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B'nai B'ritli Women's GranJ LoJge, District No. 4 



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Mr. & I'trs, Roy Paperrnaster 


Jewish Encyclopedia 




Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists 


Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. {Departments of Post- 
Biblical Antiquities ; the Jews of America) . 

Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. {Department 
of History from I4g2 to igoi) . 

Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D. {Department of 
Rabbinical Literature) . 

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D. {Departments of 
History from Ezra to J4g2 ; History of 
Post - Talmudic Literature) . 

Joseph Jacobs, B.A {Departments of the 
Jews of England and Anthropology ; Revi- 
sing Editor) . 

Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D. {Department of the Talmud). 

Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D. {Department of the Bible) . 

Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. {Departments of Theology 
and Philosophy) . 

Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D. {Chief of the 
Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor). 

Isidore Singer, Ph.D. {Department of Modern 
Biography from ly^o to igoi) . 

Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. {Departments of 
Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature) . 


Profector and Managing Editor 


(see page v) 





N.Y. 2, N.Y. 






(Depart merif." of I'oM-llihlUal Antiquities; the Jews of 

President of the American Jewish Historical Society ; Librarian, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washin(i:ton, D. C. 


(Dcpartiuad of Hii^ttiiii fiDin lUiJ-i to 1901.) 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 

Ohio ; Editor of " Deborah." 


(Department of Rahhinical Literature.) 
New Yorlf ; Author of "' Die Haggada bel den Klrchenvatem." 


(Departments of Hi~<oru from Ezra to 11*92 ; History of Post- 

Talmudic Literature.) 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New Yorl£; 

Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library ; 

President of the Federation of American Zionists. 


(Departments of the Jews of EnghDid and Anthropology; 
Revising Editor.) 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England ; 
Author of "Jews of Anurevin England," etc. 


(Department of the Talmud.) 
Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; Author of " Dictionary of the Talmud." 


KDepartmeid of the Bihlc.) 

Professor of SemUlc Languages and Librarian In the University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; Author of "Relig- 
ion of the Babylonians and Assyrians," etc. 


(Departments of Theology and Philosophy.) 

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York ; President of the Board of 
Jewish Ministers, New York. 


(Chief of the Bureau of Trandation; Revising Editor.) 

Rabbi of the West End Synagogue, New York ; Vice-President 

of Board of Jewish Ministers, New York. 

(Department of Modern Biography from 1750 to 1901.) 


(Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic 


Professor of Hebrew In Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. ; 

Author of " The Religion of Israel," " Judaism and 

Christianity," etc. 



Rabbi of the Congregation Zichron Ephraim, Dean of the Jewish 
Theological Seminary, New York. 


Rabbi Emeritus of Zion Congregation, Chicago ; Author of " A 
Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language." 


Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Emanu-EI, New York. 


Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, Chicago, 111.; Professor of 

Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of 

Chicago ; Editor of the " Reform Advocate." 


Head of the Department of Semitic and Egyptian Literatures, 
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 


Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto, 

Canada; Author of " History, I>rophecy, and 

the Monuments." 


Rabbi of the Shearith Israel Congregation (Spanish and Portu- 
guese), New York ; President of the Advisory Board of 
Ministers of the Jewish Theological Seminary. 


Professor of Talmudic Literature, Hebrew Union College, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio ; Author of " Introduction to the Talmud." 


Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature and President of 

Andover Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass.; Author 

of a Commentary on the Book of Judges, etc. 


Rabbi of the Congregation Bene Israel ; Professor of Homiletics, 

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; President of 

Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America. 


Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature, University of 

Chicago, 111. ; Author of " The Monuments and 

the Old Testament," etc. 






In charve of Slavonic Department, New York Public Library. 


President of Ceniral Conference of American Rabbis ; Rabbi of 
Temple Emanu-El, New York. 


Rabbi of the Con(?reRatlon Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal. ; 
feasor of Semitic Languaj^es and Literatures, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal. 


Editor of " The Uterary Digest," New York. 




Coedltor of the " Jewish Quarterly Review " ; Author of "Jew- 
ish Life In the Middle Ages," etc. ; Senior Tutor 
In Jews' College, Loudon, England. 

W. BACHER, Ph.D., 

Professor In the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, 

M. BRANN, Ph.D., 

P ro fc aror Id the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Ger- 
many ; Editor of " Monatsscbrift fur Geschlchte und 
Wlssenschaft des Judeuthums." 

H. BRODY, Ph.D., 

R&bbU Nachod, Bohemia, Austria ; Coedltor of "Zeltschrift fiir 
Hebralsche Bibliographic." 


Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople, 



Profeasor of Literary Arabic at the Special School of Oriental 
Lanifuages, Paris, France ; Member of the French Institute. 


Author of " istoriya Yevreyev," Odessa, Russia. 


Principal of Jews' College, London, England; Author of "The 

Jewish Religion," etc. 


Professor of s<-mitlc Philology, University of Budapest, Hungary. 


Chief Rabbi of Vienna, Austria. 


St. Petersburg, Russia. 


Chief of the Hebrew Uepiirtmeut of the Imperial Public Library, 
St. Petersburg, Russia. 


Chief Rabbi of France ; Honorary President of the Alliance 

Israelite Unlverselle ; Officer of the Legion 

of Honor, Paris, France. 


Babbl, Budapest, Hungary ; Corresponding Member of the 

Royal Academy of History, Madrid, Spain. 


Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Berlin ; Meran, 

A ustria. 


Member of the French Institute : Professor at the Free School 

of Political Science, Paris, France ; Author of 

" Israel chez les Nations." 


Professor In the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Editor of 
" Revue des Etudes Julves," Paris, France. 


Chief Rabbi of Padua ; Professor of Hebrew at the University, 
Padua, Italy. 


Chief Rabbi of Szegedln, Hungary ; Author of " Die Aramaischen 



Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Chief Rabbi of 
Florence, Italy. 

H. OORT, D.D,, 

Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the State 
University, Leyden. Holland. 


Formerly Librarian of the Reale Blblloteca Palatlna, Parma, 



Formerly Professor of HisUjry at the Universities of Bonn and 

Brussels; President of the Deutsch-Judlsche 

Gemeindebund, Berlin, Germany. 


Rabbi In Warsaw, Russia. 


Professor of Hebrew, University College, London, England; 

Reader in Rabbinic, University of Cambridge; 

Author of "Studies In Judaism " 


Secretary -General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris, 



Professor of Philosophy, University of Bern, Switzerland ; Editor 
of " Archlv fiir Geschlchte der Phllosophle," etc. 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages, 
University of Berlin, Germany. 


Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, England ; Editor of 
" Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," etc. 



A Cyrus Adler, Ph.D., 

I'residfnl of ilif Aiiicricaii Jewisli Historical 
Society: I'lvsidciU otitic BoarU of Directors 
of the Jewisli Tlieologiciil .Seminary of Amer- 
ica ; Assistant Secretary of the Smitlisonian 
Institution, Washington, D. C. 

A. Bii Alexandei- Buchler, Ph.D., 

Hablii, Kcszlhely, lliintJraiy. 

A. Co A. Cowley, M.A., 

oiieiiuil Suhlibrarian, Bodleian Library, O.x- 
ford University, Oxford, Encland. 

A. E A. Eckstein, Ph.D., 

Uuljbi, I5aml>crK, Bavaria, Germany. 

A. F A. Freimann, Ph.D., 

Editoi' of the " Zcitschrift fiir Hebraische 
BiblioM:raphie " ; Librarian of the Hebrew De- 
partment, Stadtbibliotlick, Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, Germany. 

A. G Adolf Guttmacher, Ph.D., 

Rabl)i, Baltimore Hebiew ConRregation, Bal- 
timore, Md. 

A. Go A. Gornfeld, 

Counselor at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

A. Ki Alexander Kisch, Ph.D., 

Rabbi. Meysel Syuagoge, Prague, Bohemia, 

A. M. F Albert M. Friedenberg, B.S., LL.B., 

Counselor at Law, New York City. 

A. P A. Porter, 

Formerly Associate Editor of "The Forum," 
New York ; Revising Editor "Standard Cyclo- 
pedia" ; New York City. 

A. Pe A. Peig-insky, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

A. S. I Abram S. Isaacs, Ph.D., 

Professor of (icrman Language and Litera- 
ture, University Graduate Seminary, New 
York City ; Rabbi, B'nai Jeshurun Congrega- 
tion, Paterson, N. J. 

A. S. W A. S. Waldstein, B.A., 

New York City. 

A. Ta Aaron Tanzer, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Hohenems, Tyrt)l, Austria. 

A. W Albert Wolf, 

Dresden, Sa.xony, (iermany. 

S. Ei Benzion Eisenstadt, 

Teacher, New York City. 

B.'Fr Bernhard Friedberg-, 

l"rankfoit-on-tlie-Main, Germany. 

B. Qr Bernhard Greenfelder, 

St. Louis, Mo. 

B. P Bernhard Pick, Ph.D., D.D., 

Pastor of St. John's Lutheran Church, New- 
ark, N. J. 

C. A. R C. A. Rubenstein, 

Rabbi, Har Sinai Temple, Baltimore, Md. 

C. I. de S... Clarence I. de Sola, 

President of the Federation of Canadian Zion- 
ists ; Belgian Consul, Montreal, Canada. 

C. L Caspar Levias, M.A., 

Instructor in Exegesis and Talmudic Aramaic, 
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

C S Carl Sieg-fried, Ph.D., LLi.D. (deceased). 

Late Professor of Theology at the University 
of Jena. (;erraany. 

D Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D., 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

D. L David Leimddrfer, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Hamburg, Germany. 

D. M. H D. M. Hermalin, 

Editor of tlu( "Daily Jewish Herald" and 
" Volksadvocat," New York City ; Brooklyn, 
N". Y. 

D. P David Philipson, D.D., 

Rabbi, B'ne Israel Congregation; Professor of 
Homiletics, Hebrew Union College, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

D. Su. David Sulzberg-er, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. C Executive Committee of the Editorial 


E. G. H EmilG. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation ; Professor of Rab- 
binical Literature and Philosophy, University 
of Chicago ; Chicago, 111. 

E. J Emil Jelinek, 

Vienna. Austria. 

E. K Eduard Kbnig', Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor of old Testament Exegesis, Univer- 
sity of Bonn, (ienuany. 

E. M. E Ezekiel Moses Ezekiel, 

Bombay, India. 

E. Ms Edg'ar Mels, 

New York City. 

E. N Eduard Neumann, Ph.D., 

Chief Itabbi, Nagy-Kanisza, Hungary. 

E.N. S Elvira N. Solis, 

New York City. 

E. So Emil Schlesing-er, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, St. (iallen. Switzerland. 

E. Schr E. Schreiber, Ph.D., 

Rabbi. Eiiianu-El Congregation, Chicago, III. 

E. SI E. Slijper, Ph.D., 

Leydeii, Holland. 

F. C Frank Cramer, B.Sc, 

New York City. 

F. H. V Frank H. Vizetelly, F.S.A., 

Associate Editt)r of the "Columbian Cyclo- 
pedia " and of the SrAXDARD Dictionary ; 
New Y'ork City. 

F. J. B Frederick J. Bliss. Ph.D., 

New Y'ork City. 

F. L. C Francis L. Cohen, 

Chief Minister, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia. 

F. S Flaminio Servl (deceased). 

Late Chief Rahbi of Casale Monferrato. Italy ; 
Editor of "11 Vessillo Israelitico." 

F. T. H Frederick T. Haneman, M.D., 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

G Richard Gottheil, Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia 
University, New York; Chief of the Oriental 
Department, New York Public Library; New 
York City. 



G. A. B George A. Barton, Ph.D., 

rrvtt-?s.r vl BU>lii-iil Literaiure and Semitic 
LanpuaRvs, Brvn Mawr I oIleKe, Bryn Mawr, 

G. D. R ...George D. Rosenthal, 

l:;if»tni-ul Kiis-'iiiitT. St. l.ouis. Mo. 

G. F. M George F. Moore, M.A., D.D., 

Pn>K-ss<ir of l«iblic-al Liit-nitiire and tlie His- 
tory of IJt'lifrions, Harvard Iniversity, Caiii- 
tirldkr>'. M;iss. 

G. H. C G. Herbert Cone, 

counselor at Law, .\lbany, N. Y. 

G. L Goodman liipkind. B. A., 

Knl'iii. .Ni'W Voik (, iiy. 

H. B H. Brody, Ph.D., 

KiiMii ; t'oeditor of the "Zeitschrift fiir He- 
braic be Bibliosrraphie"; Naeliod, Bohemia, 

H. F Herbert Friedenwald, Ph.D., 

Fonm-rly siiperimendeiu of tlit' l)epartment of 
Manu.vTipts, Library of Coiifiress, Washinsr- 
ton, D.C; necordiiigSecrelaryof thf.\iiH'rican 
Jcwiish Historical Society. IMiiladelphia, Pa. 

H. Fr Harry Friedenwald, M.D., 

I'loffssur of oplitlmlmoluffy and Otology, Col- 
lege of I'hysiciaiis aud Surgeons, Baltimore, 

H. G. F H. G. Friedmann, B. A., 

.\fu York City. 

H. M Henry Malter, Ph.D., 

Profcs-sor of Talmud and Instructor in Judaeo- 
Arabic Philosophy, Hebrew Union College, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

H. M. H Henry Minor Huxley, A.M., 

Formerly .\ssistaiit I'rofessor ol Anthropology 
ut Harviinl I'liiversily ; Worcester, Mass. 

H. R Herman Rosenthal, 

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New 
York Public Library, New York City. 

H. S Henrietta Szold, 

Secretary of the Publication Committee of the 
Jewish Publication Society of America, New 
Y'ork City. 

H. V Hermann Vog'elstein, Ph.D., 

Itabbi. Kiinig.sberg, East I'russia, Germany. 

I. B Isaac Bloch, 

( liii-f llabbi, Nancy, France. 

I. Be Immanuel Benzinger, Ph.D., 

Professor of t )ld 'lestament Exegesis, Uni- 
versity of Berlin, Germany; Jerusalem, Pal- 

I. Ber Israel Berlin, 

ciiemist, .New Y'ork City. 

I. Br Isaac Broyde' (Office Editor), 

UiK'torof the University of I'aris, France; for- 
merly Librarian of the Alliance Israelite Uni- 
verselle, Paris, France ; New Y'ork City. 

I. Bro I. Brock, 

T'-acher, Roga.sen, Posen, Germany. 

I. Co Israel Cohen, 

l.oiidoii. Eiiglariii. 

ID Israel Davidson, Ph.D., 

S'-iniiic .Scholar ancl Author, New York City. 

I- E Ismar Elbogren, Ph.D., 

Professor of History at the Lehranstalt fiir 
die Wls.sens(haft drs Judenthums, Berlin, Ger- 

I- G- D I. George Dobsevage, 

New York ( Ity. 
I- H Isidore Harris, A.M., 

Kabbi, West Loudon Synagogue, London, 

I. L. B I. L. Bril, 

As.«ociate Editor of " The American Hebrew," 

New York f itv. 

I. Lb ImmanueHibw, Ph.D., 

I bief Kabbi, Szegedin, Hungary. 
I. M. C I. M. Casanowicz, Ph.D., 

tniied states National Museum, Washington, 
11. C. 

I. M. P Ira Maurice Price, Ph.D., L.L.D., 

Profes.sor of Seuulic Languages and Litera- 
tiM-e, University of Chicago. Chicago, 111. 

I. War Isidor Warsa-w, 

Kalilil, Woodville. Mi.<s. 

J Joseph Jacobs, B.A., 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical 
Society of England ; Corresponding Member 
of the lioyal Academy of History, Madrid; 
New Y'ork City. 

J. Br J. Brennsohn, Ph.D., 

Milau, Courhimi. Iius>ia. 

J. D. E Judah David Eisenstein, 

Author, New York City. 

J. F Julius Frank, 

Rabbi, olieb Shalom Reform Congregation, 
Ucading, Pa. 

J. F. McC.J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Oriental Languages, University 
College, Toronto, Canada. 

J. F. McL...J. F. McLaughlin, M.A., B. D., 

Professor of Oriental Languages and Litera- 
ture, Victoria College, Toronto, Caiuida. 

J. G. L, J. G. Lipman, Ph.D., 

.\ssistaiu Agritulturist. New Jersey State Ex- 
periment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

J. Go Julius Gottlieb, M.A., Ph.D., 

New York City. 
J. H J. Hessen, 

Counselor at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

J. de H J. de Haas, 

Journalist, New Y'ork City. 

J. H. G Julius H. Greenstone, 

Rabbi. Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. H. Ho J. H. Hollander, Ph.D., 

.Assistant Professor of Political Economy, 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Md. 

J. Ka Jacques Kahrl^ 

Rabt)i, Paris, France. 

J. Leb Joseph Lebovich, 

Ilar\ard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

J. Li. Li J. Leonard Levy, Ph.D., 

Rabhl, Rodeph Shalom Congregation, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

J. L. La J. L. Lait, 

Joiu-nalist, Chicago, 111. 

J. M. M Jonas M. Myers, 

Rabiii, i!risi)aiie, Queensland, Australia. 

J. Re J. Reach, Ph.D., 

Ualihi. Kaudnitz, Bohemia, Austria. 

J. So Joseph Sohn, 

Contributor to "The New International En- 
cyclopedia " : formerly Musical Critic on the 
New Y'ork " American and Journal" ; New 
York City. 

J. S. R J. S. Raisin, 

Rabbi, (ieuiilut Chesed Congregation, Fort 
Gibson, Miss. 

J. Sto Joseph Stolz, D.D., 

Kabhi, Isaiah Temple, Chicago, 111. 

J. Ta Jacob Tauber, Ph.D., 

Kalibi. I'n-iau, Moravia, -Austria. 

J. Z. L Jacob Zallel Lauterbach, Ph.D. (Office 

Rabbi. New York City. 

K Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D., 

Rablii Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New 
Y'ork ; President of the Hebrew Union Col- 
lege, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



L. A. R LiUdwig: A. Rosenthal, 

i;;ilil>i, Kni.''n, I'l'scii. (iennany. 

li. B Liudwig- Blau, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jewish Tlieolopical Seminary ; Edi- 
tor of " Magyar Zsidrt Szemle " ; Budapest, 

L. Q Louis Ginzbergr, Ph.D., 

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Sem- 
inary of America, New Yorli City. 

L,. H. G Louis H. Gray, Ph.D., 

Assistant Kditor of the " Orientali.sche Blbllo- 
graphle"; formerly on the editorial staff of 
"The New International Encyclopedia"; 
Newark, N. J. 

L. Hii L. Hiihner, A.M., LL.B., 

Counselor at Law, New York City. 

L. Lew Louis Lewin, Ph.D., 

Kabbi, Piniie, Posen, (iermany. 

L. N. D Lewis N. Dembitz, D.H.L., 

Counselor at Law. Louisville. Ky. 

L. V Ludwig- Venetianer, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Ujpest, Hungary. 

L. Wy L. "Wygrodsky, 

Journalist. St. Petersburg, Russia. 

M. Bu Moses Buttenwieser, Ph.D., 

Assistant Professor of Exegesis, Hebrew Union 
College. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

M. Co Max Cohen, 

Counselor at Law, New York City. 

M. Fr M. Franco, 

Principal. Alliance Israelite Universelle 
School. Demotica, Rumelia, Turkey. 

M. Gr M. Grunwald, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Israelitische Kultus-Gemeinde, Vienna : 
Editor of the " Mitteilungen zur Jiidischen 
Volkskunde" ; Vienna, Austria.. 

M. H. H M. H. Harris, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Temple Israel of Harlem, New York 

M. J. K Max J. Kohler, M.A., LL.B., 

Counselor at Law ; Corresponding Secretary 
of the American Jewish Historical Society, 
New York City. 

M. K Meyer Kay serling-, Ph.D., 

i;abbi. Budapest, Huntrary. 

M. Lan Max Landsberg, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Berith Kodesh Congregation, Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 

M. L. B Moses Lob Bamberger, Ph.D., 

Uabbi ; Lecturer in Rabbinic, Jewish Semi- 
nary, Wurzburg, Bayaria, Germany. 

M. Lib Morris Liber, 

Kabbi. Paris, France. 
M. Mr M. Margrel, Ph.D., 

Rabbi. Pozega, blavonia, Austria. 
M. My M. Mysh, 

Counselor at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia. 
M. R Max Rosenthal, M.D., 

Visiting Physician, German Dispensary, New 

York City. 

M. So Max Schloessinger, Ph.D. , 

Librarian ami Lecturer on Biblical Exegesis, 
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

M. Sch M. Schorr, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Leiiibcrp, Galicia, Austria. 

M. Schl Max Schlesinger, Ph.D., 

Ratibi, Beth Emeth Congregation, Albany, 
N. Y. 

M. Sel Max Selig-sohn (Office Editor), 

Doctor of the University of Paris, France; 
New York City. 

M. Sz Moritz Schwarz, Ph.D., 

Chief Rabbi, Raab, Hungary. 

M. W. M Mary W. Montg-omery, Ph.D., 

New York ( ity. 

P. Wi Peter Wiernik, 

Journalist, New York City. 

R. H. K Rosa H. Knorr, 

New Y'ork City. 

R. Ka. R. Kalter, Ph.D. , 

Rabbi, Potsdam, Prussia. Germany. 

R. N Regina Neisser, 

Author, Hreslau. Silesia, Germany. 

R. P Rosalie Perles, 

Author, Konlgsberg, East Prussia, Germany. 

S Isidore Singer, Ph.D., 

Managing Editor. New York City. 

S. F S. Funk, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Boskowitz, Moravia, Austria. 

S. Fu Samuel Fuchs, Ph.D., 

Chief Rabbi, Luxemburg. Luxemburg. 

S. G S. Gundelfinger. Ph.D., 

Darmstadt, (iermany. 

S. H. L Sylvan H. Lauchheimer, 

Counselor at Law, New York City, 

S. Hu S. Hurwitz, 

New York City. 

S. J. L S. J. Levinson, 

Brooklyn, N. T. 

S. K S.Kahn, 

Rabbi, Nimes, France. 

S. Kr Samuel Krauss, Ph.D., 

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary. 

S. M S. Mendelsohn, Ph.D. , 

Rabbi. Temple of Israel, Wilmington, N. C. 

S. Man S. Mannheimer, B.L., 

Instructor, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 

S. O Schulim Ochser, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, New Y'ork City. 

S. S Solomon Schechter, M.A.. Litt.D., " 

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary of America, New York City. 

T Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.. 

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, 
Cambridge. Mass. 

U. C Umberto Cassuto, 

Editor of " La Rivista Israelitica," Florence, 

v. E Victor Rousseau Emanuel, 

Laurel, Md. 

■y. R Vasili Rosenthal, 

Krenientchug, Russia. 

"W. B Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Buda- 
pest, Hungary. 

W. M. M....W. Max Miiller, Ph.D., 

Professor of Bible E.xegesis, Reformed Episco- 
pal Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

W. N Wilhelm Nowack, Ph.D., 

Professor of old Testament Exegesis, Uni- 
versity of Slrasburg, Germany. 


N. B. — la the following list subjects likely to be sought for under varioiis headings are repeated 
under each heading. Cross-references in this list are to oilier items in the list, not to articles in 
the Encyclopedia. 


Altneuschule, Exterior and Interior Views of the, at Prague 156-158 

America: see Kichmond. 

Amsterdam, Interior of a Synagogue at. From an etching by Rembrandt 374 

Purim Ceremonies in the Synagogue at, 1731 jj^rtie between 280-281 

Arch of Octavian, the Entrance to the Old Ghetto at Rome 449 

Archeology: see Coins; Inscription; PiERi.EONr; Pottery; Prague; Rachel; Rome. 
Architecture: see Prague; Rasiii Chapel ; Rome; Rothschild "Stammhaus"; Synagogues. 

Ark of the Law in the Castilian Synagogue at Rome 452 

in the Syuagoga dos Templos at Rome 454 

in the Synagogue at Konigliche Weinberge, near Prague 160 

Arms of the Rapoport Family 320 

Art: see Archeology; Architecture; Chairs; Phylacteries; Prague; Pulpit; Purim; Rings; 

Austria : see Prague. 

Baer, Seligman, Page from the Siddur Edited by, Rodelheim, 1868 177 

Bassevi House, Court of the, Prague 161 

Betrothal Rings 428, 429 

Bible, Hebrew, Page from the, Printed at Riva di Treuto, 1561 432 

see also Psalms. 

Bragadini, Printer's Mark of the 202 

Brisbane, Queensland, Sj'nagogue at 286 

Catacombs at Rome, Entrance to the Ancient Jewish 446 

Cavalli of Venice, Printer's Mark of 203 

Cemeteries at Saint Petersburg, Views of the Old and Modern 643, 645 

Cemetery at Prague, Tombstones in the Old Jewish 165 

View of, on Josefstrasse 162 

Censored Page from Hebrew Psalms with Kimhi's Commentary, Naples, 1487 247 

Ceremonial: see Phylacteries; Purim; Rings; Sabbath; Sacrifice; Salonic.x. 

Chair, Rashi's, at Worms 327 

Chairs from Synagogues at Rome 456-458 

Coin, So-(^alled, of Solomon 428 

Coins, Polish, with Hebrew Characters 562, 563 

Colophon Page from the First Edition of Rashi on the Pentateuch, Reggio, 1475 329 

Costumes of Dutch Jews, Seventeenth Century 371-374 and Fi'ontisptcce 

of German Jews, Si.xteenth and Eighteenth Centuries 188 

of Prague Jews, Eighteenth Century 154-156 

of Saionica Jews 658 

of Samarcand Jewess .... 068 

of Samaritans 072. 678 

Elijah, Chair of, in a Synagogue at Rome 458 

England: see Portsmouth. 



Fagius, Paul, of Isny. Printer's Mark of 2U2 

Farissol, Abraham, Illuminated First Page of a Siddur, Written at Ferrara, 1528, by 175 

First Editions: Colophon Page from Rashi on the Pentateuch, Reggio, 1475 329 

Page from the First Illustrated Printed Haggadah, Piague, 1526 167 

" Five Synagogues," The, of the Old Ghetto at Rome 451 

Foa. Tobiah, of Sabbionetta, Printer's Mark of 203 

Frankfort-on-theOIain. The Rothschild " Stammhaus "at 490 

Germany : see Presburg ; Ratisbon. 

Gersonides of Prague, Printer's ^Mark of 203 

Ghetto: see Prague; Rome; Safed; Salonica; Saxiarcand. 

Haggadah, Page from the First Illustrated Printed, Prague, 1526 167 

Page from Passover, of 1695, Depicting the Ten Plagues 71 

*' Haman Klopfers " Used on Purim by Jewish Children of Russia 276 

Host Desecration at Presburg, 1591 188 

Incunabula: see Naples; Reggio. 

Inscription, Ancient Samaritan 670 

Royal Stamp on Jar- Handle, Discovered in Palestine 148 

see also Coins. 

Italy : see Pisa ; Rome. 

Karaite Siddur, Page from. Printed at Budapest, 1903 179 

Konigliche Weinberge, near Prague, Interior of the Synagogue at 160 

Manuscript : see Prayer-Book. 

Map of Pithom-Heroopolis 63 

Showing the Road System of Palestine 435 

see also Plan. 

Marriage Rings 428, 429 

Midrash Tehillim, Title-Page from, Prague, 1613 249 

Music : " Rahem na ' Alaw " 810 

Musical Instruments : see Pipes. 

Naples, Censored Page from Hebrew Psalms with Klmhi's Commentary, Printed in 1487 at 247 

New York, Title-Page from Isaac Pinto's Translation of the Prayer-Book, Printed in 1766 at 55 

Octavian, Arch of, the Entrance to the Old Ghetto at Rome 449 

Pale of Settlement, Map of Western Russia Showing the Jewish 531 

Palestine, Map Showing the Road System of 435 

see also Pottery; Safed ; Samaria; Samaritans. 

PJiillips, Henry Mayer, American Lawyer and Politician 4 

Jonas, American Revolutionary Patriot 4 

Pliylacteries and Bags 21, 22, 25, 26 

and Tlieir Arrangement on Head and Arm 24 

Picart, Bernard, Title-Page from the " Tikkun Soferim," Designed by 29 

Pierleoni, Tomb of, in the Cloisters of St. Paul, Rome 33 

Pinsker, Lev, Russian Physician 52 

Pinto, Isaac, TitlePage from His Translation of the Prayer-Book, Printed at New York, 1766 55 

Pipes in Use in Palestine 57 

Pisa, Old Tombstones from the Cemetery at 61 

Pithom-Heroopolis, Map of 63 

Plagues, Tlio Ten, According to a Passover Haggadah of 1695 71 

Plan of the City of Prague in 1649, Showing Position of Jewish Quarter 153 

of the Ghetto at Rome, 1640 447 

Platea Judaea of the Old Ghetto at Rome 448 

Poltava, Russia, Synagogue at 119 

Ponte, Lorenzo da, Italian-American Man of Letters 124 



Portraits: sec 

run. I. IPS, Hf.xkv Mavkk. 
I'Hii.i.ii's, Jonas. 


Haiibinovicz, Raphaki.. 
Hahinovicii, Osip. 
Hakinowitz, HiKscii. 


UKfUiio, Isaac Samiki.. 
Ukikma.n. .Iacoh. 


IliCARDo, David. 
Kick, Abraham. 


RoTiisciiii.D, Baron Alphonsk. 

ROTH.SCllII.D, Haron Ja.mks. 
RoTHSfiiiLD, Baron Lionkl Nathan. 


HoTnscHii.D, Nathan Maykr. 
Rothschild, Nathamki., Lord. 
Rubinstein, Anton. 
Sachs, Michael. 
Sachs, senior. 
Ralant, Sa.MI'EL. 
Salomon, Go'tthold. 
Salo.mons, Sir Uavid. 


Portsmouth, England, Interior of Synagogue at 135 

Possart, Ernst vou, German Actor and Author 146 

Pottery Discovered in Palestine 148, 149 

Prague, Altneusclniie at, E.xterior and Interior Views of the 106-158 

Court of the Bassevi at 161 

Exodus of Jews from, 174."i 155 

Gild-Cup of the Shoemakers of, Eighteenth Century 156 

Interior of the Synagogue at Koiiigliche Weiuberge, near 160 

Jewish Butcher of, Eighteenth Century 156 

Jewish Cemetery on Josefstrasse 162 

Plan of the City of, in 1649, Showing Position of Jcswisli Quarter 153 

Procession of Jews of, in Honor of the Birthday of Archduke Leopold, i\Iay 17, 1716 154 

Purim Players at. Early Eighteenth Century 276 

TJabbiner Gassc 162 

Shames Gasse 163 

Tombstones in tlie Old Jewish Cemetery at 165 

Wechsler Gasse Synagogue 159 

Typography : Page from the First Illustrated Printed Haggadah, 1526 167 

Title-Page from Midrash Tchillim, 1613 249 

Prayer-Book : Colophon Page of the Siddur Rab Amram, Written in 1506 at Trani 173 

Illuminated First Page of a Siddur, Written by Abraham Farissol. Ferrara, 1528 175 

Karaite Siddur, Budapest, 1903 179 

Page from the Baer Siddur, Rodelheim, 1868 177 

— Title-Page from Isaac Pinto's Translation of the, New York, 1766 55 

Presburg, Host Desecration at, 1591 188 

Visit of King Ferdinand to a Jewish School at, 1830 189 

Printer's Mark of Abraham Usciue, Ferrara 202 

of Antonio Giustiano, Venice 202 

of the Bragadini, Venice 202 

of Cavalli, Venice 203 

of Gad ben Isaac Foa, Venice 203 

of Gersonides, Prague 203 

of Isaac ben Aarcm of Prossuitz, Cracow 200. 202 

of Jacob ]\[ercuria, Riva di Trento 202 

of Judah Lob ben Moses, Prague 203 

■ of Meir ben Jacob Firenze 203 

■ of and Mordecal Kohen 203 

of Paul Fagius, Isny 202 

of Solomon Proops, Amsterdam 203 

of Soncino, Rimini 202 

of Tobiali Foa, Sabbionetta 203 

of Zalman, Amsterdam 203 

Procession of Jews of Prague in Honor of the Birthday of Archduke Leopold, May 17, 1710 154 

Proops, Solomon, of Amsterdam, Printer's ^laik of . . . 203 

P.salms, Censored Page from Hebrew, with Kind.ii's Commentary, Naples, 1487 247 

Page from Polyglot, Genoa, 1516 243 

Title-Page from Midrash to, Prague, 1613 249 

Pulpit from a Synagogue at Modena, Early Si.xteenth Century. 268 

Interior of Synagogue Sliowiiig the. From a fourteenth-century manuscript 267 



Piiiim CiTfinonies in tlit- Syiuigogiie at AiiiMeiilani, 1781 plate betireen 28U-281 

Hmnau Klopfei-s " Used by Jewisli ( 'liildren of Russia tm 276 

Observance of. in a German Synagoirue of the EigliteenUi Century 277 

Players. From Leusdeu. 1657 276 

at Praeuc Early Eighteenth Century 376 

Queensland : sec Hhimiank. 

Rabbiner Gasse, Pmgue 162 

Rabliinovicz, Raphael. Talniudical Scholar 298 

Rabinovich, Osip. I{ussian Author and Journalist 301 

Rabinowitz, Hirsch, Russian Scientist and Publicist 303 

Rachel. Traditi.nial Tomb of 306 

-Rahem na Alaw." Mu.sic of 310 

Rapoport Family, Arms of 320 

Solomon LOb, Austrian Rabbi antl Scholar 322 

Rashi, Colophon of the First Edition of the Commentary on the Pentateuch by, the First Dated Hebrew 

Book, 1475 329 

Chapel at Worms 324 

Chair in the 327 

Cross-Section of the 326 

Interior of the 325 

Ratisbon, Interior of the Old Synagogue at 330 

Raziel. Sepher, Page from the, Amsterdam, 1701 336 

Reggio, Colophon Page from the First Edition of Rashi on tlie Pentateuch, the First Dated Hebrew- 
Book, Printed in 1475 at 339 

Isaac Samuel, Austro-Italian Scholar and Rabbi 360 

Reifman, Jacob, Russian Hebrew Author 366 

Reland, Adrian, Dutch Christian Hebraist. ... 369 

Rembrandt, Interior of a Synagogue at Amsterdam, from an Etching by 374 

Jewish Beggar, from an Etching by 371 

Portraits of Seventeenth-Century Jews, Painted by 372, 373, and Frontispiece 

Ricardo, David, English Political Economist 402 

Rice, Abraham, American Rabbi 405 

Richmond. Va., Synagogue at 407 

Riesser, Gabriel, German Advocate of Jewish Emancipation 410 

Riga, Russia, Synagogue at 417 

Rings, Jewish Betrothal and Marriage 428, 429 

Riva di Trento, Page from Hebrew Bible Printed in 1561 at 433 

Road System of Palestine, Map of the 485 

Rodenberg, Julius, German Poet and Author 439 

Rome, Arch of Octavian, the Entrance to the Old Ghetto at 449 

Ark of the Law in the Synagoga dos Templos at 454 

Arks of the Law in the Castilian Synagogue at 452 

Chair of Elijah in a Si'nagogue at 458 

Entrance to the Ancient Catacombs at 447 

Entrance to the Ghetto at, About 1850 462 

Exterior and Interior Views of the New Synagogue at 464, 465 

" Five Synagogues " of the Old Ghetto at 451 

Nook in the Old Ghetto at 460 

Plan of the Ghetto at, 1640 446 

Platea Juda-a of the Old Ghetto at 448 

Rabbis' Chairs in Synagogues at 456, 457 

Rua Via in, Showing Entrance to the Old Talmud Torah 461 

Tomb of Pierleoni in the Cloisters of St. Paul at 33 

Rothschild, Baron Alphonse, Present Head of the French House 498 

Baron James, Founder of the French House 501 

Baron Lionel Nathan, Financier and First Jewish Member of English Parliament 501 

Mayer Amschel, Founder of the Roth.schild Family 490 



Uotlischild, Nathan Mayer, Fouudcr of the English House 494 

" A PillMi- of the Exchange. " From an old print 496 

Nathaniel, Lord, Present Head of English House 503 

" Staninihaus, " Frankforl-ou-the-Main 490 

Rubinstein, Anton, l{ussian Pianist and Composer 507 

Russia, Map of Western, Showing the Jewisli Pale of Settlement 531 

Polish Coins of the Middle Ages, with Hebrew Characters 562, 563 

see also Poltava ; Rkja ; Saint Pktkhsiuim;. 

Sabbath, Device for Keeping Water and Food Warm on 594 

Eve Ceremonies in a German Jewish Home of the Eighteenth Century 593 

Light, Candlestick Used in Blessing tlie .591 

Sachs, Michael, German Rabbi 613 

Senior, Russian Hebraist 614 

Sacrifice, Samaritan Place of 673 

Safed, View of the Jewish Quarter at 634 

Saint Petersburg, Russia, Synagogue at 641 

Views of the Old and Modern Cemeteries at 643, 645 

Salant, Samuel, Jerusalem Rabbi 647 

Salomon, Gotthold, German Rabbi 653 

Salomons, Sir David, English Politician and Communal Worker 656 

Salonica, Group of Jews of 658 

Scene in the Old Jewish Quarter at 657 

Samarcand, High Street in Old, Showing the Ghetto 667 

Jewess of 668 

Samaria, View of, from the Southeast 669 

Samaritan Characters, Ancient Inscription in 670 

Place of Sacrifice 673 

Samaritans at Prayer 674 

Groups of 672, 678 

Shames Gasse, Prague 163 

Siddur: see Prayer-Book. 

Solomon, So-Called Coin of 203 

Soncino, Printer's Mark of 203 

Synagogues: see Amsterdam; Brisbane; Poltava; Portsmouth; Prague; Richmond; Riga; 

Rome; Saint Petersburg. 
see also Pulpit ; Purim ; Rashi Chapel. 

TefiUin and Bags 21--36 

Title-Page from Isaac Pinto's Translation of the Prayer-Book, New York, 1766 55 

from Midrash Tehillira, Prague, 1613 249 

from the "Tikkun Soferim," Designed by Bernard Picart 29 

Tomb of Pierleoni in the Cloisters of St. Paul, Rome 33 

of Rachel, Traditional 306 

Tombstones from the Old Jewish Cemetery at Pisa 61 

from the Old Jewish Cemetery at Prague 165 

Types: see Salonica; Samarcand; Samaritans. 

Typography: see Genoa; Naples; New York; Picart: Prague; Printer's Mark; Raztel; Reggio. 

TTsque, Abraham, Printer's Mark of 202 

Worms, Exterior, Interior, and Cros.s-Sectional Views of tlie Rashi Chapel at 324-326 

Zalman of Amsterdam, Printer's Mark of 203 


Jewish Encyclopedia 

PHILIPSON, DAVID : American rabbi ; born 
at Wabasli, lud., Aug. 9, 1862; educated at the 
public scliools of Columbus, Ohio, tlie Hebrew 
Union College of Cincinnati (graduated 1883; D.D. 
1886), the University of Cincinnati (B.A. 1883), and 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. On Jan. 

1, 1884, he became rabbi of the Har Sinai congrega- 
tion at Baltimore, Md., -which position he held until 
Nov. 1, 1888, when he became rabbi of the B'ne 
Israel congregation of Cincinnati. He is also pro- 
fessor of homiletics at the Hebrew Union College. 

Philipson has held many offices of a public nature 
in Cincinnati. He has been a trustee of the Asso- 
ciated Charities (since 1890) ; trustee of the Home 
for Incurables (1894-1902); director of the Ohio 
Humane Society (since 1889) and of the United Jewish 
Charities (since 1896); corresponding secretary of 
the Central Conference of American Rabbis (1889- 
1892; 1894-98), and director of the same society 
(since 1898); governor of the Hebrew Union College 
(since 1892); director of the American Jewish His- 
torical Society (since 1897) ; member of the publica- 
tion committee of the Jewish Publication Society 
(since 1895); and president of the Hebrew Sabbath 
School Union of America (since 1894). 

He is the author of "Progress of the Jewish Re- 
form Movement in the United States," in "J. Q. 
R." X. (1897) 52-99; and "The Beginnings of the 
Reform Movement in Judaism," ib. xv. (1903) 575- 
621 ; " The Jew in English Fiction," Cincinnati, 1889 
(revised and enlarged, 1902) ; " Old European Jew- 
ries," Philadelphia, 1894; "The Oldest Con- 
gregation in the West," Cincinnati, 1894; "A Holiday 
Sheaf," ih. 1899; and, jointly with Louis Grossman, 
he has edited " Reminiscences of Isaac M. Wise," ib. 

A. F. T. H. 

PHILISTINES : A people that occupied terri- 
tory on the coast of the ^Mediterranean Sea, south- 
west of Jerusalem, previouslj' to and contemporane- 
ously with the life of the kingdoms of Israel. Their 
northern boundary reached to the " borders of Ekron, " 
and their southwestern limit was the Shiiior, or brook 
of Egypt (Wadi al-'xVrish), as described in Josh. xiii. 

2, 3. Their territory extended on the east to about 
Beth-shemesh (I Sam. vi. 18), and on the west to the 
sea. It was a wide, fertile plain stretching up to the 
Judean hills, and adapted to a very productive 

X.— 1 

In Biblical times this territory was occupied by 
several peoples, the most prominent of all being the 
I'hilistines proper. There are found the giants or 
Anakim in Joshua's day and even down to David's 
time in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. It must be con- 
cluded, too, from Joshua's conquests that the Ca- 
naanites were to be met with here and there through- 
out tliis territory. It is also to be 
Territory, presumed from the records that other 
peoples, such as the Amalekites and 
the Geshurites, lived near this territory if they did 
not actually mingle with the Philistines. 

Who were the Philistines proper? The Biblical 
record states that they came from Caphtor (Amos 
ix. 7; Deut. ii. 23), that they were Caphtorim (Dent. 
I.e.), and that they were "the remnant of the sea- 
coast of Caphtor" (Jer. xlvii. 4, Hebr.). The table 
of nations (Gen. x. 13, 14) names the Philistines and 
the Caphtorim as descendants of Mizraim. The 
gist of these references leads one to look for 
Caphtor as the native land of the Philistines. There 
is a variety of opinion as to the location of this place. 
The Egj'ptian inscriptions name the southern coast 
of Asia Minor as " Kef to." The latest and with some 
plausibility the best identification is the island of 
Crete. The Septuagint makes the Cherethites in 
David's body-guard Cretans. Others have identified 
Caphtor with Cappadocia, or Cyprus, or with some 
place near the Egyptian delta. The prevailing 
opinion among scholars is that the Philistines were 
roving jurates from some northern coast on the 
Mediterranean Sea. Finding a fertile plain south of 
Joppa, tliey landed and forced a foothold. Their 
settlement was made by such a gradual process that 
they adopted both the language and the religion of 
the conquered jieojiles. 

When did the Philistines migrate and seize their 
territory in this maritime plain V The inscriptions of 
Rameses III., about Joshua's da}', de- 
Origin, scribe sea-peoples wliom he met in 
conflict. Among these foreigners are 
found the Zakkal from Cyprus, and the Purusati 
(Pulusata, Pulista, or Purosatha). Both liave Greek 
features; and the second are identified with the 
Philistines. In the inscription of this Egyptian 
king, they are said to have conquered all of north- 
ern Syria west of the Euphrates. It is known, too, 
that the successors of Rameses III. lost their Syrian 
possessions. It is supposed that during this period 




tlje Purusati, accompanied by their families, were 
pushed or crowded out of their homes by the uational 
migrations from the northeast in Asia Minor, and, 
coming both by hiud and by sea, secured a foothold in 
southwestern Palestine. The time of this supposed 
settlement wasthatof the twentieth dynastyof Egypt. 
Of course their first settlements were on a small 
scale, and probably under Egyptian suzerainty. 
Later, as Egypt lost her grip on Asia, the Puru- 
sati became independent and multiplied in numbers 
and strength until they could easily make good their 
claim to the region in which they had settled. 

According to the Old Testament, the Philistines 
were in power in their new land at least as early as 
the Exodus (E.\. .xiii. 17, xxiii. 31). Josh. xiii. 2, 3 
lends color to the view that they had specific bound- 
aries in the time of tiie conquest. During the period 
of the Judges they were a thorn in the side of 
Israel (Judges iii. 31, v. 6, x. 11, xiii.-xvi.). They 
were so well organized politically, with their five 
great capitals, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, and 
Gaza, and a lord over each with its surrounding 
district, that Israel in its earlier history was put to 
a decided disadvantage (I Sam. iv. 17, vii. 2-14). 
Their supremacy over Saul's realm {ib. xiii. 3 et 
S€(j.) and their restriction of Israel's arms made the 
Philistines easy rulers of their mountain neighbors. 
Saul's defeat of them at Michmash {ib. xiv.) was 
only temporary, as he finally fled to Gilboa before 
the invincible ranks of these warriors. 

Not until David's assumption of supremacy over 
all Israel and after two hard battles were the Philis- 
tines compelled to recognize the rule of their 
former subjects. This broke their 
Conquered, power so effectually that they never 
by entirely recovered. After the disrup- 

David. tion of the kingdom of Solomon the 
Philistines secured their independence, 
which they possessed at intervals down to the over- 
throw of the Israelitish kingdoms. During this en- 
tire period they are found exerci-sing the same hos- 
tility toward the Israelites (Amos i. 6-8; Joel iii. 
4-«) that characterized their earlier history. In this 
same period the Assyrian conquerors mention sev- 
eral Philistine cities as objects of their attacks. The 
crossing and recrossing of Philistines territory by the 
armies of Egypt and Asia finally destroyed the 
Philistines as a separate nation and people; so that 
when the Persian crossed their former 
territory about 625, he described it as belonging to 
an Arabian ruler. 

The Philistines' language was apparently Semitic, 
the language of the peoples they conquered. Their 
religion, too, was most likely Semitic, as they are 
found worshiping the deities met with 
Language among other Semitic peoples. They 
and Gov- were governod, in Isniol's early liis- 
ernment. tory, by a confederation of five kiiagsor 
rulers of their chief cities. Their army 
was well organized and brave, and consisted of in- 
fantry, cavalry, and cliariotry. In fine, they were a 
civilized people as far back as they can be traced ; and 
as such they became relatively strong and wealthy 
in their fertile plains. They engaged in commerce, 
and in their location became thoroughly acquainted 
with the great peoples of their times. Their dis- 

appearance as a nation from history occurred about 

the time of the conquest of Cyrus. 

Bibliography : McCurdy, lUxturti, Pri^phecy. and (he Mimu- 
mtntx, I.. S8 liC UH; G. A. Siiiitli. HiiitorUal Geoynip/ij/"/ 
the Holii La tut, cli. ix.; BruRsch, Egypt Uuiler the Fharaohs, 
ch. ix., .xiv.; W. M. Muller, .4sit» uud Kurnpa, eh. xxvl.- 
xxix.: Schwally, Die liasxe der FhHi.ttder. in Zeitschrift 
fllr WiioieiiKchaftUche Theologie, xxxiv. 1(13 et seq.; W.J. 
Beeclier, in Hustings, Diet. Bible, s.v.; G. F. Moore, in Cheyno 
and Black, Eneuc. Bill. s.v. 
K. O. II. I. M. P. 

I'HILLIPS : American family, espcciallj'' prom- 
inent in New York and Philadelphia, and tracing its 
descent back to Jonas Phillips, who emigrated from 
Germany to England in 1751 and thence to America 
in 1756. The genealogical tree of the family is given 
on page 3. 

Henry Phillips, Jr. : Archeologist and numis- 
matist; born at Philadelphia Sept. 6, 1838; died 
June, 1895; son of Jonas Altamont Phillips. He 
was well known for his studies in folklore, philology, 
and numismatics, both in the United States and in 
Europe. Two gold medals were conferred upon him 
by Italian societies for his writings. He was treas- 
urer (1862) and secretary (1868) of the Numismatic 
and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia, and a sec- 
retary (from 1880) and the librarian (from 1885) of the 
American Philosophical Society, as well as member 
of many other learned societies at home and abroad. 

Phillips' works on the paper currency of the 
American colonies and on American Continental 
money were the first on those subjects. His works 
have been cited by the United States Supreme Court 
in a decision on the "Legal Tender Cases." Among 
his writings may be mentioned : " History of Ameri- 
can Colonial Paper Currency " (1865); "History of 
American Continental Paper Money " (1866) ; " Pleas- 
ures of Numismatic Science" (1867); "Poems from 
the Spanish and German" (1878); "Faust" (1881); 
and four volumes of translations from the Spanish, 
Hungarian, and German (1884-87; see Appleton's 
"Cyclopedia of American Biography," iv. ; Henry 
S. Morals, "The Jews of Philadelphia," s.v.; Oscar 
Fay Adams, "A Dictionary of American Authors," 
p. 295, New York, 1897; "Proceedings of the 
American Philological Association," 1896). 

A. L. Hij. 

Henry Mayer Phillips : American lawyer, 
congressman, and financier; son of Zalegman and 
Arabella Phillips; born in Philadelphia June 30, 
1811, where he attended a private school and the 
high school of the Franklin Institute; died Aug. 28, 
1884. Phillijjs was admitted to the bar Jan. 5, 1832. 
Immediately after his admission he accepted the po- 
sition of clerk of the Court of Common Pleas. 

In Dec, 1841, he was elected solicitor of the dis- 
trict of Spring Garden. In the October election of 
1856 he was chosen a member of the thirty-fifth 
Congress and served during 1857-59. He addressed 
the House of Representatives on the admission of 
Kansas into the Union under the Le Compton Con- 
stitution on March 9, 1858, and on June 12 he spoke 
on the expenditures and revenues of the country. 

In Dec, 1858, he was elected grand master of the 
Grand Lodge of F'ree and Accepted Masons of the 
State of Penn.sylvania, and was reelected in 1859 and 
1860. On Dec 4, 1862, he was chosen trustee of the 
Jefferson Medical College to fill a vacancy caused 












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Phillips, Morris 


Henry M. Phillips. 

by the death of his brother J. Altamout Phillips, 
and subsequently became its treasurer. 

The Court of Common Pleas appointed him a 
member of the board of park commissioners May 
13. 1867, and March 12, 1881, he was elected presi- 
dent of the board. He was appointed a member of 
the board of city trusts Sept. 2, 1869, became its 

vice-president May 11, 
1870. and on March 13, 
1878, was chosen its presi- 
dent, which office he re- 
signed in Dec, 1881. 

In 1870 Phillips was 
appointed a member of 
the commission for the 
construction of a bridge 
crossing the Schuylkill 
River. He was one of the 
original members of the 
Public Buildings Com- 
kV'^</ mission established in 1870, 

Z-K^'^v y' but resigned the next year. 

^^* '^' In 1870''he was chosen a 

director of the Academy 
of Music, became its presi- 
dent in 1872, and resigned in 1884. He was elected 
a member of the American Pliilosophical Society 
in Jan., 1871, and a director of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, Northern Central Railroad, Philadelphia, 
"Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, and of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company in March, 1874. 
He became a director of the Pennsylvania Company 
for Insurance on Lives and Granting Annuities on 
Oct. 16, 1874. 

On Dec. 20, 1882, he presided at the "bar dinner" 
given to Chief Justice Sharswood on the retirement 
of the latter; this Avas the last public occasion in 
which he participated as a member of the Phila- 
delphia bar, of which he had become a leader. 

Phillips was a member of the Sephardic (Spanish 
and Portuguese) Congregation Mickve Israel of 
Philadelphia. In former years, more especially in 
the period from 1836 to 1851, he took considerable 
interest in its affairs, taking an active part in the 
controversy between Isaac Leeser and the congre- 
gation ; his efforts were largely instrumental in elect- 
ing Sabato Morais as minister of the congregation on 
April 13, 1851. 
A. D. Su. 

Isaac Phillips : Lawyer ; born in New York 
June 16, 1812; died there 1889; son of Naphtali 
Phillips. He was appointed by President Pierce 
appraiser of the port of New York, which position 
he occupied for many years, and he was well known 
politically. He took a deep interest in educational 
matters, being a commissioner of the New York 
board of education ; he was likewise the editor of va- 
rious newspapers in the city of New York, grand 
ma.ster of the freemasons of the state of New York, 
and an active member of the New York Chamber 
of Commerce. He married (1) Sophia Phillips and 
(2) Miriam Trimble. 

Jonas Phillips : The first of the family to settle 
in America ; born 1 736, the place of his birth being va- 
riously given as Busick and Frankfort-on-the-Main ; 
died at Philadelphia, Pa. , Jan. 29, 1803 ; son of Aaron 

Phillips. He emigrated to America from London in 
Nov., 1756, and at first resided in Charleston, S. C, 
where he was employed by Closes Lindo. He soon 
removed to Albany, and thence, shortly afterward, 
to New York, where he engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. As early as 1760 he was identified with a 
lodge of freemasons in that city. In 1762 he mar- 
ried Rebecca Mendez 
Machado (see M.\- 
CH.\Do). In 1769 he 
became a freeman of 
New York. 

At the outbreak of 
the American Revo- 
lution Phillips fa- 
vored the patriot 
cause; and he was an 
ardent supporter of 
the Non-Importation 
Agreement in 1770. 
In 1776 he used his 
influence in the New 
York congregation to 
close the doors of the 
synagogue and re- 
move rather than Jo°'is Phillips. 
continue under the 

British. The edifice was abandoned ; and, with the 
majoritj' of the congregation, Phillips removed to 
Philadelphia, where he continued in business until 
1778. In that j-ear he joined the Revolutionary 
army, serving in the Philadelphia Militia under Colo- 
nel Bradford. 

When Congregation Mickve Israel was estab- 
lished in Philadelphia, Phillips was one of its active 
founders, and was its president at the consecration 
of its synagogue in 1782. After the Revolution he 
removed to New York, but soon returned to Phila- 
delphia, where he continued to reside until his death. 
His remains, however, were interred at New York 
in the cemoterj-, on New Bowery, of Congregation 
Shearith Israel. His widow survived until 1831. 
Of his twenty-one children, special mention should 
be made of the following si.x: 

(1) Rachel Phillips: Born 1769; died 1839; 
married iSIichacl Levy, and was the mother of Com- 
modore Uriah P. Levy of the United States navy. 

(2) Naphtali Phillips : Born 1773; died 1870; 
married (1797) Rachel Mendez Sei.xas (d. 1822) of 
Newport, R. I. One year after her death he married 
Esther (b. 1789; d. 1872), the daughter of Benjamin 
Mendez Sei.xas. Phillijjs was the proprietor of the 
"National Advocate," a New York newspaper, and 
was also president of Congregation Shearith Israel 
in that city. 

(3) Manuel Phillips : Assistant surgeon in the 
United States navy from 1809 to 1824; died at Vera 
Cruz in 1826. 

(4) Joseph Phillips : Died 1854. He served in 
the War of 1S12. 

(5) Aaron J. Phillips : Actor and playwright; 
born in Philadelphia; died at New York in 1826. 
He made his first appearance at the Park Theater, 
New York, in 1815, and was successful in Shakes- 
peare's "Comedy of Errors." Later he became a 
theatrical manager (see Charles P. Daly, "Settle- 


Phillips, Slorris 

inent of the Jews in North America," pp. 102-103, 
120, New York, 1893). 

(6) Zalegman Phillips: Lawyer; born 1779; 
died Aug. 21, iy3'J. He was graduated from tiie 
Vniversity of Peniisylvauia in 1795, and became one 
of the leading criminal lawyers of Philadelphia. 

Jonas Altamont Phillips: Lawyer; born at 
PhihulelpiiialbUG; diedtiiere 18(32; brother of Henry 
M. Phillips. He became prominent as a lawyer, and 
in 1847-48 was the Democratic candidate for tiie 
mayoralty of Philadelphia. President Buchanan is 
said to have tendered him the position of judge of 
the United States District Court, which he declined. 
In 1837 he married Frances Cohen of Charleston, 
8. C. 

Jonas B. Phillips: Dramatist; born Oct. 28, 
180"), at Philadelphia; died 1869; son of Benjamin J. 
Phillips. He became known as a dramatist as early 
as 1838. Among the plays he produced were : " Cold 
Stricken" (1838), "Camillus," and "The Evil Eye." 
Subsequently he studied law and became assistant 
district attorney for the county of Ncav York, hold- 
ing that aiipointmeut under several successive ad- 
ministrations (see Daly, I.e. p. 145). 

Jonas N. Phillips: Born 1817; died 1874; son 
of Naphtali Phillips. He was chief of the volunteer 
fire department in the city of New York for many 
years, and president of the board of councilraen and 
acting mayor in 1857. 

Naphtali Taylor Phillips: Lawyer; born in 
New York Dec. 5, 1868; sou of Isaac Phillips by his 
second wife. He has held various political offices, e.g. : 
he was member of the New York state legislature 
(1898-1901), serving on the judiciary and other com- 
mittees and as a member of the Joint Statutory 
Revision Commission of that body (1900) ; and dep- 
uty comptroller of the city of New York (from 1902). 
He is also a trustee of the American Scenic and His- 
toric Preservation Society, and a member of the Sons 
of the American Revolution and of the New York 
Historical Society. He is treasurer of the Jew- 
ish Historical Society and lias contributed several 
papers to its publications. For fifteen years he has 
been clerk of Congregation Shearith Israel. In 
1892 Phillips married Rosalie Solomons, daughter of 
Adolphus S. Solomons. Mrs. Phillips is an active 
member of the Daughters of the American Revo- 

Bibliography: Charles P. T)s.\j, SetiUment of the Jews in 
North Aiiinica, New York, 1893; Isaac Markens, The He- 
7>reics in America, ib. 1888; Henrv S. Moniis, The Jews of 
Philadelphia, Philadelphia, 18&i; H. P. Rosenbach. The 
Jews in Philadelphia, 188;i; N. Taylor Phillips, in Pnbl. 
Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. ii. 51, iv. 204 et seq.; Sabato Morals, ih. 
1.; M. J. Kohler. ih. iv. 89 ; Herbert Friedenvvald, i/). vi. 50 et 
seq. (other references are found in almost all the volumes 
issued by the society); L. Hiihner, A'fKJ York Jews in the 
Strunqle for American Tudcucudence ; Pennsi/lrania As- 
snciatin-s and Militia in the lievolution, i. f>82; Nciv York 
Gazette and Weeklu Post Buy, July 23, 1770; New York 
Hist. Soc. Col. for 1885, p. 49. 
A. L. Hv. 

PHILLIPS, BARNET : American journalist ; 
born in Philadelphia Nov. 9, 1828; educated at the 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, whence 
he was graduated in 1847. Shortly afterward he 
set out for Europe, where he continued his studies 
and engaged in journalism. On his return to the 
United States, Phillips joined the staff of the " New 

York Times " and published two books, " The Strug- 
gle " and " Burning Their Ships." Phillips' connec- 
tion with the "New York Times" extends over 
thirty years. 
A. F. H. V. 


Lord mayor of London; born in London in 1811; 
died there Oct. 9, 1889. He was a son of Samuel 
Phillips, tailor, and was educated at Neumegen's 
school at Ilighgate and Kew. In 1833 he married, 
and soon afterward entered into partnership with 
his brother-in-law Henry Faudel, thus laying the 
foundation of the firm of Faudel, Phillips & Sons. 
He then became an active worker in the community, 
being elected president of the Institution for the Relief 
of the Jewish Indigent Blind in 1850 and president 
of the Hebrew Literary Society. He rendered im- 
portant services in the foundation of the United 
Synagogue, of which be was elected a life-member 
in June, 1880. For thirty years Phillips was a mem- 
ber of the Board of Deputies as representative of 
the Great and Central synagogues ; he served as a 
member of the Rumanian Committee, and was a 
vice-president of the Anglo-Jewish Association. 

Benjamin Phillips will be chiefly remembered for 
the prominent part he took in the struggle for the 
removal of Jewish disabilities. In 1846 he was 
elected a member of the common council as repre- 
sentative of the ward of Farringdon Within. After 
being returned at every subsequent election, he was 
elected alderman of the ward in 1857. In 1859 he 
held the office of sheriff, and on Sept. 29, 1865, was 
elected lord mayor. He performed the duties of 
mayor with marked distinction, and the King of the 
Belgians, whom he entertained, conferred upon him 
the Order of Leopold. During his mayoralty he 
rendered considerable help in personally raising 
£70,000 toward the great Cholera Fund. In recog- 
nition of these services he was knighted by Queen 
Victoria. In 1888, owing to advancing years, he re- 
tired from the court of aldermen, being succeeded 
in the office by his second son, Alderman Sir George 
Faudel-Phillips, who was unanimously elected. 

Sir Benjamin Phillips was for many years a mem- 
ber of the Spectacle-Makers Company (of which he 
was master) and was on the commission for the Lieu- 
tenancy of the City of London. 

BmLiOGRAPHv: Jew. Chrnn. and Jew. World, Oct. 18,1889; 
The Times aad other London newspapers, Oct. 10, 1889. 
J. G. L. 

PHILLIPS, GEORGE LYON : Jamaican pol- 
itician; born in 1811; died at Kingston, Jamaica, 
Dec. 29, 1886. One of the most prominent and in- 
fluential residents of Jamaica, he held the chief 
magistrateship of the privy council and other im- 
portant executive oftices on the island. During the 
an.xious period known as tlie " Saturnalia of Blood " 
Phillips especially conserved the interests of the col- 
ony by his gentle and calm demeanor at councils of 

BiBiionRAPHY : Falmouth Gazette (JamaicaK Dec. 31. 1885 ; 
./(If. World, Jan. 28, 1887 ; Jew. Chnoi. Feb. 4, 1887. 

J. G. L. 

PHILLIPS, MORRIS: American journalist 
and writer; born in Loudon, England, May 9, 1834. 

PhillipB. Philip 
Philo Judaeus 



Phillips received his elementary education in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, and later continued his studies under 
private tutors in New York. He studied for the 
legal profession, first in Buffalo and later in New 
Vurk. But the opportunity being open to him of 
ussociation with Nathaniel Parker Willis as joint 
editor of the "New York Home Journal," he em- 
braced it at once, and from Sept., 1854, until the 
death of Willis in Jan., 1867, Phillips was associate 
editor of that periodical, of which he then became 
chief editor ami sole proprietor. Phillips was a 
prolific writer and an extensive traveler; as such 
he held commissions as special correspondent for 
several daily newspapers, and published in many 
magazines the fruits of his observations. 
A. F. H. V. 

PHILLIPS, PHILIP: American jurist; born 
in Charleston, S. C, Dec. 17, 1807; died in Wash- 
ington, D. C, Jan. 14, 1884i He was educated at 
tlje Norwich Military Academy in Vermont and at 
3Iiddletown, Conn. He then studied law and was 
admitted to the bar in 1829, settling in Cheraw, 
S. C. He was a member of the Nullification Con- 
vention of 1832. Elected to the state legislature 
in 1834, he resigned in 1835 and moved to Mobile, 
Ala., where he practised law. He was president 
of the Alabama State Convention in 1837, and was 
elected to the state legislature in 1844, being re- 
elected in 1852. In 1853-55 he was a member of 
Congress from Alabama. He then moved to Wash- 
ington, where lie continued his profession until the 
Civil war, when he migrated to New Orleans. After 
the war he returned to Washington and resided there 
until his death. In 1840 he prepared a "Digest of 
Decisions of the Supreme Court of Alabama, " and he 
wrote '* Practise of the Supreme Court of tlie United 
States." He married Eugenia Levy of Charleston, 
S. C, on Sept. 7, 1836. 

BinuonRAPHT: Brewer, ^ialia ma, pp. 406-407; Garrett, 7?em- 
iniscences of Public Men in Alabama, 1872, pp. 4(J5-407. 

A. A. S. L 

PHILLIPS, PHINEAS: Polish merchant; 
flourished about 1775. He held the position of chief 
of the Jewish community at Krotoschin, at that 
time a fief of the princes of Thurn and Taxis. The 
reigning prince held Phillips in considerable esteem 
and entrusted him with personal commissions. 

In the course of business Phillips attended the 
Leipsic fairs and held in other important Con- 
tinental cities. In 1775 he extended his travels to 
England. Once there, he settled for some time in 
London, where he carried on an extensive business 
in indigo and gum. 

After his dciitli. while on a visit to his native 
town his son Samuel Phillips estai)lished himself 
in London and became the father of Sir Benjamin 
Phillips and grandfather of Sir George Faudel- 
Phillips, Bart., both lord mayors of London. 

Bibliography: Jew. Chron. Oct. 18, 1889. 

•' G. L. 

PHILLIPS, SAMUEL: English journalist; 
born at London 1815; died at Brighton Oct., 1854. 
He was the son of an English merchant, and at fif- 
teen years of age made his debut as an actor at Cov- 

ent Garden. Influential friends then placed him 
at Cambridge, whence he passed to Gottingen Uni- 
versity. Phillips then came to London, and in 1841 
turned his attention to literature ami journalism. 
His earliest work was a romance entitled ''Caleb 
Stukeley," which appeared in "Blackwood's Maga- 
zine " and was reprinted in 1843. Its success led to 
further contributions to "Blackwood's," including 
" We Are All Low People There " and other tales. 

Phillips continued to write for periodicals, and he 
was subsequently admitted as literary critic to the 
staff of the "Times." His articles were noted for 
their vigor of expression and their wealth of ideas. 
Dickens, Carlyle, Mrs. Slowe, and other popular 
writers were boldl}' assailed by the anonymous 
critic, whose articles became the talk of the town. 
In 1852 and 1854 two volumes of his literary essays 
were published anonymously. Phillips was also 
associated with the "Morning Herald " and "John 

When the Society of the Crystal Palace was formed 
Phillips became secretary and afterward literary 
director. In connection with the Palace he wrote 
the "Guide" and the "Portrait Gallery." 

Bibmograpiiy: The Times (London), Oct. 17, 1854: Didot, 
Nnuvcnu Biugraphie General; Chambers, Cue. of English 

J. G. L. 

PHILO JUD^US: Alexandrian philosopher; 
born about 20 b.c. at Alexandria, Egypt; died after 
40 c.E. The few biographical details concerning 
him that have been preserved are found in his own 
works (especially in "Legatio ad Caium," t;i; 22, 28; 
ed. Mangey [hereafter cited in brackets], ii. 567, 
572; "De Specialibus Legibus." ii. 1 [ii. 299]) and 
in Josephus ("Ant." xviii. 8, § 1; comp. ib. xix. 5, 
§ 1 ; XX. 5, g 2). The only event that can be deter- 
mined chronologically is his participation in the 
embassy which the Alexandrian Jews sent to the 
emperor Caligula at Rome for the purpose of asking 
protection against the attacks of the Alexandrian 
Greeks. This occurred in the year 40 c.E. 

Philo included in his philosophy both Greek wisdom 
and Hebrew religion, which he sought to fuse and 
harmonize by means of the art of allegorj' that he 
had learned from the Stoics. His work was not ac- 
cepted b}' contemporary Judaism. "The sophists 
of ]iteralne!5s,"as he calls them ("De Somniis,"i. 16- 
17), "opened their eyes superciliously " when he ex- 
plained to them the marvels of his exegesis. Greek 
science, suppressed by the victorious Phariseeism 
(Men. 99), was .soon forgotten. Philo was all the 
more enthusiastically received b}' the early Chris- 
tians, some of whom saw in him a Christian. 

His Works : The Church Fathers have preserved 
most of Philo's works that are now extant. These 
are chieflj' commentaries on the Pentateuch. As 
Ewald has pointed out, three of Philo's chief works 
lie in this field (comp. Siegfried, "Abhandlung zur 
Kritik der Schriften Philo's," 1874, p. 565). 

(a) He explains the Pentateuch catechetically, in 
the form of questions and answers ("Z?/r^^a-a /cat 
Avaeir, Qufestiones et Solutiones "). It can not now 
be determined how far he carried out this method. 
Only the following fragments have been preserved : 
passages in Armenian in explanation of Genesis and 


Phillips, Philip 
Philo Judaeus 

Exodus, an old Latin translation of a part of the 
"Genesis," and fragments from the Greek text in 
the "Sacra Parallela," iu the "Catena," and also in 
Ambrosius. The explanation is conlined cliiclly to 
determining the literal sense, although Philo fre- 
quently refers to the allegorical sense as the higher. 

(b) That he cared mainly for the latter he shows 
in his scientific chief work, the great allegorical 
commentary, i^ofiuv 'lepdv ' Alhiyopiai, or "Legum 

Allegoria'," which deals, so far as it 
His Alle- has been preserved, with selected 
gorical passages from Genesis. According to 
Coramen- Philo's original idea, the history of 
tary. primal man is here considered as a 
symbol of the religious and moral de- 
velopment of the human soul. This great commen- 
tary included the follovving treatises: (1) " De Alle- 
goriis Legum," books i.-iii., on Geu. ii. 1-iii. la, 
8b-19 (on the original extent and contents of these 
three books and the probably more correct combina- 
tion of i. and ii., see Schiirer, "Gesch." iii. 503); (2) 
" De Cherubim," on Gen. iii. 24, iv. 1 ; (3) " De Sacrili- 
ciis Abelis etCaini," on Gen. iv. 2-4 (comp. Schiirer, 
I.e. p. 504); (4) "De Eo Quod Deterius Potiori Insi- 
diatur"; (5) "De Posteritate Caini," on Gen. iv. 
16-25 (see Cohn and Wendland, "Philonis Alex- 
andrini," etc., ii., pp. xviii. et seq., 1-41; "Philolo- 
gus," Ivii. 248-288); (6) " De Gigautibus," on Gen. 
vi. 1-4; (7) "Quod Deus Sit Immutabilis," on Gen. 
vi. 4-12 (Schiirer [I.e. p. 506] correctly combines Nos. 
6 and 7 into one book ; Massebieau [" Biblioth(^que de 
I'Ecole des Hautes Etudes," p. 23, note 2, Paris, 
1889] adds after No. 7 the lost books ITept Aia-^r/Kuv) ; 
(8) " De Agricultura Noe," on Gen. ix. 20 (comp. Von 
Arnim, "Quellenstudien zu Philo von Alexandria," 
1899, pp. 101-140); (9) " De Ebrietate," on Gen. ix. 
21 (on the lost second book see Schiirer, I.e. p. 507, 
and Von Arnim, I.e. pp. 53-100); (10) "Resipuit 
Noa, sen De Sobrietate," on Gen. ix. 24-27; (11) 
" De Conf usione Linguaruni," on Gen. xi. 1-9; (12) 
"De Migratione Abrahann'," on Gen. xii. 1-6; (13) 
"Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," on Gen. xv. 
2-18 (on the work Ilepl Miai^uv cited in this treatise 
see Massebieau, I.e. pp. 27 etseq., note 3); (14) "De 
Congressu QuferendsE Eruditionis Gratia," on Gen. 
xvi. 1-6; (15) "De Profugis," on Gen. xvi. 6-14; 
(16) "De Mutatione Nominum," on Gen. xvii. 1-22 
(on the fragment " De Deo," which contains a com- 
mentary on Gen. xviii. 2, see Massebieau, I.e. p. 
29); (17) "DeSomniis," book i., on Gen. xxviii. 12 
etseq., xxxi. 11 <'<.<(e9. (.Jacob's dreams) ;" DeSomniis," 
book ii., on Gen. xxxvii. 40 et seq. (the dreams of 
Joseph, of the cupbearer, the baker, and Pharaoh). 
Philo's three other books on dreams have been lost. 
The first of these (on the dreams of Abimelech and 
Laban) preceded the present book i., and discussed 
the dreams in which God Himself spoke with the 
dreamers, this fitting in very well with Gen. xx. 3. 
On a doxographic source used by Philo in book i., 
§ 4 [i. 623], see Wendland in "Sitz(mgsbericht der 
Berliner Akademie," 1897, No. xlix. 1-6. 

(c) Philo wrote a systematic work on Moses and 
his laws, which was jirefaced bj^ the treatise " De 
Opificio Mundi," which in the present editions pre- 
cedes "De Allcgoriis Legum," book i. (comp. "De 
Abrahamo," § 1 [ii. 1], with " De Prsemiis et Poenis," 

§ 1 [ii. 408]). The Creation is, according to Philo, 
the basis for the Mosaic legislation, wliich is in 
complete harmony with nature ("De Opificio 
Mundi," ^ 1 [i. 1]). The exposition of the Law then 
follows in two sections. First come the biographies 
of the men who antedated the several written laws of 
the Torah, as Enos, P^noch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob. These were the Patriarchs, who were 
the living impersonations of the active law of virtue 
before there were any written laws. Then the laws 

are discussed in detail: first the chief 

On the ten commandments (the Decalogue), 

Patriarchs, and then the precepts in amplification 

of each law. The work is divided info 
the following treatises: (1) "De Opificio Mundi" 
(comp. Siegfried in "Zeitschrift fiir Wi.ssenschaft- 
liche Theologie," 1874, pp. 562-565; L. Cohn's im- 
portant separate edition of this treatise, Breslau, 1889, 
preceded the edition of the same in "' Philonis Alexan- 
drini," etc., 1896, i.). (2) " De Abrahamo," on Abra- 
ham, the representative of the virtue acquii-ed by 
learning. The lives of Isaac and Jacob have been 
lost. The three patriarchs were intended as types of 
the ideal cosmopolitan condition of the world. (3) 
"De Josepho," the life of Joseph, intended to show- 
how the wise man must act in the actually existing 
state. (4) "DeVita Mosis," books i.-iii.; Schiirer, 
I.e. p. 523, combines the three books into two; but, 
as Massebieau shows {I.e. pp. 42 et seq.), a passage, 
though hardl}' an entire book, is missing at the end 
of the present second book (Wendland. in "Hermes," 
xxxi. 440). Schiirer {I.e. pp. 515, 524) excludes this 
work here, although he admits that from a literary 
point of view it fits into this group ; but he considers 
it foreign to the work in general, since Moses, un- 
like the Patriarchs, can not be conceived as a uni- 
versally valid type of moral action, and can not be 
described as such. The latter point may be ad- 
mitted; but the question still remains whether it is 
necessary to regard the matter in this light. It 
seems most natural to preface the discussion of 
the law with the biography of the legislator, while 
the tran.sition from Joseph to the legislation, from 
the statesman who has nothing to do with the divine 
laws to the discussion of these laws themselves, is 
forced and abrupt. Moses, as the perfect man, 
unites in himself, in a way, all the faculties of the 
patriarchal types. His is the "most pure mind" 
("De Mutatione Nominum," 37 [i. 610]), he is the 
"lover of virtue," who has been purified from all pas- 
sions (" De Allegoriis Legum, " iii. 45, 48 [i. 1 1 3, 1 15]). 
As the person awaiting the divine revelation, he is 
also specially fitted to announce it to others, after 

having received it in the form of the 

On the Commandments (i7). iii. 4 [i. 89 et seq.]). 

Law. (5) "De Decalogo," the introductory 

treatise to the chief ten command- 
ments of the Law. (6) "De Specialibus Legibus," 
in which treatise Philo attempts to systematize the 
several laws of the Torah, and to arrange them in 
conformity with the Ten Commandments. To the 
first and second commandments he adds the laws 
relating to priests and sacrifices; to the third (mis- 
use of the name of God), the laws on oaths, vows, 
etc. ; to the fourth (on the Sabbath), the laws on 
festivals; to the fifth (to honor father and mother), 

Philo JudeeuB 



the laws on respect for parents, old age, etc. ; to the 
sixth, the marriage laws; to the seventh, the civil 
and criminal laws; to the eighth, the laws on theft; 
to the ninth, the laws on truthful testifying; and to 
the tenth, the laws on lust (comp. Stade-Holtzmann, 
"Gesch. des Volkes Israel," 1888, ii. 535-545; on 
Philo as iurtuenced by the Halakah, see B. liitter, 
"Philo uud die Halacha," Leipsic, 1879, and Sieg- 
fried's review of the same in the "Jenaer Litera- 
turzeitung," 1879, No. 35). The first book includes 
the following treatises of the current editions: "De 
Circumcisioue " ; "De Monarchia," books i. and ii. ; 
"De Sacerdotum Honoribus"; "De Victimis." On 
the division of the book into these sections, the titles 
of the latter, and newly found sections of the text, 
see SchUrer, I.e. p. 517; Wendland, I.e. pp. 136 et 
teq. The second book includes in the editions a sec- 
tion also entitled " De Specialibus Legibus " (ii. 270- 
277), to which is added the treatise " De Septenario," 
which is, however, incomplete in Mangey. The 
greater part of the missing portion was supplied, 
under the title " De Cophini Festo et de Colendis 
Parentibus," by Mai (1818), and was printed in 
Richter's edition, v. 48-50, Leipsic, 1828. The com- 
plete text of the second book was published by 
Tischendorf in his "Philonea" (pp. 1-83). The 
third book is included under the title "De Speciali- 
bus Legibus " in ed. Mangey, ii. 299-334. The fourth 
book also is entitled "De Specialibus Legibus"; to 
it the last sections are added under the titles "De 
Judice " and '' De Concupiscentia " in the usual edi- 
tions; and they include, also, as appendix, the sec- 
tions "De Justitia " and "De Creatione Princi- 
pum." (7) The treatises "De Fortitudine," " De 
Caritate," and " De Poenitentia " are a kind of appen- 
dix to "De Specialibus Legibus." Schlirer (^.c. pp. 
519 [note 82], 520-522) combines them into a special 
book, which, he thinks, was composed by Philo. 
(8) "De Praemiis et Pconis" and "De Execratione." 
On the connection of both see Schiirer, I.e. pp. 522 
et seq. This is the conclusion of the exposition of 
the Mosaic law. 

Independent Works: (1) "Quod Omnis Probus 
Liber," the second half of a work on the freedom of 
the just according to Stoic principles. The genu- 
ineness of this work has been disputed by Frankel 
(in "Monatsschrift," ii. ^Oetseq., Qletseq.), by Gratz 
("Gesch." iii. 464 et seq.), and more recently by Ans- 
feld(1887), Hilgenfeld (in "Zeitschrift fiir Wissen- 
schaftliche Theologie," 1888, pp. 49-71), and others. 
Now Wendland, Ohle, Schiirer, Massebieau, and 
Krell consider it genuine, with the exception of the 
partly interpolated passages on the Essenes. (2) 
" In Flaccum " and " De Legatione ad Caium," an ac- 
count of the Alexandrian persecution of the Jews 
under Caligula. This account, consisting originally 
of five books, has been preserved in fragments only 
(see Schiirer, I.e. pp. 525 et seq.). Philo intended to 
show the fearful punishment meted out bj'^ God to 
the persecutors of the Jews (on Philo's predilection 
for similar discussions .see Siegfried, " Philo von Al- 
exandria," p. 157). (3) "De Providcntia," preserved 
only in Armenian, and printed from Aucher's Latin 
translation in the editions of Richter and others (on 
Greek fragments of tlie work see Schnrer, I.e. pp. 
531 et seq.). (4) "De Animalibus" (on the title see 

Schiirer, I.e. p. 532; in Richter's cd. viii. 101-144). 
(5) 'TrrodeTiKd ("Counsels"), a work known only 
through fragments in Eusebius, " Pneparatio Evan- 
gelica," viii. 6, 7. The meaning of the title is open 
to discussion; it may be identical with the follow- 
ing (No. G). (6) Hf/jt 'Iov6(iiuv, an apology for the 
Jews (Schiirer, I.e. pp. 5d'2 et seq.). 

For a list of the lost works of Philo see Schiirer, 
I.e. p. 5:U. 

Other Works Ascribed to Philo : (1) " De Vita Con- 
templativa "' (on the dilferent titles comp. Schiirer, 
I.e. p. 535). This work describes the mode of life 
and the religious festivals of a society of Jewish 
ascetics, who, according to the author, are widely 
scattered over the eurtii, and are found especially 
in every^ nome in Egypt. The writer, however, 
confines himself to describing a colony of hermits 
.settled on the Lake Mareotis in Egypt, where each 
lives separately in his own dwelling. Six days 
of the week they spend in pious contemplation, 
chiefly in connection with Scripture. On the sev- 
enth day both men and women assemble together in 
a hall ; and the leader delivers a discourse consist- 
ing of an allegorical interpretation of a Scriptural 
passage. The feast of the fiftieth day is especially 
celebrated. The ceremony begins with a frugal 
meal consisting of bread, salted vegetables, and 
water, during which a passage of Scripture is inter- 
preted. After the meal the members of the society 
in turn sing religious songs of various kinds, to which 
the assembly answers with a refrain. The ceremony 
ends with a choral representation of the triumphal 
festival that Moses and lyiiriam arranged after the 
passage through the Red Sea, the voices of the men 
and the women uniting in a choral symphony^ until 
the sun rises. Aftera common morning prayer each 
goes home to resume his contemplation. Such is 
the contemplative life (Sio^ deufjTjTiKdc) led by these 
QepaTTEvrai (" servants of Yiiwh "). 

The ancient Church looked upon these Therapeutoe 
as disguised Christian monks. This view has found 
advocates even in very recent times; Lucius' opin- 
ion particularly, that the Christian monkdom of the 
third century was here glorified in a Jewish disguise, 
was widely accepted ("Die Therapeuten," 1879). 
But the ritual of the society, which was entirely^ at 
variance with Christianity, disproves this view. 
The chief ceremony especially, the choral represen- 
tation of the passage through the Red Sea, has no 
special significance for Christianity ; nor have there 
ever been in the Christian Church nocturnal festi- 
vals celebrated by men and women 
"DeVita together. But Massebieau ("Revue 
Contempla- de I'Histoire des Religions," 1887, xvi. 
tiva." 170 et seq., 284 et seq.), Conybeare 
("Philo About the Contemplative 
Life," Oxford, 1895), and Wendland ("Die Thera- 
peuten," etc.. Leipsic, 1896) ascribe the entire work 
to Philo, basing their argument wholly on linguistic 
reasons, which seem sufficiently conclusive. But 
there are great dissimilarities between the funda- 
mental conceptions of the author of the "De Vita 
Contemplativa " and those of Philo. The latter 
looks upon Greek culture and philosophy as allies, 
the former is hostile to Greek philosophy (see Sieg- 
fried in " Protestantische Kirchenzeitung," 1896, No. 



Philo Judaeus 

42). He repudiates a science that numbered among 
its followers the sacred baud of the Pythagoreans, 
inspired men like Parmenides, Empedocles, Zeno, 
Cleanthes, lleraclitus, and Plato, whom Philo prized 
("Quod Ouuiis Probus," i., ii. ; "Quis Rerum Divi- 
narum Heres Sit," 43; "De Providentia," ii. 42, 48, 
etc.). He considers the symposium a detestable, 
common drinking-bout. This can not be explained 
as a Stoic diatribe ; for in this Philo would not 
have repeated it. And Philo would have been the 
last to interpret the Platonic Eros in the vulgar way 
in which it is explained in the "De Vita Contempla- 
tiva," 7 [ii. 480], as he repeatedly uses the myth of 
double man allegorically in his interpretation of 
Scripture ("De Opificio Mundi," 24; "De Allegoriis 
Legum," ii. 24). It must furthermore be remem- 
bered that Philo in none of his other works men- 
tions these colonies of allegorizing ascetics, in which 
he would have been highly interested had he known 
of them. But pupils of Philo may subsequently 
have founded near Alexandria similar colonies that 
endeavored to realize his ideal of a pure life tri- 
umphing over the senses and passions; and they 
might also have been responsible for the one-sided 
development of certain of the master's principles. 
While Philo desired to renounce the lusts of this 
world, he held fast to the scientific culture of Hel- 
lenism, which the author of this book denounces. 
Although Philo liked to withdraw from the world 
in order to give himself up entirely to contempla- 
tion, and bitterly regretted the lack of such repose 
("De Specialibus Legibus," 1 [ii. 299]), he did not 
abandon the work that was required of him by the 
welfare of his people. 

(2) "De Incorruptibilitate Mundi." Since the 
publication of I. Bernays' investigations there has 
been no doubt that this work is spurious. Its Peri- 
patetic basic idea that the world is eternal and in- 
destructible contradicts all those Jewish teachings 
that were for Philo an indisputable presupposition. 
Bernays has proved at the same time that the text 
has been confused through wrong pagination, and 
he has cleverly restored it (" Gesammelte Abhand- 
lungen," 1885, i. 283-290; "Abhandlungder Berliner 
Akademie," 1876, Philosophical-Historical Division, 
pp. 209-278; ib. 1882, sect. iii. 82; Von Arnim, I.e. 
pp. 1-52). 

(3) "De Mundo," a collection of extracts from 
Philo, especially from the preceding work (comp. 
Wendland, "Philo," ii., pp. vi.-x.). (4) "DeSamp- 
sone " and "De Jona," in Armenian, published with 
Latin translation by Aucher. (5) " Interpretatio 
Hebraicorum Nominum," a collection, by an anony- 
mous Jew, of the Hebrew names occurring in Philo. 
Origen enlarged it by adding New Testament 
names ; and Jerome revised it. On the etymology of 
names occurring in Philo's exegetical works .see be- 
low. (6) A "Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum," 
which was printed in the sixteenth century and then 
disappeared, has been discussed by Cohn in "J. Q. 
R." 1898, X. 277-332. It narrates Biblical history 
from Adam to Saul (see Schiirer, l.r. p. 542). (7) 
The pseudo-Philonic " Breviarium Temporum," pub- 
lished by Annius of Viterbo (see Schiirer, I.e. note 

His Exegesis. Cultural Basis : Philo, of Jewish 

descent, was by birth a Hellene, a member of one 
of tiiose colonies, organized after the conquests of 
Alexander the Great, that were dominated by 
Greek language and culture. The vernacular of colonies, Hellenistic Greek proper, was every- 
wiiere corrupted by idiotisms and solecisms, and in 
specifically Jewish circles by Hebraisms and Semi- 
tisms, numerous examples of which are found in the 
Septuagint, the Apocrypha, and the New Testa- 
ment. Tiie educated classes, however, had created 
for themselves from the classics, in the so-called 
KotvT/ Sid/.eKToc, a purer medium of expression. In 
the same way Philo formed his language by means 
of extensive reading of the classics. Scholars at an 
early date pointed out resemblances to Plato (Suidas, 
s.v. ; Jerome, " De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis," Cata- 
logue, S.V.). But there are also expressions and 
phrases taken from Aristotle, as well as from Attic 
orators and historians, and poetic phrases and allu- 
sions to the poets. Philo's works offer an anthology 
of Greek phraseology of the most different periods; 
and his language, in consequence, lacks simplicity 
and purity (see Treitel, "De Philonis Judaei Ser- 
mone," Breslau, 1870; Jessen, "De Elocutione Phi- 
lonis Alexandriui," 1889). 

But more important than the influence of the lan- 
guage was that of the literature. He quotes the 
epic and dramatic poets with especial frequency, or 
alludes to passages in their works. He has a wide 
acquaintance with the works of the Greek philos- 
ophers, to which he was devoted, owing to them his 
real scholarship, as he himself says (see "De Con- 
gressu Quaerendae Eruditionis Gratia," 6 [i. 550]; 
"De Specialibus Legibus," ii. 229; Deane, "The 
Book of Wisdom," 1881, p. 12, note 1). He holds 
that the highest perception of truth is possible only 
after a study of the encyclopedic sciences. Hence 
his system throughout shows the influence of Greek 
philosophy. The dualistic contrast between God 
and the world, between the finite and the infinite, 
appears also in Neo-Pythagorism. The influence 
of Stoicism is unmistakable in the doc- 
Influence trine of God as the only efficient cause, 
of in that of divine reason immanent in 

Hellenism, the world, in that of the powers ema- 
nating from God and suffusing the 
world. In the doctrine of the Logos various ele- 
ments of Greek philosophy are united. As Heinze 
shows ("Die Lehre vom Logos in der Griechischen 
Philosophic," 1872, pp. 204 et seq.), this doctrine 
touches upon the Platonic doctrine of ideas as well 
as the Stoic doctrine of the yeviKurardv ti and the 
Neo -Pythagorean doctrine of the type that served at 
the creation of the world; and in the shaping of the 
/l(5yof TOfiEvg it touches upon the Heraclitean doctrine 
of strife as the moving principle. Philo's doctrine 
of dead, inert, non-existent matter harmonizes in its 
essentials with the Platonic and Stoic doctrine. His 
account of the Creation is almost identical with that 
of Plato; he follows the hitter's "Timseus" pretty 
closely in his exposition of the world as having no 
beginning and no end ; and, like Plato, he places the 
creative activity as well as the act of creation out- 
side of time, on the Platonic ground that time begins 
only with the world. The influence of Pythago- 
rism appears in the numeral-symbolism, to which 

Philo JudeeuB 



Philo frequently recurs. The Aristotcliau contrast 
between liivafii^ and h-rc/.cxeta ("Metaphysics," iii. 
73) is found in Philo, "De Allegoriis Leguni," i. 64 
(on Aristotle see Freudenthal in "Monatsschrift," 
1875. p. 233). In his psychology he adopts cither the 
Stoic division of the soul into eight faculties, or the 
Platonic trichotomy of reason, courage, and desire, 
or the Aristotelian triad of the vegetative, emotive, 
and rational souls. The doctrine of the body as the 
source of all evil corresponds entirely with the 
Neo-Pythagorean doctrine: the soul he conceives as 
a divine emanation, similar to Plato's vovg (see 
Siegfried, "Philo," pp. 189 et seq.). His ethics and 
allegories are based on Stoic ethics and allegories. 
Although as a philosopher Philo must be classed 
with the eclectics, he was not therefore merely a com- 
piler. He made his philosophy the means of de- 
fending and justifying the Jewish religious truths. 
These truths he regarded as fi.xed and determinate; 
and philosophy was merely an aid to truth and a 
means of arriving at it. With this end in view 
Philo chose from the philosophical tenets of the 
Greeks, refusing those that did not harmonize with 
the Jewish religion, as, e.g., the Aristotelian doc- 
trine of the eternity and indestructibility of the 

Although he devoted himself largely to the Greek 
language and literature, especially Greek philoso- 
phy, Philo's national Jewish education is also a fac- 
tor to be taken into account. While he read the Old 
Testament chiefly in the Greek trans- 
His Knowl- lation, not deeming it necessary to use 

edge of the Hebrew te.xt because he was imder 

Hebrew, the wrong impression that the Greek 
corresponded with it, he nevertheless 
understood Hebrew, as his numerous etymologies of 
Hebrew names indicate (see Siegfried, "Philonische 
Studien," in Merx, "Archiv filr Wissenschaftliche 
Erforschung des A. T." 1871, ii. 2, 143-168; id^yn, 
"Hebraische Worterklarungen des Philo und Ihre 
Einwirkung auf die KirchenvSter," 1863). These 
etymologies are not in agreement with modern He- 
brew philology, but are along the lines of the etymo- 
logic midrash to Genesis and of the earlier rabbinism. 
His knowledge of the Halakah was not profound. 
B. Ritter, however, has shown (I.e.) that he was 
more at home in this than has been generally assumed 
(see Siegfried's review of Ritter's book in "Jenaer 
Literaturzeituug," 1879, No. 35, where the principal 
points of Philo's indebtedness to the Halakah are 
enumerated). In the Haggadah, however, he was 
very much at home, not only in that of the Bible, but 
especially in that of the earlier Palestinian and the 
Hellenistic Midrash (Frankel, "Ueber den Einfluss 
der Paliistinensischen Exegese auf die Alexaudri- 
nische Hermeneutik," 1851, pp. 190-200; SchUrer, 
I.e. p. 540: "De Vita Mosis," i. 1 [ii. 81]). 

His Methods of Exegesis: Philo bases his doctrines 
on the Old Testament, which he considers as the 
source and standard not only of religious truth but 
in general of all truth. Its pronouncements are for 
him divine pronouncements. They are the words 
of the kpbr ?.6}'n(, ^cior '/.dyo^, bpdu^ }^yo^{"' De Agricul- 
turaNoe,"gl2[i. 308]; " De Somniis," i. 681, ii. 25) 
uttered sometimes directly and sometimes through 
the mouth of a prophet, especially through Moses, 

wiiom Philo considers the real medium of revelation, 
while the other writers of the Old Testament appear 
as friends or pupils of Moses. Although he distin- 
guishes between the words uttered by God Himself, 
as the Decalogue, aud the edicts of Moses, as the 
special laws (" De Specialibus Legibus," §§ 2 et seq. 
[ii. ZQOet seq.] ; " De Pra?miis et Pa'nis,"§ 1 [ii. 408]), 
he does not carry out this distinction, since he be- 
lieves in general that everything in the Torah is of 
divine origin, even the letters and accents (" De Mu- 
tatione Nominum," § 8 [i. 587]). The extent of his 
canon can not be exactly determined (comp. Horne- 
mann, " Observationes ad lUustrationem Doctrin.t 
de Canone V. T. ex Philone," 1776; B. Pick. 
"Philo's Canon of the O. T.," in "Jour, of Excg. 
Society," 1895, pp. 126-143; C. Bissel, "The Canon 
of the O. T.," in " Bibliotheca Sacra," Jan., 1886. pp. 
83-86; and the more recent introductions to the Old 
Testament, especially those of Buhl, "Canon and 
Text of the O. T. " 1891, pp. 17, 43, 45 ; Ryle, " Philo 
and Holy Script," 1895, pp. xvi.-xxxv. ; and other 
references in Schilrcr, I.e. p. 547, note 17). He does 
not quote Ezekiel, Daniel, Canticles, Ruth, Lamen- 
tations, Ecclesiastes, or Esther (on a quotation from 
Job see E. Kautzsch, "De Locis V. T. a Paulo 
Apostolo Allegatis," 1869, p. 69; on Philo's manner 
of quoting see Siegfried, I.e. p. 162). Philo regards 
the Bible as the source not only of religious revela- 
tion, but also of philosophic truth; for, according 
to him, the Greek philosophers also have borrowed 
from the Bible: Heraclitus, according to "Quis 
Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," § 43 [i. 503]; Zeno, 
according to "Quod Omnis Probus Liber," § 8 [ii. 

Greek allegory had preceded Philo in this field. 
As the Stoic allegorists sought in Homer the basis 
for their philosophic teachings, so the Jewish alle- 
gorists, and especially Philo, went to the Old Testa- 
ment. Following the methods of Stoic allegory, 

they interpreted the Bible philosoph- 

Stoic ically (on Philo's predecessors In the 

Influence, domain of the allegoristic Midrash 

among the Palestinian and Alexan- 
drian Jews, see Siegfried, I.e. pp. 16-37). Philo bases 
his hermeneutics on the assumption of a twofold 
meaning in the Bible, the literal and the allegorical 
(comp. "Quod Deus Sit Immutabilis," g 11 [i. 280]; 
"De Somniis," i. 40 [i. 656]). He distinguishes the 
pTiTTj Kal (pavepa a7v66oaic (" De Abrahamo," § 36 [ii. 29 
et seq.]), "ad litteram"in contrast to "allegorice" 
(" Quaestioues in Genesin," ii. 21). The two inter- 
pretations, however, are not of equal importance: 
the literal sense is adapted to human needs; but the 
allegorical sense is the real one, which only the ini- 
tiated comprehend. Hence Philo addresses himself 
to the iihtyTai ("initiated ") among his audience, by 
whom he expects to be really comprehended (" De 
Cherubim," § 14 [i. 47]; "De Somniis," i. 33 [i. 
649]). A special method is requisite for determin- 
ing the real meaning of the words of Scripture 
("Canons of Allegory," " De VictimasOfferentibus," 
§ 5 [ii. 255] ; "Laws of Allegory," " De Abrahamo," 
§ 15 [ii. 11]); the correct application of this method 
determines the correct allegory, and is therefore 
called "the wise architect" (" De Somniis," ii. 2 [i. 
660]). As a result of some of these rules of inter- 



Philo JudaeuB 

prctatinn the literal sense of certain passages of 
the Bible must be excluded altogether; e.g., passages 
in which according to a literal inter- 
Attitude pretation something unworthy is said 
Toward of God ; or in which statements are 
Literal made tlmt are unworthy of the Bible, 
Meaning, senseless, contradictory, or inadmissi- 
ble; or in which allegorical expres- 
sions are used for the avowed purpose of drawing 
the reader's attention to the fact that the literal sense 
is to be disregarded. 

There are in addition special rules that not only 
direct the reader to recognize the passages wliich 
demand an allegorical interpretation, b>it help the 
initiated to find the correct and intended meaning. 
These passages are such as contain: (1) the doubling 
of a phrase; (2) an apparently superfluous ex- 
pression in the text; (3) the repetition of statements 
previously made; (4) a change of phraseology — all 
these phenomena point to something special that the 
reader must consider. (5) An entirely different 
meaning may also be found by a different combination 
of the words, disregarding the ordinarily accepted 
division of the sentence in question into phrases 
and clauses. (6) The synon5Mns must be carefully 
studied; e.r/., why Idbq is used in one passage and 
ykvoq in another, etc. (7) A play upon words must be 
utilized for finding a deeper meaning; e.y., sheep 
(■n-pSfiarov) stand for progress in knowledge, since 
they derive their name from the fact of their pro- 
gressing (Trpofiaiveiv), etc. (8) A definite allegorical 
sense may be gathered from certain particles, ad- 
verbs, prepositions, etc. ; and in certain cases it 
can be gathered even from (9) the parts of a word ; 
e.g., from rJm in 6idXevKoq. (10) Every word must 
be explained in all its meanings, in order that 
different interpretations may be found. (11) The 
skilful interpreter may make slight changes in a 
word, following the rabbinical rule, "Read not so, 
but so " (Ber. 10a). Philo, therefore, changed ac- 
cents, breathings, etc., in Greek words. (12) Any 
peculiarity in a phrase justifies the assumption that 
some special meaning is intended; e.g., where iiia 
(" one ") is used instead of np6)Ti^ (" first " ; Gen. i. 5), 
etc. Details regarding the form of words are very 
important: (13) the number of the word, if it show-s 
any peculiarity in the singular or the plural; the 
tense of the verb, etc. ; (14) the gender of the 
noun; (15) the presence or omission of the article; 
(16) the artificial interpretation of a single expres- 
sion ; (17) the position of the verses of a passage ; (18) 
peculiar verse-combinations; (19) noteworthy omis- 
sions; (20) striking statements; (21) numeral sym- 
bolism. Philo found much material for this 83'm- 
bolism in the Old Testament, and he developed it 
more thoroughly according to the methods of the 
Pythagoreans and Stoics. He could follow in many 
points the tradition handed down by his allegorizing 
predecessors ("Dc Vita Contemplativa," § 8 [ii. 

Philo regards the singular as God's number and 
the basis for all numbers ("De Allegoriis Legum," 
ii. 12 [i. 66]). Two is the number of schism, of that 
which has been created, of death ("De Opificio 
Mundi, § 9 [i. 7] ; " De Allegoriis Legum," i. 2 [i. 44] ; 
*'De Somniis," ii. 10 [i. 688]). Three is the number 

of the bodyC'De Allegoriis Legum," i. 2 [i. 44]) 
or of the Divine Being in connection with His fun- 
damental powers (" De Sacrificiis Abe- 
Views on lis et Caini," ^15 [i. 173]). Four is 
Numbers, potentially what ten is actually, the 
perfect number (" De Opificio Mundi," 
^^ 15, 16 [i. 10, 11], etc.); but in an evil sense 
four is the number of the passions, Tr^af^T/ ("De Con- 
gressu Quserendtt; Eruditionis Gratia." § 17 [i. 532]). 
Five is the number of the senses and of sen.sibilitj' 
("De Opificio Mundi," § 20 [i. 14], etc.). Six, the 
product of the masculine and feminine numbers 3x2 
and in its parts equal to 3-f-3, is the symbol of the 
movement of organic beings (" De Allegoriis Legum, " 
i. 2 [i. 44]). Seven has the most various and mar- 
velous attributes (" De Opificio Mundi," ^g 30-43 [i. 
21 et seq.] ; comp. I. G. MQller, "Philo unddie Welt- 
sch5pfung," 1841, p. 211). Eight, the number of the 
cube, has many of the attributes determined by the 
Pythagoreans (" Quoestiones in Genesin," iii. 49 [i. 
223, Aucher]). Nine is the number of strife, ac- 
cording to Gen. xiv. (" De Congressu Q'u. Eruditionis 
Gratia," § 17 [i. 532]). Ten is the number of per- 
fection (" De Plautatione NoK," § 29 [i. 347]). Philo 
determines also the values of the numbers 60, 70, 
and 100, 12, and 120. (22) Finally, the symbolism of 
objects is very extensive. The numerous and 
manifold deductions made from the comparison of 
objects and the relations in which they stand come 
very near to confusing the whole system, this being 
prevented only by assigning predominance to certain 
forms of comparison, although others of secondary 
importance are permitted to be made side by side 
with them. Philo elaborates an extensive symbol- 
ism of proper names, following the example of the 
Bible and the Midrash, to which he adds manj' new 
interpretations. On the difference between the 
physical and ethical allegory, the first of which 
refers to natural processes and the second to the 
psychic life of man, see Siegfried, I.e. p. 197. 

Philo 's teaching was not Jewish, but was derived 
from Greek philosophy. Desiring to convert it into 
a Jewish doctrine, he applied the Stoic mode of alle- 
goric interpretation to the Old Testament. No one 
before Philo,. except his now forgotten Alexandrian 
predecessors, had applied this method to the Old 
Testament — a method that could produce no lasting 
results. It was attacked even in Alexandria (" De 
Vita Mosis," iii. 27 [ii. 168]), and disappeared after 
the brief florescence of Jewish Hellenism. 

His Doctrine of God: Philo obtains his theol- 
ogy in two ways: by means of negation^nd by posi- 
tive assertions as to the nature of God (comp. Zeller, 
"Philosophie der Griechen," 3d ed., iii., § 2, pp. 
353-360; Drummond, "Philo Jud8eus,"ii. 1-64. Lon- 
don, 1888). In his negative statement he tries to 
define the nature of God in contrast to the world. 
Here he can take from the Old Testament only cer- 
tain views of later Jewish theology regarding God's 
sublimity transcending the world (Isa. Iv. 9), and 
man's inability to behold God (Ex. xxxii. 20 et seq.). 
But according to the conception that predominates 
in the Bible God is incessantly active in the world, 
is filled with zeal, is moved by repentance, and 
comes to aid His people ; He is, therefore, cntirelj' 
different from the God described by Philo. Philo 

Fhilo Judaens 



does not consider God similar to heaven or the world 
or man; He exists neither in time nor space; He has 
no human attributes or emotions. Indeed, He has 
no attributes whatever (dT/otf), and in consequence 
no name (a^pjyrof), and for that reason he can not be 
perceived by man {aKara/j^-roi). He can not change 
(drpf^TTOf) : He is always the s&me{ai6to(). He needs 
no other being {xp',K<^^ ov^evdc 'o TopdTav), and is self- 
sufficient (eni-rCi Uavdc). He can never perish (aodap- 
Tof). He is the simply existent (6 uv, to dv), and as 
such has no relations with any other being (to yap ri 
6v iariv ovxi tuv ~p6q ti). 

It is evident that this is not the God of the Old 
Testament, but the idea of Phito designated as Geoc, 
in contrast to matter. Nothing remained, therefore, 
but to set aside the descriptions of God in the Old 
Testament by means of allegory. Fhilo character- 
izes as A monstrous impiety the anthropomorphism 
of the Bible, which, according to the literal mean- 
ing, ascribes to God hands and feet, eyes and ears, 
tongue and windpipe (" De Confusione Linguarum," 
§ 27 [i. 425]). Scripture, he says, adapts itself to 
human conceptions {ib.)\ and for pedagogic reasons 
God is occasionally represented as a man ("Quod 
Deus Sit Immutabilis," § 11 [i. 281]). The same 
holds good also as regards His anthropopathic at- 
tributes. God as such is untouched by unreason- 
able emotions, as appears, e.g., from E.\. ii. 12, where 
Moses, torn by his emotions, perceives God alone to 
be calm ("'De Allegoriis Legum," iii. 12 [i. 943] ). 
He is free from sorrow, pain, and all such affections. 
But He is frequently represented as endowed with 
human emotions; and this serves to explain expres- 
sions referring to His repentance. 
Views on Similarly God can not exist or change 
Anthropo- in space. He has no " where " (toi', ob- 
mor- tained by changing the accent in Gen. 

phisms. iii. 9: "Adam, where [ttov] art thou?"), 
is not in any place. He is Himself the 
place; the dwelling-place of God means the same 
as God Himself, as in the Mishnah ClpO =: " God is " 
(comp. Freudenthal, " Hellenistische Studien," p. 
73), corresponding to the tenet of Greek philosophy 
that the existence of all things is summed up in God 
(comp. SchQrer, "Der Begriff des Himmelreichs," 
in "Jahrbuch fiir Protestantisclie Theologie," 1876, 
i. 170). The Divine Being as such is motionless, as 
the Bible indicates by the phrase "God stands" 
(Deut. v. 31 ; Ex. xvii. 6). It was difficult to har- 
monize the doctrine of God's namelessness with the 
Bible; and Philo was aided here by his imperfect 
knowledge of Greek. Not noticing that the Sep- 
tuagint translated the divine name Yiiwii by Kvfuoc, 
he thought himself justified in referring the two 
names Stof and Kipioc to the two supreme divine 

Philo's transcendental conception of the idea of 
God precluded the Creation as well as any activity 
of God in the world; it entirely separated God from 
man; and it deprived ethics of all religious basis. 
But Philo, who was a pious Jew, could not accept 
the un-Jewish, pagan conception of the world and 
the irreligious attitude which would have been the 
logical result of his own system ; and so he accepted 
the Stoic doctrine of the immanence of God, which 
led him to statements opposed to those he hud 

previously made. While he at first had placed God 
entirely outside of the world, he now regarded Him 
as the only actual being therein. God is the only 
real citizen of the world ; all other beings are merely 
sojourners therein ("De Cherubim," i^ 34 [i. 661]). 
While God as a transcendent being could not 
operate at all in the world, He is now considered 
as doing everything and as the only cause of all 
things ("De Allegoriis Legum," iii. 3 [i. 88]). He 
creates not only once, but forever {ib. i. 13 [i. 44]). 
He is identical with the Stoic "efficient cause." He 
is impelled to activity chiefly by His goodness, 
which is the basis of the Creation. God as creator 
is called Qe6c (from Tltiz/fn; comp. "De Confusione 
Linguarum," § 27 [i. 425]). This designation also 
characterizes Him in conformity with His goodness, 
because all good gifts are derived from God, but 
not evil ones. Hence God must call upon other 
powers to aid Him in the creation of man, as He 
can have nothing to do with matter, which con- 
stitutes the physical nature of man : with evil 
He can have no connection ; He can not even pun- 
ish it. God stands in a special relation to man. 
The human soul is God's most characteristic work. 
It is a reflex of God, a part of the divine reason, 
just as in the system of the Stoics the human soul is 
an emanation of the World-Soul. The life of the 
soul is nourished and supported b^' God, Philo using 
for his illustrations the figures of the light and the 
fountain and the Biblical passages referring to these. 
Doctrine of the Divine Attributes : Al- 
though, as shown above, Philo repeatedly endeav- 
ored to find the Divine Being active and acting in 
the world, in agreement with Stoicism, yet his Pla- 
tonic repugnance to matter predominated, and con- 
sequently whenever he posited that the divine could 
not have any contact with evil, he defined evil as 
matter, with the result that he placed God outside 
of the world. Hence he was obliged to separate 
from the Divine Being the activity displayed in the 
world and to transfer it to the divine powers, which 
accordingly were sometimes inherent in God and 
at other times exterior to God. This doctrine, as 
worked out by Philo, was composed of very differ- 
ent elements, including Greek philosophy, Biblical 
conceptions, pagan and late Jewish views. The 
Greek elements were borrowed partly from Platonic 
philosophy, in so far as the divine powers were con- 
ceived as types or patterns of actual things ("arche- 
typal ideas "), and partly from Stoic philosophy, in so 
far as powers were regarded as the efficient 
causes that not only represent the types of things, 
but also produce and maintain them. Thej' fill the 
whole world, and in them are contained all being and 
all individual things ("De Confusione Linguarum," 
§ 34 [i. 481]). Philo endeavored to harmonize this 
conception with the Bible by designating these 
powers as angels ("De Gigantibus," § 2 [i. 263]; 
"De Somniis," i. 22 [i. 641 et seq.]), whereby he des- 
troyed an essential characteristic of the Biblical view. 
He further made use of the pagan conception of 
demons (ib.). And finally he was influenced by the 
late Jewish doctrine of the throne-chariot (^£^•yo 
nSD'IO), in connection with which he in a way de- 
taches one of God's fundamental powers, a point 
which will be discussed further on. In the Haggadah 



Fhilo Judaeus 

this fundainontal power dividi-s into two contrasts, 
which modify each other: D^DHin moi ]nr[ mO- 
In the same way Philo contrasts the two divine at- 
tributes of goochiess and power {ayadd-r/g and apx'/, 
(Vivdfiii ;);ut)ia7iK// and avynoAaaTiKij). They are also ex- 
pressed in the names of God; but Philo's explanation 
is confusing. " Yiiwii " really designates God as the 
kind and merciful one, wiiile "Elohim" designates 
liim as the just one. Philo, however, interpreted 
"Elohim" (LXX. Ofof) as designating the "cosmic 
power " ; and as he considered tiie Creation the most 
important proof of divine goodness, he found the 
idea of goodness especially in Qeoq (" De Migratione 
Abrahami," ti, '62 [i. 4G4]). On the parallel activity 
of the two powers and the symbols used therefor 
in Scripture, as well as on their emanation from 
God and their further development into new pow- 
ers, their relation to God and the world, their 
part in the Creation, their tasks toward man, etc., 
see Siegfried, "Philo," pp. 214-218. Philo's expo- 
sition here is not entirely clear, as he sometimes con- 
ceives the powers to be independent hypostases and 
sometimes regards them as immanent attributes of 
the Divine Being. 

The Logos : Philo considers these divine powers 
in their totality also, treating them as a single 
independent being, which he designates "Logos." 
This name, which he borrowed from Greek philos- 
ophy, was first used by Heraclitus and then adopted 
l)y the Stoics. Philo's conception of the Logos is 
influenced by both of these schools. From Heracli- 
tus he borrowed the conception of the "dividing 
Logos" {'Ao^oq TOfievQ), which calls the various objects 
into existence by the combination of contrasts (" Quis 
Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," § 43 [i. 503]), and 
from Stoicism, the characterization of the Logos as 
the active and vivifying power. But Philo borrowed 
also Platonic elements in designating the Logos 
as the "idea of ideas" and the "archetypal idea" 
(" De Migratione Abrahami," § 18 [i. 4o2] ; "Dc Spe- 
cialibus Legibus," § 36 [ii. 333]). There are, in ad- 
dition. Biblical elements: there are Biblical passages 
in which the word of Yiiwii is regarded as a power 
acting independently and existing by itself, as 
Isa. Iv. 11 (comp. Matt. x. 13; Prov. xxx. 4); these 
ideas were further developed by later Judaism in 
the doctrines of the Divine Word creating the world, 
the divine throne-chariot and its cherub, the divine 
splendor and its shekinali, and tlie name of God as 
well as the names of the angels ; and Philo borrowed 
from all these in elaborating his doctrine of the 
Logos. He calls the Logos the "archangel of many 
names," "taxiarch" (corps-commander), the "name 
of God," also the "heavenly Adam" (comp. "De 
Confusione Linguarum," tij 11 [i. 41 Ij), the "man, 
the word of the eternal God." The Logos is also 
designated as "high priest," in reference to the ex- 
alted position which the high priest occupied after 
the Exile as the real center of the Jewish state. 
The Logos, like the high priest, is the expiator of 
sins, and the mediator and advocate for men: iKerriq 
("Quis Rerum Divinarum Hercs Sit," § 42 [i. 501], 
and -apnK?j/Toq ("De Vita Mosis," iii. 14 [ii. 155]). 
From Alexandrian theology Philo borrowed the idea 
of wisdom as the mediator; he thereby somewhat 
confused his doctrine of the Logos, regarding wis- 

dom as the higher jjrinciple from which the Logos 
proceeds, and again coordinating it with the latter. 
Philo, in connecting his doctrine of the Logos 
with Scripture, first of all bases on Gen. i. 27 the re- 
lation of the Logos to God. He trans- 
Relation of lates this passage as follows: "lie 
the Logos made man after the image of God," 
to God. concluding therefrom that an image 
of God existed. This image of God 
is the type for all other things (the "Archetypal 
Idea " of Plato), a seal impressed upon things. The 
Logos is a kind of shadow cast by God, having the 
oiitiines but not the blinding light of the Divine 

The relation of the Logos to the divine powers, 
especiall}' to the two fundamental powers, must 
now be examined. And here is found a twofold 
series of exegetic expo.sitions. According to one, 
the Logos stands higher than the two powers ; ac- 
cording to the otlier, it is in a way the product of 
the two i)owers; similarly it occasionally appears 
as the chief and leader of the innumerable powers 
proceeding from the primal powers, and again as 
the aggregate or product of them. In its relation 
to the world the Logos appears as the universal 
substance on which all things depend ; and from this 
point of view the manna (as yeviK<l)TaT6v -i) becomes 
a symbol for it. The Logos, however, is not only 
the archetype of things, but also the power that 
produces thefn, appearing as such especially under 
the name of the Logos -o/zf ;? (" the divider"). It 
separates the individual beings of nature from one 
another according to their characteristics; but, on the 
other hand, it constitutes the bond connecting the 
individual creatures, uniting their spiritual and 
phj^sical attributes. It may be said to have in- 
vested itself with the whole world as an inde- 
structible garment. It appears as the director and 
shepherd of the things in the world 
Pneuma- in so far as they are in motion. The 
tology. Logos has a special relation to man. 
It is the type ; man is the coi)y. The 
similarity is found in the mind (volx) of man. For 
the shaping of his nous, man (earthly man) has the 
Logos (the "heavenly man") for a pattern. The 
latter officiates here also as "the divider" (rofievg), 
separating and uniting. The Logos as " interpreter " 
announces God's designs to man, acting in this 
respect as prophet and priest. As the latter, he 
softens punishments by making the merciful power 
stronger than the punitive. The Logos has a spe- 
cial mystic influence upon the human soul, illu- 
minating it and nourishing it with a higher spiritual 
food, like the manna, of which the smallest piece has 
the same vitality as the whole. 

Cosmology : Philo's conception of the matter 
out of which the world was created is entirely un- 
Biblical and un-Jewish; he is here wholly at one 
with Plato and the Stoics. According to him, God 
does not create the world-stuff, but finds it ready 
at hand. God can not create it, as in its nature it 
resists all contact with the divine. Sometimes, fol- 
lowing the Stoics, he designates God as "tlieetticient 
cause, " and matter as " the affected cause. " He 
seems to have found this conception in the Bible 
(Gen. i. 2) in the image of the spirit of God hover- 

Philo Judaeus 



ing over the waters ("De Opificio Mundi," § 2 [i. 
12]). On the connection of these doctrines with the 
speculations on the n'K'Kia n\r]}^. see Siegfried. I.e. 
pp. 230 et 8fq. 

Philo. again like Plato and the Stoics, conceives 
of matter as having no attributes or form; this, 
however, does not harmonize with the assumption 
of four elements. Philo conceives of matter as evil, 
on the ground that no praise is meted out to it in 
Genesis ("Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," § 32 
[i. 49.^]). As a result, he can not posit an actual 
Creation, but only a formation of the world, as Plato 
holds. God appears as demiurge and cosmoplast. 

Philo frequently compares God to an architect or 
gardener, who formed the present world (the Koafio^ 
a/ffi^vrtif )accordiug to a pattern, the ideal world (Koa/unc 
:■■-■<). Philo takes the details of his story of the 
Creation entirely from Gen. i. A specially impor- 
tant position is assigned here to the Logos, which 
executes the several acts of the Creation, as God 
can not come into contact with matter, actually 
creating only the soul of the good. 

Anthropology. The Doctrine of Man as a Nat- 
ural Being : Philu regards the physical natuie of man 
as something defective and as an obstacle to his de- 
velopment that can never be fully surmounted, but 
still as something indispensable in view of the 
nature of his being. With the body the necessity 
for food arises; as Philo explains in various alle- 
gories. The body, however, is also of advantage 
to the spirit, since the spirit arrives at its knowledge 
of the world by means of the five senses. But 
higher and more important is the spiritual nature of 
man. This nature has a twofold tendency: one 
toward the sensual and earthly, which Philo calls 
sensibilit}' (aia^/juig), and one toward the spiritual, 
which he calls reason (voix). Sensibility has its seat 
in the body, and lives in the senses, as Philo elabo- 
rates in varying allegoric imagery. Connected with 
this corporealit)^ of the sensibility are its limitations; 
but, like the body itself, it is a necessity of nature, 
the channel of all sense-perception. Sensibility, 
however, is still more in need of being guided by 
rea.son. Reason is that part of the spirit whicli 
looks toward heavenly things. It is the highest, 
the real divine gift that has been infused into man 
from without (" De Opiticio Mundi," i. 15; "De Eo 
Quod Deterius Potiori Insidiatur," i. 206); it is the 
masculine nature of the soul. The voi;f is originally 
at rest; and when it begins to move it produces the 
several phenomena of mind ih^vfiT/nnra). The prin- 
cipal powers of the voif are judgment, memory, 
and language. 

Man as a Moral Being : More important in Philo 's 
system is the doctrine of the moral development of 
man. Of this he distinguishes two conditions: (1) 
that before time was, and (2) that since the begin- 
ning of time. In the pretemporal condition the 
soul was without body, free from earthly matter, 
■without sex, in the condition of the generic (yeviKoc) 
nmn, morally perfect, i.e., without flaws, but still 
striving after a higher purit}'. On entering upon 
time the soul loses its punt)' and is confined in a 
bodj'. The nous becomes earthly, but it retains a 
tendency toward something higher. Philo is not 
entirely certain whether the body in itself or merely 

in its preponderance over the spirit is evil. But 
the body in any case is a source of danger, as it 
easily drags the spirit into the bonds of sensibility. 
Here, also, Philo is undecided whether sensibility is 
in itself evil, or whether it may merely lead into 
temptation, and must itself be regarded as a mean 
(/ifffov). Sensibility in any case is the source of the 
passions and desires. The passions attack the sensi- 
bility in order to destroj' the whole soul. On their 
numberand their sj'mbolsin Scripture see Siegfried, 
I.e. pp. 245 et seq. The "desire "is either the lustful 
enjoyment of sensual things, dwelling as such in the 
abdominal cavity (Koi?Ja), or it is the craving for this 
enjoyment, dwelling in the breast. It connects the 
nous and the sensibility, this being a psychologic 
necessity, but an evil from an ethical point of view. 

According to Philo, man passes through .several 
steps in his ethical development. At first the sev- 
eral elements of the human being are in a state of 
latency, presenting a kind of moral neutrality whicli 
Philo designates by the terms "naked " or "medial." 
The nous is nude, or stands midway so long as it 
has not derided either for sin or for virtue. In this 
period of moral indecision God endeavors to prepare 
the earthly nous for virtue, presenting to him in the 
"earthly wisdom and virtue" an image of heavenly 
wisdom. But man (nous) quickly leaves this state 
of neutrality. As soon as he meets the woman 
(sensibility) he is filled with desire, and passion en- 
snares him in the bonds of sensibility. Here the 
moral duties of man arise; and according to his at- 
titude there are two opposite teadencies in hu- 

Ethics. Sensual Life : The soul is first aroused 
by the stimuli of sensual pleasures; it begins to turn 
toward them, and then becomes more and more in- 
volved. It becomes devoted to the body, and begins 
to lead an intolerable life {tiiog a,3iuToc). It is inflamed 
and excited by irrational impulses. Its condition is 
restless and painful. The sensibility endures, ac- 
cording to Gen. iii. 16, great pain. A continual 
inner void produces a lasting desire which is never 
satisfied. All the higher aspirations after God 
and virtue are stifled. The end is complete moral 
turpitude, the annihilation of all sense of dut}', the 
corruption of the entire soul: not a particle of the 
soul that might heal the rest remains whole. The 
worst consequence of this moral death is, according 
to Philo, absolute ignorance and the loss of the 
power of judgment. Sensual things are placed 
above spiritual; and wealth is regarded as the high- 
est good. Too great a value especially is placed 
upon the human nous; and things are wrongly 
judged. Man in his folly even opposes God, and 
thinks to scale heaven and subjugate the entire 
earth. In the field of politics, for example, he at- 
tempts to rise from the position of leader of the 
people to that of ruler (Philo cites Joseph as a type 
of this kind). Sensual man generally employs his 
intellectual powers for sophistry, perverting words 
and destroying truth. 

Ascent to Reasons Abraham, the "immigrant," is 
the symbol of man leaving sensuality to turn to 
reason ("De Migratione Abrahami," § 4 [i. 439]). 
There are three methods whereby one can rise toward 
the divine: through teaching, through practise 



Philo Judaeus 

(uaKTjaic), and througli natural goodness (ooioTijg). 
On Philo's predecessors on this point see Siegfried, 
I.e. p. 257. 

The metliod through teaching begins Avith a pre- 
liminary presentiment and hope of higher knowl- 
edge, Avhich is especially exemplified in Enos. The 
real "teaching" is represented in the case of Abra- 
ham, the " lover of learning." The pupil has to pass 
througli three stages of instruction. The first is that 
of "physiolog}'," during which physical nature is 
studied. Abraham was in this stage until he went to 
Ha ran ; at this time he was the " physiologer " of na- 
ture, the "meteorologer. " Recognizing his short- 
comings, he went to Ilaran, and turned to the study 
of the spirit, devoting himself at first to the prepara- 
tory learning that is furnished by general education 
{iyKiK/.to^ :vai6cia); this is most completely anah'zed 
by Philo in "De Congre.ssu Quaerendie Eruditionis 
Gratia," § 3 [i. 520]. The pupil must study gram- 
mar, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, music, and 
logic; but he can never attain to more than a partial 
mastery of these sciences, and this only -with the 
utmost labor.. He reaches only the boundaries of 
knowledge (eTrtarT/fir/) proper, for the "soul's irra- 
tional opinions" still follow him. He sees only the 
reflection of real science. The knowledge of the 
medial arts (/leaai Tex^nt) ofter^ proves erroneous. 
Hence the "lover of learning " will endeavor to be- 
come a "wise man." Teaching will have for its 
highest stage philosophy, which begins to divide 
the mortal from the immortal, finite knowledge from 
infinite knowledge. The tendency toward the sen- 
suous is given up, and the insufficiency of mere 
knowledge is recognized. He perceives that wisdom 
{ao(pi(i) is something higher than sophistry {ao(piaTEia) 
and that the only subject of contemplation for the 
wise is ethics. He attains to possession (kytjoic) and 
use ixPV'^i-i) ; and at the highest stage he beholds 
heavenly things, even the Eternal God Himself. 

By the method of practise man strives to attain to 
the highest good by means of moral action. The 
preliminary here is change of mind (/leravota), the 
turning away from the sensual life. This turning 
away is symbolized in Enoch, Avho, according to 
Gen. v. 24, " was not." Rather than undertake to en- 
gage in the struggle with evil it is better for man to 
escape therefrom by running away. He can also 
meet the passions as an ascetic combatant. Moral 
endeavor is added to the struggle. Many dangers 
arise here. The body (Egypt), sensuality (Laban 
and others), and lust (the snake) tempt the ascetic 
warrior. The sophists (Cain, etc.) try to lead him 
astray. Discouraged by his labors, the ascetic 
flags in his endeavors; but God comes to his aid, as 
exemplified in Eliezer, and fills him with love of 
labor instead of hatred thereof. Thus the warrior 
attains to victor}'. He slays lust as Phinehas slays 
the snake; and in this way Jacob ("he who trips 
up"), the wrestling ascetic, is transformed into 
Israel, who beholds God. 

Good moral endowment, however, takes prece- 
dence of teaching and practise. Virtue here is not 
the result of hard labor, but is the excellent fruit 
maturing of itself. Noah represents the prelimi- 
nary stage. He is praised, while no really good deeds 
are reported of him, whence it may be concluded 

that the Bible refers to his good disposition. But 
as Noah is praised only in comparison with his 
contemporaries, it follows that he is not yet a per- 
fect n)an. There are several types in the Bible rep- 
resenting the perfect stage. It appears in its purest 
form in Isaac. He is perfect from the beginning: 
perfection is a part of his nature (cpvai^); and he can 
never lose it (av-r/Koog kuI airofxadr/c). With such per- 
sons, therefore, the soul is in a state of 
Views on rest and joy. Philo's doctrine of vir- 
Virtue. tue is Stoic, although he is undecided 
whether complete dispassionateness 
{cnrd'dEia; " De Allegoriis Legum," iii. 45 [i. 513]) or 
moderation {fiETpio-^a^elv; "De Abrahamo," § 44 [ii. 
137]) designates the really virtuous condition. Philo 
identifies virtue in itself and in general with divine 
wisdom. Hence he uses the symbols interchange- 
ably for both ; and as he also frequently identifies 
the Logos with divine wisdom, the allegoric desig- 
nations here too are easily interchanged. The Gar- 
den of Eden is " the wisdom of God " and also " the 
Logos of God " and " virtue." The fundamental vir- 
tue is goodness; and from it proceed four cardinal 
virtues — prudence, courage, self-control, and justice 
(<pp6vr/aig, dvdpia, au<ppo<svvri, diKaioavvt)) — as the four 
rivers proceed, from the river of Eden. An essential 
difference between Philo and the Stoics is found in 
the fact that Philo seeks in religion the basis for all 
ethics. Religion helps man to attain to virtue, 
which he can not reach of himself, as the Stoics 
hold. God must implant virtue in man ("De Alle- 
goriis Legum," i. 53 [i. 73]). Hence the goal of the 
ethical endeavor is a religious one: the ecstatic con- 
templation of God and the disembodiment of souls 
after death. 

Hellenistic Judaism culminated in Philo, and 
through him exerted a deep and lasting influence on 
Christianity also. For the Jews themselves it soon 
succumbed to Palestinian Judaism. The develop- 
ment that ended in the Talmud offered a surer guar- 
anty for the continuance of Judaism, as opposed to 
paganism and rising Christianity, than Jewish Hel- 
lenism could promise, which, with all its loyalty ta 
the laws of the Fathers, could not help it to an inde- 
pendent position. The cosmopolitanism of Chris- 
tianity soon swept away Hellenistic Judaism, which 
could never go so far as to declare the Law super- 
fluous, notwithstanding its philosophic liberality. 
(For the extent and magnitude of Philo's influence 
on Judaism and Christianity see Siegfried, I.e. pp. 

Bidliography: Schurer. Gesch.; Siegfried, P7n7o vnn Alex- 
andria, etc., 1875. On the Greek MSS. of Philo's extant 
works: Schurer, I.e. lil. 493, note 26; Cohn-Wendland, P/it- 
loni.s Alexandnni Opera Qiiw Supermnt, vol. i.. pp. 1.- 
cxiv.; vol. )!., pp. i.-xxxiv.; vol. iii., pp. l.-xxil. On the indi- 
rect sources that may be used for reconstructing the text: 
Schurer, i.e. pp. ■t94c(.<eq.,notes28,29. On tninslationsof Phi- 
lo's works : Schurer, I.e. p. 496. note 30: Cohn-Wendland. I.e. 
vol. i., pp. Ixxx.etseq. Other German translations : M.J [est], 
Philox (iemmmelte Schriften Ucbcraetztyheipsic, 18.^)6-73; 
M. Friedlander, Ueher die Philanthropie ties Mosaischen 
Gesetzes, Vienna, 1880. 
T. C. S. 

-His Relation to the Halakah : Philo's rela- 

tion to Palestinian exegesis and exposition of the 
Law is twofold : that of receiver and that of giver. 
While his method of interpretation was influenced 
by the Palestinian Midrash, he in his turn influenced 

Philo Judaeus 



this Midrash ; for many of bis ideas were adopted 
by Palestinian scliolai-s, and are still found scattered 
throughout the Talmud and the Midrashim. The 
Palestinian Halakah was probably known in Alexan- 
dria even before the time of Philo, and was appar- 
ently introduced by Judah b. Tabbui, or Joshua b. 
Penihyah. who tied from the persecutions of Hyr- 
canus to Alexandria, where he remained for some 
time. Philo had, moreover, the opportunity of 
studyiun Palestinian exegesis in its home; for he 
visiteil Jerusalem once or twice, and at these times 
could communicate his views and his method of 
exegesis to the Palestinian scholars. Furthermore, 
later teachers of the Law occasionally visited Alex- 
andria, among tliem Joshua b. Hananiah (comp. 
Niddah (j9b); and these carried various Philonic 
ideas back to Palestine. The same expositions of 
the Law and the same Biblical exegesis are very 
frequently found, therefore, in Philo and in the 
Talmud and 3Iidrashim. The only means of as- 
certaining Philo's exact relation to Palestinian 
exegesis lies in the determination of the priority of 
one of two parallel passages found in both authori- 
ties. In the solution of such a problem a distinction 
must first be drawn between the Halakah and the 

With regard to the Halakah, which originated in 
Palestine, it may be assumed with certainty that the 
interpretations and expositions found in Pliilo which 

coincide with those of the Halakah 

His Debt have been borrowed b}' him from the 

to the latter; and his relation to it is, therc- 

Halakah, fore, only that of the recipient. Any 

influence which he may have exercised 
upon it can have been only a negative one, inasmuch 
as he aroused the opposition of Palestinian scholars 
by many of liis interpretations, and inspired them 
to controvert him. Tlie following examples may 
serve to elucidate his relation to the Halakah: Philo 
says (•' De Specialibus Legibus," ed. Leipsic, § 13, ed. 
ilange}' [cited hereafter as M.], 312), in interpreting 
Deut. xxii. 23-27, that the distinction made in the 
Law as to whether the violence was offered in the 
city or in the field must not be taken literally, the 
point being whether the girl cried for help and could 
have found it, without reference to the place where 
she was assaulted. The same view is found in the 
Halakah : " One might think that if the deed occurred 
in the city, the girl was guilty under all circum- 
stances, and that if it took place in the field, she 
was invariably innocent. According to Deut. xxii. 
27, however, 'the betrothed damsel cried, and there 
was none to save her.' This shows that wherever 
help may be expected the girl is guilty, whether 
the assault is made in tlie city or in the field ; but 
where no lielp is to be expected, she is innocent, 
whether the assault occurs in the city or in the field " 
(Sifre, Deut. 243 [ed. Friedmann, p. 118b]). Piiilo 
explains (I.e. g 21 [M. 319-320]) the words "God 
delivers him into his hand" (E.x. xxi. 13, Hebr.)as 
follows: "A man has secretly committed a premed- 
itated murder and lias escaped human justice; but 
his act has not been hidden from divine vengeance, 
and he shall be punished for it by death. Another 
man who lias committed a venial offense, for which 
he deserves exile, also has escaped human justice. 

