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B'nai B'ritli Women's Grand Lodge, District No. 4 



FDLLDu; you 




Mr. & Mrs. Roy Papermaster 


Jewish Encyclopedia 




Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists 


Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. (Departments of Post- 
Btblical Antiquities ; the Jews of America) . 

Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. [Department 
of History from 1492 to igoi) . 

Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D. {Department of 
Rabbinical Literature) . 

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D. {Departments of 
History from- Ezra to I4g2 ; History of 
Post - Tcilmudic Literature) . 

Joseph Jacobs, B.A {Departments of the 
Jews of England and Anthropology; Revi- 
sing Editor) . 

Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D. (Department of the Talmud). 
Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D. {Department of the Bible) . 

Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. {Departments of Theology 

and Philosophy) . 

Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D. (Chief of the 
Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor). 

Isidore Singer, Ph.D. (Department of Modem 
Biography from 17^0 to igoi). 

Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. (Departments of 
Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature) . 


Prelector and Managing Editor 


(see page v) 





N.Y. 2. N.Y. 







(Departmeiits of Font-Biblical Antiquities ; the Jews of 

President of the American Jewish Historical Society ; Librarian, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 


(Department of Histtyni from 11,9^ to 1901.) 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 

Ohio ; Editor of " Deborah." 


{Department of RaJ>hinical Literature.) 
New York ; Author of "' Die Haggada bei den Klrchenvatem." 


(Departments of Hi^torufrom Ezra to 1U92 ; History of Post- 

Talmudic Literature.) 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; 

Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library ; 

President of the Federation of American Zionists. 


{Departments of the Jews of Enoland and Anthropology; 
Rei^i^ng Editor.) 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England ; 
Author of "Jews of Angevin England," etc. 


{Department of the Talmud.) 
Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; Author of "Dictionary of the Talmud." 


(Department of the Bible.) 

Professor of SemUic Languages and Librarian in the University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Author of " Relig- 
ion of the Babylonians and Assyrians," etc. 


(Departments of Theology and Philosophy.) 

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York ; President of the Board of 
Jewish Ministers, New York. 


(Chief of the Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor.) 

Rabbi of the West End Synagogue, New York ; Vice-President 
of Board of Jewish Ministers, New York. 


Managing Editor. 
{Department of Modem Biography from 1750 to 1901.) 


(Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic 


Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. ; 

Author of " The Religion of Israel," " Judaism and 

Christianity," etc. 



Rabbi of the Congregation Zichron Ephraim, Dean of the Jewish 
Theological Seminary, New York. 


Rabbi Emeritus of Zion Congregation, Chicago ; Author of " A 
Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language." 


Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Emanu-El, New York. 


Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, Chicago, 111.; Professor of 

Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of 

Chicago ; Editor of the " Reform Advocate." 


Head of the Departmeni of Semitic and Egyptian Literatures, 
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 


Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto, 

Canada ; Author of " History, Prophecy, and 

the Monuments." 


Rabbi of the Shearith Israel Congregation (Spanish and Portu- 
guese), New York ; President of the Advisory Board of 
Ministers of the Jewish Theological Seminary. 


Professor of Talmudic Literature, Hebrew Union College, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio ; Author of " Introduction to the Talmud." 


Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature and President of 

Andover Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass. ; Author 

of a Commentary on the Book of Judges, etc. 


Rabbi of the Congregation Bene Israel : Professor of Homiletica, 

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; President of 

Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America. 


Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature, University of 

Chicago, 111. ; Author of " The Monuments and 

the Old Testament," etc. 




Chief of the Ulssian Section of The Jewish Encyclo- 
In charjre of Slavonic Department, New York Public Library. 


President of Central Conference of American Rabbis ; Rabbi of 
Temple Emanu-El, New York. 


Rabbi of the Congregation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal. ; 
fessor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal. 


Editor of " The Literary Digest," New York. 




Coeditor of the "Jewish Quarterly Review"; Author of "Jew- 
ish Life in the Middle Ages," etc. ; Senior Tutor 
in Jews' College, Loudon, England. 

W. BACHER, Ph.D., 

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, 

M. BRANN, Ph.D., 

Professor In the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Ger- 
many ; Editor of " Monatsschrift fur Geschichte und 
Wissenschaft des Judeuthums." 

H. BRODY, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Nachod, Bohemia, Austria ; Coeditor of " Zeitschrif t fur 
Hebriilsche Bibliographle." 


Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople, 



Professor of Literary Arabic at Uie Special School of Oriental 
Languages, Paris, France ; Member of the French Institute. 

S. M. DU3N0W, 

Author of " Istoriya Yevreyev," Odessa, Russia. 


Principal of Jews' College, London. England; Author of "The 
Jewish Religion," etc. 


Professor of S<^mltlc Philology, University of Budapest, Hungary. 

Chief Rabbi of Vienna, Austria. 


St. Petersburg, Russia. 


Chief of the Hebrew Ut|>artiiieutof iht- liii|K.rial Public Library, 
St. Petersburg. Russia. 


Chief Rabbi f>f Fmnce ; llononiry President of the Alliance 

Isra<;ilte Cnlverselle ; OOlcer of the Legion 

of Honor, Paris, France. 


Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary ; CDrn-sixinillng Member of the 
Royal Arademy of HlHtnry, Madrid, Spain. 


Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Beriln ; Meran, 



Member of the French Institute ; Professor at the Free School 

of Political Science, Paris, France ; Author of 

" Israel chez les Nations." 


Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Editor of 
" Revue des Etudes Juives," Paris, France. 


Chief Rabbi of Padua ; Professor of Hebrew at the University, 
Padua, Italy. 


Chief Rabbi of Szegedin, Hungary ; Author of " Die Aramalachen 


Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Chief Rabbi of 
Florence, Italy. 

H. OORT, D.D., 

Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the State 
University, Leyden, Holland. 


Formerly Librarian of the Reale Biblioteca Palatlna, Parma, 



Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and 

Brussels; President of the Deutsch-Jiidlsche 

Gemeindebund, Berlin, Germany. 


Rabbi in Warsaw, Russia. 


Professor of Hebrew, University College, London, England; 

Reader In Rabbinic, University of Cambridge: 

Author of "Studies In Judaism." 


Secretary-General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris, 



Professor of Philosophy, University of Bern, Swltzeriand ; EdltOT 
of " Archlv fur Geschichte der Phllosophle," etc. 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages, 
University of Beriln, Germany. 


Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, England ; Editor of 
"Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," etc. 



A Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. , 

President of the American Jewish Historical 
Society ; President of tbe Board of Directors 
of the Jewish Theological Seminary of Amer- 
ica; Librarian of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C. 

A. B A. Biram, Ph.D., 

Berlin, (iermany. 

A. Bii Alexander Buchler, Ph.D., 

Rablij, Keszthely, Hungary. 

A. Ep Abraham Epstein, 

Authorof "Eldad ha-Dani" and of oilier works 
on rahlilnical subjects; contributor of the ar- 
ticle "Gaon " in Volume V. ; Vienna, Austria. 

A. Fe Alfred Feilchenfeld, Ph.D., 

I'lincipal of the llealscbule, Kiinli, Uavaria, 

A. G Adolf Gruttmacher, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Baltimore. Md. 

A. Ga Abraham Galante, 

Editor of "La Bueiia Esperanza." .•suiyruM. 
Asia Minor. 

A. H. R . . . . A. H. Rosenberg-, 

New Yoik City. 
A. H. S A. H. Sayce, D.D., L,L>.D., 

I'rofessdr of Assyriology. oxford University, 
O.xford, England. 

A. Ke A. Kecskemeti, 

Kabbi. Makow. Hungary. 

A. Ki Alexander Kisch, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Prague, Bohemia. Austiia. 

A. L. Alfred L^vy , 

Chief Rabbi, Lyons, Fran<.t.'. 

A. M. F Albert M. Friedenberg, B.S., LL..B., 

Counselor at Law ; Correspondent of " The 
Jewish Comuient," Baltimore, Md.; New 
York City. 

A. M. H A. M. Hyamm, 

London, England. 

A. P A. Porter, 

Formeily Associate Editor of "The Forum," 
New York ; Revising Editor "Standard Cyclo- 
pedia," New Y'ork City. 

A. Pe A. Peig-insky, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

A. PI A.Plaut, 

Rabbi, Detmold, Lippe, Germany. 

A. S. I Abram S. Isaacs, Ph.D., 

Professor of German literature. University 
of the City of New York, New York City. 

A. S. V/ A. S. Waldstein, B. A., 

New York City. 

A. S, W. R. . A. S. W. Rosenbach, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

A. U A.Ury, 

Chief Rabbi, Stnisbiirg, Alsace, Germany. 

A. V. W. J.. A. V. W. Jackson, Ph.D., Litt.D., 

Professor of ludo-lranian Languages, Colum- 
bia University. New York City. 

A. W Albert Wolf, 

Dresden. Saxony, Germany. 

B. Ei Benzion Eisenstadt, 

-N'ew YdiU Citv. 

B. Fr B. Friedberg, 

Fraukfort-on-the-Main, (rermany. 

B. L. B B. Li. Benas, 

Liverpool, England. 

C. D. S C. D. Spivak, M.D., 

Denver, Col. 

C. I. de S — Clarence I. de Sola, 

President of the Federation of Canadian 
Zionists, Montreal, Canada. 

C. L Caspar Le vias, M . A. , 

Instructor in Exegesis and Talmudic Aramaic, 
Hebrew Union College, Ciueinnati, Ohio. 

C. L. S Cyrus L. Sulzberger, 

President of the Jewish Agricultural and In- 
dustrial Aid Society, New York City. 

C. T Charles Taylor, D.D., LL.D., 

Master, St. John's College, Cambridge, Eng- 

D Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D., 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

D. Ba.. David Bachrach, 

Baltimore, Md. 

D. I. F D. I. Freedman, B.A., 

Rabbi, Perth, Western Australia. 

D. P David Philipson, D.D., 

Rabbi, B'ne Israel Congregation ; Professor of 
Homiletics, Hebrew Union College, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

E. C Executive Committee of the Editorial 


E. G. H Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation ; Professor of Rab- 
binical Literature and Philosophy, University 
of Chicago; Chicago, 111. 

E. I. N E. I. Nathans, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. J Emil Jelinek, 

Vienna, Austria. 

E. K EduardKonig, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis. Univer- 
sity of Bonn, Germany. 

E. L Eude Lolli, 

Chief Rabbi ; Professor of Hebrew, Univer- 
sity of Padua; Padua, Italy. 

E. Ms Edgar Mels, 

New York City. 

E. N Eduard Neumann, Ph.D., 

Chief Rabbi, Nagy-Kanisza, Hungary. 

E. N. S Elvira N. Solis, 

New Y'ork Cityi 

E. Schr E. Schreiber, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Emanu-El Congregation, Chicago, 111. 

E. Sd E. Schwarzfeld, IiL..D., 

Secretary of the Jewish Colonization Associa- 
tion, Paris, France. 

E. SI E. Slijper, 

Rabbi, Amsterdam, Holland. 

F. C Frank Cramer, B.Sc, 

New York City. 

F. H. V Frank H. Vizetelly , F. S. A. , 

Ai^sociate Editor of the Standard Diction- 
ary, and of the ■'Columbian Cyclopedia ' ; 

New York City. 






...Frank Knight Sanders, Ph.D., D.D., 

Pruft'ssor of Bibliciil History aud Arcbeolopy ; 


..I. Cohn, 

Czaruikov, Poseu, Germany. 

Uean of tbo Divinity Scbool, Yale Univer- 


. .Israel Davidson, Ph.D., 

sity, New Haven, Conu. 

New York City. 



C . 

. .Francis L. Cohen, 

I'liiicipul Itablii, Sydney. N. S. W., Australia. 


..Israel Davis, 

Barrister at Law, London England. 




. . Florence N. Levy, 

Ni-w York City. 


. .Ismar Elbogen, Ph.D., 



H . 

. . Frederick T. Haneman, M.D., 

liroulil.M!, .N. V. 

Instiuctor at the Lehratistalt fiir die Wissen- 
schaft des Judeuthums, Berlin, Germany. 


. . .Richard Gottheil, Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Langiia?e.s, Columbia 

G. D.... 

. .1. George Dobsevage, 

New Y'ork City. 

University, New York ; Chief of the Oriental 


..Isidore Harris, A.M., 

Department, New York I'ublif Library; New 
York ( ity. 

Rabbi, West London Synagogue, London, 





. . George A. Barton, Ph.D., 

rrofessor of Biblical l>iterature and Semitic 
Languages, Hrvn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, 


..I. Kracauer, Ph.D., 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, (iennany. 


L. B 

.1. L. Bril, 



K .. 

. . . George Alexander Kohut, 

New York City. 

Foniierly Ilalibi in Dallas, Texas; Assistant 


..Isaac Levy, 

Librarian of the Jewish Theological Seminary 

Chief Rabbi, Bordeaux, France. 

of America, New York City. 


. Immanuel Low, Ph.D., 




...George D. Rosenthal, 

Electrical I-.ngineer, St. Louis, Mo. 

M. C... 

Chief Rabbi, Szegediii, Hungary. 
..I. M. Casanowioz, Ph.D., 



. .Goodman Lipkind, B. A., 

Rabbi, New York tity. 

United States National Museum, Washington, 
D. C. 



. ..G. Marg-oliouth, 

Assistant Custodian, Oriental Department, 
British Museum, London, England. 

M. P.... 

. Ira Maurice Price, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera- 
ture, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 


Mo. ... 

. .Godfrey Morse, 

Counselor at Law, Boston, Mass. 

S. B 

. .Isidor S. Beaumache, 

New York City. 



. . .Gabriel Weiss, 

New York City. 


..Isaac Schwab, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, St. Joseph, Mo. 


"We .... 

..Gotthold Weil, 

licrlin, (iermaiiy. 


. .Isidor Warsaw, 

Rabbi, Woodvllle, .Miss. 



..H. Brody, Ph.D., 

Uabbi; Coedilor of the "Zeitschrlft fur He- 


. .Izrael Ziony, 

briiLsche Bibliographie " ; Nachod, Bohemia, 

New York ( ity. 


..Joseph Jacobs, B.A., 



C. . 

. .Herbert E. Choate, 
Athens, Ga. 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical 
Society of England; Corresponding Member 



..Hubert Grimme, Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera- 

of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; 
New York City. 

ture, University of Freiburg, Switzerland. 


D. E.... 

.J. D. Eisenstein, 



. . .H. Guttenstein, 

New York City. 

New York City. 


F. McC. 

..J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D., 



r — 

, . Hartwig Hirschfeld, Ph.D., 

Profes.sor, .Jews' College, Loudon, England. 

Professor of Oriental Languages, University 
College, Toronto, Canada. 



...Henry Malter, Ph.D., 

Assistant Pnfissor, Hebrew Union College, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 


F. McL. 

..J. F. McLaughlin, M.A., B. D., 

Professor of Oriental Languages and Litera- 
ture, Victoria College, Toronto, Canada. 




. H. Pereira Mendes, M.D., D.D., 

I'nsideiit of the I iiion of Orthodox Congre- 
gations of thi! United States and Canada; 



.J. F. Schamberg, M.D., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ual)bl of the Spanish and Portuguese Congre- 


G. L 

. J. G. Lipman, Ph.D., 

gation, New York City. 

Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Ex- 



. . .Herman Rosenthal, 

periment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New 


H. O... 

..Julius H. Greenstone, 

York Public Library. New York City. 

Rabbi, Philadelphia, Pa. 




. . .Hermann Vogrelstein, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Ki'iiigsberg, East Prussia, Germany. 
. . .Israel Abrahams, 


H. Ho. . 

..J.H.Hollander, Ph.D., 

Assistant Professor of Political Economy, 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Reader In Rabbinic, l.'nlver«ity of Cambridge ; 


H. M.... 

..Julius H. Meyer, 

Coi?dltor of " The Jewish Quarterly Review " ; 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Cambridge, England. 



. .J. Hyams, 



...Iminanuel Benzinger, Ph.D., 

Profes.sor of Old Testament F^xegesls, Uni- 


Bombay, India. 

versity of Berlin, Germany ; Jerusalem, Pal- 



..Jacques Kahn, 


Uabbl, Paris, France. 



. ..I. Blumenstein, Ph.D. (deceased), 

IjiI*- Chli'f Rabbi of Luxemburg, Luxemburg. 


L,. L,a... 

..J. L. Lait, 

Journalist, Chicago, 111. 



...Isaac Broyde (Office Kditnr), 

Doctor of the University of Paris, France; for- 
merly Librarian of the Alliance Israelite Unl- 
verselle, Paris, France; New York City. 



..Joseph Silverman, D.D., 

Formerly president of Central Conference of 
American Rabbis; Rabbi of Emanu-El Con- 
gregation, New York City. 





.Joseph Sohn, 

Contributor to "The New International En- 

M. K 

. ..Meyer Kayserling-, Ph.D., 
Kabbi, Budapest. Hungary. 

cyclopedia " ; formerly musical critic on the 

M. Kn.... 

..M. Knafo, 

New York " American and Journal " ; New- 
York City. 

Kahili, Mogador, Morocco. 



.Jacob Spiro, 

Hahbi. .Malirisch-Ostrau, Moravia, Austriii. 

M. L. B... 

. . Moses Lob Bambergrer, Ph.D., 

Rabbi ; Lecturer in Rabbinic, Jewish Semi- 
nary, Wiirzburg, Bavaria, Germany. 


S. R 

J. S. Raisin, 

Rabbi, Gemilut Chesed Congregation. Kcirt 

M. N 

..MaxNordau, M.D., 

(iibson. Miss. 

Paris. France. 



..J. Theodor, Ph.D., 

Uabbi, Bojanowo, Posen, Germany. 


. Max Rosenthal, M.D., 

Visiting Physician, German Dispensary, New 
York City. 



JosefWohlstein, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Malmo, Sweden. 

M. Sa 

. Max Samfield, Ph.D., 

Memphis, Tenn. 


Z. L 

.J. Z. Lauterbach, Ph.D. (Office Editor i. 
Rabbi, New York City. 

M. Sc 

..Max Schloessing'er,Ph.D., 

Librarian; Lecturer on Biblical Exegesis. 


..Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D., 

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Rabbi Kmeritus of Temple Beth-El, New 
York ; President of the Hebrew Union Col- 

M. Sel 

..Max Selig-sohn (Office Editor), 

lege, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Doctor of the University of Paris, France; 
New York City. 



.Ludwigr Blau, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary ; Edi- 
t^ir of "Magyar Zsido - Szemle," Budapest. 

M. W. L 

..Martha Washing-ton Levy, B.A., 

Contributor to "The New International En- 
cyclopedia," .New York City. 


C. H.... 

.L. C. Harby, 
New York City. 

M. W. M. 

Mary W. Montgomery, Ph.D., 

New York ( ity. 



-L. Errera, Ph. D., 

Professor (if Plant-Anatomy, Plant-Physiol- 

M. Z 

..M. Zametkin, 

New York (ity. 

ogy, and Botany, University of Brussels, Bel- 

N. D 

. .Newell Dunbar, 


Newark, N. J. 



.liouis Ginzbeig, Ph.D., 

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Sem- 

N. R 

..N. Rashkovski, 

Odessa, Russia. 

inary of America, New York City. 

N. SI...... 

..N. Slouschz, 


H. a... 

.Louis H. Gray, Ph.D., 

Assistant Editor of the " Orientalische Biblio- 
graphie " ; formerly on the editorial staff of 

Doctor of the University of Paris; Lecturer 
on Neo- Hebraic Literature, University of 
Paris, France. 

" The New International Encyclopedia " ; 

N. T. L.... 

..N. T. London, 

Newark, N. J. 

New York Citv. 



L.. Huhner, A.M., LL.B., 

Counselor at Law. New York City. 

O. J. S.... 

. ..O. J. Simon, 

London, England. 



.Li. liOwenstein, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Mosbach, Baden, Germany. 

P. B 

. .Philipp Bloch, Ph.D., 

Ralibi, Posen, Germany. 



..Laura Landau, 

New York City. 

P. Wi . . . . 

. .Peter Wiernik, 

Journalist, New York City. 


M. F.... 

..Leo M. Franklin, B.L., 

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, Detroit, Mich. 


. . Isidore Sing-er, Ph.D., Eiutor, New York City. 



L. Munk, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Marburg, (iermany. 


. .Samuel Baeck, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Lissa. Posen, Germany. 


N. D... 

Lewis N. Dembitz, D.H.L., 

Counselor at Law, Louisville, Ky. 

S. Be 

. .Simon Bernfeld, Ph.D., 

Formerly Chief Rabbi of Servia; Berlin, d. r- 



Ludwig- Venetianer, Ph.D., 


Rabbi, I'jpest, Hungary. 


. S. Gundelfing-er, Ph.D., 



.L. Wygodsky, 

Darmstadt, Germany. 

St. Petersl)urg, Russia. 

S. Ho 

. S. Horovitz, Ph.D., 


A.N. L 

.M. A.N. Lindo, 

London, England. 

Professor, .leu ish Theological Seminary, Bres- 
lau, Germany. 



.Moses Butten-wrieser, Ph.D., 

Assistant Professor of E.\egesis, Hebrew 


. ..S. Janovsky, 

Counselor at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

S. J. L... 

..S. J. Levinsohn, 



.Max Cohen, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Counselor at Law, New York City. 

S. K 




Maurice Fishberg-, M.D., 

Rabbi, Niines. France. 

Surgeon t<i the Belli Israel Hospital Dispen- 

S. Kr 

. . Samuel Krauss, Ph.D., 

sary ; Medical Examiner to the United He- 

I'roressor, Normal (oileire, Budapest, Hungary. 

brew Charities, New York City. 

S. Led .... 

. . Sampson Lederhandler, 


. Fr 

.M. Franco, 

New York City. 

Principal, .\lllance Israelite Universelle 

S. M 

. . S. Mendelsohn, Ph.D., 

Sehool, Deinotica, Kumelia, Turkey. 

Kabbi, Wilmington, N. C. 


. Frie.... 

M. Friedlander, Ph.D., 

Vienna, Austri;). 

S. Man.... 

..S. Mannheimer, B.L., 

Instructor, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 


. Gr 

M. Grunwald, Ph.D., 


Rabbi. Vienna. Austria. 

S. M.G ... 

...S. M. Goldstein, 


. H. H... 

.M. H. Harris, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

Assi.stiint Professor, Archeological Institute. 
St. I'etersbiiru-. Russia. 



S. Mii S. Miihsam, Ph. p., 

( hief Rabbi, Gratz, Styria, Austria. 

S. Mun Sigmund Munz, Ph.D., 

Vienna, Austria. 

S. N. D S. N. Deinard, 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

S S ...Solomon Schechter, M. A., Litt.D., 

I'lvsiiiL-ni of the Faculty of tin- .Jewish Theo- 
lc«ic-4il Semiuiiry of America, New York City. 

S. Sa Sigismund Salfeld, Ph.D., 

Kaiibi, Mayence, Hesse, Germany. 

S. Wo Simon Wolf, 

Counselor at Law; President, Independent 
Order B'nai li'rith, \Va.sLington, D. C. 

T Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard I'nivi-rsiiy. 
CambridRe, Mass. 

U. C Umberto Cassuto, 

Editor of " La Uivista Israelitica," Florence. 

V. C Vittore Castigrlione, 

Chief Kal)bi. Rome, Italy. 

V. E "Victor Rousseau Emanuel, 

Laurel, .Md. 

W. B Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, I'.uda- 
pest, Hungary. 

W. H. C W. H. Cobb, 

Boston, .NIass. 

W. M William Milwitzky, 

Cambridfje, Ma,ss. 

W. M. M....W. Max Muller, Ph.D., 

Professor of Bible Kxegesis, Reformed Episco- 
pal Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

W. N Wilhelm Nowack, Ph.D. , 

Professor of Old 'IVstameiit K.xegesis. Uni- 
versity of Stiasburg, Germany. 

W. P William Popper, M.A., Ph.D., 

(iustas (iottlieil Lecturer in Semitic" Lan- 
guages, Columbia University, New York Cit.y. 

W. Pe W. Perkowski, 

New '\'ork City. 

W. R William Rosenau, Ph.D., 

Uubbi of Kutaw Place Temple, Baltimore, Md. 

W. Wi W. Winner, 

Itaiiiii, Meridian, Miss. 

Z. K Zadoc Kahn, 

Chief Uabbiof France; Honorary President. of 
the Alliance Israelite I'niversclle : officer of 
the Legion of Honor ; Paris, Krance. 


N. B.— In the following list subjects likely to be sought for under various headings are repeated under 
each heading. Cross-references in this list are to other items in the list, not to articles in the Ency- 


"Abudarham," Page from the, Lisbon, 1489 105 

Alexander I., Medal Commemorating the Emancipation of the Russian Jews by 403 

America: see Michigan. 

Archeology: see Coin ; Lul.\b; Moabite Stone; Moloch; Tombstones. 

Architecture: see Jew's House; Synagogues; Tombstones. 

Ark of the Law of the New West End Synagogue, London 169 

Representation of an, on a Glass Dish Found in the Jewish Catacombs at Rome 005 

Arms of Sir George Henry liewis 69 

Art: see Archeology; Akciiitectore ; Levy, Alphonse; Lilien, Ephraim Mosks: Mantle ok 

the Law; Manuscripts; Mizrah; Typography. 
Autographs: see Maimonides, Moses; Manasseii ben Israel; Marx, Karl; Mendelssohn, Moses; 

MoLKO, Solomon ; Montefiore, Sir Moses. 

Babylonian Cylinder Representing Sacrifice of a Child 658 

Bar Kokba, Coin of. Bearing a Lulab 205 

Baths, Jewish, of the Sixteenth Century "iBS, 589 

Bible : see Leviticus ; Masorah ; Mkgillot. 

"Blessing of the New Moon." From a Drawing by Alphonse Levy 57 

Board of Guardians, Jewish, Building of the, London 164 

Breslau Wilhelmschule, Medal Commemorating the Founding of the 403 

Candlestick, Golden: see Menorah. 

Catacombs at Rome, Jewish, Glass Dish with Jewish Symbols Found in the 205 

Cemetery, Cypress Hills, New York, Showing Tombstone of Uriah Phillips Levy 65 

of Mayence, Ancient Remains of the Jewish 386 

Modern Jewish 387 

Spanish and Portuguese, Mile End Road. London 158 

see also Tombstones. 

Ceremonial: see Blessing op the New Moon; Lulab ; Magen Da win ; Mantle of the Law; 
Marriage; Mazzot; Mezuzah ; Mizkah. 

Coin of Bar Kokba Bearing a Lulab 205 

Constantinople, Page from Midrash Eleh Ezkerah, Printed in 1620 ai 577 

Costume, Galiciau plate ffiriuri 846 

German, Eighteenth Century 348, 345 

Cracow, Marriage Scene at 346 

Crown of the Law. In the United States National Museum, Washington, D. C 300 

Cylinder, Babylonian, Representing Sacrifice of a Child 653 

Date-Meridians According to Rabbinical Sources, Map of the World on Mercator's Projection, Showing 498 

Delatas, Elias and Rica, Medal Struck in Honor of 402 

Detroit, Mich., Temple Beth El at 542 

Duke's Place Synagogue, Exterior of the, Loudon 160 

Interior of the. London '59 



England: see Lincoln; London; Ramsgate. 

Esther, Scroll of, Dutcli. Early Eighteenth Century 429 

Silver Cases for 430 

Europe: see Lincoln : Lithuania ; London; Luukck; Marburg; Mayenck: Metz; Ramsgate. 

First Editions: Page from the " Abudarham," Lisbon, 1489 105 

Page from Levi ben Gershon's Commentary to the Pentateuch, Mantua, Before 1480 27 

Page from the Muhzor, Printed at Soncino, 1485 265 

Title-Page from Elijah Levita's " Tishbi," Isny, 1541 47 

Frankfort-on-the-]Main, :Mcdal Commemorating the Conflagration in the Ghetto of, in 1711. 402 

Galicia, Jewish Marriage Scene in plate facing 346 

Germany: seeLtuKCK; Marburg; Mayence; Metz. 

Graves: see To.mbstonks. 

Great Synagogue, Duke's Place, London, Interior and Exterior 159, 160 

Herz, Markus, Medal Struck in Honor of 403 

llospitol, Jews', and Orphan Asylum, West Norwood, London 161 

Host : see Micrococcus Prodigiosus. 

Huppah or Wedding Baldachin. From a Passover Haggadah, Amsterdam, 1695 341 

see also Marriage. 

Incunabula: see Lisbon; Mantua; Soncino. 
Inscriptions: see Coin; Moabite Stone; Tombstones. 

" Isaiah." From the Drawing by Ephraim Moses Lilien 85 

Italia, Salom, Portrait of Manasseh ben Israel by 282 

Itzig, Daniel, Medal Struck in Honor of the Seventieth Birthday of, 1793 403 

Jerusalem, Plan of. From the Mosaic Map of Palestine, Probably of the Fifth Century, Found at 

Medeba 407 

Jewry, The, of London in 1290 157 

Jews' College, Queen's Square, London 162 

"Jew's House," Steep Hill, Lincoln 91 

Joseph II., Medal Commemorating the Edict of Toleration Issued by, 1781 402 

" Judengasse" of Marburg-in-Hesse 323 

Leon, Jud;di Aryeh, of Modena, Italian Scholar, Rabbi, and Poet 5 

Tempio, Jacob Judah Aryeh, Dutch Mechanician 2 

Letteris, MeVr Halevi, Austrian Scholar and Poet 17 

Levi, David, English Hebraist and Author 26 

Italian Poet and Critic 25 

ben Gcrshon, Page from the First Edition of the Commentary to the Pentateuch, Mantua, 

Before 1480 27 

Leo Napoleon, American Lawyer and Communal Worker 34 

Levin, Hirschel, German Rabbi 40 

Rahel, German Writer 42 

Levinsohn, Isaac Baer, Russian-Hebrew Writer and Scholar 43 

F.cvitji, Elijah, Titlc-Page from the Edition of the "Tishbi," Isny, 1541 47 

Leviticus, Illuminated Page of. From a manuscript formerly in the possession of the liuke of 

Sussex . 51 

Levy, Alphonse, "Blessing of the Moon " by. . 57 

IvTvy, Uriah Phillips, American Naval Officer _ 64 

Tombstone of. Cypress Hills Cemetery, New Vork 65 

Lewandowski. Louis, German C^omposer of Synagogal Music 66 

Lewis. Sir George Henry, Arms of 69 

Library of Parma, .Vlcove Containing the De Rossi Collection of Jewish Books in the 72 

Liebermann. Max, German Painter 81 

Lilien. Ephraim Moses. " Isaiah," from the Drawing b\ 85 



Lilienbluin, Moses L5b, Russian Scholar and Author 86 

Lilientlml, Otto, Experimenting with His Flying-Machine . 87 

Ijiucolu, The Jewish Quarter, circa 1290 90 

-'Jew's House." Steep Hill 91 

Lion, Representation of, on a Glass Dish Found in the Jewisli Catacombs at Rome 205 

Lippold. Execution of, 1573 101 

Lisbon, Page from the *' Abudarham," Printed in 1489 at 105 

Lithuania, Map of the Grand Duchy, at Its Greatest Extent, Showing Cities Where Jews Lived. . . . 120 

Loeb, Isidore, French Scholar 149 

Loewy, Maurice, Frencli Astronomer 151 

Lombroso, Cesare, Italian Alienist and Criminologist 154 

London, Exterior of the Great Synagogue, Duke's Place 160 

Exterior of the New West End Synagogue 168 

Interior of the Great Synagogue, Duke's Place 159 

Interior of the New West End Synagogue 169 

■ Jewish Board of Guardians Building 164 

Jews' College, Queen's Scjuare 162 

Jews' Hospital and Orphan Asylum, West Norwood 161 

Map of, Showing Localities of Jewish Interest 175 

Showing Relative Proportion of Jewish Population 165 

Plan of the Jewry of, 1290 157 

Spanish and Portuguese Cemetery, Mile End Road 158 

Wentworth Street, Formerly " Petticoat Lane" 166 

Lopez, Rodrigo, Conspiring to Poison Queen Elizabeth 182 

Lot's Wife Turned into a Pillar of Salt. From the Sarajevo Ilaggadah of the Fourteenth Century 186 

Low, Leopold, Hungarian Rabbi 19'-2 

Lilbeck, New Synagogue at 198 

Ludwig X., Medal Presented by the Hessian Jews to Landgrave, 1790 402 

Lulab. After a Drawing by Picart 206 

Coin of Bar Kokba Bearing a 205 

Representation of a, on a Glass Dish Found in the Jewish Catacombs at Rome 205 

Luzzatti, Luigi, Italian Statesman and Political Economist 220 

Luzzatto, Samuel David, Italian Scholar 22^ 

' ' Mag-en Dawid. " From a Mizrah 252 

.Mah/.or, Page from the First Edition of the, Soucino, 1485 265 

Page from a Folio, of the Fourteenth Century 263 

Page from a. Printed at Prague, 1525 267 

Maimon, Solomon, Philosophical Writer 266 

Maimonides, Moses, Autograph of (No. 38) 309 

Illuminated Page from the " Yad " of. From a Manuscript in the British Museum, Dated 

1473 Frontispiecr 

Malbim, MeYr Lob, Russian Rabbi 276 

Manasseh ben Israel, Dutch Rabbi and Champion of Jewish Rights. From an Engraving by Salom 

Italia 282 

(Portrait Avith Autograph). From the Mezzotint by Rembrandt 283 

-Mandelkern, Solomon, Russian Poet and Author 28H 

Mandelstamm, Max, Russian Oculist and Zionist 29(» 

Manna, Israelites Gathering, in the Desert. From the Sarajevo Haggadah of the Fourteenth Century. . 293 

Mannheimer, Isaac Noah, Jewish Preacher 295 

Mantle of the Law, Holland, Eighteenth Century 299 

Oriental 300 

Padua, Eighteenth Century 299 

Small. In the British Museum 301 

Velvet, Seventeenth Century 298 

Mantua, Page from the First Edition of Levi ben Gershon's Commentary to the Pentateuch, Printed 

Before 1480 at 27 

Manuscript: Illuminated Page from a Bible. Formerly in the Possession of tlie Duke of Sussex 51 




Manuscript: Illuminated Page fromMaimonides' " Yad," Dated 1472 Frontispiece 

Page from a Folio Mahzor of the Fourteenth Century 263 

Page from a Fourteenth-Century Bible, Containing Masoretic Notes 369 

Page from a Thirteenth-Century (?) Bible, Bearing Masoretic Notes Written to Form Ornamental 

Decorations 367 

Types of Hebrew Script 308-311, 313 

see also >Iegillot ; Mezuzah ; Pinkef. 

"Ma'oz Zur," Music of 316 

Map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at Its Greatest Extent, Showing Cities Where Jews Lived 120 

of London Jewry, 1290 157 

of London. Showing Localities of Jewish Interest *175 

of Palestine. From the Mosaic of the Fifth Century (?) Found at Medeba 407 

see also Plans. 

Mapu, Abraham, Russian-Hebrew Novelist 817 

Marburg, The " Judengasse "of 323 

Marriage Ceremony, Among German Jews, Early Eighteenth Century 343 

From a Passover Haggadah, Amsterdam, 1695 341 

Processions Among German Jews, Eighteenth Century 345 

Scene at Cracow 346 

at Galicia. From the painting by Stryowski plate facing 346 

Marx, Karl, German Socialist and Political Economist 358 

Masada, Mount, in Judea 363 

Masorah, Page from a Manuscript Bible of the Fourteenth Century Containing Masoretic Notes 369 

Page from a Thirteenth-Century (?) Manuscript Bible Bearing Masoretic Notes Written to Form 

Ornamental Decorations 367 

Mayence, Ancient Remains of the Jewisli Cemetery at 386 

Cemetery of the Jewish Commiuiity of 387 

Interior of the Gemeinde Synagogue at 389 

Interior of the Synagogue of the Israelitischen Religionsgesellschaft at 388 

Mazzot, Implements for Stamping 396 

From Leusden, " Philologus Hebrffio-Mixtus," Utrecht, 165, 395 

Making. From a Passover Haggadah, Amsterdam, 1695 393 

Preparation of. From Kirchner, " Jiidisches Ceremoniel," 172C 394 

Medals of Jewisli Interest 403, 403 

Medeba, Mosaic INIap of Palestine, Probably of the Fifth Century, Found at 407 

Megillot Esther, Dutch, Early Eighteenth Century 429 

Silver Case Containing 430 

Silver Fish Forming Case 430 

MeYr. Interior of the Alleged Tomb of, at Tiberias 433 

Synagogue Near the Alleged Tomb of, at Tiberias 482 

Meiscl, Mordec^i. Tombstone of, at Prague 442 

Meldola, Raphael, Ilaliam of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews of Great Britain 453 

Mendelssohn, Felix, German Composer 477 

Moses, German Philosopher 479 

Medal Struck in Honor of the " Phadon " 481 

Tombstone of. From the Drawing by Daniel Chodowiecki 484 

Meudcsia. Gracia, Medal Struck in Honor of Her Eighteenth Birthday 402 

Menorah as Described in Rabbinical Literature • . 493 

Modern 494 

Representation of, on a Glass Dish Found in the Jewish Catacombs at Rome 205 

Meridians. Date-, According to Rabbinical Sources. Map of theWorld on Mercator's Projection, Showing 498 

Metz, Ancient Synagogue at 522 

Interior of an Old Synagogue at. 523 

Meyerbeer, Giacomo, German Composci 528 

Mezuzah Case. After Picart. . . 533 

Glass Cylinder Confainint: 532 

Scroll.." 631 

Wooden Case for 532 



Michigan, Temple Beth El, Detroit 542 

Micrococcus Prodigiosus, Cultures of 543 

Midrash Elcli Ezkerah, Page from, Printed at Constantinople in 1620 577 

Mielziner, ]\Ioses, American Rabbi . 581 

"Mi KamoUah." Music of 586 

Mikweh : Jewish Baths of tlie Sixteenth Century 588, 589 

]\Iiriam. From tiie Sarajevo Ilaggadah of the Fourteenth Ceuturj- 608 

" Mizmor le-Dawid," Music of 624, 625 

" Shir le-Yom ha-Shabbat," JMusic of 625-627 

Mizrah, Typical 629 

Moabite Stone, Inscription on the 635 

Mocatta, Frederick David, English Philanthropist 637 

Moghilef, Russia, Interior of a Synagogue at 643 

Synagogue at 642 

Moiiilewer, Samuel, Pussian Rabbi 648 

Molko, Solomon, Autograph of 651 

]\Ioloch, Babylonian Cylinder Representing Sacritice of a Child to 653 

Montefiore, Sir Moses, English Philanthropist. From a sketch by Dighton in 181b^ 66H 

Synagogue and Tomb of, Ramsgate, England 670 

When One Hundred Years Old 669 

Monuments: see Moabite Stone; Tombstones. 

Morais, Sabatto, American Rabbi 680 

Moravia, Page from the Minute-Book of a Meeting of Congregations Held in 1713 in 683 

Mosaic Map of Palestine, Probably of the Fifth Century, Found at Medeba 407 

Mount Masada in Judea 3 < 5 

Music, "Ma'oz Zur" 316 

" Mi-Kamokah " 586 

" Mizmor le-Dawid " 624, 625 

" Mizmor Shir le-Yom ha-Shabbat " 625-627 

Napoleon, Medal Commemorating the Sanhedrin Convened by, 1806 403 

New York, Cypress Hills Cemetery, Showing Tombstone of Uriah Phillips Levy at 65 

Orphan Asylum and Jews' Hospital, West Norwood, London 161 

Palestine, Mosaic Map of. Probably of the Fifth Century, Found at Medeba 407 

sec also Masada; Tiberias. 

Parma Library, Alcove in the. Containing the De Rossi Collection of Jewish Books 72 

Passover: see ^Iazzot. 

" Petticoat Lane," Now Wentworth Street, London 166 

Pinkes (Minute-Book), Page from the, of a Meeting of Moravian Congregations Held in 1713 683 

Plan of the Jewisii Quarter, Lincoln, 1290 90 

of the Jewish Quarter of London, Showing Proportion of Jewish Population 165 

of the London Jewry, 1290 157 

Portraits: see 

Lkon, Judau Aryeh., Max. Mandelstamm, Max. 

Leon Templo. Lilie.nblum, Moses Lob. Mannheimer, Isaac Noah. 

Letteris, Meir Halevi. Loeb. Isidore. Mapu, Abraham. 

Levi, David (Hebraist). Loewy, Maurice. Marx, Karl. 

Levi, David (Poet). Lombroso, Cesare. Meyerbeer, Giacomo. 

Levi, Leo Napoleon. Low, Leopold. Mielzi.ner, Moses. 

Levin, Hirschel. Luzzatti, luigi. Mocatta, Frederick David. 

Levin, Rahel. Luzzatto, Samuel David. Mohh.ewer. Samuel. 

Levinsohn, Isaac Baer. Maimon, Solomon. Montefiore, Sir Moses. 

Levy-, Uriah Phillips. Mai.bim, MeIr Lob. Morais, Sabatto. 

Lewandowski. Louis. Manasseh ben Israel. 

Prague, ]\Iedal Commemorating Edict of Exile from, 1745 402 

Page from a Mahzor, Printed in 1525 at 267 

Tombstone of Mordecai Meisel at 442 

Processions. Marriage, Among German Jews, Eighteenth Century 345 



Ramsgate, England, Synagogue at Tomb of Sir Moses Montefiorc at 670 

Rembrandt, Mezzotint of Manasseh ben Israel by 283 

Sanhedrin, Medal Commemorating the. Convened by Napoleon, 1806 403 

Sarajevo Haggadab, Illustrations from the, of the Fourteenth Century 186, 293 

Script, Types of Hebrew 308-31 1, 313 

Scroll of Esther, Dutch, Early Eighteenth Century 429 

Silver Cases for 430 

see also Mezuzah. 

of the Law, Mantles for the 298-301 

Sonuino, Page from the First Edition of the Mahzor, Printed in 1485 at : 265 

Spanish and Portuguese Cemetery, Mile End Road, London 158 

Synagogues: see London; LUbeck; Mayence; Metz; Michigan; Moghilef; Ramsgate. 

Temple, Jacob Judah Aryeh Leon, Dutch Mechanician 2 

Tiberias, Interior of the Alleged Tomb of Rabbi Meir at 433 

Synagogue Near the Alleged Tomb of Rabbi Meir at 432 

"Tishbi," Title-Page from the First Edition of Elijah Levita's, Isny, 1541 47 

"Tob le-Hodot," Music of 626 

Tomb of Rabbi Meir at Tiberias, Interior of the Alleged 433 

of Sir Moses Montefiore at Ramsgate, England 670 

Tombstone of Mordecai Meisel at Prague 442 

of Moses Mendelssohn. From the Drawing by Daniel Chodowiecki 484 

of Uriah Phillips Levy, Cypress Hills Cemetery, New York 65 

Typography: see Constantinople ; Isny; Lisbon; Mantua; Prague; Soncino. 

Westphalia, Medal Commemorating Emancipation of the Jews of, 1808 .^ 403 

Writing : Types of Hebrew Script 308-311, 313 

'' Zaddifc: ka-Tamar," Music of 625 


Jewish Encyclopedia 

LEON (LEAO) : Spanish-Portuguese family Iiav- 
ing branches in Italy, Holland, Germany, England, 
southern France, the Orient, the West Indies, espe- 
cially Jamaica, and Surinam. 

1. Abraham Judah. Leon: Assistant rabbi of 
the Spanish-Portuguese congregation in London 
from 1685 until liis death in 1707. 
Bibliography : Gaster, HM. of Bevis Markti, p. 40. 

2. David de Isaac de Leon : Lived in Amster- 
dam in the eighteenth century. He ])ublished "Ser- 
mao da Boa Fania " (Amsterdam, 1767), an address 
in Portuguese delivered June, 1767; also some He- 
brew verses in honor of his father's " Avizos Espiri- 
tuaes," printed with that book. 

3. Elijah, de Leon: Son of Michael Judah de 
Leon (d. March 3, 1658) and nephew of Jacob 
Judah Leon. He was hakam of the benevolent 
society Gemilut Hasadim in Amsterdam and cor- 
rector for the press 1656-66. The Hebrew Bible 
printed by Joseph Athias in 1661 was corrected and 
provided with a preface by Elijah de Leon and Sam- 
uel de Caceres. Some Hebrew verses of Elijah's are 
given in the Spanish translation of the Psahns by 
his uncle Jacob Judah Leon. 

Bibliography : Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. p. 2879 and cxxx.; 
Roest, Cat. Rosenthal. Bihl. Supplement, No. 236ti ; Kayser- 
ling, Bihl. Esp.-Port.-Jncl. p. 37. 

4. Isaac de Leon : Son of Eliezer ben Solomon 
ibn Zur; born probably in Spain; lived in Ancona ; 
died there most likely. He was the author of "Me- 
gillat Esther " — a commentary on Moses b. Mai- 
mon's "Sefer ha-Mizwot," written in the latter's 
defense against the attacks of Moses ben Nahman 
(Venice, 1592; Amsterdam, 1660). He wrote also a 
rabbinical decision in the dispute between Solomon 
de Lolll and Jacob Catalano (Rome, 1546). 

Bibliography: Azu\a.\, Shem ha-GedoUm, i. 10-5; Nepi-Ghi- 
rondi, Tuledot Gedole YisraeU p. 134 ; Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. li. 
231 (who wrongly ascribes the decision to another Isaac de 
Leon); Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 383. 

5. Isaac de Leon : Talmudist, and director of a 
Talmud scliool in Salonica about 1630 (Conforte, 
"Kore ha-Dorot," p. 46a). 

6. Isaac de Leon : In conjunction with Sam- 
uel Athar, he published a collection of stories from 
the Midrashim and Haggadot (Venice, n.d.). 
Bibliography : Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. 11. 232. 

7. Isaac de Leon : Grammarian and teacher in 
Amsterdam. Together with Jacob de Solomon 

VIII.— 1 

Hezekiah Saruco, he wrote "Avizos Espirituaes 
e lustrucgoens Sagradas, para Cultivar o Eugenho 
da Juventude no Amor e Temor Divino " (Amster- 
dam, 1766), containing twenty-four dialogues on 
Biblical history, the articles of faith, the ritual, the 
feast- and fast-days, and the special Sabbaths. 
Bibliography: Kayserling, Bihl. Esp.-Port.-Jud. p. 57. 

8. Isaac (de) Leon Templo : Son of Solomon 
Raphael Judah Leon Templo; printer and publisher 
in Amsterdam 1737-38. He edited his father's 
"Masseket Halakah le-Mosheh mi-Sinai" (Amster- 
dam, 1734). See No. 20. 

Bibliography: Ersch and Gruber, Encyc. section li., part 28 
p. 73 ; Kayserling, Bihl. Esp. -Port. -Jud. p. 59. 

9. Jacob de Leon, and (9a) Jacob Rodriguez 
de Leon : Both probably of Amsterdam ; lived in 
Jamaica, W. I., in 1698. 

Bibliography: PuhlicationsAm. Jexc. Hist. Soc. v. 88. 

10. Jacob Judah Aryeh Leon Templo : Ha- 
kam, translator of the Psalms, and heraldic expert; 
of Marano descent ; son of Abraham de Leon ; born 
in 1603 at Hamburg, where he taught Talmud for 
several years ; died after 1675. He became hakam in 
Middelburg and, after 1643, in Amsterdam, wliei'e 
he was engaged also as teacher in the Talmud Torah. 
He vocalized the entire Mishnah which was printed 
in 1646 at the establishment of Manasseh beu Israel. 

Jacob Judah caused a great stir by a plan, drawn 
by him, of Solomon's Temple, which was exhib- 
ited before Charles II. of England and of which the 
author published a short, comprehensive descrip- 
tion in Spanish entitled "Retrato del Templo de Se- 
lomoh" (Middelburg, 1642). This was translated 
into Dutch in the same year; into French in 1643; 
and by himself into Hebrew in 1650, with the title 
"Tabnit Ilekal." Duke August of Brunswick, and 
more particularly his wife Elizabeth, wished a Ger- 
man translation of this description and entrusted 
tlie task to Prof. Johaun Saubert of Helmstitdt. 
Some one else published such a translation in 1665, 
and Saubert therefore wrote a Latin translation in 
that year. An English version appeared in 1778, 
done by M. P. Deeastro, a relative of Temple's, and 
in whose pos.session the plan was then held. 

In 1647 Jacob Judah wrote "Tratado de la Area 
del Testamento" (Amsterdam, 1653). His treatise 
on the cherubim, their form and nature, written 
in Latin in 1647, appeared in Spanish under the 


Leon, Edwin de 


title "Tratiulodo los Cherubim " (Amsteidam, 16o4); 
<iii(l his description of Closes' tabernacle, ^vritten in 
1(547 in Dutch, was published under the title "Re- 
trato del Tabernaculo de Moseh " (Amsterdam, 
16.14), and in English (1675). His last work was a 
Spanish paraphrase of the Psalms, which was printed 
witli the text, under the title "Las Alaban(;as de 
Santitad " (Amsterdam, 1671), and, as is stated in 
the introduction, was written in seven months. 
The work was dedicated to Isaac Senior Tei.xeyra, 
linancial agent, in Ham- 
burg, of Queen Christina 
of Sweden, and ex- 
tolleil by many hakamim, 
scholars, and poets in He- 
brew, Latin, and Spanish 

Jacob Judah wrote also 
a dialogue ("Colloquium 
Middelburgense") be- 
tween a rabbi and a Chris- 
tian scholar on the value 
of the Christian dogmas; 
and he left in manuscript 
" Disputacionescon Difer- 
eutes Tlieologos de la Cris- 
tiandad." He was a skilful 
draftsman. The coat of 
arms of the English Grand 
Lodge of Masons with the 
motto nin''^ Knp, now 
" Holiness to the Lord," is 
the work of the " famous 
anil learned Ilebrewist, 
architect, and brother, 
Rabi Jacob Jehudah Le- 
on." He drew also more 
than 200 figures and vign- 
ettes to illustrate Talmudical subjects, which his 
son Solomon gave to Surenhusius for his Latin 
translaticm of the Mishnah. 

BIBMOORAPHV: De Rossi-Hamberffer, Hi-sf. W6i-terli. pp. 176 
ct «e'v.; Koenan, Geschiedeuis der Joden in Ncderland,T[). 
S57 ;, Gexch. dcs Judenthums und Seiner Sektcn. iii. 
2XJ; Gratz, Gt-fc/i. x. 34,200 et seq.; TranxactionHJew. Hist. 
Sdc. tlnq. ii. 1.t6 ct Kerj.; Fiirst, Bil>l. Jud. ii. 233 et .seq.; 
Kuyserllng, Bihl. Eap.-l'urt.-Jud. pp. 58 ct scq. 

1 1 . Joseph de Leon : Rabbi in Jerusalem about 


12. Joseph de Leon : Rabbi in Venice in 1694. 

niBr.iooRAPiiY : Fnimkln, Ehen Shemuel, p. T.i\ Nepl-Ghl- 
rondl. I.e. p. 170. 

13. Judah de Leon : Rabbi ; died about 1830. 
He went to Rome about 1792 as emi.ssary from He- 
bron, and at tlie desire of tlie conmiunity remained 
as rabbi. In IHU he was chief rabbi of the Jewish 
consistory in Rome. Judah 's is the first signature 
to a document protesting against the charge that 
nligiou.s reforms had been introduced into Italy. 
This document appeared in the "Letters of the Chief 
Rabbis in Italy" (Leghorn; Gorman transl., Altona 
and Hamburg, 1796). 

Bini.iofJRAntV: Nepl-Ghlronfll. I.e. p. 1B6; VoRelsteln and 
Rleger, (JckcIi. der Judin in Rom, 11. 40() et urn.; Zedner, 
Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Afiw. p. 394. 

14. Judah Hayyim Leao (Leon) : Hakamand 
leader in prayer in the synagogue of the Portuguese 

Jacob Judah Aryeh Leou Temple, 

conununity in Hambuig. After fort}' years of 
active service he was pensioned in 1656, and his son- 
in-law, Lsaac Namias, was appointed his successor. 

Bibliography : Grunwald, P(jrtwiic!<ciifjrubcr auf Dcutt<c}icr 
Erdc, p. 106. 

15. M. (P.) de Leon: Lived in Surinam. In 

collaboration with others, he wrote in 1791 " Ge- 

schiedenis der Kolonie van Suriname " (Amsterdam, 

1791 ; 2d ed. ib. 1802). 

Bibliography: Publicationfi Am. Jew. HiM. Snc. iv. 6. 

16. Manuel de Leon 
(Leao) : ]\Iarano ; writer 
of Spanish and Portu- 
guese poems; born in Lei- 
ria; died in Amsterdam 
after 1712. IIispul)lished 
works are: "Triunipho 
Lusitano Aplausos Fes- 
tivos . . . Xos Augustos 
Desposorios do InclytoD. 
Pedro Segundo com a Ser. 
]Maria Sofia Isabel de Ba- 
viera, JNIonarcas de Portu- 
gal" (Brussels, 1688), a 
poem consisting of nine- 
ty-three verses, with a 
description of festivities 
held at Lisbon Oct. 11-25, 
1687, and dedicated to D. 
Geronimo Nuiiez da Cos- 
ta, Portuguese agent in 
Amsterdam; "El Diielo 
de los Aplausos, y Trium- 
pho de los Triumphos, 
Retrato de Guilielnio III., 
MonarchaBritanico " (The 
Hague, 1691); " Examen 
de Obriga(;oens. Testifica 
hum Filho, que os Pays Engendrao, Amao, Dou- 
trinuo os Filhos por Dependencia. Di-scursos Mo- 
rales Deduzidosda Sagrada Escritura " (Amsterdam, 
1712); "Gryfo Emblematico, Enigma Moral. Dedi- 
cado a Diego de Chaves" (lb. 1712). His "Certa- 
men de las Musas en los Desposorios de Francisco 
LopesSuasso, Barflo de Auverne" is extant in manu- 
script in Amsterdam. 

Bibliography: Barbosa Machado, Bibl. Lumt. 111.293; Kay- 
serling, Scphardim, pp. 315 ct seq.; idem, Bibl. Esp.-Port.- 
Jud. p. 57. 

17. Meir de Leon : Lived in Amsterdam; trans- 
lated Verga's " Shebet Yehudah " into Spanish under 
the title "La Vara de Juda" (Amsterdam, 1640; 2d 
ed. ib. 1744). 

18. Samuel de Leon (Liao) : Memlier of tlie 
college Keter Torah in Amsterdam. Hf' was the au- 
thor of the "Questoins [Questoes] com Suas Repos- 
tas, ([ue Projjor na Academia dt Queter Tora," 
Hamburg, 1679, and of a writing preserved in mauu- 
scrii>t, under the title " Libro de Diversas Questoins 
e Suas Repostas, Comp. por my . . . y Respond, 
em Yesiba." 

BiBiifOGRAPHY: Stelnschneldpr, CntaloQ der Hcbrilischen 
Jfnnd.ivhriftcn in der StadtlnbJiothek zn Hamburg, p. 167; 
Kuyserllng, Bibl. Esp.-Port. -Jud. p. .59. 

19. Samuel Judah Leon Templo : Brother of 
Solomon Rapliael Judah (No. 20), mentioned by 



Leon, Ed'win de 

Daniel Levi de Barrios. lu 1682 lie was teacher at 
tlie scliool, fouuded by Abralmiu da Fouseca, of the 
society Maskil cl Dal in Ainstenlam. 

20. Solomon Raphael Judah Leon Templo : 
Hakani, preacher, and press-corrector in Amsterdam ; 
(lied c. 1733. lie was a sou of Jacob Judah Leou 
(Xo. 10); and a pupil of Isaac Aboab da Fouseca. 
Together with David Nunes Torres, he corrected 
the enlarged edition of IMaimonides' '' Yad ha-Haza- 
kah " which appeared in Amsterdam in 1703. His 
published works include, besides several sermons in 
Portuguese: "Resit Ilohmii, Principio da Sciencia, 
on Grammatica Hebrayca por hum JNIethodo Breve, 
Facil e Distiucto para Uzo das Escolas " {ib. 1703) ; 
"Orden de las Oraciones y Rogativas Compuestas 
para Pedir Piedades Sobre las Enfermedades. Tradu- 
zido por Selomoh R. J. Leon Templo" (ib. 1737). 

After his death his son Isaac published a little 
book by him entitled " Masseket Ilalakah le-Mosheh 
mi-Sinai" (Amsterdam, 1734), on the hermeneutical 
rules of the Talmud, at the end of which the regu- 
lations for the Passover feast are given in rimes of 
four lines. 
Bibliography : KayserlinR, Bihl. E.sp.-Porf.-J?«J. p. 58. 

D. M. K. 

LEON DE BAGNOLS. See Levi b. Geksiiox. 

phvsician and surgeon; born in South Carolina in 
I8i8; died at Sante Fe, N. M., Sept. 3, 1873; 
brother of Edwin de Leon. He was educated in 
South Carolina and at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania (M.D. 1836). Shortly after graduation he en- 
tered the United States army as assistant surgeon 
(1838) and served with distinction in the Seminole 
war. For several years afterward he was stationed 
on the Western frontier. He served throughout the 
Mexican war, and was present at most of the bat- 
tles. At Chapultepec he earned the sobriquet of 
"the Fighting Doctor," and on two occasions led a 
charge of cavalry after the officer commanding had 
been killed or wounded. For his distinguished 
services and for his gallantry in action he twice re- 
ceived the thanks of Congress. He was then as- 
signed to frontier duty, and in 1856 he became 
surgeon, with the rank of majoi. 

De Leon was personally opposed to secession ; 
but, like most Southern officers in the regular army, 
he resigned his commission at the outbreak of the 
Civil war and tendered his services to the Confed- 
eracy. De Leon organized the medical department 
for the Confederate government and was its first 
surgeon-general. At the close of the war he went 
to Mexico, but soon returned to New Mexico, where 
he had been stationed for several years, and where 
he owned property. He continued in practise there 
until his death. He was a man of considerable gen- 
eral culture and was esteemed as a writer. 

Bibliography : American Annual Encuc. 1S72, p. 627, New 
York, 1873 ; Appletnn's Cmiopedia nf Americaii Biog. 
New York, 1894; Wolf, The American Jew as Patriot, Sul- 
dier, and Citizen, p. 114, New York, 1895; idem, in Puhl. 
Am. Jew. Hist. Sac. p. 34; American Bioyraphii, lii.. New 
York ; Lamb, Biog. Diet, of U. S. edited by John H. Brown, 
ii. 416, Boston, 1900. 

A. L. Hu. 

LEON, EDWIN DE : American diplomat and 
journalist; born at Columbia, S. C, 1818; died in 

181)1 ; brother of David Camden de Leon. His 
father, a physician, removed to Columbia, S. C, 
autl was mayor of that city for several years. De 
Leon graduated from South Carolina College and 
studied law, but soon turned to literature and poli- 
tics. He became an active collaborator on the 
"Southern Review," the "Magnolia," the "Southern 
Literary Messenger," and other periodicals. Re- 
moving to Savannah, Ga., he took editorial charge 
of the "Savannah Republican" and made it a polit- 
ical factor in the state; his next charge was the 
Columbia (S. (;.) "Telegraph," a daily. 

At the invitation of a committee of Southern 
members of Congress, De Leou established, in Wash- 
ington, D. C, "The Southern Press," which soon 
became the organ of the Southern people and se- 
cured a large circulation during the early fifties. 
For his services during the Pierce campaign, that 
presitlent appointed him consul-general to Egypt, 
which position he tilled for two terms Avith marked 
success. At the connnencement of the Crimean war, 
an Older was issued by the Porte expelling all Greeks 
from the Ottoman dominion. The Greeks in Egypt 
appealed to De Leon, who took them under the pro- 
tection of the American flag, guaranteed their good 
behavior, and insisted that they should not be inter- 
fered with. The home government approved his 
course, and Congress paid him the compliment of 
ordering the printing of his despatches. The King 
of Greece tendered him the grand cross of the Order 
of San Sauveur, but Leon declined on the ground 
that it was antirepublican. 

De Leon rendered conspicuous services in protect- 
ing American missionaries at Jaffa, and for this he 
received for the second time the thanks of the State 
Department. Through his influence American com- 
merce with Egypt was largely extended and Amer- 
ican machinery introduced into that country. It 
was during his incumbency of the consul-general- 
ship that he heard of the secession of his native state 
from the Union. He at once forwarded his resigna- 
tion. Returning home, he ran tiic blockade and 
made his way to New Orleans. Thence lie pro- 
ceeded to Richmond and reported to Jefferson Davis, 
volunteering for military duty. Davis sent him in- 
stead on a confidential mission to Europe to secure 
the recognition of the Southern Confederacy by for- 
eign powers. De Leon refused any salary or remu- 
neration for his services, but advanced from his own 
purse considerable sums for the use of the Confed- 
eracy. He again ran the blockade, reached Nassau, 
and arrived in England in July, 1863. As diplo- 
matic agent he was received in the highest circles, 
both in England and in France, and personally 
pleaded the cause of the Confederacy with Lord 
Palmerston and the emperor Napoleon. 

His despatches to the Southern government were 
intercepted, liowever, and were published by order 
of Lincoln's secretary of state, Seward. 

Through his friend Thackeray, De Leon became a 
member of the Garrick Club and a contributor to the 
" Cornhill Magazine. " After the Civil war De Leon 
returned to America and settled in New York. He 
frequently contributed to the leading magazines, 
chiefly on Eastern topics. Among his works are: 
"Thirty Years of My Life on Three Continents"; 

Leon Joseph of Carcassonne 
XiBon of Modena 


"The Khedive's Egypt"; '-Under the Star and 
Under the Crescent"; "Askaros Kassis, the Copt," 
a novel, republished in England. 

Bibliography : American BioijrapJni, lii., New York; Oscar 
Fav Adams, A DictUnuiry of Ainei-ican Auth(>r!<, p. 95, 
New York. 19(il ; Lamb, BUm. Diet, of U. S. edited by John 
H. Brown, ii. 41ii, Boston, HXH); AUi\Mne, Diet, of Aitlhors, 
suppl. vol., p. 47;J. 

A. L. Hij. 


siciau; livi-d toward tlie end of the fourteenth cen- 
tury and at the beginning of the fiftecntli. He de- 
voted himself to the translation from the Latin into 
Hebrew of medical works. Among his numerous 
translations three are still extant in manuscript: (1) 
a commentary on the ninth book (Pathology) of 
Razi by Gerard deSolo; (2) "Meyashsher ha-Mathi- 
lini," a manual of medicine by Gerard de Solo; (3) 
a chapter on tlie rehition between astronomy and 
medicine, attributed to Hippocrates. 

Bibliography : Stelnschneider, Cat. Munich, p. 209; idem, 
Hcltr. I'eljers. p. 794; idem, Hehr.nibl.viii.iS; Renan-Neii- 
bauer, Lc* Ecrivains Jiiifs Fran(;ais, pp. i2i et seq.; Gross, 
Gallia Jiuiaiea, p. 61G. 
G. I. Bk. 

LEON, LEONTIN. See Judah ben Meir ha- 


LEON HA-LEVI: Provencal Jew who wrote 
a Puriiu parod)' under the pseudonym Labi ha- 
Levi because he feared that the Orthodox Jews 
woukl condemn his work. The treatise, called 
"Megillat Setarim," ou">Iidrash lia-Nabi ha-Labi 
ha-Lewi " (Venice, 1552), contains three sections, en- 
titled respectively " Perek Habakbuk," "Hakkol 
Hayyabin," and "Mi-she-Niknas Adar,"and is sinn- 
lar in plan to a Talmud treatise with so-called Kashi 
and Tosafot. It is full of humor. Another work 
of his, " Sefer Habakbuk " {ib. 1552), is a parody of 
the Pentateuch and the prophetic style, represent- 
ing a contest between " Karmi " (wine) and " Be'eri " 
(water). This work was likewise intended for 

Bibliography: Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 202; Furst, 
Rilil. Jud. ii. 21.5; idem. Die Pi(rim-Lite7'atxir. in Orient, 
Lit. 1849, p. I.jT; Sommerhaiisen, Die Purimlitcrat7ii; ili. 
lH.yi, p. 8.51; Steinschnelder, Cat. Bodl. col. ^) ; UU'm, Purim 
und Parodie, in Itn-aeliettselte Letterhode, vil. 7, No. 18. 

G. M. L. B. 


Sec HuiNswH II, Lkon Lkvv. 

(known also as David ben Judah) : Italian rabbi; 
flourished in the tifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 
He studied at Naples in the school of his father, 
Messer Leon, author of "Libnat ha-Sappir," and re- 
ceived at the age of eighteen his raljbinical diploma 
from German and French Talmudic authorities. 
Soon afterward he went to Padua, where he studied 
under Judah Minz, who granted him a new rabbin- 
ical diploma. He then betook himself to Turkey, and 
while sojourning at Salonira, where he prepared for 
publication his "•Eii liu Kore." he was called to the 
rabbinate of Avlona at a salary of 70 florins a year. 
The community pos.sessed tiuce congregations of 
various nationalitit-s, and Leon olliciated succe.s.sively 
in tiie three synagogues on every third Saturday. 
In the very first year of his rabliinate dissensions on 
account of a ritual ((uestion arose wiiicJi caused the 

separation of the Portuguese aiul Catalonian Jews 
from the Castilians. Toward the end of his second 
year in Avlona a quarrel broke out among llie 
Sephardim and the Portuguese. Leon, who sided 
with the Portuguese, had for antagonists Abraham 
Harbon and Abraham de Collier. Excommunica- 
tions were launched by both parties even on the 
Day of Atonement. 

Leon was a prolific writer, and produced works 

in many branches of secular science, as well as on 

distinctively Jewish subjects. With 

His the exception of two, all remained un- 

Works. published. Most of tliem are no 
longer extant, and arc known onl)- 
from quotations. Leon preferred to clothe his phi- 
losophy in the garb of the Cabala, in which he was 
an adept; but he was too much of a philosopher to 
become involved in the abysses of mysticism. In 
his cabalistic work "Magen Dawid," still extant in 
manuscript, he freelj' quotes the Greek and the 
Arabic philosophers. For him Plato was the great- 
est cabalist. This philosopher, Leon claimed, lived 
at the time of the prophet Jeremiah, who was his 

Leon wrote also the following works: "Abir 
Ya'akob," on medicine and other sciences; "Sefer 
ha-Derashot," sermons arranged in the order of the 
sections of the Pentateuch (according to Neubauer, 
it is identical with the "Tif'eret Adam" quoted in 
Leon's commentary on Lamentations); "Menorat 
ha-Zahab," also extant in manuscript, probably a 
haggadic commentary on Lamentations; "'En ha- 
Kore," a commentary on the " Moreh Nebukim," 
criticizing the commentary of Isaac Abravanel; 
"Miktam le-Dawid,"a cabalistic work mentioned in 
the " 'En ha-Kore"; "Sod ha-Gemul," in which he 
shows that the Israelites, unlike other nations, are 
not under a special sign of the zodiac ; refutations 
of Albo's criticisms of Aristotle; " Shebah ha- 
Na.shim," still extant in manuscript (according to 
Steinschnelder, " Hebr. Bibl." xix. 83, identical with 
the commentary on Prov. xxxi.); "Tehillah le- 
Dawid" (i)ul)lished by the author's grandson Aaron 
le-Bet David, Constantinople, 1577), in three parts: 
(1) on the excellence of the Law; (2) on the elements 
of faith, which latter is superior to speculative rea- 
soning; (3) on the principles of God, the divine at- 
tributes, providence, free will, etc. ; a halakic de- 
cision on the ritual question which caused the 
division of the various congregations of Avlona, 
published by S. Bernfeld, under the title " Kebod 
Hakamim," Berlin, 1899 (Mekize Nirdamim). 

Leon was considered as a high Talmudic author- 
ity, and was consulted on halakic questions. Two 
of his decisions have been preserved (Elijah Mizrahi, 
Responsa, No. 47; Neubauer, "Cat. BodI, Hebr. 
MSS." No. 834). In one of his works Leon men- 
tions a commentary of his own on of Coucy's 
" Sefer Mizwot Gadol " (" Semag "). Parma MS. de 
Rossi No. 1395 ("Cat. Perreau," No. 19) contains a 
scientific treatise by Leon. In the introduction to 
this Leon says that he wrote many poems 
in Hebrew and in the "Christian language," mean- 
ing thereby Latin or Italian. Shabbethai Bass, 
without indicating any source, gives, in his"Sifte 
Yeshenim," tlie following titles of works attributed 


Leon Joseph of Carcassonne 
Leon of Modena 

to Leon: "'Bet Duwid"; " Kisse Dawid " ; "Ncfesli 

Davvid": "Kol Adouai ba-Koah"; and "Nal.ial 


BIBLIOOKAPHY : Rossi, Dizimuirii), s.v.; Nepi-Ghirondi, To/c- 
(liit Getl'ilc Yisrarh p. 78; Steinschiieiiier, Cat. liixll. col. 
WT; idem. Helir. Bihl. viii. ti4 : idem, in Lettcrlxulr, \\\. oT 
rt xcq.: NeuVmiier. ih. x. llib it seq.; Scherhter, in },'. K. J. 
xxiv. 118 et xcii.\ Michael, Or hn-Hnuuim, No. 7~'7 ; Cariiioly, 
Histoirc ilc.f Mi'(i('Ci)is Jxiif,i, % ciii.; S. Bernfeld, Introduc- 
tion to Kcbod Ilahamiin. 
t.. I. Bl!. 


Italian .sfliolar, rabbi, and poet; son of Isaac of 
Modena and Diana Rachel; born April 23, 1571, at 
Venice ; died there March 24, 1648. He was a de- 
scendant, of a prominent Frencli family. His grand- 
father Mordecai became distinguished both as a 
physician and as a philanthropist, and was raised by 
Charles V. to the rank of Knight of the Order of the 
Golden Fleece. Leon was a precocious child. His 
father, Avho was then in good circumstances, gave 
liim a complete education, not neglecting even sucli 
worldly accomplishments as singing and dancing. 
Leon's masters weie successively Azriel Bassola, 
Hezekiah Galico. Hezekiah Finzi, and Samuel Arche- 
volti. At the age of twelve Leon translated into 
Hebrew verse tlie first canto of Ariosto's " Orlando 
Furioso," and about a year and a half later he wrote 
his dialogue against gambling, which passed through 
ten editions and >vas translated into Latin, French, 
German, and Juda?o-German. Even at this early 
age he was not only well versed in Hebrew and rab- 
binical literature, but was conversant with the 
classics and possessed a fair knowledge of mathe- 
matics, philosophy, and natural history. 

There was, however, one thing that nature had 
denied to this highly gifted youth^a stable char- 
acter. Like all poets, he lived upon his emotions. 
By the irony of fate, Leon, who had fulminated 
against gambling, developed a passion for all games 
of hazard, and, being too weak to overcome it, 
attributed the fault to the astral influences under 
which he had been born. This passion, which is 
probably accountable for his inconsistencies, had a 
large share in the misfortunes which tilled his life. 
He had scarcely reached maturity when his father 
became impoverished, and Leon had to seek his own 
livelihood. In 1590 he married, and won a living by 
teaching. After the death of his father, in 1592, lie 
settled at Venice, where he was appointed (1594) 
member of the rabbinate and preacher. In the lat- 
ter capacity he was especially successful ; Ins ad- 
dresses in Italian attracted large audiences, inclu- 
ding Christian priests and noblemen. Leon's suc- 
cesses as an orator and poet won for him the con- 
sideration of the Christian scholastic world, and 
admitted him to the highest Venetian circles. He 
had among his pupils Louis Eselin (a nobleman of 
the French court), the Archbishop of Lodeve, John 
Plantanit, Jacob Gaffarelli, and Giulio Morosini. 

Besides preaching and teaching, Leon exercised 
not less than twenty-six professions (press-corrector, 
notary, bookseller, etc.); but all his resources were 
swallowed up in gaming, and his material condition 
was rendered thereby a source of perpetual anxiety. 
To his monetary troubles was added a series of 
family disasters. Of his three sons, Mordecai, who 
was endowed with great ability, died at the age of 

twenty-six; Zebulon was killed in a brawl with 
his comrades; the third, Isaac, after having led 

a life of dissipation, emigrated to Bra- 
Family zil, and Avas never thereafter heard 
Misfor- from. Of his two daughters, one died 
tunes. during his lifetime ; the second lost her 

husband, and she and her family be- 
came thereby dependent upon Leon for support. 
In 1641 Leon's wife became insane, and remained in 
that state until her death. Amid all these trials 
Leon continued to study, write books, compose 
poems, relieve the distresses of otiiers, so far as that 
was in his power, and — gamble. This last occupa- 
tion involved him, in 1631, in a struggle with the 
leaders of the community, who launched an excom- 
nuinication against any that should play cards, or 
take part in any other game of hazard, within the 
period of six years. On this occasion Leon wrote a 
brilliant dissertation, in which he demonstrated that 
the leaders had acted against 
the Law ; the excommuni- 
cation was accordingly re- 

The community of Ven- 
ice in the seventeenth cen- 
tury must have been ani- 
mated by a spirit of toler- 
ance, for Leon continued to 
remain a member of the 
rabbinate until his death, 
although no doubt could 
be entertained as to his Leon of Modena. 

anti-Talmudic sympathies 

after the publication, in 1635, of liis "Bel Yehudah " 
(known also under the title " Ha-Boneh "). This 
work contains all the haggadot omitted bj' the " 'En 
Ya'akob " ; in the accompan3ing commentary Leon 
points out the differences between the religious cus- 
toms of the Jews of Palestine and of those living in 
other countries, showing thereby that the rabbis and 
scholars of anj' period have the right to modify 
Talmudic institutions (Shab. i.). He derides the 
haggadot, although he concedes that some of them 
contain salutary moral teachings. In the "Bet Ye- 
hudah," Leon went no further than to show his 
preference for religious reform; but lie attacked 
traditional Judaism in a pseudonymous work en- 
titled " Kol yakal " ; this work, either because in the 
meantime he had actually changed his views, or be- 
cause he desired more thoroughly to conceal its 
authorship, he later endeavored to refute in another 
work entitled "Sha'agat Aryeh," which remained 

The "Kol Sakal " comprises three treatises, sub- 
divided into chapters. In the first treatise the 
author deals with the existence of God, the Crea- 
tion, the purpose of the world, reward and punish- 
ment, and the divine origin of the Law. In the 

second treatise lie criticizes rabbinical 
Attacks interpretation of tlie Law. He con- 
Tradition- tends that, like the Karaites, the Rab- 
alism. bis often followed tlie letter of the 

Law to the neglect of its spirit. He 
asserts that the use of phylacteries is not com- 
manded by Biblical law; that the operation of cir- 
cumcision is not performed in the manner pre- 

lieon of Modena 



scribed; and that rabbinical interpri'tation is often 
in direct opposition to the Law. That tliere was 
no traditional interpretation before Antigonus is 
seen from the existence of various sects during 
the time of the Second Temple. The third treatise 
enumerates the laws which must be reformed in 
order to bring the later Judaism into harmony witii 
the Law, and render it spiritual and Biblical. The 
author proposes the simplification of the prayers 
and synagogal service, tlie abolition of many rites, 
the relaxation of Sabbath festivals, of Passover.^and 
even of the ritual of the Day of Atonement. Fast- 
ing should not be carried beyond the ordinary 
physical and spiritual powers of the individual con- 
cerned. The dietary laws should be abrogated, or 
at least simplified: tiie prohibition against drinking 
wine with those of other creeds, obedience to whicli 
exposed Jews to derision, should be abolished. 

The "Kol Sakal" and "Sha'agat Aryeh " were 
publisiied bv Isiiac Keggio under tiie title "Behinat 
ha-Kabbalah " (Goritz, 1852). A di.scussion arose at 
tiie time of its appearance as to whether the "Kol 
Sakal " was written by Leon himself or whether, as 
is pretended in the "Sha'agat Aryeh," it proceeded 
from a certain Amittai ibn Raz of Alkala. It has 
even been suggested with some plausibility tliat 
both these works, instead of being written by Leon, 
were merely attributed to him by L S. Reggio (see 
Dcutsch, "Theory of Oral Tradition," p. 89; "Ep- 
ochs of Jewish History," pp. 23 et seq.. New York, 
1^94). But a comparison between the ideas ex pressed 
by Leon in his " Bet Yehudah " and elsewhere and 
those expounded in the "Kol Sakal" leaves little 
doubt as to his authorship. Indeed, several of the 
criticisms, as, for instance, those concerning circum- 
cision and the second day of festivals, are found 
exi)ressed in the same terms in Leon's "Magen we- 
Ziiinaii" (published by A. Geiger, Breslau, 1856), 
which contains answers to eleven objections to tiie 
rabbinical interpretation of the Law brought, ac- 
cording to Leon, by a Marano of Hamburg. 

Though brilliantly written, these works are of 
comparatively little value; neitiier criticisms nor 
refutations are profound enough to 
Attacks survive tliorougii investigation. Far 
Cabala. supeiior is Leon's " Ari Noheni " (pub- 
lisiied by Fiirst, Leipsic, 1840), wliidi 
contains an attack upon the Caijala. It is divided 
into tiirce parts, comprising altogetlier thirty-one 
diapters. Ia'ou first demonstrates tiiat Cabala can 
not be considered as a science, and then sliows that 
llie Zoliar, on wiiicli it is ba.sed, is a modern coniposi- 
tinii. In addition to tiie works cited, Leon wrote; 

Stir mp-Ua*. A tllnloKUP hotween Eklad and Medad on Rame.s 
of hazard. VphIcp. I.lilO; I'rajriU", 1015 : I.^ydpn, 1656. Tnins- 
liiti'd Into Latin by Aup. rfplfer (WltU-nliprg, ltJ<i5) and liy 
Thiiinii.s Hyde (Oxford. HiOH. ITitJ. 1767); Into German, with the 
Hflirpw title ■' /•"'.'kin Mflliiinad we-MltharPt." by Fr. Abb. 
Chrl.stianl (l,<'ipslr, KSKl ; Kninkfort-on-thc-Main. 17i:t; Fiirlh. 
17;S{>: Into Jnda'o-(;crnian. with the Hebrpw title "Zahkan 
Miissnrl." bv Asher Anshel (Am.sterdani. 1698): into French by 
( annoly (I'ari.s, lH41i. 

Sod Yesharini. One himdnHl enicina.sand renipdies. Venire. 
15!U: Verrma. 1647 : Amsterdam. IiVt!!: Fninkfort-on-thP-Maln. 
17iy. Another edition pives neither date nor place of publira- 

Zemah Zaddik. An ethlral work, translated from the I,atin, 
with nioriil savines taken from I'.ible and Talmud. Venice. 
li,i»i: Wilna. IH.V1: New York. ISlRt. 

Midl)ar Veliiuiah. Tueiitv-one .sermons. Veiiiie, liKC 
(ialiit Yehudah. Explanations, in Italian, of all the difflciilt 
expressions found in the Hible, in the sayinfrs of the Fathers, 
and in the Hasrfraaah of Passover: precedeil by a number of 
grammatical rules. Venice, 1H12. Republished at Padua and 
Venice in IWO, with an Italian-Hebrew vocabulary entitled "Pi 

Leb Aryeh. A method of mnemonics applicable in all sci- 
ences, with the 613 commaudments according to Maimonides. 
Venice. 1612; Wilna, 1886. 

Bet Lehem Y'ehudah. An index of the sources of all the pas- 
sages found in the '" ' En Va'akob." Venice, 16:2.") ; Prague. 1705. 
Zebi Esh. An abridgment of Isaac Abravanel's commentary 
on' the Hasgadah of Passover, with an Italian translation. 
Venice, 16:i9, 1664, 1695; Sulzbach, 1774,1834; with a (ierman 
translation, Fiirth, 18(14. 
TedUot Yesliarim. Prayers and selihot for all occasions. 
Ben Dawid. Controverting the doctrine of metempsychosis. 
Included by Eliezer Ashkenazi in the "Ta'am Zekeniin."' 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1855. 

Magen wa-Hereb. Attacks upon Christian dogmas. Pub- 
lished in part', together with the " .Magen we-Zinnah," by A. 
Geiger. Breslau. 18-56. 
Ha-Abot bi-Yehudah. Commentary on the Pirke Abot. 
Commentaries on the Pentateuch, the Five Scrolls, the books 
of Samuel. Proverbs, and the Passover Haggadah. 

Rashi's commentaries on Proverbs and the books of Job and 
Daniel. Included in the " Biblia Rabbinica." 

Pitnm ha-Millot. Explanations of the special terms used in 
logic and philosophy. 

Hibbur. Models of Hebrew composition ; a Hebrew transla- 
tion of Ecclesia-stes and the books of Maccabee.s, etc. 
Derashot. Four hundred sermons. 
Commentary on the Haftarot. 

Mibhar Yehudah. The nature of the work is unknown. 
Pesakim. Halakic decisions on synagogal music. Venice, 
1605; Vienna. 1861. Published as a supplement to "Ben Cha- 
nanja." 1861, No. 27. On the excommunication launched by the 
leaders of the community of Venice against all games of hazard. 
Venice, 1()31. Contained also in "Pahad Y'izhak." s.r. D^n. 
On the use of ordinary straps for phylacteries. Included in the 
responsa " Debar Shemuel," of Samuel Aboab, No. 19. 
Leket Yehudah. Collection of halakic consultations. 
Shire" Yehudah. Collection of Hebrew poems. Neubauer, 
" Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 218:5. 

Hayye Yehudah. Autobiography ; published in part by Isaac 
Reggio. in the introduction to the " Behinat ha-Kabbalah," and 
in part by Geiger. 

Historia dei Riti Ebraici, Vita e Osservanze degll Hebrei 6\ 
Qtiesti Tempi. Paris, lt)37 ; Venice. 1(538. 1(;73, 1678, 1687, 1715. 
Written, at the request of an English nobleman, for James I.; 
translated into English by Ed. Chilmead (London, 1650) and by 
S. Ockley {ih. 1707, 175:i); into French by Recared Simon (Paris, 
1C7I. 1681, 1710); into Dutch by Aug. (iedaret (Amsterdam, 
16.83); into Latin by J. Val. Grossgebauer (Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, 1693); into Hebrew, under the title "Shulhan 'Aruk," by 
Solomon Rubin, with notes by A. Jellinek (Vienna, 1867). 

Zikne Yehudah. Responsa, cited by Hagiz in his "Le- 
ket lia-Kemah." It is. perhaps, identical with " Leket Yehudah." 
Ozar ha-Hayyim. On the Cabala. 

Tiie following are of doubtful authorship: "Or 
Tob." explanations of difficult Hebrew words (Am- 
sterdam, 1075 [Venice. 1081, under tiie title "Or 
Luz"; ib. 1701, tinder tlie title "Or Lustru"]), and 
"Parasliot lia-Kcsef," a commentary on four sec- 
tions of the Pentateuch (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. 
Helir. ]MSS." No. 2549). Stein.schneider attributes 
also to Leon tlic work on chess entitled "Ma'adanne 
;Melek." Leon edited a great numbi'r of works, 
wliich he provided witli prefaces, poems, and ap- 
probations; and he assisted the musical composer 
Solomon de Rossi in tlie publication of his work on 
synagogal music. 

Bini,in(iUAPiiv : Azulai, i>hrm hn-Ordnlim : De Rossi. Dizii'- 
iiorii). p. 231 ; (ieltrer. Lroti ilr Muilciia. Breslau. 1*56; Luz- 
zatto. Iiiiiarot. i. r.W: Joseph Almanzi. Hi(iu(>!l<»t I'l-Ki- 
))ni\ p.'71l. Venice. 18:i9; Isaac Hesrglo. /(/(/rovif, ii. 74 ft xc/.; 
idem, in Km III llemcil ii. I5tH.58; Jost's A)lllalfu.W^^. p. 
68; (hifiif.Jio. 5; Soave. in Corrierc iKniclitica. 1.863-6); 
iili III. in A irh. hr. 1877. p. 73; Steinschneider. <^nl. liKfU. 


lieon of Modena 

col. 13.")1 ; idrm, in MoiKitascltrift, xiiii. :U1: Neubauer, in 
Lctteihodc, iii. 99-1(19; iilim. in K. K. J. xxii. 84; Zunz, 
IJteraturoe!icli. p. 427; Libovvitz, /?a/)/)i Yclnidah Ariich 
Modena, Vienna, 189t) : 2d efl.. New York, 19()1 ; Simon Stern, 
Der Kanipf dcs Rabliiiiei'it Geqcn den Talmud, Breslau, 
19()3; Michael, Or ha-Ha^iuim. pp. 43SM44 ; Simonsen, in 
BerUner's Festschrift, pp. *J7 ft scq.; M. H. Fiiedliinder, in 
Oesterreichische Wochenschrift. liK)2, p. 87. 

G. I. Bh. 


Cabalistic writer; author, or redactor, of the Zo- 
har; bora at Leon, Spain, about 1250; lived in 
Guadalajara, Valladolid, and Avila; died at Are- 
valo in 1305, -while returning to his home. He was 
familiar with the philosophers of the Middle Ages 
and with the whole literature of mysticism, and 
knew and u.sed the writings of Solomon ibn Gabi- 
rol, Judah ha-Levi, Maimonides, etc. He knew how- 
to charm with brilliant and striking phrases without 
expressing any well-defined thought. He was a 
ready writer and wrote several mystical and caba- 
listic works in quick succession. In the comprehen- 
sive "Sefer ha-Rimmon," written in 1287 and still 
extant in manuscript, he treated from a mystical 
standpoint the objects and reasons for the ritual 
laws, dedicating the book to Levi ben Todros Abu- 
lafia. In 1290 he wrote " Ha-Nefesh ha-Hakamah," 
or " Ha-Mishkal " (Basel, 1608," and frequently found 
in manuscript), which shows even greater cabalistic 
tendencies. In this work he attacks the philoso- 
phers of religion and deals with the human soul as 
" a likeness of its heavenly prototype," with its state 
after death, with its resurrection, and with the trans- 
migration of souls. "Shekel ha-Kodesh" (written 
in 1292), another book of the same kind, is dedicated 
to Todros ha-Levi Abulafia. In the "Mishkanha- 
■Edut," or "Sefer ha-Sodot," finished in 1293. he 
treats of heaven and hell, after the apocryphal 
Book of Enoch; also of atonement. He wrote as 
well a cabalistic explanation of the first chapter of 

Toward the end of the thirteenth century Moses 
de Leon wrote or compiled a cabalistic midrash to 
the Pentateuch full of strange mystic allegories, and 
ascribed it to Simeon ben Yohai, the great saint 
of the Tannaim. The work, written in peculiar 
Aramaic, is entitled " Midrash de R. Shimeon ben 
Yohai," better known as the Zoiiar. The book 
aroused due suspicion at the outset. The story 
runs that after the death of Moses de Leon a rich 
man from Avila offered the widow, who had been 
left without means, a large sum of money for the 
original from which her husband had made the copy, 
and that she then confessed that her husband him- 
self was the author of the work. She had asked him 
several times, she said, why he had put his teach- 
ings into the mouth of another, but he had always 
answered that doctrines put into the mouth of the 
miracle-working Simeon ben Yohai would be a rich 
source of profit. Others believed that Moses de 
Leon wrote the book by the magic power of the 
Holy Name. At any rate the contents of the book 
have been accepted and approved by all cabalists, 
and can by no means be regarded as mere inven- 
tions and forgeries of Moses de Leon. 

Bibuography: AMmanz Chronicle, ed. London, pp. 9-5 et 
seq.: .lellinek, Moses /;. Srhem-Toh de Leon und Seine 
Verhiiltnisx znm Sohnr. Leipsic, 1851 ; Gratz. Gesch. vii. 231 
et seq.; Geifi;^^. Das Judcnt)ium und Seine Gcschicldc. iii. 

75 it srq.. Breslau, 1871 ; De Rossi-Hamberjrer, Hi,s(. \y6i-terh. 

p. 177 ; Stcinsclineider, Cat. Bodt. cols. 1852 et seq.; Idem, 
Hchr. Bilil. X. 156 ct seq. 

K. M. K. 


journalist, author, and iilaywright; brother of Ed- 
win de Leon; born at Columbia, S. C. 1839. He 
served in the Confederate army from 1861 to 1865, 
and after the Civil war edited "The Mobile Regis- 
ter" (1877), and "The Gossip" and the "Gulf Citi- 
zen" (both Mobile papers; 1873-96). He is the 
author of a number of works, among them being 
" Creole and Puritan" (1889), " The Puritan's Daugh- 
ter," and "Four Years in Rebel Capitals" (1893). 

Bibliography: Lamb, Biographical Diet, of the United 
States, Boston, 19(X) ; Allibone, Diet, of Authors, Supple- 
ment; Who's }V)to in America, 190!i-o. 

K. c. L. Hij. 

LEON DI LEONE. See Judah Leon di 
LEONE EBBEO. See Judah Leone b. Isaac 


rabbi; died in 1216. In the name of the commu- 
nity of Rome he sent a halakic decision to Judah ben 
Kalonymus of Speyer for approval ("Shibbole ha- 
Leket," ii. 75; comp. Ruber's introduction, note 
87). The Roman manuscript Mahzor contains eleven 
sclihot which bear the signature of Leonte. One of 
these, beginning with Tin^K inn D\nJN, for the sev- 
enteenth day of Tammuz, is included in the Roman 
printed Mahzor. 

Bibliography: Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim,x>.6»; Zunz, Li- 
teraturuesch.v.'SU; Vogelstein and Uiegrer, Gescli. dcr Ju- 
den in Rom, i. 372. 

G. I. Br. 

LEONTOPOLIS (Greek, Ae6i>Tuv TTo'/.ti = "lion 
city"): Place in the nome of Heliopolis, Egypt, 
situated 180 stadia from Memphis; famous as con- 
taining a Jewish sanctuary, the only one outside of 
Jerusalem where sacrifices were ottered. Aside from 
a somewhat uncertain allusion of the Hellenist Ar- 
tapanus (in Eusebius, "Pra?paratio Evangelica," ix. 
23), only Josephus gives information of this temple 
(more explicitlyin his" Antiquities" of the Jews than 
in his "Jewish War"). The Talmudic accounts are 
entirely confused. The establishment of a central 
sanctuary in Egypt was not due to the disorders that 
arose in Palestine under Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, 
to the desecration of the sanctuary at Jerusalem, to 
the supplanting of the legitimate family of priests 
by the installation of Alcimus, nor to the personal 
ambition of Onias IV.. but to the vast extent of 
the Jewish diaspora in Egypt itself. 

It would appear from the account of Josephus in 
the "Jewish War" (i. 1, § 1), and more especially 
from the fact that Onias is called in the same work 
(vii. 10, § 2) "the son of Simon," that the temple of 
Leontopolis was built by Onias III., who drove the 
sous of Tobias from Jerusalem, and who fled to 
Egypt, Syria's ancient rival, wli«n Antiochus IV. 
attacked that city. But this account is contradicted 
by the story that Onias III. was murdered at Anti- 
och in 171 B.C. (II Mace. iv. 33). Josephus' account 
in the "Antiquities" is therefore more probable, 
namely, that the builder of tlie temple was a son of 




tlic murdered Onias HI., and that, a mere youth 

at the time of his father's death, he liad tied to the 

court of Alexandria in consequence 

Founded of tlie Syrian persecutions, jjcrhaps 
by because he thought that salvation 

Onias IV. would come to Jiis people from Egypt 
(•'Ant." xii. 5, § 1 ; ih. 9, i^ 7). Ptolemy 
VI. Philometor was King of Egypt at that time. He 
probably had not yet given up his claims to Ca^le- 
Syria and Judea, and gladly gave refuge to such a 
prominent personage of tiie neigliboring country. 
Onias now requested tlie king and his sister and wife, 
Cleopatra, to allow him to build a sanctuary in 
Egypt similar to the one at Jerusalem, where he 
would employ Levites and priests of his own race 
(ib. xiii. 3. § 1) ; and he referred to the prediction of 
the prophet Isaiah (Isa. xix. 19) that a Jewish tem- 
ple would be erected in Egypt (''Ant." ?.c.). Jo- 
sephus then quotes two documents: Onias' letter to 
the royal couple, and the king's answer to Onias. 
Both of these, however, appear spurious, on the fol- 
lowing grounds : Onias refers in liis letter to his mili- 
tary exploits in Cnole-Syria and Phenicia, although 
it is not certain that the general Onias and the priest 
Onias are identical. His assertion that a central 
sanctuary is necessary because a multiplicity of 
temples causes dissension among the Jews evidences 
imperfect knowledge of the Jewish religious life; 
and, finally, his request for the ruined temple of the 
goddess Bubastis, because a sufficient supply of 
wood and sacrificial animals would be found there, 
seems unwise and improbable for a suppliant who 
must first obtain compliance with his principal re- 
quest. It seems strange, furthermore, 
Spurious- that in the second letter the pagan 

ness of king points out to the Jewish priest 
the Onias that the proposed building of a temple 

Letters, is contiary to the law, and that he 
consents only in view of Isaiah's 
prophecy. Both letters were apparently written by 
a Hellenistic Jew. Only this can be stated as a fact, 
that the temple of Leontopolis was built on the site 
of a ruined temple of Bubastis. in imitation of the 
temple at Jerusalem, though smaller and less elabo- 
rate (ih. xiii. 3, § 3). The statement in " B. J." vii. 
10, § 2 of Onias' argument that by the building of 
this temple the whole Jewish nation would be 
brought to turn from the Syrians to the Ptolemies 
seems very plausible, and may have given rise to the 
assertion made in the letters that there were dissen- 
sions among the Jews. The "fortress" {oxrptjfia) 
of the temple of Bubastis may be explained by the 
statement, which seems credible, that Onias built a 
fortress {(ppoipmv) around the temple in order to pro- 
tect the surrounding territory, wjdeh now received 
the designation "Oneion " (" B. J." vii. 10, § 3). 

The Onias temple was not exactly similar to the 
Temple at Jerusalem, being more in the form of a 
high tower; and as regards the interior arrange- 
ment, it had not a candelabrum, but a lianging 
lamp. The building had a court (rtfirvor) which 
was surrounded by a brick wall with stone gates. 
The king endowed the temple with large revenues 
(/^.)— a fact that may have suggested to the writer 
of the letters mentioned above the wealth of wood 
and sacrificial animals. 

The reputation whicli tlie temple of Onias enjoyed 
is indicated by the fact that the Septuagint changes 
the phrase "city of destruction" (Isa. 
Sacrifices xix. '18) to "city of rigiiteousness " 
Made (ttoaic afferSt/c). It may be taken for 
There. granted that the Egyptian Jews sacri- 
ficed frequently in the temple of Leon- 
topolis, although at the same time they fulfilled their 
duly toward the Temple at Jerusalem, as Philo nar- 
rates that he himself did ("De Provideutia," in 
Eusebius, I.e. viii. §g 14, 64). 

In the Talmud the origin of the temple of Onias is 
narrated with legendary additions, there being two 
versions of the account (Men. 109b). It must be 
noted that here also Onias is mentioned as the son 
of Simon, and that Isaiah's prophecy is referred to. 
In regard to the Law the temple of Onias (VJIil n'3, 
handed down in the name of Saadia Gaon as "Jiri) 
was looked upon as neither legitimate nor illegiti- 
mate, but as standing midway between the worship 
of Yiiwiiand idolatry (Men. 109a; Tosef., Men. xiii. 
13-14); the possibility of the priests of Onias being 
admitted to officiate at Jerusalem was explicitly 
stated, while one passage even expresses the view 
that sacrificial worship was permissible in the tem- 
ple of Oniag (Meg. 10a). The opinion was prevalent 
among the Rabbis that the temple of Onias was 
situated at Alexandria — an error that is repeated by 
all the chroniclers of the Middle Ages. This temple 
is also sometimes confounded with the Samaritan 
temple on Mount Gerizim (" Yuhasin," ed. London, 
pp. lib, 13b; Azariah dei Rossi, "Me'or 'Enayim," 
ed. ^lantua, xxi. 89a; Gans, "Zemah Dawid," ed. 
Offenbach, ii. 10; Ileilprin, "Seder ha-Dorot," ed. 
Warsaw, 1891, i. 116). 

According to Josephus, the temple of Leontopolis 
existed for 343 years, though the general opinion is 
that this number must be changed to 243. It was 
closed either by the governor of Egypt, Lupus, or 
by his successor, Paulinus, about three years after 
the destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem; and the 
sacrificial gifts, or rather the interior furnishings, 
were confiscated for the treasury of Vespasian ("B. 
J." vii. 10, § 4), the emperor fearing that through 
this temple Egypt might become a new center for 
Jewish rebellion. No ruins have so far been discov- 
ered of this temple, once so famous; perliaps the 
present Tell al-Yaluidi marks its site (Ebers, "Durch 
Gosen zum Sinai," pp. 497 etseq.). 

BinuoGRAPHY: Grfttz, Gcsch. 4th ed., iii. 27 et .sc^.; Weiss, 
Dm; i. 130: Willrioh, Judm vnd Grirclitn. pp. 14(^l.jO; 
Sohiirer, Gexch. 'M ed.. iil. 97; Biirhler, Tnlnaden iiiul Oni- 
adni. pp. 239-27t>, Vienna, 1S99 (this author's opinion, that 
originally a Samaritan temple was referred to, is not tenable). 

G. S. Kr. 

LEOPARD (Heb. "namer"): A ferocious car- 
nivorous mamiuiil. Several allusions are found in 
the Old Testament to this animal and its character- 
istics; e.g., its fierceness, Isa. xi. 6; its agility and 
swiftness, Hab. i. 8; its cunning, .ler. v. 6 and Hos. 
xiii. 7; its imchangeable spots as a type of immuta- 
bility, Jer. xiii. 23; as an emblem of one of the 
" great monarchies," Dan. vii. 6. The leopard (Feli'.i 
p(irdiix) is still met with in the forest of Gilead, 
roimd the Dead Sea, and in the mountains; the che- 
tah [Guepardajubatn) is of less frequent occurrence 




iu Pak'Stiuc. Tlie former frequency of the leopard 
tlieie may perhaps be inferred from the place-names 
•■ Bcth-nimruh " (Xum. xxxii. 3, 36) and "Nimrim" 
(Jer. xlviii. 34), tlie hxtter perhaps identical witli 
tlie modern Nimerah (comp. also the "mountains 
of Ifoiiards," Cant. iv. 8). 

In tlie Talmud thenamer is classed with the wolf, 
lion, etc., for dangerousness and ferocity (Sanh. 2a 
and parallels). Following the ancient conception 
of the leopard as a hybrid between a panther or 
pard and the lioness (hence the name " leo-pardus "), 
some of the rabbis believed it to be the issue of the 
boar and lioness (comp. Bartenora to the admoni- 
tion of Ab. V. 5: "Be firm like a leopard to do the 
will of thy Father in heaven"). The namer is a 
tyiK' of immodesty (Kid. TOa). Its term of gestation 
is said to be three years (Bek. 8a). 

Bibliography: Tristram, Nat. HiM. p. Ill; Lewysohn, Z. T. 
p. 71 ; comp. also W. R. Smith, Kithship and Marriage in 
Early Arabia, p. 204. 

E. G. II. I. M. C. 

LEPROSY (nyiV): Chronic skin-disease charac- 
terized by ulcerous eruptions and successive desqua- 
mations of dead skin. — Biblical Data: According 
to the Levitical text, the characteristic features of 
leprosy were: (1) bright whfte spots or patches on 
the skin the hair on which also was white ; (2) the 
depression of the patches below the level of the sur- 
rounding skin; (8) the existence of "quick raw 
flesh " ; (4) the spreading of the scab or scall. 

There are two forms of modern leprosy — the tu- 
bercular, or nodular, and the anesthetic, or nervous; 
generally both forms are present. The 
Comparison nodular form begins, as a rule, as 
with round or irregularly shaped spots, 

Modern commonly of a mahogany or sepia 

Leprosy, color. These often disappear, and 
are followed by the appearance of 
nodules. In an advanced stage the face is covered 
with firm, livid, nodular elevations: the nose, lips, 
and ears are swollen beyond their natural size, the 
eyelashes and eyebrows are lost, and the eyes are 
staring ; the vs^hole producing a hideous disfigure- 
ment. As the disease progresses, insensibility of 
the skin and paralysis ensue, and the fingers and 
toes may rot away. 

In the Biblical description, one is immediately im- 
pressed by the absence of all allusion to the hideous 
facial deformity, the loss of feeling, and the rotting 
of the members. If such conspicuous manifestations 
had existed they coidd not possibly have escaped 
observation. The Levitical code prescribed that the 
several examinations of the person suspected should 
be made at intervals of seven days, thus enabling 
the priest to note the progress of the disease. Lep- 
rosy is an exceedingly slow disease, particularly in 
the beginning, and a fortnight would show abso- 
lutely no change in the vast majority of cases. 
Moreover, the " lepra Hebraeorum " was a curable dis- 
ease. When the leper was cured the priest made an 
atonement before the Lord, and expiatory sacrifices 
in the form of a sin-offering and a trespass-offering 
were made also. Modern leprosy is, except in iso- 
lated instances, incurable. 

The probabilities are that " zara'at " comprised a 
number of diseases of the skin, which, owing to the 

undeveloped state of medical science at that period, 

were not distinguished. The white spots, upon 

wliicli so much diagnostic stress was 

Nature of laid, were in all likelihood those of 
"Zara'at." vitiligo, a disease quite common in 
tropical countries, and characterized 
by bright white spots, the hairs on which also become 
wiiite. Vitiligo begins as small patches, which 
slowly spread, often involving ultimately large areas 
of tlie body's surface. The disease is harmless, but 
most disfiguring in those of SAvarthy complexion. 

In the Septuagint "zara'at" is translated by 
"lepra." It is reasonable to assume that the He- 
brews attached the same meaning to " zara'at " that 
the Greeks did to "lepra," which is derived from 
"lepros" (= "rough" or "scaly"). According to 
the medical writings of ^gineta, ^•Etius, Actu- 
arius, Oribasus, and others, lepra was uniformly 
regarded as a circular, superficial, scaly eruption 
of the skin ; in other words, their lepra was the 
psoriasis of modern times. There is absolutely noth- 
ing in the Greek description of lepra that suggests 
even in a remote manner the modern leprosy. The 
Greeks, in speaking of true leprosy, did not u-se the 
term "lepra," but "elephantiasis." It is evident, 
therefore, that they meant by " lepra " an affection 
distinct and apart from the disease of leprosy as now 
known. The confusion and obscurity that have en- 
veloped this subject for centuries have resulted from 
the use of different termsin successive ages to desig- 
nate the same disease, and from the total change in 
the meaning and application of the word "lepra." 

There is much reason to believe that the segrega- 
tion of lepers was regarded, at any rate at certain 
periods, more in the light of a religious ceremonial 
than as a hygienic restriction. Za- 

Segrega- ra'at was looked upon as a disease in- 
tion. flicted by God upon those who trans- 
gressed His laws, a divine visitation 
for evil thoughts and evil deeds. Every leper men- 
tioned in the Old Testament was aflriicted because of 
some transgression. "Miriam uttered disrespectful 
words against God's chosen servant Moses, and, 
therefore, was she smitten with leprosy. Joab, with 
his family and descendants, was cursed by David 
for having treacherously murdered his great rival 
Abner. Gehazi provoked the anger of Elisha by his 
mean covetousness, calculated to bring the name of 
Israel into disrepute among the heathen. King . . . 
Uzziah was smitten with incurable leprosy for his 
alleged usurpation of priestly privileges in burning 
incense on the golden altar of the Temple " (Kalisch). 
It would have been quite natural for the people by 
a posteriori reasoning to have regarded persons af- 
flicted with zara'at as transgressors; they had vio- 
lated the laws of God and their transgressions had 
been great, else they would not have been so afflicted. 

Writers who hold the view that the exclusion of 
lepers had chiefly a religious significance conclude 
from these facts that lepers were obliged to remain 
outside the camp because they were regarded as 
likely to morally infect others. As long as the 
signs of the disease remained upon them they were 
obliged to live outside the camp. It is reasonable 
to believe that, although Biblical and modern lep- 
rosy are, in all probability, not the same disease, the 




present custom of segregating lepers had its origin 
and stimulus in the Biblical example of segregating 
those afflicted with zara'at. Had the Bible never 
been written it is probable that lepers would to-day 
be permitted to go in and out among their fellows 
unhindered, for leprosy is a much less actively com- 
municable disease than several other well-known 
atfections in the case of which segregation is not 

The Biblical description of leprosy of garments 
and houses is strikingly analogous in its wording to 
that of leprosy of persons. The passages in Leviti- 
cus (xiii. 47-59) are at present inexplicable in the 
light of modern science. The probabilities are that 
the description refers to stains upon garments pro- 
duced by pus and blood from boils and ulcers of va- 
rious kinds. Thus alone could the greenish and 
reddish stains be accounted for. That the descrip- 
tion in Lev. xiv. 33-48 could not have applied to a 
leprosy of walls of houses is beyond reasonable 
doubt : such conceptions may possibly be ascribed 
to Oriental fancy and love of metaphor. Chemical 
incrustations and mildew were doubtless in this man- 
ner endowed with the symptoms of a living and 
spreading disease. 

E. v.. II. J- F. S. 

In the Talmud : The subject of leprosy is 

treated cliietly in the treatise Nega'im. The Talmud 
maintains tliat Lev. xiii. 1 et seq. refers generally 
to any disease that produces sores and erui)tions on 
the skin (Sifra 60a). The following epitomizes the 
Talmudic treatment of leprosy: 

1, Leprosy was not considered contagious. While 
all peoi)lesofantiquity, from earliest timesup to some 
centuries after the Talmudic period, held (as at the 
present day; Katzenelenson, in "Ha-Yekeb," p. 75, 
St. Petersburg, 1894) that leprosy was 
Not Con- contagious, the Talmudic writers trea- 
tagious. ted it as not contagious. The follow- 
ing evidences this: (1) The Mishnah 
does not consider a leprous pagan or an unnatural- 
ized proselyte ("ger to.shab") ritually unclean (Neg. 
iii. 1, xi. 1). (2) If a bridegroom, on his wedding- 
day, observes symptoms of leprosy on his skin, he 
is not required to submit himself for examination 
at once, but he may postpone it until the seven days 
of ids nuptials are over. Similarly, one who is af- 
fected Willi it (luring the holy days may postpone 
examination until they are over (Neg. iii. 2). Under 
other circumstances, one afflicted with leprosy is 
forbidden intercoiuse with his wife (Hul. 141a). 
(3) The Mishnah says that doubtful cases (with 
two exceptions) arc not to be considered unclean 
(IIul. \)h rt srf/.). (4) The Bil»le commands tliat if 
the priest tinds white hair on the parts all'ected 
he shall declare tiie subject unclean, for the white 
iiair isaeertain symptom of leprosy. But the Mish- 
nah says that if the hair is jilucked out before the 
examination takes place the person is clean (Neg. 
viii. 4). It was not. then, fear of contagion that led 
ti> regarding the leper as unclean. 

2. Talmudic tradition, basing its definitions on 
the etymology of tlir- Biblical terms used, knows of 
four difTerent degrees of wiiite in cases of leprosy, 
but not of "netek" (Lev. xiii. 30). "Baheret" is 
of the whiteness of snow; the second degree recog- 

nized is of the whiteness of lime; "se'et" is of the 
color of the white of an egg; and the next degree 
of whitene-ss is that of white wool. The Mishnah 
adds, also, some intermediate shades; but it calls 
" bahak " all those beyond the four shades in ques- 
tion (Neg. i. 1-3). 

3. While the Bible divides the disease into "white 

leprosy "and "ulcerous leprosy " ("mihyah"), the 

Mishnah divides it into "limited" 

Limited (•' ketannah ") and " extended " (" gedo- 

Leprosy. lah ") leprosy (Neg. viii. 9). Accord- 
ingly it expounds Lev. xiii. 9-11 as 
referring to "limited" leprosy, and Lev. xiii. 12 et 
seq. as applying to "limited" leprosy which has ex- 
tended, and as such has become clean. 

Leprosy if " extended " at the outset is to be treated 
as limited leprosy (Neg. viii. 7) ; extension does not 
render leprosy clean, unless following upon a dis- 
ease which has shown sure symptoms of real leprosy 
(Neg. viii. 3). Leprosy should, moreover, be con- 
sidered extended only when it invades the face 
(Neg. X. 9) and, if the individual is bald and beard- 
less, the scalp and chin (Neg. vi. 8, viii. 5). If, after 
the scales of leprosy have spread over nearly the 
whole body, a bleeding and scaleless ulcer (mih- 
yah) is observed, the subject is unclean. Simi- 
larly, if the scales, having covered almost the whole 
body, fall off in one place and uncover an old bleed- 
ing ulcer, the subject is unclean (Neg. viii. 2). 

The bleeding ulcer must be of the size of a lentil in 
order to render one unclean, in cases both of " lim- 
ited " and of " extended " leprosy. In case the ulcer 
develops on the extremities of the body, as on the 
fingers or toes, or on the ears, nose, breast, etc., the 
person is not considered unclean (Neg. vi. 7). But 
if this ulcer had once been covered with scales and 
had then become open again, the person is unclean, 
unless the remaining scales are smaller than a 
"gruel" ("geris"; Neg. viii. 1). Finally, the mih- 
yah does not make a person unclean if it invades 
a place previously affected by a "shehin " or a burn, 
or if it develops on the hairy parts of the body, or 
in the recesses and cavities ( 8). When it 
settles on parts from which the hair has fallen out, 
or on parts previously affected by shehin or a burn, 
but which have become entirely healed before the 
appearance of the leprosy, two cases are to be dis- 
tinguished, according as the mihyah has previously 
been covered with scales or not; in the latter case it 
does not render the subject unclean. 

4. In regard to leprosy consequent upon shehin 
or a burn (Lev. xiii. 18-28), the iMislinah maintains: 

(1) If the shehin or the burn has not 

Consequent been healed before the appearance 

on Burns, of the scales of leprosy, the person is 

clean (Neg. ix. 2). (2) Where these 
affections have become completely healed before the 
appearance of leprosy, only that is to be considered 
as leprosy which invades iiarts of the body never 
before diseased (ih.). (3) Finally, leprosy conse- 
quent upon shehin or a burn is not rendered unclean 
l)y the development of a mihyah, and one so affected 
can be isolated for seven days once only, not twice, 
as in the case of an ordinary leper (Neg. iii-. 4). 

5. In regard to leprosy on the scalp and chin (Lev. 
I xiii. 29 et wy.), the Mishnah contains the following: 




<1) The symptoms of leprosy here (i.e., leprous 
scales) may present any color; but iu any other part 
of the body only one or more of the four degrees of 
white can be presented (Sifra60a). (3) As the j\Iish- 
iiah distiuguislies a " linnted " and an "extended" 
leprosy, so it distinguishes a "limited " and an "ex- 
tended " uetek (Neg. x. 9). (3) The netek does 
not become unclean in consequence of the pres- 
ence of a mihyah, but through the presence of fine 
while or yellow hair, and through the extension of 
the disease ("pisyou"; Neg. x. 1). (4) Finally, if 
the hair of the head or of the chin has fallen out, 
those parts are to be treated like other parts of the 
body (Neg. x. 10). 

In the Talmud the classification or definition of 
leprosy and of its symptoms seems to be determined 
not by medical ideas, but by a literal and indiscrim- 
inating adherence to the letter of the Levitical law ; 
Talmudic sages were satisfied merely with commu- 
nicating the Biblical decisions. The Rabbis appear 
at times even to confuse true leprosy with eczema. 

Bibliography: Rahbinowicz, Ln Mklccincdu Thaliniul, pp. 
107 it xeq., Paris, 1S8(I. 

J. A. S. W. 

In Modern Times : Leprosy among Jews is sel- 
dom mentioned in modern medical literature. Zom- 
bacco("Bul. de la Societed'Anthropologiede Paris," 
Oct., 1891) states that the disease is very frequent 
among the Jews of Constantinople. Buschan, quot- 
ing this statement ("Globus," Ixvii. 61), argues that 
the i)redisposilion of the Jews to leprosy is a racial 
characteristic hereditarily transn.itted from the an- 
cient Hebrews to the modern Israelites. In support 
of this he mentions that the Karaites of Constantino- 
ple have not been observed by Zombacco, during his 
twenty years of medical practise among them, to 
suffer from leprosj'. These Jews Buschan considers 
Jews only by religion, not by virtue of biood-rela- 
tionship to the Semites. Ethnically he considers 
them as derived from the Chazars and other peoples 
of "Finnic" blood. On the other hand, the Rab- 
binic Jews of Constantinople, who are derived from 
"Syro- Arabic Semitic" race, have been often ob- 
served by Zombacco to suffer from the disease. He 
further states that the Mohammedans, Christians, 
Greeks, Armenians, and other non-Jews in Con- 
stantinople are free from it, notwithstanding the 
fact that they come in contact with the Jews. All 
this tends to show that the alleged predisposition of 
the Jews to leprosy is an ethnic ti'ait. 

This allegation, based as it is on very scanty evi- 
dence, is not confirmed by any other observer. In 
Russia, where in some provinces leprosj' is endemic, 
the Jews are not observed to be frequently affected, 
while in some Oriental countries the evidence avail- 
able tends to show that, on the contrarj', the Jews 
are peculiarly free from leprosy. Thus. Nicholas 
Senn, speaking of leprosj' in Jerusalem, says: 
"Most of the lepers are Arabs; and tlie Jews are 
singularly free from this disease. . . . Among the 
47 inmates [of the Jesus Hilfe Hospital] there i^ 
only one Jew. Dr. Eiusler. during his long and ex- 
tensive practise in Jerusalem, has seen only five Jews 
affected with leprosy; and of these one came from 
Salonica and of the remainder two from Morocco. 
It seems that the Jernsaleni Jewsli;ive in the course 

of time accpiired an immunity from this disease, 
notwithstanding the increase of poverty and unsani- 
tary surroundings" (N. Senn, "The Hospitals in 
Jerusalem," in "American Medicine," iv. 509-512). 
J. M. Fr. 

LERIDA (Catalan, Leyda ; Ilerda) : City in 
Catalonia, which as early as the fourteenth century 
had an imjiortaut Jewish community possessed of 
several i)rivileges. Thus, it was exempted from the 
general obligation to provide the royal court, during 
its jiresence in the city, with beds and the necessa- 
ries of life. Again, the Jews of Lerida, at the ear- 
nest request of the rei)resentatives of the congrega- 
tion, were not compelled to attend the conversion 
sermons of Maestre Huesca and other Dominicans. 
In 1306 the congregation was granted permission by 
the king to receive into its membership ten JeA\ish 
families driven from France. The Shepherd perse- 
cutions brought great affliction to the community. 
Seventy Jews surrentlered their possessions to the 
commander of the cit3% "so that he might bring 
them in safety to Aragon ; but when they got out- 
side the city he slew them with his sword." Eight 
years later the Jews had to defend themselves against 
attacks upon their lives. The hatred of the Chris- 
tians was a constant source of menace to them. In 
1325 the right to prepare Passover cakes was re- 
fused to them, so that they had to turn to the king 
for assistance. 

The Jews of Lerida engaged in industry and car- 
ried on an extensive commerce ; they had one large 
synagogue and several small ones. In 1269 " Nasi 
Azday " (Hasdai) was appointed as rabbi, whom in 
the following year the king presented with a build- 
ing-plot. In 1275 the communal laws ("takkanot") 
were sanctioned by the king. The ominous year 
1391 was for the Jews of Lerida one of great calam- 
ity. The massacre occurred there Aug. 13 ; seventy- 
eight Jews being killed, while most of the survivors 
accepted baptism. The neophytes transformed the 
synagogue into a church under the name " S. Maria 
del Milagro"; in the fifteenth century it was still 
almost exclusively attended by neophytes. With 
1391 the real "aljama"in Lerida ceased; Jews in 
scant numbers probably continued to live in the 
city, enjoying the old privileges, but they no longer 
constituted a congregation. The city soon felt the 
decline of the taxes formerly paid by the Jews. 
In 1410 the city council entered into negotiations 
with the Jews for the purpose of reimposing part 
of these taxes; but this led to no result. 

The poet Joseph bar Sheshet ben Latimi (1308) 

and the physician Abraham, who, Sept. 12, 1468, 

performed an operation on King Juan of Aragon for 

cataract, lived in Lerida. 

Bim.iofJRAPHY: .lospph ha-Kohen, 'Emrk lia-Baha. pp. 60, 
tiT; Rios, Hist. ii. 1.5.5, 1.58, 380, 403; ill. 83: Jose Pleyan de 
Porta. Apuntos de Histniia de Lerida, Lerida, 1873 ; Jacobs, 
.^ourceK, Nos. 756, 941, 1063. 

o. M. K. 

Talmudist ; flourished in the middle of the sixteenth 
century. He was the author of " Lehem Yehudah," 
a commentary on Pirke Abot, and of "Derush 'al 
ha-Neshamah," a treatise on the soul, published to- 
gether under the former title (Sabbionetta, 1554). 




In tlie preface Lerma laments the burning of the 
Talmud in Italy, which occurred in 1554, under 
Pope Julius III. According to Zcdner (" Cat. Hebr. 
Books Brit. Mus." p. 551), the 1554 edition is the 
second; in that case either the whole preface or the 
part relating to the burning of the Talmud is an 
addition. Judah ben Samuel Lerina must not be 
confounded with Judah Lerma, rabbi of Belgrade (as 
seems to have been done by Steinschneider and other 
authorities^ who was a pupil of Jehiel Bassuni and 
belonged, therefore, to the seventeenth century. 
Lerma was the author of a huge number of re- 
sponsa, wiiich, with the exception of thirty, weie 
destroyed by tire; these thirty were rescued fiom 
the flames by Lerma's pupil, Simhah b. Gershon ha- 
Kohen, who published them, adding a preface, un- 
der the title "Peletut Bet Yeliudah " (Venice, 1G47). 

BIBLIOGRAPHT : Confortp, Kdkc hn-Dorot, pp. 40b. .511i ; Fiicnn, 
Kene»et Yi.*rael. p. 408; Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. ii. ~'33; Stein- 
schneider, Cat. Bndl. col. 13;i7. 
J. M. Sel. 

LERNER, HAYYIM ZEBI : Russian gram- 
marian and teacher of Hebrew; born at Dubno 1815; 
died at Jitonu'r 1889. His early education in Bible 
and Talmud he received from his father. At the 
age of thirteen he was married. In 1833, when \Volf 
Adelsohn went to Dubno and gathered around him 
a circle of Maskilini, to whom he taught Hebrew 
grammar and philosophy, Leruer became one of his 
disciples. He went to Odessa in 1835 and entered 
the model school of Bezalecl Stern, where Simhah 
F*insker was his teacher in Hebrew grammar. In 
the same school he also acquired a thorough knowl- 
edge of the Russian, German, French, and Italian 
languages. In 1838 Lerner returned to Diibno and 
hecame a teacher of Hebrew; from 1841 to 1849 he 
taught in Radzivilov; on Nov. 16 of the latter year 
he was appointed government teacher of the Jewish 
public school of Berdychev; and in 1851 he was ap- 
pointed teacher of Hebrew at the rabbinical school 
of Jitomir, in which position he remained until the 
school was closed by the government (July 1, 1873). 

Lemer's reputation among Hebrew grammarians 
was founded on ids "Mctreh ha-Lashon." It is 
written in a pure, popular Hebrew, and follows 
the system of grammar of European tongues, en- 
abling the student to accpiire the language more 
easily than did the works of his predecessors. The 
first edition appeared in 1859; six editions were is- 
sued during Lerner's lifetime; and many more have 
appeared since his death. Lerner was criticized for 
having adopted liis methods from his teacher Pin- 
sker; lie himself acknowledged his indebtedness in 
the second edition of liis work (p. 136, note). 

Besides this grammar, Lerner wrote "Dikduk La- 
shon Aramit " (Warsaw, 1875), an Aramaic grammar; 
"Ma'amar Toledot ha-Dikduk " (Vienna, 187(5); and 
a translation of S. D. Luzzatto's "Dikduk Leshon 
Talmud Babli " (St. Petersburg, 1880). He left in 
manuscript: " Yalkut," a collection of commentaries 
on the Bible and Rasin, together with critical and 
literary articles; "Arba' Middot," on the Baraita of 
the thirty-two Middot; and a Hebrew translation of 
Young's "Night Thoughts" and other poems. 

Bibi.iooraphy : Ha-Melu. 1889. Nos. TtV7!t; Sokolov, Scfcr 
hn-Shniiah. 1. 62; Idem, Sefcr Zikkaron, p. 66. 
"• " M. R. 


sian Journalist; born Jan. 1, 1849, at Berdychev; 
educated at the gymnasium of Jitomir. In 1866 he 
went to Odessa, where he studied law foi' a yeai', 
and then entered ujton a journalistic career. He 
served for ten 3-eais on the staff of the "Odeski 
Vyestnik," acting as war correspondent for that pa- 
per during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78. In 
Bucharest he published during the war a daily papei-, 
■'Zapiski Grazhdanina." In 1880 he founded at 
Odessa a Jewish theater, for av Inch he wrote many 
plays in Judteo-German. The years 1883and 1884 he 
s[K'nt in Germany and France as correspondent of 
the Moscow daily " Russkiya Vyedomosli," wilting 
articles for other RiLssian papers also. In Hebrew 
Lerner published: a short sketch on the Chazar.s 
(Odessa, 1866); ":Ma'amar Bikkoret " (/A. 1867), a 
criticism upon Gottlobers; " Yamimmi-Kedem " (rt. 
1868), a tale of Jewish life in Russia; and articles on 
various topics of the time. Of his dramas in Jud.eo- 
German may be mentioned "Zhidovka," "Hanuk- 
kah," and "Der Fetter Moshe Mendelssohn " (War- 
saw, 1889). 

Lerner wrote many articles in Russian on tin.' 
Jewish question, a list of which is to be found in 
" Sistematicheski Ukazatel," etc., St. Petersburg, 
1893. In 1903 Lerner published "Yevrei Novoros- 
siskavo Kraya," a historical sketch of the life of the 
Jews in South Russia, which, however, is rather a 
memoir than a history. 

Lerner, who has recently become a convert to 
Christianity, is now (1904) residing in Odessa. 
BiBLiociRAPUY : Solfolov, Scfcr Zikkaron, p. 66. 

II. n. M. R. 

LERNER, MAIER: German rabbi; born in 
Galicia 1857. He studied in Berlin under Hildes 
heimer, became rabbi at Winzenheim, Al.sace (1884- 
1890), and pi-eacher for the Federation of Synagogues 
in London (1890-94), and, since 1890, has been chief 
rabbi of Altona. He wrote "Anlage und C^uelleu 
des Bereschit Rabba" (Berlin, 1882) and has contrib- 
uted to various periodicals ("Berliner's Magazin 
filr die Wissenschaft des Judenthums," "Der 
Israelii, " " Jiidische Presse," "Jewish World," etc.). 
His literary woik is devoted almost exclusively to 
the defense of Orthodox Judaism. Lerner married 
a daughter of Hirsch Plato, a son of Samson R. 

BiHLiOC.RAiMiv: Dulfi'sz, Iivoh LeniDxchaw, Cracow, 1903. 


TISTE ANATOLE : French historian ; born at 
Lisieux i. 1842. The first Avorks that appeared 
fi'om his pen were " Une Troupe des Comediens" 
and "Essai sur la Restauration de nos Monuments 
Historicjues Devant I'Art et Devant le Budget" 
(1866). In 1867 he went to Ru.ssia to study the po- 
litical and economic organization of the Slavic peo- 
I)les, the result of his studies being pulilished under 
the title " L'Empire des Tsars et les " (3 vols., 
Paris, 1882-89). In 1881 he was appoint(-d pro- 
fessor of contemporaneous history and of Oriental 
affairs at L'Ecole Libre fles Sciences Politic] ues, and 
in 1887 he became a member of the Academic des 
Sciences Morales et Politiques. From 1883 to 1891 




]ie rci)rescnted tliL' canton of Auberive in the Con- 
seil G<';neml of the department of Hitute-Maiiie. 

In 1879 Leroy-Beaulieu published a critical analy- 
sis of the political situation under the Second Em- 
pire, entitled " Un Empereur, Un Koi, Un Pape, 
Une Restauration," and in 1884, under the title " Un 
Homme d'Elat Kusse. Nicolas Milutine," a liistor- 
ical novel vividly depicting the great reformation 
due to the emancipation of the Russian serfs bj^ Al- 
exander II. Of his other political writings may be 
mentioned: " Les Catholiques Liberaux, I'Eglise et 
le Liberalisme de 1830 a Nos Jours" (Paris, 1885); 
"La France, la Russie et 1 "Europe " {ib. 1888); "La 
Revolution et le Liberalisme " {ib. 1890) ; " La Pa- 
paute, le Socialisme et la Democratie " {ib. 1892) ; 
"L'Antisemitisme" (ib. 1897); "Les Doctrines de la 
Ilaine, I'Antisemitisme, I'Antiprotestantisme, I'An- 
ticlericalisme " {ib. 1902). Of chief interest to the 
Jewish world, however, is his work "Israel cliez les 
Nations " (1893). In this work the author embodies 
tlie result of a thorough study of the conditions 
governing the Russian Jews, and, while he is not 
lavish of his praise of the oppressed, he is emjihatic 
in maintaining that nothing but emancipation can 
improve them mentally and morally. "All the vir- 
tues that the Jews possess are-their own, while their 
vices are largely due to persecutions b}' Christian 

In the beginning of 1904 Leroy-Beaulieu went to 
the United States to deliver a series of lectures at 
some of the American universities (Harvard, Penn- 
sylvania, etc.). The Jewish community of New 
York, during his sojourn in that city, tendered him 
a testimonial of appreciation of his vigorous war 
against anti-Semitism in France, and of his scholarly 
defense of Jewish character and traditions. Leroy- 
Beaulieu is a chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 

BiBLioriRAPHV: La Grande Encyclopedic \ Metiers Konver- 
xntUms-Lexihon; Nouveau Laroiisse lUiistri'; Curinier, 
Diet. Sat.: American Hebrew (New York), Mav 6, 13, 2U, 
19()4; Jewish Comment (Baltimore), April 29, 19(14. 

s. F. C. 

LESSEE. See L.\NDr.OKD and Tenant. 

LESSER, ADOLF: German physician and 
writer on medical jurisprudence; born at Stargard, 
province of Pomerania, Prussia, May 23, 1851; grad- 
uated from Berlin University in 1875. From 1877 
to 1884 he Avas assistant in the pharmacological in- 
stitute of that university, and from 1879 to 1886 
physician at Klinnsmann's lunatic asyhuu. In 1881 
he became privat-docent in pharmacology at the 
university. In 1886 he was appointed pJiysician-in- 
chief (•' Stadtphysikus ") to the board of health of 
Breslau, at the university of which city he was ap- 
pointed assistant professor in 1887. 

