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B'nai B'ritli Women's Grand LoJge, District No. 4 



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Mr. & Mrs^ Roy Papermaster 


Jewish Encyclopedia 

A dcsciuptive: record of 



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists 


Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. {Departments of Post- 
Biblical Antiquities ; the Jews of America) . 

GoTTHARD Deutsch, Ph.D. (Department 
of History from 14^2 to igoi) . 

Louis GiNZBERG, Ph.D. {Department of 
Rabbinical Literature) . 

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D. (Departments of 
History from Ezra to I4g2 ; History of 
Post -Talmudic Literature) . 

Joseph Jacobs, B.A (Departments of the 
Jews of England and Anthropology ; Revi- 
sing Editor) . 

Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D. (Department of the Talmud). 

Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D. (Department of the Bible) . 

Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. (Departments of Theology 
and Philosophy) . 

Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D. (Chief of the 
Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor). 

Isidore Singer, Ph.D. (Department of Modern 
Biography from 1750 to igoi) . 

Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. (Departments of 
Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature) . 


Prolector and Managing Editor 


(see page v) 





N.Y. 2, N.Y. 







(Deijartmeiits uf P<M-BihUcal AntiQuitiea; the Jews of 

President of the American Jewish Historical Society ; Librarian, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 


(Department of Higtam from 1U$J to 1001.) 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 

Ohio ; Editor of " Deborah." 


(Department of Rahbinical Literature.) 
New Yort ; Author of " Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvatem." 


{Departments of History from Ezra to 11,92 ; History of Post- 

Talmudic Literature.) 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; 

Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library ; 

President of the Federation of American Zionists. 


{Departments of the Jews of Emjland and Anthropology; 
Beviging Editor.) 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England ; 
Author of " Jews of Angevin England," etc. 


(Department of the TaJmud.) 
Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; Author of "Dictionary of the Talmud." 


^Utpartiiuid 1,1 the Jiiljle.) 
Professor of Sero'tic Languages and Librarian In the University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; Author of "Relig- 
ion of the Babylonians and Ass>Tlans," etc. 


{DcpartmenUi of Theology atid Philosophy.) 

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York ; President of the Board of 

Jewish Ministers, New York. 


(Chief of the Bureau of Translation; Revising Editor.) 

Rabbi of the ^Vest End Synagogue, New York ; Vice-President 

of Board of Jewish Ministers, New York. 


Managing Editor. 
{Department of Modern Biography from 1750 to 1901.) 


(Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic 


Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge. Mass. ; 

Author of " The Religion of Israel," " Judaism and 

Christianity," etc. 



Rabbi of the Congregation Zichron Ephraim, Dean of the Jewish 
Theological Seminary, New York. 


Rabbi Emeritus of Zion Congregation, Chicago ; Author of " A 
Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language." 


Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Emanu-El, New York. 


Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, Chicago, 111.; Professor of 

Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of 

Chicago ; Editor of the " Reform Advocate." 


Head of the Department of Semitic and Egyptian Literatures, 
Catholic University of .\merica, Washington, D. C. 


Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto, 

Canada; Author of " History, Prophecy, and 

the Monuments." 


Rabbi of the Shearith Israel Congregation (Spanish and Portu- 
guese), New York ; President of the Advisory Board of 
Ministers of the Jewish Theological Seminary. 


Professor of Talmudic Literature, Hebrew Union College, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio ; Author of " Introduction to the Talmud." 


Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature and President of 

Andover Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass.; Author 

of a Commentary on the Book of Judges, etc. 


Rabbi of the Congregation Bene Israel : Professor of Homiletlc*. 

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio; President of 

Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America. 


Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature, University of 

Chicago, 111. ; Author of " The .Monuments and 

the Old Testament," etc. 




Chief of the Russian section of The Jewish Encyclo- 
In charsre of Slavonic Department, New York Public Library. 


President of Central Conference of American Rabbla ; Rabbi of 
Temple Emanu-El, New York. 


Rabbi of the ConjfreRation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal.; Pro- 
fessor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal. 


Editor of •' The Literary Digest," New York. 



Coedltor of the " Jewish Quarterly Review " ; Author of "Jew- 
ish Life In the Middle Ages," etc. ; Senior TuUjr 
in Jews' College, Loudon, England. 

W. BACHER, Ph.D., 

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, 


M. BRANN, Ph.D., 

Professor In the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Ger- 
many ; Editor of " Monatsscbrift fur Geschichte und 
Wlssenschaft des Judeuthums." 

H. BRODY, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Nachod, Bohemia, Austria ; Coeditor of "Zeltschrift fur 
Hebrjiische Bibliographie." 


Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople, 



Professor of Literary Arabic at the Special School of Oriental 
Languages, Paris, France ; Member of the French Institute. 


Author of " Isturiya Yevreyev," Odessa, Russia. 


Principal of Jews' College, London, England; Author of "The 
Jewish Religion," etc. 


Professor of Semitic Philology, University of Budapest, Hungary. 


Chief Rabbi of Vienna, Austria. 


St. Petersburg, Russia. 


Chief of the Hebrew Department of the Imperial Public Library, 
St. Petersburg, Russia. 


Chief Rabbi of France ; Honorary President of the Alliance 

Israelite Universelle ; Officer of the Legion 

of Honor, Paris, France. 


Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary ; Corresponding Member of the 
Royal Academy of Historj-, Madrid, Spain. 


Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Berlin ; Meran, 



Member of the French Institute ; Professor at the Free School 

of Political Science, Paris, France ; Author of 

" Israel chez les Nations." 


Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Editor of 
" Revue des Etudes Julves," Paris, France. 


Chief Rabbi of Padua ; Professor of Hebrew at the University, 
Padua, Italy. 


Chief Rabbi of Szegedin, Hungary; Author of " Die Aramalschen 


Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Chief Rabbi of 
Florence, Italy. 

H. OORT, D.D., 

Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the State 
University, Leyden, Holland. 


Formerly Librarian of the Reale Biblioteca Palatlna, Parma, 



Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and 

Brussels ; President of the Deutsch-Jiidische 

Gemeindebund, Berlin, Germany. 


Rabbi in Warsaw, Russia. 


Professor of Hebrew, University College, London, England; 

Reader in Rabbinic, University of Cambridge ; 

Author of "Studies in Judaism." 


Secretary-General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris, 



Professor of Philosophy, University of Bern, Switzerland ; Editor 
of " Archiv fur Geschichte der Philosophie," etc. 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages, 
University of Berlin, Germany. 


Master of St. John's College, Cambridge. England ; Editor of 
" Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," etc. 



A Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. , 

President of the American Jewish Historical 
Society ; President of the Board of Directors of 
the Jewish Theological Seminary of America ; 
Librarian of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C. 

A. A A. Amar, 

Paris, France. 

A. Bii Alexander Biichler, Ph.D., 

Uabbi, Keszthely, Hungary. 

A. F A. Freimann, Ph.D., 

Editor (if the "Zeitschrift fiir Hebraisehe 
Bibliographic"; Librarian of the Hebrew 
Department, Stadtbibliolhek, Frankfort^on- 
tbe-Main, Germany. 

A. Fe Alfred Feilchenfeld, Ph.D., 

Principal of the Uealschule, Fiirth, Bavaria. 

A. F.-G A. Frankl-Griin, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Krenisir. Moravia, Austria. 

A. Ga Abraham Galante, 

Editor of "La Buena Esperanca," Smyrna. 
Asia Minor. 

A. Gu Adolf Guttman, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Syracuse, N. Y. 
A. H Abraham de Harkavy, 

Librarian of the Hebrew Department of the 
Imperial Public Library, St. Petersburg, 

A. H. R . . . . A. H. Rosenberg-, 

New York City. 
A. K A. Kaminka, Ph.D., 

Rabbi ; Secretary of the Israelitische Allianz 

zu Wien, Vienna, Austria. 
A. Kai Alois Kaiser, 

Cantor, Temple Oheb Shalom, Baltimore, Md. 

A. Ki Alexander Kisch, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Prague. Bohemia, Austria. 

A. Ku A. Kurrein, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Teplilz. Bohemia, Austria. 

A. M. F Albert M. Friedenberg, B.S., Lli.B., 

Counselor at Law; Correspondent of "The 
Jewish Comment," Baltimore, Md. ; New 
York City. 

A. P A. Porter, 

Formerly Associate Editor of "The Forum." 
New York ; Revising Editor " Standard Cyclo- 
pedia," New York City. 

A. Pe A. Peiginsky, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

A. R A. Rhine, 

Rabbi, Hot Springs, Ark. 

A. S. W A. S. Waldstein, B. A. , 

New York City. 

B. B Benuel H. Brumberg, 

Contributor to " National Cyclopedlaof Amer- 
ican Biography," New York City. 

B. Ei Benzion Eisenstadt, 

New York City. 
B. Fr B. Friedberg, 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. 
B. L Benno Lewinson, 

Counselor at Law, New York City. 

B. P Bernhard Pick, Ph.D., D.D., 

Fonncrly Paster of St. John's Lutherao 
Church, Albany, N. Y. ; New York City. 

B. T Blanche Tausik, 

.New York City. 

B. Te Bernhard Templer, Ph.D., 

Rablii, Vii'iina, .Austria. 

B. Z Bernhard Ziemlich, Ph.D., 

Ralibi, .Nuremberg, Gerinany. 

C. C. T Charles C. Torrey, Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Yale Uni- 
versity. New Haven, Conn. 

C. I. de S. . . .Clarence I. de Sola, 

President of the Federation of Canadian 
Zionists, Montreal, Canada. 

C. J. M Charles J. Mendelsohn, 

Philadelphia. Pa. 

C. L Caspar Levias, M.A., 

Instiuctor in Exegisisand Talmudlc Aramaic, 
Hebrew t:nion College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

C. S Carl Siegfried, Ph.D., LL.D. 'decea.sed). 

Late Pnife^.sor of Theolngy, University of 
Jena, Germany. 

D Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. , 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

D. Ba David Bachrach, 

Baliiuiore, Md. 

D. G; Baron David von Giinzburg, 

St. Petersburg, Russia. 

D. P David Philipson, D.D., 

Rabbi. B"ne Israel Congregation ; Professor of 
Homiletics, Hebrew Union College, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

D. Su David Sulzberger, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

D. W. A David Werner Amram, LL. B., 

Counselor at Law, Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. A Edouard Andr^, 

Paris, France. 

E. C Executive Committee of the Editorial 


E. Q. H Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D.. LL.D., 

Rabbi, Sinai Cuiigregation ; Professor of Rab- 
binical Literature and Philosophy, University 
of Chicago; Chicago, 111. 

E. I. N E. I. Nathans, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. J Emil Jelinek, 

Vienna, .Vustrla. 

E. L Eude Lolli, 

tliief Rabbi : Professor of Hebrew, Univer- 
sity I if Piiilua, Italy. 

E. Ms Edg-ar Mels, 

New York City. 

E. N Eduard Neumann, Ph.D., 

Chief Uabbi, Nagy-Kanisza, Hungary. 

E. N. A Elkan N. Adler, 

Lomlon. Knglaiid. 

E. Schr E. Schreiber, Ph.D., 

Rabbi. Euiauu-EI Congregation, Chicago, 111. 



E. Sd E. Schwarzfeld, LL.D., 

Secretary of the Jewish Colonization Associa- 
tion, Paris, France. 

E. SI E. Slyper, 

Amsterdam. Holland. 

E. C Frank Cramer, B.Sc, 

\e\v York City. 

F. H. V Frank H. Vizetelly, F.S.A., 

Associate Editor of the "" Columbian Cyclo- 
pedia" and of the Standard Dictionary; 
New York City. 

F. li. C Francis Li. Cohen, 

Principal Rabbi, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia. 

F. T. H Frederick T. Haneman, M.D., 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

G Richard Gottheil, Ph.D., 

Profe^^or of Semitic Languages, Columbia 
University, New York : Chief of the Oriental 
Department, New York Public Library : New 
York City. 

G. A. B George A. Barton, Ph.D., 

Professor of Biblical Literature and Semitic 
L:\nguages, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, 

G. A. K George Alexander Kohut, 

Formerly Rabbi in Dallas, Texas; Assistant 
Librarian of the Jewish Theological Seminary 
of America, New York City. 

G. F. M George F. Mooi-e, M.A., D.D., 

Professor of Biblical Liteiature and the His- 
tory of Religions, Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

G. L Goodman Lipkind, B.A., 

Rabbi, New York City. 

G. Ro G. Rosenmann, Ph.D., 

Vienna, Austria, 

H. Ab Herman Abramowitz, 

New York City. 

H. B H. Brody, Ph.D., 

Rubbi; coeditor of the "Zeitschrift fiir He- 
briiische Bibliographie " ; Nachod, Bohemia, 

H. Ba H. Baar, 

Formerly Rabbi in New Orleans; Superin- 
tendent, Hebrew Orphan Asylum, New York 

II. G. E H. G. Enelow, D.D., 

Rabbi, Congregation Adath Israel, Louisville, 

H. Gut H. Guttenstein, 

New York City. 

H. Hir Hartwig Hirschfeld, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jews" College, Loudon. England. 

H. Hirs.. H. Hirschenson, 

New York City. 

H. M Henry Malter, Ph.D., 

Assistant Professor, Hebrew Union College, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

H. N H. Necarsulmer, 

Couiiselor at Law, New York City. 

H. R Herman Rosenthal, 

Chiif of the Slavonic Department, New York 
Public Library, New York City. 

H. S Henrietta Szold, 

Secretary of the Jewish Publication Society of 
America ; New York City. 

H. V Hermann Vogelstein, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Ki'miirsberg. East Prussia, Germany. 

I. A Israel Abrahams, 

Reader in Rabbinic, University of Cambridge; 
Coeditor of " The Jewish Quarterly Review "' ; 
Cambridge, England. 

I. Be Immanuel Benzinger, Ph.D. , 

Professor of old Testament Exegesis, Uni- 
versity of Berlin, Germany ; Jerusalem, Pal- 

I. Ber Israel Berlin, 

Chemist, New York City. 

I. Br Isaac Broyde [Oificc Editor), 

Doctor of the University of Paris, France ; for- 
merly Librarian of the Alliance Israelite Uni- 
verselle, Paris, France ; New York City. 

I. E Ismar Elbogen, Ph.D., 

Instructor at the Lehranstalt fiir die Wissen- 
scliaft des Judenthums, Berlin, Germany. 

I. G. D I. George Dobsevage, 

New York City. 

I. li Israel L^vi, 

Rabbi; Professor at the Jewish Theological 
Seminary, Paris ; Editor of " Revue des Etudes 
Juives"; Paris, France. 

I. M. C I. M. Casanowicz, Ph.D., 

United States National Museum, Washington, 
D. C. 
I. M. P Ira Maurice Price, B.D., Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera- 
ture, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

I. S I. Schwartz, 

Paris, France. 

I. Z Ignaz Ziegler, Ph.D., 

Rabbi. Carlsbad, Bohemia, Austria. 

J Joseph Jacobs, B.A., 

Furinerly President of the Jewish Historical 
Society of England ; Corresponding Member 
of the Hoyal Academy of History, Madrid; 
New Y'ork City. 

J. D. E J. D. Eisenstein, 

New York City. 

J. E. B J. E. Boutelje, 

Amsterdam. Holland. 

J, F. M J. F. McLaughlin, M.A., B. D., 

Professor of Oriental Langu-ises and Litera- 
ture, Victoria College, Toronto, Canada. 

J. F. McC.J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Oriental Languages, University 
College, Toronto, Canada. 

J. G. L J. G. Lipman, Ph.D., 

Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Ex- 
periment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

J. de H J. de Haas, 

Journalist; Secretary of the Federation of 
American Zionists, New Y'ork City. 

J. H. G Julius H. Greenstone, 

Rabbi, Philadelphia, Pa. 
J. H. H Joseph Hermann Hertz, 

Rabbi, Pretoria, South Africa. 

J. Hy J. Hyams, 

Bombay, India. 

J. Ka Jacques Kahn, 

Rabbi, Paris, France. 

J. So Joseph Sohn, 

Contributor to " The New International En- 
cyclopedia"; formerly with "The Forum"; 
New York City. 

J. Sto Joseph Stolz, D.D., 

Rabbi, Chicago, 111. 

J. Stos Joseph Stijssel, Ph.D., 

r.aijiii, Stuttgart, Wuritemberg, Germany. 

J. T J. Theodor, Ph.D., 

iiablij, Bojanowo, Posen, Germany. 

J. V Jacob Voorsanger, D.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera- 
ture, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. ; 
Rabbi, Congregation Emanu-El, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

J. Z. L J. Z. Lauterbach, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

K Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D., 

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New 
Y'ork ; President of the Hebrew Union Col- 
lege, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



K. B Karl Budde, Ph.D., 

Professiir of Did IVstainent Exegesis, Univer- 
sity of Marburg, Uerinany. 

L. B Iiudwig' Blau, Ph.D., 

P.ofessor, Jewish Thei)logicaI Seminary ; Edi- 
tor of "Magyar Zsidd-Szemle " ; Budapest, 

L. Be L. Belleli, 

London, England. 

L. E li. Edelstein, 

New York t'ity. 

Zi.Ot Louis Ginzbergr, Ph.D., 

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Sem- 
inary of America, New York City. 

L. Grii Lazarus Griinhut, 

Director, Orphan Asylum, Jerusalem, Pales- 

L. La Laura Landau, 

New York City. 

L. Le Leo Lewinsohn, 

New York City. 

L. M L. Mag-nes, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

L. N. D Lewis N. Dembitz, D.H.L., 

Counselor at Law, Louisville, Ky. 

L. V Ludwig Venetianer, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Ujpest, Hungary. 

L. Wie Leo Wiener, 

Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages, Har- 
vard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

L. Y L. Ysaye, 

Vienna, Austria. 

SI. A M. Abrahams, 

Leeds, England. 

M. Ad Michael Adler, B.A., 

Rabbi, Hammersmith Synagogue; Fellow of 
Jews' College, London, England. 

M. A. M Martin A. Meyer, 

Rabbi, Temple Beth Emeth, Albany, N. Y. 

M. Co Max Cohen, 

Counselor at Law, New York City. 

M. Ei Mathias Eisler, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Klausenburg, Hungary. 

M. F Michael Friedlander, Ph.D., 

Principal, Jews' College, London, England. 

M. Fr M. Franco, 

Principal, Alliance Israelite Universelle 
School. Demotica, Rumelia, Turkey. 

M. Qar M. Garsson, 

New York City. 

M. Go Milton Goldsmith, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

M. Gr M. Grunwald, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Vienna. Austria. 

M.J. K Max J. Kohler, M.A., LL.B., 

Counselor at Law ; Recording Secretary of 
the American Jewish Historical Society, New 
York City. 

M. K Meyer Kayserling, Ph.D., 

Uabbi, Budapest, Hungary. 

M. L. B Moses Lob Bambergrer, Ph.D., 

Rabbi ; Lecturer in Rabbinic, Jewish Semi- 
nary, Wiirzburg, Bavaria, Germany. 

M. L6 Max Lbhr, Ph.D., 

Professor of Old Testament Theology and Ex- 
egesis, University of Breslau, Germany. 

M. Mr M. Marg^el, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Pozega, Slavonia, Austria. 

M. R Max Rosenthal, M.D., 

Visiting Physician, German Dispensary, New 
York City. 

M. Sc Max Schloessingrer,Ph.D.(0^ceJEdifor), 

Rabbi, New York City. 

M. Sel Max Seli^sohn (Office EdWjr), 

Doctor of the University of Paris, France; 
New 'N'ork City. 

M. St Marcus Stiegrlitz, 

Berlin, (Germany. 

M. Sta M. Stark, 

Kai)bi, Konlgllche Welnberge, near Prague 

Bohemia, Austria. 

M. Su Mayer Sulzbergrer, 

IMiiladclpliia, Pa. 

M. W Max Weisz, Ph.D., 

Budapest, Hungary. 

M. We M. Weissberg, 

stanislaw-Ziireiiicze, Gallcla, Austria. 

M. W. L Martha Washington Levy, B.A., 

Contribut(jr to "The New International En- 
cyclopedia," New York City. 

M. W. M....Mary W. Montgomery, Ph.D., 

New York ( ity. 

M. Z M. Zametkin, 

New York ( ity. 

N. P N. Porgres, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Leipslc, Germany. 

N. SI N. Slouschz, 

Paris, France. 

N. T. L N. T. London, 

New York City. 

P. B Philipp Bloch, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Posen, Germany. 

P. Wi Peter Wiernik, 

Journalist, New York City. 

R. Qu Raphael Gug'grenheimer, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Kolin, Bohemia, Austria. 

R. H. K Rosa H. Knorr, 

New York City. 

S Isidore Singer, Ph.D., 

Managi.N(; Editor. New York City. 

S. A. B Samuel Augustus Binion, M.D., 

New York City. 

S . Ba Solomon Bamberger, 

Strasburg, Germany. 

S. Be Simon Bernfeld, 

Berlin, Germany. 

S. E Samuel Ehrenfeld, Ph.D., 

Prague, Bohemia. Austria. 

S. Fr Siegmund Frankel, Ph.D., 

Profess((r of Semitic Philology, University of 
Breslau, Germany. 

S. Fy Siegmund Frey , 

Rabbi, ( hicago. 111. 

S. K S. Kahn, 

Rabbi, .N'imes, France. 

S. Kr Samuel Krauss, Ph.D., 

Professor, Normal College. Budapest, Hungary. 

S. Le .S. Levy, M.A., 

Rabbi, London, England. 

S. Lev S. Levene, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

S. M S. Mendelsohn, Ph.D., 

Rabbi. Wilmington. N. C. 

S. Man S. Mannheimer, B.L., 

Instructor, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 


S. Mdl S. Mandl, Ph.D., 

Rabbi. Neutit,schm, Moravia, Austria. 

S. Mu S. Miihsam, Ph.D., 

Chief Rabbi, Grutz, Styria. Austria. 

S. P Samuel Poznanski, Ph.D., 

Hal)lii. Warsaw, Poland. Russia. 

S. Po S. Posner, 

Warsaw, Poland, Russia. 



S. S Solomon Schechter, M. A., liitt.D., 

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary of America, New York City. 

S. Sa Sigismund Salfeld, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Mayence, Hesse, Germany. 

S. Se Sigmund Seelig-mann, 

Rabbi, Amsterdam, Holland. 

T Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL..D., 

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

TJ. C TJmberto Cassuto, 

Florence, Italy. 

V. O Vittore Castiglioni, 

Chief Rabbi, Rome, Italy. 

v. E Victor Rousseau En^anuel, 

Laurel, Md. 

v. R Vasili Rosenthal, 

Kremeuchug, Russia. 

V. Ry Victor Ryssel, Ph.D., 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and 
Semitic Languages, University of Zurich, 

W. B W. Bacher, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Buda- 
pest, Hungary. 

"W. N Wilhelm Nowack, Ph.D., 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Uni- 
versity of Strasburg, Germany. 


N. B.— In the following list subjects likely to be sought for under various headings are repeated 

under each heading. 

America : see Jamaica ; Lancaster. 

Amygdalon, Pool of: see Hezekiah, Pool of. page 

Antonia, Tower of, Jerusalem 139 

" Arba' Turim," Page from the First Edition of Jacob ben Asher's, Piove di Sacco, 1475 29 

Archeology: see Coin; El-Amarna; Jehu; Lachish ; Seal; Tombs. 

Arches, Street of, Jerusalem 155 

Architecture: see Jachin; Job's Well; Synagogues; Tombs. 

Ark of the Law and Perpetual Lamp of the Synagogue at Ramsgate, England 599 

Entablature of the, of the Synagogue at Lancaster, Pa 605 

Arms of Sir Otto Jaff e 61 

of the Jews of Judenburg 374 

Art: see Archeology; Architecture; Coat op Arms; Costume; Kaufmann, Isidor; Ketubah; 
Lamts, Perpetual; Lamps, Sabbath; Manuscripts; Typography. 

Ashkenazic Synagogue, Jerusalem. After Schwarz, 1850 137 

The Great, Jerusalem 188 

Atonement, Day of, Kapparot Ceremony Before the 435 

Bar Kokba, Obverse of a Coin of. Bearing a Laver 630 

Basins and Ewers, Used for Washing of the Hands by Priests 630-633 

Bir Ayyub or Job's Well, South of Jerusalem 202 

Black Obelisk, Tribute of Jehu to Shalmaneser XL, as Depicted on .the 89 

Boaz, Column of: see Jachin. 

Cairo Genizah, Thirteenth-Century Manuscript of Kohelet Kabbah, from the 531 

Catacombs, Plan of the, on the Mount of Olives, East of Jerusalem 147 

see also Tombs. 

Cave Leading to the Traditional Tombs of the Judges, Near Jerusalem 147 

Leading to the Traditional Tombs of the Kings, Near Jerusalem 148 

on the Top of Tell Jafat, Site of Ancient Jotapata 298 

Censorship : see Cuzari. 

Ceremonial: see Ark op the Law; Ketubah; Lamps, Perpetual; Lamps, Sabbath; Laver. 

Citadel of Zion, Jerusalem 144 

Coat of Arms of Sir Otto Jaff e 61 

Coin of Bar Kokba, Bearing a Laver 630 

Column of Jachin as Restored by Chipiez 19 

Contracts, Marriage : see Ketubah. 

Costume, Amsterdam, Seventeenth Century 601 

Jerusalem 143 

of Karaite Jews 442, 445 

Russia 458 

Cuneiform Tablet Found at Lachish Mentioning Abdi Heba of Jerusalem 120 

" Cuzari," Censored Page from the First Edition of Judah ha-Levi's, Fano, 1506 849 

Damascus Gate, Jerusalem 150 

David, Tower of, Jerusalem 143 



David's Street, Jerusalem 156 

Documents ; see Ketubah. 

"Eben Bohan," First Page from the First Edition of Kalonymus', Naples, 1489 427 

El-Amarua, One of the Tablets Found at, Mentioning Abdi Heba of Jerusalem 120 

En-rogel or Job's Well, South of Jerusalem 202 

Eternal Lamps: see Lamps, Perpetual. 
Europe: see Italy; Karlsbad; Konigsberg. 

Fano : see Judah ha-Levi. 

First Editions: Censored Page from Judah ha-Levi's "Cuzari," Fano, 1506 349 

Page from Jacob ben Asher's " Arba' Turim," Piove di Sacco, 1475 29 

Page from the Judaeo-German " Yosippon," Zurich, 1546 263 

Page from Kalonymus' " Eben Bohan," Naples, 1489 427 

Page from Mordecai Jaffe's "Lebushim," Lublin, 1590 59 

Page from the " Yosippon," Mantua, 1475-80 261 

Gate, Damascus, Jerusalem 150 

Exterior of the Golden, Jerusalem 145 

Interior of the Golden, Jerusalem 151 

Square Outside the Jaffa, Jerusalem 150 

Zion, Jerusalem 152 

Germany: see Karlsbad; Konigsberg. 

Golden Gate, Exterior and Interior Views of the, Jerusalem 145, 151 

Grave of Maimonides, Near Tiberias 215 

Grotto of Jeremiah, North of Jerusalem 98 

Leading to the Traditional Tombs of the Kings, Near Jerusalem 148 

Haram Area, Site of the Temple 153^ 

Hereford Mappa Mundi, Dated 1280, Showing Jerusalem in the Center of the World 128 

Hezekiah, Pool of, Jerusalem 136 

Hippicus, Tower of, Jerusalem 142 

Incunabula : see Arba' 'Turim ; Eben Bohan ; Orah Haytim ; Yosippon. 
Inscriptions: see Coin; Seal. 

Isaac Blessing Jacob. From a " Teutsch Chumesh " 20 

. From the Sarajevo Haggadah, fourteenth century 20 

Italy, Map of, Showing Places Where Jewish Communities Have Existed 9 

Ixar, Page from Jacob ben Asher's " Orah Hayyim," Printed in 1485 at 13 

Jabal Karantal and Probable Site of Ancient Jericho Ill 

Jachin, Column of, as Restored by Chipiez 19 

Jacob Receiving Isaac's Blessing 20 

Jacob's Dream 21 

Jacob ben Asher, Page from the First Edition of the " Arba' Turim," Piove di Sacco, 1475 29 

Page from the " Orah Hayyim," Printed at Ixar, 1485 15 

Jacobi, Abraham, American Physician 44 

Jacobson, Israel, German Reformer 47 

Jacoby, Johann, German Physician and Statesman 49 

Jaffa Gate, Square Outside the, Jerusalem 150 

Plan of the Modern City of 52 

Jaffe, Mordecai, Page from the First Edition of the " Lebushim," Lublin, 1590 59 

Jaffe, Sir Otto, Arms of 61 

Jamaica, Synagogue at Spanish Town 67 

Jastrow, Marcus, American Rabbi and Scholar 78 

Jehoshaphat, Valley of 87 

Jehu, Tribute of, to Shalmaneser II. From the Black Obelisk 89 

Jeiteles, Jonas Mischel, Austrian Physician 91 

Jellinek, Adolf, Austrian Rabbi and Scholar 92 



Jeremiah, Grotto of, North of Jerusalem 98 

Jericho, Jabal Karautal and Probable Site of Ancient. 1 10, m 

Jerusalem, Ashkenazic Synagogue. After Schwarz, 1850 137 

A Typical Street in 154 

Bird's-Eye View of 140 

Cave Leading to the Traditional Tomb of the Judges, Near 147 

Citadel of Zion 144 

Cross-Sectional View of (West to East), as Seen from the South 118 

Damascus Gate 150 

David's Street 156 

Exterior of the Golden Gate 145 

Golden Gate, from Within the City of 151 

Great Ashkenazic Synagogue 138 

Grotto of Jeremiah, North of 98 

Grotto Leading to the Traditional Tombs of the Kings, Near 148 

Haram Area, Site of the Temple 153 

Hereford Mappa Mundi, Showing Jerusalem in the Center of the World 128 

Job's Well, South of 202 

Map of Modern Frontispiece and 149 

Showing Southern Wall at Various Times 123 

Showing Topographical Features Frontispiece 

Time of the Crusades Frontispiece 

Time of Destruction (70 c.E.) Frontispiece 

Time of Nehemiah Frontispiece 

One of the El-Amarna Tablets Mentioning Abdi Heba of 120 

Panorama of Modern folder between 150-151 

Plan of the Catacombs on the Mount of Olives, East of 147 

Circa 1600 135 

the Tombs of the Judges (Upper Level) 146 

Pool of Hezekiah 136 

Sectional View of the Tombs of the Judges, Near 146 

Sketch Showing Topographical Features of 119 

Square Outside the Jaffa Gate 150 

Street of Arches Leading to the Palace of Herod 155 

Tower of Antonia 139 

Towers of David and Hippicus 142 

Valley of Jehoshaphat 8^ 

View of, from the North 141 

Wailing-Place 4^3 

Zion Gate l-^- 

Jessel, Sir George, English Master of the Rolls 15* 

"Jewish Chronicle, The," First Page of the First Issue of 1~^ 

Jewish Colonial Trust, Share Certificate of the 1 ' * 

Job's Well, South of Jerusalem 203 

Joel, Manuel, German Rabbi 209 

Johauan ben Zakkai, Traditional Tomb of, Near Tiberias 215 

Josel of Rosheim, Seal of 244 

Joseph and His Brothers. From the Sarajevo Haggadah 24 < 

Sold by His Brothers. From the Sarajevo Haggadah 248 

Traditional Tomb of. Near Nablus (Shechem) 246 

ben Gorion: Page from the First Edition of the Judteo-German " Yosippon," Zurich, 1646 263 

Page from the First Edition of the " Yosippon," Mantua, 1475-80 261 

Jost, Isaac Marcus, German Historian 299 

Jotapata, Cave on the Top of Tell Jafat, Site of Ancient 298 

Judah ha-Levi ; Censored Page from the First Edition of the " Cuzari," Fano, 1506 349 

Judah Low ben Bezaleel, Tombstone of, at Prague ^'^ 

Judenburg, Arms of the Jews of l^ 

Judges, Tombs of the. Cave Leading to the Traditional, Near Jerusalem 147 

Plan and Sectional View of the Traditional, Near Jerusalem 146 



" Kaddish," Music of 404-^07 

Kaempf, Saul Isaac, Austrian Rabbi and Orientalist 408 

Kahn, Zadoc, Chief Rabbi of France 413 

Kaliscber, Zebi Hirsch, German Rabbi 421 

Kalonymus ben Kalonymus; First Page from the First Edition of the "Eben Bohan," Naples, 1489. . . 427 

Kapparot Ceremony Before the Day of Atonement 435 

Karaite Jews 442, 445 

Karlsbad, Synagogue at 449 

Kaufmann, David, Austrian Scholar 457 

Isidor, " The Chess-Players, " from the Painting by 458 

Kayserling, Meyer, German Rabbi and Historian 460 

" Kerobot," Music of 469-471 

Ketubah, or Marriage Contract, Dated Amsterdam, 5419 = 1659 476 

Ancona, 5565 = 1805 477 

Constantinople, 5591 = 1831 477 

Mantua, 5398 = 1638 473 

Rome, 5562 = 1802 478 

Rome, 5576 = 1816 475 

Key and Bolt Used in Modern Syria 480 

Kiamil Pasha, Turkish Official 483 

" Ki Lo Na'eh," Music of 493 

King : Seal of Obadiah, " Servant of the King " 502 

Kings, Tombs of, Grotto Leading to the Traditional, Near Jerusalem 148 

Kohelet Rabbah, Thirteenth-Century Manuscript of. From the Cairo Genizah 531 

" Kol Nidre, " Music of 542-546 

Kompert, Leopold, Austrian Author 548 

Konigsberg, Synagogue at 550 

Kouigswarter, Baron Moritz, Austrian Deputy and Philanthropist 552 

" Kotel ha-Ma'arabi " : see Wailing-Place. 

Kuranda, Ignaz, Austrian Deputy and Political Writer 584 

Lachish : Sectional View of Excavations at Tell al-Hasi, Showing Seven Strata of Cities 593 

Siege of, by the Troops of Sennacherib 591 

Tell al-Hasi, Site of Ancient 592 

Lamps, Perpetual, Various Forms 599-601 

Sabbath, Lighting the. From a Passover Haggadah of 1695 601 

Sabbath, Various Forms 602-603 

Lancaster, Entablature of the Ark of the Law of the Synagogue at. Eighteenth Century 605 

Landau, Ezekiel, German Rabbi 607 

Lasker, Eduard, German Politician 622 

Lassalle, Ferdinand, German Socialist 624 

Laver, Obverse of a Bar Kokba Coin, Bearing a 630 

Lavers, Consisting of Ewers and Basins, Various Forms of 630-633 

Lazarus, Emma, American Poetess 650 

Tablet with Poem by, Affixed to the Liberty Monument, New York 651 

Moritz, German Writer 653 

Lebanon, Mount, The Forests of 656 

Lebensohn, Abraham, Russian Hebraist and Poet 657 

"Lebushim," Page from the First Edition of Mordecai Jaffe's, Lublin, 1590 59 

"Le-Dawid Baruk," Music of 660-661 

Leeser, Isaac, American Rabbi 663 

Leghorn, Synagogue at 664 

" Lekah Do'di," Music of 676-677 

Lemberg, Interior of the Synagogue on Wechslergasse 679 

Lublin, Page from the First Edition of Mordecai Jaffe's " Lebushim," Printed in 1590 at 59 

Maimonides, Grave of, Near Tiberias . . 215 

Mantua, Page from the First Edition of the " Yosippon," Printed in 1475 at 261 

Manuscripts: see Ketubah; Kohelet Rabbah. 



Map of Italy, Showing Places Where Jewish Communities Have Existed 9 

of Jerusalem, Showing Position of Southern Wall ai. Various Times 128 

Modern Frontispiece and 149 

Showing Topographical Features Fnmtiitpiere 

Time of the Crusades Fr,mtig]nece 

Time of Destruction (70 c.e.) Frontiimiece 

Time of Nehemiah f^ontiirpieee 

of the Modern City of Jaffa 152 

The Hereford Mappa Mundi, 1280, Showing Jerusalem in the Center of the World 128 

Marriage Contracts: see Ketubah. 
Monuments: see Black Obelisk ; Lachish. 

Mosque of Omar, Jerusalem I53 

Music, " Kaddish " 404^07 

" Kerobot " 469-471 

" Ki Lo Na'eh " 493 

" Kol Nidre " 543-546 

" Le-Dawid Baruk " 660-661 

" Lekah Dodi " 676-677 

Xablus (Shechem), Traditional Tomb of Joseph, Near 246 

Naples, First Page from the First Edition of Kalonymus' "Eben Bohan," Printed in 1489 at 427 

Olives, Mount of. Plan of the Catacombs on the 147 

Omar, Mosque of, Jerusalem 153 

" Orah Hayyim," Page from Jacob ben Asher's, Printed at Ixar, 1485 13 

Palestine : see Jaffa ; Jericho ; Jerusalem ; Jotapata ; Lachish ; Lebanon ; Tombs. 

Periodicals : see Jewish Chronicle. 

Perpetual Lamps, Various Forms of 599-601 

Piove di Sacco, Page from the First Edition of Jacob ben Asher's " Arba' Turim," Printed in 1475 at. . 29 

Plan of the Catacombs on the Mount of Olives, East of Jerusalem 147 

of Excavations at Tell al-Hasi (Lachish) 593 

of Jerusalem, Circa 1600 135 

of the Modern City of Jaffa 52 

of the Traditional Tombs of the Judges 146 

Pool of Hezekiah, Jerusalem 136 

Portraits: see 

Jacobi, Abraham. KAEMPii", Saul Isaac. Landau, Ezekiel. 

Jacobson, Israel. Kahn, Zadoc. Lasker, Edcard. 

JACOBY, JOHANN. KaLISCHER, ZEBI HIR8CH. Lassalle, Ferdi.naxd. 

Jastrow, Marcus. Kadfmann, David. Lazarus. Emma. 

Jeiteles, Jonas Mischel. Kayserling, Meter. Lazarus, Moritz. 

Jellinek, Adolf. Kiamil Pasha. Lebensohn. Abraham. 

Jessel, Sir George. Kompert, Leopold. Leeseb. Isaac. 

JoEl, Manuel. KOnigswarter, Baron Moritz. 

JosT, Isaac Marcus. Kuranda, Ignaz. 

Prague, Tombstone of Judah LkJw ben Bezaleel at 854 

Bamsgate, England, Ark of the Law of the Synagogue at 599 

Sabbath Lamp, Lighting the. From a Passover Haggadah of 1695 601 

Lamps, Various Forms of 602-603 

Seal of Josel of Rosheim '"^^ 

of Obadiah, " Servant of the King " 502 

Sennacherib, Troops of. Besieging Lachish ^^^ 

Shalmaneser II., Tribute of Jehu to. From the Black Obelisk ^9 

Share Certificate of the Jewish Colonial Trust ^"'^ 

Sicily, Map Showing Places Where Jewish Communities Have Existed 9 

Siege of Lachish by the Troops of Sennacherib ^^^ 

Spanish Town, Jamaica, Synagogue at " ' 



Street, A Typical, in Jerusalem 154 

of Arclies Leading to the Palace of Herod, Jerusalem , 155 

Synagogues: see Jamaica; Jerusalem; Karlsbad; Konigsberg; Leghorn; Lemberg. 
see also Ark of the Law. 

Tablet, Cuneiform, Discovered at LacLish, Mentioning Abdi Heba of Jerusalem 120 

witli Poem by Enuna Lazarus Affixed to the Liberty Monument, New York 651 

Tell al-Hasi, Sectional View of Excavations at, Showing Seven Strata of Cities 593 

Site of Ancient Lachish 592 

Jafat, Cave on the Top of, Site of Ancient Jotapata 298 

Temple, Site of : Tlie Haram Area 153 

see also Jachin. 

Tomb, Traditional, of Johanan ben Zakkai, Near Tiberias 215 

of Joseph, Near Nablus (Sliechem) 240 

Tombs of the Judges, Cave Leading to the, Jerusalem 147 

Traditional, Plan and Sectional View of the, Jerusalem 146 

of the Kings, Traditional, Grotto Leading to the, Jerusalem 148 

Tombstone of Judah IjOw ben Bezaleel at Prague 354 

Topographical Features of Jerusalem Frontispiece and 119 

Tower of Antonia, Jerusalem 139 

Towers of David and Hippicus 142 

Tribute of Jehu to Shalmaneser II. From the Black Obelisk 89 

Types: see Karaites. 

Typography: seeFANo; Ixar; Lublin; Mantua; Naples; Piove di Sacco ; Zurich. 

Valley of Jehoshaphat, Jerusalem 87 

Wailing-Place, Jerusalem. After the Painting by Bida 143 

Walls of Jerusalem at Various Times Frontispiece and 123 

Well of Job, South of Jerusalem 202 

*' Yosippon," Page from the First Edition of the, Mantua, 1475-80 261 

Page from the First Edition of the Judaeo-German, Zurich, 1546 263 

Zion, Citadel of, Jerusalem 144 

Gate, Jerusalem 152 

Zurich, Page from the First Edition of the Judaeo-German "Yosippon," Printed in 1546 at 263 


Jewish Encyclopedia 

ITALY : Kingdom of southern Europe, with a 
total population of about 32,000,000, in which there 
are about 34,653 Jews (1901). This country, which 
the Israelites, punning upon the name, called "I 
Tal Yah " = " the land of the dew of the Lord " 
(conip. Gen. xxvii. 39), has been prominent in the 
liistory of the Jews. This prominence has not been 
due to the number of Jews in Italy, which has never 
been particularly large, but rather to the fact that 
they were not subjected to those continue'd and 
cruel persecutions to which they were exposed in 
otlier countries ; and they may be said to have en- 
joyed, especially at certain periods, a fair degree of 

The first definite appearance of Jews in the history 
of Italy was that of the embassy sent by Simon Mac- 
cabeus to Rome to strengthen the alliance with the 
Romans against the Syrians. The ambassadors re- 
ceived a cordial welcome from their coreligionists 
who were already established there, and whose num- 
ber at the time of the emperor Claudius was com- 
paratively so great that when, for some unknown 
reason, he was desirous of expelling them, he did not 
dare to do so. . Moreover, when, toward the end of 
his reign, by reason of trouble provoked by a Chris- 
tian propagandist, he actually expelled a portion 
of the Jews, there remained in Rome a fully organ- 
ized community, presided over by heads called ap- 
XovTCQ or yepovaidpxot. The Jews maintained in Rome 
several synagogues, whose spiritual head was called 
apxKyvvdycjyog; in their cemetery the tombstones bore 
the symbolic seven-branched candlestick. Even in 
the time of Tiberius — who pretended to be friendly 
to the Jews, but really was as hostile to them as 
Augustus had been — manj'- converts to Judaism 
were made in Rome. It Avas when tlie wife of his 
friend, the senator Saturninus, became a convert to 
Judaism, that Tiberius showed his enmity toward the 
adherents of this faith by publishing, on the advice 
of his minister Sejanus, an edict commanding all 
Jews and i)roselytes who should not have abjured 
their faith before a fixed date to leave Rome under 
penalty of perpetual bondage. A large number of 

young Jews was ordered to fight 

Under the against the brigands in Sardinia, 

Umpire, where the greater part of them lost 

their lives. This was the first persecu- 
tion of the Jews in the West. There were other Jew- 
ish colonies at that time in southern Italy, in Sicily, 
VII.— 1 

and in Sardinia, but thoy wore neither large nor 

From Rome, where Judaism liad many adiierents 
and enjoyed a certain influence even at court, the 
Jews spread into other parts of Italy ; but the greater 
number of those who came to sudi parts somewhat 
later immigrated from other countries. Thus in 
Sicily there came from Africa to Palermo about 
1,500 families, and to Messina about 200 families. 
To Tuscany Jews came from Spain; to Lombaniy, 
to Piedmont, and to the territory of Genoa, from cen- 
tral Italy. But they were never numerous; only in 
Milan, Turin, and Genoa were there communities of 
some importance; and even from these provinces 
they were frequently expelled and after an interval 
allowed to reenter. From the Orient, where the 
Venetian republic had important colonies, nianv 
went to Venice, and also to Ancona and Pesaro. 
From these cities, too, as from Ferrara. they were 
at times expelled; and, as elsewhere, they were re- 
admitted. There were some Jews in almost every 
village of the Venetian possessions; at Padua, Ve- 
rona, Mantua, and Modena there were long-estab- 
lished and important communities. In the Neapol- 
itan realm the greater mmiber of tlie Jews were 
settled in Naples, in Capua, and in other large towns 
along the Adriatic coast, such as Bari, Otrauto, 
Brindisi, Taranto, Benevento, Sulmona, Salerno, and 
Trani. In the interior there were scarcely an_v Ji-ws. 

After Judca had been declared a Roman province, 
the procurators sent thither by the Senate became 
more and more cruel in their treatment of the Jews. 
and finally incited them to a rebellion which 'ended 
in the ruin of the Jewish state under the emperor 
Titus (70 C.E.). A large number of prisoners and 
soldiers were transferred to Italy; but naturally tin- 
vanquished did not feel disposed to emigrate to the 
land of their conquerors and oppressors. Titus had 
a reign of short duration; and his successor, Domi 
tian, treated the Jews cruelly. To liini is attributed 
the intention to execute a decree which lie liud 
forced the Senate to approve, and under which. 
within thirty days after its pronudgation, all tlie Jew- 
ish subjects of Rome were to be massjicred. The pa- 
triarch, with three of the most illustrious, taunaim, 
repaired to Rome in order to prevent the carrying 
out of this infamous project; soon afterward l^o- 
mitian died, and his successor, Nerva, showed 
himself favorable to his Jewish subjects. He re- 




mained on the throne but a sliort time and was suc- 
ceeded by Trajan, a persistent opponent of the Jews, 
and in whose wars many thousands of them lost their 
lives in Babylon, in Egypt, and in Cyprus. Ha- 
drian, in turn, was at tirst inclined to favor the 
Jews, and he even granted them permission to re- 
build the Temple at Jerusalem (118). This conces- 
sion he later withdrew, and, indeed, he became one 
of their most bitter enemies, issuing an edict for- 
bidding them to continue their rehgious practises. 

A few years later this hostile legislation, which 
for the most part had never been enforced, was re- 
pealed, and the condition of the Jews was for a 
short time improved. Through the growth and 
diffusion of Christianity, however, it soon be- 
came worse and worse. As the Christians detached 
themselves from the Jews, the former became the 
fiercest enemies of the latter. When Constantine, 
who at the beginning of his reign had advocated 
liberty of conscience, became a con- 
Influence vert to Christianity, he established op- 
ofChristi- pressive laws for the Jews; but these 
anity. were in turn abolished by Julian the 
Apostate, who showed his favor to- 
ward the Jews to the extent of permitting them to 
resume their scheme for the reconstruction of the 
Temple at Jerusalem. This concession was with- 
drawn under his successor, who, again, w^as a 
Christian ; and then the oppression grew considera- 
bly. Thus periods of persecution were followed by 
periods of quiescence, until the fall of the Roman 

At the time of the foundation of the Ostrogothic 
rule under Theodoric, there were flourishing com- 
munities of Jews in Rome, Milan, Genoa, Palermo, 
Messina, Agrigentum, and in Sardinia. The popes 
of the period were not seriously opposed to the 
Jews; and this accounts for the ardor with which 
the latter took up arms for the Ostrogoths as against 
the forces of Justinian — particularly at Naples, 
where the remarkable defense of the city was main- 
tained almost entirely by Jews. After the failure of 
the various attempts to make Italy a province of the 
Byzantine empire, the Jews had to suffer much op- 
pression from the Exarch of Ravenna; but it was 
not long until the greater part of Italy came into 
the possession of the Lombards, under whom they 
lived in peace. Indeed, the Lombards passed no ex- 
ceptional laws relative to the Jews. Even after the 
Lombards embraced Catholicism the condition of the 
Jews was always favorable, because the popes of that 
time not only did not persecute them, but guaran- 
teed them more or less protection. Pope Gregory 
the Great treated them with much consideration. 
Under succeeding popes the condition of the Jews 
did not grow worse ; and the same was the case in 
the several smaller states into which Italy was di- 
vided. Both popes and states were so absorbed in 
continual external and internal dissensions that the 
Jews were left in peace. In every individual state 
of Italy a certain amount of protection was granted 
to them in order to secure the advantages of their 
commercial enterprise. The fact that the liistorians 
of this period scarcely make mention of the Jews, 
proves that their condition was tolerable. 

There was an expulsion of Jews from Bologna, it 

is true, in 1172; but they were soon allowed to re- 
turn. A nephew of Rabbi Nathan ben Jehiel acted 
as administrator of the property of Alexander HI., 
who showed his amicable feelings toward the Jews 
at the Lateran Council of 1179, where he defeated 
the designs of hostile prelates who advocated re- 
strictive and odious anti-Jewish laws. Under Nor- 
man rule the Jews of southern Italy and of Sicily 
enjoyed even greater freedom; they were considered 
the equals of the Christians, and were permitted to 
follow any career; they even had jurisdiction over 
their own affairs. Indeed, in no country were the 
canonical laws against the Jews so frequently dis- 
regarded as in Italy. A later pope — either Nicholas 
IV. (1288-92) or Boniface VIII. (1294-1303)— had 
for his physician a Jew, Isaac ben Mordecai, sur- 
named Maestro Gajo. 

Among the early Jews of Italy who left behind 
them traces of their literary activity was Shabbethai 
DoNNOLO (died 982). Two centuries later (1150) 
there became known as poets Shabbethai ben Moses 
of Rome; his son Jehiel Kalonymus, once regarded 
as a Talmudic authority even beyond Italy ; and 
Rabbi Jehiel of the Mansi (Anaw) family, also of 
Rome. Their compositions are full 
Early of thought, but their diction is rather 
Literature, crude. Nathan, son of the above- 
mentioned Rabbi Jehiel, was the au- 
thor of a Talmudic lexicon (" 'Aruk ") which became 
the key to the study of the Talmud. 

Solomon Parhon compiled during his residence at 
Salerno a Hebrew dictionary which fostered the 
study of Biblical exegesis among the Italian Jews. 
On the whole, however, Hebrew culture was not in 
a flourishing condition. The only liturgical author 
of merit was Joab ben Solomon, some of whose com- 
positions are extant. 

Toward the second half of the thirteenth century 
signs appeared of a better Hebrew culture and of 
a more profound study of the Talmud. Isaiah di 
Trani the Elder (1232-79), a high Talmudic author- 
ity, was the author of many celebrated responsa. 
David, his son, and Isaiah di Trani the Younger, his 
nephew, followed in his footsteps, as did their de- 
scendants until the end of the seventeenth century. 
Meir ben Moses presided over an important Tal- 
mudic school in Rome, and Abraham ben Joseph 
over one in Pesaro. In Rome two famous physi- 
cians, Abraham and Jehiel, descendants of Nathan 
ben Jehiel, taught the Talmud. One of the 
women of this gifted family, Paola dei Mansi, also 
attained distinction; her Biblical and Talmudic 
knowledge was considerable, and she transcribed 
Biblical commentaries in a notably beautiful hand- 
writing (see Jew. Encyc. i. 567, s.v. Paola Anaw). 

About this period Frederick II., the last of the 
Hohenstaufen, employed Jews to translate from the 
Arabic philosophical and astronomical treatises; 
among these writers were Judah Kohen of Toledo, 
later of Tuscany, and Jacob Anatolio of Provence. 
This encouragement naturally led to the study 
of the works of Maimonides — particularly of the 
" Moreh Nebukim " — the favorite writer of Hillel of 
Verona (1220-95). This last-named litterateur and 
philosopher practised medicine at Rome and in other 
Italian cities, and translated into Hebrew several 



medical works. The liberal spirit of the writings 
of Maimonides had other votaries in Italy; e.g., 
Shabbethai ben Solomon of Rome and Zerahiah Hen 
of Barcelona, who migrated to Rome and contributed 
much to spread the knowledge of his works. The 
effect of this on the Italian Jews was apparent in 
their love of freedom of thought and their esteem 
for literature, as well as in their adherence to the 
literal rendering of the Biblical texts and their op- 
position to fanatical cabalists and mystic theories. 
Among other devotees of these theories was Im- 
MANUEL B. Soi.o.MON of Rome, the celebrated friend 
of Dante. The discord between the followers of 
Maimonides and his opponents wrought most seri- 
ous damage to the interests of Judaism. 

The political and social status of the Jews was also 
destined to suffer because of the advent to the papal 
throneof Innocent III. (1198-1216), the chief origina- 
tor of the many persecutions suffered in later times by 
the Jews in all Christian lanils. This retrogressive 
pope, the most bitter enemy of freedom of thought, 
set into operation against the Jews 

Innocent most illegitimate measures; especially 
III. did he threaten with excommunication 

those who placed or maintained Jews 
in public positions, and he insisted that every Jew 
holding office should be dismissed. The deepest in- 
sult was the order that every Jew must always weai, 
conspicuously displayed, a special badge. 

In 1235 Pope Gregory IX. published the first bull 
against the ritual sacrifice Din flPvJ?- Other popes 
followed his example, particularly Innocent IV. in 
1247, Gregory X. in 1272, Clement VI. in 1348, Greg- 
ory XI. in 1371, Martin V. in 1422, Nicholas V. in 
1447, Sixtus V. in 1475, Paul III. in 1540, and later 
Alexander VII., Clement XIII., and Clement XIV. 
The rise of poetry in Italy at the time of Dante in- 
fluenced the Jews also. The rich and the power- 
ful, partly by reason of sincere interest, partly in 
obedience to the spirit of the times, became patrons 
of Jewish writers, thus inducing the greatest activ- 
ity on their part. This activity was particularly 
noticeable at Rome, where a new Jewish poetry 
arose, mainly through the works of Leo Romano, 
translator of the writings of Thomas Aquinas and 
author of exegetical works of merit; of Judah Sici- 
liano, a writer in rimed prose; of Kalonymus ben 
Kalonymus, a famous satirical poet; and especially 
of the above-mentioned Immanuel. On the initia- 
tive of the Roman community, a Hebrew transla- 
tion of Maimonides' Arabic commentary on the Mish- 
nah was made. At this time Pope John XXII. Avas 
on the point of pronouncing a ban against tlle^ Jews 
of Rome. The Jews instituted a day of public fast- 
ing and of prayer to appeal for divine assistance. 
King Robert of Sicily, who favored the Jews, sent 
an envoy to the pope at Avignon, who succeeded in 
averting this great peril. Immanuel himself de- 
scribed this envoy as a person of high merit and of 
great culture. This period of literature in 
Italy is indeed one of great splendor. After Im- 
manuel there were no other Jewish writers of ini 
portance until Moses da Rieti (1388), a writer of He 
brew as elegant as his Italian ; but despite this, Jiis 
wearisome and unnatural style could not compare 
with the pleasing and spirited works of Immanuel. 

The Jews suffered much from the relentless per- 
secutions of the antipope Benedict XIII. ; and the 
accession of liis successor, Martin V., was hailed 
with delight by tiie Jews. The .synod convoked by 
the Jews at Bologna, and continued at 
Benedict Forii, sent a deputation witli c(»stly 
XIII. gitts to the new pope, j)raying iiim to 
abolish the oppressive law.s promul- 
gated by Benedict and to grant tiie Jews liio.sf priv- 
ileges which had been accxjrded tiiem under previ. 
ous popes. The deputation succeeded in its mission, 
but the period of grace was short; for JSIartin's suc- 
cessor, Eugenius IV., at first favorably disposed 
toward the Jews, ultimately reenacted all the re 
strictive laws issued by Benedict. In Italy, how 
ever, his bull was generally disregarded. The great 
centers, .such as Venice, Florence, Genoa, and Pisa, 
realized that their commercial interests were of 
more importance than the affairs of tlie spiritual 
leaders of the Church ; and accordingly the Jews, 
many of whom were bankers and leading merchants, 
found their condition better than ever before. It 
thus became easy for Jewish bankers to obtain per- 
mission to establish banks and to engage in mon- 
etary transactions. Indeed, in one instance even 
the Bishop of ]\Iantua, in the name of the pope, 
accorded permission to the Jews to lend money at 
interest. All the banking negotiations c. Tuscany 
were in the hands of a Jew, Jehiel of Pisa. Tiie 
influential position of this successful financier was 
of the greatest advantage to his coreligionists at the 
time of the exile from Spain. 

The Jews were also successful as medical practi- 
tioners. William of Portaleone, physician to Ferdi- 
nand, King of Naples, and to the ducal houses of 
Sforza and Gonzaga, was one of the ablest of that 
time. He was the first of the long line of illustrious 
physicians in his family. 

The revival of interest in the studies of ancient 
Greece and Rome stimulated the study of Biblical 
literature ; and such men as Pico di !Mirandola and 
Cardinals ^gidius da Viterbo and Domenico Gri- 
mani devoted themselves to the study of Hebrew and 
Hebrew literature. This produced amicable rela- 
tions between Jews and Christians. At the time of 
the Medicis Jews frequented the universities and 
were active in the renascence of letters and of the 
sciences; but they remained strangers to the fine 
arts, especially painting and sculpture. The print- 
ing establishments of Reggio, Pieve 
Influence di Sacco, Mantua, Ferram, Bologna, 
of the and Naples were fountled at this 
Renas- period. Obadiah of Bertiuoro, eio- 
cence ; quent preacher and famous common- 

Printing, tator of the Mishnah ; ]^Ie.>JS<'r I.con 
(Judah ben Jehiel) of Naples, nibhi 
and physician at Mantua; and Elijah Delmedigo. 
the philosopher, flourished at this period. Picodi 
Mirandola was a disciple of the last named, as were 
many others, who learned from him the Hebrew 
language or studied pliilosophy luider his guidanre. 
Driven from Germany and Poland by persecutions, 
many learned rabbis and Talmudists wont to Italy: 
among these Avere Judah Minz, who iKcanic rabbi 
at Padua, and Joseph Colon, of French extraction, 
rabbi successively nt Bologna and Mantua. Both 



were opposed to the liberal ideas then dominant in 
Italy ; and soon strife and controversy arose between 
Colon and Messer Leon, between Minz and Elijah 

Toward the end of the fifteenth century the monks 
<listurbed the relatively peaceful condition of the 
Jews. The most bitter enemy was Bernardinus of 
Feltre. Not succeeding in Inflaming the Italians 
with his calumnies, he instigated a bloody persecu- 
tion of the Jews of Trent, then under German rule. 
The murder of the infant Simon was attributed to 
them. In their favor appeared the Doge of Venice, 
Peter Mocenigo, and Pope Sixtus IV., who at first 
refused to proclaim as a saint the child found dead, 
firmly declaring the story of the ritual murder to be 
an invention. 

A great number of the exiles from Spain (1492) 
betook themselves to Italy, where they were given 
protection by King Ferdinand I. of Naples. Don 
Isaac Abravanel even received a position at the 
Neapolitan court, which he retained under the suc- 
ceeding king, Alfonso II. The Spanish Jews were 
well received also in Ferrara by Duke Hercules I., 
and in Tuscany through the mediation of Jehiel of 
Pisa and his sons. But at Rome and Genoa they 
experienced all the vexations and torments that 
hunger, plague, and poverty bring with them, and 
were forced to accept baptism in order to escape 
starvation. In some few cases the immigrants ex- 
ceeded in number the Jews already domiciled, and 
gave the determining vote in matters of communal 
interest and in the direction of studies. 
Refugees From Alexander VI. to Clement VII. 
from Spain, the popes Avere indulgent toward the 
Jews, having more urgent matters to 
occupy them. Indeed, the popes themselves and 
many of the most influential cardinals openly violated 
one of the most severe enactments of the Council of 
Basel, namely, that prohibiting Christians from em- 
ploying Jewish physicians; and they even gave the 
latter positions at the papal court. The Jewish com- 
munities of Naples and of Rome received the greatest 
number of accessions; but many Jews passed on 
from these cities to Ancona and Venice, and thence 
to Padua. Venice, imitating the odious measures 
of the German cities, assigned to the Jews a special 
quarter (" ghetto "). 

Isaac Abravanel with his sons exercised a benefi- 
cent influence alike upon the native Jews and tlie 
newcomers. Among the sons the most influential 
was Samuel; he and his wife, Benvenida, were on 
terms of intimacy with the court of Naples. The 
daughter of the governor, Don Pedro de Toledo, 
was attached to Benvenida, whom she called mother, 
and continued her love and respect after her mar- 
riage to Cosimo II., Duke of Tuscany. These rela- 
tions with powerful and illustrious families made 
Abravanel the pride and shield of the Italian Is- 

The Talmudic school at Padua, presided over by 
Judah Minz, enjoyed great repute. Not only young 
men but those advanced in life came to him from 
Italy, from Germany, and even from Turkey, to at- 
);end his lectures. He died at an advanced age; and 
his son Abraiiam continued the school, though with 
diminished success. At Bologna during the first 

lialf of the sixteenth century flourished Obadiah 
Sforno, who, while practising as a physician, ap- 
plied himself with much earnestness to Biblical ex- 
egesis and to philosophy. He dedicated some of his 
works, written in Hebrew but furnished with a 
Latin translation, to King Heurj^ III. of France. 
At Feirara Abraham ben Mordecai Farissol, philos- 
opher and exegete, enjoyed the protection of Her- 
cules I. of Este, a patron of literature, science, and 
art. It became common in the Italian cities for 
learned Jews to enter into discussions of theological 
questions Avith the monks, and in several of these 
Farissol took part. B}" order of the duke his dis 
sertations, originally written in Hebrew, were trans- 
lated into Italian, so that his opponents could pre- 
pare a defense. Among those who assisted Reuchlin 
in aid of the Jews was ^gidius da Viterbo, head 
of the Augustinians, disciple and patron of Elijah 
Levita, and student of Hebrew literature and poetry. 
•'P"'ighting Avith you," he Avrote to Reuchlin, "avc 
fight for light against darkness, aiming to save not 
the Talmud, but the Church." The Avatchword 
Avhich went forth from Italy and passed on every- 
where Avas "For the salvation of the Talmud." 

In Italy Elijah Levita numbered many Christians 
among his disciples. Just as many illustrious Ital- 
ians, among them princes of the Church, devoted 
themselves Avith zeal to HebreAv studies, sothe JeAvs 
Avith equal ardor devoted their energies to Italian, 
Avhich they spoke with ease and elegance and 
which they sometunes employed in their Avritings. 
A famous Avriter was Leo Hebra?us (Judah Abrava- 
nel), knoAvn through his "Dialoghidi Amore." His 
language Avas fluent and correct, and his Avork Avas 
everywhere enthusiastically received. 

In the sixteenth century cabalistic doctrines 
Avere introduced into Italy by Spanish exiles, Abra- 
ham Levita, Baruch of Benevento, and Judah Hay- 
j'at, among others. These aAvakened 
Spread of much interest, and their mystical ideas 
the Cabala, appealed to many. Moreover, the 
fact that prominent Christians, such as 
^gidius da Viterbo and Reuchlin, were devoted to 
the Cabala, exercised a great influence upon the 
JeAvs. The wide-spread dispersion of the Jcavs had 
weakened in many minds faith in a final redemp- 
tion; so that the new IMessianic interpretations of 
the cabalists appealed to them. The indefatigable 
Abravanel wrote three Avorks in Avhich he attempted 
to show the truth of the Messianic doctrines; but, 
carried aAvay by the dominant error of the times, he 
unwisely fixed a date for the advent of the Messiah. 
In Istria — a country which had been under Venetian 
dominion — appeared Ashcr Lammlein, a German, 
Avho pretended to be a prophet, and Avho announced 
Avith much solemnity the coming of the ]\Iessiah in 
the year 1503. In this "year of penitence" there 
were much fasting, much prayer, and a generous dis- 
tribution of alms. The movement was so general 
that even Christians believed Lammlein to be pos- 
sessed of the true prophetic spirit. The year came 
to an end, and the prophecy remained unfulfilled. 
Discouraged, many embraced Christianity. The 
cabalists, however, Avere not disheartened, and, sup- 
ported by reports of miraculous happenings, they 
began to revive the courage of their coreligionists 



and to preach again faith in the coming of the 
^lessiah. They were (lisi)osed to place credence 
in the most improbable assertions; and accord- 
ingly, when David Jtc'ubeni made his 
Pseudo- appearance in Italy, lie found ready a 
Messiahs, large bod}' of supporters. His mis- 
sion was to gain support, especially 
from the pope, to tight the Turks. David went to 
Venice and to Rome, where he presented himself 
before Pope Clement VII., by whom he was received 
with all the honors accorded to an ambassador. The 
idea of a crusade of Jews against Turks was a most 
pleasing one to the pope. After a year's .sojourn in 
Rome David was called to Portugal. Here he found 
a champion in a Marano in service at the court, who, 
imdergoing circumcision and changing his name to 
Solomon Moi.ko, announced his fealty to Judaism. 
The Maranos and (;abalists maintained general!}' that 
the sack of Rome in 1537 was a sign of the coming 
of the Messiah. But David lost favor, and was ex- 
pelled from Portugal. Thereupon the Maranos were 
condemned to the stake by thousands. Many suc- 
ceeded in escaping to Italy ; and the pope, together 
with the college of cardinals, wishing to restore pros- 
perity to Ancona, assigned to the e.xilesan asylum in 
that city. Molko also went to Ancona, where, as a 
professed Jew, he delivered public Messianic sermons, 
and held theological disputations with illustrious 
Christians. In some of his sermons he prophesied 
a great flood. At Rome, where, after thirty days of 
fasting, he presented him.self to the pope, he was 
favorably received, and was given a safe-conduct 
through all the papal dominions. The flood which 
he had prophesied really came to pass (Oct., 1530); 
and on his return to Rome he was greeted as a 
prophet. Accompanied by a faithful servant, he 
escaped the Inquisition and reached Ancona, where 
he again began his preaching. The fierce persecu- 
tions suffered bj- the Spanish and Portuguese Ma- 
ranos induced Molko and Reubeni to repair to Ratis- 
bon and appear before the emperors Charles V. and 
Ferdinand of Austria to solicit their aid. Josel of 
Rosheim gave them his support; nevertheless both 
enthusiasts were made prisoners. Molko was burned 
on the pyre at Mantua, and Reubeni was imprisoned 
in Spain, where he died three years later. 

The ultra-Catholic party tried with all the means 
at its disposal to introduce the Inquisition into 
the Neapolitan realm, then under Spanish rule. 
Charles V., upon his return from his victories in 
Africa, was on the point of exiling the Jews from 
Naples, but deferred doing so owing to the influence 
of Benvenida, wife of Samuel Abravanel. A few 
years later, however (1533), such a de- 
Expulsion cree was proclaimed, but upon this oc- 
from. casion also Samuel Abravanel and 
Naples. others were able through their influ- 
ence to avert for several years the ex- 
ecution of the edict. Many Jews repaired to Turkey, 
some to Ancona, and still others to Ferrara, where 
they were received graciously by Duke Hercules II. 
After the death of Pope Paul HI. , who had showed 
favor to the Jews, a period of strife, of persecu- 
tions, and of despondency set in. A few years later 
the Jews were exiled from Genoa, among the refu- 
gees being Joseph ha-Kohen, physician to the doge 

Andrea Dona and eminent historian. The Ma- 
ranos, driven from Spain and Portugal, were allowed 
l)y Duke Hercules toentr-r his dominions ami to pro- 
fess Judaism without molestation. Tlius. Samuel 
Usque, also a liistorian, who had Jled from the In- 
quisition in Portugal, settled in Ferrara; and Abra- 
ham Usque founded a large printing establishment 
there. A third Usque, Solomon, merchant of Venice 
and Ancona and poet of some note, translated the 
sonnets of Petrarch into excellent Spanish verse, 
which was much admired by his contemporaries. 

While the return to Judaism of the Marano Usques 
caused m\ich rejoicing among the Italian Jews, thi.s 
was counterbalanced by the deep grief into which 
they were plunged by the conversion to Christianity 
of two grandsons of Elijah Levita, Leone Romano 
and Vittorio Eliano. One became a canon of the 
Church ; theother, a Jesuit. They violently slandered 
the Talmud to Pope Julius HI. and the Inquisition; 
and as a consequence the pope pronounced the sen- 
tence of destruction against this work, to the print- 
ing of which one of his predeces.sors, Leo X., liad 
given his sanction. On the Jewish New-Year's Day 
(Sept. 9), 1553, all the copies of the Talmud in the 
jirincipal cities of Ital}', in the printing establish- 
ments of Venice, and even in the distant island of 
Candia (Crete), were burned. Still more cruel was 
the fate of the Jews under Pope Marcellus III., who 
wished to exile them from Rome because of a charge 
of ritual murder. He was restrained from the exe- 
cution of this cruel and imjust project by Cardinal 
Alexander Farnese, who, animated by a true love 
for his fellow creatures, succeeded in bringing to 
light the infamous author of the murder. 

But the most serious misfortune for the Jews was 
the election of Paul IV. as Marcellus' successor. 
This cruel pontiff, not content with confirming all the 
more severe of the bulls against the Jews issued up 
to that time, added others still more op- 
Paul IV. pressive and containing all manner 
of prohibitions, which condemned the 
Jews to the most abject misery, deprived theni of 
the means of sustenance, and denied to them the exer- 
cise of all professions. They were finally forced to 
labor at the restoration of the walls of Rome without 
any compensation whatever. Indeed, upon one oc 
casion the pope had secretly given ordei-s to one of 
his nephews to burn at night the quarter inhabited 
by the Jews; but Alexander Farnese, hearing oi 
the infamous proposal, succeeded in frustrating it. 
Many Jews now abandoned Rome and Ancona and 
went to Ferram and Pesaro. Here the Duke <if 
Urbino welcomed them graciously in the hope «)f 
directing to the new port of Pesaro the extensive com 
merce of the Levant, which was at that time exclu- 
sively in the hands of the Jews of Ancona. Among 
the many who were forced to leave Rome was the 
illustrious Marano. Amato Lusitano, a distinguished 
physician, who had often attended Pope Julius HI. 
He had even been invited to become physician to 
the King of Poland, but had declined the ofTcr in 
order to remain in lVii\y. He fled from the In- 
quisition to Pesaro, where he openly professed 

The persecutions at Ancona now became barba- 
rous. Three Jews and a Jewess. Doima Maiora. wen* 




burned alive at the stake, preferring death to apos- 
tasy. The glories of their martyrdom were sung 
by three Jewish poets in elegies which 

Persecu- are still recited in the synagogue at 
tion at Ancona on the anniversary of the 

Ancoua. destruction of the Temple. Another 
interesting personality was Donna 
Gracia Mendesia Nasi. Charles V. and other poten- 
tates had frequently had recourse to the bank 
founded by her husband in Portugal. At her hus- 
band's death Donna Gracia moved with her children 
to Antwerp, and thence, after protracted wander- 
ings with varying fortunes, to Venice, Ferrara, 
Rome. Sicily, and finallj' to Turkey, where she suc- 
ceeded in persuading Sulaiman to force the pope to 
set at liberty all the Turkish Jews imprisoned at 
Ancona. These tragic events, and in general the 
unprecedented cruelty and violence of Paul IV., in- 
duced the Jews to unite and to form a plan of re- 
taliation by allying themselves with the Jews of the 
Levant to boycott the port of Ancona, to stop all 
commercial relations with that papal state, and 
thereby to cripple its activity. This plan was par- 
tially carried out, and the city of Ancona began 
rapidly to decline. Special circumstances, however, 
interfered with the complete execution of the 
scheme, especially the supreme authority of the 
pope throughout Europe, which enabled him to prej- 
udice popular feeling against the Jews in countries 
other than Italy and to intensify the antagonism 
toward them in his own land. At the end of a year 
the condition of Ancona was so desperate that the 
magistrates of the city complained to the pope, 
urging that if steps were not soon taken the city 
would be entirely ruined. As the league against 
the pope waned in influence, the Duke of Urbino, 
who, as stated above, had hoped to attract to Pesaro 
all the Eastern Jewish trade and had been disap- 
pointed in his expectation, withdrew his protection 
from the Jews. A very large number of them emi- 
grated, including Lusitano, who settled at Pagusa. 
Even the Duke of Ferrara showed himself less favor- 
able to the Jews at this time, so that Abraham 
Usque, being deprived of the duke's protection, was 
forced to close his printing-office at Ferrara. 

But it was about this time that there was founded 
in the city of Cremona and under the protection of the 
, Spanish governor of Milan, a famous 

The School school, directed by Joseph of Ettlin- 
of Cremona, gen (Ottoleughi). This eminent Tal- 
mudist knew where to gather a goodly 
number of hidden copies of the Talmud and of other 
Jewish works; and he had other copies printed at 
Riva di Trento, which were sent to Germany, Po- 
land, etc. Thus the study of the Talmud was re- 
sumed, and learning flourished in northern Italj-. 
But peace was concluded between the pope and the 
Spaniards ; and some fanatics, aided by certain bap- 
tized Jews, persuaded the governor of Milan to des- 
troy all the Hebrew books in Cremona. Twelve 
thou.sand volumes were burned in public in May, 
1559, including all Jewish books except the Zohar, 
which, according to the opinion of most of the car- 
dinals and princes of the Church, contained the mys- 
teries of Christianity, and the introduction to which 
had been printed (Mantua, 1558) by Emanuel Bene- 

vento under Paul IV. with the sanction of the Inqui- 
sition. Somewhat later a complete edition of the 
Zohar was printed at a Christian establishment in 
Cremona, with an introduction by the baptized 
grandson of Elijah Levita, Vittorio Eliano, who had 
already contributed so much to the destruction of 
the Talmud. This predilection of the Church and 
the clergy for the Zohar lasted but a short time; for 
a few years later this book was likewise placed upon 
the Index. 

Pius IV., the successor of Paul IV., was in every 
respect a better man than his predecessors; but, 
being sickly and weak, he submitted to the influence 
of the Jesuits. Mordecai Soncino appeared before 
him to obtain for the emperor Ferdinand absolution 
from an oath made by him to expel the Jews from 
Prague. The absolution was granted; and the 
Jews were favored, particularly during the succeed- 
ing reign of Maximilian. The Soucinos had estab- 
lished printing-presses in various cities of Lombardy, 
also at Constantinople and a t Prague. They printed 
not only Jewish works, but also Latin ones, among 
them the poems of Petrarch. Permission to reprint 
the Talmud, but under another name and with the 
omission of all that might be considered contrary to 
Christianity, was granted to a deputation which 
Avaited on Pius IV. with a large gift of money. The 
Talmud was immediately reprinted at Basel. 

But this tolerant pope was succeeded by Pius V., 
even more cruel than Paiil IV., and excelling him in 
wickedness. He Brought into force all the anti- 
Jewish bulls of his predecessors — not only in his 
own immediate domains, but throughout the Chris- 
tian world. In Lombardy the expulsion of the Jews 
was threatened, and, although this extreme measure 
was not put into execution, they were tyrannized in 
countless ways. At Cremona and at Lodi their books 
were confiscated ; and Carlo Borromeo, who was 
afterward canonized, persecuted them mercilessly. 
In Genoa, from which city the Jews were at this 
time expelled, an exception was made in favor of 
Joseph ha-Kohen. In his " 'Emek ha-Bakah " he nar- 
rates the history of these persecutions. He had no 
desire to take advantage of the sad privilege ac- 
corded to him, and went to Casale Monferrato, 
where he was graciously received even by the Chris- 
tians. In this same year the pope directed his per- 
secutions against the Jews of Bologna, who formed 
a rich community well worth despoiling. Many of 
the wealthiest Jews v/ere imprisoned and placed 
under torture in order to force theni to make false 
confessions. When Rabbi Ishmael Hanina was being 
racked, he declared that should the pains of torture 
elicit from him any words that might be construed 
as casting reflection on Judaism, they would be 
false and null. It was forbidden to the Jews to 
absent themselves from the city; but many suc- 
ceeded in escaping by bribing the watchmen at the 
gates of the ghetto and of the city. The fugitives, 
together with their wives and children. 
Expulsion repaired to the neighboring city of 
from Papal Ferrara. Then Pius V. decided to ban- 
States, ish the Jews from all his dominions, 
and, despite the enormous loss which 
was likely to rcsidt from this measure, and the re- 
monstrances of influential and well-meaning cardi- 



nals, the Jews (in all about 1,000 families) were actu- 
ally expelled from all the papal states excepting 
Rome and Ancona. A few became Christians; but 
the large majority migrated to Turkey. A great 
sensation was caused in Italy by the choice of a 
prominent Jew, Solomon of Udiuc, as Turkish am- 
bassador to Venice to negotiate peace with that re- 
public, which was accomplished in July, 1574. As 
there was pending a decree of expulsion of the Jews 
from the Venetian domains, the Senate was at first 
in doubt whether it could treat with this Jew ; but 
later, through the influence of the Venetian diplo- 
mats themselves, and particulaily of the consul, 
Marc Anlonio Barbaro, who esteemed Udine highly, 
he was received with great honors at the palace of 
the doges. In virtue of this exalted position he was 
able to render great service to his coreligionists, and 
through his influence Jacob Soranzo, agent of the 
republic at Constantinople, came to Venice. Solomon 
was successful also in having the decree of expulsion 
revoked, and he furthermore obtained a promise that 
it should never be reissued and that those Jews who 
had left Venice should be allowed to return and 
settle in peace. Laden with honors and gifts, Solo- 
mon returned to Constantinople, leaving his son 
Nathan in Venice to be educated. Tlie success of 
this mission cheered the Jews in Turkey, particu- 
larly in Constantinople, where they had attained 
great prosperity. 

At that time there lived in Italy a man of the 
highest intellectual attainments, one who could have 
done much for Judaism had he been possessed of 
greater courage or had the times been more propi- 
tious — Azariah dei Rossi (Miu ha-Adummim), a na- 
tive of Mantua and the author of " Me'or 'Enayim." 
He went from Mantua to Ferrara, and thence to Bo- 
logna; and everywhere he was regarded as a marvel 
of learning. Rossi was conversant with all Jewish 
literature, Biblical as well as Talmud- 

Azariah ical ; he was likewise familiar with 
dei Rossi. Latin and Christian literature, with 
the works of the Fathers of the 
Church as well as with those of Philo and of Fla- 
vins. The orthodox rabbis opposed the "Me'or 
'Enayim," the rabbi of Mantua prohibiting its study 
by young men under twenty-live j'ears of age; but 
it found favor in the world at large and was trans- 
lated into Latin. A contrast to Rossi was Gedaliah 
ibn Yahya of northern Italy, who traveled about 
as a preacher in that part of the country. His short 
history of the Jews, entitled "Shalshelet ha-Kab- 
balah," is a mixture of fables and fantastical tales; 
but it was more generally appreciated than the 
careful work of Dei Rossi. At this epoch there 
became famous in the field of the new Cabala Vital 
Calabrese and Isaac Luria, both of whom were well 
received at Safcd, the center of the adherents of the 
new occult doctrine which was to bring such great 
loss to Judaism. 

The position of the Jews of Italy at this time was 
pitiable; the bulls of Paul IV. and Pius V. had 
reduced them to the utmost humiliation and had 
materially diminished their numbers. In southern 
Italy there were almost none left; in each of the 
important communities of Rome, Venice, and Man- 
tua there were about 2,000 Jews; while in all Lom- 

bardy there were hardly 1,000. Gregory XIII. was 
not less fanatical than his predecessors; he noticed 
that, despite papal prohibition. Christians employed 
Jewish physicians ; he therefore strictly prohibited the 
Jews from attending Christian patients, and threat- 
ened with tlie most severe punishment alike Chris- 
tians who should have recourse to Hebrew practition- 
ers, and Jewish physicians who should 
Persecu- respond to the calls of Christians. 
tions and Furthermore, the slightest assistance 
Confisca- given to the Maranos of Portugal and 
tions. Spain, in violation of the canonical 
laws, was sufficient to deliver the 
guilty one into the power of the Inquisition, which 
did not hesitate to condemn tlie accused to death. 
Gregory also induced the Inquisition to consign to 
the flames a large number of copies of the Talmud 
and of other Hebrew books. Special sermons, de- 
signed to convert the Jews, were instituted ; and at 
these at least one-third of the Jewish community, 
men, women, and j'ouths above the age of twelve, 
was forced to be present. The sermons were usu- 
ally delivered by baptized Jews who had become 
friars or priests; and not infrequently the Jews, 
without any chance of protest, were forced to listen 
to such sermons in their own synagogues. These 
cruelties forced many Jews to leave Rome, and thus 
their number was still further diminished. 

Under the following pope, Sixtus V., the condi- 
tion of the Jews was somewhat improved. He 
repealed many of the regulations established by his 
predecessors, permitted Jews to sojourn in all parts 
of his realm, and accorded to Jewish physicians lib- 
erty in the practise of their profession. David de 
Pomis, an eminent physician, profited by this privi- 
lege and published a work in Latin, entitled "De 
Medico Hebraeo," dedicated to Duke Francis of 
Urbino, in which he proved to the Jews their obliga- 
tion to consider the Christians as brothers, to assist 
them, and to attend them. The Jews of Mantua, 
Milan, and Ferrara, taking advantage of the favor- 
able disposition of the pope, sent to him an ambas- 
sador, Bezaleel Massarano, with a present of 2,000 
scudi, to obtain from him permission to reprint the 
Talmud and other Jewish books, promising at the 
same time to expurgate all passages considered of- 
fensive to Christianity. Their demand was granted, 
partly through the support given by Lopez, a Marano, 
who administered the papal finances and who was 
in great favor with the pontiff. Scarcely had the 
reprinting of the Talmud been begun, and the con- 
ditions of its printing been arranged by the commis- 
sion, when Sixtus died. His successor, Gregory 
XIV. , was as well disposed to the Jews as Sixtus 
had been; but during his short pontificate he was 
almost always ill. Clement VII. , who 
Varied succeeded him, renewed the anti-Jew- 
Fortunes, ish bulls of Paul IV. and Pius V., 
and exiled the Jews from all his ter- 
ritories with the exception of Rome, Ancona, and 
Avignon ; but, in order not to lose the commerce with 
the East, he gave certain privileges to the Turkish 
Jews. The exiles repaired to Tuscany, where they 
were favorably received by Duke Ferdinand dei 
Medici, who assigned to them the city of Pisa for 
residence, and by Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga, at whose 




court Joseph da Fano, a Jew, was a favorite. They 
were again permitted to read the Tahnud and other 
Hebrew books, provided that they were printed ac- 
cording to the rules of ceusorsliip approved by Six- 
tus V. From Italy, where these expurgated books 
were printed b}' tliousands, they were sent to the 
Jews of other countries. 

It was strange that under Philip II. the Jews ex- 
iled from all parts of Spain were tolerated in the 
duchy of Milan, then under Spanish rule. Such an 
inconsistency of policy was designed to work ill 
for the interests of the Jews. To avert this misfor- 
tune an eloquent ambassador, Samuel Coen, was 
sent to the king at Alessandria; but he was \msuc- 
cessful in his mission. The king, persuaded by his 
confessor, expelled the Jews from Milanese terri- 
tory in th^ spring of 1597. The exiles, numbering 
about 1,000, Avere received at Mantua, Modena, 
Reggio, Verona, and Padua. The princes of the 
house of Este had always accorded favor and protec- 
tion to the Jews, and were much beloved by them. 
Eleonora, a princess of this house, had inspired two 
Jewish poets ; and when she was ill public prayers 
were said in the synagogues for her restoration to 
health. But misfortune overtook the Jews of Fer- 
rara as well; for when Alfonso I., the last of the 
Este family, died, the principality of Ferrara was 
incorporated in the dominions of the Church under 
Clement VII., who decreed the banish - 
In meut of the Jews. Aldobrandini, a 

the Ducal relative of the pope, took possession 
Dominions, of Ferrara in the pontiff's name. See- 
ing that all the commerce was in the 
hands of the Jews, he complied with their request 
for an exemption of five years from the decree, al- 
though this was much against the pope's wish. 

The Mantuan Jews suffered seriously at the time 
of the Thirty Years' war. The Jews exiled from 
the papal dominions had repeatedly found refuge in 
Mantua, where the dukes of Gonzaga had accorded 
protection to them, as they had done to the Jews 
already resident there. The next to the last duke, al- 
though a cardinal, favored them sufficiently to enact 
a statute for the maintenance of order in the ghetto. 
After the death of the last of this house the right 
of succession was contested at the time of the Thirty 
Years' war, and the city was besieged by the Ger- 
man soldiery of Wallenstein.. After a valiant de- 
fense, in which the Jews labored at the walls iintil 
the approach of the Sabbath, the city fell into the 
power of the besiegers, and for three days was at 
the mercy of tire and sword. The commander-in- 
chief, Altringer, forbade the soldiers to sack the 
ghetto, thereby hoping to secure the spoils for him- 
self. The Jews were ordered to leave the city, ta- 
king with them only their personal clothing and 
three gold ducats per capita. There were retained 
enough Jews to act as guides to the places where 
their coreligionists were supposed to have hidden 
their treasures. Through three Jewish zealots these 
circumstances came to tiie knowledge of the em- 
peror, who ordered the governor, Collalto, to issue a 
decree permitting the Jews to return and promising 
them the restoration of their goods. Only about 
800, however, returned, the others having died. 

The victories in Europe of the Turks, who brought 

tlieir armies up to the very walls of Vienna (1683), 
helped even in Italy to incite the Christian popula- 
tion against the Jews, who remained friendly to 
the Turks. In Padua, in 1683, the Jews were 
in great danger because of the agitation fomented 
against them by the cloth-weavers. A violent tu- 
mult broke out; the lives of the Jews were seriously 
menaced ; and it was only with the greatest diffi- 
culty that the governor of the city succeeded in res- 
cuing them, in obedience to a rigorous order from 
Venice. For several days thereafter the ghetto had 
to be especially guarded. 

At the end of the sixteenth and during the sev- 
enteenth century several Hebrew writers attained 
considerable fame. \mong them was Leon of 
Modena, who wrote Italian and Latin verse. At 
Venice, where there was a population 

Leon of ofabout6,000 Jews, he and Simon Luz- 

Modena. zatto (Simhah), both holding liberal 
views, were members of the rabbinical 
college. Several Jews of this epoch wrote elegant 
Italian prose and verse. Two women merit special 
mention, Deborah Ascarelli and Sarah Copia Sullam. 
Even more cultured and profound than Modena was 
his friend and disciple Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, 
who had a special aptitude for mathematics, and 
whose instructor was the great Galileo. Simon Luz- 
zatto, in his " Discorso sullo Stato degli Ebrei," with- 
out concealing their faults, took up the defense of the 
Jews. Isaac Cardoso of Verona did likewise, in a 
work entitled " Sulla Excellenza degli Ebrei. " These 
liberal Italian thinkers persistently combated, asdid 
others in various parts of Europe, the spirit of the 
Cabala as well as some of the exaggerated practises 
introduced later into Judaism ; for this reason their 
works did not meet with popularity. 

A strange phenomenon in the history of the Italian 
Jews was Mordecai of Eisenstadt, a man of com- 
manding presence, and a disciple and partizan of 
Shabbethai Zebi. Abraliam Rovigo and Benjamin 
Coen, rabbis of Reggio and Italian cabalists of the 
school of Zacuto, were captivated by 
Mordecai of him and greeted him with enthusiasm. 
Eisenstadt. He proposed that they should go to 
Rome to preach Messianic sermons. 
The majority considered him a madman, and feared 
the unlucky consequences of this foolish agitation; 
others declared that it would be necessary for him 
to become a Christian in order to achieve his pur- 
poses. The Inquisition, failing in its attempts to 
convert him, became suspicious; and his friends 
counseled him to leave Italy and to go to Bohemia. 

Moses Hayyim Luzzatto (born at Padua in 1707; 
died at the age of forty) was a savant of the highest 
order among Italian Jews famous in science and in 
Hebrew poetry. He elaborated a new Zohar, which 
brought upon him much trouble. Finally he was 
persecuted, excommunicated, and forced to aban- 
don his family and country and to become a wan- 
derer. Isaac Lampronti compiled a monumental 
work of rabbinical science, the great Talmudical 
cyclopedia entitled " Pahad Yizhak. " Isaac Regoio, 
influenced by Mendelssohn's works, above all by his 
German translation of the Pentateuch, translated 
portions of the Bible into Italian. He was the author 
also of various poetical and philosophical works. 


Feltre o 


oBelluno ^Friuli 


„ oUdine^. 

Campo o o oGtz 
OTreviso — f^iradisca 

Q Bergamo 

Brescia o veronaO Padua o 

Biella o 
^''"rverceiuo MILAN Soncino ^ Mantua^ologn>.o 
<%7 oTnno„,„ °„-%Oc,ema 

Turin o 

Chieri _ _ 



-Pavla" Montagnana° ^„ ■ ") 

■e ° oValeSza Cremona ^asal oRov.gW 

„ , .0 Alessandria Maggoire nMassa 

Monferratoo o oToitona Opjacen^ cGuastalla„„„„„\. „ , 

Saluzzo Savigliano o^cqui Reggio° o Cento 

OFessano Moden.a° „ Lugoo 

Prato o 


oSamniniato oGubbio 

Camerino o Fermoo 
Perugia o 
Siena o [Montepuleiano^p(,iig„o 

o Norcia 



Conl o 


Bologna o ^ Kaertza 

Imola "poCesena 
Oastiglione ^ Rimini"§ 

Sarzaaa o yirenzuolo ^ 

Urbino " o 


o Toscanella 




c Palest rino 

o Venafro 

Terracina c/ 


-^ ^Capua o 


Avei'sa o 


'^'""^ N Q^Salerno 

tie- > ^—^'^~'^ / P-R^ra/o 

Marsala/^ Polizzio CastigUoneO 

^- _, >_ „ ^. cCatanla 

Vlzzini o dsyracuae 


Sciacca^ Ptazzao 








Map of Italy Showing Places Where Jewish Communities Have existed. 




Among the first schools to adopt the Reform 
projects of Hartwig Wessely were those of Triest, 
Venice, and Ferrara. Under the influence of the 
liberal religious policy of Napoleon I., the Jews of 
Italy, like those of France, were emancipated. The 
supreme power of the popes was broken : they had 
no longer time to give to framing anti-Jewish enact- 
ments, and they no longer directed canonical laws 
against the Jews. To the Sanhedrin convened by 
Napoleon at Paris (1807;, Italy sent four deputies: 
Abraham Vita da Cologna; Isaac Benzion Segre, 
rabbi of Vercelli; Graziadio Ncppi, physician and 
rabbi of Cento; and Jacob Israel Karmi, rabbi of 
Reggio. Of the four rabbis assigned to the com- 
mittee which was to draw up the answers to the 
twelve questions proposed to the Assembly of Nota- 
bles, two, Cologna and Segre, were Italians, and 
were elected respectively first and second vice-presi- 
dents of the Sanhedrin. But the libertj' acquired 
by the Jews under Napoleon was of short duration ; 
it disappeared with his downfall. Pius VII., on re- 
gaining possession of his realms, reinstalled the In- 
quisition; he deprived the Jews of every liberty and 
confined them again in ghettos. Such 
Reaction became to a greater or less extent their 
After condition in all the states into which 
Napoleon. Italy was then divided; at Rome 
they were again forced to listen to 
proselytizing sermons. But the spark of the French 
Revolution could not be extinguished, so easily; a 
short time after it burst forth into a flame more 
brilliant and enduring. In the year 1829, conse- 
quent upon an edict of the emperor Francis I., there 
was opened in Padua, with the cooperation of 
Venice, of Verona, and of Mantua, the first Italian 
rabbinical college, in which Lelio della Torre and 
Samuel David Luzzatto taught. Luzzatto was a . 
man of great intellect; he wrote in pure Hebrew 
upon philosophy, history, literature, criticism, and 
grammar. Many distinguished rabbis, of whom 
several still fill important pulpits, came from the 
rabbinical college of Padua. Zelman, Moses Te- 
deschi, and Castiglioni followed at Triest the pur- 
poses and the principles of Luzzatto's school. At 
the same time, Elijah BENAMOZEGH,.a man of great 
knowledge and the author of several works, dis- 
tinguished himself in the old rabbinical school at 

The return to medieval servitude after the Italian 
restoration did not last long; and the Revolution 
of 1848, which convulsed all Europe, brought great 
advantages to the Jews. Although this was fol- 
lowed by another reaction, yet the persecutions and 
the violence of past times had disappeared. The 
last outrage against the Jews of Italy was con- 
nected with the case of Mortara, which occurred 
in Bologna in 1858. In 1859 all the papal states be- 
came the united kingdom of Italy un- 
Modern der King Victor Emanuel II. ; and ex- 
History, cept in Rome, where oppression lasted 
until the end of the papal dominion 
(Sept. 20, 1870), the Jews obtained full emancipation. 
In behalf of their country the Jews with great ardor 
sacrificed life and property in the memorable cam- 
paigns of 1859, 1866, and 1870. Of the many who 
deserve mention in this connection may be singled out 

Isaac Pesaro Maurogonato. He was minister of 
finance to the Venetian republic during the war of 
1848 against Austria, and his grateful country erected 
to him a memorial in bronze. There was also erected 
in the palace of the doges a marble bust of Samuel 
Romanin, a celebrated Jewish historian of Venice. 
Florence, too, has commemorated a modern Jewish 
poet, Solomon Fiorentino, by placing a marble tablet 
upon the house in which he was born. The secretary 
and faithful friend of Count Cavour was the Pied- 
montese Isaac Artom ; while L'Olper, later rabbi of 
Turin, and also the friend and counselor of Mazzini, 
was one of the most courageous advocates of Italian 
independence. The names of the Jewish soldiers who 
died in the cause of Italian liberty were placed along 
with those of their Christian fellow soldiers on the 
monuments erected in their honor. 

After the death of Luzzatto the rabbinical college 
rapidly declined ; the wars and the revolutions that 
convulsed Italy absorbed the interest of the Jews 
entirely. Wlien the Venetian province became part 
of Italy the college was abolished with the intention 
of establishing another elsewhere. Somewhat later 
(1887) such a college was founded at Rome, which had 
been made the capital of the kingdom. The rabbinical 
school at Leghorn continued its work. The abandon- 
ment of the Jewish college in Padua not only resulted 
in a loss to Jewisli studies in general, but was felt 
throughout Italy likewise in the scarcity of able 
Italian rabbis. The rabbinical college at Rome was 
opened under thS leadership of Rabbi Mortara of 
Mantua, Professors Ehrenreich and Sorani being 
among the instructors. It was not successful ; and 
it was transferred to Florence, where it flourished 
under the direction of Dr. S. H. Margulies. 

In 1853 the rabbis Pontremoli and Levi founded 
at Vercelli a monthly review, which was entitled 
"L'Educatore Israelita," for the discussion of vital 
questions of Jewish literature and history. This was 
published with the title " Vessillo Israelitico " at 
Casale Monferrato, and was under the direction of 
Flaminio Servi until his death (Jan. 23, 1904). About 
fifteen years ago another Jewish magazine, the 
" Corriere Israelilico, " was founded by Abraham Mor- 
purgo at Triest, where it is still published. 

The small and obscure old synagogues situated in 
narrow streets have been replaced by magnificent 
and imposing temples in Milan, Turin, Modena, 
Florence, and even at Rome, where the commu- 
nity, which is the largest in Italy, and contains be- 
tween 12,000 and 14,000 Jews, is now being com- 
pletely reorganized. As head of this most important 
community Prof. Vittorio Castiglione of Triest has 
lately been chosen chief rabbi. In order to make a 
place in the service for the choir, the ritual has 
been shortened, while the sermons have become 
more general and elevated in tone. In exceptional 
cases Jews have become ministers of finance (Leone 
Wollemberg in 1901, andLuigi Luzzatti, for the fifth 
time, in 1903) and minister of war (Ottolenghi in 
1902-3). The Italian Jews, like those of other 
countries, are worthily represented in all fields of 
human activity; and it may be added that Italy 
remains free from the contagion of anti-Semitism 
with which too many of its influential European 
neighbors liave become inoculated. 




See Apulia; Bari; Bologna; Chukch Coun- 
cils; Ferraka; Florence; Leghorn; Mantua; 
Padua; Popes; Rome. 

G. V. C. 

ITHAMAR (lOn'N) : Youngest son of Aaron 
by Elisbeba (Ex. vi. 23). Together witli his father 
and three brotliers he was consecrated to the priest- 
hood {ib. xxviii. 1 ; Lev. viii. 13). On the death of 
Nadab and Abihu, Ithamar and his elder brother, 
Eleazar, were ordered not to mourn for them ; and 
he and Eleazar were appointed successors of Aaron 
in the priesthood (Lev. x. 6-15; Num. iii. 4). Dur- 
ing the wanderings of the Israelites in the wilder- 
ness, Ithamar was the superintendent of the Ger- 
shonites and Merarites, who were in charge of the 
Tabernacle and its equipment, and he directed the 
service of the Levites (Ex. xxxviii. 21 ; Num. iv. 
21-33). The high-priesthood passed over into the 
family of Ithamar through Eli, and from him de- 
scended in regular succession until Abiathar was de- 
prived of it by Solomon; the high-priesthood then 
reverted to the family of Eleazar (I Kings ii. 27, 
35). In the reign of David, as the descendants of 
Eleazar were more numerous than those of Ithamar, 
the latter w^ere appointed for the monthly services in 
the proportion of one to two of the former (I Chron. 
xxiv. 3, 4). 

E. G. H. M. Sel. 

ITIL. See Atel. 


ITTJREA {'I-ovpaia): Greek name of a province, 
(derived from the Biblical " Jetur," name of a son of 
Ishmael (comp. Gen. xxv. 15, 16). The name of 
the province is mentioned only once (Luke iii. 1), 
while in historical sources tlie name of the people, 
theltureans ('iTovpalot, 'Iri>pa(o<), occurs. The latter 
are first mentioned by Eupolemus — as one of the 
tribes conquered by David (Eusebius, " Prseparatio 
Evangelica, " ix. 30) — and subsequently by Strabo, 
Pliny, Josephus, and others, some of whom desig- 
nate the Itureans as Arabs and others as Syrians. 
They were known to the Romans as a predatory 
people (Cicero, "Philippics," ii. 112), and were ap- 
preciated by them for their great skill in archery 
(Caesar, "Bellum Africanum," 20). 

The Itureans did not always possess the same 
land ; as a nomadic people they roamed through the 
country, and when dispossessed of one place set- 
tled in another. Thus, according to I Chron. (v. 
19-22), the people of Jetur, the Itureans bf the 
Greeks, fell with the Hagaritesinlo the hands of the 
children of Reuben, Gad, and the h^lf-tribe of Ma- 
nasseh, who occupied their country. Later, in the 
time of the Roman conquest, they dwelt in the 
region of Mount Lebanon. 

Many Christian theologians, among them Eusebius 
("Onomasticon." ed. Lagarde. pp. 268, 298), taking 
into consideration the above-cited passage of Luke, 
place Iturea near Trachonitis; but this seems con- 
trary to all the historical sources. According to 
Josephus ("Ant." xiii. 11, § 3), the Iturean king- 
dom lay north of Galilee, and in 105 B.C. Aristobu- 

lus, having defeated the Itureans, annexed a part of 
their country to Judea, imposing Judaism upon the 
inhabitants. Strabo (xvi. 2, § 10, p. 753) includes 
the land of the Itureans in the kingdom of Ptolemy, 
son of Mennaius, whose residence was atChalcisand 
who reigned 85-40 B.C. Ptolemj' was succeeded 
by his son Lysanias, called by Dio Cassius (xlix. 
32) "king of the Itureans." About 23 b.c. Iturea 
with the adjacent provinces fell into the liands of a 
chief named Zenodorus (Josephus, I.e. xv. 10, § 1; 
idem, " B. J." i. 20, § 4). Three years later, at' the 
death of Zenodorus, Augustus gave Iturea to Herod 
the Great, who in turn bequeathed it to his son 
Philip (Josephus, "Ant." xv. 10, § 3). 

That Iturea was in the region of Mount Lebanon 
is confirmed by an inscription of about the year6c.E. 
("Ephemeris Epigraphica," 1881, pp. 537-542), in 
which Q. ^'Emilius Secundus relates that he was sent 
by Quirinius against the Itureans in Mount Lebanon. 
In 38 Caligula gave Iturea to a certain Soemus, 
who is called by Dio Cassius (lix. 12) and by Tac- 
itus ("Annals," xii. 23) "king of the Itureans." 
After the death of Soemus (49) his kingdom was 
incorporated into the province of Syria (Tacitus, 
I.e.). After this incorporation the Itureans fur- 
nished soldiers for the Roman army; and the desig- 
nations "Ala I. Augusta Ituraeorum " and "Cohors 
I. Augusta Ituraeorum " are met with in the inscrip- 
tions ("Epheini?ris Epigraphica," 1884, p. 194). 

Bibliography: G. A. Smith, in Hastings, Diet. Bible; Winer, 
B. R.; Schurer, Gesch. M ed., i. 707 et seq. 
E. G. n. M. Sel. 

scholar of the twelfth century, frequently consulted 
by his contemporaries on questions of Biblical exe- 
gesis. He is probably identical with Isaac of Rus- 
sia, found in the English records of 1181. His ex- 
planation of the term "yabam," for which he finds 
a parallel in the Russian language, is quoted by 
Moses ben Isaac Nasi of London in his lexicon 
" Sef er ha-Shoham. " Zunz, and after him Harkavy, 
see in this explanation evidence that the Jews living 
in Russia in the time of Itze of Chernigov spoke the 
vernacular of the country. 

Bibliography: Zunz, Ritm^, p. 73; Harkavy, Ha-Yehudim 
u-Sefat lia-Selavim, pp.14, 62; Neubauer, in AUg. Zeit. 
des Jud. 1865, No. 17; Jacobs, Jens of Angevin England, 
pp. 66, 73"; J. Q. R. ii. 329. 

H. R. I. Br. 

ITZIG (sometimes Hitzig) : Wealthy German 
family which did much in the eighteenth century for 
the development of modern culture among the Jews._ 

Babette Itzig : Born 1749; married Salomon; 
her daughter Leah became the wife of Abraham Men- 
delssohn and was the mother of Felix Mendelssohn 

Bliimchen Itzig : Born 1752; married David 
Fried lander 

Bonem Itzig: Born 1756; probably the Julius 
Eduard Hitzig whose son Georg Heinrich 
Friedrich Hitzig (born Berlin April 8, 1811; died 
there Oct. 11, 1881), the architect, built the Ber- 
lin Stock Exchange on the site of his grandfather 
Daniel Itzig's residence on the Burgstrasse (see Kay- 
serling, "Moses Mendelssohn," p. 11, Leipsic, 1888). 

P. Wi. 

Ivan IV. 



Daniel Itzig: German banker ; headof the Jew- 
ish communities of Prussia (1764-99) ; born 1723; 
aied at Berlin May 21, 1799. Itzig was a member 
of the wealthy banking firm of Itzig, Ephraim & 
Son, whose financial operations greatly assisted 
Frederick the Great in his wars. He was also the 
owner of the large lead-factories at Sorge as well as 
of the oil-mill at Berlin, being one of the few Jews 
permitted to engage in such enterprises. In 1756 
Itzig was appointed "Milnzjude" (mint-master) by 
Frederick the Great, and again in 1758, together 
with his partner Ephraim. 

In 1797 Itzig became " Hofbankier " (court-banker) 
under Frederick William II. When the latter came 
to the throne he instituted a commission to examine 
into the grievances of the Jews and to suggest meas- 
ures for their relief. Itzig, with his son-in-law 
David Friedlander, was appointed general dele- 
gate to that body. They had the courage to expose 
to the conference the cruel legislation of Frederick 
the Great and to refuse the inadequate reforms pro- 
posed(Konig, "Annalen der Juden im Preussischen 
Staate," p. 236). 

The Itzigs were among those granted equal rights 
with Christians, and an order was issued that they 
should not be classified as Jews in official docu- 
ments. Itzig was the first to plan the founding of 
a home and school for poor Jewish children at Ber- 
lin (1761), a plan which, through the endeavors of 
David Friedlander and of Itzig's son Isaac Daniel 
Itzig, was realized in 1778 in the establishment of 
the Hinnuk Ne'arim, the first school of its kind in 
Germany. At the instance of Moses Mendelssohn, 
Itzig, as the head of the Jewish community, inter- 
posed (April, 1782) in behalf of Wessely's " Worte 
der Wahrheit und des Friedens," which work had 
been put under the ban by Polish rabbis, and was 
about to receive the same treatment from Hirschel 
Levin, chief rabbi of Berlin. 

Itzig married Miriam (daughter of Simhah Bonem), 

by Avhom he had thirteen children. 

Bibliography: Geiger, Oe»ch. der Juden in Berlin, pp. 84- 
85. 140-141, Berlin, 1871; Kohut, Ge»ch. der Deut»chcn Ju- 
den, pp. 720, 760 ; Graetz, HM. v. .^97, 413, 41.5-416 ; see also 
Steinschneider, Hehr. Bibl. 1v. 72-73, for a poem dedicated to 
Itzig by Israel Samosc. j q j) 

Elias Itzig: Born 1755; father of Julius Edu- 
ard Itzig, " Crirainalrath " and writer on criminal 
law, who was born in Berlin March 27, 1780; died 
there Nov. 26, 1849. 

Henriette Itzig : Wife of Nathan Mendels- 

Jacob Itzig : Born 1764 ; his son adopted the 
name of "Bornhcim." 

Jettchen (Yetta) Itzig: Born 1767; married 
Mendel Opperheim, whose sons adopted the name 
of "Oppenfeld." 

Johannet Itzig : Born 1748; married Fliess. 

Julius Eduard Hitzig: Son of the architect 
Georg Itzig; born in Berlin Feb. 6, 1838; medical 
professor at the universities of Zurich and (later) 
Halle ; an authority on diseases of the brain. 

Rachel Itzig : Born 1766 ; died (unmarried) 1826. 

Rebecca Itzig : Born 1763; married Ephiaim. 

V6gelch.en Itzig : Became Baroness Fanny von 
Arnstein, of Vienna; born in Berlin Sept. 29, 1757; 
died June 8, 1818. 

Zaerlche Itzig: Born 1761; died May 11, 1854; 
married Samuel Levi. 

Zipperche Itzig : Born 1760; married Bernhard, 
Freiherr von Eskeles. 

Most of the descendants of the Itzig family are 
members of the Christian Church. 
Bibliography: Steinschneider, Hehr. Bibl. iv. 73-74; AUu. 

Deutsche Biog.x Mcucig KonversatUyns-Lexikon; Fuenii, 

Kencset Yisrael, pp. 263-264, Warsaw, 1886. 

s. P- Wi. 


Czar of Kussia 1462-1505. His attitude toward the 
Jews was friendly. Under his reign the Jew Skhari- 
yah (Zechariah), who arrived in Novgorod with the 
suite of Prince Mikhail Olelkovich, founded a Juda- 
izing sect to which several eminent Russians ad- 
hered ; among them the priest Dionis, the archpriest 
Aleksei, Feodor Kuritzyn, the archimandrite Sosima, 
the monk Zechariya, and even Ivan's daughter-in- 
law. Princess Helena. 

With the aid of Chozi Kokos (from "Chozi" = "a 
pilgrim to the Holy Land," and " Kok-Kos " = " the 
blue-eyed "), an infiuential Jew of Kaffa, Ivan con- 
cluded and maintained throughout his entire reign 
a very important alliance with Menghli Girei, 
Khan of the Crimea. The services rendered by Kokos 
to Ivan may partly explain the latter's favorable 
attitude toward the Jews. The part played by 
Kokos as the agest of the grand duke is shown by 
the instruction given by the latter to his emissary, 
the boyar Nikita^Beklemishev, dated March, 1474 
("Sbornik Imp. Russ. Istor. Obschestva," xli. 8). 
In his letter Beklemishev is instructed by Ivan to 
transmit to Kokos his credentials to the court of the 
khan and the regards of the grand duke. Kokos is 
requested to discontinue the use of the Hebrew lan- 
guage in his further communications to the grand 
duke, and to use either Russian or Tatar instead. 

Although there is no evidence of the existence of 
Jewish communities in Great Russia during the 
reign of Ivan, it seems certain that Jewish mer- 
chants from Kiev, Novgorod, and other towns were 
prominent in the commercial transactions of Moscow 
with Lithuania, the Orient, and the Crimea. 

The fact that Ivan ordered the beheading (April 
32, 1490) of his Jewish physician Leon should not 
in any way affect the estimate of his attitude 
toward the Jews as a whole ; for Leon had boasted 
of his ability to heal the son of the grand duke, and 
he was punished for his boastfulness and for his 
failure to effect the promised cure. If the condi- 
tion of the Jews of Moscow was changed for the 
worse, it was through the persistent efforts of the 
clergy, led by Gennadi, who saw a great menace to 
the Greek Church in the spread of the heresy. 

Bibliography: SlMrnik Imp. Buss. Istor. Ohschestva, xli. 8, 
12, 40-41, .50, 71, 74, 77, 114, 309: Polnoye Sohraiiiiie Russkikh 
Lijetoplsei, vl. 763, 786, 819; Karamzim, Istor. Gosud. Rosis. 
vi. 1.54-156, 216, 225, notes 122, 125, 494, 595 ; Solovyev, Istor. 
Rnssii, vol. v.; Platon, Kratkaya Tzerkovnaya RossL^kaya 
Istoriya, passim, Moscow, 1833 ; Gratz, Oesch. (Hebr. ed.), vii. 
63; P. Pierling, La Russie et VOrient; Mariage d'wi Tsar 
an Vatican, Ivan III. et Sophie Paleolngue. Paris. 1891, 

H. R. 

BLE : Czar of Russia 1533-84. In his time the 
prejudice against the Jews in the Muscovite domin- 
ions was very pronounced. They were feared as 


pmx^injp:) coh^y^cth^tvH^fr)*!^ vrMfrrpi'n^p) wyn^j^pjx^' 
r^w»Pi^to jTW^ Jj^Pt5iPP'p7pk^ni^pTo?ijy?jn3pb?te 


PAGE FROM Jacob ben asher's "Orah Hayyim," printed at Ixar, 1485. 

(Fn the British Museum.) 





magicians and proselytizers. In 1545 Ivan sent a 
special embassy to Sigismund August, King of 
Poland, with reference to boundary disputes and 
to certain Jews of Brest whose goods had been 
burned in Moscow because they had brought thitlier 
some red ocher ("' mumeya "), notwithstanding the 
prohibition to enter Muscovite territorj'. In 1550 
Sigismund August asked Ivan the Terrible to per- 
mit the Lithuanian Jews to trade without hindrance 
throughout Russia, on the strength of old agree- 
ments permitting Polish merchants to trade in Lithu- 
ania. The czar firmly refused to comply with his 

When the Russian army occupied the flourishing 
Polish city of Polotzk, which at that time (1563) 
had a prosperous Jewish community, the czar ordered 
that all the local Jews be converted to the Greek 
Orthodox -faith; and those who resisted were either 
drowned in the Dilna or burned at the stake. 

Bibliography: Kniga Posolskaya Metriki Litovshoi, i. 5; 
Chtennia v Mofiknvskom Obschestvue IsUmi i Drevnnstei, 
1860, i. (>5, iv., pa.ssim : Bantysh-Kanienski, Perepuska Mezhdu 
Rossiyeyu i PoWieuu, i. 77. 

H. K. 
IVISA or IVIZA. See Balearic Islands. 

IVORY: The Hebrew word for ivory, i.e., 
"shen" ( = " tooth"), shows that the Israelites knew 
what ivory was. The other term used to denote ivory, 
"shenhabbim" (I Kings x. 22; II Chron. ix. 21), is 
usually explained as a compound of "shen" and the 
Egyptian, "ab," "ebu " (elephant). Other suggested 
derivations, from the Indian or Assyrian, are im- 
probable, though the question can not be decided 
with certainty. In ancient times ivory was always 
a very costly article. In the East it was commonly 
used for inlaid work. It is related of Ahab (I Kings 
xxii. 39) that he built for himself an "ivory house," 
or palace, the halls and chambers of which were en- 
riched with inlaid ivory. With this should be 
compared Homer's description of Menelaus' palace 
("Odyssey," iv. 63). The Assyrians had similar 
palaces. Ps. xlv. 9 (A. V. 8) and Amos iii. 15 also 
speak of palaces, or houses, of ivory. As the latter 
passage indicates, the luxury of the court was still 
imitated by the great of the land at the time of 
Amos. Whether or not it may be concluded, from 
the "ivory tower" in Cant. vii. 4, that the exterior 
of such palaces, or the exterior of one special tower, 
was inlaid with ivory is doubtful. 

Ezek. xxvii. 6 mentions the rich ivory ornamenta- 
tion (of the deck ?) of Phenician ships. Inlaid work 
was popular also for furniture. Amos (vi. 4) con- 
demns the newly introduced luxury of couches in- 
laid with ivory. Ivory couches and chairs are in- 
cluded in the enumeration of Hezekiah's tribute to 
Sennacherib. Solomon's ivory throne (I Kings x. 
18 et seq.) seems to have been of another kind— most 
probably of carved ivory. The statement that Solo- 
mon's ships brought ivory from Ophir (I Kings x. 
22) is the only indication as to the source of his sup- 
ply. It is usually supposed that it came from India, 
but it is more likely that it was brought mostly 
from the east coast of Africa. Ethiopia supplied the 
Egyptians with most of their ivory, and the Pheni- 
cian markets were undoubtedly partially supplied 
from Egypt. 

E. G. H. L Be. 

IWRE-TEUTSCH. See Jud.ko-Geuman. 

IXAR (HIJAR) : Town in Aragou, Spain, 63 
miles to the northeast of Teruel. Here were printed 
by Eliezer Alantansi two parts of the Spanish edition 
of the Arba' Turim: the Orah Hayyim in 1485, and 
the Yoreh De'ah in 1487, possibly in continuation 
of the Guadalajara Eben ha-'Ezer. Besides these, 
Alantansi printed a Pentateuch with Megillot. In 
the same year there appeared a Pentateuch with the 
Targum, issued by Solomon Salmati, possibly in 
rivalry with Alantansi. Alantansi used as a printer's 
mark a lion on a black shield in his first publication, 
a lion on a red shield in his second, and a lion fight- 
ing with a unicorn in his Pentateuch. 

Bibliography: Steinsclmeider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 2880, 3099; 
Cassel and Steinschneider, In Ersch and Gruber, Enclic. sec- 
tion ii., part 28, p. 37a; Freimann, Ueber Hehriiische Iiiku- 
nabelii, pp. 3, 4. 


lYYAR : The second month in the Jewish calen- 
dar, consisting always of twenty-nine days, and fall- 
ing between the tenth of April and the eighth of June 
(R. H. 3a et passim; Targ. Yer. to Ex. xii. 39; Targ. 
Sheui to Esth. iii. 7). This month in the Bible is 
designated as IT (I Kings vi. 1 = the month of be- 
ginning the Temple-building), probably the same 
as the Phenician or Punic 2^T (Lidzbarski, "Nord- 
Semitische Epigraphik," p. 267). The word"Iy- 
j'ar " is undoubtedly connected with the root "ilK, 
and thus denominates the month as the month of 
light, over and against Adar, which etymologically 
is the dark month. Like all the names of the 
months, "lyyar" is a loan-word from the Assyro- 
Babylonian ("A-a-ru"; see Delitzsch, "Handwor- 
terb." p. 34b). This month falls in the Omer, the 
first of lyyar being the sixteenth day of Omer. 

The principal events recorded in lyyar are as fol- 
lows : 

lyyar 1. — According to Seder '01am R. viii., the 
census of the people was begun under Moses (Num. 
i.-ii. 18). 

2. — Solomon began the building of the Temple 
(see above; II Chron. iii. 2). 

7. — Anniversary of the dedication of the walls of 
Jerusalem (Meg. Ta'an. ii. 1, xii. 5). 

8. — Memorial day of the massacre of the Jews of 
Speyer during the First Crusade (l"jn"n fin'TJ, 1096; 
see Gratz, "Gesch." vi. 101 etseq.; Jellinek, "Kon- 
tres Gezerot "). 

10.— Eli died (I Sam. iv. 1-18). 

15. — Arrival of the Israelites in the desert of Sin 
(Ex. xvi.); also the day for Pesah Sheni (Num. ix. 
7; II Chron. xxx.). 

16. — The manna began to fall (Ex. xvi.). 

17. — On this daJ^ rising against Florus, the Jews 
broke down the colonnade connecting the citadel 
Antonia with the Temple (3826 = 66; Josephus, "B. 
J." ii. 16, § 17); also the anniversary of the im- 
prisonment of the Jews in England (5047 = Friday, 
May 2, 1287; Gratz, I.e. vii. 197-198). 

18. — LaG be-'Omer = thirty -third day of Omer, 
when marriages may be solemnized. 

21.— Siege of Jotapata began 3827 = 67 (Gratz, I.e. 
iii. 410-414). 

23. — Arrival of Israel at Rephidim (Seder 'Olamj 
R. v.). 




27. — A day of victory on account of the I'ccognition 
of the independence of Jvidea under Simon I. (Meg. 
Ta'an. ii.); beginningof a new Eu.\(3618 =142 b.c. ; 
I Mace. xiii. 41, 42). 

29. — Deatli of Samuel the prophet (Meg. Ta'an. 
I.e.). E. G. H. 

IZATES : Proselyte*; King of Adiabene; son of 
Queen Helena and Monobaz I. ; born in the year 1 of 
the cojumon era; died in 55. While in Charan 
Spasinu, whither he had been sent by his father, a 
Jewish merchant named Ananias acquainted Iiim 
with the tenets of the Jewish religion, in which he 
became deeply interested. His mother had been pre- 
viously won over to Juclaism without his knowledge. 
On ascending the throne on the death of his father, 
Izates discovered the conversion of his mother; 
and lie himself intended to adopt Judaism, and even 
to submit to circumcision. He was, liowever, dis- 
suaded from this step both by his teacher Ananias 
and by his mother, but was ultimately persuaded 
thereto by another Jew, Eleazar. 

For some time Izates enjoyed peace; and he was 
so highly respected that he was chosen as arbitrator 
between the Parthian king Artaban III. and the re- 
bellious nobles of that monarch. But when several 
of Izates' relatives openly acknowledged their con- 
version to Judaism, some of the nobles of Adiabene 
secretly induced Abia, King of Arabia, to declare 
war against him. Izates defeated his enemy, who in 
despair committed suicide. The nobles then con- 
spired with Volageses, King of Parthia, but the 

latter was at the last moment prevented from carry- 
ing out his plans, and Izates continued to reign 
undisturbed for twenty-four years. He left twenty- 
four sons and twenty -four daughters. Izates' re- 
mains and those of Queen Helena were sent by 
Monobaz II. to Jerusalem for burial. For the ac- 
count of Izates' conversion given in the Midrash see 
Gen. R. xlvi. Compare Adiabene; Ananias; Hel- 
ena, and the bibliography there cited. 

G. I. Br. 

IZBAN. See Elon. 

IZBAELITA : Jewish weekly in the Polish lan- 
guage, published in Warsaw since 1865. It was the 
successor of the Jutkzenka. At the beginning the 
" Izraelita " met with many obstacles in the way of 
restrictions from the censor; and it was also strongly 
opposed by the Orthodox 'Jews. Even the Liberals 
were not altogether pleased with it. While the 
" Izraelita " advised the Orthodox Jews to introduce 
the Polish language in the heder, it urged the Lib- 
erals to teach their children Hebrew. From 1865 to 
1897 the paper was edited by Samuel H. Peltyn, 
who always conducted it in a spirit of patriotism, 
and advocated assimilation. After his death (Sept., 
1897) N. Sokolow became its editor, and upheld 
Zionism; but in 1901, when L. Grosglik became 
editor, the " Izraelita " returned to its old program. 

H. K. S. Po. 

IZRAELITA KOZLdNY. See Periodicals. 



See Year -Books. 

JAAZER or JAZER ("iTy: in I Chron. xxvi. 31 
^>jj;^ =" he will help "): A city east of the Jordan, in 
or near Gilead (Num. xxxii. 1, 3; I Chron. I.e.), and 
inhabited by the Amorites. It was taken by a special 
expedition sent by Moses to conquer it (Num. xxi. 
32). From the Septuagint, which reads 'laC'/p for TJ? 
in Num. xxi. 24, it appears that Jaazer was on the bor- 
der of Ammon. As an important city it gave its 
name to the whole of the surrounding territory {ih. 
xxxii. 1). Even a "sea of Jaazer" is mentioned in 
Jer. xlviii. 32 (but comp. the Septuagint rendering 
■n67iL^ 'laCf'/p, probably due to reading IT^' Ty iristead 

of-iTy D^). 

Jaazer is stated to have been a fertile land fit for 
the raising of cattle (ib.) and a place having many 
vineyards (Isa. xvi. 8, 9; Jer. I.e.). It was occupied 
by the children of Gad (Josh. xiii. 25; I Chron. xxvi. 
31), by which tribe it was allotted to the Merarite 
Levites (Josh. xxi. 39; I Chron. vi. 66 [A. V. 81]). 
In the time of David it seems to have been occupied 
by the Hebronites, who were descendants of Kohath 
(I Chron. xxvi. 31). It was chosen as one of the sta- 
tions b}' David's officers who were sent to number 
the children of Israel (II Sam. xxiv. 5). 

According to Josephus ("Ant." xii. 8, ^ 1), 

Jaazer was captured and burned by Judas Macca- 
beus. The site of Jaazer was defined by Eusebius 
and Jerome ("Onomasticon," ».t). "Azor")as being 
8 or 10 Roman miles west of Philadelphia, and 15 
miles north of Heslibon, and as the source of a large 
river falling into the Jordan. It is identified by 
some scholars (e.g., S. Merrill; see Hastings, "Diet. 
Bible," s.r.) with the modern Khurbat Sar on the 
road from 'Irak al-Amir to Al-Salt; but this identi- 
fication has been rejected by Cheyne (Cheyne and 
Black, "Encyc. Bibl." s.-y.). 
e. g. h. M. Sel. 

JABAL IBN JAWWAL : Jewish Arabic poet 
of the seventh century ; contemporary of Mohammed. 
According to Ibn Hisham (" Kitab Sirat Rasul Allah," 
ed. Wiistenfeld, pp. 690, 713) and Abu al-Faraj al- 
Isbahani ("Kitab al-Aghani," viii. 104), Jabal was a 
Tha'alabite (Abu al-Faraj gives the whole geneal- 
ogy), but neither of them mentions the fact that he 
w^as a Jew. Ibn Hajar, however, in his biographical 
dictionary "Kitab al-Asabah fi Tamyiz al-Saha 
bah " (ed. Sprenger, i. 453), relying on Ibn al-Kalbi 
and on Al-Marzabani, declares that such was the 
case and that Jabal subsequently embraced Islam. 
Yakut ("Mu'jam," i. 765). quoting a verse of Jabal, 
calls him erroneouslv "Jamal ibn Jawwal al-Tagh- 




Jabal is sporadically cited by the above-mentioned 
Arabic authors. Abu al-Faraj {I.e. p. 101) quotes 
two verses of Jabal's, apparently from a poem which 
he addressed to Al-Shammakh, himself a Tha'ala- 
bite poet, in reference to a quarrel that arose be- 
tween them. This is probably the same incident as 
that related by Abu al-Faraj {I.e. p. 104); namely, 
that Al-Shammakh fell in love with Jabal's sister 
Kalbah, and when, shortly afterward, Al-Shammakh 
went on a journey she married his brother, giving 
rise to a poetical contest between the disappointed 
lover and Jabal. Eleven other verses by Jabal, in- 
dicating sufficiently the poet's Jewish religion, are 
quoted by Ibn Hisham {I.e. p. 713). They are an el- 
egy on the death of Huyayy (according to Sprenger's 
punctuation in Ibn Ha jar, I.e., " Jubaj^y ") ibn Akh- 
tab, chief of the Banu al-Nadir, and on the de- 
feat by Mohammed of this tribe and of the Banu 
Kuraiza. These verses were a reply to the poet 
Hassan ibn Thabit. They apparently do not form a 
complete poem; for Ibn Hajar {I.e.) quotes a verse 
of Jabal's not appearing in the quotation of Ibn 
Hisham, but having the same meter and the same 
rime, and therefore probably from the same poem. 

Bibliography : Besides the sources mentioned above, H. 
Hirsclifeld, in R. E. J. x. 26. 
G. M. Sel. 

scholar of the tenth centuiy. His full name is said to 
have been Samuel ben Asher ben Mansur. The 
surname " al-Jabali " indicates that he came from the 
province of Jabal, in the neighborhood of Hamadan. 
According to Ibn al-Hiti, he was a contemporary of 
Abu al-Faraj Harun, the author of "Mushtamil." 
This is, however, inaccurate, inasmuch as Abu al- 
Faraj wrote in the year 1026, whereas Al-Jabali is 
quoted by an earlier writer, Sahl b. Mazliah. Al- 
Jabali controverted Saadia Gaon in a special writing. 
He is also said to have controverted a certain Mena- 
hem, the head of a school, after he had read a 
letter written by a son of this Menahem to one Abu 
Thabit (otherwise unknown). 

Perhaps this Menahem is identical with a scholar 
of the same name w"ho directed questions to Saadia 
in the Arabic language. In that case Al-Jabali can 
not have flourished before 950-960. 

Al-Jabali must not be confounded with the Ka- 
raite author Samuel ibn Mansur, who presumably 
belongs to the fourteenth century. 

Bibliography : Steinschneider, Die Arabische Literatur der 
Juden, §8 30, 42, 196. 
K. S. P. 

JABBOK (P3''): One of the principal tribu- 
taries of the Jordan ; first mentioned in connection 
with the meeting of Jacob and Esau and v/ith the 
struggle of Jacob with the angel (Gen. xxxii. 23 
etseq.). It was the boundary separating the terri- 
tory of Eeuben and Gad from that of Ammon, the 
latter being described as lying along the Jabbok 
{Num. xxi. 24; Deut. ii. 37, iii. 16; Josh. xii. 2). 
The territory of Sihon is described as extending 
" from Arnon unto Jabbok " (Num. xxi. 24), and it 
was reclaimed later by the King of Ammon (Judges 
xi. 13, 22). Eusebius ("Onomasticon," ed. Larsow- 
Parthey, pp. 222, 224, Berlin, 1862) places the river 
between Gerasa and Philadelphia. The Jabbok is 

identified with the Wadi or Nahr al-Zarka, a river 
that rises in Mount Hauran, and, after receiving 
many tributaries, empties into the Jordan between 
Gennesaretand the Dead Sea (Schwarz, " Das Heilige 
Land," p. 30; comp. Estori Farhi, "Kaftor wa- 
Ferah," ed. Luncz, p. 63, Jerusalem, 1897). The 
general opinion is that the name "Zarka" is given 
to this river on account of the bluish color of its 
water; but Schwarz {I.e.) says that it is because the 
river in its course touches the fortress of Zarka on 
the route between Damascus and Mecca. 
E. G. II. M. Sel. 