This latter man God uses as a tool, to act as the 
executioner of the murderer, whom He causes him 
to meet and to slay unintentionally. The murderer 
has now been punished by death, while his execu- 
tioner is exiled for manslaughter; the latter thus 
suft'ering the punishment which he has merited be- 
cause of his original minor oilense." This same in- 
terpretation is found in the Halakah as well (Mak. 
10b; comp. also ^lek., Mishpatim, iv. [ed. Weiss, 
p. 86a]). In explaining the law given in Deut. xxi. 
10-14, Philo says, furthermore ("De Caritate," § 14 
[M. 394]), that a captive woman taken in war shall 
not be treated as a slave if her captor will not take 
her to wife. The same interpretation is found in 
the Halakah (Sifre, Deut. 214 [ed. Friedmann, p. 
113a]), wliich explains the words "lo tit'amer bah" 
(= "thou shalt not do her wrong") to mean, "thou 
shalt not keep her as a slave." 

Numerous instances are also found in which, 
though Philo departs in the main point from the 
Halakah, he agrees with it in certain details. Thus, 
in interpreting the law set forth in Ex. xxi. 22 
("De Specialibus Legibus, "§ 19 [M. 317]) he differs 
entirely from the Halakah, except that he says that 
the man in question is liable to punishment only in 
case he has beaten the woman on the belly. The 
Halakah (Mek. I.e. v. [ed. Weiss, p. 90a]) deduces 
tliis law from the word "harah"(= "pregnant"). 

Philo agrees with the Halakah also in his justifi- 
cation of various laws. The law given in Ex. xxii. 
1, according to which the owner lias the right to 
kill a thief, is based by Philo on the assumption that 
the thief breaks in with murderous intent, in which 
case he would certainly be ready to kill the owner 
should the latter try to prevent him from stealing 
("De Specialibus Legibus," § 2 [M. 337]). The 
ISIishnah (Sanh. viii. 6 and Talmud 72a) gives the 
same explanation. 

It is especially interesting to note that Philo bor- 
rowed certain halakot that have no foundation in 
Scripture, regarding them as authoritative interpre- 
tations of the law in question. He says, for instance 
[I.e. g 5 [M. 304]), that the marriage of a Jew with 
a non-Jewish woman is forbidden, no matter of 
what nation she be, although the Talmud says ('Ab. 
Zarah 36b) that, according to the Pentateuchal law 
(Deut. vii. 3), only a marriage with a member of any 
of the seven Canaanitish peoples was forbidden, the 
extension of this prohibition to all other nations 
being merely a rabbinic decree. 

The most important feature of Philo's relation to 
the Halakah is liis frequent agreement with an 
earlier halakah where it differs from a later one. 
This fact has thus far remained unnoticed, although 
it is most important, since it thus frequently be- 
comes possible to determine which portions of the 
accepted halakah are earlier and which are later in 
date. A few examples may serve to make this 
clear. Philo says (" De Caritate," § 14 
Agreement [M. 393]), in explaining the law given 

with the in Deut. xxi. 10-14, regarding a 

Earlier woman taken captive in war, that she 
Halakah. must cut her nails. This interpreta- 
tion of verse 12 of the same chapter 
agrees with the earlier halakah. represented by H. 
Eliezer (Sifre, Deut. 212 [ed. Friedmann, p. 112b]); 



Philo Judseus 

])ut tlie later lialakah (Sifro, I.e.), represcnled 
by K. Akiba, ('.\i)laiiis the words "wc-'asctah 
et-ziparnolia " as meaning "she shall let lier nails 
grow. " Again, Philo says (" De Specialibus Legibus, " 
§ 19 [M. 317j), in interpreting the law of Ex. xxi. 
18-19: "If the person in question lias so far recov- 
ered from his hurt that lie is able to go out again, 
although it may be necessary for him to be assisted 
by another or to use crutches, his assailant is no 
longer liable to jninishment, even in case his victim 
subsequently dies; for it is not absolutely certain 
that liis death is a result of the blow, since he has 
recovered in the meantime." Hence Philo takes tlic 
phrase " upon his stall " (ib. verse 19) literally. In 
like manner he interprets {I.e. § 2 [M. 336-337]) the 
passage "If the sun be risen upon him " (ib. xxii. 3) 
as follows: "If the owner catches the thief before 
sunrise he may kill him; but after the sun has risen, 
he no longer has this right." Both these explana- 
tions by Philo contradict the accepted halakah, 
which interprets the passages Ex. xxi. 19, xxii. 3, 
as well as Deiit. xxii. 17, figuratively, taking the 
phrase "upon his staff" to mean "supported by his 
own strength," and interpreting the passage "If the 
sun be risen upon him" to mean "when it is clear as 
daylight that the thief would not have killed the 
owner, even had the latter prevented him from the 
robber}^" (conip. Mek., Mishpatim, vi. [ed., 
p. 88b]). Philo here follows the earlier halakah, 
whose representative, R. Eliezer (Sifre, Deut. 237 
[ed. Friedmann, p. l'18a]), saj^s "debarim ki-keta- 
bam " (="the phrases must be taken literally"). 
Although only Deut. xxii. 17 is mentioned in Ket. 
46a and Yer. Ket. 28c in connection with R. Eliezer's 
statement, it is not expressly said that such state- 
ment must not be applied to the other two phrases; 
and it may be inferred from Philo that these three 
phrases, wliich were explained figuratively by R. 
Ishniael, were taken literally by the old halakah. 

The same agreement between Philo and the earlier 
halakah is found in the following examples: Philo 
takes the phrases Ex. xxi. 23-25 and Deut. xix. 21, 
"eye for eye," "tooth for tooth," etc., literally, say- 
ing {I.e. § 33 [M. 329]) that, according to the Mo- 
saic law, the " lex talionis " must hold. 

Supports This explanation differs from that of 

the " Lex the accepted halakah, which interprets 

Talionis." the phrases in question as meaning 

merely a money indemnity (Mek. I.e. 

viii. [ed. Weiss, p. 90b] ; B. K. 93b-94a), whereas 

the earlier halakah (as represented by R. Eliezer, B. 

K. 94a) says " 'ajin tahat 'ayin mammash " (= "an 

eye for an eye " is meant in the literal sense). This 

view of the earlier halakali was still known as such 

to the later teachers; otherwise the Talmud (B. K. 

I.e.) would not have taken special pains to refute this 

view, and to prove its incorrectness. 

It frequently liappens that when Philo differs 
from the Halakah in expounding a law, and gives 
an interpretation at variance with it, such divergent 
explanation is mentioned as a possible one and is dis- 
proved in the Talmud or the lialakic midrashim. This 
fact is especially noteworthy, since in many cases it 
Tenders possible the reconstruction of the earlier hala- 
kah by a comparison with Philo's interpretations, 
as is shown by the following example: Philo says 
X.— 2 

{I.e. § 27 [M. 323J), in discussing the law of Ex. xxi. 
28-29, that if an ox known to be vicious kills a per- 
son, then the ox as well as its owner shall be sen- 
tenced to deatli. Philo interprets the words "his 
owner also shall be put to death" {ib. 29) to re- 
fer to "death by legal sentence," although in certain 
circumstances tlie Law may exempt the owner from 
this penalty and impose a fine instead. The ac- 
cepted Halakah, however, explains the phrase in 
question to mean that the owner Avill suffer death 
at the hand of God, while human justice can punish 
him only by a fine, in no case having the right to 
])ut him to death because his ox has killed a man 
(Mek. I.e. x. [ed. Weiss, p. 93a] ; Sauli. 15a, b). 
This interpretation of the Halakah was not, on the 
other liaud, imiversally accepted; for in Mek. I.e. 
and especially in the Talmud, I.e. it is attacked 
in tlie remark: "Perhaps the passage really means 
that the owner shall be sentenced to death by a 
human court." It appears from this statement as 
well as from Sanli. i. 4 (comp. Geiger, "Urschrift," 
pp. 448 et scq.) that the earlier halakah held that the 
owner should be sentenced to death. Tliis view 
was vigorously opposed by the later halakah, and 
was not entirely set aside until a very late date, as 
appears from Sauli. I.e. 

It is impossible, however, to ascribe to the earlier 
Halakah all the interpretations of Philo that are 
mentioned and refuted in the Talmud and the hala- 
kic midrashim ; and extreme caution must be ob- 
served in determining which of Philo's interpreta- 
tions that differ from the accepted Halakah are to be 
assigned to the earlier one. Many of Philo's ex- 
planations are quoted according to the 
Influence rulings of the court of Alexandria and 
of the to its interpretation of the Law, and 
Court of Al- were never recognized in the Pales- 
exandria. tiuian Halakah. They are, neverthe- 
less, cited as possible interpretations, 
and. are refuted in the Talmud and in the 3Iidrashim, 
Alexandrian judicial procedure in general being 
frequently made an object of criticism. 

Philo's relation to the Palestinian haggadic exe- 
gesis is different, for it can not be said that wherever 
Palestinian ideas coincide with his own it must in- 
variably have formed the basis of his statements 
(comp. Freudentlial, " llellenistische Studien," pp. 
57-77). While this dependence may have existed 
in numerous instances, it may confidently be afiirmed 
that in many other cases the Palestinian sources bor- 
rowed ideas which Philo had drawn from Hellenistic 
authorities. The following examples may serve to 
show that the Palestinian Ilaggadah is indebted to 
Philo: Gen. R. viii. 1 explains the passage Gen. i. 27 
to mean that God originall}' created man as an An- 
DROGYNOS, this idea being first expressed by Philo 
in explanation of the same pa.ssage (" Dc Opificio 
Muudi," § 24 [M. 17] and more clearly in "De Alle- 
goriis Legum," ii. 4 [M. 49]). In like manner the 
idea expressed in Gen. R. xiv. 3 of a twofold creation 
of man, in part divine and in part earthly, has been 
taken from Philo, who was the first to enunciate this 
doctrine (" De Opificio Mundi," § 12 [M. 49-50]), while 
the interpretation given in Ex. R. xxvi. 1, that Closes 
was called by the same carne as the water, is certainly 
taken from Philo, who says ("Vita Mosis," i. 4 [M. 




83]) that Moses receivetl Lis name because lie was 
found in the water, the Egyptian word for whicli is 
** mos. " 

In the case of many of the ideas and principles 
found both in Philo and in the Talmudic and 
Midrashic literature it is impossible to 
Relation to assert that there has been borrowing 
Palestinian on either side; and it is much more 
Hagg-adic justifiable to assume that such ideas 
iixegesis. originated independently of each 
other in Palestine and in Alexandria. 
This may have been the case also with the rules of 
hermeneutics. The principles which Philo framed 
for the allegoiic interpretation of Scripture corre- 
spond in part to the exegetic system of the Pales- 
tinian Halakah. It is highly probable, however, 
that neither borrowed these rules from the other, 
but that both, feeling the need of interpreting Scrip- 
ture, though for dififerent purposes, independently 
invented and formulated these methods while fol- 
lowing the same trend of thought. Some examples 
of similarity in the rules may be given here. Philo 
formulates the principle that a deeper meaning is 
implied in the repetition of well-known facts C'De 
Congressu Eruditionis Gratia," § 14 [M. 529]); and 
this same rule was formulated by Akiba also (Sifre, 
Num. 2, according to the reading of Elijah Wilna). 
Philo states as another rule that there is no superflu- 
ous word in the Bible, and Avherever there is a word 
which seems to be such, it must be interpreted. 
Hence he explains (" De Profugis," § 10 [:\I. 554]) the 
apparently superfluous word in Ex. xxi. 12. This 
principle is formulated by Akiba also (Yer. Shab. xix. 
17a; comp. also Sanh. 64b, Avhere Akiba deduces the 
same meaning from the apparently redundant word 
in Num. xv. 31, as Philo does from Ex. xxi. 12). 

Bibliography : Z. Frankel, Ueber den Einfluss der Palitsti- 
nf.u><ii!chfn Excgcue nufdie Alerandrinv^cheHermeneutik, 
pp. liXKia-^, Leipsic. 18.51; idem, Ueber PnU'iatinen.'iUiChe uud 
Alesandrinifclie Schriftforscluina, in The Programme of 
the lirexlnu Semiiniry, 18.54; Bernhard Ritter. Philo iind 
die Halachn. ib. 1879; lirilz, Dax Korbfcxt der Erstlinge bei 
Philo, in MniuititKchrift, 1877, pp. 433-442; Carl Siejrlried, 
Philo von Alexandria als Au.sleger dei> Alien Testaments, 
Jena, 1875: N. J. VVeinstein, Zitr Genenisder Agada: pariii., 
Die Alexandrinii<che Agada, GOttingen, 19f)l. 
T. J. Z. L. 

PHINEHAS: 1.— Biblical Data : SonofElea- 
zar and grandson of Aaron (Ex. vi. 25; 1 Chron. v. 
30, vi. 35 [A. V. vi. 4, 50]). His mother is said to 
have been one of Putiel's (laughters; and it seems 
that he was the only child of his parents (Ex. I.e.). 
Pliinehas came into prominence through his execu- 
tion of Zimri, son of Sabi, and Cozbi, daughter of 
Zur, a Midianite prince, at Shittim, where the Israel- 
ites worsiiiped Baal-peor. Through his zeal he also 
stayed the plague which had broken out among the 
Israelites as a punishment for their sin ; and for this 
act be was approved by God and was rewarded 
with the divine that the priesthood should 
remain in his family forever (Num. xxv. 7-15). 
After this event Phinehas accompanied, as priest, 
the expedition sent against the Midianites, the result 
of which was the destruction of the latter {ib. xxxi. 
6 et set).). When the Israelites had settled in the 
land of Canaiin, Phinehas headed the party which 
was sent to remonstrate with the tribes of Reuben 
and Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh because 

of the altar that had been built by them east of th 
Jordan (Josh. xxii. 13). 

At the time of the distribution of the land, Phine 
has received a hill in Jlount Ephraim, where hi 
father, Eleazar, was buried (ib. xxi v. 33). He i 
further mentioned as delivering the oracle to th 
Israelites in their war with the Benjamites (Judge 
XX. 28). In I Chron. ix. 20 he is said to have beei 
the chief of the Korahites who guarded the eutrano 
to the sacred tent. 

The act of Phinehas in executing judgment am 
his reward are sung by the Psalmist (Ps. cvi. 30 
31). Phinehas is extolled in the Apocrypha also 
" And Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, is the third ii 
glory" (Ecclus. [Sirach] xlv. 23); "And he \va; 
zealous for the law, even as Phinehas did unt( 
Zimn, the son of Salu " (I Mace. ii. 26). 

E. G. H. M. Sel. 

In Rabbinical Literature : Phinehas i: 

highly extolled by the Kabbis for his promptnesi 
and energy in executing the prince of the tribe o 
Simeon and the Midianitish woman. While evei 
Moses himself knew not Avhat to do, and all tli« 
Israelites were weeping at the door of the Taber 
nacle (Num. xxv. 6), Phinehas .alone was self-pos 
sessed and decided. He first appealed to the brav* 
men of Israel, asking who would be willing to kil 
the criminals at the risk of his own life ; and, receiving 
no answer, he then undertook to accomplish the ex 
ecution himself (Sifre, Num. 131; Targ. pseudo 
Jonathan to Num. xxv. 7). According to Midr 
Agada to Num. I.e., however, Phinehas thought thai 
the punishment of Zimri was inc\imbeut on him, say ■ 
ing: "Reuben himself having committed adultery 
[Gen. XXXV. 22], none of his descendants is qualifiec 
to punish the adulterers; nor can the; punishment bt 
inflicted by a descendant of Simeon, because the 
criminal is a Simeonite prince; but I, a descend 
ant of Levi, who with Simeon destroyed the inhab 
itants of Shechem for having committed adultery, 
will kill the descendant of Simeon for not having 
followed his ancestor's example." Phinehas, having 
removed the iron point from his spear (according tc 
Pirke R. El. xlvii., it was Moses' spear that Phine- 
has had snatched), leaned on the shaft as on a 
rod; otherwise the Simeonites would not have al 
lowed him to enter the tent. Indeed, the people in- 
quired his object in entering the tent, whereupon 
he answered that he was about to follow the ex- 
ample of Zimri, and was admitted imopposed. 
After having stabbed the man and the woman, 
Phinehas carried both of them on his spear out of 
the tent so thatall the Israelites might see that they 
had been justly punished. 

Twelve miracles were wrought for Phinehas at 
this time, among others the following: he was 
aided by divine providence in carrying the two 
bodies on his spear (comp. Josephus, "'Ant." iv. 6, 
§ 12); the wooden shaft of the spear supported the 
weight of two corpses; the lintel of 
The the tent was raised by an angel so 

Twelve tiiat Phinehas was not required to 
Miracles, lower his spear; the blood of the 
victims was coagulated so that it 
might not drop on Phinehas and render liim un- 
clean. Still, when he came out the people of the 




tribe of Simeon gatbered around liim with tlie in- 
tention of killing him, upon which the angel of 
death began to juow down the Israelites with greater 
fury tlian before. Phinehas dashed the two corpses 
to the ground, saying: "Lord of th(( world, is it 
worth while tiiat so many Israelites perish through 
these two? " and thereupon the plague was stayed. 
An allusion to this incident is made by the Psahn- 
ist: "Then stood up Phinclias, and executed judg- 
ment" (Ps. cvi. 30), tlie Eabbis explaining tlie word 
" wa-yefallcl" as meaning "he disputed witli God." 
Tiie archangels were about to eject Phinehas from 
liis place, but God said to them: "Leave him; lie 
is a zealot, llie son of a zealot [that is, Levi], one 
who, like his father [AaronJ, appeases My anger" 
(Sanh. 82b; Sifre, l.c.\ Targ. pseudo-Jonathan to 
Num. XXV. 7; Tan., Balak, 30; Num. K. xx. 26). 
In Ber. 6b, however, the above-quoted passage from 
the Psalms is interpreted to mean that Phinehas 
prayed to God to check the plague. The ])cople of 
all the other tribes, out of envy, mocked Phinehas, 
saying : " Have ye seen how a descendant of one who 
fattened ["pittein "] calves for sacrifices to the idol 
[referring to his grandfather Putiel; comp. Jetiiuo 
IN R.\BBiNiCAL Liteuatuke] killed the prince of a 
tribe?" God then pointed out that Phinehas was 
in reality the son of Eleazar and the grandson of 
Aaron (Sanh. I.e.; B. B. 109b; Sifre, I.e.). 

Although the priesthood had been previously 
given to Aaron and his oiTspring, Phinehas became 
a priest only after he had executed Zimri, or, ac- 
cording to K. Ashi, after lie had reconciled the tribes 
in the allair of the altar (Zel). 101b; comp. Phine- 
has, Biblical Data). The priestly jiortions of 
every slaughtered animal — the shoulder, the two 
cheeks, and the maw (Deut. xviii. 3) — were assigned 
by God to the priests solely because of the m(!rit of 
Phinehas in killing Zimri and Cozbi: the shoulder 
as a reward for carrying (m his shoulder the two 
corpses; the two cheeks, for having pleaded with 
liis mouth in favor of the Lsraelites; and the maw, 
for having stabbed the two adulterers in that part 
(Sifre. Deut. 165; Hul. 134b; Midr. Agada to Num. 
XXV. 13). Owing to the sad consequences attending 
the Israelites' lapse into idolatry, Phinehas pro- 
nounced an anathema, under the autliority of the 
Unutterable Name and of the writing of the tables, 
and in the name of the celestial and terrestrial courts 
of justice, against any Israelite who should driniv 
the wine of a heathen (Pirke \\. El. xlvii.). 

Phinelias accompanied, in the capacity of a priest 
specially anointed ("meshuah milhamah") for such 
purposes (comp. Deut. xx. 2), the ex- 
Other pedition sent by Moses against IMidian. 
Exploits. Tlie question why Phinehas was sent 
instead of liis father is answered by 
the Rabbis in two different ways: (I) Phinehaswent 
to avenge liis maternal grandfather, Joseph (with 
whom certain rabbis identify Putiel), upon the j\Iid- 
ianites who had sold him into Egj'pt (comp. Gen. 
xxxvii. 28-36). (2) He went simply because Moses 
said that he who began a good deed ought to finish 
it; and as Phinehas had been the first to avenge 
the Israelites upon the IMidianitcs, it was proper that 
he should take part in the war against the latter 
(Sifre, Num. 157; Sotah 43a; Num. K. xxii. 4). 

Phinehas was one of the two spies sent by Joshua 
to explore Jericho, as mentioned in Josh. ii. 1 etstq., 
Caleb being the otlier. This idea is based on the 
Masoretic text of verse 4 of tlie same chapter, which 
reads" wa-tizpeno " = "and she hi(V him," that is to 
say, one spy only; for Phinehas, being a priest, was 
invisible like an angel (Num. K. xvi. 1). This is 
apparently tlie origin of the Rabbis' identification 
of Phinehas with tlie angel of God sent to liochim 
(Judges ii. 1; Seder 'Olam, xx. ; Num. R. I.e.; 
comp. Targ. pseudo-Jonathan to Num. xxv. 12). 
On the identification of Phinehas with Elijah see 
Elijah in Rabbinical Liteuatlre. 

According to B. B. 15a, the last verse of the Book 
of Joshua was written by Phinelias. The Raiibis, 
however, hold that tlie hill where Eleazar was 
buried (see Phinehas, Biblical Data) was not ap- 
portioned to Phinehas as a special lot, but was in- 
herited by him from his wife, and was therefore 
called by his name (B. B. 11 lb). Apart from his 
identification with Elijah, Phinehas is considered by 
the Rabbis to have attained a very great age, since 
according to them he was still living in the time of 
Jephthah, 340 years after the Exodus (comp. Judges 
xi. 26). In the matter of Jephthah 's vow, Phinehas 
is represented in a rather unfavorable light (see 
jEPnTiiAii IN Rabbinical Literature). For him 
who sees Phinehas in a dream a miracle will be 
wrought (Ber. 56b). 

E. c. 31. Sel. 

2. Son of Eli, the high priest and judge of Israel ; 
younger brother of Hoplini. According to I Sam. 
ii. 12-17, the two brothers broke the law given in 
Lev. vii. 34 (whence they were termed "sons of 
Belial ") by striking the llesh-hook in the pot and 
taking for themselves whatever meat it brought up, 
even against the wish of the sacrificer. As judges 
they sinned through licentious conduct with the 
women who went to Sliiloh (I Sam. ii. 22). In 
punishment for these sins it was announced to Eli 
that his sons should perish on the same day {ib. ii. 34) ; 
and in the ensuing battle between Israel and the 
Philistines both fell beside the Ark (ib. iv. 11). 

A posthumous son was born to the wife of Phine- 
has, whom .she called Ichabod (I Sam. iv. 19); and 
in continuation of the priestlj' genealogy a grand- 
nephew of Phinehas, named Aliijah, is mentioned in 
connection with the battle of Jonathan against the 
Philistines (ib. xiv. 3). 

3. Father of Eleazar, a priest who returned from 
captivity with Ezra (Ezra viii. 33). 

E. G. II. S. O. 

PHINEHAS : Guardian of the treasury at Jeru- 
salem. In the last days of Jerusalem, in the year 
70 C.E., he followed the example of his priestly col- 
league Jesus b. Thcbouthi, and betrayed his trust; 
collecting many of the linen coats of the priests, their 
girdles, much purple and silk wliicli had been pre- 
pared for the sacred curtain, and the costly spices 
for the holy incense, to save his life he went over 
to the Romans (Josephus. "B. J." vi. 8, § 3). He 
appears to be identical with the Phinehas mentioned 
in the ]\Iishnah Shckalim v. 1. who was guardian of 
the sacred wardrobe. See Phinehas b. Samvel. 

G. S. Kr. 

Phinehas ben Clusoth 



Idumcaus. Siiuou b. Gioni uutiL-itook several ex- 
peilitious into the territory of the Idunieans to req- 
uisition provisions for his people. The Idunieans, 
after their complaints in Jerusalem had not brought 
assistance, formed a band of volunteers numbering 
20,000 men, who from that time acted as wildly 
and mercilessly as did the Sicarians. Their lead- 
ers were Johannes and Jacob b. Sosa, Simon b. 
Kathla, and Phinehas ben Clusoth (Josephus, " B. J." 
iv. 4. t; 2). 

G. ' S. Kr. 

PHINEHAS B. HAMA (ironcrally called R. 
Phinehas, aiui occasionally Phinehas ha-Ko- 
hen) : Palestinian amora of the fourth century ; 
born probably in the town of Siknin, where he was 
living when his brother Samuel died (Midr. Sliemuel 
ix.). He was a pupil of R. Jeremiah, of whose 
ritual practises he gives various details {e.g., in Yer. 
Kil. 29b; Yer. Hag. 8Ub; Yer. Ket. 41a), and of R. 
Hilkiah. He seems also to have lived for a time in 
Babylonia, since a R. Phinehas who once went from 
that country to Palestine is mentioned in Yer. 'Er. 
22d as conversing with R. Judah b. Shalom. This 
passage apparently refers to Pliinelias b. Hama, as 
a conversation between him and Judah b. Slialom is 
also related elsewhere (e.g., Ex. R. xii.); and it like- 
wise explains the fact that R. Phinehas transmitted 
a halakah by Hisda (Yer. Sanh. 25c). His haggadic 
apliorisms, mentioned in B. B. 116a, were, therefore, 
probaldy propounded by him during his re.sidence 
in Babylonia, and were not derived from Pales- 
tine, as Bacher assumes ("Ag. Pal. Amor." p. 311, 
note 5). 

Wlien the purity of the descent of the Jewish 
families in Babylonia was doubted in Palestine, 
Phinehas publicly proclaimed in the academy that 
in tliis respect Palestine outranked all countries ex- 
cepting Babylonia (Kid. 71a). Man^^ halakic sen- 
tences by Phinehas have been preserved, most of 
which occur in citations by Hananiah {e.g., Yer. 
Demai 23b ; Yw. Ma'as. 50c ; Bik. God ; Yer. Pes. 
30(1 ; and elsewhere). Phinehas liimself occasionally 
transmitted earlier halakic maxims {e.g., Yer. Pes. 
29c), and is frequently the autiiority for haggadic 
aphorisms by such .scholars as R. Hoshaiah (Lam. 
R. proem xxii. ; Cant. R. v. 8, end), Reuben (Tan., 
Kedoshim, l)eginning), Abbaliu (Gen. R. Ixviii. 
1;, and many others (comp. Bacher, I.e. p. 314, 
note 4). 

Pliinelias' own haggadah is very extensive, and 
includes many maxims and aphorisms, as well as 
homiletic and exegetic interpretations. The follow- 
ing citations may serve as examples of liis style: 
"Poverty in the liousc of man is more bitter tiian 
fifty plagues" (B. B. 116a). "A chaste woman in 
the Iiouse protectctli and reconcileth like an altar" 
(Tan., Wayisiilah, on Gen. xxxiv. 1). " Wiiile oilier 
laws decree that one must renounce his parents on 
pledging his allegiance as a follower and .soldier of 
tlif king [the reference may be to Matt. x. 35-37], 
the Decalogue .saitii: 'Honor tliy father and thy 
mother'" (Num. R. viii. 4). "Ps. xxvi. 10 refers 
to dice-plaj'crs, who reckon with Die left hand and 
sum uj) Willi the right, and thus rob one another" 

(Midr. Teh. adloc.). "The name that a man wins 
for himself is worth more than that which is given 
him by his father and mother"' (Eccl. R. vii. 4). 

Bibliography : Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amor. iii. 310-344. 
E. C. J. Z. L. 

PHINEHAS BEN JAIR : Tannaof the fourth 
gcneralion ; lived, piobahly at Lydda, in the second 
half of the second century; son-in-law of Simeon 
ben Yohai and a fellow disciple of Judah I. He 
was more celebrated for piety than for learning, al- 
though his discussions with his father-in-law (Shab. 
33b) evince great sagacity and a profound knowl- 
edge of tradition. A haggadah gives the follow- 
ing illustration of Phinehas' .scrupulous honesty: 
Once two men deposited with him two seahs of 
wheat. After a prolonged absence of the depositors 
Phinehas sowed the wheat and preserveil the har- 
vest. This he did for seven consecutive years, and 
when at the men came to claim tlieir deposit 
he returned them all the accumulated ajrain (Deut. 
R. iii.). 

Phinehas is said never to have accepted an invita- 
tion to a meal and, after he had attained his major- 
it5% to have refused to eat at the table of his father. 
The reason given by him for this course of conduct 
was that there are two kinds of people r (1) those 
who are willing to be hospitable, but can not af- 
ford to be so, and (2) those who have the means but 
are not willing to extend hospitality to others (Hul. 
7b). Judah I. once invited him to a meal, and ex- 
ceptionally he decided to accept the invitation; but 
on arriving at the house of the patriarch he noticed 
in the yard mules of a certain kind the use of which 
was forbidden by local custom on account of the 
danger in handling them. Thereupon he retraced 
his steps and did not return (I.Iul. I.e.). 

Special weight was laid by Phinehas upon the 
prescriptions relating to the tithe. This feature of 
Phinehas' piety is described hyperboHcally in the 
Haggadah. The latter relates a story of a mule be- 
longing to Phinehas which, having been stolen, was 
released after a couple of days on account of its re- 
fusal to eat food from which the tithe had not been 
taken (Gen. R. xlvi. ; comp. Ab. R. N. viii., end). 
To Phineliasisattributcd the abandonment by Judah 
I. of his project to abolish the }'ear of release (Yer. 
Demai i. 3; Ta'an. iii. 1). 

Phinehas draws a gloomy picture of his time. 

"Since the destruction of the Temple," he says, 

"the members and freemen are put to 

Account of sliame, those who conform to the Law 

His Own are held in contempt, the violent and 

Times. the informer havetlie upper hand, and 
no one cares for the ])eop]e or asks 
pit}- for them. "We have no hope but in God" 
(Sotah 49a). Elsewhere lie says: " Why is it that 
in our time the ])rayeis of the Jews are not heard? 
Because they do not know the holy name of God" 
(Pesik. R. xxii., end; Midr. Teh. to Ps. xci. 15). 
Pliinchiis, however, believes in man's perfectibility, 
and enumerates the virtues which render man 
worthy to receive the Holy Spirit. The Law, he 
says, leads to carefulness; carefulness, to diligence; 
diligence, to cleanliness; cleanliness, to retirement; 
retirement, to purity; purity, to piety; piety, to 



Phinehas ben Clusoth 

liumility; Immility, to fear of sin; fear of sin, to 
Jiolincss; lioliness, to the reception of tiie lloly 
Spirit; and tlie Holy Spirit, to resurrection ("Ab. 
Zarah 20b; with some slight variants, Sotah ix. 15). 

The Hairiiadah records many miracles jjcrformed 

by Phinehas. Among these is that of having passed 

on dry ground througli the River Ginai, Avhicli lie 

had to cross on Ids way to ransom 

Miracles prisoners (Yer. Demai i. 3). Accord- 
Attributed ing to another version, Phinehas 

to Him. performed this miracle wliile he was 
going to the school to deliver a lec- 
ture. His pupils, who had followed him, asked if 
they might without danger cross the river by the 
same way, whereupon Phinelias answered: "Only 
those who Iiave never offended any one may do so " 
(Hul. 7a). To Phinehas is attributed the authorship 
of a later midrash entitled "Tadshe" or "Baraita 
de-Rabbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir." The only reasons for 
tills ascription are the facts (1) that the midrash be- 
gins with Phinehas' explanation of Gen. i. 11, from 
which the work derives its name, and (2) that its 
seventh chapter commences with a saying of his on 
the tree of knowledge (see Ji'^w. Encyc. viii. 578, 
s.v. MiDKAsn T-\DSiiE). Phinehas was buried in Ke- 
far Biram. 

BiBLiOGRAniY : Heilprin, i^cdrrhn-Dorot, ii.; Jellinek, B. H. 
iii. lt)4 et seq., v\. '^.i ; lien Cliaiunijn. iv.'S'Ii- P.aclier. .1(7. 
'fan. ii. 405 ct seq.; Isaac Halevy, Doroi ha-Rifhinihu, ii. 4S; 
Uraunsolnveiger, 7)i(' Ldirer dcr Mischtia, p. 241, Fraiik- 
foit-on-the-Main. 1903; Epstein, Beitraye zur JiuHxcltcn 
Alterthumskwidc, i., p. x. 
W. B. I. Bu. 

PHINEHAS B. SAMUEL: The last liigh 
priest ; according to the reckoning of Josephus, the 
eighty-third since Aaron. He was a wholly un- 
worthy person who was not of high-priestly lineage 
and who did not even know what the high priest's 
office was, but was chosen by lot, and in 67-68 was 
dragged by the revolutionary party against his will 
from his village Ajihthia, where he was a farmer, to 
Jerusalem, to take the place of the deposed j\Iatthias 
ben Theophilus. He was clothed in the high-priestly 
garments and instructed as to what he had to do on 
every occasion. He was an object of ridicule for 
the evil-minded, but this godlessness drew tears 
from the e^ves of the worthy priests. He mot his 
death probably in the general catastrophe. His name 
is written in various ways by Josephus ("B. J." iv. 
3, ^ 8, ed. Niese). It is su])posed that he was iden- 
tical with the Dnj2 mentioned in the Mi.shnah as a 
functionary of the Temple ; in this case his correct 
name would lie Phineas. But Josephus writes this 
Biblical name dilferently. In regard to the Phinehas 
mentioned by the Rabbis see Puinehas, guardian of 
the treasury. 

Binr.iocRAPiiY : Derenliourg, Essai ^•^(r VHistnirede la Pales- 
tine, p. 26!»; Ora.lz, Gesch. iii. 4, 751; Scliurer, Gesch. i . 3, 
618 ; ii. 3. --_'0. 

G. S. Kr. 


PHRYGIA : Province in Asia iMinor. Anti- 
ochus the Great transferred 2,000 Jewish fannlies 
from Mesopotamia and Babylonia to Phrygia and 
Lydia (Josephus, "Ant." xii.'S. ^ 4). They settled 
principally in Laodicca and Apamea. The Christian 
Apostles also were familiar with Jews from Phrygia 

(Acts ii. 10). Christian teachings easily gained en- 
try there on account of the numerous Jews in tlie 
country. It is noteworthy that in the Plirygiau city 
Mantalos tliere is an inscription written from right 
to left (Ramsay, "Th(! Historical Geographj' of Asia 
Minor," j). 150, London, 1890). In the Byzantine 
period Amorion was a Phrygian city, in which Jews 
held the supremacy (see Jew. Encyc. iii. 453, s.v. 
JiYZANTiXE E.mi'IKe). Ibu Kliunladhbah also men- 
tions a Hisn al-Yahud (= "Jews' Castle " ; Ramsay, 
i/>. ]). 445) in this region. 

niin.iooRAPUY: Schurer, Ge^ch. lil. 3, .5, 10, 13; W. M. Ram- 
say, Tin: Citien and BinhopricH of Plirygia, i., part ii., OHT- 
1)7(1, London, 1897. 
G. S. Ku. 

PHYLACTERIES ("tefillin").— Legal View : 
The laws governing the wearing of piiylacteries 
were derived by the Rabbis from four Biblical ])as- 
sages (Deut. vi. 8, xi. 18; Ex. xiii. 9, 16). While 
these passages were interpreted literally by most 
commentators (comp., however, Ibn Ezra and 
RaShbaM on Ex. xiii. 9), the Rabbis held that the 
general law only was expressed in the Bible, the 
application and elaboration of it being entirely mat- 
ters of tradition and inference (Sanh. 88b). The 

(In the Uritish Musvum.) 

earlier tannaim had to resort to fanciful interpreta- 
tions of tiie texts in order to find Biblical support 
for the custom of inscril)ing the four selections in 
the phylacteries (Men. 341): Zeb. 37b; Sanh. 4b; 
Rashi and Tos. ad U/c). There are more laws — 
ascrilied to oral delivery l)y God to Moses — clus- 
tering about the institution of tefillin than about any 




other institution of Judaism (Men. 35a: Yer. Meg. 
i. 9; Mairaonides, in "Yad." Tefillin, i. 3, mentions 
ten; Rodkinssohn, in "Telillah le-Moslieb," p. 20. 
ed. Presburg, 1883, mentions eighteen; comp. Weiss, 
"Dor," i. 74-75). Thus, even if most Jewish com- 
mentators are followed in their literal interpretations 
of the Biblical passages mentioned above, rabbinic 
interpretation and traditional usage must still be 
relied upon for the determination of the nature of 
the tefillin and the laws concerning them (see Phy- 
L.\CTEUiEs — nisToiiic.\i. and CitiTrc.\L Views). 
Pliylactcrics, as universally used at the present 

(NniDyD: ^len. 35a) at the ends, through which are 
passed leathern straps (niyiV^^ made of the skins of 
clean animals (Shab. 28b) and blackened on the out- 
side (Men. 35a; comp. "Sefer Hasidim," ed. Wisti- 
netski, § 1669). The strap that is passed through 
the head-phylactery ends at the back of the head in 
a knot representing the letter i ; the one that is 
pa.ssed through the hand-phylactery is formed into 
a noose near the box and fastened in a knot in the 
shape of the letter '(comp. Heilprin, "Seder ha- 
Dorot," i. 208, ed. Maskileison, Warsjiw, 1897, where 
a wonderful storv in relation to the laws governinsr 

Phylacteries a.nd Bag. 

(In the United St«tes Natlunal Museum, Washington, D. C.) 

time, consist of two leathern boxes — one worn on 
the arm and known as "shel yad " (Men. iv. 1) or 

'• shel zeroa' " (Mik. x. 3), and the other 

Details of worn on the head and known as "slid 

Manu- rosh " — made of tlie skins of clean ani- 

facture. mals (Men. 42b; Sanh. 48b; "Yad," 

l.i-. ill. 15). The boxes must be square 
(Men. 35a): their height may be more or less than 
the length or the width ("Yad," I.e. iii. 2); and it 
is desirable thai they be black (Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah 
Hayyim, 32, 40). The boxes are fastened on tiie 
under side with square pieces of thick leather 
(Klin^n: Men. 35a) by means of twelve stitches 
made with threads prepared from the veins of clean 
animals (Shab. 28b), and are provided with loops 

the making of these knots is told). The box con- 
taining the head-phylactery has on the outside the 
letter {»>, both to the right (with three strokes: 
5J>) and to the left (with four strokes: {2>; Men. 35a; 
comp. Tos., s.t. "Shin"; probablj' as a reminder to 
insure the correct insertion of the four Biblical pas- 
sages): and this, together with the letters formed by 
the knots of the two straps, make up the letters of 
the Hebrew word "Shaddai" (nK' = "Almighty," 
one of the names of God; Men. 35b; Kashi, s.v. 
" Kesher '"). The measurements of the boxes are not 
given ; but it is recommended that they should not 
be smaller than the width of two lingers ('Er. 95b; 
Tos.,s.r. "Makom"; Men. 35a: Tos., «.?•. "Shin"). 
The width of the straps should be equal to the 




length of a grain of oats. The strap that is passed 
throiigli the lieud pliyhxctery should he long onoiigli 
to encircle the hend and to allow for the knot; and 
the two ends, falling in front over either shoulder, 
should reach the navel, or somewhat above it. The 
strap that is passed through the hand-phylactery 
should be long enough to allow for the knot, to en- 
circle the whole length of the arm, and then to be 
wound three times around the middle linger (" Yad," 
I.e. iii. 12; Orah Hayyim, 27, 8, 11). 

Each box contains the four Scriptural passages 
Ex. xiii. 1-10, 11-16; Deut. vi. 4-9, xi. 13-21 (conip. 
Zohar, ed. Amsterdam, 1789, to Bo, p. 
Contents. 43a, b), written with black iidc (Yer. 
Meg. 1. 9) in Hebrew scjuare charac- 
ters (n^llK'X; Meg. 8b; Soferim xv. 1) on parch- 
ment (Shab. 79b; Men. 32a) si)ecially prepared for 
the purpose (Orah Hayyim, 32, 8; comp. "Be'er 
Heteb" and "Sha'are Teshubah," ad loc.) from 
the skin of a clean animal (Shab. 108a). The hand- 
phylactery has only one compartment, which con- 
tains the four Biblical selections written upon a 
single strip of parchment in four parallel columns 
and in the order given in the Bible (IMen. 34b). The 
head-phylactery has four compartments, formed 
from one piece of leather, in each of which one selec- 
tion written on a separate piece of parchment is de- 
posited perpendicularly. The pieces of parchment 
on which the Biblical selections are written are in 
either case tied round with narrow strips of parch- 
ment and fastened with the thoroughly washed hair 
of a clean animal (Shab. 28b, 108a), preferably of 
a calf ("Yad," I.e. iii. 8; Orah Hayyim, 32, 44). 
There was considerable discussion among the com- 
mentators of the Talmud (Men. 34b) as to the order 
in which the Biblical selections shoidd be inserted 
into the head-phylactery. The chief disputants in 
this case were R. Solomon Yizhaki 
Arrange- (Raslii) and H. Jacob b. Meir Tam 
ment of (Rabbenu Tam), although different 
Passages, possible arrangements have been sug- 
gested by other writers ("Shimmusha 
Rabba" and RABaD). The following diagram 
shows the arrangements of the Bible verses as ad- 
vocated respectively by Rabbenu Tam and Rashi 
(comp. RodUinssohn, "Tefillali le-Mosheh," p. 25): 

R. Tam 

Raslil . 

E.X. xiii. 1-10, 

Ex. xiii. 1-10, 

Ex. xiii. 11-16, 

Ex. xiii. 11-16, 

Deut. xl. 13-; 


Deut. vi. 4 


The prevailing custom is to follow the opinion of 
Rashi ("Yad," I.e. iii. 5; comp. RABaD and " Kesef 
Mishneh" ad loc; Orah Hayyim, 34. 1), although 
some are accustomed, in order to be certain of per- 
forming their duty properly, to lay two pairs of 
tefillin (comp. 'Er. 95b), one prepared in accordance 
with the view of Rashi, and the other in accordance 
with that of Rabbenu Tam. If, however, one is 
uncertain as to the exact position for two pairs of 
tetillin at the same time, one should tlrst "lay " the 
tefillin prepared in accordance with Rashi's opinion, 
and then, removing these during the latter part of 

the service, without pronouncing a blessing lay 
those prepared in accordance with Rabbenu Tain's 
opinion. Only 'the specially pious wear both kinds 
(Orah Hayyim, 34, 2, 3). 

The i)ar(hment on which the Biblical passages are 
written need not be ruled ("Yad," I.e. i. 12), al- 
though the custom is to rule it. A pointed instru- 
ment that leaves no blot should be used in ruling; 
the use of a pencil is forbidden (Orah Hayyim, 32, 
6, Is.serles' gloss). The scribe should be very care- 
ful in writing the selections. Before 
Mode of beginning to write he sliould pro- 
Writing, nounce the words, "I am writing this 
for the sake of the holiness of tefillin " ; 
and before he begins to write any of the names of 
God occurring in the texts, he should say, "I am 
writing this for the sake of the holiness of the 
Name. " Throughout the writing his attention must 
not be diverted; "even if the King of Israel should 
then greet liim, he is forbidden to reply " ("Yad," 
I.e. i. 15; Orah Hayyim, 32, 19). If he omits even 
one letter, the wliole inscription becomes unfit. If 
he inserts a superfluous letter at the beginning 
or at the end of a word, he may erase it, but if 
in the middle of a word, the whole becomes unfit 
("Yad," I.e. ii. ; Orah Hayyim, 32, 23, and "Be'er 
Heteb," ad loe.). The letters must be distinct and 
not touch each other; space must be left between 
them, between the words, and between the lines, as 
also between the verses (Orah Hayyim, 32, 32, Is- 
serles' gloss; comp. "jNIagen Abraham" and "Be'er 
Heteb" ad loc.). The letters p ]^nv^ where they 
occur in the selections are adorned with some 
fanciful ornamentation (Men. 29b; see Tos., s.v. 
" Sha'atnez ") ; some scribes adorn other letters also 
(Orah ilayyim, 36, 3, and "Be'er Heteb," arf loc.). 
In writing the selections it is customary to devote 
seven lines to each paragraph in the hand-phylac- 
tery, and four lines to each paragrapli in the head- 
phylactery (Orah Hayyim, 35). 

In putting on the tefillin, the hand-phylactery is 
laid first (Men. 36a). Its place is on the inner side 
of the left arm {ih. 36b, 37a), just above the elbow 
(comp. " Sefer Hasidim," §§ 434, 638, where the exact 
place is given as two fist-widths from the shoulder- 
blade; similarly the head-phylactery is worn two 
fist-widths from the tip of the 
nose) ; and it is held in position 
by the noose of the strap so that 
when the arm is bent the phy- 
lactery may rest near the beait 
(Men. 37a, based on Deut. xi. 8; 
comp. "Sefer Hasidim," §§435, 
1742). If one is left-handed, he 
lays the hand-phylactery on the same place on his 
right hand (Men." 37a; Orah Hayyim, 27b). After 
the phylactery is thus fastened on the 
How bare arm, the strap is wound seven 

Put on. limes round the arm. The head-phy- 
lactery is phtced so as to overhang the 
middle of the forehead, with the knot of the strap at 
the back of the head and overhanging the middle of 
the neck, while the two ends of the strap, with the 
blackened side outward, hang over the shoulders in 
front (Orah Hayyim, 27, 8-11). On laying the hand- 
phylactery, before the knot is fastened, the following 

Deut. vi. 4-9, 

Deut. xi. 13-21. 




benediction is pronounced: "Blessed art Thou . . . 
who sanctilietli us with His commaudintuts and 
hast commanded us to lay tetillin. " Before the head- 
phylactery is fastened the blessing is repeated with 
the substitution of the phrase "concerning the com- 
maudnieut of tefillin " for "to lay telilliu." Some 

glorious kingdom for ever and ever," lest the second 
benediction be pronounced unnecessarily. If lie who 
lays the tefilliu has talked between the laying of the 
hand-phylactery and that of the head-phylactery, 
he should repeat both blessings at the laying of the 
latter (Men. 3Ga ; " Yad," I.e. iv. 4, o ; Oruh Hayyim, 


A. For the arm. B. As aUJusted un the arm. C. For the head. D. Jew wearing phylacteries. 

(From Plcsrt, 1725.) 

authorities are of the opinion that the blessing on 
laying the head-phylaetcry should be pronounced 
only when an inleiruption has occurred through 
conversation on the part of the one engaged in per- 
forfiiing thecoiiiiiiandment; otherwise the one bless- 
ing ijroiiounccd on laying the hand-piiylaetery is 
suflicieut. The prevailing custom, however, is to 
pronounce two blessings, and, after the second bless- 
ing, to say the words, "Blessed be the name of His 

25, 5; Isserles' gloss, 9, 10; comp. ib. 206, 6). Then 
the strap of the hand-pliylactery is wound three 
times around the niiddU; linger so as to form a 

{j> and the passages Hos. ii. 21 and 

The 22 are recited. The seven twistiiigs 

Blessings, of the strap on the arm are then 

counted while the seven wordsof Dent, 
iv. 4 are recited. A lengthy prayer in which the sig- 
niticance of the tetillin is exjilained and which con- 




tains traces of cabalistic influence is recited by some 
before putting on tlie tefilliu. After the tetilliu are 
laid Ex. xiii. 1-lG is recited. In removing the tetil- 
lin the three twistings on the middle finger are 
loosened first; then the hcud-phylactery is removed ; 
and finally the hunil -phylaclery (Men. 36a). It is 
customary to lay and to remove the tefilliu -while 
standing; also to kiss them when they are taken 
from and returned to the phylactery-bag (Orah 
Hayyim, 28. 2, 3). 

Originally tefilliu were worn all day, but not 
during the night (Men. 86b). Now the prevailing 
custom is to wear them during the daily morning 
service only (comp. Bcr. 14b). They are not worn 
on Sabbaths and holy days ; for these, being in them- 
selves "signs," render the tefilliu, which are to serve 

is engaged in the study of the Law (K. Jonah to 
Alfasi on Ber. il. 5, s.r. "Le-Memra"), and .scribes 
of and dealers in tetillin and mezuzot while engaged 
in their work if it can not be postponed, are also 
free from this obligation (Suk. 26a; Orah Hayyim, 
38, 8-10). It is not permitted to enter a cemetery 
(Ber. 18a) or any unseemly place {ib. 23a; Shab. 
10a), or to eat a regular meal or to sleep (Ber. 23b; 
Suk. 26a), while wearing tetillin. The bag usexl for 
tefilliu should not be used for any other purpose, un- 
less a condition was expressly made that it might 
be used for any purpose (Ber. 231); Sanh. 48a). 

Maimonides (" Yad," I.e. iv. 25, 20) concludes the 
laws of tetillin with the following exhortation (the 
references are not in Maimonides) : 

"The sanctity of teflllin is very great (comp. Shab. 49a; 







Phylactkry for arm. 

(From the Cairo Genizah.) 

as signs themselves (Ex. xiii. 9, 16), unnecessary 
(Men. 36b; 'Er. 96a). In those places where tetillin 
are worn on the week-days of the festivals (see 
Holy Days), and on New JNIoons, they are re- 
moved before the "Musaf " prayer (Orah Hayyim, 
25, 13). 

The duty of laying tefillin rests upon males 
after the age of thirteen years and one day. Women 
are exempt from the obligation, as are also slaves 
and minors (Ber. 20a). Women who wish to lay 
tetillin are precluded from doing so (Orah Hayyim, 
38, 3, Isserles' gloss); in ancient times this was not 
the case ('Er. 96a, b). A mourner during the first 
day of his mourning period (M. K. 15a; Suk. 25b), 
a bridegroom on his wedding-day (Suk. I.e.), an 
excommunicate, and a leper (^M. K. 15a) are also 
exempt. A suflerer from stomach-trouble (Hul. 
110a), one who is otherwise in pain and can not 
concentrate his mind ("Yad," I.e. iv. 13), one who 

Masseket Teflllin, toward the end: Zohar, section " Wa'etha- 
nan," p. 269b). As long as the teflllin are on the head and on 
the arm of a man, he is modest and God-fearinp and will 
not be attracted by hilarity or idle talk, and will have no evil 
thoughts, but will devote all his thoughts to truth and right- 
eousness (comp. JSIen. 43b ; "SeferHasidim,"§5.54). Therefore, 
every man ought to try to have the teflllin upon him the whole 
day (Masseket Teflllin. I.e.; comp. SIfre t^) Deut. v. 9); for only 
in this way can he fulfll the commandment. It is related that 
Kab (Abba Arika), the pupil of our holy teacher (R. Judah ha- 
Nasi), was never seen to walk four cubits without a Torah, with- 
out fringes on his garments (" zizit"), and without teflllin (Suk. 
29a, where R. Johaiian b. Zakkai and R. Eliezer are mentioned ; 
comp. Meg. 24a. where R. Zera is mentioned) . Although the Law 
enjoins the wearing of teflllin the whole day. it is especially com- 
mendable to wear them during prayer. The sages say that one 
who reads the Shenia' without teflllin is as if he testifled falsely 
against himself (Ber. 14b, 15a). He who does not lay teflllin 
transgresses eight commandments (Men. 44a ; comp. R. H. ITa); 
for in each of the four Biblical passages there is a commandment 
to wear teflllin on the head and on the arm. But he who is ac- 
customed to wear teflllin will live long, as it is written, ' When 
the Lord is upon them they will live ' " (Isa. xxxviii. Iti, Hebr.; 
comp. A. v.; Men. 44a). 




BiBLlOGRAPHT: Miunekft Tt-nUin, published by KIrchheim in 
his edition of the seven smaller treatises of the Talmud. Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main. 1851 ; Rosh. Hilkot Ttfillin, in Halaknt 
Ktiannot, hnd ShimmuKha Rabba, published with Menahot 
In mtwt editions of the Talmud: K'll Ii<>, §21. FQrth, 1782; 
Hambuiver. li.B.T. ii., s.v. TephiUin ; Hastings. Dirt. Bible ; 
Friediander. I7u Jtuw/i IitU\/ion, pp. SU-SW. London, 1900; Ttnilali U-Mofheh, Pivsbui>r, 1SW3 ; Zunz, G.S. 
11. 172-176, Berlin. U<76. t tt /-• 

E. c. J- H. G. 

Historical View : The only instance of the 

name " iihyhiciories " in Biblical times occurs in the 
New Testament (Matt, xxiii. 5). whence it has passed 
into the 1 a n - 
guages of Eu- 
rope. In rab- 
binical literature 
it is not found 
even as a foreign 
word. The Sep- 
tuagint renders 
"totafot" (A. 
y. and E. V. 
Ex. xiii. 16 and 
Deut. vi. 8) by 
aaa/.evrdv ( = 
"something im- 
movable ") ; nor 
do Aquila and 
Symmachus use 
the word " phy- 
lacteries." The 
Targumim (Jon- 
athan, Onkelos) 
and the Peshitta 
use "tefillin " 
(Ex. xiii. 9, 16; 
xxviii. 37; Deut. 
vi. 8, xxviii. 10; 
Ezek. xxiv. 23; 
Cant. viii. 1) or 
"totafot" (II 
Sam. i. 10; Ezek. 
xxiv. 17 et seq.). 
The terms "te- 
fiUah," "tefillin" 
only are found 
in Talmudic lit- 
erature, al- 
though the word 
" totafah " was 
still current, be- 
ing used with 
the meaning of "frontlet " (Shab. vi. 1). The con- 
clusions in regard to the tefillin wiiich are based 
on its current uame "phylacteries," 
therefore, lack historical basis, since 
this name was not used in truly Jew- 
ish circles. 
In regard to their origin, however, the custom of 
wearing protecting coverings on the head and hands 
must be borne in mind. Saul's way of appearing in 
battle, with a crown on his head and wearing l)race- 
lets, is connected with this idea. The Proverbs re- 
flect popular conceptions, for they originated in 
great part with the iieople. or were addressed to 
them. Prov. i. 9, iii. 3, vi. 21, and vii. 3 (comp. 
Jer. xvi-i. 1, xxxi. 32-33) clearly indicate the custom 


(Id the j>n«»;aBioD of M.iurlce Herrmann, 

Name and 

of wearing some object, with or without inscription, 
around the neck or near the heart ; the actual cus- 
tom appears in the figure of speech. In view of 
these facts it may be assumed that Ex. xiii. 9, 16, 
and Deut. vi. 8, xi. 18 must be interpreted not fig- 
uratively but literally ; therefore it must be assumed 
that the custom of wearing strips inscribed with 
Biblical passages is commanded in the Torah. 
" Bind them as signs on thy hand, and they shall be 
as totafot between thy eyes " assumes that totafot 

were at the time 
known and in 
use, but that 
thenceforth the 
words of the 
Torah were to 
serve as totafot 
(on signs see also 
I Kings XX. 41 ; 
Ezek. ix. 4, 6; 
Psalms of Solo- 
mon, XV. 9; see 


OF THE High 
Phiest; Caix). 
It is not known 
whether this 
command was 
carried out in 
the earliest time, 
and if so , in 
what manner. 
But from the 
relatively large 
number of regu- 
lations referring 
to the phylac- 
teries — some 
of them con- 
nected with the 
names of the 
first tannaim — 
and also from 
the fact that 
among the fifty- 
five "Sinaitic 
c o m m a n d s " 
("halakah le- 
>I o .5 h e h m i - 
Sinai '').eiglit re- 
fer to the tefillin 
alone and seven to the tefillin and the Torah to- 
gether, it follows that they were used as early as 
the time of the Soferim — the fourth, 
Epoch, of or at least the thiid, century u.c. 
In- The earliest ex illicit reference to them 

troduction. that has been preserved — namely, in 
the Letter of Aristeas (verse 159; see 
Kaulzsch, " Apokryphen," ii. 18) — speaks of them 
as an old institution. 

Josephus ("Ant." iv. 8, § 13) also regards them 
as an ancient institution, and he curiously enough 
places the tefillin of the head first, as the Talmud 
generally does (comp. Justin, "Dial, cum Tryph." 
ed. Otto, ii. 154). The tefillin are mentioned in con- 
nection with Simeon b. Shetah, brother-in-law of 

New York.) 




Alexander Janna'us (Ycr. IIuij. 77(1): uiul Sliammai 
produces tlie tefillin of his motlier's father (Mek., Bo, 
§ 17 [ed. Friedmann, 21b] ; the parallel passage Yer. 
'Er. 20a reads " Ilillcl "). The date here given is the 
seventh decade of the first century ii.c. Schorr (in 
"Ile-Haluz," vol. iv.) assumes that they were intro- 
duced in the Maccabean period, and A. Krochinal re- 
gards the reference to Elisha's "wings" (Shab. '14a; 
Yer. Ber. 4c) as indicating that lie was one of the first 
of the high priests to wear the tefiUah (" 'lyyun Te- 
lillah,"' pp. 27 et seq.). Johanan 1). Zakkai never 
went four ells without tefillin ; neither did his pupil 
Eliezer (Yer. Ber. 4c). Gamaliel II. (r. 100 O.K.) 
gives directions as to what shall be done with te- 
fillin found on the Sabbath, making a distinction 
between old and new tefillin ('Er. x. 1), a fact that 
clearly indicates the extent to which they were used. 
Even the slaves of this patriarch wore tefillin (Yer. 
'Er. 26a). Judali b. Bathyra refers, about 150 c.e., 
to llie tefillin which he inherited from his grand- 
father; these were inscribed to the dead awakened 
by Ezekiel (xxxvii. ; Sanli. 92b). In the following 
centuries they were used to an increasing extent, as 
appears from the numerous sentences and ndes re- 
ferring to them by the authorities of the Babylonian 
and Palestinian Talmuds. 

Tefillin resembled amulets in their earliest form, 

strips of parchment in a leather case, which is called 

either " bag " or " little house." Tefil- 

Earliest lin and " keme'ot " are, in fact, often 
Form. mentioned side by side (SJiab. vi. 2: 
]Mik. vi. 4; Kelim xxiii. 9; et al.), and 
■were liable to be mistaken one for the other ('Er. x. 
1 et al.). iis in the case of the Torah roll, the only 
permissible material was parchment, while the "me- 
zuzah " was made of a different kind of parchment 
(Shab. viii. 'Set al.)\ for this reason a discarded 
tefillah could be made into a mezuzah, but not vice 
versa (Men. 32a). It was made square, not round 
(Meg. iv. 8). The head-tefillah consisted of four 
strips in four compartments, while the hand-tefillah 
consisted of one strip. The former could be made 
out of the latter, but not vice versa ; and they were 
independent of each other (Kelim xviii. 8; Men. iii. 
7, iv. 1, 34b; Yer. Hag. 77d et passim). The here- 
tics had a way of covering the tefillah with gold, 
■wearing it on the sleeve and on the forehead (Meg. 
iv. 8). The straps (Yad. iii. 8) were made of the 
same material as the boxes, but could be of any color 
except blood-red ; they were sometimes blue or of a 
reddish purple (Men. 35a). 

The most important tefillah was the head-tefillah 
(Kelim xviii. 8 et passim). It was put on according 
to rule (Sheb. iii. 8, 11; Men. 36a) and was worn 
fron\ morning until night, with the exception of 
Sabbath and feast-days (Targ. to Ezek. xiii. 10; 
Men. 36b); some wore tefillin also in theevening, as 
did Akiba ('Er. 96a), Abbahu (Yer. 'Er. 26a), Rabba 
and Iluna (Men. 36b) during the evening prayer, 
and Ashi (beginning of 5th cent.). 

The head-tefillah was the principal one, because 
the tefillah worn on the arm was not visible (Men. 
37b). A Jew was recognized by the former, which 
he wore proudly, because, according to Deut. x xviii. 
10, all peoples knew thereby that the Name of the 
Eternal had been pronounced over him (Men. 35b ; 

Targ. Esth. viii. 15; comp. Cant. viii. 1; Ezek. 
xxiv. 17, 23). Jerome says (on Galatians iv. 22) 
that the Jews feared to appear in the cities, because 
they attracted attention; jirobably they Avere recog- 
nized by the tefillah. It was not worn in times of 
danger ('Er. x. 1). The law in regard to tefillin, 
therefore, which did not demand obedience at the 
jK'ril of life, had not taken such a deep hold upon 
the people as other laws (Shab. 130a; R. H. 17a; 
Yer. Ber. 4c; Pesik. R., ed. Friedmann, p. 111b). 
However, it must not be inferred from this state- 
ment that the tefillah was not w^orn to any great 
extent (Rodkinson, "Ursprung und Entwickelung 
des Phylacterien-Ritus bei den Juden," p. 5), but 
merely that it was not generally worn. 

Tlie tefillin have been connected with magic, as 
the name " phylacteries " primarily indicates. Fried- 
lander takes the tefillah to be a substitute for the 

"signum serpentinum " of the antino- 

Tefillin mistic Gnostics. The tefillin, how- 

and Magic, ever, originated at a time prior to that 

of the Gnostics, as has been shown 
above. Although the institution of the tefillin is re- 
lated in form to the custom of wearing amulets, in- 
dicating the ancient views regarding that means of 
protection, yet there is not a single passage in the 
old literature to show that they were identified with 
magic. Their power of protecting is similar to that 
of the Torah and the Commandments, of which it is 
said, "They protect Israel " (Blau, " AltjLidisches 
Zauberwesen," p. 152). One of the earliest tannaim, 
Eliezer b. Ilyrcanus (b. 70 C.E.), who laid great 
stress upon the tefillin, actively advocating their 
general use, derives the duty of wearing them from 
Josh. i. 8, "Thou shalt meditate therein day and 
night" (treatise Tefillim, near end). In conform- 
ity with this view they contain chiefl}' the Shema', 
the daily reading of which takes the place of the 
daily study of the Bible. 

The tannaitic Midrash, indeed, takes pains to prove 
that the Decalogue has no place in the tefillin (Sifre, 
Deut. 34, 35 ; Ber. lib). Jerome, therefore (to Matt. 
XXV. 3), is not correct in saying that the tefillin con- 
tain also the Ten Commandments; although this 
may have been the case among the "minim," or 
heretics. The newlj^ discovered Hebrew papyrus 
with Shema' and Decalogue belonged, perhaps, to 
the tefillah of a " min." The Samaritans did not ob- 
serve the command to wear the tefillah (Men. 42b, 
above). They are ranked with the pagans, there- 
fore, as persons not fit to write them (ib.). 

Although the tefillin were worn throughout the 
day, not only in Palestine but also in Babylon, the 

custom of wearing them did not be- 

In the come entirely popular; and during 

Diaspora the Diaspora they were worn no- 

and Post- where during the day. But it ap- 

Talmudic pears from the Letter of Aristeas and 

Times. from Josephus that the tefillin were 

known to the Jews of the Diaspora. 
At this time it may have become customary to wear 
them only during prayer, traces of this custom 
being found in Babylon (Men. 36b). In France 
in the thirteenth century they were not generally 
worn even during prayer (Rodkinson, I.e., quoting 
Tos. Shab. 49a; comp. "Semag," Commandment 




No. 3; Gratz, "Gesch." vii. 71). The diflference of 
opinion between Isaac ( Uaslii ; d. 1105) and his grand- 
son Jacob Tarn (d. 1171) in regard to thearningemeut 
of the four sections indicates that no tixed custom iu 
wearing them had arisen. Rashi and Tam's tefillin 
are referred to ; scruindously pious persons put ou 
thetelillinofH. Tarn after prayer (Men. 34b; Shulhan 
Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 34). There were differences 
of opinion between the Spanish and the German Jews 
iu regard to the knot iu the strap (see iUustratious in 
Surenhusius, cited below). At the time of the Re- 
form movement, in the tirst half of tiie nineteenth 
century, especially in Germany, the custom of wear- 
ing the tetillin. like other ritual and ceremonial ordi- 
nances, was attacked, calling forth the protests of 

BiBLiOGR.\PHY: The chief works are: Klein, Die Totaphnt 
nach Dihd utul Traditimi la Jahrfi. fllr Pn)t€i>tantische 
r/.<< •/'.(/!«, 1S81, pp. ti«k>-689, and M. L. Rodkloson, Ur- 
ftpniim ttnil EtitwickehttiiHies I'hflJncterieu-RiUts hei deii 
Jwhu, Prrtburp, 18K{ (reviewed in /\'. E. J. vi. 2S8); idem, 
HiMDrtinf A inulet.i, ClinrinMaiKt Tali^smau.i, New York, 189:}. 
Fordescrlption and illustrations see Surenhusius. 3/i.s7i/ifl/i. vol. 
l...\msterdain. 16W (before p. Ui, and Bodensrhatz, Kirchlkhe 
Vfrfa-^tuugder HeutiiiiiiJudcii, iv. 14-19; see also Winer. 
B. R. 3d ed.. 1. .%, ii. 2«(»: Hamburger. R. B. T. ii. KJtio. 1203- 
laW; Hautinps. DiVf. iJiWf, iii. 86&-874 ; Z. Frankel, Lehcr 
deii Kiiirtuiis dtr PaUMiiti.scheti Exegcse axif die AJexan- 
driiiisrhf Ifcrmoirutik. pp. 90 et «CQ., Leipsie, 1851; M. 
Friedlunder, Dcr AtitichriM in den Vnrchristlichen JU- 
dwc/if )i ijiuUen. pp. 1.'>.>-Iti">. Goitingen, 19t)l ; M. Griinbaum, 
Gcsammeltc AufMltze. pp. 208 et »io., Berlin, 1901 ; Herrfeld, 
GcKch. des I'oJAcs 7j<rne/, lil. 223-2ii. Nordhausen, 18.57; A. 
Kn>chmal. "lujnin TefiUah, pp. 24 ct scq., Lemberg, 1883; S. 
Munk. PaleMine, p. 2«8; O. H. Schorr, in He-Holuz, vol. iv.; 
Sehurer, Ge.ich. M ed., ii. 484 et sei/.; Zunz, d. S. ii. 172-176 
{TefiUin. €i)ie Dctrachtunij). See earlier Christian bibllog- 
raphv in Sehurer, Gcscli. 
J. L. B. 

Critical View : The etymology of the term — 

from the Gi'isi^k vi'/ auri/piov, itself derived from (pv/.da- 
a£tv{= "to guard against evil," "to protect") — indi- 
cates the meaning, in the Hellenistic period, to have 
been "amulet" (an object worn as a protection 
against evil). The language of the four passages iu 
which a reference occurs to "sign upon the hand" 
and " frontlets," or " memorials," " between the eyes " 
(E.\. xiii. 9, 16; Deut. vi. 8, xi. 18, Hebr.) proves 
that among the Hebrews the practise of wearing ob- 
jects of this kind around the forehead and on the hand 
must liave prevailed. Later rabbinical exegesis re- 
garded the figurative reference and simile in Deut. 
vi. 8 and xi. 18 as a command to be carried out liter- 
ally. Comparison with Ex. xiii. 9, 16, where the same 
terminology is employed, sutttces to demonstrate that 
in Deut. vi. 8, xi. 18 the writer expressed himself fig- 
uratively, with allusion, of course, to a popular and 
wide-spread custom. It is plain that a sound con- 
struction of the Deuteronomic passages must reject 
the interpietation which restricts the 
Figurative bearing (jf the phrase " ha-debarim ha- 
Ex- elleh " (Deut. vi. 6) to the immediately 

pressions. i)re(eding Shema", or of "debarai el- 
leh " of Deut. xi. 18 to the preceding 
verse. In the phraseology of Deuteronomy, "these 
my words " embrace the whole book, the Torah, and 
it would have been as impossible to write the whole 
book on one's hand as it was to carry the sacrifice of 
the first-born (Ex. xiii.) as "a sign on one's hand." 
Prov. i. 9, iii. 3. vi. 21, vii. 3, and Jer. xvii. 1, xxxi. 
33 illustrate in what sense the expressions "write" 
or "bind " in this connection are to be taken. As a 
matter of fact, phylacteries as described by the Rabbis 

did not come into use before the last pre-Christian 
centur}'; the Samaritans knew nothing of them. 

That amulets and signs were iu use among the an- 
cient Hebrews is evident from Gen. iv. 15 (Cain's, 
sign), I Kings xx. 41, and Ezek. ix. 4-6 (comp. Rev. 
vii. 3; xiii. 16; xiv. 1, 9; Psalms of Solomon, xv. 10). 
Originally, the "sign " was tattooed ou the skin, the 
forehead ("between the eyes") and the hand natu- 
rally being chosen for the display. Later, some 
visible object worn between the eyes or bound on 
the hand was substituted for the writing on the skin. 

But the original practise is still discernible in the 
use of the word "yad " (hand) to connote a " token " 
(Ex. xvii. 16) with an inscription, the "zikkaron," 
which latter is the technical term, apjiearing in Ex. 
xiii. and Deut. xi. 18. This fact explains also the 
original value of the word "yad "in tJie combina- 
tion "yad wa-shem " (hand and name; Isa. Ivi. 5). 
The jiassage from Isaiah just quoted plainly shows 
that such a yad wa-shem was effective against that 
the Semite dreaded most — oblivion after death. 
The words "ot," "shem," and "zeker" are often 
used interchangeably (e.g., Isa. Iv. 13 and Ex. iii. 
15), and it is probable that originally they desig- 
nated visible tokens cut into the flesh for purposes- 
of marking one's connection with a deity or a clan 
(see Circumcision; Covexaxt; Totemis.m). The 
common meanings of these words, "sign," "name," 
and " memorial," are secondary. The phrase " to lift 
up the name" in the Decalogue indicates fully that 
"shem " must have been originally a totemisticsign, 
affixed to a person or an object. 

The etymology of "totafot," wliicli, probably, 
should be considered singular and be pointed "tote- 
fet," is not plain. The consensus of modern opin- 
ion is that it designates a round jewel, like the 
"netifot" (Judges viii. 26; Isa. iii. 19), therefore a 
charm, though others believe its original meaning to 
have been " a mark " tattooed into the flesh (Siegfried- 
Stade, "Lexicon"). It is to the habit of wearing 
amulets or making incisions that the law of Deute- 
ronomy refers, as does Ex. xiii., advising that only 
God's Torah, as it were, shall constitute the pro- 
tecting "charm" of the faithful. 

Bibliography : 7>r(.s A'ai'»U(:i(?i((i,inStade"sZfif,'*c;iri/M894; 
(i. Klein, Totajilidt >i(H)t liihcl u)id Traditinn, in Jdlirlmch 
fl'tr l'rota<ta)iti)ichc Thcologic, 1881 ; Hastings, Diet. Bible. 

E. G. H. 
PHYSICIAN. See Medicine. 
PIATELLI. See Anaw. 

PICART, BERNARD : French designer and 
engraver; Ijorn at Paris June 11, 1678; died at Am- 
sterdam ^lay 8, 1733. He was descended from a 
Protestant family and received his earliest instruc- 
tion from his father, Ktienne Picart, and from Le 
Brun and Jouvenet. At an early age Picart showed 
a marked facility in the imitation of the great mas- 
ters. In 1710 he settled at Amsterdam, where he 
supplied plates and engravings to printers and book- 
sellers. Picart designed and executed avast num- 
ber of plates, about 1,300 of which are still extant. represent a variety of subjects, a number of 
them dejiicting Biblical topics. That part of his 
work which is of Jewish interest is contained in the 
"Ceremonies des Juifs," the first volume of the 
"Ceremonies et Coutumes Reliirieuses de Tons les 


/9./\.:r'r y.:' /.•■•< 


(From ihe Sulzberger collection in the Jewish Theological Semlosry of America, New York.) 




Peuplcs du Monde" (11 vols., Amsterdam, 1723- 
1743). These plates, all of wliicli are faithfully and 
carefully prepared, are among the earliest engra- 
vings on Jewish ecclesiastical and ceremonial sub- 
jects. Tlie following is a list of iheni, given in the 
order in which they appear in the original edition: 
(1) Interior of the Portuguese Synagogue at Amster- 
dam ; (2) Jew with Phylacteries and Praying-Scarf; 
(3) Arba' Kanfot, Sabbath Lamp, Mazzot, Lulab, 
Etrog, Mezuzah, and Shofar; (4) Benediction of the 
Priests in a Portuguese Synagogue at Tiie Hague ; 
(5) Elevation of the Law; (6) Sounding the Shofar 
on New-Year's Day ; (7) The Day of Atonement (in 
the Synagogue); (8) Search for Leaven; ('J) Pass- 
over Meal; (10) Feast of Tabernacles (in the Syna- 
gogue); (1') Feast of Tabernacles (at Home); (12) 
Rejoicing of the Law (in the Synagogue); (18) Es- 
corting Home the Bridegroom of the Law; (14) Im- 
plements of Circumcision; Scroll of the Law, with 
Mantle, Crowns, etc. ; (15) Circumcision; (Ki) Re- 
demption of tlie First-Born ; (17) Marriage Among the 
Portuguese Jews ; (18) Marriage Among the German 
Jews; (19) Circuit Round the Coffin ; (20) Interment. 
An English translation of the work cited was 
printed by William Jackson (London, 1733). It 
contains, in addition to Picart's drawings, which in 
this translation are engraved by Du Bosc, several 
good engravings of similar Jewish subjects by F. 
Morellon la Cave. 

Bibliooraphy: Brj/nnN Dictionary nf Painters and En- 
(iraverK, iv. 112. London, 1904; Jacobs and Wolf, liibl. Aii- 
l/lo-Jud. p. 76, London. 1888; Thomas, Dk^ of BUHjrapJqi 
and Muthiiloou^ Philadelphia, 19()1. 
J. I. G. D. 

worker; borual Aleppo 1806; died at London, Eng- 
land, Oct. 19, 1879. He was a member of an ancient 
Eastern family; his immediate ancestors were en- 
gaged in the Russian consular service. He went to 
England about 1843, and soon after his arrival there 
became active in communal affairs. He advocated 
the founding of Jews' College, and was a member 
of its council until his death. He was one of the 
founders of the Society for the Diffusion of Relig- 
ious Knowledge, and wrote many of its tracts. A 
good Hebrew scholar, he wrote several odes for reci- 
tation on public and festive occasions. 

Picciotto was for a considerable period a member 
of the Board of Deputies, and was conspicuous in 
the deliberations of that body for his indefatigable 
Zealand his experience in Eastern affairs. He acted 
as commissioner for the board at the time of the war 
between ^Morocco and Spain in l8.')9-60. He visited 
Gibraltar and Morocco to distribute relief and wrote 
a report, as a result of which the Jewish schools at 
Tetuiin, Tangier, and Mogador were founded. 

His son James Picciotto (born in 1830; died in 
London Nov. 13, 1897) was for man}' j^ears secretary 
to the council of administration of the Morocco Re- 
lief Fund. He retired in 189G, failing health com- 
pelling liis resignation. He is known as the author 
of "Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History," London, 
1877, a reprint of articles which originally appeared 
in the "Jewish Chronicle." 

BiBi.mfjRAPiiv: Jnr. H'orW, Oct. 24. 1879; Jew. Chrnn. Oct. 
;J4, 1879, and Nov. 19, 1897. 

J. G. L. 

PICHLEB, ADOLF: Austrian painter; born 

ill 1834 at Czilfer, in tlie county of Presburg, Hun- 
gary. At the age of thirteen he went to Budapest, 
where he supported himself by tutoring while pre- 
paring himself to teach. After receiving his teach- 
er's diploma he entered the Academy of Fine Arts, 
where lie soon won the first prize for a study of a 
head. Before long he was one of the most popular 
drawing-teachers in Budapest. He then went to 
Munich to study under Wilhelm von Kaulbach and 
Volz. One of his works dating from that time is 
the "Jew at Prayer." His best-known picture is 
his first work, "Moses, on His Descent from Sinai, 
Finds the People Worshiping the Golden Calf. " His 
other works include: "The Death of Jacob," "The 
]Maiden of Judah," "Spinoza as Glass-Polisher," "Ju- 
dah ha-Levi," and many historical paintings and 

s. R. P. 

PICHON (PICHO), JOSEPH: " Almo.xarife " 
and "conlador mayor" {i.e., tax-collector-in-chief) 
of the city and the archbishopric of Seville; ap- 
pointed in 1369 by Henry II. of Castile, who es- 
teemed him highly on account of his honesty and clev- 
erness. But on charges brought by some rich core- 
ligionists who also had been admitted at court, 
Pichon was imprisoned by command of the king and 
.sentenced to pay 40,000 doubloons. On paying this, 
large sum within twenty days he was released and 
restored to office; in turn, he brought a serious ac- 
cusation against his enemies, either in revenge or in 
self- justification. 

Henry had died in the meantime, and his .son, 
John I., was his successor. Many rich and influen- 
tial Jews had gathered from different parts of the 
country for the auction of the royal taxes at Burgos, 
Avhere the coronation of John took place. These Jews 
plotted against the life of Pichon, who was very 
popular among the Christians and who had received 
marked attentions from the courtiers. It is not 
known whether he is in any degree to be blamed for 
the extraordinary tax of 20,000 doubloons which 
Henry had imposed upon the Jews of Toledo; but, 
however this may have been, some prominent Jews, 
representing various communities, went to the king- 
on the day of the coronation, and, explaining to him 
that there was among them a "malsin," i.e., an in- 
former and traitor who deserved death according to 
the laws of their religion, requested him to em- 
power the royal ofliccrs to execute the offender. It 
is said that some minions of the king, bribed by the 
Jews, induced John to give the order. The dele- 
gation then took this order, together with a letter 
from several Jews who were the leaders of the com- 
munity, to Fernan Martin, the king's executioner. 
The latter did not hesitate to fulfil the royal com- 
mand. At an early hour on Aug. 21, 1379, he went 
with Don Zuleina (Solomon) and Don Zag (Isaac) to 
the residence of Pic'lioii, who was still sleeping. 
Pichon was awakened on the pretext that some of 
his mules were to be seized ; and as soon as he ap- 
]ieare(l at the door Fernan laid hold of him and, with- 
out saying a word, beheaded him. 

The execution of Pichon, whose name had been 
concealed from the king, created an uni)leasant sen- 
.sation. The monarch was exceedingly angry that 




he had been inveigled into signing tlie death-war- 
rant of a respected and popuhir man who liad fiiitli- 
fully served his father for many years. He liad Zu- 
lenia, Zag, and tlie chief rabbi of Burgos, who was 
in tlie i)l()t, beheaded; and Martin was to have 
shared tlie same fate, but was spared at the interces- 
sion of some knights. He, liowever, paid for his 
hastiness in tlie affair by tlie loss of his right hand. 
As a consequence of Pichon's execution, the Cortes 
deprived the rabbis and the Jewish courts of the 
country of the right to decide criminal cases. The 
affair had the most disastrous consequences for the 
Jews of Spain, stimulating the hatred of the popu- 
lation against them, and contributing to the great 
massjicre of the year 1391. 

BiBMOGRAPHY : Ayala, Cronica dc D. Junii I. li. 126 et scq.\ 
ZiinlKa, Analeii dc Sevilla, il. 136, 211 et sea.; Hlos. HM. 11. 
3;!;! ct se(/.; Griitz, Gesch. vlll. 45 et scq.; R. E. J. xxxviil. 258 
et aecj. 
6. M. K. 

author; liveil in Turkey at the end of the seven- 
teenth century. He was the author of '• Minhage 
ha-Bedikah be-'Ir Saloniki," a work relating to the 
method which was follow-ed of making meat kasher 
in the slaughter-house at Salon ica. 

BiBi.iOGRAPiiv : .Azulai. Shem ha-OeAnlim.s.v.: Franco, Hi's- 
toire dcs Israelites de VEmpirc Ottoman, p. 125, Paris, 1897. 
B. M. Fr. 

PICK, AARON: Biblical scholar; born at 
Prague, where he was converted to Christianity and 
lectured on Hebrew at the university ; lived in Eng- 
land during the first half of the nineteenth century. 
He was the author of translations and commentaries 
of various books of the Bible, his works comprising: 
a literal translation from the Hebrew of the twelve 
Minor Prophets (1833); of Obadiah (1884); and of 
the seventh chapter of Amos with commentary. In 
1837 he produced a treatise on the Hebrew accents; 
and in 1845 he published "The Bible Student's Con- 
cordance." He was, besides, the author of a work 
entitled "The Gathering of Israel, or the Patriarchal 
Blessing as Contained in the Forty-ninth Chapter of 
Genesis: Being the Revelation of God Concerning 
the Twelve Tribes of Israel, and Their Ultimate 

s. I. Co. 

PICK, ALOIS : Austrian physician, medical au- 
thor, and dramatist; born at Karolinenthal, near 
Prague, Bohemia, Oct. lo, 1859. lie studied medi- 
cine at the universities of Prague and Vienna (M.D., 
Prague, 1883). The same year he joined the hospi- 
tal corps of the Austrian army ; and at present (1905) 
he holds the position of regimental surgeon (" Regi- 
mentsarzt,"). He is also chief physician at the first 
Army Hospital, Vienna. In 1890 he became privat- 
docent and in 1904 assistant professor at the Uni- 
versity of Vienna. 

Pick has contributed many essays to the medical 
journals, among which may be mentioned: "Zur 
Lehre von den Atembewegungen der Emphyse- 
matiker,"in "Prager Medizinische Wochciischrift." 
1883, No. 17; "Beitrage zur Pathologic und Thera- 
pie der Herzneurosen," ih. 1884, No. 44: "Der Re- 
spiratorische Gaswechsel Gesunder und Erkranktcn 
Luniren," in "Zeitschrift fiir Klinische Medizin," 

Berlin, xvi. ; " Ueber das Bewegliche Herz," in 
"Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift," 1889; "Zur 
Frage der Ilepatcjgeuen Dyspepsie," ib. 1903. He is 
also the author of " Vorlesungen tlber Magen- und 
Darmkraiiklieiten," Vienna, 1895. Aside from these 
medical works, Pick is the author of two small 
farces, " Briefsteller f l\r Liebende " and " Lonl Beef- 

Bini.iofiKAPiiv : Elsenl)er(r, DaA Gewtige Wicn, I. 409, il. 372- 
:i7:3, Vienna, 189:3; I'aKel, Bio(j. Lex. 
R. F. T. H. 

PICK, ARNOLD : Austrian psychiatrist ; born 
at Gross-Meseritsch, Moravia, July 20, 1851; edu- 
cated at Berlin and Vienna (M.D. 1875). He became 
assistant physician at the lunatic asylum at Wehnen, 
Oldenburg (1875), and at the state asylum at Prague 
(1877); privat-docent at Prague University (1878); 
and was appointed in 1880 chief physician at the 
asylum in Dobrzan, which position he held till 1886, 
when he was elected professor of psychiatry at 

Among his many works may be mentioned : " Bei- 
triige zur Pathologic und zur Pathologischen Ana- 
tomic dcs Centralnervens3'stems " (with Kahler), 
Leipsic, 1880; and "Beitrage zur Pathologic und 
Pathologischen Anatomic des Centralnervensystems 
mit einem Excurse zur Normalen Anatomic Dessel- 
ben," Berlin, 1898. 

Bibliography: Papel, Bing. Lex. 

s. F. T. II. 

PICK, BEHRENDT: German numismatist and 
archeologist ; born Dec. 21, 1861, at Posen. After 
passing through the Friedrich-Wilhclms Gymna- 
sium of his native city, he went in 1880 to the Uni- 
versity of Berlin (Ph.D. 1884), -where he studied 
classical philology. On the advice of Theodor 
Mommsen, of whose favorite pupils be was one, he 
took upas his specialty epigraphy and numismatics. 
After a short term of service as librarian at the Royal 
Library, Berlin, Pick in 1889 became privat-docent 
in archeology at the University of Zurich, and in 
1891 was appointed assistant professor there. In 
1893 he accepted a position at the ducal library and 
in connection with the ducal coin-collection of Gotha, 
being made director of the latter in 1899. He was, 
besides, appointed in 1896 lecturer on numismatics 
at the University of Jena, which position he still 
(1905) holds. 

Pick's chief work is volume i. ("Dacia und Moe- 
sia") of "Die Antiken ]\riinzen Nordgriechenlands" 
(Berlin, 1898), a publication issued by the Berlin 
Academy of Sciences. S. 

PICK, ISAIAH. See Berlin, Is.uati b. Loeb. 

PICK, PHILIPP JOSEPH: Austrian deima- 
tologist; born at Neustadt, Bohemia, Oct. 14, 1834. 
He studied natural sciences and medicine at Vienna 
(M.D. 1860) and acted as assistant in several uni- 
versity hosjiitals. In 1868 he removed to Prague 
and became privat-docent in the German university 
there. In 1873 he was appointed assistant professor, 
and in 1896 professor, of dermatology in the same 

In 1869 Pick founded in conjunction with Hein- 
rich Auspitz the "Archivflir Dermatologie." etc., 
of which, since the death of his colleague in 1886, 

Pico de ISirandola 



he has been sole editor. Muuy essays of his have 
appeared in this journal and in the medical papeis 
of Vienna and Prague. In 1889 he helped to found 
the Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaf t, of which 
he was the first president. 

At the celebration, in 1898, of the twenty-fifth an- 
niversary of his appointment as assistant professor 
his pupils ami colleagues prepared a jubilee volume, 
edited by Xeis.ser. 

BiBLiOGR.vPUY : Papel, Biog. Lex. 

s. F. T. II. 

VANNI FREDERIC© (Prince of Concordia): 
Italian itliilusopher, theologian, and cabalist; born 
Feb. '24. 1463. at Mirandola; died at Florence Nov. 
17, 1494. Gifted with high intellectual powers, he 
commeuced tiie study of theology at an early age, 
graduated from the University of Bologna, and at 
the age of twenty-three published 900 theses against 
the views of the philosophers and theologians of his 
time (•• Couclusiones Philosophica; Cabalisticse et 
Theologicjc," Rome, 1486). These theses included 
one which postulated that tiie Cabala best proves 
the divinity of Jesus. Pico received his cabalistic 
training from Johanan Aleman, from whom he also 
obtained three cabalistic works wiiirh he translated 
into Latin : the commentary of ]Menahem Recanati 
on the Pentateuch, the "Hokmat ha-Nefesh"(= 
"Scientia Animtc ") of Eleazar of "Worms (printed at 
Lemberg. 1875), and the "Sefer ha-Ma'alot" of 
Shem-Tob Falaquera. He tried to harmonize the 
philo-sopiiy of Piato and Aristotle with the (Jabala 
ami Neo-Platouism, but his excessive devotion to 
the Cabala resulted in an ascetic and mystical 
tendency, which brought him into conflict with 
the Church. He was accu.sed of heresy, but was 
acquitted, and retired to Florence, where he spent 
the rest of his life with a friend. 

Pico was one of tlie first to collect Hebrew manu- 
scripts. Of his books, which were widely read, two 
may liere be mentioned: (1) "Cabalistarum Sclec- 
tiones," Venice, 1569: (2) "Opera," Bologna, 1496; 
Venice, 1498; Basel, 1557. 

Bibmography: DrnyflorlT, Dnx f^uxtem rlfx J. Picn, Marlnirg, 
1858: Di (ilovanni. Pico deUn Mirnndola, FUosofo PUitu- 
71ICO. Florence, 18.S2: itlein, Picn Xella Storia del JJoiaxci- 
ynfutn, etc.. Palermo, 18!t4; (iriitz, 245-247 ; Geda- 
Ifah ibn Yahya, ShtiMielet ha-Kahbalah, p. 50a, Amsterdam, 
1697 : Zunz, Z. O. pp. 8, 522. 

I' S. O. 

PICTORIAL ART : There are no ancient re- 
mains showing in what way, if any, the Jews of 
Bible times made use of painting for decorative or 
other purposes. For the references in the Bible 
see Painting. During the Middle Ages painting 
was a craft which was monopolized Ijv the gilds, 
and Jews were thereby prevented from sliowingany 
proficiency in the art. The only direction in which 
the latter eviflenced any skill was in the illumina- 
tion of manuscripts (see Manusckii'Ts). 

In modern times painting Avas at first mainly 
directed to sacerdotal, decorative purposes, but 
Jews were i)recluded from thus employing it, even 
in their own synagogues, by the rabbinical inter- 
pretation of the second commandment. It is not, 
therefore, surprising that it is only with enianri- 
pation that any JewLsh names are found in the an- 

nals of painting. During the last 150 years a cer- 
tain number of Jews have displayed considerable 
skill as artists, chief among them being Joseph Is- 
raels in Holland. A few Jewish painters, prominent 
among whom are S. J. Solomon in England and E. 
yi. Lilien in Germany, have in recent years devoted 
their talent to specifically Jewish subjects. The 
following is a partial list of Jewish painters who 
have distinguished themselves in modern times: 

America: Max Rosenthal (b. 1833), historical 
portraits; ]\Ia.x Weyl (b. 1837), landscapes; Henry 
Mosler (b. 1841), genre and portraits; Toby Edward 
Rosenthal (b. 1848), genre; Herman Naphtali Hyne- 
man (b. 1849), genre; Katherine M. Cohen (b. 1859). 
portraits; George da Maduro Peixotto (b. 1859), 
portraits and mural decorations; Albert Rosenthal 
(b. 1863), portrait-etching; Albert Edward Sterner 
(b. 1863), genre and water-colors; Louis Loeb (b. 
1866), landscapes and portraits; Augustus Koopman 
(b. 1869), genre and portraits; Leo ]\[ielziner (b. 
1869), portraits; Louis Kn)ul)erg(b. 1872), portraits; 
Edmoud Weill (b. 1872), genre; J. Campbell Phillips 
(b. 1873), negro life, and portraits; J. Mortimer 
Lichtenauer (b. 1876), mural decorations. 

Austria-Hungary : Anton Rafael ]\Iengs (1728- 
1779), historical, genre, and portraits; Friedrich 
Friedlan(ler(b. 1825), military subjects and portraits; 
Adolf Pichler (b. 1834), historical : Leopold Horo- 
witz (b. 1837), portraits and subjects from Jewish 
life; Lajos Bruck (b. 1846), subjects from Him- 
gariau folk-life and portraits; Karl Karger (b. 
1848), genre; Joseph Kovcs (b. 1853), portraits and 
genre; Isidor Kaufmann (b. 1853), subjects front 
Jewish life and genre; Gustav Mannheiiner (b. 
1854), landscapes; Camilla Friedliinder (b. 1856; 
daughter of Friedrich Friedliinder), still life; Ernst 
Berger (b. 1857), Biblical subjects; Gyula Basch (1). 
1859), genre and portraits; Adolf Hirschl (b. 1860), 
historical; Alexander Nyari (b. 1861); Max Bruck 
(b. 1863), genre; Adolf Fenyes (b. 1867), genre; 
Philip Luszlo (1). 1869), portraits; Karl Reinhard 
(b. 1872), genre; Arpad Basch (b. 1873), water-colors; 
Leopold Pollak (1806-80), gein-e and portraits. 

Denmark: Israael Israel INIengs (1690-1765), 
miniature and enamel; Karl Ileinrich Bloch (b. 
1834), scenic and genre: Ernst Meyer (1797-1861), 
genre; David ^Monies (1812-94), historical, genre, 
and portraits; Geskel Saloman (1821-1902), genre. 

England : B. S. Marks (I). 1827), portraits; Felix 
3roscheles (b. 1833); Carl Schloesser (b. 1836); 
Simeon Solomon (c. 1850), Preraffaelite; Solomon 
J. Solomon, A.R.A. (b. 1860), geiu-e and portraits; 
Alfred Praga (b. 1860), genre and miniature; Abra- 
ham Solomon (1824-63); Isaac Snowman (b. 1874); 
Ellen Gertrude Coiien (1). 1876), portraits and genre; 
Solomon Alexander Hart, R.A. (1806-81), scenic, 
genre, and portraits; Lionel Cowen (1846-95). 

France: Felix Dias (1794-1817); Emile Levy 
(b. 1826), subjects from Jewish religious history; 
Jacob Emile Edouard Brandon (b. 1831), genre; 
Constant Mayer (b. 1832), genre and jiortraits; Jules 
Worms (b. 1832), liumoristic genre; Zachaiie Astruc 
(b. 1839), genre and panels in Avater-color; Henri 
Leopold Levy (b. 1840), Jiistorieal and genre: Al- 
plionse Levy (b. 1843), Jewish life; Leo Herrmann 
(b. 1853), genre; Ferdinand Heilbuth (1826-79), 



Pico de Mirandola 

genre and portraits; Alphonse Hirsch (1843-84), 
genre and portraits ; Henry Baron (1816-85), his- 
torical and genre; Auguste lladainard (1823-86), 
genre; Benjamin Eugene Fichel (1826-95), historical 
and genre; Eugene Alcan (1811-98), genre. 

Germany: Philipp Arous (b. 1831), portraits; 
liiuiolf Jonas (b. 1822), landscapes; Louis Katzen- 
stein (1). 1824), portraits; Karl Daniel Friedrich 
Bach (1756-1829), historical, genre, animals, and 
portraits; Moses Samuel LOwe (1756-1831), minia- 
ture and pastels; Felix Possjirt (b. 1837), landscapes 
and genre; Hermann Junker (b. 1838), subjects from 
Jewish life; Julius Bodenstein (b. 1847), land- 
scapes; Jeremiah David Alexander Fiorino (1796- 
1847), miniature; Max Liebcrmann (b. 1849), scenic 
and genre; Rudolf Christian Eugen Bendemann (b. 
1851), historical, genre, and mural decorations; Karl 
Jacoby (b. 1853), historical and genre; Felix Bor- 
chardt (b. 1857), scenic and portraits; Max Kahn 
(b. 1857), genre; Wilhelm Feldmann (b. 1859), land- 
scapes; Karl Blosz 
(b. 1860), genre; 
Julius Muhr (1819- 
1865), genre; Her- 
mann Goldschmidt 
(1802-66), historic- 
al; Eduard Magnus 
(1799-1872), por- 
traits and genre; 
Johannes Veit 
(1790-1854) and 
Philipp Veit (1793- 
1877), religious, his- 
torical, and genre; 
Julius Jacob (1811- 
1882), landscapes 
and portraits ; 
Moritz Daniel Op- 
penheim (1801-82), 
subjects from Jew- 
ish life, portraits, 
and genre; Benja- 
min Ulmann (1829-84), historical ; Eduard Julius 
Friedrich Bendemann (1811-89), Biblical subjects, 
portraits, and genre ; Max Michael (1823-91), genre ; 
Alfred Kethel (1816-59) and Otto Rethel (1822-93), 
frescos, historical, and genre; Karl Morgenstern 
(1812-93), landscapes; Friedrich Kraus (1826-94), 
portraits and genre; Louis Neustiittcr (1829-99), 
genre and portraits; Solomon Hirschfeldcr (1832- 
1903), genre. 

Holland : Joseph Israels (b. 1834), genre ; David 
Bles (1821-99), genre. 

Italy : Raphael Bachi (c. 1750), miniature; Tullo 
Massarani (b. 1826), genre; Giuseppe Coen (1811- 
1856), landscapes and architectural ; Leopold Pollak 
(1806-80), genre and portraits. 

Rumania : Barbu Iscovescu (1816-54) ; Julius 
Feld (1). 1871), portraits and genre. 

Ilussia and Poland : Isaac Lvovich Asknazi 
(b. 1856), religious subjects, genre, and portraits; 
Jacob Semenovich Goldblatt (b. 1860), historical ; 
Moisei Leibovich Maimon (b. 1860). genre and por- 
traits; Peter Isaacovich Geller (b. 1862), Jewish his- 
torical subjects; Samuel Ilirszenberg (b. 1866), 
genre and scenic; Maurice Grun (b. 1870), genre 
X.— 3 

Tomb of Pierleoni In the 

(From LauciaDi, *' New 

and portraits; Jacques Kaplan (b. 1872), portraits 
and genre; Alexancier Lesser (1814-84), historical; 
Leonid Osipovich Pasternak (b. 1862), genre and 

Biiii.iocKAPHY : JUdiitche KUnstler, Berlin, 1903; S. J. Solo- 
inoii. lu J. Q. It. 190a. 

J. F. C. 

PIDYON HA-BEN. See Primogenituue. 

PIERLEONI : Noble Roman family of Jewish 
origin. A Jewish banker of Rome who had acquired 
a princely fortune was baptized in the first half of 
the eleventh century, took the name of Benedictua 
Christianus, and married the daughter of a Roman 
nobleman. Leo, the offspring of this union, and 
one of the most powerful magnates of the city, had 
a castle in Trastevere and afflliated himself with 
the papal party, and his son Petrus Leonis, from 
whom the family derives its name, continued his 
father's policy, controlling the Isola Tiberina in ad- 
dition to the castle 
in Trastevere, and 
having another 
castle opposite the 
Tiber bridge near 
the old theater of 
Marcellus, which 
was included in the 
fortitications. He 
was the leader of 
the papal party and 
the most faithful 
and powerful pro- 
tector of the popes. 
Urban II. died in 
Petrus' castle, and 
the latter defended 
the cause of Paschal 
II. against the anti- 
popes and the em- 
peror. When 
Henry V. came to 
Rome Petrus Leonis was at the head of the papal 
legation which eiTected a reconciliation between the 
pope and the emperor, but Paschal's attempt to make 
the son of Petrus i)refect of the city caused a riot. 
Petrus was prominent in the liberation of Pope 
Gelasius II., and when Petrus died in 1128 his son of 
the same name was cardinal, and had on several 
occasions rendered service to the Church. In 1130 
Cardinal Pierleoni was elected pope under the name 
of An.\cletus II., while the counter party chose 
Innocent II. The lasted for eight years, until 
the death of Anacletus, after which the family of 
Pierleoni made peace with the pope, retaining its 
power and influence, and being distinguished by 
various honors. Leo and Petrus, the brother and 
nephew of Anacletus, were papal delegates at Sutri 
in 1143, and another brother, Jordan, with whom the 
era of senators begins, became the head of the Roman 
lepublic as Patricius in 1144, while a sister is said 
to have been the wife of Roger I. of Sicily. In tlic 
twelfth century Cencius Pierleoni was "scriniarius" 
of the Church, and in 1304 John Pierleoni, who had 
been appointed elector by Pope Innocent III., chose 
Gregory Petri Leonis Rainerii as senator. The leg- 

Cloisters of St. Paul, Rome. 

Tales of Ancient Rome.") 




end vfhich traces the lineage of the family of Pier- 
leoni to the ancient Roman noble family of the Anicii 
is as apocryphal as the story of the descent of the 
Hap^burgs from the counts of Aventin, who be- 
longed to the F*ierleoni. 

BiBLiOGRAPHT: BaTODius. -4 nnaJ<v EcfU*^i<istici, years 1111, 
1115: QKgoTovius, GcMch. tit'f Stiuit Hum im Mittelalter,iv. 
349 ct «:q., 3yi et seq.; vols. iv. and v., passim ; Liber Pntitift- 
calin, ed. Duchesne, li. aU, 3(i7,318. 3ii. X*i, 344, 347 ; Monu- 
menta (jennaukr HinOirka, v. 47- «-( *€</., xi. 614, xli. 711 ; 
Ducbesoe, Hiit(«ntr fVn/iconmi :Stri><orM, iv. 376; Ollvleri, 
n Seiiato di Roma. p. 185; Vogelsiein and Riejrer, Gesch. 
der Judtn in Rmn. 1. 214 ft seq., 218, 221 et seq.; Kehr, in 
Archiviit lUlla R. S'JcUtd Romana di Sturia Patria, xxiv. 
(1901). pp. :Jo3 et se4i. 
8 H. V. 

PIGEON. See Dove. 

PIGO : Italian family of rabbis. Formerly the 
name was as a rule transcribed Figo ; in an Ital- 
ian document of 1643 it appears in the form " Pichio " ; 
and in Hebrew it is sometimes written Vp'D. To 
this family belong Ephraim Pigo, a learned man 
who died in Venice in UiUo or 1606, and the rabbis 
Judah Pigo and Solomon Pigo ; the latter appear 
in the responsa "Mayim Habbim " of Rabbi Raphael 

Another branch of the family lived in Turkey. 
Moses Pigo (d. in Adrianople 1576) wrote "Zik- 
ron Torat Mosheh," a dictionary of the haggadic 
themes (Constantinople, 1554; Prague, 1623). His 
son Joseph Pigo of Salonica was the author of 
"Teslmbol" and "Dine Bedikat ha-Re'ah " (Salo- 
nica, 1652). 

Bibliography: Mortara, Indice, pp. 49, 50; Berliner, Luhot 
Ahanim, Nos. 130, 131; Winter and WQnsche, Die JVUUsche 
Literatur. ii. 652 et Keg.; Sttiinschneider, Cat. Bodl. ool. 746; 
Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 232; Furst, Bihl. Jud. 1. 240. 

G. I. E. 

PI-HAHIROTH: A place in the wilderness 
where the Israelites encamped when they turned 
back from Etham. It lay between Migdol and the 
sea "before Baal-zephon " (Ex. xiv. 2, 9; Num. 
xxxiii. 7, 8). The etymology of the name, which is 
apparently Egyptian, was the subject of much spec- 
ulation by the ancient commentators. The Septua- 
gint, while treating the word as a proper name in 
Numbers (E(/3£jr>; translating, however, ^Q by crrd/za), 
translates it in Exodus by rfjg kna'vT^ug (= "sheep- 
fold " or "farm-building"), thus reading in the He- 
brew text n-njn ■•a. The Mekilta (Beshallah, Wa- 
yehi, 1) identifies the place with Pithom, which was 
called Pi-hahiroth (= " the mouth of freedom ") after 
the Israelites had been freed from bondage, the place 
itself being specified as a valley between two high 
rocks. The Targum of pseudo-Jonathan {ad loc), 
while following the Mekilta in the interpretation of 
"Pi-hahiroth," identifies the place with Tanis. 

The theory of an Egyptian etymology was ad- 
vanced by Jablonsky, who compared it to the Cop- 
tic "pi-akl)irot" = "the place where sedge grows," 
and by Naville, who explained the name as "the 
house of the goddess Kerliet." On the basis of tliis 
latter explanation, Fulgence Fresnel identified Pi- 
haliiroth with the modern Ghu\vaibatal-Bus(= "the 
bed of reeds"), near Has Atakah. 

Bibliography: Selble, in HastlnRs. Diet. Bible. 

E. G. ii: M. Sel. 

KOHZN : Genuau rabbi; meulioued in "Likku^e 
Maharil," hilkots "Shabbat" and "Yom Kippur." 
He addressed two letters to the community of Hal- 
berstadt, in which he discussed the commandments 
and prohibitions. He requested that his epistles 
might be copied and read to others. These letters 
were printed at Basel in 1599. 

Bibliography : Michael, Or hon^am/im. No. 42. 
E. c. S. O. 

PILATE, PONTIUS : Fifth Roman procurator 
of Judea, Samaria, and Idumaea. from 26 to 36 of the 
common era; successor of Valerius Gratus. Accord- 
ing toPhilo("De Legationead Caium,"ed. Maugey, 
ii. 590), his administration was characterized by cor- 
ruption, violence, robberies, ill treatment of the peo- 
ple, and continuous executions without even the 
form of a trial. His very first act nearly caused a 
general insurrection. While his predecessors, re- 
specting the religious feelings of tlie Jews, removed 
from their standards all the effigies and images when 
entering Jerusalem, Pilate allowed his soldiers to 
bring them into the city by night. As soon as this 
became known crowds of Jews hastened to Caesarea, 
where the procurator was residing, and besought 
him to remove the images. After five days of dis- 
cussion he ordered his soldiers to surround the peti- 
tioners and to put them to death unless they ceased 
to trouble him. He yielded only when he saw that 
the Jews would rather die than bear this affront. 
At a later date Pilate appropriated funds from the 
sacred treasury in order to provide for the construc- 
tion of an aqueduct for supplying the city of Jeru- 
salem with water from the Pools of Solomon; and 
he suppressed the riots provoked by this spoliation 
of the Temple by sending among the crowds dis- 
guised soldiers carrying concealed daggers, who 
massacred a great number, not only of the rioters, 
but of casual spectators. 

In spite of his former experience of the sensitive- 
ness of the Jews with regard to images and emblems, 
Pilate hung up in Herod's palace gilt shields dedi- 
cated to Tiberius, and again nearly provoked an in- 
surrection. The shields were removed by a special 
order of Tiberius, to whom the Jews had protested. 
Pilate's last deed of cruelty, and the one which 
brought about his downfall, was the massacre of a 
number of Samaritans who had assembled on Mount 
Gerizim to dig for some sacred vessels which an 
impostor had led them to believe Moses had buried 
there. Concerning this mas.sacre the Samaritans 
lodged a complaint with Vitellius, legate of Syria, 
who ordered Pilate to repair to Rome to defend him- 
self. On the participation by Pilate in the trial and 
crucifixion of Jesus see Cuucikixion; Jesus of 

The end of Pilate is enveloped in mystery. Ac- 
cording to I>usebius ("Hist. Eccl." ii. 7), he was 
banished to Vienna (Vienne) in Gaul, where various 
misfortunes caused him at last to commit suicide; 
while the chronicle of Malalas alleges, with less 
probability, that he was beheaded under Nero. A 
later legend says that his suicide was anticipatory of 
Caligula's sentence; that the body was thrown into 
the Tiber, causing disastrous tempests and floods; 




that it afterward produced similar effects in tlie 
Rlione at Vienue; and that, finally, it had to be con- 
signed to a deep pool among the Alps. 

Bibliography: Josephus. Ant. xvlll. 3, § 12; idem. B.J. 11. 9 
6§ 2A ; Ewald, Gtach. iv. 594 ; v. 4»-9.') ; vl. 319. 322-;{;£J 343 • 
Gratz, Gesch. 111. 253-271 ; Schurer, Gesch. 1. 4«8 -492; Bniiini 
Die S6hiu dee Herodes, 1873, pp. 1-16; Mommsen, HOininche 
Geschichte, v. 508 ct acq. 

6- I. Br. 

PILEGESH (Hebrew, {J^J^^D; comp. Greek, TraA- 
Aa«/f).— Biblical Data: A concubine recognized 
among the ancient Hebrews. She enjoyed the same 
rights in the house as the legitimate wife. Since it 
was regarded as the highest blessing to have many 
children, while the greatest curse was childless- 
ness, legitimate wives themselves gave their maids 
to their husbands to atone, at least in part, for their 
own barrenness, as in the cases of Sarah and Hagar, 
Leah and Zilpah, Rachel and Bilhah. The concu- 
bine commanded the same respect and inviolability 
as the wife ; and it was regarded as the deepest dis- 
honor for the man to whom she belonged if hands 
were laid upon her. Thus Jacob never forgave his 
eldest son for violating Bilhah (Gen. xxxv. 22, xlix. 
4). According to the story of Gibeah, related in 
Judges xix., 25,000 warriors of the tribe of Benja- 
min lost their lives on account of the maltreatment 
and death of a concubine. Abner, Saul's first gen- 
eral, deserted Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, who had re- 
proached his leader with having had intercourse 
with Rizpah, the daughter of his royal father's con- 
cubine, Aiah (H Sam. iii. 7); and Absalom brought 
the greatest dishonor upon David by open inter- 
course with his father's concubines (zJ. xvi. 21 etseg.). 
The children of the concubine had equal rights 
with those of the legitimate wife. Abraham dis- 
missed his natural sons with gifts (Gen. xxv. 6), and 
Jacob's sons by Bilhah and Zilpah were equal with 
his sons by Leah and Rachel ; while Abimelech, who 
subsequently became king over a part of Israel, was 
the son of Gideon- jerubbaal and his Shechemite con- 
cubine (Judges viii. 31). In the time of the Kings 
the practise of taking concubines was no longer due 
to childlessness but to luxury. David had ten con- 
cubines (II Sam. XV. 16), who, however, also did 
housework; Solomon had 300 (I Kings xi. 30); and 
his son Rehoboam had sixty (II Chron. xi. 21). 

Bibliography : Hastings, Diet. Bible, s.v. Marriage ; Stade 
Gesch. lar. 1. 385, 636 ; Hamburger, R. B. T. s.v. Kch»weib. 
I'-- G. II. S. O. 

In Rabbinical Literature : According to the 

Babylonian Talmud (Sanh. 21a), the difference be- 
tween a concubine and a legitimate wife was that 
the latter received a Ketubah and her marriage 
was preceded by a formal betrothal ("kiddusliin "), 
which was not the case with the former (comp. Rashi 
on Gen. xxv. 6, and Nahmanides ad loc). Accord- 
ing to R. Judah (Yer. Ket. v. 29d), however, the 
concubine also received a ketubah, but without the 
aliment pertaining to it. 
E. c. S. O. 

PILGRIMAGE : A journey which is made to 
a shrine or sacred place in performance of a vo« or 
for the sake of obtaining some form of divine bless- 
ing. Every male Israelite was required to \ isit the 
Temple three times a year (Ex. xxiii. 17; Deut. xvi. 

16). The pilgrimage to Jerusalem on one of the 
three festivals of Passover, Shabu'ot, and Sukkot 
was called "re'iyah" (="the appearance"). The 
Mishnah says, "All are under obligation to appear, 
except minors, women, the blind, the lame, theagedi 
and one who is ill physically or mentally." A minor 
in this case is defined as one who is too young to be 
taken by his fatlier to Jerusalem. According to the 
Mosaic law every one should take an 
Pilgrimage offering, though the value thereof is 
to First not fixed (comp. Ex. xxxiii. 14; Deut. 
Temple. xvi. 17); the Mishnah, however, fixed 
the minimum at three silver pieces, 
each of thirty-two grains of fine silver (Hag. i. 1, 2). 
While the appearance of women and infant males 
was not obligatory, they usually accompanied their 
husbands and fathers, as in all public gatherings 
(Deut. xxxi. 12). The Talmud plainly infers that 
both daughters and sons joined the pilgrims at the 
Passover festival in Jerusalem (Pes. 89a; Git. 25a). 
According to the Biblical accounts, Jeroboam, 
who caused the secession of Ephraim from Judah[ 
made two calves of gold, placing one in Dan and the 
other in Beth-el, to divert the pilgrims from Jerusa- 
lem (I Kings xii. 26-33). He stationed guards on 
the boundary-lines of his dominions to prevent the 
festival pilgrimages to the Temple (Ta'an. 28a). So 
great a menace to the Ephraimite government were 
the Temple pilgrimages that even King Jehu, who 
destroyed the Ba'al, feared to remove the golden 
calves of Jeroboam (II Kings x. 28, 29). In Judea 
the pilgrimages to Jerusalem were kept up regu- 
larly, but the principal gathering of the people was 
on the Sukkot festival, called "Hag ha-Asif" = 
"Festival of Gathering" (I Kings viii. 65; II Chron. 
vii. 8, 9). King Josiah revived the Passover pil- 
grimage to Jerusalem (II Kings xxiii. 23). King 
Hoshea, son of Elah, dismissed the guards and per- 
mitted the people to go undisturbed to Jerusalem 
for the festivals (Yer. Ta'an. iv. 7; Git. 88a). 

During the time of the Second Temple, the Ju- 
deans ruled Palestine and as a united people cele- 
brated the Feast of Sukkot in Jerusalem (Neh. viii. 
17). From beyond Palestine, especially from the 
River Euphrates, they journeyed to 
Pilgrimage Jerusalem for the festivals. Some 
to Second even endangered their lives passing 
Temple, the guards posted to stop the pilgrim- 
ages (Ta'an. 28a: Gratz, "Gesch." 3d 
ed., iii. 157, 668). The number of Jewish pilgrims 
to the Temple was computed by the governor 
Gesius Flouus (64-66), who counted 256,500 pas- 
chal lambs atone Passover festival; allowing ten 
persons to one lamb, this would make 2,565,000 pil- 
grims (Josephus, "B. J." vi. 9). The Tosefta re- 
cords the census of Agrippa, who ordered the priests 
to take one hind leg of every paschal lamb, and 
counted 1,200,000 legs, which would make the total 
12,000,000 (Tosef., Pes. iv. 64b). These figures are 
evidently exaggerated, and are based on the desire 
to double the 600,000 of the Exodus, a tendency 
frequently noticed in the Haggadah. It is calculated 
that ancient Jerusalem comprised an area of 2,400,- 
000 square yards, and, allowing 10 yards for each 
person, would contain 240.000 persons (see Luncz, 
"Jerusalem," i., English part, pp. 83-102). 





The facilities provided for the convenience of the 
pilgrims were such as to encourage pilgrimages. 
Special measures were taken to repair the roads 
leading to Jerusalem and to dig wells along the 
route (Shek. i. 1, v. 1). Thirty days before the fes- 
tival it was forbidden to engage professional mourn- 
ers to bewail the dead lest they get their compensa- 
tion from the money intended to be spent in Je- 
rusalem (M. K. viii. 1). The hides of the sacrifices 
•were left to compensate the innkeepers for lodging 
the pilgrims, and no other fee was allowed (Yoma 
12a). The inhabitants of Jerusalem received the 
pilgrims hospitably ; the priests permitted them to 
see the show bread and told them of the miracle 
connected with it (Yoma 21b). Public speakers 
praised and thanked the pilgrims (Suk. 49b; Pes. 
5b). The ceremony attending the offering of the 
first-fruits (see Bikkcrim) in Jerusalem (Deut. xxvi. 
a-4), which commenced on Shabu'ot (the Feast of 
Harvest; comp. E.\. xxiii. 16), is supposed to give 
a general idea of the reception accorded to the 

The pilgrimages to Jerusalem did not cease with 
the destruction of the Temple (Cant. R. iv. 2). The 
■women often joined their husbands, sometimes in 
spite of the protests of the latter (Ned. 
Post-Exilic 23a). But the joy that attended the 
Pil- former pilgrimages, when the Temple 

grimages. was still in existence, changed to 
lamentations for the loss of national 
and political independence. The pilgrims mourned 
the destruction of the Temple and cried : " Thy holy 
cities are now in ruins; Zion is a wilderness; Jeru- 
salem is a desolation. Our Sanctuary, the pride of 
our ancestors, is burned down, and all our precious 
things are destroyed " (M. K. 26a). 

The Karaites, in the ninth century, likewise 
showed great devotiowto Jerusalem. Their hakam, 
Sahl ibn Mazliah, wrote to Jacob b. Samuel that 
Karaite pilgrims of various towns gathered to pray 
for the restoration of Zion; these pilgrims he de- 
scribed as Nazarites who abstained from wine and 
meat (Pinsker, " Likkute Kadmouiyyot," Appendix, 
p. 31). A company of Karaites, headed by Moses 
ha-Yerushalmi, journeyed from Chufut-Kale ("The 
Jewish Rock "), from tlie Crimea, and from the Cau- 
casus. The inscription on Moses' tombstone, dated 
4762 (1002), reads: " Good luck followed him and his 
companions to the tomb of King David 
Karaite and of his son Solomon, which no 
Pil- other persons heretofore had been per- 

grimages. mittcd to enter." All pilgrims to Pal- 
estine were sent out with music and 
song in honor and praise of the Holy Land. The 
pilgrims on their return were known as " Jerusalem- 
ites" (see tlie Karaite Siddur, part iv. ; " Luah Ere/ 
Yisrael." v. 22). 

The Turkish conquest under Saladin (1187) secured 
to the Oriental Jews the privilege of visiting Jeru- 
salem and the sacred places. Numerous pilgrims 
went from Damascus, Babylonia, and Egypt, and 
they remained in Jerusalem over Passover and Sha- 
bu'ot. Na^mani, in a letter dated 1268, writes: 
"Many men and women from Damascus, Babylon, 
and their vicinities come to Jerusalem to see the site 
of the Holy Temple and to lament its destruction." 

About fifty years later Estori Farhi notes the custom 
of the brethren of Damascus, Aleppo, Tripoli, and 
Alexandria to go to Jerusalem for the holy days " in 
order to express their grief" ("Kaftor wa-Ferah," 
ed. Edelmann, vi. 19). Among the Eastern Jews, 
especially those of Babylonia and Kurdistan, it has 
been the custom from the fourteenth century onward 
to go on a pilgrimage at least once a year, many of 
them actually walking the whole distance. The 
era of the Crusades evidently encouraged pilgrim- 
ages of Jews from Europe; a most noteworthy ex- 
ample is that of JcDAU ii.\-Levi (1140). Mei'r of 
Rothenburg was made a prisoner on his way to Pal- 
estine. Samuel b. Simsou (13th cent.) received per- 
mission from the governor of Jerusalem to visit the 
cave of Machpelah at Hebron. It was on his invi- 
tation that 300 rabbis journeyed from France and 
England into Palestine in 1210. These pilgrimages 
became so frequent that Hayyim benHananeel ha- 
Kohen felt compelled to issue a warning against 
them (Tos. Ket. 110b, s.v. IDIS Nim). 

The expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, and 
the consequent settlement of manj' exiles in Turkish 
territory, largely increased the number of pilgrims. 
The goal of their journeys was chiefly 
European the tomb of Samuel the Prophet at 
Pil- Ramah, where they held annual com- 

grimages. munions and celebrations, similar in 
character to the celebrations instituted 
on Lag be-'OMER, a century later, at the tombs of 
R. Simeon b. Yohai and his son Eleazar in Mcron. 
In 1700 Judah he-Hasid of Siedlce and Gedaliah of 
Siemjatiszcz started upon a pilgrimage from Poland 
(Griitz, "Gesch." x. 340); they were accompanied 
by R. Nathan Note, rabbi at The Hague and author 
of "Me'orot Natan." In 1765 a company of four- 
teen families from Poland and Lithuania, mostly 
Hasidim, went on a pilgrimage to Palestine. Among 
them was Simhah b. Samuel, author of "Binyan 
shel Simhah." He writes that he stayed at Con- 
stantinople, where the Jewish community provided 
passage for the pilgrims to Palestine. There were 
110 Sephardim in the vessel that took him to Jaffa 
(Luncz, "Jerusalem," iv. 137-152). 

In modern times the term "pilgrimage," with Its 
ancient and medieval meaning, has ceased to be ap- 
plicable. Sir Moses Montefiore and his wife Judith 
made a visit of piety to the Holy Land in 1828; in 
a later one they were accompanied by L. L5we, 
and many other individuals made similar visits. 
The Zionist movement led to the formation of a 
number of parties for the purpose of making visits 
of piety to Palestine and the holy places. While 
on such a visit, in 1890, R. Samuel Mohilewer and 
Dr. Joseph Chazanowicz founded a Jewish library 
in Jeru.salem. The Jews of Palestine complain of 
the lack of interest on the part of their coreligionists 
elsewhere as compared with the thousands of Chris- 
tians who avail themselves of modern opportunities 
to visit the Holy Land. 

The following is a partial list of noted Jewish 
pilgrims and visitors to Palestine from the twelfth 
century up to the present time: 

114(1. Judah ha- Levi. 
116.5. Malmonldes. 
1171. Benjamin of Tudela. 




1178. Petliahlnh of Rppensburg. 
1^10. Abruhain Muirnonldes. 

1210. Samuel b. Siiiison with R. Jonathan ba-Koben of Lunei 
("Itint-raires," pp. 115, 122). 

1216. Judah al-Harizi. 
1257. Jehicl of Paris. 

12.58. Jacob of Paris ("Slmane ha-Kebarim "). 

1207. Moses Nahiiiani. 

i:?18. Kstori Far'hl. 

1334. Isaac b. Joseph Chelo of Spain (author of "Sblbhe dl-Ye- 
ruslialayim "). 

1438. Elijah of Ferrara (author of " Ahabat ZIyyon "). 

1440. Isaac b. Alpera of Malaga (wlio corresponded with Rabbi 
Duran ; " Sefer Yuhasin," ed. Filipowski, p. 228). 

1450. Jose|>li 1). Nahniau ha-Levl (sent list of sacred tombs to 
Rat)ln Durau; " Sefer Yuhasin," i.e.). 

1481. MeshuUain b. Menahem of Volaterra (see bis letters in 
Luncz's "Jerusalem," i. 166-227). 

1488. Obadiah da Bertinoro. 

15(K). Jacol) Silkili of Sicily ("Sefer Yuhasin," I.e.). 

1523. Israel of i'crugia ("Jerusalem," iii. DT). 

1523. David Ucubeni. 

15;}5. Isaac Meir Latif. 

1540. Gershon b. Asher Scarmelo (author of "Yihus ha-Zaddl- 

1564. I'ri b. Simeon of Biel (author of " Yiljus ha-Alxit"). 

1582. Simeon Hack (letters in "Jerusalem," ii. 141-157). 

1600. Solomon Shlomel b. Havyim of Lattenburg. 

1614. Mordecai b. Isaiah Litz of Raussnitz, Austria. 

1624. Gershon b. Eliezer ha-Levi (author of " Gelilot Ere? Yis- 

IMl. Samuel b. David Yemsbel i^Z'r:"^), a Karaite. (The name 
" Yemshel" is the abbreviation of di^'^' 13D1I'0 '"'H nij\) 
He was accompanied by Moses b. Elijah ha-Levi of 
Kafla, Feodosia (Gurland, "Ginze Yisrael," pp. 31-43). 

1650. Moses b. Naphtali Hirsch Priiger (author of " Darke ?iy- 
yon "). 

16R5. Benjamin b. Elijah, a Karaite (" Ginze Ylsrael," pp. 44-64). 

1701. Judah he-Hasid of Siedlce. 

1740. Hayyim Abulafla of Smyrna. 

1747. Abraham Gershon Kutewer (of Kuty), brother-in-law of 
Israel BeSHT. 

1753. Aryeh Judah Meisel of Opatow. 

17.58. Joseph Sofer of Brody (author of " Iggeret Yosef," a jour- 
nal of his travels, Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1761). 

176.'). Siuihah b. Joshua (author of "Sippure Erez lia-Galil "). 

1765. Moses lia-Yerushalml (author of " Yede Mosheh," de- 
scription of sacred graves). 

1768. Perez b. Moses (author of "Shebah u-Tehillah le-Erez 
Yisrael," Amsterdam, 1769). 

1777. Israel Politzkl, Menahem Mendel of Vitebsk, and Abraham 
Kallsker (Luncz, "Jerusalem." v. 164-174). 

1799. Nahman Bratzlavof Horodok, a Hasid (author of " Maggid 
Slhot," a description of his journey to Palestine). 

1805. Menahem Mendel and Israel of Shklov (disciples of Elijah 
of Wilna). 

1828. Moses Monteflore. 

]83;5. Joseph Schwarz (author of " Tebu'ot ha-Arez "). 

1837. Menahem Mendel b. Aaron of Kamenec (author of " 'Aliy- 
yat ha-Arez," Wilna, 1839). 

1854. Albert Colin of Paris. 

18i56. L. A. Frankl (authorof " Nach Jerusalem "). 

1867. Charles Netter of Paris. 

1872. Heinncli Graetz. 

1890. R. Samuel Mohilewer. 

1897. Israel Zangwill. 

1898. Theodor Herzl. 

For a list of sacred tombs see Tombs; see also 
TuAVEi.ERs IN Palestine. 

Bini.iOGRAPiiY: Carmoly, Ttinfraires de la Terre Sainte, 

Brussels, 1847; Gurland, Ginze Yisrael, vol. 1., Lyck, 1865; 
Luncz, Luah, v. 5-59. 
D. J. D. E. 

Pilgrimages are made usually on fixed days in the 

year, called by the Oriental and North-African Jews 

"days of zi'arah " ; on such days it is customary to 

visit the tombs or relics of certain per- 

Customs. sonagos wlin in earl}' or medieval times 

were famous as kings or prophets or 

for their holy lives. There are other lioly places 

which the people honor as thcj' Avill and at any 

time. Tiie days of pilgrimage are celebrated by 

prayers, rejoicings, and popular festivals. 

In Jerusalem a crowd of Jews gathers before the 
western wail of tlie Temple of Solomon ("Kotel 
Ma'arabi") every Friday evening and on the eves of 
feast-days, as well as on twenty-three successive 
days from the eve of the 17th of Tammuz to tlie 
9tii of Ab inclusive. On the latter date this re- 
ligious service occurs at midnight. On the 6th of 
Siwan, the Day of Pentecost, the Sephardic Jews 
go to pray at the tombs of the kings of Judah at the 
foot of JMount Zion. On the following day they 
pray at tlie tomb of the high priest Simon the Just, 
and at the tombs of other holy men in the neighbor- 
hood, while the Ashkenazim gather at the tombs of 
the kings of Judah. On the 18th of lyyar, called 
" Lag be-'Omer," all the Jews of Jerusalem, Sephar- 
dlm and Ashkenazim, pray at the tomb of Simon 
the Just. 

At liurak, between Jerusalem and Bethlehem, is 
tlie tomb of Rachel, wife of the patriarch Jacob, to 
which the Jews of Jerusalem go by turns during 
the thirty days of the month of Elul. But the 15th 
of Heshwan is especially consecrated to this pilgrim- 
age (Benjamin II., "Mas'e Yisrael," pp. 3-6, Lyck, 
1859). At Kama, near Jerusalem, known in Arabic 
as "Nabi Samwil," all the Jews of the latter city 
gather on the 28th of lyyar at the 
In tomb of the prophet Samuel. The 

Palestine, pious even pass the night there. At 
Khaifa, a port of Palestine, on the eve- 
ning of the Sabbath which foUoAvs the anniversary 
of the destruction of the Temple, the Jews hold a 
popular festival, with illuminations, in a grotto, .sit- 
uated on the summit of Mount Carmel, in which the 
prophet Elijah is said to have taken refuge from 
tlie persecution of King Ahab. At Tiberias on the 
night of the 14th of lyyar, known as " Pesah Sheni " 
(Num. ix. 9-14), Jews gather from all parts of Pal- 
estine, and there are brilliant illuminations and a 
popular festival at the tomb of Rabbi Meiu ("Ba'al 
ha-Nes" = "the miracle-worker"). 

At Safed, from the morning after Passover (22d 
of Nisan) till the 18th of lyyar, every week the 
Jewish population ceases to work, and makes pil- 
grimages to the suburbs in the following order; 
namely, to (1) Biria, where is the tomb of Beuaiah 
ben Jehoiada, David's general; (2) the tomb of 
the prophet Hosea in the cemetery; and (3) 'Ain 
Zaitun, to the tomb of Joseph Saragossi, a Spanish 
immigrant who reorganized the commimity of Sa- 
fed in 1492. On tlie night of Lag be-'Omer all tlie 
able-bodied Jews of Safed and several thousands 
of pilgrims from Palestine, Turkey, northern Africa, 
the Caucasus, and Persia celebrate a great popular 
festival witli illuminations at Meron, near Safed, at 
the mausoleum of Si.meon ben Yotiai. At each 
new moon it is considered essential among the Ash- 
kenazim of Safed — men, women, and children — to 
make a pilgrimage to the tomb of Isaac Lvuia, the 
famous cabalist. At Sidon, toward the end of ly- 
yar, people from the most distant parts of Palestine 
make a pilgrimage to tiie tomb of Zebulun, one of 
the sons of the patriarch Jacob. 

Places of pilgrimage exist not only in Palestine, 
but also in Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, Egypt, Algeria, 




and Morocco. In Mesopotamia the places of pilgrim- 
age are Bagdad, KiffL-l, and Bassora. At Bagdad, 
at the very gates of the towu, is the mausoleum of the 
high priest Joshua, known under the popular name 
of the " Kohen Mausoleum. " At each new moon it is 
visited by thousands of Jews and cs- 
In Meso- pecially by barren women. In the 
potamia. local cemetery the tomb of the sheik 
Isjiac, a revered Jew, is also an object 
of frequent pilgrimages. At Ketil, a locality in Irak 
near the ruins of Babylon, is the tomb of the prophet 
Ezekiel, to which the Jews of Mesopotamia go on 
pilgrimage on the (ith of Siwan (Pentecost). At Bas- 
sora the tomb of Ezra is visited on the same date. 