Of Lesser'.s numerous essays contributed to the 
medical journals may be mentioned: "Experimen- 
telle Uutersuchungen fiber den Einfluss Einiger Ar- 
senverbindungen auf den Thierischen Organismus," 
in Virchow's " Archiv " ; " Ueber die Localen Befunde 
beim Selbstmorde Durch Erhangen " and " Ueber 
die Wichtigsten Sectionsbefunde bei dem Tode Durch 
Ertrinken in Dunnflussigen Medien," in the " Vier- 
teljahresschrift fur Gerichtliche Medizin." 

Lesser is the author also of the well-known " Atlas 
der Gerichtlichen Medizin," 1884-92, and " Zur Lehre 
vom Abort," "Zur Lehre von den Kopfverletzungen 

Neugeboi-ener, ■' and "Erkrankungen Sowie Prae- 
und Postmortale Yerletzungen des liaises," in Neis- 
sers " Stcreoskopischer Medizinischer Atlas." 
Bibliography : Pagel, Bing. Lcrikon. s.v., Vienna, 1901. 
s. F. T. H. 

LESSER, ALEXANDER: Polish painter; 
born at Warsaw 1814; died there 1884. He was 
educated at the Warsavv lyceum and studied art at 
AVarsaw University, at the Academy of Dresden 
(1833-35), and at Munich under Cornelius and 
Schnorr (1842). He devoted himself mainly to 
jiainting scenes from Polish history ; and in search 
of historical material he made extensive tours 
through Germany, France, Belgium, and England. 
Among his historical paintings the best known are: 
"Wincent Kadlubek," "Skarbek Habdank," "The 
Young Boleslaw," " The Wry-Mouthed," and " Wan- 
da and Jadwiga. " For his " forty portraits of Polish 
kings " (reproductions published at Warsaw in 1860) 
he was elected a member of the Cracow Academy of 

Lesser was also active as an art critic and as 
a writer of historical sketches, contributing to 
the Polish periodicals "Klosy," "Tygodrik Illustro- 
wanj'," and others. 
Bibliography : Orgelbrand, Encyldopedja Powszchna, ix. 

u. K. G. D. R. 

LESSER, EDMTJND : German physician; born 
at Neisse May 12, 1852; educated at the universities 
of Berlin, Bonn, and Strasburg (M.D. 1876). He 
became assistant at the dermatological clinic at 
Breslau; in 1882 established himself as privat-docent 
at the University of Leipsic ; was appointed assist- 
ant professor in the University of Bonn in 1892; 
in 1896 became chief physician of the syphilitic 
department at the Charite Hospital at Berlin; and 
in 1897 was appointed chief of the newly founded 
dermatological and syphilitic dispensary of the uni- 
versity in that city. 

Of Lesscr's works may be mentioned, besides his 
" Lehrbuch der Haut- und Geschlechtskrankheiten " 
(10th ed. 1890): "Ueber Syphilis Maligna"; "Bci- 
triige zur Lehre vom Herpes Zoster " ; "Ueber Ne- 
benwirkungen bei Injectionen Unloslicher Queck- 
silberverbindungen " ; " Ueber Sj'philis Insontium " ; 
" Ueber Ischias Gonorrhoica " ; " Die Aussatzhauser 
des MittelaUers"; and "Zur Geschichte des Aus- 

Bibliography : Pagel. Bi'ogr. Lex. 


F. T. H. 

LESSER, LOUIS: German soldier; born at 
Neustadt about 1850 ; served in the Second Branden- 
burg Dragoons in the Franco-Prussian war. On 
Nov. 18, 1870, while on patrol work between Sens 
and Villeneuve, his comrades being dispersed in va- 
rious directions, he was surpri.sed by six of the 
enemy. He stood his ground, and on the return of 
his comrades advanced and captured the captain of 
the francs-tireurs who had attacked him. 

Bibliography: Deutsches Heldenbuch, p. 304; Juden aU 

Soklaten, p. 105. 
s. J. 

LESSER, LUDWIG : German poet, editor, and 
publicist; born at Rathenow, province of Branden- 
burg, Prussia, Dec. 7, 1802; died at Berlin Dec. 2, 
1867. When very young he went to Berlin, and 

Letter- Writing: 



became a regular contributor to most of the literary 
periodicals of that city (often under the pseudonym 
"Ludwig Liber"), the humorist Saphir was at- 
tracted by Lessor's work ami personality, and se- 
cured hini for his literary stalf. The two became 
very firm friends, and in 1827 they founded the 
Literarisclie Sonutags-Verein. Lesser wrote "Chro- 
nik der Gesellschaft der Freunde in Berlin zur Feier 
Ihres Flinfzigjahrigen Jubiliiums" (Berlin, 1842). 

A selection of Lessor's poems was pul)lished under 
the title "Ausgewilhlte Dichtungeu," Berlin, 187U; 
and the gold medal for art and science was conferred 
upon liim by King Frederick William III. A char- 
acteristic epigram by him, of which the following 
is a free translation, gives some measure of his 

power : 

One thing to Life you owe : 

StrufTKle, or seek for rest. 
If you're an anvil, bear the blow ; 
If a hammer, strike your best. 

Lesser was devoted to the interests of the Jews: 

he was one of the founders of the Judischer Kultur- 

verein, of a society for the aid of Jewish teachers, 

and of the Berlin Reform congregation. 

BiBi.ior.RAPiiY : R. Lesser, in preface to Ausdcwilhlte DLcht- 

s. M. Co. 

man poet and critic; born Jan. 22, 1729, at Kamenz, 
Upper Lusatia; died Feb. 15, 1781, at Brunswick 

Toleration and a striving after freedom of thought 
led him to condemn all positive religions in so far 
as they laid claim to absolute authority, and to rec- 
ognize them merely as stages of historical develop- 
ment. A natural consequence of this principle was 
his sympathetic attitude toward the Jews; for he 
deemed it inconsistent with the dictates of religious 
liberty to e.xclude for religious reasons a whole race 
from the blessings of European culture. 

In his comedy "Die Juden," one of his earliest 
dramatic works, he stigmatized the dislike of the 
Gentiles for the followers of the Jewish religion as a 
stupid prejudice. He went herein further than any 
other apostle of toleration before or after him. The 
full development and final expression of his views 
on this problem, however, are found in his drama 
and last masterpiece, "Nathan der Weise " (1779), 
Lessing thus beginning and ending his dramatic 
career as an advocate of the emancipation of the 

The figure of Nnthnn, modeled in the main on 
that of his friend Moses Mendelssohn, was bound to 
convince the world that the tenets of toleration and 
htimnnity could be enunciated even by a repre- 
.scntative of the race so bitterly hated by the world. 
The legend of the three rings, in which Christianity, 
Islam, and Judaism are allogorically represented as 
brothers, each d(;emiiig to possess the original magic 
ring, but all of them having, in reality, been cheated 
of it, clearly indicates that Lessing wished to repre- 
sent the Jew as a man, and not Judaism as a dogmatic 
system. The prize of supremacy is not awarded 
to this or that confession, but to humanity and mo- 
rality, which are not bound to any particular faith. 

Les.sing*s " Nathan " had a liberating effect on the 
Jews in more ways than one. In the first place, the 

mere fact that he chose the Jew N<((h(tu as his mouth- 
piece could not pass unnoticed, and was sure to act 
as a hindrance to persecution; and, secondly, Jie 
stimulated the etliical consciousness of the Jews 
themselves, who could not fall below the standard 
set up by a noble non-Jew. 

While Le.ssing condemned the belief in po.sitive 
revelation, he accepted its general concept, seeing 
in the dogmatic teachings of both the Old and New 
Testaments elHcient educational instruments for the 
moral elevation of mankind. 

In short, Lessing raised Judaism in tlie esteem of 
the European nations not only by showing its close 
connection with Christianity, but ahso by demon- 
strating the importance of Mosaism in the general 
religious evolution of hvimanity. It was really 
Lessing who opened the doors of the ghetto and 
gave the Jews access to European culture. In a 
certain sense he awakened Moses Mendelssohn to the 
consciousness of his mission ; and through jMendels- 
sohn Lessing liberated Judaism from the most heavy 
chains of its own forging. 

As a Biblical critic Lessing is equaled by none 
of his contemporaries, and by very few of his prede- 

s. M. Frie. 

LESSMANN, DANIEL : German historian and 
poet; born at Soldin, Neumark, Jan. 18, 1784; com- 
mitted suicide at a place between Kropstadtand Wit- 
tenberg Sept. 2, 1831. He attended the Joachims- 
thal'sche Gymnasium in Berlin, and had begun the 
study of medicine when the war of the allied pow- 
ers against Napoleon broke out in 1818. He fought 
in the ranks, was wounded at the battle of Llitzcu 
(May 2, 1813), and on recovering remained in the 
field until the end of the war. When jDeace was re- 
stored he resumed his medical studies. He Avent as 
private teacher to Vienna, and removed later to Italy, 
remaining some time in Verona. 

In 1824 he settled in Berlin and devoted himself 
to literary work, contributing to various periodicals 
sketches of life in southern countries, historical 
studies, short stories, and poems. A collection of 
his poems was published under the title "Amathu- 
sia," Berlin, 1824. In 1826 his " Zwiilf Wanderlieder 
eines Schwermiithigen " appeared in Berlin, and four 
years later another volume was issued under the title 
"Gedichte," ?6. 1830. In his poetry there is easily 
discernible the influence of Heine, with whom he 
was on friendly terms, and in whose letters to Moser 
there are freijuent references to Lessmann. 

Lessmann's contributions to imaginative prose 
literature include the novels "Louise von Hailing." 
2 vols., ib. 1827, which attracted the attention of 
Goethe, and "Die Ileidemuhlc," published in two 
volumes seven years after his death. To Lessmann 
belongs much of the credit for the introduction of 
modern Italian literature into Germany through his 
translation of Manzoni's " I Promessi Sposi," and of 
" \a\ Monaca di Monza," by Giovanni Rf)ssini. 

His important historical work was the "Mastino 
delta Scala: Ein Beitrag zur Gesch. der Oberita- 
lienisclieiiStaaten im Mittelalter," rt. 1828. In 1829 
and 1830 appeared successively the two volumes of 
" Biographische Gemillde," which included historical 
studies of Philip the Beautiful, Alfonso Albuquer- 




que, liiuoceut III., aud Priuce ]\Iicliacl Gliuski. 
Mufli of tlie "Xadilass," 2 vols., ib. 1837-38, is de- 
voted to valuable liistorical work. Lessniann left 
ia manuscript a voluiniuous *' Weltgeschichtc des 
Alterthuius," which has never beeu published. 

His seven years of literary activity were years of 
profound melancholy. Lessmann had high aspira- 
tions and great ambition. He dreamed of securing 
some position of eminence; aud it appears, from the 
answer of Moser to one of Heine's letters, that in 
1824 Lessniann adopted Christianity in order that he 
might realize his liopes. Nothing came of all his 
efforts in this direction ; and he fell into a state of 
despondenc}', which is reflected in his poetry and 
in his " Wauderbuch eines Schwermuthigen," 2 vols., 
ib. 1831-32. One day Lessmann left Berlin on the 
pretext of taking a pedestrian tour to Leipsic and 
Dresden, and was found hanged by his own act. 

Bibliography : Godeke, Grundr. dcr Dcidschcn Literatur, 
iii. T.Vi-'i'i'Z \ Giibitz, Eniiincruiiifi n, iii. 1-7, Berlin, 1809; L. 
iieiger, Daniel Lesamainu in -!//(/. Deutsche Binn. xviii. 
451-4*}; Strodtmann, Heine, i. 319; Briimmer, Dichterlexi- 


s. M. Co. 

ried letters to their coreligionists, apart from the 
regular post. In those business centers where a 
large Jewish population existed, such as Hamburg, 
Prague, Gross Glogau, Polish Lissa, Breslau, and 
Frankfort-on-the-]\Iain, Jews, and at times even 
Jewesses, are found acting as letter-carriers under 
state control. It was necessary to employ them 
in the postal service, as it was almost impossi- 
ble for Christian letter-carriers to deliver letters ad- 
dressed in Hebrew. xVnother reason may have been 
the fact that the Jews, in their relations with the 
post, were subject to exceptional laws. 

The only detailed notices of Jewish letter-carriers 
are furnished by the archives of Breslau and Frank- 
fort ; but the position of the letter-carriers in these 
places was no doubt tj'pical of their status else- 
where. The Jewish letter-carrier, or "Post-Jude," 
in Breslau, is first mentioned in a document dated 
Dec. 13, 1722, which, however, allows the inference 
that the office had existed for many years before 
that date. It was maintained until the Silesian 
wars, after which time Breslau was no longer in- 
cluded in the imperial postal district of Habsburg. 

The Jewish letter-carrier of Breslau, as he neither 
took any oath of office nor received any salary, 
was not really a government official. His whole in- 
come consisted merely of the postage paid by the 
recipients of the letters. As, however, there were no 
fixed postal rates, the amount received was so small 
that the letter-carrier had to pursue in addition 
some other occupation. That tlie postal authorities 
tolerated this state of affairs is shown by the fact 
that when the letter-carrier was absent on other 
business, his wife was allowed to take his place. 

The first mention of a Jewish letter-carrier in 
Frankfort-on-the-Main occurs in a decree dating from 
the middle of the eighteenth century, and setting 
forth the regulations which the Jews must observe 
in their relations with the Thurn and Taxis post; 
but in Frankfort, too, the office had existed before 
that time. From 1748 until 1846 it was held by 
members of the same family, and it was abolished 

owing to altered conditions. The nephew and as- 
sistant of the Jews' letter-carrier who was then in 
office remained in the Thurn and Taxis service with 
the same rights and duties, and in 18G7 was taken 
over into the Prussian service. 

In Frankfort, as in Breslau, the Jewish letter-car- 
rier received no pay, but two kreutzeis were collected 
from theadtlressee for every ordinary letter, and six 
kreutzers for a registered letter. In proportion as 
international commerce developed and the Jewish 
interests therein increased, the income of the letter- 
carrier became correspondingly larger. The last in- 
cumbent of the office iiad a yearly income of 5,000 
gulden, out of which, in very busy times, he had to 
pay his assistants 150 florins each. Besides, when 
other posts, such as that of Hesse-Cassel, became 
united to that of Thurn and Taxis, he was required 
to pay Count Thurn and Taxis 400 gulden yearly. 
He ultimately retired on a pension of 1,6U0 florins. 

Bibliography: Kracauer, Die Jmleiihrieftrilfier in Frank- 
fiut-a.-M. in Frnnlifurtcr Zeitunu, 1H90, No. 109; Laiids- 
berger, Ji((/c)( ini Diotftc dcr Kaistrlichen I'ust zn Bres- 
lau, etc. in Braun's Volk^kalendrr, liiO], p. i-i; Kaiifinann. 
Die Memoiren der Glilckel uuu Hamcln, p. ]0i>; Grunwald, 
Portuijiesenyriiher aiif Deutscher Erde, p. 9^. 

G. I. KrA. 


"WRITERS : The art of conveying information 
by letter (" miktab," "iggeret," "sefer") was un- 
known to the Hebrews in the first stages of their 
history. From the times of the Patriarchs to those 
of King Saul the Bible mentions onlj' messengers 
who transmitted orally the communications en- 
trusted to them (comp. Num. xxiv. 12; Judges xi. 
13; I Sam. xi. 9). The first letter recorded is that 
written by David to Joab and sent by the hand of 
Uriah (II Sam. xi. 23, 25). David and his succes- 
sors had special secretaries (•'soferim") charged 
with the Avriting of letters and circulars; and these 
secretaries occupied an exalted position in the state. 
The Kenites living at Jabez were noted for their 
skill in writing (comp. I Chron. ii. 55). As among 
the Greeks aud Romans, it seems to have been cus- 
tomary among the ancient Hebrews to seal a letter 
sent to a prominent person. To show his slight re- 
spect for the prophet's personalit}', Sanballat sends 
an open letter to Nehemiah (Neh. vi. 5). 

With the expansion of commerce in Talmudic 
times the use of letters became a necessity, and 
nearl}' every town had its official letter- 
In writer ("i^ja!? = ''Hbellarius "). The 
Talmudic Rabbis forbade a scholar to reside in 
Times. a city where there was no such func- 
tionary (Sanh. 17a). The Talmud has 
preserved the original text of two letters: one was 
addressed by the community of Jeru.salem to that of 
Alexandria and refers to the sojourn of Judah ben 
Tabbai in the latter city; the other was sent by 
Gamaliel I. to the Jews of Upper and Lower Galilee 
and treated of the intercalation of an additional 
month in the year (Yer. Hag. ii. ; Sanh. lib). Be- 
sides letters of information or of friendship, there 
are traces in the Talmud of consultatory letters 
dealing with scientific subjects (comp. Hul. 9oa). 
To this class belongs that important branch of rab- 
binical literature which is known by the name 
•'She'elot u-Teshubot " (Respoxs.\), and which de- 




veloped after the geonic period (see Joel Miiller, 
"Briefe und Responsen iu der Vorgaonischen Jii- 
dischen Litteratur," in " Jahresbericbt der Lehrau- 
stalt fiir Judische Wissenschaft," Berlin, 1886). 

The epistolary style varied according to the coun- 
try. In the East it was modeled after that of tiie 
Arabs, who exercised care in the elab- 
Style and oration of their letters. The first, 
Composi- often the greater, part of tlie letter, 
tion. usually written in rimed prose and 

adorned with Biblical quotations, 
formed a kind of introduction in which the writer 
attributed to his correspondent all the virtues con- 
ceivable to tlie imagination of an Oriental. In 
western countries expression was more moderate; 
the use of titles, however, was general, as it still is 
among the conservative Jews in Russia, Poland, and 
Gaiicia. The least important rabbi is addressed as 
the "Great Gaon," "Great Light," "Wonder of the 
Generation," "Pillar of Israel," or with similar ex- 
travagant epithets. Like the Arabs, the Jews in the 
Middle Ages neglected to place the date at the head 
of their letters; in modern times the custom was 
established of giving, after the formula n"3 ( = " With 
the help of God "), with which the letter began, the 
day of the week, the Sabbatical section (sometimes 
also the day of the month), and the place. "Fri- 
day " was usually followed by the abbreviation p"£J»y 
(= "eve of the lioly Sabbath "). The secrecy of let- 
ters w^as assured in tlie tenth century by R. Gershon 
(Me'or ha-Golah), who declared under the ban any 
one who should open without permission a letter not 
addressed to him. 

The most famous letters in Jewish literature — be- 
cause of both their contents and the prominence of 
their writers— are: that of Hasdai ibu Shaprut to 
the king of the Chazars; "Iggeret R. Sherira Gaon," 
on the sequence of tradition and the redaction of 
the Talmud; the various letters of Maimonides in- 
serted in tiie "Peer ha-Dor"; the let- 
Celebrated ters exchanged between the French 
CoUec- rabbis and scholars and those of Spain 
ticns. on the study of philosophy (" Minhat 
Kena'ot"); "Iggeret al-Tehi ka-Abo- 
teka," addressed by Protiat Duran to En Bonet; the 
collection of letters on Sliabbetluy Zebi published 
by Zebi Asiikenazi (Hakam Zebi), Moses Hagiz, and 
Jacob Einden. As a curiosity, mention may be made 
of the letter addressed by the rabbis of Jerusalem to 
the alleged descendants of Moses ("Bene Mosheh," 
Amster(iam, 1731). The most noteworthy letters 
of modern times are: those of Moses Mendelssolui 
("Iggerot HaMaD," Vienna. 1792); of Naphtali 
Her/. W'essejy inrluded in tlie " Megallch Tamirin " 
(ih. 1.S19) : of J. Perl written in tlie style of " Epistola- 
Obscurorum Virorum"; "Iggeret YaSHaR," by 
Isaac Samuel R('ggio(rt. 1834); "Iggerot SiiaDaL," 
by Luzzatto (Przcinysl, 1883); \ind "Miktabe 
YaGeL." by Judali Lob Gordon (Warsaw, 1894). 

From the sixteenth century Jcwisli literature was 
enriched witli a number of formularies of Hebrew 
and Ju<liro-German letters. The first of this kind 
was tlic "Iggeret Shelomim," publislied at Augs- 
burg in 1534 and republished with a Latin tran.s- 
lation by Buxtorf the Younger at Basel in 1603. 
The characteristic features of this formulary, as 

of all the others published until 1820, were the 
stilted and bombastic style, the misuse of Biblical 
and Talmudical quotations, and the ex- 
Formula- travagance of the headings of the let- 
ries for ters. In the " 'Ittur Soferim" (see the 

Letters. list below), for instance, there is such 
a heading; which, rendered into Eng- 
lish, it reads thus: " His [the correspondent's] cheeks 
are as a bed of spices [Cant. v. 13], a ladder on which 
angels of God are ascending and descending [Gen. 
xxviii. 12]. He is of a reliable character; keeps 
secrets; shows power to Jew and Gentile; he is a 
righteous man upon whom the world is based." As 
a model of a business letter, in which the writer has 
to inform his correspondent that some salt which had 
been purchased is on the road, the "Zahut ha- 
Melizah " (see below) gives the following: "And he 
looked back from behind him and became a pillar of 
salt on the road," etc. (comp. Gen. xix. 26). A new 
era in letter-writing was inaugurated by Shalom ha- 
Kohen. In his formula " Ketab Yosher " (see below) 
he endeavored to do away with the obsolete forms 
and to cause the young, for whom his formulas 
are intended, to adopt a modern style of writing. 
He was followed in this endeavor by many writers 
of talent who produced formularies of real literary 
value. The following is a list of formularies pub- 
lished up to the last years of the nineteenth century : 

OTi'^iT' P1JN, anonymous. Augsburg, 1&34; Basel, 1603. 

"ij7SSyiD::'Si-i3, in JudEeo-Cierman, by Judah Lob Liondor. 
Wilna, 1820, 1844. 1846. 

•^jnnyS 1^3. in Judaeo-German, by Hirsch Liondor. Wilna. 

'T'31. by Mordecal Aaron Giinzburg. Wilna, 1844; 2d ed.. 

^DD ijiai, by Abraham Israel Kukelstein. Wilna, 1895. 

nnjN niD^'^n. by H. Baueli. Wilna, 1866. 

ay^ -\\ by Tobias Shapiro. Wilna, 1891. 

ntt'r 3^3, by Shalom ha-Kohen. Vienna. 1820; Wilna, 1858. 

tt'tnn -is-r 3.13, anonymous. Warsaw. 1869. 1871. 

Sn-iij''' 3.10. by Israel Segal. Sudilkov, 1796. 

in3J 3.13, by Moses of Lemberg. Cracow. 16.59; Prague. 1705. 

0''iicS ]yi'h, by Ellakim Mellamed. Amsterdam, 1686. 

1DD nSj:;. by Eliezer Beer Silbermann. Johannisberg, 1854. 

ny n-J3::. in Hebrew and Judaco-German, by Azriel Selig 
Galin, Warsaw, 1889. 

Ciiyj^ 'J^'? 3133. by BaerFrledmann. Berdychev, 1890. 

cScs 3.13D, In Hebrew, Judaeo-German, and Russian, by 
Feigensohn. Wilna, 1882. 

tnnn rnjx fnc oy cSu'D ansc, by Abraham Jacob Pa- 
pema. Warsaw, 1884. 

mp 'J3 •'3n3J3. by M. Letteris. Vienna, 1867. 

Dmyj 0,13c, by Israel Beer Riesberg. Warsaw, 1887. 

nn3;' 0P3D, in Hebrew and Judaeo-German, by S. Neumann. 
Vienna, 1815, 1834. 

p^i3i' •'313^. in Hebrew and Judseo-German. anonymous. 
Lemberg, 1860. 

r''"i3> 'Sisc, by Israel Busch. Vienna. 1847. 

r'"i3>.' '3131. by Israel KnOptlemacher. Vienna, 1855. 

riip rD~' •'3.13':. by Emanuel Bondi. Prague. 18,57. 

-\DD3 0OP3S, by Lazar Isaac Shapiro. Warsaw. 1871. 

TcS'^ D''3n3C. by Naphtali Maskllelson. Warsaw, 1876. 

oSe'T ''3n3C, by Abraham Markus Pjurko. Warsaw, 1872. 

Q'SPSS P3"ip-. by Paradicsthal. Warsaw, 18.53. 

-in P''3 nPD". by David Zsimosc. Breslau. 1823. 

pnjN V'lD, In Hebrew and Russian, by A. J. Paperna. War- 
saw. 1874. 1876. 

1D1D 0;', by Moses Cohen. Fiirth. 1691. 

■'DID a;, by Zeinah Landau. Wilna. ia30. 1833. 

Cinn iDiD e», by Zeinah Landau. Wilna. 183.5. 1844. 1848. 

''"»3y 0". by Tobias Shapiro. Warsaw, 1878. 

S-iDiD ivji". by Moses Landsberg. Hamburg, 1721, and many 
other editions. 

nx'^-rn pinx. by Wolf Buchner. Prague. 1805. 

a'3P33 PX'Sp. by Hayylm Wlttklnd. Warsaw, 1873. 




Me'ir Halevl Letteris. 

-\SiDn pop, by Jacob Lapin. Berlin, 18o7. 
-1D1D .Tip, by Mordecai Aaron Giinzburg. Wilna, 1835, 1847, 
1855 ; AVarsaw, 1837, 1883. 
-lijiD !23i;', by Mendel Dolitzky. Vienna, 1883. 
a^^< nn^i.i, anonymous. Frankfort-on-the-Main, 17;%. 
G. 1. Bk. 

trian scholar and poet; boru Sept. 13, 1800, at Zol- 
kiev; died at Vienna ]\Iay 19, 1871. He was a mem- 
ber of a family of printers that originally came from 

Amsterdam. At the 
age of twelve he sent a 
Hebrew poem to Nach- 
man Krochmal, who 
was then living at Zol- 
kiev. Subsequently he 
made the acquaintance 
of Krochmal, who en- 
couraged him in his 
study of German, 
French, and Latin liter- 
ature. In 1826 he en- 
tered tlie University of 
Lemberg, where for four 
years he studied philos- 
oph}' and Oriental lan- 
guages. In 1831 he 
went to Berlin as He- 
brew corrector in a 
printing establishment, and later in a similar capac- 
ity to Presburg, where he edited a large number of 
valuable manuscripts, and to Prague, where he re- 
ceived tlie degree of Ph.D. (1844). In 1848 he set- 
tled finally in Vienna. 

Letteris' chief poetical work in German, " Sagen 
aus dem Orient" (Carlsruhe, 1847), consisting of 
poetic renderings of Talmudic and other legends, 
secured for him, though for a short time, the post of 
librarian in the Oriental department of the Vienna 
Imperial Library. His reputation as the foremost 
poet of the Galician school is based on his volume of 
poems "Tofes Kinnor we-'Ugab" (Vienna, 1860), 
and especially on his Hebrew version of "Faust," 
entitled "Ben Abuya" (ib. 1865). He has exerted a 
considerable influence on modern Hebrew poetry. 
One of his best poems is his Zionistic song " Yonah 
Homiyyah," which has become very popular. His 
numerous translations are of incontestable value, but 
his original poems are as a rule too prolix. His He- 
brew prose is correct, though heavy. 

Besides the works already mentioned the following 
deserve special notice: " Dibre Shir" (Zolkiev, 1823) 
and " Ayyelet ha-Shahar " {ib. 1824), including trans- 
lations from Schiller and Homer, and poems by Let- 
teris' father ; " Ha-Zefirah " (Zolkiev and Leipsic, 
1823), a selection of poems and essays; "Paige Ma- 
yim " (Lemberg, 1827), poems ; " Gedichte " (Vienna, 
1829), German translations from the Hebrew ; " Geza' 
Yishai" (Vienna, 1835), Hebrew translation of Ra- 
cine's "Athalie"; "Shelom Ester" (Prague, 1843), 
Hebrew translation of Racine's "Esther"; "Spino- 
za's Lehre und Leben " (Vienna, 1847); "Neginot 
Ylsrael," Hebrew rendering of Frankers"Nach der 
Zerstreuung" (tb. 1856); and "Bilder aus dem Bi- 
blischen Morgenlande " (Leipsic, 1870). 

He was the editor of "Wiener Vierteljahns- 
VIII -2 

schrift," with a Hebrew supplement, "AbneNezer" 
{ib. 1853), and of "Wiener Monatsbliitter fur Kunst 
und Litteratur " {ib. 1853). 

Bibliography: FUrst, Orient. Lit. 1849, pp. 6*3 et srq.; idem, 
J3i7);. Jnd.ii. 234; Zihkaron ha-Scftr, Vienna, 1H69 (auloblo- 
praphical notes by Letteris): .4/;!/. Zeit. dex Jiid. 1871, p. 
692; G. Bader, in Ahiasof. VMl); N. Slouscbz, La Renais- 
sance de la Litterature Hibraique, pp. 51-53, Paris, 1902. 

s. N. Sl. 


author; boru at Minsk 1835; died at St. Petersburg 
1888. Levanda graduated from the rabbinical school 
in Wilna in 1854; was appointed instructor in the 
government school of his native town; and held the 
position of adviser on Jewish affairs (" learned Jew ") 
to the governor-general of Wilna. He began his 
literary career early in life. In the fifties he was a 
contributor to the"Minskiya Gubernskiya Vyedo- 
mosti"; in 1860 he published in "Razsvyet," edited 
by Osip Rabinovitch, his " Depo Bakaleinyikh Tova- 
rov"; in 1861 he began to publish in "Sion" his 
"Drug Bernar." He contributed to manj^ period- 
icals, among them " Vilenskiya Gubernskiya Vyedo- 
niosti,"of which he was the editor; "St. Peterburg- 
skiya Vj'edomosti " ; and "Vilenski Vyestnik." In 
the last-named appeared his story "Samuel Gim- 
pels." In 1876 he published a collection of sketches 
under the title "Ocherki Proshlavo," followed later 
by a number of stories, such as " Chetyre Guvernera," 
" Lyubitelski Spektakl," " Iz Dobravo Staravo Vrye- 
meni," etc., in "Russki Yevrei," " Yevreiskoe Oboz- 
renie,"and"Voskhod." In 1876, also, he took active 
part in the publication of Landau's " Yevreiskaya 
Biblioteka." To this period belong his "Goryacheye 
Vryemya," " Gnyev i Milost Magnata," and " Avraam 
Yosefovich." In the eighties Levanda continued 
his literary activities with great zeal, publishing 
many letters and articles bearing on the Jewish 
question, besides two novels, " Ispovyed Dyeltza " 
and "Bolshoi Bemiz," and other stories in "Ned- 
yelya" and elsewhere. 

Most of Levanda's writings deal with Jewish life 
and Jewish problems. He took a deep interest 
in everything that concerned his coreligionists, and 
rendered many a service to the Jews of Lithuania. 
He exposed (1863) the false witnesses in a trial of 
several Jews of the government of Kovno on the 
charge of ritual murder. He Avas at first a warm 
advocate of assimilation, and upbraided the Jews 
for their apathy and ignorance, stating his views in 
a series of novels and belletristic sketches. Later, 
his views underwent a change, and Levanda began 
to see that the salvation of the Russian Jew was not 
in assimilation. Levanda was a keen observer, a 
skilful but dry narrator, and possessed an intimate 
knowledge of Jewish li fe. His best novels are those 
which have no object, as "Ocherki Proshlavo" 
(1875), "Tipy i Siluety " (" Voskhod," 1881), "Avra- 
am Yosefovich " (" Voskhod," 1885, 1887), etc. In his 
novel "Goryacheye Vryemya" (Yevreiskaya Bi- 
blioteka, 1871-73), which treats of the Polish insur- 
rection, the author combats the idea of assimilation, 
which had for a while carried away the Jews of 
Poland. After tho riots of 1881 Levanda became an 
advocate of the Palestinian movement. His works 




are enumerated in the "Sislenuiticlieski Ukazutel," 

etc., St. Petersburg, 1892. 

BIBMUCRAPIIY : KidzildDiJidklicski Slovm: xvii. 428; N. S. 

Rashkovski, Socrciticnnijic liussho-Ycvre ixkii/c Dcuatdi, 

p. 46, (Jdessa, 18t©. 

II. K. J- G. L. 

LEVEN, MANUEL : Prench pliysician ; born 
in 1831. He studied in Paris at tlie Lycee Henri IV., 
and in 1851 entered the Institut Agrouoiniquc at 
Versailles. In the following year this institution 
was suppressed on suspicion of republicanism, and 
Lcven, while lecturing on science at the Lycee 
Bonaparte, began his medical studies (M.D. 1860; 
his thesis, " liipports de I'ldiotie et du Creti- 
nisme," gained a gold medal from the Societe Medi- 
copsychologique of Paris). In 1863 he was ap- 
pointed physician to the Compagnie du Chemin de 
Per du Nord, and in 1870-71 was ambulance-sur- 
geon of the ninth arrondissement of Paris and of 
the Bataillon du Chemin de Per du Nord, receiving 
the military ribbon of the Legion of Honor in 1871. 
From 1871 to 1878 he was a member of the Board of 
Health of Paris, and from 1873 to 1889 head physi- 
cian of the Hopital Rothschild. Leven is especially 
noteworthy for his work in gastric pathology. He 
is the author of " Traite des Maladies de I'Estomac," 
1879; -'L' Hygiene des Israelites," 1883; "Estomac 
et Cerveau," 1884; "La Nevrose," 1887; "Systeme 
Nerveux et ^Vlaladies," 1893; and "La Vie, I'Ame, 
etlaMaladie," 1902. 

Leven is known also as a philanthropist. To- 
gether with Eugene Manuel he founded, in 1848, 
the first night-school for Jewish apprentices, which 
developed into a manual-training school ; and he has 
been the president of its administrative council 
since 1879. He is also one of the founders of the 
Alliance Israelite Universelle, vice-president of the 
Comite des Ecoles Israelites, member of the Comite 
de Refuge du Plessis-Piquet (an agricultural 
school), and chevalier of the Order of Isabella the 

s. J. K.\. 

LEVEN, NARCISSE: French lawyer and 
communal worker; born at Urdingen, on the 
Rhine, Oct. 15, 1833; educated at the Lycee Henri 
IV. and at the Faculty of Law in Paris. For five 
years lie was the secretary of Adolphe Cremieux, 
and he was an active member of the group which 
opposed Napoleon III. and which included Jules 
Ferry, Spuller, and Herold. During the Franco- 
German war he was general secretary of the Ministry 
of Justice, but he resigned on the retirement of its 
minister, .Vdolphe Cremieux. and has since refu.sed 
all government jjositions. From 1880 to 1887 he 
was a member of the Municipal Council of Paris, of 
which he l)ecame vice-president. 

Leven took an active part in the founding of the 
Alliance Israelite Universelle, becoming successively 
its secretary, vice presiflent (1883-98). and, after S. 
Goldschmidt's deatli, president. He is, in a certain 
sense, the historian of the Alliance, both through 
his clear and exhaustive reports and thro\igh the 
orations he has delivered at the funerals of his col- 
leagues. For thirty-six years he has been a member 
.'f the .Jewish Consistory of Paris, becoming its vice- 
president on the death of Michel Erlanger. He is 

a member also of the committees of the Rabbinical 
Seminary and the Ecole de Travail, and is president 
of the Jewish Colonization Association. 

s. J. Ka. 


Russian lawyer ; born at Kameuetz, Podoiia, 1837; 
died at St. Petersburg Jan. 16, 1894. In 1863 he 
went to St. Petersburg, where he devoted himself 
chiefly to law. In 1871 he graduated at the uni- 
versity there, and in 1877 became an advocate in the 
circuit court of justice. 

Levenson contributed articles on Jewish subjects 
to the " Voskliod " and to other journals, was one of 
the editors of the " Suebiiy Vyestuik,"and was editor 
of the department of criminology of the "Journal 
Grazhdanskavo i Ugolovnavo Prava." He was also 
the author of the biographies of Boccaria and Ben- 
tliau in "Pavlenkovs Biogratii Zamyechatelnykh 
Lyudei." His brother was Osip Levenson, advo- 
cate in the circuit court of Moscow (d. 1895). Osip 
was the musical critic of the Moscow daily " Russki- 
ya Vyedomosti " ; his articles were afterward pub- 
lished in Moscow under the titles " V Kontzert 
Zalye" (1880-81) and "Iz Oblasti Muzyki " (1885). 

BiBLiOfiRAPHY : Brockhaus and Efron, EntzihlopetUcheski 
Slorar, xviii. 433, St. Petersburg, 1895. 

H. K. A. S. W. 

LEVENTRITT, DAVID: American lawyer 
and judge; born at Wiuusboro, South Carolina, Jan. 
31, 1845; A.B. 1864, Free Academy (now College of 
the City of New York), and LL.B. 1871, University 
of the City of New York. He practised law in New- 
York, acting as special counsel for the city in im- 
portant condemnation proceedings; and .since Jan. 1, 
1899, he has been a justice of the Supreme Court of 
the state of New York. 

Leventritt was for a number of years vice-presi- 
dent of the Aguilar Free Library, and is associated 
with many of the Jewish charitable institutions in 
New York city. 

Bibliography: The Bench and Bar; ir/io's ir/io in Amer- 
ica, 1903- .■). 


LEVERTIN, OSKAR IVAR : Swedish poet 
and critic; born at Gryt, East Gotland, July 17, 
1862; educated at the University of Upsala (Ph.D. 
1882), where, in 1889, he was appointed docent; 
four years later he became professor of literature 
at the University of Stockholm. His early work, 
"From the Riviera: Sketches from the Coast of the 
Mediterranean," and the collections of stories, " SmS- 
mynt" and "Konflikter, Nya Noveller" (1S85), 
though realistic in tendency, are distinguished for 
exuberance of imagination. "Lifvets Fiender" 
(1891) marks a change in manner, and in "Legcnder 
och Visor," a volume of poems, he appears as a 
pronounced romanticist. These poems attracted 
much attention by their sentiment and finished form, 
and the succeeding volume, "Nya Dikter," placed 
Levertin in the front rank of Swedish romantic 
poets. His novel " Magistrarne Osteras " appeared 
also in Germany. He is also a critic and essayist, 
liis principal productions in this field being: "Teatcr 
och Drama Under Gustaf III."; "Gusfaf IIL. som 
Dramatisk Forfattare"; "Johan Welauder"; "Fran 




Gustaf III. Dagar"; "Svenska Gestaltor"; " Dik- 
tare och Drominarc " ; etc. 
s. J. YVo. 

writer; bora at Porlsea ISl'J; died at JJiiiningliam 
1873 ; daugliter of Josepli and Amelia Moss of Port- 
sea. At the age of eighteen Celia, in conjunction 
with her sister Marion, publislied a volume of 
poems bearing the title ''Early Efforts. By the 
Misses Moss of the Hebrew Nation" (1888; 2d ed. 
1839). Tile work was dedicated to ISir George [Staun- 
ton. The ne.xt joint work in which the sifters en- 
gaged was the " Homance of Jewish History " (184U). 
This was published by subscription, among the sub- 
scribers being Sir Edward Bulwer Lyttou, to whom 
the work was dedicated, and Lord Palmerston. The 
" Romance " was followed by " Tales of Jewish His- 
tory " (1843). 

The above-mentioned works were written in Lou- 
don, where the two sisters had settled in order to 
take up the profession of teacliiug. Besides pub- 
lishing various poems and short stories, the two 
sisters founded "The Sabbath Journal" (1855), 
which, however, had onl}' a brief existence. Sub- 
sequently Celia Moss married Lewis Levetus of 
Birmingham, to which city she removed, and for a 
time her literary efforts ceased. Her last work, 
"The King's Physician" (London, 1873), was writ- 
ten during the kmg and painful illness which ended 
in her deatJi. 

J. I. H. 

LEVI ("1^).— Biblical Data : Third son of Ja- 
cob by Leah and one of the twelve Patriarchs of the 
tribes of Israel; born at Padan-aram (Gen. xxix. 
34, XXXV. 23; I Chrou. ii. 1). The name is derived 
from mp (= "to be joined"; "Now this time will 
my husband be joined imto me," Gen. xxix. 34). 
Levi joined Simeon in the destruction of the She- 
chemites to avenge the honor of their sister Dinah, 
for which ])oth were severely censured by their 
father (Gen. xxxiv. 25-30). When Jacob called his 
sons together to bless them, Levi and Simeon, not- 
withstanding their plea that they had acted in de- 
fense of their sister, were again condemned (Gen. 
xxxiv. 31, xlix. 5-7). Levi had one daughter, Joeh- 
ebed, the mother of Moses, and three sons; he enu- 
grated with them to Egypt witli his father and 
brothers, and died there at the age of 137 j'ears 
(Geu. xlvi. 8, II ct serj. ; Ex. i. 1-2; ii. 1 : vi. 16, 20). 

J. M. Sel. 

In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Litera- 
ture : Levi, as ancestor of the priestly tribe chosen 
to guard the Sanctuary and the Law, appears promi- 
nently in botli ajiocryphal and rabbinical literature. 
At variance with Gen. xxix. 34 and Num. xviii. 2, 4, 
the name "Levi" is interpreted as "the one who 
joins the sons to their Father in heaven" (Gen. P. 
Ixxi. 5; see another interpretation in Ex. R. i. 4). 
He was "separated " by liis father, Jacob, in accord- 
ance witli tlie latter's vow (Gen. xxviii. 22), as the 
tenth son, either by counting from the youngest up- 
ward or by some more comiilicated process, and so 
consecrated totlie priestliood (Book of Jubilees, xxii. 
3-10: Targ. Yer. to Gen. xxxii. 25; Gen. R. Ixx. 7; 

comp. Epstein, " Mi-Kadnioniyyot ha-Yehudim," 
p. 97; comp. Pirke R. El. xxxvii., according to which 
he was consecrated by the archangel Michael). In 
the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Levi, 1-9) 
are described two visions Levi had — before and 
after he had avenged the crimes perpetrated by 
llamor, the son of Shechem. In the tirst vision he 
saw the seven heavens with all their mysterious 
contents, and after the secrets of the Messianic time 
and the Judgment Day had been dis- 
Visions. closed to him he received a sword and 
a shield with which to make war 
against the Amorites. In the vision following the 
extermination of the Sliechemitcs he beheld seven 
angels bringing him the seven insignia of the priest- 
hood, of propliecy, ami of the judgment, and after 
they had anointed liim and initiated him into the 
priesthood they disclo.sed to him the threefold glory 
of his house: the prophecj' of Moses, the faithful 
servant of the Lord ; the priesthood of Aaron, the 
high priest, and his descendants ; and the possession 
of the royal .scepter and the priestliood together (in 
the Maeeabean dynasty) after the pattern of Mel- 
chizedek: high priests, judges, and scribes. His 
grandfather Isaac instructed him in the law of God 
and in the statutes of priesthood. In Jubilees, xxxi. 
12-17, also, Levi is told by Isaac, with reference to 
John Hyrcanus, of the future greatness and three- 
fold glory of his house (see Charles, "Book of Jubi- 
lees," p. 187; comp. Targ. Yer. to Deut. xxxiii. 11). 
The twofold role in which Levi is represented in 
Deut. xxxiii. 8-11 (verse 11 originally followed verse 
7, Judah's blessing) appealed with special force to 
the age of John Hyrcanus, who was both high priest 
and warrior-king, victorious over the Gentiles. Ac- 
cordingly, in the war of the sons of Jacob against 
the Amorites, which forms a parallel to the war of 
the ^Slaccabees again,st the surrounding tribes. Levi 
also took part (see JMidr. Wayissa'u in Jellinek, 
"B. H." iii. 1-0 ; "Chronicles of Jerahmeel." p. 83, 
Gaster's transl. 1899; Jubilees, xxxiv. 1-9; Test. 
Patr., Judali, 3-5). In the Prayer of Asenatii 
Levi is desei-ibed as a prophet and saint who fore- 
casts the future while reading the heavenly writings 
and who admonishes the people to be God-fearing 
and forgiving. He was entrusted with the secret 
writings of the ancients by iiis father, Jacob, in order 
to keep them in his family for all generations to 
come (Jubilees, xlv. 16). 

The epithet " thy pious [A. V. " holy "] one " given 
to Levi, and the whole passage of Deut. xxxiii. 8- 
10, furnish the haggadic support for the characteri- 
zation of Levi, as well as of the tribe 
The Tribe, of Levi, as superior to the rest in 
piety. Accordingly it is .said (Sifre, 
Deut. 349-351: Sifre, Num. 67;"Tan., Beha'aloteka, 
ed. Buber, p. 13; Midr. Teh. to Ps. i. 14; Ex. R. xv. 
1; Num. R. iii., vii. 2. xv. 9) that in Egypt and 
in the wilderness the Levites observed the Abia- 
hamitic rite and the whole Law; in the Holy Land 
they even abstained from work in order to devote 
themselves to contemplation (Heupin) and to jjrayer 
(Tan., Wayera, ed. Buber, p. 4; Num. R. v. 1). 
In other words, they were tlie ancient Hasidim, the 
elect ones (Num. R. iii. 2. 4, 8, 11; xv. 9). Levi, 
the father of the tribe, accordingly displayed this 

Levi, Tribe of 
Levi II. 



spirit of piety in his own household; he married 
Milkah, of the daughters of x\ram, of the (holy) seed 
of the Terahites (Jubilees, xxxiv. 20: Test. Patr., 
Levi, 11). The names he gave to his sons— Gershon, 
Kehat, and ^[erari— are interpreted in the sight of 
their future destiny {ib. Levi, 11; Num. R. iii. 13). 
When his daughter Jochebed (" God giveth glory ") 
was born to him he was already "the glorified of 
God" among his brethren (Test. Patr., Levi, 11). 
J. K- 

LEVI C^^), TRIBE OF.— Biblical Data: 
The tribe of Levi was descended from the patriarch 
Levi, the third son of Jacob and Leah (Gen. xxi.x. 
34). Levi shared in Simeon's treachery toward the 
men of Shechem(Gen. xxxiv. 25-30), in consequence 
of which, it was thought, his descendants were scat- 
tered in Israel (Gen. xlix. 5-7). At the time of 
the descent into Egypt there were only three sons of 
Levi (Gen. xlvi. 11); these had become at the time 
of the Exodus a numerous tribe, which then was 
chosen for the priesthood and the service of the 
sanctuary (Ex. vi. \^ et seq.; Num. i. 49-54, iii. G 
et seq.). According to Leviticus and Numbeis a 
wide distinction existed at this time between the 
house of Aaron, which constituted the priesthood, 
antl the remainder of the Levites, to whom tiie more 
menial duties of the religious service were assigned 
(comp. Num. xvi. 8-11, and Levites). 

In the blessing of Moses, Levi is mentioned only 
in connection with priestly functions (Deut. xxxiii. 
8-11). At the settlement the Levites are said to 
have received no definite domain (Josh. xiii. 14), 
but scattered cities were as,signed them in territory 
belonging to other tribes. From the portion of 
Simeon and Judah they received Hebron, Lil)nah, 
Jattir, Esliteiiioa, Ilolon, Debir, Ain, -Juttaii, and 
Beth-shemesh : in the territory of Benjamin their 
cities were Gibcon, Geba, Anathoth, and Almon; 
from Epliraim tjicy took Shechem, Gezer, Kibzalm, 
and Beth-horon; from Dan, Eltekeh, 
Cities of Gibbethon, Aijalon, and Gath-riinmon 
Levites. (comp. I Chron. vi. 69, where two of 
these cities are ascribed to Ephraim 
and two are not mentioned); from the tribe of Ma- 
nasseh, Tanach, (Jath-rimmon, Golan, and Beeshte- 
rah; from Issachar, Kishon, Dabareh, Jarmuth, and 
En-gannim; from Asher, Mishal, Abdon, Ilelkath, 
and Kehob: from Naphtali, Kedesh, Hammoth-dor, 
and Kartan ; from Zebulun, Jokneam, Kartah, Dim- 
nah, and Nahalal : from Reuben, Bezer, Jahazali, 
Keilemotli, and Mciiliaath; and from Gad, Ramotli 
in Gilead, >hilianaim, Heshbon, and Jazer (Josh. 
xxi. 11-39: comp. I Chron. vi. 65-81). When these 
cities arc compared with those said to have been left 
to the oilier trii)es, one is impressed witii the fact 
tliat, if the Levites received all tliese, together witli 
tlicir suburbs, tkey must liave had a better and 
more commanding inheritance than had any of their 

In striking contrast with tliis splendid inheritance 
attributed to tlie Levites by.Insliuaand tlie Chronieh'i- 
is the nonappearance of tlie lA-vites in any impor- 
tant rule during the period of tlie Judges. Tiiey are 
not mentioned in tiie Smig of Dei)(>rali, nor do tliey 
appearelsewliere in Judges until the appendix, where 

two individual Levites are mentioned (comp. Judges 
xvii. 7, xviii. 30, and xix. 1). Under David and Sol- 
omon, according to the accovmts in 
In Early Samuel and Kings, the Levites exer- 
Sources. cised the priestly functions, though 
not to the exclusion of others from 
such functions. For example, Samuel, an Eplira- 
imite (I Sam. ix. 13), and the sons of David (II Sam. 
viii. 18) offered sacrifices. From this time to the 
Exile the Levitical priests held much the same 
position as they held in the time of Solomon. They 
exercised their priestly functions, but were by no 
means, except in rare instances, the dominating in- 
fluence. In the post-exilic period, as CIn-onicles, 
Ezra, and Nehemiah show, they became a domi- 
nant element in the Jewish community. 

Critical View : The problem presented by the 

Biblical data is this: What is the relation of the clan 
mentioned in such passages as Gen. xlix. 5-7 to tlie 
priests of a later time? In seeking a solution of 
this problem it should be noted that in J, the oldest 
source, the patriarch Levi merited his father's curse, 
in consequence of which the tribe was divided and 
scattered (ccmip. Gen. xxxiv. 30, 31). In narrating 
a crisis in the life of IVIoses the same writer men- 
tions the "sons of Levi" (Ex. xxxii. 26-28), but in 
such a way that the phrase may refer either to the 
descendants of the patriarch or to men who pos- 
sessed the qualities of a "levi." Later, a narrative 
that is ascribed to J by some critics (cr/., 3Ioore, 
in "S. B. O. T.") tells how a Levite of Beth-lehem- 
judah became a priest at the shrine at Dan (Judges 
xvii. 9, xviii. 30). This representation of J would 
seem to mean that misfortune overtook a clan known 
as that of Levi, that its members became scattered, 
and that they were held in such high esteem as 
priests that they gradually approjiriated the priestly 

pj has almost nothing to say of Levites. Accord- 
ing to him. apparently, iVIoses and Aaron were of 
one of the tribes of Josei)li, and he uses 
In the " Levite " to describe not the member 
Source E. of a clan, but a man especially eligi- 
ble to the priesthood, distinctly stating 
that one such man belonged to the clan Judah 
(Judges xvii. 7; comp. "S. B. O. T."). If the 
patriarch Levi was mentioned in this source, the pas- 
sage in question has not been transmitted. E, ap- 
parently, knew no such patriarch, and supjiosed that 
a priest might come from any tribe and that he re- 
ceived the designation "Levite" for other reasons 
than those of descent. 

P, the latest of the sovirces in the Pentateuch, dis- 
tinctly connects the tribe of Levi with the priest- 
hood, bridging all the gaps with extensive genealo- 
gies, dividing the various services of the sanctuary 
among the different descendants of the jiatriarch, 
and assigning to each class of descendants its re- 
spective cities in Canaan (Josh. xxi.). Of these 
three representations. P's can not he correct. The 
whole tenor of the histnry in .Indues and Samuel 
contradicts P's assertion tliat the Levites received 
all these cities at the time of the coiuiuest, as well 
as his view that the religious office was, in any ex- 
(lusive sense, in the han<ls of the Levites. Gezer, 
for example, was not in Israel's possession until the 



Levi, Tribe of 
Levi II. 

time of Solomon (I Kings ix. 16). Kecent explora- 
tion has shown it to have been the site of a great 
temple of Astarte ("Pal. E.xplor. Fund, Quarterly 
Statement," Jan., 1903, pp. 23 et scq.). 

Not in This temple, too, was on the level of 
Possession the pre-exilic Israelitish city, and may 
of Gezer. have been used liy the Hebrews of the 
period. Other Levitical cities in the 
list, like Kadesh in Naphtali, Ashtaroth in Bashan, 
and Hebron, can be proved to have been old shrines 
which in the pre-exilic period were still in use. If 
the information contained in the sources known 
were more complete, it probably could be shown 
that P's whole system of Levitical cities is a post- 
exilic explanation of the fact that important sanc- 
tuaries had existed at these points in pre-exilic 
times, and that they had thus become the centers 
where Levites resided in large numbers. 

P's whole conception is, therefore, untrustworthy. 
Pecent critics are divided in opinion, some believ- 
ing, with J, that there was actually a tribe of Levi, 
wliich became scattered and gradually absorbed 
the priestly office, others adopting the apparent 
view of E that "levi" was a general term for a 
priest, and then supposing that the existence of 
the clan Levi was assumed in order to explain the 
origin of the priestly class. Lagarde("Orientalia," 
ii. 20; "Mittheilungen," i. 54), Baudissin ("Priest- 
erthum," p. 72), and Budde ("Religion of Israel to 
the Exile," pp. 80 et seq.) may be cited as critics 
who have advocated this latter view. If Hommel 
and Sayce were consistent, they might be placed in 
the same class, for if the term came from contact 
with the Minoean Jethro, as they believe, it would 
not be found in Israel before the time of Moses. 
This inference, however, they do not draw. The 
former view (which has been called the view of J), 
that there was an actual tribe of Levi, has the sup- 
port of Wellhausen ("History of Israel," pp. 141- 
147; "Prolegomena zur Gesch. Israels," 5th ed., pp. 
137-145), Stade ("Gesch." i. 152-157), Dillmann 
("Commentary on Genesis," ii. 458; " Alttestament- 
liche Thcologie," pp. 128 et seq.), Nowack ("Lehr- 
buch der Hebrilischen Archaologie,"'ii. 92 et seq.), 
Cornill ("Hist, of Israel," p. 46), Marti (in Kayser's 
" Alttestamentliche Theologie," 3d ed., pp. 72, 95 et 
seq.), Guthe ("Gesch. des Volkes Israel," ])p. 21-47 
et seq.), and Holzinger ("Genesis," in Marti's " K. 
H. C." p. 257). 

It is probable that there was an old clan which 
was overtaken by misfortune and scattered. Sayce 
points out ("Patriarchal Palestine," p. 239) that the 
" Lui-el " of the list of Ranieses III. is parallel to 
"Joseph-el" and "Jacob-el" of Thothmes IIL'slist, 
and so may point to a habitat of the tribe of Levi. 
It is quite possible that the priestly order originated 
quite independently of this tribe, however, and 
afterward was erroneously identified with it. In 
the present state of knowledge it is impossible to 
tell whether the view of J or of E more nearly rep- 
resents the truth. 

The origin of the name " Levi " has been quite vari- 
ously explained. (1) In Gen. xxix. 34, J regards it 
as from the stem TVO ("to join "), and explains it by 
Leah's hope that her husband would now be joined 
to her. (2) Lagardc (I.e.) derives it from the same 

stem, but explains it as referring to Egyptians who, 
like Moses, attached themselves to the Israelites when 
they left Egypt. (3) Baudissin (i.e.) derives it in 
the same way, but refers it to those who were at- 
tached to, or accompanied, the ark. (4) Budde 
(I.e.) gives it the same derivation, but applies it to 
those who attached themselves to Moses in some 
great religious crisis. (5) Hommel (" Aufsatze und 
Abhandlungen," i. 30; "Siid-Arabische Chrestoma- 

thie," p. 127; "Ancient Hebrew Tra- 

Origin of dition," pp. 278 et sey.) derives it from 

Name. the ]\Iin«an "lawi'u" (= "priest"); 

with this Mordtmann (" Beitrage zur 
Minaischen Epigraphik," p. 43) and Sayce ("Early 
Hist, of the Hebrews," p. 80) agree. (6) Well- 
hausen ("Prolegomena," 5th ed., p. 141) suggests 
that it is a gentilic name formed from the name of 
Levi's mother, Leah ; in this opinion Stade (" Gesch. " 
i. 152), Gray ("Hebrew Proper Names," p. 96), Nol- 
deke (hesitatingly ; in "Z. D. M. G." xl. 167), Gunkel 
("Genesis," p. 301), and Luther (Stade 's "Zeit- 
schrift," xxi. 54) concur. (7) Jastrow ("Jour. Bib. 
Lit." xi. 120 et seq.) connects "Levi" with "Laba" 
of the El-Amarna tablets. " Laba " he connects with 
the word ^'2^3 (" lion "), thus making Levi the " lion " 
tribe. (8) Skipwith (in "J. Q. R." xi. 264) connects 
"Levi" with "leviathan," making it refer to the 
coils of the serpent. This variety of opinion illus- 
trates and emphasizes the present uncertainty con- 
cerning the origin and existence of the tribe, which 
results from the scanty evidence. 

Bibliography: In addition to the works already cited, see 
Graf, Gesch. des Stnmnies Levi, in Merx, Archiv, i. 68-10(3, 
308-236; Hiimmelauer, Da.i VDrmosni.sclic Pricstertlnim in 
Israel ; Eduard Meyer, Gesch. des Altertum.% i. 377 et seq. 

E. G. H. G. A. B. 

LEVI I. See Levi b. Sisi. 

LEVI II. : Palestinian scholar of the third cen- 
tury (third amoraic generation); contemporary of 
Ze'era I. and Abba b. Kahana (Yer. Ma'as. iii. 51a). 
In a few instances he is quoted as Levi b. Lahma 
(Hama; comp. Yer. R. H. iv. 59a with R. H. 29b; 
Yer. Ta'an. ii. 65a with Ta'an. 16a; see Rabbino- 
vicz, " Dikduke Soferim," to Ber. 5a, Ta'an. I.e. ,Zeb. 
53b). In later midrashim the title "Berabbi" is 
sometimes added to his name (Pesik. R. xxxii. 147b; 
Num. R. XV. 10; Tan., Beha'aloteka, 6; comp. 
Pesik. xviii. 135a; Tan., I.e. ed. Buber, p. 11; see 
Levi b.\u Sisi). He quotes halakic and homiletic 
utterances by many of his predecessors and contem- 
poraries ; but as he (juotes most frequently those of 
Hama b. Hanina, it may be conjectured that he was 
the hitter's pupil, though probably he received in- 
struction at Johanan's acadeni}- also. In this acad- 
emy he and Judah b. Nahman w'ere alternately en- 
gaged to keep the congregation together until 
.Tohauan's arrival, and each was paid for his services 
two "selas" a week. On one occasion Levi ad- 
vanced the theory that the propliet Jonah was a 
descendant of the tribe of Zebulun, deducing proof 
from Scripture. Soon after Johanan lectiired on the 
same subject, but argued that Jonah was of the 
tribe of Asher. The next week being Judah's turn 
to lecture, Levi took his place and reverted to the 
([uestion of Jonali's descent, proving that both 
Johanan and himself were right: on his father's 

Levi II. 

Levi ben Abraham 



side Jonah was desceuck-d lioni Zcbulun: <mi liis 
niotliei-'s, from Asher. Tliis skilful balancing of 
tlicir opposing opinions so pleased 
Views Johanan that he doclarod Levi capa- 
About blu of tilling an independent lecture- 
Jonah, siiip, and for twenty-two years tliere- 
after Levi successfully tilled sucli an 
office (Gen. 11. -xcviii. 11; Yer Suk. v. 55a). This 
incident seems to indicate lli.a Levi's earlier years 
were spent in poverty: later, liowever, he seems to 
have been better circumstanced, for he became in- 
volved in litigations about some houses and con- 
sulted Johanan on tlie case (Yer. Hanh. iii. 21d). 

Levi's name but rarely appears in halakic litera- 
ture, and then mostly in connection with some Scrip- 
tural phrase supporting the dicta of others (see Yer. 
Ber. i. 2c. 3d ct seq. ; Yer. Ter. iv. 42d [wliere his 
patronymic is erroneously given as "Hina'']). In 
the Hag!,^adah, on the contrary, he is one of the 
most frequently cited. In this province he became 
so famous tliat" halakists like Ze'era I., who had no 
special admiration for the haggadist (Ver. Ma'as. 
iii. 51a), urged their disciples to frequent Levi's lec- 
tures and to listen to them attentively, for "it was 
impossible that he wouid ever close a lecture with- 
out sayinsr sometliing in.structive " (Yer. K. H. 
iv. 59b; Yer. Sanh. ii. 20b). In these 
Fame as lectures he would frequently advance 
Haggadist. different interpretations of one and the 
same text, addressing one to scholars 
and the other to tiie masses (Gen. R. xliv. 4; Eccl. 
R. ii. 2). Sometimes he would discuss one subject 
for months in succession. It is reported that for six 
mouths he lectiurd on I Kiugs x.\i. 25— "There was 
none like unto Ahab, Avhich did sell himself to work 
wickedness in the sight of the Lord." Then he 
dreamed that Ahab appeared to him and remon- 
strated with him: "Wlierein have I sinned against 
thee and how have I offended thee that thou 
shouldst continually dwell on that part of the verse 
which refers to my wickedness and disregard the 
last part, which sets forth the mitigating circum- 
stance— 'whom Jezebel his wife stirred up'V" 
(nnon = " instigated," "incited "). During the six 
months following, therefore, Levi spoke as Ahab's 
defender, lecluring from the same verse, but omit- 
ting the mi(hlle clause (Yer. Sanh. x. 28b). 

Levi divided all haggadisis into two classes: those 
who can string ])earls (i.e., cite apposite texts) but 
can not ))erforate them {i.e., jienetrate tlie depths of 
Seiiiiliire). an<l those who can jxiforate but can not 
string them. Of himself, he said that he was skilled 
in both arts (Cant. H. i. 10). Once, however, he so 
provoked Abba b. Kahana by what was a palpable 
misinterpretation that the lattei' called 
String of him "liar" and "fabricator." IJut it 
Pearls. is authoritatively a<lded that tiiis hap- 
liened once only (Gen. R. xlvii. U). 
lie and Abb;i were? lifelong friends, and tin; latter 
manifested his admiration for his colleague's exe- 
gesis by pul)li(ly kissing him (Yer. Hr)r. iii. 4H(). 

To render Scrijitural terms more intelligible Levi 
fretpuMitly used ])arallels from cognate dialects, 
especially froni Arabic ((Jen. R. Ixxxvii. 1; Ex. \\. 
xlii. 4; Cant. R. iv. 1); and to elucidate his s\ibject 
he would cite popidar proverbs and compose fables 

and parables. Thus, connnenting on Ps. vii. 15 
(A. V. 14), "He . . . hath conceived mischief, and 
brought forth falsehood," he says: "The Holy One 
having ordered Noali to admit into the ark pairs of 
every species of living beings. Falsehood applied, 
but Noah refused to admit him unless he brought 
witli him hismate. Falsehood then retired losearch 
for a mate. Meeting Avarice, he inquired, ' Whence 
comest thou?' and on being told that he too had . 
been refused admission into the ark because ho had 
no mate. Falsehood proposed that they present 
themselves as mates. But Avarice would not agree- 
to this without assurance of material gain; where- 
upon Falsehood promised him all his earnings, and 
Avarice repeated the condition agreed ujion. After 
leaving the ark Avarice approjuiated all of False- 
hood's acquisitions, and when the latter demanded 
some share of Ins own. Avarice replied, ' Have we 
uotagreed tliatall thy earniygs shall be mine? ' This 
is the lesson : Falsehood begets falsehood " (Midr. 
Teh. to Ps. vii. 15; Hamburger [" R. B. T." s.r. 
" Fabel "] erroneously ascribes this fable and several 
others to Levi bar Sisi). Levi became known among 
Ills contemporaries as ^{nyOL•^ NID (= " uiaster of 
traditional exegesis"; Gen. R. Ixii. 5). 

BHii.iociR.VPHV: Bacher, Aij. Pal. Amor. ii. 29t)-43ti; Frankel, 
M<liii,\). Ula; Hei\pr\\\.Sr<U I- lia-D(>r(it,n.<s.v. Levi /).i»i.'<(, 
with whiiiii he erroneously identities Levi II.; Weiss, Dor, iii. 
s. s. S. M. 

LEVI, AARON. See Moxtezinos, Antonio. 

LEVI, ABRAHAM: German traveler; born at 
Horn, ill the principality of Lippe, in 1702: died at 
Amsterdam Feb. 1, 1785. At the age of live he 
was sent to Brog, near Lemgo, for the sake of his 
studies, and he stayed there till 1714, when he re- 
turned home. He then acquired a ])assion for travel- 
ing, and in 1719, when only seventeen years old, he 
detinitely left the parental home in order to execute 
his plan. 

Levi traveled through Germany, Bohemia. Mora- 
via, Hungary, Austria, iind the whole of Italy. Full 
of youthful ardor, he did not leave unnoticed the 
most trivial circumstance. He mentions among 
other things the synagogues of Frankfort, and the 
riches of his relative Samson Wertheimer of Vi- 
enna. He wrote an account of his travels in Judao- 
Gernian (imblished by Roestin"Isr. Letterbode "), 
adding a Hebrew poem describing ten of the most 
noteworthy events and giving an acrostic on his 
name. The poem is followed liy explanatory notes, 
also in Hebrew. Levi's narrative is interesting in 
that it gives statistics and customs of the Jews in 
small localities not mentioned by other historians 
or travelers. 

nilii.iO(iKAiMiv : Uofst, In hr. Litttrhoik, x. 148 et seq. 
^ v;. M. Skt,. 


French iik yeloliedisl ; cliaiiipion of the liberal party 
in Provence in the struggh' for the study of secular 
sciences; born at Villefranehe-de-Confliient, Rous- 
sillon, between 1240 and 1250; died at or near Aries 
soon after 1315. He was deseeiiiled from a schol- 
arly family. His father. Ar.UAii.vM jjkn H.wyi.m, 
was a syuagogal poet, and rabbi in Narbonne. 



Levi II. 

Levi ben Abr-aham 

which place he left about 1240 to settle finally in 
Villefianche. Levi's uncle Reuben ben Hayyim, 
also, like his grandfather, was a scholar. A son of 
this Reuben ben Hayyim was, probably, Samuel ben 
Reuben of Beziers, who took Levi's part, altliough 
in vain, in his conflict with the ortluxlox party in 
Provence. Levi himself was the maternal grand- 
father of the philosopher Levi ben Ger.shon of 

Levi ben Abraham was instructed in Bible and 
Talmud, and in secular sciences as well, and was 
soon drawn into the rationalistic current of the 
time. One of his teachers was a certain R. Jacob, 
whom he cites as his authority for an astronomical 
explanation, ami wlio may have been Jacob ben 
Machir ibn Tibbon. It is probable. 
Life. also, that Levi was instructed by 
his uncle Reuben ben Hayyim, from 
whom he quotes an explanation of Gen. i. 3 (Vati- 
can MS. cxcii. 56b). 

Levi left his native city (probably on account of 
poverty, which oppressed him almost throughout 
his life;, remained for a short time in Perpignau, and 
then went to Montpellier, where, in 1276, he was 
engaged in literary pursuits, and earned a scanty 
living by teaching languages and lecturing. Dur- 
ing the heat of the controversy over the study of 
secular sciences lie was at Xarbonne, in the house of 
tlie wealthy Samuel Sulami, who was prominent 
both as a poet and a scholar. Levi enjoyed his 
hospitality until, yielding to the pressure of the 
opposing party, represented especially by Solomon 
ben Adret, Samuel Sulami asked his guest to leave. 
The latter then sought shelter with his cousin Sam- 
uel ben Reuben in Beziers (see "Minhat Kena'ot," 
No. 41), but was persecuted, apparently, even there. 
He was excommuuicated by tlie orthodox party, 
yet, after the conflict was over, in 1315, he found 
rest and quiet at Aries, where he remained until his 
death. He has been identified by some with Levi 
of Perpignan, whom Judah Mosconi, in his super- 
commentary to Ibn Ezra, characterizes as one of the 
most prominent of scholars (see Berliner's "Maga- 
zin," iii. 148 [Hebr. part, p. 41]). 

Steinschneider points out that a large portion of 
the scientific works written in Arabic were made 
accessible in Hebrew translations in 
Works. the first half of the thirteenth century, 
and that the entire realm of knowledge 
began to be treated in encyclopedias in the second 
half of the same century. Levi ben Abraham wrote 
two such encyclopedic works, which show the 
range of knowledge of an educated rationalistic 
Provencal Jew of that period. The first of these is 
the "Batte ha-Nefesh welia-Lehashim," the title of 
which is taken from Isa. iii. 20. It is a rimed com- 
pendium, didactic in tone, of the various sciences, in 
ten chapters and 1,846 lines, with a few^ explanatory 
notes and a preface, also in rimed prose. In the 
preface to this work, which is frequently foimd in 
manuscripts. Levi demonstrates the usefulness of 
his compendium by pointing out the difficulties 
which those who are not well acquainted with gen- 
eral literature must surmount in order to acquire a 
knowledge of the sciences, which are scattered 
through all sorts of books. He had long cherished 

the thought of compiling an encyclopedia, but had 
always been deterred by the fear that the task 
would prove beyond his power; at last, in 1276, 
strength Avas promised him in a vision, whereupon 
he began the work at Montpellier. 

Levi was compelled, by the nature of the work, 
to limit himself to giving the conclusions of the 
chief authorities, particularly of Mai- 
His Ency- monides, wiiom he follows step by 
clopedia. step. Cli. i. treats of ethics. In tlie 
paragraphs treating of the history of 
the diffusion of learning, the author expresses the 
view that the Greeks and Arabs derived almost 
their entire scientific culture from the ancient 
Hebrews, a theory whicli justified the reading of 
Greco-Arabic ideas into the Bible (Steinschneider). 
The following chapters treat of logic (ii.), the 
Creation (iii.), the soul (iv.), prophecy and the Mes- 
sianic period (v. ; the coming of the ^Messiah will oc- 
cur in the year 1345), the mystic theme of the 
"Merkabah," the divine throne-chariot (vi.), num- 
bers (vii.), astronomy and astrology (viii.), physics 
(ix.), and metaphysics (x.). After the author him- 
self had found it necessary to provide the difficult 
verses with explanatory notes (which are not found 
in all the manuscripts), Solomon de Lunas. proba- 
bly identical with Solomon ben IMenahem Prat (or 
Porat), wrote, about 1400. a commentary to the 
"Batte ha-Nefesh weha-Lehashim." 

The second Avork of Levi was the '• LiAvyat Hen " 
or"Sefer ha-Kolel," a "comprehensive book" (en- 
cyclopedia). The dates of its beginning and com- 
pletion are unknoAvn, but it must have been Avritten 
before the outbreak of the controversy mentioned 
above. It is divided into two "pillars," 
His called "Jachin" and "Boaz" (after I 

" Liwyat Kings vii. 21), the first containing five 
Hen." treati-ses, and the second one. Since 
no complete manuscript of this AVork 
has yet been discovered, any analysis of its contents 
is naturally uncertain. According to Steinschneider, 
its six treatises are as folloAvs: (1) logic or arithme- 
tic (?): (2) geometry; (8) astronomy and astrology; 
(4) physics (?), psychology, and the "theory of intel- 
lect"; (5) metaphysics; (6) theology, prophecy, the 
mysteries of the LaAV, and belief and tiie Creation. 
In the third treatise, the most complete (Paris j\IS. 
No. 1047; Varican MS. No. 383; Neubauer. "Cat. 
Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2028, and additamenta), the 
astrological Avritings of Abraham ibn Ezra are sla- 
vishly followed, and the prediction is made that the 
Messiah Avill appear in the year 1345. The last, or 
theological, treatise, Avhich is extant at Oxford 
(Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." Nos. 1285. 
2023), Parma (MS. de Rossi No. 1346). and Rome 
(Vatican 3IS. No. 2893), natm-ally had a greater 
circuhirion, and, on account of the author's ration- 
alistic interpretarion of the Scriptures, aroused nmch 
more opposition than the other sections of the work, 
Avhich aimed at nothing original and included only 
Avhat could be found eisewliere. 

The teachings Avhicli Levi ben Abraham promul- 
gated, both by pen and by speech, although not 
original Avith him, naturally aroused the anger of 
the orthodox. In his'hands Abraham and Sarah be- 
came symbols of " matter " and " intellect " ; the four 

Levi ben Abraham 
Levi, David 



kings against whom Abraliam went to war repre- 
sented the four faculties of man ; Joshua's miracles 
were symbolically interpreted: they were not ac- 
tual occurrences; the possibility of a supernatural 
revelation was doubted ; and there were other and 
similar doctrines that poisoned the naively credulous 
and religious mind. 

Orthodox resentment was first shown at Narbonne, 
where Levi was residing in the house of Samuel 
Sulami. It mattered little that Levi " Avas in general 
very reserved and was communicative only to those 
who shared his views" ("Minhut Keua'ot," No. 
121), and that it was not known with 
Opposition certainty whether he was to be reck- 
to His oned among the ortliodox or among 
Views. the heretics; nor yet that he always 
put off Don Vidal Crescas, who, al- 
though he opposed his teachings, was his personal 
friend, and had often, but vainly, asked him for his 
writings. Equally imavailing were liis observance 
of the ceremonial law and his pretense that he occu- 
pied himself with philosophical questions only for 
the sake of being able to cope with heretics {ib. No. 
14). Poverty compelled Levi, "who was born un- 
der an unlucky star," to teach at this dangerous and 
critical period and thereby spread his doctrines. 
Solomon ben Adret, therefore, then the champion 
of the orthodox party, felt constrained to attack 
this "'arch -here tic, condemned by the voices of all." 
" A Moiiammedan is dearer far to me than this man," 
he wrote (ib. No. 14; see J. Perles, "R. Salomo ben 
Abraham ben Adereth," p. 25), " who is not ashamed 
to say openly that Abraham and the other patriarchs 
have ceased to exist as real personages and that their 
places liave been filled by philosophical concepts. 
. . . Levi and his adherents are enemies not only of 
Judaism, but of every positive religion." In his re- 
ply to Levi's letter, in which the latter endeavored 
to clear himself of the charges brought against liim, 
Solomon ben Adret advised Levi in friendly terms 
to confine himself to Talnnidic sciences; this Levi 
plainly did not wish to do, and thus he brought ex- 
comnnmication upon himself. 

Levi expanded and revised his "Liwyat Hen" in 
Sept., 1315, at Aries, and tlie manuscript (Vatican 
MS. No. cxcii.) Avas discovered by Steinschneider 
(••llcbr. Bibl." 1869, p. 24). 

In addition to these works Levi wrote three others 
— "Sodot ha-Torah," "Sefer ha-Tekunah," and an 
astrological treatise. Tiie "Sodol ha-Torah" (Paris 
MS. No. 1066), which probably was an exposition 
of the mysteries contained in tlie Ten Command- 
ments, and wliicii was written before 1276, is said 
to be lost, but it was probably incorporated, in a 
revised form, in his "Liwyat Hen." The "Sefer 
lia-Tekunah." on astronomy and chronology, con- 
sisted of forty chapters and was written in 1276. 
Tlie treatise on predictive astrology is entitled 
"Sha'ar lia-Arba'im be-Kohot ha-Kokabim," "the 
fortieth chapter " of the preceding book, although 
it forms a separate work. They were edited at the 
same time. The great dcpendrnce on Abraham ibn 
Ezra's astrological opinicms shown in this treatise 
woidd suggest that it may be the compendium 
which Levi is Siiid to have made of Ibn Ezras 
works. All these smaller treatises seem to have been 

merely preparatory to the "Liwyat Hen," in which 
they are used. 

Bibliography: Carmoly, La France Israelite, p. 46; A. Gel- 
frer, in Ozar Nchmad, ii. 94 et seq.; idem, in He-Haluz, 1i. 
13 ct scij.: Griitz, Gesch. vii. 219, 233; Gross, in MoiiaU- 
.sf/iriff, 1879, p. 428; idem, Gallia Jndaica, pp. 8:3. 199. 329, 
465 ; Renan-Neubauer, Les Rahbins F7-an^ai«, pp. 628 ef .seg.. 
6.58 et scq.; J. Perles, R.Sahimo hciiAhraham hfu Adcrctii, 
pp. 13, 22 et seq., 70; Steinschneider, in Erscli and (iriiber, 
Encjic. section ii., part 4:3, pp. 294 et xeq. (where all the pre- 
vious literature on the subject is given). 

J. 31. Sc. 

LEVI, BENEDIKT : German rabbi ; born at 
AVorms Oct. 14, 1806 ; died at Giessen April 4, 1899 ; 
son of Samuel Wolf Levi, a member of the San- 
hedrin of Paris and rabbi of Mayence from 1807 
until his death in 181H. Beuedikt Levi, who was 
destined for a rabbinical career, received his early 
Talmudic education from Rabbis Gumpel Weis- 
mann, Epliraim Kastel, and Lob Ellinger. Hav- 
ing prepared himself under the tuition of Michael 
Creizcnach, he entered the University of Wi'irz- 
burg (1824) and attended at the same time the lec- 
tures on Talmud of Abraham Bing, rabbi in tliat 
city. Three years later he entered the University 
of Giessen, where he took the degree of Ph.D. 
When A. A. Wolf was called from Giessen to Copen- 
hagen, Levi was appointed (1829) his successor, re- 
maining in that rabbinate for sixty-seven years. 

Levi, who was an advocate of moderate Reform, 
published, in addition to various addresses and ser- 
mons, the essays "Beweis der Zulassigkeit des 
Deutschen Choralgesanges mit Orgelbegleitung 
beim Sabbathlichen Gottesdienste der Synagoge " 
(in Weiss's "Archiv fiir Kircheurecht," 1833; re- 
published separately, Offenbach, 1833) and "Das 
Programm der Radicalen Reformgemeinde Giessens 
Beleuchtet" (Giessen, 1848). Several minor tiea- 
rises by him appeared in " Allg. Zeitung des Juden- 
thums," "Der 'Volkslehrer," and other periodicals. 

Bibliography: Kavserling, nUiUnthck JVul. Kanzclralner, 
ii. 25-39; AllQ. Zeit. des Jud. pp. 63, 173 et xeq. 
s. M. K. 

LEVI, BORACH (Joseph Jean Frangois 

Elie) : Convert to Chiistiaiiity ; born at Hagenau 
in 1721 ; son of a Jewisii commissary. He went to 
Paris in March, 1751, to follow up a lawsuit, and 
while there became a convert to Christianity, and 
was baptized Aug. 10, 1752. He attempted to win 
over his wife, whom he had left behind at Hagenau, 
but she refused, thougli she was forced by tiie law 
of the time to surrender her two daughters; thej' 
were baptized ten years afterward. He endeavored 
to gain permission to marry again, though he re- 
fused to give a Jewish bill of divorce to his wife. 
He obtained from the bishops of Verdun and Metz 
canonical ojiinions that a baptized Jew might marry 
a Christian if his wife refuses to be converted witli 
him, and he attempted to get tiie cure of his town 
to cry the banns for his marriage with one Anne 
Thaevert. The cure refused, and a long series of 
lawsuits ensued. The whole question of the valid- 
ity of a Jewish marriage was raised, and the tech- 
nical ditllculty which presented itself to the canonical 
lawyers was the possibility of Levi's wife becoming 
Christian after he had married a Christian woman. 
Parliament refused to give him relief (Jan. 2. 1758). 



Levi ben Abraham 
JLevi, David 

No more is known of him, though several legal 
memorials were written ou the curious case. 

Bibliography: Isidore Loeb, in Annuairc de la Societe des 
Etudes Juives, 1884, pp. 275-334. 

LEVI, CARLO: Italian physiologist; born at 
Genoa March 26, 1866; educated at the University 
of Modena (M.D. 1889). In 1888 he was appointed 
tutor, and later assistant professor, of experimental 
physiology at the University of Modena; in 1893 
he assumed charge of the classes in special physiol- 
ogy, and in 1897 of the classes in histology, at the 
veterinary college connected with the same institu- 
tion. In 1904 he was appointed editor of "L'Idea 
Sionista"; he is also vice-president of the Modena 
chapter of the Dante Alighieri Society. He has 
written papers on Jewish medical statistics, on phj's- 
ical culture, and on other scientific subjects for va- 
rious periodicals, including the " Congresso Medico 
Internazionale di Roma" (1894) and the "Congresso 
Internazionale di Fisiologia a Torino" (1901), and 
has publislied lectures on experimental, technical, 
and veterinary physiology. 

s. U. C. 

LEVI, DAVID : Italian poet and patriot ; born 
at Chieri 1816; died at Venice Oct. 18, 1898. Edu- 
cated at the Jewish schools of his native town and 

Vercelli, he for a short 
time followed a mercan- 
tile career. In 1835 he 
went to the University of 
Parma, and later to that 
of Pisa, but he had to leave 
the latter on account of a 
duel in which he wound- 
ed a fellow student whom 
he had challenged for hav- 
ing made an insulting re- 
mark about the Jews. 
Having passed his exam- 
ination as doctor of law, 
he went in 1839 to Paris. 
The university ideals of a 
David Levi. united, free Italy had 

found a strong follower 
in Levi, who had become a member of the Irre- 
dentist society La Giovane Italia. In Paris he be- 
longed to the circle of Italian patriots; and, on 
returning to Italy, lie soon became one of the lead- 
ers in the political movement for the secession of 
northern Italy from Austria and for the union of all 
the Italian states. 

Settling in Venice, Levi took part in the Lom- 
bardic rebellion against Austria of 1848-49. In 1850 
he removed to Turin. After the Franco-Italian-Aus- 
trian war of 1859, when the Italian provinces of 
Austria were united with the Italian kingdom (1860), 
he was elected to the Italian assembly at Florence, 
where as a member of the Liberal party lie cham- 
pioned the cause of equality of rights and religious 
freedom. He was a member of the National As- 
sembly until 1879, when, being defeated, he retired 
from politics. 

Levi wrote many poems, especially during his 
sta}' at Venice, and a large number of political and 

war songs, among these the well-known ode to Pope 
Pius IX., who in 1846, upon his election to the 
papal chair, was hailed as liberator, but who in 1849 
changed his jtolitical views and became strongly re- 
actionary. Through all Levi's works his great love 
for Italy and for Judaism is evident. 

Levi was tlie author of: "Patria ed Affetti " 
(Venice, 1849), a collection of poems; "Gli Martiri 
del 1799 "(Turin, 1850), a drama; " Martirio e Re- 
denzione " {ib. 1859); "Del Navarra a Magenta" {ib. 
1866; revised ed., 1884, with a fantastic allegorical 
dialogue as a second part); "Vita di Pensiero" 
(Milan, 1875); "Vita d'Azione" (Turin, 1882); "II 
Semitismo " (ib. 1884) ; " La Mente di Michelangelo " 
{ib. 1890); "Giordano Bruno" {ib. 1894). 

Levi's principal work, however, is the great 
drama " II Profeta." Its theme Levi describes in his 
introduction as follows: "I intend to hold a mirror 
before my contemporaries, in which they maj' see 
their errors, faults, and mistakes, and thereby learn 
to despise them ; at the same time placing before 
them a high ideal, which the}"^ should strive to live 
up to." To this end he selected the story of Jere- 
miah. The drama treats in five acts of the war be- 
tween Zedekiah and Nebuchadnezzar. Jeremiah 
foresees the fall of Jerusalem, if the people do not 
give up their worship of Baal, repent of their sins, 
and return to the onl}' true God. Jeremialt the 
prophet and Ananias, the priest of Baal, respect- 
ively exhort and try to persuade the king and 
the Jews to follow them. Ananias is successful; 
Jeremiali is thrown into prison ; and Jerusalem falls 
when attacked by the invading army. The Temple 
is destroyed, and the Jews are led into captivity. 
Jereiniah's prophecy is fulfilled. 

When Jeremiah is thrown into prison his daughter 
Racliel falls into the hands of Ananias, who tries to 
win her for himself. His suit proving unsuccessful, 
he orders her to be sacrificed to Moloch, when God 
intercedes. Lightning kills Ananias, and RacJtel is 
liberated by her lover, Emanuel. The last words of 
Ananias are: "Uno lufinito hai vinto " (end of Act 
3). Emanuel joins the ranks of the defender of Je- 
rusalem, is mortally wounded, and dies in the arms 
of his beloved. Spiritually Jewdom has conquered 
over heathendom, and Rachel has returned pure 
to her lover; but physically Jewdom is defeated. 
Rachel loses her lover and must go into exile ; tliis 
exile will, however, purify not the Jews alone, but 
through them the world, and will prepare man for 
a better future. 

The dialogue which follows the drama in the 1884 
edition has very little connection with it. It is sus- 
tained by Emanuel, the representative of prophet- 
ism, and by Ahamierns, the representative of man- 
kind, and treats mainlj^ of Rome. 

Bibliography: S. H. MarRiilies, DicliUr und Patriot, Berlin, 
1896; Levi's own works. Vita di Pensiero and Vita d'Azi- 
one, as above. 
s. F. T. H. 

LEVI, DAVID: Hebraist and author; born in 
London 1742; died 1801. He was destined by his 
parents for the rabbinate; but the design was aban- 
doned, and lie was apprenticed to a shoemaker. 
Subsequently he set up in business for himself as a 
hatter; but, meeting with considerable losses, he 

Levi, David 
Levi ben Gershon 



abandoued this business and tunit'd liis attuutiou to 
dressing tlie material for men's hats. Meantime lie 
continued to pursue liisstudiesin Hebrew, especially 
in the Propliets. 

From 17«3 to 1797 Levi was busily engaged in 
issuing a seriesof works (a list of which is given be- 
low) dealing with Jewish theology, grammar, and 
ritual. He rendered great services to the London 
Jews in translating their prayers into English and in 
vindicatini;- tlicir faith against the onslaughts of Di'. 

Priestley and Thomas 
Paine. His works pre- 
sent a remarkable in- 
stance of industry and 
]K'rseverance under ad- 
verse conilitions. Dur- 
ing the latter part of 
his life he followed the 
business of a printer. 

Among Levi's liter- 
ary works were : " Rites 
and Ceremonies of the 
Jews "(London, 1783); 
•'Lingua Sacra" (3 
vols., 1785-87), a He- 
brew dictionary and 
granunar ; letters to 
Dr. Pi-iestley (1787-89) 
in reply to the latter's 
"Letters to tlie Jews"; "Tlie Pentateuch in He- 
brew and English" (1789). He wrote also "Trans- 
lations of the Hebrew Prayers and Services into 
English " (1789-93), which lie imdertook at the re- 
quest of the representatives of the Portuguese Jews ; 
"Dissertations on the Prophecies" (vol. i. 1793). In 
controversy with believers and unbelievers he wrote 
"Letters to i\Ir. TIalhcd on the Subject of the Proph- 
ecies of Brothers" (17i*o) and "Letters to Thomas 
Paine, in Answer to His ' Age of Reason ' " (New 
York, 1797). Here he attemjits to show that the 
divine mission of the Propliets is fidly established 
by the present dispersion of the Jews. In 1794 
he pul)lished a translation of the Seder service. 

Levi was also poet in ordinar}- to the synagogue, 
and furnished odes when required on several public 
celebrations, as, for instance, on the king's escape 
from assassination in 1795. 

BiBi.iOfjRAPiiY : Jrif. CIniiii. Sept. :!. Id. 189ti; Lysons, Kiiri- 
rioin iif Liiiidiiii. Suppli'iiifiit. p|). 4:*)-4:iI ; Kxirnpraii M(i(ia- 
ziiif. May. K'.iil; Miwairs i,f H. (Jnlilsmiil ; riccinllo, 
Shflchviftif Aimb>-J<:ui.sli Histurn, pp. :.'28, :.':.'!} ; l)iit.Niit. 

' G. L. 

LEVI, EUGENIA: Italian authoress; born 
Nov. 21, isOl, at I'adua; educated in that city, and 
in Florence and llanovei'. In 1885 she was aji- 
pointed i.rofcssor at the Royal High School for 
Young Ladies at Florence. 

She lias written many cs.says and studies for the 
Italian journals and has |)ublislied the following 
works: "Rieorditi," anthology of Italian jjrosaists 
and i)oets from Dante Aligliieri to Giosue Carducci 
(Florence, 1888; 5th ed. 1899); "Dai Nostri Poeti 
Vivenii" (Florence, 1891; 2d ed. 1896); "DaiGior- 
nale di Lia" (Rome, 1892); " Ranmientiamocci " 
(Florence. 1893); "Dante . . . di Giornoiu Gioruo" 

(ib. 1894; 3d ed. 1898), a collection of quotations 
from Dante; "Pensieri d'Amore " {ib. 1894; 3d ed. 
1900); "Fiorita di Canti Tradizionali del Popololta- 
]iano"(«i. 1895); " Deutsch," a translation of stand- 
ard German works {ib. 1899). 

s. F. T. II. 

LEVI fiEN GERSHON (RaLBaG, ( cmmonly 
called Gersonides ; known also as Leon de Bag- 
nols, and in Latin as Magister Leo Hebraeus) : 
French pliilosoi^her, exegete, mathemalician, and 
physician; born at Bagnols in 1288; died April 20, 
1344. Abraham ZacutoC Yuhasin,"ecl. Filipowski, 
]i. 224) states that Levi died at Perpignan in 1370; 
but the exact date of his death is given as above bj' 
Petrus of Alexandria, who translated in 1345 a note 
by Levi on the conjunction of Saturn Avith Jupiter 
(see Steinschneider in "Ilebr. Bibl.'" vii. 83-84). 
"Gershuui," the Hebrew equivalent of "Gersoni- 
des," was first used to designate Levi b. Gershon 
by David Messer Leon {r. 1500). Levi was a de- 
scendant of a family of scholars. According to 
Zacuto (/.c. ), his father was Gershon b. Solomon, 
the author of " Slia'ar ha-Shamayim " (but see Stein- 
schneider, "Ilebr. Uebers." p. 9, and Gross, "Gallia 
Judaica," p. 94); according to Zacuto (^<".). I'"i 
Yal.iya ("Shalshelet ha-Ivabbalali," p. 83, AVarsaw, 
1889), Conforte ("Kore ha-Dorot," p. 19a), and Azu- 
lai ("Shem ha-Gedolim,"i.), Nahmanides was Levi's 
maternal grandfather. As Levi himself, in his com- 
mentary on the Pentateuch (on Ex. xxxiv. 9), quotes 
Levi ha-Kohen as his grandfather, and as Levi b. 
Gershon is not known to have been a priest, this 
Levi ha-Kohen was apparently his mother's father. 
It was therefore suggested by Carmoly (Jost's " Aii- 
nalen," i. 86) that Nahmanides was the maternal 
grandfather of Levi's father. Levi was doubly re- 
lated to Simon b. Zemah Duran. Besides being a 
cousin of Judah Deleslils, Duran's grandfather, he 
married the hitter's sister (Duran, "Tashbez," i.. 
No. 134; see Steinschneider, "Hebr. Bibl." ^c). 

Very little is known of Levi's life beyond the fact 
that he lived now in Orange, now in Avignon, now 
in a town called in Hebrew 31TXn "l'y = "the city 
of]) " (comp. Isidore lioeb in " R. E. J." i. 72 
i't scr;., who identifies the last-named town with 
Orange). In spite of Ben Adret's ban on those 
who taught philosophy to the young, Levi was 
early initiated into all its branches; and he was 
not thirty years old when he began to write the 
•• Milliaiuot Adonai," the philosophical work which 
brought him so much renown. Isaac de Lattcs 
(Preface to " Sha'are Ziyyon ") writes: "The great 
prince, our nuister Levi b. Gershon, was the author 
of many valuable works. He wrote 
His Versa- a coinmentaiy on the Bible and the 
tility. Talmud; and in idl branches of sci- 
ence, especially in logic, physics, meta- 
]ihysics, mathematics, and medicine, he has no equal 
on earth." Though a distinguished 'I'almudist, Levi 
never held a rabbinical ollice. He earned a liveli- 
hood most probably by the practise of medicine. 

In his commentary on the Bible, Levi makes 
frecpient comparisons of Hebrew and Arabic 
words, while lie speaks of Latin as the language 
of tiie Christians (conunentary on I Sam. xvi. 6). 
Neubauer (" Les Ecrivains Juils Fran(,ais." ]>. 249) 



too O'sSnTm jrvsixjS inn anio rT-o ir7»-« 

Sr n-ri ::*^XJ n:53 p nt o:? "jciiTr^an^ a';^^^; 

7\i^ ^ 0*0" onnjTitj"^;} ISO nao-) aw'W v^» 
-"Jim ^^■^> ':3« «')?' iO« "J-p Trir^^ r''^^ 


-iS nS WIS! 

S» "COST nSx3 cnr w' ^^5 sJ "■^"ii.'^i ■ 2"J"wn")S 
"^j "j-j^xjS o'TiW T^n^T'o o';jr:JJ i["i,nr^S3 v3 

rri"):; "^nS oSgTWT sn rnn:o'W'o:3')pnnji' 

■-:5n ciTS7nn3-:nSawrp?ir)'S3-in7ic-;pra 

;-'©c'ip%3if^"0''^s«''3-'o*s'^ •";^%;7i:> 
j.rrTtpa rr^rnrc-nr -;(•■» en -ip: r '-J^ri-j 

n cTpra -^Ss "'0?;?l?> yis^ ?^*:^ c.'li :nn*cc;:5n 
'in? pSnr -sort' 0^5 loe*-;) •) -cm r*? p.-ir-'D 

?pla7):')jnc?i7*''i'^' c:'':i7nsc'»S crh c^j 
no?ici «'«' rins-c;':'?' -J -i^t T^^ ^'^"'' 
c'TOlo '^^Sa o'Jnn;i:^ on?i"00 yj-n -jis^.) 
r^ niorv rat? ?^'- ^^l") w^'"^^ V*^ ^"^i' 

'ran -^sn^a ">'»^ V''^ ^o^rS iSnf^i p"?" 

'v-JXjSnSaSaSS vi:?? JiS :ii' 'Wto w l*ng 

S^ *JS^ ccr-gr^ O-J101 i^-^nr^s 7«t3 '^ S^a 
pwaTmnsw 7nn5or^-r^.%'rwoTT'3 

Pagk from the 1'[i;st Edition uk Lk\ i kkn (iKrsikin's l'um.mkntakv to thk Pknt.vtkicii, Mantua, Before 1480 

(.Eroiii the Sulzberger collectiuu in llie Jewish Theological Semin:iry uf America, New York.) 

Lievi ben Gershon 



concludes, contrary to the assumption of Isidore 
Wcil("Philosophie Religieuse de L6vi-ben-Gerson," 
p. 15, Paris, 1868), that Levi knew Latin well, but 
not Arabic. 

Although Levi lived in Provence, where, uuder 
the protection of the popes, the Jews suffered less 
than in other provinces of France, yet he sometimes 
laments over the sufferings of the Jews, which, he 
says, "are so intense that they render meditation 
impossible" (Preface to "Milhamot"). In an epi- 
logue to his commentary on Deuteronomy written 
in 1338 (Paris MS. No. 244) he says he was unable 
to revise his commentary on the Pentateuch at 
Avignon, as he could not obtain there a cojjy of the 

Levi was the author of the following philosoph- 
ical works: (1) " Milhamot Adonai " (Hiva di Trenta, 
1560), mentioned above, begun in 1317 
His Works, and finished in 1829 (see below). (2) 
Commentary on the Pentateuch (Man- 
tua, 1476-80). (3) Commentary on the Earlier 
Prophets (Leiria, 1494). The philosophical essence 
of these two commentaries was published separately 
under the title "To'aliyyot " (Riva di Trenta, 1550 
and 1564 respectively). Commentaries (4) on Job 
(Ferrara, 1477), (5) on Daniel (n.d. ; n.p.), on Prov- 
erbs (Leiria, 1492), (6) on Canticles, Esther, Ecclesi- 
astes, and Ruth (Riva di Trenta, 1560); (7) "Sefer 
ha-Hekkesh ha-Yashar," a treatise on syllogisms; (8) 
commentary on the Middle Commentaries and the 
resumes of Averroes, all of them finished about 1321 
(the part of this commentary which refers to Por- 
phyry's Isagoge to the categories, and to the treatise 
on interpretation, was translated into Latin by 
Jacob Mantino and published in the first volume of 
the works of Aristotle with the commentaries of 
Averroes); (9) "Sefer ha-Mispar," called also "Ma- 
'aseh Hosheb," a treatise on algebra, which Levi fin- 
ished in 1321, when, he says, he was thirty-three; 
(10) a treatise on astronomy, originally forming the 
first part of the fifth section of the "Milhamot," but 
omitted by the editor, who considered it a separate 
work (see below); (11) commentary on the introduc- 
tion to, and books i., iii.-v. of, Euclid, probably the 
work referred to by Joseph Solomon Delmedigo 
(.see Gciger, " Melo Hofnayim," p. 12, Hehr.). (12) 
" Dillugim," astrological note on the seven constella- 
tions, in which Levi refers to his "Milhamot"; (13) 
"Meshihah," on a remedy for the gout (Parma MS. 
De R().9si No. 1189; Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. 
MSS." No. 2142, 37). Levi wrote also the follow- 
ing rabbinical works: (14) "Sha'are Zedek," com- 
mentary on the thirteen hermeneutic rules of Ish- 
mael b. Elislia, printed in tiie"Berit Ya'akob" of 
Jacob b. Abraham Faitusi (Leghorn, 1800). (15) 
"Mcl.iokek Safun," commentary on the haggadah in 
the fiftli cliapter of Haba IJatra, mentioned by Solo- 
mon 1). Simeon Duran C'Milhcmet Mizwah," p. 23). 
Neubauer (I.e. p. 253) considers it doubtful whether 
tilt" authorship of this work can be correctly as 
cribed to Levi. (16) Commentary on Rerakot, men- 
tioned by Levi in liis commentary on Deuteronomy. 
(17-lM) Two responsa signed by Levi b. Gershon. 
one concerning " Kol Nidre " and mentioned by 
Joseph Ala.shkar of Tlemr.en, tiie other mentioned by 
Isaac de I^attcs (Responsa, i. 88). and its authorship 

declared doubtful by Neubauer (^.f.). The Parma 
MS. No. 919 contains a liturgical confession begin- 
ning ^ntiO ^■^^X and attributed to Levi. 

Tlie following works are erroneously attributed 
to Levi b. Gershon: commentary on Averroes' " De 
Substantia Orbis," which seems to have been writ- 
ten by Moses of Narbonne; "Awwat Nefesh," a 
commentary on Ibn Ezra's commentary on the Pen- 
tateuch (comp. Ben Jacob, "Ozar ha-Sefarim," ji. 31); 
"Magen Yeshu'ot," a treatise on the Messiah; " Ye- 
sod ha-Mishnah" (Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." iii. 6.50); rit- 
ual institutions ("takkanot"; Parma MS. De Rossi 
No. 1094); commentary on Bedersi's "Behinat 

Some description may be given here of Levi's astro- 
nomical treatise. It has been said that this was 

originally included in the " Milhamot. " 
His As- It is probably the one referred to 
tronomy , under the title " Ben Arba'iin Ic-Binah " 

by Abraham Zacuto ("'Tekunnat Ze- 
kut," ch. vi.), in allusion to Levi's being forty years 
old when he finished it. Steinschneider (in Ersch 
and Gruber, "Encyc." section ii., part 43, p. 298) 
calls it simply " Sefer Tekunah." It consists of I'd^ 
chapters. After some general remarks on the use- 
fulness of astronomy and the ditlieulties attending' 
its study, Levi gives a description of an instrument 
which he had invented for precise astronomical ob- 
servations and which he calls "megalleh 'amukkot." 
In the ninth chapter, after having devoted to this 
instrument two poems (published by Edelmann in 
"Dibre Hefez," p, 7), he exposes the defects of the 
systems of Ptolemy and Al-Bitruji, and gives at. 
length his own views on the universe, supporting 
them by observations made by him at different tinies. 
He finished this work Nov. 24, 1328, but revised it 
later, and completed it by adding the results of ob- 
servations made up to 1340. The ninety-ninth chap- 
ter includes astronomical tables, which were com- 
mented on by Moses Botarel. This work was 
highly praised l)y Pico de Mirandola, who f re([uently 
quoted it in his " Disputationes in Astrologiam." 
Its importance is apparent from the fact that 
tiie part treating of the instrument invented by 
Levi (ch. iv.-xi.) was translated into Latin by older 
of Pope Clement VI. (1342). Later the whole work 
was translated into Latin, and the beginning was 
published by Prince Boncompagni (" Atti dell' Aca- 
deinia dei Nuovi Lincei," 1863, pp. 741 et seq.). 

Bini.iOfJRAPHY : Griitz, Gcsch. 3d ed., vil. 31.5-322; Gross, Gallia 
Jndnica, pp.O-t tf scq.: Miink, ^^f'^lallqrs, jip. 407-.')<)l ; I)t> Kossi, 
Dizionario. i. 12ti rt nci;.; Ucnan-Neubauer, Lr.-i kcriraiiis 
Jnifn Frniu;ni.-<. pp. 24ii 21)S ; Steinschneider, Cat. Jiiull. cuis. 
ItMIT-Kil."); {ilrn[. in Krscti unii (init)fr, /•y'ocKf . secliim ii.,part 
4;!, pp. '^X^-'■W : iihm. in liiTliner's 3/a(/(7zi)i. xvi. 1.37 it xir/.; 
Idem, in Mi-Miznili utiii-Mn'arab, iv. 40 et w/.; Idem, 
llrbr. I'll)! r.''. p. 27 it pa.tMm. 

M. Ski,. 

As Philosopher : The jiosition of Levi i)cn 

Gersiion in philosophy is uniciue. Of all tlie 
Jewish Peripatetics he alone dared to vindicate the 
Aristotelian system in its integrity, regardlessof the 
conflict existing between some of its doctrines and 
the principal dogmas of Judaism. Pos.sessed of a 
highly developed critical sense, Levi sometimes dis- 
agrees with Aristotle and a.sserts his own views in 
opposition to those of liis master. Averroes: but 
when, aftiT having \\('ighed the jiros and cons of a 



Levi Den Gershon 

doctrine, he believes it to be sound, lu; is not, iifraid to 
profess it, even wlieu it is directly at variunco willi 
an accepted dogma of Jewish theology. "The 
Law," he says, "can not prevent us from consider- 
ing to 1)0 true that which our reason urges us to be- 
lieve" (Introduction 1o the "Milhamot," p. 6). 

Coming after Maimonides, Levi treated only of 
those philosophical questions which the author of 
tiie "Moreh Nebukini," becauseof his 
His Unique orthodoxy, either solved in direct op 

Position, position to Aristotchan principles, or 
explained by such vague statements 
that th(i student was left in tlie dark as to Maimon- 
ides' real opinion on the subject. These questions 
are: the immortality of the soul; prophecy; God's 
omniscience; divine providence; the nature of the 
celestial spheres ; and the eternity of matter. To the 
solution of these six philosophical problems Levi 
<levoted his " Milhamot Adonai." The work com- 
prises six main divisions, each subdivided into chap- 
tors. The method adopted by Levi is that of Aris- 
totle : before giving his own solution of the question 
under discussion he presents a critical review of the 
opinions of his predecessors. The first main divi- 
sion opens with an exposition of the theories of Al- 
exander of Aphrodisias, Themistius, Averroes, and of 
certain philosophers of his time, concerning Aristot- 
le's doctrine of the soul. Aristotle's own treatment 
of this subject is, indeed, very obscure; for while 
asserting (•' De Anima," ii. 1) that the soul is the first 
ontelechy of the organic body, and consequently can 
not be separated from it any more than form can be 
separated from matter, he maintains {ib. iii. 5) that 
of the two elements of the soul, the passive intellect 
and the active intellect, the latter is immortal. To 
reconcile these two conflicting statements, Alexan- 
der of Aphrodisias, in his paraphrase of Aristotle's 
book on the soul, makes a distinction between the 
material intellect (wrfiAtKOf), which, like matter, has 
only a potential existence, and the acqiured intel- 
lect (I'orf £7r;/cr;;r(^f), which latter is the material intel- 
lect when, by study and reflection, it has passed 
from jjotentiality into actuality, and has assumed an 
effective existence. The cause of this transition is 
the universal intellect, which is God Himself. But 
as the relation between God and the soul is only 
temporary, divine intervention ceases at death, and 
the acquired intellect lapses into nothingness. This 
psychological system, in which a mere physical 
faculty of a substance that has nothing spiritual 
in its essence may by a gradual development be- 
come something immaterial and per- 

Views on manent, is rejected by Themistius. 

the Soul. For him the intellect is an inherent 
disposition which has for its sub- 
stratum a substance differing entirely from that 
of the body. Averroes, in his treatise on the intel- 
lect, combines the two systems, and enunciates the 
opinion that the intellect is a mere potentiality so 
long as it is in the body, but that it becomes an 
actual substance as soon as it leaves the body. Ac- 
cording to some contemporaries of Levi the intellect 
is a faculty which is self-existent. 

After a thorough criticism of these various opin- 
ions, Levi gives his own view on the nature of the 

intellect. The inU'llyc4^. he savs, which is born with 

man, is but a mere faculty that has for a substratum 
the imaginative soul, this latter being allied to the 
animal soul. This faculty, when put in motion 
l)y the universal intellect, begins to have an effect- 
ive existence by the acquired ideas and conceptions 
with which it iclentifies itself; for the act of thinking 
can not be separated from the object of the thought. 
Tliis identification of the intellect with the intelligi- 
ble constitutes the acquired intellect ("sekel ha- 
nikneh "), which is to the original faculty what form 
is to matter. But does the acquired intellect cease to 
exist with the death of the body? This question is 
closely connected with that of the nature of univer- 
sals. If, as asserted by the realists, nniversals are 
real entities, the acquired intellect, which consists 
of conceived ideas that have a real existence, may 
survive the body ; but if, as maintained by the nom- 
inalists, nothing exists but individuals, and nniver- 
sals are mere names, immortality is out of the ques- 
tion. In opposition to Maimonides ("Moreh," iii. 
18) Levi defends the theory of the realists and main- 
taiiis thereby the principle of immortality. 

The second division of the " Milhamot " is devoted 
to philosophy. It was intended to supplement and 
correct some statements made by Aristotle in his 
unfinished work " De Sensu et Sensibili," which con- 
tains two chapters on divination. While Maimonides 
{I.e. ii. 32-48) treated only of the psychological side 

of the problem, "What are the requi- 

On sites of prophecy?" Levi considered 

Prophecy, also the metaphysical phase, "Is 

prophecy possible ? " ; " Is the admissi- 
bility of prescience not absolutely incompatible with 
the belief in man's freedom of will? " To answer the 
first question there is, according to Levi, no need of 
speculative demonstrations. Thati there are men 
endowed with the faculty of foreseeing the future 
is, he considers, incontestable. This faculty is found 
not only in prophets, but also in soothsayers, vision- 
aries, and astrologers. He cites the case of a sick 
man personally known to him, who, though with- 
out any medical knowledge, dreamed of the remedy 
which would cure him. Levi himself claimed to 
have received in dreams, on many occasions, solu- 
tions to puzzling metaphysical problems. 

But prescience implies also predestination. This, 
however, seems to conflict with freedom of the will. 
To refute this objection, Levi endeavors to de- 
monstrate that, though all sublunary events are 
determined by the celestial bodies, man may by his 
freedom of will and his intelligence annul such de- 
terminaticms. After having reconciled prediction 
with the principle of free will, he defines the nature 
of prescience and establishes a distinction between 
propliecy and other kinds of divination. In pro- 
phetic visions, he says, it is the rational faculty 
which is put into communication with the universal 
intellect, and therefore the predictions are always 
infallible; while in divination the receptive faculty 
is tlie imaginative power, and the predictions may 
])(• often chimerical. Thus, like Maimonides, Levi 
iiolds that the origin of prophetic perceptions is the 
same as that of ordinary science— the universal in- 
tellect. But, while the author of the "Moreh" 
counts among the requisites of prophecy a fertile 
imaginaticni. Levi maintains that the greatness 

Levi ben Gershon 



of the prophet consists precisely in his faculty of so 
checking the exercise of imagination that it may not 
disturb the dictates of reason. Another point of 
disagreement between ^laimonides and Levi is the 
question whether intellectual and moral perfections 
are alone sufficient to insure to their possessor pro- 
phetic vision. For Maimonides the special will of 
God is the sine qua non for prophecy ; for Levi 
moral and intellectual perfections arc quite sufficient. 

The most interesting part of the " .Alilhamot " is 
the third main division, which treats of God's 
omniscience. As is known, Aristotle limited 
God's knowledge to universals, arguing that if 
He had knowledge of particulais, He would be 
subject to constant changes. Maimonides rejects 
this theory, and endeavors to show 
God's Om- that belief in God's omniscience is not 
niscience. in opposition to belief in His unity 
and immutability. "God," he says, 
"perceives future events before they happen, and 
His perception never fails. Therefore no new ideas 
can i)resent themselves to Him. He knows that such 
and sucii an individual will be born at such a time, 
will exist for such a period, and will then return into 
non-existence. The coming into existence of this 
individual is for God no new fact ; nothing has hap- 
pened that He was unaware of, for He knew this 
inilividual. such as he now is, before his birth" 
("Moreh," i. 20). 

As to the objections made by the Peripatetics to 
the belief in God's onmiscicnce; namely, how is it 
conceivable that God's essence should remain indi- 
visible, notwithstanding the multiplicity of knowl- 
edge of which it is made up; that His intelligence 
should embrace the intinite; that events should 
maintain their character of contingency in spite of 
the fact that they are foreseen by tlie Supreme Being 
— these, according to Maimonides, are based on an 
error. Misled by the use of the term "knowledge," 
men believe that whatever is requisite for their knowl- 
edge is retjuisite for God's knowledge also. The 
fact- is that there is no comparison whatever between 
man's knowledge and that of God, the latter being 
absolutely incomprehensible to human intelligence. 
This theory is severely criticized by Levi, who atlinns 
that not reason but religion alone dictated it to ^lai- 
monides. Indeed, Levi argues there can be no doubt 
that between human knowledge and God's knowl- 
edge there is a wide difference in degree ; but the 
assumption tiiat there is not the slightest analogy 
between them is unwarranted. When the nature of 
God is characterized by means of positive determi- 
nations, tile soul is taken as the basis of reasoning. 
Thus science is attributed to God, because man also 
possesses it to a certain extent. If, then, as Mai- 
monides supposes, there is, except in name, no like 
ncss between God's knowledge and man's knowl 
edge, how can man reason from himself to God"? 
Then, again, there are attributes which can be pred- 
icated of God, as, for instance, knowledge and life, 
whieli imply perfection, and others which must be 
denied to Him, as, for instance, corporeality and mo- 
tion, because these imply imperfection. But, on the 
the(uy of Maimonides. there is no reason for the ex- 
clusion of any attribute, since, applied to God, all 
attributes neccs-SJirily lose their significance. Mai- 

monides is indeed consistent, and I'xeludes all 
tive attributes, admitting only negative ones; but 
the reasons given by him for their distinction are not 

Having thus refuted ^laimonides' theories both of 
Gods onmiscience and of the divine attributes, Levi 
gives his own views. The sublime thought of God, 
he says, embraces all the cosmic laws Mhich regu- 
late the evolutions of nature, the general influences 
exercised by the celestial bodies on the sublunary 
world, and the specific essences with which matter is 
invested; but sublunary events, the multifarious 
details of the phenomenal world, are hidden from 
His spirit. iS^ot to know details, however, is 
not imperfection, because in knowing the imiversal 
conditions of things, He knows that which is essen- 
tial, and consequently good, in the individual. 

In the fourth division Levi discusses the question 
of divine providence. Aristotle's theory that hu- 
manity only as a whole is guided and protected bj' 
a divine providence, admits the existence of neither 
prophecy nor divination. Nor can every individual 
be the object of the solid tutle of a 

Divine special providence; for tins is (1) 
Provi- against reason, because, as has beeu 
dence. demonstrated, the divine intelligence 
embraces only universals, and it is in- 
admissible that evil can jiroceed from God, the source 
of all good; (3) against experience, because one often 
sees the righteous borne down by miseries, while the 
wicked are triuin[)liant ; (3) against the sense of the 
Torah, which wlicn warning men that their rebel- 
lions will be followed by disasters, because God will 
hide His face from them, implies that the calamities 
which will overtake them will come as the consc- 
quence of their having been left w ithout protection 
from the vicissitudes of fate. Levi, therefore, ar- 
rives at the conclusion that some are under the pro- 
tection and guidance of the general providence, and 
others under a special, individual ]irovidence. It i.s 
incontestable, he says, that a general, beneticent 
providence cares for all sublunary beings. Upon 
some it bestows certain bodily organs which enable 
them to provide themselves with the necessaries of 
life and to protect themselves from danger; toothers 
it gives a nature which enables them to avoid that 
which would harm them. It is also demonstrated 
that the higher a being stands in the scale of crea- 
tion the more organs it possesses for its preservation 
and defense; in other words, the greater is the solic- 
itude and protection bestowed upon it by the Crea- 
tor. siK'cies of animals which more nearly 
resemble man participate in the solicitude of prov- 
idence to a greater extent than that part of animal- 
ity which forms the connecting-link between the 
animal and vegetable kingdoms. If, 

Relation then, the degree of participation by a 
to the being in the protection of the divine 

Intellect, providence is proportioned to the de- 
gree of its development, it is obvious 
that the nearer one comes to the active intelligence, 
the more is he the object of the divine solicitude. 
Thus those who strive to develoji the faculties of 
the soul enjoy the care of a special, individual provi- 
dence, while those who grope in ignorance are 
guarded only bv the general providence. 



Levi ben Gershon 

omy, Phys- 
ics, and 

Tlicrc is. however, one grent objection to tliis 
tlieoi y ; namely, there can be no question of a spe- 
cial providence if God kuoAvs only generalities. To 
meet this antinomy Levi detines the nature of the 
special providence. All the events, he says, all the 
phenomena of this Avorld, good as well as evil, are 
due to the intluences of the celestial bodies. The 
various effusions of these bodies are regulated by 
eternal, immutable laws; so that the demiurgic prin- 
ciple, which knows these laws, has a perfect knowl- 
edge of all the phenomena Avhich affect this world, 
of the good and evil which are in store formaidiind. 
This subjection to ethereal substances, however, is 
not absolute; for man by his free will can, as stated 
above, annul their determinations. But in order to 
avert their mischievous emanations he must be 
warned of the danger. This warning is given by 
the divine providence to mankind at large; but as it 
is perceived only by those whose intellect is fully 
developed, the divine providence benefits individ- 
uals only. 

The fifth division comprises three parts treating re- 
spectively of astronomy, physics, and metaphysics. 
The astronomical part, which forms 
of itself a considerable work of 136 
chapters, was not included in the pub- 
lished edition of the "Milhamot," and 
is still in manuscript. As has been 
said above, it was translated by order 
of Pope Clement VI. into Latin and 
enjoyed such a high reputation in the Christian 
scientific world that the astronomer Kepler gave 
himself much trouble to secure a copy of it. 

The second part is devoted to the research of the 
final causes of all that exists in the heavens, and to 
the solution of astronomical problems, such as 
whether the stars exist for themselves, or wdiethei- 
they are only intended to exercise an influence upon 
this world; whether, as supposed by Ptolemy, there 
exists above the starred spheres a starless one which 
imparts the diurnal motion to the inferior heavens, 
or Avhether, as maintained by Averroes, there is none ; 
whether the fixed stars are all situated in one and 
the same sphere, or whether the number of spheres 
corresponds to that of the stars; how the sun warms 
the air; Avhy the moon borrows its light from the 
sun and is not luminous of itself. 

In the tiiird part Levi establishes the existence 
first of an active intellect, then of the planetary in- 
telligences, and finally the existence of a primary 
cause, which is God. According to him, the best 
proof of the existence of an efficient and final cause 
is the phenomenon of procreation. AVithout the in- 
tervention of an efficient intelligence there is no 
possibility of explaining the generation and organi- 
zation of animated beings. 

But is there only one demiurgic intelligence, or 
are there many? After reviewing the various exist- 
ing opinions on the subject, Levi concludes: (1) that 
the various movements of the heavenly 
The bodies imply a hierarchy of motive 

Spheres. principles: (2) that the number of these 
principles corresponds to that of tiie 
spheres ; (3) that the spheres themselves are animated 
and intelligent beings, accomplishing their revolu- 
tions with perfect cognition of the cause thereof. 

In opposition to Maimonides, he maintains that the 
various intelligences did not emanate gradually 
from the first, but were all the direct effect of the 
primary cause. Can not this primary cause, how- 
ever, be identified, as supposed by Averroes, with 
one of the intelligences, especially with that which 
bestows motion upon the most exalted of the spheres, 
that of the fixed stars? This, says Levi, is impossi- 
ble, first because each of these intelligences perceives 
only a part of the universal order, since it is confined 
to a limited circle of influences; if God, then, were 
the mobile of any sphere there would be a close 
connection between llini and His cn-atures. 

The last division deals witli creation and with 
miracles. After having ref\ited the arguments ad- 
vanced by Aristotle in favor of the eternity of the 
world, and having proved that neither time nor 
motion is infinite, Levi demonstrates: 
Creation. (1) that the woild had a beginning; 
(2) that it has no end ; and (3) that it 
did not proceed from another world. In the order 
of nature, he says, the whole earth was covered by 
water, which was enveloped by the concentric 
sphere of air, which, in ttii'n, was encompassed by 
that of fire. Was it, he asks, as Aristotle supposes, 
the absorbent heat of the stm which caused the 
water to recede and the land to appear? In that 
case the southern hemisphere, Avhere the heat is 
more intense, ought to present a similar phenom- 
enon. It is, therefore, obvious that it was due to 
the action of a superior agent. From the fact that 
the world had a beginning (me must not, however, 
infer that it will have also an end; on the contrary, 
it is imperishable like the heavenly bodies, which are 
its sources of life and motion, and of Avhich the sub- 
stances, being immaterial, are not subject to the nat- 
ural laws of decay. 

Having thus demonstrated that the world is not 
eternal "a parte ante" and is eternal "a parte post," 
Levi gives his own view of creation. He chooses a 
middle position between the theory of the existence 
of a primordial cosmic substance and that of a crea- 
tion "ex nihilo," both of which he criticizes. Ac- 
cording to him, there existed from eternity inert 
undetermined matter, devoid of form and attribute. 
At a given moment God bestowed upon this matter 
(which till then had oidy a potential existence) es- 
.sence, form, motion, and life; and from it proceeded 
all sublunary beings and all heavenly substances, 
with the exception of the separated intelligences, 
which were direct emanations of the Divinity. 

In the second part of the last division Levi endeav- 
ors to demonstrate that his theory of creation agrees 
with the account of Genesis; and he 
Miracles, devotes the last chapters of the "Jlil- 
hamot " to the discussion of miracles. 
After having defined from Biblical inferences their 
nature, he demonstrates that the actual performer 
of miracles is neither God nor prophet, but the 
active intellect. There are, he says, two kinds of 
natural laws: those which regulate the economy of 
the heavens and by which the ethereal substances 
produce the ordinary sublunary phenomena, and 
those which govern the special operations of the 
demiurgic principle and by which are juoduced the 
extraordinary phenomena known as miracles. Like 

L.evi ben Gershon 

Levi, Jedidiah b. Raphael 



freedom of the will in man, this faculty was given by 
God to the active intellect as a corrective of the in- 
fluences of the celestial bodies, which are sometimes 
too harsh in their inflexibility. The supernatural 
as literally understood does not exist, since even a 
prodigy is a natural efEectof a primordial law, though 
it is distinguished from other sublunary events by 
its origin and its extreme rarity. Thus a man of a 
highly developed intellect may foresee the accom- 
plishment of a certain miracle which is only the re- 
sult of a providential law conceived and executed 
by the active intellect. Miracles are subjected, ac- 
cording to Levi, to the following laws: (1) their ef- 
fect can not remain pcrnuiuently and thus supersede 
the law of nature; (2) no miracle can produce self- 
contradictory things, as, for instance, an object 
that shall be both totally black and totally white at 
the same time ; (3) no miracle can take place in the 
celestial spheres. When Joshua said, "Sun, stand 
thou still upon Gibeon " (Josh. x. 12), he merely ex- 
pressed the desire that the defeat of the enemy 
should be completed while the sun continued to 
shine on Gibeon. Thus the miracle consisted in the 
promptness of the victory. Nor is the going back- 
ward of the shadow on the dial of Ahaz (II Kings 
XX. 9; Isa. xxxviii. 8) to be imderstood in tlie sense 
of the sun's retrogression: it was the shadow which 
went backward, not the sun. 

The conclusions arrived at in the "Milhamot" 
were introduced by Levi in his Biblical commen- 
taries, where he endeavored to recon- 
Philosoph,y cile them with the text of the Law. 
in His Com- Guided by the principle laid down but 
mentaries. not always followed by Mainiouides, 
that a philosophical or a moral teach- 
ing underlies every Biblical narrative, Levi adopted 
the method of giving the literal meaning and then 
of summing up the philosophical ideas and moral 
maxims contained in each section. The books of 
Job, Canticles, and Eeclesiastes are mainly inter- 
preted by him philosophically. Jerusalem, accord- 
ing to him, symbolizes man, who, like that city, was 
selected for the service of God; "the daughters of 
Jerusalem " symbolize the faculties of the soul; and 
Solomon rei)resents the intellect which governs all. 
Kohelet (Eeclesiastes) presents an outline of the 
ethics both of Aristotle and of his opponents, be- 
cause moral truth can not be apodictically demon- 
strated. In opposition to the ])hilos()i)hical exegetes 
of his time, Levi, liowever, did not allegorize the 
historical and legislative pans of the Bible; but 
he endeavored to give a natural explanation of tlie 

Levi's philosophical theories, some of which in- 
fluenced Spinoza (comi). "Theologico-Politicus," ch. 
ii., where Spinoza uses Levi's own 
Opposition, terms in treating of miracles), met with 
great oppo.sition among the Jews. 
Wiiile Hasdai Crescas criticized tluru on ])hilo.sopli- 
ical grounds, otiiors attacked tlicni mk rely because 
they were not in keejiiiig with the ideas of ortliodoxy. 
Isaac ben Sheshet (Hcsponsa, No. 45), wiiile ex- 
]>res.sing admiration for Levi's groat Talmudical 
knowledge, censures his philosojiiiical ideas, which 
he considers to be heresies the mere listening to 
which is sinful in the eyes of a pious Jew. Abra- 

vanel (commentary on Josh, x.) blames Levi in the 
harshest terms for having been so outspoken in his 
heretical ideas. Some zealous rabbis went so far as 
to forbid the study of Levi's Bible commentaries. 
Among these were Messer Leon Judah and Judah 
Muscato ; the latter, applying to them Num. i. 49, 
says: "Only thou shalt not number the tribe of 
Levi, neither bring his Commentaries among the chil- 
dren of Israel " (Commentary on the " Cuzari," p. 4). 
Shem-Tob perverted the title " Milhamot Adonai " 
(="Wars of God") into "Milhamot 'im Adonai" 
(=r "Wars with God"); and by this corrupted title 
Levi's work is quoted by Isaac Arama and by Ma- 
nasseh ben Israel, who attack it in most violent 

liiBLiOGRAPHY : Munk, M/'lanqcs. p. 498; Baer, Philnsnphie 
luid PJiilosoplii.-^clie SvJiriftstcUcr der Judeti, p. 113: Joel, 
Levi hen Oerson als Ketiyio/tsp/iiio.sop/i, Breslau, 1862; Re- 
imn, Averroes et Averroisme, p. 194; Weil, PhUosop)iie Re- 
Ugieiise tie Levi hen Ge).son, Paris, 1808. 
K. I. Bu. 

LEVI, HERMANN : Musical director ; born at 
Giessen, Germany, Nov. 7, 1839; died at Munich May 
13,1900. His mother was a pianist of distinction. He 
studied under Vincenz Lachner at Mannheim (1852- 
1855), and at theLeipsic Conservatorium, principally 
under Hauptmann and Bietz (1855-58). In 1859 he 
became musical director at Saarbrlicken, and in 1861 
conductor of the German opera at Rotterdam, from 
which city he was summoned in 1864 to Carlsruhe, 
where in his capacity as court kapellmeister he 
aroused general attention by his masterly conduct- 
ing of the " Meistersinger " (Feb., 1869). 

In 1872 Levi received the appointment of court 
kapellmeister at Munich ; and it was his thoroughly 
conscientious and excellent work here— notably his 
production of "Tristan and Isolde" in Nov., 1881 — 
that induced Richard Wagner to select him as the 
conductor of "Parsifal " at the Bayreuth Music Fes- 
tival of 1882. Appointed " General-Musikdirektor " 
at Munich in 1894, he resigned this position in 1896 
owing lo ill health, and was pensioned by the gov- 

As the foremost director of his time, Levi con- 
ducted the musical performances during the Bis- 
marck-Feier and also on the occasion of the tri- 
centenaiy celebration of the birth of Orlando di 
Lasso. He was the first to produce the trilogy " Der 
Ring der Nibelungen " after its performance at 
Bayreuth in 1876; and his masterly interpretation 
of the AVagnerian dramas contributed to make Mu- 
nich for many years a permanent musical center for 
these works. Levi was a convert to Christianity. 

Bibliorraphy: Heinrlch Porges, in Munkali^choi Wochcn- 
hlatt, pp. 334-33U, Leipslc, 19ai. 

s. J. So. 

of Abigdor hu-Lcvi Laniatore of Padua; foinided a 
Hebrew printing establishment at Rome in 1518, 
which received special privileges from the i)ope 
tiuough the intercession of Cardinal Egidio di Vi- 
icrbo. Tliei-e Elijah Lcvita's n33"inn D was printed 
withineighteen days(with imperfect h'tler-press, ow- 
ing to haste, as the colophon complains); this was 
followed by his tables of inflections, now lost, and by 
his " Bahur." The pix-ss soon closed. In 1525 Jacob 



Levi ben Gershon 

Levi, Jedidiah b. Raphael 

published at Triuo in Piedinout a prayer-book ac- 
cording to the Italian ritual. 

BrnLiOGRAPHY: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 29()1 ; Vopt-l- 
siein and Rleger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom. ii. 115. 

