, or are to be ordered bj- the propheLn; 
find it is most naturally inte^prct4^d by (Ernmcnius* and 
Thi^ophylactt as spoken in opposition to the heathen prophets; 
who, when the afflatus was upon thcni, cnuM uul be silent if 
tbcy would; whereas a true divine afflatus was so far Bubject 
' to the reason and discretion of the prophet, that he could Walt 
till it VTM proper to deliver what had been suggested to him ; 
and, therefore, they might all, as iheapofttle directs, prophecy 
one by one, ver. 31, and so avoid that confu&ion and tumult, 
which aeveral persons speaking together would necessarily 
occasion, and to which tiie Spirit of God did no way contitrain 
them; 1 Cor. xiv. 33. 

2dly. The highest degree of inspiration is, according to the 
Jewish doctors, the gradus iiotaicus; which Maimonides 
makes to excel that of any other prophet in four particulars : — 

1st. That Moses recced bia revelation awnkc, and in the 
full use of his reason and senses; whereas God manifested 
himself lo all other prophets by drcaiint und visions, when 
their senfie^ were locked up, and as it were useless. 

2dly. That Moses propheiued without Uie mediation of any 
angelic power, whereas all (he rest propberfed by the help of 
the ministry of angcU. 

3dly. That all other prophets were afraid and trouHrd, and 
fainted when the divine afflatus was upon them. But Mogcsi 
was not BO affected ; for the Scripture saya. " God apake unto 
him as a man speakelh unto his friend." 

4tbly. That Moses could prophesy ut all tiows, when h* 
would, which the oUier prophets could not.]: 

* (£«umen Commrat. in loc. vol. I. p. 564, D. tdtt. Pans, 1630. 

t Thflttphjl. Comment, in Epiit. in lov. p. 288, 289, edit. Lond. 1636. 

I Vld. Munoa. dc Fuoduntnt. Legii, cap. vii. fecLvi — u. p. 96 — 104. 




The Unit nod third of these diAtiiicUotis differ not at uU frooi 
the anpn rm rHuch hukinMiliesh ; the (second is certainly a 
miKtake, for " the law wu given by the disposition of angeU, 
hythr hand of a mediator/' namelv, Moses, Gal. iii. 19; and 
Ihe InsL is ^uite uncertain. We diKiiiins them all. tfacrefore. 
aa oot worthy ajiy farther notice. 

\* for Ihe prvftirence which the Scripture givw lo Moves 
above the other propheu. " There aroAc uut a prophet since 
in Ittme), like to Mose*. whom the Lord ku«w fac« to face." 
Ueiit. Kxxiv. 10; Le Clerc in for confining it to the time 
which hud elapbed since the death of Moses to the writing of 
ihe chapter in which this paaaagu ia contained ; or we may 
poMibly extend it to all the followiog ages of the Oki Teata- 
ment diapensation. 

Moae* yntA \\\t gf««test prophet, ax Gu<l delivered hia law 
by him to Jsrael ; as be wrought more miracles than any oX 
the rest, vbt. 11, I'i; and perha|U alaoas he had greater in* 
timacy n-ith God, and had luorcof tlie divine vttU revealetl to 
him than was revvaled toany other; which may be tlie mean- 
ing of the Lord's knowing him face to face, or apettkii^ to 
him " face to face," Exod. xxxiii. 11; for in ftuch a tienee the 
phniive of aeeiog " face to face" ia uaed in the following pas* 
sage of the First Kpintle to the CorinthianH, " Now we ttee 
Lhruugh a gla» darkly, but tlien face to face," chap, xiii, 12; 
■mporlini; thi' clear and perfect knowledge of the beavuuly 
Mtat«, in contradiHtiuction, not oidy to the scanty knowledge 
of the Jewish tttato nnd dispensation, which ia compared to 
Heeing only tlic whadow of thing*, but also to the imperfect 
though improved knowledge of the gospel state, which is 
compared to the neeing the image u( u thing in a glass 

H<lly. Another way, ui which iwcretB were reve-oled to the 
prophets, wua by voicett; aa to the child Samuel ; I Sam. iii. 
On« would suppose, thia ahonid be aa excellent a manner, and 
as high a degree of revelation aa any whatever; and. indeed^ 
it seems lo have ))e«n the true gradus Motaieua, or the man- 
ner of God's rereuling the law to Moses; with whom^ in the 
book of ExoiluB, be is said to have sjKiken face to face, aa a 
man speaks to his friend, chap, xxxiii. 1 1 ; and in tite book of 
Numbers, "mouth tomouth, even apparently :" which manner 



[nuoii 1. 

of revdbtion a at the nune timff prelcrrod to that by flmuns 
and vioona; see Numb. xii. (i — 8. Ncnip-nhplesA, the Jewish 
doctors make this, which thev rail tht; ^ip ra hntk kot, filia 
vor sen Jitia voeis, to be the very lowest degree nf propbecyt 
or ntber tu succeed in the room of prophecy. Rubbi IvaaCi 
the uullior of the book Cozri, mvs, " Thera is n trnditioo, 
that the men of the p;reftt synagogue were commanded to be 
akilled in all sciences ; principally IwcaMU! proplu>cy was neve* 
taken from lliem, or at least tJiut which supplied its room, 
the Vp n3 bath koi."* i>r. l.ia;hlfout says, llial both the 
Ulmudical am) lata' rabbiea make frequent mention of Vip na 
Italh kol, which wrved under the »econd temple aa their ut- 
most ivluge of revelauon. They call it Vip n3 f>alh kot, gC| 
the daughter of the voice, in relation to tlie oracle of Uriuii 
and 'niiiminim; which, according to tlieni. was deJiwrcd bj 
an artioulntc rnici- from the mercy-»eat. But upon thtd cetum-', 
tion of that oracle. thi« cainc in jts place, which is therefor* 
called the daughter or Kucceator of that voice. Hot aa 
instance oPthe *Tp ro htitit kol, the Doctor gives us thi». out^ 
of a moltitnde that arc to be found in the ulnandi»u : " When i 
Jonathan, the son of Tzziel, had composed the Targuin (^f tha . 
Propheti, tJierc came ^ra hath M, and aaid, Who hath, 
revealed my secrets u* tiie sons of men * And when he went 
about to exptiiiu the cJierninm. tliere cnme Vtp ra lnutt Icttt, 
and said, It iH(mou^."f 

But ifthp Vip ra fnith tmt wha in reuhty what the Jewialif 
writers pretend, a miracolous voice from God, the daughteri 
shouM Mem to be equal with the mother: atid it is hard t4i>| 
aay on what account thiit sort of re*elutioii was iiifi<rior to anjfj 
other. Dr. Pridi-auy hath cleared up thia dithculty. audi 
from another instance in the Talmud, hath fihown what sort oFj 
an oracle the Sp n3 hath koi wns.{ The paange whirh he 
quotes, out of many more inntanees, as he says, of the same 
tort, i» this: " Rabbi Joehanau and Habbi Simeon Ucn La- 
chifth desiring; to see the face of Habbi Suuiuel, a Babyluiiisb^ 
d(»ctor. Let u» follow. Mid they, the hearing of Sp nl imth kvtt^ 
Travelling therefore near a school, they heard the vwicfr of t] 

' MS. h>), Cuin. p»rl iii. •*<:i Jili, y. 210, SIT, tdil, Dutlorf Basil, lWtf.| 
+ S« Ijtthilbot'i iUniK>ny on K*n. At. 1». 
I OMMct. tMn )i ciMp. It Wb amtn lOT- 

if, VI.] 




boy reoding tlitise wunlit rpum the Finit Book of BBinuel, * And 
Sunuul liit-il ;' chap. xxv. I. Observing this, they inf^nvd 
that their friend Stioiuel was dead, and an tlioy found it had 
happened, for Samuel of fiabvlon was then dead." This in- 
utaace itufficieDtly shows u», Lhut tht- ir ^\3 ra Oath koi wa» no 
iiach Toice from Heavm aa they pretended, but only a tantas- 
ticol wayof divinatiouormcrehuoian inycnttoa. They applied 
to Vip rD bath kol the next words they accidentally heard from 
any body's mouth ; and this they called a voice from Heaven, 
because they fencied that hereby the judgment and decree of 
Heaven were declared, concerning any future eventa, of wbioh 
they desired to be pre-mfomwd. 

From thiii account of the Sip ra bath kol. we may judge, 
how abaurd it ia to imagine, aa sevenit divines have done, that 
Si. Peter referri to it, and allowa, aooonling to the Jewiah 
notion, the voice from Heaven to be inferior to prophecY, in the 
following remarkable passage of hia Second Epistle, which I 
will recite at large: " For wc have not followed cunntngly- 
devised fabluK, wlieu w« made Luowu iiatu yuu the power and 
coming of our Lord Jeaus Chrint. but «rere eye-witoeaaes of 
hilt WBJeaty. For he received from God the Father, honour 
and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the ex- 
cellent glory. Thta is my beloved Sod, in whom I am well 
pleast-Hl. And this voice which came from heaven we henrd 
when wo were wilJi him in the holy mount. We have also a 
mora sure word of prophecy, whereunto ye do well th*t ye 
take bc«J. a* unto a liicht thnt shineth in a dark place." &c. 
Tlie voice that St. Peter here speaks of was quite different 
frviQ the h\^ rG bath kol; it was the voice of the same Qod 
who Mpake by his Spirit to the propheta ; and none of thesn 
could be more sure of ibe divine inspiration, by which they 
ivrote their prophecies, than St. Peter and his two com- 
panioua were, of what they hoard and naw on the mount of 
Christ's tranafignratioit. 

Il is a questbn, however, on what account St. Peter strlea 
the writings of the prophets a more sure word of prophecy, 
^)3«ionpovTWirpo^<irti(oirXoYov,thBii that voice from Heaven. 
Some, aft Goiuarua and Qrotiiut, refer the word ^^^ainnpov to 
that voice fruoi Heavoii, by which the Old Testament prophe- 




[BOOK 1. 

cies concemtiig Christ were now made mon- sure. «r hud re- 
ceived an additionoi continuation ; for ii^iaiob), in several 
places of the New Testament, Nf^nifiea to conftrm-* Olker- 
wiae, it may be thus understood : The writing* of tJie ancient 
pmphets bad been more conbmied by the nctual accomplish* 
tnent of a number of their own predictions, tlian the tetitimonjr 
of tlietw three apostles, who declnrcd they hiul heard the %'oice 
from Heaven, hud yet l>ei!n; and the niiore, toother persons they 
were j^iaiortpo^ Aoyor. & word more fuUv continued than ibis 
voice from Heaven, especially lo the Jews, who were firmly 
established in the belief of the divine inspiration of the Old 
Testament Prophets, and to them the apostle is ohiedjT 

The sense in which Dr- Sherlock aiH)er»t&nds this paasi^< 
seems to be the easiest and most natural ; namely, that tbo 
only event to which the word prophecy here refera, is " the 
power and cominf^ of our Lord Jc6us Christ;" that is. hia 
aeeood glorious appearanre for the destructioo of hiseneiniea, 
Bod the salvation i>t' hi» p<fopl«. Now it was a etioug pr^ 
•umption, that Christ would come in glory, that they had, 
already seen him gloriBed on (he mount of transfiguration ; 
and it was a farther evidence of his power to deliver hU ser- 
vants, that God had openly declared him to be his well-be- 
loved Son : but to assure them , thai he would so come, and so 
use bis power, tiiey had " a more Hure word of prophecy.** 
the very word of Oud, speaking by his prophets, both of th« < 
Old and the N«w Testament, to whom all futurity is known., 
to assure us of the c«itainly of this future cvent.t 

It IS possible liie Jews nu»ht learn their divination by 
V^ rO btttk kol from the heathens, or the hcstlicns a Uko , 
•ort of ditrinaliou from the Jews. For the hath kol mw 
much of the name kind with the Sortes llomrrif^. and Sorlea 
yirgUiana, wliicb were much tiniclt<wd by the Greeks and 
Ramans, especially uder their other oracles ceased on th9\ 
coming of Christ. The diB'erence was. the Jews took their' 
oracle from the first word* ih«y heard any body pronounce j 
the heathens, from the tirst they cast their eyes upon, on opaoti 

• Thi* app«an frojn J Pet iii- I, a, romiwml wnh l p«. i. i. 

t Sm Shrrlocka Dbcmusta ita Pmpbrcjr. disc, i n^Mtelly p. SO— U. 


err the proprbth. 


ins Homer or Virgil, in which they endaavonrMl to dincovet 
m meaniDg suitable lo the matter coticerniag which th«y 

The Christians, when their reti^^ion eame to be comipteil, 
adopted tliis trtck ut' divination trom the huathens, only using 
the Bible ui«tead of Homer or Virgil. The practice appeant 
to have been an ancient trn Austin, who lived in the fourth 
century. He mentions it in hio hundrrd and ninth epistle to 
Jonuariuii ; and though he disallows it in secular, he seem* to 
approve it in spiritual aHairs. Dr. Pndeaux says it obtained 
OHMtiy in the west, especially in Francu, where for HevenU 
feg«s it was the practic«, on the consocratioa of a new bi&hop, 
to consult the Bible conceminghim.inthisway of divination, 
by which they made ajudgment of hia life. And tnanners, and 
future behaviour ; and this they made a part of their public 

* P(Xtw'» Antiquitie*, »oI i- cb«p. ". p- 309. 

Dr. WelwotKl, in his Monoire, iHk tlii* Tmiarknbli! ilnfy of Kittg 
Cluite* 1.. Utat, bmoii at Uxfiwd dunoit ths civil wars, b« vntA to »e« tlw 
public Ubrtjy, when be was »lunrc<l ■ tine editigo of Viq^il. Aod Lord 
FaUUund. lo divoi tbe lung, vould iuve him iimke thai of hii fiutune by 
tfa« Soncs \'ir|{i liana; ; upon which ihr king opened the book at Dido's rni- 
pncalion agaitL-ii iVjoemh wh»re «he wished he mi^ht be cofK^ucred by h>» 
a>eniie% hn friFnd^ win in batUe, and hlfniclf coni« 10 an tinUnely 
4cMh. ^ 

At bt^la audacift popnb vexaiiM ct annif, f^« 

Finibiu mttomi, Mimplrxu aml*u.i Jiilit 
Axixiliiun iinplortrt, ndeaU)iic indigna quorum 
Fiin«T»: n«c cum *e sub Ifves pacis iniqua- 
TnidUIenI, i«gi>0 a«l optati lace fruaUir ; 
Sett cadai note ritem, nwdikquv iiihtuaalua sivdIl 
U>cprecor. /Eood.n. I.Ali — flSa. 

Th« kms Mcmed concerned a1 tha augqr)'> upon wkioh Lnrd Fklklaod 
sM uy hit IbrtuiM in ihe ume manon ; but the place be tiumblAd upon 
^ra* mOTV auitoi U> hi* Hmmy lltnu the other maa In ihc ki0)^'», bfing tho 
expreuioiit vf Evander upon ihr uniimely death of ha son Pallas; 
Nm bate, O Pallu, dcderan pntiuim p«r«iiti, 
Cnuaa oi aarvD velles tv ct«<1(t7 )l>nt. 
Haad ifnanii naai, c^uaotDin nora gloria io ami» 
Et jirwluloa decua phino cettamiaa poaaei. 
PnniuajuTCBH rnisent, betJi()ue prupinqui 
Durv nuliinenu t JEndd, xi.I. IflS — HI. 

t Pridcaut'i Coonect- pan ii. booh v p. 4C3, 4(!4, edit, 10. Sm alio 
Du FffBw') GIOMir. in ▼«. Sortea SaoctoniRi 


[aOOR I, 

We huve mtny instancea in history of Hie tii*e of tbesv 
Hortea Hanctorum, u tb«y were called, though they were 
condemned by the conncil of Agds, aimo 606, at the time 
tbey wcfe beginning to tnke fooling in France* IIoweTcr, 
hlind supenbtion prevailed above the decree of the council 
fbf aevcrdl ages. tUI mors bght and knowledge iipriiigiiig up 
at (he Reformation, those fooleries, which had so Umg obtained 
among Heathens, Jews, aiid Cbmtians, are now in a mannet 
coctiiiguuihed. TbuK much for the third way of reTelaiioo by 

As for the fourth, namely, by ang«la, there fteems to be no 
naaoa to make it. aa the Jews do, distinct from iliu three fonuer ; 
•iace Moses received the law that wiu revealed to him by the 
" miniirtfy of augelii;" Qal. iii- 19. Probably the visionk which 
the prophets saw. as well as the voices which they beurd, wsra 
formed byangelft: nee li; Dan. viii. tfi, 17 ; Uev.*.2.fiC0> 
And how far their ministry might be employed in HUggcsdng 
things more imuiedintely (o iheniind^ of the [truphets. who ran 
pretend to determine' ThuK much tor the nuioner in which God 
revealed secrets to the prophets. 

Godwin oKserres, that, for the propagation of learning, 
collies and schof»b were in divers places erected for the 
prophets. The 6rst intimation we have Hi Scripture of theaa 
whools is in a pasiiage of the First Book of Samuel, where we 
read of "a company of prophets coming down from the high 
place with a psaltery, a tahrct, a pipe, and a harp before them, 
and ihey did prophesy ;" 1 Sam. z. 6. They arc supjKwed to 
be the students in a college of prophets at ry^ gibtiath. or 
" llie hill," as we render it, " of God-" Our trunslalont else- 
where retain the saaie Hebrew word, as aupposing it to bo 
the proper name of a place, 1 Sun. xtti. 3 ; " Jonathan 
■mote the garrison of the Phih»ttn»( that was in Ge1>n." 
Some peraoos have imagined, that the nrk, or at least a syna- 
gogue, or aomo place of public worahip, was at this lime at 
Geba, and that this is the reosoo of its being styled in the for- 
mer passage OV^Sxn riysj gtimatk Uutluhim, the hill of God. 
We read afterward of such another company of prophets at 
Naiotb in Rumoh, "prophesying, and Samnel stunding as 
appointed over them;" I Ham. xix. 19, 20. Ramah, other- 
■ CflDonxlii. DulWaEcclw. Htit-AimgM6,<ol.n.p. 113. 




viae cdled Rsimatliauu-zoptiim, wai» Samaerx birth- piftcc, 
where Iiid panmts lived; I Hum. i. I, compured with vcr. 19. 
i&ome immgine it was cailuU DHUt ItophuH, from asK («ipjS4id&, 
|ig>cru/AJi/i ft/, bf^cauflc of the Kcbuul ut the propheu. or 
•eere, that wob there; for thia Utiu nsy twphih, ij> givea to 
the prophet Ezekiel: " I hare made thee a watchman, RDk 
'^Uopheh, to the hniiHc uf liirat:!;" Kzek. iii. 17. 

The studeoU id Uiet<e colleger wen; called son* of the 
prophets, irho are fretjueutly iiiunUuni»i in after agea, even in 
the uiottt degeaente times. Thus wc read of the *oi\s of the 
propheu that wure at Bethel, 2 Kiugu li. ',i; aud uf auother 
school at Jericho, ver, 6; and of the kbs of tJio prophets at 
GilgaJ; chap. ir. 38. It shotdd tieeui, tlmt the»o huiik of iJw 
prophets were very numerous; for of thia sort uere prubuUy 
the propbeta of the Lord, whom Jezebel cut off; " but Oba- 
diah took on hundred of them, aiid hid theni by Hfty iu a 
«STe;" 1 Kingj xriii. 4. In these schoolH youug men wer« 
educated uuiar a proper master, who was commonly, if not 
alwvyi, an inspired propliet. iu the knowlec^;e of religion and 
in sacred muttic (see 1 Sum. x. 5, and xix. 'JO), and were 
tberwby qualified to be public preachent, which muiuk to have 
been part oi'tliu biuituMaof the prophett on the sabhath-dayii 
attd featirahi; 2 "Ahg^ tv 23. It should aeem, that God 
yiiliillT chose the pruphels, whom he inspired, out of thoM 
■eboolB. AinoH, ihtui-fiiru, bpi^aks of it as an extxaordinaiy 
oaae, thatihoogh he waa not one of the uoos of Uie prophets, 
but an hertlmati, " yet the Lord took him as he followed tbt 
Buck, and satd uuto htm. Go, prophctiy unto my ptOfdl 
laraet;" Asmm ni. 14, 16. That it was usual for some of 
these schools, or at least for their tutors, to be endued with « 
prophetic spirit, appears from the relation in the Second Book 
of Kings, (^ the prophecies eonceming the ascetit of Elijah. 
dvliTsred to £luiha by th« sods of the prophets, both at Jericho 
and at Bethsl; 2 Kings ii. 3. 6. The houws in which ihey 
Uveil, wer* genemlly meaa. and of their own buildLn^; chap, 
ri. 2 — 4. Their food waa chicAy pottage of herbs, chap, w. 
3tt, 38, nnleas when the people sent them aome betlw pi*- 
naion. aa bread, parched com. honey, dried fruHa, and ih» 
like: 1 Kiop xiv. 3; 2 Kings iv. 42. Iheir dress was plain 
and coarse, lied about with % leathern girdle: 2ech. xiii- 4; 




1? Kings i. 8. Riches were no temptation to them; therefore 
Elisha not only refused Naaman'a prwents. but )>uiii»h«d hi« 
ccrvant Gehazi Tery HcvcreW for clandestinely obtaining ft 
Bmal! share of tlicm; 2 Kinga ». 15, &c. Thia icc\u»e and 
alwtemious way of life, together with thr meannesM of their 
attire, gave them so strange nn air, especially among the 
courtiers, that they looked upon them as no better than mad- 
men; chap. \x. U. It was, perhaps, the uncouth dreaa 
«Dd appearance of the prophet Ehsba. which made the chil- 
dren at Bethel follow and mock him; chap. ii. "iS. The 
fVecdom which the prophet* used in n-proving even princes 
for their evil deeds, frequently exposed them to persecution, 
imprisonment, and Romctimes to death, under the reigns of 
wicked kings, such as Ahah and Manaaaeh. KererthelsM. 
in the main they were much respected, and treated with great 
reverence and regard by the better and wtuvr sort of people. 
even those of the highest rank; 1 Kings xviii- 7; 2 Kings t. 
13, and xiii. 14. Thift \a all we certainly know of the pro- 
phets and their schools.* As for the account which aome 
have vanlurad to give, of their living in perpetual celibacy, 
poverty, and the tike, in (he manner of the moaJu and friars 
among the PapiHtH, it in mere fancy and imaginatioa ; it being 
eertain, that several of the prophets weff married, and had 
children, particularly Samuel, Kiekiel. and Isaiah, whoae wife 
i» called a prophetess; Isa. viii. 3. And it was the widow 
-of one of the nons of the prophets, whose oil EhsJia miracu- 
lously multiplied; 2 Kings iv. 1. Huldah, the prophel«a%. 
dwelt in Jernsalem in the college, chap. xxii. 14, probafalT'^ 
in the college of the Mns of the prophets, her huHband 
Shatlum being, it is likely, one of the nambcr. Ho much for 
the prophets. 

Next to the prophets Godwin speaks of the wise men, 
O'^mn cAachamim, from OSH cAflrAom. iopuit; a title applied 
in general to such as were skilful in the law, and who taught 
ind explained it to oihem. Dr. Ughtfoot. from the tabbies^ 
ffpeaks of a certain officer in the Sanhedrim, who was callad 
the mn ehatham, mar* <£o;yfrv. But in what his dignity and 
office consisted is very Booettetn.f What the wise man ««n 

■ V|d« ViinDf . d« Synsf . Vm. Ml. *• pwi u. ttp »i. «i 
' -f ^ce Hon Httrnm la Liw. x. ss. 

CHAF. Vt.] 

or mr wtsr-MKH: 


in the Scripture Mn«e of that uppellation appears from hence, 
that those who in the twenty-third of St. Matthew are 
called <To^i, ver. 34, in the parallel place in Si. Luke are 
styled awotTToXfn, rhap. xi. 49, not meaning in particular thow 
tweire diaciples of Christ, who were ordained to be witnesses 
of his retsurrection, and the 6r8t preachers of his goapel ; for 
the apostles, or wise men here spoken of, were such as in 
fotmer ages had been killed by the Jew&. Matt, xxiii. 35, 
wid they are called oircMrToXof. from exwrnXXhr, milto, only as 
Ix^ing sent from God : as it is afterwards expressed, " O 
Jerusalem. Jerusalem, thon that killcst the prophets, and 
stonoBt, roue airHToAfifvouc vpoc aantv, persons whom God 
hath sent;" ver. 37. The difference between propheta and wise 
men, in those passages, is, probably, that the former spoke, 
sometimes, at least, by inspiration, and occasionally pre- 
dicted tilings to cODie ; the latter were uninxpired preachers, 
well skilled in the Scriptures, and sent of God by a provi- 
dential mission, hh onlinarv miniatera now are. 

In ibc First EpisUi: to the Coriiitliianit. the ajiosUe seems to 
speak of certain wise men with some degree of contempt: 
" Where is the wise ? Where is the scribe ? Where is Uio dis- 
puter of this world i Uath not God made foolish the wisdom 
of this world V Chap. i. 20. But |>et-hapn he here refers, 
not tn tlie Jewish D»Q3n chachamim. but to the Gentile phi- 
losophers, who, as Goilwui o)>iicr\'ti8, affected to be called 
iTv^. till Pytliagoras introduced the more modest title ^o- 
aofot. There is no great a'ason to doubt that this was his 
DManing, because the wisdom of the wii^e, ver. lU, of which 
he spoke just before, signifies the wisdom of the heathen 
world, by which, aa he afterword declares, they knew not 
God, Ter. 21 ; which wxn true, not of the Jews, but only of 
the Gentiles : and these Grecian ott^ were the persons to 
whom the preaching- of Christ crucilied was foolishness; 
ver. 23. Again, when the sazue apostle says, that be is a 
debtor, aofotf: rt mt avoip-iKc. Ruui. i. 14, he means the 
learned and unkamed, to the philosophers and rommoa 
paople. u 

It is farther ohserred, that the title 03n chacham, willi the 
Jews, and <rof oc with the Gentiles, wt^rc given to such a* 


were nkilful in manual urut. Homer acconnls sucti to be 
UUgbt by Minerva, ihe goddess of wifldom. 


And to this some Uunk the upoBtle alludes, when he com- 
pares himself to a at>foc ap\ir«nrv, a wise master-builder; 
I Cor. iii. 10. 

Of thf Scribes. 

The llehrew word ^DD mpher, witich we render Scribe, 
derived from the root ice tophar. numeravil, from whence, f 
BUppose, comes the Euglith word cypher; or from the noun 
"WO sepher, enumeratio, or Ubcr, juat as the Lntia Ubrariui 
and libeUariu* are derired from liber. Accordingly, tiir T«r- 
gum renders »^)r anpherr hy ^^1^3^ hbhtarin. Esther iji. 12; 
chap. riii. 9; a word which, as ivell as many others in the 
Chaldee and Synac tongues, is evidently of Latin original. 
The Septu^nt rendem "^uo wpher. by ypafifionvc, from 
ypofifia, iitrra. 

The Scribes, therefore, according to the etymological mean- 
ing of the term, were persona some way employed about 
honki, wrrittngs, numbers, 01* accounts, in transcribing, n-adinf^. 
explaining. Sec. Now, according to these various employ- 
ments, there were sereraJ sorts of Scnbes. Howerer. most 
authors reduce thorn to two general heads, or clashes, civil 
and eccleMiustical ^cnbcs. As the word p3 eohin, which in 
general signiHes an immediate attendant on a k-ing, is applied 
either to nobles in the court* of earthly [uinrea, or to ihe 
priests who attended the service of Ood the King of Igrad 
in his temple ; so ift the word Scribe applied, both to those 
persons who were eraploytnl about any kind of civil wnUnga 
or records, and to sncfa as addicted themselves to atudyin^, 
tnuMcribing. and explaining the holy Scriptures. Of the civil 
Scribes there were doubtless Tahona ranks and dogreoa. from 
the common scrivener to the pnncipaj secretary of state, in 
which office we findSemiah, in the reign of king David, who 
ia nuked with the chiel ofticen of the kingdom, 'i Sam. viii. 

cMA». ri.] 



17; Shebna, in ihe rexgn of Heiekiah, '2 King;^ xviit. 18; 
Shaphan, in the reign of JoHiah, chnp. xiii- 3; Elishama, 
in the reign of Jehoinkini. who is numbered among the 
princ«8; Jer. xxxvi. 12. It iit probable the nexl Scribe in 
uflicc to the principal secretary of state, was the ^ecratary of 
war, called the " principal Scribe of the lioKt, who uustered 
the people of tlie land;" '2 Kings xxv- 19. It ia reasonably 
supposed this is the officer referred to in the following passage 
of ieaiah: '■ Wberc ia the Scribe? Where i« the receiver? 
Whtftf is hrthat counteth the towers V Chap, irxiii. 1 ft. Which 
both Grutiua and Lowtb understand to be spoken in a way of 
thumpb over the king of Assyria, whose defeat the prophet 
had jubt before predicted; whereupon the Israelites ahoald 
reflect with pleasure on the dangers they had escaped, and to 
a trinrnphnnt manner inquire, Whorf; is now the Scribe, or 
muster-master of the host, who threatened our destruction ? 
Where is the receiver, or c(Jlecior of those opprestiivt' taxes, 
that were impoacd on us by the enemy? And where it> he 
that coanted the towers? — meaning, it is likely, the chief 
engineer of the Aruiy, or master of the arUllei^ and am- 

But besides these principal Scribes or aecretanev, we read 
of nQoibera of a lower order, as'of the " families of the Scribes 
which dwelt at Jabez," 1 Chron. ii. 56. and of the Scribes, as 
well as the officers and porters, that were of Uiu tribe of 
•Levi ; 2 Chron. xxxiv. 13. It is probable some of these were 
under'-secrctanes and clerks to the principal Scribes, like the 
iiKriben of king /Vha«uerus before mentioned ; others of them 
might be sen vene ra employed in drawing deeds, contracts, &c; 
Of in writing letters, and any other busincBS of penmanship; 
like Baruch, the Scribe, who wrote Jeremiah's prophecy from 
his mouth, Jer. xxxvi. 4 and 32, and who had probably been 
before employed by Jeremiah to draw tlic deed of tlie purchase 
of the field, which he bought of hia uncle's son ; chap, xxxii. 
12—14. Such Scnbes are referred to in the forty-fifth Psalm ; 
" My tongue is as the pen of a ready Scribe;" Psalm, xlv. 1, 

his not unlikely. thatothers of those inferior Scribes might 
be schoolmasters, who. as the Jewish doctore tell us, were 
rhieily nf the tribe of Simeon ; and that Jacob's prophetic 
curse upon this tribe, " that tliey afaoulJ bo divided in Jacob, 


[book It. 

and Mcatiered in Israel,"* wa« hereby accomplished. How-, 
erer. we have no evidenno of Uiis tu Scripture, nliich ^vc« n€{ 
another clenr account of the Tullilinent of that prophecy, firsi^l 
by on inheritance being assigoK] that tribo, upon the original' 
division of the land of Caua'dn, within the iDh«nl»nce of th«r j 
children of Judah, JoKh. xix. I; and afterward, when tliafj 
tribe was iucreaited, in llezokiah's time, by their being obliged' 
to seek out new settlements for a part of it at Gedor, and af 
Mount Seir; I Chron. i». 39, et ttfj. We come now to 

2dly. Of the ecclesiastical Scribes, who are frequently mcu- 
tioned in the New Testament. According; to Li^htfoot, then 
were the teamtil of thit nation, who expoundnl llir? law, onAj 
taught it to thi- pcople,+ and they are, therefore, Konietii 
called vo^oSiSamaXoi. "doctors of the law," for the 
who, iu the fifth chapter of St. Luke, are »tyled Pharis 
ttnd doctors of the law, ver. 17, are soon afterward called 
Pharisees nnd Scribes, rer. 21. And that the x^ofiixot, «j 
often mentioned in the New Testament, and rendered law>'w«, 
were no other than Scnbes, appears from hence, that hf who; 
ill the twenty-second of Si. .Matthew ver. '•S'y. i» culled voftoto^, 
a lan'yer, is said in the twelfth of St. Mark, Tcr. 28. to be tc^ 
nov ypajntanw, one of the Scribes. NererthelesB, Drua 
aiuB.t Trigland,^ Cnmero,|| and some othen*. conceire then* 
must have been some distinction between the Scrih^A and the 
lawyen; because when our Saviour had reproached the* 
Scribes and Pharisees witli their hj-pocrity. Luke li. AA. it ia 
added, that "one of the lawj'ers iuiHwered, and said unto 
him. Master, thus saying thou reproschest as also." How* 
ever, the elder Spanheim imagines, that thiN pnosaf^c rather: 
proves the lawyers and the Scnbcs to have been the samt 
than the contrary; for he observes, that our Saviour havingij 

• (1«>. xlix. T. See ih« JcniwlMn Twguni m loc. , It. Suluiiioii, u 
tpioted hy Christopli. CanwTiglit (KIl>cI. Tar^niro-RattStn. In lor.), nuh, 
" Mob mnt tibt pwperas KtWm, H pwdaco^, nin n SimHne, ni tmv a 

t Hots lUbf. Loe, I. 8^ 

t Onuius de Ttibus Sectu Judaor, bb. u. cap. xiii. edit. TnifUttd. U)%j 
t. p. 24». 

S TVtgluidii DtsuitHi de SecCk Kursor cap n. p. 56, vt itq 

n CuKT. Annoi. m Man. nil. 33. apud Chikoi Sama. 





ill hia prace^itig discottriM.', ver. 3i), el ie^., only reproached 
the Pharisees, ujid demiuiicefl woes upon them, at length. 
ver. 44, joins the Scribes with ihem : " Woe unto you. Scribes 
ftDti Phariftces, bypocritcH," &c. ImmtKiiately upon which, 
the Ltwyer tak<-M lire, and resents his reproachiug iheiu Ano, 
thtsui an well a» the PhoriMM; from whence it appears, the 
lawyers, otherwise called 8cribea, were the persons here in- 
tended. Aminlingly, tlif! Syriac version, Luku xi. 46, ren- 
ders vofuto^, ttrsjo mphere. !^c^be.* 

That tSuribe was a gicneral name or title of all who studied 
and were teacbem of the law and of religion at the time of 
writing th« Torgum, appears from its calling the prophets 
kevenil times Scribes ; ax m the First Book, of Samuel it is said 
coocefning Saul, that " a company of Scribes met him ; and 
they saw that he was propheEi>nn^ amonj; the Scribes :" and 
ihey said, " Ib Saul also among the Scril>«!« '.'' chap. x. 10, 
11. Again, in the prophecy of Isaiah, "The Scribe that 
(eachelh lies, he is the taU :" chap. ix. 15. 

Scnbe. then, is not the nanie of a sect, na Uodwin Keems 
to imagine, but. aa Casaubont sbotva, of an office; nor ia it 
true what the former saJth. that the Scribes, cleaving to the 
writtea wortt more than the Pharisees, who adhered to the 
traditiooB, were from thence called textmcn. He confonnda 
the Scribes with the Karaites, a sect that adhered to the writ- 
ten Sc^ipture^,and rejected all traditions. The Scribes, fur the 
most putt, were Phari9C«i>, the mo^t popular and Houriiihing 
seel among the Jew», and they are therefore censured by our 
Saviour along with them, for burdening the |>eople with thetr 
traditionary precepu ; Matt, xxiii. *2. 4. Tliure is mention in- 
d«ed. in the AcU, of the " Scribes thot were of the Phari- 
MB>' part," chap, xxiii. 9, in Ute cuntention between thum and 
the Sadducees. as if thtfv were some other sect distinct from 
the Pbanseeft. who joined them on tliiri occasion. But 
b ypa^tftKnu: «» fupovQ rww ^aptoanttv may be rendered, agree- 
able to the Syriac venitm. the Scribes who were of the Pha- 

* \"ii. Spanbilm. Ouliu E*An^I. |ian ii. Uub. uxviii- nxit- aj. 
•ect. rti- p. 3W, 399, cdri. Ocue*. 1558- ' 

t Canuhon Rurritsi- tn Baimi nanal. eatrc. i- sppwit- vHi, p. 5S)'53, 
edit, (ieatr. I6ii. 



[■tlSK 1i 

names' party or Heot ; and wlio, Win^ iHv more l«aniu«) (wraoiw 
of th« party, niidLTlook to dispute against tin- Sadducees. 

Upon the whole, t>i« Scribev were Lhv prvaching clurgy 
umong the Jews, aad whUst the prtesU attended the sacri(ic«tj , 
tliey iiia(ruct«<l the p«oplc. It was on account of their snp*\ 
polled ikill in the Scriptnreu, thut, when Herod wus onxiotul 
to know, where, according to tlie propbecie*, the Me&s)ab< 
(thnuld be bom, ht> " gathered all the chief pnu»t)i sud Schbetj 
of the people together," to obtain infomntioo ; MatU li. 4. 

Joseph Scaliger endi^avours to establiah u distinction be>| 
tween the ypafinartt^ tov Aoov. the Scribeit of the people, ul 
they areherc called . and the yftafiftaTftt row voftou, the ScribMof j 
the law. The Ibrmei he inakeH to be a Hurt of pubbc Dotarieai, 
iriiose employment wan in aecularbusiuesa: the latter, preachen^j 
and exponnderH of the lavi.* But hoaidea that we no when ' 
meet in Scripture with the phnue yfinft^tam^ nii vofitnt, tli<| 
Soribes of the i» evident, that the fpa^fiuruQ row Xaou^j 
the Scribcii of the people, whom llerod consulted, wereappU«4'J 
Id on uccount of their skill in explaining Scripture prophecU 
And they aueni to have been in cotuideroble reputation 
their skill in this respect, which is intimated in tlie qi 
that tiiB diKcipk'K put to Christ. " Why then nay the Scribe^i] 
that Ehas must first couiu V Matt, xvii. 10. They were pro^j 
bafaly called Scribes of the people, because they were their 
atated and ordinary teachers. And their being, in virtue of 
their office, public sjieaker*, is th« re«aon, L HuppoAC. that, 
the ofKcers os'tov akuterlm, mentioned in the book of Deu- 
teronomy, who were to speak to the people, chnp. xx. 5. tt, 
ture in the Samaritan versiot) titylfd mnDP mpherim, ami ui tha, 
Sepluugint.'y/ia;ifiaTfiCt or Scribes. That they were, generally, 
at least, puMic preachers, may be inferred from itis being muc 
that C^hriHt " taught un one harinc luilhority, and not as 
Scribes;" Mark i. 'J'J. This nbscrtion ^ynvn uccasion to Db;J 
Lightfoot to obaerve three heatht of ditleience between the 
tcftohiag of the Scribes and that of ChriKt : 

1st. They taught chiefly the truditioiiA of the fathers ; our 
Saviour, the sound and BeU'-grourided word of Qod. And 
when he bade bis disciples call no miui father upon eartli. he 

* Scal)K«r, Kkiich. Tnh«m, cap. xi. p, 'WM.mIk. Tnttland. 

rilfcP. VI.J^ 



raennt il iii opposition to the vain iraditinnH which tlie R«rib«« 
taught, namely, the iraditions of thu futhers. 

3dly. The teaching nf the Scribes was ufM^eially nbont n- 
Urnal, caranl. and triria) riles ; at ihal they should waiih their 
hdiiiis ti«|'ur« cutuij^, uiid the like, J^Iati. xv. I, '2; whereu 
Christ taught the Apihtua) and weigttty doctriuM of faith, re- 
pmtancc, renoratioo. charity, &c. 

Ijdiy. 'Hic tciichingrif the SeriboHwnB litigious: th»y toiled 
in intricate and endless disputes, and were therefore probably 
the preachwB to whom the opoatle refcra, in the sixth chapter 
of the Finit Kpistle to Timothy, whom be deacribes na eon- 
rcited and i[2;iionint. doting about qiiestioiis and strife of wordR. 
from whenc* proceed en\7. strife, railings, evil surmistugB, 
^rverse disputing* of men of comipt minds, 8(.c. tlt. 3 — 5; 
«)n;iifa8 our Saviour's preaching; wa» plain and convincing.* 

We havt: a farther intimation, concerning the manner of 
their teaching in our Savionr'it time. In the eleventh chapter 
of St. Luke. ver. 5'2, whnre. instead of leading the people into 
9X1 ncqtiaintnncQ with true religion. the\- are chargorl with 
taking uway the key of knowled^^e, l»y loading; them off from 
al tending tn the Scriptures, by inf^ieting bo much on traditions. 
and tnpeoiallv by the false inferpretations of the propheciea 
tvlating to the Messiah, thereby the people were kept from 
Itdiering ou htm now he wa* actually come. 

Ctamero obacrvp*. that a key was delivered to each Scribe, 
as a bad^e of his office, when he first entered upon it; to 
which perhaps our Saviour here allude^.f 
'" 8panbeim farther remarks.}; that what is here charged upon 
the luwyerv, is eliiewhere chargetl tiiran the Scribes, Matt, xxiii. 
13 ; which is n farther evidence, tliat the lawyers and the 
Scribes were the same. Nevtrtheleiui, he i* ready to admit, 
that ihe lawyen* might be n «n[ierior sort of Scribea ; yet all 
the HfTibes might not be lawy^Ts. 

• * That tliere were different ranks and degrees of these Scribes 
Is tnfrmsl from the sixth chnpter of the Second Book of Mac- 
nibers, ver. 1R. where Klcnmr i% suid tn bcncrwi'SfKitmravTuv 
ypatifiartuv. " one of the principal Scribes." Such a one was 

- * HartnonT on MarV \.-l2. 
i Caner in Lac. li. ft«, «pu4 OWpn flaiffcw. 
t SpinlM'itn. lib* lupra. " 



[aOUK I, 

Guodid; AcUT. 34. Jme^huM wiao M^/eak* o(ltpoypapfmn»t, 
ncnd Scribes,* «bo judged of the uf^ni wluch portended the 
deMnictim i^ Jernulem ; they wen pmbMy of superior dig- 
ni^, And. u tbdr oune teem* to import. prie«u «» wetl u 

Hoireref . natwi lh ata ndi pg the corrupt doctrme uid inBtruc- 
tioDA which the Scribes deltvered in their public teaching, they 
ue Mid to kit in Mcms's «cat, and our Saviour chaise* hts 
disciples to obacfreasd do whatever tht-y bid them do; Matt. 
xuii. 2, 3. By Moacs*» teat. Or. Li)^bil'uot underatands the 
aaat (^judicature, as ihey were members of the Saithedriai r( 
but the advice which Christ gives tn obAene und du what 
they directed or commaodcd, or to follow their good inntruc- 
tions in oppoaitioo to their bad example, ver. 3, evidently 
refen to their teaching rather than lu their judging. It is 
therefore a more probablt* coDjectuie. that Moses'a seat here 
meaiu tlie chair or pulpit, out of which tlie Scnbes, in the 
^nagt^ueti, ujted to deliver thetr discoureett ttitttng, an the 
custom then was. Matt. v. l,'2\ though wv read, that, in 
ftnmer times, Exra stood apeak a pulpit of wood, when he read 
and explained the luw to tlie people ; Nebcin, viii. 4. It was 
called the chair or seat of Moses, probably because the books 
1^ Hoses were read and explained from it. Xow. as for our 
Saviour's charging his disci[ite& tu do and observe whatsoever 
these corrupt preachers bid them, it must certainly be under- 
stood only so far as they sat in the chair of Muses, or de- 
iiveft-d the dictatew of the law; for if he had required of his 
discipjps an absolute subuiitision to their dictate*, he would in 
effect have forbid their believing in himself, whom the Scribes 

Though the Pharisees are continually joined with theSctibes. 
particularly in the pas&ai^e we hitve becu just considering, 
where "the Schhes and tlie ['bHi'ii>ees are HSid to sit in Moses's 
Mat;" we have, however, no reason to think any of the Pha- 
rJMes were public preachen by olfice, except those who were 
Scribes. Bui the true account of this phrase, Scribea and Pha- 
risees, in, I upprfhcnd, either that it means Scribes who were 
Pharisees, ur Pharisaical Scribes, the Scribes being generally 

* Jotcph. d« Bslt. Judstc. Ub. ti. cap, t. ico. iii. p. «8B, tdrt. llmTerc. 
f LigMbM. Horv Hebr. in lac. 



of timt MCl; or cIbc i( miglit be common for lliose Phtirisees 
who were not Scribes, to (each the people occasionally, titough 
(bey were in no ccclraiutftical oflicu; as other laymen were 
allowed to do. ThuH Chriet, who wan certainty in no eccle- 
siigtical oRice among the icvin, " went about Galilee teaching 
in their synagogiiee." MatL it, 23; and Paul, with the leave 
of the ruler, preached in tlie synagogue at Antioch ; Acts xiii. 
16. l(f. llut this we shall have occasion to consider niorc 
particularly, when we treat concerning the itynagogues. 

T)ie Scribes appear to have been men of great power and 
authurity in the state; Mult. xx. 18, For it is predicted of 
them, and of the chief priests, that they should condemn our 
Saviour to death. But I do not apprehend, that tliis was in 
virtue of their odice as Scributi, but |>artly by reaBon of their 
influence as public preachers, and partly a» many of them 
were mcmbcni of tlie Sanhedrim, which was then the fiiipremc 
court of judicature. 

Ab for the origin of this uthcc, some make it to be aa 
ancient a» Ezra, who ia uaid to be a ready Scribv in the law of 
Moaei ; chap. vii. 6. But his being called a Scribe, which was 
a genenJ title gircn to men of literature, as has been shown 
before, will not prove the office of cccleuaatical Scribes, such 
as we find in our Saviour's time, to have been of so high 
antiquity. It i» nioi>t likely, (hut it g^w up by degrees, after 
the spirit of prophecy coaaed from among theJews; for when 
they bad no prophet to apply to in any doubt about doctrine 
or won^hip, they fell into diaputes, and apttt into eecta and 
p«rtie»i which nxade a set of men necesMir}', whose proper 
business it should be to apply tiiemMlves to the study of tlio 
law, in order to explain nnd teach it to the people.* 

Of the ASaioriUs. 

Before we dismiss the Scribes, it will be proper to say 
•omething of Uie Masoreta. or Masorites, who were a lower 
•ort of Scribes. Their profession was to write out copies of 
the Hebrew Scriptures; to teach the true reading of them, 

* Sw on ihb >ubJMl, Spsokctni, Dubn Evsuc. part. ii. dub. ixxvul — sL 
p. 393^^03; LniadcD, PhJlvIog. Uebrso-Hut. diuen. uiii. , 




RonK 11 

and criticiM upon Uiem. Tlieir work i* cftlled Mniiwra, froln 
iDn maaar, trttdidk, because, say tlie Jens, wben Uod gave 
the law to Moses at Mount Sinai, be tanght htm tint, the irne 
fva<ling of it> and iecondly, il-i Uue interpritnlion; and that 
,both thew were banded down by oral inidition, from gcae- 
;intian to generation, till at length they were committed to 
writing.* The forflier of theae, namely, the truo tvadinu. ia 
;the Btibject of the MnMtra; the laUer, or true inter preLntion, 
I of the Mtshoa and Gemara, which va shall e;iv« you an ac- 
count of in another place. 

The age when the MasorilM tint rose is somewhat doubt- 

'ful. Archbishop I'Hher places them before JenHue; Cape). 

'M the end of the fiOh century -t Fathor Morin asserta the 

[Masoriles did not appear till the limth century. Clias Levtla, 

, % Jew, who bestowed twenty ^tnrs' labour on explaining the 

Mason, makes the Arst eompiters of it to bo the Jews of the 

famous school of Tiberiaf, about five hundred yean titter 

Cfarist;^ Busiiage says, that we seek in vain for the time of 

[the Masocites ; since they were not a aociety, nor even a s«o- 

Icession of men, who applied theraselretf tu this study for a 

eeitain number of years, and aft<^rwar<l disappeared; but lire 

Muora is the work of a greut number of gnimmariati^, wtio. 

without associating and conimunicsting their notioiis, com- 

■|>o*ed thb collection of criticisms on the Hcbivw ttxt.% 

H«wever, if, according to J'^ltss Lerita, the school of Tiberias 

flnit gathered them into one volume, and so properly begun 

* Muhn. tit. Ihrke Abhoth, cap. i.; ct Mumon. in pnr&l. ad Jnd Ckt< 
lakah: IVvcepta, que Mori indiia nut in ShnJ, ca omni* dMW ram com 
•ipo w booe isi, jcmtB fllnd Kxod. txn. l«. *• Ei dsbo u~t>i utMilu UpnlMs, 
« le^m, et msixlsutin," be. Iqcon ac. scnpt&m ; «t nandstMU, id est* ai- 
positioneni ejus. See ihr paa«iE« u larK*:, in De Voisin'i UboerTU. ad 
Pujioann Fidei, p. 9. FJiu Lettta luvru, thai the Momts ww hudnl 
[.down in like nunner from MaUs, till li *n» redured xn wnring, u be mih, 
[Igr the doclon ol the achoa\ of TibeniU. — Finn Lertta tti pncf. 1it>. m. Ua> 
ritoretb hanaMralh. See »Uo th6 IkmU Cam, ]>■ IW. vdil. BuxtorT. 1640. 
^ Capclli Cntk 9ajer. T9t. ft. cap. It. p. tOt. 
I Klru lxvitl^ abi fupni. 

f fianagVf ia hi* lliaWty of Uic J*w4, book iii. chap. is. tscC th. p. 198, 
OMntiom dw opinioM of L'llwf and iMortti, u wril ils of C^wt sad Lerit*, 
b«l Codnmnin tu prorv, M«t. ik., thn Beo-Aiitu>r and Bm-NsplNsIl, about 
dte year lOM, wn* iIh ini* hiwnian rtf Uw Muon. 




th« work which is nuw called the Masom, of which there itt 
bocfa s greater iiml u Icsh. printed at Vcnicu and at BiuhI, it 
hatb nevertheless beeu unlarf^ since the time of that school ; 
fbr thero were Mttsontes long afterward, even lu late an 
«bout A. D. 1U3U; particularly Beu-Auher und Ben-Napb- 
tali, who were very famous, and the Last of the profenion. 
£ttch of Ukm published a copy of th« whole Hebrew text, ox 
correct, aaith Dr. Prideaoz, as ihey could make it. The 
auttem Jews hav« Ibllowsd that of Bcn-Naphtali. and the 
western that of Ben-Asher: luid all that has been done since 
is tu copy after them, n-ithout making any more corrections, 
or lUMiretical criticiams.* 

Their work reganb merely tfaa letter of the Hebrew text: 
in which they have, first, fixed the true n.'adiDg by vowels and 
mtcoatti : thoagh whether these points were originally annexed 
to the Hebrew lenem by them, is a matter of dispute, whicli 
we ahfiil consider in another place. 