In Kurdistan the Jews have three places of pil- 
grimatre: (1) In the district of Elkosh, near Mosul, 
the tomb of the prophet Nahum is a place of pil- 
grimage for fourteen days, the eight days preceding 
and the six following Pentecost. Readings are given 
from the prophecy of Nahum from a manuscript 
supposed to have been written by the prophet him- 
self. (2) At Kerkuk, between the upper and lower 
parts of the town, are four tombs, said 
In Kurdis- to be those of Daniel, Hananiah, Misli- 
tan and ael, and Azariah, to which the Jews of 
Persia. the district make pilgrimages at Pen- 
tecost. (3) In the locality of Bar-Ta- 
nura, thirty hours distant from Mosul, is a grotto in 
which the prophet Elijah is said to have taken ref- 
uge. Several times a year the Jews of this region 
go thither on pilgrimage and contribute to the main- 
tenance of the grotto. 

In Persia there are two places to which Jews 
make pilgrimages. (1) At Ramadan, near the for- 
tress, is an ancient mausoleum containing the tombs 
of Mordecai and Esther. On the 14th of Adar, the 
festival of Purim, the Jews of the region read the 
Book of Esther at these tombs; pilgrimages to them 
are made also at each new moon and in times of 
danger. (2) Twelve and one-half miles from Ispa- 
han, in the middle of the fields, is a little synagogue 
which, according to local tradition, contains the 
tomb of Sarah, daughter of Aslier (Num. xxvi. 46). 
The Jews of the neighborhood go thither on jiil- 
grimage on the 1st of Elul. 

At Fostator Old Cairo, in Egypt, three miles from 
Cairo, is a synagogue built in the year 1051 (29 
Sha'han, A.n. 429) by Abu Sa'ad, a favorite of the 
calif Al Mustansir Ma'ad (Griltz, "Gescli." vi. 152). 
This synagogue contains a tomb in 
In Eg-ypt, which, according to local tradition, 
Algeria, the prophet Jeremiah rests, and two 
and little rooms built over the |)laces where 

Morocco, the prophets Elijah and Ezra prayed. 
On the 1st of Elul all the Jews of 
Cairo go on pilgrimage to Fostat and hold a mag- 
nificent festival there. 

Thereexistin Algeria traditional tombs of revered 
Jews which are venerated e(|ually by Jews and Mo- 
hammedans. Prayers are said at them in times of 
stress, but not at regular dates. In the district of 
southern Oran. in the region of Nedrona, inliabited 
by the Traras, are the tombs of Sidi Usha (Joshua) 
and his father, Sidi Nun. In the department of 
Oran on the Ilif frontier is the tomb of a certain 
R. Jacob Roshdi, which is frequently visited. 

In Morocco, as in Algeria, certain tombs are 
equally venerated by Jews and Mohammedans, but 
there are no fixed days for prayer ; e.g. : at Al-Kasar, 
that of H. Judah Jabali; atTarudaut, that of H. Da- 
vid ben Baruch ; and at Wazan, that of R. Amram 
ben Diwan. Amram was one of the rabbis sent out 
periodically by the rabbinate of Palestine to collect 
money, lie traveled in company with his son; and 
when the latter fell sick, Amram prayed to God to 
accept the sacrifice of his own life and to save that of 
his child. The son recovered, but the father died, and 
was buried at Jabal Assen. His tomb is said to be 
surrounded b}' a halo, and miracles are said to have 
taken jilace there. The 7th of lyyar is the principal 
dav of the local pilgrimages (see "Journal des De- 
bats," Paris, Oct. 27, 1903). 

In Podolia and Galicia and even in the northern 
parts of Hungary the tombs of Hasidic rabbis and 
niiraclc-workers are visited on the anniversaries of 
their deaths, and on other occasions by people in dis- 
tress. Lamps are burned and prayers are recited; 
and often letter-boxes are found at the tombs, in 
which the pilgrims deposit slips on which their 
wishes are written. 

Biiii.ior.RAPHY : Luncz, Lvah Erez Ym-aeU IntrfxiuPtlon, Jeru- 
salem, 189.^; Benjamin 11., 3/a.s'e I'israc/, Lyck, 1K59; Bui' 
Jetiii Amiuel de VAUiaJice IsraHite Uiiivenelle, 1888, 
1898; Revue des Ecolen de VAUiance Israelite Univeiselle, 
Paris, 1901, 1902. 

D. M. Fr. 

PILLAR: The word "pillar" is used in the 
English versions of the Bible as an equivalent for 
the following Hebrew words: 

(1) "Omenol," feminine plural of the active par- 
ticiple of |0X = "support," "confirm." This word 
occurs only in II Kings xviii. 16. In the Revised 
Version (margin) the rendering is "door-posts." 

(2) " Mazzebah " (R. V. , margin, " obelisk "). This 
denotes a monolith erected as a monument or me- 
morial stone (as the " pillar of Rachel's grave," Gen, 
XXXV. 20, and "Absalom's monument," II Sam. 
xviii. 18; comp. I Mace. xiii. 27-30), or as a bound- 
ary-mark and witness of a treaty (Gen. xxxi. 44-54; 
comp. Isa. xix. 19), or as a memorial of a divine ap- 
peaiance or intervention. Such stones often ac- 
quired a sacred character, and were regarded as 
dwelling-places of the Deity or were made to serve 
as rude altars upon which libations were poured 

(Gen. XXXV. 14, xxxviii. 18-22; I Sam. 
Memorial vii. 12; possibly also Gen. xxxiii. 20, 
Stones. where the verb used indicates the orig- 
inal reading to have been n3VD = 
"pillar," instead of n3TD = "altar"). 

In the earlier periods of Hebrew history and as 
late as the reign of Jo.siah one or more of these stone 
pillars stood in every sanctuary or "high place." 
Thus Moses built an altar at Sinai, and "twelve pil- 
lars according to the twelve tribes of Israel" (Ex. 
xxiv. 4; comp. Josli. xxiv. 26; IIos. iii. 4, x. 1-2; xix. 19). Similar pillars stood at the Canaan- 
itish altars of Baal (Ex. xxiii. 24, xxxiv. 13; Deut. 
vii. 5, xii. 3; II Kings iii. 2, x. 26-27) and in the 
sanctuaries of Tyre (Ezek. xxvi. 11) and of Ileliop- 
olis, in Egypt (.Jer. xliii. 13). The recent excava- 
tions of the Palestine Exploration Fund at Gezer 
have revealed a row of eight monoliths on the .site 
of the ancient high place. These are hewed to a 




roughly square or round section and one to a sliarp 
point ("Pal. Explor. Fund Quarterly Statement," 
Jan., 1903). 

By the Deuteronomic and Levitical codes the use 
of the mazzebah as well as of the asherim at the 
altars of Jehovah was forbidden as savoring of idol- 
atry (Deut. .\vi. 21-32; Lev. .xxvi. 1). It is proba- 
ble that these had become objects of 

Deutero- worship and as such were denounced 
nomic and by the Prophets (Mic. v. 13-14; comp. 

Levitical I Kings xiv. 23; 11 Kings xvii. 10, 
Pro- xviii. 4, xxiii. 14). Some such stone 

hibitions. idols seem to be referred to in Judges 
iii. 19, 26 (comp. the Arabic "nusb"). 
The term "hammanim," rendered "images" and 
"sun-images," is probably used of later and more 
artistically shaped or carved pillars of the same 
character as the mazzebah (Lev. xxvi. 30; Isa. xvii. 
8, xxvii. 9; Ezek. vi. 4, 6; II Chron. xiv. 3, 5; 
xxxiv. 4, 7). 

(3) "Nezib " (from the same root as " mazzebah "), 
while rendered "pillar" in Gen. xix. 26, is eLsewhere 
translated "garrison" (I Sam. x. 5) and "officer" 
(I Kings iv. 19). In the second passage, however, 
the JSeptuagint renders it by avcicTTjfia, ''■i.e., prob- 
ably a pillar erected as a symbol or trophy of Phi- 
listine domination " (Driver, " Hebrew Text of Sam- 
uel," p. 61; so, also, H. P. Smith, Wellhausen, and 

(4) "Mis'ad " (I Kings x. 12; R. V., margin, "rail- 
ing," "prop "). The precise meaning is unknowm. 

(5) "'Ammud," the word which occurs most fre- 
quently in this sense, is used of the pillars or col- 
umns which support a house or the roof of a house 
(Judges xvi. 25-29), of the posts which supported 
the curtains of the Tabernacle (Ex. xxvii. 10, 17; 
xxxvi. 36-38; Num. iii. 36-37), and of the pillars in 
the Temple (I Kings vii. 2, 3, 6; comp. Ezek. xlii. 
6; Prov. ;■ 1). They were made of acacia-wood 
(Ex. xxvi. 32, 37; xxxvi. 36), of cedar (I Kings vii. 
2), or of marble (Esth. i. 6; comp. Cant. v. 15). A 
detailed description is given in I Kings vii. of two or bronze pillars which were fashioned by Hi- 
ram for King Solomon and set up in the 

Pillars of porchof the Temple, and to which were 
the given the names "Jachin" ("He [or 

Temple, "It"] shall establish") and "Boaz" 
(" In him [or " it "] is strength "). The 
word is used also of the columns or supports of a 
litter (Cant. iii. 10). It denotes, too, the column of 
smoke rising from a conflagration (Judges xx. 40), and 
particularly the column of smoke and of flame which 
attended the Israelites in the wilderness (Ex. xiii. 
21-22, xiv. 24; Num. xiv. 14). An iron pillar isa 
symbol of strength (Jer. i. 18); and in poetry the 
earth and the heavens are represented as resting on 
pillars (Job ix. 5, xxvi. 11; Ps. Ixxv. 4). 

(6; "Mazuk," probably a molten support; hence 
a "pillar" (I Sam. ii. 8). 

(7) " Timarah " ; in the plural, " pillars " of smoke 
(Cant. iii. 6; Joel iii. 3). Compare "tomer" (Jer. x. 
5, H. v., margin; Baruch vi. 70), which probably 
means a "scarecrow." 

Bibliography : W. R. Smith. Rel. nf Sem. 2d ed., pp. 201-212, 
456-457; Nowack, Hehriiische Arc)i{lnU>fjie; Wellhausen, 
Reste Arnbu<chen Heidentumes, 2d ed.. pp. 101, 141 : Conder, 
Syrian Stone Lore, new ed., p. 86 ; Driver, Commentary on 

Oen. TTviU. 2S, and on Dexit. xvi. Si ; Dlllmann. Commentary 
on the same passagea ; Whitehouse, PiUais, in Hastlnirs, Diet. 
E. C. J. F. McL. 

PILLAR OF FIRE: The Israelites during their 
wanderings liirough the desert were guided in the 
night-time by a pillar of fire to give them light (Ex. 
xiii. 21 ; Num. xiv. 14; Neh. ix. 12, 19). The pillar 
of fire never departed from them during the night 
(Ex. xiii. 22); according to Shab. 33b, it appeared 
in the evening before the pillar of cloud had disap- 
peared, so that the Lsraelites were never without a 
guide. God troubled the Egyptian hosts through 
a pillar of fire and of cloud (Ex. xiv. 24). Tliere is a 
legend that Onkelos, by narrating to the messen- 
gers sent by the emperor to seize him that God 
Himself was the torch-bearer of the Israelites, con- 
verted them to Judaism ('Ab. Zarah 11a). 

E. G. H. M. Sel. 

PILLITZ, DANIEL. See Burger, Theodor. 

PILPUL : A method of Talmudic study. The 
word is derived from the verb "pilpel" (lit. "to 
spice," "to season, "and in a metaphorical sense, "to 
dispute violently" [Tosef., B. B. vii. 5] or "clev- 
erly" [Shab. 31a; B. M. 85b]). Since by such dis- 
putation the subject is in a way spiced and seasoned, 
the word has come to mean penetrating investiga- 
tion, disputation, and drawing of conclusions, and 
is used especially to designate a method of studying 
the Law (Ab. vi. 5; Baraita, B. B. 145b; Tem. 16a; 
Ket. 103b; Yer. Ter. iv. 42d). For another explana- 
tion of the word, as derived from the Hebrew "pil- 
lel," .see J. B. Lewinsohn, "Bet Yehudah," ii. 47, 
Warsaw, 1878. 

The essential characteristic of pilpul is that it 
leads to a clear comprehension of the subject under 
discussion by penetrating into its essence and by 
adopting clear distinctions and a strict difl"erentiation 
of the concepts. By this method a sentence or maxim 
is carefully studied, the various concepts which it 
includes are exactly determined, and all the possible 
consequences to be deduced from it arc carefully 
investigated. The sentence is tiien examined in its 
relation to some other sentence harmonizing with it, 
the investigation being directed toward determining 
whether the agreement appearing on a superficial 
contemplation of them continues to be manifest when 
all the possible consequences and deductions are 
drawn from each one of them; for if contradictory 
deductions follow from the two apparently agreeing 
sentences, then this apparent agree- 

Descrip- ment is not an agreement in fact, 
tion of Again, if two sentences apparently 

Method. contradict each other, the pilpulistic 
method seeks to ascertain whether this 
seeming contradiction may not be removed by a more 
careful definition and a more exact limitation of the 
concepts connected with the respective sentences. 
If two contiguous sentences or maxims apparentlj' 
imply the same thing, this method endeavors to 
decide whether the second sentence is really a repe- 
tition of the first and could have been omitted, or 
whether by a more subtle differentiation of the con- 
cepts a different shade of meaning may be discovered 
between them. Similarly if a regulation is mentioned 
in connection with two parallel cases, this method 




determines whether it might not have Ijeen concluded 
from the similarity of the cases itself that the regu- 
lation appl.ving to the one applied to the other also, 
and why it was necessary to repeat explicitly the 
same regulation. 

The pilpulistic method, however, is not satisfied 
wiih merely attaining the object of its investiga- 
tion. After having reached the desired result in one 
way, it inquires whether the same result might not 
have been attained in another, so that, if the first 
method of procedure should be eventually refuted, 
another method and another proof for the result at- 
tained may be forthcoming. This method is fol- 
lowed in most of the Talmudic discussions on regu- 
lations referring to the Law, and in the explanations 
of sentences of tlie Mishnah, of which an example 
may be given here. 

The Mishnah says (B. M. i. 1): "If two persons 
together hold a garment in their hands, aind one of 
them asserts "I have found it,' and the other like- 
wise says ' I have found it, ' and the first one says ' It 
belongs entirely to me,' and the second likewise 
says ■ It belongs entirely to me,' then each one shall 
swear that not less than one-half of the garment is 
rightfully his, and they shall divide the garment 
between them." The Gemara explains this mishnah 
as follows: "The reason for the two expressions, 
' the one says "I have found it," ' and ' the one says 
"It belongs entirely to me," ' is sought because it is 
obvious that, if the person insists that he found it, 
he lays claim to its possession." After some futile 
attempts to prove by means of quibbling interpre- 
tations that one of these sentences alone would have 
been insufficient, the Gemara comes to the conclusion 
that two different cases are discussed in the Mish- 
nah. In the first case a garment has been found, 
and each of the two persons insists 
An that he has found it; in the second 

Example, case a garment has been acquired by 
purchase, each person insisting that it 
belongs to him, since he has purchased it. Then the 
Gemara inquires why decisions had to be rendered 
in both cases, and if it would not have been suffi- 
cient to give a decision in the one case only, either 
that of acquisition by purchase or that of finding. 
The Gemara then proves that the two ways of ac- 
quisition, by and by finding, differ in cer- 
tain respects, and that if a decision had been given 
for the one case, it could not have been concluded 
therefrom that it applied to the other case also. 

After this Mishnah sentence itself has been ex- 
plained, its relation to other sentences is inquired 
into. Does this Mishnah .sentence, according to 
which both parties swear, agree with the principle 
of Ben Nanos, who says, in a case in which two 
parties contradict each other (Shebu. vii. 5), that 
both parties sliould not be allowed to swear? It is 
then shown that, according to Ben Nanos, too, both 
parties might be allowed to take the oath, since both 
might swear truthfully; for it might be possible 
that the garment in dispute belonged to both of 
them together, since both together might have 
found or purchased it, each one swearing merely 
that not less than one-half belongs to liim. Then it 
is sought to ascertain whether the Mishnah contra- 
dicts the decision of Symmachus (B. K. 35b ; B. M. 

102), according to whom the two parties should di- 
vide the object in dispute between them without 
swearing. After a few other attempts at a solution, 
which are, however, futile, the Gemara comes to the 
conclusion that the mishnah in question agrees in 
principle with Symmachus, and that the oath which 
the Mishnah prescribes for both parties is merely 
an institution of the sages; otherwise any one 
might take hold of another person's garment and 
insist that it belonged to him, in order to obtaij> 
possession of at least one-half of it (B. M. 2a-3a). 

This example, although presented here in a very 
abbreviated form, will suffice to give an idea of the 
pilpulistic method of Talmudic discussion. As a 
method of studying the Law, there was, even in 
the Talmudic period, side by side and in contrast 
with it, anotlier method, which consisted rather in 
collecting, arranging, and preserving- 
Tradition the halakic sentences. The represent- 

Versus ative of the last-named method was 

PilpuL called " ba'al shemu'ot " = " possessor 
of the tradition," while the represent- 
ative of the former was called "ba'al pilpul " = 
"master of ingenious disputation and deduction" 
(B. B. 145b). In Yer. Hor. iii. 48c the one is called 
" sadran " (arranger), while the other is termed " pal- 
pelan " (disputator). 

Both methods were necessary for Talmudism, 
which rested, on the one hand, on the solid ground 
of tradition, and, on the other, on the independent 
development of what had been handed down. The 
one method furnished the technical knowledge of 
the traditions, while the other furnished the means 
of creating by ingenious deductions something new 
out of that which existed anil had been transmitted. 
The method of arranging and collecting was pre- 
ferred to the method of ingenious disputation and 
deduction (Yer. Hor. iii. 48c); and the learned man, 
called "sinai," was considered to be greater than 
the clever pilpulist, who was termed "uprooter of 
mountains" (Ber. G4a; Ilor. 14a). Although the pil- 
pulist had the advantage of being able to arrive at 
new conclu.sions and new doctrines and to render 
new decisions in cases Avliich had not been provided 
for in the works of tradition, and before which the 
student of tradition stood helpless, he had neverthe- 
less to contend with certain disadvantages. The 
clever person is often careless ('Er. 90a); and the 
more acute and hair-splitting Jus arguments are, the 
more likely they are to result in false deductions, as 
Kaba pointed out (B. M. 96b ; Niddah 33b). Many 
of the amoraim were opposed to the method of 
the jiiipul, which was cultivated especially at 
Pumbedita from the time of R. Judah b. Ezekiel. 
Some even went so far as to designate this method, 
on which the Babylonian Talmud is based, although 
in a more rational and logical form, as "ambiguous 
obscurity" (Sanh. 24a; comp. Samuel Edels in his 
"Hi(l(hislie Ilaggadot," ad loc). 

in the period the Geonim and the 
first commentators on the Talmud confined them- 
selves more to arranging and explaining the text, 
some even despising the ingenious method of the 
pilpul (comp. Kashi on Hul. 81a and on Sanh. 42a). 
But the tosafists again introduced the method of 
the pilpul, which then became predominant. Dur- 




ing the fourteenth century and tlie first decades of 

the fifteenth, however, the study of the Talmud was 

pursued along different lines, probably 

Develop- in consequence of the pitiful condition 
ment of the Jews in most countries. It 

of Pilpul. became shallow and weak and entirely 
lacking in independence. Memo- 
rizing and technical knowledge (" beki'ut ") took the 
place of minute analysis. A rabbi was considered 
great in proportion to his knowledge of the te.xtof 
the different codes necessary for practical decisions. 
But about the middle of the fifteenth century 
new life was infused into the study of the Talmud 
by the reintroduction of the pilpulistic method, 
which laid greater stress on the clever interpreta- 
tion of the text than on the study of its lialakic re- 
sults. This method, which, in its hair-splitting dia- 
lectics and its detailed analysis as well as in its sur- 
prising deductions, surpasses the clever tosafistic 
method of teaching, originated in Poland and Ger- 
many, and spread thence to other countries. It was 
cultivated by the most prominent rabbis; and the 
real importance of a rabbi was thought by some to 
lie in liis ability to analyze cleverly and treat crit- 
ically the subject in question (Israel Bruna, in 
Joseph Colon's Responsa, No. 170). Nor does Jo- 
seph Cohm deny {ib.) that the method of the pil- 
pul is an excellent one, saying merely that the 
knowledge of the Talmud and of the codes is more 
val liable and more useful for the rabbi. 

The pilpulistic method of study soon degenerated 
into sophistry. It was no longer regarded as a 
means of arriving at the correct sense of a Talmudic 
passage and of critically examining a decision as to 
its soundness. It was regarded as an end in itself; 
and more stress was laid on a display 
Tendency of cleverness than on the investigation 

Toward of truth. This new development of 
Casuistry, the pilpul is ascribed to Jacob Pol- 
LAK, who lived at the end of the fif- 
teenth century and in the beginning of the sixteenth. 
Tills pilpul par excellence was pursued especially 
under two forms. In the one, two apparently widely 
divergent halakic themes were placed in juxtaposi- 
tion, and a logical connection between them was 
sought by means of ingeniousand artificial interpreta- 
tionsand explanations, but in such a way that the con- 
nective thread between them appeared only at the end 
of the treatise : this was the " derashali. " In the other 
form an apparently homogeneous theme was dis- 
sected into several parts, which were then again com- 
bined into an artistic whole: this was the so-called 
" hilluk " (analysis, dissection). The treatises follow- 
ing this method of the pilpul in both of these forms 
were called "hiddushim" or "novellie" (original 
products) because thereby the most familiar objects 
were made to appear in a new light. Various meth- 
ods of dialectics were originated by 
The means of which these hillukim and 

Hillukim. derashot were built up and developed. 
Every school had its own way of find- 
ing and disclosing the hiddushim; as examples the 
method of Nuremberg and that of Ratisbon may be 

General rules were laid down even for the applica- 
tion of this sophistic treatment to the Talmud, the 

codes, and the commentaries. The following rule, 
for instance, was formulated : " If any person raises 
an objection at the end of a sentence, he must at 
once be asked why he reserved his objection until 
the end of the argument, instead of speaking at the 
beginning of it. Then it must be proved by the ob- 
jector that if the objection liad been raised at the 
beginning of the sentence a refutation of it might 
have been found, and that only if the objection is 
raised at the end of the discussion, can it be claimed 
that all possible refutations of the main argument 
have been removed and that .such an argument be- 
comes valid " (comp. on this rule Jellinek in "Bikku- 
riin," pp. 3 et seq.). 

The adherents of this pilpulistic method did not, 
however, intend, by their ingenious disputations, to 
draw deductions for practical purposes. Its chief 
representatives, in order that they might not 
inlluence any one in practical matters, did not 
commit the results of their disputations or their 
hiddu.shim to writing. They intended merely to 
sharpen the minds of their pupils and to lead 
them to think independently; for this course prece- 
dent was to be found in the Talmud (Ber. 33b; 'Er. 
13a). To this end riddles were often given to the 
pupils; also questions that were manifestly absurd, 
but for which a clever pupil might find an answer. 
The earliest collection of such riddles is found in a 

work by Jacob b. Judah Landau, who 

Riddles of lived at the end of the fifteenth cen- 

Pilpul. tury, hence about the time when this 

new method of the pilpul was devel- 
oped; this collection is appended to his work 
"Agur" (ed. Piotrkow, 1884, pp. 72a et seq.). The 
following example may be quoted: "How was it 
that of two boys who were born on two successive 
days of the same year the one who was born a day 
later than the other attained first to the legal age of 
thirteen years required for becoming a bar miz wah ? " 
Answer : " The bo3's were born in a leap-year, which 
has two months of Adar. One boy was born on the 
29th of the first Adar; the other, on the first of the 
second Adar. The thirteenth year following, in 
which the boys became bar mizwah, was an ordi- 
nary year, with only one month of Adar. The 
younger boy, who was born on the 1st of Adar 
(Sheni), reached his legal age on the 1st of Adar in 
that year, while the elder boy, who was born on the 
29th of the first month of Adar, reached his legal age 
only on the 29th of Adar in the thirteenth j'ear." 

Many prominent rabbinical authorities protested 
against this degenerated method of the pilpul (e.g., 
R. Liwa b. Bezaleel, MaHaRaL of Prague, Isaiah 
Horowitz [author of "Shene Luhot ha-Berit"J, Jair 
Hayj'im Bacharach in his responsa "Hawwot Yair" 
[No. 123J, and other Polish and German rabbis; 
comp. Jellinek in "Bikkurim," i. 4, ii. 5); but their 
attacks upon it were futile. The method predomi- 
nated down to the nineteenth century, being culti- 
vated by the most gifted rabbis in all countries, al- 
though in a more or less modified form, according 
to the individuality of the rabbis in question and 
the dominant movements in the countries them- 
selves. It applies the same treatment to the Talmud 
as to the codes and the commentaries, and attempts 
to confirm or refute the view expressed in one com- 




mentary, or the rule laid down in one code, by 
means of ingenious and at times hair-splitting de- 
ductions drawn from an earlier commentary or code, 
or especially a remote Talmudic passage. Two ex- 
amples may be cited here: 

Maimonides ("Yad," 'Edut, xviii. 2) lays down 
the principle that a witness can be convicted of hav- 
ing given false testimony and becomes amenable to 
punishment by proof of an alibi only when such 
proof does not disprove the facts set forth in his tes- 
timony. When the testimony of those who bring 
proof of the alibi refutes at the same time the testi- 
mony of the witness for the prosecution, then this is 
regarded merely as a contradiction between the two 
groups of witnesses, and the one group is not con- 
sidered to be refuted by the other. This principle 
is attacked by R. Hayyim Jonah (quoted by U. Jona- 
than Eybeschntz in his " Urim we-Tummim," section 
"Tummim," 38) through the combination of two Tal- 
mudic passages and a clever deduction therefrom. 
There is a Talmudic principle to the effect that the 
testimony of a witness in which he can not possibly be 
refuted by proof of an alibi is in itself invalid (Sanh. 
41a ; B. K. 75b). This principle is perhaps based on 
the supposition that the witness, if not restrained by 
the fear of being convicted and punished, will more 
readily make false statements. Another Talmudic 
sentence says: ''A appears as witness against B 
and testifies that the latter committed an assault 
upon him (A) against his will. If another witness, 
C, can be found to corroborate this statement, then 
B is liable to be executed on the testimony of the 
two witnesses A and C" (Sanh. 9b). Now, if the 
statement of A should be refuted by a proof of 
alibi, then this proof would at the same time dis- 
prove the alleged commission of the crime; for, in 
the absence of A, B could not have committed the 
assault in question upon him. According to the 
principle laid down by Maimonides, the refutation 
of A's statement by proof of an alibi would be con- 
sidered merelj^ as a contradiction and not as a refu- 
tation, and A would not be punished as a person 
who had been convicted. Hence A would not be 
in danger of being refuted and punished, and his 
testimony would, according to the principle (Sanh. 
41a), be invalid in itself. It therefore necessarily 
follows from the Talmudic sentence in question 
that the testimony of A is valid, and that the prin- 
ciple of Maimonides in regard to the nature of the 
proof of alibi is erroneous. Eybcschlitz attempts to 
uphold the jirincipleof Maimonides by quoting even 
more ingenious combinations. 

Another example, by Aryeh Lob b. Asher. one of 
the keenest casuists of the eighteenth century, may 
be given. He proves the correctness 
Examples of one view, and "eo ipso" the in- 
of Method, correctness of another, from a Tal- 
mudic passage. The Talmud says 
(Pes. 4b): "The search for and removal of leav- 
ened matter on the eve of the Passover is merely a 
rabbinical prescription ; for it is sufficient, according 
to the command of the Torah, if merely in words or 
in thought the owner declares it to be destroyed and 
equal to the dust." Rashi says that the fact that 
such a declaration of the owner is sufficient is do- 
rived from an expression in Scripture. The tosafot. 

however, claim that this can not be derived from the 
particular expression in Scripture, since the word 
there means "to remove" and not "to declare des- 
troyed." The mere declaration that it is destroyed 
("bittul ") is sufficient for the reason that thereby 
the owner gives up his rights of ownership, and 
the leavened matter is regarded as having no owner 
(" hefker "), and as food for which no one is responsi- 
ble, since at Passover only one's own leavened food 
may not be kept, while that of strangers may be 
kept. Although the formula which is sufficient 
to declare the leavened matter as destroyed is not 
sufficient to declare one's property as having no 
owner, yet, as R. Nissim Gerondi, adopting the 
view of the tosafot, explains, the right of owner- 
ship which one has in leavened matter on the eve 
of the Passover, even in the forenoon, is a very 
slight one; for, beginning with noon, such food may 
not be enjoyed ; hence all rights of ownership be- 
come illusory, and, in view of such slight right of 
ownership, a mere mental renunciation of this right 
suffices in order that the leavened matter be consid- 
ered as without an owner. R. Aryeh L5b (in his 
"Sha'agat Aryeh, Dine Hamez," § 77) attempts to 
prove the correctness of this tosafistic opinion as 
elaborated by R. Nissim, and to prove at the same 
time the incorrectness of Rashi's view, from the fol- 
lowing Talmudic passage: "Pes. 6b says that from 
the hour of noon of the eve [of Passover] to the con- 
clusion of the feast the mere declaration of destruc- 
tion does not free a person from the responsibility 
of having leavened matter in his house; for since he 
is absolutely forbidden to enjoy it, he has no claim 
to the ownership, which he renounces by such a 
declaration." The Gemara (7a) endeavors to refute 
this assertion by the following baraita : " If a person, 
sitting in the schoolhouse, remembers that he has 
leavened matter in his house, he shall mentally de- 
clare it to be destroyed, whether the day is a Sab- 
bath or the feast-day." Although the tasting of 
leavened matter is forbidden on the feast-day, yet 
the baraita says that the owner shall mentally de- 
clare it to be destroyed; hence it follows from the 
baraita that a declaration of destruction is effective 
even at a time when one may not enjoy the leavened 
food at all. R. Aha b. Jacob declares thereupon 
that the baraita deals with a case in which a person 
remembers that he has left some freshly kneaded 
dough at home which is not yet leavened, but may 
become leavened before the owner 

Further returns home in order to bake it. At 
Examples, the moment of his remembering it, 
liowe ver, the dough is not yet leavened , 
and hence may be used for all purposes; it is there- 
fore the property of the owner, who can mentally 
declare it to be destroj'ed, i.e., he may renounce his 
right of ownership. 

Thus far the Talmudic passage. The "Sha'agat 
Aryeh" then asks how the Gemara can conclude 
from the baraita, which says that during the feast 
even leavened matter may be mentally destroyed, 
that such a declaration of destruction is valid if one 
may not partake at all of such leavened food. This 
baraita perhaps agrees with the view of Jose the 
G.\i,ii,E.\N, who says that leavened matter may be 
enjoyed during the feast in any way excepting by 




eating it. If the baraita adopts the point of view of 
Jose the Galilean, then it may declare correctly that 
leavened matter may be mentally destroyed on the 
feast-day also, since the owner may enjoy it in every 
way except as food and hence has the right of own- 
ership. When, however, the leavened matter may 
not be enjoyed, as is the ruling of the accepted hala- 
kah, no one has the right of ownership and, there- 
fore, of declaring the leavened matter in question des- 
troyed. But if one assumes with K. Nissim and the 
tosafot that a mental declaration of destruction is ef- 
ficacious because it is a form, though a weakened 
cue, of the hefker declaration, then this weakened 
form of the hefker declaration is sutticient in the 
case of leavened matter only because the right of 
ownership in it is a weakened one. The right of 
ownership in the leavened matter is a weakened one 
only because through the interdiction against par- 
taking of such food this right becomes of itself illu- 
sory from a certain period, namel}', from the hour 
of noon of the eve of the feast. If this view is as- 
sumed to be correct, then the baraita can not ex- 
press the view of Jose the Galilean; for, according 
to him, the right of ownership in the leavened mat- 
ter is a strong and inalienable one, since one may 
fully enjoy it even during the feast, with tlie excep- 
tion that one may not use it as food. But if the 
right of ownership is not a weakened one, then, ac- 
cording to the foregoing statements, a weakened 
form of the hefker declaration is not sufficient; hence 
the bittul declaration is insufficient for the purpose 
of declaring the leavened matter to be property be- 
longing to no one. The baraita, which refers to a 
mental declaration of destruction, can not therefore 
express H. Jose's view. 

The attempt of the Gemara to conclude from the 
baraita that a bittul declaration would be valid also 
in case a person might have noenjoy- 
Complica- ment whatever from leavened matter 
tions. is therefore a correct one. According 
to Rashi's view, however, that the 
view of the bittul declaration being sufficient is de- 
rived from a certain expression in Scripture, this 
bittul declaration is valid according to R. Jose too; 
since it does not depend on the kind of riglit of 
ownership, the baraita passage quoted might ex- 
press the view of R. Jose, although it speaks of 
bittul. Hence the attempt of the Gemara to con- 
clude from the baraita that bittul would be valid 
even if one might not in any way enjoy the leavened 
matter, is erroneous; for the baraita, which refers 
to bittul during the feast, expresses R. Jose's 
view, that during the feast also leavened matter 
may be enjoyed in any way except by eating it. 
The method of the Gemara, therefore, proves the 
correctness of the tosafistic opinion, represented by 
R. Nissim, and the incorrectness of Rashi's opinion. 

This latter example is especially interesting be- 
cause it shows the weak foundation on which such a 
pilpulistic structure is reared. It rests on the highly 
improbable, if not false, assumption that the Gemara 
has carefully weighed and considered all points, and 
still can find no other refutation of its attempt to 
draw the desired conclusion from the baraita than 
that advanced by R. Aha b. Jacob. And the whole 
fabric falls to pieces with the assumption that the 

Gemara could have refuted its attempt by assuming 
that the baraita expressed the view of ]{. Jose, but 
that R. Aha b. Jacob thought to find a better refu- 
tation by assuming that the baraita expressed the 
view generally accepted, and not the single view of 
R. Jose, which was rejected by the majoiity of 

The method of the pilpul was not confined to the 
study of the Talmud and the codes; it was applied 
also in the field of Homilktics and in that of the 
Haggadah. A short haggadic sentence of the Tal- 
mud or Midrash was cleverly interpreted so as to af- 
ford material for an entire treatise on some halakic 
theme. Sometimes such a so-called 

Applied " curious midrash sentence " (" midrash 
Outside the peli") was invented as a starting-point 

Talmud, for some ingenious explanation. The 
Biblical personages were made the 
mouthpieces of the principles of Maimonides accord- 
ing to Joseph Caro's interpretation, or of decisions 
by Isaac Alfasi according to R. Nissim Gerondi's 
interpretation. Abimelech is said to have been 
guided by a Talmudic principle in his behavior to- 
ward Abraham and Sarah. The antagonism between 
Joseph and his brothers is ascribed to differences of 
opinion regarding a halakic regulation. Pharaoh is 
said to have based his refusal to liberate Israel on 
certain Talmudic-rabbinic principles; and Haman's 
wife, Zeresh, is said to have deduced from certain 
Talmudic teachings that her husband would not 
be able to maintain his position against the Jew 

Many homiletic works and commentaries on the 
books of the Bible, from the beginning of the six- 
teenth century down to the nineteenth, follow 
this method. Among these R. Judah Rosanes' 
"Parashat Derakim" and R. Jonathan EybeschiUz's 
" Ya'arat Debash " are especially noteworthy for 
their acuteness and their clever combinations. On 
the special forms of pilpulistic methods in different 
countries and at different times, see Talmud. 

Bibliography: Gudemann. Die Neuoei>taUuna des Rahbi- 
nerwei^eivf im Mittelalter. In Monntsxchrift, 1864. pp. 425- 
433; Idem, Gesch. Hi. 79-83 ; Jelllnek, Le-Korot Seder ha- 
Limmtui, In Keller's Bikkuiim, 1. 1-26, 11. 1-19. 
E. C. J. Z. L. 

PILSEN : City in Bohemia. According to doc- 
uments of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
Jews were then living in Pilsen, and they had a syn- 
agogue and a cemetery. In the sixteenth century 
they were expelled, as were the Jews of most of the 
other cities of Bohemia. It was not until after 1848 
that Jews were allowed to resettle in Pilsen. An 
increasing number of Jewish families from several 
villages in the neighborhood, where they formed 
large communities, then removed to the city ; serv- 
ices were at first held in a rented chapel ; and soon 
afterward the district rabbi of Pilsen, Anschel Kaf- 
ka, took up his residence in the city. In 1859 the 
community, which then numbered seventy families, 
received its constitution, being one of the few newlj' 
formed congregations in Bohemia whose statutes 
were confirmed. In the same year a synagogue was 
dedicated, and a four-grade school was organized. 
In 1875 another .synagogue was annexed to the 
older one ; and in 1893 a handsome new building was 
erected at a cost of nearly 1,000, 000 crowns. Heine- 




mann Vogelstein was called to the rabbinate in 1867, 
afid oflQciated until 1880, his successors being Nathan 
Porges (1880-82), Jecheskel Caro (1882-91), and 
Adolf Posnanski (since 1891). 

In 1904 the community numbered 3,170 persons, 
including 724 taxpayers, in a total population of 
68,079; and the annual budget amounted to 73,756 

BiBUOGRAPHT : JohrbucJi fUr die Israflitischen Oemeinden 
in BOhmen, 18&4 ; Union Kcdender, 1905. 
D. A. Kl. 


T: Poetess of Spanish descent; lived in England 
in the early part of the eighteenth century, as did also 
Abraham Henriques Pimentel. She wrote " Es- 
pejoFielde Vidas" (London, 1720), laudator}' Span- 
ish verses on the Spanish metrical translation of the 
Psalms by the Marano poet Daniel Israel Lopez 

BiBLioGRAPHT : Kayserlin?. Sephardim Romanische Poesien 
der Juden in Spanien, pp. 251, 299. 

J. I. Co. 

PIN. See Tent. 

PINA, DE : Portuguese jVIarano family some 
members of which were able to escape the Inquisi- 
tion and to confess Judaism openlj' in Amsterdam. 

Jacob (Manuel) de Pina : Spanish and Portu- 
guese poet; born of Marano parents in Lisbon in 
1616; went to Holland about 1660. In Amsterdam 
he openly accepted Judaism and took the name 
Jacob. In Lisbon he had published a "comedia 
burlesca " entitled " La Mayor Hazana de Carlos 
VI." and a volume of humorous poems entitled 
"Juguetes de la Niiiez y Travesuras del Ingeuio" 
(1656), which are the same as the " Chansas del lu- 
genio y Dislatas de la Musa " mentioned in Wolf (see 
bibliography below). Jacob mourned in elegies the 
deaths of Saul Levi Morteira and the martyrs Bernal 
and Lope de Vera; and in 1673 he celebrated in a 
Portuguese poem the verses of Joseph Penso, and 
in a Spanish one the translation of the psalms of Ja- 
cob Judah Leon. 

Bibliography : Barrios, Relacion de Ids Poetas, p. 54 ; idem, 
Coro de las Mxtsan, p. .505; Idem, Goviei-no Popular Ju- 
dayco, p. 45; Barbosa Machado, Bihliotheca Litsitana, 111. 
341 ; Wolf. Bibl. Hehr. 111. .521, Iv. 870; Kayserllng, Sephar- 
dim, pp. 253 et seq.; idem, Bi?jl. Esp.-Port.-Jud. p. 89. 

8. M. K. 

Paul de Pina : Born after 1580 in Lisbon. Poet- 
ically gifted and inclined to religious fanaticism, he 
was about to become a monk, and for this purpose 
made a journey to Rome. One of his relatives rec- 
ommended him to the physician Filotheo Eliau (Eli- 
jah) MoxTALTO in Leghorn, and the latter won the 
young man for the religion of his ancestors. Paul 
went to Brazil, and thence returned to Lisbon, where 
ne still continued to appear as a Christian. He did 
not fully embrace Judaism until after the Franciscan 
monk Diego de la Axum(;ao had courageously suf- 
fered the death of a martyr for the Jewish faith. In 
1604 Paul hastened to Amsterdam, where as a Jew he 
was called Bohel Jeahurunand became prominent 
in the community. In honor of the synagogue Bet- 
Ya'akob he in 1624 composed in Portuguese poet- 
ical dialogues between the seven principal moun- 
tains of Palestine in praise of the faith of Israel. 

These dialogues were printed in Amsterdam in 1767, 
and they are reprinted in Kayserling, "Sephardim," 
p. 340. 

Bibliography : Grfttz, Geach. 3d ed., ix.484, x. 4 ; Kayserllng, 
Sephardim, p. 175. 
G. I. E. 

rabbi; flourished at the end of the seventeenth cen- 
tury ; grandson of R. Zebi Hirsch, rabbi of Lublin. 
He was rabbi of Pinczow and other places, and 
parnas at Cracow. Pinczow was the author of 
"Dammeselj: Eli'ezer" (Jesnitz, 1723), notes on the 
Masoretic text of the Bible, and "Mishnat Rabbi 
Eli'ezer" (Amsterdam, 1725), expositions of Tal- 
mudic haggadot. 

Bibliography: Fuenn. Keneset Yi^Tachp. 131, Warsaw, 1886; 
Furst, Bibl. Jud. 1. 2:i3; Roest, Cat. lioseuthal. Bibl. 1. 347, 
11. Supplement, No. 396; Stelnschnelder, Cat. Bodl. No. 4993. 
n. n. A. S. W. 

SHON : Polish physician and Talmudist of the 
eighteenth century. He was the author of : " Meleket 
Mahashebet," parti., "Ir Heshbon " (Frankfort-on- 
the-Main, 1765), on arithmetic and algebra; part ii., 
"Berure ha-Middot " (Berlin, 1765), on geometry; 
"Ma'aneh Eliyahu " (Zolkiev, 1758), discussions on 
the Talmudic treatises Bezah and Baba Mezi'a, to- 
gether with some rabbinical decisions and responsa; 
"Nibhar me-Haruz " (1772), extracts from the book 
"Ha-'Ikkarim," reproduced in an easy style and in 
the form of a dialogue between teacher and pujiil; 
"Hadrat Eliyahu "(parti., Prague, 1786), homiletics; 
"She'elot u-Teshubot Ge'one Batra'e " (Sudilkov, 
1795), collected from the responsa of the later rabbis. 

Bibliography : Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 118, Warsaw, 1886 ; 
Furst, Bihl. Jnd. i. 237 ; Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, pp. 134, 
330, Wilna, 1880. 
H. R. A. S. W. 

PINCZOW, JOSEPH B. JACOB : Polish rabbi 
and author; flourished in Poland in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries; descendant of R. Jacob 
Pollak, son-in-law of R. Moses Krjimer, chief rabbi 
of Wilna, and pupil of Zebi Hirsch, rabbi of Lublin. 
Pinczow was at first head of a yeshibah at Wilna; 
he then became rabbi of Kosovi (1688), and afterward 
of Seltz3^ where he maintained a yeshibah. On ac- 
count of persecutions he in 1698 fled to Hamburg, 
where he remained till 1702, returning then to Seltzy. 
Here the plague broke out in 1706; and Pinczow, 
whose life had often been threatened on account of 
accusations made against the Jews, fled to Berlin. 
In this city he printed his book " Rosh Yosef " (1717), 
on Talmudic halakot and haggadot, and arranged 
according to the order of the treatises. The rabbis 
who wrote the haskamot for this work, among whom 
was R. Jeliiel Michael of Berlin, praise efiusively 
Joseph's learning and piety. 

One of Pinczow 's sons, Moses, was rabbi of 

Bibliography : Fuenn, Keneset, YinraeJ. p. 493, Warsaw, 1886; 
idem. Kirmh Ne"t'ma7mh. p. 96, Wllna, im); F'iirst, BUiL 
Jnd. II. 114; Walden, Shem ha-Gcdolim he-Hadash, 1. 55, 
Warsaw, 1882. 
H. n. A. S. W. 

PINE (PNIE), SAMSON : German translator 
of the fourteenth century. He was probably born 
at Peine, a city in the province of Hanover, whence 




his name is derived and where a Jewish community 
had existed from very early times. Later he lived 
at Strasburg. Fine is chiefly remembered for the 
assistance he rendered iu 1336 to two German poets, 
Claus Wysse and Philipp Kolin of Strasburg, who 
prepared a continuation of Wolfram vou Eschen- 
bach's Middle High German poem "Parzival," after 
the French poem in the liuediger von Mauesse man- 
uscript. In the parchment manuscript on which 
they wrote, these poets thank Pine for liis services in 
translating the poem into German and in inventing 
rimes for it. Incidentally, Pine is thanked as a Jew 
by faith; the note is couched in metrical terms; 
and Pine is referred to twice in ten lines as a Jew. 

Bibliography: Gudeinann, Gesch. lii. 159 et seq.i Karpeles, 
Uesch. ilerjildischen Literatur. p. 7()9, Berlin, 1886; idem, 
Jewish Literature, pp. 35, 87, Philadelphia, 189.5. 
D. A. M. F. 

scholar; born at Tysmenitz, Galiciu, Dec. 21, 1805; 
died at Galatz, Rumania, Aug. 6, 1870. After hav- 
ing studied Talmud and rabbinics in his native 
town, Pineles at the age of fifteen removed to Brody, 
where he married. In his new home he began to 
study German and the secular sciences, particularly 
astronomy. As most of the Jews of Brody at that time 
were of the Hasidic type, Pineles was, on account 
of his scientific studies, accused of heresy, and was 
obliged to justify liimself before his fatherin-law. 
About 1853 Pineles went to Odessa, where he lived 
till the Crimean war (1855), and then hesettled perma- 
nently at Galatz. 

Pineles wrote articles on various scientific sub- 
jects, particularly on astronomy and calendar-ma- 
king, in most of the Hebrew periodicals, and carried 
on in "Kerem Hemed " (vol. ix., letters 4, 5, 16, 17, 
18) and in " Ha-Maggid " a polemical correspondence 
on astronomical subjects with Hayyim Selig Slo- 
nimski. He acquired particular renown on account 
of his work "Darkah shel Torah " (Vienna, 1861), 
a critical interpretation, divided into 178 paragraphs, 
of several passages of the Talmud, particularly of 
the Mishnah, followed by a treatise on calendar- 
making, including tables. Pineles says in the 
preface that the objects of the book are: (1) to jus- 
tify tiie oral law; (2) to defend the Mishnah against 
both its admirers and its detractors; and (3) to ex- 
plain several sayings of the earlier amoraim as well 
as difficult passages in the Jerusalem Talmud and 
some in Babli. The most noteworthy feature of this 
work is its defense of the Mishnah. Pineles explains 
several mishnayot differently fi-om the Amoraim, 
who, as he declares, " very often distorted the Mish- 
nah." It is true that Rapoport, Hirsch Chajes, 
Nachman Krochmal, and other critics had similarly 
differed from the Amoraim ; but besides extending 
his criticism to the whole Mishnah, his predeces- 
sors having dealt with only a small portion of it, 
he also deviated from the amoraic interpretation 
even where it concerned the Halakali. This and 
his interpretation of the sayings of the earlier amo- 
raim, which differed from that of the later amoraim, 
called forth protests from some of his contempora- 
ries. Waldberg, a Rumanian sciiolar, published a 
polemical work entitled "Kakh Hi Darkah slid 
Torah" (Jassy, 1864-68), in refutation of Pineles' 

criticisms. It is evident, however, that Pineles did 
not act in an autireligious spirit; for, as stated 
above, he defended the Mishnah against its detract- 
ors like Schorr and Geiger, attacking the latter'a 
"Urschrift und Uebersetzung der Bibel " (^i^ 144- 
167), to which Geiger replied in his " jQd. Zeit." (v. 
146 et 8eq.). 

Bibliography: Fuenn, Keneset YinrarU pp. 286 et seq.; Zelt- 
lin, BilA. Post-MeiuhUi. pp. 288, 367, 402. 
S. M. Sel. 


English dramatist; born in London May 24, 1855; 
eldest son of John Daniel Pinero. He is descended 
from a Sephardic family. As a boy Pinero was 
articled to a firm of solicitors; and while in their 
ofiice he absorbed much of that knowledge of human 
nature and human emotions which has made his 
productions famou.s. 

The law, however, had few attractions for him, 
and in 1874 he joined the company of the Theatre 
Royal, Edinburgh, being engaged as "general util- 
ity man." Two years later he went to the Lyceum, 
London, where he gained invaluable experience in 
stageciaft under (Sir) Henry Irving. As an actor 
Pinero was not successful, and he soon turned his 
thoughts to play-writing. In 1877 he wrote in a sin- 
gle afternoon "Two Hundred a Year," which was 
produced at the Globe Theatre with some measure 
of success. Soon afterward " The Money Spinners," 
written with almost equal rapidity, was produced at 
the St. James's by John Hare and the Kendalls and 
made a great hit (1880). He then produced in ten 
days " Lords and Commons, " following it with " The 
Magistrate," which made Pinero famous and estab- 
lished his reputation on a firm foundation. 

His literary activity has been remarkable and un- 
flagging; and "The Schoolmistress," "The Squire," 
"Dandy Dick" (written in three weeks), "The 
Rocket," and "The Hobby Horse" appeared succes- 
sively at short intervals. Then came his first real 
success, "Sweet Lavender," a play redolent with 
pathos and sweetness. Subsequently the influence 
of Ibsen began to make itself felt in Pinero's work, 
after he had written " The Profligate," " The Weaker 
Sex," "The Cabinet Minister," "The Times," 
"The Amazons," and "Lady Bountiful." "The 
Second Mrs. Tanqueray" was distinctly in Ibsen's 
manner ; it was succeeded by " The Notorious Mrs. 
Ebbsmith," followed, in the same style, by "The 
Benefit of the Doubt" aud "The Princess and the 

In 1898 Pinero, reverting to his earlier models, 

produced "Trelawny of the Wells." He returned 

to the problem play in "The Gay Lord Quex " 

(1899), followed by " Iris " (1901) and " Letty " (1903). 

of the same class. 

Bibliography: Thr Critic. xxxyiLUT: CasxcU's Magnzine, 
x.wiii. 3.54 ; Pall Mall Mauaziue, July, 1900, p. 331 ; H'/io"* 
ir/io, 1904. „ ,, 

J. E. Ms. 

Shklov, government of Moghilef, Russia, in the 
eighteenth century ; descendant of the families of 
Jacob Polak and Jiulah L5b Puchowitzer. He was 
the author of " Tanna debe Eliyahu " (Zolkiev, 1753), 
on religion and ethics, divided into seven parts ac- 




cording to the seven days of the week, with an ap- 
pendix containing discussions on Berakot, extracted 
from his unpublished book, "Tosafot Me'ore ha- 

Bibliography: Fuenn. Keneset TiJtrael. p. 118; Benjacob, 
Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 657 ; Kalian, Atiaf 'Ez Ahot, p. xix., 
tlHicow. 190^. A S W 

H. R. A. b. W. 

mudist and Hebraist; burn at liozhany, govern- 
ment of Grodno, Sept. 26, 1842. He was the son of 
Noah Pines and the son-in-law of Shemariah Luria, 
rabbi of Moghilef. After being educated in the local 
Hebrew school and in theyeshibah, where he distin- 
guished himself in Talmudic study, he became a 
merchant, giving lectures at the same time in the 
yeshibah of his native town. He was elected dele- 
gate to a conference held in London by the associa- 
tion Mazkereth Mosheh, for the establishment of 
charitable institutions in Palestine in commemora- 
tion of the name of Sir Moses Montefiore ; in 1878 
he was sent to Jerusalem to establish and organize 
such institutions. He has lived since then in Pales- 
tine, working for the welfare of the Jewish commu- 
nity and interesting himself in the organization of 
Jewish colonies in Palestine. He was excommuni- 
cated by the Palestinian rabbis for interfering in 
communal affairs, but was sustained by the Euro- 
pean rabbinates. He is now (1905) director of the 
Ashkenazic hospital at Jerusalem and lecturer at 
several of the yeshibot. He has written: "Yalde 
Ruhi"(part i., "Rib 'Ammi," Mayence, 1872, on the 
position of Israel among the nations; part ii., "Ha- 
Hayim weha-Yahadut," ib., 1873. on the relation of 
Judaism to the times); "Torat Mishpete Togarraa" 
(in collaboration with his son-in-law David Yellin; 
Jerusalem, 1887); " 'Abodat ha-Adamah," on agri- 
culture in Palestine (Warsaw, 1891). He was one of 
the founders of the Orthodox biweekly journal 
"Ha-Lebanon" (1864), has edited and annotated 
Shershevsky's "'01am Katan," on anatomy and 
chemistry (Jerusalem, 1886), and has contributed 
to numerous journals and magazines published in 

BiBLiOORAPHr: Elsenstadt, Dor Rabbanaw we-Soferaw, Hi. 
a5. Wllna, 1901 : Zeltlin, Bibl. PoHt.-yiendels. p. 267, I^lpsic, 
1891-ft5 ; Llppe, Amf ha-Mazkir, I. 367, Vienna, 1881 ; Ha- 
Zefirah. 1880, No. 34. 
H. R. A. S. W. 

PINHAS, JACOB: German journalist and com- 
munal worker; born Aug., 1788; died in Cassel Dec. 
8. 1861. He was the son of Salomon (1757-1837), a 
miniature-painter who had received special privi- 
leges exempting him from some of the Jewish dis- 
abilities (comp. "Sulamith," viii. 406), and had been 
granted the title of court painter to the Elector of 
Hesse-Cassel. Jacob Pinhas prepared to follow his 
father's calling; but the events of tlie Napoleonic 
era caused him to abandon the vocation of an artist 
for that of a journalist. When Cassel became the 
seat of the kingdom of Westphalia, the "Moniteur," 
its official organ, was published there, and Pinhas, 
being conversant witli both German and French, 
was appointed a member of its editorial staff. After 
the battle of Waterloo he obtained from tiie elector 
license to publish the "Kassel'sche Allgemeine Zei- 
lung, " which he continued to edit till his death. He 

advocated a constitutional form of government, and 
although this was considered revolutionary, hia 
moderation and his honesty gained for him the con- 
fidence of the government, which always sought his 
advice on Jewish matters. For his literary merits 
the University of Marburg in 1817 bestowed on him 
the degree of Ph.D. 

When, in 1821, the Jewish congregations of Hesse- 
Cassel received a new organization, being divided 
into four territories, P*inhas was appointed head of 
the " Vorsteheramt" of Niederhessen. As such he 
was instrumental in drawing up the law of Dec. 
23, 1823, on the organization of the Jews, and in 
establishing the normal school of Cassel. When, 
later on, the " Landesrabbinat " was organized, 
Pinhas was made its "secular member." He was 
iustriimental also in the drafting of the law of Oct. 
31, 1833, which gave full citizenship to such Jews as 
were willing to abandon petty trading. This law 
was the first of its kind in Germany ; but it remained 
to a great extent a dead letter owing to the reaction- 
ary policy of the government authorities. 

The year 1848 brought upon Pinhas all the unpopu- 
larity which was the lot of those known to be sympa- 
thizers with the government, even when, like Pinhas, 
they had always defended moderately liberal prin- 
ciples. During the period of reaction following the 
abrogation of the constitution in 1852, even Pinhas' 
enemies acknowledged the far-sightedness of the 
man whom they had bitterly opposed ; and it was 
due to his influence that the reaction did not go as 
far as had been demanded. 

Of Pinhas' literary works, two volumes of the 
"Archives Diplomatiques Geuerales des Annees 
1848 ct Suivantes " (Gottingen, 1854-55), which he 
published conjointly with Carl Murhard, deserve 

Bibliography : Allq. Zeit. des Jud. 1862, No. 2. 


PINHEIRO, MOSES : One of the most influ- 
ential pupils and followers of Shabbethai Zebi ; lived 
at Leghorn in the seventeenth century. He was 
held in high esteem on account of his acquirements; 
and, as the brother-in-law of Joseph Ergas, the well- 
known anti-Shabbethaian, he had great influence 
over the Jews of Leghorn, urging them to believe 
in Shabbethai. Even later (1667), when Shabbcthai's 
apostasy was rumored, Pinheiro, in common with 
other adherents of the false Messiah, still clung to 
him tlirough fear of being ridiculed as his dupes. 
Pinheiro was the teacher of Abraham Michael Car- 
doso, whom he initiated into the Cabala and into the 
mysteries of Shabbethaianism. 

Bibliography : Gratz, Gesch. 3d ed., x. 190. 204, 225. 229. 312. 
J. M. Sel. 

PINKES (Dp3D. from viva^="& board," "a 
writiiig-tiil)let ") : Term generally denoting the regis- 
ter of any Jewish community, in which the proceed- 
ings of and events relating to the community are 
recorded. The word originally denoted a writing- 
tablet, of which, according to the Mislinah (Kelim 
xxiv. 7), there were three kinds: (1) a tablet covered 
with dust, used chiefly for marking thereon arith- 
metical calculations, and large enough to serve as a 
seat ; (2) one covered with a layer of wax, the wri- 




ting upon •which was executed with a stylet; and 
(3) a smooth tablet written upon with ink. Later 
the term was applied to a book composed of such 
tablets (comp. Shab. xii. 4-5), and afterward to any 
book. The term "pinkes" as denoting a register 
occurs in the Mishnah : " The pinkes is open, and the 
hand writes" (Ab. iii. 16). See Council op Four 
Lands; Takkanah. 
E. c. M. Sel. 

PINKHOF, HERMAN: Dutch physician; 
born at Rotterdam May 10, 1863; educated at the 
University of Leyden (M.D. 1886). He established 
himself as a physician in Amsterdam. Since 1893 
he has been collaborator on the " Nederlandsch Tijd- 
schrift van Geueeskunde," for medical ethics and 
professional interests. In 1895 he founded the Soci- 
ety for the Promotion of the Interests of Judaism in 
Holland, and since 1898 he has been president of the 
society formed for the purpose of combating the 
Neo-Malthusian principles, of which he is one of the 
most vigorous opponents. He has written many 
articles on this subject. 

In 1890 he publislied "Abraliam Kashlari: over 
Pestachtige Koortsen(Werkeu van het Genootschap 
voor Natuur Genees en Heelkunde)." 

Pinkliof is a member of the curatorium of Dr. 
DQnner's Theological Seminary of Amsterdam. 

s. E. Sl. 

PINNE : City in the province of Posen, Ger- 
many. Jews are first mentioned there in 1553, in 
connection with a " privilegium " issued by the lord 
of the manor restricting them in the purchase of 
leather. In 1624 Juspa Pinner, and from 1631 to 
1652 his son in-law Leiser Pinner, are mentioned as 
holding various honorary offices in Posen. The 
community of Pinne, owing to the practise of the 
Polish kings and nobles of endowing churches with 
sums exacted from the Jews, became heavily in- 
debted to Catholic churches and hospitals. A di- 
vorce case in Pinne in 1764 created a sensation. 
After the decree had been granted, the man con- 
cerned asserted that he had not been the woman's 
husband, but was another person from Przemysl. 
This statement led to lengthy discussions, which are 
given in two contemporarj' collections of responsa, 
the controversy continuing until two authorities 
finally declared the divorce to be illegal. The Jew- 
ish tailors of Pinne originally belonged to the Chris- 
tian tailors' gild, which had received its charter 
from the lord of the manor; but subsequently they 
formed a gild of their own, which still existed in 

A " privilegium " was given to the community by 
the lord of the manor under date of June 10, 1789; 
but the document refers to rights which had been 
granted before that time. Its thirty-four articles 
may be summarized as follows: The rabbi, hazzan, 
teachers, and the cemetery are exempt from taxation 
by the lord; there shall be unrestricted riglits of 
trade ; butchers may sell only in the Jews' .street, and 
shall pay two stone of tallow to the castle; admis- 
sion of foreign Jews may be granted only by the 
elders of the community, who shall be elected annu- 
ally at the Passover ; the rabbi shall officiate as lower 
judge, while the lord of the manor shall be the su- 

perior judge; if one party to a case is a Christian, 
the elders of the Jews shall act as lower judges; 
criminal cases may be brought only before the court 
of the castle; Jews may not acquire real estate out- 
side of the glietto; a tax of 600 gulden a year shall 
be paid to the castle; Jews may not leave their 
houses during Catholic processions ; assaults on Jews 
by Christians shall be severely punished. 

When the city came under Prussian rule in 1793 
it contained 39 Jewish houses in a total of 129, and 
219 Jews in a population of 789. There were 86 
Jewish families in the town in 1795; more than 350 
Jews in 1827; 847 in 1857; 672 in 1871; and 376 in 
1895. The reader's prayer-book contains a prayer for 
Napoleon I. dating from the time when Pinne be- 
longed to the duchy of Warsaw (1807-15). 

Since the second half of the eighteenth century 
the following rabbis have officiated: 

Isaac b. Moses ; Solomon b. Isaac ; Napbtali b. 
Aaron; Mordecai b. Michael Moses (d. 182;j or 1824); 
Dob Bar b. Schragrera Philippsthal (until 18^2), auttior 
of "Nahale Debash "' ; Isaac b. Jacob Lewy (until 1834); 
Aryeh liubush Landsbergr (WM 39): Joseph Hayyim 
Caro ; Jacob Mattithiah Munk (ia')2-5.5), author of 
•"Et Sefod"; Oberdorfer (18.')7-6:i); Abraham Isaiah 
Caro (1864-88), author of an extract in Mecklenburg's " Ha-Ke- 
tab weha-Kabbalah " ; Solomon Goldschmidt (1889-90), 
author of "Gesch. der Juden ia England": Moses Schle- 
singrer (1890-96), author of "Das Aramaische Verbuin iin Je- 
rusaleniischen Talmud," and editor of Aaron ha-Kohen of 
Lunel's "Orhot Hayyim"; and Louis Liewin (since 1897), 
author of " R. Simon b. Jochai," " Gesch. der Juden in Inow- 
razlaw." " Juden verfolgungen im Zweiten Schwedisch-Pol- 
nlschen Kriege," and "Gesch. der Juden in Llssa." 

The community has produced a number of Jewish 
scholars, among whom may be mentioned Gustav 
Gottheil and E. M. Pinner. 

Bibliography: Louis Lewln. Axis der Verganaetiheit der 
JUdi^chen Gemeinde zu Pinne, Pinne. 19118 ; manuscripts 
in the archives of the Jewish congregation of Posen. 
u. L. Lew. 

PINNER, ADOLF: German chemist; born at 
Wronke, Posen, Germany, Aug. 31, 1842; educated 
at the Jewish Theological Seminary at Breslau and 
at the University of Berlin (Doctor of Chemistry, 
1867). In 1871 he became privat-docent at the Uni- 
versity of Berlin. In 1873 he became assistant pro- 
fessor of chemistry at the University of Berlin, and in 
1874 professor of chemistry at the veterinary college 
of that city. In 1884 he was appointed a member 
of the German patent office, and in the following 
year, of the technical division of the Prussian De- 
partment of Commerce. He has received the title 
"Geheimer Regierungsrath." 

Pinner has contributed many essays to the profes- 
sional journals, among which maj' be mentioned: 
" Darstellungund Untersuchungdes Butylchlorals," 
in "Annalen der Chemie," clxxix., and in "Berichte 
der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft." 1870-77; 
"Ueber Iniidottther. " in "Annalen," ccxcvii. and 
ccxcviii., also in "Berichte," 1877-97 (which essays 
he combined in book form under the title "Ueber 
Imidoather und Dessen Derivate"); "Die Conden- 
sation des Acetous," in "Berichte," 1881-83; "Ueber 
Ilvdantoie tmd Urazine," in "Berichte," 1887-89; 
"Ueber Nicotin," in "Berichte," 1891-95, and in 
"Archiv der Pharmazie," ccxxxi,, ccxxxiii. ; 
"Ueber Pilocarpin," in "Berichte," 1900-3. 

He is also the author of "Gesetze der Naturer- 




scheinungen " and of " Repetitorium der Chemie." 
in two volumes, on organic and inorganic cbemis- 
try respectively (Utli ed., Berlin, 1902). The latter 
work is well known to all German students of 
chemistry, and it has been translated into English, 
Russian, and Japanese. 

e. F. T. H. 

ANDER StJSSKIND : German Talmudist and 
archeologist ; born in Piuue about 1800 ; died in Berlin 
1880. His first work, bearing the pretentious title 
of "Kizzur Talmud Yerushalmi we-Talmud Babli" 
= "Compendium of the Jerusalem Talmud and of 
the Babylonian Talmud" (Berlin, 1881), contained 
specimens of translation of both Talmuds and an at- 
tempted biography of the tanna Simeon b. Yohai. 
It was published as the forerunner of his proposed 
translation of the Talmud ; and his travels through 
Germany, France, England, Italy, Turkey, and Rus- 
sia were probably undertaken for the purpose of 
furthering that plan. Pinner went from Constanti- 
nople to St. Petersburg in 1837, and secured the per- 
mission of Emperor Nicholas I. to dedicate the trans- 
lation to him. It was to have been completed in 
twenty-eight folio volumes; but only one appeared, 
the tractate Berakot, which was published five years 
later (Berlin, 1842). This is a splendidly printed 
book, dedicated to the emperor, who also heads the 
list of subscribers. The latter includes the names 
of the kings of Prussia, Holland, Belgium, and Den- 
mark, and of about twenty-five dukes, princes, arch- 
bishops, and bishops. The volume contains appro- 
bations from several rabbis, none of whom lived in 
Russia, in wliich country only representatives of 
Haskal.\h, like Abraham Stern, Isaac Baer Levin- 
sohn, Jacob Tugendhold of Warsaw, and Abraham 
b. Joseph Sack of Wilna, favored the undertaking. 
Their approval was given in signed eulogies, which 
follow the approbations of the non-Russian rabbis. 

Three years after the appearance of the tractate 
Berakot, Pinner, who had apparently remained in 
Russia in the hope of being able to continue the 
publication of the translation, gave to the world his 
famous " Prospectus der Odessaer Gesellschaft f iir 
Geschichte und Altherthum GehOrenden Aeltes- 
ten Hebraischen und Rabbinischen Manuscripte" 
(Odessa, 1845), -which for the first time brought to 
the attention of the world the archeological dis- 
coveries (mostly spurious) of Abraham Fikkovicii. 
The publication of facsimiles, on which Simhah 
Pinsker and other investigators founded their the- 
ories on "nikkud" (punctuation), was, according to 
GeigerC'Wiss. Zeit. jQd. Theol." vi. 109), Pinner's 
only service to science. His own investigations, like 
his translations, were considered by competent crit- 
ics to be of no value. 

Other works of Pinner were : " Was Haben die 
Israeliten in Sachsen zu Hoffen und Was 1st Ihnen 
zu AVilnschenV" Leipsic, IS'6'S; "OlTenes Send- 
schreiben an die Nationen Europa's und an die Stande 
Norwegens," Berlin, 1848; " Denkschrift an die 
Juden Preussens, Besonders f(ir die Juden Berlins," 
ib. 1856, on the political and religious condition of 
the Jews; " Kol Kore, Aufruf an die Orthodo.xen 
Rabbinen Europa's und die Nothwendigkeit einer 
Streng Orthodoxen, Allgemeinen Rabbiner-Ver- 

sammlung Dargestellt," ib. 1858. He is, besides, sup- 
posed to be the author of an incomplete catalogue 
of Hebrew books and manuscripts (see Roest, "Cat. 
Rosenthal. Bibl." s.v.). 

BrBLior.R.^PHV : Alio- Zeit. des Jud. vol. 1., No. 1; Bischoff, 
Kritische Gcsiliiclitc der Talmnd-Uebersetzuuoen, p. 68, 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, lt<99 ; Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. iii. 103; Ke- 
rem Hcmal. il. 174, 194; Orient, Lit. 1»47, Nos. 1-2; Mc- 
Cllntock and Strong, Cyc. xii. 77(5; Steinschnetder. Cat. Bodl, 
S.V.; Zeitlin, Bibl. Pust-Mendels. pp. 2C8-2(i9. 

6. P. Wl. 

PINSK : Russian city in the government of 
Minsk, Russia. There were Jews in Pinsk prior to 
the sixteenth century, and there may have been an or- 
ganized community there at the time of the expul- 
sion of the Jews from Lithuania in 1495; but the 
first mention of the Jewish community there in Rus- 
sian-Lithuanian documents dates back to 1506. On 
Aug. 9 of that year the owner of Pinsk, Prince Feo- 
dor Ivanovich Yaroslavich, in his own name and in 
that of his wife. Princess Yelena, granted to the Jew- 
ish community of Pinsk, at the request of Yesko Mey- 
erovich, Pesakh Yesofovich, and Abram Ryzhkevich, 
and of other Jews of Pinsk, two par- 
Early eels of land for a house of prayer and 

Jewish a cemetery, and confirmed all the 

Settlers, rights and privileges given to the 
Jews of Lithuania bylving Alexander 
Jagellou. This grant to the Jews of Pinsk was con- 
firmed by Queen Bona on Aug. 18, 1533. From 1506 
until the end of the sixteenth century the Jews are 
frequently mentioned in various documents. In 
1514 they were included in the confirmation of privi- 
leges granted to the Jews of Lithuania by King 
Sigismund, whereby they were freed from special 
military duties and taxes and placed on an equality, 
in these respects, with the other inhabitants of the 
land, while they were also exempted from direct 
military service. They were included among the 
Jewish communities of Lithuania upon which a tax 
of 1,000 kop groschen was imposed by the king in 
1529, the entire sum to-be subject to a pro rata con- 
tribution determined upon by the communities. 
From other documents it is evident that members of 
the local Jewish community were prominent as tra- 
ders in the market-place, also as landowners, lease- 
holders, and farmers of taxes. In a document of 
March 27, 1522, reference is made to the fact that 
Lezer Markovich and Avram Volchkovich owned 
stores in the market-place near the castle. In an- 
other document, dated 1533, Avram Markovich was 
awarded by the city court the possession of the estate 
of Boyar Fedka Volodkevich, who had mortgaged it 
to Avram's father, Mark Yeskovicli. Still other 
documents show that in 1540 Aaron llich Khoroshenki 
of Grodno inherited some property in Pinsk, and 
that in 1542 Queen Bona confirmed the Jews Kher- 
son and Nahum Abramovich in the possession of the 
estate, in the village of Krainovichi, waywode.sliip 
of Pinsk, wliich tiiey hud inherited from their father, 
Abram Ryzhkevich. 

Abram Ryzhkevich was a prominent member of 
the .Jewish community at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century, and was active in communal work. 
He was a favorite of Prince Feodor Yaroslavich, who 
presented him with the estate in question with all 
its dependencies and serfs. The last-named were 




relieved from the payment of any crown taxes, and 
were to serve Abram Ryzhkevicli exclusively. He 
and his children were regarded us boyars, and shared 
the privileges and duties of that class. 

Pesakh Yesofovich, mentioned with Yesko Meyer- 
ovich and Abram Ryzhkevicli in the grant to the 
Jewish community of 1506, took an important part 
in local alTairs. Like Abram Ryzhkevicli, he was in- 
timate with Prince Feodor Yarosla- 
Pesakh Ye- vich, was presented by the prince with 
sofovich. a mansion in the town of Pinsk, and 
was exempted at the same time from 
the payment of any taxes or the rendering of local 
services, with the exception of participation in the 
repairing of the city walls. The possession of this 
mansion was confirmed by Queen Bona to Pesakh 's 
son Nahum in 1550, he having purchased it from 
Bentz Misevich, to whom the property was sold 
by Nahum's father. Inheriting their father's in- 
fluence, Nullum and his brother Israel played im- 
portant roles as merchants and leaseholders. Thus 
on June 23, 1550, they, together with Goshka Mosh- 
kevicli, were awarded by Queen Bona the lease of 
the customs and inns of Pinsk, Kletzk, and Goro- 
detzk for a term of three years, and had the lease 
renewed in 1553 for a further term of three years, 
on payment of 875 kop groschen and of 25 stones of 
wax. In the same year these leaseholders are men- 
tioned in a characteristic lawsuit. There was an 
old custom, known as "kanuny," on the strength of 
which the archbishop was entitled to brew mead 
and beer six times annually without payment of 
taxes. The Pesakhovich family evidently refused 
to recognize the validity of this privilege and en- 
deavored to collect the taxes. The case was carried 
to the courts, but the bishop being unable to show 
any documents in support of his claim, and admit- 
ting that it was merely based on custom, the queen 
decided that the legal validity of the custom should 
not be recognized; but since the income of the 
" kanuny " was collected for the benelit of the 
Church the tax-farmers were required to give an- 
nually to the archbishop 9 stones of Avax for can- 
dles, "not as a tax, but merely as a mark of our 
kindly intention toward God's churches." 

The Pesakhovich family continues to be mentioned 
prominently in a large number of documents, some 
of them dated in the late sixties of the sixteenth 
century. Thus in a document of May 19, 1555, 
Nahum Pesakhovich, as representative of all the 
Jews in the grand duchy of Lithuania, lodged a 
complaint with the king against the magistrate and 
burghers of Kiev because, coutrar}' to the old-estab- 
lished custom, they had prohibited the 
The Pe- Jews from coming to Kiev for trading 
sakhovich in the city stores, and compelled them 
Family. to stop at, and to sell their wares in, 
the cit}^ market recently erected by the 
burghers. Postponing his final decision until his 
return to Poland, the king granted the Jews the 
right to carry on trade as theretofore. 

In a document of Oct. 31, 1558, it is stated that 
the customs, inns, breweries, and ferries of Pinsk, 
which had been leased to Nahum and Israel Pesak- 
hovich for 450 kop groschen, were now awarded to 
Khaim Rubinovich for the annual sum of 550 gro- 
X.— 4 

schen. This indicates that the Pesakhovich family 
was yielding to the competition of younger men. 

An interesting light is shed on contemporary con- 
ditions by a document dated Dec. 12, 1561. This 
contains the complaint of Nahum Pesakhovich 
against Grigori Grichin, the estate-owner in the 
district of Pinsk, who liad mortgaged to him, to 
secure a debt of 33 kop groschen and of 5 pails of 
unfermented mead, six of his men in the village 
of Poryechye, but liad given him only live men. 
The men thus mortgaged to Nahum Pesakhovich 
were each compelled to pay annually to the latter 
20 groschen, one barrel of oats, and a load of hay ; 
they served him oneday in every seven, and assisted 
him at harvest-time. This would indicate that the 
Jesvs, like the boyars, commanded the services of 
the serfs, and could hold them under mortgage. 
In another document, dated 1565, Nahum Pesakho- 
vich informed the authorities that he had lost in the 
house of the burgher Kimich 10 kop groschen and 
a case containing his seal with his coat of arms. 

In 1551 Pinsk is mentioned among the communi- 
ties whose Jews were freed from the pa3'ment of the 
special tax called "serebschizna." In 1552-55 the 
starostof Pinsk took a census of the district in order 
to ascertain the value of property which was held in 
the district of Queen Bona. In the data thus secured 
the in Pinsk and the 
landowners in its vicinity are mentioned. It ap- 
pears from this census that Jews owned property 
and lived on the following streets: Dymiskovskaya 
(along the river), Stephanovskayaulitza (beyond the 
Troitzki bridge), Velikaya ulitza from the Spasskiya 
gates, Kovalskaya, Grodetz, and Zhi- 
The Pinsk dovskayaulitzi, and the street near the 

Jewry in Spass Church. The largest and most 
1555. prominent Jewish property-owners in and vicinity were the members 
of the Pesakhovich family — Nahum, Mariana, Israel, 
Kusko, Rakhval (probably Jerahmeel), Mosko, and 
Lezcr Nahumovich ; other prominent property- 
owners were Ilia Moiseyevich, Nosko Moiseyevich, 
Abram Markovich, and Lezer Markovich. The syn- 
agogue and the house of the cantor were situated 
in the Zhidovskaya ulitza. Jewish settlements near 
the village of Ku.stzich are mentioned. 

A number of documents dated 1561 refer in vari- 
ous connections to the Jews of Pinsk. Thus one of 
March 10, 1561, contains a complaint of Pan Andrei 
Okhrenski, representative of Prince Nikolai Radzi- 
will, and of the Jew Mikhel against Matvei Voitek- 
hovich, estate-owner in the district of Pinsk; the 
last-named had sent a number of his men to the 
potash-works belonging to Prince Radziwill and 
managed by the Jew above-mentioned. These men 
attacked the works, damaging the premises, driving 
off the laborers, and committing many thefts. 

By a decree promulgated May 2, 1561, King Sigis- 
mund August appointed Stanislav Dovorino as su- 
perior judge of Pinsk and Kobrin. and placed all 
the Jews of Pinsk and of the neighboring villages 
under his jurisdiction, and their associates Avere 
ordered to turn over the magazines and stores to the 
magistrate and burghers of Pinsk. In August of the 
same year the salt monopoly of Pinsk was awarded 
to the Jews Khemiya and Abram Rubinovich, 




But on Dec. 25, 1564, the leases were awarded to 
the Jews Vaska Medenchich and Gershon Avramo- 
vich, who offered the king 20 kop gioschen more 
than was paid by the Christian merchants. In the 
following year the income of Pinsk was leased to 
the Jew David Shmerlevich. 

In the census of Pinsk taken again in 1566, Jew- 
ish house-owners are found on streets not mentioned 
in the previous census; among these were the Stara, 
Lyshkovska, and Sochivchinskaya ulitzy. Among 
the house-owners not previous)}' mentioned were 
Zelman, doctor ("doctor," meaning "rabbi " or "day- 
yan "), Meir Moiseyevia, doctor, Novach, doctor, 
and others. The Pesakhovich family was still 
prominent among the landowners. 

In a circular letter of 1578 King Stephen Bathori 
informed the Jews of the town and district of Pinsk 
that because of their failure to pay their taxes in 
gold, and because of their indebtedness, he would 
send to them the nobleman Mikolai 
Under Ste- Kindei with instructions to collect the 
phen sumdue. By an order of Jan. 20, 1581, 

Bathori. King Stephen Bathori granted the 
Magdeburg Uiglits to the city of 
Pinsk. This provided that Jews who had recently 
acquired houses in tiie town were to pay the same 
ta.xesas the Christian householders. Thenceforward, 
however, tiie Jews were forbidden, under penalty 
of confiscation, to buy houses or to acquire them in 
any other way. Elsewhere in the same document the 
citizens of Pinsk are given permission to build a 
town hall in the market-place, and for this purpose 
the Jewish shops were to be torn down. The grant 
of the Magdeburg Rights was subsequently con- 
firmed by Sigismund III. (1589-1623), Ladislaus IV. 
(1633), and John Casimir (1650). 

In spite of the growing competition of the 
Christian merchants, the Jews must have carried on 
a considerable import and export trade, as is shown 
by the custom-house records of Brest-Litovsk. 
Among who exported goods from Pinsk to 
Lublin in 1583 Levko Bendetovich is mentioned (wax 
and skins), and among the importers was one Hay- 
vim Itzkhakovich (steel, cloth, iron, scythes, prunes, 
onion-seed, and girdles). Abraham Zroilevich im- 
ported caps, Hungarian knives, velvet girdles, linen 
from Glogau, nuts, prunes, lead, nails, needles, 
pins, and ribbons. Abraham Me}'erovich imported 
wine. Other importers were Abram Yaknovich, 
Yatzko Nosanovicli, Yakub Aronovich, and Hilel 
and Rubin Lazarevich. 

About 1620 the LiTnr.\Ni.\N Cou>'ciL wf sorgan- 
ized, of which Pinsk, witli Brest-Litovsk and Grod- 
no, became a part. In 1640 the Jews Jacob Rabin - 
ovich and Mordecai-Shmoilo Izavelevioh applied in 
their own name, and in the names of all the, Jews 
then living on church lands, to Pakhomi Oranski, 
the Bisiiop of Pinsk and Turov, for permission to 
remit all taxes directly to him instead of to tiie par- 
ish priests. Complying with this request, the 
bishop reaffirmed the rights previously granted to 
the Jews; they were at liberty to build houses on 
their lots, to rent them to newly arrived people, to 
build inns, breweries, etc. 

Toward the middle of the seventeenth century the 
Jews of Pinsk began to feel more and more the ani- 

mosity of their Christian neighbors; and this was 

true also of other Jewish communities. In 1647 

" Lady" Deboraii Lezerovaaud her son 

Increasing- "Sir" Yakub Lezerovich complained 

Anti- to the magistrates that their grain and 

Jewish hay had been set on fire by peasants. 

Feeling. In the following year numerous com- 
plaints of attack, robbery, plunder, 
and arson were reported by the local Jews. Rebel- 
lion was in the air, and with the other Jewish com- 
munities in Lithuania that of Pinsk felt the cruelties 
of the advancing Cossacks, who killed in great num- 
bers the poorer Jews who were not able to escape. 
Prince Radziwill, who hastened to the relief of the 
cit3\ finding the rioters there, set it on fire and 
destroyed it. 

Hannover, in " Yewen Mezulah," relates that the 
Jews who remained in Pinsk and those who were 
found on the roads or in the suburbs of that city 
were all killed by the Cossacks. He remarks also 
that when Radziwill set fire to the town, many of 
the Cossacks endeavored to escape by boats and 
Avere drowned in the river, while others were killed 
or burned by the Lithuanian soldiers. Meir ben 
Samuel, in "Zuk ha-'Ittim," says that the Jews of 
Pinsk were delivered by the townspeople (i.e., the 
Greek Orthodox) to the Cossacks, who massacred 

Evidently Jews had again appeared in Pinsk by 
1651, for the rural judge Dadzibog Markeisch, in 
his will, reminds his wife of his debt of 300 gulden 
to the Pinsk Jew Gosher Abramovich, of which he 
had already repaid 100 gulden and 110 thalers, and 
asks her to pa}' the remainder. In 1(562 the Jews of 
Pinsk were relieved by John Casimir of the head- 
tax, which the)' were unable to pay on account of 
their impoverished condition. On April 11, 1665, 
the heirs of the Jew Nathan Lezerovicli were 
awarded by the court their claim against Pana 
Tcrletzkaya for 69.209 zlot. For her refusal to al- 
low the collection of the sum as ordered by the 
court she was expelled from the country. In 1665, 
after the country had been ruined by the enemy, the 
Jewish community of Pinsk paid its proportion of 
special taxation for the benefit of the nobility. 

Beyond the fact that Hasidism developed in the 
suburb of Karliu (see Aakon hen J.vcob of Kar- 
lin), little is known about the history of the Pinsk 
community in the eighteenth century; but since the 
first quarter of the nineteenth century the Jews 
there have taken an active part in the development 
of the export and import trade, especially with Kiev, 
Krementcluig, and Yekaterinoslav, with which it is 
connected by a steamship line on the Dnieper. 
jNIany of the members of the Jewisii community of 
Pinsk removed to the newly opened South-Russian 
province and became active members of the various 
commimities there. In the last quarter of the nine- 
tecntii century prominent Jewish citizens of Pinsk 
developed to a considerable extent 
In the its indu.stries, in which thousands of 
Nineteenth Jewisii workers now find steady oc- 

Century. cupation. They have established 
chemical-factories, sawmills, a match- 
factory (400 Jewish workers, producing 10,000,000 
boxes of matches per annum ; established by L. Hirsch- 




man in 1900), shoe-nail factor\' (200 Jewisli work- 
ers), candle-factory, cork-factory, parquet-factory, 
brewery, and tobacco-factories (with a total of 800 
Jewish workers). The Liiriesand Levineshavel)een 
especially active in that direction. Another cork- 
factory, owned by a Christian, employs 150 Jewish 
workers: and the shipyards (owned by a French- 
man), in which large steamers and sailing vessels are 
built, also employs a few hundred Jews. Besides 
these, there are many Jewish artisans in Pinsk who are 
occupied as nailsmiths, founders, workers in brass, 
and tanners; in soap-manufactories, small brew- 
eries, violin-string factories, the molasses-factory, 
the flaxseed-oil factory, and the tallit-factory. In 
all these the Jewish Sabbath and holy days are 
strictly observed. Many Jewish laborers are cm- 
ployed on the docks of Pinsk and as skilled boatmen. 
Pinsk has become one of the chief centers of Jew- 
ish industry in northwest Russia. The total out- 
put of its Jewish factories is valued at two and a 
half million rubles. The pay of working men per 
week in the factories is: 





3 to 7 rubles. 

3 to .5 " 


6 to 18 " 

6 to 16 " 

1.20 to 2..''.0 rubles. 

MaU-h -factories 

Caudle " 


1.20 to 2.50 " 

Since 1890 there have been technical classes connected 
•with the Pinsk Talmud Torah, where the boys learn 
the trades of locksmiths, carpenters, etc., and technol- 
ogy, natural history, and drawing. 

Bibliography: Reaestu i Nadpisi; Russltn-Yevreiski Ar- 
khiv. vols. i. and li.; Voskhud, Oct., 1901, p. 23; Welt, 1898, 
No. 11. 

J. G. L. 

The first rabbi mentioned in connection with Pinsk 
is R. Simson. With R. Solomon Luria (MaHRaSh) 
and R. ^lordecai of Tiktin, he was chosen, in 1568, 
to adjudicate the controversy relating to the asso- 
ciation of Podlasye. His successors were: R. Naph- 
tali, son of R. Isaac Katz (removed to Lublin; d. 
1650); R. Moses, son of R. Israel Jacob (c. 1073; 
his name occurs in the "Sha'are Shamayim ") ; R. 
Naphtali, son of R. Isaac Ginsburg (d. 1687); R. 
Samuel Halpern, son of R. Isaac Halpern (d. 1703; 
mentioned in "Dibre Hakamim," 1691); R. Isaac 
^leir, son of R. Jonah Te'omim; R. Samuel, son of 
R. Naphtali Ilerz Ginzburg (mentioned in " 'Am- 
mude 'Olam," Amsterdam, 1713); R. Asher Ginz- 
burg (mentioned in the preface to "Ga'on Lewi"); 

R. Israel Isher, son of R. Abraham 
Rabbis. Mamri (mentioned in Tanna debe 

Eliyahu, 1747); R. Raphael, son of 
R. Jekuthiel Slissel (1763 to 1773; d. 1804); R. 
Abraham, son of R. Solonum (mentioned in the 
"Netib ha-Yashar"); R. Levy Isaac; R. Abigdor 
(had a controversy with the Hasidim on the ques- 
tion of giving precedence in prayers to " Ilodu " 
over "Baruk she-Amar"; the question was sub- 
mitted for settlement to Emperor Paul I. : "Vosk- 
hod," 1893, i.): R.Joshua, son of Shalom (Phine- 
has Michael, "Masseket Nazir," Preface): R. Hay- 
yim ha-Kohen Rapoport (resigned in 1825 to go to 
Jerusalem; d. 1840); Aaron of Pinsk (author of 

"Tosefot Aharon," KOnigsberg, 1858; d. 1842); R. 
i\Iordecai Sackiieim (1843 to his death in 1853); R. 
Eleazar Moses Hurwitz (1860 to his death in 1895). 

Among those members of the communit}- of 
Pinsk who achieved distinction were the following: 
R. Elijah, son of R. Moses ("Kiryah Ne'emanah," 
p. 125) ; R. Moses Goldes, grandson of the author of 
"Tola'at Ya'akob"; R. Kalonymus Kalniau Ginz- 
burg (president of the community); R. Jonathan 
(•'Dibre Rab Meshallem ") ; R. Sf>lomon Bachrach, 
sou of ]{. Samuel P-.ichrach ("' Pinkas Tiktin"); li. 
Hayyimof Karlin("'Ir Wilna," p. 31); R. Solomon, 
son of R. Asher ("Geburath He-Or"); R. Joseph 
Janower ("Zeker Yehosef," Warsaw, I860): R. 
Samuel, son of Moses Levin ("Ba'al Kedoshim," 
p. 210): R. Asher, son of R. Kalonymus Kalinan 
Ginzburg ("'Kiryah Ne'emanah," p. 185); R. (Jad 
Asher, son of R. Joshua Rokeah (" Anshe Shem," p. 
63); R. Joshua Ezekiel (ih.); R- Hayyim SchOnlinkel 
(ib. p. 70); R. Abraham Isaac ("Birkat Rosh"); R. 
Notel Michael Sch5ntinkel ("Da'at Kedoshim," p. 
181); Zeeb, Moses, Isaac, and Solomon Wolf, sous 
of R. Samuel Levin; R. Jacob Simhah Wolfsohn 
("Anshe Shem," p. 40); R. Aaron Luria; R. Samuel 

The writers of Pinsk include: R. Moses Aaron 
Schatzkes (author of "Mafteah"), R. Zebi Hirsch, 
Shereshevski, A. B. Dobsevage, N. M. Schaikewitz, 
Baruch Epstein, E. D. Lifshitz. Abraham Kunki 
passed through Pinsk while traveling to collect 
money for the support of the Jerusalem Talmud To- 
rah (preface to " Abak Soferim," Amsterdam, 1701). 

In 1781 the heads of the Jewish congregations of 
Pinsk followed the example of some Russian Jewish 
communities by excommunicating the Hasidim. In 
1799 the town was destroyed by fire, and its records 
were lost. Pinsk has two cemeteries : in the older, in- 
terments ceased in 1810. The total population of the 
town (1905) is about 28,000, of whom 18,000 are Jews. 

Karlin : Until about one hundred 3'ears ago Kar- 
lin was a suburb of Pinsk, and its Jewish residents 
constituted a part of the Pinsk community. Then 
R. Samuel Levin obtained the separation of Karlin 
from Pinsk (Steinschneider, "'Ir Wilna," p. 188). 
In 1870 the Hasidim of Karlin removed to the 
neighboring town of Stolin. The rabbis of the Mit- 
naggedim of Karlin include: R. Samuel Antipoler; 
R. Abraham Rosenkraiiz; the "Rabbi of Wolpe" 
(his proper name is imknown); R. Jacob (author of 
"Miskenot Ya'akob") and his brother R. Isaac (au- 
thor of " Keren Orah ") ; R. Samuel Abigdor Tose- 
fa'ah (author of "She'elot u-Teshubot'") : David 
Friedmann (the present [1905] incumbent: author 
of " Yad Dawid "). 

n. R. B. Ei. 

Talmudist of the eighteenth century. He was a 
descendant of Nathan Spira of Cracow, and the 
author of the Talmudical work " Neta' Sha'ashu'im " 
(Zolkiev, 1748), which contains novella? on the sec- 
tion Nashim of the Babylonian Talmud and on the 
tractates Makkot and Shebu'ot, besides some collec- 

Bibmooraphy: Fiirst. Bihl. Jud. Hi. 104; Zedner, Cat. Hchr. 
nniika lirit. ^hl!>. p. 210; Fuenn, Keticset Yisrad, pp. 186- 

187, Warsaw, 1886. 

E. C. P. Wl. 




Lev Pinsker. 


Russian plivsiciau; burn at Tuniaslicv, govLTunieut 
of Piotrkow (Piotrikov), Poland. 1821; son of Sim- 
hah Pinsker; died at Odessa Dec. 21, 1891. Pinsker 
obtained his early education in his father's school, 
the curriculum of which included not only general 
subjects but also specifically Jewish ones. After 
finishing his course there he entered the gymnasium, 
and later the Richelieu Lyceum. On graduating 
from the latter institution he accepted the position 
of instructor hi the Russian language at the Jewish 
school in Kishiuef. In the following yeav he began 
a medical course in the University of Moscow, and 

while still a student dis- 
played great courage in 
devoting himself to the 
care of hospital patients 
suffering from cholera, 
which disease was at that 
time (1848) epidemic. On 
completing his course he 
returned to Odessa, and 
soon after was appointed 
to the staff of the city hos- 
pital, having been highly 
recommended by the au- 
thorities. His great in- 
dustry and thoroughness 
gradually won for him the 
recognition of his col- 
leagues and of the public, 
and within ten years he became one of the foremost 
physicians of Odessa. 

Pinsker likewise took an active interest in com- 
munal affairs. He also published occasional arti- 
cles in the periodicals "Sion," "Den," and "Raz- 
svyet." Though not a prolific writer, Pinskerevinced 
much originality and feeling; and his articles were 
always forceful. He pleaded earnestly for more 
freedom for the Russian Jews, and endeavored to 
convince the latter of the great value of modern 
education. In time Pinsker came to see that the 
Russian Jew could not expect much from an auto- 
cratic government, and that any deliverance for him 
must come through his own exertions. The expres- 
sion of this conviction appears in his " Autoemanci- 
pation," which appeared in 1881 over the nom de 
plume "Ein Russischer Jude." The author's name 
soon became known, however, and the pamphlet 
created much comment and discussion. Pinsker 
advocated therein the acquisition of land by the 
Jews, inasmuch as without homes of their own they 
would always remain strangers. 

A congress of delegates from almost all the coun- 
tries of Europe met to the fundamental idea 
set forth Ijy Pinsker, but failed to formulate an ef- 
fective plan for the solution of the problem. The 
only practical outcome was the establishment of a 
society for the aid of Jewish inmiigrants in Pales- 
tine and Syria. As chairman of this .society Pinsker 
energetically devoted himself to the question, work- 
ing patiently throughout the remainder of his life for 
the establi.shment of Jewish settlers in the Holy Land. 

BinLior.RAPnv: N. R. Rashkovskl, SSovrememtyye Ru!>slso- 
Yevreinldyc Dyeyatcli, p. (U, Odessa, 1899. 
H. R, J. G. L. 

PINSKER, SIMHAH : Polish Hebrew scholar 
and archeologist ; born at Tarnopol, Galicia, JIarch 
17, 1801 ; died at Odessa Oct. 29, 1864. He received 
his carl}-- Hebrew education in the heder and from 
his father, Shebah ha-Levi, a noted preacher, who 
instructed him in mathematics and German also. 
In his youth Pinsker was an enthusiastic admirer of 
the Hasidim, but soon forsook them. He at first 
engaged in business, but, having no aptitude there- 
for, was obliged to abandon it. He then went to 
Odessa, and, owing to his calligraphic skill, became 
secretary to the rabbi. Here, in conjunction with 
Lsaac Horowitz of Brody and Littenfeld, Pinsker 
succeeded in establishing a public school for Jewish 
children, of Avhich he himself served as principal 
until 1840. 

At that time Abraham Fiimovicn, a Karaite 
scholar, brought to Odessa a number of ancient 
manuscripts, unearthed in the Crimea. Among 
these was one of the Later Prophets which had a 
singular punctuation, differing widely in the form 
of the vowels and singing-accents from the one then 
in use. This manuscript gave ample opportunity 
to Pinsker to satisfy his propensity for research. 
He at once set himself to the task of deciphering the 
system of punctuation, and satisfactorily acconi- 
plished it. He had already become known as an ar- 
cheologist of merit through his contributions to the 
" Orient " ; but with this di.scovery his fame was es- 
tablished. He was thereupon honored by the Rus- 
sian government with two gold medals and with the 
title "Honorable Citizen"; and the communit}' of 
Odessa bestowed upon him a life-pension of 300 
rubles a year. 

Pinsker then retired from communal work, and 
repaired to Vienna in order to devote the rest of his 
life to his researches and to the arrangement and 
publication of his works. Of these the first and 
most important one was"Likkute Kadmoniyyot" 
(Vienna, 1860), in which he describes the different 
periods of development in the history of Karaism. 
He maintains that the term " Karaite " is derived 
from the Hebrew " kara " (Xtp) = " to call," " to in- 
vite," and that its dates from the first period of 
the schism, when the members of this sect sent mes- 
sengers throughont Jewry "to invite" the people 
to join their ranks ("' Likk\itc Kadmoniyyot," p. 
16). Pinsker moreover attempts to show through- 
out the whole work that to the scholars of this 
sect who preceded the orthodox Biblical scholars 
and grammarians is due the correct system of Bib- 
lical orthography, grammar, and lexicography ; and 
that even in their poetry the Karaites were models 
for the Hebrew poets of the Middle Ages, such as 
Ibn Gabirol and Jiidah ha-Levi (ih. p. 107). The 
"Likkute Kadmoniyyot" made such an imjiression 
upon the scholarly world that Jost and Graetz pub- 
licly avowed their indebtedness to the author, the 
former even changing, in consequence, some of the 
views expressed in his history of the Jewish sects. 

The other great work of Pinsker, published in 
his lifetime, was "Mabo el ha-Nikkud ha-Ashshuri 
weha-Babli " (Vienna, 1863), an introduction to the 
Babylonian-Hebraic system of punctuation ; it con- 
tains tiie results of his examination of the manu- 
scripts in the Odessa library. As an appendix to it is 




printed the " Yesod Mispar," by Abraham ibn Ezra, 

ou the Hebrew numerals. Pinsker's other works are : 

an edition of the "Miklol" (Lyck, 1862). Hebrew 

grammar by D. Kimhi, with emendations by Pinsker 

and others; "Sefer ha-Ehad " (Odessa, 1867), on the 

nine cardinal numbers, by Abraham ibn Ezra, with 

commentary; and "Mishle lia-Gezerah weha-Bin- 

yan " (Vienna, 1887), on the Hebrew verb. Pinsker 

left, besides, a considerable number of manuscripts 

ou the Hebrew language and literature. 

At Vienna, Pinsker lectured for some time at the 

bet ha-midrasli; but, his health soon failing, he was 

brought back by his children to Odessa, Avherc he 


Bibliography : Zederbaum, In Mizpah, Iv. 13-U ; idem, in 
Ha-Mcliz, 18(54, No. 43; Ha-Magliid, 18&'), Nos. 7-10 ; Mo- 
natsschrift, x. 176 et ^eq.: Hc-Haht:}, v. 56 et seq.; Mazkir 
li-liene lieshef, in Ha-Shahai; i. 40 et seq.; H. S. Morais, 
Eminent l»raeliles of the iVinetcenth Century, pp. 279 et 
seq., Philadelphia, 1880. 
H. 15. A. S. W. 

PINTO or DE PINTO : Family of financiers, 
rabbis, scholars, soldiers, and communal workers, 
originally from Portugal. Members of it lived in 
Syria in the beginning of the sixteenth century; and 
in 1535 there was at Rome a Diogo Rodrigues Pinto, 
advocate of the Maranos. But its most prominent 
members lived in Holland, particularly in Amster- 
dam, in the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
They were among the greatest financiers in that 
city ; and one of them bequeathed several millions 
to the Jewish community, to the state, to Christian 
orphanages and churches, and to the Christian clergy 
(see his testament in Schudt, "Jlidische Merkwur- 
digkeiten," i. 292). Members of the family were also 
prominent in South America, namelj^ in Brazil and 
in Dutch Guiana, in the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. About the same time other members set- 
tled in the United States, becoming very influential, 
especially in the state of Connecticut, where they 
took an active part in the Revolution. The earliest 
mention of the Pintos in the Connecticut records is 
under date of 1724; in those of New York, 1736. 
The best-known members of this family are: 

Aaron de Pinto : Trustee of the Portuguese con- 
gregation at Amsterdam in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. He supported Solomon Ayl- 
LON against Zebi Hirsch Ashkenazi. Ayllon con- 
vinced Pinto that it was his duty to uphold the 
superiority of the Portuguese community over the 
Ashkenazim. He thus helped greatly to protect Ne- 
Lemiah Hayyun and to persecute Ashkenazi. Pinto 
and Ayllon even suggested that Ashkenazi should 
be cited before the Portuguese council, which, since 
he did not heed the summons, excommunicated him. 

T>. M. Sel. 

Aaron Adolf de Pinto: Dutch jurist; son of 
Moses de Pinto and Sara Salvador; born at The 
Hague Oct. 24, 1828; studied law at Leyden (LL.D. 
1852). In 1862 he was appointed referendary in the 
Department of Justice, in 1871 "Raadsadviseur," 
and in 1876 justice of the Supreme Court; he be- 
came vice-president of that court Dec. 31, 1903. 
He has been a member of the Royal Academy of 
Sciences since 1877. The law of i872, abolishing 
tithes, was drawn up by De Pinto. From 1870 to 
1881 he was secretary of a commission appointed to 

prepare a penal code, which was put in force in 
1886; he Avas a member also of the colonial penal 
code commission. He is the author of the "Me- 
morie van Toelichting op liet Wetsontwerp tot Af- 
schaffiug van de Doodstraf." From 1888 to 1902 De 
Pinto was editor-in-chief of the " WeekbJad voor het 
Reclit," and lie was one of the founders of the Juris- 
tenvereeniging. He has published : " Wetboek van 
Strafrecht voor Nederland.sch IndiG; Wetboek voor 
Europeanen, Gevolgd door Memorie van Toelich- 
ting" (The Hague, 1866); "Hezzien Wetboek van 
Strafvoidering " (2 vols., Zwolle, 1886-88); "Het 
Proces Dreyfus Getoetst met Wet en Recht " (2 
vols., 1898-99). De Pinto is commander of the 
Order of the Netherlands Lion and oflicer of the 
Crown of Italy. 

Bibliography: Enien Haard, 1898 (with portrait); Een 
Halve Eeuw, i. 190 ; ii. 52, 57, 60. 

s. E. Si.. 

Abraham Pinto : Cofounder, with his brother 
David Pinto, of the Portuguese community at Rot- 
terdam in the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
The two brothers established also a school (Jesiba de 
los Pinto.s), ■which, in 1669, after the death of one of 
the touiiders, was transferred to Amsterdam. 

Abraham Pinto : Soldier in the American army 
in 1775, at the time of the Revolution. He Avas a 
member of Companj' X, Seventh Regiment of the 
State of Connecticut. 

i>. M. Sel. 

Abraham de Pinto: Dutch jurist; born at The 
Hague May 27, 1811 ; died there May 26, 1878. He 
studied law at Leyden (LL.D. 1835) and was awarded 
a gold medal by the university for a competitive 
thesis entitled "E.xponaturetad Examen Revocetur 
Locus C. C. de Causa Obligandi" (1835). In 1835 
he became editor-in-chief of the " Weekblad voor het 
Recht," and from 1840 to 1876 he edited the period- 
ical " Themis, " which he had founded. Abraham de 
Pinto was a member of the municipal council of The 
Hague from 1851 until his death. He was president 
of the Sephardic congregation, and on his initiative 
was founded the "Maatschappij tot Nut der Israe- 
lieten in Nederland " (1850). He was appointed 
" Landsadvocaat " Dec. 27, 1863. 

De Pinto published the following works: "Een 
Woord over de Circulaire van den Minister van 
Justitie" (The Hague, 1850); "Handleiding tot de 
Wet op den Overgang van de Vroegere tot de 
Nieuwe Wetgeving" (ib. 1850); "Handleiding tot 
het Wetboek van Burgerlijke Rechtsvordering " 
(2d ed., 3 vols., 1857) ; " Adviezen 1838-52 " (Zwolle, 
1862); "Handleiding tot het Wetboek van Koop- 
handel " (3d ed., 2 vols., ib. 1879); "Handleiding tot 
de Wet op de Rechterli jke Organisatie en het Beleid 
der Justitie" (2d ed., rt. 1880); "Handleiding tot 
het Wetboek van Strafvordering ' (2d ed., 2 vols., 
lb. 1882); "Handleiding tot het Burgerlijk AVet- 
boek" (6th ed., ib. 1883-85). 

Bibliography: Wcckhlad roor het Eecht, 1878. Nos. 4240, 
4241; Uoest, NieitiLsbodc, iii. 49; Brinkman, Catah>gus. 
s. E. Sl. 

Daniel Pinto : Syrian Talmudi,st; lived at Aleppo 
in the seventeenth century. He and Moses Galante 
went to Smyrna in order to pay homage to Shab- 
bethai Zebi. 




David Pinto : Cofounder, with his brother Abra- 
ham, iif tile Portuguese community at Rotterdam. 

David Pinto : A rich broiier of Amsterdam in 
the eigliteentli century who sided with Jonathan 
Eybesciutz in his controversy with Jacob Emden. 

Biblio(;rapiiv : Griitz. Gesch. 3d ed.. Ix. 262; x. 13, 211, 321, 
368 ; Hiihner. in Publ. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. xi. 88 et seq. 

Isaac Pinto : Dutch captain of the beginning of 
the eigliteentli century. At the head of a company of 
Jews, Pinto in 1712 heroically defended the village 
of Savanna in Surinam and beat off the French 
under Cassard. Southey ("History of Brazil," ii. 
241) speaks of a captain named Pinto, wiio, when 
the Dutch were for the second time besieged at Re- 
cife, defended the fort single-handed, until, over- 
whelmed by superior numbers, he was obliged to 
surrender. He is probabl}' identical with the sub- 
ject of this article. 

Bibmography: Felsenthal and Gottheil in Puhl. Am. Jew. 
Hist. Sue. iv. 3; G. A. Kohiit, il). iii. 118 ct seq.; Koenen, 
(ie:<chieileui.'! ili:i-Ji>(le)i iit yideiiatul, pp. 281,294; Simon 
Wolf, The American Jew as Patriot, Huldier, and Citizen, 

p. 452. 

U. M. Sel. 

Isaac Pinto: American ritualist; born about 
1721; died Jan., 1791; member of Congregation 
Shearith Israel in the city of New York. He is re- 
membered chietiy for having prepared what is prob- 
ably the earliest Jewish prayer-book published in 
America, and certainly the first work of its kind 
printed in New York city. The work appeared in 
1766, and the title-page reads as follows: "Prayers 
for Shabbath, Rosli-llashanah and Kippur, or the 
Sabbath, the beginning of the j'ear, and the Day of 
Atonement, with the Amidah and Musaph of the 
Moadim or Solemn Seasons, according to the Order 
of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. Translated 
by Isaac Pinto and for him printed b}' John Holt in 
New York. A.]\I. Oi")26." It seems that the ma- 
liamad of the London congregation would not per- 
mit this translation to be published in Enijland (see 
Jacobs and Wolf, "Bibl. Anglo-Jud." p. 174. Lon- 
don, 1888; G. A. Kohut, in ">ubl. Am. Jew. Hist. 
Soc." iii. 121; Lady Magnus, "Outlines of Jewish 
History," p. 348, Philadelphia, 1890). 

Pinto was the friend and correspondent of Ezra 
Stiles, president of Yale College, who as late as 1790 
mentions him in his diary as "a learned Jew at New 
York." From Stiles' account it appears that Pinto 
was a good Hebrew scholar, studying Ibu Ezra in 
the original. An Isaac Pinto, po.ssibly identical 
with tlie subject of tliis article, appears to have been 
a resident of Siratford, Conn., as early as 1748 
("Colonial Records of Connecticut," ix. 406). 

Bibliography : The Literary Diarjj of EzraStileit. ed. F. B. 
I)t'Xt<!r, .New York. liiOl ; (ieorpe A. Kohut, Kzra Stik.i ri/id 
the Jews. il». liXKi ; Morris .Iristrow. in I'lilil. Am. Jew. Hist. ■ 
Soc. X. 2!) ; Leon Huhner, TItc Jews of Xew Ktmlnnd Prior 

to mx), il). Xi. 90. 

•T. L. Hi:. 

Isaac de Pinto : Portuguese moralist of Jew- 
ish origin; born 1715; died Aug. 14. 1787, at The 
Hague. He first settled at Bordeaux, and then re- 
moved to Holland. Pinto was a man of wide infor- 
mation, but did not begin to write until nearly fifty, 
when he acqiiire<l a i-eputation by defending his co- 
religionists against Voltaire. In 1762 he published 
his "Essai sur le Luxe" at Amsterdam. In tlie 

same year appeared his " Apologie pour la Nation 
Juive, ou Reflexions Critiques." The author sent 
a manuscript copy of this work to Voltaire, who 
thanked him. Guenee reproduced the "Apologie" 
at the head of his " Lettres de Quelques Juifs Portu- 
gais, AUemands et Polouais. a M. de Voltaire." In 
1768 Pinto sent a letter to Diderot on "Du Jeu de 
Cartes." His " Traitede la Circulation etdu Credit " 
appeared in Amsteidam iu 1771. and was twice re- 
printed, besides being translated into English and 
German. His "Precis des Arguments Contre les 
]\hiterialistes" was published at The Hague in 1774. 
Pinto's works were published in French (Am- 
sterdam, 1777) and also in German (Leipsic, 1777). 

Bibliography: Didot, iN'oiu-eZ/c Biographic Geni'rale,r).282; 
Barbier, Dietinnnaire dcA Auounines; Dictinttnaire d' Eco- 
nomic Politicale, ii.; Qut?rard, La France Litteraire, in^lJJ- 
ijemeine Litteraturzeituug, 1787, No. 273. 
D. I. Co. 

Jacob Pinto : Earlj' Jewish settler at New Haven, 
Conn., where he was residing in 1759; brother of 
Solomon Pinto. He figures repeatedly in C(jnnecti- 
cut records between 1765 and 1776. Pinto espoused 
the patriot cause at the outbreak of the American 
Revolution ; and he appears to have been a member 
of a political committee at New Haven in 1775. His 
name appears, with that of other influential citizens 
of the place, in a petition to the Council of Safety 
for the removal of certain Tories in 1776. 

Bibliography: J. W. Barber, Connectintt Historical Collec- 
tions, p. ITti. New Haven, n.d.; Leon Hiihner. The Jewn of 
New Eiifilond Prior to ISOO, in Publ. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. 
xi. 93, and aiiUiorities there cited. 

Joseph Jesurun Pinto : American rabbi; born 
probably in England; died 1766. He was leader 
of Congregation Shearith Israel, New York, from 
1759 to 1766, having been selected for tiie posi- 
tion and .sent to New York by the London con- 
gregation pursuant to a request from that of New 
York. A letter from the former to the latter, dated 
1758, relating to the matter is still extant. Pinto 
became a minister as a very young man, and in 
1762 married Rebecca, daughter of Moses de la 
Torre of London. The only literary production of 
his that has come down is a form of prayer for a 
thanksgiving service for the "Reducingof Canada," 
published at New York in 1760. 

Bibmography: N. T. Phillips, in Puhl. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. 
ii.49-.">l. vi. 12!); Charles V. Daly, The Settlement of the Jews 
in Nortli America, p. .')(), Nrw York, 1893; M. tiaster. Hist, 
of Bevis Marks, London, 19(11. 
J. L. Hi). 

Josiah. ben Joseph Pinto (RIF) : Syrian labbi 
and preacher; born at Damascus about 1505; died 
there Feb. or March, 164S. His father, Joseph 
Pinto, was one of the rich and chaiitable men of 
that city. Josiah was a jmpil of various rabbis in 
Talmud and Cabala, and later, after his father's 
death, he studied Talmud under Jacob Abulafia, who 
ordained him as rabbi. Pinto's perinaneiit residence 
was at Damascus, where later he ollicialed as rabbi 
until his death. lie went twice to Aleppo, and 
in 1625 he removed to Safed with the intention of 
settling there; but the death of his young son, 
Joseph, which occurred a year later, induced him to 
return to Damascus. 

Pinto was the author of tlie following works: 
" Kesef Nibl.iar" (Damascus, 1616), a collection of 

n — -VK — t!—-r- 

R A Y E R S 


O R 





The ^iMIDAH and MUSAPH of the MO^DIM, 

O R 

According to the Order of the Spanifh and For tugucfc Jews, 
Translated by ISJJC PINTO. 

And for him printed by JOTTN HOLT, in New- York, 

. A. M. 55^6. 



Title-Page from Isaac Pinto's Translation of the Prayer-book, Printed at New York, 17t 

(From the Sulzberger collection In the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York.) 




homilies and comments on Genesis and Exodus; 
"Kesef Mezukkak " (finished IG'25, and published at 
Venice, 1628), a homiletic commentary on the Pen- 
tateuch, followed by a pamphlet entitled "Kesef 
To'afot," glosses on the Pentateuch; "Me'or 'Ena- 
yira," commentary on Jacob ibn Habib's "'En 
Ya'akob," which is a collection of the haggadot of 
the Babylonian Talmud (part 1., with the text, Ven- 
ice, 1643; part ii., with other commentaries and the 
text. Amsterdam, 1754); "Kesef Zaruf " {i/>. 1714), 
commeutar}' on Proverbs; and "Nibhar mi-Kesef " 
(Aleppo, 1869). Some of his responsa are to be 
found in the collection of Yom-Tob Zahalon and in 
Aaron Alfandari"s " Yad Aharon." His unpublished 
works are: "Kesef Nim'as," a commentary on 
Lamentations; "Kebuzzat Kesef." a collection of 
civil laws and of laws concerning women; and a 
collection of responsa. 

BiBLioORAPHV : Azxi\aUShemha-GednJim,l.: Tuenn, Keneset 
riVj-flf/, p. 382; Furst, Bi7;/.7i<(/. iii. 104 ; Klijali Vita Sa.ssoon, 
In Ha-Lcbanon, vli. 15, 23; Steinschneider, Cat. liodl. cols. 
D. M. Sel. 

Juan Delgado Pinto. See Delgado. 

Solomon Pinto : American patriot in the Revo- 
lutionary war. A settler at New Haven, Conn., he 
served as an officer in the Connecticut line through- 
out the war, and was among the patriots wounded 
in the British attack upon New Haven July 5 and 
6, 1779. Pinto's name appears repeatedly in Revo- 
lutionary records; and he has the additional distinc- 
tion of having been one of the original members of 
the Society of the Cincinnati in Connecticut. He is 
mentioned as late as 1818. 

Bibliography: Becord «f Service of Connecticut Men in 
the War of the Revolution, pp. 218, 325, 360. 373, 553, 636, 
Hartford. 1889; Leon Hiihner, The Jeu'.s of New Eng- 
land Prior to 1800, In Puhl Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. xl. 94-95, 
and authorities there given; G. H. HoUister, The History 
of Connecticut, 11. 372, New Haven, 1855; Royal R. Hlnman, 
Historical Collection, p. 567, Hanford, 1842. 

J. L. Hu. 

PIOTRKOW: Town in Russian Poland, near 
Wars.'iw\ For some time Piotrkow was the seat of 
the Polish diet. At the diet of 1538, held there, it 
■was enacted that no Jew should be permitted to 
farm the taxes, and that Jews should wear distinct- 
ive garments, "so that they might be distinguished 
from Christians." Anti-Jewish laws were passed 
also by the diets of 1562, 1563, and 1565, these diets 
being influenced by the Jesuits. The Jewish com- 
munity of Piotrkow, however, is specifically men- 
tioned for the first time in 1567, when two Jews, 
Isaac Borodavka and Mendel Isaakovich, were tax- 
farmers in that town ("Gramoty Velikikh Knyazei 
Litovskikh," p. 104). In the disastrous time be- 
tween 1648 and 1658, the period of the Cossack up- 
rising, the Jewish community of Piotrkow suffered 
with the other communities in Poland. There were 
then fifty families there, "almost all the members of 
which were killed" by the Co.ssacks ("Le-Korot ha- 
Gezerot," v. 19). In 1897 Piotrkow liad a large 
Jewish community, having one synagogue, several 
houses of prayer, and thirty six Hebrew schools. 
An old and celebrated Hebrew printing-press is 
established there. The town has a total population 
of 24,866. 

Bibliography: Entziklopcdichexhi Shwar, xxiii. 472; Gnitz, 
(.'(W/i. (Hebrew transl.) vli. 318, 328 ; viii. 152 : Rcgcsty, i.. No. 

11. R. A. S. W. 

PIOVE DI SACCO (ipL*"n K^T'D) : Small Ital- 
ian city in tlu'dislrictof Padua; the first in that terri- 
tory to admit Jews. A loan-bank was opened there 
by an association ("consortium") before 1373, and 
Avas probably an unimportant institution, as it paid 
a yearly tax of only 100 lire. "Wiien, in 1455, the 
Jews of Padua were forbidden to lend money, they 
transacted their business through their fellow bank- 
ers at Piove. No Jews except a few money -brokers 
seem to have lived here; and apparently these were 
expelled at an early date. Piove never had a 
ghetto. Leone Komanini Jacur is now (1905) the 
representative for Piove in the Italian Chamber of 

The city owes its importance to the fact that a 
Hebrew printing-press was temporarily established 
there. Meshullam Cusi Rafab. Moses Jacob printed 
at Piove Jacob b. Asher's "Arba' Turini " in folio, 
1475, this being the second work issued there. 
Complete copies of this edition are extremely rare. 
A fine impression on parchment is in the citv library 
at Padua (B. P. 574). The "Arba' Turim " was 
circulated both as an entire work and in the sepa- 
rate parts. 

Bibliography: A. Ciscato. Gli Ehrei in Padova, 1901, pp. 21, 
5:3, 158 ; G. B. de Rossi, Annates Hebrceo-Typoaraphici, etc., 
XV., No. 2. 

G. L E. 

PIPE : Musical instrument akin to the flute. 
The flute was a favorite instrument of the ancients. 
The monuments show flutes of various shapes. On 
the Egyptian monuments are pictured (1) single- 
tubed direct flutes made of reed or wood, (2) rather 
long cross-flutes, and (3) long, thin, double-tubed 
flutes, the tubes of which, liowever, were not fast- 
ened together. On Assyrian monuments is depicted 
a shorter, more trumpet-shaped double flute. The 
Syrians used the small gingras — known also to the 
Athenians — only a span long, with a penetrating, 
mournful sound. The flutes used by the Greeks 
were very varied; and it is probable that the Israel- 
ites, too, played several kinds; but, unfortunately, 
nothing definite about their sliape is known. 

(1) The "halil," from "halal" (to bore through), 
was a hollowed piece of wood. The name is evidence 
for the fact that the flute was made from cane or 
wood. It consisted of a tube and a tongue of cane. 
The number of holes in the tube Avas originally only 
two, three, or four; later it was increased. The 
tones of such an instrument Avere naturally limited, 
and it was manifestly necessary to have a special 
flute for each key. It was not until art was more 
highly developed that an instrument was made 
which could be played in different keys. Among 
the Israelites the halil was used for music played at 
meals on festive occasions (Isa. v. 12), in festal pro- 
cessions (I Kings i. 40), and during the pilgrim- 
ages to .lerusalem (Isa. xxx. 29). The Israelites used 
also the "nebi'im"in connection with the kettle- 
drum (I Sam. X. 5). The flute was, in addition, the 
special instrument to denote mourning (.Ter. xlviii. 
36); and among the later Jews flute-playing was 




considered so essential at fvinerals that even the 
poorest would not do Avitliout it. 

In tlie days of the Old Testament there were no 
flute-players in the Temple orchestra. In the Mish- 
nah, 'Ar. ii. 3, mention is made that flutes were 
played; it states that at the daily services from 
two to twelve flutes were used. But they accom- 

^ ■! 







^Bkt ^ - >-^ 

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^K ■ ■ ••-,'*'-' - 


y - 

— ~M 

■RpflL"'""- "^ 


^HHM|L.*^''''* * "''' 



H| ^^^1 

Pipes in Use in Palestine. 

(In-the United States Natloual Museum, Wa8hing;ton, D. C.) 

panied psalm-singing only at the slaughtering of 
the paschal lambs, on the first and seventh daj's of 
the Passover, and during the eight days of the 
Feast of Tabernacles, when a flute was plaj'cd be- 
fore the altar to accompany the singing of the 
"Hallel" (comp. Tacitus, "Historia," v. 5). 

(2) A second kind of wind-instrument, known from 
very early times, was the "'ugab," which was es- 
sentially an instrument to express joyousness. and 
was played for the amusement of the people, but 
never at divine service. According to tradition, 
which connects the use of the 'ugab Avith Jubal 
(Gen. iv. 21), the instrument was a bagpipe ("sum- 
pongah " ; Dan. iii. 5). The same sort of instru- 
ment — called "ghaitah" in North Africa — is used in 
Arabian music. The older descriptions correspond 

in tiie main with the form now found in Egvpt, 
Aral)ia, and Italy. Two pipes are inserted in a 
leathern bag; one above, into which the player 
blows; and the other, provided with holes, at the 
bottom or slanting at the side, so that it may be 
played with the fingers. 

(3) The instrument mentioned in the Hebrew text 
of Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15, imder the name "mashro- 
kita," is the syrinx, or Pan flute, which generally 
consisted of seven to nine reed tubes, of different 
lengths and thicknesses, arranged in a row. It was 
the favorite instrument of shepherds in the Orient, 
where it is used even at the present time. Whether 
it was known to the Hebrews is very doubtful. 

(4) "Nekeb" (Ezek. xxviii. 13 ct seq.) is generally 
understood to denote a kind of flute; but this is 
more than doubtful. The word is most likely a 
technical term used in the goldsmith's art. 

K. fi. n. W. N. 

PIPERNO, SETTIMIO : Italian economist; 
born at Rome 1834. He is (1905) professor of statis- 
tics and political economy in the Technical Institute 
of Rome, director of the Cesi Technical School, 
and a member of the board of administration of the 
Jewish community of Rome. Piperuo is the author 
of the following works, in addition to various journal- 
istic articles: "Studio sulla 3Iorale Indipendente "; 
"Studio sulla Percezione"; "Elementi di Scienza 
Ecouomica Esposti Secondo i Nuovi Programmi 
Governatici per gl' Istituti Tecnici," Turin, 1878; 
"II Riconoscimento GiuridicodelleSocietadi 3Iutuo 
Soccorso," Rome, 1882; "La Pensioui di Vecchiaia 
Presso le Societa di Mutuo Soccorso Italiane," 
Turin, 1883; "La Nuova Scuola di Dlritto Penale 
in Italia, Studio di Scienza Sociale," Rome, 1886. 

Bibliography : De Gubematis, Diz. Biog.; idem, Ecrivains 
du Jour. 
s. U. C. 

ON: English statesman; born in London 1840; 
died at Guildford, Surrey, Jan. 9, 1903; third son of 
Solomon Benedict de Worms, a baron of the Austrian 
empire. He was educated at King's College, Lon- 
don, and became a barrister in 1863. As Baron Henry 
de Worms he sat in the House of Commons as Con- 
servative member for Greenwich from 1880 to 1885, 
and for the East Toxteth division of Liverpool from 
1885 to 1895, when he was created a peer. He was 
parliamentar}^ secretary to the Board of Trade in 
1885 and 1886 and from 1886 to 1888, and under-sec- 
retary of state for the colonics from 1888 to 1892. 
In 1888 he was president of the International Con- 
ference on Sugar Bounties, and as plenipotentiary 
signed the abolition treaty for Great Britain. He 
became a member of the Privy Council in the same 
year. He was a royal commissioner of the Patri- 
otic F'und, and one of the royal commis.sioners of 
the French Exhibition of 1900. His works include: 
"England's Policy in the East" (London, 1876), 
"Handbook to the Eastern Question " (5th ed., Lon- 
don, 1877), "The Austro-Hungarian Empire" 
(2d ed., London, 1877), "Memoirs of Count Beust" 
{ib. 1887). 

In 1864 he married Fanny, daughter of Baron von 
Tedesco of Vienna, and in 1887, after her death, 
Sarah, daughter of Sir Benjamin Samuel Phillips. 

Pirhe Zafon 

Pirke de-Rabbi Eli'ezer 



Lord Pirbright was for several years president of 
the Anglo-Jewish Association, but resigned in 1886 
owing to objections raised to his having attended 
the nuptials of his eldest daughter in a church. 
During his parliamentary career he was a warm ad- 
vocate of the cause of Jews in lands of oppression, 
especially Rumania ("Jew. Chron." Jan. 16, 1903). 

BiBLiOGRAPUT: n'/io's Who, 1903; Jewish Year Dnnk, 1903. 
J. V. E. 

PIRHE ZAFON. See Periodicals. 

PIRKE ABOT. See Abot. 

midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a 
few sentences of Numbers; ascribed to li. Eliezer 
b. Hyrcanus, and composed in Italy shortly after 
833. It is quoted immediately before the end of the 
twelfth century under the following titles: Pirke 
Rabbi Eli'ezer ha-Gadol (Maimonides, "Moreh," 
ii., xxvi.); Pirke Rabbi Eli'ezer ben HjTcanus 
("Seder R. Amram," ed. Warsaw, 1865. p. 32ci); 
Baraita de-Rabbi Eli'ezer ('"Aruk," s.v. Dpip; Rashi 
on Gen. xvii. 3; gloss to Rashi on Meg. 2'2b; David 
Kimhi, "Sliorashim," s.r. iiy); Ilaggadah de-Rabbi 
Eli'ezer ben Hyrcanus (R. Tarn, in Tos. Ket. 99a). 
The work is divided into fifty-four chapters, which 
may be divided into seven groups, as follows: 

i. Ch. i., ii. : Introduction to the entire work, 
dealing with the youth of R. Eliezer, his thirst for 
knowledge, and his settlement at Jerusalem. 

ii. Ch. iii.-xi. (corresponding to Gen. i.-ii.): The 
six days of the Creation. On the first day occurred 
the creation of four kinds of augels 
Contents, and of the forty-seven clouds. The 
second day: the creation of heaven, 
other angels, the tire in mankind (impulse), and the 
fire of Gehenna. The tiiird day: the division of the 
waters, fruit-trees, herbs, and grass. The fourth 
day: creation of the lights; astronomy and the 
determination of the intercalation. The leap-year 
reckoning is imparted to Adam, Enoch, Noah, 
Sheni, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The fifth day: 
birds and fishes; enumeration of the kinds which 
may be eaten. The story of Jonah, which is said 
to belong to the fifth day. The sixth day: God's 
conference with the Torali in regard to the way in 
which man should be created. Since God is the 
first king of the world, all the great rulers are enu- 
merated in order to refer to God as the first one. 

iii. Ch. xii.-xxiii. (=Gen. ii.-viii., xxiv., xxix., 
1.): The time from Adam to Noah. The placing of 
man in the Garden of Eden and the creation of Eve. 
Description of the tliree evil qualities which shorten 
the life of man — envy, lust, and ambition. Identi- 
fication of the serpent with Samael. Announcement 
of the ten appearances of God upon eartli (" 'eser 
yeridot"). First appearance of God in the Garden 
of Eden, and the punishment of the first pair. The 
two wa3s, the good and the evil, are pointed out to 
Adam, who enters upon his penitence. (The story 
is interrupted here, to be continued in ch. xx.) De- 
tailed discussion of the three pillars of the world— 
the Torah, the 'Abodah, and the Gemilut Ilasiulim. 
God's kindness toward Adam, that of the llananites 
toward Jacob, and the con.sideration to be shown to 

those in mourning. The literary quarrel between 
the Shamniiiites and the Hillelites as to whether 
heaven or earth was created first. The ten things 
wiiich were created on Friday evening. Exegesis of 
P.^lm viii., which Adam sang in the Garden of Eden. 
Di.scussion of the Halxlalah blessing of the Sabbath 
evening and the completion of Adam's penitence. 
Cain and Abel; Cain's penitence. Birth of Seth; 
the sinful generation. Story of Noah. 

iv, Ch. xxiv. -XXV. (= Gen. ix., x., xi., xviii., 
xix.): The sinful generation. Nimrod. God's sec- 
ond appearance. The confusion of tongues and the 
Dispersion. Nimrod is killed bj^ Esau, who takes 
his garments, which Jacob then puts on in order to 
secure the blessing. 

V. Ch. xxvi. -xxxix. (=: Gen. xl.,1.): From Abra- 
ham to the death of Jacob. The ten temptations of 
Abraham. Lot's imprisonment and Abraham's pur- 
suit of the kings. God's covenant with Abraham. 
Tiie circumcision, and the appearance of tlie angels. 
Identification of Hagar with Keturah, and the story 
of Ishmael. The sacrifice of Isaac. Isaac and Re- 
bekah, Jacob and Esau. Proofs given by Elijah, 
Elisha, and Sliallum b. Tikwah that the dead are 
resurrected through the liberality of the living. 
Those that will be found worthy to be resurrected. 
From the sale of the birthright to the time when 
Jacob left Beer-sheba. From Jacob at the well to 
his flight from Laban's house. Repetition of the 
three preceding chapters. Story of Dinah and of 
the sale of Joseph. God's fourth appearance — in 
the vision of Jacob while on his way to Egypt. Jo- 
seph and Potiphar. Joseph in prison ; interpretation 
of the dream; the sale of the grain. Jacob's bless- 
ing and death. 

vi. Ch. xl.-xlvi. (rrEx. ii.-iv., xiv.-xx., xxxii.- 
xxxiv.): From the appearance of Moses to the time 
when God revealed Himself to him in the cleft of 
the rock. Fifth appearance of God — to Moses, from 
the burning bush. The miracles performed by Moses 
before Pharaoh. God's sixth appearance — on Sinai. 
Pharaoh's persecution. The value of penitence; 
Pharaoh is not destroyed, but becomes King of Nin- 
eveh. Amalek's pursuit in the desert: Saul and 
Amaiek ; Amalek and Sennacherib. The golden 
calf; Moses' descent from the mountain; his prayer 
because of Israel's sin. Moses on Sinai ; his descent, 
and the destruction of the golden calf. Seventh ap- 
pearance of God — to Jkloses, 

vii. Ch. xlvii.-liv. (=Ex. xv. ; Num. ii., v., xi.- 
xiii., XXV., xxvi.; in these chapters the sequence 
thus far observed is broken): The sin committed at 
Baalpeor. The courage of Phinehas. The priestly 
ofiice conferred upon him for life as a recompense. 
Computation of the time Israel spent in servitude 
down to tiie exodus from Egypt. Continuation of the 
story of Amalek. The passing over to Nebuchad- 
nezzar and Ilaman. Story of Esther. Holiness of 
the months and of Israel. Enumeration of the seven 
miracles: (1) Abraham in the furnace; (2) Jacob's 
birth; (3) Abraham's attainment of manhood (comp. 
Sanh. 107b); (4) Jacob sneezes and does not die; (5) 
the sun and moon remain immovable at the com- 
mand of Joshua ; (6) King Ilezekiah becomes ill, but 
recovers; (7) Daniel in the lion's den. Moses is 
slandered by Aaron aad Miriam. Ab.salom and his 



Pirhe Zafon 

Pirke de-Kabbi Eli'ezer 

death. God's eighth appearance — in punishment 
of Miriam. 