J. I. E. 

LEVI ISAAC BEN MEIR : Russian rabbi of 
the tirst half of the nineteenth century. After hav- 
ing been rabbi at ISelichow and Pinsk, Levi Isaac 
was called to the rabbinate of Berdychev, where lie 
wrote "Kedushshat Lewi" (Berdychev, 1816), the 
fii'st part of which contains a homiletic commentary 
on tlie Pentateuch, with collectanea, the second 
being miscellaneous in character. He wrote also a 
conunentary on the "Sefer ha-Zekirut," a compila- 
tion by Paphacl b. Zechariah Mendel of ethical wri- 
tings, based on the Biblical passages beginning with 
"Zakor" (Wilna and Grodno, 1835). 

BiBi.iOGRAruY: Benjaoob, Ozar ha-Scfarun, pp. 156, 517; 
Fiirst, Bilit. Jud. li. :i43. 

K. M. Set,. 

LEVI, ISRAEL: French rabbi and scholar; 
born at Paiis July 7, 1856. He was ordained as 
rabbi by the Rabbinical Seminary of Paris in 1879; 
appointed assistant rabbi to the chief rabbi of Paris 
in 1882; professor of Jewish history and literature 
at t!ie Paris Seminary in 1892; lecturer on Talmudic 
and rabbinic literature at the Ecole Pratique des 
Hautes Etudes in 1896. 

During 1894-95 Levi was director of " Univers 
Israelite. " He is one of the leading spirits of the So- 
ciete des Etudes Juives. On its organization in 1880 
he was elected secretary and general manager of the 
"Revue des Etudes Juives," and in 1892 tO(jk charge 
of its bibliographical section. He has contributed 
to this journal papers on the Haggadah, the Talmudic 
and midrashic legends, Jewish folk-lore, the relig- 
ious controversies between Jews and Christians, as 
well as on the history of the Jews in France. 

Levi has published in addition the following 
works: "La Legende d'Alexandre dans le Tal- 
mud et leMidrasch"(l884); "Trois Contes Juifs" 
(1885); "Le Roman d'Alexandre" (Hebrew text, 
with introduction and notes, 1887); "Les Juifs et 
LInquisition dans la France M^ridionale " (1891); 
"Textes Inedits sur la Legende d'Alexandre" (in 
the " Steinschneider Festschrift"); "Relations Histo- 
riques dans le Talnuid sur Alexandre " (in the " Kauf- 
mann Gedeukbuch "); "Les Dix-huit Benedictions 
et les Psaumes de Salomon " ; "L'Ecclesiastique ou 
la Sagesse de Jesus, Fils de Sira," original Hebrew 
text, with notes and translation (part i., ch. xx\ix. 
15-xlix. 11; 1898; part ii., ch. iii. 6-xvi. 26; parts 
of ch. xviii., xix., xxv., and xxvi. ; xxxi. 11-xxxiii. 
3, XXXV. 19-xxxviii. 27, xlix. 11 to the end; 1901; 
the Academic des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, on 
June 6, 1902, awarded to this last-named work one- 
half of the "Prix Delalande ") ; " Ecclesiasticus," 
class-room edition, Hebrew. text, witii English notes 
and English-Hebrew vocabulary , in " Semitic Studies 
Series," ed. Gottheil and Jastrow, 1903. 

BiBMOORAPHY : Moise Schwab, Rf'prrtoire drs Arfirlrs Rela- 
tifx (i VHistDtre et d In Littrratvir Jiiirrs Pants da ii>: lix 
Pcritidii/tics dc 17S3 dlS9S, pp. 228-231. Paris, 1809 (Supple- 
ment, 190:i). 

s. J. Ka. 

VIII —3 

SA'ID : Karaite scholar; Nourished, probably at 
Jerusalem, in the first half of the eleventh centiuy. 
Although, like his father, he was considered one of 
the greatest authorities among the Karaites, who 
called him " Al-Shaikh " (the master), no details 
of his life are to be found in the Karaite sources. 
There even exists confusion in regard to his iden- 
tity ; in some of the sources he is confounded with 
his brother, or his son Sa'id (comp. Pinsker, "Lik- 
kute Kadmouiyyot," p. 119), and also with a Mo- 
hammedan scholar named Abu Hashim (Aaron ben 
Joseph, "Mibhar," Paris MS.). Levi wrote in Ara- 
bic a comprehensive work on the precepts, parts 
of a Hebrew translation (" Sefer ha-Mizwot ") of 
which are still extant in manuscript (Neubauer, 
"Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 857; Steinschneider. 
"Cat. Leyden," No. 22; St. Petersburg MSS., Fir- 
kovich collection, No. 613). This work, which Avas 
used by nearly all the later Karaite coditiers, con- 
tains valuable information concerning the dilTerences 
between the Karaites and the Rabbinites (in whose 
literature the author was well versed), and the dis- 
sensions among the Karaites themselves. Thus in 
the section dealing with the calendar, in which the 
year 1007 is mentioned, Levi states that in Irak the 
Karaites in their determination of New-Year, resem- 
bled the Rabbinites in so far as, like them, they 
took for their basis the autumnal equinox, while in 
some places the Karaites adopted the Rabbinitc cal- 
endar completely. 

Levi distinguishes between the views, in regard 
to the calendar, of the earlier and the later Rabbin- 
ites, and coiuits Saadia, whom he frequently at- 
tacks with the utmost violence, among the latter. 
In the treatise on zizit Levi says that he drew his 
material from the works of his father and of his 
predecessors. He excuses the inadequacy of treat- 
ment marking some parts of the work ou the 
"■round of the lack of sources and of the various 
trials and sicknesses he had suffered during its com- 

Levi's "Mukaddimah," an introduction to the pe- 
ricopes of the Pentateuch, is no longer in existence. 
A fragment, on Dent, i., of the Hebrew translation 
of Moses ben Isaiah Firuz was in the Firkovich 
collection and was published by Pinsker, but was 
lost during the Crimean war. He wrote also a 
short commentary on the Earlier Prophets, a frag- 
ment of which, covering tlie first ten ciiapters of 
Joshua, still exists (Brit. Mus. Or. No. 308). Stein- 
schneider believes it possible that Levi was also the 
author of the short commentary on Psalms found 
in the British Museum (No. 336). According to Aii 
ben Sulaiman, Levi made a compendium of the lexi- 
con "Agron" of David ben Abraham; liowever. 
this is contested by Abu al-Faraj, who a.sserts that 
the compendium was prepared by David himself. 

BiBLior.R\PHV : Pinsker. Lihhutc Kadmoniimot, p. tU and In- 
dex ; Fiirst, (lesch. dcx Karat rt. ii. Wiet .-n/.: Steinsclineider, 
I'ttlewisthc vnd Apahttittische Litcratrii; p. :i5<> : idem. 
JTehr. I'rhcrs. p. 945; Idem. Die Arahische Litcratnr der 
Jutleii, § 40. T ^ 

K. I. Bk. 

MON : Habbi at Alessandria and Sienna : died 1790 : 
author of hymns for the reconsecration of tlie syna- 

Levi, Judah 
Levi, Raphael 



hulicc. p. Si. 

gogue at, Sienna 1786; these hymns were printed iu 
"Seder Zemirot we-Liiuinud," Leghorn, 1786. 

SteiDschneider, Cat. Bodl col. 1289 ; Mortara, 

I. E. 

LEVI, JUDAH: Influential Jew at Estella, 
Navarre, from 1380 to 1391. In 1380 and tlie fol- 
lowing years he was commissioned, with Samuel 
Amarillo, to collect the ta.x of five per cent on all 
real estate in the district of Estella which within 
the preceding fifty years had been sold or rented 
by Jews to Christians or Moors without the 
permission of the king. In 1391 he, with Yuze 
Orabuena and Nathan Gabay, occupied the position 
of farmer-general of taxes. He was engaged also in 
banking and exchange. He appeared frequently at 
court in connection with business of the king's, and 
always took the part of his coreligionists. He was 
utterly inipoverisiied during the last years of his 
life, as may be seen from the letter of Benveniste 
ibn Labi (Vienna MSS. p. 205). The king, in view of 
Levi's needy condition and in recognition of his serv- 
ices, granted him a yearly pension of sixty florins 
from the state treasury. After his death, which 
occurred about 1392, he was unjustly stigmatized as 
a heretic. 

BiBLiooRAPiiY: Jacobs, Sources^ Nos. 14o8, 1477, 1533, 1536; 
Kayserling, Gesch. der Juden in Spanien, i. 57, 89; Gratz, 
tiescli. viii. 413. 
G. M. K. 

LEVI BEN LAHMA : Palestinian haggadist 
of the third century. He seems to have been a 
pupil of Simeon ben Lakish, whose haggadot he 
transmitted (Ber. Sa); but he transmitted some hag- 
gadot of Hama b. Hanina also(R. H. 29b; Zeb. 53b). 
Ta"an. 16a records three haggadic controversies be- 
tween Levi b. llama and Hanina, the former being 
supposed by Heilprin ("Seder ha-Dorot," ii.) and 
Baclier ("Ag. Pal. Amor." i. 354, passim) to be 
identical with Levi b. Lahma. One of Levi's own 
haggadot asserts that Job was a contemporary of 
Moses, inferring this from a comparison of Ex. 
x.xxiii. 16 with Job xix. 23 (B. B. 15a). 

8. 8. M. Sel. 

LEVI, LEO NAPOLEON : American lawyer 
and communal worker; born Sept. 15, 1856, at Vic- 
toria, Texas; died in 
New York Jan. 13, 
1904. Destined for a 
commercial career, 
Levi was sent to New- 
York to take a com- 
mercial course, but 
manifesting no interest 
in his fatlier's bu.siness, 
he returned to Victoria 
in 1871, and in 1872 en 
tered the University of 
Virginia at Charlottes 
ville, Va., to study 
law. He won the dc 
hater's medal and the 
essayist's medal in one 
year. Levi returned, 
after liaving finished 
his studies, to Trxas. but being only slightly over 
twenty years old, he had to resort to jjroceedinps to 

Leo Napoleon L«'Vi. 

remove his disabilities so that he could without de- 
lay be admitted to the bar. In 1878 Levi stumped 
the state of Texas on behalf of Gustav Sleicher, who 
was running for Congress and was elected, defeat- 
ing Judge Ireland. Although he refused to hold 
a political office, Levi always took an active interest 
iu public affairs both iu Texas and iu New York, to 
which latter state he removed in 1899, establishing a. 
law-office in New York city. 

His main activity, however, was as a communal 
worker, especially in his connection with the B'n.\i 
B'ritii, of which he became president in 1900. In 
1887 Levi addressed an " o])eu letter " to the Ameri- 
can rabbinate, under the title "Tell Us: What Is 
Judaism?" The replies being unsatisfactory, he 
answered his own interrogation iu the pamphlet 
"Judaism in America." His last public act was in 
connection with the petition to the Russian gov- 
ernment drawn up iu protest against the Kishinef 
massacre of April 19-20, 1903 (see " Report of the 
Executive Committee of the I. O. B. B. for 1902-3 " ; 
Isidor Singer, " Rus.sia at the Bar of the American 
People," 1904, ch. iii. ; Cyrus Adler, "The Voice of 
America on Kishineff," 1904). 

A. S. 

LEVI, LEONE: English political economist; 
born in Ancona, Italy, in 1821 ; died in London May 
7, 1888. Levi went to England at an early age, was 
converted to Christianity, and became a member of 
the English bar (1859). He devoted much time and 
energy to the organizing of chambers of commerce. 
In 1850 he published his " Commercial Law of the 
World " ; in 1852 he was appointed to the chair of 
commercial law in King's College, London. Levi 
was an active member of the council of tlie Royal 
Statistical Society, and contributed to its journal 
many papers bearing on the industrial occupations 
of the people. In 1887 he attended the congress of 
European statisticians at Rome. It was owing to 
Levi's suggestion of the benefits which would re- 
sult from the possession of an international com- 
mercial code that the acts were passed (1858) where- 
by the mercantile laws of the United Kingdom 
were made uniform on many points. 

Levi was the author of: "Taxation, How It Is 
Raised and How It Is Expended " (1860) ; " History of 
British Commerce and of the Economic Progress of 
the British Nation horn 1863 to 1870" (2d ed. 1878); 
"Work and Pay"; " AVar and Its Consequences." 
He also delivered a number of public lectures and 
contributed many economic articles to journals and 
magazines. He was created doctor of political and 
economic science by the University of Tubingen 
in 1861, and was a fellow of the Society of Anti- 
(juaries an<l of the Royal Geographical Society; the 
King of Italy conferred u])on him the rank of cav- 
alier of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus and the Order 
of the Crown of Italy. 

Bibmoorapiiy: The Titin" (London), May 9, 1888; Boase, 
Modern EnalMi Iiio(irai)}iii, s.v. Laic Jintrnal. 1888. 

.T. G. L. 

LEVI, LEONE : Italian author and journalist; 
born at Nizza-Monferrato in 1823; died at Turin 
Nov. 8, 1876; educated at the Collegio Foil at Vcr- 
celli. Although a man of affairs and a lawyer, he 



Levi, Judah 
Levi, Raphael 

still found time to devote himself to literature, his 
most important work being his " Lampi della Societa 
Contemporanea," a faithful delineation of modern 
life. His "Massime a Casaccio," as well as his 
"11 Tempio di Torino " (his last work), was pub- 
lished in the " Corriere Israelitico " of Triest. 

Bibliography : Corriere Israelitico, 1876-77, p. 185; Mortara, 
s. U. C. 

LEVI, LIONELLO: Italian philologist; born 
at Triest June 33, 1869; educated at the gymna- 
sium of Triest and the universities of Pisa, Rome 
(Ph.D. 1891), and Berlin. He has been teacher of 
literature, later of classical philology, at the gym- 
nasia of Benevento (1891-93), of Rome (1893-95), of 
JVIodcna (1896), and of Parma since 1896. In 1895 he 
became lecturer on Greek literature at the University 
of Rome, and in 1896 of Bologna. 

Levi has contributed to several journals essays 
on Greek and Latin literature, and is the editor of 
Luciau's " Peregrinus " (Berlin, 1893) and of three of 
the recently discovered odes of Bacchylides (Parma, 
Bibliography : De Gubernatis, Dizionario Bingrafico. 

s. F. T. H. 

LEVI, MORITZ : American educator ; born 
Nov. 33, 1857, at Sachsenhausen, Waldeck; edu- 
cated at the University of Michigan (graduated 1887) 
and at the Sorbonne, Paris. He became junior pro- 
fessor of the Romance languages at the University 
of Michigan in 1903. He has edited "L'Avare" of 
MoliSre (1900) and "I Promessi Sposi " of Manzoni 
(1901), and has compiled (with V. E. Francois) a 
French reader (1896). ^ 

LEVI, MOSE GIUSEPPE : Italian physician ; 
born at Guastalla 1796 ; died at Venice Dec. 27, 1859. 
He graduated as doctor of medicine from the Uni- 
versity of Padua in 1817 and settled in Venice, where 
he practised until his death. 

Levi was the author of : " Saggio Teorico-Pratico 
Sugli Aneurismi Interni," Venice, 1833, which essay 
received the prize from the Royal Academy of 
Naples; "Dizionario Compendiato delle Scienze 
Mediche," ib. 1837-33; " Dizionario Classico di Medi- 
cina e Chirurgia," ib. 1833-40 (the two last-named 
being translations from the French); "Enciclopedia 
delle Scienze Mediche," ib. 1834-47; "Ricordi In- 
ferno agl' Incliti Medici"; "Chirurghi in Venezia 
Dopo il 1740," ib. 1840; "Encyclopedia Anatomica," 
ib. 1847; "Dizionario Economico della S.cienze Me- 
diche," ib. 1856 (incomplete). He translated also: 
Albert's " Hautkrankheiten," Venice, 1835; the 
works of Hippocrates, with Latin text, ib. 1838; 
and Burdach's " Physiologic, "^■6. 1845. He further 
wrote the following biographical works: "Aglietti," 
1836; "A. S. Ruggieri," 1836; "G. Tommasivi," 
1847; and "J. Penolazzi," 1856. 

Bibliography : Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon. 

s. F. T. H. 

LEVI, MOSE RAFFAELE: Italian physi- 
cian ; born at Triest Aug. 9, 1840 ; died at Florence 
March 10, 1886. After graduating from the Uni- 
versity of Padua (1863) he became assistant at the 
General Hospital in Venice. In 1868 he was one of 

the founders of the maritime hospital for scrofulous 
children at the Lido of Venice, at which institution 
he was physician-in-chief till 1873; he then removed 
to Padua, where he became privat-docent at the uni- 
versity and practised medicine, treating especially 
the diseases of children. 

In 1878 he was appointed chief departmental phy- 
sician at the General Hospital at Venice, lecturing 
there upon pediatrics. This position he resigned on 
account of illness in 1881, and then left Venice. In 
1884 he was appointed professor of pediatrics at the 
University of Florence. 

Levi from 1864^ was collaborator and from 1873 

to 1879 editor-in-chief of the "Giornale Veneto di 

Scienze Mediche." He wrote many essays in the 

medical journals of Italy. Among his works may 

be mentioned: "La Patologia Cellulare Conside- 

rata ne' Suoi Fondamenti e nelle Sue Applicazioni," 

Venice, 1863 (German transl., Brunswick, 1864); 

" Delia Frequenza della Tenia per I'Uso Medico della 

Carne,"etc., ib. 1865; "Due Case di Sifilide Cere- 

brali," ib. 1879; "Delia Emiglobinuria ad Access! 

Freddo," ib. 1881. 

bibliography: Cautanl, in Hirsch's Biographisches Lexi- 


F. T. H. 

LEVI, NATHANIEL: Australian merchant 
and politician; born at Liverpool, England, Jan. 80, 
1830. In 1853 he went to the gold-lields in Victoria; 
in 1858, having settled in Melbourne, he joined the 
firm of John Levi & Sons. In 1860 he was elected 
member of the Legislative Assembly for ilary- 
borough, being the first Jew elected to Parliament 
in Victoria. While in the Legislative Assembly he 
took great interest in the abolition of the tea and 
sugar duties, in the taxation of uncultivated lands, 
and in the forming of labor loan-laws. In 1893 he 
was elected member of the Legislative Council. In 
1885 he founded "The Melbourne Daily News." 
Levi was treasurer and president of the Melbourne 
Hebrew Congregation for many years, and has been 
connected with all the chief Jewish communal in- 
stitutions of the city. 

Bibliography : Jewish World, June 7, 1901. 


LEVI, RAPHAEL : German mathematician ; 
died May 17, 1779, in Hanover, whither his father, 
Jacob Joseph Levi, a poor pedler, had gone with him, 
then a boy of eight years, and had died a few days 
after their arrival. The orphan lad was provided 
for at the Israelitische Armenschule. At one time 
Leibnitz had occasion to hear some of his observa- 
tions in respect to building materials, and was 
struck by the strong intellectual power which they 
manifested. He became very much interested in 
him, and himself instructed him in the higher mathe- 
matics. A portrait of Levi has been preserved in 
the Leibnitzhaus. 

Of Levi's published works the following may be 
mentioned: "Zwei Logarithmische Tafeln," Han- 
over, 1747; " Vorbericht vom Gebrauche der Neu- 
erfundenen Logarithmischen Wechseltabellen mit 
Fortsetzung," Leipsic, 1748; "Supplement zu dem 
Vorbericht,"" etc., Hanover, 1748; "Tekunat ha- 
Shomayim: Ueber Astronomic und Kalender- 

Levi ben Shem-Tob 




kunde, Nanu'iitlicli Coininontinuisr der Talinud- 
ischeu und Hubbiuischen Ausspruche Dariiber, urn 
Hilkot Kiddushlia-Hodesh Maimuni'szu Verstcheii. 
Dazu Xoton uiid Glossen von Mose ben .Tckuticl," 
AnistcrdaiiL 1756; and "Neuc Conipendiose Allg. 
Cours- und Wcfliscl-Tafclu," etc. Several of liis 
minor writings remained uniniblislied; but, from 
material contained in them, Simon Waltsch (Simeon 
ben Nathan Nata') issued a commentary on Maimon- 
ides' rules for the calendar, Berlin, 1786. 

Bibmography: BriilU in AUg. Deutsclic Bingraphie, xviii. 
50."); Blog?. ScUr lia-Hainn"U p. 31;5, Hanover, 1848; Furst, 
Bihl. Jtul. ii. SM. 
S >I. Co. 

LEVI BEN SHEM-TOB: Portuguese convert ; 
lived at the end of tlie tifteentli century; notorious 
for his hostility to his former coreligionists. Ac- 
cording to Abraham b. Solomon of Torrutiel (Neu- 
bauer, "M. J. C." i. 113-114), it was Levi b. Shem- 
Tob (Shem Ra) who advised King Emanuel of 
Portugal to close all the synagogues and forbid the 
Jews to attend prayers. This order not proving 
effective. King Emanuel, on the advice of Levi, 
issued another (April. 1497), ordering the baptism 
of all Jewish cinldren (Zacuto, "Yuhasin," p. 227, 
ed. Filipowski). Levi is identitied by some scholars 
with a certain Antonio who was chief surgeon of 
King John II., and who wrote a pamphlet entitled 
"Ajudo da Fe Contra os Judeos" (Kayserling, 
Gesch. der Juden in Portugal," p. 86). 
BiBLiOGRAPMY : Gfiilz, Ge^chichte der Juden, 3d ed., vlli. 381. 

G. M. Srt,. 

FISCHEL : Russian llebiaist and author of the 
nineteentli century ; born at Hrubieszow, govern- 
ment of Warsaw. He wrote a double commentary 
on Job, preceded by a preface and two poems (Lem- 
berg, 1833); and *' Dibre Purim " (Zolkiev, 1834), an 
epic poem, the central figures in which are Ahasuerus 
and Esther. He began the compilation, on original 
lines, of a Hebrew (lictionary entitled "Memalle," of 
which only the letter X appeared (Warsaw, 1839). 
Benjacob criticized this work severely in "Pirhe 
Zafon " (ii. 201-208, Wilna, 1844). 

Bibliography : Zeltlin, Bibliotheca Hehraica Post-Mendel)<- 
sohniana, p. 2til. 
H. K. M. Sei,. 

tinian scliolar; (li.sciple of tlie patriarch Judah I. 
and school associate of his son Simeon ('Ab. Zaraii 
19a); one of the semi-lannaim of the last decades of 
the second century and of the early decades of the 
tliird. He assisted Judah in tiie compilation of tlie 
Mi.shnah and contributed baraitot (Yoma 21a). 
Many of Levi's baraitot were eventually embodied 
in a compilation known as " Kiddnsliin de-Be Lewi " 
(Kid. 76b; B. B. 52b). In tiie Babylonian Gemara 
Levi is seldom ([uoted with his patronymic, and 
neither in that nor in the Jerusalem Gemara nor in 
the Midrashim is lie fjuoted with tlie title of 
"Rabbi." Keeping this in mind, the stud.nt of 
rabbinics will easily deterniine whether passag(^s 
written under the name "Levi" without a patro- 
nymic must be credited to Levi bar Sisi or to a 
younger namesake wlio is almost always cited as 

"R. Levi " (see Lkvi II). But although Levi bar 
Sisi is not given the title " Rab," he was highly es- 
t e;ned among the learned, and in many instances 
where an anonymous jiassage is introduced with the 
statement D'OSn ^:zh IHoi? (="it was argued be- 
fore the sages ") it is to be luiderstood that the argu- 
ment referred to was advanced by Levi before Ju- 
dah I. (Sanh. 17b; comp. Men. 80b; Me'i. 9b; see 
Rashi and Tos. ad loc). 

Judah I. later spoke of Levi bar Sisi as of an 
equal. But the latter did not always succeed in 
impressing the public. At the request of a congre- 
gatif)n at Siiuonias to send it a man who could act 
at once as lecturer, judge, superintendent of the 
synagogue, public scribe, and teacher, and attend 
to the general congregational affairs, Judah I. sent 
Levi. When, however, Levi entered on office he 
signally failed to satisfy the first requirement. 
Questions of law and of exegesis were addressed to 
him, and he left them unanswered. The Simonias 
congregation charged the patriarch with having 
sent it an unfit man, but the patriarch assured it 
that he had selected for it a man as able as himself. 
He summoned Levi and propounded to him the 
ijuestions originally propounded by the congrega- 
tion; Levi answered every one correctly. Judah 
thereupon inquired why he did not do so when the 
congregation submitted those questions; Levi an- 
swered that his courage had failed him (Ycr. Yeb. 
xii. 13a; comp. Yeb. 105a; Gen. R. Ixxxi. 3). A 
late midrash speaks of him as a Biblical scholar and 
good lecturer (Pesik. xxv. 165b). 

After Judah's death Levi retired with Hanina b. 
Hama from the academy, and when Hanina received 
his long-delayed promotion Levi removed to Baby- 
lonia, wiiither his fame had preceded him (Shab. 59b ; 
see H.vMNA b. Ham.\). He died in Babylonia, and 
was greatly mourned by scholars. In the course of 
a eulogy on him delivered by Abba bar Abba it was 
said that Levi alone was worth as much as the 
whole of humanity (Yer. Ber. ii. 5c). 

Bibliography: Bacher, ^ff. Tan. 11. 5:U) ; Frankel, Mcho.p. 
IKib; Halevy, 7>)rot ha-HMnniim, ii. tiOa ; Heilprin, Sedc/' 
)ia-Doi-()t, ii.; Weiss, Dor, ii. 19:.'. 

s. s. 

S. M. 

LEVI BEN SOLOMON: Galician Talmudist ; 
lived at Brody in the first half of the eighteenth 
century. He was the author of "Bet Lewi," ha- 
lakic novellic and explanations of the difficult pas- 
sages in Rashi and Tosafot (Zolkiev, 1732). 
Bibliography: Stelnschnelder, Cat. Bodl.col. IClfi. 

s. s. I. Bu. 

scholar of the sixteenth century. He was born in 
Smyrna, became director of the academy 'Ez Hayyim 
at Salonica, and went subseiiuently to Venice. He 
was versed in jihilosophy, natural sciences, and math- 
ematics as well as in the Talmud and the Halakaii. 
and was eminent as a preacher. He wrote a largo 
number of devotional and halakic works, including 
the following: " Leb Abot." commentary to Abot 
(Salonica, 1565 and 1571); " Dibre Slielomoh." five 
sermons for each of the weekly sections and feast- 
days (Venice. 1596); " Lehem Sheiomoh." commen 
tarv to tiie Talmud, the Midrash, and the Zohar (/A 



Levi ben Sbem-Tob 

1597); respoDsa to the Tur and the Shulhan 'Anik 
(Salouica, 1652); " Leb Slielonioh," similar in con- 
tents to the preceding. 

Bihmogra'phy: Nepi-Ohirondi, Toledot Uednlc l'i",s?-a«7, p. X)] ; 
Ben.iacoli, Ozar ha-Scfarini, passim; Steinsctineider, ('<tt. 
Binil lol. 23153. 
v.. I. E. 

LEVI, SYLVAIN: French Orientalist : huvu 
at Paris .March 28, 186:1 He received his educallDn 
at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, where he became 
"agrege es lettres" in 1886. Here, too, three years 
later he was appointed "maitre de conferences" in 
Sanskiit; and in the following year his duties were 
so extended as to include lecturing on the relig- 
ions of India in the section for the science of 
religion. Of both these departments he is now 
(1904) the director. In 1889 Levi was promoted to 
be "charge de cours" in Sanskrit in the Faculty of 
Letters; and the next year he received the degree 
of "docteur es lettres," presenting as his thesis 
"Quid de Gra'cis Veterum Indorum Monumenta 
Tradiderint." The same year saw the publication 
of his " Theatre Indien," which is the standard work 
on its subject. In 1894 Levi was appointed pro- 
fessor of Sanskrit in the College de France, a posi- 
tion which he still holds. 

In addition to the two works already mentioned, 
Levi has edited and translated the lirst eight chap- 
ters of Kshemendra's "Brhatkathamanjari" (Paris, 
1886), and has published a treatise entitled " La 
Doctrine du Sacritice dans les Brahmauas" (/b. 
1898). He is also the author of numerous briefer 
studies, especially in the "Journal Asiatique," as 
well as of many reviews of Oriental books; and he 
is a collaborator on the " Revue Critique " and " La 
Grande Encyclopedic," to which he has contributed 
a large number of articles dealing with the litera- 
ture and religion of India. 

Levi has been president of the Societe de Lin- 
guistique de Paris and of the Societe des Etudes 
Juives; he is also a member of the committee of the 
Alliance Israelite Universelle. In 1897 he was sent 
on a nnssion to India by the Ministry of Public In- 

BIBLIOGRAPHY : La Grande Encyclopedic. 
s. L. H. G. 

yer; born at Padua June 12, 1856; educated at the 
university there. In 1885 he was appointed assist- 
ant professor, and in 1890 professor, of international 
law at the same university. Levi-Catellani is a cor- 
responding member of the Padua Regia Accademia 
di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti and of the Regio Istituto 
Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, and a member of 
the Association for the Reform and Coditication of 
International Law, at London, and of the Institut 
de Droit International. He is the author of the fol- 
lowing works: " Le Colonic e la Conferenza di Ber- 
lino" (Turin, 1885); " Storia del Diritto Internazio- 
nale Privato" (ib. 1895); " Delia Riformaagl' Istituti 
della Cittadinanza e della Naturalizazione," a paper 
read at the fourth congress of Italian lawyers; "La 
DottrinaPlatonicadellc Idee e il Concetto di Societa 
Internazionalc," in the Fr. Scliupfer Memorial Vol- 
ume; "Realtaed Utopie dellc Pace " (Turin, 1899); 

and numerous articles in literary and scientific jour- 

BdiLiOGRAPHY : Aiiituaiiii (IcUa 7>. l')iiccr!<itd dl Padova, 

1885-86 <7 seq. 

s. U. C. 

LEVI-CIVITA, TULLIO: Italian physicist; 
born at Padua .Muich 29, 1873; educated at tlie uni- 
versity there (Ph.D). He was successively ap- 
pointed assistant professor (1898) and professor (1902) 
of applied mechanics, and professor of lugher me- 
chanics. He is also (1904) instructor in applied me- 
chanics in the Regia Scuola di Ai)plicazione per gl' 
Ingegneri connected with the university. 

Bibliography: A)inuari<) delht R. Univcrsitd di Padnvit, 
1898-99 el acq. 

s. U. C. 

supposed to be of Sa.ssoterrato, and assumed, until 
recently, to have addressed to Petrarch a sonnet be- 
ginning " lo Vorrei pur Drizzar Queste Mie Piume." 
This poem, to which Petrarch is .said to have re- 
plied with his sonnet "La Gola, il Sonno, e I'Oziose 
Piume," was published for the first time in 1504 by 
G. A. Gilio, who, however, attributed it to Orten- 
sia di Guglielmo of Fabriano. It was republished 
by Tommasini. who attributed it to Giustina (" Pe- 
trarca Redivivus," p. 111). Subsequently it was 
included in vari(His collections of poetry, down to 
1885. Although Crescimbeni, Tiraboschi, and Zeno 
doubted the authenticity of the sonnet, scholars 
like Quadrio and, with some hesitation, Foscolo ac- 
cepted it. Morici concludes that the sonnet is the 
work of some cinquecentist, and that Giustina Levi- 
Perotti never existed. 

Bibliography : Borgojrnoni, Le Rimedi Francei<C(i Petrarca, 
pp.23 ct scq., Modena, 1711 ; (arducci. Rime di Franvesco 
Petrarca, pp. 3-4, Leghorn, 1876; Crescimbeni, DelV IMoria 
della Viilqar Poesta, iii. 164 et scq., Venice, 1730 ; Foscolo, 
Opere Editc e Inedite, x. 409, Florence, 1859; Kayserling, 
Die Jlidi«cheii Fraueii ; Morici, Giti^tina Levi-Pcrotti e le 
Petrarchiste MarchiQiane, in Rasseuna Nnzioiiale. Aug., 
1899; Pesaro, Donne Celebri TsraeUte, in 11 VenKiUo iKraeli- 
tico, 1880, p. 376; Quadrio, Delia Storia e della Raginne li' 
Ogni PDcsirt, i.-ii. 187-188 194, 195, Milan; Tiraboschi, Sto- 
ria della Letteratnra Italiana, V. 581, Florence; Zeno, i>iA'- 
xcrtazioni Vaxftianc, i. 257b. 

J. u. c. 

LEVIAS, CASPAR: American Orientalist; 
born in Szagarren Feb. 13, 1860; received his ele- 
mentary education in Russia and his collegiate 
training at Columbia College, New York (A.M.), 
and Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; he was 
fellow in Oriental languages at the former (1893-94) 
and fellow in Semitic languages at the latter univer- 
sity (1894-95). Since 1895 Levias has been instruc- 
tor at the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Oliio. 
His published works are as follows: "A Grammar 
of the Aramaic Idiom Contained in the Babylonian 
Talmud," Cincinnati, 1900; "The Justification of 
Zionism," 1899. Besides these, Levias has published 
a large number of essays, chiefiy on philological sub- 
jects, in "The American Journal of Semitic Lan- 
guages " (in which his Talmudic grammar first ap- 
peared) and in the " Hebrew Union College Journal." 


of gigantic beasts or monsters described in Job xl. 
The former is from a root denoting "coil," "twist" ; 
the latter is the plural form of " behemah " = 

Levin, Hirschel 



"beast."— Biblical Data: Evt-r siuce Bochart 
(" Hierozoicon," iii. 705), " behemoth " has been taken 
to denote the hippopotamus; audJablonski, to make 
it correspond exactly with that animal, compared an 
Egyptian form, " p-ehe-mu " (= " water-ox "),which, 
however, does not exist. The Biblical description 
contains mythical elements, and the conclusion is 
justified that these monsters were not real, though 
the hippopotamus may have furnished in the main 
the data for the description. Only of a unique being, 
and not of a conunon hippopotamus, could the words 
of Job xl. 19 have been used : " He is the first [A. 
V. "chief"] of the ways of God [comp. Prov. viii. 
22]'; lie that made him maketh sport with him" (as 
the Septuagint reads, TrsTrou/fitvov h/KamnnL'taHai; 
A. V. " He that made him can make his sword to 
approach unto him"; comp. Ps. civ. 26); or "The 
mountains bring him forth food; where all the 
beasts of the field do play " (Job xl. 20). Obviously 
behemoth is represented as the primeval beast, the 
king of all the animals of the dry land, while levi- 
athan is the king of all those of the water, both alike 
unconquerable by man (rt. xl. 14, xli. 17-20). Gun- 
kel ("Schopfung und Chaos," p. 62) suggests that 
behemoth and "leviathan were the two primeval 
mojisters corresponding to Tiamat (= "the abyss"; 
comp. Hebr. "tehom") and Kingu (= Aramaic 
"'akna" = serpent") of Babylonian mythology. 
Some commentators find also in Isa. xxx. 6 ("baha- 
mot negeb" = "beasts of the south") a reference 
to the hippopotamus; others again, in Ps. Ixxiii. 
22 ("I am as behemoth [=" beasts"; A. V. "a 
beast"] before thee"); but neither interpretation has 
a substantial foundation. It is likely that the le- 
viathan and the behemoth were originally referred 
to in Hab. ii. 15: "the destruction of the behemoth 
[A. V. "beasts"] shall make them afraid" (comp. 
LXX. , " thee " instead of " them "). 

E. O. II. K. 

In Rabbinical Literature : According to a 

midrash, the leviathan was created on the fifth day 
(Yalk., Gen. 12). Originally God produced a male 
and a female leviathan, but lest in midtiplying 
the species should destroy the world, He slew the 
female, reserving her flesh for the banquet that will 
be given to the rigiitcous on the advent of tlie Mcs- 
siali (B. B. 74a). The enormous size of the levia- 
than is tiius illustrated by K. Johanan, from.whom 
proceeded nearly all the haggadot concerning this 
monster: "Once we went in a ship and saw a fish 
which put his head out of the water. He had horns 
upon which was written: ' I am one of the meanest 
creatures that inhabit the sea. I am three hundred 
miles in length, and enter this day into the jaws of 
tiic leviathan ' " (1^. B. l.<\). When the leviathan is 
hungry, reports \\. Dimi in the name of R. Johanan, 
he sends forth from his moutli a heat so great as to 
make all the waters of tiie deep boil, and if lie 
would jiut his head into paradise no living creature 
could endure the odor of him {ih.). His abode is 
the Mediterranean Sea; and the waters of the Jor- 
dan fall into his month (Bek. 55b; B. B. /.'•.). 

Tiic body of the leviathan, especially his eyes, 
possesses great illuminating power. This was the 
opinion of R. Kliezer, who. in theeourseof a voyage 
in company with R, Josliua, e\iilaineil to the latter. 

when frightened by the sudden appearance of a 
brilliant light, that it probably proceeded from the 
ej^esof the leviathan. He referred his companion to 
the words of Job xli. 18: "By his neesings a light 
doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the 
morning" (B. B. ^.c). However, in spite of his 
supernatural strength, the leviathan is afraid of a 
small Avorm called "kilbit" (n"'n^D), which clings to 
the gills of large fishes and kills them (Shab. 77b). 

The leviathan is prominent in the haggadic litera- 
ture in connection with the advent of the Messiah. 
Referring to Job xl. ^0 (Hebr.), "and 
In the the pious ones [nnnn] sliall make a 
Messianic banquet of it," R. Johanan says that 
Times. at the time of the resurrection a ban- 
quet will be given by God to the 
righteous, at which the flesh of the leviathan will be 
served (B. B. I.e.). Even the hunting of the levia- 
than will be a source of great enjoyment to the 
righteous. Those, says R. Judan bar Simon, who 
have not taken ])art in pagan sports will be allowed 
to participate in the hunting of the leviathan and of 
the behemoth (Lev. R. xiii. 3). Gabriel will be 
charged with the killing of the monster; but he 
will not be able to accomplish his task without 
the help of God, who will divide the monster with 
His sword. According to another haggadah, when 
Gabriel fails, God will order the leviathan to engage 
in a battle with the ox of the mountain (" shor ha- 
bar "), which will result in death to both of them 
(B. B. 75a; Pesik. p. 188b). Not only will the flesh 
of the leviathan fiu-nish food for the table of the 
righteous, but there will be a great supply of it in 
the markets of Jerusalem (B. B. I.e.). Erom the 
hide of the leviathan God will make tents for the 
pious of the first rank, girdles for those of tiie 
second, chains for those of the third, and necklaces 
for those of the fourth. The remainder of the hide 
will be spread on the walls of Jeru.salem; and 
the whole world will be illuminated by its bright- 
ness (ih.). 

These haggadot concerning the leviathan are in- 
terpreted as allegories by all the connnentators with 
the exception of some ultraconservatives like Bahya 
ben Asher ("Shull.ian Arba'," ch. iv., p. 9, col. 3). 
According to IMaimonides, the banquet is an allusion 
to the spiritual enjoyment of the intellect (connnen- 
tary on Sanh. i.). The name, he says, is derived 
from rvh ("to join," "to unite"), and designates 
an imaginary mcnister in which are 
Symbolical combined the most various animals 
Inter- ("Moreh," iii., ch. xxiii.). In the 
pretation. cabalistic literature the "piercing levi- 
athan "and the "crooked leviathan" 
(Isa. xxvii. 1), upon which the liaggadali concerning 
the hunting of the; animal is based, are inter]u-eted 
as referring to Satau-Saniael and his sjiouse Lilith 
("'Emck ha-Melek," p. 130a), Avhile Kimhi, Abra- 
vanel, and otiu'rs consider the expressions to be allu- 
sions to the destruction of the powers which are 
hostile to the Jews (comp. Manasseh ben Israel, 
"Nishmat Ilayyim," i>. 48; see also Kohut, "Aruch 
Compietum," n.r. "Leviathan," for other references. 
and his essay in "Z. D. M. G." vol. xxi.. p. 590, for 
the parallels in Persian literature). The haggadic 
sayings obtained a hold on tlie imagination of the 



Levin, Hirschel 

poets, who introduced allusions to the banquet of 
the leviathan into the liturgy. 

s. s. I. Br. 

In Apocryphal Literature : Both leviathan 

and behemoth are prominent in Jewish eschatology. 

In the Book of Enoch (Ix. 7-9), Enoch says: 

" On that day [the day of .iudginent] two monsters will be 
produced : a female monster, named ' Leviathan,' to dwell hi 
the depths of the ocean over the fountains of the waters ; but 
the male is called 'Behemoth,' who occupies with his breast a 
"waste wilderness named 'Dendain' [read "the land of Naid " 
after LXX., if yji Nai5 = iij i>tn3. Gen. iv. 16], on the east of 
the garden, where the elect and the righteous dwell. And I 
besought that other angel that he should show me the might of 
these monsters ; how they were produced on one day, the one 
being placed In the depth of the sea and the other in the main 
land of the wilderness. And he spake to me: 'Thou son of 
man, dost seek here to know what is hidden?'" (Charles, 
" Book of Enoch," p. 155; eomp. " the secret chambers of levia- 
than " which Elihu b. Berakel the Buzite will disclose. Cant. U. 

According to II Esdras vi. 49-53, God created on 
the fifth day the two great monsters, leviathan and 
behemoth, and He separated them because the sev- 
enth part of the world which was assigned to the 
water could not hold them together, and He gave to 
the behemoth that part which was dried up on the 
third day and had the thousand mountains which, 
according to Ps. i. 10, as understood bj' the hag- 
gadists C the behemoth [A. V. " cattle "] upon a 
thousand hills"; comp. Lev. R. xxii. ; Num. R. 
xxi. ; and Job xl. 20), furnish behemoth with the 
necessary food. To the leviathan God gave the 
seventh part of the earth filled with water; and He 
reserved it for the future to reveal by whom and at 
what time the leviathan and the behemoth should 
be eaten. 

In the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch, xxix. 4, also, 
the time is predicted wlien the behemoth will come 
forth from his seclusion on land and the leviathan 
out of the sea, and the two gigantic monsters, 
created on the fifth day, will serve as food for the 
elect who will survive in the days of the Messiah. 

Behemoth and leviathan form in the Gnostic sys- 
tem of the Ophites and others two of the seven cir- 
cles or stations which tlie soul has to pass in order 
to be purged and to attain bliss (Hippolytus, " Ad- 
versus Omnes Hasreses," v. 21; Origen, "Contra 
Celsum," vi. 25). As if the meat of the "wild ox'' 
behemoth and the fish leviathan were not deemed 
sufficient for the great banquet of the 

Among rigiiteous in the future, a fowl was 
the added, i.e. , tlie " ziz " (A. V. " the wild 

Gnostics, beasts" of the field), mentioned in Ps. 
1. 11 after the account of the behe- 
moth in verse 10, and understood by the Rabbis to 
signify a gigantic bird (B. B. 73b). Thus the Apoc- 
alypse of Simeon b. Yohai(Jellinck, "B. H." iii. 76) 
has the three animals, the monster ox behemoth, 
the fish leviathan, and the gigantic bird ziz, pre- 
pared for the great banquet. This tradition, how- 
ever, indicates Persian influence, for it is of the 
Parsee cosmology that tlie existence of such primeval 
representatives of the classes of animals is a part. 
There are four such species mentioned in "Bunda- 
his," xviii.-xix. : (1) "the serpent-like Kar fish, the 
Arizh of the water, the greatest of the creatures of 
Ahuramazda," corresponding lo the leviathan; (2) 
the tliree-legged ass Khara, standinsr in the midst of 

the ocean (" Yasna," xli. 28); it is mentioned in the 
Talmud as the " unicorn keresh," " tigras" {i.e., " thri- 
gat " = " three-legged "), the gazel of the heights 
(Hul. 59b), and forms, under tiie name "Harish," in 
Mohammedan eschatology a substitute for behemoth 
and leviathan (see Wolff, "Muhammedanische Es- 
chatologie," 1872, pp. 174, 181); (8) the ox Hadha- 
yosh, from which the food of immortality is pre- 
pared, and which forms the parallel of behemoth; 
and (4) the bird Chamrosh, the chief of the birds, 
which lives on the summit of Mount Alburz (comp. 
"Bundahis,"xix. 15); compare also Simurgh (Aves- 
ta "Saena Meregha," eagle-bird, gritfin, Hebraized 
" Bar Yokneh "), the fabulous giant-bird, which the 
Rabbis identified with ziz (.see Windischman, "Zo- 
roastrische Studien," pp. 91-93; West, "Pahlavi 
Texts," in Max Mliller, "S. B. E." v. 65-71). 

BiBLTOGRAPHT : The Commentaries of Dillmann, Delitzsch, and 
others on Job: Gunkel, SchOpfuitg und Chans, (iottingen, 
1895 ; Eisenmenger, EntdecMes Judemthum, ii. 296 et seq., 
873 et t<cq.; Weber, System der Altsunagngalen Thealnf/ie, 
1880, p. 195 ; Hastings, Diet. Bible ; Cheyne and Black, £71- 
c.i/c. BibL 

E. G. H. K. 

sian teacher and communal worker ; born at Minsk 
Dec. 15, 1820; educated at the Molodechensk school 
for the nobility (1836-41). He taught in G. Klaczko's 
jirivate school at Wilna from 1842 to 1844, and at 
the public schools of Minsk from 1846 to 1851. 
Having passed his examinations in 1848, he received 
an appointment in the Jewish government school 
at Proskurov, Podolia (1851-52), and subsequently 
in the rabbinical school at Jitomir (1853-57). 

In 1859 Levin settled in St. Petersburg, where he 
became one of the first members of the Society for 
the Promotion of Culture Among the Jews of Rus- 
sia, of which he acted as secretary until 1872, when 
he became an honorary member. Since 1895 Levin 
has been a member of the historical committee of 
the society and one of the collaborators of the 
"Regesty i Nadpisi." Levin was elected a member 
of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in 
1870 ; and he is also a member of the Society for the 
Promotion of Commerce and Industry. In 1895 
Levin was made an honorary citizen by the Russian 
government for his " Code of Laws Concerning the 

Levin's other works include: a Russian grammar 
in Hebrew, Wilna, 1846; "Moiseyevo Brachnoye 
Pravo," St. Petersburg, 1875, on the marriage laws 
according to tlie Talmud and the rabbinical litera- 
ture, translated from Hebrew sources; "Svod 
Uzakoneni o Yevrcyakh, ih. 1885; "Perechen 
Ogranichitelnykh Zakouov o Yevreyakh v Yevre- 
yakh o Rossii " {ib. 1890), both on the disabilities of 
the Jews in Russia; " Sboraik Ogranichitelnikh Za- 
konov o Yevreyakh," ib. 1902, on the same subject. 
He published also the text of the Pirke Abot with 
Russian translation and notes, ib. 1868. 

ir. K. S. M. G. 


(called also Hirschel Lobel and Hart Lyon) : 
German rabbi; born at Rzeszow, Galicia, in 1721; 
died at Berlin Aug. 26, 1800. His father (known also 
as Saul Levin) was rabbi at Amsterdam; and on 
his mother's side Hirschel was a nephew of Jacob 

Levin, Hirschel 
Levin, Poul Theodor 



Hirschel Levin. 

Emden. Although be occupied himself also with 
secular sciences and philosophy, Levin paid special 
attention to Hebrew grammar and literature, and 
composed several Hebrew poems. Levin was a dis- 
tinguished Talmudist, and in 1751, when he was only 
thirty years old, be threw himself into the struggle 
between Emden and Eybeschutz, naturally siding 
with the former. His epistles against Eybeschutz 

made such an impression 
that in 1756 he was elected 
thief rabbi of the London 
congregation of German 
and Polish Jews. In 1760 
Jacob Kimhi having pub- 
lished at Altona a respon- 
sum in which he charged 
Ihe London butchers 
("shohetim") with negli- 
gence in regard to their 
duties, Levin warmly de- 
fended them. The ward- 
ens of his synagogue, 
however, refused him per- 
mission to make a public 
reply to Kimhi's charges; 
he therefore resigned in 
1763, and accepted the 
rabbinate of Halberstaflt. It would appear, from 
the letter in which the community of Halberstadt 
offered him the rabbinate, that Levin's resignation 
was occasioned by the neglect of Biblical and Tal- 
niudic studies by the Jews of London. He after- 
ward became rabbi of Mannheim; and in 1772 he 
was appointed chief rabbi of Berlin. He was a 
great friend of Mendelssohn. 

In 1778 Levin gave his approbation to Mendels- 
sohn's German translation of the Pentateuch. In 
the preceding year the Prussian government had or- 
dered Levin to make a resume in German of the Jcav- 
ish civil laws, such as those on inheritance, guardian- 
ship, and marriage, and to present it to tlie royal 
department of justice. Levin, not having a thorough 
knowledge of the German language, applied to 
Mendel.s.sohn to do the work. Mendelssohn, accord- 
ingly, wrote his " Ritualgesetze der Juden," printed 
under Levin's superintendence, 1778. 

Despite his toHcnition and enlightenment. Levin, 
instigated by the rabbis of Glogau and Lissa, began 
in 1782 to persecute Naphtali Ilerz Wcssely for 
his "Dibre Slialom we-Emet" (Landshuth, "Tole- 
dot Anshe lia-Shem," p. 85; Kayserling, "Mendels- 
sohn," p. 307). lie proiiibited tiie printing of that 
work, and insisted upon the e.xpidsion of the author 
from Berlin. But Wes.sely's friends prevailed on 
Levin to desist from attacking Wessely, while Men- 
del-ssolm at the same time gave Levin to understand 
that the press in Germany was free to everybody. 

Levin wrote: Epistles against Eybeschutz, printed 
by one of Euiden's jjiipils, in the"Sefat Einet u- 
Leshon Zehorit," Altona, 1752; on Pirke 
Abot, printed with Emden '.s commentary to Pirke 
Abot, Berlin, 1834; notes to tlie "Sefer Yuhasin " 
and "Sefer lia-Hinnuk," some of which were pub- 
lished in Kobak's " Jeschurun." Some of his poetry 
was pviblished in " Ha-Maggid " (.\iv.) under the title 
" Nahalat Zebi." Finally, three manuscript volumes 

of his respousa are to be found in the library of the 

London Bet ha-Midrash, bearing the numbers 24 

to 26. 

Bibliography : Griitz, Gcsch. 2d ed., xi. 41, 89, 1.51 ; H. Adler, 
HI Puhl. A)nih)-Jen\ Hist. Exhibition, l^sr, pp. 2.S0 et scq.; 
Liindshuth, Toledot A}ishe lin-S)in)i. pp. I'i-'iii; Kayserling. 
Moses Mendelssohn, pp. 283, 291, :J11 ; Auerbacli, Gcsch. del' 
Isrttelitischen Ocmeinde Halberstadt, pp. 89 et seq., Halber- 
stadt, 1806 ; Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 284. 
s. s. M. Sel. 

marian and linguist; born in Randers 1810; died 
in C^openhagen 1883. He graduated from Banders 
high school, and afterward was employed as editor 
of a critical journal and as a translator of novels. 

Levin was the author of several works on Danish 
grammar, notably " Dansk Lyd og Kjonskere" 
(1844), and of two novels, "Krigsforta^Uinger for 
Menigmand" and "Nogle Trsek af Livet i Ham- 
burg" (1848). 
Bibliography : C. F. Bricka, Damk Biografisk Lexicon. 

s. F. C. 

LEVIN, JACOB : Galician Hebraist ; born at 
Brody in 1844. In 1865 he became coeditor with 
Werber on the Hebrew paper "'Ibri Auoki," in 
which he published a series of articles on the posi- 
tion of the Jews in Russia before Alexander II. In 
1880 he produced a didactic poem entitled " Ilitpat- 
tehut Tebel," on the evolution of religion and phi- 
losophy. Levin had previously translated into He- 
brew Schiller's " Die Braut von Messina " under the 
title "^Medanim Ben Ahim " (Brody, 1868). 

Bibliography: Sokolov, Sefer ho^Zikknrun, p. 63, Warsaw, 
1889 ; Zeitlin, Bibl. Post-MendeU. p. 202. 
s. M. Set,. 

JAH ZEEB: Lithuanian Talmudist and author; 
born at Wilua July 22, 1818; died at Paris Nov. 15, 
1883. After studying Talmud and rabbiuics under 
Elijah Kalischer, Levin settled in Volozhin, where 
he lectm-ed on Talmud and wrote several works. 
In 1871 he was called to the rabbinate of Praga, 
near AVarsaw. Toward the end of his life Levin 
went to Paris with the intention of proceeding thence 
to the Holy Land; but at the request of Israel Sa- 
lant he remained in the French capital and became 
preacher for the Russo-Polish conununity there. 

Levin was the author of many works, of which 
the following have been published at Wilna: "Ilag- 
gahot," notes on the Midrash Rabbah ; "'Aliyyot 
Eliyahu" (1856). a biography of Elijah Wiln^; 
"Ma'yene Yehoshua'," a commentary on Pirke 
Abot," printed in the " Ruah Hayyim" of Hiiyyim 
Volozhin (1859); " Ziyyun Yehoshua' " (1859), a com- 
plete concordance to botii Talmuds; "Tosefot Sheni 
le-Ziyyon," glosses to tiicMishnah; " Peletat Sofe- 
rim"(1863), novelUc and essays; "Dabar be-'Itto" 
(1878), discussions and explanations on halakic 

Bibliography: Univ. Tsr. .xxxix. 156; Ha-Mcliz, 1883, col. 
142:i; lla-Asif, 1., swtion 1, p. 141. 
s. s. M. Sel. 

brew poet; born at Minsk, Russia, 1H45. He stud- 
ied Talmud under Rabbi Hayyim Selig and other 
prominent rabbis. At the age of sixteen he read 
thrmmh the entire Talmud. He was then married to 



Levin, Hirschel 
Levin, Poul Theodor 

the daughter of a Hasid; and uudor the iiilluonce of 
his new surroundings he began the study of tlio 
Zohar and other mystical literature. In 1868 he 
went to Kiev as teacher in the house of Lazar 
Brodski, wliere he studied German and Russian. 
He was also made treasurer of the Brodski Hour- 
mills. In 1887 he was appointed treasurer of the 
Brodski sugar-retinery in Tomashpol, Podolia, where 
he is now (1904) residing. 

Levin began to write Hebrew poetry at the age 
of ten; and he has contributed extensively during 
the last tliirty years to tlie Hebrew periodicals " Ha- 
Meliz," "Ha-Zeiirah," "Ha-Maggid," "Ha-Asif," 
and "Ha-Shahar." His first collection of verse, en- 
titled "Sifte Benanim" (Jitomir, 1871), contains 
mostly occasional poems. In 1877 his " Kishron ha- 
Ma'aseh" appeared, first in "Ha-Shahar " (vols, vii., 
xviii.), and then in book form. It contains four large 
poems throwing light on the social condition of the 
Jews of Russia. They are socialistic in tendency. 
In another volume of "Ha-Sliahar" (Ix.xx.) he pub- 
lished "Elhauan," an epic poem in three parts, also 
concerning the social condition of the Russian Jews. 
Levin's style is affected and lacks brilliancy. In 
1883 he translated Disraeli's "Taucred" into He- 
brew under the title "Nes la-Goyim." The transla- 
tion was much criticized by Frischman in " 'Al ha- 
Nes," Warsaw, 1883. 

Bibliography: Zeitlin, Bihl. Post-Mendelf<.; Lippe, BibJin- 
grapliische.'i Lexicon ; Klausner, Nnvo-Yev7'eiskaya Litera- 
tura ; Frischman, Tohu wa-Bohu, Warsaw, 1883. 

H. K. J. G. L. 

LEVIN, LEWIS CHARLES : American poli- 
tician and writer; born at Cliarleston, S. C, Nov. 
10, 1808; died in Philadelphia March 14, 1860. 
When still a youth he went to Woodville, Miss., 
where he became a school-teacher and studied law. 
After having been woimded in a duel he left that 
town and practised law successively in Maryland, 
Kentucky, Louisiana, and Pennsylvania. In 1838 
he settled in Philadelphia and was there admitted to 
the bar. There he edited the "Temperance Advo- 
cate," and soon became knoTvn as a writer and 
speaker in the interest of the Temperance party. 
He was instrumental in the formation of the Na- 
tive American party in 1843, and founded in its 
support in Philadelphia the "Sun," of which daily 
paper lie became the editor. In 1845 he was elected 
to Congress, retaining his seat until 1851. He be- 
came a member of several committees and was 
chairman of the committee on naval affairs. 

Bibliography: C. Adier, in American Jewish Year Bonk, 
5661 (1900-1). 
A. F. T. H. 

LEVIN, MENDEL (called also Lefin and 
Satanower) : Polish scholar and author; born in 
Satanow, Podolia, about 1741 ; died in Mikolayev, 
in the same province, 1819. He was educated for a 
Talmudist, but became interested in secular studies 
after reading J. S. Delmedigo's "Elim," which 
opened for him the hitherto unknown world of 
science. He went to Berlin, and there, being at- 
tracted by the brilliant circle of Jewish scholars of 
which Moses Mendelssohn was the central figure, he 
remained for several years. From Berlin lie went to 
Brody, where he exerted much influence over Perl, 

Krochmal, and other early representatives of the 
Haskalah in Galicia. Later lie lived in the pala- 
tial home of Joshua Zeitlin in Ustye, government of 
^loghilef, at the same time that BAia'cii 1!EN Jacob 
resided there. He removed thence to Mikolayev, 
which belonged to the estate of Prince Adam Czar- 
toryski, who engaged him as teacher for hischildren. 
M. Letteris saw an essay on Kant's philosophy writ- 
ten by Mendel in French for Czartoryski. 

Levin's works are: "]\Ioda' la-Biuah," with an 
approbation l)y ^Mendelssohn (Berlin, 1789); " Re- 
fu'otha--Am" (Zolkiev, 1794; 2dcd. Lemberg, 1851), 
popular medicine translated from tiie Fieucli by 
Tisot; "Heshbouha-Nefesh" (Lemberg, 1809; Wilna, 
1844; Warsaw, 1852), practical ethics, after Frank- 
lin; "Masse'ot ha- Yam " (Zolkiev, 1818), travels on 
the sea, after Campe. His paraphrase of Tibbon's 
translation of the "Morcli Nebukim " in popular 
rabbinical Hebrew was published by M. Suchas- 
tover (Zolkiev, 1829), and his introduction to that 
work, entitled "Elon Moreh," by H. S. Slonimski 
(Odessa, 1867). Mendel was also the author of a 
Yiddish translation of Proverbs (Tarnopol, 1816), 
which innovation called forth a satirical work 
against him by Tobiah Feder("Kol Mehazezim," 
Berdychev, 1816). He tran.slated also Ecclesiastes 
into the same dialect; but the work Avas not pub- 
lished till long after his death (Odessa, 1873). 

Bibliography : Fuenn, Kiryah Ne'emanali, pp. 277-278. Wil- 
na, 1860; Idem, Safah le-lWemanim, p. UO, Wilna, 1881; 
Ha-Measf>ef (Letteris ed., 1862), i. 96-97; Stanlslavski. Men- 
del Levin, in Voskhod. 1881, No. 3, pp. 116-127 ; Zeitlin, Bibl. 
Poa-Mendch. pp. 202-204. 
H. R. P. Wl. 

LEVIN, MORITZ : German rabbi ; boin 1843 
at Wongrowitz, Posen. He studied at the L'niver- 
sity of Berlin, and was prepared for his rabbinical 
career by private teachers. After officiating as rab- 
bi for a short time at Zurich, lie went in 1872 in a 
similar capacity to Nuremberg. Since 1884 he has 
been preacher of the Reform congregation in Berlin. 

Levin is the author of: "Gott und Seele nach Jii- 
discher Lehre," Zurich, 1871 ; " Der Gottesdienst des 
Herzens. Israelitisches Gebetbuch flir Oeffentliche 
und Privataudacht," 2 vols., 1872; "Lehrbuch der 
Biblischen Geschichte und Literatur," 3d ed., 1897; 
"Iberia," Berlin, 1892; "Bar Kochba," 1892 (2d 
ed., 1904) ; " Lehrbuch der Judischeu Geschichte und 
Literatur," 3d ed., 1900; "Die Israelitische. Reli- 
gionslehre, Systematisch Dargestellt," 1892 (2d ed., 
1900); "Die Reform des Judentums. Festschrift 
zur Feier des 50-Jahrigen Bcstehens der jQdischen 
Reformgemeinde in Berlin," 1895. S. 

LEVIN, POUL THEODOR: Danish author; 
born in Copenhagen June 17, 1869; educated at the 
University of Copenhagen (Ph.D. 1898). Levin, 
who has become widely known as a literary critic, 
has written two dramatic works — " Antoinette " and 
"Sejr" (Copenhagen, 1895 and 1899). In 1894 he 
published "Dansk Litteraturhistorie i Omrids," a 
liistory of Danisli literature, followed later by sev- 
eral general essays in the same field, among which 
are "Ovid's Ungdomsdigtning " (1897) and "Egne 
og Stajder " (1899). 

Bibliography: Salmonsen''s Store Illustrerede Konversa- 
s. F. C. 

Levin, Kabel 



FRIEDERIKE: German wiilcr; born at JJeiiiii 
June 19, 1771 ; died there March 7, 1833. Her home 
life was uucongenial, her fatlier, a wealthy jo\veIer, 

beinir a strong - willed 
man and riding his fam- 
ily despotically. She 
was very intimate with 
Dorothea and Henriettc, 
(laughters of ^I o s e s 
]\Iendelss(»hn. Together 
with them she knew 
Ilonrictte Herz, with 
whom she later became 
most intimatel}' associ- 
ated, moving in the same 
intellectual sphere. Ra- 
hel's home became the 
meeting-place of men 


like Schlogel, Schelling, 
Steflfens, Schack, Schlei- 
Rahel Levin. ermacher, Alexander and 

"Willielm von Humboldt, 
Lamolte-Fouque, Baron Brlickmann, Ludwig Tieck, 
Jean Paul I^ichter, and F. von Gentz. During a 
visit to Carlsbad in 1795 she was introduced to 
Goethe, whom she again saw in 1815, at Frankfort- 

After the death of her father in 1806 she lived 
successively in Paris, Frankfort-ou-the-Main, Ham- 
burg, Prague, and Dresden. This period was one 
of misfortune for Germany; Prussia Avas reduced to 
a small kingdom and her king was in exile. Secret 
societies were formed in every jiart of the country 
with the object of throwing off the tyranny of Na- 
poleon; J^ahol herself belonged to one of these soci- 
eties. In 1814 she married, in Berlin, Karl August 
Varuhagen von Ense (b. Feb. 21, 1785, at Dussel- 
dorf ; d. at Berlin Oct. 10, 1858), after having been 
converted to Christianity. At the time of their mar- 
riage, Varnhagen, who had fought in the Austrian 
army against the French, belonged to the Prussian 
diplomatic corps, and their house at Vienna became 
the meeting- place of the Prussian delegates to the 
Vienna Congress. She accompanied her husband in 
1815 to Vienna, and in 1810 to Cailsruhe, where lie 
was Prussian representative. After 1819 she again 
lived in Berlin, where Varnliagen had taken up his 
residence after having been retired from Ins diplo- 
matic position. 

Though not a productive \vrit(1' herself, Pahel 
was the center of a circle of eminent writers, schol- 
ars, and artists in the Prussian capital. A few of her 
essays ajiix'an-d in print in " Das.Morgenblatt," " Das 
Schweizerisclie .Museum." and " I)er (Jesellschaf- 
ter," and in 1H30 her" Denkbliitter einer r.erlinerin " 
was published in Berlin. Her eorrespouch'nce with 
David Veit and wilii Varidiagen von Ense was i)id)- 
lislied in Lcipsic, in 1801 and 1874-75 respect ivel}'. 

Hahel always showed the greatest interest in her 
former coreligionists, endeavoring by word ami 
deed to better tlu ii- jiosition, esjiecially during tiie 
anti-Semitic outburst in Germany in ISU). On tiie 
day of her funeral Varnliagen sent a considerable 
sum of money to the Jewisji \mmi\ of Berlin. 

The poet Ludwig' Robert was a bmihi rof IJahi'l. 

and with him she corresponded extensively; her 
sister Rosa was married to Karl Asser. 

UiBLio(;RAPnY: Sctimidt-Weissenfels, Hahel uw\ Hire Zeit, 
Leipsic, 1857 ; Mrs. Vaughan Jennings, RnlicJ, Her Life ami 
I/C(f ers, London, 1876; Assing. ^4i(.s RalteU Herzenslehen, 
ib. 1877 ; Kayserling, Die Jlidinchen Fraucu, pp. 208 et scq., 
Leipsic, 1879; Varntiagen, liaJieh ciu Buck den Amleiikens 
fllr Ihrc FreiuKle, Berlin, is:i3; idem, Oalerie van Bild- 
ni»sen nunRahel'ft Um(ja>ni nnd Brief wechsel, Leipsic, 1836; 
Berdrow, Rahd Variiliauen: Ein Lebens- uitd Zeitbdd, 
Stuttgart, 1900. 
s. F. T. H. 

LEVIN, ZEBI HIRSCH. See Levin, Hir- 


nish operatic singer; born in Copenhagen Jan. 8, 
1839; died there March 22, 1899. She made her d^- 
but at the Kongelige Theater in Copenhagen on 
Dec. 20, 1800, when she, as Nannette in " Den Lille 
Kodha'tte," completely won the hearts of her audi- 
ence by her sympathetic impersonation of the guile- 
less girl. She became "royal actress" in 1866, 
and was, on her retirement in 1879, appointed 
court singer (" Kongelig Kammersangerinde "). 
Her repertoire included: Itosina in "Barberen," Sn- 
sanmi in "Figaro's Bryllup," Papagena in "Trylle- 
flojten," Amid in " Jnegerbruden," Benjamin in 
"Joseph og HansBrbdre," Siebel in "Faust," and 
Venus in "Tannhauser." 

Bibliography: SaZmojisen's Store Illustrerede Konversa- 
s. F. C. 

brew scholar and writer; born at Kreinenetz Oct. 13, 
1788 ; died there Feb. 12, 1860. His father, Judah 
Levin, was a grandson of Jekuthiel Solomon, who 
settled in Kremenetz and acquired considerable 
wealth, and a son of Isaac, who had married the 
daughter of Zalman Cohen, famed for his wealth 
and scholarship. Levinsohu's father was a wealth}' 
merchant and" was popular among Jews and Gen- 
tiles alike. He was a master of Polish, wrote lluent- 
ly in classical Hebrew (at that time a rare accom- 
plishment), and was a thorough Talmudic scholar. 
At the age of three Levinsohn was sent to the he- 
der, where he soon manifested unusual aptitude 
for learning; and at nine lie composed a cabalistic 
work that elicited the praise of scholars and rabbis 
("Bet Yehudah," ii. 12G, note 2). At ten he was 
versed in Talmudic lore, and knew the 01<1 Testa- 
ment by heart. He also studied and mastered the 
Russian language, an unusual acliieveuieiit foj- a 
Russian Jew of that time. Thanks to ins great 
mental i)ower and industry, he rapidlj' familiarized 
himself with tlie rabl)inical literature. At eigiiteen 
he married and settled in Hadzivilov, supporting 
iiimself by teaeiiiiig and translating ; his mariied life, 
however, was unhappy, and lie divorced his wife. 

Some of Levinsohn 's first literary elTorts were in 

the domain of Hebrew ]K)etry. Among others, he 

wrote a patriotic po(>m on the expulsion of the French 

from Russia, which was traiismilled to 

His Verse. I lie minister of the interior by fJcneral 
Gicrs, tlie conniiaiulant of the Hadzi- 
vilov garrison. Levinsolm himself regai'ded his 
verses as nuMe litiiary exercises, did not attempt 
to jirint them, and the uncater part of them were 
lost. Exces.sive study broimlit on nervous dis- 
oiihrs, and Le\'insolm journeyeij to Brody, then the 



lievin, Rahel 

center of the Jewish Haskaluli, in order to consult 
the local physicians. There the future reformer of 
the Russian Jews found a congenial atmosphere 
in the circle of the Maskilim. lie soon made 
the acquaintance of Dr. Isaac Erter, the Hebrew 
satirist, and later of Solomon Lob Rappoi^ort. 
Though engaged as a bookkeeper in the local bank, 
he found time to continue his studies. Before long 
he passed the teacher's examinations and was ap- 
pointed to teach Hebrew at the gymnasium of Tar- 
nopol. There he soon became intimate with the 
scholar Joseph Perl, through whose influence he se- 
cured an instructorship at the Hebrew college of 

Levinsohn's new position brought him into close 
relations with Nachman Krochmal of Zolkiev, an 
authority on all questions of rabbinical learning and 
Jewish custom. In 1817 he submitted 
His to Krochmal his first critical studies, 

Writings, entitled "Ha-Mazkir," and Krochmal 
was so favorably impressed with the 
work that he offered to contribute toward the ex- 
pense of publication. Unfortimately, it was never 
printed, and only a part of it was incorporated in 
" Te'uddah " and"" Bet Yehudah. " In 1820 Levinsohn 
prepared, for the benefit of the Russian youth, the 
first Ilelirew grammar, entitled "Yesode Lashon 
Russiya." The necessary means being lacking, this 
was never published and the manuscript was lost. 

About this time he wrote a satire on the Hasi- 
(Hni entitled " Dibre Zaddikim." Returning to Kre- 
menetz in the same year, he began his "Te'uddah 
be-Yisrael," a work destined to leave an indelible 
iniin-ession on a whole generation of Russian Jews. 
It was finished in 1823, but was not published until 
1828. The book attempted to solve nianj' problems 
of contemporary Jewish life in Russia. It urged 
the study of the Scriptures before the Talmud, and 
the necessity of studying secular languages, partic- 
ularly that of the Fatherland. It urged also the 
study of science and literature, and the great impor- 
tance for the Jews of engaging in agricultural and 
industrial work. It strongly counseled the abandon- 
ing of petty trading and of other uncertain sources 
of livelihood. 

Levinsohn's good advice, however, did not please 
the Hasidim, who opposed him in many ways and so 
cnibiltcred his existence ^ 

that he was comjielled to 
leave Kremenetz. Re- 
jiaiiingto Berdychev, lie 
became i)ri\ ate tutor in 
the family <if a wealthy 
Jew, and, gathering 
about himacii'clc of pro- 
gressive friends, he or- 
ganized a society f(ir tiie 
piomotion o'f culture. 
Regarding it as liis spe- 
cial iiiission to carry en- 
liglitennient tot lie young 
generation, lie resided 
successively in Oslrog, 
Nemirov, and Tulchin. 
named jilace Ijevinst)hn 
estate of Prince AVitgenstein, the Russian rieM-mar- 

Isaac Haci' l.iviiiMilin. 

On his \\ay to the last- 
stop]ied at Kaminka, the 

shal. When the prince heard of Levinsohn's arrival 
he invited him to his house, assigned him a suite of 
rooms, and kept him there through the entire sum- 
mer. The field-marshal liked to pass his evenings 
in conversation with the learned Jew, and often fol- 
lowed the latter's advice. 

In 1823 Levinsohn was compelled by failing health 
to return to Kremenetz. Soon after his arrival there 
he was confined to Ids bed by a sickness that kept 
him bedridden for twelve years. Notwithstanding 
this he never resigned himself to mental inactivity, 
and during these long years of suffering lie made 
himself familiar with Arabic, Greek, and Syriac, 
and studied the classics, political economy, and phi- 

In 1827, a year before the appearance of "Te'ud- 
dah," Levinsohn presented the manuscript, with an 
explanatory statement, to the Russian government, 
which accepted it with much favor, and awarded 
Levinsohn, on the representations of D. N. Bludov, 
a thousand rubles "for a work in He- 
Questioned brew having for its object the moral 
by Prince education of the JewLsh people." In 

Iiieven. the same year the minister of public 
instruction, Prince Lieven, submitted 
to Levinsohn thirty-four questions on Jewish religion 
and history, among them the following: " AVhat is 
the Talmud?" "Who was the author of itV" 
" When, where, and in what language was it writ- 
ten ? " " Have the Jews other books of such author- 
ity';'" "Is there anj^thing sensible in the Talmud? 
It is stated that it is full of improbable legends and 
fables." "How could the autliors of the Talmud 
permit themselves to add to, or detract from, the 
commandments of the Torah, which forbids that?" 
" What is the object of the numerous rites that con- 
sume so much useful time?" "Is it true that the 
Jews are the descendants of those Pharisees whom 
the lawgiver of the Christians had accused of lying 
and superstition? " "Is it true that the Talmud for- 
bids the Jews the study of foreign languages and 
science, as well as the pursuit of agricultural occu- 
pations?" "What is Hasidism, and who was its 
founder?" "In what towns mainly do the Hasi- 
dim reside?" "Do the Jews possess schools or 
learned books?" "How do the Jewish masses re- 
gard their schools?" "Can the condition of the 
Jews be improved? and, if so, by what means?" 
"What Messiah is it that the Jews are expecting? " 
"Is it true that the Jews expect to rule the entire 
world when the IVIessiah arrives, and that members 
of other religions will be excluded from partici- 
pation in the after-life?" "How can a Jew be ad- 
mitted into Christian society and be accorded full 
civic rights when he keeps himself aloof from the 
Christians and takes no interest in the welfare of 
the country where he resides? " Levinsohn referred 
the minister to his "Te'uddah " and to other works 
in various languages, transmitted to him concise 
answers to his questions, and promised to write a 
book in which tliese questions would be discussed 
in detail. 

In 1828 " Te'uddah " saw the light. " It was not the 
yearning for fame," says Levinsohn in the preface, 
" that impelled me to write this book. . . . Friends 
seeking truth and light asked me to point out to 

Lievirate Marriage 



them the true way of life; they wish to know what 
learning, aside from tlie Talmud and its commen- 
taries, it is necessary for a Jew to acquire for the 
perfection and refinement of his nature as a man 
and a Jew." 

Levinsohn now undertook his larger work, " Bet 
Yehudah," which was "to expose to Christian eyes 
the world of Jewish spiritual life founded on the 
principles of highest morality, a world 
Scope of tlun unknown to Russian Christians." 
His " Bet He wished, also, to make his work of 
Yehudah." educational value to the Jewish peo- 
ple, so that uninslructed coreligionists 
wotild see Judaisih in its true light. At the same 
time he found himself obliged to exercise great care 
in the treatment of the subject in order to avoid 
creating undue antagonism. Levinsohn presents in 
his " Bet Yehudah " a wonderfully clear and logical 
exposition of Jewish religious philosophy. Accord- 
ing to him the Jewish religion may be summed up 
in two principles of belief: faith in one God, which 
involves the negation of idol-worship ; and love of 
one's neighbor. He shows by numerous citations 
that the latter means the love not only of one Jew for 
another, but the love for any neighbor, irrespective 
of faith. He presents a history of the various Jewish 
sects, enumerates the contributions of the Jews to 
learning and civilization, and at the end suggests a 
plan for the reorganization of Jewish education in 
Russia. He urges the necessity of founding rabbin- 
ical seminaries fashioned after the German institu- 
tions, training the Jewish youth in religious and 
secular learning, opening elementary Jewish schools 
throughout the Pale, abolishing the institution of 
melanunedim, and establishing agricultural and in- 
dustrial schools. 

"Bet Yehudah " exerted a powerful influence on 
the Jews of Kussia and gave a plan of action to the 
progressive elements in the Russian Jewry. The 
book accjuired renown outside of Russia also. It 
was translated into I'olish, and the scholar Geiger 
read several chapters of it before an audience in the 
Breslau synagogue. But though " Bet Yehudah " 
was completed in 1829, it remained unpubli-shed 
until 1838. 

About this time the Jewish commimity of Zasiavl 
in Volhynia was accused of ritual murder; many 
families were imprisoned, and the en- 
Refutes tire community was in despair. Lev- 
Charges insohn's opponents then laid aside 
of Blood their enmity and turned to him as the 
Accusation, only man capable of proving the fal 
sity of the accusation. In spile of his 
sickness Levinsohn began hi8"Efes Danunim," in 
defense of the accused Jews. But the necessary 
means not being fortiicoming, he was obliged to 
spend his own money in collecting material and in- 
formation. "The i)urpose of my book," says Lev- 
insohn, "is to acquit the Jews before the eyes of 
Christians, and to save them from the false accusa- 
tion of using Christian blood." "Efes Dammim " is 
written in the form of a dialogue between a patri- 
arch of the Greek Cliurch in Jerusalem. Simias, and 
the chief rabbi in the Jewish synagogue there. Tiie 
book sliows tlie remarkable dialectic talent of the 
author. It was completed in 1834, published in 

1837, republished three times, and was translated 
into English at the time of the " Damascus Alfair '" 
in 1840, at the instance of Sir Moses Montefiore and 
Cremieux. It was tninslated also into Russian 
(1888) and German (1884; another German edition 
appeared in 1892). In another polemical work, 
" Yemiu Zidki," Levinsohn proves the absurdity of 
the accusations against Judaism and the Talmud. 
This work was left by him in manuscript. 

Other polemical works written by Levinsohn are 
"Ahiyyah Shiloni ha-IIozeh " (Leipsic, 1841) and 
" Ta'ar iia-Sofer " (Odessa, 1863). " Ahiyyah Shiloni 
ha-Hozeh " is directed against the work of the Eng- 
lish missionary McCaul entitled " The Paths of tlie 
World " (London, 1839), and constitutes an introduc- 
tion to Levinsohn's larger work "Zerubbabel," com- 
pleted in 1853. This latter work was published, in 
part, by his nephew David Baer Nathansohn (Leipsic, 
1863) ; the entire work was published later in Warsaw 
(1876). This work, which occupied twelve years, 
and was continued through sickness and suffering, 
was not only a defense of Judaism, but also an ex- 
position of the value of traditional law in the Jew- 
ish religion, and of the great wisdom and moral 
force of its expounders and teachers. The "Ta'ar 
ha-Sofer " is directed against the Karaites. 

In addition to these, Levinsohn wrote on Hebrew 
etymology and comparative philology. In this fleld 
he published "Bet ha-Ozar," the first 
Levinsohn and second jiarts of which appeared in 
as a Wilna in 1841 ; the first part is entitled 

Philologist. " Shorashe Lebanon," and includes 
studies of Hebrew roots; the second 
part comprises articles on various subjects, and 
" Abne Millu'im," a supplement to "Bet Yehudah." 
After Levinsohn's death Nathansohn published 
" Toledot Shem ".(Warsaw, 1877) and " Ohole Shem " 
(Warsaw, 1893), both containing philological studies 
arranged in alphabetical order, and also corrections 
of Ben Zeb's"Ozar ha Shorashim," which was re- 
published by Letteris. Levinsohn left a number of 
works in manuscript, including " Hotam," 
on the period of the Canticles; " Yizre El," miscel- 
laneous essays; "Be'er Yizhak," correspondence 
with contemporary scholars; "Eshkol ha-Sofer," 
letters, poetry, and humorous papers. 

Levin.sohn labcM'cd assiduously for the w^ell-beiug 
of his coreligionists in Russia. He worked out and 
submitted to the government various projects for 
the amelioration of the condition of the Jews, such 
as the plan he submitted to the crown prince Kon- 
stantin in 1823, his memorandum to the minister of 
education in 1831, his project iu regard to the cen- 
sorship of Jewish books in 1833, and his plan for 
the establishment of Jewish colonies in 1837. Nicho- 
las I. gave the last careful consideration. It is 
known, also, that the emperor wrote Levinsohn a 
personal letter iu regard to this plan, but its contents 
are not known. The establislmient of Jewish agri- 
cultural colonics in Bessarabia in 183S-39 and Liter 
and the organization of Jrwish educational institu- 
tions undo>ibtedly owed nuich to Levinsohn's sug- 
gestions. The government ap|)reciatcd his services, 
and, besides monetary rewards, offered liim impor- 
tant positions, which he declined. The failure of 
his health compelled him to decline also appoint- 



Levirate Marriagre 

ment as member of the Jewish commission that sat 
iu St. Petersburg in 1843, and in 1853 he again re- 
fused an appointment as member of the special com- 
mission on Jewish allairs. Tiie following words 
were inscribed, at liis own request, on Ids tomb- 
stone: "Out of notlnng God called me to life. 
Alas, earthly life has passed, and I shall sleep again 
on the bosom of Mother Nature, as this stone testi- 
fies. I have fought the enemies of God not with 
the sharp sword, but with the Word. That I have 
fouglit for truth and justice before the Nations, 
'Zerubbabel' and ' Efes Damim ' bear witness." 
Levinsohn iias been called " the Mendelssohn of 

Bibliography : Fuenn, Keneset Yi^rael, p. 633, Warsaw. 1886; 
Zinberg, />aac Baer Leviiisohu, in Galcreya I'cvieiskiklt 
Dyeyatelci, No. 3, St. Petersburg, 19U0 ; Nathansohn, Bio- 
graphical Notes (111 LeviiiKoJni ; Hausner, 7. B. Levius'iliii ; 
Alabin, in Ritsskatia Staj-ina, 1879, No. 5. 

H. R. 

YXJLYEVICH : Russian geologist ; born 1861. He 
graduated from the physico-mathematical faculty 
of the University of St. Petersburg in 1883, was 
placed in charge of the geological collection in 1886, 
and was appointed privat-docent at St. Petersburg 
University in 1889. In 1892 he became professor, 
and the next year dean, of the physico-mathemat- 
ical faculty of Yuryev University. Aside from his 
work on petrography lie published also essays in 
other branches of geology, the result of scientific 
journeys throughout Russia. In various period- 
icals more than thirty papers have been published 
by him, the most important being the following: 
" Olonetzkaya Diabazovaya Formatziya" (in " Trudy 
St. Peterburgskavo Obschestva Yestestvovyede- 
niya," xi.x.); "O Fosforitnom Chernozyome " (in 
" Trudy Volnoekonomicheskavo Obschestva," 1890) ; 
"O Nyekotorykh Khimicheskikh Tipakh Izvyer- 
zhonykli Porod " (in "Vyestnik Yestestvoznaniya," 
1890) ; " Geologicheskiya Izslyedovaniya v Guberlin- 
skhikh Gorakh " (in " Zapiski Mineralnavo Obschest- 
va"); "Die Variolite von Yalguba" ("Tscherm. 
Mineral. Mitt." vi.); "Die Mikroskopische Beschaf- 
fenheit des Jordanalit" (ib. ix.); "Etudes sur le 
Porphirite de Deweboyu " (in "Bulletin de Societe 
Beige de Geologic ") ; " 1 et 2 Notes sur la Structure 
des Roches Eruptive " {ib.) ; " Note sur les Taxites et 
les Roches Elastiques Volcaniques" {ib.); "Les 
Ammonee de la Zone a Sporadoceras Munsteri " (ib.); 
" Petrographisches Lexicon" (2 parts, 1893-95); 
"Tablitzy dlya Mikroskopicheskikh Opredeleni 
Porodoobraznykh Mineralov." The last was pub- 
lished in English by Gregory. 

Bibliographt: Entziklopedichcski Slovar. 
n. R. J. G. L. 

LEVINSTEIN, GUSTAV : German manufac- 
turer and writer; born in Berlin May, 1842. After 
graduating from the Koiluisches Gymnasium in Ber- 
lin he went to England, where he and his brothers 
founded an anilin-dye factory at Manchester. Re- 
turning to Berlin, he entered the university and 
studied philosophy. He owns factories in southern 
France, though living in Berlin. He has at various 
times taken up his pen in behalf of Judaism and 
Jewish rights. Of his works the following may be 
mentioned: " Wissenschaftlicher Autis»mitismus," 

directed against Paulsen (Berlin, 1896) ; " Der Glaube 
Israels" (tb. 1896); "Die Taule" {ib. 1899); "Pro- 
fessor Paulsen und die Judenfrage" {ib. 1897); "Die 
Forderung des Sonutag - Gottesdienstes: Antwort 
auf das Gutachten des Rabbinats und den Beschluss 
der Repriisentanten-Versammlung," in support of 
supplementary Sunday services {ib. 1898); "Ueber 
die Erlosung des Judeuthums," against Benediktus 
Levita {ib. 1900); "Professor Ladenburg und der 
Unsterblichkeitsgedanke im Judenthum " {ib. 1904). 
s. M. K. 


sian-Americau rabbi; born at Kovno, Russia, May 
12, 1864. He was educated at the rabbinical schools 
of Kovno, Wilna, and Byelostok, and received rab- 
binical diplomas from Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Spector 
and Rabbi Samuel Mohilever in 1888. He emigrated 
to the United States in 1891, and shortly after his 
arrival there was appointed minister of six Russian 
congregations in Philadelphia. Leviuthal helped to 
found various communal institutions in Philadelphia 
and is vice-president of the Union of Orthodox 
Rabbis of America, and honorary vice-president of 
the Federation of American Zionists. 

Bibliography : American Jewish Year Book, 1903-4, p. 74. 
A. F. H. V. 

LEVIRATE MARRIAGE (Hebr. "yibbum"): 
Marriage with a brother"s widow. This custom is 
found among a large number of primitive peoples, 
a list of which is given by Westermarck ("Historj- 
of Human Marriage," pp. 510-514). In some cases 
it is the duty of a man to marry his brother's widow- 
even if she 'has had children by the deceased, but in 
most cases it occurs when there are no children, as 
among the Hindus ("Institutes of Manu," v. 59-63). 
Among the Hebrews marriage with a brother's wid- 
ow was forbidden as a general rule (Lev. xviii. 16, 
XX. 21), but was regarded as obligatory (Deut. xxv. 
56) when there was no male issue, and when the two 
brothers had been dwelling on the same family es- 
tate. The surviving brother could evade the obli- 
gation by the ceremony of Halizah. The case of 
Ruth is not one of levirate marriage, being connected 
rather with the institution of the Go'el; but the 
relations of Tamar with her successive husbands and 
with Judah are an instance (Gen. xxxviii.). If the 
levirate union resulted in male issue, the child 
would succeed to the estates of the deceased brother. 
It would appear that later the levirate marriage 
came to be regarded as obligatory only when the 
widow had no children of either sex. The Septua- 
gint translates " ben " (son) in the passage of Deute- 
ronomy by "child," and the Sadducees in the New 
Testament take it in this sense (Mark xii. 19; comp. 
Josephus, "Ant." iv. 8, § 23). 

By Talmudic times the practise of levirate mar- 
riage was deemed objectionable (Bek. 13a), and was 
followed as a matter of duty only. To marry a broth- 
er's widow for her beauty was regarded by Abba 
Saul as equivalent to incest (Yeb. 39b). Bar Kap- 
para recommends halizah (Yeb. 109a). A differ- 
ence of opinion appears among the later authorities, 
Alfasi, Maimonides, and the Spanish school gener- 
ally upholding the custom, while R. Tam and the 




Northern school prefer luilizah (Shulhan 'Aruk, 
Eben ha-'Ezer, 165). The marriage was uot neces- 
sary if the brother left a child l)y another marriage, 
even if such a child were on the point of death 
(I.e. 157). A change of religion on the part of the 
surviving brother does not affect the obligation of 
the levirate, or its alternative, the halizah (Isaac 
b. Sheshet, Responsa, i. 2), yet the whole question 
has been profoundly affected by the cliange from 
polygamy to monogamy due to the takkanah of 
Gershom ben Judah (see Makriage). 

The Samaritans followed a slightly diflEerent course, 
which may indicate an earlier custom among the He- 
brews; the former practised the levirate only when 
the woman was betrothed and the marriage had not 
been consummated (Kid. 65b). The Karaites appear 
to have followed the same practise, and Benjamin 
Nahawendi, as well as Elijah Bashyazi, favored it 
("Adderet Eliyahu, Nashim," p. 93a). 

It has been suggested by Kalisch ("Leviticus," ii. 
362-363) that the prohibition in Leviticus is of 
later date than the obligation under certain condi- 
tions in Deuteronomy, but it is equally possible that 
the Leviticus prohibition was a general one, and the 
permission in Deuteronomy only an exception when 
there was no male issue. J. F. Maclennan (" Studies 
in Ancient History," i. 109-114) suggested that the 
existence of levirate marriage was due to polyandry 
among the primitive Hebrews, and has been followed 
by Buhl ("Sociale Verhaltnisse," p. 34) and Barton 
("Semitic Origins," pp. 66-67); but this is rather 
opposed to the Hebraic conditions, for it would be 
against the interests of the surviving brother to al- 
low the estate to go out of his possession again. 
There is, besides, no evidence of polyandry among 
the Hebrews. 
Bibliography : Gelger, In JtldwcheZeitschrift, 1863, pp. 19-39. 

s. S. J. 

PEL LEIVE) : German surgeon; born in Berlin 
of a family known as " Schnaber " ; died in Hamburg 
Feb. 10, 1797. He evinced an early aptitude for 
study, and attended the school of David FrRnkel, 
chief rabbi of Berlin. Levisohn chose the medical 
profession, to which he devoted himself with enthu- 
siasm. He left Germany for England, and, after 
studying under Joim Hunter, was appointed physi- 
cian at the hospital of the Duke of Portland. Being 
called to Sweden by Gu.stavus III., he occupied for 
some time the position of professor at the Univer- 
sity of Upssilu. Gustavus thought highly of him, 
and he translated, at the king's command, from 
English into Swedisii liis medical and polemical 
works. Levisohn left the court in 1781 and re 
turned to Germany, where he published German 
translations of most of his English medical works. 
Three years later (1784) he went to Hamburg, and, 
being well received, settled tliere and followed his 
profession with remarkable success. 

The large number of his daily patients did not 
prevent him from prosecuting with zeal his medical, 
philosophical, and theological studies. In 1785-86 
he publislied two medical journals, and during the 
following years labored at his great work on relig- 
ious philosopliy. He was then engaged for five 

years in physical researches. His works are: 
''Ma'amar ha-Torah we-Hokmah" (London, 1771), 
a philosophical treatise (this work caused its author 
to be regarded in the light of a dangerous innova- 
tor) ; •' An Essay on the Blood " {ib. 1776) ; " Epidem- 
ical Sore Throat" {ib. 1778); "Beschreibung der 
Londonisclien Mediciuischcn Pra.xis d(>n Dcutschen 
Aerzten Vorgelegt .... mit einer Vorrede von T. C. 
A. Theden" (Berlin, 1782); "The Passions and 
Habits of Man, and Their Influence on Health" 
(Brunswick, 1797-1801); "Derek ha-Kodesh ha- 
Hadashah," a Hebrew grammar. 

Bibliography: Schroder, Hnmhurgischc >^chrifti>teUer; 
Cannoly, Les Mfdeciwi Juifs, pp. 217, 219 ; I'icciolto, SkctcJies 
of A)igh)-Jewish iJistorj/, p. 147; iiriliaJi Museum Cata- 

J. G. L. 


Levisohn, Gkougp:. 

LEVISON, ESAIAS: Danish educationist and 
author; born in Copenhagen April 22, 1803; died 
tiiere March 23, 1891; educated at the University of 
Copenhagen (B. A. 1823). In 1824 Levison was ap- 
pointed tutor at the Jewish school in Copenhagen, 
in which position he remained till within two years, 
of his death. He published several religious edu- 
cational works, of which tlie following may be men- 
tioned : " Kortfattet Forklaring over L;erebogen i 
Religionen for Ungdommen af den Mosaiske Troes- 
bekjendelse " (Copenhagen, 1825) ; " Bibelske For- 
tfellinger " {ib. 1827) ; a Jewish prayer-book, with 
Hebrew text and Danish translation {ib. 1833). 
Levison translated into Danish Bulwer Lytton's 
"Paul Clifford." For two years (1837-38) he acted 
as coeditor of "Borgervennen," a Danish political 
periodical, to which he contributed several articles. 
In 1837 the University of Kiel conferred upon him 
the honorary degree of Ph.D. 

Bibliography: Erslew's Forfatter-Lexicon. 

8. F. C. 


Danish physician; born in Copenhagen Nov. 9, 
1843; educated at the University of Copenhagen 
(M.D. 1868). He was successively assistant physi- 
cian at Frederik's Hospital, the Lying-in Hospital, 
and the Aimindeligt (Communal) Hospital in Copen- 
hagen. In 1887 he was appointed guardian of the 
poor, which position he still (1904) occupies. Levi- 
son is an energetic advocate of cremation ; tlip 
first Danish society for cremation was founded 
(1881) at his initiative, and he has ever since offici- 
ated as its president. 

Bibliography: C. F. Brlcka, Datuik Uiografisk Lexicon. 

s. F. C. 

LEVITA, ELIJAH (known also as Elijah 
ben Asher ha-Levi Ashkenazi, Elijah Bahur, 
Elijah Medakdek, and Elijah Tishbi) : Gram- 
marian. Masorite, and poet; born at Neustadt, near 
Nuremberg, in 1468; died at Venice Dec;., 1549. 

From his cliildhood Elijaii sliowed a prediiecti;)n 
for Biblical studies and Hebrew grammar. He set- 
tled early in Venice; but in 1.504 lie was at Padua, 
earning a livelihood by instructing Jewish children 
in Hebrew. At the request of his pupils he wrote 
a commentary to Moses Kimhi's " Mahalak " ; but a 

te-itft n-'H"' t<bl n3-t')a'J''n Nan rr^uJKna 
' nsoTO tDnn "lat irMu) 'nscn^aa' 

,r !iJ"^n lib 013) rN "^^fe* 
n'Ow « nattn^jc ' 


Title-Page from the First Edition of Elijah Levita's "Tishbi," Isny, 1541. 

(From tht Suizbergor collectioD io the Jewish Theological SemiDary of America, New York.) 





certain Benjainiu Colbo, to whom Elijah had given 
the manuscript to transcribe, publisfied the worii at 
Pesaro under his own name. Colbo interspersed the 
annotations with excerpts from another work ; and 
in this form Elijah's first production was most in- 
correctly printed. In spite of this, however, it 
became the favorite manual for students of the He- 
brew language, both among Jews and Christians. 
It was soon reprinted several times at Pesaro, and 
made its way into Germany and France, where also it 
was reprinted ; it was translated into Latin by Sebas- 
tian Mlinster (Basel, 1531, 1536). It was not until 
1546 that Elijah, urged by his friends, claimed the 
authorship of the work and published a corrected 
edition of it at Venice. During his stay in Padua, 
Elijah published in German a version of the Baba 


The relatively happy circumstances enjoyed by 
Elijah at Padua did not long continue. In 1509 the 
city was taken and sacked by the army of the League 
of Cambray, and Elijah, losing everything he pos- 
sessed, had to leave the place. He betook himself 
to Rome, and having heard of the scholarly and 
liberal-minded ^-Egidius of Vitekbo, general of the 
Augustine Order, who was studying Hebrew, he 
called upon him. This prelate, in exchange for 
Hebrew lessons from Elijah, offered to maintain him 
and his family. For thirteen years 
Gram- Elijali remained in the palace of the 

marian. cardinal, writing works which spread 
his rejiutation, giving lessons in He- 
brew, and, in turn, taking lessons in Greek from the 
cardinal. During this period Elijah produced the 
"Sefer ha-Bahur," a grammatical treatise written at 
the request of the cardinal, to whom it was dedi- 
cated, and first published at Rome in 1518 (2d ed. 
Isny, 1542, and many subsequent reissues). As the 
author explains in his preface, he called the work 
"Bahur " because that was his surname, and further 
because the w'ord denoted both "youth" and "ex- 
cellent." The treatise is divided into four parts, 
each of which is subdivided into thirteen sections, 
corresponding to the thirteen articles of the Jewish 
creed; while the total number of sections, fifty-two, 
represents the numerical value of " Elijah," his name. 
The first part discusses the nature of the Hebrew 
verbs; the second, the changes in the vowel-points 
of the different conjugations; the tliird, the regular 
nouns; and the fourth, tiie irregular ones. 

In the same year (1518) Elijah published tables of 
paradigms for beginners, entitled " Luah bc-Dikduk 
ha-Po'alim weha-Binyanim " ; and a work, on the 
irregular words in the Bible, entitled "Sefer lia- 
Harkabah." Desiring to explain every intricacj- 
and anomaly in the Hebrew language, but fearing 
that too many digressions might prevent his gram- 
mar from becoming a popular manual, he in 1520 
published dissertations on various grammatical sub- 
jects under tiie general title " Pirke Eliyahu. " This 
hedivided into four parts: the first, " Perek Sliirah," 
discussing in thirteen stanzas the laws of tiie letters, 
the vowel-points, and the accents; the second, " Perek 
ha-Minim," written in prose, treating of the dilTcr- 
ent parts of speech; the third, "Perek ha-Middot," 
discussing tiie various parts of speech ; and the 
fovirtii. " Perek ha Shimmushim." treating of tiie ser- 

vile letters. Like his preceding works, it was trans- 
lated into Latin and published by Sebastian Mlinster. 
In 1527 misfortune again overtook Elijah; he was 
driven from his studies when the Imperialists sacked 
Rome, and lost all his property and the 
Proof- greater part of his manuscripts. He 
Reader and then returned to Venice, and was en- 
Tutor, gaged by the printer Daniel Bom- 
berg as corrector of his Hebrew press. 
To the income derived from this employment was 
added that earned by tuition. Among his pupils 
was the French ambassador George de Selve, after- 
ward Bishop of Lavaur, who by generous pecuniary 
assistance placed Elijah in a position to complete 
his great Masoretic concordance " Sefer ha-Zikronot," 
on which he had labored for twenty years. This 
work, which De Selve, to whom it was dedicated, 
sent to Paris to be printed at his expense, has for 
some unknown reason never been published, and is 
still extant in manuscript in the Bibliotheque Na- 
tionale, Paris. An attempt to edit it was made by 
Goldberg in 1875, but he got no farther than 'OJK- 
The introduction and the dedication to it were pub- 
lished by Frensdorf in Fraenkel's " Monatsschrift " 
(xii. 96-108). Still the "Seferha-Zikronot," to which 
Elijah often refers as his chef-d'oeuvre, made a 
good impression in Paris, and Elijah was offered by 
Francis I. the position of professor of Hebrew at tJie 
university there, which he declined, being unwilling 
to settle in a city forbidden to his coreligionists. 
He declined also invitations from several cardinals, 
bishops, and princes to accept a Hebrew professor- 
ship in Christian colleges. 

Two years after the completion of the "Sefer ha- 
Zikronot" Elijah published his Masoretic work 
"Massoretlia-Massoret " (V^enice, 1538), divided into 
three parts, respectivelj^ denominated " First Tables," 
" Second Tables," and " Broken Tables," each with an 
introduction. The " First Tables " is divided into ten 
sections, or commandments (" 'Aseretha-Debarim "), 
dealing with the "full" and "defective" writing of 
syllables. The " Second Tables " treats of the " kere " 
and "ketib," "kamez" and "patal.i," "dagesh," 
"mappik,""rafe," etc. The " Broken Tables " dis- 
cusses the abbreviations used by the 
"Mas- Masorites. In the third introduction 
soret." Elijah produces an array of most pow- 
erful arguments to prove that the 
vowel-points in the Hebrew Bibles were invented 
by the Masorites in the fifth century of the com- 
mon era. This theory, although suggested by 
some Jewish scholars as early as the ninth cen- 
tury, provoked a great outcry among the Ortho- 
dox Jews, who ascribed to the vowel points the 
greatest antiquity. They were already dissatisfied 
with Elijah for giving instruction in Hebrew to 
Christians, since the latter openly confessed that 
they studied the Hebrew language with the liope of 
finding in the Hebrew texts, especially in the Cabala, 
arguments against Judaism. To this Elijah replied in 
the first introduction to tiie " Massoret ha-Massoret" 
that he taught only the elements of the language 
and did not teach Cabala at all. Moreover, he 
pointed out that Christian Hebraists generally de- 
fended the Jews against the attacks of the fanatical 
clergy. Elijah's theory concerning the modernity 




of the vowel-poiuts caused still greater excitement 
among Christians, and for three centuries it gave 
occasion for discussions among Catholic and Protes- 
tant scholars, suchasBuxtorf, Walton, De Rossi, and 
others. The " Massoret ha-Massoret " was so favor- 
ably received that in less than twelve months after 
its appearance it was republished at Basel (1539). 
In this edition Sebastian ]\Iunster translated into 
Latin the three introductions, and gave a brief sum- 
mary of the contents of the three parts. The third 
part, or the "Broken Tables, "was republished sepa- 
rately at Venice in 1566, under the title " Perush ha- 
Massoret we-Kara Shemo Sha'are Shibre Luhot." 
This part of the book was again republished, with 
additions, by Samuel ben Ilayyimat Prague in 1610. 
The three introductions were also translated into 
Latin by Nagel (Altdorf, 1758-71). In 1772 the 
whole book was translated into German by Chris- 
tian Gottlob Meyer, and in 1867 into English by 
Christian D. Ginsburg. 

In 1538, also, Elijah published at Venice a treatise 
on the laws of the accents entitled " Sefer Tub 
Ta'am." Meanwhile David Bomberg's printing- 
office had ceased to exist, and Elijah, although at 
that time seventy years of age, left his wife and 
children and departed in 1540 for Isny, accepting 
the invitation of Paul Fagius to superintend his He- 
brew printing-press there. During Elijah's stay with 
Fagius (until 1542 at Isny and from 1542 to 1544 at 

Constance) he published the following 

Lexi- Avorks : " Tishbi, " a dictionary contain- 

cograplier. ing 712 words used in Talmud and 

Midrash, with explanations in German 
and a Latin translation by Fagius (Isny, 1541); 
"Sefer Meturgeman," explaining all the Aramaic 
words found in the Targum(«i.); "Shemot Deba- 
rim." an alphabetical list of the technical Hebrew 
words (Isny, 1542); a Jud«o-Gernian version of the 
Pentateuch, the Five Megillot, and Haftarot (Con- 
stance, 1544); and a new and revised edition of the 
"Bahur." On returning to Venice, Elijah, in spite 
of his great age, still labored on the edition of several 
works, among which was David Kinihi's "Miklol," 
to which he added notes of his own (" nimukim "). 

Bibliography: Vf o\f, Bihl. Hehr. iii. 97; Azulai, iS'/fcm ha- 
Gcdotim, S.V.; G. B. de Rossi, Diziimario, s.v.; Oiioit, Lit. 
1848, Nos. 4-6; Frensdorf, in Monatssclnift, xii. 9(i ct seq.; 
Gesenius. Gesch. ilcr Hehiiiisclien Spraclic, Leipsic, 1815; 
Briill's Jahrb. viii. 188; S. Buber, Talcdot Eliijalni, 1856; 
Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 934; Idem, BihUngva]ihiAchcs 
Haiiill>ur)i, Nos. 1159-1167; Gratz, Gesch. viii. 199; Kabana, 
in Ha-Slidhnr, xii. 498 ct ticq.; V. D. Ginsburg, The Masoreth 
ha-Ma^drc'th of EJias Levita, London, 1867 ; I. Davidson, in 
Mdilia' la-Hadashim, ii. 31 ct .xey.; J. Levi, FAia Livitir. 
Breslau. 1888; liactier, in Erscli and (iruber, Eiicur. s.v. 
Lcrita ; idem, Lcvita^s )Vi.<sieni<cliaftliche Leistunqen, 
mZ. D. M. G. xiiil. 306-273; idem, Zur Biograptiie Elija 
if fi7(('s, in 3f())ia<wc/inff, xxxvii. 398 et scg. 
J. L Br. 


sian painter; born near Eidtkuhneii Aug. 18, 1860; 
died at Moscow July 22, 1900. Ilis father, who 
earned a livelihood by giving private tuition, re- 
moved to Moscow when Levitan Avas still a boy and 
gave him a good home training. About 1875 Levi- 
tan entered the Moscow School of Art, where he fin- 
ished the course. Living in great poverty, and at 
times in actual want, he still continued his work, and 
at tlie age of nineteen disjilayed considerable talent 
in his "An Autumn Day at Sokolniki." Tills pic- 
VITT— 4 

ture was purchased by the well-known connoisseur 
Tretyakov. In 1880 Levitan exhibited " The Plowed 
Field," which attracted much favorable comment. 
As late as 1886, notwithstanding the reputation 
whicli he had acquired, he still continued to derive 
only a very small income from his profession. 

The period 1887-97 was the most happy of Levi- 
tan's life, and to it belong liis best works. He was 
a tireless worker and painted a very large number of 
pictures. Twenty-tive of his paintings are to be 
seen in the Tretyakov gallery alone. He probably 
produced in all about 1,000 i)aintings and studies, 
most of them in the decade 1887-97. In 1892, when 
Levitan was already widely known and after the 
award to him of the lirst prize for his picture "Twi- 
light" at the Art Lovers' Exhibition, the notori- 
ous May Laws were enforced in Moscow, and he 
was permitted to remain there only owing to the in- 
tluence of powerful friends. His nearest relatives, 
however, were compelled to leave the city, their 
business was ruined, and Levitan had to render them 
material aid to the end of his life. In 1897 Levitan 
was elected an active member of the Munich society 
Secession, and the Academy of Art selected him an 

Levitan's paintings are marked by a thorough 
knowledge of Russian scenery and types. They 
possess a decided originality; at the same time they 
convey an expression of sadness. In his funeral 
oration Count A. E. Lvov said of Levitan : " He was 
an artist-poet. He not only painted pictures — in his 
paintings there was something besides; we not only 
saw his pictures, we also felt them. He knew how 
to interpret Nature and her mysteries as no other 
man. " Even the " Novoye Vremya" (July 29, 1900), 
an organ decidedly anti-Semitic in its policy, ad- 
mitted that "this full-blooded Jew knew, as no 
other man, how to make us realize and love our 
plain and homely country scenes." 

Among the works of Levitan may be mentioned : 
" Over Eternal Rest " ; " The Neglected Graveyard " ; 
" A Tatar Graveyard " ; " Relics of the Past— Twi- 
light in Finland " ; "The Golden Autumn"; " Vladi- 
mlrka " ; " March " ; " After the Rain " ; " Forest " ; 
"Evening"; "The Peaceful Retreat"; "The Hay- 
Harvest " ; and two lake scenes. A picture by Levi- 
tan, entitled "A Convent on the Eve of a Holiday," 
was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 
in 1893. 
Bibliography: S. Vermel, To.s7i?i(H?, xxii. 34. -r /i t 

H. K. J- G. L. 

LEVITES (Temple Servants). — Biblical 
Data: Of the Levites, Aaron and his sons were 
chosen for the priestly office (Ex. xxviii. let seq.); 
the menial services of the Tabernacle were assigned 
to the rest of the tribe (Num. i. 47 et seq.). The 
Kohathites were to bear the sacred furniture of the 
Tabernacle; the Gershonites, its curtains; and the 
Merarites, its boards, pins, and poles (Num. iv. 
4-16, 22-28, 29-33). It is distinctly stated that the 
Levites shall not approach the most holy things 
(Num. iv. 19)— that is, they shall not act as priests, 
a function which the context reserves for Aaron and 
liis sons. 

In Deuteronomy the representation is quite differ- 
I ent ; " priests " and " Levites " aie there synonymous 




terms, and the one is regularly placed in apposition 
with the other. In Deut. xviii. 1, apparently, every 
Levite is a potential priest. In Josliua, as in Num- 
bers, the Levites consist of the clans of Kohatli, 
Gershou, and Merari, and to each clan a large num- 
ber of cities is assigned (comp. Josh. xxi. ; see 
Levi, Tuibe of). The Levites, as the servants of the 
Temple, appear next in I Chronicles, where David 
is represented as dividing them into "courses" 
to wait on the sons of Aaron by doing the menial 
work of the Temple because they were no longer 
needed to carry the Tabernacle (comp. I Chron. 
xxiii., especially 26-28). He also appointed some to 
be doorkeepers of the Temple, some to have charge 
of its treasure, and some to be singers (I Chron. 

Ezekiel, however, gives a somewhat different im- 
pression of the personnel of the Temple service in 
pre-exilic times. In ch. xliv. 9-13 he declares that 
in future no uncircumcised foreigner shall enter the 
Temple, and that the Levites who have served at 
idolatrous shrines shall be deposed from the priest- 
hood and perform the menial services of the sanctu- 
ary, such as keeping the gates and slaying the offer- 
ings. This seems to imply that before the Exile 
this service had been performed not by Levites, but 
by foreigners (an impression which Josh. ix. 23 
deepens), and that those who were accounted Le- 
vites in this subordinate sense had formerly exercised 
a priesthood, of which Ezekiel did not approve. 

After the Exile the Temple organization, as re- 
flected in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, is the 
same as that portrayed in Chronicles. The plan of 
Ezekiel was not altogether carried out, for the Ne- 
thinim, who were descended from slaves whom 
David had given to the Temple (Ezra viii. 20), 
shared with tlie Levites the subordinate work of the 
sanctuary (Ezra vii. 24). In later times it would 
seem that the distinction between Levites and Ne- 
tliinim gradually disappeared; present information 
on this point consists solely of the fact that the 
Nethinim were given genealogies along with the 
Levites (Ezra ii. 40 ct seq.). At the beginning of 
the common era the Levites were an important class 
of religious otHcials (comp. Luke x. 32; John i. 19). 

Critical View : The Biblical data thus present 

two inconsistent views. According to Leviticus, 
Numbers, the greater part of Joshua, and Chroni- 
cles, the priesthood was confined to the house of 
Aaron from the first, and the Levites existed as a 
menial class for the performance of the subordinate 
work of the sanctuary from the time of Moses. The 
portions of Leviticus, Numbers, and Joshua which 
contain this point of view are all from the P stratum 
of the Hexateuch — a post-exilic document, as the 
Graf-Wellhausen school believes. Chronicles, too, 
is a work written some time after the P^xile. 

In the older books of Judges, Samuel, and Kings 
the priestly ofTicesare rcpre-scnted as not exclusively 
performed by Levites, who, however, were from the 
first preferred for these services and gradually 
monopolized tliem (see Levi, Tuibe of). These 
services were not confined to anyone sanctuary, but 
were performed in temples all over the land (comp. 
Judges xviii. 30). This condition of affairs appar- 
ently continued until Josiah, in 621 u.c, instituted 

a reform on the basis of the Deuteronomic law 
(II Kings xxiii.), when all sanctuaries except that 
at Jerusalem were abolished. This 
Earlier left a large number of priests with- 
Accounts. out a vocation, and they were conse- 
quently recommended to the charitj* of 
their brethren along with the widow, the fatherless, 
and the resident alien (Deut. xii. 18, 19; xiv. 27, 29; 
xvi. 11, 16). In this code every Levite is still re- 
garded as a possible priest, however, and it is dis- 
tinctly stipulated that if one of them goes to Jeru- 
salem he shall have the same privileges in the exer- 
cise of the priestly office as arc enjoyed by any other 
Levite (Deut. xviii. 6-7). But the influence of the 
Jeru.salem priesthood seems to have been so great 
that even Josiah could not enforce this provision, 
and the provincial priests were never accorded in 
fact the privileges in the Temple on Zion which 
Deuteronomy had granted them (comp. II Kings 
xxiii. 9). Ezekiel's plan for the reorganization of 
the Temple services proposed to utilize these men 
for the menial work of the sanctuary; this pro- 
posal was actually embodied in the legislation of P 
and became a part of the post-exilic religious organi- 

The view of the Graf-Wellhauseu critical school 
is that last outlined — that the cleavage between 
priests and Levites was not begun until the time of 
Josiah, that it received a further impetus from 
Ezekiel, and that it became a real feature of the 
permanent religious organization after the return 
from Babylon. This view is strengthened by the 
fact that J in Josh. ix. 23 represents 
After Joshua as presenting the foreign Gibe- 
Josiah. onites to the Temple as slaves, " hew- 
ers of wood and drawers of water," 
and that Ezekiel shows that foreigners continued to 
fill the menial offices down to the time of the Exile. 
Van Hoonacker (" Le Sacerdoce dans la Loi et dans 
I'Histoire des Hebreux," 1899) contends that Chron- 
icles records pre-exilic conditions (comp. Baudissin 
in " Theologische Literaturzeitung," 1899, cols. 359- 
363). The picture of the Levites given in Leviticus, 
Numbers, the P portions of Joshua, and Chronicles 
is thought by others to be a projection by the writers 
of the institutions of their own times into the distant 

BinLiOGRAPnv: Wellhausen, Prolcgomenazur OcscU. Ixracls, 
5th ed., 1899, oil. iv.; Baudissin, Die GcHch. dcs AUtCftta- 
mciitUchcn Pric^tcrtniiws, lss9; H. Vopelstein, T)er Knmpf 
Zwischcii Pricslnti «»('( Levitcii scit den Ta\)en EzevhicU, 
1889; Nowack, Hchrilische ArchUologie, 1894; Benziiiger, 
HeUriliHche ArchUnloijic. 

E. G. II. G. A. B. 

LEVITICUS.— Biblical Data: The English 
name is derived from the Latin "Liber Leviti- 
cus," which is from the Greek (jo) AevircKdv (i.e., 
fii!i?.iov). In Jewish writings it is customarj' to cite 
the book by its first word, " Wa-yikra." The book is 
composed of laws which treat of tiie functions of the 
priests, or the Levites in the larger sense. It is in 
reality a body of sacerdotal law. The various laws 
comprising tliis collection are represented as spoken 
by Yhwii to Moses between the first day of the first 
month of the second year after the Exodus and the 
first day of the second month of the same year 
(comp. Ex. xl. 17 and Num. i. 1). There is no note 

Illuminated Page of Leviticus. 

(From a manuscript formerly in the possession of the Duke of Sussex.) 




of a definite time in Leviticus itself, but from tlie 
references cited it is clear that iu the continuous 
narrative of tlie Pentateuch this is the chronological 
position of the book. 

Ch. i.-vii. : A collection of laws relating to sacri- 
fices. It falls into two portions: (1) ch. i.-vi. 7 
(Hebr. i.-v.)and vii. 23-34 are laws addressed to the 
people; (2) ch. vi. 8-vii. 21 (Hebr. vi. 1-vii. 21) are 
addressed to the priests. Ch. i. contains laws for 
burnt offerings ; ch. ii., for meal-offerings; ch. iii., 
peace-offerings; ch. iv., sin-offerings; ch. v. 1-vi. 
7 (Hebr. ch. v.), trespass-offerings; ch. vi. 8-13 
(Hebr. vi. 1-6) defines the duties of the priest with 
reference to the fire on the altar; ch. 
Contents, vi. 14-18 (Hebr. vi. 7-11), the meal- 
offering of the priests; ch. vi. 19-23 
(Hebr. vi. 12-16), the priests' oblation; ch. vi. 24-30 
(Hebr. vi. 17-23), the trespass-offering; ch. vii. 
1-7, trespass-offerings; ch. vii. 8-10, the portions 
of the sacrifices which go to the priests; ch. vii. 
11-18, peace-offerings; ch. vii. 19-21, certain laws of 
uncleanness; ch. vii. 22-27 prohibits eating fat or 
blood; ch. vii. 28-34 defines the priests' share of 
the peace-offering. Ch. vii. 35-38 consists of a sub- 
scription to the preceding laws. 

Ch. viii.-ix.: The consecration of Aaron and his 
sons; though narrative in form, they contain the 
precedent to which subsequent ritual was expected 
to conform. 

Ch. X. contains two narratives: one shows that it 
is unlawful to use strange fire at Yhwh's altar; the 
other requires the priests to eat the sin-offering. 
Between these narratives two laws are inserted, 
one prohibiting intoxicating drink to the priests, the 
other giving sundry directions about offerings (8-15). 
Ch. xi. contains laws in regard to clean and un- 
clean animals, and separates those wliich may from 
those which may not be used for food. 

Ch. xii. contains directions for the purification of 
women after childbirth. A distinction is made be- 
tween male and female children, the latter entailing 
upon the mother a longer period of uncleanness. 

Ch. xiii. and xiv. contain the laws of leprosy, 
giving the signs by which the priest may distin- 
guish between clean and unclean eruptions. 

Ch. XV. contains directions for the purifications 
necessary in connection with certain natural secre- 
tions of men (2-18) and women (19-30). 

Ch. xvi. contains the law of the great Day of 
Atonement. The chief features of this ritual are 
the entrance of the high priest into the Holy of 
Holies and tiie sending of the goat into the wilder- 
ness (see Az.vzel). 

Ch. xvii.-xxvi. contain laws wliich differ in many 
respects from the preceding and which have many 
features in common. They are less ritualistic than 
the laws of cli. i.-xvi. and hvy greater stress on in- 
dividual holiness; hence the name "Holiness Code," 
proposed by Klostermann in 1877 for these chapters, 
has been generally adojited. Ch. xvii. contains 
general regulations respecting sacrifice; ch. xviii. 
prohibits unlawful marriages and unchastity; ch. 
xix. defines the religious and moral duties of 
Israelites; ch. xx. imposes penalties for the viola- 
tion of the provisions of ch. xviii. In ch. xxi. reg- 
ulations concerning priests are found (these regula- 

tions touch the domestic life of the priest and re- 
([uire that he siiall have no bodily defects); ch. 
xxii. gives regulations concerning sac- 
Holiness rificial food and sacrificial animals ; ch. 
Code. xxiii. presents a calendar of feasts; ch. 
xxiv. contains various regulations 
concerning the lamps of the Tabernacle (1-4) and the 
showbread (5-9), and a law of blasphemy and of per- 
sonal injiuy (10-23) ; ch. xxv. is made up of laws 
for the Sabbatical year and the year of jubilee (these 
laws provide periodical rests for the land anil se- 
cure its ultimate reversion, iu case it be estranged 
for debt, to its original owners); ch. xxvi. is a hor- 
tatory conclusion to the Holiness Code. 

Ch. xxvii. consists of a collection of laws concern- 
ing the conunutation of vows. These laws cover 
the following cases: where the vowed object is a 
person (1-8); an animal (9-15); a house (14-15); an 
inherited field (16-21); a purchased field (22-25); a 
firstling (26-27). Then follow additional laws con- 
cerning persons and things "devoted" (28-29) and 
concerning tithes (30-33). Verse 34 is the colophon 
to the Book of Leviticus, stating that these laws 
were given by Yhwh as commands to Moses at 
Mount Sinai. 
E. G. II. G. A. B. 

Critical View : In the critical analysis of 

the Pentateuch it is held that Leviticus belongs 
to the priestly stratum, designated by the symbol 
P. To this stratum the laws of Leviticus are at- 
tached by their nature and also by linguistic af- 
finities (conip. Pentateuch, and J. Estlin Car- 
penter and G. Harford Battersbv, " Hexateuch " 
[cited hereafter as "Hex."], i. 208-221). This 
priestly stratum was formerly regarded as tlu; 
"Grundschrift," or oldest stratum of the Pentti- 
teuch, but by Graf and Wellhausen, whose views 
now receive the adherence of the 
Latest great majority of scholars, it has 
Stratum been shown to be on the whole the 
of Penta- latest. Leviticus as it stands is not, 
teuch. however, a consistent code of laws 
formulated at one time, but is the re- 
sult of a considerable process of compilation. It 
has already been noted that chapters xvii. to xxvi. 
have a distinct character of their own and a distinct 
hortatory conclusion, which point to an independent 
codification of this group of laws. Within this 
same group many indications that it is a compilation 
from earlier priestly sources may also be found. 
Ch. xviii. 26, xix. 37, xxii. 31-33, xxiv. 22, xxv. 55, 
xxvi. 46, and xxvii. 34 are all passages which once 
stood at the end of independent laws or collections 
of laws. Similar titles and colophons, which are 
best explained as survivals from previous collec- 
tions, arc found also in other parts of the book, as 
in vi. 7 (A. V. 14): vii. 1, 2, 37, 38; xi. 46, 47; xiii. 
59; xiv. 54. 55; xv. 32, 33. It is necessary, there- 
fore, to analyze these laws more closely. 

It will be convenient to begin this analysis Avith 
ch. viii.-x., which are, as i)reviously noted, narm- 
tivcs rather than laws. Ch. viii. relates the conse- 
cration of Aaron and his sons to the priesthood. 
That consecration is commanded in Ex. xl. 12-15, 
just as the erection of the Tabernacle is commanded 
iu Ex. xl. 1-11. As the erection of the Tabernacle 




is described in Ex. xl. 17-38, it is probable tliat Lev. 

viii., recounting tlie consecration- of Aaron and liis 

sons, immediately followed Ex. xl. 

Chapters Ch. i.-vii. have by editorial cliani^es 

viii.-x. : been made to separate this narra- 

Narratives. live from its context. Lev. viii. is 

based on Ex. xxix., relating its fultiV 

meut, just as Ex. xxxv.-xl. is based on Ex. xxv.- 

xxviii. and xxx., xxxi. It has been shown (comp. 

Exodus, Book ok, Critical View I.) that Ex. 

xxxv.-xl. is a later expansion of a briefer account 

of the fulfilment of the commands of xxv.-xxxi. ; it 

follows accordingly that Lev. viii. probably belongs 

to a similar late expansion of a shorter account of 

the fulfilment of the commands of ch. xxix. Lev. 

viii. is not so late as Ex. xxxv.-xl., since it knows 

but one altar. 

Cli. ix. resumes the main thread of the original 
priestly law-book. It relates to the inaugural sac- 
ritice of the Tabernacle — the real sequel to Ex. xxv.- 
xxix. Probably it was originally separated from 
those chapters by some brief account of the con- 
struction and erection of the sanctuary and the con- 
secration of the priesthood. The editor's hand may 
be detected in verses 1 and 23. 

Ch. X. 1-5 is the continuation of ch. ix. and is 
from the same source. The regulations in verses 
6-20 are loosely thrown together, though versos 6, 
12-15. and 16-20, are, as they stand, attached to the 
main incident in verses 1-5. Verses 10, 11 are allied 
to ch. xvii.-xxvi., the Holiness Code (comp. Driver 
in "S. B. O. T." ad loc). Verses 16-20 are a late 
supplement, suggested by the conflict between the 
procedure of ix. 15 and the rule of vi. 24-30. 
Ch. i.-vii., as already noted, consist of two parts: 
i.-v. (A. V. vi. 7), addressed to the 
Ch, i.-vii. : people, and vi.-vii. (A. V. vi. 8-vii. 
Laws of 36), addressed to the priests. It is not 
Offering's, a unitary, harmonious code: the two 
parts have a different order, the peace- 
offering occurring in a different position in the two 

Ch. i.-iii. were compiled from at least two 
sources, and have been touched by different hands, 
Ch. iii. should follow immediately after ch. i. 

Ch. iv., which graduates a scale of victims for 
the sin-offering according to the guilt of the sinner, 
is later than i.-iii. It is regarded by all critics as a 
late addition to the ritual. The altar of incense, v. 
7, is unknown to the older ritual (comp. Ex. xxix. 
10-14) ; and the ritual of the high priest's sin-offer- 
ing is much more elaborate than in Ex. xxix. 10-14 
or Lev. ix. 8-11. The sin-offering, which in other 
laws is a goat (Lev. ix. 15, xvi. 8, and Num. xv. 
24), is here a bullock. The ritual is throughout 
heightened, perhaps beyond all actual practise. 

Ch. v.-vi. 7 (A. V. v.) afford no indications of so 
late a date as ch. iv., although it is clearly a combi- 
nation of laws from various sources (comp. verse 14 
and V. 20 (A. V". vi. 1). The oldest nucleus seems 
to be v. 1-6, in which there are no ritual directions. 
Verses 7-10 and 11-13 are later and perhaps succes- 
sive additions. Though united later, they are prob- 
ably genuine laws. 

The rules for the guidance of the priests (vi. [A. 
V. vi. 8-vii.]) are also compiled from previous col- 

lections, as is shown by the different headings 
(comp. vi. 1, 13, 18 [A. V. vi. 8, 19, 24]). They 
also are genuine laws from an older time. 

Ch. xi. defines the clean and unclean animals. 
Because several of these laws are similar to the Ho- 
liness legislation (comp. verses 2-8, 9-11, 20, 21, and 
41, 42), it has been inferred by many 
Ch. xi. : critics that ch. xi. is a part of that 
Clean and legislation, that it is in reality the law 
Unclean wliich xx. 25 implies. Others, as Car- 
Animals, pcnter and Harford Battersby, legard 
it as an excerpt from a body of 
priestly teaching which once had an existence inde- 
pendent of the Holiness Code. The chapter is not a 
unit. Verses 24-31 seem to be an expansion of v. 8, 
while verses 32-38 appear to be a still more recent 

Ch. xii. contains directions for the purification of 
women after childbirth. In v. 2 reference is made 
to ch. XV. 19. As the rules in xii. are cast in the 
same general form as those of xv., the two chapters 
are of the same date. It is probable that xii. once 
followed XV. 30. Why it was removed to its present 
position can not now be ascertained. For date see 
Ijelow on ch. xv. 

The extreme elaboration of the rules for Lephosy 
has led some scholars to regard the compilation of 
ch. xiii. and xiv. as late, especiall}' as 
Ch. xiii. it has been inferred from Deut. xxiv. 8 
and xiv.: that when Deuteronomy was compiled 
Laws of the rules concerning leprosy were all 
Leprosy, still oral (comp. "Hex." ii. 158, note). 
Moore, on the other hand (in Cheyne 
and Black, "Encyc. Bibl."), points out that the rit- 
ual of xiv. 2-8 is very primitive (comp. Smith, 
"Rel. of iSem." pp. 422, 428 [note], 447), and that 
there is no reason to doubt the early formulation of 
such laws. These chapters are not, however, all of 
one date. The original draft of the law included 
only xiii. 2-46a, xiv. 2-8a, and the subscription in 
57b ; xiii. 47-59, which treats of leprosy in garments, 
was codilied separately, for in verse 59 it has a colo- 
phon of its own. Ch. xiv. 10-20 is clearly a later 
substitute for2-8a. Ch. xiv. 33-53, which treats of 
fungous growths on the walls of houses, is often 
classed with the rules for leprosy in garments ; but 
since it has a new introductory formula (33) it is 
probably independent of that section. Since it 
adopts (49) the mode of cleansing of xiv. 2-8a, it 
is also independent of xiv. 9-32. As it makes men- 
tion of atonement while xiv. 2-8a does not, it is also 
later than that. Thus three hands at least worked 
on these chapters. 

The rules for purification after the discharge of 
.secretions of various kinds (ch. xv.) are often re- 
garded as late. The language is tediously repeti- 
tious. The sacriticial ritual (verses 14, 29) is parallel 
to that of the sin-offering in ch. v. It is probable 
that a shorter earlier law on the subject has been ex- 
panded by a later hand ; but it seems impossible now 
to separate the original from the later material. 