They have, Becondly, numbered not only tiie chapteni and 
aectaonH, hut the reraes, words, and letters of the t^-xt. They 
lUid, accordingly, in tiio Pentateuch &'J4o Terscs, and in the 
w^ole Bible 23.206. Some indeed have doubted, whether 
dwyeuTiod their diligence so far a« to Dumber tlie lettur*. 
But Father Simun attests that he had seen a MS. Masora. 
which munbered in the book of Genesis 12 great sections. 
43 aedarim, or order*. 1&34 verses, 20,713 words, and 7H,IO0 
t«tlcrs.t Tba Masom ■ therefore called by the Jews, thp 
hedg* or fence of the law ; inaiamch as this ntnnbering the 
ytfwa, words, and letters, is a means of preMrring it from 
being nllerod and carmpted. Tliua it ta said in the Mishna, 
that tithoe am the feooea of riobea, vowa are the fences of 
aanctity, ailenco is tiie fence of wisdoni, and the Masuni is the 
fcace of the law-t Uoncc, also, Abeti-Ezru calU the Mneo- 
litaa the k«ep«V8 ol' the walls cf the holy city.^ 

* Phdnana'a C0ODMI. put i. bnok v. *ol- u. p. 516, cdii. 10. 

t Vid. Knaa. Uutr. Cdiiu. V«. T«st. Ijb. i. c»|>. uvi p. latK Pun, 


I 1*irko Ahbath, csp. Si. Md. xfii. lam. tv. p. ttS, e<lti. fltuvahss. 
( Abeo-Gffl, qaMod by CsrpaoviaB, Ottic. Sser. fast i cspi. tI. p. SSR, 
LifMHr, 1798. W 




{book 1. 

Tliey litivt, lliirdly, marked whatever irrcgtilnrilies arc found 
kin any of the tetters of the Hebrew text; as that in some 
one letter is of a larger (vtd. Drut. vi, 4). in othern, of 
a le« (rid. Gen. ii. 4) size, than the rest. Of the forinet 
sort they diuover thirty-one iutttanccs; of the latter, thirty- 
three. They observe four woids in which one letter i^ sut- 
pended, or phccd ^otuewhat higher than the rest (vid. Judge* 
xviii. 30) ; nine placet:, in which the letter nun \» inverted (vid. 
Numb. X. 35); and several places where the final letters are 
not used nt the end of words; and others, where they are 
uftcd in the middle. 

They arc likewise very fruitful in finding out reaaons for 
'.these irrc^itarities, and mysteries in them. Thus Lliu great 
[»<i« in the wonl. pru gachon, m the furty-iiecoiid verse of the 
Icveiith chapter of Leviticus, is to sit^ndy, that it is just the 
[middle of the Pentateuch. The last letter boUi of the Rnt 
•ltd laiit word of this sentence in the Mxth chapter of Deu- 
anomy. vcr. 4, " Henr, O Israel, the Lord thy God is one 
Lord," m of an extraordinary size, in order to denote the ex- 
traordinary weij^htof that sentence, and the |>eculiar attention 
'it deserves. The cayh in the word nn^sS tiOhcMotAaA, in the 
second verse of the twenLy-tlurd chapter of Genesis, where 
Abraham is said to weep for Sarah, is of a lesser size, to 
signify the modenitton of his roouniing, «he bein^ an old 

They are. fourthly, suppooed to be the authors of the ken 

k«nd chethibh, or the nutrgioal corrections of the text in our 

rjlcbrew Bibles; among which they Imve noted traiittjiosilioiu 

of letters in some words, as *m« jebuehar, for -orr^jerhuhar, 

'in the ninth clmptcr of Eccletuastes, and the fourtJi verse; and 

[•one word put for another, as «131 ubtni for pi uUn. in the 

jXorty-sixth chapter of Genesis, and the twenty-third verec- 

But we idiall have occasion to take fiirthcr noticL* of the ktri 

and ehethibh. when wo come lo trcut of the Hebrew Uui- 


From this short specimen of tlio works of the MoaoriteB, 
you will probably conceive a higher opinion of their industry 
and diligcucf than of their judgment. As for the irregulari- 
ties tu 1^ letters, upon which they have coniuiented, it being 




misonable to suppose that the-sc happened at firHl by m&te 
accident in tniuscrihini;, they would have discovered mora 
good Kcnsc if they hnd corrected tliem, Uiau in devising 
retsons for them, and uMigntng mystical tnlerpretations to 

Dr. Prideaux mith, those who were the autiiors of ttie 
Masora now extant, were a monstrous trifling set of men, 
whose crittcitmiH and olMervalionii went no higher than number- 
ing the vcreeu, words, and letters, of every book in llic He- 
brew Hible, marking which wae ttie middle woni, verse, or 
letter, in each of them, and making of such other poor and 
low remarks concerning them, as are not worth reading or 
regarding, whatever Richard Simon tbe Frenchman may say 
to the rontrary.* 

The D^iifni dunhamm, whom Godwin suppoacfl' to be in- 
tended by the dispiiters of this world, mentioned in the first 
chapter of the Fir^t EpiHtle to the Corinthians, vcr. 20, were 
Ukewise a sort of Scribes or doctors of the law. There was a 
threefold exposition of the law in rogue among the Jews, in 
their later and corrupt ages; the fir&t. a literal explication of 
the written law. which they called HTpO mikra: the second. 
consisting of the traditions of tlie futberv, styled the njETj 
mithha. with a comment upon them siyled the moj grmora, 
both togpther colled the talmud : the third, a mt/itic and 
allegorical exposition of the Scriptures, calleil ttnto muirash. 
or commentary mr t^oxiv,^ The apoatle'e allegory of Sara 
and Hagar. with their t^ons. by which he illustralett the Iwo 
covenants, in the Epistle to the GalatJans, chap. iv.. us some- 
what in this style, and was, therefore, admirably suited to the 
taste of the persons whom he is there uddrewing. 

The Cabaltsts likewise were a sort of mystical doctors, who 
discovered n world of mystery in the Icttem of the sacred text, 
either by coniiidentig their numenil |iower. or by changing 
and tmnspodin^ thi-iu in dillVrfiit ways, according to Uie rules 
of their art. By these means they extracted senses from the 

* See PriJemux'* C^unntd. part i. book t. nib anno 440. For s Isi^tr 
accminl of tbo Maaoritn and th«ii worki, canHiil, IwMdes ihe suiliors al- 
n»Ay (]nolcd, tluiioHi) Tiberiiuj Cu\aor'u Crtltn Sacra, pan i. cap. »i. : 
»i>] Walton. Pmlcfcnm. vui. »i BihI. I'dygloL 

i Vtd. Li^lfliw>l lln. Ilfliniic, in Luc. > 15 




•acred caraclei, rery different from those which the expreiaion 
leemed naturally to import, or which were ever intended by 
the anthon.* 

We have before offered aome rewKMiB for believing that by 
the <ro^oc, mentioned in the first chapter of the First Epiitle 
to the Corinthians, Ter. 20, are meant Gentile philosophers, 
and not, as Godwin seems to imagine, Jewish teachers of tra- 
diticHis. Whether the diaputer of this world, mZ^qnTnic rau 
owvoc Tovrou, referred to the Jewish all^orical doctora, or 
the Gentile natural philosophers, as distinguished from,the 
moral philosophers, called oo^ot, is differently conjectured fay 
the leamed, tmt Tery hard to be determined with certainty. 

* A large account of the cabalistic ait, as piacUsed, oot only by Jews, 
but by heathens and Christians, may be seen in Bunage's History of the 
Jews, book iii. diap. z. — zzriii. 



The title Ritbbi, with several otfaera from the Mue root, 
23n rabhabh, magnut eti, tv/ muUipUcatus etl, b«^^ first to 
be aHstimed, accurdtng lo Oodwio, as a diatinguishinii; title of 
honour by meD of Learniug, about thu tiuu of the birth of 
Chrut. We fiud it anciently given, indeed, to seveiol msgiit- 
tratfis and officers of »tate. lu the Book of Bather, it is »aid, 
I the king appoiuteii yn>3 3T-!kj coi-rab betho, which we render 
" t^ the officers uf hia houio ;" chap. i. 8. In Jcremiuh we 
read of the 1^1 «3n riMi hammeltk, *• the princes of the 
king ;" chnp. xli. 1. tn the Book of Job. it Ik Kaiil. thnt the 
00*1 rabbim, which we render " great men, are not always 
wke." chap, xxxii. y Engl., 10 Ueb. ; a rendering, which i ap- 
prehend well expreaiea the originul meaning of the word. It 
waa not therefore in thoce days properly u title of honour, be- 
longing to any particular office or dignity, in church or state ; 
but all who were of superior rank and condition in life, were 
called 0''Z'\ mlihim. We do not lind the propbetfi, or other 
men of learning in the GUI Tustamenl, affecting any title be- 
side that which denoted their ofHce; and they were contented 
to be addressed hy their bare names. But as religion and 
true knowledge declined among them, Ihejr pride discovered 
itself in affectatioD of titles uf honour. Thus, in the tint agus 
of the Christian church, during the prevalence of truth, and 
of piety and humilitv, the ministers uf Christ had no other 
titles, but llie mere names of their office, apostlcA. pastors. 
Btc, whereas, in the later corrupt ages of ignorance and pride, 
a number of titles of honour were invented, lo support their 
dignity, and conciliate the respect and reverence of the peo- 
ple ; a* masicrs. doctors^ &c. 

Tlie fir^t Jewish nibhi, said to have been distinguialietl with 
•ny title of hoaour, was iiimopa, the mm ut HilleJ, who huc- 
ceedcd his father as prcsid««t of the Sanhedrim ; and his titk 



wa« that of Rabbtui.* He is supposed hy AlUng-luR to hafe 

been the Simeon who took the infant Jcttus in bia amift, and 

blessed him, Luke ii. 25 ; and for this reason, as he conccirea, 

he is setdom mentioned by tho later ralibifH, tliou^h he was a 

Inan of such honour and dignity, and the Rret who was di«- 

itinguished by their farourit« tiUe.t Others think it hardly 

probable, that the Simeon who was directed by the Holy 

Ghast to pay that rcapect to our Saviour, was the president 

, of the Sanhedrim ; for Gamaliel, the president'ti soti, waa 

I tutor to St. Paul, who rcecivcd no favourable notion of Cbria- 

, tianity from him, as in all probability he must have done from 

[the son of that Simeon whu UK)k our Suviour m his arms and 

rbksaed him. Oestdca, had he, who did this, been presideut 

of the great council, St. Luke in all likelihood wotikl have 

biken notice of so extraordinary a circum«tauce, iiutead of 

lucntioning bim only as " a certain man in Jerusalem, whose 

I name was Simeon."^ 

The later rnbbie« tell us, this title was oonfcrre<l with a 
[good deal of ceremony. When a person had gone through 
[the schools, and was thought worthy of the dcfi^oe of mbbi, be 
was 6rst placed ui a chair somewhat raised above the company ; 
than were delivered to turn u key and a table-book : the key. 
M a symbol of the power or authority now conferred upou him, 
toteach that knowledge toothers, which be had learned hinuelf ; 
and thiti key he afterward wore as a badge of his honour, 
and when he died, it was buried with hiro: the lable-l>ook 
waa a symbol of his diligence in his studies, and of his en- 
deavouring to make farther improvements in lenming. 

llic third ceremony in the creation of a mbbi was the im- 
poaitum of hands on him hy the delegates of the Sanhedrim, 
pracUaed in imitation of Moses's^ ordaining Joshua by thi^ 
rite, to succeed him in hia office ; Numb, xxvii. 18 ; Deut. 
xxzir. 9. Ami then. 

* LigMfoot'* ilaniiof)>r on Lnke ii, iS, 

t AIliBg. de Schilo, lib. k. xti. loin, t, Opfer- p. W; iiV^idtwi, ubi «a|ini ; 
•at] Hot* llebr. Luki) ii. 3d. 

t S«e Wiuii Huwtll. loa. I lb. i. csp, ui. mcI. xiii.— tcL p. 389 — 3M, 
•dti. T^i^M iW9. 

f Mstaion. Tnrlai. SsBbedrin, c«|t. i*. ; vid. Seldcn dn Synetlr. liV ). 
tap. xiv. Opera, vol. ■- loni. li. p. lOU, 1069 



Fourthly, they proclaimed his title.* 

According to Maimomdes, the third ceremony was not 
looked upon to be eaiwnlial; but was sometimes omitted. 
They did not alway», isaith he. lay their hands on the head of 
the elder to be ordained ; but called him rabbi, and said, Be* 
hold thou art ordaineil, and hast power, Kc.f 

Wc find this title given to John the Baptist, John lii. 23; 
and frequently to our blessed Saviour ; as by John's disciples, 
John i. 38. by Nicodemus, chap. iii. 2, and by the people that 
followed him; chap. vi. 26. 

It has been made a question, whether onr Lord had taken 
the degree artd title of rabbi in the Jewish schools. Vitringa 
mflintains the affirm ativv.-f alleging that he was called »o by 
Judas, Mail, xirvi. 25, who he siipposcB would not have com- 
ptimcnted him with a title, to which he had no right. It may 
be repHetl. that 11ii» being before Judas discovered his trea- 
aoo. ami while he associated with the diaciplcfl, he no doubt 
afi'eclod to speak as respectfully to Christ, as any of the rest. 

VitringH insists upon another ai-gument. to prove that 
Chriiit mu«t have taken the dt^ree of rabbi; alleging, that 
otherwJHe he could not have preached publicly in the temple, 
and In the etyiiagogues. as we know he did. But this is built 
on a mintakc in fact. Any Tsniclite might preach publicly in 
the temple, or in the synagt^c, by the permission of tlie ruler 
of it, as we ubsorved in a fonner lecture.^ 

Mr. Sclden takes tlie other side of the qu«tion4| denying 
that Christ had ever taken this degree. And for this opinion 
sevenJ argument« may be alleged. 

lal. It appears that he had had no education ia the rab- 
binical schools, aM those who were honoured with this degree 
must have had; John vti. 16. 

Sdly. He expresses hi* disapprobation of the title, and 
chargoa hii diaciples not to assume it. Matt, xxiii. 7,8: "Be 

* Sw, on ilw QCMlioa of a nbbi. Altio^. in Ofauooe de ProFnoi. Hvbr. 

t HjdnHD. Stnlwdr. cap. n.; Mt Saldm, obi itupia,UHl Liglnfiiol's Hor. 
Il«br. Act> xiu. 9- 

t ViihnR. de Sjmag. Vettn. vol iL lib. iii. psn L mp. ni. p- 700, 707- 

\ Sec abovny p. 373. 

11 SclJeu, dff Syncdr. Ucbraot. lib. ii. cap. Tii. wet. viti. Opern, rat. ■• 
lan.ii. p. 1373. 



(■00 It 

not ye calleit niWii/'&^, Wliith. at? Mr. SeWcn ttbnw", wa» 
ft prohibituMioi'tlu'ir taking lltntdegretii but wau iiotinttsded 
tibMluteJy to ooodeam the umo oT tbe title u h mark of oiviUty 
to those public teAobera wbo ini^ht not in funti bqve takeu 
tbe dagteo; a preeU09. nl that tiiuc, cumiuon amoog the 
Jews, as giving tlt« litje of doctor to the muiiBter of the pamh, 
whether be hath tnkot the dcRroe or not, t« now anong us.* 
Tlie reason of our turd'* forbidding hie tUiciplea to be 
cailetl, or to atf'ect tbe tide of rabbi, waa, doubtleae, 

1st. To cnution tbcm against that pride oiul hauffhtioeet 
which generully went &iuag with it. For, thuu<;b tliu rabbiei 
pretended to ^ht the honour, and it was amuxini with Ihem, 
" Luve the work and not ttie title ;"t it is eortaiii. iiuverthe* 
1«H, they were excewively proud and vain of it. injwmuch that 
they were highly oHeodvd, if any person upoke to them with- 
out giving; it to them ; a remarkable iiuUutce of wbich W'agen- 
•ell Nlatcfl:t " A certain rabbi nont a letter to another, and 
forgot to give him hi» title; but only called him in plain temu, 
frtflDi]. At which he wa« no highly inoenacd, that he imBM- 
diately seat % moeaenger to that rabbi, charging him to call 
^Jiiiu Anan, Anan (which was, his nama)« without ^ivin;; him 
^Ihe title lubbi." This, it sfwrns, waa the keenest rerengc he 
could take on him fur bo gruBS au atfroat. And Dr. light- 
foot tella u», from one of their mbliinical bouki, tltat the San< 
hediim excommunicated certain penwas twenty-four unites for 
not giving due honour to the rabbie*.^ 

Sdly. Thr deaigo of our £iavJotir'« forbidding bia diactplan 
to be called rabbi was probftbly also, tlial liiey nug^ht not tak* 
upon theffl to lord it ovqr iht faith and coMciMces of men, 
as UiB rubbies did, who protended to little low than to ha in- 
fallible guKlfA of faith iind conscience; inaomwih that it waa 
looked upon as a cruue for any person not lo hearken to tht- 
rabbies, or to disbelieve or doubt of tlie truth ol' what they 

* ScMmi. ih SjWMb. in>. li. «t|»' *ii- •*■<• ■■ Opw*, «al. i. tarn. a. f^ 

isr»— iwi. 

f Sm Mwinont(l« Mi)uoted by Lighifuot, llor. Hebraic. Mutt- nill, V; 
■ad Fjrrkc Abbtrtti, l(b. i. t»p. ». ; «i Ob. d« Baiwoora hi Ivc 

1 W>g«nKil in Svta, nntiot. « io cap. i. wet. i. cu«|a. Ocnsm, p- 

S Uoni lUbnic. Matt. uuti. 7 


CHAP. «ll.] 


tau^t. Hence OamAliel advises the ignorant among the 
Jrwii " to g«t ihemselves rabbics, that they may do Io»g«r 
doubt of any thin^;"* and Rabbi Eloazar saya, "he that 
aefvnmten from tlie nchot^ of the rabbles, or teaches any thing 
which he has not heard frova his maater, pravokea the DiTioe 
Miijesty to depart from l8mel."t 

Maimonidee tells us, that me» of the degm of rabbi were 
ulita called Abba, or father; and that "he who vrill be holy, 
most perform the words of the ratberfl/'^ Hence our Haviour 
forbids ht« disciples taking the titie of father a* well aa rabbi ; 
Matt, xxiii. 8, 0. 

These arc the leaehcra and fniidea to -whom the apoetle 
aeema to n-fer, when ho luttth. Kom. ii. 17 — *20, "Behold 
thou art called a Jew, luid rcstest m tlie taw, and makest thy 
iKiaat of God, and knowest his will, and approrcst the thinga 
that arc more excellent, being inatractcd out of the law ; and 
itrt confident that rbou thyself art a guide of tJie blind, a light 
of them which are in darkness, an intitructor of the fooliah, 
a teacher of babeo, which hast the form of knowledj^ and of 
the truth in the law."^ 

The rea^n of our Saviour'ti prohibiting ht» disciples to be 
called rabbi is cxpreaaed in these words, " Be not yc called 
rabbi, for one is your master, eren Christ," ica^ir^tinK'. your 
guide and conductor, on whose word and iostructious alone 
you nro to depend in matters of religion and salvation. Ac- 
cordingly the inapired apostles pretend to nothing more than, 
HS the ambassadors of Christ, to delit-cr his insiriictioos ; and 
for their own part, they expressly disclaim all dominion over 
the faith and consciences of men ; see 2 Cor. v. 20 ; chap i . 24. 

The Jewish writers distinguish between the titicH Kab, 
Kobbi, and Rablmn. As for Rab and Rabbi, the only differ- 
ence between them is, that Rab was the title of such as had 
had their education, and taken their degree, in some foreign 
Jewish Khool ; suppose at Babylon, where there was a school 

* Vitkc AhhoA, cap. i fed. xvi. wfaidi preorpt Huinoaide* and fiat- 
Iruon {m Inc.) fcMnia tu rihiiU olMcnwicea. 

t Talmud IU>)rhm. til. Bcndiotli, fel. uii, u.; fw Lighdbot, Hon 
llfbf. SI«U. ixiii. 7 

t Munion. in I'rafkt Tn^ui.; Piriw Abholh, Mishn lom. it. p. 393. 

S See WbilbjF oa Mmi. uiu. 9, 9. 



[book I. 

oracadenqrof considNBfale note; Rabbi was the title or sncli 
MM woe educated in the land of Jadea, who were accoonted 
more honoinaUe than the oChen.* But as for Rabban. it 
was the higfaeat title ; which, they say, was nerer confwred 
<ni more than aeren persons, namely, oa R. Simeon, five of 
his descendants, and on R. Jochanan, who was of a different 
Dunily.-f- It was on this acconnt, it should seem, that the 
blind man gave this title to Christ, Mark x. 61 ; being coo- 
nnoed that he was possessed of dirine power, and worthy of 
the moat honoanUe distinetiMiB. And Mary Magdalene, 
when she saw Christ after his resarrection, " said mito him, 
Rabbooi," Jdm xx. 16, that is, my Rabban, like my loid in 
R»»gli«>i ; for rabbon is the same with rabban, only pronounced 
according to the Syiiac dialect. 

* Eliu Levhs in Hahbi, Toce y\, 

t See Ligfatfoot's Harmonj on hake it U. 



Go tkWtN makes a thive-fold dislinction of Nnzarit««, which 
we fihall find to be merely a rlistinctia nomtnis, as the logi- 
c'vuii express tfaemaelves, and not a divisio generiM in 

The first sort, called Nazarites. from 113 riazar, leparavH, 
arc mentioned sevenil times in the Old and New Testament ; 
the Kcond, whoiic uume i» derived front the city Nazareth, 
are occasionally mentioned in the New ; for the third, who 
rejected the five books of Mosea. and were therefore termed 
Nozarites, according to Godwin, from "orj nasar, diaaeeu^, 
because they cut off or excluded these books from the canon 
of Scripture; finding no mention of them either in the Old 
Testament, or in the New, 1 think they deserce no farther 
notice : it is chietly Uie liret Kort that vre are now to con- 

The first person to whom the title "^3 nazir ia applied is 
JoM-ph. who, in the forty-ninth chapter of Genesis, is said to 
be vriH *>^ii nezir echaiVt which w« render '' separated front 
hia brethren," Gen. xlix. 26; but the Vulgate, " Nazariti 
inter fratrpH siios." Moeea gives him i!ie (tame title, in the 
bletwing which he pronounced on his posterity in the Book of 
DcutMonomy : " Let the blessing come upon the head of 
Joseph, and upon the top of the head of htm that was s«pa- 
ralwl front his brethren," Deut. xxxiii. 16; 1V1« TS) nczir 
tchwo. He is called nm naiir, not because he was of any 
{larticular sect, or such a Nazarite u« those concerning whom 
wc arc discoursing ; but for one or otlier of the following rea- 
sons : either because he was separated from the society of his 
brethren by their malice toward him ; or from tlieit evil prac- 
lices and examples, by the grace of Qod ; or was advanced by 
Providence so high above them in dignity and honour. Ilie 




SeptiMgint eipoiueB the la»t-tnentiooed reeBon, ivftd tng nmt "m 
neztr fciaic, in Genesu, an mopvfiif nm tuttaaro aZtX^^f, tupcr 
caput frairum, quorum dux fttit: and in Deuieitmamy, 
(Ti KOpuf qc ^cZatt^tt^ vw actX^fHt;. saper vrrtirerti glorificatu* 
in fmtrihut. lience the won! *V1 nrrrf U gometimes used 
for a royal or sacerdotal crow-n *x diadem : " Thou liast pro- 
bned bis (the king's) crown, in neier, by casting it to the 
ground ;" Pkalm Ixxxix. 23- Again, " They made the pliktu 
of the holy crown (of the hifiih-pricat) of pure gold ;" Exod, 

But whatever was the won of Joseph's bciag called -na 
sazrr, the word came afterward to denote u partionlnr son 
of separation and derotedaeyit tu Gwl ; and on thut accoaiU. 
waa applied to the N'azatitea, who were occordiugly of Iwi 
BO rt O" M ich a» «'<.-re by their pzrenta devoted to Ood in Uit 
ifilaiioy. or even BoiiH;tiinc« before they were bom, and kucII' 
as devoted themaelraa. The former are called Nozctm ma- 
tim, and were Naaahtea fiir life ; tbe latter \a:arrri m/na,^ 
a^o ofdtnahly bo«nd Uicmsdras to obserrc the law* of thi 
ffasaritea only for a limited time. 

In the number of the Sazarri rtativi, or perpetual Nttza«-1 
ntes, were Saioson, Judges xiii. 6; Saaiiiol, i Saa. t. II ; 
and John Uie Bapibi, Luke i. 16. All thai we can discover 
in tlit'ir way of life, which was peculiar, was, tliat tht-y 
to ahstaiu from wine und intoxicating lifjuon, and wcte not ' 
abave their hcad«, but let their hair grow to it& foil 
It in true, neither tiaiuuel nor John die Baptist are M 
colled Naiaritca, a* Samson is. \cverthel<»>->4, as one law < 
che Kaaante« is mentioned to which Samuel was obhged|] 
nauely, that no razor should comenpoo bis head; and another' 
to a-))ich the Baptiitt was obhged, that he should drink nei- 
ther wine Dor uron^ drink ; il is reasonnbly premimed Ihry 
were both ondcr obUgatum to obaerra all the lawb of tlic per- 
ftkmi Nasaritea. 

The nibbies iiifttst that Abtalom was a perpetust Natania, , 
becaoac he wore fau hair ao loog, that when he polled it, it ' 
vtigfaad two hnndrad ■bdcals j 2 Sam. xiv. 26. But as diis 
oiavmitanco is mentioned inunedtately after the account of j 
the baant^ of his penMm, var. 26, tt leads one to conclude* 
tbat he wore his luiir ao laog, ntlber for onianent, than on 


OP t\t^ NAZAftlTCS. 

Any religions account. Betides, his polling it Kt the end of 
the year is an uvid«iice agmtiKt fam being a perpetual N'azarite. 
Th« rabbiw, indeed, Kave fnuued a rule foe ifae perpetual 
Nfttaritet, on purpose not to exclude Ahtalom ; alHmung, 
that when their hair grew very heavy and troublesome, they 
wen allowed to cut it to the length in which it was ordinarily 
worn by other people, but not to shave it quite utT; and this, 
they my, wa^ the ccdsdo of Abttaloura ^HiUing his head every 
year, because his faolr grew so exceeding heavy, that what he 
cnt off. weighed " two huodrvd ahekels, after the king's 

AVe shall not stay to dispute this point with the rabbies, 
berjkase it ts of no great cfins(V|ttcnce. But the amazing; 
WNght of Alwalom's hair demands our particular nUentiou. 
Dr. Cumberland, in his Essay on Jewish Weights and Mca- 
surea, shows, that a Jewish shakct of silver was equal to half 
on ounce avoirdupoiae. Consequently, two hundred sbekelK 
n six pounds and a quarter; un incredible weight for tlie hair 
of one tnau's head ! 

Various are the conjecture* of the leanied in order to re- 
move this diflkalty. Some mippOM the ehekcL here spokea 
of was less than the coounon shekel ; and they obsert'e his 
hair is said to weigh " two hundred shekels after the kind's 
wetght-," not according to the common shekel of the sanc- 
laary. Now. should we soppoiw the shekel here tD«aul lo 
be a weight in gold equal to the value of the silver shekel, or 
half o«uce, that wovld rodoce the vreigfat of the hair to about 
five oanees. 

Others imagine there has been on error in transcribing the 
Hebrew copy ; that the number of ahdiels being #x[>res8ed 
by the nnmenil letter O raph, which stands for twenty, the 
tnnRcnt)er mistook it for *i rnh. which stands for twu hun- 
dred ; ft mistake which tn^bt easily be made if the knver 
purt of the caph was not very plain. 

Others again are of opinion, ihal iliu twu hundred shekels 
denote, not the weight but the value of the hair ; the J«wri8h 
women having been u»ed to purchase it to adorn tfaemsetrei. 

* VM. R. df! DutoMt.; *i Kahaea. OoBistta. BiMidM. tit. Nssb, cap. 
i. wci. ii. lom. iti. p. MS, silil. Smsrfis s . 

iSariKH ASTt^DlllES. 

1»U«1L I. 

hoMBOl, iadeed, be euily ssppowd. that the kiof'* son sold 
1m hsir. Bat the rerb ^ MJmkai, rendered " lie wcj^wd,** 
fBsy be uken imperaaoaify,* to ngnify, a was wrigbed at ibe 
rate of two hoodred sbekeb, perhaps by the bBrber^ whose 
peniaisite it might be. 

When we caniioC snire at ccrtunty, we magt be coatent 
with pfobabiiity; and, I apprehend, either of these coujcc- 
tores is fuffidently probable to relieve the diHiculty m the 

We rscuro to the Nazarite* : I have only farUier to ob- 
•erre concenuog the Sasarm Hotivi. that they vrtn not 
bound to (he sanic stnctaoM as the rolitt, who must not 
tooch any dead carcass, oat so much as enter the doon of a 
boose wfaexe a deceased petsoa was. Samsoo, who was a 
Natartrm$ naiivut, made no scntple of takio<: honey out of 
the carcass of a lioo. Judges xiv. 8, 9; and Samuel hewed 
Agag ID [Heces ; 1 Sam. xr. 33. 

As (or the \azarxi votivi, who bound theiiu«lrefi by u 
TOW to obseire the taw of the Nazarites for a certain ttnte. 
suppose a month (the rabbies say it could not be for a less 
time, though it might be for a tonger),t their laws, which are 
coDtaioed in the sixth chapter of the Book of Numbers, are 
these: — 

Ist. That they should abstain from wine, and from all 
inebriating liquors, and even from eating grapes, during the 
dme of their separation ; N'umb. ri. 3, 4. 

2dly. That they should let their hair grow without cutting 
it till the days of their row were fulfilled, ver. 6; and then 
they were to hare their hair libaved off at the door of the 
tabernacle, and burnt under the altar; ver. 18. It was pro- 
bably from this custom of the Jewish Nazarites, that the Gen- 
tiles learnt the practice of consecratini; ihcir hair to their 
godSf:^ of uhich SnetoDios relates an instance in his life of 
Nero ; informing us, that be cut off his firat beard, and put it 

* S«* mmaj iratancn of thu son pitMluc«d by Gtuaiiis, Philglof . Stcn, 
lib. ill. Irwt. ill. A* Vrrlio, anon xitii, p 3A0, 3B1, edit AjoftH. I Til 

t HUh. w. KuJr, r«|i. t. Ktrt. tii. p, 148, lom. lit. edit. Stucubu*. 

1 Lariiii mi iM snU ihn u * *i>ry comnion aumtt, t»ith which bi hin> 
Mil hMl eoMplM, dv Synft Dm, mb fin. 



into a goldeu box set with jewels, and comtccralcd it to 
Jupiter Capitolinus.* 

When ft yazaraut voUvu$ was polluted by touching luiy 
dead body, he was to " fthave hU head on the seventh day,"! 
that is, at the end of the time during which he was undean, 
and " on the eighth day to offer a ain-offering and a bumt- 
ofiering for his purification;" and then to " consecrate unto 
the Lord the daya of hia separation," bringing a " bimb of 
the first year for a trespass-oii'ering :" that ia. he was to begin 
again the accumphvhment of his tow. " the days which were 
before having been U)at, because his separation waa defined ;" 
Numb. ri. 9-^13. The Nazarite'n shaving his hea,d in case 
of polhition ift not ordered to be done, aa in case of the ac- 
coiupUsliment of his vow, at the temple; but might be done 
any where, it seems, in the conntry, provided it n-as not so 
far distant as to prevent his offering the accuatomed sacrifices 
at tiie temple tlii! next day. However, some learned men 
bavB tbougbt, thst thoae who were at a great distance, or in 
foreign cauntries, might have tlieir head shaved in the placo 
where they were, aud oflet the appointed isacnticc at the tem- 
ple the next opportunity, whether on account of accidental 
polintiuo, or at the accompUahment of their vow/t" Thus 
Ihey Bay Paul (according to others. AquilaJ) did, Act« xviii, 
18. who made hLi vow at Corinth, shave«l his head at Ccn- 
chrca, and went soon afterward to Jeruaaleui to accomplish iL 
by tlic usual uUi;hng.^ '. 

3Uly. A Nazarite must not couic near any dead body. 
while the row was upon him; Numb. vi. (J. 
n It is to be obeerved, that women, as well aa men, might 

■ iHieUw. ia Vit. Neroou^c^ xiJ. It, p. 176i ITT, ion. ii. win. TiUKi, 
Tia>KL od Kbcu. 1600. 

\ Stepli. Monii. diisett. viil p'. 100; GfOtiut, on Acts niii. 16; Aneiea; 
ITniVenal Itiilucy, ui the Htctonr of the Jews, book i dutp. vii- " 

'- 1 WiHii Mdetcm. ile VM PauU, seec. n>. xiii. p. 100, «t vi.-tA'W. 
p. toil Grotitu in loe. • ' "]> 

f CoM«niia| acl^r» TOW. we Dwliltidp,tn,]ae.; Lardnf^* Ctedlb. 
vol. L book i. dwp. tx. wcltU.; Bewoa's ihmtf of Pl>niii>^ itiv CbruUsa 
Religkm, to) u.cbii|>.T. wet. xiii. ut) rliAp. vUi. wki. xi.; Uaaunoni) in 
toe.: Wolbi Cum PliAolog. trt Im-: uid Meintuml dc Patili Nulnratu,' 
kptid lli^iauf Pluloloff. TlMeiof. ton. h. p. 473,f«prdiillr rap n.Aifi. 
•ML ITOT.' . ■' 




bind themsdveH hy tliis vow: " When either inou or womau 
shall separate themselves to row a vow of a NazanLe," then 
they shall do bo and so; Numb* vi. 2. This the motiier of 
Samson is advised by tha angel to du, at least to submit to 
the rule of the Nasarita* during the time of her gestation; 
Jodgu ziii. 7. 

The institution of N'aiaritiBm wan no doubt partly religious, 
and it might alw be piirtly civil and pnidential. 

That it wits partly raligious is concluded from the following 
passage of the propbet Amos, io which, among nthcr tiitruor- 
dinaryfiiTOun and blsfiings whiuh Uod ha<J vuuchsullHl U) the 
IsratiliteA, he tellH thctUt " 1 raiaad up of your soos for 
phets, and uf your young mon forNaEaritaft."chup.ii. 11 : thai 
is, 1 inspired them uith a nion; tbaii <mlinar>' spirit of deroli*. 
sod piety, luid induoul thum to take the Nazarite's vow> 
which they were bound to tlic strictest sanctity, to give them^ 
selves to reading, meditation, and prayer: and. in token of 
their morel purity, carefully to avoid all legal poUutiMi, and,- 
in sign of their spiritual nioitification . and as having thetl 
minds lio taken up with divine oonttiniplatuHi ns tn lie nc 
geut of extenial omanicjits, thuy were to let their hair growl 
without trimnnng. Moreover, they wen to abetum from win* 
and all iuebrialing liquors during tfao days f>f their separation { 
just as the priests were forbidden to dnnk wine daring Ibcir 
ttlettdance ou their ministry, " teat ilicy forget the law." and'] 
their minds should be discomposed for the exercises of devo" 

The interdiction laid on the Naxaritcs was mora strict and'^ 
■erere than that laid upon the priests, lite former were for* 
bidden the total use of the vine, they might neither taste " any 
liquor made of grapes, whether wine or vinegar, nor eat moist" 
grapes, nor dried, neither any thing that came of the vine-, 
tree, from the kernel even to tlic husk;" Numb. vi. 3, 4,' 
Wliich occasions Dr. Liglitfoot's making the two following 
queries: — 

1st. WhcUicr the vine-tree might not be th« tree in Para- 
dise, which was forbidden to .\dam, and, by taiting the fruit 
of which, he sinned and fell. The Jewish doctors, be saith, 
positively asMitod this, without the least hesitation. 

2dly. Wbctlicr the law about the Nazarites had not homa 




reference to Adam, wliilt* under that prohibition in his state 
ofinuoceoce/ If tlie boditv and legal iinclraiuK'AS, toiicern- 
lag which there am precepts ao very strict in the iliirteenth 
chapUir of' Leviticus; if'tlie Leprosy espcciaJIy, the f^atest n( 
all uacJeanue4«es,' propeilv bctukcDcd Uie titatc and nature of 
ain; might not the laws coucerniug NazaritL-d. uhich enjoined 
the strictest paritv in the most pure religion, in»omucii that 
Naz«rites are Mid to he " purer than snow, and whiter than 
milk," Lam. iv. 7, be denignod in commemoration of the 
tttate ofiDDocence before the fall '* 

Uut benide the rt'ligious, there might also be a civil and 
|»nidcotial «Be of this institnUaa, the sobriety and temperance 
which the Nozaritefi were bound to obscrre being very con- 
ducive to health. Accordingly they are celebrated for theii 
fair and ruddy complexion, being said to be both whiter than 
milk, and mora ruddy in body than riibiev. Lam. iv. 7; the 
tinro aigns of a sound nml healthy constitutjon. It may here 
be observed, that when God intended to raises up Samiion by 
hi« Mtrcngth of body to acourge the enemies of Israel, he 
ordered, that from his infancv he should drink no wine, hut 
lire by tlie rule of the Nnxaritea, because that would greatly 
contribute to innke him strong and healthy; intending, after 
nature had done it« atmoHl to form this extraordinary instra- 
mcnt of hm providence, to supply its defect by hn own super- 
mUural power, t 

.oiOodwin mentions a Hocond sort of Nazariies, who were ao 
toitned from i!fj nrtttar. fmm whence catnc NalTarpth or Na- 
carcth, tlie name of a town in Galilee, where Christ was con- 
oeinsd and brought up. Hence our Saviour wa* himnelf ctdled 
« Niizarene. or Na7arite, Matt. ii. *23; for this name or title, 
M applied Im t-'briHt, in fiomctimes wrote Na^dfxp'oc. -^ark xiv. 
R7; xvi. fi; Luke iv. 34; aometimes SaZopatoc, Matt. xxvi. 
71 ; John xviii. 7» 8; Acts li. 22; which words aecni to bo 

* {jfthifoot. Uoni Helir. to Lur. i, 1.1. 

t OH>c«rBinii tlw Nwaiitw, •» Awnmnlt on tiam>h. n.; ttelamli Aalit}. 
Hdnaor. pan it. np. i.; l^tudvn- tliilolo^. lIebr«o<AliKt. dtM«rt. xxii.; 
fipimhwini Otbia Cnn^;. p. li diib. Jteni. xci*.; M«»)h«i<d de Nonrwsiu 
Pauli, ubi »u{n; uid :»i|n?iuu» df Htpuhl. Hrbfitpr. Iik v. np. viii nim 
NiralAJ, Lugd- Bat 1701. /for < 



used by die evangcltntn in prccUety the same Kentw; acconl^'f 
ingly liic Syriac version renders both by the word notzrio. 

The evaugehst Matthew, assigioing a& the reason for our 
Saviour's being called Na^apaioc, tliat he came and dwell in 
the city of Nazareth, Matt. ii. 23, and referring (o some pro-i 
phecy. which, ut least in express words, is no where to bft 
found in all the Old Testament, hath ^ven tho cnticK nnd 
coranientaiorH no little trouble; " that it might be fulfilled, '" 
saith he. " which wob spoken by the prophets, He Khali ha] 
called a Nazarene." Some, indeed, suppose the reference 
to what iH siiid of Samson,* whom they take to be a typo 
Christ. " The child shall be a Nazarite unto Ood," JudgMJ 
xjii. 6; and this, they say. was accomplished in his antitypM'j 
Olhersf conceive the prophecy is to l>c fouDd in h 
where Chrii«t is termed nvi netzer, " the branch," chap. xi. I'A 
Witsius thinks he discovers it in the book of Job, chtip. vii. QOil 
and in licvcral other places, where Ood is called -vea notzersi 
the " preserver of mcn."^ However, there is one very mat 
rial {Ejection against all these solutions, that they f^ive ni 
account Uow this was fullilled by Christ's being at Nazsrethjl 
Either, therefoa*. we must uc<[uiesce in the opinion ofChnr-J 
8o«tom,^ that the passage here referred to is lost',|| or. oki 
that more probable one of Jerome, that the evangelist do«>l 
not here refer to any one particular passage, but to what 
several of the prophets had in cflect said . For in thst he use* 
the word prophets in the plural number, it is evident, saith 
that father, he did not take the wordA from the Scripture, but 
the sense only.f Now, beinj; called a Nazarene is the same 
thing as being one, the Hebrews expressing word ami thing 
by the same term. The name of God in muoy places signi- 
fies God himself. " His naine shall be called," means, be 

-'* Kidder en Uie Messiah, paniLp. 67, 68, aeoond c<ht. (hi. X7'HS. 

f S«o HaiDiaond OR Mau. ij. 33; aud D«ylin^ai, m hi« ClhwrvaiHmn 
Sa«nc, pan i oh«rr» »1. uKrt. iii. p 17T, 176, Ijj»i*, I7J0. 

t MelcMii. dm. ii. aMt. sri. xirii. p. ^&5 — 9S7. 

(f llomtl. ill Man. IS. 

H So Ml. WhiMoo wppoM*: «• bii Senaoas at Boyte'a Lcctuiv, ea 
AoBoraplnhBu^nl of Praplicdn, p. 5«, Csoabridge, 1706, 

f t>«c tha pMH^ <)Uol«l by Whiiby on MaR. il 13. 



thai) be "Wonderful, CoumeUor. the Mighty God, the 
Evertasling Father. tJiu Prince of P«uce;'' Is^. ix. ti. "My 
house shall be called." tugaHtta, my hou»e shall be " the house 
of prayer :*' chap. I«. 7; Mark xi. 17. The meaning, then, of 
Christ's btfing ciiHud Hatapaioc may be, that he shall be de- 
spised and reproached, according to a variety of predictions. 
Paalm xxii.(i; lxix.9 ; isa. Uii.3 — 5; Zech.xi. 12, 13; which 
wtxe accomptibhed, in une instance at least, by bia being 
called a'Nazante, from bia having dwelt at Nazareth, that 
being a town of such ill repute, that it wascummonly thought 
no good couM come out of it, John i. •Vi; and our Saviour's 
being suppofied to come out of it being one occaaion of his 
bcmg det>pi<>ed and rejected by the Jews. chap. vii. 52. 

NcTcrtbeless. the upjiellation fiaZapmo^. of Naiareth, com- 
ing to be added to Jenua, to dislinguish him from all others of 
the samf name, we find it »omeunieH applied tu him when no 
reproach was intended, aa by St. Peter, Acta ii. 22; iii. 6: 
iv. 10; and by on angel, Mark xvi. <j. It is, however, ge 
nerally u»ed by the Jews as a term of reproach, not oidy in 
reapect to our Saviour himself, but to his disciples after hii 

censioD. They styled them, "the sect of the N&zarcne* ;" 

cu xxiv. £. N'cvertheleu. the disciplea of Christ, aft«r 
they had generally token the name of Christiana, turned the 
tables upon the Jews, giving thin title of reproach to the Ju- 
daiziog Christiana ; aa we leam from Epipliunius ; who says, 
the Nazarenea were the same with the Jews in every thing re- 
lating to the doctrine and ceremonies of the Old Testament, 
only diilering from them in this, that they professed to bcUeve, 
thai Jesus Christ was the Messiah.* These were the heretics 
Godwin speaks of under the name of Nazarites. But tlie 
history and dogmata of this sect belong rather to Christian, 
than to Jewish antiquitics.f 

Aa to tlie Uechabitea, though tb^ dwelt among the larael- 
itea, they did not belong to any of their tribes ; for they were 
Kenites. as appears from the second chapter of (he First Book 

* £ptphati. Advetnu UamMS Iwr. uii. Mct. vH. apud Oftr. torn, if 
p. VIZ, edit. Peuv. Colon. It&i. 

t See, on this litk of Chriii, Spaah«ini. Dubui E<-utgcl ptn ii. du1>. xc. 
Id. ichi-: Witrii Melelero. dmeit. u.; and ibe commtnuion on Miii 
tl. U. 



i|jlOOK I. 

of Chronicles, where the KeoiUs arc saitl to tiave come of 

"Hcntath. the faLlier of the hoii&e of Rcchab ;" ver. lio, 

iThese Kenites, iifterward styled Hechabites, were of iha 

liBOiily uf Je4hro, othcnvise called Mobab, whotw datighttf i 

Mo8«8 married ; for " the children of the Kenice, Moses's 

father-in-Uw," it is snid, " went up cut of tha city of palm* 

with the children of Jadah, arKl dwelt amoiif; the pco- 

'' Judges i. Iti; and we read of "Ucber the Iwooitc, who 

I'WM of the children of Hubnb, the father-tn-law of Mosca, 

rho had severed hiintwlf from the Kenites," or from the balk 

of them M'ho itettled In the tribe of Judah, "and pitched his 

lent in the plain of Zaanaini;" chap. iv. II. They uppetr 

[to have sprung from Midiun.theson ot Abraham by Keturafa, 

Oen. XXV. "2; for Jethro, front whom they are descended, is 

called a Midianilu; Numb. \.'i9. ThtsJothru was invit«d by 

Muees. hilt Hon-in-law, to leave hifi country, and kettle with 

, his family among the Israelites. At first he refnied, ver. 30; 

I'but afterward. Iwing inipnrtaned, ver. 31. 3*2, it >eem« he 

tconBented ; eioce we tiiKl bia |ioHterity st^tttoil among the 

Israelites, with whom they cooUnued till their latest agna. 

Balaam, Ihet-efuru. culebrates their prudence and happtnees, 

jjn putltitg themseivcH undiT the protection of Oud's fnrourite 

nation, though he foretells, that they should be fellow -auireren 

in the captiviiy; Numb. xxiv. '21, 22. Of this family was 

Jehonadab, Ihc <>ori of Kechnb, a man of cmiuont xeal IbrtiM 

pur« worship of God &fi;nin<4t idolatry, who assisted king Jehu 

in destroying the house of Ahab, and the worshippers of. 

laal ; 2 Kinj^ x. \b. If). S3, &c. It was ho who ^ve thai 

lie of life to his children and posterity, which we road of in 

the thirty-fit^h chapter of Jeremiah, rer. 6, 7. It consisted of 

these three articles :— 

Ut. TJint they should drink iio wioo. 

2d1y. That they should neither (kmmm nor occupy any 
hotisea, fields, or vineyaKk. 

3dly. That they should dwell in tents. 
In thcitc regnlationa he seems to have had no religious, but 
merely a prudential riow, an is intimated in the reiison u- 
signcd for them, ver. 7, " thai you may live many days in Om 
land where you arc atnmgen." Aud this would Iw the na- 
luml conMK)ueDcc of observing these ruleA, inasmoch. 


Ist. As their temperate way of living would rery mudi 
coatribute to preaerve their health : and as, 

2dly. They would hereby avoid giving umbrage to, and 
exciting the envy of the Jew^i vbo n^ht have been provoked, 
by their engaging and succeeding in the principal business ia 
which they themselves were employed, namely, tillage and 
vine-dressing, to expel them their country; by which they 
would have been deprived of the religious advant^es they 
then enjoyed. That they might, therefore, be under no 
temptation to plant and cultivate vineyard*, be forbade them 
the use (^ wine. 

Should it be inqaired how they maintained themselves. It 
may be answered, they are. in the Firit Book of Chronicle*^ 
called Scribes, chap. ii. 56, which intimates, that they were 
engaged in some sort of literary em|^oymento. 

t suppose die reason of Godwin's treating of the NazariCea 
and lUehabitea in the same chapter is, that neithCT of them 
drank ^tiae; for in no other respect were they alike, tlrt 
fomier being a religions, and the latter mer^y a prudential 
and civil nutHiition.* 

* Vid. Wittii DtiMrt. 4e Rccfatbitit^ piefiMd to hli Latm tnnsUtion.ttf 
Godwin'! Moms and Aaion, inserted into Hottinger's edition, and piiaief 
likewise ia Witsii Miscellan. torn. ii. 


op THK AStilDBANft. 

AcTEU the spirit of prophecy ceiunl. and there were no in- 
Ispinxl persons to whom the Jews could apply to decide tlicir 
[KliK'""'' doubts nnd disputea, diflercot opinions soon sprei^ 
I Up among them, am) divided tliem into various sects and par- 
Itieu; the chief of which were the Pharisves, the Saddacee** 
and the Ksseoeei, all supposed to ari^ from tlie Aaiiideans, 
vrho are entitte^l. therefore, to our first utttmtion. 

The Hebrew word D^ivrn chasidim, h used in several place* 

i>of Scripture ap[>ellatively, for good and piouH meii. Psalm. 

,px)ix. 1; cxiv. LO; Isa. hit. 1; Mic. vii. 2; but never* I 

lapprehend, for a religious sect. In (he apocryphal book of 

,lhe Maccabees, »iide«d, we often nieetwilh Lheuaif^ioi.a word 

rplainly derired from the Hebrew D^T^Dn chandim: as in the 

following passage: " There came to MattatliiaH acompanyof 

i\»sLdeans, who were mighty men of Israel, even all such as 

^«et« voluntarily devoted unto the law," I Mace. u. 4*2; «ee 

.also chap. vii. 13, and 2 Mace. xiv. 16. Thcjie Assideaas, 

apoken of in the Maccabees, hare generally been supposed 

^io be some sect subsisting at that lime. Yet as Jottephus 

wrote of the some times and of the same alfairs, without men> 

,tioniiig any such sect, some have doubted, and not without 

, reason, whether there ever was any such, and whether the 

'Word aathuw be not ut^ed in the Maccabees, as C^T^ry chafidim 

is in tlic Hebrew Bible, for pious persons in general, even 

,.fliich as " were voluntarily devoted unto the law." And it ia 

no improbable conjecture, that as they were persons generally 

of that character, who, in defence of their law and religion. 

first adhered to Mattathias, and afterwant to his son Judas. 

, IMaccabteus, the name tunZaim. or saints, was by their enemM 

.converted into a term of reproach and scorn, as the word 

puritans wan in the last century, and saints very often is now. 


or Ttnt ASSfHRAlVt. 