JABESH (more fully Jabesh - gilead [^y*, 
ti^-a"" = "dry"]): Principal city of Gilead, east of 
the Jordan. It is first mentioned in connection with 
the war between the Benjamites and the other tribes 
of Israel (Judges xxi. 8-24). Because its inhabitants 
had refused to march against the Benjamites, 12,000 
Israelites were sent against it. All the people of the 
city were slain except 400 virgins, who were spared 
to be given as wives to the surviving Benjamites. In 
the beginning of the reign of Saul tlie city was at- 
tacked by Nahash, King of Ammon, and was forced 
to apply to Saul for help (I Sam. xi. 1-10). The 
inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead remained grateful to 
Saul for his assistance, and when he and his three 
sons were killed by the Philistines on Mount Gilboa, 
they went by night, took the bodies from the wall 
of Beth-shan, brought them to Jabesh, burned 
them, buried the remains, and fasted seven days {ib. 
xxxi. 2, 6, 11-13). For this deed Jabesh-gilead was 
afterward highly lauded (II Sam. ii. 4-6). 

Josephus ("Ant." vi. 5, § 1) calls Jabesh the 
metropolis of the Gileadites. Eusebius (" Onomas- 
ticon ") speaks of it as of a village six Roman miles 
from Pella on the road to Gerasa. The name is pre- 
served in the modern Wadi Yabis; and Robinson 
(" Researches," 2d ed., iii. 319) holds the ruins of Al- 
Dair to be the site of Jabesh-gilead. 

E. G. n. 

M. Sel. 

JABEZ : Eponym of a clan of the Kenite family 
of the Rechabites, which clan was merged into the 
tribe of Judah. I Chron. ii. 55 refers to " families 
of scribes" ("soferim ") dwelling at Jabez ; while in 
another passage {ib. iv. 9-10) Jabez is described as 
"more honorable than his brethren." His name 
(Ya'bez) is derived from his mother's saying: "I 
bare him with sorrow " (" 'ozeb "). Another explana- 
tion is {ib. iv. 10, Hebr.): "Jabez called on the God 
of Israel, saying, ' If Thou wilt bless me and enlarge 
my boundary, and Thine hand be with me, and Thou 
wilt give me friendships that will not grieve me [an 
allusion to " 'ezeb "] then ' [the concluding words are 
omitted in the text; see the commentaries to iv. 10]. 
And God granted him that which he requested." 

Jabez was prominent, particularly after the Exile, 
among those Kenite clans that embraced Judaism 
becoming scribes and teachers of the Law. Rabbin- 
ical tradition identifies Jabez with Othniel the Ken- 
ezite, the head of the bet ha-midrash after the death 
of Moses (Tem. 16a; Targ. to I Chron. ii. 55, iv. 9). 
Hence the vow of Jabez was understood to refer to 
his schoolhouse: "If Thou wilt bless me with chil- 
dren, and give me many disciples and associates," 
etc. (Tem. I.e. ; Sanh. 106a). " The whole tribe of 




Jethro, the Kenites as well as the Rechabites, left 
their habitations near Jericho and went to Jabez to 
learn the Torah from him" (Mek., Yitro, 'Amalek, 
ii. ; Sifre, Num. 78). 

In the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (v, 5) Jabez 
is mentioned together with Jeremiah and Gedaliah 
among tlie saintly leaders of the people at the de- 
struction of the Temple, being one of the deathless 
frequently mentioned in rabbinical tradition (Mas- 
sek. Derek Erez i. ; see "J. Q. K." v. 417 et seq.). 

E. G. H. K. 


Turkish Talmudist of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries; son in-law of Elijah Hako, author of 
"Ruah Eliyahu." Jabez was a Talmudist of con- 
siderable reputation, and had many pupils, among 
whom were his son-in-law Judah Ashkenazi, and 
Isaac Nuiiez Belmonte, author of "Sha'arlia-Melek." 
Jabez was the author of: "'Leshon 'Arummim" 
(Smyrna, 1749), containing annotations to Elijah 
Mizrahi's supercommentary on Rashi on the Penta- 
teuch and to the passages in Maimonides, and novel- 
la by Jabez 's father; "Leshon Li mm udim" (iY/. 1755), 
novellae on the Turim. 

Bibliogr.^phy: Aziilai, Shem ha-GednJim, p. 38; Michael, Or 
hOnHaiiiiim, p. 297, No. 643; Fuenn, Kencsct Yi»racU P- 202. 

s. s. I. Br. 

Biblical exegete and preacher in the second half 
of the sixteenth century ; a descendant of Joseph 
Jabez. He wrote: (1) "Hasde Abot," commen- 
tary on Pirke Abot (Constantinople, 1583) ; (2) 
"Yafik Razon," homiletic explanations of the Haf- 
tarot according to the German and Portuguese 
rites (Belvedere, 1593) ; (3) " Torat Hesed," commen- 
taries on the Hagiograplia, except Chronicles (/i, 
<•. 1593-94); the commentary to each book has a sub- 
title indicating its contents — as " Tehillot Adonai " 
(on Psalms), " Limmude Adonai " (on Proverbs), 
"Yir'atShaddai" (on Job), "Kodesh Hillulim" (on 
Canticles), " Zemah Zaddik " (on Ruth) — and a 
commentary on the Pesah Haggadah is appended to 
the work. All the hagiographic commentaries ex- 
cept those on Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Esther are 
printed in the rabbinical Bible "Kehillat Mosheh," 
Amsterdam, 1727, the subtitles in a few cases being 
somewhat changed. 

Bibliography: Benjacob, Ozar ?'m, pp. 196, 228, 647; 
Conforte. Kore lia-Dornt. p. 30a; Fuenn, Keneset YUsrael, 
i. 61.5; Furst, Bihl. Jiid. ii. 2; St^inschneider, Jewish Liter- 
ature^ p. 232; Idem, Cat. Bodl. col. 1125. 

G. M. Sc. 

theologian of the fifteentli and sixteeutli centuries. 
He lived for a time in Portugal, where he associated 
with Joseph Hayyun, who inspired him with that 
taste for mysticism which he subsequentlj' displayed 
in his writings. When the Jews were banished from 
Spain Jabez settled at ilantua, Italy. There he met 
his compatriot, the cabalist Judah Hayyat, whom 
he induced to write the conimentary "^linhat Yehu- 
dah" on the cabalistic work "Ma'areket Elahut." 

Jabez was an opponent of philosophy. For him 
the truth of the Jewish religion is demonstrated by 
the miracles recorded in the Bible. He criticizes the 
VII.— 2 

thirteen articles of faith of Maimonides, the six of 
Hasdai Crescas, and tlie three of Albo. According 
to him, only the following three, alluded to in the 
verse " I am that I am " (Ex. iii. 14), are the fun- 
damental principles of Judaism: (1) that God is one; 
(2) that He governs tlie world; (3) that in the end 
all mankind will believe in His unity. These dog- 
mas are expounded by him in the following books: 
" Hasde Adonai " (Constantinople, 1533), an ethical 
work wherein the author demonstrates that the wise 
man is more grateful to God for his misfortunes than 
for worldly advantages ; " Ma'amar ha-Ahdut " (Fer- 
rara, 1554), on the unity of God ; " Perush 'al Mas- 
seket Abot " {ib. 1555), on the sayings of the Fathers, 
mentioned by the author of " Yesod ha-Emunah " ; 
■'Or ha-Hayyim " {ib. 1555), against philosophy; a 
commentary on the Psalms (Salonica, 1571). 

Jabez left also a great number of manuscript 
works, which, according to Ghirondi, are still in the 
possession of the authors descendants. 

Bibliography: Conforte. Kore ha-Dorot, p. 30a; Azulai, 
Shem ha^Gedolim, ii. 4 ; Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole Fi.s- 
rael, p. 158 ; Jellinek, in Orient, Lit. vii. 262 ; Steinschneider, 
Cat. Bodl. col. 1474; Vogelstein and Rieger, Geach. der Ju- 
den in Rom, il. 66. 
G. I. Br. 

JABIN : 1 . King of Hazor ; head of one of the 
great confederations which faced Joshua in his con- 
quest of Canaan (Josh. xi.). He summoned his 
allies from eveiy side, including the Amorites, Hit- 
tites, and many petty kingdoms. By " the waters of 
Merom " the battle was fought, and the great coali- 
tion, notwithstanding its chariots of iron, was de- 
feated. Joshua took advantage of his victory, 
captured the royal city Hazor, and slew Jabin, its 
king. He thus conquered territory that was finally 
divided by lot among (at least) Asher, Naphtali, 
Zebulun, and Issachar. 

2. King of Canaan "that reigned in Hazor" 
(Judges iv.). Some regard Josh. xi. and Judges iv. 
as referring to one and the same event. This Jabin 
appears as an oppressor of Israel for twenty years, 
whose most formidable instruments of war were nine 
hundred cjiariots of iron. Israel arose under the 
inspiration of Deborah and Barak to throw off this 
yoke. Jabin's army was in charge of Sisera, his 
commander-in-chief, who afterward fell in the tent 
of Jael the Kenite. No mention is made of Jabin's 
part in the battle, either in the prose or in the poetic 
account of that event (Judges iv., v.). The result 
of the battle, however, was that "God subdued on 
that day Jabin, the King of Canaan, before the chil- 
dren of Israel. And the hand of the children of 
Israel prospered, and prevailed more and more 
against Jabin, the King of Canaan, until they had 
destroyed Jabin, King of Canaan " (ib. iv. 23, 24). An 
interesting reference is found in Ps. Ixxxiii. 9: "Do 
thou unto them as unto Midian, as to Sisera, as to 
Jabin, at the River Kishon." 

E. <:. II. L M. P. 

JABLONSKI, DANIEL E. : German Chris 
tian theologian and Orientalist; born Nov. 26, 1660, 
in Danzig; died May 25,1741, in Berlin. After spend- 
ing some time as a wandering scholar in the uni- 
versities of Holland and England, he settled in Lissa 
in 1686, but ultimately removed to Berlin, where 
he became a member of the Academy of Sciences in 




1700. He established there a Hebrew printing- 
press, from which he issued a text of the Old Testa- 
ment (1699) based upon Leusden's (that is, Athias') 
of 1667; several prayer-books; and an edition of the 
Babylonian Talmud in twelve volumes (1715-21). 
An attempt to produce a second edition of the Tal- 
mud led him into pecuniary difficulties. 
Bibliography: AUgcmeine Deutsche Biographic. 

JABNEH (nj3''), or JAMNIA {'laiivia, 'la/z- 
vtia): Philistine city; taken by Uzziah, who demol- 
ished its wall (II Chron. xxvi. 6). Jabneh is men- 
tioned with Gath and Ashdod, two other cities of 
the Philistines, and is generally identified by Bib- 
lical students with Jabneel (7NJT). on the boundary 
of Judah, near Ekron, and not far from the coast 
(Josh. XV. 11). Neither Jabneh nor Jabneel is men- 
tioned afterward among the cities of Judah, but the 
Septuagint renders n?3'1, which follows Ekron in 
Josh. XV. 46, by Teiiva. In post-Biblical history, in 
the books of the Maccabees, in Josephus and in other 
Greek authors, the name occurs as "Jamnia,"and 
in Judith (ii. 28) as "Jemnaan." AVith Ashdod, 
Jamnia is described by Josephus sometimes as a 
maritime city ("Ant." xiii. 15, § 4) and sometimes as 
an inland city ("Ant." xiv. 4, ^ 4; "B.J." i. 7. § 7). 
This w'as due to the fact that, though removed from 
the coast, it had its own harbor; and it was con- 
sidered by Pliny ("Historia Naturalis," v. 13, § 68) 
and Ptolemy (v. 16, 2) likewise as two distinct 
towns. According to Strabo (xvi. 759), Jabneh, or 
Jamnia, was so populous that, witli the surround- 
ing villages, it could furnish 40,000 able warriors. 
It is referred to in I Mace. iv. 15, v. 58, x. 69, 
XV. 40, and was apparently garrisoned by Gor- 
gias; later it served other generals as a place of en- 
campment. Judas Maccabeus took it by assault, and 
fired the shipping in the harbor as well as the town, 
so that the conflagration was seen from Jerusalem, 
240 furlongs distant (II Mace. xii. 8-9, 40). 

Jamnia was taken from the Syrians by Simon 
Maccabeus, but the Jews did not enter into posses- 
sion of the city until the time of Alexander Jan- 
naeus. Pompey restored it to tlie Syrians, andabout 
57 B.C. it was rebuilt by<Tabinius(" Ant. "xiii. 6, §7; 
15, §4; xiv. 4, §4; "B. J." i. 2, §2; 7, §7; 8, §4). 
Jamnia must have been given by Augustus to 
Herod, for the latter bequeathed it to his sister Sa- 
lome, who in her turn gave it to Livia (" Ant." x-vii. 
8, § 1; 11, i^ 5; xviii. 2, § 2; "B. J." ii. 6. §3; 9, 
>; 1). The inhabitants of the city at that time were 
chiefly Jews (Philo, "Legatio ad Caium," § 30). 
Philo states further that a Roman officer raised at 
Jamnia an altar of mud for the deification of Calig- 
ula, but that the altar was thrown down by the 
Jews. Owing to the turbulence of its large popula- 
tion, Vespasian twice found it necessary to besiege 
the city ("B. J." iv. 3, §2; 8, § 1). 

Jabneh became the seat of Jewish scholarship 
even before the destruction of the Temple; for Jo- 
hanan b. Zakkai, while predicting to "Vespasian that 
he would become emperor of Rome, asked him as a 
special favor to spare Jabneh and its scholars (Git. 
66a). After the destruction of Jerusalem the Great 
S.\NHEDRiN removed to Jabneh, where it was pre- 
sided over by Johanan b. Zakkai (R. H. 31a). The 

Sauhcdrin held its sittings in a " vineyard," which 
term, however, is explained as figurative ('Eduy. ii. 
4 ; Yer. Ber. i v. 1) : " the Sauhedrin sat in rows similar 
to vines in a vineyard." Jabneh took 
Seat of the place of Jerusalem, it became tiie 
the Great religious and national center of the 
Sanhedrin. Jews; and the most important func- 
tions of the Sanhedrin, such as deter- 
mining the time of the new moon and of the festi- 
vals, were observed there It even enjoyed some of 
the privileges of the Holy Cit}', among others the 
right to blow the shofar when New Year's Day fell 
on a Sabbath (R. H. iv. 1 [29b]) In the time of 
Gamaliel II. the Sanhedrin removed to Usha, but it 
met again in Jabneh from the time of Simeon b. 
Gamaliel to that of Bar Kokba (R. H. 81b). 

Benjamin of Tudela identifies Jabneh with the 
Ibelin mentioned in the history of the Crusades. He 
places Jabneh at three parasangs from Jaffa and 
two from Ashdod (Azotus). He professes to have 
seen there traces of the academy, though in his time 
there were no Jews in the place (ed. Aslier' i. 43, 
Hebr. ; comp. ii. 98, note). Rapoport (" 'Erek Mil- 
lin," p. 4) places Jabneh the seat of the Sanhedrin in 
Galilee, identifying it with the Jabneel of Naph- 
tali (Josh. xix. 33). The modern Yabna, a village 
situated on a hill south of the Wadi Rubin, is gen- 
erally assumed to mark the site of the ancient Jab- 
neh (comp. Robinson, "Researches," ii. 420, iii. 22). 

Bibliography : Gratz, in Mimatsschrift, ii. 108-110 ; idem, 
Gesch. 3d ed., iv. 13? 28, 95, 121 ; Guerin. Judee, it. 53 et xeq.^ 
Paris, 1868 ; Neubauer, G. T. pp. 73 et seq.\ Schiirer, Geach. 
3d ed., ii. 98, passim; Biichler, Da^ Si/ucdrvm, passim, Vi- 
enna, 1902. 
G. M. Sel. 

JACA(Hebr. NpXJ) : City of Aragon, Spain. Jews 
were settled here as early as the eleventh century, dur- 
ing which the city became the seat of a Jewish high 
school. Sancho Ramirez the Great, King of Navarre, 
did not permit the Jews to grind their grain in any 
mill they pleased ; but a certain mill belonging to 
the city w^as assigned to them and to the bread- 
sellers. This they were allowed to use on payment of 
a certain tax; and they were, in addition, compelled 
to pay all the usual imposts and taxes. In 1281 the 
Jews of Jaca and of the surrounding villages — who 
were engaged in industries and lived in comfortable 
circumstances — w^ere obliged, like those of Gerona, 
to contribute toward repairing the fortifications, 
which had been damaged during the French in- 
vasion. In 1289 they had to pay King Jaime 6,000 
sueldos toward defraying the costs of an expedition 
against Sicily. 

The Jaca Jews were victims of the outbreak of 
the Shepherds in 1321, no fewer than 400 of them 
being killed on Tammuz 17 (= July 14). In 1391. 
also, Jews were killed or forcibly baptized at Jaca. 
In 1438 the community was so reduced that it could 
pay only 200 sueldos in taxes. Toward the end of 
the fourteenth century Seraiah ben Daud and Sam- 
uel Almosnino, who corresponded with Isaac ben 
Sheshet, lived in Jaca. In 1492 the Jews of the 
city left Saragossa for Italy and Turkey. 

Bibliography: Zuaznavar, Legidacion de Navary-a.ii.Sl: 
Usque, Consnlncdn, p. 181a; Isaac ben Sheshet, Responsa, 
Nos. 413. 455, 470; Rios. Hist. ii. 13. 362; iii. 82; KayserllnR, 
Geach. der Juden in Spanien, i. 10, 142; Jacobs, Sources, 
G. M. K. 




JACHIN (p"- = "be establishes"): 1. Tbe ligbt- 
band pillar of the two brazen ones set up in the porch 
of the Temple of Solomon, that on the left or north 
being called "Boaz " (I Kings vii. 21; II Chron. iii. 
17). For an elaborate reconstruction of these pillars 
based on Assyrian and Egyptian models and on the 
parallel description in Jer. Hi. 21-23, see Perrot and 
Chipiez, " History of Art in Sardinia and Judaea," pp. 
250-257, and plates vi. and vii., London, n.d. Comp. 
Fkeem.\sonry. 2. Fourth son of Simeon and found- 
er of the family of 
the Jachinites (Gen. (W^WW TT 
xlvi. 10; Ex. vi. 15; 
Num. xxvi. 12). In 
the parallel list of I 
Chron. iv. 24 his 
name is given as 
"Jarib." 3. Head of 
the twenty-first divi- 
sion of priests in the 
time of David (I 
Chron. xxiv. 17); his 
descendants returned 
from Babylon [ib. ix. 
10; Neh. xi. 10). 

E. G. H. M. Set,. 


COB) : Jewish finan- 
cier of Ulm in the 
fourteenth century; 
married the daughter 
of the "Grossjuden" 
Moses of Ehingen. 
Jacklin had several 
sons; one of them, 
Isaac, lived in Stras- 
burg, another in Ried- 
lingen, orReutlingen, 
and a third, Veflin, in 
Nuremberg. Jacklin 
was probably presi- 
dent of the Jewish 
community of Ulm 
for many years; he 
loaned considerable 
sumstothe numicipal 
government of Ulm 
and to the counties 
of Helfenstein, Alten- 
beck, and Werden- 
berg. For example, 
he advanced (Oct. 1, 
1378) to the com- 
munity of Ulm 1,680 gulden for the redemption of the 
monastery of Langenau, receiving 84 gulden interest 
semiannually; and later, 1,800 gulden, receiving the 
gate-toll of the city in payment. On Nov. 13, 1378, 
the council of Ulm entered into an agreement with 
Jacklin to declare void all the documents bearing 
upon the city's indebtedness to him, excepting those 
relating to the two loans mentioned. A letters patent 
(" Tedingbrief ") has been preserved which gives him 
the right to remain in Ulm until Dec. 6, 1379. 



Eberhard der Greincr (==*'tlie complainer") of 
Wurttemberg taxed Jilcklin 4,000 gulden, which he 
refused to pay. Thereupon Eberhard sued him and 
won his case before the court of Nuremberg (1376); 
the wife and son of Jilcklin were put into the 
" lieichsacht " by the emperor (Charles IV.) until 
the 4,000 gulden were paid (Sept. 5, 1376). It 
seems that Jacklin nevertheless continued to live in 
Ulm. The "Heichsacht" directed against Ulm as 
also against JUckliu was annulled by the Reichstag 

of Rothenburg May 
31, 1377. On Oct. 6, 
1370, in consideration 
of the damage done 
to the county of Hein- 
rich von Wiirden- 
berg, the emperor de- 
clared void his debts 
to'Jacklin. The city 
of Ulm, however, re- 
imbursed Jacklin by 
]iaying him from 1378 
onward, in half- 
yearly instalments, 
10 per cent interest 
on Heinrich's debts. 

Bibliography : Pressel, 
Gesch. der Jnilen in 
L'hn, p. 31; Niihlinpr, 
Die Ju(ieiigemei)i(ien 
c?es yiiltehiltcrs, pp. 
Ixviii., 327 ct xeq. 
G. M. Sc. 

HARRY : English 
actor; born in Lon- 
don 1886; died there 
Aug. 13, 1885. At 
an early age he left 
England for Aus- 
tralia, where he 
adopted the stage as 
a profession. After 
playing at Auckland, 
New Zealand, and at 
San Francisco (1856- 
1862) he returned to 
England about 1870, 
and appeared at tlie 
Gaietj' Theatre, Lon- 
don, later at the Prin- 
cess', of which he be- 
came stage-manager. 
He held the same post 
at the Druiy Lane 
Theatre, where he 
impersonated chielly 
Jewish characters, or rather caricatures, in modern 
melodramas. His portrayal of Napoleon I., whom 
he much resembled, attracted some notice. 

Bibliography : Jnr. Chnm. and Jew. World. -Augr. 21, IKS'); 
Era, Aug. 1.5 311(12*-', ISHT) ; lUusti-ated Sportiiw a)td Dra- 
matic A"cii'S, Aug. 22, 1885. 

J. G. L. 

JACOB (2\)]}\ ^Ipy)? called also Israel (i?Nn::"). 
—Biblical Data: Third patriarch; son of Isaac 
and Rebekah, and ancestor of the Israelites. He 

N &«.'..«. 





was born when liis father was sixty jeais old and 
after his mother had been barren for twenty years. 
For the account of his birth and origin of his name 
see Gen. xxv. 19, 26. Tlie name "Jacob" is ex- 
plained elsewhere as meaning "supplanter" or "de- 
ceiver" {ib. xxvii. 36; Hos. xii. 4 [A. V. 3], where 
there is also an allusion to the struggle before birth 
between the two brothers). Jacob was the favorite 
of his mother (Gen. xxv. 2S). He is represented as 
"a plain man [on E^^S], dwelling in tents," that is 
to say, pursuing the life of a shepherd {ib. xxv. 27; 
comp. ib. iv. 20). 

Only two important incidents marked the early 
period of Jacob's life. The first was his obtaining 

Isaac Blessing JacuW. 
(From a " Teutsch Chumesh.") 

the birthright from his brother Esau. The birth- 
right being a very important possession, Jacob 
waited for the opportunity to acquire it, and the 
opportunity came. Esau, returning one day tired 
from hunting, and seeing Jacob cooking a mess of len- 
tils, asked Jacob to give him some. Jacob offered to 
do so in exchange for the birthright, and Esau, feel- 
ing faint and ready to die, consented to sell it, an 
oath confirming tiie bargain {ib. xxv. 29-34). 

The second incident happened many years later, 
and with it Jacob's life assumed an entirely new 
phase. Isaac, having become blind, sent Esau to 
hunt for some game and to prejiare for liim a meal 
in order that he might bless hiia before his death. 
Rebekah, hearing of this, instigated Jacob to intercept 
the blessing by taking his brother's place. At tirst 
Jacob objected; but he soon yielded to his mother's 
persuasion. Having anticipated his brother in the 
preparation of the meal and having put goatskins 
upon his hands and neck lest his father should rec- 
ognize him, Jacob brought the meal to his father, 
who, after having partaken of it, blessed him and 
promised him that lie should be lord 

Obtains overliis brethren and that his mother's 
Isaac's sons should bow to him (///. xxvii. 1- 

Blessing. 29). This substitution was in agree- 

luent with the divine purjjose (comp. 

ib. xxv. 23); and Isaac, when he learned of Jacob's 

trick, not only did not revoke his blessing, but even 

confirmed it {ib. xxvii. 33, 37). 

Owing to this deceit Esau hated his brother, and 
resolved to kill him after their father's death, lie- 
bekah found no better means to i)rotect her favorite 
son from his brother's vengeance than to send him 
to Haran, to her brother Laban. She advised Jacob 

to sta}' will) lii.s imck' a short time till his brother 
should have forgotten his wrongs, and to many one 
of his uncle's daughters. Jacob, after having re- 
ceived a further blessing from liis father, left the 
paternal home {ib. xxvii. 42-xxviii. 5). 

\Vhen Jacob was on his way he saw in a prophet- 
ical dream a ladder reaching from earth to heaven 
and angels ascending and descending thereon. 
Yiiwii Himself appeared to him, piomising to give 
the land of Canaan to his descendants, who should 
be as numerous as the dust of the earth (ib. xxviii. 
10-15). Jacob commemorated his dream by setting 
up a pillar on the spot on which he had slept, call- 
ing the name of the place "Beth-el" (= "the house 
of God"; ib. xxviii. 18-22). 

On his arrival at Haran Jacob met Rachel, his 
uncle's second daughter. Jacob offered to serve 
Laban seven years for Rachel. Laban, however, 
deceived him at the end of that period by giving 
him Leah instead of Rachel, and exacted of him a 
further service of seven years for Rachel, though 
he gave her to him immediately after the conclu- 
sion of Leah's wedding-feast {ib. xxix. 
Marriage 1-28). During the second seven, years 
with Jacob begat by his two wives and two 

Laban's concubines eleven sons and one daugh- 
Daughters. ter, Dinah. By Rachel he had one 
son only, Joseph {ib. xxix. 31-xxx. 
25). Having finished the second term of seven 
years, Jacob stayed wit^li Laban six j'cai's longer, 
tending his sheep for pay, which consisted, accord- 
ing to an agreement between them, of all the spotted, 
speckled, and ring-straked sheep and goats born in 
the flocks. Jacob, by means of peeled sticks which 

Isaac Blessing Jacob. 

(From the Sarajevo Haggadah, 14th century.) 

he set up before them, caused all the strongest of 
the flocks to bear speckled and spotted offspring. 
Thus he baflled the plans of Laban, who endeavored 
to deprive him of his liiie {il>. xxxi. 7, 8), and 
Jacob amassed great wealth {ib. xxx. 26-43). 

Jacob, seeing that Lal)un was no longer friendly 
toward him, resolv.ed upon returning to his parents. 
His resolution was approved by Ynwii; and, en- 
couraged liy his two wives, he departed without 
acquainting his uncle and father-in-law {ib. xxxi. 
1-21). Laban, however, three days later learned of 
Jacob's flight, and, after pursuing him for seven days, 




overtook liim ou Mount Gilead. Tliey at first quar- 
reled, but were finally reconciled and made a cove- 
nant, building, in commemoration of their compact, 
a cairn which Jacob called "Galeed " (= "a lieap as 
•witness"; ib. xxxi. 22-54). 

Immediately after this Jacob was informed that 
his brother Esau was coming to meet him, accom- 
panied by 400 men. Jacob, fearing Esau, sent him 
very rich presents, but at the same time made 
plans to escape from his brother's fury in case 
the latter should reject them. At night Jacob sent 
liis family and all his possessions over the brook 
Jabbok, he himself remaining alone on the other 
side, where an angel wrestled with him all night till 
the breaking of the day. While wrestling, the angel 
touched the hollow of Jacob's thigh, causing him 
to limp ; but the angel was overpowered by Jacob, 

who would not let him go until blessed 

Wrestles by him. The angel then changed 

with Jacob's name to "Israel" (pXIK'V ap- 

th.e Angel, parently shortened from D\"i~)K IK'' = 

"he overpowered Elohim "). Jacob 
gave to the place at which this event occurred the 
name "Peniel" ("for I have seen Elohim face to 
face "). The Ts- 
raelites com- 
memorate the 
event to this day 
by not eating 
"the sine w 
Avhich shrank 
which is upon 
the hollow of 
the thigh" (ib. 
xxxii. 32). IIo- 
sea alludes to 
Jacob's wrest- 
ling with the 
angel, whom he 
calls once "Elo- 
him " and once 
"Mal'ak," add- 
ing that the 
angel wept and 
implored Jacob 
to let him go 
(Hos. xii. 4). 

After his meet- 
ing with Esau, at 
which the broth- 
ers were reconciled (Gen. xxxiii. 1-16), Jacob went 
to Sliechem, where he bought from tlie children of 
H.\MOK, for a hundred pieces of money, a field in 
which he erected an altar {ib. xxxiii. 17-20). The 
abduction of Dinah, which occasioned the destruc- 
tion of Shechem by her brothers, caused Jacob much 
apprehension; but God allayed his fears, and he ar- 
rived peacefully at Beth-el, where God api)eared 
again to him, conflrniing the name "Israel" which 
had previously' been given to him by the angel, and 
repeating the promise that his children should pos- 
sess the land of Canaan. While Jacob was on his 
way home Rachel gave birth to Benjamin, his last 
son. Jacob, with his twelve sons, tiie fathers of the 
twelve tribes of Israel, then arrived at Hebron, 
where Ins parents lived (ib. xxxv. 9-27). 

At the end of ten years (comp. ib. xxxvil. 2) Ja- 
cob's favorite son, Joseph, was sold to a company of 
Ishmaelites by his brothers, who led theii' father to 
think that he had been devoured b}' a wild beast. 
While Jacob was still mourning for Jo.seph, Isaac 
died, and at his funeral Jacob again met his brother 
Esau {ib. xxxv. 29). Later, when the famine grew 
severe in Canaan, Jacob sent his sons into Egyjjt to 
buy corn, but kept with him Benjamin, Rachel's 
second son. Jacob was, however, at last compelled 
to let Benjamin go with his brothers to Egypt, 
through Joseph's refusal otherwise to release Simeon, 
whom he held as hostage until Benjamin should be 
brought to him. When, on the second return of liis 
sons from Egypt, Jacob heard that Joseph was alive 
and was ruler over Egypt, he decided to go there to 
see him {ib. xlv. 26-28). Before doing 
Journey to so he journeyed to Beer-sheba, where 
Egypt. his resolution to go to Egypt was ap- 
proved by God. He went to Egypt 
with his eleven sons and their children, numbering 
altogether sixty-six, Joseph meeting him in Goshen 
{ib. xlvi. 1-30). Afterward Jacob was honorably re- 
ceived by Pharaoh, who assigned him and his sons 

a residence "in 
the best part of 
the land, in the 
land of Barne- 
ses. " Jacob was 
at that time 130 
years old {ib. 
xlvii. 5-11). 

When about 
to die, Jacob 
made Joseph 
swear that he 
would not bury 
him in Egj'pt, 
but in thesepul- 
cher of his fa- 
thers in Canaan. 
Jacob then 
adopted Jo- 
seph's two sons, 
Ephraim and 
Manasseh, pla- 
cing them on the 

K^ . .^,^j si s : ^i» . ^-j^-^ 9 ^'X^»^^*^--*i-^ :- ^ ^!a:^!e^ 

Jacob's Dream. 

(From the Sarajevo Haggadah, 14th century.) 

same footing as 

his own chil- 
dren. While 
blessing them he gave the first place to the younger 
son, Ephraim. To Joseph himself lie gave one por- 
tion more than his brothers {ib. xlviii. 22). 

Jacob assembled his sons in order to bless them 
(see Jacob, Blessing of), after which, having pro- 
nounced his last will, he died, being 147 years old 
{ib. xlix.). His body was embalmed according to 
the Egyptian custom ; a great funeral procession, 
which included all the servants of Pharaoh and all the 
elders of Eg3'pt, acconii)ani('d it to Canaan , and there 
Jacob was buried in his family grave in the cave of 
Machpelah at Hebron {ib. 1. 1-13). The name " Jacob" 
as well as that of " Israel," though to a lesser degree, 
was u.sed by the Prophets to designate the whole na- 
tion of Israel (comp. Isa. ix. 7, xxvii. 6, xl 27). 
E. G. II. M. Sel. 




In Rabbinical Liiterature : Even before their 

birth the struggle between the two brothers Esau 
and Jacob commenced. Each of them wished to 
be born first, and it was only after Esau threat- 
ened to kill Rebekah, his mother, if he was not per- 
mitted to be born first that Jacob acceded (Midrash 
ha-Gadol [ed. Schechter, Cambridge, 1902] on Gen. 
XXV. 23; comp. Pesik. R. [ed. Friedmann, Vienna, 
1880], p. 48a). The respective characters of the two 
brothers were thus revealed before they were boin. 
Whenever Rebekah passed a pagan house of wor- 
ship Esau moved within her; and whenever she 
passed a synagogue or bet ha-midrash Jacob moved 
(Gen. R. Ixiii. 6; Yalk., Gen. 110). There was also 
a conflict between them as to who should inherit 
this world, and who the world to come. In the 
conflict the angel Samael was about to kill Jacob, 
when Michael intervened; and the struggle between 
the two angels was settled by a court which God 
Himself convened for that purpose (Yalk., Gen. 110, 
from Midrash Abkir). All these legends are based 
upon the word " wa-yitrozezu " (=: " and they strug- 
gled"; Gen. XXV. 22). 

Jacob was born circumcised (Ab. R. N. ii. 5; Gen. 
R. Ixiii. 7). Until the age of thirteen both he and 
Esau attended school ; but later Esau became a hunt- 
er, while Jacob continued his studies under various 
tutors — Abraham, Methuselah, Shem, 

Sale of and Eber {ib. ; Gen. R. I.e.). The sale 
Birthright, of the birthright occurred after Esau 
had slain Nimrod and two of his asso- 
ciates and fled from his pursuers. Jacob did not 
desire the material benefits of the birthright as much 
as the spiritual prerogatives attendant upon it. 
According to one opinion, this transaction was the 
final settlement of the quarrel which the brothers 
had had before they were born ; and Esau thus sold 
to Jacob his portion in the world to come. Another 
opinion is that Jacob wished for the birthright be- 
cause the first-born was the forerunner of the priest 
who offered the family sacrifices; and he thought 
that Esau was not fit to bring offerings to God 
(Yalk., Gen. Ill; comp. Zeb. 112b). With the 
purchase of the birthright Jacob came into posses- 
sion of the garments which Esau liad inherited from 
Adam and which were the official robes of the oS\- 
ciating minister (Midr. Tan. 67b). 

The Rabbis attempted to explain that Jacob did 
not intend to deceive his father in the words, " I am 
Esau thy first-born" (Gen. xxvii. 19), but meant by 
them : " I am the one whose children will accept the 
Decalogue which begins with I ("anoki"); but Esau 
is thy first-born" (Gen. R. Ixv. 14: Yalk., Gen. 115). 
By confirming the blessing before Jacob's departure 
((Jen. xxviii. 1-4), Isaac established the fact that the 
blessing really belonged to Jacob (Gen. R. Ixvii. 10). 

Furthermore, it was only to please his mother that 
Jacob allowed himself to be disguised ; and he brought 
the venison to Rebekah in a very distressed frame of 
mind and crying (Gen. R. Ixv. 11). The goodly 
raiment which Rebekah put upon Jacob was that 
which Esau had taken from Nimrod when he mur- 
dered him {ib. 12). Rebekah accompanied Jacob to his 
father's door, and then Sfiid, "Thus far I was obliged 
to go with you, but now may thy Maker assist you." 
When Jacob entered and Isaac said, "Come near, I 

pray thee, tiiat I may fe^l thee " (Gen. xxvii. 21), 
Jacob felt his heart melting like wax ; but two angels 
supported him (Gen. R. Ixv. 13, 15). He then came 
near to his father, who said unto him, " See, the smell 
of my son is like the smell of a field which the Lord 
hath blessed " ; that is, according to the Rabbis, the 
fragrance of paradise came with him {tb. 18). 

When Jacob left the presence of his father he, by 
reason of the blessing he had received, came out 
crowned like a bridegroom, and the dew which is to 
revive the dead descended upon him from heaven ; 
his bones became stronger, and he himself was turned 
into a might)' man (Pirke R. El. xxxiil.). Jacob 
then fled from Esau, and went to the school of 
Shem and Eber, devoting himself to the study of 
the Torah. There he was hidden for fourteen years, 
and then returned to his father. He found that his 
brother was still purposing to kill him ; whereupon 
he accepted the advice of his mother to go to Padan- 
aram (Gen. R. Ixviii. 5; see also "Seferha-Yashar "). 

When Jacob arrived in Haran he bethought him- 
self that he had passed without offering any prayer 
the place where his ancestors had prayed (Pes. 84a). 
He therefore decided to turn back to Beth-el ; but 
to his surprise the place came to him, and he recited 
there the evening service (Ber. 26b). After this he 
wished to proceed on his journey, but God said, 
"This pious man came to My house: shall I permit 
him to depart before night? " So the sun set before 
its time, and Jacob remained in Beth-el overnight. 
The contradiction in the text, where 
At Beth-el. it says first that Jacob took "of the 
stones " (Gen. xxviii. 11), and then that 
he took " the stone " (I'b. verse 18), is variously ex- 
plained. Some think that he took twelve stones, 
corresponding to the number of the tribes ; others, 
that he took three stones, corresponding to the num- 
ber of the Patriarchs; others, again, that he took 
two stones; but all agree that the stones were later 
merged into one. Some of the rabbis say that he 
took a number of stones and placed them all round 
him for protection ; that the stones began to quarrel, 
each one washing that Jacob should lay his head 
upon it; and that, in order to settle the quarrel, 
God made all the stones into one (Gen. R. Ixviii. 
13; Yalk., Gen. 118-119; Hul. 91a; Sanh. 95b). 

The angels that had accompanied Jacob thus far 
on his journey ascended the ladder, and other angels 
descended to accompany him farther. When the 
angels saw Jacob's likeness engraved on the throne 
of glory, they became jealous and desired to injure 
him ; but God Himself came down and watched ov«r 
him. When God promised to give him the land 
whereon he was lying, the whole land of Palestine 
folded up and placed itself under Jacob's head, so 
that it should be easier later for his children to con- 
quer it. The angels ascending and descending the 
ladder are also interpreted to have represented 
the tutelary genii of the various nations to whom 
the Jews in later times were to be subjected. When 
Jacob's turn came to ascend he refused, fearing 
that, like the others, he, too, would have to come 
down. Then God said unto him, "If thou hadst 
had faith and hadst ascended thou wouldest not 
liave come down ; but since thou didst not believe, 
thy children shall be subjected to many nations. 




Nevertlieless this slmll not be forever, for I uill re- 
deem them from all the lauds of their exile." 

When Jacob left his father's house he had with 
Lim much silver aud gold which his father liad given 
him. Esau, on learning of Jacob's intention to de- 
part, summoned his thirteen-year-old son, Eliphaz, 
and told him to encounter Jacob on his way aud to 
kill him. Elipluiz with a company of ten men lay 
in wait for Jacob by the road, but, being of a more 
gentle disposition (Deut. R. ii. 13), he had pity on 
him and did not injure him. He, however, took from 
Jacob all his possessions, so that when the latter 
cametoLaban lie had nothing with him ("Seferha- 
Yashar," end of "Toledot"). 

From the very first Jacob suspected that Laban 
would deceive him, and he therefore gave Rachel a 
sign by which she might cause him to recognize her; 
but she sacrificed her own love for the sake of her 
sister, and before the marriage revealed Jacob's plan 
to Leah. When Jacob discovered that Leah instead of 
Rachel had been given to him he became very angry ; 
but Leah reminded him that he had been guilty of 
a similar deceit when he obtained the blessing 
from his father by assuming his broth- 
Leah and er's disguise (Gen. R. Ixx. 17; Midr. 

Rachel. ha-Gadol to Gen. xxix. 23 ; comp. B. B. 
123a). In his machinations to obtain 
sheep from Laban 's flock, Jacob was assisted by 
angels who brought sheep to him from Laban 's herds. 
There are several estimates of the number of Jacob's 
flock, ranging from 200 to 2,207,100 (Gen. R. Ixxiii. 8; 
comp. commentary to Gen. R.). These sheep Jacob 
gave to his children to watch, for he would not 
take any time that belonged to his employer Laban 
(Midr. ha-Gadol to Gen. xxx. 40). 

The encounter between Jacob and the angel who 
subsequently in j ured his thigh is explained in the fol- 
lowing manner: When Jacob had transported a part 
of his belongings over the Jabbok, lie met an angel 
who appeared to him as a shepherd; and when Jacob 
returned to gather up the rest of his belongings the 
angel accused him of stealing from his flock, and the 
encounter ensued. Others think that it was the 
tutelary angel of Esau whom Jacob met ; while still 
others identify him with the angel Michael, who 
came to reproach Jacob for neglecting to give a tithe 
of his possessions to God, as he liad promised (Yalk., 
Gen. 132 ; Pirke R. El. xxxvii. ; Tan., Gen. 87b). The 
angel, although defeated by Jacob, injured the lat- 
ter's thigh ; and when the sun rose he begged Jacob to 
let him go (comp. Hos. xii. 5), as the time for adora- 
tion had arrived, and if he, who was to begin the serv- 
ice, was away, the adoration of the angels could not 
take place. Jacob, however, eager for a blessing, 
would not let him go until he blessed him. The 
angel was compelled to submit; and in changing 
liis name from " Jacob " to " Israel " he promised him 
that his children should be as righteous as he. The 
w ound inflicted b}' the angel was cured when the 
sun appeared (Gen. R. Ixxix. 5; Yalk., Gen. 133). 

When Laban returned to his place (Gen. xxxii. 
1) he was not reconciled to Jacob's departure. He 
then, with the purpose of avenging himself, sent his 
son Beor, aged seventeen, and Abiharof, son of Uz, 
son of Nahor, witli an escort of ten men, to Esau, 
saying unto him, ''Have you heard what your 

brother has done unto us? He who came unto nie 
poor and forsiiken, that I went to meet, and brought 
up, and to whom 1 gave my two daughters and 
their maids, and whom God blessed for my sake, so 
tliat he became mighty aud had sons and daughters 
and female slaves, and sheep and oxen and camels 
and asses, and much gold and silver— when he saw 
that his fortune was great lie left me, and stole my 
gods and ran away. Now, behold, I left him in the 
valley of Jabbok. If thou intendest to go to him, 
thou wilt And him there, where tliou mayest deal 
with him as thy heart willeth." When Esau heard 
this he recalled his hatred, and his wrath kindled, 
and he took his sons and sixty others and gathered 
all the 340 male descendants of Seir. He divided 
these into seven parties; placing sixty men under 
Eliphaz, hisflrst-born, and the other six parties under 
the sons of Seir. But the messengers of Laban, on 
leaving Esau, went to the land of Canaan to the 
house of Rebekah, and said, " Behold thy son Esau is 
preparing to attack Jacob with 400 men because he 
has heard that he is coming." Rebekah therefore 
hastened and took seventy-two men from among the 
servants of Isaac to meet Jacob before his arrival, 
because she thought that Esau would give battle on 
the wa}'. When Jacob saw them he said, "This 
host comes unto me from God " ; aud he called 
the place "Mahanaim" ("Sefer ha-Yashar," sec- 
tion " Wayesheb "). According to others (Gen. R. 
Ixxiv. 16), the host consisted of 120 myriads of 

When the messengers of Rebekah met Jacob they 
said unto him in her name, " My son, I have heard 
that Esau, thy brother, comes to meet thee with men 
from the sons of Seir. And now, my son, listen to 
my voice and consider what shall be done. Do not 
speak hard words unto him ; pray for his mercy and 
give him from thy fortunes as much as thou canst 
afford ; and when he shall ask thee about thy affairs, 
conceal from him nothing. Perhaps he will be in- 
duced to forget his great anger, so that thou and all 
depending upon thee will be saved; for it is thy 
duty to respect him, seeing that he is thy elder 
brother. " 

When the brothers again met and Esau fell on 

Jacob's neck, it was his intention to bite him; but 

Jacob's neck became hard as marble, 

Meeting- so that Esau's teeth were injured by 
with Esau, the contact. This explanation is de- 
rived from the fact that the word 
" wa-yishshakehu " ("and ki.ssed him " ; Gen. xxxiii. 
4) has dots on the top of each letter. 

Although Jacob's gifts were accepted, he still 
feared the anger of his brother; and during the 
eighteen months that he lived in Succoth he sent 
presents to his brother, whicl), however, his descend- 
ants, the nations, will return to the Messiah (comp. 
Ps. Ixxii. 10). Jacob's fears were well grounded; 
for in the year that Leah died, when Jacob least 
expected him, and had only 200 slaves with him, Esau 
returned with a large and formidable arm}-. Jacob 
pleaded with Esau from the wall of the fortress; 
but Esau would not listen. Then Judah took his 
bow and shot Admon the Edoniite, and also hit Esau 
in his right loin with an arrow which later caused 
his death (Yalk., Gen. 133). Jacob entered Shechcm 




"perfect" C'shalem ") in every respect, botli spiri- 
tually and materially (Sluib. 33b). 

Simeon and Levi did not ask their father's advice 
in destroying the inhabitants of Shecheni; and Ja- 
cob was very angry wlien lie heard of the action 
of his children. Still, after the act was done, he 
girded his sword and was ready to meet the enemy 
(Gen. R. l.x.xx. 9; comp. ib. xcvii. 9). AlthougJi the 
surrounding nations were afraid to fight them at 
that time, they did so seven years later, when they 
saw that Jacob had made Shechem his home and 
was intent upon inheriting the land. The war lasted 
six days; and every day witnessed great victories 
for Jacob and his sons. On the sixth day all the 
kings of the Amoritesmade peace with Jacob, agree- 
ing to pay him a certain tribute (Yalk., l.c.\ " Sefer 
ha-Yashar," section "Wayishlah"; comp. Jubilees, 
34; see Amokites; Judah in Rabbinical Litera- 

When Jacob Avas about to rest from the persecu- 
tions of Esau and from the wars with the neighbor- 
ing tribes, the troubles of Joseph came upon him. 
The Rabbis severely censure Jacob for manifesting 
liis love for Joseph by clothing him with a special 
garment (Yalk., Gen. 141; comp. Shal). 10b). 

The grief of Jacob at the loss of liis son Avas much 
aggravated by the idea that he would now be un- 
able to establish the twelve tribes, since he dared 
not marry again because of the oath he 
Favoritism had made to Laban that he would take 
Toward no more wives. Lsaac knew that Jo- 
Joseph, seph was living; but he did not reveal 
this to Jacob, because 1k3 thought that 
if God wished him to know, He would reveal it 
Himself (Gen. R. Ixxxiv. 19; Yalk., Gen. 143). 
When liis children brought him the report that Jo- 
seph was still living, and that he Avas the ruler of 
all Egypt, Jacob refused to believe it, vmtil they 
told him in the name of Joseph at Avhat portion of 
the LaAv they had suspended their studies twenty- 
two years before. Then Jacob rejoiced in the 
thought that Joseph still retained his piety, and 
immediately prepared for his journey. Before he 
Avent to Egypt he stopped at B.eersheba, and cut 
down cedars which Abraham had planted and Avhich 
Avere later used by the Israelites in the building of 
the Tabernacle (Gen. \\. xciv. 3, xcv. 2). 

Before his death Jacob Avished to reveal to his 
children the time of the Messiah's advent, but he 
could not recall it at that moment. When the}' Avere 
all gathered around liis death-bed he said to them, 
"Perhaps there is in your hearts a feeling against 
GodV" (that is to .saj', an inclination to idolatry). 
Then they all cried out, "Hear, () Israel, the Lord 
is our God, the Lord is One." He replied, "Blessed 
be the name of the glory of His kingdom forever and 
ever" (Gen. R. xcviii. 4; Pes. 56a). 

Jacob gave three connnandments to his children 
before his death: (1) that tliey sliould not worship 
idols; (2) that they should not blaspheme the name 
of God; and (3) tiiat they should not 
His Death, permit a pagan to toucli his hearse. 
Three of his sons were to be stationed 
on each side of the coffin even as the tribes Avere 
later stationed in the wilderness. Tiie Rabbis looked 
with disfavor upon Joseph's order to have his father 

embalmed ; for to them it^ manifested a lack of faith 
in the providence of God. 

When Jacob's sons reached the cave of Mach- 
pelah, they found Esau there prepared to prevent 
them from interring their father's body in the an- 
cestral cave, and claiming thai the place belonged to 
him. Jacob, hoAvever, had foreseen such a complica- 
tion, and had previously bought the place from 
Esau ; but the deed of sale was in Egypt, and there 
was nothing to do but to send some one back to 
Egypt to procure the document. Naphtali, the 
swift, volunteered to go, but Hushim, the son of Dan, 
AvhoAvas hard of hearing, meanwhile inquired about 
the delay. When told the reason he said angrily, 
" Shall my grandfather's body lie and wait until the 
deed is obtained from Egypt?" and thrcAV a missile 
at Esau so that his eyes fell out on the knees of 
Jacob, Avho opened his eyes and smiled. Then it 
Avas that Rebekah's Avords, " Why should I be bereft 
of both of you in one day?" (Gen. xxvii. 45) were 
fulfilled (Yalk.. Gen. 162; "Sefer ha-Yashar," 
section " Wayehi " ; comp. Sotah 13a). Another 
opinion is that Jacob had not died, although theem- 
balmers and the mourners thought that he was dead 
(Ta'an. 5b ; Rashi and MahrSiiA, nd loc. ; comp. B. 
B. 17a, 121b). See Esau; Joseph; Patriarchs. 

BiBLiOGRAPHA' : Hamburger, R. B. T.; Aguadat Bereshit ed. 
Buber, Vienna, 1894 ; Midr. Lekah Ti)h, ed. Buber, AVilna, 
]880 ; Peiser. Nnhalat S/ii'mc 'o»(', Wonzibeck, 1728 ; Heilprin, 
Seder Ha-DtiroU .s.v., AA'arsaw, 189T. 
s. s. J. II. G. 

JACOB, BLESSING OF.— Biblical Data: 

Name given to the chapter containing the prophetic 
utterances of Jacob concerning the destiny of his 
twelve sons as the fathers and representatiA'esof the 
twelve tribes (Gen. xlix. 1-27). It is called thusafter 
verse 28: "Every one according to his blessing he 
blessed them"; though in reality many of the utter- 
ances contain rebukes rather than blessings. Jacob is 
represented as revealing to his sons that Avhich shall 
befall tliem "in the last days." Reuben is told that 
he has forfeited his birthright — that is, his leader- 
ship among the tribes — on account of his incestuous 
conduct Avith reference to Bilhah (Gen. xlix. 3-4; 
comp. ib. XXXV. 22; I Chron. v. 1). Simeon and 
Levi are called brethren Avliose inborn nature (for 
"mckerah" or "mekurah" = " kinship "; comp. Ezek. 
xxi. 35 [A. V. xxii. 3], xxix. 14) it is to handle Aveap- 
ons of violence (A. V. "instruments of cruelty"); 
their fate — •" to be divided in Jacob and scattered in 
Israel," instead of forming two strong tribes — is de- 
clared to be due to their fierce anger sliOAvn at the 
massacre of the men of Shechem (Gen. xlix. 5-7; 
comp. ib. xxxiv. 25). 

Judah, on the other hand, is addressed as the 
leader of the tribes, before avIiotu his enemies shall 
flee and his brethren shall bow doAvn. The rather 
obscure verse, " The scepter shall not depart from 
Judah, nor a laAvgiver from between his feet until 
Shiloh come, and to him shall the gathering of the 
peoples be," seems to refer to David as having been 
elected king in Shiloh (this is not in harmony Avith 
II Sam. V. 3; but the whole history of Siiiioh is 
wrapped in mystery; see Shiloh). Judah's land, 
as producing Avine, is especially praised (Gen. xlix. 
8-12). Zebulun is told that he shall dwell on the coast 
of the sea and be a neighbor of the Phenician mer- 




chant city of Sidon {ib. verse 13). Issachar with his 
beautiful laud is rebuked for having allowed him- 
self from love of ease to become a tribute-paying 
servant to the Canaanite (verses 14-15). Dan is rep- 
resented as struggling hard for his existence among 
the tribes ; he can assail his mightier foe only by way- 
laying him and acting like the serpent, which bites 
the heels of the horse so that the rider falls. The 
situation is that of the later time of the Judges 
(verses 16-18; comp. Judges i. 35, v. 17, xviii. 1- 
29). The tribe of Gad is depicted as being pursued 
by troops of the neighboring tribes of Ammon or 
Moab, but at last overcoming them by falling upon 
them iu the rear (Gen. xli.x. 19). Ashcr is praised only 
because of its land, which yields choice fruits for the 
table of kings (t'b. verse 20). Naphtali, according to 
the Masoretictcxt, is declared to be a "hind let loose; 
he giveth goodly words " ; but this fails to convey 
a clear idea, and the original reading seems to have 
been: " Naphtali is a stretched-out terebinth ["elah" 
instead of "ayj'alah"], sending forth beautiful 
branches." It refers to the beautiful landscapes of 
the country {ib. verse 21 ; comp. Deut. xxxiii. 23). 
Signal blessing is conferred upon Joseph, who is 
called "a fruitful bough by the well, whose branches 
run over the wall." His tribe is described as being 
engaged in warfare but coming forth victoilous, 
strengthened by tlie mighty God of Jacob and by the 
arms (read "mi-zero'e" instead of "mi-sham ro'eh ") 
of the Rock of Israel. In consequence of this he the hills of Ephraim, rich in blessing 
(Gen. xlix. 22-26). Benjamin, the warrior tribe 
(Judges iii. 15, xx. 16; I Chron. viii. 40, xii. 2), is 
likened to a wolf that devours its prey in the morn- 
ing and divides the spoil at night (Gen. xlix. 27). 
E. c. K. 
Critical View : It has been held b}' some au- 
thorities that the text is not intact. Verses 10, 25, 26, 
and probably verse 18, are regarded as interpolations. 
Verse 10 interrupts the continuity of thought, verse 
11 taking up the thread dropped in verse 8. All 
these verses touch upon the possession of the land 
of promise; whereas verse 10 refers to the future 
and to the submission of the people. Venses 25 and 
26 bear a suspicious resemblance to Deut. xxxiii. 
13-16; and while the text of verses 22-24, corre- 
sponding to other very ancient songs, presents a 
knotty problem, A'erses 25 and 26 are comparatively 
intelligible (Fripp, in "Zeit. filr Alttestamentliche 
Wissenschaft," 1891, pp. 262 ct seq.; Holzinger, 
"Commentar zur Genesis," ad loc). The lack of 
connection between verse 18 and the other verses is 
made clear by the form of the matter: the speech 
concerning Dan consists of three couplets, and verse 
18 seems to hobble lamely after. Moreover, the idea 
expressed in verse 18 is different from that of the 
other verses (comp. Ball, "S. B. (). T." ad loc). 

The question as to the origin of the song is inde- 
pendent of the age of the Pentateuchal sources; for 
there is no doubt that the song bears no relation to 

them, and that it had been composed 
Origin of before the time of the author who in- 
the Song, troduced it into his narrative. It is 

difflcult to determine who that author 
was: yet, since lieuben's great transgression and 
the dispersion of Levi and Simeon, here mentioned, 

were likewise touched upon, in fact were more ex- 
plicitly given, in the oldest source (J)— in Gen. 
xxxiv., xxxv. 22— it is liighly probable that J was 
the one who wove the song into his story. Conse- 
quently the origin of this oldest source determines 
the latest date at which the song could have been 

The dilliculty of an exact determination is in- 
creased by doubt concerning the unity of the com- 
position. The first to dispute its unity was E. 
Renan (" Histoire Generale des Langues Semitiques," 
p. iii.); and the conjecture that the song consists of 
sayings originating in different periods gains more 
and more credence (J. P. N. Land, " Disputatio de 
Carmine Jacobi," 1857; Kuenen, Holzinger, and 
others). The great variety of forms in the song sup- 
ports this theory : while the language of one part is 
smooth and clear, another part is obscure. The de- 
termination of the correctness of this theory involves 
an investigation of the age of each 

Date of verse ; and in several instances this can 
Composi- not be ascertained, since the verses in- 
tion. dicate nothing concerning the time of 
their origin (see verses on Zubulun, 
Gad, Asher, and jSTaphtali). The verses on Issachar 
have reference to the period after the struggles of 
Deborah (Judges v.); the verses on Dan, describing 
his battles in the north, where in his conflicts with 
the surrounding nations he maintained the old Israel- 
itish custom of making an insidious rear attack in- 
stead of offering a bold challenge, refer to the time 
after Judges xvii. ct seq. ; and the verses on Judah 
(8, 11) presuppose the kingdom of Judah. The com- 
parison of Judah to a lion's whelp seems to charac- 
terize him as a rising power. This maj' appl}' to 
different periods, not necessarily to the time of 

The verses on Joseph (22-27) allude to a defensive 
war, in which Joseph was successful. Since the 
text refers to archers, and the Arabs were excellent 
marksmen, Dillmaun tiuuks that the war was with 
the Arabs. But his conjecture is erroneous; for the 
conflicts with the Arabs were confined to the portion 
of Manasseh east of the Jordan, and the term "Jo- 
seph " designates the portion of the tribe of Joseph 
dwelling west of the Jordan. Since, moreover, the 
reference could not have been to the Philistines, by 
whom the tribe was occasionally subdued, the verse 
clearly alludes to the Arameans of Damascus, with 
whom the conflicts were of long duration, often 
threatening the safety of tlie tribe of Joseph — that 
is, of the Northern Kingdom. Verse 24, however, 
bears no testimony of times following the glorious 
period of Jeroboam II. ; consequently the passage 
on Joseph points to the ninth century. Probably it 
was in the second half of this centurj'. at all events 
before the conquests of Jeroboam, and evidently in 
the Southern Kingdom, that the collection of these 
pithy descriptions of the tribes was completed. If 
verses 25 and 26 are interpolations, this is the only 
interpretation which would also explain both the 
esteem felt \ov Judah. expressed in the passage on 
him, and the silence concerning the Benjamite king 
dom and possibly even the Northern Kingdom. 

Dillmann endeavored to arrive at the same con- 
clusion by tlie supposed sequence in the enumera. 


Jacob ben Asher 



tion of the minor tribes, proceeding from south to 
north. But this supposition is not tenable; for the 
very first tribe mentioned is the most northerly, and, 
furthermore, the sequence is broken by Gad. How- 
ever, even if there were an exact geographical suc- 
cession of -tribes from south to north, it would prove 
nothing concerning the home of the collector of the 
passages, since the same order would have been nat- 
ural for an Ephraimite (comp. Holziuger ad loc). 

Zimmern's attempt (in "Zeit. flir Assyriologie," 
1892, pp. 161 etseq.) to connect Jacob's blessing with 
the Babylonian representation of the zodiac, spe- 
cifically with the Gilgamesh epic, can not be re- 
garded as successful. Ball has given some impor- 
tant and well-founded arguments against this theory 
(Commentary on Genesis iu''S. B. O. T." pp. 114 et 
seq.). Zimmern himself does not assume that the 
poet or collector of the song was aware of the orig- 
inal significance of each passage. 

Historical! J', Jacob's blessing is of the greatest 
value, both because it is the only source of informa- 
tion for certain of the tribes in ancient times, and 
because it is an aid in rendering the sources (for ex- 
ample, Gen. xxxiv.) more intelligible. 

Bibliography: See, besides the commentaries on Genesis of Dill- 
mann, Merx, Knobel. Delitzseh, Holzinger, Ball, and Gunkel, 
Diestel, Segen Jakobn, 1853; Meier, Get<ch. der Poet. Ncv- 
tiouaUiteratur, 185S ; K. Kohler, Der Segcn Ja/cobs, 18tj7 ; 
Offord, The Prnphecu of Jacob, 1877. 
E. C. W. N. 

JACOB: 1. Tauua of the second century ; prob- 
ably identical with Jacob b. Korshai (= "the Kor- 
shaite," or " of Korsha "), the contemporary of Simon 
b. Gamaliel II. Of his relations with this patriarch 
the Talmud has preserved the following incident: 
Nathan the Babylonian and Me'ir had determined to 
humiliate Simon and bring about his deposition by 
putting to him c|uestions on 'Ukzin. which he had 
not mastered; but Jacob prevented the patriarch's 
discomfiture by indirectly turning his attention to 
the neglected treatise (Hor. 13b). He was a grand- 
son of Elisha ben Abuyah on his mother's side (Kid. 
39b ; Hul. 142a), and was a teacher of Judah I. (Yer. 
Shab. x. 12c). 

Jacob is frequently met in halakic controversies 
with Akiba's later disciples (see'Tosef., Zeb. x. 9, 
11; ib. Tem. i. 17; tb. Toh. vi. 5, 6). Sometimes 
lie cites Mei'r as an authority (Tosef., Ma'as. Sh. ii. 
10; ib. Yeb. xii. 11). The compiler of the Mishnah 
cites Jacob (Tosef., 'Ab. Zarah, v. [vi.J 4), and pre- 
serves the following eschatological remarks of his: 
"This world is as if it were a vestibule to the future 
Avorld: prepare thyself in the vestibule that thou 
mayest [becomingly] enter the reception-room. One 
liour devoted to penitence and good deeds in this 
life is worth more than the whole of the life here- 
after [where no opportunity is given for improve- 
ment] ; and one hour's happiness in the world to 
come is worth more than all the pleasures of this 
world" (Ab. iv. 16, 17). 

In this spirit Jacob interprets the rewards attached 
to filial reverence and to sparing the dam when 
rifling a bird's nest: "That thy days may be pro- 
longed, and that it may go well with thee " (Deut. 
V. 16, xxii. 7). An incident once came under his 
notice that seemed to falsify this Scriptural promise. 
A dutiful son, in obedience to his parent's wish, 

climbed a tree after som^ birds. He duly complied 
with the Scriptural requirements, and yet, in de- 
scending, he fell and was killed. Thereupon Jacob 
remarked, " In this world there is no reward for good 
deeds: the rewards promised will be awarded in the 
world which is all good and immeasurably long" 
(Kid. 39b). Many decades later a prominent Baby- 
lonian amora remarked, "Had Aher [Elisha b. 
Abtjtah] interpreted those promises as did his 
daughter's son he would not have become a sinner " 
(ib. ; comp. Yer. Hag. ii. 77b ; Eccl. R. vii. 8). 

Bibliography: Bacher, Ag. Tan. ii. 395; Briill, Mebo ha- 
Mishnalt, 1. 242; Frankel, Darke ha-MUshnah, p. 202; Ham- 
burger, K. D. T. ii.; Weiss, Dor, ii. 171. 

2. Palestinian amora of the fourth century ; con- 
temporary of R. Jekemiah; probably identical with 
J.vcoB B. Aha (comp. Pes. 91b with Yer. Pes. viii. 
36a, B. M. ioia with Yer. B. K. ix. 6d, and 'Ab. 
Zarah 13b with Yer. 'Ab. Zarah i. 39d). 

s. s. S. M. 

rabbi and author; died at Karliu, government of 
Minsk, 1855. He was a grandson of Baruch of 
Shklov, the mathematician and author, and was 
one of the earliest and most renowned graduates of 
the yeshibah of Volozhin. He held the office of 
rabbi at Karlin for about thirty years, and was con- 
sidered one of the greatest rabbinical authorities of 
his time. 

Jacob was the author of : (1) " Mishkenot Ya'akob " 
(Wilna, 1838), responsa on the four parts of the 
Shulhan 'Aruk; (2) " Kohelet Ya'akob" (ib. 1857), 
novel l.TB on the tractates of the Talmudic orders 
Zera'im and Mo'ed; and (3) another collection of 

Bibliography : Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 574. 

s. s. N. T. L. 

JACOB B.ABBA: 1. Babylonianscholar of the 
third century; junior to Rab (B. M. 41a). He was 
an expert dialectician, and prevailed in argument 
even against his famous senior (Yer. Sanh. vii. 25c). 

2. Amora of the fourth century ; contemporary of 
Abaye and Raba (b. Joseph). His patronymic is va- 
riously given as "Abba," "Abaye," " Abina," " Abu- 
ha," "Abun," and "Aibu" (comp. Yer. Sanh. x. 
28b; Gen. R. xlii. 3; Ruth R., proem, 7; Tan., 
Ahare Mot, 7 ; ib., ed. Ruber, 9 ; Num. R. ii. 26). As 
regards his nativity, he appears in the company of 
Palestinian scholars (Pesik. viii. 71a; Lev. R. xxviii. 
6), but also, before the leaders of the fourth amoraic 
generation, in Babylonia ('Er. 12a; Kid. 31b). The 
fact, however, that he was a favorite in Babylonia 
would make it seem more probable that he was a 
Babylonian by birth. Whenever Jacob returned 
from school his father and mother would vie with 
each other in waiting on him ; but this Jacob did 
not consider consonant with the respect due from 
child to parent; he therefore appealed to Abaye, 
who told him: "Thy mother's services thou mayest 
receive, but not those of thy father, who is himself 
a scholar" (Kid. 31a). He doubtless visited Pales- 
tine, since he is mentioned in the company of Pales- 
tinians; but as an old man he is found in Baby- 
lonia (Zeb. 70b). 

Bibliography: Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, U. 

8. 3. S. M. 




Jacob ben Asher 

JACOB B. ABBA MARI. See Anatolio 

(Anatoli), Jacob ben Abba ISIaki. 

estiniau amora of the fourth centur}". He is knowu 
as having transmitted the haggadot of Samuel 1). 
Nahniau, Abbahu, and Abba b. Kahaua (Eccl. R. i. 
5). Jacob is reported to have had a heated contro- 
versy with K. Jeremiah on tlie question of the paj^- 
ment of taxes to the Roman government (Yer. JM. 
K. iii. 1). 

Bibliography: Bacher, Aa. Pcil. Amnr. iii. 712-713 et pas- 
sim ; Heilprin, Seder ha-Durot, 11. 
s. s. M. Sel. 


(^D"in"D) : Tunisian scholar; died at Algiers July, 
1813. He settled in the later part of his life at 
Jerusalem, whence he was sent as a collector of alms 
to Italy and Algeria. He was the author of "Berit 
Ya'akob " (Leghorn, 1800), the contents of which 
were as follows: sermons; Bezaleel Ashkenazi's 
" Shittah Mekubbezet " on Sotah, with the editor's 
notes, entitled " Yagel Ya'akob " ; glosses of the 
Geonim on the Talmudical treatises Nedarim and 
Nazir, with the editor's notes; commentaries on 
Nazir by Abraham ben Musa; "Sha'are Zedek," a 
commentary, attributed to Levi ben Gershon, on the 
thirteen hermeneutic rules of R. Ishmael; novelise 
on Hullin and Pesahim; and poems, entitled "Kon- 
tres Aharon." 

Jacob wrote also " Yerek Ya'akob " {ib. 1842), ser- 
mons arranged in the order of the Sabbatical sections, 
with an appendix entitled " Ya'ir Kokab mi-Ya'a- 
kob," containing novella? and responsa, and edited 
" Mizbah Kapparah " of Nahmanides ; Bezaleel Ash- 
kenazi's "Shittah Mekubbezet" on Zebahim and 
various tosafot of Rabbi Perez, Eliezer of Touques, 
and others on several Talmudical treatises, with an 
appendix entitled "Ranenu le- Ya'akob" {ib. 1810) 
containing Talmudic novelise and sermons by Jacob 
(republished with additions bv Saul ha-Levi, Lem- 
berg, 1861); "Sefer Mar'eh ha-Ofannim " (Leghorn, 
1810), containing Asher ben Jehiel's novelise on 
Sotah, Aaron ha- Levi's "Shittah" on Bezah, and 
an appendix entitled "Yagel Ya'akob," containing 
novelise on Pesahim, Bezah, Rosh ha-Shanah, JMo'ed 
Katan, 'Abodah Zarah, and IVIakkot. 

Bibliography : Nepl-Ghirondl, Tolednt Gedole Yistrael, p. 211 ; 
Steinschneider. Cat. Bndl. col. 1210; Zedner, Cat. Hebr. 
B<whti Brit. Mus. p. 247 ; Caz6s, Notes Bibliographiques, pp. 
183 et geq. 

D. I. Br. 

JACOB BAR AHA: 1. Palestinian amora of 
the third generation (latter part of the third century) ; 
contemporary of R. Ze'era. He rarely gives opin- 
ions of his own, but repeats halakot and homiletic 
remarks in the names of earlier authorities. In Yer. 
Ber. Ha he communicates in the name of Rabbi 
Johanan a halakah relating to grace at meals. In 
the name of R. Eleazar (probably ben Pedat) he re- 
ports that in the words "Hide not thyself from thine 
own flesh " (Isa. Iviii. 7) the prophet refers to a di- 
vorced wife, whom her former husband has to sup- 
port (Lev. R. xxxiv. 14). 

Jacob bar Aha associated with Assi (Yer. Meg. 
74b); and it is also recorded that he once took a 
meal together with Ze'era, Hiyya bar Abba, and 

Hanina, and was invited to say grace (Yer. Ber 


2. Palestinian amora of the fourth generation; a 

contemporary of Ilezekiah, with whom he associated 

(Yer. Ber. ii. 5a, iii. 6a; Ket. v. 30a). 

Bibliography : Zacuto, Yuhamn, ed. KSnlgsberg, 95a ; Fraa- 
kel, Meho hn-Yervshalnn, 104b, IWm; Bacher, Afi- Pal. 
Amor. ii. 178 and Index ; Heilprin, Seder ha-Durot. I. 236. 

s- s- I. Br. 

JACOB BEN AMRAM : Polemical writer of 
the seventeenth century. He wrote in 1634, in 
Latin, a book against the religion of the Christians, 
with the Hebrew title "Sha'ar Emet" (" Porta Ve- 
ritatis "). He borrows largely from Manas.seh ben 
Israel, but that Manasseh himself was not the au- 
thor of this book was proved by Wolf. The Eng- 
lish bishop Richard Kidder, in bis " Demonstratio 
Messise " (part iii., London, 1684, etc.), wrote a refu- 
tation of Jacob ben Amram's arguments. 

Bibliography : Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrtenlexicon, 11. 
1806 ; Steinschneider, Jewish Literature, p. 213; Wolf, Bibl. 
Hebr. i. 686, iii. 442. 

J. M. Sc. 

JACOB BEN ASHER (known also as Ba<al 
ha-Turim) : German coditier and Biblical commen- 
tator; died at Toledo, Spain, before 1340. Very 
little is known of Jacob's life; and the few glimpses 
caught here and there are full of contradictions. 
According to Menahem b. Zerah ("Zedah la-Derek," 
Preface), Jacob was the third son of Asher, and 
older than Judah. Indeed, Jacob is usually men- 
tioned before Judah. On the other hand, Jacob 
himself, in his introduction to the Tur Orah Hay- 
yim, which he wrote after his father's death, at a 
time when Judah was more than fifty j-ears old 
(comp. Judah's testament, published by S. Schech- 
ter in "Bet Talmud," iv. 340 et seq.), says that he 
himself was then a j'oung man. What is definitely 
known is that, contrary to the assertions of Gedaliah 
ibn Yahya ("Shalshelet ha-Kabbalah," ed. Zolkiev, 
p. 47b) and Heilprin ("Seder ha-Dorot," p. 169), 
Jacob emigrated with his father to Spain, where in 
1317 he and his brother Judah were appointed by 
their father treasurers of the money which the 
family had to distribute as alms, his signature to his 
father's testament coming before Judah's (Schech- 
ter. I.e. p. 375). Besides his father, who was his 
principal teacher, Jacob quotes very often in the 
Turim his elder brother Jehiel; once his brother 
Judah (Tur Orah Hayyim, § 417), and once his 
uncle R. Hayyim {ib. § 49). 

Jacob was very poor all his lifetime and suflFered 
great privations (Tur Orah Hayyim, §242; comp. his 
epitaph in Luzzat to, ' 'Abne Zikkaron, " 
His Life. No. 7). His business seems to have con- 
sisted in lending money (Tur, I.e. % 539). 
It is also known, contrary to the statement of Za- 
cuto ("Yuhasin,"ed. London, p. 223), that Jacob did 
not succeed his father in the rabbinate of Toledo, 
his brother Judah filling that ofiice (Schechter, I.e. , 
Luzzatto, I.e. No. 5). Jacob's testament (Schechter, 
I.e. 378 et seq.) betrays a lofty spirit. He wandered 
in different countries, wliere he observed the vary- 
ing religious customs which he quotes in his Turim; 
but his epitaph (Luzzatto, I.e. No. 7) refutes the as- 
sertion of Azulai ("Shem ha-Gedolim," i.) that he 
died and was buried in Chios. His pupil David 

Jacob ben Asher 
Jacob ben Benjamin 



Abudarham, writing in 1840, speaks of Jacob as 
already dead. 

Jacob was one of the pillars of rabbinic learning. 
His name became known throughout the entire Jew- 
ish world through the following works, which he 
wrote probably in Spain: (1) " Sefer ha-Remazim," 
or " Kizzur Piske ha-Rosh " (Constantinople, 1575), 
an abridgment of his father's compendium of the 
Talmud, in which he condensed his father's decisions, 
omitting the casuistry. This work is arranged in 
the same order as the treatises of the Talmud, and 
is quoted by Jeroham b. Mcshullum ("Sefer Me- 
sharim," Preface), Simeon b. Zemah Duran (Re- 
sponsa, iii. , No. 86), Elijah Mizrahi (Responsa, No. 4), 
and other Talmudists. (2) The four Turim, namely, 
(a) Tur Orah Hayyim (separately Mantua, 1476), 
containing the ritual laws relating to the daily 
prayers, the Sabbath, and holy days; (b) Tur Yoreh 
De'ah (separately first third, ib. 1476; 
The Turim. completed at Ferrara, 1477), contain- 
ing the laws concerning things lawful 
and unlawful ("issur we-hetter"); (c) Tur Eben 
ha-'Ezer (separately Guadalajara, n.d.), containing 
the laws relating to marriage and divorce, legiti- 
macy, etc. ; and (d) Tur Hoshen ha-Mishpat (edited 
with the other three, Piove di Sacco, 1475), contain- 
ing the civil laws. The tirst complete edition, that 
of Piove di Sacco, finished July 3, 1475, is the sec- 
ond dated Hebrew book, and must have been begun 
earlier than the Rashi of Reggio of the same 3'ear. 
It was, after the Bible, the most popular Avork 
printed in the fifteenth century, no less than two 
complete editions and seven editions of parts being 
printed between 1475 and 1495 (Leiria). See In- 


As stated above, Jacob was a young man when 
he began the Turim, which remained the standard 
code for both Sephardim and Ashkenazim up to the 
appearance of the Shulhan 'Aruk. In the introduc- 
tion to the Tur Orah Hayyim he says he w^as in- 
duced to undertake such an immense work by a de- 
sire to establish a code suited to the requirements of 
the time. Maimonides' Yad ha-Hazakah, being a 
compilation of all the laws contained in the six 
orders of the Talmud, was too bulky for general 
use. Besides, with the course of time, questions 
arose to which no immediate solution was given in 
the Talmud. Jacob on the one hand simplified 
Maimonides' work by the omission of laws which 
could not be applied after the destruction of the 
Temple, thus reducing the whole code to four parts, 
and on the other he inserted an account of the cus- 
toms which he had observed in various countries. 
In the Tur Orah Hayyim Jacob shows a greater 
deference to Ashkenazic than to Sephardic rabbis, 
citing the former very often. Once (§ 35) he even 
bases his decision on the Cabala, and once (§ 113) he 
speaks of the German Hasidim. Just the contrary 
is the case in the other three Turim, where Sephar- 
dic autliorities predominate. But throughout the 
four parts he speaks of the customs of different 
countries as an eye-witness; and very often he 
points out the differences between the Ashkenazic 
and the Sephardic practises. 

Jacob was averse to all kinds of controversy ; and 
he recorded the laws as they had been pronounced 

by preceding expounders ("posekim"). In many 
cases he indicated merely that he was inclined to 
accept the opinion of a certain authority, with- 
out forcing his view upon the student. In many 
other cases he refrained from expressing his own 
opinion, and left the decision to the officiating 
rabbi. He never speaks either favorably or un- 
favorably of secular sciences, ignoring them alto- 

The Arba' Turim soon became very popular with 
students; but, as is generally the case with works 
of this nature, they felt the necessity of writing 
commentaries upon it. The commentators are: Jo- 
seph Card ("Bet Yosef "), who some- 
Commen- times criticizes Jacob's text; Moses 

taries on Isserles (" Darke IMosheh ") ; Joel 
the Turim. Sirkes (" Bayit Hadash "); Joshua Falk 
(" Derishah u-Ferishah ") ; and Joseph 
Escapa ("Rosh Yosef"), who deals with only apart 
of the work. The four Turim have been unduly 
depreciated by GrStz and A. Geiger because they 
were not written in the philosophical spirit of Mai- 

Jacob wrote also two commentaries on the Pen- 
tateuch: (1) "Rimze Ba'al ha-Turim" (Constanti- 
nople, 1500), which is printed in all the editions of the 
Pentateuch accompanied by commentaries, and con- 
sists only of gematria, notarikon, and Masoretic cal- 
culations; (2) "Perush 'al ha-Torah," less known 
(Zolkiev, 1806), and taken mainly from Nahmanides, 
but without his cabalistic and philosophical interpre- 
tations. Jacob quotes many other commentators, 
among them Saadia, Rashi, Joseph Kara, Abraham 
ibn Ezra, Hiyya ha-Sefaradi, which last name Geiger 
erroneously emends to " Abraham b. Hiyya " (" Wiss. 
Zeit. Jud. Theol." iv. 401 ; comp. Carmoly in " Orient, 
Lit." xii. 373). 

Bibliography: Buchholz, in Monatsschrift, xiii. 253-254; 
Conforte, Kore ha-Dorot, 26a ; Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. ii. 14-16 ; 
A. Gt'iper, in Jiid. Zeit. iii. 244 et fieq.: Gratz, Gesch. 3d ed., 
vii. 29S ft scQ.\ Michael, Or ha-Haimim, No. 1060; Stein- 
schneider. Cat. Bodl. cols. 1181-1192; Weiss, Dor, v. 118-123- 
s. s. M. Sel. 


(BENET): Rabbi at Alt-Ofen at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century ; sou of Mordecai b. 
Abraham Benet (Marcus Benedict). Jacob was the 
author of " Toledot Mordekai Benet" (Alt-Ofen, 
1832). The first part contains a biograph}-, and the 
second various writings of his father: "Likkutim," 
explanations of Biblical passages; homiletic ex- 
planation of "dayyenu " as it occurs fifteen times in 
the Pesah Haggadah; sermon onShabbatTeshubah, 
delivered in 1820 ; commentary on the song of Debo- 
rah ; "Hiddushe Halakot." The biography is writ- 
ten in a pure and easy Hebrew style. 

Bibliography: Benjacoh, Ozar ha-f^cfarim, p. 620; Fiirst, 
Bihl. Jud. i. 103; idem, in Orient, Lit. viii. 494; Steiiischnel- 
der. Cat. Bodl. col. 1193. 
G. M. Sc. 


Lithuanian Talmudist; born in the first half of the 
seventeenth century at Wilna, Russia; died at Jeru- 
salem. Driven from his native city by the Chmiel- 
nicki persecutions, he left Russia with his father-in- 
law, Ephraim ben Aaron. On the way they were sep- 
arated by their pursuers, and after barely escaping 


ViS' nh^ ^■'rnp n-ra tejpvsTSara'jaX ttyv* "j^Ka- 
« • « 

rdynT^N*' CIO yxra 

p^nc nasS nirn nj^x nnt^ rXJ^TJwaw ti«^» 

5>T>"!S Via' ■a-'ia'T'jn'Tag ^SvV: imoiamiya 

3 nainS ti' os 7'a njy^iwa t moa nann'j ti» 
T nS la'Vx'wa ni-xi^ n" yaT ik n'tt'Sw niwa 
Tin'no luaS Tin o -iv n j^n xx'tsaS nb'O' nnw 
Si'ana n'js 't-s k'"' nm ^{3^ ;rj-» nannS TJ'wa 
"Tin ■»S'>EK nj-i-wnnVa njynT rvi'ra^aSas 
it'- mwn Sa^. la ^Sn men ijysS ^h w'W iTa t 
^103 iVy cs m'S'sia niiS'N na inaxt nyiTS 
■lb VN -.S'lan hy i»a Tr^-'niS -is-, v5<w ■Di^»a 
K as ny-.-\h •l^s^^ Tji^ra; ibv cx pi'ja nna 

ai ' •,wi ib'>a niiS'tin it •.•■a-y t von n^n i':;» 
■inTT5-»sn}<'~a's nnaosx-iratiM-Q; iS "jmai 

UM yo'b TJ-i'sijn nij"'Ui "lat ~S' wa -S m^S 
■Q'xy 'BT xVkVt ]nina's yu'b i^nt^T ii^s 

w^a'o nj3-m Vrxa O'tjw 13; rrS:?;!! T'o^n ny-n 
yit V-n<-i»iS'ria^ '-a"3t:n ts nni' isrtomt* 
»<S DM -inv jJ'Qn^n «,naa n^n Tiasta-ip nTijjn? 
na Tifiiow vh -zn To^nn r.j'^iia nn'^ jo nn''n 
KHw rniinw nii n^7ni3 -S r^ais na'cV ^a^r| 

r"'aS3'^3^>n ■ox TiK'n •'n'~ itjSn' >«%« vo'sc'J' 
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yVn-iNnnn'"© maa t'lo's ^icn nncyi vo'ri 

iwna moyS rcis-i s'nw nu men n"»na nntry 

T^w ncu -inT To^n nnwo? T'»«BT5na mwyS 
TiT nn 'd'^ T^Sn tbotiup nicy*? n^ixT tt^na 
y^i^n'-yanawas^^loix cn'va namnw 

♦ • • 



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»ip TsitiH sS< iS ma's ">">x -1 'ahaS ^aih Vi ■>a 
' Tm-in'»n3iajraw»nao'<nan naina ns,ij> 

•n rv'ai'anx!'? lamSi 'a nntjina ^-^nn •\^yl 
"iHnsxa ^nmwa'i naa Tana 'arc it r'^'^'cn 
najtSax iTT7-irXT iva -iPKTcvn'j a'ln-ij'x-j 
•IT nn»n«a'M naoTanxTn'Tan n^a unoi'? 
-t»s tS TiaynS T-.x 

■pan-ii^a V3T^"W "W^fT"! 

S-«te asnnVaKi myaa ■■ '» '♦ * 

nj'-tt naa ox neiwx 

ni'S na'-va naa la's nxt ^^•'3^a iS naia X'^ 
'iwn an i^Sw naa nris n^a x'n n 'WT naia 
ni-»w vaix ni-<nw:<a"j ny^an nniN hv nnwn 
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hv m-iw 'ja i^S BX tai -Q'-a i'-5Ta -ir-axi 

naacnrx ny^arr^wnnoaii-^^S® larx -.airi 
rijnn ->^;nan •cxi -am So i^Taa I'Sm iS 
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yD ny-TiVi "3 SacS a'-n -na ■'jn naia -I'tt 
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tf<^» wxa 

Tn-''-5 T-^'ana m» ■■(■^^j™^ 

S niwS Tu'maT -'a nS 'i" ♦♦ U i 

jMpi'a-n T»nonn^*5 

jsa TlnTjS xS tS'dx xtto rraa nanno rS Tnii 
njQiw -nx n-03 ■Q^-aij'n 1-5 Vo k'-x i.T^ua 
wn la-iSni-jxiS lax'" J<V n'^D">n'o'n-''n cn"* 
my-i T^a niD' Ta naTna h imi xSx tj-ic^i 
w lav nanio Tiaa nr o cxSax rro x'-ox-ta 
rtiTj'o '-Tj;o na-> na Vt -n'* xi^n vo'n nay-T'o 
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•j-isaiw-nxiS-'DX ciaa r-iyaio"i^n- ca:iJ 
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aio V tS Tn'S n^*» n'ana Y'an^i 

«j» vanan-^o 

TWhaUO 'U'nnjy-iT^ 

^T' nS nsian ^yinS mrvn ex Ta"" ini' n'ori 
VO'M -ni' mon nx Tcnsa* n'Jot- nay-f 
anaSTs ^x^aTv^«:p^T♦^'io^ '-vcn >'-it' 
^S onaa ■is'> o -ia-» niawS iS r:t «dS n'Tana 
\jS nx^anaT vcnS 'Tiyoa naa wraan -.a-iS 
^a-iS mJsS'-aiQO Va' n-aSa^a Sax nuc^S 
nanSntJoS S'a' ii'Xl ~nv ano xin nx wnaari 
a Ma aa w'naa wx a^ iV'tix mna n-w Kin» 


Page from thk fikst Edition of Jacob ben asher's "arha' tiuim/' Piove di Sacco, 147j. 

(In the Library of Columbia University, New York.) 

Jacob, Benno 
Jacob Qebulaah 



death Jacob wandered about for several months, 
finally arriving at Trebitsch, Moravia, where he 
found his father-in-law. 

About 1665 Jacob was appointed rabbi of Tre- 
bitsch, later of Ungarisch-Brod, and after the deatli 
of Ephraim he officiated in Ofen. There also fate was 
against him ; for the city was captured in 1686 by 
the imperial troops, and Jacob was carried captive 
to Berlin. Ransomed by the Jews of that city, he 
lived for some years with his son Zebi Ashkenazi in 
Altoua, and then went to Jerusalem, where he died 
at the age of seventy-three. 

Bibliography : Fuean, Kiryah Ne'emanah, p. 85. 

s. s. A. Pe. 

JACOB, BENNO: German rabbi and Biblical 
scholar; born at Breslau Sept. 8, 1862; educated at 
tiie gymnasium, the university, and the theological 
seminary of his native town (Ph.D. 1889). Since 1891 
Jacob has been rabbi at Gottiugen. 

Among his writings may be especially mentioned : 
"Das Buch Esther bei den LXX." Giesscn, 1890; 
"Unsere Bibcl in Wissenschaft und Unterricht," Ber- 
lin, 1898. Healso edited "Predigten, Betrachtun- 
gen und Gebete von Dr. Benjamin Rippner," ib. 
1901 ; and has made many contributions to Stade's 

s. F. T. H. 

Mari b. Raciiei, b. Samuel. 

AHER. See Jacob, 1. 

JACOB 9ADiaTJE (ZADDIK) : Spanish phy- 
sician and writer; born at Ucles in the second third 
of the fourteenth century. He devoted himself to 
the study of medicine, and became body-physician 
to D. Lorenzo Suarez de Figueroa, Maestre de San- 
tiago, from whom he received a commission to 
translate from the Limousinian into the Castilian 
dialect a moral-philosophical work containing prov- 
erbs and sayings from the Old and New Testaments 
and from the works of Aristotle, Seneca, Cicero, 
and others. This work, entitled "Libro de Dichos 
de Sabios^ Filosofos," and consisting of seven parts, 
was finished in Velez July 8, 1402, and is still ex- 
tant in manuscript in the Escurial. Whether Jacob 
(,'adique was baptized, as Amador de los Rios states, 
is not certain. 

ibliography: Rios, Esturtios, pp. 443 et .«e(j.; Steinsclineider, 
Jewixh Literature, p. 103; Kayserling, Uihl. Esp.-Pnrt.- 
Jud. p. 110. 
G. M. K. 

JACOB OF CHINON: French tosafist ; lived 
about 1190-1260. He was a pupil of Isaac ben 
Abraham of Dampierre and a teacher of Perez of 
Corbeil. His two brotliers were Nathanael, " the 
Holy," and Eliezer ben Joseph, "the Martyr," both 
Talmudical scholars. Jacob wrote: (1) "Shittah," 
probably on Sanhedrin, quoted by Mordecai (iii., 
Nos. 690, 691, on Sanh. ; see Benjacob, " Ozar ha- 
Sefarim," p. 573); (2) commentary on Gittiii ; (8) 
tosafot, some of which are quoted in Ber. 12a and 
Nazir 5IJa, and in Mordecai (Shab. x. 377; 'Er. viii. 
527; B. M. ii. ; comp. " Monats.schrift," 1878, p. 82). 

In the "Semak" on Gittin (No. 81), a passage 
somewhat doubtful as regards its genuineness, 


some tosafot of " R. Tairt de Chinon " are quoted, 

while in a corresponding passage in Kol Bo (No. 

88) tlie name of the author is given as " Jacob de 

Chinon." "R. Tam of Chinon" occurs also in the 

Halberstam MSS. (No. 345), which makes it appear 

likely that Jacob of Chinon was known also by that 


Bibliography: Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 566, 579; Renan- 
Neubauer, Les Rabhiiis Frangai,\ pp. 445-743; idem. Lea 
Ecrivains Juifs Franqais, p. 469; Zunz, Z. G. p. 39. 

S. S. M. Sc. 

JACOB OF CORBEIL (called "the Saint"): 
Frencli to.satist of the twelfth century. He was the 
brother of Judah of Corbeil, author of tosafot to 
various treatises of the Talmud. He is sometimes 
confounded with Jacob ha-Levi, "the Pious," of 
Marvfige or Marvejols (Lozere, France). Aaron ben 
Hayyim ha-Kohen, in his commentary on the Mah- 
zor, praises him highly. He is mentioned by Isaac' 
ha-Levi ben Judah in his " Pa'aneah Raza " as well 
as in Judah ben Eliezer's "Minhat Yehudah." 

Jacob of Corbeil wrote tosafcr to several Tal- 
mudical treatises, and lie is frequently mentioned 
in the Tosafot, e.g., to Ket. 12b; Hul. 122b; Bezah 
6b; Shab. 27a, 61a; Pes. 22. The "Memorbuch " of 
Mayence names Jacob among the martyrs of Corbeil. 

Bibliography: Zunz, Z. G. pp. .50, 77; Renan-Neubauer, Les 
Bahhins Frau^aiK, pp. 438, 441; Rev. Etudes Juives, iv. 
24 ; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 562. 
L. G. S. K. 

JACOB OF COUCY : French tosafist of the 
thirteenth century ; mentioned in tosafot to Kiddii- 
shin (43b, 67a), by Mordecai, and in Joseph Colon's 
" She'elot u-Teshubot " (No. 47, Venice, 1579). 

Bibliography: Gross, Gnllia Judaica. p. 556; Renan-N'eu- 
bauer, Les Rabbins Fraiigais, p. 446 ; Zunz, Z. G. p. 50. 

S. S. M. Sc. 


('^NVrillD or Wj-'Tid) : French Talmudist of the 
fifteenth century ; not to be confounded with the 
astronomer Jacob ben David ben Yom-Tob Po'el, 
called "Sen Bonet Bongoron (or Bonjorn) of Perpi- 
gnan " (14th cent.). Jacob lived at Marseilles, where 
he was engaged in maritime commerce. Subse- 
quently he retired to Naples, and thence addressed 
a letter (1490) to David ben Judah Messer Leon of 
^lantua on the utility of secular studies, and espe- 
cially of medicine. Jacob was a learned Talmudist, 
and wrote a letter of approbation for Jacob Landau's 
casuistic work " Sefer Agur. " He wrote also a com- 
mentary on Canticles. 

Bibliography: Carmoly, i/i.sf. dcs Medecins Juifs, p. 125; 
Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 383. 
G. S. K. 

JACOB B. ELEAZAR: Spanish grammarian 
of the first third of the thirteenth centuiy. The as- 
sumption that he lived in the first third of the 
twelfth century (Geiger's "Jiid. Zeit." xi. 235; 
Griitz, "Gesch." 8d ed., vi. 110; Winter and 
Wiinsche, "Jiulische Litteratur," ii. 183) is errone- 
ous. He was probably a native of Toledo, wliere 
he liad access to the famous Bible Codex Hilleli 
(David Kimhi, "Miklol," ed. Flirst. p. 78b); subse- 
quently he went to southern Fiance, wliere he wrote 
"Gan Te'udot" (see below) at the requcstof Samuel 
and Ezra, the sons of Judah, who, according to 
Steinsclineider (in "Z. D. M. G. " xxvii. 558), are 



Jacob, Benno 
Jacob Gebulaah 

identical with Judah b. Natlianael's sons of the same 
names, mentioned b}'^ Al-Harizi. 

Jacob ben Eleazar's chief work, the "Kitab al- 
Kamil " (Hebr. " Sefer ha-Shalem "), written in Ara- 
bic, has long since been lost. Tanhiim Yerushalmi, 
who quotes it in his lexicon (see Bacher, '' Aus dem 
W5rterbuche Tanclium Jerushalmi's," 1903, p. 42), 
says in the introduction to his Bible commentary 
that the book was in reality, and not merely meta- 
phorically, complete, as its name indicated ('' I^- E. 
J." xl. 141). Tauhum's contemporary Abraham 
Maimonides also cites the work in his Pentateuch 
commentary ("Zeit. flir Hebr. Bibl." ii. 155). 

The " Kitab al-Kamil, " which probably included 
a grammar and a lexicon, is cited frequently by 
David Kimhi ; in about twenty articles of his " Sefer 
ha-Shorashim " he quotes opinions of Jacob's, some 
of wliich are most original and remarkable (see 
ed. Lebrecht and Biesenthal, p. xxviii.). Many cita- 
tions are found also in an anonymous Hebrew-Arabic 
lexicon (Steinschneider, " Die Arabische Literatur 
der Juden," p. 290). As late as the fourteenth cen- 
tury the work was freely quoted by Isaac Israeli of 
Toledo in his commentary on Job (Neubauer, "Cat. 
Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 383; "Ozar Nehmad," iii. 
151). A Hebrew author of Damascus (date un 
known) says that complete copies of the "Kitab 
al-Kamil" had been found in Egypt ("Zeit. fur 
Hebr. Bibl." ii. 154). It may be assumed that, the 
work being very large, only a limited number of 
copies existed. If Israelson's assumption (really 
originating with Poznanski in " Zeit. f iir Hebr. 
Bibl." ii. 156) is justified, long portions of the 
grammatical part of the "Kitab al-Kamil" are still 
extant; namely, the fragments found in a St. Peters- 
burg manuscript and elsewhere, which have been as- 
cribed to the earlier grammarian Isaac ibn Yashush. 
This fragmentary grammatical work also quotes the 
Codex Hilleli. 

Certain Hebrew works bearing the name of Jacob 
b. Eleazar have been assigned, and probably cor- 
rectlj', to the author of the " Kitab al-Kamil " ; and 
they are probably among the twelve works by him 
dealing with different subjects which TanhumYeru- 
shalmi mentions (see "R. E. J." xl. 141, note 5). 

The following three works of Jacob b. Eleazar 
arestill extant: (I) " Gan Te'udot,"a ]>arenetic work 
on the human soul, written in mosaic style (formerly 
Halberstam MS., now in the Montetiore collection at 
Ramsgate; see '' R. E. J." xv. 158). Copies of this 
work, under a different title, seem to be also in the 
libraries of the Vatican and the Escurial (see Stein- 
schneider in "Z. D. M. G." xxvii. 555 et seq.). (2) 
"Meshalim," parables in "makamah " form, written 
in 1233 at tlie instance of friends, in order to show that 
Hebrew was as good a language as Arabic (Munich 
MS. No. 207). (8) "Sefer Kalilah wa-Dimnah,"a 
Hebrew version of the famous book of fables, in 
rimed prose, written for a certain Benveniste. Onl}'^ 
tlie beginning of tliis translation has been preserved 
(Neubauer, 'Xat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 384); this 
has been edited by Joseph Derenbourg (," Deux Ver- 
sions Hebraiques du Livre de Kalilah et Dimnah," 
pp. 311-388. Paris, 1881; see,ah wa-Dim- 
NAii). Two liturgical poems by Jacob b. Eleazar 
are enumerated in Zunz, " Literaturgesch." p. 201. 

Bibliography : steinschneider, DU Arahixche Literatur 
der Juden, pp.158 et neq.; idem, Hebr. Uebers. p. 87«; Gel- 
ger's Jud. Zeit. xi. 232 et seq.; Idem, O^r Kefymad,, 11. 159 
et seq. 
T. W. B. 

JACOB B. ELIEZER. See Temerles, Jacob. 

JACOB BEN EPHRAIM : Syrian Talmudist 
of the tenth century. From Salmon b. Jeroham's 
commentary to Psalms (cxl. 6) it appears that Jacob 
b. Ephraim wrote a commentary to the Jerusalem 
Talmud. He is especially mentioned by the Karaite 
Joseph al-Kirkisani in his "Ha-Ma'or ha-Gadol," 
where he recounts a dispute with Jacob ben 
Ephraim al-Shami in regard to the permissibility of 
marriage with a niece. Al-Kirkisani states further 
that he asked Jacob b. Ephraim why the}' (the 
Rabbinites) intermarried with the 'Isawite sectaries, 
and that the latter answered, "They have not se- 
ceded from us in regard to the calendar." Pinsker 
erroneously conjectured that Jacob ben Ephraim 
was to be identified with the Karaite Ben Ephraim, 
who was so violently attacked by Abraham ibn Ezra 
("Likkute Kadmoniyyot," p. 24), while Schorr, ig- 
noring the evidence, denied the existence of Jacob 
ben Ephraim ("He-Haluz," vi. 70). 

Bibliography : Pinsker, Likkute Kadmnnijniot, p. 24 (Sup- 
plement, p. U); Pozn&nskii 'in' Steinschneider Festschrift, 
p. 201; idem, in J. Q. R. x. 159. 
S. S. M. Sei,. 


lish rabbi ; died in Lublin 1648. At first he occupied 
the post of rabbi and instructor at the yeshibah of 
that city, whence he was called to officiate as rabbi in 
Brest. There he entertained in 1631 R. Yom-Tob Lip- 
man Heller, who speaks of him with great respect, and 
mentions his officiating as rabbi in the two cities cited 
("Megillat Ebah," p. 28). From Brest he returned 
to Lublin as rabbi, and remained there till his death. 
Jacob was known as "the Gaon Rabbi Jacob of 
Lublin"; for he was the teacher of the most emi- 
nent Polish rabbis of his time, who studied in his 
yeshibah and profited by his extensive knowledge of 
Halakah. Only a few of his responsa have been 
preserved : these are to be found among the re- 
sponsa of the Geone Batra'e. Some novelke by him 
and by his son R. Hoschel, on Yoreh De'ah, Eben ha- 
'Ezer, and Hoshen Mishpat, are still in manuscript. 

Bibliography: Fuenn, Keur.set Yisrael,x>- 535; Ozerot JJay- 
yim, p. 252 ; Carmoly, Ha-^Orebim Yonnh, pp. 32, S3. 

s. s. N. T. L. 

JACOB OF FULDA. See Jacob ben Mor- 


JACOB THE GALILEAN : Son of the Judah 
who caused an uprising against the Romans at the 
time of the taxation under Quirinius. Jacob fol- 
lowed his father's example, and together with his 
brother Simeon also rebelled against the Romans. 
The procurator Alexander Tiberius had the two 
brothers nailed to the cross about the year 46 (Jose- 
phus, "Ant." XX. 5, § 2). 

Bibliography: Cratz. GO'ch.Hh ed., iii. 364; Schurer, Gesc/i. 
3d ed., i. 487, note 139, and p. 568. 
o. S. Kr. 

tinian scholar of the third century; disciple of Jo- 
hanan (Yer. Yeb. viii. 9b). He seems also to have 
sat at the feet of Hanina b. Hama, for he reports the 

Jacob b. Gershom 
Jacob ben Jekuthiel 



latter's halakot and liaggadot, and this even in the 
presence of Johanan, wlio on one occasion expressed 
himself as opposed to an opinion of Hanina's quoted 
by Jacob (Yer. Hal. iii. 59a). Jacob transmitted the 
halakot and haggadot of others also (Yer. Yeb. viii. 
9b). Thus, he cites Hanina's eschatological inter- 
pretation of the passage "A generation passeth 
away, and a generation cometh" (Eccl. i. 4, Hebr.). 
Adducing the Biblical " I [the Lord] kill, and I make 
alive; I wound, and I heal "(Deut. xxxii. 39), Jacob 
argues that there was no need for the latter clause, 
since he who can revive the dead is surely able to heal 
the wounded; the Bible means that as the gen- 
eration passeth away so the generation will come 
back; those who were lame at death will return 
lame, and the blind at death will return blind, all 
doubt of the identity of the dead and the resur- 
rected being thus precluded. Then, after having 
revived the dead, the Lord will free them from 
their infirmities (Eccl. R. i. 4). 
s. s. S. M. 

Mohel ") : German Talmudist of the twelfth cen- 
tury. He was a nephew of Ephraim b. Jacob of 
Bonn, with whom he carried on a scientific corre- 
spondence ; he had also personal relations with Elie- 
ZER B. Joel ha-Levi. As far as is known, Jacob 
was the first to write a monograph on circumcision. 
The work published by Glassberg in his collection 
"Zikron Berit ha-Rishonim" (Berlin, 1892), after a 
manuscript in the Hamburg Library, under the 
title "Kelale ha-Milah le-Rabbi Ya'akob ha-Gozer," 
was not composed by Jacob himself, but by one of 
his pupils, of whom nothing further is known ex- 
cept that he was also a pupil of Eliezer b. Joel ha- 

The " Kelale " opens with a homily on circumcision, 
very characteristic of the German preaching of that 
time ; this is followed by a brief but very clear exposi- 
tion of the processes "milah," "peri'ah," and "me- 
zizah," and by a detailed account of the regulations 
concerning circumcision on the Sabbath, leading the 
writer to comment also on the cases when the milah 
does not take place on the eighth day after birth. 
The work contains valuable material for the historj' 
of the liturgy and the religious customs of the Ger- 
man Jews. Doubtless it is incomplete in its present 
shape ; how much of it can be ascribed to Jacob and 
how much to the anonymous compiler is unknown. 
Aside from the Geonim, only German halakists and 
some authorities of northern France, as Rashi and 
Jacob Tam, are quoted in the book. 

Bibliography: BriiU's .Ta/ir/*. ix. 12; MuUer, in the introduc- 
tion to '/Akrim. Brvit ha-RiaJioiiim. 
s. s. L. G. 

JACOB THE GNOSTIC. See James (the Just). 

Sicily"): Bible commentator and cabalist; lived in 
the fourteenth century. He was the author of 
"Minhat ha-Bikkurim." the first part of wliich, 
"Torat ha-Minl.iah," is still extant in manuscript 
(Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." Nos. 984-986). 
It contains Jiomilies on Genesis, Exodus, and Levit- 
icus, delivered on Sabbath afternoons. The author 
knew Arabic, quotes Maimonides, and refers to his 

own large commentary on the Pentateuch, entitled 
"Talmud Torah." Each section is brought into 
connection with some verses from the Prophets, and 
cabalistic explanations are frequent. He wrote also 
a work on Palestine, treating of localities and of the 
tombs of prominent men. 

Bibliography: Ttiljasiiu ed. London, p. 228; Azulai, Shem 
ha^GedoUm, ii. 1.5;i ; Steinselmeider, Jewish Literature^ p. 
104; Fuenn, Keneset YUrael,p.S70; Gross, Gallia Judaica, 
p. 434. 
K. I. Br. 

ADONIJAH : Masorite and printer; born about 
1470 at Tunis (hence sometimes called Tunis!) ; died 
before 1538. He left his native country in conse- 
quence of the persecutions that broke out tliere at 
tlie beginning of the sixteenth century. After re- 
siding at Rome and Florence he settled at Venice, 
where he was engaged as corrector of the Hebrew 
press of Daniel Bomberg. Late in life he embraced 
Christianity. Jacob's name is known chiefly in con 
ncction witli his edition of the Rabbinical Bible 
(1524-35), which he supplied with Masoretic notes 
and an introduction which treats of the Masorah, of 
"kere" and "ketib," and of the discrepancies be- 
tween the Talmudists and the Masorah. The value 
of his activity as a Masorite was recognized even by 
Elijah Levita, who, however, often finds fault with 
his selections (second introduction to " Massoret ha- 
Massoret, " ed. Ginsburg). 

Jacob's introduction to the Rabbinical Bible was 
translated into Latin by Claude Capellus (" De Mari 
Rabbinico Infido," vol. ii., ch. 4, Paris, 1667), and 
into English by Christian D. Ginsburg (Longham, 
1865). Jacob also wrote a dissertation on the Tar- 
gum, prefixed to the 1527 and 1543-44 editions of 
the Pentateuch, and published extracts from Moses 
ha-Nakdan's "Darke ha-Nikkud weha-Neginot," a 
work on the accents. He revised the "editio prin- 
ceps" of the Jerusalem Talmud (1523), of Maimon- 
ides' " Yad," and of many other works from Bom- 
berg's press. 

Bibliography : De Rossi, Dizinnarin, p. 322; Nepi-Ghlrondl, 
Tolednt Gedole YisraeL p. 197 ; ("hristian D. Ginsburg, Mas- 
soret ha-Massoret, pp. 3:3-34, London, 1867 ; Oznr Nehwad, 
iii. 112; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1205;' Fiirst,' J?iW. 
Jud. iii. 451. 

J. L Br. 



JACOB, ISRAEL : German banker and philan- 
thropist ; born April 14, 1729, at Halberstadt ; died 
Nov. 25, 1803. He was widely respected for his 
philanthropy, which he did not confine to his own 
coreligionists. He was court agent to the Duke of 
Brunswick and the Margrave of Baden. Owing 
to his efforts the Jews' body-tax was repealed 
in the state of Baden. He also took a prominent 
part in the conferences held in Berlin and Spandau 
relating to the apportioning of the Jews' tax among 
the Prussian communities. 

Bibliography: Karl Witte, Israel nder der EdleJude, Mag- 
deburg and Leipsic, 1804; Auerbach, Gesch. der Israclitv<chen 
Grmeinde Halberstadt. 1806, pp. 137 et seq. ; E. Philippson, 
Israel Jacob, in Jahreshericht der Jacobsnyischule, 1903; 
A. Lewinsky, in Allg. Zeit. des Jud. 1903, pp. 557 et seq. 
s. R. H. K. 



Jacob b. Gershom 
Jacob ben Jekuthiel 

Zantc; died on lliat island in 1(584. He wasa native 
of Morea, Greece, and passed tiie earlier part of his 
life at Saloniea, where he studied under the direc- 
tion of Aaron Hasun. Later he was called to the 
rabbinate of Zaute, a position which he held until 
his death. 

Jacob combined great Talmudical learning with 
extensive secular knowledge, and was highly es- 
teemed by his contemporaries. He was the au- 
thor of the following works: " She'elot u-Teshubot 
Rabbi Ya'akob le-Bet Lewi" (2 vols., Venice, 1614; 
witli additions, 1632), responsa; "Derushim," ser- 
mons arranged in the order of the Sabbatical sec- 
tions, no longer extant; a translation of the Koran 
from the Latin into Hebrew, vrith an essay on the 
history of Mohammed and his religion. This transla- 
tion is still in manuscript (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. 
Hebr. MSS." No. 2207). A funeral oration on Jacob 
pronounced by Azariah Figo is inserted in "Binah 
le-'Iltim" (No. 73). 

Bibliography: Conforte, Koi-e ha-D(m>t. p. 47a; Azulai, 
Sliem hn-GcduUm, s.v.; Michael, in Orient, Lit. ii. tiOti; 
Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1221 ; Fuenn, Keiicsct Yit<- 
rael, p. 552. 
s. s. I. Br. 

cabalist of tlie end of the thirteenth centurj- ; born 
at Soria ; buried at Segovia ; also called GikatiHa, 
according to Jellinek ("Beitrage zur Gesch. der 
Kabbala," ii. 49). The cabalist Isaac lia-Kohen of 
Beziers was his elder brother, and outlived him. 
Nothing detinite is known regarding Jacob's life. Of 
his works only "Tefillat R. Ya'akob mi-Seguba," 
a cabalistic prayer, has been printed (in Gabriel 
Warschauer's " Likkutim me-Rab Hai Gaon "). His 
most important work is "Perush Zurot ha-Otiyyot," 
on the form of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. 

Bibliography : Steinschneider, Hcbr. Bibl. 1877, xvii. ;}6. 
K. P. B. 


German Talmudist; died in Stryj, Galicia, May 25, 
1832. He was a great-grandson of Zebi Ashkenazi and 
a pupil of Meshullam Eger. Jacob was ab bet din in 
Kalisz and afterward in Lissa, and is usuallj' quoted 
as Jacob of Lissa or Jacob Lisser." Later he re- 
turned to Kalisz and lived there for ten years. Jacob 
wrote: "Ta'alumot Hokmah," commentary on Ec- 
clesiastes (Lemberg, 1804; Dyhernfurth, 1819); 
"Zeror ha-Mor'' and "Paige Mayim," commentaries 
on Canticles and Lamentations, under the general 
title " Imre Yosher " (ih. 1815 and 1819); the character 
of all three is homiletic-haggadic. Jacob had in- 
tended to write commentaries on the Five Megillot 
also under this title. 

Jacob's importance, however, rests upon the fol- 
lowing halakic writings, all of which contain hid- 
dushim and bi'urim: (1) "Sefer Hawwot Da'at," 
commentary on Shulhan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 69- 
201; the earlier sections of Yoreh De'ah (1-68) 
are very briefly dealt with in the form of an intro- 
duction to the work (Lemberg, 1799; Dyhernfurth, 
1810, and often since in editions of the Yoreh De'ah, 
as the Wilna [1894] ed.). In it the works of earlier 
commentators are discussed and somewhat pilpulis- 
tically developed. (2) " Sefer ^lekor Hayyim,'' com- 
VII.— 3 

mentary on Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 429 and 
following, witii notes on the commentaries "Ture 
Zahab " and " Magen Abraham " ; the second part 
contains hiddushim on Keritot (Zolkiev, 1807; 
Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1813; Warsaw, 1825; Dy- 
hernfurth, 1827). (3) "Sefer Netibot ha-Mishpat." 
commentary on Shulhan 'Aruk, Hoshen Mishpat, in 
two parts (Dyhernfurth, Lemberg; Zolkiev, 1809, 
1816; Sudilkov, 1830; and often sinci' in Lemberg 
editions of Shulhan 'Aruk, Hoshert Mislipa^). (4) 
"Sefer Torat Gittin," commentary on Shulhan 
'Aruk, Eben ha-'Ezer," 119-155, and hiddushim on 
the Talmudic treatise Gittin (Frankforton-the-Oder, 
1813; Warsaw, 1815). "(5) "Sefer Bet Ya'akob," 
commentary on Shulhan 'Aruk, Eben ha-'Ezer, 66- 
118, and on the Talmudic treatise Ketubot (Grube- 
schow, 1823). (6) "Sefer Kehillat Ya'akob," a col- 
lection of discussions and notes on .several legal 
points in the Eben ha-'Ezer and Orah Hayyim 
(Lemberg, 1831). 

Toward the end of his life Jacob composed a short 
compendium of dinim, under the title " Derek ha- 
Hayyim " (Zolkiev, 1828; Altona, 1831). This com- 
pendium is very popular and was frequently reprinted 
in the larger Hebrew prayer-books. These dinim 
are taken either from later exponents of the Law as 
contained in the works "Ture Zahab," "Magen 
Abraham," "Peri Megadim," etc., or from his own 
decisions. The sources from wdiicli he borrowed are 
usually indicated. 

Jacob wrote also a commentary on thePesah Hag- 
gadah under the title "Ma'aseh Nissim," with the 
text and a short compendium of the Passover ritual 
(" Kizzur Dinim " ; Zolkiev, 1807, 1835; Minsk, 1816; 
Dyhernfurth, 1817, and later). After Jacob's death 
his grandson Naplitali Z. N. Chaehamowicz pub- 
lished his "Nahalat Ya'akob " (Breslau, 1849), con- 
taining sermons on the Pentateuch, halakic hiddu- 
shim, responsa, and his last will. 

Bibliography: Benjacob. Ozai- lia-S^cfarim; A. B. Flohm. 
Eltel Yahid, Warsaw, 1833 ; Fuenn, Keneaet Yisi-acI, 1. 5.">4 ; 
Fiirst, Bi'hl. Jud. ii. 21 et »cq.: Steinschneider, Cdt. Budl.vo]. 
1229; Walden, S?/fm ha-Grdolim }ie-Hadash ; Zedner, Cat. 
Hebr. Books Brit. Mns. p. 304. 
S. S. M. So. 

JACOB BEN JEKUTHIEL : French Talmudic 
scholar; boin at. Rouen; died at Arras in 1023. 
Jacob became known by the fact that he was the 
bearer of a petition to Pope John XVII. praying 
him to stop the persecution of the Jews in Lorraine 
(1007). These persecutions, organized by King 
Robert of Fiance, are described in a Hebrew pam- 
irlilet published in Berliner's "Magazin" (iii. 46-48, 
Hebrew part, reproducing Parma [De Rossi] MS. 
No. 563, 23; see also Jew. Encvc. v. 447, *. ;•. 
Fkance). They were so terrible that many women, 
in order to escape the fury of the mob, jumped into 
the river and were drowned. Jacob undertook the 
journey to Rome, but was imprisoned with his wife 
and four sons by Duke Richard (doubtless Richard 
the Fearless of Normandy), and escaped death only 
by a miracle. He left his eldest son, Judah, as a 
hostage with Richard while he with his wife and 
three remaining sons went to Rome. He made a pres- 
ent of seven gold marks and two hundred pounds 
to tiie pope, who thereupon sent a special envoy to 
King Robert ordering him to stop the persecutions. 

Jacob ben Jeremiah 
Jacob ha-Levi 



Jacob stayed in Rome till the return of the envoy, 

a space of four years, during which time he made 

the acquaintance of the three members of the Roman 

rabbinate, Moses Nasi, Abraham, and Shabbelhai. 

He then went to Lorraine and remained there 

twelve years. In 1023, being invited by Count 

Baldwin of Flanders to settle in his territory, he 

went with thirty of liis friends to Arras with the 

intention of so doing. Jacob, however, died three 

months after his arrival; and, asthere was no Jewish 

cemetery in the place, he was buried at Reims. 

Bibliography : Besides the Hebrew text mentioned above. 
Gross, GallM Judaica, pp. 71 etseq.; Vogelstein and Rieger, 
Gesch. der Judcii in Rom, i. 212. 
s. s. M. Sel. 

HA-LEVI : German translator of the seventeenth 
century. He translated into Judoeo-German Abra- 
ham Jagel's "Lekah Tob " (Amsterdam, 1675; 
Wilmersdorf, 1714; jesnitz, 1719) and the "Sefer 
ha-Yashar" (under the title "Tam weYashar"; 
Frankfort-onthe Main, 1G74; frequently reprinted). 
The latter work contains Biblical history from 
Adam to the period of the Judges, with haggadic 
elaboration (see Zunz, "G. V." p. 163). After every 
paragraph a short resume of the content and the 
moral application of the story of the section are 
given. The early editions contain also extracts from 
Abraham Zacuto's "Sefer Yuhasin " and from 
Eleazar Askari's "Sefer Haredim," together with 
various prayers (in German). 

Bibliography: Ben.iacob, Ozar ha^Scfarim, p. 23.3; Furst, 
Bihl. Jud. ii. 20 ; Sleinsfhneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1222 ; idem, 
Jevjish Literature, p. 2213. 
D. M. Sc. 

JACOB BEN JOEL : Russian rabbi in Brest- 
Litovsk in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
He wrote: "She'erit Ya'akob," containing hiddu- 
sliim on the Pentateuch, on the Five Megillot, and on 
some Talmudic haggadot (Altona, 1727). See Brest- 


Bibliography: Benjacob, Ozar 7ja-Sefarim,p.562; Feinstein, 
'/r TchiUah, pp. 32, 37, Warsaw, !»*«; Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 
19; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1223. 
n R. M. Sc. 

as Joseph Israel) : P'rench scholar; lived at Pont- 
Audemer in the twelfth century; pupil of Jacob 
Tam, with whom he carried on a correspondence 
("Sefer ha-Yashar," pp. 77-78; Tos. to Ket. 98b), 
and of Samuel b. Meir ("Teshubot Rabbane Zarfat," 
No. 3). supposes that Jacob is identical with 
Jacob of Pont-Audemer, known as a Biblical com- 

Bibliography: Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 441. 
o. I. Br. 


Polish rabbi, born at Cracow in 1680; died at Of- 
fenbach Jan. 16, 1756. On his mother's side he 
was a grandson of Joshua of Cracow, the au- 
thor of "Maginne Shelomoh." While a youth 
Jacob became examiner of the Hebrew teachers of 
Lemberg. In 1702 his wife, his child, and his 
mother were killed through an explosion of gun- 
powder that wrecked the house in which they 
lived. Jacob himself narrowly escaped death. He 
was then- called to the rabbinate of Tarli and Lisko, 

small Galician towns. In 1717 he replaced Hakam 
Zebi in the chief rabbinate of Lemberg ; and thence 
he was called to Berlin in 1731. Having displeased 
Veitel-IIeine Ephraim, one of the most influential 
leaders of the community, by rendering a judgment 
against him, he was compelled at the expiration of 
his term of office (1734) to resign. After having 
been for seven years rabbi of Metz he became chief 
rabbi of Frankfort on-the-Maiu ; but the unfavor- 
able attitude of the local authorities toward the 
Jew^s, and the fact that the community was divided 
by controversies, made his position there very pre- 
carious. Soon afterward the quarrel between Jacob 
Emden and Jonathan Eybeschlitz broke out. The 
chief rabbi, because of his opposition to Eybeschlitz, 
was ultimately compelled to leave the city (1750). He 
wandered from town to town till he came to Worms, 
where he remained for some years. He was then 
called back to Frankfort; but his enemies prevented 
him from preaching in the synagogue, and he left 
the city a second time. 

Jacob was one of the greatest Talmudists of his 
time. He wrote "Pene Yehoshua'," novelise on the 
Talmud, in four parts. Two of them were published 
at Frankfort-on-the-Main (1752); the third, with his 
" Pesak bet-Din Hadash," at Furth (1766) ; the fourth, 
which, in addition to Talmudic novelise, contains 
novelise on the Tur Hoshen IVlishpat and "Likku- 
tim," also at Fiirth (1780). He wrote also a com- 
mentary on the Pentateuch, which is mentioned by 
the author himself, but has not appeared in print. 

Bibliography : Gratz, Gesch. 3d ed., x. a53, 362, 366 ; Buber, 
A)ishe Shem.pp. 104-109; Landshuth, Toledot Anshe S?iem» 
pp. 27-30 ; Fuenn, Keneset YUrael, pp. 567-569. 
8. s. M. Sel. 


DON : English codifier of the thirteenth century. 
His grandfather was one Jacob he-Aruk (possibly 
Jacob le Long). In 1287 Jacob wrote " 'Ez Hay- 
yim," a ritual code in two parts, containing sixty 
and forty-six sections respectively, dealing with the 
whole sphere of Halakah, and following in large 
measure Maimonides in the Mishneh Torah, though 
Jacob utilized also the " Halakot Gcdolot," the 
"Siddur" of R. Amram, and the works of Moses of 
Coucy, Alfasi, and the tosafists. He quotes, further- 
more, Isaac ben Abraham, Moses of London, and 
Berechiah of Nicole (Lincoln). Some verses by him 
are also extant (" J. Q. R. " v. 359). The " 'Ez Hay- 
yim " still exists in a manuscript which formerly 
belonged to Wagenseil and is now in the Raths- 
bibliothek at Leipsic. 

The work is of interest as the chief literary produc- 
tion of an English Jew before the Expulsion, and 
gives an account of the ritual followed by the Jews 
of England at that date, a full analysis of which is 
given by D. Kaufmann in "J. Q. R." iv. 20-64, 550- 
561. The only part of the work that has been pub- 
lished is the section edited by H. Adler in the 
"Steinschneider Festschrift" (Hebr. section, pp. 

Bibliography: H. Adler, In Papers of the Anglo-Jexnish 
HiMorUnl Kxhitiition, p. 276, London, 1888; idem, in Stein- 
schneider Festschrift, pp. 241-242; D. Kaufmann, as above 
and in J. Q. Ii. v. 3.^^374. 



Jacob ben Jeremiah 
Jacob ha-Levi 

JACOB BEN JUDAH LOB: Polish rabbi; 
lived iu the second half ol" the eighteenth ceutui y. 
Educated as a Talmudist, he became rabbi of Kras- 
iiopolie, governmeutof Suwalki. He wrote "Pedu- 
yot Ya'akob," an index to the halakot and subjects 
of the Shulhan 'Aruk, in the reverse order of tlie 
alphabet ^" tashrak "j. This was published in Frank- 
fort-ou-the-Oder with the approbation of the rabbi 
of that city, Naphtali Hirz, in 1800. In the preface 
the author describes his sufferings at the liauds of 
his enemies; how through them he was confined in 
prison for seven Aveeks; and how when he was lib- 
crated he wrote his work according to a vow that 
he had made while in prison. 
Bibliography : Fuenn, Kirmh Nc'emanah, p. 210. 

s. s. N. T. L. 

JACOB, JULIUS : German landscape- and por- 
trait-painter; born in Berlin April 25, 1811; died 
there Oct. 20, 1883. He studied under Wach at the 
Dusseldorf Kunstakademie, and under Delaroche 
in Paris. Having completed his studies at the lat- 
ter place he traveled through Europe, North Africa, 
and Asia Minor, returning with more than a thou- 
sand landscape-studies and over three hundred cop- 
ies of portrait-paintings from foreign art-galleries. 
From 1844 to 1855 Jacob lived iu London ; he then 
visited Vienna, where he painted the portraits of 
several \)rominent men, among whom may be men- 
tioned the princes jVIetternich, Schwarzenberg, Liech- 
tenstein, and Lobkowitz, and Count Kinsky. 

Among Jacob's most important paintings are the 
following: "Steinfeld von Sorrent" and "Aus der 
Mark" (exhibited iu Berlin, 1876); " Verstossung 
aus dem Paradies " ; " Scene aus der Frithjofssage " ; 
"Klinstlerleben"; and " Scenen aus der Geschichte 
St. Ludwigs." Jacob was awarded gold medals by 
the academies of arts in Paris, Lyons, and Rouen, 
and became an honorary member of several acade- 
mies throughout Europe. 

Bibliography : MuUer, AUgemeinesKllnstler-Lexicon; Clem- 
ent and Hutlon, Artists of the Nineteenth Century and 
Their Works. 
S. F. C. 


Palestinian amora of the third generation (3d and 
4th cent.). Jacob is especially known as a hagga- 
dist (Pesik. iv. 30b; Gen. R. xxxii. 5; Yer. Ber. v. 
2; Yer. Ta'an. i. 1), but most of his haggadic say- 
ings have been transmitted only by his pupils and 
successors. Once (Pesik. R. 33 [ed. Friedmann, p. 
153b]) his name occurs as "Jacob of Kefar Hana- 

Bibliography: Bacher, Agada der PdlCLttinensischen Amo- 
riier, iii. 569-571. 
s. s. M. Sel. 

Palestinian scholar of the second centuiy ; contem- 
porary of Judah I. Jacob is said to have been in 
the habit of visiting histeacher every day (Hag. 5b). 
Heilprin ("Seder ha-Dorot," ii.) concluded that he 
was a pupil of Akiba and teacher of Judah I. ; this, 
however, is not certain. 

s. s. M. Sel. 

Christian of the fourth century. Neburaya is prob 
ably identical with Nabratain, a place to the north 

of Safed, where, according to Schwarz ("Tebu'at 
lia-Arez," p. 103a), is the tomb of Jacob as well as 
that of Eleazar of Modi'im. Jacob was well known 
as a haggadist before he embraced Christianity; and 
in two instances his haggadot met with the approval 
of the Rabbis. One of these maybe quoted: in 
the school of Cuesarea he interpreted Hab. ii. 19 as 
being a rebuke of simony. On the same occasion 
he indicated Isaac b. Eleazar as a worthy candi- 
date for tiie rabbinate (Yer. Bik. iii. 3; Midr. 
Shemu'el vii.). 

Jacob was also consulted at Tyre on halakic mat- 
ters; but his decisions were not accepted. He de- 
cided (1) that the rules of shehitah should be ap- 
plied to fish, and (2) that a son born of a Gentile 
woman may be circumcised on the Sabbath. Ou 
account of these decisions Jacob incurred repri- 
mands from R. Haggai, who ordered him to be 
flogged. Jacob, after presenting some arguments 
against this punishment, finally acknowledged that 
he deserved it (Pe-sik. R. 14 [ed. Friedmann, p. 61a]; 
Pesik. iv. 35b-36a; Yer. Y'eb. ii. 6 and parallels). 
His heresy was not generally known. 

Only Jacob's contemporary Isi of Cajsarea counts 
him among the Juda?o-Christians, applying to him 
the Biblical word "sinner" (Eccl. R. vii. 47). The 
appellation "Jacob Mina'ah " (= "Jacob the Here- 
tic "), met with in the Midrashim, may refer to the 
subject of this article. 

Bibliography: Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amnr. iii. 709-711 et pas- 
sim ; Heilprin, Seder ha-Dmnt, ii. ; Levy, in Ha-Maygid, 
xiv. 245; Neubauer, O. T. p. 270. 
s. s. M. Sel. 


Juda;o-Chvistian of the first century ; mentioned on 
two occasions, in both Talmuds and in the Midrash. 
Meeting R, Eliezer iu the upper market-place of 
Sepphoris, he asked him for an opinion on a curious 
ritualistic question bearing upon Deut. xxiii. 18. 
As R. Eliezer declined to give an opinion, Jacob 
acquainted him with the interpretation of Jesus de- 
rived from Micah i. 7. R. Eliezer was pleased 
with the interpretation and was consequently sus- 
pected of Christian leanings by the governor ("Ab. 
Zarah 17a; Eccl. R. 1. 24; Tosef., Hul. ii. 24). On 
another occasion R. Eleazar ben Dama, nephew 
of R. Ishmael, having been bitten by a serpent, 
Jacob went to heal him in the name of Jesus. R. 
Ishmael objecting, Jacob proved from the Torah 
that one may seek healing from any source whatever. 
But in the meantime R. Eleazar died, and R. Ish- 
mael rejoiced that his nephew had not been de- 
filed by the treatment of a Christian (Yer. Shab. 
iv., end, Avhere "Kefar Simai"" is given; 'Ab. Zarah 
23b; Eccl. R. I.e.). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Bacher, Ag. Tan. 1. 113 ; Gratz. Gesch. M ed., 
iv. 44; Neubauer, G. T. p. 234. ,, ,^ 

G. M. Sel. 

JACOB B. KORSHAI. See Jacob, 1. 

rabbi and cabalist; lived in the thirteenth century, 
at Marv^ge. It was said that by prayers and in- 
vocations he was able to obtain from heaven deci- 
sions in religious matters, which were communicated 
to him in dreams. His decisions are collected in his 
"She'elot u-Teshubot min ha-Shamayim," published 

Jacob Lioanz 
Jacob ben Meir 



by Judah Zeraliiah Aziihii in part five of David ibn 

Zimra's responsa (Leglioru, 1818). Some of liis re- 

sponsa are found also in Zedekiah ben Abraham's 

"Bhibbole lia-Leket" and in Jeliiel's "Tanya," an 

epitome of the latter. 

Bibliography: Azulai, Slicm lia-Gednlim : Benjacob, Ozar 
ha-Scforim, p. 5.t6 ; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 364;Gude- 
inann, Gcsc/i. i. 81, Vienna, 1880; Michael, Or ha-Haynim^ 
No. UWb. 
tJ. s. S. Man. 