Much discussion has been expended upon the ac- 
count of the great Day of Atonement (ch. xvi.). 
Its opening words connect it with the incident of 
Nadab and Abihu (x. 1-5). These words are regarded 
as editorial by some, but the subsequent material, 

Levy, Aaron 



which denies the priests free approach to the sanc- 
tuary, makes such a connection tilting. Not all 
of the chapter, however, treats of 
Ch. xvi.: tins subject. With various prohibi- 
The Day tions against entering the holy place, 
of Atone- there is combined a curious ritual con- 
ment. cerning the sending of a goat into the 
wilderness to Azazel. As this ritual 
is given before the directions for the observance of the 
day, Benziuger (in Stade's "Zeitschrift," ix. 65-89) 
has argued that in verses 4-28 two accounts have 
been combined, one of which dealt with entrance into 
the sanctuary, and the other with the Azazel ritual. 
The former of these consisted of verses 1-4, 6 (or 
11), 12, 13, and 34b, which were perhaps followed 
by 29-34a. Tiiis original law prescribed a compar- 
atively simple ritual for an annual day of atone- 
ment. With this verses 5, 7-10, 14-28 were after- 
ward combined. This view has not escaped chal- 
lenge (comp. "Hex." ii. 164, note); but on the 
whole it seems probable. 

The Day of Atonement appeals, however, not to 
have been provided for by the priestly law-book in 
the time of Nehemiah ; for, whereas the celebration 
of the Feast of Tabernacles, beginning with the fif- 
teenth of the seventh mouth (Neh. viii. 14 et seq.), 
which was followed on the twenty-fourth by a con- 
fession of sin (ib. ix. 1 et seq.), is described, no men- 
tion is made of a day of atonement on the tenth. 
Probably, therefore, ch. xvi. and other jiassages de- 
pendent upon It {e.g.. Lev. xxiii. 26-32 and Ex. 
XXX. 1-10) are of later date (comp. "Hex." i. 156 et 
seq.). Even if this ritual be a late addition to the 
Book of Leviticus, however, there is good reason to 
believe that it represents a primitive rite (comp. 
Smith, "■ Rel. of Sem." 2d ed., pp. 411 et seq., espe- 
cially p. 414, and Barton, "Semitic Origins," pp. 
114, 289). 

Ch. xvii.-xxvi., as already pointed out, form a 
group of laws by themselves. Ch. xxvi. 3-45 con- 
tains an address of Yhwh to the Israel- 
Ch. xvii.- ites, setting forth the blessings which 
xxvi. : The will follow if these laws are observed, 
Holiness and the disasters which will ensue if 
Code. they are violated. The character of 
the discourse and its resemblance to 
Deut. xxviii. prove that Lev. xxvi. once formed the 
conclusion of a body of laws. The peculiar phrase- 
ology and point of view of this chapter recur a 
number of limes in earlier chapters (comp. xviii. 
1_5, 24-30; xi.x. 2, 36b, 37; xx. 7, 8, 22-26; xxii. 31- 
33). Ch. xviii. -xxvi. are therefore bound together as 
one code. Recent criticism regards ch. x vii. as origi- 
nally a part of the siime legislation. As the " liook 
of the Covenant," Ex. xx. 24-xxiii. 19, and the 
Deuteronomic Code, Deut. xx.-xxvi., each opened 
with a law regtdating the altar ceremonies, it is 
probable that the Holiness Code (H) began in the 
same way, and tliat that beginning now underlies 
Lev. xvii. The regulations of this code sometimes 
resemble those of Deuteronomy, sometimes those of 
P; and as it traverses at times the legislation of 
boti), there can be no doubt tiiat it once formed a 
separate l)ody of laws. 

This code was compiled from various sources by 
a writer whose vocabulary possessed such striking 

characteristics that it can be easily traced. Some 
of his favorite phrases are, " I Yiiwii am holy " ; "I 
am Yhwii"; "my statutes and ordinances"; "who 
sanctifies you [themj " ; "I will set my face against 
them"; etc. (comp. Driver, "Leviticus," in "S. B. 
O. T." p. 83, and "Hex." i. 220 et seq.). As the 
work now stands thq laws have been somewhat in- 
terpolated by P; but these interpolations can for the 
most part be easily sepai'ated. 

In ch. xvii. P has added verses 1, 2, 15, and 16, 
and all references to " the tent of meeting " and " the 
camp " in verses 3, 4, 5, and 6 ; probably, also, the last 
clause of verse 7. The original law required everj'^ 
one who slaughtered an animal to bring the blood to 
the sanctuary (comp. I Sam. xiv. 33- 

Interpo- 35), a thing perfectly possible before 

lations. the Deuteronomic reform had ban- 
ished all local sanctuaries. This law 
is, therefore, older than the centralization of the 
worship in 621 B.C. (comp. II Kings xxiii.). As P 
by his additions has left the law in Lev. xvii., it 
could have been observed by only a small commu- 
nity dwelling near Jerusalem. 

In ch. xviii. P has transmitted H's law of pro- 
hibited marriages and unchastity, prefixing only his 
own title. 

Ch. xix. contains laws which are, broadly speak- 
ing, parallel to the Decalogue, though the latter por- 
tion, like the Decalogue of J in Ex. xxxiv., treats 
of various ritualistic matters. P's hand is seen here 
only in verses 1, 2a, 8b, 21, and 22. 

Ch. XX. opens with a law against Moloch-wor- 
ship. Verse 3 is contradictory to verse 2. Proba- 
bly the latter is the old law and the former is from 
the pen of tlie compiler of H (comp. Baentsch in 
Nowack's "Hand-Kommentar," 1903). In verses 
11-21 laws against incest, sodomy, approach to a 
menstruous woman, etc., are found. They are par- 
allel to ch. xviii. and from a different source. II 
embodied both chapters in his work. P prefixed 
verse 1 to the chapter. 

Ch. xxi. contains regulations for priests. Origi- 
nally it referred to all priests; but P has interpola- 
ted it in verses 1, 10, 12b, 16a, 21, 22, and 24, so as 
to make it refer to Aaron and his sons. 

The laws of sacrificial food and sacrificial animals 
have been modified by many glosses. Some of these 
are anterior to H. P has added the references to 
Aaron and his sons in verses 1, 2, 3, 4, and 18. In 
this chapter two originally independent calendars of 
feasts have' been united. From P came verses 1-9, 
21, 23-38, 39a, 39c, and 44; from H. verses 10-20, 
39b, and 40-43. A later hand added verse 22. and 
perhaps other glosses (for details comp. " Hex." and 
Baentsch ad lor.). 

Ch. xxiv. 1-9, which treats of the lamps and the 
showbread, belongs to the P stratum, but is out of 
place here. Verses 10-13, 23 deal with blasphemy. 
They arc quite unrelated to verses 15-22 except as 
a partial doublet, and belong, perhaps, to a sec- 
ondary stratum of P. Verses 15-22 are a part of 
the Holiness Code. 

The law of the Sabbatical year and of jubilee in 
ch. XXV. is now composite. The earlier portion was 
a part of the Holiness Code. Driver sees this portion 
in verses 2b-9a, 10a, 13-15, 17-22. 24, 25, 35-39, 43, 



Levy, Aaron. 

47, 53, 55. P has added the portions which iutro- 
duce a complicated reckoning, viz.: verses 1, 9b, 
lOb-13, 16, 23, 26-34, 40, 42. 44-46, 48-52, 54 (for 
other analyses conip. Baentsch and "Hex." (id loc). 

Ch. XX vi., as already noted, is the liortatory con- 
clusion of the Holiness Code. It has escaped serious 
interpolation from later hands, except peihaps in 
verses 34 et seq., v^'here references to the Exile may 
have been inserted. 

Leviticus now concludes with a chapter on vows, 
which belongs to a late stratum of P. It is later 
than the institution of the year of jubilee, and intro- 
duces a law, not mentioned elsewhere, concerning 
the tithe of cattle. 

From what has been said concerning the absence 

of ch. xvi. from the Pentateuch of Nehemiah it is 

clear that some of the material of Leviticus was 

added to it later than Nehemiah's 

Deute and time. It is probable that P in its 

Place of main features was in the hands of 

Composi- Ezra and Nehemiah. Leviticus is, 
tion of P. however, not the work of the P who 
wrote the account of the sacred insti- 
tutions, but of an editor who dislocated that work 
at many points, and who combined with it the Holi- 
ness Code and other elements. 

It is commonly supposed that the priestly laws 
were collected in Babylonia and were brought back 
to Palestine by Ezra. Haupt goes so far as to claim 
that the Levitical ritual is influenced by Babylonian 
institutions (conip. Haupt, "Babylonian Elements 
in the Levitical Ritual," in "Jour. Bib. Lit." xix. 
55-81), and that a number of the words are Babylo- 
nian loan-words. Any deep Babylonian influence 
may well be doubted, however. It has been seen 
that the laws of Leviticus were collected little by 
little in small codes, and that they were united into 
their present form after the time of Nehemiah. If 
any of these collections were made during the Exile, 
it must have been the desire of the priests who col- 
lected them to preserve the sacred ritual of the 
Temple at Jerusalem. Like Ezekiel, they may have 
proposed reforms, but it is hardly likely that they 
would deliberately copy heathen practises. The 
Levitical terms which are identical with Babylonian 
no more prove borrowing from Babylonia than the 
similarities between the code of Hammurabi and the 
Hebrew codes prove a similar borrowing there. All 
that is proved in either case, when radical differ- 
ences are given proper weight, is that in both coun- 
tries the laws and the ritual were developed from a 
common basis of Semitic custom. 

It is generally held that the Holiness Code is 

younger than Ezekiel, though this is opposed by Dill- 

mann (" Exodus und Leviticus ") and Moore (in " En- 

cyc. Bibl." s.v.). That there are many resemblances 

between H and Ezekiel all agree. 

Date and Ezekiel dwells again and again upon 

Place of offenses which are prohibited in the 

Composi- code of H. Compare, e.g., the laws of 
tion of the incest, adultery, and of commerce with 

Holiness a woman in her uncleanness (Lev. 

Code. xviii. 8, xx. 10-17, and Ezck. xxii. 10, 

11). A list of such parallels will be 

found in" Hex. "i. 147 e< seq. Thesame writers point 

out {ib. pp. 149 et seq.) that there is a similarity be- 

tween Ezekiel and the hortatory portions of H so 
striking as to lead Colenso to regard the former as 
the author of those exhortations. Equally striking 
differences make Colenso's theory untenable; and it 
remains an open question whether Ezekiel influ- 
enced H, or II influenced Ezekiel. Those who re- 
gard H as the later (Wcllhausen, Kueneu, Baentsch, 
and Addis) lay stress on the references to exile in 
xxvi. 34-44, while Dillmann and ]\Ioore regard such 
phenomena as the work of later hands. When one 
remembers how many hands have worked on Leviti- 
cus it must be admitted that the references to exile 
may well be additions ; and if the antiquity of the 
law of the altar in ch. xvii. be recalled — a law which 
is clearly pre-Deutcronomic — the probability that 
H is really earlier than Ezekiel becomes great. 

Comparisons of the laws of H with those of Deu- 
teronomy have often been instituted, but without 
definite results. Lev. xix. 35, 36 is, it may be urged, 
more developed than Deut. xxv. 13-15, since the 
measures and weights are more definitely specified ; 
but the point is not of sufficient significance to be 
decisive. On the other hand, the implication of 
many sanctuaries in ch. xvii. points to H's priority 
to Deuteronomy. At any rate it seems probable 
that H and Deuteronomy were collected quite inde- 
pendently of each other. The hortatory form of 
each is similar. This, together with resemblances 
to the language and thought of Jeremiah, points to 
the same general period as the date of their compo- 
sition. Whether H is not the older of the two must 
be left an open question, with a slight balance of 
argument in favor of its greater antiquity. This 
view makes it probable that the Holiness Code was 
compiled in Palestine. 

Bibliography : Dillmann, E.rridusund Leviticus, 3d ed., 1897 ; 
Graf, Die Gei^chichtUchen Bilcher dex Alten Testaments, 
1866; Noldeke, Untersuchungen ziir Kritik des Alten Tes- 
taments, 1869; Oolenso, The Pentateiich and the Bonk of 
Joshua, 1872, vl. ; Kuenen, He.ratexich, 1886; Wellhausen, 
Die Composition des Hexateuchs, 3d ed., 1899 ; Driver, Iii- 
ti'oduction, 6th ed., 1897 ; Idem. Leviticus, in Haupt, S. B. 
O. T. 1898 ; Bacon, Triple Tradition of the E.vodus, 1894 ; 
Addis, Documents of the Hcrateuch, 1898; Carpenter and 
Harford Battersby, He.rateuch, 1900; Baentsoli, Exodtis- 
Leviticus-Numeri, in Nowack's Hand-Kommentar, 1903; 
Paton, Th^ (yriginal Form of Lev. xvii.-xix. in Jour. 
Bit). Lit. xvi. 31 et seq.; idem. The Original Form of Lev. 
xxi.-xxii. ib. xvii. 149 e4, seq.; Haupt, Babylonian Elements 
in the Levitical Ritual, ib. xix. 55 et seq. 
E. G. H. G. A. B. 

LEVY. See Execution. 

LEVY, AABON: Revolutionary patriot ; 
founder of Aaronsburg, Pa. ; born in Amsterdam in 
1742; died in Philadelphia Feb. 23, 1815. He went 
to America at an early age and settled in Pennsyl- 
vania, his name appearing in the first tax -assessment 
lists of Northumberland county. He engaged in 
trade with the Indians and furnished supplies to the 
proprietary government, and, during the war of the 
Revolution, to the colonial army. In 1778 Levy 
signed a memorial of the inhabitants of Northumber- 
land county asking help on account of the British 
and Indian ravages in the vicinity. In the same 
year he removed to Lancaster, engaging in business 
with Joseph Simon. He speculated in land in Penn- 
sylvania, and soon became one of the largest landed 
proprietors, owning immense tracts in nearly ever)'' 
count}^ in the state. During the war he released to 
the state twelve tracts in Luzerne countj'; later he 

Levy, Abraham Hirtzel 
Levy, Asser 



petitioned the governinent requesting that they be 
eitlier paid for or returned to liini (see letter dated 
Aug. 26, 1801, ill Pennsylvania State Archives, sec- 
ond series, xviii. 347, 442). 

Robert Morris, the financier of the Revolution, 
was Levy's partner in many of these speculations, 
and borrowed considerable sums of money from 
him, acknowledgment of the indebtedness being 
made at the time of Morris' bankruptcy. Through 
the influence of Morris, Levy loaned a large amount 
of money to the Continental Congress for the pui- 
pose of carrying on the Avar. This money was 
never fully repaid (sec letter in reference to these 
loans in the Journals of Congress, March 29, 1781). 
It was after the war that he engaged in his greatest 
speculation in land, with which his name will al- 
ways be connected. In 1779 lie bought a large 
tract of land in Center county. Pa., upon which he 
laid out the town of Aaronsburg, the earliest town 
in the county, the i)lan of which was recorded at 
Sunbury on Oct. 4, 1786; it is the first town in the 
United States that was planned by, and named 
after, a Jew. Aaron Levy was one of the original 
members of the Congregation Mickve Israel, Phila- 
delphia. He died without issue. See A.\konsbukg. 

BiBLiof;RAPHV: Isabella H. Rosenbach and Abraham S. Wolf 
Rosenbach, in Piihl. Am. Jetv. Hist. Sdc. No. 2, 1894, pp. 
l,57-lt>i; I'einmilvaina ColoiiiM Recurda; Pennxylvania 
Archives ; Jobn Blair Linn, History of Center County. 

A. A. S. W. R. 

martyr; born at "Wittolsheim; executed at Colmar, 
Alsace, Dec. 31, 1754. He was accused with three 
other Jews of having stolen property amounting to 
three thou.sand livres from the house of a widow 
named Madeline Kafin. Notwithstanding that they 
all proved an alibi, he w\as condemned to " the ordi- 
nary and extraordinar}'^ question." He did not con- 
fess and was broken on the wheel the next day. 
The chief Jews of Alsace, convinced of his inno- 
cence, brougiit the case on appeal before the Privy 
Council of Paris, which reversed the verdict and 
proclaimed Levy innocent June 16, 1755. His re- 
mains were removed from the gallows, enveloped in 
a tallit, and buried in the Jewish cemetery of Jung- 

Bibliography: I. l.oeh, Anniuiire de la Societedes Etudes 
Juives. 1. 123-161. 
D. J. 

L^VY, ALBERT: French sculptor; born at 
Paris May 4. 1864. A pupil of Etienne Leroux, he 
exhibited for the first time in 1886, his work being 
a portrait medallion. 

Levy's sculptures include: " RCveric," 1887; "I,a 
Priere"" and "Fillette," 1888; "Etude d'Enfant," 
1889; "Jcune Paysanne i\ la Source," 1891; "La 
Chanson." 1892: " JeuneTrouveur." 1893: "Portrait 
de Simon," 1894; "Eve," 1895; "Jean de Rotrou a 
VingtAns,"1896; "Sans Permis," 1898. He has ex- 
ecuted also busts of several well-known persons. 
Bibliooraphy: Curlnler, Diet. Nat. II. 128. 

8. F. T. H. 

LfiVY, ALFRED : French rabbi ; born at Lune- 
ville Dec. 14, 1840. He studied at the College de 
Luneville and entered (1860) the Paris Rabbinical 

Seminary. On leaving it in 1866 he was appointed 
rabbi at Dijon, where lie remained for two years. 
lie then occupied for twelve years the rabbinate of 
his native town, and in 1880 became chief rabbi of 
the consistory of Lyons. He is a chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. 

Levy has published the following writings: "Le 
Deuil et les Ceremonies Funebreschez les Israelites," 
Paris, 1879 ; "' Notice sur les Israelites du Duche de 
Lorraine," 1885; " Notice sur les Israelites de Lyon," 
1894; " Les Doctrines d 'Israel, Recueilde Sermons," 
Lyons, 1896. S. 

L:6vY, ALPHONSE : French painter; born at 
^larmoutier, Alsace, in 1843; educated at the Stras- 
burg lyeeum. At the age of seventeen he went to 
Paris, where he studied under Gerome. As an illus- 
trator, Levy has drawn for ail the great Parisian 
journals, devoting himself almost exclusively to 
scenes of life. Among his illustrations the 
most important are those for the Jewish stories of 
Sacher Masoch, his "Jewish Life," and especially 
his latest collection of thirty drawings litliographed 
by himself. He is now (1904) engaged on a series of 
sketches of Jewish life in Algiers to parallel his 
drawings of the Ashkenazic Jews. In the Salon of 
the Societe Natioualc des Beaux-Arts and at the In- 
ternational Exposition of 1900 Levy won prizes, and 
the committee, Gerome, Dagnan, Bouveret, Henri 
Bouchot, and Gustave Geffroy, recommended him 
for the cross of the Legion of Honor. He has been 
made also an officer of the Academy. 

s. J. Ka. 

LEVY, AMY: English novelist and poet; born 
Nov. 10, 1861, in London; died there Sept. 10, 1899. 
Verse written by her before she was eight years of 
age gave evidence of liigh literary talent. By the 
time she had entered her teens she had produced 
a considerable number of verses, essays, plays, and 
short stories characterized by a steady and rapid 
increase in significance and power; one of her poems 
written at tlie end of that period was published in 
tlie quarterly known as the " Pelican." In 1876 the 
family moved to Brighton, where she attended the 
high school. It was while at school that she wrote 
" Xantippe," a scathing defense in verse of Socrates' 
spouse from a modern standpoint — a remarkable 
achievement for a school-girl in her teens. 

On leaving school Amy Levy spent two j-ears at 
Girton College, Cambridge, working fitfully at tlic 
prescribed studies, but doing much reaiiing and 
writing. During her first term there a .story of hers 
came out in "Temple Bar," and a little later "Xan- 
tippe and Other Poems " was published in three vol- 
umes. Then came a winter in Dresden, and on her 
return to London she occupied lierself with teaching 
and writing. " The Minor Poet," published in 1882, 
is tinged with sadness and with suggestions of auto- 
biography. The third and last volume of lier poems, 
"A London Plane Tree," appeared after her death. 
As pure literature all three volumes have a distinct- 
ive charm. Her first novel, the "Romance of a 
Shop," and ashort story, " Mi.sslVIeredith," werepub- 
lished in 1886, after a winter spent in Florence; and 
in 1888 " Reuben Sachs" appeared. The last-named 
work presents some of the less pleasing aspects of 



Levy, Abraham Hirtzel 
Levy, Asser 

tlie Jewish character, and the vivid writing of the 
exquisitely imagined story makes regret more keen 
that the author's outlook on her people was so 

BiBLiOGRAPHT : Dictionary of National Biography. 



matliematician and mineralogist; born at Paris 
1794 ; died there 
June 26, 1841. 
He was a grad- 
uate of the Ecole 
Normale, where 
he became teach- 
er of mathemat- 
ics (1814 - 15). 
He went to Eng- 
land, where he 
lived till 1828, 
and then to Bel- 
gium. Here he 
was lecturer at 
the University 
of Liege, and be- 
came a member 
of the Academy 
of iSciences at 
Brussels. Re- 
turning to 
France in 1880, 
he was appoint- 
ed professor of 
mineralogy at 
the College 

Levy pul)- 
lished essays in 
the "Corre- 
spondance Ma- 
thematique" of 
Quetelet (1828- 
30), in the " An- 
nals of Philos- 
ophy," and in 
the "Philosoph- 
ical Magazine," 
and was the au- 
ferentes Propri- 
etes des Sur- 
faces de Second 
Ordre"; "Sur 
une Nouvelle 
Maniere de Me- 
surer la Pesan- 
teur Specifique 

des Corps " ; " Sur Quelques Proprietes des Sys- 
t^mes de Forces." 

Bibliography: La Grande Encyclopedic \ Nouveau La- 
rmtsfte lUustre. 
8. F. T. 11. 

SWELLEM) : One of the first Jewish settlers of 
New Amsterdam, as New York city was known 
under the Dutch; probably born in Amsterdam; 

" Blessing ot 

(From a drawini 

died in 1680. He is first mentioned as one of the 
Jews who went to New Netherlands in 1654, proba- 
bly as refugees from Biazil. From the start Levy 
was one of tlie eliainpions of his people, never per- 
mitting an injury, however slight, to pass without 
protest. In 1G55 Peter Stuyvesunt, tlie governor 
of the colony, was ordered to attack the Swedes on 
the Delaware, and accordingly issued orders for the 
enlistment of all adults. Several Jews, among 

whom was Asser 
Levy, appear to 
have been ready 
to serve; but the 
governor and 
council passed 
an ordinance 
"that Jews can 
not be permitted 
to serve as sol- 
diers, but shall 
instead paj^ a 
monthly contri- 
bution for the 
Levy and his 
comrades at once 
refused to pay, 
and on Nov. 5, 
1655, petitioned 
for leave to 
stand guard like 
other burghers 
or to be relieved 
from the tax. 
The petition was 
rejected with 
the comment 
that if the peti- 
tioners were not 
satisfied with 
the law they 
might go else- 
where. Levy 
successfully ap- 
pealed to Hol- 
land, and was 
permitted to do 
guard duty like 
other citizens. 

As Levy ap- 
pears also as a 
prominent tra- 
der at Fort Or- 
ange (Albanj'), 
it is likely that 
he was respon- 
sible for the rebuke given to Stuyvesant by the di- 
rectors in Holland during the same year because of 
his refusal to permit Jews to trade there. Levy 
was also one of the first licensed butchers in the col- 
ony. In 1657 the burgher right was made abso- 
lutely essential for certain trading privileges, and 
within two days of a notice to that effect Asser Levy 
appeared in court requesting to be admitted as a 
burgher. The officials expressed their surprise at 

the New Moon." 

5 by Alphonse L^vy.) 

Iievy, Asser 
Li^vy, Gustave 



such a request. The record reads : " The Jew claims 
that such ought not to be refused him as he keeps 
watch and ward like other burghers, showing a 
burgher's certificate from the city of Amsterdam 
that the Jew is a burgher there." The application 
was denied, but Levy at once brought the matter 
before Stuyvesant and the council, which, mindful 
-of the previous experience, ordered that Jews should 
be admitted as burgliers (April 31, 1657). 

As early as 1661 Levy purchased real estate at 
Albany ; he was also the earliest Jewish owner of 
real estate in New York city, his transactions there 
commencing in June, 1662, with the purchase of 
land on South William street. Within ten years of 
his arrival Levy had become a man of consequence, 
and when, in 1664, the wealthiest inhabitants were 
summoned to lend the city money for fortifications 
against the English, he was the only Jew among 
them: he lent the city 100 florins. 

It is as a litigant, however, that Levy figures most 
prominently in the Dutch records, his name often 
appearing for days in succession. He invariably 
argued his own case and was almost invariably suc- 
cessful. Only on two or three occasions did he fig- 
ure as defendant. No other Jew seems to have had 
so many dealings with Christians, or to have been 
on more intimate terms with them. As a litigant 
he is named also in the records of Gravesend in 
1674. Levy's trading relations extended to New 
England, and he frequently appeared as attorney 
for merchants in Holland. In 1671 he lent the 
money for building tlie first Lutheran church in 
New York. About 1678 he built a slaughter-house 
in the east end of what is now known as Wall street, 
where he appears to have been the owner of a fa- 
mous tavern. 

Instead of being unpopular on account of his 
many lawsuits, the contrary seems to have been the 
case. The confidence reposed in his honesty by his 
Christian fellow citizens appears frequently from 
the court records. Property in litigation was put 
into his custody; he is named as executor in the 
wills of Christian merchants, and figures as both 
administrator and trustee in colonial records. His 
influence was not confined to New York; in tiie co- 
lonial records of Connecticut he appears as interve- 
ning to obtain the remission of a fine imposed upon 
a Jew there. Tiie court remitted the fine with the 
comment that it did so "as a token of its respect to 
the said Mr. Asser Levy." He left a considerable 
estate, over which there was a long legal contest. 
A second Asser Levy appears in the Connecticut 
records as late as 1725, and a third, presumably a 
grandson, was an officer in a New Jersey regiment 
during tlie American Revolution. 

Bibmoorapiiy: The Records of New Amsterdnni, ed. B. 
Fernow, New York, 1897; Leon Hiihner, yl.s.scr Levy. In I'ub- 
Ucntionn Am. Jew. Hixt. .Sor.; Thomas F. De Voe. The 
Market Book, 1. 45, 46. 49, .>!, .55; E. B. O'Callahan, Hixt. of 
New NetherlancL^, li. 2Hfi. New York, 1848 ; Calendar of New 
York HMorical Mammrripts (Dutch), ir>SO-W0i,, pp. 151. 
1.55. 184. 310; Simon W. Uosendale, An Enrlu Ownerxhi)) of 
Real Eiitnte, in PnhUcatiini.'< Am. .Inr. HiM. Sue; V(den- 
f ine'.s Mnnnal, 18«.5, pp. f)9]. 701 ; 27ie Puhlic Ref.irdn of the 
Coloni/of Connecfirul. Hartford. 1872 : Docnmentu Rrhttini,! 
to Colonial Historu. ed. Brodhead. xii. 96. xlv. M\. :V)1. Al- 
bany. 1877 ; .1. Pearson. Karlu Recordsnf the Citjiof Alhanji. 
passim; Va,\v, Settlement of the Jews in North America, 
New York. 1893; F. B. Heltman. Historical Register of Offl- 
cera of the Continental Armti, p. 363. 
A. L. HI'. 

L:6vY, august MICHEL : French engi- 
neer, geologist, and mineralogist; born at Paris 
Aug. 17, 1844; son of Michel Levy. In 1862 he en- 
tered the Ecole Polytechnique, and two years later 
the school of mines, becoming engineer in 1867, and 
cngineer-in-chief in 1883. After 1876 he took an 
important part in the preparation of the detailed 
geological map of France published by the ministry 
of public works. In 1887 he became director of this 
important undertaking, and in tiie following year 
took charge also of the underground topographic 
survey. In addition to articles and notes scattered 
in various scientific periodicals, he has written: 
"]Memoire sur les Divers Modes de Structure des 
Roches Eruptives Etiidiees au Microscope," Paris, 
1876; ".Alemoire pour Servir a I'Explication de la 
Carte Geologique Detaillee de la France," ib. 1879; 
"Introduction a I'Etude des Roches Eruptives 
Fran^aises," ib. 1879 ; " Synthase des Mineraux et des 
Roches," ih.lS82 (the three preceding in collaboration 
with Foque); "Les Mineraux des Roches," ib. 1888; 
"Etude Geologique de Serrania de Ronda," ib. 1888 
(in collaboration with Bergeron); "Tableaux des 
Mineraux des Roches," z6.1890 (in collaboration with 
Lacroix) ; " Etude sur la Determination des Feld- 
spaths dans les Plaques Minces," ^■^>. 1894; "Structure 
et Classification des Roches Eruptives," ib. 1899. 

s. J- Ka. 

LEVY, BENJAMIN : Coloinal resident of 
Philadelphia. On Nov. 7, 1765, he signed, with 
other citizens of Philadelphia, the celebrated agree- 
ment not to import merchandise from England until 
the repeal of the Stamp Act. On Dec. 27, 1776, he 
was appointed, upon the recommendation of the 
treasurer of the United States, an authorized signer 
of the bills of credit (see "Journal of the Continen- 
tal Congress "). 
BiBLior.RAPHV: Rosenbach. Tlie Jews in Philadelphia Prior 

to 1300, p. 13. Philadelphia, 1883; Puhlicaliom Am. Jew. 

Hist. Sac. 1. 60, 86. , „ ttt t^ 

A. A. S. W. R. 

musician; born ]\Iarcli 3, 1796, at Sanct Avoid, Lor- 
raine; died June 3, 1846, at Vienna. He received 
his first lessons in music from his father, a musician 
to the Duke of Zweibriicken. As the protege of a 
French officer he entered, at the age of fourteen, the 
Paris Conservatoire, where he became proficient in 
the bugle (which he chose as his favorite instrument), 
the cello, and the violin. He joined the French 
army in 1812, served with the Old Guard through 
the Waterloo campaign, and at the Restoration was 
appointed bandmaster and drum-major. After re- 
tiring from the service he went on concert tours 
througli France and Switzerland, married at Ba- 
sel, and in 1824 went to Vienna, wliere he became 
soloist in the K. K. Hof-Oper. In 1834 he was 
appointed professor at the Vienna Conservatorium, 
and in 1835 became a member of the Imperial Hof- 

Levy's three ciiildren inherited his musical talent: 
Karl was a pianist, Melanie a harpist, and Rich- 
ard Eduard a cornetist. In 1838 they accompa- 
nied their father on concert tours through Russia 
and Germany. 
Bibliography : Rlemann, Musikalisches Lexikon. 

s. E. J. 



Xevy, Asser 
Levy, Gustave 

LEVY, ELEAZAR : Colonial resident of New 
York city prior lo the Revolution. He fled from 
New York on account of the British occupation and 
took up his residence in Philadelphia, wliere he en- 
gaged in business. On Aug. 26, 1779, he presented 
a memorial to the Continental Congress, claiming 
that the United States had erected fortifications on 
lands at West Point on which he held a mortgage, 
and asking for compensation for his loss. On May 
23, 1783, it is recorded that a congressional commit- 
tee reported that in its opinion " it is not convenient 
to take any order therein." During the Revolu- 
tionary war Levy took the oath of allegiance to 
the state of Pennsylvania. In 1785 he acted as 
one of the administrators of the estate of Haym 
Solomon (see "Pennsylvania Journal," Jan. 15, 

Bibliography : Friedenwald, Memorials PreMnted to the 
Continental Congress, in Publications Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. 
li. 123-126; Westcott, Test Laws of Pennsylvania, Philadel- 

T^'"^- A. S. W. R. 

LEVY, EMIL : German philologist ; born at 
Hamburg Oct. 23, 1855; educated at the universi- 
ties of Heidelberg and Berlin (Ph.D. 1880). The 
following two years he spent in Paris and Montpel- 
lier; he became privat-docent at the University of 
Freiburg-im-Breisgau in 1883, and was appointed 
assistant professor in 1887. 

Levy is known principally as the author of the 
great dictionary, begun in 1894 and still (1904) unfin- 
ished, entitled " Provenzalisches Supplement-Wor- 
terbuch. Berichtigungen und Erganzungen zu 
Raynouards Lexique Roman" (vols, i.-iv. covering 
A to L). Among his other works are " Der Trouba- 
dour Bertolome Zorzi," Halle, 1883, and "Bemer- 
kungen zum Engadinischen Hiob," Freiburg-im- 
Breisgau, 1895. 

s. F. T. H. 

L]6VY, EMILE : French rabbi ; born at Mar- 
moutier, Alsace, Jan. 28, 1848. Educated at the 
lyceum at Strasburg and the seminary at Paris, he 
became rabbi of Verdun in 1876, which position he 
held until 1892 ; in that year he became chief rabbi 
of Bayonne. 

Levy has been a contributor to the " Revue des 
Etudes Juives " and is the author of " La Monarchic 
Chez les Juifs en Palestine," Paris, 1885. In collab- 
oration with M. Bloch he has written also " Histoire 
de la Litterature Juive Depuis I'Origine Jusqu'a 
Nos Jours." 

s. F. T. H. 

LEVY, ERNST : German physician ; born at 
Lauterburg, Alsace, March 5, 1864 ; educated at the 
universities of Strasburg, Heidelberg, and Paris 
(M.D. 1887). Settling in Strasburg, he became privat- 
docent in hygiene at the university there in 1891 and 
assistant professor in 1897. 

Levy has written several monographs and essays 
in the German and French medical journals, and 
is the author also of the two following works: 
"Grundriss der Klinischen Bacteriologie," Berlin, 
1894 (2d ed. 1898): " Bacteriologischer Leitfaden," 
Strasburg, 1897 (2d ed. 1901). 

Bibliography : Pagel, Biog. Lex. 

8. F. T. H. 

LEVY FAMILY (of America) : The follow- 
ing is a genealogical tree of the family descended 
from Benjamin Levy of Philadelphia: 

c — 


X ... 


ax , 


« a.— 






<e %i 



>•• a; 

c a 
-c o 

^ II 

■ 1) 






c . 


•t ITT 

II '~' 








a . 
















LEVY, GUSTAVE: French engraver; born 
at Toul June 21. 1819; died at Paris in 1894; a pu- 
pil of Geille. He exhibited first at the Salon of 
1844, and engraved the portraits of Madrazzo, Ri- 
gaud, and a number of others. Special mention 
may be made of the following engravings by him: 
" The Family of Concina " (from the Veronese in the 

Levy, Hayman 
Levy, Judith 



Dresden gallery); Raphael's " Sistine Madonna " and 
"Diademed Virgin"; Caracci's "Madonna of Si- 
lence"; Couture's "Damocles"; and Rembrandt's 
"Good Shepherd." Still more popular are his en- 
gravings of the King of the Belgians (from Winter- 
halter's portrait), Berangcr, the poet Ventura de la 
Vega, and the engraver Wille. The plate of Levy's 
last engraving, " The Fair Gardener," was framed on 
his tombstone in the cemetery of Montmartre. 
s. J. Ka. 

LEVY, HAYMAN : Colonial merchant of New 
York; born in 1721 ; died in New York in 1789. He 
engaged in business at an early age, and is men- 
tioned as the owner of a privateer and as engaged 
in the fur trade in 1760 (see "New York Mercury," 
Aug. 17, 1761). In 1765 the signature " Ilayman 
Levy, Junior," was appended to the Non-Importa- 
tion Resolutions drawn up by merchants in Phila- 
delphia, but it can not be said with certainty that it 
was the signature of the Hayman Levy treated here. 
In 1770 Levy signed in New Y'ork resolutions of a 
similar but more stringent character. In 1768 he 
failed in business, but soon recovered his losses. 
The occupation of New Y^ork by the British caused 
him to remove to Philadelphia. On July 20, 1776, 
he is mentioned in the Journal of the Continental 
Congress. Hayman Levy was one of the founders 
of the Congregation Mickve Israel, organized in 
1782, and served on the first board of trustees. In 
1784 he returned to New York and aided in the re- 
establishment of the congregation in that city. He 
was one of the most widely known merchants of 
New York, and was probably the first employer of 
John Jacob Astor. He had sixteen children, some 
of whom were prominent citizens of New Y^ork. 

Bibliooraphy: Puidicationx Am.. lew. Hist. Soc. i. U, 60, 
88; iii. 81; iv. 89, 210; vi. 130. i;« ; ix. 88: x. 13, 6;i; Daly, 
The Settlement of the Jews in North America, pp. 52, 53. 

A. A. S. W. R. 

LEVY, HENBI L:60P0LD : French painter; 
born at Nancy Sept. 23, 1840; pupil of the Ecole des 
Beau.\-Arts and of Picot, Cabanel, and Fromentin. 
His first exhibit was "Hecuba Finding the Body of 
Her Son Polydorus on the Shore," at the Salon of 
1865; at the following Salons he exhibited "Joash 
Saved from the Massacre of the Grandsons of Atha- 
liah " (1867); "Hebrew Captive Weeping over the 
Ruins of Jerusalem" (1869); "Herodias" (1872): 
"Sarpedon"; "The Sermon." For the Church of 
Saint Merri in Paris he painted mural pieces rep- 
resenting .scenes in the life of Saint Denis; these 
were exhibited at the Exposition of 1878. His " Cor- 
onation of Charlemagne " is intended as a mural 
piece for the Pantheon at Paris. At the Interna- 
tional Exposition in 1900 Levy won a gold medal 
for his "Eve Plucking the Apple," "Deucalion and 
Pyrrlia," and "Samson and Delilah." 

"s. J. K.\. 

LEVY, ISAAC : French rabbi ; born Jan. 20, 
1835, at Marmoutier, in the old department of Bas- 
Rhin (Alsace). When sixteen years old he entered 
the rabbinic school of Met/., and was graduated 
thence at the age of twenty-three, receiving the di- 
I)loma of a chief rabbi. In Feb., 1858, he was called 
as rabbi to Verdun (IMeuse); in 1865 to Luneville 

(Meurthe); and in 1869 to Colmar as chief rabbi of 
the district of Haut-Rhin. 

When Alsace was annexed by Germany, Levy de- 
cided to remain a Frenchman ; and the French gov- 
ernment created a new chief rabbinate for him at 
Vesoul (Ilaute-Saone). Here heolficiated for fifteen 
years, and then (1887) went as chief rabbi to Bor- 
deaux. Levy is a chevalier of the Legion of Honor 
and an officer of public instruction. Besides a num- 
ber of single sermons he has published the following: 
" Veilleesdu Vendredi "(2ded., Paris, 1869); "R6cits 
Bibli(iucs " (2d ed., Paris, 1873) ; " Defense du Juda- 
isme " (ih. 1867) ; " Histoire Sainte " (ib. 1869 et »eg.); 
"Alsatiana" {ib. 1873); "Nathan le Sage" (Vesoul, 
1881); " Les Recreations Israelites " (2d ed., Paris, 
1899) ; " Developpement des 13 Articles de Foi " {ib. 
1895); " Heures de Recueillement " {ib. 1898). 

Levy edite<l also a supplement, entitled " Le Foyer 
Israelite" (1862-65), to tlie periodical for the young, 
"La Verite Israelite." S. 

LEVY, JACOB : German rabbi and lexicog- 
rapher; born .May, 1819, at Dabrzyze, Posen; died 
at Breslau Feb. 27, 1892. Having received his Tal- 
mudic education from his father, Isaac Levy, who 
was district rabbi at Schildberg, and from Akiba 
Eger, he entered the Matthias Gymnasium at Bre-slau, 
after leaving which he studied philosophy and ori- 
ental languages at Breslau University, and received 
his doctor's degree from the University of Halle in 

He accepted a call to Rosenberg, Upper Silesia, 
Avhere he officiated as rabbi until 1850. Wishing to 
live in an intellectual center, he moved to Breslau 
without any prospect of employment. In 1857 he 
became associate rabbi of the Breslau community ; 
in 1864 he was appointed admonitor to the local 
court, his duty being to admonish the Jews who 
had to take the oath " More Judaico " ; and in 1878 
he was appointed instructor at the Mora-Salomon 
Leipziger Stiftung, an office which he continued to 
hold till his death. 

Levy published in 1867-68 at Leipsic his"Chal- 
daisches Worterbuch iiber die Targumim " (3d ed., 
ib. 1881), with notes by Prof. H. Fleischer. In rec- 
ognition of this work the Prussian ministry granted 
him in 1875 the title of " Ivoniglicher Professor." 
His chief work, however, is his "Neuhebraischesund 
Chaldaisches Wiirterbuch iiber die Talnuidim und 
Midraschim " (with notes by Fleischer; 4 vols., ib. 

Levy was the first to apply modern scientific 
methods to rabbinic lexicography ; and he aided 
considerably toward rousing Christian scholars to 
an interest in rabbinical literature. All subsequent 
work in the field of Talnuidic lexicography has 
been based on Levy's labors (comp. "Z. D. M. G." 
xlvii. 494 et aeq.). 

Bini.iooRAPHY: Schvf&b, Repertoire, s.v.; AUg.Zeit.desJud. 

1892, No. 11. 

s. C. L. 

LEVY, JONAS PHILLIPS : American mer- 
clnuil; son of jMichael Lev}- and Rachel Phillips; 
born in Piiiladelphia 1807; died in New York 1883. 
He was granted the freedom of the country by the 
govenunent of Peru for signal services rendered in 



Levy, Hayman 
Levy, Judith 

the navy of that country. He commanded the U. S. 8. 
" America " during the Mexican war, and was as- 
signed to the transportation of troops to Vera Cruz, 
at the surrender of which port he was appointed its 
captain by Gen. Wintield Scott. He left three .sons 
(Jefferson M., Louis Napoleon, and Mitchell 
A. C.) and two daughters. 

A. S. Wo. 

LEVY, JOSEPH HIAM : English economist ; 
born 1S;}8; educated at the City of London School 
and City of Loudon College. He entered the Brit- 
ish Civil Service, Avas assigned to the Board of Edu- 
cation in 1862, and rose to the position of examiner 
of school accounts. He was one of the most impor- 
tant members of the National Liberal Club; he 
founded its Economic Circle, became its chairman, 
and edited its "Transactions." Levy was lecturer 
and examiner in economics at the Birkbeck Institute 
and City of London College. He was editor of 
"The Individualist" and of "Personal Rights," the 
organ of the Personal Rights Association, and has 
written much on economic and social topics. He 
retired from tlie Board of Education in 1902. 

Bibliography: Jew. Chron. Nov. 1, 1901; American Jewish 
Year Book, 1904. 

ti . 


rabbi; born Nov. 24, 1865, in London; educated at 
Jews' College and University College (B.A.), Lon- 
don, at Bristol University, England, and at Western 
University of Pennsylvania (D.D.). Levy was rabbi 
of the Bristol Hebrew Congregation (1885-89) and of 
Bnai Israel Congregation, Sacramento, Cal. (1889- 
1893) ; associate rabbi of the Kenescth Israel Congre- 
gation, Philadelphia (1893-1901) ; and, since 1901, has 
been rabbi of tlie Rodeph Shalom congregation, Pitts- 
burg. In 1898 he was elected chaplain of " Keegan's 
Brigade," with which he served through the Span- 
ish-American Avar. Levy was the organizer of a 
number of charitable and religious societies among 
the Jews of Philadelphia. He is the author of a 
translation of the tractate Rosh ha-Shanah of the 
Babylonian Talmud (Philadelphia, 1895). He pub- 
lished also "The Greater Lights" (tb. 1895); "Home 
Service for the Passover " {if>. 1896) ; " The Nine- 
teenth Century " {ib. 1901) ; " A Book of Pi-ayer " 
(Pittsburg, 1902); "The Jew's Beliefs" {ih. 1903); 
"The Children's Service and Hymnal" {ib. 1903); 
"Te.xt-Bookof Religion and Ethics for Jewish Chil- 
dren" {ib. 1903); "Sabbath Readings" {ib. 1904); 
and eight volumes of Sunda}' lectures. Levj- is the 
editor of the "Jewish Criterion," published at Pitts- 

Bibliography: American Jewish Year Booh, 190-1. 
A. I. G. D. 

LEVY, JOSEPH MOSES : Founder and pro- 
prietor of the Loudon " Daily Telegraph " ; born Dec. 
15, 1812; died at Ramsgate Oct. 13, 1888. He was 
educated in London and Germany. After spending 
the earlier part of his life in commercial ])ursuits he 
became the owner of a printing establishment near 
Fleet street. In this waj'he became connected with 
the "Sunday Times," of which he was chief propri- 
etor in 1855. The " Daily Telegraph and Courier" 
was founded in June, 1855, and by September had 

come entirely under Levy's management, wlio re- 
duced its price, making it the tirst London penny 
daily paper; and it was through his genius that it 
became a great power in journalism. When he 
assumed the proprietorship of the paper its fortunes 
were at so low an ebb that the jjurchase-money was 
only £1,000. Levy worked in the interests of the 
paper with unflagging zeal, many members of his 
family also becoming connected with it; and he col- 
lected round him a band of able writers, including 
Sir E. Arnold and G. A. Sala. In politics the paper 
was Liberal until 1886, when Liberal-Unionist princi- 
ples were adopted. 

Levy left several children. His eldest son, Ed- 
ward, who assumed the name of "Lawson," became 
chief proprietor of tlie "Daily Telegraph," and was 
created a baronet in 1892, and a peer in 1903 with 
the title of Lord Burnham. 

Bibliography: Daily Telegraph, Oct. 13, 1888; Jew. Chrmi. 
Oct. 19, 1888; Times (London), Oct. 13, 1888; Diet. Nat. 
J. G. L. 

LEVY, JUDAH : Tunisian rabbinical author; 
lived at Tunis and died there in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century ; son of Nathan Levy. He was orig- 
inally from Gibraltar. He published under his own 
name only one Hebrew work, "Mahane Lewiyyah." 
This work consists of four parts; namely: (1) a 
commentary on the treatise " Hilkot Semahot " of 
Mei'r of Rothenburg; (3) a collection of rules on the 
duties of the " Nezirim " ; (3) a treatise entitled " Ma'a- 
mar Nezirut Shimshon " ; (4) a treatise on questions 
of Levitical impurities, "Hilkot Tum'ah." He pub- 
lished also, in collaboration with David Bonan, two 
works with the same title, "De Hesheb " (Leghorn, 
1857), responsa and studies on the treatise San- 

Bibliography : Cazes, Notes Bibliographiques, pp. 44-50, 237- 
s. s. M. Fr. 

LEVY, JUDITH: English philanthropist; born 
in London 1706; died tliere Jan. 20, 1803; a daugh- 
ter of Moses Hart, founder of the Great Synagogue, 
London; married Ellas Levy, a Avealthy fiuancicr 
and government contractor. This lady, who livetl 
to a great age, enjoyed after her husband's death an 
income of £6,000 a year, and dwelt in great splen- 
dor at a house formerly belonging to Heydigger, 
master of the revels to King George II. She fre- 
quented many of the nobility's social gatherings and 
played half -guinea quadrille with the Countess of 
Yarmouth, Lady Holdernesse, Lord Stormont, and 
other persons of rank. 

Judith Levy was a generous benefactress to her 
coreligioni.sts, and in 1790 contributed £4,000 toward 
the cost of rebuilding the Great Synagogue. The 
last years of her life were spent in seclusion, now at 
Bath, sometimes at Richmond, and occasionally in 
Albermarle street, where she died. Slie died intes- 
tate, leaving a sum of £125,000 at her bankers; and 
was buried on Jan. 21 in the Jewish cemetery at 
Mile End. 

Bibliography : Lvsons, Environs of London, Supplement, 
p. 68 ; Cat. Anglo-Jew. HiM. Krh. 1887 ; Notes and Queries, 
2d series, xii.; Picciotto, Sketches of Anglo-Jeivish History, 
p. 9ti. 

.1. G. L. 

Lievy, Louis 
Levy, Moritz 




Poet aud cautor of the Berliu syuagogue; died Jan. 
25, 1853. He wrote "Tekufat ha-Shanah" (Berlin, 
1842), poems on the four seasons, in imitation of 
Thomson's "Seasons." The preface includes " Na- 
'al Yad," a translation of Scliiller's "Haudschuh." 
He wrote also some songs for festivals. 

Bibliography: Pteinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1619; Furst, 
Bibl. Jud. ii. -iiZ. ,, ^ 

S. M. Sc. 

LEVY, LOUIS EDWARD: American photo- 
chemist ; born at Stenowitz, Bohemia, Oct. 12, 1846. 
He went to America in early life, and was educated 
at Detroit ; he studied especially mathematics and as- 
tronomy at ^licliigan University in 1866, and optics 
at Detroit. He w'as connected with the meteorolog- 
ical observatory of the United States Lake Survey 
District in 1866, and engaged in researches in micro- 
scopic photography during 1869 and 1870. This led 
to his invention of a method of photochemical en- 
graving, the "Levytype," which was patented in 
1875. He established a company in Baltimore, but 
removed to Philadelphia in 1877, in which year he in- 
vented the "Levy line-screen," which was perfected 
by his brother Max. For this lie received the Jolin 
Scott Legac}-- medal at the Franklin Institute in 
1897. He invented a new process of intaglio en- 
graving, the "photo-mezzotint," in 1889. In 1896 
he invented a new method of etching, the "Levy 
acid blast," for Avhich he received the Elliott Cresson 
gold medal at the Frankhn Institute in 1899. He was 
awarded a medal and diploma at the World's Colum- 
bian E.xposition in 1893, and decorations and di- 
plomas from the Imperial Pliotographic Society of 
Moscow and at the recent Paris Exposition. 

From 1887 to 1890 Levy was publisher and editor 
of the Philadelphia "Evening Herald," and at the 
same time of the "Mercury," a Philadelphia Sunday 
paper. In 1896 he edited and published " Cuba and 
the Cubans." He is the author of "The Russian 
Jewish Refugees in America " (1895), an English ver- 
sion of Cabrera's "Cuba y sus Jueces," and "Busi- 
ness, Money, and Credit" (1896), a brochure on the 
relations of exchange to the medium of exchange. 
He has contributed to many technical journals, and 
represented the Franklin Institute at the Scientific 
Congress of the Paris Exposition. In Jewish mat- 
ters he is associated with many communal organi- 
zations, and he was editor, author, and publisher 
of "The Jewish Year" (1895) and of other publi- 

BiBLiofiKAPnv: ir7io'.s Who in AmeHca. 


LEVY, LUDWIG : German architect; born 
March 14, 1852, at Landau. After his return from 
Italy, wiiere he completed his studies, he was en- 
trusted with the building of the new synagogue in 
Kaiserslauteru. He was the architect also of the 
church at OlsbrUcke near Kaiserslautern, of tlie 
synagogues in St. Johann, Strasburg (Alsace), and 
KleinwJlldc near Kaiserslautern. 

Levy is at present (1904) professor in the Bauge- 
werkschule at Carlsruhe. S. 

Li:VY, MAURICE: French engineer and 
member of the Institut; born at Ribeauville, Al- 

sace, Feb. 28, 1S38. Educated at the Ecole Poly- 
tecliuique aud the Ecole des Ponts et Cliaus.sees, he 
became an engineer in 1863. During tlie Franco- 
German war (1870-71) he was entrusted by the Gov- 
ernment of National Defense with the control of a 
part of the artillery. During the next decade he 
held several educational positions, becoming pro- 
fessor at the Ecole Centrale in 1875, member of the 
commission of the geodetic survey of France in 1879, 
and professor at the College de France in 1885. 

In 1888 Levy inaugurated a system of boat-trac- 
tion by means of overhead cables. A trial system 
was installed between Joinville-le-Pont and Saint- 
jVIaurice; it consisted of an endless cable which was 
kept in motion by powerful steam-engines and to 
whicli boats were attached and thus kept at a speed 
of four kilometers an hour. The system proved un- 
satisfactory, however. 

Levy is the author of several works, of which may 
be mentioned: "La Statistique Graphique et Ses 
Applications a I'Art des Constructions" (1874; 2d 
ed. 1887); "Sur le Principe d'Energie" (1888); 
"Etude des Moyens de Traction des Bateaux: Le 
Halage Funiculaire" (with M. G. Pavie, 1894). He 
has written also papers on kinematics, mechan- 
ics, physical mathematics, geometry, etc., in the 
" Comptes-Rendus de I'Academie des Sciences," the 
"Journal de I'Ecole Poly technique, "and the "Jour- 
nal des Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees." 

He is an officer of the Legion of Honor and of 
public instruction, and a member of the Academy 
of Sciences and of the Royal Academy of Sciences 
of Rome. 

Bibliography : Curlnier, Diet. Nat. 

V. E. 

LEVY, MAX : American inventor ; born at De- 
troit 1857. He invented the etched screen and the 
machinery for producing it now generally used in 
the half-tone process of photoengraving. After serv- 
ing an apprenticeship of three years with an archi- 
tect, he became chief draftsman in his brother's 
(Louis E. Levy's) photoengraving establishment at 
Baltimore during the early struggle to establish 
and perfect that branch of the graphic arts. He 
accompanied his brotlier to Philadelphia, and for a 
time was in charge of the entire business. After 
the introduction of the half-tone process he spent 
over two years of constant and close application de- 
vising and perfecting the mechanism of his new in- 
vention. Levy is also an inventor in other lines, 
and is a constant and indefatigable experimenter. 

A. D. Ba. 

LEVY, MEYER: German jurist; borninWoll- 
stein, province of Posen, Jan. 17, 1833; died in Ber- 
lin Oct. 18, 1896. After practising as an assessor in 
Berlin, he received the appointment of "Rechts- 
Anwalt " in Fraustadt, where he at once began his 
literary activity, delivering lectures on legal sub- 
jects. Among liis writings of this period are to be 
noted: " Der Staatund die Juden im Norddeutschen 
Bunde: Ein Mahnruf an das Norddeutsche Parla- 
ment," Lissa, 1867, and "Die Zweite In.stanz in 
Bi'irgerlichen Rechtsstreitigkeiten," Berlin, 1871. In 
1872 he returned to Berlin and engaged in practise 
there, first at the Stadtgericht, then at the Land- 



Levy, liouis 
Levy, Moritz 

gericht, finally gaining admission to the Kammer- 
gericht. He secured a very large and influential 
clientage. Levy was president of the Berlin Bar 
Association. He was killed by a robber. 

Of Levy's works other than the above-mentioned 
may be cited the following: (with G. von Wilmow- 
sky) "Civilprozessordnung uud Gerichtsverfass- 
ungsgesetz fiir das Deutsche Reich," Berlin, 1877- 
1878 (2d ed. 1880; 6th ed. 1892); "Zur Practischen 
Anweuduug der Deutschen Civilprozessordnung," 
lb. 1880; "Handausgabe der Civilprozessordnung," 
ib. 1884 (2d ed. 1889; 3d ed. 1894). 

s. M. Co. 

LiJVY, MICHEL : French publisher; born at 
Pfalzburg Dec. 20, 1821 ; died in Paris May 6, 1875. 
Li 1836 he settled in the latter city, where, together 
with his brothers Caiman and Nathan, he engaged 
in the publishing business. His firm soon became 
one of the most important publishing-houses in 
France and the center of modern belletristic litera- 
ture. The most noteworthy of its publications are 
the works of the elder and the younger Dumas, 
George Sand, Balzac, Alfred de Vigny, Lamartine, 
and Victor Hugo, and the scientific writings of 
Guizot, Renan, and Michelet. Levy published also 
the collections "La Bibliothoque Dramatique," "Le 
Theiltre Contemporaiu," "La Bibliotheque Contem- 
poraine," and "La Collection Michel Levy." 

Of famous foreign authors whose works were 

published by the Levy firm may be mentioned: 

Heine, Thackeray, and Macaulay. After Levy's 

death the business was continued by his brother 

Caiman Levy (b. in Pfalzburg Oct. 19, 1819; d. 

at Paris June 18, 1891), and since the death of the 

latter it has been conducted by Caiman's three sons, 

Paul, Georges, and Gaston. 

Bibliography : Nouv&au Larousse Illustre ; Meyers Kon- 
versat ions-Lexikon. 

s. F. C. 

L3EVY, MICHEL: French physician; born at 
Strasburg Sept. 28, 1809; died at Paris March 13, 
1872; educated at the Uuiversitj'^ of Montpellier 
(M.D. 1834). In 1836 he became professor of hy- 
giene at the Val-de-Grace in Paris; in 1845 he was 
appointed professor of pathology at Metz; two 
years later he returned in this capacity to the 
Val-de-Grstce, of which medical school he became 
director in 1856. In the Crimean war he had for a 
few months charge of a hospital in Constantinople. 
He was the author of "Traite d 'Hygiene Publique 
et Privee," Paris, 1843-45 (5th ed. 1869); "Sur la 
Rougeole des Adultes," ib. 1847; "Histoire de la 
Meningite Cerebro-Spinale Observeeau Val-de-GrSce 
en 1848 et 1849," ib. 1850 ; " Sur 1' Hygiene Militaire," 
ib. 1867; "Sur les Hopitaux-Baraques," zJ. 1871. 

Bibliography : La Grande Encyclnpeclie ; Nouveau La- 
rousse Illustre. 
s. F. T. H. 

entalist; born at Altona March 11, 1817; died at 
Breslau Feb. 22, 1872. Having received a rabbin- 
ical education, he became teacher in the Synagogen- 
Gemeinde of Breslau, where he was active for nearly 
thirty years. For his scientific labors he received from 
the King of Prussia, in 1865, the title of professor. 

Levy was preeminent in the field of Sepiitic pale- 

ography. He was the first person after Gesenius tO' 
treat the subject in a comprehensive manner. In 
the deciphering and interpretation of Phenician, old 
Hebrew, Punic, Aramaic, Himyaritic, and later He- 
brew coins, seals, gems, and niouunients his pecul- 
iar intuition guided him more surely than mere 
philological knowledge did others; such, for exam- 
ple, was the case with his deduction from the in- 
scriptions found on the Ilauran that at the beginning 
of the Christian era an Arabic people lived there 
which used the Aramaic language and alphabet. 

Levy's first published essay, in 1855, was on the in- 
scriptions on certain Aramean bowls ("Z. D. M. G." 
ix. 465 et seq.). This was followed by the first and 
second parts of his " Phonizische Studien " (Breslau, 
1856 and 1857) ; his decipherment of the Eshmunazar 
inscription won him immediate recognition. He next 
published a study in Jewish history, " Don Joseph 
Nasi, Herzog von Naxos, Seine Familie und Zwei 
Jiidische Diplomaten Seiner Zeit " (Breslau, 1859). 
In 1860 and 1861 other essays by him appeared (" Z. D. 
M. G." xiv. 365 et seq., 594, 710 et seq. ; xv. 615 et 
seq., 623 et seq.; xvii. 75), dealing with Phenician 
numismatics. In 1862 was published " Die Gesch. 
der Jlidischen Miiuzeu Gemeinfasslich Dargestellt " 
(Breslau). " Eine Lateinisch - Griechisch - Phoni- 
zische Inschrift aus Sardinien " appeared iir " Z. D. 
M. G." (xviii. 53 et seq.). In 1863 he published the 
third part of his " Phonizische Studien," and in 1864 
his " Phonizisches Worterbuch" (Breslau). In 1865 
Levy edited, at the request of the Deutsche JVIor- 
genlaudische Gesellschaft, the material which Osi- 
ander had left bearing on Himyaritic paleography 
and archeology ("Z. D. M. G." xix. 159 etseq., xx. 
305 et seq. ; an essay on Jewish gravestones in Aden 
appears in xxi. 156 et seq.). His " Systematisch Ge- 
ordnetes Spruchbucli als Leitfaden fiir den Jildischen 
Religionsunterricht " was published in Breslau in 
1867 ; " Siegel und Gemmen mit Aramaischen, Pho- 
nizischeu, Althebraischen, Himyarischen, Nabathai- 
schen und Altsyrischen Inschriften Erklart" ap- 
peared in 1869. In 1870 he published the fourth part 
of his " Studien, " and " Die Biblische Gesch. nach 
den Worten der Heiligen Schrift der Israelitischen 
Jugend Erzahlt," both at Breslau. "Das Mesa 
Denkmal und Seine Schrift," and various essays in 
"Z. D. M. G." (xxv. 439 et seq., xxvi. 417), appeared 
in the following year. 

Bibliography : Siegfried, in AUgemeine Deutsche Biogra- 
phie. _ „ »« 

s. F. T. H. 

VARD MARIUS) : Danish physician ; born in 
Copenhagen Sept. 8, 1808; died there Dec. 30, 1865. 
He graduated as M. D. from the University of Copen- 
hagen in 1833, having in 1830 won the university 
gold medal for a medical essay. 

From 1833 till 1836 Levy traveled abroad, making 
a special study of obstetrics, and upon his return to 
Copenhagen he became resident physician of the 
Nursery Institute ("Plejestiftelsen "). 

In 1838 Levy accepted baptism and assumed the 
name "Carl Edvard Marius," thereby removing an 
obstacle in the way of his becoming a university 
professor. In 1840 he was appointed lector, in 1841 
assistant professor, and in 1850 professor at Copen- 

Levy, Nathan 



hagen Universit}' ; and at the same time lie became 
obstetrician to tiie city of Copenhagen. 

Levy was a prolific scieutitic writer. Of his pub- 
lications the following may be mentioned : "' De Bym- 
podia seu Moustrositute Sireniformi, cum Auatonuca 
EjusmodiMonstri Descriptione," Copenhagen, 1833; 
" Oni CoUisionen Imellem Perforation og Kaisersnit. 
Et Bidrag til Uudersogelsen : De Jure Vita; et 
Necis quod Competit Medico in Partu," ib. 1840; 
" Udtog af Fodselsvidenskaben som Lajrebog for 
Jordemodre," ib. 1843. Levy was coeditor of the 
" Journal for Mcdlcin og Chirurgie, " to which he con- 
tributed extensively. A number of essays and trea- 
tises from his pen have ai)iieared also in the German 
and the English medical periodicals. 

Bibliography: C. F. Bricka. Dansk Bio<jfafi.-<h Lexicon: 
Ersiew^s Forfatter-Lexicon. 

s. F. C. 

LEVY, NATHAN : Founder of the first Jewish 
cemetery in Philadelphia; born in Feb., 1704; died 
in Philadelphia Dec. 23, 1753. He probably went 
there from New York, for in 1730 a merchant of 
his name was a member of the Shearith Israel con- 
gregation of the latter city. Upon his arrival in 
Philadelphia he engaged in the general commission 
business with David Franks under the firm name of 
Levy & Franks, and continued in that business un- 
til his death. According to a letter of Richard Pe- 
ters dated Sept. 20, 1738, there was laid out by Mr. 
Thomas Penu ("proprietary governor of Pennsyl- 
vania "), " for a burying-place for Mr. Nathan Levy 
and family," a plot of ground on Spruce street near 
Ninth street. Peters was evidently mistaken in the 
date, for it was on Sept. 25, 1740, that Nathan Levy 
ob^tained the first grant of thirty feet square; on 
June 27, 1752, he secured from the proprietary 
government the adjoining lot, thirty feet wide and 
si.xty feet in depth. It was evident!}' the intention 
of Levy to permit the cemetery to be used by the Jews 
of his adopted city, and not to retain it for the use 
of his family alone, lie had the ground boarded in. 
In 1751 he complained to the "Pennsylvania Ga- 
zette "that "unthinking persons had fired several 
shots against the Jews' burying-ground " ; he had 
therefore enclosed it with a brick wall. At liis 
death, two years later, his remains were interred in 
the cemetery he had founded. It is now the prop- 
erty of the Congregation Mickve Israel (see Piiii-a- 

BiBi.iOGUAPHY : Morals, in I'lMicatinns Am. Jeu: Hist. Soc. 
IHiW, i. -ti-ril ; Rosenbach, The Jews of Philadelphia Prior to 
ISW, pp. 8-9, Philadelpliia, 1883. 

A. A. S. W. R. 

LEVY, SAMSON : Colonial merchant of Pliila- 
delpliia. lb' was one of the originators, in 1748, of 
the City Dancing Assembly, a famous social organi- 
zation of Philad<l|)liia. In Nov., 1765, lie signed, 
with other mcreiiants of tiie city, including six 
Jews, the celebrated resolutions not to import goods 
from England until the Stamp Act had been re- 
pealed. He had two sons, Moses ami Samson. 
Moses Levy (b. Philadelphia 1757; d. there ilay 9, 
182G) was edufiitcd at the I'nivcrsity of Pennsylva- 
nia, from which he graduated in 1776. On March 
19, 1778, he was admitted to the bar; from 1802 to 
1822 he was recorder of Philadelphia; from 1822 to 

1825, presiding judge of the district court for the 
city and county of Philadelphia. At one time he 
was a member of the Pennsylvania legislature, and 
he was a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania 
for twenty-four years. Samson Levy (b. Philadel- 
l)hia 1761; d. there Dec. 15, 1831) studied law with 
liis brother Moses Levy, was admitted to the bar on 
June 9, 1787, and became one of the best-known 
lawyers of the city. He was one of the incorpora- 
tors of the Pennsj'lvauia Academy of the Fine Arts. 

Bibliography : Brown, Tlie Furum ; Martin, Tlic Bench and 
Bar of Philadelphia; Morals, The Jews of Philadel2}hia; 
Rosenbach, The Jews of Philadelphia Pr-ior to 1800 ; Pub- 
lications Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. 1. 60. 


A. S. W. R. 

LEVY, SARA: German philanthropist; born 
in Berlin June, 1761; died there March 11, 1854. 
She was a daughter of Daniel Itzig, and was well 
educated according to the fashionable French 
standards of her time. Her husband was Samuel 
Levy, one of the first bankers of Berlin. During 
the time following the battle of Jena she was much 
sought after b}' Bignon, the French ambassador to 
Berlin, atfd the other French officials. She retained 
her Judaism, though most of her relatives deserted 
their faith ; at her death she left thirty thousand 
thalers to the Jewish Orphan Asylum of Berlin, 
and bequeathed her house to King Frederick Will- 
iam IV. 
Bibliography : Kayserllng, Jlldische Frauen, pp. 22S ct seq. 

s. J. 

LEVY, SIMON : French rabbi; born in 1829 at 
Lauterbourg, Alsace; died at Bordeaux Nov. 29, 
1886. He studied first under Solomon Ulmann, 
and then at the Rabbinical School at Metz, which he 
left in 1853 to accept the rabbinate of Luneville. 
In 1864 he was called as chief rabbi to Bordeaux, 
where he remained until his death. Besides a pam- 
phlet, " Renan etla Synagogue," Levy wrote " Moise, 
Jesus, ^lahomet," which work was published pos- 
Bibliography : Archives Israelites, Dec. 9, 1880. 

s. I. Lev. 

LEVY, URIAH PHILLIPS : American naval 
officer; born in Philadelphia April 22, 1792; died in 
New York March 22, 
1862. Levy was a 
cabin-boy before the 
age of eleven ; he was 
apprenticed as a sailor 
in 1806; in 1810 he be- 
came second mate of 
a brig, and later first 
mate of anotiier. He 
purchased a one third 
interest in the .schooner 
" George Washington," 
of whi<;h he was mas- 
ter until 1812. On Oct. 
23, 1812, he received a 
commission as sailing- 
master in the United 
States navy, serving 

on the siiip "Alert," and later on the brig "Argus," 
bouiwl for France. The "Argus" captured several 
prizes, and Levy was placed in command of one, but 


Uriali Phillips Levy 



Levy, Nathan 

the prize was recaptured by the English, and Levy 
and the crew were Ivept as prisoners in Enghmd for 
sixteen months. In 1816 he was assigned as sailing- 
master to the "Franklin," 74 guns, and in iNhirch, 
1817, he was appointed lieutenant, his appointment 
being confirmed by tlie Senate. 

Lcvj' had many ditliculties in the navy, possibly 
due to anti-Jewish prejudice. He fought a duel, 
killed his opponent, was court-martialed six times, 
and finally dropped from the list as captain, to 
which rank he had been jiromoted. He defended his 

conduct before a 

court of inquiry in 
1855, Avas restored Id 
the navy as captain, 
and subsequently 
rose to the rank of 

Levy always ac- 
knowledged his Jew- 
ish allegiance. He 
was a great admirer 
of Thomas Jefferson ; 
he purchased Mon- 
ticello, the home of 
Jefferson (still owned 
by Levy's descend- 
ants), and presented 
to the United States 
government a statue 
of Jefferson, which 
is now in the Capitol 
at Washington. The 
freedom of the city 
of New York was 
voted to him by the 
common council on 
Feb. 6, 1834, as a 
testimonial to his 
character, patriotism, 
and public spirit. He 
is buried in that por- 
tion of Cypress Hills 

Cemetery in use by the Congregation Shearith 
Israel, and on his tombstone is recorded that " he 
was the father of the law for the abolition of the 
barbarous practise of corporal punishment in the 
United States navy." 

American Jeivish Year Book, 1902-3, pp. 

S. Wo. 

Tombstone of Uriah Phillips Levy, Cypress Hills Cemetery, New York. 

(From a photograph.) 

Lycee Charlemagne and the Ecole Normale Superi- 
eure. In 1879 he received the degree of "agr^ge en 
philosophic," and was at once called to a professor- 
ship in phih)sophy at the Lycee of Poitiers, which 
he lesigned two years later for a professorship at 
Amiens. In 1SS4 he received the degree of Ph.D., 
and the year following was apjiointed i)rofessor of 
jihilosophy at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand, succeeding 
Burdeau. For several years he held the same chair 
at the Seminaire Israelite de France, which lie re- 
.signed in ISO.") to become "maitrc de conferences" at 

the Ecole Normale 

Superieure. In 1899 
he was api)ointed to 
a similar jjosition at 
the University of 
Paris, where, in 1902, 
he became "charge 
de cours" of the his- 
tory of modern phi- 
lo.sophy. Since 1886 
Levy-Bruhl has lec- 
tured, at the Ecole 
Libre des Sciences 
Poliliques, on the 
history of political 
movements and on 
the development of 
public spirit in Ger- 
many antl England 
during the last two 

Levy-Bruhl has 
written: "L'Idee de 
Responsabilite " and 
■' Quid de Deo Seneca 
Senserit" (Paris, 
1884; his two gradu- 
ating theses); "L'Al- 
lemagne Depuis 
Leibnitz" (ib. 1890); 
"Essai sur la Forma- 
tion de la Conscience 
1890); "La Philoso- 
" History of IModern 
1899); "Lettres 


author of the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
Expelled from Spain in 1492, he settled at Tunis, 
where in 1507 he wrote " Sefer ha-Zikkarou," a su- 
percommentary on Rashi. The manuscript remained 
unprinted till 1845, when it was discovered in a 
Jewish library in Tunis. The work has several 
prefaces, one of which, written by the author him- 
self, recounts his sufferings at the time of the expul- 
sion from Spain. 
Bibliography : Cazes, Notes Bibliographiques. 

8. s. M. Fr. 

LEVY-BRTJHL, liXTCIEN : French philoso- 
pher; born at Paris April 10, 1857; educated at the 
VIIL— 5 

Natiouale en AUemagne " (ib. 
phie de Jacobi " (ib. 1894); 
Philosophy in France " (Chicago 
Inedites de John Stuart ]\Iill a Auguste Comte" 
(Paris, 1899; containing the answers of Comte); 
"La Philosophic d'Auguste Comte" (ib. 1900); "La 
Morale et la Science des Manirs" (ib. 1903). Levy- 
Bruhl is a chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 

s. J. K.\. 


Danish musician and critic; born in Copenhagen 
Oct. 14, 1858. He studied at the University of Co- 
penhagen and at the Polytechniske lustitut until 
1878, when he decided to devote liimself to the study 
of music. From 1884 to 1896 he was conductor 
of the Academical Song-Society (StudenterSang- 
foreningeu) ; in 1891 he was appointed keeper of the 
archives of music at the Kongelige Theater in Co- 

Levysohn has translated into Danish the texts 
of several operas, including " Don Juan " and 
"Othello." He has written also a number of crit- 




ical essays in " Morgcnbladet " and in other Danish 


BiBLiotiRAPHY: Salmotuseu's Store Illustrercde Konverm- 


s. F. C. 

IiEWALD, FANNY: German autlioress; born 
May 24, Kuuigsberg, Prussia; died Aug. 5, 
1889, in Dresden. In her seventeenth year she 
entered the Evangelical Church. In 1831, in com- 
pany with her father, she made a tour through Ger- 
many and France, i)r()longing her stay in Breslau and 
Berlin. In 1834, to while away tlie hours of an in- 
valid sister, she wrote a book of fairy-stories. It was 
not, however, until 1841 that she entered the literary 
arena with a novel entitled "Der Stellvertreter," 
ptiblished in serial form in the "Europa," a paper 
owned by a relative likewise named Lewald. Sub- 
sequently were published anonymously : "Klemen- 
tine," 1842; "Jenny," 1843; " Eine Lebensfrage," 
1845; "Das Arme Mildclien," 1845. In the spring 
of 1845 she made a tour of Italy, after which she 
settled in Berlin, where she married (1854) Adolph 
Stalir, the literary critic. In company with her hus- 
band she undertook a series of tours through Eu- 
rope, her mind storing a wealth of impressions wliich 
were later to be called into requisition. Hei* literary 
productiveness during the years followingupon this 
extended tour knew no bounds. One book followed 
another in quick succession, astonishing the reading 
public by their variety of subject and fertility of 
resource: " Italienisches Bilderbuch," 1847; "Dio- 
gena Jtoman von Iduna Grilfin H.-H. ," giving a 
humorous portraiture of the Countess Hahn-Hahn; 
"Prinz Louis Ferdinand," 1849; "Erinnerungen aus 
dem Jahre 1848"; "Liebesbriefe," 1850, previously 
published 1845; "Duneu- und Berggeschichten," 
1850; "Reisetagbuch Durch England und Schott- 
land," 1852 ; " Das >Iadcheu vou Hela," 1853 ; " Meine 
Lebensgeschichte," 1861 ; "Von Geschlecht zu Ge- 
schlecht,"a novel in eight volumes, 1863-65; "Oster- 
briefe f iir die Frauen, " 1863 ; " Erzahlungen, " in three 
volumes, 1866-68; " Villa Riunione," 1868; "Sommer 
und Winter am Genfer See, " a diary, 1869 ; " Fiir und 
Wider die Frauen," letters, 1870 ; " Nella," Christmas 
story, 1870;" Die Erloserin," a novel, 1873; "Bene- 
dikt," 1874; "Benvenuto," a novel from the world 
of art, 1875; " Reisebriefe aus Italien, Deutschland, 
und Frankreich," 1880; "Helmar," a novel, 1880; 
" Vater und Sohn." a novel, 1881 ; " Vom Sund zum 
Posilipp," letters of travel, 1883; "Stella," a novel, 
1884; "Die Familie Darner," a novel, 1887; "Zwolf 
Bilder nach dem Leben," 1888; etc. These are only 
a few of the productions of this versatile writer. 
In all more than fifty volumes can be accredited 
to a pen never idle. Fanny Lewald is remarkable 
for her keen observation of men and manners, 
for the firmness with which her characters are out- 
lined, for the grace and finish of her style; a harsh 
realism, however, pervades her works. This tend- 
ency to realism prompts her to seek an ideal in tlic 
dispassionate man of alTairs, who according to her 
standpoint may be relied upon to solve the problem 
of human existence. As a rule, this view precludes 
the possibility of frequent excursions into the world 
of the imagination, and except in rare cases is apt to 
stamp the work of the writer as devoid of that 

Louis Lewandowski. 

poetic charm so essential to the highest literary 
achievement. Her activity was not confined to lit- 
erature. She was one of Germany's foremost lead- 
ers in the movement for the emancipation and ad- 
vancement of women, favoring the opening to iheni 
of new fields of employment. S. 

LEWANDOWSKI, LOUIS: German composer 
of synagogal music; born at Wresehen, province of 
Posen, April 23, 1823; died Feb. 4, 1894, at Berlin. 
At the age of twelve he 
went to Berlin to study 
pianoforte and singing, 
and became solo soprano 
in the synagogue. He 
afterward studied for 
three years under A. B. 
Marx and also attended 
the school of composi- 
tion of the Berlin Acad- 
emy, where his teachers 
were Rungenhagen, 
Bach, and Grell. Grad- 
uated with liigli honors, 
he was api^ointedin 1840 
choirmaster of the Berlin 
synagogue, in wliich ca- 
pacity he rendered in- 
valuable services in be- 
half of ritualistic music. His principal works are: 
"Kol Rinnah u-Tefillah," for chorus; "Todah 
u-Zimrah," for mixed chorus, solo, and organ; 40' 
psalms, for solo, chorus, and organ ; .symplionies, 
overtures, cantatas, and songs. 

In 1866 he received the title of "royal musical 
director," and shortly afterward was appointed 
choirmaster in the Neue Synagoge, Berlin, for 
which he composed tlie entire musical service. His 
aiTangements of ancient Hebrew melodies for choir, 
cantor, and organ are considered masterl}- produc- 
tions, and are characterized by great simplicity and 
a profound religious sentiment. Many of Lewau- 
dowski's pupils have become prominent cantors. 
Lewandowski was the principal founder of the In- 
stitute for Aged and Indigent Musicians, an insti- 
tution wliich prospered under his management. 

Bibliography : Mendel, Musikalisches Konversations-Lexi- 
knn ; Champltn, Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians ; Rie- 
iiiaDD, MuMk- Lex ikon. 

s. J. So. 

OMON) : Polish publisher; born at Wloclawek, 
Russian Poland, 1839 ; died at Wiesbaden Sept. 24, 
1902. In 1862 Lewental. the son of poor Jewish 
parents, bought with his accumulated savings the 
press of the Warsaw publisher John Gliicksberg (d. 
1859), and began his ciiicer with the " Kalendarz 
Ludowy," a popular almanac, which he continued 
until 1866. In 1865, in conjunction with others, he 
founded "Klosy," an illustrated weekly, which in 
the next year became his exclusive property. Un- 
der Lewental's management and under the editor- 
ship of Adam Plug " Klosy "became the most widely 
circulated illustrated weekly in Poland, and contrib- 
uted in no small measure to the popularizing of 
Polish art and to the development of Polish wood- 




eugraviiig. lu 1871 Lcwental bought the "Kolko 
Doinowe," a home inagaziue, and transfornied it into 
the popular "Tygodnik Romansow i Powiesci " (dis- 
continued in I'JOO). Lewental was tiie proprietor 
also of the "Swit," edited for a few years by Mary 
Konopnicka. lu 1871, also, lie issued au edition of 
the works of Korzeniowski, which iirf>ved so popular 
that it led later to similar editions of the works of 
Kraszewski, Kremer, Rzewuski, Skarbek, Fredro, 
Syrokomla, Eliza Orzeszko, Kaczkowski, Balucki, 

In 1874 Lewental commenced the publication of 
the best productions of European literature under 
the title "Biblioteka Najcelniejszych Utworow Lit- 
eratury Europejskiej." They were edited with the 
greatest care by Peter Chmielowski and, after him, 
by Stanislaus Krzcminski. The "John Matejko 
Album" and many other well-known works were 
issued from his i)ress. In 1887 Lewental became 
one of the proprietors of the " Ivuryer Warszawski." 
Though he avoided politics he did not succeed in 
escaping a conflict with the Russian government; 
he was arrested in 1900, was compelled to discon- 
tinue all his publications, and was sentenced to de- 
portation for three years to Odessa. After a year 
there he obtained a passport for foreign travel. 
Lewental enjoyed the friendship of many literati, 
among them being J. I. Kraszewski, for whose re- 
lease from imprisonment at Magdeburg he offered 
to furnish the bail required by the Prussian govern- 

H. H. W. Pk. 

LEWI, JOSEPH : American physician ; born 
at Radnitz, Bohemia, Aug. 17, 1820; died at Al- 
bany, N. Y., Dec. 19. 1897; educated at the univer- 
sities of Prague and Vienna. After graduating from 
the latter imiversity (M.D. 1846) he was appointed 
assistant at the Vienna Lying-in Hospitiil. In 1847 
he began to practise in Radnitz, but in the follow- 
ing year, that of the Revolution, emigrated to Amer- 
ica, settling in Albany in 1849. There l^e was ap- 
pointed on the staff of the Albany hospital, and be- 
came a member and later president of the Albany 
County Medical Society, and senior censor of tiie 
State Medical Society. Lewi was one of the forty- 
two citizens of Albany who organized, in 1863, the 
Union League in that city. 

Thirteen of Lewi's fourteen children survived 
him. The oldest son is the journalist Isidor Lewi 
(b. Albany May 9, 1850). He was educated at the 
Albany Academy, became connected with several 
newspapers, and is at present (1904) an editorial 
writer on the " New York Tribune " and publisher 
of the "New Era Illustrated Magazine." Another 
son, Maurice J. Lewi (b. Albany Dec. 1, 1857), is a 
physician in New York city. He graduated from 
the Albany Medical College in 1877. After a post- 
graduate course in Heidelberg and Vienna he began 
to practise in his native town (1880). He became 
lecturer at the Albany Medical College and pro- 
fessor of medical jurisprudence at the Albany Law 
School. In 1891 he was appointed secretary of the 
state board of medical examiners, which office lie still 
(1904) occupies. In 1892 he removed to New York 

A. F. T. H. 

LEWIN, ADOLF : German rabbi and author ; 
born at Pinne, Posen, Sept. 23, 1843. Lewin was edu- 
cated at the Jewish Theological Seminary and at tlie 
University of Breslau. In 1872 he was appointed 
rabbi in Kozmin, later in Col)lenz, and in 1886 was 
called to the rabbinate of Freiburg-im-Breisgau. 
He wrote: "Die Religioustlisputation R. Jehiels," 
a prize essay (Breslau, 1869); "Die ]Makkabili.sche 
Erhebung," a dissertation (<6. 1870); "Zur Juden- 
frage: Naturwisseiischaft oder Judenhass" {ib. 
1880); "Juden in Freiburg-im-Breisgau " (Treves, 
1890); "Das Judenthum und die Nichtjuden " (t6. 
1891); "Geschichte, Geographic, und Reiselittera- 
tur der Juden " (in Winter and Wilnsche, "Die Jil- 
discheLitteratur," ii. 287-473V 

s. M. K. 

matologist; born at Sondershausen April 25, 1820; 
died at Berlin Nov. 1, 1896. He was educated at 
the universities of Halle and Berlin, graduating as 
doctor of medicine in 1845. After a postgraduate 
course at the universities of Vienna, Wiirzburg, and 
Paris he settled in Berlin, where he practised as a 
specialist first in otology, and later in dermatology 
and syphilis. In 1862 Lewin was admitted to the 
medical faculty of his alma mater as privat-docent 
in otology. In 1865 he became chief physician in 
the department of dermatology and syphilis at the 
('harite Hospital, and in 1868 was appointed assist- 
ant professor. 

In 1880 Lewin became a member of the imperial 
department of health, and in 1884 received the title 
of "Geheimer Medicinal rat." In the same year, 
through the influence of Bismarck, Lewin s clinic 
was divided into two departments, Lewin retaining 
the class in syphilis, while Schweninger, Bismarck's 
physician, was appointed chief physician for derma- 
tology. This action of the government aroused 
much indignation in the medical faculties of most 
of the universities of Germany, and much public 
sympathy was expressed for Lewin. 

Lewin was very successful in his profession. He 
introduced several new methods in the treatment of 
syphilis and in dermatology, among which may be 
mentioned the subcutaneous injection of mercuric 
chlorid and the spray application in diseases of the 

He was an industrious writer, and contributed 
many essays to the medical journals. He was also 
the author of the following works: "Klinik der 
Krankheiten des Kehlkopfes," 2d ed., Berlin, 1863; 
"Inhalatioustherapie und Krankheiten der Respira- 
tionsorgane," 2d ed., ib. 1865; "Behandlung der 
Syphilis Durcli Subcutane Sublimatinjectionen," ib. 

Bibliography: Paget. Buig. Le.r.; Meyers konvrr'<ntiov»- 
Lex ikon. 
8. F. T. H. 

LEWIN, LOUIS : German pharmacologist and 
toxicologist: born at Tuchel, West Prussia, Nov. 9, 
1850. He received his education at the gymnasium 
and the University of Berlin (M.D. 1876). The two 
years following his graduation he spent at Munich, 
in the laboratories of Voit and Pettenkofer. Re- 
turning to Berlin, he in 1878 became assistant at the 




pharmacological institute of tlie university, which 
position he resigned in 1881. In the same year he 
was admitted to the medical faculty at the univer- 
sity as privat-docent, and in 1897 he was appointed 

Lewin is a prolific writer. Among his many es- 
says may be mentioned : 

" Ueber Morphium-Ititoxication," in "Deutsche Zeltschritt 
fur Praktische Medizin," 1874, No. 26; " Experinientelle Unter- 
suchungen uber die Wirkuntreii des Aconitin auf das Herz," in 
" Centralblatt fur die Medizinische VVissenscbaft," 1875, No. 25; 
'* Ueber die Verwertliung des Alkohols in Fieberhaf ten Krank- 
helten," In "Deutsches Archiv fiir Klinische Medizin," 1876; 
"Ueber Maximale Dosen der Arzneimittel," in "Transactions 
of tlie International Medical Congress," ninth session, Washing- 
ton, 1887; "Ueber Allgeineine Hautvergiftung Durch Petro- 
leum," in Vlrchow's " Archiv," cxii., 1888 ; " Ueber Anhalonium 
Lewinli und Andere Cacteen," in "Archiv fur Experimentelle 
Pathologic und Pharmakologie," 1894; "Die Behandlung der 
Lepra," in " Deutsche Medizinische Wochensehrift," 1898 ; " Die 
Untersuchungen von Blutflecken," ih. 1899; "Die Vergiftungen 
in Betrieben," ih. 1890 (also translated by Pannier in "Bulletin 
G^n^ral de Therapeutique," 1902); " Ueber die Behandlung der 
Lepra," ih. 1900. 

Lewin is also the author of: "Die Nebenwirk- 
ungen der Arzneimittellehre," Berlin, 1881, 2d ed. 
1893 (translated into Russian) ; " Lehrbuch der Toxi- 
cologic," Vienna, 1885, 2d ed. 1897 (translated into 
French by Pouchet, Paris, 1902); "Ueber Piper 
Methysticum (Kawa Kawa)," Berlin, 1886; "Ueber 
Areca Catechu, Chavica Detle, und das Betelkauen," 
Stuttgart. 1889. 

s. F. T. H. 

LEWIN, WILLIAM C. J. See Terris, 


LEWINSKY, ABRAHAM: German rabbi; 
bora March 1, 1866, at Loslau, Upper Silesia. He 
studied at the University of Breslau from 1884 to 
1887 (Ph.D.), pursuing at the same time his rabbin- 
ical studies at the Jewish Theological Seminary. In 
1890 he was called as district rabbi to Weilburg-on- 
the-Lahn; and two years later he took charge of the 
district rabbinate of Hildesheim, which position he 
still (1904) occupies. 

Lewinsky has published: "BeitrSge zur Kennt- 
niss der Religionsphilosophischen Anschauungen des 
FlaviiLs Josephus"; "Dor Hildesheimer Rabbiner 
Samuel Hameln " (in " Kaufmann Gedenkbuch " and 
printed separately); and "Ausdem Hildesheimer 
Stadtarchivc." S. 

LEWINSOHN, JOSHUA: Russian teacher and 
writer; born 1833 at Vyeshiuti, government of 
Kovno. He received his Talmudical education at 
Zhagory, in the house of his uncle Simon Hurvitz, 
and graduated in 186-5 from the gymnasium at 
Mitau, remaining there until 1874, -when he was ap- 
pointed inspector of tlie Jewish school at Tukum. 
Courland. His first articles in Hebrew appeared in 
" Ha-Maggid " in 1857; and since then lie has con- 
tributed extensively to tiiat paper and to "Ha- 
Meliz," " HaShahar," and other Hebrew periodicals. 
He was also for many years a contributor to the 
German "Rigasche Zeitung." 

Lewinsohn has published : " Erez Russia u-Me- 
lo'ah " (Wilna, 1868), a geograpiiy and topography 
of Russia: "Toledot Anshe Shem be-Yi.srael," biog- 
raphies of about fifty Jewish authors; and "Toledot 
Sehar ha-Yehudim" (in " Ha-Shahar "), a history of 

Jewisii commerce. He has likewise written numer- 
ous articles on Jewish history which have appeared 
in various periodicals. 

Blbliography: Sokoiov, Sefer Zihkaron, p. 64. 

u. K. J. G. L. 

LEWINSTEIN, JOSEPH : Russian rabbi and 
author; born at Lublin. Russian Poland, 1840. He 
is a member of a family of rabbis and Talmudists 
which includes the author of the " Lebushim " and of 
"Pene Y'ehoshua'." At tlie age of twenty he became 
rabbi of Karol, in the government of Plotzk ; in 
1868, rabbi of Zaklikov, in the government of Lub- 
lin ; since 1875 he has been rabbi of Serotzk, govern- 
ment of Lomza. 

Lewinstein has written " Birkat Abraham," on 
Pesahim, Bezah, and Hagigah; "Peue Abraham," 
commentary on Genesis; a commentary on the Hag- 
gadah of Passover; "Dor Dor we-Dorshaw," a col- 
lection of 6,600 names of the great of Israel of all 
generations, with the dates of their deaths. He has 
contributed biographical articles, which are of 
special genealogical value and which have won him 
recognition as an autliority in this field, to "Ha- 
Goren" (ed. Horodetz'ky), lo "Ha-Eshkol," and to 
other periodicals. He has written also appendixes 
to " 'Ir Gibborim " and " 'Ir Tehillah." 

Bibliography: B. Z. Eisenstadt, Dor Rabbanaw we-Sofe- 
raw, i. 36, Warsaw, 1895. 

n. R. A. S. W. 

LEWIS, DAVID : English merchant and phi- 
lanthropist; born in London 1823; died in Liver- 
pool Dec. 4, 1885. Settling in Liverpool in 1840, 
he by 1856 had accumulated sufficient capital to 
commence business on his own account as a boys' 
clothier in Bold street. Subsequently he opened a 
second establishment ; and thereafter he gradually 
developed one of the largest retail businesses of the 
kind in England, erecting an establishment of the 
"Universal Provider" or department store class. 
Similar ones were founded by him in Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Birmingham. No firm in tlie prov- 
inces did more than his to bring cheap and durable 
clothing within the reach of the masses. 

Lewis' ample means were freely given in aid of 
charitjibleand philanthropic works. He headed the 
local subscription list for the persecuted Jews of 
Russia with a donation of £1,000 ($5,000), and gave 
large sums in support of the synagogue. For many 
years he held the position of warden and treasurer 
of the Old Hebrew Congregation, Liverpool. At 
his death he bequeathed very large sums (nearly a 
half-million sterling) for the erection of hospitalsand 
other philanthropic institutions, which constitute 
some of the most important in Liverpool. 

Bibliography: Jeiv. Chrnu. and Jew. World, Dec. 11, 1885; 
Liverpool Leader, Dec. 6, 1875. 
.1. G. L. 

lawyer; born in London April 21, 1833; educated at 
University College, London. In 1850 ho was arti- 
cled to his father, James Graham Lewis (1804- 
1869), founder of Lewis & Lewis, one of the best- 
known firms of solicitors in the city of London. 
George was admitted in Hilary term in 1856, and 
was subsequently taken into partnership by liis 
father and unde. He first made his name in prose- 





v ^ — s^ 

Arms of Sir George Henry Lewis. 

cutiiig the directors of tlio Ovcrcud iuul Gunicy 
Bauk, who had causod tiic disastrous pauic of lhl(j(5. 
and for a tiiiic lie devoted special altention to finan- 
cial cases. In criminal cases lie drew public atten- 
tion to himself by his cross-e.vamination in the Bravo 

case in 187."), and from 
tiiat time onward was 
connected ■with most 
criminal "causes ccle- 
bres." being conspic- 
uous in the prosecution 
of fraudulent persons 
like Madame Kachel 
and Slade tiie medium. 
Among other cases 
may bi; mentioned the 
Ilatton Garden dia- 
mond robbery case ; 
Belt versus Lawes ; and 
the Baccarat case, in 
which the Prince of 
Wales's name was men- 
tioned; and lie was 
selected by the Parnell 
commission to conduct 
the case for Charles 
Stuart Parnell and tlie Irish party against tlie London 
"Times." Lewis has by fur the largest practise in 
financial cases of any lawyer in London, and is 
especially expert in libel cases, being retained by 
some of the chief newspapers. He has shown him- 
self especially skilful in exposing the practises of 
usurious ni(mey-lenders. Lewis was knighted in 
1893, and raised to the rank of baronet in 1902. 

Bibliography: Meiiand Women of the Times; Who's Who: 
Burke's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knighthood, 1903. 

J . 

LEWIS, HARRY S.: English author and 
communal worker; born in London in 1861; edu- 
cated at King's College School and St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge (B.A. 1884). At Cambridge he 
was one of the earliest to take honors in the Semitic 
languages tripos (1886) and was Hebrew scholar at 
his college. After leaving college he took residence 
at Toynibee Hall, Whitechapel, and devoted himself 
to social work among the Jews of the East End. 
In connection with this he published, with E. J. Rus- 
sel, "The Jew in London" (London, 1900). He 
edited "The Targum on Isaiah i. 5, with Commen- 
tary " (lb. 1889). 
Bibliography : Jeivisli Year Booh, .5664 (19()4). 


LEWIS, LEOPOLD DAVIS : English drama 
tist; born in London 1828; died there Feb. 23, 1890. 
Lewis was educated at the King's Collegiate School. 
London, and upon graduation became a solicitor, 
practising as such from 1850 to 1875. In 1871 he 
translated Erckmann-C;hatrian's"Le Juif Polonais," 
giving it the name "The Bells," under which name 
it was produced by Henry Irving at the Lyceum 
Theatre, London, iSTov. 25, 1871. Original plays 
from the pen of Lewis are: "The Wandering Jew " 
(Adelphi Theatre, April 14, 1873); "Give a Dog a 
Bad Name" (ib. Nov. 18, 1873); and "The Found- 
lings " (Sadler's Wells Theatre, Oct. 8, 1881). From 
February to December of 1868 he and Alfred Thomp- 

son conducted a monthly, "The Mask," which failed. 

In addition to the plays mentioned Lewis wrote a 

number of tales under the title "A Peal of Merry 

Bells" (1880). 

Bibliography: Diet. National Biog. xxx. 191; The Times 
(London), Feb. 2.5, 1890; The Era and St. Stephen's Revietc 
(ih.), March 1, 18it(). 

.7. E. Ms. 

LEWIS, SAMUEL: English money-lender and 

philanthropist; born in Birmingham 1837; died in 

London Jan. 13, 1901. Lewis began work when 

thirteen years old. He became a salesman of steel 

pens, then o])ened a jewelers shop, and linally en 

lered tin? business with which his name was most 

identified, that of moiu\\ -lending. He became the 

most fashionable money-lender of his day. Nearly 

every noble family in Great Britain is said to have 

been more or less in business connecti(m with Lewis. 

He left nearly twenty million dollars, of which 

five millions are to go to charity on the death of his 

widow, Ada Davis Lewis, a sister of Hope Temple, 

the composer. 

BIBI,IOGRAPIl^ : Jew. Chron. Jan. 18, 1901; The Sketch (Lon- 
don), Jan. -Si, 1901. 
.r. E. Ms. 

LEWIS, SAMUEL A. : American politiciau 
and philanthropist; born in New York city 1831. 
He early engaged in business, and was so successful 
that he retired with a competency in 1862. In 1868 
he was elected a member of the board of education 
of the city of New York, serving as school commis- 
sioner and chairman of the financial committee. 
When in 1869 the legislature changed the board 
from elective to appointive, Lewis was confirmed 
in his office of school commissioner, and in 1870 
was reappointed for a term of five years. In 1871, 
however, he was compelled to retire. One of his 
first acts as a school commissioner was to abolish 
corporal punishment. In 1874 Lewis was elected 
alderman at large, and later in the same year presi- 
dent of the aldermanic board, holding tiie presi- 
dency for two consecutive terms. 

Lewis is one of the founders of the Mount Sinai 
Hospital, and has served, since its organization in 
1852, on its board of management as secretary, di- 
rector, and vice-president, resigning the last-named 
office in 1873. He founded (1872) the School-Teach- 
ers' Life Assurance Society, and was in 1874 chair- 
man of the relief association for the Ninth Ward. 
In 1851 the Ladies' Benevolent Society presented him 
with a gold medal in acknowledgment of the valuable 
aid he had rendered that body. From 1868 to 1873 
Lewis acted as a trustee of the College of the City 
of New York. 
Bibliography: New Forfc P^lblic SchoolJournal, Feh. ]S, 

1871, April 6, 1873; New York Herald, March 13, 1874; Jew- 

i.s?i Messenger, April 17, 1874; Daily Graphic, Jan. 22, 187.). 

A. F. C. 

LEWISOHN, LEONARD : American mer- 
chant and philanthropist; born in Hamburg Oct. 
10, 1847 ; died in London March 5, 1902. His father, 
Samuel Lewisohn, a prominent Hamburg mer- 
chant, sent him to the United States in 1863; about 
tliree years later he was joined by his younger broth- 
er, and they formed the firm of Lewisohn Brothers in 
Jan., 1866. As early as 1868 the firm turned its atten- 
tion to the metal trade, becoming prominent dealers in 




lead during that year. Rocoguizing the commercial 
future of electricit}^ and tlie need of copper for cou- 
ducting-wires. Levvisohn specialized in that metal, 
and by 1879 was recognized as an important holder 
of "Lake Copper." Thenceforward his tirm occu- 
pied a leading position in the copper markets of the 
world. He was also president of the United Metals 
Selling Company. 

Lewisohn was equally prominent in the sphere 
of philanthropy. He contributed largely to the 
Alliance colony in New Jersey, founded in 1882, and 
to almost every philanthropic institution in New- 
York, regardless of creed. He likewise acted as 
treasurer of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society 
in New York, to which institution he gave his 
counsel and large sums of money. He was one of 
the largest contributors to the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America and to the Montefiore Sanato- 
rium for Consumptives. 

A. J. 

LEWITA, GUSTAW: Polish pianist; born at 
Plock, Poland, 18")5; died at Paris Feb., 1889. After 
graduating froui the Vienna Conservatorium with 
distinction, he went to Paris, where he became a 
member of the orchestra of the Pas de Loup con- 
certs. In 1882 Lewita was called to a professorship 
in tlie Conservatorium at Warsaw, and in 1885 was 
invited to Vienna to give a concert at the court of 
tiie archduke Charles. He then went to America, 
where he gave concerts in the most Important cities 
and before the Emperor of Brazil. 

Bibliography: }Ia-Asif, 1893. p. 134; EncyWoptdja I'o- 
u'>«zccfina, ix. 281, Warsaw, 1901. 
H. u. A. S. W. 

CARL: Danish cliemist; born in Copenhagen July 
5, 1817; died there Jan. 1, 1863. He obtained the 
degree of graduate of pharmacy in 1835, and then 
studied chemistry for three years at the polytechnic 
school. In 1839 he studied in Berlin (Ph.D.), and 
spent the winter of 1839-40 in Pome. He then ob- 
tained a position as assistant in the private labora- 
tory of J. B. Dumas in Paris. 

Lewy soon proved himself to be the possessor of 
great experimental ability; so that the Academic 
des Sciences in 1841 entrusted him with the task of 
studying the atmospheric conditions around the 
North and Baltic seas, as well as in Copenhagen. 
Tiater he mad(!acf)mparative test of the atmospheric 
conditions in Paris and in the surrounding country. 

In 1847 Lewy was appointed professor of chemis- 
try at Bogota. New Granada, where he enjoyed 
great popularity and filled many honorary ollices. 
He was decorated by the King of Denmark, and in 
1859 was awarded the gold medal of honor. His 
writings have appeared in " Annales do Chimie et de 
Pliysique," "Comptes Bendus " of the French Insti- 
tute (Academic des Sciences), and in "F'orhand- 
linger ved de Skandinaviske Naturforskeres 4, 
Mode "(1844). 
BiBMOfjRAPiiv : f. F. Rrlcka, Dan!<k Biografisk Lexicon. 

8. F. C. 

LEWY, ISRAEL : German scholar; born at In- 
owrazlaw in 1847; educated at the Jewisli Theolog- 
ical Seminary and the University in Breslau. In 

1874 he was appointed docent at the Lehranslalt fur 
die Wissenschaft des Judenthnms in Berlin, and in 
1883, on the death of David JoOl, he was called to 
the seminary at Breslau. Lewi's knowledge of 
Talmudic literature is unusually wide; he is en- 
dowed also with an e.vceptionally acute and disjjas- 
sionate critic-il spirit and witii a faculty for grasping 
the proper importance of details. His first publica- 
tion was "Ueber Einige Fragmente aus der ]\Iisclina 
des Abba Saul " (Berlin, 1870), in which he showed 
tliat the jMishnah collections of the foremost teachers 
in the period before the final redaction of the Mishnah 
itself, including that of Abba Saul, agreed as regards 
all the essential points of the Halakah. "Ein Wort 
fiber die Mechilta des R. Simon " (Breslau, 1889) is 
likewise an authoritative work in the field of hala- 
kic exegesis. Lewy has published also " Interpreta- 
tion des Ersten, Zweiten inid Dritten Abschnitts des 
Palilstinischcn Talmud-Tiaktates Nesikin" (I'b. 1895- 
1902), and " Ein Vorti'ag liber das llitual des Pesach- 
Abends" (ih. 1904). 


LEWYSOHN, ABRAHAM: Hebraist and 
rabbi of Peiskretscham, Upper Silesia; born Dec. 6, 
1805; died Feb. 14, 1860. He left a large number 
of manuscripts — several hundred sermons in Hebrew 
and German, novelhc on the Talmud, verses, a Ger- 
man work on Hebrew grammar, and a work entitled 
"Korot Tannaim wa-Amoraim," a history of the 
Tannaim and Amoraim, the introduction to Avhich, 
entitled "Parnasat Hakme ha-Talmnd," was pub- 
lished in Kobak's "Jeschurun" (i., part 3, p. 81). 
His published Avorksare: "Mekore Minhagim" (Ber- 
lin, 1846), a critical essay on religious customs ac- 
cording to the Talmud, Posekim, and Midrashim 
(this work was afterward plagiarized by Finkelstein, 
Vienna, 1851); "Shete Derashot " (Gleiwitz, 1856), 
sermons; "Toledot K. Yehoshua' ben Hananyah," 
biography of 11. Joshua b. Hananiah (in Keller's 
"Bikkurim," 1865); "Toledot Ilab." biography of 
Rab or Abba Arika (Kobak's "Jeschurun," vi. and 
vii.). Lewysohn was also a contributor to "Ha- 
Maggid " and to Klein's " Jahrbuch." 

Bibliography: Lndwip Lewysohn, in Ha-Maggid, vii. 364; 
Zeitlin. Bihl. Pn!<t Meudels. pp. 2<)8 209. 
B. M. Ski.. 

LEWYSOHN, LUDWIG: German rabbi; 
born April 15. 1819. at Schwersenz, Posen; died at 
Stockholm May 20. 1901. Graduating from the Re- 
algymnasium, Berlin, in 1843, he studied Orientalia 
in that city, and received his doctor's (U'gree from the 
University of Halle in 1847, his dissertation being 
"De Saciiticiis Veteris Testamenti." In 1848 he 
became preacher at Frankfort-on-the-Oder. Three 
years later he was called as rabbi to Worms, where 
lie olliciated until 1858. He then accepted a call to 
Stockholm, where he labored from 1859 to 1893, in 
which year he resigned. Besides numerous contri- 
butions to Jewish periodicals (especially "Ha-Mag- 
gid"), he published " Nafshot Zaddikim" (Frank fort- 
on-the-Main. 1855), on the epitaphs at Worms, and 
"Zoologie des Talmuds" {ib. 1858). 

Bibliography: Relnes, Tahleaiu HiKtnriquex, i. 133 et seq.; 
Zeltlln, Jf.iruat Sefer, i. 209. 
8 M. L. B 




LEX TALIONIS. See Rktai.iation. 
LEXICOGRAPHY. See Dictionauies. 
LEYDEN. See Netheki-ands. 
LHERIE. Sec Buunswick, Leon Levy. 
LIADY, BAR of. See Ladieu, Dob Bar b. 


LIBATION. See Sact^ikice. 

LIBAU : Russian city in the government of 
Couilaml. It has a population (1897) of 64,505, in- 
cluding 9.700 Jews. Among the latter are 3.225 ar- 
tisans (l.o09 being masters) and 117 day-laborers. 
Among its educational institutions are a government 
school for Jews (105 pupils), a Jewish general school 
for girls (90 pupils), and a Talmud Torah (108 pu- 
pils). The public schools have 333 Jewish children 
on their rolls. A Jewish loan and savings associa- 
tion was organized in 1901, 

ir. H. S. J. 


LIBERTINES. See Slaves and Slavery. 

LIBIN, Z. See Hurewitz, Israel. 

LIBOSCHtJTZ, JACOB: Russian physician; 
born in 1741 ; died at Wilna Feb. 10, 1827. After 
studying at the University of Halle he went to St. 
Petersburg. His religious belief, however, rendered 
it impossible for him to settle there, and he estab- 
lished himself at Wilna, wliere he became celebrated. 
When the famous physician Professor Frank was 
leaving Wilna and was asked in whose charge he 
had left the public health, he answered, "In the 
charge of God and the Jew" ("Deus et Judeus," 
meaning "God and Liboscliutz "). Liboschutz was 
celebrated also as a diplomat and philanthropist 
(Fuenn, "Kiryah Ne'emanah," p. 260, Wilna, 1860). 

H. K. A. S. W. 


Russian physician ; died at St. Petersburg in 1824; 
probably the son of Jacob Liboschutz. He studied 
medicine at Dorpat (M.D. 1806, his graduating 
thesis being " De Morbis Primi Paris Nervorum "). 
He then settled at St. Petersburg, where he became 
court physician, and founded a hospital for sick 
children. Liboschutz wrote: "Tableau Botanique 
des Genres de Plantes Observes en Russie " (Vienna, 
1811); "Description de Mousses Qui Croissent aux 
Environs de St. Petersbourg et de Moscou " (St. Pe- 
tersburg, 1811; with Trinius); "Flore des Environs 
de St. Petersbourg et de Moscou " {ib. 1811). 

BiBLiOGRAPHT: EntziMopedichesM Slovar, xvii. 643, St. Pe- 
tersburg, 1893. 
H. R. A. S. W. 

sian Hebrew scholar and author; born Jan. 3, 1862, 
at Kolno, government of Lomza (Lomzha). He 
studied Talmud under R. Elijah Hasid and then un- 
der his own father, Isaac Libowitz; in addition 
he devoted himself to Hebrew literature, reading 
especially works on criticism. In 1881 he emigrated 
to the United States and settled in New York, where 
he still (1904) resides, devoting his time in part to 
business and in part to literature. 

Libowitz is the author of: "Iggeret Bikkoret " 
(New York, 1895), against I. H. Weiss ; " Rabbi Ye- 

liudah Aryeh Modena" (Vienna, 1896; 2d ed.. New 
York, 1901), his most important work, a collection 
of materials for a biography of Leon of Modena; 
"Ephraim Deinard " {ib. 1901), a harsh criticism of 
Deinard ; and several other pamphlets. Libowitz 
has also contributed to the Hebrew periodicals in 
the United States: "Ner Ma'arabi," "Ha-Modia' la- 
Hadashim," and "Yalkut Ma'arabi." 

IJiBLiooRAPiiY: Benzion Eisenstadt, Hakme Yisrael be-Ame- 
rika, p. 62, New York, 1903. 

H. R. A. S. W. 

LIBRARIES : Very little is known concerning 
the methods employed by Jews in tlie collection and 
preservation of books. The Biblical writings are 
silent on this point. That there were royal archives 
in Jerusalem may be surmised witli some show of 
reason, even though the terms "mazkir" (A. V. 
" recorder " ; II Sam. viii. 16, xx. 24, and several 
other passages) and " sofer " (A. V. " scribe " ; tb. 
viii. 17, and often elsewhere) do not necessarilj' point 
to the office of archivist. Nor does the place-name 
Kirjath-sepher (Josh. xv. 16; Judges i. 11-12), 
which the Septuagint translates U6/Jc Tpa/jfiaruv 
(Vulgate, "Civitas Litterarum " = " Book Town"), 
afford any further evidence ; though Quatrem&re in 
1842 deduced from it the existence of a library there, 
and Sayce in 1895 called it "the literary center of 
the Canaanites in the south of Palestine " (" Patri- 
archal Palestine," p. 220; "Higher Criticism and 
the Monuments," p. 54). 

Nor is there any fuller information with regard to 

Talmudic times and the Middle Ages. The scrolls 

seem to have been kept in a cover or sheath of 

leather or of metal (p^D; ^w; see 

Preserva- passages in Krauss, "LehnwOrter," ii. 

tion of 588), a custom which was observed in 

Books. Eastern countries for many centuries. 
Sambari {c. 1672) speaks of the scroll 
in the synagogue of Al-Mahallah in a metal pTi 
(Neubauer, "M. J. C."i. 119, 10), which stili exists. 
The old and much-venerated Samaritan Pentateuch 
at Nablus is likewise in a metal cover. The scrolls 
were kept in a case (rtTD). of which there were three 
kinds, m^C'. n3'n. aud ^IJD. In the catacombs of 
Rome there have been found representations of Jesus 
with a case of scrolls at his feet. The cases were 
usually made of wood, though sometimes of leather, 
glass, bone, or metal. It has been shown that such 
cases were the usual form of the Roman bookcase. 
That they were used by the Jews also is seen from the 
fact that the earliest representations of the Ark upon 
glass, dating from the third century, are in this 
form (seeBlau, "Studien zum Althebraischen Buch- 
wesen," pp. llQetseg.; Jacobs, in "J. Q. R." xiv. 
738). Sometimes the scrolls were placed in a sort 
of cupboard, which stood upon a pediment and liad 
a cover. Openings were made at the top and at the 
side. See Ark of the Law. 

That catalogues of collections of Hebrew books 

were drawn up in early days is evidenced by the 

recent finds made chiefly in the Fostat 

Cata- Genizah. Such catalogues were some- 

logues. times sale-lists of book-traders— e.<7., 

tlieAdler manuscript in Arabic ("R.E. 

J." xxxix. 199): the Adler manuscript containing 

a sale-list of a certain 'Abd al-'Aziz of the thirteenth 




centurj' (ib. xl. 56, 264); the list found on the back 
of the manuscript copy of Saadia's ''Amanat" in 
Arabic {ib. xxxii. 126); the Adier manuscript of tlic 
twelfth century giving a list in Arabic of over lOO 
books ("J. Q. R." xiii. 52, 324; Jew. Excyc. iii. 619a. 
8.V. Catai-ogues); and the Frankfort manuscript, 
also from the genizah ("J. Q. li." xv. 7(>; for other 
lists see "Zeit. fur Ilebr. Bibl." vii. 181)— and some- 
times catalogues of real collectors, sucli as the geni- 
zah fragment containing a list of the books of 
Nathan b. Jeshuah (<6. vii. 184; "J. Q. R." xiv. 247; 
or the catalogue 
of the library of 
Leon Mosconi 
( " R . E . J . " 
xxxix. 242, xl. 
62; see also Cat- 

That care was 
taken in the 
preservation of 
books is seen 
from the advice 
which is given 
by various 
writers. The 
author of the 
(13th cent.) ad- 
vises his leaders 
to pay particular 
attention to the 
manner in which 
their books are 
kept. Especial 
weight is laid 
upon the duty of 
lending books 
to those whose 
means do not 
allow them to 
purchase them. 
Books were 
scarce in those 
days; the want 
of them is be- 
wailed by such 
men as Lsserlein 
and J. Kolon 
( G tt d e m a n n , 
"Gesch."ii. 191, 
iii. 65). Judah 
ibn Tibbon (12th cent.) gives much sage counsel 
to his son, to whom he left his collection of Arabic 
and Hebrew books. He bids him make his books 
his companions, and to take good care of his book- 
chests (T31X) and bookcases (riTn) and his i^ardcn. 

"Take Rood rare of thy books; cover thy slielves with a line 
coverln)?: Ruarrl them nfrninst damp and mice. Examine thy 
Hebrew books on the first <>f every month ; thy Arablcones once 
every two months; thy pamphlet-<'ases [anvi'i") 0^313] once 
every three months. Arrange them all In jfood order, so that 
thou weary not In lookintr fiT a t)fK)k when thou needest It. . . . 
Write down the titles of tlit^ hooks In each row [.■^^3] of the rases 
[dmj-\n] In a .separate fas<;lcle [.-"ijn], and place each In Its 
row. In order that thou be able to see exactly In which 
row any particular IxKik is without mlxlnp up the others. 

" I)o the same with the cases. Take good care of the Indi- 

vidual leaves [a^Sj,'] w-hich are in the convolutes r2'3"i:] and 
fa.scicles ; • . . look continually into the catalogue [."^^Dic] in 
order to remember what books thou . . . When thou lend- 
est a book record its title before it leaves the house; and when 
it. is brousrht back draw thy pen through the memorandum. 
Restore all loaned books on Pesahand Sukkof (" Ennahnungs- 
schreiben des Jehudah ibn Tibbon," ed. Steinschneider, pp. U, 
13, Berlin, 18o2; transl. in Giidemann, I.e. i. 38). 

This care in the binding and handling of books 
is inculcated by Protiat Duran (of Catalonia, 14th 
cent.) also, as is seen in the preface to his "Ma'aseh 
Efod " (ed. Friedlander and Kohn, p. 19), and by Sol- 
o m o n A 1 a m i 

Alcove In the Library of Parma Containing the De Rossi Collection of Jewish Books. 

(From a photngraph.) 

(1415): "Take 
good care of the 
writing and the 
arranging of thy 
books " (" Igge- 
ret Musar," ed. 
1854, p. 14). 

In earliest 
times the libra- 
ries weredirectly 
connected with 
the batte mid- 
rashot, each of 
such institutions 
having a collec- 
tion of its own. 
This practise 
continued down 
through the 
Middle Ages. 
At times books 
of especial value 
were kept in the 
synagogue in a 
sort of cup- 
board, a cu.stom 
which prevailed 
especially in 
Egypt. The 
contents of these 
school libraries 
must have 
varied in differ- 
ent countries. 
In the western 
French and Ger- 
man schools of 
the Middle Ages 
they probably 
contained little 
more than what was necessary for the almost ex- 
clusively Talmudic curriculum that was followed; 
but in Italy and Spain, where the curriculum em- 
braced also philosophy, mathematics, and the nat- 
ural sciences, tlu^ libraries must have been more va- 
ried and much larger. 

The tradition thus begun has been kept up. Such 
libraries of distinctively Jewish books are now at- 
tached to seminaries and to theological schools and 
serve as Jewish university libraries. The chief col- 
lections may here be mentioned: 

Austria: Library of the Israelitl.sch-Theologlsche Lehran- 
stall. Vienna; Hungary: library of the Landesrabbinerschule, 
Budapest (3(),(KK) vols., of which 10,000 are Judaica; 41 incu- 
nabula; 50MSS.). 




England : Library of Jews' College (in all 2o,(K)0 vols., made 
up of the original Jews' College collection 4,000 ; the A. L. Green 
Library 7,000; the Monteflore Library 4,000; the A. Lowy Li- 
brary 10,000; in addition 600 MSS., mainly from the Zunz and 
Halberstam collections), and that of the bet ha-midrash, London 
(the HerschelMSS.). 

France : Library of the Seminaire Israelite, Paris. 

Germany : Libraries of the Lehranstalt fiir die Wissenschaft 
des Judenthums and the Rabbinische in Berlin ; of the 
Jiidisch-Theologische Seminar (about 23,000 printed vols.; 248 
MSS.) in Breslau. 

Holland : Libraries of the Portuguese Rabbinical Seminary ; 
of the Bet ha-Midrash 'Ez Hayyiin (20,000 vols.; 1,000 pam- 
phlets; 300 portraits) ; of the Netherlands Israelitish Seminary. 

Italy : Library of the Rabbinical Seminary, Florence. 

United States : Library of the Hebrew Union College (about 
1.5,000 vols.), Cincinnati, and that of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, New York U4,500 vols.; 750 MSS.). 

In the course of time these libraries have not 
proved sufficient. They served, In the main, theo- 
logical purposes. An attempt at establishing a na- 
tional Jewish library was made in the Abarbanel 
Library at Jerusalem, founded by Joseph Chaza- 
nowicz and now containing more than 2(),000 vols. 
Next to this may be mentioned that of the Alliance 
Israelite Universelle in Paris, largely founded by 
Isidor Loeb and supported by donations and legacies 
from L. L. Rothschild (22,000 vols. ; 200 MSS. ; made 
up largely of the collections of Isidore Loeb and 
Bernard Lazare) ; the Bibliothek des Deutsch-Israe- 
litischen Gemeindebundes (recently founded ; 5,000 
vols.) in Berlin ; and the library of the B'nai B'rith 
in New York (Maimonides' Library ; but this is not 
a solely Jewish collection). 

The Italian Jewish communities seem to have 
been the first to establish libraries for their own 
use; e.g., Mantua (in 1767; 4,500 vols.) and Pitilione 
in Tuscany. In Englarid the North London bet ha- 
midrash has its private collection; the Vienna com- 
munity possesses a children's library; and Warsaw 
has its Synagogenbibliothek. Of late years the com- 
munal libraries have grown, especially 
Communal in Germany. Breslau has its Bibliothek 
Libraries, der Synagogengemeinde ; Dettmold, 
its Lehrerbibliothek and Schiilerbi- 
bliothek ; Gleiwitz, its Jugendbibliothek ; Ilomburg, 
its Israelitische Gemeindebibliothek ]\Iendelssohn ; 
Carlsruhe, its Jlidische Bibliothek der Israelitischen 
Genossenschaft ; Kozmin, its Judische Gemeinde- 
bibliothek; Mayence, its Klingensteinische Biblio- 
thek filr Hessische Lehrer; Neckar-Bischofsheim, 
its Israelitische Gemeindebibliothek; Nuremberg, 
its Bibliothek und Leseverein ; Ratibor, its Israeli- 
tische Bibliothek ; Schwerin, its Gemeindebibliothek ; 
Stettin, its Jildische Bibliothek ; Stuttgart, its Ge- 
meindebibliothek; Parol, its Schul- und Gemeinde- 
bibliothek; and Wiesbaden, its Gemeindebibliothek. 

Few of the seminary libraries mentioned above 
can, however, rival the great collections gathered in 
the large national and public libraries. These ante- 
date the seminary libraries; and, having been the 
first in the field, and commanding larger pecuniary 
resources, have been able to progress much further. 
The leading public collections are here cited. In 
many cases they are dealt with in separate articles 
in this encyclopedia or are referred to in the articles 
treating of the cities in which the collections are 

Austria : Hofbibliothek, Vienna. 

England: British Museum, London (15,000 vols.; 1,400 MSS.); 

Bodleian Library, Oxford (2,900 MSS. ) ; Cambridge University 

France: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris (1,390 MSS.). 

Germany: Kiinigliche Bibliothek, Berlin (5,000 vols.; 300 
MSS.); Kiinigliche Bibliothek, Munich (2,000 MSS.); Stadtbi- 
bliothek and Unlversitiitsbibliotliek, Leipsic; Stadtbibliothek, 
Frankfort-on-the-Main : Stadtbibliothek, Sirasburg. 

Holland : Academy of Sciences, Leyden (15,000 vols.) ; Bibll- 
otheca Rosenthaliana in University Library, Amsterdam. 

Italy : Vatican Libniry, Rome ; Bibliotheca Casanatensis, 
Rome; Public Library, Parma; Bibliotheca Palatina and Bibli- 
otheca Medicio-Laurentiana. Florence; Public Library, Turin; 
Bibliotheca Marciana, Venice; and Bibliotheca Ambrosiana, 
Milan. In addition there are smaller collections in the Biblio- 
teca Vlttorio Emanuele and the Biblioteca Angelica, Rome, and 
In the University Library, Bologna. 

Russia : Friedland Library, in the Asiatic Museum of the Im- 
perial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (10,000 vols.; 300 
MSS.); the University Library and the Synodal Library in the 
same city ; the collection of Karaitica belonging to the Odessa 
Society for History and Antiquities. 

United States : The Jewish collection in the New York Public 
Library (Schiff foundation; about 17,000 vols.), and that in the 
Library of Columbia University (gift of Temple Emanu-El ; 5,000 

Most of the foregoing collections are based upon 
the private libraries of Jewish book-collectors, which 
have either been given to or bought for the institu- 
tions. Thus the British Museum in 1759 acquired 
by gift from Solomon da Costa a collection which 
had originally been gathered during the Common- 
wealth, had fallen to Charles II. at the Restoration, 
and had finally been purchased by the bookseller 
who sold it to Da Costa. The British Museuin se- 
cured also (1848) the printed books in the library of 
H. I. Michael of Hamburg, which had consisted of 
7,000 volumes, including manuscripts. The latter 
came into the possession of the Bodleian Library, 
which had previously (1829) been enriched through 
the purchase of the famous Oppenheimer collection. 
This consisted of 7,000 printed volumes and 1,000 
manuscripts, nearly all Hebraica; it had been 
founded by the court Jew Samuel Oppenheimer of 
Vienna with the aid of his patron, Prince Eugene, 
and had passed into the possession of Samuel's son 
David, then into that of Hirschel Oppenheimer, and 
finally into that of Isaac Cohen of Hamburg. Sim- 
ilarly many other private collections have been ac- 
quired by various public libraries; e.g., Michael Jo- 
seph's went (1849) to Jews' College, London, and 
Halberstam 's to the Judith Montefiore College and 
later to Jews' College. The manuscripts of Joseph 
Almanzi went to the British Museum ; his printed 
books, to Temple Emanu-El, New York, and finally 
to Columbia University in that city. Raphael Eman- 
uel Mendola's books formed the basis of the Con- 
gregational Library at Mantua (1767); while the 
collection of L. Rosenthal of Hanover was presented 
by his son to Amsterdam University Library. A. 
Geiger's library enriched the Lehranstalt in Berlin, 
as did Saraval's and Beer's the sister institution in 
Breslau, and David Kaufmann's large collection, that 
in Budapest. The collection of A. Berliner, con- 
taining many liturgical works, is now the property 
of the Frankfort Stadtbibliothek. The library of 
David Montezinos in Amsterdam, especially rich in 
Judaeo-Spanish productions and in incunabula, is in 
the Portuguese Seminar)'- of that city, while the 
pride of Parma is the collection made bj' the Chris- 
tian scholar G. B. de Rossi. Samuel Adler's library 
was given to the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 




and the collection of M. Sulzberger, so rich in in- 
cunabula, to the Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America, where it has been added to the David Cas- 
sel and Halberstam libraries already in that institu- 
tion. See Book-Collectors. 

There is no information in regard to the classifica- 
tion of Hebrew books in olden times. In the above- 
mentioned genizah fragment of a cata- 

Library logue, published in "J. Q. R." xiii. 52 
Classifica- et seq., the books are classified as fol- 
tion. lows: Bible, Mishnah, Talmud, The- 
ology, Halakah, and Liturgy. Some 
such general division as this must have sufficed. The 
first to attempt a classification upon a scientific ba- 
sis was Sliabbethai Bass (1641-1718) in the introduc- 
tion to his "Sifte Yeshenim." Though this was 
undertaken for bibliographic rather than for library 
purposes, it deserves a place here. He divides He- 
brew literature into two great categories, Biblical 
and Post-Biblical ; and each of these into ten sub- 
divisions as follows: 

Biblical Literature : (1) The Bible. 

(2) Works Explanatory of the Wording of Scripture :— Bible 
Lexicography ; Dictionaries ; Grammars ; Explanations of the 
Text of the fargumim and of the Zohar ; Commentaries on the 
whole Bible; Commentaries on portions of the Bible; Targu- 
mim ; Cabalistic Commentaries on the Torah and on the Books 
of Ruth and Lamentations; Works on the Zohar; Lexicography 
of the Zohar, Kecanati, and Bahya; Philosophical Works Bear- 
ing on the Torah, the Megillot, Psalms, and Job ; Grammar of 
the Torah ; Supercommentaries on Ibn Ezra ; Supercommenta- 
ries on Mizrahi ; Commentaries on Midrash Rabbot; Supercom- 
mentaries on Rashl to the Torah; Commentaries ("peshat") 
and Homiletic Kxplanations ("derashot") arranged according 
to the sections of the Torah ; Commentaries on the Megillot as a 
whole, and upon each Separate Scroll; Commentaries on the 
Haflarot; Commentaries and Homiletic Explanations on the 
Prophets and Hagiographa as a Whole and upon the Individual 
Books; Homilies. 

(3) Books of Prayer and Song for the Synagogue Service (Lit- 
urgy); Other Poetry; Commentaries on the Liturgy ; Commen- 
taries on the Passover Haggadnh ; Books Dealing with the Wri- 
ting of Pentateuchs and Mezuzot; of Legal Documents and 
Bills of Divorce. 

(4> letter- Writing and Rhetoric; Biography and History; 
Geography ; Proverbs and Maxims. 

(.5) Kawwanot in Connection with the Liturgy and Religious 
Ordinances ; Cabalistic Works Not Arranged According to the 
Sections of the Pentateuch. 

(6) Grammatical Works Not Dealing Directly with the Torah ; 
Masorah; Logic. 

(7) Works on Salvation, Redemption, and the Resurrection; 
Books on the Future Life and the Soul. 

(8) Works on Variant Readings, Corrections, and Mistakes in 
the Bible ; Similar Works Dealing with Post-Biblical Literature. 

(9) Ethics, Piety, and Religion. 

(10) Introductions and Reference Works on the Bible. 
Pnnt-Bihlical Literature : 

(1) Mishnah. 

(2) Commentaries on the Mishnah ; Explanations and Novelise 
to the Gemara, Rashl, and the Tosafot ; CommenUiries on " 'En 
Ya'akob," other Haggadot, and the Yerushalml ; Commentaries 
on Pirke Abot. 

(3) .Mathematlca (Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, etc.) ; the 
Calendar ; Astronomy and Astrology ; Works on Philosophy, 
Not Arranged According to the Sections of the Pentateuch; 
Works on Chiromancy, et<'. (nix->3m tt <!3ia-\::'); Works on 
Casting of Lots and Horoscopes; Works on Evil Spirits and 
Necromancy ; Dreams and their Interpretation ; Music ; Works 
on the Other Sciences. 

(4) Theology and the Thirteen Dogmas ; Religious Discussions 
and Polemics. 

(5) Minhaglm (Rituals): Introductions and Works of Refer- 
ence Uegarditig Mlntiagliii and the Gemara. 