The Pirke appears, according to Zunz, to be in- 
complete, and to be merely a fragment of a larger 
work. Sachs, on the other hand, thinks tliat it was 
compiled from two previous works 
Com- by the same author, the relation of the 

position, two productions to each other being 
tiiat of text and commentary, the text 
giving merely the story of tiie Bible, whicii was in- 
terrupted by the commentary in the form of the 
Haggadah, and the commentary being intended for 
reading during the ten days of penitence. Horwitz 
thinks that the author developed those Bible stories 
whicli bore relation to the entire nation, dealing 
lightly with those that concerned only individuals. 

Jost was the first to point out that in the thirtieth 
chapter, in which at the end the author distinctly 
alludes to the three stages of the Mohammedan con- 
quest, that of Arabia (niya XC'O). of Spain (D\T "'''N). 
and of Rome ('nil i^Hi "|"I3 ; H80 c.e.), the names of 
Fatinia and Ayesha occur beside that of Ishmael, 
leading to the conclusion that the book originated 
in a time when Islam was predominant in Asia 
Elinor. As in ch. xxxvi. two brothers reigning 
simultaneously are mentioned, after whose reign 
the ^lessiah shall come, the work might be ascribed 
to the beginning of the ninth century, for about 
that time the two sons of Harun al-Rashid, El- 
Amin and El-Mamun, were ruling over tiie Islamic 
realm. If a statement in ch. xxviii. did not point 
to an even earlier date, approximately the same 
date miglit be inferred from the enumeration of the 
four powerful kingdoms and the substitution of 
Ishmael for one of the four which are enumerated 
in the Talmud and the Mekilta. 

The author seems to have been a Palestinian; this 
appears not only from the fact that some of the cus- 
toms to which he refers (in ch. xiii. and xx.) are 
known only as Palestinian customs, but also from 
the fact that nearly all the authorities he quotes are 
Palestinian, the exceptions being R. Mesharshia 
and R. Shemaiah. In no case can this work be 
ascribed to R. Eliezer (80-118 c.e.), since he was a 
tanna, while in the book itself the Pirke Abot is 
quoted. Late Talmudic authorities belonging to the 
third century c.e., like Shemaiah (ch. xxiii.), Ze'era 
(ch. xxi., xxix.), and Shila (ch. xlii., xliv.), are also 

The following customs and regulations of the Jews 
are referred to in the Pirke de-Rabbi Eli'ezer: Reci- 
tation of Ps. xcii. during the Friday evening serv- 
ices (ch. xix. ; comp. Shab. 118a). The blessing 
"Bore me'orc ha-esh " (Praised be the Creator of the 
tire) recited during the Ilabdalah (ch. xx. ; comp. 
Pes. ;")9a). Contemplation of the finger-nails during 
tiiis blessing (ch. xx.). After the Ilabdalah, pour- 
ing of the wine upon the table, extinguisiiing the 
candle in it, dipping the hands in it, and rubbing 
the eyes (ch. xx.). Tiie prohibition against women 
doing fancy-work on tlie day of the New Moon (ch. 
xlv.). The blessing of "tal" on the first day of the 
Passover (xxxii.). The sounding of the shofar after 
the morning services in all the synagogues on the 
New Moon of the month of Elul (ch. xlvi.). The 
regulation that during the recitation of the "Kol 

Nidre" on the Day of Atonement two prominent 
members of the community shall stand beside the can- 
tor (xliv.), and that on Tluirsday all 
Customs worshipers must stand while reciting 
Mentioned, prayers (ch. xlvi.). Tlie addition of 
Deut. xi. 20 to the daily reading of 
the"Shema' " (ch. xxiii.). The banquet after the cir- 
cumcision (ch. xxix.; comp. Midr. Teh.,ed. Buber, 
p. 234b). The chair of Elijali during the circum- 
cision (cii. xxix.). The covering of the prepuce 
with earth (ch. xxix.). The performance of the 
marriage ceremony under a canopy (ch. xii.). The 
standing of the hazzau beside the bridal couple (ch. 
xli.). The pronouncing of the blessing upon the 
bride by the hazzan (ch. xii.). The regulations pro- 
viding that no woman may go out with uncovered 
head (ch. xiv. ; comp. Ket. 72a); that the groom 
may not go out alone on the bridal night (ch. xvi. ; 
comp. Ber. 54b); that mourners must be comforted 
in tiie chapel (ch. xvii.); that the dead may be 
buried only in "takrikin " (ch. xxxiii. ; comp. M. K. 
27a, b) ; that a person sneezing shall say, " I trust in 
Thy help, O Lord," while any one hearing him shall 
say, "Your health!" (ch. lii.) — sickness having been 
unknown before the time of the patriarch Jacob, 
whose soul escaped through his nose when he sneezed. 
The following chapters close with benedictions 
from the " Shemoneh 'Esreh": ch. xxvii. : "Praised 
be Thou, O Lord, the shield of Abraham"; ch. 
xxxi. : "Praised be Thou, O Lord, who revivest the 
dead " ; ch. xxxv. : " Praised be Thou, O Lord, Holy 
God"; ch. xl. : "Praised be Thou, O Lord, who 
dost pardon knowingly"; ch. xliii. : "Praised be 
Thou, O Lord, who demandest penitence." Chap- 
ters xvii., xxx., xxxi., xlvi., li., lii., liv. also remind 
one of the " Amidah." 

The author dwells longest on the description of 
the second day of Creation, in which the "Ma'aseh 
Mcrkabah " (Ezek. i.) is described in various forms, 
and although this passage recalls Donolo and the 
Alphabet of R. Akiba, it is evidently much older, 
since it does not mention the "Hekalot." This de- 
scription is connected with that of the creation of 
the seven planets and the twelve signs of the zodiac, 
the reference to the "mahzors" and 
The the " tekufot," and the discussion of 

Tekufot. the intercalation. In the series of 
years (3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, 19 in the 
cycle of 19) in whicii the intercalation takes place 
the author substitutes the fifth year for the sixth. 
His cycle of the moon, furthermore, covers twenty- 
one years, at the end of which ]U'riod the moon again 
occupies the same position in the week as at tlie be- 
ginning, but tills can happen only once in 689,472 
j'ears, according to the common computation. 

On tlie connection of the Pirke de-Rabbi Eli- 
'ezer witli tiie Biraita of Samuel, see Sachs in "Mo- 
natssciirift," i. 277. JManuscrijits of the Pirke are 
found at Parma (No. 541), in the Vatican (No. 303; 
dated 1509), and in the Ilalbcrslam library. Tlie 
following editions are known : Cnn.<;tantinople, 1518; 
Venice, 1548; Sabbionetta, 1568; Amsterdam, 1712; 
Wilna, 1837; Lemberg, 1864. A commentary upon 
it, by David Luria, is included in the "Wilna edition, 
and another, by Abraham Broyde, in the Lemberg 




Bibliography: Zunz. G. V. pp. 283 et geq.; Jost, Gesch. des 
Judenthum^ und Sdner Sekten. p. 35, note 2. Leipsic, 1858; 
Senior Sachs, in Kerem Hemed, viii. 34; Ueher dojiGeijen- 
Beitige Verh(Htnii<^, etc., in Mutialsschrift, i. 277; Tehiualt, 
Berlin, 1850, p. U, note 5; p. 20, note 2; H. Kahana. In Ha- 
Mauaid, viii. 6; S. Frledmann, in Ilahtner's J(J(J. Lit.-Blatt. 
viii. 30-31, 34, 37 ; M. Steinschuelder, in Ha-Yoiialt, i. 17, Ber- 
lin, 1851; R. Kirchheim, in hitmductin in Lilirum Talinu- 
dicum de Samaritanis. p. 25, Krankfort-on-the-Main, Itol ; 
Meir ha-Levi Honvitz, SlUhnat Habbi Eliezei\m Ha-Mag- 
gid, xxiii., Nos. 8-30; Fuenn, Kene.'<ct YisraeU 1. 321-344, War- 
saw. 1886 ; Israel Luria, in Knkehe Yizhak, xxv. 82 ; Israel 
L^vi, in R. E.J. xviii. 83; Creizenach, in Jost's AtmaUn, li. 
140; Gnitz, in MouaU'^chrift, 1859, p. 112, note 5; Bacher, 
Ag. Tan. i. 122-123. Strasburg, 1903. 

J. S. O. 

sian physician and pedagogue ; born 1810 ; died Nov. , 
1881. He was professor at the University of Dor- 
pat. As a statesman Pirogov belonged to that re- 
nowned circle of men whose cooperation in educa- 
tional matters was sought by Alexander II. in the 
first years of his reign. His " Voprosy K Zliizni," 
in "Morskoi Sbornik" (1856), dealing mainly with 
educational problems, led to his appointment as 
superintendent of the Odessa school district (1856- 
1858), and later to that of the Kiev district (1858- 
1861). In this capacity he learned to know, for the 
first time, the Jewish people; and as scholar and 
seeker after truth, as the true friend of enlighten- 
ment and the enemy of class antagonism, he treated 
the Jews in a kindlj- spirit and displaj'ed unusual 
interest in the educational problems concerning 
them. His attitude toward the Jews is best shown 
by the words which he addressed to the Jewish 
community of Berdj'chev on his retirement from 
the superintendency of the Kiev district : " You are 
conveying to me the appreciation of my sj'mpathy 
for the Jewish people. But I deserve no credit for 
it. It is a part of my nature. I could not act con- 
trary to mj' own inclinations. Ever since I began 
the study of civics from the standpoint of science, I 
have fejt the greatest antagonism for class preju- 
dices; and involuntarily I applied this point of view 
also to national distinctions. In science, in practi- 
cal life, among my colleagues, as well as among my 
subordinates and superiors, I have never thought of 
drawing distinctions as prompted by 
Friendly and national exclusiveness. I 
Attitude have been guided by these convictions 

Toward also in my relations with the Jews 
the Jews, when brought in contact with them in 
private and public life. These con- 
victions, the result of my education, having been 
developed by lifelong experience, are now second 
nature with me, and will not forsake me to the end 
of my life." 

This attitude of Pirogov, acknowledged by all as 
a ])rominent man, was for the Jews of great social 
moment; but aside from this he took an active part 
in the development of Jewish education also. No- 
ticing that the Jewish youth in the .search for en- 
lightenment encountered obstacles on the part of the 
Russian government as well as of the Jewish people, 
tiie great mass of which was hostile to general edu- 
cation, Pirogov made timely appeals to the Chris- 
tians as well as to tlie Jews. Being familiar with 
the methods of instruction in the various Jewish and 
Christian schools, Pirogov, while superintendent of 
the Odessa district, published a special paper on the 

Odessa Talmud Torah in the "Odesski Vyestnik," 
citing it as an example for the Christian elementary 
schools, and noting also the conscious efforts of the 
Jews in the acquisition of knowledge. Further- 
more, while still superintendent he published in the 
Russo-Jewish journal " Razsvyet," in 1860, an article 
on the necessity of enlightenment among the Jewish 
masses; and he invited the educated Jews to form 
an organization for the purpose, avoiding violent 
and unworthy methods in the treatment of their 
opponents. Pirogov also deemed it the duty of the 
Russian public to lend its aid to young Jewish stu- 
dents. " Where are religion, morality, enlighten- 
ment, and the modern spirit," said Pirogov, "when 
these Jews, who with courage and self-sacrifice en- 
gage in the struggle against prejudices centuries 
old, meet no one here to sympathize with them and 
to extend to them a helping hand? " 

There existed at that time Jewish government 
schools which were very unpopular among the 
Jewish masses owing to the manner in 
Appoints which thej' were conducted; and Piro- 
First Jew- gov devoted much work toward ma- 
ish School king them really serve their avowed 
Principal, purpose. His initiative and exertions 
led, among other things, to the aboli- 
tion of the rule under which only Christians were 
eligible for appointment as principals of these 
schools. In most cases the principals, coarse and 
uneducated, were unfriendlj' to the Jews. Pirogov 
appointed the first Jewish principal, U. S. Rosen- 
zweig, one of the most eminent Jewish pedagogues 
in Russia. 

Pirogov rendered a further service of great im- 
portance to the Jews by aiding those who wished to 
enter the general middle and higher institutions of 
learning, and in this connection he worked out and 
presented to the ministry plans for the reorganization 
of the Jewish schools, etc. His task was by no 
means an easy one ; for at that time Pirogov was the 
only patron of the Jewish youth. It is said that the 
contemporary minister of public instruction meas- 
ured the distance between the Jewish schools and 
the churches. 

Pirogov lent his aid particularly in the organiza- 
tion at the University of Kiev of a fund for aiding 
Jewisli students ; it was also he who 
Aids Jew- took the first steps toward enabling 

ish Stu- Jews to carry on their studies with 

dents at government aid, to receive scholar- 
University, sliips, etc. Guided by the same edu- 
cational motives, while superintendent 
of the Odessa district he advocated allowing the 
publication of the first Russo-Jewish journal, the 
"Razsvyet," and the Hebrew paper "Ha-Meliz." 

Unfortunately Pirogov's efforts met with no sup- 
port; his views on the education of the Jews evoked 
no sympathy; and in the course of time access for 
the Jews to the general schools became more difficult. 

BiBi.iOGRAPHT: M. MorRulis, N. I. Pimanv, in Vnskhod, 1881, 
No. 5; N. Botvinnik, VziiU/ad]! Pimudra na Vopras^i Pros- 
vue^cheniun Ycvrcyci\ in Voahhod, 1903, No. 8 ; N. Bakst. 
Pamyati Pirngova, in RxiiviUi Yevrei, 1882, No. 1 ; Sochine- 
nlya, N. I. Pirogova, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1900. 
II. R. * 

PISA : Town in Tuscany, Italy, at the mouth of 
the ]{iver Arno; formerly a port of the Tyrrhenian 




Sea. The settlement of Jews in Pisa dates back to 
very early times; the first mention of a congrega- 
tion is n)et with in the "'Itinerary " of Benjamin of 
Tudela, who found twenty families there {c. 1165). 
The importance of Pisa as a commercial town ren- 
ders it probable that the congregation continued to 
exist; and this supposition is directly confirmed by 
statutes of the republic issued during the thirteenth 
century, which exclude Jews from giving evidence, 
and command them to wear the Jews' badge. The 
population, possibly envious of the trade of the 
Jews, was hostile to them. 

Some distinction was bestowed upon the congre- 
gation by the settlement of the Da Pisa family, whose 
members, by their eminence, education, and readi- 
ness to sacrifice, were extensively and benevolently 
active in behalf of the Jews. About 1400 Jchiel b. 

and had become subject to the Medici, who, well 
aware of the advantages wliich the state would de- 
rive therefrom, permitted tlie settlement of Jewish 
immigrants from Spain and Portugal. When, about 
1590, the Medici opened the harbor of Leghorn, they 
asked Jews to .settle there also; and in 15'J3 the 
autiiorities of the congrega:ion of Pisa, to which 
Leghorn was for the time being subordinate, were 
granted the privilege of naturalizing foreign Jews. 
The young congregation of Leghorn soon separated 
from that of Pisa and outnumbered the latter consid- 
erably. The Jews of Pisa fared as did those of other 
Tuscan towns. They were obliged to live in a 
ghetto, and were restricted in their rights; but iu 
general they were treated kindly. With the en- 
trance of the French, in 1798, the Jews were accorded 
full citizenship. The Restoration of 1814 acknowl- 


Old Tombstones from the Jewish Cemetery at Pisa. 

(From a drawing by Albert Hochreiter.) 

Mattithiah da Pisa founded a loan-bank in Pisa. 
He represented the congregation at tlie Congress of 
Bologna in 1415, and at Forli in 1418. His grand- 
son, Jehiel, a MjEcenas of Jewish poets and scholars, 
was a friend of Don Isaac Abravauel, who was as- 
sociated with him and who while still in Spain laid 
claim to his assistance for his oppressed brethren. 
At the same time, Jehiel himself was in danger; as 
elsewhere iu Italy after 1450, the Dominicans harassed 
the Jews in Pisa; and in 1471, apparently during 
the presence of Bernardin of Feltre in the city, an 
assault was made upon their houses. Numbers of 
fugitives from Spain and Portugal disembarked at 
the port of, among them the Yahya family. 
Isaac da Pisa, the son of Jehiel, took care of the fu- 
gitives and assisted them to find new means of sup- 
port. The same intentions guided also his nepliew, 
Jehiel Nissim b. Samuel da Pisa, who, iu 1525, shel- 
tered David Reubeni under his roof for several 
months, and furthered his enterprises, from which 
Jehiel expected much benefit for all Jews. 

Pisa in the meanwhile had lost its independence 

edged the independence of the congregation; the 
ghetto was abolished ; and gradually the rights of 
the Jews were extended; but only the establish- 
ment of the kingdom of Italy (1861) brought full 

Of rabbis and scholars in Pisa the following are 
known: Jehiel b. Mattithiah da Betel (14th cent.); 
Daniel b. Samuel Rofe b. Daniel Dayyan da Pisa; 
Raphael b. Eleazar Meldola (1750) ; Jacob b. Moses 
Senior; Eliezer b. Jacob Supino (about 1800); Judah 
Coriat; and A. V. de Benedetti. Active at the uni- 
versity were: Salvadore de Benedetti, the translator 
of Judah ha-Levi; Alessandro d'Ancona, for many 
years the dean; and Vittorio Supino, now (1905) also 
rector. David Castelli was secretary of the Jewish 
congregation in 1865. Pisa had temporarily a He- 
brew printing-office in the eighteenth century. 

In 1865 the Jews numbered 450; in 1901 there 

were 500 in a total population of about 61,300. 

BiBi.iORRAPMY : Ersph and Gniber, E)if{/c. section il.. part 27, 
p. 151 : Ci>rricrc Israelitico, x., xi.; R. E. J. xxvl.; Mortara, 
Indice, passim. 
G. L E. 

Pisa. Da 



PISA, DA : Italian family, deriving its name 
from tlie city of Pisa. It can be traced back to the 
fifteenth century. 

Abraham ben Isaac da Pisa : Talmudist; son 
of Isiiac ben Ji-hiel; lived in Bologna, where he died 
in 1554. He was often consulted about religious 
questions. One of his responsa is found in the col- 
lection of Menahem Azariah da Fano, in which, de- 
spite liis veneration for Meir ben Isatic K.\tzenel- 
LENBOGEN of Padua, Abraham refutes the latter 's 
arguments and expresses the wish that, for the sake 
of harmony, the rabbis would agree upon one au- 
thority in accordance with whose decisions religious 
questions might be decided. A court banker, Abra- 
ham suffered much from the exactions of the popes 
during the Turkish wars, and consequently was in 
straitened circumstances. Not being able to pub- 
lish his responsa, he left them in manuscript, with 
other works of his. 

In the list of names in the archives of the Jewish 
community of Rome for the years 1536 to 1542 is 
found the name of Solomon da Pisa (see Vogelstein 
and Rieger, "Gesch. tier Juden in Rom," ii. 419), and 
among the prominent members of the community 
during the period 1542-1605 were Abraham ben 
Joseph and Moses ben Solomon da Pisa (ib. ii. 
421). Two of the later descendants of this family 
were Giuseppe Pisa (b. 1827, Ferrara; d. Milan, 
Feb. 24, 1904) and his nephew Ugo Pisa. The for- 
mer, a merchant and manufacturer, took an active 
part in the revolutionary movement of 1848. 

Other distinguished members of the family were 
Jehiel (see Jew. E>'cyc. vii. 83) and Isaac ben Je- 
hiel (for whose son Abraham see above). 

Daniel ben Isaac da Pisa : Wealth}' and learned 
philanthropist of the sixteenth century. lie was 
called to the rabbinate of Rome during the pontifi- 
cate of Clement VII., and succeeded in bringing 
harmony into that community. He united into one 
congregation the different elements, consisting of 
Italian and foreign-born Jews, and instituted a coun- 
cil of sixty members to administer the affairs of the 
amalgamated congregation. The decisions of this 
council were declared legal by a papal decree of 
Dec. 12, 1524. While David Reubeni was at Rome, 
Daniel da Pisa provided for his wants and served as 
his interpreter before the i)ope. Through Daniel's 
influence Reubeni received from Clement VII. letters 
of recommendation to the King of Portugal and to 
other Christian monarchs. 

BiBLiof.RAPHT: Gratz. Gesch. ix. 248; Gedallah Ibn Yahya, 
ShahheJet ha-Kabhalnh, ed. Venice, p. 6")b; Heilprln. Seder 
h<uDoroU 1. 23«. 24-^.. Warsaw, 1883 ; David Kaufmann. in R. 
E. J. xxvi. 81-96, xxlx. 146-147. xxxi. 6.5 et seq., xxxii. 130- 
134 : Michael, Orha-Hayyim. No. 144 : II VessiUo Israeliticn, 
1904, p. 10.5; Vopelsteln and Eieger, Gesch. der Juden iti 
Rom, 11. 40. 44, 128. 

D. 8. Man. 

TJgo Pisa: Italian writer and senator; born 
Aug., 1845. After taking part in the campaign of 
1866 he studied law. In 1869 and 1870 he was at- 
tached to the Italian consulate at Constantinople, 
and was then secretary of legation in China, Japan, 
London, and Berlin successively. In 1873 he entered 
the Banca Pisa of Milan ; he was elected common 
councilor, judge of the tribunal of commerce, coun- 
sel and president of the chamber of commerce, and 
finally senator (Nov. 17. 1898). 

Pisa is the author of the following works: "As- 
sicurazione Colletiva Contro gl' Infortunii sul La- 
voro, ed Interveuto del Patronato Milanese per Fa- 
cilitarne I'Applicazione," Milan, 1885; "Liberi Pro- 
tezionisti e Socialisti," ib. 1892 ; in collaboration with 
G. Fraschi, "Sulla Opportuuita di Dare Maggiore 
Efficacia Practica all' Azione del Consiglio ilell' In- 
duslria e del Commercio," ib. 1893; "Relation sur 
la Prevoyance pour les Accidents de Travail en 
Italie 1882-89" (in "Congr^s International des Acci- 
dents du Travail et des A.ssurances Sociales i 
Milan "), tb. 1894; " Delle Norme per Regolare il Li- 
ccnziamento degli Agenli di Commercio," etc., ib. 
1894 ; " Relation sur la Prevoyance pour les Acci- 
dents du Travail en Italie " (in " Comite Italien de» 
Sciences Sociales pour I'Exposition de Paris"), ib. 
Bibliography : lUiuftrazione Italiana, 1898, part 11., p. 425. 

s. U. C. 

PISGAH (always with the article: Ha-Pia- 
gah) : ^Mountain iu Moab, celebrated as one of the 
stations of the Israelites in their journey through 
that country (Num. xxi. 20) and as the place of one 
of Balak's sacrifices {ib. xxiii. 14), but chiefly as the 
place of Moses' death after he had beheld from 
its summit "all the land of Gilead, unto Dan; and 
all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim and Ma- 
nasseh, and all the land of Judali, unto the hinder 
[western] sea; and the south, and the plain of the 
valley of Jericho, the city of palm-trees, unto Zoar" 
(Dent, xxxiv. 1-2, R. V.). It is identified (ib. 
xxxiv. 1) with Mount Nebo; and in Num. xxiii. 
14 the "field of Zophim " is the "top of Pisgah." 
Under the " slopes of Pisgah " was the " sea of the 
Arabah " or Dead Sea (Deut. iii. 17, iv. 49; Josh. xii. 
3, xiii. 20, R. V.). 

Pisgah has been identified also with the modern 
Naba, a ridge which projects westward from the 
plateau of Moab, near the northeastern end of the 
Dead Sea, about five miles southwest of Heshbon, 
and 2,643 feet above the Mediterranean and 3,935 feet 
above the Dead Sea. It is described by G. A. Smith 
("Historical Geography of the Holy Land," p. 
563) as about two miles long, with a level top about 
one-half mile broad. "It is of flinty limestone, 
mostly barren." It commands an extensive view of 
the whole of western Palestine. There are two 
summits: the higher, Ras Naba; the lower and out- 
ermost, Ras Siyaghah. The latter commands the 
whole of the Jordan valley and is probably identical 
with the " top of Pisgah which looketh down upon 
Jeshimon " (Num. xxi. 20, R. V., margin). 

The name "Pisgah " has not survived till modern 

times, unless in "Ras Fashkah," a headland on the 

opposite or western side of the Dead Sea. It is said 

to have been still used, however, in the time of 

Eusebius (in the form ^aayu; comp. LXX. 4>aa-)d, 

<J>aff,va) for a district in that region (Eusebius, 

"Onomasticon," ed. Lagarde, pp. 124-125, 237). 

Bini.infiRAPiiY : G. A. Smith, JTMorical Geographu of the 
Hull/ Land, pp. 502-.5()6 ; Tristram, Land of Moah, pp. 339- 
:^40; Surveiiof Ea.'^teni Palestine, pp. 154-1.56. 198-203; Con- 
d('r, Heth and Moah, 3d ed.. pp. 132 c( seq.; Driver. Commei> 
tarn on Deuteronomy (xxxiv. 1). 
E. r. J. F. McL. 

PISGAH, HA-. See Periodicals. 




Pisa, Da 


p ?Q 40 60 eo 100 _ _ ^9"* METRES 

Q 20 40 fiO RO 100 



PITHOM (DnS: LXX. nafltj. XiiBLii): One of the 
cities whicli, according to Ex. i. 11, was built for 
the Pharaoh of tlie oppression by the forced labor 
of the Israelites. The other city was Raamses; and 
the Septuagint adds a third, "On, which is Ileliop- 
olis." The meaning of the term niJSDD ^"iy, ren- 
dered in the Authorized Version "treasure cities" 
and in the Revised Version "store cities," is not defi- 
nitely known. The Septuagint renders ■K6lEiq bxvpai 
"strong [or "fortified"] cities." Tlie same term 
is used of cities of Solomon in I Kings ix. 19 (comp. 
also II Chron. 
xvi. 4). The lo- 
cation of Pithom 
was a subject of 
much conjec- 
ture and debate 
until its site was 
discovered by E. 
Niiviile in the 
spring of 1883. 
Ilerodotus (ii. 
158) says that 
the canal made 
by Necho to con- 
nect the Red Sea 
with the Nile 
"passes Patu- 
mos, a city in the 
Arabian nonie." 
This district of 
Arabia was the 
twentieth nome 
of Lower Egypt, 
and its capital 
was Goshen 
(Egyptian," Ko- 

The site of 
Pithom, as iden- 
tified by Naville, 
is to the east of 
the Wady Tu- 
milat, south- 
west of Ismailia. 
Here was for- 
merly a group 
of granite stat- 
ues representing 
Rameses II., 
standing b e - 
t w e e n t w o 
gods; and from 

this it liad been inferred that this was the city 
of Raamses mentioned in Ex. i. 11. The excava- 
tions carried on by Naville for the Egypt Ex- 
ploration Fund disclosed a city wall, a ruined 
temple, and the remains of a series of brick buildings 
Avith very thick walls and consisting of rectangular 
chambers of various sizes, opening only at the top 
and without any communication with one another. 
These are supposed to have been the granaries or 
store-chambers, from which, possibly, the army may 
have been supplied when about to set out upon ex- 
peditions northward or eastward. The city stood in 
the eighth nome, adjoining that of Arabia; so that 

the statement of Herodotus is not exactly correct. 
It was known in the Greek period as Ileroopolis 
or Ileroonpolis. The Egyptian name, "Pithom" 
(Pi-Tum or Pa-Tum), means "house of Turn" [or 
"Atum"], i.e., the sun-god of Heliopolis; and the 
Greek word "Hero" is probably a translation of 

The discovery of the ruins of Pithom confirms the 
Biblical statement and points to Rameses II. as the 
Pharaoh that oppressed Israel. The name of the 
city Pi-Tum is first found on Egyptian monuments 

of the nineteenth 
dynastj'. Im- 
portant evidence 
is thus afforded 
of the date of the 
Exodus, which 
must liave taken 
place toward the 
end of the nine- 
teenth dynasty 
or in the be- 
ginning of the 
twentieth dy- 

In the Middle 
Ages Fayum 
was called 
"Pithom" by 
the Jews, so that 
the Gaon Saadia 
is termed "Al- 
Fayj'umi" in 
Arabic (Hebr. 
and he himself 
translates " Pi- 
thom " in Ex. i. 
11 by "Al Fay- 



..■•'"1. .j-> jP" 

/SiW^-^^-Cs; J) E 


^ "--■••" -'^r — - 2^'"^"'-.: •■•"'••■-•: ■■"'■-■- 

„ .7ts^.™< -., , ^M>"-* , "^ \«.. "" ,,1'* ■""■ % 

*«t ■ .f-y ,«llllb 

,„,,„jjiaaj]jjauiMMjto ^ •■■■•";::■• t ■■■;;::•■■■■■■■:.■.' ,:;,?■ :":•'•'.:: T ■"•-,»,•■-- 

'"'*'''•■■ ■'■■'" " BORMAV A CO., N.Y. 

Bibliography: Na- 
ville, T?!C Sttyre 
Citu of Pithom, 
etc., in Memoir of 
Egiipt Explora- 
tion PumI, 1885; 
Sayce, Higher 
Criticism an<ithe 
J\/o;iHnif ;if.sl894, 
pp. 2)9 et .teq., 2.50 
ct iteq.: Driver, in 
Hoparth's An- 
thoritii and Ar- 
chcroloau, 1899, 
pp. &i ct ifcq., 61, 

E. c. J. F. McL. 

PITTSBUBG : Second largest city in the state 
of Pennsylvania. With Allegheny, the twin-city 
on the north side of the Allegheny River, it is the 
chief city of western Pennsylvania. 

There are no reliable records of the beginnings of 
the Jewish community; but it has been ascertained 
that between 1838 and 1844 a small number of Jews, 
mostly from Baden, Bavaria, and WUrttemberg, set- 
tled in and around Pittsburg. These were joined 
by others in 1847 and by still others in 1852, who 
included in their numbers the founders of Jewish 
communal life. The first Jewish service was held 
in the autumn of 1844, while the first attempt at 




organization was made in 1847, when a mere hand- 
ful of men combined with the hope of forming a 
congregation. They worshiped in a room on Penn 
street near Walnut (now 13th) street, having en- 
gaged the Rev. Mauuheimer as cantor. They 
formed also a Bes Almon Society, and purchased 
a cemetery at Troy Hill. The congregational body 
finally became known as "Ez Hajjim." It lacked 
homogeneity on account of the varying religious 
views of its members; ami divisions and reunions 
took place from time to time until about 1853, when 
a united congregation was formed under the name 
"Rodeph Shalom." In 1864 a further division oc- 
curred, the seceders chartering a congregation under 
the name "Ez Hajjim" in 1865, and purchasing a 
cemetery at Sharpsburg. 

Congregation Rodeph Shalom first worshiped in 

a hall over the Vigilant engine-house on Third 

avenue, then in the Irish hall on Sixth street, and 

in 1861 built on Hancock (now Eighth) 

Congrega- street the first synagogue in western 

tion Pennsylvania. In 1879 it purchased 

Rodeph the West View Cemetery. In 1884 the 

Shalom, synagogue was enlarged, but it was 
subsequently torn down, and the pres- 
ent building, under erection during 1900 and 1901, 
vpas dedicated on Sept. 6 and 7 of the latter year. 
Among the early readers and teachers of Rodeph 
Shalom were Sulzbacher and Marcuson. In 1854 
William Armhold took charge of the congregation, 
remaining till 1865, when he went to Philadel- 
phia. During his administration the congregation 
erected the temple on Eighth street; and, in con- 
junction with Josiah Cohen, he conducted a school 
which was maintained from 1860 to 1868. From 
1865 to 1870 L. Naumburg was teacher and reader; 
and in his day the Reform movement was con- 
siderably advanced. The first rabbi of the con- 
gregation was Lippman !Mayer, who came from 
Selma, Ala., in the spring of 1870. He success- 
fully guided the congregation along advanced 
Reform lines until his retirement as rabbi emeritus 
in 1901. By that time he had seen his congregation 
grow from a membership of 65 to 150. He was 
succeeded (April 1, 1901) by J. Leonard Levy, the 
present (1905) incumbent, who was called from 
Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel, Philadel- 
phia. In the past two years Rodeph Shalom has 
grown considerably. Its present number of mem- 
bers and seat-holders exceeds 400 ; and it is worthy 
of record that on the day after the dedication of the 
new temple (Sept. 8, 1901) the congregation con- 
tributed a sum of money which not only liquidated 
a debt of nearly $100,000, but left a surplus of over 

Rodeph Shalom, which during the past sixteen 
years has been presided over by Abraham Lippman, 
has since 1901 issued, for the use of its members and 
others: " A Book of Prayer " for the Sunday services; 
"A Text-Book of Religion and Ethics for Jewish 
Children"; "A Home Service for the Passover"; 
" A Home Service for Hanukkah " ; " The Children's 
Service"; "Sabbath Readings" for each Sabbath of 
the year; and three volumes of Sunday lectures. 
The congregation distributes these Sunday lectures 
weekly in pamphlet form to all who attend the serv- 

ices, and also furnishes gratuitously a special edi- 
tion to non-Jewish residents of Allegheny county. 

The Ez Hajjim congregation worshiped for a time 
in a hall in the Dennis block on Second avenue, 
and in 1882 purchased its present building on Fourth 
and Ross streets. It has prospered, and is an active 
force in Jewish congregational and communal life. 
Among its ministers may be mentioned : A. Crone 
(1874-81) ; A. Bernstein (1881-91) ; F. Salinger (1891- 
1897); Michael Fried (since 1898), the present (1905) 
incumbent, a graduate of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America. Ez Hajjim belongs to the 
school of progressive conservatism, and now has 
famil}' pews and confers the rite of confirmation. 
It has inaugurated Friday evening services and 
has a Ladies' Auxiliary Societj-, a flourishing re- 
ligious school, and a growing alumni as.socialion. 

Pittsburg is notable in American Jewish history 
on account of the conference (see Jew. Encvc. iv. 
215, s.v. Conferences, Rabbinical) held there in 
1885, and is also well known as a generous supporter 
of all national Jewish movements, notably the He- 
brew Union College and the Denver Hospital. 
Among the more prominent local philanthropic and 
charitable institutions maybe mentioned the follow- 
ing: (1) J. M. Gusky Orphanage and Home, with 
the Bertha Rauh Cohen Annex. The Home was 
founded in 1890 by Esther Gusky, in memory 
of her husband, Jacob Mark Gusky. The Annex 
was the gift in 1889 of Aaron Cohen in memory of 
his wife, Bertha Rauh Cohen, the only daughter 
of Rosalia Rauh and the late Solomon Rauh. 
The Home has 63 inmates, an annual 

Philan- income of about §10,000, and an en- 
thropic As- dowment fund of $67,000. (2) The 
sociations. United Hebrew Relief Association, 
a union of the Hebrew Benevolent 
Society and the Hebrew Ladies' Aid Society. It 
dispenses §10,000 yearly, and has a sinking-fund 
of §29,000. (3) The Columbian Council School, a 
social settlement. It conducts a large number of 
classes, public lectures, a library, public baths, a 
gymnasium, etc. The bath-house was the gift of 
Alexander Peacock. The disbursements are about 
§6,000 annually. (4) The Ladies' Hospital Aid se- 
curesand pays for hospital attention for the sick poor. 
Ithasanannualincome of about §8,000, and isat pres- 
ent endeavoring to erect a Jewish hospital. (5) The 
Young Ladies' Sewing Society, which dispenses 
clothing to the poor; income about §2,000 annually. 

The Concordia Club fosters Jewish social life 
in Pittsburg. The Council of Jewish Women 
is represented by the Columbian Council. The 
Y. M. H. A. has been reorganized, and gives 
promise of great activity. The Independent Or- 
der of B'nai B'rith has five lodges; and the Inde- 
pendent Order of the Free Sons of Israel, the Sons 
of Benjamin, Sons of Israel, and Sons of Abraham 
have two each. There are two weekly papers, one 
in English, "The Jewish Criterion," of which Rabbi 
Levy and Charles II. Joseph are the editors, and one 
in Judteo-German, the " Volksfreund." 

The Jews of Pittsburg are prominent in the profes- 
sions and in commerce. Donors to non-sectarian 
charities include J. D. Beknd and Isaac Kaufmann, 
the latter of whom in 1895 gave the Emma Kaufmann 




Free Clinic to the medical department of the West- 
ern University. Among those who have held posi- 
tions in public life are Emannel Wert- 
Prominent heimer, select councilman and member 
JeAvs. of the state house of representatives; 
Morris Einstein, select councilman (15 
years); Josiah Cohen, judge of the Orphans' Court; 
E. E. Mayer, city physician ; L. S. Levin, assistant 
city attorney. Isaac W. Frank is president of the 
National Founders' Association, and A. Leo Weil is a 
member of the executive committee of the Voters' 
Civic League. 

Since 1882 there has been a steady increase in the 
number of Jews in Pittsburg, the new settlers com- 
ing mostly from eastern Europe. Russian, Ruma- 
nian, and Hungarian Jews have come in large num- 
bers, and are beginning to display an appreciable 
interest in public affairs. They have si.x synagogues 
(whose rabbis include A. M. Ashinsky and M. S. 
Sivitz), many hebras, and a number of small relig- 
ious societies. The Pittsburg Jewry strongly sym- 
pathizes with the Zionistic movement, liaving a 
large number of Zionistic societies. The number of 
Jewish inhabitants is estimated at between 15,000 
and 25,000, in a total population of about 322,000. 

Bibliography: History of Congregation Rode ph Shalom, 
1899; articles in the Jewish Criteriori, 1901, and AinericaJi 
Im-aclite, 1893. 
A. J. L. L. 

PIUS rV. (Gian Angelo Medici) : Pope from 
1559 to 1565. He was a Milanese of humble origin, 
and became cardinal under Paul III., through the 
latter's relations with Gian's brother Giangiacomo, 
who had made himself master of Sienna. Gian, who 
enjoyed the pope's confidence, was clever, good- 
natured, condescending, somewhat worldly-minded, 
and in every way a complete contrast to the fanatical 
Paul IV., after whose death he succeeded to the 
papacy. This contrast appeared in the severity 
with which he dealt with Paul's favorites. Al- 
though he did not favor the Inquisition, he did not 
dare attack it. He convened the Council of Trent 
for the third time, and succeeded in having it 
"brought to a satisfactory termination through the 
ability of the president of his choice, Marone. 

The Jews breathed more freely under Pius. It 
■was due to his intervention that Emperor Ferdinand 
canceled the edict of expulsion which had been is- 
sued against the Bohemian Jews. He bettered the 
condition of the Jews in Rome and in the Pontifical 
States by changing and in part revoking the restric- 
tions imposed by Paul IV., and by granting them 
the following privileges: to lay aside the Jews' 
badge when traveling, if they remained only for one 
day in any place ; to enlarge the ghetto, and to open 
shops outside of it; and to acquire real estate be3'ond 
the ghetto limits to tlie value of 1,500 gold ducats. 
The Jus Gazaka or Gazaga, of later date, rests 
upon a decree to prevent the increase of rent in the 

Pius ordered the restoration of account-books and 
communal records which had been confiscated, and 
pardoned all the trespasses committed by the Roman 
Jews against Paul's decrees except murder, coun- 
terfeiting, mockery of Christianity, and lese-majesty. 
He even granted the Jews permission to print the 
X.— 5 

Talmud, though under a different name. His suc- 
cessor, Pius v., followed in Paul IV. 's footsteps. 

BiBLiofiRAPHY : (iralA Gem-h. Ix. -.m ; Joseph ha-Kolien, 'Emek 
ha-Iinlui, pp. VM ct i<e(j.; David (Jans, .?c»ifl^i Dawid for the 
year 1559; Uanke, GcKvh. der I'dpxtf, 1. 2(fi et ,se(/.; Stern. 
Vrkundliche licitrUoi., p. 137 ; VoRelsteln and I!ie(?er, GcKch. 
der Judcn in Horn, il. lOO et 8cq.; Zuuz, In Geiger'a WiisH. 

Zcit. JUd. Tltcol. V. 40 

H. V. 

PIYYUT (plural, Piyyu^m) : Hymn added to 
the older liturgy that developed during the Tal- 
mudic era and up to the seventh century. The 
word is derived from the Greek term for poetry, 
perhaps more directly from noiT/r^c. The author of 
a piyyut is called "payyetan," a Neo-Hebrew form 
derived from " piyyut." In midrashic literature the 
word "piyyut" is used merely in the general sense 
of "fiction" (Gen. R. Ixxxv.; Yalk., Dan. 1063), 
while " payyetan " is used in the technical sense of an 
autlior of synagogal poetry. R. Eleazar, son of 
Simon b. Yohai, was called a student of the Bible 
and the Mishnah, a payyetan, and a preacher (Lev. 
R. xxx. ; Pcsik. 179a, ed. Buber; Zunz, "G. V." p. 
380; ide7n, "S. P." p. 60). 

The oldest piyyutim are anonymous. They were 

written during the era of the early Geonim (c. 7th 

cent.) and are embodied in the prayer-book. They 

show an attempt at meter, and, as in 

Historical some late Biblical poetical composi- 

Develop- tions, the successive lines are often al- 
ment. phabetically arranged. Examples of 
this kind are found in the Sabbath morn- 
ing prayer "El Adon, ha-Kol Yoduka," in the peni- 
tential prayers "We-IIu Rahum" for Mondays and 
Thursdays, and elsewhere. 

The oldest payyetan known by name is Jose ben 
Jose (ha-Yatom); his date can be fixed only from 
the fact that he was known to Saadia, who quotes 
him; but this merely proves that he lived not later 
than 850. The next payyetan known is Yannai, 
who is said to have been the teacher of the most pro- 
lific and popular of the old payyetanim, Eleazar ben 
Kalir. The latter's most famous successor was Saadia 
Gaon, in the tenth century. From that time the pay- 
yetanim become very numerous and are found in 
all larger Jewish settlements, notably in Germany, 
France, Spain, and Italy. Zunz (" Literaturgesch.") 
counts over 900 names of payyetanim. It seems 
likely that they were influenced by the troubadours 
and the minnesingers, both in the writing of their 
poems and in their musical settings. 

In Germany in the eleventh century there were 

Moses ben Kalonymus, Meshullam ben Kalonymus, 

Simon ben Isaac, and Gershom ben 

In Judah ; in the twelfth century Jeku- 

Germany, thiel ben Moses of Speyer, Menahem 

France, ben Machir of Ratisbon, Meir ben 
Spain, and Isaac (the hazzan), Kalonymus ben 
Italy. Judah, Eliezer ben Nathan (author of 
the history of the persecutions during 
the Crusades), Ephraim l)en Isaac of Ratisbon, and 
Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn ; in the thirteenth cen- 
tury Moses ben Hasdai ipn (of Tachau ?), Eleazar 
ben Judah of Worms, and Eliezer ben Joel ha-Levi. 

In France Benjamin ben Samuel of Coutances 
(11th cent.; Gross, "Gallia Judaica," p. 553), Yom- 
Tob ben Isaac of Joigny (martyred at York in 1190), 




Rashi, and many of the tosatists, were liturgical 
poets, as were Moses of Coucy and Abraham and 
Jedaiah Bedersi. 

In Spain, where Hebrew poetry reached the high- 
est development, the best liturgical poets were Sol- 
omon ibn Gabirol, Judah ha-Levi, and Abraham and 
Moses ibn Ezra. A large number of others whose 
names are famous in philosophical and Talm\idic 
iit«rature wrote liturgical poems, as Joseph ben 
Isaac ibn Abitur, Isaac Ghayyat, Judah ben Bileam, 
Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda, and Isaac ben Reu- 
ben of Barcelona; even Maimonidesis known as the 
author of a few hymns. 

lu Italy, where, according to some, Eleazar Kalir 
had his home, there were payyetauim from the tenth 
to the eighteenth century. According to Zunz, Sol- 
omon ha-Babli of tlie tenth century lived in Rome 
(" Babel " being a metonj^mic name for Rome). To 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries belong Isaiah 
di Trani and Immanuel of Rome. After the four- 
teenth, payyetanim became fewer, and their produc- 
tions were rarely embodied in the official liturgy. 
Generally their piyyutim were written to commemo- 
rate some local event. Thus Baruch ben Jehiel ha- 
Kohen wrote on the devastation wrought during the 
time of the Black Death (1347) ; Abigdor Kara, ou the 
persecution in Prague (1389); Samuel Scliottcn, on 
the fire in Frankfort-on-the-Main (1711); Jacob ben 
Isaac, on the conquest of Poscn by a hostile army 
(1716); and Malachi ha-Kohen, on an earthquake 
that threatened Leghorn (1742). The Thirty Years' 
war (1618-48), also the Cossack persecutions under 
Chmielnicki (1648), produced an extensive literature 
of such piyyutim. 

The piyyutim are of various kinds, according to 
their theme, their place in the liturgy, or their form. 
The Selihah, the penitential prayer. 
Classifica- occupies the foremost rank and is 
tion. most likely the oldest. The "We-Hu 
Rahum," for Mondays and Thursdays, 
was known as early as the time of the Geonim. It 
was originally composed for fast-days, as were some 
of the older, anonymous selihot: the "El Melek 
Yosheb" and the various litanies, which are, in 
parts, found in Talmudic literature; the "Abinu 
Malkenu " ; and the "Mi she-'Anah." A common 
theme of the selihot is the sacrifice of Isaac (see 
'Akedah). Another regular feature of the peniten- 
tial prayers is the confession of sins ("widdui"), 
in which the initial letters of the successive lines are 
generally in alphabetical order. The introductory 
part is called the"petihah,"and the closing part the 
PizMON, to which there is a refrain. 

The hymns for holy daA's and some special Sab- 
baths are more specifically called "piyyutim," or 
often, wrongly, "yozerot." They are divided ac- 
cording to their place in the regular liturgy. Those 
that are inserted in the evening prayer (" 'arbit")arc 
called Ma'arabiyyot ; those inserted in the first 
benediction of the morning prayer are called Yozer, 
from the benediction "Yozer Or " ; in 
Special the second benediction, Ahabah, 

Names. from the initial word of that benedic- 
tion ; those in.sertcd in the benediction 
following the Shema' are called Zulat, from the key- 
words "En Elohim zulateka," or Ge'ullah, from 

the benediction "Go'el Yisrael." Other names 
taken from the characteristic words of the passages 
in which the piyyutim are inserted are Ofan and 
Me'orah. Kerobot (incorrectly Keroboz, i)Liiiaps 
uudi-r French influence; Zunz, " S. P." p. 6o) is the 
name of a piyj'ut inserted in the Tefillah proper (see 
Keuobot and Siiemoneh 'Esueii). Anntlier name, 
rarely used, for the same piyyut is Shib'ata, from 
"shib'ah" (= "seven"), because the telillot for Sab- 
bath and holy days consist of seven benedictions. 
A special class of piyyutim is formed by the Toka- 
hah (= "reproof "), penitential discourses some- 
what similar to the widdui, and tiie Kinah for the 
Ninth of Ab. 

According to their poetical form there are to be 
distinguished the Sheniyah, the stanzas of which 
consist of two lines eutli ; the, consisting 
of three lines; the Pizmon, already mentioned ; the 
Mostegab, in which a Biblical verse is used at the 
beginning of every stanza ; the Shalmonit, a meter 
introduced by Solomon ha-Babli (Zunz, " S. P." p. 
167; idem, "Ritus," p. 135). The poetical form was 
originally acrostic, according to the alphabet in 
proper order (3K) f^r reversed (p "iBTl) or in some 
artiticial form (D"3^K)- In later times, beginning 
with the eleventh century, it became customary 
for the author to weave his name into the acrostic, 
sometimes adding an invocation ; forinstance, "May 
he prosper in the Law and in good deeds." 

The days on which pivyu^im are inserted in the 

regular liturgy are the holy days (including Purim 

and the Ninth of Ab) and a number of Sabbaths 

which possess special significance, as 

When Piy- the Four Parashiyyot, including the 

yutim Are Sabbaths falling between them (" Haf- 

Recited. sakot"); the Sabbaths on which New 
Moon falls; Hanukkah Sabbath; Sab- 
bath Bereshit, when the first portion of the Torah 
is read; Sabbaths on which the Scriptural reading 
has some special significance, as when the sacrifice 
of Isaac (Wayera), or the Song of Moses (Beshal- 
lah), or the Ten Commandments (Yitro), or the law 
of the Red Heifer (Hukkat) is read; and other Sab- 
baths. The persecutions during the Crusades con- 
stitute the theme of the "Zulat," on the Sabbaths 
intervening between Passover and Pentecost. Spe- 
cial events, as a circumcision on the Sabbath or a 
wedding during the week, are celebrated by appro- 
priate piyyutim. On this point the various rites, as 
the Ashkenazic, the Polish, the Sephardic, the Italian, 
those of Carpcntras and Oran, Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, Worms, and Prague, and other prominent 
old communities, differ very greatly, as they differ 
also with regard to the pieces selected for the holy 
days. In general, however, every minhag has given 
preference to the works of local authors. 

The natural development of the language intro- 
duced into the piyyutim not only the Neo-Hebrew 
words which are found in the prayers of Talmudic 
times, such as " 'olam " in the sense of " the uni- 
verse" (Biblical Hebrew, "eternity"), "merkabah" 
( = " the divine chariot "), " hitkin " (— " to arrange "), 
but also a large number of new words formed on 
models and from roots found in Talmudic and mid- 
rashic literature or arbitrarily developed from such 
words as are met with in the works of the oldest 




payyetanim. Thus Jose ben Jose employs "shu'at 
ketoret" (="the service of the frankincense") in 
his ritual for the Day of Atonement (Landshutli, 
"Siddur Ilegyon Leb," p. 507, KOnigsberg, 1875), 
an expression the use of which has 
Philolog- only a weak support in tlie Biblical 

ical and " sha'ah " (comp. Gen. iv. 5). The 
Dogmatic typical development of the mannerism 

Charac- of the payyetanim is found as early as 

teristics. in the works of Yanuai — for instance, 
in his piyyut. f"i" Passover eve, em- 
bodied in the Haggadaii and in the Ashkenazic 
ritual for the Sabbath preceding Passover ("Az 
Rob Nissim "). He uses by preference such rare 
and poetical expressions as " zarah " (= " to call ") in- 
stead of " kara," and " sah " ( = •' he spoke ") for " dib- 
ber" ; and such midrashic allegorical designations 
as "ger zedek " for Abraham, " Patros" for Egypt; 
and he arbitrarily mutilates Biblical and rabbin- 
ical words {e.g., flD^ta [="the camp"] from Dp'D 
[Greek, rd^L^'], the Aramaic translation of "degel" 
in Num. ii. 2). 

The master in this line is Kalir, whose |*V1p y^ in 
the kerobah for Sabbath Zakor (the Sabbath prece- 
ding Purim) has become proverbial for its manner- 
isms (see Erter, " Ha-Zofeh, " Vienna, 1864). No bet- 
ter, as a rule, is its intrinsic worth as poetry. The 
piyyut suffers from endless repetitions and from ex- 
cessive attention to rime and the acrostic. One of 
the most curious instances is afforded by the selihah 
of Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn (12th cent.), beginning 
"Ta shema'," and found in the Ashkenazic ritual for 
the fifth day after New-Year. The author, who 
shows a remarkable command of the Talmudic idiom 
and a profound knowledge of Talmudic dialectics, 
argues with God, in the style of the Talmudic dis- 
course, to prove that Israel should receive far better 
treatment at His hands, saying, " To every question 
there is an answer ; only mine remains unanswered ! " 

There are, however, a few noble exceptions, as 
Judah ha-Levi's poems, notably his famous ode on 
Zion, found in the liturgy for the Ninth of Ab, and 
Solomon ibn Gabirol's hymns, as hiswonderful pen- 
itential hymn " Shomamti be-Rob Yegoni " in the 
Ashkenazic ritual for the Fast of Gedaliah. Abra- 
ham ibn Ezra's religious poetry, while noble in 
thought and grammatically correct, lacks the in- 
spiration of true poetry. 

Among the German and French payyetanim, Solo- 
mon ben Abun of France (12th cent.) and Simon 
ben Isaac of Worms (10th cent.) likewise may be 
quoted as exceptions. While both poets labor 
under the difficulties created by the customs of 
acrostic, rime, and midrashic allusion, they display 
deep religious sentiment and are free from that 
mannerism which seeks distinction in creating diffi- 
culties for the reader. Simon ben Isaac's poem 
beginning " Atiti le-hananek," which serves as an 
introduction to the kerobah for the Shaharit serv- 
ice of the second New-Year's day (Ashkenazic 
ritual), is a noble expression of trust in God's 
mercy, not unworthy of Ps. cxxxix., from which 
the author drew his inspiration. The ]iizmon 
"Shofet Kol ha-Arez," by Solomon ben Abun (Zunz, 
"Literaturgesch." pp. 311-312), found in the Ash- 
kenazic ritual for the day preceding New-Year and 

for the Shaharit service on the Day of Atonement, 
expresses in profoundly religious tones the belief in 
divine justice. 

It seems, as has already been stated, that the 
payyetanim, like the troubadours, conceived their 
poetry as something that po.ssessed no 
Opposition liturgical character in the strict sense 
to of the word. The degree of approval 

Piyyutim. with which these hymns were re- 
ceived, or of personal respect which 
the author, in many instances a local rabbi, enjoyed, 
decided for or against the insertion of the pi3'yutim 
in the Mahzou of the congregation. Opposition to 
the inclusion of the piyyut in the regular prayer as 
an unlawful interruption of divine service is found 
as early as the eleventh century. Rabbenu Tam 
(Jacob ben MeVr) defends the practise against the 
objections of Hananeel and Hai Gaon (" Haggahot 
Maimoniyyot," in "Yad," Tefillah, vi. 3). Jacob 
ben Asher disapproves of the practise, quoting the 
opinion of his father, Asher ben Jehiel, and of Mei'r 
ha-Kohen. Still, in the fourteenth century the cus- 
tom was so well established that Jacob Molln 
(Maharil ; Hilkot Yom Kippur, p. 47b, ed. War- 
saw, 1874), disapproved not only of the action of his 
disciples, who preferred to study in the synagogue 
while the congregation recited the piyyutim, but 
also of any departure from local custom In the selec- 
tion of the piyyutim and the traditional airs(Isserles, 
in notes on Tur Orah Hayyim, 68; Shulhan 'Aruk, 
Orah Hayyim, 619). 

Other objections, from the esthetic standpoint, 
and on account of the obscure and often blasphe- 
mous language used, have been presented in a mas- 
terly criticism upon Kalir's piyyutim by Abraham 
ibn Ezra (commentary on Eccl. v. 1). These objec- 
tions, against which Heidenheim endeavored to de- 
fend Kalir (commentary on the ^erobah for the 
Musaf of the Day of Atonement), were revived in 
the earliest stages of the Reform movement (see 
Zunz, "Ritus," pp. 169 et seq.). Indeed, as early as 
the beginning of the eighteenth century dogmatic 
objections to the piyyutim were raised, chiefly in 
regard to addressing prayers to the angels, and to 
certain gross anthropomorphisms (Lampronti, "Pa- 
had Yizhak," 8. v. V3nV. pp. 33b et sf?.)— objections 
the force of which some of the strictest Orthodox 
rabbis, like Moses Sofer, recognized. (See Anthro- 


The Reform movement resulted in the general 
disuse of the piyyutim even in synagogues in 
which otherwise the traditional ritual was main- 
tained ; but in such synagogues and even in almost 
all those which use the Reform ritual, some of the 
most popular piyyutim for New-Year and the Day 
of Atonement have been retained. 

The verbal difficulties of the piyyut made com- 
mentaries a necessity, so that even the authors them- 
selves appended notes to their piyyutim. An ex- 
haustive commentary by Johanan Treves was pub- 
lished in the Bologna (1541) edition of the Roman 
Mahzor. Of the later commentators none has done 
more valuable work than Wolf Heidenheim, who, 
however, limited himself to the Ashkenazic and to 
the Polish ritual. He was the first, also, to write a 
correct German translation of the whole Matizor, but 




neither his nor Michael Sachs's translation succeed 
in tlie almost impossible task of remaining faithful to 
the original and producing at the same time a road- 
able text in German. The same may be said of the 
translations in other modern languages. An excep- 
tion exists in the work of Seligmann Heller, who 
succeeded in producing a really poetical veraion of 
some of the piyyutim. 

BiBLiOGRAPH V : 3X<itiJ<>r, ed. Heidenhelm, Introduction ; Zunz, 
S. P.; idem, Lifirufuri/of/i.; idem, Ki'ttw; Gestettner, 3/af- 
teach ha-Piju(im, Berlin, 18i<9; Weiss, Dor. iv. 2--»l-22t); 
Landsbutb. 'Ammude ha-'Ahodah ; Fleckeles, Te.'ihuhali mc- 
Aluitiah. \o\. 1., No. 1, Prajrue, 1K)9 ; Wolff, I>ic Stimmen 
der Aeltesten und GlaubwUrdiostcn Rabbincn Ubci' die 
Pijutim, Leipslc, 1857. 


PIZMON : Hymn with a refrain ; usually the 
chief poem in the scheme of selihot sung or recited 
by the cantor and congregation in alternation. Of 
the many etymological derivations suggested for 
the word, " psalm " (Greek, rpaTifiSg) seems the most 
likely. Others which have been offered find the 
origin of the word in the Aramaic D|3 (lamenta- 
tion), the Hebrew |Q (treasure; comp. Dn30). the 
Greek Tzoir/fxa (poem), or the French "passemente- 
rie " or German " posamentir " (embroidery). 

Among the Sephardim any important hymn, in 
parts of the service other than the selihot, con- 
structed in metrical stanzas with a refrain, is termed 
a pizmon. Such, for example, are AnoT Ketannaii 
and 'Et Sha'are Razon. These and others like 
them are distinguished by a special traditional mel- 
ody. This is also the case with the chief pizmonim 
of the Ashkenazim (comp. Bemoza'e Menxhiah; 
YisRAEL Nosha' ; Zekor Berit); but several are 
chanted to a general melody for such poems, for 
which see Selihah. 

On the use of the word " pizmon " among the Jews 

of South Arabia, see "Berliner Festschrift," p. 12. 

Bibliography: Aruch Completum, ed. Kobut, s.v. pcro, 
wbere valuable material Is given. 

A. F. L. C. 

ZER HA-LEVI : Italian Talmudist and physi- 
cian ; flourished in the first half of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. As physician he was active in Cremona; as 
editor, in Venice. In the latter city he was em- 
ployed in the Bomberg printing establishment, and 
wrote an introduction to the edition of Maimonides' 
"Yad ha-Hazakah " published there. 

According to a statement of Landshuth, Pizzi- 

ghettone was rabbi in Ferrara ; but this statement is 


Bibliography : Mortara, Tndice ; I. T. Eisenstadt, Da'at ICe- 
d(is:)iim. p. .58; Landshutb, 'Ammude ha-'Abndah, p. 343; 
Furst, Bibl. Jud. lil. 106. 
e. c. a. Pe. 


Hebraist and pedagogue; born at Lomza Feb. 15, 

1853. After having studied Talmud and rabbinics, 

he devoted himself to modern Hebrew literature, 

publishing successively : " Bat Yiftah " (Lyck, 1873), 

a Biblical poem ; " He'uyim ha-Debarim le-Mi slie- 

Amaram" (Warsaw, 1880), criticisms on Bibliral and 

Talmudical legends; "Sefer Miktabim ha-Shalem" 

{ib. 1882), a Hebrew letter-writer, containing 150 

specimens of letters on different subjects; "Nit'e 

Na'amanim " (ib. 1884), 100 stories for tiie young; 

"Kur ha-Mibhan" (ib. 1887), a book for teachers, 

containing a Biblical catechism ; " Haskalah ^ledu- 
mah" (ih. 1888). a sketch of Jewish life. 

In 1893 Pjurko published eleven stories for chil- 
dren, two of whicli were written by his son Hay- 
yim, and in 1894 " Sliebot Sofer ha-Siialem," a new 
letter-writer, also containing 150 specimens. In the 
same j-ear he published " Yalkutha-Re'im,"a gram- 
matical work in verse, and issued a new and revised 
edition of his " Nit'e Na'amanim. " " Elef ha-Magen," 
a grammar for school courses, was published in 

In 1899 Pjurko began the publication of the 
weekly periodical "Gan Slia'ashu'im," in which, be- 
sides numerous articles by him, two of his works 
deserving special mention were published, namely, 
" Ab le-Banim " (1899) and " Ha-Rab we-Talmidaw " 
(1900). Tiic latter work consists of essays on gram- 
mar. In addition, Pjurko has contributed to many 
Hebrew periodicals. 

II. n. B. Ei. 

PLACE-NAMES : The geographical names of 
Palestine are not so often susceptible of interpreta- 
tion as the personal names, which frequently form 
regular sentences referring to divine action (see 
Names). The majority of place-names, probably, 
preceded the Israelitish conquest, as is shown by the 
fact that several of them have already been identified 
in the name-list given in the Egyptian and Assyrian 
monuments (see map, Jew. Encyc. ix. 486). Here 
there are towns, like Joppa, Jerusalem, Gaza, Dor, 
and Ajalon, which have had a continuous existence 
under one name for over three thousand years. Even 
of the compound names, some existed in the early 
lists, showing that Abel, Ain, and Beth were used 
from the earliest times to designate respectively 
meadows, springs, and shrines. 

Some of the names of places bear evidence of the 
existence of shrines of local deities; thus, Beth- 
shemesh and En-shemesh were devoted to the wor- 
ship of the sun; Beth-anath and Beth-dagon to 
Anath and Dagon respectively. Ashtart seems to 
have been the local deity of Ashteroth Karnaim, 
and it has been suggested that the various place- 
names containing "rimmon" (En-rimmon, Gath- 
rimmon, etc.) indicate a deity of that name, though 
"rimmon " itself means "pomegranate." In a few 
cases the indefinite term "el " is used, as in Beth-el, 
Penuel, and Jezreel. It is uncertain whether these 
places were named in honor of the Israelitish god or 
of some Canaanite local deity. 

In addition to such theophorous names there are 
many which are derived from plants, as Beth-tap- 
puah (the apple-tree) ; Hazezon-tamar (the city of 
palm-trees; another name for Jericho); while Elira 
and Elon imply the oak. Similarly, ]ilare-nainesare 
derived from animals, as from the stag (Ajalon), the 
gazel (Ophrah), the wild ass (Arad), the calf 
(Eglon), and tiie kid (En-gedi). Bird-names are 
more rare, Beth-hoglah (the partridge) being the best 
known. The place Akrabbim was probably named 
after the .scorpions which abounded there (for a 
fuller list see Jacobs, "Studies in Biblical Archaeol- 
ogy," pp. 101-103). 

Some of these names occur in plural or in dual form, 
as Eglaim, Mahanaim, Diblatiiaim; in tlie vocalized 
text of the Bible, Jerusalem also has this form. In 




the majority of cases, it appears this refers to some 
duplication of objects — in the case of Jerusalem, to 
the twin hills upon which it is situated. There are 
a certain number of compound names conveying in- 
formation as to the localities, as those compounded 
with "en" (spring), e.g., Enrogel, En-gedi; with 
"beer" (well), e.g., Beer-sheba, Beeroth; witii 
"hazar" (village), e.g., Hazar-gaddah ; with "ir" 
(town), e.g., Ir-nahash; with "kir" or "kiryah" 
(city), e.g., Kir-Moab; and with "gath" (wine- 
press), e.g., Gath-rimmon. 

Natural features gave names to other places, as 
the predominant color in Lebanon (white), or Adum- 
mim (red). The size of a town gave rise to the 
names Kabbah (great), and Zoar (small), while its 
beauty is indicated in Tirzah and Jotbah. The 
need of defense is indicated by the frequency of 
such town-names as Bozrah, which means literally 
a "fortified place," Geder, a "walled place," and 
Mizpah, a "watch-tower." 

Perhaps the most frequent component is "beth," 
implying, as a rule, a sacred shrine. This, however, 
is sometimes omitted, as is shown in the case of Beth- 
baal-meon, Avhich occurs also as Baal-meon, though 
sometimes the second component is omitted and the 
word reduced to Beth-meon. It has been conjectured 
that the name of Bethlehem is connected with the 
Babylonian god Lahamu. Especial interest at- 
taches to the place-names Jacob-el and Joseph-el, 
which occurred in the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and 
are supposed to throw light upon the names of the 

Altogether, there are about fifteen hundred place- 
names occurring in the Old Testament and Apocry- 
pha, the majority of which still need philological 
inquiry. Many names relating to places occur in 
the Old Testament with specialized meanings which 
are not adequately represented in the English ver- 
sions, as Shefelah (the maritime plain of Phenicia) ; 
so with Negeb (southern Judea). 

Bibliography : G. B. Gray, In Cheyne and Black, Encyc. 
Bibl.; G. Grove, in Stanley's Sinai ajid Palestine, pp. 


PLAOZEK, ABRAHAM: Austrian rabbi; 
born at Prerau Jan., 1799; died at Bo.skowitz Dec. 
10, 1884. In 1827 he became rabbi in his native 
city, and from 1832 to 1840 he officiated at Weiss- 
kirchen, in Moravia, whence he was called to Bos- 
kowitz. In Oct., 1851, he succeeded S. R. Hirsch as 
acting " Landesrabbiner " of Moravia, and in this office 
he successfully defended the rights of the Jews, espe- 
cially during the period of reaction. Placzek was 
one of the most prominent Talmudists of his time, 
as well as a successful teacher, and carried on corre- 
spondence with eminent rabbis, in whose collections 
of responsa his name is frequently mentioned. 

Birliograpiiy: Die iVeKzeif, 1884, p. 483; G. Deutsch, In 
Luah, ed. Epstein, Briinn, 1885. 
s. ■ S. F. 

rabbi; born at Weisskirchen, Moravia, Oct. 1, 1835; 
son and successor of Abraham Placzek. In 1858 he 
founded a high school at Hamburg, and two years 
later was called to Brlinn. Since 1884 he has been 
styled " Landesrabbiner " of Moravia, after having 

had charge of that rabbinate as assistant to his father 
from 1861. It is mainly due to him that only men 
with an academic and theological training are ap- 
pointed as rabbis in Moravia. Placzek is now (1905) 
chief rabbi of Brlinn, a knight of the Order of Fran- 
cis Joseph, and curator of the Israelilisch-Theolo- 
gische Lehranstixlt at Vienna; he was likewise 
founder of the Proseminar, witii which a cantors' 
school is connected, as well as of a number of phil- 
anthropic societies. He is an honorary member also 
of several political societies. 

Placzek has published, in part under the pseudo- 
nym Benno Planek : "Gedichte" ("Im Eruw, 
Stimmungsbilder," 1867), the novel " Der Takif," 
and other works, several of which have been trans- 
lated into English, French, and Hebrew. He is 
known also as a naturalist (comp. "Kosmos," v., 
vols. iii. and X.), his scientific works including: "Die 
Affen," " Wiesel und Katze," "Der Vogelgesang 
nach Seiner Tendenz und Entwicklung," " Vogel- 
schutz oder Insektenschutz," "Zur Kliirung in der 
Vogelfrage," " Atavismus," and "Kopf und Herz " 
(an introduction to the study of animal logic). 

s. S. F. 

PLAGUE. — Biblical Data : Word which is 
used in the English versions of the Bible as a 
rendering of several Hebrew words, all closely re- 
lated in meaning. These are: (1) "Maggefah"(a 
striking, or smiting): Used in a general way < f the 
plagues inflicted upon the Egyptians (E.x. ix. 3-4); 
of the fatal disease which overtook the spies (Num. 
xiv. 37), and of that which slew many of the people 
after the rebellion of Korah (Num. xvi. 48-49), and 
at Shittim because of idolatrous practises at the 
shrine of Baal-peor (Num. xxv. 8, 9, 18; Ps. cvi. 29- 
30); of the tumors which attacked the Philistines on 
account of the presence of the Ark (I Sam. vi. 4), and 
of the three days' pestilence which ravaged Israel 
after David's numbering of the people (II Sam. 
xxiv, 21, 25); of a disease of the bowels (II Chron. 
xxi. 14-15), and, propheticallj', of a plague which 
shall consume the flesh of the enemies of Jerusalem, 
both man and beast (Zech. xiv. 12, 15, 18). 

(2) "Negef," from the same root and with the 
same general meaning as " maggefah " (a blow, 
a striking): Used of the plague of Baal-peor 
(Josh. xxii. 17), of that which followed the rebellion 
of Korah (Num. xvi. 46-47), and with a general ap- 
plication {Vj\. xii. 13, XXX. 12; Num. viii. 19). The 
corresponding verb is used with the sense of " to 
plague "in Ex. xxxii. 35, Josh. xxiv. 5, and Ps. 
Ixxxix. 23. 

(3) " Nega' " (a touch, a stroke) : Used of the last 
of the Eg3'ptian plagues (Ex. xi. 1) and manv times 
of leprosy (Lev. xiii., xiv., and xxiv., and generally 
in I Kings viii. 37-38 and Ps. xci. 10). The corre- 
sponding verb, in addition to a general use in Ps. 
Ixxiii. 5, 14, is used of the plague which afflicted 
Pharaoh and his house because of the wrong done 
to Abram (Gen. xii. 17). 

(4) "Makkah" (a blow, a wound): Used of the 
plague which was due to the eating of quails (Num. 
xi. 33), of tlie plagues of Egypt (I Sam. iv. 8\ and 
more generally (Lev. xxvi. 21 ; Deut. xxviii. 59, 61; 
xxix. 22; Jer. xix. 8, xlix. 17, 1. 13). 




(5) "Deber": Rendered "plagues" in Hos. xiii. 
14; "murrain" (i.e., catlle-plague)in E.\. ix. 3; and 
"pestilence" in Ex. v. 3, ix. 15; Num. xiv. 12, and 
Hab. iii. 5. 

E. c. J. F. McL. 

In Rabbinical Literature : Commenting on 

the words of Jethro, "For in the thing wherein they 
dealt proudly he was above them" (Ex. xviii. 11), 
the Talmud says: "The Egyptians were cooked in 
the pot in which they cooked others" (Sotah 11a), 
that is, the punishment was made to correspond to 
their crime, on the "jus taiionis" principle. This 
refers to Pharaoh's edict to the effect that all Jew- 
ish infants were to be cast into the Nile, the Egyp- 
tians being punished by the plague that turned the 
water of the Nile to blood. Af the same time this 
plague proved that the Nile was not a deit}' as the 
Egyptians believed. Furthermore, the Egyptians 
suffered to the full extent the evils of the plagues, 
and did not derive any benefit, however indirect, 
therefrom. Hence, the frogs died in heaps "and the 
land stank"; while the " 'arob," which the Rabbis 
say was a mixture or drove of wild animals (not 
"a swarm of flies "), disappeared after the plague 

ceased, and " there remained not one " ; 

' ' Lex so that the Egyptians might not profit 

Taiionis." from the hides of the animals, which 

they might have done had the latter 
died like the frogs. Two theories have been ad- 
vanced for the plague of darkness, one of which 
is that the plague was intended to hide the anni- 
hilation of the wicked Israelites who, refusing to 
leave Egypt, died there. 

The period of each plague was seven days (Ex. 
vii. 25); and twenfy-four days intervened between 
one plague and the next. The ten plagues lasted 
nearly twelve mouths ('Eduy. ii. 10; comp. Ex. R. 
ix. 12). The order and nature of the plagues are 
described by R. Levi b. Zachariah in the name of R. 
Berechiah, who says: "God used military tactics 
against the Egyptians. First, He stopped their 
water-supply (the water turned to blood). Second, 
He brought a shouting army (frogs). Third, He shot 
arrows at them (lice). Fourth, He directed His le- 
gions against them (wild animals). Fifth, He caused 
an epidemic (murrain). Sixth, He poured naphtha 
on them (blains). Seventh, He huiled at them stones 
from a catapult (hail). Eighth, He ordered His 
storming troops (locusts) against them. Ninth, He 
put them under the torturing stock (darkness). 
Tenth, He killed all their leaders (first-born) " (Yalk., 
Ex. 182; Pe.sik. R. xvii. [ed. Friodmann, 89bJ)." 

Ten other plagues were inflicted on the Egyptians 
in the Red Sea (Ab. v. 6; Ab. R. N. xxxiii. ; conip. 

ed. Schechter, 2d version, xxxvi.), in 

Plagues in the various ways in which Pharaoh 

the and his hosts were drowned. R.Jose 

Red Sea. the Galilean says: "The Egyptians 

in the Red Sea sufl'ered fifty plagues. 
In Egypt the 'finger 'of God was recognized by the 
ten plagues; but at the Red Sea God's powerful 
' hand ' was visible [Ex. xiv. 31, Hebr.], which being 
multiplied by five fingers makes fifty plagues." R. 
Eliezer multiplied these by 4, making 200 plagues; 
and R. Akiba multiplied them by 5, making 250 
plagues. Each adduced his multiplier from the 

verse: "He cast upon them (1) the fierceness of his 
anger, (2) wrath, (3) and indignation, (4) and trouble, 
(5) by sending evil angels among them " (Ps. Ixxviii. 
49). R. Eliezer does not count "fierceness of his 
anger" (Mek., Ex. vi. ; comp. Ex. R. xxiii. 10; see 
also the Passover Haggadah). 

The order of the plagues in the Psalms differs 
from that in Exodus. R. Judah indicated the latter 
order by the mnemonic combination 3nX3 ll'l]) 1^1, 
consisting of the initial letters of the ten plagues 

as follows: nniN Ti2 ^ni*' im nny d^js vtisv dt 

niTian (n30)1trn = (l) water turning to blood, (2) 
frogs, (3) lice, (4) swarms of beasts, (5) murrain, (6) 
blains, (7) hail, (8) locusts, (9) darkness, (10) slaying 
of the first-born. The ten plagues are further- 
more divided thus: three performed through Moses, 
three through Aaron, three directly by God, and 
one, the sixth, through Mcses and Aaron together 
(Ex. vii. 17-x. 21; "Shibbole ha-Leket," ed. Ruber, 
p. 97b). 
E. c. J. D. E. 

Critical View: In the majority of cases the 

plague is regarded and spoken of as a divine visita- 
tion, a penalty inflicted upon the individual, family, 
or nation because of sin. Even the common disease 
of leprosy is said to be " put in a house " by God 
(Lev. xiv. 34). The exact nature of the fatal sickness 
which attacked the people on more than one occasion 
in the wilderness is a matter of conjecture, but there 
can be little doubt that it was the bubonic plague 
which destroyed the Philistines (I Sam. v. 6-12). 

The calamities inflicted upon the Egyptians be- 
cause of Pharaoh's refusal to let the people of Israel 

go into the wilderness to observe a feast 

Plagues of to Yiiwn are designated " plagues " 

Egypt- (Ex. ix. 14, xi. 1). The narrative in 

Exodus tells of ten such visitations. 
According to the critical aualj^sis of the sources of 
this narrative it appears that one, probably the ear- 
liest, story (J) tells of seven of the ten plagues (viz., 
1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10); another (E), of four, or possibly 
six (viz.. 1, 3 [?J,7, 8, 9, 10 [?]); and the third (P), 
of six (viz., 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10). P.salm Ixxviii. recalls 
seven, and Psalm cv. eight, of these. It is possible 
that one or more of the plagues may be duplicated 
in the narrative as it now stands. 

The first plague was the defilement of the river. 
" All the waters that were in the river were turned 
to blood. And the fish that was in the river died " 
(Ex. vii. 21). The Egyptians regarded tlie Nile as 
a god (seeMaspero, "Dawn of Civilization," pp. 36- 
42), and no doubt, to the Hebrew writer, this visita- 
tion seemed peculiarly appropriate. Tiie water of 
the Nile regularly becomes discolored from minute 
organisms or from decaying vegetable matter and 
mud carried down by the floods which reach Egypt in 
June. The color is said to vary from gray -blue to 
(lark red. A cause of this plague might therefore 
be found in the presence of an unusually large 
quantity of such impurities, making the water 

putrid. The second plague was a 

Details of multitude of frogs. The third and 

Plagues, fourth consisted of swarms of insect 

pests, probably stinging flies or gnats. 
The fifth was a murrain, or cattle-plague, probably 
anthrax or rinderpest. Pruner ("Krankheiten des 

I; ■ 



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The Ten Plagues, Accordixq to a Passover Hagoadah of 1695. 

(From the Sulzberger collection In the Jewish Theological Semlotr; of Amerlcs, New York.) 




Orients," Erlangen, 1847) describes an outbreak of 
the last-named in Egypt in 1842. 

The si.\tli plague was one of boils which Philo (" De 
Vita Moysis") describes as a red eruption in which 
the spots became swollen and pustular, and in which 
"the pustules, confluent into a mass, were spread 
over the body and limbs." This description, if cor- 
rect, would point to smallpox. The seventh plague 
was a great storm of hail ; the eighth, a swarm of 
locusts destroying the crops and even the leaves and 
fruit of the trees. The ninth was a "thick dark- 
ness " continuing for three days. It has been sug- 
gested that such a darkness might have been caused 
by the south or southwest wind, which blows about 
the time of the vernal equinox, bearing clouds of 
sand and fine dust that darken the air (see 
Denon, "Voyage dans I'Egypte," p. 286, Paris, 
1802); this wind blows for two or three days at a 
time. The tenth and last plague was the destruc- 
tion of the first-born, when Yhwh "gave their life 
over to the pestilence and smote all the first-born of 
Egypt" (Ps. Ixxviii. 50-51). 

Bibi,io(;raphy : Dilimann-Ryssel, Exodus und Leviticus, 
Lelpsic, 1897; Pruner, Krnhkheiten des Orients, Erlangen, 
1847; A. Macalister, Medicitie and Plague, in HastiDRs, 
Diet. Bible. 
E. c. J. F. McL. 

PLANTS.— In the Bible : The following names 
of plants and plant materials are found in the Old 


[The plant-names in this table follow the order of the Hebrew 
alphabet, but are transliterated according to the system adopted 
by The Jewish Encyclopedia.] 

Hebrew Name. 

Botanical Name. 

Popular Name. 


AbaUihim (plu- 



Agam, agmon.. 

Atialim, abalot 


Cyperus Papyrus, Linn. (?).... 
CitruUus vulgaris, Schrad 

fruit of Capparis spinosa, Linn. 

Juglans regia, Linn 

Juncus, Arundo. Phragmites. . 
Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb. 

(Gildemeister and Hoffmann, 

" Die Aetherischen Oele," p. 

64.=), note). 

Eruca satlva. Lam. (?) 

Origanum Maru, Linn 

Cyperus Papyrus, Linn 

Lyclum europsEum, Linn 

Pistacia Terebinthus, var. Pal- 

aestina, Engl. 

Papyrus (?). 

Thorny caper. 
Rush, reed. 


Wild marjoram. 

Ahu, gome 


Elah (see zori).. 

Allah, allon 

Algummim, al- 


Sandalwood (?). 

mugglm (pl.). 

Cedrus Libanl 

a conifer, Pinus or Abies 

Tamarix Syrlaca, Bolss.,orTa- 
marix articulata, Vahl. 

Cfiiar of T<pha- 


Pine or fir 



Stinkweed (?). 

In the Mishnah 
a sort of fruit. 


Botnlm (pl.)... 

Bezallm (pl.)... 

gum of the Balsamodendron 

Mukul, Hooker, 
fruit of Pistacia vera, Linn.. . . 

Allium Cepa, Linn 


Berr^h, berot. . . 

Phicopappus s'-oparlus, Sleb.. . 
Abies Cilicica, Ant. and Ky . . . 
vegetable lye of Mesembryan- 

themum, Sallcomia, Alzoon. 

Balsamodendron Opobalsa- 

mum, Kunth. 
not a plant, but erroneously 

Identlfled by Wellhauscn and 

Kautzschwith Malabathrum. 

Coriandrum sativum, Linn 

Cilician spruce. 

Basam, bosem.. 



Hebrew Name. 


Gome (see ahu) . 




Duda'lm (pl.). 



Hobnim . 
Hadas ... 



Habazzelet . . . 


Hittah . . . . 
Helbenah . 
Hallamut , 

Haful .. 
"i'izhar . 

Kussemet . 



Libneh .. 
Lebonah , 

Luz (see sha 





Nahal (see ta- 





Sillon (pl. sallo- 
. nlm). 

Botanical Name. 

Popular Name, 

(prototype) Plantago Cretica,. rolling balls of 

Linn., Gundelia Tournefor- 
tii, Linn., Centaurea myrio- 
cephala, Schrad., and others 
(Fonck, "Streifziige," etc., 
p. 87; Kerner, " Pflanzenle- 
ben." il. 787). 

dry weeds, 
as explained 
by Bar He- 
bneus on Ps. 
Ixxxiii. 14. 

Vitis vinifera, Linn 'Grape-vine. 

Cupressus Cypress. 

Mandragora offlcinarum, Linn. Mandrake. 
Andropogon Sorghum, Linn.. .Bread, durra. 
a thistle, especially Centaurea Star-thistle. 
Calcitrapa, Linn., and others. 

Myrtus communis, Linn j Myrtle. 

Olea Europaea, Linn Olive. 

Colchicum, especially Colchi- 

cum Steveni, Kuntli. 

Solanum coapulans, Forsk 

probably Echinops viscosus. 

DC: perhaps Acanthus Syri- 

acus, Linn. 

Triticum vulgare, Linn. 

resin of Ferula galbaniflua, 

Boiss. and Buhse. 
Anchusa, Linn 

Allium Porrum, Linn. 

Lathyrus, Linn 

figurative for " zayit " 

j According to 

tradition, a 

fodder for 



Bugloss or alka- 


Cuminum Cyminum, Linn.. 

Triticum Spelta. Linn 

Lawsonia alba, Lam 

root of Curcuma longa, Linn. 

Populus alba, Linn 

from Boswellia Carteria, Bird- 
wood, and others. 

mastic isic) of Pistacia Len- 

tiscus, Linti. 
Artemisia monosperma, Delile, 

Artemisia Judaica, Linn. 

Atrlplex Halimus, Linn 

especially from Commiphora 
Abyssinica, Engl., and Com- 
miphora Schiniperi. Engl, 
(according to Holmes, per- 
haps Coiniiiiphiira Kataf, 
Engl., Balsamodendron Ka- 
fal, Kunth : see Gildemeister 
and Hoffmann, I.e. p. 639 
Schweinfurth. " Berichte der 
Deutschen Pharmacologisch- 
en Gesellschaft," iii. 237. 
cited by Gildemeister and 
Hoffmann, I.e. p. 637). 

according to Saadia, Prosopls 
Stephanlana, Willd. 

resin of Styrax officinalis, Linn, 
tragacanth of Astragalus gum- 

mifer, Labill., and others. 
a prickly plant, which can not 

be identified with certainty. 
Nardostachys Jatamansi, DC. 


Poterium splnosum, Linn {?). 

Rubus sanctus, Schreb. 


White poplar. 




Varieties of as- 



Thorny bumet; 
perhaps, also, 
other thorn- 

Thorn, thorn- 





Hebrew Name. 


'Adashim (pi.), 
'Ez shemen — 


'A rot, consid- 
ered by the 
LXX. as iden- 
tical with 



Botanical Name. 

according to Ibn Janah, Atra- 
phaxis spinosa, Linn.; ac- 
cording to Jerome, Urtica, 

Lens esciilenta, Mnch 

Eheagnus hortensis, M. Bleb. 
CO, Finns Halepensis, Mill. 

Populus Euphratica, Ollv 







Zinnim (pi 


Zori (see elah). 

^iddab, ke 



Platanus orlentalis, Linn 

Juniperus oxycedrus, Linn — 

Vlctafaba. Linn., probably also 
Vigna Sinensis, var. sesqui- 
pedalis, Linn. 

Panicum mlliaceum, Llnn.(?). 

Citrullus Colocyntnis (Linn.), 

Linum usitatlsslmum, Linn. . . 

Zizyphus spina-ChristI, Linn... 

Popular Name. 

Atraphaxis, or 


Euphrates pop- 



Salix safsat, Forsk 

resin of Pistacia Tereblnthus, 
var. PalEestina, Engl., but, 
according to Jewish tradi- 
tion, resin of Commiphora 
Kafaf, Engl. (Balsamoden- 
dron Kafal, Kunth). 

varieties of Cinnamomum Cas- 
sia, Bl. 



Ricinus communis, Linn. 

5aneh. . . 

Keneh bosem 
' and kaneh ha- 
tob. ■ 

Urtica, Linn (?) 

Arundo Donax, Linn., and 

Phragmites communis, Trin. 

Acorus Calamus, Linn 



Klshshu'im (pi.) 


Rim men 
Rotem . . . 

Sorah (same as 
dohan [?]). 







Shayit (?). 


Shaked, luz . . , 

Shikmah . . . 






Common castor- 
oil plant. 

Cinnamomum Zeylanlcum, 


Nigella sativa, Linn 

Cucumis Chate, Linn., and Cu- 

cumis sativus, Linn, 
according to Post, Citrullus 

Colocynthus (Linn.), Schrad. 

(see pakku'ot), but this is 

very doubtful). 

Punica Granatum, Linn 

Retama Raetam (Forsk.), Web. 

Artemisia, Linn 

Hordeum, Linn 

Allium sativum, Linn... 
Lllium candidum, Linn. 

Acacia Nilotica,Del.,and 

Paliurus aculeatus, Linck (?) 
Prunus Amygdalus, Stokes 

(Amygdalus communis, 

Ficus Sycomorus, Linn 

Tamar, and pos- 
sibly also na- 


Tirzah .'. 

Ficus Carica, Linn 

Cupressus sempervirens, Linn 
according to the Targ., Comiis 

mas,Linn.,orComus Austra 

lis. Cam. 
Phoenix dactyllfera, Linn 

Calamus (Gilde- 
meister and 
Hoffmann, I.e. 
p. 384). 













Mains communis, Desf . 

(1) according to Saadia and 
Ibn Janah, Pinus Halepensis. 
Mill.; (2) according to the 
Vulgate, Ilex, either Quercus 
Ilex, Linn., or Quercus coc- 
cifera, Linn. 


Cornel, do g- 



(1) Pine; (2) oak. 

In the Apocrypha : In the Apocryphal books 

tlie following pjiints and plant-products are men- 
tioned: vine, palm, lig, olive-tree, mulberry-tree 
(pomegranate), wheat, barley, pumpkin, rush, reed, 
grass, cedar, cypress, terebinth, mastic, holm-oak, 
rose, lily, ivy, hedge-thorn, spices, cinnamon, aspal- 
athus, myrrh, galbanum, stacte, and incense. The 
rose and ivy are mentioned in the Mishnah also; 
but they do not occur in the Hebrew Old Testa- 

The rose-plant of Jericho, mentioned in Ecclus. 
(Sirach) xxiv. 14, has been identified, through over- 
hasty speculation, with Anastatica Ilierochuntica, 
which, however, is not found in that district. This 
Anastiiticn is frequently used by the Christians as a 
symbol, while the modern Jews have frequently 
mentioned it in their poetry. The Asteriscua pyg- 
mcBus, Coss., which grows at Jericho, also has been 
regarded as the rose of Jericho. The branches of 
the Anastatica bend inward when the fruit becomes 
ripe, so that the numerous closed, pear-shaped pods, 
found at the ends of the branches, seem to be sur- 
rounded by a lattice. In the case of the Asteriscua, 
on the other hand, after the time of ripening it is 
not the branches, but the top leaves, grouped in 
rosettes, which close over the fruit (Robinson, 
"Palastina," ii. 539; Sepp, "Jerusalem und das 
Heilige Land," i. 610; Post, "Flora of Syria, Pales- 
tine, and Sinai," p. 67; Kerner, "Pflanzenleben," 
ii. 783). 

In Philo and Josephus : Philo gives no addi- 
tional iufonnatiou regarding the knowledge of bot- 
any possessed by the Jews in antiquity. It is true 
that he made allegorii al use of grass and flowers, 
wild trees and those t.-^at bear fruit, the oak, the 
palm, and the pomegrmate, incense, and the tree of 
life (Siegfried, "Philo von Alexandria," pp. 185 
et seq., Jena, 1875), but he wrote neither on botany 
nor on agriculture (Meyer, "Gesch. der Botanik," ii. 
80). Josephiis, on the other hand, deserves special 
mention, since he was the only author in Jewish an- 
tiquity who attempted to describe a plant in exact 
detail. He says, in his discussion of the head-dress 
of the high priest (" Ant." iii. 7, § 6) : " Out of which 
[the golden crown] arose a cup of gold like the herb 
that we call 'saccharus,' but which is termed 
'hyoscyamus' by the Greeks." The form aoKxapov 
is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic " shak- 
runa," which is not mentioned again until it is named 
in the medical work ascribed to Asaph ben Bere- 
CHiAH. The next description of the plant is given 
in Hebrew by Azariah dei Rossi ("Me'or 'Enayim," 
ch. xlix.). Josephus describes it from personal 
observation and shows a very clear knowledge of the 
peculiarities of the plant. In describing it he men- 
tions the ptjKcn', or poppy, for the first time in Jew- 
ish literature, as well as the plants ei^u/iov (rocket), 
(iowiaq, and ai^iipinq. He is likewise the first to refer 
to the chick-pea in 'epe'^ivOuv o'tKOi ("B. J." v. 12, 
§ 2), the vetch (" karshinna " ; Vicia Ervilia, Linn. ; 
5po/3of, ib. V. 10, § 3), the fenugreek {Ti-igonella 
Famim-Qmcum, Linn. ; r^P/c, ib. iii. 7, § 29), the 
amomum ("Ant." xx. 2, § 3) growing near Carrhne, 
and the laurel- wreaths of the Romans {6d<pvT], "B. J." 
vii. 5. § 4). 
The second specifically botanical reference is to 




the -ijyavov, a lue of extraordinary size growing in 

the precincts of tlie palace at Macharus. The rue is 

mentioned by Josephus (" B. J. " vii. 6, 

Plants § 3) for the first time among Jewish 

First Men- writers, though it occurs also in Luke 

tioned by xi. 42. Later the Greek name appears 

Josephus. as a foreign word in the Mishnah. The 
rue at Macha?rus was equal to any fig- 
tree in height and breadth, and according to tradition 
it had been standing since the time of Herod ; the 
Jews cut it down when they occupied this fortress. 
The valley bounding the city on the north, Josephus 
continues, is called Ba'arah (my3; Epstein, "Mi- 
Kadmoniyyot," p. 108), and produces a marvelous 
root of the same name. " It is a flaming red, and 
shines at night." Then follows the popular de- 
scription of a magic root that can be drawn from 
the earth only by a dog, which loses its life thereby. 
^Elian {c. 180) repeals the tale; but a picture in the 
Vienna manuscript of Dioscorides, made in the fifth 
centurj-, is the earliest proof that this mysterious 
root was supposed to be the mandragora or man- 
drake (Ferdinand Cohn, in " Jahresbericht der 
Schlesischen Gesellschaft filr Vaterlitndische Cul- 
tur," botanical section, 1887, 27, x. ; " Verhaudlungen 
der Berliner Anthropologischen Gesellschaft," 17, x. 
[1891] 730; 19, xii. 749. Instead of a dog, an ass 
pulls out the root according to Midr. Agada, ed. 
Buber, on Gen. xlix. 14. On the human form of the 
mandrake see Ibn Ezra on Cant. vii. 14; Salfeld, 
"Hohelied," p. 72. The popular belief regarding 
the mandragora is given in full by Judah Hadassi 
[1148] in "Eshkol ha-Kofer," 152c; Maimonides, 
"Moreh," French transl. by Munk, iii. 235; Giide- 
mann," Gesch."iii. 129; GrUnbaum, " jQdisch-Deut- 
sche Chrestomathie," p. 176). 

Josephus was also the first to mention the so-called 

Sodom-apple, Calotropis procera, Willd. (Post, I.e. 

p. 526), describing it as a fruit exactly resembling 

edible apples in color, but composed only of ashes, 

and crumbling in the hand to dust 

The (" B. J. " iv. 8, § 4). He speaks highly 

Sodom- also of the fruitfulness of Palestine, 

Apple. mentioning particularly the palms 
("Ant." iv. 6, § 1; " B. J." i. 6, § 6; 
iii. 10, § 8; iv. 8, §§ 2, 3, 4) and balsam at Jericho 
("Ant." xiv. 4, § 1 ; xv. 4, § 2) and Engedi (ib. ix. 1, 
§ 2), as well as the palms at Phasaelis, Archelais (ib. 
xviii. 2, § 2), and Persea ("B. J." iii. 3, § 3). The 
balsam-tree was introduced by the Queen of Sheba, 
and was afterward planted ("Ant." viii. 6, § 6) and 
tapped ("B. J." i. 6, § 6). At Jericho the cypress 
(/ciTrpof, ib. iv. 8, § 3) and the fxvpojid'kavoq {ib. iv. 8, 
t5 3) also grew. In Pera?a, furthermore, there were 
fruitful places where olive-trees, vines, and palms 
flourished (/6. iii. 3, ^ 3), but the fruits of Gennesaret 
surpassed all {ib. iii. 10, § 8, a statement which is 
confirmed by the Talmud). 

Naturally every recapitulation of Biblical history 
contains references to all the Biblical plants; and in 
Jo.sephu8 references are found to Adam's fig-leaves 
(" Ant."i. 1, § 4); the olive-leaf of Noah's dove (26. 1. 
8, §5); Noah's vine (i'ft.i. 6, §3); Ishmael's fir-tree (iVj. 
i. 12, § 3, kldTT], as LXX. and Josephus render D^IT'K'n 
by analogy with NHIti'N); Abraham's oak, Ogyf/es 
{ib. i. 10, § 3); the terebinth standing near Hebron 

since the creation of the world ("B. J." iv. 9, § 7); 

Esau's lentil pottage ("Ant.". ii. 1, § 1); Reuben's 

mandrakes (?'6. i. 19, ^8); the wheat-sheaf in Joseph's 

dream {ib. ii. 2, § 2) and the grapes in 

Biblical the visions of the two Egyptians {ib. 

Names ii. 5, § 2); Moses' ark of bulrushes (j6. 

Recapitu- ii. 9, § 4), and the burning bush {iidro^, 

lated by ib. ii. 12); tlie manna that was like 

Josephus. bdellium and coriander {ib. iii. 1, § 6); 

the blossoming almond-rod (i'6. iv. 4, § 

2); the seventy palms (?6. iii. 1, §3); Ruhab's stalks 

of flax {ib. V. 1, § 2) ; the trees in Jotham's parable {ib. 

V. 7, § 2); the cypress and thistle of the parable in II 

Kings xiv. 9 {ib. ix. 9, § 2); Hiram's cedar-trees {ib. 

Vii. 3, §2; viii. 2,^7; SigS; " B. J." v. 5, ^2); the 

pine-trees, which Josephus says were like the wood 

of fig-trees {nevKiva, "Ant." viii. 7, § 1); the lilies 

and pomegranates on the pillars of tiie Temple 

{ib. viii. 3, g 4) and on the golden candlestick (iii. 

6. § 7). 

Solomon " spoke a parable on every sort of tree, 
from the hyssop to the cedar" {ib. viii. 2, § 5) and 
built the Af)Vfi6v {ib. viii. 6, § 5; comp. 6pvfi6q, " oak- 
coppice, "?6. xiv. 13, ^ 3; "B. J." i. 13, § 2; Boett- 
ger, "Topographisch-Historisches Lexicon zu den 
Schriften des Flavins Josephus," p. 105). 

Josephus, as well as the Biblical narrative, men- 
tions apples eaten by Herod ('' Ant."xvii. 7; "B.J." 
i. 33, § 7); fig-trees ("Ant." viii. 7, § 1 ; "B.J." vii. 
6, ^3); pomegranates ("Ant." iii. 7, ^ 6); cages of 
sedge (i"6. ii. 10, § 2); wheat (/6. xvii. 13, §3; "B. J." 
V. 13, ^ 7); wheat and barley ("Ant." ix. 11, §2; 
"B. J." V. 10, $^ 2); barley alone ("Ant." iii. 10, § 6; 
V. 6, § 4); and herbs {laxavEin, "B. J." iv. 9, § 8). 

In describing the legal code, Josephus recapitu- 
lates the following Biblical plants: hyssop at vari- 
ous sacrifices ("Ant."ii. 14, § 6; iv. 
Plants 4, § 6) ; flax in the priestly robes {ib. 
Named in iii. 7, § 7) ; pomegranates, signifying 
the Legal lightning, on the high priest's gar- 
Code, ments ("B. J." v. 5, § 7); lilies and 
pomegranates on the golden candle- 
sticks ("Ant." iii. 6.^7); cinnamon, myrrh, cala- 
mus, and iris (" kiddah ") in the oil of purification {ib. 
iii. 8, I 3; Whist on: "cassia"); cinnamon and cassia 
("B. J." vi. 8, § 3); the first-fruits of the barley 
("Ant." iii. 10, §5); he likewise cites the precept 
against sowing a diversity of plants in the vineyard 
{ib. iv. 8, § 20). In like manner the Biblical meta- 
phor of the broken reed {ib. x. 1, § 2) is repeated. 

Josephus is of course acquainted with the citron- 
apple, mentioned in the Mishnah and forming part 
of the festival-bush together with the palm-branch, 
willow, and myrtle, although he calls it vaguely the 
" Persian apple "(u^Aov TTjqllepciag), not the" Median" 
("Ant." iii. 10, § 4). He is more accurate in desig- 
nating the fruit itself {Kirpia, ib. xiii. 13, ^ 1). The 
golden vine of the Temple is mentioned twice {ib. 
xiv. 3, § 1; "B. J." v. 5, % A). 

The "Yosippon" (ed. Gagnier, ii. 10, § 70) men- 
tions among the wonders seen by 
The Alexander on his way to India a tree, 

"Yosippon." ptOpUD'N, which grew until noon, 
and then disappeared into the earth. 
In the same work (ii. 1 1 , § 77) the trees of the sun and 
moon forewarn Alexander of his early death. 




In the New Testament : Tlie following names 

of plants may be cited from the New Testament: 

New Testament 

oypitAaios (op 

posed to KoA. 



o/aiTfAos (ffTai^v- 

_ A.)). 








6vifo<:, deriva- 
tive from Ovia. 






Ai^ai'os .... 

^tai'i'a . 




<tIto<;, (TTaxvi.. . 




(rvKY), crvKov, 



Botanical Name. 

Olea Europaea, Linn., var. syl- 


Aqullarla Agallocba, Roxb. 

Anethum graveolens, Linn.. 

Artemisia, Linn 

Rubus, Linn 

Olea Europa?a, Linn 

Lolliim temulentum. Linn... 


Thuja aiticulata, Vahl 

Arundo Donax, 


nis, Trln. 
Ceratonia Siliqua, Linn 

Linn., and 

Hordeum, Linn 

Lilium candidum, Linn 

Cuminum Cymlnum, Linn . . 

Linum usitatissimum, Linn. 

from the Tamarix mannifera, 
Ehrenberp, and Alhagi Mau- 
rorum, DC. 

Nardostachys Jatamansl. DC. 

Ruta, Linn 

Sinapis, Linn 


Morus nigra, Linn 

Ficus Sycomorus, Linn. 
Ficus Carica, Linn 

Trlbulus terrestris, Linn 

Origanum Mam, Linn 

Phoenix dactylifera, Linn . . . 

Popular Name. 

Wild olive of 
northern Syria. 









Bearded darnel. 




bread, carob. 






Flax (used only 
for wick and 
for linen gar- 





Wheat, grain. 





Wild marjoram. 

More general terms are a.v9o^ (flower), poravT} (herbage), Sfv- 
ipov (tree), xA^iia (branch), \dxavov (vegetable), <t>pvyavov 
(brushwood), <i>vTeia (plant), \Aa>pds (green), xopro^ (grass). 

The following names of plants are found in proper 
names in the New Testament: the palm (Thamar), 
the lily (Susanna), the fig (Beth-phage), the narcis- 
sus (as tlie name of the Roman Narcissus) ; the name 
of the date has been conjectured to form part of the 
name of Bethany (Bet-hine). The crown of thorns 
placed on Jesus may have been composed of the 
gatland-thorn, Paliurus acideatus, Lam., of the ju- 
jube, Zizyphus vulgaris. Lam., or of a variety of 
hawthorn, the Cratmgns Azarolus, Linn., or the Cra- 
taegus monogyna, Willd. 

In the Pseudepigrapha : There are few ref- 
erences to plants in the pseudepigrapha, so far as 
the latter are included in Kautzsch's collection ("Die 
Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testa- 
ments," Freiburg-im-Breisgau and Leipsic, 1900, 
cited here as K.). In these references Biblical figures 
and concepts prevail for the most part. The fertilitj'^ 
("shebah ha-arez ") which was the glory of Pales- 
tine (Deut. viii. 8) is lauded by Aristeas (§ 112; K. 
ii. 15), who praises the agriculture there. "The 
land," he says, "is thickly planted with olive-trees, 
cereals, and pulse, and is rich in vines, honey, fruits, 
and dates." When Abraham entered Palestine he 
saw there vines, figs, pomegranates, the " balan " 
and the "ders" (two varieties of oak, /Jd^vof and 

''pi'C). terebinths, olive-trees, cedars, cypress-trees, 
frankincense-trees (Xi^nvoq), and every tree of the 
licld (Book of Jubilees, xiii. 6; K. ii. 63). 

According to the later (Christian) version of the 
Greek of Baruch (iv. ; K. ii. 451), Noah 
planted the vine only because the wine was destined 
to become the blood of Jesus; otherwise, the vine 
from which Adam ate the forbidden fruit would 
have fallen under a curse. Noah is saved like one 
grape of a whole cluster, or one sprig in an entire 
forest (II Esd. ix. 21 ; K. ii. 384). The vine is also 
mentioned in the Sibylline Books (iv. 17; K. ii. 201), 
the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (x. 10; K. ii. 415), 
and in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs 
(Levi, 2; K. ii. 466), where the Lord becomes to 
Levi his farm, vine, fruits, gold, and silver. When 
the Messiah shall come the earth will bring forth 
its fruit ten thousandfold ; and on each vine there 
will be 1,000 branches; on each branch, 1,000 clus- 
ters; and on each cluster, 1,000 grapes; and each 
grape will yield a "cor" of wine (Syriac Apoc. 
Baruch, xxix. 5; K. ii. 423). The Syriac Apoc- 
alypse of Baruch (xxxvi. 3 et seq. ; K. ii. 424 et seq.) 
contains also a vision of a forest, a vine, and a cedar, 
and the Book of Jubilees (xiii. 26; K. ii. 65) men- 
tions tithes of seed, wine, and oil. 

Fig-leaves are said to grow in paradise, a belief 
based upon the Biblical account (Apoc. Mosis, 
§ 21 ; K. ii. 522), while, according to the Ethiopia 
Apocalypse of Baruch, the figs which Ebed-melech 
carries remain fresh anduuwithered during his sleep 
of sixty-six years and are taken to Babylon by an 
eagle (p. 402). 

Among other trees and fruits mentioned in the 
pseudepigrapha are: the olive-tree (Sibyllines, iv. 
17; K. ii. 201; Test. Patr., Levi, 8, p. 467; instead of 
" siah " [Gen. xxi. 15], the Book of Jubilees, xvii. 10 ; 
K. 11. 70, reads "olive-tree "), palms (Enoch, xxiv. 4; 
K. 11. 254), dates of the valley (Jubilees, xxix. 15; 
K. 11. 90), nut-tree (Enoch, xxix. 2; K. 11. 256; not 
the almond -tree, which is mentioned shortly after- 
ward, ib. XXX. 8), almonds and terebinth-nuts (Jubi- 
lees, xiii. 20; K. 11. 109, following Gen. xliii. 11), 
aloe-tree (Enoch, xxxl. 2; K. 11. 256), cedar (Test. 
Patr., Simeon, 6; K. il. 464). A book sprinkled with 
oil of cedar to preserve it Is described in the As- 
sumption of Moses (i. 17; K. 11. 320); the locust-tree 
(Enoch, xxxli. 4; K. ii. 256), and, especially, oaks 
also are mentioned, as In the Syriac Apocalypse of 
Baruch (Ixxvii. 18; K. Ii. 441); they are said to grow 
at Hebron (Enoch, vl. ; K. 11. 414), at Mamre (Jubilees, 
xlv. 10; K. 11. 65), and in the land of Sichem( Jubilees, 
xxxi. 2; K. il. 92); the oak is likewise mentioned 
in the lament over Deborah (Jubilees, xxxll. 30; K. 
Ii. 96). 

Of all the Information regarding trees the most 
interesting is the list of evergreens given in Jubilees 
(xxi. 12; K. 11. 76), while this class of trees is also 
alluded to In Enoch (ill. ; K. ii. 237) and in the 
Testament of Levi (ix. ; K. ii. 468; Lihv, p. 59). 
Similar catalogues occur in the Talmud and Mish- 
nah, and In the Greek writings on agriculture. The 
Book of Jubilees mentions the following as appro- 
priate for the altar: cypress, juniper, almond-tree 
(for whicli, following Dillmann, "acacia" has been 
suggested as an emendation), Scotch pine, pine, 




cedar. Ciliciau spruce, palm ('?), olive-tree, myrtle, 
laurel, citron (Citrus medicn, Risso), juniper (? Ethi- 
opic "arbot," for which Dillmann conjectures "ar- 
kot," apKo.'dog), and balsam. 

On account of their beauty the following flowers 
are mentioned in the pseudepigrapha: lily (Test. 
Patr, Joseph. 18; K. ii. 5U2), rose (Test. Patr., 
Simeon, 6; K. ii. 464; Enoch, Ixxxii. 16; K. ii. 287; 
cvi. 2. 10; K. ii. 308 et seq. : "rubra sicut rosa" and 
"rubrior rosa " : it is also mentioned in the Apocry- 
pha, Mishnah, Targum, and LXX.). and the rose- 
laurel. The oleander seems to be intended by "the 
field of Ardaf " in II Esd. (ix. 26; K. ii. 385) (the last 
letter with the variants "s," "d," "t," and "b"). 
"Harduf" ("hirduf," "hardufni") is a borrowed 
word even in the .Mishnah, and shows, together with 
the Arabic "diflah," that the JV'mwni Oleander, Linn., 
came from Europe, or, more exactly (according to 
O. Schrader, in Hehn, " Kulturpflanzen," 6th ed., p. 
405), from the Spanish west. The plant had reached 
Greece before the time of Dioscoridesand Pliny; and 
it may have grown wild in Palestine by the end of 
the first century just as it does at present; it is 
always found in water-courses, and flourishes from 
the level of the Ghor to an altitude of 3,280 feet in 
the mountains (Post, I.e. p. 522). To such a region 
the seer of II Esdras was bidden to go, there to sus- 
tain himself on the flowers of the field. In Sibyl- 
lines (v. 46; K. ii. 206, a passage originally heathen) 
the flower of Nemea, akTuvov (parsley), is mentioned. 

As in the Bible narrative, thorns and thistles ap- 
peared after the fall of man (Apoc. Mosis, § 24 ; K. 
ii. 522), while thorns and prickly briers are men- 
tioned in the Sibyllines (Preface, 24 et seq. ; K. ii. 
184). The Biblical "duda'im," mentioned in the 
Testament of Issachar (i. ; K. ii. 478), are mandrakes, 
which grow in the land of Aram, on an elevation, be- 
low a ravine. Tithes of the seed are mentioned (Jubi- 
lees, xiii. 26; K. ii. 65); while according to Aris- 
teas (§ 145; K. ii. 17), the clean birds eat wheat 
and pulse. Egypt is mentioned (Sibyllines, iv. 72; 
K. ii. 202) as producing wheat; and the marrow of 
wheat, like the Biblical "kilyot hittah" ("kidneys of 
wheat," Dent, xxxii. 14), is spoken of in Enoch (xcvi. 
5; K. ii. 302), while II Esdras (ix. 17; K. ii. 384) de- 
clares (R. v.): "Like as the field is, so is also the 
seed ; and as the flowers be, such are the colors also." 
In the same book (iv. 31 etseq. [R. V.]; K. ii. 357) 
occurs also an argument "de minore ad mains," 
found in the Bible likewise: "Ponder now by thy- 
self, how great fruit of wickedness a grain of evil 
seed hath brought forth. When the ears which are 
without number shall be sown, how great a floor 
shall they fill!" (comp. the "kal wa-homer" in II 
Esd. iv. 10, end; K. ii. 355; and see Schwarz, "Der 
Hermeneutische Syllogismus." p. 82, "Vienna, 1901). 
Lolium (Ci^dviov) is mentioned in Apoc. Mosis, ^ 16 
(K. ii. 520). Among the spices and condiments, cin- 
namon is described as obtained from the excrement 
of the worm which comes from the dung of the 
phenix (Greek Apoc. Baruch, vi. ; K. ii. 453), and is 
also mentioned in Enoch, XXX. 3, xxxii. 1; K. ii. 256; 
Apoc. Mosis, ^29; K. ii. 524; Vita Adie et Evae, § 
43; K. ii. 520. Pepper, spoken of in Enoch (xxxii. 
1 ; K. ii. 256), is new, although it is met with as 
early as the Mishnah. 

Among other plants mentioned in the pseudepig- 
rapha are: aloe- trees (Enoch, xxxi. ; K. ii. 256); 
balsam {ib. xxx. 2); galbanum {ib.; Jubilees, iii. 
27, xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69); sweet-calamus and saffron 
(Apoc. Mosis, I.e. ; Vita Ada? et Eva?, I.e.); costus-root 
(Jubilees, xvi. 24; K. ii. 69); ladanum, and similar 
almonds (Enoch, xxxi. 2; K. ii. 256); gum-mastic 
(Enoch, xxxii. 1, xxx. 1 ; K. ii. 256; myrrh (Enoch, 
xxix. 2; K. ii. 256; Jubilees, xvi. 24; K. ii. 69); 
nard (Jubilees, iii. 27, xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69; 
Enoch, xxxii. 1; K. ii. 256; Apoc. Mosis, § 29; 
K. ii. 524); nectar, called also balsam and galbanum 
(Enoch, xxxi. 1 ; K. ii. 256); storax (Jubilees, iii. 27, 
xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69); incense (Enoch, xxix. 2; K. 
ii. 256; Jubilees, iii. 27, xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69; Test. 
Patr., Levi, 8; K. ii. 467). 

Aristeas (§ 63; K. ii. 10) describes pictorial repre- 
sentations of plants as decorations on state furniture, 
including garlands of fruit, grapes, ears of corn, 
dates, apples, olives, pomegranates, etc. He speaks 
also (§ 68, p. 11) of the legs of a table which were 
topped with lilies, and (§ 70; K. ii. 11) of ivy, acan- 
thus, and vines, as well as of lilies (§ 75; K. ii. 11), and 
of vine-branches, laurel, myrtle, and olives (^ 79; K. 
ii. 12). Plant-metaphors taken from the Bible and 
applied to Israel and Palestine are: vines and lilies 
(II Esd. V. 23 et seq.; K. ii. 361) and the vineyard 
(Greek Apoc. Baruch, i. ; K. ii. 448). 

In poetic and haggadic interpretations wood shall 
bleed as one of the signs of the approaching end of 
the world (II Esd. v. 5; K. ii. 359; Barnabas, xii. 1), 
and the trees shall war against the sea (II Esd. iv. 13 
et seq. ; K. ii. 356). At the last day many of man- 
kind must perish, even as the seed sown by the hus- 
bandman ripens only in part {ib. viii. 41 ; K. ii. 381), 
although every fruit brings honor and glory to 
God (Enoch, v. 2; K. ii. 237). In the Greek Apoca- 
lypse of Baruch (xii. ; K. ii. 456) angels bear baskets 
of flowers which represent the virtues of the right- 
eous. In the sacred rites, palm-branches, fruits of 
trees (citrons), and osier-twigs are mentioned (Jubi- 
lees, xvi. 31 ; K. ii. 70). 

At the commandment of God on the third day of 
Creation, "immediately there came forth great and 
innumerable fruits, and manifold pleasures for the 
taste, and flowers of inimitable color, and odors of 
most exquisite smell " (II Esd. vi. 44, R. V. ; K. ii. 
367) ; and the beauty of the trees in paradise is also 
emphasized {ib. vi. 3; K. ii. 364). The tree of 
knowledge and the tree of life appealed powerfully 
to the fancy of the pscudepigraphic writers. The 
former, from which Adam ate, is supposed, on the 
basis of other Jewish traditions, to have been either 
the vine (Greek Apoc. Baruch, iv. ; K. ii. 451) or the 
fig (Apoc. Mosi.s, § 21; K. ii. 522). The Book of 
Enoch (xxxii. 3 et seq. ; K. ii. 256) describes the tree 
of knowledge thus: "Its shape is like the pine-tree; 
its foliage like the locust-tree; its fruit like the 
grape." The tree of life is planted for the pious (II 
Esd. viii. 52; K. ii. 382), and is described in Enoch 
(xxiv. 3 et seq. ; K. ii. 254) as fragrant and with un- 
fading leaves and blossoms and imperishable wood, 
while as in the accounts in the Old and the New 
Testament its fruit, which is like that of the palm, 
gives eternal life (Enoch; II Esd. I.e.; Test. Patr., 
Levi, 18; K. ii. 471, reads " tree " instead of " wood "). 




It is the tree of paradise, and from it flows the heal- 
ing oil, the oil of life, the oil of mercy (Vita Adoe et 
Eva", §§ 36, 41 ; Apoc. Mosis, ^ 9; K. ii. 518. 520). 

In the Mishnah and Talmud : The Mishnah 

has preserved ouly about 2'M names of plants, of 
which about 180 are old Hebrew and forty are de- 
rived from Greek terms. In the Talmudic literature 
of the post-Mishnaic period 100 names of plants are 
found in the Jerusalem Talmud and 175 in the Baby- 
lonian; about twenty of these names are of Greek 
origin. In the Mishnah, Talmud, Midrash, and 
Targum the following plants are mentioned as in- 
digenous to Palestine and Babylon : 

[Abbreviations : B. = Babylonian Talmud ; Y. = Jerusalem 
Talmud; M. = Mishnah; Mldr. = Midrash ; T. = Tarfnim. In 
the following table the name of the botanical family Is printed 
In small capitals.] 

Name in Mishnah. 
Talmud, etc. 

Botanical Name. 

Popular Name. 


»<rjNn Nn>Tin 

Allsma Plantago aqua- 
tica, Linn. 

Water- plan- 




Narcissus poeticus, 
Linn., Narcissus Ta- 
zetia, Linn., and vari- 



7DJ, Bible, M.; NJDU, 
pj-M, M., Y., B. 

Vitls vlnifera, Linn — 


i^w M 

Rhus Coriarla, Linn — 

Pistacia Tereblnthus, 
var. Palsestlna, Engl. 

Pistacia vera, Linn 

Pistacia vera, Linn 

reslu of >3iBDa, M., Pis- 
tacia Lentiscus, Linn. 


nVN, Bible, M.; ndoo, 

T.. Y., B. 
nri33. M.. Bible 

Pistachio -nut. 



OOlS, M.; didS, m., t... 



r|mn, B.; •'jDinn, M... 

Nerium Oleander, Linn. 


01D>p,M., Y 

Hedera Helix, Linn — 



«lf, M 

Arum orlentale, M. Bleb. 

naiifn Hi'?. M 

Arum Palaestinum, 

Colocasia antiquonim, 



ori'^ir', M., Y 



jnPN, M.; Njntan, T., 

Y., B. 

Citrus medlca, Reiss — 



jSb-n, M.; nnnnxNC?), 

Leontice Leontopeta- 
lum, Linn. 



]jcij, M.; Njeu ^S-'K'. 

pDOIS, B. 
rccSn, Bible, M 

Cordla Myxa, Linu 

Anchusa olBcinalls, 



noxj, nSx, M.; Nmo, B. 
(Dnop, bud; Nn-»D, 
B., blossom; mjvaN, 
Bible, M.; NPiDO, B., 

Capparis spinosa, Linn., 
and varieties. 


Thorny caper. 

tia-\\ M., Y 

I'toiifn j^tiaT 

Blitum virgatum, Linn. 
Chenopodium, Linn 

Beta vulgaris, Linn 


^nin, M.; N|iS'D, B — 


O'jijjS, M.; pjoSiDip, 
PMJ7D. Y. 

N>Sipi N|->-\\ B 

Shn, M., B 

Atriplex Tataricum, 
Linn., Atriplex Hall- 
mus, Linn. 

Salicomia herbacea, 

Salsola, Linn 


Glasswort (see 
also under 


Name in Mishnah, 
Talmud, etc. 



PO'O, B. 

N'lXllB', B 

njyS, Bible; j^nrDOK 
Y., B.; KTJ, T. 

NDTM, M., T., B 

D->r|i, M., Y., B., Midr. 
IJJD, B. (not Pvijo, 
despite Kohut,"Aruch 
Completum," s.v.) 
(T'D'Ma. N'">313, M.?) 

n''33}?, M., T., Midr.... 

■mt. Bible, M.. T.. 

Midr.; K-\t'n, B. 
y>n, nxip, M.; [<|"»mc. 

T., Y.; 'nim'c, NT^Ti 


pcSip. M.; jiD'Dpna, 

paioj« (''^mo''?), Y.; 
^3ij'n, B. 

mis' >vh^y, M.; pnSiy.Y 
(inn, M.) NnniD, B., 

mtn, M.; NDn, Y., B., 

d>Sj mtn, M 

Botanical Name. 

Cistu.s cretlrus, Linn., 
cistus ladanifrrus. 
Linn., and otbem. 

Matricaria rhamomlUa, 

Linn., and Matricaria 

Artemisia vulgaris, 

Artemisia monusperroa, 

Del., and Artemisia 

Judaica, Linn. 
Ecliinops splnosus, 

Linn., or Echlnops 

vlscosus, DC. 
Cynara Scolymua, Linn 

Cynara Syrica, Bolss., 
and Cynara Cardun- 
culus, Linn. 

Centaurea Calcltrapa, 


Clchorium Endlvla, 


Popular Name. 

bush, rock- 



Echlnops (?). 




Seed of 


Nj''3ii8',T.,B.; wn'mn 

(?), B. 
pSianoD'N, M.; k-\''c 

Nnw, B. 
IDiy yy> Bible. M.; ca?, 

M.; pjii, Y. 

nN, Bible, M. ,B.; ntin. 

If •'dSu, NJ'Sar, onip, 
Dn.ip, B. 
tfna, nna, Bible, M., 

T., Y., B.; KmB***, B.: 
PdSn, Midr. 

nW3, M., B.; NDO, B... 

j-nc. T., Midr. 

PfiS, M., B.; n<Sj"Mj 

nodS, B. 
ana, M.. Y.. B 

Smn, M., B 

pe"?, M. 

-iinann, M.; p^pTana, 

lUlJ (IDN W 'j), M., 

D'':'ntf', M.; iSnp, B.; 

pDiSnp. Y. 
na2P. M.; unaon, B.: 
p-iujj, Y. 

tlnctorius, Safflower, saf- 


Clchorium dlvarica- ( 

tum, Schousb. 
Plcrls SprengerianajPlcrts or 

(Linn.), Polr., or, dandelion. 

Taraxacum, Juss. 
Lacluca Scariola, var. , Lettuce. 

satlva (Linn.), Boiss. 

Lactuca saligna, Linn. 


Cupressus sempervl-' Cypress. 

rens, Linn, 
fruit of Plnus plnea, Pine. 

Plnus Ualepensls, MUl. 

Cedrus Ubanl. 

Abies Cillclca, Ant. and 


Cuscuta, Linn 


Comus mas, Linn., and 
Cornus Australia, 


Brasslca Rapa, Linn — 

Brasslca oleracea, Linn. 

Sinapis alba, Linn., and 
Slnapls juncea, Linn. 

Brasslca nigra (Linn.). 
Koch, or Slnapls ar- 
vensis, Linn.; Slnapls 
ar\'ensls, var. turglda 
(Del.). Asch. and 
Schwelnf., and var. 
AlUonll (Jacqu.), 
Asch. and Schwelnf. 

Brasslca oleracea, var. 
boirytls. Linn. 

Eruca satlva. I. am 

Aleppo pine. 

Cedar of Leba- 



Lepidlum sativum, 

Lepidlum Chalepense, 
Linn., or Erucarla 
Alepplca, Gaertn. (?). 


Cornel, dog- 



Wild mustard. 


Eruoa. wild 
and culti- 






Name in Mishnab, 
Talmud, etc. 

Botanical Name. Popular Name. 

h-\H. >i;, M.. 

D'SO'K, D'2D. M 

|UX. D1CJ. M.; t<^i^s, Y. 
B.; Nr>n, B. 

C13C0. Y. 
nj-ij-i, M 

, Iberis (Iberis Jordan!, 'Candjrtuft. 

Boiss., Iberis Taurica, 
I DC, ll)em odorata,, 
j Linn.). 
'Isatis tinctoiia, Linn. . . Dyer's-wttad. 

, Raphanussatlvus, Linn.iRadlsh (two 



M.;|Equl8etum, Linn Scou ring-rush, 

olBcinarum, Miltwaste (?). 


I Willd. 
Kirj, B jPterls aquilina, Linn. . 

^tpr, M.; p3'^3'SiD, T.lAdlantum CaplUus-Ve 


neris, Linn. 


(but see 
Mentha Pu- 
1 e g i u m , 
Linn., penny- 
royal, under 

rJ3*iiT. M., Y Scolopendrium vulgare, Hart's-tongue. 


DV1C, M Roccella tlnctoria, Litmus. 


tvn, B iLecanora or Sphiero-'Manna-lichen. 

I thalliaesculenta,Nees.j 

nvnsij (pi.), M., Y.; Fungus Fungus. 

N"<3'D, B. I 

D^nco. yp-icc. M.;iTuber Truffle. 

nSt\J7, Y.; K-nx, B 


Cucumis Chate, Linn., Cucumber. 

and Cucumis sativus, 

Cucumis Melo, Linn 

p^vp, Bible, M.; N^ap 

]^DD^^•::, M.. T., Y. 
Midr. I 

n'oas, Bible, M iCitrullus vulgaris, 


nppD, Bible, M Citrullus Colocynthis 

(Linn.). Schrad. 
ny7i, KM-tp, M.; N-\p,Lagenaria vulgaris, Ser, 
«3?-»p. B. 

r'^^anp, M., Y 

"Men .-piT 

Roem., or Luffa 
.figyptiaca. Mill. (?). 

Ecballium Elaterium, 

inoS'K, M.; p1i^D, Y . . Corylus Avellana, Linn. 
B^Sa, T.. Y., B.; 3'j-<D 

(pL), Midr. (Biblical 

proper name c-ia'). 


M. ; NxciN 

O'JIB'JK (?), M. 

KCJ, Bible; 'SJ, M. 
p-MN. M., T., B. 

"hyo (pi.), T., B., Midr. 

B.; Quercuscoccifera,Linn., 
and varieties Quercus 
Lusitunica, Lam., 
Quercus Cerris, Linn., 


Cyperus Papyrus. Linn., 
and others. 
Y. (Palestinian Cyperus esculentus, 
Llun. (and Cyperus 
longus, Linn., Cyperus 
capitatus. Vent.). 

Cyperus rotund us, Linn. 

ynsc-N, M., T., B. 
Y., Midr. 

PV. V't'^SH, M.; N3'SiSx, 

P'-iU, Bible, M.; NnM, 
B.; nj;-^>, M. (?). 

D'J-i-j (pi.). M.; JJB (?), 


nw, M.. Y., B 

im-i. Bible, M. (rnii' ?. 

Bible, y.). 
KC"! ND"?'n. B 

ID^C, M. 


Buxus longiiolla, Bolss. 

Ricinus communis, 


Mesembryan them urn, 
LI nn ., or A izoon, 
Linn. (? corap. Sall- 
cornia, Linn.). 


Panicum miliaceum, 


Oryza satlva, Linn 

Andropogon Sorghum, 

Andropogon Schoenan- 

thus, Linn. 



Squirting cu- 

A com. 







Fig -marigold, 



Dunra. gulnea- 


Name in Mishnab, 
Talmud, etc. 





Botanical Name. 

Popular Name. 

(identical with 2^'sn. 
M., Y., B., Midr. >). 
njp, Bible, M.; N'jp, Y., 
B.; DJ1B, T. 

iSn, pSin, M. 

pjv, M., Midr. 

nan, Bible, M., T., Y., 

B., Midr. 
PCD2, Bible; pcDO, M.; 

N.-ijo, T., B.; naSu, 


Syic rSnr, M.; 'S^ac 

nSpp, N-\s'n, B. 
mijrc, Bible, M.; 
N.-i->yD, T., Y. 

HTip, M.; KP'JS'C. B. 

CynortonDactylon.Berm uda- 
Linn. I grass, scutoh- 


ArundoDonax,Linn., or Persian reed. 
Phragniites com- 
munis. Trin. 

Eraprostis cynosuroldes 
(Retz.), Roem. and 

Lollum temuientum. Bearded dar- 
Llnn. nel. tares. 

Tritioum vulgare, Linn. Wheat. 

Triticum Spelta, Linn.. Spelt. 

.(Egilops, Linn. (?) , 


pc"*, Bible, M.; nj::i-«, 
T., B., Midr.; iNj, B. 

\-i2in, B. (?).. 

Dn'N, M., Y 

Hordeum distychum' Barley. 

and Hordeum vulgare, 

Hordeum bulbosum, 

Linn. (?). 


Punica Granatum, Linn. 


a^D-12, M., Y., B.; N:n<3i'i. 



. Hypericum. Linn St. John's- 



Iris PalaBstina, Baker, Iris. 

Iris pseudacorus.' 

Linn., and other?. 
Crocus sativus, Linn Crocus. 

pCD>, B. 

njN, Bible, M.; ntun, B. 

ja^n ('"N), M., B.; jjc, 
M.; NP3X, B.; nfiv^jn 
{no^-i^, M.). 


Jasminum offlcinale, 


Juglans regia, Linn 


Juncus or Cyperus 



Reed or sedge. 


P'3?N, M Lavandula Stoechas, Lavender (?). 

njjjj,yj>'j, M.; Nnj''D (?), MenthasyIvestrls,Llnn., Mint. 

Y. i and others. 

ntpv, M.; pjniD.B Mentha Puleglum, PennyroyaL 

j Linu. 
3itN, Bible, M.; Nnr, Origanum Maru, Linn.. Marjoram. 

nnmc. picrric, B. ; I 

nu'D, M.; nrx, Y., B.; Thymus, Linn., and Sa-'Savory. 

>N!:'n, NP-\3N, B. I tureia. Linn. 
n^mP' M., Y., B iCalamintha. Moench.... Calamlnt. 


]-\is. Bible, M. ?; 'i>', Laurus nobilis, Linn. ^?) 

NJD1, B. 

D1D-MP, M., Y., B., Midr. 
P'DD;', M 

Ncnn, T. (Dm, Bible). 

]pSp, m.; unSiVatt', 

N^an, B. 
nimjnj (pi.), M.; 

■"pipijn, Y., B.; S'Sa 

NaSc, B. 
»Nia 'pipnin (?) 

ttrODOH, B. 
HVW, B.... 

Lupinus Termls, Forsk. 
Lupinus Palsestinus, 

Boiss., and Lupinus 

ptlosus, Linn. 
Retama Raetam, 

(Forsk.), Web. 
Trigonella Fcenum- 

gntciim, Linn. 
Melllotus. Tourn 

.-ijn. M.; N,"jv-i, T., B. 
(Bible, vixpj, ?). 

PCN. M.; •'XC'n. B 

K'p-a, M., Y 

Melllotus (?), Medlcago 

(?), Trigonella (?), 

Trifollum Vn. 
Medlcago satlva, Linn., 

Glycyrrhlza glabra, 

Alhagl Maurorum. DC. 

Cicer arletlnum. Linn.. 
Vicla satlva, Linn 

Laurel, bay- 




Sweet clover, 

Medic, or 
I'lover, trefoil. 







Name in Misbnah, 
Talmud, etc. 

nj'r-is, M.; Nirn, B... 
ncny, M. (Bible); 

, wnci'^D. T., B. 

ViD, Bible, M., T., v.... 

ra'^n ^id, M.; njnc^s 

Y.; •'DJU, Nr'^'DD. 

(V), M.: ]'-\in'>U". 
npicD (variants 
nnic^D. noiciD). 

->iDD, M.; NJ1!r''D, Y 

w-iin (Snn, Bible) . . . . 
nctn, M.; npiSt, Y... 
pp^1C, M.; Njia?u, Y.. 

Botanical Name. 

Popular Name. 

NXcn, B 

n-'jijr, M — 

ann, M., Y. B 

D'D^Ss (?) 

Vlcla ErvlUa, Linn Vetch. 

Lens esculenta, Moench. Lentil. 

Vlgna Sinensis (Llnn.),[Bean. 
Endl. (not Phaseolus 
vulgaris, Linn.;. 
Vlcla Faba, Linn. (Faba Straight bean, 
vulgaris, Moench.). 

Four Indeter- 
minate varie- 
ties of beans. 

Three Indeter- 
minate varie- 
ties of pulse, 
- S y r 1 a c 
N P D 1 D, a 
variety of 

Hairy - podded 





Aleppo senna, 
or senna. 