Jkiiip:l, Jacob. 

JACOB OF LONDON : First known presbyter 
f)f the Jews of England ; appointed to that position 
by King John in 1199, who also gave him a safe con- 
duct. He appears to have died in 1217, when Josce 
is mentioned as his successor. He is possibly iden- 
tical witli tlie rabbi Jacob of London who translated 
the whole Haggadah into the vernacular so that 
women and children could understand it (Isserles, 
"Darke Mosheh," to Tur Orah Hayyim, 473). 

BiBLior.RAPHY : Prynne, Short Demurrer, ii. 3-5; H. Adler, 
in Papers of the Aiiglo-Jcwixh Hbitorical E.rliibition, pp. 
262 3o.3. 


JACOB OF LTJNEL. See Jacob Naziu. 

JACOB BEN MEIB, TAM (known also as 
Rabbenu Tarn) : Most prominent of French tosa- 
fists; born at Kainerupt, on the Seine, in 1100; died 
at Troyes June 9, 1171. His mother, Jochebed, was 
a daughter of Rashi. Rabbenu Tarn received his 
education from his father, from Joseph Tob 'Eleni 
(Bontils) II., and from his eldest brother, Samuel 
ben Mei'r (RaSMBaM). After his father's death 
Jacob conducted a Talmudic academy in Raine- 
rupt. On May 8, 1147, on the second day of the 
Feast of Weeks, French crusaders broke into his 
home, robbed him of eveiything except his books, 
dragged him into a field, insulted him on account of 
his religion, and decided to kill him. They inflicted 
five wounds upon his head, in order, as they said, to 
take revenge upon the most prominent man in Israel 
for the five blows which the Jews had dealt to 
Jesus. At that moment a prince of high rank hap- 
pened to pass, and Jacob called upon liim for pro- 
tection, promising him a horse worth five marks in 
return. The prince thereupon bade the crusaders 
give the rabbi into his keeping, promising that he 
would either persuade him to be baptized or place 
him in their power again on the following day 
(Ephraiin bar Jacob, in Neubauer and Stern, " Hebr. 
Berichte liber die Judenverfolgungen Wahrend der 
Kreuzziige," p. 64). 

Shortly afterward, Jacob went to Troyes, not far 
away. It was probably there that the first French 
assembly of rabbis took place in 1160, in the deliber- 
ations of which Jacob (R. Tam) and his brother took 
a prominent part. Among other things, it was de- 
creed in this assembly under penalty of excommu- 
nication that disputes between Jews must be settled 
in a Jewish and not in a Christian court (Neubauer, 
in "R. E. J." xvii. 66 ct m/. ; Jacob.s, "The Jews of 
Angevin England," p. 47). A second synod in 
Troyes, held after RaSIIBaM's death, renewed an 
old law of Narbonne which decreed that if a woman 
died childless within the first year after her mar- 
riage her husband, after deducting the equivalent of 

what she had used during the year, was to return 
her dowry and valuables to her parents or guardians 
(see "Seferha-Yashar," § 579; " R. E. J." xvii. 71- 
72). This regulation and that of the first synod 
(see Kol Bo, § 117) are by some authorities (Meir 
Rothenburg, Responsa, No. 934, ed. Prague; No. 
159, ed. Cremona; Harleian MSS., London, No. 5686) 
designated "ordinances ["takkanot"] 

His of R. Tam." A third synod, presided 

Takkanot. over by R. Tam and Moses of Pon- 
toise, threatened with excommunica- 
tion any person who should question the legality of 
a deed of divorce on the ground that the document 
had not been written in the prescribed way. Other 
ordinances, doubtless passed at similar synods (see 
Synods, Rabbinical) by R. Tam in conjunction 
with other French rabbis, were cited in the name of 
R. Tam alone, and correctly, in so far as they were 
due to his suggestion. Among them was the repe- 
tition of the ban uttered by R. Gershom against 
polygamy, and the regulation that men must not di- 
vorce or desert their wives except for sufficient cause ; 
according to Halberstam MS. No. 45, p. 256 (now 
in Montefiore Library, No. 130, comp. H. Hirsch- 
feld in "J. Q. R." xiv. 195), in which this second reg- 
ulation is cited in the name of R. Tam, only the ex 
igencies of business or study are suflicieut to justify 
a man in leaving his wife at any time. 

It is said that R. Tam was very wealthy, and had 
oflicial relations with the King of France ("Sefer 
ha-Yashar," ^ 595), who favored him (Abraham ben 
Solomon, in Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 102; Harkavy, 
" Hadashim gam Yeshanim," supplement to the 
Hebrew edition of Graetz, "Hist." vi. 6, note 10; 
Heilprin, "Seder ha-Dorot," i. 208a). So far as is 
known, Jacob had two sons, Joseph and Solomon, 
and one daughter, who married in Ramerupt. The 
" Isaac ben Meir " mentioned in the " Sefer ha- 
Yashar" (§§ 99, 252, 604) was his brother. When 
the news of the heroic death of the martyrs at Blois 
reached Jacob, he appointed Siwan 20 (in the year 
1171 it was May 26) a day of fasting for the inhabit- 
ants of France, England, and of the Rhine provinces. 
R. Tam's chief work is his "Sefer ha-Yashar," a 
very poor edition of which was published in Vienna 
in 181 1, from a manuscript ; the second 

The part, according to an Epstein manu- 

" Sefer ha- script, with the notes of Ephraim Sol- 
Yashar." omon Margoliouth and his own, was re- 
issued by F. Rosenthal, among the pub- 
lications of the Mekize Nirdamiin Society (Berlin, 
1898). The first part (ii§ 1-582) contains princi- 
pally R. Tam's explanations ("bi'urim") and no- 
velise (" hiddushim ") — usually called " tosafot " — to 
thirty Talmudic treatises; the second part contains 
principally his responsa. A very clear critical anal- 
ysis of the " Sefer ha-Yashar " was made by I. H. 
Weiss in 1883 ; according to him the book in its 
present form was written by a pupil and relative of 
R. Tam, a grandson of R. Yom-Tob ben Judah. 
The original "Sefer ha-Yashar," written by R. Tam 
himself, and corresponding approximately to the 
first part of the present work, as the subscription at 
the end of § 540 shows, has doubtless been lost. 
The compiler, however, worked with great literary 
precision and faithfulness, and such expressions as 



Jacob Loanz 
Jacob beu Heir 

"I found no more in tliis connection in R. Jacob's 
work," or, "so concludes H. Jacob," expressions 
whicli occur repeatedly throughout the book, leave 
no doubt as to the identity of the various sources. 
In the tosafot also are various passages from tiie 
"Sefer lia-Yashar," "vvhicii are cited in the name of 
R. Tam {e.y., comp. § 26 wilhTos. to Ber. 34a; ^ 41 
with Tos. to Ket. 27a; etc.). The compiler of the 
"Sefer ha-Yashar" had before him both redactions 
of the original work of R. Tam (see §§ 271, 353, 367, 
and Tos. to "Er. 74b). The tosafot contained therein 
are not arranged in the order of the Gemara, but 
just as the last compiler chanced upon them, as he 
himself says. 

The present "Sefer ha Y'ashar" contains neither 
all the tosafot of R. Tam, nor only his. He himself 
had incorporated into his book the explanations of 
other commentators, as R. Gershom, Rashi, Eliezer 
of Mayence (RABeN), and RaSHBaM; and the later 
compiler added further tosafot of R. Tam's pupils. 
The original object of the book is plainly stated in 
the introduction, which unfortunately has been pre- 
served only in a very incomplete form : " I called it 
' Sefer ha Yashar, ' " says the author, "because in it 
I wish to reconcile the old [divergent] traditions 
concerning the text of the Talmud with the original 

form of the text" (comp. David of 

Object and Estella's " Kiryat Sefer " in " M. J. C." 

Method. ii. 231). In these words is proclaimed 

a campaign against the conjectural 
criticism which was prevalent among Talmud exe- 
getes of Jacob's day. Rashi had often allowed him- 
self to indicate in his commentary the necessity for 
different readings based on evidence supplied by 
the context. His pupils, however, and especially 
Samuel ben Meir, went still further and corrected 
the Talmud text itself according to these correc- 
tions and their own. Against such violent treat- 
ment of ancient texts ("Sefer ha- Y'ashar," p. 48b) 
R. Tam vigorously' protested . " Where my grand- 
father made one correction, Samuel made twenty, 
and erased [the old readings] from the manu- 
scripts [replacing them with new ones]." Although 
R. Tam well knew that the Talmud was not free 
from textual corruptions, he desired to restrain in- 
competent commentators who were in the habit of 
altering the established readings. Only old manu- 
scripts and well-authenticated readings, which Jacob 
zealously collected and examined, would he recog- 
nize as tlie norm. He also made corrections in the 
Talmud on the basis of the Talmud text of R. Hana- 
neel, but he exercised the greatest caution in ma- 
king such emendations (^ 361), and hoped that later 
generations might understand what had seemed unin- 
telligible in his age. Thus a large part of his tostifot is 
devoted to a rectitication of the readings of the text. 
Since li. Tam objected so strongly to textual 
emendations, except in extreme cases, he was forced 

to adopt a system of casuistic inter- 
Treatment pretation, and to invent distinctions 
of Contra- which did not exist in the plain read- 
dictory ing of the text and which had to be 
Passages, interpreted into it. He boasts of his 

skill in reconciling contradictory deci- 
sions found in the Talmud ("Sefer ha-Y'ashar," p. 
78b). He Avould, however, have cnergeticallv on- 

posed the designation of his method as " pilpulistic." 
He emphatically asserts that his explanations follow 
the simple meaning of tlie text (''peshat'j, and 
argues against those persons "who, by their pilpu- 
listic methods, distort the explanations of our teach 
ers, and whose interpretations render the Halakot 
wholly meaningless"; and he accuses them of in- 
venting difficulties solely with the purpose of meet- 
ing them {lb. p. 79c). The pupils of \i. Tam took 
his warning against textual changes to heart, and in 
so far as they were thereby induced to preserve com- 
paratively unaltered the Talmud text as it existed 
in their time, his inlluence can only be commended. 
On the other hand, however, it can not be denied 
that he is in some degree respcmsible for the pilpu- 
listic methods followed by his successors. 

R. Tam is generally regarded as the head of the 
French school of tosatists ("ba'al ha-Tosafot"; 
Joseph ibn Zad<lik, in " M. J. C." i. 94). The closer 
association of the French and German Jews with 
their Christian fellow citizens created new condi- 
tions of life, and necessitated religious 
As regulations and decisions other than 

Tosafist. those contained in the Talmud. To de- 
rive such laws directly or by inference 
from the Talmud, and to formulate them, was the 
task of the tosatists; and it was above all R. Tam 
who held that all new enactments must represent a 
continuous development of the Talmud, as regards 
both its halakah and its method of discu.ssion. He 
is not content in his tosafot merely to give halakic 
decisions, but in each case attempts their justitica- 
tion. He uses two methods of demonstration — the 
analogical or inductive metliod, and the logical 
method ; the .second method consists of a series of 
Socratic questions, by which all possible opinions or 
decisions except his own are excluded as logically 
impossible. The questions are thus the single .steps 
in the demonstration. 

R. Tam was well aware that he had created this 
method of indirect demonstration. He wrote to his 
pupil Joseph of Orleans ("Sefer ha-Y'ashar," p. 78b; 
comp. also § 282): "Thou knowest my method of 
postulating questions in order to reach the correct 
halakic view ["shemu'ah"]. 1 give no forced an- 
swers; my questions are their own answers." If 
the tosatists are really the continuators or epi- 
gones of the Amoraim, and differ from them only in 
respect to language, it was chiefly R. Tam who 
gave them the impulse in that direction. 

A large part of the tosafot given in the "Sefer ha- 
Yashar "have been reprinted in abbreviated form 
among the Talmudic Tosafot. The 
Relation to observation has been made that the 
Tosafot decisions in the "Sefer ha Yashar" 
of Talmud, and those in the Tosjifot frequently 
contradict each other (comp on 
riDM nyntr. "Sefer ha-Yashar," i^ 482, with Tos. to 
Shebu. 41a, s.v. |ND^1)- These contradictions can be 
partially explained by the fact of the existence of 
various manuscripts of R. Tarn's tosjifot (see \). 78a), 
into which textual divergence's, variations, addi- 
tions, and mistakes crept at a very early period. 
Afterward the mere content of his practical deci- 
sions was regarded as sufficient, anxl these were 
transmitted in the shortest form possible— often, iu- 

Jacob ben Meir, 
Jacob ibn Na'im 



deed, in too brief a form ; so that when the laws came 
in later times to be analj'zed and amplified again, 
motives, methods of reasoning, and arguments which 
were in reality wholly foreign to R. Tam were at- 
tributed to him. Weiss suggests that if people had 
studied the •' Sefer ha-Yashar " itself, which has al- 
ways been neglected, and had learned to know the 
writer through his book, the Halakah would per- 
haps have had in many respects a wholly ditTerenl 

Even during his lifetime R. Tam was considered 
the greatest Talmudic authority in France and Ger- 
many, and questions from those two 
His countries, occasionally also from Spain 

Teshubot. (Mordecai, Hul., No. 666), England 
(MeirRothenburg, Responsa, No. 240), 
and Italy (Mordecai, Ket., No. 146), were addressed 
to him. His elder contemporaries willingly recog- 
nized his superiority, and were not offended at his 
authoritative and rather overbearing tone. His 
responsa are scattered through many halakic works; 
the greater part (103) of them is contained in his 
"Sefer ha-Yashar" (2d part); in "Halakot Pesukot 
min ha-Geonim" (ed. Mtiller,- Nos. 7-9); in "Kerem 
Hemed " (vii. 47 et seq.); and in the " Teshubot 
Hakme Zarfat we-Lotar " (ed. Joel Miiller, pp. 
ix. et seq., Vienna, 1881); others are found in 
the Mahzor Vitry, which contains also his rules 
for writing the Torah scroll (ed. Hurwitz, pp. 
651 et seq., Berlin, 1893), and in a manuscript 
in the Bodleian (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. 
MSS." No. 641, 9). No. 2343, 2 of the Bod- 
leian collection contains his rules for the drawing 
up of contracts, especially deeds of divorce (comp. 
"Sefer ha-Yashar," §§ 68-69; Mahzor Vitry, ed. 
Hurwitz, p. 782; comp. ib. p. 786 for the halizah 
folmula; see also Z. Frankel, "Entwurf einer 
Gesch. der Literatur der Nachtalmudischen Re- 
sponsen," pp. 32 et seq.). 

In the field of Hebrew poetrj', also, the importance 
of R. Tam is not slight. He was influenced by the 
poetry of the Spaniards, and is the 
As chief representative of the tran.sition 

Liturgical period, in Christian lands, from the 
Poet. old " pay}'etanic " mode of expression 
to the more graceful forms of the Span- 
ish school. According to Zunz ("Literaturgesch." 
pp. 265 et seq.) he composed the following pieces for 
the synagogue: (1) several poems for the evening 
prayer of Sukkot and of Shemini 'Azei'et ; (2) a 
hymn for the close of Sabbath on which a wedding 
is celebrated ; (3) a hymn for the replacing of the 
Torah rolls in the Ark on Simhat Torah ; (4) an 
"ofan" in four metric strophes (see Luzzatto in 
"Kerem Hemed," vii. 35); (5) four Aramaic "re- 
shut"; (6) two "selihot" (the second is reproduced 
by Zunz in "S. P." p. 248, in German verse; see 
also "Nahalat SHeDaL" in Berliner's "Magazin" 
["Ozar Tob"], 1880, p. 36). It must, however, be 
remarked that there was a synagogal poet by the 
name of Jacob ben Meir (Levi) who might easily 
have been confounded Avith the subject of this 
article, and therefore Tam's authorship of all of 
these poems is not above doubt (.see Landshuth, 
"'Ammude ha-'Abodah," p. 106; comp. also Har- 
kavy, "Hadashim gam Yeshanim," supplement to 

the Hebrew edition of Graetz, "Hist." v. 39; Brody, 
"Kuntras ha-Piyyutim," p. 72). The short poems 
which sometimes precede his responsa also show 
great poetic talent and a pure Hebrew style (see 
Bacher in "Monatsschrift," xliv. 56 et seq.). When 
Abraham ibn Ezra was traveling through France 
R. Tam greeted him in verse, whereupon Ibn Ezra 
exclaimed in astonishment, "Who has admitted 
the French into the temple of poetry?" ("Kerem 
Hemed," vii. 35). Another work of his in metric 
form is his poem on the accents, which contains 
fort3--five strophes riming in QT\; it is found in vari- 
ous libraries (Padua, Hamburg, Parma), and is en- 
titled "Mahberet." Luzzatto has given the first 
four strophes in " Kerem Hemed " (vii. 38), and Hal- 
berstam has printed the whole poem in Kobak's 
"Jeschurun" (v. 123). 

In the field of grammatical exegesis R. Tam tow- 
ered high above his northern French contemporaries, 
lie wrote his " Sefer ha-Hakra'ot " 
As Gram- with the avowed intention of " harmo- 

marian. nizing " the statements of the two 
grammarians Menahem ben Saruk and 
Dunash ben Labrat, but as a matter of fact he usu- 
ally agrees with Menahem and defends liim against 
his opponent. In this work R. Tam divides the 
verbs into twelve cla.sses, according to their roots, 
and it is a noteworthy fact that lie arrives at the 
triliteral theory quite independently of Judah ben 
David Hayyuj. The work has been published by 
Filipowski in " Mahberet Menahem " (London, 1855). 
Joseph Ki.MHi afterward wrote the " Sefer ha-Galui " 
in opposition to this work of R. Tam. 

The cabalists claimed R. Tam as one of them- 
selves, ascribing to him a cabalistic prayer begin- 
ning ^{<D"'D DDQ r[C'p22- It is reproduced in Nathan 
ben Meir Krumenau's "Hayj'e '01am ha-Ba" 
(Cracow, 1643; see Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." col. 
1258). R. Tam probably wrote marginal notes to a 
Mahzor (see Zunz, "Ritus," p, 26), to "Seder Ko- 
dashim," and to the "Halakot Gedolot" (see Tos. 
to Ber. 37a and 'Er. 40a; Meir Rothenburg, Re- 
sponsa, ed. Prague, No. 74; "Sefer ha-Teruraah," 
No. 13). 

R. Tam, in spite of absorbing scholarly activity, 
looked upon life and its changing conditions with a 
clear eye, and wherever the Talmud would permit 
welcomed a less severe ritualistic practise (comp. 
"Sefer ha-Yashar," p. 74a); in many cases he was 
" the apologist for existing customs and usages " 
(Low, "Lebensalter," p. 170). He was 
Character- especially lenient in regard to per- 

ization. mitted and forbidden foods ("issur 
we-hetter"; see Tos. to Hul. 104b; 
Tos. to 'Ab. Zarali 35b), to the collection of taxes 
from Jews and Jewish proselytes (" Sefer ha-Yashar, " 
§ 73b), to the wine-trade (-|DJJ P^ ; ib. § 618), and to 
many other practical questions (comp. ib. p. 75b, on 
unleavened bread at the Passover Feast), too numer- 
ous to be indicated here. For example, he allowed 
women to wear rings on the Sabbath, and under cer- 
tain conditions permitted marriages to be performed 
on that daj' ; for the formatioa of a quorum of ten 
("minyan ") he was willing to recognize a boy who 
was a minor ("katon ") as being of age (Tos. to Ber. 
47b; see also Oppenheim in "Monatsschrift," 1869, 



Jacob ben MeTr 
Jacob ibn Na'im 

p. 92, on the " Bernickelgans ")• In his decisions he 
is everywhere independent of standard autliorities, 
even of his grandfather Rashi ("Sefcr iia-Yasluir," 
§ 586) ; in this respect he served as a model for later 
teachers (Asher ben Jehiel, Kesponsa, No. 53). 

R. Tam had a large number of disciples, vi^ho had 
come to him from France, Germany, Bolicmia, and 
Russia; the following are the most prominent : Hay- 
yim ben Ilanaueel ha-Kohen (see his saying in Tos. to 
Ket. 103b); Isaac ben Samuel (HI the Elder), son 
of R. Tarn's sister, and who afterward took his place 
InRamerupt; Peter, who was killed in Cariuthia 
(see Wiener. " 'Emck ha-Bakah," p. 165, note 107; 
Gross, "Gallia Judaica," p. 434) in 1147; Joseph of 
Orleans; Eliczer ben Samuel of Metz; Joseph Bekor 
Shor. In after-times, R. Tam, like Rashi, was paid 
almost unbounded respect. People hardly dared to 
contradict him (see Meir Rothenburg, Responsa, ed. 
Cremona, No. 144) or to decide between grandfather 
and grandson, "those two high mountains" (ih. No. 
159; Joseph Colon, Responsa, No. 161). 

As a matter of fact both have exercised an un- 
usually deep and a universal influence on the halakic 
development of European Judaism down to the 
present da.y. Fables have been woven around the 
history of R. Tam, and it is said that on one occa- 
sion, when certain rabbis were discussing whether 
the knots in the tefillin should be tied anew every 
day (Tos. to Men. 35b), he descended from heaven 
"like a lion " and discussed the question with Moses 
in the house of Meuahem Vardimas until Moses 
acknowledged himself defeated, and told the rabbis 
that R. Tam was worthy to be followed (see D. 
Kaufmaun in "R. E. J." v. 273f< seq.). So high an 
authority as Asher ben Jehiel placed R. Tarn's 
knowledge eveji above that of i\Iaimonidcs (see 
"Yam sliel Shelomoh" on B. K., Preface). 

Bibliography : Berliner, in Jahrbuch der JIM. Litcrar. 
GeselUchafty Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1903; Azulai, Shcm ha- 
Gedolim,i.; Fuenn, Keiietfet Yiitrael, 1. 578 ct seq. ; Gratz, 
Gesch. vi. 143, 144, 153, 176, 178 et seq.. IR"); Geiger, Parsclia)i- 
datha, pp. 24 et seq. ; Gross, GalUn Judaica, pp. 230, 542, 636 ; 
Gudemann, Gesch. i. 43, 48, 152, 236, 255 et seq. : Neubauer, 
M. J. C. 1. 78, 84, 94, 102; ii. 229, 231, 235, 243; Loewinsohn, 
Eleh Toledot Eahbenu Ya'akob Tam, in Ha-Shaliar. vol. 
i.. No. 5, pp. 17 ft seq. ; Michael, Or ha-Haujiim, No. 1067; 
Weiss (whom the author of the present article chiefly followed), 
Toledot Gedole YisiacU No. 3, Vienna, 1883 {flnst appeared 
in Bet Talmud, vol. iii.); idem. Dor, iv. 66. 24.5. 261, 
286, 3:i7; Winter and Wiinsche, Die JVHli.<fchc Littcratur, 
li. 181, 184, 185, 196, 279, 46.5, 468 ; iii. 6, 71, 321 ; Zunz, Z. G. 
Index ; Low. Lehensalter, passim ; Neubauer and Stern. 
Hehr. Bei-ichte Uher die JudenverfolQunqen Wdhrenddcr 
KrexizzUae, pp. 31, 6.3, 64, 68; Ersch and Gruber, Encyc. sec- 
tion ii., part 13, p. 191 ; Schechter. in J. Q. R. iv. 94 ; Zacuto, 
Sefer Yuhasin, p. 218; Bacher, in Moiiatsschrift, xliv. 56 et 
6. S. M. Sc. 

JACOB BEN MORDECAI: German scholar; 
fliourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. A native of Fulda, he was generally called 
"Jacob of Fulda"; but he was banished from that 
town and settled at Schwerin. He wrote : (1) " Tikkun 
Sheloshah jNIishmarot " (Frankfort - on - the - Oder, 
1691), prayers to be recited in the three divisions of 
the ni'glit, for which the Zohar was his main source. 
This work was translated into Judsro-German by 
the author's wife, Laza, who added a preface 
(Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1692). Benjacob ("Ozar 
ha-Sefarim." p. 669), following Wolf ("Bibl. Hebr." 
iii., Nos. 1338 et seq.), attributes the authorship to 
Laza. (2) "Shoshannat Y'a'akob " (Amsterdam. 1706; 

Leghorn, 1792), a treatise on chiromancy, physiog- 
nomy, and astrology. 

Bibliography: Stelnschnelder, Cat. liodl. cols. 462, 1239; 
Fiirst, BiU. Jud. 1. 30.5, where he la mentioned under Fuld. 
s. S. M. Sel. 


Gaon of Sura from 801 to 815; succeeded llilai ben 

Mari. He officiated fourteen years, according to a 

text of Sherira ("M. J. C." i. 39); according to 

other authorities {I.e. i. 65, 188), eigliteen years. In 

his decisions Jacob ben Mordecai leaned as much 

as possible toward the milder interpretation of the 

Law, for which Zadok (appointed gaon in 823) and 

his contemporaries blamed him ("Hemdah Genu- 

zah," ed. Jerusalem, No. 8; "Sefer ha-Eshkol," i. 

91). A long responsum of his is preserved in "Or 

Zarua' " (i.. No. 411 ;comp. alsoRosh to Hul. iii.. No. 

14). His decisions are given in comparatively pure 


Bibliography : Halevy, Dorot ha-Rishonim, ill. 121a et seq. ; 
Miiller, Mafteah li-Teshubot ha-Ge'onim, pp. 73 et seq. ; 
Weiss, Dor, iv. 41, 44-45. 

G. M. Sc. 

ha-Nabi =^ "the prophet"): Head of the ycshibah 
of Narbonne, France. As Abraham b. David in his 
" Sefer ha-Kabbalah " (MS. quoted by Abraham Za- 
cuto in his "Yuhasin," ed. London, p. 84) mentions 
that Moses ha-Darshan was the son of Jacob b. 
Moses, it may be concluded that Jacob lived in the 
eleventh century. He is mentioned by Abraham b. 
Isaac or Abraham, ab bet din of Narbonne (" Ha- 
Eshkol," ed. Auerbach, iii. 152), as the author of a 
responsum. The title "ha-Nabi" is honorific, and 
was applied to other persons besides Jacob. 

Bibliography: Gross, GaJlia Judaica, p. 410; R. E. J. xvl, 
s. s. M. Sel. 

vencal theologian of the second half of the four- 
teenth century; lived successively at Salon, Avi- 
gnon, and Argon. He was the author of a casuistic 
and philosophical work, still extant in manuscript 
("British Museum Cat." MS. No. 2705). It is di- 
vided into three parts, each with a different title: 
(1) "Pesakim," on things permitted and prohibited 
("issur we-hetter"); (2) " 'Ezrat Nashim," on mar- 
riage, levirate, and divorce laws; (3) "Sod ha-Hash- 
gahali," containing essays on ethics, philosophy, and 

Bibliography: Neubauer, in R.E.J. in. 51-58; Renan-N'eu- 
bauer. Lcs Ecrivaim Juifs Franrais, pp. 311 et seq.; Gross, 
Gallia Judaica. p. 657. ^ „ 

G. I. Br. 

Jacob isen Mosks. 

Smyrna toward the end of the seventeenth century. 
He'corresponded witii Hayyim Benveniste, author 
of "Keneset ha-Gedolah," whom Jacob seems to 
have succeeded in the rabbinate of Smyrna. Jacob 
was the author of "Mislikenot Ya'akob" (Salonica, 
1721), homilies on the Pentateuch and other sub- 
jects, followed by a pampiilet entitled "Zenif Melu- 
kah," on the obligations of subjects to their king; 
a responsa collection entitled "Zera" Ya'akob," fol- 

Jacob iDen Naphtali 
Jacob ben Reuben 



lowed by a collection of sermons bearing the title 

•• Yeslm'ot Ya'akob," Legliorn, 1784. Zeduer ("Cat. 

Hebr. Books Brit. Mus." p. 3) attributes the last two 

works to a different author, whom he calls Jacob 

Hayyini ibn Na'im; but Benjacob attributes them 

to Jo.seph ibn Na'im. 

Bibliography : Azulai, Shem ha-Gcdnlim, i., s.r.; Kiirst, Jiibl. 
Jud. iii. It), 
s. s. M. Sel. 

Gnesen ; flourished about 1650. His father was 
clerk of the Jewry in Great Poland (HjnD 1D1D), 
and died in 1646. Jacob lost Jiis fortune and books 
in a tire, and had to wander aimlessly about. In 
1653 he published in Amsterdam " Nahalat Ya'akob : 
Melizot," a book of poems, containing a dialogue 
between the body and tlie soul, liymns for the dedi- 
cation of a scroll of the Law, and elegies on the 
Cossack massacre of 1648. Jacob superintended as 
corrector the printing of Nathan Hanover's work 
"Yewen Mezulah " (Venice, 1653). In 1654, when 
Jacob intended to go to Rome in oi'der to procuie 
from the pope a letter of protection against the blood 
accusation and the excesses committed by the stu- 
dents of Jesuit colleges in Great Poland, he was 
highly recommended to the Italian communities by 
Moses Zacuto. 

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1342; Kaiif- 
mann, in Monati^schrift, 1894, p. 89. 
D. P. B. 


Italian printer; born in Gazolo; lived in the six- 
teenth century. For some time prior to 1556 he was 
the manager of Tobiah Foa's printing establishment 
atSabbionetta, wliich issued Abravaners"Merkebet 
lia-Mishneh " (1551). In 1556 Jacob removed to 
Mantua, where he superintended the printing of a 
great number of worksin Rufellini's printing-house, 
first alone, afterward in as.sociation with Mei'r b. 
Ephraim Sofer, then from 1560 to 1563 jigain alone. 
The first work printed by Jacob at Mantua was Eli- 
jah Levita's "Sefer ha-Bahur"; the last, "Midrash 

Bibliography : Fiirst, Bihl. Jiul. ii. ~4, 2.5 ; Ziinz, Z. G. pp. 252 
ct seq.: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 2930. 
J. M. Skl. 


FAYYUMI (the name is given in this form in 
"Mazref la-Hokmah," fol. 93a; in Neubauer, "M. 
J. C." [Sambari] i. 133, 34; and in Nahum's Hebrew 
version of Mairaonides' " Letter " cited below) : Rosh 
ycshibah of the Yemen Jews in the second half of 
the twelfth century. All that is known of him is 
that at the suggestion of Solomon ha-Koheu, a pupil 
of Maimonides, he wrote to the latter asking his ad- 
vice in regard to a pseudo-Messiah who was leading 
the Jews of southern Arabia astray. From a pas- 
sage in Maimonides' " Letter to the Wise Men of the 
Congregation of Mar.seilles," the date of Jacob's 
letter is fixed as 1173 (Ilalub, in his ed. of "Iggeret 
Teman," p. 51, note). In answer, Maimonides sent 
his "Iggeret Teman," or, as it is also called, " Petal.i 
Tikwah." Harkavy supposes that Jacob had cogni- 
zance of Saadia's "Sefer ha-Galui " ("Studien und 
Mittheil." v. 154; comp. "Monatsschrift," xliv. 508). 
Jacob's father was known as a philosophical writer 
(see Jkw. Encvc. v. 354). G. 

(911-934). After tlie death of his predecessor, Sha- 
lom bar Mishael, the Academy of Sura became im- 
poverished and was abandoned by most of the stu- 
dents (Sherira, in " M. J. C." i. 39, 189). Jacob bar 
Natronai was then made gaon, and he retained the 
position for thirteen j^ears. Halevy has shown that 
he is not to be identified with Amram ben Solomon, 
as Griltz holds. 

Bibliography : Gratz, Gcsc/i . vi. 346 ; idem, in Monati^schrift, 
vi. 343; Halevy, D(j?-ot ha-Ruihuninu in. 128, 133, 142; Jew. 
Kncy'c. v. 571, s.v. Gaon, and the chronological list there 
s. s. M. Sc. 

JACOB NAZIR: French exegete; flourished in 
the second half of the twelfth century; one of the 
five sous of Meshullamben Jacob of Lunel. "Jacob 
of Lunel" would accordingly be only another desig- 
nation for "Jacob Nazir." Jacob Nazir wrote cer- 
tain Biblical commentaries, including commentaries 
on Genesis (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." 
No. 1646, 3) and Job (see Zunz, "Z. G." p. 74). An 
explanation by him of a prayer in the ritual, giveu 
to a certain Moses ben Isaiah, is also extant (Mahzor 
Vitry, ed. Hurwitz, p. 368). Isaac ben Samuel of 
Acre (c. 1300) is said to have described him as one 
of the most prominent cabalists, and Abraham ben 
David is said to have been one of his j)upils. It is, 
however, very doubtful whether Jacob Nazir had 
anj'thing to do with Cabala. 

Bibliography: Gratz, Gesc/i. vi. 203 ; i^iross, in Maiiatfixchrift, 
xxiii. 172 et w/.; idem, Gallia Judaica, p. 279; Steinschnei- 
der, Literotwe, pp. 144, 167, 306 ; Winter and Wiin- 
sche. Die Jlidischc Litteratur, iii. 357; Zunz, Ritus, p. 197. 

G. S. K. 


Philosopher; lived at Kairwan in the tenth century; 
younger contemporary of Saadia. At Jacob's re- 
quest Sherira Gaon wrote a treatise entitled "Ig- 
geret," on the redaction of the Mishnah. Jacob is 
credited with the authorship of an Arabic com- 
mentary on the " Sefer Yezirah " (translated into He- 
brew by Moses ben Joseph). He asserts in the intro- 
duction that Saadia, while living in Egypt, used to 
address very insignificant questions to Isaac ben Sol- 
omon of Kairwan, and that, on receiving Saadia's 
commentary, he found that the text had not been un- 
derstood by the commentator. Jacob therefore de- 
cided to write another commentary. In the same in- 
troduction Jacob speaks of Galen, repeating the story 
that that celebrated physician was a Jew named 
"Gamaliel." The Hebrew translation of Jacob's 
commentary is still extant in manuscript (Munich 
MSS., No. '93, 30; De Rossi MSS., No. 769); ex- 
cerpts from it have been given by Landauer and 

Bibliography: Landauer, in Orient, vii. 121; Fiirst, ib. vi. 
562; Dukes, Koiitres ha-Mai^tyret; Munk, iVofice.s-K?- yihou^ 
%oalid, p. 47'; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1243; idem, 
Hebr. Ucherx. p. ;!96: idem, 73ic Ara}>i^che Litcvatur der 
Jndeii, 8 58. _ 

K. I. Br. 

.scholar; lived at Venice in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. He was the author of a work en- 
titled " Iggeret ha-Te'amiin," on the Hebrew accents 
(Venice, 1600). Steinschneider, however, believes 



Jacob ben Naphtali 
Jacob ben Reuben 

the work to be identical with the "Iggeret ha-Te'- 

ainim " of AAiiON Abkaham ben Bahuch. 

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 716, 1255; 
Mortara, Indice, p. (31 ; Benjacob, Ozar lia-Sefarim, p. 11. 

G. I. Br. 

JACOB OF ORLEANS: French tosafist; died 
as a martyr in Loudon Sept. 3, 1189. He wa.s one 
of the most distinguished pupils of Rabbeuu Tam, 
being often called by his teaelier's name. Accord- 
ing to "'Emek ha-Baka " (ed. Cracow, p. 52), Jacob 
was still at Orleans in 1171, and went to London 
later, probably in response to a call as teacher from 
the community. He was killed during the anti- 
Jewish riots in London at the coronation of Richard I. 

Jacob was a prominent tosatist, his tosafot being 
often quoted; e.g., in 'Ab. Zarah 34a; Git. 8b; Ket. 
47a; Men. lOb; Naz. 54b; Pes. 5b; Sanh. 35b; Zeb. 
14b, 39a; Yeb. 4a; also in the old tosafot to Yoma 
34a, 88a; in Judah of Paris' tosafot to Ber. 21b, etc. 
He also wrote glosses to the Pentateuch, which are 
included in Isaac ben Judah ha-Levi's "Pa'neah 
Raza," and are mentioned even more frequently 
in Judah ben Eliezer's "Minhat Yehudah." Jacob 
introduces a large number of gematriotinto these 

According to Gross, Jacob is also the author of the 

tosafot to Rashi's Pentateuch commentary which 

were Avritten under the name of Rabbenu Tam, and 

which are mentioned by Geiger (*' Parschandatha, " 

p. 36). 

Bibliography: 'Emelf ha-Baka, ed. Vienna, pp. 39,45; ed. 
Cracow, pp. .52, 5S; R. E. J. Iv. 211 ; Or Zarua\ ii. 112a ; 
Zunz, Z. (jr. pp. 51, 7.5, 91, 93; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 36; 
Jacobs, Jews of Angevin England, pp. 108, 419. 
J. A. Pe. 


French tax-farmer of the fourteenth century. With 
Manecier of Vesoul and his brother Vivant he was 
appointed (1360) by Charles V., King of France, to 
collect the taxes imposed upon the Jews, retaining 
two florins out of the fourteen which each Jew had 
to pay upon entering Fiance. In 1365 a dispute 
arose between Jacob and Manecier, in consequence 
of which the former brought suit against his oppo- 
nent before the parliament of Paris, and Manecier 
was fined. The two functionaries became reconciled 
in 1370, and tlieir position with the king, although 
weakened, was still sufficiently important to enable 
them at the approach of Passover in 1373 to obtain 
the loan of the Hebrew books deposited in the Sainte 
Chapelle, Paris. 

Bibliography: Isidore Loeb, ies-Bxpwlsio/i.s, pp. 16-18; L^on 
Kahn, Lea Juifs a Paris, p. 28; Revue Historiquc, 1878, vil. 
G. S. K. 

JACOB B. REUBEN : Karaite Bible exegete of 
the eleventh century. He wrote a brief Hebrew 
commentary on the entire Bible, which he entitled 
"Sefer ha-'Osher," because, as he says in the intro- 
duction, the reader will find therein sufficient infor- 
mation, and will not need to have recourse to the 
many voluminous commentaries which the author 
liimself liad consulted. The book is, in fact, merely 
a compilation; the author's explanation of any given 
pas.sage is frequently introduced by the abbrevia- 
tions "yo or "y> {i.e., Arabic " ma'nahu" or •' ya'ni " = 
" that is to say ") ; and divergent explanations of other 

commentators are added one after the other and pre- 
ceded by the vague phrase {<"| ("another says "). It 
is, in fact, chiefly an extract of Jefet b. 'All's work, 
from whom Jacob borrowed most of his ex planations 
as well as the (quotations from various autliois, chielly 
on the Pentateuch. But Jacob also drew upon later 
Karaite authors, the last of whom is Jeshua b. Judah, 
who, so far as is known, flourished about 1054 (see 
Harkavy, " Hadasliim gam Yeshanim," vii. 17). This 
date points to the second half of the eleventh cen- 
tury as the date of composition of the "Sefer ha- 

Among Rabbinitic authors Jacob quotes Abu al- 
Walid ; but his quotations have apparently been 
intentionally suppres.sed by Firkovich 
The "Sefer in his edition (see Harkavy, "Altju- 
ha-'Osher." dische Denkmiiler aus der Krim," p. 
211, note 1), though they are found in 
the manuscripts, and one of them has been given 
in the edition (on Jcr. iv. 37; fol. 2b, line 1). If 
Jacob read Abu al-Walid not in the Arabic original 
but in the Hebrew translation, he must have com- 
piled his book in the second half of the twelfth cen- 
tury. Firkovich believes Jacob to have lived at 
Kertch, in southern Russia, said to have been called 
TlDD in Hebrew; and he asserts that the ""TiDDn 
quoted several times in the commentary to the Pen- 
tateuch is identical with Abraham b. Simhah of 
Kertch (c. 986), a personage invented by him. Both 
of these assumptions are of course impossible. Jacob 
was probably a native of Constantinople, as his com- 
mentary contains Greek glosses; and he was doubt- 
less influenced by Byzantine authors. 

The "Sefer ha-'Osher" is found in manuscript at 
St. Petersburg, Paris, and Leyden. The library of 
the last-named city is reported to contain two copies 
of the commentary to the Earlier Prophets and to 
the twelve Minor Prophets (" Cat. Leyden, " 8, 12 ; see 
Steinschneider, "Hebr. Uebers." p. 941). Another 
portion, from Jeremiah to Chronicles (except Psalms), 
was printed, under the general title "Mibhar Yesha- 
rim," together with Aaron b. Joseph's "Mibhar " 
to the Earlier Prophets and Isaiah (Koslov, 1835). 
Steinschneider has edited the introduction ("Cat. 
Leyden," p. 384); Pinsker has printed passages to 
the Pentateuch ("Likkute Kadmoniyyot," ii. 83 et 
seq.); and Dukes, passages to the Psalms ("Arch. 
Isr." 1847; "Orient, Lit." 1850, p. 12). Th^" Sefer 
ha-'Osher" is of no especial importance for Karaitic 
Bible exegesis, nor, so far as is known, is it men- 
tioned by earlier Karaite authors. But it may have 
been used by a Hebrew translator or editor of Jefet's 
commentary to the Minor Prophets. Of the latter 
work the beginning to Hosea has been edited by 
Tottermann ("Die Weissagung Hoseas," pp. 90 et 
seq., Leipsic, s.a. [1880J ; see Steinschneider, "Hebr. 
Uebers." I.e.). 

Jacob b. Reuben has been wrongly identified with 
the Rabbinite translator of the "Liber Lapidura" 
(by the Englisli bishop Marbod, d. 1123) from the 
Latin into Hebrew, the translntion also bearing tlie 
title "Sefer ha-'Osher" (Steinschneider, I.e. p. 957; 
Kohut Memorial Volume, p. 56). Further, Jacob 
must not be confounded with the Rabbinite polem- 
ical writer Jacob b. Reuben, author of the anti- 
Christian work "Milhamot Adonai." 

Jacob ben Reuben 
Jacob ben Zabda 



Bibliography: Dukes, BeitrUge, H. 43; idem, preface to 
Proverbs (in Cahen's French Bible), p. 33 ; Jost, Gesch. dcs 
Judenthums, li. 354; Steinsclineider, Cat. Lcydem, p. 24; 
Pinsker, Likkute Kadmoitiiniot, 1. 216, li. 80; Fiirst, Gesch. 
des Karilert'. ii. 157; Gottlober, Bikikuret, p. 180; Gratz, 
Gesch. 3d ed., vi. 5t5. 
G. S. P. 

ist and rabbi of Fez ; born in the latter pkit of the 
seventeenth century; died after 1750. That his 
reputation as a Talmudist stood high is apparent 
in the responsa ("Kerem Hemed," Leghorn, 1871) of 
Abraham Ankava, where he is quotetl as an author- 
ity recognized by all Moroccan Jewish communities. 
Jacob was the author of the following works, still 
extant in manuscript: " Hiddushim u-Derushim," 
casuistic and homilctic notes ("'Cat. Munich," MS. 
No. 261) ; " Leshon Limmudim, " collection of epistles 
signed |>T ( = J[acob] b[en] Z[ur] ; Steinschneider, 
"Cat. Berlin," MS. No. 54). Jacob was also a litur- 
gical poet, and wrote many dirges on the destruction 
of the Temple which were incorporated in the 
" Kinot " for the 9th of Ab in use among the Moroc- 
can Jews; and his name occurs in the approbations 
to various Talmudical works, the last of which is 
dated 1750. 

Bibliography: Azulai, Shem. ha-GednUm, i. 96; Nepi-Ghi- 
TondU Toledot Gedole Yisi-ael, p. 214; Steinschneider, He ^. 
Bibl. xvi. 33; Kaufmunn, in Z. D. M. G. 1. 234. 
G. I. Bl{. 


MAN, Jacob. 

JACOB BEN SAMSON (sometimes called 
Jacob ben Simeon) : French tosatist and liturgist ; 
flourished at Paris or at Falaise in the first third of 
the twelfth century. He is mentioned by Moses 
Taku in his '• Ketab Tamim " (see "Ozar Nehmad," 
iii. 59) as having been the pupil of Raslii and the 
teacher of Jacob Tam. The former statement is 
confirmed by the fact that in his commentary on 
Abot, Jacob frequently quotes Rashi, speaking of 
him as liis mastei'. There exists also a decision of 
his (Paris MS. No. 326, fol. 80) which he seems to 
have written at the dictation of Rashi. Zunz, how- 
ever (" Literaturgesch." p. 458), doubts the statement 
of Taku that Jacob was the master of R. Tam. 

Jacob is called by Me'ir of Rothcuburg (Responsa, 
No. 655) "Jacob b. Samson of Paris," but in the cor- 
responding passage in Mordecai on Bezah (No. 672) 
he is called •' Jacob b. Simeon of Falaise. " He is also 
mentioned in the tosafot to Hul. 54b (as " Jacob b. 
Simeon"); 'Ar. 28b; Men. 64b; Mordecai on Yoma 
(No. 727); and "Likkute Pardes," ed. Amsterdam, 
12b (where also he is called "Jacob b. Simeon "). 

Jacob's literary activity was both exten.sive and 
varied. Of his works the following are extant: (1) 
"Sefer ha-Elkoshi " (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. 
MSS." No. 692, 7), a calendar beginning with the 
year 1123. (2) Commentary on Abot (Neubauer, I.e. 
Nos. 376, 379), which, owing to its being anon- 
ymous, was ascribed by some scholars to Rashi, by 
others to R. Isaiah, Rashl)am, and R. Ephraim 
(comp. Samuel of Uceda, preface to his "j\Iidrash 
Shemu'el"). The author, liowever, introduces the 
fourth chapter with an acrostic giving the name 
Jacob b. Samson (see S. D. Luzzattn in " Kerem 
Hemed," iv. 201 et seq., and S. Schechter, introduc- 
tion to his edition of Ab. R. N. ch. ii.). 

Jacob borrows freely from the Abot or Mishnah 
or Baraita of R. Nathan, commonly designated by 
him "Baraita." The authorities quoted by him 
are Rashi, Mishnah of R. Gershom, R. Ephraim, 
n "I (probably R. Tam), Meshullam b. Kalony- 
mus, Nathan ha-Babli, "Haggadat Hashkem," 
" Dibre ha-Yaraim shel Mosheh," and "Midrash 
shel R. Shim'on Kara." (3) Commentary on the 
Seder '01am Rabbah, or perhaps a treatise so en- 
titled and quoted by Judah Sir Leon in his tosafot 
to Berakot (ed. Warsaw, p. 57b, or "Berakah Me- 
shulleshet," 42(1), a fragment of which is to be found 
in Neubauer (I.e. No. 692, 12). (4) "Piske shel 
Bezim," halakic novellas on Bezah (Neubauer, I.e. 
No. 1101, 2). It may also be concluded from his 
being quoted by Shemaiah in his commentary on 
Tamid that Jacob wrote a commentary on this 
treatise. (5) Commentary on the Baraita of R. 
Samuel and on the "Sefer Yezirah." (6) Notes to 
Samson b. Jonah's halakot concerning the Passover 
feast ("OrZarua'," ii. 116b). (7) A poem in Aramaic 
on the tenth commandment and a commentary on it, 
as well as on three Aramaic poems written by other 
liturgists on the Decalogue (Parma [De Rossi] MS. 
No. 159). In his commentaries Jacob sometimes fol- 
lows the system of the mystics, explaining the words 
according to gematria and notarikon, but he does so 
in a less degree than the later commentators. 

Bibliography: Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 514-515; Zunz, 
Litcraturgcsc)!. p. 458; A. Epstein, in Ii. E. J. xxxv. 240 et 
seq.; Schechter, Ah. R. N. ch. ix.; Taylor, SaijUigs of the 
Jewiah Fathers, Appendix, No. 20. 
s. s. M. Sel. 

Jacob b. Samuel. 

ish cabalist of Gerona (whence his surname "Ge- 
rondi")in the thirteenth century. He was the au- 
thor of "Sha'ar ha-Shamayim," a cabalistic essay 
published by M. Mortara in " Ozar Nehmad " (iii. 
153 et aeq.), and of " Meshib Debarim Nekohim," an 
apologetic work in defense of the Cabala, in thirty 
chapters, still in manuscript (Neubauer, "Cat. 
Bodl. Hebr. MSS." Nos. 1585, 1586). According to 
the preface, he composed this apology against a cer- 
tain work full of heterodoxy. He refers to another 
work that he had written, and quotes Ibn Ezra, 
Maimonides, Ezra (Azriel), R. Joseph bar Samuel, 
and Samuel ibn Tibbon's " Yikkawu ha-Mayim." 

Bibliography: Griitz, Gesc?i. 3ded., vii. 303; Fuenn, Ke?ieset 
Yisracl, s.v. 
K. L Br. 

JACOB BEN SOLOMON (called also Jacob of 
Courson) : French tosafist; born at Courson, de- 
partmentof the Yonne; flourished between llSOand 
1250. He was a pupil of Samson of Sens and, ap- 
parently, teacher of Meir of Rotlienburg (Meir of 
Rothenburg, Responsa, ed. Cremona, No. 144). His 
tosafot are quoted in "Shittah Mekubbezet" to B. 
K. (ed. Venice, 1262) 43a, b, under the name "Jacob 
of Courson," and 79a under the erroneous designa- 
tion "Jacob of Kunso." According to"Haggah()t 
Maimuniyyot" on " Ma'akalot Asurot," No. 13, Jacob 
wrote a work entitled "Nimukim," containing com- 
ments on the Talmud. Ho may also have been the 
author of another work entitled " Matbea'," contain- 
ing Talmudic decisions (comp. " Haggahot Maimu- 



Jacob ben Reuben 
Jacob ben Zabda 

niyyot," I.e., and respousa of Samuel of Medina on 
Yoreh De'ali, No. 193. 

Jacob corresponded witli the liturgical poet Judali 
b. Sbeneor, or Judali the Elder, as he is also called. 

Bibliography: Ziinz, Z. G. p. 42; lAem, LiteraturQcsch. ^. 
474; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 574. 
6. s. A. Pe. 

JACOB BEN SOSA : Idumeau leader. In the 
great war against Rome, 67-70, when Simon bar 
Giora went on a raid through Iduma;a to take pro- 
visions, the Idinneans gatliered together to defend 
their country, and then 20,000 of them went to Jeru- 
salem. One of their four leaders was Jacob ben 
Sosa (Josephus, *'B. J." iv. 4, t^ 2), Avho succeeded 
in betraying the Jews to Simon (ib. 9, § 6). The 
Zealots called the Idumeans to Jerusalem as a pro- 
tection against the aristocrats, who were suspected 
of favoring the Romans. Some 5,000 of these Idu- 
means, whose chief leaders were Jacob b. Sosa and 
Simon ben Kathla, joined the party of Simon bar 
Giora {ib. v. 6, § 1). The Romans were repulsed in 
an attack on the citadel of Antonia, one of the most 
prominent in the defense being Jacob b. Sosa (ib. vi. 
1, § 8). He was equally conspicuous when the Ro- 
mans tried to storm the Temple {ib. 2, § 6). 

The Idumeans finally grew tired of the unequal 
conflict, and secretly opened negotiations with Titus 
for surrender. When Simon bar Giora heard of this 
he had their leaders seized and imprisoned, among 
them Jacob b. Sosa (ib. 8. ^ 2). 

Bibliography: Gratz, Gcsc/i. 4th ed., iii. 508, 513, .530. 
G. 8. Kr. 

JACOB TEMERLS. See Temerls, Jacob. 

JACOB TUS (TAWUS). See Tawls. 

JACOB TJZZIEL. See Uzziel, Jacob. 

JACOB OF VIENNA: Austrian rabbi and 
Biblical commentator of the fourtceutli century. 
The Munich MSS. (HebreAv) contain a commentaiy 
on the Pentateuch written by "Jacob of Vienna" 
(No. 27, 2) and mention a certain '" Jacob of Austria " 
(No. 402). Zunz ("Z. G." p. 103) identifies him with 
the R. Jekel Avho Avas a pupil of Meir b. Baruch 
ha- Levi and who was consulted by Jacob Molin 
(MaHRIL) as "the great luminary R. Jekel of Aus- 
tria" (Jacob Molin,, No. 101); JudahMinz 
(Responsa, No. 15) also mentions a "R. Jekel of 
Vienna," probably the same person. 

Bibliography : Gudemann, GescJi. Iii. 27. 

G. M. Sel. 


(DUBNER MAGGID) : lUissiau preacher ; born 
at Zietil, government of Wilna, about 1740; died at 
Zamosc Dec. 18, 1804. At the age of eighteen he 
went to Meseritz (ilezhirechye), where he occupied 
the position of preaclier. He stayed there for two 
years, and then became preacher successively at Zol- 
kiev, Dubno, Wlodawa (government of Lublin), 
Kalisch, and Zamosc. He remained at ' Dubno 
eighteen years, his stipend being at tirst si.\ Polish 
gulden per week with lodging, this amount be- 
ing afterward augmented by two gulden. He 
left Dubno for Wilna at the request of Elijah Wilna, 

who, having recently recovered from a sickness and 
being unable to study, sought diversion in his con- 

Jacob was an unrivaled preacher. Possessed of 
great eloquence, he illustrated both his sermons and 
his homiletic commentaries with parables taken 
from human life. By such parables he explained 
the most ditlicult passages, and cleared up many 
perplexing questions in rabbinical law. He was 
also an eminent rabbinical scholar, and on many 
occasions was consulted as an authority. 

All of Jacob's works were published after his 
death by ids son Isaac Kranz and his pupil Abra- 
ham Biir Plahm. These are: " Ohel Yaakob," a 
homiletic commentary on the Pentateuch abounding 
with graphic parables (i., Jozefow, 1830; ii., Zolkiev, 
1837; iii., Vienna, 1863; iv., 1861; v.. Vienna, 1859); 
" Kol Ya'akob " (Warsaw, 1819), a similar commen- 
tary on the Five Scrolls; "Kokab mi-Ya'akob," a 
commentary on the " haftarot " ; " Emet le- Ya'akob " 
(Zolkiev, 1836), a commentary on the Passover Hag- 
gadah; "Sefer ha-Middot " (n.p., 1862), ethics ar- 
ranged in eight " gates " or sections, each section 
being divided into several chapters. This work 
resembles very much the "Hobot ha-Lebabot" of 
Bahya. As the author himself had given no name 
to it, Abraham Bar Plahm, its editor, at first intended 
to call it "Hobot ha-Lebabot he-Hadash " (= "The 
New ' Hobot ha-Lebabot ' ") ; but out of respect for 
Bahya he changed his mind. The editor also re- 
vised the work, and added to it a preface containing 
a sketch of the author's life, and glosses of his own 
under the title " Shiyyure ha-Middot." Moses Nuss- 
baum of Przemysl extiacted from the author's 
" Ohel Ya'akob " all the parables, and published them 
in one book entitled "Mishle Ya'akob" (Cracow, 

Bibliography: Sefer ha-Midclot, Preface ; Fuenn, Keneset 
Yisraeh p. 543; H. Margaliot, in Ha-Zeflrah, 1902, No. 8. 
H. R. M. Sel. 

JACOB B. YAKAR : German Talmudist ; flour- 
ished in the first half of the eleventh century. He 
was a pupil of Gershom b. Judah in Mayence, and 
is especially known as the teacher of Rashi, who 
characterizes him as "mori ha-zaken." 

Jacob was one of the leading Talmudic authori- 
ties of his time, although Rashi sometimes criticizes 
the opinions of his teacher. It appears that Jacob 
had already written commentaries on portions of the 
Talmud before Rashi (, comp. Ra.shi on Bek. 41a) ; 
at any rate, much in Rashi 's commentary on the Tal- 
mud is derived from oral communications of Jacob, 
who, in fact, is meant when Rashi says simply "my 
teacher " without naming any one. It appears also, 
from a remark of Rashi (commentary to Job xxii. 
30), that Jacob was engaged in interpreting the 
Bible and in the study of Hebrew. Besides Rashi, 
the German Talmudists Eliakim b. Meshullam ha- 
Levi and Solomon b. Samson were pupils of Jacob. 

Bibliography: Gross, GaUin Jtirlaica. pp. 3(X). 506; Zunz, 
Di<>i]7-aplnj of I{a»}ii. Hel)rew transl., pp. 7b, 26a, b. 
s. s. ■ L. G. 

JACOB BEN ZABDA: Palestinian amora of 
the fourth generation (4th cent.): junior contempo- 
rary, and probably pupil, of Abbahu, in whose name 
he repeats several halakic decisions and homiletic 




remarks (Yer. Dein. 23c; Pes. 29d; Pesik. 75b; Sheb. 
iv. 35a; Niddah ii. 6a). He also repeats halakot iii 
the names of Jeremiah and Jose II. (Kelim i. 1). 

Jacob was a firm believer in the powers of magic. 
Bread or other eatables found on the road must not 
he touched, according to him, because such food 
may have been laid tiiere for magical purposes (Lev. 
R. XXX vii.). From the words "And the people 
spake against God, and against Moses" (Num. xxi. 
5) Jacob infers that he who speaks against his 
teacher is as though he insulted the majesty of God 
(Midr. Teh. xxx.). 

Bibliography : Zacutu. Yuhasin, ed. Konigsberg, 64b ; Heil- 
prin. Seder ha-Dorot, i. 2;^; Bacher, A(i. Pal. Amor, ii., 
passim ; Frankel, 3Iebi> ha-rc7ushalmi, p. 10.5. 
s 8. I. Br. 

JACOBI, ABRAHAM : American physician ; 
born at Hartum, near Miuden, Westphalia, May 6, 
1830; educated at the universities of Greifsvvald, 
Gottingen, and Bonn (M.D., 1851). Identified with 
the revolutionary movement in Germany, he was 

imprisoned at Berlin and 
Cologne, under the charge 
of high treason, from 1851 
to 1853; when liberated 
he emigrated to America, 
settled in New York city, 
and soon l)ecame one of its 
leading practitioners. He 
became professor of dis- 
eases of children at the 
New York Medical College 
(1861-64), at the Univer- 
sity of the City of New 
York (1865-70), and at the 
College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, Columbia Uni- 
versity (1870-92), from the last of which institutions 
he received the degree of LL.D. 

Jacobi was connected also with many of the hos- 
pitals of New York city, and was president of the 
New York Academy of Medicine (1885-89) and 
chairman of the American Commission to the Four- 
teenth International Medical Congress at Madrid 

Jacobi contributed articles on diphtheria, dysen- 
tery, etc., to Gerhardt's "'Handbuch der Kinder- 
krankheiten." Among liis works are: "Dentition 
and Its Derangement," New York, 1862; "The 
Raising and Education of Abandoned Children in 
Europe," 2'6. 1870; "Infant Diet," ih. 1874; "Diph- 
theria, " ih. 1876 ; " Therapeutics of Infancy and Child- 
hood," Philadelphia, 1878; "Intestinal Diseases," 
New York, 1880. 

Bibliography: Pagel, Bioo. Lex.; Hlrsch, Biog. Lex. 
A. F. T. H. 

lologist; born at Tlitz, West Prussia, 1815; died in 
Berlin 1864. He studied at Berlin University, and 
received the honorary degree of Ph.D. from the 
University of Konigsberg in 1854 for his profound 
knowledge of the Greek language. He was en- 
gaged as teacher at the Joachimsthal Gymnasium, 
Berlin, from 1854 till 1858, and then became teacher 
at the Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium at Posen, 

Abraham Jacobi. 

where in 1860 he received the title of professor. He 
became a Protestant. 

Jacobi is the compiler of the most valuable " In- 
dex Grsecitatis" to Meineke's edition of "Gra?corum 
Comicorum Fragmenta," Berlin, 1847. Of his other 
works may be mentioned " In Comicos Gnvcos Ad- 
uotationum Corollarium," th. 1866. 

BiBLiOfiRAPHY : De le Roi, Judeii-Mismn)i. i. 318; AUn. Deut- 
sche Bioaraphie. 
s. F. T. H. 

mathematician; born Dec. 10, 1804, at Potsdam: 
died at Berlin Feb. 18, 1851 ; brother of Moritz Her- 
mann Jacobi. He studied mathematics, philosophy, 
and philology at the University of Berlin, and in 

1824 (having embraced the Christian faith) became 
privat-docent in mathematics at his alma mater. In 

1825 he acted in the same capacity at Konigsberg, 
where he was appointed assistant professor in 1827 
and professor in 1829. At that period he, together 
with Abel, made his epoch-making discoveries in 
the field of elliptic functions. To benefit his health 
he went in 1843 to Italy. On his return to Germany 
he established himself as professor of mathematics 
at the University of Berlin. 

Most of Jacobi's papers were published in Crelle's 
"Journal fur die Reine und Angewandte Mathe- 
matik " and in the " Monatsberichte " of the Berlin 
Academy of Sciences, of which he became a member 
in 1836. Of his independent works may be men- 
tioned: "Fundamenta Novfe Theoria; Functionum 
Ellipticarum," Konigsberg, 1829, and "Canon Arith- 
meticus, " Berlin, 1839. Jacobi's lectures on dynamics 
were published in Berlin in 1866 (2d ed., 1884). The 
Berlin Academy of Sciences published his " Gesam- 
melte Werke" (8 vols., including supplement; ih. 

Bibliography : BrocklMusKnnversatiinis-Lexikoii ;Lejeune- 
Diriclilet, in AhhandlunQc n of the Berlin Aciideiny of Sci- 
ences (18.52): De le Roi, Juden-MissUm , p. 204; (ierhardt, 
Gesch. der Mathematik in Dcutscldaud, pp. 347-257. 


physicist; born Sept. 21, 1801, at Potsdam; died 
March 10, 1874, at St. Petersburg. He was estab- 
lished as architect at Konigsberg when, in 1835, he 
was appointed professor of architecture in the Uni- 
versity of Dorpat. Called in 1837 to St. Petersburg, 
he became in 1842 an extraordinary member, and 
in 1847 full member, of the Russian Academy of 
Sciences, and later he received the title of " state 
councilor." His greatest merit was the discovery of 
galvanoplasty (1838). Besides his "Die Galvano- 
Pla.stik " (St. Petersburg, 1840) and "Meinoire sur 
I'Application de rElectromagnetisme an Mouve- 
ment des Machines " (iVj. 1835), Jacobi published a 
large number of papers in the " Memoires " of the 
Academy of St. Petersburg. 

Bibliography: Brcckliaiis Konversations-Lexikun; Wild, 
Ziun (jediiclitnis an Moritz Hermann Jacobi, 187ti. 


JACOBI, SAMUEL : Danish physician ; born 
in Yaroslav, Galicia, 1764; died in Copenhagen 
1811. He studied the Talmud for some years, but 
later devoted himself to medical studies, which he 
pursued at the universities of Breslau. Leipsic, and 
Halle, obtaining liis diploma from the last-named. 




In 1792 ]ie settkd in Copenhagon, und in 1790 ob 
tuined pcimission to practise medicine in Denmark. 
In 1798 a royal patent assured liim tliat his faith 
should prove no hindrance to his jiromotion. 

Jacobi was a very active worker in the interests 
of his coreligionists. He acted as physician to the 
Jewish ]i<)or, and assisted in founding a ficc school 
for Jewish boys, as administrator of which he otli- 
ciated until his death. During the last year of his 
life Jacobi was vice-president of the Danish Medical 

BiBLiOGRAPnv: C. F. Bricka, Dansk Bingrafisk Lexicon. 
s. F. C. 

JACOBS, GEORGE : American rabbi of Eng- 
lish iSephardic descent: born in Kingston, Jamaica. 
Sept. 24, 1834; died in Philadelphia July 14, 1884. 
He went to the United States in 1854 and settled in 
Richmond, Va., freijuentl}' officiating for the Con- 
gregation Beth Shalome, studying meanwhile for the 
ministry ; in 1857 he was elected to the rabbinate. 
In 1869 he succeeded Isaac Leeser as rabbi of the 
Congregation Beth EI Emeth in Philadelphia. He 
was connected with many Jewish and other lodges, 
and was one of the founders of the Young ]\Ien's 
Hebrew Association of Philadelphia, of the Board 
of Jewish Ministers of Philadelphia, and of the 
American Jewish Publication Society. He was a 
contributor to the Philadelphia Jewish press, pub- 
lished several catechisms, and aided in the revision 
of the English of the Szold-Jastrow Praj'er-Book. 

Bibliography : JewMi Record (Philadelphia), JulvlS and 2:% 
and Oct. 24, 1884. 


JACOBS, HENRY S. : American rabbi ; born 
in Kingston, Jamaica, March 23, 1827; died in New 
York Sept. 12, 1893. He studied for the Jewish 
ministry under the Rev. N. Nathan, at Kingston, 
holding at the same time the jiosition of liead mas- 
ter in the Jewish Free School. At tlie age of 
twenty he accepted a call from the congregation in 
Spanish Town, but later returned to Kingston as 
rabbi of the English and German synagogue there. 
In 1854 he went to the United States as rabbi of 
the Congregation Beth Shalome in Richmond. Va. 
His subsequent rabbinates were at Charleston (1858- 
1862), at New Orleans (1866-73), and at New York 
(Shearith Israel, 1873-74; B'nai Jeshurun, 1874-93). 
The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred upon 
him in 1900. He was president of the Board of 
Jewish Ministers of New York from its organiza- 
tion until his death, and was vice-president of the 
New York branch of the Alliance Israelite Uni- 
versclle. A. 

JACOBS, JOSEPH: Critic, folklorist, histo- 
rian, statistician, communal worker; born Aug. 29, 
1854, at Sydney, N. S. W. ; educated at Sydney 
Grammar School, Sydney and London universities, 
and St. John's College, Cambridge (senior moralist, 
1876)'. After taking hisB.A. degree at Cambridge 
he went to Berlin (1877), where he studied under 
Steinschneider and Lazarus. From 1878 to 1884 he 
was secretary of the Society of Hebrew Literature. 
In the London "Times" of Jan. 11 and 13, 1882, ap- 
peared articles by Jacobs on the'persecution of the 
Jews in Russia which drew the attention of Europe 

to the "pogrom" of 1881 and led to the Mansion Meeting of Feb. 1, 1882, and to the forma- 
tion of the Mansion House Fund and Committee, of 
which Jacobs was secretary (1882-1900). From his 
ccmnection with the Mansion House (later Russo- 
Jewish) Committee he was led to investigate the 
general "Jewish (piestion," as a result of which he 
published a bibliography (1885) and social and 
other statistics of the Jews of Europe in a series of 
papers contributed to the "Jewish Chronicle " and 
to the "Journal of the Anthropological Institute" 
(1882 to 1889; afterward republished as "Studies in 
Jewisli Statistics," 1890); they were among tlie 
first attempts to apply the principles of statistical 
science to modern Jewish problems. 

Meanwhile his attention Iiad been drawn to Jew- 
ish history by the Anglo-Jewish Historical E.xhibi- 
tion of 1887, to the literature and art committee of 
which he was honorary secretary, in that capacity 
compiling, with Lucien Wolf, the catalogue of the 
exhibition. He was associated with Wolf in the 
compilation also of a bibliography of Angio-Jewish 
history as one of the publications of the exhibition. 
This bibliography has been the inspiration of all 
subsequent research in that field. In 1888 he imder- 
took a literary journey to Spain to investigate the 
Jewish manuscript sources of that country; the 
results of his journey were published in 1893 under 
the title "Sources of Spanish-Jewish History." In 
1891 he wrote, in connection, with the Guildhall 
Meeting, a further account of Russian persecutions, 
witii an appendix on anti-Jewish legislation in Rus- 
sia (reprinted by the Jewish Publication Society of 

From his researches in connection with the Anglo- 
Jewish Historical Exhibition Jacobs was led to 
study the early history of the Jews in England, on 
which he published his "Jews of Angevin England " 
(1893). In 1896 he collected a number of his essays 
on Jewish philosophy and history under the title 
" Jewish Ideals " ; in the same year appeared the 
first issue of his "Jewish Year-Book." One of the 
chief critics of the " Athenneum," he wrote necrolo- 
gies on George Eliot, Matthew Arnold, Newman, 
Stevenson, and others, later assembled under the 
title "Literary Essays " (1894). He has published 
also a volume on " Tennyson and ' In Memoriam ' " 
(1892). Jacobs has issued many editions of English 
classics, including Howell's "Familiar Letters" 
and Painter's "Pnlace of Pleasure, "and has written 
introductions to Jane Austen's "Emma,"' Thack- 
eray's "Esmond," and other masterpieces. Toward 
the end of 1896 he visited the United States, lectur- 
ing at Gratz College in Philadelphia and before the 
Coimcil of Jewish Women at New York, Philadel- 
phia, and Chicago, on the "Philosophy of Jewish 
History." Jacobs was one of the founders of the 
Jewish Historical Society of England, of which he 
was president (1898-99), and also of the Maccabeans. 
He was for many years on the executive committee 
of the Anglo-Jewish Association and on the conjoint 
committee of tliat body with the Board of Deputies. 
In 1900 he went to Now York to act as revising edi- 
tor of the Jkwish Encvclopedi.\, in which capacity 
he is still engaged (1904). He was connected for a 
time with the "Jewish Chronicle "of London and 

Jacobs, Joseph 
Jacobsou, Ludwig- 



the "Jewish World " (New York), and is one of tlie 
editors of "Jewish Charity." 

Jacobs is one of the chief English authorities on 
folk-lore, and was editor of "Folk-Lore," honorary 
secretary of the International Folk-Lore Council, 
and chairman of the literary committee of the Folk- 
Lore Congress in London, 1881. He lias published 
many works in this field, notably a reprint (1889) of 
Caxton's "Esope" with a volume of prolegomena 
on the history of the ^sop fable, as well as several 
volumes of English and other folk-tales. From his 
studies in folk-lore he was, in his " Studies in Bib- 
lical Archeology " (1894), led to apply to the Bible 
the method of comparative institutional archeology. 
Jacobs has also written an imaginative life of Jesus 
from a Jewish standpoint ("As Others Saw Him," 
1895; 3d ed. 1903). 

Bibliography: Men and Women of the Time, 1894 ; Who's 
Wlio in England ; Who's Who in America ; Dictionnaire 
Inteinational des Folkloristes, 1889 ; Nat. Diet, of Am. 
Bwg.; Encjic. of Am. Bwg. 1903; Critic (New York), Jan. 33, 
1897; Brit. Mas. Cat. Supplement, 1903, ft.v. 
A. I. A. 

JACOBS, JOSEPH (known as Jacobs the 
Wizard): English conjurer; born at Canterbury 
1813; died Oct. 13, 1870. He first appeared in Lon- 
don at Horn's Tavern, Kennington, in 1835, when 
he introduced the Chinese ring trick. At the Strand 
Theatre in 1841 he achieved a great success by the 
aid of expensive apparatus. Jacobs in 1850 in- 
vented the trick of producing from under a shawl 
bowls of water containing goldfish ; lie appeared 
at the Adelaide Gallery in 1853, in America in 1854, 
and in Australia and New Zealand in 1860. In the 
last-cited year he opened the Polygraphic Hall in 

Bibliography : Jewish Record, Nov. 18, 1870; Frost, Lives of 
the Conjurer.'i, pp. 214-220, London, 1876; Boase, Modern 
British Biography. 
J. G. L. 

JACOBS, SIMEON: Judge in the Supreme 
Court of the Cape of Good Hope; born in 1830; 
died in London June 15, 1883. He became a bar- 
rister of the Inner Temple in Nov., 1852. In 1860, 
in search of health, he emigrated to the Cape of 
Good Hope, and in 1861 was appointed attorney- 
general of British Kaffraria, which office he held 
till 1866, when he became solicitor-general at the 
Cape of Good Hope. He acted as attorney-general 
from 1874 to 1882, in which year he was promoted 
puisne judge and made a member of the executive 
council. lu the course of a few months he retired 
from active life, and was created C.M.G. in Nov., 

Bibliography : Jew. Chron. and Jew. World. June 23, 1883; 
Time» (London), June 20, 1883; Zingari, March 14, 1873; 
Cape Argus, July, 1883 ; Boase, Modern Britisli Biography. 

J. G. L. 

JACOBSOHN, PAUL : German physician and 
hygienist; born in Berlin Sept. 30, 1868; educated 
at the gymnasium in Berlin and the universities of 
Berlin and Freiburg (M.D. 1891). He settled in his 
native city, and from 1892 to 1894 was assistant 
physician at the Jewish hospital there. From 1894 
to 1897 he was assistant at the dispensary of Martin 
Mendelsohn ; and since 1898 he has been coeditor 
with E. Dietrich of the " Deutsche Krankenpflege- 
Zeitung," of which he was the founder. 

Jacobsohn's specialty is the improvement of 
nursing and the training of nurses. He founded 
the Deutsche Krankenpfiegerbund (society of Ger- 
man nurses) in 1899. Jacobsohn lias invented a 
special stretcher for the conveyance of patients, 
and a scale for weighing. Among his works may 
be mentioned : " Handbuch der Krankenversorgung 
uud Krankenpflege " (with G. Liebe and G. Meyer), 
Berlin, 1898-1902. 

s. F. T. H. 

JACOBSON : Danish family of engravers, of 
whom the first important member was Aaron. 
Jacobson (1717-75), who, in the middle of the eight- 
eenth century, left Hamburg and settled in Copen- 
hagen, where (1745) he became engraver of the royal 
seals. He had two sons : David Aaron Jacobson. 
(born in Copenhagen 1753; succeeded his father as 
royal engraver) and Solomon Aaron Jacobson. 
(born in Copenhagen 1754; died there June 28, 1830). 
Solomon Jacobson was a skilful engraver, and in 
1788 went to Stockholm to make miniature repro- 
ductions in precious stones of some antique statuary 
belonging to Gustavus HI. of Sweden. He was 
a member of the Academy of Arts of Stockholm, 
and was admitted (1796) to membership in the Da- 
nish Academy of Fine Arts, to which he had sub- 
mitted an onyx engraving of Apollo. He engraved 
also several medals, among them being the "Ole 
Borch Medal " and a medal in commemoration of 
Queen Marie Sofie Frederikke. Albert Jacobson, 
son of Solomon Jacobson, also became a noted medal- 
ist and a member of the Danish and Swedish acade- 
mies of arts. He carved (1826) in topaz a portrait 
of King Frederick VI. of Denmark, and (1827) in 
carnelian a portrait of Emperor Nicholas I. 

Bibliography: Salmo.nsen''s Store Illustrercde Konversa- 
ti^ms- Lexicon. 

s. F. C. 

JACOBSON, EDTJARD: German dramatist; 
born at Gross Strelitz, Silesia, Nov. 10, 1833 (M.D. 
Berlin, 1859); died in Berlin Jan. 29, 1897. He es- 
tablished himself as a physician in Berlin. While n 
student he wrote the farce " Faust und Gretchen " 
(1856) ; and from this time on he wrote — either alone 
or in collaboration with O. F. Berg, O. Girndt, G. v. 
Moser, Julius Rosen, and others — burlesques whicli 
became stock pieces in almost all German theaters. 
The following may be specially mentioned: "Meine 
Tante— Deine Tante ! " (Berlin, 1858); "Lady Beef- 
steak" (1860); "WerZuletzt Lacht" (1861); "Back- 
fische. oder ein Madchenpensionat " (1864); "Seine 
Bessere Halfte" (1864); "Humor Verloren— Alles 
Verloren!" (1867); "1,733 Thaler 22^ Silber- 
groschen" (1870); "500,000 Teufel" (played 300 
times successively in Berlin); "Der Nachbar zur 
Linken" (1887); "Das Lachende Berlin" (1888); 
" Salon tirolerin " (1888) ; and " Goldfuchs " (1890). 

Bibliography : Meyers Konversations-Lexihon, 1897. 


JACOBSON, HEINRICH : German physician ; 
born Oct. 27, 1826, at Konigsberg, East Prussia; 
died Dec. 10, 1890, at Berlin ; educated at the gymna- 
sium of his native town and at the universities of 
Heidelberg, Berlin, Prague, and Halle, he graduated 
from the last-named as doctor of medicine in 1847. 
Settling as a physician in Konigsberg, he became 
privat-docent, and in 1872 assistant professor, at the 



Jacobs, Joseph 
Jacobson, Ludwig' 

university of that town. Being elected chief phy- 
sician at tlie Jewish Hospital (Jildisches Kranken- 
haus: Inneie IStatiou) in Berlin in 1872, he removed 
to the German capital, where he resided for the re- 
mainder of Iiis lite. 

Jacobson was a great clinicist, and wrote many 
essaysaud books, especially on experimental pathol- 
ogy. Among them are: "Beitriige zur Hamody- 
namik" (in Reichert-Du Bois's "Archiv," 1860-62); 
"Zur Einleitung in die Hamodynamik " {ih. 1861); 
"Ueber die Blutbewegung in den Venen" (in Vir- 
chow's "Archiv fur Pathologische Anatomic und 
Physiologic und fur Klinische Medizin "), 1866, 1867 ; 
" Ueber Normale und Pathologische Localtempera- 
tur," Berlin, 1870; "Ueber die Herzgerausche," 
"Ueber den Blutdruck in Comprimitirter Luft." 

Bibliography: Jew. Clinm. Dec. 19,1890; Pagel, Bivg. Lex. 
S.V., Vienna, 1901. 
s. F. T. H. 


German jurist and writer on ecclesiastical law; born 
at Marienwerder June 8, 1804; died at Konigsberg 
March 19, 1868. He studied in the latter city, and 
at Gottingen and Berlin; became privat-docent at 
the University of Konigsberg; assistant professor 
in 1831 ; and professor of law in 1836. Early in life 
Jacobson embraced Christianity. He wrote : " Kirch- 
enrechtliclie Versuche " (2 vols., Konigsberg, 1831- 
1833); "Gesch. der Quellen des Kirchenrechts des 
Preussischen Staats" (3 vols., ib. 1837-44); "Der 
Preussische Staat " (Leipsic, 1854) ; " Ueber das 
Oesterreichische Konkordat " («6. 1856); and "Das 
Evangelische Kirchenrecht des Preussischen Staats 
und Seiner Provinzen " (2 parts, Halle, 1864-66), 
which was his principal work. Jacobson took 
a very active part in the ecclesiastical movement of 
his time and became a partizan of the Free Evan- 
gelical Church. In this capacity he wrote on mixed 
marriages (1838), and on the genuflection of Protes- 
tants in Bavaria (1844), etc. 

Bibliography: Mci/crs Konversations-Lexikon, 1897. 

JACOBSON, ISRAEL : German philanthropist 
and reformer; born in Halberstadt Oct. 17, 1768; died 
in Hanover Sept. 14, 1828. Originally his father's 
name was Jacob. His parents were in humble cir- 
cumstances. Owing to the very low level of efficiency 
of the Halberstadt public schools, Israel attended 
mainly the Jewish religious school, in his leisure 
hours studying on his own account. At the age of 
nineteen, after having accumulated a small fortune, 
he became engaged to the granddaughter of Philip 
Samson, founder of the Samson-Schule at Wolfen- 
bilttel, at which Zunz and Jost were educated. 
Jacobson took up his residence in Brunswick, and, 
possessing great financial ability, rapidly increased 
his fortune. He established (1801) in Seesen, near 
the Ilarz Mountains, a school in which forty Jewish 
and twenty Christian children were to be educated 
together, receiving free board and lodging. This 
close association of children of different creeds was 
a favorite idea of his. The Jacobson school soon ob- 
tained wide reputation, and hundreds of pupils from 
neighboring places were educated there. During 
the liundred years of its existence it has stood fore- 
most in every line of educational work. 

Israel Jacobson. 

Jacobson very soon perceived the necessity of im- 
buing the young as early as possible with proper 
religious impressions. In 1810 he built a beautiful 
temple within the school-grounds and showed his 
Reform sympathies by supplying it with an organ, 
the first instance of the placing of an organ in a 
Jewish house of worship. Hymns in German were 
sung by the boys; and 
prayers in German were 
added to those in He- 
brew. The liberality 
of his views was further 
shown by his strong 
advocacy of the intro- 
ducticm of confirma- 
tion. It was Jacobson 
himself who, in 1811, 
confirmed, in the Seesen 
Synagogue, the first 
five Jewish boys. 
When, under Napole- 
on's rule, the kingdom 
of Westphalia was cre- 
ated, and Jerome, the 
emperor's brother, was 
placed at its head, 

Jacobson, who had removed to Cassel, the resi- 
dence of the king, Avas appointed president of the 
Jewish consistory. In this capacity, assisted by 
a board of officers, he did his. best to exercise a re- 
forming influence upon the various congregations of 
the countrj'. He opened a house of prayer in Cassel, 
with a ritual similar to that introduced in Seesen; 
he also advocated a seminary for the training of 
Jewish teachers. 

After Napoleon's fall (1815) Jacobson removed to 
Berlin, where also he attempted to introduce reforms 
in divine service. For this purpose he opened in his 
own house a hall for worship in which eloquent ser- 
mons were delivered b}'^ Zunz, Kley, and Auer- 
bach; but the Prussian government, remembering 
the French sympathies of Jacobson, and receiving, 
moreover, continued complaints from the Orthodox 
party, ordered the services discontinued. It was 
through Jacobson's influence and persuasion that 
the so-called "Lcibzoll" (poll-tax) Avas abolished. 
Throughout his life Jacobson seized every oppor- 
tunity to promote a cordial understanding between 
Jews and Christians, and his great wealth enabled 
him to support many poor of both faiths. 

Bibliography: AUoemeine Deutsche Biographic, xiil. 619; 
Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 6. 
s. H. Ba. 

surgeon; born in Copenhagen Jan. 10, 1783; died 
there Aug. 29, 1843. He received his early education 
at the German Lyceum in Stockholm, Sweden, but 
on deciding to pursue the study of medicine removed 
to Copenhagen, where he entered the surgical acad- 
emy. He was graduated as C.B. and M.D. in 1804, 
and was appointed at his alma mater assistant sur- 
geon in 1806 and lecturer on chemistry in 1807. 
From 1807 to 1810 he was engaged as tutor at Den 
Kongelige VeterinaT og Landboh6jskole (the Royal 
Veterinary and Agricultural High School) in Copen- 

Jacobson, Ludwig: 
Jacoby, Johann 



During the bombardment of Copenhagen by the 
British (1807j, Jacobson served as a military surgeon 
at tlie lazaretto of the freemasons' academical lodge, 
and after the capitulation he sliowed his zeal for 
scientific research by requesting and obtaining per- 
mission to inspect the British field-hospitals, of 
which he later (1809) published an interesting ac- 
count in the "Bibliothek for Laeger." It was, how- 
ever, in the field of comparative anatomy that Jacob- 
son won his reputation. This science, which at that 
time constituted the main basis for the study of 
biology, was being zealously cultivated by the most 
distinguished savants. In 1809 Jacobson announced 
to the Danske Videnskabernes Selskab his discovery 
of and researches concerning a hitherto unknown 
absorptive organ in the human nose (later named 
after him "the Jacobsonian organ"). Of this dis- 
covery G. Cuvier published an account, "Descrip- 
tion Anatomiqued'un Organe Observe dans lesMam- 
miferes," in "Annales du Museum d'Histoirc Na- 
turelle " (Paris, 1811). This discovery 
The Jacob- at once placed Jacobson in the front 
sonian rank of the biologists of his age. The 
Organ. Danish society of sciences awarded 
him a silver medal of honor; he was 
given military rank as a regimental surgeon, and 
was granted a royal stipend to enable him to travel 
through Germany and France. 

During his sojourn in Paris Jacobson devoted a 
great deal of time to the study of practical medicine 
and surgery, and was so successful that the Danish 
government, on his return in 1813, obtained for him 
admission into the French army in order that he 
might study the medical system employed therein. 
In 1814 he served in a field-hospital near Leipsic, 
and became dangerously ill with fever when the 
lazaretto was attacked and pillaged by Cossacks. 
He returned to Denmark the same year (1814) and 
received from the University of Kiel an honorary 
diploma as doctor of medicine and surgery. In 1816 
the same university conferred upon him the title of 

Jacobson invented several appliances which 

proved of great benefit to the surgical profession. 

Of these ma}'^ be mentioned his appa- 

His ratus for the arrest of arterial hem- 

Surgical orrhage and his lithoclast for the 
In- crushing of stones in the bladder, 

struments. The latter instrument, which replaced 
the French lithotrites then in use, was 
later somewhat modified by the eminent French sur- 
geon Dupuytren. 

In 1833 the Academic des Sciences awarded Jacob- 
son one of the Monthyon prizes (4,000 francs), having 
previously awarded him a gold medal for his im- 
portant researches into the venal system of the kid- 
neys in birds and reptiles. On the death of the 
English anatomist Sir Everard Homes, Jacobson 
became his successor as a corresponding member of 
the Academic des Sciences. In 1836 he was elected 
an honorary member of the Kongelige INIedicinske 
Selskab, the Royal Medical Society (of Denmark). 

Jacobson was created a knight of the Danebroge 
in 1829, and he received the silver cross of the same 
order in 1836. He was also honored with decora- 
tions from several foreign potentates. In spite. 

however, of all the flattering recognition that he re- 
ceived, Jacobson felt depressed because he as a Jew 
was barred from the University of Copenhagen. A 
professorship had been offered him on the condition 
that he embrace Christianity, but he refused to 
abandon the faith of his fathers. His religious be- 
lief prevented also his accepting a special invitation 
to attend the first meeting of natural scientists to be 
held in Christiania (1822), because at that time the 
edict forbidding Jews to stay in Norway was still 
in force. 

Of Jacobson 's many writings the following may 
be mentioned : " Undersogelser over den Steensen'ske 
Naesekirtel hos Pattedyr og Fugle," Copenhagen, 
1813; " Nyreportaaresystemet hos Fisk, Padder, og 
Krybdyr," ib. 1813, 2d ed. 1821; "Primordial- 
nyrerne," i6. 1830; " Primordialkraniet, " i6. 1842. 

Bibliography: Salmonsen, Slnre Tlhtstrerede Konversa- 
tinns-Lericon ; C. F. Bricka, Dansk Jiiograflsk Lexicon ; 
Erslevv, For f alter ■Lexicmi. 
S. F. C. 

JACOBSON, NATHAN: American surgeon; 
born in Syracuse, N. Y., June 25, 1857. He was 
graduated from Syracuse University, and took a 
postgraduate course at the University of Vienna. 
He is professor of clinical surgery in the College of 
Medicine of Syracuse University, visiting physician 
to St. Joseph's Hospital at Syracuse, and consulting 
surgeon to the Syracuse Hospital for Women and 
Children. Jacobson has for more than twenty years 
been a member of the executive board of the Jewish 
Orphan Asylum of western New York. He has pub- 
lished numerous papers on surgical subjects. 


man architect; born at Stargard, Ponierania, Sept. 
17, 1839. He studied at the architectural academy 
in Berlin, and, after long travels through Greece and 
Asia Minor, became in 1874 professor in that insti- 
tution. At present (1904) he is teacher in the tech- 
nical high school at Berlin. His architectural abili- 
ties were especially displayed in the construction of 
railroad stations in Alsace-Lorraine (Metz, 1874-78; 
Strasburg, 1877-84), of the Alexanderplatz station 
of the Berlin surface railroad, and of the gates of 
the railway bridges of Dirschau and ]\Iarienburg. 
He has published: "Grammatik der Ornamente," 
2d ed., Berlin, 1880; " Siiditalienische Fliesenorna- 
mente," ib. 1887; and " Araceenformen in der Flora 
des Ornaments," 2(1 ed., 1889. 

BiBLincRAPHY : Meyers Konvernations-Lexikon, 1897. 


JACOBY, JOHANN: German physician and 
statesman ; born at Konigsberg, Prussia, May 1, 1805; 
died there March 6, 1877. The son of a well-to- 
do merchant, after attending the Konigsberg Col- 
legium Fredericianum, in 1823 he entered the univer- 
sity in that city, devoting himself to philosophy and 
medicine. After completing his course (1827) he 
journeyed through Germany and Poland, and estab- 
lished himself in Konigsberg as a physician in 1830, 
soon acquiring an extensive practise. 

In 1831 an article by him entitled "Einige Worte 
Gegen die Unentbchrlichkeit der Medicinisch-Chi- 
rurgischen Pepiniere zu Berlin " and consisting of an 
attack upon the administration of the medical schools, 



Jacobson, Ludwigr 
Jacoby, Johann 

appeared in the "Zeitsclirift fiir Staatsarznci- 
kunde." The same year witnessed the great cholera 
epidemic. The disease was then almost unknown in 
Europe, and Jacoby hastened to the Warsaw cholera 
hospital, where he battled energetically to stem its 
progress. On his return he was invited to lay the 
results of his researches before the Konigsberg Med- 
ical Society, the outcome being improved govern- 
ment regulations for the prevention and treatment 
of the disease. 

IJut Jacoby 's principal field of activity was to be 
the political, which he entered with a pamphlet en- 
titled " Ueber das V'erhaltniss des Koniglich-Preus- 
sischen Oberregieruugsraths Streck- 
Political fuss zu der Emancipation der Juden " 
Activity. (Hamburg, 1833), being a reply to the 
pamphlet of Streckfuss, "Ueber das 
Verhaltniss der Juden zum Christlichen Staate." 
Jacoby points out that the edict of March 11, 1812, 

did not break the fet- 
ters of the Jews in 
Prussia but only loos- 
ened them, inveighs 
against the plea of 
Streckfuss that the 
Jews should be satis- 
tied for thirty or forty 
years with the rights 
that had been granted 
to them, and insists 
upon the principle that 
Jews should be in- 
vested with equalit}^ 
as a matter of right 
instead of having 
privileges doled out 
to them as favors. 
In his pamphlet 
" Der Streit der Padagogen und Aerzte " (Konigs- 
berg, 1836) Jacoby advocated a concurrent mental 
and physical training for the young. An answer 
by Director Gotthold elicited Jacoby's "Die Apo- 
logie des Director Gotthold," in the same year. 
In July, 1838, he brought out his "Beitrage zu 
einer Kimftigen Gesch. der Censur in Preussen." 
Jacoby identified himself with the Liberal party, 
and won national recognition by his " Vier Fragen, 
Beaut wnrtet von einem Ostpreussen," which ap- 
peared in Feb., 1841, ou the eve of the meeting of 
the provincial parliament, to whose members it was 
addressed. This was at the beginning of the reign 
of Frederick William IV., when constitutional agi- 
tation was rife throughout the kingdom, and 
Jacoby's anonymous pamphlet, claiming a consti- 
tution as a matter of right, created much excitement. 
The author sent a copy to the king, together with a 
letter complaining that tlie pamphlet had been con- 
fiscated by the police of Leipsic, and appealing for 
royal protection. The response came in the form of 
arrest for lese-majesty and subversive criticism of 
the law. On April 20, 1842, Jacoby was found 
guilty and sentenced to two and a half years' im- 
prisonment, but was acquitted on appeal. Mean- 
while the pamphlet was republished in Strasburg 
and Paris. Three years later his two pamphlets en- 
titled "Preussen im Jahi-e 1845" and "Das Konig- 
VII.— 4 

Johann Jacoby. 

liche Wort Friedrich AVilhelms III." again moved 
the authorities to proceed against him. 

After such experiences it was natural that on the 
outbreak of the agitation of 1848' Jacoby should be 
recognized as one of the leaders of the democratic 
movement. He took a prominent part in the delibera- 
tions of the preliminary parliament convened at 
Frankfort -on-the-Main i\Iarch31, 1848, and compo.sed 
of unauthorized delegates chosen by a committee 
for the purpose of creating a popular constitution, 
and was chosen one of tlie committee of fifty to 
carry out the provisions of the resolutions adopted 
by it. On May 22, 1848, the opening day of the 
Preussische Nationalversammlung, he issued an ap- 
peal entitled "Deutschland und Preussen," main- 
taining that it was the duty of the Prussian depu- 
ties not to pursue a selfish Prussian policy but to 
labor to make Germany a free and united coimtry. 
A few weeks later he left Frankfort and went to 
Berlin, where he was elected a member of the Prus- 
sian National Assembly. He was ap- 
Member of pointed a member of the deputation 
Prussian which waited upon the king in vain 
National remonstrance against the Branden- 
Assembly. burg-Manteuffel ministry. When, 
after the address had been read, the 
king refused a hearing, he exclaimed, "That is 
the misfortune of kings; they do not wish to hear 
the truth." Jacoby continued to take part in the 
proceedings of the National Assembly after its re- 
moval to Stuttgart in 1849 and until its disso- 
lution. When he returned to Konigsberg in Octo- 
ber he was arrested for treason on the charge of 
having taken part in the "Stuttgart Rumpfparla- 
ment," was acquitted Dec. 8 following, and returned 
to his medical practise. But Jacoby could not long 
remain out of the turmoil of political life. At the 
assembly of the electors of Konigsberg Nov. 10 and 
11, 1858, he delivered a speech on the principles of 
the Prussian democracy. On May 17 following 
he was elected to the Prussian Abgeordnetenhaus 
(Chamber of Deputies), and affiliated with the ex- 
treme opposition. On Dec. 13, 1863, he delivered 
a speech to the electors of Berlin denouncing mili- 
tarism and the Junkers, for which he was sentenced 
to six months' imprisonment. Details of his trial 
are given in "Ein Urtheil des Berliner Kriminal- 
gerichts, Beleuchtet von Jacoby" (Leipsic^ 1864) 
and "Dr. Jacoby vor dem Kriminalsenate des Kam- 
mergerichts" {ib. 1865). 

In his "Heinrich Simon, ein Gedenkbuch fi'ir das 
I)eut.sche Volk " (Berlin, 1865) Jacoby paid a tribute 
to his former colleague. In 1866 appeared his pam- 
phlet" DerFreie Mensch, Eiick- und Vor.schau Eines 
Staatsgefangeuen." Other contributions to litera- 
ture were "Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, der Philo- 
soph," embodied in the biography of Le.ssing by 
Adolf Stahr (Berlin, 1861) and afterward printed 
.separately, and "Kant und Lessing, eine Parallele" 
(Konigsberg, 1867). 

Jacob}' gradually lost popularity during these 
later years, and at last stood alone in the chamber. 
He violently opposed Bismarck, the Austrian war, 
the reorganization of the army, and the North-Ger- 
man Bund. Estranged from the Fortschrittspartei, 
he sought to reorganize the Volkspartci, and on 




Jan. 30, 1868, in a speech at Berlin on " Das Zielder 
Deutsclien Volkspartei," claimed that the working 
classes must have a greater participa- 
Reorgan- tion in the government ; the speech was 
izer of the published at Konigsberginthe follow - 
Volkspar- ing year. In Sept., 1868, the Stuttgart 
tei. Congress adopted his program. On 

Jan. 20, 1870, Jacoby spoke at Berlin 
on "DasZielder Arbeiterbewegung" (Berlin, 1870), 
expounding the principles of Lassalle. His opposi- 
tion to the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine led to his 
arrest at a public meeting on Sept. 20, 1870, and he 
was confined for five weeks in the citadel of Lotzen. 
In 1874 Jacoby definitely adopted the Social-Demo- 
cratic program ; he was elected to the Reichstag in 
the same year, but declined to serve. A complete 
edition of Jacoby 's writings and addresses was pub- 
lished at Hamburg (1872, 2 vols. ; Supplement, 
1877). His "Geist der Griechischen Geschichte " 
was published after his death by F. Riihl (1884). 

Bibliography: Julian Schmidt, in National-Zeittmg, 1877, 
No. 147 ; I. MoUer, Rede Gehalten hei der Gedilchtnixfeier, 
etc., Konigsberg, 1877 ; Allg. Deutsche Biographic ; Brnck- 
hmis Konversations-Lexihoii; Meyers Konversations- 
s. M. Co. 

JACOBY, LOUIS: German engraver; born 
June 7, 1828, at Havelberg, Brandenburg, Germany ; 
pupil of the engraver Mandel of Berlin, in which 
city he settled. The year 1855 he spent in Paris; 
1856 in Spain ; and the years 1860-63 in Italy, espe- 
cially in Rome. In 1863 he was appointed professor 
of engraving at the Vienna Academy, and in 1882 
was called to Berlin as adviser on art to the imperial 

Jacoby 's first engraving, Tiarini's " St. John," ap- 
peared in 1850. His most important engravings are : 
Kaulbach's "The Battle of the Huns"; Raphael's 
" School of Athens " (of which he had made a copy 
during his stay at Rome) ; Soddoma's " The Wed- 
ding of Alexander and Roxana " ; Winterhalter's 
"The Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph and the 
Empress Elizabeth " ; as well as the portraits of many 
important scientists and members of society in the 
Austrian and German capitals, e.g., Rokitansky, 
Olfers, Ritter, Corneliu.s, Guhl, IMommsen, Henzen, 
Grillparzer, Briicke, De la Motte-Fouque, and York 
von Warteuburg. 

Bibliography: Meyers Konversations-Lexikn)) . 

s. F. T. H. 

ian musician of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; 
born about 1468. Jacopo was an eminent violinist ; 
his reputation is shown by the fact that in 1502 he 
played at the wedding of Lucrezia Borgia (Casti- 
glioui, "II Cortegiano," ii.). He held a prominent 
position at the court of Pope Leo X. Jacopo was 
also known as a handsome man, and is said to have 
been the original of Raphael's "Apollo on Parnas- 
sus " (Galleria Sciara, Rome). 

Bibliography: Burckhardt, Die Cidtur der Reiiaissance, p. 
:!88, Basel, 1868; Vogelstein and liieger, Juden in Rom, ii. 
3.5, 119, 120-121. 

D. - M. Sel. 

JACaUES, HEINRICH: Austrian deputy; 
born in Vienna Feb. 24, 1831 ; shot himself Jan. 25, 
1894. He studied philosophy and history at Heidel- 
berg, and afterward jurisprudence at Vienna (Dr. 

Juris, 1856). After having been for five years man- 
ager of the Vienna banking firm of Hermann von 
Wertheimstein Sohne, he severed his connection 
with the house in 1859, and settled in Vienna as an 

In 1879 Jacques was delegated from the first dis- 
trict of Vienna to the Reichsrath, where he joined 
the constitutional party (" Verfassungspartei "), and 
where he secured the passage of a law providing 
that a certain amount of property, the minimum suf- 
ficient for subsistence, should be exempt from taxa- 
tion. He also endeavored, by repeated motions, to 
arrange that the full right to pension — especially for 
railway and postal employees — should commence 
after thirty -five years' service. 

Jacques was director of the following enterprises: 
the Theissbahn, the Slid-Norddeutsche Verbind- 
ungsbahn, the Sildbahn, the Creditanstalt, and the 
Wiener Handelsakademie; in the interests of the 
last-named institution he labored for twenty years, 
first as its founder, and afterward as its vice-presi- 
dent. In 1870 he superintended the collection for 
the wounded in the Franco-Prussian war, and in 1873 
was decorated with the Prussian Order of the Crown. 

His best-known works are: "Theorie und Praxis 
im Civilrecht," Vienna, 1857; "Denkschrift liber die 
Stellung der Juden in Oesterreich," 4th ed., 1859; 
"Unterrichtsrath und Uuterrichtswesen in Oester- 
reich," 1863; "Revolution und Reaction in Oester- 
reich 1848-49," 1867; "Die Wuchergesetzgebuug 
und das Civil- und Strafrecht," 1867; "Die Legisla- 
tive Organisation der Freien Advocatur," 1868; 
"Grundlagen der Pressgesetzgebung," 1874; "Ab- 
handlungen zur Reform der Gesetzgebung," Leip- 
sic, 1874; "Alexis de Tocqueville," Vienna, 1876; 
"Eisenbahnpolitik und Eisenbahnrecht in Oester- 
reich," 1878; " Oesterreich 's Gegenwart und Nachste 
Zukunft," 1888. Of a greater work, " Revision des 
Deutschen und Oesterreichischen Strafrechtes," 
which he had planned, only the first volume was 

s. L. Y. 

JACaUES PASHA (Jacques Nissim Pasha): 

Turkish army surgeon ; born in 1850 at Salonica ; died 
there Aug. 25, 1903. The son of a physician, he was 
sent at an early age to the school of medicine at 
Constantinople, from which he was graduated in 
1874. In the following year he was attached, with 
the rank of captain, to the hospital Haidar Pasha at 
Constantinople, and in the same year he accompanied, 
as adjutant-major, a Turkish detachment to Bosnia 
and Herzegovina. He later became director of the 
Central Hospital of Salonica, which position he oc- 
cupied until his death. He was also appointed 
medical inspector of the Third Army Corps at Salo- 
nica and inspector of public and private hygiene for 
the vilayet of Salonica. He died from gangrene con- 
tracted while dressin^the wound of a soldier who had 
been disabled in a skirmish with the INIacedonians. 
He was decorated with the orders of Nishan-i-Med- 
jidie and Nishan-i-Osmanie, the medal of Iftikhar, 
and a number of foreign decorations. He was pres- 
ident of the Bikkur Holim of Salonica. 

Bibliography : FA Ai^enir, Salonica, Auk. 26, 1903; Mnniteur 
Oriental, Sept. 1, 1903; Jew. Chron. Sept. 4, 1903. 

s. M. Fr. 




JADASSOHN, JOSEF: German physician; 

burn at Liciinitz Sept. 10, 186:1 He was educated 
at the universities of Giittingen, Breslau, Ileidel- 
berp:, and Leipsic (M.D. Breshiu, 1886). From 1887 
to 1893 lie Avas assistant pli^'sieian at tlie dermato- 
logical liospital and dispensary of tlio University of 
Breslau, and from 1892 to 1896 physieian-iu-chief of 
the dermatological department of the Allerheiligen 
Hospital. In 1896 he Mas appointed assistant pro- 
fessor, and director of the dermatological clinic, at 
the University of Bern; iu 1904, professor. He lias 
contributed various essays on .syphilis and dermatol- 
ogy to the medical joui-nals, and is the author of 
"Veuerische Krankheiten," in Ebsteiu-Schwalbe's 
"Ilandbuch der Praktischen Medizin." 

BufLiOGRAPiiv: Pajrel, Bing. Lex. Vienna, 1901. 

s. F. T. H. 

poser and music teacher ; born at Breslau, Prussia, 
Aug. lo, 1831 ; pupil at the Breslau gymnasium and 
of Hesse (pianoforte), Llistner (violin), and Brosig 
(liarmon}'). In 1848 he entered the Leipsic Conserva- 
torium, wiiicli, however, he left after a year in order 
to study with Liszt at Weimar. Here he advanced 
raiiidly, and eventually became a virtuoso of no 
mean ability. 

After a private course iu composition under 
Hauptmann, Jadassohn in 1853 settled in Leipsic as 
a teacher of music. In 1806 he became conductor 
of the Psalterion Choral Society, and from 1867 to 
1869 was director of the Euterpe concerts. Since 1871 
he lias been professor of harmony, composition, and 
instrumentation at the Couservatorium ; and his trea- 
tises on these subjects are considered among the best. 

Jadassohn's most noteworthy theoretical works 
are: "Harmonielehre " (Leipsic, 1883, and four later 
editions; English ed., New York, 1893; 2d revised 
ed., 1894; also translated into French and Italian); 
" Kontrapunkt " (1884) ; " Die Formen in den AYerkeu 
der Tonkunst" (1889; 2d ed., 1894); "Lehrbuchder 
Instrumentation " (1889). In addition to these works, 
most of which have been translated into English, Ja- 
dassohn has published more than 130 compositions. 

Bibliography : Mendel, Muxih-Lexikon ; Baker, Biog. Diet, 
of Muficianf. Famous Composers and Their Works, p. 
595, Boston, 1900; Rieuiann, Mmik-Lexikon, s.v., 1900. 

s. J. So. 

JADDTJA: High priest at the time of the Sec- 
ond Temjile. According to Neh. xii. 11, his father's 
name was Jonathan, but according to verse 33 of 
the same chapter, it was Johanan. If both of these 
names are correct, and if Johanan was the son of 
Jonathan, or vice versa, Jaddua belonged to the 
si.xth generation after Jeshua, the first high priest 
who returned from the E.xile; but if "Jonathan" 
and "Johanan" refer to one person, then Jaddua 
Avas of the fifth generation. A certain Jaddus, son 
of Joannes, whose brother ]Manasseh married Sanbal- 
lat's daughter, officiated at the time of Alexander the 
Great (Josephus, "Ant." xi. 7, § 2); and between 
this date and the return from the Exile there are six, 
rather than five, generations. Indeed, even six seem 
to be too few. The hypothesis that Johanan and 
Jonathan were father and son is therefore the more 
probable, since the Jaddua mentioned by Nehemiah 
seems to be identical AVith the Jaddus mentioned by 

Josephus; but it must be noted that the Septuagint 
has once 'Judat and once 'lihlu, which do not corre- 
spond well with 'IftfMotf, found in Jcsephus. The 
liigli ])riest whom Alexander the Great greeted 
respectfully before the gates of Jerusalem was Jad- 
dus, according to Jose])hus(" Ant." xi. 8, ^ 4); while 
in Talmudic accounts the same story is told of Simon 
the Just. But as Jaddua's son was the same Onias 
("Ant." xi. 8, ^ 7) wlio was, according to another 
source (I Mace. xii. 7, 8, 20), acontemporaiy of King 
Areusof Sparta (309-26515.0.), and as the often-men- 
tioned Simon the Just was Onias' son ("Ant." xii. 2, 
i^ 5), there is an insolvable discrejiancy between 
Josephus and the Talmud. Josephus must be given 
the preference here, as it is well known that the Tal- 
mud was inclined to group all the legends of tliat 
period around the person of Simon ; and the act of 
Alexander the Great seems to be merely a legend. 

The Christian chroniclers, as Eusebius, the " Chro- 
nicon Paschale," and Syncellus, of course follow 
Josephus; while the Jewish chroniclers of the Mid- 
dle Ages tried to solve the diflerence in a naive 
way which excited the ridicule of Azariah dei Rossi 
("Me'or 'Enayim," t^ 37). The Jewish sources write 
the name in the form ny or xny; e.ff., Simon Duran 
in "Magen Abot," p. 4d (Leipsic, 1855). A more 
detailed account of the person of Jaddua would 
have to deal with the question how the lists of high 
priests in Nehemiah and in Josephus are to be inter- 

Bibliography: Herzfeld, Gcsch. dcs VoU;es Israel, ii. 368; 
Griitz, Gesch. 2d ed., ii. 221; Schilrer, Gesch. 3d ed., i. 183; 
Skreinka, Beitrdge zur Eiitwickelungsgesch. der Jildi- 
sclien Dngmen, pp. 140-153, Vienna, 1861; Krauss, in J.Q. 
R. X. 361. 

0. S. Kb. 

Heber, the Kenite (Judges iv. 17). Jabin, the king 
of Canaan, "that reigned in Hazor," liad tyrannized 
over Israel for twenty years. Deborah and Barak 
aroused the northern tribes and assembled them at 
Mount Tabor, to throw ofE, if possible, the yoke of 
their oppressor. Jabin "s general, Sisera, took the 
field at the head of a great Canaanitish army, but 
was defeated by Israel. In his flight Sisera, who 
was on foot, came to the tent of Jael, whose hu.sband 
had been on good terms with King Jabin. She in- 
vited him into her tent: "Turn in, my lord, turn in 
to me; fear not." He accepted the prolTei'ed refuge 
and hospitality. She gave him nourishment in the 
form of curds, and concealed him in her tent. He 
asked her to protect him against any one who should 
be seeking him. As soon as he had fallen asleep 
she stealthily crept up to him and drove a tent pin 
into his temples; and when she saw Barak in ])ursuit 
she invited him in to see his enemy prostrate in death. 

The poetic account (Judges v.), while it does not 
give all the details of the prose record, by no means 
conflicts; it is complementary. Jael's act, praised 
in Judges v. 24, is contrary to modern ideas of right 
and to the obligations of hospitality as recognized 
in the East to-day. But she was a Kenite, akin to 
Israel; and history contains many precedents to 
justify a breach of faith under such circumstances. 
Though barbarous to modern sentiment, her act was 
not below the morality of her times. 

E. G. II. I. M P. 




JASN : Capital of the i^rovinc-e of Jaen in Anda 
lusia, Spain. It possessed a tlourishiug Jewish com- 
munity as early as the thirteenth century. In 1391 
many of its members were either killed or forced to 
accept baptism. A still heavier blow fell upon the 
Jews of Cordova and the Maranosof Jaen in JVIarch, 
1473. The Connetabe Miguele Lucas de Iranzo, 
wlio tried t(j protect the Maranos, had to seek 
refuge, and was speared to death in a church by the 
infuriated populace, who then fell upon the Maranos 
and Jews, plundering and killing them. The mas- 
sacre at Jaen was even more terrible than that at 
Bibliography : Rios, Hi><t. ii. 362, iii. 159 et sea. 

G. M. K. 

JAFFA (Hel)r. Yafo ; A. V. Joppa ; Greek, 
Joppe ; Arabic, Yaffa) : City of Palestine and Medi- 
terranean port, i55 miles northwest of Jerusalem. 
In ancient times it was Palestine's only point of 
with the Medi 
terranean. The 
cedars of Leba 
non, destined for 
use in the con- 
struction of Sol- 
omon's Temple, 
were disem- 
barked at Jaffa 
(II Chion. ii. 15 
[A. V. 16] ; Ezra 
iii. 7). The 
prophet Jonah 
embarked there 
for Tarshish (Jo- 
nah i. 3). There 
is no f II r t h e r 
mention of the 
city in the Old 

At a later date 
the Maccabean 

princes Jonathan and Simon wrested it from the 
Syrians (I Mace. x. 76, xiv. 5). At the time of the 
Jewish insurrection against the Ro- 
Historical mans the town was taken by assault 
Data. and burned by Cestius, 8,000 in- 
habitants being massacred by the 
Roman soldiers. Some time afterward the Jews re- 
built the city walls. Pirates, putting out from the 
port of Jaffa, troubled tiie coasts of Phenicia and 
Syria, which brought down the Romans upon the 
city anew. Vespasian took it by a night attack, 
razed it to the ground, and erected in its place a 
citadel in which he placed a Roman garrison. 

There is no record of any Jews in Jaffa imder the 
Byzantine domination, but there are mentioned in 
Babli a Rab Adda and a R. Aha of Yafo (Ta'an. 16b ; 
Meg. 16b). Under the Arabs there were no Jews in 

During the period of the Crusades Benjamin of 
Tudela (1170) sojourned at Jaffa, and found there 
one Jew only, a dyer. At the end of the sixteenth 
century Jaffa, according to the traveler Cotwyk, 
was only a heap of ruins. 

In 1780 the grand rabbinate of Constantinople 

otlicially requested a Christian official, one Hanna 
Domia, to protect Jews i)assing through Jaffa on 
their way to Jerusalem. In 1820 I.saiah Agimann, 
who acted as banker of the Janizaries at Constanti- 
nople, shocked by the humiliation to which Jews 
were exposed at Jaffa, purchased there a piece of 
real estate which he legally transferred to the 
Sephardic community of Jerusalem. One part of 
this served as a free hotel for Jewish travelers, in 
which was fitted up a prayer-room. Little by little 
the Jews established them.selves in Jaffa. 

A sailing vessel from the north of Africa, with a 
large number of passengers, foundered be- 
fore Haifa; and those who escaped from the wreck 
settled at Jaffa. In 1839 a body of A.shkenazim, com- 
ing from Europe, established themselves at Jaffa. 
The community was, however, too poor to buy a cem 
etery, and continued to bury its dead at Jerusalem. 

In 1841 the chief rabbi of Jerusalem, Abraham 

Haj'yim Gagin, 

Plan of the Modern City of Jaffa. 

assigned to Jaffa 
rabbi. Thence- 
forth the old 
" herem " of the 
Jerusalem rab- 
bis against the 
settlement of 
Jews in Jaffa, 
the object of 
Miiicli was to at- 
tract all immi- 
grants to Jeru- 
salem, ceased to 
be binding. 
Jews even from 
Jerusalem went 
to Jaffa and es- 
tablished them- 
selves there for 
commercial pur- 
poses. Among 
these may be cited Amzaleg, the present English 
consul in the city. 

Jaffa, in a total population of 17,713 inhabitants, 
including 11,630 Moslems and 3.113 Christians, 
besides Armenians, Greeks, Latins, IManmites, and 
Copts, possesses 2.970 Jews, of whom 1,210 are 
Sephardim and 1,760 Ashkenazim. The Jews oc- 
cupy three city districts, bearing the respective 
names "Neweh Zedek," "Neweh Shalom," and 
"Neweh Yafeh," and each comprising 
Present a block of houses. The Jewish mar- 
Statistics, ket, consisting of shops and work- 
rooms, is partly on the quay and partly 
on the main street traversing the city. Although 
of recent foundation, the community possesses a 
number of institutions, e.g. : 

The Hospital Sha'ar Ziyyon, founded In 1891, and sustained 
by the gifts of the Jewish philanthropists of Europe ; a public 
library, founded in 18s."), and containing several thousands of 
books in different languages ; two schools, founded in 1894, sus- 
tained by the Alliance Israelite and by Zionist societies of Rus- 
sia and Vienna, and educating 118 boys and 241 girls ; two Tal- 
mud Torahs: one. Or Torah, Sephardic, founded (18.38) throujrh 
the iiiiiniflcence of Baron Menasc^ of .Alexandria and educating 
180 boys ; the other, Sha'are Torah, Ashkenazic, dating from 1884 
and accommodating 130 boys ; three Ashkenazic synagoguesi 




one Sepliardic ; and some private midrashim. Jaffa possesses also 
five Jewish benevolent societies, auiou^ Ilieni a B'nai B'rith 

In 1898 Jaffa liad for chief rabbi Josepli ben 

Nuss(d. 1901). He was succeeded by Kabbi Maika. 

Bibliography: Ahnnnach Lunrz, 1898; litiUetin d' AU iance 
Israelite, 1901 ; S. Munk, La Palcxtine. 
D. M. Fh. 

JAFFE ( JOFFE) : Family of rabbis, scholars, 
and communal workers, with members in Germany, 
Austria, Russia, Great Britain, Italy, and the United 
States. It traces its descent from Mordecai Jaffe 
(1530-1612), authorof the "Lebushim," and his uncle 
Moses Jaffe, both descendants of an old family of 
Prague. According to Joseph I.CAvinstein, rabbi at 
Serock, government of Warsaw, the progenitor of 
the Jaffes was Samuel ben Elhanan, a grandson of 
Isaac haZaken (died at the end of the twelfth cen- 
tury), whose father was Samuel, the son-in-law of 
Kabbi Meir of Hamerupt, the father of Jacob Tam, 
grandson of Rashi. Lewinstein's conclusions, how- 
ever, have not yet been substantiated. 

From Abraham, the father of Mordecai ("Lebu- 
shim"), came the Jaffe branch proper, while another 
^Mordecai, the son of Moses Jatfe, settled in Cracow, 
where he married the daughter of Joel Singer and 
assumed the name of his father-in-law, in accordance 
with the custom current among the Jews of Poland. 
His descendants, often called Kalmankes, were 
sometimes confounded with the descendants of the 
author of the "Lebushim," and it is difficult to as- 
certain to which of the two houses some of the later 
Jaffes belong. Again, many Jaffes liave taken the 
names of Itzig, Meier, Margolies, Schlesinger, Rosen 
thai, Wallerstein, etc., while many distant relatives, 
really of other houses, have preferred to take the pop- 
ular name of Jaffe. In the tables given below these 
questions have been elucidated in so far as documen- 
tary or authoritative private evidence has permitted. 
Isaac and Eliczer, two other brothers of Abraham 
ben Jo.seph (father of the author of the "Lebu- 
shim"), settled in Italj', and there became the pro- 
genitors of the Italian branch of the Jaffes. Tliree 
daughters of Mordecai Jaffe ("Lebushim ") married 

Moses Jaffe of Bologna 
(15th cent.) 

Abraham of Bohemia 
(prefect of Jews of Poland ; 1512) 

Eliezer Jaffe 

Joseph of Prague 

Moses Jaffe (d. 1520) 


Abraham of Prague 
(d. 1564) 

Mordecai Jaffe 

(author of " Lebushim " ; 

see Pedigree II.) 

Isaac Jaffe 


(settled in 


Eliezer of 

Mordecai Jaffe 
(d. c. 1565) 



of Lublin 

(d. 1603) 

Daughter = 

Samuel Sirkes 

of Lublin 

Joel Sirkes (Bach) 

Samuel Jaffe 
(d. 1580) 

Isaac Jaffe Joseph 

I Jaffe 

Menahem (d. 1631) 
Jaffe (1657) 

Moses Jaffe 
(d. Jeru- 


Aryeh Lob 

Hayyim Abraham 
of Lublin of 


Abraham Kalmankes 

Hirsch of Lublin 

Jacob Kalmankes 

Joseph of 
(d. 16:37) 


Sarah = 










Wolf of 


(d. 1709) 

Joseph of 

Joske of 

Jacob Joseph of Kalonymus of Lublin Solomon ^rveh Lob 

of Lublin I 

Turbin Sender Lob Kalmankes 


Aaron of Uman 



(d. 1681) 

Israel Saba of Shklov 


Israel Suta 



Israel of Suwalki 

(d. New York, 1888) 

Elijah of 


Abraham of 


(d. 1652) 


Zebi Hirsch 

Kalmankes of 



Judah Lob 

Kalmankes of 


H. R. 

Jaffe Pedigree I. 


_ -a 

CC3 — -^ 

— 3 



c - 
o ~ 

c ~ o 5 c 

— ■£ ""c 3 

<— <Jr< 2._ 

E ?3 c:; 3 

K 3 X S. -S 

*1 .^ *^ 3 •-» 

P 3 ** 


'Z'^ 3 2. ri^E 
£p 3 II 2?3-' 

















- » ?r 


tSJ o — 

O W 

s f^ S ^ 5 

N 3 

"2. N" 







- 5 M 
_ =■■ S 3 _ 

'^ — ^ 

as.- - 

Si. ^§ 

o :i 

?c - 

fts 3^ 








■^ BO 





3 O 


» i- a Q 
S gS o- 

p II 



2 = ^- 

oi 52,(11 


B S 
3 P= 


— '/I 

■3 ■» 
<l: 3 - 

3 :z 








3"'^_f5 = 

''"^ S II 


-O - 




7> Q. 

CD ~. 


» 3 


3 i 








































H-" = 








— PS 





O P 



— 1-^?3 









' ' 


-o o 




— Itti 



C0 3- 


= 3 




w 3: CO 
-p a — o- 

o P N 3 





p of ^"'^^ 

a, 2? W 


o • 

= S: 





w -J 

''' 2. ^ 3 

a— p j- 

ft^^ II 


* S" — 

a— II 

SjS • 
to — 

C p 
to — 
— »r- 












Mordecai Jafle 
(l.>;i 1-161^) 

MeTr JalTe 


Ellas Meyer Jaffe of 

Lissa (rt. 1810) 

Meyer Elias .laffe 
(Edward Meyer) 


Fninz Tlieodor 

Robert Meyei' 

of Berlin 

l^Iarcus Elias Jaffe 
(d. 184:i) 

Lewin Edward Jaffe 
(d. 1848) 

Elias Marcus Jaffe 
of I'osen 
(d. I8t>;) 

Philipp Jatf<' 
of Berlin 
(d. 1870) 

I.udwipr Jaffe 

Solomon Jiiffe 

Beer Jaffe 

Henriette = 

Moritz Maniroth 

of Posen 



Bernhard Jaffe 
of Posen 

Joseph Jaffe 

Mathilda - 
Louis Jaffe 

Moritz Jaffe 

Joseph Jaffe 

Max E. Jaff^ 
of Berlin 

Richard Jaffe 

(ieorjre S. Jaffe 

Eufrene Fucbs 

Call E. Jaffe 
of Munich 

11. H. 

Jakfe Pedigree 111. 

the sous of three of the most prominent Jewish fami- 
lies of tiiat time (see Table II.), and in this way the 
Jaffe family became related to the Walils, Epsteins, 
and Glmzburgs. The daughter of Moses Jaffe was 
the wife of Samuel Sirkes. Later the Jaffes united 
with the families of Katzenellenbogen, Schorr, Heil- 
prin, Bat-haracli, Deidies, Rosenthal, Miuz, etc. The 
following is a partial euumeraliou of the members 
of both branches of the family, the descendants of 
Closes Jaffe being indicated by K (= Kalmankes) : 

Aaron Jaffe (K): Son of Israel (Saba) of Shklov 
and father of Israel Jaffe Zuta; lived in the middle 
of the .seventeenth century. 

Aaron Jaffe (K) of Uman : Father of Israel 
Jaffe (Saba) of Shklov; boru 1568 at Prague; died 
at Glusk 1651. He was rabbi at Uman, and escaped 
during the Cossack uprising (1648) to Glusk. 

Abraham Abba ben Israel Jaffe : Rabbi at 
Ponewiezh; author of "Sefatayim" ontlie Talmud, 
and "Bet Yisrael," responsa (in manuscript at 
Jerusalem). His mother was the daughter of David 
Solomon, rabbi at Lissa, and his sons were Shabbethai 
Weksner, Jedidiah of Bausk, and Isaac (went to 
Jerusalem). The son of Shabbethai was Joseph of 

Abraham Aberl b. Perez : Grandson of Mor- 
decai Jaffe (" Lebushim ") ; died at Nikolsburg, Mo- 
ravia, 1657. Misled by Warnheim (" Kebuzat Haka- 
mim,"p. 117), N. Briill declared Abraham Aberl to 
have been the son of Mordecai and the successor of 
R. Pcthahiah as chief rabbi of Moravia. Fried- 
lander and others followed him in that error. 
Aberl's tombstone, however, was badly decayed, 
and the words |»"iD "i (= "R. Perez") were ascer- 
tained with great difficulty (Feuchtwang, in"Ge- 
denkbuch zur Eriunerung an David Kaufmann," 
Breslau, 1900). 

Abraham b. Aryeh Lob Kalmankes : Author 
of "Ma'yan ha-Hokmah," an introduction to the 
Cabala (Amsterdam,, 1652). Fuenn (" Keneset Yis- 

rael," p. 59) confounded him with Asher Jacob 
Abraham (see Joseph Kohcn-Zedek in "lla-Asam "). 

Abraham of Bohemia (see Jew. Encyc. .i. 100) : 
According to Joseph Lewinstein, the great-grand- 
father of Abraham b. Joseph. 

Abraham b. Elijah Kalmankes: Dayyan at 
Cracow ; .son of Elijah b. Al)raiiam Kalmankes, labbi 
at Lemberg. He was the son-in-law of Zalman 
b. Jacob Walsh, and his signature appears in tlie 
"pinkes" of Lemberg of 1650 in two cases (Deni- 
bitzer, "Keliiat Yofi," p. 39b, note 2). He died 

Abraham b. Joseph : Father of jMordecai Jaffe 
("Lebushim "); a merchant and a rabbinical scholar; 
pupil of Abraham benAbigdor; died 1564 ("Le- 
bush ha-Or." p. 294). 

Abraham b. Kalonymus of Lublin (K); Au 
thor of " Adderet Eliyahu " (commentaries and notes 
on the Pentateuch; Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1694). 
He was a second cousin of Asher Jacob Abraham 
b. Aryeh Lob (the author of " Ha-Eshel "). He liad 
a sou named Kalonymus. 

Abraham b. Kalonymus b. Mordecai (K): 
Brother of the first Hebrew printers in Lublin. He 
had two sons, Hirsch and Jacob. 

Anselm Benjamin Jaffe : Died at Berlin 1812. 
His wife was Reickc, daughter of Aaron b. Isaac Saul 
of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, who published (1746), 
in conjunction with his brother-in-law Judah Be'er, 
the great-grandfather of Giacomo Meyerbeer, a Pen 
tateuch with commentaries. Anselm's son was Saul 
Ascher of Berlin. 

Aryeh Lob b. Joseph b. Abraham Kal- 
mankes : Father of Asher Jacob Abraham. 

Aryeh Lob b. Mordecai : Son of the author of 
the " Lebushim " ; mentioned in preface to " Yam 
shel Shelomoh, Gittin " (Berlin, 1761). 

Asher Jacob Abraham b. Aryeh Lob Kal- 
mankes : Author of "Ha-Eshel," sermons (Lublin. 
1674),' and "Birkat Abraham," on Talmudic law. 




Until the age of teu he studied Talmud with his 
grandfather Joseph. During the Cossack uprising 
(1648) he fled to Egypt, and from there went to Je- 
rusalem. In 1671 he returned to Lublin, where he 
became rabbi. He died at Lemberg 1681. 

Benjamin Wolfb. Judah. Kalmankes : Died 
at Lemberg 1709. He left in manuscript (preserved 
at Oxford) a work entitled "Hanhagat ha-Bayit," 
on religious ethics, with a commentary; it is pub- 
lished in " Mazzebet Kodesh " (see " Mazzebet Ko- 
desh," i. 62; Euenn, " Keneset Yisrael," p. 173). 

Daniel Jaffe. See Itzig, D.\nif:l. 

David Friedlander : Soniu-law of Daniel Itzig- 

David Jaffe : Father of Aryeh Lob Wallerstein 
of Holschitz. 

David b. Zebi Hirsch Saba : Rabbi at the 
Klaus-S3'nagoge, Prague. 

Dobrush : Daughter of Phinehas Jaflfe of Kal- 
variya; wife of Tobiah of Kalvariya, a pupil of 
Elijah of Wilna; lived in the eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries. 

Eleazar Jaffe : His signature is found in the 
pinkes of Berlin of 1743 (Landshuth, " ' Ammude ha- 
'Abodah." p. 37). 

Eliasberg-, Mordecai b. Joseph (1817-89), and 
his son Jonathan (1850-98). See Jew. Encyc. v. 

Eliezer Jaffe : Son of Abraham of Bohemia ; 
lived in the si.xteenth century. 

Eliezer (Lazar) Jaffe : Physician; lived in the 
nnddle of the nineteenth century ("Ha-Maggid," 
1861, No. 39, p. 255). 

Eliezer b. Alexander Kleinberg (Bausker) : 
Rabbi at Wilna; went to America and became rabbi 
at Chicago, 111.; died in New York city 1891. 

Eliezer (Lazar) b. Jacob Riesser-Katzenel- 
lenbogen : Father of Gabriel Kiesser; son-in-law 
of Raphael ha-Kohen, rabbi of Hamburg. He was 
the author of "Zeker Zaddik," with a supplement, 
"Ma'alele Ish," containing sermons and a biogra- 
phy of Raphael ha-Kohen (Altona, 1805). He also 
wrote, in German, "Sendschreibenan Meine Genos- 
sen in Hamburg, oder eiue Abhandlung ilber den 
Israelitischen Kultus" (Altona, 1815). ilis "Ma'a- 
lele Ish" (p. lib) traces the descent of his father-in- 
law from Mordecai Jaffe. 

Eliezer of Mantua : Son of Joseph of Prague 
and uncle of Mordecai Jaffe (" Lebushim "). 

Eliezer (Lazar) b. Shalom Rosenthal : Born 
at Brody 1768 ; died at Bausk, Courland, 1840 (.see 
Rosenthal, Ei,tezei{). 

Elijah b. Abraham Kalmankes : Rabbi at 
Lublin, and later at Lemberg and Opatow ; died at 
the latter place in 1636 ('' Kelilat Yoti." pp. 26, 38b). 