(6) Responsa on Ritual Matters; Kesponsa on Philosophical 

(7) Medicine (Human and Animal) ; Lapidaries (o-JDND PlSua 

(8) Works on initial Letters (" Rashe Tebot"), Gematria, and 

(9) Commentaries and Novellne According Either to the Ar- 
rangement of the (iemara or of Alfasi ; Commentaries Accord- 
ing to the Arrangement of the Arba* Turim, Shulhan 'Aruk, 
iiiid " Lebushirn " ; Commentaries According to the Arrange- 
ment of the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides ; Decisions and Ex- 
planations According to the (Sifre) Mizwot ; Decisions and Laws 
According to Various Arrangements ; Decisions and Laws Ac- 
cording to Various Halakot In the Different Portions of the Tu- 

(10) Talmudic Methodology; Works on the Building of the 
Tabernacle, on the Temple, and on its V^essels ; Works Printed 
in the German Language (Judseo-German) ; Pedagogy. 

In modern general libraries the books on Jewish 
subjects are not always shelved apart from the main 
collection, special sections for Jewish subjects being 
provided for merely in the various general sections. 
As a type of classification that adopted by the Bod- 
leian Library may be cited. 

Classificatio.n of Books on Jewish Subjects. 

[The system of spelling in this list is that adopted by the library authorities.] 

Shemitic Mythology and Folk-Tales. 

Comparative Religion— Shemitic— General and Miscellaneous. 

Judautm: Ancient History; Modem History: Ritual; Tal- 
mud; Liturgies and Prayers; Devotional Poems and Hymns ; 
Sermons; General or Mixed Treatises; Encyclopaedias; His- 
tory, Biography, and Methodology of the Subject (Including 
Jewish Study of the Bible); Targums. 

Missions to Jews. 

Jewish Attacks on Christianity. 

Christian Replies tQ Them. 

Foj/nyes and Travels: Syria and Palestine— Ancient and 
Mediajval- General and Miscellaneous; Jerusalem; Modern- 
General and Miscellaneous ; Jerusalem. 

Ethnography : " .\nglo-Israel " ; Shemitic. 

CUmatolouil and Topograph)! of Health, Mortality, and 
Medici)te: Syria and Palestine— Ancient and General; Medi- 
eval and Modem ; Modern Jewish. 

General Descriptiann and Statistics of Manners {Inclu- 
ding General Antiquities) and Characteristirs : Syria and 
Palestine— Ancient ;' Mediseval and Modern ; Modem Jews Out- 
side Palestine. 

Chronology— the Hebrew Calendar. 

History— General Mediaeval; Crusades. 

The Jews— In Palestine and General: History and Biog- 
raphy of the Study ; General Materials ; General Histories- 
Ancient Writers (Josephus, etc.) ; Modern Writers ; to the 
Entry into Canaan ; to the Secession of I.srael ; Kingdom of 
Judah and Judah ± Israel ; Kingdom of Israel ; Later Samaritan 
History; Captivity to the Rise of the Maccabees; Maccabees to 
A.D. 13.5; Since. 

The Jews in Dispersion : History and Biography of the Study 
(General and Special); General Materials and Histories; Asia 
E. of the Indies; AsiaW. of the Indies; Africa; Spain (and 
Spain ± Portugal) ; Portugal ; Italy ; France and Belgium ; 
Switzerland; Austria-Hungary; Balkan Peninsula and Greece ; 
Slavonic Countries; Scandinavian Countries; Germany; Hol- 
land; Unit«d Kingdom; America; Australasia; Works on Their 
Re-Migration to Palestine. 

Wrilind and llluminatimi: Moabite; Old Israelite; Samar- 
itan ; Aramean and Palmyrene, etc., and Rabbinical Hebrew. 

BihUograpliy: Bibliographies of Special Literatures (MSS. as 
well as printed books)— Hebrew ; Bibliographies of Special Sub- 
jects— History— the Jews; Catalogues and Histories of Libraries 
In Syria and Palestine : Law, Jewish. 

Miscellaneous Bioijraphi.i: Jews— Ancient ; Mediaeval and 
Modern (general and special). 

Genealogii and Monuments: Ancient— Jewish. 

History, Tiioorapliy, and Description of General Educa- 
tion: Ancient Jewish ; Modern Jewish (general). 

Philosophy in General— History, Biography, and Criti- 
cism : Kabala. 

Philosophy in General— Works: Kabalistlc. 

Proverbs: Shemitic. 

The other great English library, that of the Brit- 
ish Museum, has a special classification for its Jewish 
printed books, elaborated by Zedner ; they are divided 
into fifteen regular sections, with three extra ones 




dealing witli works not considered directl}' a part of 
Hebrew literature, as follows: 

(1) Bibles; (~) foinmentaries on Bible; (3) Talmud; (4) 
Corniiientjiries (Ui Taliiiud; (5) Codes of Law; (6) Decisions; 
(7) Mldrasli ; (8) Cal)alii ; (9) Sermons; (10) Liturgies; (11) 
Divine Philosophy: (1»') Scientific Works; (i:j) (irammars ; 
Dictionaries; (14) History; (Jecgraphy; (15) Poetry; Criticism. 

In addition : (1) Translations of Post-Biblical Hebrew Works : 
(2) Works in Arabic, Spanish, (Jennan, etc., in Hebrew Charac- 
ters; (:t) Bibliography. 

The Vienna Kaiserliche Ilofbibliothek has its 
manuscripts divided into the following categories: 

(1) Bible Editions; (:.') Masorah ; (:i) Targumim ; (4) Bible 
Exegesis; (.'>) Midrash ; (<>) Talmud; (7) Decisions; (8) Legal 
Literature; (9) Hesponsa ; (10) Liturgy; (11) Religious Philos- 
ophy; (13) Ethics; (i;i) Cabala; (14) Grammar; (15) Lexi- 
cography; (16) Rhetoric; (17) Aristotelian Philosophy; (18) 
Platonic Philosophy; (19) Ghazali's Philosophy; (20) History 
of Hai ibn Yukthan ; (21) Medicine; (22) Astronomy; (23) 

Some of the public libraries have, however, a spe- 
cial division for Hebraica and Judaica. As speci- 
mens, the classifications used in the Frankfort Stadt- 
bibliothek and in tlie Hebrew Union 
Frankfort College at Cincinnati may be cited. 
Scheme. In the following plan of the tirst- 
nanied library, where the rubrics are 
quite general, it will be seen that a special rubric is 
devoted to the history of the Jews of Frankfort. 

(1) Hebrew and Jewish Journals; (2) Hebrew Philology 
(General Works; Lexica; Grammars); (3) Hebrew Bibli- 
ography and History of Literature; (4) Old Testament in He- 
brew; (5) Anonymous Hebrew Works; (6) Hebrew Literature 
("Auctores Hebraici Nominatl"); (7) Judaeo-German Litera- 
ture; (8) Jewish Synagogal Music; (9) Secular Music of the 
Jews ; (10) Jewish Literature and History in Other Languages 
than Hebrew; (11) Literature and History of the Frankfort 

The scheme used by the Hebrew Union College 
contains a special rubric for manuscripts and rare edi- 
tions (No. xxiv.), and makes provision 
Hebrew also for a certain number of non-Jew- 
TJnion ish books which find their way by 
College, gift into the collection. The Roman 
numerals represent the alcoves into 
which tlie collection is divided. 

I. Bibles in Various Languages ; Koran ; Zendavesta, etc.; II. 
Exegetics and Biblical History; III. Talmud; IV. Casuistics; 
V. Responses and Calendars; VI. Commentaries and Critical 
Works on the Talmud ; VII. Religious History; Theology; Re- 
ligious Philosophy: Ethics, etc.; VIII. Periodicals; IX. Phi- 
lology; Literature; School- Books; X. Pre-Talmudic Literature ; 
XI. Mldrashira; Homiletics; Sermons; Zohar, etc.; XII. Spe- 
cial History; Philosophy of History; Biography; Travels; 
XIII. Universal, Oriental, Jewish, Grecian, Roman, and French 
History; XIV. Lexicography; XV. Philosophy; Logic; Polit- 
ical Economy; Education; XVI. Catalogues and Works on Bi- 
ography; XVII. Law: XVIII. Mathematics; Natural Sciences; 
Music; XIX. Fiction; XX. Liturgy; Prayer-Books ; XXI. Orl- 
entalia; X.XII. Government and State Reports; XXIII. Reports 
of Colleges and Schools; Newspaper Almanacs ; XXIV. Manu- 
scripts and Rare Editions ; XXV. Literature. 

A peculiar .system of designating the various 

classes of books is followed by the Landesrabbiner- 

schule in Budapest. The signatures (A, B, Bi, etc.) 

are taken from the actual word designation of each 

class, as follows: 

(1) A = Agada (or Haggadah); (2) B = Bible; (3) Bi = Bib- 
liography; (4) C = Codices (i.e., of the Talmudic Literature): 
(5) Chr - Christian Literature ; (6) D == " Decisoren " {i.e.. 
Codes); (7) Di = "Diarien" (i.e.. Newspapers, Journals, and 
Collected Works in Non-Hebrew Tongues) ; (8) DI = " Diarien " 
(i.e.. Newspapers, Journals, and Collected Works in Hebrew); 
(9) E= Exegesis; (10) G = Grammar of Hebrew and Aramaic 

Languages; (11) H = Homiletical Literature in Hebrew; (12) 
HI = Historical Literature in Hebrew ; (13) Ht = Historical Lit- 
erature of the Jews, General and Special ; Biographies in non- 
Hebrew Languages, Arranged According to Special Groups; 
(14) I = "Isagogik" {i.e.. Introductions); (15) L = Liturgy; 
(16) Lh = Hebrew, Aramaic, and Talmudic Lexicography ; (17) 
Le = General Lexicography; (18) Nov — Talmudic Novellae; 
(19) Nh = Neo-Hebraic Literature; (20) O = Orieutalia ; (21) 
p = Jewish Religious Philosophy; (22) Pr = " Predigt Litera- 
tur" (i.e.. Sermons); (23) R = Talmudic Re.sponsa; (24) T = Tal- 
mud, Mishnah, and Introductions to the Same. 

Tliere is also a special signature, LG, for German 
and other literature, the books being arranged ac- 
cording to certain groups. Furthermore, the library 
of Samuel Low Brill, presented to tlie seminary by 
the Jewish community of Pesth in 1897, is kept sepa- 
rate from the other books and is arranged according 
to the size of the books (duodecimo, quarto, octavo, 
etc.) and the alphabetical order of the authors' 
names. Tliis sj'stem, which can be seen also in the 
catalogues of the Berlin Royal Library, is said to 
have peculiar advantages. 

The most complete classification of works in a 
Jewish collection is, however, the following, made 
for the New York Public Library by A. S. Freidus, 
and reproduced by permission of the director. Dr. 
John S. Billings. 

The Jewish Collection— General Divisions. 

[The system of spelliug in this list is that adopted by the library authoritlea.] 

Manuscripts; Book Rarities; Works of Reference; Bibli- 
ography; Literary History ; General Works ; Hebrew Language 
and Aramaic ; Hebrew Bible ; Archaeology ; Pre-Talmudical 
Literature and Sects; Christianity; Talmudical Literature; 
Halacha; The Ritual; Homiletical Literature; Ethics: Doc- 
trinal Theology; Post-Talmudical Schisms and Dissensions; 
Philosophy ; Kabbala and Chasidism ; Folk-Lore ; Belles-Lettres ; 
Dialects and Their Literatures, and Languages ; Secular Sci- 
ences; Geography, General History, and Biography; Jewish 
History ; The Jewish Race Ethnologlcally and Sociologically ; 
Jews and Gentiles. 

Bibliography. Literary History. 
Periodicals ; Paleography (see also Regulations for Scribes) ; Cata- 
logues of Manuscripts; History of Printing; Catalogues of Book- 
sellers; Catalogues of Private Libraries; Public Libraries; 
Catalogues of Public Libraries: Bibliographies: Countries, Au- 
thors (see also Biography). Subjects ; Literary History : Special 
Subjects, Modern, Judaso-German, Relation of Jewish Litera- 
ture to Other Literatures. 

General Works. 
Periodicals In Hebrew ; in Judaeo-German (see also Jiidee»-Ger- 
man Literary Periodicals) ; in German ; In English (American); In 
English (British); in French; in Other Languages; In Rus- 
sian ; Societies' Publications in Hebrew ; Societies' Publications 
In Modern Languages; Collections (Polyglot); Collections In 
Hebrew (see also Literary Collections) -, Collected Works of Individ- 
ual Authors in Hebrew (see also Collected Literary Works); Collec- 
tions in Judaeo-German (see also JudKO-German Literary Collections); 

Collections in Latin ; Collections in German ; Collections in 
English ; Collections in Other Languages ; Collections In Rus- 
sian ; Other (ieneral Works : Cyclopedias (see also Diciiaoaries of 

the Bible ; Talmudical Works of Reference). 

Hebrew Language. Aramaic 
Biblical: General Works; Elementary Readers; Chrestoma- 

thies (see also Elementary O. T. Histories; C.'Jtechlsins ; Manuals of Judaism); 
Grammars (in Hebrew; see also Grammatical Not.fS on the Liturgies); 

Grammars (in Other Languages) : Orthography (Including Al- 
phabet, Vowel-Points. Accents) (we also Masora). Parts oi Speech, 
Syntax, Rhetoric and Prosody (see also Poetry of the Hebrew nibie) ; Dic- 
tionaries (see also Concordances) ; Nauies ; Synonyms ; Miscellane- 
ous. Pnst-Bihlical : Chrestomathies ; Grammar; Diction- 
aries; Foreign Terms (we also Dialects) ; Abbreviations. Modern : 

Letter-Writers (see also I.egal Forms). Aramaic (see also Targums): 

Chrestomathies ; Grammar. 

Hebrew Bible. 
General Works; Criticism; Introductions; Dictionaries; 
Helps ; Poetry (see also Prosody) ; Prophecy ; Whole Hebrew BI- 




bles ; Parts ; Selections ; Concordances ; Masora (see also Grammar); 
Textual Criticism, Various Readings; Targums (see also Aramaic) ; 
Other Versions ; Exegetlcs (see also General Works on Homiietics) ; Col- 
lected Commentaries; Rashi ; Ibn Ezra; Other Hebrew Com- 
mentaries; Commentaries in Modem Languages; Collective 
Biography ; Individual Biography ; Old Testament History (only 

elementary works or sui-h as have chiefly an eiegetical interest ro here ; for works 
of historical interest see E'entateuchal Traditions; Entire O. T. Period; see also 
Fiction Relating to Biblical Times). 


(see also Calendar; Education; Geography [Biblical ami Talnuidical]; Medicine 
Among the Jews ; Palestine ; Ten Tribes ; Woman.) 

Periodicals, Societies, Collections ; General Works ; Inscrip- 
tions (see also Epitaphs) ; Numlsmatics ; Metrology : Social and Eco- 
nomic Conditions; Slavery; Government (see also jurisprudence); 

Sacred Antiquities (see also Ancient Judaism; Mythology; Idolatry of the 
Ancient Hebrews; Orach Chayim Laws; Prophecy; The Ritual): Festivals, 

Socriflces, Priesthood, Temples; Art; Music; Costumes; Other 
Special Subjects. 

pre-Talmudical Literature and Sects. 

(See also History— Return from Rabylon to Completion of Talmud.) 

Oeneral Worlts: Literature (see also Targums) ; Apocrypha; Ec- 
cleslasticus. Other Books ; Pseudeplgrapha ; Philo Judteus (see 
also Aieiandrian School of Philosophy) ; Other Hellenistic Literature 

(see also Joaephus). ScctS (see also Post-Talmudlcal Schisms and Dissensions; 
Sabbathai Zebi ; Chasidism) : Samaritans (see also Samaritan Text of the 

Bible ; Samariun Targum) ; Sadducecs, Pharisees, EsseuBS, Thera- 



Oeneral Works (see also The Messiah). Histnri CO- Literary Sub- 
jects: Lives of Jesus (Jewish); Lives of Jesus (Christian) 

(for Jewish Contemporary History see Return from Babylon to the Close of the 

Taimudi; New Testament; New Testament Parts; New Testa- 
ment and Jewish Literature ; The Fathers and Jewish Litera- 
ture ; Synagogue and Church. Thenlogico-Controversial Sub- 
jects; Missionary Periodicals; Missionary Societies; Christian 
Doctrine ; Christian Liturgies ; Jews in Christian Theology ; 

Restoration of the Jews (.see also Restoration of the Jews [in Jewish The- 
ology] ; Zionism) ; Converslou of the Jews ; Conversion of the Jews, 
Works Against ; Converted Jews (Missionaries); Converted Jews 
(Missionaries, Individual); Miscellaneous Missionary Writings; 
Evidences of Christianity ; Christian Polemics (see also Unfavorable 

Criticism of the Oral Tradition); JeWlsb ApOlOgCtlCS and PolemJCS (see 
also Apologies of the Jews [agaiust Anti-Semites] ; Apologies of the Oral Tradi- 
tion ; The Messiah) ; Judaism and Christianity (see also Jews and Gentiles ; 
Judaism and Other Religions). 

Talmudical Literature. 
The Oral Tradition : Unfavorable Criticism (see also Anti-s«mitic 

WrillngB ; Gentiles in Jewish Law and Literature ; Christian Polemics), ApolO- 

gles, Introductions, Essays, Methodology, Helps, Works of 

Reference (see also Dictionaries of Poet-Biblical Hebrew ; Indexes to the 

Agada), Collective Biography, Individual Biography, History 

(•ee also History ; Return from Babylon to the Close of the Talmud) 1 Mlshua 

(see also Ahoth); Commentaries ; Literature of the Mishna Period ; 
Jerusalem Talmud; Babylonian Talmud: Parts, Minor Trea- 
tises, Translations, Selections (see also Agada), Textual Criti- 
cism, Commentaries ; Pllpul. 


General Works ; The 613 Precepts ; Codes of Law (to Maimon- 
Ides) ; Maimonldes; Jacob ben Asher (and other writers before 
Caro) ; Joseph Caro ; Later Works ; Codes of Special Laws : 
Orach Chaylm Laws (»ee ai.*. The Uitu«i ; Sacred Aniiquities), Special 
Laws, Yoreh Deah Laws, Dietary Laws (for modern works «ee Diet- 
ary I.a«B, a.t'. Jewish Race, Etbnologiralty and Sociologically), Puriflca" 
tlon (see also Coden in'O-German), Regulations fOr ScrlbCS (see also 
Maaaechelh Soferim. under Minor Treatises of the Talmud ; Paleography), Other 
Special Laws ; Ehen ha-Ezer Laws (for modem works see Special Laws) : 
Divorce ; ChOShen ha-Mlshpat Laws (see also Government of the Ancient 

Hebrews; Nonj.-wi«h Law): Modem Works, Special Laws (see also 

Slavery), Legal FormS (see also Letter-Writers) I CodeS In JUdOSO-Gcr- 

man and Judspo-Spanlsh ; Decisions of Several Authors ; Deci- 
sions of Individual Authors. 

The Ritual. 

(S«e alio Orach Chaylm Laws ; Sacred Antiquities.) 

General Works; Special CU9tf)ras; Minhaglm (see also Supersti- 
tions); Synagogue (see also Ecclesiastical Polity; Synagogue and Church); 

Reading of the Law. Liturgies: Works on the Liturgy; Cf)l- 
lectlons of Liturgies ; Dally Prayers (««e also christian Liturgies ; Kara 
ite Liturgies) : Commentaries and Grammatical Notes, Rite of Re- 
formed Jews ; Saturday Pravers ; Festival Prayers : Hagadah : 
Fastday Prayers: Lamentations; Benedictions; Occasional 
Prayers : Prayers for the Sick and the Dead (»ee also Foik-Medicine) ; 

Miscellaneous ; Devotionals ; Meditations ; Private Hymnals ; 
Readings ; Synagogue Music. 


(See also A;;a(la.) 

General Works (see also Exegetics). MidrasJi ini : Collections of 
Midrashim ; Midrash Raboth ; Other Midrashim to Biblical 

Books; Other Midrashim (for Halachlc Midiasiilm see Literature of the 
Mishna Period ; for Kabbalistic Midrashim see Early Kabbalistic Literature) ; 

Yalkutlm. Sermons: Sermons in Hebrew; Judaeo-German ; 
German; English; French; Italian; Other Languages; Slavic; 
Sabbath Sermons ; Festival Sermons ; Conflrmation Sermons ; 
Marriage Sermons ; Funeral Sermons ; Sermons on Other Occa- 
sions ; Political and Patriotic. 


Works on Jewish Ethics; AbOth («ee also Minor Treatises of the Tal- 
mud): Translations, Commentaries; Miscellaneous Writers: 
Judaeo-German Writers ; Judaeo-Spanish Writers ; Non-Jewish 

Writers; Special Subjects (see also charity ; Gentiles in Jewish Law); 
Etiquette (see also Massecheth Derech Erez [Minor Treatises of the Talmud]) ; 

Poetical Works; Maxims (see also Proverbs) ; Ethical Wills; Asceti- 
cism ; Hortatory Theology. 

Doctrinal Theology. 

General Works;* Ancient Judaism (see also Mythology; id.datry 

[of the Ancient Hebrews] ; Sacred Antiquities) ; Modem JudalSHl : WorkS 

in Modern Languages (see also Reformed Judaism); Manuals; Cate- 
chisms; Special Subjects: ESChatOlOgy (see also Sadducees; Phari- 
sees). Restoration of the Jews (see also Palestme ; Restoration of the Jews 
[in Christian Theology] ; Zionism), The MCSSiah (.see also Christianity) ; Ju- 
daism and Other Religions (see also Judaism and Clirlstlanitv ; Religions): 

Proselytism, Proselytes. 

Post-Talmudical Schisms and Dissensions. 

General Works (see also Pre-Taimudicai Sects) ; Works on the Kara- 
ites ; Karaite Literature : Liturgies ; Minor Sects ; Reformed 

Judaism (see also Assimilation ; Modern Jewish History) : Works Against 

Reform, Works for Reform, Special Subjects (see also Rite of Re- 
formed Jews) ; Dialogues, Irenlcs. 


(Works for and against the study of Philosophy go here.) 

Terminology ; Logic ; General Works ; Non-Jewish Philos- 
ophers; Alexandrian School (see also pniio judieus); Saadiah ; Ga- 
blrol; Judah ha-Levi ; Malmonides ; Other Philosophers : Spino- 
za ; Modem Works ; Psychology (for Modern Psychology see Psychol- 
ogy, s.v. Secular Sciences) ; Other Special Subjects. 

Kabbala. Chasidism. 

(PoUmlcs against the Kabbala and works in its defense go here.) 

General Works ; Collections ; Sefer Yezirah ; Other Early 
Literature; Zohar; Later Literature; Miscellaneous (see also 
Transmigration) ; Sabbathai Zebl ; Eybschuetz-Emden Controversy ; 
Frank. Chaxidism : Chasidaic Works ; Chasidaic Legends. 


General Works (see also Prophec>); Religions (except Judaism 
and Christianity) (.see also Judaism and other Religions) ; Mythology, 
Idolatry (of the Ancient Hebrews) ; Agada (see also Homiieticai 

Literature): ludexes (see also Talmudical Works of Reference), Selections 

(see also Seiectiima from the Talmud), Commentaries ; Superstitions 
(see also Minhaglm) ; Transmigration, Magic, Folk-Medicine (see 

also Prayers for the Sick), Other Special Subjects: Customs (see also 
Etiquette ; MInhagim : Orach Chavlm Laws ; Tiie Ritual) ; Games ; Legends 
(see also The Bloo<l Accusation ; Chasadaic Legends) : Wandering JCW ; TaleS 
(see also Fiction); Fahles ; PrOVCrbS (see also Maxims); Riddles; 

Other Popular Literature. 

(See also Dialects and Their Literattires.) 

Hebrew: General works (see also History of Modem Literature); Col- 
lections; Selections («ee also General CoIImiIous); Collected Works of 

Individual Authors (see also Collected Works of a General Character); 
Poetry (aee also Ethical poetry; Liturgies; Poetry of the Hebrew Bible: Pros- 
ody): Collections, Individual Mediaeval Authors. Individual 
Modem Authors; Drama; Fiction; Humor and Satire ; Parody; 
Miscellany. Modern Lnnoua{ies : General Works (»ee also Ami. 

Semitic Belles Letlrcs; Delineation of Ihe Jew In Liternlure) ; Poetry ; Drama ; 

Fiction Relating to Biblical Times ; Fiction Relating to Modem 
Times: Humor and Satire ; Miscellany. 

DIALECTS and Their Literatures. Languages. 

(See Aramaic ; Foreign Terms Used In Pn«t-Biblical Hebrew.) 

Reserved for Dialects as yet Unrepresented In the Collection ; 
J udaeo- French ; Judaeo-Spanish (»ee also r.-des in judKo-Spanish) ; Ju- 




dlPl>(ieniian (fiT BibliourHphv ■~r<- Bililinurfiiihy, Sol.jei't«; f^T I.U>-rary His- 
tory :in<l Crilitism Sff Hil.licijrruiln l.itviviry Histiiry, Juila-o-Germaii) : 

DU'tiunaries, Literary Periodicals (s« aiM) Pr 

riwiiicils), Literary Colleotions (walw. Grner:ilJuris.f>.Ger?ii«n CoUwtions). 

Poetry (Collections), Poetry (Individual Authors), Fables, 
Drama, Stage, Fiction, Humor and Satire, Parodies, Miscellanies 

(are also Codes in Jii.itpo-Gcniian ; Drvotionals for Women , JuiJs-oGermaii Eth- 
ical Writers). 


Russian: English. 

Skcular Sciences. 

(Works on the lultivation of the sciences aniont; llie Jews go here.) 

General Works; Mathematics Amone the Jews; Mathemat- 
ical Works: Arithmetic; Other Mathematical Works; Astron- 
omy (for Astrology see umirr Kolk-Lore : Superstitions, Other Special SulijeiLs) ; 

Works on the Calendar ; Calendars ; Natural Science ; Natural 
History : Medicine Among the Jews : Physicians ; Medical Works 

(see also Folk-Medicine) ; Hygiene ; Psychology (for Metaphysical J'-v, l.ol- 
ogy see Philosophy : Psychoioiry) ; Music; Fine Arts; Useful Arts: 
Cookery, Book-Keeping, Commerce ; Sociology and Economics ; 

Socialism ; Government; Law. (other non-Jewish subjects are : Chris- 
tianity, Games; GeoL'raphv ; Historv ; Jewish Literature and Other Literatures; 
Judaism and Other Relitiona ; Lan;:uat;es ; Logic; Mythology ; Philosophy; Re- 
ligions ; Travels; Wandering Jew.) 

Geography. General History. Biography. 
Gengraphy: Biblical and Talmudical Geography; Palestine 

(see also Archeology ; Jews in the Orient ; Restoration of the Jews [<n Christian 
Theology] ; Restoration of the Jews [in Jewish Theology] ; Zionism) ; Travels. 

General Historu: Special Countries ; America; United States. 
Non-Jewish Biography: Non-Jewish Biography (Individual). 
Jcwislt Bingraphii : Epitaphs (see also inscriptions) ; Genealogy; 

Biographical Material (see also Bibliographies of Authors; Ethical Wills; 
Funeral Sermons; Legen.i^ ; Legends of Chasidim ; Names); COUectiVe Biog- 
raphy (see also Converted Jews; O. T. Biography: Physicians; Talmudical 

Biography ; Woman) ; Collcctions of Portraits ; Individual Portraits ; 

Individual Biography (see also Eybschueti-Emden Controversy ; Frank ; 
Individual Converted Jews; Individual O. T. Biography ; Individual Talmudists ; 
Lives of Jesus ; Prosel\tes; Sabbathai Zebi). 

JEWISH History. 
Periodicals; Societies; Collections; Historical Miscellanies 

(see also Archft-ology ; Blood Accusation ; Eiiitaphs ; Karaism ; Palestine ; Travels); 

Josephus : Chronicles ; (Jeneral Jewish History. 
division by periods. 
Pentateuchal Traditions ; Entire O. T. Period (for elementary 

worlissee (.Mil Test. Histi'ry, s.r. Hebrew Bible; see also Ancient Judaism; O. T. 
Biography; Prophecy : Ten ; UetUm from Br.bylon tO the CIOSC 
of the Talmud (see also Pre-Talniudlcal Literature and Sects; Talmudical Biog- 
raphy and History) ; Middle Agcs to the Latter Half of the 18th Cen- 
tury (see also Sabbathai Zebi; Evbsi-huetz-Emden Controversy) ; Modem (see 
also Chasidisni ; Ernancipatiou : Reformed Judaism ; Zionism). 


(See also Bibliographies of Countries ; Epitaphs.) 

Orient (see also p.iiestine) ; Balkan Peninsula ; Italy ; Spain and 

Portugal (see also Judseo-Spanish); France (see also Judeeo-French) ; Great 

Britain ; Minor European Countries : Germany ; Austria-Hun- 
gary; Poland; Russia; America; United States and Canada; 
Other Countries. 

The Jewish Race Ethnolouically and Sociologically. 
General Works; Anthropology; Ethnology (see also Assimilation) ; 

Ten Tribes (see also History of the O. T. Period) ; CirCUmcisiOn (for the 
Halacha of this subject see Other Special Laws, sv. Halacha ; for the Liturgies 
See under Occasional Pi avers) ; Dietary LaWS (for the Halacha of this subject 
see under Halacha); Woman (see also Codes in Judeeo-German ; Devotionals 
for Women; Eben lia-Ezer Laws; Purification); Statistics; OCCUpatiOnS ; 
Trades; Commerce; Agriculture (see also social and Economic Con- 
ditions of the Ancient Hebrews) ; Trade Unlons (see also Socialism) ; Mu- 
tual Aid Associations; Communal Organization (see also Syna- 

goL'ue) ; Charity ; Crime ; Education (see also Hebrew Readers ; Letter- 
Writers; Post-Biblical Hebrew Readers; Eiementarv O. T. Histories; Elementary 
Works on Judaism) : EdUCational Institutions (see also Libraries). 

Jews and Gentiles. 

(Works of this class relating to the Jews of a particular country go with the his- 
tory of the Jews In that country, an exception being made in the 7th [Blood Accu- 
sation] and last two sections in this division, which take all works relating to those 

General Works ; Delineation of the Jew in Literature and 

Art (see also Belles-Lettres ; Jews in Christian Theology ; Wandering Jew) ; 

Works on Anti-Semitism ; Anti-Semitic Writings (see also Unfavora- 
bie Criticism of the Oral Tradition) ; Anti-Semitic Belles- Lettres ; Gen- 
tiles in Jewish Law and Literature ; The Blood Accusation ; 

Apologetic Writings (see also Apolo^-etlcs of Judaism Against Christianity ; 

Apologies of the Oral Tradition) ; The Jewish Question : Various Solu- 
tions, Toleration, Emancipation (see also Modem Jewish History), 

Assimilation and Mixed Marriages (see aisf> Ethnology ; Reformed Juda- 

ism), Zionism (see also Jews in the Orient ; Palestine ; Restoration of the Jews 
[in Christian Theology] ; Restoration of the Jews [in Jewish Theology]). 

Bibliography: Steinschneider, VorJcmuigoi liber die Kunde 
Hehrai.-rlur Hnndschriflciu in Beiliefte znin Centralblatt 
fllr Iiil)li(>t)ieltsu-escn, vii., Leipsic, 1897 ; Blau, St^idien zun\ 
Altlubrdischot Buchwcsen, Budapest, 1902; Schwab, The 
Library of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, in Jewish 
Comment, June, 1904. 


LIBYA : District in tin- north of Africa. The 
name "Lil)ya" was often used by the ancients, 
sometimes to designate the whole of northern 
Africa (with tlie exception of Egypt), sometimes to 
denote a single province west of Egypt. Accord- 
ing to Josephus (" Ant." i. 6, § 2), Libya was founded 
by Phut (comp. Gen. .\. 6), and the eponymous hero 
Libj's was a son of Mesraios, i.e., of Egypt. An- 
other old tradition says that Eofres {i.e., Epher; 
Gen. XXV. 4) conquered Lil)ya and that the land was 
called "Africa "after him (Josejihus, I.e. i. 15; comp. 
Eusebius, "Prjeparatio Evangelica," i.x. 20, § 2; 
"Chronicon Paschale," i. 60; Suidas, s.r. 'A<ppoi; 
"Yuhasin," ed. London, p. 233). 

The Biblical data are more historical. Shishak 
(Shoshank), whose name is claimed to be Libyan, 
had Libyansin his army (A. V. "Lubims,"II Chron. 
xii. 3); King Asa defeated a whole army of Cush- 
ites and Libyans (ib. xvi. 8; comp. .\iv. 11); and the 
celebrated Egyptian Thebes also had Libyans in its 
pay (Nahum iii. 9). In all these passages the Scp- 
tuagint has Ailiveg. In Dan. xi. 43, Egyptians, 
Libyans, and Cushites appear together. 

In the Greco-TJoman period Libya coincided ap- 
proximately with C^'rene and the territory belong- 
ing to it. Jews lived there ("Ant." xvi. 6, § 1); 
and Augustus granted them certain privileges 
through Flavins, the governor of the province {ib. 
§ 5). The Christian apostles also prepared them- 
selves to extend their mission into Libya (Acts ii. 
10). The great Jewish war of the year 70 had its 
aftermath in Libya: and the rebellions Jonathan 
was denounced to the governor of the Libyan Pen- 
tapolis (Josephus, "B. J." vii. 11, i^ ]). The Jews 
of Libya also took part in the rebellion under Trajan 
and Hadrian (see Cvrene). 

Modern investigation is inclined to connect Leha- 
bim {Gen. x. 13; I Chron. i. 11) with the Libyans, 
as did the Jerusalem Targum in rendering it by the 
Greek AifSvKoi. Many proselytes came from Libj'a 
(Yer. Shab. 7b; Yer. Kil. 3lc); hence Judaism must 
have carried on its propaganda there. The Rabbis 
mention beans (Low, " AramSische Pflanzennamen," 
p. 234) and asses from Libya (Bek. 5b; Shab. 51b). 

The once flourishing province corresponds to the 

present Barka, which, under Islamic dominion, has 

become a desert. 

Bibliography: Knobel, DieVollicrtafel der Gvnef>i^, pp. 283, 
29.i-305, Giessen.iaW; Boettger, Tonographii<<rr inches 
Lexicon zu den Schriften drs Flavins Jo^ephvs, p. 163; 
Kohut, Arrich Completum, v. 5. 
G. S. Kr. 

lilCHTENBERG, CORNEL : Hungarian au- 
rist ; born in 1848 at Szegedin ; studied at Budapest 
and Vienna (M.D. 1873). On receiving his degree 
he returned to Budapest, where lie established him- 
self at the unive-sity as docent in diseases of the 
ear (1883). The same year he was one of the found- 




ers of the polyclinic, of which institution he was 
appointed director in 1891. In recognition of his 
services he was decorated in 1895 with the "Ritter- 
Kreuz " of the Order of Francis Joseph. 

Lichtenberg is the author of: "Az Ideges Siiket- 
seg " (Budapest, 1879), on nervous deafness; " Ueber 
Subjective Gehorsempfindungen " {ib. 1882); and 
" Ein FremdkOrper im Ohre mit Cerebralen Erschein- 
ungen " {ib. 1883). 

Bibliography: Pallm Lex.x SzinnjeU Magyar Irok Elete. 
s. L. V. 

born at San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 22, 1861. He 
studied under Beaujardin, and made his first appear- 
ance in concert when eight years of age. At twelve 
be became a pupil of Wieniawski, whom he accom- 
panied on a tour through the United States. Some 
time afterward he spent six months in Paris under 
Lambert, and then rejoined Wieniawski at Brussels, 
where he studied unremittingly for three years. 
After winning the prize at the national "concours" 
held at Brussels, he made a successful tour through 
Holland. Upon his return to America he played 
with Theodor Thomas' orchestra in New York, and 
gave a number of recitals in other cities. After 
spending three years more in Europe Lichtenberg 
gave another series of concerts in America, after 
which he settled for some time in Boston, Mass., as 
a member of the Symphony Society. He next went 
to New York city to take charge of the department 
of violin at the National Conservatory. His fine 
technique and beautiful tone entitle him to high rank 
among violinists. 

Bibliography: Baker, Biographical Diclionary of Musi- 
A. J. So. 


Polish mathematician and author; born at Lublin 
1811; died at Warsaw March 22, 1887. He was a 
descendant of Moses Isserles, and, true to the fam- 
ily tradition, showed early ability as a Talmudic 
scholar. He later became familiar with Latin, Ger- 
man, French, and Polish, and made a special study 
of philosophy and mathematics. 

In the Ilebrew periodical "Ha-Shahar," vol. iii. 
et seq., there appeared a series of Hebrew articles 
by Lichtenfeld which attracted attention. His rep- 
utation was enhanced by his series of articles, in the 
Polish periodical "Izraelita," on Jewish mathema- 
ticians. Lichtenfeld is known also by his polemics 
with Slonimski on mathematical subjects. 

Lichtenfeld was theauthor of : " Yedi'ot ha-Shi'u- 
rim" (Warsaw, 186.5); "Zofnat Pa'neah " {ib. 1874). 
a critical review of S. Slonimski's " Yesode Hokmat 
haShi'ur"; "Tosefot" {ib. 1875), polemic against S. 
Slonimski ; " Kolien Lflo Elohim " (ib. 1876), mathe- 
matical criticisms; "Sippurim be-Shir," etc. {ib. 
1877), a collection of poems and rimed prose by 
himself and by his son-inlaw Leon Peretz. 

Bibliography: Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, 11. 3.56; Zeltlln, 
BiM. Poat-Mendels. p. 209. 
H. R. J G. L. 

lish and Talmudist; bom at Lublin, Rus- 
sian Poland, July 15, 1787; died at Jan. 17, 

1870. He was noted as well for his charities, espe- 
ciallj' in assisting poor students, as for his Biblical 
and Talmudic scholarship. He was one of the fouud- 
eis of the public school for Jewish children at 
Odessa. He contributed a number of articles on 
Biblical and Talmudic subjects to "Ha-Meliz," 
"Ha-Karmel," and "Ha-Maggid," and wrote "Mi- 
Mohorat ha-Sliabbat " (Vienna, 1860), on Pentecost, 
directed against the Karaites. 

Bibliography: Ha-Meliz, 1870, p. 19; Gottlober, in Ha-Maa- 
gid, 18«4, p. 212; Zedner, Cat. Hehr. Book^Brit. Mun. p. i;W. 
n. R. A. S. W. 

LICHTENSTADT (LASH, from the Hebrew 
abbreviation ^'p), SIMEON BEN JUDAH: 

Bohemian Talmudist; lived at Prague in the first 
half of the nineteenth century. He was the author 
of "Shesh ha-Ma'arakah," a commentary on the six 
Mishnaic orders, each order having a .separate title 
as follows: (1) "Derek Emunah " (Presbmg, 1840); 
(2) "Dabar be-'Itto " («6. 1841); (3) "Hosen Rah" 
{ib. 1843), preceded by a sernion delivered at Prague 
on the first of the Penitential Days, 1836; (4) 
"Ma'yan ha-Yeshu'ah " (ib. 1846); (5) "Hokmat 
Adam " (Prague, 1852). 

Bibliography : Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 612, No. 1:M) ; 
Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. 11. 245, s.v. Lichtenstadt. 
8. 8. M. Sei,. 

LICHTENSTEIN, HILLEL : Hungarian rab- 
bi; born at Vecs 1815; died at Kolomea, Galicia, 
May 18, 1891. After studying at the yeshibah of 
Moses Sofer he married, in 1837, the daughter of a 
well-to^do resident of Galantha, where he remained 
until 1850, when he was elected rabbi of Margarethen 
(Szent Margit). In 1854 he was elected rabbi of 
Klausenburg, but the opposition of the district rabbi, 
Abraham Friedmann, made it impossible for him to 
enter upon tiic duties of the office ; finally he was 
expelled from Klausenburg by the authorities. Hav- 
ing lived for some time at Grosswardein, he was re- 
called to Margarethen, where he remained until 
about 1865, when he was called to Szikszo. 
Thence he went, in 1867, to Kolomea, where he re- 
mained until his death. Lichtenstein was the out- 
spoken leader of the Orthodox extremists in Hun- 
gary : he not only resisted the slightest deviation from 
the traditional ritual, as the removal of the Almem ar 
from the center of the synagogue, but even vig- 
orously denounced the adoption of modern social 
manners and the acquisition of secular education. 
He bitterly opposed the Hungarian Jewish congress 
of 1868-69 and the establishment of the rabbinical 
seminary in Budapest. In 1865 he called a rabbinical 
convention at Nagy-Mihaly, which protested against 
the founding of a seminary and sent a committee 
to the emperor to induce the government to prohibit 
its establishment. In his religious practise he sur- 
passed th'j rigorism of the most Orthodox Hungarian 
rabbis, even going so far as to keep a she ass in order 
to be able to fulfil the law of the redemption of the 
first-born of the ass (see Ex. xiii. 13). He kept a 
sheep also in order to be able to give the first fleece 
to a kohen (Deut. xviii. 4), from whom 
(juently he bought it back to make zizit from it. 
Lichtenstein was an ardent admirer of the Hasidim 
and made pilgrimages to the famous miracle-worker 
Hayyim Halberstam of Sandec. He offered his own 




intercession througli prayer to people in distress, 
but declined any gifts. 

Liclitenstein was a powerful preacher and a pop- 
ular writer, and the resistance to modern tendencies 
among the Jews of northern Hungary is largely due 
to his inliuence. He inveighed against the use of 
other than traditional Jewish names; he denounced 
not only secular education, but even the playing of 
musical instruments and innocent social games, like 
chess and checkers; and he condemned those who 
relied on reason, for the ideal Jew should live up to 
the principle of Psalm Ixxiii. 22, "I was as a beast 
before thee" (" 'Et la-'Asot," p. 118a, Lemberg, 
1881). He was a decided opponent also of all agita- 
tion for the political emancipation of the Jews, say- 
ing that it is the duty of the Jews to suffer the trib- 
ulations of the E.xile until God finds them ripe for 
Messianic redemption. 

Of the numerous works which Lichtenstein wrote, 
some of them being in Hebrew and others in Judaeo- 
Germau, the most important are"Maskil el Dal" 
(Lemberg, 1867), " 'Et la-'Asot" (ib. 1881), and 
" Abkat Rokel " {ih. 1883), all of which have been 
repeatedly reedited. They are all devoted to the 
denunciation of liberal Judaism. In Hebrew Hillel 
signs his name E^'p (Lash), which is an abbreviation 
for |"t3tJ'jyD3''f' (Lichtenstein). 
Bibliography : Hirsch Heller, Bet Hillel, Munkacs, 1893. 

s. D. 

lilCHTHEIM, LXJDWIG : German physician ; 
born Dec. 7, 1845, at Breslau, where he was educated 
at the gymnasium. He then studied medicine at 
the universities of Berlin, Zurich, and Breslau, 
graduating in 1868. From 1869 to 1872 he was as- 
sistant in the medical hospital at Breslau ; from 1872 
to 1873 in the surgical hospital at Halle; and from 
1873 to 1877 again at Breslau in the medical poly- 
clinic. He became privat-docent at Breslau Univer- 
sity in 1876; assistant professor at Jena in 1877; 
was called in 1878 to Bern University as professor 
of medicine and chief of the medical clinic ; and has 
held a similar position since 1888 in the Universitj'- 
of Konigsberg. 

Lichtheim has written many essays in the medical 
journals, among which may be mentioned: " Ueber 
Behandlung Pleuritischer Exsudate, " in " Sammlung 
KHnischer Vortrage," 1872 ; (with Cohuheim) " Ueber 
Hydramie und Hydramisches Oedem," in Virchow's 
"Archiv," Ixix. ; "Ueber Periodische Haemoglobi- 
nurie," in "Sammlung KHnischer Vortrage," 1878; 
"Die Antipyretische Wirkung des Phenols," in 
"Breslauer Aerztliche Zeitschrift," 1881; "Ueber 
Tuberkulose," in "Rapport des Kongresses fur In- 
nere Medizin," 1883; "Die Chronischen Herzmuske- 
lerkrankungen und Hire Behandlung," ib. 1888 ; " Zur 
Diagnose der Meningitis," in "Berliner Klinische 
Wochenschrift," 1895. He is the author also of 
"Die Storungen des Lungenkreislaufs und Ihr Ein- 
fluss auf dei^Blutdruck " (Berlin, 1876). 

Bibliography: Pagel, Biog. Lex. Vienna, 1901. 
s. F. T. H. 

LICHTSCHEIN, LUDWIG : Hungarian rab- 
bi; born in Komorn; died at Ofen in 1886. He 
studied at Papa, and was rabbinical assessor of 
Austerlitz, Gross Kanizsa, and Esztergom. From 

1876 until his death he was rabbi at Somogy- 

Lichtschein was the author of the following works : 
"A Zsidok Kozep es Jelenkori Helyzettik " (Gross 
Kanizsa, 1866), on the condition of the Jews in me- 
dieval and modern times; "Die Dreizehn Glaubens- 
artikel" (Briinn, 1870), a sermon; "Der Targum 
zu den Propheten" (in Stern's "Ha Mehakker," i.); 
"Der Talmud und der Socialismus" (ib. iii.); "Kos- 
suth Lajos es a Satoraljaiihelyi Rabbi" (in "Magyar 
Zsido Szemle," 1885), on Kossuth and the rabbi of 

Bibliography : Petrik, Konyveszet ; Szinnyel, Magyar Irdk ; 
Lippe, Biographisches Lexikon, 1. 288. 
s. L. V. 

LIPMAN : Polish rabbi and author; lived at the 
end of the eighteenth and at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century; grandson of R. Kalman of 
Byelostok. He was rabbi and preacher at Prassuysz, 
in the government of Plotzk, Poland. 

Lichtstein was the author of " Kanfe Nesharim," a 
commentary on the Pentateuch in several parts, each 
having a separate name, viz.: "Kiryat Sefer," an 
introduction to each book of the Pentateuch ; " To- 
'aliyyotha-Ralbag," treating of the doctrines deduced 
by Levi b. Gershon from passages of the Torah; 
"Abak Soferim," miscellanea; "Mahazeh Abra- 
ham," consisting of sermons on each section of the 
Torah; "Ner Mizwah," treating of the number of 
the precepts according to Maimonides ; " Shiyyure 
Mizwah," treating of the additional precepts accord- 
ing to Nahmanides, Moses b. Jacob of Coucy, and 
Isaac of Corbeil; "Milhemet Mizwah," on the dis- 
putes among various authorities concerning the 
numbering of the precepts by Maimonides; "Torat 
ha-Korbanot," on the Levitical laws of offerings 
and on the order of the high priest's service in the 
sanctuary on the Day of Atonement; and "Sha'are 
Ziyyon," orations on theological subjects. The 
whole work was published together with the text 
of the Pentateuch, Josefow, 1829, and republished, 
without the text, Wilna, 1894. Lichtstein was the 
author also of a commentary on the "Sefer ha- 
Tappuah " which was published together with the 
text in the Grodno edition of 1799. 

Bibliography : Kanfe Nesharim, 2d edition ; Benjacob, Ozar 
ha-Sefarim, pp. 636, 660. 
S. S.' N. T. L. 

Plonsk, government of Warsaw, in the eighteenth 
century. He was the author of a work entitled 
"Zera' Abraham" (Dyhernfurth, 1811), a commen- 
tary on the Sifre, followed by Biblical and Talmud- 
ical indexes, and accompanied with the text. Licht- 
stein wrote also a preface and added a homily to 
his son's "Shoshannat 'Amakim." 

Bibliography: Walden, Shem ha-Oednlim he-ffadash, i. 15; 
Steinschneider, Cat. Bndl. col. 699; Zedner, Cat. Hebr. 
Books Brit. Mus. p. 437. 
S. S. M. Sel. 

LIEBEN, ADOLF: Austrian chemist; born at 
Vienna Dec. 3, 1836. He studied at the universities 
of Vienna, Heidelberg (Ph.D. 1856), and Paris, and 
subsequently held the positions of privat-docent at 
the University of Vienna (1861), and professor in 




the universities of Palermo (1863), Turin (1867), 
and Prague (1871). Since 1875 lie lias held the 
chair of general and pharmacological chemistry at 
the University of Vienna, and is a member of the 
Vienna Academy of Sciences. 

Liebcn has published many essays in "Liebig's 
Annalen der Chemie " (" Ueber die Einwirkung 
Schwacher Affinitaten nuf Aldehyd," 1861; " Ueber 
das lodbenzol," 1869; "Ueber Festes-Benzoylchlo- 
rid," 1875; etc.), " Sitzungsberichte den Kaiserlich- 
en Akademie der Wissenschaf ten in Wien " (" Un- 
tersuchungcn iiber Milchzucker," "Einwirkung 
von Cyangus auf Aldehyd," " Ueber den Formaldc- 
hyd und dessen Umwandlung in Methylalkohi," 
"Reduction des Exotonchlorals," etc.), "Monatshef- 
ten fiir Chemie," "Comptes-Rendus de 1' Academic 
de Paris," "Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen 
Gesellschaft Berlin," "Gazzetta Chimica Italiana 

Palermo," etc. 
8. F. T. H. 

FREEMAN): Russian writer; born at Wilna 
about 1840. Persecuted because of his participation 
in revolutionary movements, he fled to America, and 
died by his own hand at Syracuse, N. Y., Nov. 8, 
1880. "^He was the editor of " Ha-Emet," a Hebrew 
monthly of communistic tendencies (Vienna, 1877), 
only the prospectus and two numbers of which ap- 
peared ; and he was the first to organize socialist 
societies among the Jews in London. 
Biuliogkaphy: Zeitlin, Bibl. Post-Men<iel«. p. 211. 

1). S. M.'^.N. 

ufacturer; born at Markisch Friedland Feb. 4, 1812; 
died in Berlin Jan. 15, 1901. In 1825 his family 
moved to the latter city; and Liebcrmann, after 
completing a school course, entered the employ of 
a firm in London. Upon his return to Berlin he was 
taken into his father's business, which he soon de- 
veloped into the largest calico-manufactory in Ger- 
many. That his ability was recognized is shown 
by the fact that he was elected to the i)residency of 
the German merchants' association (Deutscher Han- 
delstag). According to an anecdote he introduced 
himself to King Frederick William IV. as "the 
Liebermann who drove the Englishmen from the 
Continental calico market." For many years he 
held the office of president of the Gesellschaft der 
Freunde, and he was treasurer of the Lehranstalt fur 
die Wissenschaft des Judenthums at the time of its 

BiBi.ifxjRAPnY : Allij. Zeit. des Jiid. Jan. 25, 1901; Mitthei- 
lunoen axis dem Verein zur Bekiimpfuna des Anlisemitis- 
mux, 1901, p. 29. 
s. D. 

ZER : Tahnudist of the first half of the nineteenth 
century. According to G. Wolf, in his biography 
of Isaac Noah Mannheimer (p. 10, Note), lie was a 
native of Austria; Jost (" (.'ulturgesch." iii. 24) says 
that he pretended to be a Hungarian rabbi; but in 
the preface to "Or Nogali." Liebermann signs him- 
self "son of Zeeb Wolf, rabbi of Hennegau " (prob- 
ably Hagenau, Alsace). He was the agent of the 
patrons of the Reform Temple at Hamburg, in de- 
fense of which he published "Nogah ha-Zedek," a 

collection of the views of Shem-Tob Sanuui of Leg- 
horn, R. Jacob Vila Ricanati of Pesaro, R. Moses 
Kunitz, or Kunitzer, of Budapest, and R. Aaron 
Cliorin of Arad. The indorsement by the rabbinates 
of Leghorn and Jerusalem, which was added to that 
of Shem-Tob Samun, was afterward declared to be 

The "Nogah ha-Zedek" was followed by "Or 
Nogah" (Dessau, 1818), in which Liebermann gives 
a lengthy and learned exposition of his own views 
in favor of Reform. It is prefaced by two eulogistic 
poems, one from Chorinand another signed "Ze'ebi." 
In refutation of this book the Hamburg rabbinate 
published "Eleh Dibre ha-Berit,"a collection of the 
views of prominent Orthodox rabbis, and contain- 
ing a declaration of Aaron Chorin revoking his 
former opinion (Altona, 1819). On the title-page of 
" Or Nogah " Liebermann claims the authorship of 
" ' Ir Dammesek," which work does not seem to have 
been printed. 

In 1819 Liebermann traveled in Austria to propa- 
gate Reform ideas and, according to the statement 
of the chief of police Sedlnitzky, to found for that 
purpose a journal called "Syonia." Nothing else is 
known of Liebermann 's life. According to Wolf 
and Graetz, Liebermann became a convert to Roman 
Catholicism ; but there is nothing positive to cor- 
roborate this assertion. 

Bibliography: Furst, Blhl. Jud. ii. 248; Gratz, Oesch. xi. 
420-424. Leipsic, 1870; Jost, CAdturgesch. Iii. 24-25, Berlin, 
1847; Schreiber, Reformed Judaism, pp. 76-77, Spokane, 
1892 ; Steinschnelder, Cat. Bodl. col. 964 ; Moses Sofer, Re- 
spoiisa, vl. 91. 
D. S. Man. 

writer; born in Pilvischok, government of Suwalki, 
April 12, 1820; died in Byelostok April 15, 1895. 
His father was a shohet and gave him the usual 
Jewish education. At the age of twelve he was sent 
to his uncle R. Elijah Schick ("Reb Elinke Lider"), 
then rabbi of Amstibove, who instructed him in 
Talmud and rabbinical literature. In 1838 he went 
to Wilna and joined the Maskilim; about 1844 he 
settled as a teacher in Byelostok; in 1867 he removed 
to Suwalki, remained there about twenty years, and 
then returned to Byelostok. Liebermann is the au- 
thor of "Megillat Sefer," a collection of short stories, 
essays, fables, and letters (Johannisberg, 1854), and 
of " Zedek u-Mishpat," v. Hebrew adaptation of S. D. 
Luzzatto's " Lezioni di Teologia Morale Israelitica " 
(Wilna, 1867). He wrote also "Ge Hizzayon" 
(Warsaw, 1889), several works still in manuscript, 
and a number of articles which he published in 
various Hebrew periodicals. 

BiBLiOfiRAPHY : Ahiaxaf. vol. iii. (necrologies, in which he la 
erroneously called" Jacob") ; Sokolov, Scfer Zikkarnn. pp. 
.57 .58. Warsaw, 1890; Zeitlin, Bibl. Hchr. Fost-Mcndds. 
p. 211. 
H. n. P. Wi. 

LI.EBERMANN, FELIX : German historian ; 
born July 20, 1851, in Berlin. Destined for a com- 
mercial can'er, he began business life in a Berlin 
bank in 1869. There he remained for some time, 
but ultimately went to England, going to Man- 
chester in 1871. Not very long afterward he re- 
turned to Germany, where lie devoted himself almost 
exclusively to the study of early English constitu- 
tional history under Waitz and Pauli, at GOttingen. 




On this subject he has published several mono- 
graphs, begiuuing with " Auglouormauuische Ge- 
schichtsquellen " (Berlin, 1879) and culminating in 
his monumental edition of the "Gesetze der Augel- 
sachsen" (Berlin, 189b-1903; published by the Sa- 
vigny Fund). Many of the essay's contained in this 
great work had been published previously by Lie- 
berniann, either separately {e.g., " Quadripartitus," 
1893; "Leges Ed wardi," 1896; etc.) or in journals, as 
the "English Historical Review," "Transactions of 
the Royal Historical Society," etc. He contributes 
an annual review of the publications on English me- 
dieval history to tiie " Jahresbericht fur Geschichts- 
wi.ssenschaft." In recognition of his contributions 
to English history the University of Cambridge 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of LL. D. 
(1899), and the Prussian government the title of 

Bibliography : Kiirschner, Deutscher Literatur-Kalender ; 

C. Gross, Sources of E)njU>i)i Hiator)!, 19(K), p. 589. 


ASHER LEMLE : Rabbi and preacher in Prague 
in the second half of the seventeenth century; died 
there 1709. He was the author of "Mattat Yah," 
a collection of sermons on the Pentateuch, reaching 
only to Numbers xxxiii. (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 
1696). Another collection of sermons by him, enti- 
tled "Peri Megadim," is preserved in manuscript. 

Bibliography: Azulal, Shem ha-GedoUm ; Benjacob, Ozar 
ha-Sefarim, pp. 390. 495; Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 248; Stein- 
schneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1683; Hock, Die Familien Progs, 
p. 397, PresburK, 1893. 

D. S. Man. 

LIEBERMANN, MAX: German painter; 
born at Berlin July 29, 1849. After studying law 
at Berlin University for a year, he abandoned it and 
took up the study of painting at Weimar in 1869 
under Thumann and Pawels. In 1872 he went to 
Paris, and during 1876-77 resided in Holland; after 
living for some time in Munich he finally returned 
to Berlin. 

His paintings include: " Ganserupferinnen " ; 
"Amsterdamer Waisenmiidchen " ; "Das Tischge- 

bet"; "Strassein Zand- 

voort " ; " Kleinkinder- 
schule in Amsterdam " ; 
" Milne hner Bierkon- 
zert " ; " Die Spinnerin- 
nen " ; " Die Konserven- 
macherinnen " ; " Stille 
Arbeit" ; " Die Schweine- 
fainilie " ; " Altmanner- 
haus in Amsterdam " ; 
" Trauergottesdienst " ; 
" ilollilndlsche Dorf- 
strasse " ; " Der Weber " ; 
" Netzef lickerinnen " ; 
" Spitalgarten in Lei- 
den " ; " Biergarten in 
Mi\nchen"; "Flachs- 
Max Liebermann. scheuer in Holland"; 

" Frau mit Ziegen " ; 
" Biirgermeister Petersen"; "Viehmarkt in Haar- 
lem." Some of these works are in private collec- 
tions; others are in the Kunsthalle, Hamburg; the 
Nationalgallcrie, Berlin ; the Neue Pinakothek, 

vni.— 6 

^lunich; the Strasburg Museum; the Leipsic Mu- 
seum; and various other public galleries of Europe. 
Liebermann at first expressed the extreme tend- 
encies of the modern realistic school, and illus- 
trated tlie darker sides of life; his earlier works 
were exhibited in Paris in 1875, 1876, and 1877 
(" Runkelrubenernte," " Arbeitssaal im Amsterdamer 
Waisenhaus," etc.), and at Munich in 1879 ("Jesus 
im Tempel "). In later ja-ars, however, he has 
turned toward the naturalistic school, producing 
a number of genre paintings and expo.sitions of 
Dutch rural life. He has excelled also as an etcher. 
Liebermann won the small medal of the Berlin and 
of the second Munich expositions. 

Bibliography: Kammerer, Max Liebermann, Lelpslc. 1893; 
MeuevK Koni'>ersations-Lexikrm ; AUgemeines KUnMer- 
Lexieon, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1898. 
s. F. T. H. 


See Yeau-Books. 

LIEBLIN6, EMIL : German pianist ; bom at 
Pless, Silesia, April 12, 1851. After a course in 
piano at the Neue Akademie der Tonkunst, Berlin, 
under Ehrlich and Kullak, he continued his studies 
with Dachs at Vienna and with Liszt at Weimar. 
In 1867 he went to America, where, until 1871, he 
taught music in a Kentucky seminary. In 1874 he 
revisited Europe and spent the summer at Weimar 
with Liszt. Upon his return to America he settled 
at Chicago, where he has since established a high 
reputation as pianist, teacher, and composer. Lieb- 
ling has played in New York, Chicago, and other 
cities, and has made concert tours with Wilhelmj, 
Miss Cary, Miss Kellogg, and others. 

The following are a few of Liebling's principal 
compositions: "Gavotte Moderne," Op. 11; "Flor- 
ence Valse," Op. 12; " Albumblatt," Op. 18; two 
romances. Op. 20 and 21; "Cradle Song," Op. 23; 
"Canzonetta," Op. 26; "Mazurka de Concert," Op. 
30 ; and several songs. 

Bibliography : Cbamplin, Cyclopedia of Music atid Mii8i- 
cia?i.s, s.v. 
A. J. So. 

LIEBRECHT, FELIX: German folklorist; 
born at Namslau, Silesia, March 18, 1812; died at 
St. Hubert Aug. 3, 1890. He studied philology 
at the universities of Breslau, Munich, and Berlin, 
and in 1849 became professor of the German language 
at the Athenee Royal at Liege, Belgium. He re- 
signed his chair and retired into private life in 1867. 
The following translations by him may be men- 
tioned: Giambattista Basiles, "Pentamerone," with 
introduction by Jakob Grimm (Berlin, 1846); Jo- 
hannes Damascenus, "Baarlam und Josaphat" 
(Miinster, 1847); Dunlop, "Gesch. der Prosadich- 
tung " (Berlin, 1851) ; an edition of Gervasius of 
Tilbury's "Otia Imperialia" (Hanover, 1856). A 
collection of original essays by him was published 
at Heilbronn in 1879, under the title "Zur Volks- 

Bibliographt: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 

s. F. T. H. 


GEN : German physician and pharmacologist; 
born at Konigsberg, East Prussia, Feb. 14, 1839; 




younger brother of Kicliard Lieureich. He studied 
first chemistry in Wiesbaden and Berlin and then, 
after nearly two years in Africa, medicine at the 
universities of Tubingen, Konigsberg, and Berlin, 
graduating as doctor of medicine in 18G5. In 1867 
he became assistant at the pathological institute of 
Berlin University, and in 1868 joined the medical 
faculty of the same university as privat-docent in 
pharmacology. He was elected assistant professor 
in 1868 and ai)pointed professor and chief of the 
pharmacological institute in 1872. In 1891 he re- 
ceived the title of "Geheime Medicinalrath." 

Liebreich has added many new remedies to the 
pharmacopa'ia. In 1869 he discovered the narcotic 
effect of chloral hydrate; in 1873 he introduced 
platin-iridium cannulas for the hypodermic syringe; 
he showed the anesthetic effect of ethylene chlorid 
and butyl chlorid, the use of hydrargyrum forma- 
midatum in the treatment of syphilis, the healing 
properties of lanolin (1885), of erythrophlein (1888), 
of cantharidin (1891), of creosol, tolipyrin, forma- 
lin, methylene blue, and many other drugs. He is 
a prolific writer, and has written many essays and 
monographs on his discoveries; especially notewor- 
thy are those on : the presence of protogon in the 
brain as the chief chemical compound of phosphorus, 
the examination of lupus through phaneroscopic 
illumination, the use of strychnin as an antidote for 
chloral hydrate, the oxidation of neurin and the 
synthesis of oxyneurin (both discovered by him). 
His writings are very diverse ; they deal not onlj' with 
chemistry and pharmacology, but also with syphilol- 
ogy, dermatology, hygiene, and balneology. Since 
1887 he has edited the "Therapeutische Monats- 

Liebreich is the author also of: "Das Chloralhy- 

drat, ein Neues Hypnotikum," Berlin, 1869 (3d ed. 

1871); "Encyclopadie der Therapie," ih. 1895; with 

Langgaard, "Kompendium der Arzneiverordnung," 

5th ed. ib. 1900. 

Bibliocrapiiy: Pagel, Bimi- Lex. 
s. F. T. H. 

LIEBREICH, RICHARD: English ophthal- 
mologist; born at KOnigsberg, East Prussia, June 
30, 1830; brother of Oskar Liebreich. He received 
his education at the universities of KOnigsberg, 
Berlin, and Halle (M.D. 1853). After a postgrad- 
uate course at Utrecht under Donders, and at Berlin 
under Brlicke, he became assistant in the ophtlial- 
mological institute of Berlin University from 1854 
to 1862. In the latter year he establi.shed himself 
as an ophthalmologist in Paris, whence he removed 
to London in 1870. There he became lecturer and 
clinicist in ophthalmology at St. Tliomas' Hospital. 

Since about 1895 he has given up his hospital du- 
ties and reduced his private practise, spending most 
of his time in researches in art, especially the tech- 
nique of the old masters. 

Liebreich lias constructed two ophthalmoscopes, 
which are universally used — a larger one, more 
elaborate and heavy, and a portable one. The latter 
especially supplied a long-felt want. Following 
Helmholtz's invention, Liebreich added two convex 
lenses to the small concave reflex mirror. 

Of Liebreich's writings may be mentioned : " Atlas 
der Ophthalmoskopie," Berlin, 1863 (3d ed. 1885); 

" Ophthalmo.skopische Notizen," in Albrecht von 
Graefp's "Archivfiir Ophthahnologie," i., iv., v., 
vii. ; "Ein Fall von Scheinbarer Myopic, Bedingt 
Durch Accommodationskrampf, " ib. viii.; "Moditi- 
cation des Schieloperatiou," ib. xii. ; (with Laqueur) 
"Recueil des Travaux de la Societe Medicale Alle- 
mande de Paris," Paris, 1865; "Eine Neue Methode 
der Cataractextraction," Berlin, 1872; "On the Use 
and Abuse of Atropin," London, 1873; "Clinical 
Lecture on Convergent Squint," /6. 1874; "School 
Life in Its Influence on Sight and Figure," ib. 1877 
(2d ed. 1878). 

BiBLmGRAPHY: Pagel, Biofif. X,eT. 
.1. F. T. H. 

LIEGNITZ. See Silesia. 

LIEN. See Mortgage or HYrornEC. 

LIFE.— Biblical Data : The word " hayyim " 
(= "life ") denotes tirst of all the animal existence 
which, according to Scripture, begins when "the 
breath [or spirit] of God " ("ruah," "neshamah," 
or "nefesh") is first inhaled through the nostrils 
(Gen. i. 30, ii. 7, vii. 23: Job xxxiii. 4), and ceases 
when God withdraws His breath (Ps. civ. 29, cxlvi. 
4; Job xxxiv. 14; Eccl. xii. 7). Life is the gracious 
gift of God (-Job X. 12; Ps. xxx. 6 [A. V. 5]); with 
God is "the fountain of life" (Ps. xxxvi. 10 [A. V. 
9]). Physical life is valued by the Hebrew as a 
precious good, given that he may " walk before God 
in the land [or "in the light"] of the living" (Ps. 
Ivi. 14 [A. V. 13], cxvi. 9; comp. Isa. xxxviii. 11; 
Job xxxiii. 30). A long life, in ancient times, was 
regarded as the reward of virtue and piety (Ex. xx. 
12; Deut. xxii. 7, xxxii. 47; Ps. xxxiv. 16; Prov. 
iii. 2, iv. 10, ix. 11, xii. 28, xxi. 21). The expres- 
sions " fountain of life " and " tree of life " (Prov. xi. 
30, xiii. 12, XV. 4) point to the paradise legend (Gen. 
ii. 9-10) and possibly refer to a higher life. The 
brevity of life is a theme frequently dwelt upon by 
the poets (Ps. xxxix. 6 [A. V. 5], xc. 9-10, ciii. 15; 
Job ix. 5, xiv. 1-2). 

But it is the ethical view of life which is chiefly 
characteristic of Judaism. Life is sacred, and it 
should accordingly be guarded and treated with due 
regard and tenderness in every being, man or beast 
(Gen. ix. 6; Lev. xix. 16; Deut. xxii. 7, xxv. 4; see 
Cruelty). The "righteous man regardeth the life 
of his beast" (Prov. xii. 10). The whole Law is 
summed up in the words: "I have set before you 
life and death, blessing and cursing; therefore choose 
life" (Deut. xxx. 19); and the law of conduct toward 
others is stated in the words: "Let thy brother live 
with thee" (Lev. xxv. 35-36, Hebr.). The entire 
object of the Law is the preservation of life: "Ye 
shall keep my statutes and my ordinances, which if 
a man do he shall live by [A. V. "in "] them" (Lev. 
xviii. 4, Hebr). 

In Rabbinical Literature : The same appre- 
ciative view of physical, or earthly, life prevails 
also among the Rabbis. A long life is regarded as 
Heaven's reward for certain virtues (Meg. 27b, 28a; 
Ber. 54b. 55a ; Men. 44a ; Yoma 87a). " He who per- 
forms onlv one meritorious act will have his life pro- 
longed " (Kid. i. 10. 39b). "The object of the Law 
is the preservation of life, and not its destruction " ; 
hence, ordinarilv, one should rather transgress a 




commandment thiin incur death; onl\' in reixard to 
tl)e three capital sins — idolatry, murder, and incest 
— should man give up liis life rather than desecrate 
God's law (Sifra, Ahare Mot, xiii.). "Better to ex- 
tinguish the light on Sahhatii than to extinguish life, 
which is God's ligiit " (Shah. 80b). 

"Hayj'e 'olam " (eternal life; Dan. xii. 2; Enoch, 
xxxvii. 4, xl. 9) occurs often in rabbinical terminol- 
ogy as "hayye 'olam ha-ba" (the life of the Avorld 
tocome; Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 3; Ber. 48b, 61b; M. K. 
9a; Ket. 62a; Targ. I Sam. xxv. 29). At a later 
time, owing probably to the martyrdoms under 
Syrian and Roman persecution, earthly life was less 
esteemed (Wisdom iii. 17; iv. 7-8, 14; 
Life Philo, "De Abrahanio," § 46). Char- 

Eternal, acteristic are these rabbinic sayings: 
"The pious live even in death; the 
wicked are dead even in life " (Ber. 18b). " Life " for 
"eternal life" (Psalms of Solomon, ix. 9, xiv. 6; II 
Mace. vii. 14; comp. vii. 9). "Ten are called liv- 
ing," that is, possess eternal life: (1) God (Jer. x. 
10); (2) the Torah (Prov. iii. 18); (3) Israel (Deut. 
iv. 5); (4) the righteous (Prov. xi. 30); (5) paradise 
(Ps. cxvi. 9); (6) the tree of life (Gen. ii. 9); (7) the 
Holy Land (Ezek. xxvi. 20); (8) benevolent works 
(Ps. Ixiii. 4 [A. V. 3]); (9) the wise (Prov. xiii. 15); 
(10) the fountain of waters in Jerusalem (Zcch. xiv. 
8; Ab. R. N. xxxiv. [ed. Schechter, p. 103]). " Dost 
thou Avish life? Look to the fear of God, which in- 
creases the number of man's days; look for afflic- 
tion; look to the study of the Torah and observe the 
commandments" (comp. Prov. iii. 18, iv. 4, vi. 23, 
X. 27). The Torah is called "medicine of life" 
(Sifre, Deut. 45; Yoma72b; see also Book of Life). 

LIGHT (Hebr. "or"): The primal element of 
Creation in all ancient cosmogonies; the first crea- 
tion of God. — Biblical Data: "God said, Let 
there be light " : and out of the primeval chaos 
there came forth "light" (Gen. i. 2-3). In the 
Creation psalm, God, before "stretching out the 
heavens like a curtain," " wraps Himself in light 
as in a mantle " (Ps. civ. 2, Hebr. ; whence " the 
Father of lights " of James i. 17). He is the Former 
of light and the Creator of darkness (Isa. xiv. 7). 
"No one knows the way to the light," wliich has its 
seat in heaven (Job xxxviii. 19, Hebr.); it emanates 
from the face of God (Ps. iv. 7 [A. V. 6], xliv. 4 
[A. V. 3], Ixxxix. 16 [A. Y. 15]), whose whole being- 
is luminous (Ex. xiii. 21, xxiv. 10; Ps. xxxvi. 10 
[A. V. 9]; Job xxxvi. 30, xxxvii. 3). Gradually 
this light of God assumed a spiritual or symbolical 
meaning, in such passages as " God is light, " to those 
who walk in darkness (Isa. ix. 2; x. 17; Ix. 1-3, 19- 
20; Micah vii. 8; Ps. xxvii. 1, xxxvi. 10 [A. V. 9]). 
The sun, moon, and stars, the luminaries placed in 
heaven to reflect their light upon the earth (Gen. i. 
14-17), are supposed to have received, or to still 
receive, their light from the heavenly 
The light created on the fiist day. Propli- 

Heavenly ecy, therefore, speaks of tlie time when 
Light. " the light of the moon will be like that 
of the sun, and that of the sun seven- 
fold like tiie light of the seven days of Creation " 
(Isa. XXX. 26, Hebr. ; the conunentators who failed 
to understand this meaning wished to eliminate from 

the text the words " ke-or shib'at ha-yamim " ; but 
see Gen. R. iii. 6, xi. 2). Similarly. Isa. Ix. 19-20: 
"Not sun nor moon, but the Lord, shall be for thy 
everlasting liglit " (Hebr.). The Avestaalso speaks 
of the "endless lights " in heaven in which the good 
souls shall dwell ("Yendidad," ii. 131; "Yast,"xx. 
15; "Vist.asp Yast," 61). 

Ligiit is often used as tiie symbol of life and 
joy (Job xviii. 5-6. xxxiii. 28; Ps. xlix. 20 [A. V. 
19], xcvii. 11; Esth. viii. 16). It is likened to the 
word of instrurtion (Ps. cxix. 105; Prov. vi. 23). 

In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Litera- 
ture : lleie also ligiit takes a prominent position as 
a cosmic power. Wisdom is represented as the radi- 
ance of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror 
of the power of God, more beautiful than the sun, 
and superior to the light which it resembles (Wis- 
dom vii. 26, 29). God's majesty being surrounded 
with light to make Him invisible to all beings (Meg. 
19b), the Rabbis speak of " the radiance of the She- 
kinali" ("ziw ha-Shekinah " ; Ber 64b; Shab. 30a; 
B. B. 10a; comp. Hag. 14b and Heb. i. 3—" the 
brightness of his glory "). This was believed to be 
reflected in the new moon (Sanh. 42a, "Keillo me- 
kabbel pene haShekinah " = "he who sees the new 
moon is like one who greets the Divine Majesty "). 
The " radiance " (" ziw ") of wisdom is reflected also 
in great men (Sotah ix. 15). According to the cos- 
mogony of Slavonian Enoch (xxv. 1-5) God made 
Adoel (HadrielV), a fiery angel of great brightness, 
spring fortli first as a visible being out of the invis- 
ible ; and as Adoel burst asunder, there came forth 
a great light; and then God made a throne for Him- 
self, and sat upon it, and placed the light above the 
throne to be the foundation of all things on high. 

Similar is the " .secret lore " of the Rabbis : The 

first act of Creation was when God robed Himself in 

light while the radiance of His glory (" ziw hadaro ") 

illumined the world from one end to the other (Gen. 

R. iii. ; Pirke R. El. iii.). "The light 

Primitive of the first day was such that by it the 

Light. first man could see from one end of 
the world to the other; but, finding 
that wicked men would arise on earth, God removed 
this light to reserve it for the righteous in the world 
tocome" (Hag. 12a; Gen. R. I.e.). The luminaries 
receive their light from the spark of that light of 
heaven, which is one hundred times as bright as 
the light visible on earth (Tan., Beha'aloteka, ed. 
Buber, ji. 10). According to Targ. to Isa xxx. 26 
and Judges v. 31, the light of the future will be 343 
(7x7x7) times as bright as the sun. The righteous 
alone desire it, not the wicked, who are as tlie bat 
in the fable, of Avhom the cock demands, "What is 
the light of day to thee, avIio preferrest the niglifr" 
(Sanh. 98b). Enoch (xiv. 4) speaks of "the eternal 
light " brought forth in the Messianic time: "The 
great light of heaven shone forth in splendor until 
Adam sinned; but on account of the Sabbath God 
would not withdraw tlie light before the day was 
over. Then when darkness set in Adam became 
afraid: 'Shall Satan henceforth overpower me'c' 
Whereupon God set befoie him two bricks, from 
which Adam drew forth sparks of light by striking 
one against the other; an<l he blessed God for the 




light which he thus obtained by liis own Imuds " 
('Ab Zarah 8c; Gen. R. xii. ; Pcsik. R. xxiii. ; comp. 
Pirke R. EL, where the story is somewhat differently 
rendered; see Habdalah). 

God is in no need of light ; the light kindled in 
the Sanctuary was to testify that the light of the 
Shekinah is in the midst of Israel (Men. 86b) ; there- 
fore in the Temple of Solomon the windows Avere 
narrowed from w^ithout to indicate that the light 
streams forth from within (Tan., Tezawweh, ed. 
Buber, p. 4). The light kindled before God was to 
be like the lantern carried by the blind for the one 
who sees; Israel is to aid in the spreading of the 
light of God on earth (Tan., Beha"aloteka, ed. 
Buber, p. 5; Ex. R. xxxvi.). When Moses was 
born the house was filled with light ; hence it is said 
of him, as of the light of Creation, " he was ' good ' " 
(" tob " ; A. v. " goodly " ; Ex. ii. 1 ; Sotah 12a). In 
the ark Noah used a precious stone which illumi- 
nated all the surroundings (Gen. R. xxxi. ; Sanh. 
108b; comp. Meg. 12a). 

The righteous in the world to come shall shine 
like the light of sun and stars, each in different lus- 
ter (Slfre, Deut. 10, 47; Midr. Teh. to Ps. xi. 6; 
comp. 1 Cor. xv. 41). God had in view the right- 
eous of the type of Abraham when He said "Let 
there be light" (comp. Ps. xcvii. 11; Ta'an. 15a; 
Tan., Tezawweh, ed. Buber, p. 4); whereas the 
wicked of the type of Esau are sons of darkness 
(comp. Job xviii. 5; Gen. R. ii. 111). "The right- 
eous who have loved God's name shall be clad in 
shining light" (Enoch, cviii. 12; comp. Dan. xii. 8 
and Targ. to Judges v. 31: "they that love Hini 
shall be as the sun " ; Shab. 88b). Accordingly, the 
righteous are called "the generation of light," in 
contrast to the wicked, who are born (clothed?) 
in darkness (Enoch, cviii. 11); hence also the New 
Testament term, "sous of light" (Luke xvi. 8: 
John xii. 36; Ephes. v. 8; I Thess. v. 5; Col. 
i. 12). 

Light is the symbol of the Torah (Meg. 16b, after 
Prov. vi. 23), of God (Tan., Tezawweh, ed. Bu- 
ber, p. 5, after Ps. xviii. 29), of the soul (i/). 
ed. Buber, p. 4, after Prov. xx. 27). "God says: 
' If you conscientiously keep My light burning in 
your soul, I shall keep your light; if you kindle My 
liglits in the Sanctuary, I shall kindle the great liglit 
for you in the future'" (ib. ed. Buber, pp. 2, 4-5: 
Ex. R. xxxvi. ; Lev. R. xxxi.). In regard to Sab- 
bath lights see Lamp, Saubatii. K. 


0\\ NKUS. 

LIGHT OF TRUTH. See Peuiodicals. 

LIGHTFOOT, JOHN: English Christian di- 
vine and Talnuidist; born at Stoke-upon-Trent 
1«02; died at Ely 1675. He passed through 
Christ's College, Cambridge, and later took orders, 
serving for the rest of his life ns curate, rector, and 
canon. From 1650 till his death he was master of 
St. CathcriMe Hall (now College), Cambridge. He 
was parliamentarian, Presbyterian, and a leading 
member of the Westminster Assembly. It was 
through the influence of Sir Rowland Cotton (liim- 
.self a Hci)raist) that Liglitfoot entered on the study 

of Hebrew, to wliich, including rabbinical Hebrew, 
he thenceforth devoted his leisure. His first pub- 
lication was the tract "Ervbhin, or Miscellanies 
Ciiristian and Judaicall, and Others, Penned for 
Recreation at Vacant Iloures" (London, 1629). He 
is best known by his " Horae Hebraicse et Talmu- 
dicie," composed in Latin, giving Talmudic parallels 
on the Gospels and I Corinthians, Acts, and some 
chapters of Romans, which appeared at intervals 
from 1658 to 1674, except the part on Acts and Ro- 
mans, which was brought out later by Kidder, after- 
ward Bishop of Bath and Wells (1691). The work 
was reproduced at Leipsic bj' Carpzov, the "Horae " 
on the Gospels in 1675 (2d ed. 1684), and the rest in 
1679; and at Oxford, in English, by Gandell in 1859. 
Liglitfoot 's collected works were first published in 
English (London, 1684), in two folio volumes, the one 
edited by George Bright, and the other hy John 
Strype. Afterward they were published in Latin at 
Rotterdam (1686), and at Franeker (1699). The latest 
edition of his works is by J. R. Pitman (London, 

By some critics, as Simon, Lightfoot's method 
in the "Horre " was disparaged as "quelquefois trop 
rabbinique," but in general it found favor; and it 
was adopted by later writers, as Schottgen, ISIeu- 
schen, and Gill. He showed considerable acquaint- 
ance with Talmud and Midrash, greater perhaps 
than any non-Jew has shown before the present 
daj'. He corresponded with the younger Buxtorf, 
and helped Walton and others in their literary un- 
dertakings. He left his library to Harvard College, 
but nearly the whole collection was destroyed by 
fire in 1764. 

BiBLioGRAPHT : Diet. Nat. Bi(iy.; Lightfoot's Il'or/fs, ed. Pit- 
man, as above. 
T. C. T. 


Mishnah (Ber. ix. 2) prescribes, "At the sight of 
shooting stars or of lightning, and at hearing 
(earthquakes, thunder, and storms, the benediction 
' Blessed be He whose power and might fill the 
world ' should be recited. At the sight of great 
mountains, seas, and deserts one recites the bene- 
diction ' Blessed be He who hath made tlie work of 
Creation.' " The suggestion was made at the Baby- 
lonian school that the latter benediction is in jilace 
also on the occasions previously mentioned; and this 
was accepted by both Abbaye and Raba, who de- 
clared that both benedictions should be recited 
(Ber. 59a). However, Isaac Alfasi and Maimonides 
(" Yad," Berakot, x. 14) understand the Talmudic 
passage to mean that either benediction may be re- 
cited on the occasion of lightning and the other 
jihenomena mentioned. 

This view is accepted also by Asheri and his 
son Jacob (Tur Orah Hayyim, 227); and by Jo- 
seph Caro (Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 227, 
1). General custom, however, decided that while 
for thunder the former benediction, expressive of 
God's might, should be recited, the benediction for 
lightning should be, "Blessed be He who hath made 
the work of Creation " (see " Ture Zahab " and " Be'er 
Ileteb" to Sliulhan 'Aruk, ()rah Hayyim, l.r.). Ac- 
cordingly, the ordinary prayer-books have this ar- 
rangement as a fixed rule. K. 




artist; boiii at Drohobicz, Gulicia, in 1874. Lil- 
ien's artistic inclinations became evident early in 
life. He was apprenticed to a sign -maker, with 
whom he worked in return lor meager board, and 
subsequently attended the academies of art in Cra- 
cow and Munich. He later removed to Berlin, 
where he is at present (1904) residing. 

At tirst Lilien's work was deficient in individual- 
ity. Even " Der ZiJllner von Klausen," one of the 
most admired of his earher works, is vague, col- 
orless, and feeble. Lilien began with the illustration 
of books and newspapers, but soon pushed himself 
to the front; a number of his earlier efforts ap- 
peared in tlic "Jugend" and in the "Vorwiirts." 

scholar and author; born at Keidauy, government of 
Kovno, Oct. 22, 1843. From his father he learned 
the calculation of the course of tiie stars in their re- 
lation to the Hebrew calendar (" Hattot Me'urim," 
i. 15). At the age of thirteen he organized a society 
of boys for the study of "'En Ya'akob " {ib. i. 14); 
and at the age of fifteen he married and settled at 

A change in the fortunes of his father-in-law 
throwing him upon his own resources, Lilienblum 
established a yeshibah in Wilua in 1865, and another 
in the year following {ib. i. 58-54). The advance of 
years, however, wrought a great change in the atti- 
tude of Lilienblum toward Judaism. He had road 


7^^g.->^^^S^i.gJ is^^W <l>^^g.^y^»A\.g 


(Frfiin the drawing by Ephraim Moses Lilien.) 

His later productions, though not overladen with 
sentiment, are rich in pathetic touches. The best 
and most characteristic of his work is to be fomid 
in the book "Juda" (1900), which contains his 
"Jesaia," "Passach," and "Sodom's Ruinen." He 
illustrated also the " Lieder des Ghetto " of Morris 
Rosenfeld (1903). His "Gedenkblatt des Fllnften 
Zionisten-Kongresses in Basel " has attracted wide 
attention. Other notable illustrations are: "E-\ 
Libris E. M. Lilien," "Auf Zarten Saiten," "Der 
Jfidische Mai," "Ex Libris Ruben Brainin," "Ex 
Libris D. Simonson," "Ex Libris des Reichstagsab- 
geordneten R. Fischer," "Ein Salomonisches Ur- 
theil,""In Rosenketten," "Heimatlos," "Chanuka- 
liciiter," "Signet des Jiidischen Kunstverlages 

Bibliography: Oxt iiiul irc*t : 
Maccabcean, March, 1904. 

JUdische KllyiMer; Tfie 
S. Led. 

the writings of the Maskilim, particularly those of 
IVIapu and M. A. Ginzburg, and these produced in 
him a feeling of dissatisfaction with Talmudic stud- 
ies and of abhorrence for the ignorance 
Changed and superstition surrounding him ; he 
Views. decided, therefore, to combat these 
faults. In an article entitled " Orhot 
ha-Talmud," in "Ha-Meliz," 1868, he arraigned the 
superstitious beliefs and practises of his people, de- 
manded the reform of Judaism, and insisted upon 
the necessity of establishing a "closer connection be- 
tween religion and life." 

This article, followed by others of the same nature, 
stirred up the Jewish communities in Russia, and a 
storm of indignation against him arose among the 
ultra-Orthodox ; he was denounced as a freethinker 
and continued residence in Wilkomir became impos- 
sible. He then wciit to Odessa (1869), where he in- 
tended to prepare himself for the university (" Hat- 




Moses L()b Lilienbliiiii. 

tot Ne'urini." ii. 3). but after a hard struggle he was 
compelled to give up that design. 

The auti-Jewish riots of 1880 and 1881 aroused 
Lilicnblum to a consciousness of the unsafe position 
of the Jews "in exile," and he gave utterance to his 
apprehensions in an article entitled " Obshcheyevreis- 

ki Vopros i Palestina" 
(in "Kazsvyet," 1881, 
Nos. 41, 42), in which 
he points to the reestab- 
iishmeut of the Jews in 
Palestine as the only 
solution of the Jewish 
(luestion. This article 
did not remain without 
results; the idea was 
hailed as practical, and 
many set themselves to 
realize it. In 1883 a 
couunittee was organ- 
ized at Odessa for the 
colonization of Pales- 
tine, Lilienblum serving 
as secretary and Dr. L. 
Pinsker, author of 
'• Autoeniancipation," as 
president; at the famous conference at Kotowitz, 
where representatives of all European Jewries met 
and discussed plans of colonization in 
Zionism. Palestine, the foundaliou was laid for 
the Zionist movement, in which Lil- 
ienblum, as secretary, has taken the most earnest 
and energetic part (" Derek la-'Abor Golim," p. 16). 
Lilienblum's activity thus covers two distinct pe- 
riods in the history of Russian Jewry. In the pe- 
riod of the Haskalah he followed the example of the 
Maskilim in demanding the reform of Judaism; but 
he differed from the Maskilim in that he was 
much less extravagant, his style being free from 
the tlowery "mclizah" used by them, and his ideas 
being marked by soIktucss and clearness. His " Or- 
hot ha-Talmu(l," menlioned above, and his " Hattot 
Ne'uriuv" (Vienna, 1876), a description of his mate- 
rial and spiritual struggles, both made a marked im- 
pression upon that jjcriod. His influence in the 
second period also, that of national reawakening, 
whicli he practically initiated, was due to his charac- 
teristic style. In his article on the Jewish ques- 
tion and Palestine, already mentioned, as well as in 
his " O Vozrozhdenii Yevreiskavo Naroda" (Odessa, 
1883), the latter including the former and other 
essays of a similar character, lie clearly and so- 
berly presents the anomalous position held by Israel 
among the nalions and logically demonstrates its 
hopelessness except through national independence. 
Lilienblum wrote also: " Kehal Hefa'im," a poem 
describing the dilTcrent types of Russian Jewry of 
the time, as they ai)pear in the nether world (Odes- 
sa, 1870): "'Olam ha-Tohu." on some 
Works. |)iiases of Hebrew literature (in " Ila- 
Siiahar." 187;]); " Bikkdret K«\ Shire 
Gordon." on J. L. Gordon as a i)oet (in "Meliz Eh;u\ 
Mini Elef," St Petersburg, 1884); " Zerubbabel," a 
historical drama in Yiddish (Odessa, 188S); "Derek 
la-'Abor Golim," a history of the Ciiovcvci Ziou 
movemeut up to the time of the ratification by the 

Russian government of the committee for the colo- 
nization of Palestine (Warsaw, 1899) ; " Derek Teshu- 
bali," an addition to "Hattot Ne'urim," describing 
the transition of the author from the negative period 
of tiic Haskalah to the positive period of national 
reawakening; " Pyat Momentov Zhizhni Moiseya" 
(in Russian: tb. 1901), a psychological analysis of 
some important moments in the life of Moses. Lil- 
ienl)ium also edited " Kawweret," a collection of arti- 
cles in Hebrew (Odessa, 1890), and the *' Luah Ahia- 
saf," 1901. He was the author of a number of 
other articles, of which the most important is "O 
Neobkhodimosti Reform v Yevreiskoi Religii " (in 
"Yoskhod," 1882-83). 

Bibliography: LilienUUim, Hattot Nc'nrim, Vienna. 1876; 
idem, Derek Tesliulmli. Wareavv,' 1899; klem, Derek la-"Ahor 
Golim, ib.; Mordecai b. Hillel tia-Kolien, in Liiah Ahiasaf, 
lb. 1893; Berdychevskv. Dor Dor, ib. 1901 ; N. Slouschz, Ht- 
terature Hebraique, pp. 166 et aeq., Paris, 1903; Wiener, Yid- 
dish Literature, p. 338, New York, 1899. 
II. u. A. S. W. 

LILIENTHAL, MAX : Rabbi and educator ; 
born at Munich Nov. 6, 1815; died at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, April 5, 1882; educated at the University of 
Munich (Ph.D. 1837). In 1839 he accepted the office 
of principal in the newly established Jewish school 
of Riga, where he was appointed preacher also. 
The school was opened Jan. 15, 1840. In recogni- 
tion of the sentiments expressed in the sermon with 
which Lilienthal opened the school the emperor 
Nicholas presented him with a diamond ring. In 
Dec, 1841, at the instance of Uvarov, minister of 
public instruction, to whom he was recommended 
by Count Maltitz, the Russian ambassador to Hol- 
land, Lilienthal was sent from St. Petersburg on 
an official mission. It was the intention of the 
government to establish Jewish schools for secular 
and religious instruction, and the duty assigned to 
Lilienthal was to determine the attitude of the Jews 
in regard to them and to quiet their fears as to the 
intentions of the government ; for the plans of the 
latter were regarded with suspicion among the 
Jewish masses, who believed that the real pur- 
pose of the proposed schools was to lead the 
Jews gradually to conversion to Ciiristianity. Lilien- 
thal repaired to Wilna, where the community, acting 
on his assurances, appropriated 5,000 rubles for 
school purposes, and promised Lilienthal that more 
money would be supplied when necessary. But 
notwithstanding Lilienthal's assurances, the mistrust 
toward him of the Jews in Lithuania increased. At 
^linsk, whither he had gone at the invitation of the 
local kahal, he was given to understand that the 
Jews of Lithuania had no confidence in him. His 
stay in Minsk was rendered unpleasant by the re- 
sentment of the Jewish masses, and he even had to 
invoke the protection of the police. On his return 
to Wilna, Lilienthal found distrust of him growing 
there; tiiereupon, discouraged, he returneil to St. 

After several months' arduous work in the offices 
of the Ministry of Education and with Count Uvarov, 
he returned to Wilna and prepared a circular let- 
ter to the Jews of Russia, published under the 
title " Maggid Yeshu'ah." When a council of rabbis 
and other prominent Jews was convoked at St. Pe- 
tersburg, consisting of Rabbi Isaac ben Hayyim of 




Volozhin, Rabbi Mendel Sluieersohn of Lubavich, 
Bezaleel Stern of Odessa, and Israel Ileilprin of 
Berdychev, Lilienthal was appointed 
His sccretar}' of u senatorial committee 

" Maggid of fourteen. During the sessions 
Yeshu'ah." Stern bad many an encounter with 
Lilienthal and Avas even provoked 
to accuse him of ignorance of the Talmud. In the 
autunm of 1842 Lilienthal went to Odessa with let- 
ters of recommendation from Uvarov to Count M. 
S. Vorontzov. The Odessa community received 
him warmly, and appointed him their rabbi. Lilien- 
tliul was soon convinced, liowever, that his efforts 
in behalf of the Russian Jews would not yield the 
desired results; as a foreigner it was difbcult for 
him to gain a true insight into their traditions, hopes, 
and aspirations. He did not understand them, nor 
they him; and he was placed in an awlcward and 
delicate position by the distrust of the Jews on the 
one hand, and, on the other hand, by the efforts of 
the government to effect their assimilation without 
according them full 
rights of citizenship. 
Lilienthal left 
Russia suddenly in 
1844 and went to the 
United States. Set- 
tling in New York, 
he became rabbi of 
the Congregation An- 
she Chesed, Norfolk 
street, and, later, 
rabbi of Shaar ha- 
Shomayim, Attorney 
street. His somewhat 
advanced views led 
to considerable fric- 
tion. He resigned his 
position in 1850 ami 
established an educa- 
tional institute witii 
which he attained 
considerable success. 
In 1854 he became 
correspondent of 
the "American Isra- 
elite," and in the 
following year re- 
moved to Cincinnati and became associate editor 
of that journal and rabbi of the Congregation Bene 
Israel. His activity in Cincinnati extended over 
a period of twenty-seven years. He 
organized the Rabbinical Literary 
Association, serving as its president, 
and was at first instructor and later 
professor of Jewish history and liter- 
ature at Hebrew Union College. He 
was prominent, also, in the Jewish press as the 
foimder and editor of the "Hebrew Review," a 
quarterly, and the " Sahbath-School Visitor," a 
weekly, and as a frequent contributor to tlie " Israel- 
ite," the "Occident," "Deborah" (founded by him), 
the" Asmonean," " Volksblatt," and " Volksfreund." 
He published a volume of poems entitled "Freiheit, 
Friihling und Liebe " (1857), several volumes of ad- 
dresses and sermons, and left three dramas in mauu- 



Editor of 



otto Lilienthal Experimenting with His Flying-Machine : 
Starting from a Platform. 

(From a photograph.) 

script—" Die Strelitzen Mutter," " Rudolf von Habs- 
burg," and " Der Einwanderer." 

Lilienthal took an active interest in the affairs of 
the municipality. As member of the Cincinnati 
boai-d of education, and as director of the Relief 
Union and of the university board, he contributed 
much to the welfare of liis adopted city. He was a 
reformer by nature ; he was instrumental in intro- 
ducing reforms in his own congregation in Cincin- 
nati, constantly preached tolerance, and urged a 
more liberal interpretation of Jewish law. 

Bibliography: a. F.hrMch, EntivUkcluiifixdcschichtc der Ts- 
raeliti^clicn (Icmciinh'schnle zu Ili<,ta, pp. 9-14 ; Lcket Ama- 
rim, supplement to Ua-Mcliz, ISW, pp. 8ti-89; Kayserling, 
Gedenkbiatter, p. ")(); Ha-Panl<s, pp. 186, 198; j'Udixches 
YDlksblati, 18.50, No. 3(5 ; Lilienthal, Mn rravels in Rrixxia, in 
American Israelite, vols. i. and ii.; Indeiiendent, New York, 
xlviii. ;i4H; Wimtlerhar, (iese)!. der Jud( ii iti Liv-und Kur- 
land, pp. 14-15, Mitau, 18.>? ; Morgulis, in Yevreifikaiia Biblio- 
teka, i.; Yevr-ei.ikina Zapitski, 1881, p. 9; Vyestnik Rriss- 
kikh Yevreyev, 1871, No. 26. 

H. R. 

German mechanical 
engineer and experi- 
menter in aerial navi- 
gation ; born May 23, 
1848, at Anklam ; 
died Aug. 9, 1896, at 
Rhinow. Lilienthal's 
theory was that arti- 
ficial flight must fol- 
low the principles of 
bird-flight. His ex- 
periments, which 
were made with the 
assistance of his 
brother G. Lilien- 
thal, extended over 
a period of twenty- 
five years; in the 
summer of 1891 he 
made, with a pair 
of curved wings de- 
signed for soaring, the 
first practical demon- 
stration of man's 
ability to fly. He 
made the flight suc- 
cessfully several 
times, but finally 
met death during an experiment at Rliinow. 

Lilienthal was a member of the German Society 
for the Advancement of Aerial Navigation. He 
was the autliorof " Der Vogelflug als Grundlageder 
Fliegekunst" (Berlin, 1889), in which he explained 
the theoretical reasons for the form of his aerial 
machine; and "Die Flugapparate." 

BiBi.inr.RAriiv : Chunute, PnifjreM in Fliiinq Machines, px). 
202-211, New York, 1899; Kohut, BerlVmde Israelitische 
Manner mill Francn, No. ir>, pp. 246-247 ; Vallentitie and 
T^mlinson, 'I'ravelx in Space, p]t.2r>'i et xeq., London, 1902; 
i:e)i<>rt lit' tlie Smithsiniiau /n,xria</ ion, pp. 189-199, Wash- 
ington, 1893. 


LILITH(n''^^^: LXX. 'OrnKevTavpm; Symmachus, 
An^iia; YuJg. "Lamia"): Female demon. Of the 
(liree Assyrian demons Lilu, Lilit, and Ardat Lilit, 
tlie second is referred to in Isa. xxxiv. 14. Schra- 
der ("Jahrb. fur Protestantische Theologie," i. 128) 




takes Lilith to be a goddess of the night ; she is said 
to have been worshiped by the Jewish exiles in Baby- 
lon (Levy, in "Z. D. M. G." ix. 470, 484). Sayce 
("Hibbert Lectures," pp. 145 et seq.), Fossey ("La 
Magie Assyrienne," pp. 37 et seq.), and others think 
that "Lilith" is not connected with the Hebrew 
" layil " (night), but that it is the name of a demon of 
the storm, and this view is supported by the cunei- 
form inscriptions quoted by them. It must, however, 
be assumed that the resemblance to the Semitic 
" layil " materially changed the conception of Lilith 
among the Semites, and especially among the Jews. 
No definite conclusions can be drawn from the pas- 
sage in Isaiah, where it is said of the devastated 
palaces of Edom that wild animals shall dwell in 
them "and the satyr shall cry to his fellow; the 
screech-owl also shall rest there, and find for herself 
a place of rest" (Isa. xxxiv. 14; see Cheyne's note 
ad loc). Baudissin connects Lilith with Zech. v. 9. 
Lilith is more fully described in post-Biblical lit- 
erature, where she appears as a demon of the night, 
as suggested by her Hebrew name. 
In Talmud Three classes of demons are mentioned : 
and spirits, devils, and "liHn"(Targ. Yer. 

Midrash. to Deut. xxxii. 24; Targ. Sheni 
to Esth. i. 3; passim). The first have 
neither body nor form; the second appear in com- 
plete human shape; the third in human shape, but 
with wings (Rashi to Sanh. 109a). Adam procreated 
all the spirits while he was under a .spell (Gen. R. xx. 
11 ; 'Er. 18b). Similarly, Eve bore demons to male 
spirits for the space of 130 years. This corresponds 
to the view that the demons are half human (Hag. 
16a). Hence an abortion which has the shape of 
Lilith may be a child, though it has wings (Nid. 
24b). Lilith is a seductive woman with long hair 
('Er. lOOb); she is the Queen of Zemargad (Targ. 
Job i. 15; conip. Bacher and Kohut [see bibliog- 
raphy]); Ahriman is her son (B. !>. 73a). She goes 
about at night, fastening herself upon any one sleep- 
ing alone in a room (Shab. 151b). "The Lord will 
protect thee " (Num. vi. 24) means, according to 
Targ. Yer., "... from lilin." The meteor-stone 
is lier arrow and is a remedy against disease 
(Git. 69b). Kohut's assumption that Agrat bat 
Maiilat ("daughter of the dancer"), who roams at 
night with myriads of demons (Pes. 112b, bottom), 
is the queen of the lilin, is not verified. King Sol- 
omon, wiio commanded all spirits, had tiie lilin 
dance before him (Targ. Sheni Estii. i. 3). 

Koliut identifies Lilith with the Parsee Bush- 

yansta, and the Arabic translators render the 

word in Isa. xxxiv. 14 by "ghul," which is identical 

with the "lamia" of the Vulgate. In the Talmud, 

however, there is nothing to indicate 

Middle that Lilith is a vampire. The Ara- 
Ages and. bians, on the contrary, are said to re- 

Modern gard Lilith, under the form of Lalla, as 

Times. a " holy dame " (Sciiwab, " Les Coupes 
tifjuite Orientale," p. 11). The name "Lilith" is 
found also on amulets with terracotta figures 
(idem, "Coupes tl Inscriptions Magicjues," p. 62). In 
the later Middle Ages the my.stics systematically 
amplified demonology on the basis of the traditions 
and the current European superstitions, and they 

also assigned a more definite form to Lilith (see the 
quotations in Eisenmeuger, "Entdecktes Juden- 
thum,"ii. 417 et seq.). The superstitions regarding 
her and her nefarious doings were, with other super- 
stitions, disseminated more and more among the 
mass of the Jewish people. She becomes a nocturnal 
demon, Hying about in the form of a niglit-owl and 
stealing children. She is permitted to kill all chil- 
dren which have been sinfully begotten, even from 
a lawful wife. If a child smiles duiing the night 
of the Sabbath or the New Moon, it is a sign that 
Lilith is playing with it. One should then strike 
the nose of the child three times and drive Lilith 
away by the prescribed rough words (Joseph Cohen, 
"'Emek ha-Melek," p. 84b; comp. Grunwald, "Mit- 
teilungen der Gesellschaft flir Judische Volks- 
kunde," v. 62). Lilith likewise appears to men in 
their dreams; she is the bride of Samael (Schwab, 
" Angelologie " ; comp. Zoliar ii. 267b). It is sjiid 
in a Judaeo-German book (" Hanliagat ha-Hasidim ") 
printed at Frank fort-on-the-Main in the beginning 
of the eighteenth century that Lilith deceives men 
and has children by them; infant mortality is re- 
garded as a consequence of this miscegenation 
(comp. Grunwald, l.r. v. 10, 62). In a certain leg- 
end she appears as the Queen of Sheba, who in the 
guise of a beautiful woman seduced a poor Jew of 
Worms (Grunwald, I.e. ii. 30 et seq.). As she was 
eager to seize new-bt)ru infants, mother and child 
were provided with amulets, which since early times 
were regarded as an efficient protection against 
magic and demons; Lilitii is the chief figure on the 
"childbirth tablets" still hung on the walls of the 
lying-in room in the East and in eastern Europe (see 
Amulets). The name " Lilith " occurs also in non- 
Jewish superstitions (Lammert, " Volksmedicin," 
p. 170 ; Grunwald, l.r. vii., col. 2, n. 4). The concep- 
tion that she was Adam's first wife (comp. Gen. R. 
xxiv. ; Yer. 'Er. 18b) appears to have been spread 
through Buxtorf's "Lexicon Talmudicum," s.v. 
Lilith is a clear instance of the persistence of popu- 
lar superstitious beliefs. 

Bibliography: W.M. Menzies Alexander, Denumiitc Posxes- 
Sinn in the N. T. pp. 15-lC. 2«, 44, 5.5, EdiDburph, 1902 ; Bacher, 
LUith. KOuiiiin vmi Smnmad, in yiotiat.fxvlirift, 1870. xix. 
187-189; VV. W. Baudissin, Stwiien zur S!rmiti.-<chen Rdi- 
gionsgesch. i. 138, Leipsic, 1876 ; liar nalilul'x Syri.tchea W6r- 
tcrb.; G. Brerher, Dnx Trnnsccitdentalr, fU\. pp. 47, 50, 54, 
Vienna, 18.'i0; Eisenmenper, Entdecktet Jwleuthnm, 11.413 
et xrq.; C. Fossev, La Magie, Ax-tyrienne, pp. 28, 37 et seq., 
Paris, 1902; M. Grunwald, MitteiUmgcn der (ieselUchaft fdr 
Jadliche Vnlkskundf. il. 6S, 74 ; v. 10. 62 ; vil. KM ; K. Hom- 
mel. ViirsemitUiche Kultur, p. ;}67; idem. Die Seiniten. t'tc, 
p. 368, Leipsic, 1881; A. Kohut, Ueticr die Jlldi.'fche Aiige- 
lolngie nnd ndniimologie. pp. 8()-89, ili. 18t)fi; M. Schwab, 
Vticahnlaire de VAngrlnlogie, p. lt>2, Paris, 1.S97; idem, Lrs 
Cimiics Magique.'i et VHiidrnmancic dayn' V A^tiquite Ori- 
entale. in Tr. Snc. Bilil. Arch. April, 1890; idem. Coupes d 
Jiiscriptinns MagiqiUit, lb. June, 1891. 
K. a. ir. — s. 8. L. B. 

LILY : Rendering in the Bible of the Hebrew 
word |ch:;MI Kings vii. 19) or nJChK>(II Chron. iv. 5; 
Cant. ii. 1 ; Hosea xiv. 5), which is i)iobably a loan- 
word from the Egyptian "s-sli-sh-sh-n " = " lotus"; 
the white lily, Liliinncnndidi/in Linn., growing wild 
in the Lebanon and other regions of northern Pal- 
estine. In a figurative sense the word "shoslian" 
is used of the capitals of the pillars and of the molten 
sea in the Temple (I Kings vii. 19, 26), and in the 
.Mishnah of a nail-head and the knob on the Etkoo; 
in the Targum it connotes "flower" in general. 




Sometimes, however, Targumic diction, followed by 
the Zohar, gives "shoshan" the meaning of "rose." 

The first account of the lily is given by Ibn Ezra 
in his commentary on the Song of Solomon (comp. 
Salfeld, " Das Hohelied Salomo's bei den Jildischen 
Erklarern des Mittelalters," 1879, p. 68), and is one 
of the few descriptions of plants in Jewish litera- 
ture. It runs thus: "It is a white flower of sweet 
but narcotic perfume, and it receives 
Described its name because the flower has, in 
by every case, six [K't^] petals, within 

Ibn Ezra, which are six long filaments." The 
Midrash alludes once to the abun- 
dance of its sap, and David Kimhi says that it lias 
no roots. Abravanel says that dew makes the lily 
bloom, but rain destroys it. The heart of this 
flower is directed upward, even though it be among 
thorns, thus symbolizing the trust in God which 
should be felt by Israel amid all afflictions (Lev. R. 
xxiii. 1 ; Cant. R. ii. 2). The Zohar speaks of the 
thirteen leaves of the lily which surround the flower 
as the thirteen attributes of God which encompass 
Israel. This number is evidently derived from the de- 
scription of Ibn Ezra with its six petals, six stamens, 
and one pistil. In the " Tikkunim " (xxv. ,end ; xxvi. , 
beginning) the theme is varied, the " shoshannah " 
being taken as denoting both the lily and the rose. 
The lilies among which the beloved feeds (Cant. ii. 
16) are the morning and evening Shema' ; the five 
leaves of the rose are the first five words of the 
Shema' ; and the thirteen leaves of the lily the 
numerical equivalent of "ehad," the last word. 

The identifications of the "lily-of-the-valleys" 
{ib. ii. 1) and the "royal lily " of the Syriac transla- 
tion of Ecclus. (Sirach) xxxix. 14 and the Mishnah 
(Kil. v. 8; "Tikkunim," iii. 78, 1. 2) are uncertain, 
although the latter has been regarded plausibly as 
a species of Fritillarin. 

The lily as the chief of flowers seems to have been 
represented on the shekels and half-shekels ascribed 
to Simon the Hasmonean ; and was common on coats 
of arms in medieval Spain and in modern times. 

About this flower a rich and abundant symbolism 
has gathered. The faces of the righteous are as the 
lily, and exist only for redemption as the lily for 
perfume; so that the later cabalists employ the 
flower as a symbol of the resurrection (Gamaliel di 
Monselice on Pirke Shirah,ed. Mantua, 

Typical p. 96a). Yet most of all the lily typi- 

Applica- fies Israel. As it withers in the sun- 
tion. light, but blooms beneath the dew, so 
Israel withers away except God be- 
comes as dew for her (Hos. xiv. 5), and she is re- 
nowned among the nations as the lily among the 
flowers. The lily among thorns is likened to Re- 
bekah, who remained pure amid evil surroundings 
(Bacher, " Ag. Pal. Amor." ii. 243), and to the sons 
of Korah (Ps. xlv. 1 [A. V., heading]). While it 
was as difficult to save the Israelites from the Egyp- 
tians as a lily from the thorns (Bacher, I.e. ii. 76), 
yet they remained faithful among those that wor- 
shiped strange gods, as the lilies keep their beauty 
despite gashes and wounds (Targ., Cant. ii. 1). 
The title of Ps. Ixxx. is supposed by Aha of Lydda 
to refer to the lily; and the passage in Ps. cxxx. 1, 
"Out of the depths," is explained by him as an al- 

lusion to the lily-of-the-valley. The phrase "set 
about with lilies" (Cant. vii. 2) is applied by the 
Haggadah to the words of the Law ; but it is more 
usually regarded as alluding to the seventy elders of 
the Sanhedrin. In a funeral oration R. Simeon b. 
Lakish (Bacher, I.e. i. 401) interprets Cant. vi. 3 
thus: "My beloved" is God, who has descended 
into "his garden," the world, to the " beds of spices," 
Israel, to feed in "the gardens," the nations of the 
world, and to gather the "lilies," the righteous 
whom he removes by death from the midst of them. 
Similar allegorical interpretations are common, even 
as late as Enoch Zundel Luria in the middle of the 
nineteenth century. The symbolism of the lily has 
passed from the Jews to the Christians, so that the 
angel of the Annunciation is conventionally repre- 
sented as bearing lilies without filaments. 

Bibliography : Fonck. StreifzUqe Lhirchdie Biblische Flora, 
pp. 53 etseq., Freiburg-lm-Breisgau, 1900. 
E. G. n. I. Lo. 

anian rabbinical scholar, one of the so-called Ahaho- 
NiM ; born in the second decade of the seventeenth 
century ; died about 1670. When a comparatively 
young man he successively occupied the rab- 
binates of Brest-Litovsk and Slonim. His fame 
as a scholar soon reached Wilna, whither he 
was called, in 1650, to fill the offioe of chief rabbi. 
Lima was of a retiring and diftident disposition, 
which probably accounts for the paucity of his wri- 
tings. He left a manuscript commentary on Shul- 
han 'Aruk, Eben ha-'Ezer, which his son Raphael 
published (1670) under the title of "Helkat Meho- 
kek," and which, while betraying profound erudi- 
tion, was so condensed that the editor deemed it 
necessary to provide it with explanatory notes. Lima 
did not carry even this work to completion ; it covers 
only the first 126 chapters of the Eben ha-'Ezer. 

Bibliography: Azulai, Sliem ha-Gednlim, i. and Ii., s.v. Hel- 
Ifat Mehokek ; S. Back, in Winter and Wiinsche, Die Jlidu^che 
Utter a'tu'r,'ii. 519; Gans, Zemah Daicid, p. 596; Gratz, 
Gesch. X. 61 et seq.; Jost, Geich. des Judenthums und Seiner 
Sekten, Hi. 244. 
H. R. S. M. 

LIMERICK : Seaport town in Ireland, in which 
Jews began to settle about 1881, after the Russian 
exodus. A synagogue was founded in 1889 in Co- 
looney street, and in the same year a bikkur holim. 
In 1901 it was found necessary to establish a Jew- 
ish board of guardians. On Jan. 11, 1904, Father 
Creagh, of the Redemptorist Order, delivered a vio- 
lent sermon against the Jews, accusing them of 
ritual murder, of blaspheming Jesus, and of rob- 
bing the people of Limerick. On the following day 
there was a riot in which the Jews were attacked by 
mobs, and this was followed by a general boycott 
by the local Roman Catholic confraternity, number- 
ing about 6,000 members. The chief ground for 
complaint against the Jews was the " weekly -instal- 
ment plan " by which they sold their goods. The 
outburst against the Jews drew forth many pro- 
tests from Protestant and Roman Catholic clergy 
and laymen. The Jews of the locality suffered much 
from the boycott. Limerick lias a population of 
45,806, of which about 300 are Jews. 

Bibliography: Jewi.<<h Year Bnnk, 1904; Jew. Chron. 1904, 
Jan. 22 and succeeding numbers. 




LIMOGES. See France. 

LINCOLN : County town of Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land; formerly the second town of importance in 
the country, and on that account largely populated 
by Jews in the preexpulsion period. They appear 
to have settled on tiie Steep Hill, between the old 
Roman colony and the new castle and catliedral. 
The earliest mention of them occurs in 1159, when 
the sherilf of Liucolnsiiire renders count of £40 
for the Jews of Lincoln in the pipe-roll of that 

Aaron of Lincoln conducted his extensive opera- 
tions from this town as a center; and his house, 
though considerably "restored," still remains as one 
of its earliest antiquities (see Aaron of Lincoln). 
He took in pledge the plate of Lincoln Minster (Gi- 
raldus Cambren- 
sis." Opera," cd. 
Dymock, vii. 
36). During 
the outbreaks 
against the Jews 
at the beginning 
of the reign of 
Richard I. tlie 
Lincoln Jews 
saved them- 
selves by seek- 
ing refuge in the 
castle. The in- 
fluence of St. 
Hugh, Bishop of 
Lincoln, may 
liave had some 
effect in re- 
straining the 
mob. At any 
rate, Jews 
mourned his 
death sincerely 
in 1200 (Jacobs, 
"Jews of Ange- 
vin England," 
p. 207). It would 
a ]i p e a r that 
Moses b. Isaac, 
author of the 
"Sefer ha-Sho- 
ham," was the 
son of a Lincoln 
Jew, his mother 
being Contessa 
of Cambridge. 
Much business 
was done not 

only by Aaron of Lincoln, but also by Bene- 
dict fil Isaac, as well as by Aaron's brothers Senior 
and Hencdict, and his sons Elias, Abraham, and 
Vivos. In the Nottingham "donum" of 1194 
Lincoln comes second in point of tribute — £287 
4s. lid., as against £480 9s. 7d. for London— but 
the number of Jewish names mentioned in Lin- 
coln is the largest. Aaron and his family possessed 
a considerable number of houses in the precincts of 
the Bail. Those belonging to Aaron himself es- 
clieated to the crown on his death, and were declared 

to be above 60s. in value. The houses of his brother 
Senior also became the property of the crown; but 
their value was only 10s. 

About 1230 a raid seems to have been made upon 
the Jews' houses in Lincoln, Mosse de Ballio, as well 
as Sara, the wife of Deulacresse, having been mur- 
dered in that year. In the middle of the thirteenth 
century the most important Lincoln Jew was Bene- 
dict fil Mosse, who is undoubtedly to be identified 
with Berechiaii de Nicole mentioned among 
the Tosatists. There is also a Joce de 
Thirteenth Nicole mentioned; and in the cele- 
Century. brated case of Hugh of Lincoln refer- 
ence is made to the school of Peitevin, 
from which it seems probable that there was a bet 
ha-midrash at Lincoln. Several Hebrew " shetarot " 

exist dealing 
with the trans- 
actions of the 
Jews of Lincoln, 
mainly with the 
Abbey of Neu- 
some. When 
Henry III. tail- 
aged the Jews of 
Lincoln, several 
men were made 
responsible for 
the tallage, 
among them Leo 
of Lincoln, said 
to be, at the 
time, one of the 
six richest Jews 
in England. He 
was also con- 
cerned with the 
debts of the Ab- 
bey of Neusome. 
Leo was con- 
demned for some 
crime ; and his 
house in the 
parish of St. 
Martin's es- 
cheated to the 
crown in 1275. 
In 1255 occurred 
the case of Hugh 
OP Lincoln, 
which resulted 
in considerable 
loss of life to 
the Jewish, com- 
munity. Many 
later deeds with 

The Jewish Quarter, Lincoln, Circa l-tK). 

(From Jacob»' " Jewiih Idetli.") 

of these victims are referred to m 
the title "ha-kadosh" or "martyr." 

During the uprising of the barons in 1266 the " dis- 
inherited " attiicked the Jewry of Lincoln, mainly 
for the purpose of destroying the deeds of indebt- 
edness which tended to put the baronage in the 
king's jiower. It is probable that the chest of the 
chirographers of Lincoln was burned at this time 
("Select Pleas," ed. Rigg, p. 41). Bereehiah de 
Nicole liad a son, Hayyim orVives. and a daughter, 
Belaset, probably identified witli the Belaset of Wal- 




lingford whose house is tlie better known of tlie two 
Jews' liouses at Lincoln. She was executed in 1287 
for clipping coin. The betrothal deed of her daugh- 
ter still exists, in which an elaborate written copy 
of the Hebrew Scriptures is one of tiie most impor- 
tant items of the dowry. 

At the expulsion in 1290 no less than sixty-six 
hou.seholders of Lincoln left deeds, bonds for money, 
corn, or wool, aggregating in money £423 15s.; in 
corn £601 9s. 4d. ; and in wool £1,595 6s. All of 
these fell into the liands of the king, besides thirty 
houses the exact value of which can not be ascer- 
tained. IMost of the houses were in tlie Braunce- 
gate or in St. Martin's parish, where indeed the 
ghetto seems to have been. No Jewish community 
has been formed in Lincoln since 1290. 

Bibliography: Jacobs, Jems of Aiiuevin B?i!;/and. passim ; 
M. D. Davis, in Archa'olDyical Jtninial, xxxviii. 178 et seq.; 
Freeman, EituHxh Towns, p. 216; Tnxn:<. Jew. Hint. Soc. 
England, 11. 


German mathematician; born at Hanover in 1759; 
died at Berlin 

Dec. 5, 1849. He 
wrote: " Reshit 
L i m ni u d i m , " 
a textbook of 
natural science 
(part i., physics 
and geoirraphy, 
Berlin,^ 1789; 
Brunn, 1796; 
Cracow. 1820; 
part ii., natural 
with additions 
by Wolf ben 
Joseph [Joseph 
Wolf of Des- 
sau], Dessau, 
1810; complete 
e d . L e m b e r g , 
1869); "ShirHa- 
lamium in honor 
of Judah ben 
Solomon of Han- 
over (n.d., n.p.). 

The hitter drew a draft on Paris for the amount, 
but tliis was dishonored on a frivolous pretext, and 
Lindo does not appear to have ever obtained his 
money. He died in linancial difficulties: his bequest 
to the Bevis ]\[arks Synagogiu; was never paid. His 
son Abraham Alexander Lindo wrote a pamphlet 
entitled " A Word in Season " (London, 1839), but he 
was prohibited by the IMahamad from publishing 
anything more. 

T5iHi,iO(;UAPiiv : Plcciotto, ShelclifKof Anfilo-Jrwish History, 
\<]\ L'7;i-:J:,V, London, 1S75. 

conmiunal worker; born in London Aug. 14, 1772; 
died there Feb. 26, 1852. He was an uncle of Lord 
Beaconstield, wliom he initiated into the covenant 
of Abraham, and was intimately connected with the 
Bevis ]\Iarks Congregation, representing the rigidly 
legal standpoint against the struggle for lleform. 
At its beginning in 1838 he helped to found and be- 
came chairman of a society called "ShomereMishme- 
ret Akodesh," formed to resist all innovations and 
oppose Reform 

Furst. Bihl. Jud. 
11. 350; Steln- 
schnelder, Cnt. 
Bodl. col. 1624; Zeltlin, Bibl 

Jew's House, Steep Hill, Lincoln. 

(From a drawing of the eighteenth century, in the British Museum.) 

Post-Mendels. p. 312. 

S. Man. 

LINDO : One of the oldest and most esteemed of 
London Sepiiardic families ; it traces its descent back 
to Isaac Lindo, who died in 1712. For eight suc- 
cessive generations a member of the family has 
been a sworn broker of the city of London. See 
family chart on following page. 

LINDO, ALEXANDER: English merchant; 
died in "London in ISlf^. He was coiniected with 
the West India trade, and in this connection entered 
into relations with Napoleon after the Treaty of 
Amiens, arranging for the shipment of goods to the 
value of £260,000 to the French West Indies for the 
use of the troops commanded bv General Leclerc. 

tendencies; but 
the Yehidim 
ordered the dis- 
solution of the 
society as likely 
to lead to dis- 
union. Lindo 
had no less than 
eighteen chil- 
dren, eight of 
whom married 
into well-known 
Sephardic fam- 


Catalogue of the 
A Holo-Jeivish 
Historical Exhi- 
bition, pp. .56, 70; 
G aster. Hist, of 
Bevis Marks, pp. 
171-175, London, 



YIM : English 
author and his- 
torian ; born in 
1783; died iu 
London June 11, 
liis life iu the 

1865. He spent the first lialf of 
island of St. Thomas, where he married and became 
one of the leading merchants. He was president of 
the Hebrew congregation and acted also in the hon- 
orary capacity of mohel for many years. 

Lindo settled in England about 1832 and began 
a series of literary labors. He translated the "Con- 
ciliador " of Manasseh ben Israel (London, 1842). In 
1832 he published his "Calendar," a reissue of 
which appeared in 1860. The tables are preceded 
by an essay on the structure of the Jewish calen- 
dar; and appended is a collection of general infor- 
mation. His last published work was the " History 
of the Jews of Spain and Portugal" {ih. 1849), for 
which he visited the Iberian Peninsula and obtained 














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much of his information from original sources; it 
still retains some value. He furthermore made man- 
uscript translations into English of some of the mas- 
terpieces of Hebrew literature, including Bahya's 
"Hobot ha-Lebabot"; Judah ha-Levi's "Cuzari"; 
Isaac Aboab's "Menorat ha-Ma'or." The manu- 
scripts are now in tlie possession of Jews' College, 

Lindo was several times warden of the Portuguese 
congregation of London, and compiled a complete 
catalogue of all the works in its library, with bio- 
graphical memoranda of their authors. 

Bibliography: Jeu\ Cln-nn. June 23, 186;"). 

G. L. 

LINDO, MARK PRAGEB : Dutch writer; 
born in London Sept. 18, 1819; died at The Hague 
March 9, 1879. He went to Holland in 1838 as 
teacher of English, first at Arnhem, and then at the 
Military Academy at Breda ; and he studied Dutch 
literature at Utrecht University (D.Litt. 1854). He 
was inspector of schools in South Holland from 1865 
until his death. Lindo took a somewhat important 
position in Dutch literature as a mediator between 
Holland and England. He translated Dickens, 
Thackeray, Fielding, Sterne, and Scott in versions 
which were more distinguished for vigor than ac- 
curacy. He wrote a number of novels under the 
pseudonj'in "De Oude Heer Smits," among them 
being " Afdrukken van Indrukken " (1854; his most 
popular work; written in conjunction with Lode- 
wyk Mulder); "Brieven en Ontoezemingen " and 
"Familie van 0ns " (1855) ; "Typen " (1871). With 
Lodewyk Mulder also he published the weekly 
" Nederlandsche Spectator. " Lindo wrote a history 
of England in Dutch (2 vols., 1868-74). His col- 
lected works, edited by Mulder, appeared in five 
volumes (Amsterdam, 1879). 

Bibliography : Encyc. Brit. 10th ed., Supplement. 

8. J. 

LINDO, MOSES : Planter and merchant in 
South Carolina ; born probably in England ; died at 
Charleston, S. C, April 26, 1774. He seems to have 
been considered one of the foremost experts in the 
cochineal and indigo trade in London. Becoming 
interested in the prospects of the indigo industry of 
South Carolina, he removed to Charleston in Nov., 
1756, and at once announced his intention of pur- 
chasing indigo for the foreign market. His adver- 
tisements appear repeatedly in the " South Carolina 
Gazette " for 1756. He soon became a wealthy 
planter and slave-owner and ranked among the 
prominent merchants of Charleston. He did more 
than any other individual to encourage and advance 
the indigo industry of the colony, among the most 
important industries in South Carolina in prerevo- 
lutionary times. His transactions were enormous, 
and in 1762 he was appointed "Surveyor and In- 
spector-General of Indigo, Drugs, and Dyes," an 
office he resigned in 1772. 

Lindo seems to have been a man of scientific at- 
tainments, and his experiments with American dyes 
commenced as early as 1757. He maintained a 
correspondence with Emanuel Mendez da Costa, li- 
brarian of the Royal Society and one of the foremost 
naturalists of his day. The " Philosophical Trans- 

actions of the Royal Society " (liii. 238, paper 37) 
contains "An account of a New Die from the Ber- 
ries of a Weed in South Carolina : in a letter from 
Mr. Moses Lindo dated at Charlestown, September 
2, 1763, to Mr. Emanuel Mendez da Costa, Libra- 
rian of the Royal Society." 

An item in the " South Carolina Gazette " (March 
15, 1773) states that Lindo purchased a stone which 
lie believed to be a topaz of immense size, and that 
he sent it to London by the Right Hon. Lord Charles 
Greville Montague to be presented to the Queen of 
England. A number of Lindo's advertisements and 
of items concerning him in the " South Carolina Ga- 
zette " have recently been collected by Rev. B. A. 
Elzas, and reprinted in the " Charleston News and 
Courier," Jan. 18, 1903. 

Bibliography : Kayserling, Zur Gesch. der JUdUiche^i Aerzte, 
in Mimntsschrift, vli. 105; Hiibner, The Jewn of South 
Carolina Prior to 1SOO\ N. Taylor Phillips, Puhlications 
Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. 11. 51-52. 

A. L. Hu. 

LINEN : Cloth made of flax. The Biblical terms 
are "bad" (LXX. Xiveor, A. V. "linen"), "shesh," 
and "buz" (LXX. ^vaaog or ^vaaivo^; A. V. "fine 
linen "). In the construction of the Tabernacle linen 
was used for the inner cover (Ex. xxvi. 1) ; the hang- 
ing or screen closing the entrance to the Tabernacle 
(Ex. xxvi. 36); the veil which divided the "Holy" 
from the "Holy of Holies" (Ex. xxvi. 31); and the 
hangings of the court together with the curtain for 
the entrance to it (Ex. xxvii. 9, 16, and parallels). 
It was used also in the priests' vestments (Ex. 
xxviii. 42, xxxix. 27-29; Lev. xvi. 4). According 
to II Chron. iii. 14 (comp. ii. 14), a curtain of buz 
also divided the Holy of Holies ("debir") from the 
Holy in the Temple of Solomon ; and from I Mace, 
(i. 22, iv. 51) and Josephus ("B.J." v. 5, §§ 4 et seq.) 
it can be seen that in the two succeeding Temples 
both the Holy and Holy of Holies were divided by 
curtains of byssus. 