And a* 1 ace no auflicicnt evidence of the aaiiuiot, in the time 
of the Maccftbcea, being a distinct sect from othtr pious Jew», 
1 lay no stress upon Godwin'n distinction between tlie o^p^-nc 
taadikim and the O^I^DTI clmsidtm, which, ho saith, took place 
aAer the captivity, and consisted in the following particulars : 
tile ttadikim gave theniselves to Uie study of tJic Scripture; 
the cfiasitiim fttudie<l how to add to the Scnpture ; the former 
would conforoi tu whatever the law re<iuired ; the latter would 
be holy above the law ; thna to the repairing of the temple, 
the maintaiiting of aacrifices, tile relief of the poor, &c., they 
would vulunUirily add over and above, to tliiit which the law 

Neither do I thiak it probable, us Godwin supposes, that 
this apovtle refers to any i>uch distinction when lie aailh, 
.V Scarcely for a ngfateous man, Siieatov. would one diej yet 
peradvenlure for a good, man, aya^ou, some would even dare 
to die;" Rom. v. 7. 8. By the aya^o^, or good man, the 
apostle rather i^eant a kind, benevolent, charitable man, than 
such ns were for adding to llie divine taw, and performing 
works of supererogation. In this sense the word oyatfoc is 
continually used in the New Testament, For instance, in the 
Gospel of St. Matthew we meet with this expression, " Is 
thine eye evil liccause I am good V or beneftceut, oyo^oc, 
Matt. XX. 16. In the Epistle to the Romans, "Be not 
overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good," aya^ut, with 
kind and generous actions ; chap. xii. 21. In the Epistle to 
Philemon, ro nyabou means "thy kindness," ver. 14; and 
in till* apocryphal book of Eccleaiasticus, oyo^oc o^aX* 
/IOC signifies "the liberal eye;" chap. xxxv. 8. The mean- 
log and desif^ of the apostle, tlierefure. in the passage before 
us. may be thus represented : So t-'Ugaginj; are the charms of 
generosity and beoerolence above mere righteoutuicss and 
justice, that though scarcely any man will hazaid his life for 
one who has nothing but the latter to recommend him, 
several might bo found, who would nm t^is important risk to 
prevent the death or destruction of a disinterested and gene- 
rous friend. But the lore of Christ (for it is to illustrate 
that love the apostle mokes tliis ubi>crvation) appeant lo be 
far more free, generous, and exalted, than any instance of 



S01HC t. 

human frTtnA«h\p, in that wh«n wo were yet ainnen;, audi 
poss«Med, thi.^refore. of none of the»e good oi amiable qua^j 
litics to recommend us, he laid down hi* litit for ut.* 

Tlie D^pnv ts/nHkim, flodwin imagines, wen the maao with 
the D^tnp karrftim, or KamutCD. It is certain the Knrraitc* 
were ancicntiy » considerable stwt, which is still in being in 
Poland and Hussia, but chiefly in Turkey and E^pt. 

They have their nnme from the Chaldee word mp kara, 
tcriptura tacra, because they adhered to tiie Sehpturaa as 
the whole and only rule of their fuilh and praetico ; whidi.] 
occasioned their being callixl O^K*^)) karraim, tfxtuaUa, 
Mcriptuarii, while tho»e nho adhered to the traditions taogltl 
by the rabbiea were called D^ia'i rabbtitim, rtihhinisttr. 

These party names wer« firet $rivni Oiem about thirty y«ar*| 
Iwfore C'bnst, when, upon the diKsonsion between flilld, thM 
president of the Sanhedrim, and Shammai, the Wce-presidonii] 
by which their respective scholars were listed into two parties^ i 
I«tween whom there were perpetual contests, those that were<< 
of the opinion of the K:irraites sided with the school of IShanf 
mai, and those who were zealous fur tradition*, with the school 
of Hiilel. Nevertheless, tliou^fh the name D^tnp karraim bei 
thus modem, the sect Imai^ts of their h^h anti<]uity; for thej^^ 
say the>' are the followers of Move* and the prophets, as ih* 
undoubtedly are on account of their adhering to the Scriptt 
in opposition to human traditions. Yet Dr. Prideaun U] 
they did not rgect all traditions abaoltitely, only refused theo^j 
the same authority as they allowed to the written word. \k\ 
human he! pa.conducive to thtfirU'tttT understanding th(!Srrip*j 
tures, they were content to admit thorn, but not to put them OM^ 
afoot with the written oracles ofGod.a,'* all the wther Jews did.1 

The Karraites diiter also from the rest ot the Jew* in tln«,j 
that they read the Scriptures, as «dl as their Ihnrgies, wtTj\^ 
\«^er«, both in public atHl private, in the langnage of tht 

■ Concemnicthe AMd«tii>.coosult Drtwuu de ileidvU, awl De' 
Sectit Judworum, til». it. cap. x. — «».; »i"l «l>o lib Quiut U*b*. lib. ^j 
<jUK)ti. ilrii.; S<^l»i[Lf'» Kltncho* Tnh»r«e6» JudKorom, rap. luiii.; FulleraJ 
Mn«ll. Sura, lib. i. op. *iu , and rtid«9\ix*t Coa»«ct. part ii- bool ». •ual 
snno 107, vol. 111. p. 734. 3ST, tOih edit. 

t Prsiewu't CoBoeet. pan H. book v. mb sano 109, vol. ib. p. 4*9 


or THS SAEXAms. 

country in which Ihev dwell : at CoiiEtiintmople, in modem 
Greek ; in Caifu, m Turkish, &c.* 

Ab the achcxkt of Uillel prcTttilod against ihml of Shajnsioi, 
the RabbinisU became the popular sect, and the Kamutes 
were lookod upon as schiaraatica and heretics, being loaded 
with mnch reproach by the other Jews ; liiough in r«dity, of 
■U their sects, tliey wt>re tJie puroKt ai]d nioet pious. They 
■refivqiientlybrduUod with the name SodduceeH bythe Jein»li 
rabbioB, by whom, 1 suppose. Godwin was led into the miM 
take which lio commits, wlieii he rcfiresenls Uiem aa rejcctiiift 
not only tradiUoos, but all Scripture, except the five booku of 
Moses. The truth is. all the Sadducues a^j^reod with the 
Karraites in rejecting tradition«. but the Kamtites by no 
nteans a^ed with tlu? Saddiicecft in rejecting the i^reater 
part of tlie Scriptun^. 

As the RabbiniMtA inturpret tiiu Scriptures by the IraditioDt 
which the Karraitea reject, it is no wooder they diflcr in the 
■enac of many texts, and practise the ntea of worship in a 
dtlTereot manner. Relaud reckons up six articles of dittercnct 
between tlie Kairattei and otiier Jews:— - 

Ut. Th« Rabtiiuista reckon the feast of the new moon, and 
the bcgiuaing of the month, by aftronomical calculationaf the 
Karraites begin the month with the first appearance of the 
rooon after the change. 

2dly. The Rabbinists killed tJm pusclial lamb in the of^etw- 
noon, when the sun was declining ; the Karraites not till alier 
the itun was Bct. 

3dly. Tlie Rabbinista admitted the whole family to cat tlie 
pasfiover; the Karraites, none but tlie moles, and of them 
only auch am wera of age. 

4thlv. The Rabbioitts held, that what remained of (he 
pMMover, was to b« burnt on the sixteenth day of the motitli, 
or, if that proved the Sabbath, on the seventeenth ; the Kar- 
raites, that it was always to be burnt on the fifteenth ; sec 
Exod. xli. 10. 

5tfaly. They diifered about the meaning of the law ctmcero- 
ing the oflcring of tlie iibeaf of tlie Brst-fruits ; Lct. xxiii. 10, 
1 1. The Rabbiniats offered it the day after the passorei; the 

Uotiifigcfi Thcsaur. Philolog. inter MAtndM. [<. iHs, tdil. Tignr. 1449- 



'[book 1. 

KBrraitcs thought it was to be offeivd the day after the Sab«^ 
bath next to tbe passover. 

6thly. In th« feast of tabernacles, the Rabbiniata cany] 
about branches and a citron, in a sort of procession ; the Kai 
raites allow of no tuch ceremony.* 

It may not be improper toobaerve, that the Mohamtnf 
are distinguished into two socbt. in some measure nnuli^Daa 
to the Rahbtnists and Karraites among the Jews ; namely, the 
S<Hinitea and the Shiites. The SonnitM are ao colled, becaase 
they acknowI«lge the aiilhi>rity of the Stmna. or collation of 
traditions cuix^erning the Kti^ings and actions of their prophet, 
which is a kind of supplement to the Koran, directing th« 
obacnrance of several things tliere omitted, and in name, a* 
well at de8tg;n, anawering to the Mishoa of the Jews. 

The Sbiitea, which name properly aignitiea sectaries, or ad* 
berentn in gcneml, but is peculiarly npplicd to the i^ect of Ali, 
reject the S«nna a» apocrvphal and fabulous. Theite acknow- 
ledge All, tlie son-in-law of Mohammed, for his true and Ihw- 
ful Buccessor, and even prefer him to Mohammed htmsclT. 
llie Turkb are Soanites; tlie Peraians Shiites. These two 
Mohammedan secta have as great an antipathy to on» another 
ap any two sects, either of Jews or Christiana. So greatly tn 
Spinoza mistaken, in preferring the order of the Mohammedan 
church to that of the Roman, becansc oo tchifims have artaen 
in the former since its birtb.f 

* Vid. RcUndi Anliquitil. Ilebnpor- part ii- cap. 'a. ten. xii. ; tee tbo, 
oa die lubjirct of the Kanaha, TrigluxL de S«c(A Kaneoniin ; F»tlier Si- 
non'i Hiitoire Ctilique Vjeux Tesutneni, Uv. i. eh. nix,, or the Lilin edi* 
lion, p. 14^; Mul also hb Duquisiuonn Cntlcc, cap. vi. : R. Maidocbns 
Karats, apud Wolfti Notniam KanMrum ; Bosnag*, llbL of the Jews, book 
ii. ctiap. v'lu. \x. 

i Vid. Spioos. Opera Posthamn,p.6l3: mkI S«l(>'i Preliminuy l>tacoun« 
loUiTnuulationof the Koran, wvt. *tit. p. 176. I7t). Loodon» (7^4. 



The Phnrisce.i derived their name, not, ns snmc have «up- 
()08ed, from lino pharash, e-xpwnit, becnuite ihey were in the 
highest reputation for expoundiog thu law ; for ii appears by 
tlic rabbies there were women Pharisees, to whom that office 
(tifl not appertain; but either, as Godwin Hpprehends, tVoni 
\LnD j/irresh, la the conjugation pihef : or from PID pharas, 
(Icrisii, pnrtitut est, which is awnctinies written with a P sin; 
Mf Mic. iii. 3; Lam. iv. 4. DMrrra pheraskm, in the He- 
brow dialect, or panns pherhhin, or ksp^'W pherishe, according 
to the Chaldeo, Hij^ifiea pefBons who were separated from 
others; which name, tlierefore, was assumed by the Pharisees, 
not because Ihey heM separate assemblies for divine worship, 
but because they pretended to a wore tliou ordinary saucthy 
and atrictnesB in religion. Thus in the Act» of the ApwUes 
the Pharisees are said to be aKpi(if<TTarii nifxaic, tlie most 
exact sect of the Jewish religion, chap. xxvi. 6; agreoabic 
(o the account Josephus gives, that this sect was thought 
wmj^t<rrtpov ttvat ruv aWbiv, to be mon^ pious and devout 
thait others, and to interpret the taw with grfoitor accuracy.* 
In another place he saith, they valued themselves id their 
enctnesa on the law. and on their skill in the interpretittioo 
of it; and seemed to excel all others in the knowledge and 
oUtcrration of the customs of th«r fathers-f 

Tt is verj- uncertain when thin sect firnt sprung up; but 
there is no doubt its date, as well as that of all other religious 
sects among the Jews, ought to be 6xod later than the death 
ftf Malachi, when the spirit of prophecy c«Bwd from Jsnd. 

'* * Joseph. <Jc Bello Jaduc. lib. i. cap. v. wet. it. p. 63, Hsveic. ; sn ibA 
lib. U. cap. viii. MCt. stv. p. 166. 

t Aniwi- lib. rrtt. esp. ii. seeu i>. p. 830; «t U) VitA tiA, «St ^viu- 
p. 18- < '■ 



[book I. 

We read, indeed, of pRnions miich of the same spirit and 
temper with the Pharisees in laaiah, who Raid, " Stand by 
thyself, come not near me; for I urn holier than Ihou ;" chap. 
\xr. 5. But Ibis only showa there were proud hypocrites 
before the icct of the Pharisees arose, 

I know not opom what authority Godwin makes Anti^nus 
Socheim to be the fDuniier of IhiK sect, three hundred veani 
Iwfore Christ. Dr. Lightfoot lliinks, that Pharisaism rose up 
gradually, and whs long before It came to the maturity of a 
seel; but wheii that was, he does not pruU-nd to determine.* 
It Bppuare by Jo»ephus, that id the time of .luhti Ilyrcuuus. 
the high-priest, aud prince of the Ai»njoiican line, about a 
hundred and eight years before Clirixt, the sect wa& uoL only 
formed, but made a considerable figurv : iiisomuch, that this 
phocc thought it for his iutereat to endearour to ingratiate 
faiusolf with the Pharisees, and gain tliem to bin party. For 
tfaifl «od he inWted the heads of tlicm to an entertainment, 
aod, having regaled them, paid them the compliment to desire, 
tjiot if they saw any thinji; in his administniiioo unacceptable 
to God, or unjust or injurious to men, they wonld admonish 
him of it. and give him their advice and in'Uructiom, how it 
might be reformed and amended. Whereupon one EJeazar, 
a lour Pharisee, told him, '' that if he would approve himHclf 
a just man, he must quit tiie priesthood, and content him»elf 
with the civil government. Upon that he was highly pro- 
voked, and went over to the Sadducees.f To what o height 
of popularity aitd power this sect waa ^Totvu about eighty 
yeara before Christ, appears from annthai pa&m^ in Jose- 
pluu4 When king Alexander JaJiiusus lay ou hi» death- 
bed, and his Mtfc Alexundm wtu^cxceediugly troubled at the 
ill stale in which she found she and her i;hi|dr«n would W leA 
on account of the hatred whicli she knew the Pbarisce* bore 
to hor butband and hi^ fonily, he adviood her by all meana to 
eoiew the Phtirueos, since thia would be tlie way to MCUf* 
her the affection of the bulk of the natioa; for there were no 
nch friend? where they loved, and no «ucb enemies when 
dWy huti^i und wheihur they spoke true or false, good or 

* llorwllrbr. in M«l. iii.7- 

t Jrwrph. Antiq. liK viil- csp. x. ttn. w. vi. p. M), OM- 
I I'll! *»\<i». rap. %i. tsKL *■; el cap. xri. wd. i. p. 075, 676. 






cril of any pereon, thev would be alike believed by the com- 
mon people. With this view he enjoitted her, after his death, 
to commit his body to their dispotuJ ; and at the same time to 
assure thera. that she wuuld cvei reftign herself to their autho- 
rity and direction. Do thib. said he, uod you will not only 
goiii me on honourabJu ruuonU. but yooredl aad your children 
a occure settlement in the [^overnineut. Aiid »o it nccordingly 
happened ; his funeral was more iiumptuouii Lhiui any pi' his 
predecessors, and bis queen was firmly established in the 
supreme administration of the nation. 

According to Baannge, ono Ariatobulus. an Alexandrian 
Jew. and « peripatetic philosopher, who flourished about ono 
hundred and twenty-five y-K'nn before Christ, and wrote Mome 
commcmaries on the Scripture in the allcKorical way, was the 
anchor of those traditions, by an adherence to which chiefly 
the PhartseoH were distinguished from other Jewish sects.* 
But it 18 by no means probable Hiich a hnap of traditJons 
slioald spring up &t once, but rather i;nidually ; and ho, ac- 
cording to Ughifuot,i- did the sect ofUie Pharisees ituclf, till 
at length it became the most considerable of all. 

Their diutinguishing dogmata may be all, in a manner, re- 
ferred to their holding the traditions of the elders, whicli they 
not only set upon an equal footing with tlic written law, but 
in many cases cxplamed the former by Uie latter, quite con- 
trary to its true intent and meajiing. And tbus " tbey made 
th* commandment of God of none «ffect by their traditions;" 
Matt. XV. 6. They pretended to derive these from the same 
fountain with the written word itsell"; for they say, that when 
Mose* waited upon God forty days in the mount, he received 
from him e. double law; coie in writing, the otlier traditionary. 
eontaining the sense and explication of the former— that 
Hoau, being corns to his tent, ropeatad it first to Aaron, then 
to Itlnmar and Kleazar his sons, tbfm to the seventy eldent, 
Uld lastly to all the people. The rabbies farther inform us, 
that Moaes at his death repeated the oral law ngam to Jaefaaa ; 
that he debvered it to the elders, thev to the prophets, and 
the prophets to the wtw; men of the great synagogue ; and to 

* Bunoge's History ofibe Jcw».book«ct. ii.p. 110,London, 

I roe. 

t Lightibot, Horx Hebr. Usu. iti. 7, MOU iii- 


;bwish a I 


it was hnndcH through Hf^veral frenerations, till at length R. 
Jadafa Hnccodhcah, reHccttng on the niMcttJed conditioo <^ 
his notion, after the destruction of Jenisalem and the Jewish 
polity, and how apt theite traditionary precepts would he to 
be forgotten in their diepcr&ion and opprcMion, commilu-d 
them to writing about 1 50 years al^r Christ,* aod called his 
book the Miiibna, or the second law, of which wu have 
formerly given an account. 

The dogmata of the Phariteed may be disiingai»hed into 
doctrinal and practical. 

The ditiiingiii»hing doctrines maintained by thin acct, were 
concerning predestination and free-wiU, angels and apiritft, and 
the future state and resurrection. 

1st. Ar to predestination and free-will, titey went a middle 
way between the Sadducees, who denied the pre-detenni nation 
of human actions and events, and the iiBseaes. who oficnbcd 
all thingii to fate and to the stars. Whereas the PhariBoo. 
according to Joaephuii, Ascribed some things to fate, but held 
that other tiuogs were left in a man's own power, so thai he 
might do them or not rf or rather, according to another sc- 
OOiint he givfs.J tliey lield, tJuU all things were derrt'wl of 
Ood, yet not ao ns to take away the freedom of man's wdl in 

2dly. The Pharisees held the doctrine of angels and sepa- 
rate human spirits, which the Sadduocesilenied ; Actsxxin.H. 

3dly. As to llic future state and resurrection, the PhahBees 
diflered both from the Sadducees and Kssenes. For, whereas 
the foruiur held that both soul and body utterly pcriKhed at 
death, and had uo exiBtenoe after it ; and the latter, that the 
soul would continue to exist sf^er death, but without any fu- 
ture union witli the body; the Pharisees maintained the rc- 
snnection of the bodies, at least of good men, and the future 
and eternal state of rctribntion to all men ; Acts xxiii. K. 
JoscphuH, who was himself a Pharisee, give:* this account of 
their doctrine in those points, " ^u\itu St waaav f*tv a^Aofirovi 
ttsrm^auntv & «c htfiov aiafm, rttf rwi/ ayai^ti tiovriv, njn & r«w 

• S*rp. 2M, wole*. 
'"■f JoMipli. Am>>|- lib. ziii. asp. v. MOt rt- p< 649- 
] Dc Bt'lU) Judak. Itb. ii. cap. riii. MCl. tiv. p, IM: Anuq. bb. imu. 

Ftp. i. Met III |). Sfl 

CHAI>. X.] 

OF THR l'HARl»fiS«. 


favXwtu^ai Ttfivpia xoXaSfoftti : Every soul is immortal, those 
vf the good only enter into another body, but those of the bad 
arc tunuented wilb ev«rla&luig punishment.* From whence 
it ha8 been pretty generally concluded, that the reaurrecUon 
they held wa& only a Pythagorean on<;, namely, the transmi- 
gration of the aoul into another body ; from which they ex- 
cluded all that were notorioosly tricked, who were doomed at 
once to eternal puniahment ; but their opinion waH, that those 
who were i^ilty only of IcBser crimes were puiiiahed for them 
in tlie bo<lieH into which their uuula were next tient. 

It » supposed, that it was upon this notion the disciples 
asked our Lord, " Did this man «in, or his parents, that he 
waa bom Mind V John ix. 2 ; and that some Mud, Matt, 
xvi. 14, Christ was " John the Baptist, some Elias, others 
Jeremias, or one of tlie prophets. "+ 

This vras undoubtedly the opinion of the Pythngoreana,| 
and Platonists,^ and was embraced by some among the Jews; 
as by the author of the Book of Wisdom, who says, " that 
being good, he came into a body undehled;" chap. viii. 20. 
Nevertheless, it is questioned by some persons, whether the 
words of Josepbna, before quoted, are a sufficient evidence of 
this doctrine of the metempsychosis being received by the 
whole sect of the Pharisees; for fiera(ia<vttv u^ irtftnv atttut, 
passing into another or different body, may only denote its 
receiving a body at the reeurrectioo ; which will be another, 
not in substance, but in qualily ; as it is said of Christ at his 
transfiguration, ro «ooc ^ov irpoavfwou avrov Inpop, " the 

fashion of his countenance was" another, or, as wc render it, 
was "altered;" Luke ix. 29. 

As to the opinion which aome entertained concerning our 
SftTioor, that he wtis eitlter John the Baptist, or Elias, or Je- 
laniM, or one of tlie prophets. Matt. xvi. 14, it is not 

• D* B«U. Judaic- lib. ii. tmp. vili. m*. xi» p. 166. 

f Sm Pridaux't Ccmaecl. p«xt. ii- book v. nib anno lOT hefonChrillt 
Ml. iA. p. 470, 460, lenih mlit. Lmdcm, 1730- 

t Dwgett. Lwn. dr Vitii HtultMoph. lib. viii. d* Vicft PyilwR. »«jpii. %n, 
d not. AMsbaodbi in loc vol. i. p. 4W, ntiL AauuL i6». 

^ PlsiD la Ptuuln), p. 1223, U, (', D. Ii,edit. Ficui. PnincnC I60t; ct 
Dugsn. Larrt. <!• Vtua Plulw. Idi. iii. de ViU riuouu, seym. Iivji, vol. |, 
p, to*. »05. 





ascribed to tfie PhariMwa in particuliir; and if it wer«, I do 

not tee how it could be founded on the doctrine of the me- 
lempaychoAis; since the bouI of EJiix, now inhabiting the 
bodjr f^ Jeens, would no more omkc bim to bu EUu£, than 
several others had been, in wboae bodies the aooJ of Klia>, 
according to tliis doctrine, i» supposed to have dwelt aiiice the 
death of that ancient prophet, near a thousand years before. 
Besides, how was it possible any person that saw Christ, who 
did not appear to bo less thnn thirty years old, should, accord- 
ing to the notion of the melem psychosis, conceit him to be 
Jc^n the Ilaptisi, who had been so Jately beheaded f Surely 
this apprehension must bo grounded on tho stippusition of a 
proper resurrection. It was probably, therefore, upon tho 
■ame account, that others took him to be £Uas, and others 
Jercmias. Accordingly, St. Lultccxpnaws it thus : " Others 
say, that one of the old prophets is risen from the dead ;'' 
Luke ix. 1*>. 

It may farther Xx obaened, that the duclriiie of the resur- 
rectioo. which St. Paul preached, waa not a present me- 
tempitychosis, but a real future resurrecliou, which he calls 
** the hope and resurrection of the dead ;" Acts xxni. (i. This 
he professed as a Pharisee, and ibr this professioD the par- 
tisans of that sect vindicated him against tlie Sadduoeec; 
Ter. 7 — Q. Upon the whole, therefore, it appears moat rea,* 
sonabte lo adopt (ho opinion of Reland, thoagh in opposition 
to the sentiments of many other learned men, that the Phs- 
riwes held the doctrine of tho resurrection in a proper 

Thus far their doctrinal opinions appear to JniTe 
agreeable to ihe Scripture, excepting that one grand prin'^ 
ciple, that the traditions of the fathem came from Ood. and 
were at least upon an equal foot with Ihe sacred writings; 
This was the root, the wpiarov:pin?4tt. of various errors ; from 
hence procecdt-d most of the corrupt prartical do^iata of 
ihisaect: Which we are now, 

7dly. To consider. Hence, they gare so erroneons an m- 

' Kciuid. Anliq- Hehr. }uu1 rt. np. ii. Met. m. p. t79, UnH edit. Trakj 

lh« docMnc M il>r nM«inp«!nliDA ta ow Ssviour'* nm*. im Budiel Hm-J 
lun» Eccin Vii. TMtamMit, Ufid. ii. pat. U. p. 1203 

CHAF. X.] 

or TK£ FHAtlKSKS. 


terpretation of many texts of Scripture, explaioing them Ac- 
cording to th^ir traditions; which wan the occasion of their 
tnmsg;rcs«ing the eommondmcntfi of God, and making ihem 
of none effect; Matt. xr. 3 — 6. 

Hence thvy fell into many very &uperstitiotu> practiceB, ia 
which they placed a great port of their religion; such as fre- 
<jtmnt nashini^ their hands and their household faniiture, be- 
yond what the bw required, Mark vii. 3, 4; fasting twice a 
week, Luke xviii. 1'^; and, if we nuy credit the Talmnd, 
practising many painful austerities and mortifications, whip- 
ping tlbenuelTes, lying npon Ainta and thorns, and knocJiing 
their headii against walls till th<^y made them bleed.* 

Hence being busied about tritles, and taken up with a mul- 
litudc of rites and ceremonies, they foi|;ot and n^ectod the 
^reat duties of morality. Thuii, while they were sujiereti- 
tiouftly exact " in tithing mint, anise, and cunimin. they orer- 
lookrd the weightier matters of the law, Judgment, mercy, and 
faith," Matt, xxiii- 23; and by thus placing their rehgion in 
things wherein true religioo docs not consist, th«y to a man- 
ner lost all notion of spiritual piety and godliness, and became 
the moat ^nished hypocrites among the Jews. Pharisees and 
hypocrites arc often joined together in the gospel historv, and 
s«reral instances of their hypocrisy mentioned, namely, their 
fasting, almsgiving, and making long prayers in the synagogusa, 
and even in comers of the streets, on purpose " to be seen of 
men," and to gain their applause; and " for a pretence, th« 
better to corer thctr secret wickwlncs*:" Matt. vi. 2. 6. 16; 
xxiii.G — 7. 14. In short, they placed the whole of rel^on in 
outward cercmonia] observances, and therefore took no poina 
or care to get their henrtit purified : they frvely indulged their 
pride and malice, and all other scwts of spintual wiokedaeaa : 
on which account they are compared by our Saviour to whited 
sepulcbn-&, Mutt, xxiii. 'Z^ ; oud because they were very exact 
in their ritual observances, in which they abounded beyond 
others, they looked upon themselves to be more religious, and 

* MUk liL Soariir esp. iii. Mci. ir. tub fln. cum OM. BarMaor « Wa- 
fioBifl. Seod^ eiee^. Gmur. eap. tti. hvl il. ; Druslni da THbai <sci il ^ 
lib. it. Mp. kiv. p. ?1, Brit gAh. p. %!A. edit. Trisiand; fiuiterf. Syssf. 
Judmic cap^ xxT. p. A21 — 583, ihuid cdiL BumI, 1661. See Eptphsahis, 
Iwt. vd, sset t. tua- i- p- 3S, 94, edit. PMav. 

X 3 




the pRcuIiiir foTonnles of Heaven, and thurcfurc " they trust 
in tht'in8«lTCs that lh(>y uvrc rigbteoud, and despised olheni,'' 
Luke xriii. 9; and their pride bein^ thus I'ini, they airectvdl 
pre-uniinencc. and expected a greater share ol" respect thiio 
uthure; Matt.-xxiii. ti, 7. From the same criitiirial prinuipte 
they *• made broad their phylacteries, and cnlBreteti th«* border 
of their (rariaents;" vei. 5. 

The phylacteries, colled by the Jews yftsn lephiUiu. » 
little ftcroUs of parchment, in which are written ct^rtain wn-l 
tence» of the law, encloBMl in leather cases, and bound witlij 
thongs on tlie forehead and on the leA ann. 1'hcy nre callt 
in Greek ^vXuKnipia, from ^tAurrw, cuxtvdio, either becaui 
tliey were supposed to preserve the law in ineiriory, or rather 
becauac they were looked upon as a kind of amulets or charmi 
to keep them from danger. Godwin gives an account fromj 
the rabbicB of the sentences of the taw written in thv |>hy*j 
lacieries. and the manner of writing and folding them upjj 
which is Kufiicicntly exact.* 1 shall only observe, that tlia ' 
niakiiii; and uearing thetK; pliylucterieu, as the Jews still do j 
in their private devotioiiii, iw owini> to a misnilerpretation afl 
those tcxts.+ on which tliey ground the practice, uaiuelv, Gcxl't] 
commanding them " to bind the law for a nign on their bonds^ . 
and to let it be as frontlets l>etween their eyes," Stc, Deut. vi. 8. 
This precept cvideittly refers to the whole law of Moses, and 
not to the partictilur sentences which they wrote in their pby- ' 
laoleri«B; see ver. <>■ The cotnmaiid of writing and binding] 
thbi law BB a sign upon the bandi. and as froutletM between thai 
eyes, oaght doubtless to be understood luetapboricaJly, as al 
■jCfctrgc to remember it, to iiiedilatc upon it, tu huve it an it 
r'#irc* continutilly before their eyeit, aod to conduct tlietr lives 
liy it; as when Soloroon says, concerning the commandmenr* 
of (lod in general, " bind tliom about thy nock, write tJicm 
ujioii the table of tliy heart:" Pruv. lii. 1. 3; vi. 21. The 
precept, therefure, which we nre now considering, to" bind 
Uie wordii of the law fur a sign upon the hands, and as (runt- 

* S«« MauTUMi. Tq>biUiti, ku d« Vbyimietiia, \Vai;i'niu>il. Soiah, t^rrrpt, 
licmar. c«p. II. «eci. ll. not, ». p. 397— 4ia, AltdtiH, lu74; aiuJ Soiruliirtti 
Tsbuht dc Itiyladerlu, preOinl u> itw lint (nlum* of lis eiloion oT di« 

t !i«e U Clerc on Kxod. liti. 9. 

X'UAP. X.] 


cts between the eyes," Dcut. vi. 8, is to be expliitncd by ihe 
sntcnce which pri>cwlcs ii, "These words, which I com- 
landcd thee this day. shall be in thine heart." In hke man- 
ler it i« said el^ewkere, " Yc shuU lay up oiy words in your 
hearts aiid in your souls;" chap. xi. \H. However, the Jews 
andftntanding the forvgoing precept, not metvi|ihoric»lly, but 
liti^rally, wrote out Ihe Beveral pasii»ge» wherever it uecuns, 
and to which it ttvenis to refer, uod bound them upon their 
forehcada and upon their arms. 

It seetn^ the PhariseeB used lo "make broad" their phy- 
lactehea. This aouie uiidurstaiid of the knots of the tbonga 
by which thoy were fastened, which were tied very artifiotally 
ii) the form of Hebrew letter* ; and tliat the pride of the Pha- 
riseea induced them to hnve these knol--* larger than ordinary. 
oa a peculiar ornament. Others supposed Lliey aflcct«d to 
wear the phylacteries themselves verj- lar^e, as if they con- 
tained more of the lav than was commonly worn by their 
neighbouFB, and were therefore a ttstimony of tlieir cxtm- 
ordinary nffcction for it. It is imagined by some persons, 
that the phyiacteries arc alluded to in the book of the Reve- 
UtioD, chap. xiii. 16, where the subjecte of antichrist arc said 
to be distinguished by "a mark on their right handa and on 
their forcheadft."* 

The Pharisees arc farther said to " enlarge the borders of 
their ^rmenlH," to KpatnriSa rwv i/wriwv, sue Matt, xxtii. 5. 
before cited. These cpunrt^a were the P^lt^V tfitsith. the 
fringes which the Jews are. in the t>ook of Numbers, cotn- 
manded lo wear upon the Iwrders of their gnmient^. Numb. 
XT. 38, 39. The Targum of Onkelos calls them i^noono 
flirnifpeilhtH, which hath 3o near an aRinily witli rhe lirt'ck 
word KpatnitZov, that tlirre is no doubt but it dignities the 
■ame thing ; which is, Uierefore. an evidence, (hat tJie Kfum- 
a-tSa were the n*!M( ttitsilh. These were worn by onr Saviour, 
aa appeara from the following passage of St. Matthew : " Be- 
hold, a woman, which was diseased with an isaue of blood 

* Scu a lurffc w^Cfmnl ot \be nupenlilian nf thi? Sfrti^ cnncrmiliK the phy- 
buMlie*, m A.iniwan)i on Eiot). uii. 9: UuxiurTs SynSf. JwUJdl, cap. il. 
■Ad Lnie. Talnnd- in «oc. rtVori. Coimtli, iibo, ua itiu Hib^cet, Spvucrn 
D il Bcn. ilr tint. ■.•( Ong PhyUct ad t^aln-m- lorn. ii. de Lrgibtti. (vUi. 
Caoiab- 1737. 



[book 1. 

twelve years, came behind him. aitd touched the hem of his 
garment," RjiNunri^v rou Iftanov, Matt. tx. 30. Agaio, the 
inhabitants of Gennesaret are said to have brought uuto him 
their diseased, and to have " besought him, that they might 
only touch the hem of his ganncnt," icpa<nrf^t> rou ifumou. 
Mm. xiv. 36. K^omSov rov inanov is, in both these pas- 
sa^s, very improperly tnuiBlated the " hem of his garment." 
It should have been rendered the fringe; and it should aeem 
the people imagined there vias some peculiar virtue or sanc- 
tity in the fringe of our Saviour's garment above any other 
port, from their expectation of a miraculous cure by touching 
it. It appears, indeed, the later Jews placed a great deal of 
aanetity in these fringes. Uabbi Mcnachem, on tlic fifteenth 
chapter of Numbers, saith, whta a-iy man is chithed with a 
fringe, and goeth oat tlierewtth to the door of his habitation, 
he is safe, and Qod rajoiceUi, and the destroying angi'l de> 
{HRteth from thence, and that man ahatl be delivered iVom all 
hurt, and from all destruction.* 

Concerning the form of this fringe, we can only frame an 
uncertain guess from the two Hebrew word* by which it is 
npcessed, namely, mr-V tsitiilh. Numb. xv. 38, 39, and 
0^Vt3 gedhiiim, Deut. xxii. 12; which it likewise rendered by 
the Chaldee Paraphrast i^TDms ilttrusptdhin. The former, 
tsittith, is used for a lock of hair. Eick. viii. 3 ; the hitter for 
a rope, Huch or Dalilah bound Samson with; Judges xvi- 
II, 12. Prom hence rt is inferred, Uiat these fringes consiBtt'd 
of many threads, which hung like hair, and were twisted like 
a rope. It was also ordered by the law. that they should put 
upon the fringe a riband of blue, or a thread, as the wirrd 
S^ro pathii seems to be properly rendered in a jMiasage of the 
book of Judges, where it is said concerning Samaon, that 
he " broke the wHhs." with which he was bound. " at ■ 
thread, SnD jtethil, of tow is broken when it loncheth tfa« 
tire," chap. xvi. 9; or dse it may signify hicc, an it is ren> 
dered in a passage 'of tho book of Exodus, chap, xxxix. 31, 
where the string, which fastoied the holy crown to the high- 
priest's mitre, is expresaed by Uie same word used for this 
\AnA thread, or bee. u[)on the frii^ of their ganaeuts. 
Whether, therefore, it was a bine thread twisted with a white 

* R. Menachcm on Nuinb. zv., quolcd lijr Ainswoith oo Numb. v. 39 

CHAP. X.} 

nP TRK niAKtXBS!i. 


throuKit titc whole fringe ; whether it wa!) a blue Isuoe, by which 
ilw rringc wu faatcoed to the edge of the garment; or«rhcth«r 
it was sowed along the head of tho frittgc, — is what we cftouol 
take upon us to determine. 

riie uM of thiii fringe ia said to be. " that they might look 
upon it, Bnd'remember all the coinmaiKliuent« of tJie Lord, 
and do them;" Numb. xv. 39. Some conceive thf fiiogo wa* 
to be a distinguishing badge, which God ordered the people 
of luacl to wear on their clothes, in the nature of a tiveiy, 
that they might he known for his servants, who was not 
ashamed to own ihoui for hit> pecuUar people ; a» he had be- 
fore, for the same purpose, ordered them to wear a distinguish- 
ing mark in their flesh, namely, circumcision- This account 
wtll ai^re»« with the reason given for their wearing the fringe, 
" that they might look upon it, and remember all the com- 
mandments of the Lortl, lodo thorn;" that is, tliat it might re- 
mind iJmm, tliat as the servants of Jehovah, whose livery they 
wore, they were bound to do all that he hud commanded 
diem. And us by thin badge they were to be distinguished 
from the servants of all other gods, so it was to be a guard 
upon them from idolatry ; accordingly it follows, " that ye 
•eok not after your own hearts, and your own eyes, after which 
you used to go a whoring.*' 

Le Clerc* indeed suggests, that the Jews borrnwfyl thiti 
bshion of wearing fringes from the Llgyptians, becauHe He- 
rodotus, speaking of tlie Egyptians, says, cvSt^wioun iu3w*ar 
XiVfowr "WtfH ra vKtXta ^•aaavbn-mit: , utduli tunl litttieu iineU 
circa crura Jimbralu-i But why might it not as well be 
•apposed, tht Egyptians learnt it from the Jews, as the Jews 
from the Egyptians .' 

After all. there are mme, Calvin in pefticular,| who suppose 
tlusa fringes to be nothing bntstrings, with tassels, at the four 
comers of their upper garment, which was mudt of it Htjuiue 
piuce of cloth, in thesiune fashion that was aflcrwaixl worn by 
the Greeks and ilomans. 

* Clirid Annot. in Num. iv. 3B. 

t HshkIoi. Euinp. cap. Ixui. p. llB,edit. Gvooov. Lagd. Bit trtS. 
I CoWint CoomenL ia DeoL xaU. 13. Opti. ton. L p. &t2, Ataaui- 



BOOK t. 

This opinion very welt agrees with the prccc|il in Deu- 
teronomy, "Thou shall make Uiee fringes upon tlie four 
quartcra," wings, as the nuu^n renders it, or mthci curncrfi, 
"of thy vesture, wherewiUi thou coverestlhyaeir;" chap. xxii. 
12. And the proper oac of theae stnoga was to tie the 
t •corners tof^ether. Such strings the modem Jews hare to their 
veils, and each string has fire knot^ in it, bcKidcs the taseel. 
vignifying the 6ve books of the law. The rabbies observe, 
that each string consistsofcightthreads. which, added to five, 
the number of knots, and likewise to the numeral value of the 
letters in the word r^V-TI tsitxith, amounbt to mx hundred uiid 
thirteen, the number, according to them, of the precepts of the 
law. From hence they infer the importance of the command 
concerning the rrvipy tsitsith: he who observes it, tliey say, in 
, effect observing the whole law.* 

The Pharisees arc censured by our Saviour for enlarging 

litBC fringes of their garments, which we may suppose they 

'^id partly from pride and partly fromliypocrisy, anprelcndn^ 

tliereby an extraordinary regard for tlie law. It is reported by 

Jerome, as quoted by Godwin, that they used to have fringes 

.extnngantly long, slicking Ihom;: in them, thui, by pricking' 

ktheir legs as ihcy walked, (hoy might put them in mind of the 


From the same corrupt fountain whence we have derived 
^tiio other sapersliLiotiK and corruptions uf Uic Pharisees, even 
itir attachment to Uic traditions, we may also trace their 
most unreasonsble and malicious Ojipositiun to our Saviour. 
I Tor, haviug learnt lo interpret the prophecies of the Messiah 
Lin a carnal sense, and being strongly tinctured with the nottoo 
}f his being designed to Ixr a temporal prince and deliverer, 
10 miracles could overcome their prejudices ngiiinst the mean- 
ness of Christ's appearance, and persuade them that a person 

* fiustorf. Synag. Jud. cap. a. p. 1«4> «1H. 3, Buil. IMl; M Ln. Tsl- 
:.Blud. in Tte. FWNt. 

t Cooseratng the frtogv, mc Ainsvrocth on Numb. zv. 38, 31>, Dcui. 
xxii. 1 3 1 Buitorfii Synaf. Judsic. csp. ix. p. 160— 170 ; «t Lntc. 'Ihlmnd. 
in voc nvms; DruMos d* SmIu Sudmoi. lib ii c;ip. Kvi. p UT, edit 
Trigluid; n Uutden. FliiloloK. Hebmo-MixL diiKri. sHi p. 118.119, 
Wbt X, lUtnuMt 1M3. 


who made no pretence to civil authority and military power, 
could possibly be " Messiah the prince/' the " son of David, 
and the Saviour of Israel." They got him, therefore, appre- 
hended, condenmed, and executed, as an impostor.* 

' See an account of the Pharisees in Dnisius de Tribua Sectis Judaomm, 
lib. ii. cap. xii. ult.; in Lightfiwt, Hone Hebr. Matt. iii. 7; in Bamage's 
History of the Jews, book ii. chap. x. xi. ; in Clerici EcclesiasL Histor. Pro- 
legom. sect. i. cap. ii. p. 5—13; and in Prldeaox's Connect, part. ii. book v. 
vol. iii. p. 479 — 483, edit 10. 



As for tlie SadduceeR, BpipKunius dcriyes the name from 
p^ tsedJtek, justitia ;* bul that dorivatioit neilhft ku its the 
word Sadducee, uor Ihe true character of tlic sect. For bo 
far were they from being caiiaeulLy ngliteous. that they arc 
commonly said to be the tuoct wicked and profligate of all the 
Jews; ncitlicr were they given to l>oa«t of their own right«ou»- 
noM, as the Pharisees were. 

Another etymology, which Theophvlact mentions together 
with the former.t U therefore esteemed to be Uie more pro- 
bable one, that their name was derived awo mpMtapx'o*' SaSwK. 
This he borrowed from the Talmud, which tellti U8. that Sadoc 
was a scholar of Antigonuts Socbseus. prcsidout of the San- 
hedrim about two hundred and sixty years before Christ; who 
having inculcated upon his scholars, that ihey ought to wrre 
God out of pure love to him, and not in a servile manner, cither 
for fear of punishment or hope of reward ; Sadoc, not under- 
■tsnding this spiritual doctrine, concluded there was no futurr 
8tat« of n-wards and punishments, and nccortJingly taught and 
propagated tlmt error after his master's death.} However 
that be (for 1 must confess with me talmudical stories have 
but little credit), this is said to have been the doctrine of t)t« 
Sadducees. That they denied the reeurrection, and that there 
arc angels and spiritif. appears from the account given of 
them lo the New Testament: Matt. xxii. 23; Acu xxiti. 8. 
According to Josephus. they rejected the tradiuons of the 

* Epiphan. adnntu llmttt. lib. i. hxru. xiw. p. 31, C edil. Pnsv. 
Colon. 1M3. 

t Tlicoplijrlact. Comment in Hut. iii. 7, p. 18. 

I Uiihn. th. PHv Abkoih, cnp. i. MCL UL tl Haiawn. in loc. Sw 
Jjflitfooi. Horn Utbfaka, io Acu xxiu. 6- 

CKAP. Kl.] 



Pharisees ;* they not only dcuied U>e resurrection of the body, 
but tbe lift; aiid existence of the soul after death : they like- 
wise denied all diviue decrees, and hvld thai mau was abso- 
lutely muter of hia own actions, with a full freedom to do 
cii-ber ^ood or cril. as be thought propter i that God did not 
inHiience him in doing either; and that his prosperity or 
adrorsity are placed within his own power, and are respectively 
the ellect of his wisdom or his folly ;t o notion which in ef- 
fect tunounts to denying a providence, and to the subversion 
of all religion; so that they were, upon the whole, Epicurtian 
Deists in all other respects, except timt they acknowledged 
the world to have been created, and perhaps to be uplield aod 
preserred by God. This historian gives them a very bad cha- 
racter as to their morals, and aays, " they were a set of men 
chnrlish and morose toward each other, and cruel and savage 
to all be«ides."t However, we must remember, that Jo- 
sephus himsdrwas a Phariaee, of an opposite sect, and that 
Kuch penKMMare very apt, from their mutnal avension, to mis* 
reprcwat aod calumniate each other. Perhaps his account of 
the Saddocees b not without some tincture of pharisaical mia- 
pqmKnttttioa; for it can faanlly be supposed, that men of 
sueli very corrapt principltw, as he represents them, should 
continue uncenstired and uncondemnod by the Sanhedrim, 
mnch leaa be snficred to till the highest posts in church aiui 
state, aa we find they did ; it appearing that Caiapbas. the 
high-prioKt. who condemned oor Saviour, was of this sect; 
Acta V. 17. Beatdes, the character given them by this hia- 
torian is altogether inconsistent with (heir receiving, which all 
admit they did, the five books of Moses, even though it were 
true that they rejected all the other sacred books, which 
Godwin lays to their charge, but from which Scaliger en- 
deavours to exculpate them.^ Indeed, the silence of Jose- 
phns renilcFR this charge upon them justly suspccled ; for 
thoDgh he often mentiona tlieni, and loads tham with impota- 

* Jawph. Anciq. lib. siiL cap. x. mm. n. p. 663 ; bV xrui. cap. i. soot. 
iff. p. 7l,e4iL lUnrc. 

t Antiq. lib. iviii. tap. i. scci. iv. p. &7t: Dv Bello JwUiO. lib. it. 
csp- vih. lect. xiv. p. IM; Aniit. lib. xiti. okp. v. sect. ix. p. 649. 

t Dc BrJlo Judaic, lib. it. cap, vik. HBUalt. p. 146. 

t Blancb. Tnbcm, csp. xvi. 



[ro4>ic I. 

tlons of many corrupt principles and practiccit, yet he never 
speaks ortheir rejtTting any psirt. of tlic holy Scriptiirew, which 
no doulit he would hnve done, if il had been f'aci. Nay, he 
says, that though Uiey rejected Uiv traditious of Uic fatbevs, 
they received ra yiypemttvit. the writtuii bo(As.* an expres. 
sioo too genenJ, and too much in tlicir favour, to have flowed 
from his pen, if he couki with any pbiiinbility have accused 
them of rejecting any one of thorn. And cren in the Talmud 
the Saddacees arc introduced as diapnting and arguing from 
paesogesin thepruphctH, and the Pliahseeuiu nnKwi'nng them 
from the same books.t which implies, tfatilUiOF)u bouks were 
received by them; nor are they ercr accused by any of the 
ancient rabbivn with rejecting them, Some oflbciu, indeed, 
style them D**m5 chuthiim, which is another name for the Sa- 
maritans. Bat, perhaps, tbat was only tut a term of reproach, 
which the Jcwh Ivestowod u)>Dn those whom iliey Imted, hh 
upon our Saviour, who, they maid, wiia " u Satuunlau, and 
had a de\'il ;" John viii. 48. However, the Soniaritaiia ad- 
mitting only the five books of Moses to be ouionic-al, hence it 
hatlt come lo pass, that tlie Sudduceea being by the rubbieii 
•ometimes styled D^^/iO chuthiim. or Samaritans, hath faccii the 
occasion, without suHicient reason, of the SadducecB being 
eup[>o«ed, as well as the Samantanx, to have rejected all the 
writings of the Old Testament except tlioftc of Slosos. Sc-ii- 
Uger's opinion seems to be more probable, that they did not 
reject the prophets and tlie hagiogmpha. bat only expounded 
them in a dlHercnt sense from the PhariHci'H and other Jcws.^ 

It ift a question of some dilliculty, bow the Sodducecs could 

■ - I- 

* Airttq. lib- Ji\i- C!ip- >■ «*rl. vt. |>. 0(i3. ^ym taiti-n Ittw i/yuvO lu »••- 
jjMir rayiypafiiiuritiTaf' at ro^iaJWi^ rwv •ninpof /iii rqiwir Tlie wvird 
M|iiC(i b lien ajiplteO to ro yiYpofi/Hva, ihn whulc Svnpturc, (u o|i|iOa«<l to 
Indition; ani] tbv nun) t^fi^y bwh* io hf u«C(l in An mme comitrvhemhrv 
Hfnw. lib. xviii. cap. i. «m|. tv p. B71. 

f Cod. Sanh»Irih, cap- ChHvk, ablnil. : Vid. ReUnd. AbiM|. pan ti. 
cap ix. M«t. X. |>. 273, i^dit. 3; Sadduc*) icilimoniuni ciuni conti* rMUr- 
H>ciion«in n Job vii. 9, in Ilmcdemi, Tut. li. cul. ir., inqtut Unuhn, de IH* 
but SkIm Juilwor. lib. 111. cap. Ix. in sasrgia. St* capcaslly Lljfbliaai, 
Horn llvbnir. John ir. U. 

1 Scaligrr, ul>i Mipni; [>ru*iu« d« TtabuaSwDi JtHlwor lib. iti. cap. ix.j 
d RMpons n4 S«»r- Mincn- tib. ii. mp. ai. ; R«J««iJ. AniR)- pui ii. n«p 
ix. (Vd. 1. p t73, 

fHAf. XI.J 



UitbelieTP the exi&tcncv of ang^fl, anH yet receive even tlie 
Ave books of Moses as cononicni Scnptore, wberein are so 
many narratives of thr appearuice of ungul!}. Probably thci|- 
npinion conceniing uiigels watt, that they weru not permanent 
beings, but tempurarj- pbanlomii, formed by the divine power 
tor pariicuiar purpu&vs, and dissipated again wbeo these were 

In the time of JosephuM thiK sect was not large, but it ia 
B«id ty be Uie richot. and that tho^e of the greatest quality 
and Opulence generally blunged to it;* which we caii easily 
credit, as we observe in our day, thai tlic great and rich are 
apt to prefer the pleasure ami gmtideur of this life to any ex- 
pectancy in a lutan' i and greedily tu embrace such doclrinca 
as tend to encoum^^c their luxury and oetisuolity. by ridding 
their luiuds of uneasy reflections on Uie judgmenl-day and 
world to come.t 

Of Ike Sanwritant. 

With the SadducecK Godwin joins the Samaritans, with 
wliiiiii he eayti they hare a near affinity; lliat is. on suppotti- 
tion of their rejecting nit the sacred vrritin^K but the live 
boukH of Moms, which Origtin4 Jerome.^ and Epiphaniusl 
any the Samaritans did. 