Elijah b. Kalonymus : Author of "Adderet 
Eliyahu " (see Jew. Encyc. v. 131). According to 
Joseph Cohen-Zedek (Rabinowitz, " Ha-Meassef." 
p. 134, St. Petersburg, 1902), he was the brother-in- 
law of Solomon Zalman Kalmankes. He had a son 
named Kalonymus. 

Elijah b. Shalom : Rabbi at Neustadt-Shervint 
(VVla(lislawow); born between 1750 and 1775; died 
about the middle of the nineteenth century ; a brother 
of Eliezer (Lazar) Rosenthal (see Rosenthal, Eli- 

Enoch Zundel : Rabbi at Glinka ; son of Mor- 
decai b. Jo.seph of Pluugian ; lived in the eighteenth 

Enoch Zundel : Kabbi of Pultusk ; son of 
Jacob of Lidvinovi; died on the 11th of Adar 
(Sheni), 1891. 

Enoch Zundel Jaffe (called also Zundel Hal- 
fon) : Grammarian and authority on theMasorah; 
son of IVIoses b. Mordecai b. Joseph Jaffe ; lived in 
the eighteenth century. 

Ephraim b. Aaron of Prague (K): Brother of 
Israel of Shklov (author of "Or Yisrael"); born 
about 1638, his father then being at the age of 
seventy (Walden, " Shem ha-Gedolim he-Hadash," 
p. 26). 

Epstein, Aryeh Lob (K): Relative of Israel b. 
Aaron Jaffe (Saba) of Shklov (17th cent. ; see Fuenn, 
"Keneset Yisrael," p. 694; Eliezer Kolm, "Kin'at 
Soferim," p. 61b). 

Epstein, Jehiel Michael ha-Levi : Phj-^sician ; 
died in 1632; son of Abraham Epstein, rabbi of 
Brest-Litovsk (d. 1617). He married Bella, the 
daughter of Mordecai Jaffe. His son-in-law was 
Abraham b. Joseph Heilpriu, rabbi at Kauth, a de- 
scendant of Elhanan b. Isaac, the tosatist. Rabbi 
Joseph Lewinstein of Serock is a descendant of this 

Frank Jaffe: Lived in London; translated A. 
Mapas' "Ahabat Ziyyon" into English under the 
title " Amnon, Prince and Peasant" (London, 1887). 
His father was Abraham Jaffe, of London ; his 
grandfather, Mordecai Jaffe, of Memel, Prussia. 
Moses Jaffe, a lawyer of New York city, is a 
nephew of Abraham. 

Frommet : WifeofHayyim Jaffe; died at Prague 
in 1635, at the age of seventy-three (Hock, "Die 
FamilienPrag's," p. 172). 

Ginzberg, Louis (see Jew. Encyc. v. 671): 
Related to the Jaffes on his mother's side. 

Hayyim b. Kalonymus b. Mordecai (K): 
Printer at Lublin. 

Hirsch b. Abraham (b. Kalonymus b. Mor- 
decai : K) : Bought the printing establishment of 
his grandfather Kalonymus (1606). 

Hirsch b. Benzion Shlez : Grandson of Shab- 
bethai JalTe of Weksna; author of "Te'ome Zebiy- 
yah," on the Halakah, and of " SihatHullin," sayings 
of rabbinical scholars (2d ed., Warsaw, 1889). 

Isaac b. Joseph Jaffe-Ashkenazi : Studied in 
Padua under Judah b. Eliezer Minz, and settled in 
Italy, where he married into a Sephardic family. 
His sons were' Samuel and Moses. 

Isaac Kalmankes of Lublin : Teacher of Moses 
lia-Kohen of Metz (formerly of Narol); author of 
"Birkat Tob"; lived in the seventeenth century. 
His son was Me'ir, and his grandson Mordecai (au 
thor of "Tabnit ha-Bayit ")r 

Isaac b. Simon of Warka. 

Israel (K): Rabbi at Kopys, government of Moghi- 
lef ; had a Hebrew printing establishment at Kopys, 
and published an edition of the Talmud (1816-28). 

H. R. 

Israel ben Aaron Jaffe (Saba) : Russian rabbi ; 
born at Uman about 1640; died at Frankfort-on- 
the-Oder after 1702. From ehiklhood he was brought 
up in the atmosphere of the Talmud. On attaining 




maturity lie became rabbi at Shklov, where he re- 
mained till 1703. He then went to Frankfort-on- 
the-Oder to ]nil)lisli his "Or Yisrael" (1703), which 
aroused considerable animosity because it was al- 
leged to countenance the followers of Shabbethai 

JalTc, who in his youth had witnessed the sulYer- 
ings of his coreligionists at the hands of Chmiei.- 
MCKi and liis associates (1G48), devoted himself as- 
siduously to the study of the Cabala in order to find 
out the reason for the prolongation of the Exile 
("Galut "), and why God had permitted the outrages 
of 10-18. He rebuked the Habbis, who declared that 
their work was the real work of God. Especially 
did he rebuke them for their lack of interest in the 
study of the Cabala; and it was on this account that 
he composed the "Or Yisrael." Besides this work 
he wrote "Tif'eret Yisrael." called also "'Milhamot 
Adonai," appended to which are "Kishshut Tob " 
and "Sefer Yisrael Zuta," liomiletical expositions of 
the Law. It was published by his grandson Israel 
Jaffe (Zuta), Frankfort on-the-Oder, 1774. 
Bibliography : Fuenn, Keneset YUsrael, p. 694, Warsaw, 1886. 

n. u. B. Fu. 

Israel b. Aaron Jafife (Zu^a: K): Grandson of 
Israel b. Aaron Jaffe (Saba); lived in the eighteenth 
century. At the age of twenty-tive he published 
an extract of his grandfather's "Tif'eret Yisrael" 
("Ha-Shahar," vi. 929). 

Israel David b. Mordecai Marg-olies-Schle- 
sing-er- Jaffe (called also David Sered) : Kabbi at 
Bosing, Hungary ; descendant of Mordecai Jaffe, 
and, on his mother's side, of Liva b. Bezaleel of 
Prague; author of " Meholat ha-Mahanayim," re- 
sponsa (Presburg, 1859); " Har Tabor," responsa, 
with a supplement in German directed against Dr. 
W. A. Meisel, chief rabbi of Budapest (Presburg, 
1861); and "Hazon la-Mo'ed," on the calendar. 

Israel b. Jedidiah (K): Cantor at Suwalki and 
in New York city; author of "Ishshe Yisrael," com- 
mentary to Moses Isserles' " Torat ha-'Olah " (Konigs- 
berg, 1854-57) ; died in New York city 1888 ; descend- 
antof Israel b. Aaron of Shklov <as is evident from the 
preface to "Torat ha-'Olah") and not of Jedidiah b. 
Abba of Bausk (as given by N. Sokolov in " Sefer 
Zikkaron "). 

Israel Landau : Lived at Sadagora ; descendant 
of Mordecai Jaffe ("Lebushim "). 

Israel b. Zalkind b. Isaac Jaflfe : Lived at 
Zhagory ; father-in-law of Dob Bar Rabbiner, the 
father of Benash Zalkind Rabbiner of New York; 
Israel's brother Simon was the grandfather of Hay- 
yim Sack of Zhagory. 

Israel b. Zebi Hirsch. Jaffe (called also Israel 
"Weksler) : Prominent merchant at Bausk. Cour- 
land; born in 1800; died in 1870; .son-in-law of Elie- 
zer (Lazar) Rosenthal. His son Solomon "Wolf re- 
moved to New York city. 

Jacob : Son of Israel Jaffe of Shklov ; rabbi at 
St. Petersburg, where he died April 23, 1820 (" Vosk 
hod." Feb., 1881, p. 41). 

Jacob : Rabbi at Ludvinovi ; author of " Gufe 
Halakot " (1822) ; son of Phinehas of Kalvariya and of 
Naomi, daugliter of Samuel of Karlin and Antipoli. 

Jacob b. Abraham b. Kalonymus b. Mor- 
decai (called also Jacob Kalmankes) : Lived in 

the seventeenth century. In 1662 he reestablished 
the Hebrew printing-press at Lublin, which had 
been closed in 1648 on account of the Cf)ssack upri- 
sing, and employed his two sons, Joseph and 
Kalonymus (Kalman), as assistants. 

Jacob of Krink : Son of Enoch Zundel Halfon; 
died at Krink 1780; left various works in manu- 
script (see "Da'at Kedoshim," p. 86). 

Jedidiah b. Abraham Abe Jaffe: Educator; 
lived at Bausk; died about 1862; brother of Shab- 
bethai Jaffe (AVeksner) ; grandfather of S. Schaffer 
of Baltimore, Md. (through his daughter Taube). 

Joel ben Samuel Jaffe. See Sirkes, Jacob. 

Joseph: Grandfather of Mordecai Jaffe (" Lebu- 
shim"); lived in the lirtcenth centiuy. 

Joseph b. Abraham Kalmankes (K): Rabbin- 
ical scholar; rabbi at various i)laces in Poland and 
Bohemia: died at Prague 16;37V'Gal Ed," No. 82). 

Joseph b. Kalonymus b. Mordecai (K): 
Printer at Lublin in the seventeenth century. 

Joseph b. Mordecai b. Joseph of Plungian : 
President of the Lithuanian council ; his signature 
is attached to documents emanating from the coun- 
cil of Krozhe (1779). H. R. 

Joseph b. Moses Jaflfe : Russian rabbi; born in 
Vilkomir, government of Wilna, 1846; died in Man- 
chester. England, June 30, 1897. In 1874 he became 
rabbi of Pokroi, government of Wilna, where he re- 
mained nine j'ears. In 1883 he became rabbi of 
Salaty, government of Kovno, and in 1886 he suc- 
ceeded his father as rabbi of Garsdi, in the same 
government. In 1893 he went to England as rabbi 
of the Russian-Polish congregation at Manchester, 
and retained the position until his death. He was 
the author of "Yosef Bi'ur" (Wilna, 1881), on 
Canticles, and of an etliical work in verse, entitled 
"Ha-Sekel we ha-Yezer." He Avrote also responsa 
and sermons, which are still in manuscript. 

Bibliography : Eisenstadt, Dor Rabbanaiv we-Soferaw, i. 32, 
Wilna ; Ahiasaf, 5659, rp. :342-343. 
H. R. P. Wl. 

Joseph Silver strom : Son of Jacob of Krink ; 
son-iulaw of Arush Miutz of Meseritz (Mezhi- 

Judah Lob b, Asher Selig Margolioth : 
Rabbi at Suchostav, Kapitschintze, Buzhanov, 
Lesla, Plotzk, and Frankfort-on-the-Oder (where he 
died 1811). He was a descendant of Mordecai Jaffe 
and of Moses Mat, author of " Matteh JMosheh " (see 
"Korban Reshit," Frankfort-ou-the-Oder. 1778). 
His sons were Asher Selig Margolioth (rabbi 
at Pruzhany) and Ephraim (Joseph Cohen Zedek, 
"Shem u-She'erit," p. 72). 

Judah Lob Jaflfe of Halberstadt : jVIember of 
the Jewish community at Berlin about the middle 
of the eighteenth century (see Landshuth, " 'Ain- 
mude ha-'Abodah," pp. 28. 37. 40). 

Judah Lob Kalmankes : District rabbi of Eid 
litz in the seventeenth century ; son of Zebi Hirsch 
Kalmankes, dayyan of Cracow. 

Judah Lob b. Shabbethai Jaflfe : Rabbi at Cher- 
nigov; his signature is attached to takkanotof 1818. 

Kalman b. Joseph b, Kalonymus : Died at 
Jerusalem in 1598 (13th of Shebat). His brothers 
were Jehiel and Moses, the father of Kalonymus. 

H. R. 




Kalonymus ben Mordecai Jaffe : Polish print- 
er; (lied at Lubliu 1603. About 1556 he founded 
a Hebrew printing-press at Lublin, and published 
as his first work the Pentateuch, which was fol- 
lowed in 1559 by an edition of the Talmud. In 1592 
Kalonymus ben Mordecai left Lublin, on account of 
an outbreak of cholera, and settled in Bistrowitz, 
where, in that year, he published Isaac Abravanel's 
"Zebah Pesah." He later returned to Lublin, and 
continued in business there until his death. 

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. J?od?. col. 2918; B. Fried- 
berg, Getich. der HebrUischen Tupographie, in Lnlilin, p. 3. 
J. B. Fk. 

Kalonymus b. Moses Jaffe : Died at Prague in 

Kim Kaddish. : Dayyan of Krotoschin ; au- 
thor of "Sefer Ma'amar Kaddishin 'al Hoshen Mish- 
pat " (Prague, 1766) ; sou of Kim Kaddisli Jaffe of Pila 
and father-in-law of Nahman b. Alexander of Pila. 

Kresel : Wife of Ozer Jaffe; died at Prague 
1618 (Hock, "Die Famihen Prag's," p. 172). 

Lewinstein, Joseph : Rabbi at Serock, govern- 
ment of Warsaw, Poland; descendant of IMordecai 
Jaffe (" Lebushim ''). See Lewinstein, Joseph. 

Maskileison, Naphtali. See Maskileison. 

H. R. 

Max Jaffe: German pharmacologist; born at 
Grunberg, Silesia, July 25, 1841. He studied medi- 
cine at the University of Berlin (M.D. 1862), and 
was from 1865 to 1872 assistant at the university 
hospital at Konigsberg, where he became privat- 
docent (1867) and assistant professor (1872) of med- 
ical chemistry ; in 1873 he was elected professor of 
pharmacology by the university. In 1880 he was 
appointed member of the German sanitary commis- 
sion ("'Gesundheitsamt") and received the title of 
" Geheime ]\Iedizinalrat. " Among his writings may 
be mentioned: "'Ueber den Niederschlag Welchen 
Pikrinsaure im Normalen Harn Erzeugt," 1886; 
" Vorkommcn des Urethan im Alkoholischen Extrakt 
des Normalen Harns," 1890; "Zur Kenntniss der 
Durch Phenylhydrazin Fallbaren Harnbestand- 
theile," 1897; "Ueber das Verhaltniss des Furfurols 
im Thierischen Orgar.ismus," 1900. 
Bibliography: Hirsch, Biographisches Lexiknn. 

s. F. T. H. 

Mordecai Hirsch : Rabbi at Kalvariya ; son of 
Jacob of Lidvinovi. 

Mordecai Jaffe : Codifier of rabbinical law ; 
born in Prague about 1530; died at Posen March 7, 
1612. His father, Abraham b. Joseph, was a pupil 
of Abraham ben Abigdor. Moses Isserles and 
Solomon Luria were Mordecai Jaffe 's teachers in 
rabbinics, while Mattithiah b. Solomon Delacrut 
was his teacher in Cabala. Jaffe studied also philos- 
ophy, astronomy, and mathematics. He was head 
of a yeshibah in Prague until 1561, when, by order 
of the emperor Ferdinand, the Jews were expelled 
from Bohemia. Jaffe then went to Venice and 
studied astionomy (1561-71). In 1572 he was elected 
rabbi of Grodno; in 1588, rabbi of Lublin, where he 
became one of the leaders of the Council op Four 
Lands. Later Jaffe accepted the rabbinate of Kre- 
menetz. In 1592 he was called as rabbi to Prague ; 
from 1599 until his death he occupied the position 
of chief rabbi of Posen, 

The "Lebush" is the achievement with which 
Jaffe's name is principally associated, and he is best 
known as the "ba'al ha-Lebushim" 
The (" the author of the ' Lebushim ' "). It 

"Lebush." is a rabbinical code, arranged in the or- 
der adopted in the Turim and the Shul- 
han 'Aruk, and divided into five parts. The titles of 
the work and its various parts were derived by IMor- 
decai, with allusion to his own name, from Esther viii. 
15. The reason advanced by Jaffe for the compila- 
tion of the work was his desire to give a digest of the 
latest decisions and minhagim, mainly those of Ger- 
man and Polish authorities and including those of his 
teachers, in order to shorten the course in his yeshi- 
bah (introduction). The appearance of Joseph Caro's 
" Bet Yosef " appended to the Turim was hailed with 
joy as a great event in rabbinical circles. Even Jaffe 
thought, at the time, that this work was final. The 
"Bet Yosef," however, was too scientific and volu- 
minous for the general use of an ordinary rabbi. Jaffe 
was on the point of publishing his work, when Caro 
anticipated him with the Shulhan 'Aruk, to which 
Isserles later added annotations and the minhagim 
prevailing in Germany, Poland, and Russia. The 
two extremes presented by the copiousness of the 
" Bet Yosef" and the brevity of the Shulhan 'Aruk 
left many dissatisfied, and Jaffe accordingly contin- 
ued his work on his own lines, avoiding both the 
exuberant, argumentative style and the too terse 
and legal manner of Caro. Another advantage pos- 
sessed by the "Lebush" was that it included parts 
of the Turim omitted by Caro, and the latest min- 
hagim collected by Isaac Tyrnau. The "Lebush," 
while its author was alive, enjoyed great popularity ; 
but after his death Caro's code gradually superseded 
it, not only in the Orient but also in Europe, for 
the reason that the rabbis were obliged to consult 
the "Bet Yosef" for the sources, Avhile the layman 
was content with the shorter Shulhan 'Aruk. 

Nevertheless, for scholars who study the spirit of 
the Law, the " Lebushim " are a valuable contribu- 
tion to halakic literature. As Jaffe 
His rightly observes, the Shulhan 'Aruk is 

Method, "a table well prepared with all kinds 

of refreshments, but it lacks the salt 

of reasoning." Jaffe seasoned his work with the 

"salt of reasoning" by giving logical explanations 

at the beginning of almost every section. 

In treating ritual-legal matters from a cabalistic 
standpoint, Jaffe is an exception among the codi- 
fiers. Even Caro, in Safed, the seat of Cabala, 
refrained from infusing Cabala into his code. 
Jaffe's method was to a certain extent an innova- 
tion, and tended to draw together the Talmudists 
and cabalists, otherwise in danger of an open 

In his "Lebush Tekelet," § 36, Jaffe treats the 
form of the script alphabet cabalistically. In addi- 
tion to the " holy and true science " of Cabala, Jaffe 
was well versed in the secular sciences of his time. 
In § 94, by means of a map, he indicated the site of 
Jerusalem, and directed the worshipers of his own 
country to face the Temple, to the east, " a degree 
southward." In §§ 427-428 (written in 1579) he 
gives a minute, scientific explanation of the calen- 
dar, with tables and illustrations. That he was 




familiar with tlie Russian ianguas^c is evidout from 
his "Lcbusli Buz we-Argaman," i^ 129. 

His "Lebush Hur," corresponding to Orah Hay- 
yini, part ii., begins witli § 242, on "Sabbatli rules." 

mighty, in the deliverance from Egypt, and in the 
revelation of the Torah on Sinai. Therefore it is to 
be presumed tliat in one who strictly observes the 
Sabbatli tlie worship of idols is merely a formality, 



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DDK pi nmoV nbio pii jwicj iibk 

Page fhom the First Edition of Mordecai Jaffe's " LEBcsHiii," Li-blin, 

(From the Suhbergi/r collection in the Jewish Theologic.ll Semmsry of America, New York.) 


Jaffe quotes the Talmud freely and explains, " Who- 
ever strictly observes the Sabbath, his worship of 
idols is forgiven," as follows: Sabbath is based on 
the belief in the creation of the world by the Al- 

an involuntary act due entirely to the pressure of 
circumstances. Perhaps Jaffe intended this for the 

In his "Lebush 'Ateret," corresponding to Yoreh 




De'uh, Jaffe follows the restrictions of his teacher 
Isserles, as opposed to Caro, his reason for doing so 
being " the lack of knowledge of physical science in 
our time." In a case in which the upper jaw of 
an animal has been removed (by accident or design), 
Caro is inclined to pronounce it kasher, but is re- 
luctant to do so because Maimonides decided other- 
wise (ji 33). Jaile, however, says that authoritative 
physicians concur in the rabbinical opinion that the 
absence of the upper jaw is certain to result in the 
death of the animal from tuberculosis, and that there- 
fore it can not be slaughtered as kasher meat (ib.). 

Regarding wine of Gentiles, Jaffe, like Isserles, is 
somewhat lax. Caro prohibits " honey wine " (mead) 
made by a IVIohammedau ; Jaffe permits it (§§ 123- 
126). The principal reason for the existing prohibi- 
tion is that wine is intoxicating and promotes com- 
panionship, causing an intimacy that is 

Liberal apt to lead to intermarriage between 
Interpreta- Jews and Gentiles. But at the pres- 
tion. ent time, when business with the Gen- 
tile is generally opened with an intro- 
ductory libation, it would be impossible to expand 
or enforce the rule. Besides, Jews are now socially 
too much separated from the Gentile to fear assimi- 
lation. Hence there is no necessity to expand the 
prohibition to include any other intoxicating bev- 
erage than wine, which was the original Gezerah ; 
and this can not be permitted in the absence of an 
authoritative synod (ib.). 

In regard to loans and interest, Jaffe considered a 
Karaite as an Israelite, and significantly said that 
" the Karaites are in a measure under duress, being 
wrongly brought up from infancy to discard the rab- 
binical traditions " (§ 159). He was very strict against 
usur3% and would not allow any pretext or evasion, 
as the evil is contagious ; " permit an opening of the 
size of a pinhole, and it will enlarge from day today 
until it becomes as wide as the entrance of the Tem- 
ple corridor " (§ 160). In the next paragraph he at- 
tacks an alleged ruling by Rashi to the effect that the 
prohibition against interest can be avoided by an in- 
termediary between debtor and creditor. Caro, in 
"Bet Yosef," does not hesitate to say that an un- 
scrupulous scribe inserted the ruling, and " hung him- 
self on a tall tree" (that is, a recognized authorit}-) b}- 
attributing it to Rashi. Jaffe is of the same opinion, 
and criticizes his teacher, Isserles, for adding this 
ruling to the Shulhan 'Aruk; he can not compre- 
hend how his "holy mouth" could have uttered 
such a thing, as there is not the slightest excuse or 
basis for the subterfuge, which makes the prohibi- 
tion of usury a mockery and a laughing-stock in 
the eyes of the common people. He goes on to 
threaten: "If I ever get into power I will order the 
obliteration of that paragraph from the books" (ib.). 

The "Lebush Buz we-Aigaman," corresponding 
to Eben ha-'Ezer, contains rules, regulations, and 
forms for the writ of divorce. In connection with 
this appears an interesting alphabetical list of names, 
male and female, with their spellings, appended to 
§ 129. 

The "Lebush 'Ir Shushan," corresponding to 
Hoshen Mishpat, is devoted to civil laws. Speak- 
ing, in the first section, of judges and judgment, he 
says: "Judgment is one of the fundamental princi- 

ples of creation ; as the Mishnah says, ' The triple 
basis of the world is ti uth, judgment, and peace ' " 
(Abot i. 18). The maxim "The law of the govern- 
ment is law " is fully treated in § 369, and defined 
democratically by the statement that "only that 
government is legitimate in which the king's seal of 
authority is voluntarily acknowledged by his sub- 
jects; otherwise he is not their king, but a robber 
gathering imposts by force, whose edicts have no 
legal value." 

Jaffe's other w'orks are: "Lebush Orah," a com- 
mentary on Rashi to the Pentateuch (Prague, 1603); 
"Lebush Simhah," sermons (in manuscript); and 
"Lebush Or Yekarot, " consisting of three independ- 
ent treatises: (1) "Lebush Yekarah," on Recanati; 
(2) "Lebush Eder ha-Yekar," on the Jewish calen- 
dar, following Maimonides ; (3) " Lebush Pinnat 
Yekarot," on Maimonides' "Moreli" (Lublin, 1594). 
He also annotated the Talmud, and his notes were 
first published at Vienna in 1830. 

Jaffe's opinion was sought on many questions of 
law, and his responsa were highly valued. 

Lublin was oue of the great fair-towns and com- 
mercial centers of Poland, and thousands of Jews 
from neighboring countries attended its fairs. Dis- 
putes growing out of their transactions there re- 
quired adjudication by an authority 
Authority of more than local standing, and ]\Ior- 
at Lublin decai Jaffe, who had already cstab- 
Fair. lished a reputation in Lithuania as 

rabbi of Grodno, was chosen as judge. 
The reputation he had won did much also to in- 
crease and extend his influence in the Council ok 
Four Lands; and even after his return to Prague 
he was recognized as its principal leader (D. Gans, 
"Zemah Dawid," p. 46a, Frankfort-on-tlie-Main, 
1692; see also Harkavy in Hebr. transl. by Rabino- 
witz of Gratz, "Gesch." vol. vii. [" Hadashim we- 
gam Yeshanim," p. 18]). 

His last responsum, referring to a conditional di- 
vorce, is printed in the collection of R. Mei'r of 
Lublin (No. 125). Jaffe dictated this opinion from 
his death -bed two days before he died. In it he said: 
"I am now lying on my bed, subject to the judg- 
ment of the King of Kings, hoping that He will 
heal and cure me of my illness." His signature was 
so faint that he directed his secretaries to authenti- 
cate it (ib.). 

Jaffe had five children, two sons and three daugh- 
ters: Perez Jaffe (d. 1647; see D. Kaufmann in Nis- 
senbaum's "Le-Korotha-Yehudim be-Lublin," War- 
saw, 1899); Aryeh Lob; Walka, the wife of R. 
Samuel Wahl ; Bella, the wife of Jehiel Michael ha- 
Levi-Epstein, son of Abraham Epstein, rabbi of 
Brest; and a third daughter, the wife of Benjamin 
Wolf Giinzburg, rabbi of Mayence. 

Bibliography: Graetz, HM. iv. 645; Perle.s, Gei>ch. der- Ju- 
den in Poften, in Mnnatj<>ichrift, xiii. 4(19-416; Horodetzki, 
Rabbi Mordecai Jaffe, in Ha^Eshknl, iii. 69-90, iv. 191-19:!. 
H. u. J. D. E. 

Mordecai Jaffe : Rabbi at Zelve in the eight- 
eenth century; descendant of Abraham Aberl (the 
grandson of the author of the " Lebushim ";. His 
signature occurs in connection with the last meeting 
of the Council of Lithuania. 

Mordecai (Marcus) Jaflfe of Berlin : Rabbi at 
Schwerin until 1770; born in Bohemia; died 1812. 




His correspondence with IVIoses Mendelssohn is pre- 
served in "Bikkure ha-'Ittim" (iv. 183, 219, 233). 
He was the father of Joseph Jaffe (17Go-1841). 
His grandson Daniel Joseph Jaffe (1810-74) was 
the father of Sir Otto JalTe. 

Mordecai Jaffe of Brody : Kabbi at Gorocliov, 
government of Voliij-nia; died 1828; corresponded 
with Eliezer b. Aryeh Lob of Pilz (1788, 1802). 

Mordecai Jaffe - Margolies - Schlesinger of 
Vienna: Son-in-law of R. Raphael of Wilna; died 
in 170-4. "Torat ha-Kena'ot" (p. 45, Amsterdam, 
1737) contains two letters written to him about 1729 
fi'oin Padua by the physician Jekuthiel b. Lob of 

Mordecai Gimpel Jaffe : Rabbi at Ruzhany ; 
died at Jeiiud (colony), near Petah Tikwah, Pales- 
tine, in 1892. He was act- 
ive in furthering the Zion- 
ist colonization movement 
among the Jews of Rus- 
sia, his articles on which 
subject appeared in " Ha- 

Mordecai b. Joseph 
of Plungian : Descend- 
ant of ]\Iordecai Jaffe 
("Lebushim "): born in 
1721 ; went with his father 
from Posen to Plungian. 
At the age of twelve he 
was captured by soldiers 
of the army of the Polish 
Confederation and taken 
to Wilkoviski, where he 
was ransomed by the 
wealthy Enoch Zundel 
(sonin-law of Tobiah b. 
Joseph Solomon Hasid- 
Bacharach) for 1,200 " tin- 
pes." He married Enoch 
Zundel 's daughter. In 
1756 he was appointed 
rabbi at Keidany. 

Mordecai b. Meir of 
Zamoscz: Author of 
"Tabnit ha-Bayit," eth- 
ical poetry (Frankfort-on- 
the-Oder, 1746). Another 
edition, with a German 
translation by Maier 
Kohn, entitled " Abrissdes 
Mikrokosmos," appeared in Vienna, 1853 (Stein- 
schneider, " Hebr. Bibl. " i. 96). He was the grandson 
of Isaac Kalmankes of Lublin. His mother be- 
longed to the family of R. Lob b. Jacob Temer- 

Mordecai b. Moses of Prague : Rabbi at 
Orodno and later at Cracow ; married the daughter 
of Joel Singer of Cracow, and took the name of 
Jaffe-Singer; president of the yeshibah at Cracow 
in succession to Moses Storch. Died 1568. 

Moritz Rosenthal : Prominent merchant and 
communal worker; son of Hirsch and grandson of 
Eliezer (Lazar) Rosenthal; born at Bausk in 1818; 
died at Friedrichstadt July 29, 1896. 

Moses Jaffe of Berlin : His signature appears 


Rabbi at 
the eight- 
His sig- 

Arms of Sir Otto Jafle. 

in a document of 1743 (see Landsiiuth, "'Ammude 
ha-'Abodah," p. 37). 

Moses Jaffe of Pinsk : Pupil of Meir of Lublin 
(Respousa, pp. 8G, 87) , lived in the early part of the 
sixteenth century. 

Moses b. Eliezer Jaffe : Born in Poland ; re- 
moved to Italy, where, at the end of the fifteenth 
century, he was prominent as a rabbi ; mentioned in 
the "Shalshelet ha-Kabbalah " manuscript at St. 
Petersburg (see Wiener's supplement to "Da'at 
Kedoshim," p. 48). In printed editions of "Shal- 
shelet ha- Kabbalah " lie is described as " of Bologna, " 
not "of Polonia." 

Moses b. Eliezer Jaffe: Rabbi at Cracow; 
grandfather of Joel Sirkes; died 1520. 
Moses ben Issachar: Author of "Pane Mo- 

sheh," sermons (Lublin, 

Moses b. 
(b. Joseph) : 
Wilkoviski in 
eentli century, 
nature appears in some 
takkanot in the pinkes of 
Wilkoviski. His son was 
Zundel Half on, the 
grammarian. H. R. 

Sir Otto Jaffe : Lord 
Mayor of Belfast ; born in 
Hamburg 1846; the third 
son of Daniel Joseph Jaffe, 
and a descendant of Mor- 
decai Jaffe. He was edu- 
cated in Belfast, Ham- 
burg, and Switzerland. 
After carrying on business 
in New York from 1865 to 
1877, on the retirement of 
his brothers he became 
chief director of the Bel- 
fast firm. He had acquired 
considerable experience in 
navigation concerns, and 
in 1894 placed himself at 
the head of the successful 
agitation for the reporting 
and destruction of dere- 
licts in the North Atlantic 
Ocean. Sir Otto is presi- 
dent of the Belfast Hebrew 
Congregation, a justice of 
the peace for the city of Belfast, and a member of 
the Harbor Board. He is also consul in Belfast for 
Germany. He was elected lord mayor of the city 
in 1899 and again in 1904, and was knighted in 
March, 1900. 

Bibliography: Jew. Chrnn. Jan. 27, 1899, 
Whi/s WluK London, 1903. 

and March 3, 1900 ; 
G. L. 

Philipp Jaffe : German historian and philolo- 
gist; born at Schwersenz, province of Posen, Ger- 
many, Feb. 17, 1819; committed suicide at AVitten- 
berg April 3, 1870. After graduating from the 
gymnasium at Posen in 1838 he went to Berlin, enter- 
ing a banking-house. Two years later he abandoned 
commercial life and studied at Berlin University 




(Pli D. 1844). Seven years later appeared his great 
work, "Kegesta Pontiticuin Komauoruin ab Condita 
Ecclc'sia ad Annum p. Ch. n. 1198," containing 11,000 
papal documents, Berlin, 1851 (2d ed. by Lowen- 
feld, Kallenbruuuer, and Ewald, Leipsic, 1885-88). 
This work made him Avell known, but he liad still 
to earn a livelihood ; he therefore again entered the 
university, this time as a student of medicine, at Ber- 
lin and later at Vienna. Graduating as M.D. from 
Berlin in 1853, he engaged in practise in that city 
for a year, and then became one of the editors of the 
" ]\Iouumenta Gcrmaniiu Historica. " This position he 
resigned in 1863, his chief work having been vols.xii., 
xvi."^ xvii., xviii., xix., and xx. of the " Scriptores." 

In 1862 Jaffe was appointed assistant professor of 
history at Berlin University, where he lectured on 
Latin paleography and Roman and medieval chro- 
nology. In 18(58 he became a Christian. During 
the kst year of his life he suffered from delirium 

Jatle wrote, in addition to the above-mentioned 

works, " Gesch des Deutschen Rciches Unter Lothar 

dem Sachsen," Berlin, 1843; "Gesch. des Deutschen 

Reiches Unter Konrad HI." Hanover, 1845; and 

"Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum," ih. 1864-71. 

Jaffe furthermore collaborated with Wattenbach in 

editing the " Ecclesiaj Metropolitans! Coloniensis 

Codices," which was published (Berlin, 1879) by 

Wattenbach after Jaffe's death. 

Bibiioc.raphy: AJM). Drutschc Biouraphic; Memrs Kon- 
versations-Lexikon ; Drockhaun Konvcrtiations-Lcxikini. 

s. F. T. H. 

Babinowitz, Raphael Nata' : Great-grandson 
of Simon Jaflfe of Zhagory. See separate biog- 

Raphael b. Jekuthiel ha-Kohen : Rabbi at 
Hamburg 1722-1800. See separate biography. 

Samuel : Son of Enoch Zundel of Kalvariya ; son- 
in-law of Ezekiel of Serhei, the grandson of Elijah 
of Wilna. 

Samuel Hayyim : Rabbi at Meseiitz (Mezlii- 
rechye); son of p]nocli Zundel of Krink. 

Samuel b. Isaac Jaffe: Author of "Yefeh 
To'ar." See separate biography. 

Shabbethai b. Abraham Jaffe: Rabbi at 
Weksna. His "haskamah " appears in the Talmud 
of Slavuta (1814 and 1816). 

Sirkes, Joel: Son of the daughter of Moses 


Solomon (Zalman) b. Jacob: Continued the 
printing business at Lublin after the death of his 
father in 1G62 ; married Sarah, daughter of his uncle 
Kalonymus. ^^- K. 

Theodor Julius Jaffe: German actor; born 
at Berlin Aug. 17, 1823; died at Dresden April 11, 
1898. In 1844 he appeared as an opera-singer in 
Troppau, Austrian Silesia, and then in LUibcck, 
Halle, :Magdeburg, and Cologne. In 1847 he aban- 
doned opera and became an actor. He filled engage- 
ments in Bremen (1847-49), Weimar (1849-53), Bres- 
lau (1853-56), and in Brunswick. In 1864 he went 
to Dresden as successor to Dawison, and was the 
leading actor of the royal theater there for thirty 
years. In 1894 he retired with the honorary degree 
of professor. He took every opportunity to visit 
the leading German theaters of Europe. 

Jaffe's repertoire includes; JS'athan der Weise, 
Richard III., Bhylock, lacjo, t^atiz Moor, Philippll., 
Carlos, Tartuffe, Mcphistopheles, etc. 
BinMOGRAPHY: Mcuevs Konvcrsatiom-Lexikon ; Eisenberg, 

Jiioy. Lex. F T H 

Tobiah b. Mordecai (b. Joseph of Plungian) : 

Rabbi at ludur (1765-69) and later in Tykotzin. 

Walka: Daughter of ]\Iordecai Jaffe ("Lebu- 
shim"); wife of Samuel Wahl (according to Horo- 
detzki, in "Ha-Eshkol." vol. viii.). 

Zebi Hirsch Jaffe : Russian mathematician and 
writer; born at Amnastirshchizna, near Mstislavl, 
government of Moghilef, June 17, 1853. He re- 
ceived the usual Talmudic education and early 
showed extraordinary mathematical talent. His 
father would not allow him to enter a public school, 
and, not having the opportunity to study mathemat- 
ics from books'^ Jaffe began to solve algebraic prob- 
lems according to rules of his own discovery. In 
1873 his father presented him with Hayyim Selig 
Slonimsky's works as well as with other mathemat- 
ical works in Hebrew. In 1877 Jaffe published in 
"Ha-Zelirah " (No. 24) his first mathematical article, 
and since that time he has contributed many mathe- 
matical and Talmudic articles to that periodical and to 
"Pla-Asif." In 1881 Jaffe went to Moscow, where 
he exhibited his calculating-machine, which won 
him honorary mention by the administration of the 
exhibition. At the same time he published in Rus- 
sian his mathematical treatise "K Graficheskomu 
Vypryamleniyu Dugi Okruzhnosti " (in "Matma- 
ticheski Listok," 1881-82, Nos. 7-9). Early in the 
last decade of the nineteenth century Jaffe settled 
in Warsaw. In addition to his contributions to 
Hebrew periodicals he has contributed notes to Rab- 
binowitz's Hebrew translation of Griitz's "Gesch. 
der Juden " (Sokolov, " Sefer Zikkaron," p. 51, War- 
saw, 1889). 

Zebi Hirsch Saba (K): Married Tilla, daughter 
of Liva ben Bezaleel of Prague (1512-1609). 

Zemah b. Jacob of Wilna : jVlarried a grand- 
daughter of Mordecai Jaffe ("Lebushim "); father 
of Abraham Abele, rabbi at Vilkomir ; Benjamin 
of Vilkomir was the son of the latter and father of 
Zemah of Prehn, the father of Aaron Prehner 
(died at Wilna 1837). 

Zemah Schdn : Son of Lob RallaN (R. Hirsch 
Na'cheles' '?), who was a descendant of ]\Iordecai 
.Jaffe ("Lebushim"; " 'Tr Wilna," p. 61, note 3); 
father of Solomon Zebi Hirsch, rabbi at Wilna, whose 
son was R. Eliezer Elijah Deiches (died at Wilna 

The following also are regarded as among the de- 
scendants of Mordecai Jaffe ("Lebushim") or of his 

Aaron b. Nathan Nata' of Trebovla (IStli cent.; see 
Jew. Excyc. i. Ht). Abraham Hayyim Rosenberg (of 
New York city; see Rosknbkrg). Abraham (r.ihbi at Jito- 
mir; author of " Mislinat .Abraham "». Adolph Hubsch 
(see separate article). Isaac Wolf Alschwang-er (rabbi 
at St. Petersburg, Russia, 1878-00). Dob Bar (18th cent.; 
rabbi at Utvan ; son of Hayvim b. Jacob of Karelitsch ; disciple 
of Hayyim of Volozliin; left many works in manuscript; see 
Wa'lden, "Shem ha-fiedolim he-Hadash." i.. No. 46; Jacobs 
fatiier also was called "Hayyim." and Mordeciii (ximpel JafTe 
of lluzhanv was the son of Dob Biir). Dob Bar Jaffe (nihbi at 
Wirzeu [government of Kovnnl and Salaty). Eliezer Klem- 
berg (oflSausk; d. New York city 1891). Elijah Bagoler 




(ralibi at Kalirih ; d. 1S.H) ; soc Fninikin, " Tolcdot Eliyaliii," p. 4) . 
The Harkavy family (acconlinu: to E. Harkavy, in "DorYe- 
shariiii," I'- 11. N*^"'^' Vork, liKti: Imt Aliraliam Harkavy of St. 
IVtcrsburgdoiibisit). Hirsch Kalisher (DavidTebelo Efrat, 
ill "Tolfddt Aiislie Stieiii." p- U : (.Ifsceiiacd from Z('l)i llirscb 
Siiba. not from tliu author of the " Lebiishim"). Joshua 
Hbschel b. Dob Bar Jaffe (b. Wirzcti, poverninetit of 
Koviiii, lS4(i; d. New Vork city 1WI8; rabbi at Pliiiifrian, Nov- 
fj-orod, lSti'.)-S>, Wirzeii ]8S3-y'.t, and Now Yoi-k city 1.H91-9S: 
fatliLTof Moses Jaffe of New York). Meir of Kiemenetz 
(David Tebele Efrat, in " Toledot Anslie Shein," p. :i8, note 
2; descendant of Zebi Hirscli Saba, not of Mordecai Jaffe). 
Mendel Jaffe (ioth cent.; rabbi at Hambnrg; author of 
•'l!et Meiiahem," commentaries to Bible and Talmud, Kroto- 
schin, ISU ; " Teshiibot," vol. i., Hambur<r, 18-32 ; responsa. with 
commentaries of M. M. Jaffe, Leipsic, 18(l()i. Mordecai Mi- 
chael b. Menahem Jaffe. Raphael (rabbi of I'eiser; au- 
thor of "Or la-Yesharim " ; d. 1782). Reitben Jaffe (of 
Ktiotin). Samuel (rabbi at Hyelostok; author of " Bigde 
Yeslia'," Wilna, 1844). Shalomb. Asherlsraelsohn (rabbi 
at Toronto, ("anada ; b. at Yanischek 18t)l). Shalom Elhanan 
b. Simon Jaffe (rabbi at New York; b. Wobolnik, govern- 
ment of Wilna, 1858; author of "Peri Eshel," on Yebamot, 
Wilna, 1877; "Teflllat Shelomoh," |7). 1888; ' Sho'el Ke-In- 
yan," responsa, etc., Jerusalem, 1895; " Siah Shelomoh," i/). 
1896). Zebi Lebush (see Fuenn, " Kiryah Ne'emanah," p. 

BiBLiOfiRAPiiY : Eisenstiidt-Wiener, Da\it Kc(h)shiirux>- 34, St. 
Piitersbur^', 1897 ; Joseph Kohen-Zedek, in Ha-Asam, p. 59, 
St. Petersbui-g, 1897. 

H. I\. 

DEI GAliICCHI : Italian catechist, pliilosoplier, 
and cabalist; bom at Monselice; lived successively 
at Luzzara, Venice, Ferrara, and Sassuolo, in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Bartolocci 
("Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica," i. 26), followed 
by De Rossi (•' Dizionaiio," i. 160), Wolf ("Bibl. 
Hebr." i., No. 78), and Fiirst ("Bibl. Jud." ii. 10), 
erroneously identified Abraham Jagel with the 
Christian censor Camillo Jagel, declaring tliat Abra- 
ham Jagel embraced Christianity and changed his 
name to " Camillo Jagel." The untenability of this 
identification has been proved by later scholars, 
including Hananiah Coen ("Saggio di Eloquenza 
Ebrea," p. 25, Florence, 1827). Coen's chief argu- 
ment is that many books dated as early as 1611 bear 
the signature of "Inquisitor Camillo Jagel," while 
Abraham Jagel was known in 1615 as a pious Jew, 
as is shown by the following adventui'e related by 
himself. In 1615 he was captured by bandits soon 
after leaving Luzzara, between Reggio and Guas- 
talla. His traveling companion, Raphael Modeua, 
a rich Jew of Sassuolo, to whose house Jagel acted 
as family adviser, was captured with him. Jagel 
was sent back by the bandits to Mo- 

Rescued dena's family for a ransom ; tlie sum 
from being too high, the rabbis and influen- 

Bandits. tial Jews of IModena came to his aid, 
and, supported by the duke and his 
brother, the cardinal, obtained Modena's liberty. 

Many details of Jagel's life are given in his "Ge 
Hizzayon," the first part of which was published by 
Barucli Mani (Alexandria, 1880). It purports to be 
the relation of a dream in which he saw his deceased 
father, to vvliom he narrated the events of liis life. 
After his father's deatii he went, an inexperieuccd 
youth, to Luzzara, where he became involved in an 
inheritance trial, and was thrown into prison. It 
seems that he Avas imprisoned for a considerable 
time, for lie wrote there one of his important works. 
Jagel was the author of the following works: "Le- 

kah Tob." a catecliism (Venice, 1587); "Moshia' 
Hosim," a treatise on curing the pest b}' prayer and 
fasting (Venice, 1587; this work is extant in manu- 
script under the title "Orah Ilayyim"; see Neu- 
bauer, "Cat. Bodl. llebr. 3ISS." No. 23 10, 1); "Eshet 
Hayil," on tlie virtues of a wife and her duties 
toward her husband (Venice, 1606); "Bet Ya'ar ha- 
Lebanon " (see below) ; " Be'er Sheba'," on the secular 
sciences; "Peri JMegadim," not extant, but men- 
tioned by Jagel in another work. 

It is evident that Jagel endeavored to make his 
" Lekah Tob " conform to the catechi.sms then used 
by the Roman clergy ; like the latter, lie pointed out 
seven "cardinal sins" (ni'DV "'213), six other sins 
that are "hated by God," and four sins that them- 
selves "cry out for vengeance." With tlie Roman 
clergy, he treats of the three virtues of faith, liope, 
and charity, and defines faith in the Christian sense. 
On the otlier hand, he deviates much from tlie 
Christian catechisms by omitting the Decalogue, 
lest the lieretics say that the Torah is only the Dec- 
alogue (conip. Ber. 12a). Isaiah Hokowitz, Jagel's 
contemporary, quotes in his "Shene Luhot ha-Berit " 
(section "Gate of Letters," s. v. nV")3)a long passage 
from the " Lekah Tob, " treating of love toward one's 
neighbor. Tliis work has been translated into Latin 
by Ludwig Veil (London, 1679), Carpzov (Leipsic, 
1687), Odhelius (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1691). Her- 
mann van derHardt(Helmstadt, 1704), 
His and Buxtorf (unpublished). AJudoeo- 

Catechism. German translation was made by 
Jacob b. Mattithiah Ti-eves (Amster- 
dam, 1658), and was followed by tiiree German 
translations — one by Bock (Leipsic, 1694), one from 
Van der Hardt's Latin translation (Jesuitz, 1722), 
and one by Karl Anton (Brunswick, 1756). 

"Bet Ya'ar ha-Lebanon," in fotir parts, discusses 
Cabala, metaphysics, and natural liistory. The thir- 
tieth chapter of the second part was published by 
Reggio in his " Iggerot Yashar " (Vienna, 1834). 

Bibliography: Delia Torre, in Arch. Isr. xxiv. 570; Fuenn, 
Kene«et Yixracl, p. 29 ; Fiirst, I?i7(7. Jud. ii. 10 et xeq.: Mor- 
tara, Indicc, pp. 2.)-20; D. Oppenheim, in Heln. BihLvii. 19- 
:J0; Regffio, in Bihlnire lia-'Ittiin, ix. i;J-14; Steinsclineider, 
in Hchr. Bibl. xxi. 76-79; idem. Cat. Budl. cols. (594-695 ; 
Mavbaum, Abraham JancVtf Kateclii^inus Lckach-tob, 
Berlin, 1892. 
s. M. Set.. 

OF MONSELICE : Italian sciiolar; lived at Fer- 
rara, later at Parma, in the seventeenth century. 
He filled the position of chief rabbi or head of the 
Talmudical schools of the province of Parma. Jagel 
was the author of "Sifte Renanim," a commentary 
on "Perek Shirah," published at Mantua in 1661 
together with " Mesapperim Tehillot," a commentary 
on that poem by his father. xV responsuin of Jagel's 
is inserted in the " Be'er 'Eshek " of Shabbethai Beer 
of Jerusalem. 

Bibliography: Nepi-Ghirondi, Tolcdot Gednlc Fi'.s'rae?, p. 72; 
Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 998; Mortara, Indice. p. 29. 

K. I. Bk. 

JAHRZEIT : Judteo-German term denoting the 
anniversary of a death, commemorated by mourning 
and by reciting tiie Kaddish. Tiie custom of com- 
memorating the deatii of the beloved and honored is 
of ancient origin (see H.\zkarat Neshamot). In the 




Taimaitiic petkid theanmiveisirj" oi ai ianiier » or BcacJj- 

er's death was often de'roted to fiastiag. In taking 

a TOW to atKfc*™ from eadng meat and drinking 

wine these was sometiines added the phiase ""as on 

the death-day of a &theror teacher, €w oothe Fkst of 

Gedaliah " (Ned. Ida). From the discassivm in the 

Genma C^Siebu l'ia)it appeals that alistinenceoD the 

da J of one's fiftfrher's death, nnlilke that on the Fast of 

Gedaliah. was a Tolumtaij act, cmifonniiiig to the 

injonctiDn to bocMMr one's £ftther '^ while ahre and 

after his death'' (Kid. Slb>; while the anniTeisair}- 

of the death of Gedaliah (Q Kings xxT. 

A:- -* "iS ^ntaally oheoxed as a fast 

; : — t i- - 1 Basfai €m Teb. 122a sJates tkj.: 

--.-.'- Jist- it wascustaMnaryfor thedisapksand 

m^. the gemexal public to sit aioiutd the 

giaTe of a gieat man and othefwee 

im„ en the anniveisiiry of his death f Bl K. 

~ - meiDMHy of a great teacher was even 

~<ed than that of a father. 

1 ^Teisaiy of Moees' death is oteemred un 

~ . ai Adar L (F*oir feii^inig- cm the annirer- 

: a d^tfa oompture "Sefer Ha^JJdJm." §§ 331- 

333; laseries' glo@ to l^nlhan "AiMk, Yoireh De'ah, 

?" ' ^ "f the fast-day oocmrs oa Sabbath or New 

:cn3inemo«afiiQn dioald be postponed to 

. lay ((R. Jioseph CokaK BespaasM, 'So. 

-ffe is an infanral of three days 

: je days of death and borial the 

- shotiM be oba^ved oo the latter day on the 

r^aiy, and on the fonneron all fdttowir r 

• ts (l^saK to Yovdii De'ah. 4mi 

I-.-.i : jfTyraan'^aspirofeaiblythefersEwTitertocall 

"^-tirman wmium^ *'jahixat"'; 

:an be traced to the sis- 

tteemlih Mmdecai Jafe fd. 161^), in his 

*Lcbnsii-i-lT ■ ' ■ ■ '■-"'" -ras the second writer 

jsenruBce ofthejahr- 
Qnginof zeit fior parents originated piobaUy 
Jalnxeife. in the IGddle Ages with the J-" 
G^maray, wheite; the tenn itae 
osedby die Oraich to denMe the occaaoo of hon- 
oring the memoiy of tiie dead. 

In the Orient, especially in I^ilestine; the Sephar- 
diok weseoppcieed t& idse KaddMi^ hoMimg that: dnr- 
iug the fiist elere 'jjs it is a paayer for the 

depaited, to aarast ~ - Js to esiter paradise^ and 
to eiggiitinae the Kaddi^ after that time wonld be a 
m^eetioin npoo the dead. Bet Isaac Lnria, the cdle- 
btated eabnlist of Safed and a native of Gemsany, 
cxplaiDS that '^ wMle the orj^nan's Kaddidi within 
the eleren months beips lShe smU to pass from Ge- 
hnmom to Gan "Eden, the jahiz^t KaddB^eterates 
the HMol eresy year to a MaHhn^ sphese in paradise" 
fqnoied by Lewysohn^ '^Mekcne Hinhagim,"' § 98. 
Baffin. 18461. Manaseeh ben 1s!»tl sirailaiily says: 
"^Eirary ascent is Mke a new departnsef death]; hence 
the pofKilar costouE oS svying Kaddi^ on the anm- 
TCiauie^ year by year, which enstffinB, howerer, is 
strange'' (CNMrauat BsijjiBa,^ S. 2m, Ans^eirdain. 
VtSS%. 'As a iS^i&aidi bmt a calsali^ he was in^lioic- 
tant to adffpt this '^strange'" enstom. The Sephar- 
dbn BnaHy adopted the jabizeit eostom, wMch they 
can ''nahafah'' finfaeritanee>. 

As to the observance trf the jahiz^ of a mothe: . 
death while the lEuiher k still afire, some authorities 

claim that the fftther may object on llie ground that 
people might think the jahrzeit inti^iMied for him; 
but this objectioii Las been overruled. The jabrzeil 
is distinguished by ilirve rites: (1) fasting, which 
has been relaxed in modem times : C? <i the Kaildish 
prayer ; (B) the jahrzeit candle, vrhicli is kept burning 
for twenty-four hours^ Some authorities pronounce 
this light to be of Christian origin (Gudemann. 
'"Gesch." iiL 1S3>. Aaron Berechiab of Modena 
explains that, the burning wick in the candle is like 
the soul in the body, and ** man'ssoul 

Jahrseit is the candle of (iod" (oomp. Prov. 

Civile. sx. 2T|; the numerical value of pHTTU 

il^~ burning candle') = 390. and is there- 

fOTB equal to that of rc*3rn (" the Sbekinah '' ), which 

likewise = 390 (- Maalnr Yabbc^ ' ; - Sefat Emet,* 

XV. 94b. Amsterdam. 1732). 

The jahrzeit of Simeon ben Yohai, the supposed 
author of the Zodiar. on Lag be-'Omer. is yearly ob- 
served at MeriMi, near Safed, by about 20, 000 Oriental 
Jews with hynms and rught illuminations that may 
be seen miles away. A <:imila»r jahrzeit celebration 
his been lately introduced in honor of R. Meir Ba'al 
ha-Xcs at TIberiais on the 13th of lyyar. The 
jahrzat of Moses ISeries at Cracow, on the 18th of 
lyyar. is observed by the Jews of that vicinity. 
The P»<adim oelebraie the jahrzeit of their respective 
rabbis with accompanying hymns, religious dances, 
and general rejoicing. This has had a tendency 
to tain an criginally moumfal celebration into an 

oason of joyous festivity (Bolet^iower. ~Shem 
-7yeh," § 14; ^Publications Am. Jew. Hist. Soc' 
ix. G^. The Mitnaggedim, the oppmients of the 
Ra^gMim strmuoiisly objecte<l to this innovaticHi. 
aod even protested agaiikst excessive cost in cele- 
brating the jahrzeit of Simeon b. Yohai. See Kai>- 


Bouo^LkinT: Zata.Momateta!fed£tEnlemdtritMhn,\ 
ISS; KaTsofiae, SUrbOage ami AMer umd Xeuer ZeU, 

CaSiOiiitime, Ijad^mte ShaOmtumim, Sio. 1214. Bentiii. 18»: 
Tie JemiA Tear Batik. SSR (m&^u Loodon (jjUebe* 
trtles WSt-ISfS'K DemiMtz. SerrSee* in Sunagngme amd 
Brnm. npL SSH «i: Ha-Matz, vmk So. 8ft: Fwfnatria. 
M(Oimrmer'* Aiwmmat:^ Sew T«fc. fSm. 
A- J. D. EL 

■J AHV18T (osnally symbolized as J) : The name 
givoa in miodem BUde criticism to tibe supposed an- 
Hmx of those portions of the Pentateuch (or of the 
Hexatench) in wMch the name Yn WH is used for God 
in prefoence to the name "Eloliim." which latter is 
employed by die Elofaistic writets. Since the analy- 
SB of the Pentateoich as based on this distinction 
has changed scanewhat in methodand results witinn 
the last, centory and a half, the limits assigned to 
the JahvisI have also varied in some degree. It is 
imse poasble to present the history of the analytic 
BuiOTement in this article, which must be confined to 
a statement of present critical opinion. First may 
be indicated the seictions ascribed to the Jahvist; sec- 
ondly, tibe goieial tenor and cbaiateter of his work: 
and, fhitdly, the history of its ptodnctioD, and tiie 
nwKt probable period ef its eempfmtUm. 

T. It sboold be premmd that J has beoi com- 
bined with a. kindred docnment, the work of the 
■-.T^er EXfiimtie writer (E$, and that both of diem 
:^-s pfaiBsly distjngaidnbk: from the later 0«4nstlc or 
Priefstly docsunent (F>. It is very often not ci^ to 




distinguish the contributions of J from those of E ; 
but critics now agree with virtual unanimity in their 
assignment of tlie most important passages at issue 
to one or to the otlier. 

From the Jahvist there is in Genesis the account 
of the creation of tlie world of men, of the probation 
and fall of "the man" and his "helpmeet," and of 
the career of the earliest men generally (ii. 4-iv.). 
He gives a part of the complex story of the Flood, 

and the sole account of the settlement 

Contribu- of Babylonia (x. 8-12) and of the dis- 

tions of J pcrsionof the race (xi. 1-9). Thestories 

to the of Abraham's relations Avith Lot and of 

Hexateuch. the cities of the plain (xviii., xix.) are 

also from J, as are the narratives of the 
quest of a wife for Isaac (xxiv.), most that is told 
of the earlier life of Jacob and Esau (xxv., xxvii.), 
Judah's family history (xxxviii.), and a large part 
of the storj' of Joseph, especially Avhere Judah is 
prominent. The same writer contributed the bless- 
ing of Jacob (xlix.). In Exodus is found less of J 
than of E (or of P); but he tells much of the prepa- 
rations for the migration from Egypt and of the 
flight itself. In Numbers it is mostly impossible to 
separate J and E. They together have given x. 29- 
xii., XX. -xxv. 6, and most of xxxii. In Josliua J 
and E form practically one document, comprising 
most of the first half of the book. 

II. J is classed with E as belonging to the pro- 
phetic school, as distinguished from P, or the Priestly 
writer. The main distinction betw-een J and E is 
that wdiile both of them in their narratives aim to 

set forth God's providential guidance 
J's Distinct- and His manifestation of Himself, J 
ive illustrates his theme by indicating the 

Teaching, ideas and principles of revelation, and 
E by exhibiting its forms and modes. 
J is an adept at conveying religious truth in his 
matchless stories, even when these are legendary. 
Nowhere else earlier than the Later Prophets can be 
found such profound views of the nature and prog- 
ress of sin among men, or of God's plan of redeem- 
ing the world from sin, or of His choice of Israel 
and Israel's representative men to be the instruments 
of such redemption. 

Admiration of the Jahvist is heightened when one 
studies the literary forms in which he conveys these 
great and far-reaching ideas. In a certain sense it 
is immaterial in what guise truth is 
The Style presented if onlj^ it come out strong 
of J. and clear; hence one must always 
maintain that the stories of the Pen- 
tateuch as literature are of secondary importance as 
compared with their prophetic teachings. Still, of 
all narrators he is the most skilfid in selection of 
details, the most vivid, graphic, and jiicturesque, 
and withal the most simple, realistic, and sympa- 
thetic. As one reads one sees Isaac tremble, one 
hears Esau's cry, and Judah's appeal to Joseph. 
To make God real to the reader J shrinks not from 
the most extreme anthropomorphism; and much of 
the world's faith in Ykwii today is due to the fact 
that the Jahvist has told how He used to come down 
to men and talk and walk in the midst of them. 

III. There seems to be good reason for believing 
that the work of the Jahvist is composite ; not 

VII.— 5 

merely that he worked over materials from differ- 
ent sources into his book, but that he incorporated 
directly considera])ie portions of a separate composi- 
tion. Gen. xxxviii. and xxxix., for examjjle, both 
belong to him, ])ut they are not continuous, and they 
apparently occupy (lifierciit levels of moral develop- 
ment (J' and J-). The question thusarising, though 
important for the history of the growth of prophetic 
ideas, becomes of secondary importance in view of 
the fact that the w'ork in general is on a very high 
plane and as a whole must be the product of a single 
mind and of a definite epoch. 

But there is no approach to unanimit}' on the 
part of critics as to the time of composition. The 
place of its production is usually held to be the king- 
dom of Judah. Yet such enuuent critics as Keuss, 
Kuenen, and Schrader maintain that it proceeded 
from the Northern Kingdom, on the ground that a 
JudahiteAvould not have matle so much of the north- 
ern shrines of Shechem, Beth-el, and 
Time and Peuiel (Gen. xii. 6, etc.). But one re- 
Occasion of members that the prophets of Judah, 

"Writing, as devoted Israelites, held fast to all 
the great common Hebrew traditions. 
Moreover, one must without doubt hold to a Judah- 
ite origin, in view of the association of Abraham and 
Jacob with Hebron, and the special prominence 
given to Judah, the head of the tribe that gave its 
name to the kingdom. 

The standpoint, however, is not that of Judah 
alone, but that of Judah as representing all Israel. 
This obvious fact suggests as a date a time after the 
destruction of the Northern Kingdom. It was there, 
undoubtedly, that E was composed, probably about 
770 B.C. ; and it is natural to suppose that J was 
written as its counterpart, and as an expression of 
the view that Yhwh ruled all things from the be- 
ginning, and that the faith and worship cherished 
in Jerusalem were also those of the Fathers. The 
date is therefore perhaps about 720 b.c. Soon there- 
after J and E were combined into a single work. 

For a brief summary of the results of the analysis 
see Jew. Encyc. iii. 174 et seq., s.v. Bible Exegesis. 

Bibliography : Since the study of the Jahvist can not be pur- 
sued independently of that of the other sources of the Hexa- 
teuch, it nuist sufflce here to pive a general reference to recent 
critical commentaries, especially those upon Genesis, above 
all that of Dillmann ; to critical treatises, such as the epoch- 
making works of Kuenen and WelUiausen ; and for the history 
of the analysis and the limits of J the following : Westphal, 
Le^ Sources^ (hiPcntatctiqiie. 188S-93 ; Holzinger. EinleitUDU 
in den Hexateuch. 1893: Briggs, Hiaher Ciiticism of the 
HexateKch, 1893. The introductions of Driver and Cornill 
distribute the several sources in convenient tabular form. 

e. g. n. J. F. 3IcC. 

JAIL. See Imprisonment. 

JAIR (T'X'' = "He gives light"): 1. A contem- 
porary of Moses, called in the Pentateuch "son of 
Manasseh," who in the beginning of the conquest 
took from the Amorites the whole tract of Argob, 
containing sixty fortified cities, which he called 
Havotii-.taik (Nuin. xxxii. 41; Deut. iii. 14; Josh, 
xiii. 30; I Kings iv. 13). In I Chron. ii. 22, 23 Jair 
is mentioned as of mixed descent, he being the son of 
Segub, whose father was Hezron, a Judahite. and 
whose mother was the daughter of Machir, grandson 
of Manasseh and father of Gilead. 

2. A Gileadite wlio judged Israel for twenty-two 
j'ears. He had thirtj-sons; and thirty cities were 




called after him "Havoth-jair." He was buried at 
Camon (Judges x. 3-5). This Jair is probably the 
same as No. 1. According to another tradition the 
number of cities called after liim was twenty-three 
(I Chron. ii. 22). 

3. The father of Mordecai, a Benjamite (Esth. 
ii. 5). 

4. (Kere ~|ij;'; ketib, -|lj?' = "IIe awakens.'') 
Father of Elhauan, one of David's heroes (I Chron. 
XX. 5). In the parallel narrative in II Sam. xxi. 19 
his name is stated to bo " Jaare-oregim." 

E. G. H. M. SeL. 


American journalist; l)oru in Suwalki, Russian Po- 
land, 1835; died in New York city Aug. 18, 1897. 
He was well versed in Talmudic and neo-Hebrew 
literature, and was a skilful linguist. He went to 
New York in 1871 and for several years edited 
Hirscli Berstein's " Ha-Zofehbe-"Erez ha-Hadashah," 
the first Hebrew periodical issued in the United 
States. He was a regular American correspondent of 
" Ha-Meliz, " his letters, over the signature " Yashan, " 
attracting much attention. For about twenty years 
Jalomstein was the chief collaborator on the "Jew- 
ish Gazette " (Yiddish) of New York, founded by 
his brother-in-law, K. H. Sarasolm. He also con- 
tributed to "Ha-'Ibri," and his "Dibre Yeme Arzot 
lia-Berit " (New York, 1893) is a reprint from that 
periodical, in which it appeared as a serial during 
about two years. 

Bidliograpuy: Ha-'Ibi-i, vii. No. 4<5; Jewish Gazette, xxiil. 
No. 35. 

A. P. Wl. 

JAMAICA : Largest island in the British West 
Indies. It has a total population of 644,841 (1901), 
of whom about 2,400 are Jews. When England 
conquered the island in 1655, a considerable num- 
ber of Jewish inhabitants was found there, known 
as "Portugals," under which name the Scphardic 
Jews concealed their true faith from Spanish perse- 
cution. Jews settled in Jamaica during the century 
preceding Cromwell's conquest. The proprietary 
rights of the family of Columbus to Jamaica were 
recognized in 1508 and 1538, and passed to the 
female Braganza line in 1576. The friendship 
which subsisted between Columbus and the Jews 
continued with his descendants, and as their propri- 
etary rights excluded the Inquisition and prevented 
the inclusion of Jamaica in the bishopric of Cuba, 
unavowed Jews were enabled to live in Jamaica in 
comparative safety, even during the Spanish period. 
Clarendon's "State Papers" refer, under date of 
1623, to some of these Portuguese as yearning to 
throw off the Spanish j'oke. 

The principal pilot, Captain Campoe Sabbatha, 
whom Pennand Venables relied upon in their attack 
upon Jamaica seems to have been a Jew, and there 
is strong reason for believing that Cromwell consid- 
ered Jews settled and to be settled in and about 
Jamaica as important factors in the establishment of 
his ambitious British colonial policy. Simon de 
Caceres, one of Cromwell's principal secret-intelli- 
gencers, furnished him with reports on conditions 
in Jamaica immediately after its conquest. The 
British, in their methods of dealing with the con- 
quered residents, were careful to distinguish between 

the Portuguese Jews and the Spanish inhabitants, 
with the result that Jews at once began to estab- 
lish and develop the commercial prosperity of the 
island. The Dutch capitulation of Brazil aug- 
mented the Jewish settlement in Jamaica; it was 
further increased by considerable accessions from 
Surinam upon tlie British withdrawal from that 
district in 1675, and b}'^ direct migration from Eng- 
land, beginning in 1663, and later from Curasao and 
Germany. In 1700 the Jews bore the b\!lk of the 
taxes of the island, tiiough the avowed 
Immigra- Jewish population at that time is fig- 
tion from ured as only 80. No fewer than 151 
England, of the 189 Jews in the American col- 
Curagao, onies whose names have been handed 
and down as naturalized under the Act of 

Germany. Parliament of 1740 between that year 
and 1755, resided in Jamaica. The 
vanilla and sugar industries of Jamaica, and in fact 
almost the entire foreign and intercolonial trade of 
the colony during the first half of the eighteenth 
century, were principally in the hands of the Jews, 
and Jamaica was a far more important commercial 
center in that century than it since has been. 
Among the leading Jewish families that contributed 
most signally to the development of Jamaica's trade 
are the following: Da Silva, Soarez, Cardoza, Beli- 
sario, Beliufante, Nunez, Fonseca, Gutterecet, De 
Cordova, Bernal, Gomez, Vaz, and Bravo. 

Efforts were early made to abolish the special 
taxes which were imposed on Jews in the colony, 
which efforts, with the assistance of the crown, 
finally succeeded. Attempts, inspired by local mer- 
cantile jealousy, made during the reign of William 
III. to expel the Jews from the island, also met with 
a vigorous royal check. In fact, Jamaica led the 
way for all the present Britisii possessions in the 
direction of abolishing Jewish disabilities; this had 
been accomplished as early as 1831, with the result 
that in 1838 it was possible for Sir F. H. Goldsmid 
to compile a long and remarkable list of Jews ap- 
pointed to civil and military offices in Jamaica since 
the Act of 1831, which list was used by him as a 
potent argument in favor of Jewish emancipation 
at home. The first Jew cho.sen as a member of the 
Jamaican assembly was Alexander Bravo, for the 
district of Kingston, in 1835 ; a year or two later he 
became a member of the council of the island ; after- 
ward, receiver-general. In 1849 eight of the forty- 
seven members of the colonial assembly were Jews ; 
and the legislature adjourned over 
In the Leg- Yom Kippur by a decisive vote, the 
islature. Jews not voting. Dr. C. M. Morales 
was elected speaker of the House of 
Assembly in 1849. Numerous other positions of im- 
portance, civil, judicial, and military, have been held 
by the Jews since 1831. 

In 1700 Jews are referred to as having made at 
least three different settlements on the island, though 
Kingston, from the time of its foundation, has been 
the most important. Spanish Town, Montego Bay, 
Falmouth, and Lacovia have also had Jewish settle- 
ments, and Jews are, in fact, to be encountered in 
all portions of the island, though Kingston alone 
has now any Jewish synagogues. Spanish Town 
had two Jewish congregations between 1840 and 




1845. A synagogue is iiu-iitioned by local historians 
as having boen established about 1684; it is referred 
to in the Journal of the House of Assembly in 1G87. 
The Spanish and Portuguese synagogue of Kings- 
ton, situated in Princess street until the time of its 
destruction by fire in 1882, was consecrated in 1750. 
The English and German synagogue was consecrated 
in 1789, a new synagogue taking its place in 1837. 
Hannah Adams, in her "History of the Jews," Avrit- 
ten in 1812, refers to two parties among the Janiai- 
cau Jews, one of which regarded the other as heretics 
because they had relaxed in the observance of the 
ritual and had intermarried with Christians. A 
third (German) synagogue was used for purposes 
of worship beginning at some time prior to 18o0, 
but the congregation merged iu that year with 
the Portuguese. l?ev. M. N. Nathan Avas rabbi of 
the English and German synagogue at the time of 
the consecration of its new building in 1837, and for 
a number of years thereafter, and was active in vari- 
ous Jewish literary controversies and undertakings, 
including the editorship of a monthly, called 
"First Fruits of the West" (1845). Among other 
Jewish clerical leaders in Jamaica were Joshua 
Pakdo (went to 
Jamaica as rabbi 
in 1688), Dciuiel 
Israel Lopez Lx- 
ciCNA (Spanish 
Jewish poet, a 
contemporary of 
Pardo), Haham 
d e C o r d o z a 
(went to Jamaica 
about the time 
of the American 
Re volution; died 
and was buried 
in Spanish Town 
in 1798), Rev. A. 
P. Mendes, and 
Rev. George Ja- 

After the dis- 
astrous confla- 
gration inKings- 
ton in 1882, an 
effort was made 
to unite all three 
of its syna- 
gogues, espe- 
cially as the de- 
crease of the 
Jewish popula- 
tion of Jamaica 
importance had 

and its diminished commercial 
made it desirable to concentrate 
religious energies. Differences as to 
Recent ritual, hoAvever, induced a number of 
History, the members of the Spanish and Por- 
tuguese congregation to Avithdraw 
from the movement ; they consecrated a synagogue 
in East street iu 1884. A number of members of 
the English and German congregation also with- 
drew, and finally consecrated a synagogue in 1894. 
The majority of both, however, constructed a syna- 
gogue iu Duke street under the name of "Amalga- 

mated C'ongregalion of Israelites," consecrated in 
1888. The two principal congregations were merged 
in Dec, 1900, since wO)ich they have worshiped under 
one roof, Rev. Jo.seph M. Corcos being their minis- 
ter. Several communal charitable organizations are 
maintained in Kingston, the chief of which is the 
Hebrew Benevolent Society, established in 1851. 

Bibliography: Ricliard Hill. Eight Chapters in the HMory 
(if Jamaica (I.'-OS-IOHO), IUu.-<tratiiiii the Settlctneni of the 
./cK'-sni </(« i.s.Vnif/. King-ston, IHW; Mem, Liuhts ami :^li(ui- 
(nrs <if Jantaica)! JliHtoru; I'lihlii-ntiona Am. Jew. I1i.-<t. 
S(,c. i". 108; ii. 9.5-9SJ, m5; ill. ;{. 7',), 110; v. 48, lU-llti; vi. 9; 
viii., p. X.; ix., pp. xiv., 81 ; x. o8 ; Koliut, Slietches of Jewitih 
Loyalty in the Sovitt American Colonies 07i(f the West 
Indies, in Wolf's American Jew as Patriot, Soldier, and 
Citizen, pp. 483^484; Lucien Wolf, Menassth Den Israel; 
idem, CroiinveWx Jewi.<h Intellificuceri^; Jaoob.s and Wolf, 
Bihl. Aiujlo-Jnd.\ Kohler. Mena.'iseh Ben Israel and Some 
Unjnddislicd Paijrs of America )i History ; Hannah Adams, 
History of the ,Iew^: F. Jiidali, Hi.<tory of tlie Jews in 
Jamaica, in the Daily Tcleuraph (Kingston), heginninR July 
25, I'JOO; Leslie Alexander, The Testimony of the Tombs, 
in Jamaica Daily Gleaner, June and Oct., 1898; Bridpes, 
Ann cds of Jamaica; Edwards. Hi.ft<n-y of the West Indies: 
Lons, Hi!<tory of Jamaica; Kayserling, The Jews in Ja- 
maica and Daniel I. Lopez Laijuna, in J. Q. R. July, 
]9tX) ; Archer, Monumental Insc7'ipt ions of the Britisli West 
Indies; Catatogue of the Leeser Library, ed. Cyrus Adler. 

A. M. J. K. 

' JAMES (English equivalent for 'loKw/^of =r "Ja- 
cobus " ; Italian, 
Name of three 
persons promi- 
nent in New Tes- 
tament history. 

1. Son of Ze- 
bedee (Aramaic, 
" Ya'kob bar 
Zabdai ") ; with 
his brother John 
one of the first 
disciples of 
Jesus. Like 
their father, both 
were fishermen 
of Galilee (:Matt. 
iv. 21 ; Mark i. 
19; Luke v. 10); 
their mother, ap- 
parently Sa- 
lome, is men- 
tioned among 
the women 
watching at the 
grave of Jesus 
(Matt, xxvii. 56; 
Mark xv. 40); 
she was possibly 
sister to Mary, 
James and liis 

Synagogue at Spanish Town, Jamaica. 

(From a photograph.) 

the mother of Jesus (John xix. 25) 
brother John are mentioned immediately after Peter 
and Andrew in the list of the Twelve Apostles (Matt. 
X. 2-4; Luke vi. 14-16); Mark iii. 17 has preserved 
the story that when calling them to the apostleship 
Jesus surnamed them "Bene Ra'ash" or "Bene 
Rogez" (.Job xxxvii. 2) (the text has "Boanerges, 
which is. The sons of thunder"). This by-name 
was probably expressive of their impetuous nature 
(comp. Luke ix. 55 and Mark x. 37). James and 
liis brother John together with Peter were the in- 
separable followers of Jesus (Mark v. 37, ix. 2, xiii. 




y, xiv. 33), and after the death of their master they 
with the other apostles remained in the city of 
Jerusalem "steadfast in prayer" (Acts i. 14). James 
was the first one of the apostles to suffer a martyr's 
death (Acts xii. 2). What action of James and the 
other disciples provoked the wrath of Herod Agrippa 
is not stated. Legend added new features to the mar- 
tyrdom (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." ii. 9); and Spain, 
whose patron saint James became, surrounded his 
life with miraculous incidents. 

2. Son of Alpha;us (Aramaic, "Halfai" or "Hol- 
pai " = " Cleophas " ; see John xix. 25; Eusebius, 
" Hist. Eccl." iii. 11, iv. 22), an apostle mentioned in 
the list of the twelve (Matt. x. 2-4; Mark iii. 16-19; 
Luke vi. 14-16; Acts i. 13). Probably he was the 
brother of "Levi the son of Alphteus" (Mark ii. 14), 
better known as Matthew (Matt. ix. 9) ; nothing else 
is known of liim. He is often identified with James 
the Little ("ha-Katan." Mark xv. 40; A. V.. incor- 
rectly, "the less," John xix. 25; but see No. 3, be- 
low). According to Hegesippus (see Eusebius, I.e.), 
James was a cousin, and his father an uncle, of Jesus. 

3. Brother of Jesus ; also called James tlie Just. 
James is mentioned as the first among the brothers 
of Jesus, the others being Joses, Simon, and Judas 
(Matt. xiii. 55; Mark vi. 3), all of whom were, ac- 
cording to Luke ii. 7, younger than Jesus. Neither 
James nor any of the other brothers believed in the 
miraculous powers of Jesus (John vii. 5; Matt. xii. 
47 ct seq. ; Mark iii. 31). But after the crucifixion 
James, the brother of Jesus, is said by Paul to have 
seen the risen Jesus in a vision after Peter, the twelve, 
and the five hundred had seen him (I Cor. xv. 7); 
and when Paul went to Jerusalem to defend his claim 
to the assumed apostleship to the heathen, James 
was the head of the Church (Gal. i. 19; ii. 9, 12; Acts 
xii. 17, XV. 13, xxi. 18). According to Clement of 
Rome, quoted by Eusebius ("Hist. Eccl." ii. 1), 
James, surnamed " the Just " on account of his great 
virtue, was the first bishop of the Church elected at 
Jerusalem. About his martyrdom Clement writes 
that "he was cast from a wing of the Temple and 
beaten to death with a fuller's club." Somewhat 
diiterently Josephus writes: "The younger Anan, a 
high priest belonging to the sect of the Sadducees, 
who are very rigid in judging offenders, had James, 
the brother of Jesus, the so-called ' Christ,' together 
with some of his companions, brought before the 
Sanhedrin on the charge of having broken the Law, 
and had them delivered over to be stoned. This act 
of Anan caused indignation among the citizens best 
known for their fairness and loj-alty " ("Ant." xx. 
9, § 1). Hegesippus, quoted by Eusebius (I.e. ii. 
23), gives the following description of James: 

" James, the brother of the Lord, succeeded to the government 
of the Church in conjunction with the Apostles. He was holy 
from his mother's womb : he drank no wine nor did he eat flesh. 
No razor came upon his head, nor did he anoint himself with 
oil or use any [warm] bath. He alone was permitted to enter 
the Holy Place, for he wore not woolen, but linen garments ; he 
was in the habit of entering alone into the Temple, and was 
frequently found upon his knees praying for forgiveness for the 
people, so that his knees became hard as those of a camel. . . . 
Because of his exceeding great justice ["Zaddikut"] he was 
called 'the Just ' [" Ya'akohKobal 'Am" = "Jacob, the bulwark 
of the people"] and * Zaddik Yesod '01am ' [= "the righteous are 
the foundation of the world " ; Prov. x. 2-5, Hebr.]. Now, when 
some of the seven sects which existed among the people [the 
Sadducees] asked him: 'What is the gate of salvation?' 

["sha'ar ha-yeshu'ah" : comp. Lev. R. xxx.; Ps. cxviii. 20; for 
which some copyist wrote "sha'ar Yeshua'" = "the gate of 
Jesus "] he replied that it was the Messiah. James's words were 
understood to refer to Jesus, and led many to believe in him. . . . 
The Scribes and the Pharisees, fearing lest the people would all 
be led over to the belief in Jesus, asked James to place himself 
upon a wing of the Temple and address the people assembled 
there on account of the Passover, and persuade them not to be 
led astray. 

" Whereupon James said : ' Why do ye ask me concerning 
Jesus the Son of Man ? He sitteth in heaven at the right hand 
of great Power, and is about to come upon the clouds of heaven.' 
And when many cried 'Hosannah to the Son of David,' the 
Scribes and Pharisees cast him down and stoned him. And 
James before dying said : ' Lord, God, Father, forgive them ; for 
they know not what they do' [the words ascribed to Jesus; 
Luke xiii. 34J. And one of the Rechabites cried out: 'Cease! 
What do ye ? The just one prayeth for you.' Then one of the 
crowd, a fuller, took the club with which he beat out clothes 
and struck the just man on the head. Thus he suffered martyr- 
dom; they buried him on the spot by the Temple where his 
monument still remains. Immediately after this, Vespasian be- 
sieged them." 

It is difficult to say whether this legendary record 
contains any actual facts or not. The Essene char- 
acter of James "the Little," or "the Just," seems to 
rest on authentic tradition. According to Epipha- 
nius ("Ha?res." Ixxviii. 14), he wore a golden plate 
on his forehead (comp. Meg. iv. 8, where this is 
characterized as " the way of the Gnostics" ["derek 
minut" or "hizonim "]), and no sandals. Another 
evidence of his Essene piety manifests itself in the 
following: "When, during a drought, he stretched 
forth his hands in prayer, rain immediately came " 
(comp. Ta'an. 2Sa. et seq.). 

It is possible that the last words ascribed to Jesus 
were original with James the Just. The idea that 
]Mary, the mother of Jesus, should afterward have 
borne other children became obnoxious to the ascet- 
ics of the Church, and consequently either the broth- 
ci'hood of James was explained to have been on 
the father'sside only (so Clement, in Eusebius, I.e. ii. 
1; "Clementine Recognitions," xi. 35), or Mary, the 
mother of James the Little and of Joses, was differ- 
entiated from Mary, the mother of Jesus (Matt, xxvii. 
56 ; Mark xv. 40, 47 ; Luke xxiv. 10 ; but comp. John 
xix. 25). This, again, gave rise to a number of dif- 
ferent versions in the early literature of the Church, 
many claiming that James the Little was identical 
with the son of Alphoeus, the cousin of Jesus, and 
was as such called brother (see Lightfoot on Colos- 
sians, 10th ed., pp. 260-267, London, 1896). 


of exhortation and instruction, written by "James, 
a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ," and 
addressed "to the twelve tribes which are of the Dis- 
persion" (i. 1, R. v.). The writer is supposed to be 
James, the brother of Jesus, on which account the 
epistle was accorded the first place among the so- 
called "general epistles" of the New Testament. 
Asa matter of fact, aside from the reference to Jesus 
Christ in the introductory verse quoted above, and 
in ii. 1 (where the words "Jesus Christ" are obvi- 
ously an interpolation), the epistle contains nothing 
to indicate a Christian origin. It comprises, loosely 
joined together, a number of moral sayings which 
liave their parallels in contemporary Jewish wri- 
tings, and there is no reason for holding that "the 
brethren " addressed may not have been Jews of a 
particular frame of mind— pious and humble, such 




as were the Essenes, who formed a strong brother- 
liood in the Diaspora. Especially noteworthy are 
the facts that the name of the meeting-place of the 
worshipers addressed is "synagogue" {avvaycjyrr, ii. 
2), not "church " ('f^•^•/?/(Tf«), and that the Hebrew 
prophets Job and Elijah are regarded as patterns, but 
nowhere the personality of Jesus (v. 10, 11, 17 et 
ul.). The canonical character of the epistle has ac- 
cordingly at all times been questioned; Eusebius 
("Hisl. Eccl." iii. 25, 3) counts it among the contro- 
verted writings — avri^ityd/irva ; Origeu (" Joliannem," 
xix. 6, XX. 10) speaks of it as " the so-called Epis- 
tle of James " ; Luther, who calls it "a right strawy 
epistle," as well as Erasmus, doubted its genuine- 
ness; Schneckenburger ("Beitrage zur Eiuleitung 
in das N. T." 1832, pp. 196 et seij.) and Jiilicher 
("Einleitung in das N. T." 1894, p. 143) likewise 
find its standpoint to be Jewish; and Spitta("Zur 
Gesch. und Lit. des Urchristenthums," 1896, ii. 61- 
239), whom this article follows, has, notwithstand- 
ing all contradictions or doubts, established its Jew- 
ish origin and character. 

The author, beginning with the Greek formula of 

greeting {xaipeiv z= " joy "), urges his " brethren " (i. 

2—4) to rejoice over tlieir trials (comp. 

Contents Judith viii. 25; IV Mace. vii. 22, ix. 
of the 12), as through such " tests of faith " 

Epistle. (comp. ib. xv. 21) they shall acquire 
" patience " (Test. Pair., Joseph, 2, 10 ; 
IV Mace. xiii. 13, Ix. 8 et seg.; Book of Jubilees, 
xvii. 17 et seq.) and become "perfect " (comp. Philo, 
"De Abrahamo,"§ 33). The same test of virtue is 
given in Rom. v. 4 and II Peter i. 5. He who lacks 
wisdom should, in order to be perfect (see Wisdom 
ix. 6), pray to God for it with a confiding heart, free 
from wavering doubt (i. 5-8 ; comp. Wisdom i. 3-5, 
vii. l et seq.), and not be double-minded {<Vi-\l)vxoq = 
"be-leb wa-leb"; Ps. xii. 3 [A. V. 2]; Tan., Ki 
Tabo, ed. Buber, 3 : " Pray not before God with\wo 
hearts"; comp. Ecclus. [Sirach] i. 28; Enoch, xci. 
4; "Shepherd of Hermas," Mandate, ix. 4, 5, and 
the Jewish apocryphon quoted; I Clement xxiii. 3; 
II Clement xi. 2). In allusion to Jer. ix. 22 et seq. 
(comp. Ecclus. [Sirach] iii. 18, x. 21, xi. 1), the 
lowly brother is admonished to glory in that 
(through self-humiliation) he is exalted, and the rich 
to rejoice in that he is made low (by the speedy 
vanishing of his riches; i. 9-10). "Blessed is the 
man that . . . is tried; he shall receive the crowm of 
life, which the Lord hath promised to them that 
love him" (comp. i. 12 with Job v. 17; Ecclus. 
[Sirach] xxxiv. 8-10 ; " Shepherd of Hermas," Visio, 
ii. 2 et seq. ; Wisdom v. Wet seq. ; the passage quoted 
in I Cor. ii. 9 and the passages in Yalkut, Judges, 
59; see also Crown). 

In i. 12-16 temptations are declared to come, not 
directly from God, but from the powers of the 
flesh, the "yezer ha-ra' " — lust which leads to sin 
and death (comp. Ecclus. [Sirach] xv. 12; Test. 
Patr., Reuben, 2 et seq. ; Judah, 14, 19; and often). 
" Only good gifts come from God " (" kol de-'abed 
rahmana le-tab 'abed"); "What God doeth is for 
good" (Bcr. 60b, after Gen. i. 31; comp. Philo, " De 
Profugis,"§15; and often). "TlieFather of Lights" 
{i.e., of the stars as sons of God ; comp. Apoc. Mosis, 
36 ; Philo, " De Somniis," i. 13 ; idetn, " De Sacrifican- 

tibus," §4) is one "with whom there is no varia- 
tion or turning," as with the stars (Wisdom vii. 18; 
Enoch, xli. 8; Ixxii. 5, 35). Especially is man created 
by His word of truth, the first-fnnt of His creation 
(comp. Yer. Shab. 5b: "man is the pure ' hallah ' 
[lirst dough] of creation "). 

Decidedly Jewish or rabbinical in conception and 
expression are the following sentences — i. 19-27: 
"Let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, 
slow to wrath" (comp. Abot v. 11-12: "Hard to 
provoke and easy to be pacified is the disposition of 
the hasid " ; " Quick to hear and slow to forget 
is wise"). "Lay apart all filthiness . . . and re- 
ceive in meekness the engrafted word which is able 
to save your souls" (comp. Zech. iii. 3 et seq.; 
pseudo-Phocylides, 128; Apoc. Mosis, 20-21; Ps. 
cxix. 11 ; Test. Patr., Gad, 4). "Be ye doers of the 
word, and not hearers only " (comp. Abot i. 17, v. 
14; Shab. 88a: "A crown for Israel's promise to do, 
and another for his promise to hear "). In i. 25 " the 
word " is spoken of as " the perfect law of liberty " 
(comp. Abot vi. 2; IV Mace. xiv. 2; Philo, "Quod 
Omnis Probus Liber," § 7), the observance of which 
brings eternal bliss (IV Mace. xvii. 18, xviii. 23). 
"The attendance at the divine service where the 
word of God is read should lead to pure speech and 
a pure worship of God the Father [comp. Ps. Ixviii. 
6] through works of charity, visiting the father- 
less and widows in their affliction " (comp. Ec- 
clus. [Sirach] iv. 10, xxxii. 14), and " keeping 
oneself unspotted from the world " (comp. Enoch, 
xlviii. 7). 

In ch. ii. the Synagogue audits specific teachings 

form the main subject of discussion, introduced by 

verse 1 : " M}' brethren, show not respect of persons 

while professing belief in [the Lord of 

Synagogal Glory]" (comp. Enoch, xl. 3, Ixiii. 2; 

Teaching' Ps. xxiv. 7-10; the Christian inter- 

and. polation, "our Lord Jesus Christ," 

Practise, destroys the sense of the whole sen- 
tence and of all that follows). " Dis- 
crimination between the rich and the poor in 
the assignment of seats in the synagogue is not 
in keeping with the faith professed bj' the breth- 
ren, according to which God has chosen the poor 
as those rich in faith and as heirs to the king- 
dom promised to those that love Him " (2-5; comp. 
Ecclus. [Sirach] x. 22, xi. 6; Wisdom iii. 9; Enoch, 
xliii. 4; and often). "To despise the poor and honor 
tiie rich who drag the poor to the courts and thus 
desecrate the fair [/caAw; perhaps originally fj.e}a/.ov 
= "great"] name by which ye are called [that is, 
"hillul ha-shem"] is not fulfilling the royal Law. 
' Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself ' [Lev. xi.\. 
18] ; those who do so are transgressors of the Law, 
inasmuch as he who offends in one point is guilty of 
transgressing the whole "(6-11 ; comp. Lev. xix. 15; 
Dent. xvi. 19, xxvii. 26; the Decalogue is quoted 
after the LXX., Ex. xx. 13-15; comp. Philo, "De 
Decalogo," §§24-26). 

The writer then continues: "The freedom that 
comes from the study of the Law [Abot vi. 2] does 
not consist in the mere speaking of it, but must be 
shown in the doing; the mere profession of faith 
without works is of no avail ; words without action 
do not relieve the naked and destitute — the demons 





qjso believe that there is one God. Abraham, our 
father, testified to his faith by his action, so it was 
accounted to hinl for righteousness [Gen. xv. 6], and 
be became the friend of God [comp. Book of Jubi- 
lees, xix. 9]. Also, Rahab the iieathcu was justified 
by her work in relieving the messengers [Josh. ii. 9- 
11] and not by mere confession. Faith without 
works is like the body without motion [so Spitta: 
text has " without the spirit"]" (12-20; comp. IV 
Esd. vii. 24, viii. 32-36, ix. 7, xiii. 23; Enoch, 
xxxviii. 2). It has been assumed by most New 
Testament exegetes that these observations refer to 
Paul's doctrine concerning justification by faith, a 
doctrine which also is based upon Gen. xv. 6 (see 
Rom. iv. 3; Gal. iii. 6). but which is contradicted 
by James. Spitta, however, insists that thej' were 
made independently of Paul (see, especially, I.e. ii. 
204 ei seq.). 

Ch. iii. contains observations, in the spirit of the 

Wisdom literature, regarding the evil longue (comp. 

Ps. xxxii. 9, xxxiv. 16; Ecclus. [Si- 

The Power rach] xxii. 25, xxviii. 10-23). The 

of the readers are admonished not to pursue 

Tongue, in large numbers the vocation of teach- 
ers, as it entails great responsibilities 
(comp. Abot i. 10, 11), since by the unbridled tongue 
all men are apt to sin. The tongue often defiles the 
whole body and sets on fire tlie whole wlieel of ex- 
istence (A. V. " course of nature "). With the mouth 
with which we bless God the universal Father we 
also curse men made in His image (1-10; comp. 
Tan., ]\Iczora', ed. Buber, 4-5; 'Ar. 15b-16a; Test. 
Patr., Benjamin, 6). Let therefore the Avise show 
his wisdom in removing strife and envy, for the 
wi.sdom that comes from above works peace and 
mercy witiiout partiality and hypocrisy (11-18; 
comp. Abot i. 12, ii. 15; Test. Patr., Levi, 13). 

In ch. iv. the brethren are warned against lusts 
which produce war among the members of the body 
(1-3; comp. Test. Patr.. Reuben, 2; Dan, 5; Ned. 
32b, with reference to Eccl. ix. 14). In the spirit of 
Essenism the author calls them (4-5) '' adulterers," be- 
cause cherishing unlawful desir^'S, and says, '"Know 
ye not that the friendsiup of the world is enmity with 
God?" (comp. Enoch, xlviii. 7); and with reference 
to Gen. vi. 3 and Prov. iii. 34 (LXX.) he tells them 
to resist the devil, or tempter, and he will flee from 
them ; and instead to cling to God, and He will 
draw nigh to them (comp. Ps. xviii. 26 [A. V. 25] ct 
seq. ; Zech. i. 3; Test. Patr., Simeon, 3; Is.sacliar, 4, 
7: Dan, 5, 7; Naphtali, 8). They should therefore 
cleanse hands and liearts and weep over their sins, 
and through humbleness before God they will be 
lifted up (8-10; such monitions could never have 
emanated from a believer in Jesus as Christ without 
some reference to the power of forgiving sin ascribed 
to him by his followers). The brethren are espe- 
cially warned against speaking evil against, and 
judging, one anotlier. inasmuch as, being teachers 
of the Law, they thereby speak evil against, and 
judge, tlie Law itself. "God alone is tJie Lawgiver 
and Judge who is able to save and to destroy. Who 
art thou that judgest thy neighbor?" (Il-i2). 

In the following (iv. 13-15) the rich merchants 
who plan great voyages and undertakings for tlie 
future are reminded of the uncertaintv of liuman life 

(comp. Deut. R. ix.); they ought to say, "If God 
wills, we shall live and do this or that." (Compare 

the Jewish saying, "Im yirzeh ha- 

The Great shem " = " If God permits. " On the 

Judgment- other hand, " he who is able to do good 

Day. and does it not, sins.") Finally, the 

rich oiies who live only for their own 
pleasure and withhold the wages of their laborers 
are told to prepare for the great judgment-day (v. 
1-5; comp. Enoch, xciv.-c, cii. 9, ciii. 5 et seq.\ 
Ecclus. [Sirach] xxxi. 21 ; Wisdom ii. 20). On the 
other hand, the righteous who suffer innocently at 
the hands of the rich are admonished to wait pa- 
tiently for the judgment-day of the Lord which is 
nigh, not to bear grudges one against anotlier, and 
to take for their example tlie Prophets and Job, who 
also suffered in the of God (6-11). 

Here follow, without any connection with the 
preceding, a number of Essenc teacliiugs concerning 
(1) swearing and (2) the treatmentof membersof the 
brotherhood. (1) "But above all things, my breth 
ren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither b}-- the 
earth, neither by anj- other oath: but let yoiir yea 
be .yea and j'our nay, nay ; lest ye fall into [eternal] 
judgment" (12; comp. Josephus, "B. J." ii. 8, § 6; 
Ecclus. [Sirach] xxiii. 9-11; Philo, "De Decern 
Oraculis,'^ 17; Sifra, Kedoshim, viii. ; Ruth R. vii. 
5; Num. R. xxii. ; Lev. R. vi. ; Ned. 8b; Shebu. iv. 
13: Matt. V. 33-37 is probably an amplification of 
this passage in James). (2) " Pray for the afflicted 
and sing psalms with the joyful." If one is sick, 
tlie ciders of the congregation (A. V. "church") 
should be called to offer praj'er for him and anoint 

him witli oil (for healing) in the name 

Specific of the Lord (comp. B. B. 116a; Ned. 

Essene 40a; Apoc. Mosis, 9; Sanh. 101a; 

Teachings. Yoma 77b; Yer. Ma'as. Sh. ii. 53b; 

Shab. xiv. 3). A confession of sins 
(" widdui") should precede the prayer (Lev. R. x.); 
"the prayer of true faith saveth the sick, and that 
of the righteous man availeth much " (comp. Ber. v. 
4b, 5; Test. Patr., Reuben, 1. 4; Gad, 5). As an 
example of the power of the saint the story of Eli- 
jah (I Kings xvii. 1, xviii. 1) is referred to. As the 
ailing brother is thus induced by the one who visits 
him to repent of his sins, the writer closes with the 
general sentence (19-20) : " If any of the brethren 
leads another to repentance [" teshubah "] he saves 
him from death, and hides [?. e. , removes from sight] 
a multitude of sins." 

To ascribe these instructions to a believer in Jesus 
as the Savior and Healer of men is absolutely with- 
out fofindation. As Spitta has shown, much of 
early Christian literature, especially the Second 
p]pistle General of Peter, is founded on the epistle. 

Bibliography: Spitta, Der Brief dcs Jiuolm^, Gottingen, 
T K. 

lish comedian; born at Birmingham 1839; died in 
London Oct. 3, 1893. Under the auspices of Charles 
Kean, James made his debut, when a child, in the 
ballet at the Princess' Theatre. London. Next he 
appeared in various burlesques, his best creation 
being Mercury in F. C. Burnand's " Lxion," produced 
at the Royalty. 




In 1870 James joined H. J. -Montague and Thomas 
Thorne in the management of the Vaudeville 

His greatest success was as Perkyn Middlemek in 
Byrons " Our Boy3," a part which he made famous 
and which he played more than thirteen hundred 
consecutive times — the record run for an English 
play— Jan. 16, 1875, to April 18, 1879. In 1881 he 
went to the Haymarket to join the Bancrofts: and 
thence he removed to the Lyceum, where "Two 
Roses" had been revived especially for liim. In 
1886 he joined Charles Wyndham's companj', ] 
ing at the Criterion Theatre. In 1893, shortly be. _ . 
Jamess death, " Our Boys " was revived for him. 

James left his large fortune to charity, mainly to 

Jewish institutions. 

Bibliographt: The Timen (London), Oct. 3, 1888;-Jcir. 
Chrou. Oct., 1898. 
J. E. 3Is. 


JANINA or TANYA : City in Albania, Euro- 
pean Turkey, on the lake of Janina. 

The community, which was flourishing in the mid 
die of the nineteenth century, is now dwindling. It 
includes about 1,000 families in an entire population 
of 30.000 inhabitants. It has two synagogues and 
two private meeting-rooms for prayer, a Talmud 
Torah, a school (400 boys and 150 girls) where Turk- 
ish and Greek are taught in addition to Hebrew, and 
about ten benevolent societies. 

Bibliography: Vniv. l*r. (Paris, April :S, 1&B>. 

D. M. Fp.. 

JANNAI. See Yaknai. 

JANNES AND JAMBRES (more correctly 
Mambres, D"i2w"! D'J'; also S'tDJDI ':mvYokaiiEi 
and Mamre) : Names of two legendary wizards >, - 
Pharaoh " who withstood 3Ioses " (11 Tim. iii. 8) by 
imitating "with their enchantments" the works of 
Moses and Aaron, though they were defeated (Ex. 
vii. 11. viii. 7). According to rabbinical tradition 
they were the two chiefs of the magicians at the 
court of Pharaoh who foretold the birth of Moses, 
'• the de.stroyer of the laud of Egypt," thereby caus- 
ing the cruel edicts of Pharaoh i Sotah 11a: Sanh. 
106a). They said to Moses when he performed his 
miracles with the water and the rod: "Dost thou 
wish to introduce magic into Egypt, the native laud 
of the magic art?'" (Men. 8oa). According to Mid- 
rash Yelammedenu. Ki Tissa (Ex. xxxii.), they were 
among "the mixed multitude that went up with 
Israel from Egypt " (Ex xii. 38) and aided iu the 
making of the golden calf. They were the "two 
3'ouths" (A. and R. Y. "servants") that accom- 
panied Balaam on his travels when commissioned to 
curse Israel (Targ. i. to Zs'um. xxii. 23). They flew 
up into the air before the sword of Phinehas and made 
themselves invisible, until, by the power of the In- 
efftible Name, they were caught and slain (Zchar, 
Balak. 194; comp. Targ. Yer. to Xum. xxxi. 8). 

Numenius the Pythagorean, quoted by Eusebius 
("Pra?paratio Evangelica," ix. 8), relates after Ar- 
tapanus (see Freudenthal, "Alexander Polyhistor." 
1875, p. 173) that "Jannes and Jambres, the most 
powerfiil Egyptian magicians, dispersed the plagues 
which Moses (Mussus) had brought upon Egypt." 

In the third century- the tomb of Jaones and Jambres 
was shown in Egypt; Christian saints knew it as a 
place where the evil demons could be consulted for 
magic purposes (see the story of Macarius in Palla- 
dius. " Historia Lausiaca " : . Fabrieius, " Codex Pseu- 
phus Vet. Test." i. 181, iL 106-111). Jannes 
«^-- o..aibres are tlie subjects of many legendary 
tales, one of which is presented in a Greek work en- 
titled " ntia Jannis et Mambre," counted 

among .^ocrypha in Pope Gelasius' "Decre- 

tura." and referred to by Origen (to Matt, sxvii. 9). 
-em to have been known also to such 
.,_^\._ .iS Pliny and Apuleius: Pliny ("His- 
toria Naturalis.'- xxxL 11) mentions Moses, Jannes. 
and Jotap»: :-?) among the Jewish magicians, 

and Apule: ^ - __^ ^'logia, " xc. ) mentions Moses and 
Jannes among the world's great magicians. 

Regarding the names, various etymologies have 
been proposed. Ewald ("(Sesch." i., pt. ii. 128), 
Lauth(" Moses der HebrSer," p. 77). and Freuden- 
thal ('.c."^ believe them to have been derived from the 
Egyptian ; Steiner (Schenkel, " Bibel-Lexicon ") at- 
tempts to find for them a Hebrew origin; Geiger 
C 1^- ; - "^ p." 474 -■ Vrs the sons of Jambri as 

An omp. I ? ;:. 36; see Kohut, "Aruch 

Completum "). Jastrow (" Diet. '^ and Levy (" Ifeu- 
hebr. Worterb.'O each offer equally untenable ex- 
planations. The fact that a demon belonging to the 
class of Lilith, or a sorceress named Yohane bat Retibi 
('3'DT "3 ':" ' "is gseatly dreaded in Talmudical 
limes tSot 1 and that Abraham's concubine 

Keturah (believed to have been familiar with magic) 
was also known as "Yohane" (Zeb. 62b; but see 
Bacher, " Ag. Tan." i. SSI; 2d ed., p. 350), seems to 
throw some light upon the names "Jannes" and 
.. T — -" ia Pliny; while the name "Mambre" ap- 
_ be correcth' identified "with ntao (= "the 

rebel"; Levy, I.e.). 



. . Bil'i. 

aii-i liraei 

JAXOWSKT, DAVID: Russian chess-player; 
bom ]^!ay :}5. iMvS. iii Russian Poland. He learned 
to play chess as a child, but diti not make a serious 
study of the game until about 1886, when he removed 
to Paris, where he still (1904) resides. In interna- 
tional tournaments Janowski has played as the repre- 
sentative of France. His chief sue - -■;ivebeen: 


Leipsic, flftlj prize. 
Xuremberg, fifth phxe. 
Budapest, tourtQ prir- 
Benin, fourth prize. 
Vieana. third prize. 

189^. > leana. tnira pnze. 

In 1902 Janowski succeeded S. F. 
editor of "Le Monde Hiustre " 

— 136 

as cbe^ 


-~-ir?. The Ha&t}'.^ Ch':--^ 
' : H. Helms, in BtXKV. 

A. P. 

JANVAB.TnS i0^^n2^2^) '• Talmudic name of a 
legendary hcio: it is taken from the name of the 
first of the twelve Roman months. R. Jobanan, in 
Yer. 'Ab. Zarah i. 39c, relates as follows: "The 
governments of Egypt and Rome, having been at 
war with each other for a long time, finally agreed 
to cease their cruel bloodshed and instead to recog- 
nize as ruler that government whose seneral would 




in obedience to command foithwitii cast himself 
upon bis sword and die. Egypt found no general 
willing. The Romans, bovvever, bad an old man by 
the name of Januarius, wbo bad twelve sous. To 
bim tbey said : ' Obey our command, and in compen- 
sation we will make tby twelve sons dukes, eparcbi, 
and leaders of tbe army. ' He tben cast bimself upon 
bis sword and died ; and bence tbe first of January 
was called ' Calenda3 Januarii, ' and tiie following day 
was made a day of mourning." Tbis is obviously 
a misunderstood Roman legend of old King Janus, 
tbe fatber of Time, wbo — like Cbronus — dies to 
make room for bis twelve sons, the twelve montlis 
of tbe year, and probably is connected with a festi- 
val of Janus celebrated in Rome on tbe 1st of Jan- 

Bibliography: Bruir.s Jahrb. i. 161, note; Michael Sachs, 
Beitrdge zur Sprach- unci Alterlhumsforschunu, ii. 1:.'5, 
Berlin; 1854. 
A. K. 

JAPHETH (nS^).— Biblical Data : One of the 

sons of !Noab, and tbe ancestor of a branch of the 
human race called " Japhetites. " Japheth and bis 
two brothers, Shem and Ham, were born when Noah 
bad attained bis five hundredth year (Gen. v. '62). 
It is not clearly indicated which of the three brothers 
was tbe eldest. Japheth usually comes third in order 
(ib. vi. 10, vii. 13, ix. 18, x. 1), but in the geneal- 
ogy of their descendants tbe order is inverted (ib. x. 
2-22). Tbe words "tbe elder" (ib. x. 21) are more 
probably applied to IShem. Still, it seems, from a 
comparison of Gen. v. 32, vii. 6, and xi. 10, that 
Japheth was by two years Shem's senior. Ja- 
pheth with his brother Shera covered the naked- 
ness of their father when he lay drunken in bis 
tent, for which deed he received from bis fatber tbe 
blessing that his descendants might extend over the 
surface of tbe earth and that Canaan should be his 
as well as Shem's servant (ix. 23, 27). Japheth was 
married before the Flood, and had bis wife with bim 
in tbe ark (vii. 13); but bis seven sons were born 
after the Deluge (x. 1). 

Tbe name " Japheth " is derived, according to Gen. 
ix. 27, from tbe Aramaic root nns = "to extend," 
in allusion to tbe expansion of tbe Japhetites. Saa- 
dia and the modern lexicographers, as Gesenius and 
others, derive it from nQ"* = " fair " ; but this inter- 
pretation bad already been rejected by Ibn Ezra. 

As to tbe identification of Japheth with tbe lape- 
tos of tbe Greek mythology, see D. S. Margoliouth in 
Hastings, "Diet. Bible"; comp. also Sayce in "Tr. 
Soc. Bibl. Arch." 1883, p. 154. See Biblical Eth- 

E. G. II. M. Sel. 
In Rabbinical -Iiiterature : Japheth is con- 
sidered by the Talmudists to have been the eldest 
son of Noah (Sanh. 69b; Gen. R. xxvi.). Tbe reason 
wbj'' Shem's name always appears first is that tbe 
sons of Noah are named in the order of their ability 
(i.e., aswise men, among whom Shem excelled ; Sanh. 
I.e.). According to the Midrasb, the jjrosperity of 
Japheth is alluded to in Ps. i. 3: "and whatsoever 
be doeth shall prosper " (Gen. R. I.e.). In tbe act of 
covering Noah's nakedness it was Shem wbo first 
took "the cover"; but Japiietb came afterward to 
help him and was repaid therefor in that bis de- 

scendants Gog and Magog were granted burial 
(Ezek. xxxix. 11 et seq. ; Gen. R. xxxvi.). 

The words "yaft elohim le-Yefet " (Gen. ix. 27) are 
interpreted as alluding to tbe construction of tbe 
Second Temple by Cyrus, wbo was descended from 
Japheth (Yonia 10a). Bar Kappara interpreted the 
passage as meaning that tbe Law will be explained 
in tbe language of Japheth (Gen. R. xxxvi. ; Deut. 
R. i.); R. Hiyya b. Abba, interpreting "yaft" as 
derived from tbe root ns% meaning " beauty " (see 
Japheth, Biblical Data), explains it more clearly 
thus: "Tbe Law will be explained in the beautiful 
language of tbe Greeks, descendants of Japheth" 
(Meg. 9b). According to the Targum pseudo-Jona- 
than {ad loc.), tbe passage means that the descendants 
of Japheth will become proselytes and will study 
the Law in tbe schools of Shem. 

When God blessed Noah and bis sons (Gen. ix. 1), 
He in blessing Japheth promised that all of bis sons 
should be white ; and He gave them as their portion 
deserts and fields (Pirke R. El. xxiv.). 

s. s. M. Sel. 

JAPHETH HA-LEVI (Arabic, Abu or Ibn 
'Ali Hasan [=: Japheth] al-Basri al-Lawi) : 

Karaite Bible translator and commentator ; flourished 
at Jerusalem between 950 and 980. He was one of 
tbe most able Bible conunentators among tbe Ka- 
raites, who distinguished him by the epithet " maskil 
ba-Golah " (= " teacher of the Exile "). Unlike bis 
Karaite predecessors in the field of Bible exegesis, 
Japheth realized the importance of grammar and 
lexicography for the interpretation of Scripture, al- 
though he did not excel in either. The interest 
which bis commentaries present lies chiefly in the 
accumulation of material for tbe history of tbe dif- 
ferences between tbe Rabbinites and tbe Karaites; 
for he enters into lengthy disputes with tbe Rabbin- 
ites, especially with Saadia, from whose commen- 
taries on the Bible and polemical works, including 
some no longer in existence, be gives many extracts. 
Thus in regard to Ex. xxxv. 3 be discusses with 
Saadia the kindling of a fire by a non-Jew on Sab- 
bath, a practise which the Karaites considered to be 
forbidden. Japheth reproaches Saadia with being 
unfaithful to tbe principles he himself had laid down 
for the interpretation of the Law, according to which 
no deductions by analogy are admissible in definite 
revealed precepts. On Lev. xxiii. 5 Japheth cites 
fragments from Saadia's "Kitab al-Tamyiz," a po- 
lemical work against Karaism, in which tbe author 
states that there are three sects which are divided on 
the question of tbe new moon: (1) tbe Rabbinites, 
wbo, except in special cases, determine it by the 
molad ; (2) tbe sect of tbe Tiflis, which follow the 
molad absolutely ; and (3) a sect which is guided by 
tbe first appearance of tbe moon. 

Japheth claims full freedom for the exegete, refu- 
sing to admit any authority for the interpretation of 

tbe Law ; and, although he sometimes 

His uses tbe thirteen liermeneutic rules laid 

Exegetical down in tbe Misbnah, be denies their 

Principles, authority: they are to be applied, 

be claims, only when it is not possible 
to explain tbe passage literally. Thus, notwith- 
standing bis profound veneration for Anan, tbe 




founder of Karaism, and for Benjaniin Nahawandi, 
be often rejects their iuterpretalioiis. 

Japheth was a decided adversary of tlie jjliilo- 
sophico-allegorical trcatnieut of Scripture. He, how- 
ever, symbolizes several Biblical narrutioiis, as, for 
instance, that of the burning bush, in which he finds 
a re])resentation of Israel, whom enemies can not 
annihilate; and he admits that the Song of Solomon 
is an allegory. 

Japheth attacked Islam with the greatest violence. 
For him the words of Isaiah, " Woe to thee that spoil- 
est " (Isa. xxxiii. 1), refer to Mohammed, who robbed 
all nations and dealt treacherously with his own peo- 
ple, and Isa. xlvii. 9 to the downfall of Islam. In 
the following verse he sees an allusion to the suffer- 
ings inflicted b\' the Mohammedan rulers upon the 
Israelites, who are loaded with heavy taxes, com- 
pelled to wear badges, forbidden to ride on horse- 
back, etc. 

Japheth was no less bitter in his attacks on Chris- 
tianity and on rabbinical Judaism, to which he refers 
many prophecies. Unlike his predecessors, he was 
not an opponent of secular science. To him the 
word "da'at" (Prov. i. 7) denotes "the knowledge" 
of astronomy, medicine, mathematics, etc., the study 
of which is to be undertaken before that of theology. 

Japheth's commentaries were much used by suc- 
ceeding Karaite exegetes, and were often quoted by 
Ibn Ezra. Written in Arabic, some 
Their of them were rendered into Hebrew 
Influence, either in full or abridged. Nearly the 
whole Arabic text on all the Bib- 
lical books is extant in manuscript in the leading 
European libraries (Leyden, Oxford, British Mu- 
seum, London, Paris, Berlin, etc.). The parts which 
have been published are: on the Psalms and the 
Song of Solomon, by Abbe Barges (Paris, 1861, 1884) ; 
on Proverbs, by Z. Auerbach (Bonn, 1866) ; on Ilosea, 
by Tottermann(Leipsic, 1880); on Daniel, by Margo- 
liouth (in "Anecdota Oxoniensa," Semitic Series, i., 
vol. iii., Oxford, 1889); on Ecclesiastes i.-iii., by J. 
Giinzig (Cracow, 1898); on Kuth, by N. Schorstein 
(Heidelberg, 1903). 

Before devoting himself to Biblical exegesis Ja- 
pheth wrote several other works of lesser importance. 
Among these were: (1) an epistle in 
Other rimed prose refuting the criticism on 

Works. Karaism by Jacob ben Samuel, sur- 
named by the Karaites "ha-'Ikkesh" 
(= "the intriguer"), published by Pinsker in his 
"LikkuteKadmoniyyot," p. 19. Japlieth endeavors 
in this epistle to demonstrate that there is no trace 
of oral tradition in Scripture, and consequently the 
Mishnah, Talmud, and other rabbinical writings fall 
under the prohibition "Ye shall not add unto the 
word which I command you " (Deut. iv. 2). (2) 
"Sefer ha-Mizwot," treating of the precepts, and 
containing many controversies with the Rabbinites; 
mentioned by Japheth in the commentaries to I Sam. 
XX. 27; Dan. x. 3. Some fragments of this work 
Avere found in the Library of St. Petersburg and 
published by A. Harkavy. (3) " 'lyyun Tefillah," in 
ten chapters, treating of all that pertains to prayer; 
extant in manuscript (Paris MS. No. 670). (4) 
" Kalam." perhaps a liturgical work, extant in manu- 
script. Levi, Japheth's son, mentions in his " Mukad- 

dimah " to Deuteronomy another work by his father, 
entitled "'Salah Berurah," the contents of which are 
unknown (the supposition of Filrst that it was a 
grammatical treatise is considered to be erroneous).;raphy: PinskPr, Lihkute Kndmnniyyol, passim; 
Muiik, in Josl's Ainialcn, l'H41,"pp. '70 et xe<j.; .Jost, Ocwii. 
den Judeiithunis inid Seiner Sekten, ii. 'MH; i'mat. (icnli. 
des Kardert. ii. l:.'4 et .»••«•(;.; Griitz, Gesch. v. 28 ; Poznanslii. 
in J. Q. It. viii. tlS)!, x. 24«i ; Bacher, in R. E. J. xxviii. 151 et 
seq.; Steinschneitler, in J. Q. li. x. .533. xi. 327: idem, Hchr. 
Uebcrx. p. !M1 ; idem, Die Aialmche Litcratur der Judeiu 

K. L Br. 

JAPHIA (y>D' = " He shineth ") : 1. King of La- 
chish, and one of the five kings who, entering into a 
confederacy against Joshua (Josh. x. 3), were killed 
by the latter at Makkedah (see Adoni-zedek). 2. 
According to II Sam. v. 15, the eighth of the eleven 
sons of David born in Jerusalem, but according to 
I Chron. iii. 7, xiv. 6, the tenth of thirteen sons born 
there. This name is given in the Peshitta as 
"Nefia," which reading seems to have been fol- 
lowed by Josephus, Avho has "Ennaphen" ("Ant." 
vii. 3, ^ 3). 3. A place marking the boundary of 
Zebulun (Josh. xix. 12, 13). It is identified with 
Japha, a strong village of Galilee fortified by Jo- 
sephus ("Vita," 37, §45; irkm, "B. J." ii. 20, § 6; iii. 
7, § 31), and with the modern Yafa, a small village 
southwest of Nazareth, in which Robinson found 
about thirty houses (Robinson, " Research es," iii. 
200). This village is also described by Eusebius and 
Jerome (" Onomasticon," ft.i'. "Japheth "). The Ital- 
ian monks now call it " St. Giacomo," on account of 
the tradition that this village was the residence of 
Zebedee and his two sons James and John. 

E. G. H. M. Sel. 

JAPHO. See Jaffa. 

JARE (t^l' = " God-fearing " ; by some it is re- 
garded as the abbreviation of the words " Yehi rezui 
ehaw " [Deut. xxxiii. 24]): Name of an ancient 
Italian family of scholars dating back to the fifteenth 

Giuseppe Jare : Italian rabbi ; born at Mantua, 
Dec, 1840. He was educated at the Istituto Rab- 
binico of Padua, being one of the last pupils of S. D. 
Luzzatto. In 1868 he received his rabbi's diploma, 
and at the same time a professor's diploma from the 
university. He officiated as rabbi in his native city, 
and in 1880 went in the same capacity to Ferrara. A 
specialist in Jewish literature, he has collaborated on 
the works of prominent scholars. His independent 
works include: "Delia Immutabilita della Legge 
Mosaica" (Leghorn, 1876); "Cenni su Abramo Co- 
lorni " (Ferrara, 1891). 

s. I. E. 

Isaac Jare : Rabbi at Ivrea. Another Isaac Jare 
was rabbi at Mantua about 1720. 

Mordecai b. Berechiah Reuben Jare: Italian 
preacher; lived at Mantua toward the end of the 
sixteenth century. His father died at Mantua in 
1598. Mordecai compiled for the Shomerim la-Boker 
society the collection of liturgical poems known 
under the title "Ayyelet ha-Shahar," including 
chiefly "tefillot," " bakkashot, " "selihot," and "piz- 
monim," printed first at Mantua in 1612 in the newly 
established printing-office of Eliezer d 'Italia. Jare 
included many poems by his contemporary Hananiah 




Eliakim Rieti. The collection contains also the fol- 
lowing compositions by Mordecai: (1) "Leka Eli 
Teshukati," bakkashah for the Sabbath, in verse, a 
clever imitation of an anonymous bakkashah in the 
Spanisii ritual (printed also in 'Si. Sachs's "Religiose 
Poesie," Hebrew part, p. 44; D. Kohn, "Abraham 
ibu Esra," i. 204). Both poems are closely connected 
with GabiroFs " Leka Nafshi Tesapper. " (2) " Ehyeli 
Asher Ehyeh,'' selihah for days on which no "taha- 
nun " is recited, consisting of eleven strophes, each of 
which, except the last, begins with a name of God. 
It was written at tlie request of Isaac Galico. 

Mordecai wrote also an approbation for Joseph 
Jedidiah Karmi's "Kenaf Renanim'' (Venice, 1626). 

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Jiwll. col. 1666; idem, 
Hebr. Bibl. ^ii. 23; Zunz, Literaturaesch. p. 424. 

G. n. B. 

Pethahiah Jare, of Spoleto, received from his 
teacher in Arabic a work entitled " Kontros 'Erez ha- 
Zebi," which Iiis son, the plij-sician Moses Jare, 
showed to Azariah doi Rossi at Ferrara. 

Reuben Jare : Father of 3Iordecai Jare ; teacher 
and rabbi at Mantua about 1598. 

Bibliography: Zunz, Lite rat urgesch. p. 424; idem, in Ke- 
rcm Hemed, v. 158; Steinsclinelder, Cat. Bodl. No. 6333; R. 
E. J. "v. Ill ; Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. il. 28. 
D. M. K. 

JARGON. See Jud-eo-German. 

JARMON, NEHORAI, See G.\rmon, 


JARNO, JOSEF (Josef Cohen) : Austrian act- 
or; born at Budapest Aug. 24, 18GG. He was edu- 
cated for a mercantile career, but went on the stage 
when nineteen years of age. His debut was made in 
1885 at Ischi, where he lias since been engaged 
during the summer months. From 1887 to 1890 lie 
played in Laibach ; from 1890 to 1899 in Berlin at 
the Residenztheater and the Deutschestheater; and 
since 1899 he has been a member of the Josefstiidter 
Theater company at Vienna. 

Jarno has written several plays, among which may 
be mentioned: " Der Rabenvater " ; "lUusionen"; 
" Der Vielgeliebte " ; " Die Wahrsageriu " ; etc. 

Bibliography: Eiseuberg. Biog. La. 

F. T. H. 

JAROSLAW. See Yaroslav. 

JAROSLAW, AARON: One of the Biurists; 
a tutor in the house of Jlendelssohn ; afterw^ard 
teacher at Lemberg. His commentary on the Book 
of Numbers appeared in tlie first edition of Mendels- 
sohn's Pentateuch ("Netibot ha-Shalom," Berlin, 
1783) and has been included in all subsequent edi- 
tions. He published the third edition of Mainionides' 
"Miilot ha-IIiggayon," with Moses Mendelssohn's 
Hebrew commentary (Berlin, 1784). 

Bibliography: Furst, Bihl. Jud. ii. 28; Steinschneider, Cat. 
Bodl. col. 721; Zeitlin, Bibl. Pfint-Mejuiels. pp. 153-154; Moses 
Mendelssohn, Geaammeltc Schrifteii, v. 660. 

s. S. Max. 

JASHER, BOOK OF (Hebrew, "Sefer ha- 
Yashar " = " Book of the Righteous One ") : A book, 
apparent])' containing heroic songs, mentioned twice 
in the Old Testament: in the account of the battle 
of Gibeon a fragment of a song of Joshua is given 
as taken from it (Josh. x. 13) ; and another fragment 

is quoted in David's lamentation for Saul and Jona- 
than (II Sam. i. 18). 

The nature of this book has been a matter of dis- 
cu.ssion from the time of the Septuagint up to the 
present day. The Septuagint, in Joshua, omits all 
reference to the Book of Jasher, while in II Samuel 
it refers to it as Bifi/uov -oh Ei'Woif. On the other 
hand, in I Kings viii., transposing verses 12-13, 
which are a fragment of a song, after verse 53, it 
adds, "is it not written in the book of songs (ev 
jii^'ALu T7/C o)'5vf) ? " It is evident that the Septuagint 
had a text which in this passage read {<'ri xbn 
"Ctl^r! "IDD^ ^\2^T)2 ; and it ma}' be supposed that the 
word ic"m. which occurs in the two passages men- 
tioned al)Ove, is simply an anagram of "i^K'n. This 
supposition is supported by the Peshitta, which 
reads in II Samuel "Sefer Ashir,"' while in Joshua 
it translates "Sefer ha-Yashar " by "Sifra de-Tush- 
behata " (= "Book of Praises "). Another theory is 
that "Sefer lia-Yashar" is a misreading for "Sefer 
Az Yashir" (-l■'E^'' TX: comp. E.k. xv. 1), the book 
beginning with this phrase, and containing songs. 

The Rabbis, followed by Jerome, translated 
"Sefer lia-Yashar" by "Book of the Righteous" 
("Liber Justorum ") ; but while following the ren- 
dering of theTargum Yerushalmi, " Sifra de-Oraita" 
(= "The Book of the Law "), they did not agree as 
to which book was meant. R. Johanan referred it 
to Genesis, finding there allusions both to the title 
("Book of the Righteous") and to the incidents in 
connection with which it is quoted ; R. Eleazar re- 
ferred it to Deuteronomy: and Samuel b. Nahmani 
to the Book of Judges ('Ab. Zarah 25a). Sixtus 
Senensis ("Bibl. Sanct." book ii.) states that some 
Hebrew writers (whose names he does not give) un- 
derstand by the " Book of Jasher " the twelve ^Minor 

Levi b. Gershon was the only commentator who 
thought that the " Sefer ha-Yashar " was a special 
book, lost during the Captivity. His opinion has 
been adopted by Junius, Hottinger ("Thos. Phil."' 
ii. 2, § 2), and manj" others. For further details in 
regard to the opinions of modern critics and Donald- 
son's attempt to reconstruct the book, see W. A. 
Wright in Smith, "Diet. Bible." For the more 
modern midrash of the same name .see Y.\siiai{. 

E. G. n. 31. Sei,. 

JASON (JESHUA or JESUS) : 1. High priest 
from 174 to 171 B.C. : brother of the high priest Onias 
III. During the absence of Onias, who had been sum- 
moned to Antioch to meet charges brought against 
him by the Hellenists, Jason joined hands with his 
brother's enemies. Througli the paj'ment of large 
sums he obtained from Antiochus the transfer of 
the higii-priesthood, permission to erect at Jerusa- 
lem a gymnasium and an ephebeum, and the grant 
to the inhabitants of Jerusalem of the ])rivileges 
and title of citizens of Antioch; for the latter 
favor alone he paid 150 talents. 

During the three years of Jason's administration 
the influences of Hellenism in Judea reached their 
climax. In his desire to pass for a Hellene Jason 
went so far as to send representatives to a duplica- 
tion of the Olympian game? celebrated in the presence 
of Antiochus at Tyre, and presented 300 drachmas 




for a sacrifice to Hercules, to wliom the games were 

dedicated. But notwithstanding his z.eal Jason was 

deposed at the end of the third year, having been 

outbid by Menelaus, supported bj' tlie Toiuads. 

Jason, however, did not consider himself defecated; 

profiting by the absence of Antiochus Epiidianes, 

then engaged in a war with Egypt, and backed by 

tlie majority of the inhabitants, he rendered himself 

master of the city, and compelled his adversary to 

seek refuge in the fortress. Jason's triumph was 

short-lived. Antiochus, forced by the Romans to 

abandon his campaign against Egypt, seized the 

opportunity afforded by Jason's uprising to march 

against Jerusalem. When the city was taken Jason 

lied to the Ammonites, among whom he remained 

until his death. 

Bibliography: II Mace. iv. 7-26; Josephus. Ant. xii. 5; 
Stanley, Lectures on the History of the Jewish Church, iii. 
324; Gratz, Gesch. ii. 298 et seq.; Schiirer. Gesch. i. 194: 
Wellhausen, Israelitische ruul JUdische Gesch. 2d ed., p. 
23.5. Berlin, 189.5; Biidiler, Die Tohiaden und Oiiiaden, pp. 
106 et seq., Vienna, 1899. 
E. G. H. I. Br. 

2. Son of Eleazar; sent by Judas Maccabeus as 
envoy to Rome (I Mace. viii. 17; Josephus, "Ant." 
xii. 10, § 6). In the reference to the embassy in 
II Mace. iv. 11 onlj^ Jason's companion, Eupole- 
mus, son of John (or John, son of Eupolemus), is 

G. S. Kr. 

JASON OF GYRENE : Juda'oHellenistic his- 
torian. He wrote a history of the Maccabean revolt 
in five books, from which the author of II INIaccabees 
took his data (II Mace. ii. 23), this book being prac- 
tically an abstract {kTzirouy; ib. ii. 26, 28) of Jason's 
work. The author of II Maccabees himself gives a 
short account of Jason's work, in which he indicates 
the moral value of reading it. 

Jason doubtless presented the events in fine rhe- 
torical language, his stj'le being still easily recogni- 
zable in II 3Iaccabees. The four letters incorporated 
in II Mace. xi. 16 et seq., as well as the legendary 
stories of the martyrdom of Eleazar and the seven 
brothers {ih. vi.-vii.), were written probably bj' Ja- 
son himself. Jason no doubt described the occur- 
rences in detail for the purpose of edifying his read- 
ers, chiefly Jews, and of confirming them in their 
faith. This explains why he required five books for 
a narrative that was compressed into one small book 
like II jNIaccabees. The epitome preserved covers a 
period of fifteen j'ears, from the death of Seleucus 
IV. to the victory over Nicanor (175-161). The 
abrupt ending is probably due to the epitoinist ; for 
this victory marks no period in the Maccabean up 

The many important details in Jason's work prove 
that he was not far removed from the events; he 
therefore probably did not make use of written notes, 
but obtained his information by word of mouth. In 
any case he wrote his work in Greek, and II Macca- 
bees also is in pure Greek, and is not a translation. 
The epitomist probably copied many passages out- 
right ; but he may also have incorporated material 
of his own. The two letters in the beginning of 
the book are not b)' Jason. 

Nothing is known about Jason beyond the refer- 
ences to him in II Maccabees. A Jason of Cvrene 

who inscribed his name on the temple of Thothmes 
III. in Egypt (Sayce, " Revue des Etudes Grecques," 
vii. 297) may be identical with the subject of this 
article. In this case he must have traveled; and he 
may therefore have been in Palestine also and have 
gathered his material on tiie spot. 