Phaseolus Mungo, Linn, 

n!2'ii\ Bible, from which 
comes NP^nn npj^'h, 

hcppN, B 

D^DH >JD Spu' r^p^'s'', M.; 
•«im JP''^, Y. (NPcaiN 

N3nNl, B. ?). 

>lSv, M.; niSn, B.; miSn, 

Sx3, Bible, M.; NDCB", B. 
D'CiDH c'^sa, M. (I).. 

D'JIS^Tl D''Ss3, M 

SixSxa, M.; nSijSjb, Y. 
ntf n3, M. (-I'xn, Bible): 

of op, M.,T., Y., B.; 
■•pns, T., Y., B. 
mi* 'U'nD, M 

Name in Mlshnah, 
Talmud, et*'. 

Lathyrus, Linn 

Lathyrus Clcera, Linn.. 
Lathyrus sativus, Linn. 

Dollchos Lablab, Linn.. 
Cassia obovata, Collad. 

or Cassia acutifolia, 

Del. (?) 
Ceratonia Siliqua, Linn. 

Prosopis Stephanlana 
(Willd.), Spreng. 

Two varieties of Acacia, 

sap of Acacia Nilotlca, 

Lemna minor, Linn 

Aloe vera, Linn.. 

Allium Cepa, Linn 

Allium Ascalonicum, 

Diti", Bible, M.; P''jcii:', 

M.; ND1P, NP'JDIP, Y. 
3?nn y:, M 

}»>3Sn, M 

Allium Cepa, Linn 

Allium Porrum, Linn.. 

Allium curtum, Bolss. 

and Gain. (?). 
Allium sativum, Linn. . . 

njtyvi', Bible, M., T.; 

pj^ip, Y. 
"l?cn T^yyw, M 

Omithogalum, Linn — 
Lilium candidum, Linn. 
Fritlllaria, Linn 


IPU'D, M.; NJP'3, T.,Y., 

NJij-^n, n'] Njijin 
[NP''cn NPj''m. 

1D3, Bible, M.; njun^ 
(?), M. 

NJN1N, NJN-\n, B 

]DJ irx, M., D3V (?). 
M.; Njou -\cy, Y., B.; 
Ntp, B. 

D-in, Bible, M.; NDN, T., 



Saint -John's - 
bread, carob. 
(see below). 







Summer on- 



Star-of- Beth- 

FritUlary (?). 



Loranthus Acacise, 


Lawsonla alba, Linn — 

Malva rotundifolia, 

Gossypium herbaceum, 

Myrtus communis, 



Common mal- 
1 o w and 




Botanical Name. 


"\JtDn Sid, M.: K^iD'Nelumblum speclosum. 
N^^XD.'JiSY.onn?) Willd. 


FraxlnuH OrnuB, Linn.. 

P-r. Bible. M., T., Y., Olea Europa-u, Ltnu 

B., Mldr. 

n-<'e, M. 

-\3P, Bible, M.; Spi,M.. 
,T., Y., B. 


D»«, M.; KP>«:X, B 

NP'jSo, B 


paSj, M. 

nnnj?, Bible; t<37n, T. 
Y., B. 


nyn 313N, M.; untJCin, Polygonum avirulare 

Popular Name. 




Phoenix dactyllfera, l)ati'-i>iiun. 


Papaver Hha-aH, Linn. 

opium from Papaver 
somnlftTum, Linn., 
var. glabniiii. Bolss. 

Glaurium cornk-iilatum. 

Plata NACEiK. 

Platanus orlentalls, 

Young palmi. 
A variety of 

Common pop- 


Oriental plane- 

N'V">"' N-iDin, B. 

NrnciD, Y., B. 


NC31, M. 

HN^n (n^'^T, n'P), M. 
Nn>11JT N">p^v, B. 

nsp, Bible 

P>B'^8'S(B'), M. (?) 

pen (pi.), M.; N1J3, B. 
pBt'C, M., Y.; nO'lJ', B. 

^pB'. tiS Bible, M., T.; 

NlJ'Ii', B. 

poncCN], M., Y 

prjpDE-in, M.; ppc, 
M. (?); PvjiHN, Y.; 

nu'D, B. (?). 

njD, Bible, M.; N'jD. 

NJDN, T.. Y., B. 

Linn., or Polygonum 
e(4Uisetifonne, Slbtb. 
and Sm. 


Portulaca oleracea, 


Cyclamen Coum, Mill., 
and Cyclamen lall- 
follum, S. et 8. (?) 


Ranunculus sceleratus. 
Linn., and other spe- 

Nlgella saliva, Linn 


Luteola tlnctorla, Web. 
Reseda luteola, Linn 



Round -leaved 


Crowfoot, but- 

Nutmeg - flow- 


weed (?). 


Zizyphus lotus. Lam. .Jujube, and 
and Zizyphus spina- Chrlst's- 
Chrisil, Linn. thorn. 

Zizyphus vulgaris. Lam. iCommon Ju- 


Amygdalus communis. Almond. 

Persicavulgark, Mill... Peach. 
Prunusdomestlca, Linn. Plum. 


mn, M., T., Y., B 

DjN, p'^^ciaonp, M — 

D>>Da, M. (Y.) 

ni£3P, Bible, M.; -\itn. 
T., Mldr.; Cm, 'in) 
a'tt'3ij.'i ^'-i t<!i'^3n 
B. , , 

pcno. n?'D''7''D, M.; 

p'^J-lDD'N, Y. 

Nrcns, B 

T\rn('iN),M. [PVjccn, 

-\-\Ti>% M.; •e'S>o, B.... 

PNID, M.; NP1D, B. 

DJ-D. M.; NS'r3 (?). 

NJJ'O, B. 

Rubus sanctus, Schreh.. 
or Rubus discolor, 
Willd. and Nees. 

Rosa, Linn 

Pyrus communis, Linn. 

P'yrus Syrlaca, Bolss. (?) 

Malus communis, Desf.. 

Cydonia vulgaris, Willd. 

Sorbu."*. Linn 

CratiFgus Azarolus. 





Germanlca, I Medlar. 



Rublatlnctorum, Linn., 

Rue, and Alep- 


Ruta grnveolt-ns. Linn., 
and Uuta Chalepensls,^ po rue 
Linn., and varieiyi 
bracteosa, Bolss. ' 




Name in Misbnata, 
Talmud, etc. 

lairn r^'Ps, M.. ideo' 
tlcalwlihs->ar, B.(?) 

."iDXCS, Bible, M. 

KPB^n. n'^'j Hs^-n, B. 
nan;:, Bible, M.; N.-a^N 
Kjiinn, B. 

01CS1P, M.; Nce'ir, T., 

pin, Bible, M.(T.,Y..B.) 

n'^n.-! '3J?, B 

IBK, Bible, NOCN, T 

Botanical Name. 

Pefranum Harmala, 


Sallx Safsaf. Forsk., 
or SalLx alba, Linn 

Sallx (nigricans. Fries.?) 

Populus Eupbratica, 



Verbascum, Linn 

Popular Name. 


Sesamum Indlcum, 


Solanum coagulans, 

Solanum nigrum, Linn. 

Mandragora of ficina- 

rum, Linn. 

I Tamariscine^. 

(Srw, Bible) Nra, B...!Tamarix articulata, 
Vahl, and others. 

O'Kin, Bible; Nnn3>, 
T.; pD'2D, B. 


nj'jnnn, M 

13DO. M., Y.. B.; -\i 

mr '3 


OB-iS, M., Y., B 

nnnjac 13D13, M. 

pj>S'Dna>D, Y. 
nn^Dn ('n).m.; m'j^j, b 

HM-\3, B.; D3"\|"i, M. (?). 
]Ji3U, M.; N-«2i8', Y.; 

D'Oie', M. (V). 
-\Kn\ M.; 011DP, hniB, 

B. (?) 

Harrael, Syr- 
ian rue or 
a variety 
of mullein 

Willow, or 
w h i t e w 1 1 - 

Black willow. 

poplar (3;'r, 
osier, accord- 
ing to Hai 
Gaon. Salix 
Linn. [?]). 

Mullein (see 
Linn., under 



Nightshade (?). 



nac M. 

l^JICODK, M.. Y 

J1D3, Bible, M., T., B.. 

r"D, Mm Mldr. 

nin, M., Y., B.. 


fiber of Corchorus, Corchorus. 


Eryngium Creticum, Button snake- 
Lam, root. 

Coriandrum sativum. Coriander. 

Biforatesticulata, DC.(?) 

Coriandrum tordylioi- 
des, Boiss. (?) 

Apium graveolens. Celery. 

Petroselinum sativum. Parsley. 
Hoflm. I 

Ammi majus, Linn., Bullwort, bish- 
Ammi copticum, op' s-w e e d , 
Linn., and Ammi Vis- Spanish 
naga, Linn. toothpick. 

Carum Carui Linn Caraway. 

Foeniculum oflBcinale, Fennel. 

A variety of Ferula. 

Anethum graveolens, 

Daucus Carota, Linn... 
Cumlnum Cymlnum, 


Celtis australis, Linn. . . 

Morufl nigra, Linn., 
Ficus Carlca, Linn. 

nj^Kr, Bible, M.; 
K.-'rN.-i. T., Y., B. 

nci">''2', Bible, M., Midr.;|Flcu8 Sycomorus, Linn 
Krpir, T. I 

pam.n, M.; pair. Y.... Capriflcus. wild varie- 
ties of Ficus Carica, 
Linn., variety of Fi- 
cus genuina, Boiss., 
of Ficus rupestris, 
Uaussk., etc. 

Diajp, M. Cannabis satlva, Linn., 

Kainp, T ortlca urens, Linn. 




Southern hack- 

Black mul- 




Nettle (?) (see 
Tribulus ter- 
restils, un- 
der Zygo- 

Name in Misbnah, 
Talmud, etc. 

NCJNT ^mp. 

Ka ix"\p, corrupted 
N^ionp, T. <?). 

Botanical Name. 


Avicennia ofHcinalls, 
Linn. (?). 


Tribulus terrestris, 
Linn., or Urtlca urens, 

Popular Name. 

Avicennia (?). 

Land - caltrop, 
or nettle. 

The foreign plants mentioned in the Tahnud in- 
clude the following, although the Boswellia was 
cultivated in Palestine in antiquity : 

Hebrew Name. 

as'3 nj|i, Bible; 'jp 

NCD13, T. 
2::n, M 

ryiDViJ, M.; •'Sipp, Y., B 

t3tJ'ri(nB'i3), M.; N.-nr3 

nir, Bible, T., B., Midr, 

rjtap, M. (pcD^BN, 

psoSa); DS'a, Bible. 
njiaS, Bible, M., T., B. 


p:;jp, Bible, M., Y„ 

Midr.; NDjip.pxm, B. 

HDiSip, M 

DO'DS, B. (readcD'D).. 

njaSn, Bible, M.. T., B. 
csra ^e'Ni 

-nj nSias', M., Bible; 

KSavi*, T. 
SdSd, m., y., b 

DiSn, M.; NjnjN, T., B.; 
from this, n\n'?n. 

Botanical Name. 

Acorus Calamus, Linn. 
Amomum, Linn 

Popular Name. 

Sweet-flag, cal- 



Amomum Cardamo- 


Saussurea Lappa, Clarke 

(Aucklandia Costus., 

Falconer ; Glldemels-I 

ter and Hoffmann,! 

I.e. p. 901). 
gum-resin of Commt-I 

phora Abyssinica, 

Engl., Commiphora! 

Schimperi, Engl., and 

Balsamodendron Opo- Balsam. 

balsamum, Kunth., 

Commiphora Opobal 

samum (Linn.), Engl, 
frankincense of Bos- 
wellia serrata, Roxb., 

and others, 
resin of the dragon-tree. 

Calamus Draco, Willd 

(Dracaena Draco, 

Linn., etc.). 
(Tlnnamomum Zeylanl- 

cum, Nees. 

KJNK', B.; from this, 

bark of Cinnamomum 

Zeylanicum, Nees. 
Dalbergia Sissoo, Roxb. 

Galbanum from Ferula 

galbaniflua, Boiss. and 

Myristica fragrans, 

Houtt., and others. 

Nardostachys Jataman- 
si, DC. 

Piper nigrum, Linn 

Scorodosma (Ferula) 
Asafoetlda (Linn.), 
Bentb. and Hook. 

Tectona grandis, Linn.. 

Zingiber officinale. 




Ceylon ebony. 


A species of 
nutmeg and 
mace from 
tbe nutmeR- 


Black pepper. 


The following are names of briers not yet identi- 
fied: -Nain, mn, Niyv xaia, n'jnvy, }*ip. Tradi- 
tion, comparative philology, and botany alike fail 
to furnish any aid in the identification of the follow- 
ing names of plants, which appear, for the most 
part, only once: 

pN, M. (N.n>j-\% Y.); nvjTN, M. (not lichens); Ni>r''M, Y.; 
NnDf\N, B. (not St.-John's-wort); piai, M.; pniSnSn (pVnSn), 
M.; N."i''^Dn, Y.; I'^r, M. (not blossoms of the (tiVtrapos); 
nS'C, M. (not the oak or the ash); nrs, B. ; nSnoo, Y. ; 
\vy nS;rr:, M. ; n^ama (niflmD), M. ; n.-ti>d-id, Y. ; nn'«j; 




(ni-cv). (not Ferboscum, mullein); d^zz' nxy, M.; hm'^i^d (not 
(it\i<7<T6<t>v\\ov, balm); p^ nio and varieties; Njta^B'D and 
varieties; njjS mp (not Cosfiis ^raWcus, Linn.). 

Where tradition is lacking it is extremely diffi- 
cult to identify the plant-names recorded in the 
Mishnah and Talmud, though inferences may occa- 
sionally be drawn from the plants mentioned in 
connection witli a problematical term. An instance 
of this is the D''D'^3. mentioned together with the 
3<nn, carob, St.-John's-bread (Ter. ii. 4; Tosef. v. 
33 = Yer. 'Orlah ii. 62a; Yer. Bik. 
XJnidenti- iii. 65, 13c; 'Uk. i. 6), and which oc- 
fied curs by itself (D'O'^Datr J"':rin"' : Tosef . , 

Names. Ter. vii. 37; Yer. Ter. viii. 45, 68b; 
Sifra, Shemot, 57a; Hul. 67a). This 
was traditionally explained as a variety of bean 
(" Halakot Gedolot," ed. Hildesheimer, 547, 4, where 
the correct reading is ■'^pa = TaSHBaZ, iii. 11, 
^^pN2), but later was regarded as an acorn. The 
proximity of the carob suggested Cercis Siliqiias- 
trum, Linn. (Leunis, "Synopsis," § 437, 14), the 
Judas-tree, on which Judas Iscariot is said to have 
hanged himself, although according to other tradi- 
tions he died on an elder or a jujube. Pulse is called 
"false carob," aypia ^yXoKeparta (Lenz, "Botanik der 
Griechen und Romer," p. 733; Fraas, "Synopsis," 
p. 65; Post, I.e. p. 297). It is, however, to \)g identi- 
fied with the Prosopis Stephaniana (Willd.), Spreng., 
which belongs to the same family. This is in ac- 
cordance with the view of Ascherson, who was sur- 
prised, while in the oases, by the similarity of the 
sweet, well-flavored pulp of the fruit of this tree 
with that of the St.-John's-bread {ib. p. 298). 

In the Geonic Literature : The geonic 

period, which came to an end In 1040 (see Gaon), 
saw a development of the botanical knowledge of 
the Babylonian Jews, as is evident from the deci- 
sions of the Geonim and the first great post-Tal- 
mudic-halakic work, the " Halakot Gedolot " (cited 
hereafter as "H. G."). The chief cultivated plant 
that is mentioned in this work for the first time in 
Hebrew literature is the sugar-cane. Other im- 
portant trees, plants, and fruits mentioned are the 
following: tree and fruit of the Musa sapientium, 
Linn., the banana, perhaps also a variety of the 
Musa paradisiaca, the plantain, under the Arabic 
name "mauz," derived from the Sanskrit ("H. G." 
66, 19; 57, 5; "Responsa der Geonim, "ed. Lyck, No. 
45, p. 18; "Toratanshel Rishonim," ii. 56; "Shibbole 
ha-Leket," 12b; RaDBaZ, ed. FUrth, No. 531, a.v. 
"Hai"; "Bet Yosef," Orah Hayyim, 208; L5w, 
"Aramaische Pflanzennamen," p. 336); Daucus 
Carota, Linn., carrot, ITJ (also in Arabic and Syriac, 
"H. G." ed. Hildesheimer, 60, 19; ed. Venice, 8. b4; 
"E.^hkol,"i. 68, 10; Post, I.e. p. 372; L5w, I.e. p. 86); 
"'^131p, Sinapis arvensis, Linn., a variety of mustard, 
put in brine in Roman fashion ("H. G." ed. Hildes- 
heimer, 72; read thus instead of "i3J1D; Post, I.e. 
p. 76; L5w, I.e. p. 178); plums, under the name of 
^nxn, like the Syrian " haha " (" H. G." 
The ed. Venice, 7, cl5; Law, I.e. p. 149); 

"Halakot >3)0 ("H. G." ed. Venice, 8, b23; lack- 
Gedolot.'' ing in ed. Hildesheimer, 58, 28 ; " Esh- 
kol," i. 68, ■•J10, as in Syriac), a vari- 
ety of bean (in this same passage and in "H. G." ed. 
Hildesheimer, 547, 5, also ^^'p3, Arabic " bakilta ") ; 
1 X.— 6 

another variety of bean (L(iw, I.e. p. 245); 'p^J'^n 
("II. G." 58, 4-5), myrobaltm, as in Syriac, from the 
Arabic "halilaj," not mentioned again until tin- time 
of Asaph ben Berechiah, but used later in all the 
works on medicine (Steinsciinoider, " Heilmittelnu- 
niender Araber," No. 1997; Liiw, I.e. p. 12'J); KH'^C 
(" II. G." ed. Venice. 8b. 21-22). the Aramaic form of 
the mishnaic DQC, a Persian loan-word, appearing 
again in Asjipli ([..iiw, I.e. p. 373) ; mJU ( '0, inarj^inal 
gloss in "H. G."(('d. Hildesheimer, 57. 6). a ground- 
fruit. In " H. G." 70, last line = " Eshkol." i. 68. the 
Arabic "hinnah" is used for the Hiblical "henna" 
(LOW, I.e. p. 212). 

Other Arabic and Persian names of plants wliirh 
are mentioned in works of the Geonim are: JJTnc, 
hemp-seed ("H. G." 56, 20; "i:sliko)." i. 68, with 
"resh," but in ed. Venice, 7b, rightly with "daiel "; 
RaDBaZ, ed. FUrtli, 531, s.v. "Hai"; LOw, I.e. pp. 
211, 248); 33Dn. Polypodium (" H. G." Ill, 5; Lilw, 
I.e. p. 268); m^^, Bransiea JitijHi, 
Persian Linn., turnip ("H. G. "72,21 ; Mislmah. 
and Arabic Talmud, nC?; Low, I.e. p. 241); nx;r 
Names. D1DDK ("H. G." ed. Venice, 8c), (Jry- 
mum boMlieum, Linn., basil; n313V, 
pine-nuts {ib. ed. Hildesheimer, 57, 8; ed. Venice, 
7d; "Eshkol," i. 67); XT01J("H. G." 57, end; Hai, 
in "Responsa der Geonim, Kehillat Shelomoh," ed. 
Wertheimer, No. 9; Harkavy, " Responsen der Geo- 
nim," p. 28 ; L5w, I.e. p. "286); JD1D, the Arabic 
equivalent of D'PDyn DJ^IK', lily (**H. G." 70, end); 
KQ^n {ib. 646, 10). A number of Arabic names 
of plants may be found in the marginal glosses of 
the Vatican manuscript of the "Halakot Gedolot." 
as "hasak," thorn, gloss on >yr\ {ib. 160, No. 36); 
JDBJ (read JDBJ3), violet, on >^rD {ib. 70. No. 102; 
"Eshkol," i.- 68; RaDBaZ, i. 44 = n^lK'1. "Keneset 
ha-Gedolah," Orah Hayyim, 204; D^IK'1. responsa, 
"Debar Shemuel," No. 2; {^^IK^V Lehush, Ora^i 
Hayyim, 216, 8); p^KDII. equivalent to the Arabic 
"sil," on p-in("H. G." 92, No. 29; Harkavy. I.e. 
p. 209). 

The Geonim, especially Hai Gaon (see Hai ben 
Sherira), prefer to give their explanations in Ara- 
bic. In the responsa the Harkavy edition, for exam- 
ple, has " abnus," " shauhat," " sasam "(p. 135 ; Krauss, 
"LehnwOrter," ii. 46), "abhul" (p. 23; "Responsa 
der Geonim," ed. Cassel, p. 42a), "anjudan " (p. 23). 
" babunaj ''{ib. p. 209), " sunbul al-nardin" (p. 29), and 
"kurnub" (ib. p. 208). In his commentary on the 
Mishnah (Toharot) Hai Gaon gives, as a riile, the 
Arabic names of the plants side by side with the 
Aramaic terms, as, for example: "isfunj," "asal." 
"thayyil" (Harkavy, I.e. p. 22). "jauz buwa." 
"juliban," "harshaf," "hulbah" (ib. p. 23). 
"hiltith." "haifa," "khiyar," "khayzuran." "dar 
sini," "rajlah," "rumman," "za'faran." "sadhab." 
"safarjal," "silk," "shuniz," "shaytaraj." "fuU." 
"kitha' al-himar," "kirtim," "kar'ah," "ka.^ib al- 
bardi." "kummathra," "mahruth," "na'na'." 

The Arabic names of plants in the " 'Aruk " are 
drawn almost without exception from geonic 
sources. The list is as follows (in the order of the 
Arabic alphabet): 

Alam. OJK (this and 'uyun al- Akak-lya, nv.'^n. 
bakar, 8.U. rpDC"^")- ^°^"'' i>.\-n'a^ 'a^ al™ »- 




Baklah. rui^ji'rn (111. 396a). 

Bakkam. n£j3-\. 

Ballut, cri*^. 

Bunduk, |i-»jic. 

JlUauz." NJ20 f'^JO. 

Juminalz, t"SJ. 

Julban, ^^E. nc>J. 

5abb al-muluk, rvj3i3i. 

Parmal. k">3S'. 

yulbah, jrSp. 

5alfa, r|Vn. 

Qimmls, C'JiCN. 

Handakuk, rvjijnj. 

^anzal. -ijj3. 

khlnva', X3'':'i^x, ynoN. 

Khashkhash, J'j-^d. 

Dar stnl, prj,-". am. p3t"n 

(HI. 161b. 428b). 
Dar kisah, nci'^'i"'. 
Rajlah, n'^'J"*. ruiSjiSn (11. 

Zaghab al-khlyar, ?;• nis'3 

■ rwp. 

Zarghun, jdj Va' jna*. 

Za'rur, n-ity. 

Zawan. y:v. 

Safarjal, 2"-\o. 

Silk, B'jiy'', p^D (1. V9b). 

Summak, jin (also s-v. .--a 
y3XK, No. 2 in Paris MS.). 

Slmslm, =-j-:ir. 
Shajar maryam, no^-^' 
Shuh, 'mrN. 
?aKhir al-adhnab, a'jaip. 
Sanaubar, pr }";. 

•Af9, NXDN. 

'L'kruban. s^jani-'j:. 
Ghubalra'. "cSia (inrp. 
Fuji. pjs. 

Farfahln. r^JiSji'^n. 
Fustak, pPD^D is-v. pD). 
Fukka', ."v-\BD (s.u. pnc;). 
Faljan. nyc- 
Fuwwah. riNic. 
KakuUah. ^iDi'D (11. 241b). 
Karnabit, ■>.-^3">."'. 
Karanful, "^oio. 
Kutniyya, rvr^"'. 
Kuikas, opir' (not t]^'^). 
Kabar (kifar), I'-x, Nmc 

(viil. 248). 
Karratb, n^j'-^s. 
Karafs, DD">3. 
Kuzburah. ■>3DU "^J. 
Kushut, rw2. 
Kamah, ]'<7y::j. 
Labsan, poS. 
Na'na', Krj3. 
N'il, DCDS. 
Hindaba, "a-'jn. 

For a proper understanding of the Talmudic 
writings constant reference must be made to the 
traditions of the Babylonian schools, preserved in 
the decisions, commentaries, and compendiums of 
the Geonim and their pupils. Most 
Hai Gaon. Jewish statements about plants like- 
wise rest on such traditions, of which 
the greatest number is preserved in the writings of 
Hai Gaon. Hehasalsokeptanumberof old Aramaic 
words in his explanations, such as ND'H, radish; 
N^31p, camomile; NJKa^''n(N^a^3n[?] ; LOw.^.c. pp. 
140, 309, 326; Harkavy, I.e. p. 209). R. Hananeel 
BEN Hushiel preserved a considerable amount of 
botanical information from geonic sources, and this 
was made more generally known by the " 'Aruk." 
For example, he strikingly describes sago as "a 
substance like meal, found between the fibers of the 
palm" (Kohut, "Aruch Completum," vi. 65a); co- 
conuts as coming from India {ib. vi. 10a) ; arum (S)"ip) 
as a plant whose roots are eaten as a vegetable with 
meat, and which has leaves measuring two spans 
in length and two in breadth {ib. v. 29a); and reeds 
as growing after their tops have been cut off {ib. iii. 
420b). Mention is made of a prickly food for camels 
{ib. ii. 180b), as well as of castor-oil and its use {ib. 
vii. 19b). Lupines and a certain other 
Hananeel pulse, he declares, do not grow in 
b. Hushiel. Babylon {ib. vi. 229b). He is unable to 
describe Peganum Harmnla, Linn., ac- 
curately, but says it is one of the plants used for 
medicinal purposes, while its small, blackish seed, 
which has a strong and unplea.sant smell, is very hot 
{ib. viii. 19b), in the technical sense of the Greek 
medical writers; it is mentioned here for the first 
time in rabbinical literature (Meyer. "Gesch. der 
Botanik," ii. 192; comp. Galen, xii. 82: "It is hot 
in the third degree"). According to Sherira Gaon, 
pU seeds are hot, and therefore the seed-bearing 
onion-stalk also is hot (Kohut, I.e. v. 330a; these 
are the first traces of Greek medicine in rabbinical 

literature). Cedar-wood becomes moist in water, but 

fig-wood remains dry (" Da'at Zekenim, Hukkat," 

beginning), according to Saadia Gaon, 

Saadia. whose translation of the Bible is the 
chief source of many identifications 
of Biblical plants, since, where definite traditions 
were lacking, he introduced definite Arabic terms 
to make his translation readable (Bacher, "Die 
Bibelexegese," p. 6). 

In conclusion, a few more botanical details from the 
writings of the Geonim may be mentioned : the ac- 
curate differentiation of capers, their buds, blossoms, 
fruit, and parts; the correct explanation of "'aspara- 
gus " as the tender roots of cabbage, not asparagus 
(Harkavy, I.e. p. 196); and an accurate definition of 
n'DIp {ib. p. 179). Hai Gaon clearly describes the 
Cuscuta(e6. p. 215; LOw, I.e. p. 231) and the heads of 
camomile, and gives a brief account of the XK'01"13 
= Arabic "' giiubaira' " (Harkavy, I.e. p. 28; "Ke- 
hillat Shelomoh, " ed. Wertheimer, No. 9). The arti- 
choke is also well characterized by Sherira and Hai 
when they say that the spines are taken off, and the 
inside of the plant iseaten(Abu al- Walid, Dictionary, 
115. 17; 392, 4 [ed. Bacher] ; D. Kimhi, "Miklol,"«.t!. 
lyiy). One geonic writer, probably Hai, identifies 
niyipD ■^vith the eggplant, but for historical reasons 
this can not be accepted. 

In the geonic period Eldad ben Maiili ha-Dani 
invented his "darmush" for pepper, and also de- 
clared that neither thorns nor thistles grow in the 
lands of the Lost Ten Tribes (D. H. Miiller, "Die 
Kccensionen und Versionen des Eldad 
Eldad ha-Dani," pp. 18, 68, Vienna, 1892), 
ha-Dani. which devote themselves to tlie culti- 
vation of flax {ib. p. 1). To the same 
period belongs the medical work of Asaph ben Bere- 
CHiAii, which is based upon the Syriac translation of 
Dioscorides, and has thus preserved many Syriac 
names of plants. Shortly after Asaph came Shab- 
bethai Donnolo (946), who was primarily a writer 
on medicine. In the "Sefer ha-Yakar." ch. iii.-iv., 
however, he enumerates the plants that improve or 
injure the quality of honej'. 

The list of thirty varieties of fruit given by 
pseudo-Ben Sira is noteworthy, even though it is 
borrowed from Greek sources. The passage is dis- 
cussed by Low {I.e. pp. 2 et seq.) with reference to 
Mas'udi {ib. p. 4; see also Brull, "Jahrb."i. 205). 
Even before Low, Noldeke had suggested that 
there were Arabic recensions of the passage (LOw, 
I.e. p. 417); and their existence is evident not only 
from Mas'udi but also from Tabari (" R. E. J." xxix. 
201). According to Stcinschneider ("Hebr. Bibl." 
1882, p. 55), the thirty varieties of fruit are mentioned 
as Palestinian also by Hayyim Vital in Natan Spira's 
"Sha'are Yerushalayim," vi. 6, end. 

In the Post-Geonic Period : Information 

concerning the knowledge of plants in the post- 
geonic period must be sought in the translations of 
the Bible, the commentaries on the Bible and Tal- 
mud, and the lexicons. Here it will be sufficient 
to mention some of the statements of R. Gershom, 
the 'Aruk, Rashi, and a few other writers. 

In the commentaries which are probably correctly 
ascribed to him R. Gershom ben Judah has the 
oldest foreign words (KOnigsberger, " Fremdsprach- 




liche Glossen, I.— R. Gerschom b. Jehiida," 1896; 
Brandin, "Les Loazim de R. Geislioin," iu "Publ. 
Ecole iSationale des Cliartes," pp. 15 ct scq., Tou- 
louse, 1898; "R. E. J." Nos. 83, 84, 85. Braiuiiii 
consulted the mauuscripts also; but, strangely 
enough, he has not the gloss 13''D^D, B. B. 2b, and 
this is also lacking in Low's aliihabctical list of Gcr- 
shom's foreign words). Braudiu transcribes the 
following foreign plant-names: "aveine," wild bar- 
ley ; " bayes," fruits of the laurel ; " boso " (Italian), 
"bois," boxwood; "cro," "crocu orientel," salTron ; 
"honilon," hop; "kmel" ("ehmiel," Slavonic); 
" kos," " kost," costmary ; " laSre " (Italian, " lasero "), 
laserwort; "lesche," sedge; "lor," laurel ; "molse," 
moss; "ortyes," nettles; "pores," 

R. Ger- leek; "sape," fir-tree; "sigle," rye; 

shorn. "spicu," ear of corn, spikenard; 

" tel," linden-tree ; " ternure," ternage ; 

"tora," torus (Menahem b. Solomon, mn) ; " wa- 

ranze," madder-root; and y^P (<'" pt^* |*y, Tamid 


The linden is mentioned here for the first time in 
Jewish literature. Later, npK is translated " linden " 
iu Germany (Grlinbaum, I.e. p. 27), and Baruch 
Lindau (1788) renders mt^X by " linden." The only 
linden that Post {I.e. p. 8) knows in Palestine is the 
Tilia argentea, Desf., the Oriental silver linden, 
Avhich grows in the region of the Amana. No linden 
is mentioned as coming from Egyjit (Ascherson and 
Schweinfurth, "Flore d'Egypte*" p. 53). Nor did 
the Syrians know liow to translate (pil'vpa, the name 
of silver linden; the Arabic rendering by Berggren 
(in a manuscript belonging to the Deutsche Morgen- 
landische Gesellschaft) is "zihr al-mahlab." The 
word "thore," mentioned above, also is of interest, 
as R. Gershom ben Judah is the oldest source for 
the word. 

According to Gustav Schlessinger, Rashi has the 
following French names of plants: 

French Name. 

Aloe's (aloine).. . 
Aloisne, aliilsne. 



ArisUilocbe (?).. 

Arnica (?) 












Cerfiiel, cerfoll.. 




C h a s t a 1 K n e . 



Clpoule, ciboule, 




Corme, cormier 





Wild blite. 


Shallot, clbol. 
Sorb, service- 

French Name. 


Croc, groc. 



Erbe felchiere . . 
Erbe sabonaire.. 


Espic, spic 


Fasele, faseole . . 
Fenocle, fenoil.. 
Fenugrec, fene- 




Geneivre, geni- 



G land 


crespigno (?). 
Guesde, waisde . 
lerre. ere. edre. . 

Jote, jotte 

June, ]onc 












Spelt, [nard. 
Nard, spike- 








Wild vine. 







French Nunie. 




Meiirlcr. moll- 



Nesple, niiple . . . 





Osre, osier 

Faille, poile fo- 
arre {'<)■ 

Funis, penlz 


I'erseche, pre- 

Peupller, pou- 


Plan(;on (?) 


Porchallle, por- 

Pore, porele 



Prune, prunler. . 

Pulpiet, pour- 








11 o B e - c n m 
plon, rnul- 






French Name. 













rt'ittell, roMiaii.. . 




Siilve<', i-elvle. 





Sorbler, cormier, 




ril, Icil, tel 




Tudel, pecce 


Veranee, va- 


Vice, vece..,.. 
VIole, viol^ . .. 

BpaiiUh rnnin- 
iiille. fcvur- 



u luck berry - 










Cluster of 

flowers or 



Most of the "loazim" of the Mahzor Vitry, ad- 
mirably discussed by Gustav Schlessinger, come 
from Rashi. Among the names of plants arc: 









Eliandre (for 

Erbe felchiere 
Erbe sabonaire 






Mire (myrrhe) 


Pels (pois) 






Rude (rue) 


The Arabic names of plants found in the " "Aruk" 

of R. Nathan b. Jehicl have already been given, since 

they are derived for tlie most part. 

The though not exclusively, from gconic 

'Aruk. sources. Ilis vernacular glosses, in 

part taken from Gershom, are better 

preserved than Rashi 's foreign words, of whicli 

twelve are lacking iu Kohut's Italian index. 

[In the following list the references, unless otherwise stated, 
are to Kohut, "Aruch Completum."] 

Albatro (vl. 185a). 

Aloe (i. 2.5'Jb). 

Aneto (viil. ~'4a). 

Appio (iv. 341a; "R. E. J." 
xxvii. 241). 

Armoracclo (vll. 28b). 

Asparago (iv. l.'>8a). 

Assafetida (error for "la- 

Atreplce (v. 49b). 

Avellana (11. 4~'a): nocella (vl. 
3()7b ; Menahem b. Solomon, 
"SekelTob," p. xil.). 

A vena (see segale). 

Balsamo (vli. 84b). 

Bambagia (vli. 2.'ib). 

Ba.>islllco (Iv. 234b). 

Bieta. bliti (1. T9b. 138b; Sl- 
ponto [hereafter cited as 
Sip.l on Kll. i. 3; not "ble- 

Bosso, busso (I. 314a, vl. 328a). 

Braslle (vll. STTb; Sip. on 

Kll. II. .'■)>. 
Canapa (vll. 131a; Sip. on Kll. 

V. 8: "R. E. J."xxvll.246). 
Canella (111. I6lb). 
Cappero (v. 374b, vl. 421a, vll. 

21a; Sip. on Dem. I. 1: 

Ma'as. Iv. 6). 
Cardl dom««tlcl (vl. 90b: Sip. 

on Slieb. Ix. 5; comp. car- 

(Inton-, vl. 144 1. 
Cardo (vl. 19(5a ; " R. E. J." 

xxvll. 248). 
Caretto, not corteccia (111. 

Cerasa (111. 5b). 
CIcen-hla. cicercia (III. 431b. 

vl. 3018, b; Sip. on Kll. 1. !). 
CIcerl (I. 22na: Sip. on Kll. 

111.2; Peah III. 3). 
Clnnnmomo (III. 3(6a). 
Colocasla (v. 28b ). 




Coriandro, culiandro (Li. 239a. 

241b, iv. 272a; Meaahem, 

"Sekel Tob." p. xii.; Sip. 

on Kil. i. 2; Sbeb. ix. 1; 

"R. E. J." xxvii. 245, note). 
Conne (French) salvatico (iv. 

Costo (vil. &la, 223b; Sip. on 

Kil. i. 8). 
Cotogna (til. 313a; "R. E. J." 

xxvii. 24J5 : Sip. on Kil. 1. 1). 
Crespino (vi. 2U»a ; " R. E. J."' 

xxvii. 216; Menahem, I.e. 

p. xi.). 
Croco orientale (vi. 329b, vli. 

D&ttile. gloss (vi. 32b). 
Eliotropio <vi. 252b). 
Ellera. edera (iil. 472a, vil. 

IKJb; "R. E.J." xxvii. 247; 

Sip. on Kil. V. 8). 
Erbaglaucio lii. 290b). 
Fagiuolo, fasolo (vi. 301b ; Sip. 

on Kil. i. 2). 
Fava, faba, faba blanca (vi. 

301b; Sip. on Kil. i. 1). 
Ferula (viii. 19b). 
Finocchio, fenuclo (iv. 158a, 

viii. 61a; "R. E.J." xxvii. 

245 ; Sip. on Sheb. ix. 1) . 
ForragRio (i. 190a). 
Fungo (iil. lib. vi. 318b; **R. 

E. J." xxvii. 248). 
Galla (iii. 431b). 
Garofano, giroflo (Iv. 301b; 

"R. E.J." xxvii. 242). 
Gelso (il. 129b; o'^'X on •'aSi'? 

hSkh ; Sip. on Sheb. vti. 5 ; 

'D'^'X, Ma'a.s. i. 2). 
Glande (v. 36a. 393a ; vi. 104b) . 
Gomma (ti. 378b. vii. 122a). 
Indaco, Indicum (i. 172a; Sip. 

on Kil. li. 5). 
Indivia (error for "sena- 

Isopo (vi. 2b ; Sip. on Sheb. 

viii. 1). 
Lambrusco (ii. 339b). 
Lasero puzzolento or purulen- 

to (Menahem. I.e., ikjnSid), 

not laserpitium (iii. 421a). 
Lattuga (iii. 364b ; " R. E. J." 

xxvii. 243, Kiya^, NpioS; 

Menahem, I.e. ; Sip. on Kil. 

i. 2). 
Laudano (error for "ladano") 

(v. 18b). 
Lauro (vi. 2.56b ; " R. E. J." 

xxvii. 243). 
Legume (vii. 83a ; Sip. on Hal. 

♦Llsca (vi. 7.5n). 
Lupino (false reading, 11. 362a, 

iv. 333a). 
Malva (iil. 246b. 404b ; vl. 391a; 

Sip. on Kil. 1.8). 
Marrobbio (v. oSb, vlll. 245a ; 

"R. E. J." xxvii. 244 ; Men- 
ahem, I.e.). 
Menu (i. l.Jla ; v. 181a. ^9b ; 

"R. E.J." xxvll. 243). 
Mora (vlll. 291a). 
*Nervolo (?. vl. 30b; ''hyy-\(i. 

Sip. on Kil. 1. 1; iSiaij. 

Caleb Afendopolo, Kil. 16b ; 

Kohut, "Aruch Comple- 

tum," ervolo [?]. 
Nigella (vli. 17.-)b. lii. 306b; 

not gloglio. logllo, but ni- 
gella. corn-campion, con- 
fused with darnel). 
Nocella (see avellana). 
Orlgano (vl. 2b ; Sip. on Sheb. 

vill. 1). 

0r20 (vii. 256b). 

Papavero (vi. 410). 

Pastlnaca (v. 346b). 

Pera (i. 25a; Sip. on Kil. 

Persica (1. 242a). 
Pigna (vi. 239b). 
Pilatro (iii. 243b. 441b). 
Pisi (pisello ; vi. 301b; Sip. on 

Kil. i. 1). 
Polio (iii. 248b ;vl. 315b, 2b; 

Sip. on Sheb. viii. 1). 
Porri (iv. 342b; "R. E. J." 

xxvii. 245; Sip. on Sheb. 

vii. 1; Kil. i. 2). 
Procacchia, porcacchia (ill. 

395a, iv. 263a, vii. 253a ; Sip. 

on Sheb. ix. 1). 
Pmgua (iii. 155a, iv. 351b, vl. 

294a ;"R. E. J." xxvii. 248); 

Ni'D rzn-\si'h— ti-f^^B (vi. 

412a; Mussafla, Jujubes, ac- 
cording toBuxtorf),'|i-ix''ic, 

\">''X^iO (viii. 281a; Ben 

Sira, " Pflanzenuamen," 3; 

Caleb Afendopolo, twice 

with " r." Kohut, I.e. iv. 

263a, is incorrect) . 
Radice (v. 361b ; Sip. on Kil. 

Ramolaccio (see armoracclo). 
Robbia (vii. 175b; Sip. on 

Sheb. v. 4, N^n). 
cncn (vi. 196a; neither ra- 

muccio nor rusco). 
Rosmarino (iii. 410a; "R. E. 

J." xxvii. 246). 
N^n. N-\''n, n'l (111. 262a). 
Ruchetta oruga (i. 305a, iv. 

34.5a ("Ruca di Petro"; 

Sip. on Sheb. i. 1). 
Ruta (vi. 291b; "R. E. J." 

xxvii. 246 ; Sip. on Kil. i. 8 ; 

Sheb. ix. 1). 
Salvatico, selvatico (vi. 355b). 
Sanguine (iii. 241b). 
Satureia (iii. 511a; v. 349b; 

vi. 2b, 173a). 
Segale (n^P'^d, Sip. on Kil. 1. 1), 

variant reading, avena (vlll. 

13b; NJM\ Menahem, I.e.). 
Senazione (Iii. 222a; Caleb 

Afendopolo, Kil. 17a, 

■*J«rx), domestlche and fo- 

restiche (vl. 210a), not sonco 

(comp. "R. E. J." xxvii. 

Sesamo (viii. 109b). 
Sisimbrlo (i. 297a, vl. 2b ; Sip. 

on Sheb. viii. 1). 
Sorbo (vl. 185a; see "alba- 

tro," "R. E.J." xxvii. 218; 

Sip. on Dem.l. 1). 
Sorgo (viii. 144a). 
Spelda, espelta (111. 168a; 

NX^'Dtt', Menahem, I.e.; Sip. 

on KU. 1. 1). 
Splcanardi (v. 334b, viii. 13a; 

"R. E. J." xxvii. 242). 
Tartufo, tartufolo (vl. 318b; 

"R. E. J." xxvii. 248). 
Vecda (Hi. 221b. iv. »l,3b, vl. 

liOlb; Sip. on Kil. I. 1). 
Zenzero (ill. .30.Ta ; "R. E. J." 

xxvii. 247; >i3fr. Sip. on Ur- 
iah 11.10). 
Zenzevero, zenzlberl (ii. 

Zizzanladl. 233) Is wrong, even 

if the word were Italian ; it 

Is Aramaic, however. 
Zizzlba (?) (III. 321b). 
Zucchero (iii. 47.3a) is iriD. 

and is not Italian. 







di cavolo 




Meli porcaroll 





E.-ipioa vulpl 



In the twelfth century R. Isaac ben Melchize- 
DEK OF SiPONTO took over from the " 'Aruk " forty- 
one Italian names of plants and a few 
R. Isaac Arabic ones, while the Greek terms, 
Siponto. such as Of/?.ic and ^v/.oKepara, and the 
following Italian words occur for the 
first time in his work : 





Ciceri llmpldl 



A large number of his plant-names still await iden- 
tification. Asparagus proper, which has erroneously 
been supposed to be mentioned in the Talmud 
(Krauss, "Lehnw5rter," ii. 93), seems to occur first in 
Isaac'scommentary onSheb. ix. 1 as»'T13T="lDD^X, 
"sparagio" (cited in " Kaftor wa-Ferah," 107b, Ber- 
lin; J1SDN, corresponding to. the Arabic " hilj'aun " 
= "asparagus"; see Aldabi, "Shebile Emunah," p. 
75a; Tobias Cohen, 151a: D'tOIB' or p'i5\T is wild 
asparagus; j'lni', the cultivated kind). Isaac is 
also the first post-Talmudic author to mention the 
cornel or dogwood (corniolo ; Kpavia), in the passages 
Peah i. 5, Ma'as. i. 2, where he rejects the view that 
it is identical with Jis, sumac. 

Maimonides gives the names of plants exclusively 
in Arabic in his commentary on the Mishnah ; and 
these terms have been discussed by LOw in his 
"Aramiiische Pflanzennamen," on the basis of the 
Berhu manuscripts of this gloss. In his medical wri- 
tings likewise Maimonides follows the Arabic phar- 
macology; for instance, ninety-one vegetable reme- 
dies are mentioned in Ins " Dietetics " ; but these be- 
long rather to the history of medicine. From his 
"Moreh" mention may be made of the story of the 
Nabatsean cultivation of the mandrake and althea 
("Moreh," French transl. by Munk, iii. 235), the 
reference to indigo (ib. i. 392), and the expression 
"like a locust-bean," meaning "practically worth- 
less" (ih. 1. 157). Maimonides has won a lasting 
name in the history of botany. Even after Sprengel 
("Gesch. der Botanik," i. 178) had tried to identify 
the plants mentioned in the mishnaic tractate Kila- 
yim, basing his investigation on the Latin transla- 
tion of the commentary of Maimonides in the edition 

of the Mishnah by Surenhuis, Mayer 

Mai- ("Gesch. der Botanik," iii. 220), allu- 

monides. ding to the plants mentioned in "'Uk- 

zin," declared that Maimonides had 
given his interpretations with discrimination and 
had displaj'ed an unmistakable knowledge of bot- 
any ; but that, though he had a wide acquaintance 
with plants, his explanations were drawn chiefly 
fiom school traditions, and were not the result of 
independent investigation. Proceeding on the an- 
thropocentric theory of the universe, Maimonides 
declares in his introduction to the Mishnah that trees 
and plants were created for tlie nourishment or heal- 
ing of man, even though in some cases he fails to 
recognize this, or has never known it; and although 
the uses of all tiie plants on the earth may not yet 
be understood, each successive generation will be- 
come acquainted with new herbs and fruits which 
will prove of great advantage to it. 




Of the later halakic writers the only one to be 
mentioned here is Estori Fakiii (flourished in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries), 
Estori who made a careful geographical and 
Farhi. scientific exploration of Palestine. 
His remarks on plants in his " Kaftor 
wa-Ferah " may readily be seen in the third index of 
Luncz's edition of that work, for which Low ar- 
ranged the data in their proper order. The com- 
ments in Wiesner's Hungarian biography of Farhi 
(p. 31, Budapest, 1896) on certain botanical notes of 
the hulakist are very inadequate. Farhi 's statements 
regarding shallots and onions in Syria are note- 
worthy, as are also his identification of Cordia Myxa, 
his accounts of Musa and Bndingan, and the collo- 
quial Arabic name for Pyrns Syriaca (Boiss.), equiva- 
lent to 'OtJID^K, which explains the Syriac KD'^DID 
(Low, I.e. p. 208). 

According to Buber("Sekel Tob," Introduction, 
p. xi.), Menahem b. Solomon (1139) has the follow- 
ing names of plants in addition to the 
Menahem list already quoted from the " 'Aruk " : 
b. Solomon, -jmn KTlJ on NSOn; 'rVIIQ "'mJ 
on pj-'J-in; nin on n-'-n (probably de- 
noting R. Gershom's "thora"); in^ on n"'J03: its 
resin 1031^; 'l^llp'V, chicory (see Isaac Siponto 
above); iDHin on p^niH; 1PJ''12K' on 01^. 

In order to define the heterogeneous plants more ac- 
curately, the Karaite Caleb Afendopolo of Adria- 
uople (end of the 15th cent.) arranged an alphabetical 
list of about sixty plant-names, and, following Mai- 
monides in the main, tried to identify the plants and 
explained them in Arabic, Turkish, modern Greek, 
and Rumanian. Of this list, which appeared in the 
appendix to "Adderet Eliyahu," the 
Caleb following may be mentioned as of 
Afendo- botanical importance: D'K'Un he re- 
polo, gards as medlars, called also nvt^'^on 
(Low, I.e. p. 114; "R. E. J. "xviii. 
112, on "nespole"; Joseph Perles, "Beitrage zur 
Gesch. der Hebraischen und Aramilischen Studien," 
pp. 135 et seq.), because they have five seeds. He 
relates that the banana, T1XD, was described by 
Japheth ha-Levi (953) as a cross between the date- 
palm and the colocasia; while he (Afendopolo) 
learned from the Karaite Joseph ha-Kohen that it 
was a cross between the date-palm and the sugar- 
cane. Joseph told him also that the colocasia had a 
rootstock as large as an ox-hcad, and that it w^as the 
daily food in Egypt, where one head often brought 
as much as 900 dirhems. He describes the cucum- 
ber {Cucumis Chnte, Linn.), which was widely cul- 
tivated in Egypt, as very long and as thick as the 
finger {ib. vii. 17b). The "nabk" {Zizyjihus spina- 
Christi, Linn.), Christ's-thorn, he describes as sweet, 
and as large as a hazelnut (see Post, I.e. p. 201), 
while its shell was half red and half green, and its 
kernel was like that of an olive or common jujube. 
In his time, as at present, the tree was very common 
in Egypt (Ascherson and Schweinfurth, I.e. p. 59). 
Why Afendopolo ("Adderet Eliyahu," Appendix, p. 
16c) uses the Hebrew or Aramaic KVn (L5w, I.e. p. 
225) for " parsley " is not clear. 

In connection with Afendopolo two older Karaite 
lexicographers may be mentioned, David b. Abka- 

1IAM(A1-Fasi)and Ali b. Sidalnmn, in whose works, 

according to Pinsker's extracts ("Likkute Kadmo- 

iiiyyol," pp. 206 d hoj.), the fallowing 

David names of plants are nieutiuned: **^n- 

Al-Fasi dal/'D'^nX. sundalwoijd ; " ma'atar"or 

and Ali b. " zaatur, " aUN . "' wisum " or " abnus," 

Sulaiman. D'Dj!?N, ebony ; " kamu."nn»<, fuiiguB; 

" ka/,ljarah,"*l3, ctjriander ; "saj,"lQl3; 

"khatmiyah," nioSn; "zaarur" or "ansul," pvyj; 

"wars" or "nilular," mj; "sa'atar" (= "zu'ular"). 

IQID; "dulb,"pD-iy; " l.ianzal." niypD; "karfah"or 

"kist," nip; "karnafal,"pD:p; " kuzah," "sliuniz," 

nvp (Pinsker, erroneously. D'^JVa ]nh: ".salikhah." 

n^nt'; "sant," D't3L''; " jummaiz," nopt;'; "sharhin." 

"abhal," "saj," or "siiiniasiiar," -i,-nn "Henna" 

in Pinsker, I.e. p. 212, note 2, is an error. 

BnJLiOGRAPHY : Gcorgi' E. Post, Flora of .S)/r(a. T'alfi^ine, 
and Sinai from the TauruK (o lian Muhnmnuul, niut from 
the Medi(erraui(Ui Sea to the Syrian iJexi rl, Beirut, 1W«1; 
J. Bornmullor, Kin Deitran zur Krnntni.Ks <ler flora ron 
Surien und Paid.^tina (In Verhnnillruiurn ilir /.onlmiiiTh- 
IiotaniiiChcJi GeitelUehaft in Wien. inyHi; l>-n|,i;irl Kunck, 
Streifzlii/e Durch die BihliMrhc Flora, Frt-ibiiru-lin-Brvls- 
gau, 1900. with a complete blbllograpby, pp. xl. tt ««</. 

E. G. H. I. Lo. 


the second century c.k. Like T()(li»s( Thcodorus) the 
Roman, his probable contemporary, Plalon s(jught 
to inspire his persecuted coreligionists with resigna- 
tion and steadfastness, reminding them tliat others 
had suffered before them for their faith and liad been 
ultimately delivered. "Hananiah, Misiiael. and 
Azariah," said he, "derived courage to resist Nebu- 
chadnezzar, at the risk of being burned " (Dan. iii. 
13), from the Scriptural assurance (Dcut. iv. 29), 
"If from thence thou slialt seek the Lord tiiy God. 
thou shall find him, if thou seek him with all thy 
heart and with all thy soul" (Midr. Teh. xxviii. 1). 
Platon construes literally the Scriptuml sjiying 
(Deut. iv. 11), " Ye came and stood under the moun- 
tain." According to him, Sinai was detached from 
the earth and suspended in the air, while tiie Israel- 
ites stood under it (Cant. R. viii. 5; comp. Abdimi 
B. Hamar). 

Bibliography: Vogelsteln and RleRcr, Oesch. dcr Judcn in 
Rom. 1. 109 et seq., 176. 
E. c. S. M. 

PLEDGES : The law against taking pledges for 
debt is drawn from the following passages: "No 
man shall take the mill or the upper millstone to 
pledge : for he taketh a man's life to pledge " (Deut. 
xxiv. 6, R. v.), "nor [shall he] take the widow's 
raiment to pledge" {i'Ij. xxiv. 17. R. V.); "And if 
he be a poor man, thou shalt not sleep with his 
pledge: thou shalt surely restore to him." etc. (ib. 
xxiv. 12-13, R. V): and Ex. xxii. 26 to like effect. 
The " taking to pledge " in these passages is under- 
stood as meaning a seizure to secure an overdue 
debt, not the taking of a pledge by consent at the 
time of a loan. 

The oral law goes in its interpretation far beyond 

the letter of Scripture. The Mishnah .says (H. M. 

ix. 13): "He wliotjikesamill topledgc 

In the breaks a negative conunand. and is 

Mishnah. guihy for eacii of twoimplemcnt.s, the 

lower and the upper millstone [refcr- 

rinnto Deut. xxiv. 6]; and this applies not only to 

a mill, but to any implement wherewith life-giving 




food is made, for it is said, ' he taketh man's life to 
pledge.'" "One does not distrain the goods of a 
widow, whether she be poor or rich " (referring to 
ib. xxiv. 17). "He must return the pillow for the 
night, and the plow for the day; but if the debtor 
dies, they need not be returned to the heirs." The 
seizure in this way is of use to the creditor only to 
preserve his lien and to prevent the debt from run- 
ning out in the year of release. Elsewhere ('Ar. 
vi. 3), on the occasion of an execution on behalf of 
the Sanctuary, but as a rule applicable to all debts, 
the Mishnah reserves to the debtor (1) food for thirty 
days; (2) clothing for a year, bed and bedding, san- 
dals, and phylacteries; (3) to a mechanic his tools, 
such as adzes and saws, two of each kind, and, ac- 
cording to R. Eliezer also, to a farmer his yoke of 
beasts for the plow, and to a carrier his ass. But ac- 
cording to the prevailing opinion (' Ar. 23b), oxen and 
asses are not regarded as tools and are not exempt. 

There is a discussion in the Talmud (Shab. 128a) 
as to what should be done in the case of a man 
heavilj- in debt and clothed in a robe worth 2,500 
shekels. Should it be taken from him and clothing 
suited to his position given him? R. Ishmael an- 
swers, "All Israelites are the sons of kings, and no 
garment is above their rank." From these passages 
in Mishnah and Talmud the Shulhan 'Aruk draws 
the following rules (Hoshen Mishpat, 97) : 

The officer of the court can not seize a hand-mill, 
but a water-mill is landed estate, and, without being 
actually seized, is treated like lands (see Appr.\ise- 
mext). But if the creditor undertakes to remove 
parts of a water-mill, they become personalty and ex- 
empt. Pans and pots for cooking, a knife for slaugh- 
tering, and the like, are "implements for life-giving 
food." If such things are taken to pledge, the 
creditor must return them. Accord- 
Further ing to R. Moses Isserles, such tools as 
Develop- barber's scissors are not exempt, nor 
ment. are beasts of the plow. Scissors for 
cutting are clearly exempt, the 
grass being food. If a man has five hand-mills in 
use, none of them can be seized ; but if only one is 
in use, the others are subject to seizure. Food itself 
is subject after the lawful allowance is set aside. 

The officer can not seize a garment which the 
debtor has on his body, nor the ves.sel from which 
he is eating, and he must leave a couch or bench to 
sit upon, and a bed and mattress to sleep upon. 
Though seizing all the rest, he must return bed- 
clothes for the niglit, and tools for tiie daytime. It 
should be remembered that household goods are not 
sold, but simply held as security; other goods are 
sold after the lapse of thirty days. The obligation 
to return household goods holds even when the 
debtor is rich in lauded estate. 

The officers who arrange satisfaction say to the 
debtor: "Bring all your movuble property, not 
keeping buck as much as one needle." 
Exemp- From the whole they set aside for him 
tions from provisions for thirty days (as a "mid- 
Pledge, dling man," says R. Moses Isserles, 
though he had lived like a poor man 
before) and clothes for twelve months, excepting, 
however, silken garments or a gold-embroidered 
turban; .these things they take from him, and give 

him a sufficient supply of clothing better suited to 
his condition (contrary to R. Ishmael's view). They 
set aside also bed, mattress, and bedclothes, but these 
things are not set aside as exempt if they are the prop- 
erty of the wife and children, who simply keep what 
they have; for it is the husband's duty to support 
them. Sandals and phylacteries are exempt. A me- 
chanic is allowed a double set of tools (as in the 
Mishnah); farm- or draft-animals are not set aside, 
nor the skipper's ship or boat, nor the professional 
scholar's books. The creditor has priority over the 
wife's right of maintenance, but he can not seize her or 
her children's clothing, nor the cloth which has been 
dyed for their use, nor the shoes bought for them, even 
though they have not been worn, nor books bought 
for the children's education. According to some 
opinions, the finer clothes for the wife's wear on Sab- 
baths and festivals are not exempt, and certainly' gar- 
ments containing gold or silver clasps, if bought by 
the husband for the wife, are subject to his debts. 
Where, however, they form part of her dowry they 
are exempt. 

The allowances named above are to be set aside 
from either land or personalty. There is some dis- 
pute as to whether the allowance ("siddur") is to 
be set aside where the debt has been incurred for 
wages or for the hire of beasts, and not for money 
or property ; also as to how far the debtor can waive 
the allowance when contracting a loan. But the 
debtor can not waive the exemption of "implements 
for life-giving food, "as no stipulations can be made 
contrary to the provisions of the Torah. However, 
the Hoshen Mishpat closes the subject with a 
clause which might defeat all these humane provi- 
sions: if the debtor has sworn that he will pay the 
debt, he must give up even his last shirt — a clause 
which allows the parties to supersede by private 
arrangement the words of the Law. 

Maimonides, who treats of exemptions in the 

" Yad,"Malweh, iii., says nothing about the debtor's 

oath as a means of nullifying clauses. 

Waiving- either in written or in oral law, made in 
of Rights, favor of poor debtors — an oath which 
the creditor might have forced from 
him as a condition of the loan. In fact, the creditor 
may not be allowed to accept such a suicidal fulfil- 
ment of the oath, for all standards acknowledge the 
Scriptural conmiandment "thou shalt not exact of 
thy brother " (Deut. xv. 3, Ilebr.) as forbidding such 
harsh measures as well as such pressure as would 
drive the debtor to encroach on his wife's property. 

The standards agree on the treatment of widow 
debtors. Maimonides(/.r.) says: " Whethera widow 
be rich or poor you can not take her goods in pledge, 
either at the time of tin; loan or by way of execu- 
tion." This leaves really no way of enforcing a de- 
mand against a widow, unless she have real estate 
or ontstaiiding loans, and the rule, if fully enforced, I 
would have destroyed the credit of widow traders. I 

The Mi.shnah gives tiie measure of a debtor's ex- 
emptions in dealing with the demands of the treas- 
urer of the Sanctuary, as shown under Esti.matk. 
Here the exemption is based on Lev. xxvii. 8 
(Ilebr.): "If thy I)rother has comedown" (become 
poor), etc. (see 'Ar. 24a). 

B. 8. L. N. D. 




Historical View : In ancient Israel every 

loan was an act of charity. Therefore, if the cred- 
itor had taken a garment as a pledge he had to return 
it before nightfall, whether he had received pay- 
ment or not (Ex. xxii. 26-27; Dout. xxiv. 13-14). 
The Talmud (B. M. 14b) explains this to include 
every article ■which can not be spared, so that the 
garment needed during the day must be returned 
before morning, and the garment needed at night 
must be returned before nightfall. Similarly, the law 
wliich prohibits the taking of a millstone as a pledge 
{Deut. xxiv. 6) is explained as applicable to every ar- 
ticle which is as necessary as a millstone (Sif re, I.e. [ed. 
Friedmann, p. 123a]). Therefore the creditor should 
not make any use of the pledge ; and he is responsible 
for its safety, just as every depositary is responsible 
for things held in trust (Hoshen Mishpat, 72). 

The development of money-lending among the 

Jews as their almost exclusive occupation, which 

began in the twelfth century, was in 

Medieval all likelihood the consequence of the 

Times. persecutions during the First Crusade 
(Honiger, "'Zur Gesch. der Juden im 
Frilhern Mittelalter," in "Zeitschrift fur Gesch. der 
Juden in Deutschland," i. 65-97, 136-151); and the 
laws of pawnbroking became more and more detailed. 
This is shown by the fact that the charter granted 
by Henry IV. to the Jews of Speyer and Worms 
(1084-90) does not mention money-lending as an oc- 
cupation of the Jews at all, while the charter of 
Frederick II. of Austria (1244) devotes nine of its 
thirty sections to the regulation of pawnbroking. 
This negative evidence is strengthened by the fact 
that in the ninth century the anti-Jewish writers 
Agobard and Amui.o, who were so bitter in their de- 
nunciation of the Jews, are silent on this point. It 
remains evident, therefore, that loaning money on 
pledges, as money-lending in general, has been the 
occupation of the Jews only since the twelfth century, 
when St. Bernard of Clairvaux condemned the per- 
secution of the Jews, saying that where there were 
no Jews, Christian usurers acted much worse 
(Migne, "Patrologia," clxxxii. 567; Aronius, "Rc- 
gesten," p. 112; Gratz, "Gesch." vi. 166; Stobbe, 
"Die Juden in Deutschland," p. 107). 

The law of Frederick II. of Austria expressly 
permits Jews to take any article as a pledge, without 
inquiring into the right of possession of the bor- 
rower; the exception to this is that bloody or wet 
garments may not be accepted, for in such a case 
suspicion of robbery is reasonable. On the " Privile- 
gium Fridericianum " were based such later laws as 
that i.ssuod by Ottocar II. of Bohemia in 1254, the 
laws of Bela IV. of Hungary, of the dukes of Silesia 
and Poland, and a prohibition against lending money 
on sacred objects — Pope Gregory I. (590-604) and 
Charlemagne (806) had already declared that such 
olijects should not be sold to Jews. A similar pro- 
hibition is found in a law issued by Philip August 
of France (1206). The rabbinical synods of the 
twclftii and thirteenth centuries adopted the same 
law, evidently because of the excuse which the dis- 
covery of church articles in a Jewish liouse would 
give for riots (Griltz, "Gesch." vi. 199). This prin- 
ciple is often repeated in legislations of the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. 

In general, legislation concerning the Jews recog- 
nized the rabbinical law, even in dealings between 
Jews and Christians ; so a Jew who had 
Rabbinical advanced money on a stolen article was 
Law. entitled to recover the amount he liad 
loaned on it, including interest, if he 
could swear that he did not know it had been stolen. 
The same held good with regard to 8t(jlen property 
which had been bought. This law is explained by 
the Talmud as necessitated by the needs of buBiness 
life (pltJ^n njpn ; B. K. 11.5a; Hoshen .Mishpat, 857. 
1). Various German laws demanded that the goods 
must have been delivered in daytime and without 
any secrecy ("unveriiohlen und unverstohlen "). 
This recognition of tlie rabbinical law was fiercely 
condemned by the ecclesiastical authorities — e.g., by 
the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) and by various 
diocesan synods— as favoring the Jews at the ex- 
pense of the Christians, who were compelled by law 
to return stolen property wliich they had bought, but 
without any prospect of indemnity. The "Privi- 
legium Fridericianum" (§ 7), and a great many 
other laws, freed the Jewish pawnbroker from re- 
sponsibility in case of the lo.S3 of the pledge by fire 
or robbery, or in any other way. The manner and 
fact of loss, however, had to be established by oath 
or through witnesses. This legal enactment is in 
conflict with the rabbinical law wliich considers the 
pawnbroker as a depositary (^Dt^' 1D1{J'), i.e., re- 
sponsible in case of death or theft (Hoshen MishpaJ, 
72, 2). _ 

While the state law in this case is more favorable 
to the pawnbroker than is the rabbinical law, in re- 
gard to the unredeemed pledge it is more favorable 
to the debtor. The rabbinical law declares that the 
pledge is forfeited if it is not redeemed on the day 
the payment falls due (Hoshen Mishpat, 73, 13), 
though some authorities demand that the pledge 
shall not be sold until thirty days after payment falls 
due {lb. 3, 14). The " Priviiegium Fridericianum " 
(t^ 27), however, demanded that the pledge should 
be kept one year and one day. This stipulation was 
adopted in many places up to the fifteenth century. 
The privilege of lending money on pledges carried 
with it a certain obligation. Thus the Augsburg 
law declares that every Jewish money- 
Special lender is bound to advance money on 
Regu- a pledge to the extent of two-thirds of 
lations. its value; while the city of Wintertluir 
found it necessary to declare, in a 
charter of 1340, that a Jew is not liable to i)unisli- 
ment if he is unable to lend a Ciiristian the sum de- 
manded (Stobbe, "Die Juden in Deut.scliiand." pp. 
\\%et seq.). The Strasburg law of 1375 makes it the 
duty of the Jews to lend money on pledges to any 

In the frequent anti-Jewish riots which occurred 
from the twelfth to the fifteenth century the mob 
sacking the houses of the Jews often took the 
pledges, and, as a rule, the king issued quitclaims 
after he had received part of the plunder. This 
was done very frequently by Charles IV., after 
the Black Death (1348-51). A typical instance is 
that of NOrdi.ikgen. Under these circumstances it 
is not to be wondered at that Jewish law at that 
period dealt with the Christian debtor as with an 




enemy in war. Thus medieval rabbis decided that 
if a non-Jew loaned to a Jew money on a pledge, 
and then lost the pledge, and a Jew found it, the 
latter should return it to the Jewish debtor (Hoshen 
Mishpat. 72, 38). Similarly, the law permits a Jew- 
ish creditor to keep the pledge after the death of 
the Christian debtor, even where its value much ex- 
ceeds the amount of the debt (ib. 73, 40). 

The Jewish concern with pledges is especially 
connected with the Italian "monte di pieta," pawn- 
shops established by the ecclesiastical authorities in 
the fifteenth century, in opposition to Jewish money- 
lenders and for charitable purposes. The name is 
found also in French ("'mont de piete")and in Latin 
("mons pietatis"; lit. "mountain of charity"); it 
is supposed to have originated from the use of the 
word "monte " in tlie sense of "store " or "stock of 
goods," and especially with regard to banking, in 
the sense of a " pile of coin." 

The great change of economic conditions in the 
fifteentli century in connection with the troubles in 
the Church created among the mendicant orders an 
eager desire to bring themselves into prominence. 
The Franciscans were especially active in promoting 
schemes for economic improvement. 
Monte Barnabas of Terni began preaching 

di Pieta. against money-lenders in Perugia, and 
succeeded in forming a company of 
citizens who furnished money for a loan-bank which 
would lend at a lower rate of interest than that 
charged by the Jews. This first "mountain of 
piety " was founded in 1462, and others followed 
very soon in various cities of Italy ; that in Orvieto, 
1464, was sanctioned by Pope Sixtus IV. Espe- 
cially active was the Franci.scau Bi^rnardinus of 
Feltre, who worked for the promotion of the pop- 
ular pawnshops, chiefly in order to create an oppor- 
tunity to attack the Jews. The Dominicans, jeal- 
ous of the success of the Franciscans, opposed this 
movement, claiming that the exaction of even a low 
rate of interest was contrary to the Christian law ; 
while the Lateran Council (1512-17) and the Council 
of Trent (1545-63), as well as various popes, declared 
for the Franciscans. 

But in Rome, which was under the direct govern- 
ment of the pope, such institutions were not organ- 
ized. While the operations of tiie loan-banks inter- 
fered with the business of the Jews, they were not 
able to drive the Jews to abandon mone^^-lending 
altogether; and therefore a special law was passed 
by the "signoria" of Venice, in 1547, prohibiting 
money-lending by Jews in Padua. In Istri.\, Jews 
who had lost their business opportunities elsewhere 
were privileged to conduct loan-banks. So in 
Pirano. in 1484, where a bank was founded by Moses 
Sacerdote and three others; it continued its opera- 
tions until 1634, when a monte di pietd was estab- 
lished and their privilege was witlidniwn. In Capo 
d'Istria, Jewish money-lenders were called upon 
when tlie monte di pieti\ liad become bankrupt. In 
1611 France introduced the system, but tiiere it had 
no anti-Jewish purpose. Since the middle of the 
eighteenth century the restrictions against Jewish 
money-lenders in Italy have been removed. 

In the fifteenth century tiie business of the Jews 
consisted chiefly in pawnbroking, as Israel Isserlein 

states (" Teruniat ha-Deshen, " part i. , No. 309). They 
dealt with all classes of people, even with princes 
and kings. King Rupert (1403) pawned his silver 
to Jews (Stobbe, I.e. p. 240); the empress Maria, 
widow of Maximilian II., pawned her 
In silver to Mordecai Meisel (1578) for 

Germany. 2,000 florins ("Zeit. filr Gesch. der Ju- 
den in Deutschland," ii. 175). From 
the fifteenth century on, however, the restriction of 
money-lending by Jews became the rule. In 1530 
and 1544 respectively, the Reichstags of Augsburg 
and Speyer issued strict regulations in regard to ex- 
cessive rates of interest and other abuses (see Josel 
OF Roshei.m). The Landesordnung for Bohemia, 
1579, restricted the monej'-lending of the Jews to 
pawnbroking in order to exclude them from banking 
on a larger scale ("Zeit. filr Gesch. der Juden in 
Deutschiand," ii. 173). 

The Judenstattigkeit of PYankfort-on-the-Main, 
1614, limited the rate of interest for loans on pledges 
to 8 i)er cent ; the same was done for Fulda in 1615 
{ib. iii. 178). How precarious this business was 
even then is proved by Gliickel von Hameln, who 
tells in her memoirs of an attempt to take a pledge 
from her father's shop by force. The danger in 
dealing with creditors of this class evidently induced 
some medieval rabbis to permit a pawnbroker to 
redeem a pledge for a creditor on the Sabbath (Orah 
Hayyim, 325, 3). 

With the development of the banking business 
through the court Jews in the seventeenth century, 
and the gradual concession of economic freedom, 
pawnbroking among the Jews became rare, and, in 
fact, in recent times, disreputable (see also Bank- 

Bibliography: Slnilhan 'Anik, JJnshen Mishpat, 7^7,?; 
Zeitschrift filr Gesch. der J^ideJi in Deutschland^ i. 6.S-97. 
136-151; Stobbe, Die Juden in Deutschland Wilhrend des 
Mittelalters, pp. 112-131, Brunswick, 1866; Scherer, Die 
Bechtsverhdltni.tse der Juden in den Dentsch-Oesterreich- 
iVsc/ien LUndern, pp. 196-209. 211-216, Leipsie, 1901; Ceretti. 
Stnria di Monti di Pieta, Padua, 17.52; Ciscato, GU Ehrei 
in Pad(nm. pp. 48-67, 245-247, Padua, 1901 ; iVuora Enciclo- 
pedia Itnliana, s.v. Monte di Pietd (where further literature 
is quoted ) . 

PLEIADES : The word "Kimah," which occurs 
in three passages in the Bible (Job ix. 9, xxxviii. 
31, and Amos v. 8), each time in connection witii 
Orion, is translated by the Septuagint once by 
n?.Eta6n (Job xxxviii. 31); and Aquila, who repre- 
sents the tradition of the scribes, gives the same 
rendering in Amos v. 8, being followed therein by 
Synnnachus and Theodotion. The word is retained 
in the Targum, which indicates that it was then 
used in the vernacular; so that the meaning given 
the term in the Talmud and by Aquila may be ac- 
cepted as correct. Although the etymology is not 
altogether certain, it may be assumed that "Kimali" 
is connected either with the Hebrew D13 = "to 
heap up," or with the Assyrian "kaniu" = "he 
bound" (Dclitzsch, in "Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch." 
xii. 185). 

According to the Talmud (Ber. 58b), this cluster 
is called " Kimaii " liecause it consists of about 100 
stars CnD'3 = HKOD). The constellation i^ in the 
nortliern sky, with its tail to tiie west of the Milky 
Way (ib. ; comp. Pes. 94b). For tlie most impor- 
tant reference to the Pleiades, which have always 




attracted attention on account of their brilliancy and 
number, see OuioN (comp. also Jew. Encyc. ii. 249b, 
8.V. Astuongmy). 

Bini.iOGRAPiiY : Sfhiiiparelli, U Antronomia nelV Ajiticn Tex- 
lamenti), p. 79, Milan, mr.i ; HastlnRs. Diet. Bible, til. 896; 
Hainburfrer, R. D. T. ii. W). 
K. L. B. 

PLESSNER, ELIAS : German rabbi ; son of 
Solomon Plessnek; born Feb. 19, 1841, at Berlin; 
died at Ostrowo March 30, 1898. He studied at the 
University of Berlin, and received his degree as 
Ph.D. from the University of Tiibingen (1870). In 
1871 he was appointed "Stiftsrabbiner " at Hanover, 
and was called April 20, 1873, to the old community 
of Rogasen as successor to Moses Feilchenfeld. In 
Sept., 1885, he was called to Ostrowo as successor to 
the late I. M. Freimann, remaining there until his 

Plessner rendered great services to homiletic liter- 
ature by publishing the following works by his 
father: "Sabbathpredigten," "Festreden," and 
"Nachgelassene Schriften " (Frankfort, 1884). His 
own works include: In German: "Stellung 'und 
Bedeutungder Israel itischen Frau bei den Hebraern " 
(Ostrowo) ; " Der Grabstcin in Seiner HOheren Bedeu- 
tung"; "Ezechiel Landau und Moses Mendelssohn." 
In Hebrew: "Matbea' shel Bcrakot " ; " 'Asa rah 
Ma'amarot"; "Dibre Tanirurim we-Tauhumim," 
Posen, 1871 ; "She'elah u-Teshubah be-'Inyan Bel.ii- 
rah," Berlin, 1889; "Hitmannut Kohen Gadol," Ber- 
lin, 1895. 

s. I. Bro. 

PLESSNER, SOLOMON: German preacher 
and Jiible commentator; born at Breslau April 23, 
1797; (lied at Posen Aug. 28, 1883. Having lost his 
father when very young, Plessner had to support 
his mother and himself. He engaged in business, 
but found time to study Hebrew, rabbinics, and 
German, under Wessely's influence. At the age of 
seventeen Plessner began to study Wesseiy's He- 
brew translation of the Apocrypha, resolving to con- 
tinue the translation himself. He indeed published 
at Breslau in 1819 his Hebrew translation of the 
Apocryphal additions to the Book of 

Becomes Esther, under the title "Hosafah li- 

Eminent Megillat/ Ester, " with a literary-histor- 

as a ical introduction. At the same time 

Preacher, he became known as an eloquent 

preacher. Many of his sermons were 

published, among them his funeral oration on the 

death of Abraham Tiktin, bearing the Hebrew title 

"Zeker Zaddik li-Berakah " (Breslau, 1821). 

Plessner through his sermons was recognized as a 
warm defender of Orthodox Judaism, and on this 
account was congratulated by Akiba Eger, rabbi of 
Posen. Soon the conflict arose between the Ortho- 
do.x and Reform Jews concerning the introduction 
of the organ into the synagogal services. Plessner 
naturally fought against the Reform leaders; and as 
they were the more powerful and began to perse- 
cute him, forbidding him through the police to de- 
liver any sermon, he in 1823 settled at Fcstenberg, 
a small town in Silesia. In 1825, the government of 
the province of Posen having issued a decree for- 
bidding Talmudic instruction in schools, Plessner, 
at Eger's request, summed up all tlie observations 

and opinions of Christian scholars, beginning with 
Jerome, on the Talmud. This document, pub- 
lished the same year at Breslau un- 
His Mem- iler the title "Ein Wort zu Seiner 
oir on the Zeit oder die Autoritat df r Judischen 
Talmud. Traditionslehre," with a part of ii in 
H.ljrcw entitled "'Edut le-Yisruel," 
was in 1826 presented to the Poseu govi-rnmont. 
Accompanied with a petition signed by the presi- 
dents of several eonununities, it proved eflicacious; 
and the anti-Taimudic decree was revoked. 

In 1830 Plessner removed to Berlin, where for a 
short time he was a teacher in the normal school. 
Although possessing all the knowledge necessary 
for an Orthodox rabbi, lie persistently declined 
rabbinical oflice, preferring freedom of speech. He 
earned a livelihood by preaching every other Satur- 
day in the Berlin bet ha-midrash, continuing at the 
same time his study of the Apocrypha. In 1h;j2 his 
"Nozelim Min Lebanon " was published in Berlin. 
This work consisted of a Hebrew translation of a 
part of the Apocrypha, with an appendix, entitled 
"Duda'im," containing exegetical notes, verses in 
Hebrew and German, and sermons (see Geiger, 
"Wiss. Zeit. Jiid. Theol." i. 204 et xeq.). The fol- 
lowing year he was invited to dedicate the new 
S3'nagogue at Bromberg, for which occasion he com- 
posed poems in Hebrew and in German, which were 
published under the title "Shirim la-Hanukkat Bet 
ha-Tefillah " (Berlin, 1834). In his sermons Ple-ssner 
adopted the expressions of the most eminent Chris- 
tian preachers, interspersing his sen- 
Removes fences with verses of Schiller and 
to Goethe, and rejecting the derashic or 

Berlin. homiletic interpretation of the Bible. 
In 1834 he began to publish his ser- 
mons in yearly volumes under the general title ** Be- 
lehrungen und Erbauungen " (2d ed. Berlin, 1840. 
under the title "Religi5se VortrUge"). In 1838 
Plessner published his "Dat Mosheh wi-Yehudit," a 
catechism in twelve parts, preceded by an introduc- 
tion, on the nature and history of Jewisli religious 
instruction. His oratorical talent is particularly ex- 
hibited in his "Mikra'e Kodesh "(Berlin, 1841). a col- 
lection of holy-day sermons for the years 1835 to 1^39. 
A powerful party of antagonists worrying Plessner 
beyond endurance on account of his outspokenness, 
he left Berlin and settled at Posen (1843). where he 
was active as a preacher for forty years. In Posen 
Plessner preached chiefly at the Neuschul. During 
his residence in that city he publishfd the following 
works: " Shay la-Mora " (Posen, ls4t'.j, poem in honor 
of Moses Montefiore ; "Shire Zimrah " (Berlin. 1859), 
poems composed on the occasion of 
Settles in the completion of the publication of 
Posen. the Talmud by the Talmud society 
Hebrat Shas; "Shire Zimrah" (•*. 
1865), Hebrew poems eompo.sed for the celebration 
of the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
foundation of the society of niohelim. 

After Plessner's death two collections of his ser- 
mouswere published at Frank fort-ont he-Main: "Sab- 
bathpredigten " (1884) and " Festpredigten " (1890). 

Bibliography: Furst. nOtl. Jud. III. 107: H. Hlrnrhf«'Id. in 
Elii'5 PlessntT, UihliKchis uiul Uohhiiiisrhfs nus Sn/omon 
I'hssncrs yachlasac ; ZeitUn. VilA. I>o»l-Mftidrls ]>. 271. 

g M. Skl. 




PLETSCH, SOLOMON : German physician of 
the fuurieeuth aud tiftceuth centuries; a native of 
Regensburg. Pletsch was in 1394 appointed city 
surgeon of Frankfort-on-the-Main with a salary of 
36 gulden per year. Besides, the city furnished him 
with six ells of cloth for his uniform, which was of 
the same color and quality as that of the Christian 
officials. Thus the only difference between Pletsch 
and his Christian predecessors and successors was 
in the form of the oath, the former taking it More 
Judaico. In the letter of commission, Pletsch 
bound himself to treat gratuitously all the members 
of the council with their servants and all the sick 
Jews who might be received at the hospital, and to 
take moderate fees from the citizens. 

Bibliography: M. Horovltz. jadische Aerztein Frankfurt- 
am-Main, P- 6, Frankfort-on-the-Maln, 1886; Landau, 
Gesch. der JUdischen Aerzte, p. 10"_', Berlin, 1895. 
D. M. Sel. 

PLOCK (PLOTZK) : Government in Russian 
Poland, with a Jewish population (1897) of 50,473 
(in a total population of 553,094), which is the 
smallest Jewish population of any government in 
the Pale of Settlement. 

The most important of the district towns in the 
government of Plock are: 

Mlawa, which has 5,123 Jews in a total pop- 
ulation of 11,211 (1897). R. Jehiel Michael Sagalo- 
vich (born 1862) became the rabbi of the community 
in 1894. 

Plock, the capital of the government, which had 
only about 6,000 inhabitants in 1816 (when it came 
under Russian domination, after having been held by 
Prussia under the provisions of the second partition 
of Poland in 1793), had a total population of 27,073 
in 1897. Of this number more than 10,000 are Jews. 
In the city there are several synagogues, a Talmud 
Torah (founded 1868), a Gemilut Hasadim (founded 
1873), and a well-equipped hospital. It has also a 
Jewish boys' school attended by more than one hun- 
dred pupils. Instruction in the Hebrew faith is im- 
parted to Jewish students attending the local gym- 
nasium by A. J. Papierno, a prominent Maskil Avho 
has resided in Plock since 1870, and who established 
a library there in 1900. 

Owing to the influence of the Hasidim the Jewish 
community of Plock frequently changed its rabbis 
during the nineteenth century, and the term of sev- 
enteen years during which R. Azriel Aryeh Rakovski 
held that position, which he resigned in 1880, was con- 
sidered an extremely long one. Aryeh L5b Zunz or 
Zuenz also was rabbi of Plock and later of Praga, but 
removed to Warsaw, where he died April 22, 1833. 
Since 1897 R. Ezekicl Libshitz (l)orn in Rossienny, 
in the province of Kovno, in 18G4), son of R. Hillcl 
Libshitz of Lublin, and who, like his father, is a Tal- 
mudi.stand able scholar, has been the rabbi of Plock. 

Przasnysz, with 4,500 Jews among its 8,586 in- 
habitants; it has two synagogues. 

Sierpce, with about 600 Jewish families among 
its 8,560 inhabitants. The Jews of Sierpce are bur- 
dened with a tax of 68 rubles which they have to 
pay annually to the owner of the town on account 
of a debt said to have been contracted by a certain 
David, of whose origin nothing is known (''Ha- 
Meliz," 1883, No. 105). 

Bibliography : Brockhaus-Efron, Entziklopedichcshi Slo- 
var, S.V.; Ha-Melif, 1ST8. No. 9; 1888. No. 33; 1890, No. 200; 
Ha-^cnrah, 1876, No. 4 ; 1900. No. 44 ; Yevnin. yahalat 'Ol-Ji- 
mim, pp. 14-15. Warsaw. 1882; Walden, Shem h'a-OeduUm 
he-Hadash, p. 80, Warsaw, 1883. 
H. K. P. Wl. 

PLOTKE, JULIUS : German lawyer and com- 
munal worker; born at Borek, province of Posen, 
Oct. 5, 1857; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main Sept. 
27, 1903. Having finished his studies at the gymna- 
sium at Krotoschin and the University of Berlin, he 
practised law in Bockcnheim from 1885 to 1888, 
when he entered into partnership with Councilor of 
Justice S. Fuld in Frankfort-on-the-Main. Plotke 
was elected to the board of trustees of the Frankfort 
congregation, and participated in all movements for 
the relief of his oppressed coreligionists, being a 
trustee of the Jewish Colonization Association, of 
the Alliance Israelite Uuiverselle, of the Ililfsverein 
der Deutschen Juden, and similar organizations. 
He wrote various pamphlets and articles on the con- 
dition of the Jews of Russia and Rumania. 

Bibliography: JlUUsche Presse, 1903, pp. 441-442; Oester- 
reichische Troc/ie»isr7iriff, 1903, pp. 64*-649; Jew. Chron. 
Oct. 2, 1903, p. 33 : AUg. Zeit. des Jud. 1903, pp. 484-485. 

s. D. 

PLOWING : No description of the plow (" maha- 
reshet ") is found in the Bible ; but it may be assumed 
with certainty that the implement resembled, on the 
whole, the very simple plow which is still used by 
the fellahs of Palestine. It consists of a long pole 
with a wooden crosspiece at the lower end, and a 
handle parallel to the latter at the upper end, by 
means of which the plow is guided. The wooden 
foot ends in an iron share, slightly convex above, be- 
ing 34 cm. long and 18 cm. wide at the back. This 
point has to be sharpened occasionally (com p. I Sam. 
xiii. 20). Itisuncertain whether the "et" mentioned 
in the passage just cited is a different kind of plow 
from that described above; Fr. Delitzsch takes 
" et " to be the plowshare, which cuts the furrows, 
while the plow itself casts up the earth. As the 
fellahs generally do not remove the stones from the 
fiehls, thinking that the soil thereby retains the 
moisture for a longer period, that kind of plow is 
not wholly impractical, since it may readily be 
drawn through the stony soil. Moreover, this plow 
is easily used, being light enough to be lifted out of 
the furrow with one hand and to be replaced in the 
same way. Its disadvantage is that it does not plow 
deeply enough — only about 8 to 10 cm. — the laud 
being therefore neither sufficiently utilized nor prop- 
erly freed from weeds. As a consequence the latter 
grow rankly, and the grain requires additional han- 
dling before it can be used or brought to market. 

The plow was drawn, as it commonly still is to- 
day, by a yoke of oxen, and on light soil by an ass 
(Isa. XXX. 24, xxxii. 20); but the yoking together of 
ox and ass, which is not seldom seen to-day, was 
forbidden, at least at the time of the Deuterononiist 
(comp. Deut. xxii. 10). The ox walks in front of 
the plow, usually in the yoke which is attached to 
the beam. To-day the yoke is fastened to the neck 
of the animal in such a way that the two blocks of 
wood which extend on each side of the neck from 
the yoke downward may be fastened at the lower 
end by a rope and the ox's neck be enclosed in a 




frame. The plower liolds in liis riglit hand tlie 
plow-handle and the guiding-rope, and in iiis left 
the ox-goad ("malmad"; Judges iii. 31; I Sam. 
xiii. 21). To one end of the latter is attached an iron 
point, with whicli the o.xen are goaded to quicken 
;heir pace, and to the other end is fastened a small 
ron shovel which is used to remove the earth cling- 
ng to the plowshare. 

In ancient times, as to-day, it was doubtless hardly 
uitlicient to plow the fallow land once only, but it 
lad to be gone over three times. The first plowing 
in the winter) was followed by a second (in the 
spring), and a third (in tlie summer); the careful 
lusbandman even plowed a fourth time (late in the 
mmmer). After the plow had turned the soil over, the 
atter was made smooth by a harrow, which perhaps 
consisted merely of a strong board or a roller (Hos. 
c. 11; Isa. xxviii. 4). 

3iBi,ioGRAPHY : Z. D. p. V. ix. 24 et seq. 

K. G. II. 

PLUM. See Peach. 

W. N. 

PLUNGIAN : Old town in the government of 
Kovno, district of Telshi, Russia. Among the ear- 
ier rabbis of Plungian were Jacob b. Zebi, a resi- 
lent of Grodno, who gave his approbation to his 
,rounger brother's work, "Ohole Yehudah " (Jess- 
litz, 1719), and Dob Bar, who in 1726 addressed a 
lalakic question to R. Ezekiel Katzenellenbogen of 
\ltona (responsa "Keueset Yehezkel," No. 7, Al- 
;oua, 1732). Its most prominent rabbi in the nine- 
;eenth century was Jehiel Heller, who died there 
n 1861. Ilillel Libschitz (b. 1844), formerly of Su- 
ivalki and now (1905) rabbi of Lublin, officiated at 
Plungian from 1878 to 1880. Its rabbi at the be- 
ginning of the present century was Zebulon Loeb 
Barit (see "Ha-Zefirah," 1897, Nos. 40, 56), who died 
n 1903. 

Other prominent men who came from or were 
ictive in Plungian were: Zechariah Plungian or 
5imner (d. 1715), author of " Sefer Zekirah " (1st ed. 
[^lamburg, 1709), on religious ethics and folk-medi- 
cine, which passed through many editions; Moide- 
;ai b. Joseph (great-grandson of Mordecai Jaffe 
"" Lebush "]), and his son Joseph, " rosh mediuah " of 
Plungian in the eighteenth century (see Jaffe 
family). Mordecai Plungian (originally Plungian- 
ski), also a descendant of the Jaffe family, and one 
)f the most prominent Maskilim of the nineteenth 
century, was born at Plungian in 1814. 

A record of the proceedings before R. Dob Bar 
Jaffe, dayyan of Plungian, and of the decisions ren- 
lered by him, is preserved in the New York Pub- 
lic Library. Its earliest entry is dated 1856, and the 
latest 1881. 

The population of Plungian, which is mostly Jew- 
ish, numbered 3,593 in 1873, and 3,583 in 1897. 

Bibliography : Brockhaus-Kfron. EntziklopedicheshiSlm^ar; 
F.isenstadt-Wiener, Da'at Kedosliiw, pp. 34, 35, St. Peters- 
burg, 1897-98. 

H. K. P. Wl. 

CAI (MARCUS): Russian Hebraist and autiior; 
born at Plungian, in the government of Wilna, 
1814; died at Wilna Nov. 28, 1883. He was a 
descendant of Mordecai Jaffe, author of the "Lebu- 

shim." Wliile still young Plungian became a Tai- 
mudist of high repute. After a couple (if years 
of an uniiapi)y married life he left his native 't(jwn 
and settled at Troki. where lie devoted himself en- 
tirely to rabbinical studies. Soon, however, ]ut was 
compelled to leave tliat place, having disj)leu8ed 
tile ultra-conservatives by liis more or less advanced 
ideas. He then went to Wilna, where he earned a 
scanty livelihood by delivering rabbinical lectures, 
wiiich were greatly appreciated by tlie Talmiidists 
of that place. In the meanwiiile Plungian devoted 
himself to secular studies also, and accjuired, in 
a relatively short time, a thorougli knowledge of 
several European languages and literatures. This 
acquisition procured for him first the position of 
teacher in a higli school, and in 1HC7 that of instruc- 
tor in Talmud and religious codes in the rabbinical 
seminary at AVilna. 

Plungian was very unhappy in his old age. The 
rabbinical seminary was closed in 1873, and lie 
had no other position than that of corrector in the 
printing-office of Romm, which he had held since 
1869. In his literary career he had the misfortune 
to displease both the Orthodox, who accused him of 
heresy, and the liberals, who regarded him as a 
conservative; hence he was persecuted liy the 
former and repudiated by the latter. 

Plungian was the author of the following works: 
"Talpiyyot" (Wilna, 1849), on the hermeneutic 
rule "Gezerah Shawah " in the Babylonian Talmud, 
explaining the logical principles upon which it is 
based and criticizing the views expressed on the 
subject by Rashi and the tosafists; "Kerem li- 
Slielomoh" (ib. 1851), commentary on Ecclcsiastes, 
published together with the text; "Ben Porat " {ib. 
1858), biography of Manasseh ben Porat, with ex- 
egetic and philological dissertations; "Shebet Elo- 
ah" (ib. 1862), episode of the eighteenth century, 
with arguments against the blood accusation ; "Or 
Boker " {ib. 1868), three critical treatises on the 
Masorali as interpreted in the Talmud ; " Kerem 
li-Shelomoh" (ib. 1877), commentary on Canticles, 
published together with the text. 

Plungian left several works in manuscript, 
among them a treatise on the Hebrew verbs of four 
letters, partly published in "Kerem Hemed " (ix.); 
and "Ma'amar Mordekai," a commcntar)- on all the 
haggadot found in ""En Ya'akob." In addition 
Plungian contributed to nearly all the Hebrew peri- 

BinLiOGRAPHY : Ha-S^hahar, xi. tilo; N. Nathanson, Sefat 
Kmet. Warsaw, 1887: Zeitlln, Bibl. Paot-MftuMs. p. U'T-'; 
Kerem ffemed, ix. 136 ; Ha-Melvf, 1883, Nos. 89. 91. 

n. K. I. Bit. 

PLYMOUTH : Seaport in the county of Devon, 
England; one of the principal ports of that country. 
A few Jewish families were living there in 1740. 
Among the synagogue deeds is a lease of a garden, 
dated 1752, the signature to which is witnessed by 
one Jac. Myer Sherrenbek; it evidently refers to the 
old burial-ground nt-ar the Citadel. In 1762 the 
mayor and commonalty leased to Samuel Chapman 
a plot of ground for ninety-nine years; and one 
Chapman executed a deed of trust reciting that the 
lease had been acquired by him at the sole exjicnso 
"of the said J. J. Sherrenbek and Gumpert Michael 




Emdon, elders of the Synagogue of the Jews." In 
the same year £300 was raised on mortgage "to 
complete the buildings, editices, and erections now 
building thereon, and which is designed for a Jew- 
ish synagogue or place of worship for those profess- 
ing the Jewish religion." In 1786 this lease was 
surrendered, and a new one was entered into with 
live leading Protestant citizens, who held the same 
in trust for one A. Joseph. Eleven years later an- 
other lease was granted to the following three 
Jewish holders: Henry Hart, Joseph Joseph, and 
Samuel Hart; and in 1834 the freehold of the syna- 
gogue was transferred to other trustees. In 1868 a 
new burial-ground, adjoining the Christian ceme- 
tery, was acquired; and in 1873 the congregation 
purchased the ground on which the synagogue 
house now stands. 

One of the most prominent of Plymouth Jews 
was the late Jacob Nathan, who left a considerable 
sum of money to Jewish and Christian local chari- 
ties. Among his bequests was one of £13,000 
(§65,000) to found and maintain a Jewish school 
for the poor. This school was established in 1869, 
and has an average attendance of fifteen scholars. 
Solomon Alexander Hart, R.A., a native of Plym- 
outh, bequeathed £1,000 to the congregation, and 
one of his masterpieces, "The Execution of Lady 
Jane Grey," to the corporation. It is one of the 
chief adornments of the municipal chamber. 

The synagogue in Catherine street retains its an- 
cient features — a latticed women's gallery, a beauti- 
fully carved wooden Ark, antique silver sets of 
bells, and old brasswork. It has a membership of 70. 
There are, besides the Jacob Nathan Day School, 
two Jewish charities, the Ladies' Hebrew Benevo- 
lent Society and the Sick Visiting Society. There are 
also several Jewish social institutions. The Jews of 
Plymouth number about 300 in a total population of 
107,500. Except for two families, the present (1905) 
Jewish community comprises recent settlers. 

Bibliography: Jewish Year Book, 1904. 


L H. 

DAH LOB ben JOSEPH : Kussiaii rabbi and 
preacher ; flourished at Pinsk in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century; died in Palestine, whither he 
went before 1681. He was the author of : "Keneh 
Hokmah" (Frankfort-on-theOder, 1681), a work 
consisting of seventeen "derasliot" on penitence; 
"Derek Hokmah" (ib. 1683), a treatise in thirty-two 
sections on morals; "Dibre Hakamim " (Hamburg, 
1692), a work in two parts: the first, entitled " Da'at 
Hokmah," being a treatise in four .sections on morals 
and asceticism; the second, "Mekor Hokmah," con- 
taining notes to the Shullian 'Aruk, Orah Hayyini, 
up to No, 240. At the end of this work is a pam- 
phlet, entitled "Solet Belulah," containing novella; 
on the Talmud. Thirty-two treatises taken from 
the above-mentioned works were published in one 
volume by Solomon Pinkerle under the title "Kebod 
ijakamiiii " (Venice, 1700). 

Bim.iOfjRAPHY: Furst, 73i7/J. J?(fMll.l08: Nepl-Ghlrondl, To/c- 
clot (li'iUAe YUsrael, p. 189; Steluschnelder, Cat. Bodl. cols. 
I*i6- 1.%7. 


M. Ski,. 

POCOCK, EDWARD: English Christian Ori- 
entalist and theologian ; born at Oxford Nov. 8, 
1604; died there Sept. 12, 1691. He studied Orien- 
tal languages at Oxford and elsewhere; was chap- 
lain of the English "Turkey Merchants" in Aleppo 
from 1630 to 1636; and became professor of Arabic 
at Oxford in 1636. He spent the period from 1637 
to 1640 in Constantinople, and on returning to Eng- 
land in 1647 resumed liis professorship of Arabic at 
Oxford; he became professor of Hebrew, also, ia 
1649, which position he held until his death, al- 
though frequently attacked for political reasons. 
During his stay in the East he collected many valu- 
able manuscripts, among them one of the Samaritan 

Among Pocock's works may be mentioned 
"Porta Mosis" (Oxford, 1655), a translation of six 
sections of Maimonides' commentary on the Mish- 
nali (Arabic text in Hebrew characters, with Latin 
translation). This was tlie tirst book printed in 
Hebrew characters in Oxford. In 1657 was pub- 
lished Walton's polyglot edition of the Bible, for 
which Pocock collated manuscripts of the Arabic 
Pentateuch and furnished notes explaining the dif- 
ferent Arabic versions, 

Pocock was the author of the following commen- 
taries: on Micah and Malachi (Oxford, 1677); on 
Hosea (ib. 1685); and on Joel (ib. 1691). These 
commentaries evidence the wide extent of Pocock's 
knowledge of Hebrew language and science, rab- 
binical and sacred, 

BiBMOfiUAPiiY : Twells, The Life of Dr. Edicartl Pocock, 
London, 1"40; Allil)one, Diet, of British and Awerican 
Aiithors; McClintock and Strong, Cyc.; Dictionary of 
National Biography. 
T. F. T. H. 

PODIEBRAD, DAVID: Austrian writer; born 
in 1816; died Aug. 2, 1882. He received his educa- 
tion in the yeshibah of Prague and by private tui- 
tion. He was especially interested in the history 
of the Jews in Prague, where for thirty years he 
occupied the position of secretar}' of the hebra 
kaddisha. He collected many manuscripts and me- 
morials concerning the Jews of Prague. He pub- 
lished Benedict Foges' work, " Altertilmer der Prager 
Josefstadt," Prague, 1870, which was based mainly 
on documents collected by Podiebrad. 

s. A. Ki. 

PODIVIN. See Kostel. 

PODOLIA : Government in southwestern Rus- 
sia, on the Austrian frontier (Galicia). It is a center 
of many important events in the history of the Rus- 
sian Jews. Polish and Russian documents of 1550 
mention Jewish communities in Podolia, but from 
tombstones discovered in .some towns of the govern- 
ment it is evident that Jews had lived there much 
earlier. (For the earlier historj^ see Lithuania and 
Russia; for the sufferings of the Jews in the middle 
of the seventeenth century see Cossacks' Upkisino ; 
for the revolt of the I'kruinians against the Jews of 
Podolia in the eighteenth century see IlAiDAMArKS.) 
Ruined by persecutions lasting for centuries, Podolia 
became the breeding-place of superstition and re- 
ligious intolerance, which flourished there more than 
in any other place within the Pale. Owing to the 
extremely impoverished condition of its Jews, Shab- 




bethai Zebi, the Frankists, and the Hasidim found 
in Podolia a most fertile soil for the spread of their 
doctrines (see Ba'al Siiem-Tob; Frank, Jacou; 
Hasidim). Podolia was annexed to Russia at the 
end of the eighteenth century. Tlie Jewish popula- 
tion of Podolia in 1887 was 325,907— about 13 per 
cent of the general population ; the Jews still live 
mostly in small towns and villages. The capital of 
Podolia is Kamenetz-Podoi^sk. 

Bibliography : Orshanskl, Yevrci v Rossii ; Bershadskl, Li- 
tovi>kiye Yevrci; Litinski, Korot ha-Yehtuliin tie-I'odolia 
(unreliable); Vonkhod, l»d7 ; Hannover, Yewen Me^itlah. 

H. R. S. HU. 

Podolia: Population (Census of 1897). 



Bratzlav (Braslavl) 











Total In Government- 











11. :« 


n. R. V. R. 

POETRY.— Biblical : The question whether 
the literature of the ancient Hebrews includes por- 
tions that may be called poetry is answered by the 
ancient Hebrews themselves. A distinction be- 
tween different classes of writings is evident in such 
a fact as that the section II iSam. xxiii. 1-7 is 
designated in the (later) heading as " the last words 
of David," although other utterances of this king 
are reported as late as I Kings ii. 9 ; it is not known, 
however, whether the words of David cited in 
II Sam. I.e. are called his "last words" on account 
of their substance or of their form. Again, the au- 
thor of Ps. xlv. has designated it as a "ma'aseh," 
i.e., "a product"; and this expression corresponds in 
a remarkable degree with the Greek nuir/aig, although 
he may have applied that term to the psalm only on 
account of its contents. But that the ancient He- 
brews perceived there were poetical portions in their 
literature is shown by their entitling songs or chants 
such passages as Ex. xv. 1 et seq. and Num. xxi. 17 et 
seq. ; and a song or chant (" shir ") is, according to the 
primary meaning of the term, poetry. In the first 
place, therefore, these songs of the Old Testament 
must be considered if the (jualities that distinguish 
the poetical products of the ancient Hebrews from 
their oniinary mode of literary presentation arc to be 

Characteristics of Ancient Hebrew Poetry: (1) An- 
cient Hebrew poetry contains no rime. Although 
the tirst song mentioned above (Ex. xv. 1 et seq.) 
contains assonance at the ends of the lines, as in 
"anwehu" and "aromemenhu" {ib. verse 2), such 
consonance of "hu" (= "him") can not well be 
avoided in Hebrew, because many pronouns are 
affixed to words. Furthermore, rime occurs only 
as sporadically in Hebrew poems as in Shakespeare; 
e.g. , in " thing " and " king " at the end of the second 

act of " Hamlet." There is no poem in the OKI Tes- 
tament with a final rime in every line; ultlioiigh 
Hellermann (" Versiich hberdie Metrik derHebrfler," 
1813, p. 210) alludes to an exception, meaning prob- 
al)ly l^s. cxxxvi., the rime throughout whielj poem 
consists only in the frecjuent repetition of the word 
"hasdo." h. Grimme has stJited in his arti<lc 
" Durchgereimte Gedichte im A. T." (in Barden- 
hewer's "Bibl. Studien," 1901, vi. 1, 2) tliat such 
poems are represented by Ps. xlv., liv., and Siraeh 
(Ecclus.) xliv. 1-14; but lie regards the consonance 
of final consonants as rime, e.g., •'ozueA- " and "ubiA " 
(Ps. xlv. 11), while rime proper demands at least tlie 
assonance of the preceding vowel. 

(2) The empioymenl of unusual forms of lan- 
guage can not be considered as a sign of ancient 
Hebrew poetry. In the sentences of Noah, f.g.. ((Jen. 
ix. 2o-27) the form " lamo " occurs. But this form. 

which represents partly "laliem" and 

Unusual i^artly " lo," has many count(ri)arls in 

Forms. Hebrew grammar, as, for example, 

" kemo " instead of "ke" (Ex. xv. 5, 
8) ; or " emo " = " them " (ib. verses 9, 15) ; or " cmo " 
= "their" (Ps. ii. 3); or "elemo" = " to them" 
{ib. verse 5) — forms fount! in pas.sages for which no 
claim to poetical expressions is made. Then there 
are found " liayeto " = "beast" (Gen. i. 24). "osri" 
=: "tying" (ib. xlix. 11), and "yeshu'alah" = 
"salvation" (Ps. iii. 3)— three forms that i)rf>bably 
retain remnants of the old endings of the nomina- 
tive, genitive, and accusj\tive: "u(n)," "i(n)," 
"a(n)." Again, in Lamech's words, "Adah and 
Zillah, hear my voice; ye wives of Lamecli, 
barken unto my speech" (Gen. iv. 23), the two 
words "he'ezin " and "imrali " attract atti'ntion, be- 
cause they occur for the first time in this passage. 
although there had been an earlier opportunity of 
using them. " He'ezin " = " to barken " could have 
been used just as well as its synonym "shama'" 
= "to hear" in Gen. iii. 8, 10 et seq., but its earliest 
employment is in the above-cited pas.<yige Gen. 
iv. 23. It occurs also in Ex. xv. 26; Num. xxiii. 
18 (a sentence of Balaam); Deut. i. 4.'), xxxii. 1; 
Judges V. 3; Isa. i. 2, 10; viii. 9; xxviii. 2.1; xxxii. 
9; xlii. 23; Ii. 4; Ixiv. 3; Jer. xiii. 15; IIos. v. 1; 
Joel i. 2; Neh. ix. 30 (in a prayer); and in H Cliron. 
xxiv. 19 (probably an imitation of Isa. Ixiv. 3). 
Furthermore, " imrah " = " speech " might have been 
used instead of the essentially identiail "dabar" in 
Gen. xi. 1 et seq., but its earliest use is, as stated 
above, in Gen. iv. 23. It is found also in Deut. 
xxxii. 2, xxxiii. 9; II Sam. xxii. 31; Isa. v. 24, 
xxviii. 23, xxix. 4, xxxii. 9; Ps. xii. 7, etc.; Prov. 
XXX. 5; and Lam. ii. 17. In place of "ailam" = 
"man" {Gen. i. 26 et seq.) "enosh" is employed in 
Deut. xxxii. 26; Isa. viii. 1; xiii. 7, 12; xxiv. 6; 
xxxiii. 8; Ii. 7. 12; Ivi. 2; Jer. xx. 10; Ps. viii. 5, 
ix. 20, X. 18. Iv. 14, Ivi. 2, Ixvi. 12, Ixxiii. 5. xc. 
3, ciii. 15, civ. 15, cxliv. 3; Job iv. 17; v. 17: vii. 
1, 17; ix. 2; x. 4; xiii. 9; xiv. 19; xv. 14; xxv. 4. 
6; xxviii. 4.. 13; xxxii. 8; xxxiii. 12, 26; xxxvi. 25; 
II Chron. xiv. 10 (comp. the Aramaic "enash" in 
Dan. ii. 10; Ezra iv. 11, vi. 11). For a systematic 
review of similar unusual forms of Hebrew gram- 
mar and Hebrew words occurring in certain por- 
tions of the Old Testament see E. KOnig, "Stilis- 




tik, " etc. , pp. 277-283. Such forms have been called 
"dialectus poetica" since the publication of Robert 
Lowth's " Prtelectiones de Sacra Poesi Hebraeoruni," 
iii. (1753); but this designation is ambiguous and 
can be accepted only in agreement with the rule " a 
parte potiori lit denominatio " ; for some of these 
unusual forms and words are found elsewhere than 
in the "songs" of the Old Testament, as, e.g., the 
"hayeto" of Gen. i. 24 mentioned above, which was 
probably preferred as an archaic form in the solemn 
\itterance of God, while in the following sentences 
of the narrator (verse 25) the ordinarj' form " hayyat " 
is used. 

Again, these unusual forms and expressions do 
not occur in all songs (comp. Num. xxi. 17 et seq. 
and II Sam. iii. 33 et seq.), and there are several of 
the Psalms that have none of these peculiarities, as, 
for instance, Ps. cxlix., although the opportunity 
to use them existed. The present writer is of opin- 
ion that the use of these peculiar forms of expres- 
sion is connected more with the tastes of a certain 
(earlier) period, when unusual, archaic, and dialectic 
forms were chosen to embellish the diction. The fact 
that "he'ezin" occurs also in II Chron. xxiv. 
19 is explainable likewise on the theory that 
poetico-rhetorical expressions later became compo- 
nent parts of common speech, as, for example, 
"hammah" = "glowing one," a rare expression in 
Biblical Hebrew for the sun (Isa. xxiv. 23, etc.), but 
one which is frequently used in this sense in the 
Mishnah (Ber. i. 2; iii. 5, etc.). 

(3) Not even the "parallelismus membrorum" is 
an absolutely certain indication of ancient Hebrew 
poetry. This " parallelism " is a phenomenon no- 
ticed in the portions of the Old Testament that 
are at the same time marked fre- 
Parallel- quently by the so-called "dialectus 
ism. poetica"; it consists in a remarkable 

correspondence in the ideas expressed 
in two successive verses; for example, the above- 
cited words of Lamech, "Adah and Zillah, hear my 
voice ; ye wives of Lamech, barken unto my speech " 
(Gen. iv. 23), in which are found "he'ezin" and 
"imrah," show a remarkable repetition of the same 
thought. See Parallelism in Hebrew Poetry. 

But this ideal eurythmy is not always present in 
the songs of the Old Testament or in the Psalter, 
as the following passages will show : " The Lord is 
my strength and song, and he is become my salva- 
tion " (Ex. XV. 2). "Saul and Jonathan, the beloved 
and the lovely, in life and in death they were not 
divided" (H. P. Smith, in "International Commen- 
tary," on II Sam. i. 23). "Ye daughters of Israel, 
weep over Saul, who clothed you in scarlet, and tine 
linen " {ib. 24). " And he shall be like a tree planted 
by the rivers of water, that bringeth forth his fruit 
in his .season" (Ps. i. 3; comp. ib. ii. 12); "I laid me 
down and slept; I awaked ; for the Lord sustained 
me. I will not be afraid of ton thousands of people, 
that have set themselves against me round about" 
{ib. iii. 6-7 [A. V. 5-6] ; see also ib. iv. 7 et seq., ix. 4 
et seq.). Julius Ley ("Leitfaden der Hebraischen 
Metrik," 1887, p. 10) says therefore correctly that 
"the poets did not consider themselves bound by 
parallelism to such an extent as not to set it aside 
when the thought required it." This restriction 

must be made to James Robertson's view ("The 
Poetry of the Psalms," 1898, p. 160): "The distin- 
guishing feature of the Hebrew poetry ... is the 
rhythmical balancing of parts, or parallelism of 
thought. " 

(4) The poetry of the ancient Hebrews is not dis- 
tinguished from the other parts of the Old Testa- 
ment by rhytiun based on quantity, 

Q,uantita- though in view of Greek and Roman 
tive poetry it was natural to seek such a 

Rhythm, rhythm in the songs and Psalms of the 
Old Testament. William Jones, for 
example ("Poeseos Asiaticae Commentarii," ch. ii., 
London, 1774), attempted to prove that there was a 
definite sequence of long and short syllables in the 
ancient Hebrew poems; but he could support this 
thesis only by changing the punctuation in many 
ways, and by allowing great license to the Hebrew 
poets. However, on reading the portions of the 
Old Testament marked by the so-called "dialectus 
poetica" or by parallelism {e.g.. Gen. iv. 23 et seq.) 
no such sequence of long and short syllables can 
be discovered ; and Sievers (" Metrische Untersuch- 
ungen," 1901, §53) says: "Hebrew prosody is not 
based on quantity as classical prosodj'' is." 

(5) Hebrew poetic form is based on accent. Al- 
though Hubert Giimme recognizes this fact, he is in 
danger of recurring to the view that quantitative 
meter may bo found in ancient Hebrew poetry, hav- 
ing recently formulated his rules in his "Metres et 
Strophes" (1901, pp. 3 et seq.) and in "Psalmenpro- 
bleme " (1902, pp. 4 et seq.). Nivard Schloegl ("Ec- 
clesiasticus," 1901, p. xxi.) also adopts this view. 
Although both admit that the Hebrew poet regarded 
the accented syllables as the chief syllables of the 
line, they hold that these syllables contained a 
certain number of morte, only a certain number of 
which could occur between two accented syllables. 
This view is too mechanical, in the present writer's 
opinion ; and Sievers also says {I.e. § 81) : " Grimme's 
morae are more than questionable." 

Gustav Bickell holds that the poetical rhythm of 
the Hebrews consisted in the regular succession of 
accented and unaccented syllables, saying distinctly : 
"The metrical accent falls regularly upon every al- 
ternate syllable" ("Z. D. M. G." 1881, pp. 415, 418 

et seq.). This statement, however, 

Bickell's does not agree with the nature of He- 

Recon- brew poetry as it actually exists, as has 

struction. nowhere else been more clearly proved 

than in Jacob Ecker's "Professor 
Bickell's ' Carmina Veteris Testamenti Metrice, ' das 
Neueste Denkmal auf dom Kirchhof der Hebra- 
ischen Metrik " (1883). Ecker shows in this pam- 
phlet that Bickell removed or added about 2,600 syl- 
lables in the Psalms in order to obtain the "regular 
succession of accented and unaccented syllables." 
As illustrating the shortcomings of Bickell's view it 
may be pointed out that he holds that the poetic 
pcjrtions of the Book of Job are composed in cata- 
lectic iambic tetrameters; hence he transcribes Job 
xxxii. 6 as follows: "Ca'ir ani lojamim, V'attem 
sabim jeshi.shim; 'Al-ken zachalt vaira', Mechav- 
vot de'i et'khem " — i.e., he adds the word " zabim," 
and suppresses the afTormative "i " of "zahalti," al- 
though the "^ " distinguishes this form from that of 




the second person singular feminine; hence it is not 
surprising tliat Sievers says (Z.c . §55): "I can do 
uotiiing further with Bicliell's system." 

Mostscliolars now hold that the Hebrew poet con- 
sidered only the syllables receiving the main accent, 
and did not count the intervening ones. !^xamples 
contrary to this are not found in passages where 
forms of the so-called "dialectus poctica " are iised, 
as Ley holds in his "GrundzUge des Hhythmus, 
des Vers- und Strophenbaues in der Hebraischen 
Poesie," pp. 99, 116; and the present writer has 
proved (in his "Stilistik," etc., p. 833, for example) 
that the choice of " lame " instead of " lahem " favors 
jn only a few passages the opinion that the poet in- 
tended to cause an accented syllable to be followed 
by an unaccented one. Such passages are: Gen. 
ix. 26 ; Ps. xliv. 4, Ixvi. 7 ; Job xxiv. 17, 
Accentual xxxix. 4; and Lam. i. 19. Ley has not 
Rhythm, noted that the choice of " lanio " dis- 
turbs the mechanical succession of un- 
accented and accented syllables in the following pas- 
sages: Deut. xxxii. 33, 35; xxxiii. 2; Ps. ii. 4; xxviii. 
8; xliv. 11; xlix.l4; Iv. 20; Ivi. 8; Iviii. 5,8; lix. 9; 
Ixiv. 6; Ixxiii. 6, 10, 18; Ixxviii. 24, 66; Ixxx. 7; 
Ixxxviii. 9; xcix. 7; cxix.165; Prov. xxiii. 20; Job 
iii. 14; vi. 19; xiv. 31; xv. 28; xxii. 17, 19; xxiv. 
16; XXX. 13; Lam. i. 22; iv. 10, 15 (for other exam- 
ples see KOnig, I.e. pp. 333 et seq.). Hence most 
scholars now hold that the rhythm of Hebrew poetry 
is similar to that of the German "Nibelungenlied" 
— a view that is strongly supported by the nature 
of the songs sung to-day by the populace of modern 
Palestine. These songs have been described by L. 
Schneller in his"Kennst Du das Land?" (section 
"Musik")in the following words: "The rhythms 
are manifold; there may be eight accents in one 
line, and three syllables are often inserted between 
two accents, the .symmetry and variation being de- 
termined by emotion and sentiment." Not less 
interesting are G. Dalman's recent observations in 
Palestine. He says: "Lines with two, three, four, 
and five accented syllables maj' be distinguished, 
between which one to three, and even four, unac- 
cented syllables may be inserted, the poet being 
bound by no definite number in his poem. Occa- 
sionally two accented syllables are joined " ("Palas- 
tinischer Diw^an," 1901, p. xxiii.). 

Such free rhythms are, in the present writer's 
opinion, found also in the poetry of the Old Testa- 
ment. Under the stress of their thoughts and feel- 
ings the poets of Israel sought to achieve merely the 
material, not the formal symmetry of correspond- 
ing lines. This may be observed, for example, 
in the following lines of Ps. ii. : "Serve the Lord 
with fear" (" 'Ibdu et-Ynwii be-yir'ah," verse 11), 
" rejoice with trembling " (" we-gilu bi-re'adah," ib.). 
Tills is shown more in detail by KOnig, I.e. p. 334; 
and Cornill has confirmed this view (" Die Metrischen 
StQcke des Ruches Jeremia," 1901, p. viii.) by say- 
ing: "Equal length of the several stichoi was not 
the ba.sic formal law of Jeremiah's metric construc- 
tion. " Sievers is inclined to restrict Hebrew rhythm 
by various rules, as he attacks (i.e. §§ 52, 88) Budde's 
correct view, that "a foot which is lacking i-n one- 
half of a verse may find a substitute in the more 
ample thought of this shorter line " (" Haudkomnien- 

tar zu Hiob." p, xlvii.). Furthermore, the verse of 
the Old Testament poetry is naturally iambic or 
anapeslic, as the words are accented on one of tlic 
final syllables. 

A special kind of rhytiim may be ol)Rerved in the 
dirges, called by the Hebrews "kinot." A whole 
book of these elegies is contained in the Old Testa- 
ment, the first of them beginning thus: " IIow duth 
the city sit solitary— that was full of people— Ijow 
is she become as a widow — she that was great 
among the nations — and princess among the prov- 
inces—how is she become tributary!" (I^im. i. 1). 

The rhythm of such lines lies in the 

The fact that a longer line is always fol- 

Dirges. lowed by a shorter one. As in the 

hexameter and pentameter of Latin 
poetry, this change was intended to symbolize the 
idea that a strenuous advance in life is followed 
by fatigue or reaction. This rhythm, which may 
be designated "elegiac measure," occurs also in 
Amos V. 2, expressly designated as a kinah. The 
sad import of his prophecies induced Jeremiah also 
to employ the rhythm of the dirges several times in 
his utterances (Jer. ix. 20, xiii. 18 et seq.). He refers 
here expressly to the "mekonenot" (the mourning 
women) who in the East still chant the death-song 
to the trembling tone of the pipe (ib. xlviii. 36 et 
seq.). "Kinot" are found also in Ezek. xix. 1 ; xxvi. 
17; xxvii. 2; xxxii. 3 et seq., 16, 19 et seq. This 
elegiac measure, being naturally a well-known 
one, was used also elsewhere, as, for example, in 
Ps. xix. 8-10. The rhythm of the kinah has been 
analyzed especially by Budde (in Stade's "Zeit- 
schrift," 1883, pp. 399 etseq.). Similar funeral songs 
of the modern Arabs are quoted by Wetzstein (in 
"Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie," v. 298 et seq.), as, e.g. : 
"O, if he only could be ransomed! truly, I would 
pay the ransom! " (see Kftnig, I.e. pp. 315 et se^.). 

A special kind of rhythm was produced by the 
frequent employment of the so-called anadiplosis, a 
mode of speech in which the phrase at the end of 
one sentence is repeated at the beginning of the 
next, as, for instance, in the passages " they came not 

to the help of the Lord [i.e., to protect 

Ana- Yhwh's people], to the help of the 

diplosis. Lord against the mighty " (Judges 

v. 23; comp. "zidkot" [il>. 11a] and 
" nilhamu " \ib. 19a-20a, b]), and " From whence shall 
my help come? ]SIy help cometh from the Lord" 
(Ps. cxxi. lb-2a, K. V.). Many similar passages 
occur in fifteen of the Psalms, cxx.-cxxxiv.. which 
also contain an unusual number of epanalepses, or 
catch-words, for whicii the present writer has pro- 
posed the name " LeittOne." Thus there is the repe- 
tition of"shakan"in Ps. cxx. 5.6: of "shalom" 
in verses 6 and 7 of the same chapter; and the catch- 
word "yishmor" in Ps. cxxi. 7. 8 (all the cases are 
enumerated in KOnig. I.e. p. 302). As the employ- 
ment of such repetitions is somewhat suggestive of 
the mounting of stairs, the superscription "shir 
ha-ma'alot," found at the beginning of these fifteen 
psalms, may have a double meaning: it may indicate 
not only the purpose of these songs, to be sung on the 
pilgrimages to the festivals at Jerusalem, but also 
the peculiar construction of the songs, by which 
the reciter is led from one step of the inner life to 




the next. Such graduated rhythm may be observed 
elsewhere ; for the peasants in modern Syria accom- 
pany their national dance by a song the verses of 
which are connected like the links of a chain, each 
verse beginning with the final words of the prece- 
ding one (Wetzstein, I.e. v. 292). 

Alphabetical acrostics are used as an external em- 
bellisliment of a few poems. The letters of the 
alphabet, generally in their ordinary sequence, stand 
at the beginning of smaller or larger sections of Ps. 
ix.-x. (probably), xxv., xxxiv., xxxvii., cxi., cxii., 
cxix.,cxlv. ; Prov. xxxi. 10-31 ; Lam. 
Acrostics, i.-iv. ; and also of Sirach (Ecclus.) li. 
13-29, as the newly discovered He- 
brew text of this book has shown (see Acrostics, 
and, on Ps. xxv. and xxxiv. especially, Ilirsch in 
"Am. Jour. Semit. Lang." 1902, pp. 167-173). Al- 
phabetical and other acrostics occur frequently in 
Neo-Hebraic poetry (Winter and Wiinsche, " Die 
JiidischeLiteraturseit Abschlussdes Kauons," 1894- 
1896, iii. 10). The existence of acrostics in Bab}'- 
lonian literature has been definitely proved (II. 
Zimmern, in "Zeitschrift fiir Keilschriftforschung," 
1895, p. 15); and alphabetical poems are found also 
among the Samaritans, Syrians, and Arabs. Cicero 
says ("De Divinatione," II., liv.) that the verse of 
the sibyl was in acrostics; and the so-called "Orac- 
ula Sibyllina" contain an acrostic in book 8, lines 

A merely secondarj' phenomenon, which distin- 
guishes a part of the poems of the Old Testament 
from the other parts, is the so-called "accentuatio 
poetica"; yet it calls for some mention, because ii 
has been much slighted recently (Sievers, I.e. ^ 248, 
p. 375). Although not all the poetical portions of 
the Okl Testament are marked by a special accentu- 
ation, it is noteworthy that the Book of Job in iii. 
3-xlii. 6 and the books of Psalms and Proverbs 
througiiout have received unusual accents. This 
point will be further discussed later on. 

Correct in.sight into the rhythm of the poetry of 
the Old Testament did not die out entirely in Jew- 
ish tradition; for Judah ha-Levi says (in his "Cu- 
zari,"ed, in Arabic and German by II. 
Survivals Ilirschfeld, 1885-87, ii., §§ 69 ct seq.): 
of '' ' Hodu le-Yawii ki-tob ' [Ps. cxxxvi. 

Rhythm. 1] maybe recited 'empty and full' 
in the modulation of ' le'oseh nifla- 
'ot gedolot lebaddo ' " (verse 4), meaning that an 
"empty " line of the poem maybe modulated in the 
same way as a " full " line, the rhythm consequently 
not being dependent on a mechanical correspondence 
of the number of syllables. It is true that Josephus 
says that Moses composed the song in Ex. xv. 2 
et seq. kv e^afitrpu r(5vw("Ant." ii. 16, § 4), but he 
probably found mere superficial resemblances to 
hexameters in the rhythm of Hebrew poetry. The 
same holds good of the statements of Jerome and 
other Christian writers (Kcinig, I.e. pp. 341 ct nfq.). 

Division of the Poetical Portions of the Old Testa- 
ment According to Their Contents : («) First may Ik; 
mentioned poems that deal principally with events, 
being epic-lyric in character: the triumphal song 
of Israel delivered from Egypt, or the Sea song 
(Ex. XV. 1-18); the mocking song on the burning 
of Heshbon (Num. xxi. 27-30) ; the so-called Swan 

song of Moses (Deut. xxxii. 1-43); the song of Deb- 
orah (Judges v.); the derisive song of victory of 
the Israelitish women (" Saul hath slain," etc. ; I Sam. 
xviii. 7); Hannah's song of praise {ib. ii. 1-10); 
David's song of praise on being saved from his ene- 
mies (II Sam. xxii.); Hezekiah's song of praise on 
his recovery (Isa. xxxviil. 9-20); Jonah's song of 
praise (Jonah ii. 3-10); and many of the Psalms, 
e.g., those on the creation of the world (viii., civ.), 
and on the election of Israel (xcix., c, cv.). A sub- 
division is formed by poems that deal more with de- 
scription and praise: the so-called Well song (Num. 
xxi. 17 et seq.); the song of praise on the uniqueness 
of the God of Israel (Ps. xcv., xcvii.); and those 
on His eternity {ib. xc); His omnipresence and 
omniscience {ib. cxxxix.); and His omnipotence 
{ib. cxv.). 

{b) Poems appealing more to reason, being essen- 
tially didactic in character. These include: fables, 
like that of Jotham (Judges ix. 7-15, although in 
prose); parables, like those of Nathan and others (II 
Sam. xii. 1-4, xiv. 4-9; I Kings xx. 39 et seq., all 
three in prose), or in the form of a song (Isa. v. 
1-6); riddles (Judges xiv. \'^etscq.; Prov. xxx. 11 
et seq.); maxims, as, for instance, in I Sam. xv. 23, 
xxiv. 14, and the greater part of Proverbs; the 
monologues and dialogues in Job iii. 3 et seq. ; com- 
pare also the reflections in monologue 

Didactic in Ecclesiastes. A number of the 

Poems. Psalms also are didactic in character. 
A series of them impresses the fact 
that Ynwii's law teaches one to abhor sin (Ps. v., 
Iviii.), and inculcates a true love for the Temple and 
the feastsof Yhwh (Ps. xv., Ixxxi., xcii.). Another 
series of Psalms shows that God is just, although it 
may at times seem different to a short-sighted ob- 
server of the world and of history (" theodicies": 
Ps. xlix., Ixxiii. ; comp. ib. xvi., Ivi., Ix.). 

(r) Poems that portray feelings based on individ- 
ual experience. Manj' of these lyrics express joy, 
as, e.g., Lamech's so-called song of the Sword (Gen. 
iv. 23 et seq.); David's "last words" (II Sam. xxiii. 
1-7) ; the words of praise of liberated Israel (Isa. 
xii. 1-6); songs of praise like Ps. xviii., xxiv., 
cxxvi., etc. Other lyrics express mourning. First 
among these are the dirges proper for the dead, as 
the kinah on the death of Saul and 

Lyrics. Jonathan (II Sam. i. 19-27); that on 
Abner's death {ib. iii. 33 et seq.) ; and 
all psalms of mourning, as, e.g., the expressions of 
sorrow of sufferers (Ps. xvi., xxii., xxvii., xxxix.), 
and the expressions of penitence of sinners (ii. vi., 
xxxii., xxxviii., Ii., cvi., cxxx., cxliii.). 

{d) Finally, a large group of poems of the Old 
Testament that urge action and are exhortatory. 
These may be divided into two sections: (1) The poet 
wishes something for himself, as in the so-called 
"signal words " (Num. x. S'tetseq., "Arise, Ynwir," 
etc.); at the beginning of tiie Well song (ib. xxi. 17 e^ 
seq., "ali be'er "); in the daring request, "Sun, stand 
thou still" (Josh. X. 12); in Habakkuk's prayer 
(" tefillah " ; Hab. iii. 1-19) ; or in psalms of request for 
help in time of war(xliv., Ix., etc.) or for liberation 
from prison (cxxii., cxxxvii., etc.). (2) The poet pro- 
nounces blessings upon others, endeavoring to move 
God to grant these wishes. To this group belong 





the blessing of Noah (Gen. ix. 25-27), of Isaac (ib. 
xxix. 28etseg.),and of Ja.coh{ib. xlix. 3-27); Jethro's 
congratuhitiou of Israel (Ex. xviii. 10); the blessing 
of Aaron (Num. vi. 24-26) and of Balaam (ib. xxiii. 
7-10, 18-24; xxiv. 5-9, 17-24) ;' farewell (Dent. 
xxxiii. Ictseq.); the psalms that begin with "Ashre " 
= "Blesised is," elc, or contain this phrase, as Ps. i., 
xli., Ixxxiv. 5ciseq., 13, cxii., cxix., Cxxviii. 

It was natural that in the drama, which is in- 
tended to portray a whole series of external and in- 
ternal events, several of the foregoing kinds of poems 
should be combined. This combination occurs in 
Canticles, which, in the present writer's opinion, is 
most correctly characterized as a kind of drama. 

The peculiar sublimity of the poems of the Old 
Testament is due partly to the liigh development 
of monotheism which finds expression therein and 
partly to the beauty of the moral ideals which 
they exalt. This subject has been discu.ssed in a 
masterly way by J. D. Michaelis in the preface to his 
Arabic grammar, 2d ed., pp. xxix. et seq., and by 
Kautzsch in " Die Poesie und die Poetischen Biicher 
des A. T."(1902). 