I The Samaritans were originally heathens, consiflting of 
peraoiiH of several natitnu, tu whom tJie king uf Aasyria gave 
the oitin and lands of the Israelites upon the A&synan cap- 
tivity. They were calkd Samaritans from tlie city Samaria, 

* JtMcpb. Aniii). lib. u^. cap. t. sect vi. p. 663 ; lib. niii. cap, j. Mot. 
It. p. 871. 

t 9«e an accoiini of tti« Sadduc«e*, not onlj in ihe wiihon belbra cited, 
Iwt in 1^ rWfr'i llUtxr. tjxln. Proltgoin. ««(. i cap. Hi. p. M — 15; Dm- 
nagv'a Hmtuty of t)i*> J<r*»«, buok iu ch«p. vi. irii.; Bayle'* Dictionaty, 
micW $ii>J(lgoMs i aad IjchtlatH. Ilor* Ucfar. MulL iii. 7. 

J Oriffm, caaim C»tnuu, Ub. i. p. 36, vdi*. Cauub. 1677 ; Coouneot. in 
JtAiin. ftpud Commmt. in Scriptural, p«rL poatetior. p. S18, «diu HiMi. 
Colon. 1085. 

f lUertKi. in Di&lofo adrcrau Ijudfrriann^ as qtMud by Prldeaux, 
put I. hook vi-aano 409 malt Chnttnm, vol. ii. p. A97. 

f) EpipluB. advenuft HortM. tib. i. Iiktcs. ix. Sanuni. WCL iL tooi. i. p. 
B4,«liL I'euv.Cgton. 1083. 



[book I. 

the iiictiopoliB of tho kingdom of Israel. When they 6rHt 
settled in the country, they practised only the idolatrous riten 
of the sevcmliiationH from whence tbey came; but upon being 
infested with lions, nhich they supposed a judgment upon 
them for not paying due honour to the ancient god of the 
country, the king of Aasyrift sent a Jewish priest to instruct 
them in t)ie worship of Jehorah ; upon which, out of ths 
■evoral customs nnd modes of worship of the nations to which 
they belonged, and the rites of the wonihip of Jehorsh, (hey 
made up a very motley religion; 2 Kings xvii. 24, et %rq. 
Upon the return of Uie Jews from tlie Babylonish captivity, 
and the rcbollding Ji^rnsalem and the temple, the religion of 
tho Saniuntans received another alteration on the following 
occasion. One of the sons of Jehoiada. the fainh-priest, whom 
JoHephos calls Manasseb,* manried the daughter of Sanballat 
tlie Huronite ; but the law of God having forbidden the inter- 
marriages of tho liirac^litxUi with any other nation, Nehemiah 
set himself to reform this corruption, which had spread into 
many Jewish families, and obliged all that had taken strange 
wives immediately to part with thimi ; Neht-m. x\\u 23—30. 
Monnsseb, unwilling to quit bis wife, fled to Samaria, and 
many others, who were in the aaine cose with him, being also 
of Uie same mind, went and settled under the protection of 
Sanballat, govcmorof Samaria. From tbai time the worship 
of the Sauukritans came much nearer to that of the Jews ; and 
tbey afterward obtained leave of Alexander the Great to build 
a temple un mount Gchzjni, neiir tho city Samaria, in imitii- 
tiou of the temple at Jerusalem, where they practised tiM 
same forms of worship. It is very common for people, who 
arc nearly, hut not entirely of the same religion, to have a 
greater aversion to one another, thou those whose sentiments 
and forms of worship are more different. Su it was with the 
Jews and bauuuitans. Hence it was the highest term of ro* 
prooch among the Jews to call a person a SamaritsiD, as w«a 
bcfbcc observed ; and so grcut was their mutual animosity, 
that they woiUd neither a&k nor receive any favours from each 
other. The woman of Samana, therefore, wondered that 
Christ, ** being a Jew, would ask drink of her who was a Sa« 
maritao ;" John iv. 9. And when our Lord hod occasion to 
* J^ttfk. AntM). lib. xi. cap. riii. WCL i. ii. p. S79, A70. 


pass through Samaria, as he was going to Jerusalem to keep 
one of the annual feasts at the temple, the Samaritans would 
give him no entertainment on his journey, not merely becauae 
he was a Jew, but because, designing to keep the feast at Je- 
rusalem, he plainly preferred that temple above theirs; Lukeix. 
52, 63. As to what Godwin advances, that the Samaritans 
allowed of no commerce with the Jews, which he grounds on 
the forecited passage, concerning the surprise of the woman of 
Samaria, that Christ, being a Jew, askeid drink of her, wfao 
was a Samaritan j and its being added as the reaaon of this, 
" for the Jem have no dealings with ov mfxpntwrat, the Sa;* 
maritans, John It. 9 ; — I say, the opinion, that the SamaritaiM 
permitted no kind of commerce with the Jews, is evidently 
confnted by our being informed, that while this convenatioii 
passed between oar Saviour and the woman, " the disci{rfeB 
were gone into the city" of Samaria, " to buy meat;" rer. d. 
Nothing can be meant, therefore, by on m/fxpuvrai^ bai tlurt 
they would have no friendly intercoime, nor perfonn acts of 
mutual civility.* 

* See, concerniog the Samaritaos, BeUnd. DissertM. Miacelian. vol. ij. 
dineri, vii. de SamaritoniB ; Prideaux's Connect, part i. book vi, sub anno 
409 ante Christuni. 


or THK ES8EN£8. 

TitE Eft!ten<«, though no ooiicc iti taken of th«m> at l«afti 
by name, in any part of the Scripture history, were yet n oon- 
sidurublu sect luuong the Jcwb, of whom both JoHcphus and 
I'hilo have given a large account; the former iu the twelfUi 
chapter of hia second book of the Jewish war, where he pro- 
fessedly treat! of the three principal sects of the Jews, the 
Pharisees, the Sadducccs, and itie I'^sMeoes- He likewiite 
speaks of them oecasionally in several other parts of hii work*. 
Pbilo, in his book entitled Omtiis probtu Librr,* gives a 
very particular account of the dogmata and manners of this 
sect, nearly, though not quite, the same witli that of Jo^cphus. 
It is very possible tliere might be some little diHereoce be- 
tween the l^ssenes iu Kgjpt and tliOBC in Judea; aod Philo, 
who was an Alexandrian Jew, was acquainted only %^-ith the 
former ; Josephus, an inhabitant of Judea, only witli the latter. 
Pliny, the natural historian, hath left us some account of the 
Eswoes in the seventeenth chapter of the AfUi book of his 

These are the only ancient writers who apeak of the Csse- 
nes. on whose narratives, as they were cotem|H)rury with 
them, we may dci>end. As for what Kpiphaiiius, and other 
ancient and modem authors have said of them, it can only 
be by conjecture, any farther than they have taken their 
materrdls from those abovb-mentioned. 

The etymol(^ of the name has given grammarians and 
critics no little trouble. Joscphus is silent upon it. Philo 
derives il from ooioc. holy, because of the extraordinary sanc- 
tity of the Esscnes, though he confesses that derivation is not 

* Sev also Philo do Vak Contempliuivft. 
i "Pie Mveral accouou an iiucitcd u lufs in Dr. Pridnnx's < 
pan ii. book v. lub fta. 



^^niinalicul.* Bpiphaiiius froes the furthest fur the ctt 
lugy i>f tiny, drrivio^ the name from Jesse, tiie father of Dft- 
vid.'h SalniaHius fetches it froni a city called Easa. metitioned 
by JoRcphiis, fi'om whence be ininpnes tliis sect first B|irun)r.;[ 
i^'nunus hath gifvn us. al lea»l, a dcra«u ditivreut vtymohh- 
^es.^ So variou» aiul uiKcrtaiii arv the coiijecturtii of thu 
learned i»ii ihis tiubjcci. 

(ludwai dcrivi's it from the Syriac word KPK tua, which 
Bi)(uifies to hull or cure, hccauiu- Philo calU those of the 
Ka noOMB , who devoted theiufi^lves to u contc-mplatm; lifr, 9tfMi- 
mvrm,lherafteula\ which ih naturally derived from titpnirtvuv, 
nmart} yet not, as Godwin errooeoualy says, liecauae ihay 
i4iidied pKy»ic, nccording to the common acceptation of that 
Wdrd ; but bt'cauAC. »tilh Pliilo, tbey cure in«u'ft kouIs of 
those diMaaas which ihey have coutracl«d by their paasioBH 
and vice*. Or othiirwise, as he addit, tlicv Itare thio name, 
because tltey have learnt to worship and Acnrc that Ucing, 
who is better than good, more uncoinpounded than the num'- 
ber uitK, and tnore ancient than iiaity i(aeir:j| fur the word 
Btpawtvrtii: signiHet^ a worshipper, or senant. as well fuA a 
phytic iaii 4' 

These therapeuta are distif^fitnfaed from those whom Phitu 
calk Practical liasenOit, who were einployvd in the labours of 
husbuidcy and other mechanic urt^; though only m such aa 
bektogcd to peace, for uoov of them would ever [Hit (heir 
haiidii to the making awordii or arrowa, or any otiker inttn- 
meitta of war." 

Both .fu->ephiis and Philu give a Hiirpriiiiiig account of their 

* [tlilo m f ru;ui. Onuiu |irulMiti IjIkt, (}jkt. p. 678, C Culou. Allalir. 
1AI9; liil SwfiM Tri>i»Te«- lib- iii. eaji. i. p. 109; J. Scaliger Elencli.Tn- 
iMwn. Srrat. ctp- «*iii. in iail. 

t Eptptuii. Ilwrn. xii. Ii1>- 1. trun. ii. mvci it. y. 120, cdiL Pctav. 

t thllWl nillilll iliiiilK m Soliiium. oufi. zxx*. p. 432, eilit. I'llnjori. 

I Samr. Tntarrci. Ju<laur. lib. in. cup. i. p. KM— no, olii- Tnat»iiil. 

II liala 4c Viii Conunplntivft, ib Init, Opcr. p. 6iUt, B. C; V«lcmui, )b 
Itia bolat oo Eaaabias'* t-Vcle<. Iluiof. lib. ii. mp. xWi. p. W>, wt. 3, en- 
d««*ouM to prA», ataioM Scalt{)», ifaal ibc Th«rapeul*, w laiiptly dnMnbrd 
by PInlu, iirv not u> be rtcluwad lu Uw oombcr of Ui« EiMDei. 

1 \'iil. Lnic. Onitanttn in trrkt. 

•• J'kilo Twcwt. *|uwl Om«u yntnn Liber. I>p«f. p. 676, Z, M. 



iSWltU ANTiqoiTIBB. 

[buok t. 

Aunefc way of ]ifr>. Tbcir houses were mean ; tbcJr clothes 
macif^ of wcml without any dvc ; they never changed thoir 
clothes or Hhoeti, till they were quite worn out : their focHi was 
plain and coarse, and their drink water : they neglected all 
bodily onianienlB, and would by uo means unoint tbi-iuselves 
witli oil. according 10 the fa»hioa of those timvii. ^'ay. it' 
any one of them hapjiened to be anointed against hie wilt, he 
would pre»cncly wipe oil' the oil, and wash hiiu»c-lf, as iVoui 
some pollution. They lived in sodalities, an<) had all Iht 
good* in common ; their moralB were verv exact and put 
and ihey kept the sabbath more Hirictly than any of iJ 

*■ In iht" iiccuunt which findwMi gives of the dogmntii nf this ' 
ttei. collected from Josephu^ unrl I'hihi, hu oHMriti. that tlic 
Pytha^reaOR Torbad oa1h«, and ko, saith he, did the EsiicneB.i' 
But IhiH. I apprehend, is a miHtake aa to tlic Pythagorean*, 
and perhaps, also, a* to the K»*sene». The former, it i« well 
known, usi-d an oath on impnrtiint occa»ion«, ami held it to be 
motit rtacrcd ; *woarin£j; hy the mimher tour, which th<*y «rota 
by ten dottf, in the form of a triangle ; »o that each «idc con- 

vialod of four dote, thus : j^k Some have iumgim-d Py- 

thftworns took the hint of ihia from the Somen Tftraftrmrun 
fiw of the Jem;:^: and that, having likewise ae<|iiired Mimi 
notion of the Tiinity, he intended to express it by the tnaugL 
wlitch in enllt-d his Tn'gonon Mifttirxtm. 

Ab for the Essence. Jose[ihus saith. tlml licf'ore »nv are 
nritteil to eat at the omiman table, they buid thcmselpea 
tnlcmn oatb to observe the mles of tlie society.^ 

Godwin likewise maintains, thai the Pythagorvan* iiaedj 

* I'htlo, ubi Mipra, p. 67B— 680 i Joeopb. de Bdle Jaftaic. lib. u. Ga|K,j 
ciil. tvci. Ii.— xiti. T>. I4X»— 185. 

t JoV'jth, (lu H*ll .hul. Mbi mifini, *K\. *i : Phil'- p. BTTi,' 

I Di<»s l*en in Vtid Pjrihii^. \%\t. mt Mitni. \< • i ■ > m 
Vininim Aiiciio, (>|i*r, bxn iii |i. 103, (.•um Ammoi. <.'-oi(iu>tt, p, 131, 
Bwil.: m ('iUi<i PluJqwvph. ti«o«nl. lib. ii. cap, n. Meu u. p. If J. 17ft. 

\ Josepb. fli; Dril. iitri nipru, «<cL tu. p. 103. to the fotmtr 
HA. W.. hw lopnnimi ti, f» If •fivMiw m.t*»( mifm*mmi, v'fx**' " r^\ 

IfH^Ci 'yKtfHC itvrmc njtf'xfi tjwian'tK', «■ r. A, An4 (A MI!L tiki, hf I 

of them M r»>c iimoh mi r«i< t><«i tttthftawtm, «uri Uir liku in ulfacr pi 




only itianiina(>; wicrifices ; and so. aoith he. did tbr Kssenea ; 
they ««nt e^As to the temple, but did not surifice. But how 
will thi« account of th^ PythagoreanH agree with the story 
iDcntioiiod hy Dittgenes Laertius and othera,* thai Pytliugorms 
himself sacrificed a hecatomb, upon his dittcovcring what i« 
call»l the Pythacortc theorem, namely, that in a right-angled 
tHMn^lf, the Mjunrrt of the hypothimuse is eqiuil to the sum of 
the squares of the sides ? As for the Kssenes, it is not easy 
to reconcile their not osiiig animal sacrifices with the profound 
veneraliuo which th<ni- professed for the live Imiiks of Moaas, 
in which so many animal aacrifiocii are enjoined. Josepbus 
indeed saith, they aend their gifU, avaSntuMra, to the temple, 
but (iff(-r no Bacri6c«a there, by rooaoa of the different rules of 
purity w))ich they h:n'e instituted among thentselvL>D, And 
therefore, beinf]; excluded the rammoQ tempit), they (morificu 
ftpiirl hy tliemtu^lve^i ; rue ^«uc trmXnvm : the word dvaUK 
iniwrta animal sacrifices that were slaiu.t 

3dly. Godwin saiUi, tbo Bsaeoes worship toward the rising 
ma ; and this he erounda on a passage in Josepbus ; on the 
BUthonty of which mam have charged thera with worshipping 
the tuo itself. The words are, nf>oc yt itm' to t^wv (£twc 
tunftttr' vfuv yap mifam\uv row.'llXiov. ovSfi' Styyuvrm n>v 
fJl^JilXa*!*, war/Niwc & iwnf «<■ nurov iv\a^, atmrtft iKtriaavftQ 
mttrui^at.t If 'HXiov. indeivJ, be Uie uiili>ccilent to 
mast imply that they prayed to the sun itself. Hat this iit 
not paeaasvily tb« ccnatnictioo ; for though ro Otiov. which 
i« of the neater gender, cannot be tho tutec«dent to mvrw. 

* Otaft- iMftX- <!* ^'la* rtiiluMplMkniiR, Itli. tin. \'iA. Pylhoigof- stYOi. sif. 
t>. i'JJ t \duwI- mOi. Ck«n) te|iicKiil» I'litlB m giving no C'cdtt to this 
uutTt because, u br appn-li«iMl*, Pydiagonu oewr uted luiiuuU iiunilifttti; 
Cker. An Mitiira [>eunim, tib. iii. ca^r. uxvi. Ilul it » rrluteil uhu by 
Albcnoiu, Dapnowpb. lib. x. p. 419, F, wJil. i:«»aub. \^S. Sw abo 
llatardi. in Coiiiincin. iion [kmm (uirttcr Vm kcudiIwd Epicur. Opcr. 
torn. n. p. 1004, B, inntnt. 1630. 

i JoMrph. Anuq. lib. xnii. citp. i. ««ci. v. p. B71. Yes Ur. Ibbouoit <•»■ 
lu> nule lu loc.) tmdu* fJui WOiil, tf ' avrmr raf ^tttttf twini>»im, vay 
(liiTcftolly from the fiUuUtiua ii^oJ ktiuvc, wliiclt is thai ot Dr. I'lidrwiii ; 
luf fvnavu io. " ui «npus i s cr j fi i i a p^nguni, i. c. icw ij/ao* Uwi *u*«l(tnt 
ateonv^ialMU>("«d(t. llntcrc. 

I JaM|>h.d<r UelluJtulsU;. blklbap<vdi< *eu. ' p. 101, 1(1. 

T 2 




yet avTov ouy TL'i-y well be supposed to acrrro with Bhjv un- 
derstood.* Accordingly, Dr. Prideaux translat«« the wordti 
thus, "They are. in whaievtT pertainetli to God, in en e^p^etal 
manner relicioua : for before the sun is naen, they speak of uo 
commou worldly matter, but till then oifer up unto God tbvit 
prayers in auctent forms, received from their prvdvccsson ; 
supplicating' parliculariy in them, that he would make Ihe kiiu 
to rise upon thero." If this crtiiciBm be not admitted, it is 
nerertheless much more easy to suppose an error tn the copy, 
avTQV for aum, than that the EsseoBa, who h»d a more than 
ordinarv ^oal for tJie low of Moaes, ^ould be gmliy of such 
gross idoktry as to vorahip tlie sun. 

There was a notion &ret atart^fd by Eusei)iiin,+ and raecrly 
embraced by many Roman Catho)ic».^ that tim Tlietapeu(4B 
were Christian ascetics or monks, conrettod and instituted by 
St. Mark: which improbable suggestion Godniu nsfutea by 
the following argumenu: In Philo's treatise concerning the 
Therapeut«e, or tie Vita i'antemplativii. there i* no mention 
of Christ or Christians, the evangelist* or apoctJes. Again, 
the Therapeutte are not mentioned as a new sect, as the 
Christian!! then were ; on the contrary, he styli^ their doctrine 
"a philosophy derived tn them by tradition from their fora- 
fathnra;" and aaith, "they have the cummcntitlies of thi 
ancients, who wcrt> the aittbors of thia scct."^ Again, thft^ 
inscription uf Philo's treatise is not only inp4 ^uv iv>ipvfraoaVf 
but also wipt iKtrvt* optrwi', and Pfailo elsewhere calling the 
whole Jewish nation unriKoi' -ytvo^,^ it may from hence 
infcrr<r"l. that ihe Therapeutte were Jews, not ChriHtians-fl-j 
However, tt is not impossible, that some of ihe^ie Jewish The- 
rapeutte, bpcoming Christiana, might atill affect their forme 

* S*« Wactiueri AntiquitBiw Ebaor. yo\. it. wd. vii np. v. tecL hii. 
p. 7?5.T7tt. *;«iiin[W, ITHa. 

t Enub. Ecclri. HUtor. lib. ii. cap. vrii. p. 66, ad fin. nptm. 

[ Serali Tnha-rM. lih. iil. rap, xvii. 

^ Philo At: \ ItA Contirtnpluirk, l>per. p. 601, C. 
*1| PMIn <1« I^'^ulati. ata. tti. tap. \rt\. »A ('aiam, sb tail. 

See Utb opinioit of dnnhlui w«]) conJuMil lik^KUf hj W\wat,t 
RuMb. Ficckv. Hwl. lib. >i. np- srii. p. w, noi. 1. Hit. Rmdint, Canuh. 
ITW, snd by Sctlig«r in hii FJi-iKho* Tnhinw. Sifaii. cap. nn. 




recluse; way of Jinng', .tiid, being imitated by others, miglit 
girp the first occasion lo monkery amonK Cbristians. 

We have iio guide to enable tin to discover tlie origin of 
this «ect. Plinv, indeed, saith, though we know not upon 
what authority, that it had subsisted for several thousand 
yean.* The must probable opinion is, Uiat it begun a littla 
befort" the tirao of the Maccabees, when the faithful Jews 
were forced to Hy from tin: crurl [lereecutiunsuf tiieir enemies 
into deKcrtfi luiU caves ; and by living ia those retreats, many 
of them being habituated to retiremeut, which thereby became 
most agreeuble to them, they chose to continue it, even when 
they tiiight have appeared upon the public stage again, and 
accordingly formed themselves into recluiic^. As to the num- 
bers of which thJH iiect consiAted, Philo and Joscphus agree, 
that in Judea there were about four thousand : but in Fgypt 
Philo uiakeii the number of tiiem to be much laiger.f 

The ah^utc silent^ of the evangelical history concerning 
llie lissenes is by some accounted fur from their eremetic life, 
which secluded them from places of public resort i so that 
ihey did not come tu the wny of our Saviour, as the Phariseeii 
and 8adducee« often did. 

Others are of opmion. that the Essenes, being very honest 
and sincere, without guile or hypocrisy, gave no room for the 
reproofs and ccnsurutt which the other Jews deserved ; and 
thervfure no mention is made of tiiuni. 

But though they are not expressly mentioued in any of the 
sacred books, it is stipposed, and not without reason, that 
they are referred lo by St. Paul, iu the sccund chapter of his 
Epistle to the Colosmws ; " Lei no man,'' saith he, " beguile 
vou of your reward, in a voluntary humility, and worshipping of 
angelx, intruding into those tilings which he haih not seen, 
vainly puffed up by his firshlv mind : which thiitgn have in- 
deed a shuw of wisdom, in will-wonhip and humibty, and neg- 
k-ciing of tlic body ;" chap. li. IH. Zi. What Is here said 
(if n voluntary huniilily. and neglecting tlie body, is in a pe- 
culiar nuumer apphcable to tlic Essenes ; and by Josephus 
it appears, that they had something peculiar among them re- 

* Pliti. HtMor. Naiur. lib. v. op. ivii. 

t Pliilu in Tractat. ifuoi) Onuui piubu* Lilwr, f>pcr- p. 1170. C i «i de 
Vili ConlPBipUliTt, p. 690, P. i Jowph. Anuq. lib. svui. e^. L sect, r 

JBWitn AnTiQfiTies. 

[euoti I. 

luting to i\w angclA : For he nuith. " that wlioii they rtrccirnl i 
any into their Duuiber, t))ey made thuni BnlKiiinly ftwear, tin 
they would keqi and ohBcn-c the bonks of Uic seel, and Ums. 
naniGfi of (he angels, with care."* What is said of" it 
trudiug into ihingtt nut s^en," is hkewiue agrcimble to the chn-1 
racter of the therapeutic EsiKnf«, trho, placing the excellenc«1 
of their eontemplfltiro life in raJwjiK their mind* to invi-<ible] 
objects, prelendwl to «iich a degree of HhAtraction and ele\*nj 
tUni.iis to be able to dire into the nature of angels, and aMiga' 
them proper nafties, or riphtly interpret tho«o nlrrndy trivcni 
them : and likewise to prj- into futurity, Eind foretell Ihinpi tM 
come.f Upon which it h highly probable, " they neni-i 
v-fiiftly puffed up by thfir fleshly mind." Moreover, the do^ 
mn\» to which St. Paul refers in the following words, ** Tuuch] 
rwt« taiit« not. handle not," ver. '21, are auch a» the llmtent 
held, who would not tnate any |deafiant food, but lived u|km|| 
oaarae bread, am) drank nothing but water ',% and nome uTl 
thtini wotdd not tstite any food nt nil till uftcr )4iin->tet ;^ nnd~ 
who, if they were touched by any thai were not t^ (heir ownj 
aect, would wash themsclres, as after some great pullulion.| 
Pcrliapt) tber« might be a modality of EtiDenM. at Cotasse, 
there were in many other places out of JndM. ; and that aooiej 
of the Chriatioiis, too much inclined to' Judaism, mi^ht ala^j 
affect the peculiarities of this sect : which tutghl be the rcaKHi''] 
of (he apufitle'it so partictUarly cautioning against thcm.^ 

* JcMcpli. dc Brilo Judaic, till! ii. cap. riii. »eci. vti. sob. bt. p. tflS. 

\ Bello Judiuc. Ub. ii. ca]). •'iii. secl. «ii. p. 165. 
'i Ptiiln d« \1rfi Comemplaiivi, p. 6M. B, p. <HM, D- 

S VHio, ubi «a|ini, p. 69t, A. 

j{ Janpfa. tki «lp^^ kcL x. p. 1*4. 

% CoBotnriq tha Ea«M», boadea ika rfAffcncw above, wc S«nni 
haresis, DrusiiB <le Trifaui Srciis Judsof. ; Scaligvr's FJaKbuN Trilnms.] 
Serarii; CkrtcJ Prolegnm. iwl IliMor. KccIb. uvi L cap. iv \. p. tti — -i'i; 
ami Damaare't) tibuty of itiR Sfvr*, booV \l. chap. x\\ till. 



Thk Gaiilunites were nut a religious sect, but a polittcnl 
fnction. raided up and headed by Judas of Uulilee, wliu ia 
tneniioned in the 6fUi cbapttr of the Acts; ver. 37. Jo«ephua 
caih him Ini^acraoXnvmK' in the f\TM <*haptcrof theeighteouth 
book of bi)i Antiquitipti;* yot in ihe title or contents of that 
chapter, and in the DfUi chapter of the twentictli book, he is, 
styled Inu^c tou raAiA«iow.+ Judas theGaulonite. therefore, 
nod Judnft of Galilee were the same penKm. inditierenlly 
called by onu or Uie other of those ntunes, b«ciiuti« Gaulonn, 
hilt native country, which hiy beyond Jordan, was otherwi«e 
enlled Gnlilco, or Galilee of the CicntileH, M»tt. iv. I<^, 
r/ alihi. to distinguish it ftom the other Galilee on this side 

I'hisJodos.itKeenut, had raised and headed an insurrection 
against the Koman government, on ucraHiou of the tax which 
Auffusttuf levied on Judea, when he reduf»d it into the form 
of a Itotnan provincu.^ This party was wion suppromed,' 

und we read no mnrp nf it m the New TesUimcrnt; nntestt, 
porliups, as tiodwin conjectun>8, those persons were souie of 
this faction, olitenriie called Galileans, whom Pilate <il«w as 
ihi-y wpn- perfonninf^ tlic Kanvd niw at the altar, and there* 
by iuiii<>led rhrir blood with thetr Hachlicea; Luke xiii. I. 
Ah for the H^odians, tbey are passed over in ailecce both 

'byJoMiphuK and Pliilo.aiid only kiiuwii by being ineiiliuned in 
lliree pu««aj5t» of the New Tej«laiiiciil bitJory, We (iimI liieui 
cuiubined with t))e Plwhttecs ia eitdeavouring to entiuigie ottr 
}Navi<>itr «rilti that rnutHring question, " Whethur tt wb« law- 

•fiil til give Irihute to CiCTiar;*' Matt. xrii. 16, 17. We read 
of the Pharirter'tt taking conn»el with the Hcrodians against 

■ Sect. L p. 8<i-:i. rdii. LUwrc. f Sect, li p, 9<U. 

I JoMfA. dr bollo Juduc, lib, u etp. viU. Moi, t. p. 1M; Ajiiii). lib. 
KtU. rap. all. iwi. all. «l lib. %viiL Mp.i. mbL i. p ner. MQ, BTO 





JcKUN. how th«y might doHtroy hiui, Mark ili. (J; anJ we hear 
our Lord charging his disciples to tnkt* heed and beware of 
the leaven of the Phariiiees, and of Herud; which bt com- 
monly uiidorstood of the suet fif the Hemriians. who derived 
their name from Herod; JMark viii. 15. Thiii account of the 
UerodiuDft is eo concise, tiiat it hatli lefl room for almost 
numb«i'les8 conjectureH concerning thi-io. 

Some make thc-m to be a political party, otlicr» a religious 
|4«ct. The fir»t opinion i» favoured by the Sytiac version, 
which every where styles the Ilerodians, the rinmciiiica of 
Herod; arid It in alleged, that ttie author of thi>t version, as 
, ihe was nearly cotemporary with them, had the betit means of i 
Itnowing who tliey were. Jt in likewise argued, that they 
could not be a religious sect, because JosephuK, who pro- 
fessedly ^ives un iiccuunl of the several rehgioux »ecl» of the 
JewM, neitJier on tUut uccaHion nor on any otJier uiakes any 
uientiou of the Herodiuiw. On the other hand, in favour of j 
the opinion tlut they were a religiouii &ect, it is plcadi-d that 
our ^aviour'6 Cdutioning his disciples against the leaven of 
Herod, implies, that the Herodiana were distinguished from 
the oilier Jews hy Rome lUx-trinal teneu, leaven being ex- 
plained by our Saviour himself to signify doctrine; nee Matt. 
Kvi. 6. 12. 

It is prolKibte the truth lie» between these two opinions, or 
rather compn-hendt? tlnau both. 

The notion, that ihe Ilerodians were ft tat of people who 
held H<?ro«l to be the Metisiah, which is espoused by Ter- 
tulLiaii.* Epiphauius.t Jerome,;!: Chrysostouj,^ and The<i- 
phylact,! among the ancients, and by as well as 
others, of the modcm«. is without sufficient foundation, and 
highly improbable; whether we understand it to be meant of 

• TertuUian. de Pr»B«iplione U»r«ticgr- cap. «1»- nri) fio. Ojier. p. 219, 
B. edit. Rigalu Psru, IflTA. 

-f Epiphan. ulvcnnu IlarMcs, bwea. n. sen. i- p. 4.1, vdil- PtU«. 
Colob. I6e-J. 

I llieton. conlra LucifcnaMWf cap. ivi., ibough in kit CuRunetu oa 
MsU. rui. 15, IG, he rvjeds lbi» opiiuOB. 

^ Cbrjrtoi*. in Mtuv. ui. 13. 

II TbenphyUci. in Mall. nil. 16, p. 131, Psro. IdU- 

^ GrotiiM tl» VmUle Cltntlwn. U«>tif[. lib. t meet. tn. ntib An. in not. rl 
tipiiii iuirxil in Matt. l*i 6, 



HeHMl ilie Orcut, wlio died »<.ioit ufter our Saviour tvas bom; 
or uf li«rod Aiiti{>as. wUo icigniK) at Uie lime of bis personal 
oiinivUy ; fttnce aeiUiur of tham were native Uraelites, and it 
cnnnnt well be suppOKed, that anv ^e'K^ were im> ignorant tut 
to taki' n foreigner for the Messiah, who had been so ex- 
pnasly protui»t^ them to be raUisl up among themselves, of 
the tribe of Jiidah, and of the house of David, neuides. 
buppusing any of theui bod lieeii no »tupid ub Ui apprehend the 
tint Herod to be the Messiah, no doubt his death, to aay 
nothing of tiiH wicked >uid odious adminiEtralioa. would long 
Htnce iiave coiivincetl them of their mifttakv ; since Ug had 
been very far frotu accciuitiliiihing the dt-tiverance of Israel 
from all oppression, which ihey expected from the McsAiah. 
And as for tlie second Ilcroil. his domnnous were small, and 
his power little, in compari^m ^^ilh the former ; Juden now 
being reduced into the form of a Itoman province ; so that 
he was little mure than the procurator of Galdee, with the 
title only of k-ing. U is therefore utterly iiiCODceivahle. that 
otty should take him for the Messiah. 

^ The most probable opinion cfHicerning the Herodiaos seems 
to be that of Dr. Prideaux.* that they derived their name 
from Ucrod the Great, and were distingniahed from the Hha- 
riwea and other Jews, by their falling in with Herod's scheme 
of subjecting himself and hm duminionH to the Romans, and 
hkcwitie hy complying with many of their heathen usagCH and 
cuttorua. In their zeal for the Roman authority they were 
diometricallv opposite to the Pharisefs. who esteemed it un- 
Iiiwful to submit, or jMy taxe*i, to the Roman emperor ; an 
opinion which they grounded on their being forbidden by the 
law to set a stranger over them, who was not one of their 
own nation, as their king. The conjunction of the Herodtana. 
therefore, with Uie Pharisees against Christ, is a memorable 
proof of the keenness of their resentment and malice against 
him; especially, when we cunxider that they united together 
in proposing to him an eniinaritig question on a subject which 
was the ground of their mutual dissension ; namely, whether 
it was lawful to pay tribute to Cnsar ; and provtde<l he an- 
■tvered in tbe negative, the HerDdinriH would accuse him of 
lna«OD against the state : and should he reply in the sfBrma- 

* nrkUanx'a Connrd. pan ii. book t. aub An. 




live, the Pharistos w«rt* iw ready U> uxciu- the |»POpIc aeranist 
hiiu, us ;tu eiiviny to their civil liberties and privilegeti. 

It U probable the Herodioiu were distingubihed Ukcwi»o 
by their comptiance with some heuthen idotatrotis atages 
which Herod had introduced ; who, hb JoK-phna saitb, built 
a tcmpio 10 Ca^aar near the head of the nver Jordan,* enwied 
n niBenifu'eiit theatre at Jenisalera, instituted |io;^ (jpinics.i- 
aod placed ii gottlen eagle over the gate of the temple of Je< 
hovafa ;X and, as he elsewhere intiraaieK, fiiniiiihed the tem- 
plw irhich be reared tu severrd plaet» out uf Judea, with 
images for idohtrou^ wofKhip, in order to ingratiate himself 
with the emperor and the people of Rome ; though to the 
Jews he pretended, that he did it a^rAinitt hi* will, and in 
obedience to the imperial ccmmnnd.^ This syitibolizinf; with 
idolatry, upon views of inten-si and worldly ]>olicv, watt pro- 
bably (he leaven of Herod, whidh our Saviour caalioned hia 
diaciplea against. 

It is farther probable, tliat the Herodiaua were chieHjF of 
the sect of the Saddncees, who sat loosest to religion of all the 
iewa; aince that whicli it called by St. Mark. chap. viii. ver. 
16, the leaven of Horod, is, in the parallel place in .St. Mot* 
ihew, chap. xvi. ver. 6, styled the leaven of the Sadditccea.| 

* Antiq. lib. xv. eKp. t. sect. IH. p. 7T6. 
t Cap. mi. urtt. i. Ii. p. 76Q. 

] Ue Uell. JuiIbjc. Itli. i. c«ii. Kuuu. sect, xxiii. p. 139. 
if AnlK]. lib. xr. cap. ix. kcI. v. p. 7T3. 

II See un lhi> Bubj»ct, PrtdcauK'n Cimnsct- pari ii. booh v. nib fin.; Bs*- 
nngt'a >lislOfy t^ ihe Je^s, book u. chap. xiv. 


BOOK 11. 





rlAviiTG, in the lait Book, given an account of Lbe mont 
lenarkabte civil and ecclesia sliest persons. oflicerK, and sects 
among the Jews, we now proceed (o the consideration of the 
iDOHt eminent Btnicturee, or itlaces, which were esteemed 
sacred, or h«ld in high venemtion :imong!it thcoi. On this 
head.Gutlwm Irvatv tiret ut'thetubvnmcle und temple, though 
indeed but imperfectly, especially of the former; on the de- 
■criptlon of wliow structure and suniptuoux ftimiture Mo^ca 
baa beittOHed almoKt m many pages ax he has hnes oit liia 
BcooQUt of the croatioh of the world : no doubt because the 
tabernacle was a designed emblem of the blcssinga of the new 
ereation. which far excelled those of the old ; or, as the 
apo8tle Htylee it, was "a fi^re for the line then present;" 
Heh. ix. H, 9. 

We hare an nccount of three public tabernacles before the 
building of Solomon's temple: — 

The first, which Moses erected for himself, i^nOJi vtnatak- 
h, Exod. xxxiii. 7; and this the Septuagint calla rrjv <noivq»> 
evrov. In this tabernacle he gave audience, heard causes, and 
inquired of <»od; and perhuiw, also, the public offices of reli- 
gion* wcrrahip were perfonned in it for some time, and thero- 
foce MoAca styled it the iHbemacle of tlie congregation. 

The second tabernacle was that which Moacs built for God« 
by hia expreas command, partly to be a palace of hts presfloee 
as lli(> kin<; of iHniel. chiip. xl. 34, 3o, and |>artly to be the 
medium of ihtj most imlpmn public worship, which tlie people 
were to pay lo him ; ver. 'iO— -3tf. This tabernacle waa i-rected 


jswisH antiqui: 

[hook It. 

on the rirst day of the fiTRi moDih of the sccomi yt!nr of tlie 
Israelites' migration out of Eg^'pt; ver. 2. 17. 

The third public taberaacle was that which David erected 
in his own city for the recf|nion of the ark, wbvn he received 
it from Uio boose of Obcdedom: 2 Saa. vi. 17; I Chron 
xvi. 1. 

If is the second of the»e tabernacles ue are now tu treia of, 
called the tabernacle Kar t£u\i|i', by M-ay of dUtinclioii Hiid 
cmioenoe. It wait a moveuble cliapcj. so contrived as to be 
taken to pieces and put toother at pleasure, for the conve- 
nience of carrying it from ptncc to place, during the wander- 
ing of the Israelites in the wildemesB for forty years. 

The learned S|H'nc'«r* has fetched ihis labemuclc, with all 
its furniture and appurtenauMs, &om I%ypt ; auggesting. thai 
Moses projoctod ii after the faahion of some each structura, 
which he had obsened in that countiy, aad which wbs in use 
among other oatiuus; or at least that God directed it to bv 
made with a view of inducing Uie Israelite* in a contpliance 
with their custonu and modes of worship, so far ua tliere was 
nothinji; in them directly sinful. And he quote* botli wcrod 
and pro&ne writers to prove, that tiiQ beatboiis had such port- 
^e lemi^es, in which they deposited themoat valuable MU}rod 
or reli^ons ntensils. &ach a tcniplo or tabernacle wo read of 
in tlie pn)|)becv of Amos : " Ye have borne the tabernacle of 
Moloch and Cluun, your images, Ui« wlar ol yuur gud, which 
yemadetayoursdve-Hi'' chap. v.*26. It U indeed paia dispuU? 
that the ht-atlitins hud such tabernacles, as m ell as luoay other 
Ifahlgs. very like those of the Jchk; but tliut thvy had thcui 
before the Jews, and e8|>eciaUy tluU Ood condotKeuded so 
far to the humour of the Israehtes ua to iutroduce thooi into 
Jii» own nurship, is neithei proved, uor is tt probable, it is 
iDor0 likely, that tlic beath^us took these things frotu the 
Jews, who had the whtdc of their religion immediately from 
God, than that the -leir^, or rather that God, sdiuuld take 
them from the heathens. Bcsidei), this ocoouot of the origin 
of thti Jewish tabernacle (uid its furniture evidently thwnrtA 
tile account nthich the ii(Mistle ^vcs of the typical design and 
use of Utein, in the ninth clmpter of the Epistle Lu the 11*- 
bmrn. And farther, suftpoum; ihonc heatJwii lalwrnadw to 

on A r^ 1.1 



hate lit-en more nncient ihnn that Imih b\' Moses by divine 
ilirwtiuii, yet. eo far from ilitn; being any design ofcomplyiDg 
with the idolatrouft beathcD. the contrary rather appcMt. iu 
tliat this tabemucle was ordered to be directly the reverse of 
tlMcrB, both in its form and uiiuation. In its fomi : for 
wb«reM the heathen tabernncles were carried about wliole 
upon the sbouldcis of the priests, this was to be taken to 
pieces wheiicv<;r it vrua to be removed, ^nd us to liiu Mlua- 
tion : whereas it was the geDernl {practice of the facatheos lo 
worship with their faces toward the east, God directed bi< 
tabeniMcle to be so placed, that the people sbould worship 
toward the west; for to that point the holy of holies stood, 
in whicb were the tuorc special symbula of God's presence, 
and which the peoplo wore to face as they worshipped in the 
court at the nist eml of the tabernacle, where was the idtar uf 
their aacnliceu, a» will appear hureufter. Tbis dotocU a mis- 
take of Godwin's, who m^ikes our cathedral churches answer to 
the Juwith labemacle or temple, the sanctuary resemblinK the 
body of the church, the sanclam sanctorum the choir, and the 
court round about the tnbt:rnacte the church-yard ; it bung evi- 
dent, that the fomt of these chorcbes, in which the choir or 
cbawel is placed toward the east, in directly contrary- to the 
Jewish tahcmacle and temple, and it is borrowed frnm the 
heal hens, who placed their vatm; to the eaat^uid thcir^oMiioc 
lo tiic wust.* Thiit tho heathen idolaters wocshippcd tuwurd 
the cut, appears from tiiu fuUuning poasofre of the prophet 
iHzrkiol : "And bo brought me into tlte inner court of the 
l,ofxl'» lioUMj; and Uphold, »i tbe door of titc lomple of the 
Lord, between tite porch and the altar, were about five and 
twviitv men, witii their backs toward the temple of the l.ord, 
•Dd their fncen toward the east, and they worshipped the sun 
toward the oast;" chop. viii. 10. And from Vii>;;il, who, 
giving an account of .'Kneob'ii ftacHficin^ before the Imttlc with 
TaraiM, snith, 

till ad nu]pnlMn coiiT«T«i lunliH Miets, ' 

Hairt IruKQi simibn* Mku^ ct tentpom Irno 
Stuncas wnttfl iwcuilmn. pumwfm atui ia IUmsiu 
I ,lj»n(l. nii.l. 172—17-1. 

■ Atttl rtcoorduii^ly many boo^hoii l«nL(>lc» huve hceii converiiHi 

* t*p. v. 



[nous M. 

into Chnslian churched, without any alt«TBtion in the i'otmoi 
the building. u 

The labcTnaclc we are now lo deocnbe, iJiougii othcrraiM 
called a teut. because it vi-as a moveable fabric, and bocauae 
it liod no proper roof, but was only covered with curtajiin or 
caiiupieit of cloth and skin, was nevcrthelefi^ built wrtJi 
extraordinary magniBconce. and at a prodigfions expense, 
that it mi^lit be, in aome measure, suitable to the dignity 
of the Kinj^ whirae palace it was to be. and to the valne of 
those spiriliiut aiul etenial Ueiwings, of which it wru also 
destgnod os a type or eoibleiD. The value of the gold and 
silver only, used for the work uf that holy place, and nf whicli 
we have an account in (he book of Cxodu&, chap, xxxviii. '24, 
25, amounted, according to Bishop CiimbcrlaiidV a-duclion 
of Jewish talents and !dtekeU to English coin, to upward of 
one hundred eighty-two thousand, five hundred, aixtyeight 
pounds- If we add to this the vast quantity of bras*, or 
copper, that ivos also used ubout tbui tabric, its court and fur- 
niture ; the Hhittim-wood, of which the bonids of the tib«> 
naric, as well as the pillnra which i^urrounded thr cnurt. und 
other utensils, were mode (which, though we do not know what 
name the saroe wood bean now. was no doubt tiie IwHt anil 
tnoHt roetiv that ronlil Ire got), as also the rich eiubruidcn!<l 
curtains and canopies that covered the tabernacle, divided the 
paru of it. and surrounded the court ; and if we farther add 
the jewcU that wore set in the hi|;h-pripii(.\ (r|ih4Kl and l»n-aitl- 
plato. wliirh are to he considenxl as a part of the funiilurf of 
the labemacle ; the vnlue of the whole moteriaiB, exclusive of 
workmanship, must amooDl to an immeii^ic siim. This fiiim 
M-as raised, partly by voluntary cootnbutions and prei^nu, 
Kzod.xxv. 2, &c.. and partly by n pull-tax of half a shekel a 
head for every male. Uruehtn above twenty jtnr*. old, cltup. 
XXX. II — Ifi: which auiuunted to a hundred talents atid one 
Uiousand Heren hundred seventy^tive shekels; that is, thirty- 
five thousand, throe hundred, filiy-uine pounds, seven shil- 
lings and Hixpence sterling: chap, xxxviii. 26. 

We may here remark, that this tax of the half shekel a 
man was, in nftpr-tinus, levied yearly for the repantion of the 
temple, and for defmying the charge of public sacriftoes, and 
other necessurie« of divine MTvice. Thi^. as 1 have before 

OIUF. I.} 



observed,* was probabK' tlit* tribute demBoded of our Saviour, 
Matt. xvti. 24; iVoni wliicli, as it was paid to God for the 
Mfrice of hi« houne, and th»? support of hU wofBhip, Christ, as 
beiny the Son of God, might, according to the custom of all 
natintis, hnve pleaded an exemption; ver. 35, 2(i. However, 
tliat he might give no oSitnce, he chose to pay it. though he 
wan obliged to work a mimcle to raise no HuaU a sum ; ver. 

Upon thitt g«nEral view of the prodigious expense. of build< 
in^ the tabernacle, tt may uaturaUy be inquired, whence had 
the Uraeliteb, who had not been come a year from their slavery 
in Egypt, and from labouring at the brick-kilus. richtw 
enough to defray it? To tliis it may be answered.t 

Ul. That though the bulk of the people had been reduced 
to the condition of alavco, yvt it may be reasonably supposed 
that some, etipeciiJIy of the posterity of Joseph, had pre- 
serrcd, and> it may be, concealed their wealth, till they had 
an opportunity of escaping with it out of Egypt. 

2dly. Perhaps the wUderuvi»s, M'here they now were, might 
supply them with some part of the materials for this buildmg ; 
in particular the wood. Some tell iis of a grove of tihiltim 
trees near mount Sinui, from whouce they had their wood, 
with no other expense than that of labour. 

^dly. Aburbaael conjccture-H, that ttie ncighlwuring nations 
came and traded with Llie Isruclitcs in the wilderuefts. and tliat 
Ood bloHed their commerce to the very extraordinary increa^re 
of their opulence. But the Scripturen give no accouutof any 
ktrangerii resorting to them at thin time, besides Jethro aod 
bis family; probably the fate of their Egyptian enemies ter- 
ri6ed the other neighbouring nationti. and made them afraid 
tu come near ihcin. 

'Ithly. The spoil of Uie Eg\-plianti, who wi-re druwned ia 
the Ked Sea, and whose dead Ixxli'jb were providenliaUy cast 
upon the ahore, where the Israelites were, might very consi- 
derably enrich them; Kxod. xiv. 30. 

othly. But wu are chiefly to account for their riches by 
their having brought out of Egypt a very large quantity of 
gold and silver jewels, or vessels, as the word <^3 rJtd^ sig- 

• S«p.47. 

t Vid Winrii Miwell. lom. LUb. it.4tHeru I. Met *. 


jr.wi%n AMT1901TIHS. 

[hook II. 

nifies. wliich wtreletit.or ralher givvn ilwm, t)y tite Eg\'ptians 
at th«ir departure. For, by the command ol'God.cttnp.iii. 21, 
they " borrowed,'' or required, " of the Egyptiana jewels," or 
vesAek " of ftUver, and veRneU of gold . and niiment. And the 
Lord gare them favour in the sif^lil of ihe Kgyptians, no that 
tbey lent," or ^ve. "them such thini^ as they required;" 
Erod. xii. 35. :3ti. The verb W' i/iaat. which in kal oar 
tRiui>lalois have rendered " borrow." signifies niure iirojNTly, 
p^ert, to require or demand ; and in hiphil, where tfaev hav| 
rendered it " to lend," it denoteti mufuam dare, to give.* Tliia^ 
M'n*eof both the conjugations, ist wnrranted by the 
following passtipe: "The Lord,"siiiih HAnn»h,iD reference to 
ihc birth of Samuel. " hath ffivcn me my petition which I 
a8kedofhim.*n^»*tt'.tA«w//i: Lhetftforealw) I have lent, vi>rTmcTi 
hiihiltihu, given, him l-o the Lord: as long ua he liwth hr 
shall be lent, ^IKffliAau/. given, to the Lord;" 1 Sam. i. 27,JM. 
Now some of those vessels which wcte given to the l»ntel- 
ites, might probably be the silver bowls and char^rs, and 
golden fipoons, which were offered by the princes for the ser- 
vice of the tabernacle ; Numb. vii. By this means the divine 
pre<liction nnd promisetoAbrahamwu signally aecomplixhed: 
"Thr" nation whom thy seed shtU Berve, and who shall ufHict 
them four hundred years, will I judfre, and afWrwards tiiey 
shall come nut with great Rulwtance :" Gen. xv. 13. 14. 

Having cleared the ground, and provided the proper fiiads 
for building; the tabenwcle, we come now to erect the edifice, 
or rather to take a view of it as it was erected by Moses, 
according to the visionary model shown him m the mount; 
Eiod. XXV. 40. 

'Hie tabernacle was an obloojif, rectangular fignrc, fhirtv 
cubits long, ton hroud, and ten in height ; which, reduced to 
English measure, according to Ur. Cumberland, who supposofti 
it the Egj'plian cubit, nearly equal to twcnly-twu incbc*,+ was 
fifty-five feet long, eighteen brrxid, «nd eighteen high. The 
two Hides and one end were composed of broad Imards, stand- 
ing upright; each board being about two feet nine inches 
broad, fastened at the bottom by two tenons in each boenl,-^ 
Httcd into twu morticea in the foundation ; at the top by links 

■ Vid. Stockii CUi iQ ««Tbuiii. 

f R««]r on Jvwnh M*««urT9. riasp. ii. p. 30. 


TH« 7A»Rll»it«LK. 


or hasps, and on the videa by five wooden b*rft, which ma 
through rings or ftUplei in each of the boards. The Lhickji««« 
of liiesc boards U not determined in Suriplure. Dr. Light/oot 
makes it to be very great;* he supposes itbout nine inches, 
becaaHe liie uiiddle bur is said to shoot " through the bowds 
frofuone und to the other," Exod. xxxri. 3'i; that it, oa lie 
conjectures, tJirough a bole m the body of the boards. AiuJ 
no doubt they must be of a very considerable tluckuess, il' 
they were pierced with a hole big enough to receive a woodeii 
bar, which, considering its lengtli oT lifty'five feei, could not 
be ftlcnder. But as boards or timbers of such a length and 
breadth, nnd of such a supposed thickness, would be ahuo^t 
unuianageably hen^-v. may we uot rather conceive. Uial the 
middle bar, shooting through the boards fiout end to end. de- 
notes only that it reached Uie whole length of the tabenwofe, 
whereas tlie other burs reached but about or UtU« more U»an 
half way ! For though it is said, " the middle bar in tiie 
roidftt of the boards shall reach from end to end," chap. xxri. 
28, there was no oocnsion they should all do so. 