Poly bins may be regarded as a source used by Ja- 
son, though doubtless only for the dates of general 
history (Willrich, "Judaica," p. 140). It is also as- 
sumed that Jason drew upon III Maccabees; e.g., the 
account of the Dionysus celebration (II Mace. vi. 7) 
is said to have been taken from III Mace. ix. 29 
(Willrich, I.e. p. 165), though this can not be proved. 
If it is rightly assumed that the Hebrew " Yosippon." 
or Goriouides, shows traces of Jason's work, as was 
stated first by Trieber, and, following him, by Will- 
rich {I.e. p. 170), further reference might be found to 
Jason's lost work. It must have been one of the 
finest examples of Jud;ieo-Hellenistic literature ; and 
its loss is irreparable. Even Philo did not know Ja- 
son's work itself, but only the extract in II Macca- 
bees; it was this epitome therefore that caused the 
original work to be forgotten so quickly. 

Bibliography : Trieber, Zur Kritik des Gnrioiiides, In Nach- 
richten der Koniglichen Oesellschctft der Wissenschafte n 
zu Gfittingen, 1895, pp. 401, 408 ; Willrich, Judcn und Griec}i- 
en, eh. ii., Gottingen, 1895; idem, Judaica, ch. iv., ih. 190tJ; 
Schlatter, .Teuton I'on Kyrene, m Festschi-ifl der Univerxi- 
tat GreifswaJd, 1899; Schiirer, Ge.<fch. 3d ed., iii. aj9-364. 

G. S. Kr. 

JASSY ( Jaschi) : City of Rumania. Jassy con- 
tains the oldest and most important Jewish com- 
munity of Moldavia, of which principality it was 
formerly the capital. Psantir has found in the old 
cemetery there stones with inscriptions dating back 
to 1467 and 1549. Jews were living at Jassy before 
it became the capital of Moldavia (1565), and their 
numbers certainly increased after that, for Jassy, 
on the commercial highway between Poland and 
Turkey, was frequented by Jewish merchants. The 
numerical importance of the Jews of Jassy after the 
second half of the sixteenth century explains their 
having among them at that time the distinguished 
Rabbi Jacob (or Solomon) b. Arvi, who officiated 
there for fort}^ years, whom Joseph Solomon Del- 
medigo cites as an able physician and cabalist, and 
who migrated to Palestine in his old age. 

When Prince Aaron rose against Turkey, Nov., 
1594, and killed all the Turks at Jassy, nine- 
teen Jews were also victims; and when the Cossacks 
rose against Poland, 1648-52, killing indiscrimi- 
nately Christians and Jews, a number of the latter 
fled to Jassj', while the conununity ransomed others 
from the Tatars. Others were sent to Jassy by the 
Jews of Constantinople, who had bought thera in 
the slave-market of that city. Some of these re- 
deemed Jews remained at Jassy. Soon after, the 
Jews of Jassy themselves were harried 
The by the Cossacks. When Timush. the 

Cossack son of Climielnicki, went to Jassy, 

Revolt. Aug., 1652, to marry the daughter of 
Vasilje Lupul, the soldiers of his large 
escort fell upon the Jews, who were forced to hide 
while the Cossacks remained in the citj' ; about sixty 
Jews who were caught were maltreated and com 
pelled to pay a high ransom for their lives. When 
V^asilje Lupul, dethroned by Stephen George, called 




upon Ins son-iu-law for aid, the Cossacks returned 
and the Jews suffered more cruel tortures at their 
hands; all would liave perished had not the Pa- 
triarch of Antioch intervened in their behalf on his 
passage through the city. 

The insurrection was propitious, however, for the 
intellectual life of the Jews of Jassy, for among tiie 
Polish Jews that sought refuge in Moldavia was 
Rabbi Nathan Nata Hanover, author of the "Ye wen 
Mezulah'." Called to Jassy from the rabbinate of 
Focsani, he directed its community for several years. 
Since that time many learned rabbis have occupied 
the rabbinate of Jassy, and the inscriptions on tomb- 
stones preserve the names of a number of Biblical 
and Talmudic scholars who dwelt in the commu- 
nity. At the beginning of the eighteenth century 
the rabbinate was filled by Pethahiah Lida, son of 
David Lida, who fled to Jassy when Lemberg was 
sacked by the Swedes. His successor was Bezaleel 
ha-Kohen, subsequently hakam basha, whose son 
and grandson held in turn the same office. In fact, 
about the beginning of the eighteenth century Jassy 
became the seat of the hakam bashas, who exercised 
authority over the Jews of the entire country. 

During the troublous times of the first war be- 
tween Russia and Turkey the community of Jassy 
suffered greatly, especially under the kaimakam 
Lupul(1711). Aftera period of quiet 

In the under Nicholas Mavrocordato (1711- 
Eighteenth 1715) tlie Jews were again harassed 
Century, under the terrible Michael Racovitza 
(1716-26), the last year of whose reign 
was marked by an accusation of ritual murder at 
Onitzcaui. The case, on being appealed, was tried 
at Jassy, where the populace, incited by the prince, 
plundered the ghetto and set fire to the synagogue, 
while Racovitza had a number of Jews tortured in 
order to extract money from them. During the 
periodic wars between Russia and Turkey in this 
century the Jews of Jassy suffered equally with their 
Christian fellow citizens, being despoiled and pil- 
laged by both sides. The community was, more- 
over, torn bj'' internal dissensions. The Frankists 
also caused trouble by their propaganda, and the 
hakam basha of Jassy was forced to appeal to the 
pasha of Chotin to prevent them from seeking ref- 
uge in Moldavia after the death of Archbishop 

On the death of Isaac ha-Kohen, Dec, 1776, or 
Jan., 1777, the community split into two hostile par- 
ties, one of which chose Isaac's son Naphtali as his 
successor, while tlie other elected Mordecai b. Moses 
Hayyim. A violent conflict arose, during which 
both sides spent enormous sums, and the prestige of 
the Jews of Jassy suffered greatly. The quarrel 
was finally compromised in 1783, when Naphtali ha- 
Kohen was recognized as titulary hakam basha, 
though he ceded certain of his rights to his less suc- 
cessful rival. After foreign consulates were estab- 
lished at Jassy, in 1780, there were incessant conten- 
tions between the native Jews and the foreign or 
protected Jews in regard to the gabel, which the 
latter refused to pay. Agreements were made but 
soon broken, and the dissensions between the two 
parties finally led to the suspension of the office of 
hakam basha (1832). 

In 1803, during the reign of Prince Alexander 

Murusi, the Jews of Jassy were threatened with a 

general massacre, and were saved only 

During- through tlie intervention of the metro- 
the Nine- politaii, who sheltered them in the 

teenth court of the archbisiiop's residence, 
Century, declaring that the mob would have to 
pass over his body before reaching the 
Jews. Calimah (1812-19), although favorably dis- 
posed toward them, could not prevent the annoy- 
ances and extortions to which tliey were subjected 
by his rapacious officials. The plague that raged 
in Moldavia in 1815 was made a pretext for subject- 
ing the Jews to oppressive regulations, enacted 
ostensibly for the protection of the city. The assess- 
ments of the community were considerably increased, 
and the Jewish money-lenders wei'C restricted in 
their business. The most calamitous days fell upon 
the community in 1821-22, at the time of the Greek 
revolution. This uprising, known as the " Hetaria," 
first broke out at Jassy, where Turks and Jews were 
slain indiscriminately. There were continual con- 
flicts between Jews and Hetjerists; Jewish tailors 
were compelled to furnish gratuitously the uniforms 
of the revolutionists; the shops of the Jews were 
plundered, their horses were carried off, and they 
Avere generally oppressed and harassed. The well- 
to-do Jews left the city and country. When the 
Turks took possession of Jassy, they in turn pillaged 
and oppressed the Jews as well as the rest of the 
people; many Jews were imprisoned in order to ex- 
tort money from them, and women and children 
were violated. There were frequent fires in the Jew- 
ish quarters; the largest of these occurred on July 
29, 1822, when three-fourths of the entire city was 
reduced to ashes. Many Jews perished in the 
flames, and those that succeeded in saving anything 
were despoiled by the soldiers. Five synagogues 
and hundreds of Jewish houses were burned. 

During the reign of the easy-going prince loan 

Sandu Sturza (1822-28), the Jews Avere forbidden to 

make or sell candles or bread to Chris- 

XJnder the tians. Much suffering followed the fire 

Sturzas of Aug., 1827, when the main and the 

and neighboring streets v/ere destroyed ; 

Dynasty the merchants lost not only their goods 

Ghika. but their books, and were thus de- 
prived of the legal means of holding 
their debtors, many families being completely ruined. 
The provisional government of Russia (1828-34) 
imposed such heavy taxes that the Jews felt the con- 
sequences even after the departure of the army. 
They suffered still more during the plague of 1829 
and the cholera of 1831-34. All business was in- 
terrupted ; the wealthy Jews left the city, while the 
poor ones were driven out and forced to live misera- 
bly in tents on the outskirts. 

On the accession of Prince Michael Sturza (1834- 
1848) the community of Jassy had to pay heavily in 
order to set aside the decree relating to vagabondage, 
deliberately intended as an excuse for despoiling the 
Jews. The people of Jassy were several times in- 
duced by the prince to bring complaints against the 
Jews in order to justify the revival of restrictive 
measures against them, which measures were ignored 
as soon as the Jews had paid a sufficient sum. Or- 




dinances forbidding the Jews of Jassy to live in cer- 
tain streets, hire Cliristiau servants, engage in 
money-lending or in selling old clothes, were in turn 
promulgated and then quietly disregarded. Gregory 
Ghika (1849-56) reorganized the community and 
admitted Jewish children to the public schools. 
During his reign a modern Jewish school was estab- 
lished at Jassy, this being the tirst step toward the 
civilization and progress that steadily continued 
under the tirst Cuza (1859-66). 

In addition to the hakam basha the affairs of the 
community were originally managed by three sta- 
rosts, who exercised also a certain judicial power; 
they represented the community before the author- 
ities and supervised the collection of 

Organiza- taxes. After 1833 the starosts were 
tion. replaced by "epitropes," officials who 
were recognized by the authorities 
down to 1866. For a long time there was only one 
official synagogue, in the upper part of the city, and 
rebuilt after a fire in 1764; but there has always 
been a number of hebrot. No new synagogues were 
built before the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
The community now possesses a modern temple, sev- 
eral large synagogues, and about one hundred smaller 
places of worship. All its educational and philan- 
thropic institutions are managed by special commit- 
tees or societies and supported by voluntary contribu- 
tions. The meat-tax, which as late as 1866 yielded 
200,000 francs annually, has not been reestablished. 
The religious affairs of the community are in the 
hands of one preacher at the temple (Rabbi Niemi- 
rover, 1903), two rabbis of the old school, and five 
dayyanim. Among the older rabbis at Jassy who con- 
tributed to Jewish literature, Aaron INIoses Taubes 
(d. 1852) should be mentioned. The society Cultura 
supports two primary schools; the society Junimea 
and a ladies' society support a school for girls; other 
educational institutions include a gymnasium, a 
business school, a trade-school for girls, a Talmud 
Torah (where Rumanian is taught), a large number 
of hadarim, and some private schools for Jewish 
boys and girls. The philanthropic institutions in- 
clude a hospital with 120 beds, a home for the aged, 
an orphan asylum, a B'nai B'rith lodge, the society 
Fraterna Pacurar (furnishing medicine and mone- 
tary relief to its members), and a women's benevo- 
lent society. Certain committees distribute bread 
and wood to the poor at Passover, and clothing and 
shoes to needy school children. Of the many Zion- 
ist societies formed at Jass}- only three survive. The 
cemetery is in charge of the hebra kaddisha. 

According to partial statistics, published in 1901, 

there are at Jassy 1,014 Jewish master workmen in 

a total of 1,493; 1,038 Jewish journeymen in a total 

of 1,620; and 511 JewLsh apprentices in a total of 

717. In consequence of the restrictive 

Statistics, measures enacted against the Ruma- 
nian Jews since 1880 many have left 
Jassy; since 1899 more than 5,000 Jews have gone 
elsewhere. In 1803 there were 563 Jewish taxpayers 
at Jassy in a Jewish population of more than 3,000. 
Their numbers increased considerably as the city 
became more important. In 1820 there were 1,099 
Jewish taxpayers; in 1827 they had increased to 

1.256; in 1831, to 1,700 in a total Jewish population 

of 17,032; in 1839, to 4,528 in a total of more than 
30,000. The census of 1859 showed a Jewish popu- 
lation of 31.000; that of 1894, 33,253; and that of 
1899, 39,441. 

The city and district of Jassy have, according to 
the census of Dec, 1899, a Jewish population of 
46,696 in a total of 191,828. The Jews in the dis- 
trict are divided among the following communities: 
Tirgu-Formoss (2,107), Podul Iloei (1,692), Bivolari 
(1,005), Sculeui (410), Caminareschti (Tziganash, 
170), Tzibana (122), Poieni (100), Socola (71), and 
Dimache (57). About 1,520 live in villages. 

G. E. Sd. 

JASTROW, IGNAZ: German economist and 
statistician; born Sept. 13, 1856, at Nakel. Having 
studied at Breslau, Berlin, and Gottingen (Ph.D. 
1878), he became in 1885 privat-docent of social econ- 
omy at the University of Berlin. 

Among Jastrow 's works may be mentioned : " Zur 
Strafrechtlichen Stellung der Sklaven bei Deutschen 
und Angelsachsen," Breslau, 1878; "Gesch. des 
Deutschen Einheitstraums und Seiner Erflillung," 
Berlin, 1884 (4th ed., 1891); "Die Volkszahl Deut- 
scher Stadte am Ende des Mittelalters und zu Be- 
giun der Neuzeit," ih. 1886; "Das Interesse des 
Kaufniannsstandes am Biirgerlichen Gesetzbuch," 
ib. 1890; "Deutsche Gesch. im Zeitalter der Hohen- 
staufen" (with G. Winter), ib. 1894; "Kommunale 
Anleitungen," ih. 1900. 

Jastrow is the editor of the " Jahresberichte 
der Geschichtswissenschaft " and " Soziale Praxis " 
(formerly " Blatter fur Soziale Praxis "). 

Bibliography : Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 
s. F. T. H. 

JASTROW, JOSEPH : American psychologist ; 
born Jan. 30, 1863, at Warsaw, Poland. He accom- 
panied his father. Dr. Marcus Jastrow, to the 
United States in 1866, and was educated in Philadel- 
phia. In 1882 he graduated from the University of 
Pennsylvania and took the degree of B.A., in 1885 
that of M.A. ; at .Johns Hopkins University he be- 
came fellow in psychology (1885-86), and in 1886 
took the degree of Ph.D. In 1888 he accepted the 
chair of psychology in the University of Wisconsin, 
which position he still (1904) holds. He was placed 
in charge of the psychological section of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893. For the year 
1900 he served as president of the American Psycho- 
logical Association. Among Jastrow 's publications 
are : " Time Relations of Mental Phenomena " (1890) ; 
" Epitomes of Three Sciences " (the section on psy- 
chology ; Chicago, 1890) ; " Fact, Fable, and Psychol- 
ogy "TBoston, 1900). During 1902-3 he contributed 
numerous articles on abnormal psychology, mental 
pathology, and on anthropology to Baldwin's "Dic- 
tionary of Philosophy and Psychology." He is a 
prolific contributor on psychological subjects to 
scientific journals, magazines, and encyclopedias. 

A. F. H. V. 


American rabbi and scholar; born .June 5, 1829, at 
Kogasen, Prussian Poland ; died Oct. 13, 1903, at 
Germantown, Pa. ; fifth child of Abraham Jastrow 
and Yetta (Henrietta) RoUe. Until 1840 he was 
privately educated. In 1844 he entered the third- 

Jastrow, Marcus 
Javal, Ernest 



Marcus Jastrow. 

year class of the Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium at 
Posen, graduating in 1853. Thence he went to 
Berlin University., and continued his Talraudic stud- 
ies under the rabbis of Berlin. The strongest influ- 
ence exerted upon him during his Berlin student 

days was that of IVIi- 
chael Sachs. 

In 1855 he took the 
Ph.D. degree at the 
University of Halle, 
his thesis being " De 
A brail am ben Meir 
Aben Esra2 Principiis 
Philosophise." InElul, 
5617(1857), he received 
tlie rabbinical author- 
ization from Rabbi 
Feilchenfeld of Roga- 
sen and from Dr. Wolf 
Landau of Dresden. 
He taught in the re- 
ligious school of the 
Berlin congregation, at 
that time conducted by 
Dr. David Rosin. 
In 1858 Jastrow removed as rabbi to Warsaw, and 
threw himself into the study of the Polish language 
and of Polish conditions. By Feb. 27, 1861, na- 
tional feeling had risen so high in Poland that the 
government called out the military; five victims 
fell in the Krakauer Vorstadt, Warsaw, and their 
burial and the memorial service were turned into 
patriotic demonstrations, in which, for the first time, 
" the Old Testament Brethren " of the Poles partici- 
pated as a community. Though it was Sabbath, 
three rabbis, including Jastrow, joined the funeral 
cortege; at the memorial service in his synagogue, 
also on a Sabbath, Jastrow- preached 
Joins in his first Polish sermon, which aroused 
Polish such great enthusiasm that on Sunday 
Revolution, his auditors reassembled and took it 
down at his dictation. Circumventing 
the censor, they distributed ten thousand manu- 
script copies within a week. 

On various pretexts the three rabbis were arrested 
(Nov. 10, 1861) and incarcerated in the citadel of 
Warsaw. For twenty -three days Jastrow was kept 
in solitary confinement; for seventy-two days he 
shared the cell of Rabbi Meisels. His release came 
on Feb. 12, 1862, when, being a Prussian subject, 
lie was sent across the frontier. During his impris- 
onment he had been required to answer in writing 
three questions concerning the relation of the Jews 
to the Polish Christians in their opposition to the gov- 
ernment (see "Hebrew Leader," July 15, 22, 1870). 

Broken in health, Jastrow, with his family, spent 
the spring and summer of 1862 in Breslau, Berlin, and 
Dresden ; in the autumn he accepted a 
Returns to call from Mannheim. A few weeks 
"Warsaw, later, Nov., 1862, the order for his ex- 
pulsion was revoked, and gave occasion 
for a controversy between the congregation at War- 
saw (which had continued his .salary until he went 
to Mannheim) and that of Mannheim; at Jastrow's 
request the latter released him. A few months 
after his return to Warsaw (Jan., 1863) the rev- 

olution broke out. During its progress, and while 
Jastrow was traveling, his Pru.ssian passport was 
canceled, and he was not permitted to return to 

The literary results of his Polish period are: "Die 
Lage der Juden in Polen " (anonymous; Hamburg, 
1859); "Kazania Polskie," a volume of Polish ser- 
mons (Posen, 1863); "Die Vorliiufer dcs Polnischen 
Aufstandes " (anonymous; Hamburg, 1864). He 
probably had a considerable share in the production 
of "Beleuchtung eines Ministeriellen Gulachteus" 
(Hamburg, 1859 [?]). In July, 1864, Jastrow ac- 
cepted a call to Worms as district rabbi, and while 
there he produced " Vier Jahrhuuderte aus der Gesch. 
der Juden von der Zerstorung des Ersten Tempels 
bis zur Makkabaischen Tempelweihe " (Heidelberg, 

In the autumn of 1866 he Avent to Philadelphia as 
rabbi of the German-Hebrew Congregation Rodeph 
Shalom, with which he was connected until his death, 
remaining in active service until 1892 and identify- 
ing himself with the interests of the Jewish commu- 
nit}\ The problem under discussion at the time was 
organization, urged in the Eastern States by Isaac 
Leeser, and in the Western by Isaac M. Wise. It 
dealt with higher education, representation, and the 
regulation of liturgical changes, and Jastrow's per- 
sonality became a factor in its solution. 

Aids Or- When, through the exertions of Isaac 
ganization Leeser, the Maimonides College was 
of opened at Philadelphia, Oct., 1867, 

American Jastrow occupied the chair of religious 
Jews. philosophy and Jewish history, and 
later also of Biblical exegesis; he was 
identified with the college until it closed its doors. 
He supported the plan of organizing the Board 
of Delegates of Civil and Religions Rights, and, un- 
der its auspices, the American Jewish Publication 
Society (1873). His main activity, however, from 
1867 to 1871, was directed toward combating the 
tendencies expres.sed in the resolutions of the rab- 
binical conferences of 1869 and 1871. His opposi- 
tion to them found expression in a series of polemical 
articles published in "The Hebrew Leader" and 
"The Jewish Times." 

To the same period belongs his collaboration with 
Benjamin Szold in the revision of the latter's prayer- 
book (" 'Abodat Yisrael ") and home prayer-book 
("Hegyon Leb"), and his translation of the same 
prayer-books into English. In his own congregation 
his mfluence effected consolidation and growth ; in 
the Jewish communitj^ he participated in the forma- 
tion and reorganization of societies. 

In 1876 Jastrow fell severely ill, and for some 
years his public activities were limited by his poor 
health, which necessitated a sojourn in the south of 
Europe. During this period of withdrawal he fully 
matured the plans for his great work, " A Dictionary 
of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, 
and the Midrashic Literature " (London and New 
York, 1886-1903). When the dictionary was ap- 
proaching completion in manuscript (1895), the Jew- 
ish Publication Society of America was about to 
begin work on its projected new translation of the 
Bible into English, and to JastroAv was entrusted the 
chief-editorship. At the time of his death the trans- 



Jastrow, Marcus 
Java!, Ernest 

lation of more tlian half tlie books of the Bible liad 
been revised by liiin. lu addition to these two great 
undertakings, lie was a member of the Publication 
Committee of the Jewish Publication Society from 
the time of its establishment, and was connected with 
the Jewish Encyclopedia as editor of the depart- 
ment of the Talmud ; he took a prominent part in 
the proceedings of the Jewish 3Iinisters' Association, 
held a seat in the central board of the Alliance 
Israelite Universelle at Paris, Avas on the committee 
of the Mekize Nirdamim, Avas one of the vice- 
presidents of the American Federation of Zionists, 
and was active in relieving the needs, material and 
intellectual, of the Russian immigrants. 

In 1900 the University of Pennsylvania conferred 
upon him the doctorate of literature. 

Besides the journals previously mentioned, arti- 
cles of his appear in the " Revue des Etudes Juives " ; 
Frankel's " Mouatsschrift " ; Berliner's " Magazin f lir 
die Wisscnschaft des Judenthums " ; "Sippurim", 
"Journal of Biblical Literature"; "Hebraica"; 
"Young Israel"; "Libanon"; "Jewish Record"; 
" Jewish Messenger " ; " American Hebrew " ; " Jew- 
ish Exponent " ; etc. 

BiBLiOGR.iPHY : M. Jastrow, Blir Mcisels, Oberrahbiiier zu 
Warschatt, Ein Lchoishild cmf Hintorischem Hinter- 
grunde nach Eigner Entworfen, in Hebrew 
Leader, April 1-July 1, 1870; Jeivish Exponent, Oct. 16, 1903. 

A. H. S. 

JASTROW, MORRIS, JR.: American Orien- 
talist and librarian ; son of Marcus Jastrow ; born 
Aug. 13, 1861, at Warsaw, Poland. His family re- 
moved to the United States in 1866, and settled in 
Philadelphia. Morris received his early education 
cliiefly at private schools until, in 1877, he entered 
the University of Pennsylvania. He graduated from 
that university in 1881, and shortly afterward went to 
Europe with the intention of studying for the Jew- 
ish ministry. He entered the seminary at Breslau 
and at the same time took up the study of Oriental 
languages at the university there. In 1884 he re- 
ceived the degree of Ph.D. at Leipsic, and spent 
another year in Europe, continuing his studies in 
Paris and Strasburg. On his return to America he 
occupied the post of lecturer to his father's con- 
gregation for a year, but at the expiration of that 
period determined to leave the ministry. He was 
elected to the chair of Semitic languages in the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1892, a position he still 
(1904) holds; in 1898 he accepted the post of librarian 
of that university. 

Jastrow is the author of " Religion of the Babyloni- 
ans and Assyrians "(Boston, 1898), of which a revised 
edition in German is now appearing under the title 
" Die Religion Babyloniens und Assyriens" (1903 et 
seq.). He published also- " A Fragment of the Baby- 
lonian Dibbarra Epic" (Boston, 1891); the Arabic 
text of the two grammatical treatises of Abu Zaka- 
riyya Hayyug (Leyden, 1897); and "The Study of 
Religion " (London and New York, 1902). His liter- 
ary activity has embraced the editing of "Selected 
Essays of James Darmesteter," translated by Helen 
Bachman Jastrow (Boston, 1895). He is the editor 
of a series of handbooks on the history of religion, 
of which three have appeared (1903), and has con- 
tributed numerous articles to the journals for Ori- 

ental languages and to the transactions of various 
learned societies in America and Europe. 

A. F. II, V. 

JATIVA or XATIVA (Hebrew ^3^DK^^'; not 
identical with Setif, Algeria; Gross, "Gallia Ju- 
daica," p. 289): City in the kingdom of Valencia. 
The Jew-s of this locality were granted special priv- 
ileges by Don Jaime, the conqueror of Valencia. He 
gave them houses and fields, and allotted them a 
street as a special quarter. . In 1267 the bailiff of the 
city was ordered by the king to see that the Jews 
were not insulted or injured in their property. la 
1320 they received permission to rebuild their syna- 
gogue. In 1336, when their privileges were renewed, 
they were so poor that they could no longer pay their 
taxes, which in 1274 had amounted to 600 sueldos. 
In the year of terror, 1391, the congregation dis- 
solved, its members being either murdered or forced 
to accept baptism. 

Here lived one Isaac ben Janah, who in 1273 was 
freed of all taxes for five years. In the last third of 
the fourteenth century Phinehas ben Salamis of 
Lilnel was rabbi of Jativa. He, as well as Rabbi 
Habib and the aged scholar Hayyim ben Vivas, both 
of whom also resided in Jativa, corresponded with 
Isaac ben Sheshet. 

BiBLioGKAPHY : Rios, Hist. i. 405, ij. 153; Jacobs, Sources, 
Nos. 417, 5:^6, 561, 7W ; Isaac ben Sheshet, Responsa, Nos. 253 
et seq., 297 et ifcq., 326. 
G. M. K. 

JAVAL, EMILE : French physician and dep- 
uty; born May 5, 1839, at Paris; son of Leopold 
Javal. Emile studied both medicine and mineralogy 
(M.D. 1868); he devoted himself specially to oph- 
thalmology, and invented an ingenious method for the 
diagnosis of astigmatism. He became one of tliQ lead- 
ing authorities on strabismus; and in 1877 he was ap- 
pointed director of the ophthalmological laboratory o f 
the Sorbonne. On July 28, 1885, he was elected mem- 
ber of the Academy of Medicine. In January of the 
same year he had been returned by a large majority 
as the Republican member for the district of St;ns, and 
he sat on the benches of the Republican Union. At 
the general elections of the following October he was 
sent to the Chamber of Deputies by the department 
of Yonne. Here he opposed the Panama scheme. 
He did not offer himself for reelection in 1889. Javal 
is an officer of the Legion of Honor. In 1900 he was 
stricken with blindness. 

Among his published works are the following: 
" Du Strabisme dansses Applications a la Physiologic 
de la Vision, " 1868 ; " Hygiene des Ecoles Maternelles 
et des Ecoles Primaires," 1884; "Memoires d'Oph- 
thalmometrie " (translated into four languages) ; 
"Manuel du Strabisme," 1894. Javal translated 
Helmholtz's "Handbuch der Physiologischen Op- 
Bibliography : Vapereau, Diet.; La Orande Encyclopedic. 

s. V. E. 

miuistrative officer; born Sept. 25, 1843, at Paris; 
died there Sept. 1, 1897; sou of Leopold Javal. 
He was a lieutenant in the Gardes Mobiles during 
the Franco-Prussian war (1870-71). In 1877 he was 
appointed successively subprefect of Boussac and 
Aubusson; in 1880, of Luneville; in 1881, of Doucie 




(Juue 27) and Gueret (July 30), and in the same year 
lie became prefect of the department La Creuse at 
Gueret; in 1883, inspector of administrative service 
in tlie Ministry of the Interior ; and in 1885, director 
of the Institution Nationale des Sourds-Muets. As a 
result of observations made during a prolonged visit 
to America, he introduced in the institution various 
innovations, including manual training and the oral 
method of instructing deaf-mutes. He was made a 
chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1888. 

s. J. Ka. 

JAVAL, LEOPOLD : French politician ; born 
at Mulhausen Dec. 1, 1804; died at Paris March 28, 
1872. The son of a wealthy merchant, he entered 
the army and became a sublieutenant ; as such he took 
part in the expedition against Algiers (1830). He 
subsequently resigned his commission and returned 
to France, where he interested himself in financial 
matters. Javal helped to establish in Paris the first 
omnibuses, which we: 3 known as " Orleanaiscs " and 
" Favorites. " He became a bank director and estab- 
lished a model farm at Vauluisant; for planting 
pine trees in certain sandy plains he gained a gold 
medal at the Exposition of 1855, and he was award- 
ed the cross of an officer of the Legion of Honor after 
the London Exhibition of 18(53. Javal also took a 
prominent part in establishing the Alsatian railways. 

In 1857 Javal was elected to the legislature as 
deputy for the Yonne department, and he consist- 
ently advocated free trade. He was reelected in 
1863 and 1869, voted with the Left, opposed the 
Plebiscite, and aided Thiers and E. Picard in pro- 
claiming the republic. The Yonne department .sent 
him to the National Assembly in Feb., 1871. Javal 
represented the Jews of Alsace at the Central Con- 
sistory of Paris. 
Bibliography : Larousse, Diet.; La Grande Encyclopedic. 

s. V. E. 

JAVAN (JV) : Name of one of the seven sons of 
Japheth, given in the list of nations (Gen. x. 2, 4; 
comp. I Chron. i. 5, 7), and as such the progenitor 
of Elisha, Tarshish, the Hittim, and the Dodanim 
(Rodanim). The word corresponds to the Greek 
'lauv, thepluralof Avhichis 'laowf, with the digamma 
between the a and o (see Homer's "Iliad," xiii. 685). 
The Greek name denotes the Lmians, settled, when 
the list of Genesis was written, on the mainland of 
Greece and on the islands of the ^gean Sea as well 
as along the coast of Asia Minor. The Greeks were 
designated by this name in Assyrian (" Ya-wa-nu " 
[Greece], "Yawnai" [Greek]; Schrader, " K. A. T." 
2ded., pp. 87 cise*/.) and in Old Persian, and the name 
was used in this by the Syrians, the Arabs, and 
the Egyptians. The question is still open whether in 
the Old Testament "Javan " connotes the Greeks, in 
keeping with this usage of other ancient peoples, or 
merely the lonians proper. According to Stade 
("De Populo Javan," Giessen, 1880), the term stands 
for the lonians of Asia Minor in all pre-Persian pas- 
sages of the Old Testament {e.(j., Ezek. xxvii. 13; 
Isa. Ixvi. 19, and therefore also in Gen. x. 2, 4). It 
has the wider significance in Joel iii. 6 (Persian age), 
Zech. ix. 13, and Dan. viii. 21 

In these passages the context shows merely that 
a distant country is meant (Isa. Ixvi. 19) into which 

Israelites were sold as slaves (by the Phenicians and 
Philistines; Joel iii. 6). Something of this kind is 
certainly also referred to in Zech. ix. 13; in fact 
Ezekiel (xxvii. 13) speaks of "Ionian "(or Greek) 
slave-trading in the markets of Tyre. In Ezek. 
xxvii. 19 the word "Javan " is cither a corruption of 
the text (in view of the circumstance that in verse 13 
it is used in a clearly different meaning from that 
required here ; see Cornill, " Ezekiel," pp. 351 et aeq.), 
or it designates an Arabic people. Glaser ("Skizze 
der Gesch. und Geographic Arabiens," ii. 428) sug- 
gests that in this verse it is the name of the place 
called "Jain," not very far from Medina. 

In Talmudic literature "Javan" stands unquestion- 
ably for Greece {e.g., in Yoina 10a); "lashon Ye- 
wanit " means the Greek language. In late Hebrew 
" Javan" denotes the Russians, because the}-" belong 
to the Greek Catholic Church ; therefore Nathan Nate 
Hanover calls his description of the Ciimielnicki 
l^erseeution "Yewen Mezulah," punning on Ps. 
jxix. 3. In Yiddish literature and in the parlance 
of the Russian Jews "Javan " (pronounce " Yoveu ") 
denotes the soldier. So Perez in his sketch " Der 
:\r&shullah " : " Bei Yoven is a gut Cheder " = " Mili- 
taiy service is a good training." 

Bibliography: Ed. Meyer, DicHeinmt der Philnln- 
gus, mw series, iii- 479 ct .icq.; Fr. Lenormant, Hi-ttoire Ait- 
'eieniude I'ijricnt. i. 29tj, Paris, 1881 : idem, Le^ i>ri(jincsde 
VHif'toire, etc., i., ii. 1-29. Paris. 1884 ; Fr. Delitzsch, ll'o Lag 
das Paradics? pp. 248-250. Leipsic, 1881; W. Max Miiller, 
Asien und Europa, p. 370, ib. 189;?; Stade, De Popnln 
Java}i, Giessen, 1880 (now incorporated in Rcden nnd 
Afihnndluiigen. ib. 1899); Ed.Mever. Gesrh. des Altertums, 
i. 490-494. ii. 433, 685 et scq., StuUgart, 1883-84. 

E. G. H. 

born about 1820 in Bombay. He enlisted in the 
Third Bombay Native Light Infantry April 4, 1840; 
was promoted jemidar Jan. 1, 1855; native adjutant 
March 19, 1855; subahdar Feb. 1, 1862; and subah- 
dar-major May 12, 1869. He was admitted to the 
second class of the Order of British India Dec. 10, 
1869, and to the first class Jan., 1877. He served 
with the Bomba}' column of the army of the Punjab 
1848-49, was present during the siege of IVIultan 
from Dec. 27, 1848, to Jan. 22, 1849, and Avas 
present at the storming of Mundi Ava at ]V[ultan 
(Dec. 27, 1848). He was witli the reserve brigade at 
the attack of the city of Multan Jan. 2, 1849, and at 
the battle of Gujarah Feb. 21, 1849, and accom- 
panied General Gilbert's force in pursuit of the Sikh 
army under Shere Sing, witnessing its surrender 
at Hoormuck March 10, 1849. He next proceeded in 
pursuit of the Afghan army, then stationed at Pe- 
shawuir. For the above services Jawlikar won the 
Punjab medal with two bars. 

Jawlikar served also with the field force which 
penetrated the Eussufzee country north of Pesha- 
wur in Dec, 1849, for the purpose of chastising the 
hill tribes on the Swat border, and was present at 
the capture and destruction of the villages of Sujas, 
Pullival, Shairkhanee, and Zoorumundee in the Baz- 
durrah valley, for which he was awarded a medal 
and bar. He was in garrison at Canton, China, 
1860-61, and gained a medal in the Abyssinian cam- 
paign of 1868. 

Jawlikar after his retirement from the army be- 
came treasurer of the Thana Synagogue. 

J. J. Hy. 




JEARIM, MOUNT. See Chesalon. 
JEBUS. See Jerusalem. 

JEBUSITES (^DITn, "Dm, -DU").— Biblical 
Data : One of the natious that occupied Palestine 
at the time of the invasion of tlic Israelites. In the 
list of the sous of Canaan, the Jebusite occupies the 
third place, between Heth and the Amorite (Gen. x. 
1"), 16; I Chron. 1. 13, 14). This is also its position 
in Num. xiii. 29; in Josh. xi. 3, however, the Jebu- 
site is mentioned between the Perizzite and the 
Hivite. On the other hand, in the oft-repeated 
enumeration of the tribes that occupied the land of 
Canaan, the Jebusite comes always at the end (Gen. 
XV. 21; Ex. iii. 8). 

The Jebusites, stated to have dwelt in the moun- 
tains (Num. xiii. 29; Josh. xi. 3), were a warlike 
people. At the time of Joshua's invasion the capi- 
tal of the Jebusites was Jerusalem, called also 
"Jebus" (Judges xix. 10, 11; II Sam. v. 6), whose 
king Adoni-zedek organized a confederacy against 
Joshua. Adoni-zedek was defeated at Beth-horon, 
and he himself was slaughtered at Makkedah (Josh. 
x. 1-27); but the Jebusites could not be driven 
from their mountainous position, and they dwelt at 
Jerusalem with the children of Judah and Benjamin 
(Josh. XV. 63; Judges i. 21). 

The Jebusites contested David's entrance into 
Jerusalem (II Sam. v. 6-8). Later a notable Jebu- 
site, Araunah, or Oman, solcVhis thrashing-floor to 
David for the erection of an altar (II Sam. xxiv. 
18-24; I Chron. xxi. 18-25). The Jebusites as well 
as the other tribes that had not been exterminated 
were reduced to serfdom by Solomon (I Kings ix. 
20, 21). In the expression of Zechariah, " and Ekron 
will be as a Jebusite " (Zech. ix. 7), "Jebusite " must 
be taken to mean " Jerusalemite." 

E. G. n. M. Sel. 

In Rabbinical Literature: The Jebusites, 

who are identical with the Hittites, derived their 
name from the city of Jebus, the ancient Jerusalem, 
which they inhabited. Within their territory lay 
the cave of Machpelah, which Abraham wished to 
buy. But they said to him: "We know that God 
will give this country to your descendants. Now, 
if you will make a covenant with us that Israel will 
not take the city of Jebus against the will of its in- 
habitants, we will cede to you the cave and will give 
you a bill of .sale. " Abraham, who was very anxious 
to obtain this holy burial-place, thereupon made a 
covenant with the Jebusites, who engraved its con- 
tents on bronze. When the people of Israel came 
into the promised land they could not conquer Jebus 
(comp. Judges i. 21) because the bronze figures, with 
Abraham's covenant engraved thereon, were stand- 
ing in the center of the city. 

The same was the case later with King David, to 
whom the Jebusites said: "You cannot enter the 
city of Jebus until you have destroyed the bronze 
figures on which Abraham's covenant with our an- 
cestors is engraved." David thereupon promised a 
captaincy to the person who sliould destroy the fig- 
ures; and Joab secured the prize (comp. II Sam. v. 
6; I Chron. xi. 6). David then took the city of 
Jebus from its owners; the right of appeal to the 
covenant with Abraham liad been forfeited by them 
VII.— 6 

through the war they had waged against Joshua; 
and after the tigures themselves had been destroyed, 
David had not to fear even that the people would 
reproach him with having broken the covenant. 
Nevertheless lie paid the inhabitants in coin the full 
value of the city (comp. II Sam. xxiv. 24; I Chron. 
xxi. 25), collecting the money from all the tribes of 
Israel; so that the Holy City became their common 
property (Pirke R. El. xxxvi. ; comp. David Luria's 
notes in his commentary ad loc. ; on the money paid 
for Jerusalem, comp. ]\iidr. Shemu'el xxxii., begin- 
ning; Sifre, Num. 42; Zeb. 16b). 

According to a midrash quoted by Rashi on 11 
Sam. V. 6, the Jebusites had in their city two figures 
—one of a blind person, representing Isaac, and one 
of a lame person, representing .Jacob—and tliese fig- 
ures had in their mouths tiie words of the covenant 
made between Abraham and the Jebusites. 

s- s. L. G. 

JECONIAH. See Jeiioiachix. 

JEDAIAH PENINI. See Bedersi, Jeuaiah 
BEN Abraham. 

JEDIDAH: :Mother of Josiah, King of Judah; 
daughter of Adaiah of Boscath, and wife of Amon 
(II Kings xxi. 26, xxii. 1). The name means "be- 

E. G. H. I. M. P. 

ISRAEL: Galician preacher and Masorite; lived 
at Lemberg in the seventeenth century. He wrote: 
"Ahabat ha-Shem," fifty haggadic expositions on 
Deut. X. 12 (Cracow, 1641 ; Lublin, 1645); "Shir 
Yedidut," conmientary on the Masorah, in four parts 
and in alphabetical order {ib. 1644). 

BiBLiOfiRAPHY: Fiirst. Bihl. Jud. i. 340; Michael. Or lia-Hau- 
yim. No. 943; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. coL ia.^8. 

D. S. Man. 


(called also Amadeo of Rimini ben Moses of 
Recanati) : Italian scholar; tiouri.shed in the second 
half of the sixteenth century. At the request of 
Immanuel di Fano, Jedidiah translated, in 1580, the 
"Moreh Nebukim " into Italian, under the title 
"Erudizionedi Confusi." Parts of this translation, 
which is still extant in manuscript (Parma MS. 
No. 5), were published in 1892 by G. Sacerdote, under 
the title " Una Versione Italiana Inedita del Moreh," 
in the "Rendiconti della R. Accademia dei Lincei." 
Jedidiah is mentioned, together with other Italian 
rabbis, in a responsum of the sixteenth centurv (Neu- 
bauer, " Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2317). He was 
the author of a Hebrew-Italian vocabularj' of the 
Bible, entitled "Sefer Turgeman " (ib. No. 1498). 
In a manuscript collection of letters (ib. No. 241) 
are two addressed by him to Eleazar ben Solomon of 
Camerino. Some mathematical notes of Jedidiah 
and a hymn beginning with '•2 103 "I11X. in which 
the name of the author is given in acrostic, were in 
manuscript in the library of the late D. Kaufmann. 

BiBLiofiRAPHY: steinschneider, Hebr. Uebers. p. 923; idem, 
in Mdnat^chrift, xliii. 33. 

G. L Br. 



See Heinemann, Jeremiah; Pe- 




JEDUTHUN: The name of one of the three 
great orders or gilds of Temple singers, in charge of 
the music of the Temple from David's day down 
into post-exilic times. In I Chron. xvi. 41, 42 Jedu- 
thun is mentioned along with Heman as one of the 
musicians in service before the Ark of the Covenant ; 
and also as the father of a class of doorkeepers {ib. 
xvi. 38, 42). In I Chron. xxv. 1, 6, and II Chron. v. 
12 Jeduthun, Asaph, and Heman are mentioned as 
the three heads of the musical part of the Temple' 
service. In II Chron. xxxv. 15 Jeduthun is called 
"the king's seer." In Neh. xi. 17 is mentioned the 
descendant of a Jeduthun engaged in service with the 
Levites. In I Chron. vi. 33, 39, 44, and xv. 17 the 
name "Ethan " seems to be used in place of "Jedu- 
thun," and some scholars have devised a plan to show 
the possible philological identity of the two names. 

The titles of three psalms (Ps. xxxix., Ixii., and 
Ixxvii.) contain the word "Jeduthun," possibly as 
indicating some kind of musical direction or instru- 

E. G. II. 

I. M. P. 


JEHIEL BENASHER: Liturgical poet; flour- 

islied in Andalusia in the fourteenth and fifteenth 

centuries. He was the author of four liturgical 

poems, mentioned by Zunz ("L. G." p. 520), and of 

a dirge of twenty-five strophes on the iiersecution 

of the Jews in Spain in 1391. Jehiel was also the 

author of a poetical work entitled " Ma'aseli 'Ugah," 

published, together with Profiat Duran's "Iggeret 

AlTehi Ka-Aboteka," at Constantinople about 1577. 

Firkovich claims to have seen in the possession of a 

Karaite of Constantinople named Joseph Kimhi a 

manu.script containing a poem by Jehiel, entitled 


Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1273; idem, 
Jewish Literature, p. 152; Dukes, in Orient, Lit.xi. iM ; 
Ha-Karmel, ii. 385. 
G. I. Br. 



fist and controversialist; born at Meaux at the end 
of the twelfth century : died in Palestine in 1286. 
His French name was Sir Vives, and in rabbinical 
literature he is variously designated as Jehiel of 
Paris, Jehiel the Holy, Jehiel the Pious, and 
Jehiel the Elder. He was one of the most distin- 
guished disciples of Judah Sir Leon, whom he suc- 
ceeded, in 1224, as head of the Talmudical school of 
Paris. This school was attended under Jehiel's di- 
rection by three hundred disciples, among whom 
were the later renowned tosafists Isaac of Corbeil 
(Jehiel's son-in-law), Perez ben Elijah of Corbeil, 
Yakar of Cliinon, Mei'r of Rothenburg, and many 
other well-known rabbis of the thirteenth century. 
Jehiel was held in great esteem even by non-Jews; 
and, without giving any credence to the legends 
that present him as Saint Louis' councilor, it is quite 
probable that he was favorably received at court. 
Jehiel's position as chief of the Jewish community 
of Paris forced him into many controversies with 
Christians. Thus he once had to combat the argu- 
ments of the chancellor of Paris, who pretended to 
prove by the Bible that Jews are compelled by the 

demands of their ritual to use Christian blood. On 
another occasion he debated with a friar who, on the 
strength of a misunderstood Biblical text, main- 
tained that Jews could not, consistently Avith their 
belief, bear witness in courts of justice. 

But these minor controversies were trivial in com- 
parison with the disputation which, in the presence 
of Saint Louis and his court, he, together with two 
other rabbis, had to sustain in 1340 against the apos- 
tate Nicholas Donin, who denounced the Talmud as 
containing blasphemies against Christianity. The re- 
sult of this controversy was, as was to be expected, 
the condemnation of the Talmud; but Jehiel dis- 
played on that occasion great courage and dignity. 
At first he refused to enter into the discussion, alleg- 
ing that the popes had a.ssured independence to the 
Jews in their domestic affairs, and that the Talmud 
was the very essence of their lives. Then, being as- 
sured by the queen that the lives of the Jews were in 
no danger, he consented to answer any questions sub- 
mitted to him, but positively refused to take an oath. 
After the controversy the state, of the French Jews 
grew daily worse, and Jehiel had the mortification 
of seeing his son thrown into prison upon a baseless 
charge. He decided, therefore, together with his 
son to leave his native country for Palestine, where 
he stayed until his death. 

Jehiel was the author of tosafot on the Talmudical 
treatises Berakot, Sliabbat, Pesahim, Mo'ed Katan, 
Bezali, Yebamot, Ketubot, Baba Kamma, HuUin, 
Zebahim, and probably Menaliot; but these tosafot 
are no longer in existence. By the later tosafists, 
Jehiel is mentioned as a Biblical commentator. He 
wrote also halakic decisions, several of which are 
cited by Mordecai ben Hillel and Meir of Rothen- 
burg and in "Orhot Hayyim." See Disputations ; 
DoMN, NiciiOL.\s, OP La Rociielle. 

Bibliography: Carmolv, Itincrnirc, p. 183; Zunz, Z. G. p. 
43; Zadoc Kahn, in R. E. J. 1. 232; Mniiatsschrift, 18C9, p. 
148; Gratz. Gench. vii. 130;, Gallia Judaica, pp. 526- 
s. s. I. Br. 

at Nemirov, Russia; murelered May, 1048. When 
the hordes of Chmielnicki, taking Nemirov, began 
the work of pillage and massacre, a Cossack con- 
cealed Jehiel, hoping that the latter would show him 
where the Jews had hidden their wealth. A shoe- 
maker, however, discovered Jehiel and his mother, 
dragged them to the cemetery, and murdered them. 
Jehiel was the author of a work entitled "Shibre 
Luhot," containing homilies on several Sabbatic sec- 
tions and the various Biblical readings given in the 
Talmud. The work was published posthumously at 
Lublin in 1080. 

Bibliography: steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1247; Fuenn, 
Keucsct Yisrael, P- 526. 

H. R. I. Br. 


(known also as Michael Hasid) : Rabbi of Berlin; 
died March, 1728. After filling the office of rabbi 
in several Polish communiti(!S he removed about 
1701 to Berlin, where, with his brother-in-law 
Aaron, he was entrusted with the direction of the 
yeshibah founded by Jost Liebman. When in 1713 
Aaron was called to the rabbinate of Frankfort-on- 
the-Oder, Jehiel was nominated rabbi of Berlin. 




This iioniinutiou was ratified by royal edict in 1714, 
which provided that when the rabbinate of Frank- 
fort became vacant it would be annexed to that of 
Berlin. Accordingly on the death of Aaron in 1721 
Jehiel's jurisdiction was extended to Frankfort. 
Jehiel was a Talmudist of high repute, and was well 
versed in Cabala. His predilection for Cabala was, 
indeed, so great that he blindly gave his approba- 
tion to the works of the Shabbethaian llay^'un. 
Jehiel, however, was not long in acknowledging his 
fault, and at the conference of rabbis lield at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Oder in 1726 he was the first to demand 
that a "herem '' should be launched against the fol- 
lowers of Shabbethai Zebi, and that all the cabalistic 
works published since 1666 in which Shabbethaian 
ideas were expressed should be put under the ban. 

Jehiel's distrust of the Cabala became, indeed, so 
great that he abstained from publishing his owm 
cabalistic works, fearing lest they might be inter- 
preted in the Shabbethaian spirit. Jehiel wrote 
novellas on Megillah (published with the text at 
Berlin in 1714) and on Rosh ha-Shanah (published in 
the 1726 Amsterdam edition of the Talmud). Other 
novelise and homilies of his are scattered in various 
works of his contemporaries, such as the "Kol 
Ychudah " of Judah Glogau, the " Asifat Hakamim " 
of Israel Isserles, etc. He annotated the commen- 
tary on Canticles of his son-in-law Joel ben Jekuthiel 
Sachs, and wrote "Miklal Yofi," annotations on the 
haggadot found in the Jerusalem Talmud (published 
as a supplement to the"Yefeh Mareh " of Samuel 
Jaffe; Berlin, 1725-26). Jehiel left several cabalis- 
tic works in manuscript. 

Bibliography: 'La.ndshuth, ToledotAnshe Shem, pp.11 ct 
seq. : Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1374 ; Ludwig Geiger, 
Gesch. der Judcn in Berlin^ p. 40; Fuenn, Keiieset Yisi'aeJ, 
p. 524. 
K. I. Br. 

GAU : Rabbinical author; died in Vienna 1730. 
He was well versed in the ^lidrashim, and was the 
author of "Nezer ha-Kodesh," an extensive com- 
mentar}^ on Midrash Kabbah, a part of which, 
namely, on the section of Genesis, was published 
in Tessnitz 1718. Jehiel carried on a correspond- 
ence with Jacob Emden, as is mentioned in " She'elot 
Ya'bez," No. 2. 

Bibliography: Azulai. SJtcm ha-GcdoUm, i. 85: Fuenn, 
Keneset Yii^-aeh p. 521. 
s. s. N. T. L. 

JEHIEL OF PISA : Philanthropist and scholar 
of Pisa; died there Feb. 10, 1492. The wealth he 
had acquired in the banking he spent liber- 
ally for charitable purposes. Himself a scholar, he 
extended his protection to .Jewish learning. Johanan 
Alemanno, the teacher of Pico di Miiaudola, seems 
to have lived for j'ears in Jehiel's house. Jehiel was 
on intimate terms with Don Isaac Abravanel, with 
whom he carried on a correspondence. In 1472 
Abravanel induced Lopo de Almeida and the phy- 
sician Joao Sezira, Alfonso's ambassadors to the 
pope, to pay Jehiel a visit. They carried costly 
liresents to Jehiel's wife from Abravanel, and valu- 
able manuscripts, among wiiich were copies of Abra- 
vanel's own works, to Jehiel. 

The end of Jehiel's life was embittered by tlic 
apostasy of one of his daughters. On that occasion 

Abravanel wrote him a letter of consolation, in which 
he reminded him of the saying of the Rabbis (M. K. 
20b) that the result of education is not dependent 
upon the merits of the parents: thorns grow in every 
field among the ears of corn. 

Gedaliah ibn Yahya relates that most of Jehiel's 
fortune was spent in aiding the refugees of Spain. 
Jehiel's death was bewailed by the poets and writers 
of his time, such as Eliezer Ezra of Volterra, Solo- 
mon of Camerino, and the astronomer Abba Mari 

Bibliography : Ozar Keljmad, ed. Blumenfeld, ii. 6;5 et scq.; 
Gratz, Gesch. viii. 239; Kaufmann, in R. E. J. xxvi. W. 


I. Br. 

JEHOAHAZ: 1. Son of Jehu; second king in 
the fifth dynasty of northern Israel ; reigned 814-797 
B.C. During the period of his rule Syria under 
Hazael and Ben-hadad became particularly aggres- 
sive (II Kings xiii. 1-9, 22); Israel's army was re- 
duced to a mere handful of troops {ib. xiii. 7); and 
the land was practically at the mercy of the Syrians, 
as foretold by Elisha the prophet {ib. viii. 12). I.s- 
rael's religious decline is noted, in the 
continuation of the abominations of Asherah worship 
in Samaria {ib. xiii. 6). The humility of Jehoahaz 
and his appeal to Yhwh call forth the statement 
that a savior was given and Israel was released from 
its oppression. Just when that savior appeared or 
who he was is not determined. But in II Kings xiii. 
25, xiv. 27, Jehoahaz 's son Joash and his grandson 
Jeroboam II. would seem to fulfil the requirements. 
It is also true that Adad-nirari 111., King of Assyria 
(812-783 B.C.), made campaigns into the west (804- 
797), and on one of the incursions captured and sacked 
the city of Damascus, and thus removed the worst 
enemy of Israel's prosperity (Schrader, "K. A. T." 
3d ed., p. 260). 

Bibliography: Commentaries on Kings; histories of Israel 
by Stade, Gutlie, and Winukier (1. 154); Goodspeed. HiVf. of 
AA^f/ria and Bahijlunia ; J. F. McCurdy, HUtoni. Pniphecu, 
and the Mnnunicnt.-i; Price, M<))tumcnts and Old TestO' 
ment, §§ 140-142. 

2. (Called also Shallum.) Third son of Josiah, 
King of Judah (II Kings xxiii. 31, 36). In I Chron. 
iii. 15 Shallum is named as the fourth son of Jo- 
siah; but the ages given of those who became king 
show that Zedekiah (II Kings xxiv. 18) was the 
youngest. The identity of Jehoahaz and Shallum 
seems to be estal)lishcd by the evidence of the 
chronicler above indicated and of Jer. xxii. 11. 
The change to the more dignified regal name may 
have been made at his coronation. Immediately 
upon the death of Josiah at the hands of Necho in 
608 B.C., the people of the land took Jehoahaz and 
anointed him king in the place of his father, allhougli 
he was not the first in the line of succes.sion. This 
fact attests the popularity of the }'oung man, and 
probably also his political affiliations or policy, as 
being in line with those of his father. At any rate 
his disposition (Ezek. xix. 3-4) was such that Neclio 
had him seized and carried to Riblah in the jilains 
of Ilamatii, the .seat of Necho's authority. Jehoa- 
haz's elder brother Eliakini, under his ncAv name 
"Jehoiakim," was enthroned under Egyptian suze- 
rainty ; and the land was laitl under tribute toEgypt's 
coflfers. The captive king. .lehoaliaz, was carried 
prisoner to Egypt (Ezek. \i\ 4). and he here disap- 




pears from history, mourned as having gone never 
to return to his native laud (Jer. xxii. 10-12). 

Bibliography : Commentaries on Kings and Chronicles ; and 
the histories of Israel mentioned above. 

3. Name, occurring in two ijassages in II Chroni- 
cles (xxi. 17, XXV. 23), for Ahaziah, King of Judah. 
Etymologically the names "Ahazyah " and "Yeho- 
'ahaz " are one and the same; the element "Yah" 
following in the one case, and the longer " Yeho " 
preceding in the other. See Ahaziah. 

E. G. H. I. M. p. 

JEHOASH. See Joash. 

JEHOIACHIN.— Biblical Data : King of Ju- 
dah ; son and successor of Jehoiakim (II Kings xxiv. 
6); reigned a little over three mouths. He was 
scarcely on the throne when Jerusalem was besieged 
by Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon. Unable to 
resist, he soon surrendered with the queen-mother 
Nehushta, the servants, captains, and ofilcers. With 
these he was sent captive to Babylon. The treas- 
ures of the palace and the sacred vessels of the Tem- 
ple were also carried away. For thirty -six j'ears 
Jehoiachin remained in prison at Babylon, his throne 
having been given by Nebuchadnezzar to Mattaniah 
(son of Josiah), name was changed to "Zede- 
kiah" {lb. xxiv. 11-17; II Chron. xxxvi. 9-10; Jer. 
xxxvii. 1). When Nebuchadnezzar died, his son 
Evil-merodach released Jehoiachin and gave him an 
honorable seat at his own table (II Kings xxv. 27- 
30; Jer. lii. 31-34). 

E. G. H. B. P. 

In Rabbinical Literature : Jehoiachin was 

made king in place of his father by Nebuchadnez- 
zar; but the latter had hardly returned to Babylon 
when some one said to him, " A dog brings forth no 
good progeny," whereupon he recognized that it 
was poor policy to have Jehoiachin for king (Lev. 
R. xix. 6; Seder '01am R. xxv.). In Daphne, near 
Antiochia, Nebuchadnezzar received the Great San- 
hedrin, to whom he announced that he would not 
destroy the Temple if the king were delivered up 
to him. When the king heard this resolution of 
Nebuchadnezzar he went upon the roof of the Tem- 
ple, and, turning to heaven, held up the Temple kej's, 
saying: "As you no longer consider us worthy to 
be your ministers, take the keys that j'ou have en- 
trusted to us until now. " Then a miracle happened ; 
for a fiery hand appeared and took the keys, or, as 
others say, the keys remained suspended in the air 
where the king had thrown them (Lev. R. I.e. ; Yer. 
Shek. vi. 50a; other versions of the legend of the 
keys are given in Ta'an. 29a; Pesik. R. 26 [ed. 
Friedmann, p. 131a], and Syriac Apoc. Bariich, x. 
18). The king as well as all the scholars and nobles 
of Judali were then carried away captive by Neb- 
uchadnezzar (Seder 'Oiam R. I.e. ; compare Ratner's 
remark ad lor.). Areording to Josephus, Jehoiachin 
gave up tiie city and iiis relatives to Nebuchadnez- 
zar, who took an oath that neither they nor the city 
should be liarmed. But the Bal)ylonian king broke 
his word; for scarcely a year had elapsed when he 
led the king and many others into captivity. 

Jehoiachin's sad experiences changed iiis nature 
entirely, and as he repented of the sins wiiieji lie iiad 
committed as king lie was pardoned by God, who 

revoked the decree to the effect that none of his 
descendants should ever become king (Jer. xxii. 30; 
Pesik., ed. Buber, xxv. 163a, b); he even became 
the ancestor of the Messiah (Tan., Toledot, 20 [ed. 
Buber, i. 140]). It was especially his firmness in 
fulfilling the Law that restored him to God's favor. 
He was kept by Nebuchadnezzar in solitary confine- 
ment, and as he was therefore separated from his 
wife, the Sanhedrin, which had been expelled with 
him to Babylon, feared that at the death of this 
queen the house of David would become extinct. 

They managed to gain the favor of Queen Semi- 
rainis, who induced Nebuchadnezzar to ameliorate 
the lot of the captive king by permitting his wife 
to share his prison. As he then manifested great 
self-control and obedience to the Law, God forgave 
him his sins (Lev. R. xix., end). Jelioiachin lived to 
see the death of his conqueror, Nebuchadnezzar, 
which brought him liberty; for within two days of 
his father's death Evil-merodach opened the prison 
in which Jehoiachin had languished for so many 

Jehoiachin's life is the best illustration of the 
maxim, "During prosperity a man must never for- 
get the poissibility of misfortune; and in adversity 
must not despair of prosperity's return " (Seder 
'01am R. XXV.). On the advice of Jehoiachin, Neb- 
uchadnezzar's son cut his father's body into 300 
pieces, which he gave to 300 vultures, so that he 
could be sure that Nebuchadnezzar would never re- 
turn to worry him ("Chronicles of Jerahmeel," Ixvi. 
6). Evil-merodach treated Jehoiachin as a king, 
clothed him in purple and ermine, and for his sake 
liberated all the Jews that had been imprisoned by 
Nebuchadnezzar (Targ. Sheni, near the beginning). 
It was Jehoiachin, also, who erected the magnificent 
mausoleum on the grave of the prophet Ezekiel 
(Benjamin of Tudela, "Itinerary," ed. Asher, i. 66). 
In the Second Temple there was a gate called " Jeco- 
niah's Gate," because, according to tradition, Jeco- 
niah (Jehoiachin) left the Temple through that gate 
when he went into exile (Mid. ii. 6). 

s. s. L. G. 

JEHOIADA : High priest under Ahaziah, Atha- 
liah, and Jehoash (Joash). By his marriage with 
the princess Jehosheba or Jehoshabeath, daughter 
of Jehoram, he became tlie brother-in-law of Ahaziah 
(II Chron. xxii. 11). After the death of Ahaziah at 
Megiddo, Athaliah slew all the royal fainilj^ of 
Judah (II Kings ix. 27, xi. 1; II Chron. xxii. 10) 
with the exception of Jehoash (Joash), whom Je- 
hoiada and his wife had stolen from among the 
king's sons and whom they kept hidden for six years 
in the Temple. 

Athaliah, who liad usurped the throne of Judah 
(842-830 B.C.), promoted the worship of Baal and 
produced disgust among those who adhered to the 
true worship. In the seventh year of her reign a 
great and enthusiastic assembly took place in the 
Tenijile which hailed Jehoash (Joash), whom Je- 
hoiada liail brought from his hiding-place, as the 
legal claimant to the throne of Judah. Cnder the 
guidance of Jehoiada, Baal-worship was renounced, 
the altar and temple of Baal were destroyed, and 
other measures were taken for the purification of the 




Temple. Jehoiada died at the age of 130, "and was 
buried in the cit}^ of David among the kings, be- 
cause he had done good in Israel, botli toward God, 
and toward his house" (II Chrou. xxiv. 16). 
E. G. H. B. P. 

JEHOIAKIM.— Biblical Data : King of Judah 
(608-597 B.C.) ; eldest sou of Josiali, and brother and 
successor of Jehoahaz (Shallum), whom Pharaoh- 
uecho l)ad deposed. When placed on the throne, 
his name, originally "Eliakim," was changed to 
" Jehoiakim " (II Kings xxiii. 34). During his reign 
Nebuchadnezzar invaded Palestine, entered Jeru- 
salem, and compelled Jehoiakim to pay tribute to 
him. After three years Jehoiakim rebelled against 
Nebuchadnezzar {il^. xxiv. 1), thereby bringing ruin 
upon himself and upon the country. Dying after a 
wicked reign of eleven years, he was buried " with 
the burial of an ass, drawn, and cast forth beyond 
the gates of Jerusalem" (Jer. xxii. 19). It was 
Jehoiakim who slew the prophet Uriah " and cast his 
dead body into the graves of the common people " 
{i/t. xxvi. 23); and it was he also who impiously 
"cut with the i)enknife and cast into the fire " Jere- 
miah's roll of prophecies from which Jehudi had 
read three or four leaves to the king {ib. xxxvi. 23). 
Jehoiakim's history is briefly stated in II Kings 
xxiii. 34-xxiv. 6 and II. Chron. xxxvi. 4-8, which 
must be read in connection with Jer. xxii. 13-19, 
xxvi., xxxvi. 

E. G. II. B. P. 

In Rabbinical Literature : Although Jehoia- 
kim was Josiah's eldest son, he was passed over at 
the latter's death as being unworthy to be his father's 
successor, and his brother Jehoahaz mounted the 
throne in his place. Jehoahaz was publicly anointed 
king to offset his brother's claims to the throne 
(Seder '01am R. xxiv.; Hor. lib; Ratner's objec- 
tion ad loc. to Seder '01am was anticipated and an- 
swered by the Gemara). When, subsequently, Je- 
hoiakim took the government, after Jehoahaz had 
been led captive to Egypt, he showed how little he 
resembled his pious father: he was a godless tyrant, 
committing the most atrocious sins and crimes. He 
lived in incestuous relations with his mother, daugh- 
ter-in-law, and stepmother, and was in the habit of 
murdering men, whose wives he then violated and 
whose property he seized. His garments were of 
"sha'atnez,"and in order to hide the fact that he was 
a Jew, he had made himself an epispasm by means 
of an operation, and had tattooed his body (Lev. 
R. xix. 6; Tan., Lek Leka, end; Midr. Aggadat Be- 
reshit xlviii. ; see also Sanh. 103b). He even boasted of 
his godlessness, saying, "My predecessors, Manasseh 
and Amon, did not know how they could make God 
most angry. But I speak openly ; all that God gives 
us is light, and this we no longer need, since we 
have a kind of gold that shines just like the light; 
furthermore, God has given this gold to mankind 
[Ps. cxv. 16] and is not able to take it back again" 
(Sanh. I.e.). 

When Jehoiakim was informed that Jeremiah was 
writing his Lamentations, he sent for the roll, and 
calmly read the first four, remarking sarcastic- 
ally, "I still am king." When lie came to the fifth 
verse and saw the words, "For the Lord hatii 

afilicted her for the multitude of her transgressions" 
(Lam. i. 5), he took the roll, scratched out the names 
of God occurring therein, and threw it into the tire 
(M. K. 26a). No wonder then that God thought of 
" changing the world again into chaos," and refrained 
from doing so only because the Jewish people under 
this king were pious (Sanh. 103a). Yet punishment 
was not withheld. Nebuchadnezzar came with his 
army to Daphne, near Antiochia, and demanded from 
the Great Sanhedrin, whose members came to pay 
him their respects, that Jehoiakim be delivered to 
him, in which case he would not disturb the city and 
its inhabitants. The Sanhedrin went to Jehoiakim 
to inform him of Nebuchadnezzar's demand, and 
when he asked them whether it would be right to 
sacrifice him for their benefit, they reminded him of 
what David did in a similar case with the rebel 
Sheba (Lev. R. xix. 6). 

Various opinions have been handed down con- 
cerning the circumstances of Jehoiakim's death, due 
to the difficulty of harmonizing the conflicting Bib- 
lical statements on this point (II Kings xxiv. 6; Jer. 
xxii. 18, 19; II Chron. xxxvi. 6). According to 
some, he died in Jerusalem before the Sanhedrin 
could comply with the demand made by Nebuchad- 
nezzar, who therefore had to be content with .the 
king's body, which was cast to him over the walls. 
Another version says that he died while being let 
down over the wall. Others, again, maintain that 
after leading him through the whole land of Judah, 
Nebuchadnezzar killed him, and then threw his 
corpse piecemeal to the dogs, or, as one version has 
it, put it into the skin of a dead ass (Lev. R. xix. 6 ; 
Seder '01am R. xxv., agreeing in part with Josephus, 
"Ant." X. 6, §8; see also Jerome to Jer. xxii. 18, and 
Nebuchadnezzar in Rabbinical Literature). 

Even this shameful death, however, was not to 
be the end of the dead king, upon whose skull were 
scratched the words, "This and one more." After 
man}'' centuries the skull Avas found by a scholar be- 
fore the gates of Jerusalem ; he piously buried it, 
but as often as he tried to cover it the earth refused 
to hold it. He then concluded that it was the skull 
of Jehoiakim, for whom Jeremiah had prophesied 
such an end (Jer. xxii. 18) ; and as he did not know 
what to do with it, he wrapped it in a cloth and hid 
it in a closet. After a time his wife found it and 
showed it to a neighbor, who said : " Your husband 
had another wife before j'ou whom he can not for- 
get, and therefore he keeps her skull." Thereupon 
the wife threw it into tlie fire, and when her husband 
returned he knew what the enigmatical words 
" this and one more " meant (Sanh 8'2a, 104a). Not- 
withstanding his many sins, Jehoiakim is not one of 
the kings who have no part in the future world 
(Sanh. l'03b). 

s. s. L. G 

JEHONADAB ( JONADAB) : Son of Rechab, 

a Kenite (I Chron. ii. 55). the founder of the so- 
called Recliabitcs (I Chron. ii. 55; Jer. xxxv. 6-7). 
The English versions transliterate everywhere in 
Jeremiah "Jonadab," although the Masoretic text 
reads thus in Jer. xxxv. 6, 10, 19 only. The name 
signifies " God promised or gave " (comp. " Chemosh- 
nadab "). Jehonadab was contemporary with Jehu, 
King of Israel, whom he met on his way to the city of 




Samaria, where he purposed to eradicate the worship 
of Baal. Jehu, discovering in him a ready ally, 
took In in into his chariot, and on the way they con- 
cocted the scheme which ended with the massacre of 
the worshipers of Baal (II Kings x. 15-23). The 
good example set by Jehonadab was followed bj^ 
his descendants, and in couse(iuence a blessing was 
pronounced upon liim and them by the prophet 
Jeremiah (Jer. xxxv. 18-19). 

E. G. H. B. P. 

JEHORAM (JORAM) : 1. King of Israel (852- 
842 B.C.); son of Aliab and Jezebel; brother and 
successor of Ahaziah. Like his predecessors, Jeho- 
ram worshiped Baal. With Jehoshaphat and the 
King of Edom, Jehoram attacked Mesha, King of 
Moab. In the war between Syria and Israel, Elisha 
befriended Jehoram, revealing to him the plans of 
the enemy. Subsequently, when Ben-hadad besieged 
Samaria, reducing the city almost lo starvation, Je- 
horam sought to kill the prophet. The latter, liow- 
ever, foretold a period of plenty, which quickly 
came, and the old relation between the king and the 
prophet was restored. Wlien Hazael revolted in 
Damascus, as Elislia had predicted (II Kings viii. 
12), Jehoram made an alliance with his nephew 
Ahaziali, King of Judah, the two kings going forth 
to take Ramoth-gilead from S3'ria. The project 
failed; Jehoram was wounded, and he withdrew to 
Jezreel to recover. Attacked by Jehu, the com- 
mander of the army in rebellion against Jehoram, 
he fell pierced by an arrow (see Jeuu). With the 
death of Jehoram the d3'nasty of Omri became 

E. G. H. B. P. 

2. Fifth king of Judah; son of Jehoshaphat and 
grandson of Asa. He was first named as regent in 
854 B.C., when his father went with Ahab to fight 
the Assyrians at Karkar (comp. II Kings i. 17, iii. 1, 
viii. 16). He was entrusted with the full reins of 
government in tlie twenty-third year (849 B.C.) of his 
father's reign, and lie ruled eight j-ears. The records 
of his reign are given in II Kings viii. 16-24, 27; 
and II Chron. xxi. After his father died, and he 
had secured himself in power, he slew his six broth- 
ers (to whom his father had given fenced cities and 
great wealth) and certain other influential men in 
Israel (II Chron. xxi. 2-4). 

Jehoram took to wife Athaliah, daugliter of Ahab 
of Israel, " and he walked in the way of the kings of 
Israel, as did the house of Ahab " (II Kings viii. 18, 
27). Hi.s wickedness would have brought his people 
to destruction, except for the promise to David "to 
give him always a light, and to his children " (ib. viii. 
19; comp. I Kings xi. 36, xv. 4). The Edomites, 
who apparently had been subservient to Judah 
since David's day (II Sam. viii. 14), revolted. Je- 
horam's attempt to force them to submit almost re- 
sulted in fatal disaster to his own troops. His army 
was surrounded, but undercover of night succeeded 
in cutting its way out and retreating to its own ter- 
ritory. About the same time Libnah revolted, and 
the Philistines and Arabians invaded the land of 
Judah, captured and sacked Jerusalem, and carried 
off all the royal household except Jehoahaz (Aha- 
ziah; II Chron. xxi. 16, 17). During this time the 

king received a letter of warning from Elijah {ib. 

Jehoram's idolatry, viciousness, and general wick- 
edness brought upon liim an incurable disease. At 
the end of two years of intense suflering he died, 
unmourned, and despised by his own people. They 
"made no burning for him, like the burning of liis 
fathers," and "they buried him in the city of Da- 
vid, but not in the sepulchres of the kings " (ib. xxi. 
19, 20). 

Bibliography: Commentaries on K'i»jgs and Chronicles; his- 
tories of Israel by Stade, Guthe, Wlnckler. and others ; J. F. 
McCurdy, Hi&tor]), Prophecy, and the Monumentu; Price, 
MonumenU and Old Tetitament. 
E. G. II. I. M. p. 

JEHOSHABEATH (called also Jehosheba) : 

Daughter of Jehoram, King of Judah, and wife of 
the high priest Jehoiada, together with whom she 
saved her brother's son Joasli from Athaliah (II 
Kings xi. 2; II Chron. xxii. 11). 

E. G. H. B. P. 

JEHOSHAPHAT : Son of Asa ; fourth king of 
Judah (873-r. 849b. c); contemporary of Ahab, Aha- 
ziah, and Jehoram, kings of Israel. He inaugurated 
a polic}' which was contrary to tliat pursued by his 
predecessors, by recognizing the conditions created 
by the division of the realm, and by entering into a 
close alliance with the Northern Kingdom. In exe- 
cution of this policy, liis son Jehoram married Ath- 
aliah, Ahab's daughter (I Kings xxii. 51; I Chron. 
iii. 11; II Kings viii. 18; II Chron. xxi. 6). Jehosh- 
aphat took part in the expedition undertaken by 
Ahab against the Arameans (I Kings xxii. 1 et seq. ; 
II Chron. xviii. Set seq.), and together with Jeho- 
ram of Israel waged war upon King Mesha of 
Moab (II Kings iii. 4 et seq. ; comp. II Chron. xx. 1 
et seq., where the episode is embellished with relig- 
ious and miraculous elements). He also had the 
ambition to emulate Solomon's maritime ventures to 
Ophir, and built a large vessel for Tar.shish. But 
when this boat was wrecked at Ezion-geber he relin- 
quished the project (I Kings xxii. 48 et seq. ; II 
Chron. xx. 35 etseq.). 

In I Kings xxii. 43 the piety of Jehoshaphat is 
briefly dwelt on. Chronicles, in keeping with its 
tendency, elaborates this trait of the king's charac- 
ter. According to its report (II Chron. xvii. 7 et 
seq., xix. 4 et seq.) Jehoshaphat organized a mission- 
ary movement by sending out his officers, the priests, 
and the Levites to instruct the people throughout 
the land in the Law of YnwH, the king himself de- 
livering sermons. Ecclesiastical and secular juris- 
dictions, according to II Chron. xix. 11, were by 
royal command kept distinct. 

Underlying this ascription to the king of the pur- 
pose to carry out the Priest h' Code, is the liistorical 
fact that Jehoshaphat took heed to organize the ad- 
ministration of justice on a solid foundation, and 
was an honest worshiper of Yhwh. In connection 
with this the statement tliat Jehoshaphat expelled 
the "Kedeshim" (R. V. "Sodomites") from the land 
(I Kings xxii. 46) is characteristic; while II Chron. 
xix. 8 credits liim witli having cut down the A.she- 
rot. The report (II Chron. xvii. 6) that lie took 
away the " high places " (and the Asherim) conflicts 
with I Kings xxii. 44 (A. V. v. 43) and II Chron. 




XX. 33. The account of Jeliosliaiiliat's tremendous 
army (1,160,000 men) and the ricli tribute received 
from (among others) the Philistines and the Arabs (II 
Chron. xvii. 10 etscq.) is not liistorical. It is in har- 
mony with the theory worked out iu Clironiclcs that 
pious raonarchs liave alwaj'S been the mightiest and 
most prosperous. 

BiBLiooRAPHY: Commentaries on Kiim^and. Chronicles; the 
histories of Stade, Giithe, Wiuckler, Piepenbring, Smith, and 
Ewald ; Hastings, Diet. Bible ; Guthe, Kurzes Bihel W6r- 
terh.; Cheyne and Black, Encyc. Bibl.; Riehm, Hand- 
wOrterb. 2d ed. 

E. G. H. 

mentioned by the prophet Joel (Joel iv. [A. V. iii.] 
2, 12), where, after the return of Judah and Jerusa- 

(the present Wadi Sitti i\Iar3-ani, whicli separates 
Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives, and through 
which at one time the stream Kidron flowed), and 
believe that the Last Judgment will be held there. 
According to the Tehillim (viii. ; quoted 
by Neubauer, "G. T." p. 51) no "valley called 
Jehoshaphat" exists (ODt»>"in'' lOK^C* poy pNI)- 

E. G. IL B. P. 

JEHOVAH : A mispronunciation (introduced by 
Christian t heologians, but almost entirely disregarded 
by the Jcavs) of the Hebrew "Yiiavh," the (ineffa- 
ble) name of God (the Tetuagrammaton or " Shem 
ha-Meforash "). This pronunciation is grammatically 
impossible; it arose through pronouncing the vowels 

Valley of Jeuoshaphat, 

(From a photograph by Bonfils.) 

lem from the Captivity, Yhwh would gather all the 
heathen and would sit in judgment on their mis- 
deeds to Israel. On account of the significance of 
the name "Jehoshaphat" ("Yhwh judges") some 
commentators and translators have thought the des- 
ignation " Valley of Jehoshaphat " to represent only 
an imaginary locality. Thus Theodotion renders 
r^ Xupav TTjc Kpiaeug ("the land of judgment"); 
Targum Jonathan, KJ'T i\bzi IB'^D ("the plain 
of the settlement of judgment"). The name is 
first met with in the fourth century of the com- 
mon era, having been applied by the unknown Pil- 
grim of Bordeaux in 333. It has since continued 
to be so used among Jews, Christians, and Moham- 
medans, who identify it with the valley of Kidron 

of the "kere" (marginal reading of the Masorites: 
■•inX = "Adonay ") with the consonants of the "ke- 

tib " (text-reading : nin' = " Yhwh ") — " Adonay " 
(the Lord) being substituted with one exception 
wherever Yhwh occurs in the Biblical and liturgical 
books. " Adonay " presents the vowels " shewa " 
(the composite -- under the guttural N becomes 
simple — under the >), "holem," and "kamez," and 
these give the reading nirr* (= "Jehovah"). Some- 
times, when the two names riMl'' and '•JTX occur to- 
gether, the former is pointed with "hatef segol" 
(tt) under the "< —thus, niH' ( = " Jehovah")— to indi- 
cate that in this combination it is to be pronounced 
" Elohim " (D'rif'N). These substitutions of " Ado- 




nay" and "Eloliim" for Yhwh were devised to 
avoid tlie profanation of tlie Ineffable Name (lience 
nin' is also written 'n, or even T, and read "ha- 
Shem" = "the Name"). 

The reading "Jehovah " is a comparatively recent 
invention. The earlier Christian commentators re- 
port that the Tetragrammaton was written but not 
pronounced by the Jews (see Theodoret, " Question. 
XV. in Ex." [Field, "Hexapla," i. 90, to Ex. vi. 3]; 
Jerome, "Prtefatio Regnorum," and his letter to 
Marcellus, "Epistola," 136, where he notices that 
" PIPI " [= nini ■= nin''] is presented in Greek man- 
uscripts; Origen, see "Hexapla " to Ps. Ixxi. 18 and 
Isa i. 2; conip. concordance to LXX. by Hatch and 
Redpath, under mill, which occasionally takes the 
place of the usual nvpiog, in Philo's Bible quota- 
tions ; KvpLog = " Adonay " is the regular translation ; 
see also Aquila). 

"Jehovah " is generally held to have been the in- 
vention of Pope Leo X. 's confessor, Peter Galatin 
("De Arcanis Catholicte Veritatis," 1518, folio xliii.), 
who was followed in the use of this hybrid form by 
Fagius (= Biichlein, 1504-49). Drusius (— Van der 
Driesche, 1550-1616) was the first to ascribe to Peter 
Galatin the use of "Jehovah," and this view has 
been taken since his days (comp. Hastings, "Diet. 
Bible," ii. 199, s.v. "God"; Gesenius-Buhl. "Hand- 
worterb." 1899, p. 311 ; see Drusius on the tetragram- 
maton in his "Critici Sacri," i. 2, col. 344). But it 
seems that even before Galatin the name " Jeliovah " 
had been in common use (see Drusius, I.e. notes to 
col. 351) It is found in Raymond Martin's "Pugio 
Fidei." written in 1270(Paris, 1651, iii., pt. ii., ch. 3, 
p. 448; comp. T. Prat in " Dictiounaire de la Bible," 
S.V.). See also Names of God. 

The pronunciation "Jehovah " has been defended 
by Slier ("Ilebr. Lehrgebaude ") and Holemann 
("Bibelstudien," i.). 

The use of the composite " shewa " " hatef segol " ( ~ ) in cases 
where " Elohim " is to be read has led to the opinion that the 
composite "shewa" "hatef patah" (~) ought to have been used 
to indicate the reading " Adonay." It has been argued in reply 
that the disuseof the " patah " is in keeping with the Babylonian 
system, in which the composite " shewa " is not usual. But the 
reason why the " patah " is dropped is plainly the non-guttural 
character of the "yod"; to indicate the reading "Elohim," 
however, the " segol " (and " hirek " under the last syllable, 
i.e., ^V]\ ) had to appear in order that a mistake might not be 

made and "Adonay" be repeated. Other peculiarities of the 
pointing are these: with prefixes ("waw," "bet," "min") the 
voweling is that required by "Adonay": "wa-Adonay," " ba- 
Adonay," "me-Adonay." Again, after "Yhwh" ( = "Adonay") 
the " dagesh lene " is inserted in pddij^, which could not be 
the if "Jehovah" (ending in n) were the pronunciation. 
The accent of the C(jhortative imperatives (noiK' , 7\'oyp ), which 
should, before a word like "Jehovah," be on the first syllable, 
rests on the second when they stand before nin\ which fact is 
proof that the Masorites read "Adonay" (a word beginning 
with "a"). 

BiBi.iOfJRAPHY: Schrader-Schenkel, BihcUe.rikon, iii. 147 et 
scf/.; KiJhler, De I'ronunciatume Tetrnrjrammati.'i, 18(57; 
Driver, Recent Thenr'irx on the . . . Pmntuniation, etc., 
in Stuilia JBihlica, i., Oxford, IHS."); Dalman, Der Gnttesud- 
n\e Aihmn.) und fieine ( 18Hil; T)\\\mi\nn,K(>mmenlnr 
zu E.V()<h(j< 11 nil Leinticufi, p. 39, Leipsic, 1S<.)7; Herzog- 
Hauck, Real-Encuc. viii., s.v. Jahve. 

E. G. II. 

J E H O VA H - J I R E H (nH'" niH"' = " Yiiwii 
seeth"): Name given by Abraham to the place 
wlicre lie sacrificed a ram instead of his son Isaac 
(Gen. xxii. 14). The name may be an allusion either 

to Gen. xxii. 8 or, as is the opinion of the commen- 
tators, to the future importance of the place on 
"which the Temple was to be built by Solomon. 
The Targumim do not regard " Jehovah-jireh" as a 
proper name. 
E. G. H. M. Sei,. 

JEHU (Assyrian, Ja'ua) : 1. Son of Jehoshaphat 
and grandson of Nimshi, founder of the fifth Israel- 
itish dynasty (842-743 B.C.); died 815 B.C., in the 
twenty-eighth year of his reign. A commander of 
troops (II Kings ix. 5-14, 25), with the cooperation 
of the i^rophetic party intent upon making an end 
of Baal-worship and the Phenician atrocities in 
vogue in the Northern Kingdom under Jezebel's in- 
fluence (I Kings xix. 16; II Kings ix. 1; see Eli- 
jah; Elisha), Jehu, profiting by the absence of 
King Jeiioram, who had gone to Jezreel to be healed 
of the wounds which the Syrians had inflicted on 
him at Ramah (II Kings viii. 29), had himself pro- 
claimed king by the soldiers in garrison at Ramoth- 
gilead (ib. ix. 13). Taking precautions that the 
news should not leak out, Jehu hastened to Jezreel, 
where he met Jehorara in company with his vis- 
itor Ahaziah, King of Judah, who had come out to 
greet him. Jehu slew Jehoram with his own hands, 
casting the body into a portion of the field of 
Naboth; while Ahaziah, overtaken in flight, was 
mortally smitten at his command {ib. ix. 21-27). 
Jezebel was by his orders thrown out of the win- 
dow by the eunuchs, and he trod her under foot, 
leaving her body to be "as dung upon the face of 
the field " {ib. ix. 30-37). 

His next care was to exterminate the house of 
Ahab and its adherents {ib. x.). Meeting, on his 
triumphal march to Samaria, Ahaziah 's brethren, 
he caused them to be put to death {ib. x. 13-15); 
and in Samaria he continued his policy of annihila- 
ting Ahab'^ family and party {ib. x. 17). True to 
the intentions of the prophetic partizans, aided by 
Jehonadab, the sou of Rechab, he, pretending to be 
a worshiper of Baal, succeeded in gathering the 
priests, devotees, and prophets of Baal in Baal's 
temple, where he had them put to death by his sol- 
diers, and then destroyed the sanctuary and the 
sacred pillars (//j. x. 18 etseq.). The "golden calves" 
at Dan and Beth-el he did not remove {ib. 29-31). 

One of Jehu's first cares was to cultivate the good 
graces of Shalmaneser II., King of Assyria (see the 
Black Obelisk, second line from top on the four sides; 
Schrader, "K. B." p. 151; III Rawlinson, 5, No. 6, 
40-65; Schrader, "K. A. T." 2d ed., p. 210). It is 
not unlikely that Assyria had a hand in the revolution 
that carried Jehu to the throne ("K. A. T." 3d ed., 
p. 43) : Assyria at least promised to be a protectot 
against Damascus and Hazael. Assyria did not 
keep Damascus in check, liowever, and so Jehu lost 
(after 839) to Hazael the control over the district 
east of the Jordan (II Kings x. 32). 

The war must liave been waged with great 
cruelty. The Damascenes penetrated also into the 
Southern Kingdom and beyond (II Kings xii. 17, 
18). Amos refers to the atrocities then committed, 
while Jehu's a.ssassination of Jezebel and her son is 
mentioned with horror by Hosea (i. 4). Jehu was 
succeeded by bis son Jehoahaz. 


THE jp:wish encyclopedia 


Bibliography : Commentaries to Kings; histories of Israel by 
EwaUi, Stade, Winckler, and Guthe ; Schrader, K. A. T.'M 
ed., pp. 255-258, and the references given In the notes thereto. 

E. G. H. 

2. Son of Hanaui; a prophet. lie deuounced 
Baasha for the idolatry practised by liim, and pre- 
dicted the downfall of his dynasty (I Kings xvi. 1, 
7). He censured also Jehoshaphat, King of Judah, 
for his alliance with Ahab (II Cliron. xix. 2, 3). 
Jehu's father was probably the Hanani who proph- 
esied against Jehoshaphat's father, Asa (II Chron. 
xvi. 7). Jehu must have either lived to a very great 
age or begun his prophetical career very young ; for 
between his two prophecies there is an interval of 
thirty years. Besides, he survived Jehoshaphat, 
and wrote the hitter's life (II Chron. xx. 34). 
Jerome (in the Vulgate) adds a gloss to I Kings xvi. 

itself (verse 46) the writer names himself explicitly 
"Jehudi [see Jer. xxxvi. 14] ben Sheshet." The 
father's name is punctuated n^K', and made to rime 
with words ending in " -shat," hence it should prop- 
erly be pronounced "Sheshat," instead of, as is usu- 
ally done, "Sheshet." The polemic gives no further 
information concerning the person of Jehudi. He 
wrote it during the lifetime of his teacher Dunasii, 
perhaps with his assistance; Hasdai ibn Shaprut, 
however, was no longer living, a fact which may 
explain why Jehudi did not preface his work with 
a eulogy of this great patron of the sciences. 

Jehudi b. Sheshet makes the three pupils of Men- 
ahem the object of relentless Invective, and hia 
coarse ridicule does not spare even their names, es- 
loecially that of Ben Kafron, which he derides be- 

Tkibute ok Jehu to Shalmaneseu 11. 

(From the Black Obelisk.) 

7, representing Jehu as having been killed by 

3. Son of Obed, a descendant of Jarha, an Egyp- 
tian, and of a daughter of Hezron the Judahite, the 
direct male line being Egyptian (I Chron. ii. 38). 

4. A Simeonite prince, son of Josibiah ; lived in 
the reign of Plezekiah (I Chron. iv. 35, 41). 

5. One of David's heroes, an Antothite, who 
while David was still at Ziklag, for his sake forsook 
the cause of Saul (I Chron. xii. 3). 

E. G. H. M. Sel. 

JEHUDA. See Judah. 

JEHUDI B. SHESHET: Hebrew philologist 
of the tenth century ; pupil of Dunash b. Labrat. 
He is known exclusively through the polemic in 
which he defended his teacher against tlie attacks of 
tlie ])ui)ils of Menahcm b. Saruk. The only man- 
uscript which has preserved this very interesting 
polemic (Parma MSS., Codex Stern, No. 6) names 
in its title "the pupils of Dunash " as having framed 
the ansv/er to the pupils of Menahem. At the end 
of the manuscript, however, the answer is called 
" Teshubot shel Talmid Dunash," and in the work 

cause of its signification in Latin (" caper " = 
"goat"). He reproaches Judah b. David Hayyuj, 
the youngest of them, for his Christian descent; in- 
deed, he goes far beyond his teacher and the pupils 
of Menahem in his polemical zeal. 

Jehudi ben Sheshet uses the same meter and the 
same rime as Dunash and his opponents had used. 
His writing consists of a metrical part containing 154 
verses, of which 1-83 form the introduction, and 
of a prose part preceded by a prologue in rimed 
prose. The portion in prose is an elucidation of the 
second half of the metrical part. He answers only 
about tiiirty of the fifty criticisms of i^Ienahcm's 
pupils, and is very emphatic in his eulogy of Dunash, 
preferring him even to Saadia (verse 61). He also 
defends the application of Arabic laws of prosody 
to Hebrew (p. 22), introduced by Dunash. 
Jehudi's polemic has been published, with that of 
Menahem's pupils, by S. G. Stern in "Sefer Teshu- 
bot: Liber Responsionum " (Vienna, 1870). 

Bibliography : Racher, In Winter and Wiinsche, DieJtldisclie 
Littcratur, ii. 156, 101. 
G. W. B. 


Jekuthiel ben Judah 



JEITELES (JEITTELES): Austrian family 
of some importance, which can be traced back to 
the first lialf of the eighteenth century. 

Aaron (Andreas) Ludwig Joseph Jeitteles : 
Physician, poet, and writer; born at Prague Nov. 
24, 1799; died at Graz June 17, 1878; son of Judah 
Jeiteles. Having graduated from the gymnasium 
of his native city at tlie age of fifteen, he studied 
medicine at the universities of Prague and Vienna 
{>I.D. 1825). Three 3'ears later he was converted to 
Catholicism. From 1829 to 1835 he was successively 
prosector and professor in the anatomical depart- 
ment of Vienna University, and from 1835 to 1869 
he held the chair of surgical therapeutics at the 
University of Olmiitz. He contributed several 
scientific dissertations to medical journals and pre- 
pared a new edition of A. M. Mayer's " Beschreibung 
des Ganzen Menschlichen Korpers" (Vienna, 1831). 
In 1848 he took an active part in the revolutionary 
movement, edited the journal " Neue Zeit," and rep- 
resented the Olmutz district in the revolutionary 
parliament at Frankfort -onthe-Main. 

Aaron had entered the field of literature while 
still attending the gymnasium. He wrote a great 
number of poems, some of which were set to music 
by Beethoven and other composers. On the cente- 
nary of his birth his son published his " Gesammelte 
Dichtungen," which form the tenth volume of 
the "Bibliothek der Deutschen Schriftsteller aus 
Bohmen." He pleaded strongly for humanity, jus- 
tice, and freedom (hence his pseudonym "Justus 
Frey "), and in his hymn in honor of Huss and Je- 
rome of Prague he attacked the obscurantism of the 
Roman Church. His former coreligionists found in 
him a warm defender. In the poem " Warnimg " he 
appealed to them to adhere to their ancestral faith, 
and gave expression to the pangs which torment the 
soul of him who without conviction deserts the re- 
ligion of his fathers 

Bibliography: Bemhard Miinz, in Beiblatt zum Gcneral- 
Anzeiger fVir die Gesammten Interessen des Jiidenthiimx, 
Berlin, No. 52, Dec. 21, 1908; Wurzbach, Biographischcs Lex- 
ihon, X. 119 et seq. 
D. S. Man. 

Baruchb. Jonah (Benedict) Jeiteles: Bohemian 
Talmudist and Hebraist ; born in Prague April 22, 
1762; died there Dec. 18, 1813; eldest son of Jonas 
Jeiteles and father of Ignaz Jeiteles. He turned from 
the Orthodoxy then dominant in Prague, and es- 
poused the liberalism championed by Mendelssohn. 
He conducted a yeshibah there and took an active in- 
terest in communal affairs, but his endeavors to 
modify the prejudiced views of his coreligionists in 
Prague subjected him to many persecutions at the 
hands of the more zealous. 

After the battles of Kulm and Dresden, in 
1813, when the numbers of the wounded who 
were brought into Prague increased to such extent 
that the public hospitals could no longer accommo- 
date them all, Jeiteles urged the erection of private 
infirmaries for the unfortunate men, who had been 
neglected for weeks. Unceasingly active, collecting 
funds, visiting the soldiers and relieving them with- 
out regard to tiieir religion or nationality, he con- 
tracted hospital fever, of which he died. 

Jeiteles was tlie author of the following works: 
"'Ammude lia-Shahar" (Prague, 1785), on Talmud- 

ical subjects ; " Dibre Yosef ha-Sheni ha-Aharonim " 
{ib. 1790), translated from the German; " 'Eniek ha- 
Baka " (il>. 1793), a funeral sermon on the death of 
R. Ezekiel Landau ; " Ha-'Oreb" (Vienna, 1795), which 
purports to be by Phinehas Hananiah Argosi de Silva, 
and to have been published in Salonica, but which 
was really the work of Baruch : it deals with a dis- 
pute between him and Landau ; '" Sihah ben Shenat 
X'Dpni D'pn," on the disciples of Shabbethai Zebi 
and of Frank in Prague, which was published anon- 
ymously (Prague, 1800) and is attributed (by Ben- 
jacob, " Ozar ha-Sefarim," p. 574) to his brother 
Judah Jeiteles; " Ta'am ha-Melek " (Brlinn, 1801- 
1803), on the "Sha'ar ha-Melek" of Isaac Nunez 
Belmonte. It was republished with additions by 
R. Joseph Saul Nathansohn, Lemberg, 1859. 

Baruch wrote also Hebrew poems and epigrams 
which appear in his brother's "Bene ha-Ne'urim," 
and he delivered a lecture on vaccination, " Die Kuh- 
pockenimpfung " (Prague, 1804). In 1784, 1790, 
and 1794 he published in " Ha-Meassef " some ex- 
cellent translations of the fables of Lessing and 
Lichtwer; and odes, elegies, and funeral and other 
orations by him in German and Hebrew are scat- 
tered through various periodicals. 

Bibliography: Fiirst, 2?ih/. Ji/d. ii. 51-52 ; Zedner, Cat. Hehr. 
Boi>h)< Brit. Mux. p. 319; Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, pp. 194- 
195, Warsaw, 1886. 

s. s. A. Ki.— P. Wr. 

Ig-naz Jeiteles : Austrian writer on esthetics and 
philosophy ; born at Prague Sept. 13, 1783 ; died at 
Vienna June 19, 1843. The son of Baruch (Benedict) 
Jeiteles and grandson of Jonas Jeiteles, he was care- 
fully educated under their supervision. He studied 
at the Piarists' gymnasium at Prague, and was then 
enrolled in the law school of the univerfeity in that 
city, but devoted himself to classical literature and 
esthetics, being infiuenced by A. G. Meissner, who 
was then lecturing at Prague on these subjects. 
Forced by private circumstances to devote most of 
his time to commercial pursuits, he removed to 
Vienna, where, nevertheless, he soon became known 
by the clear, incisive articles, full of common sense, 
which he wrote for different periodicals of Vienna. 

He especially interested himself in all that per- 
tained to the oppressed condition of the Jews, al- 
though he was not always successful in liis endeav- 
ors. His " Gedankcn an der Wiege eines Jiidischen 
Kindes " still possesses con.siderable value. He con- 
tributed hundreds of essays to the "Annalen fiir 
Oesterreichische Literatur" (1816-20); "Elegante 
Zeitung" (1809-12); " Dresdener Abendzeitung " 
(1817); "Sulamith" (1806-18); " Hormayers Archiv " 
(1812-15) ; " Wiener Zeitschrift fiir Kunst und Liter- 
atur" (1817-20); Lewald's " Europa " ; and the vari- 
ous "Taschenblicher" of that time. Unfortunately 
he could not carry out his plan (1838) of issuing a 
literary supplement to Bauerles' "Theater-Zeitung." 
His death interrupted also his work on a history of 
literature, for which he had been collecting material 
for years. 

Jeiteles published in book form: "DieKuhpock- 
enimpfung," Prague, 1804 (together with his father 
and grandfather); "Biographic des Dr. Jonas Jei- 
teles," «7a 1806; "Analekten, Arabesken, und Ana- 
logien," th. 1807; "Clio, eine Reihe Welthistorischer 
Szenen," Vienna, 1834; and his chief work. "Acs- 




Jekuthiel ben Judah 

Jonas Mischel Jeiteles. 

thetisches Lexicon, cin Alphabetisclies Handbiich 
zur Tlieorie der Philosopliie des Schouou uud der 
Schonen Kunst," 2 vols., Vienna, 1835-38. During 
his last years he undertook a journey to Italy, the 
fruit of which, "Eine Keise nach Koin," was pub- 
lished posthumously by August Lewald (Siegen 
and Wiesbaden, 1844). In 1838 Jeiteles received the 
honorary degree of Ph.D. from the University of 
Jena for his works on esthetics. A. Ki. 

Jonas Mischel Jeiteles : Austrian physician ; 
born at Prague May 5, 1735; died there April 18, 
1806. His early training he received from his father, 

who was an apothecary. 
In 1752 he went to Leip- 
sic to study medicine, 
and in 1753 to Halle, 
where hegraduatedM.D. 
in 1755. Returning to 
his native town, he in 
1756 received a license 
to practise medicine 
among his coreligionists, 
and in 1763 was ap- 
pointed physician of the 
Jewish hospital. In 1784 
he received a license to 
practise medicine and 
surgery without restric- 
tion as to the creed of 
his patients, and suc- 
ceeded in building up a large practise. He was the 
author of " Observata Quaedam Medica," Prague, 
Vienna, and Leipsic, 1783. 

Bibliography : Sulamith, ii. 1, Dessau, 1809. 

F. T. H. 

Judah Jeiteles : Austrian Orientalist ; born at 
Prague March, 1773; died at Vienna June 6, 1838; 
son of Jonas Jeiteles. He devoted himself to the 
study of Oriental languages and literature under the 
direction of his brother Baruch. He was the 
first to compose in Hebrew a grammar of Biblical 
Aramaic, its title being "Mebo Lashon Aramit " 
(Prague, 1813). He edited and wrote commentaries 
on the books of Samuel, Kings, the twelve Minor 
Prophets, Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel 
for Anton Schmid's ue'^v (fourth) edition of the 
Bible Avitli German translation. Jeiteles also pub- 
lished: "Sihah: Gesprach uber die Sekte der Sab- 
bataer" (in Hebrew, Brilnn, 1800); "Psalm zum 
Lobe Gottes," Prague, 1817; and "Sammlung He- 
braischer Gedichte, Fabeln, Sprilche," etc., ib. 1821 ; 
besides contributing many essays to" Ha-Meassef." 

s. A. Ki. 

JEITELES, ALOIS: Austrian physician and 
poet ; born June 20, 1794 (or 1795), at Briinn, IMoravia ; 
died there April 16, 1858. He studied pliilosophy 
at Brunn and Prague, and medicine at Vienna 
(M.D. 1819). Stimulated by his intercourse with 
men like Beethoven, Griilparzer, and the leading 
artists of tlie Vienna Burgtheatcr, he turned to 
poetry, attracting attention even as a student. His 
song-cycle, " An die Feme Geliebte," which appeared 
in "Selam Aglaja," was set to music by Beethoven. 
The parody "Der Schicksalstriumph," written in 
1818 in collaboration with Castelli, made the rounds 

of the German stage. In 1819 he together witli his 
cousin Ignaz Jeiteles founded the weekly "Siona"; 
but it was soon discontinued. In 1821 he settled as 
a pliysician in Briinn. In 1848 he was appointed 
editor of the official "Brlinner Zeitung," an office 
which he held till his death. 

A student of the old Italian and Spanish drama- 
tists, Jeiteles published translations from the latter, 
and also wrote plays that appeared at the Burg- 
theater, Vienna. Among these were: "Fegefeuer 
des Heiligen Palricius'"; "Die Macht des Blutes"; 
"Der Richter aus Zalamea"; "Die Vergeltung"; 
"Auge uud Ohr"; "Der Liebe Wahn und Wahr- 
heit"; " Die Hausgenossen " ; and "Derllirtenknabe 
von Tolosa." Most of his scientific works have ap- 
peared in annuals and other periodicals. His last 
work, "Der Lehrer des Propheten," was printed 
in Wertheimer's "Jahrbuch fiir Israeliten," 5618 
(= 1857-1858), pp. 667 ci scq. 

Bibliography : Wiener Zeituno, 1858, No. 91 ; Low, Ben Cha- 
nniija. 1858. p. 240; Wertheimer, Jalirh. 5619 ( = 1858-59), p. 
336; Judisches Atltenihim (Grimma and Leipsic). 1851. pp. 
Ill et seq.; Wiirzbach, Bing. Lex. x. 117 : Godelfe. Grundriss 
zur Gescli. der Dcutschen DicMunu, vii. 28 et sea., Dresden, 
s. B. Te. 

JEKEL, RABBI. See J.\cob of Vienna. 

and scientist of the eleventh century ; lived in Sara- 
gossa. According to Geiger, he is identical with the 
astronomer Hasan ben Hasan, who lived asdayyan 
in Cordova, where he wrote a work on astronomy, 
and later settled in Saragossa, where he filled a high 
position under the emir. "The government was 
upon his shoulders, and by his word princes ruled," 
sings Solomon ibn Gabirol, who found in Jekuthiel 
a benefactor and true friend, and who continually 
praises his learning, modest}-, and generosity. In 
the revolution under Abdallah ibn Hakam, who con- 
spired against his uncle. King Mundhir of Sara- 
gossa, and beheaded him (1039), Jekuthiel also 
was beheaded (Nisan, 1039), notwithstanding his 
great age ; a year later, however, the murderers met 
their punishment. Jekuthiel's death was lamented 
by the foremost Jewish poets of his age, especially 
by Gabirol in a poem of more than 200 verses. 

Bibliography: Gratz, Gexch. vi. 26; idem, in Monatsschrift, 
vii. 453 et seq.: Geiger. in Z. D. M. G. xii. 514 et seq.; idem. 
Salomn GabirnJ, pp. 38 et seq., 118 et .•<eq.: Dukes, 8/1 ire 
Shelomoh, pp. 29 et seq.; Senior Sachs. Salomn Gahirol, pp. 

J. M. K. 

(YaHBI [^a n^] ; known also as Jekuthiel ha- 
Nakdan and Zalman ha-Nakdan) : Grammarian 
of Prague; lived in tiie second half of the thirteenth 
century. Baer claimed to have seen a manuscript 
which gave 1171 as the date of Jekuthiel's death 
(" Orient. Lit." xii. 6), butaccording to Steinschneider 
("Cat. Bodl." col. 1381) the date refers to Jacob 
Tarn (comp. Gross, "Gallia Judaica," p. 117). Jeku- 
tliiel occupied himself chiefly with the Masorah and 
its punctuation, lience his surname " ha-Is'akdan " 
(the punctuator). AVith the help of si.x ancient 
Spanish manuscripts he prepared a correctly vocal- 
ized and accented text of the Pentateuch and the 
Book of Esther. His rules of punctuation are ex- 
plained in his "'En ha-Kore," in which be quotes 

Jekuthiel ben Lob 



the ancient grammarians Ben Naplitali, Ben Asher, 
Ibn Janah, Ibn Ezra, Jacob Tam, and others. In 
ancient texts of the Pentateuch his work is indi- 
cated by the initials n"y. It is quoted by Abraliam 
de Balmes in his "Mikneh Abraham," by Elijah 
Levita in his "Masoret ha-Berit," and by Solomon 
Hanau in his " Zohar ha-Tebah. " Heideniieim pub- 
lished the preface of the " 'En ha-Kore," and many 
extracts from it, in his editions of the Pentateuch 
("Me'or 'Enayim")and the Seder Purim. It was 
Heidenheim's opinion that Jekuthiel lived before 
David Kimhi. 

Bibliography: Fuenn, Keiieset Yisrael,x>- 669; Furst, BiW. 
Jud. ii. 53; Zunz, Z. G. p. 115. 
T. M. Sel. 

physician and cabalist ; born at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. Even as a young man he en- 
joyed a reputation as an able Talmudist. He went 
to Padua to study medicine, and there made the 
acquaintance of the young Moses Hayyim Luzzatto, 
under whose guidance he took up the study of the 
Cabala. From his letters to Mordecai Jaffe of 
Vienna (to whom he probably had been introduced 
by his father-in law, R. Raphael of Wilna) and to 
Joshua Hoschel, rabbi of AVilua (in 1729; published 
in Emden's "Torat ha-Kena'ot," p. 45, Amsterdam, 
1737), it is evident that he was a tirm believer in the 
teachings of the Cabala, and even in miracles. He 
was careless enough to write to Wilna and Vienna 
that Luzzatto was a great cabalist and a seer of 
visions, an indiscretion which led to Luzzatto's per- 
secution by Moses Hagiz and other fanatical rabbis. 
When Luzzatto was compelled to leave Padua, Jeku- 
thiel remained, and for two years, with a circle of 
companions, continued in secret the study of the 
Cabala. He then returned to Lithuania and made 
many converts to the Cabala. In 1742 he was sent 
from Brest-Litovsk as a delegate to Wilna (?); from 
that time his movements are unknown. He left 
many works in manuscript, of which the following 
came into the possession of Jeshuah ben Hoschel 
Schorr at Brody: "Mar'ehha-Musar " ; "Derushim," 
etc. ; "Mar Kashshisha" ; " Sugyot ha-Talmud," com- 
mentary to the thirteen rules of Rabbi Ishmael and 
other rules of the Talmud. The first three are caba- 
listic works. 

Bibliography: Fuenn, Kiryah Nc'cmanah, pp. 104, 110; 
idem. Kenrset Yisrael, p. 668; Jazkan, Rabbenv Eliuahu 
mi-Wilna. p.:iO; Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 429; Kauf- 
mann, in Ii. E. J. .x.xiii. 256. 

II. u. J. G. L. 

Maestro Bonsenior) : French physician ; lived at 
Narljonne in the second half of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. In 1387 he translated into Hebrew, under the 
title "Shoshanha-Refu'ah," the "Lilium Medicinal " 
of Bernard of Gordon. The translation is extant in 

Bibliography : Renan-Neubauer, if* Ecrivains Juifs Fran- 
mi'.s, p. 386; Steinschneider, Hehr. Uehcrs. p. 785. 
G. I. Br. 


B. Li'lIJ (ioUDON. 

JELIN, ARYEH L6b : Rabbi of Byelsk. 
government of Grodno, Russia; born 1820; died 
April 2, 1886. He was one of the most prominent 
Russian rabbis, to whom halakic matters were fre- 

quently referred for decision. He was the author 
of " Kol Aiyeh" and "Mizpeh Aryeh," novellae 
on various Talmudical treatises. His most impor- 
tant production is the " Yefeh 'Enayini," giving 
the parallel passages found in the Babylonian Tal- 
mud, the Yerushalmi, the Midrashiin, the Pesiktas, 
and other ancient rabbinic productions, occasionally 
with critical remarks which are of the greatest value 
to the rabbinic student. The " Yefeh 'Enayim " 
accompanies the Talmudic text in the new Talmud 
editions of the Ronims of Wilna. Jelin left in man- 
uscript many novellae on the Talmud and a collec- 
tion of responsa. 

Bibliography: Bravermann, Aivilie Shem, p. 95: Ha-Asif, 
iii. 123. 
s. s. L Br. 

JELLINEK : Austrian family whose name has 
been rendered illustrious by the great preacher 
Adolf Jellinek. 

Adolf Jellinek : Austrian rabbi and scholar ; 
born June 26, 1821, at Drslawitz, Moravia; died Dec. 
29, 1893, at Vienna. In 1845 he became preacher 
at the Leipsic-Berliner Synagogue in Leipsic, and 
in 1848 preacher at the Leipsic community syna- 
gogue ; in 1856 he was called as preacher to the 
Leopoldstadter Tempel, Vienna, where he remained 
until the death of Mannheimer, whom he succeeded 
in 1865 in the Seitenstettengasse Tempel. 

Jellinek's intellectual activity covered the three 
fields of religious philosophy, bibliography, and 
oratoiy, and falls naturally into two periods, that 
of Leipsic and that of Vienna. The first may be 
designated as the preeminently scientific period; 
the second, as the preeminently oratorical one. Like 
most self-taught scholars, Jellinek was an omniv- 
orous reader and inves- 
tigated many subjects; 
he had a remarkable 
memory and a brilliant 
intellect. He was greatly 
stimulated to scientific 
studies by the scholarly 
circles of Leipsic. While 
he did not issue a large 
number of independent 
works he edited many 
in his chosen fields, add- 
ing valuable scholarly 
notes or introductions. 
He devoted especial 
attention to the Cab- 
ala, his first work be- 
ing " Die Kabbala von 
Dr. Franck, aus dem 
Franzosischen Ueber- 

setzt," Leipsic, 1844. This was followed by: "Mo- 
ses b. Schem Tob de Leon unci Sein Verhaltniss 
zum Sohar," ib. 1851; " Beitrilge zur Gesch. der 
Kabbala," ib. 1852; " Auswahl Kabbalisti.scher Mys- 
tik," ib. 1853; "Thomas von Aquino in der Jii- 
dischen Literatur," ib. 1853; "'Maarich von M. de 
Lonsano," ib. 1853; "Philosophic uud Kabbala," 
parti., ib. 1854. His works on the philosophy of 
religion include: " System der Moral von R. Bechaje 
b. Josef," ib. 1846; "Mikrokosmos: 'Olaiu Katon von 
R. Josef ibn Zadik," ib. 1854; "R. Salomon Alamis 

Adolf Jellineli. 



Jekuthiel ben Lttb 

Sittenlehre," ih. 1854; "DcrMcnsch von Sabb. Do- 
nolo, " 1854. He published with seholurly introduc- 
tions a collection of small midrashim taken partly 
from manuscripts, i)artly froni printed books, and 
entitled " Beth ha-Midrascli " (six parts, 1853-78). 
Others of his editions are commentaries by Tobiah 
b. Eliezer, ISolomon b. Meir, Simon b. Zemah, Joseph 
Bekor Slior, and Jedidiah Solomon Nurzi. 

Very valuable are his si.x bibliographies (1876-78) 
on the earliest commentators of the Talmud (" Kon- 
tres ha-Mefaresh "), Jewish proper names (" Kontres 
ha-Mazkir"), haggadic hermeneutics ("Kontres ha- 
Maggid "), the 613 precepts ("Kontres Taryag"), 
Maimonides' legal code (" Kontres lia-RaMBaM "), 
and the methodologic-hermeneutic and chronolog- 
ical literature to the Midrash and the Talmud (" Kon- 
tres ha-Keialim "). In this connection must also 
be mentioned Jellinek's index to the German trans- 
lation of De Rossi's " Diziouario " (1839-46). 

While Jellinek's most valuable scientific works 
were produced during his sojourn at Leipsic, his 
oratorical achievements culminated at Vienna. Al- 
though his discourses printed at Leipsic gave indica- 
tion of latent power, he at this time was still under 
the influence of Salomon, the famous preacher of 
Hamburg; but as soon as he went to Vienna he 
manifested his independence. "The air of the large 
city bewitches one," he was wont to say; and he 
certainly w^ould not have reached his commanding 
position if he had not occupied the pulpit at Vienna. 

Jellinek was the greatest, most gifted Jewish 
preacher that modern Judaism has produced. His 
thorough knowledge of the Midrash, and the start- 
ling uses he made of it in his sermons, distinguish him 
especially from all his contemporaries and predeces- 
sors. In his discourses he is the most brilliant apol- 
ogist of Judaism and the most accomplished and 
courageous opponent of all its enemies, both within 
and without the Synagogue. All his addresses are 
timely answers of Judaism to present-day questions 
and problems of intellectual and national life, of re- 
ligion and science. With admirable insight he im- 
mediately recognizes in every midrash the whole 
structure of the original discourse, as he strikingly 
proved in the sermon "Eine Alte Schutzrede fiir die 
Proselyten " ("Zeitstimme," ii. 19). Jellinek printed 
about 200 discourses, singly or in volumes. Three 
parts, containing 68 discourses, were published in 
the years 1862, 1863, and 1866; and the following 
later: "Das Weib in Israel " (Vienna, 1866), two dis- 
courses ; " Das Gesetz Gottes Ausser der Thora " 
(1867), five discourses; "Schema Israel " (1869), five 
discourses; "Zeitstimmen " (1870-71), two parts, 
eighteen discourses ; " Bezelem Elohim " (1871 ). For 
the seventieth birtliday of I. N. Manuheimer he is- 
sued "Nofeth Zufim, R. Jehuda Messer Leons Rhe- 
torik uach Aristoteles. " Jellinek was one of the 
most productive honnletic writers, the modern 
classical i)ar excellence. His " Der Jii- 
dische Stamm " (1869) and " Der Judisciie Stamm in 
Nichtjlidischen Sprlichwortern " (1881-82) are psy- 
chologic and ethnologic studies. 

Bibliography: B. Leiinrlorfer, in AUu.Ztit. dcx JiuK 19(«. 
Ixvii. 581-5H2; Knlnit, BerlUimtf Isrnditische M''i)uicr riml 
Frmicn: I. M. Jost, Adulf Jdlinrk uiui die. Kalilinhi. 
Leipsic, 1852: Morais, Eminent If<raelites of the Xineteextli 
Centum, Philadelphia, 18«0. a j^y. 

Arthur Jellinek : Hungarian deputy ; born 
March 15, 1851. He studied law at the University of 
Vienna (Ph.D. 1875). In 1876 he opened a law 
office at Budapest, and in the following year he was 
elected to the Parliament (Diet). He drafted among 
other bills that on the jurisdiction of the courts in 
electoral matters, also tiie general report on marital 
laws; and he lias contributed many articles on legal 
topics to the periodicals "Themis," "Togtudomanyi 
Kozlony," and " Cgyvedeklapja." His chief works 
are "Katonai Biintetojog ei Katonai Eskii " (1884) 
and " A Magyar Maganjog mai Ervenyeben " (1886). 

Bibliography : Pallas Lex. ix. 

M. W. 

Georg Jellinek: Austrian jurist and author; 
born at Leipsic June 16, 1851 ; son of Adolf Jelli- 
nek; educated at the universities of Heidelberg, 
Leipsic, and Vienna, where he studied law and philos- 
ophy. He entered the Austrian government service 
in 1874, but resigned in 1879 to become privat- 
docent at Vienna University. Appointed professor 
of jurisprudence in 1883, he resigned in 1889. The 
following year he was appointed professor at Basel, 
and since 1891 he has held the chair of international 
law at the University of Heidelberg. He studied 
Orientalia at the University of Prague and later in 

Among his works may be mentioned the follow- 
ing, all, with one exception, published in Vienna: 
" Die Sozial-Ethische Bedeutung von Recht, Un- 
recht und Strafe," 1878; "Die Rechtliche Natur der 
Staatenvertriige," 1880; "Die Lehrevonden Staaten- 
verbindungen, " 1882 ; " Oesterreich-Ungarn und Ru- 
manien in der' Donaufrage," 1884; "Ein Verfas- 
sungsgerichtshof ftir Oesterreich," 1885: "Gesetz 
und Verordnung," Freiburg-in-Baden, 1887; "Sys- 
tem der Subjektiven Oeffentlichen Rechte," 1892. 

Bibliography : Meyers Konversations-Lexikon ; Bmckhaus 

F. T. H. 

Heinrich Jellinek de Haraszt : Born at Buda- 
pest Dec. 21, 1853; son of Moritz Jellinek. After 
having studied the street-railway system of the Con- 
tinent, he entered the offices of the Budapest Tram- 
way Company, and later succeeded his father as its 
president. He introduced electric traction, and ex- 
tended the sj'stem to the environs of Budapest, es- 
tablishing the branches Budapest-Szent-Endre and 
Budapest-IIaraszti. He was ennobled bj' the king 
in recognition of his services. Jellinek is president 
of the Budapest chamber of commerce and of the 
Budapest Sick Fund for Working Men. 

M. W. 

Hermann Jellinek : Austrian writer; brother of 
Adolf Jellinek; born Jan. 12, 1823, at Drslawitz, 
near Ungari.sch-Brod, Moravia; executed Nov. 23, 
1848, at Vienna. At the age of tliirtecn he left home, 
going successively to Presburg, Nikoisburg, and 
Prague. At Prague he studied Kant and Schelling, 
and wrote essays on philcsophj' and tlieology. Heat 
this time intended to qualif}' for the rabbinate, but 
later he became a derided ojiponent of all religion. In 
1842 he went to Leipsic, where he studied Hegel, 
Feuerbach, Bruno Bauer, natural science, political 
economy, and socialistic literature. 




A most determined character, all his writings 
were in the nature of polemics. For this reason he 
was expelled from Leipsic in 1847, and subsequently 
from Berlin. He then returned to Vienna and en- 
gaged in journalism, writing editorials for the "All- 
gemeiue Oesterreichische Zeitung " and "Die Radi- 
calen." During the October revolution he criticized 
the lack of unity in the defense of democracy. On 
the fall of Vienna Jellinek was imprisoned (Nov. 9, 
1848). During his court martial he so bitterly ar- 
raigned his judges that he was threatened with phys- 
ical punishment. Attempts made to induce him to 
disavow his works, in order that he might be liber- 
ated, proved futile. He said, in a letter written the 
night before his death, that his printed ideas could 
not be shot. He was buried in the cemetery of 
Wahring, near Vienna, where his grave is marked 
by the ligures "26," his age. 

Jellinek was the atithor of the following works: 
"Uriel Acosta," Zerbst, 1848; "Das Verhaltniss der 
Lutherischen Kirche zu den Reformatorischen Be- 
strebungen," Leipsic, 1847; "Die Tiiuschungen der 
Aufgeklarten Juden und Ihre Filhigkeit zur Eman- 
cipation," Zerbst, 1847; " Das Denunciationssystem 
des Sachsischen Liberalismus," Leipsic, 1847; "Die 
Gegenwartige Krisis der Hegelschen Philosophic," 
ib. 1847; "Kritik der Religion der Liebe," Zerbst, 
1847; "Kritische Gesch. der AViener Revolution," 
Vienna, 1848; " KritischerSprechsaal fiirdie Haupt- 
fragen der Oesterreichischen Politik," ib. 1848; 
" Kritisch-Philosophische Schriften," 1849. 

Bibliography: Jildhichcs Athenllum, 1851, p. 113; Mci/erg 

L. V. 

Max Hermann Jellinek : Austrian philologist; 
born in Vienna May 29, 1868; son of Adolf Jelli- 
nek. Educated at tiie university of his native city 
(Ph.D. 1889), he became privat-docent there in Ger- 
man philology (1892) and subsequently assistant 
professor (1900). 

Of Jellinek's publications the following may be 
mentioned : " Die Sage von Hero und Leander in der 
Dichtung," Berlin, 1890; " Beitrage zur Erklilrung 
der Germanischen Flexion," ib. 1891 ; " Die Psalmen- 
iibersetzuugdes Paul Schede Melissus," Halle, 1896; 
" Ein Kapitel aus der Gesch. der Deutschen Gram- 
matik," ib. 1898. He edited Philipp von Zesen's 
"Adriatische Rosemund," ib. 1899. S. 

Moritz Jellinek : Hungarian political economist ; 
born at Ungarisch-Brod, Moravia, in 1823; died at 
Budapest June 13, 1883; brother of Adolf Jellinek. 
He studied political economy at the universities of 
Vienna and Leipsic. Influenced by his brother Her- 
mann, he took part in 1848 in the Austrian revolu- 
tion, founding Liberal periodicals at Briinn and 
Krems. He was associated with the revolutionists 
at Vienna. Early in the second half of the nine- 
teenth century iie went to Budapest, where he estab- 
lished a wholesale grain-house. As president of the 
Grain Exchange, he organized the Stock Exchange 
tribunal, wliieii still exists. In 1H64 he founded the 
Budapest Tramway Company, of which he remained 
general director till his death. He was president 
also of the (Jorn Exchange. He contributed to 
"Hon" articles on tiie Magyarizing of commerce, 
and to the annals of tlie Academy of Sciences es.says 

on the price of cereals and on the statistical organi- 
zation of the country. 

Bibliography : Pallas Lex. ix. 


M. W.— L. V 

BEN MORDECAI : Polish rabbi ; born at Yanov 
1806; died at Cracow July 14, 1876. He was a 
pupil of his father and of his brother Johanan, and 
soon distinguished himself as a Talmudist. In 1826 
he went to Cracow, where he engaged in business, 
but was unsuccessful. He accepted the position of 
dayyan or judge of the city of Cracow, and was 
later appointed president of the bet din. 

Jener was an eminent Talmudist and an able day- 
yan, many renowned rabbis relying upon his deci- 

His responsa are contained in " Birkat Abraham " 
(1874) and " Zeluta de- Abraham. " Some of his liom- 
ilies were added to those works (Lemberg, 1866). 

Bibliography : B. FTiedberg, Lxihot Zikkaron, p. 79, Droho- 
bicz, 1897 ; idem, Keter Kehunn'ah, p. 38, ib. 1898. 
s. s. B. Fr. 

JEPHTHAH (nnS"').— Biblical Data: Judge 
of Israel during six years (Judges xii. 7) ; conqueror 
of the Ammonites. According to Judges xi. 1, he 
was a Gileadite, son of Gilead and a harlot. Driven 
from his father's house by his father's legitimate 
sons, he settled in the land of Tob as chief of a band 
of freebooters (Judges xi. 3). On the occasion of 
the war with the Ammonites, Jephthah's aid was 
sought by the elders of Gilead and obtained on the 
condition that they would accept him as their chief; 
and he was accordingly solemnly invested with au- 
thority at Mizpah (Judges xi. 4-11). Before taking 
the field, Jephthah resorted to diplomacy, send- 
ing an embassy to the King of Ammon. This fail- 
ing, Jephthah attacked and completely defeated 
him, taking from him twenty cities (Judges xi. 

The most prominent act in Jephthah's life was his 
vow to sacrifice to Yhwh whatsoever came first out 
of his house to meet him if he should return victori- 
ous. His vow fell upon his only daughter, who 
came out to meet him dancing to the sound of tim- 
brels. Jephthah, having given her a respite of two 
months, consummated liis vow. After this It be- 
came the custom for the daughters of Israel to 
lament four days in every year the death of Jeph- 
thah's daughter (Judges xi. 34-40). After the war a 
quarrel broke out between Jephthah and the Ephra- 
imites, who reproached him for not having called 
them to take part. Having seized the fords of the 
Jordan, Jephthah required every fugitive wiio at- 
tempted to cross to pronounce the word ".shibbo- 
leth." Those who betrayed their Ephraimite origin 
by saying "sibboleth " were put to death; in this 
manner 42,000 Ephraimites fell (Judges xii. 1-6). 

E. G. n. M. Sel. 
In Rabbinical Literature: Jephthah is rep- 
resented by the Rabbis as an insignificant person. 
Tliat vain men gathered about him (Judges xi. 3) 
was an illustration of the proverb that a sterile date- 
palm associates with fruitless trees (B. K. 92b). His 
name being mentioned in connection with Samuel's 
(I Sam. xii. 11) shows that even the most insignifi- 
cant man, when appointed to a position of iinpor- 




tance, must be treated by liis contemporaries as if 
]iis character were equal to his office (K. 11. 35b). 
He is classed with the fools who do not distinguish 
between vows (Eccl. R. iv. 7); he was one of the three 
men (Ta'an. 4a), or according to other autliorities 
one of the four men (Gen. R. Ix. 3), who made im- 
prudent vows, but he was the only one who had 
occasion to deplore his imprudence. According to 
some commentators, among whom were Kimhi and 
Levi b. Gershom, Jephthah only kept his daughter 
in seclusion. But in Targ. Yer. to Judges xi. 
39 and the Midrash it is taken for granted that 
Jephthah immolated his daughter on the altar, which 
is regarded as a criminal act; for he might have 
applied to Pliiuehas to absolve him from his vow. 
But Jephthah was proud : " I, a judge of Israel, will 
not humiliate myself to my inferior." Neither was 
Phinehas, the high priest, willing to goto Jephthah. 
Both were punished: Jephthah died by an unnatu- 
ral decaying of his body ; fragments of flesh fell 
from his bones at intervals, and were buried where 
they fell, so that his body was distributed in many 
places (comp. Judges xii. 7. Hebr.). Phinehas was 
abandoned by the Holy Spirit (Gen. R. I.e.). 

The Rabbis concluded also that Jephthah was an 
ignorant man, else he would have known that a vow 
of that kind is not valid; according to R. Johanan, 
Jephthah had merely to pay a certain sum to the 
sacred treasury of the Temple in order to be freed 
from the vow; according to R. Simeon ben Lakish, 
he was free even without such a payment (Gen. R. 
I.e. ; comp. Lev. R. xxxvii. 3). According to Tan., 
Behukkotai, 7, and Midrash Haggadah to Lev. xxvii. 
2, even when Jephthah made the vow God was irri- 
tated against him; "What will Jephthah do if an 
unclean animal comes out to meet himV" Later, 
when he was on the point of immolating his 
daughter, she inquired, " Is it written in the 
Torah that human beings should be brought as 
burnt offerings?" He replied. "My daughter, my 
vow was, ' whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of 
my house.' " She answered, " But Jacob, too, vowed 
that he would give to Yhwh tlie tenth part of all 
that Yhwh gave him (Gen. xxviii. 22); did he sac- 
rifice any of his sons? " But Jephthah remained in- 
Hexible. His daughter then declared that she would 
go herself to the Sanhedrin to consult them about 
the vow, and for this purpose asked her fatlier for a 
delay of two months (comp. Judges xi. 37). The 
Sanhedrin, however, could not absolve her father 
from the vow, for God made them forget the Law 
in order that Jephthah should be punished for hav- 
ing put to death 42,000 Ephraimites (Judges xii. 6). 

s. s. M. Sel. 

Critical View: The story of Jepiithah (Judges 

X. 17-xii. 7) does not, in the opinion of most critics, 
consist of a uniform account. The following four 
views are held respecting it: 

(1) The nuun narrative is held to be derived from 
a single source into which a long interpolation {ib. 
xi. 12-28) has been introduced. This interpolation 
has really notiiing to do with Jepiithah, but dis- 
cusses Israel's title to the land between the Arnon 
and the Jabbolv. Jephthah is an eponymous hero; 
the narrative is introduced because of tiie story of 
the sacrifice of his daughter; and the whole tale is 

unhistorical. This hypothesis is adopted by Well- 
hausen ("Die Composition des Hcxateuchs," etc., 
1889, pp. 228 et serj.) and Stade ("Gesch. des Volkes 
Israel," 1889, i. 68). 