From Ex. xxxix. 27-29, compared with Ex. 
xxviii. 42 and Lev. xvi. 4, it would appear that 
"bad" and "shesh," the latter being identified with 
Coptic " shens " and first mentioned in connection 
with Egypt (Gen. xH. 42), are, if not identical, manu- 
factural varieties of the same substance. "Buz," 
again, which occurs only in later books, is assumed 
to be a later equivalent of " shesh " (comp. II Chron. 
ii. 14, iii. 14, v. 12 with Ex. xxv. 4, xxvi. 31, xxviii. 
42, etc.) ; in I Chron. xv. 27 it corresponds to " bad " 
in II Sam. vi. 14. It may also be a different local 
name for the same fabric (comp. Ezek. xxvii. 7 
and 16). 

The view of manj^ modern exegeles that the He- 
brew terms denote "linen" is sujiported not only 
by the Septuagint renderings of Xiveog and ^va- 
aoq, which latter generally means "linen" (comp., 
for instance, Herodotus, ii. 86: Thomson, "Mum- 
my Cloths of Egypt," in "London and Edinburgh 
Philosophical Magazine," 3d series, vol. v., p. 355; 
Budge, "The Mummy," p. 190, Cambridge, 1893), 
but also by the facts that in the Temple of Eze- 
kiel the priests, while ministering, wore linen gar- 
ments (Ezek. xliv. 17), and that cotton is mentioned 
in the Old Testament under the name of " karpas " 
(Esth. i. 6). Still, as the ancients did not always 




sharply distinguish between linen and cotton, it is 
possible that both were used in the Sanctuary and 
that the terms designate in general "white stuff." 

It was enacted that garments should be made 
of only one kind of stuff (Lev. xix. 19), and later 
tradition (Josephus, " Ant." iii. 6, §;§ 1 et seq. ; 7, §§ 1 
etseq. ; idem, "B. J." v. 5, § 7; Pliilo, "De Vita Moy- 
sis," ii. 151 ; idem, "Duo de Monarchia," ii. 225 [ed. 
Mangey]) and the Talmud have it that only wool 
(for the variegated ornaments) and linen entered 
into the textiles used in the Tabernacle and Temple 
(conip. Yoma 34b; Kil. ix. 1; comp. also Ibn Ezra 
on Ex. XXV. 4). Accordingto Josephus ("Ant." xx. 
9, t^ 6), Agrippa II. permitted the Levites also to 
wear linen garments (comp. II Chron. v. 12; see 

Bibliography : John Braun, De VestUu Sncerd. Hebr.i., ch. 
vi., Amsterdam, 1680; J. R. Forster, De Bysso Antiqiwrum, 
London, 1776; Haneberg, Die ReliffiOsen AUerthiimer der 
Bibel, p. 536, Munich, 1869; Tristram, Nat. HM. pp. 440, 465, 
London. 1867; Yates, Textrinum Antiquorum, London, 1843. 

E. O. H. I. M. C. 

humorist; born at Vinnitza Sept. 8, 1839, in which 
town his father, Joseph Linetzki, was a Hasidic 
rabbi. At the age of eighteen Isaac ran away from 
home and went to Odessa. Thence he intended to go 
to Breslau to study at the rabbinical seminary, but 
was intercepted at tlie frontier by his father's fanat- 
ical friends, who forced him to return home. Li- 
netzki then attended the rabbinical school at Jito- 
mir (1862-63); and while there he wrote his first 
poems. Avliich were published in his " Beizer Mar- 
shelik" (Odessa, 1868). Zweifel and Slonimsky 
took a great interest in Linetzki, who on the latter's 
recommendation obtained a position in the office of 
M. Weinstin at Kiev. 

In 1866 Linetzki became a contributor to "Kol 
Mebasser," a Yiddish weekly published in Odessa, 
and in 1868 he began the publication of his famous 
novel " Das Polische Jiingel." The success of this 
work was unprecedented in Yiddish literature. Be- 
ing a true account of the life of a Hasidic youth 
and entirely based upon actual experience, " Das 
Polische Jiingel " is, in the opinion of the most emi- 
nent critics, one of the best humoristic works in 
Yiddish (L. Wiener, "Hist, of Yiddish Literature," 
p. 165). 

In IHTo Linetzki published at Lemberg conjointly 
with Goldfaden a Judao-German weekl}', "Yisro- 
lik." In 1876-77 lie published his " Pritshcpe " and 
"Statek,"and the first number of his calendar, which 
he continued to issue for a number of years. In the 
period between 1882 and 1888 he published several 
works, including "Amerika zi Erez Isroel " ; a 
geography of Palestine; and translations of Les- 
sing's "Nathan der AVeise " and Griltz's "Gesch. 
der Judcn." His " Worem Chreiu," a sequel to 
"Das Polische Jiingel." was published as a serial 
in the "Jlidische Volksbibliotek " (1888, vol. i.). 
Shorter sketches from his pen have appeared in the 
"Fjiinilienfreuiid," in the "Hausfreuud," and in the 

Binr.ior.RAPHY : Linetzhi Yuhileum, Odessa, 1891; Wiener. 
Iliyl. «f YiddiHh Literature, New York, 1899; Voskhoa, 
1884. No. 2. 
H. K. M. Z. 

LION. — Biblical Data : There are several names 
for the lion in the Old Testament (comp. Job iv. 10 et 
seq.): "aryeh," or "ari," which is the most general 
name; "labi' " and "lebiyah," for the old lion and 
lioness; " kefir " and "gur," for the young, strong 
lion and whelp respectively; while "layish" and 
"shuhal " occur in more poetic diction. 

The lion is one of the most frequently mentioned 
animals in the Bible, which would indicate its 
former abundance in Palestine. Its favorite haunts 
were the bushy environments of the Jordan (Jer. 
xlix. 19, 1. 44; Zech. xi. 3), caves and thickets (Jer. 
iv. 7, XXV. 38; Ps. x. 9, xvii. 12), in general the 
woods (Jer. xii. 8; Amos iii. 8) and the desert (Isa. 
xxx. 6). Place-names which may be connected with 
the lion are: Arieh (II Kings xv. 25), Lebaoth and 
Beth-lebaoth (Josh. xv. 32, xix. 6), Chephirah 
(Josh. ix. 17, xviii. 28; Ezra ii. 25; Neh. vii. 29), 
and Laish. the original name of northern Dan 
(Judges xviii. 29). 

Many habits of the lion are incidentally men- 
tioned in the Old Testament. The male assists in 
the rearing and training of the young (Ezek. xix. 2; 
Nah. ii. 13) ; it lies in wait in secret places (Deut. 
xxxiii. 22; Lam. iii. 10); growls over its prey (Isa. 
xxxi. 4); breaks the bones of its victims (Isa. 
xxxviii. 13), and carries them to its lair (Gen. xlix. 
9). It not only was the terror of flocks (Mic. v. 8), 
but also attacked men (I Kings xiii. 24, xx. 36; II 
Kings xvii. 25). It was, however, fought by shep- 
herds with sling and staff (I Sam. xvii. 34; Ainos 
iii. 12), and was sometimes killed by daring men 
(Judges xiv. 5; II Sam. xxiii. 20). From Ezek. 
xix. 4, 8 it may be inferred that the usual manner of 
catching the animal alive was by pit and net. The 
custom of Oriental kings of throwing those fallen 
into disgrace to lions which were kept in dens, is 
illustrated in Dan. vi. 8 et seq. 

The lion is the emblem of strength, courage, and 
majesty (Prov. xxii. 13, xxvi. 13, xxx. 30). Judahis 
compared to a lion (Gen. xlix. 9) ; so also are Gad and 
Dan (Deut. xxxiii. 20, 23), Saul and Jonathan (II 
Sam. i. 23). Israel (Num. xxiii. 24, xxiv. 9), and even 
God Himself (Isa. xxxi. 4; Hos. v. 14, xi. 10). Sim- 
iles are derived from its terrific visage (I Chron. 
xii. 9), and especially from its terror-inspiring roar. 
The latter is ascribed to enemies (Isa. v. 29; Zeph. 
iii. 3; Ps. xxii. 13; Prov. xxviii. 15); to false proph- 
ets (Ezek. xxii. 25); to the wrath of a king (Prov. 
xix. 12, xx. 2); to God (Jer. xxv. 30; Joel iv. 16; 
Amos i. 2, iii. 8). In the Psalter the lion is often 
the symbol of the cruel and oppressive, the mighty 
and ricii (e.g., Ps. x. 9, xxxiv. 11, xxxv. 17). 

As an element of decorative art the figure of the 
lion entered into the design of the brazen Lavkk 
in the Temple of Solomon and of Solomon's throne 
(I Kiniis vii. 29, x. 20, and parallels). 

K. r,'. 11. I. M. C. 

In Rabbinical Literature : The Talmud 

states six names of the lion, namely: "aryeh," 
"kefir," "labi"." "layish." "shahal," and "shahaf " 
(Sanh. 95a; Ab. R. N. xxxix.,end). The most gen- 
eral terms, Iiowever, are "are," "arya'" (B. K. 
4a), and "arveh"; for tlic lioness, "lebij'ah" (B. 
K. 161)). "giiryata" (Shab. 67a), and " kalba " 
(Yalk. ii. 721); and for the young lion, "gurya" 




(Sanh. G4a). In Hul. 59b an animal called " tigris " 
is delined as " the lion of Be-'llai " Ok!?>j; UT 'N). By 
"Be-'llai " is probably meant a mouutaiu height or 
mountain forest, perhaps specially the Lebanon 
(comp. "bala," ib. 80a, and see Goat); and if by 
" tigris " the tiger is meant, it would appear that 
tlie Talmudical writers did not know this animal 
from personal observation, and it was therefore en- 
dowed by them with fabulous proportions and qual- 
ities. Thus it is said in the same passages that the 
distance between the lobes of its lungs was nine 
cubits, and that its roar at a distance of 400 parasangs 
brought down the walls of Rome. Kohut (" Ueber 
die Judische Angelologie und Damonologie," etc.. 
p. 103; comp. also idem, "Aruch Completum," iv. 
15) surmises that "tigris " is the Persian "thrigat," 
i.e., the mythical three-legged animal (comp. also 
Schorr in "He-Haluz," vii. 32). 

The lion is often enumerated among the danger- 
ous animals (B. K. 15b and parallels). It is espe- 
cially dangerous in rutting-time (Sanh. 106a). It 
begins to devour its prey alive (Pes. 49b), carrying 
part of it to the lair for the lioness and the whelps 
(B. K. 16b; Sanh. 90b). Sometimes, however, the 
lion will stay among flocks without injuring them 
(Hul. 53a); it attacks man only when driven by 
hunger (Yeb. 121b), and never two men when they 
are together (Shab. 151b). Though the lion can be 
tamed (Sanh. 15b; comp. the expression "ari tar- 
but," B. K. 16b), it is, on account of its dangerous- 
ness, kept in a cage (Shab. 106b), and when so con- 
fined is fed with the flesh of wild asses (Men. 103b). 
It is forbidden to sell lions to the pagans because 
the latter use them in their circuses (' Ab. Zarah 16a). 
In passing a lion's den ("gob") one should recite a 
benediction of thanksgiving in memory of the mira- 
cle which happened to Daniel when he was thrown 
into such a den (Ber. 57b). The term of gestation 
of the lion is three years (Bek. 8a). Its tormentor 
is the "mafgia'," or little Ethiopian gnat (Shab. 
77b). For the medicinal use of the milk of tlie lion- 
ess seeYalk. 721. 

The Talmud makes about the same figurative 
use of the lion as does the Old Testament. The lion 
is the king of animals (Hag. 13b) and the symbol of 
true mental greatness; and in this regard it is con- 
trasted with the fox (Shab. 111b; Ab. iv. 15; Git. 
83b); it is the type of strength and awe (Pes. 112a; 
Shebu. 22b; B. K. 85a). The sound of God's voice 
is likened to the roaring of the lion (Ber. 3a, b). 
The name of the lion is applied to God, Israel, and 
the Temple (comp. Isa. xxix. 1 : "ariel"; Pe.sik. R. 
28 [ed. Friedmann, p. 133J and parallels). The 
lion also symbolizes the niighly spirit of tempta- 
tion and seduction to idolatry (Sunli. 64a; comp. 
I Peter v. 8). The Temple of Ezekiel is compared 
to the lion in its structure, both being broad in front 
and narrow behind (Mid. iv. 7). The lion is also the 
fifth sign ("Leo") of the zodiac, corresponding to 
the fifth month, Ab (Pcsik. R. I.e. ; Yalk., Ex. 418). 

Bibliography: Tristram, Nat. Hist. p. 115; Lewysohn, Z. T. 
pp. 68 and 70. 
K. s. I. M. C. 

LION, HENRI JULIUS: Dutch journalist : 
born March 23, 1806, at Elberfeld ; died Oct. 19, 1869. 
In 1824 he entered the Prussian army, and in 1830 

that of Holland. In 1834 he went to India, and was 
honorably discharged as an oflicer at his own re- 
quest in 1841. After this he devoted himself to in- 
dustrial enterprises, having acquired a great practi- 
cal knowledge of Indian affairs. He was the Nes- 
tor of Indian journalism, being the founder of the 
"Bataviaaseh Handelsblad." To his great perse- 
verance must be ascribed the appointment of a com- 
mittee to consider the establishment of a railway in 

Bibliography : Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek, 
s. E. Si-. 

LION, ISAAC JACOB: Dutch journalist; 
born at Amersfort Dec. 17, 1821 ; died at The Hague 
Aug. 27, 1873. Settling in Amsterdam, he occupied 
himself with literary work, and became in 1840 edi- 
tor of the "Handelsblad." In 1849 he applied him- 
self to stenography, and in the following year was 
appointed shorthand writer to the Second Chamber 
(Tweede Kamer der Staten Generaal). Jointly with 
the lawyer D. Leon he established in 1850 the 
weekly "De Gemeente Stem." He was also corre- 
spondent for several weeklies and dailies. In 1856 
he became editor of the "Indier," and in 1860 pro- 
prietor of the " 'sGravenhaagsche Nieuwsbode," 
which paper he combined with the "Indier" and 
published as the "Dagblad van 'sGravenhage en 
Zuid-HoUand." This paper is still (1904) in exist- 

Bibliography: Van der Aa, Bwaraphisch Wt.oiih-.iiboek, 
xxi. (gives list of works covering 3 pages); Dagblad vayi 
'sGravenhage, Aug. 28, 1873. 
S. E. Sl. 

LIPINER, SIEGFRIED : Austrian poet ; born 
at Yaroslav, Galicia, Oct. 24, 1856; educated at the 
gymnasia in Tarnow and Vienna and at the univer- 
sities of Leipsic and Strasburg. In 1881 he was ap- 
pointed librarian to the Austrian Reichsrath, which 
post he still occupies (1904). In 1894 the title of 
" Regierungsrath " was conferred upon him. Lipi- 
ner has written: "Der Entfesselte Prometheus" 
(1876); "Renatus" (1878); "DasBuch der Freude " 
(1880); "Totenfeier" (1887), all published at Leip- 
sic. In 1883 he translated the " Pan Thaddeus " of 
Mickiewitz, and in 1886 wrote the libretto for Gold- 
mark's "Merlin." 

Bibliography : Meyers Konversation,<i-LexUi<>iu 
s. F. T. H. 

LIPKIN : Russo-Jewish family which derives 
its origin from Dob Bar Lipkiu, rabbi of Plungian 
in the first half of the eighteenth century (see Eze- 
kiel Katzenellenbogen, " Keueset Ezekiel," No. 7). 
The pedigree of the most important members of the 
family will be found on the following page. 

Israel Lipkin (known as Rabbi Israel Sa- 
lanter, after his place of residence, Salaty): Rus- 
sian rabbi; born at Zhagory at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century; died at Konigsberg, Prus- 
sia, Feb. 2, 1883. He received his first training from 
his father, Zeeb Wolf, who was rabbi at Zhagory. 
After his marriage Lipkiu settled at Salaty, where 
lie continued his studies under Rabbi llirsch Broda 
and Rabbi Joseph Zundel (died in Jerusalem 1866). 
Zundel exerted a deep influence on the development 
of Lipkin's character; and the latter sliowed his ap- 




preciation of bis teacher by referring to bim in the 
preface to his periodical "Tebunab" as the light 
which he followed all his days. 

In 1842 Lipkin was called to Wilna as bead of the 
yeshibah Tomeke Torah. During his incumbency 
he established a new yeshibah at Zarechye, a suburb 
of Wilna, where he lectured for about three years. 

Lipkin's great service lay in his insistence on the 
practical application of the moral teachings of Ju- 
daism and in his emphasis of the necessity of manual 
labor on the part of the Jews. He established socie- 
ties for the study of religious ethics, with but little 
regard for worldly affairs; and at his suggestion the 
works on religious ethics of Moses Hayyim Luz- 
zatto, jVIendel Lefin, and Solomon ibn Gabirol were 
reprinted at Wilna. 

When, in 1848, the Russian government estabhshed 
the rabbinical school at Wilna, Lipkin declined an 
invitation to become instructor in Talmud and rab- 
binical law. He settled in Kovno and established a 
yesbibah, connected with the bet ha-midrash of 
Hirsch Naviazsky, of which be retained charge un- 

leaders urging tliem to keep lists of recruits so as to 
leave no pretext for the contention that the Jews 
shirked such service. He was considered one of the 
most eminent Orthodox rabbis of the nineteenth 
century because of his broad Taimudic scholarship, 
his deep piety, and his personal iniiuence for good; 
and he was probably the only rabbi of his time that 
exerted a wide influence on his fellow rabbis and on 
the Jewish communities of Russia. His disciples 
collected and published some of his sayings, com- 
mentaries, and sermons in " Eben Yisrael " (Warsaw, 
1853) and in " 'Ez Peri" (Wilna, 1880). 

Bibliography ; Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 697, Warsaw, 1886 ; 
H. M. Steinschneider, 'Ir Wilna, p. 128 ; Feldberg, in ICedosh 
Yisrael, Wilna, 1884. 
H. R. J. G. L. 

liipmann Lipkin : Russian mathematician ; born 
at Salaty, government of Kovno, 1846; died at 
St. Petersburg Feb. 9 (21), 1876; son of Israel Sa- 
lanter. Lipkin's early training consisted in tlie 
study of the Bible, the Talmud, and other religious 
books. At an early age he began to show a deci- 

Samuel, rabbi at Plungian 

Zeeb Wolf 

daughter = 
David of 


daugliter = 

Jacob Neii- 


daughter = 
Samuel Hasid 
of Rossiena 



daughter — 


rabbi at Ritawe 




rabbi at Polotsk 

Nathan Nata, 

rabbi at' 


Israel = Ida Birkhahn, 

(d. 1847) 

Jacob, rabbi 
I at Bausk 

Elijah Kalischer (1862) 

d. 18.50) 

Zeeb Wolf, 
rabbi at Telshi 


Israel (Salan- 

ter) Lipkin 

(d. 1883) 

Llpmann Lipkin 
(d. St. Peters- 

Reuben Goldberg 
(d. Riga) 

Asne = Itzig 



Jacob of Propoisk 
(d. 189.')) 

David Rabinowitz, 
rabbi at (ilusk 

Joshua, rabbi at 
Kletzk and Neshwizh 
(d. 1887) 

Mordecai Zebi, 
rabbi at DubVovna 
(d. Grodno 1899) 

H. R. 

Pedigree of the Lipkin Family. 

til 1857, when failing health compelled him to re- 
move to Germany for medical treatment. He re- 
mained in the house of the philanthropists, the 
Hirsch brothers of Halberstadt, until liis health im- 
proveil, and then (in 1861) began the publication 
of the Hebrew monthly "Tebunab," devoted to 
rabbinical law and religious etliics. On account 
of his failing health this periodical was dis- 
continued at the end of a year, and Lipkin again 
lived for a time tiie life of a wanderer, visiting 
ycshibot and offering advice to teachers and students 
wherever his assistance was sought. Toward the 
end of his life Lipkin was called to Paris to organ- 
ize a community among the Russian immigrants, 
and he remained there for two years. 

Lipkin was a singular combination of the ultra- 
Orthodox Jew and tlie man of tiie world, particu- 
larly in regard to the duties of citizenship. He 
preached love for the fatherlaml and respect for the 
laws of the country. When tlie ukase milking mil- 
itary service universally obligatory appeared, Lip- 
kin wrotp an apjieul to the rabbis and community 

ded inclination for scientific subjects, particularly 
mathematics. Not knowing any European lan- 
guage, he liad to derive his information from He- 
brew books alone. Notwithstanding the incomplete 
nature of such sources, and without other aid, Lip- 
kin not only succeeded in mastering the elementary 
sciences, but also acquired a knowledge of the 
higher mathematics. lie also began the study of 
modern languages, especially German and French. 
Subsequently he went to KOnigsberg, where through 
the influence of Professor Rischelo he was admitted 
to the lectures. Somewhat later Lipkin entered the 
Berlin Gewerbe- Academic, and then Jena Univer- 
sity, where he received the degree of Ph.D., liis 
dissertation being " Ueber die Raumlichen Strophoi- 
den." From Jena Lipkin went to St. Petersburg, 
and because of his great ability was permitted to 
take the examination for master of mathematics in 
spite of tiie fact that he possessed only tlie degree 
of "candidate," had not studied in any Russian 
school, and was not even thoroughly conversant 
with the Russian language. In 1873 he passed his 




examination brilliantly. His dissertation was al- 
most completed when he was attacked by smallpox, 
of which he died. 

Lipkin's name tirst became known in the mathe- 
matical world through his mechanical device for the 
change of linear into circular motion, this mecha- 
nism having been invented by him while he was still 
a pupil at the technical high school. He described 
his invention in the journal of the Russian Acad- 
emy ("Melanges Mathematiques de I'Academie Im- 
periale a St. Petersbourg," 1870), under the title 
"Ueber eine Gelenkgeradefuhrung von L. Lipkin." 
The Russian mathematician Chebyshev had tried to 
show that an exact solution was impossible ; and his 
views were accepted until Lipkin's discovery proved 
the contrary. This invention has been described in 
numerous text-books, such as CoUignon's "Traite 
de Mecanique, Cinematique " (Paris, 1873), where it 
is called "Lipkin's Parallelogram." 

A model of Lipkin's invention was exhibited at 
the exposition at Vienna in 1873, and was later se- 
cured from the inventor by the IVIuseum of the In- 
stitute of Engineers of Ways of Communication, 
St. Petersburg. 

Lipkin never lost his deep interest in purely Jewish 
affairs, as is shown by his contributions to "Ha- 

Bibliography : Yevreiskaya Bihlioteka, v. 191 (translated 
into German in AUg. Zeit. des Jud. 1876, p. 13); Ha-ZefiraJt, 
H. R. J- G. L. 

LIPMAN, CLARA: American actress; born 
in Chicago. She made her debut as an ingenue 
with Modjeska in 1888, and subsequently played 
similar parts in A. M. Palmer's company. She cre- 
ated the principal role in "Incog " (1891), but before 
this had interpreted leading parts in classic drama 
in various English and German companies. In 1898 
she created the part of Julie Bon Bon in " The Girl 
from Paris." With her husband, Louis Mann, she 
starred for five years, appearing in " All on Account 
of Eliza," "The Red Kloof," "The Telephone Girl," 
"The Girl in the Barracks," "Master and Pupil," 
etc. During the season of 1902-3 she withdrew 
from the stage on account of an accident to one of 
her arms. Clara Lipman is the author of a play 
entitled " Pepi " (1898). 

A. F. H. V. 

jurist; born in London April 27, 1802; died at Hil- 
versum July 7, 1871. He was educated at Glueck- 
stadt, Hamburg, and Amsterdam; studied law at 
Leyden (1819-22), and in 1823 established himself as 
a lawyer at Amsterdam, where he soon became fa- 
mous as a pleader. In May, 1852, he was converted 
to Roman Catholicism. He then removed to The 
Hague, and devoted himself after 1862 entirely to 

religious study. 

Lipman published, besides many pamphlets(a com- 
plete list of which is given in " Levensberichten "): 
" Geschiedenis van de Staatkunde der Voornaamste 
Mogendheden van Europa Sedert den Val van Na- 
poleon," 2 vols., Zutphen, 1834; " Het Nieuwe Tes- 
tament 'Vertaald." 's Hertogenbosch, 1859; "Consti- 
tutioneel Archief van Alle Koninklijke Aanspra- 
VIII— 7 

ken en Parlementaire Adressen," 4 vols., 1847-63 

(2d ed.. The Hague, 1864). 

Bibliography: Dc Tijd, July 18. 1871; De IVachter, Aug. 
1, 1871 ; Levensberichten van de Maatuchappij soor Lel- 
ierkunde, 1872; Van der Aa, Biographisch ^Voordenhoek, 

s. E. Sl. 

BEN SOLOMON : Austrian controversialist, Tal- 
mudist, and cabalist of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. According to Bishop Bodecker of Bran- 
denburg, who wrote a refutation of Lipmann's " Niz- 
zahon," Lipmann lived at Cracow. But Naphtali 
Hirsch Treves, in the introduction to his "Siddur," 
calls him Lipmann-Mulhausen of Prague, adding 
that he lived in the part of the town called " Wys- 
chigrod." Manuscript No. 223 in the Halberstam 
collection contains a document issued at Prague in 
1413 and signed by Lipmann-Mulhausen, asdayyan. 
It is seen from his "Nizzahon " that, besides his rab- 
binical studies, Lipmann occupied liim- 
His At- self with the study of the Bible, that 
tainments. he was acquainted with Karaite liter- 
ature, that he read the New Testa- 
ment, and that he knew Latin. His authority in 
rabbinical matters is shown by his circular to the 
rabbis warning them against the use of any shofar 
not made of a ram's horn (comp. Luzzatto in "Ke- 
rem Hemed," vii. 56). There are also responsa ad- 
dressed to him by Jacob b. Moses Molln (Neubauer, 
"Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 907, 5), and Israel Is- 
.scrlein mentions him ("Terumat ha-Deshen," No. 
24) as one of five scholars who met at Erfurt. In 
1399 (Aug. 16) Lipmann and many other Jews were 
thrown into prison at the instigation of a converted 
Jew named Peter, who accused them of insulting 
Christianity in their works. Lipmann was ordered 
to justify himself, but while he brilliantly refuted 
Peter's accusations, as a result of the charges sev- 
enty-seven Jews were martyred on Aug. 22, 1400, 
and three more, by fire, on Sept. 11 in the same 
year. Of the accused Lipmann alone escaped death. 

Lipmann was the author of : "Seferha-Nizzahon," 
a refutation of Christianity and Karaism and a 
demonstration of the superiority of rabbinical Juda- 
ism; "Zikron Sefer ha-Nizzahon," a 
His refutation of Christianity, an abstract 

"Works. in verse of the preceding work (pp. 
107-117 in the "Tela Ignea Satana? " 
of Wagenseil, who supplied a Latin translation and 
added a long refutation, Freiburg, 1681; Geiger, 
in Bresslauer's "Deutscher Volkskalender," iii. 48, 
declares Lipmann's authorship of this poem doubt- 
ful); a commentary to the "Shir ha-Yihud" (Frei- 
burg, 1560). In Samson b. Eleazar's " Baruk slie- 
Amar" (Shklov, 1804) there is a cabalistic treatise 
on the Hebrew alphabet, entitled "Sefer Alfa Beta," 
the author of which is given as Y^b^ ^ino. Sachs 
and Steinschneider concluded that the author was 
Lipmann-Ml\lhausen. This work discusses: (1) the 
form of the letters, (2) the reason for their form, (3) 
the mystery of their composition, order, and numer- 
ical value, knd (4) the cabalistic explanation of their 
form. In this work the author frequently mentions 

cabalistic work entitled "Sefer ha-Eshkol " and 

oommcntarv to the "Sefer Yezirah." Menahcm 


Ziyyoni's "Zefune Ziyyoni " is ascribed, in a pam- 

Lipmann-Miilhau sen 
liippmann, Gabriel 



phlet quoted by Reuben Hoshke (Yalk., Reubeni, 
section " Naso "), to a certain R. Tabyomi, whom 
Steiuscbueider ("Cat. Bodl."col. 1411) identifies with 
Lipmann-Mulhauson. Lipmann promises, in his 
"Nizzahon" (§ 197), a commentary to Pirke Abot, 
but sucii a work is not extant. Finally, it may be 
added that Manuscript 820 in Oppenheimer's collec- 
tion was supposed to be a Biblical commentary by 
the author of the "Sefer ha-Nizzahon," but Dukes 
("Orient, Lit." xi. 299) declares that it is nothing 
else than the "Kizzahon" itself. 

Lipmann 's reputation is dependent, mainly, upon 
his "Nlzzahon." Tluit a rabbi in the fifteenth cen- 
tury should occupy himself with Latin and the 
New Testament was certainly a rare thing. Lip- 
mann was compelled to justify himself (§ 3) by re- 
ferring to the saying of R. Eliezer, "Know what 
thou Shalt answer to the heretic " (Abot 
Contents of ii. 14). The whole work consists of 
the " Niz- 354 paragraphs, the number of days 
zahon." in the lunar year, each paragraph, 
with the exception of the last eight, 
beginning with a passage of the Bible, upon whicli 
the author founds his argument. Thus his argu- 
ments rest upon 346 passages taken from all the 
books of the Old Testament. The last eight para- 
graphs contain his dispute with the convert Peter. 
In the introduction Lipmann says that he divided 
the work into seven parts to represent the seven days 
of the week. The part for the first day contains the 
arguments against Christians; that for the second 
day against the Karaite interpretation of the 
Bii)le; those for the remaining five days contain 
severally interpretations of obscure Biblical passages 
that are likely to mislead students; the reasons for 
the commandments ; arguments against atheists ; 
arguments against the Karaites and their rejection 
of the Talmud ; and an account of the sixteen things 
wliich compreliend the whole of Judaism and which, 
after being indicated in the Pentateuch, are repeated 
in the Prophets and Hagiographa. 

Very characteristic is Lipmann's refutation of the 
assumed miraculous birth of Jesus, as well as Iiis 
demonstration of the falsity of the conclusions of 
the Christians who claim that the birtli of Jesus was 
foretold by the Prophets. He constantly quotea 
Maimonides, Ibn Ezra, Nahmanides, Saadia, Rashi, 
Shemariah of Negropont, and otlier ancient schol- 
ars. Lipmann must have written his "Sefer ha- 
Nizzahon " before 1410, for lie expressed a hope 
that the Messiah would arrive in tiiat year (§ 335). 
It was first published by Ilackspan (Altdorf, 1644), 
who with great difficulty obtained tlic manuscript 
from the rabbi of Schneittach. Wagenseil published, 
at the end of his "Sota" (Altdorf- 
Transla- Nuremberg, 1674), corrections of 
tions and Ilackspan's edition under the title of 
Refuta- "Correctiones Lipniannianje." Later, 
tions. tiie "Nizzahoii" was reprinted, with 
tlie addition of Kimhi's "Wikkuah," 
in Amsterdam (1709 and 1711) and Konigsberg(1847). 
Sebald Sneile published tlie Hcl)rew text with a Latin 
translation and refutation of tlie paragraph (§ 8) de- 
nying the miraculous birtli of Jesus (Altdorf, 1643); 
and at various dates he published Latin translations 
of the paragraphs directed against Christianity. A 

Latin translation of the whole work, with the ex- 
ception of the passages taken from the Pentateuch, 
was made b\' John Heinrich Blendinger (Altdorf, 
1645). As will be readily understood, the work gave 
rise to many polemics and called forlli replies from 
Christians. The first was Stephen Bodecker, Bishop 
of Brandenburg, a younger contemporary of Lip- 
mann, who wrote a refutation of the " Nizzahon " 
(comp. Wolf, "Bibl. Hebr." i. 736). The following 
other refutations are published : Wilhelm Schickard, 
" Triumphator Vapulanssive Ref utatio, " etc. (Tubin- 
gen, 1629); Stephen Gerlow, "Disputatio Contra 
Lipmanni Nizzachon" (Konigsberg, 1647) ; Christian 
Schotan, " Anti-Lipmanniana" (Franeker, 1659), 
giving also the Hebrew text of the "Nizzahon." 

Bibliography: Fuenn, Kenesct Yiarael, p. 443: Fiirst, Bihl. 
Jud. ii. 403; Gratz, Gesch. M ed., viii. 71-72: Sachs, in Ke- 
rem Hcmed, viii. 306 et seq.\ Steinschneider, Cat. Bndl. cols. 
1410-1414; Idem, Jewish Literature, pp. 113, 129, 145: Wolf, 
Bibl. Hchr. i., iil., No. 13(54 ; Zunz, Z. G. pp. 124, 129, 194, 380. 

D. M. Sel. 

L.IPOVETZ : Town in the government of Kiev,. 
Russia. In 1897 it had a total population of 6,068, 
of which 4,500 were Jews. There were 670 Jewish 
artisans and 71 Jewish day-laborers; of the latter 25 
engaged in field-work during the harvest season. 
The economic condition of the Jews there has been 
unfavorably affected by the abolition of annual and 
weekly fairs, and in 1900 the poverty of the popu- 
lation became so great that a mob of several hun- 
dred collected at the house of the local police official 
and demanded bread and the reestablishment of the 
fairs. The Jewish artisans are engaged extensively 
in the manufacture of a new kind of footwear, one 
variety of which, worn by the peasantry, is known 
as "postaly," and another, worn by the more pros- 
perous, as " skorokhody." The 25 hadarim afforded 
instruction to 475 children, and 59 Jewish pupils at- 
tended the city school. The Talmud Torah, found- 
ed in 1898, had 97 pupils. In 1768 Lipovetz suffered 
with other Ukraiuean towns from the attacks of the 

Bibliography: Voskhnd (monthly), 1890, ii. 94; Vo^khod 
(weekly), 1900, Nos. 12, 17. 
H. H. S. J. 

LIPPE (Lippe-Detmold.) : Small sovereigii 
principality in northwest Germany, with a Jewish 
population of 750; total population (1895) 123,515. 
The earliest traces of Jewish settlement in Lippe 
date back to the beginning of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. The Jews in the principality of Lippe seem 
to have enjoyed more privileges and greater security 
than in other German states. Thus the town coun- 
cil of Lemgo in a document dated 1419 refers to a 
Jew named Moses as "our fellow citizen." The 
contribution of the Jewry to the city treasury 
amounted in 1507 to one hundred florins ($40), a con- 
siderable sum in those days. Besides, it had to 
pay a Jew-tax, which in 1511 was fixed at eighteen 
gulden. In the year 1500 the "Edelherrn" Bern- 
hard VII. and Simon V. (father and son) permitted 
Antzell the Jew, with his wife and servants, to re- 
side in Detmold. 

A Jewish community was not formed in Detmold 
until the second half of the seventeenth century. 
Religious differences seem to have led to a split in 



Liippmann, Gabriel 

the comiminity, for in 1723 the Jews of Detmold 
asked permission to build a second s3^nagogue. 
These synagogues, however, were merely rented 
rooms. In 1742 the community evidently reunited, 
for it acquired a house and a barn, and con- 
structed out of the latter a synagogue, wliich is still 
in use. In 1810, during the regency of the princess 
Pauline, the Jews in Lippe received family names 
and were regularly registered. At this time there 
were 175 Jewish families in Lipi)e; twenty-seven 
of these families were resident in Detmold, luider 
Rabbi Abraham Lob Furnbach, succeeded by his 
sou Dr. Enoch Fiirnbach (Fahrenbach), who offici- 
ated until his death (Oct. 5, 1872). The civic riglits 
of the Jews, as well as their systems of school and 
synagogue, were regulated afresh by the laws of 
1858 and 1879. From 1872 (Oct.) to 1879 (March) 
the rabbinate was provisional!)' tilled by the teacher 
Leseritz of Detmold and, afterward, by Rabbi Klein 
of Lemgo. 

After this period, consequent upon the steady de- 
crease in the size of the community, the rabbinical 
position was left vacant. The supervision of relig- 
ions instruction in the twelve congregations of the 
principality, comprising about 900 members, some 
250 of whom belonged to Detmold, was entrusted to 
the teacher and preacher Abraham Plant of Detmold. 
Detmold is the birthplace of Leopold Zunz and 
of Dr. Abraham Treuenfels, while Dr. Hermann 
VoGELSTEiN, at present (1904) rabbi in Stettin, is 
a native of Lage in the principality of Lippe. 

As a benefactor to the Jews in Lippe, and, partic- 
ularly, of the Detmold community, may be men- 
tioned the court commissioner Solomon Joel Her- 
ford (d. Sept. 21, 1816). He was the founder of the 
Joel Herfordsche Schule, the Joel Herfordsche Mil- 
den Stiftungen, and the Jiidische Militar-Unterstiit- 

D. A. Pt.. 

LIPPE, CHAIM DAVID : Austrian publisher 
and bibliographer; born Dec. 22, 1823, at Stanisla- 
wow, Galicia; died Aug. 26, 1900, at Vienna. For 
some time he was cantor and instructor in relig- 
ion at Eperies, Hungary, but he left that town for 
Vienna, where he conducted a Jewish publishing- 
house, which issued several popular works. He 
himself edited a bibliographical lexicon of modern 
Jewish literature ("Ch. D. Lippe'sBibliographisches 
Lexicon der Gesammteu Jiidischen Literatur der 
Gegenwart imd Adress-Anzeiger," Vienna, 1881; 
2d ed. 1900). 

s. E. J. 

lilPPMANN, EDOITARD : French engineer ; 
born at Verdun Feb. 22, 1833. Educated at his na- 
tive town, the lycee at Metz, and the Ecole Centrale 
des Arts et Manufactures at Paris, he graduated as 
engineer in 1856. Joining the firm of Dcgouse & 
Laurent, architects, he resided in the French capital 
and took an active part in the defense of Paris as 
captain of the volunteer engineer corps during the 
Franco-Pussian war. In 1878 he established him- 
self in Paris, founding the house of Edouard Lipp- 
mann &, Company. He became especially inter- 
ested in the boring of deep wells (one bored by his 
firm at the Place Herbert at Paris was 718 meters 

deep), especially petroleum-wells, and in the build- 
ing of bridges, canals, and roads in various parts of 
the world. 

Lippmann has published several essays in the pro- 
fessional papers, especially in the "Genie Civil," 
and is the author of "'Petit Traitede Sondage." He 
has received several honorable mentions at the inter- 
national exjiositions; e.f/.. at Amsterdam in 1883, and 
at Paris in 1867, 1878, 1889, and 1900. 

Lippmann is an ofiicer of the Legion of Honor. 
BiBMOORAPiiv : Curinier, Diet. Xat. ii. 12T. 

s. F. T. II. 

LIPPMANN, EDUARD: Austrian chemist; 
born at Prague Sept. 23, 1842; educated at the 
gymnasium of Vienna and the universities of Leip- 
sic and Heidelberg (Ph.D. 1864). He took a post- 
graduate course at Paris, and in 1868 became privat- 
docent at the University of Vienna. During 1872 
he took charge of the classes of Professor Jjinnemann 
at the technical high school at Briinn; in 1875 he 
was appointed assistant profes.sor of chemistry at 
Vienna University and chief of the third chemical 
institute; and in 1877 he was appointed i)rofessor of 
analytical chemistry at the Vienna Handelsaka- 
demie, wliich position he resigned in 1881. He is at 
present (1904) lecturer of chemistry at the Vienna 
technical high school. 

Lippmann has contributed many essays to the 

reports of the Vienna Imperial Academy of Sciences 

and to the professional journals of Europe. 

BiBLiOGRAPUY : EisenbCFg, Das Gcistige Wien, ii., Vienna, 

s. F. T. H. 

LIPPMANN, GABRIEL: French physicist; 
born at Hollerich, Luxemburg, in 1845. After being 
educated at the Ecole Normale and in Germany, he 
went to Paris, taking the degree of D.Sc. in 1875. 
During his stay in Germany he had given special 
attention to electricity, and subsequently invented 
the capillary electrometer, an electrocapillary mo- 
tor, etc. In 1891 he discovered the process of color- 
photography, which discovery he amplified in 1892. 
He prepared glass slides, which were covered with 
a very finely granulated bromid-of -silver solution, 
and which, when dried, were placed in a concave 
frame filled with quicksilver, giving a mirror-like 
surface to the solution. When the photograph is 
taken the light-rays form a wave of light in the so- 
lution in conjunction with the rays from the quicksil- 
ver-mirror, giving light "maxima" and dark "min- 
ima." These when reproduced give, by reflected 
light, a true picture in the original colors. How- 
ever, the very long exposure necessary (about ten 
minutes) makes the process unsatisfactory. This 
discoverj' won him recognition. In 1883 he succeeded 
Briot as professor of physical mathematics at the 
Sorbonne, and in 1885 he became professor of exper- 
imental physics at the same institution. In 1886 he 
was elected member of the Academic des Sciences, 
succeeding Dessain. Lippmann has contributed 
many essays to the professional journals, and is the 
author of "Cours de Thermodynamique," Paris, 
1886, and "Cours d'Acoustique et d'Optique," ib. 
Bibliography : Nouveau Larousse Illustre. 

8. F. T. H. 




rabbi ; boru at ^Icmmelsdorf, Bavaria ; died at Kis- 
singen May 26, 1864. He weut in his early youth 
to Burgpreppacli, where he studied the Talmud un- 
der Kabbi Abraham Moses JMayliinder. He contin- 
ued his studies at the yeshibah at Fiirth and, under 
the guidance of Chief Rabbi Hillel Sondheimer, at 
Aschaflfenburg ; he received his Ph.D. degree from 
the University of Wiirzburg. He then accepted a 
call as preacher to Aurich, and later became dis- 
trict rabbi in Kissingen. 

Lippmann was the editor of: " Safer Zahot. Ueber 
die Feiuheiten der Hebraischen Sprache. Gramma- 
tische Forschungen von Abraham ibn Esra. Neue 
Ausgabe mit Hebraischem Commentar," Fiirtli, 1827 ; 
" Sefer ha-Shem. Ueber das Tetragrammaton," «6. 
1834; "Safah Berurah. Ueber Hebr. Grammatik 
. . . Abr. ibn Esra, mit Hebr. Commentar," ib. 
1839; "Sefat Yeter. Beleuchtung Dunkler Bibel- 
stellen . . . von Abraham ibn Esra, mit Hebr. 
Commentar und Vorwort von I. M. Jost," Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, 1843. 

Bibliography : Bamberger. Gesch. der Juden in Aschaffen- 
burg, p. 78 ; Ben Chananja, 1864, No. 22. 
8. M. L. B. 

LIPPMANN, MAURICE: French engineer; 
born at Ville d'Avray (Seine-et-Oise) Sept. 27, 1847. 
He received his diploma as bachelor of law in 1869. 
During the siege of Paris in 1870 he served in the 
artillery. In 1874 Lippmann was appointed director 
of the state manufactor}' of weapons ("manufac- 
ture nationale d'armes ") at St. Etienne, which posi- 
tion he held for ten years. Resigning in 1884, he 
retired to private life, living at Bracquemont, near 
Dieppe. In 1889 he was appointed a member of the 
commission of military art for the French Exposi- 
tion of 1890. 

Lippmann has published: "L'Art dans I'Armure 
et dans les Amies." He is an officer of the Legion 
of Honor. 

Bibliography: Curinler, Diet. Nat. It. 144. 
s. F. T. H. 

LIPPOLD : German pliysician and financier; 
born at Prague ; lived at Berlin in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. He was in great favor with the elector Joa- 
chim II., acting as his financial adviser and as ad- 
ministrator of Jewish affairs. After the sudden 
death of Joachim (1571), his son and successor, Jo- 
hann Georg, accused Lippold of having poisoned 
the elector. Being put to the torture of the rack, 
he confessed tiiis crime ; and, altliough he afterward 
retracted, he was executed Jan. 28, 1573, the Jews 
of Berlin and of the province of Brandenburg being 
expelled from the country in the same year. 

Bibliography: Ludwig (ieigtr, Oesch. der Juden in Berlin, 
p. vl.. Berlin, 1871 ; Gratz, (fench. 2d ed.. Ix. 474. 

r». S. Man. 

LIPSCHITZ, RUDOLF: German mathemati- 
cian; born May 14, 1832. at Konigsberg, East Prus- 
sia; died at Bonn Oct. 8, 1903. Educated at his na- 
tive town (Ph.D. 1853), he established himself in 
1857 as privat-docent in the University of Bonn, 
becoming professor of mathematics in the Univer- 
sity of Breslau in 1862. and in tJiat of Bonn in 1864. 

Lipschitz was tlu- author of: " Wissenschaft und 

Staat," Bonn, 1874; "Die Bedeutung der Theore- 
tischen Mechanik," Berlin, 1876; "Lehrbuch der 
Analysis," Bonn, 1877-80; "Untersuchungen iibcr 
die Summen von Quadraten," ib. 1886. 

Bibliography: Brockhaus Knnvergntinnx-Le.rikon . 
s. F. T. II. 

LIBSCHITZ) : Name of a family of Polisli and 
German rabbis; derived from "Liebeschitz," name 
of a town in Bohemia. 

Aryeh Lob Lipschiitz : Austrian rabbi and 
author; lived in the second half of the eight- 
eenth and in the first half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury ; died in Brigul, Galicia, before 1849. He was 
the pupil of Arych Lob (author of "Kezot ha-Ho- 
shen ") and son-in-law of IMoses Teitelbaum, rabbi 
at Ujhely. He held the office of rabbi in several 
cities in Galicia, and at last went to Brigul, where he 
remained till his death. He was the author of " Ari 
She-be-Haburah " and "Geburot Ari," novelloe on 
Ketubot, mentioned in " 'Emek Berakah," by Joseph 
Saul Nathanson. Besides these works he wrote 
"Aryeh debe-'Ilai," containing novdlaj on Kiddu- 
shin, Yoma, Menahot, Kiunim, and Niddah, as well 
as responsa on the four parts of tlie Shulijan 'Aruk. 
This work was published in Lemberg. 

Bibliography : Walden, Shew ha-Gedolim he-Hadash, i. 82, 
11. 16; Eliezer Cohen, Kin'al Soferim, p. 104b (note 1733), 
and p. 110a. 
s. s. N. T. L. 

Baruch. Isaac Lipscliutz : Son of Israel Lip- 
schlitz ; born in Dessau ; died in Berlin Dec. 18, 1877. 
He was at first rabbi at Landsberg, and then district 
rabbi in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, but was obliged 
to resign both positions in consequence of dis- 
agreements with his congregations. Thereafter lie 
lived in private at Hamburg. He wrote "Torath 
Sch'muel, ein Erbauungsbuch f iir Israeliten " (Ham- 
burg, 1867). 

s. M. K. 

Baruch. Mordecai b. Jacob Lipschitz (Lib- 
schitz): Russian rabbi and author ; born about 1810 ; 
died at Siedlce, Poland, March 30, 1885. At an 
early age he became known for his wide Talmudical 
learning; and later he ranked with the leading rab- 
binical authorities of his time. Rabbis from all 
parts applied to him for decisions in regard to difli- 
cult questions, and his responsa were characterized 
by clearness and sound sense. He officiated as rabbi 
for forty -three years in various cities, including 
Semiatitz, Wolkowisk, Novogrudek, and finally 
Siedlce, where he remained till his death. 

Lipschitz was the author of: "Berit Ya'aljob" 
(Warsaw^, 1876-77), responsa on the four parts of the 
Shulhan 'Ariik; "Bet Mordekai," sermons; "Min- 
l.iat Bikkurim," novella? on the Shulhan 'Aruk; and 
novellne on the Jerusalem Talmud. The last three 
works remain in manuscript. 

Bibliography: Ha-?e/irah, 1885, No. 14; Ha-Asif, 1885, p. 
7')8; H. N. Stelnschnelder. 7r Wilna, p. 164. 
8. 8. N. T. L. 

Eliezer ben Solomon Lipschutz : German 
rabbi ; died at Neuwied about 1748. At the age of 
thirty he became rabbi at Ostrow, where he gathered 
many pupils about him. Several years later he ac- 
cepted a rabbinate elsewhere, but differences with 

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his congregation soon compelled him to resign. He 
-wandered about until finally he went to Cracow, 
-where he obtained a rabbinate through the influence 
of his wife's uncle, Simon Jolles. There, too, he 
had many enemies, and on the death of Jolles he 
-was obliged to leave Cracow. After some time he 
became rabbi at Neuwied, where he remained until 
his death. He wrote " Heshib R. Eli'ezer we-Siah 
ha-Sadeh," responsa, published together with a 
number of responsa by his son Israel Lipschiltz 
(Neuwied, 1749), and " Dammesek Eli'ezer," novella' 
(to Shulhan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah and Hoshen Mish- 
pat) and responsa, among the latter being some 
written by his brother Epliraim Lipschutz {ib. 1749). 

Bibliography: Preface to Heshih R. EWezer we-Siah ha- 
Sndch ; Dembitzer, Kelilat Yofi, ii. 133, Cracow, 1893. 
s M. K. 

Gedaliah ben Israel Lipschutz : Rabbi at 
Obrzizk, near Posen ; flourished in the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries (d. 1826). He was the au- 
thor of the following works: "Regel Yesharah " 
(Dyhernfurth, 1776), explanations of Rashi and tosa- 
fot to the section Nezikin, notes on Abot de-Rubbi 
Natanand on the small tractates of the Talmud, with 
two supi>lements treating of weights, measures, and 
geometry in tlie Talmud, and explaining the calcula- 
tions found in Kilayim iii., v.; "Humre Matnita" 
(Berlin, 1784). divided into six parts ("kinnim"), 
containing a commentary on the Talmud, explana- 
tions of all the foreign words found in the Talmud, 
a commentary on Asheri (Rosh), notes on Alfasi, a 
commentary on Targum Onkelos, and explanation of 
the difficult mishnayot ; " Keneset Yisrael " (Breslau, 
1818), notes on the Mishnah and on various Talmud- 
ical subjects, extracted from several works left by 
Gedaliah in manuscript, and published by his son 
Israel Lipschiitz. 

Biblioorapiiy: Steinschneider, Cat. Bndl. col. 1003; Furst, 
BiW.Jud. Ii. 275; Fuenn, iieiieset risraeZ.s.v. 

s. s. I- Br. 

Gedaliah ben Solomon Lipschiitz : Polish 
scholar; lived at Lublin in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. He was a relative and also 
a pupil of Mei'r of Lublin, whose responsa he 
edited, adding to them an index (Venice, 1618). 
He wrote a commentary to Albo's '"Ikkarim," 
entitled "'Ez Shatul" {ib. 1618). This commen- 
tary may be considered a double one; in "Slio- 
rashim " the commentator explains the text of Albo, 
•while in the part called '"Anafim" he gives an ex- 
position of Albo's views, comparing them with the 
views of other philosophers. In the preface, Lip- 
9chl\tz says that he composed the commentary in his 
twenty-sixth year, but that for various reasons he 
could not publisli it. Later, at tlie retiuest of 
friends, lie revised his work, which revision lie com- 
pleted at Lublin, Fel). 12, 1017. He compiled an 
index to the Bil)lical and Midrashic passages in Al- 
bo's text. 

Bibliography: Fuenn, KmcMit TisracJ, p. 213: Fiirst. Tiihl. 
Ju<l. li. :i:JO; Niss«nbauiu, Lr-Kmnt li((-Yrliii(lim hc-Lnh- 
(H,, p. 46. 
s. s. >I. Skt,. 

Hayyim ben Moses Lipschutz: Pnjisli rabbi 
of the seventeenth (■cnluiy ; Imrn ai Ostrog about 
1620. He wrote " Derek Hay vim " (Sulzbach. 1702). 
a book containing prayers jind riln;il laws for per- 

sons who are traveling, published by some of his 
l)upils. Although the book contains prayers which 
show that the author was a follower of Shabbethai 
Zebi, it is interesting to know that it had the ap- 
probation of eight of the most renowned rabbis of 
the time. 

Bibliography : Wiener, KchiUnt Mntthch. p. 297 ; Einden, To- 
rat ha-Kena'ot, p. 141, LemberK, 1870; Steinschneider, Cat. 
Bodl. col. 830. ^ ^ 

D. B. Fr. 

Israel Lipschutz : Son of Eliezer Lipschiitz ; 
rabbi at Cleve. There he became notorious in con- 
nection with a "get" controversy -which attracted 
the attention of a large number of contemporary 
Jewish scholars. The dispute arose over a divorce 
granted by him in August. 1766, which was de- 
clared invalid and which the rabbinate of Frankfort- 
on-the-Main opposed with such persistence and ve- 
hemence that it became a "cause celebre." Israel 
Lipschiitz was severely criticized and stoutly de- 
fended. Toward his own defense he published 
(Cleve, 1770) seventy-three similar decisions, under 
the title " Or Yisrael," to counterbalance the " Or ha- 
Yashar " published by Simon Kopenhagen in the 
previous year at Amsterdam. 

Bibliography: M. Horovitz, Frnnkfurter Rahhiner, lil. 67 
etseq., Fraiil<fort-on-the-iMain, 1884. 

Israel Lipschutz: Son of Gedaliah Lipschiitz; 
born 1782; died Sept. 19, 1860. He was rabbi first 
at Dessau and then at Danzig. He led the life of an 
ascetic, frequently fasted three days in succession, 
and studied incessantly. He wrote " Tif 'eret Yis- 
rael," a commentary on the Mishnah, in which he 
applied to the orders a nomenclature of his own: 
Zera'im he called " Zera' Emunah " ; Tohorot, " Ta-am 
wa-Da'at" (Hanover, 1830); Nezikin, " Kos Ye- 
shu'ot" (Danzig, 1845). His ethical will ("Zaw- 
wa'ah"; 1861) contains twenty -eight paragraphs, 
consisting chiefly of moral and ascetic precepts. He 
left in manuscript many notes (" derashot ") to Caro's 
Shulhan 'Aruk and to Maimonides' Yad ha-Hazakah, 
a comprehensive treatise on the order Tohorot, and 
many responsa. 

I?iBLioGRAPiiY : Walden, Slicm hn-GcdoUm he-Hadash, i. 406, 
Warsaw, 1804; Steinschneider, Hehr. Bihl. iv. 27. 

Joshua Aaron Lipschutz : Rabbi at Blitzow, 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin; born in Poland in 1768. 
He was a correspondent of Jacob Enulen ("She'elat 
Ya'abez," pp. 50 et serj.). 

8. M. K. 

Judah Lob b. Isaac Lipschutz : Austrian 
raljbi and author of the .seventeenth century; rab- 
bi at Eidlitz, Bohemia. He wrote: "llaniiagot 
Adam," a collection of rules from other works, 
on daily religious jiractises (Fiirtli. 1691; Amster- 
dam, 1717; Zolkiev, 1770); " Zaddik Tamim," a re- 
daction of the former work witii many additions 
(Fiirth, 1699; an abridgment of the book was seen 
in manuscript by Xepi. in Padua); "We-Zot li- 
Ychudah." explanations added to Jacob AVeil's 
"Sliehitot u-Bedikot," on tlie rules of slaughtering 
cattle (Fiirth, 1699; Frankfort-on-thc-Main. 1S'30). 

niBLiOGRAPHY: Fiifst. Bihl. Jiid. i. 2i-), 22G; Zedner. Caf. 

Hihr. BoiiUri Brit. Mm*, p. 4459; Benjacol), Ozar ha-f^efn- 
vim, pp. 141, 500, .571. 
I,. <; N. T. L. 




Moses ben Noah Isaac Lipschtitz : Polish 
rabbi, and the author of the commentaiy "Lehem 
Mishneh,"on tlie orders Zera'im, Mo'ed, andKoda- 
shini (publislied, according to Azulai, in 1596). He 
•wrote a commentary also to the treatise Abot (Lub- 
lin, 1612; reprinted at Cracow in 1637 and included 
in the edition of the Mislmah published at Amster- 
dam in 1726). 

Bibliography : Azulai, Shem ha-GedoUm, il. 71. 
s. M. K. 

Noah b. Abraham liipschiitz (called Noah 
Mindes) : Polish rabbinical scholar; died in Wilna 
Dec. 22, 1797. He was a prominent member of 
the Jewish community of Wilna, and married a 
daughter of Elijah Pesseles. Lipschutz's daughter 
married Abraham, son of Elijah, gaon of Wilna. 
Lipschiitz was the author of two cabalistic works, 
"Parpera'ot le-Hokmah " (Shklov, 1785), on the 
Pentateuch, and " Nifla'ot Hadashot" (Grodno, 1797), 
which latter includes cabalistic explanations by K. 
Samson Ostropoler. Both works were published 
anonymously. Noah died about three months after 
Elijah Gaon and was buried near him. 

BiBLiooRAPHY : Fuenn, Kirmh Ne'emanaK pp. 170-171, Wil- 
na, 1860. 

H. K. P. Wl. 

Solomon ben Moses Lipschiitz : German can- 
tor; born at Flirth about 1675; died at Metz after 
1708. He studied at Nikolsburg in the yeshibah 
of David Oppenheim, and for some time acted as 
cantor, shohet, and teacher at Wallerstein. He 
then went to Pfersee, and thence to Prague, where 
he became chief cantor in the Phinehas and Zi- 
geuner synagogues. In 1706 he retired to Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, but in the following year ac- 
cepted the position of cantor at Metz, where he 
died. Lipschiitz was the author of "Te'udat She- 
lomoh " (Offenbach, 1708), a book of morals and laws 
for cantors, published with the approbation of the 
rabbi and parnas of Metz. 

D. B. Fu. 

LIPSCHUTZ, SOLOMON: American chess- 
player; born at Ungvar, Hungary, July 4, 1863. 
At the age of seventeen he emigrated to New York, 
where he soon became known in chess circles. In 
1883 he was chosen as one of a team to represent 
New York in a match with the Philadelphia Chess 
Club, and won both of liis games. In 1885 he won 
the championship of the New York Chess Club, and 
in the following year took part in the international 
tournament held in London, where he succeeded in 
defeating Zukertorf and Mackenzie, among others. 
At the Masters' Tournament at New York in 1889 
Lipschutz gained the sixth place, he being the only 
American player to secure a prize. In 1890 he won 
the champion.shipof the United States, and repeated 
his success in 1892. He secured for the Manhattan 
Chess Club the absolute possession of the " Staats- 
Zeitung " challenge cup by winning it three times in 
succession (one tie against Steinitz). Twice pitted 
against Lasker, he has drawn his games on each oc- 
casion. Several of the games played by Lipschutz 
liave been published in " Examples of Chess Master- 
Play " (New Barnet. 1898). 

Lipschutz revised "The Chess-Player's Manual," 
and he edited "The Rice Gambit," New York, 1901. 

Bibliography : Chess Monthly, Dec.. 1890. 


A. P. 

LISBON: Capital of Portugal. It had the 
largest Jewish community in tiie country and was 
the residence of the chief rabbi ("arraby mor"). It 
had several "Judarias" or Jewish streets, one of 
them in the part of the city called "de Pedrcira," 
between the cloisters do Carmo and da Trinidade ; 
another, laid out later, was in the quarter da Con- 
cei^ao. In 1457 a third Judaria was created, the de 
Alfama, near the Pedro gate. In the Rua Nova, 
passing through the most beautiful and the liveliest 
part of the city, resided the rich and prominent 
Jews, the large synagogue being in the same thor- 
oughfare. A small synagogue was erected by Jo- 
seph ibn Yahya about 1260, at his own expense. 

For a long period the Jews of Lisbon were left 
undisturbed. The first storm broke upon them dur- 
ing the war between Dom Ferdinand of Portugal 
and Henry II. of Castile. The Castilian army 
forced its way into Lisbon ; several Jews were killed, 
and the Rua Nova was plundered and destroyed by 
the rapacious soldiery (1373). The grand master 
of the Knights of St. Bennett of Aviz, later King 
John I., successor of Dom Ferdinand, protected the 
Jews in the capital against pillage. As a sign of 
their gratitude, the Jews, in addition to their con- 
tribution to the gift of 10,000 livres made to the king 
by the city, presented to him 70 marks and made 
him a loan of 1,000 reis. 

The Jews of Lisbon, who in 1462 paid for "ser- 
vigo real " alone 50.000 reis (about 3.500 fmncs), were 
engaged in various mercantile pureuits and trades. 
When Dom Duarte imposed restrictions upon free 
intercourse between Jews and Christians, represent- 
atives of the Jewish community at Lisbon applied 
to the king for the removal of the restrictions, and 
the king granted the request in a letter to the com- 
munity dated Dec. 5, 1436. The prosperity and 
consequent luxury of the Jews aroused the envy and 
hatred of the Christians, even to the point of vio- 
lence. Toward the end of the year 1449 some young 
men maltreated several Jews at the 
Outbreaks fish-market, and the royal corregidor 

Against had them publicly whipped. This 

Lisbon aroused the anger of the people 
Jews. against the Jews, who were attacked, 
antl a number of whom were killed, 
despite their brave resistance. Probably the fight 
would have ended in a terrible massacre but for the 
armed intervention of the Count de jVIonsanto. 
The attack was renewed, and the king was com- 
pelled to adopt severe measures against persons con- 
victed of aggressions against the Jews. The pro- 
found hatred against the latter was increased by 
the arrival of immigrants from Castile, who sought 
shelter at Lisbon. 

In 1482 the populace again assailed the Jews, 
plundered their stores, and destroyed their dwell- 
ings; it was at this time that Isaac Abravanel lost 
his entire possessions, including his valuable library. 
To increase their troubles, the pestilence broke out 
simultaneously with the immigration of their core- 




ligionists from Spain. By order of the city council 
the refugees from Spain were required to leave the 
city at once; though, through the intervention of 
the king, John II., the city council was compelled to 
grant to Samuel Nayas, procurator of the Castiliau 
Jews, the right to stay there, and to the Castilian 
physician Samuel Judah the right to practise medi- 
cine (Rios. "Hist." iii. 338-349). In 1497, by order 
of King Emanuel, tlie Jews were driven out of 
Portugal; the Lisbon community ceased to exist, 
and the large synagogue was transformed into a 

The number of Jewish scholars of Lisbon is not 
especially large. Besides the members of the old 
families Ibn Yahya and Negro, who 
liisbon were born in the Portuguese capital 
Scholars, and lived and studied there, there were 
the chief rabbis Judah and Moses 
Navarro, Judah Cohen, and others, as well as the 
rabbis Joseph and Moses Hayun and a certain Don 
Abraham, who was a physician and, in 1484, became 
also rabbi at Lisbon. Lisbon is the birthplace of Isaac 
Abravanel and his sous, and of Jacob ibn Habih, 
and at Lisbon lived Joseph Vecinho (physician to 
King John II.), Abraham Zacuto, and Abraham 
Zarzar. The learned Eliezer Toledano in 1485 estab- 
lished in this city a Hebrew printing-press, of which 
several books were the product. Among these was 
the Pentateuch with the commentary of Moses ben 
Nahman (1489). In Lisbon Samuel ben Yom-Tob 
wrote (1410) a Torah roll now preserved in Bern ; 
Samuel de ^ledina, in 1469, a Pentateuch ; and Elie- 
zer, son of lyioses Gagos, in 1484, a ritual vi^ork for 
Isaac, son of Isaiah Cohen. 

After their expulfiton from Lisbon no Jews resided 
tliere openly, but there Avas a large number of " se- 
cret Jews," or **Obristaos Novos" (New Chris- 
tians), who were compelled to attend the Church 
ceremonies, but in secret lived in accordance with 
Jewish precepts. Tlie Portuguese people hated 
these New Christians, or Mauanos, far more tlian 
the confessed Jews, though King Emanuel favored 
them in order to win them by kindness to the Chris- 
tian faith. But the king was power- 
New Chris- less to protect them in face of the iu- 
tians at ccndiary speeclies of fanatical priests. 
Lisbon. On May 25, 1504, Whitsunday, a 
number of New Christians happened 
to meet in the Hua Nova, and were chatting to- 
gether, when suddenly they were surrounded by a 
crowd of turbulent youths who insulted and reviled 
them. One of the New Christians finally drew liis 
sword and injured some of tlic tormentors. A tumult 
ensued, which soon was checked by the appearance 
of tlie governor of the city with an armed guard. 
Forty of the rioters were arrested and condcnmcd 
to be whipped and to be exiled for life to tliei.sland 
of St. Thomas, but through the intervention of the 
queen they were pardoned. 

This uprising was the forerunner of .the terrible 
massacre of the secret Jews in Lisbon which oc- 
curred in April, 1506. During the celebration of 
the Jewish Passover on the night of April 17 in 
that year, a party of New Christians was suddenly 
attacked and seventeen of them were arrested, but 
were set at liberty after two days. The people, en- 

raged at tills act, talked of bribery, and were ready to 
burn all New Christians at the stake. Two days 
later, on April 19, a number of Christians and New 
Christians attended a service in the Church of the 
Doniinicans, in order that they might beseech God to 
stop the terrible, devastating pestilence. Suddenly, 
in a side chapel called the "Jesus Chapel," a cnicitix 
ratliuting an extraordinary brightness attracted the 
attention of the Christians, who saw therein a mira- 
cle. One of the secret Jews was incautious enough 
to express his lack of faith in the wonder. This 
was the spark that caused the conflagration. The 
people were excited to the highest pitch and com- 
mitted most fearful deeds of violence. The unbe- 
lieving New Christian was seized by the hair, 
dragged out of the church, and killed forthwith by 
the infuriated women, and his body was burned on 
a hastily erected pile on the Rocio Prac^a. Two Do- 
minican monks, JoaQ IMocho, from Evora, and Ber- 
naldo, an Aragonese, marched through the streets 
carrying the crucifix, calling aloud "Heresia! He- 
resia!" and exhorting the people to extirpate all 
heretics. The mob was soon joined by German, 
Dutch, and French sailors, and a terrible massacre 
began. On the first day, over five Inuidrcd New 
Christians were killed and burned; next day the 
brutalities were renewed in even worse form. Ba- 
bies in the cradle were not spared; women seeking 
shelter in the church were dragged from the altar, 
outraged, and flimg into the flames. The day's 
work ended with the murder of the tax-farmer Joao 
Rodriguez Mascarenhas, the richest and most hated 
New Christian ; he was dragged to the Rua Nova, 
killed by the populace, and burned amid great re- 
joicing. Over two thousand (according to other 
authorities, four thousand) secret Jews were killed 
during the course of forty -eight hours. 

The king, who was far frona the capital at the 
time, was deeply incensed, and proceeded with se- 
verity against the criminals. The ringleaders were 
hanged, and many others were quartered or decapi- 
tated. The two Dominican monks who stirred up 
the people were expelled from their order and gar- 
roted, and their bodies were burned. Every resi- 
dent of the city of Lisbon (which thereafter was no 
longer allowed to call itself " the most faithful ") who 
was found guilty of either robbery or murder was 
punished corporally and subjected to loss of prop- 
erty (Damiao de Goes, "Cron. de D. ]\Ianoel," pp. 
141 et scq.; Garcia de Resende, "Miscellanea," xi. 
6; Pina, "Chron. de D. Alfonso," v. 130; "Shebet 
Yehudah," p. 93; Usque. "Consola(;am," p. 200; 
hence the statement in " 'Emek ha-Hakah," p. 90; 
Herculano, "Inquisicao cm Portugal," i. 142 ft 
wq.; De Mendoga, " Ilistoria de Portugal," vi. 955; 
Rios, "Hist." iii. 363 et serj.; Kayseriing. "Gesch. 
der Juden in Portugal," pp. 145 et seq. ; Gratz, 
"Gesch." ix.). 

After the catastrophe a number of secret Jews left 
the country; the greater part of these fugitives re- 
turned to Lisbon, however, and for a time they were 
protected by the king, but were always hated by the 
lieople. The arrival of David Heubeni at the capital 
of Portugal produced a feverish excitement among 
the secret Jews. They believed him to be their savior 
and h<mored liim as the expected Messiah. A New 












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Page from the "Abudarham," Lisbon, 1489. 

(From the Sulzberger collection la the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York.) 




Christian of Lisbon, a young man of twenty-four, 
Diogo Pires, who held a government position, openly 
confessed the Jewish faith and, calling 
Visit of himself "Solomon Molko," became 
Reubeni. an adherent of Reubeni. By means 
of large money payments, the rich 
New Christians in Lisbon wore able to postpone, 
but not prevent, the introduction of the Inquisition. 
Lisbon was the scat of a congregation called 
"The Brotherhood of San Antonio," which existed 
among the secret Jews; it met in the Rua de 
Moneda, in a house which contained a secret syna- 
gogue, where Diaconus Antonio Homem conducted 
the service. He suffered for his attachment to Ju- 
daism by death at the stake on May 5, 1G24. Not 
a few of the secret Jews who were distinguished as 
poets, physicians, and scholars, and who in Italy and 
Holland openly avowed themselves to be Jews, 
called Lisbon their birthplace, or resided there at 
some time. In this city Duarte Pinhel, or Abraham 
Usque, wrote his Latin grammar (1543), and Ama- 
tus Lusitanus and Abraham Farrar practised medi- 
cine. Moses Gideon Abudiente, Manuel de Pina, 
and others were born at Lisbon (see Auto da Fe; 
Inquisitio.n ; Portugal). 

Bibliography: Kayserling, Gesch. der Juden in Portugal, 
Leipsic, 1867; J. Mendes dos Reniedios, Os Judens em Fi>r- 
tugal, 1., Coimbra, 1895; Rios, Hist. ii. 274, 281; iii. 179, 337. 

G. M. K. 

Modern : Besides the Maranos who continued 

to reside in Lisbon after the expulsion, the city has 
at all times contained a certain number of avowed 
Jews also, mainly from neighboring Africa. This 
is evidenced by the edict issued Feb. 7, 1537, by 
John III., in which the Jews were ordered to wear 
badges so that they might be distinguished from 
Christians. A greater spirit of tolerance toward the 
Jews began to prevail in government circles v/ith the 
accession of the Braganza dynasty (1640), which had 
been considerably assisted by Jewish financiers in its 
struggles against Philip IV. of Spain. But, owing 
to the fear of the Inquisition, which continued to 
persecute the Neo-Christians or Maranos, and to the 
fanaticism of the populace, only a few Jews ventured 
to settle in Lisbon. It was only toward the middle of 
the eighteenth century that a Jewish community be 
gan to be formed by the inflow of Jews from Gib- 
raltar, who, as British subjects, could practise their 
religion freely, though privately. The 
Eighteenth decrees of 1773 and 1774, which were 
Century, issued by King Joseph under the influ- 
ence of his minister, the Marquis de 
Pombal, and which deprived the Inquisition of all 
tyrannical and arbitrary powers, gave a new impulse 
to tiie settlement of Jews at Lisbon, and toward the 
close of the eighteenth century there were a con- 
siderable number of them in the Portuguese capital, 
and the need of a near-by burial-place began to be 
keenly felt. For tliis purpose a small piece of 
ground was leased, in IHOl, in the English cemetery 
situated in the Rua da Estnlhi, and tlie first to be 
buried there was a certain Jose Amzalaga (d. Feb. 
26, 1804). The lease, wliich had been made privately 
without special legal sanction, was renewed, in 1833, 
at an annual rental of 1,000 reis. 

At the beginning of the nincteentii century there 

were in Lisbon several widely known Jewish firms, 
which rendered great services to Portugal by sup- 
plying grain during a famine that occurred about 
1810. In recognition of these services the govern- 
ment agreed to permit the foundation of a synagogue, 
although hitherto the laws of the country had not 
permitted the practise of any form of religion other 
than the Roman Catholic. The synagogue, under 
the name "Sha'ar ha-Shamayim," was 
Synagogue founded in 1813 by R. Abraham Da- 
Founded bella ; the Jews, however, had no legal 
1813. status; they were only tolerated. Ac- 
cording to the information given in 
1825 by the prelate Joaquim Jose Feireira Gardo to 
the French historian Capefigue, there were in Lis- 
bon at that time about 500 Jews, the majority of 
Avhom were engaged in brokerage and in foreign 
trade, and they owned three private synagogues. 

Although by the law the Jews were considered as 
foreigners, some of them took part in the political 
movements of the country. Levy Bensabath and 
his sou Marcos Bensabath distinguished themselves 
by their struggles against the absolute 
Distin- government of Dom Miguel I. (1828- 
guished 1834). Later Marcos Bensabath became 
Jews of an officer in a regiment of light infan- 
Lisbon. try. In 1853 R. Abraham Dabella 
died, and his synagogue was managed 
by a committee composed of Leao Amzalak, Levy 
Bensabath, Abraham Cohen, Fortunato Naure, and 
Mair and Moises Buzaglo. Several years later oc- 
curred the death of Salamao Mor Jose, and the two 
congregations then existing were united (about 
1855). The union was of short duration, and a new 
synagogue was erected in 1860 in the Alley dos 
Apostolos; it is still the principal prayer-house in 
Lisbon. About that time Jacob Toledano of Tan- 
giers was called to the rabbinate of Lisbon and offi- 
ciated there until 1899. An important event for the 
Jews of Lisbon was the recognition of their religion 
by the government Oct. 30, 1868, when the commu- 
nity was authorized to use as a burial-place a plot 
of ground it had acquired for the purpose in 1865. 
On June 30, 1892, the government sanctioned the 
constitution of the charitable society Gemilut Ha- 

In 1890 a plan for the complete organization of 
the community of Lisbon was adopted, according 
to which all the Orthodox Jews, both Sephar- 
dim and Ashkenazim. were to form one congrega- 
tion. An interesting article (No. 31) of their 
constitution runs as follows: "Should the Portu- 
guese Jews disappear from this town and from the 
kingdom, the German Jews here at that time may 
lake under their care and for their own use the syn- 
agogues, estates, portable objects, and other things 
of value then in the possession of the Portuguese 
Jews or accruing to them later; but the German 
Jews shall restore the whole to the Portuguese 
congregation should it be reestablished." Besides 
the Gemilut Ilasadim Society, there exists at Lisbon 
a useful benevolent association known as the Somej 
Nophlim, founded in 1805; this institution, in 1900, 
established a kasher restaurant for the poor, and is 
now (1904) contemplating the establishment of an 
iisyluin for Jewish travelers. ' On ]\Iay 25, 1902, was 




laid the corner-stone of the new Sha'are Tikwali 
svnagogue, whicli has replaced the various syna- 
gogues formerly in use. In accordance with the 
law, .the new building is situated in an enclosure 
and bears no outward sign of being a place of wor- 

The community of Lisbon now numbers about 400 
persons in a total population of 337,000; they are 
mo tly natives of Gibraltar, Morocco, or the Azores, 
and the majority of them are ship-owners and mer- 
chants. Among those Jews who have become 
widely known in connection with science, letters, or 
the arts are the following: Alfred Benarus, pro- 
fes.sor of tine arts; Bensaude, professor at the In- 
dustrial Institute; Joseph Benoliel, professor at the 
Marques de Pombal Industrial School; Jacob Ben- 
saude, professor of English at the College du Porto ; 
Salancao Saragga, a distinguished Hebraist; Dr. 
Raul Bensaude, consulting pliysician to the King 
of Portugal, and officiating rabbi since the death of 
Jacob Toledano in 1899. The hazzan of the com- 
munity is Levy ben Simon of Jaffa. 

Bibliooraphy : Kayserling, Gesch. der Juden in Portugal, 
pp. 338 et seq.; Lindo, Hi»torii nf the Jews in Spain and 
Portugal, PP. 374 et seq.; Bail, LesJuifs au Dix-Neuvieme 
Steele, p. 136, Paris, 1816; Re rue Orientale, i. 274; Allg. 
Zeit. dex Jud. 1841, p. 681; Cardozo de Bethencourt, In J. Q. 
F. XV. 251 et seq. 
n. I. Br. 

Typography : Hebrew printing flourished in 

Lisbon for the three years from 1489 to 1492, the first 
work, the commentary of Nahmanides on the Pen- 
tateuch, being produced by Eliezer Toledano in July, 
148!). The next year he produced a " Tur Orah Hay- 
yini " and two sections of the Bible. Eliezer Alan- 
tansi, who had a printing-press also at Ixar, printed 
the "Abudarham" at Lisbon, and two other works 
were produced here— Joshua Levi's " Halikot '01am " 
and an edition of the Proverbs ; the printer of the last- 
named is not known, Toledano was one of the 
earliest to use borders. It has been suggested that 
the printer Ibn Yal.iya carried the Lisbon types to 
Constantinople and either printed from them there 
or used them as models for new types. J. 

LISBONNE, EUGENE : Lawyer, and a mem- 
ber of the French Senate ; born at Nyons, near Avi- 
gnon, Aug. 2, 1818; died at Montpellier Feb. 6, 1891. 
He was a lawyer at Montpellier under the govern- 
ment of July, 1830, and became attorney of the re- 
public at Beziers. On Dec. 10, 1848, he was dis- 
missed, and at the coup d'etat (Dec. 2, 1851) was 
deported. After the accession of Napoleon III. he 
returned to Montpellier and took an active part in 
the struggles of the republican party against the 
empire. From the revolution of Sept. 4 to April 
23, 1871, he was prefect of the department of He- 
rault, where he energetically opposed the "Govern- 
ment of Moral Order." On Feb. 20, 1876, he was 
elected to represent the second district of Montpel- 
lier in the Chamber of Deputies, where he was one 
of the leaders of the Republican Union. After the 
crisis of May 16, 1877, he was reelected (Oct. 14). 
In 1887 he introduced the measures which established 
almost complete freedom of the press in France. 
The elections of Aug. 21, 1887, compelled Lisbonne 
to retire from public life: he soon reentered it, how- 

ever (Jan. 5, 1888), and as senator from Herault in- 
troduced a measure in restriction of those of 1887. 
This was carried by the Senate, but was defeated in 
the Chamber of Deputies. 
Bibliography : La Orande Encyclopedie, 

s. J. Ka. 


Russian rabbi of the seventeenth century; native 
of Brest-Litovsk. After studying in the yeshibot of 
Lublin and Cracow, Lisker was called to the rabbin- 
ate of Rossiena, in the government of Kovno. He 
was the author of "Be'er Abraham," a commentary 
on the six orders of the Mishnah and based upon 
preceding commentaries, to which he added his own 
novella under the title "Me Be'er." Only that part 
of his commentary that deals with the first three 
orders has been published: Zera'im (Frankfort- 
on-the-Oder, 1665) and Mo'ed and Nashim {ib. 

Bibliography : Benjacob, Oifar ha^Sefarim, p. 381 ; Michael, 
Or ha-Hayyim, No. 95. 

S. S. M. Sel. 

LISSA (called formerly Polnisch Iiissa) : 

Town of Prussia. Originally a village, it was in- 
corporated in 1534; and soon afterward the first 
Jews settled there, with the authorization of Count 
Andreas Lescynski (1580-1606). Many of these Jew- 
ish settlers were probably of German origin, as the 
names " Auerbach " and " Oldenburg " frequently 
occur. The first privilege granted to them is dated 
March 10, 1626. In tliat year there already existed 
a synagogue at Lissa, also a cemetery, the plot for 
which had been presented by Count Lescynski. 
The earliest extant tombstone is dated 1662. At 
that date the community was fully organized and 
the schedule of taxation determined. Communal 
expenses were defrayed by taxes on slaughtering, 
dowries, the sale of houses, the ritual bath, and leg- 
acies. The Jews of Lissa not only engaged in com- 
merce, but also followed trades: there were tailors, 
furriers, shoemakers, goldsmiths, lacemakers, lock- 
smiths, tanners, barbers, embroiderers in gold, jew- 
elers, buttonmakers, dyers, and turners. Most of 
these trades were organized into gilds, each of which 
generally had its own rabbi. The strong competi- 
tion between the Jewish artisans and merchants and 
the Christians often led to sanguinary conflicts. 

The Jews of Lissa suffered much during the wars 
in which Poland engaged, and more especially from 
the Cossack persecutions under Bogdan Chmiel- 
NiCKi. On the partition of Poland Lissa was an- 
nexed to Prussia. 

In its most prosperous days Lissa contained be- 
tween 4,000 and 5,000 Jews. It became the seat of 
a famous yeshibah which attracted students even 
from distant parts of Germany ("Memoiren der 
Gluckel von Hameln," ed. Kaufmann, pp. 231-234). 
The first rabbi of Lissa was Isaac Eilenburg (1648), 
whose successors were: Jacob Isaac ben Shalom (d. 
1675) ; Isaac ben Moses Gershon (d. 1695) ; Ephraim 
Kalisch; Mordecai ben Zebi Hirsch (d. 1753); 
Hirsch's broth?r, Abraham b. Zebi Hirsch (died as 
rabbi of Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1768); Phoebus 
Ileilman (rabbi of Bonn; died at Metz); Aryeh 
ben Samuel ; Tebele Horachow (d. 1792) ; and Jacob 




Lissa (died at Stry in 1832). After Jacob Lissa's 
death the rabbinate remained vacant until 1864, 
when the present incumbent, Dr.^ S. Back, was 
elected. Among the many Talmudic scholars of 
Lissa was Akiba Eger, the younger (subsequently 
rabbi at Poseu), who lived there from 1770 to 1791. 
The present (1904) population of Lissa is about 
14,000, including about 1,200 Jews. 
D. S. B. 

LISSACK, MORRIS : English author and 
communal worker ; born at Schwerin-on-the- Wartlia, 
grand duchy of Posen, in 1814; died in London Jan. 
13, 1895. He emigrated to England in 1835, and in 
1839 settled as a "teacher of languages and dealer 
in jewelry " at Bedford, where he lived for nearly a 
half century. In 1851 he published a book entitled 
"Jewish Perseverance, or The Jew at Home and 
Abroad," an autobiography with pious meditations 
and moral reflections. Lissack became a trustee of 
the Harpur Charity, Bedford, and took advantage 
of his po.sition to secure concessions in favor of Jew- 
ish pupils. He was also an active worker in the 
cause of Jewish emancipation. 
Bibliography: Jeiv. Chron. and Jew. World, Jan. 18, 1895. 

J. G. L. 

LISSAUER, ABRAHAM : German physician 
and anthropologist; born at Berent, West Prussia, 
Aug. 29, 1832; educated at the gymnasium of his 
native town and at the universities of Vienna and 
Berlin (M.D. 1856). He practised in Neidenburg till 
1863, when he removed to Danzig; but gave up his 
practise in 1892 upon his appointment as custos and 
librarian of the Anthropological Society of Berlin. 

Lissauer has written several essays on medical 
and anthropological subjects, among whicii may be 
mentioned: "Zur Antipyretischen Behandlung des 
Typlius Abdominalis," in Virchow's " Archiv," liii. ; 
" Ueber den Alkoholgehalt des Bieres," in "Berliner 
Klinische Wochenschrift," 1865; " Ueber das Ein- 
dringen von Canalgasen in die Wohnrilume," in 
"Deutsche Vierteljahresschrift fur Oeffentliche Ge- 
sundheitspflege," 1881; "Untersuchungen ilber die 
Sagittale Krlimmung des Schadels," in "Archiv fur 
Antliropologie," 1885, xv. ; "Die Prahistorischen 
Denkmaler der Provinz West-Preiissen," 1887 ; " Al- 
tertumer der Bronzezeit in der Provinz West-Preus- 
sen. " 
Bibliography : Pagel, Biog. Lex. Vienna, 1901. 

s. F. T. H. 

LISSAUER, HEINRICH: German physi- 
cian; born at Neidenburg Sept. 12, 1861; died at 
Hallstadt, Upper Austria, Sept. 21, 1891; son of 
Abraham Lissauer. He studied medicine at the uni- 
versities of Heidelberg. Berlin, and Leipsic, receiv- 
ing his diploma in 1886. Settling as a physician in 
Breslau, he became as.sistant at the psychiatric hos- 
pital and fliiiic of the university, whieli position he 
continued to hold until liis death. 

He wrote several essays in the medical journals, 
especially on pliarmarology and on the anatomy 
and pathology f)f the nerves. Among these may be 
mentioned: "Beitrag zum Fa.serverlauf im Hinter- 
horn des Menschlichen BHokenmarks und zum Vcr- 
haltcn Desselben bei Tabes Dorsjilis," in "Archiv 
flir Psvchiatrie," xvii. ; " Ein Fall von Seelenblind- 

heit Nebst eiuem Beitrag zur Theorie Derselben," 
i/j, xxi. ; "Sehhiigelveranderungen bei Progressiver 
Paralyse," in "Deutsche Medizinische Wochen- 
.schrift," 1890. 

Bibliography: Paget, Biog. Lex. Vienna, 1901. 

s. F. T. IT. 


(ZALMAN) : Polish scholar ; lived at Kleczewo in 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He was the 
author of a twofold commentary on Jedaiah Bedei- 
si's "Behiuat 'Olain," published with the text at 
Fiankfort-on-the-Oder (1792). The first part, enti- 
tled "Migdenot Eleazar," deals with the interpreta- 
tion of the text; the second, entitled "Ha-Mazkir," 
contains the vocabulary. Eleazar wrote twofold 
commentaries also, under similar titles, on Benjamin 
Musafia's " Zeker Rab " and on Abraham ibn Ezra's 
"Hidah," which he published with the text, the 
former at Altona (1807), and the latter, under tlie gen- 
eral title "HomatEsh," at Breslau (1799), with an ap- 
pendix containingliterary essays by Eleazar and also 

Bibliography : Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 914 ; Zedner, 
Cat. Hehr. Books Brit. Mils. p. 439; Fuenn, if Cdfistt Yir- 
racl, p. 142. 
H. R. I. Br. 

LISSER, JOSHUA EALK : Prominent rabbi 
and Talmudist of tiie second half of the eighteenth 
century; a descendant of Joshua Falk Kohen of 
Lemberg and of R. Liwa (MaHRaL) of Prague, and a 
pupil of R. Moses Zarali Eidlitz of Prague, author 
of "Or la-Yesharim." He was dayyan or judge at 
Lissa while R. David Tebele was chief rabbi there, 
and was, therefore, a member of the council which 
in 1782, under the presidency of David Tebele, con- 
demned and burned Naphtali Herz Wessely's letter 
entitled "Dibre Shalom we-Einet." Lisser wrote 
commentaries on the minor tractates Abot de-Rabbi 
Natan, Semahot, and Derek Erez Rabbah we-Zuta, 
with textual emendations ("Binyan Yehoshua'," 
Dyhernfurth, 1788); the commentary on the Abot 
de-Rabbi Natan was reprinted in the Wilna(l897) 
edition of the Talmud. In the preface he apol- 
ogizes for his textual emendations by referring to 
Solomon Luria and Samuel Edels, who had likewise 
suggested variants in their commentaries. 

s. 8. J- Z. L. 


OiilKNT, DkU. 

LITERATURE, HEBREW : Under this des- 
ignation may be comprised all the works written by 
Jews in the Hebrew and the Aramaic tongue. 
Works written in Hebrew by non-Jews are too few 
to require consideration here. The term "Jewish 
literature" should be used in a broader sense, as in- 
cluding works written by Jews uj)on Jewish sub- 
jects, irrespective of the language in which they may 
he expressed, while the term "Judaica" should be 
apiilied to works written by Jews or non-Jews upon 
Jewish subjects, but in languages otiier tlian He- 
brew. An exception is made in the case of Aramaic, 
not only because of its intimate philological connec- 
tion with Hebrew, but also because at an early date 
it became practically a second mother tongue for 
the Jews, and was used in the Bible, in many of tlie 
Talmudic discussions, in the prayer-book, and in the 




Cabala. Works written by Jews but not upon Jew- 
ish subjects and not in Hebrew are treated under the 
names of their respective authors. See also Jud/EO- 
Oekman ; Jud/eo-Gkkek ; Jud.eo-Sp.\nish. 

The most signiticant characteristic of Hebrew lit- 
erature is that the greater part of it is directl}- or indi- 
rectly tiie outgrowth of the Bible. There is a marked 
continuity in the development of the later from the 
earlier literary forms, all of them going back to the 
first source — the Bible. In other words, Hebrew 
literature is chiefly a religious literature, secular 
writings, produced mostly under the influence of 
foreign literatures, forming but a minor part of it. 
It seems, therefore, that, aside from dividing Hebrew 
literature into periods, as is usually done in histories, 
it will be best to give a sketch here under the cate- 
gories into which the Bible itself may be divided, 
showing what part of the literature may be traced 
back to the Bible and what must be traced to foreign 
influence. These categories are "Law," "Prophecy 
and Wisdom Literature," "History," and "Psal- 
mody. " For more detailed information see subjects 
referred to throughout this article. 

The Law as a literature has continued its develop- 
ment from the earliest times down to the present day, 
and has been of greater influence upon 
The Law. the life of the Jews than any other 
branch of literature. It owes its 
growth chiefly to the doctrine, long inculcated in the 
Jewish mind, that along with the written law Mo- 
ses received also an oral law, which was faithfully 
lianded down by an tuibroken chain of teachers and 
leaders to the men of the Great Synod and by them 
to succeeding generations. This gave rise to the 
Talmudic law, or Halakah, which deals, like the 
Biblical law, not only with man's civil and public 
life, but also with his private habits and thoughts, 
liis conscience, and his morality. Traces of the 
Halakah are discoverable even in the Later Proph- 
ets, but its period of full development lies between 
300 ij.c. and 450 c.E. (see Mishnati ; Taf.mud). In 
the latter half of the fifth century the Babylonian 
schools declined and the teachers of the Law no 
longer assumed authority. They confined their 
teachings to the comparison and explanation of the 
laws that came down to them from previous gen- 
erations, allowing themselves to introduce only 
methodological and mnemonic signs into the Tal- 
mud. This sums up literary activity in the line of 
the Law during the period following the close of the 
Talmud. See Sabokaim. 

The development of the Halakah in the subse- 
quent period received impetus from the fact that 
the Babylonian schools once more raised themselves 
to an important position, owing, perhaps, to Arabic 
dominion in that country. The Geonim, as the 
teachers of this period are called, did not produce 
independent halakah, but continued to promote the 
study of the Talmud. What the Bible was to the 
Tannaim and Amoraim that the Talmud became, in 
its turn, to the Geonim and later teachers. It lay 
before them as an object of exposition, investiga- 
tion, and discussion. The succeeding period was one 
of systematizatiou, condensation, and elucidation; 
introductions, commentaries, compendiums, and 
dictionaries were the outcomi' of the study of the 

Talmud in those days. A new epoch commenced 
with the activity of Maimouides. His "Mishneh 
Torah " embraces the whole field of Halakah, and be- 
came an object of much discussion and explanation. 
In the fourteenth century the halakic literature be- 
gan to deteriorate, and instead of being the guide of 
conduct it became a mere play of the intellect. In 
the sixteenth century, however, it again received a 
fresh impetus through the Shulhan 'Aruk of Joseph 
Caro, which is still the standard work of traditional 
Judaism. Works on the Halakah are to be foimd 
in various forms, viz., in the form of commentaries 
(Perushim ; Kuntresim), glosses (Nixnukim), 
additions (Tosefot), novellas (HiDi)fsniM), collec- 
tions (Likkutim), compilations (Kobezim), com- 
pendiums (Kizzuritn), decisions (Pesakim), and 
judgments (Dinim), as well as in independent 
codes and responsa. 

From the prophetic utterances to the preachings 

and homilies of later days was but a short step, and 

accordingly public preaching for gen- 

Prophecy eral instruction and moral edification 

and Wis- was instituted among the Jews in very 

dom Lit- early times. This gave rise to the 

erature. Haggadah, which did for the spirit 
what the Halakah did for the practise 
of Judaism. Just as the Halakah embraces various 
kinds of law, so does the Haggadah embrace differ- 
ent forms of thought. In a restricted sense, bow- 
ever, the Haggadah may be said to deal with ethics 
and metaphysics, and it is in this sense that it may 
be regarded as the natural issue of the earlier proph- 
ecies. In its ethical characteristics the Haggadah 
was greatly influenced by the Wisdom literature of 
the Bible, but in its metaphysical tendencies it shows 
the influence of Hellenistic philosophy. To the 
ethical Haggadah belong a few apocrj^phal books, 
such as Ben Sira, the Apocalypse of Zerubbabel, 
and the Wisdom of Solomon, and the still more im- 
portant works Pirke Abot, Abot de-Rabbi Natan, 
and Masseket Derek Erez. The metaphysical Hag- 
gadah did not develop into a separate literature until 
a much later date. See Midrash ; Targum. 

About the middle of the eighth century Arabic 
philosophy began to exercise a strong influence over 
the Jewish mind, and owing to the rationalistic 
character of that philosophy the Midrash ceased to 
grow, and its place was taken by theological and 
philosophical works of a systematic nature. The 
prophetic spirit is no longer so clearly discernible as 
before, owing to the large intermixture of foreign 
thought, but, on the other hand, the prodigious de- 
velopment of Hebrew literature in the Middle Ages 
must be ascribed to this foreign influence, for its 
presence is felt in almost every branch of thought 
cultivated in those days. It is seen in the rise 
of Karaism, in the development of philology and 
exegesis, as well as in the cultivation of general sci- 
ences among the Jews. Later, again, when Jewish 
thought came in touch with Christian mysticism, 
the developed Cabala sprang into existence in place 
of the metaphysical Haggadah (see Cabala). Fi- 
nally, a great part of the large controversial liter- 
ature owes its existence to the conflict between Ju- 
daism and Mohammedanism. 

The theological literature previous to the twelfth 




century is very fragmentary, and consists mostly of 
partial translations from the Arabic. Though the 
beginning of this literature dates from 
Philo- the days of Saadia Gaon, there is 
sophic no independent work of the kind in 
Haggadah. Hebrew until a much later date, and 
even the eailiest among the prominent 
men in this field, Ibn Gabiuol (11th cent.), Jldaii 
ha-Levi and Maimonides (12th cent.), wrote in 
Arabic, as had Saadia. The first important theo- 
logical writers in Hebrew were Levi ben Gekshon 
(14th cent.), Joseph Albo (15th cent.), and Elijah 
Delmedigo (15th cent.). 

The ethical literature was continued in the works 
of Gabirol and Bahya ben Joseph (11th cent.), 
Halevi (12th cent.), Isiiac Aboab and Eleazar ben 
JuDAH (13th cent.), Jedaiah Bedersi (14th cent.), 
Leon of Modena (16th cent.), and Moses Hayyim 
LuzzATTO (18th cent.), as well as in tlie large litera- 
ture of ethical Wills and correspondence current 
throughout the Middle Ages. 

The metaphysical Haggadah assumed under the 
influence of Arabic philosophy the aspect of a sys- 
tematic philosophy, and through the influence of 
Christian mysticism it became a sort of theosophy 
which looked for the hidden and disregarded the 
evident meaning of the Law, and which, under the 
name of Cabala, began to develop an extensive lit- 
erature, first in Italy and in Provence, and later in 
the East. The founder of the Cabala was R. Isaac 
the Blind (12th cent.), who was followed, in the 
thirteenth century, by a host of eminent scholais. 
To the same century undoubtedly belongs the most 
famous cabalistic work, the ZoJiar, which is ascribed 
by all critics to Moses de Leon. The cabalistic lit- 
erature of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries is 
mostly anonymous and not original. But a new 
epoch opens with the teacliings of K. Isaac Luria in 
the sixteenth century. He inaugurated the "prac- 
tical " Cabala. No longer content to be restricted 
to the world of thought, this Cabala assumed to in- 
terfere in the world of action and to direct man's 
conduct in life. Luria's chief disciple was Hayyim 
Vital, who committed the teachings of his master 
to writing. In the latter part of the seventeenth 
century this " practical " Cabala was at the root of 
the Shabbethaian movement, and in the eighteenth 
century it was the cause of the extravagances of 
the Hasidim, the chief of whom were Israel Ba'al 
Shem, Bilr of Meseritz, and Salman of Liadi. 

With the rise of systematic theology there came 
into existence an extensive literature of controversy. 
For altliough traces of this literature may be found 
in the Talmud, it was not until Juda- 
Polemical ism came into conflict with its two 
Literature, sister religions and with Karaism 
that religious controversy became a 
significant part of Hebrew literature. The first 
great work of this kind is the " Cuzari " of Judah 
ha-Levi, which is directed mainly against Moham- 
medanism and Karaism. But the most fruitful 
period for religious controversy was the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries, and tlie leading authors of 
that period were Profiat Diuan, Joseph Albo, Isaac 
Abuavanel, and Yom-Tob Lipmunn Hellkr. In 
the sixteenth century two strong polemics were 

written Christianity: the "Hoda'at Ba'al 
Din " of Joseph Nasi and the " Hizzuk Emunali " of 
Isaac ben Abraham Tuoki. In modern times Isaac 
Baer Levinsohn wrote many controversial Avorks. 

Another product of the influence which Arabic 
philosoiihy exerted over Judaism is Karaism. It 
took its origin in the latter part of the eighth cen- 
tury and came early under the influence of Moham- 
medan dogmatism. Its literature dates from the 
same period, and consists mainly of dogmatics, exe- 
gesis, and grammatical works; its most prominent 
authors are: Judah Hadassi (13th cent.); Aaron the 
Elder (13th cent.); Aaron be.\ Elijah, author of 
"'Ez ha-Hayyim" and "Gan 'Eden" (14th cent.); 
Elijah Bashyazi (15th cent.); and Zarah Troki 
(17th cent.). In the nineteenth century the most 
prominent Karaitescholar was Abraham ben Samuel 
Firkovich. To the influence of Arabic literature 
must be ascribed also the scientific development of 
Hebrew grammar, which in turn greatly afl'ected 
Biblical exegesis; both form important branches of 
Hebrew literature, but they can not be discussed here. 
"The meager achievements of the Jews in the 
province of history do not justify the conclusion 

that they are wanting in historic per- 
History. ception. The lack of Jewish writings 

on these subjects is traceable to the 
sufferings and persecutions that have marked their 
path. Before the chronicler had had time to record 
past aflflictions, new sorrows and troubles broke upon 
them" (G. Karpeles, "Jewish Literature, and Other 
Essays," p. 23). Though real historical works, in 
the modern sense of the term, are a very late product 
in Hebrew literature, the elements of history were 
never absent therefrom. The traditional nature of 
the Halakah created a demand for chronology and 
genealog}', while the Haggadah often enlarged upon 
the historic material of the Bible for purposes of its 
own. The most important historic documents of 
the Talmudic period are the Seder '01am Rabbah 
(1st cent.) and the MegillatTa'anit(2d cent. ; though 
in its present state, however, perhaps the product 
of the eighth century). From the geonic period 
there are a number of historic documents, e.rj.. Seder 
'01am Zuta, Seder Tannaim we-Amoraim, and the 
Letter of Sherira Gaon. From the tenth century 
there is the " Yosippon," and from the eleventh the 
"Sefer ha-Kabbalah " of Abraham ibn Daud. Be- 
sides these there are some notable books of travel to 
be mentioned, as the "Sefer Eldad ha-Dani " (11th 
cent.), the " Sibbub Rab Petahyah " (12th cent.), and 
the "Massa'ot" of Benjamin of Tudela (12th cent.). 
The fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries 
produced noUxble chroniclers like Solomon Ibn 
Verga (15th cent.), Abraham Zaci'to (16th cent.), 
Joseph ha-Koiien (16th cent.), David GANs(16th 
cent.), David Conkorte (17th cent.), and Jehiel 
Heilprin (17th cent.). Azariah dei Rossi (16th 
cent.) may be regarded as the first critical literary 
historian, and his work is authoritative even to-day. 
In the eighteenth century Hayyim Joseph David 
Azulai is the most prominent literary historian, 
while in the nineteenth century the ciiicf works on 
history and the history of literature are those of 
Rapoport, Schorr, I. H. Weiss, Frankel, and Isaac 
Halevy. See Historiography. 





Tlie literature devoted to the liturgy of the Syna- 
gogue extends over a long period. Although in the 
Bible there is no mention made of any 
Psalmody, composition specially written for the 
purpose of prayer, it is not unlikely 
that many Psalms were recited in the Temple serv- 
ice and then adopted as prayers. And inasmuch as 
the oldest prayers are largely mosaics, made up of 
quotations from the Scriptures, the liturgy may 
justly be regarded as a development of the Psalm 
literature. It was due to this Biblical origin also 
that the language of the old prayers was in most 
cases Hebrew and the style fluentand forcible. The 
later development of the liturgy, however, was 
closely connected with the development of the Mid- 
rash. This is evident from the fact that the addi- 
tions which grew up around the old nucleus of the 
prayer were in the spirit of the Midrash, until 
finally the Midrash itself entered into the liturgy. 
Under the influence of the new forms of poetry in 
the Arabic period the daily prayers, and still more 
those of the festivals, assumed various forms. Litur- 
gical poems adapted for special occasions were pro- 
duced and new technical names invented. By de- 
grees even dogmatic theology and halakah were 
versified and introduced into the liturgy. The im- 
portant occasions of life — birth, marriage, and death 
— were made the subject of synagogal poetry. The 
literature of the liturgy is so large that no attempt 
is made to record names. It will be sufficient to 
state that although a skeleton of much of the ritual 
was already fixed in Talmudic times additions to it 
were made as late as the sixteenth century. See 
Liturgy; Piyyut. 

From religious to secular poetry is but a step, yet 

it was only in the middle of the tenth century that 

secular poetry began to flourish. In 

Secular this as in other branches of literature, 

Poetry. Arabic influence was strongly felt from 
the daj'S of Hasdai (10th cent.) down 
to those of Immanuel of Rome (14th cent.). From 
the fifteenth to the seventeenth century inclusive, 
Hebrew poetry declined, and was not revivified until 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, when it 
came imder the influence of modern literatures. The 
period from Moses Hayyim Luzzatto to that of 
Naphtali Wessely may be called the Italian period, 
and that from Wessely to Abraham Biir Lebensohn, 
the German period. Judah Lob Gonlon, though he 
came under the influence of foreign literatures, made 
the foreign taste subservient to the Jewish spirit. 
He is also the first poet to deal with real life, while 
the recent school of poets, under the influence of the 
national movement, shows a tendency to return to 
romanticism. Owing also to the influence of mod- 
ern literatures, Hebrew has developed a literature 
of fiction and essays which deserves general recog- 

Finally, a word must be said of the works written 
in Hebrew that deal witli the arts and sciences. 
Originally, the sciences developed among the Jews 
as a branch of Halakah, receiving recognition only 
by virtue of some religious function which they 
were made to serve, as, for example, astronomy in 
connection with the fixing of the calendar, iipon 
which depended the observance of the festivals. 

Later, however, when the Jews came in contact with 
Arabic civilization, the sciences came to be cultivated 
for their own sake, and since the middle of the tenth 
century many books have been written on the vari- 
ous arts and sciences, irrespective of their religious 
bearing. See also Dictionaries; Drama; Fables; 
FoLK-SoNGS; Folk-Tales; Grammar, Hebrew; 
Hebrew L.\nguage; Poetry, Didactic; Se.mitic 
Languages; Translators. 

Bibliography: Abrahams, Chaptertt on Jewixfi Literature, 
Philadelphia, 18i»9; D. (assel, Lehrbuch der Jlhii>tc)ien 
Gesch. und Litcr-atur, Leipsic, 1879 (2d ed., Frankfort-on- 
the-Main, 1896) ; Idem, Manual of Jewish History and Lit- 
erature, London, 1883; J. VV. Etheridge, Jerusalem and Ti- 
heriax: Sora and Cordova, an introduction to the study of 
Hebrew literature, London, 185C; A. S. Freidus, A Scheme 
of Classification for Jewish Literature in the New York 
Public iibrary. New York, 1901 ; Gratz, Gesch. passim; G. 
Karpeles, Gesch. der Jlldischen Litcratur, Berlin, 1886; 
idem, Ein Blick indie Jildische Literatur, Prague. 1895; 
idem, Jewish Literature, and Other Essays, Philadelphia, 
1895 ; S. Levy, is There a Jewish Literature 1 in J. Q. R. xv. 
583-603; M. Steinschneider, JU(ii,sc/ie Iyi(e»nYi<J-, InErschand 
Gruber, Encyc. section ii., part 27 ; idem, Jewish Literature, 
London, 1857; H. L. Strack, DilAi^t^iraph'ischer Abri.'<s der 
NeuhebrUischen Literatur (C. Siegfried and H. L. Strack, 
Lehrbuch des NeuhebrUischen Sprache, pp. 93-132, New 
York, 1884); Weiss, Dor; Winter and Wunsche,Die Jildisclie 
Litteratur ; Zunz, G. S.; What Is Jewish Literature 1 by W. 
Bacher, A. Wolf, and S. Levy, in J. Q. R. xvi. 300-329; 'He- 
brew) Literature, Translations from the Talmud, Midrash, 
and Kabhala, with introduction by M. H. Harris, in Uni- 
versal Classic Librari/, Washington and London, 1901 ; He- 
brew Literature, ComprisinQ Talmudic Tieatises, Hebrew 
Melodies, and the Kabbalah Unveiled, with introduction 
by E. Wilson, In The World's Great Classics, New York and 
London, 1901. See also Jew. Encyc. iii. 199, s.v. Bibliogra- 

J. I. D. 

ern Hebrew literature (174ti-1904), in distinction to 
that form of Neo-Hebraic literature known as rab- 
binical literature (see Literature, Hebrew), which 
is distinctly religious in character, presents itself 
under a twofold aspect: (1) humanistic, relating to 
the emancipation of the language by a return to the 
classical models of the Bible, leading to the subse- 
quent development of modern Hebrew; (2) human- 
itarian, dealing with the secularization of the lan- 
guage with a view to the religious and social 
emancipation of the Jews of the ghetto. These two 
tendencies are expressed by the word Haskalah, 
a term denoting the movement which predominated 
in Hebrew literature from the second half of the 
eighteenth century down to the death of Smolenskin 
in 1885. 

Beginning with the seventeenth century, many at- 
tempts were made to emancipate Hebrew from the 
forms and ideas of the Middle Ages. 

Period of Italy, with critics and poets like Aza- 
Transition riah dei Rossi, Leon of Modena, Fran- 

in Italy, cis, etc., who were inspired by the Ital- 
ian Renaissance, led in this period of 
transition in Hebrew literature. But it was not until 
the appearance of Moses Hayyim Luzzatto that He- 
brew poetry shook off the medieval fetters which 
hindered its free development. His allegorical 
drama " La-Yesharim Tehillah" (1743), which may 
be regarded as the first product of modern Hebrew 
literature, is a poem that in its classic perfection of 
style is second only to the Bible. In the less ad- 
vanced countries especially it has contributed to 
the regeneration of Hebrew and has stimulated a 
host of imitators among writers removed from mod- 
ern literary centers. 




At Amsterdam, Luzzatto's pupil, David Franco 
Mendes (1713-92), in his imitations of Kacine (" Gc- 
mul 'Atalyah ") and of Motastasio ("' Yehudit "), con- 
tinued liis master's work, without, however, equal- 
ing Luzzatto's poetic inspiration and originalit}'. 
In Germany, where, in consequence of the ideas 
promulgated by the encyclopedists, the Jews de- 
veloped more normally, and where, moreover, in 
the middle of the eighteenth century, Hebrew was 
still almost the only literary language accessible to 
the masses, another successor of Luzzatto, Naphtali 
Hartwig Wessely (1725-1805), inaugurated the has- 
kalah movement. His "Shire Tif'eret," or "Mo- 
siade," which, though falling short of poetic inspira- 
tion, is written in a pure, oratorical style and is 
marked by a lofty, moral tone, made him, so to 
speak, poet laureate of the period. 

Under the stimulus of Mendelssohn, literary soci- 
eties were formed by the Maskilim in the large com- 
munities, which undertook to propa- 
First gate modern ideas among the Jews 

German and to familiarize them with modern 
Maskilim. secular life. Two schools or parties, 
which were more or less distinct, un- 
dertook this work : (1) the Biurists, a group of com- 
mentators and translators of the Bible who, under 
the leadership of Mendelssohn, desired to replace the 
Judaeo-German dialect with pure German and to 
provide a more rational interpretation of the sacred 
text; (2) the Me'assefim, scholars connected with 
the first literary collection in Hebrew, "Ila-Me'as- 
sef," which was established in 1785 at Breslau by 
Isaac Eichel and B. Lindau, and which became the 
organ of the haskalah and a bond of union among 
the Hebraists. 

Wessely may be regarded as the spiritual leader 
of the Me'assefim. Although a devout believer him- 
self, he did not hesitate to meet the objections wliich 
the Orthodox rabbis of Austria and Germany op- 
posed to all educational and civic reforms advocated 
by the government of Joseph 11. In his eight mes- 
sages (1784), "Dibre Si)alom we-Emet," he empha- 
sized the necessity, even from the standpoint of the 
Talmud, of these reforms as well as of secular stud- 
ies, especially the study of modern languages and 
classical Hebrew and of manual training. Despite 
the oppo.sition of tlie Orthodox rabbis of Germany 
and Austria, the aid of the liberal Italian rabbis 
enabled him to arouse public opinion in favor of tlie 
haskalah, and thus to prepare the way for the Me'as- 
sefim. "Ha-Me'assef " was discontinued after an 
existence of seven years, the French Revolution and 
the downfall of the old order of things destroying 
the interest in the Hebrew language, which was the 
only relic left to the emancipated Maskilim. The 
literar}' and scientific value of " Ha-Me'assef " is very 
doubtful. In their instinctive aversion to every- 
thing medieval and rabbinic, the Me'assefim went to 
the other extreme and adopted the affected style of 
the "meli:fah," which was cultivated by their suc- 
cessors, and which often ended in mere artificial 
juggling with words. As regards their content 
most of the pieces in the collection have only a 
slight interest, being merely puerile imitations of 
German pseudo-romanticism. Having broken with 
the Messianic ideal of traditional Judaism, and being 

unable to replace it with another ideal more in con- 
formity with modern ideas, the Me'assefim ended in 
advocating assimilation with the surrounding peo- 
ple. But the importance of this first secular period- 
ical in Hebrew was such that it imposed its name 
upon the entire literary movement of the second 
half of the eighteenth century, which is called "the 
period of the Me'assefim." 

Among the Me'assefim, I. Eichel is notewortny 
for his imcomproniisiug attitude, unusual at that 
time, toward rabbinism, and Baruch Lindau is known 
for his works on the subject of natural science and 
written in Hebrew. The most influential, however, 
was the rabbi Solomon Pappeuheim (1776-1814), 
an eminent philologist, whose sentimental elegy, 
"Arba' Kosot," was the book of the day and con- 
tributed much to the dis.semination of the melizah. 
The most valuable contributors to "Ha-Me'assef" 
were, perhaps, the Me'assefim of Polish origin, espe- 
cially the grammarian and stylist S. Dubno; S. 
Maimon, the commentator of Maimonides; the ec- 
centric but gifted Isaac Satanow, author of the 
maxims " Mishle Asaf " ; and the grammarian Judah 
Ben-Zeeb (Bensew) of Cracow. 

In short, altliough the Me'assefim lacked original- 
ity, they accomplished the double task which they 
had set themselves. Hebrew, wliich 
Influence had been almost entirely neglected in 
of the the Slavic countries, was again stud- 
Me'assefim. ied, giving rise to a literature more or 
less worthy the name and producing 
the Maskilim, a class of secular scholars who were 
active during the following century in awakening the 
masses from their medieval slumbers and in dispu- 
ting, '" the name of science and modern life, the au- 
thor- i the Rabbis over the people (see Haskalah). 

The nineteenth century did not open auspiciously 
for Hebrew literature, especially in western Europe. 
Hebrew disappeared more and more as a living lan- 
guage among the emancipated Jews, who had bro- 
ken with their national ideals and were ambitious of 
assimilating themselves entirely with their neigh- 
bors. It is true that the Napoleonic wars gave 
birth to a whole literature of odes and hymns, manj' 
of Avhich were sung in the synagogue, the most 
poetical and characteristic being Elie Hal fan Ha- 
levy 's " Ha-Shalom" (Paris, 1804) ; but the few rabbis 
who continued to use Hebrew did not influence 
the masses. In Italy, however, there was still an 
ardent band of Hebrew scholars, among them the 
poet E. Luzzatto. About this time the center of liter- 
ary activity was definitively transferred to the Slavic 
countiies, where was witnessed a remarkable revival 
of Hebrew letters. Tlie lead which Austria, fol- 
lowed by Italy, took in the movement at the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century was later yielded to 
Russia; and that country has maintained its leader- 
ship down to the present time. 

At the close of the eigliteenth century Polish Ju- 
daism, which for a long time had been politically 
isolated and had devoted itself en- 
Poland and tirely to pious observance and to the 

Austria, study of the Talmudic law, came in 
contact with modern ideas, and awa- 
kened from its centuries of slumber. Galicia be- 
came a center for the haskalah. The "Me'assef," 




which had been edited in a new series in Ger- 
many by Solomon ha-Kohen (Dessau, 1809-11), but 
without much success, was revived at Vienna and 
later in Galicia, and succeeded, first under the title 
of "Bikkure ha-'Ittim " (1820-31), and then under 
that of "Kerem Hemed" (1833-42), in gathering to- 
gether many writers, the larger proportion of whom 
were Polish. In Poland, however, where the Jewish 
population lived apart, and could not even aspire 
to the dreams of equality and liberty of the German 
writers, the Maskilim were confronted Avith very 
complicated problems. On the one hand, political 
upheavals, modern instruction, and military serv- 
ice had paved the way for the mysticism of the 
Hasidim, which seized the masses despite the efforts 
of the liberal rabbis aided by writers like D. Samoscz 
and Tobias Feder. 

On the other hand, light literature and romantic 
imitations could not satisfy scholars saturated with 
Talmudic study. In order to meet these needs He- 
brew literature descended from its heights to devote 
its attention to the necessities of daily life. Joseph 
Perl, a Maecenas and himself a scholar, encouraged 
this movement, and published the parody "Megal- 
leh Temirin," directed against the superstitions and 
the cult of the Hasidic zaddikim. Solomon Judali 
Rapoport (1790-1867), who began by translating 
Racine and Schiller, now turned to the critical study 
of the past. By his able reconstruction of the lives 
and the scientific work of the masters of the Middle 
Ages, by his careful critical method, and by his de- 
votion to the Law and the Jewish spirit, Rapoport 
created the Science of Judaism. 

But this science, which was warmly received espe- 
cially by the cultivated minds of western Europe, 
could not satisfy the poor Polish scholars, living in 
entirely Jewish surroundings, and, no longer con- 
tented with the reasons advanced by the medieval 
masters, anxiously questioning the wherefore of the 
present and future existence of Israel. Then a mas- 
ter mind arose, to give an answer at once ingenious 
and adapted to the time. Nachman 
Nacliman Krochmal, teaching gratuitously in 
Krochmal his obscure corner of Poland, suc- 
(1785- ceeded in uniting the propositions of 
1840). modern critics with the principles of 
Judaism by the bond of nationalism, 
as it were, thus creating a Jewish philosophy in 
conformity with modern thought. Starting with 
Hegel's axiom of real and of absolute reason, Kroch- 
mal sets forth in his essays and in his ingenious Bib- 
lical and philosophic studies that the Jewish people 
is a concrete national organism, a separate unity, 
whose existence is justified, as the existence of all 
other nationalities is justified. But, at tlie same 
time, as the people of the Prophets, it has in addi- 
tion a spiritual reason for its existence, which tran- 
scends national boundaries, and will join the entire 
human race in one bond. 

Many poets, scholars, and popular writers besides 
Rapoport and Krochmal contributed to the dissemi- 
nation of Hebrew and to the emancipation of the 
Jews of Galicia. The .satirical poet Isaac Erter 
(1792-1841), whose collection of essays, " Ila-Zofch 
Ic P)ct Yisrael," is one of tlie purest works of mod- 
ern Hebrew literature, attacked Hasidic supersti- 
VIII.— 8 

tions and prejudices in a vigorous and classical style, 
marked by bright fancy and a cutting sarcasm 
which heaped ridicule upon the rabbi and satire 
upon the zaddik. 

Meir Ilalevy Letteris acquired merited renown and 
was for a long time considered poet laureate of the 
period by reason of his numerous translations, both 
in prose and in poetry, including " Faust " and works 
by Racine and Byron, and also on account of origi- 
nal lyric poetry, his song " Yonah Homiyyah " being 
a masterpiece. The popularizer of Galician history 
and geography, Samson Bloch, also 
The won a reputation, although his insipid 

Galician and prolix style does not warrant the 
School. success achieved by his works. The 
Galician scholar Judah Mises is noted 
especially for his violent attacks on rabbinical tradi- 
tion and for his extreme radicalism, his work being 
continued by I. A. Schorr, the daring editor of "He- 

Outside of Galicia, where the scholars issued their 
works, and where periodicals multiplied, some of 
which were published at Vienna, as "KokebeYiz- 
hak " (ed. Stern), " Ozar JSIehmad " (ed. Blumenfeld), 
kerem Hemed, etc., groups of Maskilim or indi- 
vidual scholars were to be found toward the middle 
of the century in all the countries of Europe. In 
Germany the campaign for and against religious 
reform gave opportunity to certain scholars and 
rabbis to conduct their polemics in Hebrew. Zunz, 
Geiger, Z. Frankel, Jellinek, Carmoly, Flirst, J. 
Schwarz, and others, also published part of their 
works in Hebrew. Moses Mendelssohn of Hamburg, 
a pupil of Wessely and author of the makamat 
"PeneTebel" (Amsterdam, 1872), may be considered 
as the epigone of the Me'assefim. In the Nether- 
lands, especially at Amsterdam, there was also a 
circle of epigones, including the poet Samuel Mol 
der (1789-1862). In Austria, Vienna was the de- 
pot for publishing Hebrew books and periodicals, 
and Prague became an active center for the haska- 
lah. The best known among tiie Maskilim here is 
J. L. Jeiteles (1773-1838). author of witty epigrams 
("Bene ha-Ne'urim") and of works directed against 
the Hasidim and against superstition, and director of 
the "Bikkure ha-'Ittim." There were scholars in 
Hungary also, the most gifted among them being 
Solomon Lewisonof Moor (1789-1822), a remarkable 
stylist, whose classical "Melizat Yeshurun " places 
him above all the poets of the period. 
Decadence Gabriel Sudfeld, father of Max Nor- 
of the dau, and Simon Bachek, may also be 
School. mentioned. The reflex of this move- 
ment was felt even in Rumania (J. 
Barasch, etc.). Galicia, however, the center of the 
haskalah, finally succumbed to Hasidism, while the 
moderns gave up Hebrew, and ended by more or 
less openly advocating assimilation. A few circles 
of Maskilim barely succeeded in perpetuating the 
Hebrew tradition, but had no influence on the masses. 
The Italian school exercised a more pronounced 
influence. I. S. Reggio (1784-1854) endeavored in 
his"Ha-Torah weha-Filosofiah " to reconcile mod- 
ern thought with the Jewish law, while in his nu- 
merous writings and publications he openly sided 
with the German religio\is reformers. Joseph Al- 




manzi, Hayyim Salomon, S. LoUi, and others 
wrote poems on the grandeur of the Law and tlie 
glory of Israel; these contained, however, not a 
spark of originality. More interesting perhaps is the 
only poetess of the period, Rachel Morpurgo (1790- 
1860), whose poems evince religious piety and a 
mystic faith in Israel's future. The most original 
and gifted Italian writer of the period is Samuel Da- 
vid Luzzatto (SHeDaL, 1800-65), whose influence 
reached beyond Italy and beyond his time. Gifted 
with an encyclopedic mind, Luzzatto did good work 
alike in poetry ("Kinnor Na'im"), in philology 
("Bet ha-Ozar" and "Betulat Bat Yehudah "), in 
philosophy, and in general literature. At the same 
time Luzzatto was the first modern writer to intro- 
duce religious romanticism into He- 
Italy : brew and to attack northern rational- 
Luzzatto. ism in the name of religious and 
national feeling. "True Jewish sci- 
ence is founded on faith. . . . Faith is the only ar- 
biter of supreme morality which gives us true hap- 
piness. The happiness of the Jewish people, the 
people of morality, does not depend on its political 
emancipation, but on faith and on morality. . . ." 
These ideas led Luzzatto into polemics with his 
northern friends, but they also helped to familiarize 
the believers in Russia with modern literature. 
Luzzatto thus found the key to the heart of the 
masses; and it was due to him that the work of the 
Maskilim, which had failed of permanent results in 
the West, in the East led to the development of a 
national literature. But in Italy also Hebrew de- 
clined more and more, even among scholars; and by 
the second half of the century it was almost entirely 
forgotten in the civilized countries of Europe. 

The large bodies of Jews in the Polish districts 
annexed to Russia were entirely removed from all 
political and social life, and vegetated in a kind of 
profound resignation or in mystical piety. At the 
Europeanized city of Odessa, however, Galician 
Jews formed a circle of Maskilim, which, though 
active, was restricted in its influence. Here in the 
middle of the century were the scholars S. Pinsker 
and S. Stern, who were soon joined by the Karaite 
Firkovich and by the poet Jacob Eichenbaum. 
The acknowledged leader of these Maskilim of 
southern Russia was Isaac BUr Levinsohn, the apos- 
tle of humanism in Russia, whose influence pene- 
trated even into government circles, but whose lit- 
erary work has been overestimated. His personal 
endeavors, as well as his books ("Te'udah be-Yis- 
rael " and " Bet Yehudah "), in which he recommends 
to the Orthodox tiie study of the sciences and the 
pursuit of manual employments, con- 
Russia, tributed to general emancipation 
rather than to tliat of Hebrew litera- 
ture in particular. Lithuania, an eminently Jewish 
country, was more favored by circumstances; and 
here tlie haskalah was destined to lead to the unfold- 
ing of a literature. At Shklov, the first city to 
come in contact witli the outside world, a group of 
humanists arose as early as the beginning of the cen- 
tury. But it was at Wilna, the capital of tlie coun- 
try, abandoned by its native population and entirely 
removed from outside influence, that the Hebrew 
language flourished to an extraordinary degree. It 

was due to the enlightened tolerance of the gaon 
Elijah Wilna and the zeal of his pupils that Wilna 
became, toward the end of the eighteenth century, 
the home of excellent grammarians and stylists. 
About 1820 or 1830 a circle of Maskilim, called " Ber- 
liner," and evidently inspired by the writers of Ger- 
many, was formed, which assiduously cultivated 
modern Hebrew literature. Two eminent scholars 
lent special luster to this new literary movement. 
M. A. Gf NZBURG well deserves his title "the father 
of prose," which he won for himself through his 
numerous translations, histories, and scientific com- 
pilations, his picturesque narration of the ritual 
murder at Damascus, his realistic autobiography 
"Abi'ezer" (a glowing criticism of customs of the 
past), and especially through his style, which is at 
once temperate, realistic, and modern. At the same 
time Abraham Bar Lebensohn, called "the father 
of poetry," lent new radiance and vig- 

A. Bar or to Hebrew verse. The touching 
Xiebensohn. lyric quality of some of his poems, the 
profound pessimism, the plaint over 
life, and the fear of death, which betray the feelings 
of the Jew tried by the ordeal of ghetto life, all 
stamp him as the veritable poet of the ghetto. The 
simplicity of his ideas, his rabbinical dialectic and 
even his frequent prolixity only added to his popu- 
larity. His poems " Shire Sefat Kodesh " were ex- 
traordinarily successful; and his elegant, limpid, 
and often energetic style is still justly admired. 

It was due to these two masters that modern He- 
brew literature was widely disseminated throughout 
Lithuania, circles devoted to the haskalah being 
formed nearly everywhere. Hebrew became the lan- 
guage of daily life, the literary language, and, what 
is still more characteristic, the language of folk-lore. 
In fact, the list of popular Hebrew poems by known 
or unknown " "hors is too long to be noted here. 
The unhapf iitical situation of the Russian Jews 
under Nicho .j I. — a period of persecutions of all 
kinds and of terror — had particularlj' contributed to 
produce this state of mind in the harassed people ; and 
while Hasidism completed its work of producing in- 
tellectual obscurantism -and hopeless resignation in 
the province of Poland and in southern Russia, 
mysticism found in Lithuania a redoubtable enemy 
in the sentimentality of the unfolding Hebrew liter- 

The diffusion of the afl'ected style of the melizah 
and the return to the language of the past awakened 
among this unhai)py people a regret for the glori- 
ous Biblical times and a romanticism that was to 
bear rich fruit. Popular Hebrew poetry had be- 
come fundamentally Zionistic, as is 

Popular evident from the anonymous })oems 
and Liter- then written (" Shoshannah,""Ziyyon, 

ary Ro- Ziyyon,"etc.). Literary romanticism 
manticism. soon followed upon this romantic tend- 
ency. The Lithuanian writers, shar- 
ing the life and patriotic thoughts of the people, 
and encouraged by the example of S. D. Luzzatto, 
who united modern culture with ardent patriotism, 
turned to romanticism. The prolific popularizer 
Kalman Schulman (1826-1900) inaugurated roman- 
tic fiction and introduced the romantic form into 
Hebrew through his Hebrew version of " Les Mys- 




t^res de Paris " (" Mistere Paris ") ; and he became one 
of the civilizersof the ghetto through his numerous 
popular scientific works and especially through his 
studies of the Jewish past. His pure, flowing, me- 
lizah style, his extreme sentimentalism as well as his 
naive romanticism in all matters touching Judaism, 
won for him great influence. For fully half a cen- 
tury he, in spite of his lack of originality, ranked as 
a master. The young and gifted Avriter Micah Jo- 
seph Lebensoiin (1828-52), the first true artist and 
romantic poet in Hebrew, has left poems that are 
perfect in style, including an admirable translation 
of the "^neid," lyrics of love, of nature, and of 
sorrow. But his masterpieces are romantic poems 
("Moses," "Judah ha-Levi") dealing with Israel's 
glorious past. 

The creator of the Hebrew novel was Abraham 
Mapu (1808-67), whose historical romance " Ahabat 
Ziyyon" exercised an important influence on the 
development of Hebrew. This novel, which deals 
with the golden age of Judah, that of Isaiah, and is 
couched in the very language of that prophet, is 
rather a succession of poetic pictures reconstruct- 
ing the civilization of ancient Judea than a con- 
nected story. Simple and primitive in his thoughts, 
Mapu was so imbued with the spirit of the Bible 
that, although unconsciousl}', he was translated to 
ancient times, and, guided by a marvelous intui- 
tion, he succeeded in reconstructing the free, agri- 
cultural life of ancient Judah. in the laud of the 
prophets, of justice, and of truth, the land of love 
and of the joy of life. This past, to renew which 
was the ambition of scholars and people, superim- 
posed itself upon the present, and it was due to Ma- 
pu 's novel that an entire people came forth from its 
long lethargy, to be reborn. Another novel ("Ash- 
mat Shomeron ") by Mapu served to increase his 

Many imitators of these leaders of Hebrew roman- 
ticism appeared, and at a time when the political 
outlook checked all hopes of a better life: the 
Maskilini demanded, in the name of the prophetic 
past, the rights of civilization and progress. Manj^ 
persons, also, were won over to the reading of secu- 
lar literature. When in 1856 Silbermann founded 
at Lyck the first political journal in Hebrew, "Ha- 
Maggid," he met with unexpected success and had 
many imitators. In Austria, Russia, and even in 
Palestine, periodicals, more or less successful, ap- 
peared, furthering the cause both of Hebrew and of 
emancipation. Among these journals were " Ha- 
Karmel," founded by the scholar Samuel Joseph 
Fuenn ; "Ha-Zefirah," founded by the popularizer of 
science C. Z. Slonimsky; and "Ha-Meliz," founded 
by A. Zederbaum. 