EarJi side conaisted of twenty of these boards, and the end 
of eight; which come» to about three fwt more than the 
breadth of the tabernacle. Ilierefiu-e, if these eight boards 
atood tugelher in a right Itue, the end louat project consider- 
ably oD each aide of the building. But pt;rhapa the two end 
boards of the eight stood in an angular position to the sides 
and the end of the building; for which reason tbey arc distin- 
guitdied fruiu tJie other six. and called " the two boards of the 
eoantrft of the tabernacle;" ver. 2^}. These boards and tlie^e 
liars were all <iverlBid with gold; and their rings for the 
stares, and tlu?ir hasps at top, were all of the same metal. 

The fuumlatiuu on which tlie\ stood was also very costly 
and magnificent. It cousistad of solid blockM of i^ilver, two 
ttuder each board- They were each about sixteen inches long, 
ftod of a suitable breadth and tiiickness; each weighing a 
Islcnt, or about an hundred wuighl. Of these there were 
■bout one hundred io number^ ninety-six of which wcru laid 
for tiie fouodaiion of Ute walls of the tabernacle, under the 
Carty-«ight boanb; and the other four ncnt the.baiea of the 
ffrinmnff that supported the veil or curtain, wUioh divided ihe 
* See bia llBndful of GlMntngi upon Exodui, mci. itxtf . 

■ 2 


IBiriffll A*NTI0VITIR9. 


inside of the tabernacle into two rooiiift; F.xod. xxxviii. "27. 
From hence some hare derived the ancient fashion of setting 
porphyry cohimn* on base* of white marble. 

The tabernacle, thus fitted and reared, had four different 
coverings, or cunaine, or carpets, thrown one over the oUier, 

'which hung down on the side, near to the stiver foundation. 

The fir&t and lowest carpet w»s uiade of Bne hnen. richly 
embroidered with 6guteB of cherubim, in ithndea of blue, 
purple, and icarlet. It is reasonable to suppose, that the 
right side of thi^ curpet wat undermost, and »o it formed a 
beautifal ceiling in the tniide of the tabemncle. Thin carpet 
eonguted of ten breadths, which were joined together with 
blue loops and clasps of gold. 

The next caq)et, which lay over the. embroidered one, wa« 
jnade of a sort of mohair ; the breiidtha of these were joined 
together with clasps of brass. 

The third carpet was made of ram*' vkins dyed red; and 
the uppermost of all. which was to fence the rest from the 
weather, was made of tachash «kins. What beast thU was is 
not certain: it appears that shoe-leather was made of its skin ; 
for God saith concerning JeniKaleni. " I clotlicd thee with 
hrojdered work, and shod thee with badger's (tachash) skin;" 
Ez«k xri. 10. It is conceived the Latin word foxiis, and 
the German tarha. may come from the Hebrew jpnn lachash : 
thtri-lbre we translate il badger. However, the Jews bold 
this to be a clean beusi, which the badger is not. 

Thus we have »een the outside of the tabernacle complete 

'on the lop, the twu Hided, and one end, namely, that which 
was set toward the wetit, when the tabernacle was reared; 
Exod. xxvi. 22- As for the cast end, it had no boards, bat 

, was ftlieltered with a fine embroidered curtain, hnng U]Km five 
pillars of shittim-wood overlaid witli gold; vpr.36, '37. The 
text does not tell tiithow low this curtain hung. I'hilo makes 

!it to touch the t^ound;* but Josephus will have it to come 
4)nly half way down, that so the people might have a view of 
the inside of the tabernacle, and of what was done there ; but 

"then he sayv there was another curtain over that, which came 

*down to the ground, and was to preserve it from the vrenther, 

* Pliik), Jud, dc Vidt Mvtia, lib. lii. p. 510. D, E. edtl. Colon. AHubr. 



that was drawa aside oii tiic RabUtUi und ulJier fesLiTal*.* 
Philo'^j ik(iiiii(ii) is the inoru likoly, since wc find, by thi* Htory 
of Zachariah'fi miiiistry. Luke i.. in tlie temple (which was 
built alter the model of the tabernacle*), Lhat the people wlio 
were without could not ((«e into the sanctuaiy. 

Thf in«tde of tlio tabernacle was divided iuto two rooms, 
br means of a veil or curtain, hung upon four pillan mentioned 
before. This veil w;i3 mnde of the richest stutt'. both for mat- 
ter and workmanship, and adorned with rhcnibim and other 
omamentii, curiously embroidered upon it. It docs not ap- 
pear in the Scripture account, at what distance from either 
end of the tabernacle this veil was hung ; but it in reusooably 
conjectured, that it divided the tubeniacle, in the ^ame pro- 
portion in which the temple, aftiTV%'Brd built according to its 
moilel, was divided ; that is, two-thirds of the whole length 
were allotted to the ftrMt rootn, and one-third to the second ; 
so thai the room being beyond the veil, which was called the 
holy of holies, was exactly square, being ten cubits each way ; 
and tile tirHi room, called the sanctuarvi was twice as long aa 

Round the tabernacle there was a spacious area, or court, 
uf one hundred cubits long and Bfty broad, surruundcKJ with 
pilluTN. Bet in bases uf brass and tilletted %viLh silver, ul the 
distance of five cubits from one another. Ho that there were 
twenty pillars on each side, and ten at each end of the court. 
ThRoe pillars had Rilrer hooks, on which the hangings were 
fastened, that formed the inclo»ure of thecourt. Tliesehang- 
ingi were of fine tn-ined Imcn; Kxod. XTvii. 9. The word 
V^y^ ketaugnim, which we render hangings, is supposed to 
mean open or net work, fmm ybp katang, sculpsii. Accord- 
ingly the Targum translates it grate-work. 8o tliat thia iii- 
closuro did not wholly conceal the view of the tabernacle, and 
of the worship performed in the court, from the people that 
were witbout. 

The entrance into this court was at the eoit «nd, facing the 
tabemacli! ; where richer hHncniigs. for the space of twenty 
cnbita, were aupported by four of tlie pillars ; and the«e were 
not fastened like the rest of the hangings, but made either to 

* JMspta-.AlRiii.Ub. lii.etp.Ti.Mct.iT. p. 134, edit. Haverr. 



[nooic n. 

draw or Un ap; ihe text doK not cay which, but the Jews 
believe the latter. 

It is made a qacstion, whether there was only one court, or 

' more, ■itrrounding the tabeniaclc. Moses mriitions hut one ; 

I yet David speaks of " Uie courts of tlie Lord" iii the plural 

[number, Pe&lm Ixxsiv. 2. 10; Ixv. 4, rt atibi; which hath 

l.]eil some people to ioia^pne, there were al least two; otie fur 

Tthe Levit(3H, and tho other for the people. But this cuQnot be 

TinfefTed with any certainty from the word being in the plural 

rnumber. which is bo often used in the Hebrew witii h Aingidor 

[■ignificalioti, to denote the excellency of the thing Hpoken of. 

lOr otherwise, Morcs'b acccunt of but one court may be re- 

conriled with DavidV mentioning more than out*, bv an easy 

mip]X)sitiori. tliat after the settlement in Cunaan, when the 

tabernacle was no lon^r to be moved about as formerly, (bey 

iiiclosetl it find its court with a stronij; fence, at some distance 

without the pillars and hungings; which formed an oatnard 

court, besides that iu wliich the tabeniscle stood. 

Though the court surrounded the taberoaclc. there iti no 
>n to suppose that the tabomocle Ktood in the ceutru of 
[it ; for there was no occaeion for so large an area at the west 
end as al the east, where the altar of bumt-olfcrin>j; stood, 
and several other utensils of the sacred service. It i» more 
probable, that the area at this end wun at least fifty cubits 
square ; and indeed a les.s space than that conld hardly sufliofl 
for the work that was to be done tbere, and for the persons who 
were immediiitely to attend the liervioe. 

Having dcsenbt-d the labrmaole and the murt ihni sur* 
rounded it, we proceed uuw to take a new of the furniture that 
beluogcd to both. 

The chief things in the court were the attar of bumt-'ofier- 
ing and the brazen laver. The altar of bumt-ofienng, which 
is described in the bc^nning of the twenty-eighth chapter of 
Exodus, WHS placed toward the east end of the court, fronting 
ibe entrance of the tabernacle ; artd we must sup|XMe, al such 
a convenient distance from it, that the smoke of the itre, which 
was conntnnily bnmlng oa the altar. might not sully that bewi- 
tiful ieul, its veil and curtains. 

The diineiiBJoos of the altar were five cuhitji, or alwui nme- 
iMfi feet square, and three cubil«, or mIhwI five feet and a 

rRAr. I.J ALTAR OF BUUNT-OfFEftlNtl. 3<I3 

Kiilf liigli. Il was made of shiUini-nood, {iIbUhI ovvt with 
bras^, and il had lour bmss rin^, through which two hare 
were put, by which it was u»rri«d upun tiio pnest^i' shoulders. 
It is deitcrtbed with honis at the four corners, but whut was 
the shape and u&c of these homa is not now known ; perhupti 
they were for tying the victims, according to the allusion of 
the Psalmini, " Itind the nacrifire with cords, even to the 
hems of the altar;" Fsalm cxviii. 27. 

The tire waK kept upon a square grate, suspended by ringit 
al the comers, and. it luav be, by chains in tiiu cavity of the 
altnr. The t^cripture account does not determiBe thediaien- 
sionK of this grate ; but if we suppose it to be five feet square, 
which probably was lar^ enough for the use il wa« designed 
fur, and if we allow six inches for the tbtckneiM of the sides 
of the altar, there would be a spac« of one foot and a half 
between the giute and the uliur on ever^- Aide ; whirh was buf- 
Jicient to preierve the wooden bides (especially as tliey were 
plattid over with brans) from being damaged by the fire on 
the gratis. 

Thin grntt! iit said to be put undvr the coiupass of the altar, 
as we understand the word :i\ro carcoitA, io tlio only two 
pl«c«s wh«re it t>ccuni. £xod> xxvii, 6, and xuiviii. 4. The 
meaning of it, therefore, can hardly be conjectured, for waul 
of parHllcl places by which to fix it. Mr. Saurin supposes tlie 
yi7\3 carcvbb might be a copper vessel, hung by rings ur chaius 
to the altar over the fire on the grate, in which the tieahof the 
victims was consumed.* 

J)at It is a iaat«rial objeiliou against this conjecture, that 
there are sonw pusage**, m which it is enjoined, that the ric- 
lims witli the head and the fal KhuulJ be laid upon the wood, 
that is, upon the tirt^ which is on the altar ; Lev. i. 8. 

Others, therefore, conceive the 3i3ra careobk to be nothing 
bat a kind of cincture to tJie grate. Others, again, have 
imsfpiwd it to b« a sort of dome over tlie fire, conuived to 
coUed the flame, ami concentre tiic heat, so as to cousutnc 
ifao TBpour that would arise from the flesh in burning, and 
UioRby prcvoDt that oHctiHive snurll which the burning such 
quantities of flesh and fat must otherwise have caused. To 
stnsDgthen this conjecture, tlie authors of the Universal His- 

* Sm btmim* Dmcvvn lur !• CsptaUscfa, due. b«., « CliUBberlajme'* 
lnM)sdon,*p. 4J6. 


[book II. 

tory tell us, tJiev have ftecn in France a kind of poruUs 
liearth. nol uolike a chnfiing-disli, sn artftiUy contrived, Uiat 
the fire within (thniigti not verv fierce to outward appearaucse) 
consumed f'eatberB, brimstone, and other like fetid matJ-rials, 
without causing the least smell.* Now if Kuch a thing is 
possible, it is not at all unlikely ibere uiigbt be Mine such 
contrivance iu the altar, to prevent any offence fTom the smell 
of the sacrifices. 

Hie Are on tfaia altar wao looked upon as sacred, having 
first denoendcd upon it froio heuvco ; Lcr. ijt. "24. It was 
ihoreforc to be kept constwntly buruing, and never to go out; 
chap. vi. 13. From hence, prububly, tlie Chaldeans and Per- 
■ians borrowed their imtioii nf llieir saci'ed fire, which they 
preserved and nouiisbed with religious care aud attention ; m 
custom which aAerward passed from them to the Ureeks ajid 

The rabbles have recourse to a miracle, to account fori 
the presen-ing of the sacred fire in tJieir matches in the wil- 
derncsfi. when the altar was covered with a purple cloth nni m 
covering of badger 'h skins ; Numb. iv. 13, 14. But it may be 
as well acconnted for, bv supposing that ihe gmte with tho 
fire was on these occasions taken out of the altar, and cairicd 
by itself. 

The other considerable utensil in thit court of the taWmaclr 
was the brazen lavcr, described iu the thirtieth chapter of 
K:(odus, v«r. 18 — 21. The place of this lavcr was betweea, 
the altar and the etott end of the tabernacle. Neitlier the 
«h«]>e nor size of it in mentioned by Moses; probably it was. 
considembly cnpocious, unce it was for the use of all the 
priests to wash their hsnds and feet before they performed 
their ministjy. 

It ia said, that Moses " made the laver of brass, and the 
foot of it of brass, of the looking-glasses of the women who 
assembled al the door of tlie tabernacle of the congregation ;" 
Exod. xxxviii. 8. Snch were the ancient mirrors, made of 
polished brass, or other metal ;t which gave but a dark or 
obscure image, in conipariKOti of glass mirrors, lieaco we 

* l^nivcn. IlistOTy, vot i. pan ii- p- 66?, felto tia, 

f- Vid. VjkV. Spanliieiin, CMnerv. mCallitaach. Ilymntim m l^ilUil.«.3t, 
f. iii-~!>!iO, nlii. ITItnjcot. 1097, ocu«o. Tbo TsivoJii <rf Jomthui l«i>- 
den (he text last (|uoud, « mtttt •pecult*. 

CUAP. 1.] 

Tilit LAVfiB. 


reud of " teeing through & glat>a darkly." I Cor. xiii. 1:2, or 
rather " in or by a glass." as £/ evoht/iov si^ifies. 

As for ttic oustou) of tlie wOiuvii'h ussviubliiig iit the door of 
the tab«rii8cle of the congregation, that i«, the* tabernacle of 
Mo«eB (for it was before the tabernacle of the Lord was 
reared), some derive it from a custom of the Kgyptian women, 
who (if we may credit Cyril of Alexandria) UHeil to go to the 
temple with lookiog-glassea in one hand, and a timbrel in ihc 

The rabbies bave represented it as very nierit(inou& m 
the«e Jewish women devoutly to sacrifice the mottt pruciuuH 
ornament of their'toitets to holy uaes.i- Otheta have auspecled 
a graphical error in the word rttoQS bemorath, " of the lovk- 
ing-gtaases," namely, that the pn-rix 3 tiefk may hare ttlippcd 
into the text, instead of j coph, by reason of the similitude of 
(hose letters; and to rtrenglhen litis conjecture they obaen-e, 
that 3 f>eth is Vtfy seldom used to express the metal or atiiff 
of which any tiling is made; though cometimes, it must be 
owned, it u»;{ as, on mentioning the brass which David col- 
lected, it is added, wherewith, m bah, " Solomon made the 
brazen sea." &c. ; 1 Chron. xviii. 8. And it is uud of Asa, tliat 
" he carried away the stones and timber of Ramali, where- 
with Baasha wfis building, and therewith, ona baham. bnilt 
Geba and Mizpah ;" *2 Chron. xvi. 6. They suppose, howerer, 
the (rue reading of this place was Jimos rhemamth ; and if so, 
the proper rendering would be, " Moses nude the laver of 
brasa as or like the looking-glasses of the woueo," that is, 
he finely pohshed it. 

Having tlius taken a view of the two most coiutderable 
things in the court, let us now enter into tiie tabernacle ; 
where in the sanctuary, or first room, we see tlic altar of in- 
cense, the golden candlestick, and the table of shew-bread. 

Ut. The attar of incenae^ was made of shittim-wood. and 
overlaid with gold. It was one cubit square, and two high, 
with an ornament of gold, in the nature, wc may suppoee; of a 

* Vid. Cyril, dt Adomiono ui Spintu M Vtnute, tom. i. Ub. ii. p. 64. 

t Vid. Alwo-Eaain Kiod. xxxviii. 9. 

I Vid. Noldii Coocordiint. puiic S.Bigtuf. U, n, ^ Uuwia- 
And Atwn-EinvtndicateBthitKRMof a in Uii^placetMConiu. Vld.Ctrt- 
vrtifffci. ElcciaTugan. Rabbin, in loc. 

f S«e (he detcrtptiMi nfu in KxmI. lut. 1— to. 


[book tl 

carved moulding, round iho top of it. "Hie ukc of it was to 
burn incenM upon every morning and creniag. It wu fUw> 
to be tpnukled irith the blood of the flacriliceft that were 
offered for the sins of igDonmce. committtKl uither by particul&r 
persons, or by Uic people in genenU: Lxod. xxx. 10; I^v. iv. 
3.7. 13. 18.' 

*2dJy. 1 he gotdtru caudlutttick, de»cribed Exod. xxv. HI, et 
uq., was the richest piece of furniture in the tabernacle. It 
was made cf Bvlid guld, to the weight of a talent; and. ex- 
clusive of the workmanship, which was very cunous, it waN 
worth, according to CumtK-rland, upwnrd of ^ve lhuii»aiid 
UTcnty-six pounds. It contained seven lights, nix branching 
out in three fuiirs, from the upright stem, and one on the tup 
of it. This was a must useful, an well as nioHt umaoiental, 
piece of furniture in a room that had no wiudowa. 

3dly. The table of shew-bread, deecribed LLxod. xxv. 'I'S — > 
30, was made of the samer sort of wwxl with the altar of in- 
cense, and, like tliat. overlaid and oruameuted with gold. Its 
dimensions were two cubits long, one broad, and one and a 
half high. It i& said lo have a golden border, or crown, which 
may be supposed to be a kind of rim round it, sunietliing like 
that of our tea-tables. Upon this table were set two ruws or 
piles of loaves, or cakes of bread, six in a row or pile, which 
were changed for new ones ercry sabbath. The atah; bread 
belonged to the priests. 

This table was also furnished with golden dishca, spoons. 
and bowls, uf tlic use uf which we have nu certain account. 
Perhaps they were used about the holy oil. which was kept 
iu tbe tabernacle (see 1 Kings i. 39). and very probably upon 
this table. Perhaps, also, thiit was the place uf the book uf > 
the law of the kiuicdom. which SsUucI wrote, and laid upi 
before tbe Lord; 1 Sam. x. 25. 

' We now go, through the second red, into the holy tii 
holies; where we are to view the ark of the testimony, 
nt lid or cover, called " the mercy-aeftt."* 

The ark was a chest of fine proportion, two cubits and 
half long, one and a half broad, and one and a half hig 
Jt was mode of shiltim-wood. but plated over with gold, both 
within and without, and richly omnmonted with curious work* 

* BoUi ihMB deacnbed m Exod. xsv. lo— 91. 

ClIAl*. I.] 



iDnnHhip. Its chief use was to be a repository for tho two 
taU^ of stoiie, on whirh wore engraven rite ten command' 
oufita hy the 6nger of Ood himeeJf, and which he gave to 
Moees on Mount Siuai ; Exod. xxv. 16. 'Vhete aru called the 
tables of tcslimouy, chap. xxxi. iH, not only as they were a 
writneas and lasting uionucnvul of the covenant between God 
and thf people of Urael. but as they would iu effect testify 
unal them, if they kept not that covenant. For this end 
the book of the law, which Mofteo wrote, is ordered to be 
laid in or by the side of the ark ; that it " might be there for 
a witness againiit the diBobcdient;" Deut. xxxi. 26. From 
these tables the nrk, in which they were preserved, in called 
the ark of the ti-sttmony, Exod. xxx. 6; and the ltd of thtK 
chetit, which covered thcee tables of the law, is called " the 
meicy-seat," as fitly repreoeoting the effect of God's mercy 
to the transgressors of bis law ; or the covering (as it were) 
of their transgresaioni*. And hence (he word iXaanipmv, by 
which the Septuagint renders the mercy-«eat. and which is 
Dsed for it by the apostle, io the Epistle to the HobreH-s, 
chap. ix. H, is likewise given to Christ in the F.pistJe to the 
■ Homans, chap. iii. '26. where our translators render it pro- 
pitiation ; inn-'mnuch aa, by hin death, he hatli so cnvcr^d the 
tranRgKasions of his people, thnt they shall not lie punished 
for them. 

The upper face of the oaercy-seot was sdomed with two 

figures of cherubim, either in chased work, as Mine think, or 

ft in statuary, as it is more commonly nndcntood, and a* seems 

' moat agreeable to the dcacription of them in the book »( 

Exodus, chap. xxv. IH— 20. 

\V> have no sufficient Bgfat in Scripture obsolutuly to de- 
tcnnine the form, the postore, or the sizt; of thcsn cherubim. 

As to their size, indeed, since they are described as hnvmg 
wioga. and their wings are said, when stretched forth on high, 
to oarer the nercy-aeat, of which wu know the dimeusionB. 
upon the reasonable suppoaitioo that their wings were in a 
just proportion to their bodies, we may form non\e idea of 

(tlieir bigness. 
As to their posture, their faces are said " to be toward 
one aoothor aud toward the mercy-^cat ;" which prubuhly 
means that they atood in an er(>ct posture on ihe mcrcy-ntat. 


icwisn AKTigrrrtrs. 

[itooiEiri .1 

with their faces toward cacti other, and holh nf them with 
their heads somewhnt indined, tis looking down u[ion, con- 
templating, and admiring the mysteries lyptlied by the ark 
and mtTcy-Bcat ou which they stood. This may givu occasion 
to tlie allusion of St. Peter, when. Kpeaking of Uie mystenes 
of redemption, he says, " which lliiags the angeU desire to 
look into;" 1 Pet. i. 13. 

But we are at the greatest loas of all to determine the true 
shape and form of these cherubim. Some, upon obserrmg 
that the verb 3^3 chnrabh, in the Syriac language, sometimes 
meant) simulavit, conccivp the noun yn^ rhrmhk signifies no 
more than nn image, figure, or representation of any thing. 
Abcn-Ezra is of this opinion.* Josephus says, they were 
flying animals, hke none of tho«c which ure seen by men, but 
such na Moacs saw about the throne oS Qod.-h In another 
place he says, " As for the cherubim, uobodv can tell or con- 
ceive what they were like. "J However, tlie generality of in- 
terpreters, both ancient and tnuderu, suppose them to be of a 
human shape, only witlt the addition of wiiigs.^ The reasoo 
of which supposition is, perhaps, chiefly because Moses de- 
scribes them as having faces, tliough (hat will by no metiu 
prove the point, because faces are attribute<i to beasts aa well 
as to men. It is certain, that what Ezekiel in one place re- 
presents as the face of an ox, in another he represents as tlie 
face of B cherub, chap. i. 10, compared with chap. x. 14, 15. 
Prom whence othera have conceived the cherubim to be rather 
of the lihapi; of ^vm% oxen ; and it is alleged in favour of this 
opioioa, that the far more common meaning of the verb 3i3 
charabtt. in the Arabic. Sjrriac, and Chsldee, being to plough, 
the natural meaning of ana chemhh is n creature used in 
ploughing, which in the eastern countries wa« geiieraily the 
ox.|| This aeems to have been the ancient opinion, which 
tradition bad handed down, concerning the shape of the cli*- 

* See ihe reoson* un wliirh Abeti-Flin grouwb Kia opinion, in QihMopli. 
CaitwngliL. BlKbtTuri^uia. Ralibio. in &xoA. xxv. IS. 
f AaiMl- lib. iii. i»p. vi. wd. 1. 1>. laS, 136, edit. Uartrcsiiip. 
t Anliq. lib. vtii. cftp. uL kcL tii. p. 424, rdti. I1«v«tc. 
^ TliU du« wu the apiiiioa of *er«r«l labtHev, set In Cu1«niglil, ubi 


H BtKlurt. HiefDiow. part. i. Uk ii. cap. txxv. Oper. urn. U, p, 3M, 

ctiu. int. 

rtt \ P. t.i 

jsruroam'a idolatay. 


rubitn wiUi the flaming sword, that guarded the Iree o( life; 
Gen. iii. 24. And Ovid'ti fable concerning Jason's golden 
•fleece being {guarded by brazen-footed bulls, which breathed 
out fire, WW, perhaps, grounded upon it: 

V'jccc adamuilcu \'ulcaDU[a iiiuibiu eflant 

.dipid» Uutj M«tftnorpb. tib. vii. I. 104. 

Wc obeerve fartber, that as Ezekiel describes the face of a 
cherub oihI the fuce of an ox a» the same, bo St. John, in hi» 
description of the four Eiwa, or living creattireJi, which he saw 
in hit( vision, and which seem id all roipccts to answer to the 
four living creaturet* in Ezekiers vision, colls that the calf, 
which Ezekiel callsthcox or cherub; RcT.iv.7. From hence 
viK may give a probable account of the strangest part of the 
story of Jerubuura'a idolatry, bis setting up tlie two golden 
calves for objects of wortihip in Dan and Bethel ; 1 Kings xii. 
28. '29. I call it the strangest part, because it appears won- 
derful, not only that Jeroboam himself should t>e so t^tupid as 
to Bet up calves for goda. but that the bulk of the nation 
ahould BO rendily fall into such senseless idolatry; but it re- 
ttev(» our conceptions, if wc consider tliese calves as nothing 
but cherubim, the very same sort of figureti that were placed 
ia the temple by God's own appointment: so that Jeroboam 
not only set up the worship of the same God. and in the aame 
iDodcft and fonns thai were practised at Jerusalem, but the 
same symbols of the Divmc presence to which the people had 
Ix'eti accustomed. It is, therefore, no wonder tliey so gene- 
rally fell iu witli him in some little alterations, particularly as 
to the place of tlieir most solemn public worship, especially if 
we attend to the plausible U)ing« be might allege on this head ; 
oamety. that it was a usual practice of the holy patriarchs to 
build altars, and to worship God, whcrcii-er they came and 
made any stay. Abraham sacrificed in Hhechem, and at 
Itethd, in the plain of Mamre, nnd at Beersheba. The ark 
ami the tabernacle were many years at Shiloh, and there the 
people aarnBced. It was from hence moved to Kirjath- 
jearim. and oiler that to several other places, in all which 
sacrifices were olfered to God with acceptaocc At length 
David, and then Solomon his Ron, having chosen to fix their 
court at Jerusalem, and to have the temple near to the royal 



[ooaK II. 

palace, it wan buUt in that city. Hmrei-er, the uliole land n 
boly; ood they should not be so saperstitiouii as to imapot 
the preseocc of God u limited to one place mure thaa another, 
bat wherever his pure worsliip i« performed, he would jsm6L 
hU pe-opl« and blMs them. Or if it ithould be &U^;ed, that 
Solomon had built the temple at Jerusalem by the express ap- 
pointment of OikI. might not Jeroboam reply, that Solomon 
had HO defiled that eity by his lewdncfw and his idobitriea, 
that it was now become an impure place; and any other, 
therefore, might surely lie as proper for the moatsotenui wor- 
Khip. i^Hpeciolly Bethel, the houK of God. the ptmtn irfaere he 
bad anciently chose to dwell ** Thim might Jeroboam Tindi- 
catc his conduct, perhaps ait wcl! s» any wtU-worshipper cooM 
erer d«. Nevertheless. y>( he went cootixiy to a dirine in- 
stitution, hilt cherubim are contcmptuoiiKly called calvea, and 
he it frequently branded ax that great sinner wbo made land 
to sin, whinh fihonld he a caution to us by no meana to depart 
from, but to keep dose to, divine inatitutiona in all roattera 
of relii^us wor5hip.+ 

To return to the chentbim. Clemens of Alexandria seettts 
to have been of opinion, that the Egyptian sphyux.nnd other 
hicroglyphical beasts, were borr ow ed from these cherubim and 
those in Ezekiel's vision.^ Heitce it appears, thai be did not 

* TIm gnoiMt pan of Ike ipeech whieh I hit« put ioio dw flKmtfa «f 
Jtnboun, 11 wJcLii ttwa Jovephus, Mbo wuns lo ha>v Mpposed, Hat the 
aia of litis prince ^>ras aot wonhipping anodier God, but, Ibr political ras- 
■ons, wonbtppmg the true God in a manner eoonsfT lo Ma tiutimiioa. 
JoMpb. Amiq. lib. riii. cap. vui. p. 445, edit. Haveminp. 

t CoH t e i r ii ii g ike figure ot ihe cHenihin, sod the «ta of Jerubsa i in 
naeitag aoA in Daa ud Betliitl, in iiottUM» of dio«> ii JenMslcn, lee 
Monrvus d« Vilulo Aureo, c*p. ir. — ix^ ipnil Cnucoi Sacraa, torn. ix. 
p. 4439, et wq. In cap. x. el Mq., h« »o9w«n Ibe objedinn* to ha optatoa. 
A short atntnu-f of mIui he o&n on the aubj^tl nay b* 'wcfi in Pool's 
Synflpais on I ELinga sii. 39. It i« rmmfca^lw, (hat tl» Mlbof. ■*ko •>«« a 
F^in, takes ooeanon, tnm tins aia of Jiaboaai, Ui bsnm^c ih« Pratis- 
isnis, aad the king of Onal Britaia ■ paftiBiilv, oa tba hatnous guilt of 
•ehuiB. There wuultl have Imwi mon piopriciy in hii addrsHingllis CbtMh 
of RiHne, and her lofalKblr bead, the Pope, on the guk (rf sbrapniBf or 
diapcnsittg with diriiw ionitvtions. Consult, bkcviie, Ha dib subjSBU 
IMMLTt. HicrasDie. pani. lib. ii. ap, tm. Opn. bin. b. p. 3M< 

] fiMB. lib. *. apml Opar. p. M6. S67, ediL Fans, 1641 . 

riiAr. I.] 

TfiR tnErnrNAii. 


take th«m to be, enttrd^ at lesst, of a bunan form and 

Il WM between Ihwe (wo cli«rubim. owr the tuercy-Hent. 
th«t the Slicchiimh, nr mirflculrmii li{^ht, usvd to appear, hs 
the risible token of tho sjiccla) presence of Qodrt from 
whenco he vs said to " dw«U l>et«n»en the cherubim," Psalm 
Hkx. 1; and " tosit belu'Cfn th« clicrtibini;" Psalm xcix. I. 
In coniwquence oFwhicli ihe people nre culled upon tu wonthip 
at hie fooLttool, rer. ft, that in, tJie ark and ihu niorcy-aeat. 

W« bare before observed, that the two labk-s of ilie law, 
which God gave to Moaes, were deposited in the ark under 
the mcrcy-nent ; and with thera were laid up. it should aeem 
in the itame ehcst, the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron's 
rod that budded. For the author of the Kpistle to tht- He- 
brews, apeakiiig of the tabernacle, ^ncift^V ^tyiifitvy ayia ayauv^ 
which is called the holiest nf all, which had thu golden censer, 
aod the nrk, rqv tufiomv. of the covenant, adds, wherein fv ^, 
was the pot thai had manna, and Aaroa'a rod that budded, 
and the tHblea of the covenant; Heb. ix. 3, 4. But how to 
reeoncile^ this pnsMge, if we understand it to assert, that the 

* On ihia hnd cobsull Dr. Wsils on lli« fiicure of a chvrub, in his Rent' 
iwmsofTimv itDprov«d,iu hw Work«, vol. i*. ; utd Wiixii A^f^ptiKa, ltt>. ti. 
cip. litf. 

i Tliii Shochinali, w •iiiUe gbry of Jshovali, after it had cowluctcd 
Um lsra«litM Uinnigh the wUdemeM (»e« p. 14), hui its tuoc* ttated re*i- 
dtoea in dM tsbvnsde uid tbc tein|il«. Km a bnber vnouni oT ikis ini- 
lamloui phsaottSMO, euamlt pMi u. clup. u. uF Mr. Lowmaa'i Kauouale 
of tJifl Hebrew Ritual. Tlwr* are some rcfoatkablo ibings in Lord B«rnn|^ 
Ion's Diawruiion on 4^o(l'i Visible Prewnce, at ibe ead of tbe second edit 
ofbii KM^y; onriin p. 39 of hti F.«ay, notn mi., whrre Ite haihfndeavoiim) 
IS trara itiia divine appearance tnm the creation till a little afln iht: flood, 
snd frotn ibe ^[ivtBg of tlx law lo the deMmcttoB of iJia Anl itmpk. T^ 
land'i Mtmnpt )•> prove thai ibii apprehended mintcuJous appearance had 
Buihiog miru7ulou» in it, but wu gnly a kind of beacon mule iim of bjr ili« 
braeUtes lor ihoir dirvcinn in their joomey (we hb " Uodegua, or I'illai of 
Goud and Fire not nifaculoa;,'* in hu pitca caUsd Tetiadyiniui), waa sn- 
■wared in a pamphki called " Hodtgia Confuted, or a plain Demoasu*- 
lion, ibat the PiUar of Clood and FiT«» that guided the ImislilM in lbs WD* 
demsasiwaa dm a Fin sf human Prepanuioo, bat the most miraculoaa Pnt- 
saaee of Ood." pabtiriiid I72i, Si-a And likewise io " A UMCowstupoa 
iIm Pillar of Ckrad and Fire," ^. iiusned iaihcBibliodiMaLitBrBhB, 1723, 
Nvmb. V. p. 1, and fullowing. The ■*—*->—*■ of ilis JvmA wviisn upon 
Ihb aubject taty be *sca in Buxiorf. Exerciiai. it ArcA Fadaris. 



llOUk ii: 

put tifinaiina, liiiU Aaron '» rod. were laid up in iUl- urk, witii 
the assertion in tlit* FirBt Buokof Kings, tliuL llieri! wii.i noUiing 
in the ark save tlw two tables of otonv which Muses put there 
ut Horvb. 1 Kings viii. 9, in somewhat dilBciilt. Some any. 
the apofiUe speaks of the ark as it was in the time of Moses ; 
the text in Kin^. ns it vra» in Solomon's time, when upon 
some occasion or other, the iiotof maima anil Aaron's rod had 
been taken out of it. But this is hardly probable. There- 
fore IV y, in which, must cither signify " near to which," in 
which sense the particle iv is sometimes used ;* or rather, 1 
apprcbeiid, iv y, in which, refers uotto Kt^ttnov, the ark, im- 
m^iately preceding, hut to the remotr- antecedent, oKvvp p 
Xryo/icvy ayta o7t4»v, the second tabernacle, or lioly of holies : 
itnd is paraUcl to the expression which just before occurs, 
omjv) yap KaTunuvaaitf i) vpan-tj, " there was a first tAbt*rnacte 
made, wherein, fv y, was tlie candlestick and the tabic," iu. 
That the tabernacle and all its furniture were typical and 
emblematical of spiritual bles&ings.f we are assured by the 
apostle ; Heb. ix. 9, and x. 1, e/ atibi. But for the particular 
meaning of these several mysteries we refer to Witsius's Di»> 
sertalion de TabemacuH Mystenis. in the first volume of his 
Miscellanea. I 

Of the TtmpU. 

Having taken a survey of the tabernacle, we proceed lo 
the temple at Jenumlem, which was built much after the 
model of the former edifice, but e^ery woy in a more magni- 
licent and expensive manner. 

According to the opinion of some persomi, there were three 
different temples ; the first built by David and Solonmn ; the 
second by Zembbobel, and Joshua the high-pncst ; and tJ»e 
tliird by Herod, a liltje before the birth of Christ. TheJcws 
acknowledge only two i^ for thej- Uo not allow the ihinl to be 

* Sc« Wliiiby in Inc. 

t Vid. Deyling. Obssrv. Sser. fmn i. f>bi«T. xvti. p. 68. 

! On ihia tubjcct consult Itunorf'a Exrmmi. Ac Ano'i Foderu- And 
with mpectu itap ubfrnsck, uwetl a«all ii> fumttuiv, reid Jowrph. Antiq. 
fih. iii. cap. vi. 

9 Vk). ItftlAorf. Aidiq. Ilriir- psn i. cap. vi. smi. iI. p. AB. Mlit. niffmi 
th« pa«as«ortheTiiltBiMl ikm quutod. 

CITi^K r. 

THR Tft)«rLK« 

a new temple, but only ttie kccoikJ rebuilt. And this best 
ttgren; wiUi llitj propliecy vi' Haggui. chup. ii. 9 ; ihuL " the 
glory of this latter houite, namely. Zerubbabel's temple, fhoutd 
be g;reater than that of the former," which undoubtedly wan 
said ia reference to thf Messiah 'u hiuiDuring; it with his per* 
(tonal pruoenue and mtniouy. 

The first temple was built by David and Solomon. Ouvid 
pruvidud mutermls fur it before bis dedtli, and Sulomoa misixl 
the edifice. It stood on Mount Zion, Psalm cxxxii. 13, 14; 
u hich wuM the general name of a range of bills in that neigh- 
bourhood. The name of that particular hill on which the 
temple Htood, was Moriah; 2Chron.iii. 1. The Jcwit will 
have it to be the very spot on which Abraham went about to 
nacrilice litaac; and where Adam paid his tirst devotions after 
his creation, and »acnficed after hi.i full. This hill had been 
purchased by David of Arauuah. or Omai). king of the Je- 

It is remarkable, tiiat though in the Second Book of Samuel 
we have an account ihut " David purchased the threshing floor 
ufOman.with the oxen, for fifty shekelsof silver," chap.xxjv. 
24 ; in the First Kook of Chronicles it is said, " ho gave to 
Oriun, fur the place, tax hundred shekels of gold ;" chap. 
xxi.26. To solve this difficulty, some learned men, observing 
that the words r\D3 kunaph, and snr zahab, which we render 
silvur and gold in these two pasnagca, arc both used some- 
timw for moucy in general, imagine that the former sum was 
fifty shekels uf gold, and the latter six hundred shekels of 
silver ; and if so, both nmount to much the same value, about 
five hundred and furty-soveii pounds. Dut it seems an easier 
and more natural supposition, that ihc former sum was for the 
floor, uxen, and wooden ioBtrumcnta only, and the latter was 
afu-rwai-d paid for the whole hill, whereon David chose to 
bnild the temple.t 

* •* 1 Ssa. u>t*. S3, whan ilie litnal veruoa is, ** All this did Arwinah, 
ths kiniTf |[in unio tbe king." 

1 C&pal, in kjj Crittca Sacrs, lllk L csp. s. wd. «. p. 37, mp{MM«% 
thai th«M diSonnt Donben m owiof to die blundn oliomc mtu«riber, 
■ad SIC disreAm now eutl; rKonnlsd by sdmiitinf s nuioiu Irction. 
And nsny of this Isancd Riin's coniKtan*. lo hut irnnvnul Iwaour, an 
eeoAnnnl by dw Ksbrew manuserlpu, t> Dr- Kennicoit liaih bul occasion 
lOobMne; Bnd perhapi this msy appasr in vtrioos Mbcr ituUncct, wh«q 






[book II. 

The ex{«n«e of erecting; this magnificent fttructuM ww pro- 
digioua ; and. indeed, according to the comnum occrptatioo 
ftf the Scripture account, next to incredible; the gold and 
silver onlv, whirti was provided for that pur{>oM, amounting 
to upward of eight thousand millions sterling, i Chron. xxii. 
14 ; xxix. 4. 6, 7 ; which, says Dr. Phdeoux. w«a sufiiaent to 
I have built the whole temple with Molid silver,* and giratly 
! Incoeedl all the trensures of all the mooarchit in Chrinondom , 

But it may be observed, that the number of theae talenta. 
bv which the gold and silver is computed, is mentioned only 
in the book of Chronicles, which was undoubtedly wriUea' 
after the return from the Babylonish captivtiy, a« iippMra 
froai its mcntioaing Cyrus's decree for the building the (em- 
"ple, 2 Chron. xx:cvi. 22, 23; and from its carrying the ^^ne- 
«k>g^' be^'ond ZerubbaW), who uas ou« of the chiefs that rv- 
tHmed from Babylon, 1 Chron. iii. 10; and it i*i not, Lhere- 
fore, improbable, that at the time of writing this book the 
Jew»niislu compute by the Babylonish talent, which w-astittlr 
nion- than half the Mosaic udent, or peihapH by ilie Syrinc 
talent, which was but one-fifth of tlie Babylonish ; and Ihua 
f he whole maMt of gold and silver would be rednced to a C0B> : 
|iarativ«Iy moderate quantatv. ami )t;l be abundantly auffioicot 
to build a most magnificent temple. 

The plan, and tlie whole model of this structure, wa& laid by 
the saoM divine Architect as that of the tabernacle, namely, 
Ood himself; clinp. xxviii. 11, 12. W'c may reasonably, thev 
fore, conclude, it was the completest buUdiu;; that was vTur' 
CTMted ; and it is no improbable conjecture of those who art 
for deriving all the Grecian orders and just ornaments in 
architecture from this temple. 

• It was built, as was said before, macb in the same Ibrm 
with the tabernacle, only every way of larger dimensions. It 
was surrounded, except the front, or east end, with throa 
■tones of cluuubers. each five cubits squaru, which reached to 
half the height of the temple ; and tliu front was graced with 
a magnificent portico, which rose to the height of an hundred 
and twenty cnbib). So that the shape of the whole was not 

[ttat gndsBui tialh Amthod bii grcai work of ib« colUtkm, in whirh k* iS' 
■ * nWaaea'a t'oAnecl pan i. book i. m(. i. p. T, I^ dm* q. 

■CKAt. f.7 



unlike nome churches ve have aeon, which hare a lofiy tower 
in the front, and a lower aisle runnii^ aloog eadi aide of the 
build infr. 

The atensils for sacred serrice were the same as in the ta- 
bernacle ; only several of tbeni, a» the altar, candlestick, &c., 
were Inr^r in proportion to the more spacious edifice to nhioh 
ihey belonged. This first temple was si length plundered by 
Kebuchadnczzar, king of Babylon, of nil its rich furniture, and 
the building itself destroyed, after it bad stood, according to 
Jouphtti. four hundred and seventy years, six months, and 
ten days, from its dedication.* 7'hougb other cbroDologers, 
as particulnrly Calvistns and Scaliger, reduce the number of 
years to fonr hundred and lwenty-«evcn or eiwht ; and Vsher, 
to four hundred und twentv-four. three months, and eight 

Tbc second templir was built by the Jews upon their return 
from the Babylonish captivity, under the influence und direc- 
tion of Zerubbubel their governor, and of Joshua the high- 
prieflt. with the leave and by the encouragement of Cyrus, the 
Persian emperor, to whom Judca was now become a tributary 
kmgrlom. fliis is thatt^-yrtis, of whom iMuah had prophesied 
by name two hundred year« before he was bom, and bad pre- 
dicted his encouraging the rebuilding Jeruaalev and the tem- 
ple; chap. xliv. 2^; xlv. 1. It is proboble that Daniel had 
showed Cynis this prophecy, and that Cyrus refers to it in his 
proclamation for rebuilding the temple : " The Lord God," 
saith he, " hnth given roe all the kingdoms of the earth, and 
charged me tn build him a house tn Jerusalem ;" Kzm 1. 2. 
He bImi mtored the sacred utensils which Nebuchadnezzar 
had put in the temples of his god ; and not only gave leave to 
the Jews to rebuild their temple, bat enconmged his own 
people to aasist them with presents for carrying on the work ; 
chap. i. 4. Upon which the foundation of a new building was 
laid, with great rejoicing of the people: only some old men, 
•■ho rcnicmbcrcd the glory of Solomon 'h temple, and had no 
expectation that this, which was erecting by a few poor exiles, 
just rctunuNl to their own coimtry. could ever equal tliai in 

* Aniiq. liK X. ca(>.viii. wet *. p, SiH, oAU IUtch:. 
t Uner. Aiiml.A.M.$416, p.ri.and Sak]i««d« £meod. Temp, p, 400. 
Qdii.C<]li>n. Allobr. 1639. 

2ji 2 




miignificencc, w(.'|tt with a luur) voice, nhile oUma were 
shouting will) joy; citup. iii. 12, II}. However, the work, 
which was thus cheerfully begun, w<^t on but slowly, partly 
for want of zeal for God'» honour nod worefaip. fur which they 
were rtiprovcd by the prophets lluggai and J^ectiahab, and 
partly, ■^•to, through thevnvy and tnalice oftbeir De^hboora, 
ibe SaiQaritan)). who, by their ill olBce« at court, prevailed with 
the cui|>emr to put a »tup tu the work ; chap. iv. 23, '24. At 
leugth, aflvr »n int«iuii»ion of about thirteen ycnrs. it wns 
vigorously rfassiimed under the encoumgL-nivnl of the em- 
peror Darius, and coniplotely finished in the sixth year of bis 
reign; ehap. vi. IS. Upon which the new temple tvae dedi- 
cntcd with great solemnity and much rejoicing; xpt. Ifi. 17. 

lliat there wvm really a very considerable dirt'erence and dii- 

parity between the old and this new icinple is very certain , 

not otdy from ihe old meu'b lamentation Iwfore mentioned, but 

from the following pai;8age of the prophet Ha^ai : " Who t> 

left HHiongHt you, that Kaw this hotuc in it* fint glory *■ And 

how do you see it now? U it not in your eyen, in coniparisoii 

of it, OS nothing V chap. ii. 3. And also from the promiae 

.'which God gave them, in order to comfort Ihcm on ihioocra- 

|'«ion, that be would raise the glory of thi^ latter temple above 

'that of the former, by the prevcncc of the Mes»mh in it; 

[fer. •). 

The Jews tell an, the itecond temple wanted ftvr remaHtihle 

things, which were the chief i^lory of the fint temple : the ark 

and mercy-seat: — the divine prenetice. or viflihie gi^trj' in the 

holy of liotieK, which they call the Shecliinah : — the holy Are 

\tn tli« flltar. which had been dm kindled from heaven :— the 

[iVim and Thummim : — and the spirit of prophecy. 

I'liis temple was plundered and wretchedly profaned by 
[Aiiiiocbus Epiphanes. who not only rifled it of all ite riches, 
[but caused it to be polluted by sacriliciiig «wine*o Heith upon 
[the altar. He also cuu»^cd the public worship in it lo ceft«e.* 

It was afterward purilied, aiid the diviii'i worvhip reMlored 
[by JudaH Maccsbceut, on which occnnion the temple, or at 
[lca*i the altar, wnii dedicatt-d anew, and an annnal fcctiral 
iftm in&tituted in commemoration of thi& happy event, lliia is 

* Jotpli- AflUi] lA. m. cap. v. wet. iv- p. C09. «bi. llivnv.; ind 
J Mj«-»Ii I. 70~U. and Vi — »T. 

OMAP. 1.] 

Tir» TEMrtr. 

the fvtut of dedicatioo wbich we read of in the Gospel or 
}>t. John, chap. x. ^J, and which is said to be in ninter, 
and could not, tberefoiv, be kept in reaiembraoce of the dedi- 
caitun of the leniple of Solomon ; for that was in the seventh 
month, which i>i just alter harvest, I Kings viti. 2\ nor of 
Zerubbflbcl 's temple, which wan dedicated in the month Adar. 
in the sprinjif. It must, therefore, be the fpBtival which wa* 
instituted hy Judns Maccahieus, on his having puriHt'd the 
temple and altar from the pollution of Antiochua. I'his feast 
was cdebnLt*:d for eight duvs succcMively, from the twenty- 
fifUi day of thi; nioiitii Cuiileu, luiHweriug to our Deceuitwr; 
] Maccab. iv. 69. And it b also mentioned by Josepbus a« 
a fwstival to which great regard was paid in bio time.* Tliis 
fcstiviU i» Btill observed by tJic Jews ; yet not as a time of re- 
joicing, but of mourning, on account of the deatrurtioti of thoir 
temple, and the calamities whicif hare befallen their nation. 
U'hen this second temple wa« grown old, and out of repair, 
having stood Ave hundred yeara, king Herod, in qrder to In- 
gratiate hiniAelf with the Jewa, and to perpetuate his own 
memory, oflered to rebuild it: which brings tts, 

Thirdly. To Herod's temple, which was a far more niog- 

jfiificeot fttructure than Zerubbabel'H, and came much nearer 

to the glory of Solomon's. Tacitus, the Roman historian. 

it " Immensse opulentise t«mplum,"» temple of immense 

!ncc.+ JosephuB says, it waa the most B.stonishing struc- 

lure he had over seen or heard of, as well on account of its 

E'tnhitecture as its magnitude, and likewiae the richness and 

rasgniHcence of its various partH, and the fame and repnta- 

|>tion rd'its sacred appurtenances.:^ As for Rabbi Jehnda, the 

''Coiiipiler of the Talmud, and ofher more modem wTiters, who 

thnve gircn us descriptiou5 of this temple, which none uf tliem 

liud ever seen, we can hare httle dependence on their «c- 

|counts, es)M!cially aa tbey differ so much from one another, 

' each having, lu a maimer, erected a separate edifice ; to which 

lone cannot help suAjiecLiiig, that the strength of imagination 

I Bomvtimoa contributed more largely than the knowledge of 

* AniM). lib. xii cap- rii. MCt. vi(. p. OIT, edit. tUverc 
t Tidl. lltMor. lib. V. wet viU. p. S03, mliL Clug. 1T43- 
t Jowpli. dc Bell. Jwlaic. lib. vt. cap. iv. sccl viii. p. 38e, edit. Ita- 


(>OOK 11. 

hiiCH7> B«t JoMpliai wu faiianir a pcMt u the Icmpie ha 
llfurnhn^ and wrote sood after Uc dotmctum, when, tf be 
had gtrcn a false, or renmkaUy imccunite aocotmt, be mi^bt 
, hftTC been cootndictod by pumben wbo bad viewad it as well 
'•■ hisndf. For that rcasoo, he is to be credited bejood anj 
(/ th« re*t,* ihoQ^ one cannot avoid nspeetiag, that erea 
, jo hb descnptioo there Is some panegyric exceeding tbe 
bODoda of truth, intermixed nith faithful and exact oanatJTe; 
for instance, when be lelU us of sauw utonefr in the building 
Ibrty-tive cubiUi long, fire hi^, and nx broad. Tbat then 
were, iiKleed, some extraordioary large stooen, may be col- 
lected from tbe following passage of the evaiigt;li)tt Moxk : 
" And as be neot out of the temple, one of hit) disciples saitb 
unto Kim, Master, ace what manner of atone* and what boiid- 
iogs arc here!" chap. xiii. 1. And in Luke they are atyted 
" goodly stones ;" chap. xxi. 5. But 1 apprehend it would 
puzzle all tbe mathematicians of the present age to contrive 
machinea by vbich stones of &ucb prodigious weight and aiu^ 
M tboae mentioned by Jutktphus, could be raised and managed. 
We are to consider he wrote before the invention of pdntiii^i 
when books could not be »oon and eaaily pablisbed and dia- \ 
perw.-d into many hands, aa they now we. It ia poasiblej 
therefore, a vain deaire of exalting tbe gkiry of bta natioQ* 
might prevail with him, in some cases, above a strict tcgaid 
to truth, when it was probable, none, who w«re able to con*- 
tradict him, might ever see hia book; or if they should, and 
were of hiM own oatiun, they would not be inclined to du it.'t 
Uitbertu we have only considered llic Irmplr it^lf, ^^liicb 
conni-stcd of the portico, the sancLuarv. and the holy of holies. 
But Uiia was only a, amall part of the aacred building on the 
top of Mount Moi'iahi for the tumple waa surrounded wiU> 
apaciouM courts, making a square of half a mile in circum- 

^ Sm hH l>CK:hi>tio» of Um Temple, 4c BtU. Judaic. )■)». *. cap. v.j 
p. 33l,«iKq. 

t Time u, tiuwwei, ft Mipming acomaat ia Mr. Maundnl's 
p. 130, «dit. 1T49, Oxon, of the itn of uian Mofio, which, he aakh, U] 
■aw linoMlf ID a wait «|iidi.«acoaipaned Uw ietnple at fialbcc ; aoe i 
WH iwtujr-ooe, sad two odwn nch twmty jrmnU lonf^ (our ymnb dwp,' 
sad asmn^brmd. And the ouiboncf du OnKfnalUliiotjquouOe La 
Rotjur, a Fmrh anitior, iu givin){ the lanw MCouni. 