(2) Another view supposes, like the foregoing, 
that the narrative is derived from one source, with an 
interpolation as above, but regards either the whole 
story or the main thread of the narrative as histor- 
ical. Some of its supporters hold that the myth 
connected witJi the women's festival of Gilead has 
attached itself to this historical portion. This view 
is supported by Kuenen (" Die Historischen Biicher 
des Alten Testaments," 1890, pp. 13, 18 et seq.), 
Budde ("Richterund Samuel," 1890, pp. 125 et .<teq.), 
and Jloore ("Judges," in "International Critical 
Commentary," 1895, pp. 282 et seq.). 

(3) A third view regards the story as composed of 
two narratives from J and E respectively. E pic 
tured Jephthah as residing at Mizpah, from which 
he made war on some foreign people who had done 
him great injury, and as winning a victory at the 
cost of his daughter. J represented him as a free- 
booter on foreign soil, who was commissioned by 
the Gileadites to avenge their wrongs, which he 
did without the help of the west-Jordanic tribes. 
This view, put forth by Holzinger in an unpublished 
manuscript, has been elaborated and defended by 
Budde (" Richter," in " K. H. C." pp. 80 et seq.), and 
is adopted by Nowack ("Richter," in his "Hand- 
Kommentar," 1902). Supporters of this hypothesis 
see evidence of a mixture of sources in Judges xi. 
12-28, and make a stronger argument than do the 
adherents of the second view for the historical char- 
acter of the whole story. 

(4) Cheyne ("Encyc. Bibl." s.».) adopts the two- 
source theory, but supposes that only one of the 
original narratives concerned itself with Jephthah. 
He thinks that the other was a story about Jair. 

Of these views the second is, perhaps, the most 


BiBLiOGKAPHY : In addition to the works cited. W. Franken- 
ber?, Bie Composition des Deuteronomischcn Richter- 
huchp.'i. 1895. 
E. G. n. G. A. B. 

JERAHMEEL (^xom"').— Biblical Data : 
David, while he was a refugee at the court of 
Achish, King of Gath, is said to have made a raid 
against the "south of the Jerahmeehtes" (I Sam. 
xxvii. 10) and after his raid to have sent a part of 
the spoil to the "cities of the Jerahmeelites " {ib. 
XXX. 29). In I Chronicles (ii. 9) Jerahmeel appears 
as a great-grandson of Judah {i.e., he was the son of 
Hezron, the son of Pliarez, the son of Judah) ; and 
Caleb is said to have been a brother of Jerahmeel 
{ib. verse 42). 

Critical View: From the foregoing references 

the natural inference is that the Jerahmeelites were 
a Judean clan, to the south of whose habitat a part 
of the Negeb extended. But Professor Cheyne has 
put forth concerning the Jerahmeelites a most sur- 
prising theory. In his view they were a powerful 
north-Arabian tribe, with which the Hebrews came 
into conflict on their first approacii to the land. A 
part of the Jerahmeelites was absorbed by the He- 
brews, but there were many contests between the 
Israelites and the main body of the Jerahmeelites 
all through the period of the Kings. Even among 




the post-exilic opponents of Nebemiah, the Jerah- 
meelites appear again. Cheyne believes that echoes 
of these conflicts once reverberated throughout the 
Old Testament, but that, owing to the corruption 
of the Masoretic text, they must now be reawa- 
kened by conjectural emendation of the text. 

Carrying out this idea, Cheyne finds the chief ele- 
ments of Israel's origin, religion, and history in 
Jerahmeel. Babylonia and Assyria sink into insig- 
nificance beside Jerahmeel in so far as influence on 
the Old Testament is concerned. " Amalekites " is a 
corruption of " Jerahmeelites " ; " Beer-lahai-roi " 
(Gen. xvi. 14) is a corruption of "Well of Jerah- 
meel "; "Ephraim " is often a corruption of "Jerah- 
meel." The epithet of Jericho, " city of palm-trees," 
is a corruption of " city of Jerahmeel " ; the names 
of Saul, of Kish, his father, and of most of the sons 
of Saul are held to be corruptions of "Jerahmeel "; 
and Isaiah's " Maher-shalal-hash-baz " is held to be a 
corruptionof" Jerahmeel will be deserted." "Jerah- 
meel " has been displaced by "Babylon " in Isa. xiii. 
and xiv. ; and Ezekiel's three wise men Avere 
"Enoch, Jerahmeel, and Arab." This list might be 
continued indefinitely. 

The ingenuity of Cheyne 's method may be ad- 
mitted ; but the thesis must be rejected as altogether 
arbitrary. That it has received serious attention is 
owing solely to the great service rendered by its 
sponsor in other departments of Old Testament re- 

Bibliography : Cheyne and Black, E/icj/c. Bllil. passim, 
especially the articles Jerahmeel, Ncgeh (§ 2), Saul, and 
Soryo)!(§20); Cheyne, Critica Biblica, 1903, passim: Peake's 
review of Encyc. Bihl. vol. iii., in Hihhcvt JimrnaJ, No. 1, 
and Herford's review (vol. iv.) of the same work, ib. No. 6. 

E. G. H. G. A. B. 

JEREMIAH.— Biblical Data : Son of Hil- 
kiah ; i:)rophet iu the days of Josiah and his sons. 

§ I. Life : In the case of no other Israelitish 
prophet is information so full as in that of Jeremiah. 
The historical portions of the Book of Jeremiah 
give detailed accounts of his external life evidently 
derived from an eye-witness — probably his pupil 
Baruch. Jeremiah's prophecies give an insight into 
his inner life, and by reason of their subjective qual- 
ity explain his character and inward struggles. Of 
a gentle nature, he longed for the peace and happi- 
ness of liis people, instead of which he was obliged 
to proclaim its destruction and also to witness that 
calamity. He longed for peace and rest for him- 
self, but was obliged instead to announce to his peo- 
ple the coming of terrors, a task that could not but 
burden his heart with sorrow. He had also to fight 
against the refractor}' ones among them and against 
their councilors, false propliets, priests, and princes. 

Jeremiah was born in the year 650 B.C. at Ana- 
thoth, a small town situated three miles north of Jeru- 
saleiii, in the territory of Benjamin. He belonged to 
a priestly family, probablj- the same one as cared for 
the Ark of tlie Covenant after the re- 
His Family, turn from Egypt, and theone to wliicli 
the high jjriest Eli had belonged, l)ut 
which had retreated to Anathotli when Abiathar, 
David's priest, was banished by Solomon (I Kings 
ii. 26). The family owned property in this ])lace, so 
that Jeremiah was able to give himself up wholly to 

his prophetic calling. Devoted as he was exclu- 
sively to his high vocation, and realizing that it en- 
tailed vexation and involved the proclaiming of dis- 
aster, he did not marry (Jer. xvi. 2 et seq.). In the 
thirteenth year of King Josiah (626 B.C.) while still a 
3'oung man Jeremiah was called to be a prophet. 
It was just at this time that the plundering Scythian 
hordes, which troubled Nearer Asia for decades in the 
second half of the seventh century, swept past the 
western boundary of Palestine on their swift horses, 
to capture rich booty in the ancient civilized land of 
Egypt (Herodotus, i. 164). Since he continued to 
prophesy until after the conquest and destruction of 
Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar (586 B.C.), Jeremiah's 
prophetic career covered a period of more than forty 
years. All the important events of this period are 
reflected in his prophecies : the publication of the 
Deuteronomic law (621 B.C.) and the religious re- 
forms instituted by Jo.siah in consequence; the first 
deportation to Babylon, that of Jehoiachin, or Jeco- 
niah (597); and the final catastrophe of the Jewish 
kingdom (586). Strange to say, of all these events 
the publication of the Deuteronomic law and the 
religious reforms of Josiah are the least prominently 
brought out in his writings. 

It is not improbable that the opposition in which 

Jeremiah seems to have stood to the priesthood of 

the central sanctuary at Jerusalem 

Attitude was a continuation of the oppositioi 

Toward which had existed from former times 
Jerusalem between that priesthood and his fam- 
Priesthood. il}' and which is traceable to Zadok, 
the successful opponent of x\biathar. 
Jeremiah's attitude may also have been influenced 
by the fact that he considered Josiah 's measures too 
superficial for the moral reformation which he de- 
clared to be necessary if the same fate were not to 
))efall the Temple of Zion as had in days gone by 
befallen the Temple of Shiloh (I Sam. iv.). An in- 
ward opposition of Jeremiah to the Deuteronomic 
law is not to be thought of. This maj^ be seen from 
the exhortation {ib. xi. 1-8) in which Jeremiah calls 
on his people to hear " the words of this covenant " 
{ib. V. 3) which God had given to their fathers when 
He brought them up out of Egypt. In this passage 
there is a plain reference to the newly found law. 

Just as little justifiable is the theory, wliicli lias 
recently been suggested, that Jeremiali in his later 
years departed from the Deuteronomic law. " The 
false [l3ing] pen of the scribe," which, as Jeremiah 
says. " makes the Torah of Yiiwn to falsehood " 
(Jer. viii. 8, Hebr.), could not have referred to 
the Deuteronomic law, nor to its falsification b}' 
copyists. Bather, Jeremiah is thinking here of an- 
other compilation of laws which was then in prog- 
ress imder the direction of his opponents, the priests 
of tlie central sanctuary at Jerusalem. Jeremiah 
probably ex]iected from them no other conception 
of law than the narrow Levitical one, which actually 
is apparent in the legal portions of the so-called 
Priestly writings and results from the Priestly point 
of view. 

§ II. Prophetic Career : (a) Dvuing the Time of 
King Josiah: No furtlier details of Jeremiah's life 
during the reign of Josiah are known. This is 
probably due to the fact, as has recentl}' been sug- 




gested, that Jeiemiali continued to live in liis home 
at Anathoth during the opening years of liis pro- 
phetic career. This tlieory is supported by tlie 
description of the prevailing religious rites which he 
gives in his tirst prophecies (Jer. iv. 4) and which 
applies better to the rough, simple, local cults than to 
the elaborate ritual of Yhwii in the central sanctu- 
ar}'. " On every hill and under every green tree " 
{ib. ii. 20) they honor the "strangers " {ib. v. 25), 
i.e., the Baalim (ib. ii. 23), who, introduced from 
abroad, had taken their place among the local deities. 
Israel had " acted wantonly " with them from the 
time when he first settled in the land of Canaan and 
had even burned his own children for them " in the 
valley " (ib. vii. 31). 

The oldest discourses concerning the Scythians {ib. 
iv. 5-31) seem also to have first been written in Ana- 
thoth. In them Jeremiah describes the irresistible 
advance of the people "from the north" which will 
bring terrible destruction upon the land of Israel on 
account of its apostasy. Another proof in favor 
of the theory that Jeremiah continued to live in 
Anathoth at the outset of his career is that the 
prophecies before ch. v. do not concern themselves 
"with the doings of the capital, and that only 
with his supposed change of residence to Jerusalem 
"begins the account of the external details of his life 
"by his pupil, who was probably originally from 
Jerusalem and wiio first became associated with the 
prophet there. In the capital the simple local cults 
dwindled into comparative insignificance before the 
central sanctuary, but on the other hand immorality, 

frivolity, and deceit made themselves 

S.esidence prominent, together with a disregard 

in of the words of the prophet spoken by 

Jerusalem, him to the people by Yhwh's order. 

Even the prophets took part in the 
general moral debasement ; indeed they were worse 
than those who erstwhile had "prophesied in the 
name of Baal" {ib. ii. 8), i.e., the prophets of the 
Northern Kingdom. The people, moreover, which 
Jeremiah was to test for its inner worth, as an as- 
sayer {ib. vi. 27) tests the purity of metal, had lost all 
its preciousness and was only a generation of wrath, 
(b) During the Time of King Jehoiakim : Jeremiah's 
removal from iVnathoth to Jerusalem seems to have 
taken place a little before the time of Jehoiakim 's 
accession ; at least he appears as a resident in Jeru- 
salem under that king. Just as his sternness and his 
threat of impending punishments had already dis- 
pleased his fellow citizens in Anathoth to such an 
extent that they sought his life {ib. xi. 19), so also 
in Jerusalem general anger was soon aroused 
against him. The first occasion therefor was an event 
in the reign of Jehoiakim. Jeremiah preached a 
sermon in the valley Ben-hinnom against idolatry. 
and in order to bring the utter and complete ruin of 
the kingdom of Judah more clearly before the minds 
of his hearers he broke an earthen pitcher. When 
immediately afterward he repeated the same sermon 
in the Temple court, he was put in prison by 
Pashur, the priest in charge, being liberated, how- 
ever, on the next day. The following section 
{ib. XX vi.) gives more details. When the people at 
the beginning of Jehoiakim's reign, in spite of the 
terrible loss they had sustained by the death of 
VII.— 7 

Josiah in the unfortimate battle of Megiddo and the 
resultant establislnnent of the Egyptian domina- 
tion, still took comfort in the thought of the Tem- 
ple and of the protection which the sanctuary was 
believed to afford, Jeremiah stood in 
Imprison- the Temple court and called on the 
ment and people to improve morally ; otherwise 
Release, the Temple of Jerusalem would share 
the fate of that of Shiloh. In terrible 
excitement the priests and prophets cried out that 
Jeremiah was worthy of death, lie, however, was 
acquitted by the priests and elders, who seem to 
have had great respect for the word of a prophet, 
especially in view of the fact that some of the most 
prominent persons rose up and called to mind the 
prophet Micah, who had prophesied the same fate for 
the Temple and for Jerusalem. 

The following incidents in Jeremiah's life are most 
closely connected with public events as he was more 
and more drawn into political life by them. In the 
fourth year of Jehoiakim, the same in which the 
Babylonians conquered the Egyptians in the battle 
of Carchemish and thus became the ruling power in 
the whole of Nearer Asia for almost seventy years, 
Jeremiah dictated to Baruch the speeches he had 
composed from the beginning of his career till 
then, and caused his pupil to read them before the 
people in the Temple, on a feast-day in the fifth year 
of Jehoiakim. Upon hearing of this event the 
highest officers of the court caused Baruch to read 
the roll once more to them; and afterward, in their 
dismay at its contents, they informed the king of it. 
Jehoiakim next caused the roll to be 
Reading of brought and read to him, but scarcely 
the Roll, had the reader Jehudi read three or 
four leaves when the king had the 
roll cut in pieces and thrown into the brazier by 
which he was warming himself. Jeremiah, how- 
ever, who on the advice of the officials had hidden 
himself, dictated anew the contents of the burnt 
roll to Baruch, adding "many like words" {ib. 
xxxvi. 32). It was his secretary likewise who (later) 
wrote into the roll all the new prophecies which 
were delivered up to the time of the destruction of 

(c) Daring the Time of ZedeMah : In the original 
roll which was burned by Jehoiakim, and which 
probably included practicall}^ the prophecies con- 
tained in ch. ii.-xii., Jeremiah had not made any 
positive demands concerning the political attitude 
of the kingdom of Judah. He had merely, in ac- 
cordance with the principle laid down 
Political by Ilosea and Isaiah, declared that 
Attitude. Judah should not take any political 
stand of her own, and should follow 
neither after Assyria nor after Egypt, but should 
Avait and do what Ynwii commanded {ib. ii. 18, 36). 
But in the course of events he felt impelled to take 
active part in political affairs. This was during 
the time of Zedekiah, who had been placed on the 
throne by Nebuchadnezzar after the deportation of 
Jehoiachin (2:6. xxvii., xxviii.). When, in the fourth 
year of Zedekiah, ambassadors from the surround- 
ing nations came to deliberate with the King of 
Judah concerning a common uprising against the 
Babylonian king, a prophet by the name of Hananiah 




proclaimed in tlie Temple the speedy return of Jehoi- 
achin and his fellow exiles as well as the bringing 
back of the Temple vessels which had been carried 
off by Nebuchadnezzar, supporting his prophecy 
by the announcement that the "word of Yiiwu " 
was to the effect that he would " break the yoke of 
the king of Babylon " {ib. xxviii. 4). Jeremiah then 
appeared in the market-place with a j'oke of wood 
and counseled the ambassadors, King Zedekiah. and 

his people to submit voluntarily to the 

Advises Babylonian power. When Jeremiah 

Acceptance appeared also at the Temple, Hana- 

of Yoke, niah tore the yoke from his shoulders 

and repeated his prophecy of good t\- 
dings(z5. V. \Qetseq.). Jeremiah likewise advised tlie 
exiles in Babylon to settle there quietly (//;. xxix.), 
whicli caused one of them to write to the higli priest in 

to surrender before the beginning of hostilities, 
in order toward off the worst. Zedekiah, however,, 
did not dare follow this advice, and thus the catas- 
trophe came to pass, not without Jeremiah having 
in the meantime to endure many hardshijis owing 
to the siege. Since he undoubtedly prophesied the 
overthrow of Jerusalem by the Babylonians, and 
Avarned against resisting them as well as against 
trusting in the Egyptians for help, he was regarded 
as a traitor to his country ; and for that 
Second reason and because his openly ex- 
Imprison- pressed conviction robbed the besieged 
ment. of their courage, he was placed in con- 
finement. He was treated as a deserter 
aLso because he desired to go to his native city on a 
personal matter at a time when the Babylonians 
had temporarily raised the siege to march against 

Grotto of Jeremiah, North of Jerusalem. 

(From a photograph by Bonfils.) 

Jerusalem directing him to fulfil his duty, to watch 
over every mad man in tlie Temple and over every 
one that "maketh himself a prophet" aiul, conse- 
quently, to put Jeremiah " in prison and in the 
stocks" {ib. xxix. 26). 

But destiny was soon fulfilled, and with it came 
new trials for Jeremiah. Zedekiah had been obliged 
to succumb to the insistence of the war party and 
to rebel against Nebuchadnezzar. The Babj'lonians 
then marched against Judah to punish Zedekiah and 
quell the rebellion. When Jeremiah's prophecy was 
near its fulfilment, the king sent often for him to 
consult with him and to ascertain how it would go 
with the people and with him.self and what he should 
do to save himself. Jeremiah told him jjlainly that 
the Babylonians would conquer and advised him 

Ilophra, the Egyptian king (the " Apries " of Herodo- 
tus), who was advancing against them. Jeremiah 
was arrested and thrown into a dungeon, whence he 
was released by the king. He was then confined in 
the court of the guard in the royal castle, as his 
discouraging inttuence on the soldiers was feared. 
Although he was allowed a certain freedom there, 
since he continued to make no secret of his con- 
viction as to the final downfall of .ludah, the king's 
olUceis threw him into an empty cistern. From this 
also lie was rescued by a eimuch with the king's, 
permission, being saved at the same time from death 
by starvation {ib. xxxvii., xxxviii.). He then re- 
mained in the lighter captivity of the court prison 
until he was liberated at the capture of Jerusalem 
by the Babylonians. 




(d) During the Time After the Fall of Jerusalem : 

Tlie Babyloniaus luiuded Jeiemiuh over to the care 
and protection of the governor Gedaliah, witli 
whom he lived at Mizpah. After tlic murder of 
the governor, Jeremiah seems to liave been car- 
ried off by Ishmael, the murderer of Gedaliah, 
and to have been rescued by Johanan and Ins com- 
panions. This may be concluded from tlie fact 
that the prophet, with Baruch, was among 
the non-deported Jews who thought of going 
to Egypt through fear of the Babyloniaus. 
During a stay near Beth-lehem he was asked for 
God's will on the matter. When, after ten days, he 
received the answer that they should remain in the 
country, his warning voice was not heard, the cry 
being raised against him that Baruch had incited 
him to give this counsel. Accordingly the Jews 
dragged the prophet Avith them, as a hostage 
(Dulim [" Theologie der Propheten," p. 235] : "as an 
amulet ") to Tahapauhes {i.e.. Daphne, 
Taken to on the eastern branch of the Nile). 

Egypt. Here Jeremiah continued to prophesy 
the destruction by the Babylonians 
of his fellow refugees as also of the Pharaohs 
and of the temples of Egypt {ib. xxxvii.-xliv.). 
Here also he must have experienced tlie anger of 
the women refugees, who could not be prevented 
by him from baking cakes and pouring out Avine 
to the " queen of heaven " {ib. xliv. 15 et seq.). 

Jeremiah probably died in Eg}'pt. Whether his 
countrymen killed him, as tradiiion says, can, on ac- 
count of the lack of historical data, be neither 
affirmed nor denied. But his assassination does not 
seem wholly impossible in view of the angry scene 
just mentioned. At any rate, liis lijfe, even as it had 
been a continual struggle, ended in suffering. And it 
was not the least of the tragic events in liis life that 
his chief opponents belonged to the same two classes 
of which he himself was a member. The priests 
fought him because he declared sacrifice to be of little 
importance, and the prophets because he declared 
that it was self interest whicli prompted them to 
projiiu'sy good for the people. 

§ III. Character : (a) Character of Personality : 
The tragic element in Jeremiah's life has already 
been mentioned. It was heightened by the subjec- 
tive trait which is peculiar to Jere- 

Strong- miali more than to other prophets. 
Per- even the older ones. This personal 

sonality. suffering over the hard fate which he 
is obliged to proclaim to his people as 
God's changeless Avill is so strong that he even 
makes the attempt in earnest intercession to 
move God to a milder attitude toward the guilty. 
*• Remember that I stood before thee to speak good for 
them and to turn away thy wrath from them " {ib. 
xviii. 20). He would undoubtedly like to keep si- 
lence and yet must speak: "I said, I will not make 
mention of lum, nor speak any more in his name. 
But his word was in mine heart as a burning tire shut 
up in my bones, and I was weary with forbearing, 
and I could not stay" — i.e., "I struggled to keep it 
within me and I could not " {ib. xx. 9). Yiiwir even 
has to forbid his intercession for the sinners {ib. vii. 
16, xi. 14, xiv. 11), and to forbid the people to seek 
his intercession {ib. xlii. 2, 4). Jeremiah's sympathy 

for his countrymen who have been punished by God 
is so great that at one time the prophetical declara- 
tion to tiie people is changed into tlie people's peti- 
tion: "O Lord, correct me, but with judgment; not 
in thine anger, lest thou bring me to nothing" {ib. 
X. 24). In moving terms he describes the pain which 
he feels witliiu him, in his " very lieart," when he 
hears tlie sound of war and must announce it to the 
people {ib. iv. 19, viii. 18-22); and indespair over his 
sad life he curses the day of his birth (^7». xx. 14-18). 

With this intense sensitiveness on the part of the 
prophet, it should not cause surprise that, on the 
other hand, his anger l)reaks forth against his perse- 
cutors and he desires a day of destruction to come 
upon them {ib. xvii. 18). 

(b) Character of His Writing : It is doubtless due 

to this despondent and often despairing frame of 

mind that his words frequently make a dull and 

lifeless impression wliich is not reme- 

Des- died by a heaping up of synony- 

pondent mous terms; and this is all the more 
Tone. noticeable because the rhythm of the 
speeches is veiy feeble and frequently 
almost disappears. Although this may have been 
due in part to the fact that Jeremiah did not write 
his book liimself, it is still undeniable that there is 
a monotony in the contents of his speeches. This 
may be traced to the conditions of his age. The 
prophet is always complaining of the sins of the 
people, particularly of their idolatry, or else desci'l- 
bing the catastrophe which is tf) burst upon them 
through the hordes from the north. Seldom is there 
a brighter outlook into a better future. The hope 
which he had at the beginning, that the people would 
recognize the evils of idolatry and would turn again 
to God with inward repentance {ib. ii.-iv. 4), entirely 
disappears later in face of the utter perverseness of 
the people; as does the other hope that Ephraim, 
the lost favorite of Yinvii, that child of Rachel who 
had been lost sight of for 100 years, 

Relieved would return from "out of the des- 

by Con- ert." But when Jeremiah speaks from 

solation. the depths of his soul the monotony 

of the content is relieved by the charm 

of the language in which he. as no other prophet, 

is able to relate God's words of love to his faithless 

wife Judah. 

From his choice of words it may be concluded 
that Jeremiah, like Isaiah, was an educated man. 
The pictures whicli he paints of outdoor life show a 
deep, delicate appreciation of nature. The voices 
of the desert sound in his poems; he speaks of the 
swift-footed dromedary running to and fro, of the 
cattle grown wild on the plains, of the thirsty wild 
ass gasping for breath witli dim eyes, and of tlie 
bird of prey which the fowler has tied to a stake in 
order to attract his victim. Even in the description 
of chaos {lb. iv. 25) "Jeremiah does not forget the 
birds" (Duhm, in the introduction to his translation 
of .leremiah, p. xxii.). His is, indeed, rather a lyr- 
ical nature, since even without a picture he tarries 
sometimes in an appreciative contemplation of 
nature, wliich corresponds to his sensitive compre- 
hension of the human heart. God's greatness is 
manifested to him in the sand on the shore, which is 
placed as an eternal boundary for the sea: "and 




though the waves thereof toss themselves, yet can 
they not prevail ; thougli they roar, yet can they not 
pass over it " (tb. v. 22). He observes the lengthening 
shadows as the day is sinking {ib. vi. 4), or the dry 
wind of the high places which comes in from the 
wilderness and is too strong to serve either for fan- 
ning or for cleansing (ib. iv. 11). Now and then 
with a special touch he raises his pictures of 
human life above the vagueness which on account 
of the suppression of details is common to the Old 
Testament illustrations and examples. He furnishes 
the "smelter" (C)"I1V). who has been 
His a stereotyped example since the oldest 

Similes, prophets, with bellows (ib. vi. 29); as 
symbols of the joyful existence which 
his prophecies foretelling punishment will drive 
away, he mentions, besides the voices of the bride- 
groom and of tiie bride, the sound of the millstones 
and the light of the candle (ib. xxv. 10; comp. ib. 
vii. 34, xvi. 9). He also observes how the shepherd 
counts the sheep of his flock (ib. xxxiii. 13). 

The symbolic acts of which he makes frequent 
use, whether he actually carries them out, as in 
breaking the earthen pitcher, in putting on the cords, 
and in placing the yoke on his neck, or merely im- 
agines them, as in the allegories in Jer. xiii. 1 et seq., 
are simple and easily intelligible (Baudissin, "Einlei- 
tung," pp. 420 et seq.). 

(c) Character of His Eelig^ous Views : In conform- 
ity with the subjectivity of his nature, Jeremiah 
raised the conception of the bond between God and 
His people far above the conception of a ph3^sical 
relation, and transferred piety from mere objective 
ceremonies into the human heart (comp. ib. iv. 4, 
xvii. 9, xxix. 13, and, if Jeremianic, also xxxi. 31 
et seq.). Through this conception of man's relation 
to the divinity, the idea of the divine universality, if 
not created by him, was yet (if Amos ix. 2-4, Setseq. 
be excluded) very clearly demonstrated. Although 
a large part of the passages in which the universality 
of God is most clearly expressed (Jer. xxvii. 5, 11 : 
xxxii. 19; xlix. 11) are doubtful as regards their 
authorship, there are nevertheless undoubted pas- 
sages (ib. xii. 14 etseq., and xviii. 7 et seq.) in which 
Jeremiah, although from the stand- 
XTniversal- point that Yhwh is the special God of 
ity of the Israel, expresses his conviction that 
Godliead. He can reject nations other than Israel 
and afterward take them again into His 
favor. If in these passages the particularistic con- 
ception of God is not completely abandoned, never- 
theless His universality is the direct consequence 
of the portrayal, which was first given by Jere- 
miah, of His omnipresence and omnipotence, filling 
heaven and earth {ib. xxiii. 23; comp. ii. 16). Thus 
Jeremiah, starting out from his conception of God, 
can characterize the gods of the heathen as "no 
gods," and can express his conviction that "among 
the idols of the heathen there is not one which can 
cause rain," whereas Yhwh has made all (ib. xiv. 
22; comp. xvi. I'd etseq.). But in spite of this tendenc}' 
toward auniversaiistic conception of God, which later 
became a firm article of belief, the barriers of the na- 
tional religion had not yet fallen in Jeremiah's mind. 
This is shown most clearly by the fact that even he 
conceives of a final restoration of the tribe of Israel. 

Bibliography: C. W. E. Nagelsbach, Der Prophet Jeremia 
und Babylon, Erlangen, 1850; C. H. Cornill, Jeremia und 
Seine Zeit, 1880; T. K. Cheyne, Jeremiah : His Life and 
Times, 1888 ; Lazarus. Der Prophet Jeremia ; K. Marti, Der 
Prophet Jeremia von Anatot, 1889; W. Erbt, Jeremia 
und Seine Zeit, 1902; Bemhard Dnhm. Das Buch Jeremia, 
L'ebersefzf, 1903 (comp. Introduction, pp. v.-xxxiv.); bibli- 
ography under Jere.miah, Book of. 

E. G. II. V. Ry. 

In Rabbinical Literature : Jeremiah, a de- 
scendant of Itahab by her marriage with Joshua 
(Sifre, Num. 78; Meg. 14b, below), was born during 
the persecution of the prophets under Jezebel (Gen. 
R. Ixiv. 6; Rashi on Jer. xx. 14 reads, probably 
correctly, " Manasseh " instead of "Jezebel"). The 
lofty mission for which Jeremiah was destined 
was evident even at his birth ; for he not only came 
into the world circumcised (Ab. R. N. ii. [ed. 
Schechter, p. 12] ; Midr. Teh. ix. [ed. Ruber, p. 84]), 
but as soon as he beheld the light of day he broke 
out into loud cries, exclaiming with the voice of a 
youth: "My bowels, my bowels! lam pained at 
my very heart ; my heart maketh a noise in me," etc. 
(Jer. iv. 20). He continued by accusing his mother 
of unfaithfulness; and as the latter was greatly 
astonished to hear this unbecoming speech of her 
new-born infant, he said: "I do not mean you, my 
mother. My prophecy does not refer to you ; I am 
speaking of Zion and Jerusalem. They deck out 
their daughters, and clothe them in purple, and put 
golden ci'owns on their heads ; but the robbers shall 
come and take these things away." 

Jeremiah refused God's call to the prophethood, 
and referred to Moses, Aaron, Elijah, and Elisha, all 
of whom, on account of their calling, were subjected 
to sorrows and to the mockery of the Jews; and he 
excused his refusal with the plea that he was still 
too young. God, however, replied: "I love youth 
because it is innocent; it was for this reason that 
when I led Israel out of Egypt I called him ' my 
son' [comp. Hosea xi. 1], and when I think lovingly 
of Israel, I speak of it as of a boy [Jer. ii. 2] ; hence 
do not say ' I am a boy. ' " Then God handed to 
Jeremiah the "cup of wrath," from which he was 
to let the nations drink ; and when Jeremiah asked 
which nation should drink first, the answer was 
"Israel." Then Jeremiah began to lament his fate, 
comparing himself with the high priest who was 
about to perform in the Temple the ceremonies pre- 
scribed in the case of a woman suspected of adultery 
(Num. V. 12 et seq.), and who, when he approached 
her with the "cup of the bitter water," beheld 
his own mother (Pesik. R. 26 [ed. Friedniann, p. 
129a, b]). 

The prophetic activity of Jeremiah began in the 

reign of Josiah ; he was a contemporary of his 

relative the prophetess Hulda and of 

His his teacher Zephaniah (comp. Maimon- 

Prophetic ides in the introduction to " Yad " ; in 

Activity. Lam. R. i. 18 Isaiah is mentioned 
as Jeremiah's teacher). These three 
prophets divided their activity in such wise tiiat 
Hulda spoke to the women and Jeremiah to the men 
in the street, while Zephaniah preached in the syna- 
gogue (Pesik. R. I.e.). When Josiah restored the 
true worship, Jeremiah went to the exiled ten tribes, 
whom he brought to Palestine under the rule of the 
pious king ('Ar. 33a). Although Josiah went to 




war witli Egypt against tlie prophet's advice, j'et 
the latter kuevv that the pious king did so only in 
error (Lam. R. I.e.); and in his dirges he bitterly 
laments the king's death, the fourth chapter of the 
Lamentations beginning with a dirge on Josiah 
(Lam. R. iv. 1 ; Targ. II Chron. xxxv. 25). 

Under Jehoiakim the propiiet's life was a hard 
one; not only did the wicked king burn the early 
chapters of Lamentations, but the prophet was 
even in danger of his life (M. K. 26a; Lam. R., In- 
troduction, p. 28). He fared still worse, however, 
under Zedekiah, when he had to withstand many at- 
tacks both upon his teachings and upon his life. On 
account of his descent from the proselyte Rahab he 
was scorned by his contemporaries as one who had 
no right to reproach the Jews for their sins (Pesik., 
ed. Buber, xiii. 115b), and they furthermore accused 
him of unchastity (B. K. 16b). The hatred of the 
priests and of the war party against Jeremiah 
brought about his imprisonment on a false accusa- 
tion by one of them, Jeriah, a grandson of Hana- 
NiAii, an old enemy of Jeremiah. His jailer Jona- 
than, a relative of Hananiah, mocked him with the 
words: "Behold, what honors your friend has 
brought upon .you! How fine is this prison in 
which you now are ; truly it is like a palace ! " Yet 
the prophet remained steadfast ; and when the king 
asked whether Jeremiah had a prophecy for him, 
the prophet fearlessly answered : " Yes : the King of 
Babel will lead you into exile." When he saw how 
angry the king grew on hearing this, he tried to 
change the subject, saying: "Lo, even the wicked 
seek a pretext when they revenge themselves on 
their enemies ! How much greater right has one to 
expect that a just man will have sufficient reason 
for bringing evil upon any one! Your name is 
' Zedekiah, ' indicating that you are a just ' zaddik ' ; 
I therefore pray you not to send me back to prison. " 
The king granted this request ; but he was unable 
to withstand for long the clamorings of the nobles, 
and Jeremiah was cast into a muddy pit, the inten- 
tion being that he should perish therein. As there 
was enough water in the pit to drown a man, the 
design of his enemies would have been carried out 
had not God miraculously caused the water to sink 
to the bottom and the dirt to float, so that Jeremiah 
escaped death. Even then his former keeper, Jona- 
than, mocked the prophet, calling to him: " Wh}^ 
do you not rest your head on the mud so that you 
may be able to sleep a while? " At the instance of 
Ebcd-melech, the king permitted Jeremiah to be 
rescued from the pit. Jeremiah at first did not an- 
swer Ebed-melech when he called to him, because 
he thought it was Jonathan. -Ebed-melech, who 
thought that the prophet was dead, then began to 
weep, and it was only after he had heard the weep- 
ing that Jeremiah answered; thereupon he was 
drawn up from the mire (Pesik. R. 26 [ed. Fried- 
mann, p. 130a, b] ; comp. Ebed-melech in Rab- 
binical Liteuature). 

The enemies and adversaries of the prophet were 
not aware that to him alone they owed the preser- 
vation of the city and the Temple, since his merits 
were so great in the eyes of God that He would not 
bring punishment upon Jerusalem so long as the 
prophet was in the city (Pe.sik. R. I.e. [ed. Fried- 

mann, p. 131a]; somewhat different in tho Syriac 
Apoc. Baruch, ii.). Tiie prophet was therefore com- 
manded by God to go to Anathoth ; and 
During- the in his absence the city was taken and 
Destruction the Temple destroyed. When Jere- 
of the miah on his return beheld smoke ri.sing 
Temple. from the Temple, he rejoiced because 
he thought that the Jews had re- 
formed and were again bringing burnt offerings to 
the sanctuary. Soon, however, he discovered his 
error, and began to weep bitterly, lamenting that he 
had left Jerusalem to be destroyed. He now fol- 
lowed the road to Babylon, Avhich was strewn with 
corpses, until he overtook the captives being led 
away by Nebuzar-adan, whom he accompanied as 
far as the Euphrates (Pesik. R. I.e. ; comp. Syriac 
Apoc. Baruch, I.e.). Although Jeremiah, by the ex- 
press command of Nebuchadnezzar, was allowed to 
come and go as he pleased (Jer. xxxix. 12), yet when 
he saw captives he voluntarily caused himself to be 
chained or otherwise bound to them, notwithstand- 
ing Nebuzar-adan, who, anxious to carry out the 
orders of his master, always unchained him. At last 
Nebuzar-adan said to Jeremiah: "You are cue of 
these three: a false prophet, one who despises suf- 
fering, or a murderer. For years j'ou have prophesied 
the downfall of Jerusalem, and now when the 
prophecy has been fulfilled, you are sorry, which 
shows that you yourself do not believe in your 
prophecies. Or you are one who voluntarily seeks 
suffering ; for I take care that nothing shall happen 
to you, yet you yourself seek pain. Or perhaps you 
are hoping that the king will kill me when he hears 
that you have suffered so much, and he will think 
that I have not obeyed his commands" (Pesik., ed. 
Buber, xiv. 113; Lam. R., Introduction, p. 34). 

After the prophet had marched with the captives 
as far as the Euphrates, he decided to return to Pal- 
estine in order to counsel and comfort those that had 
remained behind. When the exiles saw that the 
prophet was about to leave them, they began to cry 
bitterly, saying: "O father Jeremiah, j'ou too are 
abandoning us! " But he answered: "I call heaven 
and earth to witness, had you shed a single tear at 
Jerusalem for your sins you would not now be in 
exile" (Pesik. R. 26 [ed.Friedmann, p. 131b]; ac- 
cording to Pesik., ed. Buber, and Lam. R. I.e. God 
commanded .Jeremiah to return to Palestine). On 
the way back to Jerusalem he found portions of the 
bodies of the massacred Jews, which he picked up 
lovingly one after another and placed in various 
parts of his garments, all the while lamenting that 
his warnings had been heeded so little by these un- 
fortunates (Pesik., ed. Buber, and Lam. R. I.e.). 

It was on this journey that Jeremiah had the cu- 
rious vision which he relates in the following words: 
"When I went up to Jertisalem, I saw a woman, 
clad in black, with her hair unbound, sitting on the 
top of the [holy] mountain, weeping 
Vision and sighing, and crying with a loud 
of the voice, ■ Who will comfort me? ' lap- 
Mourning- proached her and said, ' If j'ou are a 
Woman. woman, tiien speak; but if you are a 
spirit, then depart from me.' She an- 
swered, ' Do j'ou not know me? I am the woman with 
the seven children whose father went far oversea, 

Jeremiah, Book ox 



and while I was weeping over his absence, word 
was brought to me tliat a house had fallen in and 
buried my children in its ruins ; and now I no longer 
know for whom I weep or for whom my hair is un- 
bound.' Then said I to her, 'You arc no better 
than my mother Zion, who became a pasture for the 
beasts of the field.' She answered, 'I am your 
mother Zion : I am the mother of the seven. ' I said, 
' Your misfortune is like that of Job. He was de- 
prived of his sons and daughters, and so were you ; 
but as fortune again smiled upon him, so it will like- 
wise smile upon you ' " (Pesik. R. I.e. ; in IV Esd. 
there is mentioned a similar vision of Ezra ; comp. 
Levi in "R. E. J." xxiv. 281-285). 

On his return to Jerusalem it was the chief task 
of the prophet to protect the holy vessels of the 
Temple from profanation ; he therefore had the 
holy tent and the Ark of the Covenant taken [by 
angels ?] to the mountain from which God showed 
the Holy Land to Moses shortly before his death (II 
Mace. ii. 5 et seq. ; comp. Ark in Rabbinical Lit- 
erature). From the mountain Jeremiah went to 
Egypt, where he remained until that country was 
conquered by Nebuchadnezzar and he was carried 
to Babylon (Seder '01am R. xxvi. : comp. Ratner's 
remark on the passage, according to which Jeremiah 
went to Palestine again). 

The Christian legend (pseudo-Epiphanius, " De 
Vitis Prophetarum " ; Basset, "Apocryphen Ethio- 
piens, " i. 25-29), according to which Jeremiah was 
stoned by his compatriots in Egypt because he re- 
proached them with their evil deeds, became known 
to the Jews through Ibn Yahj'a ("Shalshelet ha- 
Kabbalah," ed. princeps, p. 99b); this account of 
Jeremiah's martyrdom, however, maj' have come 
originally from Jewish sources. Another Christian 
legend narrates that Jeremiah by prayer freed Egypt 
from a plague of crocodiles and mice, for which rea- 
son his name was for a long time honored by the 
Egyptians (pseudo-Epiphanius and Yahya, I.e.). 
The assertion— made by Yahj-a {I.e. p. 101a) and by 
Abravanel (to Jer. i. 5), but not by Isserles, as 
Yahya erroneously states — that Jeremiah held a 
conversation with Plato, is also of Christian origin. 

In haggadic literature Jeremiah and Moses are 
often mentioned together, their life and works being 
presented in parallel lines. The following old mid- 
rash is especially interesting in connection with 
Deut. xviii. 18, in which a prophet like Moses is 
promised : " As Closes was a prophet for forty years, 
so was Jeremiah ; as Moses prophesied concerning 
Judah and Benjamin, so did Jeremiah; as Moses' 
own tribe [the Lovites under Korah] rose up against 
him, so did Jeremiah's tribe revolt against him; 
Moses was cast into the water, Jeremiah into a pit; 
as Moses was saved by a female slave (the slave of 
Pharaoh's daughter), so Jeremiah was rescued by a 
male slave [Ebed-melech] ; reprimanded the 
people in discourses, so did Jeremiah" (Pesik., ed. 
Buber, xiii. 112a; comp. ^latt. xvi. 14). 

Compare the rabbinical section of the following 
articles: Ebed-melkch ; Manna; Temple. 

s. s. L. G. 

JEREMIAH, BOOK OF.— Biblical Data: 

Contents : At the beginning of tiie book is a super- 
scription (i. 1-3) which, after giving the parentage 

of Jeremiah, fixes the period of his prophetical 
activity as extending from the thirteenth j^ear of 
Josiah to the eleventh of Zedekiah {i.e., the year of 
the second deportation, 586 B.C.). This period cer- 
tainly does not cover the whole contents of the book ; 
hence probablj' the superscription was originally 
that of an older book of smaller coinpass. This is 
followed by the first part, i. 4-xxxviii. 28a, contain- 
ing prophecies concerning the kingdom of Judah and 
incidents from the life of the prophet up to the de- 
struction of Jerusalem and the second deportation. 
Only one passage treats of a different subject, viz., 
ch. XXV. 13 et seq., containing Yhwh's command 

to Jeremiah, according to which the 

Three prophet was to proclaim God's judg- 

Sections. ment to foreign peoples. The second 

part of the book, xxxviii. 28b-xliv. 
30, contains prophecies and narrations from the pe- 
riod following the destruction of Jerusalem. As an 
appendix to this, in ch. xlv., is a short warning to 
Baruch on the occasion of his writing down the words 
of Jeremiah. A third part, xlvi.-li., comprises 
prophecies against foreign peoples. At the end are 
given, by way of appendix, historical data (lii.) con- 
cerning Zedekiah, the deportation of the captives to 
Babylon, and the change in the fortunes of King 

Critical View : § I. The Prophecies in Part I. : 

In the first part no consistent plan of arrangement, 
either chronological or material, can be traced. The 
speeches not being separated by superscriptions, 
and data generally (though not always as to time 
and occasion) being absent, it is very difficult to fix 
the date of composition. In this first part, hoAV- 
ever, may be distinguished different groups which, 
with a single exception, reflect substantially the 
successive phases of the development of Jeremiah's 
prophetic activity. These groups are five in num- 
ber, as follows: 

(1) Ch. i. 4-vi. 30, belonging to the reign of Josiah. 
Its first passage, describing the calling of the prophet, 
is also chronologically the oldest (iii. 6b-18, fixed 
by the superscription as belonging to the time of 
Josiah, does not harmonize with the assumed his- 
torical background [see below, § II.]; the super- 
scription is undoubtedly a later addition). 

(2) Ch. vii.-xx., in the main, of tlietimeof Jehoia- 
kim. This group contains passages that belong to 
earlier and later dates respectively. For instance, 
ch. xi. 1-8 is earlier : the mention of the " words of the 
covenant " assigns it to the antecedent period (Jo- 
siah) and as having been written soon after the dis- 
covery of the Book of Deuteronomy. Ch. xiii. is cer- 
tainly later, and probably belongs to the time of the 
young king Jehoiachin (see below, § II.). Other 
passages in this group sliould be excluded as not 
being by Jeremiah, or at least as having been only 
partially written by him: cii. ix. 22 etseq.; ch. ix. 
24 et aeq. ; ch. x. 1-16; and the sermon on the Sab- 
bath, ch. xvii. 19-27 (see below. § II.). 

(3) Speeches from various periods: («) a proc- 
lamation of the certain fall of Jerusalem made, ac- 
cording to the superscription to Zedekiah and the 
people, during the siege of Jerusalem, i.e., about 
588 B.C. (xxi. 1-10); (i) menacing prophecies against 
the kings of Judah in the time of Jehoiakim (608; 




Book of 

xxi. 11-xxii. 19), completed by the passage xxii. 20- 
30, descriptive of the leading away of Jehoiachin 
into captivity (597) ; (c) threats against the "unl'aitli- 
ful shepherds" (i.t'., the prophets), the promise of 
peace and of the real shepherd (after 597), and warn- 
ings against false prophets and god- 
Dated less priests (perhaps in the time of 
Prophecies. Jehoiakim; xxiii. 1-8, 9-40); (rf) the 
vision of the two baskets of tigs, illus- 
trating tlie fate of the captives and of those who 
■were left behind, from the period after the first de- 
portation by Nebuchadnezzar, in 597 (xxiv.); (e) 
threats of pimishments to be inflicted on Judah and 
the surrounding nations, in the fourth year of Je- 
hoiakim, i.e., the year of the battle of Carchemish 
{605 ; XXV.); (/) the first of the historical passages 
recounting Jeremiah's prophecy in the Temple 
{comp. vii.), his arrest, his threatened death, and his 
rescue, in which connection the martj'rdom of the 
prophet Uriah is briefly mentioned (xxvi.). 

(4) Utterances from the time of Zedekiah (see 
§ II.), with an appendix, the last connected prophecj' 
of any length, in ch. xxxv., treating of the fidelity 
of the Rechabites and of the unfaithfulness of Judah. 
This dates from a somewhat earlier period, that of 
Jehoiakim (because certainly before 597), and thils 
forms a transition to the first passages of the narra- 
tive sections. 

(5) The fifth group of part I. consists of the first 
half of the historical narrative concerning Jeremiah's 
life and work, xxxvi.-xxxviii. 28a, and maybe thus 
•divided : (a) account of the writing, destruction, and 
rewriting of the prophecies of Jeremiah under Jehoi- 
akim (xxxvi.); (b) narratives and sayings from the 
time of Zedekiah, wlio is introduced as a new ruler 
at the beginning of this historical account (xxxvii. 
1), although often mentioned before in the prophe- 
cies (xxxvii. -xxxviii. 28a). 

§ II. Displaced, Disputed, and Non-Authentic Passages 
of Part I.: In group 2 the short admonition in ix. 22 
€t seq. is certainly not genuine ; it is a warning against 
■self-glorification and an appeal to those who would 
boast to glory in the knowledge of God instead. 
As its sententious style indicates, it was probably 
taken from a collection of wise sayings. The ques- 
tion as to the genuineness of the second short utter- 
ance, ix. 24 et seq., which proclaims God's punish- 
ment upon the uncircumcised — the heathen who are 
uncircumcised in the flesh, and the Israelites who 
are uncircumcised in heart — can not be so easily de- 
cided, since the Biblical conception of being uncir- 
cumcised in heart is found elsewhere in Jeremiah. 

Again, the following section, x. 1-16, 

Relations is certainly not genuine. Here, in a 

with style wholly like that of Deutero- 

Deutero- Isaiah, the speaker mocks at the un- 

Isaiah. reality of idols, which exist only 

as images and hence are not to be 
feared ; this recalls the time of Deutero-Isaiah and 
the idols of Babylon rather than the period of Jere- 
miah and the tendency of his contemporaries to wor- 
ship other gods than Yhwh. The interpolated Ara- 
maic verse (x. 11) is held by Duhm to be a magic 
formula with which the later Jews, who did not 
know much Hebrew, used to exorcise the various evil 
spirits in the air, shooting stars, meteors, and comets. 

la xi.-xx., besides various additions to Jeremiah's 
sayings which can not be by the prophet himself, 
there are two passages which till now have gener- 
ally, and probably rightly, been hekl to be genuine, 
although they do not belong to the time of Jehoia- 
kim. That the passage xi. 1-8 is earlier, and be- 
longs to the time of Josiah, has been explained 
above (§ I.). Ch. xiii., however, must have been 
written later than Jehoiakim 's time ; after a symbolic 
narrative of a girdle buried beside the Euphrates, 
and which, in that it is soiled and unfit for use, 
represents Israel and Judah, the passage treats of 
the king and "queen" — that is, the queen mother — 
to whom it is announced that they must descend 
from their throne; and the deportation of the 
whole of Judah is similarly foretold. The king in 
this case, however, with whom his mother is men- 
tioned on equal terms, is certainly (comp. xxii. 26, 
xxix. 2) the youthful Jehoiachin, and the time is 
shortly before bis deportation to Babylon. The one 
non-authentic passage incorporated in group 2 is 
that concerning the ISabbath, xvii. 19-27. The rea- 
son why the prophet can not be credited with the 
authorship of this passage, though in 
Passage on form and content it is not unlike 

Sabbath Jeremiah, is the high value put upon 
Not the observance of holy days, which is 

Genuine, wholly foreign to the prophet. The 
author of the passage not only recom- 
mends the keeping of the Sabbath day holy as a 
day of rest ordained by God, but he even goes so 
far as to make the possibility of future salvation, and 
even directly the destruction of Jerusalem, depend 
upon the observance or non-observance of this day. 

In group 3, ch. xxv. is doubtful (see below, g IV., 
in connection with the prophecy against foreign 
peoples in xlvi.-li.). 

In group 4 (of the time of Zedekiah) certain parts 
of the promises in xxx.-xxxiii. have given rise to 
doubt in more than one respect. Of the three sec- 
tions in this collection, xxx. et seq., xxxii., and 
xxxiii., the middle one may, however, be accepted 
without reserve. This section begins (xxxii. 9) with 
a relation of Jeremiah's purchase of a field in Ana- 
thoth in accordance with ancient usage, at tlie time 
when the Babylonians were already besieging Jeru- 
salem (comp. xxxii. 1 with lii. 5, in opposition to 
lii. 4), and of Jeremiah's prophecy to Zedekiah of the 
conquest of the city and of the deportation to Bab)'- 
lon. The divine promise is appended to this narra- 
tion: " Houses and fields and vineyards shall be pos- 
sessed again " (ib. verse 15), which, upon a question 
of the prophet's, is explained thus (ib. verses 26 et 
seq.): Jerusalem will be burned by the Chaldeans on 
account of its sins, but afterward Yiiwii will collect 
His people, scattered in all lands. He will make 
an everlasting covenant with them, and will cause 
them with rejoicing to settle again in this land {ib. 
verse 41). 

The first of the three sections, xxx. etseq., fore- 
tells another day of terror for Jacob, but also prom- 
ises liberation from foreign rule, punishment of the 
enemy, the rebuilding of the destroyed cities by the 
people (who will have begun to increase again and 
whose numbers will have been swelled by the return 
of Ephraim), and the making of a new covenant. In 

Jeremiah, Book of 



tliis section the following passages are doubtful as 

regards a Jeremianic origin : the passage in which 

the servant of God, Jacob, is comforted 

TJng-enuine in his exile with words of Deutero- 

Passag-es Isaiah (xxx. 10 et seq. ; comp. Isa. xl. 

in Later et seq.); the threat inserted among 

Sections, the words of promise (xxx. 23 et seq. ; 
comp. xxiii. 19 et seq., where this 
threat occurs again, likewise in an inappropriate 
place); the description of Yiiwii's power on the sea 
(xxxi. 35b, similar to Isa. li. 15); and various other 
passages which have many points of contact with 
Deutero-Isaiah. A considerable portion of this sec- 
tion is shown to be secondary matter by the fact 
that it is lacking in the text of the Septuagint. At 
any rate, examination leads to the conclusion that 
this section, like so much else in the Book of Jere- 
miah, was worked over afterward, although it is not 
justifiable to deny to Jeremiah the authorship of the 
whole of the section, nor to assume that it was 
written by a post-exilic author. Such a writer 
would have had more interest in the hope that the 
Judeans, only a part of whom had come back, would 
all return home, whereas for a prophet who Avrote 
immediately before the downfall of Judah it was 
more natural to recall the overthrow of the Northern 
Kingdom, and to express the hope that with the 
return of Ephraim Judah also would return, al- 
though its present downfall seemed certain to him. 

In tlie third of these sections, ch. xxxiii., the con- 
clusion (xxxiii. 14-26) is suspicious. It is missing in 
the Septyagint, although no plausible reason for the 
omission is apparent. Not to speak of smaller mat- 
ters, the fact that the people among whom (accord- 
ing to verse 24) the prophet was sojourning, and 
who were w-holly opposed to the compatriots of 
the prophet, can only have been Babylonians — who 
indeed might have said insultingly of Israel that "it 
was no more a nation before them" (ib.) — does not 
seem to accord with Jeremiah's authorship. The 
passage must consequently have been written by 
one of the exiles in Babylon and not by Jeremiah, 
in whose time such a taunt could not have been ut- 
tered either in Palestine or later in Egypt. 

§ III. The Historical Sections of Parts I. and II. : 
The historical passages contained in XX vi. and xxx vi.- 
xlv. display such an exact knowledge of 
Ch. xxvi. the events described in the life of Jere- 
and miah, and contain so many interesting 

XXXV. -xlv. details, that as a matter of course they 
were formerly considered to have been 
written by a pupil of Jeremiah in close touch with 
him. When Kuenen and other commentators object 
that in certain passages the Single episodes are not 
properly arranged and that details necessary for a 
complete understanding of the situation are lacking, 
it must be remembered that it is just an eye-witness 
who would easily pass over what seemed to him as 
matter of course and likewise displace certain details. 
Moreover, a comparison with the text of the Septua- 
gint shows that in the historical as in the prophetical 
passages man}' changes were made after composition. 
It is therefore neither necessary nor advisable to set, 
with Kuenen, 550 b.c. as the date of the first edition 
of the book; but even if that late date be accepted 
one must still suppose that the notes of a pupil and 

eye-witness had been used as material. If, however, 
the former and generally prevalent opinion is main- 
tained (which has been readopted also 
Work of by Duhm), namely, that the historical 
Baruch. passages were written by a pupil of 
Jeremiah, there can be no doubt that 
this pupil was Baruch. Since it is known that it 
was Baruch and not Jeremiah who first wrote down 
the prophecies, and since in all cases the speeches in 
the historical portions can not be taken out of their 
setting, it seems the most natural thing to suppose 
that Baruch was also directly concerned in the com- 
position of the historical passages. But this does 
not at all exclude the possibility of the insertion, 
shortly after the passages had been written and put 
together, of various details and episodes. This 
theory is supported by Jeremiah's admonition to 
Baruch (in xlv.), which, although addressed to 
him by the prophet on the occasion of Jeremiah 
dictating the prophecies in the time of Jehoiakim, 
yet stands at the end of the section containing proph- 
ecies against Judah. The fact that this admonition 
occurs at the end of the original Book of Jeremiah 
(concerning xlvi. et seq. see § IV.) can only mean 
that Baruch placed it at the end of the book edited 
by him as a legitimation of his labor. 

§ IV. The Prophecies Against Foreign Peoples in Part 
III.: Ch. xxv. speaks of the direction received by 
Jeremiah from God to proclaim His anger to foreign 
peoples. In the fourth year of Jehoiakim — that is, the 
year of the battle of Carchemish and of Nebuchad- 
nezzar's victory and accession to the throne^Jere- 
miah proclaims that Yhwh, in revenge for Judah 's 
sins, will bring His servant Nebuchadnezzar and the 
peoples of the north against Judah and the surround- 
ing peoples; that they will serve the King of Baby- 
lon for seventy years; and that at the end of this 
time Yhwh will punish the King of Babylon and 
the Chaldeans. In connection with this, Jeremiah is 
further told to pass the wine-cup of divine wrath to 
all the nations to whom he is sent, and all the na- 
tions who must drink of the cup are enumerated. 
But however appropriate it may have been for Jere- 
miah to announce the downfall of foreign nations 
(comp. xxxvi. 2 and i. 5), and however much the 
expression "cup of wrath " may sound like one of 
Jeremiah's, since this illustration oc- 
Prophecy curs often after him and accordingly 
Not by probably goes back to him. yet this 
Jeremiah, prophecy as it now stands (in xxv.) 
can not have been written by him. 
The proclamation of the pimishment of Babylon 
(ib. verses 12-14) interrupts the connection of the 
threatening of the nations by Babylon. Also tlie 
words "all that is written in this book, which Jere- 
miali hath prophesied against all the nations" (verse 
13) can not of course have originated with Jere- 
miah. Finally, the enumeration of the nations that 
must drink from the cup of wrath (verses 17-26) is 
not Jeremianic ; indeed, some of the nations were 
located far from Jeremiah's horizon, and the con- 
cluding remark (verse 26), with the puzzling word 
"Sheshach " (i.e., Babylon), certainly dates from a 
much later period. This passage characteristically 
illustrates the fact that more than one liand worked 
on the amplification, and that such passages arose 



Jeremiah, Book of 

in several stages, as may be observed in detail by a 
comparison with the Septuagint text (see § VI.). 

The question next arises as to whether the proph- 
ecies against foreign nations contained in xlvi.-li. 
are really those which, according to xxv., were to 
be expected as the latter's amplification. This ques- 
tion seems all tlie more natural because in the text 
of the Septuagint those prophecies are actually in- 
corporated in xxv. If 1. etseq., a long oracle dealing 
with the sentence against Babylon, be left out of 
consideration, there can be no doubt that the section 
xlvi.-xlix. has in some way a Jeremianic basis. The 
single oracles of this section are in part expressly 
referred to Jeremiah in the heading, and the victory 
of Nebuchadnezzar is in part given as their occasion. 
At any rate the hypothesis that this section is a work- 
ing over of original Jeremianic material is to be pre- 
ferred to the difficulties attending the various other 
theories that have been suggested to explain the later 
origin of xlvi.-xlix. On the face of it, it is hardly 
probable that a later author would have written a 
whole series of oracles and have artificially made 
them seem to belong to the time of Nebuchadnezzar, 
merely for the sake of enriching the Book of Jere- 
miah. If it is suggested that some one else, perhaps 
Alexander the Great, was intended by the Nebu- 
chadnezzar of these oracles, it must be objected that 
even to the last judgment, that against Elam (which, 
however, did not originally belong in 

Oracles this section ; see below), which might 

Worked be taken to mean Persia, no reference 
Over. to post-Jeremianic events can be found. 
A detailed examination, however, 
shows that in most of these prophecies only a Jere- 
mianic basis is possible. The prophecy concerning 
the Philistines in xlvii. (but without the heading) 
is the one that could most readily be accepted as 
belonging as a whole to Jeremiah. 

On the other hand, it is to be supposed that all 
the other oracles underwent a more or less extensive 
revision, so that they do not give the impression of 
being real prophetic utterances, but seem rather to 
be compilations by later scholars, who also made 
use of the oracles of other prophets, especially of the 
exilic and post-exilic passages in Isaiah (comp. Jer. 
xlviii. 43 et seq. with Isa. xxiv. 17, 18a; Jer. xlix. 18 
with Isa. xiii. l^ctseq. ; Jer. xlix. 24 with Isa. xiii. 8). 
This working over of the material explains the lack of 
perspicuity and the non-adherence to the historical 
situation which frequently characterize these proph- 
ecies. The following oracles are contained in this 
section: {a) the oracle against Egypt, in two parts, 
xlvi. 1-12 and xlvi. 13-28 (comp. xlvi. 27-28 [= xxx. 
10 et seq.^ with the consolations of Deutero-Isaiah); 
{b) that against the Philistines, xlvii.; (c) that 
against Moab, xlviii., which in parts recalls Isa. xv. 
etseq.; (<?) that against Ammon, xlix. 1-6; (c) that 
against Edom, xlix. 7-22, which has much in 
common with that of Obadiah ; (/) that against Da- 
mascus and otlicr Aramaic cities, xlix. 23-27; {g) 
that against Kedar and other Arabic tribes, xlix. 
28-33; and (//) that against Elam, xlix. 34-39. 
Whereas the other nations named all lay within 
Jeremiah's horizon, this was not the case with Elam, 
since Judah had no direct dealings with this coun- 
try luitil after the Exile. This alone would not, 

however, be a sufBcient reason for denying that 
Jeremiah wrote the oracle, especially since as early 
as Isa. xxii. 6 the Elamites were known as vassals 
of the kings of Assyria, and hence an interest in the 
history of Elam could not have been so far removed 
from a prophet of Israel as may now appear. By 
whom and at what time the supposed revi.sion of 
Jeremiah's original stock of material was made, it is 
impossible to determine; but the large number of 
similar expressions connecting the separate oracles 
makes it probable that tliere was only one redaction. 
The oracle against Babylon, l.-li. 58, which fol- 
lows the section xlvi.-xlix., and to which a histor- 
ical addition is appended (li. 59-64), is very clearly 
seen to be non-Jeremianic in spite of the fact that 
individual passages recall very vividly Jeremiah's 
style. It is really no oracle at all, but a description 
in oracle form, dating from .after the Exile, and 
originally written so as to appear as a production by 
Jeremiah, for which purpose the author assumes the 
standpoint of an older time. Since he is acquainted 
with Deutero-Isaiah (comp. li. 15-19 with Jer. x. 12- 
16, which is also taken from Deutero-Isaiah, and ap- 
parently furnishes the direct basis for the passage 
in question), and describes the upheaval in Baby- 
lon and the destruction of the city — making use of 
the exilic oracle in Isa. xiii. et seq. (Jer. 1. 16, 39 etseq. ; 
comp. 1. 39;li. 40 with Isa. xxxiv. 14 andxxxiv. Qet 

seq.). he can not have written it before 

Not Before the end of tlie Babylonian exile at the 

the End of earliest. This also explains why the 

the Exile, destroyers of Babylon are called 

" kings of Media " (li. 28). Moreover, 
the author of the oracle against Babylon made 
use of the Jeremianic oracle against Edom, at 
times quoting it literally (comp. 1. 44-46 with 
xlix. 19-21 ; and the origin of 1. 41-43 is found 
in vi. 22-24). That he lived in Jerusalem may 
be inferred not only from 1. 5, in which, speaking 
of the returning exiles, he says that their faces were 
turned "hitherward," but also from the fact that 
he is much more concerned with the desecrated and 
destroyed Temple of Jerusalem than are the proph- 
ets of the Exile. The added passage, li. 59-64, pro- 
ceeding probably from a historical record of a jour- 
ney to Babylon made by Seraiah, was most likely 
written by the author of the oracle against Babylon, 
if not by some one later, who desired by his short 
narrative to authenticate the oracle which he took to 
be Jeremianic. 

The section closes with the words: ''Thus far 
[are] the words of Jeremiah," showing that the Book 
of Jeremiah once ended at this point, and that that 
which follows is a later addition. In fact, lii. is a 
historical account, concerning Zedekiah, the depor- 
tation to Babylon, and the turning-point in the for- 
tunes of .lehoiachin, which was transferred from tiic 
Book of Kings to that of Jeremiah. This is shown 
by the fact that with slight variations and with the 
exception of two passages, the two accounts agree; 
one of the exceptions is presented by three verses 
giving a count of the exiles, which are found 
only in Jeremiah (lii. 28-30) and which were 
probably inserted later from some separate source, 
since they are lacking also in the text of the Septu- 
agint; the other is the short passage recording 

Jeremiah, Book of 
Jeremiah, Epistle of 



the appointment of Gedaliah as governor, his 
murder, and the fliglit to Eg3'pt of those who 
were left, which is lacking in Jeremiah (II Kings 
XXV. 22-26), and which doubtless was purposelj^ 
omitted because the same facts had already been re- 
corded elsewhere in tlie Book of Jeremiah (xl. et 
sej.). Moreover, the addition of ch. Hi. was of 
itself not necessary, since the information given in 
it was already partially known from earlier state- 
ments of the Book of Jeremiah ; and the last pas- 
sage concerning the change in the fate of Jehoiachin 
is wholly superfluous, since the event recorded 
took place after Jeremiah's deatli. 

§ V. Sources of the Book of Jeremiah, According to 
Duim : What has here been said concerning the sup- 
posed origin of the Book of Jeremiah corresponds to 
the opinion held on the subject by most modern 
scholars, whose consensus, though they may differ 
in detail, has indorsed the view as a whole and in 
substance. The views of Duhm differ materially 
from this opinion, however many points of contact 
therewith it may show, because Duhm, in opposition 
to previous conceptions, lias with an unparalleled 
boldness and confidence extended his critical inves- 
tigation to the most minute details, for which reason 
his analysis is here given separately. Although it 
seems more plausible to suppose that the real proph- 
ecies of Jeremiah are contained in the versified por- 
tions, whereas in the prose utterances the thoughts of 
Jeremiah have been woiked over, for the most part 
in the form of sermons, the question still- arises 
whetlier one is justified in "ascribing, with the 
greatest detail, [the various parts ofj writings 
which without doubt have passed through many 
hands before tliey received the form in whicli we 
know them, to their [respective] authors" (see 
Noldeke in "Z. D. M. G." Ivii. 412). Duhm distin- 
gui.shes : 

(1) Jeremiah's Poems. These, in all about sixty, 

date (a) from the period when Jeremiah was still 

in Anathoth: the cycle ii. 2b, 3, 14-28; 

Duhm's 39-37; iii. 1-5; 12b, 13,19,20; 21-35; 
Analysis, iv. 1, 3, 4; the cycle xxxi. 2-6; 15-20; 
21, 22, and perhaps xxx. 12-15; the 
oldest five poems concerning the Scythians, iv. 5-8; 
lib, 12a, 13, 15-17a; 19-21, 23-26; 29-31; (h) from 
the time of Josiah : v. l-6a; 6b-9; 10-17; vi. 1-5; 
6b-8, 9-14; 16, 17, 20 ; 32-26a ; 27-30 ; \n. 2S et seq. ; 
viii. 4-7a;8, 9. 13, 14-17; 18-23 ;ix. 1-8; 9:16-18:19- 
21 ; X. 19, 20, 22; {c) from the time of Joah : xxii. 10; 
(d) from tlie time of Jehoiakim : xxii. 13-17, and prob- 
ably xi. 15 ct seq. ; xii. 7-12 (from the first period); 
xxii. 18 et seq., and periiajis xxii. 6b, 7; 20-23; xiii. 
15 etseq. ; 17; 18, 19; 20, 31a, 32-25a, 26 ctseq. (from 
the time after tiie burning of the book-roll) : (c) from 
the time of Jeiioiachin: xxii. 24; 28; (/) from a later 
period (a more exact definition is unnecessary): de- 
scription of tiie great famine, xiv. 2-10; of the evil 
conditions in tiie country and their results, xv. 5-9; 
xvi. 5-7; xviii. 13-17; xxiii. 9-12; 13-15; impressive 
complaints of jicrsonal enmities, xi. 18-20; xv. 10- 
12, 15-19a, 20etseq. ; xvii. detscq., 14, Wet seq. ; xviii. 
18-20; XX. 7-11; xx. 14-18; from an earlier period, 
but first inserted after the restoration of tlie roll: 
xiv. 17 et seq. : xvii. 1-4; (g) from the last period of 
Zedekiah (according to Baruch), xxxviii. 22. 

(2) The Bvok of Bnntch. Besides single data and 
exhortations preserved in i.-xxv. {e.g., i. 1-3, 6; vii. 
18; comp. xliv. 15 etseq., xi. 21, vii. 21 etseq.), the 
following passages are derived from this book (they 
are here arranged according to their original order 
of succession, the groups of verses which have been 
revised being marked with an asterisk): («) on the 
time of Jehoiakim: xxvi. 1-3, 4 (to "h^), 6-24 (early 

period); xxxvi. 1-26; 83 (fourth and 

Parts fifth years of Jehoiakim); xxxv. 1-11* 

Ascribed, (a later year) ; {b) on the time of Zede- 

to Baruch. kiah : xxviii. la, xxvii. 2 etseq., xxviii. 

2-13, 15-17 (fourth year of Zedekiah); 
xxix. 1 (to n^ljn), 3, 4a, 5-7, 11-15, 21-23, 24 et seq.,* 
26-39 (probably the same period); xxxiv. 1-7* 
(ninth year); xxxiv. 8-11*; xxxvii. 5, 12-18, 30 et 
seq. ;xxxii. 6-15; xxxviii. 1, 3-22, 34-38a (during the 
siege of Jerusalem) ; (c) on the time after the con- 
quest of Jerusalem, events in Mizpah and the emi- 
gration to Egypt: xxxviii. 28b, xxxix. 3, 14a, xl. 6; 
xl. 7-xlii. 9,T3a, 14, 19-21, xliii. 1-7; {d) on an event 
in Egypt (comp. vii. 18): xliv. 15a, 16-19, 34 etseq.,* 
28b; xiv. forms the conclusion. 

(3) The Supplements to the Writings of Jeremiah 
and Baruch. These comprise about 800 verses, that 
is, more than the poems of Jeremiah (about 280 
verses) and the sections from the Book of Baruch 
(about 300 verses). The process of amplification, 
by which the Book of Jeremiah grew to its present 
size, must have gone on for centuries. It is possible 
that single additions (which are difficult to identify) 
were incorporated in the roll of the Book of Jere- 
miah in the Persian period. The greatest number 
of additions was made in the third century, the age 
of "the most midrashic literature " ; the most recent 
are in general the Messianic passages and their com- 
plement, the prophecy concerning tlie 

Messianic heathen. They are in part (as in i.- 
Passages. xxv.) inserted among older additions, 
in part placed together in a separate 
section (xxx. et seq., xlvi.-li.), which could not have 
originated before the end of the second century B.C., 
and which have received even later additions; single 
pas.sages (e.g*., xxxiii. 14-26) are so late as not even 
to have come into the Septuagint. These additions 
fall into separate categories according to their con- 
tents: (rt) amplifications in the nature of sermons in 
connection with verses of the Jeremianic text, to 
suit the needs of the post-exilic period ; {h) short 
narratives, in the form of the IMidrash or of free 
versification, recording deeds and sayings of the 
prophet; (r) consolatory passages Avhich in part are 
appended to an admonitory sermon, and in part 
stand in a separate group in xxxii. et seq. ; {d) addi- 
tions of various kinds having no connection with 
the contents of the book. 

However justifiable it may be to separate the 
"songs" of .Jeremiah, the question still arises 
whether much of that which Duhm excludes as a 
later addition may not still be Jeremianic, since it is 
easy to suppose that besides the versified portions 
tliere must also have been utterances of Jere- 
miah, to which those excluded pa.ssages may liave 

§ VI. Relation of the Hebrew Text to the Septua- 
gint : A comparison of the ]Masoretic text with the 



Jeremiah, Book of 
Jeremiah, Epistle of 

Scptuagint throws some light on tlie hist phase in 
the history of the origin of tlie Boole of Jeremiah, 
inasmuch as the translation into Greek was already 
under way before the work on the Hebrew book 
had come to an end. This is shown by the faet that 
a large part of the additions to the Hebrew text, 
which, absent in the Scptuagint, are evidently sec- 
ondary, are proved also by their contents to be 
later elaborations. The two texts differ above all in 

that the Scptuagint is much shorter. 

Additions containing about 2,700 words (that is, 

to the about one-eighth of the whole book) 

Septuagint. less than the Hebrew. On the other 

liand, headings in the Hebrew text 
are only comparatively rare. Even if the text of 
the Septuagint is proved to be the older, it does not 
necessarily follow that all these variations first arose 
after the Greek translation had been made, because 
two different editions of the same text might have 
been in process of development side by side. Fur- 
thermore, the correspondence between the Septua- 
gint and the Hebrew is too great, and their rela- 
tionship too close, for one to be able to speak of 
two redactions. They are rather two editions of 
the same redaction. 

§ VII. Origin of the Book of Jeremiah : The 
different stages in the history of the growth of the 
book as they are shown in the two theories of its 
origin, that of Duhm and that of Ryssel, practically 
coincide. The book, dictated by Jeremiah himself 
under Jehoiakim, was first worked over by a pupil, 
probably Baruch, who added later utterances, which 
he wrote perliaps partly at the dictation of the 
prophet, but in the main independently, and to 
which he furthermore added narrative passages (at 
least for the time preceding the conquest of Jerusa- 
lem). This "Book of Baruch," the composition of 
Avhich Kuenen without sufficient reason (see above, 
§ III.) places first in the second half of the Baby- 
lonian exile, concludes with the passage addressed 
to that scribe. It contains oracles concerning for- 
eign nations, which, however, stood immediately 
after the section referring to the cup of wrath for the 
nations, and had little to do with the group of 
oracles, now contained in xlvi.-li., concerning the 
nations conquered by Nebuchadnezzar. Besides 

the oracle concerning Babylon, which 

Final is without doubt not genuine, the 

Redaction, one concerning Elam must also have 

been added later, since, according to 
its dating, it did not belong to the oracles of the 
fourth year of Jehoiakim. The Book of Jeremiah 
nt a comparatively early date became subject to 
additions and revisions, which were made especially 
in the schools and from the material of Deutero- 
Isaiah ; and the only question which suggests it- 
self is whether this critical activity in reality must 
have continued until the end of the second century 
or even later. The book as a whole was first ter- 
minated by the addition of the oracle concerning 
Babylon, and again later by the addition of the 
account taken from the Book of Kinsrs. 

Bibliography: Commentaries: Hitzlp, in KurzgefasM>'>( 
Exe(ietischef< Handlntch. Leipsic, 1841; 2fi erl. 1866; Ewald, 
in Prophet isclie liUclimlc^ AUini Tistamrntii, IH-ti; :iiled. 
1H68; Karl Heinricli (iraf. 1H62; C. W. E. Naeelsbach, in llic- 
tilogUich-Homikt.ischcs Bihelwerk, 1868; T. K. Cheyne, in 

Spence and F.xell's Pulpit Commentam '3 vols., with Lnm- 
oitationx), 188:^85; ('. von Orel li, in KurzyeffUigter K<im- 
incntar, 1887 ; 2d ed. 1891 (tdgetber witli Jeremiah); Friedrlcli 
Gieseltrecljt, in Hmnlkdininentnr zum Alteii Teatament, 
1894; B. Duhm, in Kurzir Hnndkommentar, 1901. and Monotrraphs : (1) On sinple critical question.s : 
K. Budde. Ueberdie Kapite.l 5u vnd r>l tlca Hitches Jcremia. 
in JahrhUdier flir Deutuche Tlieohmic. xxiii. 42«-470, 529- 
.562; (,'. J. Cornill, Kapitel r,2 des Buchen Jeremid (in Stade's 
Zeituclnift, iv. 10.5-107); B. Stade, Jer. Hi. G-lG (ih. pp. 151-^ 
154), and Jer.XJ-.rii. ll-lk (ih. v. 175-178); Das Vermeint- 
liche Aiamilisch-AKsurisclte Aequivaleiit fUr Z''r:z'n rj r, 
Jer. rliv. 17 (Ui. vi. 289-:M9); F. Schwally, Die Redcn dex 
liuches Jeremia (iegen dieHeiden, x.rr.. xlvi.-li. (il>. vlii. 
177-217); B. Stade, Bcn\erkini(jen zum Buelic Jeren^ia (ih. 
xii. 276-308). (2) On the metrical form of the speeches: K. 
Budde. Ein Althehrdisches Klagelied (in Sfddf'sZeitschrift, 
iii. 299-306): C. J. Cornill, I>!"e Metriachen StUckedes BuchcK 
Jeremia, Leipsic, 1902. (3) On Biblical-theological Ques- 
tions: H. Guthe, De Frederis Notione Jereminna Vom- 
mentatio Theolnqiva. 1877; A. von Bulmerincq, Das Zu- 
kunftshild des Protiheteii Jei-emia, 1894; H. (i. Mitchell, 
Tlie Theologii of Jeremiah, in Jinir. Bibl. Lit. xx. 56-76. 
(4) For the life and personality of Jeremiah see the bibliogra- 
phy to Jkremiah (the prophet). 

The Text and Translations : (1) Edition of the text : C. J. 
Cornill, The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah (English transl. 
of the notes by C. Johnston), part xi. of P. Haupfs S. B. O. 
T. 1895. (2) A collection of single conjectures in the appen- 
dixes to Kautzsch's translation of the Old Testament (2d ed. 
1896) -eLUdtoHet OufZe Tf.stomejit ; much scattered material, 
e.g., on Jer. ii. 17, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxi. 192. (3) Relation 
of the Masoretic text to the Septuagint: F. K. Movers, De Ut- 
riusque Reccnsionis Vaticiniorum Jeremia;, GreecceAlex- 
andriiue et Hebraicce Masorethicce, hidole et (Jrigiiie, 1837 ; 
P. F. BYankl, Studien Uber die LXX. und Peschito zu 
Jeremia, 1873 ; G. C. Workman, The Text of Jeremiah, 
1889; Ernst Kiihl, Da,s Ve7-hilltniss der Massora zur Septua- 
ginta im Jeremia, Halle, 1882; A. W. Streane, The Double 
Text of Jeremiah, 1896. 

In general, comp. also the Introduction to the Old Testa- 
ment and articles on the Book of Jeremiah in the theological 

E. G. H. V. Ry. 

phon, being a fictitious letter which Jeremiah is sup- 
posed to have written to the Jews who were about 
to be led as captives to Babylonia, the purpose of 
the letter being to warn them against idolatry. It 
seems to be written with especial reference to Jer. 
X. 1-16, wherein the prophet sharply contrasts the 
living and everlasting God of Israel Avith the idols 
of Babylonia. Jer. x. 11, a declamation addressed 
to the Babylonians, distinguished by being written 
in Aramaic, appears to have suggested the idea 
(as may be seen from the Targum to the passage) 
that Jeremiah sent an epistle of that nature (comp. 
Jer. xxix. 1) to the elders of the Captivity, who 
were to read it to all the Jews as a warning against 
being induced by their heathen masters to worship 
idols. The author, however, while making use also 
of such passages as Isa. xliv. 9-19, xlvi. 1-2 ;Ps. 
cxv. 4-8, cxxxv. 15-18, has Egyptian idolatry in 
view, as may be gathered from verse 18, where the 
Feast of Lights at Sais (Herodotus, ii. 62) is obvi- 
ously alluded to. The epistle, therefore, must be 
classed among the propagandist literature of the 
Alexandrian Jews issued for the purpose of winning 
the heathen over to Jewish monotheism. 

After a few introductory verses announcing the 
transportation of the Jews to Bab3ioniaasa punish- 
ment for their sins, and promising their return to 
the Hoi}' Land after the lapse of seven generations 
(possibly a mistake for the seven decades in Jer. 
xxix. 10), the writer of the epistle immediatel}' turns 
to his subject, describing with fine sarcasm and vivid 
coloring, and ostensibh' from his own experience, 
the practises of the idolatrous priests and people : 

" The idols are decked with silver and gold, which often the 
priests steal to give them to harlots (8-11); they are given pur- 

Jeremiah, The Lamentations of 
Jeremiah ben Jacob 



pie aud scepters, but have no power ; dapgers and axes, but 
can not defend themselves against thieves (12-16, 18) ; they have 
candles lit before them, but see not (19); their eyes are full of 
dust, their faces black with smoke (17, 21); insects and bats 
cover their bodies, but they feel them not (20, 22). They are 
carried upon the shoulders, and when they fall they can not 
rise ; yet gifts are set before them as unto the dead ! The 
priests sell and misuse them, take oft their garments and clothe 
their wives and children (26-33); they can give neither health 
nor wealth, nor sight nor speech, nor any help whatsoever to 
their worshipers, and instead cause women to deliver them- 
selves over to Incest (34-43). [A survival of this Astarte cult is 
reported by S. I. Curtiss (" Primitive Semitic Religion To-day," 
Chicago, 1901) as still existing in Egypt.] Men's own handi- 
work, they can neither save them from war and plague nor 
from famine, nor their own temples from flre (45-5.5). Any 
vessel or piece of furniture in the house is of greater use than 
they : the stai-s and the clouds fulfil the command of their Maker, 
but these Idols are like a scarecrow in a garden of cucumbers, 
thatavaileth nothing (61-71)." 

This description is made quite effective by the re- 

" Whereby they are known to be no Rods ; therefore fear them 
not" (16, 23, 29, 66); "How should a man think and say that 
they are gods ? " (40, 44, 52, 56, 64); " And ye shall know them 
to be no gods ..." (73-73); "Better the just man that hath 
no idols ; he shall be far from reproach." 

In some editions of the Greek text, as well as in 
the Old Latin and Syriac versions, and accordingly 
in Luther's and the English translation, the Epistle 
of Jeremiah constitutes ch. vi. of Baruch, but with- 
out justification. 

Bibliography : Bissell's Apocnipha, 1880, pp. 433-441 ; Ewald, 
Die JlUigstoi Prophcteii, 1868; Fi-izsche's Handbuch zu 
den Apocn/phen, 1851, i. 203-222 ; Herzfeld, Gesch. dex Volkm 
Jiirael 1847. 1. 316 ; K&Mzsch'.'^ Apocrnphen, 1900, 1.236-229; 
Speaker's Apnerupha, 1888, ii. 287-1303. 



See Lamentations. 

JEREMIAH : Polish rabbi in the second half of 
the eighteenth century; head of the yeshibah at 
Mattersdorf, Hungary, in which he devoted himself 
especially to the legal treatises of the Babylonian 
Ta-lmud. Aaron Choiun was one of his pupils. 
Jeremiah was the author of "Moda'ah Rabbah," a 
commentary to Hayyim Shabbcthai's "Torat Hay- 
yim," part ii. (on "Moda'ah we Ones," a protest 
against a forced or unduly influenced action); Jere- 
miah's son Joab wrote a parallel commentary enti- 
tled "Moda'ah Zuta." In tlie approbation to his 
work, published at Lemberg, 1795, by his son, 
Jeremiah is given the title of "gaon." Joab wrote 
also "Sha'are Biuah," novelise to the "Siia'are 
Shebu'ot" of Isaac ben Reuben, grandson of Isaac 

BIBLIOORAPIIY : Azulai. Shem ha-Gcdalim, i., Warsaw, 1864, 
p. 37b; ii.. Warsaw, 1880, p. 74 ; Beniacob, ()zar Jia-Scfariiii, 
pp.306. t>02, Wilna, 1880; Michael, Or ha-Haimim, No. 902; 
Low, Oeaammelte Schrifte)i, ii. 2.54, Szege'din, 1890; Schrei- 
ber, RefdrmedJudaium, p. 66, Spokane, 1892. 
s. s. S. Man. 

JEREMIAH : Palestinian scholar of the fourtli 
century; always c|UOte(l by the single name "Jere- 
miah," thougii sometimes that name is used for 
Jeremiah b. Abba. A Babylonian by birth, he 
passed his youtii in his native land witliout giving 
much promise of gaining celebrity as a scholar (Ket. 
75a). He emigrated to Ca?sarea, in Palestine, where 
he made rapid progress in his studies. Among his 
teachers were Abbahu (B. M. 16b); Samuel b. Isaac, 
whose homilies he very frequently reports (Yer. 

Peah i. 16b ; Yer. Meg. i. 70d ; Yer. Hag. i. 76c) ; and 
Assi II. (Git. 44a; Hul. 21a); but his principal 
teacher was his countryman Ze'era. Both Ze'era 
and Abbahu loved the young scholar as a son (M. 
K. 4a; B. M. 16b). Ammi employed Jeremiah as 
tutor to his son (Yer. Bezah v. 63a). Once while 
Ze'era and his pupil were engaged in some halakic 
investigation the hour of prayer arrived, and Jere- 
miah began to betray impatience at being detained. 
Ze'era, noticing it, reproved him with the words, 
" He that turneth away his ear from hearing the 
law, even his prayer shall be abomination " (Prov. 
xxviii. 9; Shab. 10a). 

Jeremiah developed such industrious habits as to 
evoke from his teacher the remark that since the 
death of Ben 'Azzai and Ben Zoma, with whom 
industry ended, there had not been so zealous a 
student as Jeremiah (Yer. Ned. viii. 40d; comp. 
Sotah ix. 15). But in his anxiety to acquire knowl- 
edge and accuracy he developed extreme captious- 
ness. He frequently provoked the laughter of 
the college, except of his teacher (Niddah 23a); and 
ultimately his ultra-subtleties became insufferable. 
His considerate preceptor lime and again warned 
him against pursuing his arguments beyond the 
bounds of the Halakah (R. H. IBa; Sotah 16b), but 
it proved of no avail. At last his colleagues gave 
vent to their displeasure. The college was seriously 
discussing a point of law, when Jeremiah broke in 
with what appeared to be a ridiculous objection, 
whereupon he was ordered out of the 
His Over- academy (B. B. 23b). It happened 
Subtlety, that after the death of the great teach- 
ers a legal problem vexed the minds 
of the scholars, aud there was none to solve it. It 
was submitted to Jeremiah, who returned it with 
the solution, which he prefaced with the humble 
words: "Although I am not worthy [to be consulted 
by you], your pupil's opinion inclines this wa5^" 
On receipt of this, which was taken as an apology 
for the past, his colleagues reinstated him (B. B. 

Thenceforth Jeremiah was the undisputed head 
of the scholastic circle at Tiberias (Yer. Shab. i. 8d, 
iii. 6c ; comp. ib. vi. 8a), and questions were ad- 
dressed to him from different parts of Palestine. 
Nor was his fame limited by the boundaries of his 
adopted country. In Babylonia also his opinions 
carried great weight, and when a contemporary or 
later Babylonian scholar introduced a statement I)j' 
the phrase "It is said in the West," it was generally 
assumed that that statement emanated from Jere- 
miah (Sanh. 17b). The reverence in which he was 
held by his former countrymen appears from the 
following colloquy between his younger contempo- 
raries Abaye and Raba: Said the former: "One 
Palestinian scholar is worth two of ours " ; where- 
upon the other remarked : " And yet when one of 
ours emigrates to Palestine he is worth two of the 
natives. Take, for example, Jeremiah; although 
wMiile he was here he could not comprehend our 
teachers, since emigrating to Palestine he has risen 
to such eminence as to look upon us as ' stupid 
Babylonians'" (Ket. 75a). Indeed, not only did 
Jeremiah repeatedly apply this epithet to Baby- 
lonian scholars, but he spoke disdainfully of his na- 



Jeremiah, The Lamentations of 
Jeremiah ben Jacob 

tive land as well. Whenever an opinion bv a Baby- 
lonian scholar met with bis disapprobation, he would 
say " Those Babylonian simpletons! they dwell in 
a land of darkness and advance opinions of dark- 
ness " (Pes. 84b ; Yoma 57a ; Bek. 25b). 

With the leadership of the scholastic circle the 
management of public affairs was entrusted to him. 
He considered this occupation as paramount to en- 
gaging in the study of the Law (Yer. Ber. v. 8d) ; 
but it sometimes occasioned him unpleasantness. 
On one occasion some serious trouble threatened the 

Jews of Tiberias, and much treasure 

Active was required to avert it. Jeremiah 

liife. was called upon to assess the people, 

and in discharging this duty he dis- 
pleased his older colleague Jacob b. Bun. Jere- 
miah had called on Jacob for a considerable contribu- 
tion, whereupon he remarked, "Jeremiah is still 
at his tricks: he deserves excommunication." The 
feeling between them became so bitter that they 
excommunicated each other, though they soon re- 
voked their decrees and became reconciled (Yer. M. 
K. iii. 81d). 

Jeremiah had many pupils, among them Jonah 
and Hezekiah II., who stood in the front rank of 
the scholars of the next generation. His name is 
frequently found in the departments of the Halakah 
and the Haggadah, in the Babylonian as well as in 
the Palestinian Gemara, and in the Midrashim. He 
left the following directions for his interment: 
"Clothe me in white garments with sleeves, put 
stockings and shoes on my feet, place a staff in my 
hand, and lay me down on my side. Thus equipped, 
when the Messiah comes I shall be ready to follow 
him" (Yer. Kil. ix. 33b; Yer. Ket. xii. 35a). 

Bibliography: Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amor. iii. 95; Frankel. 
Mebo. p. 107b ; Halevy, Dvrot ha-RUhonim, li. 356 ; Weiss, 
Dor, iii. 107. 
s. 8. S. M. 

JEREMIAH B. ABBA (b. Wa in the Pales- 
tinian Talmud): Babylonian amora of the third 
century; disciple and fellow of Rab (Ber. 27b). In 
Yerushalmi his patronymic is often omitted (comp. 
'Er. 21a with Yer. 'Er. ii. 20a: see also ih. 19d and 
Abina). Jeremiah devoted himself to the study of 
the Halakah; but he is also cited in connection with 
haggadot. Most of the latter are embodied in the 
Babylonian version of the treatise Sanhedrin (pp. 
91a, 92b, 93b, 103a). A specimen of these follows. 
The Jewish Bible canon not recognizing a separation 
of the Book of Nehemiah from that of Ezra, the Tal- 
mud raises the question, "Since what is contained 
in the Book of Ezra has been told by Nehemiah b. 
Hachaliah, why is there no Biblical book bearing 
the name of Nehemiah ? " To this Jeremiah answers, 
"Because Nehemiah claimed credit for what he had 
done, saying, 'Remember [A. V. "Think upon"] 
me, O my God, for good, according to all that I have 
done for this people'" (Neh. v. 19; Sanh. 93b). 
He proves from Scriptural texts that the following 
four classes of persons will never be admitted into 
the Divine presence: (l)scorners; asitissaid (Hosea 
vii. 5), "He stretched out his hand with [Hebr. 
"Jt^TD = "withdraweth from"] scorners " ; (2) liars; 
as it is said (Ps. ci. 7), "He that telleth lies shall 
not tarry in my sight " ; (3) deceivers ; as it is said 

(Job xlii. 16), "A hypocrite shall not come before 
him " ; and (4) slanderers : as it is said (Ps. v. 5, 
Hebr.), "Evil shall not dwell with Thee" (Sanh. 

Bibliography: Bacher, Ay. Pal. Amor. Hi. 582; Hellprin, 
Seder ha-Doroi, ii., s.v. 
S. s. S. M. 

JEREMIAH OF DIFTA : Babylonian amora 
of the fourth century; contemporary of Papi (B. 
B. 52a; 'Ab. Zarah 40a). Rabbina, who eventually 
assisted in the compilation of the Babylonian Ge- 
mara, w^as his pupil. Once, while they were study- 
ing, a certain man passed them without covering his 
head (out of respect to the scholars). Rabbina there- 
upon remarked, "How bold this fellow is!" But 
Jeremiah rejoined, "Possibly he comes from Mata 
Mehasya, where scholars are not rare and people 
pay no special attention to them " (Kid. 32b). 

s. s. ' S. M. 

scholar of the second century ; contemporary of 
Simeon b. Gamaliel, the father of Judah I. He is 
known through one haggadah, transmitted by his 
pupil Bar Kappara, and giving various reasons for 
the death of the two sons of Aaron, Nadab and Abihu 
(Pesik. xxvii. 112b; Lev. R. xx. 8; Tan., Ahare 
Mot, 7). Ephraem Syrus ("Opera," i. 240) adopted 
an explanation by Jeremiah without mentioning his 
name (comp. Graetz in "Monatsschritt," iii. 319). 
Jeremiah's son Eleazar is mentioned in Pesik. R. 
23 (ed. Friedmann, p, 117b) and Sotah 4a. 

2. Haggadist of the third amoraic generation 
(second half of the third century). Bacher places 
him among the Palestinian haggadists, although 
several of his haggadot are found in the Babylonian 
Talmud, while only one is recorded in Yerushalmi 
(Shab. vi. 10). 

Jeremiah's haggadot are numerous; and a whole 
group of them is found in 'Er. (18a-19a). He in- 
ferred from Ps. cxxxix. 5 that Adam was created 
with two faces, one of a man and one of a woman, 
and that God afterward cleft them asunder ('Er. 
18a). In Gen. R. viii. 1 this opinion is ascribed to 
Samuel b. Nahman, while Jeremiah's opinion is stated 
to have been that Adam was created a hermaphro 
dite (see Androgynos). From Gen. v. 3 Jeremiah 
concluded that all the time that Adam lived under 
the curse (that is, till the age of 130) he begot 
demons and spirits ('Er. 18b; see Lilith). Accord- 
ing to Jeremiah, the builders of the Tower of Babel 
were divided into three different groups, which re- 
spectively had the intention of dwelling there, of 
establishing there the cult of idolatry, and of wa- 
ging war against God. The first group was dis- 
persed ; the second was punished by a confusion of 
language; and the third was transformed into one 
of apes, demons, and spirits (Sanh. 109a). Jeremiah 
also indicated the crow as a bird of prophecy (Lev. 
R. xxxii. 2). 
BiKLiOGRAPHY: Bacher, Aq. Pal. Amor. iii. 583-587. 

s. s. M. Sel. 

NAFHTALI : German Talinudist and philanthro- 
pist; died in Halberstadt before 1664. Like his 
father, Jacob (Jockel Halberstadt), Jeremiah was 
parnas of the congregation. His wealth, which he 

Jeremiah ben Jacob 



used for the benefit of tlie communit}-, his learning, 
and his broad culture gave him importance and se- 
cured for liim the government's recognition, which 
enabled him to obtain many advantages for liis co- 

That, however, which procured influence for him 
in the higher circles of society availed him nothing 
against the rage of the populace. On the Ninth of 
Ab, 1621, the synagogue built by liis father was 
destroyed by a mob. Jeremiah seized the very first 
opportimity of building a new synagogue at liis 
own expense. This opportunity seemed to be afforded 
by the wording of a sentence in the rescript issued 
by the elector Frederick William on May 1, 1652: 
"The Jews, on accoimt of the synagogue which 
they shall keep, shall give yearlj' a gulden in gold." 
Jeremiah interpreted this to refer to a synagogue 
proper, and lie proceeded to build one. It was 
claimed, however, that the rescript permitted only 
a meeting-place for private devotions, and a protest 
against the new edifice was made to the elector. 
Before the latter's decision was rendered Jeremiah 

of the country in general and of Jericho in particular 
{ib. ii. 1). They lodged at Rahab's house in the wall 
of the city, and, upon their presence being suspected, 
Rahab let them out through the window by means, 
of a rope {ib. ii. 2-15). Crossing the Jordan, and 
having first encamped at Git.g.\l {ib. v. 10;>, Josliua 
besieged Jericho and took it in a miraculous manner 
{ifj. vi. 1). The whole army marched around it 
once a day for .six days and seven times on the 
seventh day. When the last circuit had been made 
and while the [seven] priests blew trumpets, the 
Israelites were ordered to shout, and when they did 
so, the walls fell down before them {ib. vi. 2-20). 
According to this narrative, the Israelites had no 
conflict with the people of Jericho; but Josh, x.xiv. 
11 speaks of their fight Avith the "men of Jericho." 

The conquerors, by special command 

Taking of of the Lord, spared the life of none 

Jericho. except Rahab and her family, who 

were saved according to the promise 
given to her by the spies; even the cattle were des- 
troj'cd. The city and everj^thing in it were l)urned: 

ruADiTioxAL Site of An'cient Jericho. 

(From a photograph by Bonfils.) 

died, being thus spared the pain of seeing the sec- 
ond synagogue destroyed (^Nlarch 18, 1669). 

Bibliography: Auerbach, Gesch. rler IsraeUtischcn Ge- 
meinde HaWer.stadt, Halberstadt, 1866. 
s. s. A. Pe. 

i..\ Fronter.^. 

JERICHO (im% irrns and once, I Kings xvi. 
34, nn^l').— Biblical Data : A city in the Jordan 
valley, opposite Nebo (Deut. xxxii. 49), to the 
west of Gilgal (Josh. iv. 19). Owing to its impor- 
tance, the part of the Jordan near Jericho was called 
"the Jordan of Jericho" (Num. xxii. 1, Hebr.). It 
was a well-fortified city, surrounded by a wall, the 
gate of which was closed at dusk (Josh. ii. 5, 15), 
and was ruled by a king {ib. ii. 2, xii. 9). It was 
also rich in cattle and particularly in gold and silver 
(see the account of the spoil taken there, ib. vii. 21). 

Jericho commanded the entrance to Palestine; hence 
while Joshua was still encamped at Shittim, east of 
the Jordan, he sent two spies to investigate the state 

only the vessels of gold, silver, copper, and iron 
were declared sacred and were reserved for the treas- 
ury of the Lord {ib. vi. 21-25). Joshua pronounced 
a solemn curse on the man who should rebuild Jeri- 
cho {ib. vi. 26), and this curse was fulfilled on Hiei> 
(I Kings xvi. 34). Still it can not be aftirnicd that 
Jericho I'emained uninhabited till Hiel's time. 

Jericho was given by Joshua to the tribe of Ben- 
jamin (Josh, xviii. 21), and later, when David's am- 
bassadors had been ill-treated by Hanun, the King- 
of Amnion — he liad shaved off one-half of their 
beards — they were told by David to stay at Jericho 
till their beards should be grown (II Sam. x. 4-5). 

The "city of palm-trees," conquered b}' Eglon, 
King of ]\Ioab (Judges iii. 13), was probably Jericho 
(comp. Deut. xxxiv. 3; II Chron. xxviii. 15). After 
it had been rebuilt by Hiel, the city gained more 
importance. The sons of the prophets settled there ; 
Elisha "healed " its waters by casting salt into them 
(II Kings ii. 5, 19-22). .Elijah's ascension took 
place not far from Jericho {ib. ii. 4 et seq.). 



Jeremiah ben Jacob 

Tlie captives who liad been carriod away by Pekah 
to Samaria, and were released by order of the prophet 
Oded. were brought to Jericho, "the city of pahn- 
trees"(II Chron. xxviii. 8-15). Zedekiah was cap- 
tured by the Chaldeans in the plains of Jericho (II 
Kings XXV. 5; Jer. xxxix. 5). At the return from 
captivity, under Zerubbabel, the children of Jericho 
are stated to have been 345 in number (Ezra ii. 34; 
Nell. vii. 36). It seems that they settled again in 
their native town; for men of Jericho assisted Nehe- 
miah in reconstructing the wall of Jerusalem (Ezra 
iii. 2). Later, Jericho was fortified by the Syrian 
general Bacchides (I Mace. ix. 50). The fertility of 
the plain of Jericho, alluded to in the 
Post- Bible by the appellation "city of 

Biblical palm-trees" (see above), is described 

History, at length by Josephus("B. J." iv. 8, 
§ 8). Strabo (xvi. 2) likens the plain 
surrounded by mountains to a theater. 

Jericho was an important place under the Romans. 
When Pompey 
endeavored to 
clear Palestine 
of robbers, he 
destroyed their 
two strongholds, 
Threx and Tau- 
rus, wliich com- 
manded the ap- 
proach to Jer- 
icho (?7>.). After 
Jerusalem had 
been taken by 
Pompey, Gabi- 
nius divided the 
whole country 
into five judicial 
districts {civodoi, 
awe6pta), one of 
wliich was .ler- 
iclio (Josephus, 
"B.J." i. 8, §5). 
L a t e !• , when 
Herod in his 
fight with An- 
tigonus for the 
throne needed 
corn for his army, Jericho was plundered by the 
Roman soldiery, who " found the liouses full of 
all sorts of good things " (ih. i. 15, § 6). A short 
time after this event Jericho was the scene of the 
massacre of five Roman cohorts and of the death of 
Joseph, brother of Herod. Herod himself, coming 
at the head of two legions to avenge his brother's 
death, was wounded by an arrow, and had to retire 
from Jericho ("Ant." xiv. 15, ^g 8, 10-12; "B. J." 
i. 15, § 6; xvii. 1, §§ 4-6). In the year 34 u.c. An- 
tony gave Jeiicho with other cities of Judea as a 
present to Cleopatra ("Ant." xv. 4. §§ 1-2; "B. J." 
i. 18, g 5), who farmed out to Herod the revenues of 
the regions about the city (" Ant." xv. 4, § 2). Four 
years later Herod received from Augustus the whole 
country (including Jericho) that had been in Cleo- 
patra's^ possession {ih. XV. 7, ^ 3; "B. J." i. 20, g 3). 
He erected many villas ?i Jericho for the entertain- 
ment of his friends, calling them after their respect- 



Jabal Karanlal and Probable 

(From a photograph by 

ive names ("B. J." i. 21, § 4); he built also a wall 
about a citadel that lay above Jericho, calling it 
"Cypros" {ib. i. 21, g 9).* At Jericho Herod caused 
Aristobulus to be drowned by Gallic mercenaries in 
one of the large water-reservoirs of the city ("Ant." 
XV. 2, ^§ 3-4; "B. J." i. 22, § 2). Jericho had its 
amphitheater, and it was there that Salome an- 
nounced Herod's death to the soldiers {ib. i. 33, § 8). 
After Herod'sdeath hisex-slave Simon burned the 
royal palace at Jericho and plundered what had been 
left in it (" Ant. " xvii. 10, § 6). It was magnificently 
rebuilt bj'^ Archelaus, who also carried on some im- 
portant irrigation works (ib. xvii. 13, ^ 1). In the 
time of Josephus, Judea was divided into eleven 
toparchies, of which the eleventh was Jericlio (" B. 
J." iii. 3, §5). When Vespasian approached Jericho 
the inhabitants fled to the mountains {ib. iv. 8, «^ 2). 
Vespasian erected a citadel at Jericho and garrisoned 
it {ib. iv. 9, t^ 1). Among the remarkable events that 
took place at Jericlio according to Christian tradi- 
tion was Jesus' 
healing the 
blind (Matt. xx. 
2 9; Mark x . 
46, Luke xviii. 

Jericho, on ac- 
count of the fer- 
tility of its soil, 
continued to 
prosper till 
about 230, when 
it was destroyed 
in the war be- 
tween Alexan- 
der Severus and 
Ardashir, sur- 
name d " A r - 
taxerxes," the 
founder of the 
Sassanid dy- 
nasty (Solin, 
inTh. Reinach's 
au Judaisme," 
p. 339). It is 
most probable that Jericho was destroyed by the 
Romans themselves in order to chastise the Jews for 
their Persian leanings. Many historians, including 
Graetz, ascribe the second destruction of Jericho to 
Artaxerxes III., Ochus; but Solin's text shows the 
improbability of this interpretation. It is to this 
destruction that Jerome (" Onomasticon ") refers in 
his statement that after Jericho was destroyed by 
the Romans it was rebuilt a third time. Muuk 
("Palestine," p. 41b) maintains that Jericho had 
been destroyed by Vespasian, and was rebuilt by 
Hadrian. It was entirely burned during the Cru- 
sades. Near the site of ancient Jericho there is now 
a small village called "Al-Rihah," inhabited by forty 
or fifty Mohammedan families (Munk, ib.). 

It may be of interest to note that, according to 
Eusebius ("Hist. Eccl." vi. 16), in the last years of 
Caracalla's reign (217) there were found at Jericho 
manuscripts, both Hebrew and Greek, of the Old 

Site of Aiicieat Jericho. 

Dr. W. Popper.) 




Testament, and Origen is said to have used these 
for his Hexapla. 

During Mohammedan occupation Jericho was 
the center of an extensive sugar-cane industry 
("Kitab al-Masalik," pp. 57, 78, Leyden, 1889; 
Al-Ya'kubi, "Kitab al-Buldan," p. 113, ib. 1861). 
Jericho or Al-Rihah was destroyed for tlie last time 
in 1840 by Ibrahim Pasha in a punitive expedition 
against the Bedouins. 

Bibliooraphy: Bliss, in Hastings, IHct. Bible; Guerin, Sa- 
marie, Paris, 1874 ; Robinsou, Researches, ii. 273 et seg.; Tli. 
Reinach, in the Kohut Memorial Volume, pp. 457 et seq.; 
Schiirer, Oesch. 3d ed., i. 224 et passim, iii. 6; Conder, Tent 
Work in Palestine, il. 1-34, London, 1879. 
E. G. H. M. SeL. 

In Rabbinical Literature : Jericho is greatly 

praised by the Talmudists for its fertility and the 
abundance of its palm-trees; it is alluded to in the 
Bible as the "city of palm-trees" (see Biblical 
Data, above). The Targum of Jonathan without 
hesitation renders the " 'Ir lia-Temarim " of Judges 
(i. 16, iii. 13) as well as the "Tainar" of Ezekiel 
(xlvii. 19) by "Jericho." It was also rich in balsam 
{Ber. 43a; comp. Strabo, xvi. 2), and its plain was 
covered with wheat (Mek., Beshallah, 'Amalek, 1 
[ed. Weiss, p. 64a]). When the Israelites divided the 
land of Canaan among themselves they left a fertile 
area of the plain of Jericho, 500 ells square, to the 
tribe on whose territory the Temple was to be built, 
giving it in temporary charge to Jonadab b. Rechab 
(Sifre, Num. 81 [ed. Friedmann, p. 21b]). In Jericho 
fruit ripened earlier than in any other place, while 
at Beth-el it ripened later (Gen. R. xcix. 3). 

Owing to its geographical position, Jericho was 
considered the key to Palestine ; therefore the Israel- 
ites said, " If we take Jericho we shall possess the 
whole of Palestine" (Midr., Tan., Beha'aloteka, ed. 
Vienna, p. 206b). Jericho was conquered by Joshua 
on Saturday (Yer. Shab. i. 3), its wall being swal- 
lowed up by the earth ; and it is counted among the 
places where miracles were performed and where a 
benediction must be recited (Ber. 54a, b). When 
Joshua pronounced the curse against whomever 
should rebuild it, he meant both the rebuilder of 
Jericho and the builder of an)'^ other city under the 
same name (Sanh. 113a). The King of Babylon had 
a viceroy in Jericho who sent dates to his master, 
receiving in return articles manufactured in Baby- 
lonia; hence the Babylonian garment stolen by 
Achan (see Josh. vii. 21; Gen. R. Ixxxv. 15; Yalk., 
Josh. 18). 

In the time of the Taunaites Jericho had a large 
priestly population (Ta'an. 27a). An indication of 
the size of its population is the fact that for each 
of the twenty-four groups ("ma'amadot ") of men 
furnished by Jerusalem for the service in the Temple, 
Jericho furnished another group, but half as numer- 
ous. It could have supplied as many men as Jeru- 
salem, which, however, was given the preeminence 
(Yer. Taan. iv. 2; Pes. iv. 1). The bellicose priests 
<"ba'ale zero'ot") so often spoken of in the Talmud 
were at Jericho, where the owners of sycamore-trees 
were obliged to consecrate them to the Lord in order 
to save them from the rapacity of the priests (Pes. 
57a). It is said that the people of Jericho were ac- 
customed to do six questionable things; graft palm- 
trees during the whole day of the 14th of Nisan ; 

read "Shema'" without stopping between "chad" 
and "we-ahabta"; reap before the 'Omer; use the 
fruit of the consecrated sycamore-trees ; eat on Sab- 
bath the fruit which fell from the trees; leave 
" pe'ah" of vegetables. The Talmudists blamed them 
for doing the latter three things (Pes. 55b, 56a; Yer. 
Pes. iv. 9). These six things are somewhat differ- 
ently enumerated in Men. 71a. Blichler concluded 
that by "the people of Jericho" the priests are 
meant. There was a school in Jericho which was 
named "Bet Gadya" (Yer. Sotah ix. 13) or "Bet 
Guriyya" (Sanh. 11a). 

Though ten parasangs distant from Jerusalem the 
people of Jericho could hear on Yom Kippur the 
Sacred Name pronounced by the high priest in the 
Temple of Jerusalem, and the daily closing of the 
large gate of the Temple (Yoma 39b; Yer. Suk.v. 3). 
It is said (Ab. R. N., Text B, ed. Schechter, 53b) that 
in Jericho could be heard the singing of the Levites 
and the sound of the horn and trumpet. The fra- 
grance of the incense burned at Jerusalem pervaded 
Jericho and rendered perfume unnecessary for its 
women's toilet (Yoma I.e. ; Yer. Suk. I.e. ; Ab. R. 
N. I.e.). 

Bibliography: BQcliler, Die Priester und der CuUus, pp. 161 
et seq., Vienna, 1895 ; Neubauer, G. T. pp. 161 et seq. 
S. S. M. Sel. 

JERIDIE-TERJUME : Title of a Jewish peri- 
odical, written in Judaeo-Spanish, and printed in 
rabbinic characters, which was published at Con- 
stantinople in 1876 under the editorship of Nissim 

G. M. Fr. 

JEROBOAM (Dym^) : Name of two kings of 
Israel. The meaning generally attached to the name 
is " [he] strives with [oppresses] the people," or " the 
people strive," the root of the first element being 
taken to be 3n = T"l (comp. Judges vi. 32). This 
equation, however, between "rub" and "rib" pre- 
sents difficulties. Hommel (" Z. D. M. G. " 1895, pp. 
525 et seq.) holds "'Am" to be the name of a de- 
ity, and gives " 'Am fights [for us]." Kittel ("Die 
Bilcher der KOnige," p. 99) suggests the derivation 
from "rabab" (= "to be numerous"), and proposes 
the rendering " the people, or the sept, is become 
numerous." This would necessitate the pointing 
" Yerubbe'am." 

1. Biblical Data: Son of Nebat; founder of 
the kingdom of Israel ; an Ephraimite of Zeredah, 
whose mother, Zeruah, is described as a widow. 
Jeroboam rebelled against Solomon, whose favor he 
had won by his industry during the repairing of the 
city wall and the building of the Millo. Though 
appointed by his royal protector overseer of "all 
the labor of the house of Joseph " (R. V.) he en- 
gaged in a conspiracy against him (I Kings xi. 26- 
28). In this he was encouraged by the prophet 
Ahijah, the Shilonite, who, upon meeting the young 
conspirator, rent his new garment into twelve pieces, 
bidding Jeroboam take ten of them, thus symbolic- 
ally announcing the division of the realm (as a pun- 
ishment for Solomon's idolatry) and the appointment 
of Jeroboam to rule over the ten northern tribes, 
while one tribe (or two '?), retaining Jerusalem, re- 
mained faithful to the house of David. Solomon, 
suspecting Jeroboam's loyalty, sought to kill him, 




but the conspirator succeeded in escaping to Egypt, 
where, under the protection of Shishak, the Egyp- 
tian king, he awaited the death of Solomon (I Kings 
xi. 30-40). 

When Rehoboam convened Israel at Shechem, 
after his father's death, to contirm his own succession 
to the throne, Jeroboam, apprised of what had oc- 
curred, returned. He seems to have been the spokes- 
man for assembled Israel and to have represented 
their demands for relief from the " grievous yoke. " 
Upon the refusal of Rehoboam to accede to their 
demands, and the failure of the attempt to coerce 
the complainants into submission, which led to the 
stoning of Adoram, the ten north- 
Crowned ern tribes asserted their independence 
King. by proclaiming Jeroboam their king, 
the prophet Shemaiah preventing any 
warlike measures on the part of Rehoboam (I Kings 
xii. 1-24; II Chron. x., xi. 1-4). 

Jeroboam selected Shechem for his capital, and for- 
tified it and Penuel. To prevent his people from 
turning again to the house of David, he set up two 
golden calves, one in Beth-el and the other in Dan, 
on the plea that the pilgrimage to Jerusalem was 
" too much " for the people and that " these are thy 
gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the 
land of Egypt. " Jeroboam also built altars on High 
Places, and appointed non-Levites to serve them; 
he changed the date of the Feast of Sukkot from the 
seventh to the eighth month ; on the new date Jero- 
boam himself offered incense on the altar (I Kings 
xii. 25 ei seq.). This act of his provoked a " man of 
God" to journey from Judah to Beth-el to cry out 
against the altar and announce that under Josiah its 
priests would be slaughtered. As a sign the altar 
would be rent. Jeroboam, in anger, stretched forth 
his hand, commanding his attendants to seize the 
prophet of evil, whereupon the king's hand was 
"dried up " and the altar was rent; the king recov- 
ered the use of his hand only by humbly imploring 
the prophet to restore it (II Kings xiii. 1 ei seq. ; for 
the fate of this "man of God " see I Kings xiii. li et 

Jeroboam, undeterred by this incident, continued 

his policy of appointing priests regardless of their 

Levitical origin (I Kings xiii. 38). But when his son 

Abijah fell sick, Jeroboam sent his wife, in disguise, 

with presents to Ahijah the prophet, at Shiloh, to 

consult him concerning the cJiild. Though blind, 

the prophet recognized her and announced to her 

the doom of the dynasty : the sick son of Jeroboam 

would be the only one of his house to come to the 

grave; all others would meet a violent death (I 

Kings xi V. 1-17). The account of this episode names 

Tirzah as the royal residence. Jeroboam became 

involved in war with Rohoboam's sou Abijah, and 

was defeated, nowitlistanding superior 

"War with numbers and strategy. Inconsequence 

Judah. of this defeat several districts reverted 

to the Southern Kingdom. Jeroboam 

reigned twenty-two years (1 Kings xiv. 20 ; comp. 

II Chron. xiii. 1). 

In Rabbinical Literature : Jeroboam be- 
came for the rabbinical writers a typical evil-doer. 
This appears in the Septuagint (2d recension), 
where even his mother is represented as a disreputable 
VII.— 8 

woman. The name is explained as Dj;3 n2^"lD iltJ'ytJ' 
(="one that caused strife among the people," or 
■'one that caused strife between the people and their 
Heavenly Father " ; Sanh. 108b). The name (Nebat) 
of his father is construed as implying some defect 
in his progenitor. Jeroboam is excluded from the 
world to come ( Yalk., Kings, 196). Although he 
reached the throne because he reproved Solomon, he 
was nevertheless punished fordoing so publicly {ib.). 
In the meeting between Jeroboam and the Shilonite 
the Rabbis detect indications of Jeroboam's presump- 
tion, his zeal for impious innovations (i6.). His arro- 
gance brought about his doom (Sanh. 101b). His 
political reasons for introducing idolatry are con- 
demned (Sanh. 90). As one that led many into sin, the 
sins of many cling to him (Abot v. 18). He is said to 
have invented one hundred and three interpreta- 
tions of the law in reference to the priests to justify 
his course. At first God was pleased with him and 
his sacrifice because he was pious, and in order to 
prevent his going astray proposed to His council of 
angels to remove him from earth, but He was pre- 
vailed upon to let him live; and then Jeroboam, 
while still a lad, turned to wickedness. God had 
offered to raise him into Gan 'Eden ; but when Jero- 
boam heard that Jesse's son would enjoy the high 
est honors there, he refused. Jeroboam had even 
learned the " mysteries of the chariot " (Midr. Teh. ; 
see "Sefer Alidrash Abot," Warsaw, 1896). 

Critical "View : The account of Jeroboam's 

reign as contained in the First Book of Kings reflects 
the religious views of later, post-Deuteronomic 
times, though it is not altogether true that it is writ- 
ten from the Judeau standpoint, as stated by Well- 
hausen in Bleek's "Einleitung" (4th ed., p. 243; 
Stade, "Gesch." i. 344 et seq.). The stress laid on the 
popular election of the king (I Kings xii. 2) and 
the evident effort apparent in some portions to re- 
gard Jeroboam as an innocent favorite of the people 
point to an original Israelitish source which in course 
of time had been worked over by Judean writers 
(Benzinger, "Die BiVcher der Konige," p. 86). Tlie 
Septuagint has a double recension. This circum- 
stance indicates that the account of this episode 
must have passed through different stages, in which 
Jeroboam was first represented as the people's 
choice, then as the chief conspirator artfully utili- 
zing the just dissatisfaction of the people for his 
ends, and finality as the wicked seducer of his fol- 
lowers, who, if left to themselves and not kept away 
from Jerusalem, would soon have overcome their 
feelings of resentment and returned to the house of 
David. Even so, their continued defection was not 
altogether due to Jeroboam's intrigue: it had been 
foreordained by Ynwii as a penahy for Solomon's 
idolatry (I Kings xi. 33; comp. 1-8). The prophetic 
episodes are seemingly introduced in accordance 
with the editor's desire to have prophets appear at 
every important crisis (see Benzinger, I.e. Introduc- 
tion, iii.). 

In the second Septuagint recension (.xii. 24, Swete 
= xiii. 15, 16, Lagarde) the Ahijah episode is placed 
after Jeroboam's return from Egypt, and the prophet 
is identified with Shemaiah (I Kings xii. 22). It is 
curious that, though the mantle is rent into twelve 
pieces, only eleven are accounted for (I Kings xi. 




29-82). Klostermann suggests (commentary ad loc.) 
that originally no numbers were mentioned, and that 
" twelve " is an interpolation. The Septuagiut boldly 
introduces dvo in verses 32 and 36. After separating 
the different strata of the story and allowing for 
their respective biases the following results as the 
most probable account of Jeroboam's reign. 

The antipathy between North and South (Joseph 
and Judah) was as old as the house of Israel itself. 
Saul and David had with difficulty succeeded in es- 
tablishing a closer union under the 
Becon- hegemony of the southern tribes ; but 
structed. Solomon, by extravagant building, by 
History. his luxurious court, and by his intro- 
duction and support of foreign cults, 
liad awakened again the old spirit of disunion, 
never altogether extinct in the north. Jeroboam, 
for a time in the service of Solomon, grasped the 
opportunity, but, detected in an attempt to build 
for himself a fortress (see LXX., 2d recension, I 
Kings xi. 28; Wiuckler, "Gesch.") and organize an 
army in his native district, was compelled to tlee to 
Egypt. (The story of his having married Shishak's 
sister-in-law Ano [LXX., 2d recension] is unhistor- 
ical, a double of the preceding episode in Hadad's 
career. ) There he succeeded in winning for his plans 
the favor of the Egyptian king, with whose con- 
sent (see LXX., 2d recension) he returned after the 
death of Solomon. At home, undoubtedly, a pro- 
phetic party countenanced his movement, and his 
return crystallized the sentiments of all malcontents. 
He was acknowledged king by the northern tribes, 
and his southern rival would not even renew the at- 
tempt, which cost his general his life during the 
gathering at Shechcm, to retake the rebellious cities 
by force of arms. 

The sanctuaries at Beth-el and Dan, where the 
golden calves were enshrined, were old and recog- 
nized places of worship and pilgrimage (see High 
Places). The king, by making them royal sanctu- 
aries, gave these old places new significance. The 
censure passed on Jeroboam for his appointment 
of non-Levitical priests is post-Deuteronomic. The 
postponement of the Feast of Sukkot to the eiglith 
month is also charged against him as a sin by later 
writers. Probably in the north, where the harvest 
ends later, this annual pilgrimage (not the Sukkot 
of P or D) took place in the later month. The pro- 
plietic party, finding Jeroboam not so pliant a tool 
as expected, were organizing against him and look- 
ing again to the south. This is the basis of the epi- 
sode at the altar at Beth-el, if the whole is not to be 
looked upon as altogether a later embellishment 
drawn from a collection of prophetical experiences, 
like those of Elijah and Elisha (Budde, in "Zcit- 
schrift flir die Alttestameutliche Wissenschaft," 
1892, pp. ^1 etseq.). 

From I Kings \iv. 2^^et seq. the inference has been 
drawn that it was Shishak who kept the Southern 
Kingdom from resorting to arms. But the inscrip- 
tion of Shishak, on tlie southern wall of the great 
temple at Karnak, enumerates as conquered more 
than sixty cities that belonged to Israel. The most 
plausible explanation of this is that Shishak en 
couraged Jeroboam to secede from Judali, at first 
keeping the latter in check in order after the divi- 

sion the more easily to carry out his intention to re- 
establish Egyptian suzerainty over Palestine and 
Syria. Judah, under Abijah, entering into an alli- 
ance with King Tabrimmon of Damascus (I Kings 
XV. 19), succeeded in getting the better of Israel. 
This is the historical basis of the fiction in II Chron. 
xiii. 19. Thus, in the closing years of his reign, 
Jeroboam began to lose ground, and his failure pre- 
pared the way for his successor's assassination and 
the extermination of his dynastj'. The chronology 
of this reign is not beyond all doubt ; Ebers gives 
949 as the year of Shishak's expedition; Maspero, 
925 ; modern scholars give, variously, 933-912, 937- 
915, 937-916. 

2. (Jeroboam II.) — Biblical Data: Son of 
Joash ; fourth king of the dynasty founded by 
Jehu. He ascended the throne in the fifteenth year 
of Amaziah, King of Judah, and reigned forty-one 
years (II Kings xiv. 23). His religious policy fol- 
lowed that of Jeroboam I. ; that is, under him Yiiwii 
was worshiped at Dan and Beth-el and at other old 
Israelitish shrines (see Hioir Places), but through 
actual images, such as the golden calf (II Kings, 
xiv. 24). But in his foreign policy he was ex- 
tremely successful, restoring the old frontiers of 
Israel " from the entering of Hamath unto the sea of 
the plain" {ih.). In fact, Jonah, the son of Amittai 
the prophet, had designated him as the "helper" 
("moshia'") for Israel; his reign arresting for the 
time being the impending doom of the kingdom. He 
is remembered as having waged war and won back 
for Israel Damascus and Hamath (II Kings xiv. 
26-28). In II Chron. v. (vi.) 17 he is credited with 
having classified by genealogies the inhabitants of 
the recovered (trans jordanic) territory. 

Critical View : Contrary to the usual method 

of the Books of Kings, in which prophetic expe- 
riences and predictions are elaborately introduced, 
the words of Jonah ben Amittai are not given. The 
reference to his acclairiiing the powerful monarch 
lias the appearance of a timid excuse to account for 
the palpable exception presented to the Deutero- 
nomic construction of history by the successes of 
this emulator of Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, and 
the note (II Kings xiv. 28) shows that sufficient 
material was accessible to give a much fuller history 
of his reign. The chronological data require emend- 
ing. The synchronism in II Kings xiv. 23 agrees 
with verse 17 preceding, but does not harmonize 
with XV. 1 following. Again, the length ^f the 
reign (41 years) can not be reconciled with xv. 8. 
In XV. 1 "twenty-seventh year" must be changed 
to "fifteenth," wliile the "forty-one" in xiv. 23 
should perhaps be "fifty-one." The dating for- 
merly accepted (825-772 B.C.) is now generally a])an- 
doned ; about 785(3)-745(o) is more probable. The 
boundaries mentioned correspond with the ideal 
limits given in Amos vi. 14 — Hamath on tlie Orontes 
and the Arabah, the southern continuation of the 
Jordan plain (the Ghor) from Jericho and the Dead 
Sea to the Bed Sea. The expression in xiv. 28 is 
almost imintcUigible, tiiough in meaning it is prol)- 
ably identical with xiv. 25: "to Judah " is ceriainjy 
a textual error, ])crhaps due to a false resolution 
of an abbreviation of tlie following "for Israel." 

A man of great energy, this monarch turned to 




good profit the developments of liis times. Damas- 
cus liad, since the very tirst days of tiie independent 
Nortiiern Kingdom, been u thorn in 
His tlie tlesh of tlie Israeiitish kings. At- 

Character. tacked by Assur-dan III., King of 
Assyria (773), Damascus liad been 
sensibly weakened. But Assyria itself was on the 
decline. This enabled Jeroboam to carry out his 
own ])lans and extend the boundaries of his kingdom 
in accoi-dauce witli claims never totally relinquished. 
According to Schrader ("K. A. T." 2d ed.. pp. 212 
et seq.), Jeroboam II. had to pay tribute to Assyria 
for its acquiescence in his military expeditions 
and conquests, among which, according to Gratz 
("Gesch."), were the cities Lodebar and Karnaim, 
alluded to in Amos vi. 13. 

That certain of the prophets saw in these suc- 
cesses signs of Messianic import is plain from the 
mention, however grudging, of Jonah's oracle by 
I he compilers of the Books of Kings. Amos and 
Hosea reveal the disappointment at the miscarriage 
(if these extravagant expectations. The triumphs 
of the king had engendered a haughty spirit of 
boastful overconlidence at home (Amosvi. 13). Op- 
pression and exploitation of the poor by the miglity, 
luxury in palaces of unheard-of splendor, and a 
craving for amusement were some of the internal 
fruits of these external triumphs. The Yhwh serv- 
ices at Dan and Beth-el, at Gilgal and Beer-sheba, 
were of a nature to arouse the indignation of these 
prophets, and the foreign cults (Amos v.), both 
numerous and degrading, contributed still further 
to the corruption of the vainglorious people. What 
these conditions were bound to lead to, Amos and 
Hosea had no doubt. Assyria, now weak, would 
soon recover its prestige, and then would come the 
day of reckoning. But it is for this arousing of the 
jirophetic spiiit that the reign of Jeroboam II. is an 
important period in the evolution of Judaism. The 
old Israeiitish religion of Yhwh was more and moj-e 
ethicized, and the connection between it and the old 
"high places" was loosened. See Amos; Hosea. 

E. G. H. 

Tahnudist; tlourished in the tirst half of the four- 
teenth century. According to Gross, he lived in Lan- 
guedoc, but on the banishment of the Jews from that 
province (1300) he settled at Toledo, where he devo- 
ted himself to the study of the Talmud under the di- 
I'cction of Asher ben Jehiel and Abraham b. Ishmael. 
Jeroham was the author of two casuistical works: 
"Sefer]\Iesharim,"on the civil laws (Constantinople, 
1516), and "Toledot Adam we-Hawwah " {ib.). 
The latter work is divided into two parts, the first 
l)eing entitled "Adam"; the second, "Hawwah." 
The first part considers tlie laws and regulations that 
come into force before marriage, such as 1 hose regard- 
ing circumcision, instruction, prayer. Sabbath ordi- 
nances, etc. ; the second part deals witli the laws 
and observances that become obligatory at and after 
marriage, such as those connected with betrothal, 
marriage, etc. 

BiBMOGRAPHY : Abmliam Zarutn, Yuha^n. p. 224. ed. Fili- 
powski ; Geifrer's ./(((?. Zcit. iii. 284'; Sleinsi'liin-idcr, Cat. 
Jiinll. col. i;i84: Kcnan-Neubauer, Lcs Evrimiinx Juifs 
Fraiiraix, pp. 221 it .very.; Gross, Gallin Judaica, p. 490. 
o. I. Bii. 


PHRONIUS): Chuieh lallier; next to Origen, 
who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the 
Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writeis, and, 
previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar 
able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The 
dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; 
but he is generall}' assumed to have lived from 337 
to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a 
youth to Rome, where he attended a school of 
gramnmr and rhetoric. He then traveled in (iaul 
and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he be- 
came the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the rep- 
resentative of the exegetical school of Antioch ; sub- 
sequently, however, Jerome did not accept the 
purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted 
more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. 
From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian 
desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a her- 
mit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here 
to facilitate his intercounse with the people, he was 
obliged to learn Syriac ; and this language doubtless 
aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolae," 
xvii. 2; yet comp. I'/j. Ixxviii. and conuu. on Jer. ii. 
18). Here also lie began with great labor to study 
Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 
12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 
10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as 
a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation 
of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to 
Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then 
went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where 
he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, be- 
ginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 
388). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine 
(c. 385), founding a monastery there which he di- 
rected down to his death. This outline of Jerome's 
life indicates that he was a master of Latin and 
Greek learning, and b}^ studying furthermore Syriac 
and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the 
East and of the West. 