The accession of Alexander II. radically changed 
the condition of the Russian Jews. A wave of lib- 
erty and radicalism swept through the 

Ofl&cial empire, and for the first time the Rus- 
Liberalism sian Jews could hope for a lot similar 
and Radi- to that of their western coreligionists. 

calism. Awakened from their century-long 

sleep, the backward people of the 

ghetto began to shake off religious and other fetters, 

becoming imbued with modern ideas and adopting 

modern modes of life. In the large centers there 

was no serious opposition to emancipation, and the 
Jews flocked in masses to the schools and sought 
secular employments. The scholars themselves, en- 
couraged by the government and by the notables of 
the great cities, decided to attack all the "domains 
of darkness" of the past, and to occupy themselves 
with the affairs of the day ; and wiieu the small 
provinces, less disturbed by the economic and moral 
upheavals, bitterly opposed this social emancipa- 
tion — which led to of the Law and 
endangered the faith — the Maskilim knew no limits 
to their fury against the fanatics of the ghetto. 
Hebrew literature, at first realistic, attacking cus- 
toms and superstitions in the name of utility and 
the reality of things, became more and more anti- 
rabbinical as it opposed religious tradition. ]\Iapu 
led the way in his novel " 'Ayit Zabua'," which, 
though a failure from a literary point of view, de- 
picts the backward types of the ghetto, the Tar- 
tuffes, and the enemies to progress, with a realism 
intentionally exaggerated. Abramowitsch, then 
a young man, described in his novel "Ha-Abot 
we-ha-Banim " the customs of the Hasidim and the 
struggles of their progressive sons. The aged poet 
Abraham Bar Lebensohn published his drama, " Emet 
we-Emunah" (written twenty -five years previously), 
in which he satirized cabalistic hypocrisy and mys- 
ticism. The number of popularizers of science, 
critics of belated customs, and belittlers of the relig- 
ious past became legion. 

The most distinguished among these writers was 

the poet Leon Gordon, an implacable enemy of the 

Rabbis, who personified in himself this 

lieon realistic epoch. He began by writing 

Gordon romantic poems in imitation of the 
(1830-92). two Lebensohns. But when the hori- 
zon widened for the Russian Jews, he 
was filled with pity for the deplorable state of the 
Orthodox masses, to whom he addressed his "Haki- 
zali 'Ammi" — "Awake, my people, to a better life," 
i.e., "to the life of those about you." Of a mettle- 
some spirit, he unmercifully attacked the rabbinical 
law, the dead letter, the religious yoke weighing 
upon the masses. He regarded rabbinism as the 
greatest misfortune of the Jewish people, which 
killed the nation by delivering it up to the more sec- 
ular Romans, and which hindered its participation 
in the realities of modern life. Gordon's activity 
covered all branches of literature. He ranks fore- 
most in Hebrew literature as a satirical poet and 
critic of manners; and as a writer of fables he has 
no equal. But in spite of his apparent severit}' and 
his extreme skepticism, he remained at heart a pa- 
triot; and when he criticizes he does so in order to 
elevate the social life of the Jews, while grieving 
for the misery of the Messianic nation. Even in his 
historical poems, "Zidkiyahu be-Bet ha-Pekudot" 
and "Bi-Mezulot Yam," he displays all his love for 
his people, which became more pronounced during 
the years of persecution and misery in Russia. But 
even then he believed that rabbinism was the enemy 
which prevented a national renascence. Gordon 
was among the first successfully to introduce Tal- 
mudisms into poetry. 

The liopes of the ^laskilim were not realized: 
Russia did not continue its radical reforms; and a 




reaction began between 18(55 and 1870. Disappointed 
in tlieir dreams of equality, writers now bent all 
their energies to the work of the emancipation of 
individuals from among the masses, by dissemina- 
ting instruction and by advocating the pursuit of 
trades as being necessary to fit the Jews to deal 
with the exigencies of life and to take part in the 
battle for subsistence incident to the economic 
changes of tlie time. 

In Galicia a circle of scholars, under the leader- 
ship of Schorr, director of "He-Haluz," and A. 
Krochmal, advocated religious reforms, boldly at- 
tacking tradition and even the law of Moses. But 
in Russia, especially in Lithuania, the scholars did 
not go so far. The ideology of the Maskilim was 
not accepted by the scholars who came in closer 
contact with the masses; and instead of attacking 
principles, they advocated practical reforms and 
changes in conformity witii the needs of daily life. 
Utilitarianism succeeded to the ideology of the ear- 
lier scholars. Abraham Kowner in his 
TJtilitari- pamphlet " Heker Dabar," etc. (1867) 
anism. attacked the masters of Hebrew for 
being idealists, and the press because 
it ministered neither to the strict necessities of daily 
life nor to the material well-being of the masses. 
Paperna and others were also pronounced realists. 
Moses Lilieublum inaugurated a campaign in favor 
of the union of life and faith— an endeavor perilous to 
its author and his emulators, but noteworthy as be- 
ing the last attempt of rabbinic Judaism to adapt 
itself to the needs of modern life without giving up 
its minute observances. In his instructive volume 
"Hattot Ne'urim," Lilieublum has left a curious doc- 
ument describing the inner conflicts of a young Tal- 
mudist of the ghetto who has passed through all 
the stages between the simple life of an Orthodox 
believer and that of a skeptical freethinker. View- 
ing the life of the modern Jew, emancipated and in- 
different to all tiiat is Jewish, he is shaken in his 
highest convictions and cries out, "Tlie Law will 
never go hand in hand with life." Lilicnblum liim- 
self at last became a utilitarian, seeking in Jewish 
life nothing but individual nmterial well-being, and 
testifying regretfully to the downfall of the haska- 
lah by reason of an excess of ideology. " Young 
men must think and work for their own lives only." 
This became the watchword of the last Maskilim 
toward 1870. 

The ghetto, however, had not yet spoken its final 
word. Within the confines of traditional Judaism 
itself the modernization of Hebrew and of the relig- 
ious spirit was accentuated, leading to a compro- 
mise between faith and life. Orthodox journals 
were beginning to I)e the mouthjiieces of a conserva- 
tive party more in touch with modcin ideas. Sid(> 
by side with the realistic press— • Ha-.Meliz," the 
organ of the realists; " Ha-Zefirah." a popular scien- 
tific journal; "He-Haluz." an antireligious paiier; 
and others— there were " Ha-Maggid" and " Ha-Liba- 
non," in which Orthodox rabbis enthusiastically 
advocated tlie cultivation of Hebrew and bohlly 
offered plans for its rejuvenation as well as for the 
colonization of P.ilcstinV. Michol Pines, the antag- 
onist of Lilienblum. ]iul)lished in 1M72 liis " Yalde 
Ruhi," a treatise di'^iilayinsx deep faitii. and in which 

he bravely defends traditional Judaism, insisting that 
ritual and religious observances are necessary to a 
maintenance of the harmony of faith, 
M. Pines, which influences the mind as well as 
the morals. Reforms are unneces- 
sary, because believers do not feel the need of them, 
and freethinkers no longer cherish any beliefs. Like 
the mfiss of believers, Pines does not share the pes- 
simism of the realists, but he firmly believes in the 
national renascence of Judaism. Any \inderstand- 
iug between the two parties seemed impossible, tiie 
realists no longer believing in the future of Ju- 
daism, and the conservatives refusing all attempts 
at religious reform. Even skeptics like Gordon 
were alarmed to see " the young people leave without 
returning. " Then, once again, a man arose to under- 
take the work of mingling the humanistic and the 
romantic currents and of leading the haskalah back 
to tiie living sources of national Judaism. This was 
Perez Smolenskin, the initiator of the 
P. Smolen- progressive national movement. He. 

skin also, began his career, in 1867, with a 

(1842-85). critical article of pronounced realism, 
"Bikkoret Tehiyyah." But, disheart- 
ened by the fanaticism of the ancients and by the 
indifference and narrowness of the moderns, he left 
Russia and traveled first through Austria and later 
through the other western countries, sorrowfully 
noting the decadence of Judaism and of his patriotic 
ideal. At Vienna he issued in 1868 "Ila-Shahar," 
whose object it was to attack medieval obscurantism 
and modern indifference. For eighteen years Smo- 
lenskin continued this laborious campaign. In his 
" 'Am '01am " (1872) he appears as the champion of 
the national preservation of Israel and of the realiza- 
tion of the rabbinical ideal freed from all mysticism. 
This secularization of an ideal which had consti- 
tuted Israel's power of resistance had important re- 
sults. In the first place it restored to Judaism and to 
Hebrew the best among the young men, who, while 
still profoundly attached to Judaism and to the life 
of the masses, had no longer any faith. This pre- 
pared the way for Zionism. But this was not all. 
Smolenskin recognized that one of the chief factors 
in tiie process of assimilation was the idea set forth 
by Mendelssohn and especially by his disciples (Gei- 
ger and others) that does not constitute a 
nation but a religious confession, an idea which 
would naturally induce the assimilation of the free- 
tliinkers. Smolenskin attacked tliis idea in a series 
of articles, which, though violent and often unjust, 
were yet needed to point out the priority of the 
national factor over the religious factor in the con- 
servation of Judaism. 

For eighteen years "Ha-Shahar" was the rally- 
ingpoint for daring ideas and campaigns against 
tlie obscurantists and the moderns. It was especial- 
ly noted forthe realistic novels of Smolenskin, which, 
despite their tecimical siiortcomings, take a high 
place in Hebrew literature. Side by 

"Ha- side with character sketches of the 
Shahar." ghetto and violent attacks on obscu- 
rantism appear a profound love for 
the masses and an ardent faith in Israel's future and 
in the apotheosis of young scliolars endoAved with 
the soul of projihecy, veritable dreamers of the 




ghetto. For the tiist time tlie Hebrew lauguage, 
as modernized by Smoleuskin, took immense strides. 
"Ha-Shahar'" published only original work; and 
through the support and influence of its editor 
there arose a whole school of realists who wrote in 
Hebrew. In addition to Gordon and Lilienblum, 
there were Jirandstiidter (the clever creator of the 
shoVt story in Hebrew), S. Mandelkern, J. L. Levin, 
Ben Zebi, M. Colin, Silberbusch, ^landelstam, and 
others. Science was represented by S. Rubin, D. 
Kohan, Heller, D. MiiUer, etc. 

The influence of " Ha-Shahar " was felt through- 
out Hebrew literature. The popular poet and 
scholar of the south, A. B. Gottlober, founded his 
review " Ha-Boker Or " (1876) for the purpose of de- 
fending Mendelssohn and the haskalah. Gottlober 
himself contributed character sketches of the Hasi- 
dim, while the gifted writer R. A. Braudes began in 
its pages his novel " Ha-Dat weha-Hayyim, " in which 
he depicts with masterly hand the struggle for the 
union of life and faith. Even America boasted a 
Hebrew journal, "Ha-Zofeh be-Erez Nod,'' pub- 
lished by Sobel. A converted Jew, Salkinson, pro- 
duced an admirable Hebrew translation of Shake- 
speare and of Milton, and the socialist Freiman 
published a review iu Hebrew entitled " Ha-Emet " 
Q878). More important, however, was the great 
work by I. H. Weiss, "Dor Dor we-Dorshaw," 
dealing with the evolution of religious tradition. 
The sciences were taken up by H. Rabbinowitz, 
Pories, S. Sachs, Reifman, Harkavy, Gurland, J. 
Halevy, A. Epstein, Zweifel, Popirna, Buber, etc. 
Even the style was modernized, although the 
melizah did not disappear, as is seen' by the Avritings 
of Schulraan, Friedberg, and others. 

Smolenskin's ideas bore fruit. With the return 
of the national ideal, Hebrew as the national lan- 
guage was again revived. Leon Gordon's literary 
jubilee was enthusiastically celebrated In St. Peters- 
burg, and after his return from a journey through 
Russia in 1880, he was everywhere received as the 
national author, even by the students of the capi- 
tals. The appearance of anti-Semitism, the renewed 
persecutions, and the terrible years 1881 and 1882 
finally destroj'ed the ideals of the haskalah, whose 
last Hebrew followers were forced to admit that 
Smolenskin was right. 

When the first colonies in Palestine had been 
founded, and there existed no longer a belief in the 
possibility of religious reform without an upheaval 
of Judaism as a whole, it was commonly admitted 
that the work of Israel's national rebirth should be 
encouraged. The Hebrew press undertook espe- 
cially to support the " Hobebe Ziyyon " (Chovevei 
Zion), as the Zionists were then called. Hebrew 
modern literature, which for a century had been 
progressive and secularizing, now became the in- 
strument of patriotic propaganda. Often those 
who had formerly advocated reforms now urged the 
abandonment of modern ideas in order to conciliate 
the masses. Smolenskin alone did not abandon his 
civilizing mission, and remained a progressive real- 
ist. He finally succumbed to overwork and died in 
1885. On his death " Ha-Shahar " ceased publica- 
tion, just one century after the appearance of "Ha- 
Me'assef " (1785). This was the end of the haskalah. 

It now gave place to Zionism, which was at first 
hesitating, but gradually arose to the realization and 
assertion of its full strength. 

The changing attitude in the profession of failh 
among Hebrew scholars and the young men who 
had returned to the national ideal and 
Contempo- to the prophetic dreams was of advan- 
rary Lit- tage to Hebrew, which now came to 
erature be considered as the national language 
(1885- of the Jewish people and the tie 
1904). uniting the Jews of all countries. 
While E. Ben-Judah at Jerusalem, 
through personal e.xample and through propaganda 
in his journal " Ha-Zebi," restored Hebrew as a liv- 
ing language in Palestine, there was an increasing 
demand for Hebrew books in Russia, and the mod- 
ernized Jews became ambitious to cultivate the na- 
tional language. The success of the great literary 
collection " Ha-Asif " (edited by the writer N. Soko- 
low), which succeeded "Ha-Shahar," soon called 
forth other publications, noteworthy among which 
was the Zionistic work " Keucset Yisrael " by the 
historian S. P. Rabbinowitz, and the more scientific 
"Ozar ha-Sifnit." 

In 1886 L. Kantor began the publication of " Ha- 
Yom," the first Hebrew daily paper; and soon after 
•' Ha-Meliz " and " Ha-Zefirah " were 
Daily changed into dailies. A political 
Press. press, also, was established, and con- 
tributed largely to the propagation of 
Zionism and to the modernization of Hebrew style. 
The founding of two large publishing-houses (the 
•' Ahiasaf " and " Tushiyyah "), through the efforts 
of Ben-Avigdou, finally regulated the conditions 
for the progress of Hebrew, and created a class of 
paid writers. Journals, more than other forms of 
literature, are multiplying, and there are a number 
even in America. 

Literar}' activity was resumed after a short inter- 
val, now on an entirely national basis and in agree- 
ment with the man}'^ needs of a nationalist group. 
All the branches of letters, science, and art were 
assiduously cultivated, without neglecting the re- 
nascence of the Jewish people in the land of their 
fathers. In the field of poetry, besides Mandelkern 
and Gottlober, both converted to Zionism, are to be 
found Dolitzky, author of Zionistic songs describing 
the miseries of the Russian Jews; the two Zionist 
poets Isaac Rabinowitz and Sarah Shapira, and the 
gifted lyric poet M. H. JIane, who died at an early 
age. Perhaps the most noteworthj^ was C. A. Sha- 
pira, an eminent lyric poet, who, embittered by in- 
dignation, introduced a new note into Hebrew po- 
etry — hatred of persecution. There is, finally, N. 
H. Imber, the poet of renascent Palestine and the 
author of popular songs. Bialik is a l}-ric poet of 
much vigor, an incomparable stylist, and a romanti- 
cist of note, while his younger contemporary Saul 
Tschernichowsky is proceeding along new lines, in- 
troducing pure estheticism, the cult of beauty and 
of love, in the language of the Prophets. The most 
gifted among the younger poets are S. L. Gordon, 
N. Pines, A. Lubochitzky, Kaplan, Lipschiitz, and 
A. Cohan. 

In the field of belles-lettres Ben-Avigdor is the 
creator of the new realistic movement; this he ex- 




pounds in his psycliologic stories and especially in his 
"Menaheni lia-Sofer," in wliich lie attacks, in the 
name of modern life, national chauvinism. Braudes 
became prominent as a romanticist. The aged A. J. 
Abramowitsch, who has returnetl to Hebrew, de- 
lights his readers by his artistic satires. I. L. Perez 
has in his songs, as in his poetry, a tendency toward 
symbolism. M. J. Berdyczewski attempts to intro- 
duce Nietzschian individualism into his stories and 
articles. Feierberg expresses the sull'i-rings of a 
young scholar seeking truth. Goldin is a pleasing 
but sentimental writer of stories. Bershadsky is an 
outspoken realist and close observer. Others deserv- 
ing mention are: J. liabinovitz ; Turov ; A. S. Ra- 
binovitz; Epstein; Asch ; J.Steinberg; Goldberg; 
Brener; the Galicians Silberbusch and Samueli; the 
poet and prose-writer David Frischman, the transla- 
tor of "Cain"; J. Ch. Taw jew, who is a distinguished 
feuilletonist and writer on pedagogics; A. L. Le- 
vinsky, the story-teller, author of a Zionist Utopia 
("Travels in Palestine in 5800"); and J. L. Landau, 
the only dramatic poet. As Landau is a poet rather 
than a psychologist, his " Herod " and other plays 
are not intended for the theater. The Orientalist 
Joseph Halevy has published a volume of patriotic 

The reaction of 1890 in the work of colonizing 
Palestine and the evident necessity of taking some 
steps to meet such a reaction produced the work 
of "Ahad ha-' Am" (Asher Ginzberg). He is no- 
tably a critic of manners; and in the name of pure 
ideology he attacked first actual colonization and 
then political Zionism. Judaism before everything, 
and not the Jews; a moral and spiritual, not an 
economic and a political center; a national ideal ta- 
king the place of faith — such, in the rough, is the 
idea of this acute and paradoxical publicist. A 
number of young men, influenced by his collection 
"Ha-Pardes" and the review " Ila-Shiloah," found- 
ed by him and continued by Klausner, have fol- 
lowed in his lead. Quite opposite in tendencies is 
Zeeb Ya'bez, the editor of "Ha-Mizrah,"a remarka- 
ble stylist and religious romanticist. L. Rabiuovitz, 
the director of "Ha-Meliz," in his articles "Ha- 
Yerushshah weha-Hinnuk"al80 shows himself to be 
a defender of Jewish tradition, while Ben-Judah, the 
author of " Hashkafah " (Jerusalem), constantly op- 
poses obscurantism. N. Sokolow. by the power of 
his genius, forces Hebrew and modern ideas even 
upon the Hasidim. The critic Reuben Brainin is a 
close observer, an admirable stylist, and a charming 
story-teller. The historian S. Berufeld is a scholarly 
popularizer of Jewisli science. 

Pedagogies and juvenile literature also have their 
periodicals and worthy representatives. Among 
these are: Lerner, S. L. Gordon, Madame Ben-Judah, 
Yellin, Grosovsky, and Berman. Many scholars 
have devoted themselves to science, as the late phi- 
losopher F. Mises; the grammarian J. Steinberg, 
who is an aditiirable writer; the anatomist, archeolo- 
gist, and author of ])oi)idar stories Katzenclenson ; 
Neimark; and Hurvitz. There are. in addition, 
many translators and compilers who have rendered 
into Hebrew Longfellow, Mark Twain. Zola, and 
even De Maupassant ; and this work is being actively 
carried forward. There is a steady increase in tlie 

number of daily and weekly journals, all of which, 
though Zionistic, are none the progressive. 
With the emigration of the Russian Jews to foreign 
countries, Hebrew is tinding new centers. In 1904 
a course in modern Hebrew literature was instituted 
at the Soibonne. Palestine is in a fair way to 
become the home of Hebrew as a living language, 
and in America and in England there are ninnerous 
publications in Hel)rew. Even in the Far East, He- 
brew books and periodicals are to be foimd in in- 
creasing numbers, stimulating national and social 
regeneration. But it must be remembered that the 
future of Hebrew is intimately connected with Zion- 
ism, which is accepted by the masses only by reason 
of the ideal of national renascence. Faithful to its 
Biblical mission, the Hebrew language alone is able 
to revive moral vigor and prophetic idealism, which 
have never failed where the sacred language has 
been preserved. 

Bibliography: N. Schlomz, La Renaissance de la Littera- 
ture Hihraique, Vh-I-IHHC, Paris, 19()3; R. Brainin, Mapu, 
Smolensky (in Hebrew i, Warsaw; S. Bernfeld, Dor Haham, 
Warsaw, 189«); idem, Da'at Elohim, ih. 1897-98; J. Klausner, 
Hebrew Literature in the Nineteenth Centnru (in Rus- 
sian); M. Mendelssohn, Pene TeheU Amsterdam, 1872. 
G. N. Si,. 

LITHUANIA (Russian or Polish, Litwa ; in 
Jewish writings XtD^^) : Formerly a grand duchy, 
politically connected more or less intimately with 
Poland, and with the latter annexed to Russia. 

Lithuania originally embraced only the way wode- 
ships of Wilna and Troki; but in the thirteenth cen- 
tury it augmented its territory at the expense of 
the neighboring principalities and included the duchy 
of Samogitia (Zhmud ; tS^DT)- 

In the first half of the fourteenth century, when 
Russia was already under the Tatar yoke, tiie Lith- 
uanian grand duke Gedimin (1316-41) still further 
increased liis possessions by family alliances and by 
conquest until they came to embrace the territories 
of Vitebsk, Kiev (1321), Minsk, etc. Under Olgerd 
and Keistat, sons of Gedimin, the Russian principal- 
ities of Chernigov- Syeversk, Podolia (1362), and 
Volhynia (1377) were also added to Lithuania; and 
the territory thus extended from the Baltic to the 
Black Sea. 

As early as the eighth century Jews lived in parts 
of the Lithuanian territory. Beginning with that 
period they conducted the trade between South Rus- 
sia, i.e., Lithuania, and the Baltic, especially with 
Danzig, Julin (Vineta or Wollin, in Pomerania),and 
other cities on the Vistula, Oder, and Elbe (see Georg 
Jacob, " Welche Ilandelsartikel Bezogen die Araber 
des ]\Iittelalters aus Baltischen Landern?" p. 1). 

When Duke Boleslaw I. of Poland sent Bishop 
Adalbert of Prague in 997 to preach the Gospel to 
the heathen Prussians (Lithuanians), the bishop com- 
plained that Christian prisoners of war were sold 
for l)ase money to .Jews, and that he was not able 
to redeem them. Records, of that time, of 
residents in Kikv are still extant. About the middle 
of the twelfth century Rabbi Eliezer of Mayence 
referred to some ritual customs of the Russian, i.e., 
Lithuanian, Jews (" Eben ha-'Ezer," p. 74a, Prague, 
1710), and in the same century mention was made 
also of Moses of Kiev. In the thirteenth century 
Jews lived in Chernigov, Volhynia, and Smolensk. 




Among them there were men of learning, as is evi- 
denced by a manuscript in the Vatican Library 
(Codex 300) dated 1094, and consisting of a com- 
mentary on the Bible written in " Russia." Another 
commentary, dated 1124, also written in Russia, is 
preserved in Codex Oppenheim Additamenta, Quar. 
No. 13, at present in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
About the same time there lived in Chernigov Itzk 
(Isaac), wlio is probably identical with Isaac of Rus- 
sia. In the lirst half of the fourteenth century there 
lived in Toledo, Spain, a Talmudic scholar, Asher 
ben Sinai, who came from Russia (Aslieri, Responsa, 
part 51, No. 2; Ziuiz, " 'Ir ha-Zedek," p. 45). These 
isolated cases do not prove, however, that Tal- 
mudic learning had, at the period in question, become 
widely diffused in the Lithuanian-Russian territory. 
As Harkavy has pointed out, the individual efforts 
of the Russian Talmudists to spread Jewish knowl- 
edge did not meet with success until the sixteenth 
century. In a letter Avritten by Eliezer of Bohemia 
(1190) to Judah Hasid it is stated that in most places 
in Poland, Russia, and Hungary there were no Tal- 
mudic scholars, chiefly because of the poverty of 
the Jews there, which compelled the communities to 
secure the services of men able to discharge the three 
functions of cantor, rabbi, and teacher ("'Or Za- 
rua'," p. 40, § 113, Jitomir, 1862). These refer- 
ences to Russia do not necessarily always apply 
to Lithuania, since Galicia also was designated by 
that name in Hebrew Avritings of the Middle Ages, 
while the Muscovite territory of that time was 
referred to as "Moskwa." The mention of the 
name "Lita" first occurs in a responsum of the fif- 
teenth century by Israel Isserlein. He refers to a 
certain Tobiah who had returned from Gordita 
(Grodno ?) in Lithuania, and states that " it is rare 
for our people from Germany to go to Lithuania " 
(Israel Bruna, Responsa, §§ 25, 73). 

The origin of the Lithuanian Jews has been the 
subject of much speculation. It is now almost 
certain that they were made up of two distinct 
streams of Jewish immigration. The older of the 
two entered Lithuania by way of South Russia, 
where Jews had lived in considerable numbers since 
the beginning of the common era (see Armenia; 
Bosporus; Crimea; Kertcii). The 
Origin of fact that these had adopted the Rus- 
Lithuanian sian language (the official language 
Jews. of the Lithuanians) and the customs, 
occupations, aud even the names of the 
native population, serves to prove that they came 
from the East rather than from western Europe. 
The later stream of immigration originated in the 
twelftli century and received an impetus from the 
persecution of the German Jews by the Crusaders. 
The blending of these two elements was not com- 
plete even in the eighteenth century, differences 
appearing at that time in proper names, in the pro- 
nunciation of the Judoeo-German dialect, and even 
in physiognomy. 

The peculiar conditions that prevailed in Lithu- 
ania compelled the first Jewish settlers to adopt a 
different mode of life from that followed by their 
western coreligionists. In the Lithuania of that 
day there were no cities in the western sense of the 
word, no Magdeburg Rights or close gilds. 

Some of the cities which later became the im- 
l)ortant centers of Jewish life in Lithuania were at 
first mere villages. Grodno, one of the oldest, was 
founded by a Russian ])rince, and is first mentione<i 
in the chronicles of 1128. Novogrudok was founded 
somewhat later by Yaroslav; Kerlov in 1250; Vo- 
riita and Twiremet in 1252; Eiragola in 1262; Gol- 
schany and Kovuo in 1280; Telsbi, Wilua, Lida, 
and froki in 1320. 

With the cani]iaign of Gedimin and his subjec- 
tion of Kiev and Volhynia (1320-21) the Jewish in- 
habitants of these territories were induced to spread 
throughout the northern provinces of the grand 
duchy. The probable importance of the southern 
Jews in the development of Lithuania is indi- 
cated by their niuncrical prominence in Volhynia 
in the thirteenth century. According to an annal- 
ist who describes the funeral of the grand duke 
Vladimir Vasilkovich in the city of Vladimir (Vol- 
hynia), " the Jews wept at his funeral as at the fall 
of Jerusalem, or when being led into the Babylonian 
captivity." This sympathy and the record thereof 
would seem to indicate that long before the event 
in question the Jews had enjoyed considerable pros- 
perity and influence, and this gave them a certain 
standing under the new regime. They took an act- 
ive part in the development of the new cities un- 
der the tolerant rule of Gedimin. 

Little is known of the fortunes of the Lithuanian 
Jews during the troublous times that followed the 
death of Gedimin and the accession of his grand- 
son Witold (1341). To the latter the Jews owed 
a charter of privileges which was 
The momentous in the subsequent history 

Charter of the Jews of Lithuania. The docu- 
of 1388. ments granting privileges first to the 
Jews of Brest (July 1, 1388) and later 
to those of Troki, Grodno (1389), Lutsk, Vladimir, 
and other laige towns are the earliest documents to 
recognize the Lithuanian Jews as possessing a dis- 
tinct organization. The gathering together of the 
scattered Jewish settlers in suflScient numbers and 
with enough power to form such an organization 
and to obtain privileges from their Lithuanian rulers 
implies the lapse of considerable time. The Jews 
who dwelt in smaller towns and villages were not in 
need of such privileges at this time, as Harkavy 
suggests, and the mode of life, the comparative 
Boverty, and the ignorance of Jewish learning among 
the Lithuanian Jews retarded their intercommunal 
organization. But powerful forces hastened this or- 
ganization toward the close of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. The chief of these was probably the coopera- 
tion of the Jews of Poland with their Lithuanian 
brethren. After the death of Casimir the Great 
(1370), the condition of the Polish Jews changed for 
the worse. The influence of the Catholic clergy at 
the Polish court grew ; Louis of Anjou Avas indiffer- 
ent to the welfare of his subjects, and his eagerness 
to convert the Jews to Christianity, together with 
the increased Jewish immigration from Germany, 
caused the Polish Jews to become apprehensive for 
their future. On this account it seems more than 
likely that influential Polish Jews cooperated with 
the leading Lithuanian communities in securing a 
special charter from Witold. 




The preamble of the charter reads as follows : 

" In the name of God, Amen. All deeds of men, when they 
are not made known by the testimony of witnesses or in wri- 
ting, pass away and vanish and are forgotten. Therefore, we, 
Alexander, also called Wiiold, by the grace of God Grand Duke 
of Lithuania and ruler of Brest, Dorogicz, Lutsk, Vladimir, and 
other places, make known by this charter to the present and 
future generations, or to whomever it may concern to know or 
hear of it, that, after due deliberation with our nobles we have 
derided to grant to all the Jews living in our domains the rights 
and liberties mentioned in the following charter." 

has loaned money to a Christian, but has no witnesses to prove 
it, the latter may clear himself by taking an oath. (5) Jews 
may make loans on any personal property except blood-stained 
articles or articles employed in religious service. (6) Where a 
Christian asserts that an article pawned to a Jew has been 
stolen from a Christian, the Jew, after swearing that he was 
ignorant of the robbery, is relieved of responsibility to the 
owner of the article, and need not return it until the sum ad- 
vanced by him, with the interest, has been repaid. (7) Where 
a Jew loses pawned property by Are or robbery he is relieved 
from responsibility for articles so lost if he takes an oath that 
such articles were lost together with his own. (8) A suit be- 


The charter contains thirty-seven sections, which 
may be summarized as follows: 

(1) In criminal or other cases Involving the person or property 
of a Jew, the latter can not be convicted on the testimony of one 
Christian witness : there must be two witnesses— a Christian and 
a Jew. (2) Where a Christian asserts that he has placed an 
article In pawn with a Jew. and the Jew denies It. the latter 
may clear himself by taking the prescribed oath. (3) Where a 
Christian claims that he has pawned an article with a Jew for a 
sum less than that claimed by the latter, the Jew's claim shall be 
allowed If he take the usual oath. (4) Where a Jew claims he 

tween Jews may not be decided by a city judge, but must he 
submitted In the first Instance to the jurisdiction of the subway- 
wode, in the second Instance to the waywode, and Qnally to the 
king. Important criminal cases are subject to the jurisdiction 
of the king alone. (9) A Christian found guilty of inflicting 
wounds upon a Jewess must pay a fine U> the king and damages 
and expenses U) the victim. In accordance with the local regular 
tlons. (10) A Christian murdering a Jew shall be punished by 
the proper court and his posses-slons confiscated to the king. 

(11) A Christian inflicting injuries upon a Jew, but without 
shedding blood, shall be punished in accordance with local law. 

(12) A Jew may travel without hindrance within the limits of 




the cpuntry, and wlicii lie ciiniis iiicrcliiiiKli>e lie shall pay the 
same ilutit'.s as the local ImiKlit'is. UJi) Jews may tratispDit the 
bodies of their dead free of taxation. (14) A Christian injuring a 
Jewish cemetery shall he punished in accordance with the local 
law and his i)roperty ((jnUscated. (1;")) Any person throwinp 
stones into the synagogue shall pay to the waywode a line of two 
pounds. (10) A Jew failing to pay to the judge the One called 
"wandil" shall pay the anciently established tine. (IT) Any 
Jew not appearing in court after being twice summoned shall 
pay the customary line. (18i A Jew inflicting wounds on an- 
other Jew shall be fined in accordance with local custom. (19) 
A Jew may take an oath on the Old Testament in important 
cases only, as where the claim e.\ceeds in value fifty "griven " 
of pure silver, or where the case is brought before the king. 
(20) Where a Christian is suspected of killing a Jew, though 
there were no witnesses, and the relatives of the victim de- 
clare their suspicion, the king is to give the Jews an execu- 
tioner for the accused. (21) Where a Christian assaults a 
Jewess he shall be punished according to local usage. (22) 
A subwaywode may not summon Jews to his court except on 
a regular complaint. (23) In cases concerning Jews the court 
is to sit either in the synagogue or in a place selected by 
the Jews. (24) Where a Christian pays the sura advanced 
to him on any article when due, but omits to pay the interest, 
he shall be given a written extension of time, after which 
the sum unpaid shall be subject to Interest until paid. 
(2.5) The houses of Jews are free from military quartering. (26) 
When a Jew advances to a noble a sum of money on an estate, 
the Jew is entitled, if the loan be not repaid on maturity, to the 
possession of the property, and shall be protected in its posses- 
sion. (27) A person guilty of stealing a Jewish child shall be 
punished as a thief . (28) If the value of an article pawned with 
a Jew by a Christian for a period less than a year does not ex- 
ceed the amount advanced upon It, the pawnbroker, after taking 
the article to his waywode, may sell it ; but If the article is of 
greater value than the sum advanced the Jew shall be obliged 
to keep it for a further period of one year and one day, at the 
expiration of which time he shall become Its possessor. (29) No 
person may demand the return of pawned property on Jewish 
holy days. (30) Any Christian forcibly taking an article pawned 
with a Jew, or entering a Jewish house against the wish of Its 
owner, shall be subject to the same punishment as a person 
stealing from the common treasury. (31) To summon a Jew to 
appear in court Is allowed only to the king or the waywode. 
(32) Since the papal bulls show that Jews are forbidden by their 
own law to use human blood, or any blood whatever, it Is for- 
bidden to accuse Jews of using human blood. But in the case 
of a Jew accused of the murder of a Christian child, such ac- 
cusation must be proved by three Christians and three Jews. If 
the Christian accuser Is unable to prove his accusation he shall 
be subjected to the same punishment that would have been In- 
flicted on the accused had his guilt been proved. (33) Loans 
made by Jews to Christians must be repaid with Interest. (34) 
The pledging of horses as security on loans made by Jews must 
be done In the daytime ; in case a Christian should recognize a 
horse stolen from him among horses pawned with a Jew, the 
latter must take an oath that the horse was received by him in 
the daytime. (35) Mint directors are forbidden to arrest Jews, 
when the latter are found with counterfeit coin, without the 
knowledge of the king's waywode, or In the absence of promi- 
nent citizens. (36) A Christian neighbor who shall fail to re- 
spond at night when a Jew calls for help shall pay a fine of 
thirty " zloty." (37) Jews are permitted to buy and sell on the 
same footing as Christians, and any one interfering with them 
shall be fined by the waywode. 

The charter itself was modeled upon similar doc- 
uments granted by Casimir the Great, earlier by Bo- 
leslaw of Kalisz, to tlie Jews of Poland. These in 
their turn were based on the charters of Henry of 
Glogau (1251), King Ottokar of Bohemia (12.54-67), 
and Frederick II. (1244), and the last-mentioned 
upon the charter of the Bishop of Speyer (1084). 
The successive remodelings of the different docu- 
ments were made necessary by the characteristic 
customs and conditions of the various countries; and 
for this reason the charter granted by Witold to the 
Jews of Brest and Troki is distinguished from its 
Polish and Germau models by certain peculiarities. 
The chief digressions are in §§ 8, 21, 28, 33, and 35. 

Tiie distinctive feattn-es wei-e made more manifest in 
tiie later issues of tiiese privileges by the attempt 
to conform them to the needs of Lithuanian-lJussiau 
life. While tiie earlier charters of Brest and Troki 
were evidently framed upon western models for a 
class of Jews largely engaged in money-lending, the 
charters of Grodno (June 18, 1389 and 1408) show 
the members of that community engaged in various 
occupations, including agriculture. The charter of 
1389 indicates that the Jews of Grodno, the residence 
of Witold, had lived there for many years, owning 
land and possessing a synagogue and cemetery near 
the Jewish quarter. They also followed handicrafts 
and engaged in commerce on equal terms with the 

As the Jews of Germany were servants of the 
rulers (" Kammerknechte "), so the Lithuanian Jews 
formed a class of freemen subject in all criminal 
cases directly to the jurisdiction of the grand duke 
and his official representatives, and in petty suits to 
the jurisdiction of local officials on an equal footing 
with the lesser nobles ("Shlyakhta"), boyars, and 
other free citizens. The official representatives of 
the grand duke were the elder ("starosta "), known 
as the "Jewish judge" ("juilex Juda'orum "), and 
his deputy. The Jewish judge decided all cases be- 
tween Christians and Jews and all criminal suits in 
which Jews were concerned; in civil suits, however, 
he acted only on the application of the interested par- 
ties. Either party who failed to obey tlie judge's 
summons had to pay him a tine. To him also be- 
longed all fines collected from Jews for 
The "Sta- minor offenses. His duties included 
rosta." the guardianship of the persons, prop- 
erty, and freedom of worship of the 
Jews. He had no right to stmimon any one to his 
court except upon the complaint of an interested 
party. In matters of religion the Jews were given 
extensive autonomy. 

Under these equitable laws the Jews of Lithuania 
reached a degree of prosperity unknown to their 
Polish and German coreligionists at that time. The 
communities of Brest, Grodno, Troki, Lutsk, and 
Minsk rapidly grew in wealth and influence. Every 
community had at its head a Jewish elder. These 
elders represented the communities in all external 
relations, in securing new privileges, and in the reg- 
ulation of taxes. Such officials are not, however, 
referred to by the title " elder " before the end of 
the sixteenth century. Up to that time the docu- 
ments merely state, for instance, that the "Jews of 
Brest humbly apply," etc. On assuming office the 
elders declared under oath that they would discharge 
the duties of the position faithfully, and would re- 
linquish the office at the expiration of the appointed 
term. The elder acted in conjunction with the 
rabbi, whose jurisdiction included all Jewish affairs 
with the exception of judicial cases assigned to the 
court of the deputy, and by the latter to the king. 
In religious affairs, however, an appeal from the 
decision of the rabbi and the elder was permitted 
only to a council consisting of the chief rabbis of 
the king's cities. The cantor, sexton, and shohet 
were subject to the orders of the rabbi and elder. 

The favorable position of the Jews in Lithuania 
during the reign of Witold brought to the front a 




number of the wealthier Jews, who, besides enga- 
ging in commerce, also leased certain sources of the 
ducal revenues or became owners of estates. The 
first known Jewish farmer of customs duties in Lith- 
uania was " Shanya " (probably Shakna), who was 
presented by Witoid with the villages Vinnike and 
Kalusov in the district of Vladimir. The good-will 
and tolerance of Witoid endeared him to his Jewish 
subjects, and for a long time traditions concerning 
his generosity and nobility of character were current 
among them. He ruled Lithuania independently 
even when that countr}' and Poland were united for 
a time in 1413. His cousin, the Polish king Ladis- 
laus II., Jagellon, did not interfere with his admin- 
istration during Witoid 's lifetime. 

After Witold's death Ladislaus assumed active 
sovereignty over a part of Lithuania. He granted 
(1432) the Magdeburg Rights to the Poles, Ger- 
mans, and Russians of the city of Lutsk, Avhile 
in the case of the Jews and Armenians the Polish 
laws were made effective (see Poland). Tliis policj^ 
toward his Jewish subjects in Poland 
Under the was influenced by the clerical party, 
Jagellons. and he attempted to curtail the privi- 
leges granted to them by his prede- 
cessors. However, his rule in Lithuania was too 
short to have a lasting eflfect on the life of the 
Lithuanian Jews. 

Swidrigailo, who became Grand Duke of Lithu- 
ania at the death of Witoid (1430), strove to prevent 
the annexation of Volliynia and Podolia to the 
Polish crown. He availed himself of the service of 
Jewish ta.\'- farmers, leasing the customs duties of 
Vladimir to tlie Jew Shanya and those of Busk to 
the Jew Yatzka. Tiiere is, however, reason for 
the belief that he was not always friendly toward 
the Jews, as is shown by his grant of the Magde- 
burg Rights to the city of Kremenetz and the placing 
of all the inhabitants, including the Jews, under the 
jurisdiction of the German waywode Yurka (May 
9, 1438). The latter act may have been prompted 
by his desire to retain the allegiance of the German 
inhabitants of Volhynia. Swidrigailo was assassin- 
ated in the year 1440, and was succeeded by Casimir 

As Grand Duke of Lithuania (1440-92) Casimir 
Jagellon pursued toward his Jewish subjects the 
liberal policy of Witoid. In 1441 he granted the 
Magdeburg Riglits to the Karaite Jews of Troki on 
conditions similar to those under which they were 
granted to the Christians of Troki, Wiina, and 
Kovno; giving the Troki Karaites, however, a 
wider autonomy in judicial matters and in com- 
munal affairs, allowing tliem one-half of the city 
revenues, and presenting them with a parcel of 
land. The Troki and Lutsk Karaites were descend- 
ants of 380 ffiniilics broiiglit, according to tradition, 
by Witoid from the Crimea at the end of tiie four- 
teenth centtiry, wlien Rabbinite Jews were already 
established in Troki (see Graetz, "History," Heb. 
transl. by Rabinowitz, vi. 225). Settlingoriginally in 
New Troki, the Karaites subsequently spread to 
other Lithuanian and Galiciun towns. Tin- poorer 
among them were, like most of the Rabbinite Jews, 
engaged in agriculture and handicrafts, while the 
richer members were, like the wealthier Rabbinites, 

leaseholders and tax-farmers. The Lithuanian rulers 
of that time did not make any distinction between 
Ifabbinites and Karaites, designating both in their 
decrees merely as " Jews " (" Zidy "). See Kauaitks. 

In 1453, for services rendered to him, Casimir 

granted to the Jew Michael of Hrubieszow, his wife, 

and tlieir son Judah, exemption from all taxes and 

customs duties throughout the country. Between 

1463 and 1478 he presented to Levin 

Jews as Schalomich certain lands in the way- 
Tax- wodeship of Brest, together with the 
Farmers, peasants living on them. In 1484 he 
awarded the lease of the customs duties 
of Novgorod for three years to the Troki Jews Ilia 
Moiseyevich, Ruwen Sakovich, AvraamDanilovich, 
and Jeska Sehelemovich. In 1485 he ordered the 
waywode of Troki to see that the Jewish part of the 
town paid its taxes separately, this arrangement 
being made in response to a petition from the Jews 
themselves. In 1486 he leased the customs of Kiev, 
Wischegorod, and Jitomir for a term of three years 
to Simha Karvchik, Sadke and Samak Dauilovich, 
Samaditza, and Ryzhka, who were Jews of Kiev 
and Troki. In the same year the customs duties 
of Bryansk were leased to Mordecai Gadajevvichand 
Perka Judinovich of Kiev; certain taxes of Grodno 
and Meretz to Enka Jatzkovich and his sons of 
Grodno; and the customs duties of Putivl to Jews 
of Kiev and Troki. In 1487 the customs duties of 
Brest, Drohycin, Byelsk. and Grodno were leased to 
Astaschka Ilyich, Onatani Ilyich, and Olkan, Jews 
of Lutsk, and the customs duties of Lutsk to 
Shachna Peisachovich and Senka Mamotlivy. In 
1488 certain taxes of Grodno and Meretz were again 
leased to Jatzkovich and his sons, and the customs 
duties of Zvyagol to the Lutsk Jews Israel, Yeska, 
and Judah. In the following year the customs duties 
of Minsk were leased to the Jew of Troki, Michael 
Danilovich; the customs duties of Vladimir, Pere- 
myshl, and Litovishk to the Jews of Brest and Hru- 
bieszow ; and the customs duties of Kiev and Putivl to 
Rabei and other Jews of Kiev. In 1490 certain rev- 
enues of Putivl were leased to Merovach and Israel 
of Kiev and Abraham of Plotzk. These leases 
prove that throughout Ca.simir's reign the impor- 
tant commercial and financial affairs of the grand 
duchy were largely managed by Jewish lease- 
holders, to whom he was heavily indebted. At 
times liis treasury was depleted to such an extent as 
to compel him to pawn the queen's robes and his 
silverware, but the Jews came to his aid in time 
of need. According to the Polish 
Com- historian Jaroszewicz in his "Obraz 

mercial Litwy," the Jews of Lithuania after 
Relations, the reign of Casimir Jagellon were 
intimately connected with the devel- 
opment of the country's commerce. Their business 
ventures reached far beyond Lithuania, most of the 
export trade to Prussia and the Baltic Sea being 
in their hands. 

Historians are agreed that Casimir was not a 
strong and just ruler. He did not scruple to give con- 
tradictory promises to Poland and Lithuania, and his 
frequent favors to the Jews do not necessarily show 
that he was their friend. At he considered 
them as useful agents in his financial undertakings. 




The iufluential Jewish tax-farmers often encoun- 
tered ditliculties with foreign merchants. Tlie Rus- 
sian Grand Duke Ivan Vassilivich III. repeatedly 
made representations to Casiniir in regard to tlie 
liigh-handed treatment of Muscovite merchants and 
ambassadors by the tax-collectors Shan (the son-in- 
law of Agron), Simha, Ryabcliik, and otliers. The 
king uplicld liis Jewisli tax-farmers on the ground 
that tlie Russian merchants attempted to evade pay- 
ment of customs duties by choosing rarely traveled 
roads. From these documents it is also clear that 
the Jewish customs officials had under them armed 
men to arrest violators of the regulations. At Casi- 
mir's death (1492) many of his Jewish creditors 
were left unpaid. 

Casimir was succeeded as king of Poland by his 
son John Albert, and on the Lithuanian throne by 
his younger son, Alexander Jagellon. The lat- 
ter contirmed the charter of privileges granted to 
the Jews by his predecessors, and even gave them 
additional rights. His father's Jewish creditors re- 
ceived part of the sums due to them, the rest be- 
ing withheld under various pretexts. Jewish tax- 
farmers continued to lease the customs duties in the 
important cities, as is exemplified by a lease of those 
of Brest, Drohoczyn, Grodno, and Byelsk (Oct. 14, 
1494) to four Jews of Brest. Tlie favorable attitude 
toward the Jews which had character- 
Expelled ized the Lithuanian rulers for genera- 
by tions was unexpectedly and radically 

Alexander, changed by a decree promulgated by 
Alexander in April, 1495. By this de- 
cree all Jews living in Lithuania proper and the ad- 
jacent territories were summarily ordered to leave 
the country. 

The expulsion was evidently not accompanied by 
the usual cruelties; for there was no popular ani- 
mosity toward the Lithuanian Jews, and the decree 
was regarded as an act of mere wilfulness on the 
part of an absolute ruler. Some of the nobility, 
however, approved Alexander's decree, expecting 
to profit by the departure of their Jewish creditors, 
as is indicated by numerous lawsuits on the return 
of the exiles to Lithuania in 1503. It is known from 
the Hebrew sources that some of the exiles migrated 
to the Crimea, and that by far the greater number 
settled in Poland, where, by permission of King 
John Albert, they established themselves in the 
towns situated near the Lithuanian boundary. This 
permission, given at first for a period of two years, 
was extended "because of the extreme poverty of 
the Jews on account of the great losses sustained 
by them." The extension, which applied to all 
the towns of the kingdom, accorded the enjoy- 
ment of all the liberties that had been granted to 
their Polish brethren (Cracow, June 39, 1498). The 
expelled Karaites settled in the Polish town of 

The causes of the unexpected expulsion have 
been widely discussed. It has been suggested by 
Narbut and other Lithuanian historians that the 
decree was the outcome of Alexander's personal 
animosity toward the Jews, he having been edu- 
cated by the Polish historian Dlugosc (Longinus), 
an avowed enemy of the Jews. Others have held 
that it was instigated by the grand duchess He- 

lena, daughter of Ivan III. of Russia. Legend has 
it that she was at first very friendly toward the 
Jews, but having been rendered barren by a Jewish 
midwife through the aid of witchcraft, her father 
demanded the punishment of the witches, and the 
decree of expulsion followed. Theimprobabilitj' of 
this story has been demonstrated by Bershadski 
("Litovskie Yevrei," p. 251), who shows that the 
marriage took place in Feb., 1495, "and that the 
expulsion occurred in April of the same year. Ber- 
shadski and Harkavy suggest as a probable motive 
the pressure put upon Alexander by the Catholic 
clergy. He may have been influenced by the expul- 
sion of the Jews from Spain (1492). This view is 
strengthened by his continued favors to the baptized 
Jews, as exemplified by his lease to Simsha of Troki 
(who had adopted the Christian faith) ; of the cus- 
toms at Putivl in the same year to Feodor, "the 
newly baptized," and his son-in-law Peter; and the 
grant to the former tax-farmer of Putivl, "the newly 
baptized " Ivan, of one-third of the income from 
these customs duties; and above all by the very 
marked favors shown by him to Abraham Jesofovich 
after his baptism, Alexander going so far as to create 
him a member of the hereditary nobility. These 
favors indicate that if the expulsion was due to 
animosity on Alexander's part, such animosity was 
a religious rather than a racial one. Another mo- 
tive suggested by Bershadski was the financial 
embarrassment of the grand duke, then heavily in- 
debted to the wealthy Jewish tax -farmers and lease- 
holders. During the settlement with his Jewish 
creditors (Dec, 1494), i.e., four months before the 
expulsion, it was noticed that Alexander was much 
troubled over the condition of his finances, as was 
evidenced by his repudiation for one reason or an- 
other of a part of his debts (" Russko-Yevreiski 
Arkliiv, " i. , No. 26). Alexander's extravagance was 
commonly known ; and it was said of him that " he 
pawned everything that he did not give away." 
The depleted condition of his treasury may have 
driven him to adopt drastic measures. By confisca- 
ting the estates of the Jews the grand duke became 
the owner of their property. He presented a part of 
these estates to monasteries, charitable institutions, 
and baptized Jews "for certain considerations," and 
turned the proceeds into the grand-ducal treasury. 
A third motive assumed by Bershadski was the 
desire to replace the Jews by German settlers. As 
to the second and third of these possible motives, 
documents show that, while they may have helped 
Alexander to reach his decision, yet there was^ a cer- 
tain foundation for the popular tradition concerning 
the influence of Grand Duchess Helena in the mat- 
ter. As the daughter of Ivan III. she must have 
been aware of the grave apprehensions created in 
Moscow by the successful propaganda of the Juda- 
izing sect, and the probable fear of the Lithuanian 
clergy that the Judaizing Heresy would spread to 
Lithuania. The success of the new teaching was 
impressed upon it by the conversion of Helena's 
sister-in-law the Princess Helena of Moscow (daugh- 
ter-in-law of Ivan III.), the Russian secretary of 
state Kuritzyn, and the Metropolitan of Moscow 
Zosima. The clergy, alarmed at the success of the 
new heresy, probably convinced Alexander that its 




encouragement by Ivan III. and his court avouUI 
create a grave political danger for Lithuania. 

Soon after the promulgation of the decree the 
Jewisii tax-farmer.s Iiastened to adjust their afTairs 
and to render their accounts to Alexander, but evi- 
dently they could collect only a small portion of the 
sums due to them. The more valuable of the real 
property left by tliem was soon disposed of by the 
grand duke. In June, 1495, he presented his fur- 
rier Sova with an estate near Troki, together witii 
the cattle, grain, and all else pertaining to it, which 
had belonged to the Jew Shlioma. On June 26 of 
the same year lie presented the nobleman Soroka and 
his brother with estates belonging to the JewsEnko 
Momotlivy and Itzchak Levanovich and situated 

in the district of Lutsk. On July 15 

Escheat of the Bishop of Wilna was granted the 

Jewish liouses and estates of the Jews Bogdan 

Property. Chatzkovichand Ilia Kuuchich, while 

the city of Wilna received as a gift the 
house formerly belonging to the Jew Janushovski. 
On Aug. 10 the farm of the Konyukovich broth- 
ers in the district of Grodno was given by Alexan- 
der to his secretary Lyzovy, and on Aug. 30 he pre- 
sented a house in Lutsk, once the property of the 
Jew Enka, to his stableman Martin Chrebtovicli. 
On March 12, 1496, the nobleman Semashkowicli re- 
ceived the farm in Volhynia belonging to the Jews 
Nikon and Shlioma Simshich, and on March 21 all the 
properties left vacant by the Jews in Grodno. On 
Oct. 4 the estates of the brothers Enkovich of Brest 
were presented to Alexander's secretary Fedka Ja- 
nushkovich ; on Jan. 27, 1497, the estate of Kornitza, 
formerly belonging to the Jew Levon Slialomich, 
was given to Pavel, magistrate of Brest-Litovsk. In 
July of the same year all the unoccupied properties 
left by the Jews of Lutsk were presented to the 
elders of the city, in order to encourage new settlers. 
This distribution of Jewish property by Alexander 
was continued until the middle of 1501. 

Soon after Alexander's accession to the throne of 
Poland he permitted the Jewish exiles to return to 
Lithuania. Beginning ^larch, 1503, as is shown by 
documents still extant, their houses, lands, s^'na- 
gogues, and cemeteries were returned to them, and 
permission was granted them to collect their old 
debts. The new charter of privileges permitted them 
to live throughout Lithuania as heretofore. It also 

directed the vice-regent of Wilna and 
Return to Grodno, Prince Alexander Juryevich, 
Lithuania, to see that the Jews were restored to the 

enjoyment of their former property 
and assisted in the collection of debts due to them. 
The privilege was accorded them of repurchasing the property originally owned by them at the 
price paid by their successors to the grand duke. 
They were likewise to pay all expenses for improve- 
ments and for the erection of new buildings, and were 
obliged to pay all mortgages. Moreover, they were 
recpiired to equip annually a cavalry detachment of 
1,000 horsemen besides paying large annual sums to 
the local authorities. 

The return of the Jews antl their attempt to re- 
gain their old possessions led tomany ditficultiesand 
lawsuits. Alexander found it necessary to issue 
an additional decree (April, 1503), directing his 

vice-regent to enforce the law. In spite of this 
some of the property was not recovered by the Jews 
for years. 

The tax-farmers returned to their old occupations, 
and were shown many marks of favor by Alexan- 
der. He could not, however, obliterate the remem- 
brance that lie had robbed the Jews. The permission 
given the exiles to return is ascribed to the depleted 
condition of liis treasury and to the impending war 
with Russia, combined with the efforts of the influ- 
ential Jews of Poland and the baptized Jews of 
Lithuania to secure their return. 

The improvement in the condition of the Jews was 
especially marked in the reign of Alexander's j'oung- 
est brother, Sigismund I. (1506-48). Among his first 
decrees was one (Dec. 22, 1506) which re- 
Sig-ismund iieved the two synagogues of Lutsk — 
I. tiie Rabbiuiteand the Karaite — from the 

annual tax of 12 kop groschen imposed 
upon them by the city authorities. In January of 
the following year he confirmed, at the request of 
the Lithuanian Jews, the grant of privileges made 
by Witold in 1388. This was modeled after the orig- 
inal charter of Brest and was included in the first 
Lithuanian statute of 1529. Numerous other exam- 
ples of his good-will toward the Jews show that 
wliile being a good Catholic he was free from fanat- 
icism and religious intolerance. He looked upon his 
Jewish subjects as a class of men contributing by 
their usefulness to the welfare of the country, and 
as being entitled to the protection of equitable laws. 

Like his predecessors, Sigismund availed himself 
extensively of the services of the wealthy tax- 
farmers. He borrowed large sums from them and 
in return accorded them special privileges. The 
most influential among the tax-farmers at his court, 
at the beginning of his reign, was Michael Jesofo- 
vich. When, in 1508, Prince Glinski rebelled against 
Sigismund, and by an agreement with the rulers of 
Moscow attempted to effect the annexation of por- 
tions of Poland and Lithuania to the Muscovite em- 
pire, two Jews of Brest, Itzko and Berek, aided the 
prince in his undertaking, and furnished him Avith 
secret information. Michael Jesofovich excommu- 
nicated them with the blowing of the shofar and with 
groat public solemnity. In recognition of Michael's 
services, and prompted also by the desire to estab- 
lish a more perfect sy.stem of tax-collection, Sigis- 
mund appointed liim prefect over all the Lithuanian 
Jews (1514). This was a similar appointment to that 
of Ai3UA}iA.\i OF BoHKMi.Y as prefect of the Polish 
Jews (1512). Like Abraham, Michael was invested 
witli wide powers. He had the right to communi- 
cate directly with the king on important Jewish 
matters, and with the aid of a learned rabbi to ad- 
niinister justice among his coreligionists in accord- 
ance with their special laws. Michael's actual au- 
thority cfincerned the collection of taxes rather than 
the internal communal administration; and what- 
ever his religious powers may have been, he cer- 
tainly was not chief rabbi of the Lithuanian .Jews, 
as some Jewish historians have stated. 

This and similar acts, accompanied by the strength- 
ening of the communal organizations, added to the 
prosperity of the Lithuanian ctminnmities. The 
most flourishing among thera at the time were those 




of Brest, Grodno, Troki, Pinsk, Ostrog, Lutsk, 
and Tykotzin. The members of the communities 
found themselves iu a better position 
Prosperity legally than the burghers, although 
of the Con- in practise the Jews were often de- 
greg-ations. prived of the full enjoyment of their 
rights. According to the Lithuanian 
statutes of 1529 the murder of a Jew, a nobleman, 
or a burgher was punishable by death, and compen- 
sation was to be paid by the family of the murderer 
to that of the victim. But while the life of a Jew 
or a nobleman was valued at 100 koj) groschen, that 
of a burgher was valued at only 12 kop groschen. 
Proportionate compensation was provided for per- 
sonal injuries. The prominent Jewish ta.\-farmers 
frequently exceeded their legal powers, as is shown 
by complaints to the authorities. Thus in 1538 
Ooshko Kozhchich, a Jew of Brest, was fined 20 kop 
groschen for the illegal imprisonment of the noble- 
man Lyshinski. Similarly in 1542 the Jew Zacha- 
rlah Markovich was ordered to pay 12 kop groschen 
as compensation for assaulting the king's boyar 
Grishka Kochevich. On the other hand, numerous 
instances are recorded of the friendly intercourse 
between Jews and Christians. They drank and ate 
in common, and the Jews took part in the Christian 
festivals and even vied with their Christian neigh- 
bors in athletic feats. But with the exception of a 
few wealthy Jewish tax-collectors, the Jews of Lith- 
uania were not a great economic or political force. 
In their mode of life they were not markedly differ- 
ent from the rest of the population, and the names 
of the Jewish middle class are rarely met with in 
official documents. The rich Jews, however, are 
frequently mentioned in connection with their offi- 
cial business. 

About 1539, rumors were spread by a baptized Jew 
that many Christians had adopted the jMosaic faith 
and had found refuge and protection 
Rumors of among the Jews of Lithuania. Anin- 
Converts to vestigation was ordered by Sigismund. 
Judaism, but it failed to disclose anything in- 
criminating the Jews. None the less, 
in the course of the inquiry the king's nobles sub- 
jected the Jews to great annoyance. They unjustly 
arrested them on tiie^ highways, broke into their 
houses, and otherwise maltreated them. Before the 
conclusion of the investigation another rumor was 
spread ascribing to the Lithuanian Jews the intention 
to emigrate to Tui-key and to take the new converts 
witii them. New inquiries accompanied by similar 
excesses and abuses weie made. Tiie Jews sent nu- 
merous deputations to the king, protesting their inno- 
cence. Theirassertionsweresubstantiated by thefind- 
ings of aspecial commission ; and Sigismund hastened 
to declare the Jews free from any suspicion (1540). 

In the last years of Sigismund's reign, and even 
during part of that of Sigismund August, Bona 
Sfokza shared in their government, sometimes as- 
suming absolute authority. Tlu; energetic queen 
was herself eager to make and to save money. 
Among the many decrees issued by her in her own 
name are two of special interest, as evidencing the 
occurrence of internal conflicts in Jewish com- 
mimities. These deal with the quarrel in the com- 
munitv of Grodno between the powerful Jtu)Aii 

family (Yudichi) and the rest of the community, 
due to the appointment of a rabbi in opposition to 
the wishes of a majority of the congregation. This 
rabbi was Mordecai, son-in-law of Judah Bogdano- 
vich, and he is probably identical with Mordecai 
ben Moses Jaffe, rabbi of Cracow, who died about 
1568. He should not be confounded with Mordecai 
ben Abraham Jaffe, author of " Lebushim " (1530- 
1612), who also was rabbi of Grodno (1572). Queen 
Bona decreed that the opposing faction be permitted 
to appoint a rabbi of its own, who was not to be re- 
lated to tlie Judah family, and that the members of 
the latter should not call themselves "elders" of the 
Jews, a title that should be assumed only with the 
consent of tlie entire community. Accordingly, 
Closes ben Aaron was elected rabbi by opponents of 
the Judah family. This case tends to show that 
Mordecai Jaffe represented the Bohemian party, and 
Moses ben Aaron the Lithuanian-Polish faction. 

Sigismund II., August, only son of Sigismund I., 
succeeded as Grand Duke of Lithuania (1544) before 
the death of his father. He succeeded to the Polish 
throne in 1548. Liberal in his rule and in his treat- 
ment of his Jewish subjects, he accorded them the 
same tolerance as he did the Lutherans 
Under Sig- and Calvinists, who were then begin- 
ismund II. ning to grow in numbers both in Po- 
land and in Lithuania. Like all the 
Jagellons, he was a great spendthrift and of loose 
morals, but was none the less mindful of the welfare 
of his people. At the beginning of his reign the 
power of the lesser nobles (" Shlyakhta ") was still 
limited. They did not participate in the legislative, 
judicial, or administrative affairs of Lithuania. Until 
then the rights of the nobility, and of the Jews had 
differed but slightly. Thus the rabbi of Brest, Men- 
del Frank, was styled "the king's officer," and the 
Jew Shmoilo Israilevich was appointed deputy to 
the governor of Wilna. The more prominent Jews 
were always called in official documents " Pany " 
(" Sirs "). Like the nobility, the Jews carried swords, 
and were ready to fight whenever the occasion war- 
ranted. They wore also golden chains, and rings on 
which were engraved coats of arms. Until the union 
of Lublin (1569) the Jews of Lithuania, with few 
exceptions, lived on grand-ducal lands, and as sub- 
jects of the king enjoyed his protection. Thus the 
king ordered the reigning prince, Juri Semionovich 
of Slutsk, to pay damages for illegal acts against 
certain Jews, instructing the local authorities in case 
of opposition on the part of the prince to place the 
Jews in possession of his estates. The Jews could 
also collect debts not only from the Lithuanian lords, 
but even from such prominent persons as the Grand 
Duke of Ryazan. King Sigismund even entered 
into a diplomatic correspondence with the Grand 
Duke of Moscow urging the restoration of merchan- 
dise confiscated in Russia from Lithuanian Jewish 
merchants. The relations l)etween the Jews and the 
local authorities were governed partly by their char- 
ters of privileges and partly by custom. The Jews, 
for instance, made presents to the magistrate or 
elder, but Avere quite independent in their dealings 
with them. The local officials were answerable to 
the king for illegal acts. 
The middle of the sixteenth century witnessed a 




growing antagonism between the lesser nobility and 
the Jews. Their relations became strained, and the 
enmity of the Christians began to disturb the life of 
the Lithuanian Israelites. The anti -Jewish feeling, 
due at first to economic causes engendered by com- 
petition, Avas fostered by the clerg}\ 
Rise of who were then engaged in a crusade 
Opposition, against heretics, notably the Luther- 
ans, Calviuists, and Jews. The Refor- 
mation, which iiad spread from Germany, tended to 
weaken the allegiance to the Catholic Church. Fre- 
quent instances occurred of the marriage of Catholic 
women to Jews, Turks, or Tatars. The Bishop of 
Wilna complained to Sigismund August (Dec, 1548) 
of the fre(iuency of such mixed marriages and of 
the education of the offspring in their fathers' faiths. 
The Shlyakhtaalso saw in the Jews dangerous com- 
petitors in commeicial and financial undertakings. 
In their dealings with the agricultural classes the 
lords preferred the Jews as middlemen, thus creating 
a feeling of injury on the part of the Shlyaklita. 
The exemption of the Jews from military service 
and the power and wealth of the Jewish tax-farmers 
intensified the resentment of tlie Shlyakhta. Mem- 
bers of the nobility, like Borzobogaty, Zagorovski, 
and others, attempted to compete with the Jews as 
leaseholders of customs revenues, but were never 
successful. Since the Jews lived in the towns and 
on the lands of the king, the nobility could not wield 
any authority over them nor derive profit from 
them. They had not even the right to settle Jews 
on their estates without the permission of the king ; 
but, on tlie other hand, they were often annoyed by 
the erection on their estates of the tollhouses of the 
Jewish ta.x -collectors. 

Hence when the favorable moment arrived the 
Lithuanian nobility endeavored to secure greater 
power over the Jews. At the Diet of Wilna in 1551 
the nobility urged the imposition of a special poll- 
tax of one ducat per head, and the Volhynian nobles 
demanded that the Jewish tax-collectors be forbid- 
den to erect tollhouses or place guards 
Action of atthe taverns on their estates. In 1555 
the Nobles, the illegal treatment of the Jews by 
Zhoslenski, the magistrate of Wilna, 
led Sigismund August to announce that a fine of 
300 kop gro.schen would follow any repetition of 
such an excess of power. In 1559 the nobility of 
Samogitia complained of abuses by Jewish tax- 
collectors and demanded that the collection of cus- 
toms duties be entrusted to them on the same terms 
as to the J(!ws. In 1560 the king found it necessary 
to prohibit the magistrates of Volhynia from assu- 
ming jurisdiction over the clerks of the tax-collector 
Mendel Isakovich. In 156.3 the Lithuanian nobility 
demanded that the Jews furnisli 2,000 foot-.soldiers 
and an even greater number of sharpshooters. In 
1.5n4 Bornat Abramovich, clerk of the prominent 
tax-collector Isaac Boiu)Davk.\, was arrested and 
tried on the accusation of having murdered a Chris 
tian child. The royal chamberlain testified that he 
had heard the confession of Bernat shortly before 
Ilia execution, and that he had solemnly declared his 
innocence. Investigation proved the falseness of 
the charge, which had been prompted by enmity 
toward Borodavka. 

A similar unfounded accusation of two other serv- 
ants of Borodavka in 156G led Sigismund August to 
declare the innocence of the accused, and to reatfirm 
the decree of Aug. 9, 1564, by which all Jews ac- 
cu.sed of the murder of Christian children or of dese- 
crating the host were to be tried by the king himself 
before the assembled Diet. Until the time of Irial 
the accvised were to be surrendered for safe-keeping 
to two of their coreligionists. The guilt of the ac- 
cused could Ijc declared only on the testimony of four 
Christian and three Jewish witnesses. The failure 
to prove tlie accusation rendered the accuser lial)le 
to loss of life and property. In this decree the king 
also reminded the Ciiristiansof the grand duchy that 
previous charters and papal bulls had amply jivoved 
that Jews were not in need of Christian blood for 
the purposes of their ritual. 

The opposition to the Jews was finally crystallized 
and found definite expression in the repressive Lith- 
uanian statute of 1566, when the Lithuanian nobles 
were first allowed to take part in the national legis- 
lation. Paragraph 13 of this statute 
The Act contains the following articles: "The 
of 1566. Jews shall not wear costly clothing, 
nor gold chains, nor shall their wives 
wear gold or silver ornaments. The Jews shall not 
have silver mountings on their sabers and daggers; 
they shall be distinguished by characteristic clotiies; 
they shall wear j-ellow caps, and their wives ker- 
chiefs of yellow linen, in order that all may be en- 
abled to distinguish Jews from Christians." Other 
restrictions of a similar nature are contained in the 
same paragraph. However, the king checked the 
desire of the nobility to modify essentially the old 
charters of the Jews. 

Twenty years later the royal veto was ineffective the increasing power of the nobility ; but by 
that time the attitude of the latter toward the Jews 
had undergone such a complete change that instead 
of adding new restrictions the nobility abolished 
most of the regulations which had been so objec- 

Through the union with Lithuania, Poland gained 
in power and exerted a greater infiuence on the 
former country. The introduction of the reformed 
faith (the teachings of Calvin) met with ready accept- 
ance by the nobility and middle classes. The new re- 
ligious ideas brought in their wake a taste for science 
and literature, and Jewish and ("hris- 
After the tian children sought learning in the 
Union of same schools. A number of young 
Lublin. men went to Germany and Italy for 
the study of medicine and astronomy. 
The inmates of theyeshibot (of Lithuania especially) 
were acquainted with the writings of Aristotle, as is 
evidenced by the complaint of Solomon Luria that 
Babbi Moses Isserles was responsible for much free 
thought. He had noticed in the prayer-books of the 
scholars (bahurim) the prayer of Aristotle. Cardi- 
nal Commendoni testifies that many Russian and 
Lithuanian Jews had distinguished themselves in 
medicine and astronomy. The Jews of Lithuania 
were, like their Catholic neighbors, affected by the 
broader spiritual atmosphere of the day. The Polish 
Calvinists, among them Prince Radziwil, enjoyed 
extensive influence at court, and Radziwil was almost 





successful in causiug Sigismund August to renounce 
allegiance to the papal authority. The extreme 
Calvinists, like the Socinians and the followers of 
Siinon Budny, attacked the doctrine of the Trinity 
as a form of polytheism. Therefore they were styled 
Unitarians or anti-Trinitarians, and were frequently 
referred to by their opponents as " half -Jews." The 
influence of the religious unrest of the times on Jew- 
ish thought is evidenced by the discussions which 
took place between the Jews and the dissenters (see 
CzKCiiowic). The learned Karaite Isaac ben Abra- 
ham of Troki took a prominent part in such discus- 
sions. His polemical experience is described in his 
work "Hizzuk Enumah " (translated into Latin by 
Wagenseil and pubhshed with the Hebrew text in 
1681, and later translated into Spanish, German, 
and French). This work is frequently cited by the 
French encyclopedists in their attacks on Catholi- 
cism. The French Duke Henry of Anjou, one of 
the leaders in the massacre of St. Bartholomew, was 
elected to succeed Sigismund August on the thrones 
of Poland and Lithuania. He was an enemy of the 
Jews notwithstanding the fact that he largely owed 
his election to the efforts of Solomon Asiiken.\zi. 
He planned strict measures against his Jewish sub- 
jects, and blood accusations occurred during his 
short reign. Fortunately he escaped to France in 
1574 to assume the crown left vacant by the death 
of his brother. After the short interregnum which 
followed, the Polish people elected the Transylva- 
nian Duke Stephen Bathoui. During the latter's 
equitable rule of eleven years the condition of the 
Polish and Lithuanian Jews was greatly improved. 
In July, 1576, he ordered by decree that all persons 
making false blood accusations or baseless charges 
of desecration of the host, then being spread in 
Lithuania, should be severely punished, his own in- 
vestigations having convinced him that such accusa- 
tions were instigated merely to incite riots. He found 
not only that the Jews were innocent and be}'ond 
suspicion, but also that the Shiyakhta 
Under who had made the accusations had 
Stephen themselves been misled by fanatical 
Bathori. agitators. He declared that " whoso- 
ever shall disobey this decree shall be 
severely punished irrespective of his position in so- 
ciety ; and whoever shall spread such rumors shall 
be considered a calumniator; and he who shall make 
such false charges before the authorities shall be 
punished by death." In the same month lie con- 
firmed by decree all of the ancient privileges of the 
Lithuanian Jews. At the beginning of his reign 
Mordecai Jaffe (author of the " Lebushim ") went 
to Lithuania. He at first officiated in Grodno, and 
built the large synagogue which is still standing 
there and which has on its ark an inscription show- 
ing that the building was completed in 1578. 
Mordecai Jaffe by his great rabbinical erudition and 
secular knowledge played an important role in the 
Council of Four Lands and in the development 
of the methodical study of rabbinical literature 
in Lithuania and Poland. See also Bathoui, 

The long reign of Sigismund III. (1587-1632) wit- 
nessed gradual but decisive changes in the relations 
of the Lithuanian Jews to the rest of the popula- 

tion. Born in the Protestant family of the Vasas, 
Sigismund was educated by his father, John III., 
in the Catholic faith with a view to 
Sigismund his future occui)ati()n of the Polish 
III. and tlirone. The Jesuit training of Sigis- 
Ladislaus mund was retiected in his attitude 
IV. toward his nonC'atholicsubje{J:s. The 

severe measures which he took against 
the dissenters affected tiie Jews also. In the attack 
of the Jesuits on Protestants and Greek Catholics 
the Jesuits caused the promulgation of numerous 
decrees restricting the ancient privileges of the Lith- 
uanian Jews. They secured complete control of the 
education of the Polish-Lithuanian youth and in- 
stilled into the future citizens a religious intolerance 
hitherto unknown in Lithuania and which later 
made the existence of the Jewish subjects almost 
unbearable. A return to medieval methods was pre- 
vented only by the unsettled political and social con- 
dition of the country and the independence of the 
Shiyakhta. This independence, however, gradually 
vanished, and in the political degeneration which 
followetl, the lesser nobility became a tool in the 
hands of a few reactionary leaders. 

The king himself, following in the footsteps of 
his predecessors, attempted to pose as the protector 
of the Jews. He confirmed their charters of privi- 
leges (1588), and frequently took their part in their 
struggle with the Christian merchant gilds; but 
more often he sacrificed them to the self-assumed 
power of the city magistrates. The commercial 
rivalry between tlie JeAvs and the burghers, and 
the disregard by the latter of the ancient rights of 
the Jews, led Sigismund to issue several special de- 
crees declaring the inviolability of Jewish autonomy 
in religious and judicial matters. The first of these 
decrees was due to the efforts of Saul Judich, repre- 
senting the Jews of Brest (1593), and was called 
forth by the illegal assumption of authority over 
the Jews by the magistrates of Brest in matters re- 
served to the jurisdiction of the kahals or the king. 
The object of the magistrates was the collection of 
excessive fees and other extortions. This Saul 
Judich was one of the most prominent farmers of 
taxes and customs duties in Lithuania, and as " serv- 
ant of the king " was in a position to rentier impor- 
tant services to his coreligionists. He is first men- 
tioned in a decree of 1580 as having, in company 
with other communal leaders, strongly defended the 
rights of the Jews of Brest against the Christian 
merchants. As Bershadski shows, he is the Saul 
Wahl, the favorite of Prince Radziwil, who, ac- 
cording to legend, was made King of Poland for one 

In the same year (1580) Sigismund granted the 
Jews of Ay ilna, as a protection against the oppressive 
measures of the city magistrates, a charter permit- 
ting them to purchase real estate, to engage in trade 
on the same footing as the Christian merchants, to 
occupy houses belonging to the nobles, and to build 
synagogues. As tenants of the nobility they were 
to be exempt from city taxes, and in their lawsuits 
with Christians they were to be subject to the juris- 
diction of the king's wayA\X)des only. A few days 
later the king accorded tliem the additional right to 
establish in the lower portion of the city a syna- 




gogue, cemetery, and bath-house, as well as stores 
for the sale of kasher meat. The burghers natu- 
rally resented the grant of these privileges and used 
every effort to secure their curtailment. Their en- 
deavors evidently met with success, for in 1606 the 
Jews of Wilna found it necessary to petition the 
king for protection. 

Later decrees of Sigismund show that ultimately 
anti-Jewish influences prevailed at his court. In 
1597 he granted the Magdeburg Rights to the city 
of Vitebsk, but denied by a legal technicality the 
riglit of the Jews to reside jiermanently in the city. 
Another decree provided that no synagogue should 
be built without the king's permission. In the 
carrying out of this enactment the Jews were prac- 
tically compelled to secure the permission of the 
Catholic clergy also whenever they desired to build 
a synagogue. Still another decree, which was later 
incorporated into the statutes, provided for the ele- 
vation to nobility of Jewish converts to Christianity. 
The rapidly growing nmnber of the so-called "Jeru- 
salem nobles " later caused alarm among the Polish 
nobility, and in 1768 the law was repealed. 

With the permanent establishment of the Jesuits 
in Poland and in Lithuania, the ramification of their 
intrigues and their active participation in politics 
and in legislation gave them a predominating influ- 
ence in tiie affairs of the country. Having come to 

Lithuania in the reign of Sigismund 

Influence II., August, the Jesuits at first kept 

of Jesuits, free from politics, and occupied tiiem- 

selves with educational work, science, 
and literature. Stephen Bathori had no fear of 
their intrigues, and even entrusted them with the 
management of the newly established academy in 
Wilna. However, aided by the demoralized condi- 
tion of the country, they soon succeeded in arraying 
the religious factions against one another. Bribery 
was rampant at the court and among the city ofli- 
cials. The masses were unruly and licentious, the 
Shlyakhta wilful, the clergy fanatical, and the mag- 
istrates lawless. The Jews were frequently made 
to suffer in these factional struggles. The restric- 
tions put upon them grew constantly ; they were 
forbidden to engage in rctiiil trade, handicrafts, and 
other remunerative callings, and they were prac- 
tically outlawed. The oidy occupation in which they 
were to any extent safe from the rajiacity of city 
officials was the keeping of taverns in the townlets 
and villages. There, their only masters were the 
nobles, wiiom it was easier to please than the numer- 
ous functionaries and Sidyakhta. Thus the Jews 
lui fortunately became in some parts of Lithuania 
useful tools in the iiands of tlu; nobility for the ex- 
ploitation of the peasantry. The lords then found 
it expedient to take the Jews under their protection. 
Prominent among them were the Radziwils in Lith- 
uania, and the ^Vishnevetzkis in the Ukraine. 

Ladislaus IV. (1632-48) was not a zealous Catho- 
lic, and lie had no love for the Jesuits. lie attempted 
to make peace between the warring religious fac- 
tions, and sought to revive tlie ancient rights of the 
Jews. On Mareh 11 un<l 16, 1683, he confirmed the 
charters of privileges of the Jews of Litlmania, and 
decreed that all suits between Jews and Christians 
should be tried hv the wavwodes and elders and not 

by the city magistrates, who were the avowed ene- 
mies of tlie Jews, and often discriminated against 
them. He also checked the anti-Jewish student 
demonstrations, instigated by Jesuit teachers. All 
appeals in suits between Jews were to be brought 
before the king or his vice-regent. 

Notwithstanding his religious tolerance, however, 
Ladislaus lacked the energy to resist the power of 
the clergy and the merchants, and was vacillating 
in his policy. At times he supported the Jews; at 
other times he yielded to the influence of their op- 
ponents. In 1633 and again in 1646 he confirmed 
the decree of his father (July, 1626) expelling Jews 
from the central portion of Moghilef and assigning 
them new quarters in the lower portion of the city. At 
the instigation of the Christian merchants of Wilna 
he also limited the rights of the Jews of that city. 
Aided by the propaganda of the clergy, the burgh- 
ers caused new acts to be introduced, known as " De 
Judseis." It was decreed, for instance, that Jews 
should not appear on the main streetsor in the market- 
places on Christian holidays; that Jewish physi- 
cians should not attend Christian patients ; and that 
Jewish barbers should neither shave nor cup Chris- 
tians. Fortunately for the Jews, on account of the 
powerful protection of the nobility, enactments 
could not always be carried out. Moreover these de- 
crees, advocated by the lesser clergy and the Jesuits, 
were opposed by other powerful Church magnates, 
the bishops and the archbishops, who, as landed 
proprietors, availed themselves of the services of the 
Jews. Thus in the Catholic Church itself there 
were two parties, one favorable and the other an- 
tagonistic to the Jews ; and it is often found that 
the archbishops and bishops were in opposition to 
the Church councils. 

On the whole, the animosity toward the Jews pro- 
duced by various economic evils had taken such deep 
root that Ladislaus, well-meaning as he was, found 
himself unable to stem the tide of class dissensions. 
The Jews themselves felt grateful for whatever 
efforts he made in their behalf, as was thus voiced by 
one of the leading rabbis of his time, Shabbethai ben 
Meir ha-Kohen of Wilna (SHaK) : " He was a right- 
eous king, worthy to be counted among the just; 
for he always showed favor to the Jews, and was 
true to his promise." The Jewish masses, who had 
found safety on the estates of the landed nobility, ulti- 
mately became scapegoats in the bitter struggle of 
the Greek Catholic peasantry with the Polish nobles 
and Roman Catholic clergy, a struggle which cul- 
minated in the Cossacks' Uprisino. 

The fury of this uprising destroyed the organiza- 
tion of the Lithuanian Jewish communities. The 
survivors who returned to their old homes in the 
latter half of the seventeenth century were practi- 
cally destitute. The wars which raged constantly in 
the Lithuanian territory brouglit ruin 

Effect of to the entire country and deprived the 
Cossacks' Jews of the opportunity to earn more 
Uprising, than a bare livelihood. The intensity 
of tiieir struggle for existence left tiiem 
no time to reestablish the conditions which iiad ex- 
isted up to 1648. John Casimiu (1648-68) .soiight 
to ameliorate their condition by granting various 
concessiotvs to the Jewish communities of Lithuania. 




Attempts to return to the old order in the com- 
munal organization were not warning, as is evident 
from contemporary documents. Thus in 1673 Jew- 
ish elders from various towns and villages in the 
grand duchy of Lithuania secured a charter from 
King Michael Wishnevetzki (1669-73), decreeing 
"that on account of the increasing number of Jews 
guilty of offenses against the Shlyakhta and other 
Christians, which result in the enmity of the Chris- 
tians toward the Jews, and because of the inability 
of the Jewish elders to punish such offenders, who 
are protected by the lords, the king permits the 
kahals to summon the criminals before the Jewish 
courts for punishment and exclusion from the com- 
munity when necessary." The efforts to resurrect 
the old power of the kahals were not successful. 
The impoverished JewLsh merchants, having no 
capital of their own, were compelled to borrow 
money from the nobility, from churches, congrega- 
tions, monasteries, and various religious orders. 
Loans from the latter were usually for an unlimited 
period and were secured by mortgages on the real 
estate of the kahal. The kahals thus became hope- 
lessly indebted to the clergy and the nobility. 

Numerous complaints to King John Sobieski 
<1674-96) by the Jews of Brest against their com- 
munal leaders, led him (May, 1676) to grant the 
rabbi of Brest, Mark Benjaschewitsch, jurisdiction 
in criminal cases over the Jews of his community, 
and to invest him with the power to impose corporal 
punishment and even the sentence of death. Under 
this ruler the Lithuanian communities saw a partial 
restoration of their old prosperity, and the authority 
of the Lithuanian Council served to bring some 
order out of the chaotic condition of the Lithuanian 
Jewry. Still the real stability of the old communi- 
ties was destroyed, and frequent conflicts arose in 
regard to the territorial limits of the jurisdiction of 
the kahals. In the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury all the Lithuanian kahals were insolvent (see 
Jew. Encyc. vii. 410b, s.v. Kahal). 

In 1793 the Jewish population of Lithuania was 
estimated at 350,000 (as compared with 130,000 in 
1569). The whole of the commerce and industries 
of Lithuania, now rapidly declining, was in the hands 
of the Jews. The nobility lived for the most part on 
their estates and farms, some of which were managed 
by Jewish leaseholders. The city properties were con- 
centrated in the possession of monasteries, churches, 
and the lesser nobility. The Christian merchants 
were poor. Such was the condition of affairs in Lith- 
uania at the time of the second partition of Poland 
<1793), when the Jews became subjects of Russia. 

The founding of the yeshibot in Lithuania was 
due to the Lithuanian-Polish Jews who studied in 
the west, and to the German Jews who migrated 
about that time to Lithuania and Poland. Very lit- 
tle is known of these early yeshibot. No mention 
is made of them or of prominent Lith- 

Judicial uauian rabbis in Jewish writings until 

Function the sixteenth century. The first 
of the known rabbinical authority and head 

Rabbis. of a yeshibah was Isaac Bezaleel of 

Vladimir, Volhynia, who was already 

an old man when Luria wentto Ostrog in the fourth 

decade of the sixteenth century. Another rab- 

VIII.— 9 

binical authority, Kalman Haberkaster, rabbi of 
Ostrog and predecessor of Solomon Luria, died in 
1559. Occasional references to the yeshibah of Brest 
are found in the writings of the contemporary rabbis 
Solomon Luria (d. 1585), Moses Isserles (d. 1573), 
and David Gans (d. 1589), who speak of its ac- 
tivity. Of the yeshibot of Ostrog and Vladimir in 
Volhynia it is known that they were in a flourishing 
condition at the middle of the sixteenth century, 
and that their heads vied with one another in Tal- 
mudic scholarship. Mention is also made by Gans 
of the head of the Kremenetz yeshibah, Isaac Cohen 
(d. 1573), of whom but little is known otherwise. 
For other prominent scholars in Lithuania at that 
time see Brest-Litovsk ; Grodno ; Kremenetz; 


At the time of the Lublin Union, Solomon Luria 
was rabbi of Ostrog, and was regarded as one of the 
greatest Talmudic authorities in Poland and Lith- 
uania. In 1568 King Sigismund ordered that the 
suits between Isaac Borodavka and ]\Iendel Isako- 
vich, who were partners in the farming of certain 
customs taxes in Lithuania, be carried for decision 
to Rabbi Solomon Luria and two auxiliary rabbis 
from Pinsk and Tykotzin. 

The far-reaching authority of the leading rabbis of 
Poland and Lithuania, and their wide knowledge of 
practical life, are apparent from numerous decisions 
cited in the responsa. They were always the cham- 
pions of justice and morality. In the " Etan ha-Ez- 
rahi" (Ostrog, 1796) of Abraham Rapoport (known 
also as Abraham' Schrenzel; d. 1650), Rabbi Meir 
Sack is cited as follows: "I emphatically protest 
against the custom of our communal leaders of pur- 
chasing the freedom of Jewish criminals. Such a 
policy encourages crime among our people. I am 
especially troubled by the fact that, thanks to the 
clergy, such criminals may escape punishment by 
adopting Christianity. Mistaken piety impels our 
leaders to bribe the officials, in order to prevent 
such conversions. We should endeavor to deprive 
criminals of opportunities to escape justice." The 
same sentiment was expressed in the sixteenth cen- 
tury by R. MeiT Lublin (Responsa, § 138). Another 
instance, cited by Katz from the same responsa, 
likewise shows that Jewish criminals invoked the 
aid of priests against the authority of Jewish courts 
by promising to become converts to Christianity. 

The decisions of the Polish-Lithuanian rabbis are 
frequently marked by breadth of view also, as is in- 
stanced by a decision of Joel Sirkes ("Bet Hadash," 
§ 137) to the effect that Jews may employ in their 
religious services the melodies used in Christian 
churches, " since music is neither Jewish nor Chris- 
tian, and is governed by universal laws." 

Decisions by Solomon Luria, Mei'r Katz, and Mor- 
decai Jaffe show that the rabbis were acquainted 
with the Russian language and its philology. Jaffe, 
for instance, in a divorce case where the spelling 
of the woman's name as " Lupka " or " Lubka " was 
in question, decided that the word is correctly 
spelled with a "b," and not with a "p," since the 
origin of the name was the Russian verb " lubit " 
= " to love, " and not " lupit " = " to beat " (" Lebush 
ha-Buz we-Argaman," § 139). Meir Katz ("Ge- 
burat Anashim, " § 1) explains that the name of Brest- 




LitovsK is written in divorce cases "Brest" and not 
"Brisk," "because the majority of tlie Lithuanian 
Jews use the Russian language." It is not so with 
Brisk, in the district of Kujawa, the name of that 
town being always spelled "Brisk." Katz (a Gor- 
man) at the conclusion of his responsum exjiresscs 
the hope that when Lithuania shall have become 
more enlightened, the people will speak one lan- 
guai^e only — German — and that also Brest-Litovsk 
will be written "Brisk." 

The responsa throw an interesting light also on 
the lifeof the Litliuauian Jews and on their relations 
to their Christian neighbors. Benjamin Aaron Sol- 
nik states in his "Mas'at Binyamin " (end of si.x- 
teenth and beginning of seventeenth century) that 
"the Christians borrow clothes and jewelry from 
the Jews when they go to church." 
Items from Joel Sirkes {I.e. ^ 79) relates that a 
the Christian woman came to the rabbi 

Responsa. and expressed her regret at having 
been unable to save the Jew Shlioma 
from drowning. A number of Christians had looked 
on indifferently while the drowning Jew was strug- 
gling in the water. They were upbraided and beaten 
severely by tlie priest, who appeared a few minutes 
later, for having failed to rescue the Jew. 

Rabbi Solomon Luria gives an account (Responsa, 
§ 20) of a quarrel that occurred in a Lithuanian 
community concerning a cantor whom some of the 
members wished to dismiss. The synagogue was 
closed in order to prevent him from exercising 
his functions, and religious services were thus dis- 
continued for several days. The matter was there- 
\\\wn carried to the local lord, who ordered the re- 
opening of the building, saying that the house 
of God might not be closed, and that the cantor's 
claims should be decided by the learned rabbis of 
Lithuania. .Joseph Katz mentions ("She'erit Yo- 
sef," $ 70) a Jewish community which was for- 
bidden by the local authorities to kill cattle and to 
sell meat — an occupation which provided a liveli- 
hood for a large portion of the Lithuanian Jews. 
For the period of a year following this prohibition the 
Jewish community was on several occasions assessed 
at the rate of three gulden per head of cattle in 
order to furnish funds wherewith to induce the ofli- 
cials to grant a hearing of the case. The Jews 
finally reached an agreement Avith the town magis- 
trates under which they were to pay 40 gulden an- 
nually for the right to slaughter cattle. Accord- 
ing to Ilillel ben Herz ("Bet Hillel," Yoreh Ds'ah, 
§ 157), Naphtali says the Jews of VVilna had been 
compelled to uncover when taking an oath in court, 
but later purchased from the tribunal the privilege 
to swear with covered head, a subsequently 
made unnecessary by a decision of one of their 
rabbis to the effect that an oath miglit be taken 
with uncovered head. 

The responsa of MeVr Lublin show (| 40) that the 
Lithuanian communities frequently aided the Ger- 
man and the Austrian Jews. On the expulsion of 
the Jews from Silesia, when the Jewish inhabitants 
of Silz had the privilege of remaining on condition 
that they would pay the sum of 2,000 gulden, the 
Lithuanian communities contributed one-fifth of the 

The influence in communal life of prominent rab- 
liinical scholars, such as Mordecai Jaffe, Moses 
Isserles, Solomon Luria, and Moir Lublin, proved 
but a slight check to the growing misrule of the lia- 
hals. The individuality of the Lithuanian Jew was 
lost in the kahal, advantages were thus largely 
counterbalanced by the suppression of personal lib- 
erty. The tyranny of the kahal administration and 
the external oppression drove the great mass of the 
Lithuanian Jewry to seek consolation in the dry 
formalism of Talraudic precepts. The Talmud and 
its endless commentaries became the sole source of 
information and instruction. Every Jew was com- 
pelled by the communal elders to train his children 
in Talmudic lore. The Halakah olTered a solutiim 
for every question in Jewish life, while the poetry 
of the llaggadah supplied alleviation for sorrow and 
hope for the future. Reformers arising among the 
Lithuanian Jews were forced by the kahal elders 
either to leave the community or to bend to the will 
of the administration. All was sacrificed to the in- 
violability of customs sanctioned by tradition or by 
the letter of the Law. The ties of friendship and 
family relationship were subordinated to the interests 
of the community. Hence it is little to be wondered 
at that the Cabala found fertile soil in Lithuania. 
The marked indications of approaching political an- 
archy were the chief causes of the organization of 
the Lithuanian Council. 

Bibliography : Antonovich, Mnnogrnfii pn Istnrii Zapadnni 
i Yuyo-ZapadJioi Romi, vol. i., Kiev, 1885; Hershadski, Li- 
tovskie Yeinri, St. Petersburg, 1883; idem, liiittsko-Yevrei- 
ski Arkiv, 2 vols., ih. 1882; Czacki, Rozprava o Zi/dnch i 
Karaitnch, Wilna, 1807; idem, O LitewskUh i Pul^kich 
Praivach, Warsaw, 1800; Dubnov, Yevr-ei.'fkam Moriija, 
vol. ii., X.V., Odessa, 1897 ; Graetz, Histnrfi of the, Jc u'l^, Hebrew 
ed., vols. vii. and viii., s.v.; Harkavy, In 7i?/,sc//6 Revue, 
vols, xxii., xxiii., St. Petersburg, 1883-^4 ; Jaroszewicz, Obraz 
Litwy . . . od Czasow Najdawtiiejszijch do Konca Wieku, 
xviil., Wilna, 1844; Kraushaar. Hmorua Zydfrww Polsce, 2 
vols., Warsavr, 1865-66 ; Leontovich, Moricheskoe Izslyedn- 
vanie n Pravnkh Litov.'fk/y-Riu^nkikh Yevreyew Kiev, 1864 ; 
Maciejowski, Ziidzi w Polsce na R>m i Litxvie, Warsaw, 
1878; Narbutt, JJzieje Narodu Litcicxkieon. part viii., p. 490; 
Neubauer, ^ms der Peterslniroer lilhlwthek, Leipsic, 1866; 
Regesty i NadpM, vol. 1., St. Petersburg, 1H99 ; Sternberg, 
Geschichte der Jiiden in Polen, Leipsic, 1878; SUttemali- 
cheski Ukazatel, s.v., St. Petersburg, 1893; Sbomik Budush- 
chnosti, i. ~44. 

H. R. 

Medinot Lita, or Wa'ad ha-Medinot ha-Ra- 
shiyyot de-Lita) : Long before the Union of Lub- 
lin, probably with the beginning of tiie sixteenth 
century, the Jews of Poland and Lithuania were 
taxed as a single body, the pro rata assessment being 
made by the Jews themselves. In 1613 Sigismund 
III. decreed separate assessments for the Jews of 
Lithuania and Poland. The former were obliged to 
pay 9,000 gulden and the latter 7,000 gulden, the 
per capita payment being the same in each case. 
In order to a.ssure an equitable distribution of the 
taxes among the several communities, and because 
of the d(!sire to secure uniform legislation in relig- 
ious matters and to protect theircommunal interests, 
the .Tews of Lithuania organized, in 1623, a .separate 
councilof their own, thiscouncil being known as the 
"Wa'ad ha-Medinot ha-Rashiyyot de-Lita." Pre- 
viously, from the Union of Lublin in 1369 until 1623, 
the Jews of Lithuania, not being, perhaps, in urgent 
need of a council of their own, had their represent- 
atives in the Council of Three Countries (Poland, 




liussia, Lithuania), or in tlie Council of Five Lauds 
(see Council of Foi:u Lamds). 

It was customary for tlie Lithuanian delegates to 
liold prL-iiniinary meetings at Brest-Litovsk before 
taking part in the deliberation of the general coun- 
cils. It lias not yet been determined, however, to 
wliat extent tiie Lithuanian Jews were governed by 
the decisions of these councils; only this much is 
certain, that while they Averewell represented at the 
coimcils' sessions they occasionally refused to obey 
their rulings. The Lithuanian councils were orig- 
inally composed of delegates from the three most 
important communities— Pinsk, Brest, and Grodno. 
Wilna was added in 1652, and Slutsk in 1691. The 
councils were designated in accordance with the 
number of communities represented. 
Relation as " Wa'ad Shalosh [Arba', or Ha- 
to Council mesh] Medinot Kashiyyot de-Lita " ( = 
of Four •' Council of Three [Four, or Five] Main 
Lands. Districts of Lithuania"). The Lithua- 
nian Council in time became an author- 
itative body in all local Jewish affairs ; but, while 
practically an independent body, it assumed a sub- 
ordinate position to the Council of Four Lands. At 
times the two councils worked in unison in matters 
of common interest during the sessions of the Coun- 
cil of Four Lands, but where differences occurred, 
the authority of the latter prevailed. Thus, in the 
dispute in regard to Tykotzin, in the government of 
Lomza, a boundary town between Poland and Lith- 
uania, it was decided to place the town under the 
jurisdiction of the Council of Four Lands, although 
formerly it had been regarded as Lithuanian terri- 
tory. Similarly, in the dispute between Tykotzin 
and Grodno concerning the less important neighbor- 
ing comnuinitiesof Zabludov, Horodok, and Khvor- 
oshcha, the latter were assigned by the Council of 
Four Lands to Tykotzin. In this case, however, 
the decision was not accepted as final (" Sefer ha- 
Yobel," pp. 257-259). 

The Lithuanian Council, like that of the Four 
Lands, had no fi.xed meeting-place ; it assembled 
biennially or triennially at Zabludov, Seltzy, or 
elsewhere. Like that of the Four Lands, also, it 
served to cement the interests of the Lithuanian 
and other Russo-Polish Jews at a time when disso- 
lution and demoralization reigned in the Polish king- 
dom, and it acted as a bulwark against the rancor 
of the Christian clergy, especially the Jesuits, who 
made continuous attacks on the Jews. The records 
of the Lithuanian Council are better preserved than 
those of the Council of Four Lands. There is ex- 
tant a complete list of the meetings held by the 
Lithuanian Council from 1623 to 1762, when it was 
abolished, after over 1,000 regulations (" takkanot ") 
had been adopted. These takkanot were made 
with the following ends in view: 

(1) To encourage and endear to the people the study of the 
Talmud by establishing yeshibot, and to supervise the conduct 
of students. (3) To protect the interests of the Jewish people 
as a whole and as individuals against the malice of non-Jews, 
by pleading the cause of the Jews in the Polish Diets. (3) To 
supervise the conduct of the communities as well as of Individ- 
uals, in order to prevent them from rousing the antagonism of 
Ibeir neighbors by indulging in improper and illegal trades. 
(4) To determine and properly distribute the government taxes 
imposed upon Jews. (5) To determine the boundaries of each 
kahal district. (6) To determine the duties of each community 

and its .>>hare in the common efforts and expenditures in cases 
where blood accusations were to be contested. (7) To deter- 
mine the right of membership to be granted to new settlers in 
the comiriunities (" heskat yishshub") : as each Jewish commu- 
nity stood re.sponsible for the conduct of its individuals, restric- 
tions were necessary to regulate the granting of nieiiibersliip to 
newcomers. (8) To aid poverty-stricken communities and indi- 
viduals. (9) To maintain and aid poor settlers in Palestine. 

Of the regulations enacted at the meetings of the 
Lithuanian Council the following deserve mention, 
since they afford an insight into the state of culture 
of the Lithuanian Jews and into the character of the 
council itself: "Every community shall carefully 
guard against card- and dice-playing, and offenders 
shall be fined and subjected to corporal punishment" 
(1623; No. 51). "Beggars invading Lithuania and 
Russia [meaning White Russia], especially those 
who disguise themselves as scholars and pious per- 
sons while committing secretly various wicked acts, 
shall not be allowed to remain in any one commu- 
nity more than twenty-four hours" (1623; No. 87). 
" It shall be the duty of the communal leaders to 
expose any attempts at fraud which may be discov- 
ered on the part of Jews borrowing money or goods 
from a ' shlakhtitz ' [peasant], or leasing from lords 
estates, taxes, and other sources of revenue. On the 
refusal of the parties likely to be defrauded lo heed 
the warning of the communal leaders, the latter 
shall declare the transaction void, using force if nec- 
essary, in order that the Christians concerned may 
not suffer loss" (No. 26). "It is incumbent upon 
the three chief communities of Lithuania to arrange 
annually for the marriage of thirty poor girls, giving 
each a dowry of thirty gulden." 

Among the takkanot there are also regulations re- 
garding competition in business, against luxury, and 
against expensive and gaudy dresses. 

In 1654-56, when the Russians invaded Lithua- 
nia, the activities of the Lithuanian Council relaxed. 
It convened less frequently, and the regulations 
adopted between 1656 and 1670 deal in the main 
with financial accounts. After 1670, however, it 
resumed its former energy. 

The Lithuanian Council was abolished about 1762, 
at the same time and for the same reason as the 
Council of Four Lands. Thenceforward taxes were 
no longer imposed on Lithuania as a whole, but on 
each community separately, the prime motive for 
the union of the communities being thus abolished. 

H. R. 

congressman and manufacturer; born in Glovers- 
ville, N. Y., Jan. 20, 1859. He graduated from Har- 
vard University in 1878, after which he engaged in 
the glove-manufacturing business with his father, 
whom he succeeded in 1882. He was elected in 1896 
to the 55th Congress as Republican representative 
of the 25th District of New York and has been re- 
elected to each succeeding Congress. He has served 
as a member of the Committee on Appropriations. 

Bibliography: The Congressional LHrectorii of the 5Sth 
Congress ; American Jeunsh Year Book, 19(»-3. 


German Literature. 

German Talmudist ; flourished at the beginning of 

liittle Bussia 



the nineteenth century. He wrote: "IggeretYis- 
sakar," on morahty and religion, in the form of a let- 
ter to his son (Budapest and Lemberg, 1826); "Da'at 
Yissakar," commentary on Rashi to the Pentateuch 
and the Five Megillot (Budapest, 1827). 

iBJSLiOGRAPHY : Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 184, Warsaw, 
1886; Furst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 253; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. 
No. 5281. 

H. R. 

A. S. W. 

I.ITTLE RUSSIA. See Russia. 


LITURGY : The Jewish religious service falls, 

generally, into two main divisions— instruction and 

prayer. " This division of the service has existed 

since the earliest times. In the time of Isaiah the 

people gathered in the courts of the 

Divisions Temple to receive instruction from the 

of Divine Prophets and to pray (Isa. i. 12-15), 

Service. while on the day of the New Moon 
and on the Sabbath women also visited 
them (II Kings iv. 23). At the Feast of Tabernacles 
in the Sabbatical year the Law was read to the as- 
sembled people (Deut. xxxi. 10-13), and Ezra re- 
cited passages from the Pentateuch to the commu- 
nity (Neh. viii. 5-8). In the course of time this led 
to the custom of reading certain portions of the 
Scripture, especially of the Pentateuch, to the peo- 
ple on the Sabbath, on feast-days, and even on Mon- 
days and Thursdays, as well as on New Moon and 
fast-days, and by the first century of the common era 
this was regarded as an ancient usage (Josephus, 
"Contra Ap." ii. 17, end; Acts xv. 21; B. K. 82a et 
passim ; comp. Philo, ed. Mangey, ii. 568, 630; 
Winer, "B. R." ii. 549; Zunz, "G. V." pp. 1-7). 
This part of the worship is described under Hafta- 
rah; Megillot; Law, Reading from the. The 
second division, that of prayer, is still more ancient, 
and is frequently mentioned in the Bible (I Sam. i. 
10; I Kings viii. 12 et seq. ; II Kings xx. 2 et. passim), 
while Deutero-Isaiah speaks of the house of God as 
a "house of prayer for all people" (Isa. Ivi. 7; on 
the form of prayer and posture see Guthe, "Kurzes 
Bibelworterbuch," pp. 82 et seq., and other diction- 
aries; also Adoration, Forms of). In general, it 
may be said that in the earliest times the prayers 
were short, and were used only occasionally in pri- 
vate devotion, and that no ritual was developed in 
the pre-exilic period. Formal prayers are found 
only in Deut. xxvi. 5-13 and Lev. xvi. 21. 

In view of the position which the Temple occu- 
pied, it may be assumed that after the exile the public 
worship there influenced the liturgy. 

Influence and in great part even created it; the 
of the Tem- prayers just mentioned were part of 
pie on the tlie Temple worship. The Levites 

Liturgy, recited prayers of thanksgiving and 
praise (hiring the morning and evening 
sacrifices (I Chron. xxiii. 30), and Neh. xi. 17 indi- 
cates that thi.s was an established ceremony. The 
threefold repetition of the daily prayer (Dan. vi. 11 ; 
Ps. Iv. 18 [A. V. 17]) is likewise connected with the 
Temple service, the second prayer corresponding 
perhaps with the sacrifices whicli were offered by 
individuals between the official morning and evening 
sacrifices. The Talmud says, with correct historical 

insight, that the prayers were instituted to corre- 
spond with the sacrifices (Ber. 24b, passim). The 
fact that in prayer the face was turned toward the 
Temple (Dan. vi. 10; II Chron. vi. 34; Ber. 4b-5a, 
passim), as well as the contents of the prayer, to- 
gether with various other indications, clearly shows 
that the synagogal liturgy was derived primarily 
from the Temple worship. 

In the Temple itself, side by side with the sacrifi- 
cial cult, there existed a hturgy whose most splen- 
did remnants are the Psalms, which constituted the 
hymnal of the Second Temple and now occupy 
an "important position in the synagogal liturgy. 
Those Psalms which are cast in the form of prayers 
and hymns soon took their place as hymns in the 
service of the sanctuary, even though they were not 
originally composed for this purpose, and they were 
sung, especially on feast-days, in the synagogue 
and in private gatherings. In its descriptions of 
Temple festivities the Book of Chronicles alludes to 
them, especially to the eighteen ' Hallelujah,' ' Hal- 
lel,' and ' Hodu ' Psalms (Ps. cv.-cvii., cxi.-cxviii., 
cxxxv., exxxvi., cxlvi.-cl.). . . . Prophecy and 
psalmody were gradually typified in tAvo persons, 
Moses and David. . . . Even after the destruction 
of the Temple these united elements left their im- 
press upon the Synagogue : the readings were de- 
voted to the Law and the discourses to the Prophets, 
while entire psalms, or verses from them, were used 
as prayers " (Zunz," S. P." pp. 4 et seq.). The place 
which many Psalms occupied in the worship may still 
be recognized from their form (final verses, notes on 
the mode of recitation, etc.) or from their contents 
(see the commentaries to the Psalms by Olshausen, 
Hupfeld, and others, and especially by Graetz). The 
authors of the superscriptions and concluding words 
of the Psalms recognize the collection as liturgical 
(Ps. Ixxii., end: "The prayers of David ... are 
ended"), and tradition freciuently alludes to this 
fact {e.g., Tamid, end). In the ritual of the Syna- 
gogue the Psalms retain their ancient position, at 
least as regards the text of the prayers. " In the 
Sabbath and festival discourses the wise man be- 
comes the prophet, and the leader in prayer the 
psalmist" (Zunz, I.e.). 

In addition to the sacrifice, which was in the 
care of the priests, and the singing of the Psalms, 
which was performed by the Levites, the Temple 
had its special liturgy for the third class of the peo- 
ple, the Israelites. The entire nation had been di- 
vided into twenty-four sections, so that to each divi- 
sion of priests there corresponded one of Levites and 
one of Israelites. Each section served for a week in 
the Temple, and this period was a time of fasting, 
for the Israelites assigned to the section doing serv- 
ice, both those who were in Jerusalem and those 
wiio had remained in their country homes. Every 
day they read a prescribed portion of the first 
chapter of Genesis. These details are recorded in 
Ta'an. iv. 1, in both Talmuds ad lor., and in Tosef., 
Ta'an., iv., which seem to assign the beginnings of 
synagogal worshi]) to the Temple; that there was 
some foundation for their account is shown by 
the fact that Joshua b. Ilananiah, a teacher liv- 
ing in the time of the Temple, is mentioned. It 
is possible, however, that the reading of the Torah 



Little Kussia 

was taken over into the Temple ritual from an al- 
ready existing synagogal ritual. 

The services in periods of drought constitute an 
independent source for the liturgy of the Syna- 
gogue. The frequent scarcity of rain 
Fast-Day greatly distressed the people, for it 
Services, meant famine and death to man and 
beast. At such times public assem- 
blies for fasting and prayer were held as early as the 
time of the Prophets, in which old and young, the 
bride and the groom, took part (Joel i. ; ii. 16-17 ; 
Jer. viii., especially verse 11). An entire treatise of 
the Mishnah (Ta'anit) is devoted to the regulations 
in regard to fasting, and its second chapter discusses 
the liturgy in detail. The prayer consisted of 
twenty-four benedictions, of which eighteen were 
those of the daily prayer and six were additional 
(see Schilrer, "Gesch." 3d ed., ii. 490; Israel Levi, 
in "R. E. J." xlvii., where the sources and bibliog- 
raphy are given). The final evening prayer, "Ne- 
'ilah," recited on this occasion, has been preserved 
only in the service for the Day of Atonement. 
The liturgy for the fast was developed long before 
the common era, and it is highly probable not only 
that it was evolved independently of the Temple, 
but that it influenced the beginnings of the daily 
form of worship. 

It is certain, however, that the institution of the 
reading of the " Shema' " (Deut. vi. 4-9) originated 
entirely in the Temple service. At the morning 
sacrifice the priests read the Ten Commandments 
and the " Shema' " and recited several benedictions 
(Tamid v.). Contrary to the custom in all other 
ceremonies, the day for the Temple service began 
with sunrise, and not with evening or with the ap- 
pearance of the moon, and since the first rays of the 
sun were awaited before beginning the morning sacri- 
fice there was some danger lest it might be held that 
the sun-god was being worshiped. Hence the congre- 
gation was addressed as follows : " Hear, O Israel, the 
Eternal is our God ; the Eternal is One. " It may have 
become customary, therefore, as early 
The Read- as the Persian period to recite the first 
ing of the sentence of the " Shema' " in the Tem- 
'* Shema'," pie before beginning the sacrifice, the 
other verses, including Deut. xi. 13- 
21, being added in the course of time. The require- 
ment that it should be recited outside the Temple 
and before sunrise (Ber. v. 1 et passim) points to the 
origin of this usage. Its antiquity may be inferred 
from the fact that Josephus ("Ant." iv. 8, § 13) 
seems to ascribe it to Moses and that in traditional 
literature it is explained as a Biblical custom. At 
that time it must have been in existence for some 
centuries, for its genesis had been forgotten. The 
reading of the " Shema' " in the evening must have 
been introduced somewhat later, since it was not re- 
cited in the Temple, and the rules governing it were 
less rigorously defined. The reading of the Deca- 
logue probably became customary in the Greek 
period in order to guard, by the solemn utterance of 
the first two commandments, against the imminent 
danger from Hellenistic polytheism (see Blau in 
"R. E. J." xxxi. 179-201, where the history of the 
benedictions in the " Shema' " is discussed). In an- 
I cient times the " Shema' " was not recited in the 

manner now customary in the synagogue, but either 
with the leader, verse by verse alternately, or ia 
some other way. As it was Israel's solemn confes- 
sion of faith, each one knew it by heart (Ta'an. 26a), 
and it was recited in the synagogue •' with one 
mouth, one voice, one song" (Cant. R. viii. 14). It 
might be read in any language (Sotali vii. 1 and 
parallels), and a scribe once heard it in Greek (Ycr. 
Sotah 21b, below). It was sometimes read back- 
ward (Ber. ii. 4 and parallels), a custom which is 
reminiscent of magic practises (see'). 

The second and doubtless later division of the 
daily liturgy is the prayer consisting of eighteen 
benedictions, named the " TefiUah " kct i^oxvv in the 
sources. This petition, which is still 
"Shemoneh included in every Jewish prayer- 
'Esreh." book, is called She.moneh 'Esreh 
(eigiitecn prayers) even in the ear- 
liest sources (Ber. vi. 3; Ta'an. ii. 2). Rabbi Johanaa 
(d. 279), the famous director of the school of Tibe- 
rias, who was distinguished also for his knowledge 
of the historical traditions, ascribes the introduction 
of these benedictions, the emphasizing of the sanc- 
tity of the Sabbath, the feast-days, and the bene- 
dictions at their close, to the Great Synagogue (Ber. 
33a). Four kinds of liturgy, in the widest sense 
of the word, are here mentioned: "berakot," "tefil- 
lot,""hiddushot,""habdalot." In the benedictions 
are included, e.g., the sentences of thanksgiving 
recited after meals, which are probably very ancient 
(see Maimonides, " Yad," Tefillah), and which are ex- 
plained as Biblical, as well as all blessings spoken on 
partaking of fruit, executing commands, and the like. 
The beginnings of these prayers, perhaps, date back 
to the Persian period, their brevity and pure, simple 
Hebrew favoring tliis view. Their development, 
doubtless, was gradual and occupied several cen- 
turies. This may be assumed even in the case of the 
" Shemoneh 'Esreh," of which the first and last three 
benedictions constitute the foundation and hence are 
the oldest portion ; and they are mentioned in the 
Mishnah with special names designating the several 
sentences (R. H. iv. ; Tamid v. 1 ; R. H. 32a). " The 
ancient regulation whicii designates that portion for 
all the days of the year, while the other passages of 
the ' Tefillah ' are excluded on the Sabbath and on 
festivals, is almost certainly a proof of greater age " 
(Zunz, "G. V." 2d ed., p. 380). The intermediate 
twelve sentences are of later date, and Zunz ascribes 
them to various periods. Different versions of one 
and the same prayer were apparently differentiated 
and included as independent benedictions. These, 
however, never received a stereotyped form for gen- 
eral use, and each has its own history (Elbogen, in 
"Monatsschrift," 190'2). Even before the destruc- 
tion of the Temple the twelfth benediction was 
added expressly against apostates and traitors ("bir- 
kat ha-minim "), and later was the cause of vari- 
ous changes in the '' Shemoneh 'Esreh " (Zunz, I.e. p. 
382; Elbogen, I.e.). This prayer can not have been 
directed exclusively against Judaso-Christians, for 
at the time of its composition they can have been 
neither powerful nor antinomian in Palestine (see 

On account of its age the "Shema'" was much 
more widely known than the "Tefillah" whicli 




has just been outliued. This is clear from tlie fact 
that the "Tetillah" is regarded as a rabbiuical, 
while the "Shenia'" is regarded as 
" Shema' " u Biblical, prayer. As late as 100 
and c.E. a prominent scribe asserted that 

"Tefillah." the entire "Tetillah" was unneces- 
sary and that the evening "Te- 
fiUah " was not binding, in consequence of wiiich 
view he became involved in a controversy with 
the patriarch Gamaliel II. (Bcr. 28a, passim ; El 
bogen, I.e.). On account of its length it was not 
suitable for the mass of the people. As a mattei' of 
fact, only seven, nine, or ten benedictions are in- 
cluded in the " TefiUah " for the feast-days, although 
they are of earlier date and of greater importance, 
in view of the occasion. Ou these days, also, the 
daily benediction was very sliort, consisting prob- 
ably only of a few words, perhaps as follows: 
" Cleanse our hearts that we may serve Thee faith- 
fully " (Frisch, iu " Magyar-Zsido Szemle, " 1892, 
pp. 264 et Keq., where the importance of a short 
prayer is shown ; comp. ib. pp. 318 et seq., where the 
same author attempts to sketch the historical devel- 
opment of the "Telillah "). Probably both because 
it was the custom of the Temple and because they 
were ignorant of the "Tetillah," the people them- 
selves did not pray, but listened to the hazzan, the 
"delegate of the community," and punctuated his 
sentences with "Amen" (R. H. 32a; Elbogen, ^.c). 
In the sanctuary the people later responded with 
another formula, mentioned below. They were 
educated for prayer only by centuries of practise, 
and the original formulas, consisting of one or two 
words, remained as distinctive .signs in the ampli- 
fied invocations. The"Haller' and "Hodu" for- 
mulas, which are in fact found only in passages from 
the Psalms included in the synagogal ritual, are 
characteristic of the oral worship of the sanctuary. 
The " Hosanna " is likewise derived from the Temple, 
and the " Baruk " formula is probably taken from 
the same source, although the latter soon became 
predominant and was repeated frequently both in 
public and in private worship. Prayers for week- 
days. Sabbaths, and fast-days, the liturgy for fast- 
days, and grace i)eforeand after meals, as well as all 
kinds of benedictions and prayers of thanksgiving, 
have retained the same fixed form to the present 
day, and may, therefore, be di-scussed in some detail 
here, together with their historical development. 
As regards their externa4 form, all the praj'ers des- 
ignated by the Talmud, in the passage cited above 
(Ber. 33a), as "benedictions, prayers, sanctitications 
and habdalahs," are merely berakot. 

In the earliest times the peoi)l<' prayed only occa- 
sionally, and the benedictions likewise were merely 
incidental utterances of thanks tor mercies vouch- 
safed, as for re.s(ue from danger, etc. The different 
forms of tJie root " barak " occur frequentl}- in llic 
Bible, even in the oldest portions. The word meant 
originally "to bend the knee" (comp. " berek " = 
"knee" in Ps. xcv. 6). and hence in general "to 
praise," "to pray," because the ancients commonly 
knelt on such occasions. In this sense the partici 
pie ("baruk") is used in the "kal." and all the other 
forms ("berck." "meborak," etc.) in the "pi'el" and 

The adjuration "Praise God I " was probably ad- 
dressed to the people of earlier times only in the 
flush of victory after deliverance from the dangers 
of war (Judges v. 2, 9), but later, when a regular 
Temple cult had been instituted, 
Doxologies it may have been uttered daily, so 

During that it became a liturgical fornuila 

Public with which divine Avorship was gen- 
Worship. (Mally concluded (Ps. l.wiii. 27 [A. V. 
2G], c. 4, piissim). In Ps. c.xxxv. 
(comp. also cxviii. 2-4) Israelites, priests, Levites, 
and the pious are summoned by groups to "bless the 
Lord!" and it is noteworthy that this invitation is 
placed at the conclusion of the Psalm. The final 
verse, "Blessed be the Lord out of Zion, which 
dwelleth at Jerusalem. Praise ye the Lord," con- 
stituted the benediction spoken by those who had 
been summoned. The benedictions that conclude 
the closing chapters of the five books of Psalms (xli., 
Ixxii., Ixxxix., cvi., cl.), all being in substance one 
and the same eulogy, may represent .synagogal for- 
mulas from the time of the Temple which the people 
intoned after completing the singing of the several 
books. Occasionally, however, the people con- 
cluded with a simple " xVmen " (comp. the Psalms 
quoted and I Chron. xvi. 36). It may also be as- 
sumed that such benedictions were not reserved for 
public Avorship exclusively, but were also pro- 
nounced in private: "I will bless the Lord at all 
times: his praise shall continually be in my mouth" 
(Ps. xxxiv. 2; comp. cxv. 18, cxlv. 2). Mention is 
made of supplications at "evening and morning, 
and at noon " (Ps. Iv. 18 [A. V. 17J), and of praise 
offered seven times a day (Ps. cxix. 164), while iu 
another passage only praise rendered in the morning 
is mentioned (Ps. lix. 17). 

The origin of this liturgical usage was the cus- 
tom, on joyful occasions, of praising God for Ilis 
goodness. A few examples may be 

Private given here in their Biblical order. 

Benedic- Thus Noah says, "Blessed be the 
tions the Lord God of Shem " (Gen. ix. 26); 

Model. Eliezer prays, "Blessed be the Lord 
God of my master Abraham, who hath 
not left destitute my master of his mercy and his 
truth" (Gen. xxiv. 27); and Jethro exclaims, 
"Blessed be the Lord, who hath delivered you out 
of the hand of the Egyi)tians, and out of the hand 
of Pharaoh " (Ex. xviii. 10). Similar utterances are 
found in I Sam. xxv. 33 (David to Abigail) and 
XXV. 39 (where David says of Nabal's death, 
"Blessed be the Lord, that hath pleaded the cause 
of my reproach") and II Sam. xviii. 28 (Ahimaaz). 
Solomon thanks God in similar phraseology for hav- 
ing placed him on the throne of his father (I Kings 
i. 48, viii. 15; comp. viii. 56), and Hiram, King of 
Tyre, uses the same formula in rejoicing that God 
bad given David such a wise son over this great 
people (ib. v. 7). The Queen of Sheba says to Solo- 
mon, "Blessed be the Lord thy God, which delighted 
in thee, to set thee on the throne of Israel " {ib. x. 9). 
This formula is used also in Zech. xi. 5; II Sam. 
xxii. 47 (Ps. xviii. 47 [A. V. 46]); Ps. xxviii. 6, 
cxliv. 1; Ezra vii. 27; II Chron. ix. 8. It is inter- 
esting to note that in Ruthiv. 14 the women address 
I Naomi with the same formula, which shows that 




it was transferred to the liturgy from popular 

The doxology in all these passages is really a 
prayer of gratitude to God lor blessings bestowed, 
either on the speaker or on another. 
Form. The occasion of the thanksgiving is 
stated at the end and is general]}' in- 
troduced by the relative pronoun " asher " (also by 
"ki," Ps. xxviii. 6), or by a participle preceded by 
an article (comp., however, Zech. xi. 5). The same 
order occurs also in the benedic-tious prescribed by 
the Talmud. The benediction proper is expressed 
in most cases by "baruk," which generally consti- 
tutes the first word. An exception is found in I 
Kings X. 9 (II Chron. ix. 8), which has "Yelii 
Adonai Elohcka baruk," imitating the phraseology 
of'Yehi Shem Adonai meborak " (Job i. 21 ; Ps. 
cxiii. 2). Neither of these formulas is found else- 
where in the Bible. The Tetragranunaton alone des- 
ignates the name of God in Ex. xviii. 10; Ruth iv. 
14; I Sam. xxv. 39; I Kings viii. 56; Zech. xi. 5; 
Ps. xxviii. 6, Ixxxix. 53. cxxiv. 6, cxxxv. 21 (once 
"Adonai," Ps. Ixviii. 20 [A. V. 19], and twice "Elo- 
him," Ps. Ixvi. 20, Ixviii. 36 [A. V. 35]). Usually 
"Elohim," "Elohe Yisrael," or some similar expres- 
sion is added to the Tetragrainmatou, so that God is 
generally named in the third person. The phrase 
"Baruk Attah Adonai, lammedeni hukkeka" (Ps. 
cxix. 12) is an exception, and the benedictions in the 
Talmud have, curiously enough, this form also, al- 
though only as regards the use of the second person, 
since "Elohenu Melek ha-'Olam" is normally added 
to the Tetragrammaton. This use of the second 
person indicates a later origin, like "Elohe Abotenu " 
(Ezra vii. 27; comp. "Abinu,"I Chron. xxix. 10), 
which occurs also in the first benediction of the 
" Shemoneh 'Esreh. " The earliest form of the Torah 
benediction is found in Ps. cxix. 12, which is also the 
only one that is a prayer and not an expression 
of gratitude. The benediction "U-baruk Shem 
Kebodo le-'olam " (Ps. Ixxii. 19) is identical with the 
preceding "Baruk Adonai," for "Shem Kebodo" 
indicates the Tetragrammaton (comp. Dent, xxviii. 
58, " ha-Shem ha-Nekbad " ; Neh. ix. 5, " Shem Kebo- 
deka"; and Ps. xxiv. 7-10, "Melek ha Kabod "). 
This gave rise to the later formula " Baruk Shem 
Kebod Malkuto le-'olam wa-'ed " (which was, how- 
ever, used in the Temple), in which " Adonai Elohim" 
is paraphrased by three words in order that the people 
should not pronounce the real names of God. The 
henediction is once called " berakah " in the Bible— 
"And blessed be thy glorious name, which is exalted 
above all blessing and praise " (Neh. ix. 5). The 
words" 'olam" and " 'olam wa-'ed," which with 
variations are added to the benedictions, are of later 
origin and belong to the liturgical formula. They 
occur only in the Psalms and in Chronicles (Ps. xli. 
14 [A. V. 13], Ixxii. 19, Ixxxix. 58 [A. V. 52], cvi. 
48, cxiii. 9, cxv. 18, cxlv. 1 ; I Chron. xvi. 36, xxix. 
; 10). This formula seems to have been used only 
[ when the congregation was assembled as a whole. 
i The significance of the benediction steadily in- 
; creased in the course of centuries until it finally was 
' used on the occasion of every manifestation of nature 
and of human life. While it appears in the Bible 
only in connection with public worship and on a 

few .'jpecial occasions, in the traditional literature 
it accompanies all the expressions of individual 
life, and sanctifies all functions of the 
Difference body and the soul. The pious Jew. 
Between on going to sleep and on awakening, 
Bible and and on all intervening occasions, ut- 
Talmud. tered, and still utters, words of praise 
to God. God is praised for His mercy 
on occasions of joy or sorrow, on satisfying the needs 
or desires of the body, on studying the Law, or on ful- 
filling the ordinances of religion. The benediction, 
like the entire religion, is individualized and special- 
ized. It continually reminds the Jew of God, and 
only when unclean, before he has bathed or purified 
himself in some other way, is he forbidden to utter it . 
The fact that the treatise Berakot, devoted to it, pre- 
cedes all the other treatises, indicates its extent and 
importance, ^nd its popularity is shown by the mi- 
nute questions referring to it, which were discussed 
even by the eariiest scribes. " The benedictions of a 
man indicate whether he is a scholar " (Ber. 50a; 
comp. Ta'an. 16a). Some examples are selected 
here from the mass of material, which may show 
the variety of these utterances and their nature. 

There were persons who were very exact in re- 
gard to the benedictions and watched their neigh- 
bors closely {ib. j'jnpj). If any one 
General made a mistake in the form in use 
Doxology. during worship, the entire congrega- 
tion corrected him {ib. 51a). He who 
deviated from the form laid down by scholars was 
remiss in his duty, although in a certain case the 
short sentence of a shepherd— who was the proto- 
type of ignorance among the Talmudists— was ap- 
proved {ib. 40b). Prayers and doxologies might be 
recited in any language {Sotah 32a et pasnm). Week- 
days and feast-days, as well as all kinds of food, 
had their special benedictions (Ber. 40a, below). A 
blessing might not be pronounced over anything that 
had been "accursed " (" min kelalah," unsound fruit, 
etc. ; ib. 40b), nor in case of nocturnal pollution, nor 
unnecessarily {ib. 20b. 33a). The doxology is pro- 
nounced before fulfilling any of the commandments 
(Pes. 7b; comp. Tosef., Ber. vii. 1). 