UP- 1.] 



The hrst couri. whicK encompawrd Uie temple imd ih^ 
uiher courts, was called the court of Uic Gentileij; beoamc 
GentilcN were allowed to come into it* but do farther. U was 
encioBed with a wall, Iweuty cubits hj(;b. un the top of which 
wen cbuDlwrs, or guUcriM, 8u[ii)urt<:;cl by the wdU ou the 
oul«r «ide, and by rows of columiw on the msjdf; as the 
sideii of the Royal Bxch&nge, or the Piazzas in Covent 
Garden are. These ])inzzas uf tlin tctmplr are called oroai by 
Josephufi, and in the New Testament; which we tronslftte 
jwrches, though not very properly, for the English word 
rch coiiveyH a very ditfereiU idea from the Greek word 
roa, which 16 better rendered piazza. That ou the cast side 
Ijraif called Solouion's piazza (««e John x. '23 ; Acta lii. 11). 
:ause it stood upon a vast terrace, which he built up from 
rilie valley Wneiith, four hundred cubitii high, in order to en- 
ihrgc the area on the top of the mountain, and make it equal 
the plan of his intended building. As this terrace was the 
iy work of SuloniDn'» remaining in Hvrod's temple, liic 
Ifiiaitza, tliut stood upon it^ still retained the name of the former 

Of the vame kind mlh ttiese pin/zas were doubtless the five 
rooi) which Huriuuuded the pool of Bethewla ; Joiiu Vf 'J- 
|Tb* pool was probably a pentagon, and the pioxzav round it 
|<iren! designed to shelter from the weather the multitude of 
! ^iseoMd peraons who lay wailing for a cure by the miraculous 
>vittue of those waters. ,if, 

Within this outward great court was a leas courtj of bb 
oblong, ruolangulax flgur«, near to the west end uf which the 
temple stood. Into this court none hut IsractiLes mi^ht enter. 
It was also surrounded with a wall, and adorned with piazzas, 
in tiie manner of the groat court. Thu rabbies speak uf two 
walls, and a space between them of ten cubits broad, which 
tliey call the /Vi chfl, that |>artcd the court of the laraelitM 
from ths court of the Gentiles. This is what they understand 
by the word Sn in the Lamentations of Jeremiah, chap. ii. H; 
" Hft made tha cAs/ and the wall to lament ; they languished 
togather."* But howevor that be, the wall tliat divided be- 1 

* Vid. Bdaitani. 4% A^itda Taaipli, cap. m- ascL ui. p. 30, Otnii 
FiKkuli SeilL Thoi li^ hDinw» a mtttake in the tnotlaiian ; ioricad of 



[book II. 

lwe«ii the couit of the GvDUles mnd the eosrt of the ImeUu 
b «nilently aHuded to in the Mkumag pasMip of Su Pial ;,j 
** But now in Christ Jesiu, ye, who mmeiiax vtere afmr o^j 
■re mnd<r nigh by the blood of Christ : for he is oar prare^ , 
who haib made both onn, and hath broken down the middle 
wall of pftrtitioo between us," Eph. ii. 13, 14 : which ex- 
presKcs the unioa of tbe Jews and Gentiles in ow cfaarch b^r 
Jesus Christ. 

In the outer court was probably Vept the mtukvi of bcvMa 
for sacrifice, which is mentioned by St. John. chap. ii. M; 
und there likewise were tlie money-changers, which he flbo>, 
apeaks of, who for a Bmall ^mtuily famished people, in ex* 
change for other cum. with half liliekeiR, for payment of the 
annua] tribute which e^-ery Israelite was to give into the aa-' 
cred treasoTi,-. 

The court of the Israelites was divided into two pmrtH. 
The first, entering at the east end, was called the court of the 
women, becauec they were iiDuwed to come no nearer the 
temple than that court. Of this, indeed, wc have no account 
in Scripture, except it be the same that was called, in Jeho- 
■haphat'a time, the new court; '2 Chron. xx, i, Tliere tteem 
to hare been but two courts onginally belonging to ^^olomon's 
temple; one called "the court of the prieats;" the other, 
the great court," chap, ir. f) ; nnd we read that " Manaftwh 
built oltara for all the hosts of heaven^ in the two courts of 
the house of the Lord ;" cliap. xxxiii. 6. In the great, or 
outward court, devout Gentiles were allowed to pay their de- 
votion to the God of Israel ; and in the court of the priests, 
[«r the inner court, Uie priests and other Israelites worebipped. 
And as in those times there tteems to have been no other dis- 
tincrion of courts but these two, the setting the women at a 
greater distance from the temple, and fntm the sptrctal lokcmi 
nf God's presence, than tbe men, must have been tlie con- 
trivance of some later ages, without any divine institution, 
that we find, lo support it. 

In this court of the women there was placed one chest, or 

biiag ■lUdodinc, in bftiight tm cvbiu, it ■hould be lautudiner n> braadih. 
Vid. Miilici. til. Middotli. cap. ii. uct. iii. L'EnptKui, ooL S, fti kw. 
torn. w. p. tM, Sunnhas. 




muTt; th« icwg aay eleven, for r&ceiriiig the roluntan* coti- 
tribiitions of the people ton*ar<l defraving the chargcfi of pub- 
lic worship: auch as ptx>riiline: ihe public sacrificeR, wood for 
ihe altar, salt, aod other nerossariee. That part «f the urea 
where these cheats were placed, wa» Ihe yaZtnf,vXaiao¥, or 
treasury, mentioned by St. Maik, chap. xii. 41- And per- 
haps the whole court, or at least the piazza on cue ^dc and 
the chumber^ over It, in i»hich ihe aacred stores were kept, 
was from hence called fay the name name ; as the following 
passage of St. John Reema to imply : "These word!! spake 
Jevna in tlie Lreasurv, as he taught in the temple;" John riij. 

From the court of the women, which waft on higher ground 
Uian the court of the Gentiles. iJiey ascended by fifteen steps 
into the inner court, in which the temple and altar stood. 
Into thia court, not only the priests, but oil male Israditea 
might enter. Nererthele^^, in tliis court Uiere wrb a distinc- 
tion m-dde in Hcrud'b temple, uf which we read nothing ia 
Solomon's, between the court uf the priests and that of the 
{>eoplc. The court of the privsta wa» nothing but an tnclo- 
flure of a rail or vnkU of one cubit high, round iibout the altar, 
nt a convenient distance from it, to which the people were to 
bring their offoriDgs and sacrifices; but none beside the 
priests were allowed to come within thut cucluaurc. 

From hence probtibty the Papists have token the biot of 
railing in their alnrs. 

Herod b<.>gan to build the temple about sixteen years be- 
fore the birth of ChriAt, and no fur couipltted it in nine years 
and a half, that it was iit for diiioe service. In all which 
time, the Jews say. it never mined in the day time, but only 
in the night, that the sacred building might not be retarded. 
However, the outbuildinfi^ ol the courts were not finished 
till aevvnU years aiier our Saviour's deutli ; so that when be 
was about thirty yeurs old. the temple had been forty^aix in 
Iniilding; which is the mvauiug of this pMaage in the «van- 
geJiMt John: "Forty and six years was," Mco&ifiv^n, which 
should rather be rendered, bath been, " this temple in build- 
ing;'* chap. ii. "JO. 

The external gtory of this latter tcmplo couistni not only 



[book II. 

in the opalenee snd magniSceace of the bailding. b«t in the 
licli gift>, mwa^mimru, with which it wis Mlonwd, aad lAieh 
atdbed the arimiration of thoae who beheld them; Lokc 
xii.5. Thehw^ingnpof cMia^Mim^oreoaeecratedgtflBfWM 
eommon in most of the encicnt temple*; •• we find it perti- 
eakzly wu in the tem|^ at Jenuakm ; when, wnoag the 
xeet, was a goiden tahle given bjr Pomperf . end aennl golden 
vines of exquisite workmanship, md of an immeiuesiie» with 
clnsters, ssith Joaefrfias, muSpo/i^KHt, as tall as a man.* 

This magnificent temple was at length, thioo^ the rif^te* 
oos jodgment at God on that wicked and abaadooed nation, 
who had literally tuned it into a den of thieves, atteify 
d e stro yed by the Bomans, on die nme month, and on the 
same day of the month, on which Solomon's temple was 
dcetn^od by the Bafa7loniBn8.t 

• j4Mph. de Bdl. Jodsic. lib. t. a^ -r. wet. it. j>. 333, «dit. Hanrc. 

t Ontbif sabject maj be eonsaked Light&KK*t DcMripUon of tbe Tem- 
ple, apd Capel's Templi HienwriTinitaiu triplex deUncatw ex \'nialpa»do, 
Joaqibo, MumoDide et TUmode, prefixed to WaHon's Poljrglot 



The t«rm «ynagogu«, priinahly Bigtufi.'ing an Buembly, 
canM, like the wrord church, to be applied to places in which 
any udemblicti, (i!tp(!<:ialiy ihoac for tlio worahip of God, met, 
or were convened. The Jews uae it in the prinuury scum, wheu 
they speak of the great Ayoagogae; meaning tlie court of «e- 
r«nty etdent, whii'h they pretend to have bt«n instituted ori- 
gimlly by Moeee, and tlie membere of which thoy afterward 
iacceased to one hutidied and twenty. 

We are uuw to tr«at of syuugu^uea. chiefly iu Uw latlei 
ncnse : uamcly. a« denoting places of worship. And thui 
ihey were a kind of chapeU of «ase to tlic teiapte. and ori- 
ginally intended for the convenience of riach m \iv«tl too re- 
mote atatcdly to attend the public worship thi^re. Rut in the 
latter agea of the Jewish Etate^ ayoagogues were niulttplicd 
fmr beyond what such coovciueuce requirvd. If we may be* 
tieve the labhics, there were no leu than four hundred and 
eighty, or, according to others, four hundred and i*mty,* of 
titera ID JeruMlem, where the temple stood. So great » 
number indeed exceed* alt reasouabU b«lief. 3fei-«rthele«i^ 
it ia easy to imagine, that aa the erecting synagogues canw to 
be considered as a very maitcrioua work of piety (see Lukf 
rii. 4, 5), the number might soon be incroaacd, by the auper- 
Htition of rehgiona zealots, beyond all necesuty or c«ih- 

The alouNt profound silence of the Old Testament coQ' 
ceming syoagoguea hath uiduced iie\-eral learned man to con- 

* Cemar. Hierotol. tit. Mefill. cap. iii. M. 73, c«L 4, and tit. Cudiuboih, 
oq). ziii. M. 35, cot. 3. Vid. Stldoi. PpaUgmn. in lifania daftiicawiwi- 
ba in Booa DffimcHinim. p. 19, 10, apod Opeta, ni, u. uw. i Of Ij^i- 
fcM, CflMur.Cboioinfh. MaiL urn. 



[flOOK II. 

clud«, that they had n very late original. Mr. Ba«nag? »up- 
|Kwes thotn to be coeral uith the traditions in the time of the 
AsmoD«Hn princes, bttt a few ages before Christ. Dr. Pri- 
rleaux does not admit there were any ttynagogneft before the 
Babylonish captiriLy.* \'itringa Js of the etme opinion, and 
hath said a great deal in support of it.f In farour of which 
•eDtimeiiL Reluud also quoteti Mime padsages from the rab- 
bies.{ But I cannot think llteir ttrgumenU arc coudii»ive. 
For, Id the Mrenty-foarth r>afaD, which seenu to have boeu 
written on occasion of the Babylonish captivjtr, there i» men- 
tion madf of their enemies having burnt or deAtroved " »l) the 
^nogoguee of God in the land/' in>a V«-v*Tiro-V3 enl-mongmt- 
d&i^i baarets, Ft>ahn txxiv. H : in which pas^n^ not only 
vryti mongnadhi, from *iy* jaa^nadh, coavrmrrjent ad tocum 
tetapuique stalutum, Heenis to be properly translated syna- 
gogues, where the people wure statedly to meet for dirino 
worship; but the words ^3 ro/ and mta baartta, at! tJie sjTia- 
go|pie«of God in the land, being added, prevent our under- 
standing this expression, as Mine do, only uf the letuple. aud 
the holy places belonging to it at JerusaJem. \'itni^ secma 
HPOHible of tho force of thlrt ars'umrnt, and pndeavours, there- 
fore, to show, that the phrase may either mean all ihc places 
throughout the land, where God had occasionally met his 
people in old linie, aud which, on that account, were hnil in 
peculiar renemtion : or, al least, the schools and academies 
of the prophets. An interpretation which seems not very 
natural ; and indeed this learned author himself was so doubt- 
ful of it, that ho adds, discerning persons will not imagine, 
that this one passage, which is of an uncertain .lense, is suf- 
ficient to counterbalance the argunienti« I liare produced, to 
prove that synagogues were of a later original. 

Again. I observe, that St. James speaka of Mosea being 
resd in Uie synagognea " of old time;" Acta xv. 21. And 
indeed it can hardly be imagined, that the bulk of a nation, 
which was the only vihible church of God in the world, should, 
in theii purest times, in the days of Joshua, SamueJ^ and 
David, seldom or never pay him auy pubhc worship: and 

* Coiiuecl. vol. li. p. 534 — 536. 

f Vimni). da Synaf. VeL lib. i. put li. cap. it. — ui. 

X K«laiul. Aauq. Sser psrt i. cap. i. xjct. tti. p. las, ISP, 3d *AA. Ifir. 

cH.\r. It.] 

THN •V*IAAe»l 


thitt niuti have been the case, if ihey bad noctiicr placea for 
it bv8i<)ee the Uibernacle; and on this «appo»itioi) likewise 
the Sitbbath could not be kept Accordini^ to tbo law. which re- 
qiiin^l a holy convocation, ttnj5-M">pO miknt-kodkeUi, on. or 
for, (hilt day, in, or among, all thi-ir dweUiDir^, or throogbout 
the whole land; Ler.xxiii.S. Tbe word inpo mikra, which 
we render a convocation, seeioK more naturally to import a 
place of public worship in which the people a^emhled than 
th« asBeoibty itself. As in the following passage of Isoiiih : 
" And the Lord wUI create upon every dwelling place of 
mount Zion, and upon her nwtcmhlics, rnM^'MS mikraje/ia, a 
cloud and smolce by day, and the shming of a tlnming Are by 
night," chap. iv. 6 : iu whidi there in a manifest alliiaion to 
the taberiuirlc, whereon the cloud and pillar of &re reaiteil in 
the wildenictM i Exod. xl. 38. And what then could theae 
unp snpa mikr^ kodhesJ* be> bat ayaagoguen, or edifices for 
public worship !* 

Mowover, the diopute perhupa may be compronnsed if we 
allow that tbe custom of erecting those turta uf chapeU, in 
lat«r ages called synagogues, and appmpnated to public wor- 
ship alonf. first bepin after the rwtiini iVnm the captivity ; 
and that in former fimt-g, from their fintt seidemunt in the 
land of Canaan, the peoplu used to meet ettbrr in the open 
nir. or in dwelling hnuKK. particularly in the houM'S of the 
prophet* ('<■>« seems to be intinifttO'd in the hnsbniid of the Shu- 
ndmite inquiring of hor, whi<n she was going to Klisha's house 
on occasion of the desith of her son, " Wherefore wii( ihoa 
go to him to day .' It is neither new moon nor Sabbath," 
2 Kings iv. 23), or in any other phice or buildinc: convenient 
for the purpose. 

But though we cannot help concluding they had extempore 
nyna-^ogueH. if we iii;iy *o ulyle them, without which religious 
atiaombliett could not be ordinarily held, from their lirvt settle- 
ment in <:anaan ; neverthelesit, it must be acknowledged, these 
aasembties were wnnetimes neglectefl, aiul in a manner laid 
aside, for yean together; which made it necessary for Je- 
huMhapbut to send Lcvites, a sort of itinerant prenchcrv, with 
u book of tbe law wiUi ihcm, thnmghout the cities of Judab ; 

* Sm oti ilii* Mib}Kr, Levriveker. dn tU[iuhl. Hi^hr. lib. viH- ritrt r 
MCL ii. 



[book II. 

2 Chron. xvii. 9. And from th« long disuse of reading it ii 
auch public assembtieK, tlie knowlcil£;e oP the law wn« at a ver 
low ebb in Joaiah's time; nhirh may he fiupp4>H«d. in part,! 
have occasioned the pleasure and Knrpn»e of the king and of 
Hilkiab the bi^h-priest, when the boob, or autog^ph, of the 
law, irlitch bad been long ut;gluct«d and Io«t« was found, aa 
they were repairing the temple; 2 Kings xxii. H, 

In Uie vixtli chapter of the Acts of the Apotdes there i% 
mention made of the nynitgogtie of the Libertineo. ver. 9j 
concerning whom there are ditferont opiniona. two of whicfr 
bid fairest for the trutli. The fintt in that of Qrotius nn4' 
Vitringa,* that they were Italian Jews or promlytM. Thft 
ancient Euniuns difttinipiinhed between littertuaand liftfrlinns. 
Liberlm was one who had been a slave, and obtained his free* 
domrf' lihertinut was the eon of a tihertus.X But thin dia- 
tinction m after-ages was not strictly obwrved ; and liberiinuM 
bIm> caoie to be used for one not born, but made free, iu op- 
position to ingettuun, or one bom frce.^ Whether the tihtr- 
lini mentioned in this paiisape of the Act« were Gentile*, who 
had bi'coiue proselytes to Judaism, or native Jews, who having 
been made alaves to the Komans were afterward set at Ii- 
banyJI and in remembrance of their captivity called them^ 

• Groi. ID loc.; Viiniig. ik' Sjrtiag. Veiefe, lib. i. p*n i. c»p. »iv- jj. 15i 

t Cati Rotnaui Bunt Libetii, qui vmdkU, ttmu «ul iMtauaenio, 
jure iinpenlienle numumu&i lunt. Llpian. til. L tact. vL 

J TliU npp««n frou the Ibllowitig pmmgc of Su«toanu conenning Clui^ 
dins, who, he kay*, w^ ignanu 1«inpohbtu Apiiii H ddnccpa aliqiumMlio 
LibertiiMM dicto*, non i|MO«, qui nmnupiitienntur, m.-)! ingenuua e> tiii pro- 
vnabtt. In ViiA CLtwli, rap.jwi?. tecl. ir. p. 78, Rti»ri. 

§ Quintiban. d« lasiiiutione (>niK<hii, lib- *■ cap. «. p. SU, cdtL Gibaoa, 
1^93. Qui s«rYus est, »i nunutiututur fit Litwrtinu*. Juitiniui. Uutitut. 
lib. L tit «-. : Iib«ruui »uat. qui ex juxliL stTrilut* rmnuinuM ■nnl. Tit. i*. 
liigenuus est u, qui tuiitn ut nuui CKt, Itbei c"t; aiicm duuiKu ingtnuu 
liHlriaMmto ediQu en, live ex blicrtinU daotnu, «**« rx all«rn liWnino, i 
■IttfO ingcnuo. 

II Of ih«M thue wenpmt BumlNn M IUom. IWutus infarau ui (Aanal. 
lib. ii. cap. tnucv.}, that Ibut thoiamd Libcmal of ibc Jewish nipenitliai, 
u he >tyle* it, were bani<ihed bi oite time, by order of TibvmUf mio Su* 
dlitia; Rnd the r«st cofflmttodcd to quit luly, if tlwy did not abjure by • 
cenaia day. Sm bIm Stwtoniw ia \ak Tibenl, cap znvi.: JoMpfcis 
(Antiq. lib. xnii. cap. iii. MCt. v. ediL Uarac.) nMBttau the mow ha; 
and Philo(L«Kat. wA Catum, p. 785, C, «dil. CokHi. 1613) ipeaka oik jood 


Mlveft fibertini. anrl formfd a syn&gog;u? by thpmselvM. U 
ditferenUy coiij#ctured by the learned.* 
' It in probable, the Jews of Crrenia, Alexttndha, &c., buttt 
synsgognea at Jenisalem »t thfir owii charge, for the use of 
their brrtthrcn who came fruni those countries ; as the Danes, 
Smdes.Scc., build charchefl for the use of their own country- 
men in London ; and that the lltUiau Jews did the «Btne ; and 
because the greatest number of them were Hltfrtini, their 
synagogue was therefore called the synogc^e of the LJber- 

The other opinion, which is hinted by Oecumeniufl on the 
Act8,+ and mentioned by Dr. Lardner, as more lately ad- 
vanced by Mr. Daniel Gcrdea,^ professor of divinity in the 
university of Grouingen, is this, that the Libertines are no 
called from a city or coutitr\- called Libertus, or Libertiua, in 
Africa, about Carthage. }>uidas, in \\\* Lexicon, on the word 
^r/Bi^ifoc. sAy& it was ovo^a tBvov^, nomen geriHs. And the 
glotia inttrlintaru, of which Nicolas de Lyra made great use 
in his notes, hath over the word Hbertini, i regione. denoting 
that they were so styled from a conntry. 

In the acts of (he fRmous conference with the Donatists at 
Carthage, anno 411, there is mentioned one Victor, bishop 
of the church of Libertina : and in tlie actis of the Lateran 
Council, which wax held in 649, there is mention ofJanuariu$ 
gratia Dei tpim>pu» tawtte ffefesia TJbfrtineutia ; and there- 
lore Fabricius, in hi?t Geographicnl fndev of Christian 
Biahoprica, has placed IJbertina in what was called Africa 
Propria, or the proconsular province of Africa. Now. as all 
the other people of the Reveml sj'nngogues. mentioned in this 
passage of the Act«, arc denuminated from the places from 
whence they came ; it in probable, that the Libertines wen 
KO too ; and aa the Cyrenians and Alexandrians, who came 
from Africa, are placed next to the Libertmcs in that cala- 

put of the cay btjouA the Tiber, as inhabited bjr Jews, who wpre momtf 
I^b^rlini, bxiini; bc«n broaiibl lo Home as capttm and flRT««, but bcinit 
■na<)c Ira by \hnt muten, wei« peniilied to live iccwdlng to iht-ir own 
ritr* ami ctMonu. 

" Vid. Sddcn, 6r Snn ?l«. ct 0«nL lib. ii. cap. ». Oper. rol. i. loia. i 
p. too, 301 ; «t Altm;. de Pnwljtii. 

t In loc. lORi. i. p. ST. 

I Vid. ejus Extreh- Acadcin. lib. Ui. Anutel. 1738. 4io. 



[book II. 

logue, it i« probable thty aJao bebc^ed to the um« countiy. 
So Uiat, upon the wbole. tber« Is UtUe reaaoa to doubt of the 
Libvrtiiies being to called from the place from whence ihey 
came;* and the order of the names in the catalogue might 
lead OB to think, that they were farther uff from Jerusalem 
than Alexaodha and Cymua, which will carry tt§ to the pro- 
conaular province iu Africa about Carthdge.t 

When Godwin meiitioos it as a Jewish tradition, thai 
wheresoever there were ten men of Urad, thurc ought to be 
a itynagogue buitt, he u aomc-nhat mintalcen in the meaniog 
of tne tradition, which was, that a ^ymigogue ought to be 
built where there wuv ten c^j^ei imitatuiu. tliut is, men of 
leisure, who could lake csnv uf the afiaiia of the synagogue, 
and give themselves to the study of the law. So saith Light- 
foot, understanding it tu be a ijcuural name for the elders or 
officers of the syuuguguc.^ Uuwever, utiiers aie uf a dif- 
ferent opinion ; particularly Rbenferdius, who hath wrote a 
l&rge dissertation, chieAy agaiont Lightfoot, in order to piove 
that they were iwr&otis, who at a stated sulaty were ub.i<;ed to 
attend the service of the symigogue at prupcr hours, tlutt 
whoever came might find a audicieiit number to make a lawful 
congregation, which the Jews imagine must consist, at least, 
of ten.^ 

In the synagogue, saith Godwin, the scribes ordinarily 
taught ; but not only they, for Christ himself also taught in 
them. It is queried, by what right Christ and hia apostles, 
who h»d no public cbamcter among the Jrws, taught in their 
synagogues '. In onswer to which, I>r. I.ightfoot obMrvea. 
that though (his liberty waa allowed to no ilhlcrate pt-raun or 

* It u «iiq)njMig ihsl ihu opitnoit tboulci be nrjecufd \)y Mr. ScUoi, tintx 
he liBlh ttoi onljT rorntiMwd il, Init quoli^ on the chxuumi liit paoHges htm 
(NoducMl uiii of Siiidu, thf (itos«a lDi^in«*m, and itw Ada of tlic Coo- 
fercoee ai Carthafte. [)* Jure Nitl. rt G«nl., ubi atipni. 

t S«e Dr Utnlner'* Cs*r of tU Ucmouuo, p. 153 — IM. 

t Vid. LJKht&wl, Uor. Hebr m Mu. iv. i3. 

\ Vid. Kheuftinlii DiweilauoiM* IIiiLuIuk. dv Ovctm CXicMis Sjost|ac«. 
Fnuickm. IdM. 4)o. ; Viuiiv, de i>ecviuvini Otious, Fransk. LfiS?, in de- 
fuicK of «liu be lisd ulvukocd la bh Anihiijnago^. Ftsjicker. 166^ cap. n. 
iii. «t Quod«n dr Synaggg. \'ctfre, lib. li. cap. n. — vtii^ when Iw ikows 
SI tsrgt tbm ffoand* of LightloDt'i opinion, mon fiilljr than he had dono bin- 
mU, but Invtt* the dbpuW wHlvienniiied. 


Ttit! ilHAUUCUKS. 

laechanic, but ouJy to the leaniH) ; they nevertheless granted 
it to prophets, and wurken> of latracleR, and such as set up far 
head* aad leaders of n«T sects ;* I suppose, in order that 
they might infi:>nn themsp|vc-s of their dogmatA. and not con- 
demn Ihcrn unheHrd nnd nnknown. And under aJI these 
chnnictcni, Chrint and his aptwtles wore admitted to this 

He that gave Uberty to preacti was termed Afl^mtwr/Myo^; 
which wonl is sometimes uKd m a lar^r sense, for any one 
of the officers who had power iti thu aHktrs of the synagogue. 
Thus in the tiiirteenth chapter of the Acts, ver. 15, we read 
of the Ap\tmtvayurfai, nilew of one synagt^ue. Sometime* 
il is used in it (Stricter sense, for the president or chif:f of iIiom 
officers; as in the following passsge of St. Lake: " And the 
ruler of the synago^ie, Ap\ttntvayur/oc. answered with in- 
dication, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath-day ;** 
chap, jciii, 14. And perhapa in these passBges of the Act*: 
" And CrUpus. the chief ruler of the synagogue, Ap\i9wayia- 
■yoc, briiered on the Lord with all his honse," chap, n-iii. 8: 
■gam, " All the Greeks took .Snstliencn, the chief ruler of the 
■ymgogue, Ap\un>vayuyof;, and beat him before the judg- 
■leot-aent;" ver. 17. 

Next to the Apyunivayiayoc was an olBcer. wboee province 
it was to ofier up public prayer to God for the whole con^^re- 
gation, and who on that account was called nuK rn^c the/iach 
zililior, the angel of the churi:h,+ because, as their measengcr, 
he spoke tn GcmI for them. Hence the pastunt of the seven 
charehes of Asia, in the book of the Itevelatinn, are called 
bv a name borrowed from the synagogue, " augel« of the 
rhurches." l>r. Ligbtfuot uiukes this officer to be the some 
with ttie '1( irq/xrife.t mentioned in the fourth chapter uf St. 
I.iike, and by our translators rendered " minister;" ver, 20. 
He also confounds it with the \m thazaH,% as Vitringa did 

* Li^lfoot, Hm. Uebr. m Man. i». 93, mi finna. 

i Mah. Hofii ilawluuiah, csp. \y. wci. ix. ; Uumon. tt Btntnor. in lot. 
win. U. p. 353, edit. S«i«ihu»,i el \'iuiii([. de Syns^. Vewn, lib. iii. psjt 
it. tw^ i. p> &80 — Vii, et rap. il. p. 905, v1 Kq 

I See his Uamoay ou l/ihe ■«. 20- 

I &M his Honmiqr oti Luke iv. IS, tect. ■▼. 

2 B 

370 JEVIftB 4MTI1JV1TIES. [HOOK tl. 

wb«n h« wrote ku Archuyiugogiis * bul na matarer eoosiile- 
nttion b£ aftcmnui) kliered hu o|)IaioQ. 

The eJLizan, 1 apprehend, was, genentUy al least, a different 
officer fran tlw theliach zihbor, aid interior lo hiiu. Some 
niidet^aiid the word cAitzau to answis to the Greek Stwravoc rt* 
bat according to the account the rabbies give of his office.^ it 
should answer to the EngUsh word sexton; for be was the 
•errant of the synagogue, a* Dr. Doddridge on the forecited 
paSMge of St. Luke truuJates the word 'Yviipcrw, Meminir to 
undervtand it. as tuo»t interpreters do, of the cAaatn. 

The wonthip performed in the flyuagogue consisted of tliree 
partn. — rtading tJie Scriptarcs, prayer, and preaching. 

llie Scriptures ihcy read were the wholi.* law of Moma, 
and portions out of tlic prophets, and hagiographn. 

The law whh divided intn fiftv-three, according to the 
Masoreis, or. according to others, fifty-four nicns paraskotk. 
or sections. Fur the Jewish year consisted of twelve lunar 
luonths, alternately of twenty-nine or thirtv dayfj, that is. of 
fifty weeks and fourdayB. TheJewa, iheret'urt, in iheu divi- 
sion of the law into paroihoth, or sectionn, had a respect to 
their intercalary year, which was CFcry second or third, and 
consiftted of thirteen months; so th»t the whole bw wii« re-ad 
over this year, altoting one ptiratkah, or section, to cverv snh- 
bath. And in common years they reduced the fifty -three or 
fif^-fonr sections to the number of the fifty ftubhuttii^. by rend- 
ing two flhorter ones together, ae often as there was occasion. 
They began the course of reading the first sabbath after the 
feast of tabernacles; or rather, indeed, on the sabbath-day 
before that, when they fint«he<I the last course of nntding. they 
also made a beginning of the new course;^ that ap, as the 
rabbles say, the devil might not accniie them to Ood of being 
weary of reading hin law.|| 

* Afchiiynsg. p. iS, ei Kq- 

t Viiring. de Syang. Veicie, bb- tu. f*ti. ti. csp. i*. p. 014, «t ««|. 

t Vid. MiitiA. Souli, cap. vfi. net rtt.; Butnwr, « Wagenwil. ui loc. 
U»n. tli. p. 866, edit. Sncwrfna*.: VjiTing. de Synag. Vcierc, ubt tuprt, cap. 
U. p. S95, tl teq. 

f Scv \')iitnRa dc Symg. Va«n>, tife. ui. pan ii. cap. titl. p. 064, M1 
■..nudni. I'hibtlog. lUbr. disMn- ir. 

II l.ruwlni, uhi Hipni, tfCL %M- 

riiAP. nj 

THB AVNAnaou«». 


The portions splcctod out of the prophets ore called rmDcn 
h/ipfilaroth. The tradition* im, thiil when Anti<»chus Kpipha- 
nes farbHd them reading the law in their sytiftgo^ues, they 
picliMi out portions of Iht^ prophuUi, stmii^whal luiswehiig in 
si^nse to those of the iaw,'!* iind read them on the satiie days 
when the other should hare been ruatl.J 

The second imrt of t}ie Hynagogoe serrice wnn prayer. For 
the pcrfornmiice of which, aaith Dr. Prideaux. they had Iitiir- 
ffies, in which are all the prescriI»p-H foniift of the sytiaiio^ue 
worship. The most solemn part of thene prayers arc eighteen 
collects, which, according to the rabbies. were composed and 
instituted by I^zra. in order that the Jcwfc, whoso language 
after the captivity wax corri)pl«<l with many biirbarous tcnua. 
borrowed from other languages, nii^ht be nble to |>erforiii their 
dt^rolinitJt in thi* pure lan^ai;c of their own country. Thin is 
the account which Alainionides givc^ out of the Gemara, of 
ihe origin of ihe Jewish liturgies.'^ And the eighteen col- 

* Elias Leviu, in Thbbl od Kul. ^DD- !lr« dM pusvge (fUou>d tiy Vi- 
iHiifs, ds Synuf Veura^ Ui. lii. pun ii. cup. xi. p. I006. Thia trndition of 
ilie vtigm vt mdinf the bi^ihnuQih is very improbaLic, u Viinaga sboiri, 
p. too?, lOUB. 

1 Ttiki lb* pauntfa of the prAphet* wen in be similar le (bo«e of tlM 
Uar we Are tnlomictl by MainoniiJc* iIf Frvcibiu, cap. xili. wcl. li). ; tee 
\'iuiii^- p. 905, W*i. 

I Suv ii ulik- or the i'onuhoth Mud IlBplitaradt in Mnimoii. de Ordiiw 
PrrcuDi ii) dc \'oiaiD. fHiservvt. ad Raj-moiHti ftlwiiui l'u};iu>«m fidet, 
f^o■^fn. p. BO, d MC|, p. 100, ct »c<]., or u (li« *ad or Atliiu's Ilttbtew 


Ill* iJebatvd amon^ iMmwI ra*n, wh«tlUT tb« Onek version of the Sep- 
iuai;itii wu aiKiemly ii*«d in iltr s^mkii^qw uf dww J«w9 wlio wen not 
«iU Tcrwtl ill lim llelii«w; ur whether ihe oripnsl aJoae wu md to tbaai, 
aaddieii Interpreted. We have already decltred ournpunon, thui ttieHel* 
lenHR*, iwfflloDed in the Arts, were Jnm, vha tueil the dndt veraion in 
nm«, nr in thrir vynaffogati. See, «n the oth«r *ide of llic quexion, VI* 
UlitKa (d« iiyti»i. Vrtrre, lib, iii. |mn ii- cap. iril. p. 950 — 9SB), *il>o Ikath 
lobtHirrd (o prove, iti(itHun Srstiger ( Aniinadrera. uj EuKbii ('hronic«n, p. 
134} and Wallon (1'rttln^am. ik- »rc\. xiv p. 60), t]wt lui (tnwk reraia» 
WM ever a«rd tn any Jrwuli iiyiuKngiMn. In nippon of ibr opinran we 
havr npooMtd, lirsideB Scvlipiof anil Walinn, (v^ in p4nicnliir, llody dtt 
Hililionini Tritiboft, lib. lii. pnn i. tap. i p. 3)4 — 333. 

j I'iwiImii rt Itrikodid. Sarettliil. CAp. 1. *ec\. 1.— 1>. ex Uem, 
1)1. Eliif«chiiOi,fa>l laiiii. col. i.; <n Mtyill. (61. >viii. cvL b.; we V'ttrinp, 
lib. i. pan n. cap. xtl.p. 414— 4I«. 

2 ■ 3 



[hook II. 

loctH, in pariiculur, aru mentioned in tho Miahna.* Uowcrcr, 
Bome better evidence lliaii that uf the tiiluiudical rubbieii m 
requisite in order to prore their liturgies to Im oF so high na 
antiquity; especially when some of their pntycn, as Dr. Pri- 
deaux acknowledges, neem to have been composed aitei the 
destruction of Jerusalem, and to have reference to it.t It it 
Gvidrnt they were compoeod when thcrr waa no temple, nnr 
sacrifices; kiucc the (seventeenth collect prays, that God would 
restore his worship to the inner part of htti house, ntid makf: 
haste with fervour and love to accept the burnt sacrifices of 
Israel, itc-X They could not, therefore, be tlie com|iQsitiun 
of Ezra, who did not receive his comniiteion from Artaxerxos 
to go to Judea till more than fifty year* after the second 
temple was built, and its worship restored. However, Dr. 
Prideaux, not doubting hut they were used, at len^tt most of 
them, in oTir Saviour's time, and consequently that he joined 
in them,^ whenever he went into the KyDagognca, as he did 
every sabbath -<lay, Luke iv. \(i, inferK from heace two tbinga, 
as he saitu, for the iwnsiderntioii of Dissenters. 

Isl. " That our Saviour disliked not net forms of prayer iu 
public worship." 

2dly. " That he was content tu join with the public in the 
meanest fonns (fpr such he ullows these Jewifdi forms to bo) 

* Minim, ui. Bitrsiclioi)i. cap. it. no. m, p. 14, edit. Surtabus. 

t CoDAWt. pun i. book vi. wl. it. p. 538, iu>t« (I. tint) nlit. nw. 

i Pridesuk, uM supr*. p. .'••(I. &i%. The fiftti, itniK clcvenih, nod fan^ 
lecnth collccu luve iltr mme ulUi.iton and ntetmct u iJic >CTe«lHnili. 
8m Um ori^itkSl |tfay«n m Muowuide* (h Online Pr*cuni ; or m Vttntifpi 
((!« Synsg. Vetera, lib. iii. part ii, np. xjv. p. 1033 — 1U38), wbu olncnreav 
thtt Um TatmudiMU wilt Iwtii tli« Mwidmntli rolled, wluch \irmyi tot Ow 
iMonuionor Om Icnplt wo>n>hip(iMluc uiiimtetium IjcviiKuia tn Adjluiu 
DoBHit tint, u he intMUm it), lo bs^v been luualljr Kcitvd by ih« Lhik in 
ihs temple u die TeRM of ubinwcla; wluch b awJi an vbranlity, Um ii 
cosduisfe inalff and bIiows \iw Imk ibo Jewi^ UaditMNW ooM-WDintt lb* 
sntiqiiii^ and ase ct dipit luui|[W» Ar« to ba dvpeodad upon. 

^ Suppuaiuft tfaese furrw were used in tiur SavioorA time, il will aot fot' 
low, thjti he joined i>t ihcin, or vHnhip|>r<l (mmI t'v ilnrm, btcsuM hp fr^ 
<|u«mly«ttai»)Mltli«ieMislifyiiigoguta: ^ Tut utiier reudoft- 

And ind««(l mnny <irtbcni.u lh« suiIhk -i ' 'r. I'nittMU ia dK 

t>oeuiinal Piper (vol lu- nuinb. iii. |t. 1^—17) jiuUy utMctve* and >bu«», 
wen sttdi a be canixil be wppcMed 1o tnve joined in, not being euOMSlrnl 
wiih hi* chancter ai>d ciivwMUticM. 




rather than Kcparate from it." " And this," Bays he, " m^ 
Rfltisfv our DiKiienters. that neither our using set forms af 
pmyer in our public worship, nor the using of Kuch forms as 
they think not KulhctenUy edifying, can be objection sufficient 
to justify Ihem iu their refusal to join vrith us in the dsu of 

As both these inferences are built upon the suppoNttion. 
that forms of prayer were used in the Jewish church in our 
Saviour's lime, if that cannot be satiafactM'iJy proved, they 
stand upon a vcf}' pn'rurious foundation. And though the 
PuRtor is pleased to say there is no doubt of it, yet, uuless he 
could produce soiite better and earlier evidence than the tal- 
mudical rablnes. I think there is ^^rcut reason to witlihold our 
flKsrnt. If they were in use so early as tbe Jt^wtsh writera 
pretend, it is strange there should bo no hint of it in the CHd 
Testament and in the Apucrvphu ; and if they came into use 
in or before our Saviour's uoie, bomc intimation of it might 
naturally hare been expected tn the New TeBtament. Nor 
i« the total silence of JoMpbus and Philo. and all other 
wrilem previous to the talniudical rabbles, easy to be ac- 
counted for on supposition tltat such liturgical forms were 
then in use. 

However, granting they were then used, and that our Sa- 
viour ordinarily attended the Jewish public worship, at that 
time very corrupt, aud loaded with ceremonies uf mere human 
invention ; it may, neverthelew, be doubted how far his ex- 
ample in this cate will oblige us (o join with a national church 
in any forms uf worship, which we apprehend to be corrupted 
from the divine institution: for, 

Ut. Thoiiixh our blessed Saviour, for wise reasons, was pra- 
>e»t St the corrupt worship of the Jewisli church, he frequently 
remonstrated against their corruptions. The argument, there- 
fonij drawn from benee, for our complying witli human in- 
vcntiDna and corruptions in tlic worship of iiwl^ seems not 
quite remote from thai wluch Canlinal Bellarmiuo uses for 
tlie womhip of angels ; " St. John fell down before an angel, 
in order to worship liim ; and why are we blamed for doing 

* TImi mine ati^jtaeot b used by Dr. Whiiby <m Luke tr. 10 : by ArA- 
l< ' " iKin, senn. crxxr. vol. ti). p. 327, fbl,; by Dr. Brnnat, ia llta 

r>.' t 11 r :ry (rf Fornw of PfByw, clisp. I. — tii., and by several odien. 


iewrsn ANTtgtilTiBs. 


what St. John did V To which Archbishop TiUutsan pmpcrly 
replicK, Becauac St. John wa& reproved by tlie aiii^el for doinj: 
whut he did. In like manner nhen we urt asked, i^hy we 
cannot comply with corrupt lunitB and human inventions, uk 
Chnstdid ? — we may reply, Becautte he rcuuin&tmti'd ajpiiust 
such corrupt forms and humiin inveDttons, and reproved tlio 
Jews for them. Indeed, if thi« argumenl proves any thing, it 
proves too much; it proves that we must not only comply with 
corrupt modes and forms in divine worship, but that wc mu»t 
at Ihe same time continue to bear our tetttimony ngainnt such 
corruptions; and this, we apprr^hend, would not onlv be dt^ 
agreeable to onr Christian brethren with whom we differ, but 
wmild ordinarily be the cause of more uncharitable conten- 
tiomt, and give a more mortal wound to the peace of the 
church, for the sake of preserving which Uie example of Chrrsl 
in so fltron^^ly urged n[>on ns, than a quiet and iwaeeable sepa- 
nttiou. Nottoudd. 

2dly. Tliat if we are under an obligation, from the example 
of Chrifit, to comply with the cstabiiiihed worship in any na- 
tion, I apprehend we must be under the like obti^ticin to 
comply witli it in every nation, to be EpiscopalianM or Prt*- 
bytrriana, Papisbi or Protectants, according to the law and 
ronstitulion of the country in which we reside. 

3)Uy. Thoui^ our Saviour for a time cornplicd with the 
corrupt wurKhip of the Jewish church, he ucverthcles<L iiftcr- 
ward dissented, and set up another church, and another form, 
in opposition to theirs; cnjoiniiii; on hi« ilisciples a noncon- 
fonoiiy lo the riles of tiie Jewii^h church, and a strict and cloae 
adherence to him as their lawgiver, and to hit institutioas as 
their nile, and not to ttuflV-r themsdves to be ngntu cnt:uiglr-d 
wiLli till- yoke of carnal and ccrenioiual ordinances, but to stand 
fast in the liberty wherewith Christ hath madis them free ; tu 
own and submit tu his authority nlono as obligatory on con- 
science, and Lo oppose every usurpation on his soveretgnty, 
and every invasion of tlie righta of his sabjecta. Which loads 
me to oWrve, 

•Ithly. That the argument '\a built on this mistaken prin* 
ctplo. that the Church of F.ngland is a national established 
church, on the same, or as good authority as the Jewish 
church was. That, indeed, was a divine establishment : and 

CHAV. It.] 


I all [>«r»oiis bom in tht> land of Israel, and of Jewi&li ptirunt#i, 

, being ctiiisidereil an members uf it, were Uierelbre Iraund to 

i.coufonn to its rites and worship, at ItraHt so far as they were 

Loonsonant to the divine institution. But is there a divine 

itablishmeot of any natioiinl churrh under ibe gospel dis- 

snsation i If the New Testament gives us no oUicr tdm of 

[thti churches of Christ, but their being voluntary societicn, 

UuiUng. under thu l»wa of Christ, for |)ublic worehip, iuid 

other purposes gf religion ; then i» no man bom u member of 

>any church, but ever^- one is at liberty to join himself lo thnt. 

kWliosc contititution and worship appear to him most agreeable 

tlie rule of Scripture, and most fur his own edification. 

LAnd since the unity which ihe gospel recommends does not 

toonsist in Uic uiiifomuty of riteft and modes of worship, but 

harmony of affection, and in the mutual love of all Chris- 

Itians; it follons, that the peace of tbe cburch is not broken 

tiby (|uiet and cou»cicutious nonconformists, but by those who 

aru billLT and violent against their fellow -christians for not 

Approving those human forms of which they arc fond and 


The third part of their synago^e aerrice wns expounding 
Ethe Scriptures, and preaching to the people. The posture in 
which this wns ]>erformed, whether in the synagogue or other 
places («ee Matt. v. I, aitd l-ulte v. 3), was sitting. Accord- 
ingly, when our !:>aTiour had read the r^MCDn haphlarnth, in 
i^oagogue at Nazareth, of which he was a member, hav- 
ing been brought up in that city; and then, imrtead of retiring 
to bis place, >iat down in the desk or pulpit, it is said, " the 
eye* of all that were present were faaleoed npon him," as 
they perceived by his posture thai he was going to preach to 
them ; Luke ir. 20. And when Paul and liarnabiuf wenl into 
Uic synagogue at Antioch. and sat down, thereby intimHting 
^eir dcaire to spcuk lo Uie people, if they might be permitted, 
mlcn of ib« nyiiagogue sent to them, and gave them 
ive ; Acts xiii. 14, 16. 

* S«« M>. ItobiRMn'* Itdvin* of th« ow of Lttair^ie^ in answer to Df. 
Bcnnvt, chap. iu. p. 49, «l mf.; utd ilw VMct U> Dr. PiideaUX In die Occa» 
«>Qnal 1*>|)«r, vol. lii. numb lir. 

tr any an dewno* of Imni; iKtpJuntec) «nth the Jrw»h forms, aiul wilh 
ihetr laaniirr of iliscbiirfiiis ihr duly of pulilk prayer, a* diwmlivl by itir 
Tibbie», the; miy luve ample TULUtfaaion in Viinn)^, <J« Syiu^ Vm-n', lib. 
lii. pan ii. cap. xiii. — iviii., or in ttuiocf. de Syot;. Jniricl 



[book II. 

Tlie synagogues w«re used, not only for divine service:, but 
,for holding courts of justice, especially upon ecclesiaittjcal 
. «ffturs. And as among uh, lessar puntahmcntH are ofleo 
6i<:ted in tho rotirt, as soon at judgment is given, fur iastaoce« 
burning in the haud ; m> auiuog the Jews, ifie putiishiueut of i 
beating or whipping was ol\en iuHided in the aynagoguc. 
while the coutt was «itting: sec Matt. x. 17; Luke xii. 11 ; 
Acti> xxii. 19. 

To this use of the aynngoguc», for holding judiciary cnuii«f 
I)r. Whithy thinks St. Jameat refers, when he aoys. " If ihcio 
come iuLo your asMViuhly, k? n|v «vvay(uyi)v iifiuu, a lUHil 
with a giild ring, iii goodly apparel, and tliere come ui ulso a^ 
poor man in vile raiment ; and ye have rtjipect to him that^ 
wcareth the gay clotbing, and say uBto him. Sit thuu horc ia : 
a good place ; and say to the poor. Stand thou there, or »it 
here under my footstool ; are ye not partial iu yourselTe«, uud^ 
ore become judges of evil tlioughts," or judge* who Ihiuk nod] 
reason iU f James !i. 2- — i. That the apostle here speaka 
coosiatorifs for civil judicature ia argued, lat. From the uso ofj 
the word avvaybiyti, which never signifies in the New Teata->J 
menl an assembly of Christian won^hipperv. 2dlv> Vrmu ihe^ 
word wpoavw<Atr-^a being usett to express ihe partiality liur«| 
censured, in the claoK iDU&ediateiy preceding: "My bn^) 
tbren, bare not the faith of our I^^nl Jesus Christ, the Lordj 
of glory, wilh reaped of pi^r^ons, tv ratg ir^iKr<LVDXq^|taic.''^ 
ver- 1. Vow this term is mo«t conimoitly, if not always, ua 
fori partial rcapeciof persons in judgment ; Like the inatant 
here nioDtioned, favouring a rich man's cause before a poorl 
man's. 3dly. The pbrasu "Sit tliou under my fociteiuol.* 
ver. 3, most naturally refers to courts of juetice; where lImJ 
judge is comnioidy exaUed upon a higher seat Uiau the rent of| 
tlw aaBtunbly ; but it camiot be well applied to assembliw of 
wonhippcrs. 4lhly. The apostk-'a accusing them, on ftccoi; 
of thit conduct tovrard the poor, w^th being pftrtud jud| 
ver. 4; and remirnliiig ihem, t)K)t the rich were the per 
who "drew them before the judgment-aeata.'' rer. 6, i 
vary natural, if wc understand him in thv preceding pi 
Bs discourfiiiig concerning courts of judicature. 5lhly. 
apostle sayii, such a respect of persons as he here sjKutks o^] 
ia contrary to the law, and those who are guilty of it 
" convinced of the law aa lniMUfiiiiiii ;" ver. 9. Now 

CUKf. II.] 



was DO divine law against distinction of places in worshipping 
assemblies, into ttiose whicb were aiure or Iwe boiiourable; 
this taunt theFefure. no doubt, n.'tcr to Uie law oi parti- 
ality in judgment: "Ve aball <lo no uorighteousnews iti judg- 
ment; thou shalt not respect tho person of the poor, nor ho- 
nour the person of the mighty;" Lev. xix. 16: see al«o Dent, 
i. 17. The talmndists sav.* it wait a. rule, that when " a poor 
man and a rirJi man pleaded together in judgment, the rich 
should not Ira bid to ait down, and the poor to stand ; but 
eillier both shall sit, or both shall Mand." To this rule, or 
custom, the apostle seems to refer, when be insinuates a 
char^ against ihcni, of saying lo the rich man, " Sit thou 
here in a good place, and to the poor, Stand thou there;" 
Jfttnes ii. 3. 