It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most 
seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teach- 
ers several Jews, one of whom taught 
His him reading ("Hebranis autem qui nos 

Teachers, in veteris instrumenti Icctione erudi- 
vit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the pe- 
culiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Je- 
rome's works was probably therefore derived from 
this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with 
any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing al- 
ways the most leai'iied (preface to Hosea : " dicerem- 
que . . . quid ab Hebra^orum magistris vix uno 
et altero acceperim " ; "Epistola?," Ixxiii. 9 [i. 443]: 
"hiEc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). 
With similar words Jerome is always attempting to 
inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not 
be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his 
scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a po- 
sition to obtain the opinions of .several Jews; for he 
often refers to "quidam Ilebrit'oruni." He even 
traveled in the province of Palestine w ith his Jewish 
friends, in order to become better acquainted with 
the scenes of Biblical history (preface to " Parali- 
pomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to 




Of only three of his teachers is anything dctiuik' 
known. One, whom he calls "Lyddaeus," seems to 
have taught him only translation and exegesis, while 
the traditions (" midrash ") were derived from an- 
other Jew. Lyddaeus spoke Greek, with which Je- 
rome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3 ; on Dan. 
vi. 4). Lyddaeus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once 
referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome ab- 
surd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him 
fluent, but not always sound ; this teacher was there- 
fore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to 
explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently 
not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and dis- 
puted with him; and he often says that he merely 
read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, 
V. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). 

Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar 
Hanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with 
a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred 
especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at 
night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come 
himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolae," 
Ixxxiv. 3 [i. 520] ). 

A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldseus," 
taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for 
the Old Testament passages and the books of the 
Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher 
of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, 
and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning 
Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction 
(prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued 
to study with Jews during the forty j^ears that he 
lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1 ; " a qui- 
bus [Judaeis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His 
enemies frequently took him to task for his inter- 
course with the Jews; but he answered: "How can 
loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because 
the reader is informed of the different ways in which 
a verse is interpreted by the Jews? " (" Contra Rufi- 
num,"ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jew- 
ish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in 
studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following 
sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . 
for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those 
copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to 
be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with 
them, they shall have no excuse " (ib. book iii. ; ed. 
Vallarsi, ii. 554). 

Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable 
only when compared with that of the other Church 
Fathers and of the general Christian 
His public of his time. His knowledge 

Knowledge was really very defective. Although 
of Hebrew, he pretends to have complete command 
of Hebrew and proudly calls himself 
a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard 
work, attain to the proficiency of his simple JewLsh 
teachers. But he did not commit those errors into 
which the Christians generally fell; as he himself 
says : " The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law 
when they remember the several names which we 
generally pronounce in a corrupt way because thcj^ 
are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. 
And if wc happen to make a mistake in the accent 
[the pronunciation of the word as affected by the 

vowels] and in tlie length of the syllables, lengthen- 
ing short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh 
at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration 
and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the 
throat " (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only 
acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the 
Jews, but he also — so he declares — corrupted his pro- 
nunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin 
style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. 
on Galatians; "Epistolae," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 
143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken 
very seriously, however. In his voluminous works 
Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew 
words, giving thereby moi'e or less exact information 
on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, 
although he studied with the Jews, his pronuncia- 
tion of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly 
regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by 
the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesi- 
astical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard 
to proper names, and this version had long before 
this become Christian. 

Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of 
most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the 
parent of all the other languages (" Opera, " vi. 730b). 
He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic 
(preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call 
both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. 
adloc. ; comp." Epistolae," cviii.) he speaks also of 
the " Canaanitish " language, as being closely related 
to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, 
meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In ex- 
plaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly 
states in regard to the Punic language that it was 
related to Hebrew (" Quaestiones Hebraicae in Gene- 
sin "). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most 
clearly in his two important works, that on the 
Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of 
the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive 
commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testa- 
ment; and especially in his chief work, the new 
Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew 
original (see Vulgate). Through these works he 
not only became an authority on the Bible during 
his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of 
Christianity in the following ages, because down to 
very recent times no one could go direct to the origi- 
nal text as he had done. 

Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jew- 
ish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently 
cited by David Kimhi ; also by Abu al-Walid (" Se- 
fer ha-Shorashim," s.v. ppj and DH), Abraham ibn 
Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Mei'r (ouEx. xx. 
13), Nahmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 
25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in " Hizzuk Emu- 
nah"). Jerome is also important because he could 
consult works which have since disappeared, as, for 
example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had 
seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems 
not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of 
the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the 
so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in He- 
brew script in the Aramaic language, he translated 
into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; 
■' De Viris Illustribus," ph. ii. ; comm. on Matt, 
xii. 13). 




Jerome's exegesis is Jewisli in sjiirit, reflecting tlie 
metliods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly 

states, in certain cases, that lie adopts 
Exegesis, tlie Jewish opinion, especially when he 

controverts Christian opponents and 
errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis axitem He- 
bnporum opinioneni sequenlibus "); he reproduces 
the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos 
V. 18-19) and in substance {-afjaippaaTiKuc; comm. on 
Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis 
from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the 
language of the Haggadah appears in his commenta- 
ries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form 
of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: "qu;e- 
runt Hebr.'ei ") ; or wiien he says, in explaining, " This 
it is that is said " (" Hoc est quod dicitur " ; comp. 
"IDXJE^ Nin ilT) ; or when several opinions are cited 
on the same subject ("alii Judaeorum "); or when a 
disputation is added thereto (" Epistola xix. ad Hedi- 
biam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such 
as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolse," cxxi.) or 
" One may read " (comm. on Nahum iii. 8). This kind 
of haggadic exegesis, wiiichis merely intended to in- 
troduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse 
the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpre- 
tation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that 
the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently 
accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained 
from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolse," xxxvi. 1) 
because he considered the Hebrew text as the only 
correct one, as the " Hebraica Veritas, " which from 
this time on lie regarded as authoritative in all exe- 
getical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law 
for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also 
some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for exam- 
ple, the forced combination of unconnected verses 
(comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione ") ; 
lie sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation 
to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own {ib. 
xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of 
the Jews, he correctly notices a difl:erence between 
"Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and 
"Hanameel" {ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs 
simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contem- 
poraries, w^anders in the mazes of symbolic, alle- 
goric, and even mj'stic exegesis. In his commentary 
on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, ac- 
cording to which the four kinds of locusts mean the 
four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means 

the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its 

TTse of seven branches the seven gifts of the 

Notaril^on. Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely 

mystically. In his commentary on 
Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all 
beings, including man. He frequently uses the No- 
TARiKON, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on 
ilag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistoke." Hi. [i. 210]). 

Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a 
revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up 
difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explana- 
tion of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad 
Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God 
("Epistola XXV. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must 
always be remembered that in many portions of his 
allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement 
with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the ex- 

jilanation of the four colors in tiie sanctuary of the 
desert ("Epistola Ixiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. 
Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 
4, 5^ 4; uhm, "Ant." iii. 7, ^ 7). Jerome's commen- 
taries are of small value for Old Testament criti- 
cism, on accountof the inclination to allegorize which 
leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as 
on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. 
Jew\ Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathkus). 

Jerome's works are especially imjiortant for Ju- 
daism because of the numerous Jewish traditions 
found in them, particularly in his 
Traditions, work "Quicstiones Hebraica^ in Gene- 
sin." .Jerome designates by the gen- 
eral name " tradition " all supplementary and edify- 
ing stories found in the ]\Iidrasli and relating to the 
personages and events of the Bible; these stories 
may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here 
also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces 
what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 
16 : " hoc Hebrtei autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis tra- 
ditum est, nostris fidellter exposuimus"). He des- 
ignates tlie Jewish legend of Lsaiah's martyrdom as 
an authentic tradition (comm. on Lsa. Ivii. 1 : " apud 
eos certissima traditio "), while he doubts the story 
of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no refer- 
ence to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Je- 
rome often remarks that a certain story is not found 
in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. 
xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with 
the "magistri," i.e., the Pabbis (comm. on Ezek. 
xlv. 10) ; that these " fables " are incorporated into 
the' text on the strength of one word (comm. on 
Dan. vi. 4) ; and that many authors are cited to con- 
firm this tradition. All these remarks exactly char- 
acterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome appar- 
ently likes these traditions, though they sometimes 
displease him, and then he contemptuously desig- 
nates them as " fabulsE " or " Jewish fables, " " ridicu- 
lous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous 
things " (on Eccl. iii. 1), or " cunning'inventions " (on 
Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is 
immaterial at the present time. The important point 
is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known 
traditions of the Midrash are obtained in I^atin form, 
and in this form they are sometimes more concise 
and comprehensible — in any case they are more in- 
teresting. Moreover, many traditions that appear 
from the sources in wiiich they are found to be of a 
late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. 
Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer 
found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some 
that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian 
Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note 
that Jerome had read some of these traditions; 
hence they had been committed to writing in his 

Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish tra- 
ditions none equal Jerome in the number and faith 
fulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure 
has unfortunately not yet been fully examined ; schol- 
ars have only recently begun to investigate this field. 
Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as 
yet in reference to the valuable material they con- 
tain on the political status of the Jews of Pales- 
tine, their social life, their organization, their relig- 

Jersey City 



ious views, their Messianic hopes, and their relations 
to Christians. 

Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he 
owed them much ; he often rebukes them for their 
errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and 
inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in 
the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes 
pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against 
them both the books that he has cunningly obtained 
from them and tlie knowledge he has derived there- 
from. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is 
eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his char- 
acter. See Church Fathers. 

BiBLiOGRAPHT: O. Zockler. Hieroiiymtts, Sein Lehen und 
Sein Wirhen, Gotha, 1865; A.Thierry, St. Jerhme, Paris, 
1867, 1875; Griitzmacher, Hierovymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; 
Nowack, Die Bedeutuny des Hienmymus filr die A. T. 
Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsido 
Szemle, 1890, vii.. passim ; i<iem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. 
Rabmer, Die Hehrdischen Traditionen in den Wcrkcn des 
Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861 ; ii., Berlin, 1898 ; idem, in Ben 
Chananja, vii.; idem, in Moiiatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 
1868; idem, in Gi-Utz Juhelschrift ; Siegfried, Die Aus- 
sprache des Hehrdischen bei Hiernnymu^, in Stade's Zeit- 
sclu'ift, iv. 34-83; Spanier, Eregetische Beitrdfiezu Hierony- 
mus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher. Eine Angebliche LUcke im 
Helirdischen Wissen des Hieronynms, in Stade's Zeit- 
schHft, xxii. 114-116. 
T. S. Kr. 

JERSEY CITY. See New Jersey. 

JEBUBBAAL : A name given to Gideon by his 
father, Joash (Judges vi. 32), because the men of the 
city of Ophrah demanded that he turn over to them 
Gideon, who had destroyed the altar of Baal. When 
Joash named him "Jerubbaal," he said, "Let Baal 
contend against him, because he hath broken down 
his altar. " The name means " Baal strives, " or " con- 
tends." It is used three times in subsequent pas- 
sages {ib. vii. 1 ; viii. 29, 35) when referring directly 
to Gideon, and in two of these passages "who is 
Gideon " is added to the new name. In Judges ix., 
however, it occurs often. In II Sam. xi. 21 it is re- 
placed by "Jerubbesheth" ("Beshet-Ba'al"). See 

e. g. h. I. M. P. 

JERUSALEM— Ancient : Capital at first of all 
Israel, later of the kingdom of Judah ; chief city of 
Palestine; situated in 31° 46' 45" N. lat. and 35° 13' 
25" E. long., upon the southern spur of a plateau 
the eastern side of which slopes from 2,460 ft. above 
sea-level north of the Temple area to 2,130 ft. at the 
southeastern extremity. The western hill is about 
2,500 ft. high and slopes southeast from the Judean 
plateau. Jerusalem is surrounded upon all sides by 
valleys, of which those on the north are less pro- 
nounced than those on the other three sides. The 
principal two valleys start northwest of the present 
city. The first runs eastward with a slight south- 
erly bend (the present Wadi al- Joz), then, deflecting 
directly south (formerly known as "Kidron Val- 
ley," the modern Wadi Sitti Maryam), divides the 
Mount of Olives from the city. The second runs 
directly south on the western side of the city, turns 
eastward at its southeastern extremity, then runs 
directly east, and joins the first'vallcy near Bir Ay- 
yub (".Job's Well"). It was called in olden times 
the " Valley of Hinnom," and is the modern Wadi al- 
liababi, which is not to be identified with the first- 
mentioned valley, as Sir Charles Warren (in his "Re- 
covery of Jerusalem," p. 290, and in Hastings, 



Jersey City 

"Diet. Bible," s.v.) has done. Easy access to Jeru- 
salem could be bad only on the north and northwest. 
In olden times there were other valleys which di- 
vided up this complex ; but these are now filled in 
by the accumulated rubbish of centuries. A third 
valley, commencing in the northwest where is now 
the Damascus Gate, ran south-sovitheasterly down 
to the Pool of Siloam, and divided the lower part 
into two hills (the lower and the upper cities of 
Josephus). This is probably the later Tyropoeon 
(" Cheese-makers' ") Valley, though it should be men- 
tioned that W. R. Smith, Sayce, Birch, and Schwartz 
identify the Tyropoeon with the Valley of Hinnom 
(Cheyne and Black, "Encyc. Bibl." ii. 2423; Has- 
tings, "Diet. Bible," ii. 387). A fourth valley led 
from the western hill (near the present Jaffa Gate) 
over to the Temple area: it is represented in modern 
Jerusalem by David street. A fifth cut the eastern 
hill into a northern and a southern part. Later 
Jerusalem was thus built upon four spurs (see 
frontispiece map of physical features of Jerusalem). 

that given to it by Abraham (Gen. R. Ivi. 10; Midr. 
Teh. to Ps. l.x.wi. 3). A more plausible derivation 
makes it the equivalent of "Uru-shalim" (= "City of 
[the god] Shalim " ; comp. the As.syrian god Shalman 
or Shulman, the Phenician p^^ [Greek la?Mfiav], 
and the Egyptian Sharamana [Zimmern, in " K. A. 
T."3ded., pp. 224. 475; Praetorius, in "Z. I). M. G." 
Ivii. p. 782), " Uri " having become " Yeru " by met- 
athesis (see Haupt in "Isaiah," in "S. B. O. T." 
Eng. transL.p. 100). In the Greek period the name 
was Hellenized into 'lepoadXvua (Sibyllines, x. 103, 
New Testament, Josephus, Philo, and the classical 
writers). Following the New Testament, the Vul- 
gate has both " Hierusalem " and " Ilierosolyma " (or 
"lerusalem," "lerosolyma"). Philo uses the name 
'lEpd-oliq (cd. Mangey, ii. 524). Under Hadrian (135) 
the city was renamed " -^lia Capitolina, " from which 
Ptolemy took his Kaivtroliaq. The Arabs at times 
preserved the ancient forms "Urishalam," "Urishal- 
1am," "Uraslam" (Yakut, I. c. i. 402), or "Iliya" 
{lb. 423), or more commonly "Bait al-Makdis" or 

Sketch Showing Topographical Features of Jercsalkm. 

(After Fulton, "The Beautiful Land.") 

The name " Jerusalem " is written in the Old Testa- 
ment and upon most of the old Hebrew coins defect- 
ively D75J'1"1\ though punctuated " Yerushalayim " 
as a"kere perpetuum " (with the exception of five 
places where the " yod " is added ; Frensdorff , " Mas- 
sora Magna," p. 293). The Aramaic form, " Yerush- 
lem" (Ezraiv. 8, 20, 24, 51), theSyriac "Urishlem," 
the Septuagint transcription 'Ie/JOT;cra/\77/i, the Assyrian 

"Urusalim" (El-Amarna tablets) and 
The Name. "Ursalimu "(Sennacherib), point to an 

original pronunciation " Yerushalem " ; 
the ending " -ayim " either being due to a diphthong- 
ization or representing a dual formation (KOnig, 
"Lehrgebaude,"ii. pt. 1, p. 437). A shortened form is 
perhaps to be found in "Shalem" (Gen. xiv. 18; Ps. 
Ixxvi. 3; comp. Josephus, "Ant." i. 10, § 2), known 
also to the Arabs (" Shallara," in Yakut, " Geograph- 
ischesWOrterb." iii. 315). Several etymologies for 
the word ha ve been su ggested •,e.g.,'ch^ K'l"!' = " pos- 
session of peace " or " of Salem " ; D^tJ* "n\ " founda- 
tion of peace " or " of Shalem [God of peace] " ; ac- 
cording to the Midrash it is made up of "Shalem," 
the name given to the city by Shem, and " Yir'eh," 

"al-Mukaddas" {ib. iv. 590); in modern parlance, 
"Al-Kuds al-Sharif " or simply " Al-Kuds" = "the 

The earliest historical notices respecting Jerusa- 
lem come from the El-Amarna tablets. Before the 
fifteenth century b.c. Babylonian influences must 
have been present. There was a city 
In the called "Bit-Ninib" (Temple of the 
El-Amarna God Ninib) in the "district of Jerusa- 

Tablets. lem " (Letter 180, 25). In the fifteenth 
century Amenophis III. had extended 
Egyptian rule so as to include Syria, Mesopotamia, 
Babylonia, and Assyria. This empire, however, be- 
came disrupted through its own weight. The indi- 
vidual districts in Palestine and Syria had been first 
under native princes ("amelu ") with an Egyptian 
resident ("rabiz"), and then under a "hazzanu," 
who was in reality a viceroy of the Pharaoh. Jeru- 
salem was the chief seat of one of the districts, in 
consequence of which it may at one time have 
changed its name ("the king has placed his name 
upon Jerusalem," Letter 180. 60). The four El- 
Amarna letters from Jerusalem were written by its 




hazzanu, one Abdi Heba. Tlie whole district was 
sorely pressed by the Habiri. The chief conspira- 
tors against him were Milki-il, his father-in-law 
Tagi, Shuardatu, the Banu Lapaya, the Banu 
Arzawa, and Adaya, a military chief; they pre- 
vented him from personally reporting to his sover- 
eign, upon whom he impressed tlie fact that if reen- 

One of the El-Amarna Tablets Meutioniug Abdi Heba of 

(From Bal], " Light from the East.") 

forcements were not sent, the whole "land of the 
King " would be lost. He protested his loyalty, and 
mentioned the presents he had sent to the king by the 
latter's officer Shuta. How long the conspiracy had 
lasted is not known. Before that, an Egyptian spe- 
cial officer (rabiz) had been sent to Jerusalem. 

The Kash (?) had also entered Abdi Heba's domin- 
ions ; and one city had gone over to the Kilti. From 
another of the El-Amarna letters (182, 5) it appears 
that Jerusalem itself was in the hands of rebels, and 
that Egyptian troops which had been sent under 
Haya had been detained in Gaza. It was evidently 
a period of general anarchy, due to the break-up of 
the Egyptian power. 

In Hebrew annals Jerusalem is first mentioned in 
connection with Melchizedek, King of Salem (Gen. 
xiv. 18), then with the incursions of the Israelites 
after the taking of Ai. It was one of the five cities 
of the Amorites, who seem to have succeeded to the 

Egyptian power in southern Palestine. 

Resists the Each of these cities had its prince 

Israelites, ("melek"), that of Jerusalem being 

Adoni-zedek, who took the lead against 
the city of Gibeon (Josh. x. 1 et seq.). All the 
princes were taken, slain, and hanged at Makkedah 
(see, also, the list, ib. xii. 10). The relation of the 
inhabitants of Jerusalem to the Jebusites can not 
now be determined. They may themselves have 
been Jebusites; at least, the latter were not com- 

pletely driven out at the time {ib. xv. 63). In fact, 
Jerusalem is expressly called a "foreign city," not 
belonging to the Israelites (Judges xix. 12); and the 
Jebusites are said to have lived there for very many 
years together with the Benjamites {ib. i. 21 ; ac- 
cording to Josh. XV. 63, "with the children of 
Judah "), in whose territory the city lay. At one 
time the city seems to have been called "Jebus" 
(Josh. XV. 8, xviii. 28; Judges xix. 10). It was at 
Jerusalem that Adoni-bezek died (Judges i. 7). 
Finally the Judahites took the place, burned it, and 
killed its inhabitants. It must have been soon re- 
built; for in the early history of David (I Sam. xvii. 
54) it is again called by its old name, "Jerusalem." 
Perhaps only the " lower city " had been taken 
(Josephus, "Ant." v. 2, § 2) — just as in Maccabean 
times the Acra or citadel was held for twenty-six 
years by the Syrian garrison — which would explain 
the apparent contradiction between verses 8 and 21 
of Judges i. (Moore, "Judges," p. 21). The name 
" Zion " seems already to have been attached to a por- 
tion of the city; at least the "Mezudat Ziyyon " is 
mentioned (II Sam. v. 7; I Chron. xi. 5). But the 
place was renamed by David " 'Ir Dawid " (= " City 
of David "), in the same manner as Assyrian rulers 
were wont to give their names to captured cities. 
Though dignified by the name " 'Ir," the town need 
not necessarily have been large. In addition to the 
fortress, it must have contained some place of wor- 
ship, besides houses for the people and the soldiers. 
What the "Zinnor " (II Sam. v. 8) was is not known. 
The word is usually rendered " watercourse " 
{LXX. napa^i^iC {1); Aquila, Kpovvicfioq =r "stream"; 
Symmachus, eTvaTi^i^ = " battlement, " " parapet " ; 
according to later Hebrew usage, "canal," "aque- 
duct "). 

The exact situation of these early settlements has 
always been a matter of dispute. The author of 
I Mace. iv. 37 says expressly that the Temple was 
built upon Mt. Zion ; and the presence of St. Mar3''s 
Well and the Siloam Pool seems to show that the 
natural position of the ancient fortress was upon the 
edge of the southeastern hill, where, as the excava- 
tions of Guthe and Bliss have shown, the level of 
the ground was much higher than at present. It is 
true that later tradition, both Jewish and Christian, 
agrees in placing Zion upon the southwestern hill ; 
but even the latest attempts of Karl 
Situation Riickert (" Die Lage des Berges Siou, " 
of Zion. Freiburg, 1898), Georg Gatt ("Sion in 
Jerusalem," Brfxen, 1900, and "Zur 
Topographic Jerusalems," in "Z. D. P. V." xxv. 
178), and C. Mommert ("Topographic des Alten 
Jerusalems," Leipsic, 1902) have not been successful 
in harmonizing this theory with the Biblical data. 
The theory is based chiefly upon (1) the direction of 
the old north wall, ending at the Haram, as described 
by Josephus ("B. J." v. 4, § 2), and south of which 
Zion must ( ?) have stood, and (2) the place of David's 
burial, which, according to tradition, is usually 
placed on the southwestern hill (see "Z. D. P. V." 
xxiv. 180-185). 

There were only two natural water sources near 
Jerusalem, En rogel and Gihon, respectively east 
and southeast of the city. The first (II Sam. xvii. 
17; I Kings i. 9) has generally been identified with 




St. Mary's, or the Virgin's, Spring, largely because 
the fliglit of steps running from the spring to Sil- 
wan is to-day called "Zahwayleh," i.e., "Zoheletli" 
(I Kings ^.c). But the distance is too great; and 
the application of the term to these particular steps 
is not certain. En-rogel, according to tradition 
("Ant." vii. 14, § 4), was in the king's garden; and 
Mitchell's identitication of it -with the Bir Ayyub is 
worthy of acceptance ("Jour. Bib. Lit." xxii. 108). 
The well Gihon (I Kings i. 33, 35, 38; II Chron. 
xxxii. 30, xxxiii. 14) is the so-called "Virgin's 
Spring." In addition, there were several pools: the 
"old pool " (Isa. xxii. 11), now called the Patriarch's 
Pool, northwest of the city; the "lower pool" (Isa. 
xxii. 9), now known as the Birkat al-Hamra;and 
the "upper pool" {ib. vii. 3, xxxvi. 2; II Kings 
xviii. 17), probably the Mamilla Pool, west of the 
Jaffa Gate, which fed the "old pool." In regard to 
the "Serpents' Pool," see below. 

The city at this epoch may liave extended to the 
southwestern hill ; but it is not clear what enlarge- 
ments were due to David. In II Sam. v. 9 it is said 
that he built "round about from Millo and inward." 
The Millo, however, was built by Solomon (I Kings 
ix. 15, 24) ; and the reference at the time of David 
may be to the place where in later times the Millo 
was. Whether the latter was part of the wall or a 
citadel (LXX. v aupa) is not known. It was, how- 
ever, part of the defense of the city. 

City of and is mentioned in connection Avith 

David. the walls {ib.). It was strengthened 

by Hezekiah upon the approach of 

Sennacherib (II Chron. xxxii. 5); and may have 

been an artilicial terrace (comp. the Assyrian 


A palace of stone and of cedar-wood from Lebanon 
was built for David by Tyrian workmen (II Sam. 
V. 11, vii. 2). It must have stood somewhere be- 
tween the Temple and the Siloam Pool, from the lat- 
ter of which steps led up to the city of David (Neh. 
iii. 15). Some sort of tabernacle must also have been 
erected for him (^nx. II Sam. vi. 17; r\V^'\'^, 2); 
for he brought the Ark from the house of Abinadab 
in Gibeah, first to the house of Obed-edom, and then 
to the city of David {ib. vi. 8, 11). It was here that 
he deposited the gold and the silver that he had 
taken from the Aramean princes and from the Moab- 
ites and Ammonites, whom he had subdued {ib. 
viii. 11 et seq.). The plague that appeared in the 
land toward the end of David's reign does not seem 
to have touched Jerusalem. It was supposed to 
have been stayed mysteriously at a threshing-floor 
on Mt. Moriah, north of the city of David, belong- 
ing to one Araunah or Aranyah, which place was 
then bought by David, who erected an altar there 
(II Sam. xxiv. 14 et seq. ; I Chron. xxi. 15 -et «*eq.). 
David was buried " in the city of David " (I Kings 
ii. 10). The site of the tomb is unknown; but it was 
situated probably in the rocks of the southeastern 
hill ("Z. D. P. V."iii. 210, v. 330). It is mentioned 
in Neh. iii. 16 as being near to the steps (see 
above) ; and it was known in New Testament times 
(Acts ii. 29). 

Under Solomon the city took on a much grander 
aspect. There is now definite reference to a wall 
surrounding it (I Kings iii. 9, ix. 15), a part of which 

seems to have been the Millo mentioned above. 
This wall must have enclosed some portion left open 
by David {ib. xi. 27). Solomon erected 
Improve- a palace made up of various build- 
ments by ings {ib. iii. 1), which took thirteen 
Solomon, years to build {ib. vii. 1). The Temple 
was commenced in the month Ziv {ib. 
vi. 1 ; .see Temple); it occupied seven 3X'ars in con- 
struction, and was finished in the montli Bui {ib. vi. 
38). With the help of a Tyrian, the two pillars 
Jachin and Boaz were fashioned out of bronze {ib. 
vii. 13 et seq., ix. 11). The Temple was made up 
of a forecourt, the Holy Place (40 X 20 X 30 ells), 
the Holy of Holies (a cube of 20 ells), and various 
smaller buildings adjoining. To this Temple the 
Ark was removed from the city of David on the 
Feast of Tabernacles {ib. viii. 1). With the assist- 
ance of Hiram of Tyre (I Kings v. 15 etseq.), Solo- 
mon built a palace for Pharaoh's daughter {ib. vii. 
8), and the "house of the forest of Lebanon " ("bet 
ya'ar ha-Lebauon," ib. vii. 2), Avhich measured 100 
X 50 X 30 cubits, and the top part of which was used 
as an armory {ib. x. 16). All these buildings, con- 
structed of stone and wood, seem to have stood in 
a sort of court ("hazer"), around which was a wall 
of three courses of stone (ib. vii. 12). Smaller courts 
surrounded the individual buildings. Solomon is 
said to have embellished Jerusalem with silver and 
costly wood {ib. x. 27). In later years he built, also, 
a " bamah " to Chemosh and to Molech " in the mount 
that is before Jerusalem" {ib. xi. 7, R. V.). 

The extent of the city at this time might be gaged 
by tracing the probable line of the wall, if that line 
were at all certain. Some scholars believe that Sol- 
omon enclosed the western hill ; the wall would then 
be the first of the three, Avhich had sixty crenela- 
tions, mentioned by Josephus ("B. J." v. 4, § 2). It 
would accordingly have commenced at what was 
later the tower Hippicus, near the present Jaffa 
Gate; running eastward to the Xystus, it would 
then have encircled the greater part of the Temple 
mount ; bending south and southwest, it would have 
skirted Ophel, though not including the Siloam 
Pool (Josephus says " above the fountains ") ; and, 
enclosing the present Jewish and Protestant ceme- 
teries, it would then have turned north again, meet- 
ing the other end at the Jaffa Gate. Upon this sup- 
position, the remains found in the excavations of 
Maudslay in 1865, successfully followed by Bliss in 
1896-97, are parts of this wall. Where the towers 
Hananeel and Ha-Meah or Meah stood can not be 
ascertained. They are mentioned in Jer. xxxi. 38; 
Zech. xiv. 10; Neh. iii. 1, xii. 39. The former 
seems to have marked the northeast corner of the 
city ; the latter, to have been on a wall leading west- 
ward from this corner. 

After the partition of the kingdom Jerusalem suf- 
fered many vicissitudes. It was taken by Shishak 
of Egypt at the time of Rehoboam of 
As Capital Judah (I Kings xiv. 25-26) ; and Je- 
of Judah. hoash of Israel destroyed 400 cubits of 
the wall from the Ephraim Gate to the 
corner gate (II Kings xiv. 13). It seems probable 
that the wall was repaired under Uzziah ; at least, 
according to II Chron. xxvi. 9, he built towers over 
three of the gates. The Ophel wall was further re- 




paired or enlarged by Jotham {ib. xxvii. 3); and a 
gate, called in Jer. xxxvi. 10 the "new gate," was 
built in the north wall of the Temple court (II 
Kings XV. 35). The coming of Sennacherib (701) 
caused the rebuilding of some portion of the wall 
which in the course of time had become ruined ; but 
Sennacherib withdrew and Jerusalem was spared a 
siege (see Nagel, " Der Zug des Sanherib Gegen Jeru- 
salem," Leipsic, 1902; and Jensen in "Theol. Lit. 
Zeitung," 1904, 4, col. 103). Ilezekiah is mentioned 
as having done this repairing. He also rebuilt the 
Millo, and especially erected "another wall out- 
side" (Isa. xxxii. 10; II Chron. xxxii. 5). This is 
probably Josephus' second wall, which " took its 
beginning from that gate which they called Gen- 
neth, which belonged to the first wall: it only en- 
compassed the northern quarter of the city and 
reached as far as the tower Antonia," the northwest 
corner of the Temple mount ("B. 3." I.e.). This 
indicates the growth of the city to the north ; the 
additional part being called " Mishneh " (" second 
city"; II Kings xxii. 14; Zeph. i. 10). Whether 
the Maktesh (Zeph. 1. 11), in which the Phenician 
traders lived, was a part of the city can not be 
ascertained (Neh. xiii. 16; Zech. xiv. 21). 

To Hezekiah was due also the regulation of the 
water-supply in Jerusalem, so that the city might 
be prepared for a siege. The only natural spring of 
real value is Gihon on the southeastern side in the 
Kidron Valley (now called "Virgin's Spring" or 
" Spring of the Steps "), which from early times 
seems to have been used to provide the city with 
water. Undoubted traces have been found of an 
early conduit, partly open and partly underground, 
which conducted the water from the spring around 
the hill into the city of David (perhaps the earlier 
" Shiloah " of Isa. viii. 6 ; see Schick in " Palestine 
Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement " [hereafter 
cited as "P. E. F. S."], 1886, p. 197). In 1867 a rock 
tunnel was discovered by Warren that brought 
the water westward into a basin cut in the rocks; to 
this access was had by a shaft from above (per- 
haps the "king's pool," Neh. ii. 14), from the top 
of which a series of corridors led to an exit 
on the Hill of Ophel. Hezekiah cut off the flow 
of water to the north and had a conduit exca- 
vated through the rock, thus leading the water 
within the city limits to the Siloam Pool (II Chron. 
xxxii. 30; II Kings xx. 20). This Siloam conduit, 
which was discovered in 1880, is 1,757 
"Water- feet in length. At about 19 feet from 
Supply, the Siloam end was found the famous 
inscription detailing the manner in 
which the undertaking had been carried out (see 
Siloam Inscription). The usefulness of this work 
may be gaged by the fact that it is specially men- 
tioned to Hezekiah's honor by Ben Sira (Ecclus. 
[Sirach] xlviii. 17). It seems probable also that this 
king built a special fortification around Siloam 
("wall of the pool of Siloah,"Neh. iii. 15; "between 
the two walls," Isa. xxxii. 11 ; Jer. Hi. 7). The graves 
of the common people (Jer. xxvi. 23, xxxi. 40) were 
probably in the Kidron Valley. The wall built 
by Manasseh (II Chron. xxxiii. 14) encompassed 
Ophel; starting west of Gihon, it must have been 
an additional protection for the southeastern for- 

tifications. Its position can not be accurately de- 

In the reign of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar of 
Babylon made his first invasion into Palestine. 
There is no trace of a siege of Jerusalem at this 
time; but some of the Temple vessels were carried 
off {ib. xxxvi. 7). In 597 B.C., however, an encir- 
cling wall was built by the invaders, and the city 
invested. At the time of Jehoiachin (Jer. Iii. 6) 
famine raged in the city. The rebellion of Zedekiah 
caused a second invasion in 587; and after a siege of 
a year and a half Jerusalem was taken on the nintJi 
day of the fourth month (Ab), 586. The beauty 
and the strength of the city were destroyed. Nebu- 
chadnezzar's general, Nebuzar-adan, burned the 
Temple, carrying away all the brass and the ves- 
sels; he burned also the king's palace and the 
larger houses of the city. The walls were razed, 
and a large number of the inhabitants (10,000, ac- 
cording to II Kings xxiv. 14) were deported and 
settled in various parts of Babylon; 
Taken by anumberprobably at Nippur, to judge 
Nebuchad- from the names found by Hilprecht in 

nezzar. the business documents of that city 
("P. E. F. S." 1898, pp. 54, 137; Bat- 
ten, "Ezra and Nehemiah," p. 57, in "S. B. O. 
T."). Even before this the city must have been 
depleted through the flight of many to Egypt 
(Jer. xlii. et seq.). The seat of government was re- 
moved to Mizpah (II Kings xxv. 23; Jer. xli. 1 
et seq.). 

There are no materials for a history of Jerusalem 
during the period of the captivity, or even during 
the centuries following the return. The view ad- 
vanced by Kosters and supported especially by 
Wildeboer and Cheyne will be criticized elsewhere 
(see Zerubbabel); but there seems to be no really 
valid ground for doubting the tradition reported by 
the chronicler in Ezra iii. of a first return under 
Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel in 539, during the reign 
of Cyrus; though Kosters may be right in pointing 
out that the Judahites who had been left in the city 
must have continued the worship of Yhwh in some 
manner or other. In the seventh month of that year 
there was a great gathering in Jerusalem, and the 
altar of burnt offering was again set up — presuma- 
bly upon the place it had formerly occupied. The 
reconstruction of the Temple was begun in the sec- 
ond month of the second year (537; Ezra iii. Set seq.). 
Though this was attended with great ceremony (ib. 
verses 10-11), it is entirely ignored by the accounts 
in Ezra v. 2; Hag. i. 14, ii. 15; and Zech. viii. 8, 
which place the commencement of the building sev- 
enteen j'ears later, in 520, during the reign of Darius 
Hystaspcs, under the same Zerubbabel and the high 
priest Jeshua. But as nothing is said 

Rebuilt in Ezra iii. of the amount of building 
537-516 done, it may be surmised that it did 
B.C. not extend beyond the mere founda- 

tions, the work being interrupted by 
the evil devices of the Samaritans (ib. iv.), who made 
complaint to the suzerain in Babylon. Even the 
erection of the building of the year 520 was not un- 
interrupted, Tatnai, governor of Coele-Syria and 
Phenicia, making a second reference of the matter 
to Babylon necessary (Ezra vi.). It was at length 




finished iu 516 {ib. verse 15). For the Temple build- 
ing itself see Temple. 

It is possible that the Birah or fortress was built 
at this time, though it is tirst mentioued in Neh. ii. 
8. It was twice rebuilt in later times: once (" Ant." 
XV. 11, § 4, " Baris ") by thelTasmoneau kings, and a 
second time by Herod, who renamed it "Tower of 
Antonia." It was a strong, square building in the 
northwestern corner of the Temple mount, of some 
extent, as it had several gates. It was here that the 
high priests' vestments were kept {ib. xviii. 4, § 3), 
if the tower "built" by the high priest Hyrcanus is 
to be identified with Antonia, as is done by Josephus. 

The population of the city was further augmented 
by the expedition under Ezra in the year 458, which 
comprised 1,496 men, besides women and children. 
It was through Ezra and Nehemiah that the new 
community was organized. It is difficult to esti- 
mate accurately 
the relation of 
these two to each 
other; but the 
material build- 
ing up of the 
city seems to 
have been due 
to the latter. 
Whatever theo- 
ries may exist 
regarding the 
composition of 
the Book of Ne- 
hemiah, the data 
there given are 
old and trust- 
worthy. Nehe- 
miah's night 
journey around 
the walls (Neh. 
ii. 13 et seg.), the 
account of the 
building opera- 
tions (ib. iii.), 
and the route of 
the processions 
(ib. xii.), would give definite information as regards 
the extent of the city if the identification of the 
gates were in every case certain. A thorough ex- 
position of the archeological data to be gotten from 
Nehemiah's accounts will be found in Ryssel's com- 
mentary (" Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch"). 
The most recent study of the subject has been com- 
menced by H. Vincent in "Revue 
The Night Biblique," 1904, pp. 56 et seq. In his 

Ride of night ride Nehemiah starts from the 
Nehemiah. Valley Gate : goes in the direction of 
the well 'En-Tannin, then to the 
Dung Gate, the Fountain Gate, and the Pool of the 
King; passes through the valley ; and returns to the 
Valley Gate. The location of these various places 
depends upon the position assigned to the Valley 
Gate. The word "Gai" undoubtedly stands for 
" Gai ben Hinnom " ; and this must be identical with 
the Wadi al-Rababi on the south and its continua- 
tion northward on the west. Bliss has uncovered a 
line of wall starting southwest of the old Pool of 

Southern Wall of Jerusalem at Various Times 

(After Bliss.) 

Siioam and running in a northwestern direction, as 
well as remains of a gate 600 feet from what was 
the southwestern corner of the ancient city. This 
was probably the Valley Gate, althougii many iden- 
tify the latter with the present Jaffa Gate, on the 
western side of the city. From the Valley Gate 
Nehemiah, taking the direction of the Serpents' 
Pool (" 'En-Tannin " ; sometimes identified with the 
pool of that name mentioned by Josephus ["B. J." 
V. 3, § 2]; by Caspari and Schick ["Z. D. P. V." 
xiv. 42], witli the aqueduct which led the water 
from the Pools of Solomon; by Stade and Mitchell, 
however, with Eu-rogel ["Jour. Bib. Lit." 1903, p. 
114]), proceeded to the Dung Gate, 1,000 cubits 
from his starting-point, and possibly the Harsith 
Gate of Jer. xix. 2, which in turn may be identified 
with a second gate, discovered by Bliss, 1,900 feet 
east of the first. He then went east, crossed the Ty- 

ropceon below 
the present Bir- 
kat al-Hamra, 
and came to the 
Fountain Gate 
near the Siioam 
Pool (here called 
the " pool of the 
king"), perhaps 
the " gate be- 
tween two 
walls " through 
which King Zed- 
ekiah fled (II 
Kings XXV. 4; 
Jer. xxxix. 4, Iii. 
4), traces of 
which have also 
been found by 
Bliss. Nehe- 
miah was then 
in the Kidron 
Valley, and, be- 
ing unable to 
proceed farther 
along the walls, 
he returned to 
the city through the Valley Gate. It seems there- 
fore that he examined only the southern and the 
southwestern walls of the city. 

The walls and gates as rebuilt under Nehemiah's 
directions are succinctly noticed in Neh. iii. ; and their 
order is partially assured by the reverse enumera- 
tion, ib. xii. 38 et seq. The Sheep Gate is naturally to 
be sought for north of the Temple area. It is identi- 
fied by some with the " gate of Benjamin " (Jer. 
xxxvii. 13, xxxviii. 7). The Fish Gate was so 
named after Tj^rians who brought fish to Jerusalem 
(Neh. xiii. 16), and was situated on the northwestern 
side near the present Damascus Gate (II Chron. 
xxxiii. 14; Zeph. i. 10). The latter, which was 
strengthened by Manasseh, is sometimes called the 
"middle gate" (Jer. xxxix. 3). The 
The Gates. " old gate " or " gate of the old pool " 
— referring perhaps to the Patriarch's 
Pool northwest of the city — is called also "Sha'ar 
ha-Rishon" (Zech. xiv. 10) and "Sha'ar ha-Pinnah" 
(II Kings xiv. 13; Jer. xxxi. 38; "ha-Poneh," II 




Chron. xxv. 23; "ha-Pinnim," Zech. xiv. 10). The 
Ephraim Gate led to the chief road to the north, 
where the throne of the Persian governor was 
placed ; which throne can not have been in another 
place, Mizpah, the residence of the governor, as 
Kyle and Mitchell suggest. Where the " broad wall" 
was can not now be determined. In connection 
with it, reference is made to the "tower of the fur- 
naces" (Neh. iii. 11), mentioned before the Valley 
Gate, and which was probably somewhere along the 
Tyroposon Valley. Schick, however (" Z. D. P. V." 
xiv. 51), places it near the Tower of David; Stade, 
about the middle of the western wall ; and Mitchell 
{ib. p. 138), at the southwestern corner of the ancient 
city, where the remains of a tower whose base was 
hewn out of the native rock have been found ("P. 
E. F. S." 1875, p. 83). Then came the Dung Gate 
and the Fountain Gate mentioned above, a wall or 
a dam enclosing the Siloam Spring {i.e., the "lower 
pool," Birkat al-Hamra), in the neighborhood of 
which were the king's gardens (II Kings xxv. 4), 
the king's wine-presses (Zech. xiv. 10), and the steps 
leading down from the city of David on the eastern 
side of the hill ("Z. D. P. V." xi. 12), an artificial pool 
(Neh. iii. 16), and the "house of the warriors," either 
a tower or a species of barracks. The line of wall 
then turned ("angle," ib. verse 19) apparently to the 
northeast. Here two corners were found by Guthe 
("Z. D. P. V." V. 298), between which turning and 
Ophel were the houses of the high priest and the 
dwelling-places of the Nethinim (Neh. iii. 21-23). 
Then came the upper royal palace, a projecting 
tower the ruins of which have been found, tlie 
"court of the guard" {ib. 25, 26), and the Water 
Gate {ib. iii. 26, xii. 37), near which there must have 
been an open space {ib. viii. 1, 3, 16); it was prob- 
ably so called because a road led from it to the 
Virgin's Spring. The Horse Gate {ib. iii. 28) was 
probablj' toward the southeastern corner of the 
Temple. In former times it was directly connected 
with the palace (II Kings xi. 16; II Chron. xxiii. 
15 ; comp. Jer. xxxi. 40). The other gates of the 
Temple wall on the east were the "gate of Benja- 
min " (Jer. XX. 2 ; R. V. " upper gate of Benjamin " ; 
Zech. xiv. 10); the "gate of the Guard," generally 
located at the northeastern corner of the Temple 
area, though Schick and Mitchell are inclined to place 
it south of the Temple; and the "gate Miphkad " 
(Neh. iii. 31). The Sheep Gate on the north ended 
the work. 

In addition to the walls, Nehemiah did much for 
the rebuilding of the city itself. A house for the 
high priest is mentioned (Neh. iii. 20), as are also 
dwellings for the other priests near the Horse Gate 
{ib. iii. 28) ; while, as stated above, the Nethinim 
had residences on Ophel, west of the Water Gate 
{ib. iii. 26), where there was also an outlying tower. 
The king's palace seems still to have been standing, 
or to have been rebuilt {ib. iii. 25), and was also 
flanked by a tower. It has been computed that the 
whole city thus included within the walls (Temple 
mount, the old city, and its southern additions) oc- 
cupied about 200 acres, and covered both the eastern 
and the western hills. It is said to have been " large 
and great " {ib. vii. 4) ; but there were few houses 
built for the common people. 

No events during the Persian period are recorded 
with any certainty. Josephus has a story that one 
Bagoses (Bagoas), " the general of Artaxerxes' army, " 
used a quarrel between the high priest John and his 
brother Jesus (in which the latter was slain) as a 

pretext to enter the Temple with his 

Seized Persian soldiers and to "punish the 

by the Jews for seven years" ("Ant." xi. 7, 

Persians. § 1; Eusebius, ed. Schoene, ii. 112). 

This Bagoas is supposed to be the 
general of the same name under Artaxerxes Oclius 
(357-338), who with Memnon put down an Egyp- 
tian revolt. The identification is quite uncertain, 
in spite of the authority of Noldeke (" Aufsatze," p. 
78), Wellhausen ("I. J. G." p. 146), and Cheyne 
("Introduction to Isaiah," p. 360). Winckler places 
the occurrence under Cambyses (Schrader, "K. A. 
T."3ded., pp. 120, 291). 

Whether Alexander the Great was really in Jeru- 
salem after the siege of Gaza in 332 is a matter of 
dispute, though it is hardly to be supposed that he 
was in Palestine without visiting the capital. The 
Talmud (Yoma 69a, etc.) has a reminiscence of such 
a visit, which may be true despite the legendary 
character of the details in Josephus (Gratz, "Gesch." 
ii. , 2d. ed. , p. 221). The latter says (" Ant. " xi. 8, §§ 4 
et seq.) that Alexander exempted its inhabitants from 
the payment of tribute in the seventh year (see Jew. 
Encyc. i. 341, s.v. Alexander the Great). But 
the city naturally suffered during the wars between 
the Ptolemies and the Seleucids which followed the 
disruption of Alexander's Asiatic empire. Ptolemy 
Soter seized Jerusalem (in 320 or 305) on a Sabbath- 
day, as Josephus says ("Ant." xii. 1, § 1) on the au- 
thority of Agatharchides of Cnidus, and the priests 
probably paid tribute to him. In 203 the city was 
taken by Antiochus; but it was retaken in 199 by 
the Egyptian general Scopas. The Jews inclined to 
the Seleucids. According to Josephus ("Ant." xiii. 
3, § 3), they even assisted Antiochus when in 198 he 
seized the (Egyptian?) garrison which was in the 
citadel of Jerusalem, and admitted him and his sol- 
diers into the city. The Syrian king showed his 
gratitude by assisting in the rebuilding of various 
places which had fallen into decay, by repopulating 
the city, by supplying material for the sacrifices, 

and by removing part of the heavy 
Under the taxes. It seems probable that Simon, 
Seleucids. the high priest, using the permission 

to offer sacrifices, had the Temple re- 
paired, a cistern dug, the wall for the Temple 
("hekal melek ") built, and the city fortified; for 
all of which he is praised by Ben Sira (Ecclus. 
[Sirach] 1. 1-4). 

If the letter of Ari&teas dates from about 200 B.C., 
as Schiirer and Abrahams hold, it gives a fair de- 
scription of the appearance of the city and especially 
of the Temple at that time. The city comprised 40 

stadia, and the wall had towers. The 

Described narrator expresses his especial aston- 

by Aristeas ishment at the many canals that carried 

and off the blood and the water from the 

Hecataeus. Temple, and at the magnificence of 

the service. A similar description of 
Jerusalem at this time occurs in the fragments 
ascribed to Hecataeus of Abdera (cited by Jose- 




pbus, "Contra Ap." i. 23), wiio speaks of the city as 
being 50 stadia in extent, with 120,000 iuliabitants; 
of the wall surrounding the Temple area (150 miles 
in length, 44 miles wide); and of the altars and 
priests in the Temple (Heinach, "Textes," ]). 232). 
The " flagrant mistakes " whicli the letter of Aristeas 
is supposed to contain (Kautzsch, " Apokryphen," 
ii. 12, note b) are not apparent. Tliis view rests upon 
his description (§§ 100-104) of the Acra or citadel, 
whicli was the chief defense of the Temple area. 
That such an Acra existed is evidenced, in spite of 
Wendland, Willrich, and Wellhausen, by the pres- 
ence of the Sj'rian garrison left there by the Egyp- 
tian general Scopas (II Mace. iv. 27; "Ant." xii. 3, 
§ 1), which garrison was driven out by Simon Mac- 
cabeus (I Mace. xiii. 49). Where the Acra stood is 
doubtful, as the word is applied by Josephus in a 
general sense to various citadels. Under the Has- 
moneans this defense was finally razed, the hill on 
which it stood being leveled, in order that the Tem- 
ple might rise high above all other buildings, and to 
prevent the occupation of the citadel by an enemy 
("Ant." xiii. 6, § 7). The northwestern part of the 
Temple mount can not be meant, as the rock upon 
which the Antonia was built still exists. In addi- 
tion, I Maccabees speaks repeatedly of the Greeks 
fortifying themselves in the "city of David" (i. 33, 
ii. 31, vii. 32, xiv. 36), which overlooked the Temple 
("Ant." xii. 9, §3; 10, %5). 

The spread of Hellenism was in many w^ays fatal 
to the Jews of Jerusalem. It introduced factions 
into the life of the people ; and the contests between 
the brothers Jason and Menelaus for the high- 
priestly office occasioned the presence of Antiochus 
Epiphanes (170 B.C.), who plundered the Temple of 
its treasures and killed a large number of the inhab- 
itants (I Mace. i. 20; II Mace. v. 12; "Ant." xii. 5, 
§ 3; "B. J." i. 1, § 1). Two years later his general 
and farmer of the taxes, Apollonius, attacked Jeru- 
salem with a large army; took the city, also kill- 
ing a large number ; set fire to many of its build- 
ings, razed some of its walls, and carried away 
many captives. The altar of the Temple was dese- 
crated; and the Temple itself was given over to 
heathen worsliip. Apollonius built a strong wall 
around the Acra, which he evidently enlarged (I 
Mace. i. 29; II Mace. v. 24), and in which he en- 
trenched the Syrian garrison. Jerusalem must, how- 
ever, have commenced to take on the appearance of 
a Hellenic city. There was a gymnasium built on 
the hill west of the Temple (I Mace. i. 14; "Ant." 
xii. 5, § 1); probably the Xystus (Colonnade), which 
was joined to the Temple plateau by a bridge. 

In 165 Judas Maccabeus was at length successful 
in driving the Syrians out of the Temple and out 
of the greater part of the city, in honor of which 
the Feast of Hanukkah was instituted. The Tem- 
ple mount was fortified with high walls and strong 
towers (I Mace. iv. 60, vi. 7). The 
Recaptured citadel, however, was not freed until 
by Judas the time of Simon (142). In 163 Jeru- 
Maccabeus. salem was once more besieged, by 
Antiochus V"., Eupator. Failing to 
take it, he feigned a peace ; and, entering the city, 
be caused the wall around the Temple area to be 
xazed (I Mace. vi. 60 et seq. ; "Ant." xii. 9, g§ 5-7). 

It was rebuilt by the Maccabean Jonathan with rect- 
angular stones, and he also repaired the walls of 
the city (I Mace. x. 10, 11). In 143 he raised the 
wall still higher, rebuilding a portion called " Caphe- 
natha," which led down to the Kidron Valley, and 
which had fallen into decay {ib. xii. 36, 37). Fi- 
nally, he built a wall to separate effectually the 
Acra from the rest of the city (ib.). This work was 
completed by his successor, Simon (ib. xiii. 10), who 
as related above expelled the Syrian garrison and 
leveled the hill of the Acra. Tlie author of I Macca- 
bees, however, knows nothing of this leveling ; in 
xiv. 37 he speaks of Simon's fortifying the citadel, 
and in xv. 28 he mentions it as still existing. Well- 
hausen ("I. J. G." p. 227) supposes that the work 
was done at the time of John Hyrcanus. No cer- 
tainty can be reached on this subject; but that the 
leveling occurred is proved by the various ground- 
levels as they exist to-day (Schurer, " Gesch." i. 195, 
note 14).' Under Hyrcanus the city was once again 
besieged, by Antiochus VII., Sidetes (134 B.C.). 
Towers were raised by him opposite the northern 
wall; and great suffering ensued. On this occasion 
Hyrcanus opened the sepulcher of David and took 
out 3,000 talents ("Ant." vii. 15, § 3; "B. J." i. 2, 
§ 5). A truce was made and, while the Syrian gar- 
rison was not admitted, some part of the fortifica- 
tions around the city was leveled ("Ant." xiii. 8, §^ 
2-4); it seems, however, to have been soon rebuilt 
(I Mace. xvi. 23). 

The Roman power was hovering not far from 
Judea. It was soon to fasten its claws upon Jeru- 
salem, in consequence of the fratricidal war be- 
tween Aristobulus II. and Hj'rcanus II. Aristobu- 
lus had fortified himself on the Temple mount, 
where he was besieged by Hyrcanus, aided by the 
Idumean Aretas. Pompey was appealed to by 
both combatants ; and, not wishing to decide in favor 
of either, he moved against the city (66 B.C.). The 
war party had entrenched itself behind the walls in 
the northern part of the Temple area, and day after 
day Pompey raised a bank on which the Roman 
battering-rams were placed. These finally broke 

down one of the towers and made 

Captured breaches in the wall (Tacitus, "Hist." 

by V. 9; Dio Cassius, xxxvii. 16). Jose- 

Pompey . phus (" Ant. " xiv. 4, § 4 ; " B. J. " i. 7, 

§ 12) says that 12,000 Jews perished, 
and that many houses were fired by the Jews them- 
selves. Though the Temple was not touched, the 
bridge crossing the Tyropceon to the Xystus was 
destroyed; this, however, was rebuilt later ("B. J.'" 
ii. 16, 1 4). Jerusalem thus became (in the autumn of 
63) the capital of one of the five provinces into 
which Palestine was divided ("Ant." xiv. 5, §4; 
" B. J. " i. 8, § 5) ; but this arrangement was not of 
long duration. The Syrian proconsul M. Lucinius 
Crassus despoiled the Temple, taking 2,000 talents 
of money and all the golden objects he could find 
("Ant." xiv. 7, § 1; "B. J." i. 8, § 8). Permission 
to rebuild the walls was given by Julius Cssar 
("Ant." xiv. 10, § 5). More blood was shed in the 
conflicts between Antigonus. Phasael. and Herod, 
the sons of the Idumean Antipater; and in the year 
40 the Parthians, under Pacorus and Barzapharnes, 
occupied Jerusalem and plundered it and the sur- 




rounding country ("Ant." xiv. 13, §9). The city 
itself was beleaguered by Herod (87 b.c.) and the 
Roman general Sosius, the attack coming again 
from the north. After forty days the first wall was 
taken ; after fifteen more, the second ; finally, the 
Temple and the upper city were captured and a ter- 
rible slaughter ensued (" Ant. " xiv. 16, § 3 ; " B. J. " 1. 
18, § 2). 

With the accession of Herod the city entered on a 
period of outward brilliancy. He was the great 
building king, and is renowned especially for the 
palace that he erected and for the Temple that he 
restored. The palace was built (24 B.C.) upon the 
extreme western part near the present Jaffa Gate, 
where to-day are the barracks and the 
Buildings Armenian Garden. It was walled in 
of Herod, to the height of 30 cubits; it had tow- 
ers, many porticos in which were pil- 
lars, and large chambers; and outside were groves 
of trees, a deep canal, cisterns, and brazen statues, 
all of which excite the admiration of Joseplius. 
Herod's restoration of the Temple, begun in 20 b.c. 
(finished in 62-64 c.E.), was carried out with great 
magnificence. He built also a theater, and in the 
plain ("P. E. F. S." 1887, p. 161) an amphitheater 
covered with "inscriptions of the great actions of 
CfBsar " ("Ant." XV. 8, § 1 ; a hippodrome, according 
to "B. J." ii. 3, § 1), as well as a town hall, near the 
present mahkamah ; and in the northeast he erected 
a monument to himself ("B. J." v. 12, § 2), which 
can not be exactly located. He enlarged the Baris 
commanding the Temple on the north, and renamed 
it"Antonia." It was connected ■with the Temple 
by a flight of stairs (Acts xxi. 35). He does not 
seem to have added to the walls, but to have 
strengthened and beautified them to the north of his 
palace by four towers called respectively " Psephi- 
nus " (an octagon 70 cubits high), " Hippicus " (a 
square of 25 cubits), " Mariamne " (a square of 40 
cubits), and " Phasael " (a square of 30 cubits). In 
these towers were reservoirs and living-rooms; and 
they had battlements and turrets ("B. J." v. 4, § 3). 
Of the other features of the city at this time may be 
mentioned the Ko^vfift^6[)a 'Afivydalov (" B. J." v. 11, 
§ 4), which, if it represents the Hebrew "Bere- 
kat ha-Migdalim," must have been in the neighbor- 
hood of the four towers. Where the " Lishkat ha- 
Gazit." in which the Sanhedrin sat, w^as .situated is 
not clear. According to the Mishuah, it was in the 
inner court of the Temple. If it is the Bovatj of 
Josephus, or rather the BovIevtt/piov, it must have 
been on the western side of the Temple mount not 
far from the Xystus, of which word the Hebrew 
"Gazit" would be a translation (Schiirer, "Gesch." 
3d ed., ii. 211). The city, largely extended as it 
was to the north, was indeed magnificent in appear- 
ance, but with a strangely Roman character im- 
printed upon an Oriental background. It was dur- 
ing the reign of Herod that Jesus was born (Matt. 
ii. 1; Luke ii. 1); and during the reign of Herod's 
successor, Herod Antipas, that he was crucified (see 

Very little change was effected in Jerusalem dur- 
ing the years between Herod and the destruction 
under Titus. Pilate increased the water-supply by 
building a conduit 200 furlongs in length; whence 

the water came, Josephus does not state ("Ant." 
xviii. 3, § 2). If this conduit was one of those 
which carried the water from the Pools of Solomon 
south of Bethlehem, it is probable that Pilate only 
repaired what already existed (Baedeker, " Palestine 
and Syria," p. 132). The friction between Jews and 
Romans increased, especially as a garrison of the 
latter was permanently stationed in the Antonia. 
The northern suburb had grown to such an extent 
that in the year 41 of the common era Agrippa I. 
repaired its walls, making them broader and higher 
("Ant." xix. 7, § 2). Josephus says that the work 
was stopped by Emperor Claudius, 
Growth of and that the people completed it. 
Northern probably not in as magnificent a style 
Suburb. as had been contemplated ("B. J." v. 
4, § 2). According to Schick, this 
work is represented by the present northern wall 
("Z. D. P. V." xvii. 87). Most of the original wall 
has in course of time been carried off for building^ 
purposes; but as late as 1869 about forty or fifty 
yards were still visible (Merrill, in "P. E. F. S." 
1903, p. 159). This new part of the city was over 
against the Antonia, but was divided from it, as a 
precaution, by a deep valley. Josephus calls this 
"Bezetha" ("B. J." v. 5, §8), which he interprets 
as "New City," but which in Aramaic ought to be 
" Bet-Hadta. " It is called " Bezeth " in I Mace. vii. 
19; "Bezetho" in "Ant. " xii. 10, § 2; "Bethzatha" 
in John v. 2 (R. V., margin; "Bethesda," A. V.; 
NTDn n^3 in Palestinian Syriac ; see Gratz, "Gesch." 
iii., note 11). 

The beauty of the city was enhanced by several 
palaces erected toward the south hy the royal fam- 
ily of Adiabene: one by Monobaz near the wail run- 
ning east from Siloam (" B. J. " v. 6, § 1) ; another for 
Queen Helena ("in the middle of the Acra," "Ant." 
vi. 6, § 8) ; and a third built by Grapte, a relative of 
Izates ("B. J." iv. 9, § 11). A family burial-place 
was erected by Helena three furlongs north of the 
city in the form of a triple pyramid ("Ant." xx. 4, 
§ 3). Agrippa II. built an addition to the Hasmo- 
nean palace near the Xystus, which, however, gave 
offense to the priests, as from it all the doings in the 
Temple courts could be observed. It was also a 
menace in time of war. They, therefore, erected a 
wall which effectually shut out the inner court even 
from the western cloisters, in which a Roman guard 
was kept ("Ant." xx. 8, § 11). The Antonia was 
also a constant menace to the Temple itself. In the 
time of Florus the Jews destroyed the cloisters be- 
tween the two buildings ("B. J." ii. 15, §6); but 
subsequently they were rebuilt. 

A picture of Jerusalem shortly before its final de- 
struction can be drawn from the accounts of Jo- 
sephus, Tacitus, and the New Testament. The ; 
varied character of its population must have been ' 
quite evident, made up, as it was, of different i 
parties of Jews, notably Zealots and Hellenists, on \ 
the one hand, and of Romans on the other. At the \ 
time of the great festivals, the city and its surround- i 
ings must have been filled with Jews from other j 
towns and villages, and even from the farthest por- ] 
tions of the Diaspora ("Ant." xvii. 9, §3). Jose- 
phus says that at one time 2,565,000 offered the 
Passover sacrifice ("B. J." vi. 9, t^ 3; comp. John 




xii. 20; Acts ii. 5-11; and "Z. D. P. V." iv. 211), 
and that at the similar festival in the time of Florus 
3,000,000 were present ("B. J."ii. 14, § 3)— as evident 

an exaggeration as the Talmudic reek- 
Jerusalem oning of 12,000,000 (see Chwolson, 
Before "Das Letztc Passamahl Christi," p. 
the Fall. 48), though Tacitus ("Hist." v. 13) 

states that the number of the besieged 
was 600,000. According to Josephus ("B. J." v. 6, 
§ 1) there were 10,000 soldiers in Jerusalem at the 
time of the final rebellion in addition to 5,000 Idu- 
means. The Roman procurator had his court in the 
Pretorium (Mark xv. 16 et seq.). It seems likely 
that this was part of the Antonia, where the Roman 
garrison was situated (Acts xxi. 34) and where the 
procurator's judgment-seat is said to have been 
(Matt, xxvii. 19). 

The account of Tacitus ("Hist." v. 8-12) is 
meager. He mentions the walls with towers 120 feet 
high, part of which height was that of the natural 
elevation upon which \hej were built. He mentions 
also a perennial fountain of water. Further details, 
especially of the walls, are given by Josephus ("B. 
J." V. 4). He says that the city lay upon two op- 
posite hills, with a valley between: the one contain- 
ing the upper city was much higher and longer, 
and was called in his day the " upper market-place " ; 
the other hill, called "Acra," was afifiKvprog ("gib- 
bous"), referring, no doubt, to the city of David 
of the (31d Testament, i.e., Zion. Over against this 
was a third hill, lower and separated from it by a 
valley, evidently the Temple mount. In addition 
to this there was the " new city " (for another, novel 
but unacceptable, view of these designations see 
Gatt in "Z. D. P. V." xxv. 178). This would give 
the city an extent of about 33 stadia or 6 square 
kilometers; though Eusebius gives only 27 stadia. 
The walls were three in number. That on the north 
was a triple one, on account of the vulnerable con- 
dition of the city from that direction. The southern- 
most wall encompassed the upper and the lower city 
and Ophel. It started at Hippicus, ran south to the 
Gate of the Essenes at the southwest corner of the 
city, then east, curving as it approached the Kidron 
Valley, from which it ran north-northeast, joining 
the Temple enclosure at its southeastern extremity. 
Bliss supposes that this wall did not include the 
Siloam Pool, as Josephus ("B. J." v. 9, § 4) speaks 
of the pool as being in the hands of the Romans. On 
the north it ran from Hippicus directly east to 
the northern edge of the southwestern hill, near the 
Xystus, where it joined the western porch of the 
Temple. The second wall to the north has been 
partly retraced by the excavations of Schick. It 
must have started near Hippicus and the gate Gen- 
natb, running slightly northward, enclosing the 
Amygdalon Pool, and then east; thence it ran 
north-northeast until it reached the Antonia. Schick 
supposed that it did not include the place where 
now the Church of the Sepulcher stands; but, ac- 
cording to Mitchell, he made a wrong estimate of 

the material found by him in 1887, and 
Tlie Walls, the wall included this space ("Jour. 

Bib. Lit." xxiii. 142). The third wall 
was that built by Agrippa I. It started also at Hip- 
picus, ran northwest, then northeast, over against 

the monuments of Helena, passed by the tomb 
of the kings, and joined the old wall in the Kidron 
Valley. It seems probable that this coincided with 
the present northern wall of the city. See frontis- 
piece, map of Jerusalem (time of destruction). 

The city, liowever, was doomed to destruction, 
parti}' because of the dissensions among its inhabi- 
tants and partly because of the exactions of the Ro- 
man procurators. Among the latter was particularly 
Gessius Florus (66 c.e.), who inflamed the multi- 
tude by taking 17 talents out of the treasury of the 
Temple, and by bringing his soldiers to Jerusalem, 
where they plundered the upper market-place and 
lobbed man}- houses; though in the end he was 
forced to retire again to Caesarea ("B. J." ii. 14-15). 
Cestius Gallus tried to retrieve the lost fortunes of 
Florus: he burned the new city Bezetha, stormed 
the inner wall, and had commenced to undermine 
the Temple wall when he was repulsed. Under 
Vespasian (70) was commenced the great siege of 
Jerusalem, which lasted from the 14th of Nisan 
until the 8th of Elul, 134 days. The war party, the 
parties of Simon and of John of Giscala, the Idu- 
means, and the peace party rent the city in pieces. 
Simon held the upper and lower cities; John, the 
Temple and Ophel ; and they did as much destruc- 
tion from within as the Romans did from without 
("B. J." ii. 6, § 1). Vespasian was succtfeded by 
his son Titus, who came with four legions. On the 
fifteenth day of the siege the wall of Agrippa was 
taken ; on the twentieth and twenty-fourth, the sec- 
ond wall; on the seventy-second, the Antonia; on 
the eightj'-fourth, the daily sacrifice in the Temple 
Avas stopped ; on the ninety-fifth, the northern clois- 
ters of the Temple were destroyed; on the one hun- 
dred and fifth, fire was set to the Temple and the 
lower city was burned; finally, the greater part of 
the city went up in flames. The Jews commemo- 
rate the Ninth of Ab as the day of the destruction of 
the Temple, though this seems to have taken place 
on the 10th of the month (Schiirer, "Gesch." i. 530). 
Josephus says("B. J." vii. 1, § 1) that orders were 
given to allow the towers Hippicus, Phasael, and 
Mariamne to stand, and "so much of the wall as en- 
closed the city on the western side," but that all 
of the remaining walls were leveled, and even 
their foundations Avere dug up. How far this 
is to be taken literally is not clear : recent excava- 
tions seem to show that it is only partially true. 
There is no proof that even the altar of burnt offer- 
ing in the Temple was left, and that some sacrifices 
were still offered there; the explicit statement 
(Ta'an. iv. 6) that on the 17th of Tammuz the daily 
offering ceased is proof against the notices in the 
Epistle to the Hebrews, Clement of Rome, and 
Josephus (see discussion in Schiirer, "Gesch." i. 548 
et seq.). The suffering in the city must have been 
terrible. Many of the inhabitants were carried off 
and sold as slaves in the Roman markets. Accord- 
ing to Josephus ("B. J." v. 13. § 7), as 
Destruc- many as 115,880 dead bodies were car- 
tion of the ried out through one gate between the 
City (70). months of Nisan and Tammuz; and 
even before the siege was ended, 600,- 
000 bodies had been thrown out of the gates. The 
10th Roman legion was left in the city, for whose 




purposes tlie towers mentioned were allowed to 
stand. Bricks marked " leg. X Fret."' {i.e., Fretensis) 
have been found in numbers both in and outside of 
the city proper. C*sarea, however, remained the 
capital of the Roman province (see Church, "The 
Last Days of Jerusalem," 1903). 

The emperor Hadrian attempted to erect a Roman 
city upon the ruins of Jerusalem, and even to turn 
the Temple into a place of worship of Jupiter 
Capitolinus. A stone from the foundation of the 
statue of the latter, with a Roman inscription, is 
still to be seen in the southern wall of tlie Haram 
(Luncz, "Jerusalem," v. 100). The Jewish legend 
(Gen.R. Ixiv.), 
mentioned also 
by Chrysos- 
and Callistus, 
that the Jews 
themselves at- 
tempted to re- 
build the 
Temple, seems 
thy ; and the 
" C h r o n i c o n 
Paschale " says 
expressly that 
it was actually 
rebuilt by 
Hadrian (Sell ii- 
rer. I.e. i. 564). 
This may or 
may not have 
been the direct 
cause of the 
Bar Kokba war 
(see Jew. En- 
CYC. ii. 508, s.v. 
Bar Kokba) ; 
at any rate, 
during the Bar 
Kokba revolt 
Jerusalem suf- 
fered still fur- 
ther. It seems 
probable that 
the leader and 
his insurgents 
did occupy Je- 
rusalem for a while ; his restruck Greco-Roman 
tetradrachms have as symbol a portico with four 
columns, evidently representing the Temple (Rei- 
nach, "JewLsh Coins," p. 51), with the inscrip- 
tion "Of the Freedom of Jerusalem." When the 
rebellion was put down, in 134, the city was 
further destroyed (Appian, "Syria," p. 50), and the 
plow was drawn over the Temple mount by the 
governor-general Tinnius Rufus (Ta'an. iv. 6; Je- 
rome on Zech. viii. 19). The new city was finally 
built and was named JEAia Capitoliua after Hadrian 
and Jupiter Capitolinus; heathen colonists were in- 
troduced, and the Jews were prohibited from enter- 
ing — a decree of Hadriaii wliich was in force cer- 
tainly up to the time of Eusebius, 312 (" Hist. Eccl." 
iv. 6). After a while the walls were repaired ; but 

The Hereford Mappa Mundl, 1280, Showing Jerusalem in the Center of the World. 

the citj' does not seem to have had the same ex- 
tent as before. The new wall did not include part 
of Ophel and Mount Zion, and seems to liave stood 
on the south where the present wall is found. Va- 
rious pTiblic buildings were erected: a temple to 
Venus in the northern quarter, and a sanctuary to 
Jupiter on the site of the Temple. Statues to Ha- 
drian and Jupiter were placed on the Temple area. 
The Antonia was rebuilt, but on a smaller scale, the 
ground to the north being turned into a covered 
market-place on which a triumphal arch was erected 
to Hadrian, part of which is the present so-called 
" Ecce homo " arch. The above - mentioned edict 

does not seem 
to have been 
strictly ob- 
served ; for the 
Bordeaux Pil- 
grim (333) 
states that the 
Jews were al- 
lowed to visit 
annually " the 
pierced stone," 
w h i c h they 
anointed, and 
at wliich they 
bewailed their 
fate ("Pales- 
tine Pilgrim 
Text S o c. 
a fact corrobo- 
rated by Je- 
rome (on Ezek. 
i. 15) and by 
the rabbinical 
Avritings (Eccl. 
R. xi. 1; Cant. 
R. i. 15; Lam. 
R. i. 17; Yer. 
B e r . 13b, 
above; "Luah 
Erez Yisrael," 
V. 16). Stone 
ossuaries ("os- 
t e p h a g i " ) 
bones of both 
Jews and Jew - 
second to the 
the Valley of 


from the 
been found 


isli Christians and 

fourth century have 


With the advent of Constantine the Great the city 

became thoroughly Christian. In 336 the Church of 

the Anastasis was built over the Holy Sepulcher, 

and the Pool of Siloam was surrounded by a portico. 

There is a tradition that the emperor Julian, called 
" the Apostate," in 362 gave the Jews, 
Under the of whom Rabbi Hillel was nasi, per- 
Christian mission to rebuild the Temple, but 
Emperors, that the plan was not carried out be- 
cause of an explosion (Socrates, " Hist. 

Eccl." iii. 20: see Hauauer in "P. E. F. S." 1902, p. 

389). Valeutinian commenced to rebuild the walls, 

but died before the work was accomplished. In 450 




the empress Eudoxia, widow of Theodosius II., re- 
stored them, enclosiug within them the Pool of 
Siloam. Under the Council of Chalcedon (451) Jeru- 
salem became an independent patriarchate. Addi- 
tional Christian buildings were erected by Justinian 
in 532. In 614 the Persian Chosroes II. attacked 
Jerusalem. He is reported by the " Chronieon Pas- 
chale " to have been aided by 24,000 Jews (" P. E. F. 
S." 1898, p. 36). At the time of the emperor Mau- 
rice there were several earthquakes in Palestine; 
one of these caused the destruction of the building 
which had been erected on the site of the Temple. 
It is said that Jews were sent to rebuild it. In 629 
Heraclius made peace with Siroes, tlie son of Chos- 
roes, and reentered the city. He renewed the edict 
prohibiting the Jews from dwelling in Jerusalem. In 
637 Omar and the Arabs appeared before Jerusalem, 
and the citj'' came under the power of the Moslems. 
Omar erected a wooden mosque west of the Rock, 
and ordered that no new churches were to be built. 
For the whole of the Talmudic period very little 
information in regard to Jerusalem is to be obtained 
from the Jewish sources. What became of the Tem- 
ple utensils carried off by Titus, and figured upon 
the arch erected to him in Rome, can not be ascer- 
tained, despite the various legends that have gath- 
ered around them (see, e.g. , Naphtali b. Isaac, " 'Emek 
ha-Melek," p. 14a, Amsterdam, 1648). It is interest- 
ing to note that a picture on colored glass dating 
from the third century and representing the Temple 
at Jerusalem has been foundin the Jewish catacombs 
of Rome ("Archives de I'Orieut Latin," ii. 439). 
Jerusalem was supposed by the Rabbis to be the 
center of the habitable world (see the passages in 
Farhi, "Kaftor wa-Ferah," p. 18a), a view adopted 
by medieval Christendom (see Bevan and Phihoth, 
"Medieval Geography," p. xiii.); and the earthly 
Jerusalem (HDD h^ D'^'J^'IT') was be- 
Rabbinic lieved to be paralleled by the Jerusa- 

References. lem above {rhv^^ h^ D'^^C^I")''), which 
had been prepared before the creation 
of the world (Apoc. Baruch, iv. 3). The same idea 
is found in the Apocrj^pha (II Esdras vii. 26 ; viii. 52, 
53; X. 44-59) and in the New Testament (/; avu 
'lEf)ovaa/j)iu, Gal. iv. 26; Heb. xii. 22; Rev. iii. 12, 
xxi. 10; see Weber, "Lehren des Talmuds," p. 356; 
Charles, "Apoc. of Baruch," p. 6, note 3; and Jew. 
Encyc. v. 215). 

The Rabbis count seventy different names for 
Jerusalem in the Bible (Midr. ha-Gadol, ed. Schech- 
ter, p. 678; "Agadat Shir ha-Shirim," 1. 125, and 
Schechter's note in his ed. p. 50, Cambridge, 1896; 
see also Ta'an. v. ; Midr. ha-Ne'elam, in Zohar Ha- 
dash, section " Noah "). They are of course extrav- 
agant in their praise of the city: " Whoever lias not 
seen Jerusalem in its glory has never seen a deliglit- 
tul city " (Suk. 51a ; Midr. Teh. on Ps. xlviii.) : " Ten 
measures of beauty descended upon the world : Jeru- 
salem took nine, and the rest of the world one " (Kid. 
49b; Esther R. i.); "There is no beauty like tliat of 
Jerusalem" (Ab. R. N. § 28); "No serpent or .scor- 
pion ever did harm in Jerusalem " ( Ab. v. 48) ; " nor 
was there ever a destructive fire or ruin in Jerusa- 
lem " (Ab. R. N. XXXV.). 

Of the city itself the following data may be men- 
tioned: There were 480 synagogues (Lam. R., Pref- 
VII.— 9 

ace, 12)and 80 .schools (Num. R. xviii.), among them 
the bet ha-midrasii of Johanau b. Zakkai, all of 
winch were destroyed bj' Vespasian. Each bet 
ha-midras!i contained an elementary and a high 
school (Pesik., ed. Buber, p. 121b, and 
Syna- note). Mention is made of a syna- 
gogues and gogueof the D^DID (Naz. 52a), which 
Schools, was sold to Rabbi Eliezer b. Zadok 
(Meg. 26b). This may refer to a syn- 
agogue of the Jews of Tarsus, though Tosef., Meg. 
iii. 6 reads: "Synagogue of the Alexandrians. " In 
Midr. Tadshe xxii. (Epstein, "Beitrage," p. xliv.) 
occurs tlic following: "Jerusalem originally was 
made up of two cities: the upper one, which fell to 
Judah's lot; and tiie second, to that of Benjamin. 
Upon Josliua's death, the Judahites took their por- 
tion, fired the city, and made it waste. The lower 
city remained until the time of David, who com- 
menced to rebuild the upper one and to surround 
both with a wall. In the upper one was the tliresh- 
ing-floor of Araunah; in the lower one (Mt. Moriah) 
the Temple was situated." Ten peculiarities are 
mentioned in connection with Jerusalem : its houses 
could not have balconies or extensions; neither ash- 
pits nor potters' ovens were allowed, nor gardens, 
other than those of roses ; chickens were not to be 
raised ; a corpse was not to remain over night ; a 
house might not be irredeemably sold ; the ceremony 
of the "beheaded heifer" was not performed to 
atone an unknown murder committed in Jerusalem 
or its neighborhood (Deut. xxi. 1-8); it could not be 
declared "a city led aslra}'" (Deut. xiii., xiv.); nor 
could any house in it be made unclean by reason 
of a plague (see Lev. xiv. 34 et seq. ; see also B. K. 
82 and parallels). Tliere were twenty-four squares 
in Jerusalem, each having twenty-four porticoes 
(Lam. R. 1). The following market-places are men- 
tioned: |''0L3S ^EJ' plE^, for those that fattened ani- 
mals: explained by .some to be either a meat- or 
poultry-market or the market of the apothecaries 
(Yer. Sotah viii. 3) ; it was closed on the Sabbath- 
day (*Er. X. 9) ; D"'"1JDV ^L*' pIL". that of the wool- 
dealers (i6. 101a); JV^J?rt plEJ*, wliere the non-Je\ 
washers dwelt (Shek. viii. 1); and the D'VJ?n TT 
(Tosef., 'Eduy. iii. 3), the wood-market, or, perhaps, 
a chamber in the Temple area where wood for 
the altar was kept (Zeb. 113a). There was also a 
large court, Bet Ya'zek, in which the witnesses to 
the new moon collected (R. H. 23b); a Lishkat 
Hashsha'im (Shek. v. 6), where the charitable made 
their contributions in secret and the poor received 
them also in secret; the Eben ha-To'im (or To'en), 
where found articles were brought and returned to 
their owners (B. M. 28b) ; the Shokat Yehu (" Water- 
channel of Jehu "), cut in the rocks (Mik. iv. 5; Yeb. 
15a) ; the Kippah shel Heshbonot, a vaulted place 
immediately outside of the city, in which business 
accounts were settled; it was placed there so that 
no one miglit sprrow in Jerusalem on account of a 
money loss (Ex. R. Iii.. end). Courts were built 
over the rocky ground ; in the hollows below Avere 
born those children who were to assist the high priest 
in offering the red heifer (Num. xix. 2; Suk. 21a and 
parallels). Very peculiarly, Sliiloh (Siloam) is said 
to have been in the middle of the city (Yer. Hag. 
76a). The trees of Jerusalem were cinnamon-trees, 




and gave lortli an odor over the whole land (Shab. 
63a). All sorts of pictures ("parzupot") except 
those of human figures were in Jerusalem (Tosef. , 
'Ab. Zarah, vi.). There were no graves there except 
those of the house of David and of Huldah the 
prophetess (Tosef., Neg. vi.). 

Certain customs peculiar to Jerusalem are men- 
tioned in the rabbinical writings. A man invited 
to a meal turned up one of his sleeves as a sign of 
the receipt of the invitation (Lam. R. iv. 2); a flag 
("mappah ") was displayed at the door of a house 
where a feast was Ijeing held ; after it had been 
taken away no one could enter (Tosef., 
Old Ber. iv. 8; comp. Yer. Demai iv. 4). 

Customs. Jerusalemites were accustomed to bind 
their hilabs with golden bands (Suk. 
S6b). Certain women habitually provided the nar- 
cotic which was given to a condemned man in order 
to blunt his sensibilities (Sanh. 43a; comp. Matt. 
xxvii. 48 and parallels). On the Fifteenth of Ab 
and on the Day of Atonement the maidens went 
abroad in borrowed white garments and danced in 
the vineyards, saying to the young men, "Lift up 
thy eyes and see whom thou wouldst choose '' (Ta'an. 
26b). In writing deeds in Jerusalem it was custom- 
ary to state not only the day but also the hour of 
execution (Ket. 94b). A man approaching the city 
recited, "Zion is a wilderness, Jerusalem a desola- 
tion" (Isa. Ixiv. 10), and made a rent in his garment 
(M. K. 26 and parallels) — a custom observed to this 
day. As a congregation, the Jews of Jerusalem are 
called specifically D''i?:r'n'21 XCmp N^Hp (Ber. 9b) 
and n:;'np my (Yer. Ma'as. Sh. ii. lU). 

The liabbis further held that the western wall, 
the Gate of the Priests, and the Huldah Gate were 
not and never will be destroyed (Cant. R. § 2), and 
that whether the Temple was standing or not the 
Shekinah was not removed from it; it still dwelt 
near the western wall (Tan., Shemot, x. ; Cant. R. 
ii. 9). God will bring back all the former joy to Je- 
rusalem ; and every one that on earth bewails its de- 
struction will in the future world rejoice at its resto- 
ration (Pes. 28 and parallels). It will not be rebuilt 
imtil all the Diaspora is gathered together (Tan., ed. 
Buber, Noah, 17) ; then it will reach to the Gate of 
Damascus (Cant. R. § 7; Slfre ii. 1); and people 
will come borne on clouds (Pes. 1). God and His 
angels will be a wall around the city (Yalk., Zech. 
569), which will be a "metropolis for all countries" 
(Cant. R. i., § 37); it is even said that all nations 
will be collected therein (Ab. R.N. xxxv., end), and 
that the city will then have a new name (Isa. Ixii. 
2 ; Pesik. § Sosa Asis). The passages from the Tal- 
mudical writings will be found in Jehiel Zebi Hirsch- 
ensohn, "Sheba' Hokmot sheba-Talmud," pp. 128 et 
seq., Lemberg, 1883; Judah Idel Zisling, "SeferYal- 
kut Erez Yisrael," Wilna, 1890; David b. Simon, 
"Sha'ar ha-Hazer," Jerusalem, 1862; see also Farhi, 
"Kaftor wa-Ferah," ed. Edelmann, p. 14a, and Neu- 
bauer, "G. T." pp. \Uetseq. 

After the conquest of Jerusalem by the Arabs the 
city soon took on a Mohammedan aspect. In 688 
the calif 'Abd al-Malik built the Dome of the Rock ; 
in 728 the cupola over the Aksa mosque was erected, 
the same being restored in 758-775 by Al-Mahdi. In 
831 Al-Ma'mun restored the Dome of the Rock and 

built the octagonal wall. In 1016 the Dome was 
partly destroyed by earthquakes; but it was re- 
paired in 1022. The chief Arabic his- 
Under the tories of Jerusalem are those by Al- 
Arabs. Makdisi, "Mutir al-Ghanam" (" J. R. 
A. S." xix. 297) ; Al-Suyuti, " Ithaf al- 
Ahissa" (1470, p. 258); and Mujir al-Din al-'Ulaimi, 
"Ins al-Jalil" (1496), ed. Cairo, 1866 (partly trans- 
lated in H. Sauvaire, "Histoire de Jerusalem," Paris, 
1876). Mujir al-Din relates that when 'Abd al-:Malik 
built the Dome, he employed ten Jewish families, 
Avlio were freed from all taxes. They increased so 
quickly in number that they were removed by the 
calif Omar {c. 717). He relates further: "And 
among the servants of the sanctuary, too, was an- 
other company of Jews, who made the glass plates 
for the lamps and the glass lantern-bowls and glass 
vessels and rods. No poll-tax was demanded of 
them, nor from those that made wicks for the 
lamps." Another tradition, reported by a number 
of Arabic writers, says that the original position of 
the Temple was pointed out to Omar by the apos- 
tate Kab ("Z. D. P. V." xiii. 9 et seq.). This tradi- 
tion is referred to also in an anonymous Hebrew let- 
ter ("Ozar Tob," 79, 13) and by Isaac Helo (1333), 
who says that the place was pointed out by an old 
Jew to the Mohammedan conqueror on condition 
that he preserve the western wall (Carmoly, "Itine- 
raires de la Terre Sainte," p. 237). Bar Hcbrteus 
("Chronicum S3'riacum," p. 108) as.serts that it was 
specially stipulated betv.^een Omar and Sophronius, 
the patriarch of Jerusalem, that the Jews should 
not live in the city — a statement which can not be 

The geographer Al-Mukaddasi, writing in 985, 
does not speak highly of Jerusalem ; he complains 
that the Christians and the Jews "have the upper 
hand " (ed. De Goeje, p. 167). He adds that in Pal- 
estine and Syria most of the minters, dyers, tanners, 
and money-changers were Jews {ib. p. 183). The later 
complaints about the burdensomeness of the taxes 
were evidently not imwarranted ; for, according to 
Al-Mukaddasi, the tax on Palestine was 259,000 
dinars {ib. p. 189). The Persian traveler Nasir 
i-Khusrau (1047) says that both Christians and Jews 
came up to Jerusalem to visit the church and the 
synagogue there (Guy le Strange, "Palestine under 
the Moslems," p. 88). According to the Ahimaaz 
Chronicle (Neubauer, "M. J. C." ii. 128, 25), Paltiel, 
the vizier of Al-Mu'izz in the second half of the 
tenth century, presented, among other gifts, 1,000 
dinars to the D'ohj?!! n^3 ''^UN {Ic. 128, 25), other- 
wise called the JW ""fj^aX {ib. 130, 13). These are 
the usual designations for the Karaites in Jerusalem 
(" R. E. J." xxxii. 149; "Monatsschrift," xl. 535). 

The Karaite Sahl b. Mazliah of the eleventh cen- 
tury gives a picture of the Jerusalem of his day. 
There were very few Jews there to bewail her fate, 
and Sahl begs his fellow Jews wherever they may be 
to return to the city. He speaks of the wailing 
women Avho lamented the city's state in Hebrew, 
Persian, and Arabic; especially on the Mount of 
Olives in the months of Tammuz and Ab. Zion, he 
says, is in the hands of Esau ; Jerusalem, in the 
hands of the Arabs (Harkavy, "Meassef Niddahim," 
No. 13, in "Ha-Meliz," 1879, No. 31, p. 639, and in 




Berliner's "Magazin," 1878, p. 181). There seems 
to be some support even for tliG view that there 
were German Jews in Jerusalem at this time. The 
story is told, on the authority of Elijah Ba'al Sliem 
of Chelm, that a young man named Dolberger was 
saved by a Jew in Palestine who knew German, and 
tiiat out of gratitude one of his family who was 
among the Crusaders saved some of the Jews in 
Palestine and carried them to Worms ("'Seder ha- 
Dorot," ed. 1878, p. 252). ■ In the second half of 
the eleventh century halakic questions were sent 
from Germany to Jerusalem (Epstein, in "Monats- 
schrift," xlvii. 344). 

It is said that Harun al-Rashid sent the keys of 
Jerusalem to Charlemagne, and that under Harun 
various Christian buildings were erected. In 969 
Mu'izz al-Din of Egypt took the city ; and under 
Hakim (1010) certain buildings were 
During- the destroyed, which were restored in 1048 
Crusades, by the patriarch Nicephorus. In 1077 
the Seljuk Turks, under Isar al-Atsis, 
drove the Egyptian garrison out of Jerusalem, and 
3,000 of the inhabitants of the city were slain. Dur- 
ing the First Crusade (1098) the Turks were expelled 
by Egyptians after a siege lasting fortj' days. The 
walls were rebuilt, and the city was taken by the 
Crusaders July 15, 1099. The latter built exten- 
sively and repaired the walls in 1177. The Franks 
were defeated in Jerusalem in 1187 by Saladin, who 
is said to have invited the Jews to return to Pales- 
tine. The Hai'am area was reconverted into a 
mosque, the Dome rebuilt, and in 1192 the city 
walls were repaired. There are very few notices 
of the Jews in the city during all this time. Abra- 
ham b. Hiyya says that in his day (1136) it contained 
no Jew ("Monatsschrift," xlvii. 450). Yet there 
must have been some there, as the street in which 
they lived is called "Judairia" in Latin documents 
of the times ("Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani," 
ed. Rohricht, p. 109). A Petrus Judceus is men- 
tioned as swearing allegiance to Baldwin III. on 
Feb. 11, 1056; and the same name occurs in a docu- 
ment of 1160 (ib. pp. 77, 78, 89, 95). That a yeshi- 
bah existed or was reinstituted during the first half 
of the tenth century is proved by the title "Rosh 
ha-Yeshibah " given to Bex Meir, perhaps by Saadia 
himself (Schechter, "Saadyana," p. 18, lines 11, 17). 
He seems, also, to have had about him both a large 
and a small Sanhedrin ("R. E. J." xliv. 239; "Zeit. 
fiirHebr. Bibl." vii. 147). 

It was in the first half of the eleventh century 
that the attempt was made to revive the gaonate in 
Palestine. The yeshibah in Jerusalem is mentioned 
in the vear 1031 (see also Schechter, "Saadvana," p. 
18, 1. io [comp. "J. Q. R." xv. 96]); and in 1046 
Sol(5mon b. Judah was at its head; but upon the 
coming of the Seljuks it was removed to Tyre (see 
Jew. Encyc. v. 572a, s.v. Gaon). 

A letter from Jerusalem dated 1188 seems to relate 
to the dire straits of the Jews, perhaps after Saladin 
had recaptured the city, to which event a certain 
passage in the letter ("Ozar Tob," p. 79, 12) may 
refer. It is partially an alphabetic acrostic, and 
was given to R. Jonah b. Judah the Sephardi, who 
was sent out to collect money. He mentions the ye- 
shibah, which at his time had practically ceased to 

exist. The Jews, though very few in number, were 
bound to pay the same tax which was originally laid 
upon them (see Berliner's " Magazin, " iii. 217, i v. 233 ; 
" Ozar Tob," p. 77). A fragmentary letter, referring 
probably to the same time, is published in Luncz, I.e. 
V. 67. A letter of 1137 mentions not only the as- 
sembling of the Jews in their synagogue (" Midrash 
Me'at"), but also theirgathering together with Jews 
from other places on the Mount of Ohves on the fes- 
tivals of Sukkot and Hosha'na Rabbah, a custom 
otherwise attested (see Schechter, I.e. 22, 5; accord- 
ing to 21, 12, the dates of the festivals were promul- 
gated on the Mount of Olives ; " Sefer ha-Ha.sidim, " 
p. 169, § 630 ; " R. E. J. " xlii. 181 ; Luncz, 'i.e. i. 65). 
Abraham ibn Daud (Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 79, 7) 
also mentions the custom, but adds that the "Minim" 
(Karaites) were in tents opposite the other Jews. 

About the year 1140, Judah ha-Levi visited Jeru- 
salem and was inspired, as legend says, to compose 
his "Zionide" before its walls. In 1173 Benjamin 
of Tudela visited Jerusalem. He describes it as a 
small city full of Jacobites, Armenians, Greeks, and 
Georgians. Two hundred Jews dwelt in a corner 
of the city under the Tower of David. He mentions 
especially the two buildings of the 

Medieval Hospitalers and of the Templars; the 
Jewish four gates of Abraham (Khalil), David, 

Visitors. Zion, and "Gushpat" (Jehoshaphat); 
the Gate of Mercy ; the house and 
stable of Solomon ; the Pillar of Absalom ; and the 
grave of Uzziah. In front of Jerusalem is Mt. Zion, 
upon which there is only a Christian church, and 
where are the graves of the princes of the house of 
David ("P. E. F. S." 1894, p. 294). It is curious 
that Pethahiah of Regensburg (p. 11) mentions only 
one Jew in Jerusalem, a certain R. Abraham the 
dyer, who had to pay a heavy tax for permission to 
remain (ed. Benisch, p. 60). Pethahiah recalls (p. 
64) the tradition connected with the Gate of Mercv ; 
namely, that it could not be opened until the She- 
kinah returned to the gate by means of which it had 
left the city. Though often spoken of as one, this 
was really two gates in the eastern wall of the 
Temple enclosure (now called the " Golden Gate ") — 
the Gate of Repentance and the Gate of Mercy, 
the first of which was for happy people, the second 
for the unhappy (see "Ozar Tob," p. 35; Carmolv, 
I.e. pp. 237, 239, 458; Gurland, "Ginze Yisrael," pjp. 
13, 39, 49; "Shibhe Yerush." p. 19b; Luncz, I.e. v. 
242; "Luah Erez Yisrael," vii. 95, 106; ix. 8). The 
later Arabs had the same designations for these gates 
("Z. D. P. V." vii. 163; Guy le Strange, I.e. pp. 161, 
177, 184), and many tales are told In Jewish wri- 
tings of the futile attempts of the Arabs to open 
them (see, e.f/., Gurland, I.e. p. 39; "Sammelband," 
Mekize Nirdamim, 1888, pp. 27, 47; Obadiah of 
Bertinoro, ed. Neubauer, p. 65; and Jehudah, in 
Luncz, I.e. v. 240 ei seq.). Reference to a gate sepa- 
rating the blessed from the damned is made in the 
Koran, sura Ivii. 13. 

In 1210-a certain Samuel b. Simon made a pilgrim- 
age to Palestine as the forerunner (Berliner's " Maga- 
zin," iii. 158) of the 300 and more rabbis from the 
south of England and from France who went to the 
Holy Land in 1211 ("Shebet Yehudah," p. 113). His 
account has been published in "Ozar Tob," p. 35; 




transl. in Carmoly, I.e. p. 127. He mentions the 
custom of praying on Sabbatlis on the Mount of 
Olives. In 1218 Al-Harizi visited Jerusalem and 
saw the English and French rabbis mentioned above. 
Among them were Samuel b. Simon, Joseph b. 
Baruch, his brother R. Meir, and Samson b. Abra- 
ham. According to Gratz ("Gesch." vi. 404), this 
migration was the consequence of the Albigensian 
persecutions. Al-Harizi speaks of the Jews coming 
to Jerusalem in large numbers ; but he bewails the 
spirit of discord he found there (see "Tahkemoni," 
ch. xxvii., xxviii., xlvi., and xlvii. ; and M. Schwab 
in "Archives de I'Orient Latin," 1881, pp. 231 et 
seq.). In 1219 the walls of the city were taken down 
by order of the Sultan of Damascus; in 1229 by 
treaty with Egypt Jerusalem came into the hands 
of Frederick II. of Germany. In 1239 he began to 
rebuild the walls; but they were again demolished 
by Da'ud, the emir of Kerak. 

In 1243 Jerusalem came again into the power of 
the Christians, and the walls were repaired. The 
Kharezniian Tatars took the city in 1244; and they 
in turn weio driven out by the Egyptians in 1247. 
In 1260 the Tatars under Hulaku Khan overran the 
whole land, and the Jews that were in Jerusalem 
had to flee to the neighboring villages. 

On Aug. 12, 1267, Nahmanides visited Jerusalem. 
He found there only two Jews, brothers, who \vere 
dyers, and who on Sabbath and at festivals gathered 
Jevi s from the neighboring villages (see his letter to 
his son in " Sha'ar ha-Gemul "). He reorganized the 
community, and on New-Year's Day, 1268, service 
Avas held in a new synagogue, later called IJ^^I DSlin 
TDnn rmn\ in a court to the right of the present 
synagogue. It was near the Zion Gate, which led 
down to the traditional graves of the kings of Judah 
(" Yihus ha-Abot," in Carmoly, I.e. p. 440), and 
seems to have been called "Midrash ha-Ramban " 
(Conforte, "Kore ha-Dorot," p. 19a). 
Nahmani- Palestine at this time was under Egyp- 
des in tian rule. This rule was clement and 
Jerusalem, the congregation grew. Nahmanides 
also founded a yeshibah and planted 
in Jerusalem the study of the Cabala. Pupils came 
to him from all parts of the Diaspora, among the 
most famous being the commentator and lexicog- 
rapher R. Tanhum, who may, however, have been 
there even before Nahmanides, as he was perhaps an 
eye-witness of the Tatar raids (see Bacher, " Aus dem 
Worterbuch des Tanhum," 1903, p. 11). Nahmanides 
died in 1270, and the j'eshibah lost its attraction. 

In the year 1322 Estori Farhi was in Jerusalem ; 
and his " Kaftor wa-Ferah " (ch. vi.) gives an arche- 
ological description of the city (Eng. transl. in "Itin- 
erary " uf Beajamin of Tudela, ii. 393 ; German, in 
Zunz, "G. S." ii. 268). According to Farhi, Jeru- 
salem was three parasangs long. He mentions 
the entrance to the Cave of Hezekiah (B. K. 16b), 
within the walls of Jerusalem to the north; the tent 
erected by David for the Ark, which was supposed 
to be still in a place called " David's Temple," south 
of Mt. Moriah (comp. "Yihus ha-Abot," p. 25); 
northwest of this was a place near which were a 
synagogue and the Jewish quarter (see David b. 
Zimrah, Responsa, No. 633). The city of Jerusalem 
is, according to him, higher than Mt. Moriah, and 

of course higlier than the above-mentioned syna- 
gogue. A further description of the city is obtained 
from a letter written by Isaac Helo of Aragon in the 
year 1333 (Luncz, I.e. v. 55). He describes the com- 
munity as a large one, most of its members having 
come from France (probably referring to the rabbis 
mentioned above) ; they lived at peace and in seem- 
ing tranquillity. Many were dyers, clothiers, and 
shoemakers ; others were engaged in commerce and 
shopkeeping. A few were busy with medicine, as- 
tronomy, and mathematics; but most of them were 
students of the Law and were nourished by the com- 
munity. It was an old institution that the Talmudic 
scholars should be exempt from all taxes except 
the poll-tax. This was reenforced by Isaac Cohen 
Sholal, and is mentioned in 1535 by Moses de Rossi 
("J. Q. R." ix. 498, 23). Isaac Helo describes four 
gates of the city : Ha-Rahamim to the east, leading to 
the Mount of Olives, where the Jewish cemetery is; 
David 's Gate, leading to the Valley of Rephaim on the 
west ; the Gate of Abraham to the north, leading to 
the tombs of the kings and to the cavern of Ben Sira, 
the grandson of Jeremiah ; and the Zion Gate to the 
south, leading to Mt. Zion, the Hinnom Valley, and 
Siloah. He places David's fortress upon Mt. Zion, 
but the Temple upon Mt. Moriah. He enumerates 
seven remarkable things in Jerusalem: the Tower of 
David, where the Jews used to live, but which at 
his time was only a fortification ; the Palace of Solo- 
mon, in Christian times a hospital, but at his time a 
market-place ; the tomb of Huldah on the Mount of 
Olives; the sepulchers of the kings of Judah, the 
exact location of which was unknown to him ; the 
tombs of the kings; the Palace of Helena, used in 
his day by the Mohammedan officials ; the Gate ha- 
Rahamim and the western wall of the Temple. 

The number of Ashkenazim in Jerusalem grew 
rapidly, and a certain Isaac ha-Levi (Asir ha-Tik- 
wah) founded a yeshibah for them. R. Samuel 
Schlettstadt had come from Strasburg (e. 1390), but 
had returned after a short while. Though the Se- 
phardim formed a separate congrega- 
Ashkena- tion, all the Jews worshiped in one 

zim and synagogue. In 1434 the plague broke 
Sephardim. out in the city and ninety Jews per- 
ished. A short while after this the 
Italian Talmudist, Elijah of Ferrara, came to Jeru- 
salem ; and in 1437 he was chosen chief rabbi and 
head of the bet ha-midrash, his decisions having 
validity in Syria on the one hand and in Egypt on 
the other. He seems also to have been a physician 
(for his letters see Jew. Encyc. v. 131, s.v.). He 
relates that the Jewish women manufactured silk, 
which the men then sold. 

If Isaac Zarfati's letter (Jellinek, "Kontres 
Tatnu," p. 14) belongs to this period (end of the fif- 
teenth century; Gratz, "Gesch." viii. 446), it would 
seem that the report had been spread in Germany 
that the Jews had bought Mt. Zion, had destroyed 
the buildings upon it, and had also bought the Holy 
Sepulcher. For this reason Jews were not allowed 
on Venetian ships, but had to travel to Jerusalem by 
the land route (mentioned also by Obadiah of Berti- 
noro, ed. Neubauer, p. 68). Probably in connection 
with a similar rumor, the Jews of Calabria were 
mulcted in a large sum, owing to the vexations 




Ciiusc'd by Jonisalcm Jews to the ^linoritc convent 
on 3Iount Zion (Jorga, "Notes . . . pour I'Histoirc 
(U-s Croisades,"ii. 25"), Paris, 1899). The conditions 
in Jerusalcni srrew so bad tiiat witiiin six yi"vrs more 
than 100 families left tlic city, among tliem that of 
K. Natiian Coiicn Sholal. A contributing cause was 
anotiicr famine which in 1441 came upon tiie city. 
In addition to tliis, the ]\Iamelul<e sultan Ka"it Bey 
('•. 14o0) demanded of tiie Jews 400 ducats a year, 
besides the 50 ducats whicli they had to pa}- to the 
city autiio-ities for the privilege of making wine. 
For tlie collection of this stim, a sort of " vice-nagid " 
was cstablislu'd in Jerusalem, who togetlier witli five 
others was responsible for tiieta.x. The conseciuent 
harciship was so great that the communit}" was 
forced to sell its books, the lioly ornaments, and even 
tlie scrolls of the Law (see tiie letter of the Jerusa- 
lem congregation, dated 1456, in " Sammclband," 
Mekize Nirdamim, 1888, p. 46). The attitude of tlie 
Scphardim toward tlie Ashkenazim in this matter 
was not calculated to increase the good-will between 
tlie communities, tlie latter feeling that they were 
being made the scapegoat (see the complaint of 
Israel Isserlein in "Pcsakim," No. 88; Gratz, 
•'Gcscli." viii. 294). It was at this time that the well- 
known " takkauah"' was laid down " that if a man 
die without issue his property (with the exception 
of real estate) shall go to the community unless lie 
shall have made an arrangement with the leaders 
during his lifetime." As many old people came to 
Jerusalem, this brought in a considerable sum of 
money (Moses Hagiz in his " Sefat Emet " says that 
in his time it was as much as 2,000 francs a year) ; 
but it also led to abuses, as the old people were not 
properly cared for. The decree therefore created 
much discussion and opposition, and had to be re- 
newed every ten or twenty j'ears. In 1720 it was 
enforced hy a haskamah from the rabbis in Constan- 
tinople (Lunez, I.e. v. 121). 

In 1481 Mcshullam of Volterra visited the city 
(see his letter in Luncz, I.e. i. 202). He found there 
10,000 Mohammedan and about 250 Jewish families 
(Brull's"Jahrb."vii. 123). The Gate ha-Rahamim, 

he says, is 4 cubits above the earth 

Meshullam and 2 cubits below ; and he solemnly 

of records that on every Ninth of Ab, 

Volterra. when the Jews go to pray near where 

the Temple was situated, the lights 
go out of their own accord. Of the twelve gates in 
the Temple area, five were closed: the two Ha- 
Rahamim mentioned above and tliree others which 
had been built up by the Moslems, but the traces of 
which could still be seen. He speaks of the build- 
ings in Jerusalem as large and beautiful ; and it is 
interesting to note that he gives the name "Mt. 
Zion " to the hill on which the Temple stood (pp. 
202, 207). He mentions as parnas li. Joseph de 
Montana Ashkenazi, and as vice-parnas R. Jacob b. 
Moses. The chief rabbi was R. Shalom Ashkenazi 
It seems probable that the custom of regularly send- 
ing out "shelihim " commenced at this time. The 
first of them seems to have been R. Moses Twent}-- 
four (yniNI Dn^'y)- The two letters of Obadiah of 
Bertinoro, dated respectively 1488 and 1489 (ed. 
Neubauer. Leip.sic, 186:5), give an interesting picture 
of the Jerusalem Jews at this time. Among the 

4,000 iiihabitanls he touiid seveiit}- Jewish families, 
all in poor circumstances, and in the latio of seven 
women to one man. Tlie coniinunity was in debt to 
the extent of 1,000 gold iiieces. Even the ornaments 
on the scrollsof the Law had been sold. Jews lived 
not only in the Jews' street, but also on Zioii. lie 
was especially interested in the Ashkenazic Jews, to 
whom all the iiouses around the synagogue belonged. 
The exjiulsion of the Jews from Spain and Por- 
tugal in 1492 sent large numbers of Jews to tiie 
East. In a few years 180 families were added to 
those already in Jerusalem, and the community 
numbered 1.500 souls. The anonymous writer wh.i 
came to Bertinoro in Jerusalem in 1495 (Neubauer, 

"Zwei Briefe(Jbaujahs," pp. 80 et .scfj.) 
Effect of could hardly lind a dwelling-place in 
Expulsion the city. With the exception of the 
from goldsmiths, it was difficult for work- 
Spain, men to make a living. The Jews had 

to pay a poll-tax of 1^ ducats. Near 
the Jews' quarter there was a gate of which they 
had the key. The houses were made of stone and 
brick, no wood being used ; they contained five or 
six rooms each. He mentions the Midrash of King 
Solomon {i.e., the Aksa Mosque), near the syna- 
gogue, and states that the Jews were not allowed to 
enter it. This midrash is also mentioned by Isaac 
b. MeiT Latif (see his letter in "Ozar Tob," p. 33). 
He saj's that Jerusalem was twice the size of An- 
cona, and that it took him six hours to make the 
tour of the city. He found the .lews living on 
good terms with the Moslems, which had not always 
been the case, at least as regards the Ulemas. A 
significant example of their fanaticism is given in 
connection with the synagogue of Nahmanides. It 
is said that a woman out of spite Iiad sold a piece 
of property near the sj'nagogue to the !Mohammed- 
ans, who had built there a mosque and who desired 
to make a street leading directly to it. The Mos- 
lems wished to buy a courtyard for this purpose, 
but the Jews refused to sell. The rain had 
washed away part of the wall and disclosed a door 
in this courtyard west of tlie mosque. The matter 
was carried before the sultan in Egypt. It was held 
that the synagogue was a new one and that there- 
fore, according to the Pact of Omar, it had no right 
to exist. It was closed for a time, and thougii the 
Jews paid a large sum of money, it was pulled down 
by the fanatical religious leaders. The case was 
again brought before the sultan ; the ringleaders 
were punished : and the synagogue was eventually 
rebuilt (1478; see the account by Mujir al Din in 
Luncz, I.e. iii. 72; Gratz, "Gesch." viii. 295; Olia 
diah of Bertinoro, p. 60; Kolon, Responsa. No. 5; 
Schwarz, "Tebu'ot ha-Arez," ed. Luncz, 1900. p. 

The exiles from Spain commenced to form a new 
congregation ('Adat Sefardim), which caused the 
Ashkenazim to form one also; the North Africans 
instituted a third ('Adat ha-Ma'arabini); and the 
old inhabitants were thus left to themselves ('Adat 
ha-^Ioriskos or Musta'rihim). These communities, 
however, still .seem to have used one and the same 
sj'nagogue. In course of time the Araliic-speak- 
ing Jews drew together again and joined tlie Sephar 
dim, the result being the establishment of two main 




classes, the Ashkenazitn and the Sephardim. The first 
set of takkanot for the community seems to have 
been laid down by the nagid of Egypt, Isaac Cohen 
Sholal, in 1509, and accepted by the Jerusalem yeshi- 
bah. In 1517 a further series of takkanot was 
drawn up, approved by the nagid, engraved on a 
plate, and affixed to the wall of the synagogue. 

In the same year the Ottoman Turks captured 
Syria. Salim I. abolished the office of nagid in 
Egypt; and Sholal came to Jerusalem. The latter 
did much good in the city, spending his own money 
and founding two new yeshibot, so that many schol- 
ars flocked thither from other parts of 
Takkanot. Palestine. He also laid down some 
further takkanot; namely, that a Jew 
should not cite a fellow Jew before a Mohammedan 
court, unless he had previously cited him three 
times before a bet din ; that no unseemly drinking 
should take place at the tomb of Samuel the prophet ; 
and that disputes should not be held in the syna- 
gogue. He seems to have commenced to regulate 
the halukkah and to have instituted vigils ("mish- 
marot "), for which in 1521 he drew up special rules. 
It is said that on the first day of these vigils there 
was a heavy rainfall, and lightning damaged the 
dome of the Great Mosque (see letter of the Jerusa- 
lem rabbis, published by Neubauer in "Ha-Leba- 
non," 1868, v. 26). 

In 1527 Sulaiman I. began to rebuild the walls of 
Jerusalem. He also improved the water-supply, 
bringing water from a distance into three basins 
near the Haram area. The Tower of David was 
also restored, the walls being finished in 1542. Su- 
laiman gave the Jews permission to do whatever 
work they wished, and the Jewish accounts take 
cognizance of his action; e.g., the author of the 
" Yihus ha-Abot" (ed. Hottinger, 1659; ed. Baruch, 
Leghorn, 1785; transl. Carmoly, I.e. p. 453), who in 
1522 came to Jerusalem from Venice. He relates that 
there were four covered market-places: one for Mo- 
hammedans selling wool and flax ; a second for Jews 
selling spices; a third for the sale of vegetables; 
and a fourth for the sale of fruit. The most beau- 
tiful street was that leading from a gate in the Tem- 
ple area. He himself lived "in the house of Pilate." 
He refers to the twelve gates of the Haram area, ten 
of which, he says, were open ; and seven gates of 
the city, of which he mentions only Bab al-Sabt, 
Bab al-'Araud, and Bab al-Kuttan, and three gates 
on the side of Zion. He gives a description of the 
Nahmanides Synagogue with its beautiful marble 
columns. The only window was in the door on the 
west side, so that lights had to be used even during 
the daytime. There were 300 Jewish families in the 
city, among which were more than 500 widows. In 
addition to Isaac Sholal, he mentions R. David ibn 
Shoshan, the physician, as head of the Sephardic 
yeshibah, and a R. Israel as head of the Ashkenazic 
yeshibah. In 1523 David Reubeni was in Jerusalem 
for five weeks. He affirms (Neubauer, "M. J. C." 
ii. 145) that the Moslems showed him the cave below 
the rock in the Great Mosque. He speaks of two 
hills; one being Zion, where David was buried, and 
the other, Jerusalem. The same year a severe 
drought afflicted the city so that many fled ; among 
them the nagid, who died in 1525. He was followed 

as head of the community by Levi ibn Habib, who 
was active in promoting harmony among the vari- 
ous Jewish parties in the city. A 
Jacob certain disturbance was wrought in 
Berab and 1529 by the coming of Solomon Molko. 
Ibn Habib. Many people commenced to fast, 
awaiting the end of time. His influ- 
ence, however, was effectually nullified by Ibn Ha- 
bib. In 1538 Jacob Berab attempted to reestablish 
the old practise of ordination ("semikah") in Pal- 
estine; and although Ibn Habib himself was one 
of those ordained by him, he resented the ordination, 
and Berab was obliged to fly to Egypt. 

The inhabitants, especially the scholars, had 
largely increased in number ; and though the former 
were well-to-do because of the many merchants that 
came from Italy, the scholars languished. Debts 
were contracted ; and some of the houses used for 
charitable purposes had to be sold. This is espe- 
cially dwelt on in two letters written by a certain 
R. Israel to Abraham of Perugia ("Sammelband," 
Mekize Nirdamim, 1888, p. 26). In his day there 
were two yeshibot, one of David Shoshan; but 
the scholars had to leave and seek sustenance 
elsewhere. Only gold.sniiths, silversmiths, weav- 
ers, and shoemakers could make a living {ib. pp. 
25, 26); the rest of the Jews hawked their wares 
in the neighboring villages. Most of the learned 
men were Sephardim ; but two German scholars had 
recently arrived {ib. p. 30, below). Attempts had 
been made at various times to force the scholars to 
contribute to taxes other than the poll-tax. In 
order to prevent this, atakkanah had been laid down 
in 1509 by the Bene ha-Yeshibah (20 in number); 
this was renewed toward the end of 1547 and again 
in 1566 (according to Avila) or 1596 (Steinschneider, 
"Hebr. Bibl." xvi. 58; " Centralanzeiger fur Jii- 
dische Literatur," i. 51). 

Ibn Habib died in 1553, and was succeeded by 
David ibn Abi Zimra. Even he was unable to lighten 
the burden of the taxes levied by the Turks; and 
with many others he left the city in 1567 and went 
to Safed. In addition to Ibn Habib the following 
prominent men deserve mention : ]\Ienahem di Lon- 
sano (1562), Moses Alshakar of Egypt, Aaron b. 
Hayyim, Simon ha-Levi Inusburg of Frankfort, and 
Moses Najjarah of Damascus. In 1586 trouble was 
occasioned by the Moslems : the mufti declared that 
the synagogue of Nahmanides had previously been 
a mosque ; and it had to be vacated. The Sephar- 
dim then built a synagogue, now the K. K. Talmud 
Torah ; the Ashkenazim, one near the closed syna- 
gogue, supposed to be the present Menahem Ziyyon. 
In 1587 additional takkanot were issued, and after 
seven months had to be reaffirmed. In 1594 and 
1599 the community was further depleted by 
plagues. In addition to the takkanah of 1596, herem 
was placed upon all those who should reveal the 
names of rich scholars to the authorities. Moses 
Alshech, rabbi in Safed, intervened and secured aid 
for tiie Jerusalem Jews from Venice and other places. 

For a number of years no further complaints are 
met with ; and in spite of the plague, which reap- 
peared in 1618 (Azulai, "Hcsed le-Abraham," Intro- 
duction), the Jews prospered. In 1621 Isaiah Horo- 
witz (Sheloh) went to Jerusalem as head of the 




Aslikenazim, who had become very important in the 
community. Through him assistance came to Jeru- 
salem from the Jews of Prague; but five years later 
he and others were obliged to flee to Safed on ac- 
count of the extortions of the pasha. In 1623 an 
attempt was made to separate the Sephardic from 
the Aslikcnazic halukkah; but it was vetoed by the 
authorities, who reissued the takkanah referring to 
it (Luncz, "Jerusalem," ii. 147). In' 1625 Moham- 
med ibn Farukh became governor of Jerusalem ; and 
he oppressed the people with such onerous taxes 
that they tied to the rocks and caverns around 
the city and had hardly sufficient clothing to cover 

into a mill. In 1627 Ibn Farukli was deposed. He 
extorted in all 50,000 piasters from the Jews. 
An account of these persecutions, under the title 
" Horbot Yerushalayim," was drawn up by the rabbis 
of Jerusalem, and sent to Venice (printed in 1636; 
see Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." No. 3547, who has 
given a German translation in Pascheles, "Sippu- 
rim." 1856, iv. 49). A special deputy was sent to 
Europe to collect funds in aid of the community, 
the Ashkenazic congregation having been practically 
broken up by the flight of Horowitz, and the few 
who were left having joined the Scphardim. A 
letter was also sent to the Jews of Persia (Luncz, 

Plax of Jerusalem, Circa looo. 

1. Jewish Quarter. 2. Bethlehem. 3. Pool of Siloam. 4. Tomb of Rachel. 5. Tomb of the Klugs. 

7. Mosque of Omar. 8. Tomb of Absalom. 

(From Bernandino Aniico, " Trattato della Terra Santa," Florence, 1620.) 

6. Palace of Herod. 

themselves. His brother-in-law Ottoman Agha 
took Ibn Farukh 's place for a short time while 
the latter went on a pilgrimage. It was Ottoman 
who imprisoned Horowitz, Isaac Habillo, Moses 
Cordovero, and others (Luncz, I.e. iii. 38), and de- 
manded heavy ransoms. Ibn Farukh returned and 
did worse than before. Complaint was made to 
the authorities in Damascus ; and a cadi was sent to 
watch Ibn Farukh. Even this resulted in no change. 
Some of the leaders were tortured, e.ff., Samuel Tar- 
diulah, Moses Romano, and especially Abraham 
Ustiral, brother of Isaac Aboab, who had laid the 
complaint before the vali of Damascus. The cadi 
of Jerusalem joined in the oppression. He extorted 
money by threatening to turn one of the synagogues 

I.e. v. 262) complaining that only 144 Jews were to 
be allowed to reside in the city as poll-tax for only 
that number was being paid. 

A letter written about this time by an unknown 
traveler from Carpi to his son (ib. v. 74) has been 
preserved. He found in Jerusalem many members 
of well-known Italian families, e.g., Moses Finzi, 
David Moscato, Mattathias Rieti, and Benjamin b. 
Moses of Orbino. The Jews were compelled to 
wear the same clothing as the Turks, except that 
they wore a bonnet resembling a "cappello." The 
communitj' was deep in debt. Several times it 
had had to pay a sum of 6,000 piasters. There were 
two synagogues: a small one for the Ashkenazim, 
at whose head was Horowitz ; another, a large one, 




for the Sephardim, near to which was a bet lia-mid- 
rash. There was also a small Karaite synagogue, 
the congregation of which numbered 20. He esti- 
mated the Jewish population at 2,000 souls. The city 
had eight gates, the walls having been built 100 
years before his time. He describes at length the 
city and its monuments, especially the western wall 
where the Jews were allowed to congregate in times 
of peace. He speaks oi* the prayers prepared for 
the visits to this wall — an early reference, since the 
present prayers were arranged only at the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century, by R. Samuel (author 
of "Minhat Shemuel ") under the title "Sha'are 

In 1635 Solomon al-Gazi came to Jerusalem from 
Smyrna. He was the progenitor of a large and 

Karaite, Moses b. Elijah lia-Levi (Gurland, I.e. p. 
36), visited the city. He describes the same syna- 
gogue as very beautiful, and has much to say of the 
Avonderful cave under the sanctuary, mentioned 
above in connection with David Reubeni. In 1645 
the chief rabbi of Jerusalem was Jacob Haj-yim 
Zcmal.i, a ph3'sician from Portugal. The important 
rabbis of the time were Nathan Spira of Cracow, 
Uri Sliraga Phoebus, and Meir Poppers. In 1650 ap- 
peared tiie " Darke Ziyyon " of Moses b. Israel Naph- 
tali Porges (Moses Priiger; transl. by Steinschneider 
in "Z. D. P. V." iii. 225). At the gate of Jerusa- 
lem Moses had to pay a tax of 2 loweuthaler (60 
paras; see Gurland, I.e. p. 12). He mentions the 
synagogue in the court of the Temple, which was 
closed to the public after the evening prayer, and 

Pool of Hezekiah, Jkrusalem. 

(From a photograph by the American Colony, Jerusalem.) 


important family. Of the scholars of that time may 
be mentioned Samuel Garmizon, Moses Galante, and 
Jacob Hagiz. A special bet ha-midrash had been 
founded for Hagiz by the Vega brothers of Leghorn ; 
and among his pupils may be men- 
tioned Moses ibn Habib and Joseph 
Almosnino. In 1641 Samuel b. David, 
the Karaite, visited Jerusalem (Gur- 
land, I.e. pp. 12 et seg.). He gives an 
account of the Karaite synagogue, 
founded, he says, by Anan, which was built so low 
down that it had to be reached by twenty steps; he 
also states that there were fifteen houses provided for 
the poor, in which twenty-seven persons (families?) 
were maintained. He mentions six gates of the city, 
and a hill near the Mount of Olives, where Abraham 
had caused his attendants to wait, and where the 
Jews were accustomed to pray. In 1654 another 

the two yeshibot. The poll-tax amounted to 3 lo- 
weuthaler for each householder. The community, he 
found, had been in great want, especially since the 
Chraielnicki disasters in Poland, from which country 
much money had usually come. Near the Jewish 
burial-ground were two holes in the earth popularly 
supposed to lead to Gehenna (see Steinschneider, 
"Hebr. Bibl." 1864, p. 105). 

In 1665 the chief rabbi was Moses Galante, and 
among his associates were Abraham Zemah, Joseph 
Hagiz, and Aaron Padro (Pardo V). Shabbethai 
Zebi, though in Palestine at this time, does not seem 
to have visited Jerusalem. Galante was followed 
by Moses ibn Habib in 1689; while the head of the 
Ashkenazim was Moses ha-Kohen. In 1690 a large 
number of Hasidim, at whose head was R. Judah 
he-Hasid of Shidliz near Grodno, came to Jerusalem 
and took up their abode in Dair Siknaji, which on 




that account was afterward called " Hiirbat Rabbi 
Judah lic-Hasid." Judah, liowever, died three days 
after tlieir arrival. They were so poor that, in order 
to meet the exactions of tlie autliorities, they had to 
liypothccate all their buildings, and Moses ha-Kolien, 
liead of the Ashkenazim, went, together with Isaac 
of Slutsk, to Europe to gather money in their behalf. 
Frankfort-on-the-Main alone sent 128,000 piasters 
(25,600 gulden), and Metz 5,000 gulden. Especially 
helpful were Samson Wertheinier and his son Wolf 
of Vienna, who not only sent large sums, but through 
court intluence exercised through the Austrian rep- 
resentative at Constantinople tried to prevent the 
Jews la Jerusalem from falling still further into 
debt (see Kaufmann in " K. E. J." xxi. 140, and 

in "Jerusalem," iv. 25 et seq.). In 

In the 1695 Moses Hayyun was chief rabbi. 

Eighteenth Among other prominent rabbis were 

Century. Samuel Tanuji and Moses Hagiz, while 

the head of the Ashkenazim was- Na- 
than Nata of Mannheim. In 1715 the chief rabbi was 
Abraham Yizhaki, whose successor for two years was 
Benjamin ha- 

Kohen j\Ia'ali. 

In 1716 ap- 
peared the" Sha- 
'alu Shelom Ye- 
rushalayim " of 
Gedaliah of Se- 
miecz (transl. by 
Stein Schneider 
i^i "Z. D. P. V." 
iii. 226). Geda- 
liah had come 
with Judah he- 
Hasid. He de- 
scribes the 
synagogue built 
by the Ha si- 
dim in a court- 
yard in wliich 
were forty 
houses. When a 
new pasha came, 
the Jews paid him 500 loweuthaler for three years, 
and an extra bakshish whenever any additional build- 
ing was to be erected. To meet these requirements, 
money had to be borrowed from the Turks at 10 per 
cent. The Jews were forbidden to sell wine or other 
liquor to the Turks. Few of them had shops; and 
they were in general very poor. In 1703 the people 
of the city had revolted against the pasha and had 
shut the gates of the city upon him. His successor 
was allowed to enter only for the purpose of receiv- 
ing the taxes; but in 1705-6 he put down the rebel- 
lion, and demanded much money from tlie richer 
Jews. Another pasha forbade the Jews to wear 
white garments on Sabbath or iron in the soles of 
their shoes. Their turbans were to be large and 
black ; and on the street Jews were always to pass on 
the left of Moslems. In 1721 the Moslems fell upon 
the synagogue of the Ashkenazim; burned all the 
woodwork and the books; took the Jews prisoners; 
and occupied all the dwelling-places in Dair Siknaji. 

In 1730 the chief rabbi was Eleazar b. Jacob 
Nahuni, and his associates were Isaac Zarhi, Israel 

The Ashkenazic Synagogue, Jerusalem. 

(From Schwarz, " Descriptive History of Palestine," 1850.) 

Mizrahi, and Menahem Habib. In 1738 Emanuel 
Hal Rfcci came to Jerusalem, and in 1742 Hayyim 
ibn 'Attar, who became president of one of the yeshi- 
bot. In 1745 Nissim Hayyim Mizrahi was 
chief rabbi. lie was followed by Israel Jacob al- 
Gazi, and in 1754 by Isaac ha-Kohenof the Rapoport 
family in Lublin. Prominent in Isaac's day were 
Hayyim Joseph Azulai. Jonah Nabon, and Jo.seph 
b. Aaron Hason. Isaac was followed in 1762 by 
Raphael Meyuhas Bekor Samuel, and in 1786 by 
Yom-Tob al-Gazi, in whose day there lived the noted 
cabalist Shalom Mizrahi (called 'ajTlK') of Yemen. 

There is a short account of Jerusalem during this 

period in Moses Hagiz "s "Parashat Ele JNIassa'ai " 

(citedin"HibbatYerushalayim,"pp. 37af^se^.). The 

taxes were paid from the sum gathered 

Taxation by the congregation from those who 

and had died in Jerusalem, which produced 

Income, an income of 3,000 piasters. There 

were then about 9,000 Mohammedans 

and Christians in the city, and 1,000 Jews, most of 

whom were Sephardim. In 1758 there were eight 

Sephardic yeshi- 
bot, each with 
a definite in- 
come: (1) that of 
R. Jacob Ferrara 
of Holland (1,200 
pi. a year); (2) 
Newe Shalom, 
foimded by R. 
Isaac Dimayo of 
(700 pi.); (3)Pe- 
'er 'Anawim, 
founded by the 
Franco family 
of Leghorn (600 
pi.); (4) Hesed 
1 e - A b r a h a ra 
(1,000 pi.); (5) 
Uamesek Elie- 
zer, founded by 
Eliezer Ashke- 
nazi(450 pi.); (6) Keneset Yisrael, founded by Hay- 
yim ibn 'Attar (600 pi. ) ; (7) that of Mordecai Taluk of 
the Maghreb (400 pi.); and (8) that of Abraham Me- 
yuhas (1,000 pi.). In addition, there were a caba- 
listic yeshibah, Bet-el, founded by R. Shalom, and 
three private yeshibot. There were only a few Ash- 
kenazim at this time; and these had no separate 
congregation (see letter of the rabbis of Constan- 
tinople in "Jerusalem," v. 45). 

In 1782 .some trouble arose in regard to the burial- 
ground on the Mount of Olives, the site of which 
the Mohammedans wished to use. They were 
bought off with a large sum of money ("Jerusalem," 
vi. 43). In 1785 Benjamin b. Elijah, the Karaite, 
visited Jerusalem (Gurland, l.r. p. 48). He men- 
tions six gates: theAVestern, David, Hebron, Damas- 
cus, Pillar, and Lion. He speaks of two burial- 
places: a new one under the wall near the Midrash 
of Solomon, and the old one separated from this by 
a valley. 

When Napoleon came to Palestine in 1798, the 
Jews were accused of assisting him, and were threat- 




ened with death by the Moslems. Led by Mordecai 
al-Gazi they assembled at the Wailing-Wall for 
prayer. Napoleon, however, did not come near the 
city. The condition of the Jews at this time was so 
bad that the chief rabbi, Yom-Tob al-Gazi, w^eut to 
Europe in their behalf, returning in 1801. He was 
followed in office by Mordecai Joseph Meyuluis 

(1802), who was succeeded by Jacob 

In the Moses 'Ayish of the Maghreb (1806). 