The more recent comparative study of the history 
of literature has brought out the interesting fact 
that the poetic portions of the several literatures 
date from an earlier time than the prose portions. 
This fact was even recognized by the Romans, as is 
shown by several sentences by Strabo and Varro 
that have been collected by E. Norden in his work 
** Antike Kunstprosa," 1898, p. 32. It therefore cor- 
responds to the general analogy of the 
Relative history of literature that the poetic 
Age narrative of the battle of the Israelites 
of Poetry, against the northern Cauaanites, which 
is usually called the song of Deborah 
(Judges V. 1 et seq.), is held by modern scholars to 
be an earlier account of this historic event than the 
prose narrative of the battle (found ib. iv. 14 et seq.). 
Modern scholars generally agree on this point in ref- 
erence to the relative antiquity of prose and poetry. 
Wellhausen says expressly : " We know that songs 
like Josh. x. 12 et seq., Judges v. , II Sam. i.lQet seq. , 
iii. 33 et seq., are the earliest historical monuments" 
("Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels," viii. 2). 

But now a new question has arisen as to the rela- 
tion between prose and poetry in the Old Testament, 
which calls for brief discussion in the final section 
of this article. 

How much of the Old Testament is to be included 
under poetry? This is the most recent question re- 
garding the Old Testament poetry ; and several schol- 
ars are inclined to answer that the entire Hebrew 
Bible is poetry. Hence the following points call for 
examination : (a) Can the prophetic books be con- 
sidered as poetry? Setting aside the many modern 
exegetes of the Old Testament who have gone so far 
as to discuss the meters and verse of the several 
prophets, it may be noted here nierel}' 
Extent of that Sievers says {I.e. p. 374) that 
Poetry the prophecies, aside from a few ex- 
in the Old ccptions to be mentioned, are eo ipso 
Testament, poetic, i.e., in verse. But the fact 
must be noted, which no one has so 
far brought forward, namely, that every single ut- 
terance of Balaam is called a sentence (" mashal " ; 
X.— 7 

Num. xxiii. 7, 18; xxiv. 8. 15, 20, 23). while in the 
prophetic books tliis term is not applied to the 
prophecies. There " masiial " is used only in the 
Book of Ezekiel, and in an entirely different sense, 
namely, that of figurative speecli or allegory (Ezek. 
xvii. 2, xxi. 5, xxiv. 3). This fact seems to show 
that in earlier times prophecies were uttered more 
often in shorter sentences, while subsefiuently, in 
keeping with the development of Hebrew literature, 
they were uttered more in detail, and the sentence 
was naturally amplified into the discourse. This 
view is supiiorted by Lsa. i., the first pro|)hecy 
being as follows: "Banim giddalti we-romamti," 
etc. There is here certainly such a symmetry in 
the single sentences that the rhythm which lias been 
designated above as the poetic rhythm must be 
ascribed to them. But in the same chapter there 
occur also sentences like the following: "Arzekem 
shemamah 'arekem serufot-esh; admatekem le-neg- 
dekem zarim okelim otah " (verse 7), or this, " When 
ye come to appear before me, who hath reijuired 
this at your hand, to tread my courts?" (verse 12). 
In the last pair of lines even the translation suffi- 
ciently shows that each line does not contain three 
stresses merely, as does each line of the words of 
God (verses 2b, 3a, b). Hence the present writer 
concludes as follows: Although the prophets of 
Israel inserted poems in their prophecies (lsa. v. 1 
et seq.), or adopted occasionally the rhythm of the 
dirge, which was well known to their readers (Amos 
v. 2 et seq. ; see above), their utterances, aside 
from the exceptions to be noted, were in the freer 
rhythm of prose. This view is confirmed by a sen- 
tence of Jerome that deserves attention. He says in 
his preface to his translation of Isaiah : " Let no one 
think that the prophets among the Hebrews were 
bound by meter similar to that of the Psalms." 
Finally, the present writer thinks that he has proved 
in his pamphlet " Neueste Prinzipien der Alltesta- 
mentlichen Kritik," 1902, pp. 31 et seq., that even 
the latest attempts to find strophes in Amos i. 2 et 
seq. are unsuccessful. 

(b) Some scholars have endeavored to include in 
poetry the historical books of the Old Testament 
also. Sievers includes, besides, the prologue and 
the epilogue of the Book of Job. The first line is as 
follows: " There was a man in the land of Uz. whose 
name was Job," the Hebrew text of which has, ac- 
cording to Sievers, six stresses; the next line, which 
may be translated "and that man was perfect and 
upright, and one that feared God and eschewed evil." 
contains, according to the same writer, eight stresses. 
The next line has also six stresses, but then follow 
lines with 4 -f 3, 3 + 3, 3, 4, 6, 4 + 3. 4 -f 3 stresses. 
However, the form of these lines is not such as to 
justify one in removing the barrier that exists by 
virtue of the differences in the very contents of the 
prologue, the epilogue, and the dialogues of the 
book, between i. 1 et seq., xlii. 7 et seq. , and iii. 3-xlii. 6. 
This view is furthermore confirmed by the remark- 
able cireum.stance, alluded to above, that not the 
entire Book of Job, but only the section iii. 3-xlii. 
6, has the special accentuation tliat was given to the 
entire Book of Psalms and the Proverbs. Further- 
more, Jerome, who knew something of Jewish tra- 
dition, says explicitly that the Book of Job is writ- 




ten in prose from the beginning to iii. 2, and that 
prose is again employed in xlii. 7-17. 

Sievers, finally, has made the attempt (I.e. pp. 382 
et seq.) to show that other narrative portions of the 
Old Testament are in poetry. The lirst object of 
his experiments is the section Gen. ii. 4b et seq., "In 
the day that the Lord God made the earth and the 
heavens," etc. He thinks that the 
Sievers' Hebrew text has lines of four stresses 
Views. each ; but, in order to prove this state- 
ment, even at the beginning of verse 
4b, he is forced to regard the expression "be-yom" 
as an extra syllable pretixed to " 'asot." He is also 
obliged to strike out the word " ba-arez " at the end of 
verse 5a, although it has just as much meaning as has 
the word " 'al lia-arez " at the end of verse 5c. Then 
he must delete the words " but there went up a mist 
from the earth, and watered the whole face of the 
ground " (verse 6), which contains not four, but six 
stresses. He adds in explanation : " They do not fit 
into the context, as has long since been recognized." 
This refers to the view (Holzinger, in "K. H. C." 
1898, ad loc.) that "ed" in Gen. ii. 6 can not mean 
"mist," because this "ed" is said to "water," while 
mist merely dampens the ground. But the meta- 
phorical expression "to water" is used instead of 
" to dampen " just as " ed " is used in Job xxxvi. 27, 
and there are no grounds for the assertion that the 
statement made in verse 6 does "not fit into the 
context." On the contrary, verses 5a and 6 corre- 
spond in the same way as do 5b and 7. Sieveis 
attempts similarly to construct other lines of four 
stresses each in Gen. ii. 4b et seq. ; but perhaps 
enough has been said to show that his experiments 
do not seem natural, and can not extend the 
boundaries of poetry be3'ond those recognized here- 

Bibliography : For the bibliography of the earlier works deal- 
ing with the various questions in connection with Old Testa- 
ment poetry, Ed. K6nig, Stilistik, Elietorik, Poetik, 1900, pp. 
305 et seq.: E. Sievers, Metrische Untertnichinnjen : I. Stu- 
dien zur HehjUifchen Metrik, 1901 ; Nlvard Schloegl, Eccie- 
Kia.<<ticti.f (rrrix. 12-xliT. IG) Ope Ai'tis MetricfeinFormam 
Oriuinalem Redactu.^, 1901 ; Canticum Canticnriim Hehra- 
ice, 1902; Hubert Grimme, Psalmenprnbleme, 1902. pp, 1-19. 

E. G. H. E. K. 

Didactic : The oldest form of didactic poetry 

is mnemonic verse, which was often used in post- 
Biblical Hebrew even after the didactic poem was 
fully developed. Among the oldest examples of 
didactic poetry are mnemonic strophes on calendric 
topics and Ma.soretic rules. Soon, however, the 
circle widens and all poetry is absorbed in the 
didactic poem. In a general view there are first to 
be considered calendric calculation and everything, 
connected with it. 

On conjunction and the leap-year there are works 
— sometimes mnemonic strophes, sometimes longer 

poems — by the following authors: 

Calendric Jose al-Naharwani (" Kerem Heined," 

Verses. ix. 41-42; comp. Harkavy, "Studien 

und Mitteilungen," v. 116), Saadia 
Gaon (see Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." cols. 2170 
etseq.; Berliner, in supplenient to "Mafteah," p. 
15), Simson of Sens and Elijah b. Nathan (Stein- 
schneider, "Cat. Berlin," .section ii., p. 73), Abraham 
ibn Ezra (Kobak's "Jeschurun," iv. 222), Profiat 
Diiran ("Mu'aseh Efod," notes, p. 44), Moses b. 

Shem-Tob b. Jeshuah, David Vital (Steinschneider, 
"Jewish Literature," p. 244), and Eliab b. Matti- 
thiah (Ben Jacob, "Ozar ha-Sefarim," p. 578, No. 
567). Two anonymous authors (Steinschneider, 
"Cat. Berlin," section ii., p. 72; Profiat Duran, I.e. 
notes, p. 45) wrote about the quarter-day; and Elia- 
kim ha-Levi wrote verses on the determination of 
the feast-days (Steinschneider, "Cat. Berlin," section 
ii., p. 73). 

Philology and the sciences related to it occupy a 
large space in the history of didactic poetry. Gram- 
mar was treated by Solomon ibn Gabirol in a didactic 
poem of 400 metrical lines, but only a part of it, 
ninety-eight lines, has been preserved (the latest, 
critical edition is that of Egers in the "Zunz Jubel- 
schrift"). Ibn Gabirol was followed by many 
others, as Elijah Levita ("Pirke Eliyahu," first 
printed in 1520), Moses Provencal ("Be-Shem Kail- 
mon," Venice, 1597), A. M. Greiding ("Shinih Ha- 
dasliah," first ed., Zolkiev, 1764), Abraham Gemilla 
Atorgo (date uncertain; see Steinschneider, "Cat. 

Munich," Nos. 241-242). The col- 
Grammar : lection of words with the " left sin " 
Mne- (" sin semolit "), which perhaps Joseph 
monic b. Solomon was the first to make, 
Verses. was worked over by Hayyim Caleb 

(Bcnjacob, I.e. p. 578, No. 569), by 
Aaron Hamon (in Isaac Tshelebi's "Semol Yisrael," 
Constantinople, 1723), and by Moses Pisa ("Sliirah 
Hadashah " and " Hamza'ah Hadashah," first printed 
in "Shir Emunim," Amsterdam, 1793). The enig- 
matic poem of Abraham ibn Ezra on the letters- 
' A ,n ,N is well known; around it has collected a 
whole literature of commentaries in rime and in 
prose. A didactic poem on prosody by an anony- 
mous writer has been published by Goldbium ("]\Ii- 
Ginze Yisrael," i. 51). Of Masoretic didactic poems, 
the well-known one on the number of letters of the 
alphabet in the Biblical books is by some attributed 
to Saadia Gaon ; by others, to Saadia b. Joseph 
Bekor Shor (see Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." col. 
2225). A didactic poem on the accents was written 
by Jacob b. Meir Tarn (Kobak's "Jeschurun," vol. 
v.), and, later, one by Joseph b. Kalonymus. who 
devoted a special poem to the accents in the books 
n D Nt i.e.. Psalms, Proverbs, Job (see "Ta'ame 
Emet," ed. Berliner, Berlin, 1886). 

The halakic sciences, religious law, and Talmudic 
jurisprudence have employed the poets even more 
than has the linguistic sciences. Ilai Gaon treated 
in metrical verse of property and oaths according 
to Talmudic law ("Sha'are Dine Mainonot we- 
Sha'are Shebu'ot," ed. Halberstam, in Kobak's 
"Ginze Nistarot," iii. 30 et seq.). An anonymous 
writer produced the whole of Hoshen Mislipat in 
verse ("'En Mishpat," 1620); Mordecai b. Hillel 
("Hilkot Shehitah u-Bedikah," commentated by 

Jolianan Treves, Venice, c. 1545-52), 
Halakic Israel Najara ("Shol.iate ha-Yeladin," 
Poems. Constantinople, 1718), David Vital 

(supplement to " Seder Berakah," Am- 
sterdam, 1687), and many others versified the regu- 
lations concerning shehitah and bedikah ; an anony- 
mous writer (perhaps Mordecai b. Hillel) versified 
the whole complex system of dietary regulations 
(Benjacob, I.e. p. 45, No. 877); another anonymous 




author worked over the treatise Hullin (Moses Ha- 
bib, "Darke No'am," Venice, 154G; Steiiisehneider, 
"Cat. Bodl." col. 3538. a.v. "Shem-Tob ibn Fala- 
quera"); and Isaac b. Abraham Hayyot, the whole 
"Yoreh De'ah " ("Penc Yizhak," Cracow, 1591). 
Saul b. David elaborated the thirty-nine principal 
kinds of work forbidden on the Sabbath ("Tal 
Orot," Prague, 1615); Elijah b. Moses Loanz, the 
Sabbath regulations in general (in "Zeniirot u-Tush- 
bahot," Basel, 1599); and Abraham Samuel, the 
whole Mishnah treatise on the Sabbatli ("Shirat 
Dodi," Venice, 1719). The Shulhan 'Aruk in its 
entirety found a reviser in Isaac b. Noah ha-Kohen 
("Sefer ha Zikkaron," n.d., n.p.). 

Here belong also a large portion of the halakic 
piyyutim (see Dukes, "Zur Kennlniss der Neuhe- 
brilischen KeligiOsen Poesie," pp. 42 et seq.) and the 
general and special Azharot. In this connection, 
too, should be mentioned the didactic poems on the 
Mishnah treatises of the Talmud. Of these, per- 
haps the first was composed by Sa'id al-Damrari 
(Steinschneider, "Cat. Berlin," section ii., p. 8); the 
same material was treated of by Isaac Samora; 
while Saadia b. Danan in his didactic poem on this 
subject brings in the separate sections of the trea- 
tises (in Gavison, "'Omer ha-Shikhah," pp. 123 et 
seq. ). 

The philosophical didactic poem is also very well 
represented. Levi b. Abraham b. Hayyim wrote 
1,84() lines ("Batte ha-Nefesh weha-Lehashim " ; see 
Benjacob, I.e. p. 90, No. 693) on the "seven kinds 
of wisdom" ("sheba' hakamot"); Solomon b. Im- 
manuel da Piera translated Musa b. Tubi's philo- 
sophical didactic poem in metrical 
Philosophic verse ("Batte ha-Nefesh," ed. Hirsch- 
Poems. feld, Ramsgate, 1894); Abraham b. 
Meshullam of Modeua wrote in rime 
a commentary on philosophy (see Michael, "Or 
ha-Hayyim," No. 187; "Bi'ur le-Hokmat ha-Pilo- 
sofia ba-Haruzim "); Anatoli (Seraiah ha-Levi) 
wrote on the ten categories; another poem on the 
same subject is printed in "Kobez 'al Yad " (ii., 
"Haggahot," p. 10); Shabbethai b. Malkiel in- 
cluded the four forms of syllogism in four lines 
(Steinschneider, "Cat. Leyden," p. 218); and the 
"thirteen articles of faith" exist in countless 
adaptations. Mattithiah Kartin versified the "Mo- 
reh Nebukim" (Steinschneider, " Ilebr. Uebers." p. 
428); Mordecai LOwenstamm, the "Behinat 'Olam" 
("Shire ha-Behinah," Breslau, 1832). The Cabala, 
too, received attention, as witness the adaptations 
of the ten Sefirot. Of other sciences only medicine 
need be mentioned. A didactic poem on the con- 
trolling power of the twelve months is attributed 
to Maimonides (Steinschneider, "Cat. Berlin." sec- 
tion i., p. 39); Solomon ibn Ayyub translated Avi- 
cenna's didactic poem on medicine in metrical verse 
(Steinschneider, " Hebr. Uebers." p. 700); Al-Harizi 
was the author of a metrical dietetic 
Poems on thesis ("Refu'ot ha-Gewiyah," first in 
History "Likkute ha-Pardes," Venice, 1519). 
and Dietetic-ethical mnemonic verses by 

Medicine. Shem-Tob ibn Falaqucra likewise 
are well known ("Iggeret Hanhagat 
ha-Guf weha-Nefesh " ; see Steinschneider, "Cat. 
Munich," No. 49). 

History also was frequently the subject of didac- 
tic poems. Tlie historical piyyiiUm should hardly 
be mentioned here; at un early date, however, 
a certain Saadia, about wliotn notiiing dctlnitc is 
known, compost-d a learned history in rime (Zunz, 
" Z. G. " p. 71) ; Falaquera was tiie author of a " Megil- 
lat haZikkaron," of whicii only the title is known; 
to Simon b. Zemah Duran is attributed the author- 
ship of a didactic poem on tlie chain of tradition 
(Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." col. 2602); and M<.s<-8 
Rieti's masteri)iece "Mikdash Me'at"may also be 
mentioned, although it is not strictly a didactic 
poem. Poets wrote about games also, especially on 
chess, e.g., Abraham ibn Ezra (.see Steinschneider, 
"Schach bei den .Juden," Berlin. 1878); and there 
have not been wanting those who vfrsified all the 
books of the Bible. This was not done. Iiowever, 
for didactic purposes; and such prodiictions do not 
belong to the class of poetry of whicli this article 

See, also, Fable; Polemics; Provehbs. 

J. H B. 
Lyric: Lyric poetry being essentially tlie ex- 
pression of individual emotion, it is natural that in 
Hebrew literature it should be, in the main, ilevo- 
tional in character. Post-Biblical lyrics are confined 
within a small scale of human feeling. Love for God 
and devotion to Zion are the predominant notes. The 
medieval Hebrew poet sang less frequently of wine, 
woman, and the pleasures of life, not because the 
Hebrew language does not lend itself to these topics, 
but because such ideas were for many centuries in- 
congruous with .lewish life. Yet there is no form 
of lyric poetry which has been neglected by -the 
Hebrew poet. Ode and sonnet, elegy and song are 
fairly represented, and there is even an adequate 
number of wine-songs. 

Secular poetry in Hebrew literature may be said 
to date from the middle of the tenth century. In 
the time of Samuel ha-Nagid (d. 105.')) it had already 
attained a degree of perfection. Still it is ditlicult 
to find, in that early period, lyric poetry which is 
not devotional, or non-devotional poetry which is 
not didactic or gnomic in character. Perhaps the 
earliest secular lyric poem is the wlne- 
In Spain, song ascribed to Solomon ibn Gabirol 
(1021-70). said to have been written 
against a niggardly host who placed water instead 
of wine before his guests. The first great [>oet to 
give prominence to non-devotional lyric poetry was 
Moses ibn Ezra (1070-1139). who devoted srvt-rak 
chapters of his "Tarshish " to the praiseof wine and 
music, friendship anil love. The secular lyrics of 
his more famous contemjiorary Judah ha-Ix-vi 
(1086-1142) are mostly occasional poems, such aa 
wedding-songs, panegyrics, and the like. Abnihan* 
ibn Ezra (1092-1167) wrote a number of beautiful 
poems of a personal character, but they belong to the 
epigrammatic rather than to the lyric class ot litera- 
ture. Judah al-Hari/i ( 11 6r>- 12:^0), though the first 
poet of note to devote himself entirely to secular 
poetry, is more of a sjitirist than a lyrist. Of the 
fifty chapters of which his "Tahkemoni" consists 
the twenty-seventh is the only one which sings the 
praise of "wine. The rest are satires, didactic or 
gnomic in character. 




The true ring of non-devotional l\Tic poetry, 
however, is not to be found in Hebrew literature 
until the time of Immanuel of Home (1265-1330). 
He united in himself the warm imagination of the 
Orient and the erotic spirit of Italy. 
Immanuel In a style more Uexible even than that 
of Rome, of Harizi he gives utterance to pas- 
sionate love with such freedom of 
expression that the Rabbis thought it justifiable 
to forbid the reading of his "Mahberot" on the 

From Immanuel there is a stretch of almost three 
centuries before another great lyric poet is met with. 
Israel b. Moses N.\jara is imiversally acknowledged 
to be one of the sweetest singers in Israel. He is, 
however, more of a devotional poet, and his right to 
be included here comes from the fact that he sings 
of God and Israel in terms of love and passion. In 
fact, he is so anthropomorphic in his expressions 
that Menahem di Lonzano condemned him for it. 
Nevertheless the latter, though of a serious turn of 
mind, indulged in lighter compositions when the 
occasion presented itself. His poem for Purim 
(" 'Abodat Mikdash," folio 74, Constantinople) is 
one of the best wine-songs in Hebrew literature. 

From Najara two centuries pass before true lyric 
poetry is again met with. This is a period of transi- 
tion in Hebrew poetrj*. The Hebrew bard had just 
begun to come under the influence of European lit- 
erature, and as yet had had no time to assimilate 
what he had absorbed and strike out in a way of his 
own. The drama is introduced into Hebrew litera- 
ture in the works of Solomon Usque, Joseph Penso, 
and Moses Zacuto. Yet, though the form in which 
these poets threw their compositions is dramatic, 
the temperament is lyric in all of them. For the 
same reason Moses Hayyim Luzzatto must be re- 
garded as one of the best lyric poets of the eighteenth 

The success which Wessely's "Songs of Glory" 
("Shire Tif'eret") met gave rise to a great number 
of imitators, and almost every one 
Wessely . who could write verse essayed the epic. 
But soon this German school was over- 
shadowed by the Russian lyric school, of which 
Abraham Dob Bar Lebensolm and his son Micah 
were the acknowledged leaders. From that day 
until now the palm has been held by the Russian 
poets. With the exception of Joseph Almanzi and 
Samuel David Luzzatto of Italy, and Meir Letteris 
and Naphtali Herz Imber of Galicia, all the more 
eminent modern Hebrew poets belong to Russia. 

Judah Lob Gordon, though decidedly a greater 
master of Hebrew than his preceptor Micah Leben- 
sohn, can not be assigned to an exalted position as a 
lyric poet. As a satirist he is supreme; as a lyrist 
he is not much above the older and is far below the 
younger Lebensolm. The most fiery of all modern 
lyrists is undoubtedly Aba K. Schapira. Z. H. 
Mane is sweeter, M. M. Dolitzky is more melodious, 
D. Frischman is more brilliant, and N. H. Imber 
sounds more elemental ; but Schapira has that power 
which, in the language of Heine, makes his poetry 
"a fiery pyramid of song, leading Israel's caravan 
of affliction in the wilderness of exile." Of living 
poets the nearest to approach him is 11. N. Bialik 

and A. Libushitzky, though neither has yet arrived 
at maturity. See Dr.\ma, Hebrew; Epic Poetry; 
PiYYVT; Satire. 

Bibliography : Pelltzsch, Zur Geach. dcr Jlldischen Poesie ; 
Stelnschnelder, Jcwisli Literature. 
J. I. D. 

DECAI (^called also Pavieti) : Italian Talmudist 
and writer on religious ethics; born at Asti, Pied- 
mont; flourished in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. His only known work is " Kizzur Reshit 
Hokmah " (Venice, 1600; Cracow, 1667; Amster- 
dam, 1725; Zolkiev, 1806), an abridgment of the 
" Reshit Hokmah " of Elijah de Vidas. It is in- 
tended to teach an ascetic and ethical life. 

Bibliography: Furst, Ditil. Jud. li. 32-23; Benjacob, Ozar 
ha-Scfarim. p. 542, No. 42. 
D. S. O. 

POGORELSKY, MESSOLA : Russian physi- 
cian and writer; born at Bobruisk March 7, 1862; 
educated at the gj-mnasium of his native town ; stud- 
ied medicine at the Universitj- of St. Vladimir in 
Kiev, where he was graduated in 1890. In the same 
3'ear he was appointed government rabbi at Kher- 
son, a position which he held until 1893. Pogorel- 
sky is a prolific writer on medical and on Jewish 
subjects. Among his treatises of interest to Jewish 
readers are: "Circumcisio Ritualis Hebra;orum" 
(written in German and published at St. Petersburg, 
1888); "Yevreiskiya Imena, Sobstvennyya," on 
Jewish names in Bible and Talmud, published in 
the "Voskhod" and in book-form {ib. 1893); "O 
Sifilisye po Biblii " (Zara'ath), on syphilis according 
to the Bible {ib. 19()0); "Ob Okkultismye," occult 
science according to Bible and Talmud (ib. 1900). 

His medical essays have appeared in " St. Peters- 
burger Medicinische Wochenschrift," " Russkaya 
Meditzina," and other Russian periodicals. 

H. r. J. L. La. 

POGROMT. See Russia. 

POIMANNIKI. See Russia. 

POITIERS : French city ; capital of the depart- 
ment of Vienne. In 1236 the Jews of Poitiers and 
the adjacent country were harried by the Crusaders, 
although Pope Gregory IX., in a letter to the bishop, 
strongly condemned their excesses. Four years 
later (1240) Nathan ben Joseph engaged in a debate 
with the Bishop of Poitiers. Alphonse de Poitiers, 
yielding to the demands of the Christian inhabit- 
ants, ordered the expulsion of the Jews from the 
city (1249) and the cancelation of all debts due them 
from the Christians. He was not disdainful of their 
knowledge of medicine, however; for when he was 
attacked, in 1252, with a serious affection of the 
eyes he called in a celebrated Jewish physician of 
Aragon, named Ibrahim. In 1269 he compelled all 
Jews remaining in his dominions to wear the badge 
of the wheel on tlieir garments. In 1273 the coun- 
cil of Poitiers forbade landed proprietors to make 
any contracts with the Jewish usurers, and ordered 
Christians generally not to lend money to the Jews 
or to borrow from them, except in cases of extreme 
necessity. In 1296 all Jews were expelled from the 
city by Philip the Fair. 




Bibliography: Boutarlc. St.-Louis et Alptwnite de PnUicr», 
p. 87 ; Depplng, Les Juif» dniis le Mmien Ave, pp. 128-130 ; 
Gross, Gallia Judaicn, p. ti3; Salffe, Lex Juifx (In Lnnoxie- 
doc, pp. 22. 26 ; Ibn Verga, Shebet Ychudah, p. 114 ; R. E. J. 
i. 230, Hi. 216, vi. 83. 
G. S. K. 

POITOU : Ancient province of France. Several 
Jewish communities wore founded there in the 
twelfth century, notably those of Niort, Bressuiie, 
and Thenars (department of Deux-Sc^vres), Chatel- 
lerault (Vienne), and Mortagne and Tyfauges(La 
Vendee). About the year 1166 the scholars of the 
province took part in the synod convened at Troyes 
under the auspices of R. Tarn and KaSIIBaM. In 
1236 Pope Gregorj- IX. interfered in behalf of the 
Jews of Poitou, then persecuted by the Crusaders. 
Alphonse de Poitiers displayed great severity in all 
his dealings with the Jews. In 1249 he expelled 
them from Poitiers, Niort, St. - Jean - d'Angely, 
Saintes, St.-Maixent, and Rochelle, and five years 
later lie released the Christians from all interest due 
to Jews. In 1267 Jews were forbidden to take part 
in public functions or to build new synagogues. A 
poll-tax was imposed on them in 1268, and they were 
obliged, under pain of imprisonment, to declare the 
exact value of their possessions, whether personal 
property or real estate. Alphonse exacted with the 
utmost rigor the payment of the taxes he imposed 
on them, and disregarded the measures taken in their 
behalf by the Bishop of Toulouse. In 1269 he com- 
pelled them to wear the badge; but in 1270 he ex- 
empted the Jew Mosset of St.-Jean-d'Angely and 
his two sons, on the payment of a sum of money, 
from the obligation of wearing this badge before 
All Saints' day. In the same year he appointed the 
Dominican prior of Poitiers and a secular priest 
chosen by the royal councilors to conduct an inves- 
tigation of usury in the jurisdiction of Poitiers. He 
ordered that every Christian should be believed upon 
oath in regard to any sum less than six sols; the in- 
quisitors were to pronounce upon cases not involving 
more than one hundred sols, while cases involving 
greater amounts were to be referred to the decision 
of the sovereign. In 1296 the Jews were expelled 
from Poitou, Philip the Fair exacting in return from 
the Christians, who benefited by the expulsion, a 
"fuage" (hearth-tax) of 3,300 pounds. In 1307 a 
question was raised regarding the rent of a house 
and lands situated at Chatillon-sur-Indre, which had 
formerly belonged to the Jew Croissant Castellon, 
called the "Poitovin," the son of Bonfil de Saint- 

The Jews of Poitou were persecuted in 1320 by 
the Pastoureaux, and in 1321 were accused of having 
poisoned the springs and wells. Only one scholar 
of Poitou is known— R. Isaac, mentioned as a com- 
mentator on the Bible (Zunz, "Z. G." p. 89). 

Bibliography: Depping, LesJuifn dans le Mnyen Aae, PP- 
88, 12^t ; Dom Valssete, Histnire Geiu-rale de Lauquednc, ill. 
510, 513; (iiiillauine de Nanpis, Confun/aho, p. 78; Malvezin. 
HM. des Jiiifs de. Bordeaux, pp. 4.5-46; R. K. J. il. 44 : ill. 
216; vi. 8;?; ix. 138; xv. 237, 244 ; Saisre, Lcs Juifgdu Langxu- 
dnc, pp. 20, 26 ; Gross. Gallia Judaica., pp. 451 et seq. 
G. S. K. 

POLA. See Istri.\. 

POLACCO, VITTORIO: Italian jurist of Po- 
lish descent; born at Padua May 10, 1859. Since 
1884 he has been professor of civil law at the Univer- 

sity of Padua. His cliicf works are: " Delia Divl- 
sione Operata da Ascendenti Fra Di.sccndentj." Pad- 
ua, 1884; "Delia Dazione in Paguininto,"- vol. i., 
ih. 18HH; "Contro il- Divorzio." ib. 1892; " L»i Ques- 
tione del Divorzio c gli Israeliti in Ituliu," ih. 1894; 
"Le Ohbligazioni nel DiritU) Civile Italiuno," ib. 
1898. He has also contriliuted numerous articles on 
legal topics to the "Archivio Giuridico," the "Atli 
della R. Accademia di Scienzc, Lettere ed Arti" of 
Padua, the " Atti del R. Istituto Veneto." and other 

fe. H. II. K. 

POLAK, GABRIEL JACOB : Talinudist and 
bil)li()grai)iicr; born .June:!, IHo:^; died May 14, 1869. 
at Amsterdam, where he was i)rincipal of a .scliool. 
He was the author of the following works, all pub- 
lished in Amsterdam : " Bikkure ha Sinuiiili " (1H44). 
a Dutch and Hebrew almanac for t lie year .')604 ; " I)i- 
bre Kodesh " (1845), a Dutch-Hebrew dictionary; 
"Ilalikot Kedem" (1847). a collection of Hebrew 
poems; "Ben Gorni" (1851), a collection of essiiyg; 
"Sha'ar Ta'ame Sifre Emet" (1858), an introduction 
to a treatise on the accents in the books of Job and 
the Psalms; a valuable edition of Ik'dersi's work 
on Hebrew synonyms, "Hotem Toknit" (1865); a 
biography of the poet David Franco Mcndes and his 
contemporaries, in "Ha-Maggid," xii. , and " .Meir 
'Enayim," a descriptive catalogue of the libniries of 
Jacobsohn and Melr Rubens, a work of great bib- 
liographical value. 

Polak's editions of the rituals are noted for their 

Bibliography : Furst. Bihl. Jud. lil. 109; Roest, Cat. Roten- 
thai. Dibl. pp. 940-943; Zeitlln, Kiryat Sefer, Jl. rr.i. 
s. M. L. B. 

POLAK, HENRI: Dutch labor-leader and poli- 
tician; born at Amsterdam Feb. 22, 1868. Till his 
thirteenth year he attended the school conducted by 
Halberstadt, a well-known teacher of Jewish mid- 
dle-class boys, and afterward learned from his uncle 
the trade of'diamondcutting. In is87 and lHS8and 
again in 1889 and 1890 he lived in London, wlicre 
he became interested in socialism. Returning to 
Holland, he became attached to the Socimil Demo- 
cratische Bond, which he left in 1893 on accr>unt of 
its anarchistic principles. With Troelstra and Van 
der Goes he founded the periodical " De Nieuwe 
Tijd." In 1894 he became one of the twelve found- 
ers of the Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij 
(S. D. A. P.); in 1898 he became a member of its 
committee; and since 1900 he has been its cliairman. 

On Nov. 7, 1894, on the occasion of a strike in 
the Dutch navy-yards, a confederation was formed 
of different parties, with a central committee of 
which Polak was chosen chairman. In Jan.. 1^'95. 
he was appointed chairman of the Algemeene Neder- 
landsche Diamantbewerkers Bond (A. N. D. B.). 
which union had its origin in that strike. Since 
then he has been editor-in-chief of the " Weckblad." 
Polak gave up his trade of diamond-cuttinpand de- 
voted himself to the organization of the A. N. D. B.. 
which is considered the greatest and best-organi.'.ed 
union in the Netherlands. Besides many minor 
strikes Polak has directed seven important ones, and 
has succeeded in obtaining: (1) the abolition of the 




truck system ; (2) an advance of the rate of wages 
from 50 to 200 per cent: ami (3) tlie shortening of 
the working-day from twelve to nine hours. The 
A. N. D. B. strives to raise the moral and intellectual 
status of its members hy arranging lecture courses 
and by maintaining a library. It includes nine sec- 
tions of the diamond industry, with a membership of 
7,rj00— 4,500 Jews and 3.000"ciiristians. It is with- 
out any political tendency ; and since 1900 it has had 
a building of its own, and its own printing-office 
with twenty-five employees. 

Polak is a member of tiie committee for statistics 
(since 1900), chairman of the Kamer van Arbeid 
(since 1900), member of the municipality (since 
1902), and chairman of the Alliance Uuiverselle des 
Ouvriers Diamautaires (since 1903). He has a great 
predilection for history. Besides some brochures 
for socialistic projjaganda Polak has translated S. 
and B. Webb's "History of Trade Union" ("Ge- 
schiedenis van het Britsche Vereenigingsleven," 
Amsterdam, 1900) and "Theorie en Praktijk van het 
Britsche Vereenigingsleven," ih. 1902. He is corre- 
spondent of the '• clarion," " Neue Zeit," "Mouve- 
nient Socialiste," and other papers. 

8. E. Sl. 

POLAK, HERMAN JOSEF : Dutch philolo- 
gist; born Sept. 1, lb>44, at Leaden; educated at the 
university of that city (Ph.D. 1869). From 1866 to 
1869 he tiiught classics at the gymnasium of Leyden ; 
from 1873 he taught history at that of Rotterdam; 
and from 1882 he was conrector and teacher of clas- 
sics there. In 1894 lie was appointed professor of 
Greek at GrOningen University. 

Polak is a member of the Roj^al Academy of 
Sciences and of the Maatscliappij voor Letterkunde 
of Leyden. Besides his doctor's dissertation " Ob- 
servationes ad Scholia in Homeri Odysseam " (1869), 
Polak has pul)lished the following works: " Bloem- 
lezing van Grieksche Dichters" (1875; 2d ed. 1892); 
"Ad Ody.sseam Ejusque Scholiastas Curai Se- 
cundfc" (Briel, 1881-82); and "Studit'n" (1888). 
He has also contributed a great number of essays 
to "Mnemosyne," "Hermes," "Museum," "Tyd- 
spiegel," "Gids," "Elsevier," and other journals. 

Bibliography: Jaarhnek Grnuingsrhe Universiteit ,'lS9^-Qr,•, 
Ottze Hoogleernaren, p. 110 ; En Halve Ecuw, il. 27, 270, 375. 

8. E. Sl. 

POLAK, JAKOB EDXJARD : Austrian physi- 
cian ; horn 1818 at Gross-Morzin, Bohemia; died 
Oct. 7, 1891; studied at Prague and Vienna (M.D.). 
About 1851, when an envoy of the Persian govern- 
ment went to Vienna to engage teacliers for the mil- 
itary scliool at Teheran, then about to be organized, 
Polak presented himself as a candidate. He arrived 
in the Persian capital in 1851, much impaired in 
health by tlie long voyage; and, pending tlie organ- 
ization of the school, studied the language of the 

In spite of the many obstacles which he encoun- 
tered — particularly the defective state of medical 
science, which was not then taught in class, and the 
Islamic prohibition against the dissection of bodies 
— Polak soon achieved a reputation in Persia, and 
enjoyed the especial confidence of Shah Nasir-ed- 
Din. At first he lectured in Frencli, with the aid of 

an interpreter; but after a year he was able to 
lecture in Persian, and later published in Persians 
work on anatomy. He compiled also a medical 
dictionary in Persian, Arabic, and Latin, in order 
to provide a system of terminology. Finally he 
founded a state surgical clinic containing sixty beds. 
A serious illness in 1855 obliged him to give up his 
professional work; but he continued his literary 

As physician to the shah, Polak occupied a high 
position. About 1861 he returned to Vienna, and 
wlienever the shah visited Austria Polak greeted 
him at the frontier. His "Persien, das Land und 
Seine Bewohner; P^thnograpische Schilderungen," 
appeared at Leipsic in 1865. 

Bibliography : Drasche, in Neue Freie Presae, Oct. 14, 1891. 
8. E. J. 

POLAND. See Rrssi.v. 

TURE : Altliough pagan nations as a rule were not 
prone to intolerance in matters of religion, they 
were so with regard to Judaism. Thej' were highly 
incensed against the people which treated so con- 
temptuously all pagan divinities and reviled all that 
was sacred in pagan eyes. Especially embittered 
against the Jews were tlie Egyptians when, through 
the translation of the Bible, tliey were informed of 
the pitiful role ascribed to their ancestors at the 
birth of the Jewish nation. In Egypt, therefore, 
originated the anti-Jewish writings, and the apolo- 
getic and polemical works in defense 
First Ap- of Judaism against paganism. As 
pearance in early as the middle of the third pre- 
Egypt. Christian century a Theban priest 
named Manetho, in his history of the 
Egyptian dynasties, written in Greek, violently at- 
tacked the Jews, inventing all kinds of fables con- 
cerning their sojourn in Egypt and their exodus 
therefrom. The substance of his fables is that a 
number of persons suffering from le]irosy had been 
expelled from the country by the Egyptian king 
Amenophis (or Bocchoris, as he is sometimes called), 
and sent to the quarries or into tlie wilderness. It 
happened that among them was a priest of Heliopo- 
lis of the name of Os'arsiph (Moses). This priest 
persuaded his companions to abandon the worship 
of the gods of Egypt and adopt a new religion 
which he had elaborated. Under leadership the 
lepers left Egypt, and after many vicissitudes and 
the perpetration of numerous crimes the}' reached 
the district of Jeru.salem, which they subdued. 

These fables, togelher with those invented by 
Antiochus Epiphanes in connection with his alleged 
experiences in the Temple of Jerusalem, were re- 
pcate<l and greatly amplified by Posidonius in his 
liistory of Persia. The accusations thus brouglit 
againstthe Jews were that they worshiped an ass in 
their Temple, that they sacrificed annually on their 
altar a specially fattened Greek, and that they were 
filled with hatred toward every other nationality, 
particularly the Greeks. All these malevolent fic- 
tions found embodiment in the polemical treati-ses 
against the Jews by Apollonius Molou, Chicrcmon, 
Lysimachus, Apion, and others (see Eusebius, 
" Pneparatio Evangelica," X. 19; Josephus, "Contra 




Ap." ii. 7. § 15), and were taken up and retailed, with 
sundry alterations and additions, by the Roman his- 
torian Trogus Ponipeius, and especially by Tacitus, 
who, in this respect, displayed such ingenuity as to 
excite the envy of the greatest casuists among the 

To the various incidents which, according to 
Manotho, accompanied the Exodus, Tacitus traces 
the 6rigiu of nearly all the religious customs of the 
Jews. Abstinence from the use of swine's Hesh is 
explained by the fact that the swine is peculiarly 
liable to the itch and therefore to that very disease 
on account of which the Jews were once so severely 
maltreated. Frequent fasting is alleged by him to 
have been instituted in commemoration of the star- 
vation from which they had escaped in the wilder- 
ness. Their observance of the seventh day of the 
week is assumed to be due to their finding a resting- 
place on the seventh day (Tacitus, "Hist." V. 2eiseq.). 
It is not astonishing, therefore, that, thus represented, 
the Jewish religion was looked upon by the major- 
ity of educated people as a"barbara superstitio" 
(Cicero, "Pro Flacco," xxviii.), and that the Jewish 
nation was made the butt of the wit of the Roman 
satirists Horace, Juvenal, and Martial. 

To defend the Jewish religion and the Jewish race 
against the slanderous attacks of the heathen there 
appeared, at various intervals, from about the .sec- 
ond pre-Christian century to the middle of the sec- 
ond century c.e., apologetical and 
The polemical works emphasizing the su- 

Hellenists. periority of Judaism over paganism. 
To works of this kind belong the ex- 
planation of the Mosaic law by Aristobulus of 
Paneas, the Oracula Sibyllina, the Wisdom of Solo- 
mon, the apocalpyses, the Jewish-Hellenistic wri- 
tings of Alexandria (see Hellenism), especially 
those of Philo, and lastly Josephus' " Contra Apio- 
nem." The aim of all these works was the same, 
namely, severe criticism of idolatry and vigorous ar- 
raignment of the demoralization of the pagan world. 

A new polemical element was introduced by 
Christianity — that of the interpretation of the Bib- 
lical text. Having received from Judaism its ethical 
principles, the new religion, in order to justify its dis- 
tinctive existence, asserted that it had been founded 
to fulfil the mission of Judaism, and endeavored 
to prove the correctness of this allegation from 
the Bible, the very book upon which Judaism is 
founded. Aside from the Gospels and the Acts of 
the Apostles, the first Christian polemical work 
against the Jews was the account of the dialogue 
between Justin Martyr and the Jew Tryphon, which 
took place shortly after the Bar Kokba war against 
the Romans. The Church father endeavored to 
demonstrate that the prophecies concerning the Mes- 
siah applied to Jesus, while the Jew met his argu- 
ments with the traditional interpretation. Justin 
displayed great bitterness against the Jews, whom 
he charged with immorality and with having ex- 
punged from their Bibles much that was favorable 
to Christianity ("Dial, cum Tryph." ^i^ 72, 73, 114). 
These charges were re])eated by the succeeding 
Christian polcmists; while that of having falsified 
the Scriptures in their own interests was later made 
against both Christians and Jews by the Mohammed - 

an.s. A remarkable feature In Justin's dialogue is 
the politenes.s with which the disputants speak of 
each oilier; at the close of the debate Jew and 
Christian confess that they have learned much from 
each other and part withexpresaiuusuf mutual good- 

More bitter in tone is the dialogue, belonging to the 
same period, written by the converted Jt w Arislun 
of Pella, and in which a Christian named Jason and 
a Jew named Papiscusare alleged to have discuKsed 
the nature of Jesus. Among other polemical works 
directed against the Jew.<» tin- most noteworthy arc: 
"The Canon of the Church." or " Against the Judu- 
izers," by Clement of Alexandria (see EuM-bius, 
"Hist. Eccl." vi. 13); "Contra Celsum." byOrigen; 
ripof 'lovdaiovc, by Claudius Apol- 

Church iinarius; " Adversus Juditos," by 'i'cr- 
Attacks, tullian; " Adversus Juda'08"and "Tes- 
timonia," by Cyprian; " Demonstrutio 
Evangelica," by Eusebius; " De Incarnatione Dei 
Verbi," by Athanasius of Alexandria; the "Homi- 
lies" of John Chrysostom; the "Hynms" of Ephra- 
em Syrus; "Adversus Haereses" and "Aucyrotus," 
by Epiphanius; " Dialogus Christiani et Juda-i de 
St. Trinitate," by Jerome. The main points dis- 
cussed in tliese works are the dogma of the Trin- 
ity, the abrogation of the Mosaic law, and especially 
the Messianic mission of Jesus, which Christians en- 
deavored to demonstrate from the Old Testament. 
Some of the Church Fathers emphasized their argu- 
ments with curses and revilings. They reproached 
the Jews for stiff-neckednessand hatred of Ch ri.stiau3 ; 
they were especially bitter against them for persist- 
ing in their Messianic hopes. The following pas- 
sage from one of Ephraem Syrus' "hynms" against 
the Jews may serve as an example of the polemical 
attitude of the Church Fathers: "Jacob blessed 
Judah, saying, ' The scepter shall not depart from 
Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until 
Shiloh come ' [Gen. xlix. 10]. In this passage the 
Jews that perceive not search if tliere be a .scepter 
or an interpreter between his [Judah s] feet, for the 
things that are written have not been fulfilled, 
neither have they so far met with accomplishment. 
But if the scepter be banished and the proj)liet 
silenced, let the people of the Jews be put to shame, 
however hardened in impudence they be." 

The Jews did not remain silent, but answered 
their antagonists in the sjune tone. This at Iwust is 
the asserti(m of Jerome in the preface to his com- 
mentary on the Psalms, where he says that in his 
time discussions between the Church and the Syna- 
gogue were very frequent. He further asserts that 
it was considered a great undertaking to enter into 
polemics with the Jews— a proof that contests often 
ended in favor of the latter. However, in spite of 
the frecjuency of discussions, no particular Jewish 
polemical work of that period has survived; the 
only source of information concerning the nature of 
these discussions is a ninnber of dialogues recorded 
in the Talmud and Midrash. These dialogues, like 
others between Jews and pagans found in the same 
sources, were more in the nature of go<Kl-humoretI 
raillery than of seiiou? debate. The rabbis who 
excelled in these friendly passages of arms with 
pagans. Christians, and Christian Gnostics were 




Johanan ben Zakkai, Gamaliel II., Joshua ben Han- 

aniab, and Akiba. Johanan ben Zakkai answered 

several questions of an aggressive na- 

Discus- ture put by a Roman commander as 
sions in the to the contradictious existing between 

Talmud. Num. iii. 22, 28, 3-4 and the 39th verse 
of the same chapter (Bek. 5b) and 
between Ex. xxxviii. 26, 27 and Gen. i. 20, ii. 19 
(Hul. 27b); also as to the regulation in Ex. xxi. 29 
(Yer. Sanh. 19b) and the law concerning the red 
heifer (Pesik. 40a). 

Interesting are the accounts of the debates which 
Gamaliel, Eleazar, Joshua ben Hananiah, and Akiba 
held with unbelievers at Rome (see Bacher, "Ag. 
Tan." 1. 85). It is noteworthy that even in the 
time of Gamaliel the Christiana used as an argu- 
ment against Judaism the misfortunes that had be- 
fallen Israel. In discussing with Gamaliel, a " min " 
quoted Hosea v. 6 to demonstrate that God had 
completely forsaken Israel (Yeb. 102b; Midr. Teh. 
to Ps. x.). A similar argument was used, not in 
words but in gesture, by another min against Joshua 
ben Hananiah, who answered by a sign that God's 
protecting hand was still stretched over Israel (Hag. 
5b). This took place in the palace of Hadrian, 
who questioned Joshua as to how God created 
the world (Gen. R. x.); concerning the angels 
(Gen. R. Ixxviii. ; Lam. R. iii. 21); as to the res- 
urrection of the body (Gen. R. xxviii. ; Eccl. 
R. xii. 5); and in regard to the Decalogue (Pesik. 
R. 21). 

But rabbinical polemics assumed a more violent 
character when the Church, having acquired polit- 
ical power, threw aside all reserve, and invective 
and abuse became the favorite weapons of the assail- 
ants of Judaism. A direct attack upon Christianity 
was made by the Palestinian amora R. Sinilai. His 
attacks were especially directed against the doctrine 
of the Trinity (Gen. R. viii. ; Yer. Ber. ix. lid, 12a). 
A later Palestinian amora, R. Abbahu, refuted all 
the fundamental dogmas of Christianity (Yalk., 
Gen. 47; Gen. R. xxv. ; Shab. 152b). With re- 
gard to the doctrine of the Trinity, Abbahu sajs: 
" A thing of flesh and blood may have a father, a 
brother, or a son to share in or dispute his sover- 
eignty, but the Lord said, ' I am the Lord thy God ! 
I am the first ' — that is, I have no father — ' and be- 
sides me there is no God '—that is, I have no son " 
(see Isa. xliv. 6; Ex. R. xxix.). Commenting upon 
Num. xxiii. 19, Abbahu says, "God is not a man, 
that he should repent; if a man say, 'lam God,' 
he lieth ; and if he say, ' I am the son of man ' [Mes- 
siah], he shall repent; and if he say, ' I shall go up 
to heaven ' — he may say it, but he can not perform 
it " (Yer. Ta'an. i. 1). 

The Church Fathers who lived after Jerome knew 
less and less of Judaism, and merely repeated the 
arguments that had been used by their predecessors, 
supplemented by more or less slanderous attacks 
borrowed from pagan anti-Jewish writings. Spain 
became from the sixth century a hotl)C'd of Chris- 
tian polemics against Judaism. Among the numer- 
ous works written there, the oldest and the most 
important was that of Isidorus Ilispalensis. In a 
book entitled "Contra Judajos," the Archbishop of 
Seville grouped all the Biblical passages that had 

been employed by the Fathers to demonstrate the 
truth of Christianity. Whether learned Spanish 
Jews took up the controversy and re- 
Polemics plied to Isidorus' arguments by coun- 
with ter-treatisesin Latin, as GrStz believes 
Christians. ("Gesch." v. 75 et seq.}, is doubtful. 
In Spain, as everywhere else in that 
period, the Jews paid little attention to attacks writ- 
ten in Latin or Greek, which languages were not 
understood by the masses. Moreover, the Christian 
dogmas of the Trinity, the Incarnation, etc., seemed 
to them to stand in such direct contradiction to both 
the letter and the spirit of the Old Testament that 
they deemed it superfluous to refute them. 

The expansion of Karaism during the ninth and 
tenth centuries awakened in the Jews the polemical 
spirit. Alive to the dangers that threatened tradi- 
tional Judaism through the new sect, which, owing 
to the inertness of the Geonim of the Babylonian 
academies, was rapidly growing, several rabbinical 
scholars took up the study of both Biblical and sec- 
ular sciences, which enabled them to advance against 
the Christians as well as the Karaites a systematic 
defense of Jewish beliefs. The first known polemist 
of that period was David ibn Merwan al-Mukam- 
mas, who devoted the eighth and tenth chapters of 
his "'Ishrun al-Makalat " to the refutation of Chris- 
tian dogmas. He was followed by Saadia Giion, 
who, both in his commentaries on the Bible and in 
the second chapter of his philosophical "Emunot 
we-De'ot," assailed the arguments of the Church. 
He maintained that the Jewish religious system, 
which allowed man to approach as nearly as is pos- 
sible to perfection, would always exist, and would 
Hot be replaced by any other, least of all by the 
Christian, which transmuted mere abstractions into 
divine personalities. 

More aggressive was Saadia's contemporary, the 
Karaite Al-Kirkisani. In the third treatise of his 
"Kitab al-Anwar wal-Marakib " (ch. xvi.) he says 
that "the religion of the Christians, as practised at 
present, has nothing in common with the teachings 
of Jesus. It originated with Paul, who ascribed 
divinity to Jesus and prophetic inspiration to him- 
self. It was Paul that denied the necessity of obey- 
ing the commandments and taught that religion 
consisted in humility; and it was the Nicene Coun- 
cil which adopted precepts that occur neither in the 
Law nor in the Gospels nor in the Acts of Peter 
and Paul." Equally violent in their attacks upon 
Christianity were the Karaite writers Japheth ben 
Ali and Hadassi— the former in iiis commentaries 
on the Bible, and the latter in his "Eshkol ha- 
Kofer," in which the fundamental dogmas of Chris- 
tianity are harshly criticized. The assertion of the 
Christians that God was born of a woman and as- 
sumed a human form in the person of Jesus is con- 
sidered by Hadassi to be blasphemous. ^Moreover, 
the reason given by the Church that God willed the 
incarnation of Jesus in order to free the world from 
its tiiraldom to Satan, is declared by him to be 
absurd ; for. he asks, has the world grown any bet- 
ter as a result of this incarnation? are there fewer 
murderers, adulterers, etc., among the Christians, 
than there were among the pagans? 

The first works wholly devoted to the refutation 




of Christianity appeared in the second half of the 
twelfth century in Spain — the preeminently fertile 
source of anti-Jewish writings between the sixth 
and fifteenth centuries. They were the outgrowth 
of the restless aggressiveness of the Christian clergy, 
who, taking advantage of the irruption of fanati- 
cism marking the period of the Crusades, planned 
the wholesale conversion of the Jews through the 
medium of polemical works written by converts 
from Judaism. These converts, instead of confining 
themselves to the usual arguments drawn from the 
Old Testament, claimed to demonstrate from the 
Haggadah that Jesus was the Messiah — from the 
very part of rabbinical literature which they most 
derided and abused! This new method of war- 
fare was inaugurated in Spain by 
Petrus Al- Petrus Alphonsi (whose name before 
phonsi and baptism was Moses Sephardi) in his 
Jacob ben series of dialogvies against the Jews, 

Reuben, the disputants being himself before 
and himself after conversion (Cologne, 
1536; later in "BibliothecaPatrum,"ed. Migne.clvii. 
535). To arm themselves against these attacks 
learned Spanish Jews began to compose manuals 
of polemics. About a quarter of a century after the 
composition of Judah ha- Levi's famous apologetical 
work, the "Cuzari," in which Judaism was defended 
against the attacks of Christians, Karaites, and 
philosophers, Jacob ben Reuben wrote the "Sefer 
Milhamot Adonai." This is divided into twelve 
chapters, and contains, besides refutations of the 
Christian arguments drawn from the Old Testa- 
ment, a thorough criticism of the Gospels and the 
Acts of the Apostles, in which he points out many 

About the same time Joseph Kimhi, also a native 
of Spain, wrote the "Sefer ha-Berit," a dialogue be- 
tween a believer and an apostate. The believer 
maintains that the truth of the religion of the Jews 
is attested by the morality of its adherents. The 
Ten Commandments, at least, are observed with 
the utmost conscientiousness. The Jews concede 
no divine honors to any besides God ; they do not 
perjure themselves, nor commit murder, nor rob. 
Jewish girls remain modestly at home, while Chris- 
tian girls are careless of their self-respect. Even their 
Christian antagonists admit that the Jew practises 
hospitality toward his brother Jew, ransoms the 
prisoner, clothes the naked, and feeds the hungry. 
The accusation that the Jews exact exorbitant inter- 
est from Christians is balanced by Kimhi's state 
ment that Christians also take usurious interest, 
even from their fellow Christians, while wealthy 
Jews lend money to their coreligionists without 
charging anj^ interest whatever. 

Great activity in the field of polemics was dis- 
played by both Jews and Christians in Spain in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Among the 
Christian works of the thirteenth century the most 
noteworthy are the " Capistrum Judaorum " and 
the "Pugio Fidei" (Paris, 1651; Leipsic, 1667). In 
the latter work, Raymund Martin endeavored to 
demonstrate from the Talmud, Midrasli, and other 
sources that Jesus is announced in rabbinical litera- 
ture as the Messiah and the son of God ; that the 
Jewish laws, although revealed by God, were abro- 

gated by the advent of the Messiali ; that the Tal- 
mudists corrupted the text of the Hihk', us is indi- 
cated in the " Tikl^iun Soferim." Some 
Raymund of Martin's arguments were ufied hy 
Martin and Pul)loChriHliuui inhisdisputution with 
Nah- NahmanitlcH, who victoriously com- 

manides. l)ate(i them before King James and 
many ecclesiastical dignitaries. Hoth 
theargumentsand I heir refutation were reproduceil in 
a special work entitled " Wikkuah," written by Nuh- 
manides himself. The subjects di.scu8sed were: (1) 
Has the Messiali appeared? (2) Siiould the .Messiah 
announced by the Prophets be considered as u god, 
or as a man born of human parents? (3) Are the 
Jews or the Christians the posse.s.sors of the true 
faith? A direct refutation of Raymund Martin's 
"Pugio Fidei" was written by Solomon Adrct, who, 
in view of the misuse of the Haggadah by converts 
to Christianity, wrote also a commentary on that 
part of the Jewish literature. 

The production of Jewish polemical works in 
Spain increased with the frequency of the attacks 
upon Judaism, in the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies, by baptized Jews. Of the latter tlie most 
renowned were: Alfonso of Valladolid (Abner of 
Burgos), author of the anti-Jewish works " Moreh Ze- 
dek" (Spanish version, "El Mustador") and "Teshu- 
bot 'al Milhamot Adonai " (Spanish, "Los Batallos 
de Dios ") ; Astruc Raimuch (Christian name, Dios 
Carne), who was the author of a letter, in Hebrew, 
in which he endeavored to verify, from the Old 
Testament, the doctrines of the Trinity, original 
sin, redemption, and transubstantiation; Pablo de 
Santa Maria (Solomon Levi of Burgos), author of a 
satire on the festival of Purim, addressed to MeYr 
ben Solomon Alguades; Geronimo de Santa Fe 
(Joshua ben Joseph al-Lorqui), who wrote the anti- 
Jewish "Tractatus Contra Perfidiam Judteorum" 
and "De Juda'is Erroribus ex Talmuth " (the latter 
was published, under the title " Hcbncomastic," at 
Zurich, 1552; Frankfort-on-the-Main. 1602; Ham- 
burg, n.d. ; and in Bibliotheca Magna Veterum Pa- 
trum, Lyons [vol. xxvi.], and Cologne, 1618). 

Against the writings of these converts, the two 
last-named of whom organized the disputation of 
Tortosa, held before Benedict XIII. (Pedro de Luna) 
in 1413, there appeared a series of works which are 
remarkable for the aggressiveness of their tone. 
The first of this series was the "'Ezer lia-Dat"of 
Ibn Pulgar. It is divided into eight chapters (" she- 
'arim'M. the last of which is devoted wholly to the 
work of Alfonso of Valladolid. To the letter of 
Astruc Raimuch there appeared two answers, the 
more interesting of which is that of Solomon ben 
Reuben Bonfed, in rimed prose. Apologizing for 
di.scussing the contents of a letter not addressed to 
him, Bonfed minutely examines the Christian dot'- 
mas and proceeds to show how irrational and unten- 
able they are. " You twist and distort 

Pablo de the Biblical text to establish the doc- 
Santa Maria trine of the Trinity. Had you a qua- 
and Joseph ternity to prove, you would demon- 
ibn Vives. strateit (juite as strikingly and con- 
vincingly from the Old Testament." 
An answer to Pablo's satire was written by Joseph 
ibn Vives al-Lorqui. The writer expresses his aston- 




ishment that Pablo should have changed his faith. 
Satirically he canvasses the various motives which 
might have led him to take such a step — desire for 
wealth and power, the gratification of sensual long- 
ings — and naively concludes that probably Pablo 
had carefully studied Christianity and had come to 
the conclusion that its dogmas were well founded. 
He (Joseph), therefore, begged Pablo to enligliteu 
him on eight specific points which seemed to war- 
rant doubts as to the truth of Christianitj': (1) The 
mission of tiie Messiah announced by the Prophets 
was to deliver Israel. "Was this accomplished by 
Jesus? (2) It is expressly stated by the Prophets 
that the Messiah would assemble the Jews, the de- 
scendants of Abraham, and lead them out from 
exile. How, then, can tiiis be applied to Jesus, who 
came when the Jews still possessed their laud? (3) 
It is predicted that after the arrival of the Messiah, 
Palestine, peopled by the descendants of Jacob, who 
would have at their head David for king, would en- 
joy unbroken prosperity. But is tliere any country 
more desolate than that land is now? (4) After the 
arrival of the Messiah, God, the Prophets foretold, 
would be recognized by the %vhoIe universe. Has 
this been fulfilled ? (5) Where is the universal peace 
predicted for the Messianic time by the Prophets? 

(6) Where is the Temple, with its divine service by 
the priests and Levites, that the ^lessiah was to re- 
store, according to the predictions of the Prophets? 

(7) Great miracles are foretold — the worship in Jeru- 
salem of God by all nations; the war between Gog 
and Magog ; etc. Did these take place at the time of 
Jesus? (8) Did any prophet predict that the Messiah 
would abrogate the Mosaic law? "These," says 
Joseph ibn Vives, "are only a few of the numerous 
doubts that have been suggested to me by the words 
of the Prophets. Much more difficult to allay are 
my doubts concerning the birth, death, and resur- 
rection of Jesus, his intercourse with his disciples 
and others, his miracles; but these I would discuss 
orally, and not in writing." 

A general work against Christianity was written 
in Spanish, under the title " Tratado " (" Bittul 'Ikkere 
ha-Nozerim " in the Hebrew translation of Joseph 
ibn Shem-Tob), by the philosopher Hasdai Crescas. 
In a dispassionate, dignified manner he refutes on 
philosophical grounds the doctrines of 

Hasdai original sin, redemption, tlie Trinity, 

Crescas. the incarnation, the Immaculate Con- 
ception, transubstantiation, baptism, 
and the Messianic mission of Jesus, and attacks 
the Gospels. Another general anti-Christian work, 
entitled "Eben Bohan," and modeled upon the 
"Milhamot Adonai " of Jacob ben Reuben, was 
written at the end of the fourteenth century by 
Shem-Tob ben Isaac ibn Shaprut, who, in 1376, de- 
bated in public at Pamplona with Cardinal Pedro 
de Luna, afterward Benedict XIII., on the dogmas 
of original sin and redemption. The book is di- 
vided into fifteen chapters, the last being devoted 
to the refutation of the work of Alfonso of Valladolid 
against the " Milhamot Adonai" of Jacob ben Reuben. 

Of the same character as the "Eben Bohan," and 
of about the same date, are the works written by 
Moses Cohen of Tordesillas and by Hayyim ibn 
Musa, entitled respectively " 'Ezer ha-Emunah" and 

" Magen wa-Romah." A masterpiece of satire upon 
Christian dogma is the " Iggeret al-Tchi ka-Aboteka, " 
written at the beginning of the fifteenth century by 
Profiat Duran and addres.sed to the baptized Jew 
David Bonet Bongoron. It was so skilfully com- 
posed that until the appearance of Joseph ibn Sheni- 
Tob'scommentary thereon Christian authors believed 
it to be favorable to Christianity, and frequently 
quoted it under the corrupted title " Alteca Boteca " ; 
but when they perceived the real character of the 
epistle they strove to destroy all the copies known. 
Associated with this letter is Duran's polemic " Keli- 
mat ha-Goyim," a criticism of Christian dogma, 
written in 1397 at the request of Hasdai Crescas, 
to whom it is dedicated. It was much used by his 
kinsman Simon ben Zemah Duran in his attacks 
upon Christianity, especially in those which concern 
the abrogation of the ]\Iosaic law and are made in his 
commentary on the sayings of the Fathers (•' Magen 
Abot," published separately under the title " Keshet 
u-Magen," Leghorn, 1785; reedited by M. Stein- 
schneider, Berlin, 1881). 

The earliest anti-Jewish writings in France date 
from the first half of tlie ninth century. Between 
825 and 840 Agobard, Bishop of Lyons, wrote three 
anti-Jewish epistles, among which was one entitled 
"De Insolentia Jud;eorum," and one "Concerning 
the Superstitions of the Jews" (" Ago- 
In bardi Opera," ed. j\Iigne, civ.). The 

France. author endeavors, in the latter work, 
to show from various Biblical pas- 
sages that the society of Jews should be avoided 
even more than association with pagans, since Jews 
are the opponents of Christianity. He recounts the 
jjudgments passed by the Church Fathers upon the 
.Tews, the restrictive measures taken against tlicm 
by different councils, their superstitions, and their 
persistent refusal to believe in Jesus. Agobard 's 
successor in the diocese of Lyons, Bishop Amolo, 
also wrote against the Jews, denouncing their super- 
stitions, calling attention to the invidious expres- 
sions used by them to designate the Apostles and 
the Gospels, and exposing the fictitious character of 
their arguments in defense of their Messianic hopes 
("Contra Jud.Tos," ed. Migne, cxvi.). 

However, works like those of Agobard and Amolo 
were very rare in France in the tenth and eleventh 
centuries; they began to multiply only after the 
Crusades, when every priest considered himself 
charged with the duty of saving .Jewish souls. The 
many anti-Jewish works of the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries include: " De Incarnatione, Adver- 
sus Judaeos," by Guilbert; "Annulus seu Dialogus 
Christiani et Judfci de Fidei Sacramentis," by Ru- 
pert; "Tractatus Ad versus Judicoruin Inveteratam 
Duritiem," by Pierre le Venerable; "Contra Juda;- 
orum" (anon)'mous) ; "Liber Contra Perfidiam Ju- 
dseorum," by Pierre of Blois; "Altercatio Judad 
de Fide Christiana," by Gilbert Crcpin; " De Messia 
Ejusque Adventu Pneterito," by Nicolas de Lyra. 
From the thirteenth century polemical works in 
French began to appear, as, for instance, " De la 
Disputation de la Svnagogueet de la Sainte Eglise" 
(Jubinal, "Mysteres du XV« Siiicle," ii. 404-408); 
"La Disputation du Juyf et du Crestian " (" His- 
toire Litteraire de France," xxiii. 217). 




On the part of the Jews there appeared in north- 
ern France a collection of replies made "to infidels 
and Christians " by several members of the Ollieial 
family, especially by Joseph the Zealot (who is 
credited with the redaction of the IIel)rew version, 
entitled "Wikkuah," of the disputation of 1240 be- 
tween Nicholas Donin and four representatives of 
the Jews), Jehiel of Paris, Judah ben David of 
Melun, Samuel ben Solomon, and Moses de Coucy. 
The characteristic features of these controversies are 
the absence of fanaticism in the clerical disputants 
and the freedom of speech of the Jews, who do not 
content themselves with standing upon the defen- 
sive, but often attack their opponents, not with dia- 
lectics, but with clever repartee. The following 
may serve as an example: Nathan ben Meshullam 
was asked to give a reason for the duration of the 
present exile, while that of Babylon, which was in- 
flicted upon the Jews as a punishment for the worst 
of crimes, idolatry, lasted only seventy years. He 
answered: "Because in the time of the First Temple 
the Jews made stone images of Astarte and otlier 
statues which could not last for long; while in the 
time of the Second Temple they deified one of them- 
selves, Jesus, to whom they applied many prophecies, 
thus creating a durable idol which attracted many 
worshipers. Thegravity of the fault, therefore, called 
for a corresponding severity in the punishment." 

Regular treatises in defense of Judaism against 
the attacks of Christianity began to appear in south- 
ern France. The most important of these were: the 
"Sefer ha-Berit" of Joseph Kinihi (see above); 
the "Mahazik lia-Emunah " of Mor- 
In decai ben Josiphiah; the "Milhemet 

Provence. Mizwah " of Meir ben Simon of Nar- 
bonne ; and three works by Isaac ben 
Nathan — a refutation of the arguments contained 
in the epistle of the fictitious Samuel of Moi'occo 
(who endeavored to demonstrate from the Bible the 
Messiahship of Jesus); "Tokahat Mat'eh," against 
Geronimo de Santa Fe; and "Mibzar Yizhak," a 
general attack upon Christianity. An interesting 
polemical work was written in France at the end of 
the eighteenth century by Isaac Lopez, under the 
title "Kur Mazref ha-Emunot u-Mar'eli ha-Emet." 
It is divided into twelve chapters or "gates," and 
contains, besides a refutation of the Christian argu- 
ments drawn from the Old Testament, a thorough 
criticism of the Gospels and the Acts of the Apos- 
tles, in which the author points out many contra- 
dictions and false statements. He accuses Paul of 
hypocrisy for prohibiting in one country what he 
allowed in another. Thus, for instance, to the Chris- 
tians of Rome, who clung to the Mosaic law, he did 
not dare to recommend the abrogation of circumci- 
sion and other commandments: "For circumcision 
verily profiteth, if thou keep the law; but if thou 
be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made 
uncircumcision." "Do we then make void the law 
through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the 
law " (Rom. ii. 25, iii. 31). But to the Galatians he 
said: "Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be 
circumcised, Christ shall jirofit you nothing. P'or 
I testify again to every man that is circumcised, he 
is a debtor to do the whole law " (Gal. v. 2, 3). " If 
this is the case," asks Lopez, "why did not Paul, 

who was circumcised, observe the Mosaic lawT 
Then, again, why did lie ciiiisi- jiis dis<-iple Timothy 
to be circumci.sed?" To the lli-brews Paul Kaid, 
"He that despised Mo8«!s' luw died without mercy 
under two or three witnesses" (Heb. x. 28); but to 
his disciple Titus he wrote, "Hut avoid foolish 
questions, and genealogies, and contentions, and stri- 
vings about the law ; for they are unprofltable and 
vain" (Titus iii. U). 

Although tiic " l)isi)Utatio Christianorum ct Judip- 
orum Olim Honuu Habita Coram Imperatorr Con- 
stantino" (Mayence, 1544) is founilcd on u lirtion. 
there is no doubt that religious controversies be- 
tween Christians and Jews in Italy were held as 
early as the pontificate of Boniface IV. (WJH-eir)). 

Alcuin (735-804) relates that while he 
In Italy, was in Pavia a disputation took jdaco 

between a Jew named Julius and 
Peter of Pisa. Yet in spite of the frequency of re- 
ligious controversies anti-Jewish writings were very 
rare in Italy before the Crusades; the only work of 
the kind known to belong to the eleventh century 
was tliat of Damiani, entitled "Antilogus Contra 
Judicos," in which he sought, by means of numer- 
ous passages from tiie Old Testament, such as those 
relating to the Creadon, the building of the tower 
of Babel, the triple priestly benediction, the thrice- 
repeated "Holy," and the Messianic passages, to es- 
tablish the Christian doctrines of the Trinity and 
the divinity of Jesus (Migne, "Patrologia,"2<l series, 
1853; comp. Yogelstein and Rieger, "Gcsch. der 
Juden in Rom," i. 26 et seg.). 

But from the time of the pontificate of Innocent 
III. anti-Jewish writings in Italy, as elsewhere, be- 
gan to multiply. To the earlier calumny that the 
Talmud contained blasphemies against Christianity, 
there was added, after the twelfth century, the accu- 
sation that the Jews used Christian blood for ritual 
purposes. About the same time also there appeared 
the charge that the Jews pierce the consecrated host 
until blood flows. The first Jewish polemical wri- 
ter in Italy seems to have been Moses of Salerno, 
who, between 1225 and 1240, composed "Ma'amar 
ha-Emunah" and "Ta'anot," in both of which he 
attacked the fundamental dogmas of Christianity. 
They were followed by other polemics, the most 
important of which are the "Milhamot Adonai " (or 
"She'elot u-Teshubot," or " 'Edut Adonai Ne"ema- 
nah "), by Solomon ben Jekuthiel ; the " Magen Abra- 
ham" (or "Wikkuah"), by Abraham Farissol: and 
the "Hassagot 'al Sifre ha-Shilluhim." by Brieli. 

The shamefully oppressive economic and polit- 
ical conditions under which the Jews labored in 
Germany and in Austria during the Middle Ages 
rendered them regardless of the fiood of anti-Jewish 
writings with which those countries became inun- 
dated. It was-not until the fifteenth century that a 
polemical work against Christianity api)eared in 

Austria. This was written by Lip- 
In mann Mnlhausen. under the title "Se- 
Germany fcr ha-Nizzahon," and it consisted of 
and 354 paragrapiis. the last eight of which 
Austria, contained a dispute which took place 

between the author and a convert 
named Peter. Lipmann quotes in his work 346 
passages from the Old Testament, upon which his 

Police LawB 



argument against Christianity is based. Very char- 
acteristic is bis objection to the divinity of Jesus. 
"If really God had willed to descend upon the earth 
in the form of a man, He, in His omnipotence, would 
have found means to do so without degrading Him- 
self to be born of a woman." The Gospel itself, ac- 
cording to Lipmann, speaks against the assumption 
that Jesus was born of a virgin, since, with the pur- 
pose of showing that he was a descendant of David, 
it gives the genealogy of Joseph, the husband of 

Among the numerous objections raised by Lip- 
mann to the doctrine of redemption, mention maybe 
made of the following: "Why," asks he, "did God 
cause Jesus to be born after thousands of generations 
had lived and died, and tlius allow pious men to 
suffer damnation for a fault which tliey had not 
committed? Was it necessary that Christ should 
be born of Mary only, and were not Sarah, Miriam, 
Abigail, Ilulda, and others equally worthy of this fa- 
vor? Then, again, if mankind be redeemed through 
Christ, and the original sin be forgiven through his 
crucifixion, why is the earth still laboring under the 
Lord's curse: ' In sorrow thou shalt bring forth chil- 
dren. ' ' Thorns also and tliistles shall it bring forth 
to thee' [Gen. iii. 16, 18]? Were there invisible 
curses which have been removed, while the visible 
were allowed to remain? " As may be readily sur- 
mised, the " Safer ha-Nizzahon" called forth a num- 
ber of replies from Christians. Of these there were 
published Wilhelm Schickard's "Triumphator Vap- 
ulans, sive Refutatio Blasphemi Libri Hebraici" (Tu- 
bingen, 1629), Stephen Gerlow's "Disputatio Con- 
tra Lipmanni Nizzachon " (Konigsberg, 1647), and 
Christian Schotan's " Anti-Lipmauniana" (Franeker, 
1659). In 1615 there appeared also in Germany a 
polemical work in Judaeo-German entitled "Der 
Jildische Theriak"; it was composed by Solomon 
Offenhausen, and was directed against the anti-Jew- 
ish "Schlangenbalg" of the convert Samuel Brenz. 
The Jewish work which more than any other 
aroused the antagonism of Christian writers was the 

" Hizzuk Emunah " of the Karaite 

Isaac Isaac Troki, which was written in Po- 

Troki's land and translated into Latin, Ger- 

" Hizzuk man, Spanish, and English. It occu- 

Emunah." pies two volumes and is subdivided 

into ninety-nine chapters. The book 
begins by demonstrating that Jesus was not the 
Messiah predicted by tlie Prophets. "This," says 
the author, "is evident (1) from his pedigree, (2) 
from his acts, (3) from the period in which he lived, 
and (4) from the fact that during his existence the 
promises that related to tiie advent of the expected 
Messiah were not fulfilled." His argument on 
these points is as follows: (1) Jesus' pedigree: With- 
out discussing the question of the relationship of 
Joseph to David, which is ver}' doubtful, one may ask 
what has Jesus to do with Joseph, who was not his 
father? (2) Hisacts: According to Matt. x. 34, Jesus 
said, " Think not that I come to make peace on earth ; 
I come not to send peace but the sword, and to set a 
man at variance against his father, and the daughter 
against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against 
her mother-in-law." On the other hand, Holy 
Writ attributes to the true and expected Mes- 

siah actions contrary to those of Jesus. (3) The 
period of his existence: It is evident that Jesus did 
not come at the time foretold by the Prophets, for 
they predicted the advent of Messiah at the latter 
day8(Isa. ii. 2). (4) The fulfilment of the Messianic 
promises: All the Prophets predicted that at the ad- 
vent of the Messiah peace and justice would reign in 
the world, not only among men but even among the 
animals; yet there is not one sincere Christian who 
would claim that this has been fulfilled. 

Among Isaac Troki's objections to the divinitj'of 
Jesus the following may be mentioned: The Chris- 
tian who opposes Judaism must believe that the Jews 
tormented and crucified Jesus either with his will or 
against his will. If with his will, then the Jews 
had ample sanction for what they did. Besides, if 
Jesus was really willing to meet such a fate, what 
cause was there for complaint and affliction? And 
why did he pray in tlie manner related in Matt. 
xxvi. 39? On the other hand, if it be assumed that 
the crucifixion was against his will, how then can 
he be regarded as God — he, who was unable to re- 
sist the power of those who brought him to the 
cross? How could one who had not the power to 
save his own life be held as the Savior of all man- 
kind? (ch. xlvii.). 

In the last chapter Isaac quotes Rev. xxii. 18, and 
asks how Christians could consistently make changes 
of such a glaring nature; for the change of the Sab- 
bath from the seventh to the first day of the week 
was not authorized by Jesus or any of his disciples; 
and the partaking of the blood and tlesii of a stran- 
gled beast is a palpable infringement of the dictates 
of the Apostles. 

A series of apologetic and polemical works, writ- 
ten in Spanish and Portuguese by scholarly refugees 
from Spain and Portugal, appeared in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, in Holland and in some 
places in Italy. Of these the most important arc: 
" Sobre el Capitulo 53 de Ezaya e au- 
By tros Textos de Sagrada Escritura," by 

STaranos. Montalto; "Livro Fayto . . . em Que 
Mostra a Verdad de Diversos Textos e 
Cazas, Que Alegao as Gentilidades para Confirmar 
Suas Seictas," by the same author; "Tractado de la 
Verdad de la Ley " (Hebrew trans!, by Isaac Gomez 
de Gora, under the title "Torat Mosheh "), by Saul 
Levi Morteira; "Tratado da Calumnia," by Nah- 
mios de Castro ; " Fuenta Clara, las Excellencias y 
Calumnias de los Hebreos," by Isaac Cardoso; 
" Prevenciones Divinas Contra la Vance Idolatria de 
las Gentes" and "Explicac^ao Paraphrastica Sobre o 
Capitulo 53 de Prophcta Isahias," by Balthazar 
Orobio de Castro; "Fortalazzo" (Hebrew transl. by 
Marco Luzzatto), by Abraham Peregrino. 

Though nuich less violent than the Christian anti- 
Jewish writings, an extensive anti-Jewish polemical 
literature has been produced by Mohammedan schol- 
ars. The subject-matter of this literature is closely 
connected with the earlier attacks upon Judaism 
found in the Koran and the tradition ("hadith "), 
the most debated charge being that of having falsi- 
fied certain portions of the Holy Scriptures and 
o;nitted others. Among the examples of falsifica- 
tion is the Biblical account of the sacrifice of Abra- 
ham, in which, according to the Mohammedans, the 



Police Laws 

name of Isaac was substituted for tliat of Ishmael. 
The passages omitted contained the predictions re- 
garding the advent of Mohammed and liis mission 
to all mankind. A common point for controversy 
also was the question of the abrogation of the divine 
laws— the Sabbath law, the dietary laws, and other 
Biblical commandments. 

On the Jewish part very little was written against 

Islam, and besides occasional attacks scattered 

through the Biblical commentaries of the Kabbin- 

ites and Karaites, and the philosophical works of 

Saadia, Abraham ibn Daud, Judah ha- 

In Islam. Levi, Moses ben Maimon, and others, 

Jewish literature contains but two 

productions of any extent that are devoted to an 

attack upon Islam: the "Ma'amar 'al Yishmael" of 

Solomon ben Adret, refuting the attacks upon the 

Bible by Abu Mohammed ibn Hazm, and the 

" Keshet u-Magen " of Simon Duran. 

The following is an alphabetical list of printed 
polemical works in Hebrew and Judfeo-German : 

n^maNj "^nn hn mJN, Proflat Duran. Published with the anti- 
Christian satire of Solomon Bonfed 
and the disputation of Shem-Tob ben 
Joseph Falaquera. Constantinople, 
1570-75; Breslau, 1844, in the col- 
lection a^niDM y^^p, with a German 
translation by Geiger. 
'pllSn ysfin^ "\ nnJK, Joseph ibn Vives' answer to Pablo Chris- 
tian!. Published In "Dibre Haka- 
mlra," Metz, 1849. 
^jiSbti n^riN (Dlsputatio Leoni Josephl Alfonsl cum 
Rabbino Judah Mlzrahl), Isaac Baer 
Levinsohn. Lelpslc, 18&4. 
D>D3n nJlDN, Hayyim Viterbo. Printed in " Ta'an Ze- 
kenim," Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1855. 
njDN 'D, disputations collected from the Talmud 
and Midrashim. Isny, 1542. 
Q^m DDK, Levinsohn. Against the accusation of 
ritual murder. Odessa, 1864 ; Warsaw, 
1879, 1881. 
JJ1J3''S1J?D "i^T T13, Isaac Jacob ben Saul Ashkenazi. Am- 
sterdam, 1696. 
D^IXijn ^ipy Sitsa, pasdal Crescas. Published by Epbraim 
' Deinard, Kearny, N. J., 1894. 
^DV mis p, Isaac Onkeneira. Constantinople, 1577. 
n^ian 'D, Joseph Kimhi. Partly published with 
the " Milhemet Hobah," Constantino- 
ple, 1710. 
Ointani' OHi, M. Rosenschein. London. 
nnn ^"lai, Isaac ha-Levi Satanow. Berlin, 1800? 
|n Vya pniih, Don David Nasi. Frankfort-on-the-Maln, 
1866, and by Ephraim Deinard, Kearny, 
N. J., 1894. 
'?K>n> '") niDM. In Wagenseil's " Tela Ignea Satanae," 
Freiburg, 1681. 
J3Din niD''i. In Wagenseil's "Tela Ignea Satanae," 
Freiburg, 1681, and by Stelnschnelder, 
Stettin, 1860. 
njDNJ "Pny m3M, Solomon ben Jekuthiel (see Jelllnek, 
Cn mcnSn) "B. H.'Mi. 43). 

'?a2nt, Levinsohn. Odessa, 1864; Warsaw, 1878. 
njiDN pirn, Isaac Troki. Published by Wagenseil, 
and later in Amsterdam, 1705 ; Jerusa- 
lem, 1845; Leipsic, 1857. In Judaeo- 
German. Amsterdam, 1717 ; in English, 
by Mocatta, London, 1856. 
pK""ita nj?tS'nv, Solomon Zalman OfTenhausen. Amster- 
dam, 1737 ; under the title " Sefer ha- 
Nizzahon," Hanau, 1615; wlthaLatln 
translation, Altdorf, 1680. 
nuiCNH r^iXD 113, Isaac Lopez. Metz, 1847. 
D''1CN '"OipV, Kozin. Smyrna, 18.5.5. 
niXD ncnSc, Solomon ben Simon Duran. Published 
with the " Keshet u-Magen," Leipsic, 
DiSc'3 ncn'^c, Rosenberg. Wilna. 1871. 
mSra ncnSc, Benjaminsohn. New York, 1898. 

iDisn iiPDj. Published byAbrebam Berliner, A Itonv 
■•NIC' nxj, W. Shur. Chlcairo, 1897. 
pnxjn '3, Lipmnnn MOIIiauHen. PublUbcd by Wa. 
geuHcll, and al AiiisKTilatu. 170SI, 1711, 
and KAnlgHiMTg, 1H47. 
D'ni3'i f 3ip, various nllgiDUH di8put*tlonii. Pub- 
llHhfd by Abraham Geiger, IlresUu, 
Pay-IDK'PJ ptpu'SFi. Gabriel Isaac I*nai8burger. I>rague, IKSi. 

For later polemics sec Anti-8emitih.m: Convkr- 


Bini.ionRAPiiY: Heathen Polemics: Kmnkel, In Mnnats- 
Kctirift, IK56, .^p. HI 91 ; (.riltz. i7.. 1K7L'. pp. ll« axi ; (,lle*, 
Hrdlheii IlecoriLi to tUrJcxriMh Srriitturr JiMttrn. Umdon, 
ia5<l; Idem, JVofitc of the Jrus nmi Thrir Coutitry l>u the 
ClanKic Writern of A utUiuilu, I<'>ndon. 1H7:; ; L. (;.'ig.T. i^tUt 
de JudUrorum MuriUuH Atiim liiKiilutiti Scriijlmtlnii- !{'>■ 
manUt Pcrsuaimm Purrit , Ht-rlln, IMTa : 'I hliinciurt, (> yiii 
Tacitr, Dit den Juifn nu Comininnmrtit ilu Ltvrr V. lUi li. K. J. xlx. IHU ; Th.'-<Mlon- Hfiria<ii, TitIk 
d'Auteurs Greca ct linmniitH lOhitifH <iu Jiiila\j<m, Parlji. 
1895; SchUrer, Oatch. ill. KC'ef seq.; JYlediander. OtJtch. der 
Jlldischen A})oUi(ietih. VMi. 

Christian Polemics : Wolf. BOiL Hehr. II. 998 et nrq.; De 
Rossi, liil)li(>theca AntivhriKtiann, Parma, IWO; Kaywrllng. 
Bihl. Kxp.-Port.-Jud. pp. 114 et Hfi/.; Sti'liisihrK-lili-r. Jf i/i^h 
Iyiffr«(«rf, p. 314; Winter and WQnsche, J(i<lij«-/i< I.Urrn- 
tnr, lii. 65.5-670; Hamburger, R. B. T. Supplement, l«i«i, ii.v. 
Diii)ndntif>n ; Ziegler, ReliyiOite DunmtalUmen iin Mitttl- 
alter, Frankfort-on-the-Maln, IHftt; Isidore Ix*eb, Ln r<ititr<>- 
verne Eclinieiuse Entre leu Clirt'tUnK et lex Juifn du Mourn 
Age, Paris. 1888; Israel I^vl, In U. E. J. v. 239 et (V(/.: (,el- 
ger, Prohcn Jlldwcher VertheUliguud fJeaen ChrUtenthum, 
in Breslauer's Jahrhuch, 1., II. (185i>-51). 

Mohammedan Polemics: Stelnschnelder, PolemiKrhe und 
Apnlogetische Literatur in ArabUtcher Sjyrache ZxfiKChen 
Muslimen, ChrU<ten, und Judcn, In Ahhandlungen fUr die 
Kunde dcs Morgeidandes, vl.. No. 3; (ioidzlher, Uclicr Mxi- 
hammedanische Polemik (iegen Ahl al-KUah. in Z. I>. 
M. G. xxxii. 341-387; Schreiner, Ziir Gcsch. der I'oUmik 
Zwischeii Juden und Muhammedancn\,lb. xlll. 591 6T5. 
J. I. Bk. 

POLEMON II.: King, first of the Pontus and 
the Bosporus, then of the Pontus and Cilicia, and 
lastly of Cilicia alone; died in 74 c.e. Together 
with other neighboring kings and princes. Polcmon 
once visited King Agrippa I. in Tiberias (Jo.seplms, 
"Ant." xix. 8, § 1). The Herodian princess Bere- 
nice, of whom it was reported that she held f(jrbid- 
den relations with her brother, chose Polemon for a 
husband, in order to mend her reputation, she being 
at the time the widow of Herod of Chalcis. Pole- 
mon married her not so much for her beauty as for 
her riches; and he adopted Judaism, undergoing the 
rite of circumcision. His wife soon left him. how- 
ever, and Polemon abandoned his Judaism {ib. xx. 
7, § 3). According to the Christian Bartiiolomcus 
legend, he accepted Christianity, but only to Im?- 
come a pagan again. If there is any truiii in the 
story, the numerous Jews living in tlie Bosporus 
kingdom miist have taken an interest in his con- 
version to Christianity and also in its being made 
known in the mother country. 

BIBUOGRAPHT : Grfttz. Gejich. 4th ed.. 111. MO. 428 : Gu'^hmld, 
Kleinc Schrifteu.U.-iol/ioS; Pru«opoffraphia Im}xrn Il»- 
mani. 111. 59, No. 406. 

o. S. Kn. 

POLICE LAWS : Laws regulating intercourse 
among citizens, and embracing the care and pres- 
ervation of the public peace, health, safety, moral- 
ity, and welfare. The prevention of crime is the 
main object of the police laws, althougli there arc 
many other points not strictly involved in the pop- 
ular (ktinition of crime, but materially afTertinp the 
security and convenience of the public, which arc 
recognized as lying witliin their province. 

It is a moot question whether the cities of Judca 

Police La-w^s 



had a regulated police force during Biblical limes. 
There are many terms in tlie Bible which have been 
translated to denote magistrates or police officers; 
but the correctness of the translation is questioned 
in almost every instance by modern scholars (see 
Government). The Deuteronomic 
In Biblical code (Dent. xvi. 18) enjoins the ap- 

Times. pointment of "shoterim" (A. V. "offi- 
cers'"; LXX. ypafifiaTOEiaa-'jU)e'iq\ Tar- 
gum, pjyiQ ; and almost all Jewish commentators, 
"police officers" whose duty it was to execute the 
decisions of the court; conip. Rashi and Ibn E/ra, 
Midr. Tan. and Midr. Lekah Tob ad loc. ; Pesik. R., 
ed. Friedmann, p. 149b; Maimonides, " Yad," Sanhe- 
driu, i. 1, and " Lehem ^Mishneh " ad loc. ; comp. Prov. 
vi. 7) alongside the "shofctim" (judges) in every 
town (comp. Ezra vii. 25, A. V. ; LXX. ypaufiareli). 
As far as can be gleaned from the Biblical records, the 
duties of the " shoterim " Avere to make proclamations 
to the people, especially in time ot'war(Dcut. xx. 
5, 8, 9; Josh. i. 10, iii. 2), to guard the king's person 
(I Chron. xxvii. 1), to superintend public works (II 
Chron. xxxiv. 13; comp. Ex. v. 6, 10,14,19, where 
the same term is applied to Pharaoh's taskmasters), 
and other similar services. The frequent mention 
of the shoterim together with the judges (Deut- 
xvi. 18; Josh. viii. 33, xxiii. 2, xxiv. 1; I Chron. 
xxiii. 4, xxvi. 29), or with the elders of the commu- 
nity (Xum. xi. 16; Deut. xxix. 9, xxxi. 28) who 
acted as judges in earlier times (see Elder; Judge), 
would seem to indicate that these officials were at- 
tached to the courts of justice, and held themselves 
in readiness to execute tlie orders of the officiating 
judge. Josephus relates ("Ant." iv. 8, § 14) that 
every judge had at his command two such officers, 
from the tribe of Levi. That Levites were later 
preferred for this office is evident also from various 
passages in Chronicles (I Chron. xxiii. 4, xxvi. 29; 
II Chron. xxxiv. 13). Besides officers of the town 
there were also officers for every tribe, similar, prob- 
ably, to the modern district police (Deut. i. 15; Sifre, 
Deut. 144 ; Sanh. 16b). The chief of the judicial de- 
partment established by Jehoshaphat seems to have 
had also chief jurisdiction over the police (II Chron. 
xix. 11; comp. ib. xxvi. 11). Mention is also made 
of watchmen who patrolled the city at night and 
attacked all suspicious persons (Cant. iii. 3, v. 7). 

The Temple had a police force of its own, most of 
its officers being Levites. These were the gatekeep- 
ers ("sho'arim "; I Chron. ix. 17, 24- 

Temple 27; xxvi. 12-18), the watchmen that 

Police. guarded the entrance to the Temple 
mount, and those that had charge of 
the cleaning of its precincts (Philo, ed. Cohn, iii. 
210). Levites were stationed at twenty- one points 
in the Temple court; at three of them priests kept 
watch during the night. A captain patrolled with 
ft lantern, to see that tlie watchmen were at their 
po.sts; and if one was found sleeping, the captain 
had the right to beat him and to set lire to his gar- 
ments (Mid. i. 1, 2). Tlie opening and the closing 
of the gates, considered to be a very difficult task, 
and requiring, according to Josephus ("B. J." vi. 5, 
§ 3; "Contra Ap." ii. 10), the services of at least 
twenty men. was also one of the watchmen's duties: 
and a special officer was appointed to superintend 

that work (Shek. v. 1; comp. Schurer, "Gesch." 
Eug. ed., division ii., i. 264-268; see Temple). 

The Mishnah (Ket. xiii. 1) mentions two judges 
of "gezerot" (lit. "prohibitions," "decrees"; see 
Gezerah), Admon REN G.\DDAi and TIanan ben 
Abishalom (Han.w the Eoyptlxn), who were in 
Jerusalem during the latter part of the second com- 
monwealth, and the baraita quoted in the Gemara 
(Ket. 105a) adds one more, named iSahum the Meile. 
The meaning of- the term "gezerot" in this con- 
nection, and the significance and functions of these 
judges, have been variously explained by modern 
scholars (see Frankel, "Darke ha-Mishnah," p. 61; 
tdem, in "Monatsschrift." 1852, p. 247, note 5; 
Weiss, "Dor," i. 193; Sidon, "Eine Magistratur in 
Jerusalem," in Berliner's "Magazin," lb90, pp. 198 
et seq. ; Grunwald, ib. 1891, p. 60); but it is safe to 
assume that the functions of these judges were simi- 
lar to those of modern police magistrates (comp. 
Yer. Ket. xiii. 1), although they may have had also 
some judicial authority in pctt\' cases. These, un- 
like the judges of courts of justice, received a stipu- 
lated salary from the Temple treasury ("Terumat 
ha-Lishkah/' Shek. iv. 2). Each of them was al- 
lowed ninety-nine manahs per annum, which sum, 
if not sufficient for his support, might be increased 
(Ket. 105a; comp. "Yad," Sliekalim, iv. 7, where 
the annual salary is given as ninety manahs). 

Mention is made in the Talmud of various police 

officials that held office in tlie Jewish communities 

of Palestine and Babylon. The Greek names by 

which most of them were known indicate tliat they 

were introduced during a later period, after Hellenic 

influence had become strong among the Jews. Most 

of these officials received their authority from the 

local courts, and were appointed by 

Local tliem as adjuncts to the communal 

Police organization. Officers were appointed 

OflB.cials. for the following duties: to supervise 
the correctness of weights and meas- 
ures (D"'DTI3X, a corruption of D^01J'n3J<=«>"P"»'"/^"f; 
Sifra, Kedoshim, viii. 8; B. B. 89a); to regulate the 
market price of articles (B. B. 89a; according to an- 
other opinion, it was unnecessary to appoint offi- 
cials for this purpose, since competition would reg- 
ulate the price; in Yer. B. B. v. 11, Rab is mentioned 
as having been appointed to this office by the exil- 
arch); to allot land by measurement, and to see 
that no one overstepped the limits of his field (B. B. 
68a and RaSHBaM ad loc. ; in B. ]M. 107b, Adda, the 
survej'or [nsniB'D]. is mentioned as holding the 
office; comp. 'Er. 56a). Besides these, mention is 
made of watchmen who guarded the city (B. B. 68a, 
according to the interpretation of Maimonides in his 
Commentary of tlie Mishnah, and of R. Hananeel, 
quoted in RaSIIBaM ad loc. ; comp. Git. 801); SanJi. 
98b; Yer. Hag. i. 7; Sheb. iv. 2, end) and of mounted 
and armed watchmen who maintained order in the 
suburbs (B. Ii. 8a; comp. Yeb. 121b). There were 
also officers in charge of the dispensation of charity 
(B. B. 8b). Permission was given to the authorities 
of every town to supervise the correctness of weights 
and measures, to regulate the market price of 
articles and of labor, and to jmnish those who did 
not abide by the regulations {ih.). The salaries of 
all these oflicers were drawn from the town treas- 



PoUoe Laws 

ury, to which all the inliabitants had to contribute 
(see Domicil). 

Tlie police laws of tlie Bible and of the Talmud 
are very numerous. The Biblical commandment to 
build a battlement around the roof of a house, " that 
thou bring not blood upon thine house, if any man 
fall from thence" (I)eut. xxii. 8), was regarded by 
the Rabbis as a general principle, from which were 
derived many regulations the object 
Special of which was to insure public safety. 
Police Thus, it was forbidden to harbor a 
Laws. vicious dog or to keep a broken lad- 
der on one's premises (B. K. 151)), or 
lo keep a pit or a well uncovered or uufenced 
(Sifre, Deut. 229; "Yad," Rozeah, xi. 4). Dogs 
had to be kept chained ; they might be let loose 
during the night only in places where a sudden at- 
tack of an enemy was feared (B. K. 83a). Untamed 
animals, espociiilly cats that might injure children, 
might not be kept; and any one was permitted to 
kill such an animal found on the premises of a Jew 
{ih. 80b; comp. Hul. 7b). A ruined wall or a de- 
cayed tree was not allowed to remain in a public 
place. The owner was given thirty days' notice to 
remove it ; but if the danger was imminent he was 
compelled to remove it forthwith (B. M. 1171); 
"Yad," Nizke Mamon, xiii. 19; Shulhan 'Aruk, 
Hoshen Mishpat, 416, 1, and Isserles' gloss). No 
one was permitted to throw stones into the street 
(B. K. 50b) or to build a tunnel under the public 
thoroughfare (B. B. 60a), except by special permis- 
sion of the city authorities and under their super- 
vision (Hoshen Mishpat, 417, 1, Isserles' gloss, and 
" Pithe Teshubah " ad loc). Weapons might not be 
sold to suspicious persons ('Ab. Zarah 15b; "Yad," 
Rozeah, xii. 12, 14; Shulhan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 
151, 5)'. 

Another set of police regulations was based on 
the Biblical expression "Neither shalt thou stand 
against the blood of thy neighbor" (Lev. xix. 16). 
The Rabbis made it obligatory upon any man who 
saw one drowning, or in danger of an attack by 
robbers or by a wild beast, to endeavor to save him 
(Sifra ad loc. ; Sanh. 73a). The court was obliged 
to furnish safe passage to travelers in dangerous 
places; so that, wl\,en a murdered man was found, 
the elders of the nearest town could conscientiously 
sav, " Our hands have not shed this blood " (Deut. 
x.xi. 7; Sifre nd loc; Sotah 45b, 46a; "Yad," I.e. 
ix. 3; ib. Ebel, xiv. 3). The court was obliged also 
to provide wide avenues, furnished wMth posts and 
directions, leading to the cities of refuge, so that one 
who had committed'murder unwittingly might have 
easy access to them in his escape from the liands of 
the go 'el (B. B. 90a; Mak. 10a; see Asylum; Aven- 
ger OF Blood). 

Numerous laws were instituted by the Rabbis 
with the view of preserving the health of the com- 
munity (see Health Laws). The laws tending to 
tlie preservation of the life of dumb 
Sanitary creatures, and to the considerate care 
Laws. of them, also formed a large portion 
of rabbinic legislation (see Cfu'klty 
TO Animals). The care of the poor and the proper 
distribution of charity were also regulated by law 
(see Charity). Many provisions are found in the 

Talmud the purpose of which waa to guard free 
commercial intercourse. Houds leading from one 
town to another liad to be at Icusl eiglil cubit» 
wide; so that two wagons, going in opposite direc- 
tions, might pass without difllculty. RoadH leading 
to commercial centers were to be at least sixleeu 
cubits wide (B. B. 100a, b; RaSHBuM ati loe.). 
Balconies or other extensions of houses projecting 
to the public thoroughfare and trees in the public 
streets wiiose branches might obstruct the passage 
of a rider mounted on Ids camel were also prohibitetl 
(B. B. 27b, 60a). Trees growing near the bunk of 
a river, if they impeded freight-laborers in tlieir 
work, might be cut down witii impunity (B. M. 
107b). Building-materials might not be prepared in 
the public street. Stones and bricks brouglil for 
immediate use in a building might be deposited in 
the street; but the owner was held responsible for 
any injury caused tiiereby {ib. llHb). One wlio 
broke a vessel left in tiie public street was not re- 
quired to pay any damages; but the owner of the 
vessel Avas held responsible for any injury caused 
by it, or even by its sherds, if he intended to make 
use of them (B. K. 28a; see Baha Kamma). Dur- 
ing the summer months no water might be poured 
into the street; and even in the rainy season, when 
this was permitted, the one who poured the water 
was held respon.sible for any injury resulting from 
it (B. K. 6a, 30a). The pious used to bury tlieir 
potsherds and broken glass three " tefahim " (dsts) 
deep in the tield in order that tiicy might cause no 
injury to any one nor impede the plowshare in its 
course; others burned them; and others, again, 
threw them into the river {ib. 80a). Among tiie ten 
ordinances that applied especially to Jerusalem were 
the prohibitions against any projections from pri- 
vate houses to the street, against the establishment 
of potteries, against the planting of gardens (except 
rose-gardens that were suppo.sed to have existed 
since the times of the early prophets), against keep- 
ing chickens, and against dunghills within the city 
limits (B. K. 82b). 

Provisions were also made by the Rabbis with 
the view of guarding the personal liberty and honor 
of the members of the conununity. Stealing a per- 
son and selling him into slavery was 
Laws Re- punishable by death, according to the 
lating to Mosaic law (E.\. x.xi. 16). "They are 
Liberty. My [God's] servants, but not servants 
to servants," was a principle often 
enunciated by the Rabbis (B. M. 10a; Kid. 22b. 
based on Lev. xxv. 42). Imprisonment as a punish- 
ment is not mentioned in the Bible, although later 
it was employed in the of certain transgressions 
(see Imimusonment). The iiayment of damages for 
the infliction of a personal injury included also a 
fine for the shame which waa caused by such an 
injury (see Damage). In inflicting the punishment 
of flagellation no more tlian the prescrilK-d number of 
stripes might be given, "lest, if he should exceed, 
and beat iiim above tliese with many stripes, then 
thy brother should seem vile unto thee " (Deut. xxv. 
3; see CoKPoiiAL Pinishment). Posthumous in- 
dignities at the public execution of a criminal were 
prohibited; and when hanging after execution was 
enjoined, the body was not allowed to remain on 

Police Laws 



the gallows overnight (Deut. xxi. 23; see Capital 


The laws of morality and chastity were elaborated 
by the Rabbis iu greatest detail (see Chastity; 
Ethics). The gambler was regarded as an outcast: 
his testimony was not admitted in evi- 
Public dence (see Evidence), nor was his 
Morality, oath believed (see Gambling; Per- 
jury). The Rabbis took especial care 
in interpreting and elaborating the laws touching 
upon the property rights of individuals. The bound- 
aries of fields were accurately marked ; and a curse 
was pronounced upon him who should remove his 
neighbor's landmarks (Deut. xix. 14, xxvii. 17; see 
Boundaries). Special officers were, therefore, ap- 
pointed, as stated above, to measure the fields and 
to determine the situation and limits of every one's 
land. It was forbidden to keep animals that might 
injure the crops of another (B. K. 79b). Dove-cots 
were to be fifty cubits distant from a neighbor's 
land, in order that the birds might cause no injury 
to the seeds (B. B. 23a). Wells, pits, and caves 
might not be dug in the vicinity of a neighbor's 
property (ib. 17a). An oven might not be con- 
structed in one's house, unless it was so built as to 
guard against any danger from fire (ib. 20b). Win- 
dows and doors might not be constructed so as to 
face the windows and doors of a neighbor's house 
{tb. 11a; see Easement; Hazakah). 

It was not permissible to buj' stolen goods or such 
as might be suspected of having been stolen. No 
milk, wool, lambs, or calves might be bought from 
a shepherd (B. K. 118b), nor wood or fruit from a 
hired gardener (ib. 119a). Nothing might be bought 
from women who had no personal property, nor 
from minors or slaves, except such objects respect- 
ing which there could be no suspicion (ib.), nor 
might anything be taken from them for safe-keep- 
ing (B. B. 51b). 

Not only was cheating in business forbidden (Lev. 
XXV. 14, 17), but even dissimulation in speech and 
misleading statements were prohibited (B. M. 58b), 
even when a non-Jew was concerned (Hul. 94a). 
Objects might not be "doctored" or ornamented 
with the intention of deceiving the buyer, nor might 
the finer parts of an article be prominently displayed 
in order to attract the eye (B. M. 60a, b). If water 
was accidentally mixed with wine, the wine might 
not be sold unless the buyer was notified of the ac- 
cident (ib.). Special officers were appointed to test 
the quality of wine in order to guard against adul- 
teration (Tosef., Kelim, B. K. vi. 10; comp. 'Ab. 
Zarah 58a, and Rashi, s.v. " Agardemin "). After an 
animal had been slaughtered a butcher might not 
arrest the free flow of the blood in order to make 
the meat weigh more (Hul. 113a). 

The prohibition against false weights and meas- 
ures applied not only to their use (Lev. xix. 35, 36), 
but also to the mere presence of them in one's 
house (Deut. xxv. 13-16; B. B. 89b). 

"Weights R. Levi declared that the sin of using 

and false weights and measures was greater 

Measures, than that of the breach of the laws of 

chastity ; for the latter could be atoned 

for by repentance, while the former could not, unless 

the tran.sgressor returned to each one whom he liad 

deceived the amount lost by the deception, which 
was almost impossible (B. B. 88b). Weights might 
not be made of lead, iron, or any other metal liable to 
accumulate rust, but only of stone or glass (ib. 89b). 
They might not be left in salt; for this might in- 
crease their weight (ib.). Ample space was to be 
allowed to admit of the scales swinging freely (ib. 
89a). The measures were to be cleaned at least 
twice every week ; the weights, at least once every 
week; and the scales, after every time that they 
were used (ib. 88a). The measures were to be 
so graded that each one, whether dry or liquid, 
should be one-half of that preceding it (ib. 89b, 90a). 
The seller was required to add y^j^ in liquid and ^-J^ 
in dry measures to the actual amount required, iu 
order that he might be certain that the measure was 
correct (ib. 88b). In places where the custom was 
to sell by level measures one was forbidden to sell 
heaped measures and the price accordingly, 
and vice versa (ib. ; see WEicnTs and Measures). 

Rai.sing the market price by speculation was re- 
garded with disfavor by the Rabbis; and he who 
practised it was classed together with the usurer and 
with him who used false weights and measures, to 
all of whom they applied the words of Amos viii. 
4-8 (B. B. 90b). It was forbidden to export from 
Palestine, even to the neighboring land 

Market of Syria, necessary articles of food 
Laws. (ib.). In times of famine one was not 
permitted to store up necessary arti- 
cles of food, even the products of his own field, but 
was required to put them on the market. At other 
times the storage of foodstufis was permitted to 
the farmer, but not to the speculator (ib.). Middle- 
men w^ere not tolerated, unless they improved the 
product either by grinding the grain into flour or 
by baking the flour into bread (ib. 91a; comp. 
RaSHBaM, s.v. -'En"). The retail storekeeper 
might not derive for himself a gain larger than one- 
sixth of the cost of the article (ib. 90a). The inhab- 
itants of a town had the right to bar outsiders from 
its market, although much freedom was exercised 
by the town authorities when the question of allow- 
ing a learned man to sell his goods was brought be- 
fore them (ib. 21b, 22a). Pedlers might not be de- 
barred from selling their goods; for there was an 
ancient tradition that Ezra liad permitted pedlers 
to sell cosmetics to women in all places (B. K. 
82a, b) ; they might, however, be prevented from 
settling in a town (B. B. 22a; .see Hawkers and 

The property of a person unable to defend himself 
was protected in the following ways: (1) In the case 
of minors, th? court appointed a guardian (Ket. 18b, 
20a); (2) in the case of the insane, the government 
took charge of their property (Hag. 3b; Yoreh 
De'ah, i. 5) ; (3) in the case of an absent defendant, 
the court appointed a curator, provided he had left 
because his life was imperiled; otherwise, the court 
intervened only if he had died during his absence 
and his property was about to be divided among his 
relations (B. M. 38b, 39a). 

The only material permissible for legal documents 
was material of a kind that would render erasures 
or changes easily recognizable (Git. 23a; Hoshen 
Mishpat, 42, 1). 



Police Laws 

Bibliography: Blorh, Dan Mnmltrh-TalmudUtche Pnlizei- 
recht, Hudapcst, 1879; Hamburper, Jl. li. T. il., s.v. I'olizci; 
Hastings, Dkt. Bible, s.v. Mmjistratr. and Officer ; Saal- 
schutz, Das Momische Itecht, ch. v., Berlin, lai-l. 
E. c. J. H. G. 

POLIDO, DAVID, See David Raphael ben 
Abkaham Polido. 

POLISHER jtrDEL. See Periodicals. 

POLITZER, ADAM : Austrian aurist ; born at 
Alberti-Insa, Hungary, Oct. 1, 1835; studied niediciue 
at the University of Vienna, receiving his diploma 
in 1859 and becoming assistant at the university 
hospital. Politzer established himself as a physi- 
cian in the Austrian capital ; was admitted to the 
medical faculty of the university there as privat- 
docent in aural surgery in 18G1 ; became assistant 
professor in 1870; was chief of the aural surgical 
clinic in 1873, and professor in 1895. 

Politzer has arranged a well-known anatomical 
and pathological museum for the aural-surgical 
clinic. He has written many essays for the medical 
journals, and is the author of: "Die Beleuch- 
tungsbilderdesTrommelfells," Vienna, 1865; "Zehn 
Wandtafcln zur Anatomic des Gehororgans," ib. 
1873; "Atlas dcr Beleuchtungsbilder des Trommel- 
fells " (containing 14 colored tables and 392 diagrams 
and illustrations), ib. 1876; "Lchrbuch der Ohren- 
heilkunde," Stuttgart, 1878 (4th ed. 1902); "Die 
Anatomische Zergliederung des Menschlichen Gehor- 
organs im Normalen und Kranken Zustande, " ib. 1889. 

Bibliography: Pagel, Biog. Lex. 

». F. T. H. 


Isaac b. Joseph. 

POLL-TAX : The custom of taxing a popula- 
tion at a certain amount per head dates back to very 
ancient times. The first time such a tax is men- 
tioned is in Ex. xxx. 12-16, where it is stated that 
svcry male " from twenty years old and above " 
shall give, as "a ransom for his soul," half a shekel 
for an offering unto the Lord. There were three 
3ther annual contributions obligatory on males, the 
imouuts being proportioned according to their 
means (comp. Deut. xvi. 16-17). Although the con- 
tribution of half a shekel was required only at the 
iime of the numbering of the children of Israel, the 
rabbinical law makes it an annual tax. There are, 
lowever, in the Bible traces of a regular poll-tax. 
Ezekiel, remonstrating against exactions, pointed 
)ut that the shekel was twenty gerahs (Ezek. xlv. 
)-12). This shows that in Ezekiel's time the princes 
mposed a greater exchange value on the shekel than 
;he prescribed twenty gerahs (comp. Ex. I.e.). 

Nehemiah reduced the contribution from half a 
shekel to one-third of a shekel, which was used for 
;he maintenance of the Temple and for the purchase 
)f the sacjifices (Neh. x. 33-34 [A. V. 32-33]). The 
Rabbis also, probably on the basis of the passage 

in Nehemiah, declared that the pre- 

Shekel scribed half-shekel contribution should 

Tax, be employed for the purchase of all 

the sacrifices necessary in the service 
)f the Temple and for the maintenance of the Tem- 
ple and the fortifications of Jerusalem (see Shekel 
N Rabbinical Litekature). Besides this con- 
ribution for religious purposes, the Jews were re- 
X,— 8 

quired at various times to pay poll-taxes of unknown 
amounts to their rulers. An inscription of S.n- 
nacherib shows that he impo.sed a per cupilu tax on 
all his subjects; the Jcw.s paid the same tux when 
tliey were under Syrian control. In tlu; time of the 
Second Temple the Greeks, particularly the Seleu- 
cidan rulers, apparently exacted u capitation tax 
from the Jews (Josephu.s, "Ant." xiii. 2. ^ 3; <<,mp 
I Mace. X. 29); Wilcken ("Griechischc 6.struka," 1. 
245 <>< »f7.). however, denies that the capitation tax 
existed before Augustus. From the reign of tlie 
latter the Romans exacted from tiie Jews among 
other taxes one known as the "tril)utum capitis." 
The Jews rose against this tax. which was both 
ignominious and burdensome. 

The historians do not agree as to the contribtition 
per capita under Herod, against whose oppressive 
taxations the Jews complained to the Roman em- 
peror ("Ant." xvii. 11, t^ 2). Josephus does not 
mention any census which the Romans took in con- 
nection with a "tributum capitis" at the time of 
Herod. Still. Wieseler ("Synopse." pp. 100 ct seq.) 
and Zumpt ("Geburtsjahr Chrisli," pp. 106 f< seq.) 
maintain that such a census was taken at that time, 
and that it was the cause of the .'^editiejn stirred 
up by the scribes Judas, son of Saripheus, and 
Matthias, son of Margolothus ("Ant." xvii. 6, § 2). 
According to these two historians, while the other 
taxes were levied by Herod himself in order to meet 
the expenses of internal administration of the prov- 
ince the capitation tax was paid into the Roman 

In 70 c.e. Titus, being informed that the Jews 
had paid half a shekel per capita to the Temple, de- 
clared that it should thereafter be paid into the im- 
perial treasury. This practise continued up to the 
reign of Hadrian, when the Jews ob- 
Under the tained permission to apply the half- 
Romans, shekel to the maintenance of their 
patriarch (comp. Basnage, "Histoire 
des Juifs," iv., ch. iv.). Nevertheless, it appears 
from Appian ("Syrian War." § 50) that Hadrian 
imposed on all the Jews of his empire a heavy poll- 
tax. It is further stated that the contribution of a 
half-shekel continued to be paid to the Roman em- 
peror, that it was remitted only under Julian the 
Apostate, and that Theodosius reimposed it. This 
poll-tax existed during the Middle Ages under tiie 
name of "der goldene Opkeupkenmg." In the 
Orient the Jews paid the half-shekel for the main- 
tenance of the exilarch. and Pethahiah of Regciis- 
burg relates that he found at Mosul six thousand 
Jews, each of whom paid annually a gold piece, one- 
half of which was used for the maintenance of the 
two rabbis, while the other half was paid to the 
emir (Depping, " Juden im Mittelalter," p. 138). 

The age at which the Jews became liable to the 
poll tax varied in dilTerent countries. In Germany 
every Jew and Jewess over twelve years old i)aid 
one gulden. In Spain and England, in 1273, tlie ace 
was ten years. The amount varied in liitTerent 
epochs. In Anjou the Jews paid ton "sols tour- 
nois" as a poll-tax; on certain occasions tlie poor 
Jews claimed to be unable to pay this poll tax : in 
these cases its collection was left to the community, 
which was responsible to the government for 1,000 




individuals, even when the number of Jews in tlie 
city was smaller. In England the tallage furciowu 
revenue occasionally took the form of a poll-tax. 
In Italy, according to Judah Minz (Respousa, No. 
42), a poll-tax was imposed on the community by 
its chiefs to the amount of half the communal ex- 
penses, the other half being raised by assessment. 
Ifl Turkey, in the fifteenth century, the Jews were 
subject to a light poll-tax, payable only by males 
over twelve years of age. To defray congrega- 
tional expenses, the Jewish communities until re- 
cently assessed equally every head of a household 
("rosh bayit") in addition to collecting a tax on 
property (Eracu). A similar tax was demanded 
from every family by the Austrian government (see 
Familianten Gesetz). 

Bibliography : Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Age^, 
pp. 40 et seq.; Depping, Lej< Juifs daiia le Mouen Age, Ger- 
man transl., pp. 24, l8, 138, 189; Gratz, Gesch. 3d ed., iii. 9, 
2bU: ix. 30; Nubling, Judengemeindcn dcs Mittelaltcrs, pp. 
xxxvi. et seq., 261 ct seq., 435 et seq.; Reynier, Ecnruimie 
Politique et Rurale des Arabes et do- Juifs, pp. 311 et seq., 
Geneva, 1820 ; Schurer, Gesch. 3d ed., i. 329 et seq., 529 et 
D. M. Sel. 


Austrian manufacturer and philanthropist; born at 
Wescheraditz, Bohemia, in 1817 ; died at Vienna June 
1, 1884. Pollak was trained for a technical career. 
In 1836 he established at Prague a factory for the 
manufacture of matches, and was so successful that 
within ten years he was able to export his goods. 
He established branch offices at London in 1846, 
at New York in 1847, and at Sydney in 1850, and 
extended his trade to South America during the 
years that followed. In 1858 he began to trade with 
Japan, established a branch at Yokohama in 1859, 
and the next year received permission to import his 
goods into Russia. Many of the inventions and 
improvements used in the manufacture of matches 
originated in his establishments, and as a conse- 
quence he was awarded many prizes in international 
expositions. His chief factories were at Prague, 
Budweis, and Vienna, with branches at Christians- 
berg, Maderhausen, and Wodnitza. 

Pollak's philanthropy was directed principally to 
popular education and the encouragement of scien- 
tific studies. His name is most closely associated in 
this connection with the Rudolphinum at Vienna, 
founded in commemoration of the birth of the 
Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria and dedicated 
Dec. 19, 1868. In this establishment 75 students at- 
tending the Polytechnic receive board, lodging, and 
all aids to study free. It has an endowment of 160,- 
000 Horins, while the interest of an additional 5,000 
florins is devoted to prizes for proficiency in physics 
and chemistry. Pollak also founded a large non- 
sectarian kindergarten at Baden. In 1869 he was 
ennobled by the emperor with the title " Von Rudin. " 

8. E. J. 

POLLAK, JACOB : Founder of the Polish 
method of halakic and Talmudic study known as 
the PiLPUL; born about 1460; died at Lublin 1541. 
He was a pupil of Jacob Maugolioth of Nurem- 
berg, with wliose sou Isaac he officiated in the rab- 
binate of Prague about 1490; but he first became 
known during the latter part of the activity of Judah 

Minz (d. 1508), who opposed him in 1492 regarding 
a question of divorce. Pollak's widowed mother- 
in-law, a wealthy and prominent woman, who was 
even received at the Bohemian court, hud married 
her second daughter, who was still a minor, to the 
Talmudist David Zehner. Regretting this step, she 
wished to have the marriage annulled ; but the hus- 
band refused to permit a divorce, and the mother, 
on Pollak's advice, sought to have the union dis- 
solved by means of the declaration of refusal 
("mi'un")ou the part of the wife, permitted by 
Talmudic law. Menahem of Mersebuhg, a recog- 
nized authority, had decided half a ceuturj' previ- 
ously, however, that a formal letter of divorce was 
indispensable in such a case, although his opinion 
was not sustained by the Oriental rabbis. When, 
therefore, Pollak declared the marriage of his sister- 
in-law null and void, all the rabbis of Germany 
protested, and even excommunicated him until 
he should submit to Menahem 's decision. Judah. 
Minz of Padua also decided against Pollak, who 
was sustained by one rabbi only, Meir Pfetl'erkorn, 
whom circumstances compelled to approve this 
course (Judah Minz, Responsa, No. 13; Gratz, 
"Gesch." 2ded., ix. 518). 

Pollak had a further bitter controversy, with 
Minz's son Abraham, regarding a legal decision, in 
which dispute more than 100 rabbis are said to have 
taken part (Ibn Yahya, "Shalshelet ha-Kabbaluh," 
ed. Amsterdam, p. 51a). 

After the accession of Sigismund I., in 1506, many 
Jews left Bohemia and went to Poland, founding a 
community of their own at Cracow. Pollak fol- 
lowed them, officiating as rabbi and organizing a 
school for the study of the Talmud, which, up to 
that time, had been neglected in Po- 
Becomes land. This institution trained young 
Rabbi men to introduce the study of the 
of Cracow. Talmud into other Polish commu- 
nities. In 1530 Pollak went to the 
Holy Land, and on his return took up his residence 
at Lublin, where he died on the same day as his 
opponent, Abraham Minz. His most famous pupils 
were Shachnaof Lublin and Meir of Padua. 

Pollak, in transferring the study of the Talmud 
from Germany, where it had been almost entirely 
neglected in the sixteenth century, to Poland, ini- 
tiated a movement which in the course of time domi- 
nated the Talmudic schools of the latter country. 
The sophistic treatment of the Talmud, which Pollak 
had found in its initial stage at Nuremberg, Augs- 
burg, and Ratisbon, was concerned 
Introduces chiefly with the mental gymnastics of 
Pilpul into tracing relationships between things 
Poland. widely divergent or even contradictory 
and of propounding questions and 
solving them in unexpected ways. 

Pollak's contemporaries were unanimous in re- 
garding him as one of the great men of his time, 
although the exaggerations to which his method 
eventually led were later criticized with severity 
(comp. Gans, "Zemah Dawid," ed. Offenbach, p. 
31a). Pollak himself, however, was not responsible 
for these, since he modestly refrained from publish- 
ing the decisions at which he arrived by his system, 
not wishing to be regarded as a casuist whose deci- 




sions were to be implicitl}' followed. Only a few 
quotations from him are found iu the works of other 

Bibliography : Jost. Gesch. dcs Jndcnthums itrirt Seiner 
Sekttn, iii. 240 et acq.; Griitz, Gesch. 2d ed., Ix. 58 ct xcq.; 
Zuiiz, G. S. Iii. 84 et .seo.; Briill's Jahrh. vli. 31 el seq.; Dein- 
bltzer, K7-Uische Bricfe, etc., p. 19, Crtu-ow, 1891. 
s. E. N. 


Austrian rabbi; born iu Hungary in IT'Jb; died at 
Trebitsch, Moravia, Dec. 16, 1879, where lie officiated 
as rabbi from 1828 until his death. He wrote a 
cominentary, entitled "Mekor Hayyim" (Presburg, 
1849; 3d ed. Warsaw, 1885), on R. Isjiac Arama's 
philosophical work " 'Akedat Yizhak," and a biog- 
raphy of the same scholar. Pollak was also the 
author of a number of Hebrew songs in the annual 
"Bikkure ha-'Ittim," and of a scholarly essay on 
the Talmudic rules of the KlpO^ DX K*^ in Stern's 
"Kebuzat Hakamim," besides being a regular con- 
tributor to many Hebrew periodicals. 

Bibliography: Fucnn, Keneset Yisrael, P- 366; Fiirst. Bihl. 
Jud. iii. \ll ;Neiizeit, 1879, pp. 400-412; Ha-Mawid, 1880, p. 
21 ; Zeitlin, Kirmt Sefer, li. 277. 
s. M. L. B. 

POLLAK, KAIM: Hungarian writer; born at 
Lipto-Szent-Miklos Oct. 6, 1835; educated iu the 
Talmud at his native city, at Presburg, and at 
Satoralja Ujhely. In 1858 he went to Prague, where 
he attended Rapoport's lectures, and then taught 
successively at the Jewish schools in Szegzard, Hod 
Mezo Vasarhely, and Alt-Ofen. When, in 1870, the 
Jewish school of the last-named community was 
made a municipal common school, Pollak was re- 
tained in his position, which he continued to hold 
until he was pensioned in 1902. 

Pollak has been a prolific writer. Besides several 
text-books, one of which, a geometry for pulilic 
schools, has passed through eight editions (1st ed. 
1878), he has published the following works: 
" Heber. -Magyar Teljes Szotar" (Budapest, 1880), a 
complete Hebrew-Hungarian dictionary; "Valoga- 
tott Gyongyok " (ib. 1886), a Hungarian translation 
of Gabirol's "Mibhar ha-Peninim"; "Megillat An- 
tiochus" (Drohobicz, 1886), a Hungarian translation 
with Hebrew notes; Gabirol's "Tikkun Middot 
ha-Ncfesh" (Budapest, 1895); "Izrael Nepenek 
Multjabol" {ib. 1896); Gabriel Schlossberger's 
"Petah Teshubah" (Presburg, 1898); "Josephini- 
sclie Aktenstiicke liber Alt-Ofen" (Vienna, 1902); 
and " Die Erinnerung an die Vorfahren " (ib. 1902), 
a history of mourning customs. In 1882 and 1883 
Pollak edited the religious journal "Jeschurun," 
directed mainly against Rohling. 

s. L. V. 

POLLAK, LEOPOLD : Genre- and portrait- 
painter; born at Lodenitz, Bohemia, Nov. 8, 1806; 
died at Rome Oct. 16, 1880. He studied under Berg- 
ler at the Academy of Prague, and later in Munich 
and (after 1833) in Rome. He became a naturalized 
citizen of Italy. 

Of Pollak 's paintings, several of which were en- 
graved by Mandel and Straucher, the following may 
be mentioned: "Shepherdess with Lamb" (Ham- 
burger Kunsthalle); "The Shepherd Boy"(Redern 
Gallery, Berlin); "Zuleika," from Byron's poem; 

and "Maternal Love." He painted also a portrait 
of Kiedel, which is owned by the Neue Piuakothek 
in Munich. 

bibliography: Bryan's IHrtOmaru of I'mutetn and En- 
mwcrs. London. 1«(« ; Hum WolfjfimK siuK.r. Allurmriuu 
KUmtler-Lcxicun, FrankforUon-the-Muln JtW 
« F. C. 

POLLAK, LUDWIG: Austrian archeologiKt; 
born in i»iague Sept. 14, 1868 (Ph.D. Vienna. 1898). 
In 1893 he was sent for a year by tlie Austrian urdv- 
ernment to Italy and Greece; and since that time be 
has lived in Rome. Besides shorter journeys in 
1900 he made an extensive scientific tour through 
Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor. In 1898 he was 
elected corresponding member of tlie German Ar- 
cheological Institutes. 

Pollak has published : " Zwei Va.sen ausder Wcrk- 
stattIIierons,"Leipsir, 1900; and " Klassische Antike 
Goldschmiedearbeiten im Besitze Seiner K.vcellenz 
A. T- von Nclidow, Kaiserlich Russischen lioi.schaf- 
ters in Rom," ib. 1903. s. 

KENAU : Austrian tinaiiiicr; born at Vitima Dec. 
24, 1827; died there Aug. 20, 1904. After leaving 
the gymnasium of his native city, at the age of 
twenty-two, he took charge of liis father's whole- 
sale leather business, and soon succeeded in extend- 
ing his export trade to France and Germany. In 
1857 he was elected to the municipal council of Vi- 
enna, and took an active part in the relief and con- 
struction works in the year of the great flnod (1862). 
Soon afterward he took charge of the budget of the 
city of Vienna, acting as auditor until his resigna- 
tion iu 1885. In 1867 he was sent by the city of 
Vienna as one of the delegates on the occasion of the 
coronation of the King of Hungary at Budapest, 
and in 1873 he was made chairman of the executive 
committee of the Vienna Exposition. He entered 
the Niederosterreichische Escomptebank as exam- 
iner, and was director-general and vice-president 
from 1885 to 1898, also officiating as deputy of the 
Vienna chamber of commerce, director of the Wiener 
Kaufmannshallc, and examiner of the Austro-Hun- 
garian bank. 

Pollak took a very active part in the affairs of 
the Jewish community, filling various offices, in- 
cluding finally that of president from May 4. lSS-1, to 
Dec. 27, 1885. Besides many other decorations he 
received the cross of the Legion of Honor, in recogni- 
tion of his services at the Paris Exposition of 1H78; 
five years before, for his services in connection with 
the Exposition of Vienna, he had received from the 
Austrian emperor the patent of nobility with the 
title " Von Borkenau." 

s. E. J. 

POLLITZER, ADOLPH: Violinist; born at 
Budapest July 23, 1832; died in London Nov. 14, 
1900. In 184'2 he left Budapest for Vienna, where 
he studied the violin under Bniim; and in his four- 
teenth year he took the first prize at the Vienna 
Conservatorium. After a concert tour in Germany, 
he went to Paris and studied under Alard. In 1850 
he crossed the Channel, and in Loudon his remark- 
able talents as a violinist were speedily recognized. 
He became leader at Her Majesty's Theatre under 




Sir Michael Costa and also led the new Philharmonic 
Orchestra and the Royal Choral Society. 

PoUitzer stood preeminent in his day as an inter- 
preter of classic chamber music, his playing attain- 
ing to what may be called "the great style." As a 
teacher of his instrument he was regarded as the 
most eminent of his time in England, and many 
pupils who attained distinction Jiad studied under 
him. In 1861, on the establishment of the London 
Academy of Music, he was appointed professor of 
the violin. This post he held till 1870, in which 
year he succeeded Dr. Wylde as principal of the 
Academy, and retained this position until his death. 

Bibliography: Jcic. Chron. Nov. 23, 1900. 

G. L. 

POLLONAIS, AMilLIE : French philanthro- 
pist ; born at Marseilles in 1835; died at Cap Ferrat 
July 24, 1898; daughter of Joseph Jonas Cohen, and 
wife of Desire Pollonais. In 1868 she published 
her "Reveries Maternelles," in which she cleveloped 
an entire system of education for children, and the 
next year she followed this with her " Philosophic 
Enfautine," a method of self-instruction for chil- 
dren. For her devotion to the wounded in the 
Franco Prussian war she received the medal of the 
Red Cross Society ; and her subsequent visits to the 
huts of the peasantry in the canton of Villefranche 
formed the basis of her most important work, "A 
Travers les Mansardeset lesEcoles" (1886). 

Amelie Pollonais was one of the founders of the 
"Gazette des Enfants,"and after 1887 a contributor 
to the "Foyer Domestique." In 1898 she founded 
a society in the interest of prisoners and released con- 
victs, reporting her progress in "La Femmc." She 
was president of the Societe des Beaux-Arts of Nice. 
Shortly after her death the name of the Place de la 
Marine and the Boulevard de Saint-Jean, at Ville- 
franche, was changed to Amelie Pollonais. 

8. J. Ka. 

POLLONAIS, GASTON: French journalist; 
born at Paris May 31, 1865; son of Desire Pollonais, 
mayor of Villefranche, and of Amelie Pollonais. 
About 1890 he began journalistic work as the 
local correspondent of the "Independance Beige," 
and contributed at the same time to "Le Voltaire," 
"Le Figaro," and "Le Gaulois." He then succeeded 
Fernand Xau as editor of "Le Soir," but, leaving 
that paper, returned to "Le Gaulois," to which he 
has now (1905) been a contributor for five years. 
During the Dreyfus affair Pollonais was an enthu- 
siastic adherent of the nationalist party. In 1902 
he became a convert to Catholicism, his godparents 
being the Marquis de Dion and Frangois Coppee. 
Pollonais is known also as a dramatist, having pro- 
duced "Le Jour de Divorce," "Celle Qu'il Faut 
Aimer," "Eve," and "Le Degel." 