So that, upon the whole, by the synagt^i^ue is not here 
meant, aa in conimonlv iindiT^lood, the church assembly for 
worship, but a court of judicature, in which men are too apt 
to favmir the cause of the rich against the jioor. 

W'itli rettpect to the schools amongst the Jows, H should be 
observed, that besides tlie common schools, in which children 
were taught to read the law, th«y had alao academies, in 
which tlietr doctors gave comments on the law, and taught 
the traditions to their pupils. Of thin sort were the two 
famous acliooU of Hillcl and Sharorosi, and the school of 
Qantalial. who waa Paul's tutor; Actaxxii.S. In these aemi- 
oaries th« tutor's chair is said to have been so much raised 
above the level of the door, on uhich the pupils sat, tliat his 
feet were even with tlieir heads. Hence St. Paul says, that 
*' he was brought up at the feet of Gamaliel." Tbc«e acade- 
mies were commonly furnished with several tutors, of whom 
taw was president, and from whom the school wait denomi- 
nated. They were called pai-ma Iteth-ralibim'm: wherrasthe 
inferior schools were called pn-J^a beth-rabban, as baling 
uiily one master. 

Tho doctors in thew academies not only reud lectures to 
tlmr pupds, but held disputations or conferences, at which 
other persons might W pres*at, and propose questions to 
thvm- It was perhaps in one ct Umwc schools, which were 

* Vltl. Uouingtr. de Jiuw Habfanr. Li!ftbiu, Isg. ccslU. p. 364, edu. 
Tifiur. 1665. 



[book Ml 

kept in some apnrtuicnt id the courts of the temple, that 
Mary fuuml her young son Jesus, " sitting in the luidst uf 
the doctors. ln)lh bearing and asking them quetttiuntt;" Lukt; 
ii. 4ti. Or it might be even in the Sanhedrim, which, Dr. 
Lightfoot says, vea» t)ie great sehool of the nation, aft well as 
the great judicatory.* 

In order lo prove that these schoolB were different from 
the Hynngogiies, Godwin observes, that Paul, havit^ dispolcd 
for the space of three inonihsi in ihe synagogue, " because 
divers believed not, but Kpake evil of that way, then departed 
from them, and separated his disciples, disputing d»ily in the 
•chool of one Tyraanus;" Acts xix. 8 — 10. This argurneni 
is grounded on a supposition, that thi»i Hchool of Tyrannus was 
a Jewish academy; which is very unlikely, considering it was 
at Epheaus. Be^ca, it does not seem probobte. thai, on ac- 
count of the Jews opposing and blaspheming the gospel. St. 
Paul should merely retire from a Jewish Kynago*ruc to a Jew- 
ish school. Was he likely to meet with less opposition amongst 
the same people by teaching in a ditferent placed The troth 
seems to bo, that be departed from the Jews, an being under 
olMtinate and invincible prejudicen, and tanglii among the 
Gentiles, in the school c^ oae Tyrannus; imd that for the 
space of two years: so that all the inhabitants of Asia heard 
the word of the Lord, Greeks as well as Jews. Some take 
Tyiunnus to be tlie proper name of a Gentile philoeophcr. 
who favoured St. Paul, and lent him his school to piHichand 
dispute in; others, to be a title or name of place or office, 
Tvpavvo^ sigmlyiug, iu the Greek language, a king or prince; 
and accordingly the Chaldee Paraphrase, which ofLen borrows 
words both from the Greek and Lnlin, renders the Hebrew 
word «nr znm?, which we translate hrth in the books of 
Joshua and Judges (Josh. xiit. 3; Judges svi. 5. 8), by *nio 
tunti. Tbu» Phavorinus interprets ni/iavvuc by afi\i^v itwXii.k'- 
It may, therefore, in thib place signify a magistrate; which 
interprets tioa seems to be favoured by the addition of nt-oc. 
Nevertheless it must be owned, nim^ is sometime* joined with 
a proper name; as Ttvn Zt/jtrivn, Mark xv. 21. and Tf/xrvAAuu 
rivoc. AcU XIIT. 1. However, if by rvpni'vou nvri^ we under- 
stand a certain magistrate of Epheaus, o^)^Q\^ uiuy signify bis 
* LiglitfoM, lltumuajr on John lii. to. 

CH4P. 11.1 



ball or gallery, in which people used to meet for diKOurac : a 
•en»e in which ihe word U very commouly usetl both by the 
Greeks and Latins. Oihcra, afcain, take •r^uAq here u> itig- 
nify a yvfivnmov, in which wrestlers and other combatanta in 
thit public gntucs exercised llienisehTH ; and which, perbapsi 
had been bailt at the expeniie of oac Tyranous. aod theieibre 
bore his name.* 

With respect to their onttories, or 9pomv\at, it ifn a question 
amoi^ the learned, whether they were ditlerent from their 
echook or synago^en. It in said, that our Snviour " went 
up into u mountain to pray, and continued all night," tv rq 
wptunvyyi Tov Ofov. which can hardly bear the sense our trans- 
lators have ptit upon it, "in prayer to God;" Luke vi. 12 
Beta indeed reiiders it, " pemoctavitillic, omaa Deum;" but 
sknowledgcs he ik forced to depart from the Greek, " nt 
"pliuiiuti loquerelur." But Dr. Whitby ii>fer& from the use of 
pnmllel phraitcs, xuch as " the mount of God,'' "the bread 
of," "the altar of God." "the lamp of God," which 
arc nil of ihem thingn consecrated or ajtproprtated to ilie ser- 
vice of Qoil. thiiiirfiti9tv\ttTouOtov might in like manner sig- 
nify " an oratory of God," or a place that was devoted to hia 
nervicc, especially for prayer. In the some sense be uoder- 
Ktands the word in tlie paasuge of the Acts, wherein we are 
informed, thnl Paul and his coiupanionK, on the xahbath-day, 
wentoulof thccity by arircr aide, ov tvoftiKiTQjrpoatv\it uvtu, 
which wc render, " where prayer was wont to be made." But 
tlie Syriao renders it. " quoniam illic videbatur domus preca- 
tionts ;" — becauHc there was pcrceired to l»e a house of prayer : 
mnd the Arabic, " ad locum quendam qui putabatur esiK locos 
orotiotus ;" — to a cerUiii place, which was supfjo«ed to be a 
place of prayer: oi>ivojui2^tro, where there wait taken, or teigoed 
to bc+^or where, according to received cuRtom. there wasj — or 
where tliere was allowed by law,^ — a proseucha, or oratory, 

' VM. Sii,-pluini Tbauints in verb. SchoU. 

t Mcde'i Duinh. ilisc. vriu. p. 67, of Us Wpflu. Aid D« Dicu, Ani- 
midver*. in Acu iri. 13. 

; FJeiHT. (Amctv. Sacr. in loe., where he (Tpposen Bos, wlio (in bis Exer- 
ciut. PhilolcKt. in loe.) had mdcavourvd to Amf, that ivA^jra wu redwi- 
(|«nl, «itil iltul the psaage ought lo be tmuUltrd MitijiW, " where iheM wis 
a piwewfha." 

( Isrimr'n t^mlibil. fmtl L vol. i. booli i. ra|). uL mscL ui. p. 339, 



[bouk II. 

«nd where, ihereftie* Ifae^ expected lo meet an uaetably 
people. Mr. Mede obterte a , that it should bare been 
trOfiJU"* v|pm«u\4 yttmatm, not ttvm, to rxpnas when: pnj 
WM wont to be mute : and !>« Dies Mona to be of the 

Tfaat the Jews bad houses, or pUce* for pnjrcr, called 
Wftotrtv\at. appears from a variety of paacaget in Philo:* and^ 
partica^ly in hi« oration against Flaocna he eompUins, tbail 
their wpofffv^at were paUed down, ami ihere was no place 
io which tbey ini^t wombip Gud and pray for Cteaar'.'f 
JoiicphuB, in his Life, inentioDft the prD&euchti' more 
once, and speaks of the people't being gathered ttv eif vpo^ 
mvxj^-t '''" ^^ sonie ptiritose is tlie fuUowmg passage of 
Jovenal. if be be rigbUy undcrstoiMl by Godwio, Vitiinga.^ 
and others : — 

Edfr ulit cootutts ; ib tjak tp tpana PkmucM f 

Km. m. I. sw^t 

SdidiL IMl- BfBioun SclnBMliu4(uiIoc-)"app*Nls tU> «s— of it-^ yt jn 
lijr MXDr pasngH in Arwlophsnn. Cotmilt ScapuU aod CoB«unli)>c n 

* VM. lu FUcciitD, ei tn^u ad Caium pusim- 

t Tiril. in FlsM. apod Opera, p. 752, K. edit. Coho. AJIohr. 1613. 

I Jo«eph. ht Vli. aML lir. M. ttf. p. 47, lom. ii. »dM. IIavmc. 
f \'itrioi;. de Sjma?. \>lcrp, bit. L put I. cap. ir. p. 1 19. 

II Tlte Ule leanW Mr. Saniitkl Juom, ofTvnkMbaiy, iii hi* M^. LtcliuM 
On Godwin, luilh the fulltnnng ntue tm tha paiaap «( Jovmsl i^ 

" Autor mmrr ci ettam Vilnnjp ilii^* poetssi btl mtm STiuftogaai 
Jvdaonnn innuisae puUut. Sed alitor mtlii rideuu. Nam in hoc loco d« 
Jwimm ail bab«t; tmhicil rtrti rmbmtura, RomsDWS qsidtB« nna Jn- 
dmn, d* Doantmclui, quibiu panpons agefcbiH An ftmbmrn^m}*- 
noes, cooqacicaiMa, vt refrmncai veifas nlisn juvaonn wgs niisi n pm- 
percm qacndam, i quo tyxtcbes et pom ramdiraiaet, a qua in tooo sd 
nwndicKDdim sir umwIui cnt. Qomeuun luud mtsMik fst ItomiDos 
isendicndi esinl ■jmiigogsi fr«quftitiaic, quum ip« luttc lenpohi pinpci^ 
riOti hSbsfasntaret BCSdlci, at k\ bttc i\iao alibqur «acL*lit [-ovrtb. loHipM 
qsuB* poets dkll ; In quk u- qtucio FiwtvucliA f tnnuii, <tDMl piuhma ersnt 
lunc ttraporti Ilois* I'nuewch*. A'od witen vaisniln «l plaiass ibi 
ftiaw »yn«^og«», quia Judwi tunc tempgm psuprm anst d non si i 
4i InpcrstonbiulgagfcaburbsdJMtdenjiuii, 

" Tunwbut, nl bine qua Mttnris am MoMeikm pnbM, cttai locam Cka^ 
madi*. EtBU die locus, lib. U. p. 304, K*wXtc«c hM^ia^ ^I'nyin. nbi E^ 
nmim in vuk, d« (|u4 ^lonalisiur, lucubonr Toobu* cwnptii. ridtsnlk «l 
abfoidtfawmfutmi dicil; quaraaquaadnm[Mn(nn(il«qM>i«npwvrac 

DMA p. II.] 



Among those who tamke the mUBgognes and pTOsoiicbfB to 
I be dififcrent places, are the loumed Mr. iosepli Mwlu* luid 
I Dr. Prideaux ^^ and tfa«y think tlic did'ercnce coosisU, partly. 
[in the fonu of the edifice; a sj-nago^ue. they any. being «rrf;A" 
itium tefium, like our hounes, orchxirch««; atid ft proHucha 
I "being only pncompasaed with ft wall, or soim? other mound or 
[«i)cloBnre. and open at the top, like our coiiru.t They make 
Itfaein to did'or \n itituatinn ; tiynagofpes being in towns and 
jciiieB. proftenchsE' in the fipldtt, and freqaently by (he rivflr 
[■ide.^ 0r. rrideaiiir mentiniis another distinction, in respect 

fuya KM Kara wttKir nav tfiwtrmnr rnmtrtrtpa. Sed (le SynagogL* Joilmmnn 

Don vidrtiir loqoi. Tvmpore enim EfticnH, nrmpv cinni PioUnwi PhiliMld- 

llpbi M«Mnii Hngni If raca in ayna|;9gi^ dnn pfDcabaotur, tiwt fuiiae JudKoa, 

lluud verittaiik est; ei n usi lutsMitl, on cu Epieanu, homo gcntilu «t im> 

IligMW*, rr«queDUr«t, ut Hide vcrlw de|HUfn«re(T Clii tul«ciwct, u> riKOtW 

teM>l Me rucM rtM>nl cofiu|>tit et liumiln? Porro, <|ikk1 iiun Oe syna^ogiN, 

'4e<lilr loci* olji innniticutlei «tabant, rgil, cotwtan? milii riilwur i-x \t>oc 

irfMairavt>r<*f . quK aoa in iyiUKOtp» prvcandlmi, optim^ %-Qr(i alibi mondi- 

, tmmna. Nee quic<|uwn ai hoc ia loeg, quod cujiuqiiiun in -ini- 

[piaBsiupwieneoi uiducarei, Cteoiited«ui de Judaci* egib«, uiMi wU voi 

lim^tuca. Scd ui e» vos hie v>deiut.^bAurda, ct tt cooicxtu ali«iu, iu nuUiu 

ydutdto, quia comipta m. [o vcniooc do Judsia av voibnro quidcm; 

'lai-^aint aulmi reddilur 'vnl^arift:' v<>nioni9 l^ttimiitornoti leeii t«vSaiMa, 

' ted l2«wruM, ant talen aliqnnni vocem. Rodent moio t-x lAwi., Act. niv. 

ifla.aUquiootiaawniiil louiMwy, ul in quihiudain cdmrnitim mat, ei sd 

locum (lout Enuraw — npu»it>x>| idMapudpcoAMwhoaeeautofaeraAlocai 

publjciu, iu qui) paupcrei ili|>em [MMclauit." 

* Ubi mpra, p. A3, ct *oq. 

t CoBiMCt. pan ). tiook f i. vul. ti. p. 550, t* seq. lOlb edit. 
I Sec die acvvunt which Epijibaaius ifivvs of ibv Jruisii Pto<*-itch», 
^b*rH.tib. lii. lom. it. hmna. Ira. ttct. L Opec. vol. i, p. 1067. 1M8, tdU. 
f Sc« a dccwe of tbe people of HalkanwuMB, in hvoiu or iIm* J«ws 
|iioa«pl). Antiq. tib. ttv. cap. i. sect, xxiii. p. 718, adil. llavcrc ), ui wlucli 
ikiflhc fotlowiit^woidi — itt.orTat tt/tiv Iwiatm' nuf (lacXafwraiv — rac wf 
m«Xut *'"«^«< 'pMCrf ^fl&niHry cura to rwrpov tl^- Tilt CU4Uim of 
btiiUinti praaeuclur by ilw wMar-ttde mioou to Nan baan d«nvcd tnta 
nnmJwr ctMlgra of iltw J«w», imail;r* **••" waafciag bdbra pniyar (rid. 
Elmrr. Ubaarr. Sacr. tn A«u Kvi. IS), iboufb [)e Uieo Mppcm^ it lo \» 
d«n«ed iitnm ikc auaipU of Ljaae. TIimv m ■ rvawriulik paMaipin Phdu, 
whKhflivwi how food tJw Jew* wtfTc uf pra)iiif[ by ihc ndeaof mm, otfm 
die II ihow^ FUl. ia Flaoo. p. 740, U, E, edit. Colon. Allvbr. 1613; w« 
aim doVit. MtMiiJIb. U. p. SIO. P) aitd Trttullinii (ad NaimiD, lib. i. cap, 



[iionic 11, 

to the service |>erformvil iii thein: in synago^et, lie tiaitti.Uie 
pnivcrs were otiered up in public furuiH in coiumoi) for ibtt' 
whole congregation; but ia the proeeuch» they prayed, as m 
the temple, every one apart for himself. And thus ourj 
Saviour prayed id the prosuucha into which he entered. 

Yet, oAer all, the pn>of in furour of this notinu is uot Ml 
strong, but that it ^till remains a question with some, wlietfaer 
the synagogues and the proseucliu; were any thing more than 
two diOcrcnt uamoi for the »anie place; the one taken from 
the people's osseuibling in tlieu, the otlter from the iterrice to ' 
U'hicli they were more immediately appropriated; namely, 
prayer. Nevertheless, the name protH-uchs will not prove, 
tliat they were appropriated only to prayer, and therefore^' 
were different from syuagugucs, in which tlie Scriplures wemj 
sIho read, and expounded; since the tcm|>le, in which Hacrificea 
were oflered, and all the parts of divine service were per-) 
formed, is called oikoc ir^Mxnu^^itp, & bouoe of prayer; Matt. 
xxi. 13. And We find St. Paul preacbiiig in llie prowuchas 
at Philippi, in the forccitcd passage of the Act», ch»p xvi. 13. 
Dr. Pridraux acknowledges, that in our Saviour'& time ftyno^j 
gogues were called by the same name with the proseuehae;.' 
and 50 both Josephus* and Philo-j- seem to use the word.C 
Air. Mcdc lays great streiw upon tliat paasage in Oie book, of 
Joshua, wherein he it^ said " to set up a pillar under an oak 
that waa by the sanctuarj* of llie Lord." chap. xxiv. *2G. to 
prove, that there were proseuchw, even in Joshua's time, dis-j 
tinct from the talicniucle; arguing, that becauHe the law ex- 
prcBHly forbad planting trees near to God's altar. Deut.xvi.2I. 

xiii. Op«r. p. 40, «dit. RigBlt), uaouf tcwnl Jewuh Hies, metiiiDfa On- 
liooeai liloreia. 

* S«« the potnfpM hdbiv qnotnl from the Life of Joacphu, when lb« 
pmcnehR, in whkli th« people ■wcmblcd in a ftvit imiUimde, iMaii lo 
baw bean tbii gnu qmagoguc u Tibenk». 

t Philo tptaks of nany prMcuchv in ili« city of Aleiuxlnt: wvXXtu l» j 
(wpwnvcdi K.)ti<n Koi^raorov rfi^^n rijc >r>Af*>f (Le^t. ail Camni, [i, n% 
¥); and of one in panicuUr. which hf »lj(|« pryivr^ cm wi^M^fwrarq (p. 
783, A); aiul it vau, no dtwbi, tliat «crY c«)«bi«t*d ukI magniflcmi tyr^ ' 
gopie of whitli \ht Jvnmlem Tmlmud (tins a nry pompout dncftpUOB,' 
VmI. Vithng. lib. i. pan i- cap. xn. p. iS9. 

t Vid. Viinng. d« Sjmg- Vrtere, lib. L pan i- cap. Jr. p. llO-lttj M 
Wjini HvltiMn. tie Vil. Pmli. »«ei. ▼, ri. p. TO, 71. 


therefore this sanctuary of the Lord by the oak could not be 
the tabernacle, which had the altar by it, but was one of the 
proseuchse, which were very ofteu inclosed with trees.* But 
Bishop Patrick observes, that though it was sinful to plant 
trees near to God's altar, it was not so to set up the sanctuary 
under or near the trees which had been planted before, espe- 
cially when it was done only for a short time. And he farther 
remarks, that the words " by," or, as it may be rendered, in 
" the sanctuary of the Lord," do not necessarily refer to the 
oak, but may be connected with " the book of the law of 
God," mentioned in the former clause : " Joshua wrote these 
words in the book of the law of God (and took a great stone, 
and set it up under an oak), that was by, or in, the sanctuary 
of the Lord :" that is, be wrote these words in the book of the 
law of God, that was in the sanctuary of the Lord ; the inter- 
mediate words being inserted in a parenthesis. There is a 
similar instance of a remote connexion in the following pas- 
sage of the book of Genesis: " And Lot lifted up his eyes, 
and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered 
every where, before the Ixird destroyed Sodom and Qomorrah, 
even as the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, as 
thou comest unto Zoar," Gen. xiii. 10; where the connexion 
is, he " beheld all the plain of Jordan, as thou comest unto 
Zoar, that it was well watered every where," See. 

* Philo, Legal, ad Caium, p. 783, F, rac fuv (rponvKot) tSivip<»roitiiaay. 



Jbrl'sal&m, aaith QodwiD, had uioe gules; or nither, 
cording to the autJioni of tlic Uiiiveisal liislory, ten ; five 
from west lo tfasUbysouUi. and five from wofct to caat-by- 

By south. Uy nonh. 

1. Duiig-gaLe. 1. ^'alU■y-gaU•. 

2. Fountain-gftte. 2, Oata of Ejitiniiiu. 
3^. Woter^tc. 3. Old-gate. 

4. Uonn^te. 4. Ftsh-gulc. 

5. Pr'aot^gate, or miphkatlh. 6. Shee(^gate- 
Thia account is very UtUe. if unv Uiing, diireruni frinii the plan 
of t)ic L-ity pretixcd to the Folvglot. But UoUJiit^er, in his 
notes on Godwin,* haili ^ivca a very ditTercnt descripuon of 
the Bituation of these gates, which he endeavours lo trace by 
the account of the order in which they were erected after the 
captivity, in the book of Neheroiah; where llio sheep-gal* is 
mentioned first, which he places on the wist side of the city, 
and toward the eouth; principally for these two reasons; bo- 
cauBc he KuppuHes it was the same with tlic gate which Joee- 
phus calls imXi] taanvijv, that is. not the gate of the HsKoes, 
it being improbable thai a gat« of the city, which mu«t of 
course be common Lo all sorts of perfron^, tthould be called by 
the name of a particular teot ; but the word Josephua uses is, 
he imagincii, only the Hebrew wont iratn hatian, oris, with a 
Greek termination; and if ui, anXi) taimviav, which Jo'iei)hini 
saith was on the west side of the city, literally aigniftea the 
aheep-gate. Another reason for hia asaigning it this aituatioo 
is, that the Gsh-gate, which is next mentioned in Nebemiah, 

" Tbomit Godmni Moms m Awim, tic. Illastninp vmradan et pnrcipub 
thetnuilni* aiirti, MtMllo Jok. HeiM. llottiniten, p. 392, H vn\. iA mUl Mkwiid* I7ltf. 

CHAP. 111.] Tllff POOL OF RCTIIRStlA. 


is placed by moet on the west, nilli great probability, saith 
IIottiiii;i;r, because large quantities oflixb were brought inlu 
the city froui that (|UHrtcr ; nnd because lliifi Kituation e««ni)i 
to be assigned it in the following passage of the Sccoad Book 
of Chronicles : " Now Manassoh built u wall without the city 
of David, on ilit* weat side of Ciihon, in the valley, even to the 
cntoring in at the fish-gate." Thus, bcj^inninj^ at the south- 
west, he proccedH to the west, and »o by tJiu north, quite 
round iho city ; asst<^in[; the several gales tlicir aituatioii, 
according Lo Uie order in which they are mentioned in the 
aacriid history. 

^ Si>anheim places the shcep-gaii' on the east.* Lightfoot on 
the south ;+ and in this, and several other rcs|)ects, the tO[>o- 
grnphy of Jcnisnlcm is a matter of great uncntainty. 

Godwin informs us. that near the shccp-gatc was situated 
the ]iool of Delhceda ; em ni vpnft<tTuni, saith the evangelist 
John, where our trauEfaitora take the word ayopa to be under- 
Ktood, and accordingly have rendered it " by tlie sheep-mar- 
ket;" others, with Godwin, supply the noun wvXfi, and render 
it " the shecp-gatc;" which in the mure probable sense, re- 
ferring to the gute mentioned under tliis name by Nuhemiah. 
Ant] if this gsitc wn» situated near the temple, as is most 
commonly supposed, perhaps it was so called becansc the 
■heep and other caiUe fur fiacrifice were usually drove in 
through ii. 

This pool of Bcthesda demands our particular nttentioa, on 
nccouul of the miraculous cures which are ascrilrctl to il in 
the Goiipel of .St. John, chap. v. 'i — -1. It is there coUeii 
KoXu/ij3if9fMt ; a word, which, though it be rcndeivd //iscinn by 
B«za an'l the Vulgate, yet dwA nol properly signify u fush- 
pond, hut rather u batli or |mv)I for Kwimming, from «:nXvff/)a«r, 
nato. The Syriac therefore renders it, aeconling to the Puly^ 
gtol tranhlatioii. lucuri fMiplitlerii. Ita proper nume in the 
Hebrew or Syriac language was llethestia; which Uucliarl,} 
Gomanu. and some other*, derive from n>3 f/el/i, dtrmun txt 

* Spuihcoo- llinoKil. VdM* Tupoenipb. I>Mcn|>. p. SO, Op«r. Qtx>^ 
grapli, &<■ Ltisd- lUl. 1701. 

t LtRtiilbvi's llxniKMiy vd Jubti r. }. 

t Bodun- a«ogf»|4>. lib. i. cap. uiW., Oper. torn, i- p. 414, edll. Ijugil. 
Oai 1T07. 





tocus. anil TX^K aihaiih, effadtt. i>u thai, acconlitig to Uiu 
etynioli^, ht^iaca est locus effaaiotini that is, as they con- 
ceive, either a rtfiKrvuir fur ruia water, ur a kind uC ce&spuul, 
that received the wa^te wuler which run fcxjui the temple. 
Wugvniteil* f roducen a passage frQin t)ie Tahniid, concerning 
a small stream issuing from tiic sanctnaty, and proct-ediiig (q 
the g«l« of thf city of David, by ivliich ttmo it wu beooine 
00 cORftidcmble, that persons in particular cases, eftpeciully 
womeo, used to bathe in it. And elb h« suppa&es the watepJ 
daily used in the temple service, in washing the hands and 
feet of the prie^t-s, the victiiiiK, vcsseU. &c., wils Hoinewhere or 
Other collected iuto a reservoir; if that was called, thu pool of 
Betliesda. he professes hv should incline to explain the word 
by e^'ushiiii ihmiu. But, on the whole, he declares him»elf 

Others, with greater probability, derive the word from no 
heth. domus, and the Syriac KTt'n chttdo, gratis vel miteri- 
eordiat and so the name Migiiiti(rs tlie bouM or placi: uf mercy. 
Iwcauae of the miraculous healing virtue with which God mer- 
cifully endowed the water of that pool ; and this is indeed the 
iiioat extraordinary tiling to he obNcrved concerning i(. 

llie evaugelist says, tliat " an angel went down at a certain 
season uito tiie pool, and troubled the water; whosoever then, 
firiit afler the troubling the water, Mepped in, was made whole 
of whatever disease he had ;" and, therefore, there lay at this 
pool, in the five porticos timt surrounded it (of which we have 
already likkensome notice), "a multitude ofimjvotent folk, as 
blind, hall, withered, wailing for the moving uf tJie water." 
Now it is disputed, whether the virtue of these watere, and 
the cures performed by tlieni, were ujiraculuus or Batumi. 
Dr. Ilautmond contends fur the Ulter, and imagines that the 
healing virtue of this bath was owing to the warm entrails of 
the victims being washed in it : that the angel, who ia Fuiid to 
conie and trouble tlte wuter, wuii oidy u messenger xent by 
the high-priest to stir up the bath, in order to mix the con- 
gealed blood, and other gn)«k<>er particles that were sunk to the 
bottom, with the water, that so they might infuse tlicir virtue 
into it more strongly. IJy koto mipov, which wc render "si 
«.ccruiiti •esaon." be understands at a set time, that is, at 

■ Sotah, cap. i. Mct- kirii. anooi. ir. p. 909. 

CIl^P. lit.] TIIK POOL UF B^rnRSDA. 


ono of the f;rcnt feasU, wlien a vnst multitude of sacrifices 
wort! kilk-d and ulTunM], and by Unit means the watcra of this 
pool were ini[iregiialcd wilh more liualing rirtue ihnn they 
wmild hav<7 at other timcA. Ilutlliitt seuse of ihc pu86age. in 
wbicli Dr. Ilummond think)) him-qclf countenanced by the au- 
thority of Thcophylact,* appear ioiprobable from almost all 
tlic circumstnncow of llic story .+ As, 

lat. From the hcnlinf; virtno of this water extending tn the 
care of all manner of diseases. For it is said, '' he that 
Btepped in waa made whole of whatever diKeaac he had." 
Dr. Hammond indeed supposes, that " whatever disease he 
had," refers only to the three aorta of dtwaaed persons before 
mentiont'd, namely. " the blind, lame, and withered." Rut 
that will not remove the objection, since no such healing virtue 
eould ever be communicated tt) any other water by the same 
meuu, by wa&hin^ the warm cntrailR of beasta in it. bo as to 
render it cHectuid for the cure of all tlicse diseases, or indeed 
of any one of them. 

2dly. It is highly improbable, that the troubling or stirring 
up the water should increase itu healing virtue; but rather, the 
stirring up the blood aod fnces, that wcrv sunk to the bottom, 
muftt make the bath «o foul and fetid, that it would lie more 
likely to poinon than cure. 

* An aU«iiUv« tMidFr of Thcyrpliy lad's Comntenlary in toe. will nsUy 
l>eic«itc, iliai Dr. Iluomood h«Ui iiuiUken his mtauinf, for TltcopliylAci 
ufier Miu-iidetl to amcti tlmi ihctt aiincukius cote* w«iv owiajj b> Ui« 
wwbin^ Uto «nlivut« of tlw beast* ilain lor ucrificc in lh« v«Un vt this 
pool, wlikh tlierwliy ■c'ltiifnl, in a naiunil way, » camilm; rtftii«. All lie 
■ilih b, that by iliii wwtiinK the wmoi wu Kucufivd, ud become thereby 
iht mora fit (far what '. ht beaiinii; tlueues by aay nunral iitialiiy bcrvby 
iraptrted lo it F no; but) for recvivtng hnm^ iiurtficv, * diviue (kiwct, by 
lh« openuion of the imgol, who canw to it, not as U) eomnun watLT, but 
•s (o duMCa waier, M«rt i{ ttXttm, ind WrTought the minde, Stav/utravif 
yttr. He uys exprCMly, (hat ibe vmtr did not htnl by any rinur in itself, 
utlM-nrt*c thoM vum would hmrc Iwen conaianl and ))eqM7tunl ; Imii solHy 
ilirnogh Ihc voei^, wptpytut, of the utgcl, «ha itD|«Tted to it ta hcaliaf 

t Sm bUo an Ut*(npl u> aceoosi tot ibe vimio of tlKta:? woien in » nmi- 
lar OMUiiWr, from nalunl i^AnMa, in > tract [iubliklu.-d by HunhtAmf, a 
Iwniifft t>rfi|[ii phyBinaii, unliilnl. I*ara)yiiri No«i T<Manieiiti midico et 
nllUakfieo CooumiiUfto ilhutnd ; Mni n^ibtuhrtj m Civniu*'* Vtackulm 
Qoianit, rid. p. 211— 3».i, vwl p. 3«o— 41 1 



(hook si. 

3dlT. T^o good reaaoa can be gi«vn. on tkn ■■inn^iliiM, 
why llieae BMditnl wslen abodil boC hmw^ cvnsd nmiy per> 
MosuwdlMoaeoaly.ihefinrttkaiaaeppediB. The Doc- 
lor ii indeed nrmRaftluidbjectiaai, uid cadeftveon to evade 

ia by sappomtg tbe tnth migbt be ao aneD, tkat it waaU hold 
but oae at a time, and by the tine coe was caccd. tim heaiiag 
particles areie aolieided, and thenlbre it eoold not heal an- 
other. Rut then, why cobU it not be atimd ap a eeoond 
tine, and a thin], and aa many aa thew waae pcBons to ba 
cured f llvwever, 

4liily. The whole feondatkai of tliia soppoaitacMi appean to 
he a niatafce; naacly, that the entmiU of the ndioM wck 
warfied to this pool oat of the lenple ; lor Dr. Lightfeol 
•hows that it was dooe in the temple, in the waahtne-mom, aa 
it wwm called, appoinced for that purpose.* And, indeed, if 
thb pool was near the sheep-^ite, and if we aoppoae Hoctin- 
gcff'a. or even lightfoot's a c c oa nt of the wtaition of that gate 
to be tnte. it was then at too great a distance Crom the temple 
to be oaed as a waahtag-pbec far the catnuk of the hoMia 
■lain for •acn6ce. 

I'pan the whole, -therefbrv, there is naaoo to condnde. that 
the healing Tiftoe of this pool was mifacahms; that the angel 
was a beavei^ uig*l ; ^^ *^Bt the deoign and nae of hia 
eoming was either to work ihe niimcle, as God's iriAtruincitl , 
by the Bse of the water ; or, at least, by troubling the water. 
and giving it Mmc unnsaal motion, to giTc notice to those 
who were wailiug fur a core, when they mi^t set'L it. 

It is farther inqai red, when thia mtnLcoloiis |kwI 6nti re- 
cetred its healing rtrtue ? I take the must probable opiniua 
to be, that it was about the tioH' of, or n<-' ' fon-. our 

Sariour*s coating; and very likely the ei nt of tht^ 

miracle oiighf be to give notice, by an Qloidrious type, of the 
speedy acromplishmrnt of /cchnriah's prophecy: " In that 
day then* rIwII be n fotintnin op«rnNl to the house of l>nvid^ 
and to the inhobitnnbi of Jemnnlcn), for sin nnd for nncjran- 
rie«;*' chnp. xtii. I. Thus the fountain of the blood of Christ 
In take away all «n, was afresh typified by the mimculous 

* ftp* Ih. Ii«M(Mit'« DnchiiiiMi of Ak Trmph, chap. ssil. : wd Im> 
■■pfnaw (llor. Hab. J«lm *. i\ thai tbe |moI <>r BflbeidB ww • 
M\i7t04<ltMi >» "Wh iIkbc vtlia •men unclrcn punIM dMOMcIra*. 



virtue which God put into this pool to hc»I nil niiinner of 
diMsaftcs. And as the fountain of ChristV blutxl v/aa to be 
opened at the piisHOver, at which feast he was crucified, gd 
Dr. Li^htfoot imafjinea, that the miraculous cure was cficcled 
by this [Kwl nt that feast only.' 

It may seem a little stningu, thnt there is no mention mudc 
of this mirack', vither by Joeepbu>t, or the writer* of the Tal- 
mud, who on all other occasions are ready enough to celebrate 
the miracles which Ood wrought for, and which did honour 
to, their nntion. But siippnsiiiff, which is highly probable, 
tJiut tJic miraculous virtue venA first imparted to thi^ pool 
about the time of our Saviour's coming, and that it ccuscd at 
bia deatJi. wheruby it plainly np^Hiarcd that this miniclu was 
wrought in honour of Christ, we uctd not wonder that Josu'phuM 
pU6<8 itover'in biIl-ucc, since ho could not relate it wilhoul 
revi»inK a Icirtimouy to Christ, greatly to the discredit of his 
own nation, who rejected and crucilictl him. And ai: it iii no{ 
recorded by Jc scpUus, it is not unlikely, that the memory of il 
wax lost among tlie Jews at tJie time when tlie Talmud wnn 
ivrittvn, which wob not till scvend hundnxl years atlerward.'t' 

Concerning the fi^tt-s of the temple, (lodwin obscrrcs, that 
there were two of principal nolc> botli built by Suloinon ; tiiu 
one for those that were new marrieU. the otliur fur niourncns 
uiid vxcoinmunicatcd pcntonti. The nwiunn^rt. he daitli, were 
dittiinpiishod from the oxconmiunicated by imvmg their lips 
covered with a skirl of tlieir g;imLcnt; none entered thut g:iii! 
wit)) tliL'ir lipH uncovered hut such as were exconmiuiii<^-at«d. 
The Mishna saith, " All that enter, ucconiiiig Lu the eusU>m 
of the temple, go ia on Iho right-hand nay. go round, and go 
out on the lefl-hand way ; except a person, cut mcidlt tilit/utti, 
who i» rendered unclean by a particular circunutance, whu 
goca round and enters on the Icfi. And being asked why he 
doe« so, if ho answer. Because I mourn, they reply. He nhn 
inhabits this house comfort thee. If he aivswcr. Because 1 

* llora tldirai& Juhn r, 4. 

t TIktc are iwo v«y feanml iaaettMioan on UiU wbjcct in tlw •Cconil 
volume of llie TlicsanjOH Nonu lliMilo^n Ptiilolngiciii : one by Jomi 
Conrxl. lloUingenu do FtKurfi UrlhoMla; ihv cMhn by Ihiml Ebemlwcli, 
da Mirarulu pMcim OcI1mm1(p. Tim Iim coauiiu a full n'jily boUi (o Itui- 
tholinc mid llammond- Sec ii*o Wiuii Hawir vna. ii. euBoUL &L MCt. 
liT.— U. p. 3H— 930 



[nooK ti. 

un cxcommnoicatcd, the reply is, acconlin»; to R. Jonc, Ho 
who inKabiU Uiis house pat it into thy heart to hearken to 
the words of thy com|)anion8, or brethren, that they may re- 
ceive thee."* It appears fmm hence (at lewt dcconiing to 
the opinion of thu lutabuical nibbic«), that excomnmnicaicd 
pcraoiis were not excluded from the temple, Ihoufrb they wcro 
from the synag^irruc, as we learn from several pawftK™ in liie 
evangelist John, chap. Jx. 22; xii. 42; xvi. 2; where such 
persons arc said to be uTromit^ywyiH, excluded from the »yna- 
go^e. Not ihnt wc are 1o infer from this, that ihe Jews 
acconntcd tfaoir syDagoguet) tuore holy thnn the t^-mplc; but 
it shows what was. and i>hould be, the tnic intent of excom- 
miniieution, namely, the shainiii^ and humbling ;iu olTitndnv 
in order to bring him to repeutance ; on wliich account be was 
excluded the society of his ucigbboani in the Brnagogue ; but 
Dot his eternal destruction, by driving him from the preticoce 
of God in the temple, and depriving him of the use of the 
most solemn ordinances, and the most effectual means of 
grace and salvation. The temple was the common place oTi 
worship for Isracliti-s ; by allowing him to come thither they 
signified, that they did not exclude him from the common 
privilege of an Ismclite, though they would not receive him 
into their familiarity and friendship. How much heavier is 
the yoke of antichriat than the Jewish yoke of bondage 1 
How much more cruel is the excommunication of Popery, 
which deprives persons of all their liberties and privileges, of 
their goods and lives, and consigns over their souls to be tor- 
mented in bell for ever, — how infinitely more cruel, I Jtay, 
is this modem excommunication tlian ctcd that of the wicked 
and barbarous Jews, who crucified tlie Lord of glory ! 

* Mish. lit >[i(Ii1oi)i. cap. u. >cri. k.^ «t ManooD. in Im. Una. v. p. 3M, 
3», edit. Sunmlitu.; LtgbiL Hot. U«br. I Cor. *. 5. 



Wf. have several times huil occasion to obficrve, that in onlcr 
the more effeetually to guard the iBrnelites from idolatxy, the 
bicftscd CiO«I, in instituting Uie rites of his own worship, went 
dtrrelJy counter to the practice of the idolatrous nalions. 
ThiiB, because they irorshipped in gro»e«,* he expressly for- 
bad "the planting a grove of trees near his altar;" Dcut. xvi. 
21. t Nor would he suH'cr his people to offer their sacriBcvs 
the tnpH of hiUx and mountains, as the heathens did,{ but 

ilered that they should be brought to one altar in tlic place 
Fwhich he appointed; Duut. xii. 13, 14. And aH for the groves, 

* II»c(Mtno» tc.) faen numinani (empla, priscoque rila >iniplicia nn 
Dn pneceUonUm aiborcm dtcvii- Nee macb nuro fulj^ntia uqiw Aore 
ailDlilacni quun Iik<m tt ipsa ailenlM adonmun. Tlin. Nal. Ilitt. [tb. xii. 
CBp, i. p. 4, lom. iii. edit, lianliiin. 1<}B3. Sec alao Luciui. «le Sacrif. totn. 
i. p. U&.C, D.eHil. Snlmui. lCt9. Thoegiores nutafelicalliaXvi|34v»>, 
th« pDvn of ibe gwli, which he saith Nureia frequoited, and ibercbjr gtn 
oeeuioa lo tha $lory gf hia commerce with ib« goild«n EgvrJi ; Pluiair. in 
faun, pi. 61, F, 0\>v. torn. \. ixlii. FniKof. 1630. They m ajm-iily co- 
iocil, by the hwsafthittwclri: panoftlic pobtic religion, Luctw 
ogrb habento. Vid. I>iodwifn. Tabubr. Fn^ni. tit. Vti coleiKli ad cal- 
ecm Cod. Justinuuii, p. 751, aptad Corp. Jurti Civil, edit. L-ips. 1720. 

t Sm Spencer*! kafned dnterUtioa on dtis and ihc fi>llowiDg verse, de 
L«g. llelirKiir. lib. ii. cap- xxvii. uviii. 

] Sopb(jclc4 iotroduce* llerculea aiJuDg UjlitH, wbelher tut koewr Mount 
iCKla, which wax aocred to Jupiter f *'Ve«,"witb he, "fori kaveollen 
riftoed upon lb« top uf il" Trachin. *. 130T, 1308, tots. ii. p. 3iS, edit. 
ICbS(. 1745. And Sinbo nith of the Trniiaiu, ityaXiiaTa tin flv^t^ ni-c 
' Jp««rr«Ut 9mv«i it «c fr^i|XM rAirw rw axftttyop tiyouiuvin Am ; Oeopaph. 
lUb. XV. p. 733, C. edit. Casaub. 109O. See alw Herndul. Cliu, cap. raui. 
p. .^5, KCt. I3t, cdh. Gratvav. : Xenoplmn. Cjr. lib. viii. p. 500, 3d Hit, 
IIulcbJM; and Apputa(dL-n4!lluMnhrad.p. 361, 36S.9ecteciv.,edll.Tollii, 
AtwMel. 1670} atilh, that Mitbhdalca Mcriflccd id Jnpitir vtoirdiiig (o the 
nMon of U> counlr]!', m i^omc H^Xw, npoa a high mounUiA. 



[dook II 

which Uie Canaiinitoi hml planted, and the uIoLb »nd -Aian 
which thfiy had erected on lUv lops of h'lj^h mouiiluinB mid 
Jlulls for the worship of their gods, the Israelites are com- 
fluaiHled utterly to destroy them; ver. 2, 3. 

The grovefl and high places do not seem to have bcco dif- 
^fertiit, but the same places, or grorrs pluntt'<l on the t0|)8 of 
tills, prohahly round an open area, in which the idolatrous 
^irorehip was performed, as tuay be inferred from the foIlowin<; 
words of tlte prophet IIusc;;i: " Tbcy sacrifice upou die tups of 
mountains, aud burn incense opou the bills, under oaks, and 
poplars, and elms;" chap. iv. 13. Tlie use of groves for reli- 
gious worship is generally supposed to have Ix'cn us ancient 
as the {tatHarchal ages ; for we arc informed, that " Abraham 
planted a grove in Beersheba, and called there on the name of 
the Lord ;" Gen.xxt. 33. However, it is not cYpresaly sAid, 
'nor can it by this passage be prov«l, that he planted the grove 
for any religious purpose; it might only be designed to shado 
his tent. And this circuuistince perhaps is recorded to inti- 
mate his rural way of living, as well us his religious characlei; 
that he dwelt in a tent, under the shade of a grove, or trtMi, a« 
the word *}Z'H esfief, may more properly Iw iranslatcJ ; and In 
this humhic habitation led a very pious and devout life. 

The reason and origin nf planting saeretl grores is variously 
conjectured ; some imagining it was only hereby intended to 
render the sen'ice mure agreeable to tlie worshippers, by tlio 
pleasantness of the shade ;* whereas others suppose it waii to 
invite the presence of the gods. The oue or the otlier of Uicsa 
[•asons seems to be intimated in the forccitcd passage of 
llosea, "They bum incense under onks, mid poplars, and 
elms, because the shade thereof i& good;" chap. iv. 13. Others 
concciTc their worship was performed in the midst of groves, 
because the gloom of such a place is apt lo strike a religious 
awe upon the mind ;t or else, because aocb dark ctmc^-al- 

' This SMnu, accotJiog |f> ^'i^IIl, to bare bcrnllw n^uiinof Oulo'aVuiU- 
ag lhelcni|i)pof Juno m a dt-li^hifulgnn'o: 

Liicu* ID tube fuit nmlift, iMtmions unUnA: 
IIk itiopluin JuBMu iiigvtw Sidonra Vtio 
Cotxlcbat. . TEjivti), lib. I. ». 41V 

j "Si ithioctunii," wiib S«wca, Gfuit. xli " »f liwi» ulwritNU^ ri 
t»lium AliitudiDvm fgnsu* brpmu lucu*, t\ com)>ccluai cwlt ilmiuic 



L-^OUDts suited tbc lewd myaterica of their idolatrous wor- 

I have met with another conjecture, which accmtt ns pro- 
lie ns any. that (hiit practice began with tlie worsliip of 
loiis, or dcpartfd moiiI<. It was an ancient cii«toin to bury 
the dciuj under trees, or in woods. " Debonih wait buried 
, under an oak, neiur Dt^bt'l," Qcn. xxxv. H; and the bones of 
Saul and Jonathan under a tree at JaLeah; 1 Sam. xxx\, 13. 
Uow on imagination prevailing among the heathen, that the 
8ouU of the deceased hover about tlieir graves, or at least de- 
light to visit their dead bodice, the idolaters, who paid divine 
honours to the aouU of their dcpartxKl heroes, erected Images 
and altars for their worship in the game groves where they 
were buried^ and from thence it grew into a custom after- 
ward to plant grove.4, and budd temples, near the tombs of 
departed heroes, 2 Kings xxiii. lA, 16;X and to surround 
tlteir templen and altars with groves and trces;^ and these 

mnontiu nliomm alicx pRi(«Enitiaia submorcm: ilia proceribs sylvtr, at 
' wervtuni loci K admiratio umbnt, in ufeno tam dentn «fine cmitiauc, 
Aden libi nuaiiais fncit. Kl liquis specus nxis peniuu e\tah inanteiD sa*> 
pendent, Doa mumbetita, led mUunUbut cuimh in unuai laxitauiu exea- 
vmif. Animum tunm quadain religionb imapidooc pcrcutict." Sec alto • 
rcmnAablc paiuage in Virgtl, iEaci^, riii. r. 347, «i •«(]. 

• For proof oT the Icwdnew tuid ofenraiiiy of many of the rcligioiit riwa 
oflJitf h«aiheo, »wt. Ilrrodot. E»iteip. cap. Kit. p. in, lin, r-dti. OmiMV. 
ct Clio, MCL ncix. p. 80; Otodor. Mcul. lib. iv. init.; Val«r. Ma\lni. 
lib. ii. cap. vi. sect. x«. p. \86, 186, edit. Thysii. iMfd. Rat. 1655 ; Juv«- 
nd, ML ix. V. 31; and wliai Busottius nilh of a grove on Mount Libunu*, 
dolicaltd to Venus, la his Life of CoDslanttDe, lib. iU. csp. Iv. Com^iar« 
1 Kiapxiv. 23,71. 

f Plato, after buring declared bi« apptobntton of tb« Kotinwut of Iln- 
I siodi Ont «hen aay of l]>r ft^lilpn nge died ilivy b«caine dfrnrma, and iho 
' ainkcm of great (towl W maiikiiid ; and aAcr Untini; nHi-m-i), rliat nil «)io 
dkd btav«ly in <«u were t-noiI«l lo Ik ranked in Uti> umc cIom, reckon*, 
inong the bonotin they deterred, their sepulcbrea bdnjc cneriwhl hihI 
wonUpped at the Kpotilorics of demon*— «*c ^iftovey ivr^ Otpfiint-votu- 
ri mm «|po«nnr«0op«» aM-w raf df^c. I>(> Hq>ubl. lib. r. p. Mi, 1>, E, 

.nda. Fnaeoftm. 160S. 

Ses Aniaa'i dcauiption of the toab of Cyrus, dc Expcdit Alexaadr. 
lib. vl. p. 435, edii. DIancatd. AniMcl. 1678. 

^ Ou ueouni of tbc ciuton of pbnUn; ire« near icnpl», " ibo poest," 
a* StralM mtatwi lu, " «tykd all their leaplet Rrvvm, etea tboMi whkh htui 
tio|ilanl>tKni9 annuidllMm." (jeogntpli. lib. a. p. 413, 1>, edit. Cosaub. 
I CM. 