Nineteenth In his day lived Zechariah Zamiroand 

Century. Solomon Isaac Meyuhas. On account 

of the plague in Safcd a number of 
Jews came thence to Jerusalem, at times clothing 
themselves as Sephardim in order to escape the 

and an attempt was made in 1816 to settle the mat- 
ter in Constantinople. The chief rabbi of the com- 
munity in 1807 was Jacob Koral ; in 1813, Joseph b. 
Hayyim Hazzan of Smyrna; and in 1822, Yom- 
Tob Danon. The position was vacant for a year, 
when it was tilled by Moses Sozin, and iu 1826 by 
Moses Jonah Nabon. In 1825 Syria and Palestine 
revolted against Turkish rule, and in 1832 the coun- 
try was taken by Mohammed Ali of Egypt. In 1840 
Jerusalem was restored to the Turks. During this 
time a number of Ashkenazim had come from Rus- 
sia. Great distress prevailed among the learned 
men ; messengers were sent out to all parts of 
Europe and to the United States; and the Haluk- 

The Great Asiikenazic Syxagogie at Jeuisalkm. 

(From a photofjraph.) 

hatred of the Mohammedans. Two of them, R. 
Menahem Mendel and R. Abraham Solomon Zalmau, 
founded the 'Adat Ashkenazim Perushim, consisting 
of about twenty persons. They had a private syna- 
gogue in the house which had been the yeshibah of 
Hayyim ibn 'Attar, where they worshiped on week- 
days. On other days they prayed in the synagogue 
of the Sephardim, whose cemetery also they used. 
By the year 1817 they had a yeshibah of their own 
(see letter in "Jerusalem," v. 112); but they were 
in continual dread that the taxes left unpaid by 
former Ashkenazim would be demanded of them, 

kuh was organized. In 1827 Moses Montefiore vis- 
ited Jeru.salem for the first time. Occasional aid 
came through tlie European powers; e.£?. ,in 1829, 
through an Austrian representative, Prokesch Os- 
ten, who had been sent from Vienna to look after 
the Austrian subjects. 

Ashkenazim continued to come in large numbers, 
from Lithuania, White Russia, and other European 
countries; often whole families arrived, e.g., Shem- 
ariah Luria with forty persons. Luria did much 
for the Ashkenazim ; but after a short while he re- 
turned to Russia (1834). In order to establish a bet 




ha-midrash, Akiba Leeren of Anisterdaiu gave a cer- 
tain sum of money to be used for this i)urpose by 
Rabbi Isaiah ^pNllX^- This was called " Sukkat 
Shalom." or more popularly "Bet ha-Midrasii of R. 
Isaiah." This produced a split in the Ashkeuazic 
community ; but after ten years the Hurbah was 
victorious. R. Abraliam Solomon Zoref went to 
Egypt in order to obtain authority to rebuild the 
"Hurbat R. Yehudah he-Hasid." He was helped 
by the Russian and Austrian consuls, and received 
the necessary permission. The new bet ha-midrash, 

land was the first European power to send a consul 
to Jerusalem (1839); by the year 1844 Austria, Sar- 
dinia, Pru.ssia, France, and Ru.ssia were similarly 
represented. The Damascus Affair of 1840, by bring- 
ing Cremieux, Albert Cohn, and Montefiore to Pal- 
estine, made the wretched condition of the Jerusalem 
Jews known to their brethren. The idea had arisen 
among the Ashkenazim and Sephardim of Jerusalem 
that it was necessary to induce the Jews to till the 
soil again. Montefiore took up this idea, and was 
assisted by R. Aryeh b. Jerahmeel, who had taken 

Tower of a. stoma, Jerusalem. 

(From a photosraph by Bonfils.) 

called "Menahem Ziyyon." or popularly "Bet ha- 
Midrash ha-Yashen," was inaugurated in 1837. 

The same year there was a slight earthquake in 
Jerusalem, which, however, was very severely felt 
in Safed and Tiberias. This caused many families 
to remove from these places to Jerusalem, where tiie 
anniversarj' of the event is still observed. The 
plague appeared in Jerusalem in 1838 and 1839, as 
many as fifteen persons dying in one day. Eng- 

the place of Menahem Mendel (d. 1847) as head of 
the Ashkenazic Jews. 

Moses Nabon hud been followed in 1841 as chief 
rabbi by Judah Bekor Raphael Nabon, and he in 
1842 by Abraham Hayyim Gagin. He seems to have 
been the first who was called "Hakam Bashi." 
When he walked out a man holding a staff in his 
hand preceded him ; and ten soldiers were allotted 
to him to keep order and to protect him. There 










were at this time several assemblies: the general 
assembly ('^i?3n Ijn) of eighty learned and lay 
members, under the presidency of the vice-hakan\ 
bashi; the spiritual assembly (''jni"in Tyi) of seven 
learned men, elected by the general assembly; and 
the "material" assembly OOK'Jn "IJ?1) of eight mem- 
bers, also elected by tlie general assembly (see tlie 
firman, rules, and alist of the hakam bashis in "Jeru- 
salem," V. 188 et seq.). In 1854 Albert Cohn was in 
Jerusalem as almoner for the Rotiischilds and other 
rich Jews of Europe. He gave liis attention espe- 
' cially to the efforts of the missionaries and to tlie 
Halukkali system. He founded a hospital, a society 
of manual workers, a girls' school, and 
Albert a loan society. In 1856 Montefiore, who 
Cohn and visited Jerusalem in 1837, 1839, 1840, 
liudwig' 1855, 1866, and 1875, made it possible 
Frankl. for 500 Jews to take up agriculture; 
he also laid the foundation for a hos- 
pital, and founded a girls' school, against which, 
however, a herem was issued. The Sephardic con- 
gregation was now decreasing in numbers, and so 
poor that in 1854 it had to sell its bet ha-midrash ; 
while in 1857 the Ashkenazim received permission to 
build a new synagogue (finished in 1864), which 
was called "Bet Ya'akob." Some statistics of the 
year 1856 are due to the visit of Ludwig August 
Frankl, who went from Vienna to Jerusalem to 
found the Frau Elise von Herz-Lamel School. A 
section of tlie community was violently opposed to 
this foundation, fearing that a modern school would 
be inimical to Orthodox observance. Placards were 
put on the houses, lamentations recited, and prayers 
offered up at tiie Wailing-Wall. Frankl, however, 
was successful, being assisted by the Austrian con- 
sul, Pizzamano, and by Kiamil, the pasha of Jerusa- 
lem. Of the 18,000 inhabitants of the city 5,137 
were Jews; and of the latter 1,700 were under Aus- 
trian protection. Frankl gives the following details: 
Sephardim, 3,500; Ashkenazim Perushim, 770; Ha- 
sidim, 430; Austrians, 145; Warsawers, 145; Ilabad, 
90; Germans, 57; total, 5,137 (see "Monatsschrift," 
1856, p. 330; in his "Nach Jerusalem," ii. 11, Leip- 
sic, 1858, he gives the number of Jews as 5,700). 
The Sephardim were so well organized that at their 
head was a hakam bashi. For worldly affairs, the 
"hakamini" chose three "pekidim," under whom 
there were three other chiefs. Three "mashgihim " 
(observers) examined the accounts of the leaders. 
The community had 36 yeshibot. The Perushim 
had no head in Jerusalem, the seat of authoritj^ being 
in Wilna. The Hasidim, mostly from Volhynia, 
had at their head Nissim Bak, who with the aid of 
Moses Montefiore {I.e. p. 23) was the finst to establish 
a printing-press in the city. The Habad were Hasi- 
dim who got their name from the initial letters of 
the words "Hokmah," "Binah," and "De'ah." The 
Warsawers were made up of Perusliimand Hasidim. 
They had separated from the other Ashkenazim 
about the year 1850. The Germans, or as they called 
themselves" Anshe Hod "^ {i.e., men of H[olland and] 
T)[eutschland]), had separated a year later. Zion, 
the large synagogue of the Sephardim, was really 
made up of four synagogues, which together occu- 
pied considerable space. According to tradition it 
had been built 460 years before Frankl's time. The 




synagogue of the Ashkenazim (Hurbat R. Yehudah 
he-Hasid; was rebuilt about 1856, a man named Eze- 
kiel of Bagdad contributing 100,000 piasters for the 
purpose ("Nach Jerusalem," p. 53). Frankl esti- 
mates the money sent every year in charitable gifts 
to Jerusalem at 800,000 piasters. 

In 1856 the Turkish authorities gave permission to 
all persons to visit the mosques; and this brought 
more Europeans, who commenced to build churches 
and hospices. The American Mission had been es- 
tablished in the city in 1821 ; the Eng- 
Fxirther lish, in 1826. In 1845 the seat of the 
Benefac- Greek Orthodox Patriarch had been 
tions. moved from Constantinople to Jerusa- 
lem ; and in 1847 the Latin Patriarchate 
had been renewed. In 1849 the Jerusalem Literary 
and Scientific Societv had been formed, out of 

system having ruined the Jewish Ijanking business 
there, and the gifts of the charitable Europeans hav- 
ing been in the hands of the Kolel ("Ben Chananja," 
1867, p. 45). In the same 3'ear the water-works were 
rebuilt, and water was brought to the city from 'En 
'Etam and from the Pools of Solomon. In this year 
Montefiore made his fifth visit, and contributed 
£300 on condition that the water should be led into 
the Jewish quarter. A Jewish manual school was 
founded by Baron Franchetti of Turin. In 1867 Al- 
bert Cohn of Paris commenced the work later contin- 
ued bj' the Paris Rothschilds and the Alliance Israe- 
lite Universelle, and laid the foundation for a Jewish 
library {ib. p. 174). A serious attempt was made to 
provide better dwellings for the Jews, who lived in 
miserable huts; this was largely due to the munifi- 
cence of the brothers Hirsch in Halberstadt {ib. pp. 

(From a photo^aph by the AmericaQ Colony, Jerusalem.) 

which the Palestine E.xploration Fund developed. 
The Jews also continued to increase in numbers. In 
1854 the American Judah Touro gave $60,000 for 
the purpose of founding hospices for them ; these 
were built on the road to Hebron, and were called 
D'JJXk^• niJS'J'D T\1, or "Montefiore Homes," because 
the money was expended partly through that philan- 
thropist and partly through the "North American 
Relief Society for the Indigent Jews of Jerusalem." 
In 1864 the Rothschilds of London established the 
Evelyn de Rothschild School for Girls. 

In 1865 there was an epidemic of cholera, and 
many Jews were victims. The poverty in the city 
was very great; flagrant abuses of the Halukkah 

459, 659). In 1870 Prof. H. Griitz and M. Gottschalk 
Lewy of Berlin were in Jerusalem, and, seeing the 
sad plight of the orphans left by recent Jewish im- 
migrants, founded the Verein zur Erziehung Jil- 
discher VVaisen in Palastina, the seat of which was 
in Frankfort-on-the-Main. The work was taken up 
by M. Herzberg. Despite the strongest possible op- 
position, a certain R. Kuttner having put the ban 
on the learning of foreign languages, a school was 
established in which Arabic, Hebrew, German, 
Frencii, and English were taught. The Wttrttem- 
berg Templars (a Christian sect) founded a colony 
in Jerusalem in 1873 and introduced the soap-manu- 
facturing industry. In 1878 the hospital Misgab 




la-Dak was founded for the Jews, without distinc- 
tion of party. In 1879 the English Mission Society 
founded, specifically for Jews, a hospital, a pilgrim- 
house, and schools at an expense of £10,000 a year, 
but the results of these missionary efforts were in- 
considerable. In the same year the colony Petah 
Tikwah w-as founded by Jerusalem Jews, as well as 
an orphan asylum for the Ashkenazim, together 
with a school which was afterward joined to the 
Lamel School. In 1881 the number of Jews bad 
grown to 13,920; in 1891, to 25,323. In 1882 the 
London Society for the Assistance of Persecuted 
Jews, founded by the Earl of Shaftesbury, bought 
a piece of property called "Abraham's Vineyard," 
in which Jews were emplo3'ed. The colony of 
Artuf was bought by Jews in 1896. The School for 

and 15 houses on the Mount of Olives. Other 
societies were founded to enable Jews to acquire 
landed property, e.g., Elef She'arim, Nahalat Ya'a- 
kgb (1886), Hibbatha-Arez, and Yishshub Erez Yis- 
rael (1896). These were aided by similar societies in 
Europe, among them the Lema'an Ziyyon, founded 
by Israel Hildesheimer in Berlin, the Moses Montefiore 
Testimonial Fund, and the Esra in Germany. In 
addition to the Jews, the Russians and the French 
Catholics have done a great deal to build up modern 
Jerusalem. The Russian buildings are nearly all in 
a walled quadrangle on the Jaffa road. They con- 
tain an insane asylum, mission- and pilgrim-houses, 
and a cathedral. On the Mount of Olives also the 
Russians have built a church and a hospice for 
pilgrims. A ^Irs. Spofford, who claimed prophetic 

Towers of David and Hippicrs, Jerusalem. 

(From a photograph by Bonfils.) 

Boys (Bet Sefer), founded by the Alliance, dates 
from 1882. The British Ophthalmic Hospital was 
founded and is maintained by the Knights of St. 

A change for the better came with the Russian 
Jews (1881-91), who brought with them more mod- 
ern ideas of life. It was impossible to find room for 
all in the old Jewish quarter between the traditional 
Zion and the Temple mount. New 
Spread, of portions were built up north and west 
Modem of the city, especially by building so- 
Jerusalem. cieties such as Mahaneh Yehudah, Sha- 
'are Zedek, and Oholeb Mosheh. In 
1891 there were eighteen such societies, owning 400 
houses in front of the Jaffa and Damascus gates. 

powers, came from America and formed a commu- 
nity in Jerusalem. A few years later 117 Swedish- 
Americans, mostly from Chicago, joined her. Vis- 
itors commenced to come in larger numbers with the 
opening on Sept. 26, 1892, of the narrow-gage rail- 
way from Jaffa, which was built by a French com- 
pany. Bokharian Jews commenced to settle in the 
city in the year 1893. 

On Nov. 1, 1898, the German emperor William 
II. visited Jerusalem in state. One of the three 
arches built on the Jaffa road was erected by the 
Jews, a deputation of whom was received by the 
emperor. On the following day a deputation of 
Zionists, with Dr. Theodor Herzl at the head, had an 
audience. In connection with the emperor's visit. 

■< _ 

"-3 >» 

P- 5. 

6 s 




many of the old roads had been repaired and new 
ones built, especially up to the Mount of Olives; 
and a portion of the city wall to the right of the 
JafEa Gate had been torn down to make the entry 
to the city commodious (" P. E. F. S." 1883, p. 117). 
In order to assist the German colonists, the Deutsche 
Palastina Bank was established. This was followed 
in 1903 by the Anglo-Palestine Co., founded by the 
Zionists in connection with the Jewish Colonial 

For some hundreds of years a small community of 
Karaites existed in Jerusalem. According to their 
own tradition, in 1586 they numbered 200; but on 
account of the 
plague most of 
them wandered 
away. An 
anonymous Ital- 
ian writer of 
the }-ear 1635 
(Luncz, I.e. V. 
86) says that 
their number in 
his day was 20, 
most of whom 
were gold- 
smiths. About 
the year 1830 
there were none 
to be found in 
the city ; their 
dwellings had 
been appropri- 
ated by the other 
Jews; but the 
latter were 
forced by the 
Damascus Kara- 
ites to give them 
up again ("Jeru- 
salem," vi. 239). 
Their syna- 
gogue, to which 
led doAvn, is still 
standing. The 
oldest grave- 
stone dates from 
the year 1716. 
In 1856 they 
numbered 32 
(Frankl, "Nach 

Jerusalem," ii. 63; and see Fiirst, "Gesch. des Ka- 
riierthums," iii. 129 et seq.). 

Peculiarities in the customs of the Jerusalem Jews 

are mentioned in various accounts; only a few can 

be cited here. It was the custom to put on tallit and 

tefillin during the afternoon ; to recite selihot also 

in the afternoon ; and on Simhat Torah to deck the 

synagogues with hangings ("Z. D. P. 

Customs of V." iii. 225). Reference lias already 

Jerusalem been made to the custom of reciting 

Jews. Isa. Ixiv. 10 and of making a rent in 

one's garments when approaching the 

city (Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 561). Tlie 

Sephardim were accustomed to have two wives; 

I'itadel of Zioii, Jerusalem. 

(From a ihotograph by the Ainericau <'olony, J<rrusaif m.) 

Nathan Spira was the first German rabbi to follow 
tills custom ("Gannat Weradim " ; Shulhan 'Aruk, 
Eben ha-'Ezer, 9). Only very small tombstones, 
with no inscriptions, are set over the graves, because 
they are apt to be stolen by the non-Israelites 
(Naphtali b. Jacob, "'Emek ha-Melek," p. 14a). 
To-day the Jews are wont to throw rough bits of 
stone, on which are written names and prayers, into 
the Tombsof the Judges, the same as is done through 
holes in the walls of the Haram of Hebron ("Jour. 
Bib. Lit." xxii. 172). For further peculiarities, see 
Luncz, I.e. V. 82; "Sammelband," Mekize Nirdamim, 
1888, p. 26; Obadiah of Bertinoro, ed. Neubauer, 

p. 61. Joseph 
b. Mordecai ha- 
Kohen wrote a 
series of hymns 
to be sung in 
praise of Jerusa- 
lem ("Sha'ar Ye- 
Venice, 1707). 

research in Je- 
rusalem was 
really c o m - 
menced in 1838 
by the American 
Edward Robin- 
son, who was 
followed by 
Count deVogiie, 
Sir Charles Wil- 
son (1864-67), 
and Lieutenant 
Warren (1867), 
the latter two 
working in the 
service of the 
Palestine Explo- 
ration Fund. 
Of recent j^ears 
much has been 
done by Cler- 
mont - Ganneau, 
B a u r a t h C . 
Schick, Fred- 
erick J. Bliss, 
and the Jesuit 
fathers. In 1900 
the " American 
School of Ori- 
ental Research in Palestine" was founded by the 
Society of Biblical Literature in conjunction with 
the "Archeological Institute of America." On 
Nov. 15, 1903, the German Palestine Archeological 
Institute was opened at Jerusalem. The English 
Palestine Exploration Fund has a museum and 
library in the Bishop's Buildings near the Tombs 
of the Kings. The debris is sometimes 100 to 
125 feet deep ; and excavations usually uncover 
some antiquities. Among the more important may 
be mentioned Robinson's Arch on the western 
side of the Haram, 39 ft. from the southwestern 
angle. Warren found the remains of the other end 
of the arch, which had a span of 42 ft., and which 




was probably part of an aqueduct carrying water to 
the Temple area. Tiie remains called "Wilson's 
Arch " were found in front of the present Gate of 
the Chain. It also had a span of 42 ft. The south- 
ern wall of Jerusalem, partly laid bare in 1875 by 
Henry ]\Iaudslay, on the property of the Englisli 
School, was accurately determined 1894-97 by F. J. 
Bliss. In 1871 Clermont-Ganncau dis- 
•Bemains covered a stone from Herod's Temple 

and In- with an inscription in both Greek and 
scriptions. Latin (comp. Acts xxi.). The l^loam 
inscription Avas found in 1880 by the 
Rev. 3Ir. Klein. An unfinished pillar, probably in- 
tended for the Herodian Temple, is still to be seen 
in the Russian 
quarter. A sec- 
ond pillar has 
been discovered 
1^ miles north- 
west of the Jalt'a 
Gate (" P. E. F. 
S."1899, p. 213). 
On a rock-cut 
wine- and olive- 
press found in 
northwest of Je- 
rusalem, see ib. 
1903, p. 398. A 
number of He- 
brew gravestone 
have been 
found, mostly in 
the outskirts of 
the city, and of 
a period not 
earlier than the 
Roman. These 
are mostly in- 
scriptions upon 
ossuaries (see 
Chw Olson, "C. 
I. H." p. 76; 
"Ephemeris filr 
Sem. Epigr." i. 
187, 312; "Re- 
pet. d'Epigr. 
Sem." i., Nos. 
374, 382, 421, 

422, 429-435). Special reference may be made to 
that of the Bene Hazir at the entrance to the so- 
called St. Jacob's grave (Chwolson, I.e. p. 64); the 
inscription in Syriac and Hebrew of Queen Helena 
in the Tombs of the Kings ("C. L S." ii. 156); the in- 
scription upon a lintel ("' Repet. d'Epigr. Sem." I.e. 
No. 373) ; and that of a somewhat later date found 
below the Al-Aksa Mosque (Chwolson, I.e. p. 96). 

Reference must be made also to the large subter- 
ranean cjuarry called the " Quarry of Solomon " or 
" The Cotton Grotto, " about 100 paces east of the Da- 
mascus Gate and 19 ft. below the wall. It is about 
100 ft. long and 150 ft. deep. From this quarry 
was obtained much of the stone of which Jerusalem 
VIL— 10 

Exterior of the Golden Gate, Jerusalem. 

(From a photofn'aph by BonfiU.) 

was built. The cavern is supposed to represent the 
" Royal Caverns " of Josephus ("B. J." iv. 2; see 
Cyras Adler in "J. Q. R." viii. 384 et seq.). Re- 
mains of an aqueduct have been found which formed 
part of a remarkable system of waterworks extend- 
ing about 15 kilometers south of Jerusalem. The 
Arabs call it " Kanat al-Kuffar. " It contains a pecul- 
iar siphon constructed partly, as the Roman in- 
scriptions show, in 195 during the reign of Septimius 
Severus("P. E. F. S." 1901, p. 118). 

The valleys lying north and east of the city were 
from the earliest times used as burial-places. A 
number of the latter, hewn out of the rock, still 
exist; though the assumption of their use for the 

burial of judges 
and prophets is 
not founded on 
•any real tradi- 
tion. The Tombs 
of the Judges, 
north of Jerusa- 
lem, were called 
by the Jews the 
"Tombs of the 
Seventy " and 
were connected 
with the Sanhe- 
drin (Carmoly, 
I.e. pp. 387, 430, 
443). They have 
been accurately 
described by 
Robinson and 
Tobler. For- 
merly a court 
existed, which 
measured nearly 
10m. X9m. The 
tombs are made 
up of a series of 
rooms, the first 
being 6 m . 
square and 2.52 
m. high. On 
the northern 
side there are 
two tiers of loc- 
uli ("kukim"). 
2 m. long, 0.81 
to 0.90 m. high, 
and 0.47 to 0.62 
m. wide. Above 
these are three arched recesses each with two loculi. 
A door leads from this room to the second room, 
which contains 21 niches, and to a 
Tombs. third, with 9 niches. At the end 
of the series of rooms is a small 
chamber used for depositing bones removed from 
the ossuaries in order to secure space for other 
bodies. Another, similar tomb, south of the Tombs 
of the Judges, on the road to Nabi Samwil, 
was very finely conceived, but apparently was not 
finished (see Barton in "Jour. Bib. Lit." xxii. 164 et 
seq.). About 1,500 ft. northeast of the Tombs of the 
Judges another series of tombs was found ; they have 
been described in the " Mittheilungen " of the Ger- 




man Palestine Assoc, 1898, p. 39; in the "Revue Bi- 
blique," 1899, p. 297; and in the "P. E. F. S." 1900, 
p. 54. They are like the Tombs of the Judges in 
their internal decoration and elaborate workmanship. 
They are said to date from the Hasmonean period, 
though their use by Christians at a later time is evi- 
denced by the crosses scratched on the walls. The 
"Tombs of the Prophets" or the "Small Labyriutli" 
on the Mount of 
Olives is very 
extensive and 
very old. A few 
steps lead under 
a low arch into 
a rotunda, 
lighted from 
above. From 
this rotunda 
passageways ra- 
diate into rooms 
cut farther into 
the rocks, and 
these again are 
intersected by 
passages. In the 
wall of the 
outermost circu- 
lar passage are 

24 loculi (see "P. E. F. S." 1901, p. 309, and Bae- 
deker, I.e. p. cxiii.). Other tombs are to be found 
on Mt. Scopus, close to the road leading to Anata 
("P. E. F. S." 1900, p. 75), and a few of the Roman 
period opposite the southwestern corner of the city 
wallC'Z. D. P. V." xvi. 202). 

A series of tombs somewhat differently arranged 
was found some 
years ago on the 
northern ex- 
tremity of the 
Mount of Olives, 
now called 
" Karm al-Say- 
yid," but for- 
merly " V i r i 
Galilaei," be- 
cause the Gali- 
leans who came 
to the festivals 
spread their 
tents here. The 

general plan is that of a road with rooms lying 
on either side; but there seems to be no defi- 
nite architectural arrangement. The entrance was 
originally closed by a stone; and in many of the 
chambers the center was scooped out to catch the 
rain that ran down the walls. Though many of the 
rooms were used by Christians, the tombs are evi- 
dently of Jewish origin. The Jewish graves are 
farther apart from each other than the Christian 
ones. This series is supposed by Schick to be the 
"Peristereon " mentioned by Josephus ("B. J!" v. 12, 
§ 2). Roman bricks with the mark of the 10th Le- 
gion and Jewish coins have been found there (" Z. 
D. P. V." xii. 193). The oldest Jewish gravestones 
near and in Jerusalem date from about the year 1690 

Plan of the Tombs of the Judges, Upper Level. 

(From the " Jouroal of Biblical Literature.") 

/rTnN fru^ /^i7^ 

Sectional View of the Tombs of the Judges. 

(From the "Journal of Biblical Literature.") 

("Jerusalem," v. 53). To be buried in Jerusalem 
was always considered a special favcjr; see the pas- 
sages cited in " Yalkut 'Erez Yisrael," pp. 78 et seq. 
Among the prominent men supposed to be buried in 
and around the city may be mentioned : the prophets 
Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi ; Mordecai, Simon 
the Just, Johanan b. Zakkai, Nahmanides, Obadiah 
of Bertinoro. See " Yuhasin," p. 228b, ed. London ; 

Conforte, "Ko- 
re, " p. 19a; 
raires, " pasdm ; 
the list in Pin- 
ner's Catal. p. 
7 (Fragment, 
1861 ?); and 
Basset, " Nedro- 
mah," pp. 158 
et seq. , Paris, 

The climate of 
Jerusalem has 
been carefully 
studied since 
1883 by Dr. 
Thomas Chap- 
lin. The mean 
annual tempera- 
ture is 62.8°; 
maximum 112" ; minimum 25°. See the resume by 
Kersten in "Z. D. P. V." xiv. 93 et seq. The mean 
annual rainfall is 26.06 in. ; see the result of obser- 
vations made from 1861 to 1892 by James Glaisher 
in "P. E. F. S." 1894, p. 39. 

The following chronological table gives a list of 
the more important incidents that had a direct or 

indirect bearing 
on the history 
of the Jews of 
Jerusalem : 


15G0. Earliest histor- 
ical mention 
of Jerusalem, 
found in the 
1048. David takes 
possession of 
from the Je- 
busites, call- 
ing it "Ir 
1007. Solomon's Temple completed after seven years' labor. 
972. Shlshak of Egypt takes the city from Rehoboam. 
713. Sennacherib advances toward Jerusalem. 
700. Hezeklah perfects the water-supply. 
586. (Ab 9.) Captured by Nebuzar-adan. 
516. Rebuilt during reign of Darius. 
350. Seized by the Persians. 
332. Visited by Alexander the Great ? 
320 or 305. Seized by Ptolemy Soter. 
170. Plundered by Antiochus Epiphanes. 
165. (Kislew 25.) Judas Maccabeus recaptures Jerusalem 
and reconsecrates the Temple. 
Pompey enters Jerusalem. 
Besieged and taken by Herod the Great. 
Restoration of the Temple begun by Herod the Great. 


(April.) Jesus of Nazareth executed at Jerusalem. 
(Nisan 14.) Siege commenced by Vespasian, lasting- 
134 days. 

Plan of the Catacombs on thk Mount of Olives, East of Jerusalem. 

(After Schick.) 

Cave Leading to the Traditional Tcmbs of the Judges, near Jerusalem. 

(From a photograph of the FaleetiDe Exploration Fund.) 




70. (Ab9.) Jerusalem destroyed by Titus. 

135. Hadrian rebuilds the city. 

1:36. Jerusalem called ^Elia Capitolina. 

363. Restoration of the Temple undertaken by Julian the 

614. Jews aid the Persian Chosroes II. in attack on Jerusalem. 

628. Retaken by Heraclius; Jews forbidden to enter the city. 

63". Omar puts Jerusalem under Moslem power. 

688. 'Abd al-Malik builds the Dome of the Rock. 
1046. Solomon ben Judah head of the yeshibah at Jerusalem. 
1077. Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem. 

1099. (July 15.) Crusaders put 70,i>X) infidels to the sword, 

and found a new Christian kingdom. 

1100. "Assize of Jerusalem" established by Godfrey of Bouillon. 
1140. Judah ba-Levi visits Jerusalem. 

1173. Benjamin of Tudela visits Jerusalem. 

1187. (Oct. 2.) Saladiu defeats the Franks and takes Jerusalem. 

1211. Several hundred English and French rabbis settle in 

1218. Al-Harizi visits Jerusalem. 
1267. (Aug. 12.) Nahmanides visits Jerusalem. 
1437. Elijah of Ferrara made chief rabbi. 





(Sept. 5.) Treaty to preserve the Holy Sepulcher signed 

by Russia, France, and Turkey. 
Siloam Inscription discovered. 
(Sept. 13.) Railway from Jerusalem to Jaffa, built by a 

French company, opened. 
(Nov. 1.) William II. of Germany visits Jerusalem in 

state and receives a Jewish deputation. 
Abarbanel Library founded. 

Bibliography: Only the chief works of the very large litera- 
ture on the subject can be mentioned. Numerous articles are 
to be found in the publications of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund, the Deutsche Verein zur Erforschung Palastinas, and the 
Society de rOrient Latin. For the older literature : Rohricht, 
BihlioUwca Geoaraphica Pnlcvstina\ Berlin, 1890 (see the 
additions in Z. D. P. V. xiv. 113; xvi. 209. 269). For the 
archeological material : Sunken of Western Palestine : Jeru- 
salem, 1867-1870; C. W. Wilson, Ordnance Survey tif Jeru- 
salem, Southampton, 1866 ; C.Warren, Underground Jerusa- 
lem. London, 1S76 ; H. Guthe, Ausurahungen bet Jcmsalem. 
Leipsic, 1883; Frederick J. Bliss, Excavations at Jerusalem, 
London, 1898; W. Sanday, Sacred Sitex of the Gospels, Ox- 
ford, 1903. For a general account: Edward Robinson, Re- 
seaixhes, 1856; E. Starck, PaUtstina und Syrien . . . Lexi- 
kalisches Hilfshuch, p. 86, Berlin, 1894; Buhl, Geographic 

Grotto Lkading to the Traditional Tombs of the Kings, near Jerusalem. 

(From s photograph by Bonfils.) 

1492. Jews expelled from Spain settle in Jerusalem. 

1517. Capture by Ottoman Turks. 

1580. Nahmanides synagogue closed by the Moslems, claiming 
that it had previously been a mosque. 

1621. Isaiah Horowitz and a number of his friends settle in 

1627. Ibn Farukh, governor of Jerusalem and persecutor of 
the Jews, deposed. 

1705. Jews subjected to certain vexatious restrictions In mat- 
ters of attire. 

1798. Napoleon visits Palestine ; Jewish community of Jerusa- 
lem accused of assisting him and its members threat- 
ened with death. 

1827. First visit of Moses Monteflore. 

1838. Edward Robinson commences archeological research In 

1840. Crc^mieux, Monteflore, and Albert Cohn visit Jerusalem. 

1841. (Nov. 7.) S. M. S. Alexander, convert to Christianity, 

consecrated first Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem. 
1854. Albert Cohn e.^itablishes many charitable institutions. 

d€s Alien Paldstina, pp. 93 et scq., 132 et seq. For the 
Mohammedan period : Guy le Strange, Palestine Under 
the Moslems, London, 1890. For the Crusading period: 
Besant and Palmer, The History of Jerusalem, London, 
1888; J. R. Sepp, Jerusalem und das Heilige Land, 3d ed., 
1873; R. Rohricht, Gesch. des Konigreichs Jerusalem, Ber- 
lin. 1898. For modem Jerusalem : Biideker's Palestine and 
Syria^ (by Socin and Benzinger), 3d ed., Leipsic, 1898. For 
the history of the Jews : Various articles by A. M. Luncz in 
his Jerusalem, vols, i.-vi.; Schwartz, I'ehu'ot ha-Arez (best 
edition by Luncz, Jerusalem, 1890); Steinschneider, Bihli- 
ography of Hebrew Works, in Jerusalem, vols, iii., iv.; Sol- 
omon b. Menahem (Mendel), Zikkaron bi-Yerushalayim 
(on the synagogues, schools, graves, etc.), Jerusalem, 1876; 
Joel Moses Solomon, Bet Ya'akob (on the Ashkenazic syna- 
gogue), ib. 1877; Lob TJrenstein, Tal Yerushalayim (on 
thecustomsof theJerusalem Jews), 'ib. 1877; Shibhe Yeru- 
shalayim, ed. Jacob Baruch, Leghorn, 1785; Sefer Hibbat 
Yerushalayim, pp. 3.5b et seq., Jerusalem. 1844; Farhi, Kaf- 
tor wa-Fcrah, 2d ed., ib. 1902; Frumkin, Kben Shcmuel (on 
Jewish men of learning in Jerusalem). Wilna. 1894; idem, 
Massa' Eben Shemuel. Jerusalem. 1871. 




200 400 600 3U0 1000 Eeet 

6 — 




Modern : The modern city of Jerusalem (Ara- 
bic, "Al-Kuds") practically covers the site of the an- 
cient city. Excavations have shown, however, that 
the old city extended farther to the south ; while to the 
north, and particularly to the west, the modern city 
far exceeds the ancient one, whole settlements lying 
beyond the walls 
of the medieval 
city. The west- 
ern city wall 
coincides with 
the line of the 
original wall ; 
the northern 
wall is held by 
some to be iden- 
tical in its course 
with the ancient 
third wall, and 
by others with 
the second ; and 
the eastern wall 
follows the 
course of the 
eastern Temple 
enclosure. The 
present wall, 
erected by the 
Osman sultan. 
Sulaiman the 
Magnificent, is 
thirty-eight and 

one-half feet high, and forms an irregular quadrangu- 
lar enceinte two and one-half miles in extent. It is 
pierced by eight gates: Jaffa, Zion, Dung, St. 
Stephen's, Herod, Damascus, New, and Golden, the being sealed. Parts of the old city wall 
are still in situ, especially on the southern and east- 
ern sides, and 
much of the old 
material was 
used in the re- 
evidences of 
which are abun- 
dant. On the 
north an old 
moat, separating 
the Hill of Jere- 
miah from Be- 
zetha, is used as 
part of the city's 

Within tlie 
walls the city 
is divided into 
four quarters: 

Square Outside tlie Jaffa Gate. Jerusalem 

(From a photograph by Dr. \V. I'opper.) 

■UA k .1 

1 - 

A i . ^ 





I*' ■-■.'< ,' 

■ ■*• ■^.■.. 

■m. ,-v-* 

^^^^^^H. V..,, p^.''-. 



1 . 



r ■ ■ ■' 





■ ■ - i' 

.'.,'i.i%«^: ■; ^'■- 

• 1 


" V. 

■ ■^- ' ■ 

' ^i^isys^te- 

- ^,_ 

-: : 1 , " " ''''"'''''\ 

1-'. -.'■••-■"iK- -V. - ^ 


7*- . ■ ■' ■ ■ ' ' 

Daina-scus Gate, Jerusalem. 

(From a photograph by the American Colony, Jerusalem.) 

the Moslem, in the northeastern and eastern parts, 
including the Temple place; the Jewish, in the 
southern part, on the eastern slope of the tradi- 
tional Mt. Zion; and the Armenian, in the south- 
western part. In recent years the Moslem quarter 
has been invaded by the Jews; and outside of the 

walls, along the 
Jaffa and Da- 
mascus roads, 
are numerous 
colonies of 
Jews. The 
homes of many 
of the better 
classes of Chris- 
tians and Mos- 
lems, as well as 
the foreign con- 
sulates, the more 
important con- 
vents, monaster- 
ies, hospitals, 
schools, and 
hotels, are also 
iu this extra- 
mural quarter. 
Within the walls 
the streets are 
narrow, crooked, 
and steep. Many 
of them are cov- 
ered over so that 
sunlight never enters; and the sanitary conditions 
are, on the whole, very poor. The style of the ar- 
chitecture is typical, the houses consisting of a series 
of low, square, flat-domed rooms, built about an 
open court, which generally contains a cistern 
for gathering water. An occasional latticed bal- 
cony is seen ; 
and almost all 
roofs are pro- 
vided with a bal- 
ustrade. Out- 
side the walls 
the streets are 
wider and better 
cared for, and 
the houses are 
more European 
in appearance. 

The climate is 
mild ; but the 
extremes of heat 
and cold are not 
unknown. Snow 
and frost are oc- 
casionally expe- 

the Christian, 

the Moslem, the Jewish, and the Armenian. David 

street, running east and west from the Jaffa gate 

to the Tcmiile place, and Damascus 
Divisions, street, with its continuation. Bazaar 

street, which starts from the Da- 
mascus gate and runs north and south, form the 
boundary -lines for quarters. The Christian 
quarter is in the northwestern corner of the city; 

rienced in the 
winter, a season of long-protracted rains. The late 
summer is very imcomfortable, owing to the heavy 
dust and the hot eastern winds. The absence of 
foliage and the glare of the bare stone seem to in- 
tensify the natural heat of the sun. 

With the exception of the Spring of Siloam ('Ain 
Sitti Maryam), Jerusalem is without any natural 
water-supply. Every house therefore is provided 




with one or more cisterns for gatliering rain-water. 
The well-being of the city is thus directly dependent 

on the amount of the rainfall. The old 

Weather aqueduct from Solomon's Pools has 

and Water, recently been replaced by a modern 

pipe-line. The amount of water thus 
conducted is small ; and the Temple place is more di- 
rectly benefited than the city proper. The increase 
of private cisterns of late years has reduced the 
amount of water formerly collected in the large 
public pools, which are now used only in case of 
necessity by the poorest of the population. Some 
water is brought in by train and cart from Bittir 

and damage. Without the walls modern carriages 
are in use. 

The present population of Jerusalem is about 
46,500. Of this number 29,000 are Jews; 8,500, 
Moslems; and the remaining 9,000, 
.Popula- Christians of different sects. Each of 
tion. the properly accredited confessions has 
its representatives in the town council 
(" Majlis Baladiyyah "), of which the mayor of the 
city is president. Jerusalem forms an independent 
sanjak, subject to the sultan, who appoints the 
"mutasarrif." A regiment of infantry is main- 
tained in the city, in the Tower of David. 

The Golden Gatk from Within the City of Jerusalem. 

(From a photograph by Bonfils.) 

and 'Ain Karim, mostly for the use of the European 
inhabitants. The large pools are all of ancient con- 
struction : the Birkat Isra'in (Bethesda?), to the north 
of the Temple place; the Birkat al-Sultan (upper 
Gihon?), southwest of the Jaffa gate; the Birkat 
al-Batrak (Hezekiah's Pool?), in the city, west of the 
Muristan ; the Birkat Mamilla, in the Moslem ceme- 
tery, west of the city; and the upper and lower 
pools of Siloam, southeast of the city. 

Jerusalem is now reached by rail from Jaffa. The 
station is twenty minutes' ride southwest of the 
city, in the plain of Rephaim, near the German col- 
ony of the Templars. Transportation within the city 
is by means of horse, camel, or donkey, only few 
streets being practicable for wheeled conveyances. 
Certain streets which are very much crowded have 
low iron bars across them to prevent camels from 
entering, their large loads causing much confusion 

Up to 1837 the number of Jews in the Holy City 

was very small; and of these the great majority 

were Sephardim. In previous centu- 

Jews of ries Ashkenazim had preferred to set- 
Jerusalem, tie in the Galilean cities. The earth- 
quake at Safed and Tiberias in 1837 
caused many to move southward ; and this gave the 
first impetus to the growth of the Jewish colony in 
Jerusalem. The next great movement toward Jeru- 
salem occurred in connection with the persecutions 
in Russia ; and since then the growth of the commu- 
nity has been extraordinary. From 3, 000 in 1837, the 
Jews have, as stated above, increased to 29,000 in 
1903. Rumania, Persia, Mesopotamia, ]\Iorocco, and 
Yemen have each furnished a quota to the now 
complex Jewish community of Jerusalem. The 
Sephardim number about 15,000, and comprise, be- 
sides the original Spanish-Portuguese stock, colonies 




of Eastern Jews of various nationalities. The Ash- 
kenazim are broadly divided into Hasidim and Pe- 
rushim, which in turn are divided into numerous 
small "halukkah " congregations. A few Karaites 
still remain. 

Modern Jerusalem is a city with no commerce 
except the importation of the necessities of life, 
the export of souvenirs, and the tour- 
ist trade, and manufactures little 
but olive-wood souvenirs and sacred 
scrolls. Jerusalem is dependent upon 
the tourist and upon charity. The Jew gets the least 
from the former, and a large part of the latter. There 
is but one good Jewish hotel (Hotel Jerusalem, 
Kaminitz) where 


Europeans are 
though there are 
several Jewish 
inns. A small 
number of Jews 
is engaged in 
the administra- 
tion of the vari- 
ous charitable 
and educational 
institutions es- 
tablished in the 
city by their 
brethren abroad. 
These include 
the physicians, 
chemists, teach- 
ers, and other 
paid officials. 
About 2,000 
Jews are crafts- 
men, occupied in 
carpentry, tai- 
loring, capma- 
king, shoema- 
king, printing, 
tin- and copper- 
smithing, ba- 
king, engineer- 
ing, etc. These 
trades are, how- 
ever, all over- 
crowded, and 
regular employ- 
ment is scarce. 
A few Jews are 

engaged in money-changing, and one is a banker; 
writing sacred scrolls gives employment to a small 
number; many drive cabs; and a great number are 
engaged in petty trading. A store is a sign of 
prosperity, no matter how mean it may be. A 
large portion of the Jews exist on the charity that 
pours in from abroad. 

Much is done in aid of the Jew ; but so abject is 
his poverty, and so limited are his chances for im- 
provement, that even the best-directed efforts do not 
suffice to relieve the situation. For the benefit of 
the Jewish poor a number of dwellings have been 
erected which are either let at a nominal rental or 
occupied free. Free dispensaries are maintained in 

Zion Gate, Jerusalem. 

(From a photograph by Boniils.) 

connection with the hospitals and by the Le-Ma'an 
Ziyyon Society. There are four Jewish hospitals: 
the Bikkur Holim, under the auspices of the Ash- 
kenazim; the Misgab la-Dak, under the Sephar- 
dim ; the Sha'are Zedek, under the Orthodox of 
Germany ; and the Rotlischild. Two orphanages 
for boys have been established. There are also an 
institute for training blind children, an asylum for 
incurables and the insane, and a home 
Institu- for aged men and women. There are a 
tions. large school for girls, the Evelina de 
Rothschild School (founded 1864), at 
present under the Anglo-Jewish Association of Lon- 
don ; a German school for boys, the Edler von Laem- 

mel School 
(1856), under the 
Frankfort Soci- 
ety ; the elemen- 
tary school 
(1884) for boys; 
and the technical 
shops (1886) of 
the Alliance Is- 
raelite Univer- 
selle. At the 
schools many of 
the children are 
provided with 
food and cloth- 
ing. A library 
(the Jewish Cen- 
tral Library) has 
been established, 
and contains a 
promising col- 
lection of 20,000 
books (see Abai{- 
brary). There is 
a large number 
of Orthodox ha- 
darim andyeshi- 
bot scattel'ed 
through the 
city,' where stu- 
dents are sup- 
plied with an 
education in the 
traditional sense 
of the term, and 
with the neces- 
saries of life. 
The working men have organized for purposes of 
mutual aid and the encouragement of industries in 
the cit3^ 

The great majority of the Jews is, as stated 
above, dependent on foreign charity. The Jewish 
Colonization Association and several other societies 
dispense doles through their agents; but the haluk- 
kaii system reaches more people than all the others 
combined. "Halukkah" is the term applied to the 
funds sent by pious Jews from abroad for the support 
of needy scholars in the Holy City, who in return 
pray and study, at the holy sites, in memory of their 
benefactors. While accomplishing a great deal of 
good, the system is regarded by some as thoroughly 




iniquitous because of its pauperizing tendencies and 
of tlie inequality of the distribution of tlie funds. 
See Halukkah. 

Two weeklies ("Ha-Habazzelet," edited by A. 
Frumkin; and "Hashkafha," by Ben Judah) as well 
as an annual almanac ("Jerusalem," by Luncz) are 
published by the Jews of Jerusalem. Besides the 
Tahnudic works of the Orthodox rabbis, other works 
of real importance and value appear from time to 
time. The names of Griinhut, Ben Judah. Luncz, 
Simeon Hakam, and Yellin are most prominent in 
this connection. 

The Sephardic community is recognized by the 
government, its chief rabbi, the hakam bashi, when 
installed being invested by the sultan with an official 
robe and an order. Rabbi Abraham Hayyim Gagin 
was the first to 
receive an irade 
as hakam bashi 
of Palestine, in 
1842. He died 
in 1848, and was 
succeeded by R. 
Jacob Covo (d. 
1854). Since the 
latter's death the 
following have 
held the office: 
Hayyim Nissim 
Abulafia (d. 
1860) ; Hayyim 
David Hazan (d. 
1869); Abraham 
Ashkenazi (d. 
1880); Meir Pa- 
nisel (d. 1893); 
and Saul Jacob 
El Yashar, the 
present incum- 
bent (1904), who 
lias a place on 
the town coun- 
cil, but, owing 
to age, has dele- 
gated this office 
to his grand- 
son. The hakam 
bashi' is respon- 
sible for the 

taxes of the Jews and for their good behavior; 
and has the right to collect for the communal treas- 
ury the meat-tax ("gabella") and any fines he 
may impose. Helms jurisdiction over his people; 
and the Turkish authorities are at his service for 
enforcing his decrees and of his court ("bet 
din"). The "shaikh al-Yahud " is an administra- 
tive officer under the chief rabbi, whose duty it 
is to police the JewLsli quarter and to collect the 
taxes, etc. Formerly the military tax (" 'askariy- 
yali") was paid out of the communal taxes, but 
lecentl}' Baron Edmoud de Rothschild has defrayed 
this expense for all the Jews of Palestine. 

The Ashkenazim refuse to recognize the authority 
of the hakam baslii, and have their own organiza- 
tion. They have one head, Samuel Salant, to whose 
administrative ability the present state of affairs is 

A Typical Street 

(From a photogra 

attributable. An assistant was lately called from 
Rus.sia, E. D. Rabbinowitz-Tummim. This organi- 
zation is of course unofficial ; and these rabbis de- 
pend on their moral and personal influence for the 
enforcement of their decisions. Most of the Ashke- 
nazim enjoy tbe protection of some foreign consu- 

There are about 350 places of prayer for the Jeru- 
salem Jews, about seventy of which are in independ- 
ent buildings. The Ashkenazim possess two large, 
commodious synagogues, both in the city proper 
— the Neu Schul of Salant and the synagogue of 
the Hasidim. The other synagogues of the Ash- 
kenazim are Bet Ya'akob, Sha'are Ziyyon, and Mena- 
hem Ziyyon (all of which are built about the court- 
yard of R. Judah he-Hasid, and are owned by the 

members of the 
Perushim com- 
munity), and 
Tif'eret Yisrael, 
also known as 
"the synagogue 
of R. Nissim 
Bak," Bak hav- 
ing collected the 
funds for its 

The principal 
synagogues of 
the Sephardic 
Jews are the 
Kehal Istambul, 
the official syn- 
agogue in which 
the hakam bashi 
is installed and 
in which he 
officiates on 
holy days; the 
Kehal Emza'i, 
.so called because 
it is in the midst 
of the other syn- 
agogues; Bet 
ha-Keneset R. 
Johanan b. Zak- 
kai; Kehal Tal- 
mud T o r a h . 
All of these are 
united and form one group. There is a small syn- 
agogue. Bet El, used by the Cabalists, and an- 
other, Kehal Ma'arabim, used by the 
Syna- Moroccan Jews. The Karaites also 
g-ogues and have an interesting place of worship; 
Yeshibot. and the services of the Yemenite, 
Persian, and Bokharian Jews are 
worthy of notice because of the variations in the 
forms of the ritual. 

Besides the larger synagogues within the city, 
there are several smaller ones. Outside the walls 
each Jewish colony has a synagogue of its own; 
the largest of these are Me'ahShe'arim, Bet Ya'akob, 
Nahalat Shib'ah, Bet Yisrael, Yemin Mosheii, 
]VIazkeret IMosheii, Olicl Mosiieh, and Rehobot, the belonging to the colony of the Bokharian 

in Jerusalem 

ph by Bonfila.) 




Tlie famous Wailiug-Place (*' Kotel Ma'arabi ") is 
iuteiestiug from every poiutof view. Every Friday 
afternoon and aftermoruing service on Sabbaths and 
holy days the Jews assemble in a i)icturesquc crowd 
to bewail their departed glory. This is the gieat 
show-place of tlie Jerusalem Jewry, as the Temple 
place is for the Moslems, and the Church of the 
Holy Sepulcher for the Christians. 

Of the yeshibot those of the Sephardim are mostly 
foundations in which the hakamim, who are bene- 
ficiaries, liave to study and to offer prayers daily for 
the souls of the deceased testators. Chief of these 
yeshibot are: Hesed le-Abraham, an ancient trust 
which benetits 
ten rabbis, in- 
cluding the ha- 
le a m b a s h i ; 
Ka'id Nissim 
Shamama of Tu- 
nis, which has 
an annual in- 
come of 6,000 
francs, divided 
among fifty ha- 
kamim; Mazzal 
Zomeah, sup- 
ported by tlie 
iSassoon family 
of Bombay, at 
which ten rabbis 
each receive 200 
francs annually ; 
Menahem Elijah 
of Vienna, which 
grants 200 francs 
a year to each of 
ten rabbis; Ge- 
daliah, presided 
over by tlie 
hakam bashi, 
and founded and 
maintained by 
Hayj'im Gue- 
dalla, a nephew 
of the late Sir 
Moses Monte- 
fiore ; Bet Ya- 
'akob, in which 
ten rabbis re- 
ceive each an an- 
nual allowance 
of 140 francs; 
and Tif'eret Ye- 

rushalayim, for young students, each of whom re- 
ceives a small annual income. 

The yeshibot of the Ashkenazim are more in the 
nature of colleges, at which young men spend 
their time in the study of the Talmud and the codes. 
Each student receives a monthly allowance varying 
from 10 to 80 francs. Their chief yeshibot are: 'Ez 
Hayyim, attended by about 100 students, under the 
supervision of B. Samuel Salant; Me'ah She'arim, 
with 50 students, under B. Saul Hayyim Hur- 
vitz; Torat Hayyim, managed by B. Hayyim 
Weingrad; and Hayye 'Olam, a small yeshibah for 

Typography: The following books have been 
printed in Jerusalem since 1842: 






Street of Arches Leading 

(From .1 photogra 






Azharot (published by Israel Bak), selections read on 

Shabu'ot night by the Moroccan Jews. 
Be'er Sheba' (I. Bali), commentary on the Pentateuch, by 

Moses David Ashkenazi. 
Dibre Shalom (I. Bak), by Abraham Shalom Mizrahl. 
Ohole Yehudah (I. Bak), commentary on Rambam, by 

Judah ha-Kohen. 
Be'er ba-Sadeh (I. Bak), by Menahem Danon. 
Ge Hizzayon (I. Bak), a life of Sir Moses Monteflore, by 

Jacob Sappir. 
Sefer ha-Goralotof R. Hayyim Vital (Bril, Cohen, and Salo- 
mon), published from a manuscript found in Yemen by 
Jacob Sappir. 

1864. I) i m ' a t h a - 
'Ashukim (I. 
Bak), on local 
disputes, by 
Salomon Bo- 
1868. OholeYosef (I. 
Bak), on the 
ritual laws, by 
Elias Joseph 

1871. EbenShelomoh 
(J. M. Salo- 
mon) , com- 
mentary on 
some difficult 
passages In 
the Talmud, 
by Rabbi Salo- 
mon of Tolot- 

1871-76. Imre Binah 
(J. M. Salo- 
mon), respon- 
sa, by Meir 

1872. Arzot ba-Hay- 
ylm (Jos. 
Schmer), by 
Hayyim Pa- 
laggl, chief 
rabbi of 

1875. Darke Ish (Nis- 
sim Bak), ser- 
mons, by Ju- 
dah Arewass. 

1876. Em la-Masso- 
ret (N. Bak). 
by Aryeh Lob 

1876-79. Or ha-Hok- 
mah (J. M. 
on the Zohar, 
by Abraham 

1877. Eleh Toledot 
Yizhak (A. M. 

Luncz), biog- 
raphy of the French statesmati, Isaac Creraieux, by Luncz. 

Ha-Yehudim bi-Sefarad we-Portugal (Frumkin), trans- 
lated from the English of Frederick D. Mocatta by I. B. 

Ohel Abraham (J. M. Salomon), responsa and "dinim." 
by Abraham Sohag. 

Ohel Mo'ed (.\gan), commentary on passages from the 
Pentateuch, the Five Scrolls, Joshua, Judges, and 
Samuel, by Abrahairi Bick. 

Erez Yisrael (J. M. Salomon), by E. Ben Judah. 

Zeker 'Olam (Ooshzinl), a journey to Palestine, by Re- 
becca Lippe. 

Alfasi Zuta (A. M. Luncz). an outline of Alfasi, by Mena- 
hem Azariah da Fano; edited by N. Nathan Coronel. 

The life of Sir Moses and Lady Judith Monteflore (Zucker- 
manii), by Ezra Benvenisti. 

to the Palace of Herod. 

ph by Bonfils.) 





18S6. Ohel Mo'ed (S. Zuckennanni, hy R. Samuel Yarundi. 

1887. Eben Sheloinoh (Isaac Hirschensohn), commentary on 
some difficult passages In the Talmud and tbe Tosafot, 
by Salomon Epstein. 

1887. Iggeret le-Dawld (J. M. Salomon), a letter by David Cohen, 
containing some references to the events of the year 

1891. Or le-Hayyim (I. B. Frumkin), by Hillel Gelbstein. 

1893-94. Batte Midrashot (G. Lilienthal), old midrashlm, col- 
lected and edited by S. A. Wertheimer. 

1899. Haftarah for the eighth day of Pesah, with the Persian 

1899. Wa-Ye'esof Dawid, sermons, by David Kazin of Aleppo. 
1901. Ben Ish Hayil (Frumkin), sermons, by David Hayyim of 

1901. Bet Hayil (Ben Judah), "Domestic Economy," a Hebrew 

reader, by Joseph Meyuhas. 
The present hakam bashi has published '"Olat Ish," "Ma'aseh 
Ish," and "Simhah le-Ish (t:"N = the initials of Saul Jacob El 
Yashar in inverted order) ; A. M. Luncz has issued six volumes 

Daviu's Strekt, Jekisalkm. 

(From a photograph by the Palestine ExpIoratioD Fund.) 

1894. Ezor Eliyahu (J. M. Levy), commentary on Pirke Abot, 

etc., by Elihu ha-Kohen Etmari. 
1898-1900. Jehoiada on some passages of the Talmud ( Frumkin) . 
1899. Agudah (Frumkin), ritual code, by Alexander Susslin 
Cohen of Frankfort-on-the-Main. 
Or Yekarot (I. N. Levy), a commentary on the Mishnaic 

order Tohorot, by Asher Luria. 
Ben Ish Hay (Salomon), on the Pentateuch, by Joseph 
Hayyim, chief rabbi of Bagdad. 


of his year-book "Jerusalem," as well as a new edition of Estori 
Parhi's "Kaftor wa-Ferah," and Uabbi Joseph Schwarz's 
" Tebu'ot ha-Eiez " ; L. (Jriinhut has published some midrashim, 
"Kobez Midrashim"; David Jellin, a Hebrew reader ; Hayyim 
Hirschensohn, the work '* Mosedot Torah She-be'al Peh " ; S. A. 
Wertheimer, " Midrash Haserot we-Yeterot " ; Sliman Man! 
of Hebron, "Siah Yizhak"; M. Baruch of Bokhara, a volume 
of sermons, "Tebat Mosheh"; and I. M. Pines has edited the 
" 'Emek Berakah " of David Friedman, chief rabbi of Karlin. 




liesides these tliere liave recently lieen puiilished in Jerusa- 
lem for tlie Jews of Yemen and Bokhara various works in He- 
brew, Arabic, and Persian. Aiiioug them may be mentioned a 
Siddur of the Yemenite Jews ( 18'.)4); " Keter Torah," or " Taj," 
I'enlateucn witli Targum and Saadia's Arabic translation 
(1895-liKlli; "Mikra Meforash," Pentateuch with modern Per- 
sian translation (i'JOl-Oy). 

D. M. A. M. 

In addition to the annual contributions from abroad 
there are the following permanent funds, the interest 
of which is devoted to the same purpose as the ha- 





L. Lewenberp 



6,300 francs. 

Sir Moses Montetlore 





Sir Moses Montellore.. 




Jacob Nathanson 

Plymouth .. 


£30 (annual inter- 

Isaac Ratzesderfer . . . 



3(),(K)0 florins. 

Dr Sah t'ndi 

Diirkheim .. 


1,000 francs. 

Ka'id Nissim Shama- 


Leghorn — 



178,000 francs. 

Levi Solomon 

£54 (annual Inter- 


Gedaliah Tiktin 



30,()tlli marks. 





A second 

13,780 francs. 


350 francs (annual 

Interest) . 

Nahman Moses Vol- 




10,000 rubles. 

Samson Wertheimer.. 


August 8, 


53,6.57 florins. 

Joshua Zeitlin 



;33,2o0 francs. 

There are also several houses in Jerusalem erected 
from charitable funds contributed from abroad. 
These are either placed at the disposal of the same 
persons as those for whom the halukkah is founded, 
or the income is devoted to their use. These build- 
ings are as follows : 



Name of Terrace. 





Moses Alexander.. 
Miss Davis 

New York 


Obole Mosheh 





Samuel PoUakofl.. 
David Reiss 

St. Petersburg.. 

[Income of 3,000 


Bet David 

Hazer ha-Geberet 
Bet Mishkenot... 
Sha'are Mosheh . . 

Ohel Yizhak 

Nahalat Ya'akob. 

3 'Ezrat Nidda- 
1 him 



Mrs. Scheindel 



Judah Touro 

Moses Wittemberg. 
Isaac Rotzesderfer. 
Jacob Taninwurzel 
Baron M. de Hirsch 

New Orleans. . . 







and Dr. Arie Sal- 




BiBMOGKAPH Y : Revuc dex Ecoleif dc VAUia nee Isi-aelitc, June, 


.1. M. Fu. 

JERUSALEM. See Periodicals; Year-Books. 

JESCHURUN: Periodical published in Frank - 
fort-on-tiie-Main and subsequently in Hanover. 
Founded in Oct., 1854, it was issued as a monthly by 
Samson Raphael Hirsch up to 1870. From 1882 
till 1886 his son Isaac Hirsch jiublished it as a 
weekly. It was then merged into " Der Israelii." Its 
tiieological position was ultra-Orthodox. 

G. ' A. 51. F. 

JESCHURUN (Zeitschrift fiir die Wissen- 
schaft des Judenthums) : Periodical edited and 
published by Josepli Isaac Kobak. Among its con- 

tributors were S. L. Rapoport, S. D. Luzzatto, 
A. H. Weiss, Halberstam, Dukes, Steinschneider, 
Reifmann, and other well-known scholars. The first 
two volumes are in Hebrew only, but the succeed- 
ing volumes are iiurtly in Hebrew and imrtly in 
Qerman (vols, i., ii., Leniberg, 1856-58; iii.. Bres- 
lau, 1859; iv., v., Flirth, 1864-66; vi.-ix., Bamberg, 
1868-78). Some of its Hebrew articles were pub- 
lished separately in four vohnnes under the title 
"Ginze Isistarot" (Bamberg, 1868-78). 

Bibliocrai'HY : Harkavy, List of Jewish Periodical Publica- 
tions and Literary Collections (Russian), in I'rvreixki Bihli- 
otckii, vii.-viii.. St. Petersburg, 1879-80; ZeiUin, iJ(7j!. Hcbr. 
Post-Memlels. p. 174. 
G. P. Wl 

JESHARELAH. See Asarelau. 
JESHIBAH. See Yeshibah. 

JESHUA BEN JUDAH (Arabic, Abu al- 
Faraj Furkan ibn Asad) : Karaite exegete and 
philosopher; tlourished, probably at Jerusalem, in 
the second half of the eleventh century ; pupil of 
Joseph ben Abraham ha-Ro'eh. Jeshua was con- 
sidered one of the highest authorities among the 
Karaites, by whom he is called " tlie great teacher " 
("al-mu'allim"). Like all the Karaite leaders, he 
was a very active propagandist; and his public lec- 
tures on Karaism attracted many inquirers. Among 
these was a Castilian Rabbinite named Al-Taras, 
who, after having accepted the Karaite teachings, 
returned to his native country, where he organized 
a powerful propaganda by circulating Jeshua's wri- 
tings. The greatest service, however, rendered by 
Jeshua to Karaism was his accomplishment of the 
reform of the laws concerning incest, a reform 
which had been advocated by his master, Joseph ben 
Abraham ha-Ro"eh. 

Jeshua's activity in the domain of Bible exegesis 

was very extensive. He translated the Pentateuch 

into Arabic, and wrote thereon an 

As Biblical exhaustive commentary, of which he 

Exegete. made, in 1054, an abridged version. 
In this commentary, Jeshua made use 
of all the exegetical works of his Karaite predeces- 
sors and of that of Saadia, often attacking the latter 
most vigorously. Several passages of Jeshua's com- 
mentary are quoted by Abraham ibn Ezra. Frag- 
ments of the Pentateuch translation and of the ex- 
haustive commentary on a part of Leviticus, with 
almost the whole of the abridged version, are extant 
in manuscript in the British Museum (MSS. Or. 
2491; 2494, ii; 2544-46). Both commentaries were 
eaily translated into Hebrew ; and parts of them are 
in the Firkovich collection at St. Petersburg. Jeshua 
wrote two other Biblical works, an Arabic com- 
mentary on the Decalogue (which he reproduced in 
an abridged form) ; and a pliilosophical midrash enti- 
tled " Bereshit Rabbah," in which he discusses, in the 
spirit of the Motazilite "kalam," creation, the exist- 
ence and unity of God, the divine attributes, etc. A 
fragment of a Hebre\v translation of the abridged 
commentary on the Decalogue, made by Tobiah ben 
Moses untlcr the title "Pitron 'Aseret ha-Debarim," 
is still extant in manu.script ("Cat. Leyden," Nos. 5 
and 41, 2). The "Bereshit Rabbah" is no longer in 
existence; but passages from it are frequently 
(luoted by Aaron of Nicomedia in his " 'Ez Hayyim, " 




and by Abraham ibn Daud, who in his "Sefer ha- 
Kabbalah " (end) calls it a blasphemous work. 

Jeshua was also the author of a work on the pre- 
cepts, entitled "Sefer ha-Yashar," which has not 
been preserved. From it was probably extracted 
his treatise on the degrees of relation- 
Rules of ship within which marriage is forbid- 
Relation- den, quoted by him under tlie title " Al- 
ship. Jawabat Aval-Masa'il fi al-'Arayot," 
and known in the Hebrew translation 
made by Jacob ben Simon under the title " Sefer ha- 
'Arayot." Fragments of both the Arabic text and 
the Hebrew translation still exist in manuscript, the 
former in the British Museum (H. Or. No. 2497, iii.), 
and the latter in the libraries of Leyden (" Cat. Ley- 
den," Nos. 25, 1; 41, 16) and St. Petersburg (MS. 
No. 1614). In this treatise Jeshua discusses the 
hermeneutic rules which are to be used in the inter- 
pretation of these laws, gives a critical view of the 
principles upon which the various prohibitions are 
based, quotes Karaite authorities, such as Anan and 
Al-Kirkisani, on the subject, and produces the views 
of the Kabbinites Saadia and Simon Kahira (author 
of the " Halakot Gedolot "). Another treatise by 
Jeshua on the same subject was the "Teshubat 
ha-'Ikkar," published at Goslow in 1834 under the 
title "iggeret ha-Teshubah." 

Jeshua was also the author of the following philo- 
sophical treatises, probably translated from the 
Arabic: "Marpe la-'Ezem," in twenty-five short 
chapters, containing proofs of the creation of the 
world, of the existence of God, and of His unity, 
omniscience, and providence (MS. Paris No. 670; 
MS. St. Petersburg No. 686); "Meshibot Nefesh," 
on revelation, prophecy, and the veracity of the 
Law ; and three supplementary chapteYs to Joseph 
ben Abraham ha-Ro'eh's "Sefer Ne'imot " ("Cat. 
Leyden," No. 172), in which Jeshua treats of re- 
ward and punishment and of penitence. The Arabic 
original manuscript of the last of these three chap- 
ters is in the British Museum. It bears the title 
" Mas'alah Mufarridah," and the author shows there- 
in tliat the repetition of a prohibition must neces- 
sarily have a bearing on the punishment in case of 

BiBLiOGRAPnY : Pinsker. LUfkute Kadmoniyyot, p. 71 and In- 
dex ; Furst, Oeach. des Kdrdert. li. 162 et seq.; Gottlober, 
Bikkoret le-Tnledot ha-^era''im. p. 195; G. Margollouth, In 
J. Q. R. xi. 187 et seq.; Steinschneider, Hebr. Uebers. pp. 
459, 942 ; Idem, Die Arahittche Literatur der Juden, § 51 ; 
Schrelner, In Bericht der Lehranstalt, 1900; Neubauer, Ann 
der Petershurger Bibliothek, pp. 19 et seq. 
K. L Br. 

JESHTJRUN : Poetical name for Israel, occur- 
ring four times in the Bible (Deut. xxxii. 15, xxxiii. 
5, 26 ; Isa. xliv. 2 ; in the last-cited place the A. V. has 
"Jesurun "). All the commentators agree in apply- 
ing this term to Israel. The Peshittaand the Targu- 
mim render it by " Israel " ; only the Targum Yeru- 
shalmi has in the first instance "Jeshurun." The 
Septuagint invariably renders the word by yyan^fievog, 
and Jerome once by "dilectus," probably taking 
piK^^ as a diminutive of endearment. But in three 
other places Jerome renders it by "rectissimus," in 
which he seems to have followed the opinion of 
Aquila, Symmachus, and Tlieodotion (comp. Jerome 
on Isa. xliv. 2). Thus they derive this word from 
•\lif> = " to be upright " ; and the same etymology is 

given by Kimhi and Ibn Ezra. Obadiah Sforno 
derives it from "ii^^ = "to behold," meaning a clear- 
sighted people. 

Some modern scliolars accept the etymology from 
It^V the word being formed similarly to"Zebulun," 
from " zabal " (see W. Stark, " Studien zur Religions- 
und Sprachgeschichte des Alt. Test." part ii., j). 74, 
Berlin, 1899; see also Duhm, "Das Buch Jesaiah," 
p. 804, Gottingen, 1892; Hummelauer, "Deuterono- 
mium," 1901, p. 522; W. Bacher, "Jeschunm," in 
Stade's"Zeitschrift," v. 161 et seq.). 

E. G. H. M. SEL. 

JESI, SAMUEL : Italian engraver ; born at 
Milan 1789 ; died at Florence Jan. 17, 1853. He was 
a pupil of G. Longhi at the Academy of Milan. His 
first work (1821) was " The Abandonment of Hagar," 
engraved after a painting by Guercino in the Pa- 
lazzo di Brera at Milan ; this was followed (1834) by 
"The Madonna with St. John and St. Stephen," from 
a painting by Fra Bartolomeo in the Cathedral of 
Lucca. He then devoted himself to the works of 
Raphael, whom he ably interpreted. His master- 
piece is the gro>ip representing Pope Leo X. with Car- 
dinals Rossi and Giulio dei Medici (1834). While in 
Paris for the purpose of having it printed he was 
elected a corresponding member of the Academic des 
Beaux-Arts, and received the ribbon of the Legion 
of Honor. In 1846 he began to work on his engra- 
ving of the " Coena Domini, " discovered in the Church 
of S. Onofrio, Florence, and attributed to Raphael. 
Meanwhile he engraved the "Madonna della Vite." 
In 1849 he completed the drawing of the "Coena 
Domini," but died before finishing the engraving. 

Bibliography: Boccurdo, Encichypedia, p. 1079; Sulamith, 
vii. 5, p. 341 ; Busch's Jahrbuch, 1846, p. 129; Meyers Kon- 
s. U. C. 

JESSE ( "'C'"' ): Father of David, son of Obed, and 
grandson of Boaz and Ruth. He is called " the Beth- 
lehemite " (I Sam. xvi. i, 18; xvii. 58) and "the Eph- 
rathite of Bethlehem " (tb. xvii. 12). He had eight 
sons {ib. xvi. 10, 11 ; xvii. 12), although in I Chron. 
ii. 13-15 only seven are mentioned. He was a person 
of wealth, his property being chiefly in sheep (I Sam. 
xvi. 1, 11; xvii. 20; comp. Ps. Ixxviii. 71). 

Jesse's name stands out preeminently as that of 
the father of David, who is called " the son of Jesse " ; 
and though this expression was used during David's 
lifetime and even afterward as a term of contempt 
—so by Saul (I Sam. xx. 27, 30, 31; xxii. 7, 8), by 
Doeg {ib. xxii. 9), by Nabal (ib. xxv. 10), by Sheba 
(II Sam. XX. 1), and by the Ten Tribes (I Kings xii. 
16; II Chron. x. 16) — Isaiah the prophet connects 
with the "stem of Jesse" (Isa. xi. 1) and "root of 
Jesse " (ib. xi. 10) one of his sublimest Messianic 
prophecies. As Jesse was " an old man in the days 
of Saul " (I Sam. xvii. 12), it is doubtful whether he 
lived to see his son king. The last historical men- 
tion of Jesse is in I Sam. xxii. 3, where it is stated 
that David entrusted his father and his mother to 
the care of the King of Moab ; but, as may be in- 
ferred from ib. xxxii. 4, this was only temporary. 

E. G. n. B. P. 

JESSEL, SIR GEORGE: English master of 
the rolls; born in London 1824; died there March 
21, 1883 ; youngest son of Zadok Aaron Jessel. Edu- 




cated at University College, London, and London 
University, he became M.A. and gold medalist in 
mathematics in 1844. He entered Lincoln's Inn in 
1842, was called to the bar in 1847, and became 
queen's counsel eighteen years later. In 1868 he 
was returned to Parliament for Dover in the Liberal 
interest, and retained his seat until 1873. He won 
the attention of Gladstone by a speech on the Bank- 
ruptcy Bill in 1869; and in 1871 was made solicitor- 
general. In 1872 he wag knighted. In Aug., 1873, 
when Lord Romilly retired from the presidency of 
the Rolls Court, Sir George Jessel was appointed in 
his place. He was also sworn as a privy councilor, 
and in Nov., 1875, became a judge of the Supreme 
Court of Judicature. 

It was when sitting as a judge of a court of first 
instance that Jessel showed his marked capacity as 
an equity judge. In a few 
months the whole charac- 
ter of the Rolls Court un- 
derwent a marked change. 
The prolixity of former 
trials was done away with, 
and the practise of the 
master of the rolls perme- 
ated the other courts. It 
was Jessel 's distinction 
that he was at the same 
time one of the most eru- 
dite of case lawyers and 
also the most courageous 
of judges in handling au- 
thorities. He was a " law- 
making judge " whose de- 
cisions soon grew to be 
taken as guiding dicta. 
His judgments were rare- 
ly appealed from and sel- 
dom reversed. Being the 
first master of the rolls 
after the Judicature Act, 
he had many important 
and novel functions to 
fulfil as chairman of the 
chancery division of the 
court of appeal and of 
the committee for draft- 
ing new rules of proce- 
dure. He was besides, 
from 1873 to 1883, practi- 
cally the head of the Patent Office, and supervised the 
important series of national historical publications 
known as the Rolls Series. 

In 1880 Jessel was unanimously elected by the 
senate of the University of London as vice-chan- 

Jessel was a vice-president of the Anglo-Jewish 
Association and served on the Rumanian Committee. 
He was one of the last judges who had the right to 
sit in the House of Commons. 

Bibliography : Jew. Chrnn. and Jew. WnrhU March 23, 1883; 

Law Time.s, March 31, 1883; Jcu'. World, March 30,1883; 

Times (London). March 23. 1883; A. P. Peter, Decisions of 

kir George Jessel, London, 1883 ; Diet. National Biography. 

J- G. L. 

JESURUN : A family whose members were 
descendants of the Spanish exiles, and are found 

Sir George Jessel. 

mainly in Amsterdam and Hamburg. Tlie earli- 
est known member appears to have been Reuel 

Daniel Jesurun : Preacher and president of an 
educational institute at Amsterdam, founded in 1682 
and annexed to the charitable institution Maskil el 
Dal. " He sang verses of the Scripture for an hour 
on feast-days and half an hour on the Sabbath." 

Bibliography : De Barrios, yia.'<kil el Dal, p. H3; idem, Ar- 
hol de las Vidas, p. 93. 

David Jesurun (Jessurun, Jeshurun) : Span- 
ish poet ; died at Ainsterduin at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. He wrote verses in early youth, 
and hence was called "poeta niiio " (= "the little 
poet"). His poems in manuscript were in the pos- 
session of Benjamin Belmonte. Daniel Levi de Bar- 
rios published a niimber of them, among others a 

eulogy of the city of Am- 
sterdam, in which place 
Jesurun found a refuge 
from the Spanish Inquisi- 
tion ; also some verses on 
his circumcision and a 
Portuguese sonnet on the 
death of the martyr Diego 
de la Asum(;-a6. 

Bibliography : De Barrios, 
Triumpho del Govierno Po- 
pular, pp. 74 et scq.; Kayser- 
linp, Sephardim, p. 17"; 
Gratz, Gesch. 3d ed., ix. 484. 

Isaac Jesurun : Vic- 
tim of a false accusation 
in Ragusa in the seven- 
teenth century ; died in 
Jerusalem. Jesurun, an 
old man, was accused by 
a Christian Avoman, who 
had robbed and killed the 
daughter of a Christian 
merchant of Ragusa, of 
having persuaded her to 
commit the crime in order 
to provide blood for the 
celebration of the Jewish 
holy day. On Sept. 19, 
1622, Isaac was taken pris- 
oner and racked six times 
in the most cruel manner. 
Though he still insisted 
that the accusation was 
false, he was sentenced to twenty years' imprison- 
ment in a cave. He was accordingly chained naked 
in a very narrow room specially prepared, where he 
was given as nourishment nothing but bread and 
water, which were passed him through a hole. 

When several of the judges who had sentenced 
the innocent man died suddenly, the others regarded 
this as a punishment from God, and released Jesurun 
after three years' confinement. Jesurun, who sur- 
vived all the tortures and hardships, traveled 
throughout Ital}\ where those who had heard of his 
sufferings looked on him with wonder. Several 
years later he died, as stated above, in Jerusalem. 

Isaac Jesurun 's brother Joseph, was president of 
the Talmud Torah in Hamburg, and died there Oct. 
7, 1660. 




Bibliography: Aaron ha-Kohen, Ma'aseh Yeshurun (ap- 
pended to Shemeii Ita-Tob), Venice, 1&57; reprinted in Ma^ 
aseh Nissim (1798); Manasseh ben Israel, Vindlciw Judcv- 
orum, p. 10 (German transl. In Mendelssohn, licttung clcr 
Juden [Gemmmclte Schriftcii, ni. 215]); Mcmi»-ahlc Rcla- 
cinn dc IsJuic Jesuruu, a Spanish translation of the Ma'asch 
Yeshurun, still in MS.; Grunwald, Portuykscii-Gruber, 
p. 113. 

Isaac ben Abraham Hayyim Jesurun : Ha 

ham of the Portuguese coiigregation in Hamburg; 
died there March 19, 16.55. He was the author of 
"Paniin Hadashot " (Veuice, 1651), a short compi- 
lation of ritual ordinances according to the ritual 
codices, containing also au index to the collection 
of published decisions after Joseph Caro. The 
"Seter ha-Zikrouot" of Samuel Aboab was falsely 
ascribed to Jesurun. He wrote also, in Portuguese, 
"Liuro da Providencia Divina" (Amsterdam, 1663), 
wherein he makes philosophical reflections on the 
nature and results of divine providence. He was 
succeeded by Isaac Jesurun of Venice as haham 
of the community on Aug. 16, 1656. 

Bibliography: Wolf, BihJ. Hcbr. i., iii.. No. 1311; De Rossi- 
Hamberger, Hint. Wurterh. p. 147; Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. li. 65; 
KayserliDg, I3ibl. Esp.-Port.-Jud. p. 53. 

Reuel (Rohel) Jesurun (alias Paul de Pina): 

Portuguese poet ; born iu Lisbon ; died in Amster- 
dam after 1630. He went to Rome in 1599 to become 
a monk. His cousin Diego Gomez (Abraham Cohen) 
Lobato, a Marano like himself, gave him a letter to 
the physician Eliau Montalto, at that time living at 
Leghorn, which, translated, runs as follows: "Our 
cousin Paul de Pina is going to Rome to become a 
monk. I would be much obliged to j'ou, sir, if you 
would dissuade him therefrom." Montalto suc- 
ceeded in doing so, and Paul de Pina, who as an 
avowed believer in Judaism called himself Reuel 
Jesurun, returned to Portugal. He went with Lo- 
bato to Brazil in 1601, and thence to Amsterdam 

Jesurun became a very active member of the first 
congregation in Amsterdam, and belonged to those 
who drew up the earhest regulations (1614) for the 
cemetery which the new congregation had bought. 
In 1624 he composed songs which were recited by 
seven youths at the Shabu'ot festival in the first 
synagogue at Amsterdam. These were published 
under the title " Wikkuah Shib'ah Harim : Dialogo 
dos Montes," Amsterdam, 1767. The book was 
dedicated by Aaron de Chaves, the editor, to the 
" virtuous " David de Aaron Jesurun, president of the 

In the possession of the Portuguese congregation 

in Amsterdam is Jesurun's manuscript "Liuro de 

Beth Ahaim do K. K. de Beth Jahacob." 

Bibliography : Kayserling, Sephardim, pp. 175 et seq., 340 et 
neq., followed by Gr', JGescli. ix. 520 et sec/., x. 4; Kayser- 
ling, Bibl. Exp.-Pi)jt.-Jud. p. 89. 

Samuel Jesurun : Physician at Amsterdam in 
G. M. K. 


Founder of Christianity ; born at Nazareth about 
2 B.C. (according to Luke iii. 23); executed at Je 
rusalem 14th of Nisau. 37<S9 (March or April, 29 
C.E.). His life, though indirectly of so critical a 
character, had very little direct influence on the of Jewish histoiy or thouglit. In contempo- 
rary Je^^'ish literature his career is referred to only 

in the (interpolated) passage of Josephus, "Ant." 
xviii. 8, § 3, while the references in the Talmud are 
for the most part as legendary as those in the apocry- 
phal gospels, though in an opposite direction (see 
Jesus in Jewish Legend). Under these circum- 
stances it is not necessary in this place to do more 
than to give a sketch of the main historical events 
in the public career of Jesus, with an attempt to 
ascertain his personal relations to contemporary Ju- 
daism ; for the theological superstructure based upon 
his life and death, and certain mythological con- 
ceptions associated with them, see Jew. Encyc. iv. 
50a, s.v. Christianity. 

In the New Testament there are four " Gospels " 
professing to deal with the life of Jesus independ- 
ently; but it is noAV almost universally agreed that 
the first three of these, known by the 
Sources of names of "Matthew," "Mark," and 
Life. "Luke," are interdependent, corre- 

sponding to the various forms of con- 
temporary 'Barai tot, while the fourth, the Gospel 
of John, is what the Germans call a "Tendenz-Ro- 
man," practically a work of religious imagination 
intended to modify opinion in a certain direction. 
The supernatural claims made on behalf of Jesus are 
basedalmost exclusively on statements of the fourth 
Gospel. Of the first three or synoptic Gospels the 
consensus of contemporary opinion regards that of 
Mark as the earliest and as being the main source of 
the historic statements of the other two. This Gos- 
pel will, therefore, be used in the following account 
almost exclusively, references to chapter and verse, 
when the name of the Gospel is not given, being to 
this source. Beside the original of the Gospel of 
Mark, there was another source used in common by 
both Matthew and Luke, namely the "logia," or de- 
tached sayings, of Matthew and Luke; and besides 
these two documents tlie apocryphal " Gospel Ac- 
cording to the Hebrews " has preserved, in the opinion 
of the critics, a few statements of Jesus which often 
throw vivid light upon his motives and opinions. 
Much industry and ingenuity have been devoted 
by A. Resch to the collection of extracanonical state- 
ments of Jesus, known as "agrapha"(Leipsic,l889). 
The earliest of all these sources, the oiiginal of 
Mark's Gospel, contains references which show that 
it was written shortly before or soon after the de- 
struction of Jerusalem in the year 70; in other 
words, forty years after the death of Jesus. Like 
the other Gospels, it was originally written in Greek, 
whereas the sayings of Jesus were uttered in Ara- 
maic. It is therefore impossible to lay much stress 
upon the perfect accuracy of the records of events 
and statements written down forty years after they 
occurred or were made, and then in a language other 
than that in which such statements were originally 
uttered (even the Lord's Prayer was retained in va- 
riant versions; comp. Matt. vi. 10-13; Luke xi. 
2-4) ; j'et it is upon this slender basis that some of 
the most stupendous claims have been raised. For 
the processes by which the traditions as to the life 
of Jesus were converted into proofs of his super- 
natural character, see Jew. Encyc. iv. 51-52, s.v. 
Christianity. Many incidents were actually in- 
vented (especially in Matthew) " iu order that there 
might be fulfilled " iu him prophecies relating to a 




Messiah of a character quite other than that of whicli 
Jesus either claimed or was represented by his dis 
ciples to be. 

Yet the supernatural in the life of Jesus accord- 
ing to the Gospels is restricted to the smallest di- 
mensions, consisting mainly of incidents and charac- 
teristics intended to support these prophecies and 
the dogmatic positions of Christianity. This applies 
especially to the story of the virgin-birth, a legend 
which is common to almost all folk-heroes as in- 
dicating their superiority to the rest of their people 
(see E. S. Hartland, "Legend of Perseus," vol. i.). 
Combined with this is the inconsistent claim of Da- 
vidic descent through Joseph, two discrepant pedi- 
grees being given (Matt, i., Luke iii.). 

Perhaps the most remarkable thing about the life 
of Jesus as presented in the Gospels is the utter 
silence about its earlier phases. He was one of a 
rather large family, having four brothers, Jacob, 
Jose, Simon, Judah, besides sisters. It is known 
that he earned his living by his father's trade, that 
of a carpenter; according to Justin Martyr, plows 
and yokes made by Jesus were still in existence at 
his (Justin's) time, about the year 120 ("Dial, cum 
Tryph." ^ 88). It is doubtful whether he received 
any d^tinite intellectual training, the great system 
of Jewish education not being carried into effect till 
after the destruction of Jerusalem (see Education). 
It is probable, however, that he could read ; he was 
certainly acquainted, either by reading or by oral 
instruction, with much of the Old Testament ; and 
his mode of argumentation often resembles that of 
the contemporary rabbis, implying that he had fre- 
quented their society. In defending his infringe- 
ment of the Sabbath he seems to have confused 
Abiathar with Ahimelech (ii. 25; comp. I Sam. xxi. 
1), if this is not merely a copyist's blunder. It 
would appear from his interviews with the scribe 
(xii. 29-31 ; comp. Luke x. 27) and with the rich 
young man (x. 19) that he was acquainted with the 
DiD.\CHE in its Jewish form, accepting its teachings 
as summing up the whole of Jewish doctrine. 
Only a single incident of his early days is recorded : 
his behavior about the time of his bar mizwah (or 
confirmation) in the Temple (Luke ii. 41-52). It 
is strange that so masterful a character showed no 
signs of its exceptional qualities before the turning- 
point of Jesus' career. 

The crisis in Jesus' life came with John the Bap- 
tist's preaching of repentance and of the nearness 
of the kingdom of God. At first Jesus refused to 
submit to baptism by John. Accord- 
Influence ing to a well-authenticated tradition 
of John the of the "Gospel According to the He- 
Baptist, brews," he asked wherein he had sinned 
that it was necessary for him to be 
baptized by John. Nevertheless the sight of the 
marked influence exercised by the latter evidently 
made a profound impression on the character of 
Jesus: lie probably then experienced for the first 
time the power of a great personality upon crowds 
of people. 

It is at this moment of his life that Christian 

legend places what is known as the temptation, 

information concei'ning which, from the very nature 

of the case, could have been communicated only by 

VII.— 11 

Jesus himself. In the " Gospel According to the 
Hebrews" account this is given in the form: "My 
mother, the Holy Spirit, took me just now bj^ one 
of my hairs and carried me up to the great Mount 
Tabor" (which was in the neighborhood of his 
home). As Jerome remarks (on Isa. xl. 9), the form 
of this saying implies a Hebrew (or rather Aramaic) 
original ("Ruha Kaddisha"); and for this reason, 
among others, the saying may be regarded as a 
genuine one. It is significant as implying two 
things: (1) the belief of Jesus in a special divine 
origin of his spirit, and (2) a tendency to ecstatic 
abstraction. This tendency is found in other great 
leaders of men, like Socrates, Mohanuned, and Napo- 
leon, being accompanied in their cases by hallucina- 
tions; auditory in the first case (the "demon" of 
Socrates), and visual in the last two (Mohammed's 
dove and Napoleon's star). These periods of ecstasy 
would tend to confirm in Oriental minds the impres- 
sion that the subject of them was inspired (comp. 
the original meaning of " nabi " ; see Prophet), and 
would add to the attractive force of a magnetic per- 
sonality . 

In Jesus' family and among his neighbors the 
effect seems to have been different. His own people 
regarded him even as being out of his mind (iii. 21 ). 
and they do not appear to have been associated with 
him or with the Christian movement until after his 
death. Jesus himself seems to have been greatly 
incensed at this (comp. vi. 4), refusing to recognize 
any special relationship even to his mother (iii. 33, 
comp. John ii. 4), and declaring that spiritual rela 
tionship exceeded a natural one (iii. 85). He felt per- 
force driven out into public activity ; and the fever- 
ish excitement of the succeeding epoch-making ten 
months implies a tension of spirit which must have 
confirmed the impression of inspiration. On the 
whole subject see O. Holtzman, "War Jesus Eksta- 
tiker? " (Leipsic, 1902), who agrees that there must 
have been abnormal mental processes involved in 
the utterances and behavior of Jesus. 

Instead, however, of remaining in the wilderness 
like John, or like the Essenes, with whose tenden- 
cies his own show some affinity, he returned to his 
native district and sought out tiiosewhom he wished 
to influence. Incidentally he developed a remark 
able power of healing; one sick of a fever (i. 29-34), 
a leper (i. 40-45), a paralytic (ii. 1-12), and an epi 
leptic (ix. 15-29) being severally cured by him. But 
his activity in this regard was devoted especially to 
"casting out demons," i.e.. according to the folk- 
medicine of the time, healing nervous and mental 
diseases. It would appear that Jesus shared in the 
current belief of the Jews in the noumenal existence 
of demons or evil spirits: and most of his miracu 
lous cures consisted in casting them out, which lie 

did with "the finger of God" (Luke 

His Belief xi. 20), or with "the Spirit of God" 

in Demon- (Matt. xii. 28). It would seem also 

ology. that he regarded diseases like fever to 

be due to the existence of demons 
(Luke iv. 39). One of the chief functions trans- 
mitted to his disciples was the " power over unclean 
spirits, to cast them out " (Matt. x. 1). and his supe- 
riority to his followers was shown by his casting 
out demons which they had failed to expel (ix. 14- 




29). As regards the miracle in which Jesus cast out 
a demon or several demons whose name was " Le- 
gion " into some Gadarene swine (v. 1-21), it has re- 
cently been ingeniously suggested by T. Reinach 
that the name " Legion " given to the spirits was due 
to the popular confusion between the Tenth Legion 
(the sole Roman garrison of Palestine between the 
years 70 and 135) and the wild boar which appeared 
as the insignia on its standard (" R. E. J." xlvii. 177). 
From this it would seem that the legend arose, 
at any rate in its present form, after the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem, at which time alone the confusion 
between the title "legion" and the insignia could 
have occurred. For a full account of the subject 
see F. C. Conybeare in "J. Q. R." viii. 587-588, and 
compare Demonology. 

It is difficult to estimate what amount of truth 
exists in the accounts of these cures, recorded about 
forty years after tlieir occurrence ; but doubtless the 
mental excitement due to the influence of Jesus was 
often efficacious in at least partial or temporary 
cures of mental illnesses. This would tend to con- 
firm the impression, both among those who wit- 
nessed the cures and among his d;sciples, of his 
possession of supernatural powers. He himself 
occasionally deprecated the exaggeration to which 
such cures naturally led. Thus in the case of 
Jairus' daughter (v. 35-43) he expressly declared: 
"She is not dead, but sleepeth " (39). Notwith- 
standing this, her resuscitation was regarded as a 

In essentials Jesus' teaching was that of John the 
Baptist, and it laid emphasis on two points: (1) re- 
pentance, and (3) the near approach of the kingdom 
of God. One other point is noted by Christian the- 
ologians as part of his essential teaching, namely, 
insistence upon the fatherhood of God. This is such 
a commonplace in the Jewish liturgy and in Jewish 
thought that it is scarcely necessary to point out its 
essentially Jewish character (see F.\TirER). As re- 
gards repentance, its specifically Jewish note has 
been recently emphasized by C. G. Montefiore ("J. 
Q. R." Jan., 1904), who points out that Christianity 
lays less stress upon tliis side of religious life than 
Judaism ; so that in this direction Jesus was cer- 
tainly more Jewish than Christian. 

As regards the notion of the " kingdom of heaven," 
the title itself (" malkut shamayim") is specifically 
Jewish ; and the content of the concept is equally 
so (see KiNGDo.M op God). Jesus seems to have 
shared in the belief of his contemporaries that some 
world-catastrophe was at liand in which this king- 
dom would be reinstated on the ruins of a fallen 
world (ix. 1 ; comp. xiii. 35-37 and Matt. x. 23). 

Almost at the beginning of his evangelical career 
Jesus differentiated himself from John the Baptist 
in two directions: (1) comparative neglect of the 
Mosaic or rabbinic law; and (2) personal attitude 
toward infractions of it. In many ways his attitude 
was specifically Jewish, even in direc- 

Jewish tions which are usually regarded as 

Character- signs of Judaic narrowness. Jesus ap- 

istics. pears to have preached regularly in the 

synagogue, which would not have 

been possible if his doctrines had been recognized as 

being essentially different from the current Pharisaic 

beliefs. In his preaching he adopted the popu- 
lar method of " mashal," or Parable, of which about 
thirty -one examples are instanced in the synoptic 
Gospels, forming indeed the larger portion of his 
recorded teachings. It is obvious that such a 
method is liable to misunderstanding; and it is diffi- 
cult in all cases to reconcile the various views that 
seem to underlie the parables. One of these para- 
bles deserves special mention here, as it has ob- 
viously been changed, for dogmatic reasons, so as 
to have an anti-Jewish application. There is little 
doubt that J. Halevy is right ("R. E. J." iv. 249- 
255) in suggesting that in the parable of the good 
Samaritan (Luke x. 17-37) the original contrast was 
between the priest, the Levite, and the ordinary 
Israelite — representing the three great classes into 
which Jews then and now were and are divided. 
The point of the parable is against the sacerdotal 
class, whose members indeed brought about the 
death of Jesus. Later, "Israelite" or "Jew" was 
changed into "Samaritan," which introduces an ele- 
ment of inconsistency, since no Samaritan would 
have been foimd on the road between Jericho and 
Jerusalem {ib. 30). 

While the aim of Jesus was to redeem those who 
had strayed from the beaten path of morality, he 
yet restricted his attention and that of his followers 
to the lost sons of Israel (vii. 24). He particularly 
forbade his disciples to seek heathens and Samari- 
tans (x. 5), and for the same reason at first refused to 
heal the Syrophenician woman (vii. 24). His choice 
of twelve apostles had distinct reference to the tribes 
of Israel (iii. 13-16). He regarded dogs and swine 
as unholy (Matt. vii. 6). His special prayer is mere- 
ly a shortened form of the third, fifth, sixth, nintli, 
and fifteenth of the Eighteen Benedictions (see 
Lord's Prayer). Jesus wore the Zizit (Matt. ix. 
20) ; he went out of his way to pay the Temple tax 
of two drachmas {ib. xvii. 24-27); and his disciples 
offered sacrifice {ib. v. 23-24). In the Sermon on 
the Mount he expressly declared that he had come 
not to destroy the Law, but to fulfil it {ib. v. 17, 
quoted in Siiab. 116b), and that not a jot or tittle of 
the Law should ever pass away {ib. v. 18; comp. 
Luke xvi. 17). It would even appear that later 
tradition regarded liim as scrupulous in keeping the 
whole Law (comp. John viii. 46). 

Yet in several particulars Jesus declined to follow 
the directions of the Law, at least as it was inter- 
preted by the Rabbis. Where John's followers 
fasted, he refused to do so (ii. 18). 
Attitude He permitted his followers to gather 
Toward. corn on the Sabbath (ii. 23-28), and 
the Law. himself healed on that day (Iii. 1-6), 
though the stricter rabbis allowed 
only the saving of life to excuse the slightest cur- 
tailment of the Sabbath rest (Shab. xxii. 6). In 
minor points, such as the ablution after meals (vii. 
2), he showed a freedom from traditional custom 
which implied a break with the stricter rule of the 
more rigorous adherents of the Law at that time. 
His attitude toward the Law is perhaps best ex- 
pressed in an incident which, though recorded in only 
one manuscript of the Gospel of Luke (vi. 4, in the 
Codex Bezae), bears internal signs of genuineness. 
He is there reported to have met a man laboring on 




the Sabbath-day — a sin deserving of deatli by sto- 
ning, according to tlie Mosaic law. Jesus said to 
the man: "Man, if thou knowest what thou doest, 
blessed art thou; but if thou knowest not, itccursed 
art thou, and a transgressor of the Law." Accord- 
ing to this, the Law should be obeyed unless a higher 
principle intervenes. 

While claiming not to infringe or curtail the Law, 
Jesus directed his followers to pay more attention to 
the intention and motive with which any act was 
done than to the deed itself. This was by no means 
a novelty in Jewish religious development: the 
Prophets and Rabbis had continuously and consist- 
ently insisted upon the inner motive with which 
pious deeds should be performed, as the well-known 
passages in Isa. i. and Micah vi. sufficiently indi- 
cate. Jesus contended that the application of this 
principle was practically equivalent to a revolution 
in spiritual life; and lie laid stress upon the contrast 
between the old Law and the new one, especially in 
his Sermon on the Mount. In making these pre- 
tensions he was following a tendency which at 
the period of his career was especially marked in the 
H.\siD.EANS and Essenes, though they associated it 
with views as to external purity and seclusion from 
the world, which differentiated them from Jesus. 
He does not appear, however, to have contended 
that the new spirit would involve any particular 
change in the application of the Law. He appears 
to have suggested that marriages should be made 
permanent, and that divorce should not be allowed 
(.\. 2-12). In the Talmud it is even asserted that he 
threatened to change the old law of primogeniture 
into one by which sons and daughters should inherit 
alike (Shab. 116a); but there is no evidence for this 
utterance in Christian sources. Apart from these 
points, no change in the T^aw was indicated by Jesus ; 
indeed, he insisted that the Jewish multitude whom 
he addressed should do what the Scribes and Phari- 
sees commanded, even though they should not act 
as the Scribes acted (Matt, xxiii. 3). Jesus, however, 
does not appear to have taken into account the fact 
that the Halakah was at this period just becoming 
crystallized, and that much variation existed as to 
its definite form ; the disputes of tlie Bet Hillel and 
Bet Shammai were occurring about the time of his 

It is, however, exaggerated to regard these va- 
riations from current practises as exceptionally ab- 
normal at tlie beginning of the first century. The 
existence of a whole class of 'Am ha-Arez, whom 
Jesus may be taken to represent, shows that the 
rigor of the Law liad not yet spread throughout the 
people. It is stated (iii. 7) that, owing to the oppo- 
sition aroused by his action on the Sabbath, Jesus 
was obliged to flee into heathen parts with some of 
his followers, including two or three women Avho 
had attached themselves to his circle. This does not 
seem at all probable, and is indeed contradicted by 
the Gospel accounts, which describe him, even after 
his seeming break with the rigid requirements of 
the traditional law, as lodging and feasting with the 
Pharisees (Luke xiv.), thevery class that would have 
objected to his behavior. 

Nothing in all this insistence upon the spirit of 
the Law rather than upon the halakic development 

of it was necessarily or essentially anti-Jewish ; but 
the tone adopted in recommending these variations 
was altogether novel in Jewish ex peri- 
Tone of ence. The Prophets spoke with con- 
Authority, fidence in the truth of their mes.sage, 
but expressly on the ground thai they 
were declaring the word of the Lord. Jesus adopted 
equal confidejice; but he emphasized his own au- 
thority apart from any vicarious or deputed power 
from on high. Yet in doing so he did not — at any 
rate publicly — ever lay claim to any authority as at- 
taching to his position as Messiah. Indeed, the sole 
evidence in later times of any such claim seems to 
be based upon the statement of Peter, and was inti- 
mately connected with the personal demand of that 
apostle to be the head of the organization estab- 
lished by or in the name of Jesus. It is expressly 
stated (Matt. xvi. 20) that the disciples were admon- 
ished not to make public the claim, if it ever was 
made. Peter's own pretensions to succession in the 
leadership appear to be based upon a half-humorous 
paronomasia made by Jesus, which finds a parallel 
in rabbinic literature (Matt. xvi. 18; comp. Yalk., 
Num. 766). 

Indeed, the most striking characteristics of the ut- 
terances of Jesus, regarded as a personality, were the 
tone of authority adopted by him and the claim that 
spiritual peace and salvation were to be found in the 
mere acceptance of his leadership. Passages like: 
"Take my yoke upon you . . . and ye shall find 
rest unto your souls " (Matt. xi. 29) ; " whosoever 
shall lose his life for my sake . . . shall save it " 
(viii. 35); "Inasmuch asj'e have done it unto one of 
the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto 
me " (Matt. xxv. 40), indicate an assumption of power 
which is certainly unique in Jewish history, and 
indeed accounts for much of modern Jewish antip- 
athy to Jesus, so far as it exists. On the other hand, 
there is little in any of these utterances to show that 
they were meant by the speaker to apply to anything 
more than personal relations with him; and it might 
well be that in his experience he found that spiritual 
relief was often afforded by simple human trust in 
his good-will and power of direction. 

This, however, raises the question whether Jesus 
regarded himself as in any sense a Messiah or spiri- 
tual ruler; and there is singularly little evidence in 
the synoptic Gospels to carr}'- out this claim. These 
assert only that the claim was made to some of the 
disciples, and then under a distinct pledge of se- 
crecy. In the public utterances of Jesus there is 
absolutely no trace of the claim (except possibly in 
the use of the expression " Son of Man "). Yet it 
would almost appear that in one sense of the word 
Jesus regarded himself as fulfilling some of the 
prophecies which were taken among contemporary 
Jews as applying to the Messiah. It is doubtful 
whether it was later tradition or his own statements 
that identified him with the servant of Yhwh repre- 
sented in Isa. liii. ; but there appears to be no evi- 
dence of any Jewish conception of a Messiah suf- 
fering through and for his people, though there pos- 
sibly was a conception of one suffering together 
with his people (see Messiah). Jesus himself never 
used the term " Messiah." He chose for specific title 
"Son of Man," which may possibly have been con- 




nected in his mind with the reference in Dan. vii. 13, 
but which, according to modern theologians, means 
simply man in general. In his own mind, too, this 
may have had some reference to his repudiation by 
his family. In other words, Jesus regarded himself 
as typically human, and claimed authority and re- 
gard in that aspect. He certainly disclaimed any 
application to himself of the ordinary conception of 
the Messiah, the Davidic descent of whom he argues 
against (xii. 35-57) entirely in the Talmudic manner. 
It is difficult to decide the question whether Jesus 
contemplated a permanent organization to carry out 
his ideals. The whole tendency of his work was 
against the very idea of organization. His practical 
acceptance of the Law would seem to imply an ab- 
sence of any rival mode of life ; and 
No Ne-w his evident belief in an almost irame- 
Organiza- diate reconstruction of the whole so- 
tion Con- cial and religious order would tend to 
templated. prevent any formal arrangements for 
a new religious organization. The 
opposition between his followers and the "world," 
or settled and organized conditions of societ}% would 
also seem to imply that those who were to work in 
his spirit could not make another " world " of their 
own with the same tendency to conventionality and 
spiritual red tape. On the whole, it may be said that 
he did not make general plans, but dealt with each 
spiritual problem as it arose. " It would almost 
seem as if he had no consciousness of a mission of 
any definite sort, so content had he been to let 
things merely happen" (E. P. Gould, "St. Mark," 
p. Ixxv.): that is certainly how his career strikes an 
outside observer. He was content to let the influ- 
ence of his own character work upon the persons 
immediately surrounding him, and that they should 
transmit this infiuence silently and without organi- 
zation; working by way of leaven, as his parable 
puts it (Matt. xiii.). His chief work and that of his 
disciples consisted in the conscious attempt at " sa- 
ving souls. " Jesus was j ustified in thinking that this 
new departure would tend to bring dissension rather 
than peace into families, dividing sons and parents 
{ib. X. 53). 

On the character which, whether designedly or 
otherwise, produced such momentous influence on 
the world's history, it is unnecessary in this place 
to dilate. The reverential admiration of the greater 
part of the civilized world has for a millennium and 
a half been directed toward the very human and 
sympathetic figure of the Galilean Jew as presented 
in the Gospels. For historic purposes, however, it 
is important to note that this aspect of him was 
shown only to his immediate circle. In almost all 
of his public utterances he was harsh, severe, and 
distinctly unjust in his attitude toward the ruling 
and well-to-do classes. After reading his diatribes 
against the Pharisees, the Scribes, and the rich, it 
is scarcely to be wondered at that these were con- 
cerned in helping to silence him. It must also be 
remembered that in his public utterances he rarely 
replied directly to any important question of prin- 
ciple, but evaded queries by counter-queries. In 
considering his public career, to which attention 
must now be turned, these two qualities of his char- 
acter have to be taken into account. 

During the ten months which elapsed between the 
ripening of the corn about June of the year 28 and 
his death in March or April of the following year 
Jesus appears to have wandered about the north- 
west shore of Lake Gennesaret, making excursions 
from time to time into the adjacent heathen territo- 
ries, and devoting himself and his disciples to the 
spread of John the Baptist's message of the nearness 
of the kingdom of heaven and of the need of repent- 
ance in order to enter it. The details of these wan- 
derings are very obscure, and need not be discussed 
here (see Briggs, "New Light on the Life of Jesus," 
New York, 1904). 

The antinomianism of Jesus became more evident 
to the rulers of the people ; and many of the more 
religious classes avoided contact with him. He had 
from the beginning laid stress upon the difficulty of 
associating sanctity with riches; and in this he 
adopted the quasi-socialistic views of the later 
Psahns, Ps. ix., x., xxii., xxv., xxxv., xl., Ixix., cix. 
(comp. I. Loeb, "La Litterature des Pauvres dans 
la Bible," Paris. 1894). He insisted to the fullest 
extent on the view implied in those Psalms and in 
various utterances of the Prophets, that poverty and 
piety, riches and antisocial greed, were practically 
synonymous (comp. the form of the beatitudes given 
in Luke vi. 20, 24-26). The parable of Lazarus and 
Dives and the interview with the rich young man 
show a distinct and one-sided tendency in this direc- 
tion similar to that of the later Ebionites; though, on 
the other hand, Jesus was willing to lodge with Zac- 
chiEus, a rich publican (Luke xix. 2, 5). In the form 
of the interview with the rich young man given in 
the "Gospel According to the Hebrews," sympathy 
seems to be restricted to the poor of the Holy Land : 
"Behold, many of thy brethren, sons of Abraham, 
are clothed but in dung, and die for hunger, while 
thy house is full of many goods, and there goeth not 
forth aught from it unto them." 

As the Passover of the year 2'J approached, Jesus 
determined to carry out the injunction of the Law 
which made it incumbent to eat the sacrificial lamb 
at Jerusalem. In the later tradition attempts were 
made to convey the impression that 
Jesus in Je- Jesus was aware of the fate that 

rusalem. awaited him at Jerusalem: but in the 
earliest forms (ix. 32, x. 32) it is rec- 
ognized that the disciples did not imderstand the 
vague hints, if they were at all given; and there is 
little to show that his visit to Jerusalem was a case 
of sublime suicide. At the last moment at Gethsem- 
ane he made an attempt to avoid arrest (" Rise up, 
let us go," xiv. 43). Jerusalem at this time appears 
to have been in a very unsettled state. An at- 
tempted revolution seems to have broken out under 
one Jesus bar Abbas, who had been captured and 
was in prison at the time (x v. 7). It appears to have 
been the practise of Pontius Pilate to come up to 
Jerusalem each year at Passover for the purpose of 
checking any revolt that might break out at that 
period recalling the redemption of Israel. It is in- 
dicative of the temper of the people that during the 
first half of the first century several risings occurred 
against the Romans: against Varus, 4 B.C.; imder 
Judas against the Census, 6 c.e. ; by the Samaritans 
against Pilate in 38 ; and by Theudas against Fadus 




in 45 — all indicating the continuously unsettk-d con- 
dition of the people under Roman rule. 

As far as can be judged, his reception was as 
much a surprise to Jesus as it was to his followers 
and to the leaders of the people. His reputation as 
a miracle-worker had preceded him; and when the 
little cavalcade of some twenty persons which 
formed his escort approached the Fountain Gate of 
Jerusalem he was greeted by many of the visitors 
to the city as if he were the long-hoped-for deliverer 
from bondage. This would appear to have been on 
the first day of the week and on tlie 10th of Nisan, 
when, according to tiie Law, it was necessary that 
the paschal lamb should be purchased. It is there- 
fore probable that the entry into Jerusalem was for 
this purpose. In making the purchase of the lamb 
a dispute appears to have arisen between Jesus' fol- 
lowers and the money-changers who arranged for 
such purchases ; and the latter were, at any rate 
for that day, driven from the Temple precincts. It 
would appear from Talmudic refer- 
In the ences that this action had no lasting 
Temple, effect, if any, for Simon ben Gama- 
liel found much the same state of af- 
fairs much later (Ker. i. 7) and effected some re- 
forms (see Derenbourg in "Histoire de la Palestine," 
p. 537). The act drew public attention to Jesus, 
who during the next few daj^s was asked to define 
his position toward the conflicting parties in Jerusa- 
lem. It seemed especially to attack the emoluments 
of the priestly class, which accordingly asked him 
to declare by what authority he had interfered with 
the sacrosanct arrangements of the Temple. In a 
somewhat enigmatic reply he placed his own claims 
on a level with those of John the Baptist — in other 
words, he based them on popular support. Other 
searching questions put to him by the Sadducees 
and the Scribes received somewhat more definite an- 
swers. On the former asking what evidence for im- 
mortality he derived from the Old Testament, he 
quoted Ex. iii. 6, and deduced from it that as God 
is God of the living, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob must 
have been living after their death — a deduction quite 
in the spirit of Talmudic Asmakta (comp. Sanh. 90b). 
To a scribe asking him (in the spirit of Hillel) to 
what single commandment the whole Law could be 
reduced, he quoted the doctrine of the Didache, 
which gives the two chief conimaL.dments as the 
Shema' (Deut. vi. 4) and " Thou shalt love thy neigh- 
bor as thyself " (Lev. xviii. 19), thus declaring the 
essential solidarity of his own views with those of 
the Old Testament and of current Judaism. But the 
most crucial test was put to him by certain of the 
adherents of Herod, who asked him whether it was 
lawful to pay tribute to Ca2sar. Here again he 
scarcely answered directly, but, asking for a dena- 
rius of tribute, deduced from the image 
The Test and superscription thereon the conclu- 
of the sion that it ought to be returned unto 
Tribute. Ctesar (Matt. xxii. 21). A very prob- 
able tradition, retained in Tatian's 
"Diatessaron," declares that the colloquy with Peter 
recorded in Matt. xvii. 24-26 occurred on this occa- 
sion. Neither the original answer nor his further 
defense of it was satisfactory to the Zealots, who 
were anxious for an uprising against the Romans. 

He had made it clear that he had no sympathy with 
the nationalistic aspirations of the common people, 
though they had welcomed him under the impres- 
sion that he was about to realize their hopes. It is 
only this incident which accounts historically for 
the contrast between the acclamations of Palm Sun- 
day and the repudiation on the succeeding Friday. 

This change of popular sentiment cleared tlie way 
for action by the priestly class, which had been of- 
fended in both pride and pocket by Jesus' action in 
clearing the purlieus of the Temple. The)- may have 
also genuinely feared a rising under Jesus, having 
in view the manner in which he had been welcomed 
on the previous Sunday, though this was possibly 
brought forward merely as a pretext. It would ap- 
pear that they determined to seize him before tlie 
Feast of the Passover, when the danger of an out- 
break would be at its greatest height and when 
it would be impossible for them to hold a court 
(Yom-Tob V. 2). 

According to the synoptic Gospels, it would ap- 
pear that on the Thursday evening of the last week 
of his life Jesus with his disciples entered Jerusalem 
in order to eat the Passover meal with them in the 
sacred city; if so, the wafer and the wine of the 
mass or the communion service then instituted by 
him as a memorial would be the unleavened bread 
and the unfermented wine of the Seder service (see 
Bickell, "Messe und Pascha," Leipsic, 1872). On 
the other hand, the Gospel of John, the authoi- of 
which appears to have had access to some trust- 
worthy traditions about the last days, represents ihe 
priests as hurrying on the trial in order to avoid taking 
action on the festival — which would, according to 
this, have begun on Friday evening — though this 
view may have been influenced by the desire to make 
the death of Jesus symbolize the sacrifice of the 
paschal lamb. Chwolson (*' Das Letzte Passahmal 
Christi," St. Petersburg, 1893) has ingeniously sug- 
gested that the priests were guided by the older 
Halakah, according to which the law of the Pass- 
over was regarded as superior to that 
The Last of the Sabbath, so that the lamb could 

Supper. be sacrificed even on Friday night ; 
whereas Jesus and his disciples would 
seem to have adopted the more rigorous view of the 
Pharisees by which the paschal lamb ought to be 
sacrificed on the eve of the 14th of Nisan when the 
15th coincided with the Sabbath (see Bacher in *' J. 
Q. R." V. 683-686). 

It would seem that by this time Jesus had become 
aware of the intention of the high priests to do iiim 
harm; for after the Seder ceremony he secreted him- 
self in the Garden of Gethsemane outside the city 
walls, where, hoAvever, his hiding-place was betrayed 
by one of his immediate followers, Judas, a man of Ke- 
rioth (see Judas Iscauiot). On what grounds Jesus 
was arrested is not quite clear. Even if he had 
claimed to be the Messiah, he would have conunitted 
no crime according to Jewish law. It appears 
that he was taken first to the house of the high 
priest, probably Anan's, which was without tlie 
walls, and where in a hurried consultation the only 
evidence against liim was apjiarently an assertion 
that he could overthrow tl)e Temple and replace it 
Avith one made without hands — in other words, with a 




spiritual kingdom. This, according to Holtzmann 
("Leben Jesu," p. 327), was equivalent to a claim to 
the Messiahship. Jesus is reported to Jiave dis- 
tinctly made this claim in answer to a direct ques- 
tion by the high priest; but the synoptic Gospels 
vary on this point, xiv. 32 making the claim, and 
Matt. xxvi. 64 and Luke xxii. 69 representing an 
evasion, which was more in accord with the usual 
practise of Jesus when questioned by opponents. 
The rending of his clothes by the high priest seems 
rather to imply that the charge was one of " gidduf " 
or blasphemy (Sanh. vii. 10, 11). 

There could be no question of anything corre- 
sponding to a trial taking place on this occasion be- 
fore the Sanhedrin. Whatever inquest was made 
must have occurred during the Thursday night and 
outside Jerusalem (for on entering the city a prisoner 
would have had to be given up to the Roman garri- 
son), and can not have been held before a quorum 
of the seventy-one members of the Sanhedrin. It is 
more probable that the twenty-three members of the 
priestly section of the latter, who had most reason 
to be offended with Jesus' action in cleansing the 
Temple, met informally after he had been seized, 
and elicited sufficient to justify them in their own 
opinion in delivering him over to the Romans as 
likely to cause trouble by his claims or pretensions 
to the Messiahship, which, of course, would be re- 
garded by them as rebellion against Rome. Nothing 
corresponding to a Jewish trial took place, though 
it was by the action of the priests that Jesus was 
sent before Pontius Pilate (see Crucifixion). The 
Gospels speak in the plural of the high priests who 
condemned him — a seeming contradiction to Jew- 
ish law which might throw doubt upon their historic 
character. Two, however, are mentioned, Joseph 
Caiaphas and Annas (Hanan), his father-in-law. 
Hanan had been deposed from the high-priesthood 
by Valerius Gratus, but he clearlj' retained authority 
and some prerogatives of the high priest, as most 
of those who succeeded liini were relatives of his; 
and he may well have intervened in a matter touch- 
ing so nearly the power of the priests. According to 
the Talmud, Hanan 's bazaars were on the Mount of 
Olives, and probably therefore also his house; this 
would thus have become the appropriate place for 
the trial by the Sanhedrin, which indeed just about 
this time had moved its place of session thither (see 

In handing over their prisoner to the procurator, 
Pontius Pilate, the Jewish officials refused to enter 
the pretorium as being ground forbidden to Jews. 
They thereby at any rate showed their confidence 

iu the condemnation of Jesus by the 

The Cruel- Roman power. Before Pilate the sole 

fixion. charge could be attempted rebellion 

against the emperor. In some way, 
it would appear, the claim to be king of the Jews 
(or possibly of a kingdom of heaven) was made 
before him by Jesus himself, as is shown by the 
inscription nailed up in derision on the cross. To 
Pilate the problem presented was somewhat simi- 
lar to that which would present itself to an In- 
dian official of to-day before whom a Mohammedan 
should be accused of claiming to be the Mahdi. If 
overt acts in a disturbed district had accompanied 

the claim, the official could scarcely avoid passing 
sentence of condemnation ; and Pilate took the same 
course. But he seems to have hesitated : while con- 
demning Jesus, he gave him a chance of life. It 
appears to have been the practise to grant to the 
Jewish populace the privilege of pardoning a pris- 
oner on public holidays; and Pontius Pilate held 
out to the rabble surrounding the pretorium (for 
most responsible heads of families must have been at 
this time engaged in searching for leaven in their own 
homes) a choice between Jesus and the other Jesus 
(bar Abbas), who also had been accused of rebellion. 
The mob had naturally more sympathy for the 
avowed rebel than for the person who had recom- 
mended the payment of tribute. It chose Bar- 
abbas ; and Jesus was left to undergo the Roman 
punishment of Crucifixion in company with two 
malefactors. He refused with some not overkindly 
words (Luke xxiii. 28-31) the deadening drink of 
frankincense, myrrh, and vinegar which the ladies 
of Jerusalem were accustomed to offer to condemned 
criminals in order that they might pass away in an 
unconscious state (Sanh. 43a). Whatever had been 
Jesus' anticipations, he bore the terrible tortures, 
due to the strain and cramping of the internal 
organs, with equanimity till almost the last, when 
he uttered the despairing and pathetic cry "Eloi, 
Eloi, lama sabachthani? " (the Aramaic form of Ps. 
xxii. 1, "My God, my God, wliy hast thou forsaken 
me?"), which showed that even his resolute spirit 
had been daunted by the ordeal. This last utter- 
ance was in all its implications itself a disproof of 
the exaggerated claims made for him after his death 
by his disciples. The very form of his punishment 
would disprove those claims in Jewish ej'es. No Mes- 
siah that Jews could recognize could suffer such a 
death ; for " He that is hanged is accursed of God " 
(Deut. xxi. 23), "an insult to God '' (Targum, Rashi). 
How far in his own mind Jesus substituted another 
conception of the Messiah, and how far he regarded 
himself as fulfilling that ideal, still remain among the 
most obscure of historical problems (see Messiah). 

Bibliography : Of the enormous literature relating to Jesus it 
is unnecessary to refer in tbis place to more than a few of the 
more recent Works, which give in most cases references to 
their predecessors. On the sources the best work, at any rate 
in English, still remains K. A. Abbott's Gnspelx in Encyc. 
Brit. On the parallels with rabbinic sources : Lightfoot, Ho- 
rcc Talmudicce (best ed., Oxford, 1854); A. Wiinsche, ^ewe 
Beitriige zur Erliluteruno der EvanQtlien aus Talmudund 
Midrasch, Gottingen, 1878 ; G. H. Dalman, The Words of 
Jesus, Edinburgh, 1!K)1. On the life of Jesus the best and 
most critical recent work is that of O. Holtzmann, Leben 
Jcsw, Leipsic, 1901 (Eng. transl. London, 1904). W. Sanday, 
In Hastings, Diet. Bihle, s.v., presents a moderate and candid 
estimate of the various aspects of the life from the orthodox 
Christian standpoint, and gives a critical bibliography to each 
section. A similar critical view, with a fuller account of the 
literature attached to each section, is given by Zockler in 
Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encnc . s.v. With regard to the relation 
of the Law to Jesus, the Christian view is expressed by : Bous- 
set, Jesu Prcdigt in Ihrem Gegensatz zum Judentum, Got- 
tingen, 1892; G. H. Dalman, Cliristianitij and Judaism, 
London, 1901. Of Jewish writers on Jesus may be mentioned : 
G. Solomon, Tlie Jesus of Hititorii. London. 1880; H. Wein- 
stock, .Jesus the Jew, New York. 1902; J. Jacobs, As Others 
Saic Him, London, 189.5. See also Pole.mics. 

In Theology: Because the Gospels, while con- 
taining valuable material, are all written in a po- 
lemical spirit and for the purpose of substantiating 
the claim of the Messianic and superhuman charac- 
ter of Jesus, it is difficult to present an impartial 
story of his life. Nor is the composite picture of 




Jesus drawn from the synoptic Gospels, such as 
is presented by modern Cliristian writers and in 
which the miraculous is reduced to the minimum, 
an approximation to the real Jesus. The Jesus of 
history was equally as remote from Paulinian anti- 
nomiauism as from the antagonism to his own kins- 
men which has been ascribed to him; the Pharisees 
having had no cause to hate and persecute liim, nor 
had they given any cause for being liated by him 
even if their views differed from liis (see New 

It was not as the teacher of new religious prin- 
ciples nor as a new lawgiver, but as a wonder- 
worker, that Jesus won fame and influence among 
the simple inhabitants of Galilee in his lifetime; and 
it was due only to liis frequent apparitions after his 
death to these Galilean followers that the belief in 
his resurrection and in his Messianic and divine 
character was accepted and spread. The thaumatur- 
gic and eschatological views of the times must be 
fully considered, and the legendary lives of saints 
such as Onias, Hanina ben Dosa, Phinehas ben Jair, 
and Simeon ben Yohai in the Talmud, as well as the 
apocalyptic and other writings of the Essenes, must 
be compared before a true estimate of Jesus can be 

However, a great historic movement of the char- 
acter and importance of Christianity can noi, have 
arisen without a great personality to call it into ex- 
istence and to give it shape and direction. Jesus of 
Nazareth had a mission from God (see Maimonides, 
"Yad," Melakim, xi. 4, and the other passages 
quoted in Jew. Encyc. iv. 56 et seq., s.v. Chris- 
tianity); and he must have had the spiritual power 
and fitness to be chosen for it. The very legends 
surrounding his life and his death furnish proofs 
of the greatness of his character, and of the depth 
of the impression wliich it left upon the people 
among whom lie moved. 

Some legends, however, are artificial rather than 
the natural product of popular fancy. To this 
category belong those concerning Jesus' birthplace. 
The fact that Nazareth was his native town — 
where as the oldest son he followed his father's 
trade of carpenter (Mark i. 9, vi. 3; comp. Matt, 
xiii. 55; John vii. 41) — seemed to be 
Legends in conflict with the claim to the Mes- 
Concerning siahship, which, according to Micah 
His Birth, v. 1 (A. V. 2) (comp. John vii. 42 ; 
Yer. Ber. ii. 5a; Lam. R. i. 15), called 
for Beth-lehem of Judah as the place of his ori- 
gin ; hence, the two different legends, one in Luke 
i. 26, ii. 4, and the other in Matt. ii. 1-22, where 
the parallel to Moses (comp. Ex. iv. 19) is char- 
acteristic. In support of the Messianic claim, 
also, the two different genealogies were compiled: 
the one, in Matt. i. 1-16, tracing Joseph's pedigree 
through forty-two generations back to Abraham, 
with a singular emphasis upon sinners and heathen 
ancestresses of the house of David (comp. Gen. R. 
xxiii., Ii., Ixxxv. ; Ruth R. iv. 7; Naz. 23b; Hor. 
10b; Meg. 14b); the other, in Luke iii. 23-38, tra- 
cing it back to Adam as " the son of God " in order 
to include also the non-Abrahamic world. Incom- 
patible with these genealogies, and of pagan origin 
(see Boeklen, "Die Verwandtschaft der Judisch- 

Christlichen mit der Parsichen Eschatologie," 1902, 
pp. 91-94; Holtzmann, •'Hand-Commentar zum 
Neuen Testament," 1889, p. 32; Soltau, in "Vier- 
teljahrschrift fur Bibelkunde," 1903, pp. 36-40), is 
the story representing Jesus as the son of the Virgin 
Mary and of the Holy Ghost (taken as masculine. 
Matt. i. 20-23; Luke i. 27-35). So also the story of 
the angels and 'shepherds hailing the babe in the 
manger (Luke ii. 8-20) betrays the influence of the 
Mithra legend (Cumont, " Die Mysterien des Milhra," 
1903, pp. 97, 147; "Zeitschrift fiir die Neutesta- 
mentliche Wissenschaft," 1902, p. 190), whereas the 
legend concerning the prophecy of the two Essene 
saints, Simeon and Anna, and the bar mizwah story 
(Luke ii. 22-39, 40-50) have a decidedly Jewish 

From the " Gospel According to the Hebrews " 
(Jerome, commentary on Matt. iii. 13, 16), it seems 
that Jesus was induced by his mother and brothers 
to go to John to be baptized in order to obtain the 
forgiveness of his sins ; his vision, too, is there de- 
scribed differently (comp. Justin, " Dial, cum Tryph." 
Ixxxviii., ciii. ; Usener, " Religionsgeschichtliche 
Untersuchungen,"1889, pp.1, 47; and Holy Spirit). 
Genuinely Jewish also is the legend which depicts 
Jesus as spending forty days with God among the 
holy "hayyot" (not "wild beasts," as rendered in 
Mark i. 13) without eating and drinking (comp. Ex. 
xxxiv. 28; Deut. ix. 9); and his encounter with 
Satan is similar to the one which Moses had in 
heaven (Pesik. R. xx., based upon Ps. Ixviii. 19; 
comp. Zoroaster's encounter with Ahriman [Zend 
Avesta, Vend., Fargard, xix. 1-9]) and to Buddha's 
with Mara (Koppen, "Die Religion des Buddha," 
1857, i. 88, and R. Seydel, "Das Evangelium von 
Jesu," 1882, p. 156). 

When, after John's imprisonment, Jesus took up 
the work of his master, preaching repentance in 
view of the approach of the kingdom of God (Mark 
i. 14; Luke i. 79; comp. Matt. iii. 2, iv. 16-17), he 
chose as his field of operations the land 
As Healer around the beautiful lake of Gennesa- 
and ret, with Capernaum as center, rather 

"Wonder- than the wilderness; and he had as 
"Worker, followers Peter, Andrew, John, and 
others, his former companions (John i. 
35-51; comp. Matt. iv. 18; Mark i. 16 with Luke v. 
1). His chief activity consisted in healing those 
possessed with unclean spirits who gathered at the 
synagogues at the close of the Sabbath (Mark i. 32- 
34; Luke iv. 40). Wherever he came in his wander- 
ings through Galilee and Syria the people followed 
him (Matt. iv. 23-24; xii. 15; xiv. 14, 34; xv. 30; 
xix. 1; Mark iii. 10; Luke vi. 17-19), bringing to 
him the sick, the demoniacs, epileptics, lunatics, 
and paralytics to be cured ; and he drove out the 
unclean spirits, "rebuking" them (Matt. xvii. 18; 
Luke iv. 35, 39, 41 ; ix. 42 ; comp. " ga'ar " in Zech. iii. 
2; Isa. 1. 2 ; Ps. Ixviii. 31 [A. V. 30]) with some magic 
"word" (Matt. viii. 8, 16; comp. "milla," Shab. 
81b; Eccl. R. i. 8), even as he "rebuked" the wind 
and told the sea to stand still (Mark iv. 35 and par- 
allels). At times he cured the sufferers by the mere 
touch of his hand (Mark i. 25; Matt. viii. 8, ix. 
18-25), or by powers emanating from him through 
the fringes of his garment (ib. ix. 20, xiv. 36). or 




by the use of spittle put upon the affected organ, 
accompanying the operation with a whisper (Mark 
vii. 32, viii. 23; John ix. 1-11; comp. Sanh. lOla; 
Yer. Shab. xiv. 14d: Lohesh and Rok). By the 
same exorcismal power he drove a whole legion of 
evil spirits, 2,000 in number, out of a maniac living 
in a cemetery (Josephus, "B. J." vii. 6, § 3; Sanh. 
65b) and made them enter a herd of swine to be 
drowned in the adjacent lake (Luke viii. 26-39 and 
parallels; comp. Ta'an. 21b; Kid. 49b; B. K. vii. 
7). It was exactly this Essenic practise which 
gained for him the name of prophet (Matt. xxi. 11, 
46; Luke vii. 16, 39;xxiv. 19; John iv. 19). In 
fact, by these supernatural powers of his he himself 
believed that Satan and his hosts would be subdued 
and the kingdom of God would be brought about 
(Luke ix. 3, x. 18, xi. 20); and these powers he is 
said to have imparted to his disciples to be exercised 
only in connection with the preaching of the king- 
dom of God (Matt. ix. 35-x. 6; Mark vi. 7; Luke ix. 
1-2). They are to him the chief proof of his Mes- 
siahship (Matt. xi. 2-1