8. J. Ka. 

POLNA AFFAIR: An accusation of ritual 
murder in Polna resulting from the murder of 
Agnes Hruza March 29, 1899. Polna, a city in the 
district of Deutschbrod, Bohemia, with a population 
of 5,000, including a small Jewish settlement, was 
shocked by a cruel murder. Agnes Hruza, a girl 
nineteen years old, living in Klein Veznic, a village 
two miles from Polna, and going every day to the 

city to work as a seamstress, left her place of 
employment on the afternoon of March 29, 1899, and 
did not return to her home. Three days later 
(April 1) her body was found in a forest, her throat 
having been cut and her garments torn. Near by 
were a pool of blood, some blood-stained stones, 
parts of her garments, and a rope with which she 
had been either strangled to death or dragged, after 
the murder, to the place where the body was found. 
The suspicion of the sheriff was first turned 
against four vagrants who had been seen in the 
neighborhood of the forest on the afternoon of the 
day when the murder was supposed to have been 
committed. Among them was Leo- 
Leopold pold Ililsner, a Jew, twenty-three 
Hilsner years old, who had been a vagrant 
Accused, all his life. Suspicion against him 
was based on the fact that he had been 
frequently seen strolling in the forest where the body 
was found. A search in his house showed nothing 
suspicious. lie claimed to have left the place on 
the afternoon of the murder long before it could have 
been committed: but he could not establish a per- 
fect alibi. Hilsner was arrested and tried at Kut- 
tenberg Sept. 12-16, 1899. He denied all knowledge 
of the crime. The only object which could be used 
as evidence against him was a pair of trousers on 
which some stains were found that, according to 
the testimony of chemical experts, might have been 
blood, while the garment was wet as if an attempt 
had been made to wash it. The most important 
witness against him was Peter Peschak, who claimed 
to have seen Ililsner, at a distance of 2,000 feet, in 
company with two strange Jews, on the day on which 
the murder was supposed to have been committed 
and on the spot where the body was found. An- 
other witness claimed to have seen him come from 
that place on the afternoon of March 29 and to have 
noticed that he was very much agitated. Both the 
state's attorney and the attorney for the Hruza fam- 
ily made clear suggestions of ritual murder. Testi- 
mony had proved that Hilsner was too weak to have 
committed the crime by himself. Still he was sen- 
tenced to death for participation in the murder, while 
his supposed accomplices were undiscovered and no 
attempt was made to bring them to justice. 

On the ground of technicalities an appeal was 
made to the supreme court (Cassationshof), which 
ordered a new trial, to be held at Pisek in order to 
avoid intimidation of the jury by the mob, and that 
it might not be influenced by political agitation. 
On Sept. 20, 1899, a few days after the first trial, 
Hilsner was frightened by his fellow prisoners, who 
showed him some carpenters working in the court- 
yard of the jail and told him that they were con- 
structing a gallows for him. They persuaded him to 
give the names of liis accomplices, as 
The "Con- by doing so he would obtain a commu- 
fession." tation of his sentence. Hilsner, a man 
of little intelligence, fell into the trap, 
and implicated Joshua Erbmanu and Solomon 
Wassermann as those who had assisted him. Being 
brought before the judge on Sept. 29, he declared 
that this charge was false. On Oct. 7, however, he 
reiterated the charge, but again recanted on Nov. 
20. Fortunately for those he had accused, they were 




able to prove perfect alibis, one of thcin liiwing 
been in jail on the day of the murder, while the 
other proved, from certificates of poorhousea in 
Moravia which he had visited as a beggar, that he 
could not possibly have been in Polna on tliat day. 

Meantime anti-Semitic agitators tried their best 

to arouse a strong sentiment against the Jews in 

general and against Hilsner in particular. The 

"Deutsches Volksblatt" of Vienna sent a special 

reporter to the place to make an investigation. 

Hilsner's brother was made drunk at 

Anti- a wine-shop and was induced to tell 

Semitic what the anti-Semites wished him to 

Agitation, say. The "Vaterland," the leading 

organ of the clericals, leiterated the 

blood accusation and produced evidence that the 

Church had confirmed it. In various places where 

political tension was very strong, as in Holleschau 

and in Nachod, sanguinary excesses took place. 

Neither a public indignation meeting which was 

called by the Jewish congregation of Vienna (Oct. 7) 

nor an appeal which was made to the prime minister 

had any tangible effect. 

The sentence of four months in jail imposed 
upon August Schreiber, one of the editors of the 
"Deutsches Volksblatt," for libeling the Jews (Dec. 
11) only added fuel to the fire. Violent speeches 
against the Jews were delivered in the Reichsrath 
(Dec 12) ; and Dr. Baxa, the attorney for the Hruza 
family, in a speech delivered in the Bohemian Diet 
(Dec. 38), accused the government of partiality to 
the Jews. 

Meantime Hilsner was accused of another murder. 
Maria Klima, a servant, had disappeared July 17, 
1898, and a female body found Oct. 27 following 
in the same forest where that of Agnes Hruza had 
been discovered, had, with great probability, been 
identified as that of the missing girl. Decomposition 
was, however, so advanced that not even the fact 
that the girl had been murdered could be estab- 
lished. Hilsner, charged with this crime also, was 
tried for both murders in Pisek (Oct. 25-Nov. 14, 
1900). The witnesses at this trial became more defi- 
nite in their statements. Those that at the first trial 
had spoken of a knife which they had seen in Hils- 
ner's possession, now asserted distinctly that it was 
such a knife as was used in ritual slaughtering. The 
strange Jews who were supposed to have been seen 
in company with Hilsner were more and more par- 
ticularly described. When witnesses were shown 
that the testimony given by them at the second trial 
differed from that given at the first trial, they said 
either that they had been intimidated by the judge 
or that their statements had not been correctly 

A special sensation was created by Dr. Baxa, who 
claimed that the garments of Agnes Hruza had been 
saturated with blood after the first trial in order to 
refute the supposition that the blood had been used 
for ritual purposes. The anti-Semites sent agitators 
to the place of trial, "L'Antijuif " of Paris being 
represented by a special reporter. A Bohemian jour- 
nalist, Jaromir HuSek, editor of "fesky Zajmy," 
constantly interrupted the trial by making remarks 
which were intended to prejudice the jury against 
the defendant. 

The verdict pronounced Hilsner guihy of having 
murdered both Agnes Hruza ami Mariu Klinm and 
of having libeled Jo.sliua Krbinanu and Soiomou 
Was.sermann. He was sentenced to death (Nov. 14, 
1900), but the sentence was commuted by tlie em' 
peror to imprisonment for life. (Jwing i,/the agita- 
tion of the anti-Semites, various attempts to prove 
Hilsner's innocence were futile, espcriallv tliat nmde 
by Profes.sor Masaryk of the Bolicmiuu" University 
in Prague, a Chri.stian wlio proposed the theory lliat 
Agnes Hruza was not killed at tlie jilaee where her 
body was found and that siie was most likely the 
victim of a family (juarrel, and that made bv Dr. 
Bulowa, a Jewish physician. ']). 

POLONNOYE : Town in the district of Novo- 
grad, Volhynia, Russia. It was a fortified place in 
the middle of the seventeenth century, when about 
12,000 Jews found there a refuge from the neigh- 
boring towns at the time of the Cossacks' Upkicino. 

Polonnoye had two well known rabbis in the 
seventeenth century, Solomon Harif and liis son 
Moses, who later became rabbi of Lemberg (see 
Buber, "Anshe Shem," p. 160, and I). Maggid. 
"Zur Geschichte und Genealogie der Gllnzburge." 
p. 221. St. Petersburg, 1899); but the best-known 
occupant of the rabbinate was undoubtedly Jacob 
Joseph ha-Kohen (d. 1769), whose principal work. 
"Toledot Ya'akob Yosef " (Miedzyboz and Koretz. 
1780, and numerous other editions), in which the 
teachings of R. Israel Ba'al Shem were first set 
forth in literary form, was burned in the syna- 
gogue-yard of Wilna when the war against Hasidism 
was commenced there. 

Polonnoye had a Hebrew printing-oflace at the 
end of the eighteenth century and at the beginning 
of the nineteenth. The earliest work which is 
known to bear the imprint of that town is the re- 
sponsa collection "Me'ir Netibim" (1791), by R. MeTr 
b. Zebi Margoliot; and the latest is Hayyim ibn 
'Attar's " Rishon le-Ziyyon " (1809), on a part of the 

At present (1905) the population of Polonnoye ex- 
ceeds 10,000, about 50 per cent of whom are Jews. 

Bibliography: Brockhaus-Efron, KntziklopnUrhrski N/oror; 
Graetz, Hist. v. 11; Hannover, Ynren Mtzulah. pp. 2K et 
seq., Cracow, 1896; Walden, Shem ha-Oai<'>Um hc-Haflaah, 
p. 103, Warsaw, 1882. 
H. 1{. P. Wl. 

POLOTSK (POLOTZK) : District town in the 
government of Vitebsk, Russia. The first mention 
of its Jewish community occurs in \5^)l. when, at the 
Polish Diet held at Wilna, Polotsk is expressly named 
in a list of towns whose Jews were to be exempt 
from the special tax known as "Serebeshchizna " 
(" Akty Yuzhnoi i Zapadnoi Rossii." i. 133). There 
are indications, however, of the existence of Jcwb at 
Polotsk as early as 1490 (" Sbornik Iinperatorskavo 
Istoricheskavo Obshchestva," xxxv. 41-43). In 1509 
the baptized Jew Abraham Ezefovich. a non-resi- 
dent of Polotsk, is spoken of as farmer of it.*; rev- 
enues and customs ("Aktovya Kiiigi Metriki Litov- 
skoi Zapisei," No. 8), similar positions being held 
about 1525 by his brother Michael {ib. No. 14. p. 
285), and about the middle of the same century by 
another Jew, Felix (ib. No. 87, p. 242). 

In 1563, in the war between the Russians and the 




Poles over Smolensk, the Muscovite grand duke 
Ivan the Terrible, having captured Polotsk, ordered, 
according to the testimony of an eye-witness, that 
all the Jews who refused to adopt Christianity — 
about 300 in number — should be thrown into the 
Diina (Sapunov, "Vitebskaj'a Starina," iv. 119, 189, 
232). In 1580, however, a Jewish conmiunity is 
again found in the town; but the letters patent of 
the so-called "Magdeburg Rights" of that year 
contain an edict against the Jews of Pi)lotsk, de- 
pri ving them of the right to trade and to build or buy 
houses (•' Akty Yuzhnoi i Zapaduoi Rossii," iii. 255). 
About seveuty-tive years later (ICoo), tiie Russians, 
with whom the Cossacks under Chmieluicki were 
allied, again overran Lithuania, and the Jewish 
communit}' at Polotsk met the fate of its fellow 
communities in Poland in tlie bloody years of 1648 
and 1649. The estates of the slaughtered Jews seem 
to have been distributed among the army officers 
and the nobiUty ("' Vitebskaya Starina," iv., part 2, 
p. 77). 

In the sixteenth centur}' Polotsk was more pros- 
perous than Wilna. It had a total population of 
100,000, and presumably its Jewish community was 
well-to-do, although the fact that its taxes were 
farmed to two Jews of Wilna (see R. Solomon Luria, 
Responsa, No. 4) might be adduced as evidence to 
the contrary. 

Before Polotsk was finally annexed to Russia (1772) 
it had lost its former importance, and a majoritj'^ of 
its inhabitants were Jews. The town 
Under the was at first incorporated in the gov- 
Russians. ernment of Pskov. In 1777 it was 
made a government citj', and is men- 
tioned as such in the letter against Hasidism which 
was sent out by Elijah Gaon of Wilna in 1796 (see 
Yazkan, "Rabbenu Eliyahu mc-Wilna," p. 73, 
Warsaw, 1900, where "Gubernia Plock " is a mis- 
print for " Polotsk "). In 1780 the town had 360 
wooden houses, of which 100 belonged to Jews; but 
the number of Jewish fannlies amounted to 478, as 
against 437 Christian families. In the same year 
Russia, in the flush of exultation over the lion's 
share in the division of Poland which liad fallen 
to her, gave the Jewish merchants of the govern- 
ment of Polotsk eejual rights with other merchants 
("Poinoye Sobraniye Zakonov," xx.. No. 14,962). 
Fourteen years later, however, this policy was 
changed, and a double tax was imposed in Polotsk 
and in several other governments upon the Jews 
who wished to avail tiiemselves of the privilege to 
become recognized burghers or merchants. In case 
a Jew desired to leave Russia he could do .so only 
after having paid in advance the doul)le tax for 
three years {ih. xxiii.. No. 17,224). In 1796 Polotsk 
became part of the government of White Russia; 
since 1802 it has been a part of the government of The policy of discriminating against the 
Jews was manifested again in 18:^0, when all the mer- 
chants of Polotsk except Jewish ones Avere granted 
immunity from gild- and poll-taxes for ten years 
("Poinoye Sobraniye Zakonov 1 1." xii.. No. 10,851). 

Polotsk has been one of the strongest centers of 
Hasidism in Lithuania, and has been also the seat 
of a zaddik. On the whole, however, Polotsk has 
never been distinguished as a center of Jewish 

learning, and the names of but very few of its ear- 
lier rabbis or scholars have been preserved in Jew- 
ish literature. Among them were Zebi Ilirsch b. 
Isaac Zack, rabbi of Polotsk and Shkud (1778), 
who was probably succeeded by Judah Lob b. 
Asher Margoliotii; Israel Polotsker, one of the 
early Hasidic rabbis (at first their opponent), who 
went to Palestine in 1777, returned, and died in Po- 
land; and R. Phinehas b. Judah Polotsk, " maggid " 
of Polotsk for eigliteen years in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century and author of numerous works. 
R. Phinehas b. Judaii afterward settled in Wilna; 
he became a pupil of Elijali Gaon, and 
Rabbis and died there Jan. 15, 1823. Among the 

Scholars, later rabbis of Polotsk were Senior 
Solomon Fradkiu, Jacob David Wi- 
lowsky, Judah Meshel ha-Kohen Zirkel, and Solo- 
mon Akselrod (b. Nov. 1, 1855; became rabbi of 
Polotsk in 1901). Senior Solomon Fradkin was 
known later as Reb Zalmen Lubliner (b. Liadi, gov- 
ernment of Moghilef, 1830; d. Jerusalem April 11, 
1902); he was rabbi of Polotsk from 1856 to 1868. 
Jacob David Wilowskj', later rabbi of Slutsk and 
chief rabbi of the Orthodox congregations of Chi- 
cago (1903-4), was rabbi from 1883 to 1887. Judah 
Me.shel ha-Kohen Zirkel (b. 1838) assumed the rab- 
binate in 1895, and occupied it until his death. May 
26, 1899. 

The Hasidim of Polotsk usually maintain their 
own rabbinate ; in the latter part of the nineteenth 
century it was held by Eliezer Birkhan (see Efrati, 
"Dor we-Dorshaw," p. 58, Wilna, 1889). The en- 
graver and author Yom-Tob, who became well 
known in England under the name of Solomon 
Bennett, was born in Polotsk about 1757, and lived 
there until about 1792 (see "Ha-Meliz," 1868, pp. 
85, 161-162). 

The population of Polotsk in 1897 was over 20,000, 
of which more than half are Jews. It has most of 
the institutions usually found in a Russian Jew- 
ish community, including a government school for 
boj's. It is an Orthodox community, and the sale, by 
a Jew, of anything on a Sabbath is almost an im- 
heard-of occurrence there (" Ha-Meliz, " 1897, No. 89). 
Tlie district of Polotsk, exclusive of the city, has 
only 3 Jewish landow ners in a total of 567. 

Bibliography : Griitz, Ga^ch. Het)revv transl., vii. 3.58, viii. l.^O; 
Kntziklopedichexki Slovar, xxiv. 36.S; liegcMy, ).. Nos. ~()8, 
473, 528-.530, 6^1,969; BershadskM. Litoi:<kiye Ycvreyi. p. 340; 
idem, Riu^^ko-Yevrciski Ai'khiv, i.. No. 97; ii.. No. KR); iii., 
Nos. 60, 71, 84 ; B. O. Lewanda, Shorn ik Zakonov. Nos. .');{, 43, 
3.59: Fuenn, Kirjiah Ne'cmnnalu I>P- 14, 3;i5, Wilna, 1S60; 
Guiiand, Le-Korot }ta-(icze.rnt bc-Visracl. iv. .34; Eisen- 
stadt-Wiener. 7->aV(< Kedoshim, p. 16, St. Petersburg?, 1897- 
1898; Eisenstadt, liablMnaw wa-Sofcraw. iii. 5-38, iv. 39; 
Waldcn, Shcni ha-Ocdolim }ic-Hadaish, p. 75. 
II. K. A. S. AV.-P. Wi. 

coiHiiunlaior on the Bible; lived at, Poland, 
in the eighteenth century. He wrote commentaries 
on four books of the Old Testament, as follows: 
"Shebet mi-Yehudah" (Wilna, 1803), on Proverbs; 
"Derek ha-Melek " (Grodno, 1804), on Canticles; a 
commentary on Ecclesiastes (rt. 1804); an(l"Gibe'at 
Pinehas " ( Wilna, 1808), on the Book of Job. Other 
works by him are: an extract, which he entitled 
"Kizzur Eben Bohan " {if>. 1799), from the great 
work of Kalonymus b. Kalonymus; " Rosh ha- 
Gibe'ah" (ib. 1820), in two sections, the first treat- 




ing of morals and asceticism, and tlie second con- 
taining sermons on the Four Parasliiyyot; and 
"Maggid Zedek," on the 613 commandments, wliich 
work is still unpublished. 

BinuoGRAPHY : Fiirst, TiihJ. Jud. 111. Ill; Benjacob, (hfariia- 
Sefarim, p. 3, No. 5, ct passim. 
K. C. 8. O. 

POLTAVA : Government of Little Russia, which 
came under Russian domination in 1764, and whose 
present organization was established in 1802. It has 
a Jewish population of 111,417, the total population 
being 2,780,427 (census of 1897). See table at end of 

Poltava : Capital of the above-named govern- 
ment. It had a small Jewish community, almost 
entirely Hasidic, before Jews from Lithuania, Po- 
land, and other 
parts of Russia 
began to arrive 
there in larger 
numbers after 
the great " Ilyin- 
skaya" fair had 
been transferred 
to that city from 
Romny in 1852. 
A Sabbath- and 
for Jewish ap- 
prentices was es- 
tablished there 
in 1861 ("Ha- 
Karmel," Rus- 
sian Supple- 
ment, 1861, Nos. 
46-47). Aaron 
Zeitlin then held 
the position of 
" learned Jew " 
under the gov- 
ernor of Poltava. 

dim, or Mitnag- 
gedim, soon in- 
creased in num- 
bers, and erected 
a synagogue 
for themselves 
about 1870. In 1863 Aryeh LOb Seidener (b. 1838; 
d. in Poltava Feb. 24, 1886) became the govern- 
ment rabbi, and during the twenty-three years in 
which he held the position he was instrumental in 
establishing various educational and benevolent in- 
stitutions and in infusing the modern spirit into the 
community. He was assisted in his efforts by the 
teachers Michael Zerikower, Eliczer Hayyim Rosen- 
berg, Abraham Nathansohn, and other progressive 
men. In 1890 Aaron Gleizer, son-in-law of Lazar 
Zweifel, was chosen to succeed Seidener. Eliezer 
AkibahRabinovich(b. Shilel, government of Kovno, 
May 13, 1862), whose project of holding a rabbinical 
conference in Grodno in 1903 aroused intense oppo- 
sition, has been rabbi of Poltava since 1893. One of 
the assistant rabbis, Jacob IMordecai Bezjialov, 
founded a yeshibah there. Poltava has a Talmud 
Torah for boys (250 pupils), with a trade-school con- 

Synagogue at Poltava, Russia. 

(From a photogrnph.) 

nected witli it, and a corresponding institution for 
girls. Ithasa Jewisii home for the aged (16inmiite8 
in 1897), u Hebrew literary society, and soverul churi- 
table and Zionist organizations. The most promi- 
nent among tlie Maskilim or progressive HcIikw 
scholars who have resided in Poltava was Ezckitl b. 
Joseph Mandelstamm (born in Zhagory, government 
of Kovno. in 1812; died in Poltava April 13, IM'JI). 
author of the Rii)liealonomastieon"()/.ariia-.Slii-in<it" 
(War.'^aw, 1889). with a "Sefer lm-Miilu'lm,"or sup- 
plement, which was printed posllnim " ' , IR94. 
He was the father of Dr. Ma.x Man. mm of 

Kiev. Michel Gordon's well-known YiddiHli song 
beginning "Ihr seit doch, Reb Yud. in Poltava 
gewen " is a humorous allusion to the moral pitfalls 
in the way of pious Jews of the older Polish com- 

m u u i t i e K w h o 
settled in the lib- 
eral-minded Pol- 
tava. The wri- 
ter Alexander 
SQsskind Rubi- 
novich, A. M. 
Borucljov (con- 
tributor to "Ha- 
Shilouh "), and 
Benzion MirkiD 
(journalist) are 
residents of Pol- 
tava. Among 
the prominent 
Jews of Poltava 
in early times 
were the fami- 
lies of Zelcnski. 
Portugalov, and 
The city has a 
total ))0|)ulation 
of 53.060, of 
whom 7,600 are 

K r e m e n - 
tchug' : City in 
the government 
of Poltava, on 
the left bank of 
the Dnieper. It 
now (1905)includes the suburb of Kryukov on the op- 
posite bank, and has the largest Jewish community in 
thegovernment,35,179—orabout 60 per cent of the to- 
tal population of the city (1897). It was the first of 
the important cities of southwestern Russia to which 
Jews from Lithuania and Poland began to flock 
about the middle of the nineteenth century. Even in 
the calamitous years 1881-82, when anti-Jewish riots 
occurred in the government of Poltava, numer- 
ous Jews from other places went to Krcmentohug. 
where the local Jewish community raised for them a 
relief fund of about 40.000 rubles. 

R. Isaac of Krementchug. who died there Dec.. 
1833, was among the earliest Hasidim of that city. 
Ne.xt in importance was Abraham Fradkin ' m 

Jacob Lapin addressed a letter which n; . in 

his "Reset ha-Sofer." pp. 11-12, Berlin. 1857). 
Other prominent men in tlic Jewish community 




were: Lipavski, Zlatopolski. Michael Ladyzhenski. 
Sergei (Sbmere) Roseuthal, David Sack (son of 
Hayyitn Sack of Zliagory), and Solomon, Marcus, 
and Vasili Rosenthal. 

Among those who went to Krcmentcluig in 1864 
was Herman Rosenthal, who established a printing- 
office there in 1869, and organized a circle of Maski- 
lim, among whom were Eliezer Schulmanx, J. 
S. Olschwaxg, L. and M. Jakobovich, and M. Sil- 
berberg (see Zedcrbaum, "Massa Erez,'" in "Ha- 
Meliz," 1869, No. 1). Rosenthal published the first 
work of M. Morgulis on the Jewish question, "So- 
braniye Statci " (1869), the first almanac of Kremen- 
tchug, and many other works. He was for eight 
years a member of the city council (1870-78), and it 
was owing to his efforts that the Realnoye Uchi- 
lishche (Realgymnasium) was built in 1872. The 
best-known rabbi of Krementchug was Joseph b. 
Elijah Tumarkin, who died there in 1875. After his 
death the Mitnaggedim elected Meir LOb Malbim as 
rabbi, but he died while on his way to assiune the 
position (Sept., 1879), and the candidate of the Hasi- 
dim of Lubavich, Ilirsch Tumarkin, the brother and 
son-in-law of Meir's predecessor, was elected to the 
position. The government rabbis were Freidus 
(1865), Mochan (1867-71), a son-in-law of Seidener 
of Melitopol, Ch. Berliner, and Freidenberg(whowas 
reelected in 1899). The present (1905) rabbi is Isaac 
Joel Raphalovich. 

Krementchug has numerous synagogues and the 
usual educational and charitable institutions, in- 
cluding a Talmud Torali, with a trade-school in 
connection with it, founded by Mendel Seligman ; 
a hospital, with a home for aged persons ("Ila- 
Meliz," 1890, No. 139); the society Maskil el Dal 
(founded 1898); and several Zionist organizations. 
It is the most important business and industrial 
center in the government. 

About a dozen other cities and towns in the govern- 
ment of Poltava contain Jewish communities, those 
of Pereyaslavl and Romny being among the largest. 

BiBLioGRAPnr : Keneset Tisrael, 1. 1124 ; Ha-Meliz, 1883, No. 
96 ; 1890, No. 7 ; Ha-Shahar. vl. 215-218, ix. 183 ct ticq.; Eisen- 
stadt-Wiener, Da'at Kedbshim, p. 26, St. Petersburg, 1897-98 ; 
Ha^a^efirah, 1897, No. H. 
H. R. P. Wl. 

Population op Poltava Government in 1897. 

















Total in government, 













H. R. V. R. 

POLYGAMY : The fact or condition of having 
more than one wife or husband at a time; usually, 

the practise of having a plurality of wives. While 
there is no evidence of a polyandrous state in prim- 
itive Jewish society, polygamy seems to have been 
a well established institution, dating from the most 
ancient times and extending to comparatively mod- 
ern days. The Law indeed regulated and limited 
this usage; and the Prophets and the scribes looked 
upon it with disfavor. Still all had to recognize 
its existence, and not until late was it completely 
abolished. At no time, however, was it practised so 
much among the Israelites as among otlicr nations; 
and the tendency in Jewish social life was always 
toward ^ 

That the ideal state of human society, in the mind 
of the primitive Israelite, was a monogamous one is 
clearly evinced by the fact that the first man 
(Adam) was given only one wife, and that the first 
instance of bigamy occurred in the family of the 
cursed Cain (Gen. iv. 19). Noah and his sons also 
are recorded as having only one wife each {ib. 
vi. 7, 13). Abraham had only one wife; and he 
was persuaded to marry his slave Hagar {ib. .\vi. 2, 
3; see Pii.egesh) only at the urgent request of his 
wife, who deemed herself barren. Isaac had only 
one wife. Jacob married two sisters, because he 
was deceived by his father-in-law, Laban {ib. xxix. 
23-30). He, too, married his wives' slaves at the re- 
quest of his wives, who wished to have children {ib. 
XXX. 4, 9). The sons of Jacob as well as Moses and 
Aaron seem to have lived in monogamy. Among 
the Judges, however, polygamy was practised, as 
it Avas also among the rich and the nobility (Judges 
viii. 30; comp. ib. xii. 9, 14; I Chron. ii. 26, iv. 5, 
viii. 8). Elkanah, the father of Samuel, had two 
wives, probably because the first (Hannah) was 
childless (I Sam. i. 2). The tribe of Issachar was 
noted for its practise of polygamy (I Chron. vii. 4). 
Caleb had two concubines {ib. ii. 46, 48). David 
and Solomon had many wives (II Sam. v. 13 ; I Kings 
xi. 1-3), a custom which was probablj' followed 
by all the later kings of Judah and of Israel (comp. 
I Kings XX. 3; also the fact that the names of 
the mothers of most of the kings are mentioned). 
Jehoiada gave to Joash two wives only (II Chron. 
xxiv. 3). 

There is no Biblical evidence that any of the Proph- 
ets lived in polygamy. Monogamous marriage was 
used by them as a s^'mbol of the union 
Prophetic of God with Israel, while polj'gamy 

Attitude, was compared to polytheism or idola- 
trous worship (Hos. ii. 18; Isa. 1. 1; 
Jer. ii. 2; Ezek. xvi. 8). The last chapter of Prov- 
erbs, which is a description of the purity of home 
life, points to a state of monogamy. The marriage 
with one wife thus became the ideal form with the 
great majority of the people; and in post-exilic 
times polygamy formed the rare exception (Tobit i. 
10; Susanna 63; Matt. xvii. 25, xix. 9; Luke i. 5). 
Herod, however, is recorded as having had nine 
wives (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 1, § 3). 

The Mosaic law, while permitting polygamy, in- 
troduced many provisions which tended to confine 
it to narrower limits, and to lessen the abuse that 
might arise in connection with it. The Israelitish 
woman slave who was taken as a wife by the son of 
her master was entitled to all the rights of matri- 




mony (see Hcsbaxd and Wife), even after he had 
taken another wife ; and if they were withheld from 
her, she had to be set free (Ex. xxi. 9-11; see 
Slaves). One who lived in bigamy might not show 
his preference for the children of the more favored 
wife by depriving the first-born son of the less 
favored one of his rights of inheritance (Deut. xxi. 
15-17; see Inheritance). The king should not 
"multiply wives" (j'6. xvii. 17; comp. Sanh. 21a, 
where the number is limited to IS, 24, or 48, accord- 
ing to the various interpretations given to II Sam. 
xii. 8); and the high priest is, according to the rab- 
binic interpretation of Lev. xxi. 13, commanded to 
take one wife only (Yeb. 59a; comp. Yoma 2a). 

The same feeling against polygamy existed in 
later Talmudic times. Of all the rabbis named in 
the Talmud there is not one who is mentioned as 

having lived in polygamy. The gen- 
Rabbinic eral sentiment against polygamy is 
Aversion illustrated in a story related of the 
to son of R. Judah ha-Nasi (Ket. 62a). 

Polygamy. A peculiar passage in the Targum 

(Aramaic paraphrase) to Ituth iv. 6 
points to the same state of popular feeling. The 
kinsman of Elimelech, being requested by Boaz 
to marry Ruth, said, "I can not redeem; for I 
have a wife and have no right to take another in 
addition to her, lest she be a disturbance in my 
house and destroy my peace. Redeem thou ; for 
thou hast no wife." This is corroborated by R. 
Isaac, Avho says that the wife of Boaz died on the 
day when Ruth entered Palestine (B. B. 91a). Po- 
lygamy was, however, sanctioned by Jewish law and 
gave rise to many rabbinical discussions. While 
one rabbi says that a man may take as many wives 
as he can support (Raba, in Y'eb. 65a), it was recom- 
mended that no one should marry more than four 
women (ib. 44a). R. Ami was of the opinion that a 
woman had a right to claim a bill of divorce if her 
husband took another wife (ib. 65a). The institu- 
tion of the Ketubah, which was introduced by the 
Rabbis, still further discouraged polygamy ; and 
subsequent enactments of the Geonim (see Mviller's 
"Mafteah," p. 282, Berlin, 1891) tended to restrict 
this usage. 

An express prohibition against polygamy was 
pronounced by R. Gershom b. Judah, "the Light of 

"the Exile " (960-1028), which was soon 

Rabbi accepted in all the communities of 

Gershom's northern France and of Germany. The 

Decree. Jews of Spain and of Italy as well as 

those of the Orient continued to prac- 
tise polygamy for a long period after that time, al- 
though the influence of the prohibition was felt even 
in those countries. Some authorities suggested that 
R. Gershom's decree was to be enforced for a time 
only, namely, up to 5000 a.m. (1240 c.e. ; Joseph 
Colon, Responsa, Xo. 101; see Shulhan 'Aruk, Eben 
ha-'Ezer, i. 10, Isserles' gloss), probably believing 
that the Messiah would appear before that time ; but 
this opinion was overruled by that of the majority 
of medieval Jewish rabbis. Even in the Orient mon- 
ogamy soon became the rule and polygamy the ex- 
ception ; for only the wealthy could afford the lux- 
ury of many wives. In Africa, where Mohammedan 
influence w^as strongest, the custom was to include 

in the marriage contract the following paragraph: 
"The said bridegroom . . . hereby proniiws that 
he will not take a second wife during ;hc lifetime 
of the said bride . . . except with her consent; and, 
if he this oath and t / .1 wife 

during the lifetime of the saiil bri. iit her 

consent, he shall give her every tittle of what is 
written in the marriage settlement, r ' r with 
all the voluntary additions Jicrtin d- javiug 

all to her up to the last farthing, and he shall free 
her by regular divorce instantly and with fitting 
solemnity." This condition was rigidly enforced 
by the rabbinic authorities (see Abrahams, "Jewish 
Life in the Middle Ages," p. 120). 

The Jews of Spain practised polygamy as late 

as the fourteenth century. The only requirement 

there was a special permit, for which a certain sum 

was probably paid into the king's 

Later treasury each time a Jew took an 

Instances, additional wife (Jacobs, "Sources." p. 
XXV., No. 104, London, 1894;. Such 
cases, however, were rare exceptions. The Span- 
ish Jews, as well as their brethren in Italy and in 
the Orient, soon gave up these practises; and to- 
day, although the Jews of the East live under Mo- 
hanmiedan rule, but few cases of polygamy are 
found among them. 

In some exceptional cases bigamy was -.-d 

(see Bigamy) ; but this was in very rare < ly, 

and the consent of 100 learned men of three dif- 
ferent states was required (see Insanity). While 
in the case of the 'Agunah one witness who tes- 
tifies to the death of her husband is sufficient to 
permit the woman to remarry, in the case of the 
woman's disappearance some authorities ("Bet 
Shemuel" on Eben ha-*Ezer, 158, 1; 15, 20) are of 
the opinion that the testimony of one witness is not 
sufficient to permit the husband to remarry (see 
Fassel, "Mishpete El; Das Mosaisch-Rabbinische 
Civilrecht," §§ 63, 112, Xagy-Kanizsa, 1852). Later 
authorities, however, permit him to remarry even 
when there is only one witness to testify to the 
death of his wife, and even when that witness did 
not know her personally, providing that after he had 
described the deceased woman the husband recog- 
nized the description as that of his wife (" Noda' 
Bihudah," series ii., Eben ha-'Ezer, 7, 8; comp. 
"Hatam Sofer" on Eben ha-'Ezer, responsum 2; 
"Pithe Teshubah" on Eben ha-'Ezer. 1, 10). 

In spite of the prohibition against polygamy and 

of the general acceptance thereof, the Jewish law 

still retains many provisions which apply only 

to a state which permits polygamy. 

Survivals The marriage of a married man is 
of legally valid and needs the formality 

Polygamy, of a bill of divorce for its dissolution, 
while the marriage of a married woman 
is void and has no binding force (El)en ha Ezir, 1. 
10; comp. "Pithe Teshubah," § 20, where is quoted 
the opinion of some authorities that after a man takes 
a second wife he is not compelled to divorce hcrV 
The Reform rabbis in conference assembled (Phila 
delphia, 1869) decided that "then ' " ir- 

ried man to a second woman can ; .> e 

nor claim religious validity, just as little as the 
marriage of a married woman to another man, but. 

Polyglot Bible 



like this, is null and void from the beginning." Still, 
with the majority of Jews, this is not even an open 
question, and the marriage of a married man is con- 
sidered just as valid as that of an unmarried man; 
it not only requires the formality of divorce in the 
case of separation, but also makes him subject to the 
laws of relationship; so that he can not afterward 
marry the wife's sister while the wife is living, nor 
can he or his near relatives, according to the laws 
of consanguinity, enter into matrimonial relations 
•with any of her near relatives (see Makuiage). 

Bibliography: Hastings. Dic(. Bible, s.v. Marriage: Ham- 
burger, R. B. T., s.v. Vielweiherei; Frankel, Grundlitiien 
des Mosaixch-Talmudiselun Eherechts. Breslau. 18tiU; Lkh- 
tenstein. Die Ehe nach Mo!<ai.'ich-Talmudi,'icher Atiffassuitu, 
lb. 1879; Klugman, Stellung dcr Frau im TaUimd, Vienna, 
1898; Rabbinowicz, Meho ha-Talmitd, Hebr. transl., p. 80, 
Wilna,18iH; Buchholz, Z>i« Faun! if, Breslau, 1867; Mielziner, 
Tlie Jeiciifh Law of Marriage iind Divorce, Cincinnati, 1884 ; 
Duscbak, Das Mosaisch-Talinudische Eherecht, Vienna, 
E. c. J. H. G. 

POLYGLOT BIBLE. See Bible Editions. 

POMEGRANATE (pDI : Punica Granatum): 
A tree of the myrtle family. The pomegranate was 
carried into Egypt in very early historic times 
(comp. Num. xx. 5), and was also cultivated in Pal- 
estine, Assyria, and most of the countries bordering 
the Mediterranean. The spies brought pomegran- 
ates, grapes, and figs as signs of the fertility of 
Canaan (ib. xiii. 23). Several Biblical passages in- 
dicate that the pomegranate was among the com- 
mon fruit-trees of the country (Deut. viii. 8; Joel i. 
12; Hag. ii. 19). A famous pomegranate-tree grew 
at Gibeah in the time of Saul (I Sam. xiv. 2). Pome- 
granate-groves, as well as the beautiful tlowerof the 
tree, are mentioned in the Song of Solomon ; and the 
fruit furnishes similes (Cant. iv. 3, 13; vi. 7, 11; vii. 
13). The pomegranate was used in art. The two 
pillars, Jachin and Boaz, were ornamented with a 
representation of it (I Kings vii. 18); and pomegran- 
ates were embroidered on the garment of the high 
priest (Ex. xxviii. 33). 

Throughout the East the pomegranate is the sym- 
bol of luxuriant fertility and of life. Pomegranates 
are eaten raw, their acid juice being most refreshing 
(comp. Cant. iv. 3). They are also dried (comp. 
Ma'as. i. 6). The juice mixed with water is to-day 
a favorite drink in the East; in former times it was 
also prepared as a kind of wine (Cant. viii. 2; Pliny, 
"Hist. Naturalis," xiv. 19). 

E. Q. H. I. Be. 

POMIS, DE (D'nisnn p) : An old Italian Jew- 
ish family which claimed descent from King David. 
According to a legend, reproduced by De Pomis in 
the introduction to his lexicon "Zemah Dawid," the 
Pomeria family was one of the four families brought 
from Jerusalem to Rome by Titus. The family is a' 
most important one, being related to that of Anaw. 
Members of the family are said to have lived in Rome 
until about 1100, when they emigrated, scattering 
through Italy. Most of them settled at Spoleto in 
Umbria, where, according to the account of David 
de Pomis, they and their descendants remained for 
420 years; but when Central Italy was sacked by 
the army of Charles V. of Spain in 1527, the family 
fell into the hands of the enemy and lost its entire 
property. In the introduction to his dictionary 

David de Pomis incorporates his autobiography, and 
traces his genealogy back to the martyr Elijah de 
Pomis, as follows: David (b. 1525), Isaac, Eleazar, 
Isaac, Abraham, Menahem, Isaac, Obadiah, Isaac, 
and Elijah. This would set the date of Elijah at 
approximately 1270, which is historically correct. 
As the last-named lived at Rome, however, the 
statement that the family left that city about 1100 
can not be correct. Moreover, members of the 
family did not live 420 years, but only 220 years, 
at Spoleto. 

Bibliography: David de Pomis, ?<'mo?iDawid,Introductlon; 
Nepi-(ihirondi, Toledot Gedole I'isrocf, p. 84; Vogelstein 
and Rieger, Gesch. dcr Juden in Rom, i. 257. 

G. I. E. 

David ben Isaac de Pomis : Italian physician 
and philosopher; born at Spoleto, Umbria, in 1525; 
died after 1593. When David was born his father 
was rich ; but soon after, he lost his fortune in the 
following manner: When the Imperialists plundered 
Rome, Isaac, fearing that they would attack Spo- 
leto, sent all his possessions to Camerino and Civita. 
The troops of Colonna surprised the convoy on its 
way, and confiscated all of Isaac's goods. He then 
settled at Bevegna, where David received his early 
education. In 1532 Isaac de Pomis settled at Todi 
and confided the instruction of his son to his uncles 
Jehiel Alatino and Moses Alatino, who taught 
the boy the rudiments of medicine and philos- 

David was graduated, Nov. 27, 1551, as " Artium 
et Medicinaj Doctor " at the University of Perugia. 
Later he settled at Magliano, where he practised 
medicine, holding at the same time the position of 
rabbi. The anti-Jewish laws enacted by Paul IV. 
deprived David of his possessions and likewise of 
his rabbinate; and he entered the service of Count 
Nicolo Orsini, and five years later that of the Sforza 

The condition of the Jews of the Pontifical States 
having improved on the accession of Pius IV., David 
went to Rome, and, as the result of a Latin dis- 
course delivered before the pope and cardinals, ob- 
tained permission to settle at Chiusi and to practise 
his profession among Christians. Unfortunately, 
Pius IV. died seven days later, and the permission 
was annulled by Pius V. David then went to 
Venice, where a new permission was granted to him 
by Pope Sixtus V. 

De Pomis was the author of the following works: 
(1) "Zemah Dawid," a Hebrew and Aramaic dic- 
tionary dedicated to Pope Sixtus V., the words 
being explained in Latin and Italian. Venice, 1587. 
This dictionary, variously estimated by the lexicolo- 
gists (comp. Richard Simon in the appendix to 
" De Ceremoniis Judteorum " ; David de Lara in the 
introduction to " 'Ir Dawid "), was modeled after 
Jehiel's lexicographical work, '"Aruk." (2) "Ko- 
helet," the Book of Ecclesiastes translated into Ital- 
ian, with explanatory notes, ib. 1571, dedicated to 
Cardinal Griinani. (3) •'Discorsolntornoall' Umana 
]\Iisena, c Sopra il Modo di Fuggirla," published as 
an appendix to "Kohelet," ib. 1572, and dedicated 
to Duchess Margarete of Savoy (David also trans- 
lated the books of Job and Daniel ; but these were 
never published). (4) "Brevi Discorsi et Eficacis- 



Polyglot Bible 

simi liicordi per Liberaie O^^ui Citti Oppressa dal 
Mai Contagioso," ib. 1577. (5) "Euarratio Brevis de 
Senum Allectibus Pra*caveudis Atque Curaudis" 
dedicated to tlie doge aud senate of Venice, ib. 1588. 
(6) A work on the divine character of the Venetian 
republic, which he cites in Ins "Enarratio Brevis," 
but which has not been preserved. (7) " De Medico 
Hebra;o Enarratio Apoiogica," ib. 1588. Thisapolo- 
getical work, which defends not only phy- 
sicians, but Jews in general (see some extracts trans- 
lated in Winter and Wiinsche, "Die Jiidische 
Litteratur," iii. 698 et seq.), earned much praise from 
Roman patricians, such as Aldus Manutius the 
Younger, whose letter of commendation is prefixed 
to the book. 

BiBLiocJRAPHY : Wolf, Bihl. Hehr. 1. 311-313; Jost, Annalen, 
1839. p. ~£i ; Griitz. Gescli.ix. 504 ; II ViasilU) Israeliticii, 1875, 
p. 175; 1876, p. 319; Berliner's Magazin, 187.5, p. 48; Steln- 
schnelder, Jeivish Literature, p. 335; idem, in Monats- 
schrift, xllli. 32; Dukes, in R.E.J. I. 14.5-152; Vo(?elstein 
and Hieger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom, 11.259-260; Carmoly, 
Histoire des Medecins Juifs, 1. 150-153. 
Q. I. Br. 

Elijah de Pomis : Rabbi and director of the 
community of Rome; died as a martyr Tammuz 20, 
5058 (= July 1, 1398). When the Roman commu- 
nity was assailed under Boniface VIII., Elijah was 
the first to be seized. To save his coreligionists he 
pleaded guilty to all the charges brought against 
him, and was sentenced to trial by fire and water, 
perishing in the former, whereupon the confiscation 
of his property, the principal object of the trial, was 
carried out. Two anon^'mous elegies were com- 
posed on his death. 

BiBLiORRAPHY : Kobe^ 'al Yad, iv. 30 et seq.; Berliner, Qesch. 
der Juden in Rom, 11. 57 ; Vogelsteln and Rieger, Gesch. 
der Juden in Rom, i. 257. 

Moses de Porais and Vitale de Pomis were 

known under the name Alatino. 

G. I. E. 

POMPEY THE GREAT (Latin, Cneius 
Pompeius Magnus) : Roman general who sub- 
jected Judea to Rome. In the year 65 B.C., diiring 
his victorious campaign through Asia Minor, he sent 
to Syria his legate Scaurus, who was soon obliged 
to interfere in the quarrels of the two brothers 
Aristobulus II. and Hyrcanus II. When Pompey 
himself came to Syria, two years later, the rivals, 
knowing that the Romans were as rapacious as they 
were brave, hastened to send presents. Pompey 
gradually approached Judea, however; and in the 
spring of 63, at the Lebanon, he subdued the petty 
rulers, including the Jew Silas (Josephus, "Ant.'' 
xiv. 3, ^ 2) and a certain Bacchius Judaeus, whose 
subjugation is represented on a coin (Reinach, "Les 
Monnaies Juives," p. 28). Pompey then came to 
Damascus, where the claims of the three parties to 
the strife were presented for his consideration — those 
of Hyrcanus and Aristobulus in person, since the 
haughty Roman thus exacted homage from the Ju- 
dean princes, while a third claimant represented the 
people, who desired not a ruler but a theocratic re- 
public (Josephus, § 2; Diodorus, xl. 2). Pompey, 
however, deferred his decision until he should have 
subdued the Nabataeans. 

The warlike Aristobulus, who suspected the de- 
signs of the Romans, retired to the fortress of Alex- 
ANDRiuM and resolved to offer armed resistance; but 

at the demand of Pompey he surrendered the for- 
tress and went to JerusaltMn. intending to continue 
his opposition there (Josepims, "Ant." xiv. 3, ^4; 
idem, " B. J." i. 0, $§ 4. 5). Pompey followed him 
by way of Jericho, and as Aristobulus ajjuin deemed 
it advisable to surrender to the Romans. Pompey 
sent his legate Gabinius to take posHc-ssiou of the 
city of Jerusalem. 

This lieutenant found, however, lliut there were 
other defenders there besides Aristobulus. where- 
upon Pompey declared Ari-stobulus a prisoner aud 
began to besiege the city. Although the parly 
of Hyrcanus opened the gates to tlie Romans, tlie 
Temple mount, which was garrisoned by the peo- 
ple's party, liad to be taken i)y means of rams 
brought from Tyre; and it was stormed only after a 
siege of three months, anil then on a Sabbutli, .vhen 
the Jews were not defending the walls. Josephus 
calls the day of the fall of Jerusalem "the day of 
the fast" {vriareiw: ij/tifja- "Ant." xiv. 4, ^ 8); but in 
this he merely followed the phraseology of his Gen- 
tile sources, which regarded the Sabbath as u fast- 
day, according to the current Grero-Roman view. 
Dio Cassius says(xxxvii. 16) correctly that it was 
on a "Cronos day," this term denoting the 

The capture of the Temple mount was accom- 
panied by great slaughter. The priests wlio were 
officiating despite the battle were massacred by the 
Roman soldiers, and many committed suicide; while 
12,000 people besides were killed. Pompey himself 
entered the Temple, but he was so awed by its sanc- 
tity that he left the treasure and the costly vessels 
untouched ("Ant." xiv. 4, ^4; "B. J." i. 7. § 6; 
Cicero, " Pro Flacco, " § 67). The leaders of the war 
party were executed, and the city and country were 
laid under tribute. A deadly blow was struck at 
the Jews when Pompey separated from Judea the 
coast cities from Rapiiia to Dora, as well as all the 
Hellenic cities in the east-Jordan country, and the 
so-called Decapolis, besides Scythopolis and Sa- 
maria, all of which were incorporated in the new 
province of Syria. These cities, without exception, 
became autonomous, and dated their coins from the 
era of their "liberation " by Pompey. The small 
territory of Judea he assigned to Hyrcanus, with 
the title of "ethnarch" ("Ant." i.e.; "B. J."/.«.: 
comp. "Ant." xx. 10. §4). Aristobulus. together 
with his two sons Alexander and Autigonus. and 
his two daughters, was carried captive to Rome to 
march in Pompey 's triumph, while many other Jew- 
ish prisoners were taken to the same city, this cir- 
cumstance probably having much to do with the 
subsequent prosperity of the Roman community. 
Pompey's conquest of Jerusalem is generally be- 
lieved to form the historical background of the 
Psalms of Solomon. 

BiBLiooRAPHv: Moranisen. R/imiKChe Gefehirhf>: Mh r^.. UL 
113-154: Griitz. Gesrh. 4tli ed.. 111. 157. 17:.' ■■■«. 

3d ed.. 1. 294-;»l; Berliner. G>'<-h. rUr J\. a, 

Frankfort-on-the-Main. I" ' 
niunlty of Rome was f- 

fnll of Jerusalem merely nn i-ii.-M ii~ mi...'- .- . ■ .... •__- • 
stein and Rieger, Gc«ch. der Juden in Rom, 1. a. Benin, 
1896). „ „„ 

S. Kn. 



in thegoverumculuf Kuvn.' lvi.--i:i. In 





Nikolai Tyszkiewicz by cuttiug down a forest tliat 
lay between New and Old Poniewicz helped mate- 
rially in enlarging the city to its present size and 
in founding the suburb Xikolayev. Poniewicz came 
under Russian dominion after the last partition of 
Poland, and it became a part of the government of 
Kovno in 1842. More than half the population of 
the city consists of Jews, and there is also a small Ka- 
raite community. In 1865 the number of inhabit- 
ants was 8,071, of whom 3,648 were Jews including 
70 Karaites. By 1884 the population had increased 
to 15.030, including 7,899 Jews, but in 1897 the total 
population is given as 13,044. Poniewicz has one 
synagogue built of brick and seven built of wood. 
The Karaite community also maintains a synagogue. 
Of other institutions in the city there are a govern- 
ment school for Jewish boys, one for girls, a hospi- 
tal (opened 1886), and a Talmud Torah. There are 
in addition numerous other communal institutions 
and societies. 

R. Isaac b. Joseph (d. before 1841), whose name 
is signed to an approbation in the " 'Ateret Rosh " 
(Wilna, 1841), is one of the earliest known rabbis of 

Poniewicz. R. Moses Isaac, of Libau, 

B-abbis and Plungian, and Taurogen, was prob- 

Scholars. ably his successor, and was himself 

succeeded by R. Hillel Mileikovski or 
Salanter. R. Elijah David Rabinovich-Te'omim 
succeeded R. Hillel. He was born in Pikeln, gov- 
ernment of Kovno, June 11, 1845, and now (1904) is 
rabbi at Jerusalem. Rabinovich occupied the posi- 
tion of rabbi of Poniewicz from 1873 to 1893, when 
he went to Mir as the successor of R. Yom-Tob Lip- 
man B0SL.\XSKI. 

The poet Leon Gordon commenced his career as 
a teacher in the government school of Poniewicz, 
where he remained until 1860 and married the grand- 
daughter of one of its former prominent citizens, 
Tanhum Ahronstam (died Nov. 10, 1858; see "Ha- 
Maggid," ii., No. 50, and Gordon's letters, Nos. 1-36). 
Isaac Lipkin, son of R. Israel Lipkin (Salanter), was 
also a resident in the city until his death. The ear- 
liest known " maggid " or preacher of Poniewicz 
■was Menahem Mendel, author of " Tamim Yahdaw " 
(Wilna, 1808). 

The district of Poniewicz, which contains twenty- 
three small towns and villages, liad in 1865 7,410 
Jews (including 351 Karaites), of whom 59 were agri- 
culturists. In 1884 it had 34,066 Jews in a total 
population of 200,687, and in 1897 43,600 Jews in a 
total population of 210,458. 

Bibliography: AlenUzln. StatMtiche^ki Vremennik, etc., 
series UK, No. 2, St. Petersburg, 1884 ; Brockhaus-Efron. Ent- 
ziklniiedicha<ki Slovar, s.v.; JUdisches Volkuhkitt, St. Te- 
ter.sburg, 1886, No. 33; Semenov, Russian Geographical Dic- 
tinnaru. s.v.; Elsenstadt, Dor Rabbanaw we-Soferaiv, 11. 
29, 43, 52 ; iv. 21, 34. 
It. K. P. Wl. 


CONEGLIANO): lUiliau-Aincrican man of letters, 
composer, and teacher; born at Ceneda, Italy, 1749; 
died 1837. He belonged to a well-known Jewish 
family, which had produced the distinguished Ital- 
ian-Turkish diplomatist Dr. Israel Conegliako. 
With his parents and brothers. Da Ponte, for ma- 
terial reasons, was baptized in his fourteenth year, 
and the new name which he was destined to make 

Lorenzo da Ponte. 

famous was adopted in honor of a Catholic bishop 
who was his protector. 

At an early age he became professor of belles- 
lettres at Treviso, later at Venice, and published va- 
rious poems, including a political satire, which led to 
his exile. Da Ponte went to Austria, where he soon 
won the favor of the emperor Joseph II., was ap- 
pointed "poet" to the imperial theaters in Vienna, 
and in that capacity met Mozart. He composed for 
the great musician the 
libretti to his famous 
operas " Mariage de 
Figaro" and "Don 
Juan," and became an 
important figure in 
court, literarj', and mu- 
sical circles. On the 
death of Joseph II. he 
lost favor, and after 
various vicissitudes, in- 
cluding several years 
of service as dramatist 
and secretary to the 
Italian Opera Company 
in London, he emi- 
grated to America 
early in the nineteenth 
century. Again un- 
fortunate, he was compelled to earn a subsistence 
by teaching Italian. He wrote various plays, son- 
nets, and critical essays, made a translation of the 
Psalms, and managed Italian operatic performances. 
From 1826 until his death he was professor of the Ital- 
ian language and literature at Columbia College. He 
encouraged the study and developed the apprecia- 
tion of Dante in America, and won consideiable 
influence over many pupils. He became involved in 
a controversy with Prescott, the historian, concern- 
ing Italian literature, Prescott's rejoinder to him 
being preserved in the historian's "Miscellaneous 
and Critical Essaj's." 

Da Ponte was instrumental in bringing the Garcia 
Opera Company to the United States, the first to 
play there. He himself became manager of a simi- 
lar company in New York in 1833, by which an 
opera composed by him at the age of eighty was 
presented, his niece being introduced in it as the 
prima donna. His best-known work is his ex- 
tremely interesting "Memoirs," which Tuckerman 
has compared to Franklin's autobiography, and 
which appeared in various Italian editions, in a 
French translation (1860), with an introduction by 
Lamartine, and also in German form. A notice- 
able revival of interest in Da Route's career, which 
had been well-nigh forgotten, was called forth re- 
cently by the publication in Italy, in 1900, of his 
works, together with his biography, in an elaborate 
edition of 500 pages, and of various popular essays 
dealing with his career. His Jewish antecedents 
were commented upon in various biographies, and 
were emphasized by contemporaries for the purpose 
of injuring his position. His "Memoirs" indicate 
that even in his youth he was proficient in Hebrew, 
and the impress of his ancestry and of his early 
Jewish studies has been discerned by critics of his 
works and views. 




Bibliooraphy: Marchesan, Delia Vita e dclle Opera di Lo- 
renzo da Polite, Trevlso, 1900; H. E. Krehblel, Music and 
Manners: Henry Tiickerinan, in I'utuam'x ManazirteA^^i, 
xll. 527 (reprinted In Dublin UtiivcrKitji Maoazinc, Ixxx. 
215); JewiKh Comment, Aug. 9, 1900; see also Krehblel's re- 
view of Prof. Marcliesan's work In the THbune, New York, 
Sept. 9, 1900. 
A. M. J. K. 

PONTOISE : French town ; capital of an arron- 
dissenicnt in the department of Seine-et-Oise. It 
contained a Jewish community as early as the elev- 
enth century. In 1179 (according to some authori- 
ties, in 1166 or 1171) the Jews of Pontoise were ac- 
cused of the murder of a Christian chiUl named 
Richard, whose body was taken to the Church of the 
Holy Innocents at Paris and tliere venerated as that 
of a martyr. A document of 1294 relates that the 
abbe of Saint Denis bought a house at Pontoise be- 
longing to a Clirislian heavily indebted to the Jews 
there, who were paid the purchase-money through 
the provost Robert de Buan. The Jewish names 
which appear in this document are those of Magis- 
ter Sanson, Meuns de Sezana, and Abraliam de Novo 
Castello. In 1296 Philip the Fair made a gift to his 
brother Charles, Count of Valois, of Joce or Joucet, 
a Jew of Pontoise, and his children, David, Aroin, 
Haginot, Beleuce, Hanee, and Sarin. In the same 
year Joucet of Pontoise was appointed financial 
agent between the crown and his coreligionists of 
Amiens, Senlis, and Champagne, and in 1297 Philip 
the Fair made him arbiter in a litigation which had 
arisen between himself and his brother Charles re- 
garding forty-three Jews whom the latter claimed as 
natives either of his county of Alen^on or of his 
lands in Bonmoulinsand Chateauneuf-en-Thymerais. 

The principal Jewish scholars of Pontoise were: 
Jacob de Pontoise {"Minhat Yehudah," pp. 4b, 
24b), Moses ben Abraham (Tosef., Pes. 67b; Hag. 
19b; Yoma 6b, 64a; Yeb. 61a), and Abraham de 
Pontoise ("Kol Bo." No. 103). 

Bibliography: Depping, LesJuifsdans le Jfoj/en^ae, pp. 
93, 146 ; Dom Bouquet, Histnriens de France, xxv. 768; Du- 
bois, Histnria Kcclesice Par^isiensi,<!,ii. 142; MoT^ri, Dictinn- 
naii-e Historique, s.v. Richard ; R. E. J. li. 34, ix. 63, xv. 
234, 250 ; Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 443-445. 
G. S. K. 

binical writer; lived at Smyrna at the end of the 
eighteenth century. He was tlie author of a work 
entitled "Shebet Binyamin " (Salonica, 1824), on 
drawing up commercial papers. He had two sons, 
Hayyim Isaiah and Hiyya. 

Bibliography: Kazan, Ha-Ma'alot li-Shelomoh, pp. 31, 9.5; 
Franco, Histoire des Israelites de VEmpire Ottoman, p. 266. 
8. M. Fr. 

PONTREMOLI, ESDR.A : Italian rabbi, poet, 
and educationist; born at Ivrea 1818; died in 1888; 
son of Eliseo Pontremoli, rabbi of Nizza, where 
a street was named after him. In 1844 Esdra Pon- 
tremoli became professor of Hebrew in the Coilegio 
Foa at Vercelli. He was for fifteen years associate 
editor of "Educatoie Israelita." He translated Luz- 
zatto's " Derek Erez " into verse under tlie title " II 
Falso Progresso " (Padua, 1879). 

Bibliography : II Vessillo Israditico, 1888. 


PONTREMOLI, HIYYA : Turkish rabbinical 

author ; died at Smyrna in 1832 ; son of Benjamin 

Pontremoli. Hiyya Pontremoli wrote, among other 
works, the "Zappihil bi-Debash," a collccliou of 
responsa on Orah Huy yim. 

Bibliography: Hazan, Ha-Ma'alot U-ShtUmoh.nn. 31 M- 
Franco. IHMoire de* larailiUg de I'KmiHre (Mtumati, p. 

^■' M. Fn. 

POOR, RELIEF OF. See Ciiauitv. 
POOR LAWS. See Charity. 

POPES, THE: The Roman Church docs not 
claim any jurisdiction over persons who have not 
been baptized ; llioreforc tiie relations of tlie pope*, 
as the heads of the Churcli. to the Jews have been 
limited to rules regarding the political, commercial, 
and social conditions under which Jews mij,'ht rcKide 
in Christian states. As sovereigns of the Pajml States 
the popes further had the right to legislate on the 
status of their Jewish subjects. Finally, voluntary 
action was occasionally taken by the popes on be- 
half of the Jews who invoked their aid in times of 
persecution, seeking their mediation as the ]iiirii«-8t 
ecclesiastical authorities. Tlie general principles 
governing the popes in their treatment 

General of the Jews arc practically identical 
Principles, with those laid down in the Justinian 
Code : (1 ) to separate them from social 
intercourse with Christians as far as possible; (2) to 
prevent them from exercising any authority over 
Christians, either in a public (as officials) or a pri- 
vate capacity (as masters or employers); (3) to ar- 
range that the exercise of the Jewish religion should 
not assume the character of a public function. On 
the other hand, however, the popes have always 
condemned, theoretically at least, (1) acts of violence 
against the Jews, and (2) forcible baptism. 

The history of the relations between the popes 
and the Jews begins with Gregory I. (590-604), who 
may be called the first pope, inasmuch as his author- 
ity was recognized by the whole Western Church. 
The fact that from the invasion of the Lombards 
(568) and the withdrawal of the Byzantine troops 
the Roman population was without a visible hea<l of 
government made the Bishop of Rome, the highest 
ecclesiastical dignitary who happened to be at the 
same time a Roman noble, the natural protector of 
the Roman population, to which the Jews also be- 
longed. Still, even before this time. Pope Gelasiua 
is mentioned as having recommended a Jew, Tele- 
sinus, to one of his relatives as a very reliable man, 
and as having given a decision in the case of a 
Jew against a slave who claimed to have been a 
Christian and to have been circumcised by his mas- 
ter against his will (Mansi, "Concilia," viii. 131; 
Migne, "Patrologia Gra'co Latina," lix. 146; Vogel- 
stein and Rieger, "Gesch. dcr Juden in Rom," I. 
127-128). In the former instance the pope acted 
merely as a private citizen: in the latter he was 
most likely called upon as an ecclesiastiad expert to 
give a decision in a local affair. The legend may 
also be quoted which makes of the apostle Peter 
an enthusiastic Jew who merely pretendetl zeal 
for Christianitv in order to assist his persecuted 
coreligionists (JelHnek, " B. II." v. 60-62, vi. 9-10; 
Vogelstein and Rieger, I.e. i. 165-168; "Allg. Zeit. 
des Jud." 1903). 




Nevertheless, the liistory proper of the popes in 

their relation to the Jews begins, as stiid above, with 

Gresrorv I. He often protected the Jews against 

violence and unjust treatment on the 

Gregory part of officials, and condemned forced 
the Great, baptism, but he advised at the same 
time the winning of the Jews over to 
Christianity by offering material advantages. Very 
often he condemned the holding of Christian slaves 
by Jews(Gratz, "Gesch." v. 43; Vogelsteiu and Ric- 
ger, I.e. i. 132-135). A very obscure order is contained 
in a letter of Pope Nicholas I. to Bishop Arsenius of 
Orta, to whom he prohibits the use of Jewish gar- 
ments. Leo VII. answered the Archbishop of Ma- 
yence, who asked whether it was right to force the 
Jews to accept baptism, that he might give them 
the alternative of accepting Christianity or of emi- 
grating (Aronius, "Regesten"; comp. Vogelsteiu 
and Rieger, I.e. i. 139). An.\cletus II. (antipope), 
whose claim to the papal throne was always con- 
tested, was of Jewish descent, and this fact was used 
by liis opponents in their attacks upon him. Bene- 
dict VIll. had a number of Jews put to death on 
the ground of an alleged blasphemy against Jesus 
which was supposed to have been the cause of a de- 
structive cyclone and earthquake (c. 1020; Vogel- 
steiu and Rieger, I.e. i. 213). 

In the bitter tight between Gregory VII. and the 
German emperor Henry lY. the pope charged the 
emperor with favoritism to the Jews, and at a synod 
held at Rome in 1078 he renewed the canonical laws 
Avhich prohibited giving Jews power over Chris- 
tians; tins necessarily meant that Jews might not be 
employed as ta.x-farmers or mint-masters. Calixtus 
II. (1119-24) issued a bull in which he strongly con- 
demned forced baptism, acts of violence against the 
lives and the property of the Jews, and the desecra- 
tion of their sj^nagogues and cemeteries {c. 1120). 
In spite of the strict canonical prohibition against 
the employment of Jews in public capacities, some 
popes engaged their services as financiers and phy- 
sicians. Thus Pope Alexander III. employed Jehiel, 
a descendant of Nathan ben Jehiel, as his secretary 
of treasury (Vogelstein and Rieger, I.e. i. 225). 

The extreme in the hostile enactments of the 
popes against the Jews was reached under Inno- 
cent III. (1198-1216), w'ho was the most powerful 
of the medieval popes, and who convened the 
Fourth Lateran Council (1215); this 

Innocent council renewed the old canonical pro- 
Ill, hibitions against trusting the Jews 
with public offices and introduced the 
law demanding that Jews should wear a distinctive 
sign on their garments (see Badge). The theolog- 
ical principle of the pope was that the Jews should, as 
though so many Cains, be held up as warning exam- 
ples to Christians. Nevertheless he protected them 
against the fury of the French Crusaders (Gratz, 
I.e. vii. 5; Vogelstein and Rieger, I.e. i. 228-230). 
Gregory IX., who in various official documents in- 
sisted on the strict execution of the canonical laws 
against the .lews, was humane enougii to issue the 
bull "Etsi Juda^orum" (1233; repeated in 1235), in 
which he demanded that the Jews in Christian coun- 
tries should be treated with the same humanity as that 
with which Christians desire to be treated in heathen 

lands. His successor. Innocent IV. , ordered the burn- 
ing of the Talmud in Paris (1244); but Jewish his- 
tory preserves a grateful memory of him on account 
of his bull declaring the Jews innocent of the charge 
of using Christian blood for ritual purposes (see 
Blood Accus.vtion). This bull was evidently the 
result of the affair of Fulda (1238), concerning which 
Emperor Frederick II. also issued a warning. The 
defense of the Jews against the same charge was 
undertaken by Gregory X., in his bull "Sicut Ju- 
d!ieis" (Oct. 7,"l272; Stern, "Urkundliche Beitrftge," 

The relations of the popes to the Jews in the sub- 
sequent two centuries present a rather monotonous 
aspect. They issued occasional warnings against vio- 
lence, threatened the princes who allowed the Jews 
to disregard the canonical laws concerning badges or 
concerning the employment of Christian servants, 
but conferred minor favors on certain Jews. As a 
typical instance, it may be noted that Boniface VIII., 
when the Jews did him homage, insulted them by 
returning behind his back the copy of the Torah 
presented to him, after making tiie oft-repeated 
remark about reverence for the Law but condemna- 
tion of its misrepresentation. 

The excitement of the Church during the Hussite 
movement rendered the Jews apprehensive, and 
through Emperor Sigismund, who was heavily in- 
debted to them, thej' obtained from Pope Martin V. 
(1417-31 ; elected by the Council of Constance after 
the Great Schism) various bulls (1418 and 1422) in 
which their former privileges were contirmed and in 
which he exhorted the friars to use moderate lan- 
guage. In the last years of his pon- 
Martin V. tificate, however, he repealed several 
of his ordinances, charging that they 
had been obtained under false pretenses (Stern, I.e. 
i. 21-43). Eugene IV. and Nicholas V. returned to 
the policy of moderation, especially in advising the 
friars against inciting mobs to acts of violence. 
Sixtus IV., while sanctioning the Spanish Inquisi- 
tion, repeatedly endeavored (1482 and 1483) to check 
its fanatic zeal and prohibited the worship of the 
child Simon of Trent, whom the Jew's of Trent were 
falsely accused of having murdered (1474). He also 
employed several Jews as his physicians. 

Alexander VI. (Borgia), known in history as the 
most profligate of all the popes, was rather favor- 
ably inclined toward the Jews. It is especially note- 
worthy that he allowed the exiles from Spain to set- 
tle in his states, and that he fined the Jewish com- 
munity of Rome for its objection to the settlement in 
its midst of these unfortunates. Occasionally, how- 
ever, he ordered the imprisonment of Maranos; and 
on the whole it seems that the pope's leniency was 
prompted by his greed. Leo X. also, the humanist 
on the throne of St. Peter, was in general favorably 
inclined toward the Jews, whom he employed not 
only as physicians, but also as artists and in other 
positions at his court. The beginning of the Ref- 
ormation influenced his action in the controversy 
between Reuchlin and Pfefferkorn, which he 
settled in such a way as not to give any encourage- 
ment to those who demanded reforms in the Church. 

Clement VII. (1523-34) is known in Jewish history 
for the interest which he took in the case of the Mes- 




sianic pretender David Keubeni, and for the protec- 
tion which he granted to Solomon Molko, who, as 
an apostate, had forfeited his life to the Inquisi- 
tion. He also issued an order to protect the Maranos 
in Portugal against the Inquisition (1533 and 1534). 

Tlie Reformation and the consequent strictness in 
enforcing the censorship of books reacted on tiie 
condition of the Jews in so far as con- 
The Ref- verts from Judaism eagerly displayed 
ormation. their zeal for tlieir new faith by de- 
nouncing rabbinical literature, and es- 
pecially the Talmud, as hostile to Christianity. Con- 
sequently Pope Julius III. issued an edict which 
demanded the burning of the Talmud (1553) and 
prohibited the printing of it by Christians. In 
Kome a great many copies were publicly burned 
(Sept. 9, 1553). The worst was yet to come. Paul 
IV. (1555-59), in his bull "Cum nimis absurdum " 
(July 12, 1555), not only renewed all canonical re- 
strictions against the Jews— as those prohibiting 
their practising medicine among Christians, em- 
ploying Christian servants, and the like — but he 
also restricted them in their commercial activity, 
forbade them to have more than one synagogue in 
any city, enforced the wearing of the yellow hat, 
refused to permit a Jew to be addressed as "signor," 
and finally decreed that they should live in a ghetto. 
The last measure was carried out in Rome witli un- 
relenting cruelty. 

After a short period of respite under Paul IV. 's 
successor, Pius IV. (1559-66), who introduced some 
alleviations in his predecessor's legal enactments, 
Pius V. (1566-72) repealed all the concessions of his 
predecessor, and not only renewed the laws of Paul 
IV., but added some new restrictions, as the pro- 
hibition to serve Jews by kindling their fires on the 
Sabbath; he excluded them from a 

Pius V. great number of commercial pursuits, 
and went so far in his display of 
hatred that he would not permit them to do homage, 
although that ceremony was rather a humiliation 
than a distinction (1566). Three years later (Feb. 
26, 1569) the pope decreed the expulsion of the Jews 
from his territory within three months from the date 
of the promulgation of the edict, and while the 
Jews of Rome and Ancona were permitted to re- 
main, those of the other cities wpre expelled. They 
were permitted to return by the next pope, Gregory 
XIII. (1572-85), who, while he showed an occasional 
leniency, introduced a large number of severe re- 
strictions. Thus, the Jews were prohibited from 
driving through the streets of the city, and they 
were obliged to send every week at least 150 of their 
number to listen to the sermons of a conversion- 
ist preacher (1584). The terrible custom of keep- 
ing Jews in prison for a certain time each year, and 
of fattening them and forcing them, for the amuse- 
ment of the mob, to race during the carnival, when 
mud was thrown at them, is mentioned (1574) as 
"an old custom " for the first time during Gregory's 

Sixtus V. (1585-90), again, was more favorable to 
the Jews. Aside from some measures of relief in 
individual instances, he allowed the printing of the 
Talmud after it had been subjected to censorship 
(1586). The policy of succeeding popes continued 

to vary. Clement Vlll. (15*.ni-l604) again issued an 
edict of expul.sion (1593), whicJi was subsequently 
repealed, and in the same year prohiljiicd tlie print- 
ing of the Talmud. Under Clement X. (1670-76) 
a papal order suspended the Inquisition in Portu- 
gal (1674); but an attempt to interest the pope in 
the lot of the Jews of Vienna, who were expelled 
in 1670, failed. The worst feature of llie numer- 
ous disabilities of the Jews under pupal domin- 
ion was the closing of the gates of the Roman 
ghetto during the night. Severe penalties awaited 
a Jew leaving the ghetto after dark, or a Christian 
entering it. 

Pius VI. (1775-1800) issued an edict which re- 
newed all the restrictions enacted from the thirteenth 
century. The ci'nsorshipof b<>. 
Pius VI. strictly enforced ; Jews were i , 

uiitted any tombstones in their grave- 
yards; they were forbidden to remodel or eidarge 
their synagogues; Jews might not have any inter- 
course with converts to Christianity ; they were re- 
quired to wear the yellow badge on their liat.s both 
within and without the ghetto; they were not per- 
mitted to have shops outside the ghetto, or engage 
Christian nurses for their infants; thej' might not 
drive through the city of Rome; and their attend- 
ance at conversionist sermons was enforced. When 
under Pius VI. 's successors the pressure of other 
matters caused the authorities to become negligent 
in the fulfilment of their duties, these rules were 
often reenforced with extreme rigor; such was the 
case under Leo XII. (1826). 

Pius IX. (1846-78), during the first two years of 
his pontificate, was evidently inclined to adopt a 
liberal attitude, but after his return from exile he 
adopted with regard to the Jews the same policy 
as he pursued in general. * He condemned as abom- 
inable laws all measures which gave political free- 
dom to them, and in the case of the abduction of 
the child Moutara (1858), whom a servant-girl 
pretended to have baptized, as well as in the sim- 
ilar case of the boy Fortunato Col>n (1864). showed 
his approval of the medieval laws as enacted by 
Innocent III. He maintained the ghetto in Rome 
until it was abolished by the Italian occupation of 
Rome (1870). 

His successor, Leo XIII. (1878-1908). was the first 
pope who exercised no territorial jurisdiction over 
the Jews. His influence, ueverthele.<;s, was preju- 
dicial to them. He encouraged anti-Semitism by 
bestowing distinctions on leading anti-Semitic poli- 
ticians and autliors, as Lueger and Drumont; lie re- 
fused to interfere in behalf of Captain Drkyfcs or 
to issue a statement against the blood accusation. 
In an official document he denoiiuccd Jews, free- 
masons, and anarchists as the enemies of the Church. 

Pius X. (elected 1908) is not sufficiently known to 
permit a judgment in regard to his attitude toward 
the Jews. He received Hkuzl and some other Jews 
in audience, but in his diocese of Mantua, before he 
became pope, he had prohibited the celebration of a 
solemn mass on the king's birthday because • 
council which asked for it had attended n 
tion in the synagogue. 

BiBLiOGRAPnY: Berliner, Gcsch. dcr Jtideu in Rom. Frank- 
forUm-the-Maln. 1893; Vogelstein and n r .u^h. dcr 




Judcn in Rom, Berlin, 1895: Stern. Urkundliche Beitriliie 
ilber die Stelhing tier Pii^)ft(^ zu dtn Juden. Kiel, 1893-95 ; 
Pastor, Ocsch.derPdpste ; Mansl, Concilia, Bidlarium Mag- 

The following is a partial account of the more im- 
portant bulls issued by popes with reference to the 
Jews up to the middle of the eighteenth century : 

1120. Calixtus II. Issues bull beginning "Slcut Judaels non " and 
enumerating privileges of the Jews (Vogelsteln and 
Rieger, "Gesch. der Judea in Rom," 1.219 [hereafter 
cited as V. R.]). 

1145. Eugenius III., ordering Jews to remit Interest on debts of 
Crusaders while absent (Baronius, " Annates "). 

1191. Clement III. conllrms the bull "Sicut Judaeis non " (Rlos, 
" Hist." ii. 469 [hereafter cited as Rios]). 

1199 (Sept. 15). Innocent III. confirms "Sicut Judaeis non." 

1207 (Jan.). Innocent III., ordering Jews of Spain to pay tithes 
on possessions obtained from Christians (Rios, i. 36C). 

1216 (Nov. 6). Honorius III. in favor of German Jews, conflrm- 
ing the "Sicut Judaeis non" of Clement 111. (V. R. 

1219. Honorius III., permitting the King of Castile to suspend 
the wearing of the badge (Aronlus, "Regesten," i.362). 

1228 (Oct. 21). Gregory IX., remitting interest on Crusaders' 
debts to Jews and granting a " moratorium " for repay- 
ment (V. R. i. 233). 

1233 (April 6). Gregory IX. issues the bull " Etsl Judaeorum," 

demanding same treatment for Jews in Christian lands 
as Christians receive in heathen lands (V. U. i. 234). 
1333. Gregory IX., in bull " Sufflcere debuerat," forbids Chris- 
tians to dispute on matters of faith with Jews (" Bulla- 
rium Romanum," iii. 479). 

1234 (June 5). Gregory IX. to Thibaut of Navarre, enforcing 

the badge (Jacobs. "Sources," Nos. 1227, 1388). 
1235. Gregory IX. conflrms " Sicut Judaeis non." 
1239 (June 20). Gregory IX., confiscating all copies of Talmud 

(V. R. 1.237). 
1240. Gregory IX., ordering all Jewish books in Castile to be 

seized on first Saturday in Lent while Jews were in 

synagogue (Rios, i. 363). 
1244 (Man-h 9). Bull " Impia pens" of Innocent IV., ordering 

Talmud to be burned (Zunz, " S. P." p. 30). 

1246 (Oct. 21). Innocent IV. confirms "Sicut Judaeis non." 

1247 (May 28). Innocent IV. issues the " Divina justitia nequa- 

quam," against blood accusation. 

1247 (July 5). Innocent IV. issues the " Lacrymabilem Judaeo- 
rum Alemania;." against blood accusation (Baronius, 
"Annates," 1247, No. 84 ; Stobbe, "Die Juden in 
Deutschland," p. 185; Aronius, " Regesten," No. 243). 

1250 (April 15). Innocent IV., refusing permission to Jews of 
Cordova to build a new synagogue (Aronius, "Regesten," 
p. 369) . 

1253 (July 23) . Innocent IV., expelling Jews from Vlenne (Ray- 
naldus, "Annales"; V. R. i. 239). 

1253 (Sept. 25). Innocent IV. conflrms " Sicut Judaeis non." 

1267 (July 28) . Clement IV. issues the " Turbato corde " calling 
upon Inquisition to deal not only with renegades, but 
also with the Jews who seduce them from the faith 
("Bullarium Romanum," Iii. 786; V. R. i. 243;. 

1272. Gregory X. conflrms the " Sicut Judaeis nou " (V. R. 1. 24.5, 
with edition of a denial of blood accusation; Stem, 
" Urkundliche Beitrage Qber die Stellung der Papste zu 
den Juden," p. 5). 

1272 (July 7). Gregory X., against blood accusation (Scherer, 
" Rechtsverhaitnisse der Juden." p. 431). 

1274. Gregory X. conflrms "Sicut Judaeis non." 

1278 (Aug. 4). Nicholas III. issues the " Vlneam .sorce," order- 
ing conversion sermons to Jews ("Bullarium Roma- 
num," Iv. 45). 

1386 (Nov. 30). Bull of Honorius IV. to Archbishop of York 
and of Canterbury, against Talmud (Raynaldus, "An- 
nales"; Scherer, " Rechtaverhaitnlsse," p. 48). 

1291 (Jan. 30). Nicholas IV. Lssues the "Drat mater ecclesla" 
to protect the IU>man Jews from oppression (Theiner, 
" Codex Dlplomaticus," 1. 315; V. R. i. 252). 

1299 (June 13). Boniface VIII. issues bull "Exhlblta nobis," 
declaring Jews to be Included among powerful persons 
who might be denounced to the Inquisition without the 
name of the accuser being revealed (V. II. I. 251). 

1317. John XXII. orders Jews to wear badge on breast, and issues 
bull against ex-Jews (Zunz, "S. P." p. 37). 

1330 (June 28). John XXII., ordering that converts shall retain 
their property ("Bullarium Romanum," III., ii. 181; 
Ersch and Gruber, " Encyc." section ii., part 27, p. 149; 
V. R. 1.305). 

1320 (Sept. 4). JohnXXII. Issues to French bishops bull against 

1337 (Aug. 29). Benedict XII. issues the bull " E.x zelo fldel." 
promising inquiry into hosi-tragedy of Pulka (Raynal- 
dus, "Annales" ; Scherer, "Rechtsverh!iltni.sse,"p. 368). 

1345 (July 5). Clement VI., against forcible baptism. 

1348 (July 4). Clement VI. confirms "Sicut Juda'is non." 

1348 (Sept. 26). Clement VI., ordering that Jews be not forced 
into baptism; that their Sabbaths, festivals, synagogues, 
and cemeteries be respected ; that no new exactions be Im- 
posed (Aronius, "Regesten," ii.200; V. R. i.313; Raynal- 
dus, " Annales," 1348. No. ^3 ; Gratz, " Gesch." viii. 351). 

1365 (July 7). Urban V. conflrms "Sicut Juda;is non." 

1*<9 (July 2). Boniface IX. confirms "Sicut Judteis non." 

1390 (July 17). John of Portugal orders bull of Boniface IX. of 
July 2, l']S9, to be published in all Portuguese towns 
(Kayserling, " Gesch. der Juden in Portugal," p. 39). 

1397 (April 6). Boniface IX. confirms by bull grant of Roman 
citizenship to the Jewish physician Manuele and his son 
Angelo (V. R. i. 317). 

1402 (April 15). Boniface IX., granting special privileges to 
Roman Jews— reducing their taxes, ordering their 
Sabbath to be protected, placing them under the juris- 
diction of the Curia, protecting them from oppression 
by olllcials ; all Jews and Jewesses dwelling in the city 
to be regarded and treated as Roman citizens (V. R. 1. 

1415 (May 11). Benedict XIII., "Etsi doctoribus gentium," 
against Talmud or any other Jewish book attacking 
Christianity (Rios, 11.626-653; see years 1434 and 1442, 

1417. Bull against Talmud (Jost. "Gesch. der Israeliten,"vii. 60). 

1418 (Jan. 3i). Martin V., forbidding the forcible baptism of 
Jews or the disturbance of their synagogues (Ray- 
naldus, " Annales" ; V. R. i. 4). 

1420 (Nov. 25). Martin V. issues to German Jews bull "Con- 
cessum Judaeis," confirming their privileges (V. R. i. 5). 
No .lew under twelve to be baptized without his own and 
his parents' consent (Scherer, " Rechtsverhaitnisse," p. 

1420 (Dec. 23). Martin V. issues "Licet Judaeorum omnium," 

in favor of Austrian Jews. 

1421 (Feb. 23). Martin V., in favor of Jews and against anti- 

Jewish sermons ; permits Jewish physicians to practise 
(V. R. 1. 5). 

1422 (Feb. 20), Martin V. conflrms "Sicut Judaeis non." 

1423 (June 3). Martin V. issues bull "Sedes apostolica," re- 

newing the law regarding badge (V. R. i. 8). 

1426 (Feb. 14). Martin V. issues bull against Jews (Zunz, "S. 
P." p. 48). 

1429 (Feb. 15). Martin V. issues the" QuamquamJudael," which 
places Roman Jews under the general civic law, protects 
them from forcible baptism, and permits them to teach 
in the school (Rodocachl, " II Ghetto Romano," p. 
147; V. R. 1.8). 

1432 (Feb. 8). Eugenius IV. Issues a bull of protection for Jews, 
renewing ordinances against forcible baptism and dis- 
turbance of synagogues and graveyards (V. R. i. 10). 

1434 (Feb. 20). Eugenius IV., prohibiting anti-Jewish sermons 
(V. R. i. 11). 

1442. Bull of Benedict XIII. published at Toledo (Rlos, ill. 44). 

1442 (Aug. 8). Eugenius IV. issues a bull against Talmud (shortly 
after withdrawn; Zunz, "S. P." p. 49). The Jews 
were ordered to confine their reading of Scripture to the 
Pentateuch ; handwork was forbidden to them ; no 
Jews were permitted to be judges (Rieger, 11). 

1447 (Nov. 2). Nicholas V. confirms "Sicut Judajis non." 

1451 (Feb. 25). Bull of Nicholas V. prohibiting social inter- 
course with Jews and Saracens (" Vita Nlcolai," v. 91 ; 
V. R. i. 496). 

1451 (May 28). Bull of Nicholas V., similar to that of Aug. 8, 
1442, to extend to Spain and Italy ; the proceeds to be 
devoted to the Turkish war (V. R. i. 16). 

14.51 (Sept. ai). Nichola,s V. issues the "Romanus pontifex," re- 
lieving the dukes of Austria from ecclesiastical censure 
for permitting Jews to dwell there (Scherer, " Rechts- 
verhaitnisse," pp. 423-425). 

1472 (Feb. 21). SIxtus IV., ordering taxation of Roman Jews at 
a tithe during the Turkish war, a twentieth otherwise 
(compounded for 1,000 gulden in 1488) , and a carnival 
tax of 1,100 gulden (V. R. 1. 126), 




1481 (April 3). Slxtua IV., ordering all Christian princes to 

restore all fuRltlves to Inquisition of Spain (Rlos, 111. 

379; V. R. 1.21). 
1481 (Oct. 17). Bull of Slxtus IV. appointing Tomasde Torque- 

mada Inquisitor -general of Avignon, Valencia, and 

Catalonia (Rlos, ill. 256). 
15{X) (June 1). Alexander VI., demanding for three years for 

the Turkish war one-twentieth (see 1472) of Jewish 

property throughout the world (V. R. 1. 28, 126). 
1524 (April 7). Clement VII. Issues bull in favor of Maranos 

(V. R. 1.59). 
IJVJl (Dec. 17). Bull Introducing Inquisition Into Portugal at 

Evora, Coimbra, and Lisbon (Gratz, "Gesch." 11. 366). 
1540. Paul III., granting Neo-Christlans family property except 

that gained by usury, also municipal rights, but must 

not marry among themselves or be buried among Jews 

(V.R.I. 63). 
1540 (May 12). Paul III. Issues "Licet Judaei," against blood 


1554 (Aug. 31). Julius III., In bull " Pastoris aeternl vices," 

Imposes tax of ten gold ducats on two out of the 115 
synagogues In the Papal States (Rodocachi, " II Ghetto 
Romano," p. 228 ; V. R. i. 145). 

1555 (March 23). Paul IV., claiming ten ducats for each syna- 

gogue destroyed under bull of July 12, 1555 (V. R. 1. 155). 

1555 (July 12). Paul IV. Issues the " Cum nlmts absurdum " for 
Jews of Rome, which renews most of the Church laws, 
Including the order to wear the yellow hat and veil, not 
to hold any real property (to be sold within six months), 
not to trade except in second-hand clothing, not to count 
fragment* of month in reckoning interest; to sell 
pledges only eighteen months after loan and to repay 
surplus, to keep business books in Italian in Latin script, 
to live only in specified quarters with only two gates, 
not to be called " Signer," to maintain only one syna- 
gogue (V.R.I. 152^-153). 

1555 (Aug. 8) . Bull of Paul IV.: Jews may dispense with yellow 
hat on journeys; dwell outside ghettos when the latter 
are crowded ; acquire property outside ghettos to extent 
of 1,500 gold ducats ; Jews of Rome are released from 
unpaid taxes on payment of 1,500 scuti; Jews may have 
shops outside ghetto ; rents in ghettos may not be raised 
(V.R.i. 161-162). 

1567 (Jan. 19). Bull of PlusV.. "Cum nos nuper," orders Jews 
to sell all property in Papal States (V. R. 1. 164). 

1569 (Feb. 26). Bull of Pius V., " Hebraornm gens," expels 
Jews from the Papal States, except Rome and Ancona, In 
punishment for their crimes and "magic" vV. R. i. 168). 

1581 (March 30). Bull " Multos adhuc ex Christianis " renews 
Church law against Jewish physicians (V. R. i. 174). 

1581 (Junel). Gregory XIII. issues the "Antiqua Judseorum 
improbitas," giving jurisdiction over Jews of Rome to 
Inquisition in cases of blasphemy, protection of heretics, 
possession of forbidden works, employment of Christian 
servants (V. R. 1. 1T4). 

1584 (Sept. 1). Bull "Sancta mater ecclesia" orders 150 Jews 
(100 Jews, 50 Jewesses) to attend weekly eonversionist 
sermons (Zunz, "S. P." p. 339; Jost, "Gesch. der Is- 
raeliten," iii. 210; V. R. 1. 173). 

1586 (Oct. 22). Bull of Slxtus V., favorable to Jews (Gratz, 

"Gesch." Ix. 482). 

1587 (June 4). Slxtus V., granting Maglno di Gabriel of Venice 

the monopoly of silk-manufacture in Papal States for 
sixty years, and ordering Ave mulberry-trees to be 
planted in^very rubbio of land (V. R. i. 181). 

1.592 (Feb. 28). Bull of Clement VIII., "Cum saepe accldere." 
forbidding Jews to deal In new commodities (V. R. i. 

1593 (March 8). Bull of Clement VIII., in favor of Turkish 
Jews (Gratz, "Gesch." ix. 486). 

1004 (Aug. 23). Bull of Clement VIII., in favor of Portuguese 
Maranos (Gratz, "Gesch." ix. .500). 

IfllO (Aug. 7). Paul v., " Exponi nobis nuper fecistis," regu- 
lates dowries of Roman Jews {V. R. i. 196). 

1658 (Nov. 15). Alexander Vll., in bull "Ad ea per quae," orders 
Roman Jews to pay rent even for unoccupied houses 
in ghetto, because Jews would not hire houses from 
which Jews had been evicted (V. R. i. 21.5). 

1674 (Oct. 3) . Clement X., suspending operations of Portuguese 
Inquisition against Maranos (Gratz, "Gesch." x. 276; 
V. R. 1. 223). 

1679 (May 27). Innocent XI. suspends grand inquisitor of Por- 
tugal on account of his treatment of Maranos (Gratz. 
"Gesch." X. 279). 
X.— 9 


(Feb. 28). Bull " Postremo mense superlorte anni " of 
Benedict XIV. confirms decision of Roman Curia of Oct. 
22, 1.597, that a Jewish child, once baptized, even against 
canonical law, must be brought up under Christian In- 
fluences (V. R. 1. 242-245; Jost, "Gesch." xl. 2.56 n.). 


POPPiEA SABINA: ^yiistress and, after 62 
C.E.,8econd wife of the emperor Nero; died 65. She 
had a certain predilection for Judaism, and is diar- 
acterized by Jo.sephiis (" Ant." xx. 8, § 11; "Vila," 
§ 3) &s 6eoae0^i ("religious"). Some Jews, such as 
tiie actor Amtvros, were well received at court, 
and Poppfea was always ready to second Jewish pe- 
titions before the emperor. In 64 Josephus went to 
Rome to obtain the liberation of some priests related 
to him who liad been taken captive to that city for 
some minor offense. With the help of Alityros, Jo- 
sephus succeeded in gaining the intercession of the 
empress, and returned home with his friends, Ijcar- 
ing rich gifts with him. 

When King Agrippa added a tower to the ancient 
palace of the Ilasmoneans, at Jerusalem, that he 
might overlook the city and the Temple and watch 
the ceremonial in the sanctuary, the priests cut nfT 
his view by a high wall. He then appealed to the 
procurator Festus, but a Jewish delegation sent to 
Rome succeeded through Poppsea's intercession in 
having the case decided in favor of the priests. The 
last procurator, Gessius Florus (64-66), owed his ap- 
pointment to the empress, who was a friend of his 
wife Cleopatra. 

BiBLTOGRAPHY : GrStz, Gesch. 2d ed.. 111. 331 et seq.; Fried- 
lander, DarstellunoenausderSittenge^chichte Rom«, 1.348; 
Hertzberg, Gesch. des Rdmischen Kai!<err€ichei<, pp. 237 et 
seq.; Schiller, Gesch. des Ef>mii(chen KaUenxichrs Vnter 
iVero, p. 528; Vogelstein and Rleger, Gesc/i. der Juden in 
Rnm, i. 21, 74, 101 ; Schurer, Gesch. i. 57. 489, 494 et seq.; II. 
K. E. N. 

POPPER, DAVID: Austrian violoncellist; 
born at Prague June 18, 1845; a pupil of Golter- 
mann at the Conservatorium in that city. At the age 
of eighteen he made a tour through Germany, and 
was at once acknowledged to be one of the leading 
celli.sts of his time. On his return Popper, on the 
recommendation of Hans von Billow, was appointed 
a member of Prince von Hechingen's orchestra at 
LOwenburg. He made frequent tours through Ger- 
many, Holland, Switzerland, and England, everv- 
where winning enthusiastic applause; and in Vienna 
he received an appointment as solo violoncellist in 
the court orchestra. lie later became prominently 
known as one of the principal members of the Hell- 
mesberger Quartet. In 1872 he married Sophie 
Menter, the pianist, from whom he was divorced in 

Since 1873 Popper has traveled considerably, re- 
siding in London, Paris. St. Petersburg. Vienna, and 
Berlin. He is now (1905) professor at the Landes- 
musikakademie in Budapest. Among his composi- 
tions for the cello, most of which enjoy great poj)- 
ularity, the following may be mentioned as the 
most noteworthv: "Romance," op. 5; "Serenade 
Orientiile," op. 18; "Nocturne," op. 22; "Gavotte," 
op. 23 (arranged for violin by L. Auer); "Second 
Nocturne," op. 32 (arranged for violin byE. Sauroi); 
"Tarantelle." op. 33: "Elfentanz." op. 39 (arranged 
for violin by C. Halir); "Spaniscbe Tanze," op. 54; 

Popper . 

Porges von Portheina 



•'Spinnlied," op. 55; "Requiem," op. CC; "Unga- 

rische Khapsodie," op. 68. 

Bini.if'fiR.^PiiY : MuxikalUches Wochcnblatt, Leipsic, vi. 335: 

Uk-iiiaiin. Musili-LcxihoH. 

^ J. bo. 

POPPER, JOSEF : Austrian engineer and au- 
thor ; boru Fi b. •2-2. 183S, at Koiiu, Bohemia. Besides 
essays on machinery publislied in the "Sit/ungs- 
berichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wisseu- 
sehaften,'' and in several technical joiirnals. he has 
written: "DasKecht zu Leben und die Ptiicht zu 
Sterben" (1878); "Die Physikalischen Grundsatze 
der Elektrischeu KraftQbertraguug " (1884); "Fiirst 
Bismarck und der Autisemitismus" (1886); "Die 
Technischen Fortschritte nach Ihrer Aesthetischen 
und Kulturelleu Bedeutung " (1889); " Flugtechuik " 
(1889); "Phantasieen eines Kealisten " (1899). 

Popper was the first to conceive the idea of the 
transmission of electrical power; and he explained 
it in 1862 in a communication to the Imperial Acad- 
emy of Sciences, Vienna, which published the same 
in i88'3. S_ 

POPPER, SIEGFRIED : Austrian naval con- 
structor; born at Prague 1848. Educated at the 
polytechnic high schools of Prague and Carlsruhe, 
he worked for two years in maciiiue-shops and then 
entered (1869) the Austrian navy as assistant con- 
structor. In 1902 he was appointed director of 
naval construction. In 1904 he was made naval 
constructor-general with the rank of rear-admiral. 

Popper has supervised the building of several 
Austrian men-of-war, among them the cruisers 
"Panther," "Leopard." "Tiger," the armored cruis- 
ers "Maria Theresia," "Kaiser Karl VI.," "St. 
Georg," and the armored battleships "Vienna," 
"Monarch," "Budapest," "Habsburg," "Arpad," 
"Babenberg," "Erzherzog Karl," and "Erzherzog 
Friedrich." The nine last named were built after 

his designs. 

p. F. T. II. 

POPPER, WILLIAM: American Orientalist; 
born at St. Louis, Mo.. Oct. 29, 1874; educated at 
the public schools of Brooklyn, N. Y., the College 
of the City of New York, Cohimbia College (A. B. 
1896), and Columbia University (A.M. 1897; Ph.D. 
1899). In 1899 he went abroad and took postgrad- 
uate courses at the universities of Berlin, Strasburg, 
and Paris. The year 1901-2 he spent in traveling 
through Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Hauran, the north 
Syrian desert, and Mesopotamia. 

Returning in 1902 to New York city, Popper be- 
came connected with The Jewish Encyci-opedia 
as associate revising editor and chief of the bureau 
of translation. In 1903, and again in 1904. he was 
appointed Gustav Gottheil lecturer in Semitic lan- 
guages at Columbia Universitj'. 

Popper is the author of "The Censorship of He- 
brew Bocjks" (New York. 1899). 

A. F. T. II. 

POPPER, WILMA: Hungarian authoress; born 
at Kaab. Hungary, May 11, 1857; educated in her 
native town. She commenced to write at an early 
age. Besides contributing numerous essays to the 
German periodicals, siie has published the following 
volumes of stories and .sketches: " MUrchen >uid Ge- 

schichten," Leipsic, 1891; "Alimodische Leute." 
Dresden and Leipsic, 1894; "Miniaturen," li. 1897; 
"Neue Milrchen und Geschichten." ib. 1898; "Son- 
derlinge," «7>. 1899; "Nieten,"//^ 1900; " Gegeu den 
Strom." ib. 1902 ; " Die Fahne Hoch," tb. 1902 ; " Fra- 
trt-s Sumus." ib. 1903; "Fiinfe aus Einer lliilse." 

Vii-una. 1905. 

s. F- T. II. 

COHEN: German rabl)i; born at Prague in the 
middle of the seventeenth century ; died at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main in 1740. His father, who was a 
distinguished Talmudist, instructed him in rabbin- 
ical literature, in which he acquired great pro- 
liciency. He was successively rabbi at Coblenz, 
Treves, Ilalberstadt, and in 1718 he was called to 
the rabbinate of Frankfort-on-the-Main. 

Poppers was the author of two works: "Shab 
Ya'akob," containing responsa divided into two vol- 
umes (.Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1742), and "Hiddu- 
shim," Talmudical uovoIUb inserted by Shabbethai 
ben Moses in his "Minhat Koheu " (Fiirth, 1741). 
BiBLior.RAPHV: Azulai. f^hcm ha-Ge<Uilim. i. 92; Carmoly. in 

lievue Orientale, il. 247 ; Steinscbneider, Cat. BodL col. 1193. 

E. c. L Bk. 

KOHEN ASHKENAZI : Bohemian rabbi and 
cabalist ; born at Prague; died at Jerusalem in Feb. 
or March, 1662. He studied the Cabala under Israel 
Ashkenazi and Jacob Zemah. and he wrote a great 
number of works, all in the spirit of Isaac Luria; 
thirty-nine of them have "Or" as the beginning of 
their titles, in reference to his name "Meir." His 
works which have been published are: "Or Zad- 
dikim" (Hamburg, 1690), a mystical methodology, 
or exhortation to a.sceticism, based upon Isaac 
Lurias writings, the Zohar, and other moral works 
(an enlarged edition of this work was published 
later under the title "Or ha- Yashar" [Flirth, 1754]); 
" Or Pene Melek," a treatise on the mysteries of the 
prayers and commandments, condensed and pub- 
lished under the title "Sefer Kawwanot Tetillot u- 
Mizwot" (Hamburg, 1690); "Me'ore Or." an alpha- 
betical arrangement of the cabalistic sacred names 
found in Isaac Luria's "Sefer ha-Kawwanot," pub- 
lished by Elijah b. Azricl, with the commentsiry 
" Ya'irNalib" of Nathan Mannheimer and Jacob b. 
Benjamin Wolf, under the title "Me'orot Natan " 
(Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1709); "Mesillot Hokmah " 
(Shklov, 1785), regulations and rules for the study 
of the Cabala. 

Among his unpublished works the following may 
be mentioned: "Or Rab," a commentary on the 
Zohar; "Or ha-Abukah," a treatise on the Cabala; 
"Or Zarua'," a commentary on Hayyim Vital's 
"Derek 'Ez ha-Hay.vii" " : "OrNer,"on the trans- 
migration of souis; "Or Zah,"on the order in wiiich 
souls are linked together; " Derushim 'al ha-Torah." 
homiliesontlie Pentateuch; "Matok ha-Or," a caba- 
listic commentary on the haggadah of the Talmud 
and Mid rash Rabbah. 

BiBLiOfiRAPMY: Azulal, Shrm ha-GcdoUm.i.lHn; TursUBihl. 
Jud. iil. li:j-114; Steinsclineider, Cat. liodl. col. 1709. 
K. M. Set.. 

NATSBLATTER. See Pehiodicai.s. 




Porges von Portbeim 

PORCUPINE : Rendering adopted by many 
coininentaturs fer the Hebrew "kii)i)0(I," for wliieh 
the English versions have correctly Bittekn. The 
porcupine {Ilystrix cristata) is, however, very com- 
mon in Palestine. It is considered by the natives as 
a larger species of hedgehog. Thus the Arabic 
" kunfod " (hedgehog) is often applied to the porcu- 
pine also. 

In the Talmud the porcupine is assumed to be 
referred to by the terms T\p^^ (Hul. 122a), "kippod " 
or "kippor" (Kil. viii. 5), and >^>> (B. B. 4a). In 
the last-cited passage it is related that Ileroii put 
out the eyes of Baba b. Zuta by binding porcupine 
skin around them. The skin of the porcupine was 
also wrapped around the udders of the cow to pre- 
vent them from being sucked by animals (Shab. 54b). 

Buii.ioORAriiv : Tristram, Nat. Hist. p. 125; Lewysohn, Z. T. 

p. 1(H). 
E. G. II. I. M. C. 

MIN: Kabbi in Prague in the seventeenth century. 
Under the title "Zikron Aharon" he wrote an intro- 
duction to the "Kizzur Ma'abar Yabbok," concern- 
ing the ancient Jewish customs relating to death 
and the dead, and containing also counsel for per- 
sons suffering from venereal disease. This work, 
published first at Prague in 1682, has been often 

Bibliography : Fiirst. I?i7)?. Jud. i. 22 ; Benjacob, Ozar ha- 
Sefnrim, p. 157 ; Stems<'hneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 718. 
E. r. S. O. 

TALI HIRSCH: ]?abbiiiical author; lived at 
Jerusalem at the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. He was the author of " Darke Ziyyon " (Am- 
sterdam, 1650), written, in Judfeo-German, after he 
had removed to Prague. The work is in four parts 
and is illustrated. Part 1 deals with the return to 
Palestine; part 2 with praj'er; part SJwitli teaching; 
and part 4 with the commemoration of the dead. 

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1827; Fiirst, 
Fiihl. Jud. ii. 398 ; Wolf, BUil. Hehr. iii. 764 ; Benjacob, O^ar 
ha-Scfarirn, p. 121, No. 518 ; Lunez, JcrusaUm, ill.. No. 44. 

E. c. S. J. L. 

PORGES, NATHAN: German rabbi; born at 
Prossnitz, Moravia, Dec. 31, 1848. He was edu- 
cated in his native town, at the gymnasium at 
Olmiitz, and at the University (Ph.D. 1869) and the 
Jewish Theological Seminary (rabbi 1869) of Breslau. 
He became successively rabbi at Nakel (1875), 
Mannheim (1879), Piisen (1880), Carlsbad (1882), and 
Leipsic ; he has officiated in the last-mentioned city 
since 1888. 

Porges has written many articles, essays, and 
crititjues for the periodicals, especially for the 
"Revue des Etudes Juives," the "Monatsschrift fUr 
Gescli. und Wissenschaft des Judenthums," "Zeit- 
schrift fur Hebi iiische Bibliographic," and the " Cen- 
tral blatt fiir Bibliothekswesen," and is the author of 
" Ueber die Verbalstainmbildung in den Semitischen 
Sprachen," Vienna, 1875; " Bibelkunde und Babel- 
funde," Leipsic, 1903. 

s. F. T. H. 

nent Bohemian family of which the following mem- 
bers won particular distinction: 

Joseph Porges, Edler von Portheim : Aus- 
trian iiiaiiufaeturer and art jiatron; l;t)rn at Prague 
1817; die<l tiieieSept. -i, 1904; sou of PuuciES 
VON PouTHEiM. On completing his studies at the 
gymnasium lie entered his father's cottoumills; 
there he occupied variou.s positions until 1H7:J, 
when the business was converted into a stock com- 
pany, of whose board of directors he was president 
for several years. His leisure time was devoii d to 
literature and music, and he was well known as a 
violoncello virtuoso. Porges founded the Prague 
Kammermusikvereins, and was interested in the 
Deutschcs Theater of that city. His i)hilanlhropy 
was extensive, the Josefstiidter Kiuderbewahran- 
stalt, founded by his father, being an especial ob- 
ject of his benevolence. 

Leopold Judah Porges von Portheim : Bo- 
hemian manufacturer, alderman, and director of the 
Jewish community of Prague; born April 4, 1784; 
died at Prague Jan. 10, lHfj9. 

Moses Porges, Edler von Portheim : Manu- 
facturer and vice-burgomaster of Prague-Smichow ; 
knight of the Order of Francis Josei)h ; born Dec. 
13, 1781 ; died at Prague May 21, 1870. He was one 
of the earliest and most prominent of the large 
manufacturers of Austria, and was very closely 
associated with his younger brother, Leopold Judah. 
Moses and Leopold, the sons of the highly respected 
but poor Gabriel Porges of the Spiia family, ex- 
perienced adventures in the camp of the sectarian 
Joseph Frank at Offenburg which have been de- 
scribed by GrUtz in his "Frank und die Fraiikislen " 
(Breslau, 1868) and his "Gesch." x. (last note), and 
in greater detail by Dr. S. Back in " Monatsschrift" 
(1877, pp. 190 et seq.). Disillusioned, they returned 
to Prague, and began a small linen business, and in 
1808 commenced, with a single cotton-printing press 
and in a dark shop on the Moldau, an industrial 
activity which was destined later to reach great 

In 1830 the rapidly growing business was trans- 
ferred to the suburb of Smichow, where it devel- 
oped into one of the largest establishments of the 
Austrian monarchy, and in 1841 the emperor Ferdi- 
nand conferred upon the brothers the patent of hered- 
itary nobility with the title "von Portheim," in 
recognition of the fact that the}' were the first cotton- 
manufacturers to employ steam in their works. 
When this patent had been offered Moses in the pre- 
vious year, he asked theOberstburggraf G. v.Chotck 
for a decree of emancipation of the Jews instead, but 
this request was not granted. Mosos later purchased 
and operated the porcelain -factory at Cliodau to- 
gether with the mines belonging to it, and after the 
passage of the laws of 1861 he and his brother en- 
tered politics, the latter being elected to the diet, 
while the former otticiated for several years as vice- 
burgomaster of Prague-Smichow. The most note- 
worthy among the numerous benefactions of Mosc-s 
Porges is the still existing crC-che. which, witlmut 
distinction of creed or nationality, for eight months 
of the year, receives and cares for 150 children daily 
while their parents are at work 
Bibliography: H. I. Landau, Praotr A'r/fro/oor, Pragvie, 

1883: Uuhcmia, May 23, 1870; Grfltz, in Monat»»chrift . 1877, 

pp. 190 ft scq. .., 

8. •^- '^'- 




FORGING (Hebrew, nip^J. lit. "iucision"; 
Judseo-German, " treibern "): The cutting away of 
forbidden fat and veins from kaslier meat. The 
Mosaic law craphatically forbids the eating of the 
fat and blood of cattle or poultry, the fat and 
blood of peace-offerings being appropriated as sac- 
rifices to God. The prohibition is "a perpetual 
statute " in all generations everywhere (Lev. iii. 17, 
vii. 25-27). "What constitutes " heleb " (= " forbid- 
den fat ") is deduced from the description of the heleb 
appropriated for sacrifice, namely, the "fat that 
covcreth the inwards" (intestines) and "the fat on 
the kidneys by the flanks and the caul [lobe] above 
the liver" {ib. iii. 3, 4). All other fat is regarded 
by the strict Mosaic law as "shuman" (= "permit- 
ted fat "), though the Rabbis 'have made the pro- 
hibition more extensive (see Fat). The Mosaically 
forbidden blood-vessels in animals comprise the 
main arteries and the nervus ischiadicus (" gid ha- 
nasheh " ; Gen. xxxii. 32). The Rabbis, however, 
have extended the prohibition to the principal veins 
that connect with the arteries and tendons. 

To guard against an infringement of the prohibi- 
tion of eating blood, the kasher meat is salted to 
extract the blood from the surface of the meat. The 
salted meat is then placed in a perforated vessel or 
on a plank in a slanting position to allow the ex- 
tracted blood to drain off for half an hour, after 
which the meat is thoroughly cleansed with water ; 
but inasmuch as the salt can not extract the blood 
from the closed veins, the latter must first be ex- 
cised or severed by porging. 

The responsibility of the porger (" menakker ") is as 
great as that of the slxohet. In former times the pro- 
fessional porger was not allowed to be a butcher, as 
it was apprehended that self-interest might interfere 
with the proper performance of his duty; but to 
save the expense of hiring a special porger a butcher 
who has a reputation for honesty and ability is now 
permitted to perform the porging. 

Preparatory to the porging, twelve ribs of the ani- 
mal are cut open from the chest downward. The 
following order of the various operations in porging 
is arranged according to the opinion of the best 

(1) Cuttinpr the- head of the animal Into two parts and remov- 
ing the eyes therefrom; cleaving the skull and removing from 
the brain the upper membrane, as well as the lower membrane 
adhering to the bone ; extracting the red veins from the brain ; 
(2) extracting veins from the back of the ears ; (3) incising the 
lower jaws and extracting a vein on each side close to the 
tongue ; (4) cutting away the root of the tongue and extracting 
a blood-vessel ; (5) extracting two veins, one red and one white, 
on each side of the neck opposite the "shehitah" Incision; 
(6) cutting around each side of the breast close to the flesh and 
extracting two veins, one red and one white, running along 
each side ; (7) severing each shoulder with Its fore leg from the 
body ; cutting Into the shoulder in the center and extracting a 
thick white vein ; cutting the upper part of the fore leg length- 
wise and extracting a vein running from the spine to the hoof 
(to eradicate this vein requires a deep incision) ; (8) cutting the 
leg and extracting one red vein at the lower end and another 
vein on the side near the bone (the porger then turns to the 
portion from which he extracted the breast^veln) ; (9) removing 
the membrane of the kidneys, and the fat un- 
Succeesive demeath them (the heads of the forbidden fat- 
Operations, veins then become visible ; there are to the 
right [as the porger faces the front of the 
carcass, which Js suspended with the head up] three veins 
that split in two, and to the left two veins that split in three: 
when the body Is warm these veins may be extracted easily) ; 

(10) separating the membrane from the lobe of the liver; 

(11) separating and removing the fat from the loins (there 
are on the end of the thigh near the flank two streaks of fat 
which are exposed within the animal when it is alive, but 
which after death are covered by the shrunken flesh ; this flesh 
niust be cut open and the fat removed); (12) drawing the in- 
testines from their position and removing the upper entrail : ex- 
tracting the veins from the ileum (nij^) and stripping the fat 
from the mesentery (N,-lJ^^^("^.■^) ; the fat from the stomach, 
belly, reticulum (piDon ,-"■3), and anus (DDcn); also that ad- 
hering underneath the diaphragm (la'^^D) and that on the 
small intestines (pp"") ; removing the fat of the intestines along 
one arm's length (24 inches) from the root (the intestines 
through which the food passes do not contain forbidden blood- 
veins); (13) separating the membrane and fat from the spleen 
and extracting the main vein, together with three fat-veins ; (14) 
extracting the veins of the lungs and bursting the bronchi 
(.niji£3CD) and removing the appendix (xini); (15) removing 
the lobes of the heart because they contain too many blood-vessels 
for removal ; cutting the heart crosswise to extract the blood ; 
removing the membrane and four veins ; (16) removing the gall 
and the fat attached to the liver ; cutting the liver to allow the 
blood to run from it; (17) removing the fat from the flanks with 
their upper and lower membranes, scraping off the fat under- 
neath, and extracting a vein from each; (18) removing the 
membrane and extracting the large vein of the testicles, which 
must be cut apart before salting; (19) removing the lower en- 
trail at the end of the rectum (n.-^c'3->3) ; taking the fat from the 
rectum; (20) severing the tail and extracting a vein which divides 
Into two and which is connected with the flanks; cutting away the 
extra fatty portion of the tail ; (21) disjoining the thigh and re- 
moving the sex genitals ; extracting six veins from the hips and 
scraping off the fat around them ; cutting open the udder and 
squeezing out the milk (the first vein of the thigh is the nervus 
ischiadicus, which lies deep near the bone and runs through the 
whole thigh ; the second vein is near the flesh); extracting the 
sinews In the shape of tubes (rupup), which connect .with the 
ner\i ischladici of the two thighs (see Hul. 92b-93b).and scra- 
ping off the adjacent fat; (22) making incisions above the 
hoofs; extracting the cluster of sinews (pT'jn ncix) from the 
lower middle joint of the hind leg. 

Some authorities modify this order and omit sev- 
eral items; for instance, they leave the fat under- 
neath the diaphragm, or, on extracting a red vein, 
leave the white vein which is alongside it. 

The porger generally uses a special knife for the 
fat and a smaller one for the veins. If he uses the 
same knife for both he must wipe it, before opera- 
ting on the veins, with a cloth which is suspended for 
this purpose fiom the lower part of the animal. 

The principal operations of the porger are per- 
formed in the lower extremities of the animal, and 
in consequence of the scarcity of competent porgers 
many Jewish communities in Europe have since the 
seventeenth century not used the lower part or sir- 
loin of the animal, the butcher selling that part 
to non-Jewish customers. But in the Orient and in 
several cities in Russia, such as Wilna and Kovno, 
where non-Jewish consumers of meat are few in 
comparison Avith the Jewish population, the sirloin 
is porged and sold to Jews. 

The porging of small cattle is performed with a 
smaller knife or with the hand. Fowl need no ex- 
tensive porging, beyond the severing of the head 
and the extracting of one vein opposite the shehi- 
tah incision, the cutting into the wings and the 
legs, also the lungs and heart, and the removal of 
two guts, known as " terefah wurst," and the gall. 
See Bedikaii ; Blood ; Fat ; Siieiiitah ; Terefah. 
Bibliocraphv : Maimonides. Yod. Ma'ahnlol Aitrtrnt. vl.- 
vlii.: Tur and Shulhan 'Aruk. Yorch De'nh, «S &5, 60; Le- 
bush. 'Atrret Zahdl). order Nihknr, S 6.'), end: I.-iaac ha- 
Kohen. ZHirhe. Knheu, pp. .")9-64', Leghorn. 18:32; Wiener, 
Jlldigche SpeiseacKetze, 8« 1.3, 4. Rreslau, 189.5: .Jacob Sor- 
zena. Fteder hn-Nikkvr. and abridgment of same by Zebi ben 
Isaac Jacob, Venic*.' 1.59.5; Joshua Segre, Nikrnt Ittmi- (see 
Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 403). 
E. c. ■ J. D. E. 




POBK. See Swine. 

PORTALEONE (nns lyK') : Jewish family of 
northern Italy, whicli prohnbiy derived its name 
from tlie (juarter of Portaleoue, situated in the viein- 
ity of the ghetto of Rome. In 1399 Elhanan Por- 
taleone was dayyan in Lombardy. Tlie family in- 
chuied man}' physicians also among its members, 
Guglielmo (Benjamin) Portaleoneactingin this 
capacity for Ferdinand I. of Naples, and subse- 
quently for Galeazzo Sforza of Milan, after whose 
death he settled in his native city Mantua, where 
he practised until 1500. He, as well as his sons, 
grandsons, and great-grandsons, enjoyed the favor 
of the Gonzagas in Mantua, many of them being 
physicians to the members of that house. The 
following members of the Portaleone family deserve 
special notice : 

Abraham Portaleone: Physician in Mantua; 
died July 29, 1612; great-grandson of Gugliehno 
Portaleone (son of David, son of Lazzaro, son of 
Guglielmo) ; pupil of Jacob Fano. Dukes Gugli- 
elmoand Vincenzo, in whose service he was, granted 
him privileges in 1577 and 1587 respectively; and 
Pope Gregory XIV. gave him a dispensation which 
enabled him to attend Christians. At the request 
of Duke Guglielmo he wrote two medical treatises 
in Latin, which he dedicated to his patron, under 
the titles " Consilia Medica " and " Dialogi Tres de 
Auro " respectively ; the latter treatise was published 
in 1584. 

David Portaleone: Physician in Mantua; died 
in 1655; son of Abraham Portaleone. He succeeded 
his father in his position as physician to the dukes 
of Gonzaga. 

Guglielmo (Benjamin) Portaleone : Physi- 
cian; son of David Portaleone; took his degree at 
Sienna in 1639, and was licensed in Mantua. After 
the death of David Portaleone, Duke Charles II. re- 
quested Pope Innocent X. to grant Guglielmo the 
same privilege as had been bestowed upon his father 
and grandfather. 

To a different branch of the family belongs Leone 
Ebreo, or Leone Sommo (di Sommi, ^OIDD), who 
was otherwise known under the name Judah b. 
Isaac Portaleone. See Judah Leone ben Isaac 

Bibliography : On the family in general : Wolf, in AUa. Zeit. 
dcs Jud. 1862, p. 635 ; Steinschneider, Hebr. Bihl. vi. 48 et 
seq., XX. 47 ; Mortara, in R. E. J. xii. 112 et seq.; idem, In- 
dice, p. 51. On Abraham Portaleone : Wolf, in Hebr. Bibl. 1. 
18; Mortara, in R. E. J. lii. 96, xii. 115; Reifmann, Ha-Sha- 
har, iii.; Steinschneider, in MnnatsschrifU xlii. 26!}. On 
Leone Ebreo : D'Ancona, OriQini del Teatrn in Italia, ii. 401 
et seq.; Dejob, in R. E. J. xxiil. 378 et seq.; Neubauer, in 
Isr. Letterbode, x. 113 et seq.: Perreau, in Vesmllo Isi-aeli- 
tico, 1883, pp. 373 <■( seq.: Peyron, in Atti delta R. Accademia, 
xix.; Steinschneider, in Is7\ Letterhnde, xii. 73etseq.: idem, 
in Monatssclirift, xlii. 467 et seq.: Vogelstein and Rieger, 
Gtsch. der Juden in Rom, ii. 103; Zunz, in Ktrem, 
V. 154 ; Creizenach, Gesch. des Neueren Dramas, 1901, ii. 
290, 489. 

D. H. V. 


See Sanheduin. 

PORTLAND. See Oregon. 

PORTO (OPORTO) : Capital of the Portuguese 
province of Entre-Douro-e-Miuho. After Lisbon it 
possessed in former times tiic largest Jewish congre- 
gation of the country, and it was the seat of the pro- 
vincial rabbi or chief judge. As everywhere else, the 

Jews of Porto lived in their "Juderia." By com- 
mand of King John I., Victoria and S. .Sliguel 
streets, near the present location of the Ik-nedictine 
convent, were assigned to them for residence in 1386. 
In the latter street was the synagogue, wiiicii Im- 
manuel Aboab records that he saw; and the stairs 
which lead from Hciinonte to the old Juderia are 
still known as the "Escadasde Esnoga"(= ".syna- 
gogue steps "). 

Although the Porto city council opposed the ad- 
mission of Jewish refugees from Spain, apparently 
on hygienic grounds(1487). Porto was allotted as tlie 
place and S. Miguel as the street of residence to thirty 
Spanish Jewish families which, through the aged 
liabbi Isaac Aboab, negotiated witii King John II. 
for permission to settle in Portugal in 1491. The 
house of each of these immigrants was marked with 
the letter "P," the initial of the name of the city. 

The Porto Jews paid to the city a yearly tax of 
200 old maravedis, or 5,400 sueldos, for the square 
in which the synagogue stood; and even shortly 
before the expulsion they had to pay an annual tax 
of 10,000 reis. Many of them left the city after the 
edict of expulsion; but some remained behind as 
secret Jews. The tribunal of the Inquisition was in- 
troduced into Porto in 1543 (see Jew. Encyc. vi. 599, 
8.V. Inquisition). 

Isaac Aboab died at Porto in 1493; and here were 
born Immanuel Aboab, author of "Nomologia"; 
Uriel or Gabriel da Costa, the physician Diego Jo- 
seph, Abraham Ferrar, etc. At present (1905) Jews 
are again living in Porto. 

Bibliography: Aboab, Nomologia o Discursns Lrgalt». p. 
299; Kayserling, Gesch. der Juden in Portugal, pp. 13, 49, 
108 et seq.: J. Mendes dos Remedlos, 0« Judeoa em Portugal, 
pp. 261, 360 et seq. 
s. M. K. 

PORTO. See Rome. 

PORTO : Italian family of which the following 
members are noteworthy : 

Abraham b. Jehiel ha-Eohen Porto : Italian 
scholar; flourished about 1600. After living in Cre- 
mona and Mantua, he resided in Verona, where in 
1594 he edited and printed the "Minhah Belulah " 
of his kinsman Abraham Menahem Porto. He him- 
self wrote: "Hawwot Ya'ir" (Venice, 1628), an 
alphabetical collection of Hebrew words, with their 
cabalistic explanations; "Gat Rimmon," a collection 
of poems; and commentaries on the Pentateuch 
(" Shimmush Abraham ") and on the Psalms ('* Hasde 
Dawid "), none of which has been published. 

Bibltooraphy: Furst, Tiibl. Jud. ill. 115 ct seq.: Nepl-Ghi- 
rondi, Toledot Gcdolc Yiitrael. p. 35. 

Abraham Menahem Porto. See Rapa (Por- 
to), Menahem Ahuaiiam hen Jacob iia-Kohen. 

JEmanuel Porto or Menahem Zion Porto 
Cohen: Italian rabbi; born at Triest toward the 
end of the sixteenth century ; died at Padua about 
1660. He was an excellent mathematician and as- 
tronomer, and his works were highly praiseti by 
Andrea Argoli and extolled in Italian sonnets by 
Tomaso Ercaloni and Benedetto Luzzatto. In 1641 
Gaspard Scttppius, editor of the " Mercurius Quadra- 
linguis," recommended Porto, in terras which were 
very complimentary to the rabbi, to Johannes Bux- 
torf, with whom Porto later carried on an active cor- 




Porto was the author of the following works: (1) 

"Breve Istituzione della Geographia," Padua, 1640. 

(2) " Diplomologia, Qua Duo Scriptunv Miracula dc 

Regrcssu Solis Tempore Hiski* et Ejus Imuiobili- 

tate Tempore Josuoe Declarantur," tb. 1643. This 

work, dedicated to the emjienir Ferdinand III. and 

written originally in Italian, was translated by the 

author himself into Hebrew, and by Lorenzo Dal- 

naki of Transylvania into Latin. (3) " Porto Astrono- 

mico" {ib. 1636), divided into four parts, dedicated 

to Count Benvenuto Petazzo, Padua. (4) ""Obar 

Ic-Soher" (Venice, 1627), a treatise on arithmetic in 

twelve chapters, published by Porto's disciple Ger- 

shon Hefez. 

Bibliography: De Rossi, Dizwnario, ii. 93 : Turst.Bihl.Jud. 
ill. 116; St<»inscbneidt*r. Cat. BdcH. sol. 72:j; Nepi-ciliiroiidi. 
TnUdnt Gcihih: yi.<frflf !, p. 2.J8 ; 0?ar ^'i/imad. iii. 13:.'; Kay- 
serlinp, lu R. E. J. xiii. 268 et seq. 

G. L Br. 

Moses b. Abraham Porto: Rabbi in Venice; 
died in lC-^4. 

Moses b. Jehiel Porto : Rabbi in Rovigo about 
1600; born in Venice; brother of the Veronese 
printer Abraham Porto. He was the protagonist in 
the controversy regarding the mikweh in Rovigo, 
in which no less than sevent\- rabbis participated. 
On this subject he wrote a Avork entitled "Paige 
!Mayiin," in which he first states the case and then 
quotes twenty-eight opinions in favor of his deci- 
sion. This portion is followed by another entitled 
" Mish'an Mayim," which is a criticism of the rejoin- 
der of the opposition, the "^lashbit Milhamot," and 
by an examination of the respousa contained in it. 
Porto's work was published in Venice in 1608, and 
is very rare. 

Bibliography: Furst, DibJ. Jud. iii. 110; Mortara, Inrfioc, 
p. 51. 

Zechariah ben Ephraim Porto : Italian scholar 
of the seventeenth century, noted for his learning 
and still more for his virtues. He was a native of 
L'rbino, and lived at Florence and Rome, where he 
officiated as rabbi, although he modestly refused to 
assume that title. He wrote a work entitled "Asaf 
ha-Mazkir, " containing a list of all the explanations 
and comments found in the " 'En Ya'akob " and 
treating of the haggadic passages of the Talmud. 
He himself would not publish this bonk; it was 
printed after his death by the Roman community 
(Venice, 1688; according to Zedner, 167o). In his 
will Porto made many communal bequests for Tal- 
mud Torahs and for dowries. 

BliiLlOGRAPHY : Nepl-Ghirondi, Tolednt Gedolc Yiitracl,p. 99; 
Furst, liihl.Jud. iii. 117; Zedner. Cat. Hehr. BnoUx Brit. 
Mm. p. Tf^y. 
n. I. E. 

and dramatist; born of Italian ))aieiits at Bordeaux 
in 1849. lie entered a banking-house at an early 
age, but was discharged on account of his poetic 
tendencies. He then studied law, but soon turned 
to his true vocation. 

Porto-Hiche has published the following volumes 
of poetry: "Prima Verba." 1872: "Tout N'est pas 
Rose." 1877; " Vaiiina," 1879; and "Bonhcur ?.Ian- 
que," 1889, a little book of melancholy verses in 
which the author relates the memories of his lonely 
childhood. His dramatic works are as follows: 

"Le Vertige," 1873, a play in one act, represented 
at the Qd^on, and marking the commencement of 
his dramatic success; and " Un Drame sous Philippe 
II.," 1875. 

Estranged from his relatives and without money, 
Porto-Riche now saw several of his works rejected. 
Tiie Conu'die Franraise refused " Les Deux Fautcs" 
(which, however, was later presented at the Odeon in 
1878), " Le Calice," " Le Comte Marcelli," and " L'ln- 
fidele," 1891 ; but in 1888 " La Chance de Francoise," 
a one-act piece in prose, jneseuted at tiie Theatre 
Libre, marked an epoch in the contemporary his- 
tory of the theater, and through it he now ranks 
as the leader of a school. He has written also 
"Amoureuse," 1891; "Le Passe," 1897, a remark- 
able comedy which was revived at the Cnmedie in 1902; and "Theatre d'Amour," 1898. 
Porto-Riche has likewise been the dramatic critic 
of the "Estafette," succeeding Armand Silvestre, 
and of " La France " and '• La Presse." 

Bibliography: Nom-eau Larousse lUu.Mn'-; Lanson, His- 
toire dc Ja Litti'rature Frauraixc, I'aris, 19fti; Galtier, Id 
Le Temps, May IS, 19()t. 
s. J. K\. 

PORTSEA. See Portsmoitii. 

PORTSMOUTH : English fortified seaport on 
the coast of Hampshire. The Portsmouth (Port- 
sea) congregation is one of the oldest in the English 
provinces, having been founded in 1747 with a rab- 
binate of its own. During the Napoleonic wars the 
commercial activity of Portsmouth as a garrison and 
naval town attracted a large number of Jews; and 
at that time there were two synagogues. After the 
peace of 1815, the Jewish inhabitants having dimin- 
ished in numbers, the newly built edifice ceased to 
be used, and was finally transferred to a dry-goods 
dealer. The present synagogue is the earlier building, 
which was constructed in the styleof the Great Syna- 
gogue, in Duke's place, London. At one time the 
entrance to the place of worship was gained through 
the slums of the town. More than fifty years ago 
this entrance fell into disuse, and a handsome new 
approach on the opposite side of the synagogue, in 
Queen street, was constructed. Following a medi- 
eval Jewish custom, tiie Portsmouth synagogue 
had at one time its hall and cooking-utensils for the 
celebration of Jewish weddings. 

The social position of the Portsmouth Jews at the 
commencement of the nineteenth century ma}^ be 
inferred from tlie unfavorable estimate given in 
Marryat's novels; and there was formerly an in- 
scription on one of the local jilaces of amusement 
which read: "Jews and dogs not admitted." 

The Portsmouth congregation was one of the first 
in connection with which religious classes were held 
for the instruction of the young. The Hebrew 
Benevolent In.stitution is one of the oldest Jewish 
charities, having been founded 100 years ago. 
Portsmouth has other Hebrew charities, but its most 
important institution is an educational one. In 
1855 the late Lewis Aria, a native of Hampshire, 
bequeathed a large portion of his property to be ap- 
plied, in the case of certiiin eventualities, to the 
establishment of a college for the support and edu- 
cation of young men desirous of being trained as 
Jewish ministers. The college was to be established 

(From a paintiog la the poawssion of Dr. H. Pereir* Mendet, New York.) 




at Portsea, and its advantages were to be restricted 
to natives of Hampshire. Nearly twenty years 
elapsed before this bequest became available. In 
1874 the Aria College was established at Portsea 
in accordance with the testator's wishes; but the 
clause restricting its benefits to natives of Hampshire 
not being found practicable, the institution was 
thrown open to students for the Jewish ministry 
irrespective of birthplace. Several occupants of 
ministerial posts in England and America have 
graduated at this institution. The college has had 
two principals, the late A. F. Orustcin and 1. S. Mei- 
sels. Isaac Phillips has ministered to the Ports- 
mouth community for upward of thirty years. 

At one time Portsmouth possessed a large convict 
prison which contained a number of Jewish prison- 
ers: and Alderman A. L. Emanuel acted as honorary 
Jewish prison-visitor. Alderman Emanuel has been 
twice elected mayor of Portsmouth. The Jewish 
inhabitants of the town are estimated at 500, in a 
total population of 189,160. 

Bibliography: Jew. TTorid. Dec. 2, 1887; Jei/;. CTron.Marcb 
22. 29, 1872; JewUh Year Book, 1903. 
J. I. H. 