[book II. 

sacred groves being constantly rurniKhcil nilh the iniagcn of 
the heroes or gmU that were worshipped in them, a ^rovc 
and ao idol caiim to be used as convertible terms; 2 Kings 
icxiii- (>■ 

Wo have before observed, that these uncred groves were 
uxually planted on the tops of hills or mountains, from whence 
ihcy are called in Scripture niD3 bnmotb, or " high places." 
Perliapi) »uch an exalted situation was chosen by idolaters, 
in rcspoct to their chief gotl, the sun, whom they worshipped, 
together with tlicir inferior deiUes. ou the tops of hilU ami 
mountains, that they niiglit approach as near to him aii they 
coold.* It 18 no improbable conjecture concerning the Egj*p- 
tian pyramids, that they were intended as altars to the sun, 
ns n-cll as very likely for scpulchml monuments, like these 
ancient groves. Accordingly, they are all fiat at the top, to 
serve the purposes of an altar. It is said, that nitunt lo the 
sun, of tbo liame form, though not so large ns tlic pyrumids, 
were found among the American idolatcrs.i- 

There mtgiit be another reaKou fur plaatiug Uh: eacrcd 
groves on Uic tops of hills and mouutaios; namely, for tlie 
sake of retirement from noise and disturbance in their iict4 
of worship.^ And on this account, probably, the worshippers 
of iho true God had also their proseuchx. or places of lelirc- 
mentforworship.generallyonhill&orhigh places. Accordingly 
wreread, that Christ " went up into a mountain apart to pray;'* 
Matt. xW. 23. And at his tronafignration he retired with 
three of his " disciples, to the top of a high mountain apart ;" 
chap. xvii. I. [ twe no reason, therefore, to conclude, that 
th98C high places, of which we read in the Old Testament, 
where holy men and worshippers of the true God paid tlieir 
devotion, were the sacred groves of the idolaters, but nther 
iJicy were JewiAh proseuchie, or synagogues. Such were the 
high places by the city where Samuel lived, and where he 
sacrificed with the people, 1 Sam. is. 12 — 14; and upon the 

• IWilttf spcuks of some plans, whiclt weir dionght " muitiiL- otlo |>ti>. 
|thH|tMn>. pttceMinc inortBlhun A I>fo ntuquun pfoprios audiri." Anntl. 
till. Kill ancl. Ivii- |>. aai, edit. Glajif. 1743. 

I Dm Ymtnc'i litktnriful Oisvertaiwn on Idoklrous ComipliMis in Rr- 

liiiiMiivni. I. p.)ia— riH. 

I " 1,M«H «| ipH milMNk adotannu," MUh niny, in a panag« twfwn- 



hill of Gath, wlicro was cither a school of llicprophcU, or thoy 
bad been thither to pay their devotion when Snul met them; 
toe 1 Sam. x. 5—13. An<l of tho name sort wtui the (ptait 
high {ilacc at Gibcon, whore Solomon sacrificed, and where 
God iippcarcd to him in a dream ; 1 Kin^s iii. 4, 6. 

The gnind ditficiilty on this head is how to rcconciln their 
Barrilicin;; in other places beside the natiunal altar, as Gideon 
did at Ophmh, Judgcsvi. '24; Maiioidi in tiic country ol' Don, 
chap. xiii. 16 — 30; Samuel at Mizpah, 1 Sam. vii. 10, ami 
at lietlilchem, chap. xvi. 5; David in the threshing'-floor of 
Oman, 1 Chron. xxi. 22; ami Elijah on Moinil Camiel, 
1 Kings xviii. 30, tt scq., — with the law in the book of Deu- 
terotmmy, "Take heed to thyself, that thou offer not thy 
bumt-ulli'ringis in every place that thou rteu^t. flul in the 
place which the Lord thy God shall choose, there tliou ahall 
offer Ihy bumt-oHerin^, and there thou shalt do all that I 
commanded tlicc ;" chap. xii. 13. 14. 

The best solution, I apprehend, is, tliat it was done by 
special divine direction and command, God having an un- 
doubted right to supersede his own positive kwa, when and 
in what cases he pleases; and as this is cxprosaly asserted to 
have been done in David's case before mcntJone<l, 1 Chron. 
xxi. IR, it may the more reasonably be supposed in all tlie 

This may intimate to us the true solution of another difH- 
culty, how to rcconcdc the law which prcMnbcs an altar " of 
earth only to be made in all places where Cod should record 
his name," Exod. xx. 24. with the onk-r which Moses re- 
ceived to makti a brazen altar in tho court of the tabernacle. 

Some have supposed, that the brazen altar was filled with 
earth aud stones, and so was nn altar of earth, though f^sed 
with brass. But the real solutiou I take to be this: " In all 
place* where I record my name," means, in whatever par- 
ticular place, beside the national allar, I ghiill caus« my name 
to bo recorded, by commanding my servants to sacrilicc unto 
me. there thou shall make an nitar of earth. 

The reasou of God's iip|Hiinting such plain and inartificial 
]tatH, on llieso special uccasioas, was in all UkelihoMl to prc- 
it that superstitious vciicraliim which the ]>coplu wouki pro- 
hJHf have entciljinvd for thcni, as huvin|{ a more than ordi- 



[book II. 

nary sancUty in them, if they had been more expensive and 
durable ; whereas being raised just to serve a present exigence, 
and presently pulled down, or falling of themselves, they could 
not admintBter any temptation to superstition or idolatry. 

But to return: Though some places were called by the 
name of high places, which had never been polluted with 
heathen idolatry, and in which God was acceptably wor- 
shipped, nevertheless, all which had been actually so defiled 
the Israelites are commanded utterly to destroy ; insomuch, 
that it is left upon record, as a stain and blemish upon the 
character of some of the more pious kings of Judah, that they 
did not destroy them, but suffered the people, who were very 
prone to idolatry, to sacrifice in them : which is the case of 
Asa, 1 Kings XV 14; JehoBhaphat,chap.xxii.43; andscveral 



The Latin word aaylum, used for a sanctuaiy, or place of 
rcfiigc, hiu) so near on affinity with the Hebrew word bzv eshef, 
a ticc or grove, as to make it pru1)til)k-, ttmt tho Hacrcd groves. 
which we spoke of in the lust chapter, were the oucient places 
of refuge, and that tlic Kunmns derived the use of Uicin from 
the uafttem iialioiiB. So we fiud in Virgil, that the asi^lu weru 
groves :• 

Ilinv lucnm ingciiiem queoi Uomulus acer oiiylum 

lU-tiulit. iFjitid, viii. I. 343. 

Auil Gofl's altnr appears to have been the asylum of the Jcwh, 
before the cities uf refuge were appointed; Exod. xxi. 14. 
Some persona have imagined, that all the cities of the Levites. 
in number forty-two, were mtfla. But that appears to be a 
mistake ; for in the book of Numbers, chap. nxxy. G, among 
the cities that were given to the Levites. only six ore men- 
tioned as appointed to be cities of refuge. ^ 

Thcne ai^la were not only intended fur Jews, but for Gen- 
tiles, or for stningers, who dwelt among tliem ; ver. 15. 

They were doI designed as sanctuaries for wilful murderers, 

* Mr. Jones suiijmsci, thai tke rMson wbjr thMc |^««a wen coiuiilctvd 
iw places uf refwft?, win ibe oiitnioti which prenuled, lluu tbc denoiu, to 
wlwni divy •firrv iltilicalctl, aflbnJcd thHr uablUMX lo iboaewho Bed to 
ihem for ()rDtcctioii. " Aaylonim ohgo nulii dvducvnda viilriw nx ant>i|aaRiin 
cf^ nonuos revvrvntia, et optaikwe «onjni poUmtiw o]wrn lercndi niftpUci- 
Imu. nii, qui k polriitiofibui metoebani, ad scpulcn rironiin enimiorum 
ccwrfiifiebutt'' Vid. SDiMcam m TtmhI. ocf iii. lu dutarchui TlMnci te- 
pulcnun fcine atyhun dicil ta rtli Tlwsri, Riib Tin. lie obMrrfli, tint Ooil 
ocvcr «|tpoiiitid hb ahnr for an arqrhun : n«venlielcis, it wu to couidetnl 
before the ivika% of iKc Isw in Exodus ccnc^ming the cities of nfugv. On 
which arcount be inuifi:lne», that the origin of aajta waa not a ilhnae itMi- 
lution, but lliat God. by bin appointneni of cities of reAige, fwrtups in- 
irorlcd to cbcdt abd iMlnun tb« n)iCTMllimii and idolairmia tue of ^rovM 
and alian Tot lliM fnifpow. AanoL US. m (iodwiiii Mot. d Aaron. 


jrwistt ANTtQumrs. 


and all kindn of alrorious villtiinri nmon<t the J^'wk, an Ihcy 
were nmonj^ tlie CirccJcH and Roniiitm,* and now arc in 
Komnn Catliolic conntrics.t but merely for »:curing tlioAe 
who had beentjjuittyol'involuntai-j'homicido, Dcut.xix.-l — It), 
from tilt L'ffl'cts of private revenge, until Uiey ivere cleared by 
u legal prucctitf. Aud it in observable, that the Israelites urv 
coiiimaiMletl to " prepare the way," thnt is, to make the ruad 
good, "that every ^ayer may flee thither" without impedi- 
ment, and with all cxpodittou ; vcr. 3. And, as Godwiu oh- 
aervea, the rabbies iiirorm us, amoii^ other circumstances, that 
at every croBs road wasBct upaii inscription, Asylum! ABvlam.' 
Upon which Hottinger romarkB, that it w-as probably tii allu- 
sion to this custom that John the Baptist is described as " the 
voice of one crying in the wilderness. Prepare ye the way of 
the Lord, make his paths straight ;" Luke iii. 4 — G. He was 
the MeJisiah'tt forerunner, and in ihnt character was to remove 
the obstacles to mcn'a flying to him as their asylum, and ob- 
taining, atkrrijptov rov Omv, the Salvation of God. 

For any thing fariher on this Bubjocl we refer to Godwin's 
Moacs and Aaron, especially with Hottinger's notes. 

* Privilcgia vjloniis, iDquit Jon«siwi( vumma eniK, ceru enim in lUb 
supplicibus aalus, ni-c ulluj iude tub <)uovm pnetexiu mA pimani exuv- 
hciiJu.*, lifttKaot fap tt aitwr tvrat^a uirttwwi. I'aiisan. Uli. ii. p. 108, 
I. -45, edit. Xylutt). Uanov. lOl 3. Nix ili- vo qui hi uyluin cuafuf^erU, jwli- 
cium iusiituohant, ncc cxnmiiuibanf, an talis vitie dignua crai, ma aon. Kum 
vvrd Dtu relinqiwnduin ceoHbMiL Iia Leoiyeidam, qaanvu proditiotiu 
tvum, imiKitiitm cxirahete coaail nitit IjtcnlMouinu. PauMn. lib. iii. p. 171 , 
I. 44, ct tet\. In Urius, lib. xliv. cap. xxuc. Saactiuu tcmpli iiiaulkque 
inviolaKM pnceskibat mnnn. Et idem dr cujuslibci genera nulclicu, quiit- 
•Uua obvratit, tiutitlur Tacitu*; Atinat. lib. liL cap. Ix. Vcnim ol «)no(l 
ali<|vi aliquandu hsc vwlikruni privilfgia; xed ii babeluiutur liuuunum 
Mteioliseim), ncc & inDim ab bonimibis onnl libvit, tiiii nitnia L-oa tuebului 
poicntia. Vid. Tbucyd. lib. i. sect, turvi. p- 09, 70, «t *n;i. oxuv. p. 17^, 
175, «(liL IIikIsoii. Sullen vciu *iul2toni»i liuruni privilv|piiruin art-nirui, 
viiuliccs liabvbMiiur Uii. Vid. Jusiiii. lib. vuL (;ap. i. ii. ; I'ltumi. liU j. 
p. 36, I. 20, M MY|.; n lib. vii. p. \M, L £0, et m.h|. p. 447, I. 37, edii. 
Xylud. Ilftnov. 1613. 

t MitliUdou** \ja\<n iran lloow, p. 1 Jti — 1&8, o( hit Muccllnn. Wotfcs 
i*A. r. octawo. 







T. HE HcbreH-s, ia common with other nations. dUtinguishod 
their days into noturul, consisting of twenty-four hours ; and 
artificial, that is, from sun-ria« to snD-4et. 

Concerning the natuful day. it is inquir&d when it began 
and ended. 

Godwin conceives thu ancient Jews had two different be- 
ginntngR of the natural day; one of the sacred or festival day, 
which was in the evening; the other of the civil or working 
day, which was in the momiog. That the sacred day began 
in the evening is certain from the following pfutsage of Levi- 
ticus : " From even unto even shall ye celebrate your sab- 
boths," chap, xxiit. 33 ; and also from the following wortls in 
the book of Exodus: " lu the first month, on the fourteenth 
day of the montb at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until 
tlie ooo and twentiirth day of the raonih at even ;" chap, xii, 
IH. N'everthelees, the passage which our author alleges out 
of the evangelist Matthew, " In the end of the sabbath, as it 
b«gautodawn lowurd The first dayof the week," chop, jcxvjii, 
1, docs not so certainly prove, that the civil, natural day be- 
gan in the momiiig. For " the first day of the week " may 
there be understood of the artificial day ; as indeed the word 
tn^<mcou/Ti)* acems to imply. In like manner, though we 
liegin the natural day at midiiight. yet wo siwak of lh<j ilny 
breaking of dawning a lUtlc before sun-rise. Tlut iliu Jcw» 
bcgnn the dny, not at eri'ning^, hut nl midnight, or in the 
morning, at the time of their mi^retian nut of Hgypt, appears 

* Sn on ihia wont I^^ MKinighl'* CommcnUiy id lac> 



BOOK 111. 

from hence, that the fifteenth day of the month, tn which ihey 
departed from Egypt, is said to be the morrow after t]ie poBs- 
c»ver, which was kept on the fourteenth day in the evening; 
Numb, xxxiii. 3, compared with Exod. xii. 6, But neither 
will this prore, diat they reckoned Ait begioning of their 
civil and sacred day from a ditl'ercnt epocha. It je more 
probable, that, before their deparlur« out of Egypt, they be 
gun all llieir daya, both civil and sacred , witli the sun's riHing, 
as the ancient Babylonians, Pontians, SyriaoB, and movt of 
the eoatcni nations did." And, at the time of their migiatioa. 
Ood orderod them to change the beginning, not only of the 
year and of the weekj but likewiac of the day, from the mttm- 
it^ to tlie evening, iu opposition to the customs of the idola> 
troufi nations, who, in honour to thdr chief god, tlio sun, be- 
^an (heir day at his rising. 

CocceiuB, who tiuppose&, that only the aacted day began in 
the evening, finds out this mystery in it, that Ood appointed 
the sabbath of the Jewish church to begin with the night, in 
order to signify the darkness of that dispensation, compared 
With the subsequent one of the gospel ; the light of divine 
knowledge being in those times like (hat of the moon and 
stars in the night, but under tlio Christian dispL-nsation, like 
that of the sun in the day.f 

It has been commonly suppoAed, that the epocha, or t)e< 
ginning, of the natural day was originally in the eveniogj 
"The evening and the morning," saith Moees in the book oT 
Genesis, " were the first day ;" chap. i. 5. And if to, we arc 
lb conclude, that the idolaters had changed the beginning of 
the day to the morning, in honour of the sun ; and that God 
restored it, by the law which he gave to the Jews, to it* 
original epocha. But learned men are not agreed about the 
meaning of this passage, and the reason of MoseVs setting 
the evening before the momtng. Le Clecc^ begins the first 
day from the creation of the chaos, and by the evening he 
understands all the time it remained in darkness, before the 
production of tight. But tliis opinion does not well agree 
with the import of the Hebrew word 2"^^ gnerebh, the evening, 

* Pmsv. d« Ooctnnll Tetaporun, Itb. vii. p. 009. 

t Vid. Co«ceii Comnktiil. in Lev. iiiii. ted. wiii. C^r, lom i. p. IT J. 

IITAV. 1^) 



from ytygtuiraiih, mUruif; which th«refoT« dmotf'it twilight, 
in wliich tluTc ia a kind of inixtur« of U^t and darkness; 
rnUiLT thitn total darkness, such as thoru vran bvforo light was 

Others think it more nfttnnl to d«te the beginning of 
time, and th« socoesiion of doy and ni^ht, from the first pro- 
diiRiion of light. Rut ns for the reason of Mosei's aeuing tho 
ereoing before the morning, the inoat pmbable opinionti art 
thoK of Coooeins and Lym. Cocceius understands the wonit 
in th(* foDowni^ maimer, lliat the light moved away from the 
place or hemisphere, on which it first appeatsd, and was sne* 
CQedcd by dnrkne** ; and M-hen it returned to enlighten the 
Mine hemiapherc ngflin, the first day waft rompleted.* So 
tint, According to him, the evening significa tlie light nHnriog 
Bway, which it began to do from ita first appearance. 

The othfT opinion is, that llic two parts of the natural day, 
namely, tiic uriificial day and artiAoial night, are deuouiinuted 
froni the terms which comptete them, from the evening, which 
is the end of the day. and from tJic morning, which is the end 
of the night ; and so the evening and the morning make up 
one natural day; namely, from morning to looming.t 

But whatever were the reasons of Mones'* setiit^ the even- 
ing before the morning, or the night before the day, bia ex- 
preasioa has plainly been followed by other writers, and in 
oilier languages. Hence days ore expressed ui the book of 
Daaial kiy ~>p3-3~t]; gnerebh-boker, evening and morning; 
chap. viii. 14. Hence aUo is the use of tlw Oreek iford 
wx^^i/itpov i 2 Cor. xi. 2'^. j\nd may we nut obvcrve aome 
feint traces of the same originiJ in the Bnglish hnguage. in 
oar computing tifiu* Ky nightA rathor than by dayi>; an, in 
the words sennight, fortnight, &c. ? 

With respect to the artiflcial day and night. I otieerre, that 
the llobrcwB divided the night into four watches, as appears 
from St. Matthew, who speaks of the fourth watch of the 
night, chap. xiv. 25; and from SSt. Mark, who styles then 
watches, the even, midnight, cockcrowing, and the luommg; 
chap. xiii. 36. NeiverthdaiM. it alioiild seem that they an- 
ciently diTided the- night into an odd number of watcbaa, pro- 

* Vid. Cocmi Cur. pfioi. tn Gra. t. 5. 
t Vid, Lgff.ajHKiroUSrsapfclslec. ' 



hathkj iotD chicc ; since we wtad in ike hook of Jadgcs, of 
" the ttJddle wmidi ;" dup. Tii. 19. 

It is proWile these wstcbes bad their rise, and their name, 
firnai the watduncn nho kept z^ard at the gates of the city 
sad of the tcnple Inr n^ht. and who reliered ooe another by 
tmtwk. And if anciently there were but three watches, then 
Mck «aicked Cow bowa ; and more in the winter, wlicu the 
■^hto an above f cl i « long. Bnt that being found too 
tedioos and tinaotne, the anmber of watches wa« aAerward 
iaereased to foor. We. therefore, nerer read of the middle 
waick in the 5ew TeBUment. 

The day was divided into hovra ; which are reckoned to be 
of two BoRs, lesa and gnatn^. The leaser hours were twelve, 
as appean froa tbe following questtoo in the eTangelifit Juhn. 
"Are then not tweire hoara in the day V chap. xi. 9. Each 
of these was a twelfth pajt of the artificial day. Herodotus 
obsetres, that the Greeks learned from the Bab^'Ionians, 
■aoag oCker things, the UMthod of dividinf; the day into 
tarehre parts. Bat whether the Hebrews derived it from th« 
Babyloaians, or the BabyEooians from the Hebrews, cannot 
fMm be kaoam.* Nor does il appear how ancient this di- 
riMon of the day into honrB, among the Hebrews, was.. The 
first hint in Scripture, which seems to imply such a diviaiotit, 
is a passaga in the Second Book of Kings, chap. xx. 9 — 1 1, 
where we read of the shadow's going back twenty degrees oaj 
the son-dial of Ahax. Bat the history giv^s us no intimatioaj 
what those d^reea were, or what portion of time was marked'] 
by them. 

Tbe mention of this dial aaggeats a question which bos oc»' 
caaiooed mach di»puie among the learned : WTiether the mi- 
racle of the shadow^ going back was wrought upon the Bun, 
or only upon the dial? Vatablus, Monlanus. and several, 
modems observe, that there is not a wocd said of the sun's J 
going back, but only of tiic Bhadow upon the dial; which 
night be effected by the divine power, perhaps by the minii 
of angels, obstructing or refracting the rays of iho Hun. or^ 
ahcring the position of the dial, »o as to make the ahaduw 
retire without changing the motion of the sun itself. The 

* Unodoi. Etiurp. cap. cii. |i. Itt, edilGiuau*. 

CUAr. K| 



Jem, in general, areofthecontrary opinion, with which Arch- 
bbhop Ufthcr agrees; who says, th:it tlic •rnn and all the hca- 
venly bodies went back, and u much was detracted from the 
next nig^ht as was added t« thin day.* 

The iirguments on iIuh side of ihe question are. 

Ist. The words of laaiafa. chap, uucriii. H, that " the mm 
retumul ten degrees." But this may possibly be meant only 
of ltd fthaduw, especially in so poetical a writer as Isaiah. 

2dly. That the miracle was observed at Babylon, from 
whence Meradach-TInlndan sent to inquire about it, 3 Cbron. 
xxx'n. 31 ; which could not hare been the case, unless it 
had been wrought on the 8un itself, and not merely on the 
dial of Ahaz. To this it is answcrud, Uuit it does not appear 
the inimcle waa observed at iiaby]on; rather the contrary. 
For it is said, " The princev of Gabylun sent to inquire of 
the wonder that was done in the laud;" not as a thing they 
themselves had neen in their own country, wliich must have 
bc*;n the case, if the miracle had been wrought on tlie sun; 
but which tiiey had heard reported as done in the land of 

To return to our subject: the first mention wc have of 
hours in ihe Old Te»tument is in the ))oolc of Daniel, parti- 
cularly in the fuurtli chapter; where Daniel, upon hearitw 
Nebuchadnezzar'* dream, is said to have been astonished for 
one hour, vcr. 19^ nirc ihnngnah. But that word \m of too 
general a signiBcation to prove that houre, in the modem 
aensu of the term, were then in use; it seems rather to iraiwrt 
any portion of time; nud perhaps, in t)ui itecree of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, that all who refused to worship his imuge should 
bo cost into tlie tiery furnace, it might as well be rendered 
that mmute or moment, as " the same hour;" dtap. iii. 15. the present caw,", it ie not very likely, that a poor Jewish 
ttJave, as Daniel was, should stand as one stupid, a whole 
hour, in the pn-ncnce of so great a monarch as Ncbuchad- 
uczxar. On Uie whcJc, I do not find that the antiquity of the 
Jewiwb boura can be traced and a»c«--rtaiiiud by any thmg that 
is said in the Old Testament. 

* VsMT. Amu). A. M. 40OI. 

+ VoMJni d« Of^tM et Frugreaw Iddolaui*. lib. li. np. ii. n. tT9, 



[boos 111. 

Besides the twelve Icrmt honrs (which, as tfacy arc 8U{>- 
poacd to be equaL divisions of the artificial day, must be of' 
dtfieiwt Icngtlis at differetU times of the year, and which ara^ 
the aame that we now call Jewinh hours), Godwin, with manyj 
others, speaks of the greater hours ; which ore mid to be four,^ 
each containing three of the letuter hours; the firist 
at Bun-hsfi (and not at six o'clock, as Godwin erroneoutly^ 
says), and holding till about nine- The second coded at 
noon, the third in the middle of the aJYcrnoon, and the fourth, 
at Buo'set. However, this drvisiou of the day into grcaterj 
hours is not suffictenlly supported by the passages of Scripture j 
which Godwin quotes in proof of it. And several leame(|J 
mnii, very skilful lo these matters, have doubted wheUier aayT 
such hours were in use among the Jews. 

Mayer* thinks he has proved, that the ^renter hours 
in use in the days of Nebeiuiuh. from thv fulluwmg paaaagAj 
" Th^ read in the book of the law one fourth part of the daji] 
and another fourth part they confessed and woiahippcd th«J 
Lond their Oud;" chap. ix. 3. This, however, will prov«| 
no more, than that they had skill enough, in those limes, to 
divide the day, upon occaitioD, into four parts ; but that these 
divisions were called the greater hours, or that Lhin was a 
stated division of the day. does not appear. 

Since, then, the use of the greater hours is so uoeertwd/ 
even in our Saviour's time, we must not rely on tJiem, a« 
Godwin docs, for reconciling the different nccounu of the 
evangelists, concerning the time of our Lord's crucitixioa. 
St. Mark says it was at the third hour.cbap. xv. 25; whereaa, 
according to St. John. chap. xix. 14, it was about the Buth 
hour when he was arraigned before Pilate, borne endtavour 
10 remove this dilBculty by the supposttioa, that St. John'» 
Ooapcd was written ai\er the destruction of Jerusalem.f and 
that he therefore uses the com|>uiaiion of the Romans, who 
Ixgan the natural day, as we do, from twelve o'clock aX night ; 
accordingly the sixth hour, when Pilalo cundonuied Cbri»t to 

* Johannb Uayeri Tnciu. <)e Tenporibiii n ¥«tm Dirtbua llctKCOr* 
pan i. cnp. x.»eci. uv. — xvii p. 69 — 70, 3d edit AntRlel. 1734. 

t That Sl Joba'i Uocpci wn wriUeo, noi sAer, bm b«fc«s lb* dotm^ 
lion at JtfnisiICD^ M* proved bjr £li. Lanlner, lu Ui Supplitcncsi n ihm 
Sccood Pui of hi* Ciedibiitiy. *vl i. cha(>. ix. tccu il jl p. iOl— 441- 

CHA»« i.) 



be crucified, was rix in t)ic roorniag : but St. Mnrk us«b thv 
Jewittli computntiuu, according lo which the third hour a% 
«iiren to our uiua in the aioraiug, al which tiiii« Christ wu 
nailed to th« cross. 

This ia an ingenious way of reconciling the two evangchsta; 
hik], provided it could be made appear thtit St. John usee tha 
Roman nomputalion in any other part oFhiB history, we should 
readily aci^uicscQ in it. But, I apprehend, the contrary iw 
very probable from the fuUvwiug poHsage in the fourtJi chap* 
tcr, vcr. 6 — 8: "Jesu^, therefore, being wearied with bta 
jourooy, sal thus on the w«U ; and it was about the iixik 
hour. There cometh a woman of Saniaria to draw water; 
Jeau» naitb unto her, Give ran to drink. For his disciploa 
were gone away into tho city to buy meat." Now it vt not 
ao probable, that the diHciplcH Rhould be gonv Ui procure pro- 
viaioDA for tboii rcfre&huient on Uieir jouniey aX tax in tba 
raomiug as at t^-elve at noon ; mudi Iws ia it likely, thai 
Cbri&Lwutt wearied with Iuh journey at ao early an hour; und 
if St. Juliii um;« tile Jewish coniputatioa in tbi» part of hui 
hiatory, it ia hardly coosiat^nt witli the charuct^ of a good 
hifttorian to use the Roman in another part of it; at least. 
witliout givinf; notice of the change- Perhaps, tbereforo, an 
easier way of solving thia difficulty is to admit the reading of 
tho Cambridge inanuHcript, wliich has rftiri), the third, instead 
of ucTit, the fuxth hour, in the preceding pattaage. And thia 
reading is continued by Xounus'ti Paraphrase.* and by Peter 
of Alexandria, or whoever was the author of the fragOMiut 
prefixed to the Chronicon Paschale ;t who expreaaly asaertflt* 
that it waii rptrii in the original o(^y.^ which, ho aaitli. was at 
that timr presorred with great care in the cliurcU ef E^he- 

* Sm ilM pus^ In Dr. Lardner'aCredibilitj-rpBnli.c^Ap. nc\riu.voLdl 
p. 68. 

f CoMtih One, MuL liteTar. «4 inH. KCt. t*. 

1 Chiqwcon. f^Mhalv, ia fnd. ■uctom d« fMcbw^, ft. i, cdk. Du 
Fresnt. rara. )58«. 

§ S«« ihh mUtet diaoiMed fay Dr. Wltiiliy in Kb AnnoUItons on Matlc 
n.Vi, aod brPfcAniekto Di wa ntfi g CnUca dr genviaa KfaPDom Ifa«i 
TnNwnit'^ T ""■ — *"" <=>{>' <'»■ p> ISI— tcs.wjit Anolrt. IK9. wka^tm 
ticuMy oHnidert <*'bu Mill baUi nlwaMMl agaioH ihii rwding wi UaA J»> 
35, and Joba ux. I-L 

MtMum hWTWQvma». 



ps I* IMC aauoe of om nMn m pafv, «■■■ w «Dd moh 

f inn lit ia Scnptvn. Peter aa4 Jofcn, k ■■ aaid m tbe Acto, 
" wcKK af into tW tcvpk ai tbe boar «f F»f«r. bong lb* 
aiaA h&mf At^ m. I. Tbk, indeed. Mlin to «be pabBe 
pf^ren, oAnd ap at Ac tcaiple at tbe tne of tbe errain^ 
aacriCee. Bat Ae Jew* had afao «aicd bMn far ptmto, 
pn^ar, at leaet «fam tbay did net anond Ibaa wbicb 
paUic. It «ai Dmm^B caalOH Id pray thiec tiaiea m dav;*; 
which he voald not oauC, tbaa^ be aw haUe on that 
eooBl to be cart into tbe dco of Beaa; Oka. li. 10 — U 
"ne tuatt w>« tbe piactice vf David : " Evooo^ and 
ii^'' Mttb be, " aad at doob, wtO I praT;" Pealm W, It,' 
Fraai wbeoce we learn ooc oolj bow fi^nentlr, bat «t what 
lioM* of tba day that daty wae dMBOKialy peribnaed. It ii 
geoecmOy a appoeed. that the aMHimig and evemnf; praj 
wcfc at tbe time of offieringtbeniaffiiiiigaadrrFoiDgsacnficey'l 
that ie, at tbe Ihtfd and andfa boor. And the noon 
wae at Ifae nrtb boor, or twttre olefa)^ ; far H ia aaid, < 
" Peter went up on tbe booae top to pray, aboat tbe 
boar;" Acta x. 9: tboogh Lttdoricae CapelJaa okakec 
iDomiog and tbe qooo prayer to oona^wod to the ntominf -j 
and evening sacrificea. Aooording to him, the moming^j 
prayer waa perfomed any thoe betwe en san-me and the 
fimrth hour; the noon prayer, between tfae sixth hour and 
Bun-aet; and evening prayer, any time between sun-set andif 
break of day.* We find in Scripture no express inaiitutioa^ 
of the stated hours of prayer. The Jews say. they receivcd-j 
tbam from the patriarchs; tbe first hour, from Abraham; the< 
•aeood from Isaac ; and the third from Jacob.f 

Fftxn hence the Papists hare borrowed their canonical 
hours; as they call certain prayers, which an to be repeated 
at certain times of the day, namely, matins, laoda, vC8poi«« 
and complins. Cardinal Baromas fancies they were instituted 
by the apostles; of which he imagines, that Peter and John 
going ittlo the temple at the hour of prayer, being tbe lUQih 

* LiHlo*. C«[mII. in Art m. 1, iikh) Crit. Ssci. See dao Hisfaa. lil.'' 
Bwa ri iw h , np. n.; hatimor. m MaJnMm. ia loci <* aaim. 'GtutU ct 
Ihinnlim. Uoi. i. p. la, 14, «dii. Surcohns. 

t Vid. Dnuii I'mfsr. in Act. iii. 1 , nra a|md CnUc. Sacnn. 

CRA^. !•] 



hoor, 18 proof suflfieicnt. Indeed, if we reject ihi* cvMence, 
Uicre is none to be produced of their being instituted earlier 
than the ninth ceotory, in a capitular* of Hatto, orHetto, 
bishop of Ranil, directed to his curates, enjoining that none 
of the-m be absent at the canonical houra.*}- 

From the Jews the Mohammedans have borrowed their 
hours of prayer, enliirging the niiniber of them from three to 
live, which all MuasutmaoB are bound to observej the first tn 
the morning before sun-rise ; the second, when noon is put, 
Hnd Ihc sun begins to decline from the meridian ; tiio third, 
in the nflemoon. before san-»et ; the fourth, in the evening, 
after sun-set, and before the day be shut in; the liAh, aftur 
the day in shut in, and before the first watch of the nighl.^ 
To these some of their devotees add two more ; the tint, nn 
hour and a half after the day is shut in, the other at mid- 
night; but these are l<x)kcd u]>on as voluntary services, prac- 
tised in imitation of Mohammed's example, but uot enjoined 
by bis bw.^ 

We now proceed to consider the Jewish weelu; which, 
Godwin observes, were of two sorts ; the one ordinary, coo- 
sisting of seven days ; the other extraordinary or prophetical, 
consisting of seven years. 

As for the ordinary week of seven days, it is a division of 
time, which nppears to have bevn ol>servc<l by all natiotu, 
probably from the beginning of the world .{Jl It v/ag first made 
by God himself, who, after he liad created the world in six 
days, " rested on the seventh, and blessed the seventh day, 
and sanctifiod it ;" Gen. ii. 2, 3. From whence every scveuUi 
day hua been ever held sacred. 

To prove that this distinction of time prevailed in the first 
ages of the world, some allege the following {mssage of the 
book of Gemais: "In the end of the days. 0«D« fpD mikkii$ 

' A caphnlsr is an sci pusod in b chaptn, thai is, w ui SMcmbl/ held 
by rel^iaua ar niiltUij onjon, far delibentuijt on their a&in, w»d lego- 
\aAaf dteir dudplinc. 

+ Dn Pio'* E<tJ«. \\M. c»nt. n. vol. »n. p. UJ. 

I Sm SaIc'b PnlnDtnsiy PianmrM lo hw Traiutauan of Um Kona, kgC. 
i». p. lOT. 10«, edit 1734. 

^ D» Dint, AninudvcnioDes in AcL iii, 1. 

i Sm Graihik, d« Vniuis Chriatun* ReUgiouu, lib. i. Mct ivi. p. i% 
44, notis CkiicJ, Otug. 1745 ; Sddeu, do Jure Nil «t GoiU lib. lu. cap. 


itWIlH ANTtgulTlES. 

[book III. 

jam i m , Cftio attd Abel brought iheii offering to the Uml/' 
chap. !▼■ 3 : that «. aay they, at the end of the week, of oa 
the sabbath-day ; for, accoidiog to the l«am»d GataJter, then 
WW then no other diatinction of days bui into weeks.* Wo 
may, however, ob«erre, with deference to ro great an au- 
thority, that it i» not impoeeibie, nor improbable, that by this 
time they might have learned to distinguish unw, hy ttie 
changw of the moon, into moHth« ; and by the course of tho 
mm, and the revolutions of the seaeooSj into yearB. It is very 
CHrideot, that the phrase m> XPO mikJdtt Jfimim doea not 
■favuyu import the end of a week, from the use of it io tho 
Second Book of Samuel, chap. xlv. '2ti ; where it is said, that 
" at the end of the days, Ab^lom poUed his head, b«eauae 
his hair was heavy on him; and he weighed itat two hundred 
ahekeU." it caanot be imagined his hair should grow so 
heavy as to need polling every week. Probably, in this place, 
the phrase means, as we ronder it, "at every year's end." 
In the same sense the leJimcd Alnswurtii tinderstands it in 
the passage in Genesis, which we are now considenng; " at 
the end of the year." when the fruits of the earth were ripe. 
" Cain brought of the fruits of the ground an offering unto 
the Lord." So God afterward appointed "a feast of in- 
gathering," to be observed by the Jews in the end of the year, 
*' when they had gathered in their labours out of the fieUij" 
Exod- xxiii. 16. The same custom prevailed among tliu Qea- 
tileSj who at the end of the year, when they gatliured in theif 
fmits, oflered solemn sacrifices, with thanks to God for bis 
blesstngs. Aristotle SQys.'t' that the luicicnt sacrifice* and as- 
semijUeH were after tJic gatbermg in of the fruiU, being d^ 
sigotid for on oblation of tho firbt-fmits unto Ood. Again, 
days are put for years in the twenty-fil^h chapter of Lcrituua, 
vcr.29; "within a year shall he redeem it;" in the ilehruw, 
0^0'' jamim, which yet is immcdintoly explained to Biguify a 
whole year. It is therefore probable, that H was at the cud 
of the year, Cain brought of his ripe fruits an offering unto 
tho Lord. 

Kevettheless, though the evidence of this pasaage, m fiiTour 
of the antt<)iiity of distinguishing time by weeks, fail us, we 
have utlicr sulHcicnt proofs of its being used in very cariy ages. 

* Vid. |'|>H. ^ywfft. u (kn. iv. 3. 

t ArisLol. Ethk' Ith. *iii. np- is tub &n«m. 



II appours, that Nooh divided his days by nevenK, in sending 
the dove out oC the ark, Grn. viii, 1() — 111; and that tha 
aakie diviaion was used io Jacob's time ; for la the history of 
his aianinge wittt I.eah and Rachel, we meet witlt tliis ux- 
pre&bioii, " Luboii suid, Fuliil her w«elt. jl^V/ shtbhuaag, aiul w« 
wiU give thee this aieo fur the service which th«o shall wm 
with me yet seven other years;" chap. joax. 27. That tlie 
word V3tv iktbhuuHg Iicre signifies a week of day», is plain 
from its being expreMly distinguished from seven years ; and 
also because it was the custom in ancieut timett to keep mar- 
na|]^ feasts for seven days. It is said of Samson's wife, that 
" she wept before him the seven days, while their marriagft* 
feast lafited," in order to obtain from him the interpretatioa of 
a riddle, for explaining wliich " within the seven days of tho 
feast," he had offered a reward to his guest« ; Judges uv. 12. 17. 
As for the extmoniixuiry or prophetical we^ks, they coa- 
sisted of seven years each. And it is not unlikely, that this 
sort of computation by weeks of years, which is used in the 
prophetic writings, owed wja origin to the expreaeious irt which 
MoMMi records the institution of the year of jubilee : " Thoa 
sJiait number seven sabbatlis of years unto thee, &cvcn times 
■erea years; aful tlie bpace of tliu uc-ven babbutli>> of years 
slialj be unto thee forty and nine years : then shalt thou cause 
the trumpet of the jubilee to sounds and ye shall hallow the 
hfiieth year;" l^ev. rxv. 8— 10. Accordingly a day \a put 
for a year in £iekiel, where three hundred and ninety days 
means as many years, and forty days forty years: "1 have 
Appointed thee, saith the Lord, each day for a yoar;" chap, 
iv. it, 6. In tlie some sense seven days, or a week, is in the 
prophetic style seven years. Of this sort are the seventy 
weeks in the ninth chapter of Daniel's prophecy, ver- 24, 
which appears from hence, that having occasion immediately 
ufiir this prophecy to mention weeks in the ordinary accep- 
tatioo of the word, he expressly calls thera« by way of dia- 
tiaotioB from tho wocka he had been before speaking of, 
** weeks of days," chap. x. 1 — 3 ; for so is the expressioQ in 
the original, which wc render, ** three full weeks."* Bcsidea, 

* kli^et ds TMBparibm «i Vm» HsUaor. fwt i. c^. i. Ket. *. p. 65, 
MlK. AoMtl. ITM i MuiliAira Chieiwlacifal l^eiliM uo Um Sefswy Werti 
of Daaifct, p. 8, D, Loud. 17)4. 




U u eeftua, that to BHoy gicat ercati ■■ wn pnSeud !■ 
oome la ftm in the ipaee ti mewtmkf wcAi, cadd not W 

CRMRWd tlll5 KICDty WWiU 01 dsyS, llluui M ■■■ UMn OBB 

ynr isd ft RuT. Tw Hvcmy pfBplMml wmSf tBCfcniVi 
nDoni to finr bsDdrcd wud wmt^ vcara. 

NooCfas, wtth the Hebrew*, take tbeir nttme fron the nooo ; 

Ike word VTt cAodAoA, boiiig ookI bj tkem to signify botk a 

mm aoao, tod « moaiii ; beesBie Uwir Boedtt begia wkfa m 

■e«r OKKm. Aod therefore tbej toniirtod of twenty-otDe or 

thirty d>y«; for Mnee the rrnodical loiiar month i« atmdy 

tweotr-ntne dafi and e ht]f, they nde their monlhft to coo- 

■iit of tweotyHune ftnd thirty days altenntely ; oo that what 

oae iDOOKh wanted of being eqnml to the syoodieal oonne of 

the iBooa« wai nade ap m the oext ; and Irr thia maapa their 

□umths were nade to keep erea pace, protty neariy, with the 

lonationa. Thtu was the Jewish calendar regubted by the 

law of Moees, which appoioted the day of the ocw mooo, or 

rather pertiape the fint day of its appe«raiic«, to be a ukaui 

fe«tiraJ, aod the bee^nning' of a tnoath. But it iboidd aeem, 

that at the time of the deluge they were oot coanc to this 

regvlation ; but then the yean consisted oi twetve m oat h s, 

aad each month of thirty days. That the year conaisied of 

twelve months, may be inferred from the time that Noah lived 

io the ark, namely, a year and ten f(»v» ; for the flood bcgaa 

on the serenteenth day of the sccoud moath of the six hu- 

dredtb year of Xoah's life (see Gen. vii. U), and on the 

twcnty-fivventh of the Mcond month, io the six hundred and 

fiwl year of bis life, was the «artb dried ; chap- »iii. 13, 14.* 

Now if the munlh consisted of thirty days, u we shall pre- 

■cntly show that it did ; and if the year then in use was nearly 

dther lunar or solar, there must have been twelve months tOi 

the year ; for thirty multiplied by twelve » three bondred and] 

Mxty, that is, six days more thaa the lunar year, and five less 

* In ibe thirtecmh v«tM It » nkl, ibst ** in the sii huodreil uid ftni 
ycKT, th« fint day of Uw tBontb, dw wit«n wn« dncd frtMa tbc cuthr i 
No«li reiBO>««d th« covcriag of ^ *'^ *m1 looked, sad behold the fact ' 
ili« groond was dfj." Tbia taut b* vadenuml of Um watwi bciiig m 
drud bom oCUw hoc oftbseinh, that ther DO longer MOodoatWfnNudi 
ttr«rnh)>l»f, the esfth was doi •ufricitrnil]' kardeocd to be fit for Iwhilsliaa] 
■til iMBU' hvo mooilH sAot, vImii, oa Uk iwiiiiji winmli dsjr of (be I 
mouth, Nosh Uk the arfc. 



ihan the Bolar. Perhaps the form of the year then used waa 
the same afterward used by the KgypUans, conaisting of 
twelve moDlhs and five days. 

That the month, in Noah'ii time, conHisted o( thirty days, is 
made out thus. It is said in tlie account of the deluge, that 
" in the second mooUi, the seventeenth day of the month, the 
fountninH of the great deep were brokca up," cliap. vli. 1 1 ; 
and afterward it is said. " the ark rested in the seventh 
month, on tlie seronteenth day of the month, upon the moun- 
tains of Ararat;" chap. riii. 4- From the bej,'inuiuij of the 
floo<). therefore, to tlie time of the ark's resting, wan juot tive 
months. Now Uie waters are said to have prevailed upon the 
earth one hundred and tifty days. chap. vii. 24; viii. 3, 4. 
that is. till the time of the ark's reBting ; and one hundred and 
any divided by five, the number of the monUis> gives jiul 
thirty daya for each month. 

From this account of the antcdiluviati months and years, 
we may infer the absurdity of the supjiosition, which Varro 
and others have made, in order to take off the wor>der of 
men's lirini; so lon^^ before the Jlood, as the Scriptm^ history 
relates; namely, that their ages are to be computed, not by 
solar years, but by months ; whereas it plainly appears, that 
tliey computed by months and years before tlie flood, as we 
now do, and that iheir years were nearly e^^ual to our* ; and 
it cannot be thought wtguud an himtoriau an Moses would use 
the word years for months only, in some part of bis antedilu- 
vian history', and for twelve months In other parts uf it. Ce- 
Kid«8, this way of computing will rv'luee the lives of the uii- 
ctcnt patriarchs to a shorter period than ours. Peleg, who is 
said tu have live<l two hundred and thirty-nine yearn, Gen. xi. 
lU. will be found In reality to have lived only about twenty 
years; and i>orug, who is said to luive lived two hundred mod 
thirty years, chap. xi. 23, must have lived but a little more 
than aineteen; and both of them must have begul children 
before they vvere three years old, iustend of thirty, according 
to the Scriptoro account. 

Godwin is undoubtedly mistaken, when he saitli. " (hat (he 
Jews befofi.' thuir captivity, counted their months without any 
names, according to their number, oii the first, Uie second 



[liooK ni. 

raontli, he." For wc mot;t with the names of monthii in 
Scripture history long befuK that period ; as the month Abil 
Exod. xiii. 4; the mouth Zif, L Kin^ vi. 1. 37; th« mont 
Bid, Tcr. 3&; and th« mouth Elhaiiim; chap. viii. 2. 

We proceed now to coneider the Jewish yoar. which 
partly lunnr and wandering, and partly feolar and fixed, 
consixtcd sometimea of twelve, and MHnettmcM of iliit 
•yaodieal months; ordinaiily it consiated of IvtcIyq sy 
monthif, atnonntin£i; to thn?e hundred and hhyfour da^i. 
the yean of this form fall elcivcn days short of the solar y< 
had they tisod them constantly, their months and festii 
would have wandered in thirty-two years through all the fl««* 
sons. But euict' liie rites thoy were to |)erform at soma of 
their festivals had a necessary conneiion witli a particular 
seasoaoftiieyear; aatheofteringtbufirst-fruita of (he wheat- 
harvcat at Lhv feasit of pentecoftt, which must nccofiearily b* 
kept in thu summer, and their dtrelling in bootha at the faut 
of taburoacles, which would have been highly incouronient in 
winter; it was neccasary by some means to reduce tlie lunar 
yeora to the solar, that iheir months, and conacqucntly thulr 
fe^tivah, might always fall at the same season. This tbercfim 
they did by adding a wh<de month to the year, na often aa it 
wn.q needful, commonly once m three, and aometjmfB onoc in 
two years. This intercalary month waa added at the tmd of 
tiie year, after the montli Adar, and waa therefore called "inm 
veiuinr, or a second Adar.* 

The year nua also dtstinguiabed into the aril and sacnxl 
year; each of which h»d a dlffimmt beginning. The civil be- 
gan with the equiDOctial new moon in autumn ; the sikcrad, or 
eecle^iaatical, with the equinoctial new moon in spring. The 
crril, according to which all political mattera were rcguktod. 
waa the more ancient, and was perhaps the same with the 
patriarchal year, which we gave on account of before, and 
which is supposed to have originally commenced at the craa- 
tion. Heuce, since this year began in autumn, eomo have 
thought it probable the world was created at that seasoo. or 
fn its autumnal state, with reapect to that hemiaphere in which 

* MumoA. (le CoiiMvrfttione CattMtftrum, cap. » wL i. p. SM, ad 
nloca tianiiut d« ucnficos odiL h un. Dt Vul, Loud. ItOa. 

^MMi t4 



AdsOB was pl&C«d,* Bqc the pnmiaes, from which Uiia in- 
ferenoe is drawn, are somewhat uucertam, namely, that the 
ancient year was a fixed «olar year, always beginning at the 
•ame Beasoii » whereas wo have before shown, that the patri> 
arohal year conaiBtod of twelve montha of thirty days each, 
which fell about five dayn short of thu true nolar year. Un- 
bsa, therefore, we supiKWc, as mine hare done.-f that they 
■ddcd 6vc days to their Insi month, according to tho form of 
the annus S'abonaaaarius, or Uie Egyptian yoar,}: which five 
days were called iiftipat sirayofitvat, this year must haTc boon 
wandering, and the bct^inning of it have run thiough all the 
SMSoaB. Nay, evon Mppofting the addition of tho nfitpai eva- 
yofitwit, yet ih« neglect of five hours forty>nine minului, by 
which the Egyptian year fell short of the true solar year, would 
maktr the beginning of it wander through all the tusuMns in 
about fourteen hundred years ; so that, though it happened to 
begin at the autumnal equinox at the time when Moses retal- 
iated ih(> Jewihh calendar, it miErht liave begun originally at 
another Beaaon. However, it is thoagfatr that the feast of 
ia-gatheriugof the harvest, which must certainly be at autumn, 
being Bald to be " in Ihe end of the yeoir." Exod. xxiii. 16, 
xxxiv. 22, favours the opinion that the ancieut year begun at 
that season. Therefore, though some have suppOMd, that the 
world was created in spring,^ the mor& commonly received 
opinion is, that it wua created in autumn. In support of 
which some allege tho following passage in the first chapter 
of Qencsia. " The earth brought forth grass, the herb yioldmg 
seed, and the fruit-trco yielding fruit after his kind, whoee 
Heed iH in itself," vvr. 1 1 ; which, they say, muat be in au- 
tumn, when Uie fruits are ripe. 
As for tlio Jewish sacred, or ecclesiastical year, it began 

* Vid. Meya-di! Tproporibui etTeuii Uebraor. pan i. cap. L p. 4 — Ir, 
AhmuI. I734-, rt Tred. Spashenii Chronol. Silct. pan i- cap. i.; Talnnid 
(ft. Itoitl Iluhiiiiah, ai[>- t. ; AbaitiaMi At PrinripiD, Anni a COAMcrati«n« 
Nd*ituuu %d Calcem, bh. Cocri, p. 443—445. w<l>t. Ikixtotl l«0O. 

t Vid- g p an hMtn . Chmnul. 8acr. part i. cap. iji. p. e, Opcf. Oeognph. 
Chroiioloic. Su:. I^xd- Dal. 170t 

1 Sm StruiclikH't CImaabg]', by Soal^ book ir. dup. avU. p. ici, 
Loiid 1792. 

^ Jwobi CaptlU Vhmn. ia Qm. i. 14, p. 503. «dji. tuA cam Ixd. 
Capdl. Cununcnt «t Nut. Craio. la Vac Ite„ Aautel. 16«8. 



[nOOK II r. 

witti the month Niaan. the wvenlh of the civil year, about tlie 
vcnia] equinox; Exod. xii. 2, el wy. By tliis year tlie order 
of aJl thinr religiom ceremouie« wa« regulated ; m that the 
pusover, whtch wan kepi in the middle of the Brst month of 
this year, was, as it were, the mother of all the other fetitivale. 
While the Jewa continued in the land of Canaan, the be- 
j^nningn of thetr montlis and years were not settied by any 
astronomical rules or calculatiouB, but by the phasis or actual 
appearance of the new moon. When tlicy saw the new moon, 
they befE;an the month. Persons were therefore apptunted to 
watch on tJie tops of the mountains for the fLrst appearance 
of the uioon ailer the change. Aa soon &a they saw it, they 
informed the Sanhedrim, and public notice was given by 
lighting beacons throughout the land ; though after tiiey had 
b^n oiUin deceived by the Samaritans, who kindled false 
fireH, they used, say the mishnical rabbies, to proclaim itv ap- 
pearance by sending roesAengers. Vet as they had no wuntJis 
longer than thirty dayn, if they did not set the new moon the 
night fottowiiig the thirtieth day, they concluded the appear- 
ance waa obstructed by the clouds, and without watching any 
longer, made the next day tliu first day of the fojldwing 
month.* But atlvr Uie Jews becaiue dispersed through all 
na.tion8, whore they had no opportunity of bein