One hundred benedictions a day shall be pro- 
nounced by every one (Men. 43b, below), but who- 
ever writes them down sins as grievously as if he 
had burned the Torah (Shab. 115b). The Tetra- 
grammaton and a reference to God as the King of 
the World are essential to every benediction (Ber. 
12a, 40b, 49a). While Johanan b. Zakkai still used 
the Biblical form and in a doxology referred to God 
in the third person (Hag. 14b, "Baruk Adonai Elohe 
Yisrael she-natan," etc.), only the second person is 
used in the later doxologies (" Baruk Attah Adonai 
Elohenu Melek ha-'Olam'"). The last three words 
are omitted in certain cases (Ber. 46a, below). The 
knee shall be bent on uttering " baruk " {ib. 12b). 
although this rule refers only to prayer and not to 
other benedictions (comp. also ib. 34b, relating to 
the king and high priest). One person may pro- 
nounce the benediction for all the other persons as- 
sembled {ib. 53a). The principal person at table is 
entitled to say grace {ib. 47a, 45b), to which the 
others respond with "Amen," which is regarded as 
more important than the pronouncing of the bera- 




kah itself (ib. 53b), and it is even praiseworthy to 
say " Amen " after one's own eulogy. One should 
not pronounce a "rapid, chopped, or orphaned 
'Amen,' nor speak the benediction too quickly," nor 
lift the voice at the "Amen" above the voice of the 
speaker (ib. 45a, b, 47a). The form of some bene- 
dictions depends on the number of those present {ib. 
49b). " Thou Shalt praise God for evil fortune as 
well as for good " {ib. ix. 1). One should say, even 
in the house of mourning, " Blessed be the Merciful 
One who grantetli good things" ("Baruk ha-Tob 
weha-Metib "). Akiba, however, says, "Blessed be 
the Just Judge" ("Baruk Dayyan Emet," «6. 46b, 
64b, 60b). After a successful journey by sea or 
desert, after recovery from illness, or after release 
from prison, one should say, "Blessed be He who 
granteth favors" ("Baruk gomel hasadim," ib. 54b). 
There was also a special blessing for a person who 
had been bled {ib. 60a). See Benediction. 

God was praised at the crowing of the cock for 
having given it understanding to distinguish be- 
tween day and night, and there were special bene- 
dictions for every act of dressing, which are now 
collected at the beginning of the book of daily 
prayer (Ber. 60b). "Whoso profits 
Daily aught from this world without reci- 
Benedic- ting a benediction defrauds it" {ib. 
tions. 35a). Everything that may be en- 
joyed (fruits of the earth, etc.) has a 
corresponding benediction ; only the words " every- 
thing came into being at His word" may be ap- 
plied to them all {ib. 40a). There is even a berakah 
for perfume {ib. 43b, where individual rules are 
given for other things). Bread and wine, being the 
most important articles of food, have special bene- 
dictions {ib. vi. 1). The seven kinds of fruit of the 
Holy Land enjoy certain prerogatives, and the oil 
of the patriarch and of the emperor is especially 
honored {ib. 40b, 43a, 44a). Most of the regulations 
refer to the prayer after meals, which is often called 
"the three benedictions." It had to be spoken 
and might not be recited mentally {ib. 15a, b). It 
was obligatory also upon women, slaves, and chil- 
dren, who might pronounce it in place of the head of 
the family, and did so if he was unacquainted with 
Hebrew (ib. 20b). This and the Torah benediction 
alone were regarded as Biblical, while the introduc- 
tion of the others was ascribed to the Great Syna- 
gogue {lb. 33a, 48b; Meg. 17a). The first benedic- 
tion of the prayer at meals, it is said, was composed 
by Moses, the second by Joshua, and the third by 
David and Solomon (Ber. 48b); Moses was the first 
one who could praise God for the food offered (the 
manna), Joshua t he first who could praise him for the 
Holy Land, and David and Solomon the first who 
could praise him for Jerusalem, which was delivered 
into their liands. The fourth benediction (" ITa-T'>b 
weha-Metib "), it was said, was introduced at Jabneii 
in thanksgiving for the burial of those who had been 
killed in the great war with Rome (70 c.E.). These 
four benedictions, according to a "heavenly voice" 
(see Bat Kol), are worth forty denarii (Hul. 87b). 
The blessing at meals had to be pronounced wliile 
sitting (Ber. 51b), and there are ten regulations re- 
garding the wine used in connection with it {ib. 51a). 
It is dangerous, on account of the demons, to drink 

two cups of wine, or any even number {ib. 51b). 
The benediction pronounced over bread is also men- 
tioned in the New Testament (Matt. xv. 36 ; John vi. 
U ; Acts xxvii. 35) and by Philo (ed. Mangey, ii. 

The Torah benediction and the reading of the 
"Shema*" (Deut. vi. 4-8) are likewise explained as 
being Biblical, while the "Shemoneh 'Esreh" is re- 
garded as a rabbinical institution (Ber. 21a). As 
the doxologies preceding the " Shema' " are really 
Torah benedictions, they also are declared to be Bib- 
lical (comp. ib. lib, 48b, and the interesting passage, 
Shab. 88a, referring to the "threefold" Torah). 
The following is considered the best berakah: 
" Blessed be the Lord who hath given the doctrine " 
{ib. lib). The division of the benedictions into 
Biblical and rabbinical is important for the mat- 
ter of chronology, the first group being earlier in 
origin. The most important doxologies of the 
prayer are " Yehi Shemo ha-gadol raeborak " {ib. 
21a = Job i. 21 and Ps. cxiii. 2; Aramaic, "Yehe 
Shemeh rabba meborak," Ber. 57a ; Shab. 119b ; Suk. 
38b, 39a; Targ. Yer. to Gen. xlix. 2; Deut. vi. 4) 
and the "Baruk Shem kebod malkuto le-'olam 
wa-'ed " already mentioned (Pes. 56a; Deut. R. ii. 
31, 36). In the sanctuary the people pronounced 
this blessing, but no " Amen " (Ta'an. 16; Ber. 54a). 
The following rules and customs deserve special 
notice from a historical and religious point of view: 
A special berakah was pronounced at 
Benedic- the circumcision of a proselyte (Shab. 
tions of 137b, " le-mul et ha-gerim"). " Amen " 
Historical may be said after the benediction of a 
Interest. Samaritan only if one has heard the 
whole of it (Ber. viii. 1); the blessing 
for light may not be recited for the light belield at 
the end of the Sabbath in a city inhabited mostly 
by Samaritans {ib. 53a). At Jabneh a special bera- 
kah against Juda?o-Cliristians (Minim) was composed 
after the destruction of the Temple {ib. 28b). If the 
hazzan commits an error in reciting this passage he is 
removed {ib. 29a). " Any one who says, ' The pious 
praise Thee,' is guilty of heresy " (Meg. iv. 9), while, 
according to R. Judah, any one uttering a benedic- 
tion on seeing the sun is also guilty of heresy (Tosef . , 
Ber. vii. 6). This mishnaic teacher ordains that 
one should praise God every day " that Thou hast 
not created me a heathen or a woman or a slave " 
(Men. 43b, below; comp. Gal. iii. 28; Diogenes Lacr- 
tius, i. 1, § 7; James Darmesteter, "Une Priere 
Judeo-Persane," p. 9, Paris, 1891; "Monatsschrift," 
xxxvii. 14; "Magyar Zsido Szemle," x. 100). On 
seeing a Hermes one should say, "Blessed be He 
who is lenient toward them that break His law," 
and on beholding a place where an idol has been 
destroyed, "Blessed be He who destroyeth idols in 
our land ; as He hath destroyed it in this place, so 
may He destroy all in the land of Israel, and lead 
the hearts of their worshipers back unto His service." 
In a foreign country, however, one should say noth- 
ing, for tlie majority of the inhabitants there are 
heathen (Ber. 57b; comp. x. 1). "Any one behold- 
ing a place where miracles have been vouchsafed to 
Israel should say, ' Blessed be He who hath shown 
marvelous things unto our fathers on this spot ' " 
{ib.). together with benedictions applying to mani- 




festatious of natural phenomena. One who sees 
Jewish sages should say, " Blessed be He who hath 
granted of His wisdom to His followers" ; and who- 
ever sees pagan sages should say, "Blessed be He 
who hath granted of His wisdom to His creatures. " 
At the sight of Jewish or pagan kings praise was 
rendered to God, who granted of His dignity to His 
followers or to His creatures {ib. 58a). On be- 
holding graves of Jews one should praise God. 
who created them and who will finally raise them 
up again {ib. 58b). He who sees the Euphrates 
from the bridge of Babylon or the Tigris from the 
bridge of Shebistena should praise the Creator {ib. 
59b), for it was believed that these streams had arisen 
at these places and were therefore still in their orig- 
inal state, although a Babylonian amoraof tlie early 
part of the fourth century indicates another place as 
the source of the Euphrates, the Persians having 
diverted it from its channel. God should receive 
praise and thanksgiving from any one beholding a 
ford of the sea, of the Jordan, or of the River Arnon 
(where Israel beheld marvels) ; beholding hailstones 
(Ex. ix. 33), the cliff of Beth-horon (Josh. x. 11), the 
stone which Og, King of Bashan, wished to hurl 
upon Israel, the rock on which Moses sat when 
Joshua fought with Amalek (Ex. xvii. 12), the wife 
of Lot, or the fallen walls of Jericho (Ber. 54a). 
All these objects were still to be seen at the time of 
the composition of this baraita, about the second 

Although the benedictions of the priests, and 
the benedictions pronounced in the house of mourn- 
ing, and at betrothals, weddings, etc., are mentioned, 
there are no indications that they were 
Diflference regarded as exercising any material 
Between influence on persons or things, i.e.. 
Christian that they were sacramental as the 
and Jewish Christian Church has taught and 
Benedic- still teaches (Herzog-Hauck, "Real- 
tions. Encyc." ii. 588). They are merely 
utterances of praise and thanks- 
giving, and it can no longer be determined whether 
originally they had the force which the Church 
ascribes to them. It is certain, however, that the 
idea of sacramentalism was foreign to Judaism. 
Several passages in the New Testament in praise of 
God are called "doxologies" {e.g., Rom. xvi. 27; see 
Hastings, "Diet. Bible," i. 620). 

The principal component parts of public worship 
are the " Shema' " and the " TefiUah," the preceding 
recitation from the Psalms, etc., having only the 
force of custom. As late as the time of Maimonides 
morning prayer began with "Kaddish" before "Ba- 
reku" and ended with it (" Yad," Tefillah, ix.), and 
this practise still obtains in the Sephardic ritual. 
In the course of time additions to the 
Origin and liturgy were multiplied. The ritual. 
Develop- even in its simpler portions, tookdefi- 
ment. nite form only by degrees. The earli- 
est elements of synagogal worship 
were developed from the Temple service and the 
custom of sacrificial watches ("Ma'amad"), as well 
as from private and public Avorship— from psalms 
and prayers which were composed at different 
times for special occasions. The benedictions at 
the beginning of the "Ma'amad "and the prayers 

at the end became respectively the "Shema'" and 
the "Tefillah" (Rapoporl, "Kalir"; Zunz, "G. V." 
pp. 361 ef seq.). The latter, which about 100 c.e. 
had neither definite redaction nor general bind- 
ing force, probably consisted at first of only six 
numbers for week-days and seven for Sabbatii and 
feast-days; in the remaining numbers either a Hasi- 
dic or apolitical origin may be traced. Even in the 
second century the final benedictions for public 
fast-days still varied (Taan. 17a); in the third the 
whole assembly was not yet accustomed to go to the 
synagogue at "Musaf "(Yer. R. H. iv. 8; Rapoport, 
" Erek Millin," p. 164), and the attendance was gen- 
erally small (Zunz, " G. V. " p. 339). It took centuries 
before the order of prayer as found in the Babylo- 
nian Talmud became established : it was neither 
desired nor was it possible to give it a fixed and defi- 
nite form (Zunz, "Ritus," pp. 1 et seq.). 

Private prayer existed side by side with the offi- 
cial liturgy. A large number of prayers composed 
by scribes and recited on special occa- 
Private sions are mentioned in traditional lit- 
Prayer. erature, and prayers by laymen are 
also quoted. In general, an important 
place was assigned to prayer, although its thought- 
less drawling Avas condemned. Thus, it is said, 
" Prayer is more pleasing to God than good works 
and sacrifice" (Ber. 32b and parallels); while Jo- 
hanan felt, " Would that prayer lasted the entire 
day. " Worship was held to be equivalent to prayer, 
and indeed the ritual was actually modeled upon the 
sacrificial cult (Sifre, Deut. xi. i4; Ta'an. 2a; Ber. 
28b). There were many rules regarding prayer {ib. 28, 
31; Sanh. 22; Ab. ii. 18, etc.). He who prays should 
drop his eyes, but lift up his heart (Yeb. 105b), al- 
though hji should not raise his voice (Ber. 24,31). The 
saying "God wisheth the heart" (Sanh. 106b) has 
become a proverb. The suppliant knelt, or fell on 
his face, stretching out his hands and his feet (pros- 
tration ; Ber. 34b et passim), although this is now 
done only on the Day of Atonement at the " 'Abo- 
dah" (see Ador-ition). The pious made them- 
selves ready an hour before prayer, and stood still 
for an hour after it (Ber. 31b). A drunken man was 
not allowed to pray ('Er. 64; see the eight prescrip- 
tions which, according to "Yad," Tefillah, v. 1, 
must be observed). All faces were turned toward 
the sanctuary (Ber. 30a), and Maimonides ordained 
{I.e. v. 6, following Ber. 31) that the windows should 
be opened during prayer. The hands were washed 
before praying (Ber. 16, 26; Shab. 10), a custom with 
which the'construction of synagogues on the banks 
of rivers is connected. Ten adults were required 
to be present at worship (Meg. 34a), a custom which 
still obtains. On the other hand, the entire congre- 
gation did not pray, as it does to-day ; but the leader 
in prayer, the "messenger of the congregation," the 
most learned among them (Ta'an. 17b), standing in 
a depression, prayed for all (Ps. cxxx. 1 ; Ber. 10b): 
"to step down before the Tabernacle " is equivalent 
to "leading in prayer" (R. H., end). 

Among the people various superstitions arose in 
connection with the recitation of prayers. The reader 
of the " Shema' " must not blink his eyes, nor com- 
press his lips, nor point with his fingers (Yoma 
19). It is forbidden to pray with phylacteries in 




the hand or with a Torah roll on the arm (lier. 23b). 
He who is unwilling to lead the prayers in a col- 
ored garment may not lead when dressed in white, 
and he who will not lead in sandals may not lead 
barefoot (Meg. 24b; for other examples see Blau, 
" Altjlidisches Zauberwesen," pp. 146 et seq.). 

The Jewish liturgy at first completely dominated 
the Christian. The three benedictions— still placed at 
the head of the morning prayer— in which the Jews 
praise God that he has not created them heathen, or 
slaves, or women (Men. 43b), express, as their brev- 
ity indicates, ancient Jewish views; and therefore 
they are not to be regarded as imitations of similar 
Greek lormulas (Diogenes Laertius, i. 1, § 7). A stri- 
king allusion to this prayer is found in Paul's Epistle 
to the Galatians, iii. 28: "There is neither Jew nor 
Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither 
male nor female : for ye are all one in Christ Jesus." 
A similar view is expressed in a Parsi prayer ("' .Mo- 
natsschrift," xxxvii. 14 et seq.; "Magyar Zsido 
Szemle," x. 113 et seq.). For early forms of liturgy 
see "J. Q. R." x. Q'Aetseq. 

The early Christian liturgy, in the reading of the 
Scriptures, in prayer, and in the singing of the 
Psalms, was modeled on synagogal practises. The 
fact that no complete Christian litur- 
Influence gical specimens of the first three centu- 
on Early ries are extant indicates that the lit- 
Christian urgy in use during that period may 
Liturgy, have been borrowed from that current 
in the synagogue. The earliest extant 
Christian prayers, the pseudo-Cyprianic (text in Mi- 
chel, " Gebet und Bild in Fruhchristlicher Zeit," pp. 3 
et seq., Leipsic, 1902), written after 300, are still Jew- 
ish in form and content. One of them begins with the 
"Kcdushshah" and continues with the introductory 
formula of the"Shemoneh 'Esreh," and mentions 
also "purity of heart," which was and is still the 
main point in the seventh or middle benediction for 
the Sabbath antl feast-days. After the " Shema' " 
the Jewish ritual placed the "salvation benediction " 
("ge'ullah "); and Christian circles, in liarmony with 
folk-beliefs, derived from this benediction various 
prayers for deliverance from the persecutions of the 
devil. Satan is mentioned in Jewish prayers also 
{e.g., morning prayer), although not in the official 
liturgy nor in the obligatory prayers. 

The liturgy of tiie fasts, which is the oldest, as- 
sumed definite form long before the common era (I. 
Levi, in " R. E. J." xlvii. 161-171 ; Mi- 
Jewish chc\. I.e. -pp. a et seq.). Its formulas 
Prayers took the deepest hold upon the people 
and Early on account of its antiquity and its 
Christian peculiar solemnity. This explains 
Art. why the views of tlie early Christian 

Church show the dominant influence 
of this liturgy and why its prayers contain for the 
most part not New Testament but Old Testament, 
l)lirase()logy. The liturgy naturally dominated early 
Christian art as well. The subjects for the fig- 
ures in the catacombs, on stained glass, etc., were 
borrowed as a rule from those Biblical stories which 
were found also in the Jewish festival literature; as, 
for example, the sacrifice of Isaac, Danielln the lion's 
den, the three Hebrews in the fiery furnace, and 
scenes from the story of Jnnali (romp. Kaufmann 

in "R. E. J." xiv. 33-48, 217-253). The prayers 
do not always observe the chronological order of 
events; in one prayer the name of Job follows im- 
mediately upon that of Abraham, the author evi- 
dently sharing the Jewish view that Job was the 
contemporary of Abraham (.see Michel, I.e., where 
extensive bibliography is given). 

The history of the ritual is eventful and varied. 
At first there were no written prayers; a scribe of 
the end of the first century says, " The 
History of writers of benedictions are as those 
the Ritual, that burn the Torah. " A man w ho was 
caught copying some at Sidon threw 
a bundle of his copies into a washtub (Shab. 1151) 
and parallels; comp. Blau, "Altjlidisches Zauber- 
wesen," p. 93). In no case was written matter used 
during public worship. Prayer-books appear about 
the seventh century. "The prayer-books are doubt- 
less older than the prayer ' orders,' which date from 
the eighth century. However, the first book of this 
kind of which definite mention is made was com- 
posed by Gaon Kohen Zedek (843); a generation later 
appeared the Siddur of Amram Gaon, -which was 
much used after the eleventh century and formed 
the foundation for benedictions and Siddur collec- 
tions" (Zunz, "Ritus," p. 18). Prayer-books ("sid- 
dur") were composed also by Saadia, Hai, Nissim, 
and Rashi (extant in MSS. ; Buber, in "Ha-Zefirah," 
1904, No. 8), by Rashi's pupil Simhah ("Mahzor 
Vitry," ed. Hurwitz, Berlin, 1892), and by others 
(Zunz, "Ritus," pp. 19, 25). The most important 
work of the twelfth century in this direction, and 
one highly extolled in later times, was 
Siddur and " the Yad ha-Hazakah of Maimonides, 
Mahzor. in which, for the first time, the texts 
of prayers and the ritual were ar- 
ranged in masterly order by a scholar " (Zunz, I.e. 
pp. 26 et seq.). 

Between 1180 and 1320 an immense amount of 
work was done in Europe in systematizing the wor- 
ship, the prayer-books of this period forming the 
foundation for the ritual of the succeeding centuries. 
There were, also, Arabic forms of siddurim. Until 
1300 the Halakah and the Haggadah, current prac- 
tises, poetry, mysticism, and philosophy, all con- 
tributed toward the shaping of the ritual, the poetic 
material not being increa.sed to any extent after this 
period (Zunz, I.e. pp. 27-30). The word "mah- 
zor" (shortened from "mahzor tefillim"), denoting 
"prayer-book," means literally astronomical or 
yearly cycle. The Syrians use the term "mahzor" 
to denote the breviary. While the Sephardim ap- 
ply it to those collections whic-h contain all the 
prayers for the year, the Ashkenazim apply it to 
the prayer-books containing the festival ritual only. 
Spanish, Italian, and French mahzorim were issued 
sometimes in octavo and smaller sizes, and were 
often written in small script and hand.somely bound. 
In Germany the various collections were seldom 
i.ssued in quarto, but generally in folio, with the 
exception of the Siddur proper, which was issued 
in smaller size. In contrast to these heavy and ex- 
pensive volumes for public worship, the 12mo or 
16mo Siddur was used for private devotions after 
tlie thirteenth century. The latter often contained 
much superstitious matter, part of which, in the 




course of time, fouud its way inlo the regular prajcr- 
books aud was tlien accepted us part of the ritual 
service (ib. p. 84). 

Tlic Cal)ala, Avhicii liad tal<eii deep root liy 1500, 
effected material changes iu the Siddur. "In the 
beginning of the seventeenth century 
Influence Jsaiah Horowitz and others, with their 
of Cabala, following of the school of Luria, be- 
gan to introduce new prayers, strange 
words, and unintelligible meditations ["kawwa- 
not"J, with which they deluged public and private 
worship. Ail the siddurim and mahzorim from 
Tlemcen to Kaffa are tilled witii mystic alterations 
and additions; even amulet-formulas were included 
and thus introduced among the people. This cab- 
alistic-ascetic movement progressed from Palestine 
to Italy and Poland, from Poland to Germany and 
Holland, and from Jerusalem and Leghorn to Bar- 
barv. Based on ancient customs, it introduced fast- 
ing on the ' Small Day of Atonement ' and on the 
eve of New-Moon, early-morning devotions, regular 
societies which lield meetings for prayer and fasting 
on Mondays and Thursdays, and others which as- 
sembled nightly to lament over the Exile, and the 
like. . . . Through the dissemination of the printed 
Siddur, of formulas for grace at meals, and of ' tik- 
kuu ' of all kinds, prayers, either old and obsolescent 
or new, found their way from foreign rituals and 
from the works of thecabalists into the ritual of tlie 
communities, and there they were retained, modi- 
fying to a considerable degree public worship " (ih. 
pp. 149 et seq.). On commentaries to the prayers, 
and on ritual books, etc., see Zunz, I.e. pp. 21 etseq., 
153 et seq.; Abudarham, p. 30; for the varieties of 
prayer-books used after 1180 see Zunz, "Ritus," p. 
33; for mystic vigil order, etc., after 1580, evening 
assembly at the Feast of Weeks and the '• Hosha'na 
Rabbaii," etc., see ib. pp. 151 et seq. 

On the whole, the original prayers, as handed down 
by the Talmud and the Geonim, agree in all the 
rituals with Amram's Siddur, although this, as re- 
gards the position of the Psalms and of the " Baruk 
she-Amar," or the wording of individual phrases and 
clauses, coincides sometimes with the Roman and 
sometimes with the German or the Spanish Mah- 
zor. The various rituals are divided into two chief 
groups, the Arabian-Spanish and the German-Ro- 
man. In the former group, the Spanish, or, more 
correctly, the Castilian, ritual has been preserved 
in the purest form. This group includes the rit- 
uals of Aragon, Catalonia, Avignon, 
Two Main Algeria, Tunis, Tlem(;en, Majorca 
Groups of (Catalonio-African), Provence, Car- 
Rituals, pentras, Sicily (various rituals), and 
Tripoli (for further details see ib. pp. 
Z% et seq.). "Saadia's Siddur apparently contained 
the substance of the old prayer-order of Egypt, his 
version of the ' Tefillah ' in particidar being the one 
used in that country. . . . After 1200, however, the 
use of Maimonides' prayer-order became prevalent in 
Egypt, Palestine, Maghreb, and among the Mozara- 
bic communities generally, the members of wliich 
"Were subsequently called ' Moriscos ' " {ib. p. 55). 
At Saragossa and Traga the "Musaf Tefillah" on 
New-Year's Day was not recited by the congrega- 
tion alone before its recitation by the hazzan. but 

together with the latter, the ignorance of the major- 
ity of the congregation being assigned as the reason 
for this practise {ib. p. 41). As Spain was a center 
for the first group of rituals, so was Germany for 
the second. The several rituals may vary in details, 
but they agree in essentials. The Jews of Germany, 
Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Poland, Pru.ssia, and 
Hungary have one and the same order of prayer (il>. 
p. 75). The French ritual is really that of Bur- 
gundy, and the English communities had probably 
the same or a similar one {ib. pp. 63 et seq.). The 
Roman ritual was widely disseminated, and the " Ro- 
manian " or Greek ritual exists in the Romanian Mah- 
zor, which dates from some period after 1520 {ib. pp. 
76-79). The Romanian group includes also the rit- 
uals of Corfu and Kaffa, while the Palestinian ritual, 
which varied to some extent in the earlier period, 
lost its independence in the twelfth century {ib. pp. 
82-84). The interrelation of the various rituals ap- 
pears in individual portions of the service, chiefly in 
those which were not based on ancient usage, such 
as the dirges ("kinot") for the Ninth of Ab and 
the "Hosha'not." 

"The Day of Atonement did not always have the 
somber coloring given it iu the Middle Ages. Even 
in the time of the Soferim the peo- 
Day of pie danced in the vineyards on that 
Atone- day, and as late as the beginning of 
ment. the fourth century it does not seem to 
have been customary in Palestine for 
everv one to spend the whole day in the synagogue 
(Hul. 101b). The form of the ' Tefillah ' had not 
been definitely fixed by the third century ; it occa- 
sionally ended with ' Ne'ilaii, ' omitting the evening 
prayer . . . ' 'Abodah ' and ' Sclihah ' were consid- 
ered as the most important divisions, even though 
the form of the latter was by no meana invariable." 
Amram's Siddur does not refer to the "Kol Nidre," 
which is designated in the later redaction as of 
Spanish origin, and was recited only by the hazzan 
(Zunz, "Ritus," pp. 95 et seq.; on 'Abodah and 
Abinu Malkenu in antiquity see ib. pp. 101, 118). 
The second and the fifth day of the week (comp. 
Luke xviii. 12) were set apart even in antiquity as 
lesson-days, on which the people went to the syna- 
gogue. In the early Middle Ages the pious began to 
consider these as penitential days. Penitence con- 
sisted in prayer and fasting, there being no fast -day 
withouta prayer of atonementC'SELiHAH "), while to 
utter this without fasting was considered unseemly. 
The ten days of penance between New- Year and the 
Day of Atonement were observed, however, in an- 
tiquity, which, as stated above, possessed a defi- 
nitely fixed fast-day liturgy (Zunz, "Ritus," pp. 
120-130; idem, "S. P." p. 83). 

Toward the end of the Middle Ages there were 
many changes in the form of worship, for reasons 
both internal and external. "Guten- 
Changes berg and Luther no less than the Cab- 
in the ala and the Inquisition influenced the 
Prayer- ritual of the Synagogue. After the 
Books. first decades of the fifteenth century 
the minute regulations of the ritual 
manuals allowed scarcely any initiative to the haz- 
zan, who had, moreover, lost his former high posi- 
tion, being now neither a poet nor a teacher of the 




Law, nor was he eitlier of these at auy time in Ger- 
many or Poland. When the art of printing made 
manuals and prayer-books accessible to all, the editor 
took the place of the hazzan. Printing imposed re- 
strictions. . . . The similarity of the copies in the 
hands of the people produced uniformity ; the 
' Minhag ' conformed to the printed editions. Within 
forty or fifty years printed Hebrew prayer-books 
were current in the coimtries in wliich there were 
Jews and printing-presses. The German ritual was 
the first one printed (grace at meals, 1480; 'Selihah,' 
n.d. and 1496; prayer-book, 1508; Mahzor, c. 1521); 
then followed the Roman ritual (prayer-book and 
Mahzor, 1486; ' Selihah,' 1487; 'Hosha'na,' 1503), 
the Polish (prayer-book, 1512; Mahzor, 1522; ' Yo- 
zerot,'1526; 'Selihah,' 1529; all printed at Prague), 
and those of Spain (n.d. and 1519), Greece (1520), 
Catalonia (1527), Aragon (n.d.), and the Karaites 
(1528)" (Zunz, "Ritus," p. 145; for further details 
on commentaries, translations, editions of prayer- 
books, and the ritual of the Karaites, ih. pp. 1.53- 
162; on the last-named see also Zunz, "G. V." pp. 
439 ei seq. ; and comp. Lady McDougall, " Hymns of 
Jewish Origin," in "Songs of the Church," London, 

After the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 
1492 the Spanish ritual was more widely introduced 
and became an important factor. The "informers " 
caused material changes in the Mahzor. Even in 
the Middle Ages they brought charges against the 
prayer-books as well as the Talmud, and conse- 
quently their owners in alarm erased passages, cut 
out entire leaves, and changed single words here 
and there. The Kol Nidke and the 'Ai.enu were 
special objects of attack as early as the fourteenth 
century ; in the second half of the following cen- 
tury the persecutions steadily increased, especially 
on the part of the preaching friars, and soon the In- 
quisition began to act in the same direction. " When 
printing and a knowledge of the language facilitated 
examination of the liturgical prayers, the Roman 
Church being at the same time endangered by the 
Reformation, the books were watched more care- 
fully, and a censorship which constantly increased 
in severity fettered the prayer-books also. Certain 
expressions were no longer allowed in the editions. 
. . . Since that time some prayers have disappeared 
entirely and others have been mutilated. . . . The 
Herdenheim edition of the ' Selihah ' (1.546) removed 
' all offensive and dangerous matter. ' Thenceforth 
not only the Siddur and Mahzor, but all Jewish 
printed books, were subject to constant attack from 
the Dominicans, who employed converted Jews. 
... In the year 15.59 the prayer-books of the com- 
munity of Prague were taken to Vienna to be ex- 
amined." These mutilations increased in the course 
of time (Zunz, "Ritus," pp. 145 etscq., and appen- 
dix vi. ; coinp. also idem, "G. S." iii. 239; Berliner, 
"Einfluss des Ersten Hebraischen Buchdrucks auf 
den Cultus und die Cultur der Juden," Prankfort- 
on-the-Main, 1896; Popper, "The Censorship of 
Hebrew Books," New York, 1899). 

The reform of worship began with Moses Mendels- 
sohn asarcsult of tlio general readjustment in Jew 
ish life and learning. Wolf Hcidenheim especially 
rendered enduring services to this reform by the cor- 

rectness of his editions, his excellent notes, and the 
translations adapted to his time. The editions of the 
Siddur by Landshuth (Kouigsberg, 
Reforms in 1845) and Baer (Rodelheim, 1868) are 
the Nine- also valuable. Liturgy was and is still 
teenth the field on which the different par- 
Century, ties within Judaism — Orthodox, Pro- 
gressive, and Reform — fight their 
battles with more or less bitterness. Among these 
conflicts the Hamburg Temple controversy, in 1819, 
and the Reform prayer-book controversy of the Ber- 
lin community are especially noteworthy. Reform 
is still progressing in this department and is not 
likely to reach a conclusion in the near future. 
Leopold Zunz (1794-1886) investigated all branches- 
of the liturgy with astonishing assiduity. In his- 
first great work, " Gottesdienstliche Vortrilgc " 
(Berlin, 1832), which is the earliest product of 
modern Jewish science and which contains a 
complete history of the liturgy, he advocates the 
abolition of many old prayers and the introduction 
of appropriate new ones (pp. 494 et seq.). Reform, 
however, was not content with removing external 
abuses; it investigated the earliest prayers of the 
liturgy, the recitation of which had been declared 
to be obligatory as early as the time of the Talmud. 
It considered the views which gave rise to these 
prayers in connection with modern ideas and has 
abandoned the prayers, either partly or entirely. 
See Benedictions; Gkace at Meals; Habdalah; 
Habinenu; Had Gadya; Haftarah; Haggadah 


Happiness; Hazzan; Heidenheim, Wolf; Holi- 
ness; Mahzor; Megillot, The Five; Music, 
Synagogal; Reform; Siddur; etc. 

Bibliography: L. Zunz. G. V.\ idem, Ritus; Idem, S. P.: 
idem. Lit eraturgesch. (with Supplement, 1867); Steinschnei- 
der, Jlldiache Litteratur, in Ersch and Gruber. Encyc. sec- 
tion ii., part 28 ( English ed., Jewish Literature, London, 1857 ; 
Hebrew ed., Sifi'ut Yisrael, Warsaw, 1897); Schiirer, Oe»ch. 
3d ed.. Leipsic, 1901-2 (see Index, s.v. Oebet); Benjacob, Ozar 
ha-Sefarim, iii. 660,722-88.5 (editions of the prayer-books). 
Some of the many other worlss on liturgical literature are 
quoted in the body of the article. 
A. L. B. 


mathematician; born in Poland about 1760; died 
Jan. 15, 1836; buried at Ouerveen. A disciple of 
Moses Mendelssohn, he removed to Amsterdam, 
where he became one of the most important mem- 
bers of the 'Adat Yeshurun congregation. With 
C. Asser and Lemon he was appointed a deputation 
to the Sanhedrin at Paris, where he delivered a dis- 
course in the German language (Feb. 12, 1807). 

Litwack was a member of the Mathesis Artium 
Genetrix society. He wrote " Verhandeling Over 
de Proefgetallen Gen. 11," Amsterdam, 1817 (2ded., 

Bibliography: Bierens de Haan, Bihlingrnphie Necrlan- 
(laise: Cotlectioyt drs Prort's VrrhnuT, ii.: (iratz, Oesch. xi. 
2SS: Janrliofhett. 18.36, p. 86; Vaderlayulsche Letternefen- 
ingen, 1817, p. 482. 
s. E. Sl. 

LIVER (13D) : A glandular organ situated, in 
man, to the right beneath the diaphragm and above 
the stomach. In six passages of the Bible in which 
the liver is mentioned the expressicm l^Dn DinV 
is met with in reference to the part of the organ 
which had to be sacrificed as a fatty piece (Ex. 




xxix. 13, 22, et passim). The meaning of this ex- 
pression has not been successfully established. 
Both Onkelos and pseudo-Jonathan translate it 
icnaoi KlVn, or in the Hebrew form 133 H IVn. 
which is met with in the Talmud. The Authorized 
Version, following Jerome, renders it "the caul 
above the liver " ; and it seems that Rashi gave the 
same interpretation. But the Septuagint renders it 
by "the lobe of the liver," which shows that the 
piece sacrificed was a part of the liver itself. The 
interpretation "caul" or "tlap around the liver" 
seems to be based on the Aramaic ivn, taken in the 
sense of "surrounding." But Bochart ("Hierozoi- 
con," i. 562, Lcipsic, 1793-96) has proved the error 
of such an interpretation, referring to Saadia's Ara- 
bic rendering " za'idah " (= "excrescent"). Kohut 
("Aruch Completum," s.v. ynVN and IZ^n IVn) 
draws attention to a passage in Tamid (31a) in which 
" the finger of the liver " is spoken of (see Rashi ad 
loc). Kohut therefore supposes that the Aramaic 
i<"lSn is the equivalent of the Arabic " khansar " = 
"little finger." His supposition is confirmed by 
Isaac ibn Ghayyat, who quotes Hai Gaon (Dukes, 
in "Orient, Lit." ix. 537) to the effect that the ex- 
pression 123n "ivn comes from the Arabic and that 
the liver iscomposed of pieces similar to fingers. Ac- 
cording to Nahmanides (Responsa, No. 162), if this 
part of the liver is perforated, the flesh of the ani- 
mal may be eaten (see also Dillmann on Lev. iii. 
4; Driver and White, "Leviticus," p. 65; Nowack, 
"Archaologie," i. 228; comp. Caul; Fat). 

Neither man nor beast can live without a liver 
('Ar. 20a). If the liver is missing from an animal, 
its flesh may not be eaten (Hul. 42a). Therefore 
if any one dedicates to the sanctuary the value of 
his head or of his liver, he must pay the value of 
his entire person ('Ar. 20a; B. M. 114a). On liver 
complaints see Maimonides, "Yad," Shehitah, vi. 1, 
8, 9; vii. 4, 19. 21; viii. 16. 

The liver is the seat of life. The archers pierced 
the liver with their arrows (Prov. vii. 23), thereby 
quickly causing death. Johanan (d. 279) says: "He 
smote him under the fifth rib" (II Sam. ii. 23), i.e., 
in the fifth partition, where liver and gall are con- 
nected (Sanh. 49, above). Johanan does not mean to 
imply that liver and gall are in the chest, as Ebstein 
infers ("Medicin des N. T. und des Talmuds," ii. 
129), but merely that liver and gall were wounded. 
The tradition (I Kings xxii. 34; II Chron. xviii. 
33) that the arrow struck the king between the 
ribs (" debakim ") likewise refers to the fifth partition 
(see also Sanh. 63b; Kohut, " Aruch Completum," iv. 
182b). A tannaite living at Rome about 150 recom- 
mends the membrane of the liver of a mad dog as a 
remedy against hydrophobia, and Galen also ap- 
proves of this remedy; but the Palestinian teachers 
forbade it because its efllcacy had not been proved 
(Yoma viii. 5; 84a, b; see Blau, " Altjiidische Zau- 
berwesen," pp. 80 et seq.). Tobitvi. 8, viii. 2, how- 
ever, shows that fumigating with fish-livers was 
considered a means of exorcising evil spirits in 

On the functions of the liver there is only a single 
passage in the Bible, namely, Lam. ii. 11: "Mino 
eyes do fail with tears, my bowels are troubled, my 
liver is poured upon the earth, for the destruction of 

the daughters of my people." On the functions 
of the several organs of the human body this obser- 
vation is found in the Talmud: "The liver causes 
anger; the gall throws a drop into it and quiets it" 
(Ber. 61, above). 

The augural significance of the liver, hepatoscopy, 
is mentioned only once in the Bible, and then as a 
foreign custom. Ezekiel(xxi. 21) says of Nebuchad- 
nezzar : " For the king of Babylon stood at the part- 
ing of the waj', at the head of the two ways, to use 
divination : he made his arrows bright, he con- 
sulted with images, he looked into the liver " (see 
Jew. Encyc. iv. 624a, s.r. Divination). Levi (3d 
cent.) remarks on this passage: "as the Arabian, 
who slaughters a sheep and inspects the liver" 
(Eccl. R. xii. 7). 

s. s. L. B. — M. Sel. 

LIVERPOOL : Chief seaport in the northwest of 
England, situated on the Mersey, and in the county 
of Lancashire. There was a primitive settlement of 
Jews in the town about 1750, but this later became 
extinct. Tombstones with Hebrew inscriptions were 
discovered beneath some structures between Derby 
street and Cumberland street, an old portion of the 
city. The synagogue with cemetery attached is 
marked in a map of Liverpool for 1796 ; but at the 
time of Harwood's large survey in 1803 it had dis- 
appeared. It became a Sandemanian chapel (W. 
Robinson, "History of Liverpool," 1810, p. 388). 

It seems that the first Jewish settlers were mainly 
recruited from the Portuguese Jews 
Early Set- of Be vis Marks, London, and were of 
tlements. those who were about to proceed to 
Ireland, Dublin being then an estab- 
lished Jewish center. 

About 1780 the Jews again assembled for worship 
in Turton Court, on the site of the present custom- 
house. From their names, as given in a Liverpool 
directory of 1790, they appear to have been a med- 
ley of Germans, Poles, and Londoners, mostly itiner- 
ant dealers and venders of old clothes. Here and 
there a Sephardi is recorded as a merchant; but the 
Polish element must have predominated, as the early 
minute-books of the community are written in Ju- 
daeo-German with square, not cursive, characters. 

The next removal, in Dec, 1789, was to Frederick 
street, the Liverpool corporation assigning to the 
Jews for religious purposes a building with a gar- 
den in the rear for a cemetery. At the extreme end 
of this synagogue, which could hold sixty or seventy 
worshipers, was a glass roof evidently intended for 
a sukkah or tabernacle. In the basement was a 
"mikweh," or ritual bath. In 1806 the corporation 
presented the Jews with another site in Seel street, 
where the Old Hebrew Congregation met from 1807 
until 1874, when it removed to the present hand- 
some building on Prince's Boulevard. In 1835 the 
town had encroached on the cemetery in Oakes 
street, and a burial-ground was purchased in Fair- 
field (Deane road), then quite rural ; this in turn be- 
came inadequate, and a new one in Broad Green 
was opened in June, 1904. 

The Seel street synagogue was the first in the 
United Kingdom in wiiich sermons were delivered 
in English ; this happened in 1806, the preacher be- 
ing Tobias Goodman. D. W. Marks acted as secre- 




tary and preacher to tlie congregation in 1833. lie 
subsequently became ciiief minister of the Berlie- 
ley Street (London) Congregation of British Jews. 
There were probably 250 Jewish families in Liver- 
pool in 1838, when a secession took place in the com- 
munity. At first the seceders held divine service in 
a small building in Hardman street. 
New Con- now used as a temperance hall. In 18o7 
gregation. they erected a handsome building in 
Hope place. They also purchased a 
cemetery in Green lane, Tuebrook, which is still 
(1904) in use. 

Jn 1846 a few numbers of a monthly Jewish maga- 
zine entitled " Kos Yeshu'ot " appeared in Liverpool. 

The first organization in Great Britain in con- 
nection with tjie x\lliance Israelite Universelle was 
founded in Liverpool in 1868, three years before the 
Anglo-Jewish Association was established in Lon- 
don, with which, however, it later amalgamated. 
In 1882 the extensive enngralion to America was 
organized and directed from Liverpool ; and during 
the year of the Russo- Jewish persecutions 6,274 
persons were sent, at a cost which amounted to over 
£30,000 ($150,000), to the United States and Canada 
in thirty -one steamships. 

It is computed that there are at present about 
1,500 Jewish families in Liverpool in a total popu- 
lation of about 685,000. Owing to the great influx 
of Russian and Polish Jews, a number of hebras 
have sprung into existence, as well as two consider- 
able congregations: (1) Bet ha-Midrash, situated in 
Crown street; (2) the Fountains Road Congregation, 
situated in the suburb of Kirkdale. 

A Hebrew school was founded in 1842, commen- 
cing with ten pupils. Subsequently a building was 
erected in Hope place to accommodate eighty pu- 
pils; it has since been enlarged so as to provide 
room for more than 700 children. 

Among the many Jewish organizations may be 
mentioned: the Philanthropic Society, Provident 
Society, Tontine Benefit Society, Board of Guar- 
dians, Jewish Shelter, Ladies' Benevolent Charity, 
Branch of the Anglo-Jewish Association. 

Bibliography: B. L. Benas, in Pmceedinf/s of the Historic 
Society of Lancashire aiid Cheshire (1900), vol. xv. 

J. B. L. B. 

LIVONIA. See Riga. 

LIVORNO. See Lkohorn. 



LIZARD: A saurian or lacertilian reptUe. 
About forty species and twenty -eiglit genera of liz- 
ards found in Palestine have been enumerated, tiie 
most common of which are the green lizard {Ln^erta 
mndin) and its varieties, and the wall-lizard belong- 
ing to the genus Zootora. It is therefore gener- 
ally agreed that besides "leta'ah," traditionally ren- 
dered by "lizard," the following terms, enumerated 
among the "creeping things that creep upon the 
earth" (Lev. xi. 29 f« seq.), also denote some kinds 
of lizard: "zab" (Arabic, "dabb"). identified with 
the Uromnfitix spiniprs (\. V. "tortoise"; R. V. 
"great lizard"); "anakalr" with the gecko, of 
which .six species are found in Palestine (A. V. "fer- 
ret " ; R. V. "gecko"; see Ferret); "koah"( Vul- 

gate and Kiinhi, "stellio") with the monitor (A. 
V. "chameleon"; li. V. "land-crocodile; see Cua- 
MKi.EON); ■• hornet" with the sand-lizard (A. V. 
"snail"; R. V. ".sand-lizard"); "tinshemet," by 
reason of the etymology of the name (= "breath- 
ing," "blowing"), with the chameleon (A. V. 
"mole"; R. V. "chameleon"; see Chamei.eon) ; 
"semamit" (Prov. xxx. 28), the same word which 
the Targum Yerushalmi uses for "leta'ah," and tlie 
Samaritan version for "anakah," the meaning of 
the passage being that the lizard may be held in the 
hand with impunity (A. V. "spider"; R. V. "liz- 
ard "). 

In the Talmud "leta'ah " is the general term for 
the Ldcertilia. It is described as having a thick but 
soft and separable skin (Shab. 107a, b; Hul. 122a), 
and its eggs have the white and yolk unsepa- 
rated ('Ab. Zarah 40a [Hashi]). A case of resusci- 
tation of an apparently dead lizard by pouring cold 
water on it is related in Pes. 88b. In Shab. 77b 
the semamit is mentioned as inspiring terror in the 
scorpion and also as serving as a cure for its bite, 
with which may be compared Pliny, "Ilistoria 
Naturulis," xxix. 4, 29. In Sanh. 103b it is related 
that King Amon, after abolishing the Temple serv- 
ice, placed a semamit upon the altar. The cha- 
meleon is considered to be intended by "zekita" in 
Shab. 108b. This may be connected with "zika" 
(="wiud"), meaning properly "the windy," the 
ancients believing the chameleon to live on air 
(comp. Pliny, I.e. viii. 33, 35). 

BiBMOGRAPHY : Tristram, Nat. Hist. pp. 266 et seq.; L. Lewv- 
sohn, Z. T. pp. 221 et seq. 
E. G. H. I. M. C. 

LOANS : In the commonwealth of Israel, as 
among other nations of antiquity, loans of money, or 
of corn or like commodities, were made as a matter of 
favor by the wealthy to those standing in need, and 
but seldom, if ever, in the way of furnishing capital 
necessary for enterprises in trade or agriculture. 
At least in all passages of Scripture lender and bor- 
rower stand, at the time of the loan, in tlie attitude 
of benefactor and dependent (Ps. cxii. 5) ; after the 
loan, in that of master and servant 
In the (Prov. xxii. 7); and, Avhen the lender 
Bible. enforces his demand, in that of tyrant 
and sufferer (II Kings iv. 1). It is 
made the duty of the well-to-do Israelite to lend of 
his affluence to his poor brother (i.e., fellow Israel- 
ite) according to the borrower's wants, at least when 
a pledge is offered (Ex. xxii. 25; Dent. xv. 8), and 
that without claiming interest (see Usuuv); and he 
slioidd not refuse even when the approach of the 
year of release endangers the recovery of the loan 
(Deut. XV. 9), anil though the security of the pledge 
is much weakened by the lender's duty of returning 
it when the debtor needs it (see Pledge). In truth, 
to lend is regarded in Scripture (ih. 1-11) as an act 
of benevolence the reward for which must be ex- 
pected only from God. 

R. Ishmael, of the time of Hadrian (see Mek., Ex. 
xxii. 25), reckons the command to lend to the poor 
as one of the atlirmativc; precepts; and the Talmud 
(B. M. 71a) derives from Ex. xxii. 25 the rule that 
between the Gentile who offers interest and the 
Israelite from whom it is not allowed to be accepted, 




the latter should have tiie prefcreiuo ; between the 

rich and the poor, one should lend to the poor : 

between kinsmen and townsmen, lend 

In the to kinsmen first, but give the prefer- 

Talmud. ence to townsmen over those from a 

distance. To lend is deemed more 

meritorious than to give (Maimonides, " Yad," Mai- 

weh, i. 1); for by a timely loan the receiver may be 

saved from beggary. 

The lender or creditor is bidden also, on inferen- 
tial Scriptural grounds {ib. ; Deut. xv. 2-3), not to 
press the borrower or debtor when he knows that 
the latter can not pay; which admonition was so 
extended by the Kabbis that they forbade the cred- 
itor to show himself to the unfortunate debtor, in 
order that he might not put the latter to shame 
("Yad," I.e. xiii. 3). 

On the other hand, it is a most sacred duty of the 
borrower to pay if he can. To witlihold payment is 
wickedness (Ps. xxxvii. 21), and, according to the 
Rabbis, the debtor, when able to pay, must not 
even put the creditor off, telling him to come again ; 
nor must he waste tlie borrowed money or lose il 
recklessly, so that he can not repay it. 

Under the written law (Deut. x v.) all debts arising 
from a loan are canceled b}^ the passage of the year 
of release over them, on the last da}^ (last of Elul) 
of that year. The text (ib. verse 9) warns earnestly 
against the baseness of not lending to the poor from 
fear of such release; yet in the days 
Cancela- of King Herod this kind of baseness 
tion of prevailed among the well-to-do Jews 
liOans. to such an extent that Hillel the 
Elder, who according to rabbinical 
tradition was at that time president of the Sanhe- 
drin, in order " that the door might not be shut in the 
face of borrowers" thought it best to contrive a 
fiction whereby to nullify the Scriptural law (see 
Sheb. viii. 2-3; Sifre, ad loc). He authorized the 
creditor to execute a deed, known as the " prosbul," 
in some such words as these: "I, A. B., hereby de- 
liver to you [giving the names], judges of the court 
at [naming the place], all the claims which I own, 
so that I may collect them at any time I may 
choose " ; which instrument was signed by the 
judges and by two witnesses, and the bonds were 
then handed over to the court. The act of Hillel 
was justified on the ground that the year of release 
being indissolubly connected with the year of jubilee 
and the restoration of lands to their former owners, 
and the latter being in the second commonwealth no 
longer feasible, the release of debts ceased to be a 
Scriptural and became only a rabbinical law, and 
for good cause might therefore be modified, or even 
abrogated, by the Great Sanhedrin (see Talmud Ye- 
rushalmi on above mishnah). The Sabbatical year, 
as far as it affected seed-time and Jiarvest, was 
meant only for the Holy Land; neither did it ever 
work the release of debts beyond the boundaries of 
that country. Joseph Caro says, in his code, that 
as a rabbinical institution tlie law of the year of re- 
lease operates in all times and places; but the gloss 
of Moses Isserles declares that in "these countries," 
meaning northern Europe, it had fallen entirely into 

A debt arising from the sale of goods or of land 

or horn liabiliiy for wrongs done, the wages of 
labor, or the hire of lands or of animals, whether 
liquidated by the written law or unliquidated, was 
not affected by the year of release; but if the par- 
lies agreed upon the amount due or that should be 
])aid, and upon the length of time of forbearance, 
such debt or liability became a loan in the eyes of 
the law, and was then regarded as a subject of re- 
lease, unless kept alive by the prosbul (Sheb. viii. 
2; Sifre, Deut. 15). 

The fear that a literal enforcement of tlie Scrip- 
tural law against lenders would " shut the door in 
the face of borrowers " led to its relaxation in other 
respects also. Thus, strictly speaking, creditors 
should have the debtors' worst lands (*' zibburil ") 
allotted to them in satisfaction; but as such a rule 
would discourage loans, it was modified .so as to al- 
lot middle-grade lands for their satisfaction (Git. 
49b; see Appraisement). 

s. L. N. D. 

MOSES ASHKENAZI : German rabbi and caba- 
list; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main 1555; died at 
Worms July, 1636. He belonged to the Rashi fam- 
ily, and on his mother's side was the grandson of 
Johanan Luria, and on his father's of Joselmann of 
Rosheim. After having studied in his native city 
under the direction of Jacob Ginzburg and Akiba 
Frankfort, Loans went to Cracow, where he attended 
the lectures of Menahem Mendel. While there he 
prepared for publication the " Darke Mosheh " of 
Moses Isserles. At the beginning of the seventeenth 
century Loans w^as called to the rabbinate of Fulda. 
which he left in 1612, occupying sucessively the 
rabbinates of Hanau, Friedberg (1620), and Worms 
(1630), in which last-named city he remained until 
his death. 

Loans was a diligent student of cabala, and for 
this reason was surnamed "Ba'al Shem." Besides 
his great learning he possessed many accomplish- 
ments, such as music and calligraphy ; and all kinds 
of legends circulated regarding his personality. He 
was the author of the following works: " Riunat 
Dodim" (Basel, 1600), a commentary on Canticles; 
" Miklol Yofi " (Amsterdam, 1695), a commentary on 
Ecclesiastes ; "Wikkuah Yayin 'im ha-Mayim " 
{ib. 1757), a poem with a commentary; "Ma'agle 
Zedek" (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 
1832), a commentary on Bahya's " Hobot ha-Leba- 
bot"; "Zofnat Pa'aneah" {ib. No. 1830), a com- 
mentary on the " Tikkune Zoliar " ; a commentary on 
Genesis Rabbah {ib. No. 149); "Adderet Eliyahu " 
{lb. 1829), a commentary on the Zohar. 

Loans also edited the " 'Ammude Shelomoh " of 

Solomon Luria on the " Semag " (Basel, 1599), and 

the " Sha'are Dura " of Isaac ben Meir of Dueren, to 

which he wrote a preface {ib. 1600). 

Bibi.iography: Moses Mannheimer, Die Juden in Wnrmn, p. 
61, Fraiikfort-on-the-Main, 1843 : L. Lewysohn, NafKhot ^(kI- 
dihiin, p. 59, ib. ia'>5 ; Carraoly, In Jost's Annalen, 1. 94; 
Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 942; Zunz, Z. G. p. 402 ; Mi- 
chael, Or ha-Hawiim. No. 401. 

K. I. Bh. 

in ordinary to the German emperor Frederick III. 
(1440-93). and Hebrew teacher of Johann Reuchlin : 
died at Linz about 1506. Loans rendered lifelong 




faithful service to the emperor, by whom he was 
knighted. At Linz in 1493 Reuchlin, who had been 
sent to the emperor's court by his protector Eber- 
hard of Wurttemberg, met Loans; and the latter 
became his first teacher in Hebrew grammar. 
Reuchlin always held him in grateful remembrance ; 
he cites him as "prseceptor meus, mea seutentia 
valde doctus homo Jacobus Jehiel Loans Hebrseus " 
("Rudimenta Hebraica," p. 249) or "humanissimus 
pra?ccptor meus homo excellens " (ib. p. 619). Gei- 
ger supposes that Reuchlin took Loans as a model 
for the Jewish scholar Simon, one of the three dis- 
putants in Reuchlin's "De Verbo Mirifico." 

Bibliography : Ludwig Geiger, Johann Reuchlin, pp. 105 et 
seq.; Gratz, Gesch. ix. 47, 83, 14" ; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 
273; Steinschneider, Jewv<h Literature, p. 208 ; Winter and 
Wunsche, Die Jildische Litteratur, 11. 225. 
G. M. Sc. 

LOANZ, JOSEPH. See Josel (Joselmann, 
Joselin) of Rosheim. 

lOb aryeh ben eliah of bolo- 

CHOW : Russian rabbi ; born at Satanov, govern- 
ment of Podolia, 1801 ; died at Zaslavl, government 
of Volhynia, Sept. 2, 1881 ; a descendant of Rabbi 
Joshua HOschel of Cracow (1654-64), author of " Se- 
fer Toledot Aharon." Lob Aryeh, in addition to 
his studies in rabbinic literature, had a thorough 
knowledge of the Bible and of Hebrew grammar, 
and he became a fluent writer in Hebrew. He had a 
fair knowledge of mathematics also. He was rabbi 
of Zaslavl for about twenty years, and published 
" 'Arugat ha-Bosem," commentaries to the Yoreh 
De'ah, Wilna, 1870, and "Shem Aryeh," commen- 
taries to other parts of the Shulhan 'Aruk, Wilna, 

Bibliography: Preface to Shem Aryeh; Walden, Shem ha- 
Gedolim he-Hadash, pp. 66, 72 ; Ha-?eftrah, 1881, No. 36. 
L. G. H. R. 


Rabbi at Rozniatow and afterward at Styria ; died in 
1813. He was the author of the following works; 
"Kezot ha-Hoshen," a casuistic commentary in two 
volumes on the Hoshen Mishpat of Joseph Caro's 
Shulhan 'Aruk, published in 1788 and later; "Abne 
Milhrim,"a similar commentary in two volumes on 
the Eben ha-'Ezer of the same work (Lemberg, 
1815, and Zolkiev, 1825); and "Sheb Shema'tata," 
novelljE on the Talmud (Lemberg, 1804). The first 
volume of the "Abne Millu'im" contains an ap- 
pendix, entitled "Meshobeb Netibot," in which the 
author defends his first works against the attacks of 
Jacob of Lissa. 

Bibliography : Walden, Shem ha^Oednlim he-Hada^h, p. 79 ; 
Zedner, Cat. Hehr. DookH Brit. Mus. p. 54. 
8. 8. I. Br. 

L6B aryeh ben MEIR: Lithuanian rabbi ; 
lived in tlie sevonteentli and eighteenth centuries. 
His notes on Rashi and on Elijah Mizrahi'scommen- 
taries on the Pentateuch were published, under the 
title "Hiddushe Maharsha " (Hanover, 1716), with 
Samuel Edel's novell-P on the Pentateuch, by his 
brother Zebi Hirsch b. Me'ir. 

BiBLiOGRAriiv: V,'o\t, Iiil>l. Hehr. ill.. No. 353d ; Steinschnei- 
der, Cat. Bodl. col. 745. 
8. B. M. Sei-. 

LOB aryeh ben TOBIAH: Lithuanian 
Talmudic scholar and printer; died at Wilna Oct. 

24, 1812. He enjoyed great consideration in Wilna 
on account of his learning and of the assistance ren- 
dered by him to Talmudic students. He was the 
first (in partnership with Tobiah b. Abraham Abele) 
to establish a Hebrew printing-house at Wilna (1799). 
The first work printed there was Saadia's "Ma'amar 
ha-Tehiyyah weha-Pedut." Owing to competition 
the establishment existed a short time only. 

Bibliography : Fuenn, I^irydh Ne^emanaK PP. 199. 225. 
J. M. Sel. 

L6B ben BARUCH BENDET: Rabbi of 
Byelostok, Russia, in the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries; author of "Sha'agat Aryeh " (Byelostok, 
1805), novelise on the treatise Makkot. The author 
quotes frequently his father's " Ner Tamid" (Grodno, 
1789) ; and in the preface he states that he has writ- 
ten novelise on the whole Talmud. 

Bibliography : Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 553 ; Walden, 
Shem ha-GedoUm he-Haddsh, p. 79. 
H. K. " M. Sel. 

LOB, ELIEZER: German rabbi ; born at 
Pfungstadt, grand duchy of Hesse, 1837; died at 
Altona Jan. 23, 1892. He was educated at the gym- 
nasium of Darmstadt and at the University of Gies- 
sen, and received his rabbinical instruction chieflj^ 
under Benjamin H. Auerbach, rabbi of Darmstadt, 
whose daughter he married. At first he was prin- 
cipal of the Jildische Realschule in his native city, 
founded by him (1857-61). Subsequently he was 
called to the rabbinate of Ichenhausen, Bavaria, 
where he remained until 1873, when he was called 
to succeed Jacob Ettlinger as chief rabbi of Altona. 
He contributed to the"Judische Presse," and pre- 
pared for publication H. J. Michael's bibliograph- 
ical work "Or ha-Hayyim," but ill health prevented 
him from completing his labor, which was finished 
by A. Berliner. A rabbinical work by him, " Dam- 
mesek Eli'ezer," remained in manuscript. He was a 
devoted worker for Orthodox communal affairs and 
was for years a trustee of the Hildesheimer Semi- 
nary at Berlin. 

Bibliography : Dukesz, Iwoh, Iwoh le-Moshah, pp. 133-136, 
Cracow, 1903. „ 

s. D. 


Early Hasidic rabbi; died in Yaltushkov, Podolia, 
about 1797. His was the strangest and most mys- 
terious character of the many miracle-working rabbis 
of the Hasidim of the latter part of the eighteenth 
century. He continually traveled from one Polish 
city to another, spending money lavishly, but never 
accepting anything from his adherents. Most of the 
wonderful .stories which are still told about him con- 
nect him with kings and princes and with successful 
efforts to influence the authorities in behalf of Jews. 
This caused Gottlober to suspect that he was in the 
secret service of the Polish or the Austrian govern- 
ment, a view seemingly absurd, although a letter by 
R. Bilr of Meseritz, stating that "R. L6b Sarah's 
of Rnvno is to be assisted and implicitly believed, 
for he is rendering important services to Jews, and 
will himself orally explain things which can not be 
put down in writing " (Primislilauer's "Darke Ye- 
sharim," Jitorair, 1805), lends some slight support 
to the supposition. The story of an eye-witness that 
R. L'6h Sarah's passed the guards unnoticed and en- 




tered the royal palace of Warsaw on the day of the 
coronation of Stanislaus Pouiatowski (1764). and tlie 
account of his seven years' struggle with Emperor 
Joseph II., on whom he inflicted terrible sufferings, 
are characteristic examples of the miracles ascribed 
to him by the superstitious people, li. Azriel of 
Kozin (near Kremenetz),his pupil (according to Gott- 
lober, his driver), was considered as his successor. 

Bibliography: Eleazar lia-Kolien, Kiii'at Snfrrim. p. T5a. 
Lemberg, 1892 ; (iottlober, in H<t-lif>kcr Or, v. .386-38H, vi. 1-2 : 
Sedrr ha-Doriit he.-H(uin.'<h. p'ft. i'i-i^: Walden, Shem ha- 
GcdoUm he-Hadnalh p. 81, Warsaw, 1882. 
n. K. P. Wi. 

LOB JUDAH B. EPHRAIM : Rabbi of the 

second half of the seventeenth century; probably 
born in Wilna, from which city his father, Ephraim 
b. Jacob ha-Kohen, fled to Buda (Ofeu, incorporated 
into the present Budapest) during the Cossack \ip- 
rising of 1655; died in Palestine after 168G. LiJb 
remained in Buda until 1684, when he went to Je- 
rusalem, and there, with the assistance of Moses 
Galanti the younger, began to prepare for publica- 
tion his father's work "Sha'ar Efrayim." When 
Charles of Lorraine wrested Buda from the Turks 
in 1686, the members of Lob's family lost all their 
possessions and removed to Prague. Lob returned 
from Palestine to that city; and wealthy people 
there assisted him to publish the "Sha'ar Efrayim," 
with his own notes and an appendi.x (Sulzbach, 
1686). He went again to the Holy Land, and died 
in Safed (according to others, in Jerusalem). 

Bibliography: Azulai, S/icm ha-GedoJinu s.v. Epliraint of 
Wilna; Fuenn, Kiryah Nc'cmanah, pp. 84-85. Wilna, 1860; 
idem, Keneset YU<raeU p. 399, Warsaw, 1880; Eleazar ha- 
Kohen, KWat Soferim, p. 55a, Lember?, 1892. 
s. s. ■ p. Wi. 

LOB JUDAH B. ISAAC : Polish rabbi ; died 
in Cracow about 1780; grandson of R. Joshua, au- 
thor of "Maginne Shelomoh." He officiated as 
rabbi at Shidlow, Poland, being at the same time 
a representative of Cracow in the Council of Four 
Lands. After 1715 he became rabbi and president 
of the yeshibah at Cracow, where he remained till 
his death. 

Lob Judah is known by bis approbations to many 
books, among which may be mentioned "Panim 
Me'irot," by Meir Eisenstadt (Amsterdam, 1714), 
and "Berit Shalom," by Phinehas b. Pelta (Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, 1718). 

Of his family are known only two sons: David 
Samuel, who succeeded his father, first in Shidlow 
and afterward in Cracow, and Isaac, rabbi of Tar- 
now, Galicia. 

BiBLior.RAPHY : Zunz, '/?• ha-Zeiiek, pp. 159-160; FriedberK, 
Luhot Zikkaron, pp. 25, 26. 
II. u. N. T. L. 

scholar; lived at Prague in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. He filled the office of secretary to 
Simon Spira, chief rabbi of Prague, and he pub- 
lished, under the title "Milhamah be-Shalom," an 
account of the siege of Prague by the Swedes in 
1648 and of the suffering of the Jews on that occa- 
sion. Printed first at Prague, it was reproduced 
later, with a Latin translation by Wagenseil, in 
"Exercitatio Tertia," and republished in the "Bik- 
kureha-'Ittim." iv. H)d et seq. 
VIII. —10 

BiBLioGRAPiiv : Ziinzs notes to Asher's edition of Benjamin 
itf Tudcln, p. 284 : idem. '/.. (J. p. 'MK No. 242 ; Steinschneider, 
Cat. Diidl. col. i:iJ4 ; Zedner, Ausuahl HMorinchcr Stttcke, 
p. 138, Berlin, 1840. 
I). I. Bu. 

LOB HA-LEVI of BRODY : Galiciau rabbi 
of the beginning of the nineteenth centur}'; held 
olfice first at Podhajce, then at Brody. Among his 
contemporaries was Ephraim Zalman Margaliot, 
chief rabbi of Brody, in whose "Bet Efrayim" oc- 
curs a responsum of Lob's. He was the author of 
" Leb Aryeh " (Lemberg, 1820), a commentary on 

Bibliography: Benjacob, O^n r //n-Se/arim, p. 253; Walden, 
Shem hn-Ged()Uni he-Haddsh, p. 82. 
I). M. Sei,. 

LOB ben meir. See JiDAii ben Meir. 

preacher and leader of the Hasidic party in the sec- 
ond half of the eighteenth century. Lob was a 
pupil of Israel Ba'al Shem-Tob and of Bar of Mes- 
eritz, and contributed much to the former's thaumat- 
urgy. Several wonderful things are narrated about 
him* in the " Sliibhe Ba'al Shem-Tob. " Lob was the 
author of a Avoric entitled "Kol Aryeh" (Korzec, 
1802), homiletic annotations on the Pentateuch. 

Bibliography : Rodkinson, Tolfdot Ba'ale Shem-Toh, p. 38, 
Konigsbeip. 1876; Walden. Shem ha-Gedolim he-Hadaxh, 
p. 79. 
H. K. M. Sel. 

rabbi of the eighteenth century; author of "Pene 
Aryeh" (Novidvor, 1787), novelise on the Talmud, 
to which is added a pamphlet entitled "Kontres 
Mille de-Abot," novella; by L5b's father and father- 

Bibliography: Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 486; Fiirst, 
Bibl. Jiid. ii. 265. 
ir. K. M. Sel. 

LOB of POLONNOYE. See Lob Mokiah. 

rabbi; born probably at Pinczow, government of 
Kielce, Poland, about 1630; died at Brest-Litovsk 
1714. Lob was on his father's .side the grandson of 
Joel SiRKES and stepson of David ben Samuel ha- 
Levi, of whom he was also the pupil. He studied 
besides under Joshua Hoschel, author of " Maginne 
Shelomoh," and under Yom-Tob Lipmann Heller. 
He was rabbi successively of Swirz, Galicia (before 
1663), Kamorna, Stobnitz, Zamosc (1679-89), Tiktin, 
Cracow, and finally Brest-Litovsk (1701-14). He 
was considered by his contemporaries so great a Tal- 
mudic authority that in 1669 he was sent with his 
stepbrother Isiuah ha-Levi to Constantinople to 
investigate the claims of Shabbethai Zebi. His re- 
sponsa were published later, under the title "Sha- 
'agat Aryeh " (Neuwied, 1736), by his grandson 
Abraham Nathan Meisels, who added some of his 
own under the title " Kol Shahal." Other responsa 
of Lftb's are to be found in the"Shebut Ya'akob," 
No. 107 edited by his grandson, and in "Teshubot 
Geonim Batra'e," published first in Turkey by the 
author of "Ma'ane Elihu," and afterward in Prague 
Bibliography: Friedberg. Lxihot Zikkarnn, pp. 24. 25; Azu- 

lai. Shem ha-Gedolim, ii. 138; Michael. Or ha-Hauuim, No. 

527 ; M. Zunz, 'Ir ha-?.idek, pp. 150 et seq. and note 64. 

H. R. M. Sel. 




LOB of SHPOLA : Early Hasidic rabbi ; died at 
an advanced age Oct. 4, 1810. It is said that he was 
a poor " melammed " or teacher in his younger days, 
and that he did not assume the title of rabbi be- 
cause, unlike other " zaddikim " of that period, he 
was not the pupil or disciple of a great zaddik. 
Although his only claim to prominence in the Hasi- 
dic world was a visit wliich he paid once to B.. 
Israel Ba'al Shem-Tob, the nominal founder of 
Hasidisra, both R. Baruch of Medzhibozh and R. 
Nahman of Bratzlave (the first a grandson and the 
second a great-grandson of the Ba'al Shem) devel- 
oped a fierce antagonism to him. He was popularly 
known as " the Shpoler Zeide " (grandfather of Shpo- 
la), and was revered for his great piety. He led a very 
simple, almost ascetic, life, and distributed in char- 
ity most of the money given him by his numerous 
adherents. He left no writings, and if his detractors 
are to be believed, he did not po.ssess the knowledge 
and intelligence to produce anything of value ; but 
he so impressed his contemporaries that his name is 
still preserved among the Hasidim, especially those 
of southern Russia, as that of one of the saintly, 
miracle-working rabbis of the first period of Hasi- 
Bibliography: Gottlober, in Ha-Boker Or, v. 384-388 ; Rod- 

kinson, Toledot Ba'ale Shem-Tob, pp. 39-40, Konigsberg, 


H. R. P. Wl. 

LOB (ARYEH) ben ZACHARIAH (called 

also Hocher R. Lob) : Polish rabbi ; born at Cra- 
cow about 1620; died there 1671. When a young 
man he was called as rabbi to Vienna, where he offi- 
ciated for a few years. Thence he went to Przem- 
ysl, Galicia, and in 1665 he became rabbi at his na- 
tive place, where he remained until his death. He 
was the author of "Tikkune Teshubah," an ethical 
work in Juda;o-German. Cracow, 1666. 

Bibliography : Zunz, *7r h(uZedek, p. 115, Lemberg, 1874 ; H. 
N. Dembitzer, Kelilat Yofi, i. 78b; Joel Dembitzer, Mappe- 
let 'Ir ha-Zedek, p. 25. „ 

H. R. B. Fr. 

LOBATO : Marano family, several of whose mem- 
bers lived at Amsterdam. The best-known mem- 
bers of the family are: 

Diego Gomez Lobato (called also Abraham 
Cohen liobato) : Portuguese Marano ; born at 
Lisbon, where he was living in 1599; cousin and 
countryman of the poet Paul de Pina (Rehuel Je- 
shurun). When tlie latter was going to Rome, in- 
tending to enter a monastery there, Lobato gave 
him a letter, dated April 3, 1599, addressed to Eiijali 
Montalto (subsequently physician to Maria de Med- 
ici), who was then living at Leghorn, asking Elijah 
to dissuade Paul from his purpose. Paul de Pina 
was in fact induced by Montalto to desist from carry- 
ing out his intention. He became an enthusiastic 
follower of Judaism, and lived, like Diego Gomez 
Lobato, at Amsterdam. 

Isaac Cohen Lobato : Portuguese Marano ; born 
at Lisl)on ; died at an advanced age in Amsterdam ; 
a relation of Diego Gomez Lobato. At the per- 
formance in the first synagogue of Amsterdam of 
Rehuel Jeashurun'santiphonal i)oem " Dialogo delos 
Si^te Monies" (composed in 1624), in whicli the 
mountains of the Holy Land are introduced as 
speakers, Lobato took the leadiog part of Mt. Zdon. 

In 1678 he, together with David Mendes Coutinho, 
founded the philanthropic society Sha'are Zedek at 

Rehuel Cohen Lobato : Sephardic author; 
lived at Amsterdam; father of Isaac Cohen Lobato. 
Together with Moses Belmoute he issued a new 
Spanish translation of the Pirke Abot, entitled " Pe- 
rakym " (Amsterdam, 1644). 

Bibliography: Gratz, Gesch. ix. 520, x. 4; Kayserling, Se- 
phardim, p. 176; idem, Bibl. Esp.-Port.-Jud. pp. 27, 64, 89. 
G. M. K. 

LOBATTO, REHUEL : Dutch mathematician ; 
born at Amsterdam June 6, 1797; died at Delft Feb. 
9, 1866. He sprang from a Portuguese Marano 
family which had gone to Holland in 1604. From 
his motlier, a Da Costa, he acquired a complete 
knowledge of the south-European languages; and 
while yet a schoolboy he displayed remarkable tal- 
ent for mathematics. Littwack and Van Swindern 
were his teachers, and at Brussels Quetelet, with 
whom lie edited the " Correspondance Mathema- 
tique et Physique." In 1823 he published "Wis- 
kundige Mengelingen." In 1828 he w^as appointed 
gager at Delft ; afterward he became inspector-gen- 
eral of the gaging-office there ; and in 1842 he was ap- 
pointed teacher of higher mathematics in the same 

Lobatto was the author of a great number of arti- 
cles in scientific periodicals and of various school- 
books. From 1828 till 1849 he was editor of the ofti- 
cial annual of statistics. In 1841 he was appointe<l 
by Minister Rochussen member of a commission for 
the conversion of the public debt. The Order of 
the Netherlands Lion was conferred upon him; he 
received the degree of doctor "honoris causa" from 
Groningen Universit}^ and was a member of the 
Royal Academy of Sciences. 

Bibliography: Matthe-s, mJaarhnek Krminklijke Akademie 
voor Wctemchappcn, Amsterdam, 186ti (gives complete list.s 
of Lobatto's works); Spectator (The Hague), 1866; Bierens 
de Haan, Bibliographie V. d. Aa Wooj-denboek, xxi. 
D. E. Si.. 

LOBEL, ARTHUR : Austrian physician ; born 
at Roman, Rumania, May 15, 1857; educated at the 
gymnasium of Czernowitz and the universities of 
Vienna and Paris (M.D., Vienna, 1883). During 
the year 1884 he served as assistant at the General 
Hospital, Vienna, and in 1885 settled as a physician 
at the watering-place of Dorna, where he practises 
during the summer months, spending the winters in 
Vienna. In 1898 he received the title of " Kaiser- 
licher Rath." 

Lobel is the author of : " Das Balneotherapeutische 
Verfahren Wahrend der Menstruation," Berlin, 
1880; " Der Curgcbrauch mit Mineral wilssern Wah- 
rend der Graviditat," ih. 1888; "Das Bukowinaer 
Stahlbad Dorna," Vienna, 1889; "Die Curdiatetik 
im Eisenbade," Vienna and Leipsic, 1890; "Die 
Moorbiider und Deren Surrogate." Vienna, 1890; 
"Zur Thernialbehandlung der Endometritis," Leip- 
sic, 1891; "Die Neueren Behandlungsmcthoden der 
Metritis Chronica," ih. 1892; " Kosmetische Winke," 
Leipsic and Vienna, 1894; "Zur Behandhing der 
Oophoritis Chronica," Berlin, 1895; "Geschichtliche 
Entwickliing des Eisenbades Dorna," Vienna, 1896; 
"Das Diatetische Verhaiten Wahrend der Menstru- 
ation," Kreuznach, 1897; " Die Balneologischen Cur- 




methoden bei Beliandlung der Chroniscben Para- 
und Perimetritis," Halle, 1898; "Die Balueo- iiud 
Diaiotberapie der Arterioklerose," Vienna, 1899; 
"Zur Puerperalbebandlung mitTrink- und Badeku- 
ren," Berlin, 1900; "Die Leistungen der Pbysikali- 
scben Herzbeilmetboden," Vienna, 1902; "Studien 
liber die Physiologische Wirkungeu der Moorbader, " 
ib. 1904. 
s. F. T. H. 

LOBEL, HIRSCHEL. See Levin, Hirschel. 
LOBELE of PROSSNITZ. See Prossnitz, 


LOBO, MOSES JESHURUN : Spanish poet ; 
lived at Amsterdam in the seventeenth century. 
He was one of the poets who celebrated the martyr- 
dom of Abraham Nunez Bernal in 1655; and his 
elegies form a part of the "Elogios" (Amsterdam, 
1655). Daniel de Barrios ("' Relacion de los Poetos," 
p. 56 = "R. E. J." xviii. 285) speaks of "an excel- 
lent Spanish poet, Custodio Lobo, otherwise called 
Moses Jeshurun Ribero " (died at Leghorn), some 
anti-(Miristian verses by whom he quotes. The sim- 
ilarity of their names induced Wolf ("Bibl. Hebr." 
iii., No. 1579d) to suppose the two poets to be 

Bibliography : Fiirst. Bibl. Jud. ii. 254 ; Kayserling, Sephar- 
dim, p. 262; idem, Bibl. Esp.-Port-Jud. p. 64. 

G. M. Sel. 

LOCK. See Key. 

LOCUST : Of all the insects the locust is most 
frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. It oc- 
curs under the following nine names, which proba- 
bly denote different species ; but there is no certain 
clue by which the exact species intended by each 
name can be identified: (1) "arbeh" (A. V. some- 
times " grasshopper "), the most common term, com- 
prising the whole genus; (2) "sol'am," derived by 
Ibu Ezra from " sela' " = " rock " (rock-locust ; A. V. 
"bald locust"); (3) "hargol" (A. V. "beetle"; R. 
V. "cricket"; Jewish exegetes, "grasshopper"; 
comp. Arabic "harjal" = "a troop of horses," or 
" locust, " from " harjala" = " to hop," " to jump ") ; 
(4) "hagab"(A. V. usually "grasshopper " ; seems 
likewise to be used in a general sense in Num. xiii. 
33; Isa. xl. 22); (5) "hasil" (I Kings viii. 37; Ps. 
Ixxviii. 46); (6) " gazam " (Joel i. 4; Amos iv. 9), 
usually rendered " palmer-worm " ; (7) "yelek"(Jer. 
h. 27; Nahum iii. 15; LXX. and Vulgate, "bron- 
chos " ; R. V. " canker-worm ") ; (8) " zelazal " (Deut. 
xxviii. 42) ma}' be an onomatopa'ic designation of 
locusts in general ; (9) " gebim " and " gobai " (Na- 
hum iii. 17; Amos vii. 1; A. V. "grasshopper"; 
R. V. margin to the latter passage, "green 
worms") are probably also general terms. The 
first four species are enumerated among the " winged 
creeping things" which are allowed to be eaten, and 
are described as having "legs above their feet to 
leap withal upon the earth" (Lev. xi. 21 et seq.). 

Upward of forty orthopterous insects have been 
discovered in Palestine. The Acrydvum lineola, 
A. peregrinnm, and the (Edipoda viifirntoria are 
counted among the most destructive, and are there- 

\ fore the most dreaded. 

; The term " locusts " is sometimes used figuratively ; 

• e.g., for swarming hordes and mighty hosts (Judges 

' vi. 5, vii. 12; Jer. xlvi. 23; Prov. xxx. 28); for pran- 

cing horses (Joel ii. 4; Job xxxix. 20); as an emblem 
of voracious greed (isa. x.xxiii. 4; Amos vii. 1); of 
feebleness, insignificance, and perishableness (Num. 
xiii. 33; Isa. xl. 22; Ps. cix. 23; Nahum iii. 17). 

The Talmud points out as the marks of the clean 
locust: four feet, two hopping legs, and four wings 
which are large enough to cover the body (Hul. 
59a). Besi<les the species mentioned in the Old Tes- 
tament the Tahnud refers to many others (comp. 
Hul. 65). Public prayers were instituted against 
the plague of locusts (Ta'an. 14a, 19a). Some lo- 
custs, probably variegated, were the playthings of 
children (Shab. 90b). The egg of the hargol car- 
ried in the ear relieves earache (ib. 65a); while the 
left x^art of the " zipporat keramim " worn on the 
left side of the body preserves one's knowledge {ib. 
90b; Tristram, "Nat. Hist." p. 306; Lewysohu, 
"Z. T." p. 285; Burckhardt, "Notes on the Bed- 
ouins," p. 269). 

E. G. H. I. M. C. 

LODEVE : Small town in the department of He- 
rault, France. A Jewish community was founded 
here as early as the fifth century. It was under 
the jurisdiction of the bishop, to whom it paid an 
annual tax. In 1095 Bishop Bernard, in conformity 
with an old decision of the councils, forbade mar- 
riages between Jews and Christians, on pain of ex- 
communication for the latter. In 1188 King Pliilip 
Augustus of France confirmed the bishop's rights 
and privileges relating to the Jews. Several Lodeve 
Jews Avere living at Montpellier in 1293 and 1294, 
and at Perpignan in 1413 and 1414. A Paris manu- 
script (Bibliotheque Nationale, No. 242), containing 
Levi b. Gershon of Bagnol's commentary on Genesis 
and Exodus, refers to two rabbis of Lodeve (n3t3l7). 
Eleazar and Isaac po''p or |'1D"'2 (= "Botin," accord- 
ing to Carmoly), or Isaac del Portal or de la Porte 
("lytJ'n |D). This name is probably derived from " Por- 
tale " (Latin, " Portalis "), in the department of Van- 
cluse. It may, however, be derived from "Portes." 
a village in the department of the Gard. A Jew- 
named Isaac de Portes lived at Nimes in 1306. 

Rabbi Solomon Ezobi of Carpentras corresponded 

with the Bishop of Lodeve, Jean Plantavit de la 

Pause, author of the work entitled " Planta Vitis seu 

Thesaurus Synonymicus Hebr.To-ChaldfEO-Rabbini- 

cus " ; about 1629 he addressed three Hebrew poems 

to the bishop. 

Bibliography: Carmolv, Kerue OricjitaFe, lit. 340; DomVals- 
sSte, Histnire Ghierale de Languahm, vol. i., book xv.; 
vol. HI., book Ixx.; Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 158, 2,4, t>11 ; 
R. E. J. xiv. 66, 73, 75 ; xxii. 265 ; Saige, ies Juifs du Lan- 
quedoc, vii. 3, 13, 14. 
G. o. K. 

LODZ (LODZI) : City in the government of Pi- 
otrkow, Russian Poland, about 90 miles west of 
Warsaw. As late as 1821 it was only a village of 
800 inhabitants, when the manufacture of woolens 
was first introduced there by Germans Later, cot- 
ton-mills were added. The population of Lodz 
gradually increased \intll in 1872 it amounted to 
50,500; "and in 1876 it reached a total of nearly 
80,000, including about 15,000 Jews. 

Lodz is now considered the second city of Poland, 
both in population and in the importance of its cot- 
ton-mills: indeed, it is styled " the Manchester of Po- 




laud." The rapid growth of the city is due no more 
to the Germans than to the Jews, who inti'oduceil 
numerous spindles and hand-looms in almost ever}- 
household, and, being satisfied with small profits, 
were able to compete with the largest manufac- 
turers both in Moscow and in other cities of Russia. 
The expulsion of the Jews from Moscow in 1891 
helped to increase the volume of business in Lodz. 
Li 1898 the keen competition abroad compelled the 
Jewish merchanls of Lodz to adopt 
Introduc- desperate measures to retain business 
tion of by making also a cheap grade of 

Shoddy, goods to imitate woolens. This new 
stuff Avas called " shoddy," being a 
mi.xture of waste from cotton and woolen stuffs 
which was formerly discarded as of no value. The 
Polisli newspaper '• Kozowj " lamented this new at- 
tempt of the Jews to " spoil the market. " 

Tiie question of employing Jewish operatives was 
a very difficult one. In the first place, they could 
not subsist on the small wages paid to the mill- 
hands. Secondly, when the factories were built and 
machiner}" was introduced the Jews could not work 
together with non-Jewish operatives on Saturday, 
and the establishments were closed on Sunday. 
Israel Posnanski.the richest manufacturer of Lodz, 
in order to utilize Jewish labor, solved the problem 
by setting aside a factory for Jewish employees. 
Later, Rabbis Meisels and Jelski prevailed upon 
other Jewish manufacturers to open similar fac- 

The Jewish community' of Lodz was organized 
before Lodz was recognized as a town. Hillel, the 
first rabbi, died in 1823; his successor, Ezekiel, died 
in 1851; and the present (1904) rabbi, Elijah Hay- 
3'im Meisels, was elected in 1873. 

There is in Russia no Reform congregation; but 

it has what is known as "German" congregations. 

Tiiese are attended by the rich niem- 

Congrega- hers of the conununity ; strict decorum 

tions and is observed ; a cantor with trained choir 

Syna- conducts the service; and an acadcm- 

gogues. ical rabbi delivers his sermons in pure 
German or Russian. Lodz has such 
a congregation. Adolpii M. Radin, now in New 
York, was elected its rabbi in 1884, and was suc- 
ceeded by the present rabbi, Israel Jelski. The con- 
gregation completed its new temple in 1888 at a cost 
of 500,000 rubles. 

There are two synagogues, one on the Old Bazaar 
and one in Wulke, the Jewish quarter. The leaders 
of the community are Michael Adolpli Coiien, attor- 
ney at law; Ilerzberg; Pinkus; and Wachs. 

Tiie Hebrew Free School (Talmud Torali) has 
been under the management of Herman Koiistadt 
since 1877. The Jewish hospital was founded l)y 
Israel Posnanski, who donated 40,000 rubles for it in 
1879. The building was finished in 1883. 

The Free Loan Society (Gemilut Hasadim) was 
organized in 18H3 by J. S. Goldman and Isaac Mou 
diecki. In tlie same year Isaiah Ho- 

Institu- senblatt established the Free Lodging 
tions. Society (Ilakiiasat Orehim). Tiiere arc 
also a lioine for tlu; aged (Bet Mahseli 
li-Zekenim). and an asylum for poor girls. Mar- 
cus Silberstein is the fo\inder of tlu' Orplian 

Asylum, opened in 1895 with 64 children. The re- 
port of 1897 shows an average expenditure of 14,960 
rubles per annum. A Hebrew technical school, o-- 
giUiized by J. K. Posnanski, Bernhard Dobronicki, 
and S. Jarazinski, has an attendance of 300 pupils. 
The Jewish clerks employed in the factories formed 
a mutual aid society in 1896. Isidor Kempinski 
shortly before his death (1900) founded a secular 
school for Jewish children. 

The Jews of Lodz have contributed liberally to 
charitable institutions abroad. For example, tiiey 
gave 10,000 rubles to Rabbi Hildesheimer toward a 
Hebrew school for Russian Jewish immigrants in 
Berlin in 1883; and it is estimated that in the same 
year they expended in charity more than 1,000,000 
rubles. They contributed also a large sum to help 
their Christian neighbors build a Russian church in 

Among the Jewish celebrities who are natives of 

Lodz is David Janowski, the champion chess-player 

of France. On his visit to his native city in 1900 the 

authorities recognized bis successes by 

Distin- presenting him with a gold n; -dal. 

guished The artists Hcrschenberg, Glitzeu- 

Natives. stein, and Pilichowski also were born 
in Lodz. The last-named received a 
gold medal at tlie Paris Exposition of 1900 for his 
painting "The Wandering Jew." Another gold 
medal was awarded to Emanuel Sadokierski of Lodz 
for excellency in bookbinding and for articles made 
of papier-mache ("Currier Warszawski," 1900, No. 
239). The Jews of Lodz, however, refused to send 
a manufacturing exhibit to the Paris Exposition, 
thereby marking their indignation at the proceed- 
ings in the Dreyfus affair. Among Jewish writers 
of Lodz are David Fischman, the Hebrew novelist, 
and Sarah Feige Foner, author of the Hebrew nov- 
els "Beged Bogedim " and "Ahabat Yesharim." 
Site organized in Lodz tiie Bat Ziyyon Society for 
teaching girls the Hebrew language and Jewish his- 
tory and literature. 

The present (1904) population is about 300,000, 
including 75,000 Jews. The statistics of 1896 give 
1,827 births, 1,856 deaths, and 564 marriages among 
tile Jews of Lodz in that year. 

II. K. J. D. E. 

LOEB, ISIDORE: French scholar; born at 
Sulzmatt (Soultzmatt), Upper Alsace, Nov. 1, 1839; 
died at Paris, June 3, 1892. Tiie son of Rabbi 
Seligniann Loeb of Sulzmatt, he was educated in 
liible and Talmud by his father. After having 
followed the usual course in the public school of his 
native town, Loeb studied at the college of Rufach 
and at the lycee of Colmar, in which city he at tlie 
same time attended classes in Hebrew and Talmud 
at the preparatory rabbinical school founded by 
Chief Rabbi Solomon Klkin. In 1856 lie entered 
the Central Rabbinical School (Ecole Centrale Rab- 
liinique) at Metz, where lie soon ranked liigli 
tlirough his knowledge of Hebrew, his literarj' abil- 
ity, and his proficiency in mathematics. In 1862 lie 
was graduated, and received his rabbinical di[)loma 
from the Seminaire Israelite de France at Paris, 
which had replaced (1859) tiie Metz Ecole Centrale 




Loeb did not immediately enter upon a rabbinical 
career, but tutored for some years, tirst at Bayonne 
and then at Paris. In 1865 he was called to the rab- 
binate of St. Etienne (Loire). His installation ser- 
mon, on the duties of the smaller congregations 
(" Les Devoirs des Petites Communautes "), is one of 
the best examples of French pulpit rhetoric. 

Soon, however, he felt a desire to extend the field 
of his activity. He went to Paris, where he was 

appointed (June 1, 1869) 
secretary of the AUianre 
Israelite Universelle, 
which position he held 
until his death. It was 
largely due to Locb's 
labors that this associa- 
tion became an impor- 
tant factor in the prog- 
ress of Oriental Juda- 
ism; and he created the 
library of the Alliance, 
which is one of the most 
valuable Jewish libra- 
ries in existence. Mean- 
while he continued his 
historical and philolog- 
ical researches, and de- 
veloped an extensive 
literary activity. The 
chair of Jewish history in the Rabbinical Seminary 
of Paris having become vacant through the resig- 
nation of Albert Cohn (1878), Loeb was appointed 
his successor. He held this position for twelve 
years. His main activity, however, was devoted 
to the Societe des Etudes Juives, which was or- 
ganized in Paris in 1880. Beginning with the first 
number, he successfully edited the "Revue des 
Etudes Juives," the organ of that society, and was, 
moreover, a voluminous and brilliant contributor 

The following works published by Loeb deserve 
especial notice: "La Situation des Israelites en Tur- 
quie, en Serbie, et en Roumanie " (1869) ; " Biogra- 
phic d'Albert Cohn" (1878); "Tables du Calendrier 
Juif Depuis I'Ere Chretienne Jusqu'au XXX« Si6- 
cle"; "Les JuifsdeRussie" (1891); " La Litterature 
des Pauvres dans la Bible " ; and " Reflexions sur les 
Juifs." The two last-named works have been pub- 
lished by the Societe des Etudes Juives. 

Bibliography : I. L^vi, list of Loeb's works, in R. E. J. vol. 
xxiv.; Z. Kahn, biographical sketch, ib. 
s. Z. K. 

LiOEB, JACQUES: American biologist; born 
in Germany April 7, 1859; educated at the universi- 
ties of Berlin, Munich, and Strasburg (M.D. 1884). 
He took a postgraduate course at the universities 
of Strasburg and Berlin, and in 1886 became assist- 
ant at the physiological institute of the University 
of Wiirzburg, remaining there till 1888, when he 
went in a similar capacity to Strasburg. During 
his vacations he pursued biological researches, at 
Kiel in 1888, and at Naples in 1889 and 1890. In 
1892 he was called to the University of Chicago as 
assistant professor of physiology and experimental 
biology, becoming associate professor in 1895, and 
professor of physiology in 1899. In 1902 he was 

called to fill a similar chair at the University of 

The main subjects of his works are : animal tropisms 
and their relation to the instincts of animals; hetero- 
morphosis, i.e., substitution at will of one organ of 
an animal for another; toxic and antitoxic effects of 
ions; artificial parthenogenesis; and hybridization 
of the eggs of sea-urchins by the sperm of starfish. 

Among Loeb's works maybe mentipned: "He- 
liotropismus der Thiere und Seine Identitiit mit dcm 
Heliotropismus der Pflanzen," Wiirzburg, 1889; 
"Physiologische Morphologic," part i., ib. 1890; part 
ii., ib. 1891; " Vergleichende PhysiologiedesGehirns 
und Vergleichende Psychologic," Leipsic, 1899; edi- 
tion in English, New York, 1900. 

A. F. T. H. 

LOEB, LOUIS : American artist; born at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Nov. 7, 1866. At the age of thirteen he 
was apprenticed to a lithographer in his native city, 
and in 1885 went to New York, where he studied in 
the night-schools of the Art Students' League, of 
which he became vice-president in 1889. Loeb went 
to Paris in 1890, and studied under Geromc, obtain- 
ing honorable mention at the Paris Salon in 1895, 
and third medal in 1897. 

From 1893 Loeb contributed to the chief maga- 
zines of the United States some of their most impor- 
tant illustrations. He is a member of the Society 
of American Artists and associate of the National 
Academy of Design, and has contributed many note- 
worthy paintings to their exhibitions. Among the 
most important are the portraits of I. Zangwill 
(1898), J. H. Schiff (1904), Eleanor Robson (1904) ; and 
the following pictures : " Temple of the Winds, " 1896 
(silver medal, Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo. 
1903); "The Breeze" (1900); "The Joyous Life" 
(1903); and "The Dawn," 1903 (Webb prize). 

Bibliorraphy: Who's WJw in America; The Bookman. 
Feb., 1900. 


LOEB, MORRIS : American chemist ; born at 
Cincinnati, Ohio, May 23, 1863; son of Solomon 
Loeb ; educated at the New York College of Phar- 
macy and at the universities of Harvard, Berlin, 
Heidelberg, and Leipsic. In 1888 he became pri- 
vate assistant to Professor Gibbs of Newport, R. I., 
and a year later decent at Clark University, Wor- 
cester, Mass. He has been professor of chemistry 
at New York University since 1891, and director of 
the chemical laboratory there since 1894. 

Loeb has largely occupied himself with matters of 
Jewish interest and holds offices in many charitable 
associations and other communal organizations. 
He is president of the Hebrew Technical Institute, 
president of the (N. Y.) Hebrew Charities Building 
Fund, director of the Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary of America and of the Educational Alliance 
(1892-97). He is the author of various scientific arti- 
cles, chiefly on physical and inorganic chemistry. 


LOEWE, LOUIS : English Orientalist and the- 
ologian ; born at Zlilz, Prussian Silesia. 1809; died 
in London 1888. He was educated at the yeshi- 
bot of Lissa, Nikolsburg, Presburg, and at the 
University of Berlin. Stopping at Hamburg on 
his way to London, he was entrusted with the clas- 




sitication of the Oriental coins in the Sprewitz cab- 
inet. Soon after his arrival in London he was intro- 
<luced to the Duke of Sussex, who in 1839 appointed 
him liis "Orientalist." He then traveled in the 
East, where he studied Arabic, Persian, Coptic, Nu- 
bian, Turkish, and Circassian. In Cairo he was pre- 
sented to the khedive, ]NU)hammed Ali Pasha, for 
■whom he translated some hieroglyphic inscriptions. 
While in Palestine he was attacked by Bedouins, 
who took everything he had with him, including his 
collections and note-books. On his return he met 
at Home Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, who invi- 
ted him to travel with them to the Holy Land. 
When in 1840 Sir Moses went on his Damascus ex- 
pedition, Loewe accompanied him as his interpreter. 
In the firman granted for the relief of the accused, 
Loewe discovered that the word " pardon " (" 'afw ") 
was used instead of "acquittal," and it was due to 
Sir Moses' exertions that the change to "acquittal " 
was made. 

Altogether, Loewe accompanied Sir Moses Mon- 
tefiore on nine different philanthropic missions. 
When Jews' College was opened in 1856, he was 
nominated principal; and when Sir Moses Monte- 
fiore opened a theological college at Hamsgate in 
1869, he made his friend principal of that institu- 
tion, which position Loewe retained until three 
years after the death of his patron. 

Loewe wrote: "The Origin of the Egyptian Lan- 
guage," London, 1837; a translation of J. B. Leviu- 
sohn's "Efes Dammim," ib. 1841; a translation of 
David Nieto's "Matteh Dan," ih. 1842 (awarded the 
York Medal); "Observations on a Unique Coptic 
Gold Coin," 1849; a dictionary of the Circassian 
language, 1854; as well as several sermons and a 
Nubian grammar (the latter still in manuscript). 

Bibliography: Celebrities nf the Day, April, 1881; J. H. 
Loewe, A Catalogue of the Library of the Late Dr. L. 
Loewe, 1890. 
J. H. HiK. 

LOEWE, LXJDWIG : German manufacturer, 
philaiilhiopist, and member of the Reichstag; born 
at Heiligenstadt Nov. 27, 1837; died at Berlin Sept. 
11, 1886. The son of a poor teacher, he attended 
the gymnasium in his native city, and then went to 
Berlin. While still a young man he accidentally 
made the acquaintance of Ferdinand Lassalle before 
the period of tiie latter's socialistic agitation, and 
was admitted to his brilliant social circle. 

Loewe first entered ui)on a mercantile career as a 
dealer in woolens, then became a machinist, and in 
1864 established a manufactory of sewing-machines 
in Berlin. In 1870 he visited the United States to 
study the construction of machinery, and on his re- 
turn to Germany founded a factory for the produc- 
tion of tool-machinery in accordance with American 
methods, utilizing American machinery tliat had 
never before been introduced into Germany. He 
brought the manufacture to such a pitch of perfec- 
tion that the Pruf;sian War Department arranged 
with him for tiie establishment of a factory for tlic 
production of weapons. Under a guaranty from t lie 
government, Loewe established a remarkable plant 
to supply not only weapons for the army, but also 
machinery for expositions. 

From 1864\uitil Ids death Loewe was a member of 

the Berlin Municipal Council, and was particularly 
influential in developing the school system. He 
was elected a member of the Prussian Abgeordne- 
tenhausin 1876, and two years later a member of the 
Reichstag ; here he identified himself at first with the 
"Fortschrittspartei," being a devoted follower of 
Johann Jacoby, and afterward with the progress- 
ive party ("Deutsch-Freisinnige "). Subsequently 
his contracts with the government in connection 
with the furnishing of small arms were the sub- 
ject of calumnious animadversions by tlie anti- 
Semite Hermann Ahlwardt. Loewe having died, 
his brother Isidor, then at the head of the firm, in- 
sisted upon a complete investigation, which resulted 
in the demonstration of the utter baselessness of the 
charges made by the anti-Semitic leader. These 
charges were nothing less than that the Loeweswere 
members of an international Jewish conspiracy to 
secure control of the entire Avorld ; that the greatest 
obstacle to gratifying this ambition being the obsti- 
nacy of the Germans, the surest means of breaking 
that obstina(;y was by the defeat of the Germans in 
war; that this could be most eifectually secured by 
arming the German soldiers with defective weap- 
ons; and that to this end the Loevpes had, by fraud 
and bribery, foisted upon the German military au- 
thorities nearly half a million guns that would ex- 
plode in battle, maiming and disabling those who 
carried them and frightening their comrades, thus 
causing stampedes and routs. 

Loewe was for some time president of the Jewish 
congregation in Berlin. 

Bibliography : Alki. Zeit. ries Jtid. 1886, pp. 614-613, 633-638; 
Ahlwardt, Neuc EntliaUungen: Judenflintcn, Dresden, 
1893 ; Judenfliiiten, part ii., ib. 1892. 
s. M. Co. 

LOEWENTHAL, EDUARD : German writer 
and editor; born March 12, 1836, atErnsbach, Wurt- 
temberg ; educated at the high school at Stuttgart 
and at the University of Tubingen, where he studied 
jurisprudence and philosophy (Ph.D. 1859). He 
founded at Frank fort-on-the-Main the "Allgemeine 
Deutsche Universitatszeitung " and became assistant 
editor on Max Wirth's "Der Arbeitgeber. " Soon 
afterward he became editor of Payne's "Die 
Glocke" at Leipsic, and established there the "Zeit- 
geist." In 1873 he became editor-in-chief of the 
"Neue Fieie Zeitung," and in the following year 
founded the Deutscher Vereiu fUr Internationale 

After having served two terms in prison as the 
result of press lawsuits, Loewenthal went to Brus- 
sels, London (where he remained for a year), and 
Paris. In the last-named city he founded the 
"Weltblxhne, Deutsche Pariser Zeitung," and a 
French monthly, "Le Monde de I'Esprit." In 1888 
he returned to Berlin, Emperor Frederick III. hav- 
ing proclaimed an amnesty for political olfendens. 

Among Loeweuthal's works may be mentioned: 
"System und Gesch. des Naturalismus" (Cth ed. 
1868; Engl. 1897); "Gesetz der Sphilrischen 
Molekularbewegung " (also an English edition); 
"Napoleon III. and the Commune of Paris" 
(drama); "P>ine Religion olme Bekenntiiiss" (1865); 
"Der Militaiismus als Ursache der Massenverar- 
mung"(l868; translated into French, at tiie expense 




of the Societe des Amis de la Paix, 1869); "Grund- 
zuge zur Reform und Kodification des VOlkcr- 
rechts" (1872; translated into English and French): 
"Le Cogitantisme on la Religion Scientifique" 
(1886); -'Der Staat Bellamy's und Seine Nachfol- 
ger" (1892); "Grundriss der Gesch. der Philoso- 
phie" (1896); "Die Religiose Bewegung im 19. 
Jahrhundert " (1900); "Die Fulguro-Genesis im Ge- 
gensatz zur Evolutionstheorie " (1902) ; " Gtesch. der 
Friedensbewegung " (1903). 
s. L. La. 

liOEWY, EMANUEL : Austrian archeologist ; 
born at Vienna Sept. 1, 1857; educated at the gym- 
nasium and university of his native city (Ph.D. 
1882). He is now (1904) professor of archeology at 
the University of Rome. 

Loewj is the author of: " Untersuchungen zur 
Griechischen Kilnstlergeschichte " (1883) ; " Inschrif- 
ten Griechischer Bildhauer" (1885); "Lysipp und 
Seine Stellung in der Griechischen Plastik " (1891) ; 
" Die Naturwiedergabe in der Aeltesten Griechischen 
Kunst " (1900). 

s. F. T. H. 

LOEWY, MAURICE: Astronomer; born at 
Vienna, Austria, April 15, 1833. A descendant of 
a Hungarian family, he received his education at 
his native city, where he was employed at the observ- 
atory. In 1860 he was called to the Paris Observa- 
tory as assistant astronomer, being appointed astron- 
omer in 1864. In 1865 he became a French citizen. 

In 1872 he was appointed 
a member of the Bureau 
des Longitudes; in 1873 
lie was elected to the 
French Institute (Acade- 
mic des Sciences) ; in the 
same year he became 
assistant director and in 
1896 director of the Paris 

Loewy since 1878 has 
been editor of " Ephenie- 
rides des Etoiles de Cul- 
mination Lunaire," and 
since 1896 of the " Rap- 
port Annuel sur I'Etat 
de rObservatoire de 
Paris. " He has invented 
several important astro- 
nomical instruments, among which is especially well 
known his " equatorial coude " or elbow-telescope, 
with which he has secured the best photographs of 
the moon. He has published with Puiseux since 
1896 the "Atlas Photographique de la Lune." 

Among Loewy 's numerous essays and works may 
be mentioned: "Nouvelles Methodes pour la Deter- 
mination des Orbites des Cometes," 1879; " Des Ele- 
nu'iits Fondamentaux de 1' Astronomic," 1886; " De 
la Constance de I'Aberration et de la Refraction," 
1890; "Du Coefficient de I'Elasticite." 1892 (willi 
Tresca) ; " De la Latitude et dos Positions Absolues 
des Etoiles Fondamentales," 1895. 

Loewy 's "Memoires" have been published in the 
"Comptes Rendus de rAcadeniie des Sciences" and 
in the " Annales do rObservatoire." 

Maurice Loewy. 

Bibliography: Curiniei. Diet. Nat. Hi. 12; La Grande En- 
cudopidie, xxli. 415; Nmtveati LarouKse lUustri', v. 730: 
Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 

8. F. T. H. 

LOGIC: The science of correct thinking; the 
science of the principles governing the comparative 
and constructive faculties in the pursuit and use of 
truth. Although, judging from the principles that 
were propounded by the Tannaini for the deduc- 
tion of halakot from the Biblical text, it can be 
surmised that the Rabbis were acquainted with the 
laws of syllogisms, analogies, etc., no mention of 
logical science is made in Jewish literature prior to 
the Judieo-Arabic period (see Talmud). It was 
only with the transplantation of the Arabo-Greek 
philosophy to Jewish soil that the Aristotelian 
"Organon,"as propounded by the Arabs, became 
the vade-mecum of every Jewish student, and was 
regarded as indispensable to the acquisition of meta- 
physical and psychological knowledge. The He- 
brew terms adopted for " logic " were "i3Tn n03n, 
which is the literal translation of the Arabic " "ilm 
al-kalam," and \\''^T\'r[ nODn, coiTesponding to the 
Arabic "'ilm al-mantik," each signifying both "the 
science of speech" and "the science of thinking." 
The term "hokmat higgayon" was, according to 
Shera-Tob ("Sefer ha-Emunot," p. 45), first so em- 
ployed by the Tibbonides. It is found also in the 
Talmud, but in the sense of "recitation." Eliezer 
said to his pupils, " Restrain your children from jvjn " 
(Ber. 28b), intending thereby to warn them against 
parading a superficial knowledge of the Bible gained 
by verbal memorization. The anti-Maimonists, 
however, interpreted the word " higgayon " in the 
sense of "logic," and saw in Eliezer's saying a warn- 
ing against the study of that science. 

The first work on logic written by a Jew was the 
" Makalah fi Sana'at ai-Mantik " of Maimonides 
(12th cent.), translated into Hebrew by Moses ibn 
Tibbon under the title "Millot ha-Higgayon." It is 
divided into fourteen chapters containing explana- 
tions of 175 logical terms. The He- 
First Jew- brew terminology used by the transla- 
ish. "Work tor has been adopted by all subsequent 
on Log-ic. writers on Hebrew philosophical lit- 
erature. The eight books of the " Or- 
ganon," without counting Porphyry's introduction, 
are enumerated. The " jMillot ha-Higgayon" was first 
published with two anonymous commentaries at 
Venice in 1552, and has since passed through fourteen 
editions. Commentaries upon it were written by Mor- 
decaiComtino (15th cent.) and by Moses Mendelssohn. 
A Latin translation was published by Sebastian 
Mlinster (Basel, 1527); and German ones were made 
by M. S. Neumann (Venice, 1822) and Heilberg 
(Breslau, 1828). 

During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
Jewish literature was enriched with several wri- 
tings on logic. The works of Al-Farabi and of 
Averroes were translated and commented upon ; and 
the translations have survived the origijjals. Of 
Al-Farabi's essays on logic the following~^re still 
extant in Hebrew manuscripts in variovis European 
libraries: tlic introduction (Arabic, "Tautiyah"; 
Hebr. nyVH), in tliree versions; the " Isagoge of Por- 
phyry " ; " Hermeneutics " ; "Posterior Analytics," 




the translation of wliicli is attributed to Moses ibu 
Tibbou ; "Topics," in two versions; and "Syllo- 
gisms," au abridgment of which was 

Transla- made by Jacob ben Abba Mari Anatoli 

tions of under the title "Sefer Hekesh Ka/er." 
Al-Farabi. A conmientary on Al-Farabi's tive 
chapters on logic Avas written in the 
lifteenth century by the Karaite Abraham Bali. Of 
Avei'roes' Short Commentary there are two Hebrew 
versions: one made by Jacob ben ]Machir of Mont- 
pellier in 1189 and published under the title " Kol 
Meleket Higgayon" at Riva di Trenta in 1559, and 
the other made by Samuel Marsili ben Judah of Taras- 
con in 1329. A Latin translation of Jacob ben Ma- 
chir's versiou was made by Abraham de Balmes. 
A commentary on tlie Short Commentary was writ- 
ten by Moses Narboni (1340-55). Of Averroes' Mid- 
dle Commentaries thoseon Porpliyry's introduction, 
"Categories," "Interpretation," "Syllogisms," and 
"Demonstration" were translated by Jacob ben Ab- 
ba Mari Anatoli ; on " Topics " and " Sophistical Ref- 
utations," by Kalonymus ben Kalonymus of Aries 
in 1313; on "Rhetoric" and "Poetics" by Todros 
Todrosi of Trinquetaille in 1337. Anatoli 's transla- 
tion of the first five books was used by Joseph Caspi, 
who wrote an abridgment of the books on logic under 
the title " Zeror ha-Kesef." A translation from the 
Greek of Aristotle's logic was made in the fourteenth 
century by Shemariah ben Elijah Ikriti of Negropont. 
At the end of the same century Joseph ben Moses 
Kilti treated, in his work "Minhat Yehu.dah," of 
Aristotle's logic in the fashion of the aphorisms of 
Hippocrates. Shortly after appeared a work on 
Aristotle's logic written b}'^ Elijah l)en Eliezer of 
Candia. Another original work of the same period 
was the " Kelale Higgayon " of David ibn Bilia. 

Averroes' Middle Commentaries were much com- 
mented upon during the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. The oldest supercommentary known is 
that found in the Vatican Library (MS. No. 337). 
It dates from 1316 and deals with Porphyry's " Isa- 
goge," "Categories," and "Hermeneutics." The 
other known supercommentaries of the fourteenth 
centur}- an; those of: Jedaiah Bedersi, mentioned 
by Moses Habib; Levi ben Gershon, a Latin trans- 
lation of which is still extant in manuscript in the 
Vatican Library (see "Atti dell' Academia dei 
Nuovi Lincei," Rome, 1863); Judah ben Samuel 
Abbas; and Abraham Abigdor ben Meshullam 
(Bonet). A rimed resume of Porphyry's introduc- 
tion and the "Categories" was given by Moses Rieti 
in his "Mikdash Me'at." 

To the writings on logic of the fifteenth century 
belong: the supercommentary on Averroes' Middle 
Commentaries, and the abridgment of 
Commen- Logic, entitled "Miklol Yofi," by Mes- 
taries on ser Leon (Judah ben Jehiel); the 
Logic. abridgment of the " Categories," " Syl- 
logisms," and "Demonstration" by 
Abraham Faris.sol ; the commentary on the " Isa- 
goge " by Joseph ben Shem-Tob; the commentaries 
on the "I.sagoge," "Categories," and " Interpreta 
tion " l)y Elijah Habillo; the annotations on Aver- 
roes' Middle Commentary on the "Categories" and 
"Interpretation" by Manoah Sho'ali; and several 
anonymous commentaries on various books on logic. 

A supercommentary on the "Posterior Analytics" 
was written by Abraham Bibago. Of Averroes' ques- 
tions on the"Organon," contained in the "Masa'il fi 
al-Hikmah," one portion was translated by Kalonj-- 
mus ben Kalonymus, and the whole by Samuel ben 
Meshullam in 1320 under the title " Ha-She'elot ha- 
Dibriyyot weha-Derushim Asher le-Pilusufim." A 
commentary on two portions was written by Levi 
ben Gershon. From Samuel's translation proceeded 
the Latin versiou made by Abraham de Balmes, 
which was first published in 1550. Another Latin 
translation of six portions was made by Elijah Del- 
medigo. Samuel ben Judah translated into Hebrew 
other questions on logic proceeding from the Arabic 
wiiters Abu al-Kasim ben Idris, Abu al-Hajjaj ibn 
Talmus, Abu al-' Abbas Ahmad ben Kasim, and 'Abd 
al-Rahman ben Tahir. These questions also were 
rendered into Latin by Abraham de Balmes. An 
original writer on logic of the fifteenth century was 
Mordecai Comtino. 

Like the other branches of philosophy, tlie study 
of logic has since the sixteenth century been neg- 
lected by the Jews, and no important work on this 
science has been published in Hebrew. Among the 
Jewish logicians of modern times the most notable 
was Solomon Maimon, who wrote "Versuch Einer 
Neuen Logik" (Berlin, 1794), in which he attempted 
to expound an algebraic or symbolic system of logic. 

Bibliography : Munk, Melanges, p. 108 et peussim ; Renan, 
Averrot's et VAverrmsme, pp. 184 et seq.i Steinschneider, 
Hebr. Ucbers. pp. 43etse(j'.; idem, Al-Farabi, Index. 

J. I. Br. 

L0G03, THE. See Memra ; Philo ; Wisdom. 

LOLLI, DAVID : Italian physician ; born at 
Goritz 18;i5; died at Triest 1884; son of Samuel 
Vita Lolli; studied medicine at Padua and Vienna. 
On the outbreak of the Italian war for liberation he 
abandoned his studies, hastened to Padua to join 
the volunteers, took part in the unsuccessful at- 
tempt to hold Vicenza, and then joined the garrison 
guarding Venice. When the cholera broke out in 
the besieged city, Lolli also was stricken. On his 
recovery he returned to his native city, but subse- 
quently established himself as a physician at Triest. 
He continued to agitate for the independence of 
Italy (in which he included Goritz and Triest), and 
often incurred great danger in consequence. 

Lolli wrote much, especially on psychology and 
magnetism. Most of his works remained in manu- 
scripts; but the following were published: "Sul 
Magnetismo Animale, Pubblicato Nell' Occasione di 
Conseguire laLaurea," Padua, 1850 ; " Sulla Migliare, 
Due Parole di Occasione," Triest, 1857; "Sii Forte e 
Sarai Libcro (Seneca): Sii Liberoe Sarai Forte," Mi- 
lan, 1860, ])ublished anonymously for political rea- 
sons; "I Numi," Milan, 1866, a symbolical story, 
jniblished under the pseudonym" Aldo Apocali.ssio " ; 
"Sul Cholera," Triest, 1866; and "L'Amore dal 
Lato Fisiologico, Filosofico, e Sociale," Milan, 1883. 

s. E. L. 

LOLLI, EUDE: Italian rai)bi: l)orn at Giiritz 
Aug. 23, 1826; educated at the lyceum of his 
native town and at the rabbinical college of Padua, 
graduating thence in 1854. In 1865 he was ap- 
pointed professor at the .same college, which posi- 





tion lie held until tlie iustltution was dftiuitely 
closed in 1871. In 1809 lie was elected cliief rabbi 
of Padua, and in 1877 he became lecturer in, and in 
1886 professor of, Hebrew and Chaldaic at the Uni- 
versity of Padua. 

LoUi is the autlior of: " Diziouario del Linguag- 
gio Ebraico-Iiabbinico," Padua, 1869; "Prele/.ione 
ad un Corso di Lingua Ebraica e Caldaica," 1877; 
"Corso di Gramniatiea della Lingua Ebraica," ib. 
1878. He also contributed a large portion to S. 1). 
Luzzatto's " La Sacra 13ibbia Volgarizzala," Rovigo, 
BiBi.iooRAPHY : De Gubernatis, Diz. ]ii<><j. 

s. F. T. II. 

LOM (LOM-PALANK) : Town in Bulgaria, 
situated at the mouth of the River Lorn. It has a 
population of about 8,000, of which approximately 
700 are Jews, chiefly artisans and traders in grain. 
On March 20, 1904, a riot broke out against the Jews 
in connection with the disappearance of a young Bul- 
garian, whom the Jews were accused of murdering 
for ritual purposes. Tlirough the timely measures 
taken by the government, a massacre was averted, 
and the riot subsided after a number of stores 
and dwelling-houses and the synagogue had been 
sacked. The young Bulgarian was afterward found 

BiBLior.RAPHY : EntziliUtpedicheski Slovar, xvii. 945, St. 
Petersburg, 189.5; Dudufhchnoat, 1904, Nos. 13-14. 

D. A. S. W. 

LOMAZY : Town in the district of Bialy, near 
Brest-Litovsk, Russia. Though in 1566 there was 
no Jew among its 400 house-owners, its customs 
revenues were farmed out to Jews. In 1589 the 
customs and mills were leased to the Jews Leibka, 
Wolfovich, and Itzka. According to Samuel ben 
Phoebus ("Tit ha-Yawen ") 200 Jews were killed 
in Lomazy during the Cossack uprising (1648-49). 
In 1897 the Jews of Lomazy numbered 1,100 in a 
total population of 3,200. 

Bibliography: Ru!<skn-Yevreiski Arhhiv, ii.. No. 2;32 ; Uegcs- 
ty, i., Nos. 669, 671; Samuel ben Phoebus, Tit ha-Yawen. 
H. K. G. D. R. 

LOMBROSO (LUMBROSO) : Sephardic fam- 
ily, members of which lived in Tunis, Marseilles, 
and Italy. The two forms of the family name are 
doubtless due to different readings of the Hebrew 

Abram Lumbroso, Baron : Tunisian physi- 
cian and scientist; born in Tunis 1813; died in 
Florence 1887. After completing his classical stud- 
ies in Florence and receiving his M.D. degree at 
Pisa, he became physician-in-chief to the Bey of 
Tunis and afterward director of the state sanitary 
service. In 1846 he accompanied the bey to Paris, 
receiving from King Louis Philippe the Order of 
the Legion of Honor. 

In Tunis Lumbroso founded a scientific society, 
of which he was president ; and he was one of the 
most ardent assistants of tlie bey, Avho was interested 
in the promotion of culture. Lumbroso distin- 
guished himself not only by his skill as a physician, 
but also by his philanthropic acts. As a reward for 
his valuable services during the cholera epidemic, 
rendered to foreigners and to natives without regard 

to sect or treed, King Victor Emanuel II. of Italy 
bestowed u\)i>n him the title of baron, with remain- 
der to liis ekk'St son. He was decorated also by the 
Sultan of Turkey with the Order of the Medjidie. 

Of Liinil)M)si)"s i^ulilished works may be cited: 
"Sehiz/.o Slorico Scicntitico sul Colera Asiatico che 
Invase la Reggenza di Tiinisi ncl 1849 e 1850," Mar- 
seilles, Is.'iO; " Lettere Medico-Statistiche suUa Reg- 
genza di Tunisi," ib. 1850. 

Bibliography: T)e Gubernatis, Picco/o Diziouario dci Om- 
tcinixtranci^ Rome. 1895; lirsovonto ttulle Opere del Ba- 
rojte Dr. Almnn Lutnl>rnxi) Lctta aW Accademia lieale di 
McdieiiKi (H 'J'ariiui iid Atnii) IStJO. 

David. Lumbroso: Tunisian political agent; 
born in Tunis 1817; died in Leghorn 1880. He was 
a highly respected merchant in the Italian colony of 
the former city, and was much trusted by the Tu- 
nisian government, to which he was of service on 
many critical occasions. 

Giacomo Lumbroso : Brother of Abram Lum- 
broso; head of a prominent business house at Mar- 
seilles, where he was consul for Tunis till the latter 
came under the protectorate of France. 

Giacomo Lumbroso, Baron : Son of Abram 
Lumbroso. He studied law in Tunis, graduating 
with honors, but devoted himself principally to his- 
torical and archeologic researches, upon which he 
has written many important works. He was pro- 
fessor of ancient hi.story, first in the University of 
Pisa and afterward in that of Rome. He resigned 
the latt(;r position and retired to private life. 
Baron Giacomo is a member of the Accademia dei 

Bibliography : De Gubernatis, Piccolo Diziouario dei Con- 
temporanei, Rome, 1895. 

Giacomo Lumbroso : Italian physician ; born 
in Leghorn 1859. He was privat-docent in neuropa- 
thology and electrotherapeutics at the Institute of 
Florence, and physician-in-chief at the united royal 
hospitals of Leghorn. 

Bibliography: De Gubernatis, Piccolo Dizionario dei Con- 
temprjranci, Rome, 1895. 
s. E. L. 

Isaac Lumbroso : Chief rabbi of Tunis and rab- 
binical author; died in 1752. He was prominent in 
the Tunisian Jewry, being judge of the community 
about 1710 — an epoch coinciding with the schism 
which divided the Jews of the city into two camps, 
native Tunisians and Gournis or Italians. Lumbro- 
so was appointed rabbinical judge of tlie latter; 
and, being a man of means, he filled at the same 
time tlie position of receiver of taxes to the bey as 
well as that of caid, being the representative official 
of his community. 

From a literary point of view, Lumbroso, who 
was one of the most brilliant pupils of Rabbi Zemah 
Zarfati, was tlie most important among the Tunisian 
rabbis of the eighteenth century. He encouraged 
and generously assisted his fellow rabbis; and his 
reputation as a Talmudist and cabalist has survived 
to the present day. 

Lumbroso was the author of " Zera' Yizhak," pub- 
lished posthumously at Tunis in 1768. This work, 
the only one which has as yet been printed in that 
city, is a commentary on the different sections of 
the Talmud. Several funeral orations, pronounced 




by Lumbroso on divers occasions, are appended 

Bibliography : Caz^s, Notes Btblioaraphiques, pp. 240-246. 
s. s. M. Fr. 

Isaac Vita Lumbroso : Father of Abram Lum- 
broso; born in Tunis 1798; died in Leghorn 1871. 
He was well known because of his pliilanthropy. 
For thirty years he was president of the Portuguese 
consistory in Tunis, and for four years judge of tlie 
Court of Appeals. 

8. E. L. 

Jacob Lombroso : Italian rabbi and physician. 
of Spanish origin ; lived at the beginning of the sev- 
enteenth century in Venice, where he published a 
notable Bible having an exhaustive introduction 
and explanations together Avith Spanish translations 
of the more difficult passages. By some he is con- 
sidered to be the author of the "Propugnaculum 
Judaismi," written in defense of Judaism against tlie 
attacks in the fifth book of Grotius' "De Veritate 
Religionis Christianoe." Mortara, however ("In- 
dice," 1). 35), observes that Lombroso himself as- 
cribes this work to Isaac Orobio. 
Bibliography : De Rossi, Dizionario. 

I). E. L. 

LOMBROSO, CESARE : Italian alienist and 
criminologist; born Nov. 18, 1835, at Verona. Both 
his paternal and his maternal ancestors belonged to 
the tribe of Levi. On his father's side he was de- 
scended from a fandly 
which for many gener- 
ations had been ricli 
in rabbis and Hebra- 
ists. His maternal an- 
cestors were chiefly 
manufacturers and 
hjinkers who had long 
been established at 
Chieri, Piedmont. But 
in this branch of his 
family, also, there were 
many men of great 
talent, among others 
the poet David Levi, 
who took an important 
part in the Italian 
struggle for liberty, 
firstasaCarbonaro, and 
afterward as a deputy. 
Under Professor Marzolo, Lombroso studied He- 
brew, Aramaic, Arabic, and Ciiinese, intending to 
devote liimself wholly to philology. He afterward 
studied medicine at Padua, Paris, and Vienna, and 
from the verj' beginning sliowed an especial prefer- 
ence for the study of insanity. While still a stu- 
dent he wrote two essays — one on insanity in antiq- 
uity, and one on the insanity of Cardan — in which, 
for the first time, was i)ointed out the connection 
between madness and genius. 

Lombroso served as jihysician in tlie Austro-Ital- 
ian war (1859). The scientific results of his military 
service were two papers on amputation (which were 
awarded the Riberi prize, the only official academic 
reward he has ever received), and a work on Cala- 
brian folk-lore, which subject he liad an opportunity 

C't'sare Lombroso 

of studying after the conclusion of jieace, when he 

and his regiment were transferred to Calabria. As 

this regiment was composed of soldiers from all parts 

of Italy, Lombroso took advantage of 

Studies in the opportunity thus afforded him to 

Ethnology, study the ethnical types of the Italian 

people, and to lay the foundation for 

an ethnographical-anthropological chart of Italy. 

Some time later he was sent from Calabria to Pavia, 

where he asked permission to visit the insane asylum 

regularly, in order to acquire greater knowledge in 

his specialty. This permission being refused, he 

abandoned the military career. 

His experience during the following j'ear was a 
very trying one. He taught at the University of 
Pavia, and served as a physician in tiie insane asy- 
lum; but in both cases he gave his services gratui- 
tously ; and at night, in order to earn a bare subsist- 
ence, he had to make translations from the German. 
It was under such circumstances that he produced, 
among other works, his Italian edition of Mole- 
schott's well-known work, "Kreislauf des Lebens," 
under the title "II Circuito della Materia." At 
length, after a year of extreme want, he was made 
professor of psychiatry at Pavia, with a yearly sal- 
ary of 2,000 francs ($400), at that time a very con- 
siderable sum to him. His first two pamphlets, 
which he Avrote during two sleepless nights, deal 
with genius and madness, and contain in embryo 
all the ideas afterward developed in his great work, 
"L'Uomodi Genio"(.see below). During the first 
year of his professorship he wrote " L'Uomo Bianco 
e rUomo di Colore," a work treating of the develop- 
ment of the human race, which development is con- 
ceived entirely from the point of view of the theory 
of evolution, and is filled with Darwinian ideas, 
although at that time Lombroso knew neither Dar- 
win nor Herbert Spencer. 

In Pavia, also, Lombroso began his studies of pel- 
lagra, a peculiar skin-disease prevalent in northern 
Italy and the origin of which was totally xmknown. 
He showed conclusively that it was due to a poison 
developed in old, moldy corn, the only food of the 
poor agricultural laborers of the country. On 
account of his discovery of the real cause of this 
malady he was denounced by the landed proprie- 
tary to the government as a madman; and it was 
demanded that he should be deprived of his pro- M 
fessorship. Years later, however, his theory of pel- ' 
lagra was accepted by the whole profession. On 
the skull of a criminal executed at Pavia, he noticed 
the fossa occipitalis media, an atavic feature which 
he was the first to observe. 

Lombroso was transferred from Pavia University 
to that of Turin, where he is now (1904) professor of 
psychiatry and medical jurisprudence. He has made 
a collection of criminals' skulls and photographs, of 
writings and works of art by lunatics and condemned 
criminals, as well as of prison appliances, which is 
one of the most extensive and instructive of its kind. 
He' has many disciples, who are called collect- 
ively in Italy "La Scuola Lombro.siana." Many of 
these (e.g., Enrico Fcrri, Baron Garofalo Honcoroni, 
Patrizi, Ferrero, Zerboglio, and (*arrara) have as a 
result of their investigations attained to national and 
even world-wide renown. 




Lombroso's name is chiefly connected with two 
theories: (1) that genius is a peculiar, psj'cliical 
form of larvate epilepsy ; (3) that there is a degen- 
erate class of human beings, distinguished by ana- 
tomical and psychical characteristics, who are born 
with criminal instincts and who rep- 
Theories resent a reversion to a very primitive 
of Genius form of humanity. He has made a 
and Crime, rich collection of materials for the in- 
vestigation of his theory that genius 
is a form of epilepsy. Both he and his pupils have 
carefully studied the best-known geniuses of all na- 
tions, ages, and spheres of activity; they have 
brought together everything pertaining to their life, 
works, appearance, hereditary characteristics, ill- 
nesses, idiosyncrasies, habits, etc., and have noted 
all traits that could make it seem probable that the 
subjects had suffered from epileptic disturbances. 

In his theory of the born criminal, Lombroso recog- 
nizes crime as a phenomenon of degeneration, and 
places the criminal among those abnormal types of 
the human species which, according as their de- 
velopment is either defective or excessive, present 
examples of atavism or of evolution — i.e., become on 
the one hand idiots or criminals; on the other, 
saints, martyrs, altruists, revolutionists, artists, or 
poets. The effect of this theory was felt chiefly in 
the field of criminal jurisdiction. It gave rise to 
a distinct science — criminal anthropologj^ ; and it 
effected a revolution in the mode of viewing both 
the criminal and the crime which has found expres- 
sion in the newer penal codes. 

Of Lombroso's works may be mentioned : 
"L'Uomo Delinquente in Rappor