PORTUGAL (ancient Lusitania) : Kingdom in 
the southwest of Europe. The condition of its Jews, 
whose residence in the country is contemporaneous 
with that of the Jews in Spain, while in general 
like that of their coreligionists in the neighboring 
kingdom of Castile, was in some respects different. 
The influence of the canonical law was felt much 
later here than in Spain and not so violently. Until 
the expulsion there were no active hostilities against 
the Jews in Portugal. Affonso Henriques (1139-85), 
the conqueror and first king of Portugal, found 
Jews already settled in Santarem, Lisbon, and Beja; 
and, according to Herculano, he is said to have found 
villages and localities which were wholly or to a 
great extent inhabited by Jews. He pursued the 
tolerant policy of his grandfather Alfonso VI. of 
Castile, and issued letters of protection to the Jews, 
as also to the Moors of Faro. He, moreover, em- 
ployed Jews in his service, as, for instance, Dom 
Yahya ibn Ya'ish (ancestor of the widely branching 
Yahya family), who was his receiver of customs 
("almoxarife "), and to whom he gave two estates 
(Aldeas dos Negros) which had belonged to the 
Moors {c. 1150). Affonso Henriques' son Sancho I. 
(1185-1211) also was tolerant ; likewise Sancho's son 
Affonso II. (121 1-23), who employed Jews as farmers 
of the taxes and as tax-collectors, although under him 
the hostile attitude of the Church began to be felt. 
Affonso confirmed the resolutions passed by the Cor- 
tes at Coimbra in 1211, to the effect that a Jew who 

had been baptized might not return to 

In the Judaism, and that no Jew might pre- 

Tliirteenth vent his children from embracing 

Century. Christianity or disinherit them for so 

doing. On the other hand, he opposed 
the promulgation of the canons of the Lateran Coun- 
cil (1215) with regard to the Jews. Affonso II. died 
under a ban, and his son Sancho II. (1223-46) con- 
tinued the struggle with the Church. In spite of 
tiie canonical prohibition, he appointed Jews as tax- 
farmers. Probably it was he who appointed I). Jo- 
seph ibn Yahya as almoxarife; he also permitted 

him to build a magnificent synagogue in Lisbon 
(Carmoly, "Biographie der Jachiaden," p. 2, where 
-)K*y [5010 = 1250] should probablj' be read instead 
of DnL"y [5020]). 

In consequence of this favor shown to the Jews, 
Pope Gregory IX. sent an order to the bishops of 
Astorga and Lugo to protest against these infringe- 
ments of ecclesiastical ordinances. The papal threats 
had little effect upon Affonso III. (1246-79), son of 
Sancho II., who had been deposed by the pope. 
The clergy complained to the latter in 1258 that the 
king gave to the Jews public offices in which they 
assumed authority over Christians, and that he did 
not compel them to wear the Jews' badge or to pay 
the tithe to the Church. This petition seems not to 
have had the desired effect on Affonso III. He 
commanded that Moorish slaves when bought by 
Jews should not obtain freedom, and that Christians 
should not evade payment of their debts by selling 
goods which they had mortgaged to the Jews 
(J. Mendes dos Remedios, " Os Judeus em Portugal," 
p. 427). Further, Alfonso III. organized the inter- 
nal affairs of the Jews of his kingdom, to whom 
Affonso I. had already granted autonomy in civil as 
well as in criminal cases. Above all he issued a 
decree regulating the rights and duties of the rabbis, 
which was revised in 1402 under John I. The 
" rabbi mor " (chief rabbi) stood at the head of the 

Portuguese Jews, and, like the "rab 

The Rabbi de la corte " (court rabbi) in Castile, 

Mdr. was an officer of the crown and the 

most prominent person in the entire 
Jewry. He had his own seal, which bore the Por- 
tuguese coat of arms and the legend " Sello do 
Arrabbi Mor de Portugal. " All his official documents 
began with the following words: "N. N. , Arrabbi 
Mor, por meu Senhor El-Rey, das Communas dos Ju- 
deus de Portugal e do Algarve" {i.e., "N. N., chief 
rabbi, through my lord the king, of the communi- 
ties of the Jews in Portugal and Algarves "). On the 
rabbi mor devolved the duty of visiting all the com- 
munities of Portugal every year. He supervised 
the administration of legacies and funds for orphans, 
examined all accounts rendered to him by the direct- 
ors and treasurers concerning the income and ex- 
penditure of the communities, and, through his " por- 
teiro " (messenger), compelled tardy tax payers to paj'. 
He had authority to compel the communities to ap- 
point local rabbis and teachers and to enforce the 
latter to accept the positions to which they had been 
elected. The local rabbi might not issue writs of 
protection except in cases where the royal provin- 
cial authorities were permitted to grant them. He 
might not, moreover, institute a general contribution, 
nor could he alienate real estate of the community 
without its assent. The rabbi mor was accompanied 
on his official tours by an "ouvidor" (chief justice), 
who was anexpcrt in Jewish law ; by a "chanceller" 
(chancellor), under whose supervision was the office 

of the seal ; by an "escrivjio" (.secre- 

His tary), who received and drew up the 

Duties and protocols; and by a "porteiro" (mes- 

StaflF. sengei), who was under oath and took 

charge of the occasional seizures, exe- 
cuted sentences of punishments, etc. The rabbi mor 
chose the chief justices for the seven provinces of 




the country, who were stationed at the respective 
capitals— at Oporto (Porto) for the province Entre- 
Douro-e Minho; at Moncorvo for Tras-os-Montes; at 
Coviihjl for Beira-Alta; at Viseu for Beira-Baixa; 
at Santarem for Estremadura; at Evora for Alem- 
tejo; and at Faro for Algarve. Eacii provincial 
judge carried an official seal bearing the Portuguese 
coat of arms and the legend "Sello do Ouvidor das 
Communas de . . . ," and liad a chancellor and 
secretary who might be either a Jew or a Christian. 
The judge decided cases which were brought before 
him on appeal or on complaint of the local rabbi. 
Each place in w-hich a certain number of Jews re- 
sided had a local rabbi, who was chosen by the com- 
munity and confirmed in office, in the name of the 
king, by the rabbi mor, to whom he was subordinate. 
The local rabbi had civil and capital jurisdiction 
over the Jews of his district, and to him was respon- 
sible the butcher ("degoUador") appointed for the 
community. The butcher had to make a consci- 
entious report to the tax-collector of the number 
of cattle and fowl killed by him. 

The internal affairs of the Jewish communities 
were regulated by directors (" procuradores "), who 
were assisted on special occasions by confidential 

men (" homgs boOs das communas " or 
Reg'ulation "tobe ha-'ir"). In each community 
of Jewish was a notary to draw up written con- 
Internal tracts. After the edict of John I. all 
Affairs. documents had to be written in the 

language of the country, and not in 
Hebrew. The oaths of Jews in lawsuits among them- 
selves or against Christians were very simple as com- 
pared "with those of Jews in Castile, Aragon, and 
Navarre. The Jew swore in the synagogue with a 
Torah in his arm and in the presence of a rabbi and 
of a royal officer of the law. On Sabbath and feast- 
days Jews might not be summoned to court, nor 
could any legal proceedings be taken against them. 
It was strictly forbidden to cite a Jew before a 
Christian judge. Whoever acted contrary to this 
law was liable to a fine of 1,000 gold doubloons, and 
the rabbi mor was required to keep him in custody 
until the sum should be paid. 

In Portugal, as in Spain, the Jews lived in sepa- 
rate " Juderias," or Jew lanes. The capital possessed 
the largest community, and Jews resided also in 
Alcazar, Alcoitim, Aliezur, Alter-do-Chilo, Alvito, 
Alvor, Barcellos, Beja, Braganga, Cacilla, Castro- 
Marim, Chaves, Coimbra, Couto, Covilhfi, Elvas, 
Estremos, Alanquer, Evora, Faro, Gravao, Guarda, 
Guimaraes, Lamego, Leiria, Louie (which had its 
own Jew valle)', Val de Judeo), Mejaufrio, Miranda, 
Moncorvo, Montemor, Oporto, Periaina^or, Porches, 
Santarem (where the oldest synagogue was located), 
Silves, Tavira, Trancoso, Villa- Marim, Villa-Viciosa, 
and Viseu. The Jews of Portugal had to pay the 
following taxes: the "Juderega" or " Judenga," a 

poll-tax of 30 dinheiros, fixed here, as 
Taxation, in Castile, in remembrance of the thirty 

pieces of silver paid to Judas Iscariot ; 
a personal tax of 5 maravedis for every boy from 
seven to fourteen years of age, and 2^ maravedis for 
each girl from seven to twelve, 1 maravedi for every 
unmarried male over fourteen living in the home 
of his parents, and i maravedi for every unmarried 

female over twelve. Married people paid ^0 solidi. 
The rabbinate tax, known as " Arubiado," fell to the 
crown. P^om the reign of King Sancho II., who 
was interested in the development of the navy, the 
Jews were obliged to pay a navy tax. Fur each 
ship fitted out by the king they had to provide an 
anchor and a new anchor-tow sixty ells long, or in- 
stead to make a money payment of 00 livres. A 
poll-tax of 1 maravedi was levied on them in sev- 
eral places, also a customs and a road tax. from 
which Christians were exemjtt. The Jews paid 
King Affonso IV. (1325-57) 50.000 livres annually in 
direct taxes. All that a Jew bougiit or sold was 
subject to a special tax— each head of cattle or 
fowl which he killed, every and every measure 
of wine that he bought. The special taxes, as in 
other states, were basetl on the principles then gener- 
ally recognized with regard to the position of tlie 
Jews, but restrictions were first enacted upon recog- 
nition of the canonical law and its incorporation into 
the law of the land. 

Under Diniz (1279-1325), the son and successor of 
Affonso III., the Jews remained in the favorable situ- 
ation they had enjoyed up to that 
Favorable time. This was due in no small meas- 
Attitude of ure to the influence which D. Judah, 
Diniz. chief rabbi at that time, and D. Geda- 
liah, his son and successor, who were 
also the king's treasurers, had with the king. Geda- 
liah's representations as to the partiality of the 
judges was not without effect. The favor and pro- 
tection, hovvever, granted the Jews by the king in- 
creased the hatred of the clergy against them. They 
complained that Diniz permitted the presence of 
Jews at his court and entrusted them with official 
positions, that he did not compel them to wear 
badges, and that he allowed them the free exercise 
of their religion. "The Jews are becoming proud 
and conceited," they rep.orted to Rome ; " they adorn 
their horses with tassels, and indulge in a luxury 
that has an injurious effect on the inhabitants of the 
country." But not until the reign of Affonso IV. 
(1325-57), who wasunfavorabl}' disposed to the Jews, 
did the clergy accomplish anything with their com- 
plaints. Immediately after his accession the law 
was enforced by which Jews were prohibited from 
appearing in public without a badge — the six- 
pointed yellow star in the hat or on the upper gar- 
ment — and were forbidden to wear gold chains. He 
limited their freedom of emigration, declaring that 
no one who owned property of the value of 500 livres 
might leave the country without royal permission, 
under penalty of forfeiting his property, which, to- 
gether with that of those who went with him, would 
fall to the king. They had also to suffer from the 
growing hatred of the populace, incited by the 
clergy, who made the Jews responsible for the 
plague which raged in the year 1350. King Pedro 
I. (1357-67), however, who was a model of justice, 
protected them against the violence of the clergy anil 
nobles (see Peduo I.), and under his benevolent rule 
their prosperity increased. His body-physician was 
Rabbi Mor D. Moses Navarro, who together with 
his wife established a large entail near Lisbon. 

Under Ferdinand L (1367-83). who wasaspendthrift 
and who employed his Jewish treasurer D. Judah 




iu his tinancial operations, and still more under the 
regency of his wife, the frivolous and highly unpop- 
ular Leonora, the Jews were prominent 
Under in Portugal. After the death of the 
Ferdinand king, Leonora deposed D. Judah and 
I. the Jewish collector of customs at Lis- 

bon on the representations of the city 
deputies ; but when she wislied to have her daughter 
Beatrix and the hitter's husband, John I. of Castile, 
recognized as regents of the country, and the people 
rebelled, killed Leonora's favorites, and proclaimed 
John vice-regent of the kingdom (1385), Leonora fled, 
accompanied by her confidants, the above-mentioned 
D. Judah and the wealthy D. David Negro- Yahya. 
Disputes between her and John I. of Castile, wlio 
waged war against Portugal, ended in an open breach 
on the occasion of the nomination to the head rab- 
binate of Castile. Leonora demanded the place for 
her favorite D. Judah. but the king, at the desire of 
bis wife, appointed D. David Negro- Yahya. Em- 
bittered by this, Leonora plotted against the life of 
her son-in-law ; but her plan was frustrated by D. 
David Negro, and Leonora was banished to a convent 
in Tordesillas; the life of D. Judah was spared on 
the plea of D. David Negro. The possessions of D. 
Judah, D. David, and other Jews who had sided 
with the banished queen and had fled from Portu- 
gal, were confiscated and given to the bravest knights 
by D. John, who became king after the withdrawal 
of the King of Castile (1411). 

John I., in spite of the fact that he favored con- 
version and granted special privileges to the con- 
verted, was a friend and protector of the Jews. 
Through the efforts of Rabbi Mor D. 

John I. Moses Navarro, they were shielded 
a Friend to from the severe persecutions which 
the Jews, their coreligionists in Spain expe- 
rienced in 1391, and also from the zeal 
and .sermons of conversion of Vicente Ferrer. John 
protected the Jews who had fled from the persecu- 
tions in Spain. On the other hand, he enforced the 
laws compelling the Jews to wear the badge and 
prohibiting them from entering Christian taverns or 
holding official jiositions; but these were often dis- 
regarded. Only a short time before his death (1433) 
he was accused of having Jewish physicians at the 
court and of permitting Jewish tax-collectors to ex- 
ercise executive authority. Ilis son Duarte (1433- 
1438) tried completeh' to separate the Jews from the 
Ciiristian population, in spite of the influence ex- 
erted over him by his body-physician and astrologer 
Mestre Guedelha(Gedaliah) ibn Solomon ibn Yahya- 
Negro. When the latter, as is said, advised the 
king to postpone the ceremonies of coronation and 
the king refused to do so, lie announced to him that 
liis reign would be short and unfortunate. Duarte 
was indeed unfortunate in his undertakings. His 
brother I). Fernando, whol)orrowed large sums from 
D. Judah Abravanel and sent the king a Jewish 
surgeon, Mestre Joseph, from Fez, in 1437, died in 
a Moorish prison; and Duarte himself, while still in 
the full vigor of manhood, was carried off by the 
plague after a short reign. Under Duarte's son, the 
mild and gentle Affonso V. (1438-81), " who exercised 
justice and kindness toward his people," the Jews 
again enjoyed freedom and prosperity. It was 

their last tranquil period upon the Pyrenean penin- 
sula. They resided outside the J uderias; they were 
distinguished from the Christians by no external 
tokens; and they held public offices. Affonso V. 
ajjpointed D. Isaac Abravanel to be his treasurer 
and minister of finance, and several members of the 
Yahya famil}' were received at court. Joseph iJcu 
David ibn Yahya stood in especial favor with the 
king, who called him his "wise Jew." and who, be- 
ing himself fond of learning, liked to discuss scien- 
tific and religious questions with him (Ibn Verga, 
"Shebet Yehudah," pp. 61 et seq.. 108 et seg.). 

The favors shown to the Jews and the luxury 
displayed by them, which even the king with all 
his gentleness reproved, increased the hatred of the 
people more and more. In 1449 for the first time 
in Portugal this feeling broke out in 
Revolt of a revolt against the Jews of Lisbon; 
1449. the Juderia was stormed, and several 
Jews were killed. The king inter- 
vened, and imposed strict penalties on the ring- 
leaders, but the complaints against the Jews contin- 
ued. At the assemblies of the Cortes in Santarem 
(1451), Lisbon (1455), Coimbra (1473), and Evora 
(1481) restrictions were demanded. "When D. Af- 
fonso died," says Isaac Abravanel, "all Israel was 
filled with grief and mourning; the people fasted 
and wept." 

Affonso was succeeded by his son John II. (1481- 
1495), a morose, distrustful person, who did away 
with the powerful lords and the house of Biagan^a 
in order to create an absolute kingdom, and seized 
their pos.sessions for the crown. He showed favor 
to the Jews, and as often as it was for his advantage 
employed them in his service. His body-physicians 
were D. Leao and D. Joseph Vecinho, the latter of 
whom, together with D. Moses, the king's mathema- 
tician, had also made himself useful in the art of 
navigating; his surgeon was a D. Antonio, whom he 
induced to accept Christianity, and who then wrote 
a slanderous book against his former coreligionists. 
The king employed the Jews Joseph Capateiro of 
Lamego and Abraham of Beja to tran.sact business 
for him. He was also friendly toward those Jews 
who, exiled from Spain, had sought 
Under refuge in Portugal; he promised to 
John II. receive them for eight months in re- 
turn for a poll-tax of 8 crusados to 
be paid in four instalments, and to provide enough 
ships for them to continue their journey. His only 
purpose in granting them protection was to replenish 
the state treasury. He appointed Oporto and other 
cities for their temporary residence, although the in- 
habitants protested. The number of immigrants 
amounted to nearly 100,000. From Castile alone 
more than 3,000 persons embarked at Benevento for 
Bragan^a ; at Zamora, more than 30,000 for Miranda ; 
from Ciudad-Rodrigo for Villar, more than 35,000; 
from Alcantara for Marvao, more than 15,000; and 
from Badajoz for Elvas, more than 10,000 — in all 
more than 93,000 persons (Bernaldez, in A. de Castro, 
"Historiade los Judios en Espana," p. 143). John 
II. did not keep his promise. Not until aftera long 
delay did he provide ships for them. The suffering 
which tiie emigrants were obliged to endure was 
terrible. Women and girls were outraged by the 




sliip captains and sailors in the presence of tlieir 
liiisljands and parents, and were then tlirown into 
tlie water. The Portuguese chroniclers agree with 
Jewish historians in the description of these fiendish 
acts. who tarried in the country after the 
prescribed period were made siavesand given away. 
John went even further in his cruelty. He tore tlie 
little children away from the parents who remained 
behind, and sent tliein to the newly discovered island 
of St. Thomas; most of them died on the ships or were 
<levoured on their arrival by wild beasts; those who 
remained alive jiopulated the island. Often brotliers 
married their own sisters (Usque, "Consola(;am," 
etc., p. 197a; Abraham b. Solomon, " Sefer ha-Kab- 
balah," in Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 112). John 11. is 
called "the Wicked " by Jewish historians and once 
also "the Pious." 

After John's death his cousin and brotlier-in-law 
D. Manuel, called "the Great," ascended the tlirone 
of Portugal (1495-1521). At first lie was favorably 
inclined toward the Jews, perhaps through the 
influence of Abraham Zacuto, his much-esteemed 
astronomer; he restored to them the freedom which 
John had taken from them and generously declined 
a present of money which the Jews offered him in 
token of their gratitude. Political interests, how- 
ever, brought about only too soon a change in his atti- 
tude. Manuel thought to unite the whole peninsula 
under his scepter by marrying a Spanish princess, 
Isabella, tlie young widow of the Infante of Portu- 
gal and daughter of Ferdinand of Aragonand Isabel- 
la of Castile. The latter couple, who had driven the 
Jews out of their own land (1492), made their con- 
sent dependent on the condition that 
Under Manuel should expel all the Jews from 
Manuel the his country. He brought the matter 
Great. before his state council, some mem- 
bers of which warned him against the 
expulsion of such a useful and diligent people, 
who would settle in Africa, where they would add 
strength to the Mohammedans and become danger- 
ous to Portugal. On the other hand, the party hos- 
tile to the Jews referred to Spain and other states 
in which Jews were not tolerated. The king's 
course was decided by Isabella herself, who wrote to 
him to the effect that she would not enter Portugal 
until the land was cleaned of Jews (G. Heine, in 
Schmidt's "Zeitschrift flir Geschichte," ix. 147). 
On Nov. 30, 1496, the marriage contract between 
Manuel and Isabella was signed, and on Dec. 4 of 
the same year the king issued an order at Muja 
(Muga), near Sautarem, directing that all Jews and 
Jewesses, irrespective of age, should leave Portugal 
before the end of Oct., 1497, under penalty of death 
and confiscation of their property ; that any Christian 
found concealing a Jew after the expiration of the 
prescribed period should be deprived of all his prop- 
erty; and that no future ruler on any pretext what- 
ever should permit Jews to reside in the kingdom. 
The king granted the Jews free departure with 
all their propert}^ and promised to assist them 
as far as possible (the decree of banishment, which, 
according to Zacuto, "Yuhasin," p. 227 [wbere 
*l3D"Tn^T"3 should be read instead of V'3], was 
issued Dec. 4, is found in the "Ordena(;oos d' el 
Key D. Manuel" [Evora, 1556]. ii. 41, and in Rios, 

"Hist." iii. 014 et serj.; see also "R. E. J." iii. 285 
et xeq.). 

In order to retain the Jews in the country as con- 
verts Manuel issued the inhuman decree that on u 
certain day all Jewish children, irrespective of sex, 
who should liave reached their fourth year and 
should not have passed their twentieth should be 
torn from their parents and brought up in the 
Christian lailh at the expense of the king. He did 
tiiis "for reasons which compelled him to it," ac- 
cording to the assertion of Abraham b. Solomon of 
Torrutiel, on the advice of the converted Levi ben 
Shem-Tob ("Sefer ha-Kabbalah," ed. Neubaner, I.e. 
i. 114) and in opposition to the will of Ids stale 
council assembled at Estremoz, which, witii Hie 
noble bishop D. Fernando Coiitinho at its head, em- 
phatically declared against this enfc^rced baptism. 
The Jews in Evora, as in the country generally, re- 
ceived the news of the intended deed on Fri<lay, 
Marcli.l7, 1497; and in order that parents miglit not 
have time to get the children out of tlie way, the 
king had the crime committed on Sun- 
Forcible day, the first day of the Passover. 
Baptism of March 19 (not early in April, as is 
Children, usually stated ; see Zacuto, I.e. p. 227). 
According to Usque (I.e. p. 198), Jews 
up to the age of twenty-five years (" vintecinco 
annos"; not fifteen, asGratz, "Gesch." viii. 392, de- 
clares) were taken; according to Herculano (I.e. i. 
125), the age limit was twenty years (.see Goes, 
"Chron." xx. 19). Pathetic scenes occurred on this 
occasion. Out of sympathy and compassion many 
Christians concealed Jewish children that they might 
not be separated from their parents. Many parents 
smothered their children in the last farewell em- 
brace or threw them into wells and rivers and then 
killed themselves. "I have seen with my own 
eyes," writes the noble Coutinho, "how a father, 
his head covered, with pain and grief accompanied 
his son to the baptismal font and called on the All- 
knowing as witness that they, father and son, 
wished to die together as confessors of the Mosaic 
faith. I have seen many more terrible things that 
were done to them." Isaac ibu Zacliin, the son of 
an Abraham ibn Zachin, killed himself and his chil- 
dren because he wished to see them 
Compul- die as Jews. As the last date for 
3ory Con- the departure of the Jews drew near 
version the king announced after long hesita- 
of 20,000 tion that they must all go to Lisbon 
Jews. and embark there. About 20, (KX) per- 
sons flocked together to the capital 
and were driven like sheep into a palace with a sev- 
enteen-window front, destined for the temporary re- 
ception of foreign ambassadors. On its site to-day 
stands the Donna Maria Theater. Here they were 
told that the time allotted for their departure had 
elapsed, that they were now the king's slaves, and 
that he would deal with them according to his will. 
Instead of food and drink they received the visits of 
the converted Mestre Nicolao (body-physician to 
the young queen) and Pedro de Castro, who was a 
churchman and brother of Nicolao. All sorts of 
promises were made in the attempt to induce the Jews 
to accept Christianity. When all attempts to shake 
their faith had failed the king ordered his bailiffs to 




•Qse force. The strongest and handsomest Jewish 
young men were dragged into church by the hair 
and beard to be baptized. 

Only seven or eiglit heroic characters, " somente 
sete ou vito cafres contumasses," as Herculano re- 
ports from a manuscript, offered an obstinate oppo- 
sition; and these the king caused to be transported 
across the sea. Among them were probably the 
physician Abraham Saba, whose two sons were 
forcibly baptized and thrown into prison; Abraham 
Zacuto, the mathematician and astrologer of D. 
Manuel; and the scholar Isaac b. Joseph Caro, who 
had fled to Portugal from Toledo and had here lost 
all his sons. 

Even the Portuguese dignitaries, and especially 
Bishop Osorius, were deeply moved by this cruel 
compulsory conversion; and perhaps it was due to 
the latter that Pope Ale.vander VI. took the Jews 
under his protection. Manuel, perhaps advised by 
the pope to do so, adopted a milder polic\'. On 
May 30, 1497, he issued a law for the 
Protection protectionof the con verted Jews, called 
for "Christfios novos" (Neo-Christians), 

Maranos. according to which they were to re- 
main undisturbed for twenty years, 
the authorities to have during that time no right to 
impeach them for heresy. At the expiration of this 
period, if a complaint should arise as to adherence 
to the old faith only a civil suit was to be brought 
against them, and in case of conviction the prop- 
erty of the condemned was to pass to his Christian 
heirs and not into the fiscal treasury. The posses- 
sion and use of Hebrew books were forbidden except 
to converted Jewish physicians and surgeons, who 
were allowed to use Hebrew medical works. Fi- 
nally, a general amnesty was promised to all Neo- 
Christians (documents in Kayserling, "Geschichte 
der Juden in Portugal," pp. 347 et seq.). 

Those Jews who were living as pretended Chris- 
tians took the first opportunity to leave the country. 
Whoever could sold his property and emigrated. 
Large numbers of secret Jews set sail for Italy, 
Africa, and Turkey. Thereupon, on April 20 and 
21, 1499, Manuel prohibited the transaction of busi- 
ness with Neo-Christians and forbade the latter to 
leave Portugal without the royal permission. They 
were thus obliged to remain in a country in which 
a fanatical clergy was constantly inciting against 
them a populace that already hated and despised 
them. In April, 1506, a savage massacre occurred 
in Lisbon. On April 19 and the following days 
over 2,000 (according to some over 4,000) secret 
Jews were killed in a most terrible fashion and 
burtu;d on pyres. Manuel inflicted a severe pen- 
alty on the Dominican friars who were the leaders 
in the riot; they were garroted and then burned, 
while the friars who had taken part in the revolt 
were expelled from the monastery. The king 
granted new privileges to the secret Jews and per- 
mitted them, by an edict of March 1, 1507, to leave 
the country with their property. To show them his 
good-will he renewed the law of May 30, 1497, and 
on April 21, 1512, prolonged it for a further period 
of twenty years. In 1521, however, he again issued 
a law forbidding emigration under penalty of con- 
fiscation of property and loss of personal freedom. 

So long as Manuel lived the Neo-Christians or 

Maranos. were not disturbed, but under his son and. 

successor, John III. (1521-57), the enmity against 

them broke out anew. On Dec. 17, 

Introduc- 1531, Pope Clement VII. authorized 

tion of the the introduction of the Inquisition into 

Inquisition Portugal, after the Maranos of that 

(1531). country had prevented it for fifty 

years. The number of Maranos who 

left the country now increased steadily, especially 

under the reign of King Sebastian (1557-78), who 

permitted them free departure, in return for the 

enormous payment of 250.000 ducats, with which 

sum he carried on his unfortunate war against 


BiBLiOfiRAPHT: F. Brandao, Mnnarchia Lufitana, passim; 
Ruv de Pina, Chronica do Reu D. Ditartc ; idem, Chroniccu 
iV el Re}) D. Jodo I.; idem, Chrotiica do Scnhor Reu D. Af- 
foruio; Idem, Chrnitica d' el Reu D. Jodo [I. in ColUccao 
dns Ineditos de Historia Portuffueza ; F. Lopez. Chronica 
d' el Reu D. Pedro, in CoUeccdo, iv. 17, 20; Sousa, Proi'cw, 
11. 20, 255; iii. 581, 628; Iv. 38; Damiao de Goes, Chronica do^ 
Serenissimo Senhor Rci D. Maniuh x. 13 et seq., 20; Oso- 
rius, De Rebus Emauuelis. etc., "a, 12b et seq.; Garcia de 
Rezende. Chronica dos Valernsos e hmgnns Feitos del Re\f 
Dom Jodo II. pp. 68 et seq.. 96 et seq., 132 et seq.; Usque, 
Consola^m as Trihnlacoens de Ysrael, pp. 188, 195 ct seq.i 
Joaquim Jos. Ferreira Gordo, Memoria Sobre os Judcos em 
Portinjal, in Mcmorias da Academia Real das Sciencicu>, 
iv. 2 (reprinted, without naming author or source, in Rcvinta 
Penin^mlar, ii. .520 ft seq.. Lisbon, 18-56) ; A. Herculano, Histn- 
ria de Portugal, ii. 322 et seq.; iii. 107, 128. 138. 215; iv. 210; 
idem. Da Origcm e Estabelecimento da Inqui.iicdo em Por- 
tutw^. i. 85, 95 et seq., 100 et seq., 120 et seq., 138 et seq., Lis- 
bon. 1854 ; S. Cassel. in Ersch and Gruber, Encuc. section ii., 
part 27, pp. 226 et seq.; Rios. Hi«t. i. 266 ; ii. 185. 28.5. 455; iii. 
179. 334; Kayserlinjr. Ga<ch. der Juden in Portugal, Berlin, 
1867 ; J. Mehdes dos Remedios. Os Judeus em Portugal, 1., 
Colmbra, 1895; Griitz. Gesch. vli. 169; vlll. 49. 374 et seq.; J. 
Q. R. 19a), XV. 251-274, 529-530. 

D. M. K. 

The anticlerical movement instituted by Marquis. 
Pombal, the all-powerful minister of King Joseph 
I. (1750-77), lessened the rigor of the Inquisition. 
As early as May 2, 1768, the lists containing the 
names of the Neo-Christians were ordered to be sup- 
pressed; a law of May 25, 1773 (the year when the 

Jesuit order was abolished), decreed 

Reset- that all disabilities based on descent, 

tlement. chiefly directed against the Maranos, 

should cease ; and finally the Inquisi- 
tion, whose powers had been considerably restricted 
bv a law of Sept. 1, 1774, was altogether abolished 
on March 31, 1821. 

The first Jew to settle in Portugal after the ex- 
pulsion of 1497 was Moses Levy, an English subject 
from Gibraltar ("Jew. Chron.""Oct. 21, 1904, p. 10), 
although the treaty of Utrecht (1713), by which Gib- 
raltar had been ceded to England, had expressly 
stipulated (article x.) that the Jewish subjects of 
England should not have the right of residence la 
Portugal. The statement of Thiers ("' Histoire du 
Consulat et de I'Empire," xi. 71, Paris, 1851) that the 
French troops upon their invasion of Portugal in 
1807 were hailed by 20,000 Jews, is certainly a gross 
exaggeration, as is also the statement (" Revue Ori- 
entale," 1841, vi. ; reprinted in " Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 
1841, p. 6!^1) that there were 2,000 to 2,500 Jews in 
Portugal in 1825. It has been proved, however, 
that as early as 1801 the Jews of Lisbon bought a 
plot in the English cemetery of that city, where the 
oldest tombstone still extant bears the date of 1804. 
A formal motion, proposed by Joseph Ferrao in the 
Cortes, Feb. 26. 1821, to admit the Jews into the 




country, was defeated; and the constitution of 1826, 
while dechiring Roman Catholicism to be the state 
religion, allowed foreigners freedom of worship, 
provided they conducted it in places not bearing the 
signs of a public house of worship. 

Outside of Lisbon there is only one congregation 
in Portugal possessing a house of worship (erected 
1850), namely, that of Faro; it numbers about fif- 
teen families and dates from 1820. A fe%v Jews are 
living in Evora, Lagos, and Porto; but they arc 
not organized into congregations. A settlement, 
Avhich has of late been steadily decreasing, exists in 
S. Miguel on the Azores; but it is so small tliat its 
memi)ers have to send to Gibraltar every year 
for some coreligionists in order to secure the re- 
quired MiNYAN for the services of the great holy 

The JeAvish inhabitants of Portugal numbered in 
1903 about 500 souls in a total population of 5,428,591. 
Most of them are merchants and shipowners, while 
a few are professors, among them being Jacob 
Bensaudo, who liolds the chair of English at Porto 
and has published various text-books. James Ana- 
hory Athias is an officer in the navy ("Jew. Chron." 
Jan. 31, 1902). Lisbon has a rabbi, and Faro a 
hazzan. The rabbinical office in Lisbon was occu- 
pied for a long time by Jacob Toledano of Tangier, 
who died in 1899; the present (1905) incumbent is 
Isaac J. Wolfinsohn. Guido Chayes, Portuguese 
consul in Leghorn, was made a count by King Carlos 
in 1904 ("Vessillo Israelitico," 1904, p. 196). Sir 
Isaac Lyon Goldsmid was created Baron of Pal- 
meira in 1845, and Sydney James Stern, now Lord 
Wandsworth, was created a viscount in 1895. 



Russian physician and author ; born at Poltava 1835 ; 
died at Samara 1896. After studying medicine at 
the universities of Kharkov and Kiev, he served for 
a time as army surgeon. He then settled in the 
government of Perm, where, however, he was not 
permitted to practise medicine. Portugalov there- 
fore souglit occupation in the field of literature. 
His first article ("Shadrinsk i Cherdyn ") was pub- 
lished in the " Arkhiv Sudebnoi Meditziny " ; his next 
contributions were to the " Dyelo " and " Nedyelya, " 
mainly on hygienic subjects. At last an opportu- 
nity came to him to takeup the practise of medicine; 
he was appointed city physician at Krasnoufimsk, in 
the government of Perm, thereafter becoming suc- 
cessively sanitary supervisor of two mining districts 
in the Ural Mountains and district physician (1870-- 
1880) of Kamyshlova, Samara, etc. Portugalov 
devoted much of his time to philanthropic work, 
maintaining an especially active campaign against 
drunkenness. In his last j'cars he expressed his 
sympathy with the New Israel movement then de- 
veloping in Russia. 

Portugalov's works include : " Voprosy Obshchest- 
vennoi Gigiyeny " (1874); " Yevrei Reformatory " 
(St. Petersbiirg, 1882); "Znamenatelnyya Dwizhen- 
niya v Yevreistvye " {ib. 1884). 

Bibliography: Entziklopedicheski Slovar, xxlv. 634. 
H. R. A. S. W. 

POSEKIM. See Pesak. 

POSEN : Province of Prussia ; formerly a part 
of the kingdom of Poland, it was annexed by the 
former country after the partition of the latter in 
1773 and 1793. In the first half of the thirteenth 
century, when the Germans crossed the frontier and 
began to settle in the territory of Poscn, a large 
number of Jews seem to have come with them. 
Even before that time, however, Jews were living 
in Great Poland, which covered a somewhat larger 
area than the modern province of Posen. Tlius 
they are mentioned as residents of Deutscii Krone 
in the eleventh century, of Gnesen in the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries, and of Meseritz in tlic four- 
teenth century. Tlie dales of the first allusions to 
Jews in the principal cities of Great Pfiland are as 
follows: Kalisz, 1354; Posen. 1379; Peisern. 1386; 
Schmiegel, 1415; Inowrazlaw (Ilohensalza). 1447; 
Schneidemilhl, sixteenth century; Lenczyce, 1517; 
Schwerin - on - the - Warta, 1520; Bromberg, 1525; 
Fraustadt. 1526; Lowicz, about 1537; Prime, 1553; 
Brzeaz, 1555; Petrikau, 1555; Exin, 1559; Schrimm. 
1573; Lissa, 1580 or shortly afterward; Schwer- 
senz, 1590; Neustadt, 1595; Gratz, 1597; Kempen. 
seventeenth century, shortly after tlie founding of 
the city ; Wronke, 1607; Warsaw, 1608; Krotoschin, 
1617; Wreschen, 1621; Pakosch, 1624; Samter. 
1626; Kolo, 1629; Fordon, 1633; Jarotschin. 1637; 
Nakel, 1641; Filehne, 1655; Kobylin, 1656; Roga- 
sen. 1656; Lask, 1685; Wollstein, 1690; Rawitsch, 
1692; Obornik, 1696; and Goslin, 1698. See Po- 
liAND, under Russia. 

In a document which was issued by Sigismund I., 
dated Aug. 6, 1527, R. Samuel Margolioth of Posen 
was confirmed as chief rabbi of Great Poland, and 
was vested with important powers over all the Jews 
of that district. The synod of Great Poland, which 
had at its disposal a stated clerk (".sofer medinah "), 
tax-assessors and tax-collectors, is first mentioned in 
1597; it sat in that year and in 1609 at Posen, several 
times between 1635 and 1649 at Gnesen, in 1668 at 
Kalisz, in 1681 at Neustadt-on-the-Warta, in 1691 at 
Jarotschin, and in 1733 at Kobylin. Its functions 
included the election of tlie chief rabbi of Great 
Poland, the adoption of measures of protection 
against common dangers (especially the frequent 
charge of ritual murder), the collection of the i>oll- 
tax and of sums needed for the general welfare, the 
negotiation of loans for communal purposes, the 
subvention of works of Jewish literature, and ap 
probations for printing (see Approbation). 

The Jews of Great Poland were not exempt from 

persecution, which, however, generally occurred in 

times of war or economic depression. An outbreak 

against them took place on the German frontier in 

1349, the year of the Black Death. 

During when 10,000 Jews were killed, the 
the Black commercial retrogression of Great Po- 

Death. land in the fourteenth century being 
ascribed to this persecution. Many 
Jews were martyred during the war between Swe- 
den and Poland in 1656; and a smaller number died 
in the Northern war in 1707 and 1716. Social op- 
pressions were frequently caused by the Catholic 
clergy and by the German merchants for religious 
and commercial reasons. The clergy first legislated 
the Jews of Great Poland in 1267 at the 




Council of Breslaii. in accordance with tia- canons of 
the Lateran Council. The right to give permission 
for the building of new synagogues was reserved to 
the Archbishop of Guesen and the Bishop of Posen. 
In the twelftii century Jews were employed at Gnc- 
sen as farmers of the mint and as coiners, a few under 
Boleslaw IV. (lUe-TS), and a larger number under 
Mieczyslav III. (1173-77, 119o-l'ib2). The inscrip- 
tions on these coins arc partly in pure Hebrew, and 
partly in Polish in Hebrew letters, as n31t3 nD"l3. 
n312 n"l3-l3. "pofjia hip N^L•r)(^<'., "Mieszko krol 
Polski " [Mieszko, king]), e)DV XpC'D (" [May 
God] increase Mieszko''), and pnV' "13 DmiX- 
Similar coins are found in the cabinets of the PolLsh 
aristocrac}', the Radziwills, Sapiehas, and others, in 
the Thomson collection at Copenhagen, and in the 
Pretorius collection at Brcslau. 

It is noteworthy that in the fourteenth century 
the " grod " or county courts took up the cases of 
Jewish creditors against their aristocratic debtors; 
that Jews were permitted to acquire land, a privi- 
lege which was subsequently repealed ; that women 
as well as men engage^ in money-lending ; and that a 
case set for a Sabbath was postponed to another day 
on the Jews' account. It appears that all the Jews of 
Great Poland carried their cases against the aristoc- 
racy to the " grod " of Posen, not to the courts of the 
other cities. Although their condition was more 
favorable than in later centuries, as is evidenced by 
the fact that the epithet "unbelieving Jews," subse- 
quently current, was not applied to them at that 
time, the general statutes of the archdiocese of 
Gnesen decreed that they should wear a piece of 
blood-red cloth on the breast. In general they were 
not permitted in the cities under the jurisdiction of 
prelates, and in some instances they were expelled 
from some of the other towns also. 

In the following centuries the Jews were subjected 
to varying treatment, according as the cities or ter- 
ritories were under royal, ecclesiastical, or aristo- 
cratic dominion. The words of K. 
Privileges Moses Isserlcs, uttered with regard to 
and Little Poland, are applicable to his 

Jurisdic- coreligionists of Great Poland as well: 
tion. "Every city has its special tax and 
its special governor; and even the 
king [of Poland] does not rule over them, but only 
their own lord of the manor." These lords granted 
privileges to their Jews, acted as their judges, and 
even sentenced them to death, while from tliem the 
numerous Jewish gilds received their statutes. The 
Jews followed many callings at this time, being tai- 
lors, furriers, bakers, braiders, butchers, glaziers, 
tanners, barbers, goldsmiths, gold-embroiderers, 
gold -refiners, jewelers, button-makers, capmakers, 
seal-engravers, silk-dyers, horn-workers, cooks, por- 
ters, musicians, etc. 

In the course of centuries numbers of German 
Jews fled to Poland from the hardships which they 
suffered at home; in 1474, emigrants went from 
Bamberg to Posen; in 1510, from the electorate of 
Brandenburg to Meseritz ; after 1670, from Vienna 
to Sell wersenz ; and in 1700, from Fulda to Schwerin- 

Theritual of Great Poland differed in various points 
from that observed elsewhere, containing, for exam- 

ple, its own D'2N "IIS hn for morning worship on 
Mondays antl Thursdays. Hebrew printing-presses 
existed at Lissa and Posen in the sixteenth century, 
although no extant work can with certainty be as- 
signed to those establishments. Between 1773 and 
1775 Frederick the Great held the northern part of 
the country, the so-called district of the Netze, which 
contained more than 0,000 Jews. It was contrary to 
the policy of Prussia to tolerate such a large number of 
Jews within its borders; and since they were not all 
engaged in profitable employments, Frederick de- 
cided to send at least two-thirds of them across the 
Polish boundary-line, a course from which his odicials 
were unable for some years to dissuade him. Jewish 
affairs were regulated by the "General-Juden-Begle- 
ment " of Aug. 9, 1773, which deprived the Jews of 
their old privileges, their treatment being dictated by 
fiscal considerations. When the southern part of the 
country also came under Prussian rule, in 1793, one- 
twentieth of the population consisted of Jews. On 
the day on which homage was paid to the new 
ruler they recited a prayer in Hebrew and one in 
German, the latter composed by Hartwig Wes- 
SELY. The status of the Jews was now determined 
by the "General-Juden-Reglement" 
"General- of April 17, 1797, which aimed to 
Juden- make them, as mechanics and trades- 
Re- men, useful members of the state, 
glement." Again they lost their old privileges; 
nor was there any improvement in 
their condition when, ten years later, the country was 
made part of the duchy of Warsaw. The monstrous 
kasher-meat tax was especially burdensome to the 
Jews. They rejoiced in their reunion with Prussia 
in 1815; but they did not obtain their iiromised polit- 
ical equality until the enactment of the "Jews' 
Law" of June 1, 1833, which conferred citizenship 
upon the wealthy and educated cla.sses, and tiiat of 
July 23, 1847, which put the Jews on a par with their 
brethren of the older Prussian provinces. The 
censuses of the Jews in the province are as follows: 
43,315 in 1797 and 1804; 9,690 families in 1809; 65,131 
Jews in 1835; 77,103 in 1840; 76,757 in 1849; 63.438 
in 1875; 44,346 in 1890; and 40,019 in 1900. The 
decrease is due to emigration to the west of Europe 
and to foreign countries. 

The ghettos of Posen have produced many promi- 
nent men, such as the historians Ileinrich Graetz of 
Xions and Julius Fiirst of Zerkowo, the philosopher 
Moritz Lazarus of Filehne, the politician Eduard 
Lasker of Jarotschin, and the composer Louis Le- 
wandowski of Wreschen. 

The City of Posen : Posen, the capital of the 
province, containing (1903), among 117,014 inhabit- 
ants, 5,810 Jews, was always the principal commu- 
nity of Great Poland, except in the last two-thirds of 
the eighteenth century, when it temporarily gave 
place to Lissa; and it took precedence at the Cocn- 
crr. OF Fouu L.\nds whenever that body assembled in 
Great Poland. The earliest Jewish settlement (prob- 
ably on the right bank of the River Warta) in the 
city of Posen, was under the jurisdiction of the king, 
not of the municipality. Subsequently it included 
the Judenstrasse, the Schumacherstrasse. and a por- 
tion of the Wrackerstrasse. Most of the were 
built of wood, so that there were frequent con- 




rtiigrations, with attendant robbery and murder; 
and the .catastroplies of 1590 are comnieniorated 
ill tlie elegies of two liturgieal i)oets. The stu- 
dents of the Jesuit college became troublesome 
neiglibors in 1573; and tliey were restrained from 
attaeliing the Jews only in consideration of a 
money payment. In the sixteenth century com- 
merce was restricted, although at that time the 
Jews, who numbered 3,0(J0, formed nearly one-half 
of the entire population. There were 49 stone houses 
in tiie Jews' street in the early part of the sixteenth 
century; 80 in 1549; 75 in i590 before the lire of 
tliat year; 137 altogether in 1641; 98 in 1710; and 
109 in 1714. At the beginning of the seventeenth 
century the community, in spite of its many suffer- 
ings, niuubered 2,300 persons; but this number was 
subsequently reduced to tiie extent of one-half. 

The following is a description of the comnuinal 
constitution in the .seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. At the head of the community were five 
"parnasim" (directors), assisted by three "tubim" 
and five councilmen, tliis board of thirteen being 
called a K.\ii.\L. iSeveu "memunnim" acted as a 
kind of police, and five municipal representatives 
("tube ha-'ir") decided cases involving real estate, 
while seven men supervised the morals, etc., of 
the members, and the " parnase medinaii " watched 
over Jews from other places who merely sojourned 
in Posen. Each synagogue had its directors; and 
artisans, working men, and even Jewish servant- 
girls, were organized in unions presided over by 
elected oflicers. There were several civil courts, 
in which the associate rabbis as well as the chief 
rabbi sat; and there was, furthermore, a mixed 
court in which Jewish and Christian judges decided 
cases between those of the two creeds. All these 
officials were under oath and, with the exception of 
the chief rabbi, were elected annually during the 
intermediate days of Passover by the "kesherim" 
(trusty men) of the congregation. 

In consequence of the Swedish war, political dis- 
orders, and accusations of ritual murder, which were 
especially virulent in 1736, the population dimin- 
islied, while the debts to the nobil- 
Increased. ity, churches, convents, and Catholic 
Taxation, clergy increased rapidly, amounting 
in 1774 to the enormous sum of 947,- 
546 gulden 19 groschen. which was reduced by a 
state commission to 086,081 gulden 20 groschen. 
These debts had not been entirely paid even as 
late as 1864. The community began to flourish 
under Prussian rule; and up to about 1850 was the 
largest in Prussia. 

Posen has produced a large number of men prom- 
inent in many fields of activity. The first Talmud- 
ists of the city are mentioned about the middle of 
the fifteenth century; and the following rabbis have 
officiated there : 

Pechno 'mentioned 13S9-93): Moses Mariel (r. 14.55^ 
Moses b. Isaac Minz (1474-]r)iisi: Menahem Mendel 
Frank ; Moses (lolfl); Samuel Margrolioth (c. 1527 .">!); 
Schachno (1544); Solomon b. Judah Lbbisch Lieber- 
mann <<■. 1551-.')7); Aaron (1557): Eliezer Ashkenazi 
(list)): Solomon b. Judah Lobisch II. (r. 1581); Judah 
Lowb. Bezaleel (15X5-88, 1.590t: Mordecai Jaffa (c. 1599- 
161*.>); Aaron Benjamin b. Hayyim Morawczyk (c. 
163:KM); Simou Wolf b. David Tebele Auerbach (r. 
1625-29); Hayyim b. Isaac ha-Kohen 11630-^5); Moses 

b. Isaiah Menahem, lalli-il Moses Rabbi Mendels 
(ItKJ.') 41); Sheftelb. Isaiah Horowitz HV41 >i: Isaac 
b. Abraham (l(>ti;-K5): Isaiah b. Sheltel Horowitz 
(1(JH8-H9); Naphtali Kohen (Huhkitih,; Jacob b. Isaac 
(1714-29); Jacob Mordecai b. Naphtali Kohen ii:;t'- 
17.%); Raphael Kohen il774 7<ii: Joseph Zebi Hirsch 
Janow b. Abraham (1770-77); Joseph ha-Zaddlki b. 
Phinehas il7N» \mi,; Moses Samuel b. Phinehas 
(1802 li); Akiba Eger (lH1.5-:t7i: Solomon Eiror iiKr.' .'i2i; 
Moritz Goldstein (iireadicr, imn ;>ii; Joseph Perles <ut 
the BriJderKeirieinile. \m> lit; Wolf Feilchenfeld 'iifter 
1872); ami Philipp Bloch (ul tbe UrOderKerneinde from li<71 
to the present time, 1905). 

Gnesen : According to a legendary account n syn- 
agogue existed at Gnesen as early as 905. At tlie 
end of the fifteenth and tiie beginning of the six- 
teenth century tiie Jews of Gnesen paid large taxes 
to the king. In 1499 Cardinal-Archbisliop Frederick 
protected tliem against the exorbitant demands of 
the Jewish tax-collector; in 1567 they were given 
two royal letters of protection, one relating to tlie 
woolen trade, and the other regarding taxes unjust- 
ly collected from them ; and four years later a Jew 
was placed under the exclusive jurisdiction of the 

In 1582 the Jews made a contract for the (onst ruc- 
tion of a synagogue, and in 1660, on the oath of one 
of the elders of the community, the king granted 
them a copy of their earlier privileges, which had 
been destroyed in a tire in 1637, as well as a gen- 
eral confirmation of their privileges. In 1654 Jesuit 
students plundered the Jews' street; and two years 
later some Jews were slain. The statute concerning 
tailors dates from 1779, Christian merchants being 
exempted by their statutes from receiving Jews into 
their gilds. The community of Posen raised a relief 
fund for its Gnesen brethren after the fire of 1710. 
In 1819 the archives were burned. In 1744 there 
were only 60 Jews in the city; but in 1793. when 
the Prussians took possession, there were 685, in- 
cluding 53 tailors, 10 butchers, and 6 furriers. By 
1800 the Jewish population of Gnesen had increased 
to 761, and by 1857 to 1,750; but in 1900 it num- 
bered only 1,179. The synagogue was built in 1(546. 

The following rabbis have officiated at Gnesen: 

Benjamin, director of a Talmiidic whool (I.5«ii; TJri Lip- 
mann ^lefez b. Israel Seligrmann (1588); Abraham 
b. Judah ha-Levi (1«I5); Samuel (f. It)(i8i; Enoch b. 
Abraham (1647, lt>56); Mordecai (c. I7K)); Joel Heilprin 
(C.1820); Gebhardt (1847-52): M.S. Zuckermandl (l.'^>7': 
M. Horovitz (1875-78); N. Ehrenfeld and M. Jacobson 
(since 1890). 

The community has numbered among its mem- 
bers liturgical poets, halakic coditiers, and authors 
of responsa. 

Kempen : The Jews of Kcmpcn received their 
privileges in 1674 and 1780 from the lords of the 
manor; and in 1689 a further privilege protecting 
them in tlie exercise of their worship was granted 
by the provost under orders from the assistant 
bishop of Breslau. The musicians had their own 
gild (this still numbered 26 members in 1864). ^In 
1690 the hebra kaddislia was founded; and in 1797 
the synagogue was built, after a conflagration had 
destroyed the greater part of the Jews' street. At 
that time there were 1.500 Jews in tiie city, constitu- 
ting one-half of the population. In 1840 there were 
3 559 Jews in a total population of 6.181 ; 3.282 in 
1857; and 1,059 in 1900. In 1846 the community 
was ravaged by cholera. 




The following rabbis have officiated at Kempeu: 

Moses b. Hillel "ba-Darshan," 1691); Moses 
Manes 'c. 1770); Meshullam Zalman Kohen u. 1784); 
Joseph M. M. U-. lSi«ii; Israel Jonah Landau (1830, 
1833): his son Joseph Samuel Landau id. ls3ri; Israel's 
son-in-law Mordecai Zeeb Ashkenazl ; Meir Lobush 
ben Jehiel Michael Malbim U841-o(5); Jacob Simhah 
Sehfisch ; aiul L. Mtinz, the present (1905) incumbent. 

Among the Jews of Kempen have been transla- 
tors of prayers, authors of Talmudic novelloe, poets, 
"writers, authors of responsa, and preachers. 

Krotoschin : The community of Krotoschin suf- 
fered so severely by sword and famine during the 
Swedish war in 1656 that only tifty families re- 
mained out of 400. It quickly revived, however, 
and after the second half of the seventeenth century 
the Jews were in close industrial relations with 
Silesia, and had their own synagogue at Breslau, 
while their Talmud Torah was one of the foremost 
of the country. Krotoschin, like Posen, Lissa, and 
Kalisz, was one of the leading communities of Great 
Poland, sending representatives to the general synod 
of Great Poland and to the Council of Four Lands. 
In a document dated 1773 it is called an " important 
community, with many sages and men learned in 
the Law." In 1710 it suffered from a conflagration, 
receiving aid from Posen. The mutual rights of 
Jews and Christians as regards liquor licenses were 
defined in 1726 and 1728, and the statutes of the lord 
of the manor were promulgated in the latter year 
and in 1730. In 1738 a fee for every corpse taken 
to Krotoschin had to be paid to the pastor of each 
place through which the cortege passed; and in 
1828 the recruits' tax was levied in consequence of 
a conflagration. The synagogue, which was dedi- 
cated in 1845, was at that time the finest in the 
province. In 1800 there were 1,701 Jews in the city, 
forming the third largest community of Posen. In 
1837 there were 2,213 Jews at Krotoschin; 2,098 in 
1857: and 670 in 1900. 

The following is the list of rabbis: 

Hirsch b. Samson (c. 1617); Menahem Man Ashke- 
nazi (c. 1048); Israel Heilprin ; Menahem Mendel b. 
Meshullam Auerbach (l(i73; U. It>s9i; Ezekiel b. Meir 
ha-Levi (UH)1, 17()i)); Mordecai H>efoi¥l71.j); LobMunk; 
Menahem Mendel Jankau (Jenikau?) (1726); Mena- 
hem Mendel Auerbach b. Moses (1733, 175.5); Meshul- 
lam Zalman Kohen (c. 1760-70); Aryeh Lbb Caro (c. 
]779i; Benjamin b. Saul Katzenelnbogen (17a5, 1792); 
Zebi Hirsch b. Raphael ha-Kohen il835): Raphael 
Zebi ; Israel b. Judah Lbb (1844); Samuel Mendel- 
sohn, acting chief rabbi (1853.1858); David Joel (1871, 1880); 
Eduard Baneth (1882-95); and H. Berg-er, the present 
(1905) Incumbent (since 1895). 

In 1833 a Hebrew printing-press was founded, 
which has issued a large number of work.s. This 
community has numbered among its members manj' 
prominent scholars and writers, authors of sermons 
and of halakic and haggadic novellae, commentators 
on the Bible, i)atrons of Jewish science, grammari- 
ans, bibliographers, and printers. 

Bibliography: Lewln, Gcwh. dcr Jwlen in Llixa, pp. 1 ct 
Heq.. 3, .5, etjjojmm, Plnne. 1904 ; Idem. Die Jiulenverfol- 
gungeniin Zweiten SchwefiiHch-Piiliim-heii Krifge, pp. 6 et 
seq.. Posen. 1901 ; idem, in Heppner-Herzbersr. Aui^ Vergan- 
genheit viiddegenwart derJiulcn nnd dir JUiliKcfien Gc- 
mcindrn in den Paxener Lnndrn. pp. 42, 69. 77. 106. 108 et 
»eq.. Kf>schmln. 1904; iV/eni. In Zeituchrift der HiMiti-ixchen 
GMeUxcUaft fUr die Proviiiz Poxen. xv. .57 et seq.: Posener 
Stantunrrliiv Inscriiitimirs W'xrhar, 1.597. p. 4llb; Zunz. Ir 
ha^Zcdek, p. 43, Leinberg,1874 ; Zcituchrift der Histurinchen 

Gesellschaft fUr die Provinz Pnseii, 1. 391 et seq., 395; Iv. 
196, ;i«. 334 et xeq.; V. 298 ; vl.. p. x.xvl. ; xi. 3?1; Warschauer, 
tb. xix. -12, 14 et seq.\ Idem, Die Stddti^chen Arcttive in der 
Provim Posen, pp. 63 et seq.. 86. 116, Leipsic. 1901; the 
manuscript " kesherim " book of the community of Posen. pp. 
7b, 14b, 21a. 23b. 37a, 39b. 219b; Brann. Gesclt.deg liahlnnats 
'in Schueidemllhl. p. 8, Breslau, 1894; idem, in GrdtzJuhel- 
xvhrift. pp. 230, 229, 231, 265, ib. 1887 ; idem, Gesch. der 
Juden in Schlesien, Appendix ii.. p. xix.; Friedberg. Of-sc/i. 
der Jlidischen T^/^Dgniplne in Krakan, pp. 16 (note 22), 
21. Cracow. 1900; Bloch. in Zeitxchrift der Hixtorischen 
Gegellschaft /(ir die Pruvinz Poxen, vi. 143, 163; idem. Der 
Streit um de)i Moreh des Maimonidex in . . . Poxen umdie 
Mitte dex 16. Jahrh., in Monatsxchrift. 190;{, pp. 15;} et xeq.; 
Polkowski. Decouverte d GWtoki, pp. 3 ff xeq., 14, 31. 41. 
46. 49, 77 et seq., Gnesen, '1876: Reinbold. Chronik des 
Kreixex und der Stadt Birtihaum, p. 133, Birnbaum, 
1843; (iratz. Gexc)i. 186.3. vii. 402 et seq.: Codex DiiAomadcug 
Mdjoris Pi)li»ii(T, No. 423. Posen. 1877; Lekczycki, Die Ael- 
testen Grosx-Polnischen Grndlillcher, 1.. Preface, pp. xli., 15, 
24. 170; ii.. Preface, p. xii.. Leipsic. 1887; Perles. in Mnnats- 
schriit, xiii. 28;} ef paiixim, xiv. 89 et pax.sim ; Historixehc 
JMnnatxbldtter flir die Provinz Posen, 1. 117. iii. 166; Kauf- 
mann. Die Letzte Vertreibung der Jiiden aus ITieu nnd 
yieder6xterreie)i, pp. 121, 221, BudapesU 1889 ; Zunz, Iiitn», p. 
75; Berpmann. Zur Gexeh. der Entwickelung Deidxcher, 
Polnisclier, und JUdischer BevOlkerujtg in der Provinz 
Pnxen, pp. 44, 291, TiibinRen, 1883; Uonne and Simon, Die . .. 
Verlulltnixsc der Juden . . . des Preiuf.'tischen Staatex, p. 25, 
Breslau. 1843; Wegener. Der Wirtschaftliche Kampf der 
Deidscheu mitden Polen um die Provinz Posen, p. 236. Po- 
sen. 1903; Feilchenfeld. Die Innere Verfa.'>i<ung der Jlidi- 
schen Gemcindc zu Posen im 17. und IS. Juhrhundert, in 
Zeitxchrift der Hi^tori.^clien Ge-seU.-<chaft fllr die Provim 
Poxen, xi. 122 et seq.: BruU's Jahrh. vii.33e( seq., 188; Stern- 
berg. Gesch. der Juden in Polen, p. 8, Leipsic. 1876; Sirisa, 
Beschreihung von Sild-und Neu-Ostpreussen, p. 508. ib. 
1797; Heilprin, .Seder ha-Dorot, i. 24«, iii. 4. Warsaw. 1881 ; 
Wiener. Da'at Kedoshim. pp. 10. 58, 77. 115. 117. 125, 133. 199, 
St. Petersburg, 1897; Herzberg. Gesch. der Juden in Brom- 
berg, p. 70, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1903; Dembitzer. Kelilat 
Tofl,ii.o6betseq., Cracow, 1893; Zeitsc)irift flir Gesch. und 
Landexkunde der Provinz Posen, iii. ;}6 ; Der Israelit, 1902, 
p. 188; Lowenstein. BUltter flir JUdii<che Ge^ichichte und 
Litteratur, iii. 44et seq., 56; iv. 116 et seq.; ProvinzicU-Bldt- 
ter flir dax Groxxherzogtltiim Poxen, i. 61; Jeschurun, p. 
107. Pleschen. 1902; Meyer, Ge^ch. dex Landej< Pnxen, p. 376. 
Posen. 1881; Tsraetitlsches FamiJienblatt, No. 40, Hamburg, 
1903; Roest. Cat. Rosenthal. Bibl. pp. 2.5, 319, 378, 502, .581, 
632, 643. 685 ; Kohen Zedek, Shem u-She'erit, pp. 15, 57, 
Cracow, 1895. 

D. L. Lew. 

POSING or BOSING (Hungarian, Bazin) : 
Small town in the county of Presburg, where on 
May 27, 1529 (Friday, Siwan 13), thirty Jews were 
l)urned to death on the accusation of having mur- 
dered a Christian child for ritual purposes. The 
charge was invented by the lord of the place, Franz, 
Count of St. Georgen and Posing, who wished to 
rid himself of the debts which he owed to the Jews 
of Marchegg and POsing. Isaac Mandel, prefect 
of the Hungarian Jews, demanded protection and 
justice at the hand of King Ferdinand I. for the 
Jews of both these places; but the feudal lord did 
not heed the king's warning. The memor-book of 
the Cracow hebra kaddisha records the names of 
those who suffered death at this time. In order to 
witness the martyrdom the inhabitants of Neisse, 
Olmlitz, and Vienna, as well as those of the neigh- 
boring cities, poured into Pftsing. Among those 
who suffered was Moses b. Jacob Kohen, wjio with 
his children voluntarily cast himself into the flames. 
The Jews of Marchegg were saved, as in the mean- 
time the missing child was found alive. 

For centuries after this event Jews were not per- 
mitted to live in Posing, nor even to spend a night 
there. "When a P5sing senator gave slielter to the 
Jew Lazar Hirsch, the excited populace besought 
King Leopold I. (1657-1705) to confirm their old 
right of prohibiting Jews from sojourning there. 
Tiie king decided in favor of the town, and Lazar 
Hirsch was compelled to remove to the estate of the 
counts of Palffy. 



Posen ^ 

Bibliography : G. Wolf, in Leopold Rosenbers:, Jahrbxtch flit- 
die Ixraelitixchen Cultusgemeitideu in Uiiyarn, i. :i63- 
273, Arad, 1H6(); BQchler, A Zxiduk TOrtenete BudaucMen, 
p. 9fi, Hudapest, 1901 ; Kaufinann, la Monatsxchrift. 1894. 
pp. 4a&429; Sokolow, In Ho-^xi/. vl. 133; ^ui Erschrock- 
enlich Ge«ehicht, etc., ed. Buchler, In Magyar Zsido 
Szemle, xi. 90. 

D. A. Bu. 

POSNANSKI, ADOLF : Austrian rabbi ; born 
at Lubianicc, near Warsaw, June 3, 1854; educated 
at the gymnasium, the university, and the rabbin- 
ical seminary at Brcslau, where he worlied under 
Ht'inrich Graetz and Manuel JolM, and at the Sor- 
bonue in Paris, where he was reader to tlie Orien- 
talist Joseph Derenbourg. While a student at Hres- 
lau he gave religious instruction in the secondary 
schools of that city, and officiated as rabbi at Rei- 
chenberg, Bohemia, from 1888 to 1891, when he was 
called to Pilsen. Posnanski is a member of the board 
of directors of the Gesellschaft zur Forderung der 
Wissenschaft des Judenthums at Berlin. 

His publications are as follows: " Ueber die Reli- 
gionsphilosophischen Anschauuugen des Flavius Jo- 
sephus," Breslau, 1887; "Shiloh: Ein Beitrag zur 
Geschichte der Messiaslehre ; i. Theil, Die Auslegung 
von Genesis c. 49, v. 10 im Altertum bis zu Ende 
des Mitlelalters," Leipsic, 1904, containing also quo- 
tations from Hebrew and Arabic manuscripts to- 
gether Avith rare prints. 

P. A. Kr. 

POSNEB, CABL: GeVman physician and med- 
ical writer; born at Berlin Dec. 16, 1854; son of 
Louis Posner; educated at the universities of Berlin, 
Bonn, Strasburg, Leipsic (Ph.D. 1875), and Giessen 
<M.D. 1880). From 1878 to 1880 he was assistant 
in the pathological institute at Giessen; and till 
1886 assistant of Furstenheim in Berlin, where he 
settled as a physician. He became privat-docent in 
1890, and received the title of professor in 1895. 

Since 1889 Posner has been editor of the "Berliner 
Kliuische Wochenschrift," and since 1894 of Vir- 
chow's" Jahresbericht liber die Leistungen und Fort- 
schritte in der Gesammten Medizin." Among his 
works maybe mentioned: "Diagnostik der Harn- 
krankheiten," 1893 (2d ed. 1896); and "Therapieder 
Harnkrankheiten," 1895 (2d ed. 1898). 

BiDLiOGRAPHY : Pagel, Bioa. Lex. 

s. F. T. H. 

HERZ : Polish Talmudic compiler; lived about 
the middle of the seventeenth century in Posen, and 
later in Krotoschin. He was the author of " Yalkut 
Davvid " (Dyhernfurth, 1691), homilelic collectanea 
on the Pentateuch from the Talmud, the Midrashim, 
and the post-Talmudic authors. The work was 
edited by his father, Naphtali Herz Spitz. Fuenn's 
opinion ("Keneset Yisrael," p. 248) that David is 
identical with David Tebele Posner, author of 
"Sha'are Ziyyon," seems to be erroneous. 

BiBLiOfiRAPHY: Azulai, Shem ha^Gedolim,n.66; Stelnschnel- 
der. Cat. Bodl. col. 863; Brann, In Monatsschrift, 1896. p. 
E. C. I. BeK. 

rian manufacturer; born 1822; died 1887 at Buda- 
pest. In 1852 he founded the largest printing, 
lithographing, and bookbinding establishment in 
Hungary ; and he was sent by his government as a 
X.— 10 

commissioner to the expositions of London (1871) 
Vienna (1873), and Triest (1882). In 1884 he was 
empowered by Trofort, the minister of education, 
to introduce the reproduction of maps into Hun- 
gary ; and that country is greatly indebted U) him 
in connection with the grupliic arts and the paper 
industry. King Francis Joseph I. ennobled him in 
1873, and bestov/ed upon him the title of royal coun- 
cilor in 1885. His work is successfully carried on 
by his son Alfred. 
Bibliography : I'alltui Lex. xlv. 


L. V. 

POSNER, MEIR (called also Munk or Meir 
Pinner) : Prussian rabbi; born 1735; died at Dan- 
zig Feb. 3, 1807. He was rabbi of the Schotlland 
congregation in Danzig from 1782 till his death. 

Posner was the author of "Bet Melr" (Frankfort- 
on-the-Odcr, 1787; Lemberg, 1836), a commentary 
on the Shulhan 'Aruk, Eben ha-'Ezer, and novelise 
thereon, entitled "Zal'ot ha-Bayit," publi.shed to- 
gether with the former work. 

Bibliography : Farst, BiU. Jud. lU. 117-118; Benlacob. Otar 
hci-Sefarim, p. 74, No. a55. 

^- S. O. 

bi; born at Landsberg about 1778 (?); died in Los- 
lau in 1863 ; son of Joseph Landsberg, rabbi of Po- 
sen. At Solomon's wish his sons erected a wooden 
monument over his grave at Loslau. 

Posner was the author of several as yet unpub- 
lished works, among which are: "Zemir 'Arizim," 
an apologetic work written against young pci-sons 
who consider the study of the Talmud unnecessary ; 
"Gal 'Ed," moral and instructive letters for sons 
Avhen leaving the paternal house to attend theyesiii- 
bah; "Nir Rash," commentary on the whole Penta- 
teuch, with various notes on Rashi ; " Dodo Yegalle- 
nu," novellae on the Talmud; "Bet ha-Nizoz," in- 
troduction to the Talmud; "Noter ha-Keramim," 
advice to fathers concerning the support of their 
families and the education of their children. 

In 1870 there appeared in Krotoschin a book enti- 
tled "To 'ar Pene Shelomoh," which contained, be- 
sides Posner's biography after his marriage, biog- 
raphies of his ancestors as far back as the beginning 
of the seventeenth century, together with much 
that refers to the history of civilization at that time 
and in the eighteenth century. Scholars, however, 
disagree as to whether the "To'ar" is Posner's own 
work or a rovisal of a manuscript of his, by his 
eldest son, Moses, who was once rabbi of Posen. 

Bibliography: To'ar Pene S/ieiomoh, Krotoschin. 1870; Ha- 
Meliz, April 17. 1887, p. 906. 
E. c. S. O. 

posaui£:RES ({jn'^p^'nis or m'pinB) or vatt- 

VERT : Town in the department of the Gard, 
France, where Jews are known to have lived since 
the twelfth century. When Benjamin of Tudela 
visited the city, about 1165, the community was 
composed of forty members, among whom he men- 
tions Joseph ben Menahem, Benveniste, Benjamin, 
and Abraham and Isaac ben Moses ("Itinerary," i. 
5). At its head was Abraham ben David (RABaD 
III.); his school was attended by many students 
from distant countries, whom he welcomed with 
much hospitality. In 1 172 Abraham suffered a short 




imprisoument, at the close of which liis persecutor, 
Elzear, the seignior of Posquieres, was summoned 
to Carcassonne by his suzerain, Count Roger II., to 
explain his conduct toward the famous opponent of 
Maimonides. It was doubtless after this event that 
Abraham quit Posquieres, to reside sometimes at 
Lunel and sometimes at Montpellier, but chiefly at 
Nlmes, where he lived for many years, thus gaining 
the surname of "Nemsi" (scholar of Nimes), or 
"Muster of tlie City of tiie Woods" ("Rabbi nii-Kir- 
yat Ye'arim "). Some Jewish natives of Posquieres 
are mentioned as living at Carpeutras in 1400 and at 
Perpignau in 1413 and 1414. Among the scholars 
of the city were: Isaac the Blind or Isaac of Pos- 
quieres, " Father of the Cabala " : his nephew Asher 
ben David ben Abraham ben David; and the Bib- 
lical commentator Menahem ben Simeon. 

Bibliography : Cannolv. Bii^jraphie des I^raelitcit de France, 
p. 120; ciratz, CrCvXc/i. vi.243, 399: idem, LcsJuif sen Espanne, 
transl. by Georges Stenne, p. Ikw; Gross. Gallia Judaica. pp. 
446-450; i(/e»). in .Vonaf.ssf^iri/f, 1873-74 ; Joseph Simon, Wi's- 
toire det> Juifs dc yimes, p. 13; Renan-.Neubauer, Lcs Rab- 
tiinx Ftanqais, pp. .518-520: Shebit IV/mda/i, pp. 76a, 78a; 
Temim De'im, pp. 227-248; Zunz, G. S. iii. 147-15U. 
«. S. K. 

POSREDNIK. See Periodicals. 

POSSART, ERNST VON : German actor and 
author; born at Berlin May 11, 1841. When seven- 
teen years old he was apprenticed to the Schroeder- 
'sche Buch- und Kunst-Handlung, a well-known 
publishing-house in Berlin, where he became ac- 
quainted with the actor Kaiser, who offered to teach 
him elocution without compensation. After study- 
ing for three years, 
Possarl, in 'l861, 
made his debut at 
tlie Urauia amateur 
theater, Berlin, as 
liiccaut in "Minna 
von Barnhelm " and 
lago in "Othello," 
and with such suc- 
cess that he was en- 
gaged to play sec- 
ond character roles 
at the city theater 
of Breslau. There 
he stayed till 1862, 
when he accepted 
an engagement at 
a Berlin theater, to 
l)lay leading parts. 
The following year 
he was in Haml)urg, impersonating the charac- 
ters formerly undertaken by Gorner. From 1864 
to 1887 he was connected with the Munich Royal 
Theater, plaving the leading roles, and becom- 
ing in 1873 chief stage-manager (" Oberregisseur "). 
In 1878 he received the titles of professor and 
director of the Royal Theater. During his vaca- 
tions he accepted engagements at the principal Ger- 
man tliealers in Europe. From 1880 he produced 
plays in Munich, with all-star casts. During the 
five years following his resignation (1887-92) he 
Btarred at the leading theaters, visiting America in 
1888 and 1890. In 1892 he returned to the Royal 
Theater as "Generaldirektor," becoming "Intend- 

Ernst von Possurt. 

ant" in 1895 and being knighted by the crown of 
Bavaria.. He still (1905) resides in Munich. 

His talent as actor and manager is equally great; 
his judgment of the capability of dillerent actors 
is" remarkable, always recognizing and assigning 
to each individual the part most suited to him; and 
he has the faculty of giving life and importance to 
minor parts. He is also very successful as an in- 
structor, having been the teacher of many actors 
now prominent. 

Possart is at present the foremost of German 
actors. His repertoire is manifold. He has ap- 
peared in Schillers dramas as Franz Moor, Bur- 
leigh, Talbot, Lfindtogt Gessler, Kdnig Philipp, and 
Octnvio I'iccolomini; in Le.ssing's, i\s Is'athan der^^'cise 
and Mnrinelli; in Goethe's, as Carlos, Mephiato, 
Antonio, Alba, and I'anseii; in Shakespeare's, as 
King John, Richard II.. Richard III., Hamlet, Lear, 
Shylock, and lago ; in Byron's "Manfred" as Man- 
fred ; in Bjonison's "Fallissement " as Berent; in 
TOpfer's " Des Konigs Befehl " as Friedrich der 
Grouse; and in Ileigel's "Josephine Bonaparte " as 
Napoleon. One of his greatest characters is that of 
the Jew in "L'Ami Fritz." 

Under Possart's directions was built the Prinz- 
regenten Theater at Munich, where under his man- 
agement the great works of Wagner and Mozart 
have been ably reproduced. 

Possart is the author of: "Konigliche Theater- 
schule Munchcn," 1877; " Ueber die Gesammtauf- 
fiihrung des Goethe'schen Faust," 1895; "Die Neu- 
einstudierunguud Neuaufflihrungdes Mozart'schen 
Don Giovanni, der Zauberflote, des Wallenstein " ; 
"Das Recht des Herzens," drama, 1898; "ImAus- 
sichtsvvagen," comedy, 1898; "Aus Meinen Erin- 
nerungen," Munich, 1901 (first appeared in the 
" Mimchner Allgemeine Zeitung ") ; " Festvortrag in 
der Deutschen Shakespeare Gesollschaft zu Wei- 
mar," Weimar, 1901. He has also edited Shake- 
speare's "King Lear" (1875), "The Merchant of 
Venice" (1880), "Coriolanus" (1882), and "Peri- 
cles" (1884). 

BiBLiooRAPHY : Meuers Konversations-Lexilson ; Drockhaiis 
Kimveriiationii-Lexikon . 

s. F. T. H. 

POSSART, FELIX: German landscape and 
genre painter; born in Berlin March 7, 1837. Heat 
first intended to pursue a juridical career,* arid held 
for some years an office as " Amtsrichter " in his 
native town; but at length his love for painting 
became so strong that he decided to devote his entire 
time to this art. He studied assiduously under 
Eschke and Gude, and devoted himself especially to 
painting scenes and landscapes of southern Spain, 
which country he visited several times, first in 1882. 
He traveled extensively also in the Black Forest, 
the Bavarian highlands, Switzerland, and Italy. 

Of his paintings the following maybe mentioned: 
"Interior of Alcazar, Seville"; "Moorish House in 
Granada"; "The Lion Court in the Alhambra"; 
"View of the Alhambra from Darrothal"; "The 
Interior of the Cautiva Tower of the Alhambra"; 
" Frigidarium of the Moorish Bath in the Alhambra " ; 
"The Escorial"; " Land.scape of Southern Spain"; 
"Fort Alicante"; "In the Alhambra's Myrtle- 




Grove"; "View of Tangier"; "Christ's Entry into 

Jerusalem"; and "The Lord's Supper." 

Bibliography: Sinser, AUmmcincs Kllmtler - Lexicon, 
Fnuikfort-on-thc-Muin, 1896 ; Meyerx Koiiveraations-Lexi- 
kiin, Berlin, 1«97. „ ^ 

8. F. C. 



POTCHI, MOSES: Karaite scholar; lived at 

Constantinople in the second half of the sixteenth 

century. He belonged to the Muruli family, the 

name of which was adopted by his son Joseph. 

Simhah Luzki attributes to Potclii the unpublished 

work "Shelemut ha-Nefesh," which deals with the 

creation of the world, the existence of God, and 

similar subjects. A poem by Potchi, eulogizing 

the "Sha'ar Yehudah " (Constantinople, 1561) of 

Judah Poki, is prefixed to that work. 

Bibliography: Simliah Luzki, Orah Zaddikiw,p.2Gn; Furst, 
Oifich. (lea Kariiir't. in. ~';i ; Neubaiicr, A^is der Peterslmr- 
yn- Iiil>Ui>thek,p.&i; Gottlober, Bihkurct le-Tolcdot ha-Ifa- 
ra'im, p. ~04. , ^^ 

K. I- Bh. 


(yiD "aiS) : Name of an Egyptian officer. The form 
'•Poliphar " is probably an abbreviation of "Poti- 
phcra"; the two are treated as identical in the 
Septuagint, and are rendered UeTp£(p^g or U.ETe<ppfi(:. 
"Poti-phera" is the Hebrew rendering of the Egyp- 
tian "P'-di-p'-K' " = "He whom Ra [d'.c, the sun- 
god] gave." This name has not been found in 
Egyptian inscriptions; but names of similar form 
occur as early as the twenty-second dynasty. 

Potiphar was the Egyptian officer to whom Jo- 
seph was sold (Gen. xxxvii. 36, xxxix. 1). He is 
described as a "saris" of Pharaoh, and as "captain 
of the guard" (Hebr. D''n2nn IL'')- The term 
" saris " is commonly used in the Old Testament of 
eunuchs; but occasionally it seems to stand in a 
more general sense for "court official," and some- 
times it designates a military officer (II Kings xxv. 
19; comp. ib. xviii. 17; Jer. xxxix. 3, 13). The 
second title, "captain of the guard," is literally 
"chief of the slaughterers," and is interpreted by 
some to mean "chief of the cooks" (comp. I Sam. 
ix. 23, 24, where n3D = "cook"). The former 
is much the more probable meaning here, and is 
supported by the closely corresponding title (31 
DTinon) of one of the high military officers of 
Nebuchadnezzar (II Kings xxv. 8, 10; comp. Dan. 
ii. 14). Nothing, however, of this office is definitely 
known from Egyptian sources. 

Poti-pherah was a priest of On (Heliopolis), whose 
daughter Asenath became the wife of Joseph (Gen. 
xli. 45, 50; xlvi. 20). See also Josefii. 

E. G. H. J. F. McL. 

nobleman and convert to Judaism; burned at the 
stake at Wilua May 24, 1749. There are several 
versions of the remarkable story of this martyr, 
whose memory is still revered among the Jews of 
Russia as that of the Ger Zedek (righteous prose- 
lyte). A Russian translation, from the Polish of 
Kraszewski's " Wilna od Poczatkow Jego do Roku 
1750," in which he claims to have followed a 
Hebrew original, relates that young Potocki and 

his friend Zaremba, who went from Poland to study 
in Paris, became interested in an old Jew whom 
they found poring over a large volume when they 
entered his wine-shop. His teachings and explana- 
tions of the Old Testament, to whicii they, us Roman 
Catholics, were total strangers, so impreswd them 
that Ihey prevailed upon him to instruct them in 
Hebrew. In si.\ months they accjuired i)nilieien<-y in 
the Biblical languagetind a strong inclination toward 
Judaism. They resolved to go to Amsterdam, whicli 
was one of the few places in Europe at that time 
where a Christian could openly embrace Judaism. 
But Potocki first went to Rome, whence, after con- 
vincing himself that he cfnild no longer remain a 
Catholic, he went to AiiLStcrdam and took u\um him- 
self the covenant of Abraham, assuming the name 
of Abraham ben Abraham. 

After residing a short time in Germany, which 
country he disliked, he returned to Poland, anrl f(jr 
a time lived among the Jews of the town of llye 
(government of Wilna), some of whom seemed to be 
aware of his identity. While in the synagogue of 
llye one daj' he was irritated into commenting se- 
verely upon the conduct of a boy wlio was disturb- 
ing those occupied in prayer and study. The boy's 
father was so enraged that he informed the authori- 
ties that the long-sought "Ger Zedek " was in llye. 
Potocki was arrested ; the entreaties of his motlier 
and friends failed to induce him to return to Chris- 
tianity; and after a long imprisonment he was 
burned alive in AVilna, on the second day of Sha- 
bu'ot. It was unsafe for a Jew to witness the burn- 
ing ; nevertheless one Jew, Leiser Zhiskes, who had 
no beard, went among the crowd and succeeded by 
bribery in securing some of the ashes of the martyr, 
which were later buried in the Jewish cemetery. 
A letter of pardon from the king arrived too late 
to save the victim. 

Potocki's comrade Zaremba returned to Poland 
several years before him, married the daughter of a 
great nobleman, and had a son. He remained true 
to the promise to embrace Judaism and took his 
wife and child to Amsterdam, where, after he and 
his sou had been circumcised, his wife also became 
a Jewess; then they went to Palestine. 

There is reason to believe that the actual teacher 
of Potocki, perhaps the one who induced the two 
young noblemen to embrace Judaism, was their 
own countryman Menahem Man ben Aryeh Lob of 
Visuu, who was tortured and executed in Wilna at 
the age of seventy (July 3. 1749). Tradition has 
brought this Jewish martyr into close connection 
with the "Ger Zedek," but fear of the censor has pre- 
vented writers in Russia from saying anything ex- 
plicit on the subject. 

bibliography: Fiienn, Kmiah .VeVmaiia/i, p. 120. Wllna, 
1W30; Gersoni, The Converted -V'^^"'.''"- !" .^^I'lV'*^;^,;/ 
Jewish Life and Hixtoni. I'P- li<.---i-». ^''«" V"""',-^::;*'!" I' 
witz. 'Aminude bet Yehudah. p. 4tia, Amsterilain, l.«J : Kra*- 
zewskl. Yevreiiskava lUhlioteka. ill. f>;:»5: B. ManUel- 
stamm, Hazmi la-Mo'cd, p. l.'», Vienna, lb. .. 
n. K. ■ ^- ^^ '• 

POTSDAM : City in the Prussian province of 
Brandenburg. It was the residence of the electors 
of Brandenburg; and here the Great Elector. Fred- 
erick William, ratified May 20. 1671. tlic agreement 
by which he permitted fifty families of the Vienna 




exiles (comp. Jew. Encyc. ii. 329, iii. 70) to settle in 
bis dominions. David Michel is the first Potsdam 
Jew of whom there is record. His name occurs in a 
document of 1690. lu the catalogue of the visitors to 
the Leipsic fair, Jews of Potsdam are mentioned in 
1693 and 1694. The foundation of the congregation, 
however, dates from the lirst half of the eighteenth 
century, when David Hirsch(Pr:lger) received (1730) 
special" letters of protection to enable him to estab- 
lish silk- and velvet-factories in Potsdam. Other 
Jewish manufacturers, similarly privileged, soon 
followed ; and in 1743 the congregation, numbering 
ten families, acquired a cemetery. In 1754 it en- 
gaged a hazzan, who acted as se.xton also, and in 
1760 a rabbi, Jehiel Michel, from Poland, who offi- 
ciated until 1777. In 1767 the first synagogue was 
dedicated in the presence of the Prince and Princess 
of Prussia. The report, however, that King Fred- 
erick the Great erected this synagogue at his own 
e.xpense is a legend, based on the fact that he granted 
the congregation a loan. 

The various Jew taxes, to which in 1769 the com- 
pulsory purchase of china from the royal porcelain- 
factory (comp. Jew. Encvc. v. 502b) was added, 
and the heavy burden of the mortgage on the syna- 
gogue, brought the congregation to the verge of 
financial ruin ; but the new constitution, passed in 
1776, and the repeal of the law compelling the Jews 
to buy the royal china restored order. Both Fred- 
erick William II. and Frederick William III. showed 
their interest in congregational affairs by granting 
subsidies for the remodeling of the synagogue. 
The congregation showed its patriotism by giving 
up the silver ornaments of the synagogue for the 
war fund in 1813. One of its members, Marcus 
Liebevmann, was killed in the war of 1813, and thir- 
teen members of the congregation fought in the 
Franco-Prussian war (1870-71), one of whom was 
decorated with the Iron Cross for bravery displayed 
on the battlefield of Spichern. 

A new constitution was adopted in 1888; and the 
new synagogue, built at a cost of 120,000 marks, 
was dedicated June 17, 1903. In Jan., 1905, the city 
council passed an ordinance prohibiting the Shehi- 
TAH (" AUg. Zeit. des Jud." Jan. 13, 1905). 

Of the rabbis of Potsdam after the above-men- 
tioned Jehiel Michel the following are known: 
David Koppel Reich, who was bookkeeper in one of 
the manufactories and officiated temporarily after 
Jehiel Michel's death; Samuel Apolant (1851-57); 
Tobias Cohn (1857-96); Paul Rieger (1896-1902); 
and Robert Kaelter (since 1902). Of the prominent 
men who were born at Potsdam may be mentioned : 
the engraver Abraham ABn.\n.\MsoN ; the inventor 
of galvanoplasty, Moritz Hermann von Jacobi; his 
brother, the mathematician Karl Gustav Jakob 
Jacobi; the poet, physician, and privy councilor 
B. Zelenziger; and the medical professors Julius 
Hirsciiberg, Martin Bernhardt, and Max Wolff. 

In 1900 the Jews of Potsdam numbered 442 in a 
total population of about 60,000. 

BiRi.iofjRAPHY: K&pMer, Gesch. der JUdischen Gemeinde zu 
Potsdam, Potsdam, 1903. 
D. R. Ka. 

POTTERY.— Biblical Data : There can be no 
doubt Uiat the Israelites first learned the art of ma- 

king pottery on Palestinian soil. The nomad in his 
continual wanderings can not use the breakable 
wares of the potter; and the proper vessels for the 
latter's use are tlie leathern bag and hollowed fruits 
or wooden bowls. Even after their settlement the 
Israelites seem to have maintained for some time a 
disinclination to the use of earthen vessels; and 
mention of earthenware occurs in only one passage 
in early literature (II Sam. xvii. 28). Naturally the 
Canaanites were the teachers of the Israelites; but 
no doubt the Canaanites in their turn learned the 
potter's art from the Phenicians, who supplied for- 
eign countries with pottery, and who, perhaps, even 
went through Palestine peddling their wares. The 
handicraft docs not appear to have developed until 
the time of the later kings. 

The process by which pottery is made was famil- 
iar to the Prophets and to the people. They under- 
stood the kneading of the potter's clay ("homer"), 
which was trodden by the feet (Isa. xli. 25); and 
Jeremiah mentions the potter's disks ("obnayim"), 
which, as the name indicates, were two in niunber, 
revolving one above the other. The lower and 
larger disk was set spinning by the feet, while the 
clay, placed on the upper disk, which followed the 
motion of the lower one, but could be turned in the 
opposite direction also, was molded with the hands 
into the desired shape. The process of burning and 
glazing vessels is not mentioned until considerably 

Royal Stamp on Jar-Handle. 

(In the poas«ffiion of the Palestine Exploration Fund.) 

later (comp. Prov. xxvi. 23; Sirach [Ecclus.] xxviii. 
34); but there can be little doubt that the Canaan- 
ites, and through them the Israelites, learned this 
part of the craft from the Phenicians at a rather 
early period. In Jeremiah's time a potter's work- 
shop was probably located in one of the valleys in 
the neighborhood of the Potters' Gate (comp. Jer. 
xviii. 1 et aeq., xix. 1). 

The custom of making colored drawings on the 
vessels was probably also of Phenician origin, and 
was known at an early period, certainly in pre-exilic 
times. Some finds at Jerusalem, showing careful 
execution, must, from their location in the lowest 
strata, be assigned to the time of the Kings. Com- 
pared with these the finds at Tell al-Hasi seem very 
primitive. Perhaps the former are of Phenician 
workmanship and the latter are domestic imitations. 
The ornaments in both cases are purely geometric. 

It is known that earthenware was frequently used 
as a symbol of fragility and of that which may be 


1. Pre-Israelitic Period. 2. Jewisili Period. 3. Si-leiicldun Period. 

(From Bliss and Macalister, ** Excaviittuns iii-PAlrttiiie.") 




quickly and completely destroyed (couip. Ps. ii. 9; 
Isa. xxii. 34; Jer. xix. 11). God, as the Creator, 
especially as the Creator of man and as the Lord 
■who decides the fate of individuals and nations ac- 
cording to His judgment, is often likened to a potter 
(Isa. xxix. 16, xlv. 9, Ixiv. 8; Jer. xviii. 6, xix. 11; 
Sirach [Ecclus.] xxxiii. 13). It is probable that the 
reference in Zech. xi. 13 is to the Temple treasure 
(" ha-ozar ") and not to the potter (" yozer "). 

E. G. H. W. N. 

Early Pre-Israelitic Period : This period be- 
gins with the earliest known pottery (probably be- 
fore 1700 B.C.), and ceases with the appearance of 
Phenician and Mycenoean influence (al)out 15<X) B.C.). 
In deteriorated forms some of the types continued 
later. The chief characteristics are as 
Various follows: (1) the absence of wheel- 
Strata, turned ware, except possibly late in 
the period ; (2) the peculiar ledge- 
handles fixed on the sides of jars, found also in the 
early Egyptian ware which connects with the first- 
dynasty pottery; (3) methods of heating the sur- 
face, such as scraping with a comb, and the use of 
burnished lines on a colored face; and (4) potters' 
marks, comparable with early Egyptian specimens. 
Late Pre-Israelitic Period: The beginning of 
this period is marked by the appearance of the 
above-mentioned foreign influence on the pottery of 
Palestine, about 1500 b.c. How far this influence 
extended into the Jewish monaichy is yet to be de- 
termined ; the choice of the name therefore was sug- 
gested by the origin of the types. Among the 
characteristics of the period may be noted the fol- 
lowing: (1) almost universal use of the wheel; (2) 
direct Cypriote (or Phenician) and Mycenaean im- 
jiortations ; (3) local imitations of these ; (4) introduc- 
tion of the lamp in its earliest known form (an open 
bowl with pinched spout and rounded bottom); (5) 
small teraphim or idols; and (6) painted ornamenta- 
tion, consisting of lines, zigzags, spirals, birds and 
other animals, etc. This is perhaps the most unique 
characteristic. "While certain resemblances to Pheni- 
cian, Mycena'an, and esi)ecially Cappadocian mo- 
tives may be traced, the differences are so great as 
to permit one to regard this foin\ of decoration as 
a native production. 

Jewish Period : It has been intimated that the 
line of demarcation between this period and the 
preceding one is not distinct. By Jewish pottery 
are meant those types in which the foreign influence 
is almost lost, or at best appears in deteriorated 
forms, and which certainlv prevailed during the 
later years of the Jewish kingdom, though some of 
them also survived its overthrow. The forms are, 
as a rule, rude and ungainly, and decoration, except 
in the style of burnished lines, is rare. Some of tiie 
minute flasks are hand-made; but the pottery is 
generally wheel-turned. Greek importations occur. 
Tlie most interesting features of this period are 
the stamped jar-handles, falling into the following 
two groups: (1) Handles stamped with the II<brew 
seal of the ])otter or owner. On some of these the 
Phenician characters arc exquisite. Though the 
Divine Name (in' or n^) often occurs in compounds, 
yet in the .same stratum with these liandles are often 
associated heathen teraphim and other symbols. 

(2) Royal stamps. The oval stamped on the handles 
contains one of two symbols, both of which are Egyp- 
tian in origin. The first represents a 
Character- scarabteus with four extended wings; 
istics the second, a winged disk. In all 
of Jewish cases are found two lines of writing; 

Pottery, above the symbol occurs the word "[^D^ 
("to the king''); below, the name of 
a town. Although these handles have been found 
at seven sites, only four ]ilace-uames occur: p2n 
(Hebron), e)'T (Ziph), n^)^ (Shocho), and D'ki^D 
(Memshath ?). The first three are Scriptural names ; 
the last appears nowhere in the Bible. regards 
the place-names as indicating the sites of royal pot- 
teries (see the obscure reference in I Chron. iv. 23). 
Macalister would consider them to be the centers of 
districts in which taxes in kind destined for the cap- 
ital were collected (comp. I Kings iv. 7-19 with II 
Chron. xxxii. 28). According to the first sujiposi- 
tion, the inscription would represent a dedication of 
the jars to the king by the roj-al potters; according 
to the second, a dedication of their contents by the 
taxed districts. The jars to which the handles were 
affixed are dated tentatively between 650 and 500 
B.C., though they may be earlier. Thus " the king " 
ma}' be relegated either to the later Jewish mon- 
archj' or to the period of Persian sovereignty. The 
representation of the scarabtcus and winged disk 
might be used as an argument in favor of a period 
of heathen domination. 

Seleucidan Period : While some of the Jewish 
types come down to this period, it is chiefly char- 
acterized by Greek importations and imitations. 
Among the former are the well-known Rhodian am- 
phorte with inscribed handles. 

The post-Seleucidan pottery has not been sys- 
tematically studied ; but it may be roughly divided 
into Roman, Byzantine, and Arab. Stamps of the 
tenth legion (Fretensis) are common near Jerusa- 
lem. Byzantine times show lamps with Christian 
inscriptions. The geometrical decoration of the 
Arab period should be carefully distinguished from 
the pre-Israelitic ornamentation, to which it bears a 
superficial resemblance. 

The pottery of southern Palestine from early pre- 
Israelitic times to the close of the Seleucidan period 
has been systematically studied in a series of ex- 
cavations undertaken by the Palestine Exploration 
Fund. Petrie led the way in 1890, in a reconnais- 
sance of Tell al-Hasi (Lachish), where he was fortu- 
nate in finding the steep eastern slope so encroached 
upon by the stream that the various strata of the 
mound (60 feet in height) were practically laid bare. 
Both Phenician and Greek types were found, serv- 
ing to date approximately the local types with 
which the}' were associated or which they overlaid. 
Bliss, sj'stematically cutting down (1891-93) one- 
third of the mound, was able not only to verify Pe- 
trie's general chronological scale, but also to add to 
the material available for stud)'. Owing to the dis- 
turbed nature of the soil, tlie excavations at 
lem (conducted by Bliss and Dickie, 1894-97) were 
of little help in the systematization; but the latter 
was greatlv forwarded bv the finds in the four strat- 
ilied moimVls of Tell Zakariya. Tell al-Safi, Teil al- 
Judaidah, and Tell Sandahaunah, excavated by Bliss 




and Macalister in 1898 and 1900. In 1902 :Macalistor 
began the excavation of Gezer, where mucli earl}- 
))oltciy has also been found. On the basis of tliese 
<liscoveries (prior to tlie campaign still [1905] in 
progress) Bliss and Macalister luive classified the 
pre Roman pottery of southern Palestine under the 
four chronological groups mentioned above: (1) 
early pre-Israelitic; (2) late pre-Israelitic ; (3) Jew- 
ish ; and (4) Seleucidau. 

BMii.iocRAPiiY : W. M. Flinders Petrio. TcU-cl-Hei^y (Lachish), 
l.iiiidiiii. IMtl : F. .(. Bliss, .1 Mound of Many Ci/iV.s, or TeU- 
(l-llctii K.rvavatal, lb. 189-t; Ulein and U. A. S. Macalister, 
K.rvavations in Palestine, 1898-1900, ib. 1903; F. B. WeU'li, 
Tlie Influence of the^^qean CiviUzation on Soutlicrn Pal- 
estine, in Pal. K.rplor. Fund. Qxinrterlu ^t<^te>nent.\'.)('\0.p. 
3-12. A collection of Palestinian pottery, arranged and classi- 
fied by Bliss, may be seen In the government museum In Jeru- 

K. G. H. F. J. B. 

POULTRY.— Biblical Data: The rearing of 
<lonu'stic fowl for various uses became a part of 
Palestinian husbandry only after the return from 
Babylon (see Cock; Hen); but from Isa. Ix. 8 it 
appears that at the time when that passage was 
written the dove was to a certain degree domesti- 
cated (see Dove). The " fowls " (" zipporim ") served 
■on tlie table of Nehemiah (Neh. v. 18) probably in- 
cluded pigeons and other small birds. Besides there 
are mentioned as having been used for food the quail 
(Ex. xvi. 13 and parallels) and " fatted fowl " (" bar- 
buiim abusim"; I Kings v. 3 [A. V. iv. 23J). 

As all birds not named in the catalogues of Lev. 
xi. and Deut. xiv. were clean, they and their eggs 
no doubt largely entered into the diet of the He- 
brews from early times, and the requisite supply 
must have been obtained by fowling. The numer- 
ous terms for the instruments of fowling and hunt- 
ing, and the various metaphors derived 

Fowling' from them, testify, in fact, to the vogue 
and of these practises in ancient Israel. 

Hunting. There were the net (" reshet " ; Prov. 
i. 17; Hos. vii. 12, etc.), and the trap 
and snare (" pah " and " mokesh " ; Amos iii. 5, etc.). 
Besides there are mentioned "hebel" (Ps. cxl. 6; 
liroperly "rope" or "cord"; A. V. "snare"; R. V. 
'■ noose ") ; " zammim " (Job xviii. 8-10 ; A. V. " rob- 
bers"; R. V. "snare"); and "sebakah" {ib.; A. V. 
"snare"; R. V. "toils"). The bow and sling 
(" kela' '") were possibly also emploj'ed to bring down 
birds. The use of a clecoy is perliaps alluded to in 
Jer. v. 26 (comp. Ecclus. [Siracli] xi. 30; see Pak- 
thidge). For modern methods of fowling in Pal- 
estine see Tristram, "Nat. Hist." p. 168. 

The use of eggs is perhaps indicated in Isa. x. 14 
and Job vi. 6 (comp. Jer. xvii. 11). The law of 
Deut. xxii. 0, in order to forestall blunting of the 
tender feelings as well as the extermination of cer- 
tain species of birds, prohibits the taking of the 
molher and young from the nest at one and the 
same time (known in later rabbinical literature as 
the ordinance of "sliilluuh ha-kan "). 
In the Talmud: Tiie Talmud gives the num- 
ber of unclean birds after the Pentateuch lists as 
twenty-four, and then adds: "the clean birds are 
without number " (Hul. 63b). The characteristics of 
the clean birds are given {ib. 65a) as follows: (1) they 
do not kill or eat other birds; (2) they have a super- 
numerary toe ("ezba' yeterah "), which is inter- 

preted to mean either an additional toe behind the 
others, or an elongation of tlic middle toe; (3) tliey 
are supplied with a crop; (4) liieir stomachs have 
two skins, which can be easily .separated; (5) they 
catch food thrown to tiiem in the air. but bring it 
to the ground, when they divide it witlj their bills 
before eating it, while the unclean birds devour it 
in the air, or press it witii one foot to the ground 
and tear it with their bills. Many birds are de- 
clared to be doubtful (//;. 62a, b). A distinction is 
made (ib. 42a) between large fowl ("'of ha-gas," 
geese, hens) and small ("'of ha-dalj," doves, spar- 
rows). "Zippor," denoting in the Old Testament 
the sparrow and other small birds, occurs in the 
Talnuid as a general name for any clean bird (ib. 

The fowl mentioned as domesticated are the dove, 
the goose, the hen (see the special articles thereon), 
and the duck ("bar aweza"; Bezaii 32b; B. K. 92b; 
Hul. 62b). The flesb of fowl was es- 
Do- jiecially the fond of the aged and feeble 

masticated (Yer. Peah viii. 21a); otlierwisc it was 
Fowl. considered inferior to the meat of cat- 
tle, so that after blood-letting the lat- 
ter was preferred (Me'i. 201)). City residents, being 
wealthy, consumed much poultry (Bek. 10a). The 
art of fattening fowl is described in Shab. 155b. 
The rearing of poultry in Jerusalem, and by priests 
throughout Palestine, was forbidden on account of 
the possible pollution of holy things (B. K. 79b) 

Fowling is often referred to in the Talmud (comp. 
Pes. 23a; Bezah 24a). metaphorically in Ab. iii. 
20. In addition to the weapons of the fowler (and 
hunter) mentioned in the Old Testament there are 
enumerated, in Kelim xxiii. 4, the " maddaf " (sloping 
board), "palzur," "agon," "ratub," and "kelub" 
(basket). The "nesheb" was especially used for 
catching pigeons (B. K. 89b). Birdlime C'debek") 
and the rod ("shafshef ") on which it was smeared 
are mentioned (Shab. 78b), and the art of falconry is 
referred to (ib. 94a). The ordinance of "shiiluah 
ha-kan " is confined by the Talmud to clean birds 
(Hul. 138b). See, also, Eggs. 

BiBLiOGR.vPUT : Tristram, iVat. Hist. p. 162; Lewysobn. Z. T. 

pp. 4. 7, 11, 15, 45, 160. 

E. c. I. M C. 

POVERTY : Condition or proportion of poor in 
a population. Although the riches of the Jews 
have passed into a proverb, all social observers are 
agreed that the Jews have a larger proportion of 
poor than any of tlie European nations among whom 
they dwell. In 1861 the number of poor, i.e.. to- 
tally dependent, among the adult workers of the 
Jewish population of Prussia was 6 46 per cent, as 
against 4. 19 per cent in the general population. On 
the other hand, there were among the Jews of Italy 
in 1871 only .09 per cent who were technically 
paupers, as compared with 2.2 per cent in the gen- 
eral population. In 1871 in Budapest 24 2 per cent 
of the 21,071 adult Jewish workers were classified as 
among the poor, while in 1883 there were in London 
no less than 11,099 in 47,000. or 23 per cent, who 
accepted some form of charity (Jacobs. "Studies in 
Jewish Statistics," p. 12). In 1869 Jeittclesestimated 
that 43 iier cent of the Jewish population of Vienna 
lived iu two rooms or less. In Holland the propor 




tion of poor among the Jews is statistically deter- 
mined by the census. In that of 1900 there were 
found to be no fewer than 12,500 poor in Amster- 
dam; 846 in The Hague; l.ToO in Rotterdam; 663 
in GrOningen ; and 349 in Aruhem (" Joodsche Cou- 
rant," 1903, p. 44), or 16,108 {i.e., 22 per cent) in 
72,378, the total Jewish population of these cities. 

In 1898 inquiry was made by the Jewish Coloni- 
zation Association into the social condition of the 
Jews in Russia, extending over territory which in- 
cluded 709,i48 Jewish families, of which 132,855 
applied for gratuitous mazzot at Passover. The 
percentage varied throughout the country: in the 
government of Poltava it was 24.5; in Lithuania 22; 
while in the whole Pale of Settlement it was 19.4, 
and in Poland 16.9. The percentage of Jews ac- 
cepting this form of charity in small towns was 
18.2; in middle-sized towns, 19.4; and in large 
towns 30.3, the poor tending to crowd into the larger 
centers. The number of Russo-Jewish poor has in- 
creased in recent years. Whereas in 1894 there were 
85,183 families which could be clas.scd 

I^ussian under this head, the number had in- 
Statistics. creased to 108,922 in 1898, forming 27.9 
per cent of the Jewish population. 
The same tendency is shown by the evidence of free 
burials. Thus in 1901, of the 5*, 523 funerals in War- 
saw, 2,401, that Is, 43.5 per cent, were free, whereas 
in 1873 the percentage was only 33.6. (In London 
in 1903 the free funerals numbered 1,008 in a total 
of 2.049, or almost 50 per cent.) In 1899 in Odessa 
1,880 funerals in 2,980 were free. In the same town 
during the winter of the year 1902 no less than 
32.31 percent of the Jewish population, or 48,500 
in 150,000, had to appeal for coal and mazzot to 
the benevolence of their coreligionists ("Judische 
Statistik," p. 287). This is not to be wondered at, 
since the best-paid workers among them received 
on an average $2.75 a week; while in the cork 
industries girls received from §3.25 to $4 a month. 
Tchubinsky found the average income for a Jewish 
family in the Ukraine to be about 290 rubles (E. 
Reclus, "Nouvelle Geographie," v. 518), and hence 
was not surprised to find 20,000 mendicants in the 
eastern part of that territory {ib.). Altogether the 
evidence is overwhelming as to the very large pro- 
portion of poor among Jews throughout Europe. 
The Jewish Colonization Association estimates that 
7 per cent of Russian Jews are absolutely supported 
by the rest, whereas in the general population of 
England only 2.4 per cent, and in Germany only 3.4 
per cent, are in that dependent condition. 

In the Polish provinces the maximum of tailors' 
earnings is under 6 rubles a week; that of shoe- 
makers is even less. In the southwestern provinces 
of Russia tailors' earnings range from 150 to 300 
rubles a year; shoemakers' from 100 to 300. In the 
southern provinces over 80 per cent of the artisan 
Jewish population earn less than 400 rubles per an- 
num. Seamstresses rarely earn more than 100 rubles 
a year; and instances are recorded where they have 
been paid as little as 4 copecks (2 cents) for making 
a shirt ("Jew. Chron." Nov. 4, 1904). 

It is, however, in Galicia that the greatest 
amount of evidence of pauperism among Jews is 
found. .The " Juden-Elend " there has passed into 

a proverb. This accounts for the fact that of 60,763 
Jews and Jewesses who migrated from Galicia in 
1899 and 1900, no less than 29,980 were without oc- 
cupation, though this number, it should be added, 
included wives and children. 

BiBLiOGRAPHT : Jacobs, Studies in Jewifih Statistics, p. 31 ; 
Jlldixche Statistik. pp. 287-292; Collection of Materials on 
the Economic Pnxition of the Jews in Russia, St. Peters- 
burg, 1904. 

A. J. 


PoWKli t)F. 

POZNANSKI, SAMUEL: Arabist, Hebrew 
bibliographer, and authority on modern Karaism; 
rabbi and preacher at the Polish synagogue iu 
Warsaw ; born at Lubranice, near Warsaw, Sept. 3, 
1864. After graduating from the gymnasium of 
Warsaw, he continued his studies at the university 
and the Hochschule fQr die Wissenschaft des Juden- 
thums in Berlin, forming an intimate friendship with 
his teacliw Moritz Steinsehneider, for whose eighti- 
eth birthday in 1896 he edited the "Festschrift." 

Poznanski is the author of the following w^orks: 
"Eine Hebraische Grammatik desDreizehnten Jahr- 
hunderts" (Berlin, 1894); "Mose b. Samuel ha-Ko- 
hen ibn Chiquitilla Nebst den Fragmenlen Seiner 
Schriften" (Leipsic, 1895); "Isak b. Elasar ha- 
Levis Einleitimg zu Seinem Sephath Jether" (Bres- 
lau, 1895); " Aboul Farad j Haroun ben al-Faradj le 
Grammairien de Jerusalem et Son Mouschtaniil " 
(Paris, 1896); " Die Girgisfini-IIandschriften im Brit- 
ish Museum" (Berlin, 1896); "Karaite Miscellanies" 
(Loudon, 1896); "Mesroial Okbari, Chef d'une Secte 
Juive du Neuvii^me Siecle" (Paris, 1896); "The 
Anti-Karaite Writings of Saadjah Gaon " (London, 
1897); "Jacob ben Ephraim, ein Auti-Kaiaischer 
Polemiker des Zehnten Jahrhunderts" (Breslau, 
1900, in "Kaufmann Gedenkbuch "); " Perush R. 
Sa'adj-aGaon le-Dani'el" (Berdychev, 1900); "Tan- 
houm Yeruschalmi et Son Commentaire sur Ic Livre 
de Jonas" (Paris, 1900); "Miscellen tiber Saadja 
III. : Die Beschreibung des ErlOsungs-Jahres in 
Emunoth we-Deoth ch. 8" (Breslau, 1901): "Tehil- 
lah le-Dawid" (Kaufmann) in Hebrew (Warsaw, 
1902); "Le Commentaire sur le Livre d'Osee par 
Eliezer (ou Eleazar) de Beaugency " (Berdychev, 
1902); "Anan et Ses Ecrits" (Paris, 1902); "Der 
Arabische Kommentar zum Buche Josua von Abfl 
Zakarja Jahja Ibn Bal'am " (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
1903); "Ephrajim ben Schemarja de Fostat et 
1 'Academic Palestinienne " (Paris, 1904); "Schcch- 
ters Saadyana" (Frankfort - on -th6- Main, 1904); 
"Fragments de I'Exegese Biblique de M«naheiu bar 
Chelbo" (Warsaw, 1904); "Ibn Hazm iibcr JU- 
dische Sekten " (London, 1904). He has contributed 
also numerous articles to the "Monatsschrift," 
Stade's "Zeitschrift," "Ha-Goren" (Berdychev). 
" Ha-Zefirah " (Warsaw), " Revuedes Etudes Juives," 
and the "Jewish Quarterlj' Review." 

n. H. A. Kr. 

PRADO, MOSES : Christian convert to Juda- 
ism ; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies, first at Marburg, Germany, and later at Sa- 
lonica, Turkey. His Christian name was Conrad 
Victor, and he filled the position of professor of the 
classic languages at the University of Marburg. 





Finding it impossible to accept the dogma of tlic 
Trinity and of the divinity of Jesus, lie went, in 
1607, to Salonica, where Ik; embraced Judaism, as- 
suming the name of Moses Piado. After a residence 
of seven years in that city he began to solicit per- 
mission from the Duke of Ilesse to return to Mar- 
burg, where he had left his wife. In a series of 
letters addressed by him to an old friend at ^larburg 
named Ilartmauu, Moses justifies himself for em- 
bracing Judaism. The trutli of Ju(hiism, he declares, 
is beyond tiucstion, since botii tiie Mohammedans 
and the Christians are compelled to acknowledge it. 
He only asks the Duke of Hesse to show liimself as 
tolerant as the sultan, who grants freedom of con- 

himself more entirely to his increasing clerical 
duties. Professor Prag numlered many Christian 
divines among his jmpils. lie was a member of the 
Liverpool Literary and Piiilosoiiliical Society and 
served upon its council; he translated some Pheni- 
cian inscriptions said to have been found in Bra/.il. 
and the inscription on tiie Moabite Stone. 

Buu.iooKAiMiY : Jew. Chron. Dec. 31. 1881 ; Jew. ir<.rW. Jan. 

tJ, IStCi. 

J. (;. L. 

PRAG, JOSEPH: English communal and 
Zionist worker; liornal Liverjjool inlH.W; educated 
at the Liverpool Institute and at Queen's College, 
Liverpool. Prag has long been a lea<ier in Zionist 

Plan of the City of Prague in 1649. Star Shows position of the Jewish Quarter. 

(From a contemporary print.) 

science to every man. The desired permission was 
refused, and Moses remained at Salonica until his 

Bibliography: Schudt, Compendium HiMnrice Juf1nic(r. p. 
494 ; idem, Deliriw Philol(>(!ic(r, pp. 2:^9 et seq.; Basnage, 
Histinte lies Juifx. xiv. 844 ; Diefenbach, Judre^iK Oniverms. 
p. 141 ; H. L. Benthfm, Be Statu Beluil Ecrlesinstien et 
SrJiiila.*ticii,ii. 2ti(); Carenius. AnimadvcrsiDiies HMorico- 
Philiddiiiccc, vlli. 218 ct scfj. 
D. I. Bu. 


PRAG, JACOB: Professor of Hebrew and rabbi 
at Liverpool; born at Danzig 1816; died at Liver- 
pool Dec, 1881. He studied at the rabbinicjd school 
at Libau and occupied his first position at the age 
of eighteen. He was afterward appointed rabbi 
at Shoenek, Prussian Poland. He later was called 
to tlic Old Hebrew Congregation at Liverpool to 
fill there the post of rabbi, which he held till his 
death. Shortly after he had settled in Liverpool he 
was elected Hebrew master of the Congregational 
School; he filled also the chair in Hebrew at Queen's 
College, Liverpool. After twelve years' service he 
resigned the latter appointment in order to devote 

circles, but does not follow the Herzl movement, 
retaining allegiance to the Chovevei Zion, the Eng- 
lish section of which he founded. He has con- 
tributed to the reviews articles on the question of 
the colonization of Palestine. Prag is a member of 
the council of the Anglo-Jewish Association and 
acted as its delegate in 1901, at Berlin, to the Inter- 
national Conference on the Jews of Rumania. He 
took an active part in arranging matters after the 
anti-Jewish disturbances in Limerick. 
Bini.iOGRAPHV : Jcwixh I'cnr Boo/f, 3U&4 (1903-4). 
.1. V. E. 

PRAGER, MOSES. See Mosks iikn Mena- 


PRAGUE : Cniiital of Bohemia: the first Bohe- 
mian city in which Jews settled. Reference to them 
is found as early as 906, when the Jew 
Reg-ula- Il)rahiin ibn Jacob mentioned them as 
tions freipienting the slave - market. Pe- 

of Ottocar. thahiah of Rcgenslmrg started from 
Prague on his journey to the East 
(1187). In 1254 Ottocar issued certain regidations in 
regard to the Jews of Prague (Celakowsky, "Codex 




Juris Municipioruin." i. 5), which were summed up, 
in 1269, as follows: 

( 1 ) The Jews may take Interest at the rate of 5 pfennig in the 
mark, pfennig in tlie pound, and 1 pfennig in 3i). C.') When 
a Jew is plaintiff against a Christian, lie must produce Christian 
as well as Jewish witnesses, and vice versa. (3; A Jew found 
with an unmarried Christian woman shall be sentenced to death. 
4) A Jew found with a married Christian woman shall be Im- 
paled at the cross-roads. (5) Blood-stained garments may not 
be taken in pledge. (6) A Christian killing a Jew shall be sen- 
tenced to death, u) A Jew taking an ecclesiastical vessel in 
pledge shall surrender it on demand without reimbursement. 
(8) A Jew called upon to take an <^th in a lawsuit concerning 
a Christian shall swear by the Pentateuch. 

John "ohnc Land, "in 1336, sentenced severalJews 
to be burned at Prague on the accusation of having 
partaken of Christian blood; after tiiis he had their 
synagogue torn down, where he is said to liave found 
much money. Charles IV. coulirmed (1356) the 
regulations of Oltocar. In 1361 he personally ex- 

In 13'J3 King Wenceslaus IV. renewed the regula- 
tions issued by Ottocar; in 1419 the Bohemian Diet 
decreed that a Jew could take in pledge only ob- 
jects that had been officially inspected. During the 
Hussite wars the Jews of Prague sided with the fol- 
lowers of Huss and aided them in digging the moat 
at the Vyschrad. When this was captured in 1421 
the citizens jiUmdered the ghetto. It was again 
despoiled in 1448, after Podiebrad captured Prague, 
and in 1483. At Podiebrad's request King Ladislaus 
(1440-57) issued several decrees relative to the Jews 
of Prague, which were based upon the so-called law 
of Sdbeslai, dating from the timeoftlie Hussite wars. 
During the king's sojourn at Prague, in 1497, he 
granted the Jews the privilege of lending money on 
lauded property, and on notes of the burgraves of 
the city, at 20 per cent interest, "so as to enable 
them to support their wives and children." But two 

rnoctssiox OF Jews of Prague i.\ Honor of the Birthday of Archduke Leopold, May 17, 1716. 

(From Schudt, " Jiidische MerckwurdigkeiteD," 1717.) 

amined the notes held by the Jews against citizens 
of the Altstadt and canceled those which had not 
been paid; five j'ears later he transferred the house 
of the Jew Lazarus, in the vicinity of the Church 
of St. Nicholas, to the university. Under Wen- 
ceslaus IV. an attack upon tlie ghetto occurred. 
Some children had thrown stones at the host which 
the clergy were carrying in procession on the day 
after Good Friday, whereupon the clergy, and espe- 
cially Jesek Ctyriiranny, e.\liorted from the pulpit 

the people to take vengeance. The pop- 
Massacre ulace thcieupon attacked the ghetto 
of 1389. (April 18, 1389) and kilKd about 3,000 

Jews. On Easter Monday following, 
Huler, one of the royal chamberlains, ordered that 
the Jews should be legally punished; accordingly 
live tons of silver were taken from them, and part 
of the glietto was burned. Abigedor Kaha's elegy 
nN?nn Sd nx. which is recited on the Day of Atone- 
ment. is;i memorial of this persecution. 

years afterward he forbade them to lend money 
on anv notes whatever. 

The council of the Neustadt determined, in 1503, 
not to admit any more Jews. The Jews therefore 
sent a messenger to King Ladislausll. (1471-1516) 
at Budapest; but though they obtained permission to 

enter the city, their commercial activity 

Persecu- was curtailed in that they were permlt- 

tions. ted only to take small arliclesin pledge, 

and as interest only three pfennig in the 
"schock"; further, they weie permitted to barter 
only in the market, and were forbidden to peddle sec- 
ond-hand clothes. In 1507 the council of the Altstadt 
commanded the Jews to close their .synagogue at 
once and leave the ghetto, because they had failed to 
pay punctually the yearly dues to the citizens of the 
Altstadt. The Jews again sent a messenger to King 
Ladislausll., who jiermitted them to ren;ain oneyear 
longer in the ghetto. In the meantime two Jews 
paiil the interest to the bailies for Mikulasz Hofic. 




On St. Philip's day, in 1514, a demented Jew killed 
a Christian child with a stone; in punisiinient lie 
was broken on the wheel at the foot of tin; .^allows; 
only a heavy storm prevented the i)opulace from 
falling upon the Jews. 

The question as to whether the Jews of the Alt- 
stadt were subjects of the king or of the town coun- 
cil, which had been in dispute for a long time, was 
finally decided in 1515: the Jews were to recognize 
the suzerainty of the king, while paying, at the 
same time, taxes into the municipal treasury. It 
was further decreed, in the same year, that if a Jew 
had made a loan on a mortgage, and the debtor 
brought the matter before the burgrave, if the Jew 

whip ; after which they offered him 100 ducats. On 
tins occasion tlie king assigned all the tuxes of the 
Jews to the citizen Lew of Prague, who in return 
agreed to protect them; and the king repealed the 
decree of expulsion which the" KQrschnerCurdinul" 
hail obtainc.l the year before from the Uoh.-miun 
Diet. On Feb. 5, 1527, the Jews, by command <.f the 
authorities, went to the gates of the ghetto to meet 
King Ferdinand, the "Jews' flag" being curried at 
the head of the procession, before the ral)bi ; llii- king 
promised to protect them in tJieir religion and iheir 
rights. In 1539 1 lie merchants were forbidden 
to dis])Iay their wares in Ladislaus Hall, which was 
used as a conference-room by the Bohemian delegates 

^mrch)«fftauf? ^crSiabi^raq irvSont^cicip^pi^ -}^^ 

(From a contemporary print.) 

still insisted on being satisfied he should be com- 
pelled to leave the city immediately. The Jews were 
not allowed to take interest of more than two pfen- 
nig in the schock ; they were not permitted to mix 
Silesian coin with Kuttenberg money ; and they 
were compelled to wear the prescribed mantle and 
cap, on pain of a fine of two gro.schen. On March 
11, 1518, the Jews of Prague agiecd to pay fifty 
schock, Bohemian coin, to the burgrave in return for 
having their cemetery and bath protected. 

AVhen Louis II., the last Polish king of Bohemia, 
entered the city (1522) the Jews met him in solemn 
procession, singing psalms, while the rabbi carried 
the scrolls of the Law under a silken canopy. 
When the Jews requested tiie king to t(Mich the 
Torah, he complied, not with his hand, but with his 

to the Diet. In 1540 a Jew was caught smelling silver, 
and in consequence a second edict of expulsion was 

proposed and jiassed by the Diet in 

Edict of 1541. Fifteen Jewish families only 

Expulsion were jiermitted to remain, down to 

1541. 1548, in which year Ferdinand renewed 

their letters of convoy and issued 
fifteen others. In 1545 all J<'ws leaving tiie city re- 
ceived letters of convoy, at the reciuest of the queen 
and of Sigismund of Poland. In 1557 seventy houses 
were burned in the ghetto of Prague, and in the sjimc 
year Ferdinand swore that he wovdd no longer suffer 
any Jews in Prague. Mordecai ben Zenml.i Soncixo 
thereupon went with a jielition from the Jews to 
]^)pe I'ius IV., who released the king from his 




Jewish Butcher of Prague, 
Eighteenth Century. 

In 1561 the king decreed that the Jews of Prague 
should once a week attend a Jesuit sermon in the Sal- 
vator-Kirche, and should send their children thither. 

In 1566 Maximilian de- 
creed that the Jews 
should never again be 
expelled from Prague. 
When the emperor and 
empress went to the 
cit}', in 1571, they vis- 
ited the ghetto, going 
on foot through many 
of its narrow streets, 
the Jews meeting them 
in solemn procession. 
In 1585 the Jews of 
Prague complained of 
the burgrave and the 
estates to Emperor Ru- 
dolph II., who shortly 
after ordered the bur- 
grave to cease annoy- 
ing the Jews. The 
intermediaries between 
the king and the Jews 
in the sixteenth cen- 
tury were Jacob Bas- 


and Mordecai Marcus 
Meisel. In 1621 Wallenstein commanded that no 
soldier should sell anything without the consent 
of his captain. Shortly after (1623) a soldier stole 
some valuable curtains from the palace of Prince 
Lichtenstein, selling them to the Jew Jacob ben Jeku- 
thiel Thein. When the theft was announced in the 
synagogue Tbein offered to restore the goods; but 
Wallen.stein insisted on having the Jew punished, and 
the elders of the com- 
munity had great trouble 
in obtaining his release. 
They were commanded 
to carry ten open bags 
of silver (11,000 florins) 
from the house of the 
citizen Smiricky to the 
town hall of the Altstadt 
in order that all persons 
might take cognizance 
of this punishment. 
During this time Thein, 
guarded by two dogs, 
sat under the gallows on 
the banks of the Moldau, 
before the house of the 
executioner. The money 
was to be deposited in 
the town hall in perpet- 
ual memory of the family 
of Wallenstein, the in- 
terest to be applied to 
the aid of Jewish and 
Christian young men 

studying Catholic theology (see Fcrim Fi^rhang). 

The condition of the Jews of Prague became worse 

under Ferdinand III. New poll- and war-taxes were 

intro<luced in 1638, and in 1639 a tax for the main- 

Glld-Cup of the Jewish Shoe- 
makers of Prajfue, Eighteenth 

tenance of the army. In 1645 the Jews of the ghetto 
were ordered to furnish several hundred uniforms 

for the soldiers, but the latter were 

Under never quartered in the ghetto. In 

Ferdinand 1648 the Jews contributed 1,500 gul- 

III. den to the defense of the city. There 

were in all 2,000 Jews in the ghetto in 
1652, but their ranks were considerably thinned by 
the great plague of 1680. The ghetto was destroyed 
by tire on June 21, 1689; French incendiaries had 
started the fire near the Vaientinkirche, and the 
flames spread over the entire ghetto within two 
hours; the ten massive synagogues were either 
burned to shells or reduced to ashes. One hundred 
Jews who had sought refuge in the synagogue near 
the cemetery were caught under the roof as it fell 
in. Some escaped with a part of their possessions 
to the banks of the Moldau, only to be plundered 
by Christians. The Jews found shelter among the 
Christians for the next three months.; but the arch- 


-^/j, . U% W-' 


The Altneuschule, Prague, from the West. 

(From a photograph.) 

bishop finally forbade them to accept such hospital- 
ity, on the ground that they derided tlie Christian re- 
ligion ; the Jews then removed to a place behind the 
Spitalthor. By order of the emperor the houses of 
the Jews were rebuilt of stone, this work being com- 
pleted in 1702; the ghetto was then separated from 
the Altstadt by a wall which was carried down to the 

In 1703 the Jewry received a new constitution 
and a new Jewisli magistracy. The year 1735 was 
marked by the refusal of the Jews to pay their per- 
sonal tax (" mekes "). During the wars between the 
empress Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great, 
1740-44 and 1757, Prague was besieged by the 
French. After its capture those Jews who had 
been among the defenders were obliged to pay large 
sums as a war indemnity, and in spite of their 
friendly attitude toward the invaders they were 
cruelly treated. A Jewess in whose shop a French 




lady had left 10 gulden was lianged in tlie Neu- 
stadt in 1742 ("Kobe? 'al Yad," viii. 13). After 
the departure of the French the Jews made their 
peace with Maria Tiieresa, through the intercession 
of tlie primator Frankel ; for the Jews were re- 
proached with having assisted officially at the coro- 
nation of the Bavarian elector as King of Bohemia. 
When Fredericli forced the city to capitulate, the 
populace turned the Jews, and a massacre 
was averted only by the appearance of General Ilar- 
rach with a detachment of soldiers. But the Jews did 
not escape the 
danger entirely. 
For when Fred- 
erick granted 
freedom to the 
nobility, the 
magistrates, and 
the university, 
he took a similar 
attitude toward 
the Jews, even 
ordering the 
soldiers to re- 
store to the Jews 
everything they 
had taken from 
them; and on ac- 
count of this fa- 
vorable attitude 
the citizens of 
Prague suspect- 
ed the Jews of 
treachery, and 
after the depar- 
ture of the Prus- 
sians the ghetto 
was plundered. 
The turmoil 
lasted for thirty 
hours, and the 
Jews who had 
saved them- 
selves were 
seized and 
branded under 
the arm, in or- 
der to make 
them reveal 
their hidden 


On Dec. 18, 
1744, Maria Theresa issued a decree to the effect 
that all Jews in Prague and the rest of Bohemia 
should leave the country within five weeks. This 
decree was promulgated in the ghetto 
Edict of and the synagogues. After the ex- 
Expulsion pulsion the Jews were permitted to 
by Maria return to Prague by dav for the pur- 
Theresa, pose of collecting their debts. The 
primator Frankel was held to be chiefly 
responsible for this decree, because at the time of 
the wars he had won the good-will of the Prussians 
and Bavarians by gifts of money. The inhabitants 
of the ghetto, who numbered at that time 10,000 
persons, presented a petition to defer the date of the 

The AlUieuscliule, PraRue 

(From a photograph.) 

expulsion on account of the severity of the winter 
weather. As the stadthalter Kolovrut expressed 
himself iu favor of lliis jxlition, the date was set 
for the end of the February following, and was sub- 
sequently postpcjued anotlier month. The Jews left 
the ghetto on March 31. and tln-y were not i)erniitt<'d 
to return, in spite of the intercession of foreign 
princes. Even the petition submitted by the stadt- 
halter to permit 800 Jewish families to return was 

But after the ghetto had become deserted, and 

tbe pcojjle be- 
gan to tear down 
and carry away 
portions of the 
houses, 301 fam- 
ilies received 
[lermission to 
live there, in- 
stead of the 50 
wliohad been al- 
lowed to return 
as a result of a 
new petition 
(Sept.. 1748). A 
new community 
was founded; 
and a tax of 
204,000 gulden 
was imposed, to 
be increased at 
the rate of 1,000 
gulden a year 
after five years. 
In 17.54 a large 
part of the ghet- 
to was destroyed 
by fire; but it 
did not materi- 
ally affect the 
Jews, and sev- 
eral stone houses 
were built im- 
mediately after. 
The ghetto re- 
ceived a special 
magistrate in 
1784. In 1788 
two Jews grad- 
uated as physi- 
cians from the 
Univcrsit}' of 
Prague— the first to receive this distinction. In 
1790 another Jew received the degree of dt>ctor 
of law. The old cemetery in the ghetto was 
closed in 1787. Two years later the number of 
Jewish families living in Prague was again re- 
stricted, and only the eldest son in each family was 
permitted to marry. No foreign Jew was permitted 
to move into the city until a vacancy had been 
created by death, and unless he pos- 
The Jo- sessed at' least 20.000 gulden. The 
eefstadt. ghetto was called Josefstadt, in honor 
of Emperor Joseph II Hut in 1848- 
1849, when the equality of all citizens, irrespi-ctive of 
creed, was proclaimed, the Jewish community , which 




then numbered 8,543 persons, was mjule a part 
of tliccity; in 1850 the Josefstadt ceased to be a 
towusliip, and since then the Jewish town hall has 
been used for congregational offices. 

The age of the Prague cemetery can not now be 
definitely determined, as the oldest tombstones were 
destroyed in the massacre of 1389. The first decree 
referring to the cemetery dates from the year 1254, 
and was promulgated by Przemysl II., who decreed 
tliat the Jewish cemetery should not be damaged 
or desecrated. Similar decrees referring to Prague 
were issued by Charles IV., AVenceshius IV., and 
Ladislaus. Ac- 
cording to the 
historian To- 
the greater 
part of the 
ground c o v - 
ered by this 
cemetery was 
in the begin- 
ning of the fif- 
teenth century 
laid out in gar- 
dens belonging 
to Christians. 
Down to the 
time of the 
Hussite wars 
the Jews are 
said to have 
had another 
called the Ju- 
dengarten, be- 
hind the walls 
of the Alt- 
stadt, between 
and Breiten- 
gasse ; it was 
destroyed by 
Ladislaus in 
1478. Jews 
from abroad 
seem to have 
been buried 
in the latter 
and Jews of 

Prague in the former, according to a decree issued 
by Przemysl Ottocar II. (1254). The Prague ceme- 
tery was desecrated in 1389, and again in 1744 after 
the departure of the Croatians. 

Tiie most noteworthy tombs in this cemetery are 
those of the following: Abigdor b. Isaac Kara (d. 
1439); tiie physician Gedaliah 1). Solomon (d. 1486); 
Mordccai b. Zeinah ha Kolicn (d. 1591); .Monlecai 
Mcisel (d. 1601); Judah LOw ben Bezaleel (d. 1609); 
Hendel, daughter of Eberl Groniin and wife of Jacob 
B.xssKvi (d. 1628; this tomb is of white marble, 
witli an escutcheon — the lion of Bohemia and tlirec 
stars); Joseph Solomon Dclmedigo (d. 1655); Simon 
Wolf Frankel Spira (d. 1679). Special parts of the 
cemetery, were reserved for the several gilds, a